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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine March 1980"

^fj' 



March 1980 $2.00 U.S., S2.50 Canada 




microcomputing 

THE magazine for TRS- 80* users 



Printers Apprentice: Instant and accurate quotes. Pg. 22. 



Biorhythms: 

Your physical, 
mental and 
emotional state 
displayed. Pg. 117. 

Investment 
Analysis: 

Calculate your 
potential Return 
on Investment, in 
minutes. Pg. 28. 

Artificial 
Intelligence: 

A self modifying 
game program, 
that becomes 
unbeatable! 
Pg. 55. 

KWIC Index: 

Find information 
fast, with a 
technique 
developed by IBM. 
Pg. 60. 




7^47a"65947' 



03 



Plus; 

14 Programs with complete listings. 

Source Code for 4 Assembly Language programs. 
More than 30 articles and columns. 



'a trademark of Tar\dy Corporation 



Fpom PEFQOM 




Low Cost Add-On Storage for Your TRS-80*. 

In the Size You Want. 

When you're ready for add-on disk storage, we're ready for you. 
Ready with six mini-disk storage systems — 1 02K bytes to 591 K bytes of 

additional on-line storage for your TRS-80\ 



• Choose elttier 40-track TFD-100'^' drives 
or n-track TFD-200'" drives. 

• One-, two- and three-drive svstems im- 
mediately available. 

• Systems include Percom PATCH PAK 
*r^ on disk, at no extra charge. PATCH 
PAK #1'*de-glltches and upgrades 
TRSnOS' tor 40- and 77-track operation. 

• TFD-1D0" drives accommodate "flippy 
disks. ' Store 205K bytes per mini-disk. 

• Low prices. A single-drive TFD-100''' 
costs just $399. Price Includes PATCH 
PAK #r" disk. 

• Enclosures are Ilnished In system- 
compatit}le "Tandy-sltver" enamel. 



Whether you need a single. 40- 
Irack TFD-1 00 '^ add-on or a three-drive 
add-on with 77-track TFD-200'"s. you 
get more data storage lor less money 
from Percom. 

Our TFD- 1 00"^ dnve. for example, 
lets you store 102.4K byles of data on 
one Side of a disk — compared !o 80K 
byles on a TRS-80* mmi-disk drive — 
and 102 4K byles on the other side, too 
Something you cant do vwilh a TRS-80* 
drive That's almost 205K bytes per 
mini-disK. 

And the TFD-200"^ drives provide 
197K bytes of on-line storage per drive 



— 1 97K, 394K arxJ 591 K bytes for one-. 

two and three-drive systems 

PATCH PAK #r^. our upgrade 
program for your TRSDOS*. not only 
extends TRSDOS' to accommodate 40- 
and 77-tfack drives, it enhances 
TRSDOS' in other ways as well. PATCH 
PAK #T" IS supplied with each dnve 
system at no addiiional charge 

The reason you get more for less 
from Percom is simple. Peripherals are 
not a sideline at Percom. Selling disk 
systems and other peripherals is our 
main business — the reason you get 
more engineering, more reliability and 
more back up support (or less money 



In the Product Development Queue ... a printer Interface (or using your TRS-8D' witti any 
serial printer, and . , . the f/ec/nc Crayon '"to map your computer memory onto your color TV 
screen — lor games, animated shows, business displays, graphs, etc. Coming POQ! 



•TBS-8D and iflSDOS i«» ''alW^l"^ ■ 




PERCOM DATA COf^PANY. INC, 
211 N. KIRBY • GARLAND. TX, • 75042 



To order add-on mini-disk storage for your TRS-80*. 
or request additional literature, call Pefcom's toll-tree 
number: 1-800-527-1592. For detailed Technical infor- 
mation call (214)272-3421. 

Orders may be paid by check or money order, or 
charged to Visa or Master Charge credit accounts. Texas 
residents must add 5% sales tax. 

Percom 'peripherals for personal computing' 



RS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 
RS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 



RS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 
RS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 TRS-80 



The 



feDuQpDQte 




ScoMlfpCilDDy 



HARDWARE 


WORD PROCESSING 


UTIUTY& LANGUAGE 


Centronics 


Magic Wand by Small Business 


Small Systems 


TI810 


Applications 


TRS 232 


NEC 5530 


Electric Pencil by Michael 


RSM Monitor 


Pertec 


Shrayer 


TRS Formatter 


Shugart 


Special Delivery by Software Etc. 


Racet 


MPI 


Merge Name & Address by SBSG 


FMG 


CDC 




Lifeboat 


Complete TRS-80 Mod 1 and 


FROM THE LIBRARY 


Microsoft 


Mod 1 1 Hardware 


Learning Level U by David Lien 


Apparat 


Percom 


Basic Handbook 






TRS Disk! and other Mysteries by 


BUSINESS 


ENTERTAINMENT 


H. C. Pennington 


Small Business Systems Group 


Microsoft Adventure 


TRS 80 Software Source 


Structured Systems Group 


Automated Simulations 


Software Technical Manual by 


Lifeboat 


Scott Adams 


Houston Micro Computer Tech. 




The Bottom Shelf 


80-US 






Kilobaud 


TRS-80 IS □ 'rademork of the Tandy Corporanon, 




80 Kilobaud 





To order by phone or for local dealer information call: 713/661-2005 
Texas residents add 6% sales tax • MasterCharge • Visa 

HOUSTON MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 

Home and Business Computer Specialists 
5313 BISSONNET • BELLAIRE • TEXAS • 77401 • 713/661-2005 



^13 



ALMOST 
PERFEC. 



The 



MAGTC WAND 



is the most powerful, 



most flexible, most reliable, most usable word processing 
software available for a CP/M-based computer. 



That's not bragging That's just telling it 
like it IS 

The MAGIC WAND is the best word 
processing software ever written for a 
microcompuler It can do more work in 
less time with higher quality than any 
other product you can buy 

The MAGIC WAND is a rock solid piece 
of software. The command structure is 
simple and logical and complete. We have 
not tossed in features without thought to 
the overall design of the package. Nor 
have we included any feature that is not 
thoroughly implemented. The programs 
are crash-proof and completely reliable. 

And the system is supported by what we 
are told IS the best user's manual ever pro- 
duced (or microcomputer software, It 
contains a step-by-step instructional pro- 
gram designed for the novice. The trainee 
uses sample files from the system disk and 
compares his work to simulated screens 
and printouts in the manual 

Support doesn t stop when you buy the 
package. As a registered user, you receive 
our bi-monthly newsletter which answers 
questions, reports upgrades and teaches 
new applications of the MAGtC WAND 

It's through a lot of hard work that we 
are able to offer you a product that is 
■'almost perfect, " but we aren't about to 
stop working until we can say that the 
MAGIC WAND is perfect. 



Full screen text editing 

The MAGIC WAND has probably the most 
responsive and easy-to-use editor avail- 
able for either a serial or DMA terminal It 
uses only single stroke control keys to 
give command and takes advantage of the 
special function keys on your terminal 
whenever possible, in addition, you can 
set up library files wit h coded sections that 
you can merge by section name 

Full text forrtiatting Commands 

The MAGIC WAND allows you tc set the 
left, fight, top and bottom margins, page 
length, indentation, paragraph indenta- 
tion, (incuding "hanging" paragraphs), 
text left flush, right flush, justified (two 
ways), literal or centered, vanableline and 
pitch settings, variable spacing (including 
half lines), bold face, underlining (solid or 
broken), conditional hyphenation, sub- 
and superscripting You may change any 
of these commands at run-time without 
reformatting the file. 

Merging with external data files 
You may access any external data file, 
with either fixed length or sequential 
records. The MAGIC WAND converts the 
record into variables that you define and 
can use like any other variable. Of course, 
you may use the data for automatic form 
letter generation But you can also use it 
(or report generation 

To order by phone cr :or ioca» aealer intormation ca.;: 713/661-2005 
Tt-fxti.s iQsidftnts arid B% .Sv-ilea tax • MasterCharqe ■ ViliU 



Variables 

You may define up to 12B variables with 
names of up to seven characters. The cur- 
rent value of a variable may be up to 55 
characters, and you may print it at any 
point in the text without affecting the cur- 
rent format Although the MAGIC WAND 
stores the variables as strings, you may 
also treat them as integer numbers or for- 
mat them with commas and a decimal 
point You may increment or decrement 
numeric variables or use them in format- 
ting commands. 

Conditional commands 

You may give any print command based 
on a run-time test of a pre-defined condi- 
tion The conditional test uses a straight- 
forward IF statement, which allows you to 
test any logical condition of a variable. 
You may skip over unneeded portions of 
the file, select specific records to print, 
store more than one document in a single 
file. etc. 

True proportional printing 

The MAGIC WAND supports proportional 
print elements on NEC, Diablo and Qume 
printers. Other formatting commands, 
including justified columns, boldface, 
underline, etc.. are fully functional while 
using proportional logic. 



HOUSTON MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES, INC 

Ho:::e and Business Computer Spec}al]sis 

'j^n BissoNNET • nn.i.AT^r • T^x^?^ • 77401 • 7]rm\ 2005 -^^^ 

s«vaX\ busvuess a:|^ca\M)as, vuc. 

3220 Louisiana • Suite 205 • Houston, Texas 77006 • 713-528-5158 



CP/MisaregisiefMiraOemarko' Digital Research Cotd 



4 • SO Microcomputing. March 1980 




microcomputirigl OATA 



March 1980 Issue #3 



APPLICATION 

60 KWIC Index. Find It fast! Leslie Sparks. 
117 Biorhythms. On a peak? Ralph Holthausen. 
127 Duty Roster. Put people in place, Dick Straw. 
138 Soundex Codes. Name sound tamiltar? Robert Hodge. 

BUSINESS 

22 Printers Apprentice. Make a good impresston. Rich Barnes. 
28 Investment Analysis. Informalion in minutes. Leslie Sparks. 

GAME 
55 4K InlQlllgsnce. Self modifying program. William Lopez. 

GENERAL 

79 Part-time Consultant. Money on the side. Michael Morin. 

HARDWARE 

72 lowercase & UPPERCASE. The best ot both worlds. Don Sfoner & Dick Barker 

88 Babybug Keypad. Easy entry for Hex. Denriis Kitsz. 

96 Home Brew Interlace. Customized control, C.R. Vince. 

113 Regulate It! Smooth your ripple. William Klungle. 

120 I/O Ports plus. Low cost mterface. Sr^an Harfon, 

132 Box It In. A cabinet Idea. John Zainerunas. 

HOME 

42 IRS-80. Record your deductions. William McNeill. 
130 Graph Plotter. Display your bills. Scoff King. 

MATH 
84 Equations. Get to the root of them. Allen Joffe. 

REVIEWS 

58 Useful Utilities. Renumber. Remodel & Proload. Charles Leedham. 

77 Quick Printer. A $100 label? Henry Riekers. 
134 One Into Two. Old programs m new BASIC. Sherman Waniz. 
136 RS232. The Radio Shack interface. Roger Hicks. 

STYLE 
94 Inside the ROMs. Some useful routines. Sruce Stock. 

UTILITY 
46 SPOOL & DeSPOOL. Split personality when printing. H.S Gentry. 

80 Test Your Memory. See if your chips are absent-minded. Milan Chepko. 
105 LPRINT Routines. Hardcopy Video, Craig Werner. 

115 Whazit? Read your tapes. J B. Penny. 

122 Screen Editor. Non-destructive cursor. William Colsher. 

125 Extra Errors. On Error read this. Charles Moses. 



REGULARS 
6 80 Remarks. Wayne Green. 
8 80 Applications. Dennis Kitsz. 
10 Club 80. floss Wirth. 
12 Input. Why not you? 
14 80 Accountant. Michael Tannenbeum. 

CttMf photography by »•••• Fowt»r, 



15 Captain 80. Bob Liddii. 

16 Unlimited 80's. Sherry Smythe. 
18 NEWS. Michael Comendui. 

146 Preview. Next month in 80. 

146 Advertisers Index. 



E(HiO''PuMlah«r 

Wayne Groen 

EiKutlv* V)c« ProtMonl 

Sh«"y Smyihe 

Corpora U Corttmllar 

Alsn Thulann«T 

AMJstant EditorrPuMlihof 

je't DeTray 

ManaBlr«f) EdHor 

Jim Parry 

Production EdHor 

MFChaet Cemendui 

Edttorlal Aialalartta 

Emily GibbB 

Suian Murray 

Triomas Peabody 

Ravlow Edilor 

CfiMs Browf 

AdmlnlitratlvaAaalalant 

LaaiccoONeii 

Product ton Managar 

Noai Salt 

AaalaianI Productton Managar 

Robin Sloan 

Production 

Stave Baldwin 

James Buliar 

Bob Draw 

Bruca Hadin 

Ken Jackson 

Clare McCarthy 

Mlciaei Mutpny 

Dton Owana 

Nancy Saltnon 

Patrice Scribner 

Sue Sytnorxls 

John White 

Typ*aeltlr>g 

Ba'bara Laitt 

Sara Bodall 

Mary KInial 

PtwiBgraphy 

Bill Hsydolph 

Tedd Ciutt 

TBr"e Anderson 

Reesa f ow.er 

Accounting Manager 

Knud Ke'iif 
circulation Manager 

Debra Boud'ieau 

Bulk Salat Managar 

Girny Boudtieau 

Circulation 
Pauima Jonnatone 

Ba-bafS BiocK 
European Marketing 

Rei'ha'd NeOeia 
Auilrailan Olalrlbulor 

Ka'herine Thirkeli 

Advertising Manager 

Aline Coulu 

Adieit-jing 

Kevin Ruahalko 

Penny Brook a 

Nancy CUmpa 

Marcia Stona 

Jerry Meffiftald 

Louise Moldawo'th 

Harold Slepheni 

Phoet>e Taylor 

Rita nward 



Manuscripts are welcome at SO Klic'ocompuling, we will consider publication o' any Tns-SOonenied material Guidelines 'or budding authors are available, please seod 
aseil-add'essMenvelopeandasK tor 'HowloWnlstoraOMicoco'n/iuffnp. All n>ate'isl to be published will De paid lor upon acceptance by the Edilor. Address all sub 
missions tor the attention of the Managing Editor. Enure contents copyright 1960 by 1001001 Inc No part of tbis publication may be reprinted, or reproduced by any 
means, wllhoul prior written permlssior> irom the publisher All programs are publislned lor personal use only, and may not be reproduced for others. Alt righls reserved 

SOWcrDcompuryn{;(ISSN iapplled (or) 13 puDllshedmonlhly by 1001001 Inc . Pine Street. Peterborough. NH 03456 Application lo mall second class postage rale is pend- 
ing at Peterborough, NH 0M56 and at additional rnailing offices Phone 603-92 4 -387314 Subscription rales In the US are S15 tor orve year and 140 lor three years, in 
Canada $17 lor one year and $46 for ihree years. In Europe please contact Monika Nedela. Markstr 3. D 777B, Markdotl. W Germany in South Africa contact BO 
Microcomputing, P.O. Box 7B2815. Sandton. S. Africa 2146 Australian dlsinbunon by Katharine Thirkeli. Sonolron Instruments, 17 Arawalta Street, Carnegie. Victoria 
3163, Australia. All ottier foreign subscriptions $20 lone year only) surface mail. All U S subscription correspondence should be addressed to 90 Kllcrocompuiing, 
Subscription Departmenl, P.O. Box 961, Farmingdaie, NY 11737. Please Include your address label with any correspondence Postmaster; Send form 13679 lo 90 
Microcomputing, Subscription Services, P O Bon 981 Farmmgdaie. NV 1 1737 



TTWao be a meeaaMt 9l ttm luttt CafpwWIen. 




80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 6 



META TECHNOLOGIES 



F«Now TRS-80 Ustr: 

I'd like to thank you for your interest in our products and tell you something about our 
company. Active in more than a dozen areas of the computer business, MTC's consulting 
and custom programming operations extend mto five states. Although our work includes 
the more "traditional" minicomputers, the TRS-80 is no stranger. Members of our staff 
have worked on the TRS-80 since 1977 After five months of planning and preparation, 
MTC attacked the national market in the premier issue of 80 MICROCOMPUTING 
(January, 1980). 

Our marketing approach is simple. First, sell only top quality products. Some people 
question the quality of our Verbatim diskettes. We attract a lot of attention (and buyers) 
with our low prices, but we don't make our living selling diskettes. If you buy from us 
once, and have a chance to judge the quality and value of our products, we think you'll 
order again, and again. For example, MTC sells Apparat's popular NEWDOS't complete 
with all utilities, at the same price as our competitors But we include, at no additional 
cost. $39.90 worth of PROGRAMMING TOOLS! The cost to supply the tools is 
nominal.. .the value to you is significant. We make less profit on each sale, but we make 
more sales and more friends. Everyone makes out., except our competition. 

Second, sell at below market price. When we offer a product at a lower price that meets 
or treats a competitor's product, we setl more than the competition. As our volumes go up, 
our cost goes down. Everyone makes out except our competition. 

Third, only offer useful products of lasting value Every time you use one of our pro- 
ducts, we want you to remember us fondly. Not being a fast-buck, basement operation, 
we want to have you as a customer tor a long time. To ensure this, we intend to offer pro- 
ducts that provide continual benefit .like diskettes, NEWDOS* AIDSII, etc. Everyone 
makes out. .except (you guessed it!). 

Fourth, make it as painless to order as possible. I don't know about you, but I hate 
ordering things through the mail Give me a good, old TOLL FREE number 
anytime.. .which is exactly what we did. And three out of four of our customers use bank 
cards to charge their purchases. There is a single rate for shipping and handling (we nor 
mally ship UPS), whether your order is for one or a hundred-and-one items. 
Simple, convenient, no tricks, no hidden costs. 

Finally, render fast and efficient service. Orders are tracked by computer, using our own 
AIDS-II system, and are usually filled within one business day We pride ourselves on our 
rate of delivery 

In the coming months, we intend to use some of our ad space to feature letters from 
other members of our management staff (e.g Customer Service, Product Engineering, 
etc.). We feel the t>etter you get to know us. the more comfortable you'll feel dealing with 
MTC, ..and the less you'll deal with you-know-who. 

MTC AIDS II represents the essence of MTC's product development philosophy. Below 
are "testimonials" from four owners of the package These are absolutely authentic 
statements and are typical of the comments we receive. 

"The AIDS-II package is the most powerful data manager we've ever seen. The most 

complete and easiest to use!" r\.i^i_.. B-..^...-r *. ^« 

'^ DavKJ Johnson, President. John-Tronics Security Co. 

(Uses AIDS-II for client and prospect mailing lists. A/R, gun registration and alarm 
systems logs) 

"It w(H do everything it's advertised to do plus whatever else your 
imagination aMows. It is tfie best software value on the marltet today. AIDS-II is the most 
significant software development I've seen, and wiH have as large an impact on the 
marketplace as the Radk) Shack TRS-80 did on the mcrocomputing market." 

Vern Hall, V. Hall Insurance Agency (Nationwkle Insurance) 
(Uses AIDS-II for client and prospect mailing lists & follow-up systems, A/P, A/R)) 

"...the best system for the non-programmer I've ever used. It has an unlimited number 
of uses. I might have to buy another system just to have It on-line at all times... " 

Robert I. Gross. CPA 

(Uses AIDS-II for mailing labels, client reference system, for providing an audit trail to 
disburse funds to general ledger) 

"...the most flexible and powerful system I've seen, especially with modules such as 
MAPS. The weakest part <rf the AIDS system is the Radu Shack Computer! " 

L.G. Payne, Media Specialist, Strongsville High School 
(Uses AIDS-II for mailing lists, tracking of audio-visual materials, experimenting with 
student attendance records) 

We at MTC look forward to providing you with the quality products and service you 
deserve and should expect. If we offered you anything less, we wouldn't be Meta 
Technologies Corporation. ..we'd be you-know-who. 

Sincerely. 



-^^e^t^tt^(^rj& 



MTC AIDS-II 

AMng miomution? QoctcirltupwithA^II. TMb 
Autonutsd kitonnition HsLtury Syitwii ii user- 
defioMl, featum uur-ueclifea fieMs and 
print/dtaplw tor mats, conditianri record Mtoctkin, 
upcMkig of fleUi within records, sortkig by iny 
combiiwuuii ol fleldt, and much mora! UniQui 
MnnOoMnnc capabUny allows directories of 
unlmitod £b. Window sia is typkaHy 200 or mora 
records in 32K. Can be uMd tor maltrv Ws, dtont 



reference lepw l hu. appu hi ti imi t "C J Wn aa r i ", in- 
ventory records vid other intormabon systims. 
Ejqr to uH. DefHnf i lyitam takes kxmt ■ 
mmute. Formattinc a report or defMnga custom 
libel, less than 30 nconds. Sorting ZX) rocardi 
takw les s than 5 sec onds. Add "subqrstems" tor 
additiufiil cipibflitMs. 

MTC AIDS-II $49.95 

For Modern $79.95 

CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM (CALCS) 

Use tor report lenarMton nvoMng banc nunipulB- 
tion of numeric data, such as quvitity ft cost com- 
putations, tiilvtces carriod tonHn) and columnar 
totals Expands capibHies with respect to vrven- 
lory, accounbng and other numenc-tMsed ntorma- 
lion systems- 

MTC CALCS $24.95 

For Model II $39.95 

MAILING/INFORMATION LIST 
SUBSYSTEM (MAILS) 
Use for report & Wid gener a tkMi Invohring format- 
tini of primarily non-numeric data, such as 
cudom, 'N-up" and "N-copy" litiel forms, index- 
type report formatting, and iub-fieldfn| 
capabiibes tor tetoctton t pri nt. Eipwids AIDS- II 
with respect to client/product reference ly items. 
maing tots and other non-numeric Mormabon 
systems. 

MTC MAILS $24.95 

For Model II $39.95 

RECORD/FILE ORGANIZATION 
EXECUTIVE (REFORGE) 
Use tor expmdaig, contracting or refornwtbng 
AlOS-ll ties. Convert rmlom « sequantW Has to 
AIDS-II tamwt Use lor canvartkvmaMni Ws to 
AIDS^Undudts MERGE * PURG E capaHbMtor 
combning (nuNer fltos nto lv(er ones and remov 
wm cliyltale records. 
MTC REFORGE $24.95 

'Model II $39.95 



MTC TECH B.S. 



< 



Our excktthe Technical Buletin Service reveata 
the Inakle story on the TRS40* I A II. Sent by first 
dan mal. butettrnare i wueda s the newsbrsaks, 
not )ust once a month. Expensive, but worth It! No 
idvertiikii or ftynr M pure Tedwilcal B. S.! 
Cancel any time - unused bilKKa refunded. Free 
yeir-end luNect Index with IZ-month ubscHp- 
, Hon Subtacta have hckjdad 'PEEKiPOKE tunc 
I bons tor Model H". "Machine Lanpnge Sort tor 
Str«« Arr«s". 'Tandy Markatir« An", and 
"Level H Memory Locattons". Subacripbons may 
be badi-dalBd to obtah prevkwi Bdtotins. 

1-Year Subscription 

(Includes free index) $36.00 

Monthly Subscription $3.00/mo. 



TRS-BO ind Ridn Slwck vt rtf tScred 
tridtnwki v( Tinit| Corii 



Robert A. Fioreili 
President 



PEEK&POKE $14.95 

Frustrrtad because PEEK vtd POKE have been 
removed from Model II BASIC?. Sitiity your 
curiosity with PEEK&POKE tram MTC. Inckidad 

are frbit «id 16-bit (LSB, MSB) iair-retocallr« 
machine language routines, kistrucUons, and damo 
prograni. 



6 • 00 Microcomputing. March 1960 



MAKES EVERY BYTE COUNT 

IN YOUR TRS-SO" MODEL I OR MODEL II DISK SYSTEM 



PROGRAMMING ^y^ff^J^FREE 

Trkrkl C Any 5. $79.80 
I UULO For Modem $119.80 



• NEW* •NEW* 

TDAM $19.95 

ForModHII $29.95 

Hwiiif trouble with RANDOM FILES? With MTC's 
TaMe-Drtven Access Method (TDAM) you'll never 
fret over FIELDinf again. No knowledn ol 
random access files a reouired. Insert the TDAM 
"interpreter" into any BASIC prof ram and type in 
a tew DATA statements describing the intormation 
in your tiles. TDAM does the rest! Reads and 
writes fields and records of any type (even com- 
presses a DATE field into 3 bytes!}. Features 
automatic file buffer allocation/deallocation, 
memory buffering, sub-record btocking/de- 
Wocking. and handles up to 255 fields per record. 
Super last and super simple! Complete with 
TDAM interpreter, instructions and demo pro- 
gram. 



SIFTER $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Twelve in-memory high-speed sorts for use in any 
BASIC program: stable, non-stable, with/without 
tags, for numeric or string data. Random File 
Sort included. Some sorts written in machine 
code. Includes sort subroutines, demo programs 
and instructions Relocate as needed with 
REBUILD 



SHRINK $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Makes Every Byte Count!. Make programs 
smaller and taster! Combines lines & removes un- 
necessary code including remarks, without alter- 
ing program operatwn. Typically reduces pro- 
gram size 25% to 40%. 



DIVERGE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Compares two BASIC program files, showing the 
differences between them. Identifies & lists Knes 
which have been inserted, deleted. & replaced- 
Um for version control. 



