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Full text of "73 Magazine (December 1977)"

DECEMBER 1977 
$2.00 



AMATEUR 

RADIO 



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URTHER ADVENTURES OF 




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rCOM/VHF MOBILE'S 
PEERLESS LEADER 
GOES ONE STEP BEYOND 

^he matchless IC*22S« the measure 
of quality and performance for all VHF 
mobile transceivers, now materializes 
with its splendid new frequency syn- 
thesizer as a flexible phenomenon. 
Faster than a digit switch, able to leap 
great frequencies in a single bound, 
the 1C*22S Mobile Marvel is empow- 
ered with instant programming for 
256 possible frequencies, making 
available any frequency on anybody's 
band-plan in a matter of minutes, 
while disguised as a mild mannered 22 
channel radio. 



VHF UHF AUATEUft AND MARINE COMMUNICATION EQVlPUEm 



It "hears through solid walls'* with a 
magnificient high sensitivity receiver, 
employing a 1st IF monolithic crystal 
filter and two 2nd IF filters for im- 
proved rejection of 15 KHz adjacent 
channel signals. And with spurious at* 
tenuatfon far exceeding FCC specifica- 
tions for even commercial type radios, 
the ICC-22S mobtli^es 10 Watts of 
power. 

Instantly available from your dealer, 
the IC-22S comes to you ready to per- 
form amazing feats for even less than 
the cost of most old fashioned crystal 
controlled units. The meek and the 
mighty can avail themselves of the 
most in VHF mobile with the IC-22S, 
ICON'S MobUe Marvel. 



CD 



ICOM 



ICOM WEST. INC. 
Suite 3 

13256 Nofthn^ji Way 
Belle vue. Was»h 960Q5 
<206* 747-9020 



E>stributad by: 



ICOM EAST, INC. 
Siwie :*07 

33-1 T Tower wood Diive 
Dallas Tma*» 75^34 
(214^ 620-2780 



ICOM CANADA 
7067 Victona Dt , 
Vanccniver B C V5P 3Y9 
Canada 
(604)321-1833 



& 



34 Inside Ten -Tec - Q/?P Innovators 

K4IV1DK 
38 The History of Ham Radio - p&n V 

W9CI 
42 Try BCB DXl — when you're tired of 

twenty 

W82BJH 
46 Build An Engine Analyzer - use your 

scope! 

WA6THG/KH6 
50 More Repeater Control Devices — con- 

trol unit/audio Interface 

W7JSW 
56 How Do You Use ICs? - part Vill 

WA2SUT/NNNCJZVB 
62 Finally] A Practical DiscFJminator! — 

metering system, that Is 

K4G0K 
66 A Kilowatt Alternative - try a gain 

antenna 

WB0 KTH/4 
68 All About Transceivers - Novices, take 

note! 
WB5ASA 
72 German Amateur Procedures — and re- 
peater Information 
W8CM/5 
78 The DA4FB Story — Amencati repeater 
tn Germany 
WB4EWX/DA1KD 
i(a 92 Decode Morse - with an 8080 
„ WB9KPT 

1^ 98 Futureshot - just around the corner 
K9KIC 
102 Try A Micro Contest Logger— tfw 
6800 does it all 
KH6G!\^P 
IJS^ 106 Computerized Global Calculations 
— finding the best way to Pago 
Pago 
r--^ VE3EKR 

^108 Micro Meets JANET — meteor scat- 
ter, anyone? 
W5HK/9, WB9WXM 
114 Run, Sheila, RunI - reaNife radio 
control 
WB0IFF 
120 CB to 10 — part Vl: antenna sugges- 
tions 
K5UKH 

122 CB to '[Q- part Vff: converts TRC-ff 
WB8CLF 

123 Battery Backup for Digital Clocks - 
don J miss a second 

WA2EJT 
130 Roll Your Own OSL Cards - original- 

ity for rare ones! 

G3WDI 
134 Glide On Six - radio control primer 

WB3BQ0 
133 More IG-22S - add a programming 

switch 

K0HPF 
140 Amplitude vs. Frequency -poor ms^'is 

spectrum analyzer 

Staff 
142 How About An Auto CQ? - generate 

some 70m activity! 

K4TSY 
144 SSB For the "Frog" - tame the croak 

W5JJ 



145 Beat the Books — $tudy half special 

WB9YKe 
148 Clocking Those Clock Kits — check out 

the MK-03I 

W6SWZ 
150 Digital Signal Source - TTL signals for 

counters, micros 

K7HKL 
152 Regenerated CW - CW: as you like It 

Staff 

177 High-Band Your KDK - monitor the 
other half! 

W2PMX 

178 The Rescue — real-life drama 
WA6LJL 

179 Welding Rod Special Antenna - for 
seamless contacts 

WA5TSJ 
182 Tanks A Lotl - inductor calculation 

program 

WA9GUK 
184 Build the El Sapo Tester - for hams 

with spare time 

Staff 
186 FinaliyI A Simple PROM Burner! - for 

the 8223 and 62S23 

W7JSW 
1SS Try A Topical CQ- for special interest 

groups 

K4GRT 
189 Call Letter Gouge r — adds dass to any 

shack 

WB6JYK 

192 Adjustable Bench Supply — would you 
believe f.2'37 volts? 

Staff 

193 Test Instrument Saver - an old phone 
Is reQuired 

Miller 
196 Photoelectric Bench Accessory — when 

you need an extra "eye" 

W3KBM 
198 Inside the SR'52 - calculator doubles 

as micro 

WA6THG 
200 Boost Your TR221 — with a mini rock 

crusher 

WA2INM 
204 QRM on the Moon? — yep, on all bands 

W4NVK 

206 Filcher Foiler Car Alarm - car door 
operated 

WB6THJ 

207 Quick Deviation Meter - for the fC- 
22A 

WA1UUK 

208 Build a Noise-free Power Supply - 
avoid spikes with sine waves 

K4DHC 
210 Surplus Goodies - are they really for 
you? 
Vlllastrjgo 

214 Try A New Mode! - don't let boredom 

strike 

N4KC 
216 Build A Useful HF RBmivet - Novice 

special 

Staff 
218 Wake Up A Dead Repeater I - with 

these new Q signals 

K9AZG 




#207 DEC 1977 



6 


Never Say Die 


16 


Oscar Orbits 


17 


Letters 


19 


FCC Math 


21 


RTTY Loop 


22 


Contests 


24 


New Products 


26 


Looking West 


28 


FCC 


31 


AMSAT 


32 


Hamburglar 


32 


Corrections 


5S 


Ham Help 


219 


Social Events 


219 


Ham Help 


222 


1977 Index 


268 


Propagation 



COVER: Bust ol Gugfielmo 
Marconi at his original station 
locatTon in South Wellfleet MA 
(see page 6). Photo by W2NSD/1 . 

73 Magazine Is published monthly 
by 73, Inc., Peterborough NH 
03458. Subscription rates in the 
U,S. and Canada are $15 for one 
year, $26 for two years, and $36 
for three years. Outside the U.S. 
and Canada, write for rates. 
Second class postage paid at 
Peterborough NH 03458 and at 
additional mailing offices. Publi- 
cation No, 700420. Phone: 
603-924-3873. Entire contents 
copyright 1977 by 73, Inc. 
INCLUDE OLD ADDRESS AND 
ZIP CODE WITH ADDRESS 
CHANGE NOTIFICA TiON. 



Microfilm edition — Uni- 
versity Microfilms, Ann 
Arbor Ml 48106. 



7 



\.pacesetier in amateur radio 





AND DG-5 DIGITAL FREQUENCY DISPLAY 



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VFDH 



FUNCTION 



#"OWeR 



FULL COVERAGE TRANSCEIVER 

The TS-B20S providas full cover- 
age on all amateur bands from 
1.8 to 29.7 MHz. Kenwooul gives 
you 1 60 meter capabilitv. WWV 
on 15.000 MHz., and an tyxih 
tary band position for maximum 
flexibility AtmJ with ihe addition 
of the TV-S06 transvener your 
TS-520S can cover 100 meter? 
to 6 meters on SSB and CW, 

QIGITAt DrSPLAV DG-5 {option) 

The Kenwood DG-5 provides 
e^y. d^ urate readout of your 
operating froduency while trans- 
mitting a/? rf receiving 



OUTSTANOrNG RECilVEH 
SENSITIVITY AND MINIMUM 
CROSS MODULATION 

The TS-520S incorpo rates a 
3SK3§ dual gate MOSFET lor 
outstonding cross modulation and 
spurious response charsctertst^cs 
Th9 3SK35 has a low noise 
fig y re (3 5 dB typ.) and h^h gain 
(18 dB typ ) for excellent 
san&itivity. 



NEW IMPROVED SPEECH 
PROCESSOR 

Aft dyd*o compfession amplifier 
gives you extra punch in the pile 



ups and when the goir>g gets 
rough- 

VERNIER TUNING FOR FINAL 
PIATI CONTROL 

A vernier twining mechanism 
altows easy and accurate adjust* 
mem of the plate control during 
tune-up. 

FINAL AMPLIFIER 

The TS-520S is completely solid 
state except for the driver (1 28- 
Y7AJ and the final tubes Rather 
than subsitute TV sweep tubes as 
final amplifier tubes in a state of 
t^ie art amateur transceiver, 



Kenwood has employed two 
husky S-2001A (dquivalant to 
61468) tubes These rugged, 
ime'pfoven tubes are known for 
Mr to ng life and superb linearFtv 




kd^ effective noise blanking cnLuu 
aeveloped by Kenvvood that vjr* 
tualty eirminates ignition noi^ is 
buih into the TS 520S 



k 



The T5'520S has a bumAn 20 
dB sttentustof that can be acti* 
vated by a pysh button £wich 
convenient jy located on tiie 

front panel. 




A special jack on the rear p^nel 
of the TS-520S provides receiver 
signals to an external recetvor for 
incrsased station versitility. A 
swiich on the rear pane) deter- 
mrnes the aigrial path . the 
recefx^r in the TS-820 or any 
external receiver, 



^1 



VFO-520 remote VFO 
rrtaiches the styling of the TS- 
5203 and provtdes maximum 
operating flexibility on the b«nd 
selected on your TS'520S, 



Th& 



6 TS-520S IS completaly seif- 
contained with a rugged AC 
power supply built-in The addi- 
tion of the DS'1 A DC-DC 
converter {optional} a I tows for 
mobile operation of the TS-520S. 

The T5-520S has 2 convenient 
RCA phono jacks on the rear 
panel for PHONE ^ATCH IN and 
PHONE PATCH OUT, 



The CW-S20'500 Hi filter can be 
easilly installed and will provide 
improved operation on CW. 



The AGC circuit has 3 positions 
(OFF, FAST. SLOW) to enable 
the TS-B20S lo be operated in 
the optimum condition at all 
times wf^ether operating CW 
or SS8. 

The TS-620$ retains all of the 
features of the original TS'520 
tl^t rriade il tops in its class: RIT 
cornrof ' 8-pofe crystal filter • 
Buih*in 25 KHz cafibretof • Front 
panel carrier level control • Seml- 
break-tn CW with sidetone • 
VOX/PTT/MOX • TUNE posnion 
for low power tune up ■ Built-m 
speaker ■ Built-in Cooling Fan • 
Provisions for 4 fixed frequency 
channels • Heater switch. 



TS-520 

oecfffcstions 



Amileur Binds I6O10 meters 

p^ui WIW (rccervf only) 
M{Ht»: USB, LSa, Ofl 
Aittltni l«ip*i*^r^ W 75 CWims 

kMi (^umg on* Hm ^.^^' -ti 
tmnutf of kvimi-tip, ma mmn 
1^ Hi durmg iriY 3D mmat 

l^An & SeBicoo^dors 
Ty^ I 

(S7W1A 1 7 l2BVm> 

Trar4$»: 52 

FOs 19 

Poiiif R«|«ifi«i«^ 120/220 V 

AC. SO/60 H;. 13 J V D€ 

(iritti optionti DS^IA) 
Ptti«r Coisumplion Tfinsmrt 

280 Witts Reoeive- 2$ Watts 

(wtth heater off) 
DimeRSiOii. B3(0V|) W 1 1S3 (m 

Hi 33^ 16) D ramCpndtl 

Wtighl 16 D i%\Ml m 
TRANSMiHEi 
RF liiiTul Power SSB: 200 Wtlts 

fif m: IfiO Watts DC 
Catritr Suppression: Better Uijfi 

Sidtbind SuptreBsion: Better 

ihin -5€ dB 
Spi^naus l^adLattan Better thian 

-41} dB 

Microphone Impedance 30h OItim 
AF Re&oonse 4M to 2,600 Hi 



RECEIVER 

Sensitivity: 025 uV lor ID dB 

{S+N)/W 

SeledMty; SSB;2,4 hHz/-e (IB, 

44 kHi/^60 dB 
Selectivjtir: CW: D.5 kH;/ 6 dB, 

UhK^/ eOda(«rilliDplion8l 

CW'520 filtiTJ 
fma£t Ratio: Better than 50 dB 
IF Reieclion: Bdter titan 50 d8 
AF Outpm Power: 1.0 Wall {B 

Ohm load, with less than 10% 

distortian} 

AF Oulpul Imptdanct: 4 to 16 
Ohms 

DG 5 

SPECIFlD^TIOfiS 
Ueasuitng Range. 100 Hf t« 
40III1I 

Ifif^iit Inspcdince: 5 k Ohms 

Gttt Time, 01 Sk. 

Input Sen^tririty: 100 Hi to 40 

HH2 . 200 mV rmi or mr. 10 

mi to HI MHr . 50 mV or over 
Measuririff Amtriqr Int^fta) lime 

base accuraqr :tO,l count 
hm Basi 10 UHi 
Op«rilin| rimp«fitttr«; -10' t§ 

»* C/M* m^ F 
Power Rfquirement Sup-plied 

ffooi TS 520S or 12 lo li VDC 

(ROfRiflai 8 VDC) 
DiniensjQfl$ ie7l6-9/l&} Wa 

43U 11/16} Hi ZSSdO-^/tS) D 

mjn(indv) 

Weiffit: iJ lif(19 ll») 




Q'b connectionii 



Phone 



Traniveriflf jeck 



Bntonna 
■witch 



120V/^aOVawl,^itch 








nw 



Following are a few of the 
TS-820S" many exciting 
features. 

PLL • The TS-B20S employs 
the latest phas« lock loop 
circuitry. The single 
conversion receiver section 
performance offers superb 
protection against unwanted 
cross-modulation. And now 
PLL allows the frequency to 
remain the same when 
switching sidebands (USB, 
LSB. CW) and eliminates 
having to recalibrate each 
time. 

DIGITAL READOUT • The 
digital counter display is em- 
ployed as an integral part of 
the VFO readout system. 
Counter mixes the carrier VFO, 
and first heterodyne frequen- 
cies to give exaci frequency. 
Figures the frequency down 
to 10 Hz and digital display 



reads out to 1 00 Hz. Both 
receive and transmit frequen- 
cies are displayed in easy to 
read, Kenwood Blue digits. 
SPEECH PROCESSOR • An 
RF circuit provides quick 
time constant compression 
using a true RF comp'ressor 
as opposed to an AF clipper. 
Amount of compression is 
adiusiable to the desired 
level by a convenient front 
panel control 
IF SHIFT 'The IF SHIFT 
control varies the iF pass- 
band without changing the 
receive frequency. Enables 
the operator to eliminate 
unwanted signals by moving 
them out of the passband o( 
the receiver. This feature 
alone makes the TS-820S 
a pacesetter. 

The TS-e20 and !>G-1 ar& fiill tvmX- 





^POWEtt AllCAA ^t* 



tmrvc 



t 









otp •»«■ 



-rs-^oc^ 



HIT OkL 



Experience the excitement of 6 
meters. The TS-600 all mod© trans- 
ceiver lets you experience the fun 
of 6 meter band openings. 
This 10 watt, solid state rig covers 
50.0-54.0 MHr. The VFO tunes the 
band in 1 MHz segments. It also 



.M^ 



I'J '# 



WXIC404 






BAjm 



has provisions for fixed frequency 
operation on NETS or to listen for 
beacons. State of the art features 
such as an affective noise blanker 
and the RIT {Receiver Incremental 
Tuning) circuit make the TS-600 
another Kenwood "Pacesetter". 





An easy way to get on the 6 
meter band with your TS-520/ 
520S, TS-S20/820S and most 
other transceivers. Simply plug 
it in and you're on . . , full band 
coverage with 1 watts output 
on SSB and CW. 



MONl 



oo 



OK 9 KENWOOO 
TRANSCEIVER TR'fi300 

.,.,^^ VOL soueiCH 



; iW' . 1 n ■ ■ . u 




Experience the luxury of 450 MHz 
at an economicaf price. 

The TR-8300 offers high quality 

and superb perfornnance as a result 
of many years of improving VHF/ 

UHF design techniques. The trans- 



ceiver is capable of f^ emission 
on 23 crystal-controlled channels 
(3 supplied). The transmitter out- 
put is to watts. 

The TR-8300 incorporates a 5 

section helical resonator and a 



two-pole crystal filter in the IF 
section of the receiver for improved 
intermodulation characteristics. 
Receiver sensitivity, spurious 
response^ and temperature 
characteristics are excellent. 



lacesi'tter tn nmahur radio 





WITH DIGITAL FREQUENCY DISPLAY 



CPii *i« • vra 



REPEATER 

HOf^MAi GAIN 



OELAV — WO — »«0 



1* K EM^A^naa Itt ^LL mode TRAt^SCLEIVEVf 



POlAi'^R SEP#P CEN f4m ffH flf-iOK 



smr' 



MtC 




ON£S 



MODE 



-AW 



.•vs£?5as 



RIT 



SQUELCM gF^,^ 



&AlN^3*-aAiN 





FIX CH 




I 



Features: Digital readout with "Kenwood Btue" digits * 
High gain receiver p re-amp • 1 watt lower power switch • 
Built in VOX • Semi-bresk in on CW • CW sidetone • 
Operates all modes: SSB (upper & lower), FM, AM and CW 
• Completely solid state circuitrv provides stable, long last- 
ing, trouble-free operation * AC and DC capability (operate 
from your ear boat, or as a base station through its built-in 
power supply) • 4 MHz band coverage (144 to 148 MHz) • 
Automatically switches transmit frequency 600 KHz for 
repeater operation. Simply dial in your receive frequency 
and the radio does the rest , . . simplex, repealer, reverse " Or 
accomplish the same by plugging a single crystal into one 
of the 11 crystal positions for your favorite channel • 
Transmit/ Receive capability on 44 channels with 11 crystals 




Handsomely styled and a perfect companion to 
the TS-700S. This unit provides you with the 
extra versatility and the luxury of having a 
second VFO in your shack. Great for spill 
frequency operation and for tuning off fre- 
quency to check the band. The function switch 



on the VFO-700S selects the VFO in use and 
the appropriate frequency is displayed on the 
digital readout in the TS-700S. In addition a 
momentary contact "frequency check" switch 
allows you to spot check the frequency of the 
VFO not in use. 






Featiires Kenwood's unique Continuous Tone Coded 

Squelch system, 4 MHz band coverage, 25 watt 
output and fully synthesized 800 channel operation. 
This compact package gives you the kind of perform- 
ance specifications youve always wanted in a 
2'meter amateur rig 

Outstanding sensitivity, large-sized helical resonators 
with High Q to minimize undesirable out-of-band 
interferance, and give a 2-pole 10.7 MHz monolithic 
crystal filter combine to give your TR-7400A outstand- 
ing receiver performance. Intermodulation character- 
istics (Better than 66dB), spurious (Better than — 60dB), 
image rejection (Better than — 70dB), and a versatile 
squelch system make the TR-7400A tops in its class. 

Shown with the PS-8 power syppty 

{Active filters and Tone Burst Modules optional} 




POWER 




$ KENWOOD 



DC POWER SUPPiv 




PS -6 



OFF 



This 100 channel PLL synthesized 146 148 MHz 
transceiver comes with 88 pre-programmed channels 
for use on all standard repeater frequencies {as per 
ARRL Band Plan) and most simplex channels. For 
added flexibility, there are 6 diode-programmable 
switch positions. The 15 KHz shift function makes 
these 6 positions into 12 channels, 10 watt output, 
.-600 KHz offset and LED digital frequency display 
are just a few of the many fine features of the TR-7500 

The PS'6 is the handsomely styled, matching power 
supply for the TR-7500. Its 3.5 amp current capacity 
and built-in speaker make it the perfect companion for 
home use of the TR-7500. 






The high performance portable 2-meter FM 
transceiver. 146-148 MHz, 12 channels (6 
supplied), 2 watts or 400 mW RF output. 
Everything you need is included: Ni-Cad 
battery pack, charger, carrying case 
and microphone. 




^mt 



part sf iter hr amateur radin 



€> €> 



# 



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4ff ^ I 



Kenwood developed the T-599D transmitter and R-599D 
receiver for the most discriminating amateur. 
The R-599D is the most comptete receive r ever offered It is 
entirely solid-state, superbly reliable and compact, It covers the 
full amateur band, 10 through 1 60 meters. CW. LSB. USB, 
AM and FM 

The T*599D ts solid-state wah the exception of only three 
tubes, has buitt-in power supply and full metering ft operates 
CW, LSB. USB and AM and. of course, is a perfect match to 
the R'599D receiver. 

If you have never considered the advantages of operating a 
receiver /transmJttef combination . maybe you should, 
Because of the larger number of controls and dual VFOs the 
combination offers flexibility impossible to duplicate with a 
trdnsceiver. 

Compare the specs of the R-599D and the T-599D v^tith any 
other brand Remember, the R-599D is all solid state (and in- 
cludes four filters). Your choice will obviously be the Kenwood. 







Dependable operation, superior specifications and excellent 

features make the R-300 en uneKcelled value for the 

shortwave listener. It offers full band coverage with a 

frequency range of 170 KHz to 30.0 MHz • Receives AM. 

SSB and CW • Features large, easy to read drum dials 

with fast smooth dial action * Band spread ts calibrated for 

the 10 foreign broadcast bands, easily tuned with the use 

of a built-in 500 KHz calibrator • Automatic noise iimtter ■ 

3-way power supply system (AC /Batteries/ External DC) 

take It anyplace * Automatically switches to battery 

power in the event of AC power failure 




Sm 


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1 



9/ffe e^uipmrnt that ktottgs m emy 
wdl equipped station 



[20 Series 
TS*e20S 

JS-S20 

DG-1 

VF0^820-. 

CW-920 . . . 

0S-1A. 

520 Series 
TS'520S, , . 
DG-5 

VFO^520.- 

SP-520-.. 

CW'520. . . 

DK-520 

5990 SerJe 

R-599D 

T-599D 
S599 



.TS'820 with Digital 
Installed 

TO' 160 M Deluxfi 
Transceiver 

Digital Frequency Display 
farTS-S2a 

.Delude Remoie VFO for 
forTS.820/820S 
500 H2 CW Filter for 
TS-820/820S 
DC-DC Convufter for 
520/S20 Senes 

V60-10 M Transceiver 
Digital Frequency Display 
tor TS-520 Series 
Remote VFO for TS^520 
and TS-520S 
External Speaker for 
520/820 Series 
500 Hi CW Filter for 
TS-520/ 5208 
Digital Adaptor Kit for 
TS-520 
s 

1 60- 1 M Solid State 

Receiver 

BO- 10 M Maichtng 

Transmitter 

EKtemal Speaker lor 59§D 

Series 



CC-29A, , . .2 Meter Convener for 

R-599D 
CC*69 - . . . , 6 MetBf Converter for 

R^599D 
FM-S99A.. fM Filter for R-599D 



1^ . 



R-300 General Coverage SWL Receiver 



1 

'T 



Ts^eoo . . . 

TS-700S.. 

VF0-700S, 
SP^70. 

TR^22O0A. 

TR-7400A. 



. 6 M All Mode Transceiver 
.2 M All Mode Digital 
Transceiver 

^Remote VFO for TS-700S 
Matching Speaker for 
TS 600/ 700 Series 
2 M Portable FM 
Transceiver 

2 M Synthesized Deluxe 
FM Transceiver 



ESSORIES 

Rubber Helical Antenna 
Telescoping Whtp Antenna 
Ni-Cad Battery Pack (set) 
4 Pin Mtc. Connector 
Acliwe Filter Elements 
Tone Burst Modules 
AC Cables 
DC Cables 



MQd«l 



TR-7S00 

Tft.8300 
TV-506 . 



HS^4 

MB-1A. 

MC-50. 
PS'5... 

PS-B.,. 
V0X^3 



too Channel Synthesized 
2 M FM Transceiver 

70 CM FM Transceiver 
(450 MHz) 

6 M Transverter for 
520/820/599 Series 



Headphone Set 
.Mounting Bracket for 
TR-2200A 
Desk Microphone 
Power Supply for TR-8300 
Povtfer Supply for TR-7500 
Power Supply for TR-7400A 
VOX for TS-600/700A 



Trio-Kenwood stocks a complete line of 
replacement parts, accesssrjes. and rnaniialt 
for ail Kenwood modeis. 



For uaft iMith 



R A- 1 

T90'0082*05 
PB 16 

£07-0403^05 
See Service Manual 
See Service Manual 
Specify Model 
Specify Model 



TR^2200A 
TR-2200A 
TR-220DA 
All Models 
TR-7400A 
TS-700A: TR-7400A 
All Models 
Alt Models 





The Kenwood HS-4 headphorie set adds 
vtriatilitv >o sn.y Kenwood station For 
e«tefided periods of wear, tfte iHS-4 ts comfi^Ff- 
vbly padded and t% comp^etetv adiustabte. The 
fre^uamry ratpome of the HS-4 i^ tsihofed 
f|>ecificaltv for imateur communtcation use 
{300 m 3000 Hi. e ohms) 




The MC-50 dynamic microphorte has been 
d«iign«d dKpres^jy fof emaieur radio operatian 
ai a Bpiandid addition lo any Kenwood t^wdi. 
Completa with PTT and LOCK switches, and a 
mitrrophone plug for mstant hook-up to any 
Kenwood rig. Ea&ily convened io high or low 
impeciance. (60O or 5Qk ohm) 



TRIO-KENWOOD COMMUNICATIONS INC. 

mi WEST WALNUT/COMPTON, CA 90220 



® 



KENWOOD 

, fmirnrUti in aimstttif mtJiu 




ffont psge $ 

GB IN PERSPECTIVE 

Whils a lot of amateMrs are still 
uptight over CBers and their often 
wanton ways, others are busy wel- 
comirtg th& cream of the Cfi crop into 
amateur radio. About 80% of tlie new 
ham* are coming frann the C8 ranks, a 
Navy percentage of those tm'irtg the 
highly illegal HFerSv Oddly enough, 
despite aJf sorts of warnings of dis- 
aster, the new hams are doing qyite 

Byt virhat about the manufacturers? 
We are now seeing more aiKl more of 
the CB firms turning lo amateur radio 
,.. How come? In this case we can 
laugh, for the CB industry went to a 
lot of expense and trouble to almost 
mortally wound itself, 

iack in the glorious days when 
everythirkg was back -ordered and the 
manufacturers were more worried 
ibout completion of construction of 
their new plants than anything else, 
tfte bigwigs of the btz did irivest some 
money tDwsrd making their future 
«ven mstef titan it then speared. 
They could see the 23 channels then 
Available rapidly filling up and there 
being not only a need for more 
channels on 27 MHz, but ^so a need 
for two to five megahertz for further 
CB development, as millions of people 
got into the act. 

The "donations" went to their 
lobby in Washington. Here the money 
was spent to put the pressure on the 
FCC for new bands and for 27 MHz 



EDiTORfAL 8Y WA YNE GREEN 

eKpanston. When they ran Into re- 
sistance from the FCC, they then 
went via the OTP {White House) to 
force the FCC to capitulate. It's 
actually a bit more sordid than that, 
but you get the idea. 

Through TV, movies, records, and a 
lot of newspaper and magazine pub- 
licity, the pressure was kipt on to 
keep CB growing . . , arvf it did. Then 
the plan to expand the 27 MHz band 
went through the usual FCC heeV 
dragging^ which amateurs are all too 
familiar witfi, and luddenly the 
country was faced w'rth the choice of 
buyir^ a CB ^i which would be 
virtual! V worthless in six months or 
else watting six months for the new 
40-channe1 sets. Sales of CB sets just 
about stopped, while the factories in 
Japan kept grtncfing out the 23- 
channel sets to further bulge a I reedy- 
bulging warehouses in the U.S. 

By the time the 40- channel sets 
could be purchased, the steam had 
gone out of the market and the 
demand for the new sets never reaUy 
material I zsd. That lesson having been 
teamed, tiie pnestres for opening a 
new Cfl in the VHF or UHF bands 
cooled quickly. Of course, the tack of 
pressure has not stopped ttia FCC 
from its conskJerations in this tine . . . 
these things move like a glacier and 
are as difficult to stop. One of the last 
things CB msnufacttirers and dealers 
need now is a new Citizens Band. 

One publisher, anxious to start a 
new "Communicator" magazine, did 
manage to pull the FCC to a halt by 




Memorial bmt of Marwm at the s&tion stie. 



writing in a nationally-syndicated CB 
column that the new band would soon 
be announced. The FCC took this as a 
challenge and tabled the whole 
matter. They are not about to be 
pressured like that. 

My plan to encourage ham clubs to 
institute Novice classes has worked 



well, and the result has been a sub- 
stantial growth in amateurs . * * 
enough so the need for a Communi" 
cator class of license is no lor>ger 
important. The two reasons for the 
Communicator proposal were to pro* 

Continued on p^ge 4 J 



Oscar Orbits 



Orhii 



Ofw 8 D rkrDl tnltriMiH 
Dcu TiM 



n 

HA 

H 

HA 

H 

NA 

NA 



23446 
?3459 BTT** 
23471 

?34fl4BTN 
23496 

23&ag eiN 

23521 BTN 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 



N 


23534 


8 


NA 


23546 BTN 


e 


N 


235^ 


10 


HA 


23571 BTW 


n 


H 


23534 


12 


HA 


235B7 BTN 


T3 


UA 


23809 BTN 


14 


H 


33632 


16 


NA 


23634 BTN 


te 


N 


23S«7 


17 


NA 


TSSS^BIH 


1« 


H 


23672 


IS 


HA 


23684 BTN 


20 


HA 


23697 &TH 


2t 


H 


237CS 


23 


NA 


23722 BTN 


23 


N 


23734 


24 


NA 


23747 STN 


2S 


N 


23759 


7^ 


NA 


23772 STN 


27 


NA 


23784 flTN 


28 


N 


23797 


29 


NA 


23809 BTIV 


m 


N 


23822 


31 


16 







0030:40 
QUbM 
0026 i3t 
0130:27 
O0ZO;23 
0116:16 
0015:15 
OnOrlO 

ooto-oe 

0106:02 
dG04:BB 
CP059:53 
0!l 54:49 
0064:45 
0t49:4t 
0048:37 
0144 32 
0044.28 
0139 24 
0039 30 
gi34 15 
0034 11 
013^:07 
0029 03 
012350 
0023:^6 
011B 50 
001B:46 
0113 42 
0013:38 
0108:33 



■fEq, 



7Z5 

86.3 

71J 

S5.0 

70,0 

83. S 

MB 

82.6 

e7,8 

fl1,3 

^.3 

60. 1 

93.8 

78-8 

9ZG 

77.6 

91^,3 

76.3 

9CLt 

7S.1 

BB,9 

73J 

B7,6 

72.6 

85.4 

71.4 

85.1 

7Q.1 

83.9 

68.9 

82.6 



OmrTOi'fcfiii 

(Ocd (film 



13S23 A 
13&3&B 
i394o A 
139fl0 B 
13973 A 
13BBE8 

14010 8 
14033 A 
14036 8 
1404BA 
14061 BO 
14073 A 

i4oee A 

l4Tt1 B 
14T23A 
141368 
14148A 
)416t a 
14173 AX 
14^86 B 
14igeA 
142118 
14223 A 
14236 80 
1 424d A 
14261 8X 
14274 A 
14286 8 
14209 A 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

te 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 

25 
28 
27 

29 
30 
31 



0120jQ3 

0019:23 

0113:40 

0013:01 

010711B 

0OOB:3g 

0100:55 

00OQ:TB 

0054:34 

0148:61 

0048:11 

0142:28 

004149 

0136:06 

(X05 27 

0129:44 

0029:0& 

0123:22 

0Q22;<3 

0117:00 

0016 20 

0110:38 

0009:58 

0104:15 

0003:36 

0067 S3 

01 52; 10 

0051:31 

0145 48 

0045:09 

0139:28 



of £q. 

Crn»n| ' 

7SJ 

€0.1 

73.7 

55.5 

72.1 

5BJ 

70.5 

55.4 

Sfi.Q 

B2.S 

874 

81.0 

s&a 

794 
64.3 
77.8 
82.7 
70 
ilJ 
74.7 

mM 

73.1 
56.0 
71.6 
6)64 
70.0 
83.6 
68.4 
82.0 
66.d 
80.4 



W 



The listed data tells you the t^me and place OSCAR crosses the equator m afi 
ai^nding orbit for the first time each day. To calculate successive orbits, makt 
a Itst of the first orbrt number and the next twelve orbits for that day. List the 
lime of the tirst orbit. Each successive orbit is 1 15 minutes later (two hours lesi 
five minutes) ^ The chart gives the longitude of the first crossing. Add 29'' for 
each succeeding orbit When OSCAR is ascending on the othef side of the 
world, it wtll ciescend over you. To find the equatorial deKendtr^g longitude, 
subtract 166 degrees from ihe aiamding longitude. To find the time it passes 
the north pole, &dd 29 minutes to the time it passes the equator. You ^ould be 
able to hear OSCAR when it is within 45 degrees of you. The easiest way to do 
this is to take a globe and draw a circle with a radius of 2480 miles (4000 
kilometers) from the home QTH. If it passes right overhead, you should be abl« 
to hear it for about 24 minutes total. OSCAR will pass an imaginary line drawn 
from San Francisco to Norfolk about 12 minutes after passing the equator. 
Add about a mmute for each 200 miles that you live north of this fine. If 
OSCAR passes 15 degrees from you, add another minute; at 30 degrees, three 
minutes: at 45 degrees^ ten minutei 



OSCAR 6 : Input 
145.90146.00 MHi- Output 
29.45 29.55 MHz; Telemetry 
beacon at 29.45 MHz. 
OSCAR 7 Mode A: Input 



145.a5-t45.95 MHjt; Output 
29.40-29.50 MHz, 
Mode B; Input 
432.125-432.175 MHz; Out- 
put 145.925^ 145.975 MHz. 



Orbits designated *'X" are closed to general use. "ED'* are for educational 
use, "BTN" orbits contain news bulletins, "Q" orbits have a ten Watt erp ttmit. 
"V indicates link orbiL "N" or "S" tndicstes that Oscar 6 is available only on 
northbound or southbound passes. Satellites are not available to users on "NA" 
days. 



1 




tel \ Ma Bp l] that 



3 ! '1 e s h o u 



W6LS 



] 



I have not seen a Caveat Emptor 
section in T3 Magaiirm ff>r a tong 
time, ^f "fou no longer print ads, 
ignore the two typed below. However, 
if you still conduct this service, please 
print the following ads: 
CQ md QST W50-7975 tssaes for 
safe. Send SAS£ if orden'fjg 73, Ham 
Radio, or other CQ and QST issues ^ 
One doifar mmimum order, and ail 
issues cost 25& each, mciudmg USA 
shipping. Send chrorw/ogicst list and 
fun payment to W6LS, 2814 Empire, 
Burbank CA 91504. 
CBftificate for provert two-way rsdio 
contacts with amateurs in aif ten USA 
calf areas. Award suitabie to frame, 
and pro\/en achi&vefnents added on 
request. SASE tnngs TAD data sheet 
from W6LS, 2814 Empire, Burbanf( 
CA 91504. 

As you may remember, our club 
has operated a used amateur radio 
magaiinei ^rvice for more than a 
decade. It was your donation of 73 
Mag9nn& that enabted us to start ^is 
project. We have shipped more than 
3000 issues in one month, and we 
seldom send less than 300 magazirtes 
durii^g a month. Our magazine sen/ice 
(s appreciated by amateurs, and we 
have filled requests from every state 
and about 40 countries. We often 
receive very kind comments from 
amateurs who are happy to receive 
needed issues. Out club is a nonprofit 
organization, and we regularly donate 
' 'income" to worthwhile causes as- 
sociated with the amateyr radio 
service. As is indicated in our ad, our 
supplies of 7 J and fiam fladio issues 
are always limited, and we have 
actually been completely out of them 
several times in the last few years. 

We hope you understand that you 
and your staff are welcome to drop in 
at W6LS for unannounced visits when- 
ever yoy are in our area. We are open 
weekday evenings 4:30-5:30 pm and 
7:30^9:30 pm. Actyally, W6LS is 
open and active at least 30 houi^ per 
week. Please exterxl our invitation to 
your staff. We are pleased to see Bill 
Pasternak whenpever he attends an 
everrt at W6LS, and that is usually a 
couple of times per year. 

WSLS is St in as active as ever^ We 
help license about 300 amateurs per 
year In the courses our members 
teach, including about 1B0 at W6LS. 
We actively support amateur-related 
activities, such as communications for 
Walk'A Thons and Bike-A-Thons- We 
have hosted repeater conferences the 
last few years, along with meetings of 
other special interest groups such as 
SOWP, QCWA, OOTC, Ten-Ten Inter- 
national, Southern California Antique 



Radio Society, Southern California 
Radio Teletype, MARS groups, and 
others. We continue to be active in 
commur^rty affairs, such as through 
our hosting of the annual volunteers 
fecognition day (Sunday, 25 
September 1977^ for tf^ Burbank 
Red Cross. W6LS is also collecting 
donations of aluminum in 1977, and 
spending the income to buy refresh- 
mants for Red Cross blood donors in 
Burbank. Our 1 2th annual convention 
drew a little mora than 3000 
attendees, and we have reached the 
point where we are considering a 
move CO larger quartern, W6LS has 
served as the receiving point for the 
ARRL California Incoming DX QSL 
Bureau during the last few years, and 
h runs ^noothlY now with pfenty of 
help. W6LS sorts received SASEs and 
DX cards according to the first letter 
In the calisign suffix, and we ship 
packages to indivtdual suffix sorters, 
who are members of other ciubs In 
our Los Angeles Area Council of 
Amateur Radio Clubs. We are so 
deeply involved in several major pro^ 
jects that our clu broom looks like a 
combination storage room and junk 
shop. 

I have taken up Herb Brier's 
(W9AD) old battle to help new ama- 
teurs through the Novice column in 
CO f\^agazine. As you may recall, I 
have a lot of interest in the problems 
faced by new amateurs in general and 
Novices in particular. I hope to pro- 
vide them with some help via this 
column, although I realize it may not 
last long (since the FCC is making 
noises about eliminating the Novtce 
class of license). 

I established an amateur radio 
operating award to provide a bit more 
incentive to new amateurs and to 
honor our beagle dog (Tad) who spent 
more time at W6US than most 
members while he was alive. The Ten 
American Districts certificate Is 
increasingly popular with new ama- 
teurs, and I have already issued almost 
12O0 of them to amateurs In all states 
and about 50 countries. 

Wdtiam Welsh W6DDB 
LERC Amateur Radio Club/W6tS 

Burbank CA 

Hi, Bilf . . . congratulations on the 
column in CQ . . . and sorry ive are 
out of the ctassified business these 
days. Well try to be sure to say helio 
on our next trip out your way * , . 
keep up the good work with f\/ovice 
classes, - Ed. 



HOT TICKET 



I'm an ak conditioning engineer 
who's worked the past year in Iran, 




where it's been 102'' F, for the past 
month. I've been a ham for about 
seven years, and have had callsigns 
ODBGT and F0AZK. I now operate 
hen& in Tehran with calisign eP2GT* 
We a^so have a r^to club here with 
about 60 members. Some of these 
members receive 73 by air mail from 
their American companies, so I've 
been able to keep up a bit on ham 
radio activities through your fine 
publication, 

BitI Schlapfer EP2GT 
Tehran, Iran 



BRAVO 



Br wo for your October editorfaf, 
"Can The QCWA Save Amateur 
Radio?" 

I am in accordance with you 100% 
— this fine organization, above any 
otiier, could do the job that ham radio 
sadly needs. 

I, regretfully^ am not a member, 
but am joining as soon as possible; 
Having been in ham radio about 50 
years, 1 guess I'm about due. 

I understand that such an illustrious 
gentleman as Leo Meyerson has re- 
cently been elected as a regional 
director. Along with many good men 
in just about every walk of life, who 
do not seek monetary gain and show 
no discfiminatlon toward old or new, 
who else should represent us except 
(as I have mentioned previously) 
Wayne Green? . . , 

Paddy LabatoWBDLU 
Cleveland OH 



REAL PROBLEMS 

Regarding the recent announce- 
ment of the Rule and Order on FCC 
docket '^21033: I would like you to 
consider supporting an addition to 
this controversial issue (at ieast in the 
midwest K 

As 1 am not a Tech, I feel that I am 
less biased on the subiect than rrtost 
Techs are — but I still feel strongly 
that the poteniial problems need im- 
mediate consideration and action. 

I am very disturbed by the talk in 
the weak signal portions of our VHF 
bands of a so called "war." Now, as in 
many times in the past, is the time for 
cooperation between all concerned, 
not "war." Quoting a recently over- 
heard comment on 145.1 MHz, ''Til 
throw my kW on the first repeater 
input down here/' War is a two-way 
affair, and FMs have kWs atso. 

In general FMers and low band 
operators whom I have discussed this 
with realize that DXing, EME, RTTY, 
TV and satellites use some of the VHF 
spectrum, but they don't know how 
much or where. They have been very 
receptive and sympathetic to our 
potential problems, and would sup- 
port gent tern en's agreements and /or 
proposals to the FCC to prevent the 
potential problems. 

My personal feeding is that the Rule 
and Order mak^ sense, e>{cept that it 
did not go far enough. Gentlemen's 
agreemenES can solve the problems of 
220 MHz and up if they ^e made 



known and are respected by all parties 
concerned with the use of these 
bands. Two meters, as I see it, is 
where the problem lies. No good 
argumer^t can be made that FM users 
and repeater operators didn't need the 
extra t MHz given on 2 — the problem 
is going to be that the 300 kHz that 
are usable by the Tech class for AM, 
SSB, CW, TV, RTTY, facsimile, and 
EME from 145.5 to 145.8 MHz is not 
going to be enough, General class 
license holders and above do far more 
work in the area above 145.0 MHz at 
present than in the 144 MHz portion. 
due to the tremendous activity gen- 
erated by the Tech class. You go 
where the action is. 

As I see it, the only answer Fs to 
open up the lower portion of 2 meters 
to Techs. The 500 kHz fmm 144 to 
144,5 are probably adequate, when 
combined with the 300 kHz from 
145,5 to 145,8, to handle all modes 
and uses. The bottom 100 or 50 kHz 
could and probably should be reserved 
for A1 only. 

I f the bottom of 2 Is not opened to 
the Techs, i foresee some real prob- 
lems for all users of the band. 

Jerry G. Shepherd WBSY^W 
Hoffman Est IL 



EARfSlING 






I just finished reading the letter 
from Mark A. Clark WB4CSK in the 
September 73. He may be "lust a 
kid,'' but he has the attitude of a 
mature adult and I agree with his 
f stings 100%. There is r>o excuse for 
lowering ticket requirements to gain 
strength In numbers 

I am working toward my Novice 
now; and I want the satisfaction of 
earning it. I'm a CBer, somewhat 
disappointed with CBj and It's my 
observation that if 90% of the CB 
operators knew more than how to key 
the mike and talk, we would have 
much less trouble with RFI, over- 
modulation^ splatter, and crude 
manners* 

Amateyr radio doesn't need this 
kind of membership. 

Dave Dunsmoor KAHB1022 
Wahpeton NO 



PACING 



I have recently become a subscriber 
to your magazine, after belonging to 
the ARRL for more years than I care 
to remember. 

I enclose a letter which I wrote to 
OS r and which was returned to me 
with a copy of an old American 
Medical Journal article which merely 
Slated the well -known facts that some 
later pacemakers have better shielding 
than some earlier models, 

I had hoped that my experience 
might at least stay on file for the 
benefit of others who have the prob- 
lem. Since receiving my letter back, I 
have withdrawn my permission for 
QSrio use my experiences. 

Perhaps I had better say that when 



Continued on page 32 



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18 



Y1 



FCC Math 



John F. Leahy WB6CKN 
P.O.Box 539 
Gonzaies CA 93926 

in this installment, we'll leisureSy 
pfay around with Ohm's Law and tie 
up some loose ends from Part 1 , 

First, to Ohm's Law. Probably the 
simpfest statement is: voltage ^ cur- 
rent X resistance. In symbols, E = IR 
(remember, it's not necessary to put a 
muttiplication sign between tetters}. 
And what it means is that the instan- 
taneous voltage or pressure across a 
pureEy resistant circuit equals the 
amoLint of current flowing times the 
resistance offered to that flow, I used 
the words "mstantaneous" and 
"purely resistant" to take care of ac as 
well as dc circuitry. The further you 
get Into etectronics, the more you see 
of such bothersome tittle distinctions. 
Things are just never simple! 

Let's now do some algebraic 
wiggling like we did in Part 1. If E = 
IR (back to playing with number 
equations if necessary), then I = E/R 
and R = E/l. Which is to say that the 
current in a purely resistive circuit 
equals the voltage (pressure) divided 
by the resistance (the greater the 
voltage and the less the resistance, the 
more the current, just like a hose 
carrying water}, and the resistance in 
the circuit equals the voltage divided 
by the current {the greater the voltage 
and the less the current, the greater 
the resistance must be}, 

Mow an example: Suppose you 
wanted to develop 5 volts across a 
resistor that carried 25 milliamps 
(mA) of current. What size resistor 
would you need? Here we're looking 
for the R of our formula. A good way 
to remember the Ohm's Law formulas 
is simply to note that E, voltage, Is 
always on top, never on the bottom of 
the fraction. R - E/L then, is the form 
we want here. But there's a problem. 
The formula works for Ohms, volts 
and Amps (Amperes), whereas here 
we have mifltamps. Using the proper 
units is always a critical factor in these 
problems, as it is in any measurement 
situation. You might be^ 6 feet tall. 
You most certainly are "not 6 inches 
tall. The number {B in this case} 
means nothing unless it's hooked up 
with the correct unit of measurement. 
So in our problem milliamps are no 
good if we want our answer in Ohms 
(but, as we shall see, they are fine if 
we want our answer in kilohms). 

8ut this again brings upthesub{ect 
of prefixes, which is quite a subject 



(A 

c 
d 



ut 



— c 

B Id 
8 6 



en 

C 

o 

1 s 

r o 
•D E 

7 3 



g 

1 
2 



indeed. MEHi and kilo {and the mega 
we saw in our last lesson] are ex- 
amples. They are hooked onto the 
front of a unit word and completely 
change the size of that unit. Milli, for 
example, means tho\^%ar\dths , kilo 
means thousanc/s, mega means 
millions. So 25 mA is 25 thousandths 
of an Amp {0.025 A}. Notice how 
much shorter the phrase 25 mi If lamps 
is than the phrase 25 thousandths of 
an Amp, Also note that with 0.025 
you're into decimals, whereas with 25 
you are not. Learning to work with 
prefixes, abbreviations and other 
shortcuts is mighty important in elec- 
tronics computations, unless you 
don't mind taking up lots of space and 
time in computations that could be 
done with dispatch. 

But to finish our problems, we now 
know that 25 milliamps is 0,025 
Amps, something that we can plug 
into our formula even if we have not 
yet learned shortcut ways of handling 
decimals. R = E/l becomes R - 
5/0.025 for our problem. Dividing 
bottom into lop, we get 200. So 200 
Ohms is the resistance we want. 

Let's check our work. To do so, 
we'll again use Ohm's Law, but the 
configuration E = IR. If weVe done 
our work correctly, 5 volts should 
equal 25 mA times 200 Ohms, 
Multiply 0.025 x 200 and, sure 
enough, up comes 5. We must have 
done things the right way, 
,^'_J- Before we jump back into prefixes 
^ifid decimals to tie things together for 
'"this installment of our series, let's take 
further note of units of measurement, 
since, as we've already seen, keeping 
these units straight in our work is 
pretty important. Notice how we 
multiplied Amps and Ohms together 
to get voltsi Wow, all different units! 
That often happens with multiplica- 
tion and division. The units of 
measurement of the answer may be 
entirely different from those of the 
problem. That's not true of addition 
and subtraction. If I add so many 
Ohms plus so many Ohms. Til get 
Ohms in my answer. If I subtract so 
many volts from so many volts, I'll get 
volts in my answer. The reason you 
get different units with division and 
multiplication is that units cancel just 
like numbers cancel: S x 11% x 9 - 
7/9. The fives cancel. Or else one unit 
of measurement is defined in terms of 
other units so that they can be inter- 
changed with those other units and 
youVe still dealing with the same 
reality- The thing to remember is that 



C 

to 

Vi 



3 
o 

^-1 


-a 
re 


*fl 




:3 


■o 


u 


Q 


in 




J= 


*^ 


"1 


C 


c 


O 


3 




^ 



in 

c 

3 



VI 



fS o 



vt 



■o 

Vi lb 

3 



i 



Vt 



O 



units are handled logicalty in com- 
putations. With addition and subtrac- 
tion, you'll get the same units in the 
answer as you had In the problem. 
With multipl ication and division, you'll 
drop some units or get new units, but 
the units you dropped were canceled 
out and the new units were just 
''hidden" in the original units because 
of the deffnition of those original 
units. An example: Drive a car at 55 
miles per hour for 3 hours and youVe 
gone 165 miles. What happened to the 
hours? Here's what happened: 55 
miles/hour x 3 hours - 165 miles 
hours/hour. The hours canceled be- 
cause they were in top and bottom. 
Note a3so that when you say per, you 
mean divide. 55 miles per hour means 
55 miles/1 hour. That may seem 
strange, but it all works out very nice 
and logically. 

Another example. 7 miles equals 
36,960 feet How's that? Miles and 
feet are totally different units! Here's 
what you didn't see. There are 5,280 
feet per miie. So we have 7 miles 
times 5,280 feet/1 mife. The mifes 
cancel and we get 36,960 feet. That 
kind of thing goes on all the time in 
electronics. You just take the dis- 
appearance and reappearance of units 
for granted when a multiplication or 
division is involved. 

Now some decimal stuff* There's 
just no way of avoiding it^ though we 
have skirted around it so far. Perhaps 
99% of computations in electronics 
require good working knowledge of 
our decimal system* 

A decimal system Is a ten system 
(from the Latin d&cem, meaning ten}. 
Every time you move to the left, you 
multiply by ten; every time you move 
to the right, you divide by ten. In the 
number 777- 7, the left hand 7 is ten 
times bigger ihan the 7 to its right. 
That one. in "turn, Is ten times bigger 
than the one to its right, and so on. 
777,7 means 7 hundreds + 7 tens + 7 
ones +7 tenths, 700 + 70 + 7 + 7/10. 

Naming numbers in our decimal 
system can be kind of tricky, because 
there's a variety of ways, all meaning 
the same thing. 7,700 can be named 
seven thousand seven hundred, or 
seventy-seven hundred, 0.025 is nor- 
mally named 25 thousandths, though 
it means 2 hundredths and 5 thou- 
sandths. Look at the fraction equiva- 
lent, and you can see why. 2/100 + 
5/1000 = 20/1000 + 5/1000 = 
25/1000, (Slormally numbers smaller 
than one are named by the last digit 
to the tight 0.7 (by the way, a zero is 
usually stuck In before the decimal 
point just to make sure everyone 
understands it f's a decimal point we 
are dealing with and not a period or 
something, and that there are no other 
digits to the left of the decimal) is 



-B ^ 



-d 
c 
m 

Vi 

Q 

i 

c 



o 



t3 

:3 



Vi 

£ 
O 



in 
O 



E 



o 



■u 

3 



1 7 4 



6 2 6 



Fig. 1. 



9 8 7 6 14 3 



Vi 



o 



13 

5 




QSLsl 




wnDii 



iEw pa^ 252 



Jf 



seven tenths, because the 7 is in the 
tenths column. 0.93250 is nine- 
thousand three- hundred and twenty- 
five ten-thousandths, because the 5 is 
in the ten-thousandths column (you 
don't consider zeros to the right of 
that last non-zero digit, 5 in this case}. 
0.035 is thirty-five thousandths be- 
cause the 5 is in the thousandths 
column. Using prefixes: 325 milliamps 
(remember, milli means thousandths} 
is 0,325 A. The B goes In the thou- 
sandths column because it is the digit 
to the right. 37 kitohms {remember, 
kilo means thousands) Is 37,000. The 
7 is the digit to the right and so goes 
into the thousands column. You'll 
notice I snuck one in there. 37 
kilohms is not smaller than onef 
Prefixed numbers follow the rule 
whether larger or smaller than one- 
Fig, 1 shows an unwieldly number, 
86,732,174,626 908761435 {that's 86 
bilHon, etc.), with the names of each 
column written above, just in case 
you're not familiar with those names. 
If you wish to test your knowledge, 
you might try translating that 
monstrous number completely into 
words. (Check yourself against the 
note at the end of this piece,} 

You will no doubt recall that the 
rules for adding and subtracting 
decimals are pretty simple. You just 
keep the decimal points directly above 
and below one another. 3.025 volt* + 
765 volts + 0.00096 volts becomesi 

3,025 V 
765 V 
+ 0.00096 V 



You can fill in zeros if you want And 
note that 765 has an invisible decimal 
point to its right. Any number in our 
system has that invisible point if none 
is showing, and you have to make it 
visible when doing computations. So 
you might do the problem; 

003.02500 V 

765,00000 V 

+ 00 0.00096 V 

"7^8.02596 volts 

Notice how those decimals are kept in 

a stra igh 1 1 i ne* 

Subtractions are done pretty much 
as you might expect. 28,966 milli- 
amps - 0.00046 milliamps becomes; 

28.96600 mA 
- OQ.Q0Q46 mA 

2B. 96554 milliamps 



19 




Note the zerof w« threw into both 
those problems. It's often quit£ 
helpful to throw in or lake out zeros 
tike that. (Of course, you can't cto it 
m the mrddle of a number or beti^een 
the decimal point and some other 
digits. 706 i£ not the sdJUe as 76. 
0,009 is not the sanr^eas 0.9. 73,000 ts 
not the same as 73U Orily zbfos at the 
es^treme right Of left can neceive that 
kind of treatment. 

MMltiplyimi ilecimats is simple 
enough. Just multiply as though there 
were no decimal point, then count up 
the number of decimal places in both 
the numbers you multiplied and add 
those two counts, That'i how many 
peaces are in the answer. Eicample: 
0.000037 Amps sc 26,000 Ohms might 
be done simply: 

26,000 
?e37 

1 8S000 

78000 

There are no decimal places in 26,000, 
but there are 6 in 0,000037, So there 
will be + 6, or 6 places in our 
answer. It becomes 0,962000, or, 
dropping those unnecessary zeros to 
the right, simply 0-962. (Of course, 
you have to count the 6 places while 
the zeros are still there,) If that was an 
Ohm's Law problem, oyr answer is 
J62 voits. 

Decimal division is nnore difficutt. 
Well do a couple problems and state 
the rule at the same time. Problem: 
t8.73 volts ^ 6 J milliamps (remem- 
ber, that's 0.0069 Amps). 

o.oo69rrsr75 




Abbreviation 
P 


Prefix 
pico 


Size 

tr Itionths 


n 


nano 


bllionths 


jf 


micro 


millionths 



m 



mini 



thousandths 



c 
k 



cent! 
kiJo 



hundredths 
thousands 



M 



mega 



millions 



Examples 

7 pF mear^s 7 picofarads, 0.000000000007 farads 

6 pS means 5 picosecondSp 0.000000000005 seconds 

1 ns means 1 nanosecond, 0.000000001 seconds 
3 nF means 3 nanofarads, 0.000000003 farads 

8 ^F means 8 microfarads, 0,000008 farads 

9 (is means 9 microseconds, 0,000009 seconds 
6^V means 6 microvolts, 0.000006 volts 

A fiH means 4 microhenrys, 0.000004 Henrys 

2 mA means 2 milliamps, 0.002 Amps (Amperes) 

5 mV means 5 millivolts, 0.005 volts 

7 mW means 7 milliwatts. 0.007 Wans 

3 mH means 3 mlMihenrys, 0.003 Henrys 

1 ms means t millisecond, 0.001 second 

6 cm means 6 centimeters, 0.06 meters 
9 km means 9 kilometers, 9O0O meters 
B kV means 8 kilovolts, SOOO voits 

4 kW means 4 kilowatts, 4000 Watis 

2 ka means 2 kilohms, 2000 Ohms 

3 kS means 3 kilobucks. S3000I 

5 Mo means S megohms, 5,000,000 Ohms 

7 MW means 7 megawatts, 7,000,000 Watts 

6 MV means 6 megavoHs. 6,000,000 volts 



{n 00069, 

Rufe: A^o*« the decimaf point of the 

divisor ft^& number you are dividing 

byl aff the vi^ to the right 

{2) 69. 

ffuie: Drop ttiB unne€ess3ry zeros. 

(3)69 

8ute: Let the dBcim^ point become 

ifwisith. 

{A) 187300. 

/?y/e.' Move The decimaf point of the 

dividend (the number you are dividing 

into} the same number of phces to 

the right as you did for the divisor. 

Add as many zeros to the right as 

fi ecessa ry to do t his, 

(5) 69)187300. 

Rate: Put the prabfem together with 
these new numbers end set a decimaf 
point for the answer direcdy above 
the point in the dividend. 

2714.4 

(6) 69)1^73000 

138 

(7) 



Tath I. Common Abbreviations and prefixes. 

In electronics. If this was an Ohm's 
Law problem, an answer of 2700 
Ohms would be plenty accurate in 
most cases, 

Let*s try arxither problem, in order 
to see where the last rule applies: 12.6 
volte T^ 47 k if ohms (remember, that's 
47,000 OhmsK 



(8) 



453 

4S3 
^RIO 

69 
276 



340 
276 

Rule: Paying no further attention to 
the decintai point, proceed with the 
division as you would with any other 
division, putting each digit of the 
answer above the fast digit to the right 
of the digit or digits you /usr divided 
into. 

Rule: If necessary to get a deceit* 
sized ansvmr, add zeros to the right of 
the deeiwst paint in the dividends (We 
added one here, even though it was 
not necessary.} 

Rule: ff ^iplicabte^ M in die space 
between the decimal point arxi the 
first digit to the right with zeros, (This 
does not apply here, but wilf in the 
next problemj 

In the above problem, we stopped 
dividing after getting one decimal 
place In our answer. Actual ly, we 
could ftave stopped 3 tot sooner. 
Remember (Part I) that you seldom 
n«ed more than 2- or 3-ciigit accuracy 



47,OD0Tl5S 

(5) 47000)T2!B" 

Ruies: Notice that rules 1, 2, 3, and 4 
do not apply, since the decimal point 
is already to the right in 47,000. This 
brings us to 5, Band 7. And fwte that 
to apply 6^ we first must use rule 7, 
(7) 47000)15:500000 
Rule: To get 3 digit accuracy, we have 
to add $ zeros to the f2M, 

(6) 268 
47000)12.600000 

94000 
3 20000 
2 82000 
' 380000 

376000 

Rule: Note where that first digit of 

the answer goes (above the last digit 

to the right that you are dividing into 

that first'Step), Very important! Also 

important: Keep digits directly above 

or below the correct digits in the 

subtractioo process^ That helps avoid 

errors. 

(S) .000268 

Rufe: if you didn't leave that space 

for the 3 zeros, your answer would be 

incorrect. 

Our Ohm's Law answer is 0.000268 
Amps, which is 0.26S mill tamps or 
2S3 mcroamps. 

These divisions can get mighty 
hairy. That's why next time we'll get 
into some pretty clever methods for 
handling divisions and a lot of thinp 
that are simpty too difficult otfier- 
wise. 

This brings us finally to abbrevia- 
tions and prefixes. Look over ihe 
Table 1 above rsfher carefully. There 
are other abbreviations and prefi»tes, 
hut these are the common ones. It*ll 
be quite liseful to have tftcse stashed 
away in your mind for future refer- 
ence. 



f^ow try this exercise- C^eck your- 
self against tfie work and answers at 
tfie end of the column. 
(1) Solve for the unknown usirtg 
Ohm*s Law: 

(a}750V,330mA,R=*? 
(b)470 0, t1 mA, E = ? 
(cj 18 V, 2200 0,l = ? 
(2} In the same way that we did 
7777, break down this number: 
1 7.352 

NotB 

Answer; Eifhl-iix tailMon Mvcrv hundred 
thirty-two million one hundred tevgntyfaMT 
thoussod six hundred tw§rrtv-s()t Mnd nint 
hundred eifht minion seven hundred fixtv- 
OTue ihoysand four hundred thirty-five 
billionthgf 

Work and Answers to EHsrdsat 
750 



anal R - 



.330 



2,275 
330)750,000 
660 
900 
660 
2400 
2310 
900 
660 
240 

Ifs best to foiind an$vif«ir out to 2300 Ohnu, 
(bjE-470KO.OTt 

470 
x11 



470 
470 
5170 



There an 3 dgcim&l pl^oes hn O.OIt, to th* 
imw«r ra 5 J 70 or 5l1 7 volt^ 



IS 



'^ ' 2200 


.ooeia 


220011 8.00D0D 


17600 


4000 


2200 


leooo 


t7600 



400 

Ans^Hf : 0.0081 B Amps (»r 8 JS ntA. 

i2l 1 ten + 7 CH>e$ + 3 tenths ^ 5 hundr«^|hf 
^ 2 thoiisBTXtdis, or 

10 + 7+— +— + — L 
10 100 1000 



20 



RTTY Loop 



Marc A Leavey, M.D. WA3AJR 
4006 Wf'niee Road 
Randaiktown MD 21133 

Ham curiosity being what ft is, I'm 
sure anv of you with HF receivers 
have chanced across funny-sounding 
signals on the low end of 80 or 20. By 
now, you shoutd be aware that the 
''tweed le-tweedle-dee" you hear is 
FSK RTTY. This month we shall 
investigate, in general terms, methods 
of decoding transmitted RTTY. 

To begin with, recall that there are 
two methods of transmitting RTTY 
presently in use: FSK and A FSK. 



MARK FflEO 

SPACE f^e:o. 



FiLTEfi 
PASSB^riD 



When operating AFSK, you are pre- 
sented with two audio tones, on stan- 
dard frequencies (2975 Hz and 2125 
Hz), regardless of the rf carrier fre- 
quency. FSK, however, presents two 
rf "tones*' which, while their relation- 
ship is standard (850 Hz or 170 Hz 
apartL niay be any of an infinite 
number of discrete frequencies. 

Logically, our first task is to con- 
vert the FSK into something stan- 
dardized for decoding — A FSK I Fig. 1 
illustrates how one obtains the proper 
frequencies. Note that the FSK iS 
tuned much in the manner of lower 
sideband, taut that the bfo frequency 



USUAL BFO INJECTION 
FfJEQUENCY FOR LSB 



EFFECTIVE BFO 
INJECTION FREOUENCY 
FOR RTTY 



1615 




EI25 Hi 
OLF. 



2975 He 
DIP. 



3655 



KH* 



Fig. 7. 



AUOlO INPUT* 







■ 


SELECTOR 








MAONETS 
























DETECTOR 

-w- 




KEYER 
























LOOP 










SUPPLY 





ng. 2. 



IN270 



AUDIO 
INPUT 




SELECTOfT 
MAQNETS 



AUDIO OUTPUT TRANSFORMER 
4ft'&000il TYPICAL 



FOR THOSE 
REHEMaER ., 
TUPE! 



TOO VOUNG 

,.THIS IS A 



TO 



Fig. 3. 



is set to reproduce the 2 kHz tones 
rather than speech. For those of you 
with crystal bfos (such as the Heath- 
kits) ^ a third bfo rock should be used 
to provide the appropriate offset. 

By the way, receiving schemes are 
available which convert not to audio, 
but to the receiver i-f frequency, 
typically 455 kHz^ and demodulate 
from there. These systems are anal- 
ogous to those covered here, but will 
not be specifically discussed. 

So, how do you get the ''tweedle- 
dee" to key your Model 15? Let's 
take a giant step backward. Re- 
member ON-OFF keying? I told you 
that would come in useful! Look at 
the block diagram in Fig. 2. A tone 
arriving at the Input is "detected/' 
i.e., rectified, and applied to a keying 
stage. The keying stage is an electronic 
switch that is closed in the absence of 
a signal, but opens when such a signal 
is input Feeding an OM-OFF keyed 
space signal into this primitive con- 
verter would produce a usable output, 
or, by keying a relay to invert the 
signal, on -off mark keying could be 
used. 

Of course, we don't use OM-OFF 
keying, though, so what can we do? 
The simplest thing is to tune the HF 
receiver bfo so that the mark fre- 
quency is zero beat. The audio is then 
an 850 Hz {or 170 Hz) ON-OFF 
keyed space tone, and can be decoded 
fay the practical circuit shown In Fig. 
3. This Is one of the circuits con- 
structed and used at WA3AJR during 
the mid'1 960s. 

A more advanced approach is to use 
this basic circuit twice, on both the 
mark and space signals. By using 
fiiters tuned to the appropriate fre- 
quencies, each tone may be directed 
through a detector, and to keyers 
which would alternate polarity for 
mark and space. A special relay, called 
a "polar relay," can be drivers off this 
alternating signal to key the loop. This 
scheme became known as the 
"W2PAT" converter, after its daddy, 
and is block-diagrammed in Fig;, 4. 
With a "combiner" stage added to 
dispense with the poler relay and key 
the loop directly, this circuit remains 
an easy-to -understand way to get into 
RTTY reception. 

Upon this foundation comes a 
whole raft of demodulator designs. 
Thoughts and concepts such as Jim iter 
vs. IJmiterless detectors, AM vs. FM 
techniques, and multiple other refine- 
ments have been debated. Additional 



# 



NEW BOOK 




circuits, such as autostart or character 
recognition, have been tossed about. 
Lately, an entire new generation of 
converters based on phase locked loop 
technology has arisen. Still, the vast 
majority of hams active on RTTY got 
their start on circuits such as covered 
this month. Only after one under- 
stands the fundamentals can one 
branch out into new areas. We'll ex- 
plore some of those branches another 
time. 

A card from Dan Griffith WB0IVJOU 
was received, asking for a more de- 
tailed explanation of ''space/' Let's 
see what I can do. 

Consider a wire with a voltage on it. 
This voltage can be either on or off* 
We will call the ''on" state "V and 
the "off" state "0". Now, if we start 
to turn the voltage on and off in a 
coded sequence, such as the Baudot 
teletype code, the line wili demon- 
strate a pattern of rapidly changing Is 
and Os. By convention, it has become 
customary to call the "1" "mark" and 
the ''0" "space." Although 1 used 
ON-OFF voltages in this example, it 
could have been OF PON keying, 
positive and negative> high and low, or 
changes En ac or rf frequency. The 
words "mark" and "space'' denote a 
logic state difference, just as do "'V 
and ''0". "Space" has frothing to do 
with the "space" character on a tele^ 
type. Any system in which a signal is 
coded as two state* could have a 
"mark" and ''space/' even Morse 
codel 

An overview of transmitting circuits 
is up for next time. Meanwhile, If 
anyone has specffic points or ques- 
tions for future columns, ptease send 
them to me at the above address, or In 
care of 73. 



MARK 






DCTECTOR 

-w- 


FILTER 





AUDEO INPUT 




SPACE fl 
FILTER C^ 



DETECTOR 



SHAPER 



SHAPER 



Fig. 4. 



KEVER 



POLAR 
RELAT 



TO 
SELECTOR 

MAGMETS 



KEYER 




m 



Hoben Baker WB2Qf£ 
15 Windsor Dr. 
At CO NJ 08004 







ARRL 160 METER CONTEST 
Starts: 2200 GMT Friday, 

E^ecember 2 

Ends: 1600 GMT Sunday. 

December 4 

The 7th annual ARRL 160 Meter 
Contest is open \q at I amateurs on CW 
onty. Mu I ti -operator work ts per- 
mitted and scores vvitl be listed sepa- 
rately in the remil% tstii they will not 
be eligtblfi for certificates, 
EXCHANGE: 

RST and ARRL section or country. 
SCOfiiNG: 

QSOs with arrtateurt in an ARRL 
seaion count 2 points; QSOs with 
amateurs not in am ARRL section are 
wonh 5 points. DX to OX QSOs do 
not count Multipligr is the total 
numbef of ARRL sections (741, VE8, 
and foreign countries worked* 
AWARDS: 

Certificates will be awarded for 
section and norvW/VH coumry high 
scores. Division high scores will have 
their section award endorsed with an 
approF>riat€ sea). 
FORMS: 

It is suggested that contest forins be 
obtained from the ARRL, 226 Main 
St^ Newington CT 06111. Check 
sheets are not required, but a penalty 
of 3 additional contacts will be made 
for each duplicate contact. 

These ruies wBfB takers from fast 
year's corrtest For complete ruhs, see 
the Novemb&r issue of QST. 

CONNECTICUT OSO PARTY 
Starts: 2000 GMT Saturday, 

December 3 

Ends: 0200 GMT Monday, 

December 5 

Rest Period: 0500 to 1200 GMT 

December 4 
The Candlewood ARA has moved 
its 15th CT OSO party frtim the 
traditionai first of May to the first 
weekend of December In an effort to 
find a time when band conditions are 
favorable and when other events are 
minimal Phone and CW are con- 
sidered to be the same contest, Sta^ 



tions may be worked once on each 
band and mode. Out^f -state portables 
and mobiles operating In CT are re- 
quested to identity themselves as 
such. Counties certificate will be 
awarded to each station working all 8 
CT countiesL 
EXCMANGE; 

QSO number, RSfT), and ARRL 
section or CT coiiniy. 
FREQUENCtES: 

SSB -^ 3925. 7250, 14300, 21375. 
28540. 

CW — 40 kHz up from bottom of 
each band. 
SCORING: 

Non-CT stations multiply total 
number of CT QSOs by number of CT 
counties worked (8 max J. CT stations 
multiply total number of QSOs by 
number of ARRL sections and pruv^ 
inces. Additional DX contacts count 
for QSO pointy but only one DX 
muiliptier is allowed overalL Q1QL 
the Club station, v/il1 be operating CW 
on odd hours, and SSB on even hours, 
and counts as 5 QSOs on each band 
and mode. 
ENTRIES: 

Logs must show category, date, 
time (GMT), calls, numbers, bands, 
QSO points, and claimed scores. 
Enclose a large SASE for results. Send 
logs, postmarked by Jan. 15, to 
CAR A, c/o Fred Porter WlVH, 169 
Carmen Hill Rd. Nr. 2, New Milford 
CT 06776. 

TOPS CW CONTEST 

Starts; 1800 GMT 
Saturday, December 3 

Ends^ 1800 GMT 
Sunday, December 4 
General call is "CD QMF/' Entry 
classes for singte/muiti-operator. Use 
3.5 to 3.6 MHz band only; use low 
end of band for DX-CW only! 
EXCHAf^GE: 

RST and serial number from 00 L 
SCORfNGr 

Contacts with own country ^ 1 
point; each call area in W/K, VE/VO, 
VK, and UA count as separate coun- 




1 












L/fiC -4^*1 



Dec 3-5 

Dec 10-11 



Dec 17-1S 
Dec 31 
. . . 1978 . 
Jan 14 
Frt^ll 12 
Aug 19^20 



ARRL 160 Meter Contest 

TOPS CW Contest 
Alexander Volta RTTY Contest 
EA Phone Corrtest 
Connecticut QSO Party 
ARRL 10 fVtetef Contest 
EACWCorrti^t 
HA DX Contest 
SOWP CW Christmas party 
Key Night 



Hunting Lions in the Air Cont^t 

Ten-T«n tniertiational Net Winter QSO Party 

^y QSO Party 



tries. Comacts with stations in same 
continent count 2 points, other oarv 
tinents " 5 points. Contacts with HQ 
station GW8WJ or GW6AQ count 25 
points- Total score is total number of 
QSO points times number of prefixes 
worked (as per WPX award rules). 
ENTRiES: 

Send logs to Peter Lumb G3IRM^ 
14 Linton Gardens, aufv SaJift 
Edmunds, Suffotk IP33 2DZ, United 
Kingdom. 

How about some US participation 
this year? There wasn't a sirt^e entry 
from North America last year! 

ALEXANDER VOLTA RTTY DX 
CONTEST 

Starts; 1200 GMT Saturday. 

Decembers 
Ends: 1200 GMT Sunday. 

December 4 
Two-way RTTY contacts between 
stations of the sam© country are not 
valid. Ail 2' way RTTY contacts with 
stationi in one's own zone will count 
2 points; those outsidie one's own 
zone count for points in accordance 
with the exchange points table. All 
2' way RTTY contacts made on 7 MHz 
are worth double; those on 3.5 or 2S 
MHz are worth triple points. Stations 
may only be worked once per band. A 
muttipiier of one is given for each 
country contacted on each band. 
Total score is total exchange points 
times the total number of multipliers 
times the total the total number of 
QSOs. Italian bonus points are added 
last ^ 1000 pomts for each I /IS/ IT 
contact on all bands. Note: Each US, 
Canadian, and Austral I a r> District will 
be considered a separate country 1 
Exchange consists of message number, 
RST, and zone. Use one log per band. 
Log forms, score sheets and exchange 
points table are available for IRCs. 
Logs must be received before Jan, 20, 
1978, to qualify {advisable to use air 
mail). Send logs and score sheets to: 
A. V. RTTY DX Contest Committee, 
SSB & RTTY Club, PO Box 144, 
22100 Como, Italy. 

This contest is open to SWL 
RTTYers as well, and the same rules 
apply as used for trar^mltiing sta- 
tions: a separate results table wtif be 
made for these entries. Contest awards 
iriciude calibooks, plaques, books, etc 
In addition, points and positions 
achieved in this contest will be valid 
for inclusion in the "World RTTY 
Championship" for 1977, 

Club station I2LL0 will transntit a 
special message for 10 minutes at 
2350 GMT Saturday. December 3. on 
21.100 MHz at 300 Wans 170 Hz 
FSK, 4S baud^ A special prize will be 
forwarded each amateur submining a 
copy of the message transmitted, 

ARRL 10 METER CONTEST 

Starts: 1200 GMT Saturday, 

Dttcimbar 10 



Ends: 23S9 GMT Sunday, 
December 1 1 
The contest ts open to all amateurs 
worldwide. All QSOs must take place 
on 10 meters, and OSCAR QSOs are 
valid. Each station can be worked on 
phone-to-phone and CW-to-CW, and 
anyone can work anyone. All CW 
contacts must be made betwei^i 2S.0 
and 28,5 MHz, unless working 
through OSCAR, When operating on 
10 meters, please avoid the OSCAR 
downlink frequencies. 

CLASSES: 

Entries will be classified as either 
single- or multiple-operator stations^ 
Multiple^transmitter stations are not 
allowed, 

EXCHANGE: 

Alt W/VE stations will send ftS(TJ 
arKJ state or province. Othef^ will servd 
RStT) and consecutive serial number 
starting with 001, Stations that are 
not land-based will send RStT) ^T\d 
ITU Region (I. 2 or 3i. The District 
of Columbia is counted as part of 
Maryland. 

SCORfNG: 

Each completed QSO counts 2 
points, or 4 points tf with a W or K 
Novice. The multiplier is the sum of 
the total number of states, Canadian 
call areas (max. 9), ARRL countries 
(not US or Canada), and ITU regions 
from no n- land-based stations. Final 
score is the sum of the QSO points 
times the total multiplier. 

AWARDS: 

A certificate will be awarded to the 
highest scoring single-operator station 
in each section, Canadian call area, 
and foreign country, Region awards 
for non- land-based stations, and 
awards for multi -operator and Novice 
stations will be issued if warranted^ 

FORMS: 

It ts suggested that contest forms be 
obtained before the contest from the 
ARRL, 225 Main St, Newington CT 
061 1 1; Include an SASE. Check sheets 
are not required, but a penalty of 3 
additional contacts will be made for 
each duplicate contact. 

Tb&e rules we/^ iaken from f3st 
year's contest For complete rules ^ see 
the November issue of QST. 

HUNGARIAN DX COf^EST 
Starts: 1600 GMT Saturday. 
December 10 
Ends: 1600 GMT Sunday, 
December 11 
(Unofficial) 
The contest is ^lonsored by the 
Hungarian Radioamaleur Society and 
is open to any licensed radio amateur. 
All amateur bands from ^ to 10 
met^^ may be used on CW only. 
Genera call m ^TEST HA," while 
Hungarians will give 'TEST WW." 
Entries may be in any of the following 
classes: single op, single bend: single 
op, mtiltt'band; or multi^op, multi- 
band. 



22 



EXCHANGE: 

RST and continuous serial number 
from 001, After their signal report, 
Hungarian stations wiil give a two- 
letter cx)de for tineir lcx:ation (county) 
as foilows; BA, BP, BE, BM, BO, CS, 
FE, GY, HA, HE, KO, NO, PE, SA, 
SO, SZ, TO, VA, VE,2A. 

SCOf^mG: 

Each HA QSO counts 1 point. The 
same station may be worked oniy 
once per band. Eacin different HA 
county worked counts 1 multiplier 
point per band. Final score Is total 
QSO points times sum of multiplier 
points from each band. 

ENTRIES: 

Logs must be made in usual form 
with summary sheet and signed 
declaration. They should be matled 
within 6 weeks after the contest to: 
Radio Amateur League of Budapest, 
H-1553 Budapest, P.O. Box 2, 
Hungary, 

AWARDS: 

Certificates to first place station 
from each country in each class or 

section. Additional places if war- 
ranted. 

1977 CW CHRISTMAS PARTY 

The Society of Wireless Pioneers 
(SOWP) Is planning a membeirship 
Christmas on-the-air CW QSO Party 
for the weekend of December 17 and 
18, 1977. The party will cover the full 
GMT period to altow members around 
the world to participate. This will be 
the second Christmas on-the-air party 
held by the Society. 

The purpose of the affair will be to 
give members an opportunity to meet 
on the air and to exchange Season's 
Greetings- There will be no formal 
exchange requirements and no need 
for members to submit logs, etc. 

All members with amateur If censes 
are being encouraged to take part. The 
call will be CQ SOWP. While there will 
be no certificates or other awards 
given, everyone who takes part will be 
a winner by having an opportunity to 
renew old friendships, establtsh new 
ones, and continue a camaraderie 
developed over the yems. 

Suggested frequencies for the party 
are 55 kHz up from the tow end of 
each amaiteur band. Additional infor- 
mation about this party and the 
Society can be obtained from the 
Party Coord iniator, Bill Wiilmot 
K4TF, 1630 Venus Street, Merritt 
Island, Florida 32952. 

ARRL STRAIGHT KEY NIGHT 
0100-0700 GMT Sunday, 
January 1 
Check QST for any changes in the 

rules! 

Basically, rules require the use of a 
straight key only. Send "SKN" in- 
stead of "RST^' during QSOs, to help 
identify contest stations. On 80-40-20 
meters, try 060 to 080 kHz up from 
the bottom edge of the band. On 
Novice bands, try 10 kHz up from the 
bottom of the Novice band. After the 
contest period, send a list of calls of 
the stations contacted during the con- 
test period, plus your vote for the 
best fist heard. Please maii entries as 







RESULTS OF THE TEN-TEN INTERNATIONAL NET 
SUMMER QSO PABTY - JULY 16-17, 1977 



Singh Op stations 
U.S. District 
1 



e 





Mufti-Op: 

VE District 

1 
2 



W1MR 


346/655 


WA1QHS 


260/493 


WA2YYT 


548/1013 


K2FW 


525/967 


W3RJ 


1041/1871 


WA3YRM 


eoO/1 460 


K4XS 


1046/1897 


WB4CHK 


716/1315 


WA5JDU 


555/1057 


W5RRR 


404/777 


WA6LLW 


350/641 


W6ED 


336/638 


WB7NCD 


443/825 


WB7AEB 


414/772 


WB8FAG 


507/937 


WB8EDG 


253/485 


WA9 XF 


418/784 


WA9PQY 


2B4/539 


WB0QHV 


719/1335 


K0JN 


632/1 1 78 



W9N1N 

VE1ASU 
VE2DZ0 
VE2ADZ 
VE3HHS 
VE3JHA 



501 /925 

1 22/229 
252/445 
t09/206 
1 25/233 
69/134 



4 


VE4VV 


197/371 




VE40Y 


116/221 


6 


VEeBCC 


73/139 


7 


VE7CMK 


223/414 




VE3CXL/7 


39/74 


DX 








ZF1AK 


105/199 




KP4DQN 


20/39 




LU7FAG 


86/1 62 




LU6DMZ 


45/84 




DK5UG 


11/16 




JH3BJG 


2/4 




JR3GDY 


1/2 




VK4JP 


52/62 


CW Winners: 








W5SQW 


72/93 




WB4MWG 


23/29 




N9DP 


8/10 


Chapter Winn 


ers: 






Colorado 10- to 6942/13425 




White House 


6347/T2U4 




Gateway 


5599/10819 




Bay Area 


5634/10653 




DeviTs Triangle 


\ 4121/7769 




Mo-Kan Tenners 3338/6366 




CATT 


3304/6293 




North Georgia 


2588/4815 




So- California 


2458/4636 




LIARS 


2366/4513 



soon as possible to the ARRL^ 225 
Main Street, Newington CT 061 11. 

WORKED ALL NEW ENGLAND 
AWARD 

For working stations in each of the 
6 New England states on 50 MHz 
band or higher. Endorsements on 
request for all ATV, SSB, CW, 
OSCAR, etc. Ail contacts must be on 
or after Jan. 1, 1976. W/K1 stations 
work two stations from each state, 
other work only one station in each 
state. Send log consisting of date, 
time, call, name, and state, along with 
check or money order for $1.50 (DX 
send 2 IRCs) to: Worked All New 
England Award, Ronald Pariseau, 
Chairman, R1 Box 213A, Thompson 
CT 06277. Make checks payable to 
Ron Pariseau, Chairman. 

TRI-STATE CERTIFICATE 

Award is for working stations in the 
Tn'-States of Connecticut^ Massachu- 
setts, and Rhode Island, Contacts 
must be made on or after Jan. 1, 
1977. W/K1 stations must work three 
stations from each state; other call 
areas and DX stations work one sta- 
tion from each state. QSLs must be In 
your possession, but need not be sent 
with application. Cards may, however, 
be requested later. Log wiil consist of 
date, time, ca3f, name, state. The 
award is open to ail amateurs on alt 
bands; hand- written endorsements are 
available on request. Send fogs and 
$2.00 check or money order to: Tri- 
State Amateur Radio Club, Award 
Committee, Box 213A R1 , Thompson 
CT 06277. 






I 

I 

I 
I 



Alt new 



Q 



*.' 



*", 



This CertKieate 
acknowledges 



"* 



hat 



on 



iii= 








, has I successfuiif' worked 

six 



the r^quirei;^ stationsyWn a 



^ew/ EnglajMi states 

and has gifBlified/ for endorsementfs) 

listed below^'TTl V^ 50 MHz and above. 




Endorsement 



Signed 



'I^J^lfJX^I^Xr 









RESULTS OF 1977 NJ QSO PARTY 



NJ wmaBts: 

Bergen 

Burlington 

Cape May 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hunterdon 

Middlesex 

Monmouth 

Morris 



WA2GM0 

tM2MM 

W2VIVIX 

K2TA 

M2GQ 

W2GD 

WA2NPP 

WB2GXR 

WA2EPK 



2,970 

30,690 

546 

1 2.208 

5,292 

16,400 

64,253 

17,697 

8,360 



Ocean 
Passaic 
Somerset 
Sussex 

Union 



W82VWW 

IS!2SU 

WA2EJZ 

WB2KBH 

WB2FUE 



Top out'Of&taie scores: 
K3UEi E. PA 

■W2TIMD/1 NH 

W6ZT/3 W. PA 

W2FVS NYC- LI 



9.328 

16,352 

1,586 

10.896 

2.187 

3,171 
2,000 

1.748 
1,674 



23 



Nen/ Products 



SINGLE CMOS CHIP MAKES 

INEXPEMSIVE 3-3/4 DIGIT 

PANEL METER 

A new ddditiDn to tl^ Matlonat 

Semiconductor data conversion line is 
the '^ADD370i;' a sir^gle CMOS fnte^ 
grated cirtuic which requires only 3 
displav. art enter nal voltage reference, 
ami a digit drivef to form a complets 
3-3/4 digit DVM (digital voltmeter) 
that reids up to 3.999 units. 

Manufactured using standard CMOS 
technology, the ADD3701 is an ex- 
tended-range version of Mationafs 
"AOD3501" 2% digit DVM iniro- 
duced earlier this year^ with readings 
up to 1.999. The additional range of 
the new DVM chip expands the appli- 
cations of the device Into areas where 
a reading of 1.999 isn't high enough, 
such aA ivet^t measurement on bath- 
room scales and measurernent of de- 
grees of rotation or lemperatyfi. 

The ADD370t utilizes a tingle 
five-volt supply to drive a mylilplexed 
seven-segment output dinectly, and 
features differential input protection 
to 200 volts. Overrange condition is 
displayed by "+OFL" or *'^FL" indi- 
cation, ciepending ypon whether the 
input voltage is positive or negative. 

The 3701 also features auto-polar- 
Ity and an on-chip clock that elimi- 
nates the need for an external signal 
timing circuit. This internal oscillator 
can be set by an external RC network, 
or the oscillator can be driven from an 
external frequency source. 

When using the external RC net- 
work, a square wave output is ava it- 
able. It is important to note that great 
care has been taken to synchronize 
digit miltipiexing with the A/D con- 
version timirig, to eliminate noise 
from power supply transients. 

A pulse modulation ana log-to- 
dig itai conversion method is used, 
requiring no external precision com- 
ponents. The seven-segment outputs 
are capable of deliivering up to 40 
milliamps per segmenL making the 
ADD3701 ideal iv suited to drive 0.5- 
inch and D,7'{nch common cathode 
LED displays. The price of th« model 



"ADD370rCCN" is S11.95 when 
purchased in lots of 100. Deltvery is 
from stock. N&tfofmf Sem/coniifuctorf 
2900 Semiconducmr Drive, SantB 
Claat CA 95051. 

THIRD HAND 

That's what you need when you are 
working on PC boards — they just 
won't hold still. One of our readers 
out in Hawaii came up with a little 
clamp arrangement Iwhtch is being 
marketed by a firm in California) 
called the 3rd HarKl^ You clamp one 
part of it to your table, anything from 
3/4*' to \W' ttiick, and then clamp 
the other part of the gadget to the PC 
board. There is a piano hinge between 
the two parts so you can flip the PC 
board over and work on both sides. 

It selfs for S6.9S plus postage, lax, 
etc. 3ni Hand, Box 60579, Sacra- 
nmnto CA 95860. 

TERMINAL STRIPS FOR 
PC BOARDS 

The TS series of tBrminaJ strips 
p^rovides solderless term mat ion of wire 
leads via positive screw-activated 
clamping action. Strips are available 
with 4, B, or 12 positions, and 
accommodate wire sizes 14-30 AWG 
ill 80. 25nnm), Pins are silver-plated 
brass, *040 inch (1mmJ diameter, on 
.200 inch (5mml centers. Featurra 
include unbreakable polyamid bodies 
and consecutively numbered ter- 
mlnats. Rated 10 Amps at 300 V. In 
stock for immediate delivery from 
O.K, Machine and Tooi Carparation, 
3455 Conner Street, Bronx, New 
York W475. 

SYNTESTSl-101 
FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZER 

The Syntest Corporation Model SI- 
101 frequency synthesizer provides 
excel ient general purpose performance 
at low cost Typical applications for 
the Synteat SM01 instrument include 
use as a calibration standard for test 
instrumentation, as a precision pro- 
grammable clock for systems use, and 
for the alignment of active filters. 





Syntssr*s Model Si*fOl frequency synthesizer. 



The Model SI-101 features 4% 
digits of resolution from 0.1 Hz to 16 
MHz. A high stability internal 
reference oscillator, i 10 PPM over the 
temperature range O-SO"* C, and fast 
programmtng highlight this versatile 
instrument The synthesizer provides a 
continuously edjustable 50 Ohm TTL 
output. The unit Is completely solid 
state and incorporates a rugged power 
supply for high reliability. 

Power requirements are 115 or 230 
V X, rear panel switch selectable, at 5 
W maximum consumption. The Sl- 
tOI is housed in an attractive 8.50'' W 
X 3.20" H X 9.00" D enctosure. 

An industry standard RETMA rack 
mount adaptor, as well as a ±1 PPM 
reference oscillator^ are offered as op- 
lions. Custom configurBtlons are avail- 
able from the factory. 

Price of the Syntest SI-101 fre- 
quency synthesizer is S459.00 in unit 
quantities and availability is stock to 
30 days. Synt&st, 169 Miifham Street, 
Mariboro MA On$2. 



NEW 1978 RADIO SHACK 
CATALOG -2S9 ISSUED 

The new 1978 Radio Shack Cata- 
log, the company's 30th corLsecutive 
issue, is now available from Radio 
Shack stores and dealers , rtatiomwide. 

The 1&4<-page catalog includes 100 
full'CoLor pages ctescribing the 
company's exclusive line of products 
for home entertainment, hobbyists, 
CBer^, and experimenters. 

An insert card in the catalog intro- 
duces RadJO Shack's new TRS-80 
Microcomputer System, which, ac- 
cording to Radio Shack president 
Lewis Kornfeld, is "the most imper* 
tant product ever offered by Radio 
Shack/' 

"The TRS-80's importance," Korn- 
feld stated, "goes far beyond the mere 
design, constructionp and sale of the 
fine piece of electronic merchandise. 
Primarily, it signifies the dawn of the 
microcomputer age in respect to avail' 
ability and affordability to ordinary 
people, schools, and businesses every- 




Nstlomf Semtcof^dvctor's ADD370t singie CMOS chip. 



•pSE- 



24 



where, even for personal yse and 
entertainment. 

"Secondarilv, the TRS-SO should 
convince mi I Marts of folks that Radio 
Shack IS 3 technological company as 
well 35 a marketing company." 

The new catalog also includes 
coupons offering two Supenaps* 
either reehioreeip 8-track cartridge, or 
cassene, for the price of one, two 
PBox kits for the price of one, and 
any of the company's project boards 
for half price. 

Among the new items introduced in 
the data 1 00 are 40 channel Realistic 
C3 two-way radios and a setectton of 
electronic calculators ranging in price 
from S8.88 to SI 09.95 for a recharge- 
able printing calculator with full 
memory. 

The new catiiog also lists hundreds 
of specialized electron ics items, parts 
and accessories, tools, tubes, semtcon- 
ductors. wire and cable, intiH'COms, 
microphones, timers, batteries^ and a 
complete library of Radio Shack's 
own books on electronics and related 
subjects. 

Radio Shack's 1978 Catalog -289 
is available free on request from Radio 
Shack stores and dealers, nationwide* 

Radio Shacl<, a division of Tandy 
Corporation (NYSE), has more than 
6,000 stores and dealers in ail BO 
stales and Canada, and near I y SOQ 
stores overseas operating under the 
name Tandy International Electronics^ 
Tandy CorparBtion^ 261? WBSt 
Sgvmth Street, Fort Worth TX 

CLEGG COMMUNICATIONS 
PROFILE 

It was a nice day in early May^ a 
nice day to take a ride from Valley 
Stream, New York, where I was 
staying, to a more pleasant place. 
Early In the morning, I drove into 
Brooklyn to pick up Larry, who had 
agreed to leave his homemade com- 
puter for the day and act as my 
photographer on this assignment. Our 
destination some 90 miles away - 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, the home of 
Ciegg Communicatior^ and Ihe man 
behind the name, Mr. Edward T. CI egg 
W3L0Y, 

The three-hour ride from Brooklyn 
gsve us a chance to reminisce about 
the old days, the time when VHF 
meant siie meter AM, a tlrne when 
Clegg reigned supreme. I car^ re- 
memher it as if it were yesterday, 
though it^s rsow over 16 years ago. t 
remember my very first transceiver — 
a rather pretty gray and white box 
that ran 7 Watts at 100% modulation 
and featured a super sensitive state- 
of-the-art (of that day) receiver that 
gave the popular receiver/converter 
combinations a good run for the 
moneV' I remember placing this tittle 
box atop Larry's SX-28 and Techcraft 
converter to make a comparison, I can 
even pkiiure the expressions on our 
faces wtien we found ttiat the trans- 
ceiver could hear as wetl as the Tech- 
craft SX 28 comlDo, Not a very scien- 
tific test I will admit, but for a pair of 
teenagers, it was all we needed to be 
convinced. The radio we literally fell 
In love with was known as the 99er, 
and It came from the man we would 
soon see. The Clegg 99er - a radio 



tt^t seit the industry and six meters 
both on their proverbial eari^ es- 
pecial iy when it came on die market 
at a price that was half of anything 
comparable. 

The 99er was not the first radio 
from Clegg, nor was it to be the Ian- 
Fact is, Ed Clegg was designing and 
marketing VHF communication 
equipment for amateur use well be- 
fore most of the competition con- 
sidered it fashionable. The 99er was 
my first personal exposure to the 
famous "Clegg line/' a Une of amateur 
VHF equipment that down through 
the years has always managed to stay 
a jump or two ahead of competitors^ 
There was the Thor VI - 60 Watts 
AlVI with a VFO that automatically 
tracked the transmftter to the recervef 
tcommonpiaOT today In HF and VHF 
SSB, but this was the early sixties and 
six AM}. 5SB came to six In the 
mid-sixti^. and one of the first entries 
was the Venus and Its matching 
ApoUo fin^f amplifier. And who can 
ever forget the Cadillac of VHF — the 
radio twins that meant you were on 
the top - the Clegg Zeus transmitter 
artd matching Interceptor receiver. 

Whan we found FM and two 
meters^ Clegg had already discovered 
It The AM 22er gave way quickly to 
the 22er FIVI, which eventually itseif 
gave way to the first fully synthesized 
radio to hit the US marketplace <- the 
famous FM-27, 27A, and 27B. These 
radios, five to seven year^ o'd, stiU 
bring a pretty penny at resale tima 
The FM*27 %&t'\es of radios was de- 
signed to last as long as two meters 
lasts, regardless of what band plan or 
spilt may be in use. It would wofk 
anywhere, and thai sold tt. Soon 
though, in many cities, two meters 
was bulging at the seams with activity. 
What to do? Move up, up to 220 MHz. 
Again, Clegg was first with his FM-21, 
a radio that used but one crystal to 
get both the transmit and receive 
channels. The FM-21 that . . , we're 
here . . . Che time has flown. 

IVot one to tarry, Larry set to work 
photographing everyone and every- 
thing in sight while I sat down to 
eyeball with Ed. We spoke of many 
things — pending mlemaking, the 
ARMA organization that Ed is a 
member of, and finally, the ojrrent 
line of equipment No matter How 
much or how little yoy have to spend, 
there is a radio in the Ciegg line to fill 
your need, AM has given way to FM, 
and the entire line shows this. Two 
meters? We start with the IVIK-3 - 
fifteen Watts and twelve channels in a 
neat iittle box that comes complete 
with mlc, mic hanger, and mounting 
bracket The receiver is double conver- 
sion and the price is well under the 
$200 mark. 

Want to be able to work any 

channel yoy desire and never have to 
purchase a crystal? Clegg has two 
radios that will meet your criteria. At 
around the S3S0 mark, there is the 
FM'28. For your money, you get full 
t44 to 148 MHz coverage, LED read- 
out, €00 kHz up/down for repeater 
use, option of other offsets, 5 kHi 
split ability for repeaters on tertiary 
channels, and one of the best 
sounding transmitters found on the air 
these days. 



Top of the Clegg 2 meter line is the 
FM-DX, a radio that has become a 
legend in its own time. Fully digitally 
synthesized with 40 Watts out and 
coverage from 143.5 to 148.5 MHz, 
letting the owner work MARS servicei 
if he is so associated, along with every 
other feature that the avid two meter 
FM enthusiast might v^nt (except a 
butlt-in tone pedK the FM-DX is a 
radio appreciated by many discrimi- 
nating amateurs. It's not Inexpensive, 
but even at its approximate $600 



price, it's well worth the money. 
Those amateurs vifho own the FM-DX 
will settle for nothing else. That says a 
lot in itseif. 

Not that two meters m the only 
interest of Ed Clegg and his company. 
Two meters in many places is gettir>g 
really crowded. With an eye to the 
future, about five years ago Clegg was 
the first on the market with a 220 
MHz radio designed and priced for the 



Continued on page 55 



Phovat by Urry Livy WA2INM 




£d O&gg — servicing wf$st h9 seift. 




WASiTF €fm the wor1d*s targesi coHection of FM-DXs^ aif ready for delivery. 




One of the complete service faciUties et Cf egg's Lancaster PA factory. 



2S 



Looking H/est 



8iit P&stemak WA6ITF 
24B54C Newhafi Ave. 
N^whsU CA 9^321 

Ths f>ews about 21033 first re^hed 
this area at about 7:30 pm on the 
evening of Septembef 23, in the fomn 
of a lettphon© call from Jay O^Brnen 
W6G0 to Jim Hendefshot WA6VQP. 
current SCR A chairman. It took 
everyone quiie by surprise. 

THE B(G CHANGE IS ON TWO 

Probably of most significance to 
the average ham is the deregulation of 
a second subband on two meters for 
relay communication. This does not 
mean that repeaters must be placed In 
the segment from 144.5 to 145.5 
MHz. Rather, it gives ustheopfro/r to 
do so if we wishv In deregulating this 
new ^ubband, the FCC has aiarined 
many of the amateurs who specialise 
in other aspects of MHf. such as SSB, 
EME ex peri men tat ion, and local AM 
rag chewing. Needless to say, these 
people have been less than enthu- 
siastic about thi5 change, and in some 
areas organized non-FM groups have 
already declared ^wsr^' on any 
attempt to channelize this portion of 
two meters and assign repeaters to it. 
While no FM ^oup wants such a 
confrontation to develop, rt is likely 
to happen trt some places. 

Coord ina^tors probably face their 
biggest challenge yet Not only must 
they deal with the needs of those 
amateurs involved In relay communi- 
cation, but they also will have to 
come to terms with non-reiayHanented 
groups. Remember, during the earty 
days of coordinaiion, councils were 
dealing for the most part with spec- 
trum that W3S usually vacant and 
unused. 

Gro^ips of amateurs involved in 
non-relay communication have 
banded together over recent years in 
an effort to preserve their special 
interests and help foster the growth of 
»jch interests. A well-known and suc^ 
cessful Texas organization of this kind 
is Sidewinders On-T wo. Here in 
Southern Caltfomla, we now have a 
local chapter of SWOT, and this 
ofgani nation has been growing. To do 
well, the coordinator of today must 
deal with the needs of the non-relay- 
onenied ainateurs on a basis equal to 
that of tho^ involved in FM relay 
communicatron. 

TWO METER BAND PLANS 

lr» the five days since the deregula- 
tion, several potential band plans have 
been proposed. There is the right- 
stde-up 20 kHz plan with builtin 
protection for non-FM interests, al- 
ready adopted by the Northern Ama- 
teur Relay Council at a meeting on 
9/25/77, at least two 30 kHz ptans 
following the system used between 
146 to 148 MHz (with the only 
difference between the two being 
which way the 15 kHz splits will go), 
and, finaMy, the proposal that 100 



kHz translators, rather than repeaters, 
should be coordinated within that 
spectrum so as to be compatible with 
existing and future activity^ Only the 
NARC 20 kHz pian and the translator 
Idea take any great pains to protect 
the interest of already existing 
activity. The other plarrs seem to look 
out mainly for the welfare of those 
irwolved tn repeaters. 

As outlined by Jay O'Brten W6GD, 
here is the MARC plan, atong with 
their reasons for adopting it: There 
would be twenty repeater channels 
with 600 kHz input-output spacing. 
144,9 through 145.1 MHe would be 
left open for direct (simplex] com- 
munication of any kind* Repeater 
inputs would be 144.51 through 
144.89 MHz. Repeater outputs would 
be 145.11 through 145.49 MHz. 
Channel spacing would be 20 kHz. 

Rationale: 1) since the FCC did not 
allow the Technician SSB activity to 
relocate to 144.0 MHz, the present 
activity at 145.0 MHz is respected by 
the provision of the 200 kHz r>on-FM 
bind; 2) ehannd spacing was selected 
to provide 20 completely usable 
channels qi>aced 20 kHz. instead of 26 
unsatisfactory channels spaced 15 kHz 
— they were persuaded not to repeat 
the 15 kHz spacing error made 
in the 146 to 148 MHz band: 31 input 
low was chosen to place possible 
intermodulation products in the re- 
peater band rather than in the 144.0 
to 144.5 or 145.5 to 146 MHz seg^ 
ments. 

As far as "band pians'' go, this is 
the first to be adopted by any coord i 
nation group. It's a good one tech- 
nological I y speaking, and tries to serve 
the needs of the non FMer. To date, 
it's the only one that has met with 
any degree of acceptance from the 
non-FM amateur community. 

While NARC went out of Its way to 
give protection to non FM interests, 
not everyoriie has. For instancej a plan 
similar to the NARC plan calls for the 
same 20 repeaters, the same 200 kHz 
in/out separation, and the same 20 
kHz spacing between systems — but it 
also specifically channelizes 144^9 to 
145.1 again on a 20- kHz- bet ween- 
channels basis for FM point- to point 
communication aniy. This is a selfish 
attitude, and one that any sane co* 
ordinal or must avoid liWe the plague. 
Adoption of channelized FM opera- 
tion in the 144.9 to 145J spectrum 

would iead to wars. 

There has b^i^n but one good 30 

kHz plan to date. It calls for 30 kHz 
between systems, 600 kHz between 
Input and output. Inverted 15 kHz 
channels for additional repeaters, and 
a non-FM simplex band between in- 
puts and outputs. The major problem 
with this Is twofold. First, white 
yielding a total of 26 possible addi- 
tional repeater pairs, past experience 
has proven that 15 kHz splits, even 
when inverted, are marginal at best. 
The 15 kHz split was bori> out of 
necessity in the 146 to 148 MHz 
spectrum, when we ran out of 30 kHz 



pairs. The east coast went right-side^ 
up, placing the selectivity burden on 
the user's receiver, while out west we 
went inverted, feeling that it was 
easier for repeaters to solve these 
problems than for thousands of users. 
Time has proven us right, and even the 
ARRL now endorses the inverted 
plan. However, since we have a chanoe 
to do it right this time, why rwi do it 
right? 30 kHz with IS kHz splits gives 
quantity, but wouldn't we do better 
with 20 quality systems? 

THE LINEAR TRANSLATOR 
ISSUE 

Do we really need more 2m FM 
repeaters? Here In Southern Cali- 
fornia, and in some Texas circles as 
well, consideration Is being given to 
the implementation of coordinated 
100 kHz linear translators compatible 
with any and ail modes of operation 
that any amateur might want to U»S. 
Unlike with channelized repeater 
operation, translators permit an ama- 
teur to "roam free/' VFO-cont rolled, 
to locate the person or persons he 
mtay choose to QSO with. 

In essence, a translator Is a wide 
band repeater that has the ability to 
*'repeat" irKiividual signals it hears in 
one given segment of spectrum, on an 
individual basis, to a specific point 
within another given segment of spec- 
trum. A good example of this is the 
OSCAR satellites. These spacecraft 
contain translators which listen on 
430 MHz Of two nwters and "repeal" 
rndmduaf signais heard back to Earth 
on either two meters or 10 meters, 
depending upon tfie mode in which 
the OSCAR is functioned. 

Translators In the amateur service 
have previously been crossband, like 
OSCAR. Are in-band translators pos- 
sible for a 600 kHz separation be- 
tween input and output? Exports dis- 
agree, it would be a challenge worthy 
of amateur radio pioneers* 

220: TWO METERS, 
YOU'RE NOT ALONEI 

While this der^ulation will not 
affect 220 in many peaces for a while* 
here in Southern Caiifornta we are 
already into multiple coordinations in 
that band. For some time* the SCBA 
has been under pressure to start the 
coordination of repeaters below 
222.30 MHz. There has ^so been an 
opposing pr^sure from non-mpaater 
groups such as the Los Angeles 220 
Association. So where do we put all 
the link and control channels wanted 
on 220? Them is no room on 450 for 
them, and there is already a lot of 
money tied up in equipment- 
Southern California already has over 
300 repeaters operattonal on 146 and 
220. Just how many more systems are 
needed, anyhow? Every week^ the 
SCR A gets at least a half dozen 
requests for repeater frequencies on 
146 or 220. Most of these requeits are 
for wide coverage systems rather than 
the local type (which are really what 
are needed). Where do you put them? 
What do you say to them? When will 
it end? 

On 220, simplex is alive and weM in 
the form of the 220 Rag and Tech 
Net. These chaps are determined to 



perpetrate the current SCR A band 
plan. They make no bones about it; 
they will not accept further relay 
operations, other than remote base 
stations which are compatible with 
simplest. At prseni, they are about 
equal In number to the repeater en- 
thusiasts, and just as technologicaHy 
<»mpetent. The SCR A and 220 sim- 
plexers have been getting along well 
with each other so far. This may be an 
area in which the translator concept 
might work. This problem is already 
in the hands of Tom Rutherford's 
SCR A 220 Technical Committee and 
the delegates of the 220 simplex 
group. 

WHEREAS 450 IN ALL THIS? 
With the emphasis on two meters 
and 220, the simultaneous deregula- 
tion of 420 to 450 MHz has been lost 
in all this. What about 450? What will 
happen there? The Southern Cali- 
fornia Repeater and Remote Base 
Association, which coordinates the 
420 to 460 MHz spectrum, has issued 
no comment to date. The unofficial 
Input indicates that linle will change, 
UHF relay enthusiasts seem quite 
elated at the deregulation aspects of 
portable and mobile operation of 
auxiliary link stations, as this is impor- 
tant to successful remote base system 
operation. Otherwise^ local UKF 
people involved in relay communica- 
tion tiave been very silent on the 
entire issje. 

GOODBYE WR 

I can still remember the verbal 
abuse aimed at the FCC in the early 
'70s when we found out that we had 
to get a special WR call for our 
repeaters. We hated them at first . . . 
but . . . lo and behold , . . rwDw that 
the time has come to place them to 
rest , , . what's this? . . , abuse again' 

THE FINAL WRAPUP 

Obviousiy, this has been written In 
great haste. It's been based upon 
personal contacts with amateurs 
around the nation as well as here in 
California. If it seems to cfwell on 
what California faces and how it's 
meeting the new challenge that is 
inherent to this deregulation. It's only 
because California really typifies what 
is probably happening nationwide. 
Since I am part of it, it is easier to be 
accurate in writing about it. I am sure 
that in these pageSi now and In 
coming months, you will be reading 
much about the feelings of others on 
all that has transpired. 

If i seem down on repeater ex- 
pansion, it's only because I really 
wonder just how many repeaters any 
one area needs to serve its amateur 
population. 

Perhaps it's time that we amateurs 
take another step forward and do 
something truly constructive, some- 
thing that amateurs generations from 
now will look back upon with pride. 
Whether It be translators or some 
other exotic device not dreamed of 
yet. the FCC has given the amateur of 
1977 a chance to be again looked 
upon as ths technological commit 
nicstron leader. It's in our hands. 



26 



K 





Vtat l$Ha 



It's that time of year again . . . plan 
your holiday gift giving and hope 
that the gift you select is the right size 
and shape and color for the receiver as 
well as the right price for your pocket- 
book . - - You're reading 73 now . . . 
You know what a big, thick informative 
magazine it is . , , And there wiU be no 
siae, shape or color problem . . . The 
price is right too! Twelve issues for only 
$15, And well reduce the pric« of the 



em A Gift 

That Kaps Gcvinq AtP 

Gilt SubAmptim 




second and third gift one year subscrip- 
tions too < . . Only $14 per year for the 
second gift subscription and only $12 
per year for the third gift sub. Think 
about it, aH those articles, projects and 
Wayne's provocative editorials to boot. 
And all those ads with bargains, bar- 
gainSf bargains! 



c 



ertainly one {or more) of your 
friends is interested in hamming 



and would appreciate your thought- 
fulness in arranging for a copy of 73 to 
be delivered to his mailbox every month 
for a whole year. Not sure if your firend 
is a subscriber or not? We'll check for 
you ... Be sure to include the call 
letters if at all possible. For notification 
of your gift to reach its destination 
before Christmas* please mail your 
subscription orders to us no later than 
December 5th. 




ANY HAM who's hinting can give this ad to a friend as a "friendly reminder" of what he really wants for a gift. 




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27 



FCC 



DOCKET 21033 

1. Repeater, auxiliary (ink and con- 
trol itations eliminated^ 

^ Immediate freeze on filing re- 
peater, ayKJIiary link and comrol 
station license applied ions. 
^ Applications for ndw repeaters 
on fi!e dismissed^ 

2. Portable and mabjle operation of 
auxiUary links approved. 

3. No more "WR" catlsigns for sta- 
tions in repeater operatiofih 

4. Stations operating as repeaters 
hiipe to idafitify with the word "re- 
p«tter" on phon« or the lattan 
"RPT'* on CW, in addition to the 
station callsign. 

5. Stations operating m auxiliary 
links have to identify wtth the word 
"auxiliarv" on phone or the letters 
"AUK" on CW, rn addition to the 
station calisign. 

& JD interval Inereafid fmnr B to 10 
minutes. 

7i Transmissions from open-access 
automatical ly^controlled repeaters 
need no longer be monitored or re~ 
corded. 

8. 144.5-T45.5 fAHt and air fre- 
quencies above 220 f^Hi made avail- 
abtt for repeats n (except 435-43S 



9. Technicians given prrvtieges on 
144,5-145,0 MHz. 

10. No action on priority in fre- 
quency use, erp, 

PAIfF §7— ^MATTUft RADIO SEftVTCC 

SimpHtypng the Ucsnilnc «ncJ Operation of 
Complejc System* of SUtioin and Modi- 
fying Repeate^r Sitfadiiida Ifl ^^ Amflteur 
RidEO Service 

AGENCY: Ftderft] Cwnmanlcatlocia 

ACTION: HneJ riiks. 

SPMMARY: The FCC Is TevieiiiH Ita 
ojnateur radio rult-a to elinirlnfite' sep&- 
rate licenses for repenter. eiiKllliiry llnJc. 
An4 coatrot stations, We &re abo aUo- 
Cfttlng Ei^jditional frci^uciicles for oma- 
t«iLr npeater opcratton. imd we ftjre 
mAitins miEior icvlsttHis oT the nilei con* 
cemlAf lo^,gmg and IdentiftcnUaa foi- 
■tttiofi*? in. x^pemi^r opermtJoD mud n- 
taoU^ ctmlztiUed sUtkm«. Adoptkm of 
ttMM ruin vfn ftSionS uewteur ^ceomm 
gnaMMS I k s dbUll^ tn thtii operatlocBL 

aUPFJ-EMENTAHY INFORMATION: 

In tl» m»t%er of DtnvuiAttoc of P&rt 
0T of th« Osftintaslal'a Buln Vo MmpUfy 
Hm UG«natiiy and (^Mimtion of complCE 
■jrftems sjul ttatkna Aiid moditj i-e- 
pcftter ffublififidB to th« Amftteur E^dio 
6ftrvic« (Docl££l 21033. HM-aSH. EM^ 
2780), Report and Order (Proceeding 
Tenninat«lJ, 

Adopted; Septflmber 2L 1977, 
Released: September ai. 1077. 

W»ilT I^ ThC BikCKGAOVHa OF 

This FTiocEEDmo? 

1. In a Notice of Inquiry and Kotlce of 
Proposed Rule Making in Doclcct 21033 
released Januarj' fi, 1911, 41 PR 2009 
ili77^ ths CommlaaiQii Kcted putlaDr 
In rmpcmse to rule makinK neUUons RM- 
aSH and RM-27B0. i^ttbiiitttiKl by Hssis. 
Oordon Schleslncer fiod WiUlam F Kd- 
•9 aad llie MlddM Atlinuc FM and 

tr, ft»d m^uskBs on it« own mouodi. Ttw 
Ciiiiunta&toa proposed s^utHtAntiAl t«- 
vUkUQA to F&rt B7 ol lie Rules, 41 C^JL 
tT.l, et^ mm^ conecnitEis Uie Hfwtfc*tf*p 

uid open^iioa of mieAter. »y:KJll&r^ Jjnk^ 
ftsd co^trt^ stAtSoos tn Iht Anwt«tir ha- 
dlo Service, Dtber propoiak concerned 
Uie licensing and c^persttrai of remotely 
ooRLroUed BtaAAona in the Amateur Serv- 
ice. Comments on our proposal* were due 
no later than Aprtl 1, 1&7?, fleply com- 
menta w&re due no later than April 15. 



IfTT. Hie deodliBe for tlie miEindi^cin of 
teply (SEDmAitfl vu isuteBeqiwnyr ex- 
teodsd t& Uic Chief or the CommiMSmi'ft 
Safetr and Special Radio 5ervir«i Btj- 
t*au to April 29, 1&7T, We are now pre- 
pm-cd to tAke action on ouf proposiiB iji 
thlfl proceeding. 

What Wehi Thi Comi^is&ion's 

Specific P31OF09AL9? 

2. In our Notice olliiqulry and Notice 
of Proposed Rule Making In thj» proceed- 
Inar^ wo made a number of propo9ftU con- 
cernlriir the licensing tmd operation of 
compkx flyatemg of stations In the Ama- 
beuT Service, which, if adopted In their 
entlretT. would have had a wlgnlflcapt 
impACt on amateur Uc«n«kir BrleU^ 
iFummarlxed, owe propcsal^ In Do>eket 
31033 yi?vt» aji follows: 

m. We proposed to eliminate «#p*t^t^ 
Il^xnm for rtpeoter. aiutm*ry link, and 
control stations. OpemilooA now eim* 
ducted hj ittdi statknis «oiUd be per- 
muted aU rennslnkif amabeitc ttMUoat 
^thout prior Commtoaton ftpiniova] %m- 
ds nffK formA of station pperaUon to be 
koovn at "repeater DpenUOQ" and "iiu^ 
muf opemtiim''. 

k We protJOeed no tonier to require 
that an applicant irishlng to operate a 
r»diiO fttnotelj- controlled station obiam 
prfor Coaaiii&skm autJiorl^atlon. 

c. We propoa«d to permit portable and 
mobile operation by atatlona In ausdlUr^- 
operation. tAuitlUary link st&ilona nre 
preflently restricted to operation from a 
fixed location J 

d. We proposed to dlBContlnue tho la- 
Buance. In most Instances, of Cfcll algns 
with "^WR" preflxefl to atatlont to re- 
peater oper^Utm, 

f . We proposed to require ^at station.'! 
in repcAter and euxlllar? operation 
traiiamlt dlslincilTe «taUoii identiHea- 
lloni. 

f . We proposed to increa« ihe mini* 
mtim tntenra] at which otaUcms In re- 
peater dpetmtlim must Identify from fire 
to ten iflir n rt gf. 

t, Wt pr o pc Bed to dekte the current 
nc|tttnsieiil tiut b^rwuifawtiona from vCa- 
tjtons m repeater operation under auto- 
matic control either be recorded or mom- 
tored tn real Ume fcj a dutj control op- 
era tor. 

h. We propos^ed to require that the lo£S 
of aU remote!;: contFoQed stations con- 
tain a list of all aothorl3s«d control op- 
eratort. 

I. We prapoft&a to require thnt a phmo- 
copj^ of the remotely controlled etatlon 
license and a Itst of authorized control 
operators be posted consplcuouA^y at the 
r^moteljf controlled transmitter jilte and 

the utabloti location of each control op- 
erator and be carried by c^H contrai op* 
em tor operating a remotelj^ controlled 
atation from a portable or ffMSbile control 
point. 

j. We propo«ed to require that the an- 
tenna or mABt associated with a reilK3<te- 
tr coairolle^l tzsiiBiiitiB bear a durable 
tac. marked with the remotely cootroOed 
staChRl eill vtin. and the namrE of the 
gm^kto. Uemmm and all autboriaed oon- 
trd opetatofe- 

^ We proposed to make alt aothoHaed 
amateur frequencies, except 435 to 438 
MHz, available for repeater and auxilLary 
operation^ 

L We proposed a new rule itatlnK that 
a station, occupying a frequency ha^ prl- 
orlts^ In its. Ufie over other stations, aiid 
thol D.11 f reqiiraieiK In the Ajnateur Serv^ 
ice mtijit be shared, 

m, FLiii^lly, we requested comments 
concerning present and future anti^l- 
patod Interference patternji. the ndc- 
fiuacjr of current techniques for keeping 
interference to a minimum^ and tJii^! ade- 
OuacjT of pre^tent voluntary sperlrum 
manaRemenI fiystem^. We also ajiked for 
comments conceminE the utility of the 
Uraltatloiu OG the effective radtateii 
power (ISRPi of stations in repeater op- 
erattoa contained in Section f T^iT of the 
Rula. 

WiiT Dm Wa Maxx TtiE$e PiwvoAUia? 
t. Our purpose tn i£suinc the Notice 
of Proposed Rule Making in XhH proceed* 
tov waa 10 continue the relasnition of 
amateur regulaltons goverainc the U* 
cefuUns and operation ol contt^ex aj^ 
tema of statiom. We ataled in our Notice 
that since adoption in 1973 of reyulatlona 
govern In R the licencing and operaUon of 
rei>eater and a&fia€:lat^d Etatlotm, ^Report 
and Order. Docket Id-BOS. 37 FCC 2d 225 
USTS) ) . we have become Increaainiil? 
convinced that amateur hcenseea could 



develop and operate complex syatema ol 
itationB with a miTiimiim of Commlsctoa 
regulatloii. Accorlnily, In 1974 we began 
reducinff the unnecesssiT btutletu Im- 
posed on Itcetisees of repeater and a4»o- 
dated atatlooa^ In a setim of mlemaklnR 
[iFOceedlace, we deleted the requirementa 
that certain technical data be aubmiited 
with appUcatlons for repeater and re- 
motely controlled ata lions and relaxed 
the rules to permit the Unkings automatic 
control, ami crotiband cpearaUon of re- 
peater itatkma. This proceeding ks. In 
part, an attempt to provide amateur 
operator* even greater flexibHitF in their 
opera tiona and to create a more favor- 
able regulatory atmosphere for ilic Ama- 
teur Radio Serv^lcep 

Who C0M»af7T£a oh Oust Pt^oFOfiALs? 

4. We received 88 timely commentd in 
reapojise to our Notice of Propoaed Rule 
Making. Of thesCj 34 were aubmlttcd by 
clubJs or other oraanisatlon^. We received 
two timely reply commexiti. T^fenty-four 
comment* and one reply comment were 
received too late to be considered In i t yi t 
proceeding,' A IL-it of those ffubmtttln* 
timely commentA in response to our No- 
tice !■ contained In Appendix I. 

WMAf Dia^ TtiOSl COMMEKttSS Q^ OtV 

Fkikmau Bat? 

