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pECEMBER 2002 







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Wire Wi^€l5m 

^Sacrifice Rock 








Unleash The Power 


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ISSUE #505 

El Supremo & Founder 
Wayne Green W2NSD/1 

Associate Publisher 
R I. Marion 

Executive Editor 
Jack Burnet! 

Managing Editor 

Joyce Sawielle , 

Technical Editor 
Larry Antonuh WB9RRT 

Contributing Culprits 

Mike Bryce WB8VGE 
Jim Gray II 
Jack Heller KB7NO 
Chuck Houghton W861GP 
Andy MacAltister W5ACM 
Jog Moell KOOV 
Steve Nowak KE8YN/0 
Dr Rick Olsen N6NR 

Advertismg SaJes 
Eveiyn Gamson WS7A 
21704 S.E. 35lhSt 
IssaquahWA 93029 
Fax; 425-557-9612 

Frances Hyvarinen 

Data Entry & Other Stuff 
Morman Manon 

Business Office 

Sdlprial - AdvefttsJng - Circulal^on 

Feedback * Product Reviews 

73 Amateyr Radio Today Magazine 

70 Hancoc^k Rd. 

PelEjrbofOugh NH 03458-1107 


Fax: 603-924-861 3 

Reprirris: S3 per atlide 
Back issues: S5 each 

Printed in the USA 

Manuscripts: Conthbutions for 
possitiie piibficaiion are rrkost 
welcome. Well do the best we can to 
relum anything you request, but we 
assume no riesponsibflity for loss 
or damage. Payment for submitted 
articles wiit be made after pubiication. 
please submit iDOth a cisk and a 
hafd oopy of your articte {IBM (ok) 
Of Mac Ipt^rr&l) fomials], careMy 
chedced drawings and schematics, 
and ttie deansst^ best focused and 
Itghiad photos you cari manage. How 
to wnte for 7T guidelines are availabte 
on request. US dozens, pfease 
include your Social Security number 
with submitted manuscripts so we can 
submrt it to you know who. 

Radio Today 



10 Commercial-Quality Function Generator — K8IHQ 

Will you outfive it — or vice versa? 

22 Shedding Some Light on Dimmers — W2GOM/7 
Why not put one of Ittese triacs to use? 

24 Eager for Meager — AD1 B 

Try an 11m vertical on 160. 

27 Shack Switch for Foot Fetishists — WA20KZ 

Not that it's THAT kinky. 

28 Ashore at Sacrifice Rock! — VU2SBJ 

The saga of a masterful DXpedition, 

36 Hamfest Success Formula — K9TRG 

How to make sure your lest is a success. 

58 Read All About It! — K8JWR 

Part 13 of good stuff from The Hertzian Herald. 


40 Above & Beyond — WB6I0P 

49 Ad Index 

64 8arter n Buy 

39 Calendar Events 

47 The Digital Port — KB7N0 

44 Hamsats — W5ACM 

Homing In — KOOV 

Wever Say Die — W2NSD/1 

New Products 

On the Go — KE8YN/0 

Propagation — Gray 


Radio Bookshop 


Web Page 


COVER: ThiN hciiuiifd gdd- 
plaicd key is the 2002 
Christmas Key. F^ch key has 
a serial no,, and there are 
only 250 oi' them, $60 each 
from Morse Express iwww.«Ti/xni;ts; 303-752- 
3?S2KPhotohy NIFN. 

Bye-Bye Betamax 

A legend is being put to rest. After twenty-seven 
years \n production, Sony Corporation says that it 
will finally pot its famed Betamax tape format to bed 

Jt's said thai Belamax opened the world of home 
video as the first practical constimer format. Sony, 
JVC, and Panasonic first tried with the famed 3/4-inch 
U-Matic machines, but consumers were reluctant to 
buy a videotape machine that was bigger than most 

TV sets of that era and looked more at home in a 
television station than their livingroom. 

My own first home VCR was a Sony 51-7200 
Betamax. It would record a whole hour of pretty-high* 
qualily video and audio on a tape cassette that was 
only 3-1/2 by 6 inches in size. I paid almost S2,0O0 
for the machine, and each cassette cost me close to 
S25, That was in the late 1970s, and despite losing 
the 1980s video format war to VHS. BetamaK has held 
on as a niche product all these years. 

Coniinued on page 6 

73 Ammteur Radio Today (ISSN 1052-2522} is published monttity by 73 Magazine. 70 Hancock Rd., 
Peterborough NH 03458-1107. The entire contents ©2002 by 73 Magazine. Ho pan of this publication may be 
reproduced without written pefmission of Ihe publisrier. whicri is not all that difficult to gel. The subscription 
rate is: one year S24.97. two years S44.97; Canada: one year S34.21, iwo years S57.75, including postage and 
7% GST. Forefgn postage: S19 surface, $42 airmail addilional per year, payable in US funds on a US bank. 
Second class postage is paid at Peterborough, NH, and at additional mailing offices, Canadian second class 
mail registration #173101. Canadiarr GST registration #125393314. Microfilm edition: University Microfilm, Ann 
Arbor IWI 46106. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to 73 Amateur Radio Today. 70 Hancock Rd., 
Peterborough NH 03453-1107 73 Amateur Radio Today is owned by Shabromat Way Ltd. of Hancock NH 


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Director Duty 

Maybe you've noticeti iliai 
we* re attracting fewer and 
fewer new hams, wirh the 
fewer paniculiirl)" concentrated 
in the yoyth department. Hey, 
you read the papets and 
watch TV — when's the last 
time you saw an article in a 
newspaper or magazine, or 
anything on TV or radio about 
amateur radio? 

If you "re a League member 
there's a remote possibility 
that you've read the reports in 
OST on the board of direc- 
tors' meetings. Have you seen 
any hint of a movement by 
HQ to get the hobby better 
known so wc can attract more 

The League directors have 
a serious decision to make. 
They have to decide whether 
they are on the board to rep- 
resent HQ to the members, or 
their members to HQ. In the 
over 60 years thai Fve been a 
member, Tve seen no 
sign of tlie directors making an 
eQon to represent die mem- 
tjers. They've l)een kept busy 
brim^inu messages frotn the 
Newington ivory tower to the 
.unwashed. Indeed, in my talks 
with many of them, Fve been 
appalled at the contempt 
they've had for their mem- 
bers. "Sheep/' they've called 

As an emreprenetir who's 
started a bunch of successful 
businesses, I know that if you 
want to sell a product you 
have to advertise and promote 
it. This is called marketing. 
Promotion gives a business 
the best bang for the buck — 
when it's done right 

So, with wireless technology 

exploding, and with it an in- 
creasing demand (or more 
spectrum space, here we are 
with a declining number of 
hams, and with only a small 
percentage really active, I'll 
hei we don't have 50,000 ac- 
tive hams anymore — less 
than wc had 60 years ago. Ex- 
perimeniin^ and pioneering 
today ? Tell me about it. 

Thirty years ago we devel- 
oped and pioneered repealers, 
bringing the world cell phones, 
S(]on after WWU, Jack Babkes 
W2GDG developed NBFM 
for us. A few years later, we 
pioneered SSB and RTTY, 
then slow scan. Heady times. 

Please explain to your di- 
rector that he's supposed to 
represent you and that you 
want him to get HQ to start 
promoting the hobby. Tell 
him you want to start seeing 
stuflTin print and on TV about 
amateur radio. And if the HQ 
gang hasn't a clue on how to 
do it, have 'em give me a call. 
I'll send them a video I made 
on how to get plenty of free 
promotion for any product or 
sendee, It*s mv SI Million in 
Added Sales video. And if he 
doesn't have the balls to 
speak yp, then find someone 
who has and elect them. It's 
time for a serious shakeup in 

Am I 'Irashins the Leaaue*"? 
No way — Fm hashing the 
League meml>ers for being 
sheep and allowing the only 
national ham organization to 
let our hobby slowly die. 

I first got involved when I 
was 14, and the hobby has 
provided me with a lifetime 
of excitement and adventure. 
It sure got me into high tech 
businesses, and I learned all I 

could about electronics he- 
cause it was so much Tun. So 
I'm anxious for us to get as 
many kids involved as pos- 
sible. Unless Planet X wipes 
us out, America is going to 
need all of the high tech 
people it can gel. The day of 
the uneducated blue coUai* 
w^orkcr is long gone. The day 
of the semi-literate white col- 
lar worker is fading fast. 
We're in a tech world thafs 
aettinu techier cverv minute* 
Football and soccer are fiin, 
but sure are lousy career 
choices for most kids. Fd 
rather see kids with QRP rigs 
in their backpack, with a 
whip slicking up and (hem 
making DX contacts as they 
are going to and from school. 

Dn Doom 

So what's doin' with Planet 
X, which Mark Hazelwotxl 
predicts w ill wipe out around 

90% of humanity next sum- 
mer? At this writing the me- 
dia, en masse, is consumed 
with the E>C area sniper. WelL 
the looming end of civiliza- 
lion as we know it isn't on 
their radar yet. 

The ''Out There'' program, 
which is a radio talk show on 
TV with Richard and Kate 
Mucci as co-hosts, did a nice 
show with Hazelwood. And 
one with me about the Mtx>n 
hoax. Then one with remote 
viewer Ed Dames, a,k,a. Dn 
Doom, because of his usual 
dire predictions. Kale scnl me 
a tape of the Dames show in 
which Ed agreed that Planet 
X was on its way and v^'ould 
cause a pole shift which 
would get rid of our coastal 
cities and bring us 300 mph 

4 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

winds in some areas for a 
week after the shift. His pre- 
diction of a 12^ pole shift 
could put the new equator 
ihroogh Cuba, bringing New 
England Georgia weather in 
the future. Mmm, love those 
Vidalia onions. 

The idea of such a monu- 
mental catastrophe is so pre- 
posterous that it has no reality 
for me. 1 don'i w^ani to believe 

Now that Fve learned how 
children can easily learn to 
speak and think in a dozen 
languages, how their IQs can 
be raised by around 50 points, 
how they can easily be taught 
to speed -read at over lOIKK) 
words per minute, and how 
we can provide them wiih an 
incredible education ai a frac- 
tion of today's school cost, I 
feel we* re on the brink of a 
new kind of world ctviliza* 
tion — one without wars, 
where weTl be able to control 
the weather and where poverty 
and hunger will no longer be 
problems, I'd sure hate to see 
all that blown away* 

Is Planet X, if \\\ real un- 
stoppable in its regular 3,630- 
year sweep through our solar 
system? The one chance I see 
for changing things would be 
for earth's entire population 
to concentrate on praying for 
it to change its course. The 
combined prayers of billions 
of people might be a pow erful 
enough force to do die job. 

Meanwhile, let's enjoy the 
extended sunspot cycle the 
ncaring Planet X may be 
causing and work that DX. 

You can get a tape of the 
Ed Dames *Out There " TV 

Continiied on page 8 

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Emergency Operations Center 


QRK . . . 

continued from page I 

Now, according to Larry Bloomfield's Tech 
Notes news service. Betamax for consymer use 
is being phased out. This is because of the new 
consumer digital tape formats like Mini D V that 
are literally delivering a death blow to Betamax's 
future prospects. 

Sony reportedly wiH manufacture only 2,0CM} 
more Betamax machines before discontinuing the 
product altogether. But Beta will Uve on in the 
worid of television journalism. That's where a 
spinoff tape format called Betacam with suffixes 
like SX and SP became Ihe de facto news gath- 
ering videotape of choice and have remained so 
for the past decade and a haff. 

Me? I've got an SL 7200 Betamax still sitting 
someplace out in ihe garage — gathering dust 

Thanks to Biff Pasternak WAGtTE editor in 

Blame it on Him 

North to Alaska, 

The magnetic north pole coufd soon abandon 
Canada and migrate to north of Alaska. 

The e-newsletter SaiencB Today tells of Larry 
Newitt. Newitt is a researcher with the Geotogt- 
cal Survey of Canada, And Newitt says that the 
magnetic pole is on the move. 

The researcher says that the pole, which has 
steadily drifted fo r decades, has picked up speed 
in recent years. He says that at its current speed, 
it could exit Canadian territory as soon as 2004. 
And. says Newitt, if the pole follows its present 
course, it will pass north of Alaska and arrive in 
Siberia in a half century, 

If you are worried that you may soon have to 
trade in your old compass for a GPS to know 
where you are, don't. Researcher Newitt cautions 
that such predictions could be wrong. 

Thanks to Newsline. BitI Pasternak WA6ITE 

not going to watch it in this househotd. and I dont 
want il in your intellectual diet," 

Thanks to the Southeastern Massachusetts 
Amateur Radio Associati(^, Inc., newsletter Zero 
Beal August 2002. 

Oops Oops 

Phi to T Famswofth was the inventor of modem- 
day television. Legend has it that he conceived the 
idea of making a picture by scanning back and 
forth, top to bottom, across a screen while tilling 
a potato field in Idaho al age 13! 

In 1927. while a student at Brigham Young 
University, he transmitted a television image using 
the scanning method he had conceived years 
before. The image was produced on an oscillo- 
scope screen by the scanning eieclron beam 
within the tube. Sixty horizontal fines were used 
to make the image. Allegedly a dollar sign was 
the first image transmitted. 

Famsworth became disenchanted when his 
invention was used commercially, and told his 
son, 'There s nothing on it worthwhile, and we* re [ 

6 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

Thanks to Dave Turner N7QP for pointing out 
that in Figure 2 of WSWTU's September article, 
"Mobile Ham Repeater/ the 1N4148 diode across 
the relay coil is shown reversed; as drawn, it is 
forward-biased. In Figure 3, the diode is shown 

And speaking of W6WTU, we thank him too 
for 'fessin' up to the tact that he is not the author 
of Novembers "Solid State Junk Bok Thermom* 
etersf as our Table of Contents would have you 
believe. W6WTU notes that correct author Buri 
Rogers K4VYU6 is indeed duly cited on the title 
page of the article, although "I would have liked 
to have done the work — he did a nice job!" 

Our apologies to all for these oversights. 

One Whale 

of a SONAR Enterprise 

In what sounds like if s right out of a Sfar Trek 
movie plot, will Captain Kirk and Mr. Spock have 
to go rescue some whales from oblivion after 
all? And what does this have to do with radio 

In the movie Star Trek: The Voyage Home, the 
crew of the starship Enterprise — without the 
Enterprise— takes on the job of saving our planet 
from annihilation by a space probe. The probe is 
angry because It is programmed to contact hump- 
back whales, but it cannot find any because all 
the whales are long gone from the planet. To save 
the worid, Kirk and crew travel back In time to 
get some whales and bring them into the future. 

With that in mind, picture this: The Administra- 
tion has now given the Navy permission to begin 
using a powerful new low-frequency SONAR to 
identify enemy submarines. 

SONAR, which stands for Sound Navigalion 
and Ranging, is usually used lo observe objects 
in water to determine distance. According to Ihe 
Navy, each of the new SONAR s 1 S transducers 
produces an audio signal equivalent to the noise 
level you would hear if you slood next lo an F-15 
fighter {et white it was taking off. II is this high 
power that makes it possible for the sound waves 
to travel several hundred miles and relum an 
accurate target echo. 

But environmentalists are worried. They note 
that the new SONAR system operates in the 
same band of frequencies used for communica- 
tion by n^ny large whales, including humpbacks- 
They say that whales are particularly susceptible 
to SONAR interference because they rely on 
sound for communication, feeding, mating, and 

migration. In fact, they navigate the oceans of 
the world using a kind ot natural SONAR of their 

Some scientists believe Ihat whales will mis- 
take the Navy SONAR signals for other whale 
pods and swim in the wrong direction. And they 
believe that if this happens, the worid's whale 
population will decrease. Others disagree. This 
group of researchers believes that the two can 
co-exist with careful monitoring of the whales for 
any adverse effects which might be noticed. Ad- 
justments could then be made to the SONAR 
system's operation to minimize or eliminate any 

The bottom line is that its a tradeoff in com- 
munications —that of the whales versus the need 
of the public to tje safe from enemy attack. 

The National Marine Fisheries Service says 
that with proper monitoring and safeguards, the 
Navy's new SONAR is not Likely to injure whales 
or any other marine mammals. But to be on the 
safe side, we hope that Captain Kirk. Mr. Spock, 
and Scotty are standing by. 

Thanks to Henry Feinberg K2SSQ. via 
Newsline. Biff Pasternak WA6!TF, editor. 

Techno-Junk Piling Up 

A new study called "Waste in the Wireless 
Worid: The Challenge of Cell Phones" says that 
130 million wireless devices wili be discarded 
annually in the United States. This equals 
65.000 tons of two-way radio garbage, 

The study makes several recommendations 
regarding both the design of cell phones and the 
disposal of them. It says that the use of toxic sub- 
stances in them should be reduced. It also sug- 
gests that device standardization be implemented 
so that users are not forced to purchase new 
phones when they change service providers or 
for travel . Finally, the study says that cellular tele- 
phones should be designed tor disassembly, 
reuse 1 and recyding. 

II should be noted that the study was limited 
to cellular phones and other two-way radio de- 
vices, tt does not include the tons of VCRs and 
TV sets that are disposed of each year. 

Thanks to Newsline, Biff Pasternak WASfTF, 
editor, and its listeners. 

X-Ray Eyes 

If you thought only cari:oon superheros like 
Superman could see through walls to detect the 
villains, guess again. New technology called 
ultra-wideband will soon allow mere mortals 
to detect objects buried underground and to 
build cars enhanced with sensors that help 
avoid collisions. 

According to press reports, ultra-wideband 
uses millions of narrow pulses each second to 
get an accurate reading of location and distance^ 

opening the door for new applications in radar 
tracking, precise positioning, and wireless com- 
munications. The possibilities vary from short- 
range computer networking for homes to devices 
that determine the kx:atiofi of goffers on a course. 

What regulators like even better is that ultra- 
wideband devices {^n work within frequencies 
already allocated for other radro services — help- 
ing to maximize this dwindling resource, The Fed- 
eral Communications Commission t>elieves the 
technotogy is so promising that the agency has 
proposed allowing it to be used on an unlicensed 

But it may be a whtle before the new technol- 
ogy is avaiiable. First, government agencies and 
private groups are testing to make sure ultra- 
wideband can safely coexist with other services, 
like the Global Positioning System. More infor- 
mation is on the ultra-wideband working group 
Web site at [www.uwborg]. 

Thanks to Science Today, via Newsline, Biif 
Pasternak WA6ITF, editor. 

Do You Know 
Who You Are? 

Since the 9/11 disasters, lawmakers and busi- 
ness leaders have been clamoring for a tjetter 
ID system for everyone. ID cards that contain 
specific biometric data, making them harder to 
forge than your driver^s license, may t* in our 
hiture. Privacy advocates are m strong opposi- 
tion to this, but Congress and businesses are 
looking reat hard at it. Besides your photograph, 
which will probably be laser-engraved, they 
would contain such vital statistics as your social 
security number, date of birth, name, and an ID 
number issued by the government. It would most 
likely contain an optical memory strip, which 
couid only be read by an optical scanner; it could 
contain your fingerprint as well as an eyeprint 
(iris). It could contain smart card technology with 
the addition of an integrated microprocessor. An 
internal memory strip could be rewriteabfe, and 
could contain many megabytes of data — as 
mudi as woyfd fit on a dozen floppy disks. These 
coukj contain health records such as heart rate, 
face scans, fingerprints, DNA sequences, and 
much more health and body data that can be 
compared. It could even contain a 2-D bar code. 
So you think the government doesn't know who 
you are? This is almost a surety for the near future, 
especially if the U.S. soffers another terrorist 

Thanks to The Modulator, the News and Views 
of the Fort Myers (FL) ARC, Inc., August 2002. 

A. Prose Walker W4BW — 

A. Prose Walker W4BW, the man considered 
as the father of the ^'WARC bands,^' has died. 
Walker headed up the FCC's old Amateur and 
Citizens Division from 1971 to 1975. While there, 
he made the initJal proposal for the creation of 

the 10, 18. and 24 MHz bands at a conference 
in Geneva in 1972. Later Walker organized and 
chaired the United States Advisory Committee 
of Amateur Radio, This committee took the ini- 
tial steps to turn the idea into reality at tlie 1979 
World Administrative Radio Conference. 

But there was another side of Walker that 
hams in the worid above 50 MHz do not remem- 
ber very fondly. It was a set of highly restrictive 
repeater regylations promoted by Walker back 
in the early 70s. Among other things, these 
njles required the submission of what are today 
called engineering feasibitity studies in order 

to get a required WR prefix repeater license. 
The regulations were so strict that repeater 
growth almost ground to a halt for the better part 
of half a decade. Eventually, the ham commu- 
nity. led by 73 Magazine publisher Wayne Green 
W2NSD. rebelled against the Walker-inspired 
rules. They were repealed as a part of repeater 
deregulation a few years later. 

Walker was living in Rochester NY at the ttn>e 
of his death. He was 92. 

Thanks to the ARRL, Repeater Rsmaiter, and 
W9JUV. via Newsline. Biti Pasternak WAStTF. 

Two Step Tuning 

Step One: Pick up microphone 
Step Two: Transmit. 

(Please note: HF Tuning doesn't get much easier tlian this.) 

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73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 7 

Neuer srv die 

continued from page 4 

show for $20 + S3 s/h bv call- 
ing 775-751-2379. Tclf Kate 
Wavne sent vou. 

OK one more itenh I un- 
dersiand thai an a&lronomcn 
concerned enough over the 
Planet X situaiiun lu take the 
trouble and expense, went to 
Ausiralia so he could look 
Lhi\m^h a telescope lliere for 
the incomins bmun dwarf. 
He called home* savinn he 
had some spectacular pic- 
tures. Then somennc killed 
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appeared. He's coming back 
in a box. 


The August i.ssue of the En- 
ropeun Journal of Cancer 
Prey eta ion published an ar- 
ticle on the Swedish research 
which showed that cell phfinc 
users had a much higher rate 
of brain tumors than average 
,., and the more thev used 


them, the higher the rate. 

A Finnish study showed 
that one hour of cell phone 

use measurably arrecicil brain 

The American cell phone 
industry is, of course, disin- 
terested in any research, or in 
reading the published work of 
Ro!ss Adcy K6UI, the world's 
leadins researcher in this 
lield. But, if you watch what 
these guys do, you'll see *em 
using a headset wire to iheir 
cell phones. 

We may soon see a head- 
line-making trial as brain-can- 
cer stricken neun>Iusisi Chris- 
topher Newman sues the cell 
phone industry. He\ repre- 
sented by the Peter Angelos 
firm, which has gotten huge 
fees from its actions aaainsl 
asbestos and cigarette firms, 

With over a billion people 
now using cell phones world- 
wide, this may be the biggest 
biological experiniciit in history. 

It's something to think about 
the next time you pick up a cell 
phune or an HX And we hams 
ane the ones who developed 
cell phone iechnt>logy for the 
world some thiny years ago. 

The Secret 

Hie fact that any illness 
fi 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

can be cured without drugs is 
something doctors never hear 
about in their years in medi- 


cal schmiL And since it would 
put them out of business in 
shon order, it's something 
they don 'I want to hear about. 
It's their worst nightn>are. 
There's just Dr. Lorraine Day 
in San Francisco, Dn Bruno 
Com by in Paris, and Wayne 
Green up in New Hampshire 
preaching to empty pews. 

Instead of people griping 
about the cost of prescription 
drugs. I reconmiend tlieir 
spending a liny fraction of their 
dru!^ cost on educatimi them- 
sehes so they won"t need to 
wuiie all that money. 

More Mercury 

The medical industry is be- 
coming more and tnorc aware 
of the dangers mercury has 
for us. When I was a kid it 
was something we played with. 
We'd coat dimes with it to 
make them shine. No big deal 

Wrongo. Again, 

It turns out that one lousy 
sram of mercurv' can con- 
laminate a 20-acre lake for up 
to a year! So now there's a 
growing concern about cap- 
turing (he mercury residue 
denial patients spit out when 
they're told to rinse. This 
goes down the drain into the 
sewage system, polluting the 
environmenl for years. 

So what's the big deal? 
98^ of muliiple-sclerosis pa- 
tients have mercury poisoning. 
Mercur) is a deadly p*iist>n 
which seriously impairs brain 

So, what about all thai mer- 
cury you are not spitting out 
when the dentist asks you to 
rinse? Thai slays in your 
amalgam Hlling — for a 
while. It gradually is released 
as n^ercury vapor and goes 
into your body ,., and your 

Weil Fve written about 
that before, and it's covered 
in my Secret Guide to Heahh. 
If vou still have amalizaiii fill- 
ings, get "em replaced with 

Meanwhile, as the concern 
over mereur)^ pollution grows, 
they're working to remove all 
of the mercur)^ switches from 
old cars before they are 
melted down, and the EPA 

got on the case of the sneaker 
company that put mercury 
switches in their shoes to 
switch on lights in their shoes 
when kids wctq running. The 
mercury in ihennometers has 
been replaced with some sort 
of less toxic red stuff. 


A recent PBS series on 
Australia almost got me 
thinking. Close call. 

One of the big concerns in 
Australia has to do with re- 
cent immigrants, who arrive 
complete s\ ith their homeland 
lan*>uai!es, ciisioms. religions, 
and ways of dressing, and 
then tend to live in enclaves 
lo help perpetuate their heri- 
tages. The older Australians 
view is that if they come lo 
Australia they bloody well 
should become Australians. 
They should speak the Aus- 
tralian language, adopt I he 
Australian customs, and inte- 
grate with the Australians 
rather than live in separate 
ethnic groups. 

We has e this same situation 
here in America, and Fve 
seen it played out in one 
country after another. 

When the Europeans ar- 
rived in Africa thev found il 


peopled with almost stonc- 
age-ignorant savages, so they 
had no trouble taking over the 
whole comincnl. The natives 
were no problem, it was just 
the other Furopean countries 
thai they had lo deal wiih, 
Germany grabtx^d big chunks, 
as did France, Belgiitm, Spain, 
Portugal, amt the Dutch. 

In East and South Africa, 
the British got busy exploit- 
ing their tcrrilories. In South 
Africa, it was gold and dia- 
monds. In East Africa, it was 
growing crops such as coffee. 
But all this business activity 
required wtirkcrs, and no way 
had been discovered lo get 
the native blacks to work „. 
so thev bn)ught in Indians to 
build the roads and railroads, 
and to work on the fanns. 

With Africa being tropical, 
the living was easy. The black 
way of lite was to live in 
small mud-hut villages, with 
the women doing all the work 
... growing the crops, bring- 
ing up the children ... and the 
men hunting and killing their 

neighboring tribes. This had 

been going on for thousands 
of generations, so it wasnl 
going to be easy to change. 
The whole concept of w^ork 
was total 1) alien to the men. 
That was for women ! And any 
nuui who worked was ridiculed 
and humiliated by the others 
for being woman-like. Sissies. 

Education? The only pur- 
pose of cducali<jn was to 111 a 
man to work, so just as many 
American blacks humiliate olh- 
^vs who try to learn to speak 
Atiierican as trying to liecome 
white, the Alncao black men 
avoided education. And that 
made them sittins ducks for 
ihe invading Europeans, 

The slave trade developed 
when the black men discov- 
ered that there was money to 
be made by selling instead of 
killing the prisoners when 
they raided a neighboring 

The Indians who were 
brought in to do the work 
settled into enclaves, where 
ihcv avoided almost all con- 
lact with either the whites or 
the blacks. They opened 
stores and, by cotv[ierating 
with each other, easilv drove 
any competing black or 
white-owned stores out of 

I saw this same pattern in 
Kenya. Uganda, and Tanza- 
nia, when I first visited the 
area 35 years ago. This was 
shortly after colonialism had 
been replaced by black rule. 

It didn't lake long for the 
black hatred of the Indians to 
result in their bciuii forced bv 
the new black leaders to leave 
the East African countries, 
and that led lo the disintegra- 
tion of the cities and towns as 
things went back to the bush. 
The white farmers were also 
forced to leave and their 
farms also went hack to the 
bush. With little to export, 
these countries skidded into 

Here in America we've seen 
similar situations where immi- 
grant groups who live in en- 
claves and avoid assimilation 
are hated. 

When I visited Fiji the is- 
land was on the verge of a 
revolution. The Fiiians were 
furious with the Indians, w^ho 

ConimiiedL on page 39 




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* R100 for 46-54. 72-76. 140-175, or 216-225 MHz. . 
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• TD-5 CTCSS Encoder ^Decoder Wired/tested , „ , $59 


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COR-5* pP controfler with autopatch, reverse ap, phone 
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TD»2. Four-digif DTMF decoder/controller. Five latchmg 
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Function Generator 

How about this addition to the bench? 


How niRiiy times have you needed a I unction generator to provide a source of sine or 
square waves to test your ham equipmem or a new circuit idea? More than a couple, at 
least if you are anything like most experimenters. A good, high-quality, dual-tone 
sine wave generator is a really needed item also, if you need to check out your SSB 
transmitter and linear amplifier performance. 


ell, here is such an instru- 
merit that does those jobs 
nicely, with the added fea- 

ture of a frequency counter that is also 
a nice extra to have. So let us take a 
look at what is required. 

FifSt, we must understand what I 
was interested in when doine the dc- 
sign phase. The absolute number one 














IN y 













y^ ^ 



GATES ^ / 









Fig. L Simpiified schematics. 

10 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 












-. E R 

E R L 












Fig, /* Simplifwd schemaftcs (coftiinued). 












LI [mC*®9[ 

3 [ 







HC4IW i: 














-m UG 



-•20 !• •S 










4. 5-^ 



C)S5 : D34 




U21 usa LUe yta ui7 uie 


jrN^^J^: . HD7 



F(f , 2. Component locations. 

A T I O N 

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JMC# 1225-12HBA 

120 mm (4 72') 

square k 25 mm 

(V) wide cooling fan. 

Dual ball bearing fan 

provfdes rehatile 

output ot 88 CFM @ 

2600 RPM. 12Vdc @ 

0.6 Amps. 45 Dba max @ 1M DGsicjnGd for 

50,000 hours @ 25 deg. C. Thfjrmoplaslio 

housing and 7 blade impeiler. Three 7" piglaif 

leads wUh 3 -pin connector (0 1" en Irs). TNfd 

lead is for sensing rotation Prepped witti 

metal finger guard UL, CSA.CUL, CE. Large 

quantify available. 





90 for $3.00 each 
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990 for S1.50 each 
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Smm Uftra-Violet LED 

Emits blue 395rim UV ligbL 
Water 'CJ«ar lens. 3.7 Vdc, 20 mA. 

15 degree beam pattern. CAT# ULED-1 




tOOfor S1.t5 each 

1000 for 95c each 

Tiny Vibrating Motor 

Low voltage, low current miniature 
vibrating motor. Operates on 1.5 - 3 Vdc 
@ 62 m A Tiny motor wit hi offset 
weighted shaft is used in ceil phones 
and pagers tor vibrating alert signal. 
A removable black mbber boo! surrounds 
Ihe fiKJtor and provides a flat mount tng sur- 
face. Without the rubber boot the motor mea 
sures 0,24" dia. x 0.5" long The shall and 
weight add an extra 0.21" to the overall 
length. Propped with 0.42" tong metal tat3s. 