SUPERSEDE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

A "must have" tor ttie professional programmer 
or the serious amateur. Protubly one of the 
greatest time-savers availal>te. Write programs in 
shorthand - change variable names - generate 

a ram documentation - use with REBQILD and 
SLE to buikl new programs from old ones. 



REBUILD $19.95 

For Model 11 $29.95 

Reorganize programs tor adding program code. 
(aster execution, readability. Much more than sim- 
ple renumbering. Rearrange groups of statements 
within a program - automatically updates 
references to line numbers. Use with 
SUPERSEDE and MINGLE tor maximum effect. 



MINGLE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Merge two files (Program or Data) into a single 
file. Data files may be merged in ascending or 
descending sequence with the ordering based on 
a user-specified comparison field. A very handy 
utility tor consolidating data files. 



> 



. 



mTc-SHIRTS 

HIGH-QUALITY. POLY-COTTON 

BLEND T-SHIRTS, white with Navy Blue 
neck and sleeve "ringers". MTC logo on sleeve. 
Top quality transfers of your choice on front. 

Specify size (S.M,L.XL) and Transfer: 

• META TECHNOLOGIES MAKES EVERY BYTE 
COUNT! 

• D0N7 TOUCH MY BITS! 

• RAM it! 

• MICRO LOVERS TAKE SMALLER BYTES! 

mTc-SHIRTS $5.95 



FILESORT $29.95 

For Model II $49.95 

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t^ fi»Mf»f Sbit/c*— se« page 147 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 7 



go REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



Stnnetimes I tend to assume too much and 
not communicate as well as I might. In the 
case of elearonic mail I assumed that everyone 
else was as fed up with the increasing slowness 
and cost of the U.S. mail and that the value of 
sending mail electronically was self-evident. 
My error. 

My concept of EM runs something like this. 
The time is well on its way when a microcom- 
puter/terminal will be on most business desks 
and in most homes. I'll be able to type in a mes- 
sage, using the telephone number as an address. 
This message will then be sent to the addressee 
via telephone lines almost immediately. 

My system will dial the number and if it's 
busy, it will continue to check the number every 
minute or so. When the Une is free, the system 
will send a tone that prevents the phone from 
ringing on the other end and actuates the EM 
unit. 

After the system receives a handshake signal, 
tell the other unit how many bits of information 
are forthcoming, send the message, await an 
okay, and hang both up. Time, at 1200 baud, 
perhaps one minute. 

The EM unit on the other end will have a 
light indicating an awaiting message. This can 
be read whoi convenient and a response made 
... all within a minute or two, if needed. 

WIU Save Phone Calls 

Such a system will not only speed up mail 
from several days or a week to a minute or two, 
but will also cut down on a lot of phone calls. I 
really hate to make phone calli. Often the other 
chap is on another line, or busy in a meeting, 
out to a late lunch, getting a haircut, or, per- 
haps, molesting his secretary. 

The dollar loss in voice phone calls will be 
made up by an enormous increase in message 
billing, so the phone company will make out 
fine. 

The U.S. PcKt Office will have to find 
something better to do, bless them. 

While we are all waiting around for the 
govenuneni and Ma Bell to organize some sort 
of electronic mail system, it is my fiendish plan 
to get it going via microcomputen as quickly as 
possible. We'll have over a million miao sys- 
tems out there by the end of 19S0, and this will 
certainly be enough to get a service started. 

Businessmen will be aUe to handle much of 
their own correspondence . . . athome, if they 
wish, just by re-routing the messages or having 
them repeated from the office. The present cost 
of correspondence can be cut substantially 
where no typewritten copy is required, no 
secretary, no paper, no filing. 

If a permanent copy is wanted, it can be filed 
on tape for later retrieval, put on microfiche, or 



even printed out and filed, if absolutely neces- 
sary. One of those relatively low cost 10,000 
megabyte disks could replace file cabinets. 

I know it would be heavenly sent, if I had 
such a system. If some irate subscriber had 
missed an issue, instead of calling me and rais- 
ing Cain, he could send a message. I would pass 
it along to the subscription department, a mile 
from my office. They would relay it to the full- 
fillment house in New York. The answer would 
come back directly to the subscriber, with an 
acknowledgement to our department and to 
mc. Alt that would take just a few minutes in- 
stead of about three weeks. 

I have asked several firms to design the hard- 



ware for just such an EM unit, aiul one has 
obliged. The interface will be strictly RS-232 
and thus useful with almost anything, so we 
need software for all the popular micros, if any 
of you programmers are interested. 

The program will have to word process, al- 
lowing the microcomputer to work as a correc- 
ting typewriter and to get it to tone or dial the 
needed number after a prompt. The system 
should be as transparent to the user as possible . 

If you think you have the background for 
this, let me know. We are expecting prototypes 
of the interface unit soon and project a massive 
release of the system this coming summer. ■ 



JipAPPllCATIONS 

^^ ^^ hu npnniR Kits? 



by Dennis Kitsz 



A single screw on the case bottom is covered 
with a drop of tinted lacquer: it warns 
"Keep Out!" But you know a little electronics, 
and you've fixed your brother's TV ... so in- 
to the TRS-80 you go, remembering the five 
cardinal rules of hobby electronics: 

• Never get a Technical Refertnce Handbook. 
It's five more dollars they want after you've 
already put up hundreds. 

• Pull everything apart to see what it looks 
like. Remove all socketed ICs and put them 
in a plastic bag. 

• Test everything. There's nothing like a good 
torture test, so poke around with meter and 
scope probes and screwdrivers, and smack 
things with your knuckles. Be sure to do it all 
with the power on. 

• Try experiments to see what happens. If the 
screen goes wacky, that's a sign you're doing 
something. Keep trying. Don't forget to twirl 
all the trimmer controls, too. 

• If a part looks about the same, it probably 
fits; put it in. Corcrilary: Never read Thomas 
Hardy, Herman Melville, or spedfication 
sheets. They're all boring and playing 
"Space Poutoes" is more fun. 

Three weeks later, you're still lookiiv for a 
Radio Shack willing to take on the repair work. 
Two months after that, you've got it back, plus 
a bill for over a hundred dollars. 

Poidng, Prodding, TkuinplB| 

Of course, I am suggesting that the TRS-80 is 
a pretty sophisticated electronic toy and not 



very responsive to poking, prodding or thump- 
ing. It can succumb with devilish quickness and 
quietness. 

If you've decided that your TRS-90 needs a 
change or addition, and you intend to do it, 
your chance of success can be high. But do buy 
and read the Technical R^erence Handbook. 
You may not understand it all, but even a 
general feeling of how, why and when the 
machine performs its activities is worth the time 
spent. 

If you're instaUing someone else's hardware 
addition or modification, read the documenta- 
tion carefully. Understand what the change 
does and how it works. 

Always open the case with great care. The 
boards are made up of hundreds of delicate cir- 
cuit traces that can be broken with a scratch, 
and there are several rather unpleasant inter- 
connection cables that can unexpectedly snap 
loose. Leave sensitive ICs and cables in place. 

I took my TRS-80 apart the very day I 
bought it . . . and broke the Levd II intercon- 
nect cable. Two weeks, tea d(41ajs. 

Leave the power off until testing time, and 
then reseal the case. It's no fun to discover that 
the IC you piggybacked or the DIP switch you 
put in place of a jumper works just beautifully, 
but putting on the cover crushes it into the cir- 
cuit board, sending the computer into a micro- 
frenzy. 

Never just "try it." There may be more than 

one way of achieving a givoi change, but avoid 

Continued to page 10 



8 • 80 Microcomputing, Marcn 1980 



^^ 




BASIC SOFTWARE LIBRARY 

NOW • 10 • Vblumes and Growing 

IS SPONSORING A 

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And unlike others we are giving a large portion in CASH that you Don't have to spend with us. You are 
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Jack 

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APPENDIX C 



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Volume VII— Part 1— Chess 
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USE TODAY 




^APPIKATIONS 

Continued from page 8 



experimenting with a disemboweled TRS-80 
before you. If whai you have insialled doesn't 
work, don't jumper connections or rotate con- 
trols. You did something wrong, so admit it. 
and recheck or rethink everything. Test care- 
fully, using good equipment and proper test 
clips. 

Read ThiMc Spec Sheets 

Last of all. when doing your own design or 
substituting parts, read specification sheets. 
This warning (as well as this entire column. 1 
must admit) derives from my own experience. 
The TRS-80's designers were kind enough to 
leave some blank area that could contain an ex- 
tension of [he Level II ROM. Delighted ai the 
prospect, I set about designing a small ROM 
board to include utility programs of interest. 

1 decod«l the address of the area, and hand- 
wired a small board that contained various ICs 
and S42 worth of 1702A EPROMs. These han- 
dy little circuits were relatively inexpensive, and 
they could be individually erased for future 
program changes. 

It didn't work. I had considered everything 
but speed. All the mysterious talk about access 
time and X number of nanoseconds came into 
focus. 

A quick look at the TRS-80 clock revealed a 
speed of 1.66 MHz, which meant one cycle 
every— quick calculation — 600 nanoseconds. 
Turning to the spec sheets, 1 found the 1702A 
had an access time of — disappointment edging 
toward anger— 900 nanoseconds. 

Even veteran experimenters need to be 
reminded that digital circuits have a low 
tolerance for abuse or marginal design. On the 
other hand, well-designed hardware additions 
or modifications are very much a part of the 
community of TRS-80 hobbyists, and that's 
one way of making these microcomputers re- 
spond to human needs. 

Additionsl ^oies 

Additional notes on Faster! Faster! (Feb. 80 
Microcomputing) for those of you with disk 
drives. Howard Batton of Auburn, WA, brave- 
ly went ahead with the modification. He says: 

"1 went the whole route the first lime ... as 
you suggested, the disk won't power up in [he 
high speed mode, so 1 had to reverse the Q and 
Q' leads. As it stands now. after only a couple 
days to try the system. I can use the high speed 
most of the time, including disk reads and 
writes from BASIC. The DOS commands, 
however, don't want to work properly, at least 
not all of the lime. Some of ihem, e.g. format, 
copy boot, dnn'i work al all in high speed 
mode. So far. I haven't lost any programs or 
Miped out any diskettes, so I count the high 
speed mod a success." 

So you disk owners will want to power-up at 
the lower speed. As noted, reverse the leads 
from Z7 to ZSPEED. Now OUT 254.0 gives 
you low speed, OUT 254.1 is high speed. Very 
many thanks to Howard. ■ 



C1UBSJ9 



by Ross Wirth 



I am happy to hear from you to learn your 
ideas and thoughts on the content of this 
column. Please send your comments lo me at 
15906 E. 96 St, N.. Owasso. OK 74055. An 
SASE would be appreciated for persona! re- 
plies. 

Newsletter Review: Chlralrug News 

Chicairug is a TRS-80 User Group that 
meets every month on the third Wednesday 
from 6:00 'lo 9:00 PM at 203 N. Wabash. 
Room 2102 in downtown Chicago. Their 
monihl\ newsletter for January was ten pages 
long. The breakdown of the newsletter was 
1 ■ ; page> of short notes and new product 
reviews. I page of meeting annoum-cmenis, 4 
pages of ads, and 3 ' : pages of articles written 
by club members. These articles include a 
review of programs that have sound output, a 
machine language program for draw ing a pin- 
wheel and a line between two {\,\) points and 
a good explanation of how to use VARPTR in 
your programming. 

Chicatrug News is published monthly by 
Emmanuel B. Garcia. Jr. & Associates, 203 
N. Wabash. Room 2102. Chicago. IL 60601. 
.Annual subscription rate is S12. 

Prognimining Hints 

One topic thai everyone seems interested in 
is short programming tricks that they can in- 
corporate in their programs. For those who 
are interested in such goodies 1 will present 
one or two each month. I'll try to give credit to 
the people who bring them to my attention. 
The original creator will also be credited, if 
known. 

Ixtss of inrormstion on the screen when 
entrrlnK data: While playing a game you are 
prompted to enter some information. You 
type the information in and hit ENTER and 
before your eyes a line of the screen is blanked 
out as the cursor moves to the next line. The 
problem: you cannot control the cursor mov- 
ing lo the next line. 

Solution: Use INKtY'S for entering infor- 
mation to your program. This will prevent the 
lossof informal ion on the screen and will keep 
the cursor at its present location. 
Try this example. 

HJ1K.I S 

no KIR I H)47:SI T |<fi,l|.Nt\l I 

1211 PRIM Iri 1W,"SL'MBI H''"; 

HO \S= INktVSilI- \i -■■■THIN 130 

140 \ VAll\i( 

iw \; - \ • \ 

1«) PRINT S! .>50.\.-SOLAREDlS';X2; 
POCOTO lio 

Notice that \.\L was used to change the 
character input to a numeric value. If a non- 
numeric character is entered VAL will return a 



zero (0). Knowing this you can check for non- 
numeric input in the data validation section of 
your program. 

Note: this works for single digit input. A 
later hint will deal with multiple digit input us- 
ing INKEYS. 

Arrows as input to i program: (brought to 
my attention by Greg Perry, Tulsa, OK). 
Every key on the keyboard is available for 
entering data to the computer, including the 
arrow keys. Instead of using U, D, L, R for 
up, down, left and right, the arrows can be 
used directly. Useful applications include 
games and word processing. Try the follow ing 
example to see how this works. 



IIKIIIS 

111) It PFFKn44()l)l STHEN PRINT "UP*' 
i:Wlt PFFk(144(KH IftTHEN PRINT -tWWN" 
HO l^ PEEKll44ail = 3: THFS prim ■LEFT" 
14(1 li- Pi-[KI14-«)(H MTHEN PRINT ■■RIGHT"' 

i.'ocnTo no 



Try this use of arrows in the next program 
that needs directions as input. 

Short Notes 

Recordings of programs on tape will last 
longer if you press the STOP button after 
loading the program into your computer. 
Leaving the PLAY butlon depressed keeps 
constant pressure on the tape, the last part of 
which contains the last part of your program. 
This continued and repealed tension on the 
tape can eventually cause drop out of data. 
(And who wants that to happen!) 



Last month I mentioned the formation of 
groups of individuals for the purpose of in- 
formation exchange and education. My role 
in this activity is lo match individuals with 
similar interests. Some additional areas of in- 
terest are health care, education, war-gaming. 
word processing and scientific applications. 

Each of these groups is in need of a coor- 
dinator. If you wish to join one of these 
groups or wish to serve as a coordinator please 
drop me a note and I'll make sure you get to- 
gether. 



Computer hardware costs arc still dropping 
and general software is becoming more 
powerful and available. In the past software 
was given away to sell computer hardware. In 
the future w ill the hardware be given free with 
the purchase of a software package? 

As hardware becomes, cheaper, it is financial- 
ly more feasible to build bigger, faster and more 
complex systems then e\er before. Send me 
your thoughts on the future of hardware, ■ 



10 • 30 M\crocomputing. March 1980 



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so INPUT 



Spinner Rebuts 



The firsi issue of 50 Microcompulin^ came 
Monday, and il wai^ hard to waii until the din- 
ner dishes were done and 1 was free lo relreai to 
my favorite chair lo sf>cnd several hours read- 
ing about my favorite subject: the TRS-80. In 
general I was very pleased vvith the initial issue 
of SO Microi'omputing. 1 was panicularly im- 
pressed *i[h the broad range of TRS-80 opera- 
tion/uiihzation issues the magazine articles 
covered . 

As a new disk spinner I was naturally at- 
tracted to the article by William O'Brien "A 
Disk Primer." While I thought it was well writ- 
ten. 1 did have two objections/observations 
aboul points mentioned in that article. 

My first objection is to the comment (page 
130. column 2. the second paragraph) which 
stales "... Level II tapes are not compatible 
with [he disk operating system." That is just 
not Irue. 

Mr. O'Brien has probably confused the Lev- 
el I-Level 11 tape incompatibility problem with 
ihe problem of real time clock interference 
under Disk BASIC. A real time clock is nice, 
but it does wreak havoc with tape input and 
output operations. In faci, as long as the 
clock is operating normally you get garbage 
about 80 pwrcent of the time during tape opera- 
lions. The solution is to turn the clock off be- 
fore lapc operations. That is accomplished by 
issuing the command CMD"T" just before 
tape operations. After operations are complete, 
the command CM D"R" will restart the clock's 
operation. The process only seems complex the 
first couple of times you do it. after that it be- 
comes second nature. 

(Some disk users have had interference prob- 
lems from the clock with their disk input-out- 
put operations, but I understand that Percom 
has a simple, cheap plug-in board that solves 
that particular problem.) 

The key point is that those Level II tapes will 
still work after you add a disk to your system. 
The second observation I have is regarding a 
comment Mr. O'Brien makes further on: 
"Since you TRS-80 users must have the 
Radio Shack DOS disk present in drive 0, 
there is not much room left for storage (for 
instance, RS's 2.2 DOS leaves only 18 
kilobytes of storage of a possible 89.6 
kilobytes). That means two disk drives." 
It does not mean two disk drives. It means 
you have to be a bit creative. The solution lies in 
constructing a minimal operating system. A 
minimal operating system is one that contains 
only those DOS files you absolutely need for 
normal operations. The other files are killed. 



freeing the space they occupied for other use. 
Using TRSDOS 2.3 as my example, it works 
something like this. As your DOS disk comes 
from Fort Worth it has 38 free files and 21 
grans of disk space you can use. This translates 
into about 2fi kilobyies of space. If we kill the 
following files, it is possible to more than dou- 
ble the free space: 

f-ORMAT/CMD FORMAT (THE ■ FORMAT" IS 
THE PASS\^ORDI 

BASK R.'CMD BASIC (THE -BASK" IS 

THF PASSWORD) 

flACKUPCMD. BACKUP (THE ".BACKUP" IS 
THt PASSWORD) 

TLSTZ BAS 

flSTI CMO 

TAPEDISK CMD 

GETDISK BAS 

CETTAPE BAS 

DISKDLMP BAS 

After you have killed these files, your drive 
diskette will have 47 free files and 52 free grans 
of space (roughly 66 kilobytes of free space). 
You can do a great deal with 66 kilobytes of 
mass storage! The most profitable files to kill- 
in terms of the space they free are: 

TEST2 BAS (FREES I) klLOBVTESI 

BASICR CMD (FRFE-Sft KILOBYTES) 

FORMAT a"MD (FREES i.i KILOBYTES) 

BA< KUP'CMD (FREfcS i.H KILOBYTtSI 

Interestingly enough, these are also the files 
that I find 1 don't need co have on every diskette 
I own. But whatever mix of DOS files you have 
on your drive disketle, the key point is that 
there is a great deal more mass storjige capacity 
on that diskette than a cursory glance would in- 
dicate. I'm no great shakes as a programmer. 
but I've done a lot of work with the storage 
space on my drive disketle. 

I'm looking forward to the next issue of 80 
Microcompulinf! . 

James M. Kendcrdine 

13420 ELssI Cedar Uiw Road 

Nonnan, OK 



System Crashes 



1 just received the first copy of 80 Microcom- 
puiing in the mail this week and I like what 1 
see! 1 think I held my breath long enough 
waiting for someone to come out with a maga- 
zine devoted to just the TRS-80. 

You mentioned in the magazine about ran- 
dom crashes when the interface is used, i have a 
32K system: one disk system is hooked up and 
another has been ordered. 1 also have a PR-40 



printer. As for system crashes, yes I have had 
some with the interface turned on. I sent the in- 
terface in to the Radio Shack service center and 
they sent it back saying "no problem!" 

Well, it crashed again, this time with the disk 
running! Lucky all the files were CLOSED or it 
would have been a mess! I had to push the reset 
and boot DOS back into the machine. 

As for software 1 write much of my own and 
copy some out of books and debug them so 
they will work in my machine. Some programs 
"written for the TRS-80" have to be debugged 
in order to work in my machine! 

One program in particular left a space in the 
file spec and you don'l leave blank spaces in 
your niespccs because the information after the 
blank space is ignored. 1 had to change from 
MS -t- Ml to MS -*- AS, then to get the numeric 
value of AS I used VAL(AS) to get the number 
back for my IF branches. This was the only way 
1 could get rid of that blank space! 

1 am planning to add another printer to my 
system, a full size printer but I am going to keep 
the PR-40 on line for use when a 40 column 
printer is more practical, I am going to have it 
switched from my control console. 

James Wehjahn 

Box 396 

Medford, MN 



Nobody's Perfect 



1 enjoyed the fu-st issue of your new publica- 
tion and urge you to keep up the good work. As 
a TRS-80 Level II owner the articles were very 
useful, however, I would like to bring the fol- 
lowing points to your attention! 

"Basic BASIC Renumbering." p. 82. 

If line 10070 is changed to: 10070 1F0255 
THEN L = L - 256: H = H + I the program will 
renumber all of the lines in multiples of 10 in- 
stead of the "6" spacing every 25th line. 

It is better to add H = lo line 10000 for safe- 
ly in case H has been pre-initialized. Incidental- 
ly, running this program renumbers its own 
first three lines! 

"NEW Restored," p. 84. 

I had problems with the FIXNEW program 
and finally figured out that it was O.K. if after 
running it, it was immediately followed by a 
RUN. 

If you started with LIST to see if it worked, it 
went to hell! My TRS-80 is new (August), may- 
be it's different. I discovered it needed loca- 
tions 40FD/FC and 40FD/FE loaded with the 
contents of register HL. Doing this necessitates 
moving the starting address back a few bytes 
otherwise you'll go past 4FFF. With my change 



12 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



the program ran fine. 

"Get T-BUG High," p. 118. 

This is a great program for idiots like myseir 
who are not too well up on machine language — 
once it is de-BUGged. I found that Figs. 2 & 3 
had their tittes switched and that the BASIC 
driver had an error on line 30. Line 30 should 
switch the program to line 70, not 75!: then it 
all works fine. 

Terrific! I used this shift (now called 
TBUGHl) to figure out the FIXNEW pro- 
gram. Don't be discouraged! I'm looking for- 
ward to Issue 2. 

Kcllh Walker 

1075 BruBh Hill Lam 

Lake Zarlch, IL 

I Was Cheated 



Radio Shack's Microchess cheats to win. 

There are certain conditions that can be 
reached during normal game play with MI- 
CROCHESS 1.3 that will allow the computer 
to move illegally — cheat. These conditions are: 

1 . The computer plays the black pieces. 

2. The level of play is set for IQ = 3. 

3. The computer's king must be in check and 
it cannot simply be moved out of check. 

4. One of your pawns must be blocking 
movement of one of the computer's unmoved 
pawns. 

5. Your piece forcing check must have its hne 
of action cross the space immediately behind 
your pawn that satisfies condition 4. 

6. The nature of the game will be changed if 
the computer cheats. 

1 stumbled on this error while playing against 
the machine and have since verified each of the 
conditions listed. Condition 6 is interesting 
since apparently, if cheating doesn't gain an ad- 
vantage, the machine won't cheat, even if the 
rest of the conditions are met. 

The sequence for the game 1 was playing 
when the error was discovered is listed below. 

MOVE WHrTE ILACK'S RESPONSE 



1 


Ul'TH 


G8-F6 


1 


BI-Cl 


F6-G4 


1 


E2-E4 


G4-F« 


4 


&»-ES 


F6-OS 


5 


FI-C4 


U1-T» 


6 


C4-fM 


CT-OB 


1 


DJ-C4 


[X-A5 


8 


Di-n 


Ba-D7 


9 


F3-F7 


E8-Da 


10 


EI-Eli 


□T-M 


11 


F7-F1 


DI-C7 


12 


C1-F4 


E7-E5 



Note that black's 12th move is illegal in that the 
computer has moved a blocked pawn. 

I would appreciate hearing from anyone in- 
terested in this problem or its solution. 

Mftc ToUmoH 

RD#2 

NonvBle, NY 

More on Computer Music 

It is about time somebody cared enough for 
the TRS-80 to create a "real" mj^azine for it! 1 
have seen several different ones — from the 



newspaper type (which are big jokes), to your 
sister magazine Kilobaud. This is by far the best 
and hopefully most successful endeavor for the 
computer hobbyist. 

1 was glad when I read Dennis Kitsz'sAJylp- 
piicalions column and saw that he too has a 
musical synthesizer! I would certainly hope to 
see in these pages a few articles on computer 
music, and especially applied to our TRS-80. I 
know for a fact that my Steiner-Parker "Syn- 
thacon" has been linked to a National Semi- 
conductor PACE system . I f it can be done with 
a sLghtly esoteric system, then why in the hell 
can't it be done with my TRS-SO? 

On the subject of computer music, when is 
somebody going to come up with one for the 
TRS-80 that is humanly engineered? I have 
both Shack's "Micro Music" and Mad Hal- 
ter's "Musicmaker" and both are painfully 
laborious and mundane. How about one that 
lets you enter notes as shown on a musical staff 
and displays each note on the staff as they are 
being played? Are we going to let Apple get the 
best of us? Or how does one get to know Max 
Mathews then? 



/ would 

certainly hope 

to see a few articles 

on computer music. 



Now, how about some simple articles or 
leaching scries on Assembler language. Even 
though a friend of mine (with a TRS-80) is at- 
tempting to help me, I can't seem to get past the 
NOPs and POKES. HELP!!!! I'msurel'mnot 
alone in the boat. 

Now that you know where I 'mat, I'll be anx- 
iously awaiting my wonderfully speedy (choke! 
choke!) mail service for what 80 Mkrocom- 
puting is going to do to entice me NOT to give 
up after my first year! 