5. Hie Elumber (rf' comment! we re- 
ceived makea it impoaaiiiiie to titicuse each 
cfHnment individually. Sach comment 
has been read and caref ullj evaluated by 
yw Dommitalon'ft itafT. however, Mo«t vt 
the commentc received supponedi aome 
aspecu of ottr proposals but oppoitd 
oliiers. In general, exposition waa sreat^ 
est to the major propoeala. The leaa 
BignlAcant proposals were generally fa- 
YOred. In capnule form^ the commentii on 
our proposials were along the&e linesr— 

a. Most faspondenta argued tliat iep- 
arate llcenBeA for repeater statiom 
fihould be retained. To eliminate .lepfirate 
repeater atation licenses would. It was 
alleged, encourage "pirate'* or "fly^by- 
night"'' repeater nUfctons, end, in the 
words of T-MARC permit ""^an^* amateur 
ta cai a moment's iiotice, decide [sic t to 
operate a* a repeater," Commente. The 
MM- Atlantic FM and Repeater Council 
at L Others stated that o]ieration of a 
i^ieats' itattOD to a iOtoiB and often 
ejcpCTslve matter, and tbat effective 
speeinim managemeut plaiminr and co* 
ofdinallon reijuire that an amateur be 
traced OQ notice, by means of a separate 
repeater atatlon ti£en£e application, that 
"somethlnf more than H^ grant of a 
fiimple appiiCatlofi Is req^iired." Com- 
ments. American Radio Relay Leajue, 
Iiiicorporated <ARRL) at 15/ On the 
other hand, our proposal to delete sep- 
arate Uccnsef for QLUxUlary link and con* 
tfol stations and create anotlier form of 
amatem- operation known as "auxiliary 
operation" met with general approval. 
Pew comments «peclflcally addressed the 
prtt posed delptlon of the requirement 
that authortr>atlon from tile Commission 
be obtained before remote control opera- 
tion 15 und ertaken, but of tho^e thu t did. 
moat approved- 

b. Our propwal to permit ausUlary 
operation from control points in portable 
and mobile operation was nearly unani- 
n!tou«I^ accepted. Opera to r s of remotely 
controlled base ttatiot^ were particu- 
larly enthmiiaitJc. bemuse adoption of 
this pTopoaal vonld permit them to op- 
sate ti^eir remotely controlled staUone 
from portable and mobUe iDcatlcms, a 
p^ajctice not currently allowed, 

c. Host of our respondents wybed to 
retabn dlsUncttve call signs for eteUone 
'm repeater operation and xcqueated thnt 
the practlea o< lasumg call signs prefixed 
by the letters **WR'" to $uch station^ be 
eontmued, wheUier or not such stations 
are actually Uoensed as repeater atatlone. 
Tlie AHRL. among others, argued that a 
difitincUve call slfiit for a station In re- 
peater operation is necessary to let ihoee 
monitoring know a station In repeater 
operation l» on the frequency^ Because 
most commentd favored diiftincine call 
signs for a rations In repeater operation, 
they oppo-^cd any other form of special 
Identification for st^ tlons In repeater op* 
eratloo, aithou^ there waa iiotiM sup- 
port for requlrlnff a auiticp tn auxUlary 
operaLion to trmnsmlt a distinctive bden-* 
^fiealtot. Otir proposal to incr^M from 
fire to tma. minute the tTMi^^^rmtim iattt- 
operatloci to iransmit a difftincttre Iden* 



«jccrptJag QMonun'ta in rut« nukHiy pn o e wg* 
tbga mHm tto» etimracait due dmte wm r<c*ntijr 
be]d Ui bft |L Tlolmtlon at SectlDn 1.418 ot 
the nxLltm. Home So£ 0#ce, Inc. v Federal 

CommunicattCfu CommlsiiGn, -Fid " 

(DC Clr- IFtt). 

*Thft AKEL'i Comments Iti tlile prPCWHtf* 
Ing wet* ffllte lat* t^ut. wtPt {L(?eoanphri,te>d bj 
K Motlan tiO Accept Lit# fiitu Comnii'nTA. 
we UTi? nr Anting i.tifl areL's MQiion. 



tion mu0t tdentlfjr «as widely sujiporteil 
in the comments.. 

d. Tlie vKt majority of our r^pond- 
eni$ urged the Commission to adopt ttw 
proposal to delete the requirement tJDttt 
transmfesj-ons from open access automat-* 
imnj eoQtrolled etatliini la repeater op- 
eration either be reconfed or monltcatd 
m real time. Many of the oHnm^oits 
went furtlier, hevever. and offered a 
suHestton mt«kl« the scope of this pro- 
^edfog^ nasnely, that stations tn repeal 
er operation be ^wmpted froan the tbtti! 
party traffic loggtnff requirem^tE of See* 
tlOfi 97.103 (bMa> of the Rules. Not bo 
modify third party trafSo logging re* 
QUlrements for open aceesa euiomatl* 
caUy controlled gtailons in repeater op- 
eration would f in the words of the ARh!u 
"render the Commission's proposed re- 
laxation ' * * a nullity In terms of prac- 
tical appllcatlot) • • *," Reply Com^ 
ments, ARRX> at 0, 

e. Our proposals to modify sltehtlj? the 
loggmg requlremenCa for remotely con^ 
trolled stations, to rttiiiire the p^ieUng of 
certahi InformatkH al the nanotely con^ 
tmUed traosmltter ttte, and to recuire 
that a dttrabk tag beadng certain data 
be attactied to the remotely controlled 
transmitter antenna were relattvely un- 
contznprersyd. Opposition «m espneiaiS 
to the durable lag propoiil howevtt* 
The Northern Amateur Relay COimcIl 
(HARC) of Caltfornla, for example, 
stated that such tag^i are easily stolen er 
lost and that a requirement of thit eort 
vould be an unDilr tMirden on Bt^naeei 
operating stations at tnily "remote" 
locatlonf. 

f. Oitr propoeal to maite all amateur 
frequencies available for repeater and 
auxlhars^ operatJofi was the subject of 
intense criticism by nearly all respond- 
ents. Although a few groups, such aa 
NABC, welcomed the opportunity to ex- 
periment with the possibilities such a 
relaxation would have offered, the vaat 
majority of the oommentd opposed such 
a mdicai clianfe. Virtually all thoee 
comnsenttng oppoMd any expansiiiR} of 
tbe repeater ^ubbandt below 36 MRz. 
They stated tha£ there is no demon- 
strated need flof repeater opcratimi in 
the btglt fitiiiieney range, an^t that such 
a^ expansloii wtmtd ezvaie many more 
pfOtOem* than the Increased iJexifailitj 
In r epe ater operation wouJd Justify, 
^mUaity. tbe malority ol tb,oae submit- 
ttn« comments e ppo aie d maJdng aU very 
hljgh fneqiiency (VHF) and ulira hifh 
frequency tUHP) bands availabk for re- 
peater operatioin- Ccfteern wb£ efpe^ i^IJy 
acute over opening ail frequencies fn the 
two meter band U44-Ha MBz, to re- 
peater operation. Respondents such as 
the Radio Amateur SatcUtte Corporation 
*AMaATJ stated that certain umjittio 
aciivity in the two tneter band must be 
provided protection from repeater op- 
eration. This activity, which typically in- 
volves the reception of weak signals. Is 
said to he mcooipatlblc withi channelized 
repeater opera ttoE. Many other respond- 
ents. £uch as T^MARC. agreed that weak 
signal work must be protected but argued 
thai there Is a deftntte need for addi- 
tional two meter lr«mencies for repeat* 
er opcratloti. The ARRL said thai It may 
well be desirable to lnoea«e tbe allo- 
cation for repeater operatian in the 
amatoir two meter bam] bot wt^gcd that 
atiy sadh expanshn be tlse subject of a 
separate rule making pinceedmg. 

g^ Otor ptnpoeed new title coneemlnt 
prtunty m usage of a fre<iue»e^r wae 
oi^enrbdminetr oppoeed. Moet rei^Kmd- 
ents said the pfmvscd rule wa£ Inher- 
ently \ if nece$aartiy) raitue and tbst ibs 
adopUon would create more pro^iems 
than it woisld solt«. Itic general belief 
appeared to b^' that existing rule^ and 
practices are working rsuionably velL 
and that, nbntnt a compelling indlc^lon 
to tbe contmry, the Commission should 
take no action hi this area at tbe pre^nt 
time. 

h. In resporv^ to our inquiries con- 
cerning tbe adequacy of the current sys- 
tem of voluntary spectrum management 
and tbe r»ecei«lt!Nror the llmltaticms on 
tiie effective radlfited powef of stAtloiU' 
m repeater operation coDtamed 1(3 Sec- 
tion Si?,G7 of the Eulea, we reeelved many 
tnfonmitlve mnA hetpfol rcs^ponns, 
Tliese comments mdoosted, icttieraliy. 
A wtdeqitead <llflsaliifaction with the 
ERF Hmftattofw on repeater operation, 
as weil a* a beHef thai me Amateur Serf- 
ice's vduntaiy $pettnim managemsit 
STston tanettont witft conslileraMe ef- 
fectivciiess tn moat Instances 

WoAT BxiLMS Aa V We AM>Pli)ie «™ Www ? 

6. After a cBFcfuT analysis of our pro* 
posals and the commmts submitted In 
response to our iiroposals, we have de* 
elded that the public interst wiU be 
beat served by the f ollowinB action— 

a. We ore ellmlnatmg separate re- 



28 



peatjer. BU)ttlUit7 Itnk, and control sta- 
tion tieenoes; aj propoftcd. Operations 
now ccmdnjcted by »uch $isi%l<ms will be 
authomrd other stations without prior 
Cotmnisi&lon Approiml utider new forms 
of amatpur i^p«rai;jon to be kno«^ a^ 
**rep«ater operaUon" asd '^auxiliary op- 
eration.** We b«i|f ve the contention that 
^HiELiiiatJcin of separate repeater ftation 
licexxBO «U| etu^unt^ 'flj^^bi'-iil&hr re- 
peater CKPcratl^n Ja f rtvoJoi^, Ai the Iowa 
R«peater Ootmcll noted in Its Coniinentf. 
"[rlep«it«rs are expensive, Ther tate a 
lot, of haitl Tork * • *.**CiKmnHit5. lowa 
Rvpaa^^ex- CotmcU al ff. We dotibt verr 
mtJth whetber anjiine wSlllnf to expend 
the dmc and effort eiecessarF ^ p4ac« 
a station m pepeatw operatton Trill j3o 
so on the aptzr of the mcmietJt, We strnpitr 
do not twJlere Uiat the uirldenc* of so- 
called *'effD«tiip" repeaters will be any 
greater tmder the nc« rules tfaaii it fa 
pre^nttr. Tikt aaicrtfon made 1)7 T- 
MARC ^and oUimr> that eUmtnatlm of 
separate U^etiMa for a ta lions In repeater 
o|)«ratlon will permit a llcduee to decide 
"on a mament'A notice" to engage tn re* 
peater operation Ib no more tefiable now 
than It was before the adoption of rules 
for repeater stations in Docket U8D3 in 
1913. iMoreovef, aa KAMC observed In 
Its commerLts, Absence of a repeater sta- 
tion license doca not nec&tiaarUy inhibit 
repeater operation under Uie exMlng 
rules. A Uceiiae« wiahlns to put a re- 
peater station In operation need only 
find the licensee of an existing riepeater 
fitaUoD uUlinc to Aha re the reaponsibrU- 
Ity of rflptater opemtion from a parfcaWe 
iQcatlan. Ttie fLtat Ueensee then op- 
erates a portable riFpcater elation under 
tiie auihontr of the e^atms repeeiier 
station IJj^en^J 

Fujtbex. proe««Alnff and luulnff re- 
peater, auxiliary link, and control sta- 
tiim liceiLKs iA much more oopipisx than 
pgpcffaoing and iaaoing timpie pnm&ry 
atAttcn Ueeoiee. Differetit dai^ t?a5e:& 
unit be maintained, and FCC sta^ must 
tan detailed to pdions these opeciflc 
flmeycma. Itt sujn, althoiacb repeater sta- 
tioina are ntattvelr lev. In comparlsoD 
vstb the popQlfttkm ol the Amateur Ra- 
dio Serrice as b vbolei, tbelr Impact on 
the processtrK of other atnateur licences 
ii faf oui of propO'iiion to their number. 
Ehminatifta of Mparite repeater, mixO- 
larr link and control itationi wiU enable 
lis to provide tht public with btti^r serv- 
ice In other,^ more important areas, such 
aa the processing of Norlce Cla^s and 
other claj^es of operatoir license appli- 
cslloiia^ 

Accordinel;. beginning with the effec- 
tive date of tixis Eeport and Order, no 
more llcenseA for repeater, auxiliary Unlc, 
or eontrol itauotis will be issued. Exist- 
izig repeater, i&uxliljirv link, and control 
^LBttorks may C3;}nl;dtiue to be operated 
untit expiration ol llieir Atatlon licensea. 
£uc^ liceruea will not i>e renewed. Fur^ 
ther. in order to cnntLnue the efAcient 
processing of other amiLl.eur radio Uoense 
appHcailoiis, effective wiUi the adoption 
of this Report and Qrder by tlie Com-^ 
mission w^ are Imposing a "freeze" on 
the filing of applk^utlons for new, modi- 
fied or renewed repeater. au?Eiliftry Utik, 
«Lnd ei^ntfol statlori hcen^ applies tions. 
The freeze will eontinue until the date 
the regulatlona adopted in the Report 
and Order become effective. 

We Qnd that the piiblk interest wm 
be best served tf the appilcBtions for new 
r^ieater station Uo«ues presenily on 
file are diMplawd^ and we hereby do so. 
Pendina applkAUOitt for renewed le- 
peater station llcensisi or modMed le- 
peatcr ataiion hcenaei will be processed, 
bovnrei . 

li. Wc are auiMor^ag aiLjitmry jopera- 
Uon /roBi eomirtd po^nff fm porf ohte and 
mabUB Ofim^tHom, Thlt amendment, 
vhleh was imoppoaed by the commsits, 
will afford operators of remotely con- 
ttoiUed atatiofif much greater flexibiUt? 
In their opefntionj, U will permit oper- 
ators of remotely controlled station^ to 
operate their atationa aa they would to- 
tally controlled fttatlonfi. without many 
of the previous raetrJcUon^ pl^ed on 
them.* 

c. We arc dUc^fHUnuinu owr j^rm^Uce 
of if ruing cctM aiiQi\& prefixtd bjf the let^ 
ten ^^Wff* to stations in refitatir oper- 
atioTt. We do not believe 'WB' -prefixed 
call signs are a ncocoaary aspeot of re- 
pea t^er operation in the AniateLu: Service; 
anf more now than they were before the 
regulaiiotiii adopted in Docket 1BS02, We 
are awniT, howcv{*r, of ihe desire of nuioy 
of thc«esubi3iltling conajraetit&hi thISpro- 



* We dci not brUrv« i«pLri*t« reguliiisciits Jor 
so-endciii "f«niat4 b»iV' miMXloia axe 110K4- 
«uy or i)e»!r^]9 ml ibU time. Am long lu 
^le ftutlUiitir niDctkuu 4r fqcEi vtfrUOh^ 

cmtipif With Hm Hfulatiot^ fvf »uxmu7 

CfW^t^QEU Tvmabt buH ins,f b« cspcnted tn 



ceedJng, such as the ARRL, for rulea 
ensurlnff that those m-onitoring a fre- 
quency Itnow there i$ a $^taLloa in re- 
peater operation using that IreQuency. 
For this reiLwn. we are adopting regula- 
tlom as proposed reQuirlng distinctive 
Identification foe- statkms in repeater 
and auxiliary opcraUon. Stations In re- 
peater opermtJoav!lIlberequlF«l to trans- 
nUt the letter* "HPT" Aits- the station 
^kll ajgu U idenllfylng by telegraphjr^ or 
tbe word "repeater" Lf Ldeiitifvmg by te- 
Iqituny. 8tauo£L& m. auxiliary operation 
wm lie teciuired to transmit the letters 
''AUX" After the stetion call sign 11 iden- 
t|f ytng by telegraphy, or the word "auxll- 
lary tf identifying b^^ telephoaiy. finally, 
there was no opposition to oor propceal 
to Inceaae from flye to ten mtnutea the 
miniiFiiim tnt^r*^ at which statlocts to 
refKBier operation must Identify, and ve 
are adopting It as proposed. 

d. If e are eti-mtnatimifi at profioied the 
Ttfiufremeni fAof trtinsfrtiasion$ /fom 
oppti accrsii autmnaticufiy controtJed fla* 
lion J in rrptater opertttkm be either 
mtmitiyred tn real ttme or rwcorded. There 
wu no oppothion tn the comments to our 
proposed relaxation. Our purpose in 
adopting this regulation originally w&a 
Simply to ensure that Ifceneeea possea 
adequate means to determine whether 
their automiitloally controlled stations 
were being opentted properly. Licensees 
of iiioh stations continue to be respon- 
llble for the propel operation of their 
station 5, but we behn'e w? should provide 
nnmteurs with sufTldent fle^ilblUty to en- 
able them to determine comphance with 
our regulations In other wnjs. In eddt'^ 
tjon. several rNpeodents a^ed thftt the 
refulatton be *3ctended to exempt ila- 
ttoni In repeater operation from third 
partjr eraffic loeglng requirement£ en- 
tirely- Of course, our proposal to delete 
the monttorlng/recordlng reqyiremcnt 
had nothtng wl^taoefer to do wnh third 
party traffic logging requtrettiCDta;, nor 
did ae intend it to hat-e. Although we do 
wish to reUeve our Ucen&ees of uniseoes- 
nrf htirdaB. auch as the mocLltorlng/fT' 
eordlng reQuirement, we do not believe at 
Ihia time that utationa Id repeater opera- 
iiosi should be exempt from third pari^ 
trafCtc logging lequtremenU. We reeog- 
piae thai ai a pracUcal matter many sta- 
tions Ip refMfttar operation will conjttnui 
to hjftve to reeord their transmtsiiena to 
ensure compliance with the thhd pftflf 
trafDc logging requirements. We also 
recognize Ihene reouirements may be a 
burden on centain stations in repeater 
opefatlon^ particularly those with tele- 
phone Interconnection C"autopateh"> 
capubllltletf. In our 1973 Report end C^- 
der In Doeket 1B8D3, however, ameteur 
licenfieee were warned about use of auto- 
pEitch eqyfptnent in violation of Section 
97.114 of the rukik to facilitate the regti- 
lar buftiness ftflfairs of any party. Since 
1S12, autopatoh abuse has become. If 
anything, more widespread. The Ama- 
teur Radio Service is not now, and has 
never been, a common carrier, and third 
party tjafRc of all types must, tmder 
normal clrcumaiances. coq^iltute a very 
small part of amateiu' activity. We again 
warn the Amnt^ur Service of unlawful 
use of telephone htterconnectjon facOl* 
lies and etreas that tmJes^^ voluntary 
oompllonce with our third party traffio 
rerulatfons tncreasea stgntScantly. we 
ma,y hate to take action to curb the 
tnmsinlasioin of ail third part^ traffic in 
the Amateur Radio Service, We are 
Ihraefora eliminating Uie monitoring/ rc- 
eordlng requirement cantained La Section 
97JU<gH3> of the rides but are reLaln- 
hig all existing third party tauffic regDr 
U lions. 

e. Wt are re^uirin^ that a photocopit 
of the remolefy cofsiroZfed staikm Icceiue 
be ported in tt ctmrpicuous p^ee at the 
remt^telu co«f roJfed tmnsmittsr nte and 
placed m f^^e fog 0/ the station tyf eath 
auUtahztd ctmtrol operator 0/ the re- 
mOh^ eaufroiled station. We will also 
require that the ntinie and telephcme 
number of the station licensee and at 
leo3t one control operator be poprted in a 
consplcuou.^ place at the remotely con- 
trolled transmitter location. We are 
aware that m&ny 1lcen:$ec3 consider re- 
quirements of thL^ sort to be nn justifiable 
buidetifi.^ but we believe it ^Essential that 
there be adecitmte procedures to enaure 
that the Commission Is able to contact 
the llcenfiee or control operators of a re- 
motely tontroUed station In the event of 
station malfunction, We agree with re- 
spondents, ftuch as NARC. that in our 
proposal to require attachment of a dur- 
able teg contftining certain information 
to the antenna or antenna f eedllne of a 
remotely controlled station xcould serve 
no useful purpose, and we deoUne to 
Adopt It. Our proposal to require the log 
of a reaoteb" controlled station to con* 
t«Lln a list of authorized control opera^tors 
was generally supported In the com- 



ments, and we are adopting It a4 pro- 
posed. 

f. We ore making an additiona! one 
megahertz of spectrum available far re* 
ptiiter operation m the amateur two me ^ 
ter hand. It i$ clear from the comments 
that amateurs engage in a wide variety 
of aetlvltieft azNl that repeater operation 
is but one of these aettyitles. It !i also 
clear that many amateurs beUeve their 
■ctivitJeii mu»t be protected from pos&ihie 
encroachment by stations in repeater op- 
eration. For this rea^^n, ve «ill noi 
adopt oilr pfiipoial to make al amateur 
frequencies available for repeater ^nd 
auxniarr ofMnttQa. Hie pcrpmahre op- 
potJtke to otir pimjMWJd i^»xatlan con- 
rincea u* that the Amatenr Senrk* ia not 
ftilty prepar«I to aannne xesponaLbEllQr 
for complete miuia^enient of its own spec 
trum. We are therefore not allocayfif 
any addttionai frequcncka for repeater 
operatloti or auxiliary operation below 
144 IbfHx Many comments, however, 
stated that there is a definite. Immediate 
need for additional frequeiicte^ for re- 
peater operation In the two meter bend 
and above. At the suggestton of T- 
MARC„ we are aHocarting an additional 
onemegai;ertzol spectrum, 144-5 to 14&.S 
MHsc, for repeater operation. We are 
Also increasing Technician Claims operator 
privile«(*B to Include 144.5-145.0 MITt^. to 
pem^lt Technician Class llcenseea to Lake 
advantage of tho new allocation for re^ 
peater operation, We believe this addi- 
tional allocation wUl meet the future 
need for frequencies in the two meter 
band for repeater operation, while pro- 
viding adequate protection for veak sig- 
nal and other aetiylty in that frequency 
range. We do not agive with the ARRI# 
that this alloc«tlon requires a new rule 
iDAklnf proceeding. In onr Notice of pro* 
po»d Rule Making in thja proceeding 
we propoaed to make the entire two me- 
ter baiMl andlable for repester operation. 
Oitr Ucenaeea were put on notice that we 
were actively considering additional fre- 
queticlei for repeater operation in the 
two meter band. Tlie clahn that nOgtsmUm 
notice has not been given that 144 J-14S J 
1CH& Might be allocated liv repeater 
operatbxt cannot be atoiported. We «ie 
alio maHmr all ama4£ur fregTMniiw 
above 120 MH^ except 43S-43£ l£Hz, 
avftUAble for both repeater and auxiliary 
operation.^ There wms litUe. If any, og>- 
poeition to an increase in the fre^ueneiea 
avallabie for repeater operBtlon above 
the two meter band, aiid we believe that 
In making all amateur frequencies above 
320 MHz flvallftble for repeater and aux- 
iliary operation we are providing ama- 
teur licensees with a great deal of flexi- 
bility while at the same time continuing 
to protect the "weak signal " two meter 
activity. We will continue to evaluate the 
spectrum requirements for repeater and 
auxiliary ope ration, however. 

g, Wt* G.re taking no action at th f ,^ Hm^ 
on our proposed new rule concernintj pfi^ 
Dtitff in «.tcrg<? 0/ amateitr freijuencies. 
We may. liowcver, take action at some 
13 me in the future if certain spectrum 
management probleme within the ama- 
teur community are' not settled by the 
amateui-s themselves. As detailed tn a 
recent Public Notice on this subject, we 
are inereaningly concerned aitout tnuli- 
cloiis interference to. and from, certain 
amateur serrlce 'monitoring nets'. If am- 
ateurs ouukot SDhre these conflicts and 
others arlstng from compeitni demands 
for i^Kctrum, thsi the Cdnunlsajbn tnust 
ctma^^KT addltltmal restilatiaiu to fdo) ve 
then matters. We are also not taking any 
action at this time 00 chanEring repeater 
E3P limlliL, Any action in mis a^^a wdl 
be done tn a separate mleimaking pro- 
ceedings 

7> Accordingly, it ft of^d^ed. pursuant 
to authority contained in SecUons 4<lK 
5 ' e) . nnd 109 of the Communleatietia Act 
of 1934, as amended. That Part &7 of tiie 
Contmlasion's Rule£ is amended aa »t 
forth b^low eflectlve Noirember 4. 1077. 
It i» fi^ther ordered. That alt pending 
applkatldns for new r^^eater station U- 
censea in the Amateur Radio Service are 
dLiml^T^ed. It U further ord^red. That tlie 
Motion to Accept Late Filed Comments 
submitted by the American Radio Relay 
League, Incorporated is granted, and 
that the Motion to Accept Late Piled 
Beply Comments submitted by the Em- 
pire Radio Ciub ts granted, tt Is fuTther 
ordered, That to the extent BM-2e64 
and RM-^'JQO have not been urant^Kl 
herein, they are denied. Jt U further or- 




. „£e/i us ifoti tact as 



^#pm^243 



J 



dered. That this proceeding is termi- 
nated. 

iBecB. 4. £. 303, 48 Stat., ft4 omendad, iQflfl^ 
10C18> lOaa; 47 U.S.C. 1£4. 150. 303.) 

Fl^SXRAL CoMUUKICATIOMrJ 

CowMiessoif/ 

VUTCENT J. MtTLLmiH 

SecTeiarjt, 



Statehiekt or CoiooEsroMin M^KCtTA E, 
Wmr* coitctmaiKG nt Fa(it avio Dia- 
sAirrmo nr Putt 

As a strong proponent of deregulation^ 
1 feel It is important that I explahi why 
m thlf partleular initance I find it nee* 
eaeary to disagree with the Commis^^lon'i 
deetiion to no longer require separate 
licensing of repeoter statlona. It should 
b« noted, ho^^ev^^, ttiafc I do coocur in 
the temalnder of the Ooinraission*! pro* 
poaals to deregulate Fart 97 of the Com^ 
mkadOQ^i mis. 

I vntf Impressed, after reading the 
comments in this proceeding personally, 
that almoet an the comments oppoied the 
cUmlnatloii of separste repeat^^ station 
UcenseB. The Commission bellerea that 
the contentions of various repMlcr org^-^ 
nittatioos including T-MARC, petiuoner 
In RM^^TSO, that elimination of aepa^te 
repeater station licenses wUl encourage 
more casual and hapho^zard operation 
are frivolous. I respectfully disagree. The 
elimination of separate repeater js tat I on 
licenses will piake the volunUiry coor- 
dination, frequency menagementi. and 
voluntary enforcement of repeater oper- 
ation much more difficult, thus inc^'eas- 
Ing the probability of Increafling Inter- 
ference — a probBbillty recognliQed by 
several repeater assocjatlorm aa well as 
by the American Badlo Eelay League 
(ABRL). 

The Comml^on is adopting ihe pro- 
posed rules to decrease the adtninl£tra-» 
tlve burden associated with the proc- 
evlng and i^ulng of separate repeater 
slftttoo licensee, however, tht^ burdui 
which I do not view as substantial, Bin4^ 
presenUy there are only appn^dmately 
SiAOO authorized repeater stations and 
recently only about an average of two 
applications a day are received ^for re- 
peater atatfons, must be veigbed against 
the Ufctilh ood of incre^ed CommisKloai 
law o i v em ent tn Qifcffcranent problems. It 
la quite likely that the potential enforce- 
meat problBns wiH prote to be mote 
ratUj than the savings to be gained by 
eOlmlnatjon o{ the separate proeeaalng of 
w pe ate r station liceDaes. Moreover, J 
agree with the ARRL comment that by 
requiring a separate appUcaijon for a 
repeater station licease "'the applicant 
ii pliiced on notice that something more 
than the grant of a simple application t* 
required/' Comments, ARRU p 15. 1 also 
believe that repeater licensees hove a 
special responsibility to sei^e the public 
Interest and the requirement of a sepa- 
rate license places the licensee on notice 
find n^i3t3 in keeping the licensee ac- 
countable. 

Therefore, for the above reasanft. I 
dlitsent. 



^Our eeclilQU to Hmke the ffiitlr# 420-4flO 
MHr nmateur tAn4, except 43£^?a M^, 
avaUjii?l« for rep«atcr op&rAiibb moflt* the 
'"blaoKet'* WKtvfef gtmnuKl by tbft Cliijaf, 
fiatttj Knd Bpeei^ £Lidla Service* Bixtfau ta 
iNUUiit fiAt-ar&n KnutHeur televutton rep«it«r 
aptrmtlob In itut twnd. Tb^t umiYer li liate- 
1^ ^arttiuiatcd. 



'By the CammiBBiDn : CiialnnAn Wilc^ ison-^ 
eurrlng in the result:; CosnmlPiH'inriQr Quelle 
aiaien.tiiig: Commicslon ei WlilL# cunctunring 
In pu-i uid dissentdng tn p«rt uid tuulnf a 



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kilobaud 



If you are bike the rest af us 
you've been reading about micro- 
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baud could save you a lot of 
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FOR ONE YEAR 

oi giant club newsletter for com- 
puter hobbyists, a piece to tell 
each other about the problems 
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It'^ a magazine filled v^ith great 
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MAKE IVlONiY 

Perhaps you've been thinking 
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and you can bet that those on the 
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KILOBAUD IS BRAlNfD NEW 

The first issue was January 
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magazine in the hobby computer 
field already. You doubt that? 
Jy&t stop in at any hobby com- 
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see- Kilobaud is outselling all 
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good articles and has a sense of 
humor^ There are more articles in 
Kilobaud than you can read in a 
day ... most readers comment 
that Kilobaud just has to be read 
from cover to cover and this takes 
several days. 



DO YOU WANT TO LEARN 
COMPUTERS? 

Some magazines emphasize 
OEM systems . . . some are writ- 
ten more for computa^ scientists 
. . . Kilobaud Is written for and by 
its readers , , , the hobbyists. 
You'll find great articles in there 
by well known hobbyists such as 
Don Lsncaster , . . Don Alexander 
^ . . Pete Stark « . . Dennis Brown 
, . . Hal Walker * . . Art Childs , , . 
Sheila Clark . , , and many more. 
The emphasis js fun* 

TRY A SUBSCRIPTION 

The cover price is $2 fthafs 
S24 a year), but the subscription 
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saving of $9.00, plus you get a 
Computer man iar- tee shirt , ♦ * 
hurry, limited number available. 
You can pay for it with your 
credit card (BankAmericard^ 
Masta^ Charge, American Express) 
or you can even be billed directly. 
Send in the below coupon . . . or 
call TOLL FREE S0O-2S8-5473 
(during office hoursL Please have 
your credit card handy. 

Your subscription will start 
with the next published issue, so 
allo^nr about six w^eeks for any 
apparent action. If you would like 
to be filled In with the back issues 
they are S3 each and at last count 
some were stiM available. 



I 



□ YESf Stan my one year KfLOBAUO subscnpTion for $j5 wtth ths next piAjHsh&d 
fSsue, *Afid sand my Ff^£E Ttttt shirt. Sii&s for ADULTS ONL V. 

SU MB LU XLD 



iMimi 



Call 



Addreis, 
City 



State. 



Zip 



Si 5. 00 encid*»d. D Caih D Chfck O Money Order 

Bill D Waster ChiFp G BankAprvncard D Amertcan iMprfrii 



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.£xp dite. 



Stgruturt , _ 

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'T»t Shirt i«fit whflti b*ll it pftid. Alloi/v six viMks (or proogning. 

Toll Free Subscription Number 1800) 2S8-5473 
US pnt^ - off«f «xpfres 12/31/77 

pETmboftotXik ptk OMf 6 73/1 2/7 7 



I kllQlDCTlid i 



30 



AMSAT 



LOCAL AMATEUR RADfO 

OPERATOR ELECTED ARRL 

SECTION COMMUNICATIONS 

MANAGER FOR LA COUNTY 

Stan S. BrDkl of Sunland, known to 
his amateur radio colleagues as 
K6YYQ, has just added aoother laurd 
to hi$ crown. He was elected Section 
Communlcaiions Manager for Lo$ 
Angeles County for the American 
Radio Hetay League, the largest ama- 
teur radio enthusiasts' organization. 
The League acts as spokesman for a 
large segment of the nearly a third of 
a million FCC-licensed amateur radio 
operators in the United States. 

Stan (5 a senior engineering assistant 
at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 
Pasader^. He has been an amateur 
operator for twenty two years. 
Among his earlier laurels were his 
presidency of the JPL Amateur Radio 
Club during 1976 and his handling of 
the transmission of the JPL Viking 
Lander pictures of the surface of Mars 
to the amateur radio world via slow 
scan TV. In many parts of the world, 
Itieae pictures were ttie only ones 
received from the surface of Mars. He 
1$ atso the vice chairman of the Los 
Angeles Council of Amateur Radio 
Clubs. 



The Amerrcan Radio Relay League^ 
in addition to its activity as spokes- 
man for the amateur radio communi- 
cations community, has a variety of 
activities in which amateurs partici- 
pate. For some of these, awards are 
granted, such as for working ail states, 
or working all coniir^nts. The ARRL 
is also involved in emergency com- 
munications when the need aris^. The 
activity is called Amateur Radio 
Emergency Service (ARES), which 
handles commLinications in emer- 
gene pes such as floods, earthquakes, or 
other catastrophic occurrences when 
normal communications media fail. 
Radio amateur operators are equipped 
to provide such communications with 
their battery-powered and mobile 
rad tos. 

In an interview, Stan was asked 
what his job was as SGIVI. He told us, 
'The SCM is the only elected official 
in the ARRL operming program. That 
ISp programs involving "on-the-air" ac- 
tivities. He fosters communicBtion 
networks, makes appotntments of 
qualified amateurs to various com- 
munications fynctionsi, and generally 
provides the leadership for the sec- 
tion/' 

One of Stan's plans ts to expand the 




ARES activfty to place It in iBadine^ 
for any emergency that should arise. 
He pointed out that ARES differs 
from the Radio Amateur Civil Emer- 
gency Service (RACES) in that the 
latter is operated locally by the LA 
County Sheriff's Disaster Communi- 
cations Service to maintain communh 
t^ations in the public service area 
where officialdom most be in com- 
munication with Its head quart ers and 
the emergency services* On the other 
hand, ARES provides what Stan called 
"people-to-people communtcatfons/* 

DECEMBER 

FLIGHT TEST 

OF AMSAT/ JAMS AT 

SATELLITE TRANSPONDER 

The Radio Amateur Satellite Cor- 
poration (AMSAT) has obtained the 
cooperation of a number of amateur 
radio dubs up and down the state of 
California in flying the AMSAT- 
OSCAR D 2'meter*to-70-centimeter 
n46 to 345 MHz I amateur radio 
satellite transponder for a test to 
provtde amateurs throughout the state 
an opportunity to test their gear and 
to familiarize themselves with the 
techniques and procedures to be used 
in oparating the transpo rider during its 
orbital phase as AMSAT -OSCAR 8. 
nnods J, The flight will take place 
Oecember 3^ 1977. An aircmft con- 
taining the transponder will fly a 
course starting from Van Nuys Air- 
port near Los Angeles to San Diego, 
Santa Barbara, San Francisco, Stock- 
ton, Fresno, Bakersfield, and back to 
Van Nuys, 

This will be the fourth flight test of 
an amateur radio com muni cat Kins 
satellite transponder since the 
AMSAT-OSCAR 6 2 meter-to^ 
ID- meter was flown on the east coast 
in May^ T971, by members of the 
AMSAT Washington group. In 
September, 1971, the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory Amateur Radio Club ran a 
flight test similar to the one to be run 
In December on the 2-to- 10- meter 
transponder. JPL ARC was also in- 
volved in a flight test of the 43115 
MHz 10 145.95 MN/ "Umsctier" 
(built by AMSAT Deutschland} which 
became the mode 3 transponder of 
OSCAR 7. The fatter flight test was 
run in September, 1973, 




A great many amateur operators 
participated in these earlier flight 
tests, learn ^r>g the ropes^ so to speak, 
about ope rat ir^ through an amateur 
satellite tranqionder under closely 
similar conditions to those which 
would occur in orbit. 

Activity through the transponder is 
encouraged during the December 3rd 
flight, and a commemorative QSL will 
be sent to all amateurs who send in a 
report of Stations worked or heard* 
The aircraft call \n flight will be 
WA3N0S. 

During the flight, a riata>n net will 
be maintained at aboyt 7230 kHz, 
using the call W6V 10. 

The test flight is cosponsored by 
the amateur radio clubs of Jet Propul- 
sion Laboratory, Hughes, TRW, and 
Pro|ect OSCAR, as well as several 
other Celifornia amateur organiza- 
tions. 

One major purpose of the flight is 
to assist radio amateurs in adjusting 
their equipment for operation on the 
new amateur satellite frequencies 
above 435 MHz, the onfy available 
frequencies in the 420-450 MHz band 
open to sateHlte use under the ITU 
regulations. A secondary purpose is to 
determine the mutual interference 
potential between AMSAT-OSCAR D 
and amateur TV enthusiasts operating 
above 435 MHz. Launch of the A D-D 
amateur radio communications sal el - 
lite is scheduled for February 17, 
1978. 

Reports should be sent to Skip 
Reymann W6PAJ. at Post Office Box 
374, San Dimas, California 91773. 




StaniBY S, BfQkt K6YYQ was recemfy efectmi SCM for the ARRL LA sectton. 
Hb is shown hefe examining an OSCAR dispfay at the JPL library. The 
turntabh shows the four interior p&nds of OSCAR 7* 



Dick Ufrich K6KCY puts finishing touches on the W meter whip for the 
OSCAR 7 test flight in W73. Dick will participate in the flight test of the 
AMSA T/JA MSA T spscecrsft in December, 



31 






tell Ma Bpl] Lhat she i^hou 



Rampage f7 

GE and various doctors wourd not 
^ve me anv suggestions, I was liK^ky 
enough to gel in touch with a man in 
ihB School of Aerospace iVledicine, 
who told me of their extensive experi- 
ments wfth electro magnetic radiation 
and pacemakers, including 15 models 
of the G€, which proved them panic- 
ularly susceptible. It is true that their 
experiments were not on a ham fre^ 
quencv, but their frequencv was neaf 
enough the 20 meter band to be 
significanL It was here ihm. \ goT 
suggestions for the gmuoded cage I 
built. 

Possibly you may have occasion to 
pass along my experiences, or to 
improve upon them. 

F. L.WiltroutW9VFG 
Elkhart IN 

Tech meal Editor, QST 
225 Main Street 
NewingionCT 06111 

Dear Sir; 

Some time ago, \ wrote you that I 
had a General Electric pacemaker in^ 
stalled, and that v^en I attempted to 
make a transmission the radiation cut 
rt out I asked if you kr^ew of any 
articles In ham publications or other^ 
wise which might help me g&t on the 
air. Your reply was negativa, 

! have since read newspaper articles 
to the effect that CBers, using illegal 
amplifiers, were interfering not only 
with pacemakers, but also with 
hearing aids. 

1 solved the problem in a somewhat 
awkward manner, and I would like to 
pass a^ong my experiences, thinking 
that they woutd be a basis for further 
refinement 

To begin with, \ use a Drake TR'4 
and a Heath kit SB230 linear, feeding 
an old Hy-Gain 20, 15, and 10 meter 
beam with coax. I have a switch 
arrangement to go from the beam to a 
Heath kit dummy load 

Using an inexpensive field strength 
meter, with the aid of my son twho is 
also a hamh I found that the field 
strength varied according to which 
way the beam was headed — that everi 
on the ground forty feet from the 
beam, with the beam headed in my 
direction, the pacemaker acted up. I 
could tell when the rig was on trans* 
mit merely by feeling my pylse. 

The next step was to take reading 
when the rig wss. on the dummy load. 
There was no reading whatsoever even 
when the meter was set on top of the 
rig. (tnciden tally, the swr is down to 
one to one.) 

My son and I then constructed a 
son of cage, five feet high and three 
feet wide and deep, with both top and 



bottom, of perforated aluminum 
sheet, covefed by a layer of copper 
wire. This was attached to a good 
outiicle ground. The microphone with 
switch was run into the cage, and I 
was back on the airl There was no 
field strength reading in the cage while 
transmitlirg. it Is a little awkward 
reaching out the door to tune in 
stations, but you can't have every* 
thing. The rig itself can be tuned up 
on the dummy load. 

So far I have tried only 20 and 40 
meters, the latter on an Inverted V, 
without the linear. 

This is the old principle of the 
Faraday Cage, discovered in England 
many years ago, and hardly men- 
tioned in the Handbook. 

It occurs to me that the transceiver 
itself coo Id be moved into the cage for 
greater operating convenience. 

You can understand why I am 
reiuctant to do too much ex peri- 
men ting personally when it might stop 
my heart. 

Perhaps a more simple solution 
could be found, tike putting some 
kind of shieid on the roof underneath 
the beam, or on the ceiling of the 
snac K . 

Anyway, perhaps one of your 
bright yotjng mefi might be willing to 
take my experiments and build on 
them. They are welcome to use my 
observations and experience. 

F. L. WiltroutW9VFG 

21G West High Street 

Elkhart IN 46514 



SUPER PAT 

Although in the past I've not been 
in ^itire agreement with most of your 
editorials, I will say this much — Tve 
written several letters praising your 
study guides (which you've never 
printed). Wall, here comes a super pat 
on your back with a request fol- 
lowing. 

On August 29* 1977, my emplov- 
rrnent required that I Obtain a 2nd 
Class Radiotelegraph license. The first 
thotight in my head was, "Oh-oh. a 
supervised code exam at 20 and 16 
wpm/* so I got out your 20-^ tape — 
the one with all the weird characters 
- and listened to it for 16 hour ewery 
day for 17 days. (Keep in mind that 
I've been inactive for 3 years now.) 
Come the 2&th in Detroit, the ex- 
ami rver put 20 wpm on arvd I really 
was shocked — tt sounded like about 
t5 wpml \ sw^r I coold have 
sharpened my pencil in between 
groups. No kiddlngl t even copied 3B 
wpm almost solid after listening to 
that tape — the same tape that, by the 
way, at first I spent 10 minutes of 
each half hour cursing. I now have a 



2nd Class Radiotelephone, a 2nd Class 
Radiotelegraph, and an Advanced ham 
license, which I can say w^e duck 
soup to get after using your study 
guides and tapes. Now I will be going 
to Marquette to take the First Class 
Radiotelephone, the Extra Class, and 
the Radar Endorsement. 

By the way, I'll be going for my 1st 
Class Radiotelegraph In a few months 
— do you have a 25+ wpm tape I can 
purchase? 

Kenneth M. Cubilo. Jr. WB8D01 

Rogers City Ml 

Sure, $4,00, - Ed. 



BE A LEGAL JAMMER 

We would like to invite a couple of 
hams around the world for commur»i* 
cation backup, m\d they can take all 
their equipment We would give them 
1/3 off the total cruise ooiL 

Captain Mike Burke 

Windjammer Cruises 

PO Box 120 

Miami Beach FL 33139 



FEATHER 



Just wanted to drop you a note and 
put another feather in your cap. Last 
June, 1 purchased your 21+ wpm tape. 
When \ received it, \ played rt for 
about five minutes. I then Ignored the 
tape until the first of September, l 
practiced your tape an average of 46 
minutes a day for 3 weeks. On 
Sefitember 21, [ went to the FCC and 
took the exam. I aced the code test. 1 



didn't have time to sleep in between 
characters, but I did copy com- 
fortably the 20 wpm. I could copy 
your tape about 9B% — let's face it, a 
code group like "kee ie*' is something 
else. If you can't copy the group, it 
does teach you not to be flustered by 
missing a character or small group of 
characters. 

Once again, thar>ks — and be proyd 
of those feathers and cap. I will be 
forwarding my callsign change when I 
get my 2x2 call, 

Kevin C. Pot^r WA6DlStW 
Arcadia CA 



M.O.M. 

With Christmas again rapidly 
approaching, we at Military Overseas 
Mail are conc^ned about the mar^y 
thousands of our miitary perronnel 
who will be away friom their homes 
and families during the holiday 
season. For many of these young men 
and women, this will be the first 
Christmas away from home^ 

Readers of 73 Magaime can help 
make this holiday season a little less 
lonely and a little more enjoyable for 
many of these young people by 
joining in the collection of Christmas 
mail sponsored by Military Oy^rseas 
Mail. This is an ideal project for 
school clatses, clubs^ and other groups 
as well as individuals and families. For 
more Information, please send an 
SASE to Military Overseas Mail, Box 
4330, Arlington VA 22204, and men- 
tion that you read abooC M,0,M. tn 73 
Magazine, Thank you* 

Lee Spencer 
Arlington VA 



Tracking 

the Hamburg lar 



HIJACKED: Heathkit 2 meter trans- 
cervef HW-2036, series no. 03719, 
Heathkit Micoder HD-1982. series no- 
00622, from my company car on 
October 10, 1977, at about 16:35 
CDT, 1713 Webster St„ Omaha, 
Nebraska. My ham call and social 
security no. 482-62-4198 are engraved 
in the chassis of the radio. A reward 
will be offered to the individual who 
returns the radio to me. Tom O. 
Mjkkelsen WAOPOD, 902 Avenue G., 
Council Bluffs, Iowa 51501, (712) 
323-8036: (office) Motorola Com- 
munications, 11045 1 St., Omaha, 
Nebraska 68137, (402) 331 7709. 

RIPPED OFF: Atlas 350XL with 
DDG-XL digital dial, s/n 877025, and 
ac power supply for the Atlas, s.'n 



877104 OS. Taken on October 1, 
1977. Jay A. Leonard WSTSM, Rt. 1 
Box 32A, Pottsville AR 72858. 

RIPPED OFF: Regency HR^2B trans 
ceiver, 2 meter, 12 channel. Serial no, 
49^04353. 1 - 94-94, 2 - 34-94 3 - 
52-52, 4 -^ 13-73, 5 - 19'79, 6 - 
96-36, 7 - 16-76, 8 - 04-64, 9 - 
25-85, 10 - police, 1 1 ^ 4&46, 12 - 
sheriff. Carl R. Willis K8DK0, 464 
FoTEsl Street, Mansfield OH 44903. 
call collect |4T9) 524-2367. 

TAKEN: Drake ML2, s/n 11546, 
Stoken from: Tom Fraser WA0QQT, 
Colorado Springs, Colorado. (303) 
635-8911. ext, 3874. Frequencies 
in^alled: 34-94, 94-94, t&76, 07-67, 
22 82, 2B-SS 



Corrections 



Please note a correction to my 
article, 'Track OSCAR With Your 
SR-52" (November, p. 58)- Lines 
20-21, column 4, page 59* should 



read: 'In register 13. Steps Ot 8 to 038 
solueecfuation 1 and". 

Art Burke W6UIX 
San Diego CA 



32 



Compare the Atlas 350-XL 
with other transceivers . . . 



TYPE 1 ALL SOLID STATE 


HYBRID (VACUUM TUBE P.A.) | 


MODEL 


ATLAS 
350 XL 


TEN 
TEC 


YAESU 
FT-301 


DRAKE 
TR4-CW 


HYGAIN 
3750 


KENWOOD 
TS-820 


TEMPO 
2020 


INPUT 
POWER 


350 
WATTS 


200 


1 200 


300 , 


200 


200 


180 


BANDS 


1Q-160M 


10-80M 
, 160MQPT 


10-1 BOM 


10-80M 


10-160M 


10-1 BOM 


10-80M 



. . . and see why it's your best buy! 



Above is a chart companng leading HF Transceivers 
that IbW m appioxiiTiately the sam& price range as 
the Atlas 350-XL. The Drake TR4-CW is least ex^ 
pensive, while the HY-Gain 3760 is the highest. 
Rated power input {SSBj and bands covered are 
listed in the chart but below is a discussioiT on a 
number of other interesting comparisDns whicli will 
help you choose the right transcetver for your 
station. 

1, STATE-OF-THE ART. ALL 
SOLID STATE 

The first 3 transceivers listed above are all solid 
state. The real designs of the futuref Having n^anti- 
facturtd and sold over 12,000 of our little 21 Ox/ 
Z15x's. we can attest to the high performance and 
relabiflty of alt sotid state design. Tubes for the 
driver and PA., with their tunmg circijits and high 
vohage power supplies are rapidly becoming obso- 
leEe. As a result theif resale vaiue witi be decini ng. 

2.P0WER RATING. 

The higher power rating on the 350-XL provides 
you with a comfortable edge over the others. Run- 
ning barefoot you can easily ride over the com- 
petition. If you're driving a linear you don't have to 
strain for every bit of drive hom the transceiver it 
can loaf along with ease. The 350 watt input rating 
IS realty very conservative. Typical input power runs 
upwards of 400 to 450 watts without flat-topping. 
Considerably more than the others. 

3. BAND COVERAGE 

Not only does the 35QXL cover the 10 through 160 
meter hands (including all of 10 meters in four 50O 
kHi segments), but one of its exclusive features is 
that you can install up to 10 auxiliary 500 kHz 
ranges anywhere from 2 to 5 MHi, and from 6 to 
23 MHz. This gives you great flejtibility for MARS 
operation and possible future amateur bands Crys- 
tais for Auxiliary Ranges are installed internatly, fn 
addition, the 350-XL provides reception of WWV at 
5, 10. and ^5 MH2. without having to add any aux- 
iliary range crystals. 




4. DIGITAL FREQUENCY READOUT 

On the 350-XL, the optional Digital Dial can be in- 
stalked, and you still retain the conventional anafog 
cfiaL with the option of switching the digrtal dial off 
if you wish With the TenJec or YaesLi 301, you 
lose the analog dial if you purchase the digrtal dial 
modeL making you totally dependent on the digital 
iml 

5. FULL BREAK IN CW 

Only two rigs offer this feature,^ the Atlas 350-XL 
and the Ten-Tec ! The others are all 'semi^break- 
m". And the Atfas includes CW sidetone with pitch 
and volume adjustments. 

6. NARROW BAND CW FILTER 

This ts another standard feature in the Atlas, op- 
tional on the Ten-Tec . Yaesu, and Kenwood. Ours 
is an LR ftlter with 5Q0 fiz bandwidth, and shape 
factor of better than 3 to 1, 

7. A.F. NOTCH FILTER 

This 350-XL standard feature permits nulling out 
heterodynes and other interference. The Yaesu. Hy- 
Gain and Kenwood include a similar feature. 

8.SPEECH COMPRESSION 

The standard Atfas ALC system provides up to 20 
dB of R.F. compression which increases your talk 
power and at the same time reduces "flat -topping" 
and splatter. An optional speech processor to pro- 
vide up to 2D dB additional A.F. compression will be 



+ MADE IN AMERICA •^^••••••* + *•**••••* •*^ 

Jf We're very proud that every Atlas transceiver is rfiade right here in America^ (as are the TtiK jf 
^ Tec and Orslte). We think thi American worker, and our empioyees in pariicufar. are the most J^^ 
^ tafented. industrious people in the world. The quality and versatilfty of our transceivers we ^^ 
^ proof of this. ^ 

And by using this American quality workmanship, advanced value engineering in design and 
^ manufacture, and rigid quality control, the Atlas transceiver ts not only competitively priced ^ 
^ with the imports, but is actually a better valuel ^ 

**•••••••••••*••••*•••••*••• *•* 

^^^ Merry Chris imas and H off day Greetings from all the gang at At las I 



available soon for instaHatJon in the A£ supply. The 
HyGain, Kenwood, and Yaesu also provide some 
form of speech processing. 

9. AUXILIARY VFD 

All of the rigs listed offer an optional second VFO 
for split fret^uency operation. But Atlas is the only 
one with an Auxiliary VFO that is not an addon 
box. The Atlas Auxiliary VFO plugs right into a 
space provided in the upper right hand corner of 
the front paneL Although miniature in size it tunes 
the same 500 kHz as the primary VFO. and does it 
smoothly with toarse and fine controls that have 
10^ planetary drives. Green, yellow, and red LED's 
let you know which VFO you have set up for 
receiving and transmitting, Very neai. and all 
seff-contained. 

An option to the Mode) 305 Auxif ary VFO js the 
Model 3t 1 crystal oscillator that provides up to 12 
crystal controlled channels. It also plugs into the 
front panel just liice the 305. Wrnier controls pro- 
vide fine tuning of the crystal frequency. 

10. MOBILE/PORTABLE OPERATION 

The Atlas, Ten -Tec . and Yaesu, being solid state, 
are unique in that they will operate mobile or port- 
able directly from a 12-14 voh DC baUery Also, the 
solid state rigs are considerably smaller and lighter 
wemht than the hybrid rigs. The Atlas ts unique in 
having a very handy plug-in mobile braclcet for the 
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Model DDB-XL Digrtal Dial . . $229. 
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33 



J. Tom BadgBtt K4MDK 
1 91 7 W^mgton Street 
Bluefkid WV 247QI 



Inside Ten-Tec 



-' QRP innovators 



I 



t started with a telephone former president of Electro- field, a design engineer for 
call in 1969. Al Kahn, Voice, rang up Jack Burch- Began in New Jersey. Kahn 




Dick Frey K4XU/WJFCC ts Ten-Tec's chief engineer. Ttte Century 21 is fiis design, and he's 
obviously proud of it "It works great on the bands, *' Dicti beams, and says he's finally doing 
the job he*s always wanted to do. That seems to be the spirit throughout the Ten-Tec 
operation. 



had moved from Michigan to 
Seviervillei Tennesseei after 
he left Electro-Voice, and he 
wanted to get back into the 
mainstream. 

''Hey^ Jack, come on 
down, and let's do some- 
thing/* he suggested in that 
first telephone call. To hear 
jack Burchfield tell it, a 
second request wasn't 
needed. He had so much con- 
fidence in the man he had 
worked with when he himself 
was at E-V, that Jack imme- 
diately packed up his family 
and moved south to Ten- 
nessee. 

Both admit that Ten-Tac, 
Incorporated, a company 
now well-known for its solid 
state ham gear, wasn't formed 
in the conventional manner. 
Once they got together in 
Seviervillei the pair set about 
adding some kind of manu- 
facturing business to their 
tool and die shop already 
under construction. Hl-fi gear 
came to mind first, since both 
had a number of years of 
experience in the field. 

A! says they rejected that 
idea pretty quickly becaiisCj 
'^We both were sort of tired 
of it. After the pioneering 
days were over, the fun went 



34 



out of it.'* They agreed, in- 
stead, that they should 
pioneer some form of ama- 
teur radio equipment for the 
beginner. And the Power Mite 
line of solid state transmitter 
and receiver modules was 
born. 

Low -power, low-priced 
solid state kits for lh« ama- 
teur market was an idea 
whose time just hadn't come^ 
however, Ten-Tec sold fewer 
than five thousand of the 
units, and the ones they did 
sell went not to the beginner 
but to the guy with the S-line 
and the two letter call. 

"If a Novice is going to 
work anybody with two 
Watts, he'd better have every- 
thing just about perfect," 
Jack said. ''So most of the 
equipment went to the ham 
who wanted the challenge 
and to the QRP group.'* 

Whatever the reason, sales 
volumes weren't high enough 
to support the young com- 
pany, even though the multi- 
thousand square foot plant 
was paid for before produc- 
tion started. There were two 
founding principles they 
weren't ready to give up, 
though: low power and solid 
state design < The Argonaut 
was the next logical step^ and 
acceptance was a little more 
general, even though it stilt 
ran only five Watts. This was 
in 197L There were four 
more years of slim times 
before this guts-formed com- 
pany became a force large 
enough to be reckoned with 
in the ham radio market. 

^ 'We're making money 
now/* board chairman Kahn 
says, '*We turned the corner 
with the Triton/' 

One reason for the stow 
financial success may have 
been the company's strict 
dedication to treating the 
ham fairly. After the Triton 
came out. for example, it was 
decided that some design 
changes should be made. But 
before marketing the new 
unit, Ten-Tec made sure all 
the dealers knew a new design 
was on the way, and they 
instructed their dealers to tell 
Trilon purchasers a new box 
was coming. 




Remmiscent of Ten- Tec i earliest beginnmgs, this htest design — a solid state CW transceiwr — 
began with a telephone call. Ten-Tec founder Af Kahn K4FW says he got three calls in quick 
succession from people wanting a reasonably priced station for large Novice classes. The Century 
21 was the result - all solid state^ broadband tuning, 10 Watts input, direct conversion receiver. 
Complete with built-in power supply, the unit is selling for $289.00. This is a prototype, but 
it's all there. Nothing Is missing, even though there seems to be lots of room leftover inside. 




Ten-Tec President Jack Burch field KSjU (left, standing) and Board Chairman A I Kahn K4FW 
(right, standing) watch as a technician gives one of the new digital Triton IVs an on-the-air 

Ctt€Cl\m 



35 




Ei/en the power transformers for Ten-Tec equipment are 
wound at the Sevieryffte TN plant. A madiine autamaticaUy 
inserts l&mmathns in the transformer windings, then the 
whole affair is dipped in a seaiant and put on a rack to harden. 




This coil winder is a Ten-Tec innovation. The machine is 

attached to a digital tarns-counter^ which also is programmed 
to stop the winder after the proper number of turns has been 
applied to the form, it sa^s time and cuts down on errors. 




The familiar red and black Ten-Tec iogo ready to go on a 

Triton IV, or Argonaut ^ or f^eyer^ or Century 21, or power 
supply f or , . . 



**lt probably cost us 
$25,000 to $30,000 to do it 

that way/* Al says, **but we 
did it knowingly and it was 
the right move." 

Design standards are strict, 
too. Until recently. Jack 
Burchfield was chief engineer 
as well as company president, 
and, with ten or fifteen years 
in the audio business, he 
naturally put sonne of that 
experience into the Triton — 
less than two per cent audio 
distortion, for example. Too, 
he saySi computer predictions 
show a useful life on the solid 
state finals of 25 years. (In 
thousands of Tritons shipped, 
only 5 final transistors have 
failed.) Each vfo board is 
individually compensated for 
temperature stability after it 
is built. Toroids, coils, 
cabinets, chassis, circuit 
boards^ dial mechanisms, 
transformers — they're all 
built under one roof in 
Sevierville, Tennessee, 

What's the ham market 
like loday? Challenging, Jack 
and Al agree, and changing, A 
ham doesn't have to be an 
engineer anymore to have 
fynctional equipment, and, 
jack believes, more and more 
people are gelling into ham 
radio ''to talk to people, not 
to tinker/' That's one reason 
Ten-Tec is offering sophisti- 
cated gear that's easy to 
operate — broadband tuning, 
for example, and instant 
break-in. 

Supplying the ham market 
is a little like trying to please 
all the people alt the time- It 
means keeping up with chang- 
ing technology, but, more- 
over^ staying abreast with 
what the buyer wants- To 
that end, a digital readout 
version of the Triton IV 
already is moving down the 
production line. Ri^t behind 
it is a solid state, CW-only 
transceiver, which eventually 
will grow into a complete 
station package — keyer, 
tuner, antenna* A kilowatt 
solid state linear is on the 
back burner. 

The Ten-Tec company 
presents an unusual dichot- 
omy - state-of-the-art hard- 
ware and old 'fashioned 



philosophy- Even though 
starting with all solid state 
equipment probably slowed 
the company's development, 
Al and Jack are adamant that 
whatever they design will use 
no tubes. They're putting 
those modern circuit designs 
in almost futuristic erv 
closures. 

They work hard, on the 
other hand, to maintain a 
small -company, personal 
approach to the business as 
they grow. Even with $3 
million in sales projected next 
year, there seems to be no 
worry about the company 
losing its personality, 

•*We did it al Electro- 
Voice," A! reflects, "It's just 
got to start at the top and go 
down/* 

Wherever it starts, the 
kcling is there. The people 
throughout the plant ob- 
viously take pride in their 
work. They're proud of the 
Ten*Tec equipment they're 
turning out. They seem to 
know a great deal about the 
work they perform, and 
there*s a comradeship among 
all the staff that's heartening 
in these days when most 
people seem reticent in their 
relationships. 

It's encouraging, too, to 
hear a ham equipment sup- 
plier promise to supply state- 
of-the-art gear based on a 
good engineering design, 
maintain a five-year warranty 
on the product, and answer 
every query and comment on 
the equipment- 
Ham radio is growing and 
so are most companies 
supplying these new hob- 
byists. The hams at Ten-Tec 
have a move-carefully 
attitude - partly because 
theyVe not sure what direc- 
tion ham radio may uke in 
the ftjture. But Al Kahn is 
sure of one thing: 'Whatever 
you're doing, do it the best 
you can, and don't try to 
move into greener pastures 
until you can nail down your 
present job*" 

That idea pervades the 
Sevierville planL It's as if 
everybody is walking around 
with a mouthful of nails and 
a big hammer, * 



36 



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wezxH 



37 



Eric ^alkhauser W9CJ 
527 Spring Creek Road 
Washington IL 61571 



The History 
of Ham Radio 



-- part V 



Reprinted from QCC Mews, a 
publication of the Chicago Area 
Cliapter of the QCWA, 



The first amateur radio 
gel- together of any size 
was the St. Louis Midwest 
Convention in December of 
1920, shortly after our li- 
censes became available !n 
1919, No sooner had the 
enthusiasm at the St. Louis 
gathering died down, than the 



ARRL Board of Directors 
proposed a national conven- 
tion. 

In these early years after 
World War I, there was so 
much newness in everything 
connected with wireless, and 
there were so many orignal 
and worthwhile ideas to be 
aired, that no mere Morse 
code contact was sufficient* 
Voice communication had 
not as yet entered our ama- 
teur wireless channels. Am a- 



Hurry Up 
Fellows ! 



WE DONT WANT TO MISS THAT 
FIRST TItAIN TO THE 

FIRST NATIONAL A.R.RJ. 

CONVENTION &, RADIO SHOW 

IN CHICAGO 

AUGUST 30lii to SEPT, 3nL 1921 






Atmvtt «fO W iu»i filled ntih «|Tp«m» mnd 

Ami Oh ih<iii t^Bl lijii^fikn-i ui|( Ik: ont uTvai 

■ rTalrt 

Ciomii aUiii^t tvUvuf*. i^iifI »pi itd five f^t thu 

bptfj^ii'vl iImjii ot yuut Uf* with h n^l Uttr 



US No. L« SaII* £1^ Cliicyo 



MBHufacturvrj mn4 ^BftUri Hiihinp bsIi^^^I 
Apaf* flinuSil til'll* to 

N. E. WUNDKHLICH 
4SJ9 M«. S»wy«- At*.* ChUfltD 




ALWAtt lU,VTTO?i Q ST WtHLH WHITtlvC TO ADVCKTUILmil 



lot 



teurs were on the verge of 
many new developments. 
Major Armstrong had an- 
nounced his **sing)e'* signal 
regenerative and then his 
supen^egenerative receiver de- 
signs. There were new circuits 
to be tested in the transmitter 
field, including the Colpitts, 
the Meissner, the Hartley, and 
the Heising, among others, 

Amateurs wanted to be 
informed. They found them- 
selves in new technical sur- 
roundings. So, for the first 
lime, citizens of the United 
States and Canada, all 
interested in privately-owned 
and operated radio com- 
munication, decided to come 
together from far and near to 
a big first national con- 
vention. 

The first ^thering of the 
clan took place from August 
30 to September 3, 1921, at 
the Edge water Beach Hotel, 
located on the shore of l^ke 
Michi^n in Illinois, History 
relates ihat^ following the 
success achieved at this first 
national convention, it was 
ordained that two succeeding 
ARRL national conventions 
were also lo be held at the 
Edgewater Beach Hotel in 
Chicago at two year intervals 
- September 11 to 15, 1923, 
and August 18 to 23, 1925. 

There was no telling what 
impact these get-togethers 
would have on the future 
destiny of amateur radio- 
Great effort and meticulous 
preparations were made for 



months in advance to insure 
success. Everyone connected 
with the preparations hoped 
that this first national 
meeting would find at- 
tendance coming from the far 
reaches of the States and 
Dominion, representing all 
districts. 

The midwest location 
proved to be a most stragettc 
and advantageous choice. The 
Edgewater Beach Hotel was 
at the Far north edge of 
Chicago, away from heavy 
traffic, with R.H.G, Mathews' 
9ZN station located just to 
the north on the lake shore, 
spurting two tall Station 
towers, a mulLiwjre antenna, 
and up-to-date equipment in 
his spacious shack. All agreed 
that this was an ideal spot to 
congregate. 

The convention committee 
had booked a large arena, the 
Chicago Broadway Armory, 
located within walking dis- 
tance of the hotel. About 
fifty manufacturers and 
dealers in ham radio gear of 
all description displayed and 
demonstrated their products. 
For the first time, amateurs 
had an opportunity to talk 
shop with those people who 
had kept amateur radio alive 
through their advertising in 
QSTf Radio Amateur News^ 
Wireless Age^ catalogues, and 
other literature. This was a 
ham's paradise! 

The convention hall, 
where all the sessions took 
place, was a beehive of 
activity. There was no letup 
in making personal contacts, 
exchanging QSLs, and disr 
cussing many subjects slated 
on the agenda. 

The Rrst Day 

The ARRL President, 
Hiram Percy Maxim, ad- 
dressed the members with an 
inspiring talk concerning the 
aims and accomplishments 
which amateur radio had 
achieved in the relatively few 
years of the ARRL's organi* 
zaiion. In his introductory 
remarks, the founder of the 
League had the following to 
say: 

^*A$ we meet and open this 
great convention, it is indeed 



38 



The First 
NJational A.R,R.L Convention 

Radio SKow 





Tne Convention 




HUV liK Jiany ir^n of amltettr ndw thcw ha i f i w kf[ t&i an intre^ilnf 
re la meet the titlicr fdlcnrf tfaai xn^ like jrmiipclf^ bfcrcsic^ m r^dio 
iipQ cither as m paaJtiae ac buBncu. Aad ixnv cosies a tk^ wfa^ 
j^our widies ibjll be grmlihtd- 

VtDtf m OiKipii PCI Au^ttsl 30, 31,^ September i, 2 aiiif I, )^t^ the Amcncaii 
Radio Kclajr L«4i[uc wilt hold l Fiirt KttictnJtl ConveiUiaan afid lUdio Show, 
which averyotie ii cordialty jnvilr<| to aLtend 

Otti:^go iji ilself « wcmilerfiiF Aumnier reiortp DJTerin^ everv apporninirv in arty 
j^iort or dav^uisn. Yon vtlt ncvi^r raf;¥V:t li^ri-ng spoil ;tart of your vacation 
TIk dct*tti frf the EOntrftiiiflD an i^«tttdinc1y «Tn|ffidHj»{Tv j»ti4 mi> 
of file converiticui wtlj be bSora up with ioierrMthff uvd ciuC^tifml 
c en fiMc e and teettirei^ ben^ in kH i tnoH coti^ptete and iiMHifiu-iip<f [wafT^vin 
MomifipFv atftempfin; jtocl ei^tiii^ s^t futif arran;^ for^ Jia tint p>a win 
RCfirmlier iMi cfin^eistiai 3& vxne o( i]w mxm oijfifatUe ilji]rt 6f vtinr life. 

T>irrc vtiU be [leeifile tlist ymi know and many iKat fou ifo not know tfnu will 
Im frcscni frtttn every district find city in ihti grrtat Uniml Sutcs. t'lnibaUy 
the nloal imporuni fcoturc rif the cofivetiiion will be tht luigc baiifjuer nn ihe 
ni|[hl of ^cpleinbci 3rd, and [here slioiild i>t nofie {jUin)^ to »i1lri]d. Mver^vlxHJj 
ttom Ihc Ymju^ Squiti up ta Presidcfit H«rdinc wiU \k I here to ptt* you tlw 
tqpr And leS jmi wtui a ireord statim Ik or tlie b fotPitE li» have Hut iu&cbl 

Tbr fim day will be firoi ovrr cntinily to The ardhralt n^iiirstiiaa afid lo cal ii^ g 
of llie majiy ddesalML Tbc profEam will Hart pnx^ll|' ■! ten A. M, Aiifist 
J}itf io 3»a shoKild arrange to Inf in Quctfo Hntie lime di^riz^ ihe pferkiDs 
ftajr* Aufv^ IQitb 

"We h»ve armiriftd to nccotninftdatc you at rhi! finest boi«U b the cjly, irery 
c]oi« lo all aclivtijfs„ at ratci from two dolfarv per day up 

From ilic (norneni ihsir eatb delegate iiTi***, and ihfy ihould niM fereet to 
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i|flvpi«d to their uletj, cttnlort and fdettnrc. 



CodvaiitMa Ade^Mim will be ailaittl»4 t<> tlw B ie e tlq^i v teditHft. speetrrt- 
rvpeifitiaiH and Um Ratfin Sfcaw witbnut any cfaacfc 

tlanqMcf ct^rgE^ Will be fivE dfdlvo p^r plate, and rTscrvntirm^ slmutd he made 
imtnedi&lety with ccmventlD^ rescrvatiao min^gtt^ 

M. C. BOS 
lid N«i USdJ* StitHt 



tlCtA* 



a historic event . ., In years 
to come^ much will be said 
about what we do here at this 
first convention. We are strik- 
ing out into the unknown, 
and even the smaller actions 
which we take here during 
the next few days will weigh 
heavily in the future, for they 
wHl establish precedents and 
standards , , . Let us not for- 
get that we are pioneers, 
blazing a way many are to 
follow. Our responsibility is 
great, and we must so reprd 
iL It fs one thing to repeat 
what has already been done, 
but it is another altogether 
different thing to do what has 
never been done before. What 
you see before you here to- 
day has never happened in 
the affairs of man. Not only 
is it a great pioneer effort in 
radio history, but it is a great 
pioneer effort in political 
history. We American and 
Canadian citizens assembled 
in this room represent 
pioneers in the development 
of something totally revolu- 
tionary in the art of com- 
munication. The like of what 
we are doing and proposing 



had never crossed the brain of 
man a short ten years ago. We 
already have a privately- 
owned, absolutely free con* 
tinentwide means of instan- 
taneous communication and 
no man may say we shall not 
make it worldwide." (What 
prophetic statements emerged 
from this gathering of dedi- 
cated and enthusiastic men!) 
**lt is no small distinc- 
tion," our President went on 
to say, "to be one of those 
who make history." 

General and Technical 
Sessions 

There would be no point 
in listing the names of the 
high and low notables in 
attendance. They were all 
present. The program com- 
mittee had topics scheduled 
for discussion pertaining to 
club organization, inter- 
ference control, observations 
of laws, legislative matters, 
message handling, and many 
technical subjects. 

Charles H, Steward, 
member of the ARRL legisla- 
tive committee, reviewed 
pending legislation, a matter 



The Radio Show 




HE manolaeturcxs wi4 deatert' eidiiiiit k the fitv Nuiotiat fiaiBo Show* 
wbich js to be held tn conjinicliDnL with ibe coaventiQcip will be the taoft 
s^tilacviat cfrnglonicnstinFi oi Htodcrrv raitirt ^^i^aipmutC thai hss evcf tieen put 
on displjiy ui3di?r nite sooL Thm gorgeoui and pain|)uuK affair will Ik i/vell 
«vorili ihe trip ittelf' 

The Btradiray Armoty, the mtm (nodem Miid laifcsi eichibit and wfivcniJcni 
boildiiif in ChicafE^ will be uted esjltrdy itx this great tbow. 

Utildtd ima modiril exhibit biMilu and beaittifaDjr deettraud im mc icomS^ it 
wiH eqaal in vpleiutor any of tlH a n c ceiaful rnmaadtHAt ihnwi Tha M^pitaiJt 
«C ihe «SiJr is poijtrireljr MatKHkita^ 

It will indeed be a gnal thing for lite manufactuier and dealer, n-n il isi hdd 
•It a time thai 4:iuiik.q Ehe opcTiiiii; ot a new and more active r^dio seoson- 
Builfiesn coddLtioni tire j':ipidly irttpravjn|f mid a very nuccessful leaion is 

predicted. 

In iddJtKm to publktty (fana wikHit pufaIu:3lion«v droibn and pUc^iiii, lite daily 
iKunfapers widli eirttibfiiHi tivcr ihe nutlion maifc iriJI l<€ co!iph>ved Ui ^dv^nise 
tbe tihenr, Tliri thtxiiA nsult in i daBy aiiendlaiEf o( aBjubw e fnjm three 
tA eij^hi tbctsaftd at halemted penpie. The fesolt5 Ui Ulc aiirrrlitArl^ bodi 
direct md mdifvci. will be onpreGcdczttcd- 

Thli is not R ni^ntry ntoltinff proposition and the brx^ttt* are beinf «nfd on 
apf^rosi^ini^Ltely a prnriita baaii. The rtttivrininn delegatei wil! be Bttnttited 
withnul charge;, imd Ih? eenttal pLil>3k wilt |»tiy an admiiJiioEi fee. Peritituient 
paiseit wiEl be ittued to cxhihitorii The th&nr yeM apcn at the aame time 3.^ 
itit e<rti¥eiiiioii, len A. M. Aufiut list, and ever>^inf muit be m fcadines« 
tbc day before 

some ttasmA why evcfir iBinafiCTDrcj~ and d^er siwdid be ^i 
It la the tii£c^ 4»ff4tr that faai trttr hecA pruiBDted ia the afe of 
ntHn. It eQiax% at a time thai uut^ t)w optmn^ of the refutar r^dio sasoo. 
There wdl probibly be oter fen clmuEEand pe^jiile rcvicwmif the apparatus, fiy 
perioral contact with the field which he it *elltti|r he iiui)f jain gcmti ¥.M\. The 
exhibit cost is Itrrt- and the rtJultji will be big, 

Ymir corapetitor may have an exhibit and if you do not — welU thiidc il ovtr. 

There wil) be every accwpnodiiioD. available for the c^hiUliiiir, deleg^lei and 
the ffnent pidrfic The Ajmory H caoirefiiemly looted near ilie three holds 
0] whkii the nsa^iy nf ifae dttciata will *^a^ TEici^ ate al^ excefleiir mmw^ 
OKtboa ^af by w|nf & wiU fspP^ ^'^^^ iparie and ^vxie iraBtnn^km for tfae 
nctplkm «f adubitots. 

It witi be a long while befon such oppottqfiities as are hexe offered will sigsin 
be preioitedr 



Han 



which required constant at- 
tention. Seven bills under de- 



bale in Congress at that par- 
ticular time related to sub- 



39 



jects concerning radio go!> 

irol, radio regulation, and en* 
force men t_ Observations 
made at this meeting were 
that: **lf just two of these 
bills go through in their pres-^ 
ent form, the wavelengths, 
power, and decrement are 
then subject to control of the 
Commission, and ihey keep 
us champing around from one 
wavelength to another, in- 
creasing and decreasing the 
power available for amateurs. 
Constant vigilance is of vital 
importance to insure the ama* 
teur's place in the radio spec- 
trum." 

Probably the topic which 
drew top attention during the 
convention, and which was 
subject to heightened debate, 
proved to be the controversial 
question of power factor in 
ham transmitter circuits. As 
one reporter remarked after- 
ward, ''Without a doubt, this 
debate was the main attrac- 
tion at the convention/* 



There were staunch sup- 
porters of the two main par* 
tki pants in the discussion, 

and it did not take long be- 
fore sides were chosen. At the 
outset, Ellery W. Stone from 
the west and W. B, West 
8AEZ were the antagonists in 
this struggle for definition 
and thoroughness of detail 
for presentation of facts. 

Said Mr. Stone: 'Tower 
factor is unity in any ac 
circuit in which inductive and 
capacitivc reactances cancel/' 

Said Mr. West (ignoring 
inductance and capacitance): 
**\ confine my views in the 

matter to the relation of real 
Watts to apparent Watts." 

This confrontation went 
on for hours, with other par- 
ticipants joining, until all 
agreed that it appeared that 
the confusion lay in the defi- 
nition of power factor. There 



was no common under* 
siBneing reached by the two 
parties. So it was decided, on 
the spot, to submit the ques- 
tion to the radio section of 
the Bureau of Standards, 
Washington, D,C The state- 
ment submitted to the 
Bureau read as follows: 

**For information of 
National Convention of 
ARRL, please wire our ex- 
pense immediately: In a 
freely oscillating radio circuit, 
and in a forced oscillating 
circuit tuned to resonance 
with the impressed fre- 
quency, if the inductive and 
capacitive reactances are 
equal in magnitude and op- 
posite in sense, is the power 
factor unity? One side con- 
tends that, according to pres- 
ent alternating current 
theory, the power factor is 
unity, and reactance are 
equal and opposite. Other 
side contends that resonance 
is that condition in circuit 



which causes power factor to 
automatically assume that 
degree necessary for the com- 
plete dissipation of the power 
applied to the circuit," 

Within hours after the tele- 
gram was forwarded to the 
Bureau, the reply came back 
. . _ with the answer which, in 
essence, left both sides very 
much up in the air. Sup- 
porters of both Mr, West and 
Mr, Stone hailed the outcome 
of the reply as complete vin- 
dication of their respective 
sides. Even a committee 
thereupon appointed to 
review the entire discussion 
finally ended up by stating 
that they are not reasoning 
from the same premise. Most 
of those in attendance finally 
concluded by these vague de- 
cisions that another subject 
could be more productive and 
down to earth and headed for 
other meetings. 

Of great interest to ama- 



January. t920 



QST 



21 



Q S t 



January, l*"' 




RADIO 9ZN 




Bajto t£if, tk» tisfcififi «f Ibe Cculf*! 
Di*ij(iirii HuAccr, !■ lMAt«d at ESSf 
Shcridaa EpAd, CMcajio, tkl, on tfa« itron- 
of Laka MkhigsiL 

Hie ttaLbn eausists of m t;wo ipoui, one 
■tory fmma bsildltig- iituntpd cnidwuy \m- 
tweeti tho twa towers ■upporting th& 
AUteimQ. Thu liufldini^, townfi and pliLne 
of the nriiimnq ura in ft north-flnd-iouth 
line, at n tlintance of 00 fdnt fram the 
«dg? of tha take, He{iiiii¥e of thia l&cationn 
tbe station U tiLear of pnictle»Uf ail high 
bnJlduiKt And «bstraayi»iu In sU dInetloiUv 



Tl» «fiM] b 91 fed h^, owr mR, tlk- 
Urwvn bcbuf of' ateelt 50 f«el h%!i. ma^ 
Utiv maala btli)^ slio of ute^l, 4^ feet If 
hviglsL Tbt to wen art ISO fevt Hp^Lit^ 
the tiEQ wfrei cfimpoaiii^ Ui« nntaziiu b^ai^ 
«p«eed c*iuiilly iR-lLtiiii thi» diiUn^o, in th's 
Wifll-kaovTi vortical fun foihian. The 
Aftrial wires are 7 itraitd No. SK tmntnl 
rnpper wirOt tho top cable bpinB T fttraT't 
No. IS phoafihor bronze, witii thret 10 i^ 
litcb Eiectrofl? triButfltors nt flacb omJ, THfl 
lood« end wire attached t4 Ut# t«wir ifddij 
of tba tasalat«n u« to pnrrldi downhft.^b 



for the ciftblff tbootd i^ aerliil ^V9 way. 

Tbe groond i^itraii of tbe sUtioa a 
perbaps one «f tbc pfiDCtokl lauotit for 
it» ■acE:eB& It i» co]Q|Hiti^d of tvo baaikft 
oiwwmt on« eOMMfag of Zd wirei (No. 14 
hmrn copper) e*eJi SO feet loiscif buried 
ndiaiif from tb< stsUoat Bod tae otbvr 
coiudsdti;^ of It wires (7 fttuui No. 22 
coppBT^ each lIQ fa«t long* barj«d sbuLuv 
}f. In additlnn, t^o "srircai, each 1D4 feet 
loTif; &r^ submerged in ther liiktj and a 
number of B fowt rods aTtB driven into the 
irround About th«; ^tattoiL 

Power I4 provEdt^d by a 4 K'W- tipecbU 
liowcr line, iihoviTi in th9 illaetTBtioil:- 
TiJiipb4D« ii alio prortdedr tlut iiaiab«r 



Hf^'Bad rotuT gmp^ Th& touut gsp is 
ei>Btatpcd wit^n a douMa wmlXed padded 
bbiTp just bdhmd li« unary* puMl, un 
wliJkb ar^ moiuittd ihe rmMatkok wmmwtWg 
power TsrsatiojD iwitfli, p^wer amfAtt^ 
and maifi Ewitcfa^ the tearLiformer being- 
dlrrctJj boivath the gap box, Tbe oQ 
cunderLAer U Immcdrntdr to th^A right of 
the> vwitebboudi and cootlct]. of 1200 
wiuare itLehea of UnfoSI supkEiitAet by % 
iijcb plotc glan ifjuniers^d in trmtuformer 
oiL Thfl oKcillnU^n transformer U made 
of 1" s lis" brasFi ribbon and Is nidunted as 
nhown. Tha fuJI ti^otidenacr in mad for 
the A2$ mtter wmv«, but odI? & part It 
U»ed on 20 D me tent, the BinDunt belnff racb 
tkalt only ono tiurn o£ inifiiiitaiue b ii5sd 




Thu roctirtr consiits of a Chlettp> Radio 
LjiboTjitory I^arag^n EA-ll abort wave re- 
j^Dnf^rittlire rtfoivor and AmpHflgon type 
AON-2 fiudlon eontrol and two stop ampll- 
11 er. An A ad I a tt on tubo ia uaed for 
detector, W««t«rQ ElQctrie VT-i'a or 
Uarcoitl VTi being; used as unplifioiif- 
With tidi rteelT«r are luad Baldirm Mlea 
EHaptuagni beadpkiiiieeL Pr^cti^^r atl the 
hmg dstmeie junat^m- stji-tioi» wra ikeard 
n^ik tit« pliHfcs OB tbe tebli on arertfs 
nlielite; BU7» nd u 2CS, £25, BAF. BAA^ 
RgfC« 90T« iBH, «tiL, Uinf e^netafly 
hcBtd at dJMadacc* up to lOf feet tmm the 
b«adplunMt<i Six Isazm^vd metar itstlcmi 
irn beard slinl!u^« . At pMsent no lei ii 

Efcivided for tofiffi^ w«tq Ifaan 000 metetfl, 
ut tm undamped wave rwttlvtr Ja under 
ccinstroctionp 

Tbe tranfltnltter coTLsiste ^f n MBrconi 
(United W.T.Co,,) opan core 1 K^-W, tranA- 1 
former^ hnrlnsr a steoTidary Toltage of 
30,000, with itn oil Iniinenod plate glais 
condeoserf and a ChliUigo Eadio tiibOTstofy 



In the priTHnry ofi thSs wqi?o. 

Because of tbo high fundamental wave 
Ipftffth of the aoriftl (300 nietcrB) all 200 
motor tmnamiBaion and rec^pHcrn oiu done 
through &€^ries fondenieTit the tiaTtamltttng 
Hrf« eomdeni^r irofialrtli^ of ITS ftquara 
tnehie of tin foil separated by % " plate 

Slaaa iiiid ImEsened in oii Thle nnffesuer 
located jiut abev« the loader, which 14 
Xi3ed for 4f 5 and tfOO ttet^r vkvil 

ThjB iadiBi30q on 200 mebm Ii 8% 
ampsre^ and on 41B meten m 9 mmpttta^ 
the 4tfi hm^ mllj better itkatu wwald 
appear fToin a direct colB|^a^i■01l of tbc$« 
raadiiigfir beemiue of the ebmtsatioii of the 
pvHea condentcr^ and alio becHOMi of the 
irreater carrying aliility of thii wave. 

th^ tQfi meter wave ta u&cd ordinarily, 
with a shift to 42 E to avoid interfennce 
OT to wdtJc ov^t RTonter than average' dtfl- 
tancea. The antwcrinj; wave of this etntien 
fa invariably ^00 meten, tmlotti otberwiee 
apeeified by the caltlnsj station* 

(GoiiuJtided OQ page 31) 



40 



teurs who were still pur* 
chasing and installing spark 
gap transmitters was the sub- 
ject of broadband inter- 
ference. It was contended 
that spark gap unfts were 
doomed to fade out of ham 
stations, because the waves 
they transmitted on the air 
were not as sharp as a CW 
wave. It is true that they 
could be held better in recep- 
tion and did not have ten- 
dencies to jam each other, 
like the CW signals did. Atso, 
each spark on the band had 
an individual characteristic 
that identified it, and what 
distances could be covered 
{having 1000 Watts avail- 
able)! The overall sensEtivity 
and selectivity of circuits was 
a hindrance. The CW signals 
were difficult to tune and 
hold. Wave shifting was 
usually noticeable. Regenera- 
tive receivers had short- 
comings^ especially since they 
were asked to be equally ef- 
fective in bringing in CW, 
ICW, and the broad spark 
signals. Receivers lacked ade- 
quate control to meet re- 
quirements. Being regenera- 
tive^ they radiated energy and 
caused considerable interfer- 
ence, especially in more con- 
gested areas. 

For most signal reception^ 
the oversized loose couplers 
in station equipment were 
still serving their major pur- 
pose. Donr»estic and foreign 
longwave stations were very 
much on the air with news 
broadcasts, weather reports, 
time signals, and general infor- 
mation. Many stations served 
as sources of code signals for 





RADIO STATION 9ZN, 5525 SHERIDAN ROAD. 

ChicagojUL fci r^t. . / l^^.-?^.. 

Your signals heard here. , . A'>^ ::....:' Audibility ....W. -S\^| . . _ . . 

Characteristics , . , . , Note. _ , 



^ 
^ 



• 



Other informati 
Equipment at 
Transmit 



Aeriai — ^1 0-wir: 
Wave lengt 
Hours- of opera 




^ -a if* 



ises : — 
500 cycle 
60 cycle, 
CW ani 

n-Am] 
an, 90 

375 mi 



igli 



inken pa 
ynchrono 
ophone se 
n (2rste|f) 
fL 1 



itiyp 







S01^ 



:'■* 



&2N is the Central Division Distributing Station of the A, E. B, L* and will be 
i very glad to handle any traffic you may have at any time. Please QSL. 

QHK ? . 



« # t > f^ w ^ 



****** t 



Operator, 9ZN, 



practice - NAA, 2,500 
meters; POZ, 12,000 meters; 
PL, 10,000 meters; and MUU, 
14,000 meters, continued on 
the air for years. 

So loose couplers were in 
constant use by amateurs 
until, with the introduction 
of the honeycomb-coil de- 
sign, units which occupied far 
less space but had equivalent 
inductance gradually replaced 
them. Amateurs also began to 
convert to shorter and shorter 
wavelengths with the move to 
CW and the appfication of 
available transmitting tubes* 
Amateur station layouts be- 
gan to take on new and re- 
vitalized appearances. Power 
supplies had to be designed 
and built to accommodate 
larger tubes for that new re- 
quirement of **iuice'* for the 
"bottles/* In turn, many new 
receivers were being built 
using variometers and vario- 



couplers. 

As IS the case each year, 
with the coming of fall and 
colder weather, radio condi- 
tions improved^ static tapered 
off, and interest in DX and 
relay activities increased. So 
the ARRL Board of Directors 
decided that a determined 
effort should be made to span 
the Atlantic via amateur 
radio. There had been an 
earlier try, not organized, 
that had failed. Undaunted, 
plans were laid by the ARRL 
traffic department an- 
nouncing that all radio ama- 
teurs should enter into a 
series of transmitter tests. 
Selections would be made to 
find the best and most far- 
reaching transmitters to 
qualify for the proposed 
undertaking. The following 
form appeared in QSTj 
September, 1921, page 12, 
directed to all hams: 



"Traffic Manager, ARRL, 
1045 Main Street, Hartford 
CT.: Please enter my station 
as a transmitter in the Trans- 
atlantic Sending Tests, Dec. 
8th to 17th, I will be ready to 
transmit in the preliminary 
tests on Nov. 7th to 12th, 
and if I fail to cover the 
specified distance in the pre- 
liminary tests, I shall rdirn 
quish my rights to transmit in 
the final tests. Name . . - Call 
... St . , . City . , . State . . . 
Power of transmitter . , . type 
(CW or spark) ,., greatest 
distance heard (give three 
records) . , .*' 

The stated goal was: **We 
want the Atlantic Ocean 
spanned on schedule by an 
amateur station, and we want 
definite proof that it has been 
done." ■ 

To be continued 




fro w page 16 

videamateiir radio with growth and to 
offer 9 reasonable a I tentative to CB 
manufacturers to op&ning 3 Citizens 
Band in the amateur 220 MHj band. 
Now that history has eliminated the 
n«ad for a Communicator lic^se^ mi\ 
we be able to stop the FCC? 



EDITOR iAL BY WA YN£ G8E6N 

HAM GEAR FOR HAMS 
Somewhere around 300,000 ham 
transceivers have crowed over into CB 
hands so far . . . vifhere wiU it end? 
The manufacturefs and importers of 
ham r»gs estimate that about 75% or 
more of the new rigs end up in CB 

Sure^ the use of these tran^eivers 



by CBers in their ''HF" band, those 
diannels in the 27.5 to 28.0 MHz 
band, is ille9al But, Jike the S5 mph 
speed limrt the enforcement is so 
slight thai most C8ers use the bend 
with impunitv- On those frequencies^ 
up above the hurly-burlv of the 
"bottom 40," side banders sit and 
make skip contacts with eaie^ Their 
ham transceivers and ham power 
ampfifiers, aided by antenna installa^ 
tions which would make a dedicated 
DXer fidgety with envy, §ive them a 
very good taste of hainming. 

Most of the^ chaps are much like 
the rest of us, a fact attested to by the 
large number of them who are getting 
their ham tickets. Recent estimates 
from a number of ham c\ub% indicate 
that almost 90% of the people m ham 



classy ara CBers. Mo^ ham classes 
have a dropout rate of around 40%^ 
thoi^h this depends a kit on factors 
stKih as the instructors, the code tapes 
ysedj etc. The fact remains that very 
few of the HFers are among the 
dropouts. They seem to have a much 
higher decree of determination to 
succeeds The estimate is that at least 
40% of the newly-licensed hams are 
now comfng from the HF group. 

When you figure how relatively 
smell that group is. the number of 
HFers getting ham licenses is most 
remarkable. This a J so may explain 
why we have so far had only minor 
trauble with HFers bootfegging in the 
ham bands. The redneck crowd hasn't 

Continued on page 190 



41 



R. J. Edmunds WE2BJH 
48 Lakeside Trsil 
Kinnelon NJ 07405 



Try BC B DX ! 

-- when you're tired of twenty 



Many amateurs are 
familiar with DXing 
the foreign broadcast bands 
in the short waves, frequentty 
from having DXed ihem in 
the process of aiming toward 
their licenses. There is^ how- 
ever, another area of DXing 
which offers a far greater 
challenge to the DXer, al- 
though he can no more 
**work" this DX than he can 
the international broadcast 
stations- This is the standard 



AM broadcast band, from 
525-1505 kilohertz. 

The hobby of listening on 
this band, Hke all other forms 
of radio listening which can 
be called DX, had its begin^ 
nrng^ with amateurs. Before 
the advent of the commercial 
broadcasters on AM with 
which we are most familiar, 
amateurs pioneered here, too* 
Many of the oldest broadcast 
stations are outgrowths of 
amateur or other experi- 



mental operations. The first 
broadcast licenses were 
issued, indeed, for experimen- 
tation and development. Per- 
haps one of the most familiar 
of these is New York's 
WQXR, 1 560 kHz, which was 
formerly W2XR. 

In the old days, there were 
only a very few frequencies 
being licensed, due to the 
small numbers of stations and 
low powers involved. The 
present set of frequency alio- 




The author's shack. Left to right - clock timer with power selection pane/; stereo tape 
recorder; speaker, audio input/output distribution panel, 58-620 spectrum analyzer; variabie 
bandpass audio filter and HQ-J 50^ 



cations came into existence in 
1934, when the old Federal 
Radio Commission became 
the familiar Federal Com- 
munications Commission. 
Actual commercial broad- 
casting, with commercial mes- 
sages being broadcast as a 
means of revenue, began in 
1924 over station WEAF 
(now WNBC) in New York, 
which broadcast spots for a 
Long Island realty company. 

The amateur practices of 
sending reception reports and 
rK;eiving QSL cards are also 
found in AM broadcast DX. 
Many stations will verify re- 
ceptions with QSL cards or 
letters, although the practice 
is by no means as prevalent as 
it was in the 1920s and 30s, 
DX nights were common 
during that time, as most or 
all domestic stations would 
leave the air at local midnight 
on certain days, leaving the 
bands open for exotic inter- 
national DX. Many old-time 
BCB DXcrs were able to hear 
and OSL stations in nearly 
every country which had 
them. 

Today, however, with the 
over four thousand stations in 
the United States alone, 
many boasting extended 
schedules and higher powers, 
such a feal is impossible. It is, 
nonetheless, possible to log 
more than one hundred 
countries on the BCB. 
Country-counting is different 
from what it is on the ama- 
teur bands, and there are no 
DXpeditions to add to the 
totals, with the result that 
there are many fewer "BCB 
countries** than there are 
"ham countries." 

But why should we DX 
BCB under these conditions? 

Perhaps the best answer is 
because It's there. We could 
well ask ourselves why we DX 
any band at all, and the 
answers would be somewhat 
similar, BCB offers several 
challenges to the DXer, 
including hearing stations 
which are not intended for 
long distance^ international 
listeners^ but rather for 
domestic ones; the challenge 
of beating the local QRM; 



42 



and the old familiar 
countries, state capitals, 
counties or whal-havc-you 
lists. Another aspect of par* 
ticufar importance to begin- 
ners and youngsters is the low 
cost and ready availability of 
equipment. 

Equipment 

Alt it really takes to hear 
BCB DX is a standard AM 
radio of medium to ^od 
quality, and, perhaps^ a hunk 
of wire strung in the back- 
yard. The best portable BCB 
DX equipmeni consists of a 
transistorized receiver, with a 
toopstick inside for an an- 
tenna, which reuils for under 
$40.00 (the Radio Shack 
Long Distance TRF). 

Of course, the DXer will 
likely wish to continuously 
upgrade his equipment, but a 
very fine setup can be 
assembled for less than it 
costs to equip a mull i band 
ham shack with a good set of 
equipment Communications 
receivers from the surplus 
market, including such makes 
as Hammarlund, National, 
HallicrafterSj Drake, or 
Collins, among others, are 
often ideal for BCB DX, 
Many enthusiasts consider the 
Hammarlund HQ-ISO to be 
among the top receiverSj 
while others opt for the 
Collins R-390A/URR. Any 
number of other receivers 
manufactured by the above 
companies, as well as mjliiary 
surplus units and current- 
production Radio Shack 
models, are also quite suit- 
able. 

Antennas are generally a 
home brew situation, with a 
four-foot air core altazimuth 
loop with FET if amplifier 
being the ultimate of these. 
This is perhaps the most pop- 
ular antenna in use today, 
although the old standby 
longwire and tuner is still 
quite prevalent. One conv 
mercially available antenna, 
developed by a DXer and 
former corporate engineer, is 
the Worcester Laboratories' 
Space Magnet series. This an- 
tenna is a ferriteKiored loop 
with amplifier, available in 
several models in the $50.00 



range from Worcester Elec- 
tronics Laboratories, Frank- 
fort NY. 

There are many otl>er vari* 
ations of BCB loop antennas 
available as construction pro- 
jectSp commercially available 
kits, or assembled units. 
Many DXers experiment to 
obtain new designs which 
combine high directivity^ high 
"Q"j and small space con- 
sumption to suit their indi- 
vidual needs. 

Among the most popular 
accessories are tape recorders, 
external Q-multipliers, audio 
filters, stereo headphones 
wired for mono, and osciIIch 
scopes or spectrum analyzers. 
The latter are used primarily 
for observing signal traces and 
band scanning for additional 
signals not immediately 
audible, as well as for identi- 
fying interference and fre- 
quency measurement. Most 
of these, liowever, are really 
not necessary. 

Getting Started 

Any new hobby can be 
confusing to the beginner, 
and so it is with BCB DX. 
There are, however, a number 
of very useful publications to 
be had. Many of these are 
published by the two national 
BCB DX clubs - the National 
Radio Club, headquartered in 
Louisville KY, and the Inter- 
national Radio Club of 
America, in San Francisco, 
The two clubs were at one 
time one, but, as is often the 
case with amateur clubs, a 
split occurred in 1964, 
resulting in the two clubs, 
Both cover the whole con- 
tinent and primarily the same 
segments of the hobby, al- 
though there are some dif- 
ferences in orientation. The 
NRC features more publica- 
tions and a larger member- 
ship, as well as a somewhat 
more technically-oriented 
outtooL 

Each of these clubs 
publishes a regular bulletin, 
which is weekly during the 
winter DX season, and less 
frequent during the summer. 
The NRC publishes DX A/ews, 
which has appeared 
regularly since 1933. It also 



publishes a domestic station 
log, night directional antenna 
pattern book, receiver and 
antenna manuals, and a large 
list of article repaints, I RCA 
publishes a foreign log com- 
piling all reported receptions 
on an annual basis, as well as 
a somewhat smaller list of 
reprints. Both publish intro- 
ductory booklets. A copy of 
an explanatory publication 
and a publication list may be 
obtained from the NRC by 
writing to: NRC Membership 
Center, P,0. Box 118, 
Poquonock CT 06064, A 
sample bulletin may be had 
for 50^, from the same 
address. Information on the 
I RCA may be obtained by 
writing to Richard Segalas, 
P.O. Box 26254, San 
Francisco CA 94126, An- 
other valuable publication is 



the World Radio/ TV Hand- 
book, already known to 
many hams and SWLs- 

Most newcomers to the 
BCB hobby start out with 
domestic DX {US. and 
Canada) and very little 
foreign DX. Even a casual 
listener will be aware that 
there are many stations 
throughout the U.S. and 
Canada which can be heard 
on even the poorest of equip- 
ment, and it naturally follows 
that the better the equipment 
and the more DX ex- 
perience on the band, the 
more and rarer the DX will 
be. Much of the BCB DX 
hobby depends on knowing 
what to took for and when to 
look for it For these reasons, 
one cannot take the publica- 
tions too tightly^ nor should 
the aspect of preplanning be 




The author's shack. Variable audio filter^ HQ-JSO, and part of 
4 ' altazimuth FET loop. At the extreme top left is a simple 
fixed tow pass audio filten Not shown are monchreel tape 
recorder^ cassette recorder^ and Nordmende Galaxy Mesa 6000 
portable receiver. 



43 




A 2' oltQitmuth hop antenna for use with or without external 

rf ampfifiefj modified and built by the author from 4' antenna 
design 



ignored. Much time is wasted 
by beginners, who have 
passed the first plateau of 
hearing all of the regular and 
semi-feguSar sutions,bul have 
not v^l learned that simply 
sitting and waiting for DX 
isn*t good enough after that 
point 

Propagation 

The optimum time for 
BGB DX listening h between 
midnight and local sunrise, 
when many stations are off 
the ajr^ thus reducing inter- 
ference and allowing DX sta- 
tions through. In addition, 
many daytime-only stations 
test during this so-called "ex- 
perimental period" and may, 
thus, be heard at far greater 
distances than they are 
normally heard during their 
regular broadcast schedules. 
Monday mornings (Sunday 
nights} generally yield the 
most silent periods from full- 
time stations and the most 
tests from daytimcrs, and are, 
therefore* the most worth- 
while. Many stations conduct 
regularly scheduled tests 
during the experimental 
period, and lists of many of 
these are available from the 
BCBDX clubs. 

Many DXers^ however, 
find that listening during 
these hours conflicts with 



their normal lifestyle, and so 
such listening is confined to 
rare occasions. In this event, 
the DXer will want to 
capitalize on the other opti- 
mum period for BCB DX, 
namely the period around 
local sunset At this time, 
propagation conditions are 
changing due to the sunset, 
and many daytime stations 
are leaving the air for that 
reason. These two factors 
combine to allow for more 
distant reception of these sta- 
tions just before they do 
leave the air, TTie FCC has set 
out specified times for sign- 
offs and sigin-ons of domestic 
stations, which correspond 
with their average monthly 
sunset and sunrise- The re- 
sulting pattern ts an east to 
west sequence of sign -of fs, 
thus allowing for stations to 
sign off leaving stations 
further west still on^ and so 
on^ until a full-timer becomes 
dominant. On some channels, 
a DXer may listen and hear 
one or two new stations 
signing off in every fifteen- 
minute sigrhoff period- Maps 
detailing the zones of 
monthly sign-offs (or in some 
cases, antenna pattern 
changes or power reductions 
for full4ime stations), as well 
as the reciprocal times for 
sign-ons (and increases at sun- 



rise), are also available 
through the clubs. 

Propagation of domestic 
signals on BCB is generally 
accomplished by either 
^ound wave, which follows 
the approximate line of sight, 
or by sky wave, which is 
reflected back to Earth in the 
ionosphere. Sky wave can be 
broken down into various 
levels of skip. In the daytime, 
the "D^* and '*E" layer:; of 
the ionosphere effectively 
prevent any significant long- 
distance skip on the medium 
waves. During the mid*winter 
period^ receptions at dts* 
tances of up to 1 000 miles via 
ground wave are not un- 
common, but, throughout the 
rest of the year, the average is 
much less. 

At night, the "D" layer 
disappears, and the "E*' layer 
weakens significantly, thus 
allowing many signals to 
travel on to the **F" layer, 
which really is composed of 
two layers, known as Fl and 
F2, During the daytime 
hours, these layers separate 
from each other to a greater 
distance than they are at 
night, but this fact is not 
immediately relevant to our 
discussion. Both "F*' layers 
are capable, as is the "E'* 
layer, under certain cir- 
cumstances usually associated 
with geomagnetic disturb- 
ances known as "sporadic E," 
of reflecting signals back to 
Earth. To be technically cor- 
rect, the process is really 
refraction, but the ultimate 
effect is sufficiently similar to 
reflection to be so called 
here- In general, most of the 
ionospheric reflection ob- 
served at BCB frequencies 
occurs in the F2 layer. 

Normally, ground wave is 
reliable at night, up to a 
distance of approximately 
125 miles. Sky wave is 
generally the predominant 
mode of propagation from 
about 160 miles on up. The 
area in between is an irregular 
combination of the two, with 
neither one dominant. It 
should be noted that some 
sky wave components will be 
present, but masked, at the 
lower distances^ and that the 



reverse will be true at the 
lower range of the higher 
group of distances- A single 
hop reflection from the F2 
layer can propagate a signal 
over a wide range of dis- 
tances, up to nearly 2500 
miles, depending upon the 
angle of radiation. A given 
transmitter will radiate at a 
multitude of angles, thus 
allowing it to reach the entire 
range of distances prescribed 
herein. Skyline blockage, 
such as mountains or large 
man-made structures, can pre- 
vent transmission at certain 
angles by blocking or 
absorbing the signal at either 
end of the path. 

Long-distance (in excess of 
2400 miles) propagation is 
primarily by multihop paths 
of F 2 reflections. 
Occasionally^ it may be 
possible for propagation by 
multimode paths, or other 
unusual modes, which are be- 
yond the scope of this discus- 
sion. Included among these is 
reflection by nighttime spcn 
radic E. 

There are, however, other 
factors which materially 
affect BCB signal propap- 
tion. The most significant of 
these is that caused by 
auroral disturbances of the 
Earth's atmosphere. At such 
times, excessive absorption of 
sky wave signals by ionized 
particles in the ionosphere 
takes place and alters the 
character of reception in 
some areas. This alteration is 
geographically dependent, 
due to the nature of the 
Earth's magnetic field. It is 
most strongly noticed in ihc 
northeast, due to that area's 
proximity to the North Mag- 
netic Pole. When this 
happens, absorption occurs, 
depending upon the severity 
of the disturbance, on signals 
arriving from the north, 
northeast, and northwest In 
severe disturbances, or at 
higher latitudes, signals from 
the near southerly directions 
may also be absorbed. 

This process leaves those 
signals which are ground 
wave, thus yielding signals 
from stations at an inter* 
mediaie distance arriving 



44 



solely by ground wave, as 
well as those sky wave signals 
arriving from such a distance 
and/or direction as to escape 

the absorptive layer. Thus, 
signals from the souths semi- 
local, and local signals will 
predominate. It may be seen, 

then, that the sertous DXer 
on BCB will frequently be as 
hampered by an aurora as 
DXers at higher frequencies 
are aided by it. 

Planning and Recordkeeping 
for the DXer 

Perhaps the most impor- 
tant part of BCB DXrng in- 
volves planning the DX ses* 
sions. As noted earlier, there 
comes a time when simply 
turning on the receiver and 
aimlessly looking about for 
new stations becomes non- 
productive, Ai this point, the 
DXer should set about com- 
piling realistic targel station 
lists for each time btock he 
plans lo listen. Factors to be 
taken into account are inter- 
ference, distance, s^son, and 
even month. The first two 
factors are obvious, but the 
tatter two can use some ex- 
planation. In BCB DX, winter 
tends to be the primary time 
to listen, due to the shorter 
period the atmosphere is ex- 
posed to sunlight, thus 
allowing a lesser period of 
ionization to occur. Likewise, 
a case has been made for 
better propagation due to 
cold weather. Antenna radia- 
tion patterns ^re altered 
somewhat by a covering of 
snow around the antennas, 
and large fronts of snowy 
weather can often affect 
i ntermediate-range propaga* 
tion by sky wave. 

The month of the year is a 
direct factor in the sunrise 
and sunset times already dis- 
cussed. Use of the maps of 
these times for domestic sta- 
tions, as well as maps 
depicting actual sunrise and 
sunset times worldwide, can 
aid in planning the DX ses- 
sion by allowing you to deter* 
mine when the signal path is 
in darkness, which predicts 
good propagation, or partly 
in sunlight, which does not. 
The domestic maps also allow 



the DXer to determine which 
stations lie closest to the 
borderline between one sign* 
off (or sign-on) block and 
another At sunset, those sta- 
tions closest to the previous 
block will be more likely to 
be heard than those closer to 
the following block, again 
due to the relative degree of 
darkness on the path. At sun- 
rise, the reverse is true for 
sign-on DX. Even this differ- 
ence of five or ten minutes in 
actual sunset or sunrise times 
among stations signing on or 
off simultaneously can make 
a significant difference. 

Recordkeeping is a major 
part of planning, and it is also 
a part of "saving" your DX, 
Records of monthly sunrise- 
sunset maps for the most 
productive domestic fre- 
quencies may be reused year 
after year, as can lists of 
target stations. Identifying a 
station with marginal audio 
may require not only a 
knowledge of the rudiments, 
such as call letters, location, 
and network affiliation, but 
also a knowledge of program- 
ming type, special or local 
networks, telephone area 
codes, postal zip codes, sports 
programming, and program 
syndications. All of these can 
be used to shed light on the 
identity of a station for 
which you can pin down 
neither the call letters nor the 
location. 

As noted at the outset, 
many DXers write for QSL 
cards, or "verifications of 
reception/' This requires 
maintaining a log of what is 
heard, with an emphasis on 
items of local nature, ad- 
vertisements, personalities, 
and phone numbers. This 
may be done via logging 
sheets for the long term, and 
by tape recordings, in order 
to put the data down on the 
logging sheets accurately. 
Tape recordings also allow 
you to play back partially* 
readable IDs or tentative IDs 
for analysis and ultimate 
identification. Many DXers 
maintain "ID tapes" which 
contain the station IDs re- 
corded from DX sessions and 
rerecorded onto the master 



Location 

Los Angeles 

Nashville 

Nevy York 

Chicago 

San Francisco 

Montreal 

Cincinnati 

Chicago 

Toronto 

Atlanta 

Detroit 

New York 

Chicago 

Schenectady, NY 

Fort Worth 

Minneapolis 

Loutss/ille 

Oenver 

Toronto 

New Orleans 

New York 

Chicago 

Pittsborgh 

Des Moines 

Los Angeies 

Cleveland 

St, Louts 

Salt Lake City 

Rochester, NY 

San Antonfo, TX 

Philadelphia 

Tabie I. Clear channel stations. All of the above stations 
broadcast on channels designated as **cfear'' channels by North 
American Radio Broadcasting Association agreements. All 
broadcast with 50^000 Watts and nondirectional antennas on a 
full-time basis. 



kHz 


Call 


640 


KFI 


6S0 


WSM 


660 


WNBC 


670 


WMAQ 


680 


KNBR 


690 


CBF 


700 


WLW 


720 


WGN 


740 


CSL 


750 


WSB 


760 


WJR 


770 


WABC 


780 


WBBM 


810 


WGY 


820 


WBAP 


830 


WCCO 


840 


WHAS 


S50 


KOA 


aeo 


CJBC 


870 


WWL 


880 


WCBS 


890 


WLS 


1020 


KDKA 


1040 


WHO 


1070 


KNX 


1100 


WWWE 


1120 


KMOX 


1160 


KSL 


1180 


WHAM 


1200 


WOAI 


1210 


WCAU 



tapes. This creates a semi- 
permanent record of the indi- 
vidual's DX catches and pro- 
vides a proof of reception as 
well, although not in the 
same way as verifications. 

What Can You Expect to 
Hear? 

The beginning DXer mighi 
best start by trying to log as 
many stations on each 
channel as he can by day and 
by evening before settling 
down into the "DX prime 
time." This will weed out the 
regular stations from the non- 
regular and will give the DXer 
a familiarity with the band, 
so thai he need not waste 
time trying to ID an un- 
needed station. Following 
that, one might try to hear all 
of the 50,000 Wati, class 1 A 
"clear channel" stations, altsl 
of which is shown in Table 1 . 

If foreign DX is more to 
the DXer's liking, or domestic 
DX has become boring, the 
beginner's goals should be 
toward Latin America 
initially, and ultimatelVp de- 
pending upon his geo- 
graphical location, to trans- 



atlantic or transpacifrc DX. 
Here, the World Radio/ TV 
Handbook is a must, in order 
to set up target stations, as 
well as to assist in identifying 
what is heard. Due to the 
fluid nature of many of these 
Latin American stations, as 
well as some differences 
caused by the listener's loca- 
tion, no list of widely heard 
stations will be presented. 
Such information, as well as 
information on transatlantic 
or transpacific DX, can best 
be obtained by joining one of 
the aforementioned BCB DX 
clubs. 

By this time, you have 
either gotten Interested in the 
concept of BCB DXing, or 
not* If you havu, the best 
advice is to start out with 
some fairly easy targets, and 
to contact one or both of the 
two clubs mentioned. If you 
feel that you require still 
more information, again, you 
should contact one of the 
clubs, either for their descrip- 
tive material or to purchase a 
copy of their beginners* pub- 
lications. In the meantime, 
good DX! ■ 



46 



E, Doren Vi/A6THG/KH6 
58 Manaoiana PlacB 
Hilo HI 96720 



Build An Engine Analyzer 



use your scope 



( 



If you are anything like 
me, you hate to pay some- 
one dse to do something you 
can do yourself, and that's 

the way it is with me and my 
automobile. It has occurred 
to me that I constantly find 
myself involved with elec* 
tronics. Yet here I am, a 
self-professed expert, and I 
have no way of taking on the 
complexities of the common 
Kettering automobile ignition 
system. Or do I? 



Recently, my daughter, 
Marie, gave me a beautiful 
automotive liming light. It's a 
real peach, with an extremely 
bright flash, and operates 
from the car battery system, 
*'Hey neat - , , just what I 
always wanted," and, with 
that, 1 ran out to the trusty, 
rusty Pinto and eagerly 
hooked up the light to the 
four-banger gas burner- 

The instructions say to 
hook the red and black wires 



on the light to the positive 

and negative terminals of the 
car battery and then clamp 
the induction pickup around 
the number one spark plug 
wire. Elementary, so far. With 
the engine running, and being 
careful to watch that those 
dangling wires don't drop 
into the spinning fan blades, I 
gently squeeze the trigger on 
the gun and watch the light 
spring to life* I love gadgets, 
and this one had all the ele- 




Photo A. This photo shows how the vertical input to the scope is coupled to the high tension 
lead from the distributor to the coiL Notice that it is only clipped to the insulation and does 
not maf^e direct connection to the wire. 



ments of being some real fun. 

Now, I have fiddled 
around some with automotive 
problems and knew that the 
timing marks are found on 
the side of the front pulley* 
All that has to be done is to 
rub some chalk into those 
marks, so you can see them 
easily, and, with the timing 
li^t aimed at the spinning 
pulley, press the trigger and 
watch the strobing action, as 
the number one cylinder fires 
the timing light. 

Somewhere back in my 
mind, I recalled that I had 
overlooked a few small 
details. Let's see . . , yes, the 
books did tell me that the 
vacuum advance line to the 
distributor must be pulled 
and plugged (I used a 6/32 
bolt from the funk box), but 
wait, what's this? ... 
'Timing must be adjusted 
with the engine running at 
manufacturer's specified rpm. 
If necessary, use a tachometer 
to set idle rpm." 

Weil, I don't have a 
tachometer. The first thought 
that went through my mind 
was to run out and buy one, 
but that didn't settle well 
with me. But 1 needed to 
figure how many revolutions 
per minute that little Pinto 
engine was turning over, and 
with a fair degree of accu- 
racy. 

We've all seen the modern, 
automotive electronics shops, 
with their big engine analyzer 
scopes aJl nicely calibrated, 
but who among us is going to 
rush out and buy one of 
those? What I do have is a 
pretty fair B and K model 
1461, 10 MHz, triggered 
oscilloscopep with eighteen 
calibrated sweep ranges. It 
seemed to me that that 
should workj somehow. 

The problem was inter- 
esting and one that took my 
thinking through many 
phases. I began by thinking in 
terms of how the combustinn 
engine works- It takes a fuel/ 
air mixture into the cylinder 
on a downstroke, compresses 
it on the upstroke, where it 
begins burning the mixture 
by sparking the plug some- 
where before top dead center. 



46 



The resultant explosion gives 
us the power downstroke. 
Finally, the cylinder on the 
last upstroke exhausts the 
by-products of burning. Our 
problem is to fire the plug at 
just the correct time on the 
first upstroke before top 
dead center and do this 
timing with the engine run- 
ning at a specified number of 
revolutions per minute. The 
timing light flashing on the 
timing marks will show us the 
answer to the first problem, 
but that rpm problem must 
still be figured out. Remem- 
ber^ that cylinder fires only 
once for every two engine 
revolutions. 

What we must do is get a 
good, stationary display of all 
cylinders firing on our scope, 
so we can measure the dura- 
tion of all cylinder firings in 
time. With an externally 
triggered scope, this is a 
dngh. Take a clip lead and 
loosely couple it around the 
number one spark plug wire. I 
just use an ordinary ctrp lead 
with an alligator clip on one 
end. Clipping this around the 
plug wire gives me plenty of 
induced pulses to easily 
trigger the scope (see Photo 
A). Switching to external 
trigger, the scope will now 
make, one sweep^ from ieft to 
right across the tube, for 
every firing of that number 
one cylinder, Then^ by 
coupling the vertical input of 
the scope to the high tension 
lead coming out of the center 
of the distributor in the same 
manner (see Photo B), your 
display will show the firings 
of all cylinders in exactly the 
sequence they actually are 
firing. In the case of the 
Pinto^ it will be, first, number 
one cylinder, followed by 
three, four, and finally, num- 
ber two. It's a simple matter 
to immediately see if all plugs 
are firing, and also to see the 
relative amplitude of the 
spark voltage to each 
cylinder. The vertical gain 
control, along with the 
vertical positioning control, 
can be used to bring the 
voltage peaks of all firings 
onto the scope face. Just 
remember, we are only look- 



ing at induced voltage 
through the insulation of the 
spark plug wire. We have not 
connected our scope directly 
to any bare wire, as the plug 
wires can carry well over 
10,000 Volts of ac. In some 
cases, it may help to put a 
2200 Ohm resistor and .05 
capacitor across the input of 
your scope, to dampen out 
much of the high frequency 
information we are not inter- 
ested in. Some experimenta- 
tion is called for with the 
exact values. Nothing is very 
critical In this department. 

Years ago, I learned a 
remarkable thing that turned 
out to be a gem of knowledge, 
and, after having spoken to 
other people in electronics, 
was very surprised to learn 
how few understood this fact. 
Very simply stated: 'Time in 
seconds is the reciprocal of 
frequency in Hertz, and fre- 
quency in Hertz is the 
reciprocal of time in 
seconds." Those of you who 
knew all along can smile, but 
those of you who didn*t 
should read and reread that 
until you understand its exact 
meaning, because, with this 
little nugget of knowledge, 
many mysteries of the oscil- 
loscope become child's play. 

Remember, we want to 
measure engine revolutions in 
time — specifically, revolu- 
tions per minute. Because^ as 
stated above, frequency in 
Hertz is the reciprocal of time 
in seconds. All we must do is 
measure, with the scope, the 
time for all cylinders to fire, 
take the reciprocal of this 
time in seconds to get 
frequency in Hertz, and then 
multiply by 120^ thereby 
getting revolutions per 
minute. {Remember, thj^-t 
cylinder fires once every 
other revolution; therefore 
we must multiply by 120 
rather than 60.) 

If we look at a calibrated 
sweep oscilloscope, we see 
that sweep time is usually 
measured in milliseconds or 
microseconds per division on 
the graticule over the face of 
the tube. All we must do is 
count the number of 
divisions, generally centi- 



SCOPE 




GN1TI0N 
SWITCH 



-=- BATTERY 



Fig. h 



meters, multiply by the 
indicated number of milli- 
seconds or microseconds per 
division of the sweep time 
scale of the scope, and take 
the reciprocal to find fre- 
quency. At this point, a small 
calculator is an immense help, 
unless you like to do long 
division with a penciL 

As an example, suppose 
we have connected our scope 
up as shown in Fig. 1 , and we 
are driving a four-banger. Our 
sweep time is set for 5 milli- 



seconds per centimeter. As 
seen in Photo C, the time 
between firings is 6.6 centi- 
meters. Multiplying this by 
our sweep time of 5 milli- 
seconds per centimeter, we 
find that time between firings 
ts 33 milliseconds, or 132 
milliseconds for four cylin- 
ders. Taking the reciprocal of 
1 3 2 m i 1 1 iseconds and 
multiplying by 120 reveals 
our engine revolutions to be 
909 revolutions per minute. 
For those of you who hate 




Photo B. This shows the method of obtaining the external 
trigger pulse from the number one cylinder. Notice that the 
wire is only loosely coupled around the plug wire and does not 
make direct connection. 



47 






Time for all cylinder 


Engine rpm 


firings irt milli&econds 


400 


300 ms 


450 


266 ms 


500 


240 ms 


550 


218 ms 


600 


200 ms 


650 


185 ms 


700 


171 ms 


750 


160 ms 


800 


150 ms 


8&0 


141 ms 


900 


1 33 ms 


950 


126 ms 


1000 


120 ms 


1(B0 


115 ms 


1100 


109 ms 


1150 


104 ms 


1200 


100 ms 



Fig. 2, 



Photo C With the sweep time of the scope set to 5 ms per 
centimeter^ we see the time duration between two firings to be 
33 milliseconds. This represent is 909 rpm on a fa ur<y Under 
engine. 



this kind of math, refer to 
Fig, 2, where I have figured 
out ail firing times and con- 
verted them to rpm for you. 
Although the scope could 
have been set up for a display 
of all four cylinder firings, 1 
personally feel a little more 
accuracy is possible by using 
an expanded sweep and 
measuring the time for one 
cylinder firing, rather than by 



mutti plying by the total 
number of cylinders. There 
probably isn't much differ* 
ence, so it will boil down to 
what each individual feels 
most comfortable witK 

To set the curb idte speed 
of your car, it is always best 
to refer to the manufacturer's 
specs, either in the owner's 
manual or in a local library, 
in a good automotive manual. 



I like Chilton's Motor Manual 
myself, and find it very com- 
plete- Generally, it's a matter 
of adjusting the correct screw 
on the carburetor. Curb idte 
speeds will vary, and the 
specs may call out different 
rpm for such cases as cars 
equipped with or without air 
conditioning, etc. Once the 
idle speed has been properly 
set, the timing can be ad- 
justed with the fight This 
involves loosening the lock 
nut under the distributor and 
gently turning the distributor, 
while watching the timing 




Photo D. Overall test setup used to determine the rpm of the Pinto, The ground connection of 
the scope is made to the bumper. 



marks on the front pulley in 
the strobing flash of the 
timing light, Timing will also 
increase or decrease the 
engine rpm, so you may fmd 
yourself going back and 
tweaking the curb idle adjust 
again. 