CAT # DCM-204 

10 for $15.00 

100 for SI 00.00 





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Van Nuys, CA 91408 

FAX (81 8)781 -2653 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 11 


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priority was to get the best sine wave 
oscillator I could. My requirement was 
a 0.01% total harmonic distortion 
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accomplish. This design is a Wien 
bridge arrangement with four select- 
able ranges with continuously variable 
overlapping hands. 

The next absolute was to have an 
onboard digital counter circuit. It must 
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ing a test circuit frequency. The 
counter circuit is a watch crystal time 
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period. The second one second period 
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The six stage counter circuit consists 
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into the latching and decoding seven 
segment displays that arc made by 
Hewlett Packard. These displays are 


+ ^2V[>C. 







U1 Q1 Q2 

LM2940T PN2222 PN2907 



C10 E B C 



C B E 

1 2 3 


g 2 C11 E B C 2 5 



1 . WC 1 = 1 6\/CT @ 1 .8A (UL/CSA) , - 





Fig. 3* Schematic, power supply section. 

12 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 





























Ull, 12,22 





Jl, J3,J4 


JPl , B2 








Ten -Tec Enclosure (TEH-TEC-JWIO) $ 

0^75" (#4) St3ind-0ff CHosf6lt-28-146} 

15VAC-l,aA (CT>Kall Xfmr (Hosfelt 56-7&1) 
I.M254DCT-5 5V-1A Reg IC (Jameco- 107182) 
HC40eO CMOS IC DIP mouaer-Sll"M74HC40€0) 
4Q2 2 CMOS rC DIP (MOuser-511-4022) 

4553 CMOS rC DIP CJamfico-13709'J 

4093 CMOS IC DIP {Jaiiieco-l4300j 

RC40S2 CHQB IC DIP (Mcmaer-511"M74HC4 052) 









HC4520 c::MO& IC dip tMoUBer-Sll-M74HC4520} .62 
TL064ACN Ouad OPAmp IC Wouser5ll'Tlt0e4ACH}3 .00 
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Jack Smy. BulKJ^eaa Pem Coax(Janijeco-1532e5) 7*S0 

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PN2222 ISfPN Tran 

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2 GOV- 1,5 A Diode Bridge 

1W5232B Saner Diodes 


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T-1 (Btlkn) Red LED 

3DiIl LED Bezels (LH-IDO) 

Perf PC Board 

^1240 Lamp Tl 

fAnyJ .25 
(Janieco-lVBSllJ ,16 

(M0uaer-625"W5 2G] .3S 
iJatflecO"l7905S> .14 

(Jameco- 94529) 

4.5x17" fMouseE-574-1^9P44) 
Wire Leads {Eoflfelt-25-2SC}) 



W^tQli Ciyst*! TF2 (DiglKj^ ^flOX) 
(Mach PiTi ) SDcke t (Hoe f el t-21-174) 
(Mach Pin) Socket (Hosfelt-21" ISO J 
WW (ri^achP) Socket {Hosfelt-2l-lS4) 
WW (MachP) Socket (Hosfeit- 21 -183) 
Header {JaTUeco-ieoeSX] 

Decal Kit [Radio Shack) CRS-270-201J 

6800MF-16V-Blect-Cap(iax36) ^JaniBco-31510) 

3276S KZ 

DIP24 m 


C3,4,aX.22 a.OUyiF-SOV-Mqno-Cap 






Elect Cap (SXil) f Janieco-93551) 
Elect Cap {6x5} (JaTneco-9443l} 













22 0MF-10V Elect Cap(Digikey 140-M3URL10V220} ,17 



0,IKF-50V Mono Cap 

OjlHF-50¥ Mono Cap 
C23 "037,050,052 

C19 100PF-50V-NPO-Mono Cap 

C20,CS1 lOPF-50V"tiI?0"«ono Cap 
C3fi-C4l 0,002MF-50V-S%-Styreiie Cap (MouBer-23PW220) .95 
042, C46 0,001MP-50V"5%-Styrene Cap {Mouseir-23PW210) .22 

(Mou ser- 2 1IED7 10} 







AI teroate 






RIO * 










ail, 29,30 







SMI, 2 





O^lrfllF- 50 V- Mono Cap fAxial) (Hosfelt- 15-407) . 08 
0,OlMF-SOV-5%'Styrene Cap |MotiS6r-23PW310 .3S 
0,22MP-50V-llect . Cap [Houeer-14 0-L50V, 22) ,09 
4,7MF-L6V-Blect Cap {Mouser-l40-L16V4/7) .09 
pual 8,2MH Choke(PE9«lS0) (Koefialt"18-129] ,3& 
IIVAC/ISVAC Clamp MOV [Jameco- 190449) .25 

56-5%-lW-M0:^-ReEletora (Mouaer-2ei-&6) .33 

320-5%-0,25W-CF-ReB |Jafflecc5-3O4 70) .10 

lOE-lOT-Dual POT(Bo^imB#^4A2DB2BJlS/JlSJ 
lOK-lT-Dual POT tMon0er-31VW4Ol) 2.10 

15:1 Mechanical Dial (Mou6er-5940-I6111) 13.00 
lOOK-lT-POT (MCFUBer-31CN50a) 1,02 

lOK-lT-POT (Mouser-31CN4 01) 2.04 

22K-S*-0.2SW-CF-Res tJatneco-30453} .10 

10K~15T-T"POT (Bourns- 3006) (Hosfelt-3e0135) ,d5 
15H-20%-0,25W-CF-Hes (Moueer-29l-lSM> .10 

XK-5%-0,25W-CP-ReB (Jaineco-29663) .15 


2200-5%-0 H 2Stt-CF-Rea 

150 - 5% ' , 2SW-CF-Res 





100K-5%-0,2 5W-CF-ReB 



560-5%"0 , 25W-CF-Rea 


CAL Res 5%-0,25il,CF"Rea 

IQiob" 0^25 "-Black (I^arge) 

Knob-Op 25 "-Black (Small) 


PB SvitclxeB (KRS-1273-^) 

PB Caps (KRS-CAP-S) 

DP0T (2-PoB)SutiMinl Toggle 

( Jams CO ~ Bulk ) 

(Jameco- 138481) 



(Ja^^CO- 75377) 

SPOT U-Pos)SiibHini Toggle {JamecD-759fi3) 
SPOT E3'PQS)SutiWiiii Toggle f Jaineco-725S7) 
0,25" Rubber Gromet (Any) 

0,25** Nyioa Standoffs #4 screws [HOsfelt) 





APPROK. TOTAL: $ 132.00 

(1) ACE Hardw^are #1003979 Almond Spray Paint (ISoz) $3,00 

(2) Minwax Polyur ethane #33050 Clear Glosa Spray (lloz) $4.00 

(3) * WC is Groupweet #57A-is-i0OqCT (3gw) wall TransEorroer. 
(4)*+ Author used Bourns 10 turn pot because it was available 

Tests show Mouser part 1© 0,K. (Optional) 15:1 Dial. 
(5) Out/In=6FT Coax with n^l* SMA'e (JaBiieco-159450) $5.75. 

Table L Bill of materials. 

Wigh -quality, dot matrix hybrid types which are very 
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use the least significant digit's decimal point to show the 


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|PO ...^K 2780 Camfr^^.-AZ 85377 ■ 

w:.l.~i _T V%"ii5 5?aj- k! 

r.Esjropeant -Ma. I 

D Bex 2. Seatovi. Bevon EX 12 2YS:Engii, 

If youYe a No-Code Tech, and you're having fun 
operating, tell us about it! Other No-Code Techs 
will enjoy reading about your adventures in ham 
radio — and well pay you for your articles. Yes, lots 
of nice clear photos, please. Call Joyce Sawtelle at 
800-274-7373 to get a copy of "How to Write for 
7J Magazine." 

Chelsea Clock 

Clockmakers since 1897 

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1 -800-467-7237 

73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 13 

C1S -^^TfiAl-l? ^^ 

1 0OPF NPO 1 0P- N PO' 

C13 +5V R9> R10 


SIP30 PIN2fi 



HD1 D1P18 


C21 C10 Z X1 

ex HP5062-7300 



1 . Li2-U6 HAVE 0.1 uF CAPS ABOARD. 

2. RT1 ON HD5. 










j:^ C22 S 2 C19 

q: a: 

Fig. 4. Schematic, counter sea ion. 

PholoA* The completed JlmcUon generator with wall converter. 
14 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 

counl gate action. Since upon power- 
up we do not know what ihe oscillator 
lime base chain has in it, a couple of 
seconds is sometimes required to clear 
and get the first one second count pe- 
riod. The flashing decimal point indi- 
cates that everything is working 

The next section of the generator is 
the triangle, square, and pulse genera- 
tor. Since we do not normally need an 
extremely low THD for these func- 
tions, a simple quad op amp IC was 
used to perfomi these functions. An IC 
such as the 8038 could have been used 
but again, something a little better than 

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the 1% specified (THD) was desired. 
So a voltage reference, Schmitt trigger, 
integrator, and comparator circuit was 
designed using a quad JFET op amp 
IC, TL064A. The circuit also uses a 
couple of analog gate ICs to do the re- 
sistor and capacitor selections. The 
timing resistor and capacitors are the 
same ones that are used in the Wien 
bridge sine wave oscillator. Two addi- 
tional analog gate ICs were also used 
to select the LED indicators for range 
and function. These gates are selected 
digitally with push-button switches to 
a dua[ binary counter IC, U-10. 

The multiwave output is then sent out 
to the gain and offset controls so that am- 
plitude and position relative to ground 
can be adjusted by the user, Tlie fre- 
quency is controlled by the ten-turn dual 
lOk-oliiii pot, R5. The output of the gen- 
erator is run through a special current 
mode driver IC. This IC provides 200 
mA of continuous drive and is short-circuit 
and thenual protected Quite a bmgain at 
under six dollars and in a DIP-8 package! 

The power supply circuit was my 
next concern. The use of a wall con- 
verter is most desired so as to keep the 
liigh voltage AC out of the enclosure. 
These wall converters or transformers 
are UL and CSA approved for safety 
and are very inexpensive. Ours brings 
a 15 volt centertapped winding to the 
PC board and is rated at 1.8 amps. This 
AC voltage is put through a bridge rec- 
tifier to get our POS and NEG 12 VDC 
at over 1 amp. Note that at 1,8 A the 
voltage would be about 8 VCT, but 
since we have a maximum of 12 VDC 
@ 200 mA requirement, we do not 
level. The two shunt regulator circuits 
draw another 200 mA to acliieve the 
POS and NEG 6 VDC power for the 

Continued on page 1 6 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 15 

+V 1 2 


tS 7 






▲ 4 

il 23 22 21 20il9 13 17 










I 5 I 6 7 6 5 

m 15 







12 3 4 12 3 4 1 ITT 4 1 2 T 4 I 1 2 3.4 1 TTT 4 

O0oi i\\\\\% IMMli 00»i 4M»oi MIMIO 


4 5 

8 5 




3 4 







7 & 9 10 11 

12 13 14 15 16 

SIP2C #«#••••••#•«# ••444 

S2 PIN2'^ — 4—^ R11 


6 g 


11 ,^'2 


19 20 

Fig. 5. Schematic, counter display secuon. 

Function Gene rater 

continued Jroni page 1 5 

Op ainps and CMOS logic compo- 

Now, the digital logic TTL display 
hybrids which draw about 100 iiiA 
each will need thai high-current 5V 
source. I took the +i2VDC line and 
put the U-1 series voltage regulator IC 
on it for the 5VDC 600 niA require- 
ment. The regulator TC LM-2940-5 is a 
low dropout type which can work down 
to the one half vok dilTerential point, so 
no problems in our application. The 5 
VDC 600 mA display requiremeiU does 

not throw our bridge rectifier circuit 
out of balance. The regulator is rated 
for 1 amp, so 600 mA docs not exceed 
its specirication, but do expect a little 
heat on the TO-220 package running 
at about four watts. No heat sink is 

Sonic folks might ask why the shunt 
6V regulators instead of the series 
ICs? Well, we find that transients, 
noise and such, w^ill not get through as 
sometimes happens with series regula- 
tors. The use of a dual 8 niH choke L-1 
is to eliminate the common mode parts 
of that powder line stuff! 

Now, we look at how to put it to- 
gether. No etched and drilled PC boai^d 

is available to my knowledge. There 
does not seem to be an interest in that 
for this project. I chose to use wire- 
wrap technology, as always, with this 
project. The use of machine pin-type 
wire-wrap sockets to accommodate 
both ICs and passive components 
works very well. I also use SIP (single- 
in-line) wire- wrap binding posts for 
the termination of wires. These wires 
go between boards, controls, switches, 
and die like. 

I chose my usual Ten-Tec enclosure 
and t^MI plastic display bezel so that 
w^e can get a good professional looking 
instrument. All of die connectors, 
switches, and test lines are the sub- 
mini types. They look and w^ork good, 
and the cost is very reasonable- 

I added an additional two Wien 
bridge oscillators to provide an SSB 
test circuit. This is a 700 and 1900 Hz 
dual tone source. When you put the 
signals into the microphone jack of 
an SSB transmitter, you will have 
the required envelope lest to check 
the rig and linear amplifier for linear 

I provided simplified schematic func- 
tions in Fig. 1. All of the component 
placements are also shown in Fig, 2. All 
of the header details are in Fig. 3. I 
provided a bill of materials (Table 1), 
the approximate cost, and the sources I 
found for them. A template is also pro- 
vided as a guideline for the metalwork 
necessary on the JW-10 Ten-Tec en- 
closure. 1 recommend that a nice coat 
of enamel spray paint be used after the 
metal work. The decals make things 

Photo B. Phoro of components on PC hoard using wire-wrap 

16 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 

Photo C Sine wave. 




I I i I I I 

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 

U3 CO/CE -^ 




<— I — h- f 

12 3 4 5 6 


7 8 > 









1. COUNT, 1 SEC, 0,5HZ (4HZ/8 = 0.5HZ = 1SEC. WINDOW) 

2. LATCH, 100mS,0.5HZ 

3. RESET, 100mS,0,5HZ 


Fig. 6. Timing diagram counter section. 

look very professional and can be 
found at your local Radio Shack or of- 
fice supply stores. A couple of very 

light coats of poI}airethane gloss will 

ConLiniied on page 18 




C49 C4B 




) U7 



Oi C3 ^ oi (i> h-^TTTrfOtntD 
<^ ^ ^ -^ -^ -^OR-fl-^^^r 

q: (T q: a: (^ oPQiririrQ; 
HD3 DIP24(S) 

C23 B1 C45 C44 C26 





0.1 Si 


4.7 0.22 0.1 

o o 6 6 


) U10 


C24 R13 3^ o 5 o C25 

O o o o 


HD4 DIP24(S) 

C27 C29 CI 8 C31 



^ U8 





o nnnooon n 



C2e G52 ^ ^ ^ C30 

HD5 DIP24(S) 

n nnnnnnnn 










o ooononn o 








0.01 ijf) U15 

HD6 DIP24(S) 


o o o o o o o 

<0 J^ r^^Tf 





HD7DIP24(S) ^^^ 

D5 ^ ' D10 



(N n rf 1^ 
r\J CM. CM f\J 
a: [1^ Q^ £t 



D11 D12 


o o o 

1 2 3 

■^o o o 

28 29 30 

G S D C B E 

Q3 Q4 

MPF102 PN2907 





Fig, 7, Header component ouUine. 


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73 Amateur Radio Today • December2002 17 

«4V C:34 
II O.luF 

R1? 1* IS I ■^ 


\i 1 isyj R2B 1*27 

1 Q TlHH 

D.luF M 




1 1 


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C45 C5 C6 C" 



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Ffg. S, Schematic, fiiHctiongem^'otor section. 

Function Generator 

contmuedjrom page 1 7 


make it pretty and quite durable, aiid is 
definitely well worth the effort, 
I have iiicloded a couple of photo- 

Photo iX triangle wave, 

18 73 Amateur Radio Todny • December 2002 

graphs to show tlip extremely low dis- 
tortion of the wave forms. Note that 
the fourth range position is for die sine 
wave only. The triangle (sweep wave), 
square, and pulse ai^e not usually 
needed above about 20 kHz. The range 
can be used, but will have distortion 
especially on the triangle wave, A note 
of caution regarding the B 1,2,3 #1240 
incandescent lamps is that they should 
not be substituted with any oUier type 
if the 0,01% THD is to be expected. 
This type Is the best I found to produce 
low distortion Wicn bridge oscillator 
sine waves. This 0,01 % THD was veri- 
fied on a laboratory distortion ana- 
lyzer. Only the zero crossover 
produced a slight distortion, but still it 
was below the 0.01% if the TL064A 
quad op amp IC was used. 

I also included an optional time base 
crystal oscillator output via a jack on 
the back of the enclosure. The counter 
probe, in the external position, can be 




i}^ *- 










150 OHMS 





1900HZ <5SK 

0.002UF : 



HD9 DIP24(S) 

B2 R32 R33 B3 


C38 C39 o cr> oo x:; C40 C41 

rO CN CM S3 

d:: q:: £r: o! 



>r :> 





i/> ^ i/> CD 
CO C^ 00 CO 

o or Qi Dc: 


SECTION 25-27, FIG. 50. 


Fig, 9, Schematic, SSB tone test (optional). 

placed on the jack to read the time 
base frequency of 32768 Hz (±1 Hz). 

I need to make mention of resistors 
R28 through R36, which are used to 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 19 

8" X 3/16" 





-^ — ^ — ^ — 6- 



(r' = 25.4rvTM) 

1.6" X 3.6" 
(40.6MM X 92MM) 

3/16 = 0.188" = 4.76MM 
5/16 = 0.313" = 7.94MM 
1/8 = 0.125'' = 3.18MM 
13/64 = 0,203" = 5.1 6IV1IVI 

9/32 = 0.281" = 7.1 4MM 
3/8 = 0.375" = 9.53MM 

1/4" NYLON 

5/1 B" 


2.9" X 1 .00" 




' I 
_ < 

. 4 









* ■ h , 

('cb'H'cb'Hb';; [ cb 

<^ © <& -0 

13/64 1/8 1/8 1/8 13/64 

^ J1 J3 M S3 

0.20T 0.125'^ 0.125" 0.125" 0.203" 


















Fig, 10. Enclosure Template. 

calibrate Llie IVequency ranges. We are 
using timing capacitors which have 
tolerances of 5 and 10 percent and do 
require a selected resistance value to 
set the bottom end frequency of each 
of the four ranges. If you do not care 
about the exact seitingj these resistors 
can be omitted. Use jumper wires in 
their place. The triangle, square, and 

pulse frequency goes from 1 Hz to 
about 15 kHz in the four ranges. The 
sine wave goes from I Hz to about 50 
kHz in four ranges. The frequency 
counter measures the exact frequency 
in all bands, which is a marked im- 
provement over a calibrated dial knob. 
The caHbration is complete when you 
adjust the triangle wave to the same 

frequency as the sine wave. Set the 
sine wave in the second band and read 
the frequency. Then move to the tri- 
angle function and calibrate it to the 
same frequency by adjusting R14. 
That is all there is to it! Well, that is 
about It for this project! It took quite a 
little bit of time to desism this one, but 
I feel it was well worth the trouble. 

Photo E, Pulse wave. 

20 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

•Trt". *M= 



5 I !« 

.% i ^ i 

"OF J 

# *-♦■ 




I w. 

v^j tin 


JiJi f 1 




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* - 





/77 /h 



fig, 11. Overall block diagram. 







--- CAL RES 





HO" 8 



--- CAL RES 




22K RES 




15M RES 




--- CAL RES 

10, IS 



10 K RBg 




--- CAL RES 

11 , 14 



2200 RES 

2, 17 



--- CAL RES 

IS, 13 




Part of IC»6 


112 e 






15, 1€ 



22K R&S 

2,15 i 



€,01MF CAP 




0,1«F CAP 








0,1MF CAP 

13.14 ' 



220 RES 








220 RES 












0,1MF GAP 




liIE232 DIODE 




0,1MF CAP 




1N5232 DIODa 

1 la 



PN2222 'TRAM 








FN2907 TRJiN 


















23 , 24 



150 RES 








150 RES 



C2 5 

0,1MF CAP 




0, 002MF CAP 




0,1MF CAP 




0.002MF CAP 








0,002MF CAP 








0jO02HF CAP 




0,22HF CAP 




#1240 Bulb (3msn) 





4.7MF CAP 




#1240 Bulb Omm) 





#1240 Bulb (31510) 




120Q RES 
1800 RES 

10, X5 



IK ms 

E , 20 







12 OO R5S 




330 RBS 
















0,11^ OVI' 




TL064A IC 




0,1MF CAP 




0,1MF CAP 


PC Board R1,R2 

56-lW RES 



0,1MF CAP 


PC Board Cl,ca 

680D HF CAP 



0,1MF CAP 


PC Board C3-C4 

0,01MP CAP 



O.IMF C^p (A^lal^ 


PC Board C5-C8 
PC Board C9 
PC Soard C12 

2 20MP CAP 




10, 15 



560 RES 


PC Board DEI 
PC Board L-1 
PC Board tr-l 

Diode Bridge 







PC Board Z-1 
PC Boaird SIP 






PC Board R14 

10K-10T-TrtH> POT 

,p - ^ — - - 



33 -IW RB3 



Front R*iA,RSB 








Front Re 




330 RES 



Proat R7,Re 

1 OK -IT' POT 



330 RES 






DIP 1 8 






























0,22KF CAP 








4 7MF CAP 









-S05 Sockets Aiithor 


sockets with 





on J 

board OjlMF capacitors*,. 

vice OlPie, 

Table 2, Header component pinout tocator: 

Good luck on yours! I can answer 
reasonable questions if I receive an 
SASE with the request. For those 
folks who would like more research 
information, I have included some 


1. Ham Radio Magazine, Sept,. 
1979; Aug. 1980; June 1982; April 

2. Electronic Design Magazine, July 

3. National Semiconductor Op Amp 
Data Book, 


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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 21 

Parker R. Cope W2GOM/7 
6040 E. Tranquil Blvd. 
Prescott Valley AZ 86314 
[pamaco @ commspeed .net] 

Shedding Some Light 

on Dimmers 

Why not put one of these triacs to use? 

When you need to control the AC mains and an auto transformer like a Variac is not 
available, the line voltage can be controlled with an inexpensive light dimmer: Light 
dimmers are available from the local hardware store or one is easy to build. 

onti'oLling the voltage to an in- 
ductive load liJke a trans Ibmier's 
■primar-y with a hght dimmer 
may require a little cut-and-tiy, be- 
cause light dimmers are intended to 
conti"ol a resistive load and not an in- 
ductive load. An appropriate RC in 
parallel with an inductive load can 
make it look resistive. 

In a ligW dimmer, a triac or bidirec- 
tional triode ihyristor switches the 
voltage to the load tor part of every 
half-cycle. The voltage across the load 
will be near maximum if the triac 
switches on at the start of the half- 
cycle and be less if the switching oc- 
curs later in the cycle. Tlie switched 
voltage is no longer a sinusoid and in 
some cases may cause difficulties. For 
example, a power supply with a ca- 
pacitor input filter. More about that 

A triac that controls the conduction 
angle of the dimmer is svv' itched on by 
a voltage applied between the gate and 
temiinal 2, the cathode. Fig, 1(a) 
shows the voUage-cun-ent characteris- 
tics of a triac. The device is bistable; 
the triac exhibits either a high imped- 
ance (Off state) or low impedance (On 
state). For cither polarity of applied 

22 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

voltage, the device can be triggered 
into the on state by a pulse of current 
of either polarity into the gate. Once 
triggered, die triac remains in the On 
state until anode current is reduced to 
zero by the external circuitry. 

The pulse of trigger cunent to the 
gate is obtained with a diac. The diac 
is a two-terminal bistable bidirectional 
switch with voltage-cuiTcnt character- 
istics shown in Fig, 1(b), The diac 
exhibits either a high impedance (Off 
state) or low impedance (On state). 
The device exhibits a high impedance, 
low-leakage-current characteristic un- 
til the applied voltage reaches the 
breakover voltage. The breakover volt- 
age is in the order of 35 volts. Above 
breakover, the device exhibits a nega- 
tive resistance, so that the voltage de- 
creases as cun-ent increases. When the 
diac turns on, a pulse of current trig- 
gers the triac on. Some triacs have the 
diac function buik-in, but a dimmer 
using a simple triac requiring a diac is 
described. An SBS (silicon bilateral 
switch) like the 2N4991 can be used 
instead of a diac. They both perform 
the same function and are essentially 
equivalent devices. 

In the basic light dimmer shown in 

Fig, 2. a diac is used in conjunction 
with a capacitor to generate current 
pulses to trigger the triac into conduc- 
tion. The voltage on the capacitor in- 
creases until it reaches the breakover 
voltage of the diac. at which point 
the diac voltage becomes low and 
the capacitor discharges into the triac 

At the beginning of each half-cycle, 
the current in the triac and load is zero 
and the triac is in the Off state. The 
triac acts like an open switch. The en- 
tire Line voltage appears across the 
triac and none appears across the load. 
The voltage across the triac drives cur- 
rent through the pot Rl and charges 
the capacitor CL When the capacitor 
voltage reaches the breakover voltage 
of the diac, the triac is triggered on. 
At this point, the triac looks like a 
closed switch and the voltage is ap- 
plied to the load for the remainder of 
that half-cycle. 

The resistance of the potentiometer 
detennines how quickly the capacitor 
chai^ges. When ihe resistance of Rl is 
low, CI charges more rapidly, breakover 
of the diac is reached earlier in the 
cycle, and the power apphed to the 
load increases. 




Off 57flTF 

Oti STAje'. 

<^N 57A7f 

— W 




OH -SH^Tif 



VBO ^ 3?[/ 


F/g. L (a) A triac is gate-controlled bistable, (b) A diac is a 
bistable diode. 

Fig. 2. A light dimmer phase-conirols the voltage across the load. 



1 lyMH 










Bi - - 


Fig, 3, An extra RC reduces hysteresis. Afdter can wduce cotuhicted 

Most commercial light dimmers 
have the circuit shown in Fig. 2. Tliis 
circuit has hysteresis. That is, the triac 
doesn't switch on when the control is 
set for minimum load vohage. Adding 
an additional R and C as shown in Fig* 
3 reduces hysteresis effects and ex- 
tends the effective control range of 
the light-control potentiometen Since 
including the extra R and C increases 
costj most commercial light dimmers 
expect you to accept the hysteresis. 

Since the triac switches when the 
line voltage is nonzero, noise can be 
produced when the triac switches on. 
Again, adding the noise-reducing fil- 
ter increases cost, so noise is ig- 
nored. However, a 0.01 |iF capacitor 
and two small inductors can filter the 
noise from the line. Manv times, the 
inductors are just a few turns wound 
oh a piece of ferritc. This arfangetnent 
takes care of the conducted noise but 
doesn't do anything for radiated noise 
— a metal minibox enclosure is 
needed to control the radiated noise. If 

' you have only a plastic project box, 
line it with aluminum foil and vou'll 
be in business. 

The light dimmer is intended to con- 
trol a resistance, a light bulb, in which 
the voltage and current are in phase, 
but when the load is inductive, like a 
transformer or universal wound motor, 
the vohage and current are no longer in 
phase. The inductance tends to keep 
the current flowing even when the 
voltage is zero. The inductive current 
in the anode holds the triac on while 
the line voltage goes though zero. 

A series RC in shunt with the induc- 
tor can put the voltage and current 
back in phase. That's where the cut- 
and-try comes in. A capacitor across 
the load can absorb the inductor's cur- 
rent and make the current in the triac 
zero when the voltage is zero. The 
resistor in series with the capacitor 
damps any tendency of the L and C to 

Accommodating the inductance is 
straightforward if the exact inductance 

is known. But usually the inductance 
isn't known. Finding the capacitor that 
will absorb tlie inductive current and a 
resistor to eliminate ringing requires 
some cut-and-try. The ringing sup- 
pressing resistor is not terribly cridcal, 
but if it is too large the effects of the 
capacitor can be compromised. Some- 
thing in the order of 100 ohms is a 
good starting point 

Continued on page 55 


i .. , 


> ? 

>I2 ?I2. 


Fig. 4. The load can be made to look 
73 Am^t&ur Radio Today • December 2002 23 


Thomas M, HartADIB 
54 Hermaine Ave. 
Dedham MA 02026 
[torn-dot-com @ juno,com] 

Eager for Meager 

Try an 11m vertical on 160. 

Several years ago, Richard KAIINO, now a silent key, gave me an old 11 -meter half-wave 
vertical for conversion to 10 meters, I used the antenna on that band for several vears 
and then changed it to a quarter wavelength vertical on 15 meters. 

The anlenna was a nice supple- 
ment lo my G5RV dipok as I 
completed WAS on 20, 15, and 
10 meters, Tlicre were times that the 
dipole did not work as well as the 
vertical and vice versa. 

After reading the ARRL Antenna 
Handbook on base -loaded short an- 
tennas (8- fool whips are suggested) 
for mobile work, I decided to try a 
conversion of the venerable 1 1 -meter 
antenna to the other end of the HF 
spectrum: 160 meters. My reasoning 
was that I would never be able to 
erect a full quarter wavelength verti- 
cal for the top band and had to be 
ready lo compromise. Some other lo- 
cal amateurs have suggested to me 
that making contacts on the dummy 
load would probably be as pfoduC" 
tive as using a short vertical on 160. 
However, placing the project in con- 
text, it is clear that a loading 16- fool 
vertical on 160 meters is neither 



1/4 wavelength 

130 ft. 

67 ft.-. 

% of 8 ft. 



% of 16 ft. 



more nor less optimistic than using 
an 8- Foot vertical on 80 meters. 

Table 1 shows that a 16-foot vertical 
is 12% of a full quarter wavelength 
on 160 meters. The same percentage 
is found for an 8 -foot vertical used 
on 80 meters. 

The computations needed to deter- 
mine the inductance of a coil for base 
loading are found in ARRL Hand- 
books. The Antenna Ilandbookch'dpi^r 
on "Mobile and Marine Antennas'' 
states that: 

1. The height of the antenna in elec- 
trical degrees is: 

h = (L/984) ^f^ F * 360 

2. The mean characteristic imped- 
ance is: 

K^^ = 60*((hi(2^^H/a))-l) 

Table L Comparative length percentages. 
24 73 Amateur Badio Today • December 2002 

3. The inductive reactance required 


X, = K,, ^^ cot (h) 


Deteimination of inductance from 
reactance for a given frequency is 

described in the A/?/?L Amateur Hand- 
book chapter on ''AC Theory and 
Reactive Components." 