Mark S. Uicas 

724 E. MBlberry St. 

LaNcaslcr, OH 



Program Size? 



I just received Issue t(\ and am impressed at 
the quality of both the magazine and its con- 
tent. 

After reading Rod Hallen's "Software Re- 
view," I was left with the nagging question 
which never seems to be answered until you 
purchase the software: How big is the pro- 
gram? 

Especially with a program like Line Renum- 
bering or GSF which is intended to run with 
BASIC programs also resident in memory, it is 
important to know how big the utility program 
is. Because if a Line Renumbering program is 
too large it cannot be used to renumber a large 
BASIC program. 

I'd suggest that you add program sire as a 



part of all reviews. 



Dogeared Record 



DuWalthcr 
2465 Tykr Road 
i,AL 



80 is superb. Your first issue mint be re- 
corded as the greatest sin^e issue of a com- 
puting magazine ever. 

I skim a magazine, dogearing an ad or article 
that 1 want to return to. Issue #1 hit a record 17 
dogears. 

Your advertisers will be pleased to know that 
they have colleaivdy trucked ei^t orda? from 
me. 

As Durocher said, "Push your tuck." 

ScMToMia 

21N Hwty SI. 

Gteaview, IL 



S^DIBUg 



Getting T-BUG HI 



Received a call today from a reader in 
reference to a problem he was having with 
the article I submitted. There is a typo error 
indeed, which 1 did not catch in the manu- 
script. 

Line 30 of the BASIC program should 
end THEN 70 rather than 75. The peek ad- 
dress does not get incremented as the pro- 
gram currently reads. It was my error in 
submission and proofing. 

Irwbi Rippoport 

24 Hemlock HIH Rd. 

Upper Saddk River, NJ 07451 



Errata 



It has been brought to my attention (hat 1 
made a major goof in the printout of the 
SORT program that I submitted for publi- 
cation. "Son 80K in 6K!" Jan. SO Micro- 
computing. Making the following changes 
to the program as listed will provide proper 
operation. 

ZW LSET DIJ - D31:PUT 1, PBiGET l,P3;D)i 

- Dll 

:P1 - n 

TKt ISfcT DIS = D4I:PIIT 1, P9:GET l.P4:D«i 

- DIJ 
:P* - F4 

320MIDVD3S.l-?W.Nll = T2S 
]» MIDMIMS,! 4 NT.NI) - TIS 
370 IF P) <> P4 THEN 4<l 

Sorry to have inconvenienced you and 
your readers. 

D. E. FHchbom 

3504 Ptermont Dr. N.E. 

Albuquerque, NM 



Continue to page 16 



90 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 13 



5!9ACGoufimNT 



by Michael Tannenbaum C.P.A. 



Listing an inventory is the most common 
application for small computers such as 
the '80. Inventories are created for all sorts of 
items, from credit cards to phone numbers, and 
shuffled in many different ways. People in 
business arc always looking for new ways to 
view their inventory, by type, by size, by color, 
by price ... the list is endless. 

In addition to a file maintenance program 
for adding, deleting or modifying data, the in- 
ventory software system usually contains a 
report generating program and a sorting pro- 
gram. These programs are used in combination 
to resequence the file according to key words, 
while generating hard copy or visual reports on 
the monitor. 

While the forms of various inventory systems 
may be similar, the reports generated are not. 
Inventory can be controlled by type, value, age, 
demand, quantity, location or combinations of 
the above. The point is that you must define 
your needs before purchasing a system. 

The Valutloii 

As an accountant 1 examine an inventory's 
valuation. Methods of valuation include: 



• FIFO— First In First Out 

• LIFO— Last In First Out 

• Average Cost 

• Speciric Identification 

• Retail Method 

Regardless of which method you choose, 
both beginning and ending inventories must be 
valued under the same one. Different valuation 
methods yield different profit pictures. Let's 
consider Tables I A. 2. 

The LIFO method results in the lowest gross 
profit of all the methods illustrated. Under (his 
method, the income statement includes the 
most recent costs (Last In First Out) aiul the 
balance sheet is left with the earliest costs. As a 
result, during inflationary times, this method 
results in a lower income and thus a lower in- 
come tax. 

But, as you no doubt anticipated, there is no 
such thing as a free lunch. Should the closing 
inventory units drop lower than the opening in- 
ventory units, the low cost units arc included in 
the income statement and the tax deferral is 
reversed with a vengeance. 

Radio Shack has issued several Inventory 
maintenance programs. One of their earliest ef- 
forts was ICS (Inventory Control System 
Catalog #26-1553). This was followed by the 
manufacturing inventory control system re- 
leased at the end of 1979. Although the two sys- 



tems are significantly different, they both 
represent usable packages which will be sup- 
ported by the vendor. 

The ICS system was intended as an inventory 
tool for a merchant who purchases inventory in 
a saleable condition and marks it up for resale 
—just like a Radio Shack store. Because the 
designers of the system were familiar with their 
own operation, they obviously used it as a 
model when setting up ICS parameters. This 
observation should not be construed as a defi- 
ciency, however, it is important to understand 
the designer's inlentioiu when considering the 
system for your use. 

The ICS parameters include the following: 

• Utilization of a stock number referencing 
scheme that requires merchandise to be coded 
with a separate prefix and suffix. The purpose 
of this scheme is to group related items yet per- 
mit item identification within the group. Ex- 
planation of the purpose of this procedure is 
not included in the documentation which ac- 
companies the system. 

• Preparation of inventory reports in which 
cost figures can be suppressed. 

• Display of a cost/retail relationship on the 
inventory report. Such information is valuable 
only if the firm has a fixed selling price or the 



inventory contrt^led is offered for sale to out- 
siders. 

• Batching sales prior to posting in a holding 
file until an update run is made. As a result, 
"available to sell" or "use" status is not 
available immediately. 

A prominent feature of the system is the use 
of a "reorder point" that can identify items in 
need of replenishment. Defining your optimal 
reorder points is a major financial goal and one 
that can justify the purchase price of a com- 
puter, related peripherals and software. But 
establishing your reorder points requires 
careful consideration. 

Key elements in the calculation of a reorder 
point usually include the following: 

• Rate of usage or sale; 

• Delivery time required by the vendor and 
associated transport after a purchase order is 
placed; 

• Minimum lot size required by the vendor 
when placing an order; 

• Definition and quantity of your firm's 
"Stock Out" philosophy by merchandise type. 

In addition, consider your capacity and any 





UBifTS 


PER LNIT 


EXTEMHIO DOLLARS 




Sales 


ISO 




S5.00 




SI. 250.00 




Inveni — Beg 


100 




2.00 




200.00 




Purchasn I ) ) 


» 




2.00 




100,00 




12) 


so 




2.50 




12Utt 




Ut 


so 




].00 




IWJ» 




M) 


so 




3.50 




175.00 




t5) 


so 




4.00 




]OCM» 




Invenl. — End 


100 






AVC. 


SPECIKIC 






KIFO 


•fc 


UFO «* 


COST 


•Tt I.D. 


«* 


Satn 


SI 250 


00 


11250 too 


SI2S0 


IX S1250 


100 


Cosl or Sales 














Invenl, Beg. 


200 




200 


200 


200 




Purchun 


JIS 




7S0 


7S0 


750 




Avg. Cost 


930 




9S0 


9S0 


50 




Less Invent. End* 


J7? 




MO 


V^ 


JSO 




Couof Sale« 


m 


46 


TJO 60 


425 


54 6Q0 


4« 


Grovi Pfofil 


1 £; 


54 


i 22 40 


i;7^ 


46 \ f^ 


52 


•Intern. C omp. 


so @ 4.00 


100 


@ 2.00 100® 2.72 


50 m 4.00 






50 @ 3, SO 








IS @ 3.00 

; @ 2.00 

10 @ 2 50 






Tables I i 2. 




20 3.50 





14 • 0d Microcomputing. March 1990 



financing requirements. Above all consider 
your rate of consumption. ICS does not main- 
tain this statistic. As a result, you will have to 
csublish a separate sales accumulation system. 

Adjusting the Record 

Another puzzling problem relates to the ac- 
cumulation of inventory cost, selling ^kicc and 
on-ordcr totals. As data is entered, the product 
of the units and the price field is used to adjust a 
total record which is carried forward each time 
a posting session is completed. These totals are 
displayed when system status is requested or ai 
the bottom of reports that display the inventory 
in its entirety. However, when each item is mul- 
tiplied times its unit cost and retail, the sums of 
the item detail lines may not equal the report 
total. 

This surprising situation is caused by two 
factors; the method used to update the inven-" 
tory record for receipts and the method used to 
print reports. 

When an inventory item is replenished, the 
original cost and selling prices are replaced with 
the new figures. If the new figures arc the same 
or the balance on hand is zero, there is no prob- 
lem. However, should there be a difference and 
a balance of inventory remains unsold, the old 
inventory will be priced at the new cost and 
retail. Since the carry forward total has been 
adjusted by the increment only, it will now be 
different than the sum of the details. 

When a sale occurs, the cost is calculated 
based on the main file cost figures available. If 
this is different than the purchase cost, the bot- 
tom totals will be distorted even more. It is 
quite possible thai the ICS owner will not be 
aware that this is happening. When a total in- 
ventory report is requested, the system docs not 
recalculate the touls. The source of the loial 
data is the carry forward record, each detail line 
is only printed. 

Aside from ICS distortions, there arc also ac- 
counting drawbacks. Since the cost of the 
original item is lost, we can no longer use 
LIFO, FIFO and specific identification meth- 
ods of valuation. All these methods require 
more knowledge about the composition of the 
inventory than is available from ICS. In fact, 
the only feasible method is average cost, how- 
ever, to use this method, the program has to be 
modified. If you plan to use ICS for inventory 
valuation purposes, please be careful. 

If you want to use ICS to establish a retail 
control to quantify shrinkage, please be aware 
that the distortions to the cost field also effect 
the retail field. Shortage measurement might be 
difficult under these circumstances. 

Since ICS does not develop the extended 
total of the retail and cost field, I am including 
the following shon program to develop [he 
missing data. To use it, simply replace the 
password extension with your system's pass- 
word. Hitting RUN and entering the number of 
items in the system gives you the extended cost. 

Although this review is quite critical of ICS. 
this should not dissuade you from considering 
it. If you can live within its constraints and are 
unafraid to face some programming, it is a fine 
piece of work. It is easy to use. well-document- 
ed, and has worked well without strange 
bugs.B 



IM ]lipT.ii-nLt Sia Iti hi. lEiTEt-.X 


IW ICXT 


rt* !F >..«r*M 10 


110 Ff;lNIICI 


:6 Kisu6^:3e 


128 CLC5€ 


4e Fc* j-iio X 


12T. SlCf 


50 CiCo..ei^-«f 


Kit* CftM-R-:?. -HHTWILE Ft^SSUCW 


5; GETJ.JR 


WK«W 


ft) ttti aWrtKI FltL^S to QUfiNTITV ( f«10(*TS 


?54e Jk=lHTC<J-lJ/4)*l 


To 0\-i;VICF&») 


J[.>J-4»INTC(J-l)/4)-l 


F»1'<VSiFLH-StI fC* COST U5E FPf FC* 


^'.a 1- lELW. Jl-tySM. ISflSFM. 2f<SFQt. «>*SFCI. 


PETftIL 


4ftSFF1 . IL'WSFLI. ZftSFRI, 2hSFR», ZftSFOI. 


63 WIHTFPJ.O;;. Ml' 


SflSFttl . cftSFVI, ZfCPII. iFGPil 


TCi = TCI-iCK'«1'> 


fttlHW 



CAPTAIN Si9 

hu Rnh I iririil ^^ ^^ 



by Bob Liddil 



Here's Capiain 80 sitting in a fresh super- 
hero uniform amidst programs stacked 
10 the ceiling. Normally 1 would be in my dis- 
guise (as a mild mannered program reviewer). 
but ihe intluv ol GAMt programs is so great 
ihai superhuman sirenglh, speed and dcMcriiy 
is required just (o keep up. 

.'\s 1 said in my last column, I believe \ery 

yrongly in games. 1 don'i mean to arouse [he 
game \s simulation fonlrovcrsy, but I want m 
illusirale my point, looking at the current 
market ol" game siifiware, 1 wonder whai hap- 
pened to imagmation. 

Not 10 say ihai there is no imaginative soft- 
ware on the market. Adventure, Dungeon- 
quest, Sargon, Sam a Para via En Fumicioanda 
small list of others, are up, running and for 
sale. No, I'm talking about Star Trek version 
2437, Blackjack version 2340.91, Hangman 
WOOO and all the countless variations of the 
programs loaded into the phone eompany's 
long distance phone lines in 1964. 

I'd like to sec some REAL simulations 



How about a life game based on the survival 
rale of apartment d^^ellers in New York City? 
You could call it Sur\i\el! and program ran- 
dom degrees of Kung Fu ability into the poten- 
tial victims. t>r instead of racing forever 
around the Indianapolis Speedway, how about 
a spirited game of Freeway, simulating the San 
Diego Freeway south bound from L.^— com- 
plete with smog, traffic jams and Eric Estrada 
on a Kawasaki, its blue light flashing. 

I'm Not Kidding! 

These ideas are just examples of possible 
themes compared to [he incredible drivel that 
manages 10 work its way onto the marketplace. 
If I have lo shoot down one more X-wing 
fighter, or hear Darth Vader's name again, 1 
think I'll mail two pt>unds of magnetized iron 
to the producer in hopes of erasing his entire 
supply. 

It is for belter ideas in programming, thai I 



announce the First Annual Capiain 80 Pro- 
gram in a Paragraph Contest. Just sit down at 
your [ypewriter. desk, kitchen table or 
whales er, and write oui in 50 words or less, a 
program you would like to see. It isn't neces- 
sary to actualh write the program, jusi ihe 
idea. 

Enlrics should be typed, double spaced and 
sent to Capiain 80. c 80 MicrocompulmB, 

Peterborough, New Hampshire 03458. Every- 
one who sends in an idea will receive a free 
membership in the SPPPp (Society for the 
Perpclualian of Perfect Programs Purveyed 
piibliciy). The best idea, as ajudicaied by yours 
truly, will earn its creator S25. Send a stamped 
envelope to the above address and i 'II send you 
a complete set of rules. Contest ends April 1st. 

The lack of high quality games leads me to 
another sore spot. Where are all the education- 
al programs? Hey. all you software producers 
out there: The TRS-80 is an educational tool! 
There are thousands of kids all over the world, 
playing Battlesiar Galactica because you and 
your programmers have ignored geography, 
spelling, science, geology and all the other 
things that these active youngsters could be 
tearing into with a computer. If you are 
marketing, plan lo market or have for potential 
sale, ansihins thai resembles a kid-level educa- 
tional program, send a copy lo me, care of 80 
MiirtKompuiing and I'll personally review it. 
Send it on tape or disc, with company name and 
where it can be bought. 

Let me remind you, I'll review software— old 
and new — as it appears on the market or as il 
crovscs my desk. I'll try (as only a true knighi of 
computer justice can), to give a fair and honest 
opinion of the programs submitted by com- 
panies and individuals for my evaluation. 
You're invited to participate. Submit a shon 
review of a program thai you like or dislike. 

And look: If you disagree with anything in 
the column, write about il!!! I'll try to answer 
each letter (in the beginning at least), person- 
ally. ■ 



80 Microcomputing, March t980 * 15 



UNliniTEDf(9*! 



by Sherry Smythe 



Here's a success story about a man with no 
electronic or computer background, who 
saved his business with a TRS-80. 

Bill Garlic and his wife, Phscilta, started 
Eastern States Traffic Service 25 years ago in a 
trailer with a S25 used IBM typewriter, a spirit 
duplicator and three customers. That first year 
was tough: they grossed only J750. 

Eastern States Traffic publishes a book of 
tariffs thai is a shippers only source of current 
freight rates for the country. Freight rate in- 
creases are proposed by the Tariff Bureau and 
cither accepted or rejected by the ICC. 

In 1955 there were five or six rate territories. 
Today there are about 35 (plus 10 intrastate). 
According to Garlic, rate changes occurred 
once or twice a year until 1979 when there were 
six. 

Bill and Priscilla updated 300 to 400 pages of 
rates, each with 450 entries, by entering the 
percentage increase in a calculator and then 
typing the new rate on a tabulated form . It took 
two to three months to revise an old hst . By ker- 
chunking on the calculator at breakneck speed, 
the Garlics would still be two rate changes be- 
hind at the end of the year. It was obvious to 
Bill that something had to be done— and fast. 

Finding HHp 

Last April, Bill picked up a pamphlet on the 
TRS-80 at his local Radio Shack. But trying to 
fmd further information about the 80 proved 
frustrating. 

Bill says there are two kinds of computerists: 
Those who want to know everything about a 
computer; and his kind, who just want to solve 
a problem and then leave the computer to do its 
work. After many fruitless attempts, he finally 
ran across a Radio Shack Computer Center 
staffed with more sympathetic personnel and 
purchased a TRS-80. But still, Bill was short of 
software solutions for his business work. 

By this time the walls were closing in on him. 
Rate changes were occurring faster than they 
could be updated , Bill figured if he was ever go- 
ing to get the programming job done, he'd bet- 
ter do it himself. With a Level II and a hand- 
book he started on the road to recovery — 
laboring hours getting the TRS-80 to run 
figures up and then down. 

Finally, after putting a lot of faith and time 
into the project, he had a program that printed 
the updated figures on the screen a page at a 
time while Priscilla copied them. His disk 
drives were on order for four months when he 
purchased re-worked ones (for the regular 
price) entailing even more study of the disk 
manual. 

Bill had an extra IBM Sclectric 11 in his office 
which he found out could be interfaced as a 




Bill Garlic 



printer. After much run around and many 
phone calls, an 1 BM rep directed him to a com- 
pany in California with a Selectric adapter kit 
that would not jeopardize his service agreement 
with IBM, 
Bill Garlic is a grandfather and a man who 



hates tinkering. But he purchased a soldering 
iron (he'd never put two wires together before), 
and spent a frustrating week installing the mi- 
crocomputer interface. 

After some false starts the Selectric started 
clacking away. Success! Bill had his first good 
night's sleep in weeks. 

Reese Fowler of Instant Software and I 
visited Bill in his office in a lovely old New 
England hilltop home by the (x:ean. Despite the 
chilly day Che pot-bellied, coal-buming stoves 
radiated warmth. Tucked away in the corner 
was the TRS-80 with its 32K, dual disk drives, 
and Selectric printer just waiting for the ICC to 
raise its rates again. 

And next time maybe it will update those 
rates a little faster, because Reese helped Bill 
with some new programming routines. When 1 
could pry him away from the computer Reese 
put on his photographer's hat and took the pic- 
tures for this column. 

Bill says what took Eastern Sutes Traffic 
two to three months, can now be done in two 
or three days. Increases that effect only parts 
of the country can be updated and in the mail 
in hours. ■ 



S!9 INPUT 



From page 13 



Appending Programs 



I would like to comment on an article in your 
first issue of 80 Microcomputing entitled NEW 
Restored, by Ken Fordham. 

As I understand things, addresses 
I6633(LSB) and I6634<MSB) are the end of 
program pointer, not the next line pointer. This 
is helpful when you wish to append two or more 
programs; but first a note about the D's that ap- 
pear between each line number, and theO 4 
chat appears at the end of a program. 

The O's that delineate one line from the next 
will be 1 's above 32767, and the end of the pro- 
gram (which looks like 4) breaks down in- 
to this: The first is the normal that the com- 
puter puts at the end of a line, the next two O's 
are a 'This is the end of the program' code, and 



the 4 means that the O's preceding are single 
precision (if they were double precision it 
would be an 8). 

When you key in NEW, you lose the end of 
program pointer, the beginning of program 
pointer (16548(LSB) and 16549(MSB», and the 
first four bytes of the program become 4. 

To append two programs, you PEEK the end 
of the first program (16633(LSB) and 
1 6634<MSB)), POKE the banning of program 
pointer to the end of the program pointer - 2. 
(The reason you POKE it to the end - 2 is be- 
cause you want one between lines, but don't 
want the additional two O's that signal the end 
of a program.) Load the second program, and 
re-POKE the beginning of program pointer to 
the beginning of the first program (which will 
be different if disk is up, and will vary from orte 
DOS version to another — so PEEK first if you 
use disk). 

Continued la next page 



16 • 80 Microcompulmg, K^arcn 1980 



To recover a NEWed program, you must re- 
POKE the end of program pointer + 2 (the rea- 
son it is +2 is because you want the end or pro- 
gram code O'sal the end of a program), the first 
four bytes and if you use disk, the beginning of 
program pointer. 

Some precautions: You musi remember 
ihat you are not working in base 10; The 
largest number you may have is 236. It is 
equally important to realize that after you key 
in NEW, any POKEs you make, arc going lo 
write into the resident program. 

That is, if you key in POKE 17129,241: 
POKE 17130, 66:POKE 17131, OiPOKE 
17132,0:POKE 16633,0:POKE 16634,67 you 
will be (staning at 17129) overwriting the first 
57 bytes of your program! 

The way around this is to make the first two 
lines of your programs (lines and 1) shift 7 
REM'S. Since a" takes up three bytes, this gives 
you 16 bytes which wij! always be the same set 
of numbers in each and every program. 

If you make only one POKE at a time (press- 
ing enter after each entry), you cannot over- 
write more than 10 bytes. To correct these 10 
bytestheeflj^ way jusi key in line 0' and line 1'. 
For increased protection, I recommend making 
the first three lines shift 7 REM's. 

To find the end of the program if you forgot 
to PEEK prior to keying NEW, just key (in the 
DIRECT mode) FOR N = 17129 TO 30000: 
PRINT PEEK (N);:NEXT 

Hit enter and be ready to press SHIFT®. 
Look at the stream of numbers until you spot 
thefirst set ofO 4's— the end of a program. 
Look back one line so that you can calculate the 
address of the LSB of the pointer of the last 
line, add the number of bytes in the last line and 
add two to that number. 

That will bcihe address of the end of the pro- 
gram to be POKEd into 16633 and 16634. 

One last note: Table 1 is a ROM codes table. 
Missing from this table is code 2S1, which is ' 
(used in shift 7 REM). A shift 7 REM is 58 147 
251 . Also, code 188 which is listed as "TAB" is 
actually "TAB(". 

Knowing the ROM codes allows you to 
change any command to any command (such as 
PRINT to LPRINT) with the following pro- 
gram (keyed in the DIRECT mode): 

FORN = 17l28rO327tt;[FPEEK(Nl-0THENN = (N + 4): 
NEXT NiELSE IF PEE1C[N) -0 AND PEEK(N+ l) = OAND 
PEEK(N*2) = 0THEN END:ELSE IF PEEKiN) = X THEN 
POKEN.V:NEXT:Et^E NEXT 

Where X = the old ROM code number, and 
Y = the new ROM code number. (Program by 
Craig Werner) 

Mr. Robin L. Silimiuohn 

1855 Woodland Road 

Ablngton, PA 

Don't Give Me Grief 



In at least two articles you printed an error 
that will cause many users much grief and OM 
errors! The Radio Shack EDTASM editor/as- 
sembler lists the 1A19H BASIC 2 entry point 
for a Ready. This address also gives OM errors 
and unsettles the BASIC Interpreter. The 
0072H entry point works properly and will not 



cause any problems. 

I have been using it in the RETURN to BA- 
SIC from our BEEP program (the return after 
the beep has been loaded and boots itself into 
the USR memory location, not the subroutine 
return). 

Below you will find a copy of the letter I re- 
ceived from Tandy. 

Harvey A. Kurtz Jr. 

Presidenl K M C S 

Box 02205 

Ckveland, OH 

There is afar better entry point to use instead 
of I A I9H and it is 0072H. A jump to this ad- 
dress returns a READY and does not give the 
OM error. If you should have any further ques- 
tions, please conlaci us ai our toll-free number. 
Radio Shack Computer Services 
John I. Snodgrass, Jr. 
Manager 



Please for novices 

like myself have 

some short articles 

written in plain English. 

Fewer Assumptions 



I have just received my first copy of your 
magazine. 

You stated that you wanted feedback about 
your first issue. As a medical school professor, 
lam using my three disk drive 48KTRS-80 for 
word processing, writing of seminars and slu- 
denl objectives, class design and short enter- 
lainmeni programs. 

1 am interested in learning more about the in- 
ner workings of theTRS-80, especially machine 
and assembly language. However 1 find the ar- 
ticles in your first issue way over my head. Most 
of them discuss machine language methods to 
do things with or to the TRS-80. Unfortunately 
the jargon and jumps of language are indeci- 
pherable to me. Your writers obviously assume 
everyone is as sophisticated as they are. Some 
introductory articles on how lo use machine/ 
assembly language would be valuable. Some in- 
troductory articles on how to function without 
cassette tape loading would be helpful. Some 
introductory articles on jargon would be help- 
ful. What is a hash? Some introductory articles 
on how to get at the contents of ROM and 
RAM and what to do with the data when it 
shows up on the video screen would be very use- 
ful. 

Additionally the problems of circuit dia- 
grams make little sense to me and probably to 
most people who want to use the computer to 
help communicate with others and write pro- 
grams Ihat will run faster. 

I know that some of this information is in the 



Radio Shack hardware books, but even there 
the information is cursory. 

In the article on decision- making there were a 
number of errors that made the program break- 
down as written. I changed line numbers and 
instructions somewhat. 