A word of caution is called 
for here. Adjustment of 
engine timing and curb idle 
speed will affect the 
emissions of your car. Go 
slowly the first time, consult 
your manuals^ and set your 
car up by the book. Don't 
forget to reconnect the 
vacuum line back onto the 
distributor when you are 
finished. 

It is beyond the scope or 
intent of this article to go 
completely into electronic 
engine analysis and tune-up 
procedures. Others before me 
have done this with more 
success. All I have attempted 
is to introduce to you the 
elements of using commonly 
available test equipment, 
rather than buying specialized 
equipment. I have found that, 
with a basic singlc^trace, trig- 
gered scope, using calibrated 
sweep and a good VOM, 
almost any problem in the 
ham shack or shop can be 
solved with a little thinking 
and some understanding. 

At today's prices for auto- 
motive analysis and tune-up, 
it won*t take long before my 
simple equipment will pay for 
itself. Even if it doesn't, the 
satisfactions of doing it your- 
self, saving, and learning in 
the process, are the real long- 
term payoffs. ■ 



m 



SCR 1000 

state ot the Art in VHF FM Repeaters 




2U 

•now 
220llimxl 



Optional Cabinet 
$130.00 



QuaKty Speaks 
For Itself I 



t* 




. The quality of the audio is 
unbe/ieyab/0 — b true r^foduction 
of tfw input it reBtty does sound fike 
simplex. The receiver sensitivity of 
our Spectrum system is at feast twice 
the Motorola system we had in ser- 
vice. We have 24 Watts out of our 
Sinclair Dupiexen We aff have fallen 
in love with your machine . . . Again, 
thank you for an excellent piece of 
equipment. We are certainly glad tha t 
we purchased a Spectrum WOO 
Repeater/' 

Jim Wood W3WJK 

Trustee WR3AHE 

Butler County Amateur 

FM Assoc, 
Mars PA 16046 



^The Model SCRtOO Receiver has 
proven to be a fine unit We have had 
ft in operation for nearly a year and 
it has been entirely troublefree. ^' 

H. Townserrd 

Stone Harbor Amateur 

Radio Klub (SHARK) 

Cape May NJ 



'We are quite pissed with the opera- 
tion of the repeater and are very 
proud of it Thanks for producing 
such a fine product" 

D.Totel W9NJM 

Wheaton Commur^ity 

Radio Amateurs, Inc. 

Chicago area 

^'During the first part of the year I 
bought B repeater from your firm 
and I thought you might be inter- 
ested to know it is working out Just 
fine. You have a product that more 
than meets the specifications you 
claim , . , In the receiver you have a 
winner, the intermod is negligible , . * 
We have many other repeaters both 
amateur and commercial in the area 
and a$ of yet no problem . , . In 
closing, I would like to thank you for 
producing a product that does what 
is expected of it In dits world one 
seldom gets what he pays for; I feel 
our group has bought and received 
our moneys worth/' 

Jim Todd WASHTT 
DaUasTX 



The SCR1000 — simply the finest repeater available on the amateur market . . . and often comparaJ to "commercial" 
units selling for 3-4 times the price! This is a 30Wt* unit, with a very sensitive & selective receiver. Included is a buitt-in 
AC Supply, CVV IDer, full metering and lighted status indicators/control push-buttons, crystals, local mic, etc. Also 
provided are jacks for emergency power, remote control, autopatch, etc. 

A full complement of options are available: Duplexers, Cable, 'PL*, HI/LO Power, Autopatch, Racks, eic. Please Inquire, 
The Spec Comm Repeater System ... a sound investment . . , available only by direct factory order. $950.00 Amateur 
Net. Commercial price somewhat higher. 

Repeater Boards & Assemblies Also Available: SCRIOO Receiver, SCTIOO Exciter/Xmtr., BA10 30Wt. Amp., CTCiOO 
COR/Timer/Control Board, IDIOO IDer - inquire. (See previous ads in 73.) 

Cafi or write today and get the detaifsf Send for Data Sheets f 




SPECTRUM COMMUNICA TIONS 

1055 W. German town Pk., Norristown PA 19401 (215) 631 1710 

■ formerly of Worcester PA ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



S8 



49 



Bill Hosking W7JSW 
S626 E. Clarendon 
Scottsdale AZ SS2S1 



More Repeater 
Control Devices 



-- control unit/audio interface 



Over the period of the 
last two or three years, I 
have designed, built, and 
installed a fairly complex 
control system for a system 
of five repeaters. Three of 
those repeaters are local or 
co-located with the primary 
control system, while two are 
remote, located from 20 to 



50 miles from the primary 
site. Since the system is now 
fairly well finalized, I decided 
to publish it. None of what ts 
to follow was consciously 
copied from any other 
source, but, with a project of 
this magnitude, there are 
bound to be some out there 
who can say, "Hey, that's my 



PRIMARY OB LOCAL SITE 



w 




TELE^HDME 



F-UBLIC PHCME UME3 



LEftSe FROM PHONE 



I 

COUPLER 



HELAT 



AUOO 



CONTB 
STST£J« 



CONTROL 



ON/OFF 



CONTROL 



jumio 



XMTR 



L 



1PTT 
AkJO 



kJOlO 



^D'E» 



AUKlLfAAlf 
FUNC'^'CMS 



^ 



rf tiitic 



IIEWDTI SrTE 



Ktnu 



I 



■ O'ER 



AUQIQ 



cowm 



CONTHdiL 



ON/OTF 



UPTB 



V 



Fig. L Control system block diagram. Entry is via public 
telephone using a Ma Belt coupler. The control system then 
either controls the local repeaterfs) directly or activate a link 
transmitter to relay control tones to a remote site. 



circuit." To them I offer my 
apologies. 

The total repeater control 
system is shown in block 
diagram form in Fig. 1. All 
primary control functions are 
carried out via tone codes on 
public telephone lines. There 
is a control phone termina- 
tion with a Ma Btrll coupler 
on it. The coupler answers 
the line and connects the 
audio into the control 
system. It also hangs up the 
phone after a certain period 
of tima After the control 
phone number fs dialed, a 
two digit control sequence is 
sent with touch tones"'' ^ /The 
present equipment at the 
phone site has the capability 
of about 30 functions, but 
that can be changed to fit 
system needs. 

In order to control the 
remote sites through the same 
system, one of the local con- 
trol codes wtif turn on a 450 
link transmitter and couple 
the telephone audio to the 
transmit ler. Activating that 
code also inhibits all of the 



other functions at the local 
site while the remote is being 
functioned. Each of the 
remote sites has its own 
complete decoder system and 
its own set of control codes. 
The sites have a 450 receiver 
coupled into the control 
system. Under our present 
system, each of the remote 
Sites has the capability of 
about 15 different functions, 
but here again ^ that is ex- 
pandable to fit different corv 
ditions- 

In addition to the control 
functions at each site, each 
has an audio interface board 
for the control decoder and 
an identifier. The identifier is 
a CMOS version of my 
original identifier circuit 
which appeared in the 
September, 1976, issue of 73. 
As of this writing, the audio 
interface board design is not 
completed. I expect to com- 
plete the design in the near 
future. The basic theory and 
block diagram will be 
included later in this article. 

The entire repeater control 
system is built around a two 
digit function code. The use 
of two digits was the end 
result of much discussion 
about various code lengths. It 
was decided that the added 
number of functions available 
or the added security afford- 
ed by more than two digits 
were not really worth the 
increase in logic complexity 
or cost. 

The system started out 
entirety in TTL for economic 
reasons. The control at the 
local site was the first built 
and is still TTL, but the 
remote site equipment is 
CMOS and any expansion to 
the system will use CMOS. 
Only the CMOS circuitry will 
be discussed in this article. 

Basic Control Function 

The basic control function 
is shown in block form in Fig. 
2. It consists of a tone de- 
coder/clock generator and a 
function ctecoder. The way 
the system is laid out, each 
function decoder provides 
one primary function and up 
to four auxiliary functions. 
The way it works is that each 



50 



function decoder module 
accepts a unique primary 
digit (i,e.j a 1) and then a 
second digit (i.e.^ 2) to com- 
plete a given function. The 
primary function has separate 
two digit ON and OFF codes 
having the same first digit 
(le,, 1-2 ON, 1-3 OFF). The 
auxiliary functions all have 
separate ON codes, but all 
share a cdrilmdh OFF code 
(i,e., 14, 1-5, 1-6, etc, ON, 
1-0 alt OFF). It is possible to 
wire the function board to 
provide more than one 
primary function^ but t didn't 
do it that way because it used 
up more of the available 
codes. Also, although it is 
feasible with this scheme, I 
steered clear of repeating 
digit coding such as 1 -1 , 

Notice, also, that I show 
the digit going to the func- 
tion decoder modute(s). The 
^ is a master reset which 
shuts off all functions at a 
site simultaneously. The # is 
used as a reset function for 
the initial logic states simply 
to eliminate possible func- 
tioning of an Lindesired code 
if doing two in sequence. For 
example, a sequence of 1-2 
-# would turn on a function 
and then reset the initial 
stages of the decode logic. An 
automatic reset function is 
also provided which performs 
the same function about 10 
seconds after the last tone is 
sent. The # and automatic 
reset are ORed on the de- 
coder module, and both 
appear on the reset line. 

Due to the many different 
control requirements and the 
low drive capability of CMOS 
circuits, I also provided an 
interface module which can 
provide either relay or transis- 
tor outputs or both. 

Audio Interface Module 

The as yet unfinished 
audio interface module is 
shown in block diagram form 
in Fig, 3. The module will 
provide the wide range age 
action which Is so vital to 
proper 567 tone decoder 
operation plus high group/ 
low group tone filtering, 
which, while not strictly a 
necessity, will provide for 



more stable, false-free de- 
coding. At the present time, I 
do have age amplifiers on all 
of the decoders, but [ am 
unhappy with the sensitivity 
of the circuit to the parts 
used. I (hopefully) will have a 
new design done in the near 
future. Also, since I'm not 
happy with the present cir- 
cuit, I haven't designed a 
printed circuit board as yet. 

Tone Decoder Module 

The tone decoder module 
consists of a set of 567 tone 
decoders^ a clock generator, 
and a reset jgenerator. The 
basic 567 tone decoder cir- 
cuit is almost right out of the 
Signetics Data Book^ with 
only a couple of component 
values changed. The block 
diagram of the module is 
shown in Fig. 4, and the 
complete schematic in Fig, 5, 
NE567 tone decoders have 
been discussed by me [73 , 
April, 1976) and many other 
authors^ so I will forego any 
detailed circuit description in 
this article- It should be 
remembered, however, that 
the 567 output goes low with 
the tone present and that the 
NOR gates on the outputs are 
actually functioning as AND 
gates. 

A look at Figs. 4 and 5 
will show some circuitry not 
included in most decoder 
circuitry, but which is most 
necessary to allow sequential 
decoding* Those circuits are a 
clock generator and a reset 
generator. Gate U11 forms a 
circuit which will provide an 
output whenever any column 
tone is present The output of 
this circuit is used to drive 
the clock and reset pulse gen- 
erators. 

As you look at the clock 
and reset circuits, you may 
well ask, '*Why the gates 
instead of monostable multi- 
vibrators (74121, 74123, 
14528)?" Well, the TTL 
version I mentioned earlier 
uses 74121s, and they gave 
me fits with false and double 
triggering. The CMOS version 
wasn't readily available to 
me* 

While experimenting one 
night, I stumbled on the cir- 



AUy. FUNCTION© 



RCVR 
OR 
PHONE 



RESET 




AUDIO 



TO ADDITIONAL 
MODULES 



OTHEfi 
REPEflTERS 



Ff'g, 2 Baste control decoder block diagram. The numbers in 
the blocks are separate modules (J: audio Interface; 2: tone 
decoder; 3: function decoder; 4: Interface). The outputs of the 
tone decoder module are TTL logic levels. There Is one output 
for each digit plus * and #, fn addition, there are clock and 
reset pulse generator outputs. These outputs drive the function 
decoder module(s). The function decoder outputs^ via appro- 
priate interface module (s)^ control the repeaterfs) and aux- 
iliary function(s). The Identifier module is a separate^ indepen- 
dent module requiring audio and PTT to the repeater. 



AUDIO ^^ 

INPUT '^ 



r 



INPUT 
LEVEL 




■)h 



l20&-l477:Ht 



TO 

■DECODER 
COLUMN rNPUTS 



"){ 



697-941 rt? 



TO 

ROW tWPUTS 



Fig. 3, A udio Interface block diagram. Incoming audio passes 
through an age amplifier which provides a constant output for 
inputs varying from about 50 mV to over 1 volt rms. The 
audio Is then filtered into high and low tone group ranges for 
input to the tone decoder module. 



LOW efiOU-P 

E\=>- )h 

IMfUT 



697, 



7 70 



65 Z 



i_ 941 



HIGH GftOUP 



mpiij 



1209 



1^36 



1477 



[> 
E 
C 
Q 
(3 
E 
R 



C 

I 
R 

■e 
I 

T 
R 

Y 



r ^^1 

L7402J 



N' 



:i 



^ 



:2 



- f — 1 5 



^4' 



:4 



:5 



^6' 



:6 



'7' 



'3' 



]7 

]© 

9 



'*^ 



:c 



te" 



-CZZlio 

< — 1 11 



CLOCK/ 
RESET 

GENERATOR 



CLOCK 



]S 



RESET 



JC 



+ t2V 



REG 



22a 



-P-+I5V 



/ 

EDGE CONNECTOR 
PINS 



t.& i > 



■GROUND 



Fig, 4. Tone decoder module block diagram. The basic decoder 
consists of seven 567 decoder ICs and three 7402 gate 
packages providing logic outputs for digits 0-9, * and #. 
Additionally y the module contains clock and reset generator 
circuitry. This circuitry provides a clock pulse output every 
time a digit Is decoded and a reset pulse 7-10 seconds after the 
last digit is decoded. 



51 



4liDlO \Z> 



(A) 




^EM^ 



m 




U9 



UIO 



ca — f 

^\ — 



Ht 



R2 



R» 




'g. 





^a' 



r>. 



C3^ 
I?) ^ 

RZ ■ 
R4 



PL>"- 




'fi- 




C^ 



'0' 



/©; 




STROBE 



i^^'t 



(C) 



E> 



C3 



R3 



^R5 



r3I> 



FieSET 



m 



Fig, 5, Tone decoder schematic diagram, a) Individual 567 
decoder; the remaining six are identical, b) Digit decoder 
connections* ICs U8, U9, and UIO are 7402 quad NOR gates, 
c) Clock and reset generator, UJ / and UJ2 are CMOS gates 
4025 and 4001 ^ respectively. 



Guit of Fig. 6, and it worked 
so simply and reliably that 
I replaced all my monos tables 
in the CMOS designs with the 
gate circuit It works in a very 
simple manner. When the in- 
put goes high, it charges the 
capacitor C to the supply 
voltage. Then, when the input 
goes back low^ the capacitor 
has no place to discharge 
Except through the resistor or 
through the input of the 
CMOS gate. Therefore^ the 
output of gate Ul is a pulse 
whose duration is determined 
by the time constant RC, 

As a matter of routine on 
this and all the other mod- 
ules, I provided LED indica- 
tors on each digit output plus 
the reset and clock pulses. By 
this time, LEDs had gotten so 
reasonable in price that I put 
one on every control signal^ 
which could be useful in 
determining proper circuit 
operation. The LEDs are 
driven by high gain transistor 
switches such as IVJPS6521s. 

Function Decoder Module 
A schematic of the func- 



tion decoder module is shown 
in Fig. 7. Since each user 
would have different coding 
and different modules within 
a given system configuration, 
I have indicated the digits 
simply as D1, D2, etc. 

The basic function de- 
coder building block \% the D* 
type flip-flop. This type flip- 
flop changes its Q output to 
agree with the D input upon 
application of a clock pulse. 
If the output was already in 
the same state as the D input, 
no change will take place in 
the output. 

The D input of IC Ul A is 
wired directly to the desired 
master digit (as explained 
earlier) for that function 
board, Then^ if that digit is 
high (a logical 1) when a 
clock pulse comes along, the 
Q output of IC U1A will go 
high and remain high. 

The high output of U1A 
then simultaneously enables 
all of the second digit g^tes 
{U8 and U9). The other input 
of gate use is wired to the 
primary function ON digit. 




G2 



Fig, 6. Basic CMOS pulse 
generator. This circuit can be 
implemented with gates or 
with buffers. The one shown 
IS a 4071 gate. 

Now^ assuming the master 
digit was sent and the ON digit 
is now sent, the output of U8 
will go high and place a high 
on the D input of Ul B while 
awaiting a clock pulse. When 
the clock pulse arrives, It will 
set the output of UIB high^ 
thus turning on the desired 
function via flip-flop U2. The 
same clock pulse will simuL 
taneousiy reset the first or 
master flip-flop since its D 
input was low during the 
clock pulse. About seven 
seconds after the last digit, a 
reset pulse will come along 
and reset UIB to a low state. 
This will not affect the out- 
put state. 

Flip-flops U2, U3, U4, U5, 
and U6 are wired as set-reset 
flip-flops and^ wired as such, 
provide a latching function. 
This function could also have 
been provided with cross-con- 
nected NOR or NAND ptes 
as desired. When the high 
from the output of Ul B is 
applied to the SET input of 
U2B^ its output goes high, in 
turn energizing a function via 
the interface module. The 
reset input of U2B is ORed 
with the master reset (*) and 
the output of U2A which 
responds to the unique two 
digit OFF code. As a result^ 
the function is turned off 
either by a two digit code or 
by a master reset. 

The remaining auxiliary 
functions all activate in the 
same manner as the primary 
function and with the same 
first digit. The difference is in 
the OFF function. All of the 
auxiliary latch stage's resets 
are tied together and go to 
the output of UIO A. They 
are also ORed with the 
master reset (*) input. With 
this arrangement there is one 
two digit code which resets 
all auxiliary functions at the 
same time, and they are also 



Function 

Primary 
Aujciliary 1 
Auxiliary 2 
Auxiliary 3 
Auxjflary 4 

Table A 
coding. 



ON 

6-4 
6-5 
67 



OFF 

6-2 
6-0 
6-0 
6-0 
6-0 



Typical function 



reset with the master reset In 
ail of the cases that I have 
built so far, I have used X-0 
(X is the primary digit) as the 
auxiliary function OFF code. 
To make the picture a little 
bit more clear, refer to Table 
1 , which shows typical codes 
for a single function decoder 
module. 

The user could alter this 
scheme to add more separate 
OFF codes, but it would be 
at the expense of total 
number of functions. For 
example, the F3 ON code 
could be wired to reset the 
second function instead of 
the common reset line. 

In most cases where I have 
to bring a signal such as the 
clock onto a board and drive 
several devices, I have used a 
gate to buffer the signal be- 
fore using it on the module. 
Also, to be on the safe side, I 
added buffers to each furic- 
tion output for more drive to 
the interface module. I also, 
as mentioned earlier, put an 
LED and driver on the output 
of each function. This proves 
to be an invaluable aid to 
both checkout and normal 
use. As with all the boards in 
this system, t provided an 
on-card regulator. Also, 
although not shown on the 
schematics, I put .01 uF 
capacitors directly across the 
supply pins of each device. 

Interface Module 

It is necessary to provide 
an interface between the 
somewhat fragile CMOS out- 
puts and the real world of 
repeater controls. The circuit 
to be controlled might range 
from a Darlington transistor, 
requiring only microamps to 
operate, to a large power 
relay, requiring tens or 
hundreds of milliamps and 
(most probably] capable of 
producing a targe reverse volt- 
age spike on release. Addi- 
tionally, the output might 



52 



require a switch to ground, or 
it miglit require dry (floating) 
relay contacts. 

To tal<e care of tfiese 
diverse requirements, I have 
used two standard interface 
circuits, one transistor and 
one relay. The schematics are 
shown in Fig, 8. The tran- 
sistors used are power 
Darlingtons requiring little 
drive and capable of sinking 
six Amps. I provided a reverse 
diode to clamp out any re- 
verse spikes which might 
appear on the line from 
con trolling an inductive 
device, in the case of the 
transistor outputs, they are 
switching to ground, and I 
used common phone jacks for 
control outputs* I mounted 
the jacks on a small metal 
panel on the front of the 
circuit card. 

The relay output uses 12 
volt PC card mount relays 
having contacts rated at least 
to 2 Amps, The relays are 
driven by a high gain tran- 
sistor such as the MPS6521 or 
equivalent I used a small 
barrier strip to bring out the 
relay contacts to the front 
edge of the module. If 
multiple relay contacts are 
desired from one module^ 
they will have to be brought 
out to the rear edge connec- 
tor. 

Identifier 

The identifier module is an 
offshoot of my original TTL 
design which appeared in the 
September, 1976, issue of 73, 
The main drawback of the 
TTL version was the current 
consumption — almost one 
Amp. 

The second problem was 
complexity. Most of the com- 
plexity was a result of an 
attempt to automatically 
identify about three minutes 
after the identifier was origi- 
nally keyed, without restart- 
ing the timing circuitry. 

1 did some research into 
the memories I was using and 
found that I could drive the 
address inputs with the out- 
put of a CMOS device with- 
out destroying the device. 
With that in mind, I rede- 
signed the identifier using 



CMOS devices for the count- 
ers and data selectors, but 
retaining the TTL memory 
and 555/556-type clock. The 
revised circuit with ail the 
reidentify circuitry removed 
is shown in Fig. 9. The pro- 
gramming for the memory is 
shown in Table 2. The basic 
IDer function is the same as 
described in my earlier 
article, so I won*t go into 
much detail here. 

Briefly, operation is as 
follows. One half of the 556 
functions as a clock which is 
turned on and off by the 
action of the start-stop flip- 
flop made up of U4A and 
U4B. The output of the clock 
drives counter U2^ which 
sequences data selector U3 
through each of the eight 
memory outputs, advances 
the word address by one, and 
then repeats the output 
scanning operation. This 
sequence is repeated until 
256 bits are decoded. If 
different length IDs, are 
desired, a gate could be in- 
stalled to decode the outputs 
of the counter at the desired 
stopping point. 

Construction 

I built all of my present 
system on 4V2 by GYi general 
purpose circuit cards with 44- 
pin edge connectors. The 
cards then go in a standard 
rack for logic cards. This type 
of construction makes for 
easy changes and lots of 
versatility. 

As 1 mentioned earlier, I 
put metal brackets on the 
front edge of the cards, with 
jacks and controls installed 



BO 



BT 




4 UJ-UrO UN JUMPERS 



GNP- 



Fi'g, Z Function decoder module schematic diagram, U1-U7 
are 4013 CMOS dual D type flip-flops, U8 and U9 are 4071 
AND gates, U JO Is a 4081 OR gate, and Ull fs 'a 4050 hex 
buffer. The circles on the schematic represent locations for 
on-board jumpers* The jumpers are for function coding. 



on the brackets. 

At the time of this writing, 
I have started printed circuit 
layouts on two of the system 
boards, and I expect to have 
some of the modules available 
by the time the article gets 
into print. For information 
on availability and pricing 
write to CONTACT Electron- 



ic Research and Develop- 
ment, 35 W. Fairmont Dr, 
TempeAZ 85281. 

Interconnection and 
operation of a set of modules 
as a system is greatly aided by 
use of a logic card rack of 
some kind. I tried to make 
the PC cards' connections 
such that wiring of the logic 



B2 



B3 



B4 



B5 



01 














02 


X 


X 


X 




X 




03 






X 








04 




X 




X 


X 


X 


05 


X 


X 








X 


06 


K 


X 




X 






07 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


OS 




X 




X 






09 




X 


X 


X 






10 




X 




X 




X 


11 




X 


X 


X 




X 


12 


X 












13 














14 















B6 



X 



B7 





D 




E 


X 


W 


X 


R 


X 


7 


X 




X 


A 


X 






H 


X 


B 



Table 2. Programming sample for the CMOS Identifier. Shown Is the pro-am for DE WR7AHB 
where an X indicates a "J" programmed in a bit position. The blanks In the first address 
provide start-up time for the identifier and transmitter. 



53 



R/C 


567 


Frequency 


R1 


Ut 


697 


R2 


U2 


770 


R3 


U3 


852 


R4 


U4 


941 


CI 


US 


1209 


C2 


U6 


1336 


C3 


U7 


1477 



Table 3. Table of tone de- 
coder settings. Attach your 

frequency counter to pin 5 of 
the 567s to read the fre- 
quency, 

rack wouldn't be too 
difficulL To make power 
busing easy, I made ihe 
connections on both sides of 
the board serve the same 
purpose. Terminals 1 and A 
arc GROUND, white terminals 

22 and Z are +12 V. The 
decoder outputs are on pins 2 
through 13, and the clock 
and reset are on pins B and C 
respectively • These connec- 
tions are then paralleled 
down a series of connectors* 
Unless multiple relay con- 
tacts are desired, the only 
other connections on the 
back of the rack are a small 
termifial strip for power 
supply connection and a fuse 
block. I also added a 2000 uF 
capacitor across the supply 
input lo the rack since the 
actual power source was some 
distance away. 

Setup and Alignment 

The first stage of system 



wjEnoo 



O- 






^4/ 




r^^aot 



■^ 



/T? 



^t* 



(8) 



4 >r¥i ^ 

rP^ — ^ 

f-T J2M440I 



■o 



Fig. 8. Interface module sche- 
matics, a) Transistor switch. 
The transistor used should be 
a high gain one. In my case^ I 
used M/ El 100s. b) Relay 
output circuit. The relay 
driver must be a fairly high 
gain transistor. I normally use 
an MPS6521 for this type of 
application. The relays are PC 
mount with at least 2 Amp 
contacts. The module pro- 
vides ihe option of using 
either 5 or 12 volt relays by 
either instafling or bypassing 
a five volt regulator* 



setup consists of deciding on 
the digit coding desired and 
then wiring the appropriate 
gates on each function de- 
coder module. The PROM for 
the identifier must be pro- 
grammed for the desired call- 
sipi- I have presented pro- 
gramming information in 
other articles, as have others^ 
so I won*t repeat it here. 

Alignment is necessary on 
the audio and tone decoder 
modules. The age amplifier 
input/output levels must be 
properly adjusted and the 
tone decoder frequencies 
must be set. 

Age alignment is easy, but 
requires a source of audio and 
an audio frequency volt- 
meter. First, set the audio 
input to the age circuit to the 
maximum expected input 
voltage and connect the audio 
voltmeter to the output. 
Adjust the output of the age 
for a convenient reading and 
start increasing the Input level 
control. Increase the control 
until the output no longer 
increases. Now adjust the age 
output level for the desired 
input to the decoder {about 
1 50 mV rms). Now^ you 
should be able to decrease the 
input from the audio source 
by at least one order of 



magnitude without the out- 
put varying* 

Adjustment of the tone 
decoders consists of setting 
each 567 to its proper 
frequency. To be done 
properly, this requires a 
frequency counter, but it can 
be done with a tone pad- 
Power up the tone decoder 
moduiei put your counter on 
pfn 5 of Ul, and adjust the 
pot for a frequency of 697 
Hz. In a similar manner, ad- 
just the remaining decoders 
for their proper frequency, I 
have shown the IC numbers 
and frequencies in tabular 
form in Table 3. 

Now connect the audio 
module and the tone decoder 
module together either in the 
logic f^ck or on the work- 
bench. Here an extender 
board (also available from 
CONTACT) Is a great help. 
Hook a touchione generator 
to the audio input of the 
audio module and apply 
power to the system. Start 
depressing the digits on the 
pad. As each digit is 
activated, its proper LED on 
the lone decoder module 
should light, the clock LED 
should flash once, and, about 
5-7 seconds later, the reset 
LED should flash. 

If all of the above has 



progressed to a satisfactory 
conclusioni you are ready to 
plug in a function decoder 
module and continue testing. 
Once everything is connected 
together, sending the correct 
ON digits should cause the 
LED for that function to 
light, and the OFF digit 
should cause it to turn off* 

Interface module checkout 
is simply a matter of seeing if 
the proper transistor or relay 
is activated when the correct 
function code is sent, and the 
proper LED on the function 
board is illuminated. Identi- 
fier module checkout requires 
either an audio amplifier or 
connection lo your trans- 
mitter and a method of 
monitoring the transmitter 
audio. I have provided an 
identifier test button in the 
design. Every time this is 
pressed, the IDer will send 
the programmed identifica- 
tion and should keep the 
transmitter keyed through 
the keying transistor. The 
only adjustments that have to 
be made are the ID speed, 
pitch, and timeout delay. 

Conclusion 

A typical system configur- 
ation would consist of the 
following modules: audio, 
tone decoder, function 



+ 6VDC 



5TJtBT 







Ml - A-fcPtms FOSf 748116 it VCttSCOS 



Fig, 9. G^OS identifier module schematic. The circuit is the same as my earlier article, but now 
in CMOS and without the automatic re identify feature. Ml is an 8223 programmable read only 
memory. If more than one message or a longer one is desired , a 74186 memory could be used 

with appropriate wiring changes. 



54 



decoder (2), interface (2)^ 
and identifier. Addition of a 
COR/timer module such as 
Isid out in my afticle in the 
January, 1977, issue of 73 
would make a complete 
repeater control system. 

I have inad very good luck 
v^/ith this system. The only 
problems I have encountered 
were mostly my own fault. 
Don't use ceramic-type capac- 
itors for the tone determining 
capacitors on the tone 
decoder module, I found out 
the hard way that they drift 
badly with temperature. 1 had 
sorne initial trouble with 
clock timing when I first 
went to CMOS on the func- 
tion decoders, but the delay I 
mentioned earlier appears to 
have solved that problem. I 
gdt completely wiped out on 
a remote site once by light- 
ning causing a surge on the 
power line and wiping out a 
lot of devices. I have since 
added various kinds of light- 
ning protection on all of the 
sites, but I don't really know 
if it will be effective. 



Use of this system requires 
a method of sending tone 
signals down the phone line 
after the line is connected at 
the receiving end. In some 
instances we have controlled 
our repeaters with an acousti- 
cally-coupled tone encoder, 
but it was not completely 
satisfactory. A touch tone 
phone is the key, but there is 
even a problem there. In 
many exchanges, Ma Bell 
reverses the phone line 
polarity when the answering 
connection is made^ and this 
shuts off the tone pad in your 
phone so you can*t send 
tones down the line. The 
answer to this problem is a 
little gadget the phone 
company will install on your 
phone called **polarity 
guard." There is no charge for 
the gadget itself as far as 1 
know, but naturally it will 
cost you a service charge to 
have the thing installed- 

Again J ! am trying to make 
a complete system of module 
circuit boards available, but it 
is a slow process. If you are 



interested, write to CON- 
TACT as mentioned earlier If 
you decide to put one of 
these systems together and 



have any trouble, please feel 
free to contact me. The only 
thing 1 ask is that you include 
an SASE. ■ 



Parts List 



Tone Dacodei' 



U1-U7 
US, 9, 10 
U11 
Ut2 



NE567 
7402 
7410 
4001 
-7805 



7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
7 



2.2 uF/15 V electrolytic 

4.7iiF/15 V 

J uF mylar 

4.7k y* W 

6.Sk y^ W 

10k pot 



Function Decoder 



U1-U7 


4013 


ua, U9 


4081 


U10 


4071 


U11 


4050 



5 
5 
5 

1 



MPS6521 orequiy. 
LED 

100k y4W 
.22 uF 



Interface Boards 



One of the following per contro fed circuit: 






MJE1100 


or 


2M4401 








1N4001 








._ 




2.2k 'A W 












12 volt relay 










Identifier 












Ul 




555 timer 


1 - MJE1100 


1 


- 500 % W 


U2 




4040 


2-\k'A\N 


1 


- 100k pot 


U3 




4512 


10 -6.8k 74 W 


1 


— 5k pot 


U4 




4001 


1 -2.7k V4W 


4 


-.01 uF 


U5 




555 


1 - ISk^/i W 


1 


-,22uF 


Ml 




S223/S2S23 


1 - 180 y^w 


1 


- A uF 



Nei^ Products 



from page 25 

amateur. It was called the FIVI-21, 
originally marketed as a six-channel 
radio that had twelve-channel expan- 
dability and the rather novel feature 
of requiring but one crystal per chan^ 
neE, The FM-21 has since given way to 
a "kissin 'country -cousin" of the two 
meter MK-3, the 220 MHz FIVl-76. 
Other than coverage and power out- 
put, the two radios appear to be 
twins. 1 can personally vouch for the 
FM-76, since one is mounted in my 
car and is In use daily. For better than 
six months, it has performed without 
3 flavi/, and, due to my life-style, I 
really Qtve any mobile installation a 
real workout. 

The FJVl-76 has something else 
going for it. As most of you are aware, 
the selection of 220 MHz amateur 
equipment is still quite limited; and if 
you are going to build a repeater, you 
have but two choices. Either you 
build it from scratch or you start with 
a good radio and build from there. 
(Nobody has a tally, but there are 
many successful 220 MHi repeaters 
out there that got started as an 
FM-76, I know of at least or^e re- 
mote-base using an FM-76 as a 220 
downlink as well. Repeater and re- 
mote-base service take a lot from any 
radio, and in that department, the 



FM-76 seems to excel. 

There is more to this story, though, 
than radios. Very important is what 
does an amateur do when his radio 
decides to do things it's not supposed 
to do? Fact is, not every amateur is an 
rf or digital expert. When a radio 
decides to "go west/' wtiere do you 
turn? If you ar^ lucky enough to own 
a Clegg radio, you simply mail it back 
(or drive ouer if you are not too far 
away) to Clegg Communicattons, and, 
in a few days, it's back in your hands 
working properly. In fact, when we 
drove out to Lancaster to do this 
story, we took with us Lou Belsky 
K2VIVlR's FJV1'27B. Three days later, 
Lou had his radio back in his car and 
on the air. This includes the time it 
spent Qoing UPS back to Queens NY. 
Clegg believes that product support 
after sale is important and strives to 
supply the best in the shortest pos- 
sible time. No matter where you live, 
if you have a way of getting your 
radio to Ciegg, Clegg will make It play, 
doing so at a price that won't bank- 
rupt you, 

Clegg sells only '"factory direct," 
and this has been the key to holding 
the price to where we, the amateur 
consumer, can afford bis goodies. His 
current facility in Lancaster is well 
stocked for quick delivery and good, 
fast after-sale product support and 



service. Also available are accessories 
such as power supplies for base station 
use, antennas, and many other items 
we amateurs need. Soon, possibly 
before you read this, Ed hopes to be 
moving into even larger quarters that 
will enable him to expand his ability 
to meet our needs. 

By listening to his peers in the 
amateur community, by looking 
ahead and being willing to "take a 
chance/' by having something avail- 
able for every VHF-interested amateur 
in every price range, Edward T. Clegg 
has become almost a legend in his own 
time. He's a ham who cares about 
amateur radio, an active amateur who 
keeps in tune with the needs that we 
have and endeavors to filt them. More 
over, as 1 can personally attest^ he is a 



human being who cares a lot about his 
fellow man. Those of you who know 
him, know of what i ^eak; those who 
have never met Ed have missed some^ 
thing special. \ sincerely hope that one 
of these days you have the chance I 
have had. 

Ed Clegg pioneered VHF at a time 
when such was not realty fashionable; 
he was there when it started and is 
still here today- There are many of us 
who hope that the "Man and his 
Radios" wilt be here for many years 
to come. Yes, I'm sold on Clegg 
equipment. Why not? Tve owned a lot 
of it over the years and never once 
have 1 been dissatisfied. And I know 
many others who fee! the same way. 

Bill Pasternak WA6ITF 
NewhalICA 



Ham Help 



I need information and a schematic 
on converting the Motorola T43A 
series of VHF transceivers. Keep up 
the good work on a fine magazine. 

Billy L. Nielsen W64APC 

Rt. 2, Box 253E 

Radcliff KY 40160 

Help I To get on ON, I need a 
schematic and alignment info on a 
Gonset G-76 AM-CW transceiver. 

Don Patterson WA1 FXK/2 

Box 123. 773 RADS 

Montauk AFSNY 11954 



Do you know of any persons or 
clubs that are into classroom instruc- 
tions in my area? I would like to get 
some help and get my license. 

Medardo Cruz 

491 1 Ave. I 

Brooklyn NY 11234 

I wonder if any of your readers can 
tell me where I might purchase DC4 
silicone grease? 

Neil Johnson W20LU 
74 Pine Tree Lane 
Tappan IMY 10983 



55 



Alexander Mac Lean WA2SUT/NNmZVB 
IS Indian Spring Trail 
Denville NJ 07834 



How Do You Use ICs? 



-- part VIII 



Recently I was asked to 
try to unscramble a 
little circuit that appeared in 
another magazine/ 

I didn't have all the parts 
needed to make the circuit, 
but I was able to come up 
with some suggestions for the 
correspondent, and immedi* 
ateiy sent for the materials to 
build the circuit — just to 
make sure- 
It struck me that this 
simple little circuit is a gc?od 
demonstration of circuit 
function and analysis. 

The circuit is an LED 
blinky circuit. All it does is 
turn two LEDs on and off 
alternately at a slow rate that 
can be seen by the eye. How- 
ever^ within that simple oper- 
ation is the ability to show 
the operation of digital cir- 
cuitry visually, 

M a secondary benefit, 
you finally get to sit down 
and build a real live IC pro- 
ject, although perhaps it^s not 
the most spectacular. 

Let's take it from the 



/fr 



beginning, the circuit analysis 
leading to the fault in the 
original circuit. 

Fig. 1 is the circuit as it 
originally appeared.^ You can 
read the circuit the way it is 
drawn — it is simple enough 
— but it will be easier if the 
circuit is redrawn so that the 
IC sections are shown indi- 
vidually. 

This is shown in Fig. 2. 
The circuit uses the SN7400 
ICj which has been described 
in a previous part of this 
series. 

This is a four section IC. 
The redrawn circuit shows 
that two sectfons are not even 
in the circuit. They are 
grounded out. 

That's one way to simplify 
a circuit. Now, for the prob- 
lem. When the circuit was 
built as it was shown, it did 
not work. This was because 
the circuit is not correct It is 
a simple defect, but iet*s go 
over the circuit dpsely. 

The basic technical de- 
scription in the original 

J 



iA 



f f f t 



3 



iO 



e 



) SN7400 



50^^:^::: 



HF^* 



50 



470oi 



4700' 



.ED 



INO MORE 
THAfJ 6V) 



X)led 



^20n| 



120.^ 



article described the circuit as 
a multivibrator* This is a 
switching oscillator. The 
LEDs show this operation 
visually. Obviously, if you 
build the circuit and the 
lights don't blink, it means 
the circuit doesn*t work. The 
object in this case is to make 
the lights blink. That's why 
you buitt it in the first place. 

However^ the lights 
blinking is the result of cir- 
cuit operation. We have 
eliminated two sections of 
the IC which are not even 
part of the circuit - let's cut 
out a bit more. 

The blinky part of the IC 
circuit is the two remaining 
I C sections and the LEDs, We 
can see that the LEDs don't 
blink; what we want to know 
is why. 

The circuit can be further 
divided into three main func- 
tions, any one of which could 
cause the malfunction. 

In order to work properly, 
the circuit must get the cor- 
rect voltage, the oscillator 
circuit must function, and the 
LED indicating circuit must 
function. 






-^ SO>*.F 



/77 



f 



No work, no blinky. Now 
comes the easy part. You 
have to start troubleshooting. 
How do you go about it? 

The voltage to an IC cir- 
cuit is easy to check. In an 
unkriown circuit, the first 
thing to check is the pin 
connections. If the Vcc and 
the ground pin are correctly 
drawn and wired, then you 
measure the source voltage. 

If the voltage to the device 
terminals is within the correct 
rangej you can eliminate it as 
a possible cause in a simple 
circuit like this, There are 
circuits where pulses on the 
voltage bus can cause mind- 
boggling troubles, but they 
won't cut off a simple circuft 

That leaves two elements. 
The oscillator supplies the 
signal that lights the LEDs, 
but the only function the 
LEDs have is as indicators. 
They are not part of the 
oscillator circuit. 

In this circuit the voltage 
is correct, so we are left with 
two possible troubles, Either 
the LED indicator circuitry is 
not correct, or the oscillator 
is not correct. 

There is not much choicej 
really. The first thing you 
have to know is if the oscil- 
lator is working. Then you 
can worry about the LEDs, 

Now then, if the LEDs 
aren't going to tell you if the 
circuit works, what is? Let*s 
look at the circuit again to 
see exactly what we are 
playing with. 

The oscillator circuit has 
been redrawn in Fig. 3 with- 
out the extra section and the 
LEDs, We are left with the 
basic multivibrator* 

This we have seen before. 
In the article dealing with the 
crystal oscillators^ it was 
pointed out that they were 
actually not an oscillator at 




^^ 



45-Gv 

A 
it 



IIMiDi 



/77 



Fig, 7. Original blinky schematic (incorrect). 



Fig. 2. Fig. J redrawn (still I neon eel). 



56 



all, but a form of IC multi- 
vibraior circuit whose fre- 
quency of operation was 
determined by the crystal. 

This circuit is an old 
friend. If you remember the 
basic configuration of the 
other circuits, the problem 
with this one should stand 
out from the page as you 
look at it now. 

You have three basic fault 
choices. The IC could be 
defective, the parts values 
could be wrong or they could 
be defective^ or the circuit 
could be wrong. 

One of the first things that 
comes to mind when looking 
at an IC multivibrator is that 
normally both sections are 
symmetricaL Does that look 
symmetrical to you? That 
was the trouble. The circuit 
was incorrect It didn't work, 
but how do you test it? 

You test it with another 
indicating device. The thing 
to keep in mind is what it is 
indicating. A digital IC is a 
switch. It's on or it's off. In 
this case, it is supposed to be 
on and off consecutively. 

As this is an oscillator, it 
must have a frequency. The 
frequency determines the test 
equipment to show its opera- 
tion. 

Here we have an awkward 
situation. It is supposed to 
flip-flop slowly enough for 
your eye to see the blinks. 
This might be a bit fast for a 
meter and a bit slow for a 
scope to really show the 
waveform. 

When I built the test cir- 
cuit (Fig. 4), I changed the 
values of the circuit con- 
stants. I used 2200 Ohm resis- 
tors and OJ uF capacitors. 
This raised the frequency 
high enough for the scope to 
really show the waveform- 



vcc 




:^ &Oi(F 



m 



Fig^ 3. Simp/ if led circuit (Fig. 



Once the circuit was 
hooked up right, it took off 
the first time. Then other 
values were tried while it was 
on the scope. 

It also worked with 0.01 
uF caps in the circuit. This 
raised the frequency even 
higher. Now, the baste mutti- 
vibrator is a symmetrical cir* 
cuit. Electronically, both 
pulses are identical in shape 
and duration. It is possible to 
vary that to an extent. 

Just to see what it looked 
like, one of the capacitors 
was made 0*1 uF and the 
other was made 0.01 uF, This 
resulted in a nonsymmetrical 
waveshape. One of the pulses 
was most definitely a dif- 
ferent width than the other 

There is a limit to how far 
you can bend the circuit be- 
fore it stops working, but if 
you have a scope, try a few 
different combinations to see 
what it looks like once you 
get the basic circuit working. 

These values result in a 
switching circuit which is 
great for a scope but far too 
fast to see visually. To get 
back to the original idea, 
much larger values are used to 
get a lower frequency. 

It is the combination of 
the resistor and the capacitor 
in each teg of the circuit 
which determines the fre- 
quency. Within reasonable 
limits, there is a wide range of 
combinations that can be 
used. 

The original article sug- 
gested that no higher than 
4700 Ohms be used, because 
it would affect the bias too 
much. 2200 Ohms was the 
highest on hand, and the 50 
uF capacitors called for gave 
a frequency that blinked too 
fast. The LEDs looked like 
they were on continuously. 
The 100 uF caps slowed it 
down so that the blinking 
showed fairly clearly. 

Now then, without the 
LEDs, how do you tell if the 
circuit works? First of all, it 
showed on the scope, but 
instead of seeing the familiar 
square wave, you got the 
trace being deflected at a 
slow rate. 

What if you don't have a 



scope? That's simple, too. 
Stay with the switch action. 
There is a dc voltage at the 
output of each IC section of 
the multivibrator. Here the 
trick is making the meter 
show tt. 

In this case, you don't 
want a fast frequency, so 
start with the slow speed con- 
stants. If you have to sub- 
stitute, you may come up 
with an inconveniently high 
frequency, but you stfll want 
to know if the circuit works. 

If you do have a nice low 
frequency, you can prove cir- 
cuit operation with the dc 
scale of your VOM or VTVM. 
The meter may riot read cor- 
rectly, but you will see the 
needle fluctuate up and down 
as the circuit switches on and 
off. 

If you can get that, you 
know the circuit works. Make 
this test carefully. The needle 
may not follow the variations 
well, and if the frequency is 
too high, it wilt just quiver. It 
still tells you the circuit 
works> but it's really not too 
good for the meter — so keep 
an eye on it and get off fast. 

If you can actually see a 
back and forth meter pulse 
rather than a fast quiver, it is 
a good indication that you 
have a nice blinking rate. 

Of course, this would be 
the ideal situation in which to 
use a logic probe if you 
happen to have one. It will 
tell you immediately if the 
circuit is switching, and you 
won't have to fuss about fre- 
quency at first. 

When the circuit works, 
you can add the indicator. In 
the original circuit, the LEDs 
went between the output and 






the Vcc pin. That's a bit 
redundant. You only need 
one source to light the LED_ 
That way, it was relying on 
reverse biasing to turn the 
LED on and off. 

When the test circuit was 
made, the LED was put be- 
tween the IC stage output 
and ground. Thus, it was 
switched on when the IC sec* 
tion was in its high or **on" 
state. 

Schematic symbols are 
nice, but if you really want to 
know which way is up on the 
LED, take one and its resistor 
and connect it between the 
Vcc pin and circuit ground. If 
it lights, you're OK; if not, 
reverse the diode. If it still 
doesn't light, it may be 
defective — try another LED. 

Don*t forget those resis- 
tors. As with the LED read- 
outs, they are current-limiting 
resistors and |ust as necessary 
to prevent damage to the 
single LED. The value isn't 
too critical. ISO Ohms would 
be the smallest you would 
want to use; I prefer 220 or 
higher. If you want to be 
fancy, measure the actual cur- 
rent drawn to get the value 
you want. 

Don't forget what you 
have here. The IC multi- 
vibrator is the operative part 
of the circuit* The LEDs 
merely indicate the operation 
visually. 

The circuit constants are 
chosen to have a speed of 
operation that the eye can 
follow. It should be slow 
enough that you can easily 
see each LED go on and off 
alternately. When one looks 
on, the other should look off. 
At the least, it should show 



vcc 

♦»VDC 



^(^ 



> 



OI-IOO,iF* * 



T-^h 



2^00 



220 



1 



fn 



ii4 



Ty 



2200 



230 



"^i 



Fig. 4. Correct multivibrator configuration test circuit. ^CI, 
C2: bath of same value. **Optiona/ LED Jaw speed indicators. 



57 




Fig. 5. Basic binary display circuit 



an alternating action, blinking 
back and forth. 

There is another, most 
interesting, way of looking at 
what we have here. This little 
blinky circuit is showing us 
the high and low state of each 
section of the working part of 
the IC, 

Since that is at I that a 
digital IC is supposed to do — 
switch between two states - 
we can see all that it does 
right before our eyes. 

To carry this a little 
further, if the speed of the 
switching operation Is set at a 
speed that the eye is capable 
of foi lowing, much of the 
electronic operation of any 
digital circuit can be pre- 
sented visually. 

Even with a more complex 
circuit, it permits a visual 
understanding of the actual 
workings of a digital circuit 
that would be unobtainable 
easily by any other means. 

This opens up a rather 
wide range of circuit possi- 
bilities that can be used to 
further your own under- 
standing of circuit operation 
or as a teaching aid to demon- 
strate IC basics to others. 

For example, the !C multi- 
vibrator circuit is quite 
common in ham projects> It is 
the basic iC oscillator. The 
choice of circuitry determines 
its function, such as crystal or 
audio or whatever. The basic 
circuit is much the same, 
apart from frequency. 

Probably the next most 
important digital functions 
are frequency dividing/ 
counting and circuit 
switching (gating). 

One W the hottest ham 
projects going is the fre- 
quency counter. These IC 



functions are the main meat 
of the I C counter. 

Fig. 5 shows a beginning 
application of the test 
demonstrator. Starting with 
our original blinky^ which 
should be slow enough to see, 
we add an SN7490 decade 
counter IC. This is the basic 
counter circuit hooked up to 
show the counting action by 

displaying the outputs. 

The second IC is hooked 
up to show its binary out- 
puts. This is the whole key to 
the ICs ability to provide a 
coded output that can be 
translated into numbers. 

This should be slow 
enough that the viewer can 
actually see the binary num- 
bers in lights, and watch the 
combinations change visually 
with each pulse. With the 
explanation of the binary 
number system and perhaps a 
chart, a viewer will soon get a 
feel for the numbers as they 
change. 

There you have two basic 
IC functions: the initial 
switching action and the 
counting action. 

There are a few other 
points about this circuit. It 
may still be a bit fast when 
you are watching the binary 
numbers blink. 

It is not hard to get a feel 
for them, but if you are using 
this circuit for demonstration 
purposes^ yqu might consider 
putting in another 7490 IC 
stage between the multi- 
vibrator and the LED display. 
That will slow it down so that 
it can easily be followed. 

You can have both 7490s 
set up with LEDs to give a 
fast/slow display. There are a 
lot of possible options, de- 
pending upon what you want 



to show. 

One other thing should be 
mentioned. These ICs are neg- 
ative edge triggered. It can be 
confusing at first to see that 
when the LED lights up at 
the input to the 7490, noth- 
ing happens. It doesn^t pulse 
until the LED goes out on the 
negative part of the pulse. 

Your eye will get used to 
it in a while, particularly if 
you understand or explain 
the circuit timing and what 
the pulses are doing. 

Fig, 6 is a chart of how the 
LEDs will display the binary 
coded numbers. It takes only 
a short while to master it^ and 
then it should be easy to 
^Yead^' it. 

Remember that it reads 
from right to left, each 
position adding to the next. 
There are four positions used, 
corresponding to 8, 4, 2, and 
1. The lit positions are added 
together to get the total, 
which is the number that is 
counted. 

Now you see what a handy 
little gadget the decoder/ 
driver IC really is. It does all 
the work of translating the 
binary data to a form that 
can be displayed as an im- 
mediately recognizable num- 
ber by the LED readout IC. 
So far we can flip-flop and 
we can count. We can also 
time. Many operations in IC 
equipment involve the ability 
to switch or pulse a circuit at 
a specific point in the se- 
quence. 

It is a timing pulse in the 
counter that gates the count- 
ing circuit This is what 
changes it from an event 
counter to a frequency 
counter - the ability to tie 
the count to a known time 
period. 

This is usually no more 
than an IC gate or two. The 
hard part is knowing where 
and when to do it. 

We are c-oncerned with 
two specific problemis.; the 
timing of the pulse and the 
polarity. Both of these can be 
demonstrated with the ad- 
dition of a few more 7400 
g;ate sections. 

You can use the unused 
sections of the biinky IC, but 



a * } 1 

a o t> 



\ 6 ^. U 



2 I? * O 

:3 !!> o • • 
4 o • a o 



o uMur 

• LIT 



5 O 



Q 



g i;? * * a 

7 o • ft/li' 

@ * o Q a 

^ ■ & o • 



Fig. 6. Binary cfiart. 

I found it easier to use a 
separate IC on another part 
of the IC board where it was 
less crowded. 

Fig. 7 shows the basic 
takeoff circuit from one of 
the binary outputs. This Is 
also the basic IC inverter cir- 
cuit, so let's go into a little 
more detail about what's hap- 
pening here. 

The 7490 is being keyed 
by a negative pulse. This 
means that its input LED (at 
the blinky) is out of phase 
with the actual putse action. 

If you watch the other 
LED of the blinky IC circuit, 
it will be pulsing with the 
correct phase for the circuit. 
When it is on, it is high, 
which means that the other 
IC half is low and pulsing the 
7490. 

For this hookup, the take- 
off was from the 1 binary 
output at pin 12. Now watch 
the relationships between the 
LEDs as they blink. 

The blinky circuit LED to 
watch is the one that is not 
the input LED to the 7490. 
This, in effect, is the visual 
indication of the pulse that 
keys the 7490, 

Notice that the blinky 
LED pulses twice for every 
blink of the LED at pin 12 of 
the counter IC. In effect, that 
part of the counter is acting 
as a divide-by-two circuit. 

Now notice the pin 12 
LED in relation to the indi- 
cator LED of the 7400 sec- 
tion fed by pin 12. They are 
out of phase. When one is on, 

the other is off. 

Fig. 8 shows the addition 
of another 7400 IC section to 
reverse the phase of the first 
section. Now the LED at pin 
12 and the indicator LED are 
in phase and blinking to- 



58 



gether. 

The easiest way to demorr- 
strate a timing pufse con- 
trofling a circuit is to use the 
7490 counter*s own reset cir- 
cuit. 

Fig. 9 shows a test circuit 
for this. Notice that the basic 
change is the connection of 
the 7400 switch sections to 
the reset pin of the 7490. 
Also, the switch is connected 
to the binary eight output 
and will reset the circuit to 
zero when the count reaches 
eight. 

For correct counting 
action, at least one of the 
7490's zero reset pins must 
be at low logic. To interrupt 
the counting sequence, it is 
only necessary to pulse the 
reset pin(s) to high logic. 

As the pulse count changes 
firom seven to the next pulse, 
it produces a high output at 
the binary eigjit pin. This 
same pulse appears at the 
reset pin of the counter IC 

When this happens, the 
counter automatically dis- 
plays the binary zero output 
code: all outputs low. This 
happens so quickly that there 
is no visual binary eight out- 
put. The count goes from 
binary seven to binary zero, 
and picks up with binary one 
on the next count 

Thus, in effect, the eighth 
count is zero, which is dis- 
played instead of an eight 
output code. 

The counter reset can be 
hooked up to other binary 
outputs besides the eight. The 
four output will give you a 
visual count of one, two, 
three, and zero. The same 
principle holds for the two 
output 

While this is a simple con- 
cept to apply, there are a few 
pitfalls- In a counter circuit 
the reset action is usually 
keyed to the gating pulse. 
This is to keep them working 
in harmony. 

You want the signal gate 
open for the correct lime 
period for the count, and you 
want the reset action to take 
place when the gate is closed 
and be completed before the 
gate is open for the next 
count 



Otherwise, you might have 
the situation where the gate is 
open and a reset pulse 
appears during the count. 

This means that the circuit 
will reset itself during the 
actual count, which will give 
you an inaccurate count. 
Things like this are why digi- 
tal designers spend so much 
time making graphs and 
charts of circuit timing - to 
find these glitches on paper 
before they have to try and 
find them in their equipment 
It may seem odd to see 
that the output for the next 
counter stage is taken from 
the D output^ which is the 
binary eight output 

This will take a little ex- 
plaining. The problem is how 
to get a ten pulse out of an 
eight output 

The answer is to follow 
the actual outputs and how 
they affect the next stage. To 
do this we will pick up the 
count at the end of the sev- 
enth count. 

Up to the end of the 
seventh count, there has been 
a low output at the binary 
eight output and at the input 
to the next stage which is fed 
by that output. 

As the next negative pulse 
hits the first counter stage, it 
causes a high output at the 
binary eight output and at 
the input to the next counter 
stage. 

This does nothing to the 
next stage. The counter is 
negative edge triggered* A 
high output means nothing to 
it yet, except to prepare it for 
the next negative pulse. 

At the end of the eight 
count J^^he binary ei^t out* 
put of the first fC remains 
high. This is important. It 
stays on the whole cycle. 

The ninth count adds a 
high output at the binary one 
output and does nothing to 
the eight output, which is still 
on. All this while, there has 
been no change to the next 
IC stage. 

At the tenth count ^H of 
the binary outputs go to low 
(which is the binary for zero). 
At that point l^be low logic is 
also fed to the next stage. 
Since this stage is looking 



) 


S«)7490 






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£20 



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Fig, 7, Inverted output indicator or switch section. 



SM7490 






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220 



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7400 J^ 1^ 7400 P 



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Fig, 8. Non-inperted output indicator or switch. 




14 SLINIcr INPUT 



t_ r^QQjP \ [7400^^^^' 




Fig. ft Non*inverting switch used to reset counter (at 8 count). 



for a low logic inputs it reg- 
isters its first count of one. 
7Tius> even though the output 
of the binary eight output 
only registers as eight, i1^ 
logic results in the needed 
pulse at ten for the next stage 
to begin counting. 

There is one obvious thing 
about this test circuit. Since 
the output pulse and the 
pulse from the IC train which 
resets the counter are the 
same phase, the logical ques- 
tion would be, "Why not use 
the pulse from the IC itself to 
reset, instead of adding 
another circuit?** 

In this circuit, you can do 
just that. It works just as 
well. The circuit counts to 
seven, and on the eighth pulse 
resets to zero and begins the 
counting sequence again. 

However, that would not 
show the IC used as a switch. 

In many circuits you will not 
have the option of letting the 
IC switch itself. You will 
need separate switching ac- 
tion that can be controlled as 
you need it 

It is probable that there 



are many other circuits that 
can be coupled to LED 
indicators for a visual demon- 
stration of circuit operation, 
but you will have to be care- 
ful. 

Not all IC outputs will 
drive an LED, and you may 
cause damage trying. I shot a 
handful of 7490s trying to 
couple to the divide-by- two, 
-five and -ten hookup. They 
stili work as counters, but not 
as dividers. 

You may also have prob- 
lems because of the phase of 
the TTL logic (most of which 
appears to be negative edge 
triggered). That means that 
the LEDs may not be on 
when you want them. 

Stilt, for a few dollars 
worth of parts, there are a 
variety of iC operations 
which can help you become 
familiar with digital IC opera- 
tion through hands-on 
practice. ■ 

Rsferences 

1. Thanks to Ralph A. Schlegel 
ex9HR, eX'^W2ICX, 10 Grand- 
view Ave., Pawling NY 12564, 

2 , Etec tfoaics Hobbyist, Foil- 
Wimtr, 1978- 



Sd 



(T 



= a MERY imPORTUnT = 

^nnouncEmEMT froiti 



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for 80/40 meter coverage ♦ $63.75 



■ 

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61 




Finally! 
Practical Discriminator! 



-- metering system, that is 



Marion D, Kitchens K4GOK 
7100 Men:uTy Ave, 
Haym^kBt VA22Q69 




The prototype discriminator meter^ the particular one used and described in the design process. 



The do-!t-yoiirse!f 
amateur can easily im- 
prove the FM station by the 

addition of a simple discrim- 
inator meter. The meter can 
be calibrated to read directly 
the difference between the 
transmitting frequency being 
received and the frequency to 
which the receiver ts tuned. 
Receiver crystals can be 
trimmed precisely to local re* 
peater frequencies* You can 
help other amateurs align 
their transmit crystals to the 
same frequency, which is a 
big help in getting everybody 
on the correct input fre- 
quency to your local re- 
peater. 

This article describes the 
design process used and the 
results obtained in building a 
discriminator meter for an 
Uiiracom 25 2 meter trans- 
ceiver. Although the particu- 
lar design presented here was 
based on components in my 
possession, the procedure is 
described so that custom 
designs can be made with the 
particular equipment and 
components the builder may 



62 



already have. Assumptions 
are made in the analyses to 
keep the mathematics to the 

simplicity of Ohm's Law. 

Discriminator Characteristics 

First, the characteristics of 
the discriminator must be de- 
termined. The discriminator 
alignment procedure for the 
builder's receiver will be of 
assistance in locating the dis- 
criminator signal input point 
and the discriminator output 
point An accurate means of 
determining the discriminator 
input frequency must be 
available. A signal generator 
and digital counter are pre- 
ferred. Fig. 1 shows the 
arrangement used to deter- 
mine the discriminator out- 
put voltage as a function of 
the input frequency. Fig. 2 
shows the results obtained for 
the Ultracom 25. The dis- 
criminator provides approx- 
imately ,2 volts change for 
each kHz frequency change, 
at frequencies near its 455 
kHz center frequency. This 
characteristic is reasonably 
linear up to about 460 kHz, 
but is highly nonlinear as the 
frequency decreases below 
about 450 kHz. (The audio 
characteristics of the discrim- 
inator are quite different than 
the dc characteristics of in- 
terest here - don*t worry 
about nonlinearity in the 
audio responses,} A reason- 
able frequency range for most 
needs is about ±5 kHz. Exam- 
ination of Fig. 2 shows that a 
voltmeter covering +T0 volts 
to -0,8 volts could be used, if 
properly calibrated, to read 
directly frequencies ±5 kHz 
from the discriminator center 
frequency. 

A surplus 1 mA 4-inch 
meter was available. Upon 
careful disassembly, it was 
found that this meter could 
be converted to a 500-0-500 
uA meter by repositioning 
the friction -mounted return 
springs. The meter internal 
resistance was about 200 
Ohms, much too low to be 
connected directly to the 
high impedance discriminator 
output. If a very sensitive 
meter, say 50-0*50 uA or 
better^ is available, it may be 




4J 



FREQUENCY 

CO UN te: ft 



a 
> 



10- 

B 

« 

4 
2 



0.0 



Rg. L Test setup for mea- 
suring discriminator charac- 
teristics, 

practical to simply add the 
proper series resistor and con- 
nect it directly without un- 
duly loading the discrim- 
inator output. It is worth a 
try. 

Orcuit Design 

The problem for the less 
sensitive meter was to design 

a high input impedance dc 
circuit that would accept in- 
puts both above and below 
system ground without apply- 
ing bias voltage to the dis- 
criminator. The circuit must 
operate from a single-ended 
power supply (1 2 volts from 
the transceiver) for conven- 
ience and must provide both 
plus and minus 0.5 mA to the 
200 Ohm meter* The high 



3 - ^ 

-6 



|;R3 



UluTftflCaV-25 



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450 4% w 

Fig. 2, Uftracom 25 discrim'h 
nator dc c/iaracteristtcs. 

input impedance and zero 
volts dc bias can be obtained 
with a self-biased junction 
FET. The +1 volt to -0.8 volt 
input signal suggests an FET 
with a pinch-off voltage of 
around 2 volts. Driving the 
meter with plus and minus 
0.5 mA suggests a bridgi: cir- 
cuit with each bridge teg 
drawing about 5 mA^ i.e., 
about 10 times the meter futi 
scale current. 

The circuit then begins to 
take the form shown in Fig. 
3* Since the meter current is 
not significant (< 10% of the 
current), the value of R4 + 



-^ — 2 — 

Fig, 3* Basic circuit configura- 
tion. 



R5 is readily computed. 

R4+R5^ 12 V^ 2,4k 

Using a 2.5 k pot for R4 + 
R5 allows for easy zeroing of 
the meter and accom- 
modating variations in com* 
ponents of the other leg of 
the bridge* My circuit em- 
ployed a surplus 5k ten-turn 
trimpot allowing easy trim- 
ming to zero. 

In order to design the 
active leg of the b ridge ^ it is 
necessary to know the 
characteristics of the FET to 
be used. The test setup shown 
in Fig, 4 can be used to find 
the FET characteristics if 
they are not available. 




A second discriminator meter showing circuit board mounted to a small edge reading meter. 
This one is ready to be installed in the box housing a home brew synthesizer. The FET is a 
2N3819 available from Radio Shack as RS 2035. The input pot has been replaced with a fixed 
resistor. 



63 



q-t5 VOitS 

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SUPPLY 1 
OR 

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r^, 4» Te^f se^i/p for finding FET characteristics. 



-0.2 

SftTE VOLTAGE 




4 e s 

DRAIN TO SOUf^CE VOLTftGE 



Fig. 5, FET charocteristics as measured 



Several FETs from the 
junk box were examined and 
a Radio Shack N-channel 

FET (one of the P-channel| 
N-channel pair in a package) 
was found to have the desired 
characteristics. Fig. 5 shows 
the characteristics measured. 
Once the FET character' 
istics are known, a bias and 
operating point must be de- 
termined. In general, a drain 
voltage of near 14 tiie supply 
voltage is desired to allow the 
maximum voltage gain. That 



is, the drain voltage can theo- 
retically vary +54 to -V4 the 
supply voltage if the FET 
drain is biased at the supply 
voltage midpoint. For the 
case in point, this ideally 
should occur with an FET 
current of about 5 mA, simul- 
taneously with a gate 
self-bias of around -1*0 volt 
If a gate bias of -1.5 volts is 
selected, a ±1.0 input swing 
can be tolerated without driv- 
ing the FET into its pinch-off 
region. Examination of Fig. 5 





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Fig. 6. Equivalent circuits when the FET is "pinched off. " 




JSn 



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15ic 




12V 

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Fig. 7. Equivalent circuits when the FET is fully conducting. 



shows that a drain voltage of 
5 volts can be obtained with a 
-1-5 gate voltage at a current 
of 4.3 mA. Six and Vi volts {5 
+ 1.5) at the drain requires a 
5.5 volt drop across R3 when 
the current is 43 mA. Note 
that when the bridge is 
balanced, no current flows 
through the meter and there- 
fore all FET current flows 
through R3. 

— (d~" issw 

A value of 1.2k can then 
be used for R3- 

The value of R2 can be 
computed from the desired 
g3te bias {equal to the neg- 
ative source voltage) and FET 
current. 

R2 = _L5j- 349 

A 330 Ohm standard value 
resistor can then be used for 
R2. 

The load line should now* 
be drawn on the FET charac- 
teristic curves and the circuit 
characteristic determined. 
The load line can be found by 
considering two conditions of 
the FET: (l) an open circuit, 
and (2) a short circuit* 

Consider the condition 
when the FET is completely 
"pinched off," that is, it pre- 
sents an open circuit to the 
bridge as shown in Fig, 6(a). 
Equivalent circuits are shown 
in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c), where: 

Be = (1.2 + .2) (2SI = .S9?k 

(1.2 + Ji + as) 

The voltage across Re is: 

VRe = (12} imi\ =3,196 volts 

and the voltage across the 
1 .2k resistor is: 

Vi 2 = C3J69^ (1,2) =2.716 volts 

(1.5) + U) 

Since no current is flowing 
through the 330 Ohm resis* 
tor, both ends of it are at 
ground potential. That means 
that the FET source is at zero 
volts and its drain voltage is: 

Vd = 12.0 - 2.7 16 = 9.284 volM 

The FET drain to source vol- 
tage is 9,284 volts when its 
current is zero. 

When the FET is driven 
completely on, that is, it acts 
like a short circuit, the equiv- 
alent circuit is as shown in 



Fig, 7 (a). Since the lower 
2.5k resistor is large 
compared to the 330 Ohm 
resistor and the 200 
Ohm meter, its effect on the 
circuit is small* The equiva- 
lent circuits are shown in 
Figs. 7(b) and 7(c). The effec- 
tive resistance of the upper 
portion of the circuit is: 

Reu - fL2m5+^^ m\ k 
1.5^15+0 2 

and the total current is then: 

t^ 12 10.34 mA 

.831 + .33 

The load line can be plot- 
ted on the FET character- 
istic curves by locating the 
two points, zero volts at 
1034 mA, and 9.284 volts at 
zero mA. A line drawn be- 
tween these two points repre* 
sents the load seen by the 
FET. 

Rload = 9^284/10.34 = .89Sk 

The FET operating point, 
or its bias conditions with no 
input signal, can be found by 
an iterative process. First, 
guess a gate to source voltage, 
say -1,25 volts, and find from 
the characteristic curves the 
FET current and drain to 
source voltage at the point 
where the -L25 volt ^te 
curve intersects the load line. 
Fig, 5 gives values of 4 J volts 
and 5.1 mA, The 5 J mA of 
current through the 330 Ohm 
resistor produces a gate 
self-bias of -1*68 volts. The 
computed voltage and the 
guessed voltage should be 
averaged and the process re- 
peated, using the average 
value as the new guess, until 
the computed and guessed 
values are equal. The operat- 
ing point for the character- 
istic curves and load tine of 
Fig. 5 were found to be: 

'1.4S vofts galB to K>urce self -bias 
5,30 vol IS drain lo source 
4.48 mA FET current 

The circuit response to in- 
put signals can be determined 
by examining the voltages 
and currents along the load 
line. If an input signal drives 
the gate to source voltage 
from its -1 .48 volt operating 
point to -1.00 volts, the drain 
to source voltage is 4.05 and 
the current is 5,88 mA- The 
input signal required is equal 



64 



GF^D 



12V 





TO DISC. OUTPUT 



Fig. 8. Printed circuit board layout 



Fig. 9. Component placement* 



to the -1.00 gate to source 
voltage plus the voltage across 
the 330 Ohm resistor, 

Vin * -UOO + (5,88) (J33> = ■M>.94 volts 

Given the voltage at the FET 
drain, 

Vd » 4.05 + {5.88) (.33) - 5.99 votts 

the voltage across the 1.2k 
resistor and its current can be 
found. 

h^2 = 12.0-5.99^ 5.01 mA 
1.2 

The load line indicates that 
5.88 mA flow through the 
FET, so the additional 
current must flow through 
the meter. 

Im ^ 5.Se 5.0T - 0.S7 mA or S70 uA 

The circuit response in 
terms of meter current for an 
input voltage can then be 
found. 

Re^ = 870/0 J4 = 926 uA/^oft 

Since the meter to be used 
is ±500 uA ful[ scale, and the 
signal from the discriminator 
is about 1 voltp a voltage 
divider of about 2 to 1 will be 
required at the FET input. 
The circuit input impedance 
is determined by the 1 meg 
resistor between the FET gate 
and ground. A 580k fixed 
resistor in series with a 500k 
pot was used with the 1 meg 
resistor to form a divider that 
could be easily adjusted. 

Notice the expected dis- 
criminator output voltages of 
+1 ,0 and -0.8 do not drive the 
circuit into regions where it 
cannot operate. That is, the 
circuit is not driven too close 
to zero mA current, nor is it 
driven to a positive gate vol- 
tage which would lower its 



input impedance. The circuit 
is also not driven near its 
maximum current limit. All 
three of these conditions 
should always be checked to 
assure proper circuit oper- 
ation. 

Construction 

A printed circuit board 
layout is shown in Fig, 8. 
This layout fits the parts that 
I had, but will fit most parts 
by drilling holes in the cor- 
rect location. The board is 
easy to copy with an etch 
resist marking pen. My 
assembled board was mount- 
ed by bolting directly to the 
meter terminals. Fig. 9 shows 
the parts placement* 

The bridge balancing pot^ 
R4 + R5, must be adjusted 
before connecting the meter 
to the circuit. After 
assembling the circuit board, 
apply power from the source 
to ultimately be used. A 
well-regulated power source 
must be used. Adjust the 
balancing pot for exactiy zero 
volts across the terminals that 
are to be connected to the 
meter. Now the meter can be 
connected without fear of 
damage. 

A direct reading frequency 
scale can be added to the 
meter to make it easy to use< 
Most military surplus meters 
have scales on a thin alumi- 
num plate. This plate can 
usually be unscrewed and re- 
versed, thus providing an 
attractive blank scale that just 
fits the meter. The plastic 
meters with permanent scales 
can be modified by the 
addition of a piece of heavy 



bond paper. In either case, a 
temporarily attached blank 
scale is to be calibrated. The 
test setup of Fig. 1 is used to 
accurately provide known fre- 
quencies to the discriminator. 
Apply power to the meter 
circuit and connect it to the 
discriminator output. Adjust 
the signal generator in 1 kHz 
steps and carefully mark the 
blank scale accordingly. The 
accuracy of the meter is de- 
termined by the precision of 
this calibration. Do it care- 
fully 1 India ink and rub*on 
lettering can be used to make 
an attractive scale. Protect it 
with a light coat of clear 
plastic spray paint. 

Using The Instrument 

The meter described mea- 
sures how far the discrim- 
inator input frequency is 
from its center frequency- 
The absolute accuracy with 
which a received signal can be 
measured is then dependent 
upon the accuracy of the 
receiver local oscillator ahead 
of the discriminator. Keep 
this in mind when reporting 
other amateurs* transmit fre- 
quencies! The discriminator 
meter can be used to align 
two transmitters to the same 
frequency. If a meter with a 
targe scale is used, frequency 
differences of less than 100 
Hz can easily be read. One 
hundred Hertz out of 146 
MHz ain't half bad! Your 
receive crystals can be 
trimmed to frequency by 
listening to local repeaters 
and adjusting crystal trim- 
mers until the discriminator 
reads zero. You will be able 



to measure receiver crystal 
warm-up frequency drift. 
Some of my crystals appear 
to drift 200 to 400 Hz. After 
you observe for a few 
months, you may suspect 
that some repeater output 
frequencies vary a few hun- 
dred Hertz from time to time* 
The warm-up drift of a home 
brew synthesizer was mea- 
sured by comparing its trans- 
mit frequency with a local 
repeater. The transceiver re- 
ceiver crystal was trimmed to 
the repeater frequency. A 
spot switch was added to the 
synthesizer to allow it to 
switch to the repeater trans* 
mit frequency while the re- 
ceiver was still receiving via 
the crystal. An extension of 
this technique with several 
different repeaters can be a 
big help in getting a synthe- 
sizer on frequency without 
need of a frequency counter. 
You may find that all repeat- 
ers are not quite on their 
advertised frequency and that 
a compromise on the synthe- 
sizer frequency may have to 
be made to get as close as 
possible to all of the repeater 
frequencies. Readers will un- 
doubtedly find additional 
uses for the discriminator 
meter. 

Concluding Remarks 

The discriminator meter 
was easy to design and build. 
It worked as expected on the 
first try. It was a fun project 
that can be duplicated in a 
week by just about anyone. 
All in all, it is a worthwhile 
piece of test equipment to 
add to the FM station. « 



m 



Since the beginning of 
amateur radio, hams 
have worked on improving 
the efficiency of Iheir signals. 
And many, not want^ 
ing to spend the time^ would 
buy a linear amplifier, instead 
of putting up a decent an- 
tenna. 

Although a kilowatt ampli- 
fier may boost a 200 Watt 
signal 6 dB, the power is 
often wasted by using a 
dipole or vertical antenna. 
After all^ you are generally 
trying to conn muni cate with 
one person in a distinct 
portion of the world at a 
time- Why, then, should you 
send your sigfial to all parts 
of the Earth? A beam or 
antenna array would solve 
this problem by directing 
your signal in a distinct direc-^ 
tjon. At the same time, a 
certain amount of gain would 
be realized, and QRM from 
many stations would be 
minimized. 

The variety of beam anten- 
nas in use today is astound- 
ing. Each has a distinct 
pattern, ^in, and front-to- 
back ratio (the difference, in 
dB, between a signal trans- 
mitted off the front and off 
the back of the antenna), 

Although it is possible to 
buy a beam antenna, money 
can be saved by ^'rolling your 
own/' Books are available on 
how to build your own beam 
antenna, so the remainder of 
this article will deal with the 
choosing of a beam antenna, 
not the construction of one. 

The Yagi 

The yagi is a parasitic 
beam antenna. This means 
that the reflector and director 

elements are not connected 



Loran Joly WB0KTHJ4 
4Z2 Cenu^l Av^. 
Mora MN 5S051 



ORWEN ELE*rf£NT 



A Kilowatt Alternative 



-- try a gain antenna 



to the feedline* 

The main element consists 
of a simple dipole. The re- 
flector is slightly longa^ than 
Vi wavelength^ and the direc- 
tors are slightly shorter than 
Vi wavelength. A tv^o-element 
beam, consisting of a dipole 
and a parasitic element, when 
properly adjusted^ will 
exhibit a reasonable amount 
of gain. (See Fig, 1.) 

All minor back lobes 
cannot be completely 
eliminated, but a gain of 5 dB 
is to be expected when using 
a two-element yagi. When 
another parasitic element is 
added, to make a three-ele- 
ment beam, a practical g^in 
of 7,0 to 8,5 dB is to be 
expected. In general, 
doubling the number of 
parasitic elements will in- 
crease the antenna gain by 3 
dB, (See Table 1 ») 

Yagis can be constructed 
out of tubing and wire. Wire 
yagjs are identical to their 




■*- 'S^a 



PARASITIC OtftCClOR 



pipe counterparts in opera- 
tion. For best operation, a 
yagi should be elevated at 
least 30 feet off the ground. 

Vertical Beams 

Because a single i^ wave- 
length vertical antenna does 
not exhibit any gain over a 
dipole, many hams pass by 
this low-angle radiator with- 
out reafizing that two or 
more vertical antennas can be 
used to form specific pat- 
terns. The vertical radiates rf 
at a tow angle, making DX 
much easier to work. Shown 
in Fig. 2 is a two-element, 
phased, vertical system. 

Coax is used as a delay line 

in this system. One vertical 
receives rf Va cycle before the 
other one does. This way^ 
two verticals can become an 
end-fire array. Note: The 
coaxial phasing harness 
lengths mentioned in Fig, 2 
are electrical, not physical, 
lengths- 



%/4 



\f4 



*/^ 



t./t 



^TO TRANSMITTER, 
ANY LENGTH 



Cubical Quads 

A cubical quad is an 

efficient, low-cost DX anten- 
na. It is li#it and has a small 
turning radius. A quad is 
effective even when mounted 
close to the ground. 

The quad consists of a 
simple loop, with reflector 
and director loops. Although 
the quad may be more diffi- 
cult to build and erect than a 
yagi, the pin compares very 
favorably to that of a yagi. 
More details can be found in 
William Orr^s book, AH 
About Cubtco! Quad Anten- 

Long Wires 

Single long wires, vee 
beams, and rhombics are very 
effective DX antennas. They 
have a high amount of gain. I 
am not going to go into the 
details of any of these anten- 
nas, however, for most hams 
would not have the amount 
of land necessary for them. 
For those who are interested 
in long wire antennas, the 
ARRL Antenna Book should 
prove quite useful. ■ 



4 ^-lements 

(3 parasitics) 
7 elements 
19 eJemenis 
56 elements 
933 elements 



9dB* 

12dB- 

1 5 dB' 
18 dB* 
27 dB* 



Fig, t 



Fig. Z 



Table h '^'Gain will be slightly 
lesSi In actual practice^ by 
about J dB^ 



66 



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AM-356 






67 



E. Van der ^nissen WB5ASA 

2427 Cl^k Dr. 

U Marque TX 77S68 



All About 



Transceivers 



-- Novices, take note! 



Many radio amateurs are 
searching for iheir 

dream transceiver or their 
dream station and are finding 
the search and selection dif- 
ficult. Selection, unfortu- 
nately^ Is most frequently 
based upon cost rather than 
performance characteristics. 

Dream stations have been 
described many times over 
the years — the best in spark 
g^p and audions, a Collins 
station, all solid state, all 
mode (AM, FM, SSB, FSK, 
ATV, SSTV, EME, etc.) 
stations, and computer con- 
trolled or "the lazy man's 
station/* Every amateur has 
visions of his dream station, 
and as the years progress, 
these visions change. 

What you may set as cri- 
teria for that dream rig (sizei 
power, all mode, sensitivity, 
selectivity, stability, fre- 
quency coverage, etc*) are not 
the same as some I must also 
consider: Does its appearance 
please the XYL? Does it fit 



the shack decor? Does it have 
pretty lights? '*You have to 
sell your other stuff before 
you can buy anything new!", 
etc. 

Since my XYL (WB5TNI) 
fjnaily got her license after 27 
years, I am at the stage of 
converting my tube-type, 
patchwork station into some 
type of unified, solid state 
station which we can both 
use. First we must consider 
the heart of the station, a 
separate transmitter and re* 
ceiver or a transceiver. We 
chose to go for a transceiver 
to which we hope to add a 
remote vfo to give split fre- 
quency capability. 

Most rigs have much in 
common as far as basic 
chEracteristics are concerned 
— they cost more than I can 
afford, they do not cover all 
the frequencies I wish to 
operate (how am 1 going to 
cover MARS frequencies?), 
they do not function in all 
modes 1 wish to use, they 



have insufficient power at a 
critical moment in the QSO, 
and they are not quite sensi- 
tive enough to pull that 
station out of the DX muck. 1 
am sure that you can think of 
other basic characieristicSp 

A dream transceiver, or 
dream station, must fulfill 
your needs. How do you like 
to operate in amateur radio — 
ON, SSB, RTTY, SSTV, 
ATV, VHF, EME, satellites, 
rag chew. Technician, Novice, 
General, Advanced, or Extra? 
Many factors must be con- 
sidered when we get down to 
actual hardware* 

A station for the pio- 
fessional Novice would seem 
fairly simple to dream up as 
the maximum parameters 
have been established by the 
FCC - 250 Watts, vfo, CW 
only, and limited frequencies* 
One still has to choose be- 
tween solid state versus tubes, 
kits versus factory-built 
equipment, and new versus 
old (used). However, most 



Novices look forward to 
advancing to higher class 
licenses. These Novices must 
consider most of the same 
criteria as the General or 
higher class licensee if they 
wish to grow into their rig. 
Many of the characteristics 
looked for by the Novice 
would also be good for more 
advanced licenses. 

The vfo must be stable, 
and there should be provision 
for offset tuning. As a 
Novice, one needs only CW, 
but the transmitter should 
key cleanly (without chirps) 
and have a fast break-in 
mechanism. Almost all 
current new equipment will 
meet these criteria. Equip- 
ment designed for a specific 
small number of frequencies 
can be belter designed than 
that for a larger range. A CW 
filter With 400 cycles or less 
passhand is a must for CW 
enthusiasts. Selectivity, the 
ability to separate one signal 
from another, should also be 
good. Sensitivity, to dig 
signals from the muck, ideally 
should be 0.5 uV or less on 
all bands. Although most 
transceivers have a very 
narrow output impedance 
(50-70) Ohms), the ability to 
tune the output over a wider 
range would be helpfuL 

The Technician's require- 
ments on the high frequency 
bands are the same as the 
Novice's. However, he has a 
range of choices in the VHF 
bands. We will not discuss 

VHF in this article. 

We really come to a wide 

range of choice with the 
General, Advanced, or Extra 
class licensee. A good method 
of making a choice among the 
many currently available 
transceivers is to listen to the 
discussions of ama^un on 
the air. Amateurs are fairly 
free with their comments 
concerning the good and bad 
characteristics of the various 
rigs. Another method is to 
listen to the quality of the 
rigs you hear on the air. 

In our area^ the popular 
transceivers seem to be the 
Heath SB series, Kenwood 
TS-520, Yaesu^ and Orake. 
The Swan transceivers have 



88 



never been popular here. We 
are also noting a decrease in 
popularity of the Drake 
TR-4C and the Yaesu 
FT*101. The Kenwood and 
Atlas transceivers seem to be 
increasing in popularity. Five 
years ago, the Drake, Heath, 
and Yaesu were the most 
popular units, I personally 
have a Swan-350 which is one 
continuous headache, and a 
borrowed Drake TR4. The 
TR-4, in the experience of 
hams in this area, is a better 
rig than the TR-4C. In our 
area^ there are probably more 
Kenwood TS-520s (with 
Heath being second) than any 
other rig. (In our charts, the 
Tempo "one" is added for 
consideration as some 
amateurs still prefer 
tube-type units, Collins is not 
considered^ due particuiarly 
to costp the fact that other 
transceivers can outperform 
the KWM-2, and because the 
KWM-2 has not been modern- 
ized for many years.) 

If I were to buy a new rig 
today, I would have great 
difficulty deciding just what I 
would choose- Even after the 
research I have done for this 
article^ I still find choice con- 
fusing. I like some features on 
one unit, and others I don*t 
like. So it goes with all avail- 
able units. My dream 
transceiver has yet to be 
designed and built. However, 
each of us has our own re- 
quirements, and we must 
compromise with what is 
available. 

What would I like for my 
dream transceiver? Cost 
should be below $500 (but 
that is impossible in the 
current market); buift-in ac 
and dc power supply ; variable 
power - 100 to 150 Watts 
PEP output, with capabilities 
of going to 300 Watts 
PEP output when the going 
gets rough; full coverage of all 
HF amateur bands, plus 
enough extra on the ends to 
cover MARS frequencies; cap- 
abilities built-in for CW, SSB, 
FSK and AFSK, and adapt- 
able to SSTV; digital dial 
backed by an accurate fre- 
quency counter; WWV 
monitoring capability on 10 



Transoetver 


9 


Hi 

5 


i 


«0 


o 

■ 


i 


1- 


op 


1 


O 

o 


g 

o 


X 

o 

CM 


c 
o 

■H 




Characteristic: 






























Mod«: CW 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4 


4 


4- 


+ 


AM 


+ 


+ 


+ 




- 


. 


> 


. 


- 


_ 


4 


4 


^ 


_. 


LSB/USB 


+ 


+ 


-»- 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


FSK 


■> 


- 


4 




- 


- 


- 


* 


+ 


-. 


. 


^ 


- 


-. 


Frequency: 






























160 meters 


'mr 


+ 


+ 




- 


— 


,_ 


- 


+ 


4 


w 


* 


* 


OPT 


2E2SB MHz 


OPT 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


■I- 


+ 


+ 


4 


4 


? 


OPT 


4 


29-29S MHz 


OPT 


+ 


+ 




+ 


OPT 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4 


4 


7 


OPT 


OPT 


29,S 30 MHi 


_ 


■I- 


+ 




7 


? 


- 


? 


4 


+ 


4 


7 


OPT 


4 


WWV 


* 


-t 


+ 




+ 


+ 


. 


+ 


4 


4 


+ 


m 


OPT 


4 


Aux. Bands 


- 


1 


- 




OPT 


Ml 


m 


- 


1 


tm. 


. 


■^ 


OPT 


OPT 


Crystal Cali. 


+ 


+ 


+ 




■*■ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4 


• 


+ 


? 


4 


4 


Suppression (-dB) 






























Carrier 


60 


50 


40 




55 


5S 


45 


40 


40 


50 


50 


40 


SO 


60 


Unwanted SB 


60 


50 


40 




55 


55 


45 


40 


50 


50 


50 


50 


60 


60 


Spurious 


? 


40 


40 




50 


50 


55 


? 


60 


40 


50 


30 


40 


45 


Harmonics 


? 


? 


40 




45 


45 


45 


40 


40 


40 


40 


30 


35 


46 


Sensitivity 






























(aVJ 


.5 


.3 


.25 




.6 


.6 


.35 


.5 


.25 


.25 


,3 


-5 


,3 


.3 


Set^ctlvity 






























SSB 






























Selectivity 






























SSB 


2.1 


2,4 


2.4 




2.1 


2,1 


2.1 


2.4 


2.4 


2.4 


2.4 


2.3 


2,7 


22 


CW 


m 


OPT 


■ OPT 


OPT 


OPT 


OPT 


OPT 


OPT 


400 


600 


400 


- 


OPT 


Noise Blander 


OPT 


+ 


+ 




OPT 


OPT 


+ 


4 


4 


4 


4 


7 


OPT 


OPT 


Power Supply: 






























Internal ac 


m- 


+ 


- 




- 


- 


- 


+ 


+ 


4 


+ 


- 


■^ 


- 


Internal dc 


» 


+ 


+ 




-f 


4- 


- 


+ 


- 


* 


4 


- 


+ 


4 


Power, finsi 






























Input. W PEP 


300 


7m 


200 




7 


? 


180 


160 


200 


200 


180 


300 


200 


200 


Output, PEP 


? 


? 


? 




100 


100 


7 

■ 


7 


7 


? 


? 


7 


100 


7 


Sidetone 






























OsciMator 


+ 


+ 


^ 




^ 


+ 


+ 


-(■ 


4 


+ 


4 


7 


- 


4 



Fig. 2. Transceiver basic character/sties. + = present in transmiver^ - = not present; OPT = 
optionaf accessory. 



and 15 MHz; VOX and 
push-to-talk; all solid state; 
separate vfo to use split fre- 
quencies for DX; sensitivity 
on all bands of 0.25 uV, or 
less, for 10 dB S+N/N; carrier 
suppression of 60 dB or 
better, unwanted sideband 
suppression of 60 dB or 
better, and spurious and 
harmonics down by at least 
60 dB; and selectivity of 2.1 
kHz at -6 dB on SSB, and not 
much greater than that at 
-100 dB, On CW I would like 
a filter or selectivity of about 
150 Hz. And, of course, I 
would like a noise blanker 
and a sidetone monitor. 

The Tempo 2020 and 
Hy-Gain 3750 are still rather 
unknown quantities, although 
the specs look good. We are 
beginning to see more and 
more japanese-built rigs that 
seem to be the same basic 
unit with only the name 
plate, front panel, and a few 
options difference. 

Although there are many 



ways to broadly divide trans- 
ceivers into groups, the 
following are usually the first 
considered: 

Cost: Below $500, 
$500-1000, $1000-2000, and 

over $2000. New versus used 
equipment. 

Construction: Kits versus 
facto ry~assem bled. Solid 
state, tubes, hybrid. 
Ixodes: CW only; CW/SSB; 
CW/AM/SSB; ONjSS%lMAj 
FSK. 

Frequency: Single band ver- 
sus ailband, or multiband; 
vfo, crystal, synthesizer. 

New equipment and new 
models of present equipment 
are coming out at all times, so 
what is said in this article 
may be superseded shortly. 
Heath kit is featuring the 
SB-104 which has superseded 
other units in the SB series. 
Although the Heathkit 
HW-101 is still advertised, it 
appears the HW-1 04 is des- 
tined to replace the HW-101, 
Kenwood brought out the 



TS-520, and shortly there- 
after the TS-820 appeared on 
the market Yaesu is also 
bringing out new models — 
first the FT-101, then the 
FT-IOIB, the FT-IOIE and 
EE, and now the FT-301D. 
With every new model the 
price seems to go up. There 
are now very few^ if any, 
transceivers selling new for 
under $500 if one considers 
the total cost of putting the 
transceiver on the air. 

The question of new 
versus used is faced by both 
the newcomer and the 
established amateur. New 
units have a much better 
warranty than used unitSj but 
if repairs are needed, how 
long would it take to get the 
unit repaired under warranty? 
Where does one have to send 
the transceiver for warranty 
repairs? There are different 
types of warranties — factory 
and dealer. A few dealers also 
offer warranties in addition 
to the factory warranty. 



m 



TRANS* 


Dfakff 


Ymm 


Ymsu 


Heatb 


Heeih 


Heath 


Kenwood 


Kenwood 


Hy-Gain 


Tempo 


Tempo 


Atlas 


Triton 


CEIVER 


TR-4C 


FT-101E 


FT-301 


SB 104 


HW 104 


HW-101 


TS520 


TS-820 


3750 


2020 


'One' 


210X 


IV 


Basic New 


599-95 


749 .00 


769.00 


N/A 


N/A 


W/A 


629.00 


830.00 


1895.00 


759,00 


399.00 


679,00 


699.00 


Basic Used 


469.00 


425.00 


7 


595.00 


449.00 


249.00 


529.00 


7 


? 


7 


319.00 


519.00 


7 


Kit 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6a9.9S 


4^.95 


339.95 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


ac power 


120.00 


X 


125.00 


89.95 


88.95 


57.95 


X 


X 


X 


X 


99.00 


195.00 


129.00 


Crvstal 




























Catibrator 


X 


X 


7 


■■- 


X 


X 


X 


X 


- 


X 


? 


X 


X 


Speaker 


24.95 


X 


1 9.00 


29.95 


19.95 


19.95 


X 


X 


59,95 


X 


19.00 


'#» 


X 


Microphone 


39.95 


X 


X 


39.95 


39,95 


39.95 


39,95 


39.95 


39.95 


X 


39.95 


39.95 


29.50 


SUBTOTAL 


784.S5 


749.00 


913.00 


829.80 


638.80 


457,80 


66895 


8^.95 


1994 SO 


7S9.0O 


556,95 


913,95 


827.50 


dc Power 


135.00 


X 


X 


X 


X 


84,95 


X 


N/A 


N/A 


X 


120.00 


X 


X 


Noise Blanker 


100.00 


X 


K 


26.95 


26.95 


? 


X 


X 


X 


X 


? 


40.00 


29.00 


CW Filter 


? 


45,00 


45.00 


39,95 


39.95 


29.95 


45.00 


45.00 


X 


K 


X 


N/A 


25,00 


29-29.5 MHz 


7,96 


X 


X 


X 


16.95 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


7 


» 


B.OO 


28-28S MHz 


7.95 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


? 


• 


X 


1@Q meters 


N/A 


X 


X 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


X 


X 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


97.00 


Dig. Dial 
TOTAL 


N/A 
1035.75 


N/A 

794,00 


X 
958.00 


X 
896.70 


N/A 
723,65 


N/A 
572.70 


N/A 
713.95 


170,00 

1084S5 


X 

1994.90 


Hybrid 
759.00 


• *# 


•299 
1 252SE 


N/A 


676.95 


\ 983.50 



Fig, h Cost comparison. X = Built into the transceiver^ N/A - 
cost, *Aaxi/iary li'o Model 206 (digital dial) provides complete 
also functions independently as a 100 HzAO MHz frequency 
^^'^Availabfe as an option at one tinte, no longer listed. 

Questions lo ask are where such a unil. 



Not available^ ? = not known. A vailable options are listed with 
coverage of 3-5, 6-8, 8-10, 14-16, 20-22, and 28-30 l^lHi. (206 
counter. Price $299.) **Buitt into ac power supply console. 



the repair work will be done 
— factory or local dealer — 
and how long it will take for 
repairs. 

When buying used equip- 
ment^ you may be buying 
someone else's troubles. If 
you buy either new or used 
equipment, you should buy 
from a reputable firm or per- 
son. In the charts we list new 
and used prices as published 
in amateur journals by rep- 
utable firms. Used prices 
from individuats can vary 
greatly, as can equipment 
condition* Locally^ the maxi- 
mum used price is at least 
1 5-20% less than east coast or 
west coast' prices. Used 
prices from individuals are 
usually less than used prices 
from retail stores. 

If you do not know which 
are reliable companies, then 
ask your friends who may 
have had dealings with the 
firms or listen to the com- 
ments made on the air by 
other amateurs. 

Buying used equipment 
from individuals can be very 
hazardous, particularly if you 
do not know how to judge 
used equipment. It is best to 
take a friend with you who 
can judge used equip menu If 
possible, take a friend who 
owns a unit like the unit you 
are considering or has had 
some experience operating 



Several points should be 
kepi in mind when buying 
used equipment. First comes 
visual inspection, externally 
and internally, ts the unit 
ctean or beat-up? Have mod- 
ifications been made on the 
unit? Is there evidence of 
rewiring or soldering not of 
factory manufacture or not 
equal to factory quality sol- 
dering? Are there any addi- 
tional holes in the cabinet or 
chassis that were not there 
when the unit came from the 
factory? Also determine if 
repair parts arc still available. 
Some of the older units are 
sold as is because repair parts 
are difficult to obtain. Other 
units are difficult to repair 
because the manufacturer has 
gone out of business, or has 
gone out of the amateur radio 
business. 

Second, you should check 
the receive characteristics- 
Attach the transceiver to an 
antenna and check the receive 
characteristics on all bands* Is 
it noisy? Does it separate the 
signals well? Does the S-meter 
work? Compare sensitivity, or 
ability to pick up weak sig- 
nals, with a unit you know 
works properly. Is there dis- 
tortion or a broken cone in 
the speaker? Do you gel ring- 
ing on SSB or when the CW 
filter is used? Does it cover 



the frequencies you wish to 
work? Does the crystal cali- 
brator work? 

If the receive section 
seems to work well, then 
check the transmit section. If 
possible, make on-lhe^air con- 
tacts, and get reports. Termi- 
nate the output of the trans- 
mitter through a wattmeter 
into a dummy load to mea- 
sure output power. Can you 
load it to full rated power on 
each band? Are the final 
tubes soft? Docs the trans- 
mitter cover the frequencies 
which you would like to 
work? Do you get maximum 
output at the point where 
you get the maximum dip on 
the plate-current meter? If 
not, you may find the trans- 
mitter is improperly neutral- 
ized. 

Fig. 1 is a cost comparison 
chart. The most important 
figure is the total , which is 
what it would cost to put a 
new unit on the atr (exclusive 
of the antenna system) at the 
level to include options that 
may be standard on other 
units. For example, some 
units have noise blankers as 
standard equipment, whereas 
this may be optional with 
others. The cost of such 
options is included in the 
total. We also include both ac 
and dc power supply cost in 
the total. Under microphone, 
we list the cost of factory 



recommendations, but it is 
realized that cheaper micro- 
phones are available. Some 
units have built-in speakers, 
but an external speaker is 
usually to be preferred. Three 
of the listed transceivers have 
digital readouts based upon 
frequency counters, and one 
has a hybrid readout com- 
bining a digital readout for 
megahertz and kilohertz and 
a dial for hundreds of cycles. 
Most of the units have fre- 
quency readouts resettable 
within ±1-2 kHz and a drift 
of less than 100 H^ after 
warm-up. 

The FCC requires that the 
amateur licensee have some 
method of measuring trans- 
mitter frequency independent 
of the frequency-determining 
device of the transmitter it- 
self Most amateurs meet this 
requirement by using a cali- 
brated receiver with a 100 
kHz and/or 25 kHz crystal 
calibrator which has been 
zero beat with one of the 
primary frequencies of WWV. 
Some transceivers have WWV 
receive capability,^ others do 
not. A few can receive WWV 
on both 10 MHz and 15 MHz. 
The capability to receive 
WWV is a desirable feature on 
a transceiver. In the chart, 
crystal calibrator refers to 
one with 100 kHz calibration 
points. A few units also have 
25 kHz calibration points, 



70 



and WWV also means that the 
transceiver has receive cap- 
ability for WWV, 

All transceivers considered 
in the comparison did cover 
the full 8040-20 and 15 
meter bands and 28.5 to 29,0 
MHz of the 1 meter band- In 
the chart, we list additional 
coverage by the transceivers 
that is in excess of these basic 
bands* A few units also have 
provision for auxiliary bands 
which may be determined by 
the user. 

During years of low sun- 
spot activity, there is con- 
siderable activity on the 160 
meter band, even though 
there are frequency and 
power restrictions in certain 
geographic areas for use of 
this band. I personally would 
not pay extra for the 160 
meter band. However, it is 
important lo me that a trans- 
ceiver be able to cover at least 
to 293 MHz for OSCAR 
activity and that it cover 
sufficiently beyond the band 
edges for MARS frequencies. 
It is important to consider 
the total coverage of the 
transceiver — if you don't 
want the extra coverage now, 
you may want it in the 
future. 

Some transceivers have 
selectable sideband on all fre- 
quencieSi others have only 
lower sideband on 80 and 40 
meters and only upper side- 
band on 20-15-10 meters, tn 
our chart, an X in the 
LSB/USB column means the 
unit has selectable sideband. 
The lack of selectable side- 
band is not a serious de- 



traction, as most amateurs 

use only the lower sideband 
on 80 and 40 and only upper 
sideband on 20, 15, and 10 
meters. 

Final amplifier input 
power is limited to a max- 
imum of 250 Watts for 

Novices and Technicians, and 
other classes of licensees have 
a maximum input of 1,000 
Watts for CW and AM, and 
2,000 Watts PEP for side- 
band. FCC regulations state 
that an amateur should use 
the minimum amount of 
power necessary to maintain 
communications. For each 3 
dB increase, one must double 
the power. Assuming 100 
Watts output as the baseline, 
one must go to 200 Watts to 
bring about a noticeable 
difference in reception over 
100 Watts, to 400 Watts for 3 
dB increase over 200 Watts, 
and 800 Watts output from 
400 for another 3 dB in- 
crease. Generally, one can 
figure about 100 Watts out- 
put from 160-180 Walts in- 
put to the final Most of the 
transceivers reviewed had an 
input of about 200 Watts and 
generally can produce satis- 
factory communications. 

Many amateur radio mag- 
azines— /A//n RadfOf QST, 73 
— carry articles evaluating in 
depth new equipment as it is 
marketed. These are usually 
good sources of unbiased 
technical evaluations, and 
usually indicate how the par- 
ticular unit under test com- 
pared with the manufacture 
er's published specifications. 



We are using the man- 
ufacturer's pu btished 
specifications in our com- 
parison charts. 

Sensitivity is the ability of 
a receiver to pull in weak 
signals and is rated in micro- 
volts (uV) for 10 dBS+N/N. 
The 1977 Handbook defines 
sensitivity as '^the signal at 
the input of the receiver re- 
quired to give a signal plus 
noise output some staled 
ratio (generally 10 dB) above 
the noise output of the re- 
ceiver/' Sensitivity can be in- 
creased through the use of a 
solid state, low-noise pre- 
amplifier, as much noise is 
generated by thermionic 
emission from tubes. The 
amount of thermionic noise 
in tubes can be decreased by 
running them at a lower volt- 
age — e,g,, 100 V instead of 
1 80 V — in the early stages of 
the receiver where the most 
noise is generated before the 
signal is adequately amplified. 
An all solid state receiver has 
a lower noise level, and usual- 
ly better sensitivity than does 
a tube type receiver. The 
newer transceivers are all of 
the solid state variety in the 
receiver section. Exceptions 
to this statement in the com* 
parison chart are the TR-4C 
and HW-101, which are pre- 
dominantly tube types. 

Selectivity is a measure of 
the ability of a receiver to 
separate adjacent signals* 
Selectivity is a measure of the 
width of the bandpass at a 
point 6 dB down {S dB) 
from the peak of the band- 
pass curve. For a receiver 



with 2.4 kHz selectivity, the 
bandpass is 2.4 kHz wide at 
-6 dB. For SSB, a selectivity 
of 2,1 to 2.4 kHz is good, as 
an SSB signal is usually no 
broader than 2.4 kHz. On 
CW, since theoretically it is a 
single frequency signal, the 
bandpass can be much 
narrower. Most receivers with 
CW filters have a 400 cycle 
bandpass, but some have only 
150 cycle bandpass. In newer 
types of receivers, a crystal 
filter is used to provide band- 
pass at ten uat ion _ 

The selectivity bandpass at 
6 dB down must be sufficient 
to pass the necessary signal 
Information (single sideband, 
double sidebands, or carrier 
plus sidebands) without un- 
desired attenuation. An AM 
signal requires about twice 
the bandpass of an SSB sig- 
nal. A CW signal, as stated 
previously, requires even less 
bandpass frequency. 

If your transmitter has a 
sidetone oscillator, you can 
hear yourself as you send CW, 
The ability to hear yourself 
with a sidetone oscillator in 
the transmitter, or on the 
keyer, helps in sending better 
formed CW. Without being 
able to hear yourself send, 
you can have difficulty with 
proper spacing and formation 
of characters. 

Other characteristics of 
transceivers are also impor- 
tant and are used as seJIing 
points in advertising. We have 

listed In the charts only what 
we consider to be the basic 
characteristics of importance 
in a good transceiver, ■ 



Authorized Dealer for: 

DRAKE • YAESU • ICOM 
TEMPO • TEN^TEC 
KLM • DENTRON 

HY-GAIN • STANDARD 
CU5HCRAFT • WILSON 




Full Service Facilities 



To^i. - W#d 
Mon. . Tliur. 
Sufidoy 



- fri. 



9 a.m. * 5 p,fri. 
9 a.m. - 9 p.ffi- 
1 p.m. * tt p-fTi- 



We're "burning" to make 

Hot deals at A.R.S.O.N., Inc. 

Call us at (615) 868-4956 

Cost of telephone calls will be 
deducted from your order. 



mateur Radio Supply of Nashville, Inc. 



615 South Gallatin Road, Madison, Tennessee 37115 a4o 



Drake 1 525 EM 
Pushbutton Encoding Mich. 

only $49.95 + S1.50 U.P.S. 




M«w D«fnD Perf«cr Shape Equipment • N#w Warranty 



rCOM 325 740 00 

KOM J45 400.00 

ICOM 343 ;S^ 4%. 00 

ICOM 315 1S8 00 

Offliron JKW Tvn»f 1 99.00 

&nhm T4XC »0 m 

PT«h«AiC4 (OSVOCF 

Siv^tmJ T4&A iKifi 7B9 00 

T«ifi«a Onr AC S«j^4>ly 4SO.O0' 

T«iiit>po 7030 655. OG 

T«mpD VHF On« Piui 143.00 



Voeiu 

Vaciw 
YoeHt 



FTIOIE 
FTIOlfE 

fr231R 

ftiai 
rviais 

FftlOISO 
FT630* 
OTf 54 



61^00 

350 00 

503 00 
665 00 
B09 00 

2m w 

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4I50D 

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76m 



71 



mchael A. Baker WSCM/S 
7101 Mandann Drive 
Biioxi MS S9SZ2 



German 
Amateur Procedures 



-- and repeater information 



This article has two pur- 
poses* The first is to 
inform anyone who talks to a 
German ham on the HF 
bandSi because he may be 
interested in knowing more 
about the other man's hobby 
environment. The second is 
to help anyone anticipating a 
trip or work assignment in 
Germany, who may well wish 
to do some hamming while in 
the country. For these 
reasons, this article wilt ex- 
plain the ham license struc- 
ture and hobby activities 
available in Germany, 

Like most hams all over 
the world, the German ham 
you talk to has had io pass a 
series of exams. They are 
given by the Deutsche 
Bundespost. The minimum 
age at which one can become 
a ham is 16 years. There are 
two main divisions of 
licenses, the class A/B and the 
class C Holders of a class A 
or B can operate all per- 
missible amateur bands on all 
modes, with the only dif- 
ference between them being 



the transmitter power autho- 
rized. If you've worked a 
German ham on the HF 

bandsj he had eiiher a class A 
or B license, because the class 
C license is the equivalent of 
the American Technician 
class and allows only opera- 
tion above 144 MHz. 

If you will refer to Table 1 
for a summary of the bands 
and modes for each license, 
you will note that^ unlike the 
American Technician class^ 
the German class C ham may 
not operate CW on any band. 
He has not been required to 
pass a CW exam to get his 
license. This is the only dif- 
ference between the class C 
and cla^ A/B ham, because 
all hams lake the same writ- 
ten exam on technical, regula- 
tory, and operational sub- 
jects. The code test is at 60 
characters per minute and re- 
quires a solid minute*s copy 
each ofp first, five-letter 
groups, then German 
language text, and then 
English language text, A max- 
imum of three errors is per- 



missjble. If a ham has a class 
C license, he need only pass 
the code test to upgrade to a 

class A license* 

If the exam is failed, the 
applicant may take it again, if 

the second attempt is failed, a 
mandatory waiting period of 
one year must be observed 
before trying apin. tf the 
third attempt is failed, a 
period of three years must be 
waited out before trying 
ag^in. 

License fees are paid by 
the month at 3 Deutsche 
Marks (DM) ($1.25), plus 3 
DM for the issuance of a new 
or duplicate license. The 
exam costs 15 DM ($6.25) 
the first time and 5 DM for a 
repeat, 

A ham must operate as a 
class A operator for a year's 
probationary period before 
he may upgrade his license to 
class B status, if his record is 
good. A class A station is 
allowed a maximum of 50 
Watts final power amplifier 
dissipation^ a class B station 



150 Watts, and a class C 
station 50 Watts. While this 

system is different from the 
American use of power input, 
you can readily compare 
them if you refer to the 
normal efficiencies of 5SB 
and FM amplifiers. 

just as in the U.S. A,, you 
can tell something about a 
German ham from his call- 
sigi. Old-timers with class B 
licenses are assigned a DL, 
DK, or DJ prefix, and newer 
operators have a DF prefix. 
Class C stations are DC or DD 
prefixed. If the ham is not a 
citizen of Germany, but of 
another country, he receives a 
a D)0 class A/B prefix or a 
DC0FA to )2 class C call. 
American military stationed 
in Germany receive a DAI or 
DA2 prefix for a class B or a 
DA4 prefix for a class C 
license, depending on the 
class of their U.S* license. 

To operate in Germany as 
an American, there are two 
basic systems in use. If you 
are a touristj you can obtain a 
temporary reciprocal license 
commensurate with your 
U.S.A. license class, and you 
will use your U,S-A. calf with 
a /DL. The ARRL has an 
information package available 
for your use in applying 
in advance for the license. Or, 
if you Ye in a hurry or already 
in Germany, write the 
German equivalent to the 
ARRL, the Deutscher Ama- 
teur Radio Club (DARC), at 
Postfach 1 153, 3507 
Baunatal 1, West Germany. 
Ask in your letter for a 
tourist license valid for three 
months, and include the fol- 
lowing information in the for- 
mat shown: 

1. Family name, Chris- 
tian name, nationality 

2, Birthday 

3. Place of birth 

4, U.S.A. address 

5. U*S.A. callsign 

6, ARRL membership 
status 

7- Copy of U.S*A* 
license 

S. Dates of S-month 
period desired 
9. Mai! address in Ger- 
many 



72 



10. Actual address in 
Germany 

It. 15 DM intep 
national check or 
money order, or wire to 
the DARC bank 
account, Postscheckamt 
Essen 5613-430, with a 
note (showing your 
U.5-A. callsign) that it 
is for a tourist license. 
You should expect up to 
six weeks processing time for 
your license to go through 
the DARC to the German 
authorities and back to you. 
If you are to be stationed in 
Germany with the U,S. mili- 
tary under the Status of 
Forces Act, you must go 
through the U.S. Army 
liaison office to apply for a 
license. Write for application 
forms to the Commander, 5th 
Signal Command, Attn: 
CCE-OP-T-ML, APO NY 
09056. This license will be 
issued for a year at a timej at 
an annual cost of 39 DM 
($16.50), by the FTZ division 
of the Deutsche Bundespost 
(DBP). It will be a class B 
license for ail classes except 
Technician and Novice. Tech- 
nicians receive a class C 
license, and Novices are not 
eligible for a DA call license. 
However, a Novice can obtain 
a three-month tourist license 
to hold him over until he can 
upgrade at the FCC examina* 
tions given twice a year at 
Ramslein Air Base, Germany, 
Now that we've discussed 
the license and privilege struc- 
ture, it*s time to talk about 
what can be done on the air 
with the license. The HF 
bands, you will note^ are 
smaller than in the U,S,A*, 
but are not legally divided 
into modes of emission or 
subbands. However, "gentle- 
men's agreements" exist, 
much the same as in the 
U.S. A- German hams tike 
working OX and rag chewing 
as much as any ham, and the 
usual blend of home brew 
and commercial equipment 
can be found, made by Ger- 
man, Japanese, and American 
manufacturers. Customs and 
taxes really elevate the prices 
on giear, however. Can you 
imagine paying $1000 for a 



^ 



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new Drake R48 receiver or 
$800 for a Yaesu FT-221? 
** Discount" is a word not 
readily found in a German 
ham dealer's vocabulary* 
However p in the usual ham 
spirit of "keeping the rig new 
while forgetting to buy shoes 
for the family," hams manage 
to stay on the air. Hams here 
also find themselves inter- 
ested in CW, SSB, SSTV, and 
RTTV, with, of course, the 
usual local and internationat 
blend of contests available to 
jam the weekend bands into 



an aspirin bottle. 

Of the over 25,000 
German hams, many, either 
because of their class C 
license or a genuine interest 
and desire for the open spaces 
of radio, find their interests 
directed towards VHF/UHF 
operation. It is in this area 
that the German hams really 
excel Technical proficiency 
is, on the average, very high, 

and these bands lend them- 
selves to home brew and an- 
tenna projects readily. As can 
be seen from Table 1, there 



are no 50 MHz or 220 HWz 
bands in Germany. As a re- 
sult, most activity is on the 
144 and 430 MHz bands, and 
even these bands are smaller 
than in the U.S.A. 

There is a high degree of 
activity on FM using both 
simplex and repeaters. The 
main two meter and 70 cm 
frequencies are given in 
Tables 2 and 3, from which 
you can see thai the Germans 
use the standard two meter 
600 kHz offset, and a 7.6 
MHz offset on 70 cm- There 



73 






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Fig, 2. 70 ciw repeaters In Germany. 



are ten two meter repeater 
channeEs allocated to about 
77 Ktjve machines on a 25 
kHz spacing^ and with no 
oddball or revei^e splits. Fig. 
1 is a map of two meter FM 
repeaters in Germany* The 70 
cm repeaters number 45 at 
present, and, although pro- 
vision is made for the 
eventual use of 25 kHz 
spacing, present spacing is 
mainly 50 kHz. Fig. 2 shows 
the German 70 cm repeaters. 
All German repeaters operate 
on a dual entry of carrier 



squelch plus a 1750 Hz tone 
burst* No other entry tone 
burst frequency is allowed^ 
and many commercial trans- 
ceivers sold in the U.S. have a 
special German "G** version, 
which includes a tone burst 
circuit for this purpose. The 
DARC coordinates all re- 
peater locations and fre- 
quencies, and the* DBP will 
not process a license applica- 
tion for a repeater that has 
not been approved by the 
DARC. Some DARC 
standards for repeaters in- 



clude a 4-5 second delay on 
transmitter turnoff, a 1-2 
minute time-out on individual 
transmissions, and a 1-1,5 
second delay between squelch 
off and timenQUt timer (TOT) 
reset, at which lime a short 
audio beep called a "roger 
beep'* is sounded to tell the 
repeater users that the TOT 
has reset. This last feature 
works wonders in dis- 
couraging taiigaters from ex- 
cluding breakers and emer- 
gency traffic. In addition to 
FM repeaters, there are a few 



repeaters available for ATV 
and RTTY, plus some linear 
transponders. All German 
two meter repeaters are ex- 
tremety busy. Unless he has 
an adequate command of the 
German language, the 
American ham in Germany 
will usually avoid the re- 
peaters and operate on the 
simplex channels, with 
145.550 MHz being the 
standard frequency adapted 
by the DA stations. 

So far it would seem that 
the VHF/UHF scene is ex- 
clusively FM, but this is far 
from true. Ttiere is heavy use 
of two meter SSB, and it is 
not unusual to work Austria, 
Switzerland, Belgium, France, 
Luxembourg, Holland, or 
England on good days. Nor is 
it unusual to talk to a two 
meter station using a 1 5 Watt 
transceiver and a 40 to 88 
element yagi array! Also, the 
Germans are heavily active on 
OSCAR and, in fact, operate 
a branch of AMSAT, 
AMSAT-DL, which furnished 
the mode "B" 70 cm to two 
meter transponder now in 
operation in OSCAR 7, In 
fact, there are more active 
mode B users in Europe than 
in the whole UvS.A- 

There are some FM re- 
peaters appearing on the 23 
cm band now, and several 
groups are working with such 
high frequencies as 10.5 GHz 
microwave. But this is rela- 
tively specialized and beyond 
the scope of this article. 

Those hams who aren*ton 
the air talking may well be at 
their benches building a 
home brew project. Home 
brewing is very popular, 
especially at VHF and above, 
and there is a whole subgroup 
of hams devoted to this 
aspecL There is even a maga- 
zine, called i^HF Com- 
munlcatfons, which is pub- 
lished in both German and 
English language versions four 
times a year and is devoted to 
home brew projects. The nice 
thing about this particular 
publication Is thai it offers as 
a service the complete avail- 
ability of critical parts and 
printed circuit boards to 
duplicate any project that has 



74 



been published. German 
home brew equipment gen- 
erally reflects a high standard 
of technical sophistication 
and construction technique 
excellence* 

If you have a radio fre- 
quency interference problem, 
don't despair- The 
Bundespost has a large fleet 
of specially equipped radio 
test vans and friendly, help* 
ful, proficient technicians 
who can come to you and 
evaluate your station and 
transmitted signal. If you are 
"clean/- German law requires 
the owner of the TV, stereo, 
antenna preamplifier, etc, to 
fix his equipment by 
shielding, grounding, and 
filtering. Of course, if you are 
at fault, you can be required 
to install your own station 
low pass filters, grounding, 
etc., as may be required, plus 
obey license restrictions until 
you are clean, just as in the 
U.S.A. 

If you like to meet your 
ham friends, look at the latest 
commerciat equipment, or 
buy some parts or kits^ have a 
dinner with music and a live 
dance band, you can do it all 
at a German hamfest. Just as 
tn the U,S*A*, these popular 
occasions come in all sizes, 
from large to small, ranging 
from national to local in 
scope. Not only are the 
German fests categorized by 
size, but they are also some- 
times devoted to a particular 
interest group. Can you 
imagine a Dayton Hamfest 
devoted to exclusively 
VHF/UHF interests? In 
Germany ^ one such event that 
draws national attendance of 
VHF/UHF enthusiasts is held 
every autumn at Weinheimi 
and is quite a feast for those 
who like VHF/UHF FM, SSB, 
commercial and home brew 
equipment and antennas. 

The national radio club, 
the DARC, boasts a member- 
ship of over 90% of 
Germany's 25,000 hams and 
offers a wide variety of 
services. The club's national 
magazine, CQ-DL, is pub- 
lished monthly with 80 pages 
and 30,000 copies- The club 
is organized Into 19 districts, 



each of which can have up to 
50 local clubs* The club mag- 
azine offers operating and 
legal news on the internation- 
al, national, and local fronts, 
technical articles, etc., just 
like any ham ma^zine. If 
you think the new equipment 
reviews written by the 
American hams in American 
magazines are worthwhile, 
you should see the articles 
written by the DARC engi- 
neering staff after a checkout 
in the club's lab. One com- 
mercial Japanese all-mode 
two meter transceiver that 
got a one page review by an 
American magazine received 
an eleven page thoroughly 
technical review by the 
DARC! 

Another service of the 
DARC is an international and 
national QSL bureau, which 
handles cards sent and re- 
ceived* Cards are processed 
from the club and its allied 
national QSL bureaus to the 
individual district clubs. One 
more service is a third party 
insurance policy for hams to 
cover damages; for example, 
it might cover damages 
caused by an antenna blowing 
down or falling onto a neigh- 
bor or his roof. 

As mentioned earlier in 
the article, the DARC works 
extremely closely with the 
German government. What 
does all this cost? At first, the 
anneal dues of 55 DM ($27) 
seem like a lot, but when you 
consider all the services avail- 
able, as only partly men- 
tioned above, it becomes 
much more reasonable. 

Incidentally, US. hams 
stationed in Germany with 
the military are generously 
afforded reciprocity by the 
DARC as a courtesy, which 
means that the ham can defer 
recetving the German lan- 
guage CQ'DL Magazine and 
the insurance policy, and still 
use the full QSL bureau 
services through a local 
DARC club for only 11 DM 
($4,60) a year. All it takes is 
40 or more QSL cards sent 
out by US. postage rates to 
make the fixed charg^e look 
good, and it looks even better 
when you discover that, while 



Frsquancy 

35-3.8 
7,0-7.1 
14.0-14.35 
21.0-21.45 

28.0-29.7 

144-146 

430-440 



Class A/ B modes 

A1, A2. A3. A3J, F1, F3 
A1 , A2, A3, A3J, F1, F3 
Al, A2, A3. A3J, Ft,F3 
At, A2, A3, A3 J, Ft, F3 
A1,A2, A3, A3J, F1, F3 
A1, A2, A3, A3J, F1, F3 
A1. A2,A3, A3J, F1,F3 



CfassC model 

nont 

npne 

none 

none 

A3, A3J. F3 

A3, A3J. F3 



Table L Higher frequency bands are deleted. 

Simplex: callmg/working fr«qy ancles 

145,500/ 145.525/ 145.550/ 145.575 



Re pea ten; 






Channel 


Input 


Out|Mtt 





1 45.000 


145^600 


t 


145.025 


145,625 


2 


145.050 


145.650 


a 


145.075 


145.675 


4. 


145.100 


145.700 


i 


145.125 


145-725 


6 


145.150 


145.750 


7 


145.175 


145.775 


8 


145.200 


145 800 


S 


145.225 


145.825 


Tab/e 2, 


Two meter FM band p!an. 