4. The corresponding inductance is: 

L = XJ(2 =^ 71 ^ F) 

The symbols used in the formulas 

h = antenna height in electrical 

F = frequency in MHz 

L - antenna length in feet 

K^ = mean character! sdc impedance 

H = antenna length in same units as 

a = antenna radius in same units as 

X|_ = inductive reactance 
71 = 3.14 


cot - ( I /tan) 

"H" and "L" are antenna length. "L'' 
must be in feet; "H'' may be in any unit 
also used for *V\ 

In the case of my topband antenna, I 
was able to stretch the overall length 
of the 1 1 -meter unit to 1 6 feet 4 inches 

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(16.3 feet). The antenna is made from 
three sections of aluminum tubing; 
1.25 inches, 1 inch, and 0.5 inch diam- 
eters. I decided to use a blended diam- 
eter of one inch for computations 
because no formulae were readily 
available for tapered elements. Solv* 
ing the equations for the required in- 
ductance gave a value of 158 )iH. 

The actual coil design was simpli- 
fied by using a utility program called 
Coil Designer, by K6ML0. I chose a 
PVC coil form that is 11 inches long 

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and 2375 inches inside diameten Us- 
ing 18 AWG wire, I found that I 
needed 108 evenly spaced turns. 

The coil form has a PVC end cap on 
each end with an S 0-239 socket on the 
cap that connects to the base of the an- 
tenna. A male Pl.-nnn adapter makes 
the coil to antenna connection- Black 
plastic electrical tape is wound over 
the entire coil and held in place with 
plastic wire- wraps. A drip hole was 
made at the bottom of the lower end 
cap to provide drainage for any mois- 
ture that might find its way inside the 
coil form. 

The biggest compromise in my de- 
sign was the decision to use a single 
one quarter wavelength 1 8 AWG wire 
radial as a counterpoise- The antenna 
is on a bracket at the end of my garage, 
1 had space and resources for a single 
radial that meanders across the build- 
ing and then follows a fence in an arc 

around the back yard. Multiple radials 
or a good earth ground would probably 
improve the performance of the an- 
tenna, but this was a low budget job, 
intended for casual use only. 

How did the project turn out? Pretty 
much as expected. My intention was to 
recycle an old antenna into a topband 
vertical that would allow casual use on 
CW or SSB, I have managed to make 
contacts all over New England, the 
mid- Atlantic area, and as far as Ohio. 
The signal reports have been adequate, 
but not stellar. It seems likely that any- 
one who is interested in a low profile 
160- meter antenna could use die verti- 
cal portion of this design and work up a 
better groundmg or radial system in time 
for next winter Despite predictions from 
friends, tlie final resuU does a much 
better job than the dummy load that 1 
use to tune up the transmitter. 

Photo A, This meager antenna is capable of operating on 160 and 80 meters. 

26 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

Kenneth Pietrucha WA20KZ 
610 Springfield Ave. 
Cranford NJ07016 

Shack Switch for Foot Fetishists 

Not that it's THAT kin hi 

Aidiough I get lots of comments from visitors hi the shack, tJie Uithmne Foot Switch was bom 
out offnistration and definitely senses r function far greater Uian entenainiiig visitors. 

When I wcni from a push-to- 
lallc mic to a fool switch to 
coiurol my tran.sceiven I 
never thought about the possibility of 
not being able to lirid the switch under 
the desk with my lot*L 

On more then one occasion while I 
was getting ready to ,sUde my call letters 
into that small window hclwecn the time 
that the DX station stops transmitting 
and the rest of the hajii community 
starts callinc him. I missed mv chance 
because the ibot switch moved and 1 
couldn't key the transmilicn 
Over the next few weeks. I iried to 

position the fooE switch so thai I coij|i 
find it under the desk without looking, 
I tried to hold it in position with 
double-sided tape, then Velcro .strips, 
and then I finally mounted it on a 
small board. I siill liad the same prob- 
lem. Basically, the foot switch I was 
using was just too smalK and loo light. 
I mentioned this problem on our lo- 
cal repeater and got some interesting 
suggestions. The next day, I stopped in 
at the music store to find out what type 
of a fool switch musicians use, and 1 
was somewiiat disaj^poinied in their 
lack of ingenuity. 

Photo A. The Ulii/naie Fool Swiith. 

One thing tliat the lady of the store 
did show nie was what they call a wa- 
wa pedal. Not exactly w^hat I wanted, 
but now I was getting some flashbacks 
to the '60s. when we had fuzzy dice on 
the mirror and a large foot straptx^d to 
the gas pedal of our cars. No, I don't 
kjiow why we did it, and you really 
had to he there to understand! 

Now I knew what I wanted, and I re- 
membered where I saw it. I thanked 
the storeowner and was on my way. 

Here in New Jersey* we have a few 

Conttiued on page 55 

Photo B. A small hinge moitim rbe "foot" 
to the wood bose^ Use double -sided foam 
tape to moiini the switch. 

73 Amateur Radh Today * December 2002 27 

Srikanth Bhat VU2SBJ 
37 Ananth Nagar 
Manipal 576119 

Ashore at Sacrifice Rock! 

The saga of a masterful DXpedition, 

It all began one evening in early 2001, when Chets VU3DMP dropped into my office 
after work. We began talking about an IOTA operation from St Mary's Island, which 
was fairly close by. A few inonths iater^ we successfully activated AS-096, our first 
IOTA, and our first ''not-so-small" operation. 

The experience and the sheer 
thrill we gained from organiz- 
ing and participating in the AS- 
096 IOTA really pushed us to form a 
group of like-minded, activiiy-thirsty 
hams, the VUIOTA Group, We were, 
and still are, an informal group with- 
out presidents, secretaries, and thai 
kind of stuff. 
*'What next?" was the most asked 

question. Obviously another IOTA, 
This time we aimed for the Sacrifice 
Rock, in the Kerala group of islands — 
an inactivated island, and a not- so- 
popular place either We began work- 
ing on getting more information about 
the island in September. It took us a 
good couple of months to get full in- 
formation about the place, make two 
visits to the island and realize it was 

Photo A. DKpedition QSL card. 

28 73 Amateur RBdio Today • December 2002 

only a plain solid rock in the middle of 

The first reconnaissance visit was 
pretty discouraging — there was no 
boat access, there was not a single tree 
or even a leaf on the solid rock. It took 
about one hour by those tiny fishing 
boats from the coast of Thikkodi near 
Bagadara in Kerala (about 45 km norlh 
of Calicut or Kozhikode). The rock 
was standing in the middle of the sea 
without any sand around anywhere, 
unlike what we imagined any island to 

This made it impossible for the boat 
to move very close to the rock — it 
had be anchored some distance away, 
oUierwise it would be pushed toward 
the rock by the waves and eventually 
get damaged. So we had to swim to the 
rock from tlic boat (some 100 feet or so), 
and the deptli of the water was about 18 
meters aU the way. What's more, the en- 
try point on all sides of the rock were 
filled with razor sharp barnacles, and 
should one step on tliem without some 
footwear, or happen to be pushed against 
the rock by die waves, he's sure to cut 
himself very badly. To top it all off, the 
rock was pretty steep at the places where 
the boat could go neai' it. 

The v&y idea of carrying in Uic sta- 
lion gear was mlTid boggling. The four 
of us who made the first inspection 
visiu myself, Chets VU3DMR Ro 
VU2RDQ, and Mor VU2MTT, thuugh 
never speaking it out aloud, definitely 
thought this to be impossible. 

Despite these discouraging thoughts, 
we still went ahead with the formali- 
ties involved with the WPC (Ucensing 
authority in India) for tnaking the 
DXpedition. Lots of question^ began 
popping into each of our minds about 
the various '*how to's" associated with 
the irip. How to take the .station 
through the water? How to transport 
people who do not know swi milling 
(there were a few such people)? How 
to climb the rock with those huge lead 
acid batteries, even if we manaijed to 
somehow get them from the boat lo 
the bottiun of the rock? How to erect 
the antenna and shelter on the rock, 
which was solid granite without a 
patch of loose soil? And so on. Too 
many questions, no answers. 

Off we went to a local beach, called 
Kaup. What came out of a few hours 
of thinking out on the beach thai 
evenFng was to use that magic hard- 
ware known as "anchor bolts'* for an- 
tenna erection and tent erection — this 
required us to carry some hammer 
drilling equipment, an electrical gen- 
erator to power the drill, and lots t)i" 
anchor bolts* 

These are wonderful things lo have. 
All we needed to do was to drill a suit- 
able size hole in the rock, insert the 
bolls, and fasten them — they expand 
on the inside and anchor into the rock 
really hard. We could then use them lo 
hold the guys of the antcmia masts and 
the tents. Another idea was to build a 
raft out of plastic drums — we ihought 
this would help us transport all equip- 
ment from the boat to the rock. The 
rest of the arrangements were pretty 
standard, just like our previous [OTA, 
but we decided to be very strict on the 
BOM, since excess luggage would 
only mean excess trouble. We also de- 
cided to make one more trip, sort out 
some of the local permission issues, and 
just have anitther proper look before we 
actually finally went 

The day we decided to make our 

second inspection 
trip to the rock 
apparently turned 
out to be a new 
mtxin day. Tliis day 
is supers titiously 
considered bad to 
set out to do any- 
thing worthwhile. 
None of us be- 
lieved in this, and 
we planned to 
travel to the rock 
anyway. This dme 
additionally Pra- 
kash (VU2JIX) 
accompanied the 
remaining four who had gone the firsi 
time. Since I lived ancuher 70 km away 
from the city where we had to board 
ihe train, and where the remaining four 
lived, I camped at Mur's home the 
night before we sel out The train was 
to leave at 03:40 hotirs (local lime). 
Chets and Prakash also joined us here 
in Mur's place, and we all were talking 
undl aboul l'3i\ when we decided 
we'd better have at least an hour of 
sleep. We woke up at about 2:30, had a 
quick bath, and set nut. When we went 
outside we realized Chets* motorbike 
had been stolen. He didn't believe me 
when I noticed it Hrst and told him, he 
thought I was joking and had hidden it 
someplace. We were alirady getting late 
to calch the train. Dilemma: Whether 
to go or not lo, as Chets was pretty up* 
sel — quite naturally so. We made a 
quick trip lo the local police statioa, 
and tried lodging a complaint — 
though they began sending out wire- 
less messages to the patrol all around 
the tow n, we were not able to formal !v 
lodge the complaint, as ihe concerned 
person wouldn't work at this time of 
the night. Meanwhile, Ro, who had in- 
dependently gone to the train station 
from his home, had alread>' bought us 
all the travel tickets and was waiting 
with some other mountaineering friends 
who wanted to join us to see the rock. 
Consoling Chets iliat the police were 
now working on the motorbike search. 
all of us sped away lo the train station 
— only to see llie last compariment of 
the train just moving out of the plal- 
form, Ro was in the train with four 

Photo B. One of the ^i^litA t^it ihe Sacnfke Rock — a iklicately 
bdhmreti rock struct it re. 

Phato C Main camp area — all the gear is 
slovvly heginning ro come in. 

Photo />. Chets V USD MP burns the 

midnight oii as SWLAdarsh looks tm. 

extra tickeis and some other friends. 
The four of us who missed ihe train in- 
quired to Hnd that there was another 
train traveling in about 45 minutes but 

from aiiolher train station on the out- 
skirts of the city. We could make it. We 
also decided to have a quick look 
around Murs house locality to see if 
we could fnid Chet's mobike someplace, 
Nt> luck, though. When we reached the 
otlier train station, the train had already 
arrived, 1 volunteered to gel the tick- 
ets, while the remaining three would 
get all the stuff near the platform inside 
73 Amateur Radio Today ■ December 2002 29 







i_ "-r' 


/:!' r- 


Photo E. Our faithful but overbuoyant txtft 
made it possible to transport everything 
over the water. 


Photo E Antenna must for base station 
{Fritzel) with Indian national flag (it was 
Republic Day in India jy and our banner. 


the station. We were carrying 6nc 
Tiidio station, including a lead acid 
battery (which we now realizxd was a 
stupid idea) to try it out frt>m the 
rock. While ihey were carrying all 
the things to the platform inside, I just 
managed to buy four tickets and rush 
inside to find out the train had already 
begun moving. Man, this was turning 
out io be a nightmare — and whatever 


Photo C, Our team, left to right: Chets VU3DMF, Su VU2RDI 
PralcfLsh VU2JIX (holding tiie left end of the banner), Ro 
VU2RDQ, Mar VU2MH\ Manu VIJ2JR0, SWL UixminidKu Pai 
VU2PAI, Boatsman Baijo, Sri VU2SBJ (holding the right end of 
tlw banner), 

30 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ December 2002 

superstition-free minds we all had now 
began wondering if there was indeed 
something bad about this new moon 
day. as the elders used to believe. We 
just got in whatever compartment that 
was closest, and decided to sort out our 
actual compartment once we were in. 
Getting in with those things, especially 
the battel^, was pretty adventurous. 

The compartment we went in was 
full up to its brim. There w^ere no seats 
even to sit on tetuporarily, and much to 
our dislike we ended up sitting on tlie 
floor near the toilets. (Prakash and I 
then went seai"ching for our actual 
compartment, should the ticket inspector 
fine us for being in the wrong place. 
To our disappointment, the connection 
doors to other compartments were 
locked, so we were forced to continue 
where we were,) Meanwhile, Chets ' 
was woiTying about his mobike. He 
eventually decided to get off at the 
next station to go back home and try 
looking for the mobike. It seemed 
pretty sensible, so he got off at the next 
stop. Stops were really short, so we 
didn't risk transferring ourselves with 
all that luggage to our actual compart- 
ment (God knows how far it was any- 
way!). As our destination (Badagara) 
approached, some seats became va- 
cant. There was hardlv 30 minutes of 
journey remaining — we were thank- 
ing our lucky stars that the ticket in- 
spector didn't turn up after all. When it 
was just 5 minutes till Badagara — lo, 
the ticket inspector. He just wouldn't 
listen to our story about getting into 

the train at the 
last minute with 
the heavy lug- 
gage, and the fact 
that the connec- 
tion doors were 
closed, and tlie 
fact that we were 
sitting just out- 
side the toilet for 
most of the jour- 
ney. We ended up 
paying heavy pen- 
ahy — Hell, no 
more doing any- 
thing on a new^ 
moon day, we 

We met Ro and his other mountain- 
eering friends at the Thikkodi beach. 
The boat people and the local fisher- 
men folks ntiw seeing us for the second 
time, probably realized we were in- 
deed not joking about staying on that 
rock in the sea for two days. They also 
saw prospective business due to in- 
creased demand — tiom zero in the 
last few years to two trips in within a 
couple of months for nonfishing pur- 
poses! Their rates were already up by 
about 30% this time. No alternative, so 
we had to accept. We set out toward 
the rock. This trip, however, was a real 
morale booster. It didn't scare us as 
much as the first lime, Probably because 
things looked much more familial* than 
the very first tune. We knew exactly 
where we were going, how long it 
would take to reach there, and how- 
things looked at the other end. This 
time we looked for the most conve- 
nient place to enter on the rock, and 
earmarked locations on the rock for 
setting up the various antennas, sta- 
tions and the main camp. Another idea 
that we had, about transporting stuff 
through a rope-way from the boat, 
looked impossible once we went there; 
so we decided to slick with the raft 

After we went back on land we vis- 
ited the local police authorities, and 
were successful in gaining permission 
to stay on the rock for two days and to 
travel by fishing boats. Though this is 
not a tourist spot, and there was no for- 
mal mode of transport, the police were 
very undej'Standing and realized the con- 
tej^t well and gave us the permission. 
This had always been a big question 
mark, so once this was cleared up we 
were hlerally on cloud nine. 

Each way to reach Ihc rock from our 
hometown took about 5 hours by rail, 
another hour by road, and finally an- 
other horn" by sea. Had we used the air 
mode to travel somewhere in between, 
we would have covered them all. Prob- 
ably the cloud nine we were in a little 
while ago could be attributed to air 

Things appeared more concrete after 
this trip. We began making all the ar- 
rangements as the days went by. First 
we had the raft built by a boatbuilder 

friend. He made it out of scraps or 
wood and two empty plastic oil drums. 
We wanted to test it out so off we went 
to the local fishing harbor, and tested it 
out — it seemed too buoyant — ap- 
peared as if it required some support 
from the sides to ensure it didn't 
topple. We decided that two people 
should escort the raft while the raft 
carries the station stuff, else it would 
topple. To have a person sit on the raft 
was out of cjuestion. We did not have 
the resources or the time to have a 
better one built. 

Transport by road instead of by rail 
was preferred as we had a lot of stuff 
that was not praciical to be taken on 
the train- We arranged a 15~seater van, 
and requested the driver to have some 
seats removed to accommodate the raft 
and the rest of the stuff. 

D-day arrived. Our tlnal team was as 
follows: Chets VU3DMR Prakash 
Sri VU2SBJ, Pai VU2PAI, Mur 
VU2MTT, Manu VU2JR0, SWLs 
Laxminidi and Adarsh. Ten of us in all. 
We were to set out at 7:30Z on the 25th 
January 2002. We soon realized we 
were running late and also that the van 
wouldn't be able to accommodate all 
the stuff and all the peopFe — some 
more seats had to be removed to ac- 
commodate the raft. We decided some 
of us would use the train while some 
would go on the van. 

We all reached our destination in 
one piece. The van people arrived well 
before the train people in the late 
evening, and occupied the dinky but 
well known hotel in Bagadara which 
was arranged by a friend. The dinner 
was simple but good, and we were also 
paid a visit by the friend who arranged 
this hoteL The place Badagara is lo- 
cated in the neighboring state of Kerala, 
and most speak only the local lan- 
guage Malayalam, Only a couple of 
us in the entire team knew about 50% 
of the language. It was quite some 
achievement to communicate one 
single sentence for the rest of us. 

We slept as early as we could, and 
woke up at about 4 a.m. All of us had a 
quick shower, the only fresh water 
shower that would be possible for the 
next two days, and drank the coconut 

water thai was so 
kindly provided 
by the friend who 
visited us the pre- 
vious night. It took 
quite an effort to 
gel the van out of 
the crainped park- 
ing area of the 
tiny hotel, and 
we were off to 
the beach by 
about 6 a.m. 

We reached the 
Thikkodi beach 
by about 6:30 a.m., and began unload- 
ing all the stuff from the van to the 
beach as close to the water as the van 
coutd possibly go in the sand. We soon 
realized that the boats thai were origi- 
nally spoken for were already out on 
their fishing duties as early as 4 a.m., 
though we w^ere assured they wouldn^t 
be going as a special case to accom- 
modate our transport arrangement. The 
boats came back only by about 9. We 
had a li^ht breakfast on the beach 
meanwhile, and began loading the boats. 

We thought we should get some ex- 
tra lifesavfng equipment, as the ones 
we had were damaged. So two of us 
went in search of tire tubes, which are 
pretty good alternatives for life jack- 
ets. The sea was already getting pretty 
worked up, and the morning was 
windy. The boat people discouraged 
our traveling on that day unless we set 
off immediately. Of the two boats that 
were beins loaded, one of them set off 
in a hurry with only four of us. The 
remaining six were still on the shore. 

The six who were on the beach 
waited for the two who had gone in 
search of the tires. They had already 
taken over an hour, so the second boat 
had started off with only Ro and few 
other boatmen. The plan was to have a 
third boat get the rest of the people and 
also some stuff that wouldn't fit in the 
first two boats. The whole launch of 
the boats from the beach was so mixed 
up that we were totally confused by 
what was happening. The boat people 
simply refused to listen as they felt 
that they couldn't wait any longer on 
the beach. 

The first boat that took off pre- 
schedule had Su, Laxminidlii. Manikant, 

Photo H. A view of the gigantic Sacrifice RocL 

Photo I. The raft, being loaded with our 
belongings after the event — it would then 
be pulled by ropes to the boat. 

Photo J* Prakash VU2JIX, rente k and 
other people from the boat, pull the loaded 
raft toward the boat, Tlds overbuoyant raft 
kept the owners of our gear very anxious 
during each trip, 

and me on it. Not one of us knew 
Malayalam, and we never were able to 
find out why he took off without Ro, 
who was supposed to come with us in 
that boat, nor what the plan for the rest 
was going to be. 

In the confusion, the VHF bandies 
were not accessible to any of us, as the 
entire luggage was mixed up in the 
hurry. So no way of talking to the rest 
of the team either. We reached Sacri- 
fice Rock in about one hour's time — 
73 Amateur Radio Today ■ December 2002 31 

•rN*T* — «■-■- 

Photo K. A view oj the feni occupied by ihe 
only couple in rhe team, YL Su VU2RDJ 
ami OM Ro VIJ2RDQ. One of the antennas 
is visible in the hackgiound. 

Photo L* MA5B Ciishcrafi antenna being 
installed. This was the antenna for Station 
L The mast and guys were fixed to tfie rock 
by andwr holts drilled uito the granite, it 
stood well for the entire n\o windy days. 

!F^.r2^'J«*»rSba^i' -j- 

Photo M. Packing off! The raft gets hito 
the water with anotlier load of gear: it was 
then pulled towards the boat with the help 
of several rofjes. 

Ro's boat was much filter, as it had 
less luggage. So we arrived aimost at 
the same time though he started out 
later. The third boat was not yet seen, 
and we had no idea what its status was. 
Il finally aiTived in about 45 minutes, 
and we began unloading the stuff. 

Getting the raft into the water from 
the boat was easier than we expected. 
They tied all the three boats together 
so that those tiny boats wouldn't 

32 73 Amatsur Radio Today * December 2002 

topple with all the imbalance in 
weight while unloading. The sea was 
not so rough, so the boats went as 
close as about 10 meters to the rock. 
At one point, they even took it as 
close as 2 meters, to one small ex- 
tended part of the rock, while Su and 
Manikant jumped on so that they 
didn't have to i^et into the water. Thev 
had to also do almost a mini pole vault 
exercise to reach the main rock — they 
probably prefen"ed this to getting into 
water. They didn't know how to swim! 

As the stuff was being transported 
over on the raft, two of us, myself and 
one boatsman, were guiding the raft 
from the boat to the rock. Ro and oth- 
ers were putting stuff piece by piece 
onto the raft from die boat. The sharp 
baiTiaeles and shells stuck to the rock 
at the intersection of the rock and the 
water made it pretty difficull lo go 
close to the water to pull off the stuff 
from the raft, 

SWL LaxminidhE at one point under- 
estimated the weight of one pack of 
several mini lead acid batteries, and 
lost his balance, to land face up on 
those barnacles, with the box of batter- 
ies falling over his palm. He really hurt 
himself pretty bad on the back of his 
hand, and was forced to take it easy for 
the rest of the expedition. Manikant, 
who is a doctor, really made things a 
lot simpler. He took care of cleaning 
and dressing the wounds. Looking at 
the amount of bleeding, we would 
have otherwise probably been very 
nervous and uncertain what to do next. 
He said it was perfectly OK and that 
Lax just needed some rest. 

While Su began setting up the camp 
kitchen, Ro and the others were getting 
all the stuff Lo the main camp location 
on the rock. Baijo, the accompanying 
helper from the boatsmen team, de- 
cided to stay with us through the 2-day 
camp. The boats left shortly after all 
the stuff was on the rock. Even if we 
wanted to return, there was no w^ay we 
could get out from here. But then we 
had the radios — - we could communicate 
the world over. 

Without wasting any more time, 
Prakash and I set out drilling holes at 
suitable points on the rock for anchoring 
the anchor bolts for antenna erection. 

The electric drill was powered by the 
generator. The process was a lot easier 
than expected. It took us about an hour 
to finish enough holes to support all 
antennas in three different locations. 
The stations we began setting up were 
as follows, also in order of setting up: 


RIG — Kenwood TS-2000, barefoot 
lOOW limit 

ANT — 3-element, 5 -band yagi, 
CushcraftMA5B (10/12/15/17/20m) 

CABLE — RG-2 13 

MAST FOR ANTl — 10 ft. 

BATTERY — Lead acid 

CHARGER — 35VA solar panel 

RIG — Kenwood TS-850S 
ANT — Diamond CP^6 (used for 
80/40/20/ 15/ 10m) 
MAST — 1 11 
CABLE — RG 213 
BATTERY — Lead acid 
CHARGER — 35 VA solar panel 

RIG — Icom IC-735 
ANT — Fritzel 3-band (20/15/10) 
CABLE: RG-2 13 
MAST— 10 ft, aluminum 
BATTERY — 125 Ah lead acid 
CHARGER — 35VA solar panel 

RIG — Yaesu FT-840 
ANT — Longwire with SGC^230 
CABLE: RG^2 13 

Station 1 was set up by about 10:00Z 
(26th Jan). VU2PAI took over the sta- 
tion and began on 15 meters. The band 
sounded very, very good. As he began 
operations on Station I, the remaining 
stations were brought up one by one. 

Within a couple of hours, we re- 
ceived our AS 161 IOTA number from 
OM Roger Balister (G3KMA, RSGB 
IOTA Manager). MUR, VU2MTT on 
CW, mostly occupied Station 2, The 
TS-850 with the CP6 was doing great. 
Stadon 3 was with the IC-735, with the 
Fritzel 3-band vertical The vertical 

was erected altingsidc the Indian na- 
tional flag and the IOTA hanner that 
wc hoisted in the center of the rock. 
Station 3 was just beside the main 
camp kitchen, and a general-purpose 
station thai was operated by most of 
the team. This was operated by several 
operators in random order, so this sta- 
tion did the maximum number of 
QSO^, Siatiun 4 was net up ver> late in 
the evening. For some reason, the FT- 
840 that was operating there was not 
ver\' well beha\cd. Mavbe the RF in- 
terference from ilie Ions wire with the 
SGC-230 (which was not earlhed. as it 
was too far away from the salt waier) 
was causing the radio to malfunction 
— the display malfunctioned and 
bands were changing randomly upon 
TX. So station 4 was not used very 

The Rock was so windy that we 
were not very sure if the tarpaulins that 
we carried should be used as tents. We 
then decided not to. So all stations 
were operating without any shelter. 
Being windy throughout, the heat from 
the sun during the day was bearable. A 
large diameter hat was all that we man- 
aged with. Su was mostly in the camp 
kitchen preparing food and diink for 
all of us. She did operate once in a 
while. We lived mostly on bread, orange 
fruit, lemonade, aiid noodles, Drinking 
water was available in abundance ^ 
hence nothing to worry. 

As niaht fell, and some bands be<ian 
closing or all the stations were occu- 
pied, the remaining people began retir- 
ing after a very long day. Though 
windy, it was very humid and wann in 
die beginning of the night. Most just 
found a relati\ely Hat surface to open 
out a simple sleeping mat. However, as 
the night progressed, it got very windy 
and the temperature began to I all It 
was shivering cold on the first night, 
Ro and Su were the only couple and 
they were fortunate enough to get to 
use the dome tent dial they had carried. 
The rest (w^ho were not operating) 
were sleeping in die open. 

The 27ih went on very well too. All 
stations were operating continuously 
excepting Station 4 due to the radio 
problem. Station 1 and Station 2 were 
occupied mtistly by PAI and Mur 

Station 3 had to serve the balance 
team. Those not on the radio were 
mostly found either exploring the rock 
and various types of animals living in 
all the dark comers, crevices, and wa- 
ter puddles on the rock, or trying to 
swim in the sea (with saiety rope and 
inflated tire tubes of course), or cook- 
ing, or eating and drinking. Speaking 
about eating, excretion (fondly re- 
ferred to as "faxing*') was a major ad- 
venture for most. Some dark comers 
served the purpose, or we had ici wail 
for nightfall — when wider choices of 
natural toilets were available. Some 
others decided to hold on for the enure 
two days. (I have been advised to lea\ e 
out the names here J For those who de- 
cided to try out, rules were strictlv laid 
down. Waste paper was used to collect 
the "stulT* and had to be packed and 
thrown into the %vater as far as possible 
so as to not pollute the rock. It was 
indeed fun. 
Coming back to the radio stuff, the 

propagatioi] con- 
dition from Sacri- 
fice Rock was very 
good on 10/15/20 
meters on tlie 26tii 
(Saturday), and 
the peak was 
high on Sunday. 
Ten meters was 

Photo :V, Jusi before we began saiiing m- 
wards the Socrifice Rock on the 26ih. The 
ieanh mth atl our stuff pUed up prior lo 

loading on the boats at Thikkodi beach. 

I8:20Z toward N, America and S. 
xAmerica. On the 27th of January, from 
05;50Z to 7:]0Z, conditions peaked 
touards Japan and generated a good 

Twenty meters was the best during 
17:30Z to 03;00Z on 26th Jan with sta- 
tions from Etirope. N. America and S. 
America coming in with strong sig- 
nals. On 27th Jan. between 16:00 and 



pretty well at 
13:00Z and there 
was a huge pile- 
up from Europe 
till 16:00Z. On 
27th Jan,, from 
about 06:50Z to 
14:O0Z, there was 
a good pile-up finm 
Europe — a sta- 
tion from Oceania, 
Asia, also came 
in with good 

Fifteen meters 
w'as good on the 
26th during 1 1 :00Z 
to I5:00Z. with 
good signals com- 
ing from Europe. 
The band opened 
from 17:00Z to 

Photo ft A view of an entire fleet of four fishing boats (the big- 
gesr you can get to see bereh passing by the rock The Cnshcraft 
MA5B can be seen in the corner. 

Photo P. Another strange structure around Sacrifice Rock — a 

spooky, skiitl-like structure. 

73 Arnaleur Radio Today • December 2002 33 

Photo Q. Ro VUIRDQ icenfeK inskle ihe 
boat) and other boatsmen unloading the 
Sii0 onto the raft after arriving close to 
Sacrifice Rock on the 26ih. Sri VU2SBJ i in 
the waten right} guides the boat to the rock 
with the aid ofanotiur boatman and ropes 
pid led from the rocL 

23:50Z, stations Irom Europe, N* 
America, S. America, and Japan came 
through with big signals. 

CondiLions on the 1 2/1 7/40*meter 
bands was not getling any better dur- 
ing our operation. There was pretty 
hiQh static on the 40-meter band and 
we could not hear any station on the 
12/17 meier band. Though we could 
gel stations from India on 40 meters 
pretty well, there was no DX heard on 
lhe40meter band. 