Please for novices like myself have some 
short articles in plain English, that if ac- 
cumulated and placed in a ring binder will, over 
the course of several months, explain how to 
get the most out of my computer. How do you 
use the editor/assembler, for example (the Ra- 
dio Shack instructions are awful!). How do you 
use machine language? 

I understand the theory of computers. 1 have 
been working with systems analysts analyzing 
mass data and clinical aaivities for years. 1 
have a moderate understanding of program- 
ming in BASIC and some acquaintance with 
FORTRAN but the inner works, and how to ac- 
cess them and use them, escape me at present. 
Chri^ophcr M. G. Buttery MD MPH. 
4609 Templar Drive 
Portunoulli, VA 



Useful Locations 



A long time ago, during 1977, 1 had just got- 
ten started in computers. I went to the comput- 
er store and bought some magazines and 
books, eager to learn more about this fascinat- 
ing subject. One of the magazines 1 bought was 
Kilobaud. When I got home, I browsed 
through everything. The Kilobaud magazine 
was sort of thin and the table of contents was 
on the front cover. I hated the typeface, be- 
cause all the other computer magazines had 
nice neat ones. So, 1 got turned off to it. 

Then, in November of 1979, 1 was at the 
computer store again and 1 picked up an issue 
of Kilobaud. It looked really nice, was thicker 
and the articles looked interesting. I bought it. 
After I had gotten a chance to read it, I realized 
that this was a very good magazine and from 
reading the subscription ad, I knew I missed out 
on a lot of good articles. So I went and got a 
subscription to Kilobaud and 80 Microcom- 
puting. 

In regard to "Hidden codes and Missing 
chips," I discovered some other memory loca- 
tions that might be of use. The big one is x40Bl , 
which is the pointer to the end of memory mi- 
nus two. If you have 16K and you haven't re- 
served any memory, then PEEK(16561) should 
be 254 and PEEK(16562) should be 127. 

A nice way of altering this would be to POKE 
the new values in those locations, then execute a 
CLEAR. This is a way to change the memory 
size without losing your program or reinitializ- 
ing the computer. 16561 is the low order byte 
and 16562 is the high order byte. In 16K, the 
127 and 254 from above mean 127»256 + 254, 
which is 32766, plus two is 32768, which is the 
memory size used when no memory is reserved. 

Jim Radcn 

602 W. Wayne 

Maumec, OH 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 17 



5!? NEWS 



edited by Michael Comendul 



A Computer for Business 



How does a small engineering company that 
needs — but can't afford — a large computer, 
survive in today's business world with larger, 
computer-equipped competitors? 
By adapting the hobbyist's microcomputer. 
The John West Company, specializing in pe- 
trochemical and rermery-related engineering 
services, did just that— using the S25O0 Radio 
Shack TRS-80 as a base. The entire system cost 
under $5000, interfacing the company's IBM 
Seleclric II typewriter as a printer. 

"We couldn't afford the large computers our 
competitors utilized, but we felt like we had to 
take advantage of the efnciencies, and just 
plain better job, that a computer affords in 
special engineering applications," recalled 
West. 

While no computer on the market could do 
what the company wanted at an affordable 
price, several small microcomputers came 
close. The hardware was adequate, but soft- 
ware was limited mostly to BASIC programs. 

Available maintenance and a national repu- 
tation prompted the selection of a Radio Shack 
TRS-80 computer as the base of ihc company's 
computer system. 

West's 48K TRS-80 has two floppy disks. 
The first handles 57,000 byies of memory; the 
second handles 80,000 bytes. 

"With standard software (an Electric Pencil 
program and general business programs), we 
have basically the same word processing capa- 
bility provided by much larger machines— at a 
very modest price," West explained. 

Also standard arc general business programs 
that cover everything from accounting and bill- 
ing to payroll. 

Additional engineering programs, often un- 
available from computer manufacturers, were 
specially developed and usually inexpensive. 

For less than the cost of a part-time employee 
John West has a computer system ideal for his 
small, technically oriented business. 



Hamboree/Computerfest 



A Hamboree and Computerfcst will be held 
on Sunday, March 30, at the Maryland State 
Fairgrounds at Timonium, Maryland. 

In addition to commercial exhibitors includ- 
ing Radio Shack and Heath, a number of 
smaller firms will be selling software and ac- 
cessories. Several computer stores will also be 
exhibiting. The fest is planned around an 
equipment fiea market. 




John West: His entire system cost under S5. 000. 



Speakers scheduled include Wayne Green, 
publisher of 73 Magazine, Microcomputing 
and 80 Microcomputing. One of Green's two 
public appearances in 1 980, he will be speaking 
about marketing ideas in microcomputing. 

For more information contact Joe Lochte. 
2136 Pine Valley Drive, Timonium, MD 21093. 



Children's Program 

Computers are for kids— at least that's what 
the 30 students at the Woodland School in 
Spotswood, New Jersey believe. 

Students in grades four through seven, have 
been writing their own programs covering 
everything from geography to graphics on a 
Radio Shack TRS-80 microcomputer for about 
a year now. They are part of an advanced stu- 
dent program that obtained a TRS-80 in Jan- 
uary of 1979 with a grant from the New Jersey 
Department of Education. 

Now at the request of teachers within the 
school, the students arc creating and writing 
computer programs for use in the classroom. 
The programs are designed for grades one 
through seven in mathematics, social studies, 
science and language arts and to prepare stu- 
dent for quizzes. 



The students at Woodland School were 
filmed recently for the syndicated children's 
television program, Kidworld, a children's pro- 
gram designed to give youngsters an opportun- 
ity to report what is going on in their world. All 
ideas for the content of the program arc sub- 
mitted by the youngsters themselves. 

According to their instructor, Laura Zatz, 
"The TRS-80 represents a challenge to my stu- 
dents because it is something new in learning 
and promotes creative and logical thinking. Ev- 
en slow learners can benefit from using the 
TRS-80." 



Software Catalog for Model-II 

A software catalog for Radio Shack's 
TRS-80 Model-ll computer systems describing 
accounts receivable, accounts payable, general 
ledger, payroll, inventory, rental management, 
order entry and a variety of financial and 
mathematical programs is available from Na- 
tional Marketing, Inc., Hollywood, FL. 

The programs opwratc on a 64K Model II 
with built-in disk. They are priced from $15 to 
SIOO. 

The catalog is offered free. 

Readers Service t^ 170 



18 • 80 Mictocompuling, March 1980 



Index Sequential 
Access Method 



An Index Sequential Access Method for con- 
trolling business application files on diskette is 
available from Johnson Associates, Redding. 
CA. 

The ISAM system is a series of subroutines 
the user includes in his program. Calls to these 
subroutines store or retrieve data by referenc- 
ing a key field within the record. An additional 
set of utility programs allows the user to create 
a new data file or to reorganize an old one. 

All ISAM files are supervised by the TRS-80 
Disk Operating System, thereby providing 
standard space jillocation, directory, copy, kill, 
backup and password services. 

Any record field can be designated as the key 
field and all subsequent adds and retrieves are 
based on the content of this field. Records can 
be added, updated or deleted at any time and in 
any sequence. 

The system allows up to 15 ISAM files to be 
open simultaneously, however, memory re- 
quirements for such an application would be 
large. 

Readers Service ^ 174 



Control Your Peripherals 



The TRS-80 Breadboard, a hardware device, 
available from Group Technology, Ltd., 
Check, VA, allows the microcomputer user to 
design custom interfaces for his peripherals. 
The TRS-80 Breadboard contains bi-direaion- 
al data bus buffers, a logic probe, a solderless 
breadboard, and an eight-device address de- 
coder that can be used for either accumulator 
I/O or memory-mapped I/O. The user can se- 
lect not only the mode of operation for the 
device address decoder, but also the four or 
twelve most significant bits of the device ad- 
dress. 

The Breadboard allows the user to communi- 
cate with control signals in the microcomputer 
not readily accessible. It can be used with 4K 
Level 11 TRS-80's up to dual floppy disk 48K 
Level II systems. 

A 190-page textbook by Dr. Jon Titus, 
TRS-SO Interfacing, instructs the Breadboard 




user in the construction of device address 
decoders, input ports, output ports and 
s>'nchronizaiion signals. Hardware interfaces 
and software listings are shown for A/D and 
D/A converters, programmable interface 
chips, data loggers, a traffic tight controller and 
a digital logic tester. 

The text includes 18 experiments that can be 
performed by the user with expected results. All 
programming is done in BASIC. 

The TRS-80 Breadboard is available as a 
parts hst and instructions for S3.00 or as a kit. 
Kit prices range from S25 to $250.00. TRS-80 
Inler/acing. Book I. is priced at $8.95, plus 
Si .00 shipping and handling. 

Readers Service t^ 177 



Level II Guidebook 



Dr. David A. Lien, author of the TRS-80 
User's Manual, has released Learning Level II, 
a fully illustrated guidebook created specifi- 
cally for users of the Level II TRS-80. 

The book, directed toward the novice, ex- 
amines all Level II BASIC beyond Level I with 
step by step approaches covering special char- 
acteristics. 

The manual explains how to use the editor, 
dual cassette operations, the expansion inter- 
face box with the real-time clock, printers and 
other peripherals. 

Learning Level II costs $15.95 plus $1.45 
postage and handling and is available from 
Compusoft. San Diego, CA. 

Readers Service »- 178 

Checkbook Without 
Tape Record-keeping 

Manhattan Software, New York, NY, has 
released its latest program. Checkbook Plus, 
which provides a once-a-month solution for 
checkbook and bank-statement reconciliation. 

The user enters his checkbook balance, the 
bank's balance, outstanding checks and bank 
charges to check his own balance against the 
bank's figures. A special arithmetic-checking 
section with optional automatic per-check- 
charge insertion verifies each intermediate 
balance. 

If figures don't agree, the program guides 
you through possible error sources. 

The cost IS $9.95. 

Readers Service »^ 179 



Custom Furniture 



TRS-80 Breadboard 



Custom wood office furniture providing 
maximum work surface with accessibility, is 
available for the TRS-80 microcomputer sys- 
tem from AVS, Alviso, CA. 

The unit fits into the corner and mates with 
an optional printer/typewriter platform or 
storage hutch. 

All TRS-80 units, though built-in, simply 
drop into place and do not require any mounl- 




Custom TRS-80 cabinets 



ing hardware or tools. 

The standard unit holds the monitor, cas- 
sette, keyboard and expansion interface. Op- 
tions are available for mounting the screen 
printer and/or disk drives. 

Readers Service ** 183 



TRS-80 Microwave 



Interactive Microware, Inc., State College, 
PA, is developing a library of Radio Shack 
TRS-80 software. These include the following: 
Bascx Compiler, an easy-to-learn language that 
runs up to 20 times faster than BASIC ($25 + 
58 for 97-page manual); Mirrorays, a game in 
which the user flashes rays of light into a black 
box to locate hidden mirrors, which light up 
and rcllecl the rays when hit; a Compact 
Graphics Interpreter creates graphic designs 
with a simple set of numbers-, a Lunar Lander 
Simulator provides real-time simulation and 
control of a lunar module; Battlegrid, a real- 
time game enabling two players to attack each 
other's forces. The number, type and size of 
battle pieces can be specified by the players. 

AH of these programs operate on a 1 6K Level 
11 TRS-80 and sell for $7.95, except as noted. 

Readers Service y* 165 



BASIC Protection 



Data Associates, Framingham, MA. has re- 
leased a program. UnlistS, that will automati- 
cally protect BASIC programs against un- 
authorized modification. 

It runs on a single disk system with 32K 
memory and inserts hidden passwords and 
copyright notices selected by the user so the 
program cannot be listed or printed though it 
can still be RUN. CSAVEd, CLOADed, disk 
loaded and disk saved as usual. 

Options permit unlisting all lines, or each 
n'th line, or specified blocks of line numbers. 
This program can also be used to relist a pro- 
tected program provided that the password is 
known. It can relist each line, or blocks of 
specified line numbers. 



t^ Rmiv SmMi<x—iM p*g» 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 19 



UnlistS is provided with an instruction man- 
ual and three copies on cassette for $19.95 
postpaid. 

Readers Service *"• 166 



The PencU/Pal 



Microcomputer Specialists, Elkins Park, 
PA, has released PenciL/Pal to be used in con- 
junction with the Electric Pencil. 

With Pencil/Pal you can automatically 
merge your letters with an address file and 
LPRINT them. 

Pencil/Pal is compatible with the lowercase 
modincation. One or two fields within your ad- 
dress file, even area codes or zips, may be used 
to select letters to be printed. 

The program costs S33. Send S3 Tor docu- 
mentation only — deducted from purchase 
price. 

Readers Service •'ISO 



Storage and 
Retrieval for TRSDOS 



ISAR is a BASIC data base management 
system that uses TRSDOS random file struc- 
tures and the limited TRS-80 chaining tech- 
niques. This means you only have as much of a 
program in memory as necessary. 

ISAR consists of six modules that create any 
number of new files, define all elements within 
each file and manipulate them according to a 
menu. Files are sorted with Shell-Metzer. 

ISAR is available on cassette for SI3.9S or 
diskette for $16.95 from The Alternate 
Source, Lansing. Ml. 

Readers Service t^ 181 



Income Tax For The TRS-80 



This book contains more than 40 1979 In- 
come Tax programs in 100 pages for the 
TRS-80. 

Most of the progranns are for LPRINT and 
several show how to convert these to PRINT 
only. 

Programs cover child care, personal resi- 
dence, special 10-year averaging and undcrpay- 
meni. A chapter is devoted to tax credits. 

The price is $14.93 and is available from 
Gooth Software, Louis. MO. 

Readers Servile »^182 



Clock Modification 



Mumford Micro Systems, Suminerlaad, 
CA, has released a new clock modification for 
the TRS-80. The SK-2 3-Specd Mod is a small 
circuit board with five integrated circuits which 
can be mounted inside the keyboard unit or ex- 
ternally. 

It inlemipts the main dock line to the Z-80 
and allows switching from normal speed to a 50 



percent increase and a SO percent decrease. 
Switching is controlled by a toggle or by soft- 
ware. 

Disk users can add a control line to the ex- 
pansion interface to automatically force a re- 
turn to normal speed at any time. This elimi- 
nates the need to write speed commands into 
your programs or modify the operating system. 

An LED indicates when the computer is not 
at normal speed. 

The SK-2 comes assembled and ready to in- 
stall for $24.95 (plus .75 postage). Only four 
connections are necessary to the computer. 

Readers Service ^173 



Business-Aides 



Occupational Computing Company, Inc.. 
Woodland Hills, CA, has released its business 
aides system. 

These accounting and management pro- 
grams include: Accounts Receivable, Billing 
and Inventory Control for both manufacturing 
and finished goods; Accounts Payable; Pay- 
roll; Chent Accounting. 

Prices range from $350 to $1495. 

Readers Service ^ 1 68 



Color Display from Percom 



The Electric Crayon, a computer -operated 
color graphics generator/controller from Per- 
com Data. Garland, TX. is designed to 
generate color displays on either a TV set or 
monitor. 

The Electric Crayon includes its own ROM 
operating system. EGOS, that accepts single- 
character commands directly from a parallel 
ASCII keyboard or program-generated com- 
mands. 

A self-contained control computer, the Elec- 
tric Crayon provides IK-byte of on-board pro- 
gram RAM, an EPROM chip and a second 
dual bidirectional 8-bit port for peripherals. It 
has 10 display modes^an alphanumeric-semi- 
graphics mode, a high-density semigraphics 
mode and eight graphics modes. Up to eight 
colors can be generated. 

The Electric Crayon measures 2-'/i inches 



- ■ '■— ^ .-I- ..--;- 


- 




ii 


' 




ll- 




■ 


^^^WBBK 


a 


^-.....■i^H 


^^L 




^B^^^H 


^^ 


■ 




^^^^^^j*^ 





high by 9 inches deep by 1 2 inches wide and sells 
for $249.95. 

Other options include: 

BASIC language color graphics programs on 
minidiskette. 

A 34-conductor ribbon cable to interconnect 
the Electric Crayon to the TRS-80 printer port. 

RAM chips for adding refresh memory for 
higher density graphic modes. 

Readers Service >'I69 



Machine Language Sorts 



A machine language Generalized Subroutine 
Facility for the Model II is available from 
RACET, Orange, CA. Its functions include 
mulii-key/multi variable in-memory sort, 
multi-key character string in-memory sort, 
USR PEEK and POKE capability— both byte 
and word and fetch argument. The subroutine 
will compress and uncompress data, move it in 
blocks and propogate across arrays. 

The subroutine will sort 1000 elements in six 
seconds and carries up to 15 arrays together 
with multiple mixed ascending/descending 
keys. 

The cost is $50 on your DOS diskette. 

Readers Service r' 172 



Payroll Program 



Small businesses with TRS-80 Model I Com- 
puters can now utilize Data Train, Inc's Payroll 
for their dual mini-disk 32K systems. 

The DTI Payroll allows 50 employees per 
diskette and runs in all sutcs with state, federal. 
and local taxes and employee records set by the 
user. Other features include: Monthly, quarter- 
ly, yearly pay and hour records; recording of 
handwritten (after the fact) checks; departmen- 
tal reporting; maintains W-2 and 941; special 
reports for departments, unions, earnings, tax. 

Fixed programmed reports include: Checks 
and/or stubs, register, journal, employee list/ 
records, mailing labels and others. 

The price is $235 and is available from Data 
Train, inc.. Grants Pass. OR. 

Readers Service t^l75 



Power Line Filter 



Percom Electric Crayon 



To eliminate most of the sensitivity of the 
TRS-80 to power Une noise and reduce its 
television interference. Percom Data Com- 
pany, Garland, TX, has introduced a simple 
power hne filter. The following materials arc 
available from Percom and (except for the 
filter) most hardware and electronic stores: 
Corcom I0R3 EMI Fitter 
3-wire power cord (Belden #I7237B) 
Power cord strain relief (H.H. Smith #939) 
117 Vac Socket (H.H.Smith 1280-103) 
4" X 21/4- X 2W" Minibox (Bud CU-2103-B) 
6-32 machine screw and hex nuts 

Readers Service »^ 163 



20 • 60 Microcomputing, March 1980 



DISCOVER THE MAGIC OF WORDPROCESSING 

AND TURN YOUR TRS-80* INTO 

A VERITABLE "OFFICE WIZARD" 

WITH A "NEC SPINWRITER 



|99 




N EC 5530 

(CENTRONICS I/O) 



What makes NEC your best typewriter quality printer value? 

1. The one and only print "thimble." SPINWRITER'S DURABLE (up to 30 
million impressions) and unique reinforced plastic print element. Up to 
128 characters per print element, with a wide variety of typefaces to 
choose from. 

2. SPEED and RELIABILITY. The SPI NWRITER gives you up to three times 
the speed of IBM "Golf Ball" type mechanical printers, along with the 
advantages of a true electronic output printing device. 



3. HUMAN EAR COMPATABILITY, The low pitched strumming noise made 
by the NEC Spinwriter won't leave your ears and nerves aching after a 
hard day's use, as Dot Matrix and mechanical printers tend to. 



THE NEC SPINWRITER 
IS FULLY SERVICED BY NEECO. 



NEC 5530 SPINWRITER (plug compatible to trs-so*) $2495.00 

Word Processing Software '^Electric Pencil" $ 100.00 





Call or Write today for NEC Specifica- 
tions Sheet. (Specify TRS-SO*) 
*TRS-BO Is a Trademark of Tandy Corp. 



,^143 




NEECO 



679 Highland Ave 
Needham. MA 
02194 



Mon-Fri 9:30-5:30 

MasterCharge & 

Visa Accepted 



(617)449-1760 



t^ nattier S9ntc0—s»m pmgm 147 



do Microcomputing, March 1960 • 21 



Instant printing/instant pricing, use a computer 
to impress customers— and give accurate quotes. 

Printer's Apprentice 



Richard Barnes 
1515 S. Glendale 
Sioux Falls, S.D. 57105 



One small-business application where the 
microcomputer has proved effective and 
cost efficient is the print industry. There has 
been an astounding revolution in this Held 
prompted by the development of the "instant 
pripting" or "quick print" business. 

According to Printing Impressions, an in- 
dustrial trade journal of the printing world, the 
quick print business has made commercial 
printing available to many businesses and indi- 
viduals who had previously been using office 
mimeographs and copying machines. The mag- 



azine also pointed out that the average quick 
print plant in the United States last year grossed 
an average of $174,000. 

A new problem emerged with the develop- 
ment of the quick print plant and it is a problem 
that can be resolved through the use of the 
microcomputer. 

Variable Pricing 

While each small print shop has its counter 
price sheet, giving customers prices for jobs 
that require 100 or 500 copies, the small office 
staff is often perplexed when asked to quote a 
price that is not on the limited price sheet. It is 
an area where mistakes can be costly, and a 
small printer can find that he has made a com- 
mitment on a bid while omitting an important 
cost element. 



I'lA dOSr TR.S\Nfo IT) FIND A XATB 
fbP^ SW^iBDAN NlfcHT.'" 







^^ 



One small printer recently submitted a bid on 
a difficult printing job which was WOO under 
the next highest bid. He won the bid, and real- 
ized that he had forgotten to include his print- 
ing costs for the second side. 

If the small printer grosses the estimated 
$1 74,000 a year, with a one percent error factor 
he could easily lose $2,000 a year — enough to 
pay for a small computer system. 

The program for a small quick print shop can 
be relatively simple. It includes instant access to 
a price schedule. By writing a program that asks 
for all data relating to the printing costs, error 
by omission is next to impossible. 

Secondly, such a program offers the public a 
fair print pricing policy. 

As a good businessman, the printer should 
know his fixoJ overhead, how many copies he 
can produce in one hour and his paper costs. 
The only other variable should be the number 
of copies needed. With computerized printing 
prices, the customer is assured that the price 
given is accurate and fair. 

The instant printer tries to turn around his 
printing business within one day or two, at the 
most. Instant printing, necessitates instant pric- 
ing. 

The Program 

Our pricing program is designed for the con- 
venience and use of the walk-in customer. It 
can also be used by the staff in quoting prices 
by phone, but the public is etj^uragcd to use 
the system. 

Since the unit sits unattended in our lobby, a 
routine is used to lock out inappropriate re- 
sponses throughout the prc^ram. GOTO 1000 
clears the screen and sends the program to an 
endless loop, telling the user to call someone for 
assistance. Few know how to BREAK out of 
the loop and the computer keyboard remains 
locked so that the user cannot toy with the 
machine while waiting for a clerk. 

The two most important variables in deter* 
mining the price of a printihg job are the 
number of copies, and the size and quality of 
the paper stock being used. It is also important 
that the businessman determine his overhead 



22 • 00 Microcomputing, March 1980 



and the cosi per thousand of printing a job. 

Line 55 sets the press run (PR) ai S7 per thou- 
sand copies for overhead. That figure varies 
with each shop depending upon staff, rem and 
output. 

The program begins by asking the user what 
kind of prim bid he needs. Line 210 sends the 
program to the routine selected by the user. 

The most common selection is sheet fed 
printing. To determine the price, the program 
needs the number of copies, the size of paf)er, 
whether it is to be printed on one side or two 
and whether a surcharge for color slock (paper) 
should be added. 

Using a minimum order of 1(X) copies, line 
310 takes the value of Q (quantity) and converts 
it to a minimum of 100 copies for the purpose 
of bilhng. Because different stocks will vary ac- 
cording to size, lines 390 through 410determine 
thepai>er (PA) costs. If a printer adds a percen- 
tage to his actual costs, this is the place to do it 
so that it is included in the final billing. If your 
paper costs go up, a simple edit of these lines 
adjusts the program to the increase. 

GOSUB 2000 asks whether the order is to be 
printed on one side or two. If two sides are 
needed, a second plate charge is added (Line 
2030), the press run (PR) is doubled (Line 2040) 

Our pricing program is 

designed for the 

convenience and use of 

the walk-in customer. 

and a 10 per cent charge is added to the paper 
costs for waste and handling. 

GOSUB 3000 determines whether the print- 
ing job will be run on 201b. while or 201b. color 
stock. The additional markup in GOSUB 3000 
for color paper by size, seems to be an industry 
standard. The program adds 501 per hundred 
for 8 '/; X 1 1 and adds 75C per hundred for 8 '•': x 
14. This may vary with market areas and 
should be checked locally. 

Dcleimining Price 

The main algorithm in line 470 figures the 
cost (C) as the value of the plate (variable W at 
$2 each), plus the press run (PR) limes M (the 
number of copies converted to a thousand or a 
fraction thereof), plus the paper costs (PA) 
times M. plus the surcharge for color stock. 

The program then asks for bindery services 
in lines 510-530. Folding, stapling, collating, 
padding, cutting and drilling are all included in 
the offer and the user selects the service needed. 

On occasion, the customer needs his order 
folded, collated and stapled. The program of- 
fers the customer multiple bindery services by 
looping through the selection until the 
customer enters a response to let the computer 
know that no other services are needed. The 



Program Listing. 



HELIXJ. 



TRS-ae COMPUTER* 



bb FP-7 

68 PRINV ' 

80 PPiNT "I CAN ANSWER MOST OF YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT PRINTING PRICES" 

90 PPII.'T "JUST FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS, ENTERING THE PROPER RESPONSE,' 

lee PRINT "BE SURE TO HIT THE "ENTER' KEY AFTER COMPLETING EACH ANSWER.' 