Simpfex: 435.0 




Repeaters: 






Channel 


Input 


Output 


70 


431.050 


438.650 


72 


431.100 


438.700 


74 


431.150 


438.750 


76 


431 .200 


438.800 


78 


431.250 


438.350 


80 


431 .300 


438.900 


82 


431.350 


438.950 


84 


431.400 


439,000 


86 


431.450 


439,050 


87 


431 475 


439075 



Table 3, 70 cm FM band plan. 



in the U.S. a first class letter 
costs 13^, in Germany a first 
class letter within the country 
costs 21^, and international 
European mail from Germany 
costs 50^ or more. Nonethe- 
lessi many American hams do 
pay the full dues and enjoy 
the full privileges of the 
DARC. You*d be surprised 
how well you can understand 
the German language ham 
magazine, even if you don't 
**spricht Deutsch/* by look* 
ing at the pictures and catch- 
ing key words in the text; 
after all, a dB or kHz in 
English is the same in 
German! 

Speaking of clubs^ the larg- 
est and most organized 
American club in Germany is 
the Wiesbaden Amateur 
Radio Club. This club is head- 
qu arte red in Wiesbaden, 
Germany, has an inter- 
national cast of members, but 
is heavily composed of 
Americans working in 



Germany. This ARRL a: 
iated club is associated with 
its DARC counterpart local 
club, and enjoys outstanding 
cooperation and rapport with 
the local German club and 
the DARC. Members come 
from over an hour's drive 
away to attend the monthly 
club meetings, and the club's 
activities include the only 
"Americanized" hamfest, 
hetd once each May in 
Germany, as a regular event* 
The hamfest is an excellent 
meeting place for hundreds of 
German and American hams, 
as well as those of several 
other nationalities. It's a real 
sight to see the German hams 
eating the club's food con- 
cession's barbecued ham- 
burgers, while the American 
hams eat worst and brotchen. 
The hamfest has a technical 
boothj where FM transceivers 

are checked for frequency, 
power, and deviation. Other 
fest features enjoyed by all 



75 



are the flea market, door 
prize raffle, and end*of-the- 
day flea market auction, with 

the lalter being especially 
novel and enjoyed by the 
German hams. 

AlsOj of course, the club 
offers code and theory classes 
during the year. Since elimi- 
nation of the mail exams^ it 
has become harder to get new 
hams or upgrade licenses^ but 
the FCC has been very help- 
ful by working with the 
authorities to allow an 
examiner to come to 



Germany twice a year to give 
commercial and amateur 
exams* If you want to 
talk to a club member, you1l 
find him on 145.550 MHz 
FM or on the club's repeater, 
DA4FB, This open repeater is 
the only one in Germany that 
has a license granted to an 
American-backed club, and 
operates on channel 87^ as 
per Table 3. So, by all means, 
bring along your two meter 
and 70 cm FM rigs when you 
come to Germany. 

As you can see, hamming 



in Germany has a lot to offer. 
fferhaps this article wilt allow 
you to have a more meaning- 
ful and interesting rag chew 
with the next '^D" prefix 
station you talk to, or, if you 
are coming to Germany to 
visit or work, you will be 
better prepared to enjoy your 
hobby more fully. The hams 
in Germany and Europe are 
very friendly and helpful, and 
you are sure to en|oy your 
next QSO or visit, 

Tve had the pleasure of 
living and hamming En 



Germany for three years, and 
would like to take this oppor- 
tunity to express my deep 
appreciation to at I the hams 
in Germany, the DARC, and 
the Wiesbaden ARC, for 
making it so much fun and 
for helping me to see another 
aspect of my hobby. A 
special thanks to Jean Binet 
DC0HO/F0AOB and to Herb 
B r as i n gton D Al KD/ 
WB4EWX for their help and 
encouragement in the writing 
of this article. Auf Wieder- 
sehen! « 



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accessory Olter fur ubove receiver kits 

glvtfs 70 dR adpceiit Lihsrine] 

r^jfctimi ........ .^ - ..,, . 8.50 

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6 mrr RF front efid 10.7 J^Hjt out I 2.50 
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220 MHt RF fmni end t0,7 MH? 
out ... ^ ............. . 17,50 

4 J2 MHr RF front tfnd tO,7 MHf 

out .*..,^«^..„i.. 27-^0 

iO.7 MHz IF mtidule inctudes 2 
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TXSOW/1 - . 

TX144B Kit . 
TX144B V^;T 
TX220B Kit. 



transmittvr Ciciier, I wjU.tjmtr^ 39. 9S 

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tonsmiltrr ^iLiti^r- I Hrjiitl-2 mtr* 2^.9S 

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TRANS.MITTERS 




TX2 20U W/T 
TX432H Kit - 
TX4J2BW^ 
TXI50 Kit. . 
TXiSoW/T - 



same a* above -wired i te^tfd - - 49.95 

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PA2S0IH W/T. 
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F'A4010H W/T. 
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PAS 0/2 S W/T . 
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PA144/2S Kit . 

PA220/i5 Kit . 
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PA 1 40/ 10 W/T 
PA 1 4 0/50 W/T 



2 mtr pTiwer jtmp— kil |w in-2Sw 

QUI with solid slate switching, 

case, connect ars .»«,,,...> 5^. ^5 

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2 mtr power amp lOvv in -40w 

out-relay iwilchini;^ S9,95 

sanns as above— wired &. [t-sled * - 74.95 

6 mtr pcnveT amp. 1 w in. 25w oyt. 

le^s case, cunnectUT^ & vi^ilchitig . 49^95 

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Qut -les^s cas,e, connectors And 

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same ^ Pa 144/15 kit but 25w . . 49.9S 

simibr lo PA 144/1 S fat 220 MHt J?. 95 
power amp -Similar iti J' A 144/15 

except J Ow and 4.12 MHf , . . , * 49*95 

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30w in- l40w i?ut-2 mtr amp .. 159.95 



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optional triplet 



2.50 




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NICAD. , , , 
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tone Jk|uetch decoder , 59^95 

ui^talled in repe:itiT, iriL'fudin^f 

interface stcLiessonei 119.95 

1 tone dectider , , 29.95 

4^me ;is aNivc wired & tested 39,95 
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DfVlSlOlV OF BROimiAN ELECTRONJCS CORP. 

BOX S / 320 WATER ST. / BLNCHAMTON, N.Y, 13901 / Phone 607-723-9574 



auHJUilffllCldllt 



77 



Herb Brasington WB4EWK/DA1KD 
301 GemmiDriv^ 
Satellite B&ach FL 32955 



The DA4FB Story 



-- American repeater in Germany 



SCnuEs 



I 



m 



!t 



:¥» 



HILES 



* I KM 



10 20 30 40 50 60 



FRANKFURT 



I^£IN-|^IN AB 




DARMSTADT 



HANNHEIH 
HEIDELBERG 



FRAKCE 



JCARLSRUHE 



Fig, h Arm of coverage of DA4FB 70 cm repeater^ with major dlies and USAF military 
inswlla lions indicated. The antenna is at a height of 800 meters (2624 feet), and has a cardioid 
pattern oriented toward Frankfurt. 



How do you draw to 
gather amateurs who 
are spread over a large geo- 
graphical area (4700 square 
miles) and provide for reliable 
communications among 
them? One obvious solution 
to this problem is the instal- 
lation of an FM repeater. But, 
when you consider that the 
geographical area of concern 
is in the Federal Republic of 
Germany, and that the major- 
ity of the amateurs are 
Americans, the solution to 
the problem is a little more 
complex. 

Members of the US 
Wiesbaden Amateur Radio 
Club (USWARC), a large 
group of amateurs composed 

heavily of Americans living 
and working in West 
Germany, began discussing 
this problem in ^4ay, 1976- A 
repeater committee was 
formed^ and various members 
of the club and committee 
were tasked to begin to look 
for a suitable site, secure 
equipment, and apply for the 
station license. 

The area of desired cover- 
age was so large that a central 
location for the repeater was 
necessary. The terrain con- 
sists mainly of rolling hills, 
and is divided almost in half 
by a range of mountains that 
runs northe ast/south west 
through the area. Jerry 
Stewart K5CFQ/DA1HZ was 
able to secure permission to 
imtall the proposed repeater 
at a military communications 
site near the center of the 
area. The site is on a 2300- 
foot mountain J has a 300- 
foot microwave tower, is 
manned 24 hours a day, and 
has emergency backup 
generators. What more could 
be asked for? 

Preliminary negotiations 
were initiated with Deutsch- 
tand Amateur Radio Club 
(DARC) officials for the 
authority to install and oper- 
ate a repeater. The FTZ divi- 
sion of the Deutsche Bundes- 
post (DBP, the German 
equivalent of the FCC) will 
issue a license for a repeater 
only if the license application 
has been coordinated with 



78 



the DARC The DARC 
analyzes the application and 
insures sufficient separation 
between repeaters (both in 
frequency and distance) be- 
fore giving the OK to the 
FTZ to issue the license. The 
DARC makes the frequency 
assignments and tells the FTZ 
what frequency pair is to be 
on the license. As you can 
see, the DARC is a very 
powerful or^nization. But 
their power is welf directed^ 
and repeater wars are almost 
nonexistent in Germany. 

DARC officials indicated 
that the 2 meter band was 
extremely crowded and that 
they could only agree to a 
repeater in operation on the 
70 centimeter band (430-440 
MHz). The USWARC dis- 
cussed this proposal and 
agreed that a 70 cm repeater 
was acceptable. 

The search for equipment 
then began in earnest. About 
the only rig available at first 
was the VHP Engineering 70 
cm repeater The projected 
cost of the repeater, coax, 
antennai control logic, 
duplexer and miscelfaneous 
parts soon grew to over 
$1000, and the repeater 
committee started looking for 
fundraising projects. 

Some of the USWARC 
members are associated with 
Motorola GmbH, and high 
level corporate management 
was informed of the club's 
repeater pfofect- Soon, a 
rebuilt 70 cm MOT RAG 
repeater, complete with con- 
trol logic, duplexer, and 350 
feet of 7/8*' foam coaxj was 
donated to the club by the 
corporation! 

By this time, ei^t months 
had passed since first dis- 
cussion of the project, and 
the committee was ready to 
install the repeater antenna. 
A CushCraft 4-poie phased 
array was purchased, and it 
was decided that the cardroid 
paUcrn should be directed 
toward Frankfurt (as that 
city was the farthest distance 
from the site in the area of 
desired coverage). Installation 
was planned for the first 
weekend in December. (Why 
do all complex antenna proj- 




ects have lo be accomplished 
in the winter?) The weather 
cooperated, and the weekend 
turned out to be clear and 
cold. Normally, German 
winter weather would prevent 
anyone from seeing the lop 
of the tower from ground 
leveL The job was time- 
consumlna with the instal- 
lation of the heavy coax 
being the major back-breaker. 
The antenna was placed 
about 5 feet below the top of 
the tower, a definitely im- 
pressive location with a 
commanding view of the 
countryside- 

The repeater was installed 
in a new upright cabinet^ and 
work began on the control 
logic to conform with DARC 
standards. At about the same 
lime, the repeater frequency 
pair was changed by the 
DARC due lo complaints to 
the DBP by a repealer group 
who had previously operated 
a machine on the frequency 
pair assigned to the USWARC 
in the same general location 
as the club's repeater site. A 
new pair on standard channel 
R87 was assigned to the club, 
with input on 431.475 MHz 
and output on 439.075 MHz. 
This provided 25 kHz sepa- 
ration from the next adjacent 
channel (R86} and is the first 
such channel assignment in 



Germany. New frequency 
elements wer^ purchased for 

the machine, and work con- 
tinued. 

Finally^ all the modifi* 
cations were complete and 
the repeater was tuned and 
adjusted for proper oper- 
ation. The only remaining 
items were the repeater 
license and correct pro- 
gramming of the ID unit, 
which is a little tough with- 
out the correct callsign. The 
wail for the license seemed 
eternal, and was due to slight 
confusion over what the 
correct licensing office was, 
since the ctub^ trustee, and 
repeater were in different 
DBP administrative areas- 
This was cleared up, and in 
the third week of March, 
1977, the license was issued 
with the callsign DA4FB. 
This is another **firsi,'* as al[ 
other repeater callsigns in 
Germany have DB0 prefixes. 
Thc DA prefix simpiy reflects 
the American club's oper- 
ation under the German- 
American reciprocal licensing 

agreement. 

The ID unit w^ pro- 
grammed, and the machine 
went into test operation for a 
week before being trans- 
ported to the site* On April 9, 
1977» the repeater was in- 
stalled on-site» and DA4FB 



became the first American- 
sponsored repeater to be 
licensed and in operation in 
the Federal Republic of 
Germany. 

The repeater system was 
designed to give base station 
to base station coverage over 
most of the area depicted in 
Fig. 1, It was soon found that 
coverage was better than that 
planned for. Solid mobile 
operations are possible within 
about 30-40 miles of the 
repeater site, A five Watt base 
station with an eleven ele- 
ment beam is able to fully 
quiet the repeater receiver 
from Rhein-Main Air Base 
near Frankfurt, a distance of 
72 miles from the site. A 
mobile station using a ten 
Watt transceiver and a 5 dB 
gain mobile antenna has 
copied the repeater signal 
with full quieting in the city 
of Heidelberg, a distance of 
75 miles. Occasionally, a QSO 
will be conducted with a 
station outside of the de- 
picted area. One station, 
D C 5 N B , I oca ted in 
Aschaffenburg, is a regular on 
the repeater. He is 97 miles 
from the site, and uses two 
91-clement yagis: one for 
transmit and one for receive. 
(The Europeans are big on 
VHF, UHF, and microwave 
wofk. 



73 



Marly American hams 
reside in the covera^ area, 
but not too many are active 
on the 70 cm band. Many US 

Army installations and all 
major USAF installations in 
Germany are within range of 
the repeater. Kaiserslautern 
boasts the largest American 
community outside the US, 
with over 50^000 Americans, 
AH hams are invfted to use 
the open repeater and also 
join in the activities of the 
USWARC. If any further 
information is needed about 



the club or the repeater^ con- 
tact the club vice president at 
the following address: Jean 
Binet DC0HO/F0OAB, In 

den Hafcrwiesen #30, 6506 
Nackenheim, West Germany, 
Many of the club members 
participated in this project 
and, without everyone 
working together, the job 
would have taken much 
longer and probably would 
not have enjoyed such 
success* The following is a list 
of the hams who devoted 
their time and energy to the 



USWARC repeater project: 
Mike Baker W8CM/DA1BM, 
Carl Beckenbach WAILHW/ 
DAITT, Tex Bell WDSBGA/ 
DAI 80, jean Binet F0OAB/ 
DC<?HO, Herb Brasington 
WB4EWX/DA1KD, jerry 
Cole WA7YMR/DAIJC, 
Chuck Elquist W6JIF/ 
DAIBZ, Ed Goldsby 
W3JKL/DA1UC, Terry 
Huston WA8RYC/0A1TH, 
Gerhardt Pless DCSCX, joe 
Roman WB7CCK/DJ9NA, 

Jerry Stewart K5CFQ/ 

DAI HZ, John Stohel 



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Please send ^sfgns Cu- $15.95 eoch. 

Post Paid— checit or money order enclosed. 
Colif, residents odd 6%. 



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WB7CVU/DA1AY. 

Special thanks are due to 
Mike Baker, who was the 
design engjneeri mastermind, 

and driving force for the 
whole project Without the 
multi'linguistjc talents of 
Jean Binet and Carl Bee ken- 
bach, the liaison work with 
the DARC and the DBP 
would have been difficult 
indeed The USWARC wouid 
also like to express its un- 
failing gratitude to Motorola 
GmbH for its complete sup- 
port of the repeater proiect- ■ 



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FCC Type accepted modeis a^ajJabie. 



TEMPO 

POCKET 

RECEIVERS 



MS"2, 4 channel scan- 
ning receiver for VHF 
high band, smallest unit 
on the market. MR-2 
same size as MS-2 but 
has manual selection of 
12 channels. VHF high 
band. MR-3, miniature 
2-channeJ VHF high 
band monitor or paging 
receiver. MR-3U, single channel on 
the 400 to 51 2 UHF band. All are 
ow priced and dependable. 




Sold at Tempo dealers throughout the U.S. and abroad. Please call or write 

for further in format ron. prices subject to change without notice 



11^40 W Olyitipic Blvd., I.09 Angeles, 

Calit 90064 
93 1 N, Euctfcf, Ansheim, CaJ^I. 92801 
Busier. Missouri B4730 



213/477-6701 
714/772-92^ 
016/679-^127 



^ H3 



B1 



I 



I 




YD-B44 
Dynamic Mike 




ADVANCED COMMUNICATION 

EQUIPMENT 




QTR-24 
World Clock 



i 




Left to right - FRG-7, SoMd State Synthesized Communications Receiver • FR-101 Digital, Solid State Receiver • SF-101B, 
Speaker • FR-101, Digital Solid State Receiver • FL-101p 100 W Transmittef * FL-2100B, 1200 W PEP Input Unear Amplifier 







Left to right - FT-620B, 6 Meter Transceiver • YP-150, Dummy Load Wattmeter • YO-100, Monitor Scope • FTV'250, 
2 Meter Transverter • FTV-^50, 6 Meter Transverter • FV-101B, External VFO • FT^IOIE 1 60-1 OM Transceiver 




Left to right - YG-601, Digital Frequency Display • YC-3550, Frequency Counter • FP-301, AC Power Supply • FT-301S 
Digital, All Solid Stat© Transoerver • FV-301, External VFO • FT-221, 144-148 All Solid State All Mode Transceiver 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 



I 




THE PACESETTER 
IN AMATEUR RADIO 




TS^VeOA 



5599.00 



2M ALl MODE BASE/MOBILE TRANSCEIVER, 
SSB (upper and lower), FM, AM and CW, AC and 
DC. ^ MHz bind coversgs (144 to 148 MHz). Dial 
m receiver fr&quency and TS'700A automatitalfv 
switches xmiliir freq. SOO KHi fof repeater 
QperBtion. Xmit, Rev capabilitv an 44 Ch. wi^ It 
xtils. 




TR'7400A 



$399.00 



ZM MOBILE TRANSCEIVER. Synthesized PLL. 
Selectable output, 25 watts or 10 watts. 6 Digit 
LED freq. display. 144'14fi WiHi. 800 CH, in 5 
KHz nepL 600 KHz tepeatfir olfset. Continuoui 
toi>e-coded squelch (CISC). Tom Burst. 




TS-B20 



S869.00 



SSfl TRANSCEIVER. PLL Rf Monitor Noise 
Blanker. Digital hofd tock$ taunter & disfilay at 
4ny frequency, but allows VFD to tune normally. 
True RF compressor adjustable speech processor. 
IF shift control. RF attenuator. VOX, GAIN, 
ANTtVOX and VOX delay cuntrols. HF negative 
f^back. OptiunaP digital readout DRS Dial. High 
stability FET VFD. 




TS520S 




PM 



S79J0 



POWER SUPPLV FOR 
TRBIOO. Designed espe- 
cially for home QTH- 



TR720OA 



$&49.0Q 



SSfl TRANSCEIVER, Proven in thi shacks of 
thousands ol discriminating hams, field day sites, 
DX and conttst ftationi and mobttt installations. 
Superb eogineering and styling 



SP520 $28.00 

optional external speaker far batter readability^ 

TV-5D2 $249.00 

TRANSVERTER, Puts yoy on m the easy way. 
144-145.7 MHz or [optional 145-146 MHi. 



$249.00 

m MOBILE/BASE FM TRANSCEIVER. Ignition 
interference control. 2 pole Xtal filter in IF rcvr. 
Protection tor final stage transistor & reverse 
polafiiy cnnnecOons. Priority Ch. switch. Quick 
release mnynf, LED CH, indtcatort, Switchable 
low or 1W output 








MC50 



$39.50 



Dynamic micrnphnne designed expressly for ama- 
teur radio operation. Complete with PTT and 
LOCK swiidiei, and a microphone plug. {SQO or 
5 Ok ofim) 



VF042a 





CQMMUNICATIOMS RECEIVER, 1.8 to 29.7 
MHz. WWV and CB hand. 50 MHz, lUMHzcon- 
werref optional Stable VFO & osciilator for 5 
fixed chaniels. 1 KHz dial riadoul. Xtal filters 
(SSB/3 pole, CW/B pole, AM/G pole}. Squelch. 
S meter. Noise b Ian! er. 



S-raa $19.94 R 5990 $499.00 T 599 A $499.90 

SSB TRANSMITTER. 3.5 to 29.7 MHz. Stable 
VFQ, 1 KHz dial readout, B pole Xtal filter. AM 
X miss ion available. Built in AC pwr supply. Split 
tfmiiency corvtrol availabli. 



$145,00 



Designed ex clu lively for use with T$'920. RIT 
circun and control switch. Fully compatible with 
optional digital display. 

VFQ-S20 (NotStiown) $115,09 

Solid State Remote VFO. RIT drcutl mth LED 
indicator. 




TR-2Z00A 



sa2d,oo 



PORTABLE m FM TRANSCEIVER. 12 Ch. 
capacity. Removable telescoping antenna. External 
12 VDC or internal NUCAD batteries. 145-1 4 B 
MHz. S CH, supplied. Switdiabfe 2W or 4a0mW 
output. 




R^300 



ALL BAND COMfiAUNICATIONS RECEIVER. 
AC, batterias or external DC. 170 KHz to 30 MHz 
in 6 bands. Foreip broadcasts or ftem radio in 
fm, SSB and CW. Dual gate MOS/FET transistors 
& double conversian. Band spread dial 500 KHz 
markef. 




MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERtCARD ACCEPTED 



k^ 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose. Pa. 19047 



I 



DRAKE 








KNOWN FOR QUALITY 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 



RECEIVERS 






SSR-I 


General Coverage, .5 to 300 MHz 


$350.00 


SPR-4 


Programmable, Solid State 


$699,00 


DSR-2 


VtF-HF Digital Synthesized SSB, 






AM, CW, ISB, RTTY 


$3200.00 


R-4C 


C-Line, HF, 160-10M 


$699.00 


4NB 


Noise Blanker for R-4C 


$74.00 


5NB 


Noise Blanker for SPR-4 


$80.00 


TRANSMITTER 




T-4XC 


C-Line, HF, 160-1 OM 


$699.00 


TRANSCEIVERS 




TR-4CW 


80-10M. SSB, AM, CW 


$799.00 


TR-33C 


2M, FM, 12 CH. Portable 


S229.95 


MMK-33 


Mobile/Dash/ Desk Mount for TR-33C 


$12.95 


34PNB 


Plug-In Noise Blanker for TR-4 Series 


$100.00 


MMK-3 


Mobile Mount for TR-4 


$7.00 


RV-4C 


Remote VFO for TR-4 CW 


$170.00 


FF-1 


Crystal Control for TR-4 


$46.95 


SYNTHESIZER 





FS-4 



Gtneral Coverage for 4* Line and 
SPR-4 



$300.00 



LINEAR AMPLIFIER 



L-4B 



Linear and w/power supply 8e tubes $995.00 




MATCHING NETWORKS 



MN-4 
MM 2000 
RCS-4 

W-4 

WV4 

7072 

7075 

1525EM 

HS-1 

AA-10 

TV300-HP 

TV-75-HP 

TV-42'LP 

TV-3300 LP 

TV-5200LP 



la Matching Network. 200W Si 20.00 
Antenna Matching Network. 1000W S250.00 
Remote Control Antenna Switch $120.00 



R F Wattmeter, 1 .8 to 54 MHz 
RF Wattmeter, 20 to 200 MHz 
Hand Held Microphone 
Desk Top Microphone 
Push-button Encoding Microphone 
Head Phones 
low, 2M Amplifier 
300 ohm High Pass TV Set Filter 
75 ohm High Pass TV Set Filter 
Transmitter Low Pass Filter. lOOW 
Transmitter Low Pass Filter* 1000W 
Transmitter Low Pass Filter. tOOOW. 
100W. 6M 



$79.00 
$89.00 
$19.00 
$39.00 
$49.95 
$1000 
S49.95 
$10.60 
$13.25 
$14.60 
$26.60 

$26-60 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 




COLLINS AMATEUR EQUIPMENT 




KWM 2A TRANSCEIVER S3533,D0 

UnmatchBd for mobile and fixed station appdcations, 17BW 
on SSB, 160W on CW. Switch select up to 14 optional XtaU. 
Can be u^ed for RTTY. Filter type SSB generation. Automatic 
load controip Inverse RF feedback. Beimeability -tuned variable 
oscillator. 




75S-3C RECEIVER $2504.00 

Sharp selectivity, SSB, CWand RTTY, Single control rejection 
tuning. Variable 6FO. Optional mechanical filters for CW, 
RTTY and AIV1. 2.1 KHz mechanical filter. Zener regulated 
oscillators. 3«po£ition AGC, 



o 




32S-3A TRANSMITTER $2957.00 

Covers all ham bands between 3.4 MHz and 30 MHz. Nominal 
output of 100W. 175W, SSB and 160W CW, Dual conversion, 
Automatic load control. RF inverse feedback, CW spotting 
control. Collins mechanical filter. 




31 SB-} SPEAKER 
$80.00 




30L-1 LINEAR AMPLIFIER 



$1536.00 



1000 Watts PEP on SSB and 1000 Wet rs average on CW.SSB end CW^cov^s the 30, 
40, 20, 15, and 10m bands - general coverage use, too. Autsmatic (ofld central 
provider nfiBKimum talking power withoyt over-drivinQ and distDrtion. Grounded 
grid Unaar amplifisr using four B11A triodes, instamly hiaied, no warm-up delay. 
Usei an exclusive comparator circuit opiated by adjusting tuning and Joading 
controls. 




31SB-4 
SPEAKER CONSOLE 

$54^.00 





312B-5 VFO CONSOLE 
$1213.00 




Sf6F-9 AC POWER SUPPLY 
$440.00 




30SC-3 DIRECTIONAL WATT METER 

$360.00 




DL-1 DUMMY LOAD 
$St70.00 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



k 



y 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



A^£M^ ve inr Jft K riTiHMi irtWArwAAf II |] 



I 



I 



BAWi THRULINE® WATTMETER 





• BUY ONLY THE ELEMENTS YOU NEED 
AND ADD EXTRA RANGES AT ANY TIME 

• READ RF WATTS DIRECTLY 



Table 1 

STANDARD 
ELEMENTS 



Power 



MODEL 43 



5 

10 

2S 

SO 

100 

2S0 

5C» 

lOtO 

2^00 

5000 



watts 

watts 
watti 
watts 
watts 
w^ns 
watts 
watts 
watt» 



Fr^uency Bands iMHzj 



JO 



25- 
60 



so- 
las 



100- 
2S0 



200- 
500 



400' 
1000 



50H 

100H 

250H 

SOOH 

lOOOH 

250OH 

5000H 



5A 
IDA 
2SA 

50A 

100 A 

250A 

500A 

1000A 



56 

toe 

258 



100B 

socm 

1000B 



5C 

IOC 
25 C 

soc 

100C 
250C 
500C 

1000C 



5D 

100 

25D 

500 

1D0D 

250D 

500O 

ItXJOD 



SE 
10€ 
25E 
SOC 

TOOE 

250E 

500E 

IDOOt 



Table 2 

LOW. 

POWER 

ELEMENTS 



1 wall 


Cat ISO, 


2.S walti 


Cal. No, 


60-80 MHz 


060-1 


W-m MHi 


obo-a 


80-95 MHi 


OBO-1 


80^5 MHz 


0»2 


55-125 MHi 


095-1 


95-150 MHz 


095-2 


110-160 MHi 


110-1 


150-250 MH J 


150^2 


150-250 MHz 


TSO-1 


200^ K» MHz 


2Qfh2 


200-300 MH I 


200-1 


25(M50MHi 


2S^2 


275-450 MHi 


275-1 


40C^850 MHz 


ma-2 


425-850 MH2 


425-1 


800-950 MHz 


800-2 


000-950 MHz 


800-1 







WE HAVE A COMPLETE STOCK OF ALL BIRD WATTMETERS AND SLUGS 





NATION AL RADIO COMPANY, INC. 

NRCI 




NCX-1000 

Tha only tODO wstt, "single packaye" 
transceiv&r. Heavy duty design . - . results 
of 50 years of design leadership in amateur 
equipment. State of the an speech pro- 
Ctssin§, linear amplifier, power aipply. sH 
in OTte package. Nothing eiccra to buy^ 
Covers all amatetjr bands in th« HF 
mettrum . . . AM, SS' CW' $1^600 



NCL-2000 

Linear Amplifier. A Full 10 dB gain. 20 
watts in 200D watts out. Can be driven 
wrth one watt. Continuous duty design 
yiilizes two BI22 ceramic tetrode output 
tubes, designed for botti AM and SSB 
operation. Tlie indu^ry standard for 12 
years. Thousands in use a II over the world. 



$1 ,200 





HRO^SOO 



1 H i 



The ultimate shor( wave receiver. This synthesized {phase lock loop) rgceJver mcorpo- 
rates all fadlitiei for AM, Single Side Band (SSB), and CW receipt ion in ail frequencies 
from the bottom of the very low ffequency band (VLF) to the lop of the high fre- 
quencY band (HF). Nationars "dead accurate" dial means no searching for tnns- 
minions. Dial up ttie frEquency ^rid it'$ there: aeronautical, marine, CB^ amatetif, 
military, etc* Continuous coverage. ^ ^ * ^ ^ 

$3,000 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 



I 



Tl 



• 



I 




ICOM 



VHF/UHF AMATEUR 
& MARINE EQUIPMENT 




VHF/UHF AMATEUR 

&f\/EAHINE EQUIPMENT 

lC-245. 146 MHz FM TOW XCVR, LSI 
synthesizer with 4 digit LED readout. 
Xmit & Rev frequencies independently 
programmable, 60 dB spurious mtenua- 

^'^" $499.00 



IC21S. 2 METER FW PORTABLE. 

Three narrow filters for superb perform- 
ance, 3W or 400 mW. 15 CH. capacity. 
MOS FET RF Amp & 5 tuned ckts, 
S-meter front paneL $729 OR 




IC'2t1 



tC-2Tl. 4 MEG, IVfULTlMOOE 2M 
XCVR. 144 145 MHz on SSB & CW, 
plus 146^147 MHz on FM. Work AMAT 
OSCAR six or seven. LSI synthesizer 
with 7 digit LED. ^/lOS FET RF Amp, 
5 helical cavities, FET mixer & 3 I.F. 
filters $749.00 




$249.00 




iC-502. 6 METER SSB & CW PORTA* 
BLE XCVR. Includes antenna Si battery 
pack, 3W PEP & stable VFO for fun & 
FB QSOV Covers first 8Q0 KHz of 6M 
band, where most activity is. 



$299.00 




IC'2ZS. 14E MHz FM lOW XCVR, CMOS synthesizer can be ml to any 15 KHz ch. between 
14G 8i 148 MHz by diode matrix board. Spurious attenuation far better than FCC spec. 10W 
or 1W. IDC modulation controL 




IC'21 A. 146 MHz FM lOW XCVR, MOS 
FET RF Amp 8i 5 helical resonator 
filter, plus 3 I.F, fillers, IDC modulation 
control Variable output pwr: 600 MW 
to lOW Front panel rfiscrimmaiDr meter, 
SWR bridge. 117 VAC and 13.6 VOC 

pmsuppl.es. $399.00 

DV-21. DIGITAL VFO. Use with IC- 
2VA to complete 2M band. 



$299.00 



IC'20Z. 2 METER SSB 
PORTABLE XCVR. Pyts 
sideband in your hand! 
Internal C batteries or ex- 
ternal 12 VDC. 3W PEP. 
True I.F. noise blanker. 
144.0. 144.2 on two other 
ZOOKH^bands.selectable, 
Hamtfonia stocks 145*2 
arjd 145.8 146,0 MH2 for 
cdlJing frequency & sste^ 

^^'^'''^ $259.00 



r 





IC~30A. 450 NiHi FM LOW XCVR. 1W 
or 10W. Low noise MOS-FET RF Amp 
& 5 section helical filter, 22 CH, 
capacity. S-meter fi relative power out- 
put meter. IDC modulation control. 



z 




$399.00 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



u 




DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



Wmfm\ 



I 



I 



TEMPO 



id 



M 



t 




TEMPO ONE 


HF Transceiver. 80 10M. USB, 






CW Si am 


399.00 


AC/ONE 


Power Supply for TEMPO 






OME 


99.00 


VF70NE 


EKternat VFO for TEMPO 






ONE 


109.00 


TEMPO VHF/ONE 


Transceswer* 2M. 144 yo 148 






MHi.PLL 


399.00 


TEMPO SSB/ONE 


SSB Adapter for TEMPO 






VHF/ONE 


199.00 


TEMPO 2020 


Transceiver. 80 TOM. USB, 
LSB, CW and AM. PLL, 






DigftsI 


759.00 


FMH 


2W. VHF/FM, 6 Ch. Hand 






Held, 144-148 MHz 


199.00 


RBF 1 


Wattmeter & SWR Bridge 


42.95 


DM20 


Desk Mike. 600 or 50K olim. 






PTT & Lock Switches 


39.00 


IVSS2 


4 Ch. Pocket Scannmg Rcvr. 


99.00 



ATLAS 



21 OX 

215X 
OMK 

220CS 
350-XL 

DD6XL 

305 

3t1 

350-PS 
DMK-XL 



Transceiver. lO-SOM. 200W 67900 
Transceiver, 15-160M. 200W 679.00 
Deluxe Mtg. Kll for 21 OX St 
215X 48-00 

AC Console for 210X & 21 5X 149.00 
Tranvceiver. SSB, Sotld State. 
10-160M, 350W. 995,00 

Digital Dial Readout for 350- 
XL 195.00 

Plyg-ln Auxiliary VFO* For 
3S0-XL 155.00 

Plug-In Auxitiary Crystal Os- 
cillator for 350 XL 135.00 
AC Pwr Supply w/Spkr St 
Phone Jack for 350^ XL 195.00 
Mobile Mounting Bracket for 
350'XL. Easy Plug In 65.00 



SWAN 






700 CX 

VX-2 
SS16B 

MARK II 



1 200 X 



FP^l 



FC76 
WM6200 

FS2 

SWR*3 

SWR-1A 

W2000 

WM-3000 

FS-1 
WM1500 



MARK II 



1200 X 



Transceiver, 700W PEP. SSB. 
80-1 OM. USB, LSB or CW 
Plug-In VOX for 700 CX 
Suptr SeEecttve IF Ftfter for 
700 CX 

Linear Amplifjere Full Legal 
Power. W/100W input. 80-10 
M. 

Portable Linear Amplifier, 
1200W PEP. SSB, 700W, Ch. 
300W, AM. 80-1 OM. 
Hybrid Telephone Patch. Con- 
nect Rcvr/Xmjtter to Phone 
lines 



649.95 

44.95 

99.95 



849.95 



349.95 



64.95 




Frequency Counter. 5 Digit 

LED 169.95 

In- Line PresicJon Wan mater 

for 2M, 2 Scales lo 200W. 

Reads SWR, 5995 

SWR & Field Strength Meter 16.95 

Pocket SWR Meter 12.95 

Relative Power Meter & SWR 

Bridge 25.95 

In-Line Wattmeter. 3 Scales 

to 2000W. 3.5 to 30 MHz 59.95 

Peak/RMS Wattmeter. Tells 

The Truth About SSB 79.95 

Pocket Field Strength Meter 10.95 

In^Line Wattmeter. 4 Scales 

to 1500W. 2 to 50 MH? 74.95 



Linear Amptifier, Full Legal 
Power. W/100W input. 80*10 

M, 849.95 

Portable Linear Amplifier. 
1200W PEP. SSB. 700W, CW. 
300W, AM. 80 TOM. 349.95 



USED GEAR • TRADE UP • FREE UPS SHIPPING ON PREPAID ORDERS 



I 



I 



NYE VIKING 





No. 114-310-003 $8.25 No. 114-310-004GP $50.00 No. 114-404W2 $1850 



No. SSK-1 $23.95 







No, 250-46-1 $36.50 



No. 250-46-3 $44,50 



No, 250-20-1 $19.95 No. 250-0025-003 $212 



NPC 



2.5 AMP 



4 AMP 



6 AMP 










12CB4 29.95 



1Q3R 39.95 



104R 49.95 



!2AMP 

108 RM 
99.95 





V 



!6 




25 AMP 



109R 149.95 



VIBROPLEX 






t) 



it 



PRESENTATION" 
72.50 



ORIGINAL" 
49.95 




a 



LIGHTNING BUG" 
49.95 



"CHAMPION" 
46.50 



VIBRO-KEYER 
46.50 



MASTERCHARGE & BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED 



DIVISION OF TREVOSE ELECTRONICS 

4033 Brownsville Rd • Trevose, Pa. 19047 



CI 

Z 



VI 



i 



I 




I 





j\ I 3 Kilowatt Tuner Matches 

Uen/fOn- Everything From 160 to 10 



160-10 MAT 

Buirt-ln 
Wittmeter 

Front Panel Antenna 
Selector for 
Coax, Bslanced 
Line and Randoin 
Wire. 




t 




only $299.50 





Super 
Tuner 



160-10 Meters 
Balanced Line, 
Coax, Random 
or Long Wire 
Maximum Power Transfer. Xmitter to Antenna. 

1 KW Model $1 29.50 3 KW Model 8229.50 



DenffOTL. ANTENNAS 

Th« Shy Openers 



SKYM ASTER 

A loHv d«*tl[i4Mii •nd miad 27 loot 
MrtiAt intinni wirtfl tnlJfi 10, 1E^ 2^, 
miH6 Fnrit^h bi^rii iJtlnqOMly dfta divirlv 
i|pp(i«d wivi If j|i. A fuM 1^1 «Hnr«int>niu 
911 20 mfll«n, CftniliuiTt^ of hMtV MHn^ 
tm ■iMfninum wFfh 4 r^l^l^'V tuMtt ind 
tfliM Ha Tf«t?, SKVM ASTER l« lUHlhcff 
litiHlf And Mr^lf411iiir»di wlnd»up iDtD mflh^ 
HhiAw 3 KW ptFrtw lit«t imd kt for 
pauni, ro^f or T4vrfr mtiutittn«. Awdiili 
^ncly^td In ^ut luw fir^ of 




$84.50 



Mm 10 fn m«rwtv for lop mauntini on 
UCYMAITER. 



$29.50 



SKYCtAW 



TRtMTENNA 

Thi tBWfirt* voar rMJuhbort wfcll Jo**. Tht 
itnv D«lTrDn TrnK'Tinpta iiriilh 20 itHUr 
htim ii tl f ilgntrf fH th« dtieriminiilingi 
irMKWr Mho witfiR IjpitFclk (MfFwinHlvi 
in m unnnjniiuntiMy appullni biani. It'i 
tmih IomMI Up f'^^t lH<ra> • n t«^ 
A mdl dTtnctDT with pricHyfln Hv O csdi. 
AiKi 7 IWT b«^ind: ^ ■ t9 (401. dttivn 

Ttaa Trim't'HBiK mDunU artlf Hid wfwt 
i lliltinna in ofrftiB iir (nvlDniania b^ 
tm^ Oi Trim-Tma md Ital dipota-. 
kaif inn or iiniilail V^ yqu'H' b*rt> 
IPBH. 4 ft fl Fm—iJ f^in Oht EHpok- 



liAHD 



10 



Ml^ P)«rfarmt*ia 
1m M. tdi m 
f KVCLAH fltPrt vvm 

iA^NOWIDrH 



$229.50 



It 




199 



$79.50 



f3t-1 

Ttki bMTrrt CX 1 Vi 



ALL BANO DOUBLET 
TIM M SbmI Dootlif w 

it 




1^ FVC 



S59.50 






$24.50 



1000 to 1200 WATTS OUTPUT 
TO YOUR ANTENNA 

DenSon. SUPER AMP 




$499.50 



It fh« mv^^llifm ven'n dunltMif of fek^ywif dbmft 1Ub^ 

Oat N*w Sufvr Ariv n ii i i i a i > nB «ib countfy bRa«H 
AmpiirHr M^i dabMr to iha vnMnnii, (ovepm prniTl, 



TTw Su^ Ainp rum a full 2000 vvans P.E J. if^iDt on SSB 
orlSTV IOO1 10 nwtan, ih« nMikHmiffi la^ p&mm. 
Thai Si^A, Amp n ccflUfMct. kpfw pn^filc, fus j m&d 



1000 to 12P0 nflta ou^pni^ 
wiaJif > J ihii iIm OanTr^i 



anj TOeO wtttt DC w CW; fiTTY 



rmxt 



Dn 



Th» hi«t Df Dur ampTin^. iha 
tor wtfrtwi p<ff OK Hu ma. 



tupfily. it ■ cnnlifUHMA dutv. aaH-cofltaifitd tupply tnit 



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««MllM«id vari^>l« ending tn^m, 

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Decode Morse 



- - with an SOSO 



Why should you want 
to read another 
article on Morse decoding? 1 
could leli you thai this was 
the ultimate program (which 
it isn't), or that I have in- 
vented a new technique (I 
haven't)* In fact, there is 
nothing tremendously novel 
about the material presented 
in this article. However, you 
will read about a completely 
general decoder algorithm 
which can be implemented on 
any microcomputer system. 
For those of you with an 
SOSObased system, a full 
program listing of the al- 
gorithm Ts included as an ex- 



variable 



Ttm 



srtAT 



5T^T2 



COIHE 



CPTR 



ample. 

My fascination with auto- 
matic decoding was fostered 

by the introduction of the 
first microprocessors. Up un- 
til then, I had considered the 
project too inflexible, from a 
hardware point of view. The 
microcomputer concept was 
appealing because of the easy 
way in which changes in the 
system could be imple- 
mented. 1 must admit that» 
from the very beginning, the 
problem of computer- 
generated Morse code was not 
as interesting a project, since 
it is relatively straightfor- 
w^d. Hence^ this article will 

Rescript, ion 

elapsed tlH* counter (14 biuc). 

If &vEz:fl&w occtJrat^l4 bits It, tine 

i,p set to large value. 

Dct^dast] ttinfl{fi^l5 biti)» Value ia 
calculated Ln Bot and Daah routina, 

Latter-spactt timei^lB bitMK 

fl«4-B stLatua nrgiflter; 

Bit 7 Key stattLs * 1 if Ney 4omi 

6 CO Flag « 1 if TUfC DG 

5 LS Flag > 1 if T1K£ L5 

4 Sldetotte 

a — 



J 



Dft bounce counter 



Secondary st*tii« register 
lite 5^0 mrm the csiLW couAtCF 

Cod* ^^^imtmr , m»«d for etAra^ of 
inc<^uj)9 dot* audi dasbea. For doti 
cose =^ COPE • 2, for dachee QGtm = 
(CCi^£ I* 2} -t^ 1« BitB 5-0 are uaefl^ 

ColtEniTi pointer, used for autooatlc 
CRLF funCtiQijp Six biti er more 
fflay be requifed for etorag*. 



Table /. Descnptton of variable storage requirements^ 



not be concerned with that 
aspect of a system. 

The concepts used in this 
decoder are from many 
sources, including my own 
work. The magazine articles 
which I have studied are 
listed at the end of this 
article. Most authors start 
their presentation with a list 
of features and a description 
of the method for dis- 
tinguishing dots from dashes. 
This is a good approach, so I 
will do likewise. 

Decoder Features 

My idea of desirable fea- 
tures are those that minimize 
the external hardware re- 
quirements for normal opera- 
tion. There will always be 
special cases, which need ad- 
vanced hardware for error- 
free operation. 

Here is the list of features 
incorporated in my al- 
gorithm: 

1. All program timing is done 
with software delays, 

2. A sidetone is generated for 
monitoring the operation of 
the decoder, 

3. An automatic carriage re- 
turn/line feed (CRLF) se- 
quence is generated. 

4. The code input is de* 
bounced for reliable perfor- 
mance from a variety of 
sources, 

5* The speed range is from at 
least 5 wpm to about 50 
wpm. 



6. The )/0 routines that 
must be supplied by the user 
easily patch into the program. 
The method used for inter- 
preting dots, dashes J letters, 
and spaces is adapted from 
Petit's original article. Briefly, 
the rules are as follows: 

1 . If the key-down interval is 
> DD (the last dot^iash time, 
explained later}, then the 
present element is a dash; 
otherwise, it is a dot. 

2. If the key-up interval is > 
LS (the last letter-space 
time), then a character has 
been completely received and 
should be processed. 

3. !f the key-yp interval is > 
2LS, then a word has been 
compfeted. 

Assuming a dot has been 
received, by rule I, then DD 
is set to twice the duration of 
this dot For dashes, a more 
complicated set of calculi 
tions is performed. In hand- 
sent code, which Is most diffi- 
cult for the computer, a ten- 
dency for variations in dash 
duration is common. This 
usually occurs at the end of 
words and often precedes a 
long pause during which the 
operator collects his 
thoughts. Therefore, I de- 
cided to average the received 
dash interval with the last 
received element The aver- 
aging is accomplished by 
dividing the duration of the 
present dash by two and, 
then, adding the last value of 
DD- This is the LS value 
referred to in the above rules. 
By dividing by two once 
more, the new DD value is 
calculated. Two features re- 
sult from this set of manipu- 
lations: (1) The letter-space 
decisions are heavily weighted 
by the duration of dashes, 
and (2) the effect of excesr 
sively long dash intervals is 
reduced. These seem like 
desirable traits, and yet do 
not add much complexity to 
the algorithm. 

Software 

The algorithm which has 
been partially discussed is 
presented in flowchart form 
in Figs. 1 and 2. A gen- 
eralized symbolic approach, 
similar to BASIC state nient 




a 92 



structuref is used, except for 
the status subroutine. This 
routine will be discussed in 
detail, since it is the corner- 
stone of the decoder. 

The main routine is pre- 
sented in Fig. 1. All the op- 
erations necessary for trans- 
lating the received code into 
text form can be easily iden- 
tified. Starting from ihe top 
and working down, the first 
step is program initialization, 
followed by a routine for 
printing a space. 

After the space is printed, 
a key-down input causes the 
program to go to the Down 
routine. When the key returns 
to the up state, a branch to 
the Dot or Dash routine 
occurs. Within each routine, 
calculations for updating DO 
and LS, along with storage of 
the received elements, are 
made. 

While the input continues 
in the key-up condition, the 
elapsed time is measured in 
the Wait routine. If an end of 
character is detected before 
the next down state, a transi- 
tion to the Decode and Print 
routine is made. After 
printing the character^ an- 
other wait loop is entered. If 
it times out, then a word has 
been received. Before printing 
a space, a check as to whether 
or not the algorithm should 
stop is performed. Usually 
the program will continue by 
printing a space. 

Looking at the program 
subroutines presented in Fig, 
2 will illustrate further details 
of the software. Four internal 
subroutines are called by the 
main program routines. These 
are (1) Status, (2) Print, (3) 
Decode, and (4) Delay. The 
Delay subroutine times out 
after 1 ms has elaps^. Ob- 
viously, this function will re- 
quire different initialization^ 
depending on the microcom* 
puter used. The Decode sub- 
routine performs the actual 
conversion from the dots and 
dashes, stored as a unique 
digital pattern, to the ASCII 
character representation. 

In this algorithm, an auto- 
matic carriage return and line 
feed sequence is initiated by 
the first space character oc- 



curring after the 55th 
column. This is handled in 

the first section of the Print 
subroutine. Normally, the 
character is printed by calling 
a user-defined subroutine. 
However, if the CRLF se- 
quence must be printed, the 
CR is immediately output, 
and a counter is set up for 
delaying the printout of a line 
feed. 

The Status subroutine is 
the most complicated portion 
of software in the decoder. 
Note that all the timing in the 
main routine is determined 
by this subroutine. A cat! to 
the Delay routine, which re^ 
turns after I ms, is the first 
action taken. Then the pos- 
sibility that a line feed must 
be printed is tested and 
appropriate actions taken. 
Next, the key input (or re- 
ceiver) is sampled for an up 
or down state. If a new state 
is detected, the debounce 
counter is decremented. A 
zero debounce count signifies 
that, in fact, the key has 
changed state and causes the 
key status to be updated. 
Otherwise, the debounce 
count is stored and the rou- 
tine continues. Now the user- 
written routine for out- 
putting the sidetone value is 
called, and, then, the elapsed 
time counter is incremented 
(checking for overflow). 

Lastly, the LS and DD fla^, 
which indicate whether the 
time is > LS or DD, are 

stored. These flags are easily 
checked in the main routine's 
decision-making process. 

Details, Details , . . 

Many flags, counters, 
pointers, and registers have 
been mentioned in the al- 
gorithm description. These 
are summarised in Table 1. In 
the S080 listing presented, 
they occupy ten bytes of 
memory. Further explanation 
of the characier^tics of these 
variables will complete the 
description of the algorithm. 

The TIME counter is incre- 
mented as each pass through 
the Status subroutine is com- 
pleted. An overflow condi- 
tion is checked, and the vari- 
able is set to a large value, if 



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necessary. Both ihe DD and 
LS counters have been pre- 
viously described, and they 
should be about one bit larger 
than the TIME counter. The 
main status register, STAT, 
holds the flag^ and single bit 
variables. There is nothing 
unique about its organization, 
except where it might sim- 
plify programming. A 
secondary status register, 
STAT2, is used for counting 
the delay necessary after a 
carriage return and before the 
line feed is issued. This fea- 
ture may only be necessary 
for mechanical printers. 

The CODE register is used 
for storage of the incoming 
dots and dashes. It is initial- 
ized to a value of 1 before 
each character is received. 
For a dot, the value is 
doubled; for a dash, it is 
doubled and then incre* 
mented by one. This is the 
simplest technique for storage 
of the elements, which results 
in a 64-1 oca tion ASCII look- 
up table. To make sure that 

rr 



the contents of the counter 
are less than 64, an overflow 
condition must be checked 
after each entry. If an over- 
flow occurs, the value is 
divided by two, and the algo- 
rithm continues. In using 
such a simple method^ a sacri- 
fice is made in not uniquely 
decoding a few special char- 
acters- For example, an error 
is decoded as the number 
five. The corresponding 
ASCII look-up table is pre- 
sented in Table 2. 

For the automatic CRLF 
feature, a pointer for the 
column position must be 
kept. This is the function of 
CPTR, In my version of the 
algorithm^ 1 check for a value 
greater than 55, at which 
time the CRLF sequence is 
initiated. 

Subroutines 

There are two kinds of 
subroutines necessary for 
proper operation of the algo- 
rithm. The first kind, the 
main program subroutines. 



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Table 2. ASCIi look-up table for character decoding. T/ie fiex 
number corresponds to the value of the code counter. 



are well-defined for any 
microprocessor chosen for 
implementation of the de- 
coder. The second type, user- 
sup plied subroutines! will 
vary from one particular 
equipment setup to another 
A few more comments con- 
cerning the first type will be 
made before attention is 
focused on the user-supplied 
subroutines. 

There are several subtle 
aspects concerning the Status 
subroutine- In Fig. 1, the 
subroutine is called re- 
peatedly while in the down 
state. The rate at which this 
loop is executed defines the 
frequency of the sidetone 
output. If all the possible 
paths through the Status sub- 
routine are not matched for 
execution time, an instability 
in the sidetone output will 
result. A difference of only a 
few machine instructions can 
be detected by the ear- This 
problem can be handled by 
whatever method is easiest 
for ttie microcomputer used, 
In the 8080 example pro- 
gram, 13 bytes of extra jump 
instructions are used for the 
timing equalization. 

The second point worth 
mentioning is the comparison 
of the TIME counter with LS 



and DD. Since these are 

16-bit unsigned values^ you 
will have to be careful if it is 
necessary to break it up into 
8-bit comparisons. Beware of 
your microcomputer's 2*s 
complement arithmetic! 

The user-supplied I/O sub- 
routine requirements are sum- 
marized in Table 3. There are 
four routines, which are con- 
cerned with printing a char- 
acter, sampling the key input, 
generating the sidetone, and 
stopping execution of the 
program. All these functions 
require interfacing with your 
particular computer configur- 
ation. 

As examples, the sub- 
routines that I used in my 
8080 program will be de- 
scribed. First, notice that 
they are linked to the main 
routines through an t/0 patch 
table, which follows the De- 
lay subroutine- This makes it 
possible to call the user sub- 
routines from one section of 
code. There is no need to 
hunt through the listing for 
the subroutine calls when 
supplying your customized 
I/O. The Cout subroutine 
sends the ASCII character to 
the UART or display device, 
after checking if the device is 
ready. For sampling the key 



M 



94 



COUT 



SK£¥ 



CCKT 



TOKS 



Called by the Prmt «ubroutin«, 
A character ts pa«A*d^ the UATtT 
status la ehHci]c«d, and the char- 
acter 19 aent to tb* display 
device. 

An input line is t»«t«d foirthe k«y 
up or di>«fn statA. Hia appropriata 
result im returned to t]i« sntva 
■uJargut:^!!*^ 

The Biain progr^B can lEw stcrpped by 
an appropriate hardware input 
v^hich is checl^ed toy this routina. 

Called by the statua aubroutina. 
If th« k«y i» da«#n^ toggle tha 
aldetone output^ llh* and save valtia 
in STAT re^latetr. If key la np ^q 
tiothin^^ 

Table 3, User ffO subroutine specifications. 



w 



input, the Skey subroutine 
reads an input line and then 
returns with an appropriate 
flag. The Cont subroutine 
reads a status line and then 
either returns to the main 
program or stops execution, 
(Instead of stopping execu* 
tion, a branch to another 
program would be possible,) 
A sidetone is generated by 
the Tone subroutine. The key 
state is checked, and, if the 
key is up, a return to Status 
occurs. Otherwise, the last 
sidetone value is toggled, out- 
put, and saved for the next 
iteration. This generates a 
square wave with a period 
equal to two passes through 
the Status subroutine. 

User Modifications 

Perhaps one of the most 
interesting aspects of playing 
with computer programs Is 
making changes which reflect 
how you feel the program 
should have been written- 
Since 1 suspect many of you 
are already considering 
changes to this program, let 
me suggest a few first. 

One possible modification 
would be to calculate a 
smaller value for LS (but not 
for DD}. When copying the 
18 wpm code bulletins from 
WlAW, I set LS = DD = 
irnME/2) + DD ] /2, which is 
a simple change. Since the 
original LS value calculated in 
the algorithm is approxi- 
mately equal to the average 
dash, this would suggest that 
Pe tit's rule, of using 3/4 of 
the dash, might be a good 

compromise- 
Other possible changes in- 
clude timing modifications 



and altering the line length 
for your particular terminaL 
Timing changes would be pos^ 
sible in the CRLF sequence 
(i,e,, change CRDLY) or in 
the 1 ms Delay subroutine. 
By changing the duration of 
the delay, the sampling rate 
and sidetone frequency 
would be affected. If your 
display device doesn't accom- 
modate at least 55 characters 
per line, this value could be 
changed (in the Print sub- 
routine). 

The four user-supplied 
subroutines are obvious 
places where you may require 
different code than in my 
examples. This could be as 
simple as changing port 
assignments. 

Hardware 

Simple hardware interlaces 
were built for the initial 
testing of the decoder. These 
are illustrated in Fig, 3 and 
consist of output and input 
circuitry* 

The sidetone output is a 
square wave, which can easily 
drive a speaker using an emit- 
ter follower. The NPN tran- 
sistor can be any power tran- 
sistor out of your junk box. 
The interface for driving your 
display device is probably 
available from other projects, 
so I won't make any com- 
ments concerning this sub- 
ject. 

For receiving code, two 
simple circuits will get you 
going. Initially, I would sug- 
gest hooking up your favorite 
key or keyer to the code 
input line; a Ik pull up re- 
sistor may be necessary. After 
the operation of the algo- 



COMPUTEfl 



470 
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OUTPUT 

LINE 




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(0} 



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INPUT 

LFNE 



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COMPUTER 



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470 



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INPUT 
UME 



COitfHJTEir 



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USE ^ENEHAL PURPOSE NPN '5 
AND D9D&E 



Fig, 3. Simpie hardware interfaces, (a) Speaker connections; 

(b) key input; (c) receiver audio adapter. 



rithm has been checked, it is 
time to connect a receiver to 
the computer, 

I know of no easily con- 
structed optimum interface 
between a receiver and a com- 
puter. Many ideas have been 
proposed, including narrow 
pass band filters and phase 
locked loops* These ap* 
p roaches are not appropriate 
for the goal of minimizing 
external hardware under nor- 
mal conditions. Instead, I will 
assume you have a good re- 
ceiver with an adequate ON 
filter. Connecting the circuit 
of Fig. 3(c) will provide satis- 
factory operation in most 
cases. TTie audio input is am- 
plified {only about 2 V p-p 
input is required) and then 
applied to a peak detector, 
which follows the envelope of 
the received signal. The vari- 
able resistor can be used for 
adjusting the decay time con* 
slant, or a fixed value can be 
substituted. The output stage 
operates as a switch for 
driving the computer. By 
monitoring the sidetone out- 
put, the input level can be 
easily adjusted for any signal. 

The Next Step Is Yours 

With the information pre- 
sented in this article, you 
should be able to program a 
computer for Morse code re- 
ception. If nothing else, this 
is an impressive demonstra- 
tion for your friends. I hope 
you will not restrict your 
efforts solely to the ideas 



presented here, but will con- 
tinue with further experimen- 
tation on your own. 

Possible areas of experi- 
mentation include a different 
LS calculation^ a BASIC pro- 
gram implementation, or 
matched filtering for the re- 
ceiver interface. With a fast 
BASIC interpreter, most of 
the algorithm could be writ- 
ten directly from the flow- 
charts. However, the Status 
subroutine would be best left 
as a machine langua^ pro- 
gram. Using some of the 
newly-available tapped analog 
delay lines (such as the Reti- 
con TAD-32}, an adaptive 
matched filter for optimum 
detection may be possible. 

As a final challenge, con- 
sider how It might be possible 
to implement the decoder 
using one of the new single- 
chip microprocessors* The 
8080 listing which follows is 
less ihan 512 bytes! 

Thanks 

I would like to thank the 
authors for writing the 
articles which are listed under 
references- A special thanks 
goes to Steve Belter WB9SGP, 
for his suggestions and sup- 
port. 

I will be happy to cor- 
respond directly with anyone 
on this subject; please include 
an SASE, ■ 



Reference 

1. Petit, "The Mor^e-A-Verter," 

QSr, JanuafV, 1971. 



95 



M 



2. Riley, **A Morse Code to 
AlphanumerN; Canverter and Dis- 
play." QST, October, 1975. 

3. Levy, "A Morse to RTTY Con- 
Vtrter," 73, June, 1976, 



4. Thomas and BeJtef, "Meet the 
Microprocessor/' QST, August, 
1 976. 

5. Hickey, 'TTie Computer . . . 
Versus ,,. Hand-Sent Morse 



Code," Byte, October, 1976. 
6. Grappel and Hefnenway, **Add 
This 6800 Mor^r to Your Amar 
teur Radio Station." Byte, 
October, 1976. 



7. Filgate. "A Morse Code Sta- 
tion Data Handler/' Byte, 

October, 1976. 

8. Wells, "CW for the 6800/' 73, 
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ATTENTION: HAM OPERATOR/COMPUTER OWNERS 

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INTERNATIONAL DATA SYSTEMS, INC, 

400 North WBhktglon Stnet. Suitr 200. F«lt« Churcii. Virginia 220«i, U^JL 



IDS 



110 



97 




Frank J. Oerfler K9KIC 
99-1440 Aim Hts, Dr. #5 J 
Aiea HI 96701 



Futureshot 



-- just around the corner 



Fred Thompson hurried 
through the shopping 
malL His watch showed him 
that it was 8:57^ and he knew 
that Harry closed the doors 
promptly at 9 pm. Harry's 
Computer Store was the 
largest in the city, and Fred 
was sure Harry would have 
the iritcgrated circuit he 
needed . 

"Whoa," Fred said, "got 
time for a paying customer > 
don *t you?" 

*'Sure," Harry backed 
away from the door he was 
about to close and chuckled, 
"glad to take your money. 
What do you need?" 

"Program chip." Fred 
answered, "Got a French 
language course?" 

"Check the wall unit over 
tfiere. We don't get too much 
call for those, so it's probably 
down in the bottom cabinets 
someplace;** 

Fred keyed "French 
language" into the wall mint* 
terminal- The liquid crystal 
disptay listed two brand 
names. 

"Hey, youVe got two 
kinds in stock," 

**Better check/* Harry ad- 
vised, **one might use two 
chips," 

Fred asked the computer 
for a compare and contrast 
Sure enough, one program, 
which gave complete 



branch irtg and learning rein- 
forcement, used two chips. 
One chip was the program 
and a file* The other was just 
a vocabulary file of four 
megabits. The price differ- 
ential was only about 30%. 
Fred touched the lisung for 
the two-chip version to indi- 
cate his choice. A green LED 
came on over the handle of 
the bottom drawer. He 
opened the drawer and took 
out one of the bags from the 
cubbyhole indicated by a 
photoluminescent paneL 

"What, no servo- 
mechanism to drop it in front 
of the point of sale ter- 
minal?" Fred chided. 

**1 told you we don't get 
much call for that program/* 
Harry responded. "Gotta save 
the ^dgets for the big sellers 
— private secretary and the 
like," 

"Been selling a lot of the 
private secretary?" 

"Oh yeah, been selling a 
lot of the vocal interfaces, 
loo, both male and female 
voices/* 

**l didn't buy the talk fea- 
ture. I think it's great telling 
the machine what to do with- 
out any backtalk," 

**Yeah, they say the 
darned^i things. Don't know 
what some of those pro- 
grammers are thinking of 
sometimes. Well, anything 
else? We called up a back file 



of *Sur Trek' on the TV 

tonight, and 1 want to get 
home to make sure it gets 
recorded okay." 

"Captain Kirk still chasing 
Klingpns, eh? How much do I 
owe you?" 

"With state and federal 
sales tax, twenty dollars and 
forty cents. Want to use my 
terminal or have you got your 
remote toy with you? l^st 
ham radio operator I had in 
here insisted on using hfs 
homemade handi-term* Took 
him three tries^ and he wound 
up crediting me with a 
hundred dollars too much." 

"Never fear, mine works!" 
Fred said. He pulled back his 
shirt sleeve to reveal what 
appeared to be an odd-shaped 
calculator, with a rubber stick 
attiiched, 'M don't mind an 
exterior antenna. Gives me 
great coverage through the 
local repeater," he said. As he 
talked, he composed a digital 
message that consisted of his 
amateur radio callsign, 
Harry's account number, his 
account number, the date 
(November 2, 1985), and the 
amount. He pressed the irans- 
mit button, and Harry's 
counter terminal registered 
the correct transfer on its 
readout. '*Hah, see!" he said 
proudly, 

*'How long do yoy figure 
till everybody has one of 



those?" Harry asked. 

'Trobably never, except 
for a few kinds of salesmen. 
It's just a toy, like you said. 
Well, thanks a lot." 

'Thank you. We've got 
Spanish, Russian, any kind of 
language course you want," 

"This is for my daughter's 
French class. A few of the 
kids don't have access to a 
microcomputer at home yet, 
so I thought rd let her take a 
CPU to school in her book 
bag and use the school's 
peripherals." 

"If I can help, let me 
know. Night, Fred.*' 

"End," Fred responded in 
BASIC. 

Fred got back to his car 
and saw that the parking 
meter had almost run out. 
'*Boy, a dollar sure doesn't 
buy much time anymore/' he 
thought. 

On the way home, the 
message indicator on his ama- 
teur radio rig was blanks so he 
put out an "available" or CQ 
message. Almost immediately 
the display showed a response 
and the callsign K9KIC. Fred 
knew that this was the call of 
a young man named John, 
who lived nearby. They had 
never met, but they had 
shared many interesting con- 
versations over the radio. At 
the next stop sign, Fred saw 
that John wanted to switch 
over to voice transmission. He 
picked up a pencil-thin micro* 
phone which was connected 
to the radio by a piece of 
slender plastic line, "Hey, 
John, what brings you on this 
band now? Did the amateur 
radio satellite fafi out of 
synchronous orbit?" 

**No/* came the voice 
through the solid state 
speaker, "Murphy has struck, 
and I need some technical 
help." 

"Well, tell mewhatyou*ve 
got, and I'll make one of my 
educated guesses," Fred re- 
sponded. 

"You were with me when 
I bought that old Z 80 CPU 
at the swap meet. I've got it 
up and running on an anten- 
na-aiming program for the 
Russian amateur radio satel- 
lites. Everything goes fine 



M 



98 



uniif I actually hook up the 
azimuth and elevation rota- 
tors. The first time it changes 
the azimuth, everything 
stops. Whaddya think?" 

"Well, my young lad, my 
educated guess is spik^/* 

**Spikes! But there are lots 
of capacitors everywhere, and 
the power supply just has 
tons of farads hanging on it." 

*The power supply, yes, 
but you are about to learn 
one of the main reasons why 
computer designers^ radio de- 
signers, and almost everyone 
who pushes an electron has 
gone to fiber optics for signal 
'Circuits. These program chips 
that I just bought are a good 
example — two power con- 
n^tors and ten optical signal 
ports each. Sure makes it 
nice. 

"Okay, Fred, I can see t'm 
going to have to listen to one 
of your lectures, if I want to 
get my antenna pointed. Go 
ahead." 

''You are aware that wires 
used to be used for carrying 
things other than power?** 

'They still carry rf> Fred/' 

'*Hrumph. That*s power^ 
100. Anyway, all the signal 
leads in computers, radios, 
phonographs, and everything 
else once were metallic. The 
time and money we used to 
spend eliminating hum, rf 
interference, and all the other 
kinds of unwanted signals 
were amazing. Bypass capac- 
itors by the bushel, special 
circuit board and cabinet de- 
signs, tons of sheet metal. 
Then, about '79, the use of 
fiber optics for carrying 
signals really came of age- 
Practical microcomputers 
were only a few years older, 
so the marriage was a natural. 
Their use in radios and TVs 
was spurred along by federal 
legislation aimed at reducing 
TV interference, so you just 
don't find many of the 
metallic signal bus syslems 
anymore/* 

'*Wett, tdid" 

** Right, and now we have 
to reinvent a few old tricks, I 
think that every time the 
relay in that old antenna rota- 
tor control unit of yours 
clicks, a big spike is sent back 



to the computer over the 
control wires. That spike 
drives the microprocessor 
crazy. Do you have any old 
discrete optoisolators in your 
]unk box?" 

**rm not really sure what 
they are/* 

"Nowadays they are just a 
part of many chips, but basi- 
cally, they relay a control 
signal, via light, to get rid of 
any spikes thai might be in- 
troduced. You come on over 
tomorrow, and TU see if I can 
find a reference that tells us 
how to use them. Here, I've 
keyed op my address. Come 
over about 10 am." 

'*Okayl Thanks a bunch, 
Fred. See you then/' 

As he signed off from his 
contact, Fred pulled into his 
carport. He put the tires of 
his car into the wide grooves 
in the composite floor and 
Stopped when a light glowed 
on the dashboard. Beneath 
the car, twin spring contacts 
were already recharging the 
car's battery. He opened the 
front door of the house by 
punching a four digit se- 
quence on the lock. 

"Hi, anybody home?" he 
asked. 

**WeVe downstairSp'* a 
female voice answered. 

He went down into the 
main portion of the house, 
which was below the level of 
the surrounding ground. This 
arrangement gave both superb 
insulation and a nice land- 
scape. The family room was 
dark, with the skylight in the 
clear mode to give an un- 
distorted view of the night 
sky. 

"Did you just get off 
work, dear?** he asked* His 
eyes were still adjusting to 
the darkened room* 

"Yes, we had another one 
of those late conferences — 
more decisions and options/' 
his wife replied. 

"Tm glad youVe home, 
Daddy,'* his daughter Jeanne 
interjected. 'This is one of 
the first tries for our class 
project* Mother may under- 
stand stocks and bonds, but 
laser communications are too 
much for her/' 

"Oh great/' Fred said, "I 



had forgotten it was tonight 
We must not have entered it 
into the secretary. Where is 
the Urget?" 

"The computer says that 
Orbiting Base I is due to pass 
over in about 1 5 minutes. We 
are going to try hitting it with 
a laser from the roof of the 
school- We want to use the 
communications mirror on 
the Orbiting Base to bounce a 
signal. I've got this laser 
detector set up here, and Sue 
and Billy each have onC| too. 
It's not very precise, but we 
can show the principles in- 
volved/* 

"That would be a pretty 
fair accompitshment," Fred 
replied* 'The military and 
some hams have been using 
the satellite mirror incre- 
mented light element system 
for some time, but if you kids 
can bounce off the Orbiting 
Base^ you can get some good 
communications ind good 
tracking data at the same 
time." Fred walked over to 
the small computer terminal 
hanging on the wall of the 
family room. He touched a 
sensitive square on the top of 
the visual display and said, 
"Print time; Print Orbiting 
Base time; Print difference; 
Run/' 

Immediately the solid 
state display showed: 
2137:20 
2143:33 
6:13 

*'You going to work 
through the skylight?" he 
asked his daughter. 

*'Yes, I don't think we'll 
lose very much, since it's in 
the clear mode/* 

"If you two will excuse 
me," his wife said, "I'm going 
to take a bath. Secretary/' 
she said, touching the 
computer terminal. The 
screen printed "READY'* 
above the time numerals still 
on its face. This indicated 
that the secretary program 
was ready for use. "Bath; 
Hot; Full; Run/' she said. 
*'tsn*t science wonderful!?" 
she chidedj after taking her 
hand off the computer's 
touch spot. '*Let me know 
when you talk to the woman 
in the moon/* 



"Ouch/' Fred said, ''give 
*em females on the Orbiting 
Base^^ and they want the 
whole moon/* 

**Just our fair share, 
Daddy/* Jeanne laughed* 

The minutes and seconds 
displayed on the computer 
terminal went by swiftly. The 
Orbiting Base passed over- 
head. The laser detector was 
operating at its highest gain, 
but nothing was heard. Ten 
minutes after the direct over- 
head pass, the phone buzzed 
and leanne hurried to answer 
it. 

*'No, Billy, we didn't hear 
anything. What? You did. I 
know I had everything set up 
right. OK, well have to check 
it out tomorrow/' 

'They heard the bounced 
signal?" 

'*Yes, but without all three 
results, we can't get any accu- 
rate position data to 
write up. !t isn't just enough 
to receive a signal; we have to 
be able to show good tracking 
data, too^ if we are going to 
get a good grade on the pro- 
iect/^ 

"Boy, high school science 
projects sure have changed," 
Fred mused. "Let's see if 
there is anything wrong with 
your receiver that an old 
technician can recognize/' 

Fred placed the equipment 
in self*test and made all of 
the checks with no dis- 
crepancies apparent. Opening 
the small cabinet revealed 
only two lumps coated with 
protective mater raf One was 
the entire detector and 
amplifier, and the other was 
the power supply. **Not an 
adjustment anyplace; besides, 
everything checks out okay/' 

'Thanks anyway, Daddy* 
At least I know I had it 
turned on and pointed the 
right way. The Orbiting Base 
will be over again tomorrow 
night. Maybe we can get a 
new receiver by then/' 

Later, as the house quieted 
down for the night, Fred 
addressed the computer 
again. "House; Status; Run/' 
A floor plan of the house 
appeared. All doors and 
windov*^ were shown in 
green, indicating they were 



99 



a 



locked. Below the diagram, a 
row of numbers beg^n to 
appear on ihe screen. They 
showed the temperature of 
the water in the solar heaters, 
the output of the wind geth 
era tor, and the amount of 
power that had been drawn 
from ihe commercial mains 
to supplement the wind gen- 
erator over the past 24 hours. 
The temperature in the 
various rooms and other 
factors, such as circulating air 
flow, were also shown. 
Security systems, fire detec- 
tion, and environmental con- 
trol were all under the con- 
trol of the home computer 
system while the family siepL 
The next morning found 
Fred hard at "work." 
Actually, he went into the 
office less and less each year. 
The marriage of cheap data 
processing with high quality 
communications interconnec- 
tions allowed many people to 
do a great deal of their work 
at home. As a lead design 
engineer, Fred had lies, via 
telephone lines, to the five 



design engineers in his group. 
They were able to exchange 
ideas, diagrams, and com- 
ments through their com- 
puter terminals at home. 
They could confer individ* 
ually^ or as a group. 

The *'smart" terminals 
they were using contained 
powerful microprocessors and 
were actually stand-alone 
computers. They could work 
individually, in concert with 
other smart terminals, or as 
an extension of the central 
"big memory'* operated by 
Fred's company. The savings 
in real estate and overhead 
more than paid for the cost 
of the additional communica- 
tions circuits. Many busi- 
nesses still required the 
personal touch. But those 
that could were encouraging 
their people to work at home, 
Fred's wife was at "work*' in 
another part of the house. 
Their breaks were frequent, 
and their family life was quite 
strong. 

At a little before 10 am, 
the secretarial program in 



Fred's computer printed out 
"K9KtC COMING TO VISIT 

AT 10 am;' 

A few minutes later, the 
doorbell rang* The young 
man he admitted was quite 
different from the bookish 
boy Fred had expected to 
see. John was tall and 
athteiic. He held out his hand 
and said, "Hi, Fm K9KIC/* 

*'Come in," Fred said. 
**rve got an optoisolator on 
my desk-" 

They discussed optoelec- 
tronics, the good old days of 
ham radio, and several other 
topics. Fred was just about to 
relate how he had changed 
over his old receiver to fiber 
optic elements, when his 
daughter walked in, 

*'Hi, Dad, can you help me 
for a minute?" She was 
weighted down with various 
pieces of her laser project. 
"Oh, Km sorry, t didn't know 
you had company." 

** Jeanne, this is John, one 
of my ham radio buddies, 
John, my daughter Jeanne." 

'^Say, isn't that a laser 



detector?" John asked. 

"Yes, I just brought it 
back from a complete check- 
out. Everything seems to be 
fine, but it wouldn't work on 
a beam we bounced off the 
Orbiting Base last night." 

**Maybe your bandpass 
was too narrow/* John said, 
helping her with her load, 

'1 checked ..." Fred tried 
to say. 

"Or maybe you were gel- 
ling a frequency shift," 

"That could • . /* Fred 
tried again, 

"Oh, do you think so?" 
Jeanne asked wide-eyed* "I 
just don't know much about 
these things," the winner of 
the local science fair for the 
last three years said in- 
nocently, 

"Maybe we can try it on 
the ridge outside of town 
tonight , , ," were the last 
words Fred heard as they 
disappeared out the door 

He chuckled. "Bubble 
memories, laser mirrors, and 
electric cars, but some things 
never change!" « 




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Try 




Micro 



Contest Logger 



-- the 6800 does it all 



Gary E, Belcher KH6GMP 
91-962 Akahoio St. 
Ewa Bead! HI 96706 



Any con tester will tell 
you that the removai 
of duplicate contacts from a 
contest log is absolutely 
necessary but can be an 
arduous and time-consuming 
chore, particularly when a 
large number of contacts are 
involved. For example^ say 
2000 OSOs are made on one 
band. Each call sign must be 
compared agiinst all other 
callsigns on that log, in order 
to determine if a duplicate 
exists. When done manually, 
with pencil and paper, this 
operation can take nearly as 



long as the actual on-the-air 
operation, and, needless to 
say, it's nowhere near the 
fun. 

Naturally, since I do 
operate in all the major con- 
t^ts, the first function I 
wanted to perform with my 
new micro, once it was up 
and running, was the removal 
of duplicate contacts from a 
contest log. The program 
presented here does iust that. 
It reduces the operation to 
merely entering each callsign 
from the log into the pro- 
cessor via the control key- 
board. Duplicate contacts are 
identified with both an 
audible and a visual indi- 
cation. 

The ultimate contest pro- 
gram, of course, would be 



V 



f 



< <r 



AC 30 

WOTDfi CONTROU 
JACK 



-9; 



9V 

H'|t- 



ANY 3M4LL 

AUDIO DEVICE 



Fig. I 



used during the actual oper- 
ation of the contest and 
would identify duplicates 
before they were logged. It 
would maintain the log for 
you, priming it out on hard 
copy for submission to the 
sponsor. Such a program 
would be beyond the 
memory capacity of my 
system, and I have no hard 
copy device. I, therefore, 
designed this program to be 
used after the contest* Call- 
signs are taken from the 
completed logsheets, and the 
duplicate contacts identified 
must be marked on the log- 
sheets as such^ 

This program is written for 
the SWTPC 6800, with the 
CT-1 024 control terminal and 
AC-3G cassette interface. The 
AC30 is necessary only in 
the generation of the audible 
alarm described below. As 
suggested by SWTPC, mem- 
ory locations 0000 through 
0020 are unused. The pro- 



gram requires 478|-|0) bytes 
of memory, leaving all re- 
maining memory for the 
workspace. Each callsign is 
assigned six bytes^ plus one 
for the end-of-callsign control 
character (a period). 

It is possible to process 
nOO callsigns in 8K of 
memory, while 500 may be 
handled by 4K. As you wil! 
notice in ihc assembly listings 
maximum use is made of the 
INEEE and OUTEEE rou- 
tines contained in the 
Motorola Mikbug firmware, 
and direct addressing is used 
extensively. 

Upon execution of the 
program from its starting 
point, location 002F, the 
home-up and erase to end of 
file functions are performed 
to produce a clean screen, 
and then the *'Enter Call- 
signs" screen message appears 
on the control monitor. Call- 
signs of variable length are 
entered from the keyboard, 
each followed by a period. 
They appear on the monitor 
in column format at the left 
margin. In the event of a 
typing error, a slant bar is 
entered (anytime before the 
period) and the erroneous 
callsign may be entered cor- 
rectly. A line feed, carriage 
return, and erase to end of 
file string follow each callsign 
entered, to produce the 
column format and to cause a 
clean screen on pagp changes. 
The compare routine is 
bypassed for the first callsign 
entered. After that, as each 
callsign is entered, it is com- 
pared to all others already in 
the workspace. Upon de- 
tection of a duplicate entry, 
the screen message '*Dupli- 
cate — Type A Space'' 
appears following the callsign, 
and the audible alarm alerts 
the operator. The alarm is 
extinguished when the space 
(actually any character will 
do) is typed. 

This audible alarm feature 
was included only as a con- 
venience, so if your system 
does not include the AC-30, 
don't worry; the program will 
still function as written. You 
will, however, have to glance 



^ 1 



02 



up at the screen after each 

entry lo check for the visual 
indication of a duplicate on 
the monitor screen. Any 
audio device may be used for 
the audible alarm. Simply 
place the auto/manual switch 
of the AC-30 in the auto 
position, engage input A as a 
reader, and use the motor 
control jack A as a switch to 
turn on the audio device, (See 
Fig. 1.) The '*Dupiicate'* and 
"Memory Full" screen 
message strings contain 
reader-on commands, and a 
reader-off is generated after 
keyboard input, I merely plug 
in a cassette recorder locked 
in the play mode and con- 
taining a program tape. Crude 
as it may be, the Kansas City 

Fig, 2 



Standard tones never fail to 
get my attention when the 
recorder is activated by the 
remote switch. 

After the last callsign to be 
processed, key in a dollar 
sign, which terminates the 
entry and compare function 
and begins a "Print*' func- 
tion. Should the end of your 
memory be reached before 
you have come to the last 
callsign, the "Memory Full" 
screen message is displayed 
along with the audible alarm. 
The dollar sign must then be 
entered to begin the "Print** 
function. 

The "Print" function 
actually serves no purpose, 
except to allow a simple re- 
check to insure all duplicates 



0021 
0023 
002S 
0027 
0029 
002B 
002C» 



002F 

003 3 
OOJS 
0OJ7 
O0J9 
OOlh 

003C 
003P 

D043 
G045 

oo4e 

00 4« 
00 4A 
0Q4D 

C»04F 
OUSl 
0O52 
0054 

0057 
0Q59 
OOSA 
005C 
0D5E 

006Q 
a0€2 
0O63 
006S 
0066 

D06B 
OOBB 

006F 
0072 

0074 
0076 
0077 

Q07fl 
[J07A 

007C 
007^ 

floei 

00S3 

00 B 5 
OD88 

OQSB 
ODBD 
ODB£ 
0090 
0092 
0034 



EIDI 
E07E 

OlD^ 
IFTF 

00oa< 

0002 
0002 

0002 
0002 



Dl 21 
86 7Q 
hi 00 
9C 23 
27 03 
06 
20 ¥1 

m> 0141 
DE 21 
C6 20 
A6 DO 
11 

26 2C 
DF 27 
BD El2iC 
K7 00 
C6 24 
11 

26 03 
7^ DOEA 

C6 2F 
H 

2e 04 

DE 27 

20 EA 

C6 2E 
11 

27 03 

OS 
ao E2 

CE OOOO 
9C 25 

26 27 
BD 014f 
20 CB 

C6 07 

08 
5A 

2F 02 
20 FA 

DF 2S 
aC 1FF9 

27 02 

:eo itc 

BD 0I3C 
BD ElAC 
C6 24 
11 

26 FS 
D£ 25 
A7 00 
20 54 



HAI4 

OtrTEEF Egtr 
PDATAl EOU 

t NEE]E EQU 

ft 

FD& 
J<K6 

Rita 

RHB 
ORG 



NEXT 



SD^ERDUPER 

$E1I>I MXKBOG FinMVAR£ 

SEtjTtr MIKBUG FIltMWARE 

$ElAC WIKRUd FIRMWARE 

5 a IDE ConBtftiit st^rt of woirkipfpce 

51FFF Canst«Jit lilgh frtcflTiory »d dress 

SQOOO initjoliie with zeros 

2 Re^CfVe for toffp storage 

2 Reserve for tedp storage 

2 He serve for terrp Ktarajge 

2 Reserve for tcinp srtarago 
$00 2F 



EBTEfl 

EKTEH2 
LOADS 



STARTING X.f3CATION 

LDX $Ey021 Start of workapsicci 

LDA A #?20 put a space in h 

STA A 0,X Load the space in metnory 

CPX $ 0023 Re^ch ena of oettv^ry yet? 

BEQ EliTER Ye^, to enter 

INX Ho, go to next w&A loc 

BRA KEXr To NEXT 

BECIH ERTERlirG CALLSIGH5 

JSR STG4 

LUX $ooai 

LDA B #$20 
LDA A 0,X 
CEA 



EltCBAB 



SLNT? 






Display HSG4 
St^ixt of w?rkB|>sc6 
Put A fipace in. B 
Load A from mamory 
Is it a space? 
^3o, to LOCTR 
Yes< fitore X tc^p 

Hii^na 

Store char in afisiorf 
Put S in B 
IS it a $? 
no, to SLNT? 
YeSr to ZWi 

Fut a / in B 
Is it a /? 
Ko. to PD? 
Yes, restore X 
To EMCEAR 

^it A . Ln B 

Is it a ,? 

Yes, to FIRST 

No, get another char 

TO ENCHAR 



FIRST? 



BNE LOCTR 

ST3e 50027 

JSIt IH^ 

STA A O.X 

LDA B fS24 

CBA 

BNC SUfT? 

J HP EHD 

ERROR? 

LDA B #$2F 

CBA 

aH£ ?D? 

L£3e $0027 

BRA BiaCKAR 

FERIOO? 

LDA B #S2E 

CBA 

BEQ FIRST 

INX 

BRA EKCftAR 

FIRST CALLSIRM7 

LOX $0000 If this Is the first 

CPX 50O2S entry J, doti ' t search 

vm. s£A]«:m to search 

JSR STC3 Di$^lav «SC3 

OFtA EirrERS To EKTBR2 
CHECK THE COl/WTER 



LDCTR 
LOQP 



FULL? 



MEHFDL 



LDA B #507 

DEC B 

BLE FULL? 
BRA LOOP 



Load the counter with 07 
XncJTiSinetnt K 

DecreJTtGfit the counter 

I^ Kcro, to FULL? 
Els« tq Lnoo 



JS THE MEHORV FtJLL? 



0096 D£ 21 



SEABCS 



STX $0025 
CPX S51FF9 

JBR ST<; I 
J SB INEEF, 
LDA U #524 
CBA 

BNB HEMFUL 
VOX 50025 
SXA A 0«X 
SUA Etm 
SEARCB ROtlTIKE 
LOX S0021 



Store K tairp 
Se« it reached ernS 
Vc-sj^ tf ttEJ^PUL 
SO* to LdA&B 

Display KSGl 

HIKBUC 

Put a S in B 

Is it a $? 

Ro, to HEHPUL 

YeSj. store X temp 

Ifsad the S in Beiaory 

To OfD 

I,o4d X fzrtiris tanp 



have been properly marked 
on the log. The callsign s are 
displayed at the left margin in 
column format. Priming con- 
tinues rapidly until an identi- 
fied duplicate contact is 
reached. The callsign is fol- 
lowed by a "Duplicate" 
screen message, and you are 
instructed to type a space to 
continue. After the last call- 
sign is displayed, a screen 
message instructs that you 
type a "P** to print again or a 
*^C' to clear. If the "P" is 
selected, the print operation 
cycles through again, while a 
"C clears the memory work- 
space and prepares for the 
entry of a new series of call- 
signs, perhaps the processing 
of another band. 



Included in the pro-am 
are two constants, which are 
dependent on the memory 
capacity of your system. 
Location 0023 contains the 
highest memory address, 
while 007 F contains the 
address of the highest callsign 
starting point in memory, f 
have used IFFF and IFF9, 
respectively, for an 8K 
memory. If you are using 4K, 
simply change to OFFF and 
0FF3. 

This program should prove 
to be a most valuable 
addition to your program 
library p You can process your 
log in a minimum of lime and 
still have complete con- 
fidence that you are sub- 
mitting a clean log. ■ 



oo9e 


DF 2B 


ACN 


^rx 




S002B 


Btsore X in temp 


009A 


DF 2D 




STX 




?aa2D 


Store X in twira 


00 9C 


OB 27 




LDX 




&D027 


Loa4 X ^rt^n tcp^ 


OOSE 


DF 29 




STX 




S0029 


Store X in temp 


OOAO 


C6 07 




LDA 


B 


i$07 


Load the counter with 07 


00 A3 


BD 14 




BSR 




CPRFIEM 


To CPW^KM 


mhA 


27 23 




BED 




D[T»S 


It la a dnpsj to DUOE 


O0A€ 


D£ ZD 




U^X 




$00 2D 


Mo, then load the location 


fSOAS 


OS 




IIUI 






of this c^allsivn in 7. 


D0A9 


OS 




IHX 






MtiA tucr^nent 7 tiia«5 


^CAA 


oa 




HOC 






to bcfifiii looklQii at 


OOAB 


oe 




imc 






the next callsign 


00 AC 


00 




letx 








ODAD 


OS 




THX 








OOAE 


0& 




INX 








OOAF 


9C 27 




CPK 




$0027 


is it this callsign? 


ooai 


Z^ ES 




BHE 




AGN 


Ko, to Ar^ 


D0B3 


20 7P 




BRA 




ISLAND 


Yes. to ISLAND 






4- 


CQKPAKE StmROOTINE 


OOBS 


OB 


CPBCOSi 


IHX 






Xncircneiit; X 


1^ "IP ■ *f^ 

OOBC 


DF 2B 




STX 




$0023 


Store X ts3,p 


O0B3 


OE 29 




U)X 




$0029 


Load X from t«atp 


eOHA 


A€ 00 




LDA 


A 


0/8 


Load A £r<?ai mraaory 


OOBC 


oa 




inx 






Increment X 


OOBD 


DF 29 




STX 




90029 


store X temp 


OOBF 


DE 2B 




I.DX 




$Q02B 


Load X from temp 


OOCl 


Al 00 




CJWp 


A 


Q,x 


Compare A and X 


00C3 


26 03 




BMt 




CPRKT 


Not equal r to CPRET 


00C5 


SA 




DEC 


B 




Decrament coitntor 


00C€ 


2§ EO 




mm 




CPHCOM 


Counter not zercij to CPfECCft 


OOCB 


l^i 




vets 






Counter zero ^return, v/flaq coind 






* 


DUPLICATE CALLSTiSl FOCMD 


ODCf 


fi6 11 


PUi»E 


LDA 


A 


#511 


Put Sll in A 


ooce 


BD ElDl 




JSft 




tJirTEE^ 


MIRBUG (turns on alamt} 


OOCE 


BD 0141 




jsn 




STG2 


Display MFG2 


OODl 


DE 27 




l,^K 




$0027 


Lesad X f3ram toinp 


ODD 3 


C6 2E 




LDA 


B 


§$2t 


E'ut a . in B 


0DD5 


A6 00 


LOADA 


LDA 


A 


a,x 


Put pijmorv char in A 


0DP7 


U 




CBA 






Is it a , ? 


OODB 


27 03 




wm 




FDFWD 


Yes, to PDFKO 


OODA 


08 




XlfX 






nOp look next cfaar 


OODB 


20 FB 




BRA 




LQADA 


To I^OAQA 






4 


REPEACE PEHIOO 


WITB A$T£BI5K 


OODD 


C6 2A 


PDFND 


LDA 


a 


f52A 


Put an * lit B 


OODF 


E7 00 




STA 


B 


o,x 


Put the * in m^aoiy 


OOEl 


BD ElAC 




asR 




iwEEs: 


MIKBUG 


0DE4 


BD 0146 


ISLAND 


JSR 




SI^GJ 


Display HSG3 


0OE7 


7E 003F 




JHP 




ENTTiR2 


TO SMTER2 






• 


END 


OF MEMORY 




OOCA 


BD 0150 


END 


JSB 




STG5 


Display ?4SG5 


OOED 


DE 21 




r^x 




$0021 


StJLTt of Horkspace 


OOEF 


A« 00 


EMD2 


LDA 


A 


o,x 


Put char fa mamorv in A 


OOFl 


C« 24 




LDX 


B 


l$24 


Put $ In B 


O0P3 


11 




CBA 






Is it a $7 


O0F4 


27 07 




&BQ 




DEC IDE 


Yes, to DECIDE 


OOFfi 


C6 2A 




LDA 


B 


IS2A 


Ko, put an • in B 


OOFfl 


11 




CBA 






Is it An *? 


0F5 


26 IB 




Bim 




PRCHAH 


NO, to PRCKAR 


OOFB 


20 3D 




BAA 




DUPRNT 


Ves, to DUFHNT 






• 


DECIDE 




OOFD 


BD 0155 


DECIDE 


JSR 




sree 


Display H5G£ 


0100 


BO ElAC 




JSB 




IMKEE 


miubik; 


0103 


C£ 50 




LDA 


B 


IJ550 


Pat ASCII P in B 


0105 


11 




CBA 






13 It a P? 


oloe 


27 E2 




mo 




END 


Yes, to END 


OlOfi 


C# 43 




LDA 


B 


t$43 


Ha, put ASCII C in B 


OlOA 


11 




CBA 






Is it a c? 


OlOB 


26 FO 




BNE 




DECIDE 


Ndi invalid reply ^ ask again 


0100 


7F 0025 




CLR 




$Q02& 


Re sat fl tor age loc to sero 


alio 


7F 0Q2g 




CLR 




$0026 


Reset storage lee to «*r« 


0113 


7E 002F 




JM? 




START 


To START 






* 


PftilfT 


THE CHAKACTER 


01 Ig 


ee 20 


PPCHAS 


LDA 


B 


1520 


Put a space in B 


one 


11 




CSA 






IS it a space? 


01X9 


27 00 




BEO 




ihCX 


Yes, to IXKHl 



103 




BIXB 
Dll]> 
01 IE 

Diati 

□ 12 3 
C124 

012B 

012D 
012r 
0112 
0135 
013 B 
dUl^ 

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riz 




OK, so you want to save money — cani blame you for that! 

After you have called the 800 numbers, got your '*best price/' sent your money — what do 
you get? A box. Suppose it doesn't work? (Murphys' law). Ship it back (at your own ex- 
pense) and wait* Or — two weeks after the warranty expi res — so goes the rig _ , what to do? 

And since you got that great discount how much attention will you get? Rotsaruck fella! 

Today's amateur equipment is far more sophisticated than that of even a few years ago, 
and ifs getting more so every day. Service becomes an important issue. At CFP we have 
decided to offer you an alternative: If you are willing to pay the regular list price on any 
Drake or Yaesu product CFP will provide an additional 90 days of warranty protection. 
This v^arranty will be identical with the normal warranty with the exception that we wilt 
pay all charges including shipping both ways! 

There may be occasions when we won*t have the item you desire. Should you place an 
order and we don't, we will refund your money and advise you when it will be available. 

We won't sit on your money! If you wish a high demand item and want to make a deposit to 
ensure getting what you want — fine. 

Because we are amateurs and concerned about the issues, we limit our transmitter and 
amplifier sales to licensed amateurs (a license photocopy will do). 
Amateur radio is a great service and a greater hobby — lets keep it that way! 

Mail Orders accepted. N. Y. residents add sales tax. SASE will get our list of used Amateur Equipment. 



WANTED: GOOD 
CLEAN TRADESl 

WA2KTJ 

WB2LWV 



CFP COMMUNICATIONS, INC. 




211 NORTH MAIN STREET 

HORSEHEADS, N.Y. 14045 

PHONE: 607'739-01 87 




Store Houn 

Tyes. to Ffl. 10-6 p.m. 
Sat. 10-4 p^in. 

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104 



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We will develop compMd appltca- 

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Cgntac! us for further information. 






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105 






Computerized 
Global Calculations 



-- finding the best way to Pago Pago 



Carl Wagaj' VEZEKR 
PO Box 71 1 
Waterloo, Ontario 
Canada N2J 4C3 

10 PHINT "THIS IS GLOEiL** 

20 PRINT " " 

30 REM TWPUT DATA FOB «T LOCATIOK 

kO PHINT "MY LOCATION IS" 

50 PRINT "LATI'nJDE(Di:0,MIN, 1 FOR NORTH- FOR SOUTH)** 

60 INPUT L2,M2»Y 

70 PRINT "LONQITODE(DEG,MIN, 1 FOR EAST- FOR WEST) » 

80 ITTFUT L1,MT,Z 

90 PRINT " « 

100 HEM CALCULATE COITSTANTS FOR HT LOCATION 

110 L1 = (I1+(Kl/60))*3.ii»i59/180 

120 L2=(L2+(M2/60})*5*ll|159/l80 

130 K1=SINCL2) 

1^0 K2=C0SCL2) 

150 IF Z=0 THEN 170 

T60 Lt=-L1 

170 IF T=1 THEN 190 

180 KI=-K1 

190 PRINT " ^ 

200 REM INPUT DATA FOR HIS LOCATION 

210 PRIIIT "HIS LOCATION IS" 

220 PRINT ^'LATITUDECDEGjMIK^ 1 FOR NORTH-0 FOR SOOTH)" 

230 INPUT Lif,Mi+,B 

240 PRINT ^^LONQI TUBE (DEG^ KIN ^ 1 FOR EA;ST-0 FOR WEST)" 

250 INPUT L3rM3»A 

Z€Q PRINT " " 

270 REM CALCULATE CONSTANTS FOR HIS LOCATION 

280 L3=(L3+(K3/60))«3.iV159/t80 
290 Lif={Lifr+(M%/60)) •5.11^159/ 180 
300 IF A=1 THEN 530 

510 C1=ABS(L1-L5) 
520 GOTO 3ifO 

530 C1^AB5(L1+13) 

31+0 IF Cl<3-1i4l59 THEK 360 

350 Cl=(2*3.m59)-Cl 

360 IF 1=1 TREK 390 

370 K1=-K1 

380 REH CALCULATE DISTANCE 

390 Al^(Kl*(SlNCLW)) + (K2*(C0StLi|))»CC0S(C1))) 

i|00 l>=(5pli|l59/2)-(ATN(Al/(SQR(1-Att2)))) 

k^0 D=69•15*180*D/5.^t^T59 
If 20 PRINT " " 

i+30 REM OUTPUT 

J+40 PRINT "DISTANCE IN MILES", D 

If 50 D1=1,6093'D 

1+60 PRINT "DISTANCE IN OLOMETRES",©! 

k?0 STOP 

480 END 



Fig, }. Program /is ting for GLOB A L 



M^ 



HOW many of you DXcrs 
now keep 3 hand calcu- 
later next to your rig? After 
Frank Kelly described "Glo- 
bal Calculations for the 
DXer" in tne August, 1976, 
issue of 73 Magazine, no 
doubl some of you have Iried 
it The article showed how to 
calculate the distance be- 
tween two places anywhere in 
the world. 

When you're working that 
rare DX in Timbuktu, it's 
always nice to drop a tidbit 
of information like, 'i cal- 
culate that our QSO spans a 
distance of 8346 kilometers, 
S L ? " Pretty im pressi ve- 
sounding information, no 
doubt J and it's a novel topic 
for conversation. 

After a while, though, you 
can become tired of doing all 
of thai number-crunching 
every time. No doubt some of 
you have let the bit bug bit^. 
Either you have picked up 
some type of microcomputer 
or are at least interested in 
them. If so, let the number- 
crunching bother you no 
more. Let the computer do 
it! 

This article describes a 
computer program that cal- 
culates the shortest distance 
between any two points on 
the globe. All you need to do 
is type in the latitude and 
longitude of any two loca- 
tions on Earth, and it prints 



out the distance in miles and 
kilometers, 

I call the program GLO- 
BAL, for obvious reasons, 
and it is written in the pro- 
^mmlng language BASIC. 
GLOBAL is listed in Fig. 1. It 
is very straightforward and 
takes very little time to run. 
In Fig. 1, statement numbers 
40 through 90 have the com- 
puter ask you to input infor- 
mation about your location 
or the location of the first 
station. {If you are holding a 
three-way QSO, you could 
tell the other fellows how far 
apart they are.) Statements 
100 through 180 calculate 
the parameters for the first 
station. Unlike Kelly's meth- 
od, your station can be lo- 
cated anywhere in the world* 
So, if you're not in North 
America, you can still use the 
program. Statements 200 
through 250 ask you ques- 
tions about the second sta- 
tion's location, and state- 
ments 280 through 370 cal- 
culate the parameters for his 
location. The actual calcula* 
tion of distance is carried out 
from statement 390 through 
410, and then the distance is 
output in both miles and kilo- 
meters. 

The language BASIC that I 
used may be slightly dif- 
ferent from the one that 
you Ye using, but Tve at* 
tempted to make it so that 
the program will work on 
most machines. Notice that 
when inputting latitude^ you 
must type 1 for north or — 
zero for south latitudes. If 
your machine will accept 
what they call string variables 
(mine won't), then you could 
change the program to accept 
the letters ''N'^ or "S'\orthe 
words ** North*' or ''South/* 
The same applies for longi- 
tude. You will need to alter 
the IF statements; 150, 170, 
300 J and 360, For instance, 
150 would become: 150 IF 
Z$=^**W" then 170. Also, all 
of the variables, A, B, Y, and 
Z, would need to be changed 
to A$, B$, Y$, and Z$, since 
these usually denote string 
variables. 

One other important point 



06 



Mm 

THIS IS SLOBAL 



RON 

THIS IS GLOBAL 



MT LOCATION IS 

LATITUDE(DEG,MIN, 1 FOR NORTH-0 TOH SOUTH) 

7*10.52,1 

LONGTTUDECI>EG,MIFr, T FOB EAST-0 FOP W13T) 

775* 19,0 



HI LOCATION IS 

LATITODE(DSG,Mra, 1 TOR KOOTH-0 FOH SOUTH) 

?40»52tl 

LOKGITUDE(DEG,MIir, 1 FOR EAST-0 FOR WEST) 

?73,19,0 



HIS LOCATION IS 

LATITUDE CDEG J tilN, X FOE NORTH-0 FOR SOUTH) 

?£f8. 52,0,1 

LONGITUDE{DEG,MIKJ FOR EAST-0 FOR WTEST) 

?2.2,0,1 



HI 5 LOCATIOfT IS 

LATITUDE(DEG,MIN 1 FOR PTORTH-O FOR SOUTH) 

?22.5itjO,0 

LONQITUDE(DEQ»MIN, t FOR EAST-0 FOR WEST) 

?it3* 15, OpO 



DISTANCE IN MILES 
DISTANCE IN KILOHin'RES 



5596-772218 
5788,28553 



DISTANCE IN MILES 
DISTANCE IN KILOMETRES 



4793.847786 
7714*759241 



Fig, 2 Two runs far GLOBAL, The first calculates the distance between Huntington^ Long bland, NY and Paris^ France. The 
second calculates the distance between Huntington and Rio de Janeiro^ Brazil, 



is that GLOBAL converts 
degrees to radians before 
caEculating. Make sure that 
your version of BASIC uses 
radians for angle calculaiions. 
If your BASIC needs degrees, 
then youll have to eliminate 
the conversion factors 
(3.14159/180) from stat^ 
ments 110, 120, 280, 290, 
and 410, and you'll have to 
change pi (3 J 41 59) to the 
value 180 in statements 340, 
350, and 400. One last thing 
yotj should know is that part 



of statement number 400 
reads like this: SQR(1 -At t2). 
The Alt 2 means Al to the 
exponent 2, or AT squared. 

Some machines may need 
that written Al *'*=2, or^ if all 
else fails, just multiply A I by 
itself (A1*A1). So with these 
hints in mind, you should be 
able to get GLOBAL to per- 
form for you, no matter what 
kind of BASIC your machine 
eats. 

Fig, 2 shows the output 
for two different runs of the 



program. These two runs are 
identical with the examples 
that Frank Kelly gave in his 
articte. The first run calcu- 
lates the distance between 
Huntingtonj Long Island, NY 
{40^52^N., 73'19'W.) and 
Paris, France (48.52'*N. 
2.2'' E.) as a total of 3595 
miles, which is the same as 
Kelly's figure. The second run 
calculates the distance be- 
tween Huniington and Rio de 
Janeiro, Brazil (22.54*5,, 
43J5^W4 as 4794 miles, 



again the same as in Kelly's 
calculations. 

If you get tired of typing 
In your own location, you 
can always calculate LI, L2, 
K1, and K2 from your loca- 
tion and assign these in the 
first statements of your pro- 
gram. You could then elim- 
inate statements 40 through 
180- By the way, GLOBAL 
takes up very little space in 
memory, less than IK, and 
the above measure would 
reduce it even more, ■ 



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107 




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1912 Huntington 
Hofiman Estates IL 60195 

Bob Lmdse/ WB9WXM 
2120 HasseU Rd.. Apt. 106 
Hofiman Estates IL 60J 95 



Micro Meets JANET 



-- meteor scatter, anyonev 



? 



The idea of utilizing 
meteor scatter propaga- 
tion for data transfer first 
occurred to W5HK and 
WB9WXM during one of their 
long, frequent bull sessions 
on FM this past AprIL Bob 
had just received his first 
computer, an 8080, and Steve 
was nearly through reading 
Hobby Computers Are Here. 
Both were looking for a way 
to genuinely show the 
computer's vatue in VHF 
communications. It was not 
long before the pulse data 
characteristics of data trans^ 
fer encouraged them to look 
at an old mode that has been 
almost forgotten — meteor 
scatter. This mode has never 
been highly popular, either 
commercially or with the 
amateur^ because it requires 
either high speed CW or a 
very quick mouth on SSB to 
communicate. Information 
transfer Is tedious and re- 
quires more patience than 
most of us have. But 
wouldn't this mode be ideal 
for the microprocessor and 
the transfer of data in quick 
bursts? 

A look through a nearby 



VOK 



iiyOi<3 m 



Audio out 



MODUtATCO 



r-iicQi(TPfaL 



technical library showed an 
interesting fact: Most infor* 
mation on meteor scatter was 
written in the 1950s, and 
there appeared to be consid- 
erable interest in it until 
satellites attracted the 
interest and backing of 
government and industry. 
Almost an entire issue of the 
Proceedings of the IRE was 
devoted to the mode in late 
1957. In it were described the 
successful commercial experi- 
ments conducted between 
1953 and 1956 using meteor 
scatter. The JANET principle 
refers to the technique first 
suggested in 1950 by 
McKinley and proven 
commercially in a long term 
RTTY link over a 950 km 
path in Canada between 1954 
and 1956- JANET utilizes a 
duplex system of two stations 
and a continuously transr 
mttting carrier. When A is 
transmitting^ B Is lisieningfor 
the signal to appear from a 
trail. These ionization trails 
appear in the upper atmo- 
sphere and vary in length 
from 1 5 to 40 km. They have 
a thickness on the order of 1 
meter.* When the detector 



IMiT* 




registers a 
signal level, 
storing data- 



predetermined 
it will begin 
JANET, as the 
IRE article states, was named 
after Janus, the Roman god 
of the doorway who looked 
both ways at once.^ 

Meteor scatter itself is a 
result of the continuous, 
although sporadic, bombard- 
ment of the Earth by meteor- 
ites. Approximately 10^0 
particles, representing a mass 
of approximately 1 ton, hit 
the Earth each day.^ The 
important point is that a fiery 
spectacle is not required to 
produce a usable trail; grains 
of sand that are invisible 
when entering will suffice. 
The meteoric particles enter 
the ionosphere at a height of 
80-120 km. "Although a 
single observer may see only 
two or three visible meteors 
per hour, hundreds of trails 
can be detected in the same 
period by sensitive radio 
equipment/'^ 

The average number of 
trails varies from season to 
season, for reasons best left 
to further reading, and 
meteor showers can greatly 
enhance the duty cycle of 
communications. For pur* 
poses of reliable year-round 



communications, we are 
interested in the fact that 
trails are always present and 
that their occurrence is 
always frequent enough to 
ensure a reasonable informa- 
tion rale (60 wpm at a 
continuous RTTY speed of 
1300 wpm, for example, in 
tests conducted in the 
1950s). 

The characteristics of the 
trails are such that fading is a 
problem because high altitude 
winds can shifl the ionized 
gas trail slightly; trails that 
are either underdense or over- 
dense can introduce distor- 
tion of the signal, A small 
number of trails appearing at 
the optimum angle betvween 
two points become the 
vehicle for the communica- 
tions link. An effective 
system would endeavor to use 
a single trail at a time in order 
to minimize fading and multi- 
path distortion, Thus^ the 
practical duty cycle would be 
decreased, to less than .05.^ 
Because of the critical angle 
of entry for meteors to form 
usable trails between points A 
and B, the optimum path is 
not a great circle route, but, 
rather^ a few degrees to either 
side. An effective antenna for 
50 MHz would be a non- 
highly directional yagi. Great 
success was achieved with 
JANET, using two five-ele- 
ment yagis aimed 8° either 
side of the great circle path 
and 8*^ above the horizon. 
Because of the Earth's rota- 
tion^ more trails will appear 
on one side of ihe direct path 
in the morning and the other 
in the evening. This antenna 
permits both propagation 
paths to be utilized. 

At the time the JANET 
principle was published and 
advocated as a com mere iaJ 
viability^ the error rate had 
been reduced to less than 0.1 
percent, and average informa- 
tion rates from 30 to 50 wpm 
were achieved- The major 



START 
CODE 



£MD 
CO DC 





■ — " 








t 


1 






































njk'r*. lO: ■ A tia 


■■ 










Oa, 




■«i 


* 1 




r 











































Fig, 1. 



Fig. 2. 




^m 



problem, as was to be expect- 
ed, was to develop effective 
gating equipment to deter- 
mine when the signal from 
the distant station was at a 
usable threshold. 

Since most of the work on 
the meteor scatter mode has 
been done in the 30-50 MHz 
range, it is difficult to predict 
exLtctly what the relative 
values for error rate and duty 
cycle would be on 144 iVIHz. 
From discussions with other 
amateurs, we learned that 
meteor scatter commonly 
provides 3-6 second trails on 
six meters, 1-2 second trails 
on two meters, and possible 
occasional trails on 432 MHz, 
From our attempts to find 
articles and to locate other 
individuals who were familiar 
with the mode, we learned 
several things that were 
disappointing. Very little was 
done with the mode commer- 
cial ly after Uie satellite 
became a reality, very few 
VHF amateurs had ever 
worked the mode or knew 
anything of it, and a great 
deal remained to be done at 
144 MHz and above to deter- 
mine its characteristics. 

From our investigation of 
the mode, we became 
convinced that meteor trail 
scatter J although practically 
forgotten, had very consider- 
able potential for data trans- 
fer and that experimentation 
on I wo meters would be 
essential to find the answers. 
In summing up the mode's 
disadvanta^s (from a data 
viewpoint), there are few. 
The path appears to be 
limited to 2000 km, is not as 
fast as satellite or other 
continuous modes, and would 
require well-aimed antennas 
and precision tuning between 
amateur stations to effective- 
ly utilize the short burst time 
with a minimum of '*search 
and setup** time. These dis- 
advantages are vastfy over- 
shadowed by the advantages: 

1. Reliable communications, 
regardless of sunspot or solar 
conditions; 

2. 24 hour a day usability, 
unlike the amateur satellites; 

3. A reasonably low error 
rate, due to the inherently 



Stat (DTI 

Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 



A Send 
B Receive 
B Ser^d 
A Receive 
A Send 
B Receive 
B Send 
A Receive 
A Send 
B ReceJv© 
B Send 
A Beceive 
A Send 
B Receive 
B Send 



/ / /We9WXM (S) BOB (S) IL {R» +++ 

WB9WXM BOB tU 
/ / WB9WXM {S) W5HK (S} STEVE (R) 

WB9WXI\/J W5HK STEVE 
/ //TS700 <S) 100W (S) 4L {S\ YG (RJ +++ 

TS700 100W4LyG 
/ / nx (S) YS221 (S} SOW (S) 5L (S) YG (R) 

TX YS221 50W5LYG 
/ / /PLS tS) OSL fS) TNX iSi 4 (S) QSO (R) 

PLS QSL TIMX4QS0 
/ / /73 (S) BOB iS) OK (S) QSL (RJ -m- 

73 BOB OK QSL 
/ / /73 (S) W89WXM (S} QRX (R) +++ 

73 WB9WXM QRX 
///W5HK (S) QRX (R) +++ 



This is how a typical QSO might appear. Total QSO time — 8 minutes. A new state was worked 
on two meters, direct and with meteor burst data transmission. (S) = space^ (R) - return^ / / / = 
start code, and -f-H- = end code. 



stable condition of the path 

for the short lime it is there; 

4. A degree of security and 
privacy not achievabte on HF 
or satellite repeaters - the 
critical angle of usable trails 
between points A and B 
precludes usable signals being 
detected beyond several 
iiundred kilometers around 
each station; 

5. Spectrum efficiency and 
reuse as a result of 4 above — 
indeed, ihe authors of the 
1957 article on JANET be- 
lieve stations could operate 
on the same frequency if they 
are operating from moderate- 
ly right angles to one 
another's paths; 

6. Above all, this mode is 
uniquely suited to the sporad- 
ic, parcel nature of data 
communications; the birth of 
hobby computers makes 
meteor trails viable as they 
n^ver have been before, 
making possible an inexpen- 
sive and reliable way for 
nationwide contacts using the 
home computer. 

At this point, we decided 
to develop a working system 
built around the 8080 uP. 
First^ wc had to decide what 
basic system configuration 
could best utilize the meteor 
burst mode in a relatively 
economical fashion. 

Meteor Burst Modes 

Several possibilities exist 

for the automatic transfer of 
data via meteor bursL In 
decreasing order of complex- 
ity: 

1, Full duplex — A duplica- 
tion of ihc )ANET system 
provides a station with the 
ability to utilize the greatest 



number of trails, thus 

increasing usable transmission 
rates. For the exchange of 
large amounts of data, it is 
probably the only viable tech- 
nique. For the amateur, it has 
several pitfalls. The narrow 
spacing that would have to be 
used on two meters (if the 
repeater segment were to be 
avoided) would require an 
expensive duplexer and cavi- 
ties. Critical retuning would 
have to be performed every 
time the frequency was 
changed. A much simpler 
duplex system, available to 
any amateur, would involve 
crossband operation between 
2 and 1V4 meters or 2 and 6 
meters. This alternative 
should be considered in the 
future. 

2. Modified full duplex - In 
theory, a commercial base 
station, amateur repeater, or 
television station could be 
monitored by a distant 
meteor burst station. The 
reception of the monitored 
signal from point A at point 
B could be used to gate the 
amateur transmitter to release 
data. If both points A and B 
utilized this gating method, 
higher transmission rates 
could be achieved. 

3. Simplex — This requires 
selection of defined irans- 
mission periods that are long 
enough to have a high 
probability of hitting one 
usable traiL Much less infor- 
mation could be exchanged 
than with 1 or 2, but for the 
VHF amateur using a 300 
baud per second rate with a 
microprocessor, 30 baud, or 
approximately six words, 
cou!d be transferred in a 1/10 



second bursts This is more 
than adequate for DXing or 
short messages. It is the 
suggested technique because 
of its relative cost. One 
minute transmissions would 
result in a high probability of 
completed QSOs in less than 
ten minutes, with none of the 
tedium associated with 
conventional meteor burst 
operation. Experimentation 
would determine the best 
transmission length and data 
pared size. After this tech- 
nique was developed, trans- 
mission bursts might 
effectively be decreased to 
rapidly transfer data. Of 
course, an individual 
interested in high volume 
traffic would then find 
considerable merit for con- 
structing a station based on 
duplex or crossband 
operation. For most amateur 
operation, simplex operation 
would be fully adequate. It is 
this system we are developing 
and to which we are encour- 
agng interest be directed. 

5im|>lex Version 

Having determined that we 
would utilize a simplex 
system, we decided that we 
would need the following 
basic components: 

1. 2 meter FM transceiver 
with 100 Watts and 4-7 
element vagi; 
2- Microcomputer; 

3. TTY or video terminal; 

4, Modulator and demodula- 
tor. 

A block diagram using the 

simplex version is shown in 
Fig. 1. The data format is 
shown in Fig. 2* 

103 im 






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Fig, 3. Flowchart of the program that will be used in the fir^ 
system. 



Mode of transmission wifl 
be narrow band FM with 
deviation between 2.5 and 5 
kHz. Experimentation will 
begin at 5 kHz. The modula- 
tor and demodtjtaior are 
based on the Audio Cassette 
Standard described in the 
article entitled *'A Nifty 
Casset teCom pu tcr System " 
in Hobby Computers Are 
Here. Since this standard has 
been adopted by the industry 
for the audio transfer of 
digital information, it 
provides the most economical 
and effective means of trans- 
ferring data, at the reasonably 
fast rate of 300 baud per 
second-* Secondly, although 
the original JANET system 
utilized double sideband AM 
with audio frequency shift 

•In this article, the lonesof 2400 
cydes for mark and 1200 cydes 
for space are suggested. These 
tones are refatively in©)<pensjve to 
generate; a stable 4800 Hi can be 
divided by 2 for mark, and 
divided by 4 for space. 



110 



keying, narrow band FM 
provides advantages in terms 
of signal to noise ratio and 
noncriticalness of tuning. 
Those who have operated 
FSK on HP wilt appreciate 
the criticalness of exact 
tuning. FSK is not tolerable 
with a short burst meteor 
mode. With FM, a signal 
tuned in reasonably close will 
provide a usable signal, and, 
unlike FSK, the frequency of 
the audio tone is automatic- 
ally in tune. As a further 
bonus, this provides the 
multitude of VHF FMers 
with the ability to use exist- 
ing FM gear^ if they couple it 
with an inexpensive micro- 
processor-based data system. 
Of course, further experi- 
ments can use SSB^ FSK, or 
other more exotic modes, 
such as decimal frequency 
shift keying. The goat here is 
to provide the largest number 
of amateurs with an 
inexpensive yet effective way 
of using this mode. 



K tnifiai program waits for a command. 

Z Decision block: If a tT) is typed Jn or an (R)^ will either 

jump to block #3 Of #1 2. 

3. Start Code block: Type in the Start Code to be sent and to 
be sampJed when in the receive program. 

4. End Code block: Type in the End Code to be sent and to be 
sampled when in the receive program. 

5. Type in the cycle time desired: '^, 1. 2 min. etc. This is the 
total time the data message will be cycled. 

6. Type »n the message to be sent, up to 19 diaracters. Tht last 
character of the message has to be a carriage return, 

7. Because of carriage return being typed^ the system keys the 
transmitter. 

R The cycle timer h activated (this is a sof tvkfare timer}. 

9. The total data is sent — Stan Code» message data. End Code. 
10. Decision btock detects if the End Code is sent, if {no) is 
generated the program loops back to #9 until a yes Is generated 
in ^10. Once this happens the program jumps lo # 1 1 . 
11- Decision block to determine if the cycle time is reset: If 
(noj the system continues to ^end the data until the cycle itmer 
is reset. Once this is irue, the program jumps to the receive block 
#12, 

1 2. Un-ktys transmitter for receive portion of program, 

13. Sample for Start Code. 

14. Decision: If Start Code is false, then continues sampling. If 
true* jumps to #15, 

1 5. Start a timer whose length is equal to the maKimum number 
of remaining characters, which is 22. 

16. Load data to buffer register. 

17. Sample data for End Code, 

1 8. Decision block for End Coder If true, go to #19* '\f false, go 
to — 20, 

19. If End Code vsas detected, then the da^ between Start Code 
and End Code fs printed out. 

20. If End Code was not detected, this decision block is used to 
determine if the 22 character timer #15 has timed out, If no, 
jump back to #17, If yes, return to #13. Begin Start Code 
sampling. 

Fig, 4, 
Now let's return to the circuit; this will enable the 



data format and give it a 
closer look. Total trans- 
mission was chosen to be 25 
baud in 1 /1 0th of a second or 

less, repeated for 1 minute. 
The repetition is to insure 
that a complete data trans- 
mission will be received. The 
first 3 baud are the recogni- 
lion code, thus allowing the 
receiving station to know if a 
transmission is starting. The 
next 19 baud are information 
such as call, QTH, handle^ 
etc. Last, the remaining 3 
baud are the ending code to 
Lei I the receiving micro- 
processor that the message is 
completed. Tola! trans- 
mission time is < 1/lOtJi 
second; repeating for \ 
minute will cycle this 500 
times. Only experimentation 
will determine if this time is 
sufficient. When the receiving 
station has decoded an ending 
code, it will print out the 
message, and the receiving 
station can then send a reply 
by the same format. When 
sending data, the micro- 
processor will key the trans- 
mitter by using the VOX 



transceiver to be either 

receiving or transmitting as 
determined by the micro- 
processor program. 

That's the total system in 
operation, but one of the 
most important things is the 
microprocessor program. 
Since both W5HK/9 and 
WB9WXM are not the most 
proficient programmers of 
microprocessors (we are both 
learning), we brought in a 
third party to write the 
program, (See Figs. 3 and 4.) 
Gary Chaff in is a non-. 
amateur who has a great love 
for the microprocessor and 
programming; he is also one 
of the sharpest people we 
know in that field. The 
microcomputer we jjc using 
is the lASIS Computer in a 
Book. Besides being a 
learning tool, it is also a 
powerful microcomputer 
using the 8080A, 

Condusion 

At this point in time^ we 
are actively constructing a 
system based on the 
principles described in this 




article- The reason for writing 
til is article now, rather than 
after a system is fully opera- 
tional, is quite simple; we 
need the assistance of other 
interested VHFers outside of 
this area to prove the system. 
Whereas an EME enthusiast 
can test his system by listen* 
ing for his echo, the narrow 
propagation angles and short 
time for reflection from a 
meteor trail only 100 km in 
altitude make it impossible to 
ose the same technique. 
We believe this technique 



has considerable potemial 
and feel it is an effective 
marriage of the microcomput- 
er and the meteor burst 
mode. It has the potential for 
contacts that are not limited 
in duration as are present 
OSCAR QSOs, or distance as 
is the case with conventional 
VHF propagation. From the 
Chicago area we should be 
able to work most of the 
country on meteor burst. We 
welcome those with 
computers and interest to 
join us on 145.180 this 



whal can 
JANET is 
utilized in 



winter. We could all be 
pleasantly surprised with 

be done when 
refurbished and 
an environment 
where she best functions — 
the short data bursts of the 
modern microprocessor. ■ 

Reference 

1. ''Radio prDpag^tton by reflec- 
tion from meteor trails/* Susgar, 
G . R ., Pfcmedingt of the fEEE 
{t964),52, 116,p. 121. 
Z "The Pnncipfes of JANET - A 
Mete or -Bur St CommunicatiDn 
System/' Forsyth, Vogan, Han- 
sen, and H\T}es, Proceedings of the 



IRE, December, 1957, p, 1643. 