The Sacrifice Rock was quite small 
in length and width and the four sta- 
tions were quite close lo each other. 
We had splatter on the same band iT 
two operators worked at the same time 
with CW and SSB. We did tr^^ the best 
lo avoid the splatter and sometimes we 
had to down one station on CW or SSB 
during peak band condition, 

Wc did our best to log maximum 
QSOs with optimum band propagation 

and minimum operating Utile, We 
managed about 3,800 in all. We were 
satisfied, and told ourselves Uiat we 
did an OK job* 

We stopped operations at about 
1 :30Z on the 28th (Monday). We be- 
gan packing up all tlie stuff. Removing 
tlie aniennas was obviously much sim- 
pler and faster. However, waterproof- 
ing all the stulf was a major task. It 
look the II (10 of us and the boatsman 
Baijo) of us more than 2 hours to have 
all the stuff neatly packed at one place. 
The boats were asked to arri\'e by 
2:30Z, but they didn't show up, 

Evenmallv hv the lime thev arrived 
— it was almost 7:00Z. Halt the day 
was gone. The sea began getting 
rough, as it usually does once die early 
morning is gone. The boalsmen were 
really struggling to keep all tliree boats 
LOLiciher. The idea was to gel it as close 
to the rock as possible and tie the three 
boats up to each other, so that the 
rough sea would disturb the stability as 
little as possible due to the three boats 
being tied together The depth of water 
all around the rock was about 18 
meters, without a shore to land. The 
excessive length made the slack in the 
anchor rope pretty high, w hich did not 
allow the boats to be in one place. 

After quite an effort they got the 
boats together one behind the other 
(long sides parallel) and tied them all 
up. It looked pretty stable, but was still 
moving around the threesome. The 
boats could now not come as close as 
they did when we landed two days 
ago. They were at least 120 feet aw-ay. 
Things be&an looking scar\'! Gctlins: 

all the heavy stuff 

Pkofo R. Prakash VU2JIX (left) operates while Sri VU2SBJ 
monitors the pile-up, 

34 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 

into the 
unstable raft to 
travel all the dis- 
tance in the very 
rough sea was 
just not a com- 
fortable thing to 
think about ~ es- 
pecially for those 
who brought their 
only radios. 

The idea was to 
liuide the raft 


with three ropes 
on either side — 

Photo S* Mur VU2MTT (cetuer), operates 
Station 2 while Chets VIJ3DMP (tight} 
and Pntkash VU2JIX (left} look on. 

one set from the rock, other set frooi 
the boats, Prakash \^ent over to the 
boat side with the rest of the boaismen 
with him. It was quite task to also tie 
the ropes and get them to the proper 
ltx;ations on the rock. The raft was 
pretty heavy — it required at least four 
people on the rock to pull on it for 
every loading event. 

The boatsmen were not game for 
this idea, and were pressurizing us to 
cancel the return trip that day — they 
kept suggesting we set out early next 
mominu. The thought of stavins one 
more day with food and water supplies 
coming to flie end was also pretty 
scary. We eventually said that if the 
first raft trip succeeded in getting to 
the boat OK, we w^ould return the same 
day — ollierwise, it would be tlic next day 

So we began trying out sending the 
first consignment. We tied a metal 
trunk to the raft top and filled it with 
some heavy stuff that was not very 
valuable. The thine was so unstable 
(top-heavy) that it was almost certain 
it would topple. However, with a lot of 
difficulty, the raft was guided with the 
six ropes towards the boat. The first 
trip was successful — so we decided 
to indeed leave the same day. 

The raft was pulled back to the rock, 
and the next consignment had a few 

valuable items including two antenna 
tuneiT>* As il left the rock, the sea that 
was now pretty rough unfortunately 
toppled the jalL The trunk vvitii all the 
stuff was completely in the water. 
There was nothing anvone could da — 
fortunately all the stuff was packed 
lightly in plastic, and the lid of the 
trunk was also tied — and the trunk 
held on to the raft — else it would all 
have gone straight down in the sea — 
some 1 8 meters below. 

Two hoatsmen went and upturned 
the toppled raft and it was quickly 
pulled towards the boat. It was not so 
damaging — Ihc plastic packing was 
pretty good — and the tuners just had 
some moisture on the cover inside the 
plastic. There was also one IIF power 
supply — it was carried just in case we 
had to use it with the small generator 
we carried for the drilling machine. It 
was unfortunately not packed. 

Prakash. who recent!) had purchased 
the power supply, looked disap- 
pointed, ft was most certainly useless 
after all the salt water inside. However 
we hoped we could do something — 
we proceeded with the next trip — this 
lime in addition to all the lOpe guiding 
business we decided two boatsmen 
should swim with the raft, holdrntz it 
frojii toppling. It then took us about 10 
to 12 trips to get all the stuft* back on 
the boat. 

Once the stuff was all loaded, there 
were still people to get in the boats — 
120 feet awav. What about those who 
didn't know how to swim? It scared 
the wits out of them! 60 feet of sea wa- 
ter — without k no wins how to swim. 
\\ must sure sound scarv. There was a 
rope lied all the way from the rock to 
the boats. We had to hold it and come 
across. For those of us who knew 
swimming, it was pretty easy. Swim- 
ming as such was difficult, as the sea 
was very rough. So the rope guide re- 
ally helped us. For those w^ho didn't 
know swiniminiz. the boatsmen ac- 
companied them. Eventually everyone 
came aboard safe and sound. 

The entire exercise was so anxiety- 
filled thai no one had the presence of 
mind to take pictures of the ad\eniur- 
ous bo at- loading event. It took us 4 
hours to gel all the stuff loaded on the 

boat — it was about 1 1:00Z when we 
started off from die rock. 

Hiat was the end of all the adven- 
ture, we thought. We'd just get back to 
the shore in about an hour, iiet off 
these boaLs. and load the van with the 
stutr and act eoinu home. 

Unfortunately it was not to be that 
easy. The sea continued to roughen up. 
The waves were gigantic. The tiny 
boats were simply matchless. The 
boatsmen quickly decided to travel all 
the way with the three boats tied. It 
was quite an eftori to drive the three 
boats this way — each had to run the 
boat very carcl'ully — and in syn- 
chrony. Imagine what would happen if 
the boats on the sides were to get out 
of synch and one of them ran it faster 
than the other — the entire assembly 
of three boats would slaii turning and 
probably be unstable. They were pretty 
good at it. 

The waves were huee — ihev al- 
ways tried to move on the lop of the 
wave — it was a real roller coaster 
ride- They had us seated carefully at 
difterent points on the three boats to 
have some sort of balance. Every time 
a huge wave came and the boat rode on 
top and came down, so much water 
came in. We were busy emptying the 
water manually. The entire hour back 
was so very tense il really had each 
one of us praying for our miserable 
souls. Goint: to this remote rock in 
the middle of nowhere for operating 
the radio — such a stupid idea* we 

Land at last — 70 minutes seemed 
like etemiiv. The btial owners had as- 
sembled on the shore. They were re* 
ally worried, a,s it was almost 4 hours 
later than expected. Besides it was also 
beginning to get dark. They all wore 
that "I told vou so*' look. We had made 
it back — safe and sound and in one 

The van loading took us an addi- 
tional hour We quickly iiad some food 
in the village nearby, and set off. We 
decided to just uU pack in the van, 
even when it meant some people had 
to sit on someone else's lap. The driver 
who had wailed on the shore tor the 
previous two days was probably dying 
of boredom. He drove really fast and 

Photo Z Sunset rime — Sri VV2SBJ, set- 

Ihiji tip the tongMire antenna while SWL 
Laxminiilhi { injured) looks on. 

Photo [\ YL Sti VV2RDJ tries to cook a 
meal at the camp kitchen. 

Phoio V SWL Adarsh (right} watches 
whUe Sri VU2SBJ (left) operates Station J. 

we reached Mangalore at about half 
past midniglit (local time) on the 28th, 

Some of us from Manipal had to 
travel another hour to get back home. 
Just had a shower and hit the sack. A 
busy day at work lay ahead for each of 

The entire experience of the Sacri- 
fice Rock IOTA was ab.solutcly thrill- 
ing and satisfying. Though some of the 
trying nKinients made us think other- 
wise for some time, we asked our- 
selves if we wanted one more ol' such 

Continued on pagp 56 
73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 35 

Art Housholder K9TRG 

350 West Schaumburg Rd. A261 

Schaumburg IL 60194 

[ahousholderl @] 


Hamfest Success Formula 

How to make sure your Jest is a success. 

So much has happened to the electronic industry and tlie hobby of amateur radio in 
the last 25 years of the almost 50 since my first hamfest 

During that Lime, T have been a 
spectator, retail exhibitor, manu- 
facturer flea market seller, and 
even a hamfest committee member 
Probably the questions most asked by 
the hams, the flea market sponsors, the 
exhibitors, and especially the hamfest 
coiTimiitee are, "What makes a good 
hamfest?" and *'Whal can be done to 
make it even better?" 

Here are some very simple answers 
to the tirst question. 

As a spectator, finding something 
you wanted at the price you wanted 
made it a success for you. As a seller 
who goes home with a lot less inven- 
tory than what you came with, and a 
pocket full of money, success is yours 
also. Commercial vendors and manu- 
facturers who sell a lot of product have 
their measure of success. It is all quite 
simple! The real trick is to make it all 

Without pulling any punches, telling 
it like it is, many hamfesis fall by the 
wayside. Everyone is excited and en- 
thusiastic in the beginning, but some 
volunteers find it more work than they 
wanted while some stick it out and just 
plain become burned out. 

1 have attended most of the major 
hamfests in the United States, Hawaii, 
36 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 

Europe, and Asia. I was one of the 
hams on the committee that started Ra- 
dio Expo in Chicago In 1971, the 
ONLY hamfest, in the world that has 
had Robot, Hewlett Packard, Standard, 
Antenna Specialists, Dycom, CBS Ra- 
dio, Motorola, National Computer, 
Robyn, Swan, RCA, Sentry Crystal 
Regency, Clegg, Hal Devices, ARRL, 
Ham Radio Magazine, 73 Magazine, 
CQ Magazine, RPT Magazine, Mid- 
land Radio, LafayeLle, Hallicrafters, 
Hy-Gain, Galaxy, E.F. Johnson. Avanti. 
S9, Alpha Seventy, Signetics, U.S. 
Navy Training School, General Elec- 
tric Radio, U.S. Coast Guard, and 
many more, all at the same time — 
though unfortunately many of these 
folks are now long gone. Not even 
Dayton has ever accomplished that 
many luminaries at one time. 

A club that runs a local hamfest 
gives a very nice pocket daily diary to 
each of its members and also to each 
commercial vendor who attends the 
hamfest. Recently a major vendor did 
not receive the pocket dairy. They told 
me how they had looked forward to 
getting one and were disappointed that 
tbey did not get one. When I told the 
club president, he immediately had one 
sent to the vendor in a plain envelope, 

did not call him as I suggested, did not 
put a note in ihe envelope with an 
apology for overlo^jking them, and did 
not thank the vendor for showing an 
interest in the small gesture of appre- 
ciation. Later when I spoke to the 
vendor, they told me of the cold and 
impersonal mailing, obviously disap- 
pointed in the brusque way it was 
done. A marvelous opportunity was 
missed to engender some real good- 
will, and probably some ill will was 
fostered. Often it is the little things like 
this that can make or break an excel- 
lent relationship with vendors and in 
turn spell your success or failure in the 

While the hamfest committee is ba- 
sically responsible for making it happen, 
it is largely a thankless job. As a club 
member, give them all the support you 
can and then some! A hamfest MUST 
be run as a business. If you are inca- 
pable of doing that, as many of us are, 
or if you don't have the time or desire 
to do it, well, then don't volunteer to 
be on the committee. Volunteer for one 
of the other jobs involved in running a 
hamfest, like setting up tables, chairs, 
helping with parking, or one of the 
endless list of things that need to be 
done to have a successful hamfest. 

With luday's free telephone calls al- 
lowed lo many subscribers or the inex- 
pensive 3- to 10-cents*a-minute long 
distance charges for others, it is not an 
expensive thing lo do to make a lew 
calls for the committee, and it can be a 
great big help to them. Here's another 
thing to do after the hamfest. No longer 
than 30 days after, send a thank -you let- 
ter to all of the commercial exhibitors 
... the Alincos, Icoms, Kenwoods, and 
Yaesus. Send thank-you letters to the 
dealers and to everyone who bought 
booth space. Possibly include the reg- 
istered flea marketers — especialh if 
they BOUGHT table space. A short 
telephone call a few weeks after ihai 
for follow-up might ask what they 
liked and what you could do to make it 
a better atTair for ihem next time. 
When making such calls, be sure they 
have a business flavor be tactful, be a 
good listener and above all do not pro- 
long die call — be respectful of Lhc 
value of the other person \s time. Ev- 
eryone enjoys a little personal atten- 
tion, and most will welcome the 
opportunity to give their comments or 
complaints about the show. Be sure to 
thank them for their time and. finally, 
try to get a commitment fur next year's 
hamfest. Then a few months later 
niiike a foUow-up call, again using 
members with free phone privileges. 
By spreading out ihe effort, you will 
give members a sense of involvement 
without bein^ too demandine of their 
time and money. Make sure you pick 
the people who make the calls VERY 
CARHFULLY. Try lo use die brightest 
crayons in the box to do thi^ for the 

Consider offering a prize for the 
"BEST" commercial display. Maybe 
for the size or inventory. Maybe for 
having the most visitors. Maybe for 
havine tlie best HAM and NONHAM 
infonnation to pass out, verbally and 
on paper. Maybe for the most exciting 
booth for **NONHAMS" ... let's not 
forget them. Maybe for being espe- 
cially helpful to youngsters. The prize 
miubl be a free booth the following 
year, or a discount, or an award plaque. 

A comment here for flea marketers! 
A little soap and water, a wiping or 
dusting rag, and a little elbow grease 

please! Clean equipment ALWAYS 
sells better and for more money. 

Ladies' programs seem to be forgot- 
ten lately. We found out many years 
ago that more OMs would show up at 
hamfests if the YLs had somethina to 
do or see. Hundreds of YLs would 
show up for the Tupperware, Avon, 
etc., seminars and demos. How many 
of you have stayed at home on a 
hcUTifest weekend because the YL 
wanted to be with you and had no inter- 
est in the hamfest? A ladies' program 
might make the difference. 

How' about an incentive to any ham 
bringing a lionham/' getting a free ad- 
mission for his friend. 'Miile hams are 
not cheap, hi hi, they might bring in 
more guests, for the right incentive. 
This could work towards doubling the 
attendance to the show and exposing a 
lol of new folks to the hobby. 

How about a buffet dinner and open 
bar for the first hour on Saturdav nis^ht, 
for the vendors and committee only? 
An excellent way to get to know the 
vendors and their tikes and dislikes. 
Then, after the first hour, open the 
party to everyone on a cash basis. The 
profits from the general crowd will 
help defray the costs for the free party. 
The general crowd will be able to 
mingle and talk to the vend(jrs in a 
more relaxed atmosphere and environ- 
ment. Be prepared to hear comments 
from some of the vendors about being 

tired after traveling, maybe all night or 
all day, and then setting up their booths 
and standing all dav Iojili, and be un- 
derstanding. Think about questions that 
may be asked and have the answ^ers in 

Every hamfest needs to have an in- 
teractive Elmer booth. You should 
have at least one demo going on at all 
hours of ihe show. It can be anything 
from kit building, APRS demo, build- 
ing an antenna, ATV demo, to filling 
out a QSL card. Get members of the 
dub tt> help who have favorite special- 
ties. Not only newcomers, but other 
members of the club can Icam from 
this booth. 

Vendors sometimes attend with a 
minimum size crew and if business is 
good, it might be difficult for them to 
get away for coffee, doughnuts, lunch, 
potty breaks, etc. Some years ago I 
suggested using Boy Scouts, Girl 
Scouts, CAP cadets, etc, as help for 
the xendors, to watch the booth for a 
few minutes, run for coffee, get a sand- 
wich, etc. If your event is in a faciHiy 
that wants no outside food or drinks 
brought in, use this to vour advantage. 
Ask them to provide this service for 
you. They make a little extra money, 
and you are not burdened with this 
detail. You might even be able to 
strike a good deal with them for cater- 
ing your Saturday night budel. Caution 
the young volunteers not to interfere 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 37 

with the vendors' activities and to only 
respond u> requests for assistance. 

If you have access to a large elec- 
tronic billboard next to a major ex- 
pre!>sway. advertise ihe eseivi a month 
or two beforehand. Have a radio per- 
sonality plug your hamtesl. Allow the 
radio station to set up a booth at the 
hamfest al no cost to the club. Many 
amateur radio clubs have members 
who are in these various fields who 
can be called upon to help. Arm your 
pu hi icily committee with enough good 
PR inlorrnalion to make it easy for 
these folks to provide you with the 
publicity. Publicise the public service 
ynur club provides in your advertising. 

Make sure yonr event is well adver- 
tised ill the ham magazines and other 
ham publications. Get listed in the 
'^Events Calendar. " Drop oit flyers at 
your local Radio Shack and eleclrnnics 
parts stores, but make sure you ask 
permission first Use your Web site to 
advertise the event, and be sure your 
Web site is updated and carries no in- 
formation that would detract fiom the 
positive image of a viable club. 

Be sure your club members who at- 
tend other hamfests are we!! supplied 
with your llyers to make them avail- 
able at I hose hamfests. 

One of the toughest problems that 
especially new, stari-np hamfests are 
faced with is picking a date and ex- 
plaining to thousands of people why 
your date conflicts with another 
hamfest or event. In many areas you 
can find a hamfest within an hour or 
two drive EVERY weekend through- 
out the summer and sometimes into 
the wintertime. Here's w^hat to do. If 
you want your event lo take place in 
July and you know of a good site, a 
fairground, a coUseum, a convention 
center, etc., send a committee to check 
out the prices and availability of space 
for July, ir you find out that the best 
time for your event is already taken, 
use it to your advantage. See ilyou can 
join forces with them and hold both 
event.s ut the same time at the same 
location. If the hobbies are compat- 
ible, this is an excellent way to intro- 
duce a whole new group of one hobby to 
the other You might even join forces 
with another ham club. By doing so* 

38 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

you effectively double your available 
workforce. One BIG plus to this is that 
now you may have THE NUMBERS, 
that major vendors and magazine pub- 
lishers look at to attract them to your 

A trap that new start-up hamfests 
should not fall into is for eager people 
that want to start aiunher Dayton. Most 
of the time they lack the experience 
and or background to do it RIGHT. A 
NATIONAL convention held some 25 
years ago. involved a club that had not 
run a national cunvcjition for more 
than 5 years. Many of the older mem- 
bers who were involved in the prior 
event were not available. The remain- 
ing veiT-we II -meaning and eager 
members who decided to "PUT ON 
THE SHOW^^ had little or no CUR- 
RENT experience. But even so, some- 
times things that worked 5 to 10 years 
before simply don't tly today, although 
experience is a GREAT teacher. Mak- 
ing the hours longer is not attractive to 
exhibitors. Especially on hard floors. 
So place carpets In booths even if they 
are a gaudy color. Exhibitors will ap- 
preciate it. These carpel pads are avail- 
able from local carpel stores, which 
will often give them away. These pads 
will also make nice pads to put between 
items so they don't get scratched in tran- 
sit. You might want lo provide several 
for yourself and other people manning 
the booth. 

Now here is something that should 
interest all of you: making mot^ money 
for the club and cutting down on the fi- 
nancial exposure. Start by planning the 
purchase of the major door prizes. Pick 
a dollar amount you think is reasonable. 
Bu) ilie prizes or make a conmiitmeni 
to buy them. Put the w^ord out as to 
what you arc going to be giving away 
at your event and be sure everjahing 
goes as planned 

Maybe you had a gi^ioi WoM out at 
last year's hamfest and you expect the 
same or better tills year. But MLTIPHY 
strikes. It rains, it snows, or you have 
60 mph winds forecast or it's 110 de- 
grees in the shade. Less than one half 
of the last year's attendance shows up. 
You have spent or committed your 
"wad" on the door prizes. You don't 
take Ln enough money lo pay some of 

die other expenses you cx:curred. Where 
do we go from here? 

How about if the committee had de- 
cided lo commit to only "one" major 
door prize. Or if the club states in their 
flyers that a certain percentage ot the 
gate receipts w^ill be spent on dour 
prizes. The flyer can even slate that the 
more attendees who show up, the more 
door prizes Uiere will be. By doing ihis, 
you have held your up-front exposure 
and expenses to a minimum. II you have 
a good accounting system in place, 
you know what advance monies have 
come in and how much is cnmniitlcd. 

Now comes a good part! You notify 
all your prospective vendors that all 
door prizes will be purchased from 
vendors Uiat attend your event and tliat 
special mention will be made for that 
vendor One hamfest that I know of in 
the West keeps an hourly account of 
the gale receipts as they come in. They 
take the agreed percentage of the gate 
around the floor and continue to buy 
from as many of the attending v endors 
as possible after getting some feed- 
back as to what items might make the 
best door prizes. The first year they did 
this they spent more than twice the 
amount they spent the year be lore on 
dotir prizes, and had a lot more money 
[ell for the club also. Remember, you 
arc only spending a percentage of Ihe 
gate receipts. 

This only scratches the surface of a 
very complex issue, I hope that 1 have 
given you food for thought and caused 
you lo rethink some of the things you 
may be doing now. All of these ideas 
mav not work all of the time. Ideas 
that did work years ago in one area 
may not work there again, but might 
work in another area or al another 

This is a collection of thoughts and 
ideas and experiences that I have been 
exposed to over many years. Giving 
credit to all of the people who have 
added thoughts and ideas for this ar- 
ticle over the years would be impos- 
sible. But thanks very much for your 
input and thoughts over those many 
years. If anyone reading this gets just 
one good idea or constructive thought 
to use* this effort will have been more 
than worthwhile. 

Chlendrr euents 

Listings af'^-Xfi^ff pf charge ^s space permits. Please send us your Caiendar Event two months in 
advance of the issue you wa.nt it to appear in. For example, if you want it to appear in tlie 
March issue, we sliould receive it by December 31. Provide a clear, concise summary of the 
essential details about your Caiendar Event 

JAN 11 

GREENWOOD, SC The Greenwood ARS 
2003 Hamfest wiiJ be held at Greenwood Civic 

Center, January 11th, 2003, Contact W4JAK, 
President, GARS, 106 Dorchester Dr., 
Greenwood SC 29646, for further information. 

JAN 26 

Hamfest will be held at New Towne Mall, 400 
Mill Ave. SE. New Philadelphia OH. Sunday, 
January 26th 8 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Setup is at 6 
a,m. Admission is a S4 donation al the door, 
dealers admitted at no charge. Tables S11 
each. Food will be available on site and starting 

at 7 a.m. at the restaurant next door. 
Directions: Exit 81 off 1-77 to SR 250 East to 
SR 416 Exit, At end of ramp, turn left at light 
(under SR 250 bridge), then turn right at the 

firs! light. New Towne Malf is on the left. Talk- 
in on 146.730{-). Free parking available at 
the mall. Dealers welcome. ARRL/VEC 
sponsored exams by appointment. For 
additional info and to reserve tables, contact 
Gary Greer} KB6WFN, 32210 Norris fld, 
Tippecanoe OH 44699. Phone 740-922- 
4454: or E-mail []. 
Reservations must be paid in advance and 
received by January 20th to insure the return 
of reservation confirmation. Remember to 
enclose an SASE. Make checks payable to 
Tusco Amateur Radio Club. 


DEC 14, 15 

WICHITA, KS Special Event Station W0SOE 

will be on the air from the Kansas Aviation 
iVIuseum in Wichita KS from 13:00Z December 
14th to 23:O0Z December 15th, to celebrate 
the 70th birthday of WARC, and the official 
opening of the Club station in the old municipal 
airport building- Listen on or near the 
frequencies of 7,270, 14.270, 21.370 and 
28.320 IVIHz, A certificate will be available for 
confirmed contacts. Send an SASE to Bob 
N4BM, 12135 W. Lynndale, Wichita KS 67235. 
For more details, visit the club Web site at 
[http://www, ware 1 , org]. 

Neuer shv die 

continued from page 8 

lived entirely separately and cooperated 
to close down any Fijian who dared to 
start a competitive business. In otlier 
countries it was the Chinese who w^ere 
hated . . . for the same reason. 

The situation in Germany in the 1930s 
was similar J with the Jews protecting 
each other in business in the same way. 
This made it easy for Hitler to use the 
German hatred of the Jews as a way to 
build his power. 

When I was young any major Ameri- 
can business wouldn't consider hiring a 
Catholic or a Jew. Jusi as most liotels 
were closed to blacks until fairly re- 
cently, many of the hotels in the 1930s 
were ''restricted." That meant no Jews 

I remember when I started tiiy first 
business in 1951 to make loudspeaker 
enciosures. The office was a desk in my 
bedroom in my folks' house in Brooklyn 
and my first employee was Jordan Polly 
K2AZL. My father was aghast. He's ... 
he*s ... he's a Jew! 

In the past immigrating groups at first 
kept together in enclaves, but by the sec- 
ond generation the integration of the 
Irish, Italians, Germans, Poles, and other 
Europeans had toirned most immigrant 
families into Americans. 

The color difference has made black- 
white integration much more difficult. 

Ditto the brown-white integration. But, 
maybe a few more generations will solve 
most of our ethnic conflicts. 

When I was in college sixty years ago. 
w^e had a few Hispanics, onG^ black, and a 
few Jews. The Jews had their own frater- 
nity and didn't mix with the rest of the 
students. The black was in several of my 
classes and it never occurred to any of us 
to think of hitii as anything but just an- 
other student. The Hispanics didn't keep 
separate either. I remember often bring- 
ins a classmate from Bolivia to my 
ham station .so he could talk with his 
family in Cochabamba via CP5EA (I 
still remember the ham's call). 

The more ethnic groups stick together 
and avoid speaking English, the longer 
integration is going to lake. The longer 
ihey hold onto being Mexican- Ameri- 
cans instead of Americans, the more 
probletns they're going to have enjoying 
the benefits of being American. 

The blacks have done it to themselves 
by insisting on being African-Americans 
instead of Americans. Note that 'Afri- 
can'' comes first. Yet I doubt that you'll 
be able to find any American blacks with 
the slightest interest in living in any of 
the African countries. Fve only visited 
ten African countries so far, but I sure 
wouldn't want to have to live in any of 

When an Irish-American man mames 
an Italian- American woman, arc their 
children Irish-Italian- Americans? No. 
they ' re Americans . Period . 

Hnrnij so how about the Chinese? I 
haven't seen any sign of them making 
any effort to integrate. Our local Chinese 
restaurant has been run by a different 
Chinese family every couple of years, 
with none of them making any effort to 
learn English except the waiter ... and 
then just enough to deal with customers. 
What master organization is setting up 
these thousands of Chinese restaurants? 
Where are they getting the families to 
run them? Who suddenly moves one 
family out and another in overnit^ht? Are 
we being infiltrated with ''sleepers" in 
preparation for an eventual war with 
China? Every little town in New Hamp- 
shire has one or two Chinese resiaurants. 
Is it the same where you live? 

Our Schools 

Have you ever wondered why our 
public school system is so bad, and why 
it's getting worse? As usual, just follow 
die money. 

The teacher unions, which have well- 
heeled lobbyists in Washington and in 
every state capital, have a huge vested 
interest in tilings not changing (except for 
the government spending more money), 
and they're willing to spend whatever it 
takes to make sure nothing really ch binges. 

Then there's the government. It's 
run by three groups — Congress, the 

Continued on page 57 
73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 39 

Rboue & Bevond 

VHF and Above Operation 

C.L. Houghton WB6IGP 

San Diego Microwave Group 

6345 Badger Lake Ave. 

San Diego CA32tt9 


[dhough @ pacbeli .net 

Microwave Frequency Meters 

Frequency meters and Chrisimas time, f hope you have a counter in your Christmas stocking 
this year. If you donX here are some of my suggestions for your next Christmas wish list. 

A]] of the mentioned fnequencycoymers 
I currenilv have or have used on niv 
workbeiicK. Hope yuu loo can locate one of 
these fine frequency counters in surplus at 
a reasonable cosi for vour workbench. 

Just the mention of the frequency counter 
topic brings mctnories of my fii^t frequency 
meter for which I barely remember the pari 
number If I remember correct I v, ii was an 
HP-523 mainiranic aboul one half the size 
of a bale of hay and accepting a plug-in to 
extend its mainframe frequency range from 
10 MH/ to tJie ouirageoub upper frequency 
of 500 Mm. 

Ii weighed a ton. seemed like maybe 50 

to 75 pounds as I remember, I could check 
carefully after a Z-hour wann-up (great on 
a cold night from all the tubes in^^tde) and 
measure m\ --niciei en sul-cimirolied HT. 
All 2 channels narrow band FM. To this day 
1 don'i remember if ihe HP-523 relays or 
tlie b]ovver fan produced more noise, bui it 
was a great shack warmer This was in the 
late '60s to early *70s, I should have kepi 
that frequency counter, as it would be a great 
museum piece now. 

Today if we can't measure our microwave 
10 GH? frequency hopefully to less than 

Phoio A. HP- 5 MO compunng counter: basic 3o0 MHz mainframe and good to 18 GHz 
with associated plugs. Can tise the same plug-ins as the HP- 5245 counter hut requires an 
HP105S6A to adapt the physically smaller 5245 plug-ins to the larger HP-5S60 main- 
frame^ This IIP-5J60 counter is shown berween an old Drake R7 monitor receiver and a 
60 kHz VLF tracking receiver for time and frequency accuracy comparisons to \\^W\^B at 
60kHz^ This frequency counier is capable of reading accuracy of a few millihertz. Shown 
in picture is 10 MHz measurement to 9 decimal points or 9 MHz accuracy. 

40 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

I kHz accuracy, il's not doine well at all 

(from a mierowaver point of view). With- 
out knowing where we are located as to our 
operational frequency on microwave, it 
would be disastrous. I would compare op- 
erations to tr\ ing to fish in murkv waters 
where you have no clue where the fish arc 
and just hope one swims by for the ban. At 
least when you know where you are tuned 
to for operations as to frequency, it elimi- 
nates one wobble in the cos on your wagon. 
In Photo A the VLF receiver located below 
the HP5360 counter was used to keep (he 
main counter time base reference accurate 
comparing it to WWWB on 60 kHz, Now I 
use aTrinible GPS receiver tracking 10 sal- 
el litcs and making frequency reference mea- 
surenients to parts in ten to the twellili to 
ensure frequency meter accuracy. But that 
is another story for another column. 

Other wobbles to minimize for good suc- 
cess at microwave operations are system 
sensitivity, transmitter power output, good 
SWR match to the antenna, proper point- 
ing of the antenna system, liaison talk chan- 
nels, and plain old good propagation for 
contacts. AIL necessarv^ objectives, but if you 
cannot verify frequency, you're swatting at 
tlies in a dark room blindfolded 

There are many variatioiisof c^ouniers and 
different attributes to choose fa>m in both 
swap meets and auctions like eBay. The nice 
thing about frequency counters is that they 
are such a prolific device, used in almost 
every commercial shop, making them about 
as plentiful as the Pentax camera mount 
!ens. To a very large extent they are avail- 
able in surplus in great quantity. The 
counters 1 am to describe are not the only 
ones available but rather what I have been 
able to find and have on mv workbench. 