:10 PRINT: PRINT "FOR WHICH ITEM WOULD YO(j' LIKE A PRICE QUOTE?" 

120 P.RINT ' (1) OFFSET PRINTING -- SHEET FED" 

;3B PRINT - C) ENVELOPES" 

148 PRINT ' (3! BUSINESS CARDS" 

15B PRINT ■ (4) CARBMJLESS BUSINESS FORMS" 

16B PRINT - (51 TYPESETTIhG- 

ne PRINT " (61 GRAPHIC ARTS' 

IBB PRINT ■ (71 COLOR PRINTING" 

198 PRINT ■ (81 OTHER... " 

2eB INPUT L: IF L=I3 OR L>5 THEN ICBO 

2ia ON L GOTO 250, 4000, 4SBB,5aae,ieoe,lBB0,lBBU,lB0a 

250 CLS 

260 PRINT " ALL PAPER IS ON 20 LB. WHITE BO«D" 

270 PRINT! PRINT "ANSWER BY ENTERIHG THE CORRECT RESPONSE AND HIT THE" 

280 PRINT ■ 'ENTER' KEY." 

290 PRINT: PRINT "ItOW MANY COPIES UO YOU WANT?" 

3BB INPUT Q : IF O-O THEN 1000 

31B IF O',10B THEN Q-IBB 

320 M>Q/lflaO 

33B PRINT " 

34B PRINT " 

3SB PRINT " 

360 PRINT ■ (3) 11 X 17 ?" 

37B INPUT K 

360 IF K-fl OR K>3 THEN 1B0B 

390 IF K-1 THEN PA-6.52 

4S0 IF K.2 THEN PA-B.3B 

410 IF K = 3 THELN PA-13.05 

45B GOSUB leea 

468 GOSUB 3008 

470 C • v.- - ! PR • H ) ■• I PA * K ) * R 

48B C = I^Ti [C+,fla5)«lBa)/ia0 

490 CLS 

50B PRIKTgS2S, "YOUR PRINTING ORDER WILL COST $"iC 

510 PRINT: PRINT " 00 YOU NEED BINDERY SERVICES?" 

S20 PRINT " ID YES" 

530 PRINT " (2) NO " 

5 40 INPUT P 

5Sfl IF P-1 THEN 600 

560 PRINT " THANK YOU AND HAVE A NICE DAY ]" 

570 PHIKTiGOTO 930 

60B CLS 

61B PRINT "THE FOLLOWING SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE WITH YOUR" 

620 PRINT ' PRINTING ORDER. PLEASE ENTER THE NUMBER OF" 

630 PRINT • Ttlh SERVICE YOU NEED." 

64B PRINT: PR If )T TAb(45l "WIN. "; TAB158] 'COST" 

65B PRINT TAn(45) 'CHG."; TAB(57) "PER 190" 

66B PRINT:PHINT "(1) FOLDING'; TAB(451 ' S2 . 00" ; TAB ( 5S ! 'S .50" 



WHAT SIZE PAPER WOULD YOU LIKE?" 

(1) 8.5 X 11 ?• 

(2) 8.5 X 14 ?" 



'HAPLlNf; OR SADPLt .'^TtT<-ilTW-";TAB'45) "S2.0O"; TAB{5BI "Sl.OB" 

COLLATING COPIES";TABI451 " S2 . 00" : TAB 1 58 ) "S .50" 

PADDING - USUALLY 50 COPIER PER PAD' ; TAB [ 4S 1 " S2 . 90" ;TABI ^B ) 'S .3( 
I CUTTING - PER SBB COPIES'; TAFM451 " S2 , 00" ; TAB 1 5B I "S .25" 
) DRILLING - PER HOLE" ; TAB I 45 ) " S2 . 08" ; TAB I 58 1 "S .25" 



S";C 



S",-B 
S"; IC+B) 



6 7 B J' R I NT ■ ( ? 1 

6B0 PRINT ' ( 31 

690 PRINT "14) 

700 PRINT ■ 

710 PRINT ' 

72B PRINT -------------- 

730 INPUT G 

74B ON G GOTO 7 58,760,770,780,790,600 

7^B 1=.5 ; GOTO BIB 

760 F=l : GOTO 810 

"'78 f-,5 : GOTO HIO 

-80 f" .1 : GOTO 810 

-9C f''-.2 : GOTO 810 

aO0 F=.25 : GOTO 810 

BIB B-lQ/iaa * F) 

K20 IF B'-2 THEN B-2 

830 CLS 

SiB PRINT "YOUfi PRINTING COSTS ABE 

850 e«lNTHB*.B95)'l80)/lBO 

860 PRINT "YOUR BINDERY COSTS ARF. 

H70 PRINT "YOUR TOTAL JOB COSTS 

fi80 T-1C + D)*.B5 

890 T-INTI (Tt.BB5)*lBD)/lB8 

9BB PRINT " SALES TAX: 

9ie U-C*tHT 

520 PRINT :PR1MT ' TOTAL: 

930 PRINT:PRINT "IF YOU NEED ANOTHER PRINTING QUOTE HIT THE" 

940 PRINT ■ 'ENTER' KEY." 

950 INPUT IjCLSiGOTO 6B 

1B0B CLS 

leiB PHiNTe33e, ■ please call someone for ASSISTANCE" 

1020 FOR X-1 TO S80: NEXT X 

1030 PRINT;rRINT " HY MEMORY BANKS DO NOT HAVE THE INFORMATION NEEDED" 

1040 FOR X = l TO 5B0-. NEXT X 

1050 PRJNT:PH1NT ■ TO RESPOND TO YOUR REQUEST" 

1060 FOR X-1 TO 750: NEXT X 

1078 PRlNT:PHiNT " THANK YOU" 

leee goto ie8B 

2808 PRINT "DO YOU WANT IT PRINTED ON 1 SIDK OH 2 7' 

2B1B INPUT S 

2B2B IF S'0 OS S'>2 THEN 1000 

2825 REM ■•• FIGURES THE COST OF THE PLATE AT S2 •** 

2B3B W' E*2 

2e4B IF S'2 THEN PB=(PR*2): IF S=2 THEN PA-PA+ (PA' . 1 1 

2050 RETURN 

3000 PRINT *DO YOU WANT IT PRINTED ON COLORED PAPER?' 



f":T 
S*;U 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 23 



3B1B PRINT ■ 111 YES" 

3020 PRINT • 121 NO ■ 

3830 INPUT R : If' R-B OR R>2 THEN IBIB 

3B4a IF B-2 THEN R-B: IF R-B THEN 3B8B 

3B45 REM *•• COMPUTES SURCHARGE FOB COLOR PAPER BY SHE ••• 

3B5B IF K-1 THEN R-(N*5J 

3B6B IF K = 2 THEN R-IM'7.51 

3B7B IF K-3 THEN R-[M*1B1 

3BB0 RETURN 

4BBB REM ••* ENVELOPE PRICING ••• 

4B1B CLS 

4B2B PRINT " HOW MANY ENVELOPES DO YOU MEEO?" 

4fl2S PRINT - IDUE TO PRESS SET UP, MINIHUM ORDER OF 5BB PLEASE)' 

4B30 INPUT S : IF H-B THEN 1BB0 

4035 IF S<Se0 THEN N-5BB 

4B4B n-N/lBBfl 

4B5e PH1KT:PRIKT "WHAT SIZE AND KINO OF ENVELOPE DO YOU NEED?" 

40«e PRIST - (1) SMALL 6 3/4 WHITE PLAIN" 

4070 PRIST ■ 12) SMALL 6 3/4 WHITE WINDOW" 

4080 PRINT * (J) NO. IB WHITE PLAIN" 

4B9B PRINT • (4) (JO. IB WHITE WINDOW 

(Iflfl PRINT • 15) SO. IB COLORED STOCK" 

411B PRINT ■ 16) OTHER..." 

412fl INPUT B 

413B IF B"B OH B>5 THEN 10B0 

414B REM •*• COMPUTES SURCHARGE FOR ENVELOPE STOCK ••• 

415B IF B«l THEN E»1,2B 

4I6B IF B-2 THEN E-1.5a 

417B IF B-3 THEN E-1.5B 

418B IF B-4 THEN E-1.7B 

419B IF B-5 THEN E-3.5a 

42BB PRINT:PRINT "DO YOt,' NEED TYPESETTING OB IS THE COPY CAMERA BEADY?" 

4210 PRIST - 11) TYPESETTING NEEDED" 

4228 PRINT ■ 12; CAMERA READY COPY " 

4230 INPUT D 

424B IF D-; THEN D-0 

4250 IF D-1 THEN D-5 

4 26 0- C-2*17*M).(6.52"M).i(E"ie)"K)»D 

4278 C-ISTMC«.a05)*lflB)/lfle 

428B CLS:PBISTa515,-THE COST OF PRINTING YOUR ENVELOPES WILL BE S';C 

4 29 8 GOTO 9 36 

*bii REM ••• BUSINESS CARD BOL'TINE ••• 

451B CLS 

4S2B PRIST - BUSINESS CARDS " 

4538 PRINT ' «E HAVE A WIDE SELECTION OF BUSINESS CARDS STARTING AT" 

4548 PRINT " S 8.98 FOR 5BB" 

4558 PRINT " OR $]B.9B FOR IBBB" 

456B PRINT "oUR STANDARD LINE COSTS Si3.9B PER IBBB WITH THE ADDITIONAL" 

4578 PRINT "CHARGES FOR THE FOLLOWING:" 

4688 FOR X-l TO IBBBiNEXT X 

4690 PRINT 

4'BB PRINT " ART WORK CUTS 52. BD" 

4718 PRINT ■ PHOTOGRAPHS IB.BB" 

4728 PRINT " PRINTING ON BACK SIDE IB BB" 

4738 PRINT " SCREENS PER SCREEN 5.BB" 

4748 PRINT " BLEED-OFFS PER SIDE.. 5.BB- 

475B PRINT ■ CLOSE REGISTRATION OF COLOR IB.BB" 

4768 PRINT " CAMERA REDUCTIONS 4.5»- 

477fl PRINT - VERTICAL LAYOL'T 2.88" 

4775 FOR X-1 TO SgBe:NEXT X 

4788 PBINTrPBIST "PLEASE ASK TO SEE OL'B SAMPLE BOOKS ABD ASK SOMEONE' 

4798 PRINT ■ FOR ASSISTANCE." 

48BB GOTO 938 

5800 HEM **• CARBONLESS BUSINESS FORMS ••• 

5810 CLS 

5B2B PRINT 'HOW MANY FINISHED SETS DO YOU NEED?" 

5838 INPUT F 

5048 PRINTrPRlNT "HOW KAKY PARTS TO THE FORK?" 

5858 PRINT " 111 TWO PART FORM" 

5868 PBINT ■ |2) THBEE PART FORM" 

5B7B PRINT " |3) FOUR PART FORM" 

5B8B PRINT " (4) FIVE PART FORM" 

5B98 INPUT P: P-P*l 

51B8 PRINT "DO YOf WA-IT PRINTING ON OWE SIDE OR TWO?" 

511B PRINT ■ 11) ONE SIDE" 

512B PRIST " (21 TWOBSIDES- 

513B INPUT e:W-5»2 

5148 PRINT:PRIST "WHAT IS ThE FINISHED SIZE OF THE FORM?' 

515B PRINT ■ (1) 4 1/2x5 1/2" 

5168 PRIST - (2) 5 1/2 X B 1/2" 

5178 PRIST ■ 13) B 1/2 X 11 " 

5188 PRINT * (t) OTHER..." 

5198 INPUT D 

5288 IF D-1 THEN E-4 

521B IF D"2 THEN E-2 

5228 IF D-3 THEN E-1 

523B IF D-4 THEN 18BB 

5248 N-1 tF*P)/E)/1808 

5258 C-W+((PA'N)'S)*121.52»N) 

5255 C-INTl tCt.BB5)":BB)/188 

5268 CLS:PR1NTP515,"THE COST OF PRINTING YOUR CARBONLESS FORMS IS S";C 

5278 GOTO 91B 



program totals the amount based upon the 
number of copies handled and prints them in 
line 860. 

Lines 830 through 920 display the total 
breakdown for priming and binding, including 
sales taxes. Line 880 adds 5 per cent sales tax 
and should be altered depending upon your 



state. 

The routine for pricing envelopes follows the 
same formal, while the business card routine 
displays basic prices suggested by (specialty) 
printing houses and suggests that the customer 
review the business card sample book — a most 
difficult task for a computer. 



The routine that handles pricing for carbon- 
less forms has been helpful in avoiding bidding 
errors. Carbonless business forms vary from 
two to five copies each. Thus, an order for 500 
sets of a four-part form, really requires 2,000 
impressions instead of 500. Often, the forms 
are run two-up and later cut apart. This means 
that the 500 sets of a four-pan form, run 8 '/: x 
11 but then cut lo 5 '/j x 8'/;, only require 1,000 
impressions. You can see how easily a job 
might be over or under estimated. 

The computer routine handles all factors and 
has won us business when our competitors were 
confused and erred in putting their bids to- 
gether. 

After gathering ah of the necessary informa- 
tion, the real number of copies needed (N) is 
determined by taking the total number of sets 
needed (F in Line 5030) times the number of 
parts to the form (P in Line 5090). Divide that 
number according to whether one, two or four 
forms will be run in the original (E in Lines 
5200-5220) and convert it into thousands or a 
fraction thereof in Line 5240. 

Line 5250 determines the cost (C) as the cost 
of the plate (W — adjusted in Line 5130 for one 
side or two), plus the press run (PR) times N, 
multiplied by the number of sides to be punted 
(S). Then add the cost of the carbonless stock 
times N, the number of copies, 

Conclusioi 

This program allows the computer hobbyist 
to provide consuhant services to local printers. 
While our own program has been greatly ex- 
panded to add a wider variety of paper, this 
program should be enough to get one started. 

A word of caution; we have included a line in 
our program that offers more competitive bids 
on orders of more than 10,000 copies. The price 
greatly decreases on large orders and the pro- 
gram here cannot be competitive with large 
commercial printers. The quick printer might 
also want to bid under the computer price by 
giving color stock at cost in order to secure the 
winning bid. 

How does it work in praaice? 

One customer asked for 200 copies of a flyer 
and quickly added that she really needed 225 
but did not want to pay for 3(X). She was in- 
formed that she could enter any number into 
the TRS-80 and it would compute the price to 
the nearest fraction of a penny. She ordered 
and paid for 225 copies and said she was 
pleased she did not have to pay for 300 copies, 
"like I did down the street," 

To this same feature another businessman 
replied, "Thai's un-American'. Our country 
was founded on waste . . . having to buy more 
than you need. You are supposed to encourage 
them to move into a category where it will be to 
their advantage to buy more than they actually 
want." 

Un-American? We don'i think so. It is a fair 
pricing policy that gives us accuracy, reliability, 
speed and a lot of happy customers. ■ 



24 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



TRS-80* OWNERS: 

• Let the computer write your "Basic" programs for you! 

• Draw pictures, animated figures, data forms! 

• Create a library of displays! 

• Produce "Commercial" grade software! 



■Trademark of Radio Sfiacti. a TanOy Co 



• * 




Beginner * 



* Home * 
Animated programmer 

• * * 

Assembly ^ 
Language ^ 
prosramtner 

^ Commercial ^ * 
Software^ ^ ^ 
Houses 



The Magic Cursor is a Revolutionary Family of Products which 
provides a dramatic new method of reproducing drawings and 
displays that you create on your screen. It makes both simple 
displays and complex interactive data input forms. It stores a 
"Basic Program" on disk (or tape) ready for you to execute alone or 
as a subroutine- 
It is available for any level 2, 16K or larger system with tape or 
disk. An optional version is now available with output files for 
assembly language programmers. 

Be sure to pick out the system that fits your present needs and 
order it today, so you can take immediate advantage of this unique 
new product. You may upgrade your original copy by paying the 
difference and a moderate service charge 

THE BABY CURSOR allows you to easily create screens (including 
graphics) on your video. A powerful command then generates the 
BASIC instructions to recreate the screen For the first time, a 
program for automatic generation of video display forms (16K 
Tape or 16K Disk) $24.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR I additionaHy makes sophisticated Data 
Entry anO Display easy With Magic Cursor I you define the Data 
Entry or Display fields directly on your screen. The definition 
commands generate the BASIC instructions to imptementthe Data 
Entry and Display The Magic Cursor I has commands which move, 
center and duplicate blocks of graphical or alpha/numeric 
displays You can even |ustify text. (16K Tape Only) . . . . $79.95 



THE MAGIC CURSOR II adds the power to write animated games 
easily in BASIC. The Magic Cursor II allows you to reload previous 
screens either from memory or from Disk. You can then modify 
them and store either the modified screen or only the changes. 
(32K Disk only) $99.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR III will be available soon for the new Model II 
Computer (32K One or more Disks) $149.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR IV provides the features of Magic Cursor II 
but has output files for the assembly language programmer. (32K 
Disk only) $99.95 



WRITE FOR OUR COMPLETE 
SOFTWARE CATALOG! 



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The Vista Model ir Disk Expansion 
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But the best part we've saved for 
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ADDRESS 

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PLEASE S ONE 

O CHECK on fc»ONEY 
ORDER 



acREorr 

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TITLE - . .-. 



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CALL TOLL-FREE 800^54-8017 



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Th« Vitta Computer Company 1401 Borchard Street • Santa Ana. California 92705*714/953-0523 



26 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



More for Less 

Speed. Capacity. Price. 

The Vista V-80 mini disl( system 
is 8 times faster ttian the 
TRS-80, 23% more 
storage capacity, and 
costs oniy $395. 

Compare our performance to 
Radio Shacl<'s TRS-80'. Then 
match our price with theirs. Then 
decide which one is for you. 

Features 

• Vista offers 102K bytes to 
Radio Shack's 89K. That's 13K 
more bytes per drive for Vista. 

• The V-80 operates at 12ms versus 40ms 
for TRS-80. Our drive can operate at 5ms, but 
only 50% of TRS-80 will operate at that speed; 
therefore, Vista has purposely set the access time 
at 12ms. 

• Totally compatible with all available disk operating 
systems. 

• Upgraded system. Increased storage and speed 
patch supplied at no charge by Vista. 

• Drives are interchangeable for any location from 
Drive 0— thru Drive 3. 

• Immediate Delivery. 

• 120 Day Warranty 

Prices: 

Single Drive System $395 

Two Drive System $770 

Four Drive System $1450 

'TRS-BO IS a (eg«ieied uademark o< Radn Shach. a Tandy Company 
TYPICAL CONnGURATION 




UbM 



S 



i: 






IF 



n 






I DQUBLt Of ^s<nr 

I CONFiCUnATiOM 
I (304K BVTCSI 



^2 



Vista Expansion {Module 

The expansion Module provides a double density modification 
to your current Radio Shack interface that allows you to format 
diskettes in either single or double density In double density 
format, your Vista Drive increases your storage capacity up to 
204K bytes on a single 40-track drive. 

To insure the highest performance possible, without com- 
promise, we recommend that you use Wsta disk drives in con- 
junction with our Expansion Module.* For a demonstration on 
your system call TOLL-FREE 800-854-8017 

Price $239.00 (includes all hardware and software) 

'Vista cannot guarantee Radio Shack drives to operate 100% in double 
density. 



Th« Vltta Computer Company 1401 Borchard Street* Santa Ana. California 92705*714/953-0523 



Single Density Conliguration (102K Bytes) 



t^ Rtadwr Swic»—a»» pagm 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 27 



BUSINESS 



This program uses sophisticated financial 
techniques to analyze possible investments. 



Investment Analysis 



Leslie E. Sparks 
1014 Evergreen Dr. 
Durham. N.C. 27712 



A microcomputer can be a 
powerful tool for analyzing 
capital Investments. The follow- 



ing program shows you how to 
make your computer a tool that 
is as sophisticated and reliable 
for economic analysis as those 
of any large companies. 

Of course the computer can- 
not make your decisions for you, 
but It can provide you with Im- 
portant information in just 
minutes that will improve your 
decisions. 



The basic criterion for this 
analysis program is Return on 
Investment (ROl). Although ROI 
is not the only factor to be con- 
sidered In evaluating invest- 
ments, ROI should strongly in- 
fluence the final decision— es- 
pecially if ROI is adjusted to In- 
clude the value of money over 
time and inflation. The Program 
Listing does both. 



Return on investment is the 
ratio of your net average annual 
cash flow to your total capital in> 
vestment. Cash flow is your 
after tax profit plus depre- 
ciation. (Some authors define 
ROI as the ratio of after tax prof- 
It to total capital Investment.) 

ROI, expressed as cash flow 
divided by capital investment, is 
Often called simple or engineer- 



Program Listing 



lb filH IfWESTDtHT fHftVSlS BV L L 9«KS 

» ttn «intN ]H TK8« LML 11 fiftlC 27 PU, 13?5 

J8 KM WTHia WW VOt Crt) LOCK fIT fl FHlJECT LIFE OF («)U1 

« RBI 15 ff«6 fl LOW LIFE (f 15 VEfftS fH> 12 WWtMT/VEflR 

5ft EEn ItfVIT •AfdifUi-- 

6» fDt [)=t)EF1iECifft£ Bf6E I, (*= FWJEH LIFE 

7e RDI SV =$fL«M£ VPLUE 

8« fi£H Ll=fKUn OF LOftL I^IHTEKST HITE 7. 

» REH M.^.1FE (f LCM VEWS. tf-=MLKa OF PfMCNTS/VEWt 

m (Cn [(=VEFH.y lifSU t. O^vefCLV OPERflTIMi CffiT ( 

116 f& Ik^esailTlOM RATE FOR liEVMC Z 

128 ffK ItKSafiTlOH RftTE PER VEf* F(K ffttflTlHG COSTS 7. 

138 KH TC=TfK CSOn FOR ItfffSTfCHT X(lKi !S DEFfaT) 

146 li£H T^WMJINFL TFK RATE ^ i^. IS DEFHULT) 

1» REH G =FMU1 W DEFLJ^TW (8:^ fISSllCD) 

lee DIH M(3):REH tt 15 ft STRING FOR LFCELIHG KPfECMION tCTHDD 

176 «<1)='5TFI1EHT Lltt DEMSCIHTION" 

186 M(2)='SUM Cf VMS DIGITS DEHSCIflTlOH" 

196 W(3)='DEttIHlWi BHiHtt CtPttCIflTlOH" 

2» REM JT IS ft FLilG mCH IS =1 IF llWESTttMT TFK CREDIT IS HOT 

210 REM TfKEN IN 7 VEH6 H UFIiNING IS mvm IF JT=1 

229 REK TL IS T« TOLERfKE FOR TRIFL W WSJk SOLUTION SET FIT 6 861 

23eTL4eei 

246 t& — 

256 DEFIHT J (£« [lEFIff fU J VWlfBiS RS IKTEEflS 

'Mas 

276 JI>4 
286 JF^ 

296 n=e 

386 REH JD fM> JF FOE FLHGES USED TO DETEJiflllC DQfSClRTlON FCTWt) 

318 PRlMTWVtSTttHT flAVSlS FOR TRS »" 

326 PRM'EMTER ItFOWtTlON flSKED FOR ' 

336 FWIfT'PfiESS <EMTEI& ffTER EflCH EHTRV' 

348 FlilKT-aiifiENT VFLX IS SHOW IN O 

358 PRIKTMF Vttl UFW TO USE VfLlE IN JUST PRESS <EMTER5' 

3ee PKIKT'IF VOL! HPKI PM ERROR COHTIHUE EHTERlWi DfiTfl' 

378 PRlHT-'rW Hia BE GIVEK T* OHWTLWITV TO COKCT DfilR" 

388 PRIHT'GEFORE CaOlflTIEJE BEGIN" 



396 mMT 

486 REM SET Lf DEFIH.TS 

416 G=8 

426 TC=16 

438T=5e 

446 FRIKT'EHTER VEHIV REVENLE $ ■■.ft.')'. 

456 itfLrr R 

468 PRIHI "ENTER VEfKLY tftRflTlNG tOSTS » (",0.")', 

476 I#MT Ci 

488 PRIMt "EinEf- EStftll* RATE FOR ttVEHLf :■: (MR,")', 

496 iffrn IR 

588 reiNT'EMTER ESCJUITICH RATE F(ft COSTS X t",10,"l". 

518 ItfUT 10 

528 reiNT'EKTER DEF«[lfBi BfiSE $ r,D,'<-, 

538 llfVl D 

Me FKIWI'EHTER SH-Vfltt VftLt CSV,")', 

558 i*in SV 

566 IF SVX) PRlNT'SftVPff VFLUE > DEPtSClfCLE BRSE" ELSE G0T0598 

576 IffLIT"i5 THlSCtMECT ';« 

5E8 IF LfFTtiVJ.lj="M" GOTO 528 

5* HiiHT'EMTER fttiJECT LIFE VEflRE. CH.")'; 

688 \aV\ H 

616 PRINT'EHIER fUtlKT Cf LtHi * (";Ll/'>", 

t28 imn LI 

C8 IF L'>t> TrtH 6£6 ELSE PRlMT'LCfW > DEF«C1»IE BfiEE' 

M« l(fLa"lS THIS CtHlCT ",« 

658 IF L£FT»(V4,l>-"r TICN KS ELSE GOTO 628 

668 PftlHl'EKTER MUL IHTEREST RATE X ',",1,')"; 

678 INPUT 1 

m ii£H ciECK TO SEE IF 1 IS :: 

698 IF 1>, W9SI9 T«N 728 

788 PRIHT'IITTRESI RATE SHOaD BE r 

718 GOTO m 

726 mm "EHTER LIFE Cf LOW IN 'ilfRS CH.')', 

738 IlfUl H 

746 IF ll(=« T«H GOTOTW 

756 PRIKT'TH PROJECT LIFE IS LESS THFft T* LIFE (f LOftf 

768 llftn' JSTHISOHiCT ";« 



26 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



At Last! Affordable 

WORD PROCESSING 

Made Possible by TRS-80" 



NEWSCRIPSIT"- 
Word Processing 
Software for 16k 
Level II THS-80S. 