3. Ibid,, p. 1644. 

4. Ibid., p. 1644, 

5. Ibid., p. 1653. 

Suggested BiMiography 

Proceedings of the IRE, Decem- 
ber, 1957 (numerous articles). 
Meteor Astronomy , A.C.B. 
Lovell, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 
England, 1954. 

"Meteor scatter: a newly dis- 
covered means for extended range 
communication in the 15 and 20 
meter bands/' QST, Vol, 37, pp. 
11-15, 15b April, 1953. 
"Radio propagation by reflection 
from meteor trails," Sugar, G.R., 
Proc. IEEE (1964), pp. 52, 116. 



Don^ Buy an Amplifier on 

Toothpaste Claims 





Buy a tub^ of toothpeste on the basis of outrageous exaggerations as 
to what it'll do for your social life and it still may clean your teeth. 

BUT if you buy a linear amplifier on the basis of toothpaste claims — or 
ambiguous specifications — you may end up with a real turkey! 



Largo dinQrDi>q«« m quality ind perf&rminoe fr!(i»r among 
s^-cslted ■? KW PEP *(npH^^e^s Thmhurrg i^\ nuyimg 
anottiHT modfll Ihat i ju»1 u ooe<l a a an ALPHA'' Beliw 
tiriDFDugttly Mivisti^itfi lti« fnanuli£lutttr'i rtipulation 
Anct what, iBABcU^ n piemiMd m ht» •pKHNcwKodi' and 
wArranry. Uniesk a( count, fou dkt ftirpnMi. 

EXAMPLE — Powvr Output & Erfici»neyj 
An ALPHA 7S rnJimnq heifdowri n\ o-nf* *:riciw*ti DC ffllRrf 
dflltvBn w«^ mm 606 A4d^ f^ dutiwl «iMetaged Dv*r Vi^ 
teo irvu 10 in0i#f amfieMT tP)ind$ AnothiT currpni niiode^ 
de^uk^ ^ifHiv fhpWQiftd l«ts ihan 400 «rAt!s iverngt eui' 
pulmMtomjCdJtKttUltfigtlhfrUinw«istrurri«itl£[t«ft Toud 

rmm suimcl « tiom r««Ang tw mafiul«dur«>t f ct»ms 



and ^acs — amd irie d-eficiency wqb largely concedlttd by 
gross errors m the 'nlernaJ mejftnng orcuils' 

EXAMPLE ^ Duty Cycle 

RaSings are somfitimes wni-tii^uouis andean (m mis4ea£tin-ui 
One prcmmsnl anip'liPii^t rnjinui^cluraf ralss ^w dea^ 
modst lor ful^pOHtret m Mile-Tmrttefil amateur gcirvcd ' liJuH 
how im&fmiTtS'nfi he doesn \ say \ Anoihet many(KlyireT 
hedges has csmutmaws' raiinsg wUh Hm* I'tmia fcx arm 
modei bui noi lof & seconn rnodai 

ALPHA specs &ay ctesriy Mo Turm L«m And «wy 
Alpha is t>dCi(£^ Cy a laclory uranranry Ihat ^Kiend* ti 
monms — si« Times as kFig as oiiwf amp(lrf*r waittantitrt' 





W% undarvlvKteiMe «tiy c«ruin of dui ■ UMnpH iU M't Hedge 
»» ALPHA ^ ft iQitr' W< pOumd irHflCiQrfnpr ;«|in«. Mmyiu 
•• niM^ 1* Mynt 0l ihv comp lali linftArs tdr wtMc:h tHvf 

VouiMt *ID yoiirHfl, to'or* buftfig. let chach 
how (i il al) iw imatir ^sntlarman in f^asa- oUist 
inufm «« cjQo lad 



To getmefKSs tfjoui «na7 an alpha innear trnpiriV c«n 
i3D in fOur slotKyi. caA gr wr«E yaw dc«&er <w CTO £^»«Ct ^ 
4tefafliiC! Uer«ltf«. And ^^ii lor a fraa faDftf ol our nasiif- 
i^jdalHl guid# k) cdnpanng ineari 



ALPHA Suni^ you c*n Ijuy « eti««p*r 
|h*l ir«atf|r whM rOu «ranl? 



Sift i« 



Ft* Ehrhom Technological Operations, Inc. 
F»0 BokTOB . Quwn Coy. Cblorzido 81212 * (303) Z?5^1fal3 



ATTENTION GARY AND SABTRONIX 

OWNERS! 

* . , Xome let us tweak your 
pots! If you just built the Gary 
Model 101 or the Sabtronix model 
2000 we can calibrate it for you to 
factory specs. 

We use custom buik iab calibra- 
tion equipment designed expressly 
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sional job! 

Sabtronix 2000 $24,95 
Gary model 101 $10.95 

Also add $3.95 per unit for 
special delicate equipment packing, 
insurance, and pos^gc. 

Sand via Air Mail or Parcel Post to: 

custom cal service 



G10 






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PO Box 2085 
1001 W. Imperial Hwy, 
La Habra CA 90631 



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4606 Merle Hay Road, Suite A 
Des Moines lA 50322 



Run, Sheila, Run! 



-- real-life radio control 



The flfteen-year-oId girl 
was placed in the 
starting blocks, A silence fell 
over the stadium. Everyone 
was tense, straining. The 



starter raised his pistol and 
called, ** Runners on your 

maric, ready!" 

"BANG!" The report of 
the starter's pistol pierced the 




ibn 



m 



B5& 



Coach Jim Blasingame aims Sheila Hoizworth in the starting 
blocks. 



silence and tenseness of the 
stadium. Sheila leaped from 
the blocks like a coiled 
spring, and, for the next 14,2 
seconds, the only sound to be 
heard was the pounding of 
her feet on the cinder track, 
along with the almost- 
monotone of my voice 
speaking into a microphone 
telling the blind Sheila, "Left 
— left — right - looking real 
good — half way — now, 
youVe there - real good - 
that*s alh you're done now," 
I laid the microphone 
down and turned the trans- 
mitter off, as there was no 
longer any need for it. Her 
teammates had met her and 
were now walking her back to 
the stands. Sheita was very 
dejected with her time. The 
14,2 was not very good for 
the one-hundred-yard dash. 
She had been very nervous on 
this run, as sfie had gotten 
into the fence on an earlier 
practice run that day. She 
had had only about a dozen 
practice sessions with the 
radio equipment she was 
using. 

14.2 seconds for the one- 
hundred-yard dash may not 
be a good time for your 
average runner, bul Sheila 
changed that the following 
week with a 13.2 time. The 
second time she was not as 



nervous and had had a few 
more practice sessions. Sheila 
Is now within three-tenths of 
a second of the rest of her 
team, which is not bad for a 
grrt who, only five years ago, 
lost both of her eyes. It was a 
freak accident in which the 
orthodontic headgear she was 
wearing broke and flew 
into her eyes. Her father, 
being a doctor, had given her 
immediate first aid, and she 
started to recover. But a 
secondary infection set in, 
and it became necessary to 
remove both of her eyes. 

Now, five years later, she 
wants to do, and does do, 
everything that other fifteen- 
year-old girls do - skate- 
boarding, roller skating, 
riding horses, bicycling 
(tandem) — and she planned 
to participate in the bicycle 
ride across Iowa this year. 
She also beg$ to be allowed to 
drive a car. Prior to the acci- 
dent, she was very active in 
track and athletics, but the 
accident slowed her down a 
bit- She used to run with her 
coach in front of her, but in 
the high school meets this 
can't be done. 

A friend of mine, who also 
knows Sheila*s family, asked 
me one day, '*Ed, you're a 
ham and know about radio; is 
there any way thai we can 



114 



wire Sheila for sounds so she 
could run in track?^* 

My response waSj "Let me 
see what [ can scrounge up 
and what is available/* I was 
th inlying of two meters and a 
pocket scanner, on a little 
used frequency, with ear- 
phones. It sounded like a 
good idea, if a bit bulky. But^ 
at least. It could be made to 
work, and this kid really 
wanted to compete with the 
other kids on their level, 

A quick call to another 
ham, Ron Kinton WB0MBZ 
(who knows a lot more about 
radio than I and has a bigger 
junk box), revealed that it 
might take time to get 
crystals for an odd frequency 
and that the plain bulk of the 
pocket scanner might not be 
good. He said he would get 
back to me the next day. 
Sure enough, he did, with a 
model airplane receiver 
donated by another ham, 



Tom Taylor K^HHE, It was 
already on six meters, so Ron 
proceeded to modify it by 
removing all the heavy digital 
circuits and adding one stage 
of audio amplification. This 
proved to be sufficient 
to drive a high impedance 
earphone. To get the receiver 
down to the lower part of six 
meters, a surplus crystal from 
an old Collins aircraft trans- 
mitter was found. These com- 
ponents combined to give us 
the magic number of 50.4 
MHz for a receiver frequency. 
Ron gave me the receiver 
and totd me to tune it up and 
make it work. He even 
donated his ancient Gonset 
Communicator III for the 
cause. But he didn^t have a 
50,4 rock. His vfo for the 
Gonset didn't work either. I 
had a Heath sixer and a 50.4 
rock, which ! soon found out 
was no good either. But the 
Heath H W-1 6 I used for a CW 



station had a vfo that worked 
on six meters. It was pressed 
into service to provide the 
proper signal to tune the re- 
ceiver with. The HW-T6 and 
vfo combined with a counter 
enabled me to tune the re- 
ceiver down to the proper 
frequency, and, in the mean- 
time, I was able to locate 
another 50,4 crystal. After a 
Few hours of tweaking i-fs 
and coils^ it became apparent 
that I needed to get further 
away from the transmitter. I 
then called yet another ham. 
Ken Freberg WB0IFE, Good 
old Ken, he never questions 
the crazy stuff I do, just helps 
out any way he can. We took 
the Novice course to- 
gether and got consecutive 
calls, and I have had him over 
for several projects. Ken took 
over the duties of operator, 
and 1 became a **Sheila" and 
proceeded to walk up and 
down the street at night, in a 



light rain^ muttering to my- 
self, while trying to fine tune 
that tiny receiver, which we 
now had down to just about 
one ounce of weight, in- 
cluding the earphone. 

After satisfying myself 
that this just might work, 1 
contacted Sheila's family, and 
we made arrangements for a 
few tests. This proved to be 
very encouraging. I presented 
to Sheila the tiny receiver and 
the large, seven ounce carbon 
battery that we had for 
practice. Now was the time 
for the first of many trips for 
Sheila^ with my voice in her 
ear. She held the receiver and 
battery in her hand, while 
holding the earphone in her 
ear — it wouldn't stay in her 
ear, so she had to hold it. A 
walk down her long, broad 
driveway was an outstanding 
success for both of us. I was 
even able to guide her up to 
and around several parked 






EM^t^E-* 



Receiver module showing the high impedance earphone with 
medical IV tubing and Y junction. The splice between the IV 
tubing and the Plant run ics earphones is medical catheter 
tubing. 




Sheila with her headband. The object on this side is a nicad 
battery. One antenna is warn in fronts the other in back, both 
under her shirt 



115 



cars. It is difficult to say who 
was more excited over the 
promises this held for Sheila, 
but il was decided right away 
that she should try to run 
with the radio. A belt was 
brought out to tape the heavy 
battery to. Some surgical tape 
was used to hold the ear- 
phone in pEace and also to 
wrap the receiver with, so it 
could be pinned to her shirt. 
Her coach ^ who lived nearby, 
showed up, and we proceeded 
to let Sheila run. In her very 
own tunnel, in the absolutely 
black abyss world of the 
blind, with only the voice of 
the person who held the 
microphone to guide her^ she 
ran. 

Her best friend, Kim 
Novak, was asked to try as a 
controller for her. Because of 
their long friendship, we 
thought she would be good, 
but Kim got too excited and 
was unable to tell Sheila what 



she had to know. Her coach 
then took over the micro- 
phone for the rest of the test 
that day. It soon became 
apparent that we had a real 
winner on our hands. This girl 
and her abilities are fantastic. 
t returned to my home 
and proceeded to rework all 
the external hookups, so the 
f^eiver could be placed in a 
sweatband. My wife made a 
pocket in the headband for 
the receiver. Another pocket 
was added later for a nicad 
battery, which was added for 
the competition runs. The 
placement of 2 antennas was 
necessary, as her body would 
null the signal when she was 
between the transmitter and 
receiving antennas* With the 
system pretty well completed 
and refined, I met with Sheila 
nearly every day for poctice. 
Because of our practice 
schedule^ I have become 
Sheila's controller. True, it 



takes time, but what better 
way to develop a hobby into 
something positive? 

This girl was so eager and 
trying so hard that she 
developed shin splints, which 
were extremely painful, but 
she kept on trying. We finally 
had to quit for a few days, so 
Sheila could recover, I found 
that if I asked her if she hurt, 
the answer was always **no," 
but if I watched her very 
closely, I could tell when she 
hurt. I had to watch her 
constantly, until she finally 
realized that she couldn't per- 
form when her legs were sore, 

!t is still a real problem to 
keep her in the narrow space 
that is allowed on a track, but 
I am sure that the day will 
come when Sheila will keep 
in her lane, and she will come 
out in one of the first three 
placK, The amazing thing is 
the faith and trust this girl 
has to run down a track with 



no more than someone telling 
her which way to gol We have 
all tried it at one time or 
another^ and the results of 
seeing another ham walking 
down the track blindfolded, 
with the radio for a guide, 
can sometimes be quite 
funny. When Sheila does it, 
running faster than any of us 
old men can, it is nothing 
short of amazing. She makes 
mistakes^ but don*t we all? 
They don't make her feel 
very good, but, with practicCp 
I am sure that she can do the 
things thai she wants, I don't 
think I can ever take this girl 
and her efforts as common* 
place or for granted. I con- 
stamly marvel ather abiliti^, 
and I will be forever fateful 
for the opportunity I have 
had to work so closely with 
her. The fact that amateur 
radio has had a hand in this 
project just makes my hobby 
that much better, ■ 






Rear view of the headband showing the pocket holding the 
receive' and battery and the placement of the audio tubes. The 
two wires coming down are the antennas. 



Ron Kinton WBQMBZ making some adjustments on the 
Gonset Communicator til duritjg a practice session, with 
Sheiia standing next to him. The antenna is a 5/8 wat^e on 2m 
extended to % plane on 6m using aluminum foil for a ground 
plane. Works FB, 1:1 swr. 



116 



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GTX-2flOT 

(IncL 146.94 MHz) 

*249" 



Engineered and deslgnad for 
the quality cansolous 
2-meter enthusiast 



GTX-IT 

s299« 

Hand-Hetd 
2-meter FM, 6- 

channeU ^-5 
watt^ hand- 
hei^ with 
factory- 
mstalfed tortB 
errcoder 

GTX-I 



Genave's GTX-200T offers the FM operator up to 100 chan- 
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effects of adjacent channel interference. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES INCLUDE: 

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@ 14 VDC input 

• Separate controls for independent 
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• Switch for iock-in of pre-selected frequency pairs 
allows one-knob operation 

• Supersensitive dual-gate MOSFET 
in receiver head end. 

• Blacklfghted for night operation 

• Factory-installed, front panel mount 12 digit tone 
encoder 




GTX-2 

2-meter FM, 10 channels. 
30 watts witti pushbut- 
ton frttiency seiettftr 
(IncL 14&.S4 MHz) ^^ A A05 




2-meter FM^ 6- 
channei, 3.5 
watts hand- 
heid 




GTX-200 

^mfiter FM. 1IYD cfiinnel 
combinations 30 watts 
(Incl. 146.34 MHz} 



$189 



$199 



95 



GTX-10-S 

Jmeter f M, 10 cliMneis, 
10 wHts (XI1I3 not ii- 
clMiei> 



$14995 



r 







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AODflESS. 



STATE a ZtP, 



P-BvmHnt bvi 
D Certified Check /Money Order □ Personal Check 
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Note: Orders accompanied by personal ch^ecks wlM requfre about 

two weeks to process. 

20% Down Payment Enclosed, Charge Balance To; 



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OR CALL COLLECT TODAY! 

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D GTX tM $|49'5 

afiTX2 Sfg995 
n BTx-t $249'^ 

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4141 Kingman Dr, Indianapolis^ IN 46226 
Phone-in orders accepted (317+546-1111) 



.CHY. 



-ftMATEL/R CALL 



Accessorhs 

A¥aUmblB 

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pack 

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pack 

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case 

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encoilerfor 
ayte patch 



CHECK THESE 

FEATURES: 

• AIT metal case 

• American made 

• Accepts standard 
plu£*tn crystale 

• Features 1D.T 
MH2 crystal 
filter 

• Trimmer caps on 
TX and RX 
crystals 

• 3.5 watts output 
« Battery holder 

accepts A A 
regular, afkalina 
or nicad cells 

• Mini hand-held 
measures 8'^ 
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Ineludftd 

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Add %A per l^adio for Shippmg. HandMne, and Crystal Netting, 

ACCESSORIES FOR GTX-t and fiTX-lT 
D PSMt Optional Nicad battery pacl< ..„ *29'* 

n PS-2 Charger for GIX-ltT) battery pack ....... '39'* 

D GLC-1 Leather carrying case „ 12 

D TE-II! Tone Encoder (for use with GTX4) .„ *49'* 



J 



G3 



y >N 78 

< 




N 78 ORLANDO HAMCATION 78 ORLANDO HAMCATION 78 ORLANDO HAMCATIQN 



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.,...Have you been thinking about a wonderful Florida vacation, to places 
such as Disney World, Cypress Gardens, Sea World, the famous East and 

West coast beaches, and many of our other near by attractions??.^. 

NOW, think about combining that vacation with one of the South's' 

greatest Hamfes ts^ . . , , 






and the 

FLORIDA STATE 



AR 




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CONVENTION 



AT THE SHERATON'S TWIN TOWERS HOTEL & CONVENTION CENTER, ON S-435 
NEAR THE CROSSROADS OF THE FLORIDA TURNPIKE AND 1-4 INTERCHANGE. 

FEBRUARY 17-1819, 1978 



DOORS OPEN... *6PM FRI. the 17th (Swapfest area only). 

7AM SAT. the 18th, SAM SUN. the 19th. 

ADMISSION, $3 Advance, $4 At the door. 
Ladies FREE, Children 14 and under FREE!!! 

THOSE ADMITTED FREE MUST BE IN THE COMPANY OF A REGISTERED TICKET HOLDER AT THE DOOR. 

MANY DOOR AWARDS 






>^o%. 






GIGANTIC SWAPFEST AREA 

25,000 SQ.FT. OF AIR CONDITIONED INDOOR COMFORT. 

SWAPFEST TABLES $5 PER TABLE PER DAY 



oO^V^^ 



'''So 



SATURDAY NIGHT BANQUET 

$8 per person —Great speaker lineup. 

RESERVE BANQUET TICKETS IN ADVANCE.LtMlTED QUANITY AVAILABLE. 

FOR ADVANCE REGISTRATION, SWAPFEST AND BANQUET TICKETS 

SEND CHECK PAYABLE TO: THE ORLANDO AMATEUR RADIO CLUB. INC. 

HAMCATION CHAIRMAN, WB4HAK 
6 CAMELLIA DRIVE 

De BARY. FLORIDA 32713 

All advance ticket sales will be confirmed by return mail, Last postmark for advance sales will be Feb. I2th 1978. 



^■^^ 



FOR SHERATON TWIN TOWERS HOTEL RESERVATIONS, WRITE DIRECTLY TO; 
The Sheraton Towers, 5780 Major Blvd. Orlando, Fla. 32805. Sing. $28, Doub, $36 per day. 
Call toll free 1*800-325-3535, Mention that you are attending Hamfest Convention, 



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Sorry!!! City ordinance prohibits overnight camping (Rec. vehicles etc J on parking lots. 

ORLANDO HAMCATION 78 ORLANDO HAMCATION 78 ORLANDO HAMCATION 78 ORLANDO HAMCATION 



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118 



Booinlng 25 watts output power 
@ 14v DC input 

Separate controls for independent trans- 
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Switch for lock-in of pre-selected fre- 
quency pairs allows one-knob operation 

Supersensitive dual-gate MOS FET in 
receiver head end 

Backlighted for night operation 

Factory-Installed, front panel mount 12 
digitp alpha-numerrc tone encoder 




GTX-200T 

(incL 146.94 MHz) 

'249" 




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2 mster FM, JO Channels, 25 
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2 meter FM, IDO channel 
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□ $13995 



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2 meter FM, 100 channeF 
combinations, factuiy-inst ailed 
front panel nDunt \t digit i\- 
pha-numeric tone encodsr. 

n 5249'5 



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t meter FM, 10 chanrtels^ 
la wstis ()(tals not in- 
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D »149" 



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D $299" 



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4t4T Kin^an Ortrt 
Indianapolis, IK 4S22S 
Pliiie in orders accepted 
317/546*1111 



Name 



Aifdriss 



Cily 



State & Zip 



» Amateur Ca[l 



□ Personal Check 



Payment by: 
Certified ChecK/f Money Order 
□ C.O^D. Include 20% down 

Note; Orders accompanied by personal checks will require about 

two weeks to process. 

20% down payment enclosed. Charge balance to: 



D BankAmericard #_ 
Q Master Charge #. 

D Interbanik #^ 



Expires. 



Expires. 



Exptres. 



IN residents add 4% sale^ tax: 



All orders shipped post-paid within continental U.S. 



Mi $4 per latfia for SfiippinE^ Handling & Zrf%t^\ ftetttni 



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ACCESSORIES 

Q RiDgo Ranger ARX>2 fi db 2-M Base Antenna 

□ lamMa/4 IM and 6'M Trunk Antenna „. 

□ TI4 Tone Encoder Pad 
n TE^H Tone Encoder Pad 




w^^^fl^^v^w^^wmm^» 



$9S.95 

.$23 J5 



Q PS'1 Regulated AC Power Suppty for use with all 
makes of transceivers 14 VDC 7 amp „. 

and the following stanifard crystals 

@ $4.50 eacti ...... 



^..$59.95 



■ ■■»■■ 11 I f | i*B|fcB>fc ■ #^i-i aria 



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@ $6-50 each: „.. 



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D PS MB Optional Nicad battery pack ......_...... ,„Mim 

U PS*2 Charger for GTX-lfT) battery pack ^39.95 

n ELC'I Leather carrying ease ^ ... .$12.95 

D IE-Ill Tone Encoder (for use with GTX-I) .^.™.JHi.95 



CB 





-- part VI: antenna suggestions 



Tom M. Murphy K5UKH 
Rt. If Box ZQIA 
Ethel MS 59067 



One of the better things 
to happen to amateur 
radio lately is the availability 



of lots and lots of low cost 
communications equipment 
— new and used Citizen's 
Band transceivers. These 
range from old tube types to 
modern solid state units. 

Want to be cheap? )ust do 
as I did — find an old tube 

photos by James Clegg 



radio^ get it into operating 
shapej and convert it to 10 
meters. I was given a Johnson 
Messenger 1 tube radio by a 
"good buddy'* who was all 
hung up on his latest 40- 
channel play-pretty. Well, 
sort of "given" , . . it cost me 





fO Watts at 29M00MH2, 



three beers and a quick radio 
repair job, A couple of tubes 
later (which I scrounged), I 
had it going great on CB 
channel 11, The radio was 
putting out 10 Watts AM into 
a wattmeter and dummy 
load. 

That's one of the reasons 
most of the tube types were 
(and still are) so popular. 
They could be "tweaked'* for 
more output very easily. In 
this area, 29,000 MHz is 
coming into use for channel 
\f since there is really no 
established band plan For this 
equipment. Let the CW boys 
use 28 to 28.5^ of course; 
SSB has 28.5 to 29; and let 
the AM activity start at 
29,000 through 29.290. That 
gives everyone a lot of room. 

The 2 meter band Is get- 
ting more and more crowded. 
Onward and upward is the 
cry, but the cry I hear right 
now is my pocketbook. So, 
Iet*s fall back and regroup 
and have a whoie bunch of 
fun in the process. The John- 
son has a 5-channel capacity, 
a built-in ac power supply, 
and puts out 10 Watts with 
no problems. The conversion 
was about as simple as 
sticking a couple of crystals 

in. You just have to tweak on 
the rf stages, both receive and 
transmit, for optimum perfor- 
mance at 29 instead of 27 
MHz. 

Checking with a number 
of good buddies in the area 
reveals a huge quantity of 
tube type radios. These are 
just ideal for conversion to 10 
meters. I have a solid state rig 
converted to 10 in my truck, 
and it works like a champ. 
Having solid state for mobile 
and a cheap tube set for base 
us^ is the way to go. The 
people I want to talk to can 
now get me on 10 meters 
instead of 2. Because it's 
sparsely populated^ there's no 
problem like on 2, !t was 
hard to work SSB on HF 
without the 2 meter radio 
sounding off. So, this way, if 
DX is around, I can get a call 
or give one to alert the "good 
guys.*' 

What about antennas? 
Well, there is a lot of "scrap'* 



120 



lying around. This scrap is 
good stuff, and it can usuafly 
be obtained for the asking. 
Tve seen many antennas 
whose only problems were 
that the fellows using them 
couldn't make them work, 
shorted PL-259, cut coax loo 
short, etc. The latter may be 
just fine for this use because 
that's what you have to do to 
go up in frequency, of course 
— generally cut off about 2 
inches for 29 MHz. 

The antennas for mobile 
use are of many types, 
ranging from cheapos to the 
expensive, high quality items. 
With base-loaded coils, ! just 
snip a couple of inches off 
the whip, rather than 
worrying about getting into 
the coil. Then there are the 
center-loaded types; again, 
take a couple inches off* 
On my truck I use a 4-foot, 
fiberglass, top-toad ed antenna 
(Radio Shack, new $9.95 
with $4,95 mirror mount), 
which I got for no cost when 
one of the fellows was getting 
the swr down and trimmed it 
off too short. It started going 
up on him, and that was it; he 
had to scrap it and get a new 
antenna- That was fine with 
me; it*s going in my direction 
anyhow. There's a rubber tip 
over the end; remove it, and 
you will see the end of a wire. 
Carefully take your pocket- 
knife, fish the wire out, and 
trim. Of course, all the trim- 
ming is done while using the 
10 meter radio in coni unction 
with an swr meter. 

Then there's the full 
length 'Vhip/' 102 inches 
long^ plus a 4*inch spring and 
ball mount. If you like it 
"whipping** around, trim a 
couple and get talking. As 
you go down the street, you 
will come to know the height 
of tree branches above the 
street. 

Seriously, there's a world 
of CB antennas out there just 
for the seeking, so put the old 
ham spirit to work and 
scrounge! Base station an* 
tennas are equally as easy to 
convert. ]ust a little trimming 
is all it takes. They range 
from the cheapies that have 
no gain (actually a loss com* 



pared to dipole reference), to 
quartt^f wave, to the big, long 
ones, more than 1 9 feet, that 
have several dB of gain. 
Again, I have a preference as 
to type. I just don't like the 
big, long ones; they're hard to 
handle and sure do catch the 
wind. However, if it's cheap, 
the price is sure hard to beat, 
so that couid be the way to 
go. I use a compact antenna 
called the "Starduster," I 
believe il sells new for about 
$45.00. I spent a couple of 
hours helping with an an- 
tenna erection and inquired, 
"What are you going to do 
with that old antenna?'* I got 
it firee or, at least, as a reward 
for my help. 

The advantage of a com- 
pact antenna is that it can be 
easily mounted on top of the 
HF or whatever beam with- 
out a lot of trouble, whereas 
the long ones would be just 
about impossible. Of course, 
the trimming takes place 
closer to the ground. I just 
put the antenna on a 20-foot 
mast to make adjustments, 
and it changes very tittle 
when I finally put it way up 
Ihere* 

Beam antennas? Well, 



there are uses, of course. Say 
there's one specific direction 
you want; you could convert 
and side mount the beam. 
The average CB beams are 
just loo big and unwieldy to 
be practical for our use, un- 
less they're on top of a tower, 
^nd the chances are you al- 
ready have a good HF beam. I 
have a TH6DXX, and 4 
working elements on 10 
meters, which are enough for 
me. If it is difficult to make 
contact on the vertical 
polarized ground plane, then 
we just switch to horizontal 
on the existing HF beam. 
Also, the ground plane works 
very well in the omnidirec- 
tional pattern, to catch calls 
from mobiles that may be in 
any direction^ and, of course, 
band openings. With the 
ground plane, I can hear sta- 
tions that I would otherwise 
miss if I was using the beam 
and did not have it turned in 
their direction. The ground 
plane is up 85 feet, and the 
distances worked are amazing 
— base to base^ and base to 
mobile. If I want to talk to 
my good buddy 60 miles 
away, I iust ring his number 
(channel 1, 29.000 MHz), and 



away we go. 

There are all sorts of 
goodies to be found. I 
honestly believe that those 
fellows must buy PL-259s by 
the bushel. J ust scrounge, and 
you can come up with all 
sorts of radios, antennas, swr 
meters, coax, plugs^ con- 
nectors, microphones, power 
supplies, external speakers, 
coax switches, and a whole 
raft of stuff. 

I'm looking forward to 
conversions of HTs to 10 
meters. They sure can do 
everything a 2 meter unit can 
(using direct frequencies), 
and they're a whole bunch 
cheaper. It should be lots of 
fun for hidden transmitter 
hunts, and, when the band 
opens, I think it would be a 
real kick to talk from here to 
California on an NT! SSB CB 
radios have come down a lot 
in price for the 23-channel 
models, but are still fairly 
high, I believe they'll come 
down some more. How about 
a conversion to 29 MHz for 
23 channels of AM, with 
switching to drop it to the 
28.5 MHz region for SSB? It^s 
sure going to be fun. So, start 
scrounging! ■ 




Heavy 'duty rf section. 



121 



Paul Hurm WBBCLF 

Box J 73 

Seven Mile OH 4S062 



CB to 




-- part VII: convert a TRC-II 



A lot of hams have been 
talking about cotv 
verting CB rigs for 10 meter 
use, Tve even seen band plans 
for use with converted 
synthesized rigs which retain 
the same spacing as the CB 
channels. If you would like to 
avoid the work needed to 
convert a synthesized rig, but 
still want to join the group on 
10 AM, liy Radio Shack's 
Realistic TRC-1 1. It is a six- 
channel rig, which requires 
very little effort lo be put on 
10. 

Like most of us who have 
to watch our pennieSi 11 ike 
to be able to justify buying a 
new rig. The justification I 
needed grew out of the 
results of our first Red Cross 
simulated emergency test of 
1977- Our drill went well, 
but, during the debriefing, it 
became apparent that, in a 
real emergency, our depen- 
dence on 2 meter FM simplex 
channels might lead to prob- 
lems. We sent three field 
teams out. Each team used a 
separate simplex frequency, 
either 46^ 52, or 94, for their 



own communications. The 
field control stations also 
used our 146.37/97 repeater 

for relay to Red Cross head- 
quarters. 

Our later discussions 
pointed out that we should 
avoid 94, because it is a re- 
peater frequency and mutual 
interference could arise. 52 is 
a nationally recognized fre* 
quency and could be 
crowded 46 is set aside by 
the Ohio Area Repeater 
Council for statewide emer* 
gency use. All the frequencies 
we used had a potential for 
severe interference in the case 
of a real emergency, so we 
talked about possible alter- 
nate frequencies, 10 meter 
AM with a converted CB rig 
seemed like a natural. 

Crystals 

The TRC-1 1 is a crystal- 
controlled rig and uses 
separate crystals for transmit 
and receive. The transmitter 
uses fundamental frequency 
crystals. To transmit on 293 
MHz, get one cut for 293, 

The receiver is single con- 



version with a 455 kHz inter- 
mediate frequency. The re- 
ceive crystal frequency is 455 
kHz less than the frequency 
to be received. To receive on 
293 MHz, get a crystal cut 
for 28345 MHz. 

I ordered my set of 
crystals from International 
Crystal Mfg. Co, 10 N. Lee, 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 
73102, They cost $7.90 each. 
It may be possible to get 
them for less elsewhere, but, 
in two separately mailed 
ordersj the crystals have been 
received within two weeks, so 
the service was worth any 
extra cost. Their catalog 
number for transmit crystals 
for the TRC-1 1 is 820308, 
For receive it is 8203097. 
Specify catalog number and 
crystal frequency when 
ordering, 1 suggest sending a 
check when you order — it 
will save time on processing 
your order, and International 
pays the shipping if you do. 

Adjusting the Crystal Oscil- 
lators 

Don*t! That*s right, you 



don't need to do a thing to 
the oscillator circuits. They 
are broadband enou^ that 
they lake off with no prob- 
lems at 10 meters. Before I 
received my crystals, I 
wanted lo see if 1 would need 
to work on the oscillators. 
The only crystal I had was a 
spare for my Hcaihkit SB301 
heterodyning chain, and it 
was at 29.895, which is above 
the 10 meter band. I did want 
to check it out, so I jumpered 
the crystal into the circuit 
and tried it into a dummy 
antenna. It worked with no 
trouble, so I was sure il 
would work in the band as 
well. 

Tuning for Output Power 

Tuning up for maximum 
output power on 10 meters is 
very simple. Before I retuned 
for 10, I wanted to check 
how much 1 was getting on 
CB channel 9, which comes 
with the rig. Before retuning, 
channel 9 had 3 Watts, and 
293 MHz had about a 
quarter of a Watt, After 
retuning for 293 MHz, I had 
3 Watts there and 1.5 on 
channel 9. 

To peak the TRC-ll for 
10 meters, simply adjust the 
settings of coils L5 and L6 
for maximum output, as 
measured on a wattmeter. All 
coils are plainly marked on 
the printed circuit board. L5 
and L6 are very near the 
coaxial connector, towards 
the left rear side of the unit. 

That's all the work you 
need to do to get the TRC-1 1 
going on 10 meters. Simple, 
isn't it? Although I have 
not tried it^ I believe the 
Realistic TRC*9A should con- 
vert just as easily as the 
TRC11. The TRC-9A is 
listed as the three-channel, 
economy version of the 
TRC-ll. It uses the same 
crystals, and ihe schematics 
are neariy identicak 

Antennas 

As I mentioned earlier, my 
major use for this rig is as an 

alternate frequency for emer- 
gency use. I did not want to 



122 



put a permanent antenna on 
my car, so I iried Radio 
Shack's magnetic mount CB 
antenna, model 21*940, and 
found that it, too, is very 
simple to convert for 10 
meter use* 

The swr Is adjusted by 
decreasing the length of the 
whip, using the cut-and-try 
method. I physically 
shortened the length of the 
whip to about 73 cm. On my 
unit, minimum swr was ob- 
tained with 66,3 cm of the 
whip extending above the top 



of the collar where the set* 
screw is located. I was able to 
get the swr down to 1 .2/1 , 

Results 

During our second Red 
Cross drill, Ted White 
WASWQC and I tried identi- 
cal mobile setups using the 
TRC-n and model 21940 
antenna. Our results indicated 
nearly 100 percent usability 
over a 5-miie path with 
several hills and numerous 
buildings. Ltne-of*5ight paths 
yielded good results at nearly 



double this distance. 

The only problem we en- 
countered was caused by the 
fact that I have a rather soft 
microphone voice. Using my 
usual voice gave poor results, 
because I was noti driving the 
modulator circuit hard 
enough. With a little 
self-coniiul, 1 find it is easy 
enou^ to speak a little 
louder and closer to the mike 
to overcome this problem* 

If you are looking for a CB 
rig that is easy to convert for 
use on 10 meters, and don*t 



want or need to convert a 
23-Ghannel synthesized rig^ I 
suggest trying the Realistic 
TRGIL 

No matter what type of rig 
you convert to 10, the model 
21-940 magnetic antenna 
from Radio Shack is easily 
converted to fill your need 
for an antenna. 

With such an easy way of 
getting on 10 meters AM with 
a converted CB rig available 
to you, you no longer have an 
excuse to miss the action. See 
you on 10! ■ 



With the addition of a 
^ crystal time base to 
my digital clock, it began to 
keep time very accurately — 
to about a second a month. 
Unfortunately J my house 
seems to have more than its 
share of short power interrup- 
tions and blown fuses. An 
accurate clock is of no great 
use if it must be reset every 
few days. Power line inde- 
pendence is a necessity for 
electronic digital clocks. 

None of the ideas on bat- 
tery power for clocks could 
be adapted to mine without 
cutting the foil on the printed 
circuit board In at least a 
couple of spots. Since I seem 
always to manage to slit my 
thumb along with the circuit 
board, I like to avoid this 
approach if at all possible. 

The circuit in Fig< 1 
should work for just about all 
clocks^ wilhout any modiflca- 
tic»i to their circuitry. It 

amounts to connecting a bat- 
tery in series with a resistor 
across the output of the clock 
supply. 

Rl serves two purposes. 
First, it limits the charging 
current supplied to the bat- 
tery while the clock is 
plugged in. Second, when 
power fails, it limits the dis* 
charge current to about S 
mA. This causes the clock 
LEDs to extinguish I and the 
clock runs with no readout, 
consuming very little power. 

Depending on the clock, a 
different value for Rl may be 
needed, A little experimenta- 
tion will determine an appro- 
priate value. Closing SI will 



Joseph W. Long WA2EJT 
2406 Maria Blvd. 
Binghamton NY 1 3903 



Battery Backup 



for Digital Clocks 




-- don't miss a second 



allow the readouts to func- 
tion on battery powerj but 
the battery won't last long 
this way, so I used a mo men* 
tary contact push-button- 
Battery life seems to be 
very long in this circuit. After 
several months of **fleld test- 
ing,*' the battery tests as good 
as new* The trickle charge 



current it draws seems to do 
no harm. 

Upon power failure, my 
timebase slows down from 
3579545 Hz to 357951 5 Hz. 
This is a change of about 10 
parts per million and is 
equivalent to about 5 minutes 
per year, or less than one 
second per day. Most failures 



CLOCK POWEfl SUPPLY 
12 W OC 



-• ♦ 



FTI 



y* . 



Q €LDCM AHU TIWEOASC 



1 



Ffg. I, Rl - 2k Ohm, see text; BI - smalt 9 VbaUeryiSI 

momentary contact switch. 



last a few minutes or a few 
hours at most, so this drift is 
not really any problem. 
Regulating the voltage at the 
timebase could eliminate even 
this drift. 

This kind of project is my 
favorite — it uses only three 
parts, total cost could not 
exceed two dollars, it requires 
no "mods" to existing equip- 
ment, it gives real improve- 
ment, and it can't fail to 
work! There is something 
awfully nice about pulling the 
plug on your digital clock, 
plugging it in again and seeing 
it still displaying the correct 
time- ■ 

123 





DENTRON MT-3000A 
antenna tuner 

The IVIT-3000A is Oentron's "ultimate 
tuner" Tunes 3 coax, random wii*e and 
balanced feed system, just select the 
one. Handles in excess of 3KW PEP. 
BuiH-in 50 ohm - 250W dummy load. 
Dual watt meters. 3 core heavy-duty 
Balun. 

349.50 list price Call for quote. 




DENTRON 160-10AT 
sqper tuner 

The only tuner for 160-10 meters that 
accepts all feed lines at 500 W DC - 1 
KW pep Has extra heavy-duty ceramic 
inductor switch. Continuous tuning: 
1.8 to 30 MHz. Tunes unballanc^d 
coax, random wire, or balanced 
feeders. 

129.50 list price. Call for quote. 




MFJ 16010-ST 
antenna tuner 

Matches everything from 160 thru 10 
meters; dipoies^ inverted vees. ran- 
dom wires, verticals, mobile whips, 
beams, balance Eines. and coax Hnes. 
Up to 200 watts RF output. Buill-m 
balun. A wide range, 12 position 
variable inductor is the 16010-STs 
secret- 

69*95 Call for yours today. 




MFJ 16010 

antenna tuner 

All band Operation, 160 thru 10 meters, 
with a simple random wire. Works with 
most transceivers, 200 W RF output. 
Has same 1 2 position variable mduclor 
as the 1601 0-ST. Pocket-siied: 23/16^' 
X 31/C* X 4". Perfect for DX-peditions 
or Field Day. 

39.95 Gall for yours today. 




DRAKE MN-; 

rnatching network 

MN-^OOO features: • Frequency 
cov0ragp:3.5to4.OMHz,7.Oto7.3MHz 
14.0 to 1435 MHz. 210 to 21.45 MHz, 
28,0 to 29.7 MHz • Input impedance: 50 
ohms resistive • Insertion loss: 0.5 dB 
or less • Watt meter accuracy: ±5% of 
reading • 1000 watts RF continuous, 
2000 W PEP 

250*00 list price. Call for quote. 



DRAKE MN-4 

matching network 

The MN-4 has the same features as the 
MN-20Q0. except its power capability is 
200 watts RF continuous Both enable 
feedllne SWRs of 5:1 to be matched to 
the transmitter Suill-m RF watt meter 
give accurate & continuous po^fpr 
measurement 

120*00 list price. Call for quote. 



Remember, you can call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-633-3410 in U.S.A. or call 1-800-292-8668 in 
Alabama for our low price quote. Store hours: 9:00 AM til 5:30 PM, Monday thru Friday. 



i^r 



BanxAmerlcaro 



Longs Electronics 



L9 




MAIL ORDERS- PO BOX 1T347 BIRMINGHAM. AL 35Z02 • STREET ADDRESS 3809 7TH AVENUE SOUTH BIRMINGHAM. ALABAMA 35233 



124 




©«.©©€>■ 



^jmj 



MFJ 8043 IC 

deluxe keyer 

8043 IC features: • 4-way sendmg: 
iambic, automatic, semi-auto. & 
manual • Iambic squeeze key opera- 
tion • Semi-auto "bug" operation 
provides auto dots & manual dashes 
• Dot memory: seft-compjetmg dots & 
dashes* Totally RF proof • Solid-state 
keying • Weight & tone control • Op- 
tional squeeze key shown: only 29.95 

69.96 Call for yours today. 




MFJ 8043 

CMOS keyer 

Features: • Budt-ln key w/adjustable 
contact travel • Dot memory • Iambic 
operation w/external squeeze key 

• Jam proof spacing • Variable weight 
control • 8 to 50 WPM • Sidetone & 
speaker w/adjustable volume & tone 

• Ultra reliable solid-slate keying. 

54.95 Call for yours today. 




TEN-TEC 

KR-50 electronic keyer 

KR-50 specs: • Speed range: 6-50 
WPM • Weighting ratio range: 50% to 
150% of classic dit length • Memories: 
Dit 3n dah with individual defeat 
switches • Paddle actuation force: 5 to 
50 grams * Power source: 117 VAC 
• Side-tone: 500 Hz tone 

1 10.00 lis! price, CaJl for quote. 




TEN-TEC 

KR-20A electronic keyer 

KR-20A • Keyed output: reed refay, 15 
volt-amp contacts. 400 volts, max. 
• Speed range; 6 to 50 WPM • Time 
base; keyed to start with paddle actua- 
tion • Character generation; self com- 
pleting dits & dahs • Weighting: Dit 
length increased approx. 10% at 20 
WPM 

6 T »50 Calf for yours today. 




TEN-TEC 

KR*5A electronic keyer 

Similar to KR-20A but without side- 
tone oscillator or AC power supply. 
Ideal for portable, mobile, or fixed sta- 
tion, Housed in an attractive case with 
aluminum front, with black textured 
top & sides. 6 to 14 VDO operation. 

38«50 Call for yours today. 




NYE VIKING 
SSK-1-K keyer 

Features • Long, 
w/ adjust able spn 
tact spacmg • Ex 
silver contacts • 
speaker • On-Off 
control • Polarity 
change from posi 
ing. 

98-00 list price. Call for quote. 



fomn-fitting paddles 
ng tension and con- 
tra-large gold plated 
^ Audio oscillator & 

vol. switch • Speed 
switch allows instant 
tive to negative key- 



Remember, you can call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-633-3410 in U.S.A. or call 1-800-292-8668 in 

Alabama for our low price quote. Store hours: 9:00 AM til 5:30 PM, Monday thru Friday. 



SAHKAMfROflO 






LcMig s Electronics 



L9 L 




MAIL ORDERS: P.O. BOX 11347 BIRMINGHAM, AL 35^02 • STREET ADDRESS: 2808 7TH AVENUE SOUTH BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 35333 



125 



■^ 





NPC 109R 

power supply 

The 109R is 25 amp regulated. 4-way 
protected. Other features: • Output 
voftage and current meters • All solid- 
state • Output voltage: 13,6 ±.2 VDC. 
typica* to 13.6 ±3 VDC. max. 
• Line/ioad reg,: 50mV, typica! to 
lOOmV, max. • Rippie/noise:5mVRMS 
to lOmV RMS. 

149.95 list price. Call for quote. 



NPC 108RM 

power supply 

The 108RM is 12 amp regulated, 3- way 
protected. Also: • All solid-state 
• Current meter • Output voltage: 
13.6±^ VDC. typical to 13.6 ±.3 700, 
max • Line/load reg.: 20m V, typical to 
50m V, max. • Ripple/noise: 2mV RMS 
to 5mV RMS. 

99.95 list price. Call for quote. 









r * ^^ 




^^^^^^^^^ N RC ^^^^^^^^ 




1 ittonvEii supi>t:r | 




MEGULAVKO » 

r — T 

f-^ «« tit , . *^»4fraw |Sj 







NPC 104R 

power supply 

104R is 6 amp regulated, dual overload 
protected. Features: • Output voltage: 
13-6 ±.2 VDC, typical to 13.6 ±.3 VDC. 
max. • Line/toad reg 20mV, typical to 
50mV. max. • Ripple/noise: 2mV RMS 
to SmSf RMS • Excellent DC stabihty 
• Trickle-charge 12V auto batteries* 

49.95 Call for yours today. 




ESI POS-1220Z 
power supply 

This one really workaf • 13.8 VDC 
regulated power suppty • Current 
rating: 20 amps continuous. 30 amps 
surge • Fuse protected • LED power 
indicator • ON/OFF switch on fror\t 
panel. This unit will power a TR-7400A 
AND a KLM 160 watt 2m amplifierf 

69.96 Call for yours today. 



DRAKE AC^4 
power supply 

The AC-4 power supply works with all 
Drake 4-tine transceivers and 
transmitters- Fits inside the MS-4 
speaker cabinet, • Input: 120 or 240 
VAC • Output: 650 VDC at 300 mA 
average. 500 mA peak, also: 12.6 VAC 
at 5.5 amps. Just what you need to 
complete your Drake station! 

150*00 list price, Call for quote. 



TEN-TEC 

252G power supply 

The 252G power supply Is fully voftage 
regulated and solid-slate to provide 
highly stable, pure DC from commer- 
cfat mains. Instantaneous overload 
protection circuit prevents damage 
caused by excessive current drain. 
Reset by momentary turn-oH, 

99.00 ijst price. Call for quota 






Remember, you can call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-633-3410 in U.S.A. or call 1-800-292-8668 in 
Alabama for our low price quote. Store hours: 9:00 AM til 5:30 PM, Monday thru Friday. 



BanmAmeriuro 



Longs Electronics 



L0 




MAIL ORDERS; P O. BOX 11347 BJRMIMGHAM. AL 35202 • STREET ADDRESS 2808 7TH AVENUE SOUTH BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 35^33 



126 




DENTRON'S NEW 

Big Dummy Load 

Now you can tune-up off the air wfth 
Dentron's Big Dummy Load. A fui 
power dummy load, it has a flat SWR. 
fuH frequency coverage from 1,8 to 300 
MHz and a high grade industrial cool- 
ing oil furnished with the unit Built to 
last! Fulty assembled and warrant ied. 
Help cut out the QRM factor now! 

29.50 Call for yours today. 




The model 43 features: • 50 ohms 
nominal impedance • VSWR insertion 
with N conneclors: 1.05 max, •Ac- 
curacy; pius or minus 5% full scale 
• Shock mounted 30 microamp meter 
has 3 expanded scafes of 25, 50 & 1 00 to 
permit direct reading of full scale 
power from 100 miHiwatts to 10.000 
watts. 

1 20.00 Call for yours today. 



5W 
10W 

25W 

SOW 
100W 
250W 
500W 
1000W 
2500W 
5Q00W 



50H 

1000H 

250H 

SOOH 

1 0OOH 
2500H 
SOOOH 



5A 

IDA 

25A 

50A 

100 A 

250A 

SODA 

1 0OOA 



5C 

IOC 

25C 

50C 

^WC 

250C 

SOOC 

1000C 



5D 

10D 

25D 

SOD 

TOOD 

2S0D 

500D 

lOOOD 



H'Elements (2-30 MHz) 42,00 ea. 
A-OD-E-Bem©nts 

(25-1000 MHz) 36*00 ea. 

Call Toll Free for yours today- 



COVER 

CRAFT 

vinyl dust 
covers 

Cover Craft dust covers are designed 
to fit your equipment I ike a glove. Made 
of tough, high quality, clear vinyl 
plastic with a "pearl ized" texture finish. 
AM seams are machine stitched for 
maximum strength. Remember, keep 
your equipment clean and it will need 
less maintenance and bring you more 
at trade-in time. We carry covers for 
Kenwood, Yaesu, ICOM. Drake, Ten- 
Tec, CDE, and Dentron. 

3.95 Some larger Slies, 4.95. 




MFJ 

digital station clock 

This LED. soJid-state clock is perfect 
for your station. Has large digits {over 
Vi" high). Separate AM or PM m* 
dicators that blink at a 1 Hz rate if 
power goes off momentarily. Gives you 
an ID buzz every 9 minutes for up to 1 
hour. Handsome buff color w)th black 
face looks good anywhere. Fully 
assembled. 

19.95 Call for yours today. 




DRAKE RCS-4 

remote coax switch 

• Remotely selects one of 5 antennas 

• Grounds alJ unused antennas 

• Grounds ail antennas in the GND 
position for lightning protection • SO- 
239 connectors provided fof main coax 
feed-line and mdividual antenna feed- 
lines • Handles 2000 watts PEP 

• Available in 120 VAC or 240 VAC 
versions. 

120.00 list price, Call for quote. 



Remember you cafi call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-633-3410 in U.S.A. or call 1-80D-292-8668 in 
Alabama for our low price quote. Store hours: 9:00 AM til 5:30 PM, Monday thru Friday. 



yft/r 



BankAmehicard 



aiihmf ^it 



Lonas Electionk:s 



L9 




MAIL ORDERS PO BOX T1347 BIRMINGHAM. AL 35202 • STREET ADDRESS 2808 7TH AVEWUE SOUTH BIRMINGHAM ALABAMA 35233 



t27 




TEMPEST LCT-905 
AC/DC cassette player 

The perfect machine for the Ham who 
wants to improve his code speed. Just 
put in a code tape (see listings on this 
page) and tisteo. • 100% solid-state 

• Rotary knob operation ♦ Complete 
with batteries, earphone, and AC cord 

• 6 VOC jack. 

24.95 Call for yours today. 



PANASONIC RQ^312S 
recorder, VC-12 album, 
& 1 C-60 cassettes 

This package is just what you need for 
code practice or making station recor- 
dings. The RQ'312S is a full feature 
AC/DC recorder complete with 
batteries, built-in mike, ar^d AC cord: 
The VC-12 album wili store up to 12 
cassettes. We give you lO C-60 
cassettes as a starter. All this for the 
recorder's price alone! 

49.95 Call for yours today. 




TUNE IN THE WORLD 
WITH HAM RADIO 

This nifty package wJtl completely In- 
troduce you to Ham Radio. The book 
will show you how to pass your Novice 
exam and set up your first station. The 
code tape provides the necessary in- 
struction m Morse Code, All con- 
sidered, a great introduction to Ham 
Radio. 

7.00 Call for yours today. 



nn WW 



AI»^.<:OI3l= KI1 

I I K, i,h roil- MK h llirutil 1-\\-Jr\tm 






ai..3aiM^. ^y i j 







Good practice tor increase ng your code 
speed Booklet and two C-60 cassettes 
with 30 mm. each of 5. 7^j^, 10 & 13 
WPM. 

6.00 Call for yours today. 




73's 

Novice 

Theory 

Course 

You'ff be amazed how easy it is to learn 
the theory when you listen to these 
tapes. Three tapes cover all Novice 
Theory and one has questions and 
answers from the latest Novice exams. 
You can listen in your spare time and 
breeze thru the exam, 

15.95 Call for yours today. 




73 end 

AMECO 

code practice tapes 

73's "Blitz" code practice tapes will 
more than prepare you for any FCC 
exam. Avatlable in tour speeds: 5, 6, 13. 
& 20 WPM. One tape for each speed, 
one hour each, 

4.95 each, all four: 15.95, 

AMECO's code practice tapes: Junior 
Code Course, to 8 WPM; Advanced 
Code Course, 8!^ to 18 WPM: Bctra 
Class Code Course. 13 to 22 WPM. 
Instruction booklet included with each 
course. 

4.95 each. Call for yours today. 



Rememben you can call TOLL-FREE: 1-800-633-3410 in U.S.A. or call 1-800-292-8668 in 
Alabama for our low price quote. Store hours: 9:00 AM til 5:30 PM, Monday thru Friday. 



BankAmericarq 



LcMig s ElectrcMiics 



Ld 




MAIL ORDERS P.O BOX 11347 BIRMINGHAM. AL 35202 • STREET ADDRESS 2808 7TH AVENUE SOUTH 8IRMINGHAM ALABAMA 35233 



128 




Get the HAM RADIO BOOK you need today! 
No watting. Every listing below is in stock. 
Call Toll Free: 1-800-633-3410 today. 



ARRL Publications 

Understanding Amateur Radio (NEW) , , . . 

Hints and Kinks , , 

Specialized Communications Techniques 
FM and Repeaters (for the Radio Amateur) 
Single Sideband (for the Radio Amateur} . 
The Radio Amateur*s VHF Manual , , . 

A Course in Radio Fundamentals 

Learning the Radiotelegraph Code , . , 
The Radio Amateur's License Manual 
Solid-State Design for the Radio Amateur 
Tune-in the World with Ham Radio . . 
The Radio Amateur's Handbook • * — 

ARRL Code Kit ...., 

ARRL Antenna Book , 

ARRL Electronics Data Book , 

ARRL Ham Radio Operating Guide . . 
Learning to Work with Integrated Circuits 
Getting to Know OSCAR from the Ground 
ARRL Prefix Map of the World 

Amateur Radio Station Log 

Amateur Radio Mini Log . 



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Mastering the Morse Code ,, .75 

Radio Electronics Made Simple 2,50 

Amateur Radio Theory Course . . , , 4.95 

Commercial Operator Theory Course 5.95 

Commercial Q&A License Guide for 

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Commercial Q&A License Guide for 

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Amateur Radio Novice Class Study Guide 

General Class License Guide . , 

Amateur Radio Extra Class License 

Study Guide — 

VHF Antenna Handbook , , . . , 

How to Make Better QSL's 

Coax Handbook — * - . 



AM ECO Publications 

Novice/General Class Q&A License Guide 
Advanced Class Q&A License Guide . . . 



Beam Antenna Handtiook by William Orr, 

All About Cubical Quad Antennas by 

William Orr. W6SAI 

The Truth About CB Antennas by William Orr, 

W6SAi , 

VHF Handbook by Wiliiam^ drr[ "WSSAI '!!!!!!! 
Better Shortwave Reception by William Orr, 

W6SAI .:.,.... 

Ei mac's Care and Feeding of Power 

Grid Tubes . . * 

W2AB"s Second OP DX Aid . , 



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U.a Radio Amateur Callbook. 1978 .._.,,.., 14.95 

DX Radio Amateur Callbook, 1978 13.95 

Prefix Map of North America 1.25 



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Zone Prefix Map of the World 

Great Circle Chart of the World 

Radio Amateur's Complete Map Library 

(Includes: Prefix Map of the World. Great 
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Radio Amateur's World Atlas 



1.25 
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129 



Terry Weather ley G3WDJ 
1 6 B&fBrhy Court 
Chiton ColviUe 
Lowestoft, Bui folk 
England 



Roll Your Own QSL Cards 



-- originality for rare ones! 



The QSL card is as old as 
amateur radio itself, and 
cards are as varied as the 

operators and the gear they 



use. This article describes a 
method of photographically 
home brewing cards that 
stand out from the pack and 



are very suitable for that 
special contact. They also 
might winkle out that card 
from the rare DX station. 



The technique is simple. 
Ordinary darkroom equip- 
ment is all that you need. The 
process is based on *1ith" and 



o 

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Photo 2. 



130 









Photo 3, 



Photo 4. 



"line*' film, together with lith 
developer* Advertisements in 
the photographic press should 
provide the names of suitable 
suppliers of these materials. 
Lith film is very contrasty 
and produces pictures in two 
tones — blaclc and white. 
Greys on the original picture 
are thus rendered black or 
white^ according to their 
density. 

A suitable photograph for 
a QSL card is taken or selec- 
ted from the negative file. In 
my case, a photo showing my 
shack and "antenna farm'* 
was selected. As a normal 
print this had been less than 
successful, and it was in the 
reject file. However, it was 
most suitable to experiment 
with. A print of suitable size 
for a QSL card was made 
from this negative on a sheet 
of lith film- The result, after 
processing and drying {careful 
use of a hair dryer speeds up 



the drving)j was a targe black 
and white transparency 
(Photo 1). Using self-adhesive 
letters, the callsign and other 
details were added to the 
picture. In my case^ a strip 
had been masked on the left- 
hand side for this purpose. A 
contact negative was then 
produced on a sheet of line 
film, and the result is shown 
in Photo 2. 

The negative and positive 

transparencies are now taped 
together, slightly out of 
register, and printed onto a 
sheet of lith film. The result 
is shown in Photo 3, 

A negative is then 
produced from this print* 
Using either the positive or 
negative, prints are now made 
onto normal photographic 
paper for use as QSL cards 
(Photo 4). In my case, the 
prints were stuck onto a card, 
and QSL information was 



written on the back, since 
writing directly on the back 
of photographs is difficult. 

Some control over the 
finished picture can be ex- 
ercised during the processing 
— unwanted detail can be 
blacked out or scratched in. 
The six over six in my picture 
was scratched in with a pin, 
when it disappeared into the 
sky during processing. 



This process of tone sepa- 
ration can be used with filters 
and colored paper lo produce 
exotic, if expensive, QSLs. At 
G3WD1 these cards will be 
reserved for special contacts. 
My first 2m contact with the 
USA will certainly receive 
one, while G8HRF in the 
next block may not! I will 
watch my incoming QSLs 
with interest, ■ 



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RF Modulators, Video Tape 

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132 



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Carlri vision casettes for reloading: — 

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Bulk tape for VTR s 9,600\ % '' (used): 



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CartrivLsbn *Rsh Tank' electronics module. Contains ad- 
justable three output precision regulated power supply and 
nearly a thousand easily removed components. IC's, tran- 
si^stors, .1.58 mhz xlal, and hundreds of popular component 
values make this module a handy source of inexpensive 
parts. S20.00 





\ ideo Modulatar Kit: com- 
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modulator; convert any com- 
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TV channel 2-6. Power re- 
quirements 9-18 vdc. When 

used with PSVt and FSU 
converts any TV set into 
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Interface Board — 

Convert your B/W 
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Wide .4ngle Lens 
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Close-up lens set for F51I ; 
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BANKAMERICARD-VISA— MASTERCHARGE 



Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year from W6LVY 



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10% Discount on all orders of $50.00 or more. 
This ofTer good on all orders placed before 
January 1, 1978. 

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t33 



Pete Carr WB3BQ0 
329 Utile Ave. 
Ridqway PA 1 5553 



Glide On Six 

-- radio control primer 



Radio-controlled model 
sailplanes and the six 
meter band were made for 
each other. We alt know how 
quiet the activity has been on 
six since the dip in the sun- 
spot cycle has chased all the 
good DX away. Well, when 
your twelve-foot-span saiJ* 
plane is just a dot on the 
distant horizon, and the rf 
link that wilt guide it back 
home is only 750 milliwatts 
into a crude rod type an- 
tenna, you can appreciate all 



that peace and quiet. While 
other types of flying models 
use radio control guidance, 
none test the range of the 
equipment and the vision of 
the pilot like sailplanes. These 
planes depend on the rising 
air currents which drift down- 
wind to sustain them, and 
they must follow these 
currents to gain attitude. This 
results in flights that roam alt 
over the sky in search of lift 
and gently circling climbs to 
heights of several thousand 




A modified Wiftdnfter saiipiane with transparent yellow pimtic 
covermg to show off interml cmftsmanship. Span is 99 inches. 



feet before a landing in the 
grass at the pilot's feet. 

In addition to pleasant 
Sunday afternoons at the 
(oca! meadow flying for fun 
and practice, the coming of 
summer brings the contest 
season, with trips to places 
like Harris Hill near Etmira, 
New York, and the rolling 
fields of York, Pa. There, 
contestants numbering over 
100 pilots and their planes 
gather to see who can stay 
aJoft ten minutes precisely, 
and then land in a fifty-foot 
diameter circle for additional 
points. The majority of these 
planes are guided by four 
meter R/C rigs on 72 MHz, 
requiring a Class C CB license. 
But since there are only 7 
channels authorized for R/C 
use, much time is wasted 
waiting for your particular 
channel to be clear. With 6 to 
10 pilots on your channel, 
the wait can be a long one. 

The equipment functions 
by digital pulse coding of the 
transmit carrier consisting of 
a clock pulse and additional 
data pulses, each of which 
controls a specific aircraft 
guidance function. The 
superhet receiver detects the 
pulse train and passes it to 
the decoder, which divides up 
the various data pulses and 



distributes them to the servo- 
motors, A pulse width 
comparison circuit in each 
servo determines where the 
servo output arm is in re- 
lation to where the incoming 
pulse says the the pilot wants 
it to be. The error voltage is 
fed to a small dc motor which 
moves the output arm and a 
small potentiometer until the 
error disappears. There is one 
servo each to control the 
rudder, elevator, spoilers, and 
captive lowhook on the air- 
craft. Power for operation is 
supplied by AA size nicads in 
both transmitter and airborne 
system, with a usable dura- 
lion of three hours or so. 

An interfering frequency 
has the effect of lengthening 
the data pulses fed to the 
servos, causing them to run to 
one end of the output arm 
and spiral the aircraft into the 
ground. Loss of radio contact 
generally has the same effectj 
in that the receiver age cranks 
the t-f strip gains wide open 
and random noise triggers the 
servos, all of which used to 
occur with great regularity 
when the rigs were on II 
meter CB. Although the S 
frequencies there were not 
shared with *>hone ops," the 
close proximity and large 
difference in power levels 
made those channels urh 
usable. 

The resulting crowding in 
the four meter band has re- 
sulted in pressure on the FCC 
to create a special code-free 
R/C controller's license class 
which would allow the pilots 
of planes, cars, and boats to 
pursue the hobby with re- 
liable guidance systems. When 
one considers the damage or 
injury which could result 
from the crash of an aircraft 
welghir^ four to twelve 
pounds diving to earth at a 
hundred miles per hour, it's 
easy to see why modelers and 
R/C equipment manufac- 
turers are pushing for space 
on six meters. 

The majority of modelers 
arc like most CBers, in that 
their interest is in using the 
ri^p not working on them. 
There are many, however, 
who would make fine 



134 




A "HhPro** sailplane with molded fuselage and rudder. Wings 
fmve targe mailable flaps to change the airfoil and aircraft 
speed. 



amateurs, given some en- 
couragement from local 
hams. These Class C CBers 
already have a good record of 
compliance with FCC rules; 
indeed, pilots must show 
their licenses in order to fly 
in contests. These pilots 
would find that, in addition to 
reliable mode! control, there 
are some other, rather in- 
teresting things which the 
ticket offers. All they need is 
a little push in the right 



direction. And in case you 
think that big numbers are 
important, there are over 
61,000 members of the 
Academy of Model Aero- 
nautics, and 3 out of 4 of 
them fly Radio Control. It 
would make a significanl 
increase to the amateur ranks 
if this resource could be 
tapped. 

Which brings us back to 
that open field in the sun- 
shine and the sailplane flirting 






An all molded plastic and fiberglass model of a KA-6 sailplane. 
Span is J0J6 feet^ weight Is nearly 12 pounds - ready to fly* 



with the puffy white clouds. 
The confidence that a ham rig 
gives to the sport of glider 
flying contributes in large 
part to the pleasure these 
birds have to give. To see 
your own creation so at home 
in the sky while it obeys the 
smallest movement of your 
hands makes all the code 
practice and radio theory 
sessions worthwhile. And at 
day's end| when it's time to 
key up the local repeater for 
some friendly ragchew^ there 



is no end of ways to work 
models and flying and infinite 
descriptions of launches and 
landings into the conver- 
sation. 

The next time youVe 
driving down the road and see 
someone out in a field flying 
his plane, stop and say hello. 
He may be a four meter pilot 
who might like to be a ham 
or a ham who might give you 
some stick time on his latest 
creation. Either way, you 
can't lose! ■ 




Dave Gray of Etmlra^ the contest director, ready to taunch his 

Hobie Hawk giiden This plane Is sold through the Heathklt 
catalog. 



Dave Lear WA2ERM throws his Pierce Paragon sailplane off 
the slope at Harris Hill The horizon is over 8 miles away and 
the temperature that day was plus 16 degrees. 



135 



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137 



Howard A, Motxe KQHPF 
J33S6 W. Cmier Drive 
Lskewood CO B02Z8 



More IC-22S 



-- add a programming switch 



I have found the following 
modification of the 
loom 22S to perform in an 
entirely satSsfactory manner, 
and to add considerably to 
the practical capabilities of 
this machine. As you who 
already own one know, all of 
the possible frequencies may 
be obtained by ytitizing 
various combinations of 
diodes soldered into the 



programming board. It 
follows naturally that, if one 
could switch in various com- 
binations at will/ then all of 
the capabitities would be 
possible. 

The first problem was 
where to put such a switch, 
so that it could be always 
available and wouldn't be 
dangling on a cable some- 
where. You will see in Photo 



A where I chose to place this 
switch. I chose a small, 
8-position SPST rocker 
switch made by AMP Special 
Industries, This switch plugs 
into a regular 16-pin IC 



socket. I bought two of the 
switches because, should a 
switch fait with use, 1 might 
not be able to find an exact 
duplicate later. 

Photo B shows a detail of 
the switch in place^ plugged 
into a 16-pin IC socket which 
is mounted on a small 
piece of 10 x 10 perfboard. 
The perfboard is supported 
on two arms, which extend 
from the small aluminum 
bracket plate. My aluminum 
bracket was cut from a junk 
box - extruded aluminum 
T-section. A bracket made 
from any piece of metal 
would serve just as welL 

A look at Photo C shows 
the bottom of the transceiver 
with the 8 hookup wires 
soldered into position 13, in 
my case. However, you can 
use any channel or switch 
position you choose. 

There is a ninth wire 
required, which is attached to 
the common channel position 
you may choose, and which 
goes down to the new switch 
common bus. 

In Photo D, the hookup 
cables have been pushed aside 
to expose the underside of 
the bracket^ perfboard, 
socket, and switch combina- 
tion. Here you will note that 



Photos by Dale Andrews 




BOtTW or Ifr 
PM-i SPST 
TOfl«-E TY1»€ 
DIP S«NT1CN 



3W(TCH m^ * 
r TO a- 

LtFt TO 5 

HiaiT 



BAHDED CATHOQE 



^TH WIRE- COMMON BUS 
TO SELECTED CHANNEL. 




fi WINE n.tLT Ci&.l 



OlOOe HATRtK 






W. ^ ^M \6^^' 



WtHES TO 

CHANUeL 3WrTCH 



Photo A 



Fig, I. A poriiOF} of the diode matrix program board. The 
8-wire cable Is attached to channel 21, with the ninth wire 
connect i if g the new switch assembly common bus to the 
program board channel 2 J common bus. Note thai your dip 
switches will probably be numbered from ! to S, Thus, no. I 
switch will attach to no, DO program board hole^ no. 2 switch 
to no, DJ program board hole^ eta Thus, when setting up 
frequency, you must remember to call no, T switch DO, no, 2 
switch DIf eta As you can see^ this arrangement allows you to 
switch in any combination of diodes on your selected channel. 



138 



a common bare wire was bent 
and installed between the two 
rows of socket pins* The 
bent-down ends of this wire 
were epoxied to the perf- 
board. Eight diodes were 
installed, with the cathode 
(banded) ends going to each 
of the eight socket positions 
on the right, the anode ends 
going to the comnnon bus 
wire, and, you can also see, 
the ninth wire, mentioned 
above, attached to the com- 
mon bus. The eight wires 
going to the program board 
are attached, one to each 
socket pin in the left-hand 
run. Be sure to identify the 
wire for installation in the 
proper holes of the program- 
ming board. 

Construction Hints 

The bracket, IC socket, 
switch, bus bar, diodes, and 
wiring were all constructed 
outside the cabinet. The 
switches, diodes, and wires 
were all tested for continuity 
before installation. 



The entire bracket assem* 
bty was then installed and 
epoxied to the circuit board 
and transformer can, as 
shown in Photo B. Note thai 
this assembly was positioned 
far enough to the left of the 
machine, or towards the top 
of Photo Bj to allow access to 
the meter pilot light* The 
perf board is also epoxied to 
the bracket arms. The socket 
itself is held by the solder on 
its pins below. 

The bracket must be so 
sized as to position the top of 
the body of the switch level 
with the underside of the 
transceiver cover plate, allow- 
ing the rockers to extend into 
the opening. After the switch 
was in place, with careful 
measuring, a rectangularly- 
shaped hole was cut tn the 
cover plate. This hole was 
filed to size, and, as you see 
in Photo A, I touched up the 
raw metal edges with paint 
and used bright red tape to 
set it off, 

I hope, with the above 



description and accompany- 
ing photos, that you will be 
able to install a similar im- 
provement on your Icom 
22S and will enjoy using it as 
much as I have. Of course^ I 



recommend installing diodes 
permanently for those chan* 
nels you use frequently, but 
this little pdget will get you 
into all the others when you 
want to. ■ 




Photo C 




i 




Photo B. 



Photo a 



139 



7S Ma^zine Staff 



Amplitude vs. 

Frequency 



-- poor man's spectrum analyzer 



Anyone who has used a 
spectrum analyzer for 
checking the frequency re- 
sponse of audio or rf fiiters 
quickly appreciates its great 
convenience. Filler values can 
be changed, and you note 
instantly the effect upon the 
selectivity, the change in cut- 
off frequencies, etc. But, even 
when using a $12,000 profes- 
sional instrument, you often 
find it desirable to switch it 
into a manual scan mode. In 
this mode, you turn a single 



knob, which varies the fre- 
quency being fed into a filter 
under test and simultaneously 
moves the spectrum analyzer 
display along its horizontal 
(frequency) axis. So, as you 
manuaity turn the knob, you 
can note, at any given fre- 
quency, the displayed ampli- 
tude, or, conversely J you can 
look for changes in amplitude 
and note at what frequency 
they occur. 

The manual scan feature 
on professional instruments 



was the idea responsible for 
the simple adapter described 
in this article. This adapter 
uses a signal generator and 
oscilloscope combination. It 
will not turn them into any- 
thing near the equal of a 
$12,000 instrument, but it 
does provide an extremely 
useful method to develop a 
simplified amplitude versus 
frequency display on an osciU 
loscope. 

The idea is to turn off the 
horizontal sweep on the oscil- 



loscope and use an external 
voltage to move the trace 
horizontally, at the same time 
tfiat the frequency being fed 
into the circuit under test is 
varied. Fig. 1 presents the 
main idea. If you can simul- 
taneously use one hand to 
rotate the frequency control 
knob on the signal generator, 
and the other hand to rotate 
the potentiometer connected 
to the battery, an amplitude 
versus frequency display is 
created. Stopping at any 
given point, you can te^^^ 
porarily use paper tape on the 
oscilloscope face to mark 
down the frequency, and thus 
calibrate the horizontal fre- 
quency line on the oscillo- 
scope- 

In practice, you need to 
add a feature to the signal 
generator so it provides the 
horizontal control voltage — 
in order to make the scheme 
a practical reality, as only one 
knob is rotated. The practical 
details for accomplishing this 
depend upon the equipment 
being used. 

For instance, one setup on 
which this scheme was tried 
utilized a 3" scope and a 
Southwest Technical Prod- 
ucts function generator. The 

horizontal sweep was 
switched to "external/' and 
the horizontal position con- 
trol used to move the dot on 
the oscilloscope screen to the 
extreme left. Then, by 
applying a variable dc voltage 
to the external horizontal in- 
put terminals, it was deter- 
mined that the voltage had to 
vary from 1 to 9 volts to 
move the dot completely 
across the screen. The func- 
tion generator uses a single 



GENtRATOfl 



O 



ClftCUlT 
TEST 




"• VERT 
_ 1*1 






VJ 



Fig, 7. Basic idea for setting up a manual scan system with a 
signal generator and an oscilloscope. 






9V 



,ilK 






ON SC0F»6 




Ct^NTROl, POT 
IN QENERATOn 



Fig, 2 This simple adapter circuit can be added to an 
audio-type generator whidi uses a potentiometer for its 
frequency control element. 



140 



10k potentiometer as a fre- 
quency control- This poten- 
tiometer was replaced by a 
dual 10k unitj as shown In 
Fig. 2. The two 1 k PC poten- 
liometers simply allow 
trimming up of the voltage 
range covered by the 10k 
potentiometeri so the dot on 
the oscilloscope screen moves 
exactly from extreme left to 
extreme right, as the gen- 
erator is turned through one 
frequency range, 

A similar scheme can be 
applied to other generators, 
even those using a variable 
capacitor as a frequency con- 
trol element. The only prob- 
lem which must be solved in 
each individual case is the 
mechanical coupling of a 
potentiometer to the shaft of 
the frequency control ele- 
ment in the generator. 

You could add further re* 
fjnemcnts to the basic idea, 
depending upon need and the 

specific equipment involved. 
For tnsLtince, it might be 
desired to scan across the 



oscilloscope screen, as the 
signal generator is only tuned 
across a narrow part of its 
frequency coverage on a given 
band, A higher dc voltage to 
the control potentiometer 
will allow the potentiometer 
to sweep across the required 
voltage range over less of its 
rotational range. A better 
solution is to make the con- 
irol potentiometer pari of a 
resistive Wheatstone bridge. 
The bridge can be balanced at 
any given point, as the corh 
tro! potentiometer is rotated, 
and the scan across the oscil- 
loscope screen is started at 
that point. A typical circuit is 
shown in Fig, 3. Further- 
more, by making the dc volt- 
age to the bridge variable, 
you could expand or con- 
strict the width of the scan. 
An ultimate embellishment 
might be to add a variable 
gain, dc voltage amplifier to 
the output of the bridge cir- 
cuit The display, which you 
see on the screen as a circuit 
is tested, will be a vertical 
line, changing in amplitude 





9 


-»4V 


FOTtlvtraHETPi — — ^^^^ 




1 

IIDOK 

1 


H 
1 




ON S»,ME SHAFT ^^--^ 

AS QENERATOH 
FREQ COMTflOL 


' 


BAtAHCtQ 

POT 
lOQK 


ELEMENT 


1 










1 r 




1 ' 


1 




;lCKm 


1 fc 

ItQOK 












ON SCOPE 











Fig, 3, Bridge circuit to al/ow better control over setting point 
on signal generator scale v%'here scanning starts across oscillo- 
scope. 



both above and below the 
center line on the oscillo- 
scope as it moves across the 
oscilloscope screen. You can 
adjust the vertical position 
control on the oscilloscope, 
so only the top ''half" of the 
display shows. This does get a 
bit closer to a real spectrum 
analyzer display. But, de- 
pending upon the circuit 
under test, it may hide nega- 
tive peak clipping taking 
place in a circuit 

You should neither over- 
estimate nor underestimate 
the usefulness of this adapter. 



tt displays only a simple plot 
of amplitude versus fre- 
quency for a circuit under 
test. Many other things, such 
as phase shifts, might be 
taking place in the circuit 
which you would not be 
aware of. Nevertheless, for 
someone who Irkes to experi- 
ment or needs to adjust 
simple tuned circuits or 
filters, thfs simple adapter 
will give you a little and very 
useful hint of what life would 
be like with a $12,000 
Hewlett- Packard spectru m 
analyzer on your bench. ■ 





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AKTENNA SUPIIMARKET P.O. Box 1682 Urgo. FK 33540 813/585-9688 





A 14 



141 



Dexter S. French, Jr^ K4TSY 
142 Stoney Ridge Dr. 
Longwood FL 32750 



How About 



An Auto CQ ? 



-- generate some lOm activity! 



How many times have 
you tuned across 10 
meters and wondered if it was 
really dead? I used to sit 
down and call CQ for a while, 
until 1 got tired of it or else 
got hoarse. Wouldn't it be 
nice if I could call CQ auto- 
matically? Then 1 could 
spend the time more con" 
structively^ and I iust might 
beat a hole in the band! 

I could use a tape and 
operate VOX\ but this 
would be plagued by nuisance 
tripping as I shuffled papers 
or stumbled around the 
shack. No - I must have a 
more sophisticated solution! 
And so was born the tone- 
actuated, tape-driven auto 



CQer described below. 

Certain requirements for 
this magic machine were 
immediately set forth: 

1 . The device must be 
immune to ambient 
noise, 

2. Any tone used must 
not be transmitted* 

3. The circuitry must 
include capability to 
make the control tape. 
4* The automatic 
operation must be easy 
to cancel . 

To make all this happen, 
the block diagram shown in 
Fig. 1 shows briefly how the 
auto CQer works. A tone on 
the tape is detected and 
clocks a flip-flop- The flip- 



A2 



FROM 




:4 




'kJ ^ 


7*t 
Lt>MPAflATOft 


\ 


^ F f 


OUTRJT 




SPf 


T •"" PI T 


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X 
















• 






sas 






L 

>T0 TAPE INPUT 








TIfc 


lER 







PTT 



F/g. J. 



flop, in turn, drives a relay to 
activate the PTT line in the 
transmitter, A 4 kHz tone 
was chosen because it falls 
about an octave above the 
bandpass of SSB transceivers 
available today and, thus, is 
not transmitted. The tone 
from the tape on playback Is 
first applied to an active 
filter, A\, whose narrow 
bandpass is centered on 4 
kHz. The output of this filter 
is rectified by CRT and 
averaged by C2. The resulting 
dc voltage is fed to com- 
parator A2, whose output 
clocks the 948 flip-flop for 
on-off control of the PTT 
line. 

The result of this is that 
the state of the 948 is 
changed only when a tone is 
detected. The transmitter Is 
thus protected from nuisance 
tripping. 

Basics 

The circuit shown in Fig, 2 



has two modes of operation, 
The first develops the tone 
and mixes it with the micro- 
phone audio to be recorded. 
The second mode^ playback, 
detects the tone from the 
playback audio^ as outlined 
above, and activates a flip* 
flop to control the trans- 
mitter. 

In the record mode, the 
555 tone generator develops a 
4 kHz square wave. This is 
keyed by unshorting the 
timing capacitor, CI , with SI . 
The square wave is fed to an 
active filter Al. This 4 kHz 
active bandpass filter provides 
a clean sinusoid to mix with 
the voice audio for the 
recording. 

In the playback mode, the 
audio from the recorder is fed 
into the active filter, and the 
tone IS separated and de* 
tected- The rectifier/filter on 
the output of Al also inte- 
grates or sums the tone. This 
means that the tone must be 
detected and remain so for a 
certain minimum time. After 
about a second or so (de- 
pending upon the playback 
amplitude of the tone), the 
reference threshold of the 
second 741 (A2) is reached, 
and, acting as a comparator, 
it flips from a high (+) to a 
low (^) output voltage. This 
voltage ciocks the flip-flop to 
its opposite state. The output 
of the 948 drives the tran- 
sistor, which in turn activates 
a small relay to key the trans- 
mitter PTT line- 
To prevent audio feed* 
through to the transceiver 
speaker, the audio to the 
mike jack is shorted to 
ground by C3 when Q2 con- 
ducts during receive- This 
short Is released in transmit 
to pass audio on to the mike 
jack on the transmitter. The 
normally open side of SI 
serves to reset the 948 flip- 
flop, just In case the PTT line 
gets stuck in transmit, S2 
shifts audio control from the 
auto CQer to the station 
microphone. Just remember 
to operate S2 when you 
answer someone! 

Building It 

I built the circuit on 



142 



vector board, and the layout 
h not critical at all. However, 
I have foiind that if the part 
locations follow the way the 
schematic is drawn, it is a lot 
easier to troubleshoot taier 
on. In addition, inputs and 
outputs fall to the edges of 
the board more readily, 

A word about parts: The 
741 operational amplifier was 
chosen for its ease of use and 
procurement, TTie 948 flip- 
flop, though an old DTL de- 
vice, is hard to beat at 20^ 
from James Electronics. 

Care and Feeding 

My audio input is from a 
compressor which puts out 
.25 volts p-p. The mixing 
resistors are set to divide this 
audio down to the proper 
level for the recorder input. 
The same goes for the tone 
leveU It may be necessary to 
adjust R2 so as not to over- 
drive the tape recorder. The 
speaker output of the tape 
recorder feeds the audio to 
Al* The audio level at the 
output of Al determines if, 
or at what time delay, the 
comparator, A2p switches. A 
tittle experimentation may be 
necessary here to determine 
the required audio output 
level for a one or two second 
delay. This delay provides 
further noise immunity. If a 
scope is available, 2.5 V p*p 
at Al is sufficient. Any more 
output volume than that may 
well overload and distort the 
voice audio into the trans- 
mitter. 

Set the tone frequency by 
measuring the dc voltage on 
C2. Use a VTVM or other 
high impedance voltmeter, 
and adjust the value of Rl for 
maximum deflection. The 
response is slow, so wait for 
the voltage to stabilize. The 
voltage should be greater than 
about 0.4 volts dc for the 
comparator to operate. 

The comparator has 
positive feedback around it to 
provide a noise margin of 90 
mV, which results from the 
hysteresis. This means that 
with a threshold of, say^ 0.4 
volts, the input voltage must 
get to 0.445 V {0.4 + .09/2) 



*3 

4 









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0047 



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33 OK 




-9 



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2:680 




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♦— • 



PiC, NO 

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f * f 



10 



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543 



96K 
i t — V t^ ■ 



::a^ 




/fr 



I2K 4 7K 

-VA f VUHi— — 1^ 



TAPE > 



36X 



fff 



900 



illC AUDIO IMPUT 
fFROM OHdPflfSSOfil 



before the output changes 
state. The reverse is also true. 
If the input starts above 
0.445 volts, it must fall below 
0.355 volts (0.4 - .09/2) for 
the output to change* 

A word of caution in sub- 
stituting parts: The 948 flip- 
flop clocks at a threshold 
voltage and is, therefore, not 
dependent on the rise and fall 
times of its clock signal A J K 
TTL flip-flop like the 7473 
should be clocked with a fall 
time of, at most, 30 ns. The 
output slue rate of the 741 is 
much too slow at 30 ^s- The 
transistors, on the other 
hand, can be any common 
NPN, The 2N2222 is a good 
choice because of its price 
and availability. 

My intent is not to limit 
substitutions, but rather to 
provide a starting place for 
the experimenter. A little 
thought given to certain sub- 
stitutions will save a cor- 
responding amount of grief 
later on* 

The simple power supply 
is shown in Fig. 3* 

How To Use It 

The first step to using the 
auto CQer on the air is to 
make the tape. Plug the tape 
input, PI , into the mike input 
of the tape recorder and a 
microphone into the audio 
input on the CQer, Now 
youVe set to record the tape. 




tiPE INPUT 



iOOM 



m 



J1 BBkHO 

n v-^^ 



53 



/■-£J 



TRANSMITTER 
M^C INPUT 



iTlP 



I T 



OUT 



a 



PTT 



m 



2—ry — 






Ffg. 2. 

You will need about 3 
seconds of tone {just to be 
safe) to activate the flip-flop, 
so plan accordingly. I made 
my tape on a 30-second CQ, 
30-second listen program, but 
this is offered only as a 
starting point. Just remember 
to give the tone at the 
beginning and at the end of 
theCQ. 

To use the CQer is even 
easier. Plug the transmitter 
mike input, PI, into the 
transmitter and the station 
mike into ]1- The tape re- 
corder speaker output plugs 
into the tape output jack, )2. 
Set the playback volume to 
trip the PTT in about 1 to 2 
seconds, but not so high as to 
overmodulate. If the recorded 
audio of tone and CQ are of 
the same relative level, it will 
be possible to achieve the 
right balance of playback 
volume and mike gain on the 
transmitter. 

On the air, set S2, punch 
up playback and sit back and 
relax. Even though the band 
may be dead» at least alt 
youVe doing is wearing out 
the tape and not your vocal 
cords! 



To answer a call, Just 
switch S2, shut off the re- 
corder (you might do this 
with another position on S2, 
if your recorder is equipped 
with a remote jack), and 
operate your rig normally. 

The reliability of this 
machine has been excellent. 
After about 1 8 months of use 
on the air, the only problem 
has been when the recorder 
batteries run low, and the 
tone frequency shifts and 
goes undetected. It is for this 
reason that the reset switch, 
SI, was included, just in case 
the transmitter gets stuck. 

Since IVe built this device, 
I can*t imagine not having it. 
It actually is my way of 
having a beacon on 10 
meters, to which 1 am so 
devoted. You can hear what 
is being transmitted, and so 
can catch it if anything goes 
haywire. 1 hope that the 
utility of this machine will 
provide you with more time 
to really enjoy this great 
hobby of ours. ■ 

Rofgrance 

Fischer, ''Bring a Dead Band to 
Li^e," 73 Magazine, December, 
1976, p. 125, 




Fig, 3. 



143 



Carl C DrumeUer W5JJ 
5824 N.W. 53 Street 
Warr Acres OK 731 22 



SSB For 





-- tame the croak 



The Yaesu FRG-7 is a 
remarkably good re- 
ceiver for "all-wave'* recep- 
tion of AM or radio teleg- 
raphy. It falls short, however, 
of being good for SSB recep- 
tion, unless you have one of 
the new models featuring a 
fine tuning controL This 
article is addressed to the 
owners of FRG-7s having 
serial numbers between 
502001 to 505999 or be- 
tween 060001 to 072000. If 
you have one, read on. 

For $7.25 you can buy a 
modification kit from Yaesu. 
I did. You shouldn't. Why? 
Except for matching knobs, 
you can buy the needed parts 
(if you can't find them in 
your junk box) for a small 
fraction of the cost of the 
modification kit. 

You need just two items. 
One is a small variable capac- 
itor, small in physical size as 
well as in capacitance. The 
latter should be somewhere 
around 5 pF -- not much 
more, not much less. It 
should have a shaft about one 
inch long (2,5 mm) and must 



be of the single-hole mount 
type. The other item is a 

knob to fit the shaft of the 
variable capacitor. If you 
have a choice, get one with a 
dot or other type of position 
indicator. If youVe a purist, 
buy a re placement for the 
volume control of your 
FRG-7. It's a bit large, but 
iril match. 

Now youVe ready to dis- 
sect your FRG-7. You'll need 
a Phillips, or Reed Prince^ 
type screwdriver and a 14 -inch 
nutdriver. With the latter, 
take out the two screws along 
the bottom rear lip of the 
cabinet. With the formerj re- 
move the six small screws 
around the front edge of the 
cabinet and the one small 
screw at the top of the rear 
edge. Now, slip the chassis 
forward out of the cabinet* 

Use a small, blade- type 
screwdriver to loosen the set- 
screws, and then remove all 
the control knobs. Then use 
the Phillips screwdriver to re* 
move the three screws re- 
taining the escutcheon plate* 

With the slimmest 



soldering iron you can find, 
unsolder ihe two wires 
leading to the "Lock" tamp. 
Then remove the nut from 
the "Mode" switch. Next, 
take out the four screws that 
hold the external front panel 
to the inner one. Slip off the 
panel, and prepare to do 
some precise measuring. 

If you have a metric rule, 
as everyone should, use the 
following figures. Otherwise 
convert them to inches. 

From the right-hand edge 
of the front panel, measure in 
14.4 cm. Then, from the 
bottom edge, measure up 6.2 
em. Mark the intersection, 
and drill a very small holci 
barely through the paneL 
Pause there, turn the panel 
over, and carefully cut out 
the padding around the hole 
you just drilled, removing 
enough to leave a clear spot 
about 18 mm in diameter, 
centered on the hole in the 
panel. 

Put the outer panel back 
on the receiver, and run the 
drill through the hole just far 
enough to clearly mark the 



spot to drill through the inner 
panel. Remove the outer 
panel, and drill the inner one. 
Make a hole iust large enough 
to mount the variable capac- 
itor- The one I got fi^om 
Yaesu required a 7.5 mm 
(about 5/16 inch) hole. Note 
thai you*ll need a semi- 
circular bushing between the 
capacitor and the panel; the 
speaker mouni intrudes into 
the space nL\Jed for the ca- 
pacitor. This is easily made* 

While you're drilling, en- 
large the hole through the 
front panel to 14 mm (about 
9/16 inch). 

After you've mounted the 
variable capacitor and 
screwed tight its retaining 
nut, replace the front panel 
and also the escutcheon plate. 
Don't forget to reattach the 
two wires to the "Lock" 
lamp or to replace the nul on 
the **Mode" switch! Very 
carefully set the plates of the 
variable capacitor to half 
mesK Then attach the con- 
trol knob, having the dot or 
pointer straight up. Replace 
all control knobs. 

If you bought the Yaesu 
modification kit, do not in- 
stall the 33 pF capacitor in 
place of the 51 pF capacitor 
C-458. 

Note the printed circuit 
board just behind and a bit to 
the right of the variable ca- 
pacitor you just installed. All 
the parts you'll be concerned 
with are located close to- 
gether on the corner of the 
board that's next to the vari- 
able capacitor. The parts 
identification numbers are 
marked on the board, but 
you must look closely to see 
them. Locate T-403, a trans- 
former in a tiny square can. 
Then spot TC-403, an adjust- 
able capacitor just to itie left 
of T'403 and a bit behind it 
Look a bit behind TC-403, 
and spot the two terminals to 
which dx^ attached wires run- 
ning down under the chassis 
to the main variable tuning 
capacitor. The rearmost of 
these two terminals is the 
"ground" one. The foremost 
one is "hot" 

Now run wires from the 



144 



variable capacitor you in- 
stalled over to these two ter- 
minal posts, being careful, of 
course, to hook the rotor to 
th€ rearmost and the stator to 
the foremost ! 

If you bought Yaesu's kit, 
now you're ready to file the 
provided instruction sheet 
very carefully in the waste- 
basket, and get out the in- 
struction manual that came 
with your FRG-7. Turn to 
page 12 of your manual. 
Look under the heading 
"Main Tuning Dial, T-403, 



TC-4D3," 1 quote: 

"The following alignment 
should be done after warm-up 
of the receiver- 

"Set the dial hairline to 
the center of the dial 
window. When the main 
tuning dial is rotated until it 
stops over the 1000° scale 
mark, the delta mark should 
be within 5 mm of the hair- 
line. 

"Set the Mode switch to 
Isb and the MHz dial to 0^ 
Set the main tuning dial to 
1000^; a beat tone may be 



heard. Adjust T403 until the 
heal is heard and is brought 
to zero beat. Set the main 
tuning dial to 0*, and adjust 
TC-403 for zero beat. Repeat 
these two procedures until 
zero beat is obtained at both 
O'^and 1000°;* 

The procedure in the 
manual works quite well. The 
one contained in the instruc- 
tion sheet is utterly worth- 
less! 

The addition of the fine^ 
tuning control makes the 
FRG'7 quite easy to use for 



SSB reception- More selec- 
tivity might be desired. 

Should you feel you need 
that extra seieclivity, read the 
artfcle by Ron Risher 
VK30M in the March, 1977, 
issue of Amateur Radio, He 
describes a non butchering 
operation^ one using a spare 
deck on an existing switch to 
select an alternate filter, con- 
sisting of four cascaded 
SFD45SB solid state filters 
linked by small coupling ca- 
pacitors. I haven* I tried it, 
but it sounds intriguing! ■ 



There comes a time in 
every kid's life when he 
wants more out of study hall 
than just studying. My time 
came about two weeks ago, 
and being a ham, I naturally 
wanted to do something with 
radio, I knew from the start 
that it would be hard, for Ma 
(as we had nicknamed our 
teacher) had an eaglets eye 
that could weed out a welt- 
hidden game of solitaire in a 
class of 55- Anyway, I began 
to think of ways to outwit 
Ma and still have fun. A code 
practice oscillator was out, as 
I had already bored myself to 
tears tapping out English 
assignments on the desk with 
my pencil. Of course, the 
ultimate goal would be a QSO 
with a portable transceiver, 
but it seemed a little far- 
fetched at the time. But the 
more I thought of it, the 
more feasible it sounded. The 
walls of the study hall were 
made of wood and plaster, 
easily penetrated by radio 
waves. 

I bepn my search for a 
suitable battery-powered 
ORP transmitter This proved 
easy, for the second 
magazine I looked at was the 
January, 1977, issue of 73, 
which contained a dandy 
little porUble transistor QRP 
transmitter, easy to con- 
strucU and, from the descrip- 
tion by the author, pretty 
potent at getting those waves 
into the sky. 

Having decided on a trans- 
mitter, I was then faced by 
the dilemma of what to house 
the thing in. It must be 



Kurt Bjom WB9YKR 
1 874 Big Oak Circle 
NoTthbrook IL 6Q062 



Beat the Books 



-- study hall special 



inconspicuous, but large 
enough to handle the trans- 
ceiver and batteries, which 
amounted to quite a load. I 
decided on a card filing box, 
for these were a fairly com- 
mon sight at school. 

For a receiver, I decided 
on a converter for a broadcast 
band radio with an earphone 
attachment, I wasn't taking 
any chances with Ma, who 
had the ears (and the temper- 
ment) of a wildcat. The 
pocket radio conveniently fit 
inside the lid of the card fite 
box with a bit of double- 
sided foam tape. 

I then constructed an 
aluminum chassis to fit the 
box, and on this I mounted 
the transmitter, which con- 
sisted of a transistor oscillator 
and a tuned circuit tuned to 
40 meters, the chosen band. 
The BC converter was a bit 
tougher, as a bfo had to be 
constructed to take in the 



signals without the tones 
sounding like pure ac. 

But eventually everything 
was straightened out and 
ready for initial testing, I 
plugged in a 40 meter crystal, 
plugged in a dipote, and 
flipped her on. A little tuning 
later, and the receiver began 
hauling in all sorts of signals, 
and with my station receiver, 
I roughly calibrated the dial. 
The transmitter really blared 
away on my station trans- 
ceiver. Finally, after a gru- 
eling two hour slop-together 
job, ail was ready. The next 
day, after breakfast, I tucked 
away a tiny earphone, 
grabbed my 98^ "|unior" 
code key (I wonder how 
many old*timers stil! use 
those things), snatched a long 
wire antenna with a phone 
plug at one end and an alli- 
gator ciip at the other, and 
smuggled the whole mess out 
the door past my mother. 



When I got into study hall 
that day, I sat in the back 
row where there was a radi- 
ator for a grounding, and 
connected the transceiver. I 
didn't have the slightest idea 
about where to connect the 
antenna, and glanced around 
for a support. 1 ended 
up connecting it to a 
vacant desk three seats to the 
right. I ran the earphone up 
my shirt. Even Ma doesn't 
have x-ray vision. I turned 
everything on, and imme- 
diately zeroed in on 
WB9 — " calling CQi S9. I 
answered him, hoping the key 
clicks (audio, not rf) 
wouldn't be noticed. To my 
great joy, he came back TNX, 
OM, UR RST IS 369. NAME 
IS, - . Immediately my mind 
soared. Mini rotary beams! 
DX! SSB! Maybe later, that 
W8 is really giving me QRM. I 
might lose my first study hall 
QSO! ■ 



t45 



^Tj^^m RANDOM WIRE ANTENNA TUNER 



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At! band operation (160-10 meters) 
With any random length of wire, 
200 watt output power capa- 
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transceiver. Ideal for portable or 



home operation. Great for apart- 
ments and hotel rooms—simply 
run a wire inside, out a window^ or 
anyplace available, Toroid induct- 
or for small size: 4-1/4" X 2-3/8" 



X 3" Built-in neon tune-up indi- 
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IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMER 

Matches 52 ohm coax to the lower tmF>edance of a mobile 
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between 3 and 52 ohms. Broadband from 1-30 MHz, Will 
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size: 2-3/4" X T X 2-1/4/' Attractive bronze finish. 



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Tunes oul SWR on any coax fed antenna as well as random 
wires. Works great on all bands (160-10 meters) with any 
transceiver running up to 200 watts power output. 

Increases usable bandwidth of any antenna. Tunes out SWR 
on mobile whips from inside your car. 



Uses toroid inductor and specially made capacitors for 
small size: 5!^" x 214" x 2/2/' Rugged, yet compact 
Attractive bronze finished enclosure. SO-239 coax con- 
nectors are used for transmitter input and coax fed 
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302BaC2l3] 37B-5BST SiO 

T47 



A. A Wicks W6SWZ 
30^6 Rigger Road 
Agoura CA 9 1301 



Clocking 
Those Clock 




- check out the MK-03! 



The current plethora of 
digital readout clock 
kits makes it very difficult for 
the potential buyer to decide 
which is the one best suited 
for his needs. One of the 
many that are presently avail- 
able, and which has not been 
advertised to any great extent 
by its suppliers, is the MK-03 
Aircraft Clock-Timer kit. 
Bullet Electronics^ the kit 
maker^ may be under- 
estimating the potential pop- 
ularity of thi^s kit. Its many 
unique features place it apart 



from others that are available. 
Although this clock may 
have its primary application 
in cars, boats, and planes 
(FAA certification may be 
required), its compactness 
and features have a number 
of good applications in the 
ham or CB shack, OSCAR 
buffs will find it ideal for 
alerting them to the next 
pass, as the quick-setting 
alarm feature enhances this 
type of use. Power supply 
voltage requirement is 9 to 18 
volts dc^ thus a simple base 



station power supply is all 
that is required for fixed use. 
A power supply for this pur- 
pose is available from the kit 
supplier. 

The kit, as received from 
Bullet, contains all parts^ ex- 
cept switches and a case, to 
make a working clock*timer. 
The lack of case and switches 
allows you to design the en- 
closure and panel to suit your 
exact needs- In my case, the 
objective was to place the 
entire assembled unit inside a 
standard aircraft instrument 




But/et MK-03 Clock-Timer completed and ready for installation in aircraft instrument case. 
Digital readout t^oard is attached to plastic escutcheon. 



case for use in a sailplane 
(glider). This was an old al- 
timeter case, as shown in the 
photo. Doing this required a 
fair amount of ingenuity, but 
the result was very atis* 
factory. Others may wish to 
use a larger, less difficult 
package, and, if panel space is 
available, as at a fixed station 
installation, larger switches 
and layout would be more 
convenient. 

The printed circuit boards 
for this kit include a six-digit 
readout board (allowing 
the FND 70 0,5-inch readouts 
to be directly soldered to the 
board)^ a main clock- timer 
board, and a timebase board. 
The latter uses a (^ramic 
resonator as its standard, and 
a CD4060 CMOS as a 
14-stage binary counter/ 
oscillator. The oscillator fre- 
quency is divided by 2^^ to 
produce the output fre- 
quency (50 Hz in this in- 
stance). My scope showed the 
output of this oscillator to be 
an excellent 4.9 volts square 
wave. Bullet advertises this 
oscillator kit as being avail- 
abte as a separate item^ 
incidentally. 

The main clock-tim^ 
board is standard, as far as 
digit drivers are concerned. 
However, the board uses two 
50252 28-pin ICs, stacked in 
parallel, to accomplish the 
separate clock and timer 
functions. 

The clock chip (bottom) 
operates as a normal 24*hour 
six-digit display clock. The 
timer chip (upper) operates 
as a 24-hour six-digit display 
elapsed time indicator. As 
received, the two chips are 
piggy-backed together, with 
the pins, which are paralleled 
in operation, already soldered 
together by the kit supplier. 
No soldering to the pins is 
required, as the dual IC is 
eventually installed in a DIP 
socket, which the user has 
previously soldered to the 
board. Connections to the 
top chip which are required 
are made with slip-on con- 
nectors (not supplied). 

Components in the kit 
appear to be of good quality, 
and, for the most part^ are 



148 



"house-numbered" ilemsi 
indicating that they were 
probably not to the manu- 
facturer's standard, but are 
quite satisfactory for general 
use. Two of the FND-70s, as 
received with the kit, had one 
open segment* Otherwise, all 
parts were excellent. All resis- 
tors for board mounting were 
precut and bent to radius, 
and all diodes and transistors 
were cut to length for mount- 
ing and soldering* Material 
was provided to assemble a 
toroid choke, in the event 
that the unit Is to be powered 
by an ignition-type engine 
power source. In addition, an 
input protection diode is pro- 
vided to prevent an incorrect 
polarity connection from 
damaging the unit. 

Circuit board solder plat- 
ing tended to have a duil 
appearance^ and occasionally 
some difficulty was 
encountered in preparing 
satisfactorily soldered con- 
nee lions. This was particu- 
larly noticeable when work- 
ing on the readout board. 



which has rather closely 
spaced traces thai com- 
pounded the problem. Manu- 
facturers would be wise to 
increase the cost of a board 
by a few pennies to provide 
good traces and well-plated 
boardSj in order to insure 
customer satisfaction and 
trouble-free operation. 

The many switches re- 
quired for full operation of 
the clock-timer increase the 
complexity of the wiring 
external to the board, but 
they do not create any prob- 
lems, if care is taken in rout- 
ing the leads. 

Instructions and diagrams 
supplied with this kit are 
quite complete, with ten 
pages of information. Never- 
theless, they must be read 
thoroughly prior to con- 
structing the kit, in order not 
to overlook some item of 
importance, not necessarily 
mentioned where you think it 
might be in the text. There 
was a schematic error in my 
instructions, which may be 
corrected now, as this has 



been brought to the alteniion 
of Bullet. 

Upon completion of the 
entire assembly, I used a 9 
volt transistor radio battery 
to test the clock-timer (this is 
not recommended for other 
than testing because of a 
.085 A current drain). The 
unit operated immediately, 
with no difficulties what- 
soever, and it was fun to be 
able to run through the inter- 
esting list of functions that 
this clock is capable of 
performing. 

The fact that the timing 
and clock functions perform 
independently of each other 
permits using the features of 
one without interfering with 
the ongoing action of the 
other. For instance, the 
elapsed time function, which 
displays hours, minutes^ and 
seconds, may be started, held, 
restarted, or reset to zero 
while the 'Veal-time*' clock 
continues its normal opera- 
tion, undisplayed. 

The switches may be con- 
nected to perform the follow- 



ing listed functions* The dis- 
play switch may be switched 
either to the off position (in 
which case all functions 
continue, but are not visible), 
or to display either the timer 
action or real-time clocking. 
Real-time clock — Hours set, 
10-minute set, minutes set, 
alarm enable, and clock dis- 
play mode (shows either real 
time or what the alarm set 
time is). 

Timer — Start, hold, and 
reset. 

An additional feature may 
be used, but was not neces- 
sary for my application. This 
is a photo intensity input to 
the clock chip, which will 
reduce or increase the display 
intensity, dependent upon 
the ambient [ighting. 

As a full-function device in 
the shack, or mobile any- 
where, this clock-timer 
appears to have all the re- 
quirements, for a modest 
$26.95. Bullet Electronics, 
P.O. Box 19442, Dallas, 
Texas 75219, is the sup- 
plier. ■ 



TEtETYPE' TERMINAtS 



Large Quantities Available 












28 ASR $650.00 

28 KSR $375.00 

28 RO $265.00 



All Units Tested 















Call Collect 214-258-6620 
Ask for Jim Carroll 



13 



WHAT'S GOING ON? SCAN YOUR IC-22SWITH OUR 
RK-22S SCANNER 



1 2 4 I T6 32 «4 I2t 

'3 t? €* ©, 6* & ^ ^"' 

RK-22S 



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DISABU 146.31 



Control the frequency of your IC-22S electron i- 
caf/y Scan 145.35 MHz to 148,2 MHz in 15 kHz 
steps or^ manually select any 15 kHz frequency 
in-between. Operate every possible frequency of 
your IC-22S without external programming 
switches white enjoying scan action. 

Switch selectable "start scan" frequency. 

Automatically advances after 30 second listening 

time, 3 second scan delay. 

Manual 15 kHz advance button. 

Lock switch holds scan action or disables 30 

second listening time mode. 

Low power CMOS circuitry, 10 mA typicaL 

Small size, 4'T/V x V'H x 2.75"D, 

Memorize simple formula to convert binary 

frequency readout-displays in scan or manual. 

R&K. Products RK 22S $69.95 

4295 KENTRIDGE S.E. KIT $54-95 

GRAND RAPIDS, Mi 49508 SHPG $2.00 

(616)455^3915 



149 



Arvid G: Ettans K7HKL 
5128 S 3600 W 
Kmms err B4118 




•tev 





♦ *i 



jt sT 



jpW yft 



.004 



/T7 ^fr 



/fr 



Fig. h 



WWIAIMJ 
OIITPVT 



/7^. Z 



Digital Signal Source 



- TTL signals for counters, micros 



In playing with logic cir- 
cuits over ihc past few 
years, I repealedty encoun- 
tered the lack of a suitable 
sigrial source. Several things 
were tried, including squaring 
circuits on the wide-range rf 
generator and several pulse/ 
function generation units, 
with only marginal success* 
Recently^ while working on a 
frequency synthesizer, an 
idea occurred Ihal after 
breadboard construction 
seems to be the answer. 
Development oT this idea as 
outlined below will result in a 
square wave signal source 
covering from 20 MHz down 
to subaudio in fully tunable 
decade steps. For my pur- 
pose, it has proven to be an 
id^l unit for experimenting 
with amateur radio applica- 
tions of TTL and CMOS 
logjc. 

Theory 

The basic idea as presented 



in Fig, 1 is for a tunable 
oscillator in the 10 to 20 
MHz rang^ with switchable 
decade dividers for the range 
selection and switchable 
binary dividers for band selec* 
tion. The resulting frequen- 
cies and time constants are 
listed in Fig. 5. 

Construction 

Fig. 2 is the oscillator 
which I used — others would 
do as well. Try your favorite 
. , . just be sure the output is 
adequate to drive the digital 
buffer. Drive requirements to 
the first TTL stagie can be cut 
down by biasing that stage 
into its linear (?) range with a 
2.2 k resistor to ^ound as 
indicated in Fig. 2. 

Fig. 3 represents the 
power supply circuitry and is 
self-explanatory. Fig. 4 in- 
cludes the dividers and out- 
put circuit. Construction is 
straigjitforward with few pre- 
cautions. It would be wise to 



klVRliS 



\f«^ 



Fig. X 




keep all divider'to-s witch 

wires separated from each 
other slightly (just don't 
bundle them all together in a 
cable harness). Run a separate 
power and ground lead for 
each IC, That way you need 
only one bypass capacitor on 
the common +5 volt and 
ground point* 

My final version has a cali- 
brated dial and tunes with a 
20:1 VFO drive. However, I 
find it more convenient to 
cable the output to my digital 



counter for direct frequency 
readout, 

I wired the VFO portion 
using point-to-point tech- 
nique on insulated standoffs. 
The divider is on perf board 
and wired with wire-wrap 
penciL 

Summary 

While my unit is just the 

basic generator, hindsiglit has 
indicated many additions 
which might enhance its oper- 
ation. Some of the possible 




UHl 



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a 4 7 2 i 6 T k 3 6 I? 2 5 t T Iz 3 i^ T ^ 



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74 9 C 



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tt hit 



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1/2 
747* 



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14 



T-4 T4 



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T*90 



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Fig. 4. 



150 



addi lions and tfreir ap plica- 
tjons are listed below: 

K FM the VFO with an 
audio oscillator and voltage 
variable capacitor for working 
with FM receivers, phase 
detectors, or PLL circuits. 

2. Switch the divider 
chain from the internal VFO 
to an external input jack. 
This would allow signals from 
external sources to be 
divided. 

3« Switch the divider 
chain input between the 
internal VFO and a crystal 
oscillator to generate harmon- 
icalty- related standard fre- 
quencies, 

4, Add a second buffer 
and output circuit for 
opposing polarity outputs. 

5. Run the output 
through a one-shot multivi- 
brator for ihin-line pulse 
generation. 

Incase you use this as an rf 
generator for general purpose 
work, you mi^t be inter- 
ested to know that the square 
wave output generates strong 
harmonics beyond 2 
meters! ■ 




Frequency 


Time (Oj) 


Frequancy 


TimefOiJ 


10-20 MHz 


0,1^.05 uS 


10-20 kHz 


100-50 uS 


5-10 MHz 


0^-OJ uS 


5-10 kHz 


200-100 uS 


2,5-6 MHz 


0.4-0,2 uS 


2.5-5 kHz 


400-200 uS 


1.25-2.5 MHz 


0.8-0.4 uS 


1^5-2,5 kHz 


800-*00 uS 


1 -2 MHz 


1<),5yS 


1 -2 kHz 


,001 -,0005 Sec 


0.5-1 MHz 


2-1 uS 


0.5-1 kHz 


.002-001 Sec 


0^5^.5 MHz 


4-2 uS 


0.25-0.5 kHz 


.004 -.002 Sec 


0.125O.25MH2 


84 uS 


0J25^.25 kHz 


.008 -.004 Sec 


1 00 200 kHz 


1 0^5 uS 


1 00-200 Hi 


,01 .005 Sec 


50-100 kHz 


20-10 uS 


50-100 Hi 


.02-01 Sec 


25-50 kHz 


40-20 uS 


25^0 Hi 


.04- .02 Sec 


12.5-25 kHz 


8040 uS 


1 2.5-25 Hz 


,08 -,04 Sec 



Fig. 5* Suggested dial layout. 




X 



The NEW NYE 
'Matchmakerl'^ 
VIKING MB II 



Aniemift liii|>e<laiic>dHiiateliiiig Network 
assures maximum perfectTy matched 
power to your antenna f 



Model MB II $285 
(with Baiun) $315 




II provides: 

* Constant SWR monitoring.* Precision tuning of final amp* Harmonic suppression, 

* Receiver input impedance-matching. * Maximum power transfer to antenna, * Con- 
tinuous frequency coverage 1.6 to 30 MHz. * Precision tuning of any wire V% 
wavelength or longer, with SWR of 1:1. 

MB II features: 

* Finest quality, made-in-USA components. *Large, precision, easy-to-read diafs with 
360' readout. * Optional 3000 watt Balun for twin lead antennas. 



Available at leading dealers throughout the U.S.A. 

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1614 - 130th Avenue N.E.. Bellevue, WA 96005 * (206) 454-4524 



M4 



151 



73 Magazine Staff 




enerated CW 



- - CW: as you like it 



One of the useful acces- 
sories to a receiver for 
CW operaibn rs a device that 
will key an audio oscillator in 
accordance with an incoming 
CW signal. Then one doesn't 
have to listen to the original 
CW signal with its back- 
ground noise and QRM, but 
can listen to a clean, locally 
generated audio signal. Tin is 
sort of device also provides a 
bonus feature useful with 
transceivers having no tunable 
bfo and where one must 
listen to a CW note deter- 
mined by i-f filter charac- 
teristics and the crystal-con- 
trolled frequency of a 
product detector. Usually, 
these transceivers are set up 
to produce CW notes of from 



600 to 900 Hz. But not 
everyone enjoys listening to a 

constant pitch CW note for 
extended periods. However, if 
the incoming CW keys a local 
audio oscillatorp one can vary 
the pitch of the tone actually 
being listened to without 
affecting the correct tuning 
of the transceiver. 

Such local oscillator 
keying devices for CW recep- 
tion are not new. Many 
designs were buitt in tube- 
type days and worked quite 
welL The problem was that 
such a device got to be rather 
elaborate and costly with 
tubes. Such devices usually 
consisted of a sharply tuned 
audio filter followed by some 




^:— * V*rt ■ 

f f\ LEI 







Fig, h Tunable audio filter uses a 567 PLL /C The 
opioisofator can be a Sprague ED702 (many other surplus 
units at lower cost will also suffice), A multi-turn potenti- 
ometer for the tOk frequency adjustment control will facili- 
tate adjustment^ but a regular potentiometer with a large knob 
will also work. 



audio amplification. Then the 
audio signal was rectified and 
used to operate a sensitive 
relay. The relay simply keyed 
a locals variable frequency 
sine wave oscillator which 
one then listened to as it was 
keyed instead of the original 
signal. 

Using solid state devices 
one can, of course, duplicate 
the original circuit idea. 
Sharpy single frequency audio 
filters can be built using the 
commonly available 88 mH 
toroid coils. The filtered 
signal can be amplified by an 
audio IC stage, rectified, and 
the dc signal used to control a 
reed relay. Any desired local 
oscillator can then be keyed 
by the relay. 



01 



i*is flHi 



Z90K 



111599 




This article presents a 
simitar but slightly different 
approach by taking advantage 
of some of the new phase 
locked loop ICs on the 
market Basically, a phase 
locked loop is used lo serve as 
a tunable audio filter and 
LED switch driver. The LED 
switch in turn activates a var- 
iable frequency tone oscil- 
lator. The circuit is compact 
and inexpensive. Its only dis- 
advantage is that it must be 
more carefully tuned than a 
circuit configMration using a 
passive input filter. But this is 
mostly a matter of becoming 
used to the adjustments in- 
volved, and it is not a tedious 
affair. Only parts of the basic 
circuit can be used if one 
further wants to simplify the 
device. For instance, the PLL 
tunable audio filter can be 
replaced by a passive LC 
filter. This eliminates any 
tuning but takes away from 
the versatility of the unit 
since the receiver tuning con- 
trols then have to be adjusted 
so the CW beat note falls in 
the filter passband. Still 
another alternative, if one has 
a receiver with already good 
i-f or audio signal selectivity 
but gets tired of listening to 
the hollow ringing sound of 
such a receiver, is to use only 
the LED and audio oscillator 
portions of the circuit. The 
LED is driven by rectified af 
and activates the audio oscil- 
lator. Each of these applica- 
tion variations is discussed in 
the following paragraphs. 

Fig, 1 shows the diagram 
of the 567 PLL tunable audio 
filter. The 10k potentiometer 
by pin 5 serves as the fre* 
quency tuning control^ and 
the 10k potentiometer in the 



W r m 



:=f p 



40 J 




L5K 
VCX-UME 



©HEP 
SSOOi 



4-611 
SPEHitJER 



? V 



O^TO-ISOL*TOH 
OF FtCllfiC 1 



Fig, 2. NE555 audio oscillator/amplifier which can be driven 
by the PLL tone filter of Fig, L Note the simple but effective 
S500S amplifier stage for the square wave output of the 555, 



152 



input l^d is used to adjust 
the input level. This extra 
control is provided since one 
will usually initially monitor 
the receiver's audio output 
aurally until the filter locks 
into place on the incoming 
signaL The af input level 
(from a headphone jack^ for 
instance) that provides good 
aural level may overload the 
PLU Hence, the 10k input 
potentiometer is nefcessary. 
The bandpass of the filter 
varies with the input voltage 
levei, and carefui adjustment 
of the frequency and input 
level controls is needed. It is 
best to practice first with 
steady tone input signals 
rather than a keyed sii^naL 
The output of the PLL drives 
a regular LED and an LED 
optoisoiator. The regular 
LED simply serves as a visual 
tuning aid to indicate the 
PLL is locked on to the in- 
coming signaL Of course, it 
will lock on to any input 
frequency to which it is 
tuned (or even harmonics of 
the input signal if it is over- 
driven). However, by pro- 



viding a switch to go back 
and forth between the audio 
input and the output of the 
keyed audio oscillator stage, 
confusion will be eliminated. 
The optoisoiator LED is used 
as a switch to key an audio 
oscillator stage. It can be used 
to key any desired oscillator. 
Some operators prefer a sine 
wave signal, while others find 
a harmonic-rich square wave 
more interesting to copy. 

Fig. 2 shows an NE555 
oscillator/amplifier which can 
be keyed by ihe circuit of 
Fig, 1, The circuit is straight* 
forward and provides both 
variable frequency and 
volume controL It will drive 
directly a small loudspeaker 
or low impedance head- 
phones. 

Fig, 3 shows some addi- 
tional circuits which can be 
used with the circuit of Fig. 
2. Fig. 3 (a) shows a passive 
900 Hz audio filter and recti- 
fier which can be used to 
drive the LED optoisoiator to 
key the NE555 oscillator. 
The PLL stage of Fig, 1 is not 
used and the 900 Hz filter is 



007 



00? 



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811:60011 



I OK 



ISOLATOfi^^i * 



c 



J 



OUTPUT 




Ba TO IK QA MDR£ 




OPTO- 
ISOIATOR 



Fig, 3. Two other circuits that can be used to key the NE555 
osc ilia tor without using the PLL circuit of Fig. J, Myiar 
capacitors should be used in fa). The .007 capacitors are 

paralleled M05 and .002 mF units. 



driven directly from the 
speaker output of the receiver 
being used. Fig. 3(b) shows 
just a rectifier circuit driving 
the LED optoisoiator. This 
ultrasimple circuit can be 
used when the receiver has 
adequate selectivity and it is 
only desired to key the 
NE555 oscillator. The opto- 
isoiator approach in the fore- 
going circuits may seem a bit 
elaborate for a simple switch- 



ing function. However^ they 
allow versatility in keying 
various oscillator circuits and 
if purchased in untested lots 
can be very economical. The 
pin arrangement of most 
types is as shown in Fig. L 
One can locate the basic ele- 
ments with a VOM and use a 
1-5 V battery with a scries 
47 f2 resistor to see that 
switching action takes place 
when the LED is activated. ■ 



We have DenTron's New ML A- 12 



• II 



The M LA- 1200 is a compact KW designed to ffll the gap 
between your barefoot transceiver or transmitter and a 
full power 2 KW amplifier. A single 8875 external-anode 
ceramic metal triode, (the same revolutionary tubes that 
power the M LA 2500) yields r200 Watts PEP SSB and 
1000 Watts DC CW with as little as 70 Watts drive. (An 
automatic swamping circuit prevents damage to the final 
if more than 100 Watts drive is applied to the M LA 1200.) 
There are scores of features common to both the MLA- 
1200 and IVILA'2500, like forced-air cooling, all-steel 
chassis construction with tight fitting black wrinkle fin- 
ish cabinetry, a plug-in PC board for metering, ALC, 
and mandatory warm-up timing. The IVILA-1200 is the 
same size as our Super Tuner (just 10" W x 6%" H x 10'' D), and weighs only 10 pounds! Twin 
outboard power supplies are available for AC or DC operation, with the lVtLA-1200's low filament 
current drain characteristics allowing for standard 6 foot cabling between units. Both supplies 
are constructed of high quality, high current components, and are designed for a lifetime of 
trouble-free operation. 




MLA-1200 S399.50 
AC1200 - SI 59.50 DC 1200 - SI 99 50 



80 thru 10 meters 

1 200 Watts PEP input on SSB 

1000 Watts DC input on CW, RTTY, or SSTV 

Forced Air Cooling System 



AC or DC Outboard Power Supplies (AC-1200, 

DC'1200) 

EIMAC 8875 external-anode ceramic/metal triode 

operating m grounded grid 



W17 




COMMUNICATIONS DIVISION 
1320 Grand Ave. San Marcos, CA. 
(714) 744-0728 92069 



wl 



153 



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trim, 

MODEL CM^IQ Li||htweTght, dual receiver 
magnetic headphone f similar to Model 
C^IO)^ Ceramic boom microphone with -Si 
dB output. Can be u$ed wittt any mobile or 
base station with high 2 mic Input and 3.2 
to 20 ohm audio output* Price: $42.80. 

MODEL CM-T320 Deluxe dual receiver 
dynamic headphone with audtometric-type 
headphone elements (simrlar to Model 
C'1320K Ceramic boom microphone witti 
-51 dO output. For use with any mobile or 
base statton requiring high impedance mic 
mput and 3.2 to 20 ohm audio Output, 
Price: $68.30, 

MODEL CM'1210 Rugged, reiiablep dual 
receiver dynamic headphone (similar to 
Model C 1210). Ceramic boom microphone 
with -61 dB output. For use with any 
mobile or base station with high ^ Input and 
3,2 to 20 ohm audio output. Priced $56.90. 