In my shack on the workbench 1 have 
the old v^ orkhorse HP-5245, whose main- 
frame is good to 50 MH? and frequency 

is exianded to 18 GHz with appropriate 
plug-ins. The time base is not bad bul I rate 

ii fair, accurate to about I pari in 10 to tlie 
6th or 7th over a short mn. Not bad for a 
\\urkhorse and an inexpensive counter ibai\ 
quite available. 

With the time base runntivg off a station 
master frequency 1 MHz clock (AN URQ- 
H)A), the time base clock is less than 
I {} millihertz, improving accuracy due to 
external frequency reference. Plug- ins thai 
are available are the S257-A, which acts as 
a transfer oscillator and converts input RF 
to 50 MHz mainframe from any frequency 
in the 50 MHz to 1 8 GH? input range. There 
are other HP i Hewlett Packard) plug-ins 
available that \^nll function from 150 MH?: 
to 3 GHz (5254C), and the 5255A plug-in 
from 3 to 12.4 GHz. Still a very handy 
counter selling for S5 to S40 at swap meets» 
with the frequency counter plug-ins for 
slightly more. Have seen the 5256A, an 
8 GHz Lo 1 8 GHz PIU, go for $65 each, 
working of course. 

An update of ihe HP-5245 is the HP- 
5248L. which is good to 150 MHz directly 
and has a better time base oscillator than its 
brother the HP-5245. Externally, it looks 
identical to the HP-5245; you ha\e to read 
the counter label to know the diflTerence. 
Both counters accept the same brand of 
plug-ins. The 5248 counter is a little harder 
to find on the surplus market but still some- 
what available, selling for S40 to $75 for 
the mainframe counter — sometimes with 
an orphaned plug-in unit. 

Getting into specialty counters are the 
HP-5360-A computing counter which has 
three inpui ports, DC to 1 MHz, 1 kHz to 
300 MHz. and a plug-in of your choice, us- 
ing the same plug-ins as the HP-5245 
counter. To do so requires a plug-in drawer 
adapter HP-10536A. The 5245 PIUs are 
smaller than the opening on the 5360 so the 
adapter unit must be used or else use the 
very expensive 5345 plug-in units. Another 
pricey counter Similar bul not exact. The 
5345 will function to 18 GHz as the 5360, 
but the difference is that the 5360-A will do 
Boolean algebra using all three of its RF 
inpiii pi>rts. It uses all ihree ports to calcu- 
late exact frequencies, sampling IF strips, 
local oscillators and such, and RF conver- 
sion LOs all at the same time, and almost 
tell you which one is off frequency, and how 
lo reset it* The 5360A is also a very fast 
counter and can do period sampling at RF. 
One tlick of the quickest tlnger on the VTT 
switch, be it 2 meters or 1 296, and ii counts 
it 10 a hertz if asked to perform, tt's a speed- 
ster. Ti me base just as gtxid as my URQ- 1 OA, 
which is under 10 millihertz accuracy at 


clock frequency and very stable for long 
periods of lime, Surplus cost in the SI 00 
to S200 range or more when working and 
S40 when broken, miiinly because it has 
a hand wrapped motherboard, a real TTL 
giant to trouble shoot. A giga bunch of 
ICs* if not a thousand. I would pick up a 
dead HP-5360 just for the master time 
base oscillator to use as a great reference. 
Then comes in surplus the HP-5328A 
counter good lo 500 MHz, very good for 
low frequency work and I believe not too 
long removed from HP catalogs as a sale 
item. It's capable of period and frequency 
measurements to 1 part in 10 to the 8th 
and reasonably fast in operation. Cost on 
the surplus market is about S75 to $100, 
depending on condition and ihe gleam in 
the buyer's eye. 

Now comes some real special toys — the 
EIP-451 microwave counter, which is an 
autohci counter from 300 MHz to 1 S GHz. 
Autohet means no tuning, just plug and play, 
insert the frequency under test at prot>cr 
level and there is your frequency displayed 
accurately to 10 kHz intervals, lis sensitiv- 
ity frequency is from -10 to +10 dBm for 
input power It's a very versatile fast 
counter, small profile, ihree inches high, 
19-inch rack mount. Two inputs, 300 MHz 
!o 950 MHz and 900 MHz to 1 8 GHz direct 
reading. Will not read down to a hertz but 
will tell you to 1 kHz accuracy points, Vciy 
good for quick bench confirmation work at 
microwave. Cost surplus $ 1 50 and up, again 
depending on the gleam in the buyer's eye. 
Photo B. 

Ttie companion counter in the Hewlett 
Packard arsenal is the HP'5340. Tliis is a 
very nice top-of-the-line counter thai is also 
autohet from DC to 1 8 GHz. It has a very 
accurate time base and is sensitive to about 
minus 20 to near 30 dB on RF to 18 GHz. 
Will read frequency to I hertz accuracy or 
slightly belter if you want. Surplus cost is 
in the $200 to $300 each range, although I 
have heard of some going for SI 00 at swap 
meets in the [.os Angeles area, Don*t know 
if working or not ai thai low price. 

1 have not had much experience with this 
5340 HP counter as I have just acquired ihis 
unit lo add it to the workbench test setup. It 
has been a unit I have looked forward to 
adding to the bench for some time. Is this a 
counter for all time (well. 1 hope), so it's 
the best unit I have been able to obiain for 
my microwave work on a meager budget. 
In the short time I have been using this 
counter I have been very impressed with 
its speed, accuracy, and great low level 
sensitivity for measurements. Very im- 
pressed with this frequency counter. The 

good deals on 
what you want 

• Keeping the FUN in Ham Radto 
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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 41 

only i 111 pro vemeiu would be if it coulilfeaci 
frequency higher than 18 GHz to include 
our 24 GHz mnaleur band endeavors, 

I have no plans to get rid of any of the 
previou.slj mentioned couiners, us lhe> all 
serve a specific use on the woricbcnch. The 
5245 requires u plug-in ihat will give accu- 
rate readings irum 3 to 1 2,4 GHz and is used 
for final LO adjusimenl of frequency 
sources. With the use of a plug-in, it is 
accurate bui requires setUng the Tmal fre- 
quency to be read to within 50 MHz hash 
martis on the plug -in dial to obtain results, 
It is ptissible lo be upside down in 50 MHz 
dctcriiiinalion as it will be translated off 
frequency if you are nol carelul to read a 
higher 50 MHz increment. 

For example, reading a frequency of 
3456 MHz, it is possible to set die 50 MHz 
diid to 3450 and read 6 MHz on the main- 
frame counter. If going to the next higher 
50 MHz increment of 350(K the counter will 
read upside down or 44 MHz, the inverse 
of 50 MHz -6 MHz. You just have to be 
careful and make sure you arc using tlic low 
side frequency not the high side product of 
this plug'in unit. Come up in frequency 
fiT^m the low frequency end of the plug-in 
expected frequency and you should ha\ e no 
tixiuble finding die proper frequency. This 

little trick will eliminate your being iricl 
into using a high side mix product. 

Same results for the computing counter 
( w hen using HP plug-in units) the HP-5360 
will read correctly up to 300 MHz as it uses 
the mainframe basic counter and not the 
plug-in. I use ihc computing counter for 
making high accuracy frequency measure- 
ments, as I tmsi it !o be accurate to less than 
1 mi Hi hertz. That's reading a 10 MHz fre- 
quency and displaying the frequency to read 
10.006,000,009 MHz accurately with sam- 
pling (clocking) going on every 100 milli- 
seconds (tendis of a second). This connter 
is fasU accurate, imd still working, Consid- 
ering its age of 15 tn 20 years, Qiis is very 
remarkable for the quiility HP put into these 

t have 3 other 5360s that don't work due 
Ui troubles and old a^ic. Kerrv N6IZW and 
1 have been using these hangar queens to 
maintain the working counters we have. 1 
will be very unhappy when I lose the last 
working 5360 1 have: il hits been a pleasure 
lo use it to sample TCXOs for proper op- 
eration to a very fine resolution in frequency 
quickly. The HP-5328A is the backup 
counter for this operation. Tl w ill display a 
10 MHz frequency to 7 decimal places, I 
guess I am somewhat crazy in that if one is 

Photo B. ElP-451 mainframe has two fiequency iupim. Input #A MKI lo 950 MH:. ami 
iaput ^2, 900 MHz to JS GHz. The coitnier displays frequency in attiolwi fashion in 10 
kHz steps fines! resolution. The EfP counter is locked in on my workfjench perched just 
below my HP'H620 sweeper fluu has simitar capabilities as ilw EfP counter. !wo lo eigh- 
teen GHz operations. Just above the ElP-45! is my new HP-5340 frequency counter, also 
autohet, with higher minimum input sensitivity, greater than anything f have had before. 
Input umsitiiiiy is about tninus SO dB input and good from I MHz to IS GHz. A real find 
and sotnethmg every microwave enthusiast should have on their Christinas list. 
42 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

gdod, a backup is essential, at least if you 
don*t want to be stuck with repairing equip- 
ment part of the dme. Also it*s not a bad 
idea for you to collect broken instruments 
inexpensively for a source of parts to keep 
your good stuff running and a source for 
knobs and source for specialized pans 
particular to the unit you are using. We 
have come to call these pari^ devices "Han- 
gar Queens/' giving us the :ibiliiy of pans 
robbing on a defunct unit, 

I broke several knobs on my 8620 HP 
sweeper mainframe over years of usl\ and 
HP wanted over $35 per knob. 1 was able lo 
purchase a defunct HP-S620A broken but 
with a good set of knobs for $25. 1 did not 
even turn it on to see if il worked as all I 
warned was the set of knobs. On a lark I 
(ircd the new junker up with my plug in- 
scrLed and it worked belter than my main- 
frame. I deposited my old muinrrame in ihe 
working- hut-spare hangar queen deposiiory. 
Yes, you must have some space to store all 
this stuff, hut then it's onlv a hobbv and the 
Stuff is not stored under the couch in the 
living room. Got lo keep some of these 
ihings in perspective. Anybody need Si)me 
HP plug-ins? I have too many in storage for 
200 to 3 GHz and 8 to 18 GHz — whai was 
1 thinking at (hose swap meets? 1 guess that 
if one is sood then two or three are even 

As to the EIP-45K it's a quick counter to 
verify ihings are functioning as well as ex- 
pected, and il is die workbench quick an- 
swer lu many rrequency-relalcd questions. 
It has limitations, as do all things — one 
being in that it will not read below 300 MHz 
at alk and resolution is onlv iiood lo 10 kHz 
steps. If thai is a problem then it's not a 
counter for you. I personally love it and 
hiuhlv recommend il. 

If reading below 300 MHz is a problem, 
gel a plastic handheld counter like the 
Digimax or many other handheld counters, 
I have two of them, one that functions lo 
500 MHz and another that reads to 1 .2 GHz. 
Keeping charged batteries in these units has 
become a problem and they're not used very 
often; howeven they're sdll on the work- 
bench and work when the batteries are on 
speaking temis \\ iih me. If this is not suit- 
able, then save up and find an HP5340. It 
will be accurate, fast, and reads from DC lo 
1 8 GHz. All you have to do is nnt purchase 
I hat new HT you have been ogling and gt> 
to swap meets and find a 5340 in working 
order, then join in on the fun with a top- line 
counter for amateur microwave work. 

Well, that's all the damage I can cause 

Continued on page 56 

On the Go 

Mobile, Portable and Emergency Operation 

Steve Nowak KE8YN/7 

804 Bonanza Trail 

Cheyenne WY 82009 

IKE8 YN ©netzero.neij 

Dear Santa, 

Wiihoui making any claims about how 
*:uod I have or have not been, Tm 
sending you my Christmas list. I don't watil 
to sound greedy, bui the list is a bit longer 
than normal this year. You have always 
seemed preiiy creative, and this year you 
may have to issue extra thinking caps for 
die ekes. Unfortunately, many oi^ ihe items 
on my list have not been invented yel. 

Formy emeigency support work, V II need 
a few things. Usually I ask you (or exira 
baliery packs for the HT. This yean how 
about a baiterv' system thai uses intcrchaniie- 
able batteries like ihe baner\ packs that can 
be used in electric drills and other power 
tools'? Different radios would have adapt- 
ers to allow the appropriate number of these 
interchangeable batteries to be used. You 
could even use different numbers of cells 
for high power or iow^ power transmitter 
outputs. They could be used for everything 
from handie-taikies to emergency lights fn 
laptops. In fact, in the event of an emergency 
I could pull the batteries from the power 
tools and put them with the ham gear 

With such a high importance on emer- 
gency ctnnmunicalions, a clear identity for 
amateur radio operators thai would be rec- 
ognized by Homeland Security and local 
public officials would be great. This could 
be used for everything from ID cards lo 
ideniif) ing vehicles used for support opera- 
tions. ARES and RACES cards are good if 
you want to be greeted w ith a blank siare, 
so coming up with something beiier 
shouldn't be too hard. Maybe Honiehmd 
Securit) cuuld provide cards that would 
identify hams as similar to the old Civil 
Defense volunteers. 

I'd also like a good all-band antenna that 
can be erected quickly. In fact, tor the high 
whtds in Wyoming, one that erected itself 
and CDiild be retracted in high wind would 
be perfect. Tm sure dial the folks along the 
Atlantic and GulT Coasts would appreciale 
such a device during hurricane season. Ide- 
ally it could be retracted into a position ihat 
did no! preseni a hazard to others. 

For portable operations, why noi send a 
selection of antennas. Tve always thought 
that hams should have an antenna bag 


comparable to a golf bag. ll would have 
small flexible antennas, mid-sized antennas 
and the big dogs. You could have an antenna 
bag for each radio, I caji almost hear a ham 
deciding which antenna to use. ^'Hmmm. 
This is adifriculi pt)siiinn. I guess Til have 
to use the 5/8 wave." 

Speaking of antennas, how about a nice 
mobile antenna that covers 10 meters and 
up Oiat can be driven into a commercial 
parking garage without hitting the o\'erhead 
obstructions? And while vou're at it, Fve 
been dreaming of a durable antenna mount 
that can be used on tixlay^s alloy and plas- 
tic cars. Something that doesn't use mag- 
nets, doesn't require djilling visible holes 
in the auto body and doesn't fear plastic 
bumpers. Maybe a double screwdriver an- 
tenna. Have one switch to tune the antenna 
and another to retract i[ before pulling into 
the low overhead parking deck. 

As you know^, Santa, 1 do a lot of my ham 
radio operating from Ihe car, so naturally I 
am as fnterested in what goes into the car 
as well as what goes on it. I\i really like lo 
take advantage of some of the technology 
that has become commonplace in ihe last 
few years. I like the detachable control 
heads that are becoming commonplace, but 
we need to go a step or two fun her. Ideally, 
a clear LCD display could be mounted on 
the top of the dashboard as a heads-up-dis- 
play. You could see the necessar>' informa- 
tion and vet not have it obstruct vour \1ew 
of the road. Add a few LEDs at the edge 
and YOU could even use it at night. 

If I can't have my heads-up-display, then 
can ihe control heads be made a little thin- 
ner or others ise designed so that they can 
be mounted by Velcro* lo the dashboard 
with no loss of functionality? There's got 
10 be some good way lo mount a radio in 
todav*s cars without a tot of hassle. Putdnc 
the main portion of the radio under the seal 
works well just a little more ingenuity for 
ihe controls would make it significantly 

1 can program one of my mobile radios 
by connecting it to my lajitop computer with 
a serial cable. What Fd like to do to trans- 
fer the same inibrmaiion using the infrared 

feature on my laptop or PDA, Imagine how 

handy it would be to keep the repeater fre- 
quencies for various cities stored in the 
pocket computer. Press the beam button and 
those would he transferred to the radio. 
Travel to a different city and you could 
reprogram your radio with no hassle. 

On a smaller scale, Vd really like a new 
handie-talkie case. The ideal case would be 
easily attached to the belt without having 
10 unbuckle the belL periiaps using a du- 
rable bell clip or a hea^^-duiy Velcro strap. 
It would be well padded and provide 
protection from rain. Finally, it would 
be designed so that the connection of ear- 
phones, microphones, etc., could occur 
within the case w ithout breaking the plugs 
or stressing the radio. It would be easy to 
remove the radio from the case or the radio 
and case together, but w ould never, ever fall 

Santa, there are several things Tve been 
wishing for, for many years, Td love a good 
reason to get into 1.2 GHz, There*s just 
some kind of cachet about that rrcqucncy, 
but 1 haven't been convinced to make the 
jump, yel- And anotiier thing, I haven" I seen 
a sigjiificant change in repeaters in 20 years. 
The same computer-generated voice has 
been heard IDing repealers from coast to 
coast since 1 first got my license. Maybe 
this year we could go digital or sometliing? 
fd really like to see something different — 
in fact anything different. Two meters used 
to be exciting, but now that we all have cell 
phones* iTs kind of losing ground. 

ATV has always fascinated me. but has 
been a bit costly. Can you leave me a book 
that tells me how to use low-cost compo- 
nenLs and softwat^ that would use my ex- 
isting 440 MHz equipment? Cameras that 
mount on lop of computers are relatively 
inexpensive. Could one of these be used? 

1 love APRS* and often run it frojn my 
car. Maybe you could leave a new APRS 
rig with a real video screen designed for 
mobile work under my Christmas tree. 1 like 
the features in mobile systems, but a screen 
display that is visible in a wide range of 

ConLinued on page 56 
73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 43 


Amateur Radio Via Satellites 

Andy MacAllister W5ACM 

14714 Knights Way Drive 

Houston TX 77083-5640 

In Pursuit of Mode A 

Just when you think AMSAT-OSCAR-J (AO-7) is permanently hung hi Mode B (70 cm up and 
two meters down), it waives up in Mode A (two meters up and 10 meters down). This was fine 
22 years ago when mosl satellite diasersliad excellent, or at least adequate 1 0-meter antennas, but 
it^s not the case anymore. Most Immsat enthusiasts liave gone on to VHF, UHF, and microwave 
antenna arrays. 

Since Pal Go wen G3rOR's discc*¥^ on 
June 20th of AO-7's rebirth, hundreds 
of hams around Lhe world have been moni- 
toring lelenielry and making contacts 

through this amazing satellite. The last time 
AO-7 was heard was in 198 L When ihc in- 
ternal batteries shorted out over 21 years 
ago, the satellite was given up for losL Now, 
with the batteries in an open-circuit mode, 
the satellite has been operational whenever 
the solar panels are illuminated. Don't give 
up on a pass if nothing is heard when the 
saielliie comes over the horizon. Many 
limes, especially during late evening passes, 
AO-7 may be in darkness, and nut yet trans- 
mitting. A significant pT^oblem is thai when 
AO-7 Hnally Lurns on when fully illumi- 
nated, it comes up iti a random fashion. Ii 
could he in Mode A, Mode B, ModL^ C 
(tow-power version of Mode B), or Mode 
D (recharge). The 70-cm beacon may also 
come on when the satellite is in Mode A or 
Mode D. 
Many ptiicntial operators are not set up 

for quality Mode A reception. While the 
RS saieliites from the USSR made use of 
10 meters for their downlink for manv 
modes, tlie signals were usually so strong 
that simple antennae would work, Di poles 
and whips did well for all except RS-15. 
which is very difficult to hear, even with a 
good yagi. AO-7 can be heard and worked 
with simple antennas, but tliere are better 

Mode A on AO-7 actually works as well 
?t% Mode B or Mode C, if you have the right 
receive antenna. The Mode A transponder 
is wider than the Mode B system, and it is 
less susceptible to overload and the subse- 
quent frequency shilling caused by strong 
uplink signals. There arc also fewer strange 
signals in the passband and less chance of 
the satellite receiver having problems dur- 
ing the course of a pass. Mode A can be a 
lot of fun if you arc ready for it. 

Mode A antennas 

More is belter The best 10-meter antenna 

for AO-7 reception would be a iliiiJli-ele- 
ment crossed yagi tuned to 29,450 MHz 
with a/imuth and elevation coniroL If you 
live where there are no deed restrictions, go 
for it. Build a six-element crossed yagi 
(three elements vertical and diree horimn- 
lal L "ict it for axial or circular polari/ation 
(right- or left-handed), and enjoy. You may 
also be able to make some rare RS-15 Mode 
A contacts. While you are at it take some 
pictures and send them to me! 

The next best AO-7 Mode A antenna is a 
vertically polarized Oiree-elemeni, 10-meter 
yagi mounted on your satellite-antenna 
boom. This assumes that your present sat- 
ellite antenna array includes at least a VHF 
two-meter hcam antenna and a 7()-cni beam 
of similar size. If you have sufficient clear- 
ance for such a 10-meter beam, and a rota- 
tor system that will take the additional toad, 
this arrangement will provide excellent re- 
sults. Although there will be some fades 
when the satellite's 1 0-meter antenna is out 
of phase with yours, signals will be good 

Photo A. The Texas Bugcatcher dipole adapter, 
44 73 AmatBur Radio Today • December 2002 

Photij B, The Pro-Ain DAK-AD dipole adapter. 

even at ihe horizon, TTiere are a number of lii^hlweishi commcr- 
cial lO-meier beams available, or you can build your own. It's not 
a significant project, but when you put it up, your neighbors will 
notice. Once again, lake pictures! 

Another yagi aJtemaiive is a horizontally polarized beam located 
fcjelow your hamsai antenna array. Mount the lO-meter beam just 
abuAe the azimuth rotator. Place the elevation rotator far enough 
above the 10-meter beam to allow the two-meter, 70-cm. and other 
sateliite antennas to rotate in elevation wiUiout hitting the I O-meter 
yagi. This will work an a tower where the a/innith rotator is m the 
upper lower section wilh a thrust bearing al ihe tower top Just bc- 
h)w the 10-meter yagi. Ii may also work wilh a sturdy azimuth 
rotator above the lower or lop of a pole, when the usual satellite 
array does not have serious wind loading chaniclerisiics. Although 
the 10-meter yagi can only track azimuth witli this system, it W'ill 
pruvide excellent reception ai the horizon and quite sufficient 
operation on high-eievalion passes. 

A good option wonh considering is a vertically poianzed dipole 
on the satellite-antenna boom. Like the vertically polarized yagi. it 
will need clearance for both azimuth and elevation rotation. If its 
presence does not invalidate deed restrictions and it fits, this ar- 
rangLTiiciii will provide excellent results lor most AO-7 passes. 
The driven element from an old 10-meter beam will work welK or 
you can design and build a decent dipole frnm aluminum tubing 
with direct or ganiQ:ia-match feeds. 

Another dipole option is a horizonially piilarized version. Like 
the horizontal ly-polariited yagi, the best mouniing arrangement is 
to place the dipole above the azimuth rotator, but below the eleva* 
lion swing of the VHF and UHF antennas in the original satellite- 
antenna array. If the dipole is mounted close to the VHFAJHF 
antennas, it can be placed in-line with the booms of the VHFAJHF 
antennas to allow them to swing past the dipole or in-line with the 
satellite-antenna array boom. The latter condition will require that 
the array never be allowed to closely approach 90 degrees, where 
it will hit the dipole, unless the dtpole can bo offset a few feci in 
front of the vertical mast. Both options have ihcir good and l>ad 
points. With the dipole in-line with the bootns of the VHF/UHF 
antennas, the dipole will no\ he oriented for quality reception. With 
the dipole in-line with the VHF/UHF array boom, the possibility 
for an inadvertent collision during overhead passes is dangerous. 
Low-end options are numerous. Hang a 1 0-meter dipole m the 
trees or use an existing outside 80-meter anienna. Connect to a 
longwire or use some other outside HF" antenna. Verticals or hori- 
zofical loops are also viable options. The worst-case situation is to 
use an atdc- or room-mounted antenna. If you have any computers 
in the house, anything in the attic or the radio room will pick up 
noise that can easily mask the downlink from AO-7. You may 
be able to log a contact or two, but it's not worth it. At least use 
something outside, and iu the clear. 

The compromise 

With multiple HF antennas in flie attic and a few outside. Mode 
A via AO-7 at W5ACM was marginaL The lO-meler attic dipole 
had good reception, but computer and LAN noise was bad. The 
outside SO-meter invened V was quiet, but didn't do well with the 
ever-changing position of AO-7 in the sky. 

My satellite antenna array includes yagis on 23 cm, 70 cm, and 
two meters. A semi-dish with downconverter for i3-cm reception 
is sandwiched between the 23-cm and 70-cm yagts. There is even 
a i 5-meter dipole under this array parallel to the yagi booms, ft 
was getting crowded, and deed-resiriction enforcement folks 
wouldnH appreciate any 10-meier beams. 



• L 

•J, . 




lie CB Antenna 



Fiberglass Wh 

Replacement for RadtoShack 
Single-Trucker Tunable 
' Fiberglass Mirror- Mount 
CB Antenna (#21-973) 

Tunable for best perfortmance 

Standard V*" 54 thread 

Photo C A Radio Shack nmahle whip CB antenna. 

My second choice was a vertical dipole between the 70-cm yagi 
and the IS-cm semi-dish/downconverter. There was space on die 
solid fiberglass boom, but a full-size dipole was nearly 16 feet 
long. A shorter version was still too long to clear the roof. I needed 
an antenna that was no more than ten feet in total length* 

Some prcliminQry Web searches turned up some possible loaded 
whips from Radio Shack and two adapter mounts for making a 
dipole using two mobile antennas with standard 3/8" x 24 threads. 
Sources for the dual-whip adapters included Pro- Am 's DAK (lug 

Photo />, Hemoving part of the coil from the HcuHo Shack whip 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 45 

!tl9 . 4 1 4 

a I 


13 SbJR 


OdEL MF J-259B 

Photo E, Before anr! after mmng the Radio Shack antennas for 
the dipole, 

connections) or DAK-AD {SO-239 connectar) and a similar unit 
from Lhe Texas Bugcatcher made I rum statniess steel using lug 
connectors for the coaxial cable. 1 also noted that the Pro- Am units 
were also available as rnJiihorse Antenna prixlucis. After purchas- 
ing the Texas Bugcatcher unit and the Pro- Am DAK-AD. I opted 
for the siaialess-slccl unit, hut discovered that the bolts were <mly 
long enough lo attach the unit to a IJ 25" bmiiti, and my llberglass 
boom was larger (L25" diameter). The Pro-Am unit came with 
two sets of mounting bolts. Neither the lung nor the short set was 
stainless, but at least I could gel the Texas Bugcatcher adapicr on 
the biHim with the long bulls, now permanently borrowed lYuni the 
Pro- Am unit. Til worry about the rust later. 

A tour uf the local Radio Shack store turned up what looked like 
the perfcei antennas for my new dipotc. Although T had a list of 
possible antennas gleaned from lhitp;//www,radioshackxoml, the 
''Mobile CB Antenna — Tunable Fiberglass \^^ip**' part mimher 21- 
974, appeared to l>e peri'eci, and ai a bit under S 15 each, a pair of these 
fourTooi-long. while. uiickerCB whips looked like the answer. 

Testing and adjusting 

Back at the bouse, the two CB antennas were screwed into the 
dipole adapter mounted on a ten-foot wooden pole, attached lo a 
short length i)f RO-58 coax und tested in ilie back yard. Resonance 
was found near 27 MHz using a MFJ~259B SWR analyzer The 
tuning slugs in the ends of the shrink-iube-covered llbcrglass an- 
tenna rods managed to move the resonant frequency <inly a few 
hundred kHz. I was hoping for more, but they arc only designed 
for the 1 1 -meter CB band. The tuning slugs were removed since 
they would be ol little use for the nearly 2.5 MH/ move to the lop 
of the iU- meter ham band, 

A slit was cut in the shrink tubing on both antennas to tuid the 
end of the wire used to make these top-loaded short whips. Pieces 
of wire were unwrapped and cut off in fn e-inch incremenLs. After 
removing 30'* of wire from bt>th whips, I had llnally reached the 
goal of resonance in the lop nf the ten-meter band. In fact, I had 
gone a bit past the desired target of 29.450 MHz — the center of 
AO-7's Mode .\ downlink. Another 1.5 inches of wire were un- 
wrapped from the end of each coil and turned out straight along the 
fiberglass rods. This brought the resonant point to 29.414 MHz, 
Close enough. The excess tlberglass was cut i>ff with a hacksaw, 
the shrink tubing trimmed, a liltle glue was added to keep lhe wires 

Continued on page 57 

Photn E A close-up view of the dual-whip, now dipole, amcuna 

46 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 

Photo G. The finished short i 0-meter dipole mounted hetween the 
70'Cm vagi and die 1 3 -cm .semi-disii/doivnconverten 

The Digitrl Port 

Jack Heller KB7N0 

P.O. Box 1792 

Carson City NV 89702 


Fun Time 

How about a little fun exercise today/ Well, mavbe some of us have a different definition of fun 
and games, but tliis appeared to be a challenge in tlie beginning and tire more I played with it, 
the more rewarding (FUN) it became. 

I am speaking of getting the macros mas- 
saged in OUQ glilie less-spoken-of pieces 
of ham software, TrueTTY, available at 
[,htiii], Of course, 
there is more to softwane than getting the 
macros to cooperate, but even the best pro- 
gram gives the feeling of a millstone when 
we lia\c to do evervLhin? manual l\. 

This is a really great package. Some of 
you have used it I am sure, but I hear ver> 
few on-the-air reports of its usage, though I 
have heard users give glowing testimonials 
once they use it for any length of time. I 
think the real problem is it is different and 
has a feeling of complexity. It is shareware, 
rather than freeware, hut the registraiinn is 
only $35 US. 

Here are just a few items worth mentinn 
aboui ihc program. I firsl got a copy ol ihis 
about two years ago and the improvements 
via revision have been coming in a steady 
stream. The author, Sergei UA90SV, puts 
forth a real effort to develop a good 
package by making additions as hams 
have requested. 

One of tlie llrsi things you notice when 
you download this program is the fact it is 
so compact. Here is a mukimode conrunu- 
nicalion package for RTTY, BPSK3L 
AMTOR, and packet thai is abiiut 3/4 of a 
megabyte total when zipped. That speaks 
well for painstaking programming. 

As the name suggests, the first thrust of 
the software is RTTY, and it is a whiz-bang, 
hard-to-beai program for tliat mode — very 
responsive and intuitive. The layout of the 
program display is not really foreign but 
departs from what we tend to think of as 
the '*nomi/' There is no waterfall Instead, 
you tunc with a very effective spectral dis- 
play, which is definiiive enough to give 
reports on signal quaUiy even for BPSK 
witliout an IMD readout. 

It won't be long after you begin the in- 
sialJation wlien you will hit the Help but- 
ton. There is a neat, concise bit of 
documeatation that 1 w anted to study a bit 
and so I printed it Almost a surprise, the 
entire file covers four pages and tells ev- 
erything you need to know except one little 
side trip click to the "macro- sequences" file 
that covers the codes you need to get your 
personal macros working. Short and to the 
point — I like diat 

Once you are past the setup portion of 
the instaUadon, which is fairly straightfor- 
ward as soundcard software goes, you will 
want to gel to the macros. The furnished 
macros are not ready to fly for your per- 
sonal contacts. If 1 recall, the audior of the 
program has his own into entered, and that 
has an advantage because it gives you a 
pattern to follow. I always welcome any 
hints the author leaves for me. 