*69'* Cassette- 

*99" Disk- 



[lEWUPPER 
AND LOWER 
CASE KIT. 
Available tor 
rww or exist- 
ing systems. 

*99 Instaiied- 




EDIT, DELETE, MODIFY— 
then print it error-free, 45 
characters per second! 



flEW^TRS-SO DAISY 
WHEEL PRINTER. 
Clean and readable 
printing, like the very 
finest electric type- 
writes. 

•2999' 



RADIO SHACK BRINGS 
YOU A COMPLETE WORD 
PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR 
TRS-80 MODEL I COMPUTERS. 

Radio Shack smashes another 
computer 'cost barrier" with the 
new TRS-80 Word Processing 
System. The system includes our 
new SCRIPSIT software, Upper/ 
Lower Case Kit and Daisy Wheel 
Printer. Add it to any 16K Level II 
TRS-80, or buy a complete sys- 
tem. Once you've tried it, you may 
never want to use a typewriter 
again! 

The new SCRIPSIT software 
lets you compose letters and doc- 
uments of all types on TRS-80's 
screen in upper case, or upper 
and lower case with the new Up- 
per/Lower Case Kit. You can 
move words or entire paragraphs, 
insert, delete and edit to your 
heart's content! SCRIPSIT gives 
you automatic page numbers, 
page headings and footnotes and 
makes It easy to indent para- 
graphs, change line widths, and 
center your text horizontally or 



vertically. Advanced features in- 
clude justification, hyphenation, 
global search/replace, and vari- 
able screen width. On-going re- 
ports, form letters and text with 
print commands can be stored on 
TRS-80 cassettes or diskettes for 
use or revision at any time. 




SCRIPSIT software Includes an audio 
cassette course ttiat makes anyone a 
proficient word processing operator. 



PRINT ALL OF THE 
"ORIGINALS" YOU NEED, 
FAST AND ERROR-FREE! 

Our new WP-50 Daisy Wheel 
Printer Is fast and gives you the 
same quality of the finest electric 
typewriters — carbon film ribbon 
and all! Or, if your job doesn't 
require "letter" quality, a TRS-80 



system with a dot matrix, u/lc 
printer costs even less. 

A complete TRS-80 cassette 
system with Word Processing 
Software, Upper/Lower Case Kit 
and a dot matrix printer is yours for 
just $2,046.95* Or choose a realty 
deluxe system with the WP-50 
Printer and two floppy disks that 
store eight hours of 50 WPM typ- 
ing for only $5,492.95? 

Sound exciting? You bet it is! 
Visit your nearest Radio Shack 
outlet or write for details. 

*Rel3>i [xices may vary al individual Stores and dealers 



Mail to: Radio Shack. Dept. CMA-450 
1300 One Tandy Center 
Foil Worth, Texas 76102 

I'd Like to Know More! 

r SerKi details on TRS-BO Word Processing 
and the 24-page TRS-BO Catalog #RSC-3. 

D Have e representative contact me. 
NAME 



Radio /hack 

The bluest name in little computers- 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION - FORT WORTH, TEXAS 76102 



^5 



ADDRESS 

CITY 

STATE 



ZIP 



) Own/Use a TRS-80 G YIm G No 
Model 



»/'Aaad*rS«(VfC*— s««paya 147 



SO Microcomputing, March 1980 • 29 



Subroutina Loan Payment 

Age = 
Sum =0 
Amt = Loan 

Npay = life-Npayyr 

tnfale = lnyr^NDayyf 

Val = (lnfate + 1.011 (Npay) 

Pay = (1nrale ■ Val .LoanV(Val- 1.0) 

Do while Age<Lile 

InpatO = Inrale ■ Ami 

PiipaiO = Pay - Inpaid 

Amt = Amt - Pripaid 

Sum = Sum + Pripaid 

Age = Age + 1 
End do 

it Sum - Amt * Then Last Pay = Pay + Sum Endif 
End subp'ogtam 

Figure 1. Algorithm for calculating loan payment. 



ing ROI. Its virtue is that it is sim- 
ple to calculate. Its major de- 
ficiency is that simple ROI does 
not consider the timing of the 
cash flow. Thus, the simple ROI 
is the same for an investment 
that yields a cash flow of $100 a 
year for ten years and a second 
investment with zero cash flow 
for nine years and $1000 for the 
tenth year. 

I'm sure you'll agree that the 
first of these two cash flows is 
better than the second, because 
of the value of money over time. 

A dollar today can be invested 
and earn interest. Thus, a dollar 
today will be worth $1.10 next 
year if we invest it at 10 percent 
interest. For this reason, a dollar 
today is worth more than a dol- 
lar next year. (Time value of 
money should not be confused 
with inflation. Even with zero in- 
flation, a dollar today is worth 
more than a dollar next year be- 



cause we could invest today's 
dollar and earn interest.) 

To account for the time value 
of money, we must reduce, i.e. 
discount, the value of future 
year dollars by the amount that 
this year's dollars could earn. 
For example, if we can earn 10 
percent interest today, that dol- 
lar will be worth $1.10 in one 
year. Thus, it takes a cash flow 
of $1.10 next year to equal a 
cash flow of $1.00 this year. 

The investment figure that re- 
flects the time value of money is 
called Discount Cash Flow Re- 
turn On Investment (DSCF ROI). 
It can also be called interest rate 
of return, profitability index and 
investors' method. Essentially. 
DSCF ROI is the interest rate 
that reduces all future cash flow 
so that their sum equals your 
capital investment. 

The DSCF ROI can change 
the rank of your possible invest- 



776 IF LEFT$(«,1'="V TttN ?W 

7» MHO 5» 

7% PRIHT'EHIER HLWtR OF LCW PfffltHTS PER VE« (MP;')'; 

{i88 llPtn IP 

eie reiKTEKTER IHVESTKNl Tf« CSEDIT fiWE kW. RSaitDXMCi")'; 

B» ItfUT TC 

8i8 IF TOl T*N Kfi 

848 PRlHT'lNVtSinEHT TfiX CttDlT RATE SrtU.ll EE IN r 

«6 rtflMTEtfTtt IHCM TFK ftfilE V. (SK teaiCO) (M,*)', 

67ft 1*1.IT 1 

m IF r ^1 T>€M 9i» 

3» FlflKTlHCaC TfK ftftTE 5H0LLD Et IH •/.• 

^ GCiTO 86« 

9ie PRIKT'EHIER Of UtFLftTCR ',; C6K fSSUMED)'it ■)'; 

?28 Ilf1.1T (. 

5ij* IF G)=l T*H %(i 

=»4e mu^ ■(»■ deflhtor swac ge ih ;;■ 

95*1 GOTO ?10 

««REn 

^Tfl f£H EX) Of ItrUT HOU mNT IT fW SH IF CK 

•m FKIHI'TtC itf1.IT DftTfl m. *6 FXLCMS" 

l«e fKIHTVEfdV RtVEHUE »',(! 

1W6 FVllfT'WRV OftRfiTlHO CiJST& CO 

IKe FKIKT'ESOLRTION WTE F« REVEHit 'ASlT 

1936 reiHT'ESCPLBTlW RATE FOR COSTS MC'li" 

IWe PRIKT'DEPttClFaE EflSE IM) 

i05e reiHT'PMUECT LIFE MfVEHS* 

IWe PRIKT-WOKT Cf LCW I'.Ll 

H?7e F*IKTfHMl INTEREST RftTE M,"/' 

ie» FIclHT'LlFE [f LOf« MC'VOIRS' 

ie» F*1HT'NIIRR Cf PfffltKTS/WR ',»' 

11« MdKTTW CKEUIT WTE MC,"X" 

llie FtlHT'IlCaC TfiX WITE ',T,'r 

U2fi FKIHT'W KFLflT* VG,-^' 

11]« lIPtn'flK T>CSE CaSfCT 'i^S « HO VV^ 

1148 IF LEFTICrt.lX^'N- THEN 1176 

IIM WllHT'EHTER IHCtftffCT WTR FUSS <ElfTER> IF VFLUE IN IS W 

lite Olio 2-46 

1176 BEH ffX. F» (CTKC Cf IfPSEClftTiCH 

IIW Q_S 

11» Jlf=«i 

12W JF=6 

I2ie iN=: 

1226 PftlHTVU,! llfiS' SELECT [« Cf T» FILWIHG WTHODS Cf t€PREClflTlQH C*' 

i2:<e F1<1MT".W CfU HfiVE T* CtmiTER CaaLflTE T* fUUVSlS FCR ftL T*EE' 

1240 PftlNT'Cf m FXLQHIHG ItTHCfS Cf DEFffClflTUW' 

12W PftlNT'l STRfilCHT LI* 2 SLH Cf VEfftS IMGITS' 

12b« FIclNT*: ItaiHIHG fiUffCE " 

1276 FVlNTTCt SELECT fl *T*(> Cf CflLCllftTlW DEFttClflTIOH' 



CHEAP BOOKKEEPER 



A GENERAL LEDGER SYSTEM 



See to Believe 

Sold by Sturdivant and Dunn, Inc. for Radio Shack TRS-80' 
Model I Level II 32 or 48 K systems with 2 drives and at least 

an 80 character per line printer. 

Send Si. 00 for information and sample printouts (14 pages) 
to Sturdivant and Dunn, Inc., Box 277, Conway, NH 03818. 
^92 Price is S175.00. 

■ TRS-80 is a Trademark of Radio Shack. ^ Division of Tandy corporation. 



Subscribe to 



microcomputing 



fill out the 
postage paid 

reply card 
on page 147 



30 * 00 Microcomputing, March 1980 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang wwwtis 80 com 



Subroutlfia Dacltnlng Balanc« Dapradatlon 
Age=0 

Hate=2/Lif« 
Sum=0 

BookValue - Cost 
AnOep = 
AcumDep=0 
Do while Age<Liffl 
Age = Age + 1 
AnDep = BookValue • Rate 
II BookValue - AnDep<Salvage 
then AcumDep ~ AcumDep + AnDeo 
BookValue = BookValue - AnDep 
Else AnDep = BookValue - Salvage 
BookValue = Salvage 
H Age » Life then exit End il 
Endil 
End do 
End Subcoutlna 



SubroutlM Straight LIna DapraciaUon 

Aoo=0 

Value = Cost - Salvage 

AcumOep = 

Do while Age<Lite 

AnOep = Value/Lite 

AcufnDep = AcumDep + AnDep 

Age = Age + 1 
End do 
End subroutine 



Subroutlna Sum ol Years Dlgtla 

Agez'O 

Value = Cosl - Salvage 

AnDep = 

AcumDep = 

ND = Li(e>(Lite +1^2 

Do while Age<Ute 

AnDep =|(Lile - AgeVND)-Val 
AcumDep = AcumDep + AnDep 
Age = Age + 1 

End do 

End subroutine 



Figure 2. Algorithms tor depreciation 



ments from the one obtained us- 
ing simple ROI. However, the 
major disadvantage of DSCF 
ROI is that trial and error is the 
only way to calculate it. 

Before going further, I would 
like to define some terms so that 
we're all talking the same 
language. 

Inflation is the rise in the 
average level of all prices. 

Escalation is the rise In the 
price of a sirygle commodity or 
service. Some commodities may 
escalate without inflation. 
Escalation rates vary from com- 
modity to commodity and from 
service to service. 

Current year dollars are those 
received in a specific year. The 
current year dollars for any two 
years may or may not have the 
same purchasing power. Cur- 
rent year dollars are a "rubber" 
ruler that cannot t>e used as an 
absolute measure of cash flow 
in different years. 

Conilant dollars are current 
year dollars referenced accord- 
ing to their purchasing power to 
some base year. The base year 
used in the Program Listing is 
year zero of the investment. 
Constant dollars are the ab- 
solute ruler for measuring cash 
flow in different years. Constant 
dollars are calculated by dis- 
counting current year dollars by 
the inflation rate back to the 
base year. (Discounting current 
year dollars to account for In- 
flation should not be confused 
with discounting future year 

1^ HMtfw Strvlct—it pagt 14T 



cash flow to account for the 
time value of money.) 

We all know that inflation 
constantly reduces the value of 
the dollar. Inflation also has a 
major Impact on the profitability 
of investments. Yet, generally. 
Inflation is not considered in In- 
vestment analysis. 

To evaluate a potential invest- 
ment we should escalate the 
revenues and operating costs, 
calculate current year cash 
flow, discount the inflation rate 
of current year cash flow and 
then calculate the DSCF ROI 
from the constant dollar cash 
flow. 



SubroutlM Caah Row 

rear = 

Taxcredll= 0.1-Depbase 

Taxioss = 

Do while YeaKLife 

Revenue = Revenue'(i -»- Revescalalion] 
Cost = Cost •(! + Costescaiation) 
Grossprofit = Revenue - Cost - Interest - Dep 
II Grossprofit >0 then 
Grossprofit = Qrossprofll - Taxioss 
If GrossprollOO then 
Tax z TaxRale* Grossprofit 
Tax = Tax - TaxCredit 
II Tax>0 then TaxCredllaO 
Else Tax = 
TaxCradit = - Tax 
Endil 

Else Tax =0 
Taxioss z - Qrossprolit 
End if 

Else Tax =0 

Taxioss = Taxioss ~ Grossprofit 
End if 

Cashflow = Grossprofit + Dep 
Year = Year + 1 
End do 
End Subroutine 

Figure 3. Cash Flow Subroutine. 



When this is done, we can 
compare the DSCF ROI for 
various investment possibil- 
ities. 

The Program 

Now that we have established 
the criteria, let's build an 
analysis program. Our program 
should calculate simple ROI, 
DSCF ROI in current year dollars 
and DSCF ROI in constant dol- 
lars. What our program must do: 

1. Read in data. 

2. Check data for correctness. 

3. Calculate payment schedule 



for outstanding loans. 

4. Calculate yearly depreciation. 

5. Calculate revenue for each 
year, including escalation. 

6. Calculate yearly operating 
costs including escalation. 

7. Calculate yearly t]efore tax 
profit. 

6. Calculate income tax due. 

9. Subtract tax credit if any. 

10. Calculate after tax income. 

11. Calculate current year dollar 
cash flow. 

12. Calculate constant dollar 
cash flow. 

13. Calculate simple ROI using 
current year dollars. 



1260 PRlHT-EHTEIt THE lUKfi CF T« KTWO Vai UFNT 
FHSS CEHTER) IF VW HWT M COfUTHft TO CfLCllftTE fU 3" 

i2» iifvn Ji) 

13W IF J[»3 ^\B^ FVIMT' FVEFEE VOU EHTESED FM IHCWHCt UKER' .'Ml bCiTO ll'3e 

1316 IF JtKA TICH ff=l ELSE JI>=1 

13» fO FlfST DIICNSIW WKFlVS 

\m (Bl Cf<1)=Cf6H FLU f(Jk ITH VEFft,b<l>=tiEF1i£ClFIT10N FOR ITH VEFK 

13« REH R(I)=«WHUE FOR ITH VE« 0<I)=OPERRTlWi COST FOR ITH VS 

1356 REFt 1PCI)=IHTEI5ST mb FOR ITH VEFfc TP(l)=TfK FftlD F« ITH ¥R 

li£e REn TC(l)=Tn£S PFIID 1H IT>I VEFCtiKD'KFQRE.TFK PRtflT 

1378 REM P1(n»fFTER TPK PROFITS FOR ITH VE« 

12» l£H RO IS T>C SINFIE ROl.fd IS DlSCtUnED (flSH FLOW RDI HOT CtCRECTEE) FW IITLRTIDN 

iim REH R2 IS Tl€ DSCT R[il CtUSCTED FOR ItfUlTION 

1466 IF J(i=l Tl€N 1438 

1416 DIR CF(H+1, 3). IKIHl, 3). R<IH1), 0<IM). IPCIHl), TC(H*1, 3). P(lHi, 3). PICH*1, 3>. lll(**t(P*l),R0(3). 1(1(3). 12(3), JTC3) 

149 fiSt NOM EMORIZE LOW 

1436 05 

1446 PRlHfPIIftSE WIT IT HILL THE 1 TO 2 HIHJTES FCfi (aaUlTIONS' 

14» f& 11 IS IHTESEST RATE PER HDHTH 1/W 

i4«e ll>I/tP/ie6.66e rem this is KMHiV IHTEICS1 

i478v><iitifleee){<iP<M.) 

14tt P-I1«W.1/CV-1 ) 

1496 R£ll NOW CaCULRTE PfMCKT SOCUU 

1506 S=« 

1S16S1>« 

15MIC>1 

1S8S^6 

lS46fHl 

15M Jl< 



80 Microcomputing. March 1960 • 31 



for the TRS-60 from Micro- Mega 



C*— cm COWTWOL UWTT 

■ TiiMiTii)! ytmretttrlM tip* hinOi-trg • Ptnpomi co^rtm •ocMiiom on Imm wtrti tn mu^itit mo'iiio' • 

G«( (HOfclton liotrt 'econt'i^t too filtjtuct gMcf'»t 'ttulttrtg Irom grouna Idodi • Elimmaf 11— Ictfiovt 

piugg'fig ft^d vnglu^ing ol ircoixJti cttufs- 

Tne Uicio-lilayM C«is«frt Coniiol Unil does til Ifi-i ana morm You gtr mi tinr 

manull conliol ol tne •tQora*' SI fi* llick ol t swilcn. Wtnl to linB "\t 

tfginfi'fj ortnO of i p'Ofi'iTi' Flick maimer tnticn ana you'll ntar :i All 

Clbltl rtmtm plun»<t >i til Iht limt 

rn« U-cio-Ut^ C<iutt« Control iJnii Docs ( loi !o imo'ori Itie tppttr 

anci ol your TRStO iytltn loo. *s Ihown. ils m t 2''i"i 5' bet mhitn 

muggHt Oel w t m the ktyooaia ana your recoroa' Tnera ii no nen] to 

moit lire recordti. tnH all cables come neally 'nio Ihe unti tbe C«iJ»tte 

Conliol Unii iS la'loieO lo iha CTR-41 lecorOei. but may be uieo «"tn moit 

otbef recorders at v/ell. 




CASSETTE COHT'OL UNIT 

Add tl 00 foi poilage and rtanOling 



tSTlC 



CPUMOMrmn 




E** Itna fourtell wilhtbitnk screen -onaenng wbalyoui comoulant up to' The ktrcroMegt CPU Monitor 

can leli you. iQi etampi: • It youi CPU is 'n t loop wilh no em, • Mbtn a long son is neaiifig comple'ion. 

Of • II t key bounces tlu"ng keyboard mpul- The CPU hlonilor lels you listen to all CS*V6s and CLOAOs 

and will helD you quickly Una tna correct lecoider volume setting ll you bate an etpaniion inlerlace, you 

will always »no" wbelher trie realtime clock tt on or oil because you can hear it 

Th* micro-Mega CPU Monitor girei e lo-ce to tn» Z-SO microprocessor in 

tour THS-ao by uiing AM radio circuitry lo e-ck up tbe compularianai 

rityinms ol ihe CPU. wnic'] are ampiiUed and piered ifirougii a loudipeakei 

Tire pKkup unit ol t/w CPU Uoniior, mown at leit m Ihe pnoto, goes under 

your TPS-X) keyboard It la connacled by a X" cable to tn« speaker and 

control unii. which includes an on/oil tolume conlral and an LED "pofier- 

on'indictloi. The Moniior is powered by an AC adapter, shown at right in 

the oBoto No balleries are needed and no electrical connections to tour 

TnStO art reouirtd 

By listening to Ihe CPU Monitor, you will soon btcome famihai wilh ine persontiitiei' ol Iheprogrems you 

run and wbelher ihei are eieculing in a normal way A artmatic use ol tbe CPU Monitor is m tbe greet 

enhancemtrxl wbich it oiovides lor ccmputei games ISee Gaming Entironmeni Delow / 

CPU MONITOR - - M'M 

Aad t! 00 lor poslage and handUnq 

THE QMIW-aCHEEN 

The aye pleasing Green-Screen liisayerlht C^T ol your TRStO Video Display and gives you imprortd con 

irasi "itn reduced giaie You gti brignt. luminous green chartciers and graphics like those leaturedby try 

eipentim CPT unils 

Tbe GreenScreen it closely matched to ihe color ana leiture ol tn* TPS-W 

Video Display and impiores tbe overall appearance ol your tyslem li is at- 

tached with adbeiirt strips, wbich do nal mar your display unil in any way 

The Micro Mega GreenScreen gives imp'ovea video display visibility lor all 

eppliceiions end is especially elletlive in creating dramalic. high impact 

displays tor computer games iSee Gaming Envronmem priow i 




ttTU 



THEaneEN scPEEn •■ 

Add ft 00 lor postage and handling 

TW ULTIMATE STAfl TWEK PACKAGE 

Tiieael trivial compulei games'' This complete Slar Trek package wiUoioviae you wilh endless lascinalion 
and challertge In addition lo Ihe program cesteiie. it includes comprehensive instiuclions. a oad ol 

Voyto* Log' rtcofd siteeis. eitd a Iree-stendmg Torpedo and Uaneuvtnng Chan 
Tne oacage 'S bw" a'ovnd '"* lalesi *e'^ion o' unce Mjc*iu'S "tcc" 
parebir Slai 'lek in a 13 000 Bile orcgiam <nii i "os! o' suoi't ana imag- 
inalire leatures. wHich mcii/de numt'ous dynamic and spectacular graphic 



- / 



disolays Slar Trek III puis you in command ol Ibe Enterprise cruising me . /" 

galatf ol 192 Quadrants liHed wilh uncharted haiards. including hostile 

Klmgont. pulsars, and black holes You have at your disposal scanners, 

various weapons and detense systems, onboard computers, and a loyal 

crew lYou will need tbem all to survive ihe Kiingans i 

Your mission is to rid the region ot Kiingons ana ro locale 'ive inhabitable planets, all within 300 starOays. 

belore returning to Sin fieei Heaoouarters where your overall elleciiveness es a staiship commander will 

be scored High scores are possible only with carelul planning ano eltectivt battle ticticj r/w "Voyage 

Log' sheets will guide your siiategy. and the Toipedo tna Maneuvering Chan will give you a vital edge m 

combat IWhtn you engage ihree Kiingon ships you can r ellora lo miss i 

STAH TREK PACKAGE Hor level II. tSK only) J22 X 

Add tl 00 lor postage and ntnaling 

CREATE YOUR OWN SPECTACULAR 
OAMWiG EMVIROMMEHT [and mv» tS.OO] 

Vie tnierprite is m battle tr,m with detitctor shieias et lull power As her capiem. you ere taking bet into 
combat Thebattietlaiiant men rings m your ears and COHOITION PED" Itasneson your monitor screen 
You celt tor wtrp drive ana key in Ihe cooramalts ol thequedrtnt wbtie your scennett naveOettclta Kling- 
01 tbips As you select Ihe warp lector, you hear the retsauring clicking ol your ntvigalionel gear as It ae- 
livates Ibt warp arive. 

Suaaeniy you break out at hyoerspace end your momror OiipMyi ine citiiimg iifhi ol tbree Kimfon tallie 
Cruisers lloatmgon you' screen! Their evil shepas glowm luminous green against the black vorOol saece 
Moments later, you beer the chatactensnc respmg sound ol Xlinutm laser weapons, ana. es you watch, 
high-energy beams come kniting lowarts the Entetprise in succession Irom each ol Ihe Kimgon ships 

You have been hit' You beet the aismal sound ol the damage control alarm as "DAMAGE TO WARPDRIVB" 
ana 'DAMAGE TO PHASEPS'llash on your screen The Klmgons hevt stopped liringi The Enterprise Is 
cripplea. but your best weeppn is still mteci. end it's your turn /lo*' Vou key in tn» command lor photon 
torpedoes As your screen agein displais Ihe position ol the Klingon ships, you select a llring vector Irom 
your lorpedo chart and key It in How you hear tbe buzz ol your photon torpedo as you see it speeding lowani 
a Khngon ship II strikes bim aeadctniei' As you wttch. tft» Klinoon Bati'eCruisi'disinttgretts. accompa- 
nied by a salislying crackling jounO 

Does Ihe iocve scens"o iOi^na'^' le'rhed'^ Not atari 'I s a smal' sar^o'e of wn^r you *!'■ tioe"encr *irii 
Wicro Urga s Giming Er^tironmeni j,h.cn cons ill 0' • Trie STtP TPEK "aCHAGf • 7he anlEU 
SCPECfi ana • IheCPU lilOHITOP Inelasi gai^ra nnO dirnmm acuo" leliecn Ihe superc Siai Trrk in pro 
gram together wiir\ ihe ' voyage Log ma Toipedo Chj'l ol Ihe Sur Trek PACkage An ol Ihe uriaur 
graphic displays are greatly ernancra ty the Giren Scren fmaiiy the uncanny snuia •■Heels jm pro 
Ouced By Ihe CPU t/oniio' vhich linnluliy oicf, uc Ihe I OP NEH 'oops and oiner CPU oaile'is "hich 
crtiie ii-r aisiK-ci'ie i.rer sounas tnn accomoar, ihe *LlPT and DAMAGE -"sssdgn j'cng •rf: ■'■p 
nafshri r^crei 0' i"e Meaooi^m'wo^ Once ,ot, ^e tr^eoit rou van r an, 'ongei br iai'snrd vrh snrm coiri 
pule' games 



q»mfmOf' tha; n.ii I"! Gdm.ng Cn.iionmeri yoi. also g«l *" ot 'he othei eicf'ifrp tear 
Moniioi ana Iht G'Cfn Screen lor non gaming ipglications fou also Save tb CO oil the a 

the individual Hems 

GAMING EHVIPOHUENT 

Aaa J3 iO lor ooiijge sfO hAnaimg 



es ol Ihe CPU 

nbinea cost ol 



Terms: Check or money order, no CODS or credit cards, please. Add amount 
stiown lor postage ana tianrStintj to price ol tht item All items shipped within 48 
hours by ItrsI Class or priority mail. Virginia residmnts. aOO 4Vi sales lax. 