MODEL CM I320S Deluxe single receiver 
dynamic headphone with audiometric-eype 
headphone element (similar to Model 
C-1320), Ceramic boom microphone with 
-51 dB output. For use with any mobile or 
base statton requirmg high impedance mic 
input and 3^2 to 20 ohm audio output. 
Price: S54.50. 



MDDEL 


C-GID 


SWLStO 


C1Z10 


CI 320 


CM GIB 


CM1Z10 


cm 1 320 


Pi f3203 


HesdphDne Sensitivity 
Rel 0002 Dvies/cm^ 
@lmW input. IkHz 


lD3dBSPL 
±5dB 


i03dB5Pi 


I03de SPL 
J^dB i 


lOSdSSPL 
±5dB 


J03riBSPl 
±5dB 


103tlBSPt 
iSdB 


] 05dB SPl 
±Sde 


iDSdBSPK 


Hfiariphone Frequency 
Response! useable! 


40 

15,000 H^ 


40- 
15,000 H2 


20 
20,000 Hz 


20' 

20.000 Ht 


4D- i 
16,1300 H^ 


20 
20.000 Hz 


20 
20.00D Hz 


20 
20,000 Hi 


HBadphone 
Impedance 


32 
20 ohms 


2000 ^hm 


32 
20 otims 


3 2. 
20 ahm$ 


32' ' 
20 ofims 


32 

20 ohms 


3 2- 
20 Q\m% 


3 2^ 
20 Dhms 


Mic/ophone 

FffquencY 






' i 


" 


50- 
B0Q0I& 


SO 


50 
BfflKlHi 


50 ] 

BOOClKz 

I 


Microphone 
Impedance 


— 


— 


— 


- 


High 


High 


H»gh 


Hk^f] 


Miaophone 

Sensitivity 
Below 1 vali/mEcrohai 

ar IkHi 




1 






-5ldB 


-SldB 
£5dB 


-Bide 
^dB 


SidB 
*6dB 


Cord 


B' 


&■ 


W 


5" 


f2 4mj 


B' 


B' 


B^ 


Plug 


2S0 dta 


250 d.3 


2SD' dta 


250'^ dia 


unter- 
mmated 


unrer 
minared 


unrer 
^ m mated 


unter 
minated 


Gross Weight 


B0; 
I227gi 


fl Of 


12 01. 

f341g| 


15 01 
142Bi]| 


12 DZ 


l^Qi 


IB at 

(511 gl 


12 02. 
I341g] 


Caiilog Nunilier 


&1G30 06:3 


fi!63Q062 


$1210031 


61320-012 


G1B30 064 


Giaoo^sa 


G 1320013 


6132(MI1S 



Tufts Radio Electrofiscs • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395^280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



SST T-1 RANDOM WIRE ANTENNA TUNER 




AU band operation (I €0-10 meters) with 
most any rafidom length wire. 200 Watt 
power capability, tdeal for portable or home 
operation. A must for Field Day. Size: 2 x 
4-1/4 X 2'3/S. Built-in neon tune-up indica* 
tor. Guaranteed for 90 diiys. Compa<;t ^ 
easy to use. Only $29.95. 




talk 

power 

by 





ASTATIC 
MICROPHONES 



SILVER EAGLE - $69.95 

T4JG8-D104, transistorized $48.60 

T-UG9-D104, "Golden Eagle," tran.sbtorized $9^.40 
T-UG9-D104, "Silver Eagle/' transistorized . $69.96 
UG -01041 ceramic or cryfitul •«. * , ^ *.«,,, . $42.60 



Model 
200 V 



CES Touch Tonfl Pads 

Model 200 V — acoustic coupling. $49,95 
'Model 210 — for mounting on walkies or 
iand4ields. $39.95 

♦Model 220 — CES ean now offer yoti 3 
OUCH TONE back for Standard Commyn- 
stions hand-held radios. This is the com- 
letB back assembly with the TOUCH 
ONE encoder mounted and ready to plug 
ito the private charrnel connector. Aiso 
icluded is 3 LED tone generator indicator 
nd an eKtefnal tone deviation adjustment. 
*59.95 



for an Economy Price? 

THAT'S RIGHT! 

introducing the ECONOLINE 



Moci»l (fiput Okitnut Tvpl-CiH Fraquvnuv Pric* 

702 5-30W 60-90W 10 In/70 OiJl i43 14gMHe SlS^.CD 
^02& l^W GOSOM 1ln/70out 143 149 MHr $169.00 

Now get TPl, COMMUNICATIONS 
quality and reliabtlity At an economy 
price. Th« new Econo-Line gives you 
everything that you've come to expect 
from TPL at a feet cost reductfon. The 
latest mechanical and electronic construc- 
tion techniques combine to make the 
Econo-LJne your best ampiifier value- 
Unique broad band crrcuitry requkes no 
tuning throughout the entire 2'meter band 
and adjacent MARS channels. See these 
great new additions to the TPL COMMUN- 
ICATIONS product line at your favorite 
amateur radio dealer. 

For prices and specHications please write 
for our Amateur Products Summary! FCC 
type accepted power amplifiers al^o avail- 
able. Please calf or write for a copy of 
TPL's Commercial Products Summary, 






FT- 101 E TRANSCEIVER 



FT 301 

FP301 DIG 
FP 301 
FP301 CID 
FRG 7 
QTR 24 
FT lOt-E 
160 10M 
FT 101EE 
160-10M 
FT- 101 EX 
16EH0M 

FU 2100B 

FTV 65QB 

FTV-250 

FV'IOIB 

SP-101B 

SP-101FB 

YO-100 

YD 944 

FA'9 

MMB^I 

RFP-102 

XF30C 

FR-101S 

SOLID STATE 

FR 101 DIG 

SOLID STATE 

FT 301 S 

FT 3*1 S 



teOM-lOM Trarvsceivaf - 200VyPEP $769 
160M 10M TrafT&ceivar - 200 WPEP 935 
AC Power Supply 125 

AC PS, w/Clock and CW ID 209 

GeR«ral Cow. Synthesized Receivw 299 
Yaesu World Clock 30 



XCVR W/Processor 

XCVR W/O Proce^or 

XGVR W/O Processor 
AC Only, Lest Mike 
Linear Amplifier 
6M Transverier 
2M Transverter 
Exvrnai VFQ 
3pe;frkflr 
Speaker/Pdtctl 
Monitor Scope 
Dynafnic Base Mika 
CooJIng Fan 
Mobile Mount 
RF Speech Prcscessor 
^00 Hi CW FlU«f 

160 2M/SW RCVB 

160 2M/SW RCVR 
160-10M40WPEP 
leO-lOlW WWfEp Digital 



729 

64 9 



589 

3d9 

199 

199 

109 

22 

59 

199 

29 

1^ 

19 

79 

40 

489 
765 



$43.95 
Kit 



SLINKY! 

A LOT of antenna in a LITTLE spaco 
N0W Slinky® dipoie* with helical 
loading radiates a good signal at 1/10 
wavetength long] 

'potent ffA JM3SJ2(f 




^ WPl 



11 



-% iin;«4a:HitifH 



tmmt tlwtt [mi 






urwm.i Euiii 



J) 





«fe£iK<u mm*im urn 




tm. * iM 1 11 



•1 grtf P«ngth from 24 to 70 i««l « no vttri tulun or rr invnqlcA 
n««d«d • poriatil*— erccii ft xtorsm in ftiinuiiat * small 
ftirouOhlDtitinarticorapdrtnipnl • fuJiiB^aipuwef • law 5WR 
qvff complat* 60 .' 75 , JO . i yo merer tiands ■ muc n lowef aimtj. 
sph«rlc noiaa pickup ttian « v«rttcal and Hands no fadtaJs ■ \u\ 
indudtn a p«ir qI ip*eiiilly»-fiiMKto Annch tfa. itf 4*knct^ l4ni 
C04», conldinifig 33S tmil of r»di4ting, con4u[;(Qf b*lun. 50 H 

u«l • rw m uHJi by US Dmpt ot SfalK U^$ A/m)i, rMM^ ichoolt. 
f)AL« tnou4«nd]i gt Kama th« f*orW ow 



Accea^jriei: 
FC-6 
FC2 
FM-1 



6M Convarter 
2M Converter 
FM Oetectof 
Aun/S\N Crystals 
AM-Wfde Filter 
600 Hz CW FiltBf 
FM Filter 
Speaker 



XF30B 

XF 30C 

XF 30D 

SP 1016 

FL101 

SOLID STATE 160^1 OM 

TRANSMITTER 

Accessories: 

RFP-101 RF Speech Processor 

MONITOR/TEST EQUIPMENT 



24 

25 
20 
5 
40 
40 
49 
22 



&2B 
79 



VC 500 J 

YC&OOS 

VC500E 

YO'IDO 

YP 1 SO 
YC'SOI 

VHF FM Si SSB 

FT-620B 
FT-221 
Accessories: 
MMB-4 



BOO MHz no PPMI 

Counter 249 

SOO MHz (1 PPM) 

Counter 399 

500 MHz 10.02 PPW) 

Counter 537 

Monitor Scope !99 

Dummy Load/ Watt Meter 69 
Digital' Readout 
M01/401 series) 169 

TRANSCEIVERS 
6M AM/CW^SSB 365 

2M AM/FM/CW/SSB 629 



Mctbtte Mount 
(FT-620a, FT-221 > 





19 




Name. 



Calf 



Radio Electronics 



209 Mystic Avenue , 
Medford MA 02155 
(617) 395-8280 

REE Gift With 
Everi) Order! 



Address. 
City 



State 



Order; 



Zip 



D Check enclosed !- Visa ci Master Charge ^ American Express 



Credit card ^- 
Signature 



Interbank # 



Card expiration date 



Dealer Programs 
NOW A vai fable 



Master Charge 

American Express 

Visa 

Prices FOB Medford 
MA. MA residents ^dd 5% 
sales tax. Mintmum $3.00 
for shipping 8c handliiiQ on 
all orders. 



Dealer programs 
NOWavailablel 



Tufts Radio Efectronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 



Ttrfts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenm • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 



HRM RRDIO/ 




COMMUNICnTIONS 



IS 



MODEL 
12V4 
600 
102 

612 

107 
12HfVI4 



THOMSON-CSF 



NPC 



ELECTRONICS 



NETIfllCS 

$19.9B 
S20.50 
S24.95 
$27.95 
$28.95 
$29.95 



103R 

•13HM4 

104R 

12/115 

108RA 

108RM 

109R 



$39.95 
$41.95 
$49.95 
S69.95 
S79.95 
S99.95 
$149.95 




At SOT AwMlafala n 
13 KM 4 with bur^-in 
lauds p«ahflr, 

Output Vatlagfr 
Conmnuous Current 



MODELISHM^ 



NPC 3,6 Amp n9if^Ut*4i Po^Bf Supply. 
BoHni StMtm Siioft Circuit ProT«CT«d- 



Low cost regjlaled power EUppFy 
quiotly ccnv^S 115 VqKs AC tQ 
13^ vails DC ' 200 mi I li volts 
1 ^ amps cooiinuttus, 2 5 imfis 
reg \tks)Sltf jWiled for BfWfiting 
mobile CB tfajisctivers in ytiuT 
home or omce base slatKiii 



yypiCAu 

13.S i.liVDC 
1 5 Amp 
£^5 Amp 
SmVftMS 



14V DC 



to mv ntfS 



c*m y mi ■ *' <wi » 51*' m snipiN^ MM9M $ itH 



MODEL 107 



NPC 4 AFnU Power 
Supply. 6 Anifi Mac 
Sol^d Sut«. Overica;! 
Pri>t«c(«| 




RmctKm siieaUy in 



115 vtim AC Id 12 velt$ DC 

or or radio kPi « tkone o dict- 



4 



Oulpul ValT^gp (Fyll Loadl- 
Ftdqriiig Cfip^ciilpr 



4 Amp 

1C V max 

12 Vmin 
ta.OOO LiF 
.IV RMS 




fy 



NPC 




iitciir ■ 

ROWER SURRLY 



HOPE I 1ICI4 

fon c p 
i<T& "vMLCiri t woe I a amp. aeo 



I 




M0DB.ia3 



NPC 4 Amp Regulati 
Powuer Supplv. 
SQhd Stdt*. Dual 
Oi^««lO>a4 Protection, 



Convens 11& voJIe AC !□ 13.6 voUs DC f 200 mUlivoHs HamJtes 
amps CQnil(iLiqu5.3n(f 4 amps majc. idtaf^y stilled ioi applicati^ 
wtiere no hiuir and DC s^b^lity ve tmpaflarvt such as C8 transmit 
small Ham radio tansmtter^ .avid lugti ipjalify e^-lFKlt cv st^ 
C^ ilsa b# usflS la ihcUt-ctafec 1 £ wft car tnOBriK 



OuiputvoKig« 
tii^Loid n«Qij(«lion 
tipple/ Nofite 

TranslflnL F^esponna 
tutrenS Cont^nijous 
Cumnl Umur 
CVfiWH FoKlb&cJi 



TrpfCAL MaximijkI 

20 mV SOnnV 

?QuSec 

f,S Amp 

4 AfTip 

1 Amp I 

COlt £»h4poir^) weagm 4 ti»i 







MODEL lOBRM 

NPC 12 Arrtp RAtQul^teti 

Pow«r Supfslv- 

Solid Suit*. 

3 Wav Frotactwl. 

Currtnt fiAmm- 



This tie«vv duty unit qufet(y Cdnverts ITS volts AC to 13.6 volts DC 
-i:20D FTillhvfhMg. G jiitips dQn!liriiji3-ij&, 12 amps max. All .soJid stais, 
Features dual currsnl overload aod ovefVoUape prolect^Dn Idoiiilv 
suited lor op«>faiinQ mobile Ham r^io ? meicr AM-FU^^B iraio- 
CEtVffS in fom bome ft otfici. Cati ahfi be osed tn thd^e-dynpfe f ? 



Linc/loAd. RegulnAii^ 
Rippla/NoisD 
Trat^aififit Rs'Sponta 

C urrent C Q rtlinuQilt 
CkirFefit Limit 
Curranlf Oldbatt 
OvsfWQiuiQC' ProActiwi 



TVPIC*!. 

13 G r 2VPC 

2 mV R1^S 
S*0 uSec 
It Amp 
12 Amp 
2 5AjmEi 
I4.SV 



CAsiF 4*- fH J * Tl*-^ (Wl ■ 5H' ( D\ ^np&m^ WMQM: » 5 tb* 

ALSO A V At L ABLE AS MODEL IQHRA 
WrThfOUT METER AND OVERVOLTAGE 
PROTECTION, 



MAXIVUM 

1S.6 i ?voc 
SOmV 

S-rnVRMS 



ISiV 



MODEL 109R 

NPC 35 Amp Re^F^lfid Poi^t^r Sup^ply^ d-Wvv ^rpttcTad. 
Output Vottag* and Current Matift. 

£jiTghegyy-dutyijniiiquiefly tJW i »wU tBiMttiAClo 13.6 vote OC ^209 
mihivodis 1Q amps conrinuom 2S amps max Ml solfd stale Ffitures 
dual curreni Dverloacf, overvoltagt vid iheitnai o^oiection Idleally Sidteti 

Inr DpBT^tmg inol3i1« HarnrariiDarKli linear amplifier m yoijj horriB w office 
Excellent inench power suppiy lev lestngi >LniJ servjcii>g or mobJlB commj- 
ni cations QquipitiBnt, 

3VDC 



OidputVoMaqe 
Lifie/ii!Md~ 
Ripfrtft Noii« 
Trart£i«nt fiBsponiv 
CuTtBnr Oontiniiai/s 
Cutrqnl Limil 



13.6 

50 mv 
5mVnMS 
20uS«c 
ID Amp 

?6 Atnp 
K,5V 



MA:^iMUM 
)3 G ; 3V0C 

lOmVFlMS 



1SV 




t>fl1^WE» «IUi>f>LV 



Case: 4H' tHj k 3" (Wl n BW (Of, Stiipprn^ Waight if (tu. 



MODEL i04R 

NPC & AiTip Pdw^r Supply 
RvQuiated. 
SoUd Stats. Dual 
OvtirlOdd Protactton. 

Convtrts 1^15 votts AC 10 13 6 vo^ 
DC j.200 miltivaEts, Haivaies 4 
irr^ps coFitBuous ami S amfs max. 
Ideally suited lot ip^icsnom. w0mt 
15 mponamt. sudi a^ Ci irBnsmissiati, small H^m 
liigh qLailtv i^ighl -track car stereos. Cart t» used Co 
car battBTl»s>. 

t3.6 :!! 2 VOC 13J :t 3 VOC 

n SQ mV SO h^V 

Z mV RMS 5 iriV R1«S 

4 Amp 
% AlTtp 
a Amp 

( W J X 6 ' r' • ^ D> S h ippmg We^gtil ■ 9 lb?. 




excelletil DC staliility 

radio transmitter, and 
trickte^chjifp 12 vcjii 

Output V^lifltg* 
UfK/Lowi Ae^iifha 
Fttppie/I4at» 

CumKtt Cdi'tlinuOta 
CufTvm Lirrui 
Ci^rtefll Foldtjact^ 

dsbe; 3'.t"(Hi«5V" 



■ • =i 



iZV4 




NPC t. 75 Amp 
Fo^H«f S*jpp*v. 

3 Amp Max. 

Functicfis silently In converl- 

ing 115 volts AC i^ 12 volts 

OC Idifsily suited lor masl 

applicahofts bncMt'nu B-lrack stereo, burglar alann. car r»^ a 

cassfttc tape play« miim pofwer i^tn^ 

1 79 Amp 
16 V mu 
1^ V mjn 
5,000 «F 
.4 V HMS 
Ttrormal Br^mk 

(01 Sttippiiig VMnflm: 3 is». 



Oni^lplll VattBa? fito L&td) 
Output V F^n Lcuidi 

Flllenng wufirti-iiQ-f 
ftippJe jFlllt Uslad} 
^horlCtrcuil Prolectiun 

CftM-yim*'i' jW) tiv 




MODEL 102 

NPC 2.5 Amp 
Pov^tr Supply. 
4 Amp Man. Sdlkl Sllit 
Ov«ric»it Pfoiatfed. 

IFuWions silently ifi (aiOvef 

rng Wh vol Is AG Id 12 .vol 

DC. 2.& amp^ conllniious, 4 amps max Enables anvonfr lo enjoy C 

insulbQr ca/ B-irack cartridge, cassflte lape plsyej' or car radio In a Iiiut 

or office 

Continuous Current ll^uii Load). 
Output V04t*g« (Na Law3i» 
Ow^HA VoHBoc I Fun i. o«d} 
rUkJiMigiCipacitor 
l^pplfr {Full Uoad) 
SliDi^ Circuit PratQctlon 



2.5 Amp' 
lAVmn 

S.OO&WiF 



Cass: 3"(H] k 4^'" |W) x 5^" (D) Stripping WeiQnh 4 Ibi. 




A General Multi -purpose V-O^^s 

• Drop B^sistant 
•Hami Site 

• Model 310V^O-M 

• Type 3 



1. Drop^resistant, hand-size V-O-M with high^impact thermofttetic 



Deafer Prpgrams 
NOW Available 



2. 20,000 Ohms per volt DC and 5.000 Ohms per voJt AC: diode 
overload protection with fused Rxl Ohms range. 

3, Single ran^e switch; direct rflading AC Amp ran^ to facilitate 
clampH^n AC Ammeter usage, 

RANGES 
DC Volts: 0-3-1 2-60-300, 1.200 (20.000 Ohms per Volt). 



AC Volts: 0-3-1 2^0-300-1,200 (5.000 Ohms per Volt). 

OhfTts: 0-20k-200k-2Mf2-20M 12 (200 Ohm center scale on low 

rangeK 

DC Microamperes; 0-600 at 250 mV. 

DC Milliamperes: 0-6-60-600 at 250 mV, 

AcGuracv: ± 3% DC: ±4% AC; (full scale). 

S<ale Length: 2-1 /a*\ 

Meter: Self -shielded; diode overlaad protected: spring backed jewels. 

Case: Moldedr black, high impact thermoplastic with slide latch 

pover for access to batteries and fuse, 2-3/4" w x 1 -5/16" d x 4-1 /4" 

h. 

Batteries: NED A 15V 220 (U, r^V 91 OF {%): Complete with 42" 

leads, alligatoc clips, batteries and instmction manuaL Shpg. Wt. 2 

lbs. 

Model 310 Cat. No. 3018 • . * ► , • , , , ,,...., $53.00 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617 J 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • {617J 395-8280 




imr 



TEN -TEC 



Dealer Programs 
NOW Avaiiabie 



ARGONAUT 

^00 



AMfLli^lER 
=405 



ARGONAUT, MODEL 509 

Cnvers ah AmatDur bands 1 0-80 rneters. 
9 JWH/ trvsial filter. 2,5 kHz barkdwidth. 1.7 
stiiape f^ciof 1^ 6^50 dS points. Power 
reQuired 121 5 VDC ^ 1 50 mA receive, 800 
iTtA iransTTTft at rated output. ConsTruaion: 
aluminum chassis, lop and I runt panels 
molded plasitc errd piineEs- Cream frofrt 
panel, i^ralnut vmyl lop snd end trim, Si^ei 
HWO 4'v" X 1 3" X T\ Weight 8 lbs. 

LINEAR AMP LI F IE REMODEL 405 

Covert all Amateur bands lO-EO meters. 
SO viAtts output iKxvver, qontinuous fine 



wave. RF vvattmeter. SWR meter. Power 
required 12-15 VDC @ B A, max, Construc- 
tion; ajuminum chassis, top and from panel, 
molded plasnc side panels. &eam from 
panel, nAsJmit vinyl top ^nd &nd trim. Sr^e- 
HWD 4%-* * 7" y K' Weight 2V. lbs. 

Argonaut, Model 509 , . , , , $359.00 
Linear Amplifier, Model 405 . 159.00 
Power Supply, Modal 2S1 

(Will power tioth units} . , 85.00 

Power Supply. Model 210 

(Will power Argonaut onlyli . . 30 .DO 



The new ultra-modern fully solid-state TRITON makes operating easier 
ADrd a lot more bm^ witlioiit the limiiatlona of vacuum hibes. 

For <sm thmg^ yoni can change bands with the flick of a switch and no danger 
of off-reaonance damagi. And no detedomtiqn of pedormance with age. 

But that's not all. A superlative 8-pole i-f filter and less than 2% 
audio distoiiion, transmitting and receiving, makes it the smoothest 
luid deanest signal on the air. 

The TRITON IV ^pedflaitioit& are imp©:cable. For sel€ethit> . aUbiBty and 
fecdver s^mtivity. And it has features such as fuU CW foreek-in^ pfe- 
BclectabJ^ ALC, off-set tuning, separate AC power Hupply, 12 VDC operation, 
perfectly shaped CW wave fotxiit built-in BWR bridge and on and on. 

For new standards of 5SB and CW oommunication. write for full details 
or bilk it qvET with your TEN^TEC dealer. We'd lika to tdl you why "Hiey 



Don't Make 'Em Like They Used To" makes Ham Radio even more fun. 



TRITON IV $699.00 

Model 3^n One^Sixty Converter I 97.00 
Model 244 Digital Readout ^^ 197.00 



Mcxld 345 tyi Filler ....... S25.L. ' 

Model 249 Noise BLnkfir 29.00 

Model 25 2G Powcf Supply 109.00 

Model 262G Pov,^t-r Supply/VOX . . 1 39.00 





TEN-TEC 

TRITON IV 

Digital Mcxld 544 

S869,00 



KR20-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A fine instrument for all-around iiig.h perfor- 
mance electronic keying. Paddle actuation 
force is factory adjusted for rythmic smooth 
keying. Contact adjustments on front. 
Weighting factor factory set for optimum 
amoothness and articiJElation. Over-ride 
"straight key*' conveniently located for 
emphasis. QRS sending or tune-up. Reed 
relay output - Side-tone generator with 
adjustable level, 5ell«com pie ting characters. 
Plug-in circuit board. For 117 VAC, 50-60 
lit. or €-14 VDC, Finished in creAtn and 
wajnut vinyL Price $69. &0 

KR5-A ELECTRONIC KEYER 

Similar to KRliO-A but without side-tone 
o&cjU^tor or AC power supply. Ideal for 
portable, mobile or fixed station. A great 
vttJue that will give years of trflublefree 
service. Housed in an attractive case with 
cream front, walnut ^-inyl lop. For 6-14 
VDC operation. Price $39.50 

KRl-A DELUXE DUAL PADDLE 

PaddJe assembly is that used in the KR50, 
housed in an attractive formed aluminuno 
case. Price SB&.OO 

KR2-A SINGLE LEVER PADDLE 
For keying conventional **TO" or discrete 



cburucter keyers* as used in the KR20-A. 
Price $17.00 

KR50 ELECTRONIC KEYER 

A completely automatic electronic kcyer 
fully adju^ia^^le to your operalmg style and 
pTeference, speed, touch and wcithtingt the 
ratio of the length of dits and dahs to the 
space between them. Self-controlled keyer 
to transmit your thoui^hts clearly, iirticu- 
latelv and almost effortless. The jambie 
(squeeze) feature allows the insertion of dits 
and dahs with perfect tinnng. 

An automatic weighting system provides 
increased character to space ratio at slower 
sp«eds, decreasing as the speed is increased, 
keeping the balance bet-ween smoothness at 
low speeds and easy to copy higher speed. 
High intelligibiJity and rythmic transmission 
is maintained at all speeds^ automaticaUy* 

Memories pro%ided for both dits and 
dahs but either may be defeated by switches 
on the rear panel. Thus, the KR50 may be 
oi^erated an; a full iambic (squeeze) keyer, 
with a single memory or as a conventional 
type keyer. All characters are self-complet- 
ijiB, Price $110.00 

SPECIFICATIONS 

Speed Range: 6*50 w.p.m. 

Weighting Ratio Range; 50% to 150% of 

classical dil length. 



Memories: Dit and dah. Individual defeat 

switches. 
Paddle Actuation Force: 5-50 £ins. 
Power Source: 117VAC. 50*60 Hi. 6*14 

VDC. 
Finish; Cream fronts walnut vinyl top and 

side pane! trim. 
Output: Reed relay* Contact rating 15 VA, 

400 V. max. 
Paddles: Torque drive with ball bearing 

pivot. 
Side-tone; 500 Hz tone* 
Adjustable output to 1 volt. 
Si^e HWD; 'IVit 3c 5Mi*' Jc %W 
Weight; 1** lbs. 



.*» 



ii«r 






KR50 





4 ELEMEMT8EAM • 10-15-20 METERS Price : $239,95 

From one package you receive every component to quickly and easiiy assemble your 
beam, ATB 34's rugged construction, full power handling capability, broad band 
coverage, and four active ^ernenis will give you superior performance on all three bands. 
Our new coaxial traps are very high Q, resulting In esttremcly low ohmic losses sod 
longqr full performance elements. They are ratad for 2KW power handling. Feed is direct 
52 ohm through tha 1-1 baton, supplied at no extra cost. 



■*! 4:= t IK ! c "•« L*J ; 



J 



vnflltTie IMItt AADO 
f 1 W P 






V^CtflCATKMl 






E^ic 1' t-em 




BjltltaB4 



**iq > 



l|AttJ% 






Now You Can Receive The Weak Signals With The ALL NEW 



Model PT-2 it i tonHnuuui tuning 6-1 6U 
mrUr P^-Amp specirtcfllh designed fof 
Use wilh ^ LrjinnceiVf^r, The F1^-2 cojii' 
biiwfi IliF ffjtiiirf>i of I lie well kno^vn PT 
in III twiti frupliiiiticatcd 'folil rul rinridtr^ 
that prrmiti it to be atklrd lo >Trtuall} 
si« l/anficvii»cf with Nu mudifkatiofi. 
Ht^ nrriiiyt ham can he trithiHit uncp 



AMECO 



• tmpravei wneitriiH %bA sgnal-tcHKHK ratio - 

• BiKwis iijffulj: tip I u 26 dh. 

• For AM or S<SB. 

■ Eiypaj3sefl iliiHr automatically if^hpfi llip Iranei^f'iver is tmniiiiiltirig. 
« FKTanipUfipi' ^v^ HJp«rio? rru€« mudiibliim proleclion. 

• Advanced ■erlid-itatr rn'ciiitn , 

• Sini|^ (cj itifrlail. 

« Improv^f immiinjt])- la travuceivn' front^md atertoad by uk of it« huEt-in atlenualor. 

• Provide! niiiRl«r power conlrol for station equipments 



MODEL PT4 



$69.95 



PREAMPLIFIER 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic A\fenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 






Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Med ford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Bi9S% 



The indispensable 

BIRD model 43 

THRULINE^ 
Wattmeter 





Dealer Programs 
NOWAvaitabie 




,r 



Table 1 

STANDARD 
ELEMENTS 
(CATALOG 
NUMBERS) 

MODEL 







Frequenry B< 


indtfMH. 


1} 


Power 
R^riKC- 


2- 


35* 100- 


200- 


400> 


W 


Ml 2S0 


^00 


1000 


S Millt^ 


t 


\f\ ^C 


3D 


Si 


10 watts 




10A M1C 


100 


lot 


2^ watfs 


— 


r.A 2^C 


i^D 


2M 


^0 wms 


^C)H 


M\\ SCJC 


5()D 


50E 


MM] v^aUti 


HX)H 


ini)A \mc 


UK)D 


KKJt 


Z'JOwatis 


J SON 


1M\A 2StlC 


2S0D 


2*iOE 


'(K)vfcati> 


1(X)H 


''.(Via ^IKC 


"><K1D 


SOOI 






ICXJO^ imMJC 


inaio 


lOODE 



2^00 waits 
SDOO wdit^ 



2^ii;)H 
iOODH 



Read RF Watts Directly, m 

0.45-2300 MHz, 1-10,000 watts ±5%, Low Insertion 
VSWR— 1,05. 

Unequalled economy and flexibilitv: Buy only the 
element(s) covering your present frequency and power 
needs, add extra ranges later if your requirements 
expand. 



43 

Elements (Table l) 2-30 MHz 
Elements (Table 1) 25-1000 MHz 

Carrying case for Model 43 & 6 eternents 

Carrying case for 12 elements 

( Specifv^ Type N or S0239 connectors) 



PRICE 

$120 
42 
36 
26 
16 



V 



^^^ ^^ ^fcy^ ^^ ^^ Novice CrvstuN (Specify Ban< 



Novice CrvstiiN (Specify Band Onlyjj 




TWO METERS 



Motorola HT 220 Crystals 



mu. 



i CRYSTALS m STOCK In Stock! 

IStandard • Icom • Heathkit • Ken • Ciegg • Regency • Wilson • VHF 
Eng •Drake •And Others! S4.50 @ Lifetime Guarantee 



Make/Modef 




Xmit Freq. 


Rec. Freq. 




















































VaZAU" BALUN 




THi novtii uuiMi 



k tlHl 



\%im 








ikM 2 !■ Ffr li* Inch t6« In^lvriirf I n la He 
Mv ui sTftiBuu Sim mil tilt *?Dsn i>tKftiE ^i>w nitt# 

l^nAtES CENTER IHSIilATOI MilJiiliniM A^llnn* Pull d Uvtr -(iOQ lb|. 

11!!^ IN uGHTHiMiC liitinR. -iteipt p^iinct Biruii — Could ^lu %wn 

a WH MB If lU 
QL CHHHI 10'IW 
irlP 
Tifr«H*TllU5T... 

BIG SIGNALS PONT JUST HAPP£»i — 

give: ^m^ ANTENMA k BREAK 

tMWl II f Mpllll t 1 HiplLhsi &4 *!- J^ Dhk iiBk^4n(l4 ltM< 4lllt1 b M 

H TS ahp biiiivtd ifid 4 1 ttotfi ■jriiiipt go ir ts Mtm u*lil«ntii 

AVAILABLE AT AU 1.£A[MNfi DEAL IRS IF MtlT, SROEI DIftECT 

tIm bt t^f '"^r el 4wiliTr tti4l he legr ntf 

SfOAlGl M -1 '!» «»»* t* l»i »*» Mil 

Ha »w^f «t i* MW ^m*- '^ ' " 






SERIES 31 — BNC CONNECTORS 

Amphenoi's BNC connectors itre small, lightweight, 
weatherproof coirvnectors with bayonet auction for 
quick disco Qjiect appHlications. 

Shelly, coupling tin^ and male contacts are 



wccutBtcly niAChinefl from brass. Springs are made of 
beryilium copper. All parts in turn are ASTRO- 
plated® to give you connectors that can take 
constant handling^ high tempefatures and resist 
abrasion. 



BNC BULKHEAD RECEP- 
TACL.E 31-221-3&5 UG-1094 

Mates with any BNC plug. 
Ri^ceptacle can be mounted 
into panels up to 104^^ tbick. 
tl.25 

BNC (M) TO UHF (F) ADAP- 
TER 309'2900-a8S UG 255 
Adapts any BNC jack to any 
UHF plug, $3,63 
DOUBLE MATIC ADAPTER 
8 3^877<3fl5 Both coupUng 
rings are free turning- Con- 
nects 2 femaie components, 
$2.72 

JACK ADPATER *1*95 
aT&-l 2-385 Adapts 
83-1SP-385 to Motorola type 
auto antf^nna }ack or pin jack. 
PANEL RECEPTACLE 
S3-IH-3S5 S0239 Mounts 
with 4 fasteners in 21/32** 
diamet«r hole, SI ^17 
PANEL RECEPTACLE 
S3*a7a>3S5 S0239SH Mounts 
in single 21/32'' diameter 
hole. Knurled lock nuts pre^ 
vent turning. $1.&9 
BNC ANGLE ADAPTER 
31-009^385 UG*306 Adapts 
any BNC plug for tigbt angle 
use. $4.23 

BNC TEE ADAPTER 
3} -008-385 UG-274 Adapts 2 
BNC plugs to 31-003-385 or 
other female BNC type rccep- 
tab)e. $4,66 



^^^t 



UG-1094 




UG-273 





83-677-a«5 



STd^lO^-aafi 



BNC(F) TO UHF (M) ADAP^ 
TEH 31-028-385 UG-273 

Adapts any BNC plug to any 
UHF jack. $2. 3a 
PUSH-ON 

83-5SP-385 Features an un- 
threaded^ springy shell to push 
fit on female connectors, 
$2.27 

LIGHTNING ARRESTOR 
575-105-385 Eliminates static 
build-up from antenna. Pro- 
tects your valuable CQulpment 
against U&blning damage* 
$4.80 

BNC PLUG 31-002-385 UG- 
88 Commonly used for com- 
municatlons antenna lead 
cables. For RG 55/U ik EG 
58 /U cables. $1.59 
BNC STRAIGHT ADAPTER 
31-219-385 UG-914 I 9/32" 
iong« allows length of cables to 
be joined- Mates with BNC 
plugs. $2,12 

BNC PANEL RECEPTACLE 
31-003-385 UG-29Q Mounts 
with 4 fasteners in 29/64" 
diameter hole. $1-74 




PL-259 ... 90(/ 
UG-175 (Adapt- 
er for RG 581) ) 

w m 9- mm- "J If 



S0239 



AMECO 



ALL BAND PREAMPLIFIER 





V% 



UG-290 




S0239SH 



UG-30S 




UG-274 



83-5SP-385 




UG*2&5 



57&-105-385 





UG-aa 



UG-914 



• 6 THRU 160 MEIERS 

• TWO MODELS AVAILABLE 

• RECOMMENDED FOR 
RECEIVER USE ONLY 

- INCLUDES POWER SUPPLY 

MODEL PLF employs a dua. 
gate FET providing noise fig 
ores of k5 to 3*4 db., de- 
pending upon the band. The 
weak signal performance o1 
most receivers as well as image 
and spurious rejection arc 
greatly improved. Overail gain 
is in excess oF 20 db« Panel 
eor^tains switching that trans- 
fers the antenna directly tc 
the receiver or to the Preamp. 
Model PLF IITV AC, 60 Hz. 
Wired & Tested $44.00 

Model PCLPUses 

nuvistor , , , . , S44.0Q 



Tutts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (6171 395^280 



Tufts Radio Elecuonjcs • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 

it: 




Now Ws Crystal Clear 



Ves, now ICOM helps you stuer clear of all the hassles of channfil crvstals. The iii?iw 
IC'22S Is (he samir surprtsing^ radio yt>u've come tq Mnn^Vi' and love as th(> tC'22A, 
rKCept thai ll i;S totally crystiiJ ind«peiKl«iL Zmttt crystal*., SoJtd ^tate cngiiieering 
mobiles you lo prograni 2J chacinelfi of your choice wlthouf uaitmg. No«' the 
ICOM performiince vfHj've demanded comes wHU iht tonvenimcc you've ftantedt 
with youT new IC^22$. PrJC&: S^9M0 




Hold it! 



Take- h«ld (»r ^B with thf^ 
two low cod twins, ICOM^S new portahl*? IC-SCKt and IC-503 put it withm 
^-our reach wh«feir«r jwu are, You can uke it wtih .vo« to the hi H top, die 
highwaytt. or the beach. Thr«f pnnahk watts PEP on two metefw w ^txl 

It* llo, DX! The ICOM quality and exc^slknt recpjvi^rchiiriiuteriKtiL'jsorthiifi 
p^iir makf bulky imnverters and luw band rigs unniieiwfliiry (or ^^attinig 
btarled in SSB-VHF Yeju juat udd vcnir Iiaear ump. ifyoiui wish, roiinect to 
Lijt" antenna, and DX! With the 202 yoy fnay fjilk thmui;h OSCAH VI and 
VII' Even transwive Willi an "qp^ r^ctnving cniiVert^r' The tC-SDS, ^imi- 
l^frij, makes use of si i nn^teri in w^ys that ymj would have uJwavs liked by $ 
oouid never hoine before. In fact* there are so many things la try. ii a Like 
upening a now band. 

Take hold orSinf le Side; Band. TaJte hold ofHDniL" excilumnnt. Tukt^ two. 







A<Mr SZS9M 






K 

WPO'Firn 



-kA 



«■ 




IC 245 Transceiver 

The VFO Revolution goes mobile with the unique, ICOM developed 
LSI synthesizer with 4 dig ft LED readout. The IC-245 offers the 
mOft for mobilB on tti^a mgrket. Th£ ^a^V to use tuning knob moves 
accurately over 50 detent steps and as:surei excellent control as 
easily as steering the vehicle. With its optional adapter, the IC-245 
puis you into all mode operation on 12V DC power witti a compact 
dash-mounted transceiver. In FM* the synthesizer command fre- 
quency is displayed in B kHz steps from 146 to 148 MHz, and with 
the side band adapter the step rata drops to 100 Hz from 144 to 
146 MH2« For maximum repeater f lexibililVr tine tran$mft and 
receive frequencies sre independently pro^ammabie on ar^y separa- 
tion. The IC-24S even comes equipped with a multiple pin Moiex 
connector for ramote control. The IC-245 is a product of the 
revolution in VFO design, from its new style front panel, to its 
excellent mechanical rigidity and Large Scale Integrated Circuitry. 
Yoiif IC'245 win give you the most for mobile. $499,00 




THE NEW ICOM 4 MEG, MULTI-MODE, 2 METER RADIO - IC 
211 

ICOM introduces ttie first of a great new wave of amateur radtos, 
with new styling^ ne<w versatility, ne^ integration of functions. 
You've never before laid eyes on a radio like the iC-21 1, but you'll 
recognize what you^ve got when you first turn the single-knob 
frequency control on this compact new modeL The IC-21 1 is fully 
synthesized in 100 Hz or 5 kHz steps, wfth dual tracking, optically 
coupled VFOs displayed by seven-segment LED readouts^ providing 
any aplit. The IC'211 rolls through 4 megahertz as easily as a 
breaker through the surf. With its unique ICOM developed LSI 
synthesirer, the IC-21 1 is now the best "do everything*' radio for 2 
meters, with FM. USB, LS6 and CW operation. $749.00 



Now ICOM Introduces 15 Channels of FMto Go? 

The New 10-215: the FM Grabber 

ThiE Is ICOlVTft fiist FM ponable, and ll puts gcKid times on th« 90^ 
Chiin^f v^'hk'Ei?^, wii\k rhroujjh the^ [larlt, rlimb « hill, and ICOM qualify 
FM communlraliun* go right along with ytm. Long la«;t[n^ inU'irnal 
bAneries make portable FM jenH^- pornWr. whik actzessjbk leaftiies. 
nuke cuHwiwoii to extrmaJ pmMr and anieaaa fict «nd ea«^. 

Giali iDf Oemlt^lic^ with ibe tttw 1021S FM porubW. 



• Ff oni nifHintt'd coiutioli afirf iop 

« N^nwfikaU^KHi— coBfwUble 

» lS<;b.nii9U|l2«i«d/3p«i«fty« 

■ Fully codepiittile MtHtimM 

« CampAllbtf niDunl (qiAtUce fof diKible 
anteniui 

• DuAl pswfrtS vMCi» hkgh / 400 miv kiw. 

• U3h!*^iSii( 




^~ 



■41* M 

tamm 



o-o- 



WMic^m 



pFiEK S229M 



VliUi '\rm IC'tl-l^ inap'i iuj.ni|i»«i wirh- 5 pii|i|il>i ihjinn^b, bi^iidhrU mk, "lit* pi iiti.t.lin c 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 




model 333 
durnmv lo^d 
wattmeter 

Fivofitf LigtiTwEJght Portable -2&0 WATT BAT1NG- 

Atr Cooled 
Id^t fteUi sef vies unit tor mob tic 2'i«iv fadiD— Cfl. msfine. 
busiiicis^ band, Best for QRP arruitaur use, CB, with zero lo 

5 walls tuH scale low power range, 
a tpccificatiom 

EIC ta 300 MHi 

Lastlwi 13 1 to230MHt 
250 wMtE tntw fBittwil 
-5 . 0-60, 0- 1 2S , O- 2^ 
S0239 

4"nr- ■«'■ 

2111*. 



Ft HqutAtry Rm14« 

Fomm Rwif* 
Wjittm«ift Rin|g«i 
CannictDf 
fill* 




_iiiOCiit 374 durmmy load wattm«K*r_ 

Top of ttw Ltn»-t500 WATT RATING-Oil Co«lWl 

Our hignesi pctmst combiFi^tton unit. Rated lo IBOO waits 
inpul tin term fiteni). M«ier ranges are individually 
r^librai^d fctr h^ghefi ^curacy; 
■ ipicifi cation I 



FrvqiMncY ^ 
VSWift 




Wnimptar Hingvi 
Input Cann«ctor 






DC 14 300 MHi 

L«i ftiwi 13- 1 to 230 MHt 

15O0 ««n3 DC mtaffnhttfvl. 

0-15, 0- BO, 0-300. D-l&OO 
S0-^3d {hsmwrhultv Hat«tl 
4'3/4" Ri" s 1Q-1/4" 

ssnsno 




BARKER & WILLIAMSON, INC. 





Economv High Powei Load- 1500 WATT RATING 

Oil Cooled 

modtf 384 dymmy load 

Foi ^tigt* powpf rtheti all you need is the load. 



• fp<cificationt 



¥SWR 

Shifipiflg l^cif hi 
PnoB 



[>C m 300 9mn 

l«ii HiHi 1 J:1 w 230 MHj 

l&DO witti ift4*rmftlftrit» 
WurHiinig light* ugnils 
maHiTiiLJin hMT IliHrtd, 

SO 2» ^h#rrTi«1iMHv W»l^( 
*-a^«~ tt3' m 10-1/2" 




Ht^h Power -1000 WATT RATING-CNlCooled 

mpd«l 334A dummy ki»d wattrn«t«r 
Our most paput^ cro-n^Fnaiion umt Handkes ful^ amaieuf 
power. Meter ranges indrvidualW i:aYibraT€d. Can be panel 
mounted. 
a ijHcificAtioni 

Ff«i|i«anc¥ Raftfa 
VSl^R 



Wanmai»r Rin^it 

Ifipul Connv^Of 

Sin 



DC ta 900 MHi 

Las itMn 1 .3-1 ti> 230 MHe 

IQOO ifrJrt^tp CW itttarmittmt. 
Watnrriii iiqKl * M(Fn.ili 
mtxiniUimi haat ^imil, 

0-10. 0-100. 0-^0. 0-1000 

50 239 Ili«i(?wtie^i4lv i^^it^i 
4-3/4- «*■'« 'tO-1M"■ 
t2faa. 

51 74X10 



LITTLE DIPPER 




r 



model 33 '(A 

tmniittor dip mstAr. 

PoriabFe RF spngle g^rkSfator. signal rnonitof, of absorpti 
ivavemeter. Ljghtweighi |1 pOLOid. 6 ounces wtti all ocsi 
bat (erv -cowfireil umt ts Kleai tor lield utr «> i^t 
iranscei ^ert, lunm^ «ntavi9(. etc, Cin a^so be used 
measure capacitv. inductance, c^rcuir Q, and oiher facie 
IridrspenrBalbli^ for ex peri morn ers. iT ts easily the rfti 
varsatjje insti urgent m thy i^i'iop. Continucius cOwGnagR In 
2 MH? to 230 MH/ in seven riir^ges. 
Uitii doniisti oi i transistor tiad RF di^ osallator a 
tOCNmcroam^enp meter circuit, M«t9 c^cu»l uaes 
ungle trona^stor DC amplifier w»th a poientioniefer m t 
emttier circuit lo control mffter sensnivitY. A 3-fX^IJ 
stlide switch connetti the meter prcuil to the osallator \ 
dip rneasurements. So a diode for Bbwrpcion wave'Tiel 
0€!ak measbremenis. or prov^d^ sudi'O modutaiton ol t 
RF iignal 

FrequerKv d«ai Has a (2iit»fdied reference poif^i <or U ar 
banctwfdit^ m^surem^ts. Eachcnil has itsowrt Irequen 
dial There's no conlusion rt^iiti rnyltipJe markings o* sma 
hard -to-read icales, ni^r the reamer of ll^e diak 



a ifHCittatiORi 



2 MNl Id 730 MHx HI f DWf UDptfif 
r«n^)ai by t^ut iTi ttii iHjaii 4)1^1 
2 MK<-4 MHr. 4 MHt^ MHe, 
B MM£-16 MMi. le MH(-32 MHt, 
32 MHi-W MHi. 10 MMi-1 10 Ml- 
1IOMHf-230MH2 



Aceuf*^ 


t3% 


Modylaticin 


MMU Hi. 2511 lo 40% 


P&IWf 


9«ott trarwaiief %MtM^, 
Bursas 21>€ 0^ «]unn(l*nt 


Sica 


7" It 2 1/4^' mZ 172-' 


Stiipping WamNr 
Pticm 


1 Ib.fiai. 






WIDE RANGE ATTENUATOR 




Model 371-1 

Protect your r^ceiwr or convt-rler ff^rn overtaad. o' pii, 
vide step attenuation of low lie ve^ RF ^tgndii ''om si|fB 
qiF'nefators, preamptitiers. or conwe^tE^rs. Seven rockf 
iwjtches provide atter^iuiiit ion trom "I 08 to 61 t^ •» l-dl 
flops. Switches ar« marijed *n dB^ 1 2-35-^ 20 20 S^^n e 
aCtiiat^ swildhes IIN position) givis drttenualion With a! 
switches in OUT posihon. \hei^ a NO insenion losi 
Atfonuaior installi m c^oaxial hne ustnej UHF connectori. 



I specif iatioru 

r^B w u Ca g a c tv 

VSWR 

Inipfidjncii 

St** 

SliHplhni Waiffal 

ptnea 



1/4 

1 ^: I rntiMtnuni. DC to 22S MHt 

50 Dhmt 

1 d&fdB, DC to 60 MHZ 

1 dS.'dB 9 5 dB. DC l& 160 MHt 

OJ tm.tiB ' t dQ, DC 19 225 MHt 

»49jS0 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford (VIA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 




Tufts Radio Electron tcs • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Handle full 200 uiatts • Iow4ow V.S.W,R, •Deliver 3 dB gain and more! •Pick the one that best fits yourneeds: 



"^Lnrsen Kulrod 
Antennas 

MAGNETIC MOUNT 

stays put even at 
lOOmphl 

MM-JM-150 for 144 MHz use] 
MM-JM 220 for 220 MHz use J 




TRUNK UD MOUNT 

No holes and low 
silhouette tool 





Only 
$38.50 



TLM-JM 150for144 MHzuse^ 
TLM-JM^220for 220 MHz use 
TLM-JM^440 for 440 MHz use. 

And T/4 wave antenna for trunk 
and magnetic mount — $18.50 



Only 
$38.50 

cornptete 



ROOF or FENDER MOUNT 
Goes on quick and easy 

in 3/8" or 3/4" with 

fewest parts- 

JM-150-Kfor144MHzuse 
JM^220^K for 220 MHz use 
JM-440*K for 440 MHz use 



A 



Only 
$31.50 



MM-JM-440 for 440 MHz use) complete 

Above antBnnas ali cofTTp/ere with mot/ntrng hardware, cosx^ connector piug^ at fen wrench and complete instructions. 



complete 

And 1/4 wave antenna for roof and 
fender mounts $11 ,50 



I ^n ctirfiEjyv 




SQiKMUtt tfiHch pnimphiief and iiippv fpr |f*HTi^nwia, 



COAXIAL ANTENNA CHANGEOVER RELAY 

377 



Ouput ImfHBlinoi 








lof cOrmp\^Ki^ autOrnotifE BppctiOn on trom FTT v mcnuil 



Model 372 - S27.50 



7 W 



Model 377 -$17.95 




iDdD *irr»CW iTOQO v^i^i 55«l 
L4H lh>fi MS T. OC ia tBO MHi 



UNtVERSALHYSRtD COUPLER II PHONE PATCH 



iTwdtl 3002W «nd •noM M01W. 




Coivvci vow fuion io Thai wmfftit* ^^^uHl Fn« 
i pltlMi^ tftt Itltion to riw ifTW «Fi4 Iflf $1^ ■■ tailMn and 

CH'CM't prQ^itf>^ Idv aF^Ofll^is VQX dl^RlliCNrv e]4 Ifw phor>v 

•nd l^KJ 49rMinls (^«f im^duikltian iwh«f<f the Ia4«4 (vhspiign* 
I! 4/111I A ihi ttH^n <ti«envh9nt l The Convmntp aiM 

w mifli Mhong. Ft dflgnag J 




BARKER A WILLIAMSON, INC. 



Model 359 - $37.50 



Lifit 



Model 300 2W with Compreamp 

- $125.00 




Ha^OQltflMil 



Deafer Programs 
NOW Available 








Tm* nHo^^v 



lO^ tilTWl. 



plnp^BP^ InM^pM 



Model 300 1W without Compreamp 

- $85.00 

— COAXIAL SWITCHES AND ACCESSORIES 

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Modal S92 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics 





There is no substitute for quality, performance, 
or the satisfaction of owning the very best. 

Hence, the incomparable Hy-Gain 3750 Amateur 
transceiver. The 3750 covers all amateur bands 
L8-30 MHz (!60'10 meters). It utilizes advanced 
Phase-Lock-Loop circuitry with dual gate MOS 
FETs at all critical RF amplifier and mixer stages. 
There s a rotating dial for easy band-scanning and an 
electronic frequency counter with digftal readout 
and a memory display that remembers frequencies at 
the flip of a switch. And that's just the beginning. 

Matching speaker unit (3854) and complete 
external VFO (3855) also available. 

See the incomparable Hy-Gain 3750 at your radio 
dealer or write Department MM« There is no substitute. 



209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 

I 





T - . 


1 1 ■ 


* 

■ 



3a&4-$^.9fi 



3760- S1895.00 



3flK - SAmm 



There is no substitute 

v/ ^^■\^Aiiwteur PUdki Systems. 




Deafer Programs 
NOWAvailabfe 



Super 

3-Et«mf nt Tbunderbird 
for 10. 1 5 and 20 MeUrs 
M^Tdrt TUaMk3 — $199.95 

Hy-Qsin » Super 3-etemenl 
ThuTHlcrtrirdfielivers outstanding pefform- 
ance on 10, 15 and 20 meters, The 
TH3Mk3 features seporflte and rnaithed 
Hy-0 traps far each band, and feeds wiih 52 
ohm coast Hy-Gain Beta Match presents 
tapered Impedance for mosl efficient 
3 band mate hlng. and provides DC giround 
U> eUmifiale precipitation stMk. The 
TH3^^JlI deMvef^ m«xifnum F/B rMio. 
and SWR U^s than 1 .5^1 al resonvKt OA 
afl bandft. hs mechankai^' supetiot 
c&nstruciion festures taper swaged skxted 
tubing for easy adjustmcnl and larger 
diameter. Comes equipped with heavy 
tillabie boom-lo-mast clamp, Hy-GaIn 
ferriEe balun Bfi-SS b recommended for 
use with ttie TH3Mk3. 




Electric Bi 

Front-ioi-bacfi ra^ici 
SWH itA resonajice) 

Impedance 
Power ralir^ 



Mechanical 

Longest ckmeriit 
floom lenglh 
Turning radium 
Wmd load A BO MPH 
MoKlmifm wind s^Lo^al 

J'Aast dtarrveier jiccepted 
Surface area 



a7dB 

25dB 
Less than 

13:1 
50 ohms 
MaK legEil 



ttOMhJ 

8dB 
25dB 
L^es$ than 

13:1 
50 ohrm 
Mat legal 



31 r 

24' 

20' 

156 lbs. 

100 MPH 

57 lbs. 

1 V«* to Z^Y 

6,1 &q. H_ 



27' 

15 7' 
1032 
100 MPH 

36lbi 
l'-4''to2^'i' 
4.03 sq. ft 



6-Elemem So per Thimder- 
bird DX fax 10, 15 and 20 

Meters Mcwlel THii DXX 
$2493& Separate HY-Q 

traps, featuring large 
diameter coils that develop 
an exceptionally favorable 
L/C ratio a ad very hi^h Q, 
provide peak pcrfotmance 
on ^ch band whether 
working pbone or CW. 
Exclusive Hy-Gain beta 
Tnatch« lactorr pre tuned, 
io-Sures nuixiinum fiain and 
F/B ratio without com- 
promise. The TH6DXX 
feeds vi/Hh 52 ohm coaxial 
cable II nd delivers less than 
1.5; I SWR on aU bands. 
Mechanically superior con- 
struction features taper 
swaged, slotted tubing for 
easy adjustment itnd re- 
Adjustment, and for larger 
diameter and less wind 
loading. Full circumference 
compression clamps 
replace Sfi If -tapping sheet 
metal screws, Includes 
large diameter, heavy gauge 
aluminum boom, heavy 
cast aluminuna boom-tO' 
mast clamp, and heavy 
gau^e mu chine formed ele- 
n»ent-to4joom brackets, 
Hy-Gs*in*s ferrile balim 
BN-86 is recommended for 
use with the TH6DXX- 




HY-GAlhi'S HVfCOMPARABLE 

HY TOWER 

FOR 80 THRU 10 METERS 

ModtO 18HT 

V Outstanding Omni- Directional Performance 

• Automatic Bund Switching 

* Installs on 4 kq. ft. of r>tal estate 
^Completely Self-Supporting 

By any standard of measurements the Hy-Towci is unqtiee^ 
tionably the finest muki'band vrrticaj antenna system on the 
market today. Virtually indestructible, the Model 18HT 
features automatic band selection on BQ thru 10 meters 
through the use of a unique stub decoupliniE system u^hich 
effectively isolates varioui sections of the antenna so that an 
elei"lrlcal V* wavt^lcngth (ot odd multiple of a Vt wavelength) 
eKJst.^ on all blinds. Fed with 52 ohm coax, it lakes maximum 
Icsial power . » . delivers outsLandin^: performance on aU 
bands. With the addition of a base lojtdin£ coil« it also deUvers 
outstanding performance on 160 meters. Strueturallv, the 
Model 18HT Is built to last a lifetime. Rucged hot-aipped 
galvantT^ed 24 ft* tower requires no gruyea5upports. Top 
roa^ti which extends to a height of ^0 Ft., i* 6061 ST6 tapers 
aluminum. All hafdware is iridite treated to MIL specs^ If 
you^re looking for the epitome in vertical antenna livjitems, 
you^ll want Hy-Towcr. Shpg. Wt.. 96.7 lbs. Order No. 182* 
Price: S279.95 

NEW Special hinged base assembly on Model IfiHT allows 
complete assembly of antenna at i^round kvel . . . permits 
easy raising and lowering of the antenna* 



BROAD BAND DOUBLET BALUN 
for 10 thru SO meters 
Model BN-86 
$15.9^ 

The model BN*86 balun provides optimum balance 
of power to both sides of any doublet and vastly 
improves the transfer of i^nergy from feed line to 
antenna. Power capacity is 1 KW DC. Features 
weatherproof construction and built-in mountinE 
brackets, $15.95 Shpg, Wt. 1 lb- Order No, 242 





o 



MULTl'BAND HY-Q TRAP DOUBLETS 
Hy*Q Traps 

■ Install Horizontally or as Inverted V 

■ Supcr-Streneth Aluminum Clad Wire 

■ Weatherproof Center and End losulaton 

Installed hori/ontally or as an inverted V, Hy-Gain doublets wnth 
Hy-Q traps deliver true half wavelength performance on every 
design frequency. Matched traps, individually preiuned for each 
band feattire large diameter colls that develop an exceptionally 
favorable L/C ratio and very bifth Q performance. Mechanically 
superior solid aluminum trap housings provide maximum protec- 
tion and support to the loading cotL Fed with 52 ohm coaxi 
Hy*Gain doublets employ super-strength aluminum clad single 
strand Steel wire elements that defy deterioration from salt water 
and smoke ... will not stretch . . . withstand hurneane*Uke 
winds, SWR less than 1.5; I on all bands. Strong, lightweight, 
weatherproof center insulators are molded from high impact 
cyolac. Hardware is iridate treated to MIL specs. Heavily serrated 
7-inch end instdators molded from high impact cycolac increase 
leakage path to approximately 12 inchei. 

MODEL 2BDQ for 40 and 80 metein. 100* 10^*' overaU. Takes 

maximum legal power. Shpg. Wt,, 7.5 lbs $49.95 

Order No* 380 

MODEL 5BDQ for 10, 15. 20, 40 and 80 meters. 94' overall. 

Takes maximum power. Shpg, Wt., 12.2 lbs, $79.95 

Order No. 383 



r 




CENTER INSULATOR 
Band Doublets Model CI 



for MuUi^ 



Strong lightweight, weatherpiroof 
Mode) CI is molded from high impact 
cycolac. Hardware is irtdite treated to 



MIL $^pecs* 
Shpg. Wt., 

155 



Accepts ^" or W coaxial- 
0.6 lbs. f 5.95 Order No. 



MULTI-BAND ANTENNA 

Dipole Antenna ^ Model DlV-80 

$13.95 

For 10 thru 80 meters — choice of one band 

A dipole antenna for the individuals who prefer the "do-it*yotir- 
self" flesdbiUty of custom -designing an antenna for your specific 
needs. (Work the fFequenctea you wish in the 10 through 80 
meters bands). 

The DIV-80 features: Dumble Copperweld wire for greater 
strength, Moaley Dipole Connector (DPC-1) for RG-SAJ or 
RG-58/U coax and aU the technical information you wiU need to 
construct your custom designed antenna. 




END INSULATORS for Doublets Model EI 

Rugged 7-inch end itwulators are molded from hi£h impact 
cycolac that is heavily serrated to increase leakage path to 
approximateiy 12 inches. Available in pairs only. Shoe. Wt** 0*4 
lbs. $3.95 Order No. 156 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (6171 395^8280 



WIDE BAND VERTICAL 

for 80-10 Meters 
Hy-GaJn's18AVT/WB 

Tik« the wide band, omni-diT^ctional perTormance 
or Hy-Ctain's fftmflus MAVQ/WB. add 80 nwter 
capabihty pluw extra-heav},' duty constnicticm -and 
you have the iittrivaJ]«d new 18AVT/WB. In other 
words, you hav€ quite an antenna. 

■ Automatic b witching, five band Mpability tsac- 
compliBhed thrttygh the use of three beefed-up 
Hy-Q traps (f^alLLring large diAmetercdils that 
develop an exceptJonaUy favorable UC ratio!. 

■ Top loading ooiL 

• Across-the-band performance with jtiat on« fur- 
nished setting for each band tlO through 40). 

• True 1/4 wave resonance on all bands. 

• SWR of 2:1 or leas at band edges, 

• Radiation pattena has an outstandingly low 
angle whether roof top or ground mounted. 



CONSTRUCTION , , , of extra*heavy 
duty tapered a waged iieamless alumi- 
num tubing with fuU circumference, 
corrosion resistant compression 
clamps at slotted tubing joints. ..ie S4> 
rugged and rigid thai, although the 
antenna is 25' Ln height, it can be 
mounted without guy wires^ uaing a 
12" double grip mast bracket, with 
recessed coax connecter. 

Order No. 386 Price: $97.00 



Th« Versatile Model IdV fc>r 80 thru ID Meters 



lltP Medef IBV h • Iwc^Mlt. ht^lttit c#cwiis vtrtiCBl uimuw iMl trnm be- 
luito^ 10 BSf Ibii4 M ibu tW tmu.it. hy # Hm^pl* ^^matmn^ a£ Lht 
ttw4 pmra «l Hit iMldnim lHi*r la^iKttr VM »illli. St ^Ikm ttm*. ihtm Mi 
ft rmAiMtmr tM «fn«jin]^l7 clAcirnl Ibr DX or local antdct Can^tntcted tit. 

iMritr KlUlt* Jtliflin^Mffl Lklbm^t, IIWM||i«}h^ IXV m4|> hv iriM^IJ^il^ Mf| ■ l|>«7r| 

1^ Inch maal driVvn inVu ihr j^njutid It la iiiIm> mJ-vpLablf Ui mif Mr Liwfr 

mfluntmn Highly pwf in hi f, iKi* Mud rt IftVcftn br^uicrhJy kfni^krtJ dtfwrt to 
un i^^pnill' It'-ri^lh (»r ^ ft UTid ii-Aiii.|y M'tJEE^mbl^Kl fcir flipld dii^'u ijnd rumpini^ 

Or(l*tN£i 193 Piici S33J0O 



ALL NEW 
3-BAND, 
2 ELEMENT 
HY-QUAD 



• Itthra »tt «9[]ui qui lb ttlnolr^c^ 

■ Coifiplrir - rtaihtiif i-lie- la buy 

■ HJfh Mrenall3.l»w wliid I Did 
Tito (lv-4^u»d ffutn Uvl^Ji'n mikri »|l 43|}Kr ^jUadiubtukeli?' Hcrt'i wtiy 
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qmri t4 bair nerjiihinB bpi«jdfr< ii« tiroten u I* 41 tini«tK't*fiiwi4 pouli 
Wilb CycirEif iitiiiitiituri i in- bund I ck-mcni ci^ Pi Lru(i koit *iih iiMlL^tdiiiEI.^ 
TdiDiHT^d rlcmtiilN *f\\h n(i pich 4.1^1 liin I Hy-Quid r«quhrcf cnly aH< Errd li>i<c 
Idf ill Wntt lMnEl« / iildividviJiUy lUhfil UJinmi milclKian Eich blHd Wilh 
Ht-Cim tkciiiinff %ffle» Iwd } \u\\ fcmr el*Hi#Hit (uup* f«t|uirc^ rvu 1 unini 
iiii^. it«{H. Icikding cijib«r talunt i' Imvi duiv MrchiHbfjJ coniirudian o( 
EitDiii: *w*^ iliimiiiiM tnl!^ isi iii (EwnetJ i|WF*dtT^ia-iHHi'in fUmpf / 
filri hmrf^mif JWiMiM beea^roBti daipp tkni liii wd iimMir««u)r 
I ■«' Ml M'' ■ mmtta ' abuHB^ dnwdrd «n Yc^ «■ tft* ««« 



0ftl«rNa244 f^a &|%9S 



SFECIFICATIDNS 






Stapm 



<*t-ndi Had , 



1{» 






Fiif*nf<| sain 



FfBf4«4«C^ rii* 



VukvuiiflSi't 





For 10, 1S, and 20 Meters 
New Hy-Gain Model 12 AVQ 



Completely self-supporting, the Model 12AVQ features Hy-Q traps... 12" double- 
grip mast bracket... taper swaged seamless aJuminuin construction with, full cir* 
cumference compression clamps at tubing joints. It delivers outstanding low angle 
radiation. SWR is 2:1 or less on all bands. Overall height is 13' 6". Shipping weight 
7.2 lbs. Price: $47.00 Order No. 384 



New, improved successor to the world's most popular verticakl 
Hy^ain Modal 14 AVO/WB for 40 10 Meters. 

^Wide band p#rf ormancd with ana sotting (optimum settings for top performanoe fta-nishad) 
• New Hy-Q Traps * New 12" Double-Grip Mast Bracket * Taper Swag^ad Seamier 
Aluminum Construction 

The Model 14AVQi^WB, new improved successor to the world famous Model 14AVQh is a self-Hupporting. 
automMlic band switciiing vertical thai deU vers omm-directional performance on 40 through 10 metera. 
Three separate Hy-Q traps featuring large dJameler coils that develop an exceptionally favorable L/C 
ratio and a very high Q, provtde peak performance by effectively isolating sections of the antenna so 
that a true 1/4 wave resonance exists on all bands Outstiindmgly low angle radiation pattern makes 
DX and other long haul contacts easy Superior mechanical features include aohd aluminum housing 
for traps using air dielectric capacitor. . heavy jjauge taper swaged seamless aluminum radiator, full 

circumference compression ciamps at tubmg Joints that are resistant to corrosion and wear and a 12" 

double-grip mast bracket that insures maximum ngidity whether roof-lop or ground mounted. The 
Model 14AVQ/WB also delivers excellent performance on 80 meters using Hy-Gain Nfodel LC-80Q 
Loading Coil. Overall height is 18 f£jct Shipping weight 3.2 lbs. Unsurpassed portability... outstand- 
ing for permanent installations. Price: S67.Gio Qfder No. 385 

■nrpiCAL i4Ava/wB vswr curves 



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ROOF MOUNTING KIT- Model 14RMQ provides rugged support for Model 14AVQ/WB. 
Order No. 184. Price: $28.95 




Hy-Sain REEl TAPE PORTABLE DIPOLE 
for 10 thru BO Meters Model 18TD 

Tht most portable hifh perfonnancs dipole tver^ 

XH« Ifadel I^TD » fniqiitAlJiaaiayy Lhe most foolprwif hi^ pcrfonRflJice partdbla 
dm^ktfft antAEina syat^m rver develo|Kd JE has prt^v^'ii tnvmltublr tn pi^vidin^ 
rvlJAbk cummumcationi lh vital mtliury and CDmmcririal'BppiicatJDfis through' 
out the world Two staininaa atee! tape», calibrated In meters, txtttrd rrom eithvnr 
ilde or t.hu main hou»mR Up to a toU) dmtanc^ of I2t Fe^t far 3 5 mt operBtion. 
2Jj ft. length]), of poEyprDpylene rope MtlBched to ffath tape ptrrniitj idstallotion 
\xt fpoles, inse*. buildin^^i whatever ia available for fcirmiTLg a dt^uhlel anLeniui nypicbL 
iM/ci^m^nA %n }ive hi|^ tfbtm^ hoofiAf J4 « fr«qmk«fK7 ^ im^ oaovenkm dHart 
etliinloi Ijd meter EiKitfUTviimit£ iin tfaa lapw «*f^— instellauon iwlpnwf Fncb '■lifa 
S3 oimi coax, DrtiTEn cuiatanding pwfai—J B» Ai * pDttabtr or pcnHaftttii iiuKllrtim. 
Mffasurei t'0K5V^x2 iiKba nEtrmebeil Wl^ 4.1 Hib. 
Order Ma. 22S INio: »« je 





Z)b«3?&T- MLA-2500 $799,50 

DeoTron Rad^o has packed aM the 
features a Hnear amplifier should 
have Into thalr new MI-A-2S00. 
Any Warn who worki it c^r\ tell you 
the MLA-250Q really was built to 
make arnatslir radio more fun. 



ALC circuit to prevent overloading 

160 thru 10 meters 

1000 watts DC input on CW, RTTY or 

SSTV Continuous Duty 
Variat>ie forced air cooling system 
Self-contained contiriuous duty power supply 
Two ElMAC 887 5 external anode ceramic/ 
metal triodes operating in grounded grid 
Covers MARS frequencies without modifications 
50 ohm input and output Impedance 
Built-in RF watt meter 
1 1 7 V or 234V AC 50-60 hi 
Third order distortion down at least 30 db 
Frequency range; 

l,8MHz (l.B-2,5) 3.5MHz (3.4-4.6) 
7M HZ (6.0*9,0) 14MHz (ll.0-l6*0j 
21 MHZ (16.0^22.0) 28MH2 (28-0-30.0) 
40 watts drive for 1 KW DC input 
Rack mounting kit availat^le fl9" rack) 
Size: 5Vi" H X 14" W x 14'^ D Wt. 47 lbs. 



*pipo cgommunications 



TROUBLE FREE TOUCH-TONE ENCODER 




POSITIVE TOUCH tK£YSQEPflESS)*MOatLE»HAMDH£LD 
DESK MOUNT m m POTTED PARTS (SERVfCEABLE^ 
MIL. SPEC. COMPONENTS • NO RFI • S£LF CONTAINED 
XTAi COJ>iTROLiEO • lEVEL ADJCJSTABtE FROAI f HONT 



2.S 



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Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 





Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



-C - LINE AMATEUR EQUIPMENT 






Drake R-4C 



Solid State Linear permeabillty^tuned VFO with 1 
kHz dial divisions. Gear driven dyal circular dials. 
High mechanical, electrical and temperature sta- 
bility. 

Covers ham bands with crystals furnished. 
Covers all of 80, 40, 20 and 15 meters, afKi 28.5- 
29-0 MH2 of 10 n>eters. 

Covers t@0 meters with accessory crystal. In 
addition to the ham bands, tunes any fifteen 500 
kHz ranges between 1.5 and 30 MHz. 5.0 to 6.0 
MHz not recommended. Can be used for MARS, 
WWV, CB, Marine and Shortwave broadcasts. 

Superior selectivity: 2 4 kJHz 8-pote fitter pro- 
vided in ssb positions, 8,0 kHz, 6 poie seiectiviiy 
for a-m. Optional 8-pole filters ot 2S. .5* 1.5 an6 
6.0 kHz bandw^dths available. 

Tunable nolch fitter attenuates earners witbm 
passband. 

Smooth and precise passband tuning. 

Transceive capability; may be used to trans- 
ceive with the T-4X, T-4XB or T-4XC Transmitters. 
IHuminated dial shows which PTO is in use. 

Usb. Isb. a-m and cw on alt bands. 

Age Witt) fast attack and two release time$ for 
ssb and a-m or fast release lor break*in ew. Age 
also may be switched off. 

New high efficiency accessory noise blanker 
that operates in all modes. 

Crystal lattice filter in first M prevents cross- 
modylation and desensitization due to strong ad^ 
jaceni Chan net signals. 

Excellent overload and inter modulation char- 
acteristics. 

25 kHz Calibrator permits working closer to 
band edges and segments. 

Scratch resistant epo)<y paint finish. 
Price: S^^.OO 




DRAKE 



COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVERS- 



Power Supplies 

Powtr Suppliti for T-4. T-4K, T-4XB or T»4XC (The Ae-4 
can Ei« hoysed in an MS-4 speaker cabinet^ 

Mode! No. 1501 Drake AC^ SI 20.00 
Model Mo. 1505 Drake 00-4 $t 35 .IX) 




Drake MS-4 

Drski MS-4 Matching Sp««k«r for use wUh R-4, R-4A. 
R-4B and R-4C R^ceiver^ fHas spaca to hou»Q AC'3 
and AC*4 Power Suppiiesl 

Price: S 33,00 




Drake T-4XC 



Sotid State Linear permeability- tuned VFO with 1 
kHz dial divisions. Qear driven dual circular dials^ 
High mechanical, electrical and temperature 
stability. 

Covers ham bands with crystals furnished. 
Covers all of GO, 40, 20 and IS meters, and 28.5- 
29.0 MHz o( 10 meters. 

Covers 1 60 meters w*th accessory crystal Four 
500 kHz ranges in addition to the ham bands plus 
one fixed-frequency range can be switch* 
selected from the front panel. 

Two 8-pole crystal lattice filters for sideband 
selection. 

Transce*ves with the R-4. B-4A. R-4B, R^+C and 
SPft-4 Receivers. Switch on the T-4XC setecfe 
frequency control by receiver or transmitter PTO 
or independently. Illyminated dial shows which 
PTO is in use. 

Usb, Isb, a^m and cw on all bandSn 

Controlled'Carrfer modulatron for a-m is com^ 
patiNe with ssi> linear amplihers 

Automatic transmit- receive switching Sepa- 
rate VOX time-delay adjustments for phone and 
cw. VOX gain rs independent of microphone gain. 

Choice of VOX or PTT. VOX can be disabled by 
front panel switch. 

Adjustable pi network output. 

Transmitting age prevents flat-lopping. 

Meter reads relative output or plate current 
with switch on load controL 

Built-in cw sidetone. 

Spotting function for easy zero-beating. 

Easily adaptable to RTTY, either fsk or afsk. 

Compact size; rugged construction. Scratch 
resistant epoxy paint finish. 

Price: $699 X>0 



Accessories 



DRAKE MICROPHONES 

WiTBd for U90 With Draiifl Iransmitlart and trani»c«variv for 
«4mw push-to-liUior VO)C Typ# ol (>p*rabofii is cfAttnntrwdi by 
thfl VOX i^onlrol atfUfig of Ifit barsfnit^ 



^dj D««l( T; 




D««k Typ« Mode! P*o 7075 

* lyp*: Huvv Oyty C«f amic Desh 
Top • Cstsla; four Fool, 3- 
Conduclor, One Shi old * Output 

|.flv*l: Mmus S4 d@ (Cf tfB ^ 1 

vcillmicrobar) • Fr«{^u«ncy H>- 

piMU»: ^Q-TOOQ Hz * Swltchfng: 

Adapts to •ithflT pu^di-io-l^k or 

^ VOJL prica, $39.00 

HartchHeld Type Mcxlei No 7072 

• T^^a: Coramic, hand hafd • Cabl«^ 
11" Retraclad, S eKtendad, PVC 3 
Cord, 1 sriifldAd. Coi] Cprd * C«t«: 
CycDiac • FIfilfth: Gro-y • Output 
Mrwaii Minuii I9S da |0 dS « 1 voW 
myi^ob^) m Ff*gM4ncv ll«*pOAa«: 
300-3000 Hi • SwiicMng: AH^^ts to 
■tlhar push-ti>ia]lk; o( VOX 

Price: $l9i>0 




Drake SPR4" $699.00 

• Programmable to meet specific 
requirements: SWU Amateur, 
Laboratory, Broadcast, Marine RadlOt 
etc. 

• Direct frequency dialing: ISO^SOOkHz 
plus any 23 500 kHz ranges, 0.5 to 30 
MKz 

• FETcirctiftry, all sofid state 
« Linear dial, 1 kHz readout 

• Band- widths for cw, ssb, «-m with 
buitt^in LC filter 

• Crystals supplied for LW, seven SW, 
and be bands 

• Notch filter 

• Buflt-ln speaker 




Drake DSR-2 -$3200.00 

• Continuous Coverage 
10 kHz to 30 MHz 

• Digital Synthesizer 
Frequency Control 

« Frequency Displayed 
tolOOHt 

• All Solid State 

• A-m, Ssb, Cw, RTTY, Iftb 

• Series Batanced Gate 
Noise Blanker 

• Front End Protection 

« Optional Features Available 
on Special Order 




Drake FS-4 

Digital Synthesizer - $300.00 

Tlie ne^ soltd state Drake FS-4 Synthesoier opens the 
door to A f>#w world ol cdrttinuaus^tunir^ short wave' 
Combines syntttesi zed general coverage flexitH I ity with 
the selectivity, atab^litY, frequency readout an<j feliat)4i- 
«ly ol the Drake R-4C or SPH-4 R^c^ivers. 

* Intwlacea with all R-4 sefi«s receivara ind T-4X turlftp trans- 
mfttara: (n-4, R-4A, R-<a. R-4C, SPfl-4. T-4. T'4X. T4XB and 
T-4XC), wHhout modiiicatlcn. • MHz r«ng9 \^ 991 on FS-'4, wUh 
kHz raadout t^k^n fruim recwver dial • Comptail:* ganarm) 
cowage— ■» rang&trysuli (o ttyy. • T-4/T-4X Hfiat irinvnit- 
tw tranac#v« cm any FS^ trBquartcr. wt««ri ua«d Willi R-4 
Mrtes r«oai¥*rf. > Raodout 1 icHz wth DFMim PTO 

Price; S250JOO 



Tufts Radio Electronics •209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 



Tofts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



6 METER BEAMS 




l-S-6.10 ELiMENTS 

roriD perfomujicc frum ruiffed. fpjl *!**. « meter beuad* 
teiiunt fjMcia^iftaod l4i0lHi1iiivt been cirvtull> vngineeffi^ to 
TV IkvI ppUtd, his^ tork4 jid ^io, COO'S l^^dm to bv^ rw ' 
id bnokd fmppBnnr iwiipemvtt. 

Qomm an .«SS ^i«II ud •Ptmass >t« :i/4" - S/i^ .049 v*il 
9sn|ei« dtTDtne flalih alamlmiin. tiding. The 3 ifid 5 eleiBoil 
VJBP liive J 7/S" - 1 l/4'*b<dORia. The^oDd lOeJettLtifit beams 
iV« I Jk/a" ' 1 I/S" liDDiTtM* All bmdcvla ire heavj i:»uui; 
irmcd ftlumiBtim. Brij^ht llntflhcad plat<!4ubDlli|iireadJuBtBbtD 
ir up to I u^^" tnaat dtt ^J fint\ a clement jind Li" nn £ anet tO 
J4^nip»i1 Iumliiish All mrKlctlii misy be mtmnlA'd fur tiorizchnlfil Of 
srtJrnl iKiJiirlEaLlcni 

■ew rfHlurt'fl Jficludt; iii4jiu«tiii?]e \bn^ demenUi^ kilonau u^dl 
^X£h ■nd buMl-tQ comx llttlitK tor d tract it civm Ih:^. Tb«i« 
e«in» fnv imttdzj pukrkcHl iwj cqppUeet villi iiuLructlooB Fnr 



MfHfal lito 

Turn Ajcliift 
Fiincl, Gtiin 

F;e HiifiiD 



3>rBsrn«ni 

iir 

TSdB 
TQdB 



A50o 

ir 

117" 

rir 

74 tiB 

1 1 lt.li 



iir 
11" 

le ihi 



iir 

13- 
13 dB 




R1NG0 
RANGER 

L for FM 




4,5 dB' - 6 dB" 
Ommdrrectlonaf 

GAIN 

BASE STATION 

ANTENNAS 

FOR 

MAXIMUM 

PERFORMANCE 

AND 

VALUE 



Cmk Cmft ti*a cr«»M<t aiM^ther first bf AiAkmf th« 
woHd'A moat pffpoUr Z meter anteiuu twice as sood. 
The new Rinfxr Rjilt|e«r is developed from tb* buk 
AR-2 with three hAlt wav^ in pliaM and a one eie^lh 
wave mati^hinir stub. Rinn^ Rftrigcr tiivt.^ an extremely 
iow trnflfip of radiation for better Hisrnsii cot^rage. It ia 
tiiiKLtilei Livtr a broud frequency mng« mid perfectly 
matL'ht'd lo 52 ohm coax. 

ARX'2, n7-ie0 MHz, 4 Ibt.. 112" 
ARX^220. ££0-235 MH2. 3 lbs.. 75" 
AftX-4S0, 435-450 MHz, 3 lb»., 3S" 

• IMMvpC* H ™» dlpoit, 

14, vrav* whip UMd b^ E4te lUAdanl taf Runjr 



Work full quietliii; inin mort repeatcra and extend the 
radjui of >^iii- direct cont-acts with ciie new iUnfo 
ftanfsr. 

Vou fRn tip date your jjreaent AR-2 Rii^ijo with thu 
aim pie iirtihtion of thi,H ejctendt. kit, The kit includet^ 
ttie pfiushiiif netwark iind necflssary tlemeTit extensions. 
The only rti edification n refiuir^d ai'e easy t« make «iiw 
slits in the top auction of your antenna. 

ARX'2K CONVERSION KfT 



2 METER 

ANTENNAS 




Willi I'l tr«im ratfjmt ^nmnimimA wA fw^ k> muji, i. »nai 
iD v« i*«i *» «itar PV jJiniwuu riTiii ■ Iff 

AR-4 A^£tt AA-I» 



WifuL jLf«A ri). ft 









]£» iH as 

*r »* jir 



IND' 1:9 dit jt&Lri, 1^3 uhcn r«Hed Uhci F'L £^9 irnnTi^^-tar PH^qfP tTicJudM I 
fcmpjete dip^t iiiiHniblKi nn moLuiilhc li'&oins. lum*4Pi uul ill hardwu*. 

Am-iD 144- IM MHl 10» watti ^^nd kfm IJi «q (t 



Itt 



«jTa]rf f^ I Ii4£rr FH 




r«n> AlfiT-ll fm$M Mdl ■ 

13', Aavrt«Hi IM'AMrsfO^, Dan ivdt» dlT. ««icfcl tS 

Al«7^^ iffl ~ 14t MTU 1£XW WitU, wTn4 >jnim 147 ik| n 

D-VAG1 ITACKING «IT5 VPK jAi?lud«v hjwrtwnlal JiHMijilinpr Nmm^ hii]-n«i», 

(yvTtr thu iinglM nntetmji. 

A14'VFIQ «m|}]*te 4 AJeniEnl lUiTkllije kit 

Allt'VPfC. iiiwpmn 11 i^Bnoil- dacUlMr JQlt 

tt -«- lit alMniad. oon htmHl antjr 



IB Vnr-UHF«ai^ 
al HAO nita ^^nb 



A44»-f AMiO^ll 
1 II5T . IB 5 ihi.. ai- 
*)■ w 



nut, larFH aAd tirti^ 




Giijn.'F/B f»ll© d9 
^ Pnvfrp hmntn 



A14T'IJ 

« ]Jb».., 73- 

I. a] 



A' J 47-4 
44 ', W 

0/iW 

41 

144- 14» 



AB ajv 



A44f-U 

440-4511 



F-FM TWWT 11.4 ^SB CidjB: THH «l«tt]*nlfl mnaoatal piHRFtxatlnn far liW 
^4 eawcn^r* aan Lao caonaita mrUai. ]HilBrl»ll<ft feif m E^averaft f^' 
irart EBill U 4 dfik r B rpxiA » fia. i«M IWCUi HO" wiHcAt m Iba, . teofrnt 
£7 Alub fEedai Halcfa drtMA ilaiiiai tp i*M PUSM cfMoifcsaf^ 

ETB 1 4^ «4 ft. 



JU4I 



lift- tf7 MHl. ia» ^TkUa. 



M/G// PERFORMANCE 
VHP YAGIS 




3/4 , 1-1/4, 2 METiR tf AMS 

TbE Bt:aQii4rE| prcditfqpa n#on ia ■iraiHir VHF/L'III' ronuiiunic*- 
t>cM Cs«b CfUti yagia cnmlilw *» wi perfanHUKe ud reiha- 
blll^ «ilfa flptlnrapi Ai^a Ur «h BTui^fBliay and trnmntint at 
)i3ttrait9« 

LEg1ltw«1|0lt yet rufiEeti, the BiiteaiUB hi¥v a/lfl" O. D. *alW 
Altimfnuni flemefrts with ^/W cvnter 5«ctlcin« mwiotedon h^vy 

duly fornircj bfackttfi. Bcrttfiitt I* re I" and 7/li" Q. D, aluminum 
Eublnp;:. Mu«[ monnta i>f t/i" fcrmetE aluminum havt^ ndjufiUibL* 
u-boltB for up to l-J/2*' 0,D> iTuiEEl^. They tian be mounU*! 
tor iwrtionbil or v^HicAl polArbtation . Cmni^l^U' iniiLndctLDfift 
inctude fktM on 2 metBT FM repfiBter upemiionH 

ffev fnityrw jKtude b Itllvwiict Reddi Mmlcb for dlrecrt 5^ ohiti 
ircraxiAL feed with a saiKiiiTtl PL-££9 fitLlmg^ All elenmits mm 
■t »£ wnT^tcnct^ AJid ttpered for impr^^f^ lMiidv|d4l- 



l&XfeINo 


Al+*7 


AiMIT 


A23ail 


A43D 11 


D^ripticar 


avh 


3m 


114m 


Vn 


£|«nieriU 


7 


tl 


II 


11 


B4KVI1 Ln^liin 


90" 


W" 


mr 


sr^ 


Wfffght 


4 


e 


4 


3 


Fwd Gain 


11 dB 


13 dS 


13iB 


13iil 


F/6 Rfltio 


26 de 


26 dS 


7SdB 


2SdQ 


Fwd lai»t» 










V, pint pi 


4fi 


42 


43 


j; 


SWR # Frpu 


t tC3 1 


1 lo f 


tial 


1 tol 






VHF/UHF BEAMS 
A50 3 $ 3235 
A50-5 49J5 

A50-6 69.95 

A50-10 99 S5 

AMATEUR FM ANT 
A1474 $ 19S5 
A 147-11 2935 
A147-20T 54S5 



A147-22 
A 220-7 
A2201 1 

A449-6 
A449-1 1 
AFM^D 
AFM-24D 



84j95 
21 S5 
27S5 
21.95 
27S5 
59J95 
57S5 



A 144-7 
A144-11 
A430-1 1 

ENNAS 

AFM-44D 
AR-2 

AR-G 

AR-25 

AR-220 

AR^50 

ARX-2 

ARX-2K 

ARX-220 

ARX450 



21^5 

32,95 
24.95 



54S5 
2135 

32S5 
29.95 
21.95 
21.95 
32.95 
13.95 
32.95 
32,95 



20 ENMunt 

FiBiwa KarA*tt 
t40E.) 

FFBfne il HBTtlin 
IfO Et.l 

Virt. f Ql, &f*ck»t 
UOEIJ 



144 HHl. 



DX-130 



DX-1BN 1Z,t»& 



UDMHi 

MaMl 



OK^TS 37JB9 
DXK-240 54Aft 

D^K-2&o ra.ag 



433 HHc. 



Dx4?a 32Ji 
0KK44d 



DK-4BN 1Z.9& 



D^-VPB 9fl& DK-VPB 9fii DJtVPB 9,95 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Aveni^ • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 





why waste watts} 

(SWR1A$25.95) 



9 




SWR-1 guards against powerless 

[f you're not pumping out all the 
power you're paying for, our Utile 
SWR-1 combination power meter 
and SWR bridge will tell you so. You 
read forward and reflected power 
simultaneously- up to 1000 watts RF 
and 1:1 to infinity VSWH at 3.5 to 130 
MHz, 

Got it all tuned up? Keep it that 
way with SWR-1, You can leave it 
right in your antenna circuit. 



® 



j>. 



i 

r 



Q 






ELECTRONICS 




DELUXE 

1A2 TRI SAND 

MOBILt 

ANTENISfA 

• Automali :a]!v Ji1ju^t«i |o 
prupjJt r^sorant.'ir ft>r ZU. 40 
and 75 mcten. 

• Power ntfed at SOO Want 

■ lad:ujiei base icctioii, jui o- 
mitiicoij ind whip top wtc- 
lion 74 Z Anlcnnji 

Price: $109,S5 




tXCLUSlVi 

DE.LUKE 

5 BAND MOBILE 

45 ANTENNA 

* All hanil TnanuiiL ttwiuhinK 
untennu lur 10 1"^ 30, 40 
and 75 DickTS. 

• Power rated at tO(K) Walti 
Pt-P 

mubikcoil imJ $jx focii wbip 
tofii sfiTTiun 45 Anirniia 

Price: $119,95 



JMR /VIOBIL-&1R' 

Two-wayTadio headset with superior fidelity 
Electret-Capacitor boom microphone anc 

palm^held talk switch 



S69.95 



SWAN METERS HELP YOU 
GET IT ALLTOCETHER 

Tliese wattmeters tell you wtiat's going on. 

Witti one of these J n- line wartmet^f^ powef readings' For wtiatiever purpose 

vou Ti imow If voo re gening n an weve got me wanmet^ fof you. uw 

together an me time Need nign ac- voyr Swan crefftt card ApcNlcaCifxis 

curacy^ High p{>wer handl tng'' Peaij at vtMJ r dea ler or wrtre to us 








m*ttr wttn muicis Scd>«^ 
to WOQ wsm Hew ftai- 
resoome {UnciUMtM couo- 
\er for maidmufn accuracy 



WMSDOO PcakTcadlnq 
wattmeter Ream fiMS 
powcf then with ttie nvk 
of a (witth. True peak 
pcnMfif Of vouf Ungi^ 
siOeOanci sigrtat mat s 
whsrcaumsonssB 



WM1S00 Hig^Accuracy in- 
urw Mfattmeter lO* fulf 
icaie accuracy on 5, 5C 
500 ano 1500 watt scaler 
? to M MHi FOrwaro afXJ 
r^ftecteo power u^ ii 
fpr trguQle Bhoptintg too 

S74i5 



ELECTRONICS 








SWAN LINEAR AMPLlFtERS A Mark II 2000 
\siitt. P.E.P. full legal input power unit or the 
1200X ma I chine Cygnet 1200 watt P.E,P. input 
pf^u'erbouse with buiit-in power supply^ The choice 
is yoius. $849.95 



NEW Swan MUBX 
Mobile Impedance Matcher 

It keeps your trmnstnitl^ and your 
^peaMng terms tor a sonft. Price: $23.9 

CYGHET 1200X PORTABLE 
LINEAR AMPLIKIER 

To quadruple the o^Jitput ot the 3nOB Cyenet d*? 
novo, dimply udd this tnaLchmg unit for mari' ih^n 
a kilowatt of power. Complete with &« If -contained 
power supph' and provision for external ALC this 
Cygnet offers exception^liv high elficiencv and 
lineariiy. $34 99 5 

Addifionaf Swan product* inchtde: fixed and mobih tsntentuis. VFO's Wicphone patch, 
VOX. wattmeter, mwrophone^ and mounting kits. As another pxtra sen^ice, only Swan 
Electronics offers factory -bached financing io the amateur mdio community. Visit an 
autharhed Swan Electronics dealer for complete detaih 




@ 



ELECTROHliCS 




/vraoa 



Vm-trnt^ 0#«" C:a*ii*<N ■ 



FOR BROADCAST^UALTTY TRANS- 
MISSKIN AND RECEPTION PQK BOTTl 
MOBILE UNITS AND BASE STATIDNa 

« Booin -mounted «»lec tret -capacitor piicro- 
phone detfivrs studio -quality. undiiStorted 
voice reproduclion. Variable gain control 
lets you adjust for optimum modulation. 

■ Cushioned earcup lets you monitor in 
privacy - no iipcaker blare to disturb 
others. Biocks out envjironmental noi^it^ 
loo. Made of unbreaJtable ABS plaatic. 

• Headband self-adlnfitE for corafortable 
weaf over lone bou», Springftex hin^e 
let* you slip headset on and off with 
juit one hand. Reversible for right or left 
ear. 

• Headset Can be hung on standard micro- 
phone clip. 

• Compact palm-held talk switch Irts you 
Iceep bath handi on the whe<irl for $aftr 
drivinfc. Made of unbreakable ABS pla$tic. 

■ Buili'in FET tranEistor iim^plirier adapts 
microphone output lo any iranficeiver 
hnpedBnee. 

•Compatible witii most two-way tadioa in^ 
cludinf! 4ti-chmnnel CB units. 

• Buiii-in Velcro pad for #Aiy mounting of 
the taJk switch^ 

• Madf' \n U.S.A. 

SPECIFIC ATI UNS 

Earphone imped&nc? 

And type: d ohfn$, dynainic 

Microphone type: Electret capacitoi 

Microphone frequency 

response. 200-6000 Hz 

Amplifier type: FET tran&istor^ 

variable gain 

Amplifier battery- 7 volt Mallory 
power: TR-175 

Switchings Relay or electronic 

IDEAL FOR EVERY TWO-WAY RADIO 
COMMUNICATIONS NEED . . 

CB opi«rator& • Amateur radio operators • 
Polict find fire irehicl^^ • Ambulances and 
ernergency vehicles • Taxis and truckers • 
Marin? pleasure and work boats • Con- 
struction and demolition crews ■ Industri- 
al communjcattohE» ■ Security patrole • 
Airport tower and ground crews • Re- 
mote bfoadca&t tind TV-camera crt-w^ • 
Foresters and fire - watch units ■ 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Ra dio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Mecfford MA 02155 • {617} 395-8280 



A new precision clock which tells time anywhere in the world at a 
glance, has been announced by Yaesu Electronics Corporation. The time in 
any principal city or time zone can be simuhaneously coordinated with 
local time on a 24 hour basis. After the initial setting, as the clock runs, a 
Time Zone Hour Disc advances automatically, showing correct time all 
over the world without further adjustment- The clock is especially 
designed to withstand shock and may be hung on a wall or placed on its 
desk mount. The clock will run an entire year on a single 1 .5 volt flashlight 
battery and the mechanism starts as soon as the battery is inserted. It 
measures six inches in diameter by two and one half inches deep. An 
excellent item for the business office, ham radio operator, short wave 
listener, boat owner, and others who want an accurate dependable clock. 

Price: S30.00 Amateur net. 




NYE VIKING 

CODE PRACTICE SET 





Nov 114^454-002 
Get the RIGHT START! 
With « NYE VIKIfStG Code Practicje Set you get a sum, jmooth. Speed-X model 
310-001 transmit ting key, a linear circuit osctltatpf and amplifier, Mith abuJll-in 2" 
tf^aker, alt mounted on a heavy duty aluminym base with non-skkj Ceet. Operates on 
standard 9V transistor tvp« battery (not mduditdl. Units can be connected in parallel 
so thai t^vo or more operatofs can practice sef^din^ and receivinf to each other. List 
price, SI 8.50. 



k 



STOP 



TH\EF': 



SAVE YOUR RADIO! 




Fully Air TeitBd - Ttiuuiaruh Already in Uk 

C16 40% Cet^pw INmM uwfi ■niHiM ta tihindl* |lki iott Co^d^r wiri — 
Ralkd Iev bmtimr Ihpn KiB Ifflll |>QWBr ANI/CW ar SSB^^HHll Of (klline^ 
iO ID Ttii Dhm ttmmm - VSWI^ undti 1^ ic I il fnat tei^ti - Sliunl^ 

Si^ hm^ntni ~ Opb(i Pniflf IPBUtnan - Tantfit ^tttmmtttm - M^soA 

■ pA mi - niiMMiMrf 1 yiM - mm tmrnim does 

IT 




Manufacturad & Guaranteed by 

MOFI'GAIN 

2200T South 4th Street 

LMir«fiwoith. Kansas 6604S 

(913} 662 3142 



MOOEL 


ftAMOS 




[Mbtvi;) 


4020 HD 


40/20 


40-10 HD 


40/20/16/10 


80-40 HU 


aO/40 + 16 


75-40 HD 


75^40 


7&4D HD ISPk 


?S/40 


TS^aOHD 


7S/40/:» 


>5-aO HO (SP^ 


75.40/20 


^S-IOHD 


T5/40.-W'T5'TO 


75^10 HD CSPI 


7S.'40^20.t5 10 


BO-TOHD 


60/40/30/ IS/ 10 



£49 &0 

59.60 
B7 50 

6sao 

57 50 
e£BO 
06 set 
74 10 
74 SO 
76 50 



WEiG*4T 
3CA73 

ae/i.oi 

41/1.16 
4QJ■\.^2 
40/1. tS 
44/1. 23 
*4,l^3 
4&/t.34 
4fi/l.J4 
&D/1.4Q 



LEhtGTi-i 

36; 10.9 
36/10.9 
6S/21.0 
66/20.1 
G&/20 1 
fia/301 
£6/301 
6«^.t 



NO TRAPS"- fSfO COILS- NO STUBS - NO CAPACITORS 

MO R -GAIN HD DIPOLES . , . •On© half the length of convantional 
half-v/Bve dipoles. • Multj-band, Multi-frequoncy* • Maximum effi- 
ciency — no fraps^ JQadinig caits, or stubs. # Fully assetnbied and 
pre-tuned — r*o measuring, no cyttlng. •All weather rated — 1 KW AM. 
2.5 KW CW or PEP SSB. •Proven performance — more than 15,000 
have been delivered, • Pefmit use of the full capatiilities of today's 
S^and xcvrs, •One feedline for operation on all bands, • Lowest 
cost/benefit antenna on the market today* •Fast QSV — no feodline 
switching, • Highest performance for the Novice as well as the 
Ejctra-Class Dp, 

EXCLUSIVE 66 FOOT, 75 THRU 10 METER DIPOLES 

fslOTES 

M All mrodel^ above are furnished with crimp/solder togs, 

S All models can be furnished with a SO-239 fernale coaxial connector 

at additional cost. The SO-239 Ttiates with the standard PL'2S9 male 

coaxial cable connector. To order this factory installed option, add the 

letter 'A' after the modet number* Example: 40-20 HD/A, 

M 75 metar models are factory tuned to resonate at 3950 kHz, (SP) 

models are factory tuned to resonate at 380O kHz. SO meter models are 

factory tuned to resonate at 3S50 kH^< See V5WR curves for other 

resonance data. 




DESIGNED FOR COIVmERCIAL USE UP TO 1000 MHZ. 

The TUFTS SAVE YOUR RADIO bracket c^n save you a 

bundle . . . and a lot of hassle. Why worry aboirt rtg rfpoff? The 
TUFTS SYR bracket mounts quickly and easily in your car and 
makes it possible to snap your rfg out of its bracket when you park 
and put it out of sight. 

The connector system has a special coaxial cable connector 
which Will provide you with a lossless connection right up to 1000 
MHz! No loss! In addition to the quick ooax connector then^ are 
also four power and accessory connections which are made 
automatically when the rig is slid into its bracket . «^ just what you 
need for feeding power and loudspeaker connections to the set. 

This is a rugged bracket and connector system . . , it*U take a 
beatmg. There is a hole on each side of the 1 6 gauge steel plate for a 
padlock in case you want to leave the rig for short periods in its 
bracket. They'll have to rip out the dash to get It . . . and it won't be 
the first time for that. 

With two of these brackets you can bring the mobtfe rig into 
Che house and use it in seconds. On trips you can take an AC supply 
for the rig and use it in your hotel room- Price: $29.95 





m^0 







t1 4-320 O03 - 



Me, 



^ ttDJQ 



1US3-0m 



Hi, tl4-31lMMia 



-^^r\ Na 5SfC-1 SX3.flB 



' $39^ 



KYE VIKING SPEED-X KEYS 

NYE VIKING Standard Speed-X keys feature smooth, adjustable 
be&niags, h^avy^uty silver contacts* and aze mounted on a hea%'y 
oval die cast base with black wrinkle finish. Available with 
standard, or Navy knob, with, or without switch, and with nickeJ 
or brass plated key arm and hardware. 

Pamper yourself with a G old-Plated KYE VIKING KEY! 

Model No. 1 1 4-31 C-004GF has all the smooth action features of 
NYE Speed *X keys in a special **pTesejitBtiDii" model. All 
hardware is heavily gold plated and it is mounted on onv^-tike jet 
black plAStle sub -base. Ust price is $50.00. 



NYE VIKING SQUEEZE KEY 

Extra-long, finger^ fit ting molded paddle with 
adiustable spring tension, adjustable contftcl 
spacing. Knife-edge bearings and extra large, 
gold plated silver contacts! Nickel plated bra^ 
hardware and heavy, die cast base with 
non^kid feel« Base and dust cover blacK 
crackle finished. SSK-1 — $23.45, 
SSK-ICP has heavily chrome-plated base and 
dust cover. List price, $29.95* 

You set a sure, smooth, Speed-X model 
310-001 transmitting key, linear circuit oscillator and amplifier, with a 
buUHn 2" speaker, all mounted on a heavy duty aluminum base with 
nan-$kid feet, Opf^rates on standard 9V transistor type battery (not 
included). List price, $18.50. 

PHONE PATCH Model No. 250-46-1 measures 6-1/2'* wide, 2-1/4'* 
high and 2-7/8'' deep. List price, S36.50. Model 2&0-46-3, designed for 
use with transceivers iiaving a built4n speaker, has its own built-in 2'* x 
6" 2 watt speaker, Mea^ur^s 6-1/2" wide, 2-1 /4'' high and 2-7/8" deep. 
List prJce^ $44,50_ 



COPE PRACTICE SET 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Med ford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • IWedford MA 02155 » (617) 395>8280 






Gain (ov^i isoteopic 



• ModeJ TA*33 

• 3 Elements 

• 10.1 db Forwud 
source) 

• 20 db Front-to-B»ck Ratio 

Tlie Mosley TA-33, ^-element beam provides 
ouistanding lO^ 15 and 20 meter perfor- 
mance. Exceptioiially broadband — gives 
excellent results over full Ham bandwidth. 
Incoirpo rating Mosley Famous Ttap-JVI aster 
traps. Power Rating — 2KW P.EJ', SSB. The 
TA'33 may also be used on 40 meters with 
TA-40KE cDtLversion . Complete wiih hard- 
ware. £206.50 

MlTLTl-BAKD BEAMS 

TRAP MASTER 33 < - . 10, 15 it 20 Met«is 

• ModelTA-33Jr. 

• 3 Elements 

• 10.1 db Forward 
source) 

• 20 db Front-to-Bsick Ratio 

The TA-Ii3Jr . . . incorporates Mosley Trap- 
Master Junior traps. This is tiie tow power 
brother of tbe TA'33. Power Ratine — 1 KW 
P.E,P, SSa, Slal.Sd 



Gain (over isotropic 




TA*3 3JR. POWER CONVERSION KIT 
MODEL MPK-3 

Ovmers of tlie Moslry Trap-Master TA*33Jr. 
may obtain higher power without buying an 
entirely new antenna. The addition of the 
MPK*3 (power conversion kit) converts the 
TA-33Jr, into essentiitlly a new antenna wkh 
750 watt*; AM/CW and 2000 watts P.E.P. 
SSB, $52,26 




TRAP MASTER 36 . , , 10« 15 4c 20 Meters 

•Model TA-ae 

• 6 Elements 

• Forward Gain (over Isotropic flonrce) - lO.l 
db on 15 £e 20 meters, 11*1 db on 10 
meters^. 

Front-to-Back Ratio on all bands. 20 db. 
This wide-spaced , six element eonfigiar action 
employs 4 operating elements on 10 meters, 3 
operatine ejeraenis on 16 meters, and 3 
operating elements on 20 meters. Automatie 
bands witching: is adcomplt^hed through 
Mosley e)cclusi\^ly d.esigned high impedance 
parallel resonant "Trap Circuit/' The TA-3{) is 
designed for 1000 watts AM/CW or 2000 
watts P*E*P. SSB. Traps are weather and dirt 
proof, offering frequency stability under all 
weather conditions. $335^25 




MOSLEY AK-60 MAST PLATE ADAPTER 
Mast Plate Adapter for adapting your Mosley 
l*^.<i" mounted beam to fit 2" OD mast. 
Complete with angle and hardwari>. $11.16 




A hrilliant new 2 meter transceiver 

with ewr> innhwand operating 

ftaUirf and ctinvi^niLiitre 

KLM MULTI'2700 - $69555 

* Synthesizer and VFO. 

* AU modes; NBFM. WBFIVt, Aft/I» 
SSB wv/USB/LSB and CW. 

• Frequency synthesiier (PLL> 

3 Knob, 600 channel*, 1 kH2 steps, 

• VXO, plus or minus 7 kHz. 

* LED readout on synthesizer, 

• Standard 600 kHz splits plus * , , 

• Two ^'oddball" splits. 

* OSCAR t ranges I ve 2 to 10 meter operation. 

• OSCAR receiver built-in. 

• Connectors on re or for sepgrate 2 



meter and 10 meter antennas. 

• Built-in VFO (continuous coverage, 
744-148 MHz in 1.3 MHz segmenTs. 1 
kHz readout). 

• 3 pole SSB filter plus two FM 
fitters. 

• 100 kHz crystal calibrator. 

• Voice operated relay tVOX) or 
p-t-i. 

'^ Audio speech compression. 

• Noiie btankdr* 

• n IT, plus or minus 5 kHz* 

• Power out/'*S" meter. 

• FM center deviation meter* 

• low minimum output power. NO 
TUNINGI 

• Hi-Lo power proviston* 

• Built-in AC/ DC power supply . 

• Double conversion receiver. 16.9 
MH2 and 455 kHz 1-Fs. 

• Receiver sensitivitvi 

FMi 0,5/iV tor 2S dB S/fSj, 
SSS/CWr 0.26^ for 14 dB S/N. 
AM: 2/iVfor lOdBS/N. 

• Si/e: Inches: 5H, l4.8aW. 12D. 
MM: T2SH, 37SW. 305D. 

• weight: 28 Ibi. (13 KGh 




Dealer Programs 

NOW Available 



CLA5SIC-33 ... 10, 15 4 20 Meiers 
Mod^l CL-33 

• 3 Elements 

• 10,1 db Forward Gain (over isotropii: 
snviree) on all bands. 

• 20 db Front-io-Back Ratio on 15 & 20 
meter St 15 db on 10 meters. 

BRIDGING THE GAP ,,, The Clasac 33, 
eom bines ttie best of two Mosley systems. 
In CO rpo rating Mosley Classic Feed System for 
ji ** Balanced Capacttive Matching:'' system 
with a feed point impedance of 52 abms at 
T&so nance, and the Famous Mosley Trap* 
Master Traps for "weather-proof* traps with 
resonant frequency stability. This extra 
Sturdy multi^band beam^ Model CL^SS^ for 
operation on 10, 15 & 20 meters features 
improved boom to element clam ping « stainless 
steel hardware, balanced radiation and a 
lon£er boom for even wider element spacing. 
Ponrer Rating — 2 KW P.EP. SSB, Recom- 
mended mast size --2^ CD. Wind Load — 120 
lbs. at 80 MPH. Approve, shipping weight — 45 
lbi£. $232.50 




CLASSlC-203 ... 20 Meters 
Model CL-203 
3 Elements 

• lO.l db Forward Gain (over iJiotropic 
source) 

• 20 db Front -to -Back Ratio 
Incorpomting the MosJey patented Cla^ic 
Feed Sy^em. this full size 20 meter single- 
band beam has \W^ to 3/8" dia, ^'swaged'* 
elements wide spaced on a 2*^ dia. 24* boom. 
Maximum element tength-37* 8W*. The high 
standards in quality construction established 
by Mosiey in over a qtiarter -century of manu- 
facturing tg reflected in this mono-band . . . 
Mod«l CL-203. Boom^to^mast clamping 
assures stability with a tlirne- tested arrange- 
ment of mast plate, cast aluminum clamping 
blocks and StaUiiie^ steel U -bolts. The e 3^ elu- 
sive "Balanced Capacilive Matching'' System 
has a nominal feed point impedance of 52 
Ohms at 2 KW P.E.P. SSB. Recommended 
rnast U7j^2''* O.D. Approx, shipping wt: 42 
lbs. via truck* $227.65 




CI,ASSIC-36 , . . 10« 15 & 20 Meters 
Model CL>36 

• 6 Elements 

• 10.] db Forward Gain (over isotropic 
source) on 15 & 20 meters, 11.1 db on 10 
meters* 

• 20 db Front-to-Back Ratio on all bands. 
The Classic 3G^ like the smaller Classte 33, 
incorporates both the Mosiey World^Famous 
Trdp-Master Traps and the Mosiey Classic 
Feed*Systcm* Designed to operate on 10, 15 
tk 20 meters, this multi-band beam Model 
CXi-36, employs the high standards of quality 
construction found in all Mosiey products. 
The hoom-lo-mast clamping assures stability 
with a time'lested iirrangement of maiit plate^ 
cast aluminum clamping blocks and stainless 
steel It -bolts. The exclusive "Balanced Capaci- 
live Matching" system has a feed point 
Impedance of 52 ohms at resoiian.ce* Wind 
Load - 210 J lbs. at 80 MPH. Power Rating 

— 2 KW P,EJ^. SSB. Recommended mast size 

— 2" OD. Approx. shipping weight — 71 lbs. 
via truck. $310.65 




40 METER CONVERSION KIT MODEL TA- 
40KR 

Work 40 meters in addition (o 10, 15 & 20 
meters by using a TA-40KR conversion kit on 
the radiator element of the TA>33 and TA-36. 
(Beams with broad biind capacitive matching 
may not be converted!) Convert the TA*33Jr. 
with the MPK-3 (power conversion kit) before 
adding the TA'40KR kit, $02,25 



SIGN AL*M ASTER ANTENNA 
Beam Antenna , , , Model S^02 for 40 meters 
For a top sienal needed to push through forty 
meter QRM, the Mosiey Signal Master S-402 
will do the trick 1 This 100*^ rust-pioof 
2 element beauty constructed of rugged 
heavy-wall aluminum is designed and engi- 
neered to proiTde the perforrowice you need 
for both OX hunting and relajung in a QEM 
free rag-chewing session. Beam Is fed thft^ugh 
link coupling, resulting in an excellent match 
over the entire bandwidth. $267.50 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystit; Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 ♦ (617) 395 8280 



HemotB 

Motor 
Con tf of ted 



RCS.4 





COAX ANTENNA 

SWITCH 



• Cctfitrd untt wmks on 110/220 
VAC. 50/60 H^. and supplies 
necessapy DC io motor. 

• EJtcellefil for single coax f&dd to 
multib^and quads Of arrays of 
mDnobanderfi. Ttie five posiiians 
allow a single c^ax Teed \o three 
beams and Iwo dipoles, of other 
siinilar cambtnations, 

• Control cable (not supplied) 
same as tor HAM-M rotaior, 

• Selects antennas remol^ly. 
grounds all unused anienf»a£r 
GNO position grounds ad &n- 
tenrias when leaving ^taiion. 
"RQin-Kat" construe rior^ shields 
motqf and switches 

« Motor; 24 VAC. 2 amp. Lubrica- 
hon good ta — 40°F, 

• Switch RF Capability; Maximum 
legal limit. Price: $120.00 



MATCHING NETWaniCS 




MN-4 

200 watts 



Price: $120,00 



MN'2000 

2000 wans PEP 

Price; $250.00 



Qancrat: ■ Inlegrfll WaUmeter ragd» forward pcwef In 
walls and VS^'VJt dirpcily can tje catibTdled to r&ed re- 
f Ice lea pqvjej • Malchfti SO otim Irinimittvr aulput i^ coac 
|Ui|#i\na fe^lif^Ci wriih VSWfl ol ■! Ie«4t 51 • Ce»vfia« haiTi 
bandt 60 thru 10 mtlars * SwHehvt tn or out with fioni 
partftt switch • SfM; S'-i'M. tOH^W, a" D [UC a 27 3 i 
M 3 cm} MM^OOq, 1**m"D f36.S Cffl^ 
• ContintMua Dvtr Outputs MH-A. 3<0Q wans; tm-2000. 
100Q wstis (2O0C wftlli PEFt « IWN-20M ontft lip lo 3 in^ 
laiirta coTrneclofs scFPciedi by UcuM panel s^itctr. 




RF 
WATTMETERS 



W-4 1.8-54 MHz 
WV-4 20-200 MHz 



Price: $79.00 
Price: $39.00 



Reads rorward and reflgclvd power drr^tly In 
waffs (VSW^ trom nomogram}. Two scales in 
oacfi direcijon Slia: S^i"H. 3?i"W. 4"D (14.0 x 
g.£ X 10.2 cm) 

Modal Full Ssjale Calibration Accuracy 

30D watts 15% Qt 'eadmg -I- 5 walls] 
2QQQ wflMi ±(5^D ot reading ■+ 20 watls]^ 

^¥~i ^^ *>fatt» ±i5% ot ffladJng -i- 1 watt ) 
1000 waits lL&% ot reading t 10 walla) 



W-* 




DRAKE 




SSR-1 



COMMUNICATIONS 
RECEIVER 



• Synthesized ■ General Coverage 

• Low Cost • All Solfd Stale • BufIMn AC 
Power Supply • Selectable Sidebands 

• Excellent Performance 

PRiLIWrNAHV SPECIFICATIONS: • CCv* 50Q IiMi to 

30 MHi * frmmt^ncf can b^ re4d acc^. - bvtt&r t^n 

S kK2 • StnulktHf typtcatly 5 mfcroroils tor 10 dB S+Nm 
SSa ana bflUe' than 2 mtcro volts tor 10 <IB S + N/N AM 
* SaleelatMi sidtbandt * lum-hf pcnnr fupply^ 117/234 
VAC ± 20% • It ih« AC powtf »oyrc« faili Ihf Mnii jwftche^ 
automat^caFly to on intern Ht battery pack whicn uses eight 
D-ceHs (no! supplied} • For raduefld currant drain on DC 
operation tha d^alB 4o not light up unless a red pus:h button 
on ihe Iront panel b depre^&eid 

The performance, versatility, a lie and low cost of ttie 
S8H-t matte It ideal tor use is a stand-by iiJinaluLrr or 
novJce-amaltLir receiver, shon wave receiver CB monitor 
feceivef, or Qeneral puipcsia laJioralDry r?oeiv&f 

Pric«; S350.00 



GENEHAL; • AM Kmateur band* W \htiM iO meters m seven 
BOO ftH; tanges • SnUa Slit* VFO «^th 1 hHi dial' ijii^tsionfl 
• btodei SSe Upper arte Lower, CW ftnd AM • Built-in 
Std4tOfi« and automatic T/R switching on CW a 30 tub«« 
and ««mi-corHJuctart « Olmensiont^ 5.'i'*H, to^^'W, 14H" 
D (t4 s ?7 3 K 3S 5 CTin). Wi: 16 lbs. f7.3 K§J 
TRANSMIT: • VOX or PTt on 3SB or AW « Input fower: 
SSB, 300 wsila P-E.P.; AM, 260 walla P.E.P. conTrrjIiod 
CgrrlAf CDm|:>alibte wjlh SSB tine^ars; CW, 2B0 watta m 
AdjufLabIs pt-fietwork, 

FIECEIVE: • Sensitivity theller than It ^V lor 10 dB S^N a 
1^. Seteelivlty 2.t liHx @ 6 dB, 36 kHz @ BO dB m AGC 
fuM on receive nwdftS. vaiiallte Witn R^ ga^n Conirdl. t«st 
attack afid slow vehease Mnth noise pulse suppression # 
Diodv Detector for AM mc nation. 

Price: $799.00 

34^PMB Ptug-in Noise BJanker 
FF-1 Crystal Control Unit . . . 
MMK 3 Mobile Mount 

RV-4C Remote VFO ....... 




TR4CW SIDEBAND TRANSCEIVER 



. . 100.00 
. . . 46.95 

. . . . 7.00 
.$150.00 



POWER SUPPLIES 
AC-4 Power Supply 
DC-4 Power Supply 



$120.00 
. 135,00 



2 METER FM 

PORTABLE TRANSCEIVER 

Model TR-33C 



LINEAR AMPLIFIER 
Model L^B 





Arnateur Net $229,95 
SCPC* Frequency Control 
t2 Channels with Selectable Xmtr Offsets. 
AM FET Froni^end and Crystal Filter for 
Superb Receiver Intermod Rejection , 
Expanded Antenna Choice. 
Low Receiver Battery Drain. 
Traditiona] R, L, Drake Service Backup. 
Single Ct^stal Per Channel, 



L-4B Linear Ampltfiar , » . * . ^ . « . . $995.00 

• 2000 Watts PEP SSB •Class B G rounded- 
Grid - two 3-5 OOZ Tubes * Broad Band 
Tuned- Input • RF Megative Feedback • 
Transmitting AGC * Directional Wattmeter 

* Two Tautband Suspension Meters * L-46 
13-15/16" W, 7-7/8" H, 14-5/16'' D. Wt.: 
32 lbs, • Power Supply 6 3/4" W, 7-7/8" H, 
11" D, Wt.: 43 lbs. 

POWER SUPPLIES 

AC 4 Power Supply - . . , $120.00 

DC 4 Power Supply .......*..,.. 1 35.00 



Touch-n-go with 

DRAKE 1525EM 

Push Button Encoding Mike 




Drake 1525EM, microphone with tone encoder and 

connector for TR^3C, TR 22, TR 22C. ML 2 , $49.95 

• Microphone and auto-paten encoder in single convenient package with coil cord and 
connector. Fully wired and ready for use. 

#Higti docuracy IC tone generator, no frequency adlustments, 

• High rel lability Oigitran® keyboard. 

• Power for tone encoder obtained from transceiver through microphone ^ble. No 
battery rectuired, Low current drain. 

• Low output Impedance allows us© with almost ail transceivers. 

• Four pin microphone plugi directly connects to Drake TR-33C without any modifica- 
tion In transceiver. Compatible with all previous Drake and other 2 meter units with 
niinpr modification** 

• Tone level adjustable. 

• Hang-up hook supplied. 





Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Med ford MA 021 55 • (61 7 J 395-8280 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (6171 395-8280 




For all you hams with little cars .. 

We've got the perfect mobile rig for you, 





T1i# AiUa 210s qt li^x ai£asunH ooJy 
»^' widv It 9^' ^mp x only 3Vk' hlfli. M 
tbt Abcim pbolofri^ ilicniri binir flftfllT Bh 
Aliftt irvwaiwr lite tntD a GdiBp*cl car. 
And tbmB'% cdflnty vi una to tpus for 
VliF t*A^ *°" oihar BCDanDtr aj i ilp m cE rt 
W(tb ^ excJuuvB AlLu plav-lD rt^ligii. 
foo can ^ip your Attai in and ml r 

dr Ift a maUBT of ■nonndB. All ooiuhu* j.^..^ 
alit BlMSe'HiitiBnBtictilly. 

TOT DONT LET THK SMALL SEEE FOOt 

YOl^l 

EvoEi ihougli lh4^ AlhtJi 3IQN and 2t3x Irons- 

c«ivur5 uro t«fl9 ih^n bail iba iuw and 

wstghr of plii^ liF iruosc^m^Tba AtLui 

b truly a ^aal la porf i^miance. 

100 WATT^ PQ^'Ei tATEM^' 
UMa fHPHBf Jffrai m a wcvea pcniad inin^ 
ealiir to^ hmtdiU a' bui true. Aiiai irmis^ 
OBli«ri|$v« yoti an iIm iiiUt pcnroTfatiiaad 
le w«^ Itw ^Forld barflfooi, Siipial r^otti 



conalattilf r^MI ftwi^ surpri« it the Aig- 
nalitreiiith In relation io ihs powtr rating. 

nil. ft lAM] OOVHAGE 
Tll« llOx fxmn t&W iimiHiii whlk tlie 
lli% MJ t Ja 15-100 aafeBL Addlfif tie 
Allfti Mudd IOk Crvitai OioiUtei- pnnuls 
fl«Bth imottued ftw|itfticy oftftnift !« 
MARSaod EMiwDrL oparatiDii. 

NO TlANSMITTEit TUNING QR 
LOADtNG CONTROLS 
with AiIjik' i^i»3 liru^dbandlintf. With ^aur 
AtUifi i'uu get trust nil I QSV wn] btiii4 cJuinge. 

thIQST AOVANCSD SnTATE OF THE AIT 
SOyD STATE DESIGN 
ikit ODif aiocfiiinte far iia iighl tir«i|h]. bttl 
■Milfaa jaa yimn of mp pBrforraanc^ auj 
tfniMe five opaTdi bi| pJeasitrt . 

ruj&m dtcriTT iOAii>$ 

and modulAT chsiffi prwidBft ftsf atao of 




tiCEFTIOr^Al. BfllrailTT TO STV0M3 
n^'AL OVEtLOAI> AND CXOSS MOD- 

IFLATIOK. Tbfl axduffive frtmi nod design 
in 4he racE>iver allows yfw lu ufMra Ifl donr 
kri froquoncy |fi ftircing neighboring aigiidlfl 
ihnti you have ijvnr oxperiancfifl wfore. If 
yuu hiive not pi ope-fated aD Alla^ t^ani- 
cahwr In a crcwtliid banl and cnniparal it 
witli any oihif r rocaifvw or tnnacnvfir, fOQ 
tuti/e 4 mi llinll 




A WOBLD WtDE D£ALE1 iWetWORK TO 
SERVE YOU. 