After a few years of using many digital 
soundcard prograrns I have devised a pat- 
tern that I follow. "^\)u win notice from the 
screenshot that the macro buttons are la- 
beled, which helps me recall the pattern that 
slides easily from the little gray cells. That 
labeling technique I discovered almost by 
accident in this software. 1 had the edit dis- 
play on the monitor and clicked on the "Fl" 
designator box and the cursor "stuck" there, 
which meant I could edit ii. That promptly 
became "CQ" instead of Fl and I was in 
the renaming business. Later as I was 
reading the instructions, I found a sen- 
tence that 1 had breezed over earlier that 
said I could do just that little operation. 
If alt else fails .,. 

You will learn quickly why writing these 
macros differs from most of the ^'plahi lan- 
guage" macros. It is necessary to grasp the 
use of the various symbols and codes to 
make each macro work as you desire. The 

nice thing is thai you can tesi these macros 
wiUi die rig off. You can waich tlie whole 
process, including ''transmit", *'callsign'\ 
"line feed'\ and "receive'' each lime you 
make a change. As I mentioned earlier, 
this started as a challenge, then became a 
rew^arding exercise. 

You will notice in the sdeensbot there 
are two rows of macro buttons. I am get- 
ling to the point that I think I must have 
more than 10 or 12 macros. TrueTTY al* 
lows 36 macros. When you go down the 
Setup pu It-down to View you will find the 
choice to display I, 2, or 3 rows of macro 
bullons. They will work even if they are not 
displayed hut that is a bit taxing on the gray 
cells- The second row requires use of the 
Ctrl key^ or of course you can click any of 

After getting all the aforementioned 
ducks in a row, I just had to make a few 
contacts. This is die last part of September 
when this is l>eing written and the bands are 
beginning lo sparkle with some DX and 
fairly good paths for closer range rag 
chewing. One of the first contacts was 
with a station in Poland on RTTY That 
was a pleasant start. 

As I recall, the next was a stateside con- 
tact on PSK3I. That went well enough, I 
could see this was going to t>e a success, so 
it was lime to finish sett ins mv act together 
and make provision for logging. Quite a few 
of you folks are insistent about my keeping 
records and sending you cards from Nevada, 
and I expedtnent a lot with log programs. 

On the UYueTTY Web site (DXSofl) you 
will also find a truly excellent log pro- 
gram named AALog that is written by 
Alexander RZ4AG. especially to interface 
with TrueTTY. So 1 set about gelling that 

Continued on page 50 

73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 47 

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4fi 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 


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AOR USA has released the new TV-5000 Video Converter, 
an accessory that adds die ability to monitor NTSC video when 
using wide range receivers (such as thei\R50(X)or AR5000+3) 
thai have wide-bandwidth 10.7 MHz IF outputs. 

**The TV-5()00 allows the user to monitor conventional 
NTSC broadcast transmissions but also adds the ability to 
ub^erve inieresiing video outside the tuning range of most 
broadcast reception units. One may be able to view video 
used by public safely agencies including video downlinks 
from aircraft. Amateur Radio fast-scan TV. news media 
feeds, NTSC wireless video monitors and more/' said 
Taknshi "Taka" Nakayama KW6I, Executive Vice President 
of A()R*s Norih American operations, "Video cameras are 
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The TV-5000 is compact, easy to connect, operates on 
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with line-level audio output. It connects to the lOJ MHz 
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two BNC connectors (cable is provided with the TV-5000). 
The opemtor then cuiuiecis ihe video and audio output pons to 
the inputs of a monitor, using shielded cables with RCA-lype 

The TV-5000 is literally "plug and play" in thai there are no 
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thai minor "fine tuning" of the receiver may be needed to op- 
timize video reception, once a video signal is located. Depend- 
ing on the observer's location and antenna system, it may be 
possible to observe video from satellites, in-car cameras, or 
any other of sevefal NTSC video sources. The TV-5000 could 
also be used to monitor cameras in a w ireless security system 
that uses NTSC video. "The TV-50()0 is yet another step for* 
ward in the art of monitoring." said Mr. Nakayama. "Users 
may he surprised at how much there is to see. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 49 

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^'contna;^ ij 34««m 1?«2ln Fnt:^- CO S BaBliet^ 1b 

H 1^* I X O^ 1 7 Hi*! 

■ — : — 'Tws-^mi^^^^m' -fc#*B-^ — ^ — -■ 

Fign L TmeTTY and AALog — Thh shot shows the TnicTTY in action with the AALog 
entry screen in the tower rii^ht. A small portion of the log proiinun is in the upper right. 
You see the spectral display at the top. Tlw receiver pa^sband is set at 400 Uz at this 
time. Even at 3 kH: the display window is not piled. Lots of room if yott have a really 
wide open passbund. The text panel just below is the reeeivt' screen. Below that is an ac- 
tive osciihgram displmin^ the decoded xignai Two rows of macro buttons are dis- 
played. Three are possible. (See texL) The four OSO info windows will gather info by 
double or single click (selectable) and that transfers directly to the entry screen. In (his 
case^ the col I sign was grabbed from (he receive panel, but the others were r\pt d in as the 
reception was not that good. (OtherMise it would be alt-caps in RTTY.) The horizontal 
line across the middle part of the spectral display is a guide of where the squelch is set 
compared to signal sttx'ngtlh You can adjust this to improve print. No guesswork here. 
Tire two programs work together without any flaw I detected. A package worth a htok if 
you (ike RTTY with a Utile PSK3I thrown ui and a great togging system. 

The Digithl Port 

continued Jrom page 47 

soflware in order As of this writing I have 
iiol regislered Ibe AALug so there are a few 
crippled functions, hul there are plenty of 
featuri^s operating to atlww me to impi.>n my 
current ADTF file and gel the program to 
record contacts made with TrueTTY. 

T was highly impre^ised as I saw how well 
the data was rccojclcd iji the new sofLware= 
A large hatch of data was imported al once 
and it was very guotL Then a week or so 
later 1 decided to sec h^m well an update 
would go from the same AD IF file, which 
had more QSOs added. The program popped 
up that there were some dupes but seemed 
to lake that tn stride and not insist on any 
action from me. The new QSOs uere simply 
added, end of task, ver) neat and tidy. 

Once all the data is tn place, you can 
chsdtLog Summary in ilic Tools pull-down 
and find a listing of most of the logging 
aclivilies you mighl c\ cr imagine a need for, 
as well as some you never thought about. 

50 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

The ottly missing column 1 noti^fl in the 
program was one for U,S. counties. The 
counties listed in mv ADFF file were not lost 
in space, they were simply relegated to the 
Notes file for the appropriate contact. If you 
are a county hunter this will not work for 
you. But that is the only real ^^fiaw," if you 
can call it such, ihat I detected in AALog. 

There is one other area not yet well ad- 
dressed in this little suite of programs, and 
thai is rig controU but Sergei is working 
on it. On the same Web site, you will find 
a small program called Ham port that is 
destined to talk to itie modem rigs, I down- 
loaded and installed it but found that mv' 
particular rig had been bypassed in the de- 
sign. There arc many others not listed in 
the Hamport setup and I am sure it is just a 
matter of time before this feature will be 
available as well 

Now that we had a working version of 
both the TrueTTY and AALog it was lime 
to get it all laid out on the monitor and put 
it to work. There are a lot of excel leni litilc 
features built into these programs, One is 

the ease to bring up a log entry window. 
Simply hit the ^Insert" on your keyboard^ 

when AALog is active, and the infonmauon 
will start transt^rrina from TrueTTY to the 
entr\^ display. 

You w ill have to make edits lo die eflliy 
according to how picky you are about fre- 
quency lisling and RST readings, but a 
number of obvious entries such as callsigii 
and name are automatic and there is one that 
is not obvious. You can set that "Odier'' field 
to grab QTH info and that will go directly 
to the entry panel. The options for the Other 
field are selectable from the Selup menu. 

Incidenially. >peaking of entries, I noticed 
a lack of certain rnodes listed in ^UU^og such 
as MFSK, HELL, and THROB to name a 
few. 1 found Uiere is a file in the I older con- 
taining the program where you may add any 
mode vou desire. 

When you get to operating this software 
in RITY you will discover a ver\' high level 
of vei:satility. You can select Shift in all die 
popular widths from 23 Hz to 1 000 Hz and 
baud rates from 45 to 12Q0, Flus^ 1 realized 
die shift will adjust to fit slight variations, 
so the copy is about as good as RITY gets. 

What I found exceptionally useful is the 
ease of Xmii-Rcv offset. I happened on a 
DX station specifying receive frequency a 
little over 2 kHz abo\'e his calling or transmit 
frequenc) . Tliis is very^ easily accomphshed 
with TrueTTY. Left click places you on the 
receive frequency and right click sets your 
transmit frequency wherever you select. 

This meant it was only necessary to check 
the olTsei frequency in the Status Line at 
the bottom of the display. A mental cal- 
culation showed I needed to separate the 
frequency readout in die two boxes by ap- 
proximately 2000 and I would be in die 
ballpark. With ihe bandpass filter wide open 
at 3 kHz. 1 wis able to ahematelv monitor 
the DX station and the linlc bumps 2 kHz 
up the band. No dials to change, just click 
and operate. Really slick. 

The above incident made me aware thai 
TrueTl Y has space in ihe display for ap- 
proximately a 5 kHz wide spectrum display. 
The average is usually 2.5 to 3 kHz and 
one other program displays 4 kHz. All this 
is of little value unless the rig has a pass- 
band width to match. I don*t kiiow^ of a 
rig that has, but it does stimulate the mind 
to possibilities. 

I didn^i mention the TrueTTY has 
AMTOR and Packet capabilities. A^^rOR 
in FEC mode, not linked TOR mode. I only 
checked to see that il would transmit and 
did noi attempt to find someone to make a 
contact with, but it would be interesting to 
work someone because Sergei has enhanced 
die AMTOR FEC as a selectable option. 

Also. I checked the packet capabilities by 
muiiiLoring a message board. It does receive 
well hut does not [lave transmit iupahiliiy. 
It is hard to imagine what the future holds 
for this program. The development goes on 
and the produci to this point is well ap- 
pointed and has enough differences that it 
is worili a look-see especially by those who 
enjoy a robust RTTY performen 

Ail in all the TrueTTY-AALog experi- 
ence is a fascinating one. After you work 
with the softw arc for a white you begin to 
realize why some hams who are dedicated 
RTTY folk swear by this program. One little 
bit of fore warn iiiiz. You will liiid I he 
TrucTTY will Juwnload and install and 
jump through its hoops just fine wiihoui 
registering, but you will have to reconfigure 
it each tittie you boot die program uiiiil you 
register it. And 1 believe thai includes the 
macros, so doif t spend a lot of lime per- 
fecting the macros until you register your 

One other minor item, this does not ap- 
pear (o be a itsoufue hungry piece of soft- 
ware. Check the requirements on the Web 
site. It appears it should run well on an eariy 
Peniiuni- based computer. That is always a 
good sign to me that the programmer has 
put forth the effort to write good code. 


Every now and then I pay a small price 
for abusing the computer. I am careful uuL 
to allow grand kids to install games nor 
cruise the Internet, but I still find ways lu 
mess the thing up on my own. 

Recently, 1 purchased a set of reasonably 
priced speakers for this computer. The 
speaker history here has evolved around a 
mismatched pair of speakers that probably 
came from some AM radios older ihan mv 
kids. These worked okay with a SB 16 
soundcard, but these new 64 series cards do 
not have enough drive to run them, 

I have a few applications such as a dic- 
tionary that pronounces words and find it 
nice to have sound capability. The new 
speakers have a small amplifier in them and 
I do not know how they can produce these 
things at the price I paid. 

Tiie problem took about an hour to rear 
its ugly head, I had noticed the volume con- 
trol for the soundcard ouipui became inef- 
fective, but all was going well as I checked 
the system with an E-mail from one of llie 
major on-line suppliers that contained a 
promo including some music clips, Sads- 
fied the speakers were well worUi die in- 
vestmenl. I turned my at ten lion lo the 
soundcard coniruls. Somediing did not secni 
correct — response was not normal. 

I brought up a ham PSK program and 
could not reduce the ALC to zero, Thene arc 
at least four displays with volume controls 
and diese seemed, wtthoul any reason I 
could understand, to go to mavimum set- 
ting about ever> other lime I checked them. 
I could not get this thing under control and 
began lodoubi my abilities (and sensibilities). 

I wiU admit I stepped away fn>m tiie com- 
puier and had dinner before tackling this 
problem, but it took the better part of an 
hour to add all the facts I just described and 
realize that some bugs, probably from die 
Internet sound source, had crept into the 
operating system and the eventual cure was 
to shut down and reboot the computer. The 
first reboot rcsiured some sanity to the 
soundcard control but all things were nol 
quite right until I wo more startups. 

The lesson learned is it can hapj^n to any 
of us. Don^t even need teenagers around to 
help us out. AIj, well — education. I know 
there are hams who are happy as a clam w ho 
dedicate a computer to nothing but ham soft- 
wane in the shack, Mayl>e they are the truly 

More SSTV 

A few^ months agtJ* in the Sept. column. I 
wrote about using the SSTV-PAL editor 
with the MMSSTV coiTmiuntcations pack- 
age and between the time I wrote and the 
time you received your magazines, the 
Web Site where you find the SSTV-PAL 
lhttp://users. origin.] con- 
tained a whole new group of downloads. 
Fortunately, since The Chart is easily ac- 
cessible from here. I v^ as able to put a note 
on the link to help guide you to the correct 

This wasn't realty a bad thing. What 
happened is there is now a new program 
developed by the author of SSTV-PAL 
termed SSTV-PAL+ (plus is all that is 
added) and what a plus it is. It is software 
for communicating with SSTV and includes 
the aforementioned editor as an all-in- one 
program. I downloaded the new software 
and w as simply amazed. 

it uses the MMSSTV engine which you 
have 10 install in the same folder and you 
are off and running. lus a beta version with 
a few kinks still to be deatt with at the time 
I tried it but workable and another clever 
approach by a creative programmer. You 
have to try it to see for yourself. 

Speaking of die KB 7 NO Web site, I keep 
makina little chanties and additions. There 
is so much to tell that il feels like a project 
W'ith no end in sight. ! found a small item 
that makes the loading of ihc first page much 
faster. By reducing the pixels/inch (lower 

quahl\ '? L the file is enough smaller (hat the 
load lime widi this dial-up modem is cut in 
half lo about 7 seconds. Interestin^ilv. ihe 
before and after displays on diis monitor 
seem identical. Something to keep in mind 
when storing and transferring your images, 
especially via modem, is that a smaller file 
mav be jusi as sood as a file that is the 
better part of a megabyte, 

A little on Windows 

[ am forever giving the newer Microsoft 
plattbmis a bad rap, especially the Millen- 
nium Edition (Me) — ^wetk that one deserves 
it. If you notice, quite afew^ ham program- 
mers are avoiding the problems associated 
with making their programs run on Me. 
They simply do not bother to make their 
software run on Me. 

However, there are quite a few excellent 
programs available to run on the XP op- 
erating system. I have avoided using it 
because not ever> thing we have available 
will run on XP. But I see programmers ex- 
tolling the virtues of the XP platfomi and 
they are writing some lop notch software to 
run on that platform. 

What I am getting at is the lime is upon 
us when XP is standard fare on anv Ci>m- 
puter we are apt to buy new. I recently had 
a few experiences with the XP and it does 
perform well with software that is written 
for it. The age-old problem of lock-ups and 
"blue scieen" syndrome is as nearly licked 
as can be expected, 

I saw a lock-up during a video session 
on a laptop thai was visiting this house, 
and the system was truly locked tighter 
than a drum. The only cure was to switch 
I AT the power, I hale to do that due to the 
usual subsequent boot-up problems with 
earlier Windows systems after being shut 
down improperly/' This was a learning 
experience as I watched it powder up, load 

Coniiriaed on pcige 57 




Fig. Z Where The Chart is. 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 51 

Homing in 

Radio Direction Finding 

Joe Moell RE. K0OV 

RO. Box 2508 

Fullerton CA 92837 

E-mail: [Homingin@aolcom] 

Web: [http://www.hom(agin.corni 

ARDF World Championships 
Part 2 — Closer to the Gold 

"! felt like I was at an Olympic event!'' Thats how Dave D'Epagnier K0QE described bis first trip 
to the World Championships of Amateur Radio pirection Finding (ARDF), from September 2-7, 
2002, m the High Tatras of Slovakia. '7t was a real eye opener to see how seriously the rest of the 
world takes tliis sport. The competition was very fierce and USA is indeed starting to gain respect " 

K0QE was one of the last to gel back to 
the USA folio wins the Eleventh ARDF 
World Championships ( WCs), because he 
went on a two-week climbing trip lo Italy 

right afterwards. Last month *$ "Homing 
In." ihe rirst of a two-part series on ARDF 
Team USA and the WCs, featured stories 
of the first of our darine dozen to reium. 
Among them were Bob Frcy WA6EZV 
and Dick Arnen WB4SUV, whose return 
trip didn't go exactly as planned. 

'*We left the mountains of Slovakia at 
5 a.m. in a hurry to make our 1 2:50 flight 
from Budapest/' Bob recalls. "Wt got to 
the Hungarian border at 11:10 and real- 
ized thai wo were barely going to make 
it. Finally we got to the airport and dis- 
covered that it was virtually empty. Air 
France was on strike. The good part was 
that the airline folks put us up in Bydapc&t 

overnight in a beautiful hotel, right on the 
river. They paid for our meals, bussed us 
over and back. Next morning we went out 
on a different carrier into Rome, then home 
from there " 

I expected to gel regular on-the-scene 
updates from Team USA via the Internet 
as I did during the Championships in 
China two years ago. But that was not 
to be, "There was only one Internet ter- 
minal/' says WB4SUV, "and when you 
were on, there were ten people looking 
over your shoulder wondering when 
you'd be done," Because they had 
brought their own laptops, Bruce Paterson 
VK3TJN and Adajn Scammell VK3YDF 
(Photo A) ended up being the official 
scribes of the events, sending regular de- 
tailed reports to their friends in the states 
and down under. 

Contouring and sinkholes 

The three Australians joined six Team 
USA members at a special training camp in 
Hungary just before the WCs, The camp had 

a double purpose — to improve participants' 
skills in bodi radio direction finding and in- 
the-woods orienteering. "We did two days 
of fox-oring," WB4SUV reported. *1t s a 
combination of ARDF and orienteering that 
teaches you to keep track of where you are 
on the map. You had to orientecr your way 
to the marked circles on the map- You 
couldn't hear the little fox transmitters un- 
til you were about 30 meters away." 

Team member Gyuri Nagy KF6YKN 
hosted the camp in his native Hungary, 
Gyuri h a true ham, as his workshop attests 
(Photo B). Campers made use of his shop 
and tools, because some had to re tunc their 

Photo A, The rtwee- person team of Bryan Ackerly VK3YNG, 
Adam Scamfnell VK3YDF and Bruce Paterson VK3TJN trained 
with the USA team in Hungary. Each of them attended prior 
AROF events in the USA. (All photos courtesy of Bob Frey 

S2 73 Amateur BadiQ Today ■ December 2002 

Photo & Tlieres no doubt that training camp host Gyuri Nagy is 
a true ham. Heres the attic workbench wliere he built his fox 

2m ARDF receivers to lower European fox 
frequencies (Photo C). Tbe 2ni bajid is only 
1 44- 1 46 MH7 in Europe. 

At ihe camp, long-time orienteer Bob 
Cooiey KF6VSE learned about signal 
propagation in canyons and rav ines, which 
orienieers call re-entranis. 'A iwo-meter 
signal bounces up and down a re-entrant/' 
he says, "I* ve goiien so that I can recogni/e 
when I'm getting into that. And if you get 
into a stream bed, you might as well turn 
off your receiver to save the baiieries. Ymi*rc 
going to gel total baloney for bearings on 2m, 
unless the fox is right there/* 

Mar\in Johnston KE6HTS tells of a new 
technique he learned at camp, called con- 
touring. "You don*t want to go up or down 
lulls more than you have to/' he says, *'so 
you mn along the elevation contour lines 
on the map. It worked and I had a great lime, 
I missed one contour and it cost me three or 
four minutes lo get up and down the hill, 
but if I had followed the contour it would 
have been no problem. 

'The training area had a lot of sinkholes^ 
Marvin conrinued. "They were big pits 
where caves had collapsed. Ii was really 
interesting navigating around them/' Bob 
Cooiey added. "If a 2m transmitter was 
placed on the top edge of a sinkhole, 1 could 
get gocnJ bearings on it from a distance, but 
when I got within 100 meters, 1 had a hard 
time pointing my antenna directly to it/' 

This was USA's third trip to the World 
Championships. Team USA was up against 
more than 3()(> competitors from 28 other 
nations. The opening ceremony featured all 
of the teams standing at attention, watch- 
ing performances by native dancers and 
other enlertainers (Photo D). 

As you read last month's description 
of the separate 2-meter and 80-meier 

competitions, you probably wondered 
about our two best performers, Nadia 
Mayeva and Gyuri Nagy. Nadia took fourth 
in her age/gender category on 80 meters, 
but was 13th on 2m. Whv? And what ex- 
plains Gyuri *s 19ih place on 80 meters, 
when he had achieved fifth place on 2m two 
days before? 

Nadia's two*metcr problem began before 
she ever left the sianing corridor. Typical 
maps at ARDF championships are pre- 
marked with start, finish, and out-of-bounds 
areas. But they weren't at these World 
Championships. WB4SLrV recalls. "Of all 
the conversations we had at the Team Lead- 
ers meeting about the most minuscule de- 
tails, the organizers never mentioned that 
we had lo mark our own maps, and diat there 
would be a master map in the starting area 
tor that purpose. That threw me a curve. 

*'The master maps w ere clear dowTi at ihe 
far table and I didn't even realize that I 
needed one, I was in a panic when I couldn't 
see start and finish on the map diey handed 
me. I figured at first thai it was there and 1 
just couldn't locate il. I asked and they told 
me about the master map. I just had time lo 
mark start and finish, not the other deiaits 
from the master map. The Australians lold 
me later that it's noi unusual ihat maps have 
to be marked ai chainpionships/' 

Marking her own map was Nadia*s dow n- 
fall on two meters, as WA6EZV explains: 
'There was a swamp marked on the master 
map with a circle, and she thought that this 
was the finish. She didn't see the actual fiji- 
ish, the double circle on the top of the map. 
So she was navigating toward the wrong 
place to finish for a long time before she 
realized that everyone else was going in the 
opposite direction. Her equipment should 
have told her that she was headed for the 

wrong pbee, but she wasn't listening to the 
homing beacon/' 

Gyuri *s 80m problem was the result of 
loo much activity. The physical stress of 
winning a medal in the Hungarian champi- 
onships, then pulling on a week of training 
courses, followed by the grueling WC two- 
meter hunt all took their toll. "'He's ha\ina 
kn^ surgery soon/' says WA6EZV. "That's 
why he slowed dowTi on 80m. 1 passed him 
at one of the transmit^rs and I could see he 
wasn*t running real strong. I think his knees 
caught up with him," 

The 60- year-old knees of Bob Cooiey also 
were prohkmatic. 'T was having trouble 
with my feet at the championships in China, 
so I was out of ARDF for a year and a half. 
I had an operation in April and just started 
running in June, so Vm not in as gov)d a 
shape as I would like, I hope to get back 
there in another six months or so. I ibund 
thai if you surenglhen your quads a great 
deal, it sort of holds your knees togetlter. 

*i*ni becoming allergic to wasp stings," 
Bob condnued. "A year ago I received a bad 
sting and got hives all over my IxKly, Now 
it usually gets worse each time. Just befoie 
the 2m stan I got stung by a litUc bee, I 
thought^ *WeIK it isn't a wasp and it didn't 
get me very bad/ Turns out it was OK, but I 
started out on the course wondering if I was 
going to drop dead in the first 30 minutes. 
There was total chaos tn my mind and it tcjok 
me an hour and five minutes lo get the first 

What ailed this fox? 

One of the worst nialiuiiares of au ARDF 
huntmaster is a malfunctioning fox trans- 
mitter Unfortunately, il happened on the 
80-meter championship day. An apparent 

Photo C. Harley Leach KI7XF, a netired prafe^^wr of engineering, 
helped reimie sonte Australian receivers for the law operating fre- 
quency of European ARDF transmitters^ and then fixed them when 
they slopped working. 

Photo />. Opening ceremonies took place next to a scenic lake. By 
tradition, each team stood behind its national placard. 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 53 

Pfwio E. On 'Cultural Day" beiween the 2m and SOm compeu- 
tiom. the organized acnvity was a 7-mile rafting trip on the 
Dunajt'c River that borders Slovakia and Poland. 

Photo E Boh Frey WA6EZV tried poling a raft, which was made 

from six boats tied together 

antcniui problem caused lransrniitL?i" num- 
ber Ibur. which was closest to the starting 
line, to pia out [in extremely weak signal, 

"It niatle nie think it was far away, prob- 
ably near the finish/' WA6EZV repoitctl 
"So I dibjnissed it from my mind al lirsu I 
found fox #5 and expected to hear #4 stron- 
ger there, but iiothitig. I lountl ont taier that 
U was down in a valley and you had lo be 
verv close lo hear it welk I mn within 150 
mclers of it and didn't realize it Sonte other 
compeiitors had receivers that weren't sen- 
silive enough to ever hear it/* Bob Cooley 
added, "Enougb people had gone lo ft that 
ihcv decided thev shouldn't fix it in the 
middle of ihe contest/' 

"I was so trustrated about ii that I joined 
in With the Norwegians/' say& WB4SUV. 
"They drafted a letter of complaint and I 
signed it, even though 1 knew it wouldn't 
change the outcome. I went right past, prob- 
ubly within 50 meieis on my way oul Ii was 
right olT the trail from the starting corridor, 
but I thought it was on the oMil-]' side t^f the 
earth because it was so weak. So I found all 
my others and got to the rinish w 1th 37 min- 
utes to spare. Some other competiiors, like 
Csaba Tiszttarto of our team, did the whole 
course and dieii went back lii gel ii lasLThai 
made the times higher than usual It wa^ an 

54 73 Amateur Radio Today • December- 2002 

extremely long course and ihat transmitter 
probably affected the limes of evei7one/' 

It's a tradition lor die WCs to have a "cul- 
tural day'' of rest between the 2m and SOm 
competitions. The organizers provide tours 
or other activities, ''I went on the tour that 
they arranged/' says WA6EZV (Photos E 
and F). '*That turned out lo be a great de- 
cision. We went rafting on the river» saw 
beautiful mouniuins, slopped and had lunch, 
tlien went shopping in Poprad." 

Since thev had a car available, some 
members of Team USA and Team Australia 
decided to make up their o\%Tt tour. *They 
wanted to see a castle on a hilltop thai they 
had heard about/' Bob Frey says. Accord- 
ing to VK3TJN, thej^ parked the car and 
hiked up about a half mile toward the castle, 
only to find a locked gate/That didn't deter 
them, as one team member uied to raise the 
gale by slipping big rocks underneath it. 
Suddenly a woman came running toward 
them. Forlunately il was lo let them in, be- 
cause diey had parketl in the wrong place. 
It turns out thai tlicy could have driven to a 
parking lot right in front of the place. 

"Nadia was with them and she had just a 
one-time-entry visa on her Russian pass- 
port/' WA6EZV continued. "While going 
around the mountains, thev decided lo cross 

o^NSt^Tor a little while inio PoUmd. Thai 
meant they had to leave her 'M I he border. 
They couldn't loop around and come back 
another scenic way, because they had to 
return Ibr her. Along the way. they wanted 
to find a scenic lake, but they couldn't find 
die riiiid to that. It turned oul to be a lot of 
driving and not much sightseeing/' 

Among the participating countries, there 
are wide variations in the level of competi- 
tors and training. Some national societies 
are big su ppt>rters of Ihis aspect of amateur 
radio. Others arent, "The Czech team ap- 
peared semi-professional/* says WB4SUV. 
"They had a van with 'Czech Republic 
A RDF Radiosport Team' stenciled on the 
back. The Ukraintans are having an e%'ent 
and we got an in\ ilation from their Team 
Physician who travels with Uicm, By con- 
trast, we don't all wear the same uniform, 
and somcuincs not all ihe same colors/' 

More to come in 2003 and beyond 

Bob Frey lepoits, "Al die meeting of lARU 
A RDF Coordinators, I had a great time talk- 
ing to all the leaders, I took the juKlium for 
ab<iut five minutes, giving greedngs lR>m you, 
from Region 2 Coordinator Dale Young 
WB6BYU, and from Canadian Coordinator 

Joe Young VE7BFK. We gave out cards and 
pins fornext year's Region 2 Championships 
in Cincinnati . We have addresses for at least 
four counlries iJiaL want [bmial invitations 
to attend," 

Representatives from iwoARDF clubs in 
the Czech Republic handed out invitations 
to the next ARDF WCs in Brno, from Sep- 
tember 1-12, 2004. Brno is a city of half a 
million in tlic Moravian region of the coun- 
try, about 135 miles southeast of Prague. 
Competitors will stay in dormi lories of llie 
Masaryk University, v/hich becomes a ho- 
tel complex of over a thousand rooms in the 

The C^ech organizers are planning two 
new and innovative activities for attendees 
to their WCs. On the day of the opening 
ceremony, there will also be a ''Masters 
Race" exhibition of world champions. It will 
be a 2()-minute sprint with foxes on boih 
bands, for medalists in tlie Senior male cat- 
egory only. On die traditional day off between 
the 2m and 80ni competitions, the usual 
"cultural program" will be supplemented 
with a recreational event for non-racing 
team members, journalists, and other ARDF 
fans. Called "In the Mastei"s' Footsteps/* this 
event will take place in the same location 
as the previous day-s 2m hunt. 

After the Czech WCs. die next will be in 
Bulgaiia during 2006, and tlien it's probably 
back to China in 2008. ''We were fonnally 
asked if we wished to apply for the 2008 
WCs," says WA6EZV, "We politely said no- 
We know we're still about a decade away 
from that, but it's nice to be asked.'' 

There's no doubt that competition for the 
limited number of positions on ARDF Team 
USA for the 2004 WCs will be greater than 
even so now is the time to start honing your 
own RDF and orienteering skills. K0QE 
says, '1 know I can do much better and Fm 
already making plans for a personal uraiii- 
ing program for the next WCs.'' KE6HTS 
reports, "Gyuri is willing to put on another 
training camp, in the USA this time. 
Tchermen Gouliev UA3BF iTom Russia is 
also interested in putting on a camp. He won 
silver medals on both 2m and 80m at this 
year's WCs " 

An important qualifying event will be the 
next combined USA and lARU Region 2 
ARDF Championships, taking place July 30 
through August 3, 2003, near Cincinnati. If 
you missed the announcements in ''Hom- 
ing In" for August and September, see the 
'^Homing In" Web site for more details and 
a link to the orsaanizers' site. 