Micro-Mega ■ P^. Box BS65 • Ar«neFton,V^ SSS06 



R£H IKTEREST TO ICfftST COn 



1566K?=M.*tP 

1570 IP(Jl)=e 

1568 J2=l 

159e 12= lHKU*ft*188)/l«) 

16M lH(fG)=l2 

1618 PP=P-I2 

1629 1P(J1)=1PU1)*12 

1638S=S+ff 

164eft=fr-Pf 

16S« IF HJ<H2 QOTO 1738 

lea IF J2=12 T}€H GOTO 17« 

ie?e c=tc+i 

16S8 J2=J2+1 
1696 G0T015W 
17W J1=J1*1 

ITie tc=tc*i 

1720 GCnO 157ft 

17?e REH F1N1S*D 

i7« REM vat [tPKClflTE 1* IfNESlUNT 

i7» REH PRCCfifH HILL EIMR CH-CaRTE DEPttClfniOH ON 

176(1 RD1 USER SffCIFlEU ?tTHCC (Si FCft 

1778 (tH STWiGHT LlttSlW Cf VEH6 [HGITS-IttLlHlHt EafiHCE 

176« REM FH) DOJeiE DEaiNING m.mi. 

179e REM J[t IS FLftG F» HETHOO Of t€P1?ECIHTlC« 

ISee REH JI>=1 STBfilGHT Llt£,J[»=2 5UM OF VEPRS [)161TS 

im REH J[>=3 KaiHIHG wlfmce 

182e[H=t>-SV 

1636 REH Ueo; TO SE IF USft Hft. SFtClFlED rtTHOO 

1849 IF JF=6 TICH J[)=l ELSE JK=1 

18» OH JD GOTO 1868 ;lS>4e ,2039 

1&» (®1 DeFWtlftTlCW FC« STfifllCHT LI« .ll>=i 

ie7« Ft*: .16=1 TO H 

It* [)(Je,Jl»=W/H 

im so=siHi>(.ie,j[)> 

19TO NEXT a 

1519 IF Jf09 THtK 217& 

1929 }{*=)lf*i 

i9;t« anoi»tt 

15*49 REM an If VEFftS DIOIT;' [tEFtttlFiTlOH 

1959 *=«*(H+i;V2 

\3i-tf m .It^lTW 

1?79 KJb,JD)=UH-<Jf.-l'i/H)^«« 

IS* 2Z=;MJ(J6..l[i) 

15M ftXT Jt. 

2t«i IF JF(>e TttN 2178 

2919 JD=JlHl 

'sm Gcno 1K*» 

2938 REn HOU UlCtUTE ICUIHING WLFNCE 

2948 Rl=2/N 

2«* VM> 

mHi H^h REM St! iS THE flCtlMllRTEt' PEMt IBTIW 

>*i7*i Fi:(:lt.=nC« 

2«* ['I '■t- .l["=EV«il 

2«¥ iF BV'-[)<Jt"...l[":SV Tt€H A'm ELSE I" If., .1l'-'=W-?i' 

2190 f-tsv 

2118 SI)=SlHD(.16,JD-' 

2129 GOTO 21f* 

2138 m^-])(M.M" 

2149 IF BV<= SV T>tN EV=5V 

2158 Sl>=g>+i>CJ6. ib) 

21«i f£XTJ6 

2179 REH DCFttClftTlW CfLOlfiTlONB f«£ ttifVETE 

21£e IF .ff=« TrtH JH=1 aSE JH=1 

2196 REM WH CaOUiTt TfWS PROFITS FH> U6H FLOW 

229« 1R=IR/I9e 

2219 Tt'TC,'19e 

2229 T=T/189 

223« ICfelClSw 

2248 F«J1=.1[) TO JH 

22M TL=9 

2268 Ty=TC*0 

2278 FtS J2=lTt« 

22W R(J2)=ft*a*lR>U2 

2296 0(J2)=(t*(l*IR)[J2 

23«e P(J2,Jl)=R(J2)-0(J2)-lPU2)-t)tJ2,.il.) 

2316 m Htt) IH ItnfilNlHG SfLVfItt VftL€ IF WaJHIHG BftfWI 

229 REN [€F«EClflTIOH LIStD FH) IF DEFWCIHTED K« VFllE IS 

2336 fiffl GKriTER THfH SftV«£ VFtLt fH> IF THIS IS LFIST W 

23.49 IF J2=Nl*MP(J2,3?=f(J2.:<>+ev-SV 



32 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



225e IF PJ2,J1K=« K(J2,J1)=« 

25« IF P(J2,J1K=* TL=TL-PlJ2.Jl' miOffilti 

2276 (£=f<J2,Jl>-U 

2:<» IF G2<e Tl=-&? T[(J2, Jl'=« «lTCG5ie 

24» Rffl WfTPK PW11FT =PttTf« hW 11 - TPDIOSS C»RV FMMD 

2416 iL=« 

24S TC(J1'..11-T*G2 

2438 RCT Tftt IHVESMHT TF« CMDIT 

2446 REM OtCJi TO 5EE IF IfftESTWHI Tfft OSIHT TPKDI BtFCftE 

24«« ROl WKK Cf ■I'i.m- WEEDS 7 



IF .I2>7 FW T)0« IrtH JTi.Il>=l 
T((J2.Jl'=TCi.J2.Jl.>-TX 

IF i['j:.n':« tx=« 

IF TCkJI.-'lKei ;x=-TC(J2-Jl' 
IF TaJ2. .11X61 Tt:(J2,Jl)=e 
f1'.12-Jl)--PJ2,Jl)-TCtJ2,Jl> 
CF':J1..i1'=PT(.12,J1)+0(J2.J1) 



24^ 
247B 
24W 
2496 
25W 

2'jie 

»i8 *X1.I2 

25*6 (CX1.ll 

2^MTL= »1 

25(d REH HQU [rLCiXHTE SltflE K'l 

2576 FOR .i:~.iMOJH 

j59e F« .11=11* 

2t«l H:"j;"=«<>.J2'n"t> 11, 12' 

2618 «X1 Jl 

2t26 WiJ2)=Wni:'i.'W" 

2636 ffXT J2 

2648 REH HCH CUDJlftTE WtF ROl 1H1S 1^ 

265* FCR J2=.11H0-1N 

26te L=-l 

2e.78 t^ 2 

2b8e S=« 

2696 Rl<.l2i=(HtL>/2 

2786 F» J1=1T0« 

2716 &=s+{roi,J2)«<nw4j:'-'>[-.ii wh [usaxm f«i« 

2728 NEXT Jl 

2738 ER=^S*[»/T) 

2746 IF fK(ER)(=1L T«H 2786 

27^ IF ftiS'.H-LK ttft MN FV.lKI'FftlLED ICi CtM.tR(£ ' (DTCeTee 

27£8 IF [R^DCH L=R102' ELS »=fa(J2' 

2778 GOTO 'A» 

2768 ttXI J2 

2796 REH MB) Ca.CllflTE WXF ROI ftCtOiniW, Ft* HfUfTlW 

2986CFG/ie8 

2618 FC(( J2=J[)10JN 



TpiFL w Emt' [fitiinnw 



L=-l 
H=2 
S=8 

R2CJ2)=CH+L.V2 
FW J1=1TW 

tiC=CF(]l.J2>*(l*Gil-.ll (Of llSOUn Cfl£M FLOW FOft IWLftTIW 
S=S+K*<1*R2U2)H-J1 
ItXTJl 

IF feS(ER)<=TL ItCH 2Si«l 
IF EIt>« TI€M L=R2(.12) ELSE tt=R2(.12' 
IF fBS(IH)CeW 1>€N FVim- FftlLEU 10 CaMHi ' 00102958 
GOTO 2648 



2328 

2636 

2848 

2856 

2668 

2676 

S86 

2896 

2988 

2918 

2926 

2938 

2946 

2956«XTJ2 

2968 REH WU mH\ 11 OUT 

2976 ttH FIRST PV1K1 tUI VFR10U5 «ll 

29»as 

29» F«Ji=n)Taw 

3868 Hilin'SlfflE ROl Ftft VWCJl),' 

3818 PKIKI USING 'H H'£\m.}l)*i.9» 

XSl IF J1(J1>=1 MK PRIMI'MPWIHG 

2838 NEXI ,11 

3W8 F»Jl=.lli10JN 

3856 FKIKI'bSff ROl FCfi 'MkJii,' : 

Hm PWWI USlHt "H.MKVRlOlMe* 

smifx\ }\ 

::8e6 F» Jl^JDTOJN 

3096 PRIHT USIH&1«r fctH UStaiKTEIi FOR H Wi IlfLflllOH ',G^e6 

3186 FWKl'Ff*; "fttOD ■ 

3116 PRINT IfilKi" B HT.FS' Jl>*188 

3126 tCXTJl 

3138 Itfyi'FWSS (EHTEIO 10 SEE DtTfllLS '.12 

• R»atl»f S»rvica—so« page 147 



1FK CSE611 W1 TFKEN IN 7 VEFfiS* 



This Weekend: 

STIK 

IT.... 
••to your 



Tftafi riohit Esmarks VIDIET-STIK ligfit pen has the TBS-eO CONNECTION 
lor LEVEL I & II Your 4K lo 4BK TRS-flO System will come •live under your 
VIDIET-STIK witfiin mmutes ol Its arrival That s because tnere are no wires to 
solder or traces to cut You re up and running as fast as you can plug the 
interlace into your system s cassette EAR-pack CLOAD our custom LIGHT- 
WAVE demonstration software and RUN And because the interlace has a 
plug lor your recorder, you won i have lo unplug it again when loading your 
other software tapes The interlace allows them lo pass 'ight thru whenever 
you re not using the pen II s e«clusive switched tip' design means the pen s 
electrically isolated from your system when it s not m use JuSt point & press' 
It's thai simple Pliig. CLOAD and RUN And r^ave we got Ifie software lor you 
lo RUN wilh> Our demonslralion tape includesa calibration program |used to 
adjust the CRT's bngniness and conlrasl) plus STIK-TAC-TOE, AWARI and 
TOWERS Two challanging games and a puzzle thai will keep grownups and 
children Stik'ing it lo your TRS-80 tor hours And there are instructions 
provided so you can begin writing your own light pen programs (lightware) 
lor fun or profit ILevel II) Or. |ust sit back andenioy our LIGHT- WAVE tapes 
each month Esmarks unmatched commitment lolightwarecan bring you up 
to five new games, puzzles, dnlls&educalional quizes or simulations each 
month Our current LIGHT-WAVE releases are 



T 
R 

S 

I 

8 
O 



LIGHT-PAK2 — LIGHTPEG (4peg-|umppui7fes) 
ENDRUN lOitieiio with a iwtst I 
LIFE9 IConways LIFE with mutations) 
Pnce S19 95 (including postagei handling) 
LITEGAMMON (Backgammon you'll Stik with) 
STIKWUMPUS {Caves with a litlte lite) 
MAZEUASTER (Maze after maze to poke thru) 
PRICE S19.B5 (including postage & handling) 



(LEVEL 11) 



LIGHT-PAK 3 
(LEVEL II) 



OrMr yours now and we'll include a tree copy Of FLASHBACK. Esmark s 
newsletter dedicated to the latest news in lightware applications And. don t 
forgel lo tell your friends The VIOIET-STIK can also be ordered for use on 
■T>ost Other micro systems using the following processor chips 



8DS0 



zao 



6800 



6S02 



All that s required is a standard cassette jack leadirig to Grour>d ar>d a 
readable single bit input port Driver software is provided along with 
instructions for writing lightware applications And lell your local Dealer thai 
Esmark'sgot a Dealer package he won't want lo miss out on Delivery is 3 to 6 
weeks from receipt of your order CO D s ars S3 00 extra but will be shipped 
wilhin two weeks. All prices are FOB Miihawaka. Indiana Indiana residents 
add 4% slate sales tax 



ALSO COMING FROM ESMARK 

{ ] TRS-BO Printer Interlace (Cassette AUX-jack interface for all RS232 
printers. Includes LLIST& LPRINT software) 

I TRS-BO RS232 Communications Interlace (Makes your TRS-SO a lull 
I/O terminal lo limesharing systems the world over Gives you 
intalligertt or dumb terminal capabilities at 110 or 300 BAUD Also 
irtcludes Printer Interface above with 20 mA current loop & 'TTL level 
t/0 options.) 

— TRS-flO IS a irademarli of the Tandy Corporation — 



INCORPORATED 

507ViE. HcKINLEYHWY. MISHAWAKA, IN 46544 
(210) 255-3035 



$62. 



95 



'ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MARKETING 



PLUS $1.50 
POSTAGE & 

HANDLING 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 33 



WE MEAN BUSINESS ! 

iiiJSiNF.SS SOFTWARE THAT IS 



lRS-80 



USE YOUR 
FOR MORE 
THAN FUN AND GAMES 



T>E DATA DtBBER $49.95 

Duplicates any program tape to TRS80 quoWy Hecor ■ 
stnjcts date pulsus to ensure accurate CLOADs Perrnits 
easy loading c' ev^n poor quality comnvrcial tapes with 
out constant volume adjusting. Monty-back guarantee if 
not satisfwd 



THE ELECnaC SECRETARY S75.00 

A pomiertul *ord processor to turn your rRS-80 into an 
automatic typexititer Features page numbenng, movable 
margins, headers, variable page length. arxlttOe Centering 
Enter lexl, revise, correc. and output to pnnler page tor 
malted, justified, even hyphenated as required. Cross 
coupling files permits individuaify addressed form letters. 
Complete with upper/lower case conversion information 
on diskette Specify it RS232 adapter is installed in 
MTieiface 

WMLROOM PUIS » 75.00 

A versatile and poiitrful maifcng program lo pnnt labels 
by sequential coding: up. city, state, customer ID code, 
even last name. Sorts by any code rn minutes and stores 
sequentially in a single string lapprox. 1500 records per 
diskette). Includes AUTOPRirtT Supplied on diskette 

MIMIMAIL «5a00 

A compaa *«rs«o of ^WLROOM PLUS txjt without 
customer coding Featkxes alpfia lookafiead lor dupii 
cates Supplied oo diskette 

FORMLET S 35.00 

Generates torm letters irom MIPILMAIL records Prepare 
your letter bulletin notire adi^rtisement. «c . then load 
the MINIMAIL files Your pnnter will pnnt the inside 
address letter arxl repeat lor each name in the File — all 
prcperlv spaced and fustified Supplied on cassette 

AUrOBOOT S 1 5.00 

SimpliRes automatic BASIC program loading Irom your 
DOS Permits sequencing througti your choice ol DOS 
commands, selects files and memory size you specify, arvd 
loads or njns selected program Ailows user lo see direc 
tory and free space tiefofe program runs autoiriaticaify 
Supplied on cassette 

SIR ECHO 510.00 

A handy program to make your pnnler work like an 
elect/ic typewriter Use alone or merge with your programs 
lo make what appears on the screen echo to ihe pnnler 
Supplied on cassette 

TELEFON »20.00 

Make your TRS-80 a smart terminal Communicate with 
lime share and other computers, txilletin boards, etc 
Transfer programs over Ihe ptxjne For disk systems with 
modem 

UPPER/LOWER CASE COPIVERSIOM S20.00 

Reprint of KILOBAUD article exptaining how to modify Ifie 
TTiSflO to display both upper and lower case character Kit 
contams s(ep-by-s«ep mstruclKins. pans, and necessary sofl 
*oie on cassette tot case reversal echo, and automatic liw 
feed roubnes 



User group discounts available 
Dealer inquiries mvited 

■TFtS-eO IS a Iraaemifk a' it'e Tandy Corp 




TERMS Cnecit money or- 
oer. Visa Masiercharge 
Washington residents ado 
5 3% (or lai 



THE PERIPHERAL PEOPLE 

PO, Box524, Dep't.M 
Mercer Island, WA 98040 

, -■ '^ (206) 232-4505 



3150 REH HON PKINT IT OUT GN CRT 

3166 as 

il70 FCRJinTGH 
ji5* FCRJ2=JDT(UN 



as 

PRIKT'KTfllLS Ft* S-EHt * VJl;' FCft ■.«(J2) 
FHim'li£VtNL€'i Tfe(45), "J", R(J1) 
reiHt"OPEWiTlHG COST; TFe(45). "$", 0(J1> 
FlilHT" INTEREST PftI[)";TI*<45), ■JMf'Jl? 
FtlNT'ttFttCimiON FCft VTfe(45>,T-(KJl, J2) 
PftlHT'PRETHX lHC-C»CM*^45),-J-.;F'..ll,j;-.. 
PRIIH'TFK PhIO", Tf€i(45>, "f ■ TCf Jl. }i> 
PRIHTffTERTfi>: lHtC(€■,Tft(45).■i^f■^^.il, J^:.- 
F-ftM-CURREHT ^tfft DOLLf*S CASH FLOW ■.Tffc(45t.^'t",[f (Jl, J2) 
Ftlfn-DISCOIfTEE) CflSW FLCH Mfie(45>;"r,CT(.lli.l?)*(l+Rl(J2))[-Jl 
CC=[KJLJ2>nPT'..ll,J2)*(l+CiH-Jl.^ 

PfilHT'CfiSH FLtii IH CCHSTFHT t UlTH •.(M.^'V. I(fLftTlW,Tfe(4T.>, T.K 
F«lHT"lilSCaWTE[) (MBTfW WLU* tftSH FL0H*.Tfe<45),'tva:»f.l+R2(J2»[-Jl 
IttW'FtfSS <DnER:> TO SEE MORE MH) 



32«i 

3216 
3220 
3238 
3246 

3266 

;i?6 

32W 

3;<6e 

3316 

3326 

3338 

3346 ItXT .12 

:<358 HEXT Jl 

'iM Ifflft'Kl Vai UPKT HrtH) COfV ",V$ 

3376 IF LEFT»(«-1)='V' TFCH 3468 aSE !*tn'M< VW *HT TO tH«£ INKflVW 

3388 IF LEFT$(Vt,l>='H" TtCH ST* ELSE J&=1 

3396 GOTO 238 

3466 REM H«D Cff^* OUTFUT Cf EVERVTHIHG 

3416 POti 16424-48 

3426 KKE 16425,6 

3438 LPRIHl TFfe(2e>,"itfVT WiTh • 

3448 LPRINT 

3456 LF^ilHT'VEfHV RE«llt ■,TFIi(45>;'*VR 

34ffl LF*lHT'VEHa.V fftRflTIHG COST ■;TFfc(45),"tVCi 

3476 LF1l]HT"E5CaJlTlCH FCR REVENLfJfti(45).]ft*i86/*';" 

34G8 LPRItfl'ESCaFlTlOH FOR COSTS"; Tfie<45). 10*166, "X" 

3496 LF*lHT'OePfi£CIttlLE BflSf Mf6(45),'r,b 

3566 LFKIHT'SflWGE VPLUE ",TFC(45>,.'*"iSV 

3516 LF«lHT'fteWT (f LOW ■.TPC(45).;'J',L1 

3^i26 LFVIHT'FNNUPL IHTEHST RHTE •iTfl£i<45),I,"r 

3536 LF1?iHT"LIFE Cf L0WiTfe(45)i«.."S'l<S' 

3546 LPRINTHLIKR OF fWEt(rS/WMfle(45);ff 

"^56 LFmiHT 'PROJECT LIFE ■;Tfe<45)iH 

3568 LPRIKFMIWSTUMI TfK CREDIT RPITE •,Tfe(45);T(*ie6-"Z' 

3578 LF*1HT"IHC£»€ TW RflTE '; Tfe(45>, 1*166; V^' 

3588 LF-RIIffaf DEfLfllC*: ■;TfC(45)iG*iee,"^" 

3556 LFRIWT 

3686 F« Ji= J[) TO JH 

3618 LF^IHT" SirfVE ROl FOR ■,f(tC]l?.TFe(45l,Ml(.ll)*ieei'r 

3629 LPRIHT" DCtf ROl FCft ■iW(.ll>.^Tfe(45);Rl(Jl)*16e,"X' 

3636 LPRIHT- Ktf ROl HWECTED FOR IffLFlTIW FCS ' ;Ht(.1l),TFe(45),R2(Jl)*l66i ■:^* 

3646 fCXT Jl 

3656 LFKIHT CHiJdl) 

3660 INFlfi'FliESS EKTER Ftft l€)a PftGE',XX 

3676 (£fl HflfiD CJPV FCft MTfllLS 

36Se FOR Ji= 1 TO N 

:^96 LPRIHT "DeTfllLS FCft VWR I '.Jl 

3768 LPRIKT ■REVEHLE ■,Tf€K47).R(Jl> 

3716 LF*im 'WERFITIHG [Xi5T.Tfe(47).0(Jl) 

3726 LPRIKTlHTERfST PflID"iT(€(47>, IP(Jl) 

3736 FOR J2=1T0JH 

3746 LfftlHT'fias'S.IS FtR ',(^$02^ 

3756 LFRIHTDEFKClflTlOH •,Tfti(47),"$",[)Lll,J2> 

3766 LPRlHT"F«TflK PRtf IT'.. TPe(47), '%'. P(.ll, J2) 

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3766 LFItlHT'ffTER TftX lM:«tMF6<47),*t",PTai,.12) 

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Hm LFKlHTDISCOUHTEIl CISREHT [-(LLft tfiSW FLt«MFe(47),'r;(r(Jl,J2)»(ltRl(.12))[-Jl 

3816 Ct=tr(Jl,J2)*(l*G)[-Jl 

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3948 NEXTJ2 

3856 LFRINT CHRtCll) 

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3£7e REM IF VOU DO MOT HWT FWIHt REMOVE Tl€ FKiVE THO STFlTEHETtf. 

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3856 INFin'Mi mi HfiNI TO CHWGE INPUT "iV* 

39W IF LEFT*(V*,1)="H- THEN STOP aSE JC.=1 
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34 * 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



:v 



^'^^ ^^'^ Tds by stfiPP'"^ But niore irr|Pjg; and c^i^'^f'^rrS up to six 
printed out awr generate "^Bf r Reef"":; ^^Je wti^fe 



printed out awr generate "^Bf r Reco'-'^i^^re wti^fe 
^"•'°ndSuspens;i^3lof;=,tnTSy,\1a^P™^^ 



^"•'°ndSuspens;i^3lof;=,tnTSy,\1a^P™^^ 



OISK Ht>* COMPANY, anu now na'' g^g^e 



$18 50,CHECKBO 







f^T-' 






1^ Reatior Sarvica—see page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 35 



SufarautiiM DtwwMttad Cash Flow RCN 

Low= - 1 

High = 2 

Tol =0.001 

Ef = 1 

Oo tvhile Ei>T«l 

RO(={Hi9h*Lo«y2 

Sum=0 

Y«ar = 1 

Do while YsaKUfa 
Sum^Sum + Cashflow •(! + ROI)- Ysar 

End do •" 

l( ABS<High - LowKO 001 then 
pnnl latled to convocQe 
axit 

ElM 

Er z (Sum - OftpbasaVDapbase 
ir Er>0 Then Low = ROI 

EtM Htgh^ROI 
End if 
End il 

Er = ABS(er) 
End do 
End sut)foutir>e 

Figure 4. Discounted Cash Fiow ROI Subroutine. 



so, what percent? Check with 
the IRS to be sure. 

13. Income tax rate: What is the 
marginal income tax rate you 
will have to pay on income de- 
rived from this Investment? 

14. Gross National Product 
(GNP) Deflator. What is your 
estimate of the average yearly 
inflation rate during the life of 
the project (8 percent is the de- 
fault)? 

Spend some time making 
sure the estimates are as ac- 
curate as you can make them, 



the accuracy of tfie program 
depends on them. 

Running the Program 

Once you have assembled the 
required information, load the 
program into your computer. 

You will be asked to enter 
each of the items discussed 
atx>ve. Don't worry if you make a 
mistake. Keep on going. After 
you've entered all the informa- 
tion it will be displayed on the 
CRT. 