Wbirtbtir ynu'ra driving a Mmda in Kanaai 
Oty or a MnrcadB Sbib In W«t Gmmaitir. 
ihen'san AllfttdaflWiwariffNj, 



AUHsZlOm w 3I&V 



l«D 



n^f* »Hi bvwt 



AC CosMit 110^30 V ..... 

Fntubif AC lupviv iio/^no V 
nm-isi Muniit Kit . 

10* Obc ie» rryitHli 



tii.oi» 
ai4T^« 

IDOJIO 
59.00 



PliliNOMENAU SELECnvm 
Thu sxdufilvo a pde cryHtal Indder fili^er 
uftttd III A\]m imnMmvGTR reprsianla d 
maiai' breakthroLij^^^h in ftlier {iiMi||[ii, with 
ittiprBcedBnted ikkirf selecliviljr miuJ ul- 
Moialp raiecliqa. Ai tfaeabcrvfi gfa^ iliDiin:. 
tfal* ftHsr paiNidv » 6 dh IwaowiEith of 
3700 tisrta. SO dt) (kiwn of Dn]> 4XO Hertz^ 
wvl ft twDciwidtf) of only 92DD Hff^ #t US 
db dcMv! UUdmata nfoctiK li In wa-m^ «f 
IJH db; sreatar iSian tbe mauunng limits 
df fiidsl le$f -MitiipBHiBL 



far ciomplelf; dntMiiii aee ygur Atbii dualer. 
Of dPDjj as a rjurd and we'll mail ^tm a 
broctuire viith diuler list. 



4^^ ATLAS 

RADIO INC. 





AMATEUR 
ANTENNAS 



"the home of originals" 



SUP£l^ GAIN 



MOeiLES 



^ffivllc 



STANDARD GAIN 
MOBILES 

Tim Mctcfi 



im^ffi ~ 14 A 






MHXl VlLt Itt 

* ^MiiL ttt bom «» i^ii. btfi 

4t|| mint wrptei tprnv ""iS I^ 
yiL ^EC ftG-ii-U *« PL-a» 
Mttniu mncHBtrifl Norn mount 

HOD^L S^Il 141 

4.^ AJilEnna nuDurtli 0** 




52 dbffkn iMHrl/li 

5vtn fli Msonince^i.tii typkii 

Ptivwr rRtlrtf—ZIiD wiltt f M 
nni AHA 111 METIPI- 

TiuaN ur HnuwT 

HQML HTI 



-1« 



CG 




BILT-IM 



t^ 



till;. $Pft fl&SI-U Md 9t& 

MUSTUEH 
-PUCK^USTCH- 




tf4 

feur noynt <9r t pndt t«iKiio«: 

^ HebUet mDtM* ifiOuihtl. 
Wputit cr cabk ncM mElifdHfl 

DELUXE MOBILE MOUNTS 



HPt 



i 



MODtL UHt-1 

Fi-Bid trlmnni^le radiitoi fof 1/4 
wivTA i)[MritkDri an any frfqKMncy 
Fnsffj S4d tu ^HOMHf. Cuttmt^Xiirt 
iflclutMd MfMfnn on 4i4r lltt IW- 
■tct. fusel, -d^ck, r»rK*»r m **' 



IHfT'l 



HOOEt 001-144 

Ctt big npa\ pFfiofTn»nc«T supi^ 
tLor rtceMi^ £A^bJlihr with tnli 
■5i^ C9llne»f irtt*nrv». LiPBy.intitll- 
ttEiDR'Cn fidt (K BEttE al tmnii; l<p 

ir iriJL SPtC flfr*U ind PL-a9 



Ml %' ^ IMM tiL « «t4 



All resonators are t>recisioil wound with 
optimized demgn for each band, .^ssem^ 
bly includes 17-7 PH siaiiiless steel 
adjustable tip rod toi towtfst SWR and 
band edge marker. Cboose for medtuin 
or higb power operation. 

STAND Aft D HUSTLER RESOIVATORS 
Pttwrt f ftatint: 4O0 Wans SSB 



■H 



i) 



Modtl 


Band 


price 


RM-10 


1 mslflfl 


$ 6.50 


RW)-15 


1 5 metofi 


esB 


RIVl-20 


ZOmmafi 


7.30 


RM-40 


40mal:flri 


13.20 


RM-7S 


7^m«tari 


1S.S0 


RM-80 


SOTTifitan 


IS-^ 



SUPER HUSTLER RESONATORS 
Powtf Rjttfin: Lav I Limrt ^B 
Sup^n havi widan liafidhri^tfi 



WODfL ASS-7 





M 



nn 

hsiHL indiltfQn Ein idt 
V miee □< truf4 lid In- 
ciudes. 17 RG-SfMJ ttO- 
iwclcn flIlKPied. 
Prm^ 114461 



Othfm Xr^fPiit Dp maurrt 

iMti for pDHllon^tifl *fi' 
tiftni to VHtKil- £My — 
no hotH '^ imtBliiticin 
Inchidn n Ri^sa^u 

tflKhwI hia: $17.30' 



Ram plllpf mouiH li#t 

lilnl trirn lirw futtirl, 
iTvcludfls 110* IwliTil 



"k 



C«al mounl d^tfalM 4n 
1' hoik. lfi£ig«*« M' 

■wNti mil Mid so-zxi 




Ttiini innn Hmint in 
ttjllt in 4iri!Uffn «t^ Of 
trgg¥T u*idP" lAJrt* I'd 

ciu*id l^icftrSa.OO 




TI^UNK lip MOUNT 

FJBid Cn,rin[nabl« MdlAtor ^nriitj 
qiMrtflr wivi dtMrifWfi sa arry 
fNAMficry fnan 140 tc VJH MHi. 
Cun^nf chat IneJudH Chuv^Ee 

n«ia'. tia Jfi 






HHI 



^od«l 

RM-10S 
RM IBS 
RM-20S 
RM40S 
RM-75S 
FtM-80S 



lOmetan 
1 B mQlarf 
20 rrnjiflirs 
40 metars 
75 motors 
SOfnetert 



Prica 
$t1.30 
17.66 
13.00 
15,50 
30.00 
30.40 




t«TV 



For 6-10-15-20-40-75-80 Meter* 



F«(S 





MusTuen 

MASTS 



Am#1vur¥ 



JTAINLEB5 STEEL pJliU. MQUMT 

raw DECK. fENdin on ^nit 

HdOEi SSM-I 
II 




n«^3 



MQOCL fV-t 




PEID LtNE 






n«l ir«ivn DTiiTi'i^i^rtrt mAiimum 

,n [tin tfiL SMC :9ia l*Fiil-n itf H-S »U 

(■•I* Im ppiiw ^m EMHiKWn at 



WKFDCL&B 

nrt\ mounl irif h«id<M*ft. 
Ptiit. t8i<3II 




vVtlCKl vfW 

^11 4k*-?« Ihrmm fD fit fH»\w Mil 

Fv bMmpar nHunbng— fol^ i» p| mpl' 

liint 27* ibov* b*u ^let t23 QO 
UODCL HO I 

Fur 4tit^ m firtdtt womHina foW «> 

« IH( Mm IS' ^nv tew Pnc« t2ZI» 



I 



Comn 10 IS 20 40 t««U«m 



iu» 



4t A* 

t^tr^|v^^\ lOO M|*^ utiMcit u^ veru 
c«l (Nict* up 19 JH' CJO SOfS? 
e«Ai tiir,nBCt*+ p^,^, iffT.9S 



lpO-1 



UDDIL 4>|TV 

■ u«*ii iWR-^gS 

^ Bindwr^ih IT ill bnudtir^ KWR 
],ft tD 1 !?r t*tlw «l bind *di|ttiL 

■ HmitaP •vcliil.iv« ubp r04^ 
-^Sfv iti" «i}rudid to othCifiH' in- 



■d^uttminr vrFPioiii (fiiTii|t IQ INi 
i-lummum lubinf. 
CuittFiliMd tt\ bt bnl#il H%Mmti\f 
al fDv rnulli'bmd wflleii 

4rtt*nA* Kta %~-H wM 4t Itw i? 




war 



Hirii^tn^ luted 

MODEL 4-tTV 



pn ssa W CW 



'■^1^ A' 



ipftfuul litfAllL Dt ^mt Nininl piTh 
nduJt 

iMlffit 11? ibi 



Tufts Radio Electrotiics « 209 Mystic Avefiue • Medford MA 02155 # (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



SuperAmp 



from Den/zon. 



Match everything front 160 to to 
with the new l6o-lO MAT 




HEV\i: Tht Monitor Tuner wai d^ih^n^d bt- 
caUH af <ivBtwhe\ tTMnq demwTKj, HaiTtS told 
tn ijwy wmlBd ■ 3 kileMntt tun«r willi • 
bu»lt m wmunvar, a front pantl Miivifi« 
^iKtof tot eosx^ baianud Ufw vid jw^anv 
•mkn^ SoMBngnHHwItht l&O-IOntMonttor 
TuiHi. Il't A lifittfTw tffralfflAfti 41 S2S9.50. 



$299.50 






II riit Miipli^cr you'tt ittnl^irq o^ bisytni Etoctn't el«iii«r m iHtt lOOP to IJOO vnatu txilpu^ 

Ouf Now Syfxr Anifi a iwiaei ^na thm eountry becAdt hjfm rii«B rvalind mm t^ DsfiTron 
Afino<Fifp» wih lAtliwif ID tha BittrMii; tsyiput pQWf l, wlwit oiJ>ier matHjficnjrftri rvtr js ^fiput 
poHvr. 

Thi Super Amp furrt • (uTI 2000 i*arti P.E-P- Inpgl on SSB, wrd 1000 woft? OC on CW, WTTY 
Of $S TV 1^-10 itiatflri, the maximum ■■qbI pawar. 

Ttiu SupsF Amp ei <H:hmpi9c^ low pr&ni«, ha& n solid one ptvcg cabinet BiiLirtng mtxtnnum TVI 
ihtildinfi, 

Hh tHBit o1 our amjiAiUm^ i$tt ponvr luppty, is ■ «»Yt]|niJaui dtrty. itif tiontiifMd wpply tuJIt 

W« mownivd tti« 4'S72B^i. imJufetrlal' woilihDna vubma^ in m coaBaq dumhvr featuring tfi* 
OrtHtenviid wiMsta coolmg mtean^ 

Tlw rHim ■! DwiTron pndii llieiiaaJi«s on quiMiy ifork, 4id nii fighi id t«p pncK doMm. ThM^t 
H^f tfw (fyranic DhnTron Lin«ar Am|jikti«r bvats ihtfn ill 





Me^t the 
SuperTuner 



$574^50 

The 80-10 Shsrinateher 

Hfff«'( an antonna lunvf Icir SO |hr<eHjQh ID nwtan, handln ^OD w ?.E.P. and mfctc^?^ yotif 
62 Ohm mnHaHlw to a random 'i^ra anitetiT^. 




~ Corrtinoiaui ttmnf 3^ ^ 30 mc 

- "L" nefwofli 

* C4nnnc T 2 poi4tiOfi rolliry nfrtch 

' SD~^23d racaptional to tranunitfir 

- ftindit^^ wire tui^r 

* 3000 valt copKilor ifuicing 
> Tappeci inductor 

■ Cefamic ant«nnfl Ind thfu 

« 7 ' W. 5" H. e'' D., Wa4#it; S tbi. 



$59.50 



tkeud forward, 
and reflected 

tvatts at the 
same time 



Jmtd at ctmstvnt fwixdhia^ ant pMBanDf It 7 

£ivy i0^Du» Kan hngmt he mull ritad both iurwm^ tnd rwtvrx waiti^t li mutmj toutfy 

tof Ehal ptrtiKI mililii. So vt^flrad^ itnd^ di* [>anTrwi fiZ Ooal m fma Watimttar 



$99.50 



Tha DvnTron Supar TiuMir bins mArything from 1GO-10 m«t«nv Wlwdvir you hsvt 
balanced line, coaji e«bt«, rsi^dom or k^ng wirg, i^ Super Tunar wiH matEh iha antenna 
l^rtipadancff To y^uf trinimittfir. All DtnTron tunarfifrka yi^u rrt^^timuTu [itowtr tttfliimr 
from your tranunltttsr fo v<tur antenna^ and iin't that wh*fa It raaly counti? 



1 nvt MODEL 



$129.50 



3 KW MODEL 



$2Z9.50 



The SIry 
Openers 




SKVM ASTER 

A fully ilav«lDp«d And teir'Hf 77 fool 
^irthcil f^ttnuj oifan PrttiPK 1C, IS, 20, 
and40n1ct<rbii<idi uklnn onl^ «ib cIivb^v 
•ppihfd wivfl trip A lull 1/4 wiv« intinna 
on 2D rTwtBrt. Conrtruet«l eH hkflvy ikkt^ 
Iw #lufninum wliti j f*CTbripi tunatH ami 

tq6t iDf bnm' 



TEIMTENNA 

TKt intanna vour rHtfhbHi will tov*. Tt^a 
II ni»w PanTren Trim-Tenni with 20 nwtir 
I bum ii dfliiipniil lor ihr dJictl<mdn«ttni 
imitiyr wrtH3 wvnti fwilitic pgrfe^nurVH 
in ftn tuvtr Dnnwn ullv 4pii«*lln| bivm. Il'l 
fat#f loatfatfl U^ Irwit Aprv't a 1 3 fcm 
« MA dbvecor whii pi«Hi« itiHai 
JM4L T fH« iMNJid m * If toai 



i 



AAV iMi 9^H* af 



$$4.50 




jUh 80 nt mamtiv tar np nMHimtnt qA 
SKY MASTER. 



$29.50 



tut Tt^BrTiHia md A*i 

4 & fr ri^ wwi d 0«Pi Onr Dqpal*- 



JTlL 



^^ 



SKVCLAW 
A evndta 



Pw ao. 80. 

iKVCLAtt 



m 






ALL SAND DOUSLET 



i 



rmittton luutrt l4ui Iftlt HlfniupfHsrtlna 
unJI ii wHilhirpfCHlf iPHd lurfill>ri ntc«iy 
kn 100 mph wifidi.. Hifidlii fM li|^l 



r hjTUt. 



$79.50 



Thii AJt bmd DiMlAri v invHtod Tvv« 

HI W *«« t» 

Of 130 |«M IM i*. 

F^ alttHNlt^ It' Piiay In nun 
H iiiiiMHrij- Ttklt nifHd Ooutolf t *t nnlv 
f«d thi«kqh 1DID Fitt M aiKi Qhm PVC 
DHtrtll tHlin^HJ trinimliiian L^rM. Thi 
•Mambfir ii OQrikplitt. Add rop* io tN 
•ndi irtd pijill up into poifttun. TLrn€ 
W!lti thi benTtCKn $upit T'yhat inti 
fou'ri Ofii 10 ihroufh >40 fnri^tt winh 
«H ■ntrnn*! Nam ^1 fet tht DvpTti^ 
All SLuud DoiAlaL 



t1^ DuTron EX 1 V«nia( 



$24.50 




Tte EX 1 « 1M «^at HTtKd 



$59.50 






DRAKE TVI FILTERS High Pasa Filters fot TV SeU 

provide Tnott; than 40 dB attenuation at 52 MH^ and lower. 
Protect the TV set froio amateuf tran^rnitt^ra 6-160 metejB. 



Drake TV-30O-HP 

Model No. 160a 

For 300 ohm twin lead 

Price: $10^60 



DRAKE TV-3S0a-Lrr 

1000 watts max. below 30 
MHz. Attenuation better than 
SO dB above 41 MHs;. Helps 
TV i-f interference^ as well as 
TV fiont-end problems. Price: 
$26,60 Model No. 1608 





Drake TV-75-HP 

Model No. 1610 
For 75 ohm TV coaxial 
cable; TV type 
connectors installed 
Prices $13*25 




LOW PASS FILTERS FOR TRANSMITTERS 

have four pi sections for sharp cut off below channel 2, and to 
attenuate bansmitter harmonics falling in any TV channel and 
fm band. 62 ohm. SO-239 connectors built in. 

DRAKE TV^200-LP 
200 watU to 52 MHz. Ideal 
for six meters. For operation 
below six meters* use 

TV-3300-LP or TV-42-LP. 

Model No* 1609 Price: $26.60 

DRAKE TV-42-LF Model No. 1605 

is a four section filter designed with 43.2 MHz cut-off and 

extremely high attenuation in all TV ehanncLs for transmitters 

operating at 30 MHz and lower. Rated 100 watts input. Price: 

$14.60 




Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 





Tufts Radio Efectronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • MedfonJ MA 02155 • (617) 395 8280 

WORK ALL REPEATERS WITH OUR NEW SYNTHESIZER U 

The Synthesizer II is a two meter frequency synthe* 
sizer. Frequency is adjustable in 5 kHz steps from 
140.00 MHz to 149.995 MHz with its digital readout 
thumb wheel switching* Transmit offsets are digitally 

frogrammed on a diode matrix, and can range from 
kHz to 10 MHz, No additional components are 

necessary! 

Kit $169.95 Wired and tested$239.95 




Abo available for 220 MHz! 



RX2SCW7T 
RXSCa Kii . 

RXSOf WfT 
HXi44r Kit 

HXl44t w/r 
KX2lq(. Kit. 

RXZlOt W/T 
KX4J2t Kii. 

RX4^2i" W/T 

TX50 . . . . 
TXSOW/r. - 

TX144B Kit 
TX144B ^TT 
TX220BKil. 



PA2S0LH KU 



PA25onrw/T 

PA4010H Kit - 

I 

PA4010H W/T- 
FAS0/2S Ki( . 

FA50/2S W/T 
PAI44/IS Kit, 



PA 144/15 Kji 
PA220/!S Kif . 
PA4J2/lOKjt 

PAI40/10W/T 
PA140/30W/T 



PSISC Kit 



PSlSCW/T 
PS2SC Kit . 



PS2SCWn" ' ' 
l'S2SM Kit. - - 
PS2SM W/T . , 

RPT50 Kii. . . 

RPT50 

RPT144 Kit - . 

RKTllO Kit . . 

RPT4J2 Kit . . 

RPT144WYT . 

RPT:20\V/T . 

RPT4J2W/T . 
OPLA50 .... 

TRX50 Ki( . . 



THXI44 Kit 
TRX2aO Kit 
TRX432 Kit 

TROl .... 
TRC-2 

SYN n Kit . . 



SYN Jl W/T , 
MO- 1 Kit. . * 
TO' I Kit , . * 



HT t44B Kit 

mcAD. . , . 

DCll . . . . 

Rubber Duck 



piiie 10.7 SiHr LTvitat niter 5 *t9.9S 

\j.[in." jS jb'Wii— wiff^dt 4 iifsttid 104.95 

3O-&0 MH/ rtvf w/2 piik lo "J 

MHj^ I. rK»tJi1 tiller. . 5** <*S 

sjime a* jNiVc-vviftfd & ii*s,ie!vi , - 104 "iS 

14l>170 MHV rivr ^\ [2 ^mW 

iO.7 MH^ cry^tai filler , , h - . (i**,Mf* 

sumt us Ut5iive-wirt?d & leRieii - . I t^M$ 

l\0-74(} MH^ rirvr w/^ poltf 

10*7 MH^ cTvMyl t'illeT ..... 6<*,**5 

Siime itii {ihuvi- ■ wired Jt testijd , , I l"!,'!^ 

4J2 MH/ rcvr ^72 p«»t« 10,7 

MHi vtyvial filler 7V^'*5 

^■ne dl 4»bnvtf .wWd 4 Itf^ted . - 124.^5 

InnsmJTtef etdfer* t w^tt, 6 mtr, J^.95 

lame is ahovcwind 4 levied . - S9,^$ 

trafumiltcf eKciter— 1 wfttl-1 mtrs 19 A% 

same at above— Mrired & tested^ * , 49,95 
triDSTTiilur «ki,£iier- lwi(i-210 

2 mir power aoit -ku [w in— 25w 
out v^'ith jsnJid sijte switching, 

castf, cmmvctnr!; ■ * , , 59.95 

same as above— wired Jt ims ted . , ?4.'^S 
2 mtf power amp— 1 Ow in -40w 

oui-reUy iwitching 59.95 

sam« AS above— wLrii<I 4 tested -, ■?4.95 
6 mtf powtf amp. tw in, 25w ouK 

(•ess caw, connectors Jk iwiicbiJig , 49.9 5 

iidtf! as above, wired &. teiled. - ^9^95 
2 mtr powCT amp— I^ in-ISw 
aut-lc» cas«. ccmnectori And 

swiicbinB . 19.95 

^*me IS PA 144/1 5 Icil bui 25w , - 49.95 

similar tu PA144/L5 for 220 MHz J9.95 
power amp-iimiiar to PA144/15 

except lOvv- and 432 MH? 49.95 

lOw in '-140W out-2 mir limp ., 179.95 

3thv in-l 40uf uut-3 mtr limp , , 159,95 



1 5 am p > • 1 2 V o| t regulate d power su p- 
plir u7^4Sc,w /fold-back current timii- 
ing and overvottftge protection , . 79.95 
^me a$ above -wired & tested . . 94.95 
lSamp-1 2 voir regulated power sup- 
ply w/C4^e.w/f aid- bach current limit- 
ing and ovp ,,..,,.,,,... 129.95 
tame as above -wired & te« ted . . 149. 9S 
same ij PS25C with meters .... 149.95 
Same as above -wired & I Listed . . 169.95 



repeater-ft meter . ......... 465. "rJS 

repeater- 6 meter^ wired &, tested 695^95 

repe:}[ifr~2 mtr- ISw-complele 

(less crystals ) ...... . . 46S.9S 

repeater -2 20 MH^- 1 Sw-cocnplete 

(less cryitali) 4frS.95 

rcpettet^JOwatt— 433 MHi 

[less cry &taU) , . . . _ St 5,9 5 

repeater ' 1 5 watr-3 tnfr . ..... 695.95 

fcpeiter-iS wttt-320 MH** , , . 695.95 
repcjitcr-IOwatt-432 MH*. , . - 749.95 
6 mtr citise spaced duplexer . . , . 57S.0Q 

Complete 6 mtr bM tran$ce|vi?r kit^ 
20w out, IQ ciMiintil si^an with case 
(kss mike and crystal's) , ..,.«. 249^V5 
same as above^ but 2 mtr St 1 Sw oiit2l9.9S 
same as above except for 220 MHz 219.95 
same as above exi!epi 10 wan and 

432MHI 854.9S 

transceiver c«se only .,..,.., 19.95 
transceiver case and acceiaories . . 39.95 

2 mtr synlhesiicr, transm^itt offsets 
prosramitiAble from 100 KHi-10MHi» 
(Mars offsets with optionil 
adapters) ,,...♦,♦,,,.,. 169.95 
same afl above- wired Sl teiled . . 139.9 5 
Mar^/cap afreet optional .«.».. 2.50 
1& MHz optional tripler .*♦♦.. 2.50 



2 mtr, 3w, 4 channels hancl held rec:eiver 
with cryitaU for L46.52 iimpteHL - 129 95 
bsner> paek* 12 VDC. Viamp. , , 29.95 
battery charfei for above ..... SAS 
2 mtr. with male RHCcortnetior . 1.95 



RECEIVERS 




TRANSMITTERS 




POWER AMPLIFIERS 




RXCK . . . 

RF2B Kit . . 
RF50 Kit . . 
Rl: J44D Kit 
Rr22an Kit. 

RF4J2 Kit. . 

if io.lh Kit 

FM455 Kit- ^ 
AS3 Kit . . . 

TX 3 JOB W/T 
TX432» Kil- 
TX4J2BW/T 
TXI50 Kit- - 
TX ISO W/T - 

Blue! Line . . 



Model 

BLB J/JSO 
BLC 1 0/70 
BLC2/70 
BLC 10/150 
BLC JO/1 SO 
BLD 2/60 
BLD 10/60 
BLD 10/120 
BLl£ 10/40 
BLE 2/40 
BLE 30/HO 
BLF I O/HO 



accetsory filter fr>r »bove receiver kits 
^1%'cs 70 J B j^d)avenl cbannel 
re|rr(|ork S,SO 

10 mtr Hi frrmt end 10,7 MHz out 12. SO 
6 mtf Kl from ^nd |0.7 MH? out 12. 50 
2 mir R} front tnd I 0,7 MHi out I 7.50 
220 Mit7 Hi- ffont end tO.7 MHi 

431 MHi RF front end 10,7 MHt 

IjU I ■■^^.^■■■H rai Bfi fcid ^Pi-S'lJ 

10.1 MHz ih module inctudt^ 1 

pule crystal filter , . , . 27,50 

45 S KHf n stage p\M% FM deteclor 17.50 

audio and squelch board, ..... 15^00 



same AS a bvve- wired & tested ■■ 49.95 

iransmtlttfr cJiciter 432 MHf ■ 39.95 

fame a^ Ab'jve -wired i tested ^9.95 

300 milliwatt. 2 ftltf transmitiei i9.95 

Kiime as above -wired & lifstfd .. 29.95 



. RF powe:i Limp, wirt'd 
CW-FM-SSH/AM 

Power 
Freiiuency Input 

45' SSMHi 3W 

140^1 6OMH1 lOW 

140-1 6OMH7 2W 

]40^160MH; I OW 

I40'!60MHj 3 0W 

120-2 JOMHi 2W 

220-2 JOMH7 tow 

120-2 3OMH1 low 

420'470MHt lOW 

4 2O-470MHZ 2W 

4 20-4 70 MHi JOW 

420-470 MHz 1 QW 



& tested, emisslnn- 



Pnwer 
Output 

I SOW 
70W 
70W 
ISOW 
1 SOW 

«ow 

&0W 

120W 

40W 

40W 

SOW 

SOW 



T8A 
1 39.95 
I 59.95 
25^.95 
2J9,9S 
159.95 
I39.9S 
2S9,9S 
I 39.95 
159.55 
259.95 
289.95 



POWER SUPPLIES 




adds uver voltBge pratection to your 
pnwcr fuppii«s. 1 5 VI3C max. 9.95 

12 v*Mt— powTijT supply reg;ubtor i.ard 
wjtb fold back {.'urfeni lirtiitin^ , . 8.95 
new ctfmmeFCial duly 30 amp 1 2 VDC 
reguUtcil power supply w/castf. 
w/fojd-bjick currenl limiting and 
overvoltuge proiet:tii»ri ...... 239,95 






REPEATERS 




[JPLA144 

DFLA220 

DFLA412 
PSC-U . . 

DSC-N . 



2 mtr. 600 KH/ spaced dupteiier, 
wired jnd tuned (n fre^^ueniry . 
220 SiHf duple^ei. wired and 

tuned to frei^uency . 

rack mount duplexer ....... 

double sbiclded dupk^er cables 
vvi(h PL259 Cfinne^tofs (pf.) . 
samv as above with type N 
con nee tors ipr.) ... . . 



379.95 

379.95 
319,95 

25.00 



;5.00 



TRANSCEIVERS 



OTHER PRODDCTS BY VHP ENGINEERING 




SYNTHESIZERS 




WALKIE-TALKIES 




CD I Kjt . ■ 
rh2 Kit . . 
flVl Kit , 

Lxmj Kit , 

SC3 Kii . , 
Oj^-^tjili . . 

t^H> Kit . 



cwin 

Mlt I . . , 

TSi W/1 
IS I W/1 

VI} J Kit 
TI»JW/1 

HL144 W^T 

HL220VV/T 

HL432 W/l 



10 L'hunncI rt;ceive xxai de^k 

w/dlode Switch in 1^ ^ . $ b.95 

10 cKanncI xmii deirk w/iiwiteb 

and trimmers . ..,/.... 14.95 

UHF version of 1 f ) i detk. otredtrd 

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Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



KLM RF Power Amplifiers 



'ADDON 



POWER! 




• A simple, add-on-immediately 
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short and overload ^ reverse polarity. 
Highly effective heal sinking assures long 



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is optional. 

Models for 6.2, 1V4 meters, 70CM 
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Two types: Class C for FM /C W, 
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Negffgible insertion loss on receive. 

American made by KLM. 

Me, reliable performance. Black anodiaed 
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hdve fteven, full l^rrgth (Ins on 
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FREQ 


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UKIAH AMPLinER rJMIlSVDC 







TEMPO 



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Phe^e Jack-loop (PLL) OSCiHalor C^fCUH m\n\mi2B^ 

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Advanced SQiid-siaLET desigrt...cin3y ^ lubes, 

8uilt-in AC and 12 VDC po*or suppHes- 

CW illlsr Slandard eqMJpmenl.-.nat an accessory. 

Ruga^d &>4e-B llriBl arr>pMTiBf lubtE. 

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High pftrfOFmgnce nofse-bJanker Is s-landard 

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Quilt-^n VOX and sem i - l>ne-.9it In CW keying. 

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tuning 

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fixed channel crySlal conlr^l pn Iwa avallabt* 

pasLll^ng . 

flF At1*PiLiator„ 

Adjustpljifi ALC aclitfU. 

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Model 6i:2Cl exl^rpal E[>$dke> 



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TEMPO 

VHF/ 



ONE PLUS 



The Tempos ONE PLUS offers full 25 watt output or a 
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on the microphone, sideband operation with the 
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predecessor,,, the Tempo VHF ONE. 

The Tempo VHF/One Plus is a VHF/FM transceiver for 
dependable communication on the 2 meter amateur band •Full 
2 meter coverage, 144 to 143 MHz for both transmit and receive 

• Full phase lock synthesized (PLL) • Automatic -repeater split 
— selectable up or down ♦Two built-in programmable channels 

• All sot id state • 800 selectable recetve frequencies with 
simplex and +600 kHz transmit frequencies for each receive 
channel. Price: $399.00 



ATLAS 350-XL 





ALL SOLID STATE 
SSSTRAMSCEIVER 



• 350 WATTS P.E.P. OR CW INPUT 

• 10 THROUGH 160 
METER COVERAGE 





Illustrated vi/itn 

optional AC supply. 
Auxiliary VFO, and 
Digital Dial. 

Thje al! new Atlas 3 50* XL has all the exciting new featui-es you 
waul, plus superior p erf or mane e and selectivity control never before 
possible- Price; $995.00 

• 10-160 METERS 

Full coverage of all six amateur bands in 500 kHz, segments. Primary 
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2 to 22 MHz by plugging in auxihary crystals. 

• 350 WATTS 

P.E.P. and CW input. Enough power to work the world barefoot! 
IDEAL FOR DESKTOP OR MOBILE OPERATION 
Measuring just 5 in, high x 12 in. wide x 12\^ in, deep, and weighing 
only 13 pounds, the Atlas 350-XL offers more features, perfor- 
mance and value than any other transceiver, regardless of size, on 
the nmrket to day J 

• 350-PS matching AC supply — $195.00 

• DD-6XL plug-in digital dial readout $195.00 

• 305 plug-in auxiliary VFO — $155.00 

• 311 plug-In crystal oscxUator — $135.00 

• DMK-XL Plug-in mobile mounting kit— $65*00 



• 




TEMPO ONE HF Transceiver. 80^1 OM. USB, CW & AM -- $399.00 
AC/ONE Power supply for TEMPO ONE - $99.00 

VF/ONE EKternal VFO for TEMPO ONE - $199.00 



TEMPO SSB/orJE 

SSB adapter for the Tempo VHF/One 

■ Selectable upper or tower sideband, ' Plugs directly 

VHF/One vvith no modification. ' Noise btanker built-in. 

VXO for full frequency coverage. ' $225,00 



into the 
R IT and 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 






Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617* 395-8280 



Tha MEtt MffJ 







ImB^ COB* tiim Up ffr 



With tin NEW MFJ Suptr Anteirna Tuner 
you can run your lull iran&ceivei power 
output — up to 200 watts RF power output 
- ar>d match your Transmitter to anv 
faedline Irom 1G0 thru 10 Metars whethtr 
you have coax cab4fl^ balance fine, or 
candDfTi wife 

You cjii luni out ttit SWn «n v«ur 
difH>ic, inveEte(J stet, t^ndom wire, vertical, 
i^i^Lie whip. beam. quad, or wtiatever you 
haw. 

You cii tiM ipMili M h*adi with ^t 
one existing antenna Ho need to put up 
se$}drite anTenms Iv «Kh Innd. 

hcfiiii' fht itAlt 'hMitfvMfc qI your 
tnobiie whLp Dy Wimnq d^T ttw 5W!! nn 
faiiit y«v ev. Wofks great with all solid 

Quality live way tsmding posts are used fv 
itM balance line infHiis {2), random wire 




mput (1), anbgrounEl(1}. 

mtfl rigs (like Ihe Atlas) and wllh all lube 
type rlQs 

n iriv»li well. tee. ft£ ultra compact size 
5x2x6 inches fits easily tn a small corner 
of yoijf suilcasa. 

The sicrtt of thi) liny, powerful tuner is 
a wMSe rartge 12 position variable mduciof 
made frcm two stacked loroid cores and 
higti quality capacitors manufactured 
•speciaJ^ tot Hff i. for balance lines a 1 :4 
(unbalanced to baianced) bahjn ts buih in. 
tiade m USA by MFJ tnierpr^s 

TMt teanUM ntte taim is housed m a 
del, white Te^Tec e-nclosure 

wttr^ ^d^ii^: y;ajn sid^S. 

50-239 etsr cflt wec tpn are prfrvided 
lor transmitter mnui and coax led aiitennas. 



This Digitaf Alarm Clock is also an ID Timer. 
Assombled^ too! 



/£ 40 




THE HAM-KEY 

NOW 5 MODELS 



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tiotf I Snvtir tei oii aiw but to ii 
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reniffntef twtr noM to set tte item} 



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MU in HCfliidi to nni lor pncisa stttng to WWV 
wM 'dn tBi 9t llflKnS fJHtH 

rii MpBik Mi w ni tS ntcjun tAM «i a t 

Mf Hit i «« p^v pes ^ moRWitarir Fv 4q|ir 
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AMIDEL HK 5 

■LECtHONICKEYfR 

$69.95 



lamlric circuit for squ-eeze keying. 

Self completing dots «. da^hat , 

Dot memory 

Battery qserated witti provlalCMti for 

external power 

Built-in side- lone monStor. 

Sp»d, Volume^ tone & weight con Jfol a. 

Gr^ block ar direct keying, 

Use with exterfial paddle sucha^ HKO. 




Model HK-1 S29.95 

• CKwIlever 54ue«^« pedd^- 

• U*«*i1h HK Sot any etectronicV ever. 

• Heavy bau-witfimsn-slipruMttr feel. 
« P»dd lei reversible for wide or close f I A^ers$«€irbg 





Model HK-2 519.95 

9 Same » HK-t , im base 
fcr tho&e who wts,h ta 
incorporalelnttwir 
own Keyer. 



Model HK-3 $16.95 

« Delude straight key. 

« Heayy base, no ne^fo attach lo desk, 

• Velvet iftiooth action. 





Model HK-4 $44.95 

■ CofnbinationonHK-l & 
HIC 3 on serr^ bete. 




400% MORE RF POWER 
PLUGS BETWEEN YOUR MICROPHONE AND TRANSMITTER 




ISPSaOBSL X dD OffmniK rengt IC log imp and 3 
and Qtilput i-3i ie m 3-1 ;4 « 4 " " 



LSP-UOBX i Same «s LSP^SSfiex Out ui a 
bcaui-iy 2-1^8 « 3-i'e ■ V*'ie lfie*» Ten-Tec 
iflcjioiuiv ffiin u n o omfmima a pwn Mic p^. 
eyMHil ciote. nsivv luacuiia t«»t<cfi 



SUPER LOGARITHMIC 
SPEECH PROCESSOR 

Up to 400% More RF Power is yours with this plug-in 
unit. Simply plug the MFJ Super Logarithmic Speech 
Processor between your microphone and transmitter and 
your voice is suddenly transformed from a whisper to a 
Dynamic Output 

Your signal is full of punch with power to slice through 
QRM and you go from barely readable to "solid copy OM/' 




$ 



29 



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$ 



54 



95 




CWF-2BX Super CW FlUOf 

By 1,1 r ih«- IsBdvr Ovtr SOW In u&9 Hizof tKirp 
■•^activity. SO H< tifndwldth^ txitmnntf miw*p 
^kld& No ringltiQ. PIu^b bi1wi&«^n focelvir ■net 
p^onas at cwntct twtWMn ^ikI|o slugv For 
speaker QpiirallQn. 

« Selectable &W. 00, I ID. 1 BO Hz » fiO dB down 
on* octaiie Irom coftlflf IfiKi ol 750 Hz tor fid Hz 

* 3-3^6 K :^Ha T 4 in 



CMOS'fiO^^ Electronic Keyer 

Sill* d1 th« an dsfiQn utai CUHJiS-^M3 
K«v*p-on^a-cNp. 

» Buill-in K^ • Dot momt^ry • iambic opera- 
ilnn uvkih external squeoie Key ■ B lo 50 
'/^PM * SiCteione and tpstkiir • Speed, vdh 
urn*, lOT^e, wejghi conirols, • Uitm reinabit soitd 
fliaift Iteyir^ +300 wOM* n*i)i • 4 positlofi 
IWllCft lO' TUNE, Off QH. SIOCTOWE OFF 
■ Uttt 4 EfefiJ>9li| Ctitl» • 3'3ne ■ >1,'4 1 A 

ffKIMS 



NEW 



MFi^'keoiO Antenna Tuner 

Now you t^n ftp«fa|t all bana — l&O Ihini 10 
Mtivfs — wlilh » iLngb randam wIf« find run your 
tkjir trantcolvrr powvr output — up 1o 200 wHlli 
HF pctwlr OyTPUT: 

• Small enou^jM lo c»rrv m ^cigr hip pockel, 
l-^nB- M 3^U4 3( 4 Irishes » MaEcrifta tow ftjtd 
high imptttftfiCSft by mterchancjmg inpul ind 
Dutpu.i • 30^239 coa.R:ial canr^cEdrA * Unique 
Midha rsno*. tiigli' ptrlormai^ce. U post I ion tapped 
indMCtof Uma Iwd Bracked ta4:ei(i caf»* 




$ 



2995 [^»27'^^^H9 



seF'^ex sse Fut»r 



MFJ'ZOOBX Frequency Sf^ndard 



MFJ-lOloax RiK:el¥eF f^reulecior 



4 Optrniifeii irf^ur iif^io to reduce udeband 
splutter . ivrxfn low IM rngh piicNsd O^M tuiift 
iWic crufiM b W^gfP wfta ihmu, 9) and MH Hi 
hum * I^MuC44 iAii!|ii« HJuMng contesi. Ok: tJid 

raflcttwumg * Pluo* Mt**wi dTicmt^s and ffr 

□ pafatiorr « Stiacitbla barid«idih IC acili^B 
audio finer • UMI 9 ¥QJl ballery » 2-3n'S x 
S-T/A K 4 InchM 



IS KNl w*t1: inte VH^ itflOA. 



too. SO. cr 



mirtffl • UArti^fB we gilad I0' positive td«^t»- 
flHtiiDii CMOS ICs «tfi1t^ tteiriaiii4&4 oui^ul • No 
dirocf coriiecttoi^ n«£fl«t«ry • Uiei 9 volt 
baitefy a Aa|4j5laJ93e inmmvr lor Mio b«9}ing la 

WWV ■ S^iich 3$l0c[| 100. 50, 315 KHz or OFF 
• Z-3ne X 3^114 K 4 InChiat 



Ci«aflT copy 

* HM4 mwi 20 dS IQ* nciie iiain • SapvBti 
ifipgt ifw) pvtput lumng controls gj«9 miksLfmuiTi 
gain »na RF ii«ectivitv to 9i0'^'1'>!^ntly r«tQet 
out^f-tMnd tig nil i «nij Fsduce image mponHf 
» Duaa gal» MQ5 FET tor ia« noiMi, ilrong signal 
handiino ablliiia-i. ■ CompiQieiv vttbi* • Op- 
tJimzAd lui IQ tnru 3a MHz • 3 V tultofy 

• i'\m a a-&^fl I 5-9ns inches 




CP0-5SS Cod« Osclllatdr 

F{ir the Ncwcomar 1:& lanm the Morea 0o4a 

For Ihe OEd titriar to polith hii Plil, 

For Iha Codi InttructCil- 10 iBAch hie dosfia*. 

* S^nd crlap ciiaar cigdi^ wiih plenty of volums 1(3^ 
classraom use * S*0 conlainad spftaK^^, vol- 
uftie. ton? conlh^li, Blummum cabinei • 9 V 
battery • Tcs^quaiiEvUS conitruclion « Usfiii 
&55 IC Timer • 2-3n6 i 3'lJ4 ji 4 inch«a 




$ 



29 



95 



NIFJ-40T ORP T ran f matter 

WO(t (tk» motki «ltli « ■«!» on 40 Maiaf CW 

• Mo |yni}>o • U«|{:h«>s iQ o'lrn load « Qaan 
Dulpul Wllh low hvrt^^iii^ CdnrenT 4 Pa««r 
>mpfifi«f trafi«4siDt ptn^m*^ Agamsl ^i^ttoul 
■ Switcm fiei^^4 3 cryilali dr VFQ inpul « If 

vex; * 2-an6 m 3-1 m k 4 ^ncfiaa 

MFj-4av. CompiriiOfiVFO tZ?.flS 

MFJ-t20C, IC RodulAEAd Pow&f SuUptf 

1 amp. la VDC Si?F 9Si 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Medford MA 02155 • (617) 395-8280 



Tufts Radio Electronics • 209 Mystic Avenue • Wedford MA 02155 • (617> 395-8280 




TUFTS SELECTED TITLES OF 
POPULAR SAMS PUBLICATIONS 



SECOND-CLASS RADIOTELEPHONE LICENSE HANDBOOK 
(5th Edition) 

by Edward M. Noii. Provides afl the study materiaf needed to pass the FCC second- 
class radiotelephone license examination (Elements I, H. and Ih} All material is based 
on the FCC Study Guide and fieference Materiai for Commercmi Operator Examma- 

tioa. Two tests aw included to simulate Ihe aclual ejta mi nation. 448 pages; SVj x. 3W, 
softbound, 

No- 21111 $7.95 



THIRD-CLASS R ADJOTELEPHONE LICENSE HANDBOOK (4th 
Edition) 

by Edward M. NoU Serves as a practical study guide for the aspiring fSdio operator as 
well as a ready reference for those working in the Iteld. Designed as a study ard for 
obrain^ng licenses up to and including the Radiotelephone Third-Ciass Operator Permit 
wi!h Broadcast Endorsement, this newesl edition contains questions and answers 

simdaf to tiiose given on the actual examination. 206 pages; Svi x S"!^-^; sottbound 
No. 2t3S3 $£.gs 

CMOS COOKBOOK 

by Don Lancaster. Teits all you need to know to understand and profilabty use this 
InsKpensfve and genuinely fun to work with digital logic family.. First an explanation of 
what CMOS is, how it works, and how to power it, plus usage rules, state testing ^ 
bread boarding, interface, and other basics is given. Then a minicatalog of over 100 
devices, including pin out 8 and use descriptions is given, Subjects covered include gate 
fundamenlals. tri-state logic, redundant logic design techniques, multivibrators, non- 
volaTile merr^ory techniques, clocked JK and D titp-flops, counter and register tech- 
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student, hobbyist, teachers, technician, or engineer who wants to learn about CMOS. 
FJlJed with practical applications. 416 pages; bVz x 8W; softbound. 
No. Zl3Ba $9,9S 

IC OP-AMP COOKBOOK 

by Waiter G Jung. The first book of its kind to be published. Covers not only the basic 
theory of the IC op amp in greal detail, but also Includes over 350 practical circuit 
applications, liberally illustrated. Organized into three basic parts: introduction to the IC 
op amp and general considerations, practicai circuit appEicatiofts. and appendixes of 
manuf-acrurers' reference material. 592 pages; SVa x 8Vj; softbound. 

Ho. 20969 $12,95 

IC TIMER COOKBOOK 

by WstterJung. Provides an excellent inlfoduction to the field of IC timers by presenting 
a collection of various circuit 'recipes" useful In applying the devices Arranged in three 
parts, the Hrsi part gives basic and generalized information Part II, the applications 
section, Is ttie "meat" of Ihe book and Includes over 100 different circuits for a wide 
range of uses. Part III contains reproductions of manufacturers data sheets, second- 
source manufacturers, and more. This book is a valuable reference for Ihe liobbyist, the 
technical or engineering student, or professional. 29S pages; SV? x. SVz; softbound. 
No. 21416 $9,95 



TTL COOKBOOK 

by Don&fd Lancaster. A compiele and detailed guide to Iran sister- transistor logic 
(TTL). Explains what TTL is. how it works, and how to use it. Discusses practical 
applications, such as a digital counter and display system, events counter, electronic 
stopwatch, digital voltmeter, and a digital tachometer, 336 pages; SVii x BVa ; soft bound. 
No. 21035 $a.95 



HOW TO BUY & USE MINICOMPUTERS & MICROCOMPUTERS 

t?y Witliam Bardsn, Jf, Discusses these smaller computers and shows how they can be 
used in a varfety of practical and recreationa! tasks in the home or business-. Explains 
the bastes of minicomputers and microcomputers. Iheir hardware and software, 
peripheral devices available, and the various programming languages and techniques. 
Includes selection, buying, and programming your own system and gives detailed 
descriptions of currently available systems. 240 pages; SV? x 11; softbound. 
No. 21351 $9.95 

MICROCOMPUTER PRIMER 

by MitcheU Waiteand Mfchaei Pardee Introduces the beginner to the basic principles 
of the microcomputers. Discusses the five main parts of a Computer — Centrat process- 
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of several well-known microprocessors are given and a chapter is included on pro- 
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No. 21404 *7.9S 



THE 8080A BUGBOOK: MICROCOMPUTER INTERFACING 
AND PROGRAMMING 

by Peter H. Rony, Dsvfd G. Larson, and Jonathan A Titus, The principles, concepts, 
and applications of an e-bit microcomputer based on the 8OB0 microprocessor IC chip 
The emphasis is on the computer as a controiler. Covers the four fundamental tasks of 
computer interfacing; (i) generation of strobe and device select pulses; {2} latching of 
accumulator output; (3) acQUisjtion of input data by the accumulafof ; (4) generation of 
interrupt signals to the computer, intended to help develop the skills needed to use an 
fiO&O-based breadboard microcomputer system. BVz x 8V2; sottbound. 
No. 21447 *9-95 



RADIO HANDBOOK {20th Edftfon) 

by Wtfiiam I Orr, WSSAt. A completely updated 20th edition of the famous communica- 
tions handbook that is.the electronics industry standard for engineers, technicians, and 
advanced amateurs. Explains In authoritative detail how to design and bulEd all types of 
radlocommunications equipment. Contains greatly enlarged section on semiconductor 
and iC circuit design. Includes ssb design and equipment; rtty circuits: linear amplitierB, 
both solid-state and lube types: vhf and uhf transmitters and converters; as weM as 
special-purpose and logic circuitry, plus compietely revised chapter on electronics 
mathematics. 1080 pages; SV^ x 9Vj; haj-dbound. 
Na 24032 SI 9,50 

HAM AND CB ANTENNA DIMENSION CHARTS 

by Edward M. NotL W3FQJ, Tabulates dimen sion information in feet and inches for all 
the popular antenna configurations. Gives data for dipoie antennas, quarter-wave 
verticais, two-element beams. CFuads, triangles, inverted dipoles, and inverted vees. 
Includes information for cutting transmission lines to a preferred wavelenglh, dimen- 
sioning phasing lines, culling a matching stub, and spacing antenna elements, 64 
pages; 6x9; softbound. 
No. 24023 S2,75 

COMMERCIAL RADIOTELEPHONE LICENSE QUESTION & 
ANSWER STUDY GUIDE (3rd Editton) 

by Edwsfd M, Noii Prepares the reader to lake the exammations for the various grades 
of radiotelephone licenses , Emphasizes Ihose sub|ecls that are most important or most 
Nkely to be misunderstood, The questions are representative of those used in the FCC 
examinations. 304 pages; 6x9; sottbound. 
No. 24033 SB. 50 

RADIO TRANSMITTER PRINCIPLES AND PROJECTS 

by Edward M NoU, W3fQJ. Devoted entirely to tlie sub|eci of radio transmitters, ttiis 
book is a helpful gathering of modern transmitter principles, ideas, circuits, techniques, 
and learnby 'doing projects, Covers Bipolar CW and A-M Transmitter Circuits, 
Transistor-Tube Circuits, Basic Principles of SSB-DSB Generation, integrated Circuit 
Fundamentals, VHF'VHF Circuits and Principles. Frequency Modulation, and more. 
320 pages; 51^ x BVi; goltbound. 
No. 24031 - - ^g^g 

73 DIPOLE AND LONG-WIRE ANTENNAS 

i^y Edward M. Noti. W3FQJ, Covers practically every type of wire antenna used by 

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73 VERTICAL, BEAM, AND TRIANGLE ANTENNAS 

by Edward M. Nofi, W3FQJ. The second book in a series of practical antenna construc- 
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rehash of previously published data, but a compilation of the author's own experiments 
with various antenna configurations. The 73 different antennas have.sll been buill and 
air-tested by the author. 160 pages; 5Vi x 81^; softbound. 
Np, 24021 S5.50 

FIRST-CLASS RADIOTELEPHONE LICENSE HANDBOOK 
(4th Edition) 

by Edward M. NoiL An excellent study guide for the fjrsi-cla&s radiotelephone ficense 
e»(amination. Contains all the material needed to pass Element IV of the FCC examina- 
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5Vs K BVz; softbound. 
No. 21144 $7.95 



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176 



W17 



It sounds almost biasphe* 
mous to talk about mod- 
ifying a beautiful, synthesized 
rig, doesn't It? Well, ilcan be 
done, and it can be done by 
anyone who knows how to 
solder two pieces of wire. 
That's the whole modifica- 
tion, f can add two pieces of 
wire to the KDK and double 
its versatility. 

Why To 

The KDK^ as it was de- 
signed, covers 144 to 148-995 
MHz, and the receiver sensi- 
tivity leaves nothing to be 
desired, with the front end 
being tuned along with the 
synthesizer. The frequency 
coverage is so close to the 
public service band that it 
would be nice to have such a 
sensitive receiver, with a nice 
sharp i-f and precise fre- 
quency readout^ to see how 
the other half lives. No 
sooner said than attempted. 

How To 

1- Take the cover off the rig 
(the two nuts on the back), 

2. Lay it upside down with 
the front panel facing you, 

3. Move the red wire on the 
on-off switch over to the ter- 
minal that already has the 
two white wires with violet 
tracers. 

4. Solder a 1/2 -inch piece of 
bare wire to the rear terminal 
pf the other side of this same 
switch (the three terminals 
closest to you), 

5- Find the top terminals of 
Ihe aircraft-type frequency 
selector switch that have a 
jumper going from the front 
wafer to the rear wafer. 

6. Solder a 6-inch piece of 
wire to this point (the rear 
wafer makes a neater job). 

7. Solder the other end of 
this wire to the center ter- 
minal of the top bank of the 
on-off switch (see Fig. 1). 

8. Find the frequency selec- 
tor terminals on the shielded 
enclosure directly behind the 
front panel controls. The ter- 
minal you want is the one to 
the far right as you look at 
the rig. It has 2 white-with- 
red tracer wires connected to 
It 



M Klein W2PMX 
206 Harrison Avenue 
Miiler Place NY 11764 



High-Band 
Your 




-- monitor the other half! 



9. Solder the wire from step 4 
to this terminal {the one in 
step 8), Be very careful that 
some strands of the wires do 
not short to ground, 1 have 
done this many times, and 
this is not conducive to re- 
ceiving. 

How To Use It 

With the on-off switch 
turned on^ the rig works the 
same as it always did (if 
not, see step 9), With the 
switch off, the rig will stay 
on. It's very easy to add an 
external power switch, and I 
didn't want to drill any holes 
in the rig. However^ you will 
see some very strange-looking 
megacycles on the readout. 
This is because you are 
feeding values in excess of 9 
to the seven-segment decoder. 
It doesn't hurt anything, just 
makes it hard to read. If you 
add 8 to the frequency shown 
on the MHz switch^ you will 
have the frequency that the 
rig is really receiving. The 
KDK now tunes 152 to 155 
MHz. With the switch on 148 
MHz, the modification 
doesn't do anything, and the 
rig still receives (and trans- 
mits) 148 MHz. It is possible, 
with additional switching, to 



extend the range from 140 to 
155 MHz, inclusive^ but what 
do you want for 24 and five 
minutes? 

Possible Problem (Only One) 

You may find that, when 
the rig is switched to 152 to 
155 MHz, the unlock indica- 
tor does not go out (some do, 
some don't). This is due to 
the fact that the vco is just 
out of range. Adjust the vco 
tuning capacitor yery sfightly 
and very slowly^ and you will 
find a point very near where 
it was that causes the unlock 
light to go out. If you are 
receiving a signal^ again tune 
the vco capacitor for maxi- 
mum S-meter reading on the 
signal. 

The receiver, when prop- 
erly tuned up, shows 2 uV 



sensitivity for 20 dB quieting 
on 2 meters and about .3 uV 
on high band. Not bad! 

Theory 

The terminals on the front 
of the shielded enclosure 
determine the division ratio 
of three 74192s. If the first 
one (the one on the right, 
looking at the rig from the 
bottom) divides by 4, we are 
on 144 MHz. If it divides by 
8, we are on 148 MH^, (Aha! 
ft determines the third digit 
in the megahertz number.) 
We simply placed +5 volts on 
the 8 terminal, so we added 8 
to that number. On 148 MHz, 
there is already +5 volts on 
that terminal, so , « . 

Enough theory, already. 
Try it; you'll have fun! ■ 




4DD THESE 



CONCENTfilC FRCOaOiCV 
SELE^TlOR SWITCH 



flEMOVC FROM HERE 

coMhccT TO mm 




Fig. J. How simple it is. 



177 



J. George Taylorson^ Jr. WA6LJL 
2924 Ciarmeya Lane 
Pasadena CA 9J107 



The Rescue 



-- real-life drama 



The temperature was 
about 82*^^ a perfect day 
for exploring the back 
country of Fish Creek. Now^ 
if you Ye not famjhar with the 
whereabouts of Fish Creek^ 
it's about 50 miles east of 
Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 
about one mile from the Con- 
tinental Divide. 

On this beautiful August 
21, 1976, two young girls and 
a male friend decided to 
take the horses out for a ride 
in the back country. Nancy, 
17, Patty, 19, and John, 17, 
saddled up the horses that 
they had been assigned to and 
started out on what was sup* 
posed to be a beautiful after- 
noon ride. 

When you run a ranch, 
there is always much to do, 
so I set out with my two 
cowboys to do some of the 
chores that had been waiting 
to be done for some time. 
Now I think I should mention 
that the ranch is one and a 
half hours by four-wheel 
drive from the nearest tele- 



phone. A person could set 
out from the ranch in any 
direction and never see an- 
other living person for 30 
miles. The only electricity is a 
small, four-cylinder engine 
generator. Many have said it 
is one of few ranches left that 
reflect the way the old west 
was in the early 1900s. 

About 4:30 pm, while I 
was working in the pasture, I 
looked down the path to the 
east and saw a rider heading 
for the ranch at a full run. 
One of the rules of the ranch 
is to never run your horse, so 
I immediately knew that 
there was trouble. 

In a few minutes, Patty 
rode up to where I was 
working. In a state of shock, 
she started screaming that 
Nancy was seriously hurt. 
After quieting Patty down, I 
got a description of where 
Nancy was and jumped into 
the four-wheel drive truck 
with Mike J another guest at 
the ranch. We headed for the 
canyon where Nancy and 



John were. The road was no 
more than a cow path, so the 
traveling was slow and 
bumpy. Once at the canyon, 
called Deer Creek, Mike and I 
started a one-mile hike 
looking for the injured girl 
and John. After about twenty 
minutes of rough hiking, we 
came upon them in a little 
clearing. 

Nancys was tying on the 
grass in a state of shock, with 
blood flowing from her 
mouth. There was a lump on 
her head where she had hit 
the ground, and her left el- 
bow was completely dis- 
torted. It was decided that 
Nancy could not be moved. 

Grabbing one of the 
horses, I headed down the 
canyon as fast as the horse 
could go to where the truck 
was parked. 1 headed back to 
the ranch, where I hoped and 
prayed that the oid generator 
would start. Once at the 
ranch, I was able to get the 
generator going, and 1 headed 



for my new Atlas 210, which 
I had just purchased a month 
earlier. The antenna was a 20 
meter dipoje on the roof 
oriented in a northwest and 
southeast direction. I wasted 
no time in finding a clear 
frequency and started calling 
** Mayday, may day, may day; 
WA6LJL/7 near Jackson, 
Wyoming, calling may day. 
Someone come in, please." 

I called several times and 
got no response. I didn't 
know what to do, as a girl 
was tying seriously injured, 
and this was the only means 
of help or communication 
with the outside world. I kept 
calling^ and, then, like music 
to the ears, I heard 
^^WA6LJL/7 this is K5TZK 
Bob in Houston, Texas. Do 
you copy?" Thank God 
someone heard me! It didn't 
take long for me to tell Bob 
the problem. Shortly after 1 
made contact, Ernie W7JRW 
in Las Vegas and Jim 
WB5NRX were involved 
keeping the surrounding fre- 
quencies clear, so 1 could 
communicate with Bob 
K5TZK. 

Bob immediately got the 
long-distance operator and 
explained the situation to 
her. She then connected the 
sheriff^s department in Jack- 
son, Wyoming, and the U.S. 
Forest Service Department 
with Bob in Houston* After 
about 15 minutes of my 
giving directions to Bob, the 
sheriff's department dis- 
patched a helicopter and a 
registered nurse to our loca- 
tion. We were instructed to 
start some smoke fires so we 
could be spotted* For 30 
minutes more I gave direc- 
tions to Bob to relay to the 
sheriff's department, which in 
turn relayed them to the 
chopper. 

As the drama continued, 
there was not a bit of QRM 
on the frequency, thanks to 
Jim, Ernie, and, I am sure, 
others, who helped keep the 
frequency clear. 

It seemed like hours be- 
fore I heard the low hum of 
the helicopter as it started to 
come into view over the 



178 



mountains. Seeing our signal 
fires, ii wasted no time get- 
ting to us and making a 
landing, I told the hams on 
the frequency that it was 
here, and, all of a sudden, 
there was a chorus of 
"Hoorays," making the 
prettiest QRM that I had ever 
heard I signed quickly and 
headed for the chopper. I 
boarded, and we took off to 
the location of the injured 
girl. 

About five minutes later, 
we spotted the trio and made 



an unbelievable landing witlv 
in 30' of where Nancy lay. By 
this time, she was urh 
conscious. The nurse said she 
looked bad, so we wasted no 
time getting her on a 
stretcher and airborne. We all 
gave a sigh of relief as the 
helicopter headed for the 
hospital. 

The next day I drove into 
town to the hospital to find 
out how Nancy wa^, I found 
her doctor and asked him 
how she was doing, "Doing 
well/' be replied, **but if she 



had gotten here 2 hours later, 
we would have had to ampu- 
tate her left arm, as the cir- 
culation had been cut off and 
the tissue was dying," Had we 
tried to Lake Nancy out by 
truck, it would have taken us 
4 hours to get her to the 
hospital. 

TodaYimany months later, 
Nancy is a beautiful young 
girl living in Palos Verdes^ 
owing her life and healthiness 
to the many hams who 
helped. Without this help, she 
might not be alive today. 



So ]et everyone know that 
there is no greater service 
fraternity anywhere in the 

world today than the hams, 
who would rather be of 
service to their fellow man 
than anything else. 

Oh yes, I'll be back there 
a^in, and, ag^in, I'll have my 
trusty little Atlas 210 with 
me! So^ if you hear **WA6 
Lovely Japanese Ladies por- 
table 7/' give a call and l>e 
sure to say hello, as you're 
the only commmunication we 
have with society, ■ 



Most two meter mobile 
antennas manufac- 
tured today are easily 
mistaken for Citizens Band 
antennas, especially by CBers 
and, more importantly, a 
faction which, of late, has 
greatly proliferated - the CB 
rip-off artists. 

Many articles have 
appeared concerning the use 
of bursar alarms and other 
devices to protect your rift 
but few solutions have been 
offered concerning the most 
vulnerable part of your 
mobile system — the antennau 

The solutions seem to boil 
down to two things: 

1 . Take your antenna off 
when not using it, which is a 
hassle, even if you use a 
magnetic mount. 

2, Let them take the antenna. 

The second solution can 
be a viable one, providing the 
antenna is cheap, easily re- 
pEacedp and doesn't look so 
great^ so not many people 
bother to steal it anyway. 

The antenna described 
here will adapt readily to the 
popular Antenna Specialists 
5/8 wave roof or trunk 
mounts, as well as many CB 
mounts. If you don't have 
one of these, the roof or 
trunk mount, less antenna, 
can be purchased at your 
local Radio Shack (roof 
mount — part no, 21-914; 
trunk mount — part no. 
21-913). 

The antenna itself is easy 
to construct. The only 
materials required are a 
PL-259 coax connector and a 
20-inch piece of welding rod. 



T<mi N. Todd WA5TSJ 

J300S.W, 62 

Oklahoma City OK 75159 



Welding Rod 
Special Antenna 



for seamless contacts 



coat hanger, large copper 
weld wire, or what have you, 
and some silicone rubber 
sealant. Use a hacksaw or a 
large pair of diagonal pliers to 
cut about half of the pin off 
of the PL -259- Take the 
2frinch piece of rod, clean 
the end, and solder it to the 
center conductor of the 
PL-259, trying to get a 
smooth, round bead of solder 
on the tip of the PL-259 to 
make good connection with 
the mount. Fill in the back of 
the plug with the silicone 
sealer, in order to keep 
moisture out. 

The PL-259 sleeve is 
brought down over the rod 
and screwed over the con- 
nector in the usual fashion. 
The entire assembly may now 
be screwed down securely on 
the antenna mount, A 20" 
piece of rod is used, to allow 



for about 19" measured from 
the back end of the con- 
nector to the end of the rod, 
which is a good ball park 
figure for two meters. An swr 
brid^ may be used to prune 
the antenna, by careful 
snipping with wire cutters, 
but Tve never even measured 
my swr and haven*t had any 



problems- 

The antenna has been used 
on my car for about 8 
months and works quite welL 
No one has yet bothered to 
steal It, but, if they do, I 
haven't lost much. I still keep 
my 5/8 wave in the trunk in 
case I go out of town and 
want that "extra 3dB." ■ 



TIP CF fL-2 59 CUT OFF 



RDD SOLDERED TD TIP 



BI^CK OF CONNECTOn FILLED 
WTTH SILICOI^E S£ALAl4t 




Fig. J: 



179 



RTTY Can Be Easy! 



Have You Wondered . . . 
What Owning a RTTY Station Would be Like? 

Have You Thought . . . 
About Finding Out but Didn't Know Who to Ask? 





J 






ASK THE GUYS AT HAL! 



Our sales and service staff will be happy to assist you 
in your choice nf RTTY equipment, answer questions 
aboLif RTTY. and provide assistance if problems do 
arise, tn addition, all HAL amateur RTTY equipment 
manuals can be purchased tor S 10.00 each for an 
advance look (applicabte lo future purchase of that 
unir). 



Answers to common RTTY questions are featured 
in the center fold of our new amateur radio catalog. 
Such questions as '* What do 1 need?'* "How do I hook 
it up?", and '*What frequencies do I use?*' are dis- 
cussed. Technical points concerning RTTY pulses, 
FSK and AFSK, and high tones vs lowtones are 
covered. 



Write roday for HAL*S new catalog and RTTY guide and discover how much fun RTTY can be. 



V. 



m 



HAL COMMUNICATIONS CORP. 

Box 365 

Urbana, Illinois 61801 

217-367-7373 ^^g 



For our European customers 
see HAL equipment at: 

Richipr & Cp . HanrKH/^ 
|.£C {ntefclco; BissofK 
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Adjustable frame size 

Built-in slo-scan bar gen for transmit 

Focus on a postage stamp 



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VI viewing hood $14,50 

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AVAILABLE NOW: ORDER FACTORY DIRECT OR FROM OUR DISTRIBUTORS. See Below. 



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A and W Electronics 


GoldsteJn^s 


Mr. Keith Roberts 


3202 Summer Avenue 


Medford, Mass, 


Pensacola, Fla, 


P.O. Box 677 


Memphis, TN 38112 






Bedford, N.S. 




Barry Electronics 


Harrison Electronics 


Canada BON IBO 


Amateur Electronics Supply 


New York,N.Y, 


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Milwaukee, Wise, 






Swartz Lander Radio Ltd 


Cleveland, Ohio 


CFP Enterprises 


Henrv Radio 


1524 Oak Harbor Rd. 


Orlando, Fla. 


Lansing, N,Y, 


Los Angeles, Calif. 


Freemonf , Ohio 43420 



At gon Electronics 
Miami Springs^ Fla, 



Electronic Distributors 
Muskegon, Michigan 



Hobby Industry 
Council Bluffs, Iowa 



Venus Scientific Inc. 



399 SMITH STREET 
FAR MING DALE, N^Y. 11735 
PHONE 516-293 410€ 
TWX 510 224 5492 



The company that put high voltage on the moon, now brings you expanding amateur radio technology. 



V3 



181 



^ 



Alien J. Fehl VJA9GUK 
PO Box 701 
BrookvilJe IN 47012 



specified frequency, What*s 
the value of L? 



Tanks 




Lot! 



-- inductor calculation program 



If you don't own a 
programmable pocket 
calculator, chances are you 
will before too long. A 
100-step programmable calcu* 



iator is already on the market 
for less than a scientific-type 
pocket calculator cost two 
years ago. They*re ju&t too 
nice a toy to be overlooked 



by hams for long* 

Now suppose you pull a 
variable capacitor out of the 
junk box and you want it to 
resonate with an inductor at a 



Location 


Koy 


32 


8 


65 


RCL 








33 


3 


66 


4 


1 


STO 


34 


Subr 


67 


X 


2 





35 


6 


6S 


9 


3 


STO 


36 


1 


69 


+ 


4 


6 


37 


X>t 


70 


1 


5 


RCL 


38 


2 


71 





6 


1 


39 


B 


72 


X 


7 


x2 


40 


CLR 


73 


RCL 


8 


X 


41 


¥ 


74 


6 


9 


RCL 


42 


NOP 


75 


= 


10 


9 


43 





76 




11 


X 


44 





77 


RCL 


12 


RCL 


45 


1 


78 


7 


13 


2 


46 


Inv 


79 


X 


14 


^ 


47 


SUM 


80 


RCL 


16 


1/X 


48 


6 


81 


5 


16 


X 


49 


Subr 


82 


= 


17 


1 


50 


8 


83 


^STO 


18 


EE 


51 


8 


34 


19 


1 


52 


Subr 


35 


8 


20 


2 


53 


6 


86 


» 


21 


:=: 


54 


1 


87 


Rm 


22 


SIU 


55 


Inv 


88 


( 


23 


s 


56 


K>t 


89 


RCL 


24 


R/S 


57 


4 


90 


3 


25 


CLR 


58 





91 


X 


26 


p 


59 


R/S 


92 


RCL 


27 





60 


RST 


93 


6 


28 


5 


61 


t 


94 


= 


29 


SUM 


62 


1 


95 


x^ 


30 


6 


63 


SUM 


96 


) 


31 


Subr 


64 





97 


Rtn 



LuH = 



1012 



4ir2 (CpF) (f2 itHz) 



Not too bad. But now how 
do you wind the inductor to 
get this value of inductance? 
Well, 



turns = 




U9a + 10b) 



Fig. h 



where a is the inductor radios 
and b is the inductor lengih. 
Now this gets a little messy* 

Squaring, dividing, and taking 
square roots is not a whole 
lot of fun* But there is 
another problem. Assuming 
we settle upon a value for the 
inductor radius, we still have 
to contend with the proper 
value for the length. How do 
we find b? Well, we know 
that turns per inch (tpi) times 
length equals turns. So if we 
vary the length b, carry out 
the above calculation to get 
turns, then multiply that 
same length by tpr and com- 
pare the result with turns, 
we can see how close we are. 
We want the difference 
between the two to be zero- 
So we change b just a bit and 
do the whole thing again and 
again until the difference is 
zero or very near zero. But 
that*s a lot of work! You bet, 
but it's not for a computer. 

The program shown here 
carries out the above 
procedure starting b at ,05 
and incrementing it by ,05 
units after each calculation 
and comparison until the 
difference between tpi times 
length and turns changes sign, 
that is, crosses zero. Then it 
decrements b by -001 units 
and continues in the same 
fashion until the sign changes 
again, whereupon it stops and 
displays the number of turns. 
Hie result is, for all practical 
purposes, excellent. One must 
initiate ihe program by 
putting the various param- 
eters in the memory registers, 
all ten of which are used with 
my SR-56, 

As an added feature, 1 

thought it would be 
interesting to know how 
many times the subroutine 



1S2 



was called upon to carry out 
the searching calculation. In 
one problem that I devfsed, 
over 700 passes were under- 
taken. This bit of information 
is stored in register zero. 

So how do you run it? 
Select your variable capacitor 
and, for example^ its center 
position capacitance. Store 
this value in pF in file 2, 
Store the frequency in 
kilohertz in file 1, the 
number of turns/inch or less, 
from the close wound value in 
the wire tables, in file 3, and 



the radius you've selected in 
file 4. You can't have more 
turns/inch than the close- 
wound value. Square the 
radius and store in file 7. 
Finally square pi and 
multiply by 4 and store in file 
9, Now youVe ready. Punch 
R/S. The calculator wilt 
display the inductance in 
microhenrys needed to 
resonate with pF at the 
specified frequency in an 
instant. Punch R/S again, and 
the calculator will continue 
computing until it stops and 



displays the number of turns 
you need to wind at your 
selected tpi and radius. Any 
of the memory registers can 
now be recalled. The 
computed length can be 
recalled from file 6. This 
length times tpi should be 
very close to the computed 
turns. Punch reset, and the 
program is ready to begin 
again. 

Ah, you say, I can get the 
same stuff from the ARRL 
Lightning Calculator, True, 
but you can't get any infor- 



Memory Rdgisters 





Subr Calls 


1 


kHz 


2 


pF 


3 


tpi 


4 


radius 


i 


uH 


6 


length 


7 


(radius) 2 


8 


turns 


9 


4 Pi2 



Fig. 2 

mation on an inductor 3 feet 
or J inch in diameter, and it 
doesn't have all those flashing 
lights. ■ 



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in a factory sealed carton! 

When you purchase your YAESU. WILSON, KLM, DENTRON. HY-GAIN, 
ATLAS or other selected product from Clegg. please don't expect to 
receive it in a factory sealed carton. When we deliver any of these fine 
pieces of equipment to you, we want to be certain it meets or exceeds all 
the manufacturers specs. First of ail. we want to warrant that it does: 
secondly — you're entitled to that extra assurance^ We thoroughly test 
each unit before we ship it. And we furnish you with test data 

If getting a super discount on your new radio is important to you^ — or if 
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But — if you want the positive assurance that you are receiving the value 
and performance you*re entitled 
to — then we are the gu ys lo talk to. 

For complete details and 
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call Collect {717)-299-7221), Or 
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^r EtarlafllflrBi 



B*rVlC83 




C3 



183 




Build the 
Sapo Tester 



-- for hams with spare time 



1 00 



STAhCOR 
iSEE TEtT( 



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'^^ I /r\*^^p 

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:3V 
-^[l!-^^ " TEST iEJ^D 



75 Magazine Staff 



^ lO^F/ sv 



■^ TEST LEAD 

i-1 



tJii 



K 



iSTEflNiAl 



:•) 



"^^^" 



&OPt 



X 



c^s 



- TCST LC*D 



INTERMAL 

1. 




('!•- 



iB) 



-* TEST LE*D 



Fig. h Basic circuit of tester (a) and switching add-on for more 
versatility fb). See text for description of compotients not 
marked. 



The little test instrument 
described in this article 
is something for the amateur 
who has nothing and some- 
thing for the amateur who 
has everything. In the former 
case, it provides, very in- 
expensively, an instrument 
that can function as a con- 
tinuity tester, transistor test- 
er, diode tester, signal injec- 
tion source, code practice 
oscillator, CW monitor, sub- 
stitution microphone, and 
substitution loudspeaker. In 
the latter case, it provides a 
very handy addition to a tool 
box, for quick continuity and 
relative resistance checks, 
without having to look al a 
meter. 

The instrument is nothing 



more than an audio oscillator 
using a one transistor circuit 
But the components are care- 
fully chosen, A switching 
scheme is utilized so that a 
low current is passed through 
the circuit under test. The 
volume and/or pitch varies 
with the resistance placed 
across its test terminals, and 
maximum utilization is made 
of the circuit and its com- 
ponents for several modes of 
operation. Such basic testers, 
but without all the versatility 
of the one described, have 
been available commercially 
for years. They are popular 
with many service techni- 
cians, since one can visually 
concentrate on the circuit 
being tested or traced out 
without having to glance 
away to read a meter. This 
feature is particularly helpful 
when doing work on a de- 
tailed PC board, since one can 
lose one's place on the board 
in the time it takes to glance 
al a meter. 

The circuit of the unit is 
shown in Fig, 1(a). The oscil- 
lator circuit utilizes a transis- 
tor transformer, which has 
one or (wo center- tapped 
windings to form the equiv- 
alent of a transformer with 
three windings. One winding 
Is used in the base circuit of 
the transistor, another as a 
feedback winding in the col- 
lector circuit, and another as 
an out put-coupling winding 
Many of the usual miniature 
transistor transformers will 
work, aside from the TA-59 
unit mentioned, such as the 
usual 10k Ohm to 2k Ohm 
CT or Ik Ohm CT to 8 Ohm 
units. One must be prepared 
to do a bit of experimenting 
to get the windings phased 
correctly and to get the out- 
put pitch desired. To achieve 
the latter with some trans- 
formers, it may be necessary 
to experiment with a small 
capacitor (*001 to .1 mF) 
across the base winding. The 
output "loudspeaker" should 
ideally be a unit such as a 600 
Ohm telephone receiver. Bui 
anything, from high imped- 
ance, miniature loudspeakers 
to cheap, dynamic-type 



184 



microphones, can be used. 
Power is supplied by two IVi 
volt batteries in series. No 
on /off switch is required, 
since no current can flow 
untess some resistance is 
placed across the test ter- 
minais- 

The unit, as shown in Fifr 
1(a), can be used by itself, if 
desired. If the test leads are 
marked for polarity, one can 
test diodes and transistors 
and determine the direction 
of the [unction involved. 
Resistance values^ from a 
short to about 100k Ohms, 
can be detected with the 
upper limit, depending on the 
specific oscillator compo- 
nents used. As the resistance 
value increases, the volume 
will decrease, but the pitch 
will tend to rise. This is a very 
handy feature^ since, after a 
period of usage, one is not so 
aware of the volume changes 
as one is aware of associating 
higher pilch with higher re- 
sistance. With usage, one can 
become familiar with the 
sound of at least the major 



steps in the output pitch, 
such as for resistance values 
of 1 k and 50k. 

By adding a few more 
components to the basic 
circuit, as shown in Fig. 1 (b), 
more versatility can be gained 
from the unit The addition 
of a series 50k potentiometer 
allows one to control the 
volume and also to limit the 
short circuit output current 
to less than 60 uA. The latter 
is useful as a safety feature, 
when testing some semi- 
conductor devices, when one 
is unsure of the terminal 
markings. In the center posi- 
tion of the switch shown, the 
battery line is left floating, 
and the positive test lead is 
connected to the speaker over 
a .05 mF capacitor. The 
speaker can then function as 
a replacement test speaker or 
as a dynamic microphor>e 
replacement. The reproduc- 
tion quality is good enough 
to at least determine whether 
or not the speaker or micro- 
phone substituted for is basi- 
cally defective. In the right* 



hand position of the switch, 
the battery circuit is complet- 
ed to ground, and the internal 
speaker output remains 
connected to the positive test 
lead. In this mode, the circuit 
functions as an injection 
oscillator, the level of which 
can be controlled by the 50k 
potentiometer and monitored 
on the internal speaker. The 
output is quite harmonically 
rich, and it can be used to 
check amplifiers all the way 
from the audio range to the 
HF range. 

The switch used in the 
unit I constructed was a 
special miniature DPDT 
toggle switch with a center 
position. But, in the center 
position, instead of the usual 
*'off" position, the poles still 
remain connected to opposite 
side terminals of the switch. 
The switch is available for $1 
from Tri-Tek, 6522 North 
43rd Ave-j Glendale AZ 
85301- The switch can, of 
ccftjrse, be replaced by a reg- 
ular 2P3T rotary switch, but, 
then, this requires a larger 



enclosure. Using the minia- 
ture toggle, and with the 
basic circuit wired on perf- 
board, the unit was assembled 
in a 3-1/4 X 20/8 x 1-5/8 
Bakelite box, complete with 
batteries. 

Probably some more uses 
can be found for the circuit, 
with a bit of imagination and 
a modified switching scheme. 
For instance, it would seem 
possible to rearrange things so 
that the circuit could also 
function as either a pream- 
plifier or a low level audio 
amplifier complete with 
speaker. All in all, it is hard 
to find a more handy unit for 
general circuit or equipment 
checking, before one resorts 
to proper instruments for 
specific checks* 

The name of the instru> 
ment comes from the sound 
the unit makes. When you 
test for continuity and en- 
counter a very iow resistance, 
the unit sounds off with a 
hoarse tone^ sounding some- 
what like that produced by El 
Sapo — the frog, ■ 



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185 



into the device data books 
and getting some help from a 
friend, the following circuit 
was developed which will 
program either the 8223 or 
the 82S23. 



Finally! 
A Simple PROM Burner! 



-- for the 8223 and 82S23 



Wmiam J. Hosking W7JSW 
8626 H. Clarendori 
Scoxtsdale AZ S5251 



AS a result of my various 
articles using TTL 
programmable read only 
memories^ 1 have received 
many letters and phone calls 
for help from people who 
cannot get devices they have 
purchased to accept a 
program. In almost all cases 1 
discovered that they had been 



sent S2S23s, assuming that 
82S23s were the same as 
8223s. While the devices do 
the same job with the same 
pin connections, they are 
quite different when it comes 
to programming. The 82S23 
will not program with the 
same inputs as an 8223* 
After doing some research 



Si 



330: 



3301310 



♦5v 

t 



52 



E 



J30 



m 



330 




2114094 

mwt J0is,rrc 



?0*EH SUPPLTf 

<25y-a223 
IOOV-e2S£3 



PO«CA SMPPt^T 

TWO 



Fig. U PROM programmer schematic diagram. Power supplies one and two can be bench 
supplies or built up speciaily for this use. Regulation is not critical 



Circuit 

The circuit is shown in 
Fig, 1 . To those of you who 
have either read my earlier 
articles or used the Signetics 
data book> the circuit should 
appear quite familiar except 
for the additional power 
supply input and the 
FET-zener circuitry. 

It turns out that the 
82S23 requires 19 volts 
current regulated lo about 65 
milliamps in order to program 
right. The circuit shown in 
Fig- 2 wilt perform that quite 
nicely. The only limitation is 
in the selection of )FETs. 
The jFET must have an IDSS 
of greater than 65 mA- Or 
course the 19 volt zener must 
be able to handle the ftill 65 
mA, which means that it 
should be rated at least 5 
Watts, 

The remainder of the 
circuit in Fig. 1 is fairly 
straightforward. For SI and 
S2, I used 
switches which 
word address in octal. These 
could be replaced with cheap 
toggle switches, but the 
saving in time and effort is 
well worth the slight extra 
cost of the BCD coded 
thumbwheel switches. S3 
selects the output bit to be 
programmed or verified. S4 is 
a push-button switch used to 
do the programming once a 
word and bit are selected, and 

55 is used to verify that the 
bit was actually programmed. 

56 was added to switch the 
programmer from the 8223 
devices to the 82S23 devices. 

57 simply puts a 12 volt 
zener across the 19 volt zener 
for current calibration 
purposes. The 21 to 19 volt 
supply is the same as shown 
in detail in Fig. 2 except for 
the addition of a meter for 
current calibration. For the 
best stability; the zener and 
FET should be mounted on 
heat sinks. One last circuit 



thumbwheel 
select the 



186 



comment: If additional 
contacts were available on 

push-button switch S4, I 
would break the line from S6 
to S5 and put it through the 
extra contacts. 

Programming 

If programming an 8223, 
set S6 to 8223 position and 
adjust power supply one for 
12.5 volts. Power supply two 
need not be on. 

If programming an 82S23, 
set S6 to S2S23. Adjust 
power supply one to 10.0 



volts and power supply two 
to 21 volts- Now momentarily 
depress S7 and adjust Ra for 
a current of 65 ±3 mA. Turn 
power supply one off^ insert 
device to be programmed, 
and set SI, S2 to desired 
octal address- At each address 
select, one by one, the bits to 
be programmed with S3, 
Then momentarily push S4. 
Now, pushing S5 to the verify 
position 'Should cause the 
LED to light if the program- 
ming wasvSUccessfuL When all 
desired bits of one word have 



been programmed, switch SI , 

S2 to the next address and 
repeat the operation. 

Conclusion 

I have two words of 
warning for programming 
either type of device. Monitor 
the device case temperature 
with your finger. Any time 
you can*t keep your finger on 
the device it is time to stop 
for a few moments to let the 
device coo! down. The other 
warning is that, once 
programmed, a TTL PROM is 



1DSS>65«* 



21V 
PS 



^^ I ^ 



Fig. 2. Constant current 
supply and current regulator 
schematic, 

forever programmed whether 
right or wrong, so it takes 
time and car& lo do the job 
right without destroying a 
device. I hope this article wilt 
help those of you who have 
had problems or been frus- 
trated by these devices. ■ 



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• Fully assembled, not a kit. 

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NCG COMPANIES 
1275 N. Grove St* 
Anaheim CA 92806 NIO 






187 



Sherman P. Wantz K4GRT 
424 NW LakEview Dnv9 

Sebrmg FL 33870 



Try 




Topical CQ 



-- for special interest groups 



When I became inter- 
ested in personal 
computers^ 1 developed an 
intense desire to talk to some* 
one — anyone — who shared 
my enthusiasm for this new 
and fascinating hobby. 

Don't let the term * 'com- 
puter" turn you off. This 
article is about amateur radio, 
not about computers. Bear 
with me for a few moments, 
and you'll see. 1 mentioned 
my interest in discussing com- 
puters as a prelude to dis- 
closing a practical solution to 
the problem of locating some- 
one who shares your 
interestSi whatever they may 
be. 

Since my home town is 
comfortably small, I wasn't 
too surprised to discover that 
I was the only one here who 
was active in tinkering with a 
personal computer system. 
Therefore^ when I had ques- 
tions about computer hard- 
ware or computer program* 



ming {and believe me, I had 
many), I became frustrated. I 
had no one to whom 1 could 
turn for enlightenment 

One day, as I was sitting at 
my bench busify creating an 
ulcer because I couldn't 
understand the instructions 
that some engineer had pre- 
pared to help me, I chanced 
to glance over at my rig. It 
had been neglected, shame- 
fully, since I had become 
interested in computers. 

Suddenly the thought 
struck me ^ surely, someone 
out there in the ham radio 
community knows how to 
interpret this jargon that I've 
been trying, unsuccessfully, 
to understand. As I turned on 
the rig and began tuning it up 
on 20 meters, t g^ve no con- 
scious thougtit to the means 
I 'd use to reach someone who 
might answer my questions. 

*'CQ computers, CQ com- 
puters/* I called into the 
mike. "Calling anyone who 



can help me interpret some 
microcomputer buzzwords." 
The plea came out as natural- 
ly as if I had used the special 
topic CQ all of my (consider- 
able) amateur radio life, 

\ wish I could report that 
an electronics and computer 
programming expert who had 
built and operated the exact 
make and model of my com- 
puter had responded. No such 
luck. But I did get calls from 
several fellows who were able 
to clarify the instructions 
that I had been misinterpret- 
ing. 

In fact, three QSOs, which 
lasted several hours, resulted 
from that topical CQ, I had 
an opportunity to discuss and 
learn a great deal about 
hobby computers that day. 

It's a gross understatement to 
report that 1 enioyed that 
experience immensely. 

The frustration that drove 
me to call "CQ computers" 
may have had a significance 



for the enjoyment of amateur 
radio that I never before con- 
sidered. 

What's wrong with calling 
a topical CQ? Why not call 
"CQ color photography/* 
"CQ Windom antennas," **CQ 
linears/' *'CQ bass fishing/' 
or '*CQ recreational vehi- 
cles"? 

I realize that such CQs 
sound strange. But perhaps 
that^s just because we haven't 
heard topical CQs before. 

We are ail familiar with 
"CQ DX/' "CQ New York 
for a phone patch/' *'CQ con- 
test," **CQ for a test," and 
"CQ for a short QSO," Those 
calls certainly don't sound 
strange anymore. 

The beauty of the topical 
CQ lies in its promise of 
bringing together two (or 
more) hams for the sole pur- 
pose of discussing an 
announced topic in which 
both (all) are interested. 

The rag chews that used to 
take place on 75 phone just 
after World War II were 
fascinating, in part, because 
they involved discussions of 
transmitter, receiver, test 
equipment, and antenna pro- 
jects that were in various 
stages of construction. Most 
ham gear was of the home 
brew variety, and almost 
everyone was engaged in a 
building project he wanted to 
discuss. That commonality of 
interest was what contributed 
most to the satisfaction one 
gained from a QSO, If you 
doubt it, ask a ham who owns 
a two-letter callsign how 
often he stayed up until three 
or four in the morning 
chewing over construction 
proJK;tshe enjoyed discussing 
with others. 

It's the search for that 
elusive common interest topic 
that occupies most of our 
time at church socials, PTA 
meetings, cocktail parties, bus 
stops, or most other gather- 
ings. What we refer to as 
"small talk" is really this 
exploratory probing for a 
subject that interests us. 
Often, we start with the 
weather. Then we switch to 
the old home town, mutual 
friends, television, children, 



188 



traffic problems, disasters, 

politics, etc, to keep the con- 
versation going while we 
continue our search for a 
common interest. 

Then, without warning, we 
pick up a chance remark that 
leads to the exciting moment 
when we discover that some- 
one else shares our interest in 
something. From that 
moment on, our conversation 
comes alive, as we share our 
views and experiences with 
someone who seems to hang 
on our every word. A topic of 
mutual interest has been dis- 
covered. The evening is a 
success; a new friend has been 
found. 

A similar phenomenon 
occurs repeatedly on the 
amateur radio bands. In fact, 
many hams resign themselves 
to the expectation of a casual 
conversation- You hear them 
cail '^CO for a short QSO/' 
meaning: *' Let's get together 
to exchange handles, signal 
reports, QTHs, weather re- 
ports^ and descriptions of our 
rigs/ 



Fortunately, on occasion 
the "short QSC can stretch 
into hours, if some remark 
made discloses that both 
hams have a common interest 
in some topic. 

Back to the topical CQ. 

As f see it, calling a CQ 
that announces your interest 
in discussing a specific topic 
comes close to Insuring that 
you and one or more other 
hams are likely to have an 
enjoyable QSO, QRM permit- 
ting. There's no guarantee of 
a stimulating exchange, of 
course, because the expertise 
of all participants as well as 
the level of interest in the 
topic by participants play a 
significant part. But the 
topical call certainly holds far 
more promise of satisfaction 
than does the general CQ 
with which we are all 
familiar, 

As an added incentive to 
use the topical CQ, think of 
the prospect of some ham 
having a rare DX call respond- 
ing to your call because he is 
tired of hit-and-run QSOs and 



is anxious to discuss your 
favorite subject with you. It 
could happen. 

There is no good reason 
why the topical CQ couldn't 
be extended to seeking help 
with some project in which 
youVe become involved. My 
initial call was a plea for help 
in understanding computer 
terms, despite the fact that I 
was thinking of the call at the 
time as merely an attempt to 
discuss computers. There is 
no doubt in my mind now 
that I was looking for some- 
one who might add to my 
limited fund of knowledge, 
i.e., someone to help me. 

Over the years, I have 
listened in on QSOs during 
which hams have instructed 
one another on how to tune 
an antenna, adjust a discrim- 
inator circuit, rebuild a VW 
carburetor, remove the 
flywheel from a lawn mower 
engine, prime a water pump, 
repair a sailboat center board, 
and locate a locksmith on a 
Sunday afternoon. I have 
even heard a physician offer- 



ing medical advice to one of 
his longtime net buddies, but 
that's carrying too far the 
help requests Tm advocating 
here. 

Hams, generally speaking, 
are people who are unusually 
alert and have wide diversi- 
ties of interests and talents. 
Few will deny that hams are 
responsive to one another's 
calls for assistance. Each of us 
has knowledge and ex* 
perience that we are willing 
to share, if onl y we are made 
aware of the need* 

A topical CQ can 
announce that need for 
assistance or can merely 
signal a desire to contact 
someone for the purpose of 
exchanging views about a sub- 
ject that is of special interest 
to the person initiating the 
calL 

So, how about it? If you 
want to talk about my 
current special interest, per* 
sonal computers^ I'll be 
listening on 20 meters for 
your topical '*CQ computers" 
call. ■ 



George Younq WB6JYK 
Sierra Hiqh Schooi 
ToUhouse CA 93667 



Call Letter 




High school wood shop 
instructors are always 
IiKiking for simple, educa- 
tional^ inexpensive projects 

for those students who need 
to be kept busy until such 
time that they come up with 
their own projects. 

Keep in mind that this 
project must have educational 
value for the instructor to 
justify putting a student on 
it, and the process of educa- 
tion is a slow one. You will 
actually be doing the instruc- 
tor a favor with your request, 
since he is always looking for 
just this kind of project. 
Shown is a piece of cedar, 
stained first, then routed in 
about 20 minutes by one of 



adds class to any shack 



my students while he was 
waiting for his own proiect to 
dry before applying the next 
coat of sanding sealer. Tm 
sure WB6TJV will be pleased 
with the results. ■ 



RECIPE 

Take ac€onipanytng photo to 
local high school wood shop 
instryctor. 

Supply him with your call fetten. 
Furnish $1.00 to Si. 50 in U.S. 
funds. 

Wait suitable time for educational 
process- 

Completed call sign will be re- 
turned so VQ'U ^^^ hang it out 
front of the shack. 





j^ 



189 




for ttie most part gotteri Into HFing. 

Tht move by tKe ARRL to force 
deal&rs to sel^ ham gear only to hams 
bv ref using to let them advertise in 
QST if they don't promise to be good 
is about what I would expect from the 
ARRL. There is something about the 
b u r e a y C r at ic tefn per am ent whtch 
seems to alw^s think in isrms of 
punishment as a wray to force people 
to do their biddirig rather than y^ng 
rewards for behavior mod. Their 
forcing the FCC into 'Incentive 
licensing" was typical . . . forcing 
hams to get a higher license by taking 
away bands unless ihey did. The 
bureaucratic system of making ever 
more laws to force people to do what 
the bureaucrat think is right has noc 
iieen fH>tice3biy successful. 

A handfut of ham dealers have been 
making a killing for several years by 
selling ham rigs to CB dealers for 
resaie to H Fei^ All they have to do is 
change a wire or two, add a couple of 
crystals, tune it up, and move it along 
for a very nice profit* The dealers, 
such as Tufts Electronics, which 
refuse to sell ham Hgs to CB dealers or 
directly to C&ers, are at a disadn/an- 
tage. This loss of safe* volume can 
n>ean higlier prices for same equip- 
mefit and slower delivery. 

Traffic in ham rigs to HFer^ will 
stow down when it becomes unprofit- 
able for the ham dealer to indulge in 
ft. There are ham dealers out there 
who will sell to anyone waving money 
and even sue the manufacturers if 
they refuse to ship to them for this 
trsde. While the entire industry looks 
with disgust on these "sewers," they 
still have to do bus mess with them or 
e\se spend a lot of money on lawyers, 
with the courts eventually backing up 
the sewers. 

Other than making ham gear in 
short supply for hams, what problems 
are HFars causing us? Oddly enough, 
not aft that many. The added volume 
of sales they represent helps keep ham 
rig prices down and encourages the 
development of new equipment. The 
amplifiers the HFers buy are generally 
the higher-powered ham amplifiers 
and thus are relatively free from 
spurious emissions. Even the FCC 
admits that the HFsrs aren't seriously 
bothering any other service. Perhaps 
this explains why, though the FCC 
people at HO in Washir)gton are bent 
out of shape over HF operation, little 
is being done tn the field to disccsurage 
rt ... even wfien ham groups get 
together and supply detailed informa- 
tion about HFer names, locations^ 
equipment, etc. 

Wiil an edict from the ARRL/QSf 
change the ways of business when the 
FCC doesn't seem to really care and 
when the people involved are not 



causing any sa^ious damage? It seems 

unlikety to me that this is anything 

more than a grandstand play. We'll 

see.' 

Ham dealers who sell gear to C Bars 

are quite aware of what they are 
doing. Chuck Martin WA1KPS of 
Tufts .Electronics comments on the 
ARRL demand that customers show a 
ham license to buy a rig, "Are you 
kidding? We can tell a CBer the 
minute he walks ir>to the store. We 
don^ waste time asking for ham 
licenses . , . it's too easy for anyone to 
bomjw one for a purchase. One or 
two questions and we know who is a 
ham and who Isn't- We sell ham rigs 
only to hams," 

The FCC is terribly upset over the 
TV I and other interference complatnts 
caused by the many illegal power 
implifiers being sold to add on to the 
4 Watt AM rigs. S nee the FCC put the 
ethical manufacturers out of the busi- 
ness, they've opened the floodgates 
for the unethical manufacturers . . . 
who have no reason at all to worry 
about spurious responses. The result 
has been hundreds of thousands of 
incredibly dirty power amplifiers 
being sold and a resulting tremendous 
increase in interference. 

The manufacturers of fe^pal ham 
amplrfien have been trying to pomt 
out to the FCC that a further restric- 
tion on making clean amplifiers will 
obviously result in the production and 
sa^e of dirty amplifiers. Laws further 
prohibiting amplifiers will result In 
exactly the opposite desired end. 
There has been no sign of anyone 
listening at the FCC- I do think that 
further prohibitions of linear ampli- 
fiers would be ^KHJt the worst thinf 
the FCC could do. They'll probably 
do it 

COMPUTERIZED QSLS? 

The RTTY chaps have been sending 
their QSLs by radio for many years; 
however, 1 doubt if these confirma^ 
tions are considered adequate by the 
organizations issuing cerEltk:at^^ 

With more and more microcom- 
puters in the hands of hobbyists, rt is 
probably jMSt a matter of days before 
a system will be devised to allow the 
access of one computer by another via 
the telephone system for either 
leaving a message or picking one Up. 
Indeed, Td like to publish the details 
on the interface boards for acqom 
plishing this* complete with details of 
the standards and protocols developed 
to accomplish a confirmed automatic 
message transfer. 

With the phone rates ^ing as low 
as 19^ per minute at some hours, this 
offers a reasonable and fast system as 
an alternate to the U.S. mails. Even 
the daytime 40d per minute charges 
aren't bad for a priority message^ 
delivered within a minyte or so in- 



stead of having to wait until night. 

In the past, some organizations 
have been very sticky abou( accepting 
QSL cards which have neither a can- 
celed postage stamp on them nor the 
stamp of a OSL bureau. I can under 
stand the situation, for one of the 
early aspirants for am of the 73 
Magazine operating awards sent in 
some OSL cards which looked per- 
fectly okay, but were fikes. They 
lacked the QSL bureau ^mp or 
postage to indicate mailing. For 
tunateiy, the fakes included cards 
from some rare DX stations which I 
had worked, and 1 quickly recognized 
the bogus cards submitted. Tsk» 

As more operators use microcom- 
puters, we may be able to have 
cs^ette tapes of the logs submitted by 
DX stations and do away with QSL 
cards, tn the meanwhile, put on your 
thinking cap and see if you can come 
yp with an interim solution. 

The high (and going higher) postage 
plus slow (and getting slower) de- 
liveries of our postal system are going 
to help encourage the use of com- 
pute r- to computer mess ages. The 
Postal Service has its own problems, 
and it is going to be a long time before 
they will be permitted to tackle most 
of the more serious ones ,,, so there 
is no iminediate hope of lovwr postage 
or much better service. 

One of the big miseri^ of the 
Postal Service is the political con 
straints. There are over 12,000 post 
offices in smalt towns which could be 
closed, saving over $100 million 
annually. These are kept open as a 
n-iatter of town prestige, not of func- 
tion. Another big lump could be saved 
if more rural mail could be delrvered 
to clumps of post boxes instead of 
free delivery to each customer 3t his 
home. When I was young, our post 
box was almost a half mile away, and 
I didn't think anything of walking 
down to it . , . at least not on warm 
days. Of course, our farm was out a 
ways ... we didn't even have eiec- 
trfcity (It still doesn't) ... or running 
water (still doesn't). 

When the Postal Service is per- 
mitted to be run more like a business 
and less like an arm of the govern- 
ment, i think well get better and 
cheaper ser^rice. In the meanwhile, the 
pressure for faster and cheaper service 
may quickly force the development of 
computer communications. As 
pioneers in communications, perhaps 
hams will be in there with the fivst 
systems and help develop the stan- 
dards which will stick with us. 



CATCH 22 FDR HAMS 

Early es^pe rim enters with RTTY 
found that they were severely limited 
in their possibilities by the FCC Even 
though the amateur service is char- 
tered by the FCC rules to provide 
inventions and piorieering, the FCC 
has constantly gone counter to their 
regulations by prohibiting any ex fieri - 
mentation which would produce 
signals which the FCC monitors could 
not copy. So how are hams going to 
invent something new if anything new 
is prohibited? Catch 22. 

One of the questions I've asked at 
FCC formal and informal hearings is 



why . , . why . , , the FCC monitors 
have to be atile to copy ham trans- 
missions using new techniques? H 
what is being transmitted is so diffi^ 
cult to copy that even the FCC 
monitoring stations cant hack it. 
what do they care about what is being 
transmitted? 

Perhaps there was, long ago, the 
fear that hams would go berserk and 
send naughty words over the air if 
they thought the FCC monttors 
couldn't copy them. Well, Vve a secret 
. . . this is probably one of itte first 
things hams will do. So what? That 
gets boring very quickly and the 
pioneers will be on to more interesting 
matters. There hasn't been any proof 
that words will do much long-range 
damage, so let the child in the ham 
come out and get over the excitement 
of being able to secretly pass naughty 
words. Big deal. The important U^rr^ 
IS for ham eKperimemers to have the 
freedom to try new ideas, new types 
of communications, new techniques. 
And they should be able to give these 
thin^ a try without a seven-year wait 
from the FCC for permission. 

The current FCC ban on amateurs 
using ASCII is, unfortunately, welt 
precedented by earlier refusals ID 
allow amateurs to do other just as 
innocuous things. Here we are being 
held back for years, while the FCC 
blunders through its molasses-slow 
procedures to permit what should 
have been automatically permitted at 
first request. 



FCC HEADACHES 

The FCC Amateur Division made 
the papers recently over tfw call letter 
business where one of the FCC 
employees w^ accepting cash in 
return for choice calls, I wish I'd 
heard before it got stopped. 

For years Tve been interested in 
getting W1 NSD, but the FCC has put 
me off, saying they couldn't do it 
The call has been open for about 2S 
years. At one time, I even put in a 
petition to make it possible to get 
counterpart calls such as this. The 
League liked the idea, too, and they 
also put in a petition asking for the 
same thing. Thrae petitions, after 
yellowing for about eJght years in the 
FCC files, were recently thrown out, 
with no reasonable explanation. 

It was my own fault. I could have 
gotten the call if I had not goofed off. 
When t moved down south, I was able 
to get W4IMS0* Later, whet 1 moved 
to Ohio, I iotWBr^SD. That was back 
in the '40s and 'SOs, As a matter of 
fact, in the Sweepstakes contest of 
1951, If you have an old issue of QST 
around, you'll find that 1 operated the 
first weekend of the contest as 
W2NSD/3 (and did quite wellL The 
second weekend of the contest I ran 
as WBMS0y2 (my new call had arrived 
just as I was going to New Yoric for a 
few days). 

By 1962, when I moved to New 
Hampshire, the FCC had stopped 
giving counterpart calls. There was no 
rule change; they just decided not to 
do it any more . - . too rnuch trouble. 
Having lived in New Hampshire off 

Commued on page 199 



190 





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Searching Receiver 

Touch SP, then enter the starting 

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Touch will search up through 

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the search band until it 

hears an active calL You1l 

probably discover "five" 

frequencies you never 

before knew existed. 

Priority Receiver 

Touch 2.. then sit back. Any call coming in over 
the frequency you choose for channel one will 
automatically override calls on other channels. Youll never 
miss a call on your favorite frequency. 



Search or Scan 

Touch SS to Search the unknown. Touch SC to 
scan the known. You can either search through 
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the stored frequencies you've selected for the 
sixteen scanning channels, There's so much 
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UHF , . 440-51 2MHz 

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HiVHF 0.6 m V 

UHF 0,7 M V 



Selectivity 

± 7 KHz (min.) @ 6 DB 
±15 KHz (max) @ 60 DB 
Squelch: (threshotd) 
Lo VHF 4 piV 

Hi VHF . . 0.5 t^ V 

UHF . . 0-6 M V 

Search Scan Range: (max) 
Lo VHF 4000 channels 
Hi VHF 5600 channels 
UHF 5760 channels 



Scanning Receiver 

Touch PR, then enter the frequency you want as 
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EDIATE DELWERY 




-V 



191 



73 Magadne St^ff 



Adjustable 
Bench Supply 



-- would you believe 1.2-37 volts? 



HOW about constructing 
an adjustable voltage 
power supply that can have 
up to 1,5 Amperes output 
with good load voltage regula- 
tion and full overload prolec* 
tion at minimal cost? Ad- 
mittedly, a $5.00 estimate 
depends a lot on what parts 
are available from one's junk 
box, but for [List a few dollars 
spent on a new I Q one can 
have the "heart" of a very 
versatile power supply. 

The new IC is the LM31 7 
by National Semiconductor. 
This IC promises to be as 
famous as the LM309^ which 
is so universally used in 
power supplies for digital 
circuitry. 

The new LM3T7 is an 
adjustable, three-terminal 
positive voltage regulator. Its 
simple external connections 
rather belie the complexity 
and performance features of 
the unit. As shown in Fig. 1, 
it has only simple in/out con- 
nections and a minimum of 
three simple external compo- 



nents are required. The out- 
put voltage is set by the ratio 
of two resistors, R1 and R2. 
By making R2 variable, one 
can adjust the output voltage 
to be any value from a few 
volts less than the dc input 
voltage to the regulator down 
to a minimum of about 1,2 
volts output. Thus, if the 
input dc voltage were 40 
volts, the output voltage can 
be continuously varied from 
about 37 volts down to 1.2 
volts* 

Although the output volt* 
age is determined only by a 
resistor setting, the output 
voltage is regulated at any 
given setting. The regulation 
will be about 0.1% going 
from no load to full load (1 .5 
Amperes, assuming the trans- 
former/rectifier used for the 
dc input voltage handles this 
current). The LM317 is also 
overload and thermally pro- 
tected. If the current limit is 
exceeded, such as by a short 
circuit, the LM317 will 



¥ m^DC 



fff 



Lii9(r 



CI 



ADJUST 



I 



V Ol/T. R£lrilLJTri} 



(20 



1 
i 
I 
I 
iT7 



R2 



^, AOJgST 



TO-S 



CASE 15 
TERMINAL 1 




Fig, J. Bask adjustable voltage regulator circuit using an 
LM3J Z Normally only three external components are neededf 
but C2 and C3 may be useful In certain situations as explained 
in the te\L 



simply "shut down. If the 
regulator gets too hot, either 
because of excessive load 
current and/or inadequate 
heat dissipation, it will also 
protect itself* Although one 
can destroy the LM317 like 
any other ICJt is pretty hard 
to do with any sort of reason- 
able care. 

The manufacturer suggests 
two additionaf capacitors {C2 

and C3) be used, which 
may prove useful in some 
applications. C2 is used to 
bypass the adjustment ter- 
minal to ground to improve 
ripple rejection- This bypass 
prevents ripple from being 
amplified as the output volt- 
age is increased. About 60 dB 
ripple rejection is achieved 



without this capacitor, but it 
can be improved to about 80 
dB by adding it. A 10 mF or 
greater unit can be used, but 
values over 10 mF do not 
offer any significant advan- 
tage in further ripple im- 
provement* The manufacturer 
particularly recommends the 
use of a solid tantalum capac- 
itor type since they have low 
impedance even at high fre- 
quencies. An alternative is the 
use of the more readily avail- 
able and inexpensive 
aluminum electrolytic, but it 
takes about 25 mF of the 
latter type to equal 1 mF of 
the tantalum type for good 
high frequency bypassing! C3 
is added to prevent instability 
when the output load 
presents a load capacitance of 
between 500 and 5000 pF. 
By using a 1 mF bypass at the 
output (solid tantalum again 
or aluminum electrolytic 
equivalent), any load capaci* 
tance in the 500 to 5000 pF 
range is swamped and sta- 
bility is ensured. Both C2 and 
C3 will not be required for 
many applications where the 
LM317 is being used with a 
specific load circuit. But if 
the LM317 is used as the 
heart of a general purpose 
bench type power supply, 
they should be included. 

Fig. 2 shows a PC board 
layout and component place- 
ment diagram. This layout 
has been suggested by the 
manufacturer, but there is no 
need to follow it exactly as 



COMPONENT 
SIDE 




VooT 



o- 



RIGUtATfO 

OUTPUT 

VOLTAGE 

1.2 to 37V 



^ 



C2 



-O 



O "^ V^"^— o 



Ca 



-^o 




11 

T 



V|N 



C^ 



Fig, 2. This is a PC board layout for the regulator suggested by 
the manufacturer, R2 is shown as a multi-turn pot for ease of 
adjustment The figure also shows the pin connections for an 
LM3J 7 if it is obtained in the TO-220 plastic case. 



t92 



long as all of the external 
components are grouped 
around Ihe regulator with 
solid short leads. The diagram 
shows the LM317 in a 
TO-220 plastic case which is 
designated the LM317T. Most 
amateurs will probably prefer 
to buy the LM317 in the 
familiar TO-3 metal case and, 
in this case^ it is the LM317K. 
But, when using the unit, 
note an important difference 
as compared to the old 
LM309K. The case on the 
LM309K was ground so one 
could simply bolt the thing 
down on a chassis for heat 
sinking. The case on the 
LM317K is the output ter- 
minal, so it must be properly 
insulated from a chassis. 

Various power supply 
ideas and considerations can 
suggest themselves for the 
LM317. For instance, R2, 
instead of being a variable 
resistor, can be replaced by 
switchable fixed resistors to 
obtain some of the com- 
monly used supply voltages 
such as 6j 9, 1 2, 1 5 volts, etc. 



This idea, plus a conlinuously 
variable output voltagp posf* 
tion, is featured in the practi- 
cal realization of a power 
supply using the LM317 as 
shown in Fig. 3. This supply 
will deliver fixed output volt- 
ages of 5, 9, 1 2, and 1 5 volts 
(depending upon how the 
trim potentiometers are set), 
plus a continuously variable 
output of 1,2 to about 24 
volts. All outputs can deliver 
at least 1,5 Amperes with the 
components specified. The 
supply is simple to build in 
any size metal enclosure suit- 
able for the components 
used. The only precautions to 
observe are to firmly heat 
sink the LM317 to one side 
of the metal enclosure and to 
keep the 0:1 mF capacitor 
going from pin 3 to ground, 
the 10 mF capacitor going 
from pin 1 to ground, and the 
1 20 Ohm resistor going 
between pins 2 and 1, all 
connected directly at the 
LM317 terminals. The other 
components may be mounted 
wherever it it convenient to 



SECOMJUIY 
.12 ni4C* WOLTJ tt5*> 




@ OUTPUT 



Fig. 3. A complete power supply using the LM317. The switch 
simply selects different 5fi Ohm pots which are set for 6, 9, 
12} /5, and a variable voltage output The latter 5k pot is front 
panel mounted^ The function of the LED is described in the 
text 



do so. 

The zener diode/resistor/ 
LED combination ai the 
output of the supply serves as 
a crude but useful voltage 
output indicator without 
having to build a regular volt- 
meter in the supply. The LED 
|ust starts to glow when the 
output voltage is about 9-10 
volts (depending on the toler- 
ances of the components 



used). The Ik resistor is 

adjusted so the LED just 
glows fully when the maxi- 
mum output voltage fs 
reached. So by using the 
fixed output voltage positions 
(which are adjusted using a 
good VOM) and watching the 
LED, one can obtain a fairly 
good estimate of what the 
variable output voltage is set 
for, « 



Test Instrument Saver 



--an old phone 
is required 



Harry J. Miller 
991 42nd Su 
Sarasota FL 53580 



Delicate^ costly test 
instruments may suffer 
severe damage when their 
conventional, too long leads 
snag on tools or on compo- 
nents spread out on the work- 
bench and are inadvertently 
yanked off it to the floor. 

A partial cure for this 
hazard is to replace the long 
leads with the much shorter 
coiled leads commonly used 



on cameras and flash units. 

The coiled leads can be 
stretched out to where 

needed. When let go they 
retract out of harm's way. 
Should they lose their recoil 
power, rewinding the coils in 
the opposite direction helps 
restore their springiness. 

Since each lead has two 
wires, their extra continuity 
gives them longer life. ■ 




193 



Presenting the ROBOT 1978 

SSTV FACT PACK 




PART 1 



ROBOT MODEL 400 

DATA SHEET 

Complete Listing of all the fea- 
tures and specifications on the 
new Robot 400 SSTV Converter. 



FART 2 




OUR NEW EIGHT 

PAGE BROCHURE 

This booklet telb you every- 
thing you want to know about 
SSTV. How it works, the fre- 
quencies allocated to SSTV^ how 
much it costs, how to involve 
your family, how to install and 
operate SSTV on your present 
station. 



PART 3 



PART 4 




THE 10.000 WORD 
SSTV STORY 

Featuring reprints of ham maga- 
zine SSTV articles thiit you may 
have missed. 




TUNE TO 14.230 MHz 
AND SEE ALL THE 
SSTV ACTION 

There is almost continuous 
SSTV activity on 14.230. A good 
way to get the inside story on 
SSTV is by monitoring this 
frequency. 




PART S 

ORDER YOUR 
ROBOT MODEL 400 
SSTV CONVERTER 

With the Robot 400 you just plug it into your trans- 
ceiver, connect a TV monitor or your home set with 
the optional Robot RF adapter kit, tune to 14,230, and 
you're operating SSTV. $ 695 



r 
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Gendcmen: 

Please send me the following: 

. Free 1978 SSTV Faa Pack 




Model 400 SSTV Converter 



NAME 



CALL 



ADDRESS 
CITY . 



STATE 



I ROBOT] 

ROBOT RESEARCH, INC. 

75d1 Convoy Court 

San Diego, CA 921 11 

PH (714J 279 9430 



ZIP 



1 



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in Gcrmdoy contact; Richter& Co,, Aicraimnstra^L, 17-19, HannoYer. 

In England contact: Aero & General Supplies, 32 Rutlord Ave., Hramcote, Nottingham. 



I 
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194 




ThQ 



In thQ Northwest! 




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195 



Allan S. Joffe WSKBM 
J 005 Twining Road 
DreshsrPA J 9025 



Photoelectric 



Bench Accessory 



-- when you need an extra "eye" 



Combine the leftover 
power supply from an 
experiment that failed with 
some twelve for a dollar CdS 
photocells purchased from 
S*D. Sales, Mix well with a 
lull in regular ham activities 
and the result is an interesting 
unit with many uses. 

The diagram in Fig, 1 
shows the basic unit The 
photocell is in series with a 
poL There is a voltage applied 



across this series combination 
to ground. The op amp is 
used as nothing more than a 
high impedance driver for the 
one mil meter used as an 
indicator of relative light flux 
impinging on the celL The 
word "relative" is important 
to notei as the meter is not 
calibrated in any special 
units* Its reading is com- 
parative only and its function 
is to tell you that li^t has 




either increased or decreased 
at any specific momenL The 
pot is used to control sen- 
sitivity. The hi^er the 
resistance, the greater the 
sensitivity of the unit. The 
photocell is mounted on two 
back to back lids from 
35 mm film containers of the 
plastic variety. One film can 
makes up the body of the 
probe. This has a hole cut in 
the side to allow the cell leads 
to cxiL Exiting the leads 
from the side rather than 
through the bottom allows 
the probe to be firmly 




positioned relative to a fight 
source. A second container 
has its bottom cut off and is 
used for a stray light shield 
around the celL These details 
are apparent in the photo- 
graph. 

Notice that there are two 
outputs: One is dc coupled 
throu^ an isolating resistor 
and the other is ac coupled 
through a 33 uF capacitor. 

With the values indicated, 
here is an idea of sensitivity 
for general use. An LED 
energized from an audio 
oscillator and held next to 
the cell will give about Vi volt 
of audio at the exciting fre- 
quency when the unit is at 
maximum sensitivity. This 
makes a handy bench coupler 
into your counter* A sixty 
Watt bulb in a white glass 
shade will pin the meter from 
a distance of about nine feet 
as will an ordinary two ceil 
flashlight- 

If you play around with 
QRP rf levels and are 
addicted to using pilot lamps 
as power indicators for tuhe- 
up, this unit will allow you to 
convert the light into a meter 
reading that seems much 
more sensitive to slight 
changes than the eye* When 
ypu are fighting for each 
milliwatt, this is very helpful. 

The unit puts out a nice dc 
pulse with a flash of light 
hitting the cell. Thus the dc 
output can be used for 
triggering an SCR or used to 
bias the base of a transistor 
used as a switch or some form 



IK 



-^f 



3 3|iF 



>OSTS 




tit 



i 



0-1 u 4 



1 K POT 



4t 



I: 
noAc 




V4C 



I"* 



-v^ — 



I 







m 



Fig. L All resistors }i W, 



196 



of dc ampfifier for control 
purposes. 

If you wish to raise the 
overall sensitivity of the unit, 
merely increase the value of 
the pot to 5k or 10k. This 
will greatly raise the sen- 
sitivity but may create stray 
light problems. For general 
use, the indicated values work 
very well. 

There is nothing magic 
about the voltages shown for 
the op amp; I used an existing 
supply, but six volts or so 
would work as well. 



Note that there is no need 
to use shielded cable for the 
cell leads. 

As with most projects, just 
about the time you g^t the 
last screw in place, there is 
that little voice whispering in 
your ear, saying, "1 wonder 
what would happen if , . , ?" 
Well, this project was no 
exception. Fig. 2 shows what 
happens when you listen to 
little voices. 

The ac power supply has 
disappeared, replaced by two 
C cells in series. The op amp 



+3V 



DC ^ 



IK 




AC 

OUT 



3 3i-F 



if 



I 



mm4 

-m- 



20« 



WtTER 



^ 



1 



fl 



F/g. 2 



has vanished because a more 
sensitive (50 microamp) 
meter has been used. The 
diode in series with the meter 
is used to provide a hoi doff 
threshold effect so a small 



steady meter reading is 
cancelled. Either unit does 
about the same job of pro- 
viding your bench with a 
photocell dimension that will 
find many uses, ■ 



pi 



77/78 AMATEUR RADIO 
EQUIPMENT DIRECTORY 



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197 



Eugene Daren WA6THG 
62lBCalle Empinade 
San Diego CA 92120 



Inside the SR'52 



-- calculator 
doubles as micro 



farads and let the machine 
convert it to farads. Further 
into the program we round 
off our answer to two places 
beyond the decimal point. 
This is done in step 033 
where we fix the number of 
places after the decimal point 
to two in step 034. !f we feel 
thit we really don't need any 
portion of an Ohm in the 
final answer, step 034 could 
be keyed 9 instead and the 
machine will then round off 
the answer to no places to the 
right of the decimal. Later, in 
steps 040 and 041 , we tell the 
machine to go back to its 
original 10 digit display and 
clear all memories for a com- 
plete new set of values. Isn't 
that beautiful? 

Lei*s do a sample problem 
and watch this wondrous 
little gem go through its 
tricks. Let's suppose that we 
have discovered that upon 



If you are anything like 
mtt this business of math 

formulas as used in elec- 
tronics today is enough to 
scare you half to death. 

Being a basically lazy but 
inquisitive sort, the need for 
mathematical answers when 
desiring some pet project 
kept rearing its ugly head. 
About a year and a half ago I 
broke down and bought my 
first scientific calculator, a 
Texas Instruments SR-50. I 
loved this instrument, and its 
ease of use made those for- 
mulas I had hated in the past 
child's play. But the SR-50 
had a nagging problem which 
took some of the edgp off the 
fun. Its problem, simply 
stated, was only one memory* 
This fact made me resort to 
the pencil more times than I 
cared Something had to be 
done. 

Then one day^ something 
was done. The first program- 
mable calculator with multi- 
ple memory came upon the 
market I fell in love instantly 
and dreamed of the day when 
I, too, could carry the 
wisdom of Solomon in my 
back pocket. But the early 
introduction price of almost 
$400,00 made me hesitate. 
Wisdom was fine» but for 



$400.00 I found that I could 
push an awful lot of pencils. 

Gradually, as time wore 
on, I watched the prices drop 
until one day it broke the 
magic $200,00 figure, and I 
rushed with sweatstained, 
crumpled bills to my local 
calculator emporium to buy 
my first programmable calcu- 
lator ... no, not calculator 
but, rather, mini pocket 
computer . • • the magnificent 
5R52. 

Oh joy of joys, oh thrill of 
thrills, for the next two days 
I sat mesmerized by the 
winking, blinking^ flashing 
numbers. At last the drudgery 
of math was truly defeated 

The programmable pocket 
computer is a very powerful 
tool, and, whether you write 
your own programs or use 
those of someone else, it is a 
constant joy- For those of 
you who have recently 
bought your first instrument 
but have not mastered the 
knack of programming, here 
is a simple program to calcu- 
late Xc, capacitive reactance. 

Simply stated, the formula 
for capacitive reactance says: 
Xc in Ohms is equal to the 
reciprocal of frequency in 
Hertz times capacitance in 
farads times the quantity 2 



pi. What a drag to wade 
through that humbug. But 
with the accompanying for 
mual keyed into your favorite 
SR-52 or SR-56, it suddenly 
all becomes child's play. 

Turn on your machine^ 
press LRN and up pops 000 
00. The first three zeros indi- 
cate the step number, and the 
last two zeros indicate the 
key to be pressed in teaching 
the calculator its smarts. An 
extremely well written set of 
books comes with each and 
every machine, and in the 
back of the small book with 
the SR'52 is a chart detailing 
each key as to its identifica- 
tion number. 

Now, let's key into the 
machine the program in Table 
1. 

The formula turns out to 
be somewhat an unwieldy 
one to use, as who of us uses 
capacitance values in farads. 
In step 008 the machine is 
told to convert farads to 
microfarads by going automa- 
tically into scientific notation 
when "EE" is pressed, and 
then in step 009 and 010 we 
enter into the program, the 
minus 6th power of ten. This 
allows us, when entering the 
problem's values, to enter 
capacitance values in micro- 



000 


46 


*LBL 


001 


11 


A 


002 


42 


STO 


003 


00 





004 


01 


1 


005 


81 


hit 


006 


46 


•LBL 


007 


12 


8 


008 


52 


EE 


009 


94 


+/- 


010 


06 


6 


oil 


42 


STO 


012 


00 





013 


02 


2 


014 


81 


HLT 


015 


46 


•LBL 


016 


13 


C 


017 


53 


( 


018 


59 


W 


019 


65 


H 


020 


02 


2 


021 


65 


X 


022 


43 


RCL 


023 


00 


9 


024 


01 


1 


025 


65 


X 


026 


43 


RCL 


027 


00 


1? 