Another opportunity to test your ARDF 
skills against experts from around the world 
will be the Fifth lARU Region 3 ARDF 

Championships. November 20 to Decem- 
ber 3, 2003, near Baliaiat, Victoria, Auisualia, 
Visitors from countries outside Region 3 are 
welcome at the Australia events, just as visi- 
tors from around the world wi II be welcome 
at our 2003 championships in Cincinnad, 
Several radio-orienteers from USA are al- 
ready planning a trip ''Down Under'' next 

If it's too cold to have a priictice radio- 
orienteering session in your home town this 
month, wami up the soldering iron and start 
planning for spring by building fox trans- 
mitters and RDF antennas for yourself and 
to loan to your local Scout troop. There are 
lots of equipment ideas at the "Homing In" 
Web site. Be sure to send photos and sto- 
ries of the mobile and on -foot transmitter 
hunts in your hometown. E-mail and postal 
mail addresses are at the beginning of t his 

Shedding Some Light 
on Dimmers 

continued from page 23 

Fig* 4 shows the circuit that can 
make the trans fomier look resistive. 
The value of the R and C can be calcu- 
lated when the inductance and the re- 
flected series resistance of the inductor 
are known: 4L/R^C = 1 , where L is the 
inductance of the load and R is the 
sum of the resistance R in series with 
the capacitor and the resistance in series 
with the inductor. 

It's probable that L won't be known, 
so make a stab at a capacitor and re- 
sistor, 0.22 \xF and a 100 ohm resis- 
tor are a good starting point. If the 
iriac turns off, that's close enough. A 
capacitive diddle box (a capacitor sub- 
stitution box) makes finding an accept- 
able value of capacitor easy - — just 
increase the capacitance until the Uiac 
regains control. 

You can find the R and C without the 
triac: Connect the inductive load with 
the R and C across an AC or DC source 
through a switch with visible contacts. 
Select an R that is equal to the resis- 
tance of the inductor and the minimum 
capacitor. As the switch is opened an 
arc will probably be seen. When an AC 
source is used, make several openings 
and closings to make sure you're not 
switching at the zero crossing of the 
voltage, then increase the capacitor 
until there is no arc. 

ControlUng the AC voltage to a uni- 
versal wound motor makes a speed 
control. Also, a variable AC voltage 
can make a simple unregulated supply 
variable (of course, it will stii! be un- 
regulated). Applying a variable voltage 
to the soldering iron will keep the tem- 
perature where you want it without 
burning the tip. A variable voltage to 
the coffee pot heater will keep your 
coffee at the right temperature, too. 
You could even use it to control the 
brightness of a lamp. 

A word about controHing a power 
supply with a capacitor input filtef: 
This kind of supply has an output volt- 
age that is approximately equal to the 
peak of the rectified AC. Phase-con- 
trolled AC doesn't change the peak 
voltage until the conduction is delayed 
for more than 90"^, When ihe power 
supply filter has either a choke input 
or a resistor input, the DC output ap- 
proaches the average value of the recti- 
fied AC, and a dinnner does control the 

Adding a resistor between the recti- 
fiers and the filter capacitive reduces 
the supply's maximum output voltage 
by about 40%. The average voltage, 
the DC voltage, is 0.636 x E ^^ or 0.9 x 
E„,,,. The resistor need not be large: A 

RMS ^ 

value in the order of 100 ohms when 
the capacitor is 100 |lF or larger will 
do the job. 

When you need to vary the AC line 
voltage and a vaiiable auto transformer 
isn't available, the light dimmer may 
save your bacon. The cost isn't great, 
and construction time won't interfere 
with watching the 10 o'clock news. 
The cost won't break the bank either; 
the parts are available from Radio 
Shack or Mouser Electronics (1-800- 

Shack Switch 
for Foot Fetishists 

coniinued from page 27 

auto stores, like Strauss and Pep Boys, 
that still cairy some of the nostalgia 
items from the '50s and '60s. At the 
Strauss auto store 1 saw the fuzzy dice, 
and right below was my Big Foot pedal. 
Fm sure thai you know ±at good 
73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 55 

feeling. It's like finding something that 
you want at a Ilea market or garage 
sale at the riglit price. 1 went lo the reg- 
ister and paid. 1 sonielimes wonder 
what the young girl at the register or 
the guy in back of me thought this gray 
hair guy was going to do with hii^ 
metal foot- 

The rest is history. I went to the craft 
shop in town and Ibund the base to 
rfiount it on. Craft shops ai^ always a 
source of project maierial for me. If 
you have one in your town, add it to 
your list of places lo visit. 1 guarantee 
that yon will corrie away with some 
good ideas for ways to improve your 

My wood base cost me two dollars, 
Tlie actual foot switch came from Ra- 
dio Shack, part number 44-610. By it- 
self, the foot switch is a liule too small 
and too lieht. I mounted it to the base 
with some double-sided loam tape, 
and used an old hinge to mount my 
'*Eig Foot" to the wooden base. The 
foot w^as designed with two bai^s that 
went under and across the width of the 
gas pedal, so just substitute a thin 
piece of wood for the gas pedal and 
screw it to the base with a hinge from 
the hai dware store. 

It works really great! When Vm 
ready to transmit, I can be confident 
that when I put my real foot down, it 
will lind the Bi^ Foot switch! 

4. Our Web site is at [http://], 

5. This expedition also activated the 
Kadalur Lighthouse, Amateur Radio 
Lighthouse no. lND-013. 

Ashore at Sacrifice Rockl 

continued from page 35 

Yes, indeed! Very soon, we decided. 


L Report by VU2SBJ, Srikanth B. 
Bhat. ManipaK Photographs by 
VU2RDQ, Ro, and VU2SBJ, Sii 
Band condition report (included in 
above) by VU3DMP, Chets. 

2. This event was later supported 
pailly by the Island Radio Expedition 
Foundation — IREF — to whom we 
are very grateful 

3. QSL cards received direct were 
being replied to directly immediately. 
(QSL card jpegs are tivailable in at- 
lached files and also on otir Web site.) 
All other nt>ndirect cards sent via buro. 
56 73 AmBteur Radio Today • December 2002 

Hboue & Beyond 

continued from page 42 

this month. Hope you enjoyed the quick 
session on frequency counters and a short 
discussion of attributes of frequency 
counters and what's available in the sur- 
plus market that T have tieeii able to look 
into. There are many other models avail- 
able that are fine frequency counters 
also. It's just that I haven't had the op- 
portunity to obtain I hem in surplus to 
gattier personal experience. 

Don't rush out and try to locate a spe- 
cific counter for yourself. Wait a bit and try 
to see if it comes to you. In dealing with 
surplus junk dealers, you will find that they 
will push ttie price as high as the gleam in 
your eye will tolerate. Be devious! Pick up 
someiliijig else or show interest in other 
things, and maybe as a last resort, what is 
that price for this thing? This approach 
might catch you a bargain. It's your hard- 
earned cash and you want to get ihe best 
value possible. Don't drag your feet too 
slowly, as I missed a pair of Motorola HTs 
I or 450 MHz being offered i n working con- 
dition for $35 each. I missed the deal by 
being 15 seconds too late on the trigger lo 
say sold. But then you can't have everything. 
Go to swap meets prepared ro act and 

In that light, bring a small set of tools for 
swap meet exploradon. A VOM to lest bat- 
teries and power meter thennisior heads and 
a bunch of other things. Bring a small back- 
pack to put your small test kit and other 
small goodies you find. To check out fre- 
quency meters in surplus dealer's premises, 
bring an HT — hopefully a muhiband HT 
that will allow you to test on 2 meters, 
450 MHz. ami possibly 1296 MHz. Bring 
an extra rubber ducky antenna or use a clip 
lead or paper clip to gel a sample of your 
HT into the frequency counter circuits and 
see if it works. Of course, first check to sec 
if the internal calibrator is functioning. Just 
to be sure, you can power it up on AC. Bring 
both the old round HP power cords and one 
of the newer 3-prong blade construction. 
Check out the swap meet — there might be 
an AC outlet for testing in the snack bar or 
swap meet area. Most dealers don't have 
courtesy test AC cords hanging around, so 

do a quick store test, and put some AC cords 
in your test back pack. 

Well ihaf s it for this month. I hope ev- 
eryone has a very Merry Christmas and a 
ver}^ Happy New Year. Twill do my best to 
answer any questions you might have. Drop 
me an E-mail at [clhough@pact>ell.netl for 
a speedy reply. 73, Chuck WB6IGR 

Dn the Go 

continiiedfrom page 43 

ligtiting conditions would be outstanding. 
When 1 say a real screen, I mean one that 
can display maps and such rather than ab- 
breviated lines of text. With the price of 
LCD computer monitors coming down, this 
should be possible. Better yet. make it a 
touch screen so I could control the radio and 
the APRS message traffic more easily. 

Then diere's always the subject of DSP. 
Vd really like to have a good signal processor 
that can improve the quality of the signal 
Fm hearing. Ideally it would have the best 
features of both signal processing and fre- 
quency equalization as I get older and my 
hearing becomes less efficient, h would be 
great if I could process signals for digital 
modes such as FACTOR or SSTV through 
the same system. Add nicrnories so I can 
easily change the settings from voice to data 
oplinii/ation and that would be extrcmeiy 

Finally, here in Wyotnirig we have lots of 
sunshine and lots of wind. With two envi- 
ronmentally friendly and free-for-the-asking 
power sources, I sure would like to be able 
to tap into them, Fd be willing to buy a large, 
economy sized slocking just so you could 
leave me some solar panels and a small wind 


I don't want to put any pressure on you, 
or anything, but Fm hoping that you can 
lake care of my Christmas list. If you do, it 
will give me material for my columns next 
year, too. 

73, Merry Christmas, and Happy New 

Steve KE8YN/7 

RS. Don't worry aboul tiringing socks, 
underwear, or neckties. The XYL will take 
care of those. 

Say You Saw It In 7J 


continued from page 46 

in place, silicon grease applied to keep oui 
moisture and allow the original end caps to 
easily slide back on. and the job was done. 
The completed short dipole was [hen 
mounted between the 70-cm yagi and the 
I3"cm semi-dish/downconverter on the fi- 
berglass boom. A subsequent SWR check 
after attaching a 60-foof length of RG--8X 
coax showed that the resonant point had not 
moved more than a few kHz. 

On the air 

Much to my surprise, the first AO-7 pass 
after finishing the project was Mode A. 
Contacts from Canada to Mexico were easy. 
The telemeUy beacon on 29.501 MHz was 
stronger on the new short dipole compared 
witli [lie 80-meter inveried V, and the noise 
was lower than thai heard on the attic- 
mounted 1 0-meier dipole. After a fcw^ weeks 
of operation, il was obvious that we had a 
winner. Although this simple short dipole 
was not the best for low horizon passes fl 
still want a beam), it did produce consistent 
results on most passes, 

Whatever route you take with youi^ Mode- 
A, AO-7 1 0-meter antenna, make it resonant 
near 29450 MHz, tTioimt it in the clear, and 
get ready for some excellent satellite commu- 
nications. For more information about AO-7, 
check the specifications avaihtble on the 
Internet at []. 

The Dicitrl Port 

contmaedfrom page 5 1 

Windows XP and go back to work just as if 
nothing had happened. Pretty cooi. 

Then I have a son with a slighlly aged 
laptop who was fighdng the Me syndrome. 
He has to run a lot of heavy-duty engineer- 
ing applications and asked what I thought 
about tipgrading to XE Sounded good to me. 
Then I shuddered a bit after making such a 
blanket statement, and sat back and waited. 

It worked so well we were both surprised. 
The XP is as near foolproof as one can ex- 
pect and he has really put it through its 
paces. He describes softw^are and data man- 
agement that one would expect to cause a 
meltdown to the hardiest of systems, and it 
just trucks right on through diem with very 
minimal hiccups. 

1 have also heard of those who got too 
early into the XP and have had to download 
many fixes from Microsoft, but tliat may be 
behind us by now. I am not recotmiiending 

upgrading from WinQS to XP. Everything 
runs on 98, we know that. However, if you 
must purchase a new machine, you may nol 
be able to run all your favorite programs, 
butl think there is sufficient software avail- 
able to mn on XP that you can make a go of 
it. My opinion? I stick with what I have 
working until it smokes. After diat, I have 
to go with the flow. Most hams are a frugal 
lot and that includes this one. 

That's about all there is room for this 
month. Take care and enjoy the digital stuff. 
Sec you there. Remember, The Chart is now 
on die Web at [], 
and you can E-mail me at [KB7N0@att.nei] 
73. Jack KB7NO. 

Never snv die 

contUmedfrom page 39 

administration, and the bureaucrats who 
do 99.9% of what little actual work is 
done, and who continue in power while 
Congress and administrations change. 
None of these groups can see any benefit 
to them in a better educated citizenry. 
They have a huge vested interest in the 
people being manipulated by the media, 
and being sheeplike. 

Then there s big business. They need 
dtmibed-down vvorkers, not creative 
troublemakers. They're getting exactly 
the kind of workers they want from the 
present school system. 

About the only conslituency for better 
schools arc the few^ parents who care one 
way of the other. Fortunately diey Ye un- 
organized, so they're ignored. 

School administralor.s oppose change. 
Teachers oppose change. The govern- 
ment opposes change. Business opposes 

Is the situation hopeless? Of course 
not. But there's no point in marching 
around demonstrating for better schools 
or bitching abouL it. Total waste of time. 
So, w^hat's the answer? 

You don't win wars by attacking the 
stronger enemy head-on. You attack 
from an unexpected flank. This is why 
Fve lieen waiting about the need for re- 
placing our schools with truly first-rate 
education delivered via DVDs. Technol- 
ogy can eventually make public schools 
iiTelevant, just as cars obsoleted horses 
and bicycles. 

The teacher unions keep hammering 
on the need to spend more money. Well. 
we have. Cun'ently the tab is $389 bil- 
lion a yean That's with a "B.'^ We've in- 
creased spending by 72% in the last 
ten years in constant dollars, yet SAT 
scores have been steadily dropping. 
The spending per student in constant 

in nation-corrected dollars has gone 
from $3,367 in 1970 Lo S6,584 in 2000, 
The number of students per teacher has 
dropped from 22 to 17, and yet our kids 
are learning less and less. 

The National Research Council found 
no improvement in student achievement 
resulting from greater funding or smaller 
classes. The U.S. Department of Educa- 
tion foimd last year that 68% of the 
fourth grade students could not read at a 
proficient leveL Ditto math. 

You can't blame the kids, not when 
there are some schools out there that are 
actually educadng them. For instance? 
Like New York's Frederick Douglass 
Academy, where 79% of the students are 
black, 19% are Hispanic, and one per- 
cent is white or Asian. In 1998, 93% of 
their students passed the U.S. History 
Regents, and 88% passed the English 
and pre-calculus exams. 95% passed the 
Global History Regents, where city wide 
only 54% passed. 

The Heritage Foundation recently 
published the Carter Report, which cited 
21 High Performing Poverty Schools, so 
it can be done. 

More Smoke 

Researchers at Osaka City University, 
using new ultrasound technology, were 
able to measure the effect of secondhand 
smoke on the ceils that line die heart and 
biood vessels. They found that the blood 
flow^ ill [he hearts of nonsniokers was 
20% better than that of smokers. However, 

Continued on page 62 


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73 Amateur Radio Todsiy • December 2002 57 

Dan Metzger K8JWR 
6960 Streamview Dr. 
Lambertville Ml 48144-9758 

Read All About It! 

Part 13 of good stuff from The Hertzian Herald, 

All about Conductance Units; Dear!SP; Wired! 

very ham knows that resistance 
is measured in ohms, and is cal- 
culated as the ratio of voltage to 
cuiTent: R = V / L But there is no in- 
herent reason why we speak of a 
component's ability to resist current; 
we might just as reasonably have cho- 
$en to speak of its ability to conduct 
cun^ent. Indeed, some engineering analy- 
ses, and some electronic instruments, 
do make use of conductance units. 

The letter C being taken for capaci- 
tance, the quantity conductance is 
given the symbol G, and it is defined 
as the reciprocal of resistance: G = I / V. 
Until about 1965 the unit of conduc- 
tance was the mho (ohm spelled back- 
wards), and the unit symbol was an 
upside-down capital omega - the 
horseshoe-shaped letter. Then a fit of 
internationalism and political correct- 
ness overtook us, and the unit became 
the Siemens, in honor of Werner and 
William Siemens of Germany, who 
founded an electrical empire in Europe 
that exists to this day. (Note that the 

Reprinted witli permission from The 
Hertzian Herald, newsletter of the Mon- 
roe County (MI) Radiu Communications 
Association (MCRCA), 

58 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

small letter s denotes the time unit sec- 
onds. Capital S denotes the conductance 
unit Siemens.) 

A 1-ohm resistor might just as well 
be called a 1 -Siemens conductor, and a 
1-kilohm resistor is also a 1-milHsi- 
emens conducton The three forms of 
Ohm's law, in conductance units be- 
eome:G = l/VandI=:GVandV = I/G. 

Conductance in parallel add, so 1 
mS in parallel with 1 mS yields 2 mS. 
In resistance terms, the equivalent 
statement is 1 k-ohm in parallel with 
1 k-ohm yields 0,5 k-ohm. Putting this 
in equation form, for parallel elements: 
G(tot) = G{l)tG(2), 

Since G is the reciprocal of R. we can 
rewrite this in resistance temis: t / R(tot) 
= 1 /Rfl)+ 1 /R(2). 

This is the familiar ''reciprocal of 
the reciprocals" formula for parallel 

Note that conductances in series do 
not add, they combine by a reciprocals 
formula of their own - but better to 
change them to resistances so they do 

You may know that capacitors and 
inductors also oppose the How of cur- 
rent — AC in this case — but they do It 
with reactance rather than resistance. 
Reactance does not produce heal as 

resistance does. It limits current some- 
what as a spring limits motion; it 
stores energy ior a short time, then 
sends it back to the source. Reactance 
is given another quantity symbol, X, 
because it does not combine di reedy 
with resistance R. However, it is sdll a 
V / 1 ratio, with units of ohms. You are 
probably f ami bar with the equations 
for reactance of an inductor (L) and a 
capacitor (C): X(L) = 2 7i f L and X(C) 
= l/(2 7t fC). 

When a resistance and a reactance 
appear in series, they combine by the 
Pythagorean theorem to fonn a quan- 
tity called impedance, symbol Z. Tak- 
ing R = 3 ohms in series with X = 4 
ohms as an example: 
Z = SQRT (X^ + R") 
Z = SQRT (3- + 4-) 
Z^ SQRT (9+ 16} = 5 ohms 
All of this translates quite directly to 
conductance units. The reciprocal of 
reactance (symbol X) is susceptance 
(symbol B). The reciprocal of imped- 
ance (symbol Z) is admittance (symbol 
Y). When a resistance and a reactance 
appear in parallel, we convert them to 
a conductance (G) and a susceptance 
(B), combine them by Pythagoras to 
get a total admittance (Y), and take 
the reciprocal of Y to get Uie parallel 

impedance Z. As an example. Ici us 
combine R = ItMJ ohms and X = 50 ohms 
IB parallel: 


B= l/X=I/50=20mS 

Y = SQRT (G- -K B-) = SQRT (Iff + 
20-) = 22,4 mS 

Z ^ I / Y = 1 / 22,4 mS =44J ohms 

Reactances (or suscepiances) cause 
phase shifts between AC voltages and 
currents, and a lull discussion of ihii» 
topic would deal with these also. But 
we've done enoush for one session. 
Maybe next time. 

DearTSPs The MTBFof your ISDN 

Here is the FBI's list of w anted tcro- 
nyms. Really common ones, like DOS 
and FM, have been omitted, as have 
really obscure ones, like ISAPL 

ALC- Automatic level conlroL A 
system for preventing overload and 
consequent distortion in SSB amplifiers. 

ALU. Arithmetic Logic Unit. A 
main part of a computer's CPU, 

ASIC, Application-Speciric Inte* 
pated Circuit. An IC designed by an 
OEM for his specific purpose. 

ATE. Automated Test Equipment. 

BIOS. Basic Input Output System. 
Apart o(" a computer's operating sy,stcm. 

CAD, CAE, CAM, Computer-As- 
sisted Design. Drafting, Engineering. 

CPU, MPU. Central Processing Uniu 
Main Processing Unit, of a computer 

CRC. Cyclical Redundancy Clxick. An 
error detection and correction technique 
used in sending digital information. 

DARPA. Defense Advanced Research 
Projects Agency. 

Dx\S, DAC, Data Acquisition System, 
Data Acquisition and ControL 

DIN, German Industrial Standard 

EAROM. Electrically Alterable Read 
Only Memory. 

EEPROM. Electrically Erasable, 
Programmable Read Only Memory. 

EML RIcctroMaguetic Interlerencc. 

ESD. lilcclroStatic Dischaj^e, Damage. 

ESR, Equivalent Series Resistance. 
Arcprescntalion of the energy loss in a 
capacitor as though it occurred in a 
series resistor 

FAT. File Allocation Table, A portion 

of a computer's disk memory containing 
the locations of all user files. 

FLOPS, FLoaUng point Operations 
per Second A measure of a computer's 
processing speed. 

FSK. Frequency Shift Keying. Send- 
ing digital data by shifting a carrier 
frequency between two set values. 

GUL Graphical User Inlerface, 

HVAC. Heating. Ventilation, and Air 

ISDN. Integrated Services Digital 

ISP. Internet Services Provider 

ITU. International Telecommunica- 
tions Union. Au agency of the UN. 

LSB. Low^cr SideBand. Least Sig- 
iiiiicant Bit. Least Signilicant Byte, 

MUF. Maximum Usable Frequency. 
The highest frequency that v\ill be 
reflected by the ionosphere, 

MIDI. Musical Instrumems Digital 

MIPS. Million Instructions Per Sec- 
ond. A measure of computing speed, 

MOV. Metal Oxide Varistor A 

surse-voltaiie limitimz device. 

b- ^- ^^ 

MTBF. Mean Time Between Failures. 

NC. No Connection. Normally Qosed 
Numerical Control. 

NTSC. National Television Systems 
Committee. The U.S. television standard 
since the 1940s. 

OCR. Optical Character Recognition. 

OEM. Original Hqui]imcnt Manufac- 

PAL. Phase AUematc Line, A TV 
standard used in some counuies outside 
the USA, 

PLC, Ptogmnyiiablc Logic Controller, 

POP Post Office ProiocoL 

POS. Point of Sale, 

PPP. Point to Point Protocol 

PPM. Pans Per Million. LOOO ppm 
= 0.1%. 

PRT. Pulse Repetition Frequency. 

PTO, Permeability Tuned OsciUa- 
lor. Tunins bv means of a ferrite slus 
inserted in a coif usually to achieve 
better linearity. 

RAM. Random Access Memory. A 
memory thai cau he written to as fast 
as it can he read from. Random access 
(equally last access to any data block) 
is no longer its defining feature. 

RTD. Resistive Temix;iature Device. 
A component \^^hose resistance changes 
with temperature. 

SCA* Subsidiary Communications 
AuUiorizatJon, Subscription music ser- 
vice sent as a subcarrier by an FM 
broadcast station, 

SCSL Small Computer Systems li* 
terface. (Pronounced SCUZZ-cc.) 

SECAiVM. A television standard 
used in some countries outside the 

SI, System International. The metric 

SMD, SMT, Surface Mouni Device, 

TCP/IP, Transfer Control Protocol/ 
Internet Protocol. 

TDK. Time Domain Re flee tome try. 
A technique for locating cable faults 
by observing the time required lor a 
pulse to refiect back from the fault. 

THD/Total Harmonic Distortion. 

UART. Universal Asynchronous 
Recei ver-Transm t tier, 

UPC. Universal Product Code. The 
bar code. 

UPS. Uninterruptible Power Supply. 

UTC. Universal Coordinated Time, 
Greenwich Mean Time; Zulu. 

VAR. Volt'Amps Reactive. The 
product of voltage times current, re- 
gardlc>.s of actual power. 

VXD. Variable (frequency) Crystal 

WORM. Write Once, Read Many. 


It often suikes me as ironic that our 
technt>logy of radio was originally 
called "wireless/' because no compo- 
nent is more basic to its operation 
than wire. Indeed, my project bench 
is often a maze of wires. But, as with 
other components, choosing the right 
wire for a particular job requires an 
undcrstandins of its characteristics* 

Copper wire is commonly available 
in AWG (American Wire Gage) sizes 
ranging from 0000, 000, 00, 0, L 2, . .. 
up to gage 44. Size 0000 is 0.460 
inches in diameter, and no, 44 has a 
diameter of 0.002 inch, hi the middle 
range, no. 30 has d = 0.010 inch. 

Wire diameter decreases by a factor 
of 2 for every six size numbers; so no. 
26 has half the diameter of no. 20. Re- 
sistance increases by a factor of 2 for 

Continued on ptige 61 
73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 59 


Jim Gray II 

210 E. Chateau Cir. 

Paysort AZ 85541 

[akclhc2pilot @ yahcx).(X3m] 

December Forecast 

December historically offers some of the best propagation conditions of the year, but sharp 
skills, good equipment, and a hit of luck will again be required if you hope to do well this 
month. The sun continues to be highly unsettled with numerous moderate to strong flares 
expected, but we should have fewer bad days than in November, There are even a few Good (G) 
days to be found on the calendar this time, and positive seasonal influences will lend to work 
in oar favor during all but the worst solar upheavals. 

The monih will open with Poor (P) or possibly Very Poor (VP) 
conditions and \ suspect that a Class-X flare or strong CME is 
likely. Though not shown on the calendar (because ii is impossible 
to predict whether such events will be directed toward earth), we 
may experience occasional radio blackouLs between the 3rd and 
6th. The next major event is forecast for the lOdi or 11 th but the 
after effects should not be as severe. Another highly volatile day is 
plotted for the 16lh but again, negative effects are expected lo be 
short-lived. Beginning on Boxing Day (the day after Chrismias) 
we should look for another period of moderaie solar aciiviiy with 
an intense and potentially very disrupu\ c burst coming on the 3 1 st^ 
perhaps lasting several days into the new year. 

In between these times we can expect mostly Fair (F) condiHias 
to prevail, which means that the more patient and experienced 
DX'ers can usually come up with some interesting contacts. The 
best intervals are centered on the 7ih. 14ih, and 21 st and may in- 
clude the 24 to 36 hours on either side of these days. Remember 
that the conditions shown on the calendar are expected averages 
for each 24'hour period, so good conditions can often be found at 
other times than the Good (G) days that are shown. Quite often the 
very best conditions follow^ right on the heels of the worst ones. 

During the northern w inter* aumral effects over the U.S. are more 
pronounced ihan at other times of the year, so operators living in 
the most southerly regions will fare the best. High power, careful 
tuning, and directional control can help those at high latitudes over- 
come the disadvantages of living near the auroral belt, but liming 
is the best antidote. Geomagnetic considerations aside, the auroral 
zone retreats die furthest northw'ard at local noon, so mid-morning 

December 2002 








1 P 

2 P 

3 F'P 

4 F^ j 

5 F 

6 F 

7 F-G 

8 F 

9 F 


11 P 


1 3 F-G 

14 G 

15 F 

16 P 

17 F 

18 P 

19 F 

20 F 

21 G 


23 F 

24 F 

25 F 


27 P 

28 P 

29 F 

30 G 

31 P 


• GMT : 

OQ 0? 

D4 Uti OH 10 1^ '^IHMK ^^ ^^ ^ 


15 (401 

,^(1 \.A<''/ 

?n ^40) 






to (20) 



(ID) 2D 



20 m) 

?0 {4Q] 

2a (40) 






10 (1&) 




40 ! 








(10) 20 












10 (U) 





i40^ 1 



























K 1 






















■ ;^ 







flChtV ' ' 'i^l 













f" ■ ■ :"■;.:. 




15 17 











i»rri :i. 










10 ti^ 


■ . r. ., 


C2&1^ 40 

40 1 



f '.-»,, -vn 









nil) 50 

SK} {40| 






(101 20 






tlSj l±> 


20 {A0\ 

20 (40) 

















(15) ?0 

(Iti) IB 














{i<H 15 










1 1 0) 20 













{10-1 Si 

(10*1 Si 
















It ' 











(ia» 1 











: • 




flOJ ts 






50 44ffi 


















■ . 











1 r^} 














(10) 20 

t15J 30 













£ u rupy 

























(1S3 20 























on) Is 

















1 ^'j'l 20 



































■ " 'I-- ' !z 1 

















l'-^) 2Q 






(IS) 30 




11 Of 1s 














liiAJf L Bami iune, comiiry chart. Plain muuerah imficate baiuls 
whidi shtndd be workable an Fair to Good (F-Gi ami Coal |GJ £h\s. 
Nimibers in [Kuriuheses iiidkaie bwuh usually workable on Good (G) 
davs onfv. Dual numbers indicate that the intervening bauds should 
also be nsohle. When one number appears in parentheses, that end of 
the range will probably be open on Good (G) days only. 

60 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

through mid-aftenioon are usually the best 
hours to be on ihc air. You can view the size 
and location of the auroral oval online at a 
number of Web sites including [htlp:// 

That's all until next time. Happy Holi- 
days and good luck! Jim Gray [akdhc2] . 

Band'By-Band Forecast 

10-12 meters 

Worldwide opportunities can be found 
from sunrise to sunset, but daylight lasts 
only 8-9 hours for most of the U.S. so open- 
ings will be narrow. Southern Europe, the 
Middle East and Africa will be your best 
bets from sunrise through late morning* 
Central and South America will dominate 
these bands from mid morning through late 
afternoon, but the South Pacific and Asia 
will begin to pick up around noon and 
should be fairly strong around sunset and 
a little bit into the evening. The morning 
and evening gray-line paths will provide 
shorten ved but very strong propagation 
conditions, although your geographic 
choices will be limited. Daytime short- 
skip will range from 1 ,000 to approximately 
2,000 miles. 

15-17 meters 

Worldwide openings will occur from sun- 
rise lo mid-evening. Paths to the equatorial 
regions and the southern hemisphere will 
be favored, aldiough a few northerly loca- 
tions will be accessible. Europe might be 
workable before noon but that path is often 
blocked by auroral activity, so North Africa 
and the Middle East is a better bet. Most 
stations near or below the equator won't 
come aUve until after huichtime, but cen- 
tral Africa may become readable shortly 
before noon. As usual, Latin American traf- 
fic will dominate diese bands most of die 
afternoon but Asia and the South Pacific 
should begin to compete around supper 
time. Short-skip will average from 1,000 to 
2,200 miles. 

20 Meters 

Good DXing should be available around 
the clock but solar activity will tend to di- 
minish openings. Look for peaks just after 
sunrise, during the late afternoon, and again 
in the early evening. Try Australia up to mid- 
morning, Europe from mid-morning 
through early afternoon, and Africa in the 
late afternoon. Central and South America 
should be open most times except around 
sunrise. Asia and the Orient will only be 

available to night owls- Early risers might 
try long paths across the Antarctic into 
southern Asia and the Near East, Short- skip 
can range from 500 miles during the day up 
lo 2,100 miles at night. 

30-40 meters 

Good worldwide opportunities can be 
found from about 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. local time. 
Central and Soudi America will be the domi- 
nant stations, but operators east of the 
Rockies may find Europe and die Middle 
East just as strong between supper time and 
midnight. Hams living in the western U,S. 
will probably only find strong signals in the 
direction of Cenn-al America although the 
Middle East may open up for a few hours 
in mid-evening. Japan and Australia will be 
limited to late night hours for West Coast- 
ers. Skip distance is between 750 and 2,000 
miles at night but but less than 1,000 miles 
during the day, 

80-160 meters 

Some decent worldwide DXing will be 
available from sunset through sunrise, but 
high sunspot activity will again weaken sig- 
nals. Easterners should find the best open- 
ings to Europe or North Africa from just 
after sunset to midnight. Midwestern opera- 
tors will find the Caribbean and the Ameri- 
cas strong all night, wliile stations west of 
the Rockies will find weaker openings both 
there and in the South Pacific or Far East. 
Expect skip to be between 1,000 and 2,000 
miles at night. 

Read All About It! 

continued Jrom page 59 

every three gage numbers. For example, 
no. 13 copper ware has 2.0 ohms per 
1000 ft., and no. 16 has 4.0 ohms per 
1000 ft. Another way of saying this is 
that resistance is cube-root-of-two or 
1.26 rimes higher for each number 
increase in gage. 

One of the most practical questions 
about wire is, '*What size wire do I 
need to carry a panicuiar current?" For 
wires in bundles or in confined areas, 
and a temperature rise of 1 degrees C 
(18 F), the following table may be 

No, 28 (wire- wrap) 3/4 A 

No. 22 (hookup wire) 2 A 

No. 1 8 (lamp cord) 5 A 

No, 12 (house wire) IDA 

For a si^^glc wire in free air, or if 
temperature rises up to 35 degrees C 
(63 F) are permissible, these allowable 
currents may be increased by a factor 
of two. 

Stranded wire is sized to have ap- 
proximately the same resistance as 
equivalent- sized solid wire. For ex- 
ample, no, 18 stranded may consist of 
16 strands of no. 30, or 65 strands of 
no. 36 wire. The advantage of 
stranded wire is that it flexes more 
easily, and resists breaking under 
continuous flexing. 

Al high frequencies, magnetic fields 
within the wire force nearly all of the 
current to flow at the surface of the 
w lie, leaving the inner core relatively 
useless. This is called "skin effect/' 
Copper-clad steel antenna wire con- 
ducts Ciuite as well as solid copper^ 
because all the RF current flows in 
the skin anyway. Plastic TV antenna 
elements with a thin aluminum coat- 
ing are as effective as solid aluminum 
elements for the same reason. 

At audio frequencies single- wire 
conductors (such as antennas, coax 
cables, and power lines) experience 
skin-effect problems for wire sizes 
larger than about no. 10. When wound 
in coils, wire sizes larger than no. 22 
are seriously affected. 

At a frequency of 100 kHz, single 
wires larger than no. 22, and coils of 
wire larger than no. 42 suffer in- 
creased resistance from skin effect. 
Above 1 MHz, virtually all wire sizes 
are seriously affected. 

To give you a practical example of 
what diis means, a single-layer 1004urn 
coil of no. 32 wire on a 1/2-inch di- 
ameter form will have a DC resistance 
of 4.2 ohms, an inductance of about 
50 |lH, and a reactance of about 640 ohms 
at 2 MHz, The Q might be expected to 
be 640 / 4.2 or 1 50, but skin effect will 
raise the AC resistance to about 42 ohms, 
and the Q will actually be about 15, 

Stranded wire suffers from skin ef- 
fect as much as solid wire. However, 
back in the 1920s radio coils were of- 
ten wound of separately insulated 
strands soldered together at the ends. 
This "litz" wire gave some relief from 
skin-effect resistance and resulted in 
sharper tuned circuits. S 

73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 61 

Neuer srv die 

continued from poge 57 

jusi 30 minutes of breaihing secondhand 
smoke brought ihcir hlood How down lo 
thai oi ihc smokers. Thaf s soiiiething 
for smokers to think about when they 
light up in the car wiih their kids in die 
back seat. 

Still Another Poison 

Since acrylaintde is well known to 
cause cancer in lab animals, and the EPA 
allows no more than 0.12 micrograms in 
an S-oz. glass of water, what are some 
other Ci)inmon sources? The Swedish 
government ran some tests on some 
items which might he of tniercsi. 

In micrograms per sening iticy re- 
poned that Tosiitos tortilla chips had 5. 
Honey Nut Chcerios 6, Cheerios 7. 
Lays ptJiaio chips 8, Fritos corn chips 
II ^ Pringles 25, Wendy's french fries 39 
(big: 530 calories), KFC potato wedges 
52, Burger King trench fries 59 (large: 
600 calorics), and ihe winner by a mile: 
McDonald's french fries 82 (large: 610 
calories), No wonder kids arc gelling 
cancer al such early ages, as well as fat. 

West Nile Hype 

Ya wanna have some fun? Try and get 
any honest data on West Nile virus vie- 
tims from the CDC or state authorities. 
Investigative joumalisis have and failed. 

You may remember that New York at- 
tributed seven deaths to WNV, but you 
won't gel any details. Independent re- 
search found that iill seven were over 
75 years t>ld, one had a serious heart 
condition, two had cancer with heavy 
chemotherapy (no immune system left), 
and all had ptxir immune systems. None 
of the deaths were aciuall) attributed to 

WeVc told that children and the eld- 
erly are at risk. Baloney, Children are 
far more al risk from pesticides and 
mosquito repellents. 

So whal^s different about WNV? Not 
much. In its effect on humans it is just 
like St. Louis virus, v\hich has been around 
since 1933. Less than l^ of people in- 
fected with WNV or SLY develop any 
serious illness, 


Back in die '40s, Francis Pottenger, a 
dentist, decided to see what effect diet 
might have on longevity. He picked cats 
for his research. H(M) of *cm. He split 
them into iwo groups. He led one group 
raw food. This group remained healthy 
throughout the experiment. The other 
group he fed processed food. Junk fotid. 

The first generation of the second 

62 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 2002 

group developed arthritis, diabetes, al- 
lergies, and cancers, jusi like we humans 
do. They developed these diseases to- 
ward the end of their life span, which 
was about iwo-lhirds as lonsi as ihe raw 
food eaters. 

The second generation junk tbod eaters 
developed these same diseases tow ard the 
middle of their lives. 

The third generation developed them 
earlv in their lives. There was no fourth 
generation, since the third-generaiion 
cats were unable lo conceive, or when 
they did, they aborted. 

It was Pottenger's research that helped 
convince Dr. Bruno Comby to put his 
sicker patients on all-raw -food diets. 
The resuhs were spectacular, as rcpt)rted 
in his book. Maximize Irmmwiiy {see 
page 8 of my Secret Guide to Wisihm}. 

Today, in America, 25% of our young 
adults arc unable to conceive. Spontane- 
ous aborlion and miscarriages are on the 
rise. The number one killer of children 
under ten tiHiay is cancer! 

Well, look at how our diet has changed 
in the last hundred vears. abtuit four 
generations ago. That was before super- 
markets and tist fotxi. We ate fresh food, 
raw milk, and meat with no growth hor- 
mones or antibiotics. That was before 
packaged and fro /en food. That was 
when people were eating anumd tlvc 
pounds of sugar a year instead of 150. 
Tliai was before our farmlands were de- 
pleted of minerals. That was before 
crops were sprayed with pesticides. That 
was also before deodorants, bug sprays. 
toothpaste with Huoride, and so on. Our 
kids are coming down with diseases 
which used to only strike the elderly. 

Potlenuer found that he could reverse 
the problem by changing the cat's diet to 
raw food, but it took three generations to 
do it- 

It's something for parents who are 
feeding their cliUdren sugar-frosted cereal, 
swimming in a bowl of growth hor- 
mone- and anlibiolic- laced pasteurized 
milk, for breakfast to think about. Oh, 
and Pop-Tarts, 

American Imperialism 

With the collapse of the USSR* which 

we bankrupted wiUi our military spending, 
(he U.S. is the world's only superpower. 
WeVe not sure just what this means or 
how we sliould aci» but we do seem to 
feel a growing collective responsibility 
for manai!in!i the world. Like our excur- 
sions into Haiti, Somalia, Kt>sovo, the 
Gulf War, and so on. Oh. we try to wrap 
ourselves in the cloak of the U.N.. but 
it's a thin disguise. 

We arc. by far, the mightiest military 
power ill the world. Today we spend 
more on our miliiarv than the niilitaries 

of the next Tifteen largest countries com- 
bined. Thai's major mighty. Our economy 
is larger than tliose of Geniiany, Japan and 
Great Britain combined. 

Box Cutters 

Have you seen anything in the media 
aht>ui how all of those 911 hijackers 
manaiied lo ijet box cutlers through the 
airline security systems? I haven t lieard 
an > thing about anyone being stopped 
with a box cutler. There was a sugges- 
tit^n al Ihe time about the possibility that 
ihey might have been hidden in the scats 
by conspirators in the ground crews. 

Wliat I haven't seen mentioned anv- 
where in the news was a report 1 goi from a 
good friend who is a flight attendant for 

One of the first moves by Delta after 
the attack was to have the seats of all 
Delta planes checked for any possible 
weapons hidden in them. My infor- 
mant says ihai box cutters were found 
hidden in the seats of 23 of their 
planes. Wouldni you expect that this 
would be a screaming headline in the 

Which raises the question ... how 
much else are we not bein? told. 

Conspiracy buffs arc having a hall 
with the WTC attack. 

When you read fmo The Buzzsan^ 
which documents one huge sovernmcnt 
cover-up alter another, and Day of Deceit, 
which dcxrumcnts Presitlcnt Roo.sevelt's 
planning and arranging the Pearl Harbor 
attack, we begin to suspect that con- 
spiracies may be more the rule than the 
exception, and that our hope thai the 
media wilt blow the whistle is a fantasy. 

It could be that the last airline action 
in reniovinu box cutters from who 
knows how many planes may explain the 
lack of the second expected aiiack. If 
one airline found 23 planes with box 
cu iters in the seats, how many were 
found by other airlines? And how about 
I he coordination it took to get so many 
of them hidden in the planes by ground 
crew terrorists? I don't recall anything 
ever being in the media about these 
members of the terrorist group beine 
hunted or caught. Eh 

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Here are^ some of my bool^s whkh can 

chyngf your life (If you' 1] kt 'em). If 
tlw kti-a <^f [>el£ig healthy, weiifthy and 
wwe intiTc^ts you, start tcudin^* Ye% 
you Clin !>e all that* but only w hen you 
know the secrets which Tve spent a 
lifetime uneovering. 


The Secret Guide to HeaTlh: Yes. 
ihe re rca 1 1\ i s a secret lo rega i n i ng your 
healili and adding 30 ro 6() years of 
heaJihy livbg lo your fife. The answer is 
simple, but ir means making some se- 
rious lifestyle changes, Will you be ski- 
ing ihe slopes of Aspen with me w hen 
you're 9(j or doddering around a nurs- 
w^ haine?Orpushing updaisks? No, Vm 
not selling any health products, but I 
can help you cure younielt' of cancer, 
heart trouble, or any other illness. Get 
this new, 2002 expanded edition 
(160p), $10(#04) 

The Secret Guide to Wealth: Just as 
with healih. youll find ihai you have 
hem suckered by "the sysiem" into a 
pauem of life that will keep you from 
ever making much money and having 
the freedom to travel and do what you 
want I e^iplain how an>one ^'an get a 
dreajujob with no coDege. no resume, 
and even without any experience^ 1 
expbin how you can get someone to 
happily pay you to learn vvhai yon need 
to kni>w to Start your own business. S5 

The Secret Guide to Wisdom; This 
is a reviiaw of around a hundred books 
thai will boggle your mind and help 
you change your life. No, 1 don'l sell 
Uiese books. They're on a wiiie nmge of 
subjects and will help to make you a. 
vcc\ iniefesting jiersoo. Wait '11 ytni see 
some of the gems you ve missed read- 
ily. You'll have pkxit>' of fiisdnatlng stuff 
to talk about on the air. $5 ( #02} 
The Blood Purifier HandTMMjIc: This 
cspUuns hou 10 build or buy (SI 55) a 
little electrical gadget that can help 
clean your bbod of any virus, microbe, 
para&iiet fungus or yeast. The process 
was discovered by scientists at the 
Albert Einstein Coilegc ot'MiiJiciiii.\ 
quickly paten led. and huilied up. ll's cur- 
ing A£DS, hepatitis C, and a bunch of 
other serious iUnesses. It's working 
miracles! S10I#01) 
Plant Growih Stimulator: This has 
llie same circuii as the above, all ready 
lo use. Many cusionters are buying 
second and third units for ibeir familv. 
Postpaid: S 1 55 «#PGSj. 
My WW II Submarine Adventures: 
Yes, I spent from 1943-1945 on a sub- 
marine, right in the middle of the war 
with Japan, We almost got sunk ^veral 
times, and twice 1 was in the right place 
at the right linie to save the boat. 

What's it really like to be depth 
charged? And what's the dailv life 
aboard a submarine like? How about 
the Amelia Earhart inside story ?if 
you're near Mobile^ please visit the 
Dmm. $5 ttlOl 

Travel Diaries: You can travel amaz- 
ingly inc?t pensively -once you know 
the rDpes_Enjo)f Sheny andmy budget vis* 
its 10 Eurtjpe, Russia, and a bunch of 
other interesting places. How about a 
first class HtghE lo Munich, ii rented 
Audi, driving to visit Vienna, Krnkow 
in Poland (and the famous sail mines )» 
Prague, back lo Munich, and ihc tml 
class night home for two, all for under 
Si, 000. Yes* when you know how you 
can travel ine:^ pensively, and still stay 
in llf^[ ^ Ltxs boiels. S5 (I U 
Writer"* Guide; lis easy; fun, can pad 
yourr^ume, and impress the hell out 
of vour friends SO (78) 
W*a V ne*s Cari h bean Advent u rv^ M \ 
super budget travel stories - where I 
visit die hams and <icuba dive most of 
the islands ot the Caribbean, You'll 
love the special Liatfare whicli let nie 
visjl I ] coil nines in 21 days, diving 
all but one oi [he islands, Guadeloupe, 
where the hams kepi me loo busy with 
parties. 3i5 (#12* 

Cold Fusion f Ken iew: This is both 
a brief history of cold fusion, which 1 
predict will be one of the largest in- 
dus tries in the world in the 2tst cen- 
tury, plus a simple explanation of hov, 
and whj it works. This new field h 
going to generate a ^ hole new bunch 
of billionaires* just as the personal 
computer industrv' did. S5 (#20) 
Improving State Government: Here 
are 24 wavs that stale govenunents c:in 
cut expenses enonnously, while provid- 
ing far better service. I explain how any 
govemnieiu bureau or depaitnient can 
be gotien u* cut its expenses by at least 
50^ in ihree yeais and do it co(J|kiu- 
lively and enthusiastically I explain 
how^ by applying a new lechnologv; the 
stale can make it possible ro provide all 
needed services without having to levy 
^v taxes at all! Read tfie book, run for 
your legislature, and let *s get busy mak- 
tng this countrv work like its foundei^ 
wanted it to. tXjn*t leave this for'*some- 
one else" to do. $5 (#30) 
Mankind's Extinction Frediction.s: If 
any one of Ihc experts who have writ- 
ten btioks predicting a soon-lo-coina 
catastrophe whict] will virlually wipe 
most of us oui i^ right, we're in tnHjl>le 
In this book I explain about the 
various disaster scenarios, like 
Nostradamus, who says the poles will 
soon shJli tas ihey have se\'sal time** in 
the past I wiping ixn 97% of mankind 
Ok^, so he'^ made a long string of past 
hicJcy gue^es. The w orst pan of these 
predictions i'^ the accuracy record of 
some of the experts. Will it be a fwle 
shift, a new ice age, a massive solar 
flare, a Comet or asteroid, a bioterrorist 
attack? I'm getting ready, how about 
you? $5 (#3 1) 

Moondoggle: After reading Renews 
book, NASA Mooned America^ I read 
every tiling I conlil find on our Moon 
landings, 1 W'alched the NASA videiis, 
lookied carefully at the photos, read die 
astronaut's biographies^ and talked 
with some readers who worked for 
NASA. This t»ook cites 45 good rea- 
sons I believe the whole Apollo pn> 
gnun had to have been faked. S5 (#32) 
Classical Music Guide: A list of ICK) 
CDs which will provide you with an 
outstanding collection of the finefil 
classical music ever written. This is 
what you need lo help you reduce 
stress. Classical music also raises 
youngster's IQs, helps pi ants grow 
faster, and will make you healthier Just 
w ait' VTMi hear btm le of Gcvu^dtaik's fabu- 
lous music! $5 (#33) 
The Radar Coverup: b pdBce radar 
dangerous? Ros^s Adey K6UL a world 
authority, confirms the dangers of ra- 
dio and magnetic fields, including our 
HTs and cell phones, S3 (#34) 
Three Gatto Talks: A prize- winning 
teacher explains what's wrong with 
American schools and why our kids 
are not being educated, Why are Swed- 
ish youngsters, whii start school al 7 
years of age, leaving our kids in the 
dust".' (Jur kids are inieniionaliy being 
dumbed down by our school system 
— the least effeciive and most expen- 
sive in the world. $5 <#3S) 
Aspartame: a.k.a. NutraSweet. the 
stuff in diet drinks, etc., can cause all 
kinds of serious health problems. Mul- 
tiple sclerosis, for one, Read all about 
it i\^ o paiiiphleis for a bucL (#38) 
Si Million Sales \'ideo: The secret of 
how you can generate an extra mil- 
liondollais in s;des jiist by using PR. This 
will be one ot ihc best investments you 
or yoir business will c\a n^tke. $4t)i#52) 
Reprints of My Editorials from 73. 
Very^ few things in tliis world aje as we've 
been taught, and as they appear. As an 
iconoclast 1 blow die uhisiJe un the scams 
annind us. such as the liealth care, our 
school sv'Siem,. our monc); the dnie: vtan 
a colkse education, sufiar. the food slants, 
our imhealdiy food, tluorides, EMFs, 
N'unaSv\ eet esc. 

1996 lOU Editi^ial Esiis^ $5 ( #72) 

1997 157 Editori^ Essmni $& (#74) 
199S 192 Editorial Ei^^ $10 (#75) 

1999 165 Editorial Essays: S8 (#76) 

2000 1 01 Editorial hlssays: S5(#77) 
20U] It^ Editorial EiLsav^: $5 (#78) 
Silver Wire: Wiih iwo 5-in, pieces of 
heavy pure aiver wire + three 9V t>aner- 
tes \ou can make a thousand dollars 
worth of silver colloid. What do you do 
with it? It does what the atui bio tics do, 
but genns can*t adapt to it. Use it to 
get rid of genu s on food, for skin fun- 
gus, warts, and even lo drink. Read 
some books on the use^ of silver col- 
loid. it*s like maeic, S15 (#80) 
CoUuid Repfint, April '97 article on a sil- 
lier colldd maker, hisiorv; and how to use 

CoUotd Clips, Three 9V baiter> clips. 2 
aligaior clips Si imtmctjLins- S5 (**y9K 
AC^pot^ened Colloid Kit: 12V power 
supply, siher wires, reprint, including pri- 
t>rity mail shipntent. S3 7 (#82| 
Four Small Booklets Comho: S3 (#86). 
Superflh^nic Food: a trillion tbUar new 
indMstr}^ Schools in 2020: anodier S iril- 
lion industry. Anthrax, a simple cure. 
Dowsing: why and how it works. 
My 1 992 We The People Detlan? War! 
Chi Our l^iusy Gov enwjenl book-36() 
[lages and packed w iUi i deas ihaf 11 gel you 
all excited Was S13, While tliey last SIO. 
Just a few (eft found in tlie waiehoi^e. 
Last chance for diis classics #06) 
StutT I didn't w rit e, but >ou need: 
NASA Mooned America: Rene 
makes an air-tight case thai NASA 
faked the Moon landings. This book 
will convince even you. S3€ *#90> 
l^st Skeptic of Science: This is Rene's 
btXfk where he debunks a bunch of ac- 
i.:e]iEed scierthlic beliefs - such as die ice 
ages, tlie Earth being a magnet, the Moon 
causing llie ddes, and etc. S3(l (#91 ) 
Hark Moonr 568 page*^ of carefully 
researched pmof that Ihc Apollo Moon 
landings were a hoax — a capping blow 
for Rent's skeptics. S25 (#92) 
19S2 General Class License Studv 
Guides. Teaches the fundamentals of 
dKlio & elcctricii). Was S7 I found a 
few in the warehouse. S3, while they 
last. Great book? (#83) 

Box 416. Huntua NH 03449 






Use: dit uiMutieti in ibr hr4it:keiim€apypti^ uid m^^rk Die books yua wam . A4J %} tJ^ fcft toisA 

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73 Amateur Radio Today * December 2002 63 



Barter 'n' Buy 

Turn your old ham and computer gear into cash now. Sure, you can wail for a hamtest to try and dump it but you know you'K get a far more 

realistic price if you have it out where 100.000 active ham poleniial buyers can see it, rather than the few hundred local hams who come by 

a flea market table. Check your attic, garage, cellar and closet shelves and get cash for your ham and computer gear before it's loo old to 

sell. You know you're not going to use it again, so why leave it for your widow to throw out? That stuff isn't getting any younger! 

The 73 Flea Market, Barter 'n' Buy, costs you peanuts (almost) — comes to 35 cents a word for individual (noncommercial!) ads and Si .00 

a word for commercial ads. Doni pian on tetling a long story. Use abbreviations, cram it in. But be honest, Tfiere are pienty of hams who love 

to fix things, so If tt doesn't work, say so. 

f^yiake your list, count the words, including your cali, address and phone number. Include a check or your credit card number and eKpiration. 

\t you re placing a commerciai ad, inctude an additional phone nurriber. separate from yourad. 

This is a monthly magazine, not a dally newspaper so figure a couple months before the action starts: then be prepared. If you get too many 

calls, you priced it low. II you don't get many cajls, too high. 

So get busy. Blow the dust off, check everything out, make sure il still works right and maybe you can help make a ham newcomer or retired 

old timer happy with that rig you Ye not using now. Or you might get busy on your computer and put together a list of small gear/parts to send 

to those interested? 

Send your ads and pajinent to: 73 Magazine. Barter 'n* Bu\, 70 Hancock Rd.. Peterborough NH 03458 and jit't set for the 
llhuiie calk. The deadline for the Februai) 20(J3 classitied ad section is December 10. 2002. 

220 MHz Award; see W9CYT on WWW .QRZ. 

for informatEon. BNB645 




250 pictures prices. S12 postpaid- ARTtFAX 
BOOKS, Sox 88. Maynaid MA 01754. Telegraph 
Museum: [httpj/wltp.comj. BNS 1 1 3 

Mew miniature oscillator modules are now avail- 
able ... all under S20 ... plus our great reference 
book is still for sale. Write to RMT Engineering, 
6863 Buff ham Road. Seville OH 44273 or see 
our Web site at [ 
index.html/]. BNB640 

2SC1972. MRF247, MRF455, MB8719, 2SC1307, 
2SC2029, WRF454, 2803133, 4CX250B. 120Q6, 
6KG6A. etc. WESTGATE. 1 800-213-4563. 


WITHOUT HANGUPS Johan N3RF. Send S1 .00 
RIES. RO. Box 8t, Washington DC 20044 USA. 


Cash tor Collins: Buy any Collins Equipment. 
Leo KJ6H1. Tel./FAX {310) 670-6969. [radioleo® 
earthlinknetj. BNB425 

Browse our Web site and check out the 
"Monthly Special." ID L Technology, Inc, [www. 
2ianet.CQiTT/td]]. BNB500 

Thomas Appleby (copyright 1967). Second print- 
ing available from JOHAN K,V. SVANHOLM 
RIES. RO. Box 81 . Washington DC 20O44. Rease 
send S25.00 donation with $5.00 for S&H. 


Ham Radio Repair, Oualily workmanship. All 
Brands, Fast Sen/(ce. Affordable Electronics. 
7110 E, Thomas Rd., Scottsdale, AZ 85251 . Call 
480-970-0963, or E-mail [HAM SERVICE® AOL 
COM]. BNB427 

64 73 Amateur Radio Today ■ December 2002 

SATELLITE TV — Large selection of items at 
reasonable prices, We specialize in Big Dish 
TVnO C S Ku Band equipment. CIneck us out at 
[], BN B646 

HEATH KIT COMPANY is selling photocopies of 
most Heathkil manuals. Only authorized source 
for copyright manuals. Phone: (616) 925-5899, 
8^ ET. BNB964 

USED ROTORS, controts. CD-44, Ham-M, 2, 
3.4. T2X. or (arger. Call C.A.T.S., 1*800- 

Electricity^ Magnetism. Gravity, The Big Bang. 
New explanation of basic forces of nature in this 91 - 
page book covering eafiy scientific theories and ex- 
pforing latest controvei^ial conclusions on their re- 
lationship to a unified field theory. To orderi send 
check or money order for S16.95 to: American Sci- 
ence Innovations. RO. Box 155. Clarington OH 
43915. Web site for other products [http;//www, 
asi_2000. com], BNB100 

"box of batteries" for hundreds of dollars? Current 
regulated, AC powered, fulfy assembled with it 2 
AWG silver electrodes. S74.50. Same, but DC pow- 
ered. $54.50. Add S2.50 shipping. Thomas Miller. 
216 East 10th St.. Ashland OH 44805, Web ad- 
dress []. 8NB342 

Service kiL Includes 13 Extender Boards and 
Digital Jumper Card. $63.85 includes postagen 
See I^rsroffne], Bob W7AVK, 
2327 Malaga Rd. NE. Moses Lake, WA 98837, 
w7avk@arrLnet. 509-765-4721. BNB664 

ANTENNA SCIENCE: Why do antennas radiate 
eiectro magnetic waves? Learn for yourself from 
this enlightening paper by MAX RESEARCH. 
Gain an understanding of the radiation mecha- 
nism of antennas' Written in a ctear style for radio 
hobbyists, inquisitive amateurs and experifnenters. 
S4.95 ... ppd. Order from MAX RESEARCH, P.O. 
Box 1306, East Northport NY 11731. 


topics. Up to 1 5% off. Quality Technical Books. 
[http://qtb.corn/hamradio/]. BNB665 


[www,a-aeng]neering,com] BNB653 

FREEH HAM Radio and other CD-Ronns and 
Disk catalog MOM 'N' POPS SOFTWARE, RO. 
Box 15003-TH, Springhill, FL 34604-0111, 1-352- 
688-9108, visit; httpy/www.momnpopsware.coni 


WANTED: ANY MODEL ColHns. working or not 
including speakers, filters, options. 1 -piece or 
collection. Bob. 651-354-5345 days: 651-345- 
3600 eves, E-Mail: rkemp@mr.nel. 8NB661 

WANTED: Yaesu FT-101-ZD Extender Cables 
for sen/tdng. Conrad, K7CHC. 360-68 1-2774, 
Email: []. BNB663 

V-smm STMhS KSTAL SERVirt'« Stioeittta ^r <** Jw^tup. MjRi^te- 
m^ KKJ rtfinilllltiCI i Rc-^ted H *? IT S.C 3«i«S« 1 1 PyMKaUrRiTTtlfi 7^ 
AmafL-ur 1iiiJii> T^iwiay r3i Pi4di»iiiiii ^^i l(h2J522 iliHlin*Dve' to- 
ol -U!: t4i Uum t-w^fteocy: Mtmshi^ r^i S^^ m morh PlihlfyMd Anmulhr: 

Hsatixi UimL VeitAvfim^ ItiiM^Kiiaffe Ctf.. Mil (LU5«*EI(ri tti C4» 
r-Lsrir AtUrviA 4if Hmkpufier^ iirGcncnl BduiiinsiKriDr of iMbkeriTilkii 
■ H 7n iLuKiiLi it4i Pnei^ivv^iL NH nu^^i m m Fun Sxm 

WijTK Gfactt.7a HAtciici koM. t^aaimmtmft, NH ll^SN. Wj|>iir GreciL 
"Hf HukwI Raid. in^cilHnwlL N^H UM^H: kn\t n»*Je\tfL Til Uiuzoc^ 
RitiiL PrlrflfmkusrtL NHiliM5S |](l»C)iiwr fitialirnn«ii] Wj> I id , Vi} Hin 
t*k HrnKtuL NM 11 W4*; Watw trrecB. tii h^% 60. HidiLm-L, \H (i]U4V 
in i KttMiia BrifHiidluildcTf.. Tkion>Ui!iN;^. laS ftUta Sitwii\ Kii3det% Owniiii! 
nr Ri^yiiig I J*iDPCPiJt m More uf Ti*il Aiiniuni <■! Hih^^jl ^^o^*ai^es, iw 
r^hiT Sct'mflk'ir Niiiic tl2> iFiir ciliiigik'lhiii liv nutifiEuni iirEBJiizatiiMtiii 
[\^i l*u h lit ui liiii Niiirti." ■ 7 .^ AmitPiir RjiJii > Ti ul ji |t i}4i 1\sul- Umit' Ifir Cirvu- 
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ngc Nt). CtjpliMi bncli litNUt During Pretiedlrija 1^ Mfjinlis; AlIu^I Hit. Copiw 
M SJii-pIt' Issue IHihtiillLiit Ni;;iri;^L l« Fiilnji U.ile 4 ft) Tuttll IVfl, Ctit*ieN {titl 
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^nrprT.HPrnpirN/rwKHAjf civil swntunns (ffir/wf/'i>i^ nvH ^ii'tuiltv^),} 

Alinco Delivers HF Adventure! 

Allnco's HF Dransceivers Deliver incredible Performance at a Tiny Price 

You're only a few hundred dollars away from a brand new Alinco HF Transceiver. That's right! Just a few hundred dollars gets you on the air 

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Tiie world of HF Is calling. What are you waiting for? 

Alinco DX-70TH Base/IVIobile/Portable 
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• Two VFO's and easy "split" operation 

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Alinco DX-77T Deslctop HF Transceiver 

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• General coverage receiver 
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• Two VFO's; easy "split" operation 

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• Built-in electronic keyer 6 ^ 60 wpm 

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Front panel connections for mic, key, speaker 
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56/t44/430 MHz 5W FM Transceiver 

Actual Size 

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