028 


02 


2 


029 


&4 


\ 


030 


20 


h 


031 


22 


inv 


032 


52 


EE 1 


033 


57 


im 


034 


02 


2 


035 


81 


HLT 


036 


48 


LBL 


037 


15 


E 


038 


25 


CLR 


039 


47 


*cms 


040 


22 


inv 


041 


57 


•fix 


042 


81 


HLT 


end of proiram 



Table /. 



198 



attempting to pipe a touch- 
loneTM pad into our phase 
modulator and bypass all the 
mic stages, we still can't key 
up that autopatch down the 
road. 

Hmmmm ... the lowest 
frequency used in the touch- 
tone pad is 697 Hz, but the 
guys on the frequency all 
seem to agree that the high 
frequency tone is there, but 
the tow frequency tone is 
very low in amplitude. Upon 
examination of the schematic 
we find that the coupling 



capacitor out of the inter- 
stage transformer in the mic 
circuit feeding the phase 
modulator is onty an .02 uF. 

Well, let's see . . . picking 
up our trusty SR'52 and 
loading up the program, we 
enter the audio frequency 
value 697 into "A" and the 
coupling capacitor value ,02 
uF into "B'V Depressing "C" 
tells us that the capacitive 
reactance of that *02 uF 
coupling capacitor is 
1141 7.14 Ohms. 

Gee, no wonder those gyys 



on the autopatch can't hear 
the low frequency tone. 
Suppose we increase the 
capacitor value to ,05 uF, 
What's the Xc value then? 
Returning to our miracle of 
miracles, we enter into "B" 
the new value ,05 and once 
a^n press "C'\ Out spits 
4566,86, Well, that's better, 
but not really good enough 
for tiie autopatch operation, 
so v^ try another capacitor 
value of .33 uF into the 
computer and out spits 
691.95. ni bet that works. 



Suddenly, after changing the 
capacitor to the new value of 
33 uF, we find the autopatch 
swallowing our signal and 
keying up Ihc dial tone. 

If you have followed me 
through this exercise, you 
wilt now begin to appreciate 
this beautiful little handful of 
plastic and electrons. Loading 
some of the other programs 
that come with the instru- 
ment will truly open your 
eyes to the reason I, for one, 
will never be without my 
wondrous mental crutch. ■ 




from page f90 

and on for much of my fife, it 
wtouldn't have been much trouble to 
get a WINSD call back when the 
getting was good. Goofed, 

The current frenzy ^^^^ two fetter 
ciills is fun. When I sugyested to the 
FCC that they offer special caHsas an 
incenttve to get an Extra cl^s iicense 
(in 19631, They said that hams iden* 
lif ied with their calls and would never 
gci for ft. Instead, they opted to 
punish hams for not upgrading theJr 
licenses rather than offering an incen- 
tive such a? a special calL They called 
It "incentive licensing." 

At any rate, whOe most of us were 
tied to our calls, a few found ways 
aroLtnd the md tape. The ones 
involved m the conviction of the FCC 
chap were K3MM. K8KD. K8RS, and 
K8RZ* all of which now appear to 
have been withdrawn. Alt Ohio boys 
. , . odd, since the last I heard, 0h[o 
wasn't yet offic5ailv one the United 
States. They really should be issiiing 
their own calls out there and stop 
voting in our elections. But that's 
another story, and an interesting one. 
It ^ems the Ohio legislature rtever 
actually got around to ratifying the 
joining of the Umon, and by the time 
this was discovered, everyone felt it 
was better to shut up and not make 
waves. 

Getting back to thcne licenses , . , I 
have noticed others have managed to 
get counter pan calts, white I'm still 
living out the remainder of my 
existence as W2NS0 instead of 
W1NSD. 

The newspaper article made a big 
deal out of one of the FCC officials 
gettmg his own initials for his call. Big 
deat The FCC's answer to that was 
that they tried to make officials more 
vlsrb^e when they operated. That's not 
a bad answer, Perhaps something ?vefi 
more visible , , . like W3A . . . would 
have been even more satisfactory. 



EDITORIAL BY WA YNB GREEN 
Those one letter calls do stand outi 

THE NEW "REPEATER" BAND 

Apparently there are a few ama- 
teurs who have noticed that while the 
FCC deregutated the 1445-145.5 
MHz band so repeaters could be used 
there, the FCC made no mention that 
repeaters had to be used t here. 

With only a small percentage of the 
current I V operational repeaters being 
used much, it seems counterproduc- 
tive (dumb?} to start allocating a 
whole riew bunch of channels for 
repeaters. Yes, I know that every 
red blooded ham will not be happy 
until he has found out how difficult it 
is to set up and run a repeater of his 
own. Yes, \ know that few of us are 
able to learn from the experiences of 
others arKl that most of us prefer to 
make our own mistakes, no matter the 
expense in time and money. 

As the past setter -upper and main- 
tainer of some repeaters, I can testify 
as to the trouble and expense. As a 
matter of fact, I suppose I should 
write up some of the adventures m 
reseat er^r^ as a humor article for 73 
— the v^fading through four feet of 
srtow to get to a locked- up repeater — 
the two snowmobiies in the bam just 
to get to the repeater site — all so a 
small group of misfits who had been 
chjased off every other repeater in 
New England would have a place to 
spend the remaining days of their 
unproductive ih/es. 

Should I mention the purchase of 
the dup^e^ter? It seems that when you 
use a duplexer there is a little problem 
which gets kind of glassed over In the 
literature .,. temperature. Tempera- 
ture is something of which there is a 
great lack on top of a New Hampshire 
mountain during the winter. So this 
chap fa 73 staffer}, who shall have to 
go unnamed, figured out a fix for that 
problem ... he set up a heater near 
the duplexer and I |u?t about had 
heart failure when the electric bill 



came the next sprtng , . . ^350 to heat 
that damned duplexer. Let me know 
if you want to buy a duplexer cheap 
.*. very cheap. I gave away the 
rep^ter. 

So, do we need a whole new raft of 
unused repeaters in the newly deregu- 
lated MHz, complete with the usual 
wars between SSBers, CW DXers, 
AMers, and all the groups who have 
already annoLinced that they are ready 
and willing to go to war? Why »5 il 
that the very first reaction to atiy 
change iS to threaten war? I get the 
feeling that a lot of hams gre excited 
over the prospects of yetting back to 
war . . . it*s more fun. Cooperation has 
led to very dull repeaters and a big 
loss of Interest, Now, a good hot 
war . . » 7 

WeN, you do what you like. 1 really 
cbn'i care if the repeater fans fand 
I'nn one) have terrible battle over 
whether to go 20 kHi splits, or 30 
kHz with 15 kHz unusable splinters 
fwho ever learns from experience?!* 
And I'll cheer on the sidewinders and 
their forays against the terrible re^ 
paater gnDups . , . and the AMers 
leapir^ out to do battle with any 
repeater which dares to set fool inside 
the new band . . . etc. 

If people want to be foolish and 
waste their time and energy fighting 
ir^ead of inventing and pioneering 
and trying to move things ahead, Til 
do whit I can to ignore them. It's a 
pity . . . Just think of all the new 
thin^ we could develop if we would 
sijend ouf time in a positive manner. 
We coukJ develop some fantastk: 
repeater systems — with aytomatic 
calling and message handling — with 
micnacomputer interface - perhaps as 
an adjunct to burglar, fire, water, etc., 
alarm systems in hams' houses — tied 
in with ELT for locating planes which 
are dow^n , .etc* 

Just why the FCC didn't open the 
rest of two meters to Techs is one of 
those mysteries. Frankly. I think that 
was dumb. If the lack of a full MHz 
hasn't forced Techs to get a General 
license in all these years, why will the 
lack of a half meg do it? 

WARC PROPOSALS 

A reader sent atong a copy of some 

of the foreign proposals for band 

changes which might interest you . . . 

particularly if you have been worrvlng 



about whether to buy a new rig now 
or wait for one which will include 
those promised new ham bands which 
we wilt be getting after the )TU 
meeting in 1979. 

The BBC proposals * rem ember, that 
is the British government I are to 
resolve the sharing of the 7100-7300 
kHz broadcast band with amateurs by 
re-aHot;aiion (moving out the ama- 
teurs) They further point out that it 
is necessary to at least double each of 
the shortwave broadcasting bands 
below 20 MHz, Guess whose bands 
would be, affected? 

The 8BC also wants to use up most 
of the ham 220 MHz band with added 
television allocations , . , up to at least 
223 MHz. Whoops, there goes 2201 

The BBC will not have things all 
their own way with this TV plan, for 
the C.E.P.T. (Central Europe govern 
ments) wants ip allocate 174-235 
MHz for mobile service. They also are 
propo^ng 41-63 MHz for mobile 
i there goes ^\x meters!) and a mobile 
service in the 430-432 and 438-440 
MHz bands, replacing amateur use of 
those bands. These decisions were 
reached st a meeting In Puerto de la 
Cruz in 1974 and revised at Malaga- 
Torrerrtolinos in 1975. They will 
probably stick. 

Obviously we may lose more than 
just our low bands at WARC. 



AHD 



M V.LC. 





.11, HiMEii, ttt\t\it CHW-fflf MbA filtllU'ift- ■A'aynr 
t}Nf-n, Fctdrh'ifiiiUth, NJt. Q44EK. -i^ 

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mrt^mm m mm* mt twui «B»«id. «i m^wk, ir bjii 




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llwiucli diaJcfl uhl rArrlsn, iirvKf ¥tn|tor» wtiS 
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Mi iDai Mh., i^JLltQ iVl tM«V: P 

tiki taWlT> *JfT *. 
*%^ «tf fL. Fl 



iihtA&m vbAtH*^ mi^m <hm mm Jan n 




199 



Boost Your TR22! 



-- with a mini roci< crusher 



L^rry Levy WA21NM 
1114 E. l&ihSt 
Bmoklyn NY 112S0 



My TR22 is a very nice side to reach some of the 
rig, but it is a little more distant repeaters full 
short on the power output quieting. There have been 



ttiPffO 







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(SEE TEXTJ 

2-144 OR 

fQUiV 




N.D 



flLI 



02 




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6^F 
TANTALUM 



— —4k 



OUTPUT 

-f 



HX 



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RLI 





HFCZ 







3^PC BDflRD 



4LliMIF4UM 
—HEAT 

SINK 



TVO OF QJ 



Rff. 2 LI - 2!4 Wrm 4f22 sohd wire; L2 - same as U\ %'' diameter spaced M"; RFC! -2 
approximately 6 turns ^22 solid wire (insulated)^ ]4 "diameter dose spaced. 



several modifications pub- 
lished that would Increase the 
power output of this rig, but 
they all have common draw- 
backs: 1) There is barely 
enough drive for the final 
that is in there now, so the 
drivers have to be reworked 
to give more power. 2) The 
increased power means in- 
creased battery drain for the 
times that I want to use It on 
battery power. And, 3) the 
increased power doesn't help 
my other HT, when I want to 
use that ai the QTH or 
mobile. 

The easiest and most flex- 
ible solution is to build an 
outboard power amp, which 
will connect to either HT and 
can be used in the car as well 
as the house, (Actually, given 
the price and effort to build 
these, you could build an 
extra and leave it in the car,) 
The cost for construction is 
under $15, and it takes less 
than an hour to build. 

Depending upon the tran- 
sistor used and the rig driving 
it, you will gel 9 or 10 Walts 
out with a 2N5590- If you 
have a higher-powered HT or 
base rig, you could substitute 
a 2N6081 (1 .S^^a W drive, VS 
W out), a 2N6082 (3-5 W 
drive, 25 W out), of a 
2N6083 (30 W out), or, if 
you have 7-10 W available, 
you might try a 2N6084 (40 
Wout)or2N6097 (40W). 

These would aJI use the 
same basic amplifier circuit 
The 2N5590 and most of the 
others listed are available 
from CeCo Communications, 
2115 Avenue X, Brooklyn 
NY 11235 (a 73 advertiser), 
and are reasonably priced 
(the 2N5590 is about $6, the 
2N6081 is about $7, cur- 
rently, and the others are 
comparably priced). 

Construction 

The amplifier is con- 
structed on a piece of copper 
PC board, mounted on a 
Finned aluminum heat sink- 
The stud of Ql is used to 
mount the board to the heat 
sink, A scrap piece of PC 
board is filed to clear the case 
of Ql , and soldered to the 



200 



main board after the tran- 
sistor is mounted and the 

emitter tabs are soldered to 
the main board. This acts as a 
shield i^etween the input and 
output circuits. Layout is 
simple (see Fig. 2) straight- 
line construction. RLl is a 
DPDT 12 Vretay, with 25-50 
mA coil current. (A relay 
with a higher coil current 
could be used, but the 
2N2222 type transistor 
should be replaced with one 
having a higher current rating. 
The cheap plastic TO-220 



THE ANSWER TO THE 
BIQGESTStGI^AL 

W1CPI CENTER 



type audio transistors should 
work fine for this applica- 
tion.) Radio Shack stocks a 
relay with the right current, 
available for a few dollars* 

LI and L2 should be 
dipped^ with a few feet of 
coax connected. C4 can be a 
disc ceramic, about 40 pF, If 
really Fine tuning is desired, it 
could be replaced with a 50 
or 60 pF trimmer. C5 is a 
T.5-7 pF trimmer. It could be 
replaced with a fixed value 
cap, if desired. 2-3 pF should 
work for a small hand-held 



HTorTR22(1-2Wrange),or 
a gimmick could be used for 
the higher power rigs (when 
used with the higher power 
transistors). In either case, 
the minimum capacitance 
that will give reliable keying 
should be used. 

Tune-u p/0 perat io n 

Connect the amplifier to a 
power source, and connect a 
wattmeter to the output with 
a dummy load. Tune CI and 
C3 {also C4, if variable) for 
maximum output. Now back 



down C5 until the relay drops 
out, and increase it slightly 
until it keys reliably. 

You might now connect 
the wattmeter to the input 
and check swr, C2 may be 
varied to get the lowest swr 
(with retuning Cl)» if theswr 
is high. Connect the watt- 
meter to the output, connect 
an antenna, and repeak for 
maximum. This completes 
the tune-up. A switch may be 
added in the power lead, so 
the booster may be shut off if 
not needed. ■ 



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If you need a reliable counter at an affordable price, the CTR-2 is the answer. 



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tiniTcuivwr w't [Put l^rmibmi Vh] •njta^ tu i 
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rmiflB rtiuHiff ri!^*T^«iF femiTt. ■ ■ .'(pd 

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201 



D O V ET R O 





MPC-IOOOC 

Multipath-Diverstty 
Amateur Net: {495.00 



The MPC-IOOOC features MULTIPATH CORRECTION, fNBAND DIVERSITY (single 
channet copy during deep selective fades) Operation and a PHASE^CONTINUOUS 
AFSK TONE KEYER. The Mark and Space channels are CONTINUOUSLY tuneable 
from 1200 to 3100 Hi. The internal RY GENERATOR and DUAL MODE AUTOSTART 
(FSK or MARK) are standard, as are rear panel prowisfons for SIGNAL REGENERA- 
TION and SPEED CONVERSION peripherals. 




MPCIOOOCR 

Sfgnal Regenefation & 
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Amateur Net: $595.00 



The MPCIOOOCR combines all the features of the MFC lOOOC with the TSR-200 
SPEED CONVERTER-REGENERATOR. A front panel SIGNAL SPEED switch provides 
electronic "gear-shifting*' between 60, 66, 75 and 100 WPM speeds. Afl incoming 
and outgoing signals are regenerated by a CMOS UART and a crystal-controlled 
DUAL-CLOCK to less than 0.5% bias distortion, providing an extremely low error- 
rate on weak and badly distorted signals. 




MPC-IOOOR 

Dual-Uart Regenerttiofi, 

200 Character Fifo 
Memory & Word Correction, 

Ajnateur Net: $820.00 

The MPC-IOOOR combines the features of the MPCIOOOCR wfth the TSR-SOO SPEED 
CONVERTER'REGENERATOR and offers 200 characters of FIFO MEMORY, a DUAL- 
UART REGENERATOR that also provides local copy during all PRELOAD RECIR- 
CULATE functions, a WORD CORRECTION circuit that permits an incorrect word 
to be erased from memory by depressing the local keyboard's BLANK key, VAR- 
IABLE CHARACTER RATE and automatic BLANK/LTRS DIDDLE. Character OVER- 
RUN during down*speed conversion Is prevented by an automatic CHARACTER RATE 
OVER-RIDE and TEE DEE INHIBIT circuit Three preset AFSK TONE/SHIFT combi- 
nations are selectable from the front paneL 

The MPC-IOOOR (SO characters of memory), MPC-IOOOCA (Tri tone AFSK). MPC- 
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available. 

Your QSL wtll bring complete specifications, or call: 213-682*3705. 



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(P. O. Box 2i7) 

South Pasadena^ Ca. 91030 



023 




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MANUAL with purchase of Receiver only.. . . $20** 

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Please allow (or stripping charges 

USE YOUR VISA Of MASTEH-CHAHGECARQi 
Addfi^; Ob(«. 73 • PliOf>e:4t9/Z27«73 pt 



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IDI6 I. EUREKA ^ Sox 1105 - LIMA. OHIO - 45S02 



202 



THE SYSTEM 3000A TRANSCEIVER 




AN ADVANCED CONCEPT IN 2M FM 



Edgecam Incm proudly presents a totally new concept in aniateur radio: SYSTEM 3000A - a microcomputer -based 
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extraordinary features of SYSTEM 3000 A are: 

• TWENTY FRONTPANEL-PROGRAMMABLE PRIORITY CHANNELS, Just dial in 
the frequency and transmitter offset, press the Enter Switch and you're in the memory* 
A battery backup is used to retain the memory when power Is removed, 

*DUAL BUILT-IN SCANNERS. One for aotomaticaily tuning the the band in one or 
four MHz bands, the other for scanning the priority channels. Adjustable pause from 
3-10 sec. 

• PRIORITY CHANNEL MONITOR so you can operate on one frequency while 
periodically monitoring one or more priority channels* 

• ANY TRANSMITTER OFFSET. In addition to the standard ±600 kHz, SYSTEM 
3000A can be front-panel programmed to provide any transmitter offset from 5 kHz to 
4 MHz. 

• ADVANCED PLL SYNTHESIZER covers 144-147.995 MHz in 5 kHz steps with 
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• 25 WATTS OUTPUT. Selectable High/Low power output with adjustable low power, 

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E18 



203 



JE:. Dumm W4NVK 
Chief Engineer, Dusina Enterprises 
571 Orange Aveaue W 
Meiboume FL 3 2 90 J 



QRM on the Moon? 



- - yep, on all bands 



Awhile back, I had occa* 
sion to do some design 
work to determine the best 
frequency to be used by an 
explorer using a handie-talkie 
on the moon's surface. In 
that work, I had to calculate 
the signal levels arriving on 
the moon from all known 
Earth iransmitters^ to deter- 
mine which frequencies were 
so QRMcd that they would 
be a bad choice. The results 
were quite interesting in that 
they showed that most fre- 
quencies are already 
"occupied" on the moon by 
Earth QRM. 

It may surprise you kilo- 
watters lo learn thai your idle 
chatter bombards the moon 
with readable signal levels. If 
there had been moon people, 
they would have had tittle 
problem knowing alt about 
Earthlings, since they could 
have merely turned on their 
radios and TV sets to monitor 
just about any station in the 
world broadcasting on fre- 
quencies above the broadcast 
band. Many persons will kind 
of suspect that TV signals 
with their 1 megawatt effec- 
tive radiated power (ERP) 
might reach the moon, but 
few hams whom t have talked 
to even suspected that their 
QSOs regularly reached the 
moon. 



Ham signals above 80 
meters frequently reach the 
moon at enough strength lo 
be quite readabJe, if a receiver 
up there using a decent anten* 
na was tuned lo the fre- 
quency. Most moderately 
powered transmitters that use 
di poles, which radiate appre- 
ciable power straight up^ 
reach the moon when it is 
high in the sky, providing the 
ionospheric critical frequency 
is low enough relative to the 
transmitting frequency to 
permit the signals to punch 
through at high radiation 
angles. 

For those hams that may 
be rusty on their critical fre- 
quencies, Fig. 1 gives a 
typical summer and winter 
curve showing how these vary 
versus local time. In using this 
chart, remember that 12:00 
local time is high noon by the 
sun, reprdless of what your 
clock may indicate. Study of 
Fig. 1 reveals that the 40 



meter signals punch through 
all the time except for a 
couple of hours each noon in 
the winter. Eighty meters 
punches through only late at 
night through early morning, 
and bands above 40 punch 
through always. 

To show the sipial levels 
arriving on the moon, Fig. 2 
presents their level when the 
transmitter is 1 kW, and both 
the Earth transmitter and the 
moon receiver use ordinary 
dipolc antennas. Notice that 
even on the moon one cannot 
escape static completely, 
since the galactic noise still 
prevails much stronger than 
pure receiver noise. The lower 
sloping curve on Fig, 2 shows 
the value of galactic noise 
versus frequency. To estimate 
the quality of signals reaching 
the moon, for example on 40 
meters, consult the chart at 
40m and read the received 
signal level as being -97 dB 
below a milliwatt (dBm). The 



mm Br 



*lHTEn 




2 A 6 5 10 l£ 14 le IB to ZZ 24 
LOCAL TIME 



Fig. h Typical critica! frequencies. 



galactic noise at 40m is about 
-107 dBm, so the signal to 
noise ratio will be about 10 
dB in a 2 kHz SSB band- 
width, which is the band- 
width the chart is designed 
for. This 10 dB is not a very 
hot signal, but it is readable. 

If antennas with vertical 
gain were being used instead 
of free space dipotes, such as, 
for instance^ ordinary di poles 
within a quarter wave of 
ground, a larger signal would 
prevail. For example, if a 
Super Gain^ antenna was 
used on each end of the link, 
14 dB more gain would 
result, giving a 24 dB signal to 
noise ratio, which is quite 
readable indeed. CW fans may 
rejoice in the fact that CW 
truly booms into the moon. 
This is because the human ear 
is equivalent to a 50 Hz effec* 
tive pre-detection bandwidth, 
when using a receiver with a 
product detector* Therefore, 
CW has a bandwidth com- 
pression factor of 2000/50j 
or about 40 times^ which 
amounts to 1 6 dB more signal 
to noise ratio over SSB voice. 
ThuSj even a 1 00 Watt rig is 
very readable on the moon if 
CW is used. 

Of course, there will still 
be the usual QRM from other 
hams on the same frequency, 
even on the moon. However, 
since beams and vertical 
antennas put very little signal 
straight up, those with such 
antennas will not QRM the 
moon, and the net result will 
be much less congestion on 
the moon. 

The above values of signal 
levels are given in dBm, which 
are very familiar to all who 
do serious work in commune 
cations, but dBm may be 
unfamiliar to many hams 
whose usual jargon references 
signals in the notorious S 
meter system. 1 cannot con- 
vert to S values, since each 
receiver is different in its indi- 
cation of S level, and g'oss 
differences even exist 
between similar units on a 
production run. However, the 
value of -97 dBm represents 

^ See 73, Oct., 1970, pg. 8 for 
description. 



204 



3.8 uVinaSOOimline. You 
will have to calibrate your 
receiver to determine what 
that would be in S units on 
your rig. Anyhow^ this is a 
piddling signal for anyone 
who would try to commijni- 
cate on Earth. Earth static 
and QRM are severe, and 
would completety mask such 
a weak signal. However, on 
the moon, such a signal, small 
though it is, would be above 
the noise and static far 
enough for useful communi- 
cations. 



So, you guys on the UFO 
net, be advised that the ntoon 
is listening^ and one would be 
unwise to bad-mouth saucers, 

for this might offend some 
compulsive young saucer cap- 
tain who may use his laser to 
ionize a conducting path 
between the nearest ripe 
thunderhead and your anten- 
na, thereby delivering a bolt 
directly into the shack 
creating much smoke, 
reverence j and no doubt 
setting some record for the 
shortest though loudest 



-SECErvED SIGNAL LE^L 

FREE SPACt DtPOLE AMttMHA^ 




&i].iiCT|t NS11E 
iM2MHlPECtiVf:R 



m zftHi 



Fig, 2- Received signa! levels on the moon in typiai/ SSB 
receiver. 



digital message ever sent. 
Also, those who would like a 
temporary respite from our 
unresolvable terrestrial prob- 



lems may want to contem- 
plate utiat callsign the first 
moon DX expedition should 
have. ■ 



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PC Techniques Booklet, 
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205 



I have been a VHF enthu- 
siast from the time 1 first 
knew Gf the 2m band; and I 
prefer mobile work most of 
alt. This was to my advantage 
while in the Navy, as I could 
lake my QTH with me wher- 
ever I might be stationed. 

Now that I am a dvifian, I 
decided to become more 
active and help save some of 
our frijquencies. In Montana 
we had a great ^oup on 
"two" but nowhere else in 
the VHF range. So, joined by 
another ham, I decided to do 
some work on 450 MHz. 
Since I ovm an IO230, I fell 
in [ove with the lC-30a when 
I saw it. We both bought a 
unit at a great savings through 
the local dealer to help get 
our 450 effort off to a good 
starts 

Since 1 owned a Pinto, I 
didn't really have the room 
for both rigs or two antennas, 
so I was always with one rig 
or the other. I soon tired of 
this ordeal (and decided to 
help the economy too) and 
bought myself a new Dodge 
van. Now this was big enough 
to hold my iC-230, IO30a 
and my scanner, with enough 
roof to make the thing look 
like a porcupine. After 
weighing many options, I 
decided to make a shelf above 
the sun visors, since none of 
the rigs were more than two 
inches thick. I spent one 
whole weekend drilling holes* 
filing, sawing and having a 
great lime. I then stood back 
and was pleased with what i 
saw. From left to right, the 
shelf was occupied by the 
IC-30a, the IG230, the 
discriminator meter and, 
finally, the scanner. I still had 
plenty of room for a 6 meter 
or 220 rig in the future, I 
used the mounting hardware 
that came with the Icom 
gear, I put wood screws 
through the two holes in the 
clamps and affixed them to 
the shelf. I thought this way 
they were solid, but could be 
taken out if they ever failed 
(my first mistake). 

Having never had any ham 
gear stolen, even in Cali- 
fornia, I didn't think about it. 
But I did always lock all the 



Richard F. Heivey WB6THJ 

77. J J 1 CaUrornia Ave., ApL B-1 2 

Paim Desert QA 92260 



Filcher Foiler 



Car Alarm 



- - car door operated 



doors when I was away. Then 

1 came out Saturday morning 
(one week later) to find my 
van raped and my IC-30a 
savagely ripped away from 
the sheif* The power and 
speaker cords were cut, but 
not the antenna, which had a 
slip on fitting since the 
50*239 was metric. Once I 
got over the shock, I put out 
a QST (A general call to 
hamSj not a magazine. — Ed.) 
on 2 meters to let them know 
what happened- In a daze, t 
then called the police and 
went through all the paper- 
work, 

I made up my mind right 
then that this was not going 
to happen again. I called a 
few places inquiring about 
alarm systems. The prices 
varied from $80 to $1 50 for a 
complete job. I then gathered 
up my ham pride and decided 
I could build one for less 
money- After about ten 



minutes of head scratching, I 
came up with the circuit in 
Fig, L It is very simple and 
the total cost of parts came 

to about $25 to $30, All 
parts can be bought at Radio 
Shack except the door 

switches- They are the ''dome 
light" type and must be 
bought at an auto parts store 
for about 79^ each. If any 
door is opened the relay ener- 
gizes and latches, putting plus 
battery to the noise maker. 
The only way to turn it off is 
to come to the vehicle and 
turn the key switch off. The 
relay I bought wasn't the best 
and needed some adjustment 
before it would quit buzzing 
and latch like it should. This 
part should be the best 
money can buy, as it's the 
heart of the system. 

Since my van was new, it 
was a simple matter to install 
the door jam switches. Run 
the wires to a common 



IMMR 



POOH Y' 

SNTTCMk 



m 



fO 



m 



MAlffl^ 



^^P. 



KEY StVltCH 



switch bus terminal, wire up 
the relay and mount the key 
switch. A mercury switch 
coufd be added so that if the 
vehicle is even bumped the 
alarm will go off. 1 now had a 
system ready to let me know 
if anyone got in. But how 
could I slow them down if 
they did get in? 

The best way to come up 
with a solution is to think 
like a thief and figure out 
what would make it hard to 
take something. First, the 
nice mounting for the Icom 
gear had to go, I took the 
radio apart and found I had a 
lot of room inside near the 
front. So, I bought some 
"stove bolts" and drilled 
holes through the shelf and 
the bottom panel of the 
!C-230 case. With this bolted 
to the shelf, I put the radio 
back together around this 
bottom paneL This way, the 
thief would have to ^ke the 
time to take the radio apart 
and, if he wanted the bottom 
panel, he would have to 
unbolt it. To do this, he 
would have to take the shelf 
down from the six flat iron 
brackets that hold it in place, 
with three screws through 
each of those. I did the same 



206 



with my discriminator meter, 
but my scanner was another 
problem. There wasn't any 
roo m for stove bo I ts, so I put 
four wood screws through the 
bottom panel into the shelf 
with huge washers (2 inches 
across) under the counter- 
sunk screw head. I then put 
the scanner back together 
around this bottom panel* 

It took me a half an hour 
to assremble the radios onto 

the shelf and put the shelf 
back into the van. I am sure 
that if they want them badly 



enough there is a way, but 
my arrangement should cer- 
tainty slow them down- 
As someone once said, '*an 

ounce of prevention is better 
than a pound of cure/" so 
naturally I had the van 
insured for everything, I 
found out that I should get 
all but the $25 deductible 
back from my insurance com- 
pany. I had had the IC-230 
individually insured but 
hadn't yet done so for the 
IC-30a. If so, I would be 
getting the total value back, I 



found out from my agent 
that, with the measures I 
had taken^ there was no 
question about insuring 
a^jainst theft with a blanket 
policy "covering everything 
that's in the van at the time/' 
This is at about the same cost 
as the single policy 1 now 
have on the IG230. 

Since there are a few of us 
who would rather run these 
'Vice box rigs" instead of 
commercial gear, and since 
the rigs look a lot like CB 
rigs, we most do what we can 



to keep these nice rigs from 
being borrowed by our 
*'break in" brothers. I hope 
what I have done might help 
at least one fellow ham hold 
onto what he has saved for 
years to buy and enjoy, ■ 

Be sure to include a mercury 
switch attached to the hood 
if your v€hide*s battery is 
accessible without entering 
the passenger compartment 
Thieves have been f^nown to 
clip battery leads to disable 
alarm systems. — Ed. 



Steve Zawacfcj WAl UUK 

l&l-CShiiohSt. 

Fort Devens MA 01433 



Quick Deviation Meter 



- - for the IC-22A 



Sooner or later a 2m FMer 
will find a need for a 
fairly reliable deviation 
meter. As is the case with 
most test gear, the cost of a 
commercially-prepared devia- 
tion meter doesn't make it a 
justifiable expense for the 
casual user. 

However, being strong on 
need, yet weak in resources, 
an inexpensive deviation 
meter became a must for me. 
Going on the philosophy that 
a deviation meter is nothing 
more than a stable FM re- 
ceiver with a visual readout, I 
took my trusty 10-22 A and a 



C»2 




VTVM and experimented. As 
a result, here's a quick and 
easy modification to an 
IC-22A which will allow for 
deviation measurement of 
other 2m FM trwsmitters. 

Connect one end of a 
9-inch length of #22 in- 
sulated wire to the junction 
of D2 and R43, located in the 
ratio detector circuit Con- 
nect the other end of the wire 
to any open terminal on the 
accessory plug (Fig. 1), 

Obtain, through any legiti- 
mate means, a VTVM with a 
1 volt range and an rf probe 



(I used a Hewlett-Packard 
41 OB and had excellent re* 
suits). Attach the common 
lead to any ground point on 
the IC-22A. Plug the tip of 
the rf probe into the slot in 
the accessory plug which 
matches to the terminal now 
connected to the D2/R43 
junction (Fig, 2), Turn on the 
IC-22A, and tune to any 
reasonably active frequency. 
Engage the squelch, so no 
noise is heard when no signal 
is present. 

Now, turn on your VTVM, 
let it warm up, and set it for 
ac, 3 volt range. Youll notice 



i(C-2^A 




CLIP 




COHHO*! 



Fig* h 



Fig, 2. 



that, when no signal is pre- 
sent, a fairty stable voltage of 
approximately T2 volts will 
be present When an unmodu- 
lated signal is received, the 
voltage dips to roughly 0.8 
volts* As modulation is 
applied to the signal, the volt- 
age may then vary from ap- 
proximately 0.8 to 1.0 volts. 

In order to observe the 
variable voltage betterj 
change the VTVM range con- 
trol to its 1 volt position. 
Now, during a period of un- 
modulated signal input, ad- 
just the meter setting to "0" 
or "center/* whichever suits 
you best. As a result, when 
modulation ts applied to the 
input signali a meter move- 
ment following the pattern of 
the modulation will be ob- 
served. The observed moduta- 
tion pattern will conform to 
the deviation of the input 
signal 

It is now necessary to 
compare meter readings to 
known deviations. I have 
found that on my 1C-22A, 
utilizing a regulated 13.6 V 
dc supply, a peak deviation of 
5 kHz will cause a peak volt* 
age reading of 0.2 volts from 
my adjusted *'0" setting. 
However, this may vary 
slightly on different lC-22As, 
depending on power supply 
stability, component ac- 
curacy, etc. 

When using this quickie 
deviation meterj make sure 
that the input signal is not 
strong enough to desense the 
1C-22A. Also, be sure to 
measure deviation on a sim- 
plex frequency, not through a 
repeater, • 



207 



I've been doing a lot of 
experimenting with minia- 
ture solid state receivers the 

]ast few years and in most 
cases have stuck with single 
12 volt power supplies just in 
case I should want to use 
batteries at some time. Most 
of the ICs I use are designed 
for nominal 12 volt opera- 
tion, and when a few op amps 
are sprinkled into the circuit, 
I generally offset the output 
to 6 volts by biasing the 
non -in verting input with a 
couple of resistors and ac 
coupling everything. This is 
common practice and in nnost 
cases quite satisfactory* 

Then I became intrigued 
with the idea of using a PLL 
in one of my designs, but the 
NE551 needed at least 13 
volts for satisfactory opera- 
tion. Besides the PLL, I had 
several 741 op amps in the 
audio and age circuits whose 
performance could be 
improved by the use of dual 
polarity supplies. An ac sup- 
ply capable of providing 3 
voltages was no problem, but 
battery operation would call 
for a converter of some kind. 

In the past I've built my 
share of dc to dc converters 
using saturating cores and 
switching transistors, but it 
seemed I always had a terrible 
time taming these beasts. 
Tremendous spikes would 
show yp on the output and 
cause all kinds of problems in 
the equipment being powered 
by this pulse generator. This 
time I decided to cut out the 



lUy MegiriBn K4DHC 
606 SE 6th Avenue 
Deeineld Beach FL 53441 



Build a Noise 'free 



Power Supply 

- avoid spikes with sine waves 



l£ V 



BATTiftTr 




problem rather than try to 
cure it* Instead of the cus- 
tomary square waves, I 
thou^t Vd start with a pure 
sine wave and use an audio 
amplifier to build up the level 
to a value suitable for feeding 
into a power transformer, 

The idea worked quite 
nicely and a schematic for the 
converter is shown in Fig. 1, 
The majority of the receiver 
circuits operated from 12 
volts and were fed directly 
from the battery. The NE561 
was run off the +15 output 
and the op amps from both 






outputs. My circuit drew 
about 5 mA from each out- 
put, but as much as 10 mA 
should be possible. 

All kinds of chokes and 
transformers were tried in the 
oscillator tank circuit, but 
eventually it was found that a 
hand wound pot core induc- 
tor worked best- The pot 
cores I used were obsolete 
Ferroxcube parts, but similar 
units should work as we 



EE ttKTl 






i 



9ft 

TRIM 



ifr 



ADJUST 
FOB 



^h 



TRANSISTOR OuTfUT 
Tf^&N 5 FORMER 




/tr 



^COM 



/T? 



Fig. h Schematic for the spfke-free power supply. 



Mine are about 3/8" in diam- 
eter and 5/16" thick with 

both halves assembled. Mate- 
rial is Ferroxcube 3C. The 
bobbin was wound with 800 
tLjrns of #44 magnet wire. On 
a homemade bridge , the 
inductance checked out 
around 700 millihenries. In 
the power supply the oscil- 
lator frequency is around 900 
Hz. 

An LM380N audio ampli- 
fier IC is used to drive the 
voice coil side of a standard 
500 Ohm to 3.2 Ohm output 
transformer, I used Radio 
Shack #273-1379. The bridge 
rectifier is one of the small 
plastic units about the size of 
a TO-5 transistor case. The 
transformer center tap is 
grounded and the dual polar- 



ity voltages taken from either 
side of the bridge. Output 
level is set by the 5k vertical 
trimmer which controls drive 
to the LM380, This control 
should be set with the load 
connected. All decimal value 
capacitors are 50 volt discs 
and the rest are electrolytics. 
Resistors are Va Watt carbon. 
The silicon diode may be a 
1N914 or any other type 
used for switching or general 
purposes. Other JFETs will 
work in most cases as the 
oscillator transistor, just 
make sure you get the right 
pins in the right holes since 
not all packages have the 
same pinouts. 

Tests made with ±15 volts 
out and 10 mA load on each 
supply showed a maximum 
ripple of 15 mV peak to 
peak. At 5 mA loads, the 
ripple dropped to 8 mV peak 
to peak, input current from 
the 1 2 volt source was 85 mA 
and 55 mA respectively. This 
is not particularly good effi- 
ciency, but at these low levels 
it was of no great conse- 
quence. The 900 Hz hum was 
just about audible with the 
receiver quiet but normally 
was lost under background 
noise. 



208 



Fig, 2. PC board layout and 
parts hcation as viewed from 
copper side. 

The PC board layout and 
parts placement are shown in 
Fig. 2. The board is 23" 
square. The pot core inductor 
was potted in a cylindrical 
form after winding and pro* 
vided with 2 radial leads for 
insertion into the PC board. 
A finished inductor and un- 
drjlled board are available 
from me for $5 including 
(K>$tage/" 





1^^^^^"^ 



O O 9 Q O O O 

LM380fi 

0-40 O O 



o 



L 



Hf 



05 




CDAKIT 

Now stocks AMPHENOL! 



P.O. Box lOI-A ' Oumont, N. J. 07(28 

C21 



•>.-.-.vv^-.-.-.-:--^'i"^-'3'-j-^."'.-.-.-.'-:'V-'-'. 
--.■.■■. - ','.yy_.yrjyyi'- ■_- - -.\ .■.■.\ 



r-T'^:-:-: oyi^-^f^y^ 



^■ff you're i 



S^s: 



ki! 



b 

m 




'/>»:-:■ ■■•-■• 










.% 



4 



AdlroMlaek 
has it! 



gAET ''"•° 



A^ Supply 



ateur Headquarters for the Northeast 

185-191 West Mam Street • PO Box 88 
Amsterdam, N Y 120m Tel [5181 842-8350 
Just 5 minutes from N.Y. Ttiruway — Exrl 27 



•Jv You asked for it! 

A S70,0a digital multimeter kft 

Now there'^s just no excuse for not 
having a digital muttlmeter at our low 
price. Our unit is based on the famous 
$29.95 DVM kit you have heard about 
and has the following featurMt 

DC volts: Better than 0.1% ac- 
curacy. Reads to 1200 volts in 4 
ranges 

AC volts: Better than 0.3% aa 
curacy. Reads to 750 volts 
RI\/lS/4 ranges 

Ohms: Better than 0.2% accuracy. 
Reads from ohms to 20 megs 

You get all parts indudlng dual trackirtg, 
AC power supply, laser trimmed reference, 
and thick film attenuator* 

CA rea. add toac. Ph. Ijic, S3. 95 for postage 
kandiing. 

As j/Hffrt Hr have caJibnitiofi and repair serricc 



Gary McClellan and Co, Box 2085 

nil 1001 W. Impf rial Hwy. 

^* ' La Habra CA 90631 



209 



Robert ViJJascngo 

309 Irvington 

San Anionio TX 78209 



Surplus Goodies 



- - are they really for you? 



The question of whether 
or not government 
surplus is for the Novice 
deserves a simpie answer, but 
an unqualified answer cannot 
be given, tt resembles the 
questioni "Should you build 
or buy?" The answer depends 
on the ability of the Novice, 
Generally, the Surplus market 
Is not for the Novice, The 
best advice is to look, but 
don't buy. It sounds easy, but 
surplus is sometimes difficult 
to leave alone. Many of the 
new units can't be utilized in 
their present forms, but they 
look so pretty that il is nor- 
mally assumed a useful con- 
version is possible* 

Leave it alone. Especially 
if you do not have the loot to 
play with. If you are lucky 
enough to become a Novice 
already possessing the 
knowledge and skills of an 
electronic technician, the 
value of the surplus will be 
apparent. 

Another deterrent to buy- 
ing government surplus is the 
new Novice regulations 
governing power and fre- 
quency controL Two hundred 
fifty Watts is unusual in mili- 
tary equipment. Most units 
are rated much lower in their 
outputs and are seldom worth 
the money if any thought is 



given to upgrading your 
license in the future. Yet the 
outlay of several hundred 
dollars to obtain one of the 
late model transceivers is not 
the wisest of moves if you 
consider the possibility of 
losing interest in amateur 
radio before advancing to a 
higher stage in the license 
process. 

Assuming the interest Is 
there but the money isn't, at 
least one surplus buy may be 
in order: a receiver. Check 
the bank account and see if 
you have ten or fifteen dol- 
lars that can be used for a trip 
to the nearest surplus or junk 
dealer that has government 
surplus materials in stock. Do 
not be influenced by the 
prices advertised by the many 
mail-order houses that dwell 
on the misinformed non- 
technical Novice. Keep in 
mind that you can spend a 
bunch of green for a great 
receiver that will provide fea- 
tures you won't find anyplace 
else. I would recommend that 
you do so if it's affordable. 
There are many available at 
any price you would like to 
pay* 

One of the most important 
steps to take before visiting 
the local surplus house or 



yard is to familiarize yourself 
with surplus equipment that 
has been used in amateur 
service during the past thirty 
years. Careful scanning of the 
catalogs issued by several of 
the surplus mail-order houses 
and, if they are available, old 
copies of various ham maga- 
zines can supply a great deal 
of information. There are a 
few units still available from 
Worid War II that require 
very little, if any, con version. 
A recent trip to the local 
surplus dealer to buy a piece 
of angle iron for a certain 
project turned up something 
more and is a common occur* 
rence. Digging through 
towering piles of so-called 
funk left out in the weather, I 
found several old BC 342 
receivers and ARR 7 re- 
ceivers* The covers were in 
bad shape . . . paint flaking, 
mildew, and other indigna- 
tions that had been thrust 
upon them by the years of 
bad weather and the rough 
handling thai is apparent in a 
junk yard. Producing one of 
the small screwdrivers that I 
normally carry on my salvage 
trips, I had one of the re- 
ceivers open in a flash. Every- 
thing was intact and spotless 
on the inside. The junker 
wanted ten bucks for the four 



receivers, two BC 342s and 

two ARR 7s. 1 offered him 
five and he settled on six if I 
took them all. 1 did. 

The BC 342 is a big piece 
of reliable iron with tubes. It 
lacks many refinements but it 
will get you to 18 MHz, just 
short of 15 meters. It is 
better used as a general cover- 
age radio, although many 
have been used in amateur 
service. It is one of the few 
that will operate uncon- 
verted. 

The ARR 7 is a military 

version of the old Halli- 
crafters SX'28 modified to 
conform with most aircraft 
equipment of Worid War II. 
All the controls were moved 
to the end of the chassis so 
that the radio could be 
inserted lengthwise into the 
aircraft. The addition of an 
audio output transformer, a 
power supply^ and a couple 
of wiring changes can provide 
an excellent and inexpensive 
way to listen in on alt the 
activity from the broadcast 
band to above ten meters 
(.5542 MHz). There have 
been later models but, as with 
most equipment, the price 
goes up along with the later 
release date. And sometimes 
it isn't as good in quality. 

These are just two exam- 
ples of what you can find if 
you do a little digging- 

If you are like most who 
develop an interest in ama« 
teur radio, one of the first 
events that takes place is 
making friends with that guy 
down the street who has the 
wires hanging ail over his 
house. If he is a do-it-your- 
selfer^ you will learn some- 
thing from him and he can 
give you a big assist in buy- 
ing, building, or modifying 
existing equipment. 

Besides a telegraph key, 
you can pick up a low power 
surplus transmitter that will 
perform satisfactorily. Con- 
trary to the '*power mongers" 
that are graduating from the 
CB ranks (if the shoe fits), it 
really isn't necessary for 
Novice operators to have a 
large transmitter output. The 
increase from a maximum 75 
to 250 Watts input was 



2t0 



apparently an attempt at 
appeasing manufacturers of 
equipment under the guise of 
providing an **extra" for the 
Novice. If the main interest is 
learning and increasing code 
speed, power isn't going to 
help. Fifty Watts more or less 
will do the job. There are 
many used commercial 
models selling for twenty or 
thirty dollars. Some for less. 
Most of these are crystal- 
controlled, which is the 
biggest drawback. A VFO 
(variable frequency oscillator) 
which allows the operator to 
dial the transmitting fre* 
quency fs probably the one 
late improvement that nul- 
lifies the increase in power. If 
your signa! is covered by a 
stronger station, a simple 
twist of the wrist and you can 
transmit somewhere else on 
the band* 

With the addition of a 
transmitter, the one item that 
remains is an antenna. Several 
things wil( determine what 
your antenna requirements 
will be. The length of an 



eighty meter dipole in most 
cases makes it a difficult 
antenna to install. Since the 
main objective is to keep the 
cost down, the most logical is 
a dipole. Not only will this be 
less expensive, but also the 
results that are obtained are 
more satisfying. The prob- 
lems involved are mainly with 
the area needed to install a 
piece of wire in the length 
required. If you intend to 
operate at night only, then 
you can eliminate the pos- 
sibility of ten and fifteen 
meters and concentrate on 
putting up a little over sixty 
feet of wire- I personally 
preferred fifteen meters due 
to lack of noise, less crowds, 
and less room needed for the 
antenna. Regardless of which 
band you choose, you still 
have to have the antenna- 

A unit that has been on 
the surplus market for years 
and is now obsolete contains 
the ingredients plus quite a 
few little odds and ends that 
you can have fun with. The 
old CRT'3 (Gibson Girl) sur- 







Best for beginners . . . preferred by pro's! 

NYE ViKllUG SPEED-X 

1^ ^^ Model 114-310-003 

$8.75 

One of 6 models^ 
all sure-handed . .. 
smooth operating 
. . . priced from 
$6.95* 

NYE VIKING SUPER SQUEEZE KEY 

Fast, comfortable, easy . . , and fun! 

Model SSK-t (shown) 

$23.95 

Model SSK-3 (has 
sub-base to hold 
any SPEED-X Key). 

$26,95 




Whether you Ye a "brass pounder' or a "Side swiper' 
insist on the sure, smooth feet, and the long-lasting 
quatfty that is built into every NYE VIKING KEY. 

By the man^aciurer af NYE VIKING Low Pass 
Fillers, Phone Patch&s and Antenna fm- 
pedence-matchmg Tjners. 






Avatlabte at leading dealers or write 

WM, M. NYE COMPANY, INC. 

t614 - t30lh Ave. N.E., Beilevue. WA 98005 ^4 



vivat radio transmitter can be 
found in almost any junk 

yard. If you don't know what 
one looks like, and you 
missed seeing Robert Taylor 
use one in the World War U 
movie, "Bataan," I shall try 
to describe one* In kit form it 
comes in a canvas bag with a 
lot of accessories: balloons, 
kite, hydrogen generators, 
telegrapher's key, parachute 
material, and antennas. 
Usually the transmitter is 
found without the acces- 
sorles, and can be bought as 
scrap meuL It has a kidney 
shape with a folded hand- 
crank- There is a door on the 
front case that contains a 
fully prepared reel of 
stranded copper wire- If it is a 
junk unit, the reel is easily 
removed. It may cost you 
two or three dollars at the 
most. 

Any other '* buys'* of 
surplus gear would be a waste 
of money. Many of the items 
carried by the surplus dealers 
are truly bargains^ but not for 
the Novice, Some test equip- 



ment and other units can save 
you a bunch of money at a 
later time when knowledge 
and experience overtake the 
desire to proceed to higher 
goals in amateur radio. This 
not only applies to the 
Novice, but also to the older 
group that is presently 
migrating into amateur radio. 

With the equipment listed 
or other government surplus 
units, you can get on the air 
inexpensively and find out if 
amateur radio is really for 
yoU- There are many ways to 
equip the Novice station. This 
has been but one. There are 
other pieces of surplus that 
can be utilized without con- 
version, but the price elimi- 
nates the equipment from the 
bargain category. 

The simplest method is to 
avoid surplus as a Novice, It 
will save you time and 
money, ■ 

Author's note; The December, 
1962, issiie of 73 featured a con- 
version anicie by James M. 
Stueber W5UOZ, It/s one of the 
most complete ARR7 conver- 
sions avaitable. 









We have a portable direction finder that REALLY works— on 

AM, FM, pulsed signals and random noisel Unique left-right 
DF allows you to take accurate bearings even on short bursts, 
with no 180° ambiguity. Its 3 dB antenna ^in and .06 uV 
typical DF sensitivity allow this crystal-controlled unit to hear 
and positively track a weak signal at very long ranges-while 
built-in RF gain control with 120 dB range permits DF to 
within a few feet of the transmitter. 

The DF is battery-powered, can be used with accessory 
antennas, and is 12/24V for use in vehicles or aircraft. This is a 
factory -built, guaranteed unit— not a kit. It has been successful 
in locating malicious interference, as well as hidden ^ans* 
mitters in "T^hunts/' ELTs, and noise sources in RFl 
situations. 

Prices start at under $175. Write or catl for information on our 
complete line of portable, airborne, vehicle, and fixed DF 
systems. _ 

6546 Cathedral 0»kf Rd,, ^^ 

Santa Baf tiara, C A 93 1 11 

305 967-4859 LTO 




211 



^m 



ebCAH 



THAT SPECIAL GIFT 

YOUR 

PRIDE OF 

ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

PROUDLY DISPLAYED 

A PiUficr SEPUCA Of youff ucense i ACCOMPusHmBms 

IN Pf IVTfR TOl^f ALUMiHUm MOUNTED ON SOtID WALNUT. 



idt'jy^ 



* 1 .'i4 



w 



.<11* 



uctNSi uisMf mm 

SOtiD WAINUI 6XS 
SHJPPfNC CHARGE W^ 



r^ HI-— ^t^-' 



WD8IYX 



I - - 



MJJfA--- .-^ ^^ 



ACHIEVE MEN! DlSPLAr &?9 &0 

SOUD WAIMUT 11X14 
SKIPPINC [IHARGt SW5 



Wf fcaliic that sorrve things cinnot be 
repbtfd. All mitcri*! sent to us is cue- 
iuUy h«ndEed and retitinc^ intaci with 
your order Unlike pkstit lamJnition. 
etching md rngriving. s]l>i«t to djmage 
in their pfoccss by heit^ wrip-iround 
cylinder!, etc, our proems is rntirely 
photDgnpliic itxd CAfieiot hirtn the mo«t 
fragile documtnt. And . . yt^ti KUtn 
the ori|iiul. 

SENO YOUfl LlCENSt OR API LXCIUI?<T PHOIO COPf 

FOR AN ACCOMPLISHMINT PlAQUf SEND A COPY Of !ACH HCt^Sl | 

m\mm ma be flETuRNto with your order ' 

TO INSURE HOUDAY DEUVERY, CALL 614/239-800^ 

MAIL TO PHOTO PUQUE 3410 EAST 7ih AVENUE COLUMBUS. OHIO 43Z19 



i ::^ • ' 



%X' 



STATION DISPIAV S24 8& 

SOim WALNUT BXID 
SHimm EHAflGE SI ?l 



CHLCI DR money OROEHStNT WITH ORDER WE PAv SHIPPING CMAHCES' 



INCiUDE SALES TAX 



JVEM ffooir/ 



^ 



^BEHIND THE ^lAL 



Get more fun out of shortwave 

listening with this interesting 

guide to raceivars^ antennas, 

frequencies, and tnterferenca. 



^y Bob Grove 




the order card In the back of this magazina or itenu^e your ords on a separate 
piece of paper and mail to: 

73 Radio Bookshop • Peterborough NH 03458 

(B& sure to mdude check or detailed credit card information.} ^ 



212 




PRE AMPS 



HIGH GAIN • LOW NOISE 

30 dB poiver gam, 2-5 3-0 
de N.F, at 150 MHi, 2 
stage. R.F. protectad, 
dual-gat« MOSf ET5. Man- 
ual gain control and pro- 
vision for AGC. 4-3/8" x 
1-7/8'* X 1-3/S" aluminum case with power 
twitch and your chtoica of BNC or RCA 
recflptacles. Available factory tuned to the 
frequency of yotir choice from 5 MHz to 350 
MH2 with appro?<Smatelv 3% bandwidth. Up 
to 10% B.W. available on special order. 
Requires 12 VDC @ 10 mA. 

Model 201 price (5-200 MHz) $29.95 

201-350 MHz , , . , , $34.95 




CONVERTERS 



2 METERS 
Thit converter has a 
mJniniLim of 20 dB gain 
ancl a noise figure of 
2.5 3.0 dB which 
assures you of a senti- 
tivity of .1 microvolt or 
better. The circuit uies 

a dual gate MOSFET R.F. stage and a duat- 
gate MOSFET mfxar (thereby giving you a 
minimum of cross-modulation products)^ 6 
tuned circuits, a bipolar oscillator and .005% 
crystal. Covers 144-146 MHz at 28-30 MHz 
output with one crystal included and 146-143 
MHz at 28-30 MHz with ar^ extra crystal 
(available for $6.00 more). The glass epoxy 
circuit board is enclo^d in a 16 gauge 
aiuminum case measuring 3-1/2" x 2-1/4*' x 
1-1/4'* with your choice of either BNC or 
RCA receptacles. Also inclyded is a powar 
and antenna switch. Requires 12 VDC @ IS 
mA. The converter is alto avattable at othdir 
input and output frequencies. Call us for 
prjce&. PRICE: Model C-V44-A avaHable from 
stock at $39.9 5 with one crystal. Additional 
crystai $6.00 extra. 

HF & VHF 

40 dB GAIN 2,5 3.0 

N.F.@150IVtHz 

2 Rf stages with trafi- 
sient protected dual- 
gate MOSFETS give 
this converter the high 
gain and low noise you 
need for receiving very 
weak signals. The mixer 
stage Is also a dual-gate 
MOSFET as it greatly reduces spurious mixing 





SYNTHESIZERS 



FOR ALL TRANSCEIVERS 

The STR series syn- 
thesizers are available 
for any transceiver 
operating from 20 MHi 
to 475 MHz that uses 
crystals in the 5 to 85 
MHz range. It has a 

thumbwheel dial calibrated for your operating 
frequency plus a selectable transmit offset of 
plus or minus 600 kHz, plus or niinuis 1 MHz, 
and 2 spare offsets that you can add later. 
Frequency accuracy is ,0005% and spurious 
output$ are 60 to 70 dB down* To process 
your order we must have the crystst formula 
of your transmit and receive crystals^ If your 
transceiver uses 1 crystal for both trans- 
mitting and feceivtn9 {like the Motorola 
Metrun^ II), you can u$e our receive synthe 
sizer de^ribed to the right. Maximum tuning 
range per synthesizer is 10 MHz above 100 
MHz and proportionally less at lower frequen- 
cies. Dial Fncremients are in I kHz steps from 
5 to 30 MHz and 5 kHz steps above. 
Model STR synthesizer price 

^-i oU INn r*! Z ^ .... .*< k*A.*>at*iiw 9^0^i9 9 
1 51 -475 MHz , $279.95 



yanauard 
§aBs 



VI 



196*23 Jamaica Awe. 
HollisNY 11423 
(212^ 468-2720 



VJUlOiUICO 



EXTRA LOW NOISE 

ExceMent for weather satel- 
lite reception and recom- 
mended by Dr. Ralph E- 
Tag^art in his Weather 
Satellite Handbook. Less 
than 2 dS noise figure and 
approximately 17 dB gain. Uses a low noise 
J'FET in a common source neutralized cir- 
cuit. Available factory tuned to your choice 
Of frequency from 135 MHz to 250 MHz- 
Bandwidth approximately 4 MHz, Supplied in 
a 2-1/4" X 1-1/8" X 1-3/8" die-cast aluminum 
weather-proof case with a filter for powering 
it through the antenna. Requires 12 VDC (P 5 
mA. Choice of VHF, type "N'\ or BNC 
receptacles. 
Mode) 102W PRICE .,..,. S36.95 




products — some by as much as 1O0 d8 over 

that obtained with bipolar mixers. A bipolar 
oscillator using 3rd or 5th overtone plug-in 
crystals is followed by a harmonic bandpass 
filter, and where necessary an additional 
amplifier is used to assure the correct amount 
of drive to the mixer. Available in your choice 
of input frequencies from 5-350 MHz and 
with any output you choose with en this range. 
The usable bandwidth is approximately 3% of 
the input frequency with a maximum of 4 
MHz. Wider bandwJdths are available on 
special order. Although any frequency com- 
bination is possible (Including converting upj 
best results are obtained if you choose an 
output frequency not more than 1/3 nor less 
than 1/20 of the input frequency. Enclosed in 
a 4-3/8" X 3" x 1-1/4" aluminum cas« with 
power and antenna transfer switch and your 
choice of BNC or RCA receptacles. Requires 
12 VDC @ 25 mA. 
Model 40 7 A price: 
5-200 MHz *,..-_-,,........,,,. $54.95 

201 -360 MHz . _ . . . , S59.95 

Prices include .005% crystai. Additional 
crystals S3. 95 ea. 



UHF 

20dBIVt1N. GAIN 
3T0&dBMAX N.F. 
This model is similar in 
appearance to our 
Model 407 A but uses 2 
low noise J-FETS in 
our specially designed 
Rf stage which is tuned 
with high-Q miniature 

trimmers. The mixer is a special dual-gate 
MOSFET made by RCA to meet our require 



FOR VHF RECEIVERS 

This synthestzer has 
8000 channels and can 
tune a continuous 40 
MHz segment of your 
choice from 110-180 
MHz in 5 kHz steps. 
This will satisfy most of 

your requirements in the VHF range and can 
save you hundreds of dollars in crystals plus a 
lot of time. Stock units are programmed for 
receivers with the crystal formula Fc « Fs 
-10.7 dtvided by 3 but we can program It 
to almost any other IF at no additional cost 
at the time of your order. It is supplied with 
on interface for plugging in to your existing 
crystal socket. Requires 12 VDC @ 1/2 amp 
which is easily obtainable from a low cost 
power supply. The synthesizer has 4 voltage 
regulators therelore the power supply need 
not be regulated. Phase noise is not detectable 
as the VCO is coarse tuned by a DAC thereby 
easing the requirements of the phase-locked 
loop. Not affected by vibrations encountered 
in mobile use. Enclosed in an 8" x 3 7/8" x 
1-1/2'* aluminum case and supplied with a 
combination tilt stand/mobile mounting 
bracket. 
price- Model SR 1400 05 ........ . $179.95 



NOTE: We can make any synthesizer from 
audio to 475 MHz, Call us for prices. 





UHF 
3 TO 5 dB MAX. N.F. 
20 dB MiN. POWER GAIN 
Uses 2 of Tl's low noise 
J-FETS in our special 
circuit board design which 
gives a minimym of 20 dB 
power gain at 450 MHz. 
Stability Is such that you 
can have mismatched loads without It oscil- 
lating and you can retuna (using the capped 
openings in tha case) over a 15-20 MHz range 
simply by peaking the maximum signal Avail- 
able tuned to the frequency of your choice 
between 300-550 MHz. 4-3/8" x 1-7/8*' x 
1 -3/S" aluminum case with power switch artd 
your choice of BNC or RCA receptacles. 
Requires 1 2 VDC @ 10 mA. 
Model 202 price ...._...,.,,,,.. . $34^95 



ments. < it^ oscillator uses 5th overtone 
crystals to reduce spurious responses and 
make potiible fewer muHipiiers in the oscilla- 
tor chain which uses 1200 MHz bipolars for 
maximum efficiency. Available with your 
choice of Input frequencqes from 3O0-5S0 
MHz and output frequencies from 14-220 
MHz. Usable bandwidth is about 1% of the 
input frequency but can be easily retuned to 
cover more, Requires 12 VDC @ 30 mA* 

Model 408 price . * , , k . , ^ . ♦ $59.95 

,005% crystal included 




.$149.95 
. $159,95 



VHF RECEIVER 



11 crysLai controlled 
channels. Available in 
your choice of frequen- 
cies from 136 250 MHz 
in any one segment 
from 14 MHz wide. 
I.F. bandwidth (chan- 
nel selectivity) available in your choice of 
±7-5 kHz or Xl 5 kHz. 8 pole quartz filter and 
a 4-pole ceramic filter gives more than 80 dB 
rejection at 2X chanriet bandwidth. Phase 
locked loop detector. Frequency trimmers for 
each crystal. *2 to .3 microvolt for 20 dB 
quieting. Dual -gate MOSFETS and integrated 
circuits. Self-contained speaker and external 
speaker jack. Mobile mount and tilt stand. 
Atuminum case, 6" x 7*' x 1 -3/8*'. 
Model FMR 260-PL price: 

135-180 MHz . - , 

181-260 MHz 

Price includes one .001% crystal. Additional 
crystals $8.95 ea. This receiver is recom- 
mended In Dr, Taggart*s Weather Satellite 
Handbook. 



HOW TO ORDER: AM items on this page are 
available only from Vanguard Labs, For re- 
ceivers and converters state model, input and 
output frequencies, and bandwidth where 
applicable. For the fatest service call (212) 
468-2720 between 9 AM and 4 PM Monday 
through Friday, except holidays. Your order 
can be shipped COD by Air Parcel Post. 
BY MAIL: Send your order to Vanguard 
Labs. 196 23 Jamaica Avenue. Hotlis, NY 
11423 and Include remittarice by postal 
money order, cashiers check or certified 
check. Personal checks are also accepted, but 
banks fiovv require 3 weeks for checks to 
clear, therefore this will delay your order. 
Include sales tax if you reside in New York 

PURCHASE ORDERS: We accept puTchase 
orders from US and Canadian government 
agencies, universities, and AAA rated corpora- 
tions. Our terms are Net 30 days. 
FOREIGN ORDERS: Must remit payment in 
full in US funds ptus postage and insurance 
fees. If complicated customs forms are re- 
quired, please forward your order to an 
import-export agent. 

SHIPPING: We ship all our merchandise by 
insured parcel post or air mail. Special de- 
livery is also available. Prices include shipping 
by regular parcel post if you remit with your 
order. For air mail shipping add $1.00. 
Postage will be added on all CODs, purchase 
orders, and foreign orders^ 



213 



Don Kmth N4KC 
462 Fjdg^woQd Ave. 
Fairfidd AL 55064 



Try 




New Mode! 



-- don't let boredom strike 



I know exactly how it was. 
You snatched that 

Gettysburg-posimarked en- 
velope out of the postman's 
hand, not even giving him a 
chance to give you the bills 
and junk mail, lit a streak 
down the basement steps, and 
had the filaments warming up 
while you tore into the thing. 
And there it was — your own 
amateur license, complete 
with totally unpronounceable 
call letters^ indecipherable 
signature, and of a size so it 
wouldn't fit your wallet, no 
matter how you folded it. In 
short, It was beautiful ! 

Then you made that first 
contact, hand jerking spas- 
modically on the key, sweat 
dripping off the end of your 
nose onto the logbook. And 
from there, you fell deeper 
and deeper into the euphoria 
of amateur radio, 

It could be now, though, 
that you've cooled down a 
bit Call it the sophomore 
slump, the ch i I d-and-h is -new- 
toy syndrome, or whatever, 
but you've reached a point 
where you don't really want 
to talk about the weather 
with that guy in California or 



get another 579 from New 
jersey. You find "Starsky 
and Hutch" more interesting 
than a dead fifteen meter 
band. And when the ice 
storm gels your dtpole, you 
keep forgetting to put it back 
up. 

Recognize your symp- 
toms? 

There are two ways you 
can go now. Sit there, 
molting, and let your hobby, 
rig, and license go down the 
tubes. Or use a little imagi- 
nation^ inject some excite- 
ment back into amateur 
radio, and have the time of 
your life — even more fun 
than when you tore into that 
envelope from Gettysburg. 

I'll bet we've all heard 
about the fellows who 
dropped out, letting their 
licenses lapse, blaming it on 
"twenty meters went to the 
dogs," or **l couldn't get my 
code up for the General," or 
*1 was just so busy down at 
the office," With lame ex- 
cuses like that, no wonder 
they couldn't muster up any 
imaginative ways to get some 
life back into their hobby. 

If you will just stop to 
think about it, you can 



probably come up with many 
ways to perk up your enthu- 
siasm, and most of them can 
be accomplished sitting right 
there in front of the rig. Can't 
think of any? Read on! 

Have you ever checked 
into a traffic net or relayed a 
message from a homesick 
serviceman back home to his 
Folks? One of the biggest 
thrills you can have is to hear 
a tearful mother's voice on 
the telephone thanking you 
for letting her know her son 
or daughter has survived an 
earthquake. I know from 
personal experience what 
satisfaction it is to allow a 
missionary in a remote South 
American jungle speak with 
his family back home. The 
day-to-day handling of formal 
messages on the ham bands 
involves hundreds of ama- 
teurs in 3 valuable public 
service activity. 

You can find the nets in 
your area by listening or by 
sending a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope, 6" x 9" or 
larger, to the American Radio 
Relay League, requesting the 
net directory. The procedures 
used can be quickly learned 
by listening or by reading 



several ARRL publications 
which are available* There are 
also many slow speed or 
Novice nets, which offer a 
great introduction to traffic 
handling (and some super 
code practice, too). 

Phone patching requires 
listening and volunteering 
when appropriate (and, of 
course, a patch!). The Mili- 
tary Affiliate Radio System 
(MARS) offers many a 
chance to perform a public 
service. 

There are also plenty of 
special interest nets and 
round tables. Some specialize 
in assisting mobile operators, 
relaying traffic to missionary 
personnel or to ships at sea. 
Some are for physicians to 
assist in medical problems in 
remote areas. Whether you're 
interested in politics^ religiofi, 
parapsychology, ecology, or a 
technical discussion, you can 
find somebody with similar 
interests, either by simply 
listening, or by watching for 
blurbs in the radio magazines. 
You mi^t even send one in 
yourself. There are even 
professional group nets, such 
as attorneys, post office 
employees, and the like^ who 
get on the air, not to just talk 
shop, but to share similar 
interests and experiences. 

Like to play a little chess? 
There are many games and 
activities which lend them- 
selves well to amateur radio. 
It may be a simple ^me of 
checkers or the complexity of 
** Diplomacy." You may 
practice your stamp col- 
lecting or discuss computer 
science. Practically any other 
hobby you enjoy can be 
combined with amateur 
radio, with the enjoyment 
multiplied. 

Have you thought about 
experimenting with other 
modes? RTTY, slow scan or 
fast scan television, OSCAR, 
or even CW - all exotic life 
forms for engineers? Hardly! 
They are proving to be loads 
of fun for thousands of us 
who once thought we could 
never get the hang of such 
way-out weirdness. Expen- 
sive? Not necessarily. Build, 



214 



find used gear^ scrounge 
around - getting there is half 
the fun. And wait until you 
see that first SSTV picture 
from the Middle East or good 
teletype copy from a station 
in Japan, There are plenty of 
books available for the 
beginner in each of these 
specialized modes, and you 
will Find that most people 
already involved like nothing 
better than to talk about 
their interests and will be glad 
to help a newcomer 

And thou^ you probably 
worked pretty hard to get 
away from that 5 Watt tfm- 
itaiion on the Citizens Band, 
you are missing a lot of 
challenging fun if you don*t 
give QRP a try. Several QRP 
rigs have been featured in the 
various magazines, and more 
are available commercially: 
Sure^ it can be frustrating 
fighting the full gallons with 
flea power, but when that 
feilow in Germany gives you 
a 589 and refuses to believe 
your 3 Watts input, then 
you1l know true happiness. 



QRP rs sneaky, too, in that it 
makes you a better, smarter 
operator and forces you to 
learn a little about antennas 
and propagation. 

There are a lot of things 
you can do off the air to get 
the fun back into your 
hobby. 

You say you haven't built 
anything since the code 
practice oscillator when you 
were working on 5 words per 
minute? There are plenty of 
projects that are not only fun 
to build, but also are so use- 
ful you'll wonder how you 
ever did without them. Parts 
are as reasonable now as I can 
ever remember, with a friend- 
ly electronics store on practi- 
cally every corner. There is 
no better way to get a firm 
grasp on the modern tech- 
nology than to hook some of 
those funny little things to- 
gether and see what happens. 
Even if you only thought a 
soldering iron was good for 
burning holes in the carpet, 
there are kits available that 
you can put togethe^;^ get a 



good idea of how it all works, 
and have a good piece of gear 
when youVe finished. I have a 
friend who tries to start a 
new project every week. He 
has never finished one, but he 
has a ball. 

You may get out of the 
house and join a local 
club. Very few hams bite, and 
most are friendly sorts. And 
your club most likely has 
interesting programs and 
speakers, worthwhile fun 
projects, and maybe even 
coffee and doughnuts. There 
is also great satisfaction in 
participating in club projects, 
like public service activities, 
helping plan a hamfest, or 
presenting a program your- 
self. 

I don't know how you got 
started, but a lot of us 
attended formal classes. And 
classes like ihat need instruc- 
tors. You? Sure, you can 
teach! Or maybe set up chairs 
in the classroom^ work on 
publicizing the classes, or just 
help passing out books. Or 
you could do something on a 



smaller scale, like helping an 
interested prospect in the 
neighborhood or teaching a 
scout troop. 

As long as youVe volun- 
teering, raise your hand for 
the work party at the re- 
peater site. It's a great way to 
get to know the locals, learn a 
little about VHF by doing it, 
and do a little toward keeping 
the machine going. And you 
could also take part in the 
next disaster drill, too, or 
maybe help with communi- 
cations for the motorcycle 
races, or man the information 
booth at the shopping center, 
or accept an operating assign- 
ment for Field Day, or 
demonstrate the rig for a 
school science class. You get 
the idea. 

Then, you could even sit 
down and write an article 
about some of your proiects 
for 73 Magazine. 

And then, if you can 
possibly find the time, you 
could sit down at the rig and 
have a good old-fashioned rag 
chew, ■ 



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215 



73 Magazine Staff 



Build 




Useful 



HF Receiver 



-- Novice special 



It is interesting to note 
how events son:^etimes go 
around full circle in the amah 
teur radio field. Many years 
ago, the only way to have an 
amateur band receiver was to 



build one yourself- Then later 
on, as commercial equipment 
appeared, most amateurs 
regarded those who ** rolled" 
their own receivers as a group 
of technical geniuses. Build- 



J.W. HiLLER a^O£-B 

hF MDPULE 
l-F XMFR (45S KHi) 

4 "5 



ing a transmitter wasn't too 
difficult, but building a good 
receiver was another matter, 
A crude, crystal-controlled 
transmitter with p!ug4n coils 
couid be built with a 




SPKft 



-^f— 1 



£€K 



2.7K 



/fr 



5K 
VOL 




1 \l "^'^ i 



Fig, h Complete diagram of the receiver. All transistors are MPF 102 or HEP 802. The l-f 
transformer comes as part of the /. W, Miller i-f module, L =26 turns #26 on }4" form. Tap at 
13 turns (for &15 MHz). Yl = 9,545 kHz (JO MHz WWV). Y2 - 14,545 kHz (15 MHz WWV). 



excellent 
portable 

a single 



minimum of electri( 
mechanical workshop facili- 
ties. But to build a gpod 
receiver required good test 
gear and practically machine 
shop facilities. 

Today, with solid state 
components and PC layout 
technique, almost any ama- 
teur can build a receiver with 
performance matching com- 
mercial units. For those who 
would like to start to try 
their hand at receiver build- 
ing, this article presents a 
simple HF utility type re- 
ceiver. It can be used to 
monitor WWV, to check 
specific frequencies in the HF 
bands, or to monitor station 
transmissions* 

As presented, it is crystal- 
control ted, although one 
could add a vfo for con- 
tinuous tuning of its entire 
range or of just specific 
bands. With the addition of 
an audio-type CW filter, it 
would make an 
little receiver for 
QRP operation. 

The receiver is 
conversi on, su perheterody ne 
type, with an FET front end, 
and is crystal-controlled. No 
bands witching is required 
when it is used over the 6-1 5 
MHz range. Coil usage has 
been held to a minimum to 
simplify construction. Con- 
struction is also facilitated by 
the use of a sin^e IC for aJI 
audio amplification and the 
use of a commercial i-f ampli- 
fier module. 

The schematic for the 
receiver is shown in Fig* 1, as 
it would be used for WWV 
reception. Note that the only 
switching which has to be 
done to receive WWV on 
different frequencies is that 
necessary to select the appro- 
priate local oscillator crystals. 
The frequency coverage can 
be extendtLi below 6 MHz 
and above 15 MHz, by using a 
different coil between the 
MPF J 02 (HEP 802) rf ampli- 
fier and mixer stages. Or, in 
the case of just extending 
coverage below 6 MHz, a 
100-200 pF padding capaci- 
tor, across the 210 pF 
variable capacitor shown. 



216 



should extend coverage down 
to the 80 meter band. 

The MPF 102 rf amptifier 
stage is untuned at its input. 
Its main purpose is to keep 
the antenna from loading 
down the tuned circuits 
between the rf amplifier and 
mixer stages. This single 
tuned circuit is sufficient to 
provide reasonable image 
rejection. The MPF 102 
mixer stage and MPF 102 
crystal oscillator stage are 
conventional. The oscillator 
stage is untuned. This has 
proven satisfactory for gen- 
eral reception, using regular 
miniature HC6/U type, 
crystals. With some sluggish 
crystals, the rfc shown in this 
stage may have to be replaced 
with a tuned circuit. 

The i-f amplifier module is 
a J.W. Miller type 8902-B. 
This module is just a two- 
stage I-f amplifier, complete 
with all necessary i-f trans- 
formers, and it also includes 
an AM diode detector, its use 
greatly simplifies construe* 
tion. If one can't find it 
readily available, a simple 
substitute is to cannibalize 
the i-f section from a small 
transistor portable radio. But, 
use an i-f section which has at 
least two stages. The really 
cheap $5 portables often use 
only a single i-f stage, and this 
will not provide sufficient 
gain for any sort of reason- 
ably sensitive reception. 

The audio amplifier ICisa 
Motorola MC1306P. This is a 
neat, inexpensive ($1) IC, 
which combines a preampli- 
fier and 14 Watt output 
amplifier in one package. A 
minimum of external com- 
ponents are needed to make 
it function. If you did 
"borrow" the i-f strip from a 
cheap AM portable to build 
this receiver, don't be 
tempted to "borrow" the 
audio section of the AM 
portable, also. Generally, the 
quality of such audio sections 
is horrible, when compared 
with the clean sound of the 
MC1306P used with any 
small, but decent, 8 Ohm 
speaker. 

The phoio shows how the 
r^eiver was initially laid out 




This is the complete receiver^ as assembled on on approximately 4'* x 2" piece of perforated 
board stock. 



on a piece of perforated 
board stock. Simple point-to- 
point wiring was used. The 
layout wasn't planned, but, 

rather, construction started 
on a slightly larger piece of 
board stock. Starting with the 
rf amplifier stage, the com- 
ponents were simply grouped 
together as closely as 
possible, as I worked from 
left to right. The rf and mixer 
stages were grouped around 
the interstage coiL The 
crystal oscillator stage is 
below the i-f amplifier 
module, and the af amplifier 
IC is just to the left of the 
electrolytic capacitor, shown 
at the extreme right middle 
side of the board. When the 
receiver had been assembled, 
the oversize perforated board 
was carefully cut down to its 
final size. 

The tuning capacitor used 
is a regular BC type and is 
temporarily shown attached 
at the left side of the board. 
The receiver should be 
mounted in a metal en- 
closure, and the ground leads 
used in the receiver should be 
carefully grounded to the 
enclosure at several points. 
Although the receiver did 
work fine wired as shown in 
the photo, it probably would 
be safer, from the viewpoint 



of avoiding possible spurious 
oscillations, to utilize an 

isolated pad type of com- 
ponent mounting/soldering 
technique. The relatively new 
Stamp- It, Etch- It kit, sold by 
Rainbow Electronics (see 73 
ads), is a pretty handy way of 
developing an easy do-it-your- 
self PC layout for the re- 
ceiver, if you like to take a 
bit more time but end up 
with a more professional- 
looking PC board. 

To use the receiver to 
monitor SSB transmissions, a 
product detector and bfo 
have to be added. The circuit 
for a suitable product detec- 
tor/bfo is shown in Fig. 2, It 
is relatively simple and inex- 
pensive. If the product 
detector circuit is added to 
the receiver using the |,W. 
Miller i-f module, you have to 
remove the shield can from 
the module and Lake the i-f 



signal off the first 1N67A, 
before the diode detector is 
built into the module. This 
operation is fairly simple and 
obvious, if one uses the 
module, since a diagram 
comes with it, illustrating the 
modification. The diode AM 
detector need not be discon- 
nected, however. So, one can, 
if desired, add a switch at the 
volume control to choose 
either the output of the 
product detector or the 
output of the AM diode 
detector. 

With a mixture of some 
parts from one's junk box 
and newly-bought main com- 
ponents, the receiver can be 
constructed for about $20, 
This represents a rather 
modest cost for a utility*type 
HF receiver, for which one 
can find many applications 
around the shack or in 
portable use. ■ 



L*ST 
I-F 

f 

if? 
■<c 



IN6TJV 



'r^ 




45?Khl!:^LSB 

1 llf 

^" ||h-=^^^^^^ 



ffi 



23 



ffJ 



T 



47K 



P 



^470 



^h 



OUT 






RFC 

rOmH 



f-^ Ympf 102 

4TK ^^~^ ' 



fff 



T 

I 



■*+9^ 



01 



Fig. Z Product detector/bfo, which can be added for SSB 
reception. 



217 



Because the sophistica- 
tion of state-of-the-art 
radio gear hasn't been 
matched by improved ham 
operating practices, it is often 
essential for an amateur to 
vent his spleen over the air in 
one or another of a patterned 
program of careful com- 
ments. 

And no such commentSp 
despite the need" for their 
frequent repetition and the 
necessity of avoiding actual 
profanity I are the subjects of 
any of the "Q'* signals on the 
traditional list. 

I have developed, there* 
fore, a suggested list of up* 



dated state-of-the-opera ting- 
art "Q** signals intended to 
lower the blood pressure and 
restore tranquillity without 
violating the FCC *'no ob- 
scenities'' regulation. 

There undoubtedly will be 
others recommended by 
other hams. 

My suggested list^ there- 
fore. Is open to amendments, 
revisions, additions and mod- 
ifications by fellow hams also 
frustrated by the shortcom- 
ing of other operators and 
the traditional list of **Q" 
signals. 

Welcome to recommend 



Wake Up 

Dead 




Repeater ! 



- - with these new 



Q signals 



such amendments or revisions 
are all who have within the 
past year sat in for even a few 
minutes on a DX contest, a 
sweepstakes, or a band open- 
ing to a rare call area. 

Because the purpose of the 
proposed list is to help vent 
the emotions sure to be seeth- 
ing in the modern ham handi- 



capped by others' operating 
techniques, most of the 
suggested *'0*' signals are 
assertions, not the bland and 
polite question-and-response 
types of the outmoded tradi- 
tional list. 

They are most useful when 
delivered as commands or 
comments, with feeling. ■ 



QXA Hey, dolt, tune up someplace else, 

QXB Drop dead, oaf, my dummy load is busted. 

QXC Quit calling through his comeback, jerky. 

QXD I gotti call long, because I'm running fow povyer to a poor 

antenna with a lousy fist* 

QXE He's listening up two, but you'd better go down five. 

QXF Buzz off, busier. I got here first. 

QKG Slow down, f inkie. Your dits sound like ignition noise. 

QXH Sp^eed it yp, nipsie. Code practice is over and the band is 

going out. 

QXl You're working the wrong street, friend* They only use AM 

on 27 now, 

QXJ Sign, for goodness sakes. I've been waiting 20 minutes to put 

your call in the log. 

QXK Quit calHng through his comeback, dummies. 

QXL Don't expect a card, OM. I don't keep a log. 

QXM Don't gimme that exotic call from Illinois, Mac, I could care 

less about your state fair station. 

QXN Boy^ you gotta lousy fist 

QXO I worked him before, anyway. 

QXP That ain't hum on me. I'm just blocking your receiver. 

QXQ (Expletive deleted — this is the biggy, the quick tension 

releaser. It's bad, nasty and very helpful m a crisis. But it 
should be saved for true crises.) 

QXR I told you before, dang it — quit calting through the rare cat's 

comeback, 

QKS I copied you solid, TOO per cent, OM, but I can't remember 

what you said. 

QXT Vm not working for my Extra, cuz I don't believe in that 

incentive jazz. 

QXU AJl solid state here. Someday I'm gonna lift the lid and see 

what's inside. 

QXV I wish to QXQ you QXOars would quit calling through the 

rare guy's comeback. 

QXW Nil copy, cut them QXQers keep calling through your 

comeback. 



oxx 



QXY 



Tm reporting you blind, cuz 
through your comeback. 



them QXQers keep calling 



Guy Slaughter K9AZG 
753 W. Elizabeth Dr, 
Crown Point IN 46307 



I distinctly heard a *'G,'* so Vm gonna put you in the log — 
even though them QXQers keep calling through your 
comeback* 



0X2 Where' d everybody go? 



218 



Social E/ents 



HAZEL PARK IVII 
DEC 4 

The Hazei Park Amatttur Hddto 
Club IS holding their 12th annual 
Swap St Shop on Decemtier 4. 1977, 
at tlie Haze) Park Hifh School Ad- 
mission is St. 00 at the door Main 
prize tickets are available from Robert 
Numerick WB8ZPN, 23737 Courens, 
Hazel Park Ml 48030. Reserve table 
space is available from WSaZPN. 



NORTH POLE 
DEC 6 17 
The Calgary Amateur Radio Asso- 
ciation ts pleased to announce "Opera- 
tion Santa Claus" will be activated 
a^in this year. Commencing Decem- 
ber 6 until December T7 inclusive, 
CAR A will be operating between 
0200Z and 0300Z on 3790 kHz and 
between 03002 and 0400Z on 3910 
kHz. These freciuencies are plus or 
minus QRM. Al that time there will 
be two statiorts on frequency, a net 
control station and a Santa Claus 
Stat ton. ATI caJl5« from amateur sta- 
tions with chitdren wishing to speak 
to Saint Nick at the Nortfi Pole, will 
be accepted. Merry Christmas. 



ROYAL OAK Ml 
JAN 8 
The Oak Park Amateur Radio 
Oub*5 Ninth Annual Swap n' Shop 
will be Sunday, January 8, 1378, at 
the Frost Junior High School in Dak 
Park (north of Nine Mile on ScotfaJ. 
Talk in on 52/S2* Admission is S2 — 
ample table space. Hours are from 3 
am to 3 pm. Prices and refreshments. 
For further Into, write to: Lee R I cell! 
WA8RNB. 118 South Pleasant. Royal 
Oak Ml 48067. 



SOUTH BEND IN 
JAN 8 

A Swap & Shop will be held Jan- 
uary 8, 1978, at the Mew Century 
Center In downtown South Bend by 
river on U.S. 31 Oneway North across 
from St- Joseph Bank Buifding, Half 
acre in one large room at ground level 
of entrances and loading dock. Four 
lane highways to door from all direc- 
tions. Talk in on 52-52 and area 
repfiaters. 



RICHMOND VA 
JAN 15 

The Richmond, Virginia, Winierfest 
will be held on January 15, 1978, at 
the Son Air Communily Center, spon- 
sored by the Richmond Amateur Tele- 
communications Society. ARRL coor- 
dinated. Technical symposium, draw- 
ing^ home brewers contest — 2 
diyi^ions, oyer IB and under — with 
framed certificate to winners with 
Most Original Idea, Best MecfianicaJ 
and Best Electrical Construction. FCC 
exams will be administered, startir>g at 
10 am — to lake exam, mail Form 610 
at least five days prior to Fest to 
address below. Send SASE if you need 
Form 610, Commerciaf ejchibits, 
indoor flea market, S2.00 j table in- 
cluded), outdoor frostbite tailgate flea 
market, $1.00. Admission $2, 
children under 12 free. BATS mem- 
bers excluded from contest and draw- 
ing. Talk-in on 2088 and 52 simplex- 
Richmond Amateur Telecommunica- 
tions Society, PO Box 1070. Rich- 
mond VA 23208, 



FORT WAYNE IN 
JAN 22 

The annual Fort Wayne Winter 



Ham fest will tje held on January 22 at 
Shiloh Hall, north of Fort Wayne, 
from 8 am until 4 pm local time. 
Early parking Is available and 28/^ 
and 52/52 will be monitofed. This 
yearly event is sponsored by the Aflen 
County Amateur Radio Technical 
Society lAC/ARTS}, Admission is 
$2,00 at the door. Table space is 
available at STSO per half table 
(about 4 feet). 



ST JOSEPH MO 
JAN 31 -MAR 7 

The Missouri Western State College 
Center for Continuing Education 
ts offering a Novice amateur radio 



da$s on Monday evenings^ 7 to 9 pm, 
January 31 through March 7, at the 
Engineering Tech, BIdg. 110. 6 meet- 
tfigs S5. 



DAVENPORT I A 
FEB 26 

The Davenport Radio Amateur 
Club ham fest will be held on February 
26, 1978, at the Masonic Temple in 
Davenport, Iowa. Admission if $2.CX) 
advance. S2.50 at door. Tafk-in will be 
on 28/88 and 52 simplex. Tables will 
be available at S2^0Q each. For info 
and tickets, write: Dick Lar>e 
WA0GXC, 116 Park Avenue So>, 
Eldridge lA 52748. 



Ham Help 



I'm asking the help of anyone who 
can help me get started on SSTV. Any 
help, information, and/or tips will be 
greatly appreciated. 

Steve KetlerWAIWFA 

86 Columbus Avenue 

West Bridgewater MA 02379 



I recently purchased a theater pro- 
feet ion television system. The problem 
is that I need a picture tube and 
service information. The set is built by 
RCA, model PT-100. The picture tube 
is a 7NP4 or 7WP4. Neither the tube 
nor manual are avaiiable. 

I realise that your magazine is 
mostly amateur radio, and while I am 
not yet a hsm. I do fiave a 1st phone 
and repair commercial equipment for 
a living. I also service amateur gear as 
well. This TV system is not the small 
home type that was popular years ago 
and is making a comeback. It k a huge 
commerciai projection set that is 
often used to present fights and races 
in movie theaters- This tan it is quite 



old. so there are no parts or info 
available today, H'i a very impressive 
piece of gear, and I would [ove to 
make it work again. I never plan to 
use it commercially, i feei that some 
reader of your magazine might be able 
to help me get this monster going. 

Bntce Gentry 

624 Pfymotith Ave. 

Matty dale NY 13211 



I am a reader of 73, am not a ham 
(yet), but need help. The help I need 
is the answer to this question: Where 
can I buy a good^ used "pan adapter" 
— that Is, an oscilloscope device which 
visually displays alt signals on a 
30a500 kHz band? I would conndef 
a new one, if it' wouldn't cost the 
moon. My receiver is a National HRO 
600, Any ideas? 

Lawrence J. Gutter 

President 

Chicagoland Broadcasters, Inc. 

2622 W. Peterson Ave. 

Chicago IL 60659 



1465 WELLS STATION ROAD 

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Circle C2I on Reader Service Card 



219 



WUR HAM TUn 
HSMQUAHTenS i 

TUBES BOUGHT. SOLD AND TRADED 

SAVE ^S - HIGH SSS FOR YOUR TUBES 



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How You 
Can Convert 
Your Rohn 

25G Tower to a 
FOLD -OVER 



CHANGE, ADJUST OR JUST 
PLAIN WORK ON YOUR 
ANTENNA AND NEVER LEAVE 
THE 



If you have a Rohn 25G 
Tower, you can convert it to 
a Fold-over by simply using 
a conversion kit. On buy an 
inexpensive standard Rohn 
25G tower now and convert 
to a Fold-over later. 

Rohn Fold-overs allow you to 
work completely on the 
ground when installing or 
servicing antennas or rotors. 
This eliminates the fear of 
climbing and working at 
heights. Use the tower that 
reduces the need to climb. 
When you need to ""get at" 
your antenna . . . just turn 
the handle and there it is, 
Rohn Fold-overs offer un- 
beatable utility. 

Yes! You can convert to a 
Fold'Over. Check with your 
distributor for a kit now and 
keep your feet on the ground, 

AT ROHN YOU GET THE BEST 




Do not attempt to raise antenna or 
antonna support near power lines— 
You can bo KILLED. 



Unarco-Rohn 




Ofvisnn of Unarco Ifvlustrtes. inc. 
RO. Boic2000,Peona, Uiifiois6i€ai 



U2 




220 



ANNOUNCING-A New Generation of VHF/UHF 

FM RECEIVER KITS 



More Sensitive, More SetecUve, Baaer to Buitd, Smaller Than Ever Before .' 
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'HHower system cost ^han ever before 

i(tfleft&r sefectivify, 70"80 cJB adjacen)- cKiatinq'l, over 100 dB wifh cryshal fiftor option 

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#60 dB imdge rejection 

# Lotest dedgn ^ new ea^y-tu-wtnd high Q coik, compartmentized ihieldTfig 

#£aiiy lo buiMf lest clrcuih o^ board allow tun« up mth on)^ si0 gen & vfvm 




VHF MODEL R70 S69.95 

• Aval ruble for 2M^ M^^ lOM^ 
220 MHz J. or com^f bonds 

• Sensitivity 0.4uV for 20 dB 
OpHonaf Crypto f Filter Kit $10 
Channel Crystals $5.95 ea 



UHF MODEL R90 $89.95 ^ 

• For ony 2 MHz segment of the 
380-520 MHz range 

• Sensitivity 0,8uV 
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'i^ f -^ 



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These new CONVERTER KITS 

let you receive OSCAR signals and other exciting 
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eirher one 

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including crystal 




MODEL RF RANGE fMHZ) IF RANGE 



C50 

C144 
C145 
C!46 
C220 
Special 



50-52 26*30 

144-146 28-30 

145-147 2a-30 

146-143 28-30 

p/o 220-230 28-30 

Other rf & i -f ranges om 
a vat table on special request 



MODEL 

C432-2 

C 432-5 
C432-9 
Special 



RF RANGE (MHZ) IF RANGE 

432-434 28-30 

435-437 28-30 

439,25 (ATV) 61.25 

Other rf & iHF ranges ore 
avoMobFe on special request 



An extnjded olumjnum case is avoiloble 
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TEST PROBE KITS 



only $9,95 eo 



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TE''4 Direct Pfobe for ac/ohmi, etc- 
TE-5 DC Probe w/res for 1 1 meg Input vtvm 
TE"^ Blocicing Gapocttor Probe for counter, 

signal generator, etc^ 
TE'*7 Wideband Detector Probe for scopes 
TE-fl High Z/Low Capacitance scope probe 



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FREE SHIPPING ON LARGE STOCK OF 
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write NOWI We' I J be glad to send free catalogs. 



/ 



amiromcs, ma 



ISa-B Belmont Rd; Rach ester, NY 14612 

Dealer Inquiries Invifed H16 



IN CANADA? 

Send order to COMTEC; 5605 Westluke Ave.; 
Monfreol, Que H4W 2N3 or coll 514-482-2640. 
Add 28% to prices shown above to cover customs 
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P8 KFT $10.95 

P16 Wired S2T.95 
Miniature model for 
tight spoces - or\\y 
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k20dB gain • Covers any 4 MHi borwd in range 




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P8-HI 
P8-220 
P16 Wimd 



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• 1-1/5 X 3 indhes • Covers any 4 MHz 
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MODEL 

P9-LO 
P9-Hi 
F?-220 
P14 WTr*d 



RANGE 

26-88 MH^ 
88-172 MHi 
172-230 MH2 
Give specific bond 



K^ 



U 



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P 15 KIT $18,95 
P3 5 Wlretl $34,9 5 

• Covers ony 6 MHz band in 
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• 20 dB gain 



FM/CW TRANSMITTER KITS 




200 MW EJCCiTER MODULE KITS 
T40 Eleven Ownnel Exciter Kit for 2M or 6M 



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ff rffffff rrrrrrrr 

RF POWER AMPLIFIER MODULES 

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Irs Eosy To Order! 

♦ CALL OR WRITE ^OW FOfe FIEE 

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lervTce foe evenings and weekends for yoor 
convenience* Perioiwl service 9-S eastern,) 

#U^e credit cord, COD, cheeky m.o. 

♦ Add $2,00 shlppln9 & bondling. 



221 



1977 Index 



* f ■ » * 



AMPLIFIERS 

Tlie Final Feeder » * 

Build 3 kW Linear 

Biiild A Gefiefai Purpose Preamp . . . . 
&oost Your TR22I , . . 



ANTENNAS 

What's the 6est Anlenm for 160? . * 

No-Wire Arvtenrta Switch 

Th« Mighty Magnet Moijni Antenna * 

Antenna Magic 

Tur>e Up a Randonrt Wire ..,,,,,.. 
Remembfif the Windoml . . * . 
The Agonies o1 Tower Raising . 
The Boom less Microbeam . . . * . 

The Downspout Venical 

A Combiner ior Your 2m Whip 

Improving the Dipole 

Build a DDRR for Your Mobile 

Qyicic Vertical ..,,,,« , , 

The London Bus Tuner .♦.+>, 

Try a Conduit Vertical 

Introducing Autotrak! ..... 

Dual Rhombic for VHF^UHF 
Ccnterfed Specials ..*,.,.. 
Build a Doiible Bazooka .... 

Din Cheap DirecilonaT Array 
Take Cover! .,,,,,.,,,,,, 
Introducing ^he Intenna .... 

The Zeppv Vertical ....... 

A Cure for Antenna Self-Destruct 
Quick Antenna Insulators .... 

Raising A Tower? 

Stqser Loop Arttenna ....... 

Rock Bottom 2m Antenna , . . 

Antenna Gain Facts 

The 8JK Array Hevisited 

Tower Installation Techniques 
An Ultimafte Invisible Antenna 
Mountaintop Special Antenna 
Fiery £ndfed ...,.....,.,. 
Buitd A Vacation Special , , . . 
Apartment Antenna Specials , 

Mobile Antenna Tips , . 

Home Brew Tilt-Over . 

Try A Trapped Dipole ...... 

^tovice Antenna Specials .... 

A Kilowatt Altemative ,,..,. 
Wddifig Rod Special Antenna 



m <M m m 



WA90ZC 
. . .W6DL 
, W4NVK 
WA2INM 



,.A,.,... W5USM 

WAiNUX 

........WAIPDY 

., WBOHAF 

. VK60X/VK62EH 
..W8HXR 
WA2CGA 
Staff 



■i ^ * k 



P i 1- P 



* * ■ * » 



KSANG 

ZL2AMJ 

, . .Staff 

W5UKL/0 

, .,,,WB0KTH 
*5taff 

WBSDVV 

,,.,,.. W9CGI 
.^...WeOMfl 

K4MDK 

«*f<^*«*« K4KI 
« .^ * » > WA4oi\0 

WB5ASA 

, , Norman 

K5GP 

. , W9TKR 
. WB9JXU 
.WA7URL 
, , ,W2FEZ 
. . . .W8FX 
, . W50BR 
.W3ZVT/4 
. , . . W9JT 
. WfiSMS V 
. . W9VZR 
WA6NCX/1 
. , , .W8FX 
. WA2ALT 
. , .W2FEZ 
, . W4IVIEA 
.,,K4tFH 
,..W2FE2 
WB0KTH/4 
..-WA5TSJ 



ATV 

Have You Tried Television? WB4KTY 

Ir^terested In Television? W88DQT 

CALCULATORS 

Tanks A LotI , WA9GUK 

Inside the SR'52 . , , .WA6THG 

CB 

CB Can Do Some Things Better ..,..,,, Norman 

Those Illegal CB Channels K8ANG 

CB to TO - A Legal Alternative (Part I) ,..„,.... W4NVH 

CB to 10 - A Legal Alternative (Pat llj W4NVH 

At Lastl A 10m Sand Plan ..,„_„WA4MFT 

Harm Profit From CS * , , , ,*.,**.. Norman 

Cfl to 10 " Pm y I . . . ... VE7CHI 

C8 to 10 - Part IV . . . . , _ .WB4EQU. Norman 

C8 to 10 - Part V K5UKH 

CB to 10 - Part VI K6UKH 

CB to 10 - Part VII , , _ . WBSCLF 

CLOCKS 

The Super Dock . WA1 UFE 

Digital Clock Fail Safe , . . . WB6HJQ 

Battery Bacl<up for Digital Clocl^s .WA2EJT 

Clocking Those Clocl^ Kits W6SWZ 



91 
112 

98 
200 



44 

142 

168 

174 

124 

118 

126 

134 

55 

119 

156 

92 

117 

56 

SO 

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24 

30 

36 

40 

44 

46 

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49 

50 

52 

54 

55 

56 

58 

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60 

01 

02 

64 

160 

30 

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66 

179 



116 
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182 

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58 

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106 

162 

71 

72 

98 

101 

104 

120 

122 



86 

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123 
148 



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D^ 



IVlay 
Oct 



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Oec 



Mar 

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May 

Jun 

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Jyl 

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Apr 

Jul 

Dec 

Dec 



Hufco Counter Kit - 

Inside Ten-Tec ... . . . ...*.... 

SS8 For the "Frog" ...*....* 

High-Band Your KDK . . , 

CONSTRUCTION 

Art and tbe PC Board , ,.....,. 

Where You Can't Solder or Weld , 

Gh/eThat Professional Look to Your 
Home Brew Equipment ,♦*♦.....* 

Instant PC Boards » . ......>.«.. ^ .,<-. 

M^ Icing Your Own PC Boards — Part I , 
Do- It- Yourself Photosensitizing ..,,,» 
Making Your Own PC Boards - Part II 

Save Your Old Speakers 

Fight fnfiationi Suild It Yourseifl - . . . 

Sheet Metal Brake 

The (C-PC Correction , . . , 

New PC Techniques Unveiledl 

Solder Soldier . . . 

Build A S2 Drill 

Instant Spares .,.*.....< 

PC Layout Tips , 

Beat the PC Shortage .... 
Identify That Transformer 
The Third Hand ..,..,., 
Design A Circuit Designer I ,..♦,.. 
Remote l^onitor for Your Scanner . 
Build An Engine Analyzer .,,,... 
How About An Auto CQ? 



CONTROL 

Complete Repeater Control Syste?n , 
The Morse Clock ,.,,,. 
Rotary Auto patch Dialer 
Subaudible Tone Encoder .... 

Low Cost Tone Decoder , , , 

A Single Tone Can Do It ..... 
More Repeater Control Devices 



A A A HI 



WA2LPS 
, . K4MDK 

W2PMX 



* . » « I. * . I 



• r • & t 






■ k » I 



,,,,.W7RXV 
. . , .WA4VWY 

.... McOelian 
Minchow 
. . , Smith 
..KL7AE 
. . . Smith 

. . , miiff 

. W3KQM 
. W6QIR 
WA60AA 
WB5DEP 
. WTZOA 
K7AGI 

W4ATE 

.... .WBiLUl 
.... .Stanf ieM 
,,..., .Tenny 
, _ . . _ Miller 
. I . . . • I . wiarT 

K1CCK 

WABTHG/'KHe 
K4TSY 



.m. a ■»■ !k 



'» ■',§<» * 



COUNTERS 
Current-Saver Counter Display , . , . . 
Selecting a Fre<iuencv Counter , . . . . 
Buikj A Multiplying Prascaler ...... 



■■#■ *««vni aw rv / f \J f 

,,.., K3JE/2 



COMMERCIAL GEAR 
Using the Adas Transceiver , 



Suff t46 Aug 



Otf 

QLF? Not With the Great LakesSideswipefl 
FCC^ Approved Microprocessor . , 
Learn A New Language ,.,,,,, 

Svtid This CW Fitter , 

CW Keycoder improvements . . h 

Noise Rejector , , 

ftegenefntid CW . . 



DIGITAL 
Digital Bargain Hunting .......... 

CMOS Oscillators ..,.,._.** 

Digitat Synthesizer ...,...>, 

Digital to Audk) Decoder ......... 

Synthesize Youraetf I ....«....,». 

Digital Signal Source « 

GADGETS 

The Polarity Changers . . . . . 

Carbonize Your Crystal . . - , 

Son of the Overload Relay ........ 

Ham Phone Answering Service . . .. . 
Give the Ham burglar Heart Faifure . , 
You Can Sound Better With Speech 

Build Your Own Car Regulator . 

Sending HI .,,*,. .,.,,,, 

Remote Rain Gauge . . ....♦.*... 

Build a Unique Timer 

Build a Phorve Exchange 

Build a Beeper Alarm 

Sound Operated Re^ay , . 

Simple Electronic Siren ,..,..... 

Straining the Wind 

Photoelectric Bench Acc^sory .... 
FUdier Foi^er Car Alarm . , . . 



., W6VX 
. KSNQW 
We0KTH 
VE3EXA 
WBdQFR 
WB6ZYK 
.... Staff 



. W8KBC 
WB5DEP 
. .W9CGI 

Pachofok 
..WlHCl 
. K7HKL 



Staff 

. ,. ..weewxD 

WB8VQD,WBSMGH^ 

. WA5KPG 



WB5DEP 

...,,,.... W8LWS 

WA3AJR 

..!,...«.. ..1 ifvioore 
, WA4SAM 

, weaoQT 

K4DHC 
.. Staff 

...W3K8y 

. . .W86THJ 



■b ■' r ta fan 



i a- ¥ * W it * k 



182 

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177 



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Jufi 

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Ho^ 

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Dec 



. . W4V6Z 


1T8 


Jun 


.WA1MXV 


54 


Jul 


.WA1MXV 


172 


Aug 


.. W41NFR 


52 


Oct 


. weavsz 


178 


Nov 


. . .W7JSW 


184 


Nov 


. . .W7JSW 


50 


Dec 



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M 
M 



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ucc 
Dec 



222 



HISTORY 

Pfteairn Island . i --........ . 

The History of Ham Radio — Part I , 

10 and T 1 Meier Predictions 

Shoot the Moon! *.......,..,,.. 

The HSstorv of Ham Radio - Part II 
The History of Ham Radio - Part III 
The W18B Story 



I f ■ f « 



....VR6TC 

. , . , Nelson 

K3BPP 

.. . W9CI 

, , . wgct 

WB1ASL 

The Histofv of Ham Radio - Part JV . . , W9CI 

8ig Bust in Amarillo * , * .Staff 

Electronics Study Guide ,,,,..,,„.,,, Wiison 

The History of Ham Radio - Part V , , , , , . . * . W9CI 



HUMOR 

The UFO Connection ,.,.....,.. 
Dear Good Buddy ..,,,....*... 

The HAPPY FLYERS , ,, 

Retire to Ham Heaven ...... 

Let's Use EnQlish , 

The Ham Radio Oassroom , , 

Things Remembered ,,,».,.,,,,, 

QSL Tips .Barrack 



■ A * A H 



. K8NQN 

....... ..W7IDF 

..WB&CQW 

. KOWTM/OABCV 

WAIGFJ 

..,..,.. W4LLR 
W8LUX 



The First Step ..<*..,.....«.. 

Fool the Wire Wizard 

Right Way, Wrong Way, Navy Way 
Liviiig With the Family Ham , , , , 
Wake Up A Dead Repeater! . . . , , 



p p p ■ 



+ fr * * ^ - 



-P F ■ 4) 



,.W2FEZ 
Simmons 
, KBDZY 
WA4W2L 
. K9AZG 



m 

The TTL One Shot , ,W88YJ£ 

Mow Do You Use lCs7 - Part VI WA2SUT/NNN02VB 

Logical Storage for Logic Stanfield 

How Counter ICs Work , . , .WB5IR Y 

Leading Zero Suppnessioo * W6AVL 

TTL Techniques ....__ WB&IH Y 

Try Power Sa«f Logic , WB5DEP 

An B2S23 PROM Programmerf ...*... W82CZL 

How Do You Use ICs? - Part VII .... WA2SUT/ISJNNSIZVB 
How Do You Use ICs? - Part VIM . . . . WA2SUT/NNN02VB 
Finallyr A Simple PRQ1V1 Burner , W7JSW 



V V ^ + + - 



- - *• r * !•# 



I/O 

Go Forth ami Multiply! . . . 

How to Fifid a Forgetful Memory , , , , 

A Super Log ,......,»... 

Short On M^morv? ,.,,.,,.-,,,.,*, 
A Software Replacement for the Muffin 

1 ,000 WPM Morse Code Typer 

It Works! The First Time! .,,,».,,.. 
Computerised Satellite Tracking . . , , . 
Building the Folymorphics Video Board 

RTTY Goes Modern * . . . 

How to Use Tho^ Old Teletypes . . . . * 
High Quality Video Display 
Save Time wtth a Micro OS 
Interrupts Explalnedt , , « * 

CW for the 6000 

Computer Controlled Thermometer . . 
Let BASIC Control Your N^xt Contest 
Aim Your Antenr^a With a Micro . , . . 

Dipole Designer Program . . . t - 1 . 

Software Control 
Computer Logger 

Troubleshooting A Micro . , . . . 

S. D. Sates Z 80 Review *.*..*** 

Receive CW With A KIM 

Build This SSTV Pattern Generator 
Super Baud Bumper ,.,.,»,..,. 
Decode Morse ................. 

Futureshot ..**,*..,,...,...,, 

Try A Micro Contest Logger . . 

Computer i7ed Global Calcuiattorts . 
Micro Meets JANET - . . 



Far* 



# * * * * 



. ^ A a -. 



•!->«« 



...W1HCI 
. VE3DWC 
. WA7SCe 
. W62ZCF 
. WA1FEF 
.We2DFA 
.WB4WRH 
. .WB0JHS 
. WB6JKM 
. WB6QFA 
. . .K7YZZ 
WA8VNP 
, Ferguson, Ferguson 
,,,♦*♦, . , ZLTTRM 

.WA4TMZ 

WB9LSS 

.......... Whipple 

W4PWF, WA2TMT/4 

.- -«..... K/S8K 

WASVNP 

...WAIUOU 

......,*. WB4KE0 

......... WA2INM 

.W63GCP. WB8VQD 
K7SaK 

_, . WB4GXE 

WB9KPT 

. . . KH6GMP 

, , VE3EKR 

.W5HK/9. WSBWXM 



I ■■ « 4 n 



KEYERS 

Contest Special Keyer - . . . .WA2KU0 

Build the World's Simplest Keyer Ring 

MISCELLANEOUS 

An Automatic Thermostat ....,,,.. „ . , Wt HCI 

Pracircal Solar Cell Poww .W2EUP 

The Jufik Box a^ sn Art Form .................. . W8G f 

Revisiting the COR .W7 JSW 

The Hidden Charigef WB8IMY 



28 

112 

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IJnBV 



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u^ec 



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Feb 
May 



Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 
Jan 



C- ■< V -V 



tC Compresor- Expander 

Are You Realty Insured? 

Getting a Patent - Is It Really Worthwhile? 

Arinoundng the PCF , . , , 

What About Surplus Nicads? ..♦,,,.. _ , 

The Phantom Exposed * ♦ 

Harness the Wind , , , 

Headphone Jack Adapter ....,.,,.,.,,,.,... 

Automatic Taping Unit 

Event Timer With Memory , , . . 

Regulated Nicad Charger 
Instant QSO Recall Syst^D 

Goolirtg Your Relays 

Hang Ten 

Radio Equipment Insurance 
Information Management System 

QRZ- P^K4| . ... 

V€6 OXer Teirs AH1 

Run, Sheila, Run* , , , 

Roll Your Own QSL Cards 

Glkte On Six 

Beat the Books ,.*.....* 

The Rescue 

Call Letter Gouger ...... 

QRM on the Moon? 



. . . . ri . 



♦ * * + - 



• * * .* 



+ * + * 



****** r 



- * i * * 



....Staff 
. .W9KXJ 
. W2WLR 

. WA6PTM 
. .W9JTQ 
.... Bach 
WA1LET 
WA0VHX 
.2L2AMJ 
WA3VPZ 
. K7HKL 
. W4GKF 
. K8ANG 
. K8ANG 
WA9PDS 
, K4MDK 
. W9CQD 
..VESNS 

.weniFF 

. .G3W0I 

WB3BaO 
WB9YKR 
.WA6LJL 
WB6JYK 
. W4NVK 



MOBILE/PORTABLE 
KsBflirig the Wind Dowyn *..••,,. 

Drive More Sa^ly with a Mobile Driver . ^ 

Frustrating the Thieves ,.,,,,.,. 

Automatic Autopatch Release ...... 

Emergency 91 1 System 

Curing Mobile Noise Miseries 

Add Class to Your Mobile » , . . . , 

Hamming the Biiggy Sweepstakes .... 
The Carbon Marvel .......,.,.,... 

Motorcyde Mobile ,,.,,.-,_, 

Vehicle Security Systems 

Digital Timer Goes Mobile ......... 

Remote Speaker Mtke for Your HT . . 



f. . . » . 



. WBBAZP 
...W7JSW 
.WBOGGT 
/WAIRTD 
.WA2RX0 
. .. G3Bm 
. WSflHEE 
. WA2U0S 
.. W1SNN 
.WA4LWY 
. WB5DEP 
. . K70CM 
, , W2DNY 



A**t-4«*tv 



^ M * * * 



. . -i . 



♦ *■»•»» 



OPERAT 

Ten Meters: Dead or Alive? 
Repeaters in New Zealand 
Talk About OX -WOW! . 

Phone Patch Tips , , , 

When the Lights Go Out 

W.A.S, - Easily f ............ 

Attache' Case Portable 

Mastering Network Operations . 
Traffic Handling Explained . . . 

Try BC3DXI _ 

German Amateur Procedures . . 
The DA4FB Story ,,...,.... 
Try A Topical CQ . . 
Try A New Mods! . 



OSCAR 

Build the Qmni-GSGAR I , . . . . 

Get Set For OSCAR 8 

Build An OSCAR 2m Transvertef . . . . . 

Predicting OSCAR Propagation , . . 

Try OSCAR Mobile , . 

Tic Tac Touchtone ...«^.._^.. 

Visual OSCAR Finder 

Cheap Ears For OSCAR ............ 

Track OSCAR With Your SR'52 ..... 

Try A T-R For OSCAR 8 

Track OSCAR In Real Time ..... 

Logical Thoughts About OSCAR 

OSCAR DX 

OSCAR Frequericy Relationships . , , . , 

Calculate OSCAR Orbits 

CB to OSCAR 

Track OSCAR 8? ...... 

Build A 2m Power Amp ............ 



....... ,.2L2AMJ 

W7IDF 

...WBBMXD 

........ lnfD3rtort 

. W7FGD 

, . .N4AL/WB4SCN 

,WB4EZM 

WB2YKG 

.WS2BJH 
.WaCM/5 
WB4EWX/DA1KD 
........ K4GRT 



1 r * * * 



- * * * * 



.■!*■«■ 



..K20VS 
. W3HUC 
.. W2GN 
,.G3lOft 
. . W2GN 
..W9CGI 
WB2BWJ 
. . W9CGI 
.,W6UIX 
. .W9CGI 
....W9U 
. OA6AD 
. W3TMZ 
.WIZAW 
VE78GX 
.,W9CGI 
. K2ZR0 
.W4MNW 



nm ■* w * 



POWER SUPPLY 
Dirt Cheap Regulation * . . . ^ . 

Tlie Chintzy 12 

Super Low Voltage Power Suppfy 
Inexpensive Variable DC Supply 
Wind Your Own ............. 

practical P,S. Design ,,..,...,. 
A Battery Volta^ Monitor ..... 



i. k * • * 



. . .W3GAT/2 
.... WtOOP 
. . . VE3CWY 
. . . . W9V2R 
..... KSV I R 
. .,WA6JMM 
. . Hawkinson 



182 

44 

46 

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84 


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223 



Instant PS Regulaiion . . 
BuHd A Brute Power Supply ^ . 
UniQue Po^vef Supply Tester . , 
Light Up Your B$nch -,„,*,,, 
Adjustable Bench Supply . ^ * .* 
Build fl Noise-free Power Supply 



l-t-Hd-l-IVI I 



W3MR 

-..,.. WB4QLW 

Ik W9Ht/A 

WA3VGT 

. K4DHC 



■m -i 1m r * * - 



A 4 ■ 4 » ■ 



RECEIVERS 

The Minioom Receiver ,.,.,..... 

High Ffequency Utility Cbnw«rtef ...,..,.*.... 

Yaemi f RG-7 ltripr«ssions . , , ,,.,.., , . , 

Recyde Your Recelvef .♦..*,,, 

Build A Useful HF Receiver .....<..,..,**,.*. 



. K4DHC 
. K40HC 
. , , W5JJ 
. W9VZR 
, , ♦ .Staff 



RTTY 

PROM Message Generator for RTTY 

RTTY? What's That? . . . 

An imeliigem RTTY Station , 

The 60 WPM Conversion .... 

Stop Thai Autostart 

Computerized RTTY Takeover! . . . 
All- Electro nic SELCAL ....,,.,. 
RTTY Scratchpad Memory _ _ . , 
So Yoi; Want to Get Into RTTY? . . 
Design Ari Active RTTY Filtef ... , 
Moving Display RTTY Readout . . , 

RTTYSWUng 

RTTY Local Loop . . , , . 

Try the RTTY Reader ..*..•,,,- 

Organize Your RTTY Pix . . 

Build A RTTY Message Generator . 

FSK for the Drake * 

Baudot to ASCII Converter 
Digital Group RTTY Micro 

RTTY Test Station , . 

RTTY With the KIM 

FSKfof theFT'101 

Build A Drift-free T.U, ... 
RTTY CRT Tuning Indicator 
Cassette-Aided CW md RTTY 
RTTY RKB-l Revisited! ,. . 
Try Your KIM-1 On RTTY , 



1- e- « -B 



« I 1 + • 



* -« * * t 



.WB4EHG 

WA6CPP/WA7PEI 

WB2MPZ 

WA5EVH 

WB2MPZ 

. , _ .\/E3GSP 

W9IF 

I 4 ■■ A » 4 1 * ■ I ri IN^U/^VV 

.. .. WB8SWH 

. WA2MOT/WT2AAG 

. , * . * .wB5lR.Y 
„.,, W3JJU, Cannon 

..._,._ WB9CNE 

, WB8DMC 

. VE4C1V] 
. K2A0U 
, . W2FJT 
. K4GCM 
. ,W60JF 
VE7DaK 
...W9IF 

Staff 

. , . W9IF 
WA&DXP 



* H i ¥ ' 



4 * t fc - 



SATELLITE 
Weather Satellite Siniulator ....... 

Predict rhe Weather' . . -,-,,, -...»,, 
Saielliie Zapper . , , . . «>« .,,,,... 
Eye On the Weather? ............ 



„.,.W9CG1 

, , . WB80QT 
. . . WB8DQT 
. . .WA4WDL 



SSTV 

SSTV Test Generator WA6VV L 

Double Sideband: Something New? .K7YZZ 

SSTV Slalom Game . , , K4TWJ 

SSTV Meets the SWTP ^00 _ . . , , . .K6AEP 

Robot 400 Scan Converter Details _ . . WBBOQT 

Title Yoiff Pix With A Micro ..,...,,. K6AEP 



SURPLUS 

Uncle Sam'$ Surplus List ........ 

Interest in Mail Order? 

Stsrplus Goodies Are Still ArouruJ . 

Buying Surplys ,....., 

How To Btiy Surplus Parts , . . . . 
Surplus Goodies . , . . . 



4 « V » I! 



..WA7NEV 
. . Anderton 

Moak 

,.. W20LU 
..McClellvi 
. ..ViLlastrigo 



TEST GEAR 

The "New" 88 Ctiatinel !C'22 ._,.,_. WA60AZ 

Mod for the Heath 10-1 02 Scope .,.*..... WB4MYL 

A Simple RC Substitution Box Staff 

A 1 5-75 kHz Oscillator ,.,♦,»,,*.... XEICMB 

See Yourself Talk ,..*,...,., , #> • •* • * . * , VK5YH 

You At ready Have an Atomic Frequency 

Stanoand * . . » i^ . ^ * * . i^ . # « . . * « « .,.«»,..*... WDBASL 

DVMs Get Simpler and Simpler McDellan 

The Capacitor Comparator WB4MYL 

The Speedy Audio Counter , . . W4JYW 

The Oily Resistor Wattmeter WAIPDV 

The Easy Ammeter ......................... .VE3FEZ 

Inside the Bird .*»,.,,,.....,,..* . * . W6YUY 

Huming Noise , W6HVP 

World's Smallest Com inuitY Tester , Miller 

A Look At Stwiet Test Gear ,, W&jTT 

S^jer DVW .... . , , WASVQK 

The World's Cheapest Calibrator , . W9SS 

Build A Meter With Class , . WA4UL 



41 

78 

122 

124 
192 
208 



136 
50 
96 
32 

2ie 



04 
56 
72 

1&3 
47 
70 

166 
54 
2B 
38 
44 
62 

m 

60 

66 

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78 

BO 

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88 



58 

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22 
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2t0 



36 

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32 

60 
49 
!30 
57 
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*■'*■' 

58 
105 

72 
108 

tos 

112 



Aug 
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lUtar 

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Wov 



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Jan 
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Jaf^ 
Jan 

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B#p 



Ultra SimpTe Diode Checker . . . 

Sensitrve Meters Saved ... 

Find That Meter Resistance 

Final lyl A Practical Discrimaiorl . . . . 

Amplitude vs, Frequency , , , , 

Byild the E! Sapo Tester 

Test Instrument Saver 
Quick Deviation Meier 



« I i t 



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w m ^ r w 



■:' fa i4 !h 4 



.... K460K 

WeGXN 

hi2RG 

.... K4G0K 
Staff 

. . . ^ . . r O LbTT 

...... Miller 

...WATUUK 



THEORY 

How Does Your Rig Paiorm? ...... ... .*.-.,... W6AGX 

How Does Sideband Really Stack Up? .......*.. W68JIMN 

SWR Myth Exploded Again , WA1 JFU 

Measure Your Wasted Power .......... ^ ......... - Staff 

SSB: The Third IVlethod . ..,. . .WB0XY/O 

A New Breed of VoJtage Regulators WA7A8V 

Taming the Wild Beta W3KBM 

The Real Truth About SWR , . . W65IAM 

Understand Your Pel Rock K1 CLL 

Beware the Compressorf , . .WB50GI 

Matching CXitput Trarwformers ,,»,,,,, Mi iler 

HF Bands; Expanderl ..... ^ ..*...*,...»...«..» . .Staff 

Transmission Line Primer .,..,., , . Murphy 

Impedance Matching WB5HE0 



TOUCHTONE 

The Mew Improve