You will be asked "Are these 



14. Calculate DSCF ROI using 
current year dollars. 

15. Calculate DSCF ROI using 
constant year dollars. 

16. Print the results. 

Each of these 16 steps ts a 
rTKxlule in the program. Most of 
them can be understood from 
the program listing and the re- 
marks In the listing. 

Algorithms for the major 
modules are shown in Figures 1 
through 4. These algorithms 
combined with the TRS-80 Level 
II BASIC listing should enable 
you to translate the program to 
any language that your micro- 
computer understands. 

Data Requirements 

Before you run the program, 
you'll need the following Infor- 
mation: 

1. Annual revenue: What is your 
best estimate of the gross an- 
nual revenue that the invest- 
ment will earn? 

2. Annual operating cost: What 
Is your t}est estimate of the total 
operating cost, excluding In- 
terest and depreciation, re- 
quired by tfie investment? 

3. Escalation rate of revenue: 
How much do you expect rev- 
enue to increase each year, in 
percent? 

4. Escalation rate of costs: What 
percent do you estimate costs 
will Increase per year? 

5. Depreciable base: What is the 
cost of the investment less non- 
depreciable items such as land? 

6. Salvage value: How much is 



the depreciable base worth at 
the end of the project life? 

7. Project life: How long will you 
keep the investment? This 
figure is also used for the depre- 
ciation time. 

8. Amount of loan: How much 
money do you have to borrow to 
finance the investment? 

9. Annual interest rate 

10. Life of loan 

11. Numtser of payments per 
year 

12. Investment tax credit: Can 
you take an investment tax 
credit for this investment and, if 



Sample Problem 



HtUiDAift 

ions LPQiATING U)eT 
ESUIRTICM fC« aVDlE 
ESCamiON f» COETS 
DEPHClFBi GfSE 
SfLVftt VHUE 

ncuiT OF Lcm 

MIR lITTtREST RffTE 

LIFE CF LQM 

HIKK OF PflWinS^ 

PKUEtl LIFE 

IWCSnEMT Tm CKD1T RfllE 

IKOC TRKIME 

or tCFLflTOG 

SlfTLE KOI FW SlftlOn Lift {CPKCIRTICN 

KIT KII FGR STfllGHT UK DCFfCCIRTlM 

U£f SOI QMECTD FOB IVUTIDH FCfi STHIOn LltE UKSCIHTIW 13. 1»2 'i 

SIPVU itOI FOK ELK OF <.EIKS DIGITS liEFfiEClflTION ISZmy. 

WXF Wl F» an Cf VtFR NGHS KP«CIH110H 2,4663 •<; 

DCtT Hll COKCTED F« llfLHTIW FIX S(M OF V»S DIGITS DmEClRTlCM 14 3311 'i 

SirflE ROI FC« KaiNlMi eFlRK£ DEMSHFlTIW la Zm '£ 

DOF ROI FOft DeaiHlNG MMl UPRECIRIICM 24 'Si X 

DOT ROI CWEnO* FOR IlfLftTIM FOft DCaiNlHG MSttl UPHCIflTlON 15 tt^S Y. 



t 

t 23880 

5Z 

t ssm 

% laeo 
tssm 

12?. 

5«S 
12 

» 2276 2 
212412:! 





Sample 


Listing 




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1 1H94 1 


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1153906 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1960 



TROM THE ORIGINATOR 
OF THE TRS-80 PROJECT 





CORPORATION 

HEADQUARTERS FOR PASCAL 

And Other High Level Languages 



PASCAL COMPILER 

Pascai/MT'" is designed to run under CP/M. 
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Fealaras: 

'Compiler executes only in 32K. 
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'Inelutles real time symbolic debugger 
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Package Includes System Diskette and In- 
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price $100" 

Same package (TRS-OOS version) 

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'CP/M Assembler Manual 

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'CP/M interface Guide , Requires 16K and \ 

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Price, set of 5 (Manuals only) $25" 

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Lo«eT 

Comparable to compilers on large mam 
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Features: 

' FORTRAN Compiler 

• Macro Assembler (280) 

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• library 

' Lib Manager (Not in TRS-DOS version) 



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pnce 



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New RS232 Communication Program that 
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Call or write for complete information 



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High Level Languages for the TRS-80 
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CP.'M IS a reflislBred Ifaflemart at Digital Research Corp • TRS-BO is i regisiered IradetnafK o( Radio SfwW 



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FMG's Microsoft COBOL brings the world's 
most widely used computer programming 
language to the TRS-80 user. FMG COBOL-80 
is comparable to COBOL systems found on 
minicomputers and large mainframes. Conse- 
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microcomputers because it gives users ac- 
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COBOL-80 is a standard, COBOL programs 
written on other computers may be run easily 
on the TRS-80. 

FMG TRS-COBOL-80 is based on the 1974 
ANSI standard. It combines all Level 1 fea- 
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The FMG TRS-COBOL-80 system includes a 
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Requires 48K, CP/M and 2 Mini Disk Drives. 

Price $750" 

UCSD PASCAL 

The powerful, general purpose language sys- 
tem, originally developed for large, complex 
system, is now available from FMG for your 
TRS-80. This new FMG/UCSD Pascal System 
greatly increases the value and capability of 
the TRS-80. 

Package Incluiies: 

'Operating System 'Library 

'Screen Editor 'Pascal Compiler 

'280 Macro 'Utilities and System 

Assembler Reference Book 

/Requires 48K, \ 
Price $150" ^2 drive System^ 

available without Macro Assembler, 
Linker and Library (not for compiling 

programs) price $100" 

For recommended Pascal manuals, refer 
to -PASCAL COMPILER' lasting. 



^1Z 



S 



tf^ deader Servic»—S9» page 147 



60 Microcomputirjg, March J9W • 37 



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aCREKI 'Afft CASH FLCU 


1 22761 6 






DlSCttKTED CUKHI UOJifi CA5H FLCU 


15585 47 






COtSTFir HLLtt CASH FLCU FOR 6 X IftLRTICM 


1 13232 6 






DISCCUfTED COGTWT Nl 1 Fit CfEM FLOU 


15594 86 






FWLVSIS FCR S«1 Cf VEflRS DIGITS ttPttCIFlTlCW 








DEPKCIHTION 


1169286 






PffTFKPRtFlT 


1 36896.9 


KTfilLS FOR SO* 1 5 




TFK PAID 


» 18049 4 


REVEMX 


63814 1 


FFTER TFK 1K.M 


118049 4 


OFtWlTIW, COST 


29354 5 


nSREMT VEtt CASH FLCU 


1 19942 3 


IHIUtSI PAID 


U76 89 


DISaUTO) QHCKI DOiilt CfEH aCU 


14554 52 


WLVSIS FOR STniGHT Lift DemClEITICM 




a«E1fNT DaiW CAEH FLCU FO) 8 V. IKLATICH 


1 11636 1 


DEFKEClFlTlCII 


t 757143 


DISCOIMTED CnSTWI DaLtt CASK ROU 


145566 


PRETfK PROF II 


t 258113 


FMFLVSIS FCft tCaiHllG MiKX DEFfCCIRnON 




TfK PfilO 


t* 12305 6 


DtPRECIATlON 


f 8 


(HEt TFK INCOC 


• 12905^6 


FttTFK PROFIT 


1 37991 7 


CLifSKT VIW CASH FLOU 


i2W77 1 


TfKPfllO 


H 16995 9 


OlSCtUNTEL) aR(£HT DOLLFfi C»H FICM 


1 7582.84 


FTTER TFK IHCttf 


1 18995.9 


CCNSTWT HLLtt C»H aCU FCK 6 V. IITLRTION 


1 U936.4 


OXSm Vf Ffi CFEH FLCU 


* 18995 9 


DlSCOUnEli CtKTWT Dai* CASH FLOU 


t 75118* 


DlSCXUfTED URtlKT bOLH; CASH FLCU 


1 4145 31 


MHVSIS T» S* » 'JWS DIGITS DD^ClfnitH 




COSIFNT DCLLfC OeH FlCU FCR i 1 ItfUiTlCH 


1 11863 9 


OEPttClftTlCK 


1 5*76 57 


DlSraUTED OMSTWT DOil* [X» FLOU 


1 4158 79 



correct yes or no?" Look the 
data over carefully. If you see an 
error, answer "NO." Each of the 
items will be asked for again 
and its value displayed in paren- 
theses. If the value in paren- 
theses Is correct, press ENTER. 
If It is not, enter the correct 
value. 

After you have corrected the 
data, select a depreciation 
method. If you want to use a par- 
ticular method, enter the ap- 
propriate number, otherwise 
press ENTER and the program 
will calculate all three meth- 
ods—straight line, sum of years 
digits and declining balance. 

Now wait a minute or two. 
(The longer the life of the invest- 
ment or of the loan, the longer 
the calculations take.) 

As soon as the calculations 
are completed, the simple ROI, 
the DSCF ROI In current year 
dollars, and DSCF ROI in con- 
stant year dollars for each de- 
preciation method will be dis- 
played. If you selected one 
method of depreciation, only the 
results for that method will be 
displayed. 

If you want details of the pro- 
fits, taxes, and cash flow for 
each year, press ENTER. 

After you have seen all the de- 
tails for each year, you will be 
asked if you want hard copy. If 
you answer "YES", all the input 
data and all the calculated re- 
sults will be printed. 

Ctosfng Commsnts 

First some warnings: The pro- 
gram assumes that all losses 
can be written off against future 
profits and that the investment 
tax credit can be taken regard- 
less of when the profits are 
taken. 

These assumptions are not 
strictly correct. The IRS limits 
both tax loss and tax credit 
carry forward. If you need infor- 
mation on this, contact the IRS. 

Finally, as I said before, the 
numbers calculated by the pro- 
gram are only as good as the in- 
formation you provided. If you 
desire a precise answer, you 
must provide precise Input. No 
matter what the computer says, 
the final decision is yours. 

Examine the sample problem. 
The results are given in the sam- 
ple listing.! 



38 • SO Microcomputing, March 1930 




An Entire Family of Disk Drives for 
APPLE, TRS-80*, and S-100 Computers 



Only LOBO DRIVES offers you an entire family o* 
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Whatever computer you're usir>g. APPLE, TRS-eo, 
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And every drive you order comes complete with 
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Here is our dual B-lnch 
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._l 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80^"* MICROCOMPUTER 



SOFTWABE 

FOR TUS-N" 

OWNEKS 



CQIYIPIJTHQMICS 

MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE 

Practical Support For Model I & II 



I MONTHLY 

u NEWSMAGAZmC 

J[ Foi ims-m" 

C. OWNEBS 



• PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 

• BUSINESS 

• GAMBLING • GAMES 

• EDUCATION 

• PERSONAL FINANCE 

• BEGINNER'S CORNER 

• NEW PRODUCTS 

• SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 

• MARKET PLACE 

• QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

• PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 



PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN OUR HIST 12 ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 

• A COMPLETE INCOME TAX PROGRAM (LONG AND SHORT FORM) 

• INVENTORY CONTROL 

• STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS 

• WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (FOR DISK OR CASSETTE) 

• LOWER CASE MODIFICATION FOR VOUR VIDEO MONITOR OR PRINTER 

• PAYROLL (FEDERAL TAX WITHHOLDING PROGRAM) 

• EXTEND 16 DIGIT ACCURACY TO TRSSO" FUNCTIONS {SUCH AS 
SQUARE ROOTS AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS) 

• NEW DISK DRIVES FOR YOUR TRS*)" 

■ PRINTER OPTIONS AVAILABLE FOR YOUR TRS 80™ 

• A HORSE SELECTION SYSTEM" 'ARITHMETIC TEACHER 

■ COMPLETE MAILING LIST PROGRAMS iBOTH FOR DISK OR CASSETTE 
SEQUENTIAL AND RANDOM ACCESSi 

• RANDOM SAMPLING*"BAR GRAPH 

• CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

• LEVEL II UPDATES- "LEVEL II INDEX 

• CREDIT CARD INFORMATION STORAGE FILE 

• BEGINNER S GUIDE TO MACHINE LANGUAGE AND ASSEMBLY 
I ANGUAGE 

• LINE RENUMBERING 

• AND CASSETTE TIPS PROGRAM HINTS, UVTEST PRODUCTS 

COMING SOON (GENERAL LEDGER ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND 
RECEIVABLE, FORTRAN 80, FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS PACKAGE. 
PROGRAMS FOR HOMEOWNERS, MERGE TWO PROGRAMS. 
STATISTICAL AND MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMS (BOTH 
ELEMENTARY AND ADVANCEDl AND 



NOTICE 

Pursuant to a consent judgement entered in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, H & E 
Computronics, Inc. hereby gives notice that it is not and has never been an authorized Radio Shack dealer or outlet, 
that products or services offered for sale or sold by it are not and were not approved or warranted by Radio Shack or 
Tandy Corporation, and that only products or services purchased directly from Radio Shack or its authorized retail 
outlets carry the warranty of Radio Shack and Tandy Corporation. If you have placed an order, still outstanding, with 
H & E Computronics, Inc.. for products or services, in the belief that those products or services were manufactured, 
approved or warranted by Radio Shack or Tandy Corporation, you may cancel that order and obtain a full refund of 
any money paid or deposited, simply by writing to the address below. 



ftl^^ 



WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (Cassette or Disk) 

For lAinlmg lellers. text, mailjng lists, elc , *i\th each new subscriptions or renewal. 

LEVEL II RAM TEST (Cassette or Disk) 

Checks random access memory to ensure thai all memorv locations are working properly 
DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (Cassette or Disk) -Complete die management tor your TRS-SO" 



SEND FOR OUR 36 PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG (INCLUDING LISTINGS OF HUNDREDS OF TRS-SO" PROGRAMS 
AVAILABLE ON CASSETTE AND DISKETTE) $2.00 OR FREE WITH EACH SUBSCRIPTION OR SAMPLE ISSUE. 



iCQiriRJTRQI^ilCS- 



^9 



•oi 14t 



»«M city. N«w York 10tS< 



HOUH 



24 ORDER ^to» 
LINE ^^ 
(914) 425-1935 



ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $24 

START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE „ 
NEW SUBSCRIPTION .- ^ RENEWAL 



TWO YFAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 



SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE $4 



(«1 Ji^ 19TS ■ a? January 1979 • »12 Junt 19n ■ •laJwwuv IWl) 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER 

SIGNATURE 

NAME -_ — 

ADDRESS 



EXP DATE 



• •• ADD 16 YEAR (CANADA MEXlCOl ADD $12, YEAR AIR MAB- OUTSIDE OF U S A , CANADA * MEXICO ••< 

TKS-aO" IS A TTIADEMARK OF TANDY CORPORATION 



40 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www trs-80 com 



H 



CQIYIPUTHQWICS 



c. 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 • • • 

TRS-ao la a iradrmark of ihr Radio Shack lilvlslon of Tandy Corporation 

■k All Orders process^ within 24-Hours 

■k Free Shipping within U.P.S. areas (add $3 for orders outside of the U.S.A. or U.P.S. areas). 
•k 30-Day Money Back Guarantee on aU Softivare (less a %3 penalty for handling). 

•k IO~Day Money Back Guarantee on Disk Drives and Printers PLUS 120-Days Free Service. 



INCOME TAX PACS 

TRS-M Tfsnalalions Irom Accountanti Softwar* 
Assoc lain with Compl«t« Us«rs Manual 
INCOME TAX PAC A . . . $19.95 
For Laval II 1«K Caasafta 

• Form 1040 • Form ICMOA 

• Scliaduie A itemizad Oaduciions 

• Schaduta 6 mtaraal and Dividends 

• Schadula TC Tax Compulations 

• Output to Video Display 
tNCOME TAX PAC B . . . I49.9S 
For Laval II IM CaMatla or 33K DIak 

• All Features of Pac A PliW 

• Output lo Video or Lir>e Printer 

■ Formats Form 1040 and 1040A for Tractor Fa«d 
Forma 

■ Sclierlule C income from a Personally Ownefl 
Business 

• Form 2106 Employee Business Experses 
PflOFESSIONAL INCOME TAX 

PAC C . . . tMH 
For 32K SrMwn WHh Dtafc Drtva 

■ All Features Of Paci A & 6 Plus 

• Automsltc Memory Storage for Income Tax 
Preparers 

• Instant Line Change 

■ Additional Schedules and Forms 

■ Formats Forms lor Individual or TraclOr Faed 
Printing 

BENDER'S 1980 TAX 

RETURN MANUAL . . $2».M 

■ 4O0 Page Step By Step Tai Preparation Manual 

• Includes Every Tai Table and Form 

• All Forms Are Reproducible 

■ Line-ByLine Explanation of Each Form 



■ TRS-M DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES 
S19.95 ($22.95 ittor 2/1/80). Over lOO pages 

ol indesperisiB'e information for disd owners 
Learn to recove' mlormatjon from bad disKs 
now lo make Basic programs uniisiabie and 12 
more chapters of never published lips and intor- 
matiort Wnttart by H C Pennington (For ail 
Dish Owners) 



FROM AOVEHTUHELANO INTERNATIONAL 
> ADVENTURE *1 - »7 by Scott Adams . . . 
Si4.t5 Meh available on Cassette or Disk 



• HORSE SELECTOR II by Dr Hal Davis . . . 
ISO. ThpTRS-eO version updated for the TfiS-60 
and originally reviewed m Systems ana 
Methods 



FROM APPARAT 
NEW DOS • S99.95 

3S. 40 and 77 Track Versions available 



•CQinPUTHQI^ICS! 



PROM RACET COMPUTES 

• REMOOEL-PROLOAD - Renumbers pro 
gram lines combines programs The only re- 
niimtjer program that will renumber the middle 
of a program Specify 16K 32K or 48K W^rks 
with Cassette or Disk . . . S34.M 

' GSF - Use in your Basic Programs 'or Instant 
Sonmg (will sort 1000 items in 9 seconds) Other 
commands include Compress and Uncompress 
Data. Duplicate Memory. Display Screen 
Controls and Fast Graphic Controls . . . 134. 9S 
(For Cassette or Disk, specify ^6K. 32K or 48K) 

■ DOSORT - All G 5 F commar^ds plus special 
Multiple Dish Sorting Routines . . 134.95 
(Specify 3?K or 48K| 

• INFINtTE BASIC - Adds 70 commands to 
your TRS-BO including Instant Sort, Malrin 
CommarKJs. Stnrig Commands. Left and Right 
Justification. String Centering. Simultaneous 
Equations. Upper and Lowe' Case Reverse and 
more . . . 149. H (For Cassette or Disk) 

• INFINITE BUSJNCSS (Requires Inhniie Basic) - 
Eliminate Round-off error. 127-Digil Calcula- 
tion Accuracy Insert h4ew Elemenls in Sorted 
Arrays. Automatic Page Headings. Foafings. 
and Pagination. Multiple Precision Arithmetic 
and more . . . t29.tS. (For Cassette or Disk) 

• COPSYS - Copy Machine Language 
Programs . . . S14.9S (For Cassette only) 



FROM SMALL SYSTEM SOFTWARE 

• RSM-2 Machine Language Monitor . . . S2C.H 

• RSM-2D Disk Version ol R5M-2 . . S29.9S 

" DCV-1 Cor'verts Macnme Language Programs 
from tape to disk . . S9.9S 

• AIR RAID - The ultimate TRS-80 game con- 
verts your TRS-80 rnlo a real time shQOtiriy 
gallery . . . |14.9S 

■ BARRICADE A fast pong style game.. S14.95 

• CPM - $150 (for Disk only) 

> TRS-232 INTERFACE - Interlace with Soft- 
ware driver nS-232 printers to your 
TRS-80 . . . S49.H 

" TRS-232 FORMATTER -Additional 

(optional) Software for TnS-232 owners Ads 

many printer commands lo your 

TRS-80 . - . $14.95 ($9 95 with purchase of 

TRS-2321 



MAIL PAC Fo' Model I or Model II Disk 
Systems only . . . S99.9S. QuiCk-sorting full user 
control Over mailing itsttromGallaciic Software 



MICROSOFT FORTRAN (DISK) 
UtO- NOW tISO 



SARGON ri 

THE CHESS CHAMP 

S2V.9S 



Box 149 New City. New York 10956 

36-Page Catalog $2 FREE With Any Order 

Order by Phone or Mail 

No Shipping Charge 

Add $3 for COD. 

Add $3 for all Foreign and non-U.P.S. shipments 

Add $3 for UPS. Blue Label 



FROM THE BOTTOM SHELF 

• CHECKBOOK II (for Cassette or Disk) . . 
Sit. 50 

' INFORMATION SYSTEM <tO' Cassette or 
Disk . . . $24.S0 

• SYSTEM DOCTOR la complete diagnosis of 
youiTHS-dO checks memory video cassette 
Oisk ROM and all other parts ol your system) - 
for Cassette or Disk . . . S2I.50 

• CHECKBOOK REGISTER ACCOUNT- 
ING SYSTEM (reauires 2 disk drives) - . $49.50 

• LIBRARY 100 - 1(X) established business 
game and educational programs plus FREE Tiny 
Pilot all for . . . $49.50 

• BASIC TOOL KIT lists all variables. GOTO s 

and GOSUB S m your ()rogram . . . $ia.ia 



SOUNDWARE - Ads sound to your TRS-SO 

Jusi plus il in . . .$29.95. Sample programs 

included 

TING TONG - Can J>e used with Soundware 

for a Sound version ol pong . . . $9.95. 



DISK BUSINESS PROGRAMS 
MODEL I AND MODEL II 
GENERAL LEDGER/CASH JOURNAL . $99.95 
ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE . $99 95 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE . $99.95 
INVENTORY CONTROL . $99.95 
PAYROLL $99.95 



VISTA VBO DISK DRIVE 

110 K OF STORAGE 

S395 

Add $29 95 tor CaMe 

(Free with Purchase of Two Disk Onves) 

— 10 Day Money Back Guarantee — 

8" Drives also available 



FROM HOWE SOFTWARE 

MON-3 - Machine Language Programming lor 
Beginners HON-3 is a Complete 
System Monitor with Users 
Manual $39.99 

MON-4 - Disk version of HON-9 . . . 14995 



LEVEL III BASIC . . . (49.95 FROM 
MICROSOFT - Now Cassette owners can add 
DiSh Commands to their TRS-80 without owning 
a Disk Dnve 



BRAND NEW OLIVETTI PRINTER . . .S3495 

BuSifess Letter quality print. Automatic Line 
Justification (on request). Quick Printing, can 
be used as a Memory Typewriter, plugs right 
into your TRS-80 without any modification or 
software 



THE ELECTRIC PENCIL 

Cm»*H« . . . $99.95 

0l9k . . . $150.00 



^S 



24 

HOUR ORDER LINE 
(914) 425-1535 



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»^ AaaAr SwfvlC9—$9* p*gt 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 41 



HOME 



Use your 80 to fight 

back- Keep your records in order. 



IRS 80 



William B. McNeil. Jr. 
225 Longview Drive 
Jetferson, IN 47130 



Do you ever wonder if you are 
paying too much income 
tax? 

I do, just about every year. 

The one thing t always ques- 
tion is the deduction the tax 
tables allow for the amount I pay 
in state sales tax. I had to rely on 
the tax tables year after year 
because I thought it would be 
too much trouble to accumulate 
the necessary records to claim 
more of a deduction. 

In fact, I didn't even know If I 
could claim more than the ta- 
bles allowed. But, I thought I 
should, since it seems— espe- 
cially in the last few years— 
that I have been sp>ending more 
mofiey than I make to meet my 
daily needs. 

Th* TRS-80 Rscord Kaapw 

Here is where my new-touf>d 
friend, Radio Shack's TRS-80, 
came to my rescue. 

I got my TRS^ system at the 
end of last year and started 
keeping records from the first of 
January and for each month of 
the year. I wrote my own pro- 
grams for this, first in Level I and 
then, when I upgraded, in Level II 
BASIC. 

I wrote the following program 
to keep track of the amounts of 
sales tax that my family pays 
each day. 



The government allows you to 
use actual sales tax figures, if 
you can provide proof of the 
arrraunts spent. 

I'll have my proof for next 
year's tax return. 

From my records I can see 
that I will be able to claim a 
substantially greater deduction 
for sales taxes than the tables 
allow. In my own case this will 
be more than double last year's 
deduction. 



My program is simple. It cre- 
ates a cassette record for each 
month of the year. A menu of 
three or four choices is the 

return point from all functions 
except End-Of-Job. 

The operator is helped 
through each step for each 
choice with a prompt, displayed 
m large character format- 
Before any tape entry is written 
to cassette the operator can 
visually verity its accuracy and 




re-type the entries it a mistake is 
noted. 

I provided a hard copy output 
lor those who have printers. 

The monthly worksheets are 
updated daily, listing sales 
taxes paid. At the er>d of each 
month the worksheets are en- 
tered onto cassette. 

At tax time the cassette is 
printed and retained for your 
records. If your return is ques- 
tioned, you will be prepared to 
back up your figures. 

Wtien accumulating your dai- 
ly records, don't forget that 
there are many hidden taxes 
that you can claim such as 
items purchased from a vending 
machine, or maybe the price you 
pay for gasoline ar>d theater 
ticKetB. Don't forget that your 
magazine, newspaper, meals 
away from home, utilities ar>d 
just about every penny you 
spend may have sales taxes in 
the price or added to the price. 

Check with your State Depart- 
ment of Internal Revenue to find 
out iust what sales taxes may be 
Included in various purchase 
prices. 

How to Begin 

Make yourself twelve of the 
worksheets similar to tfw sam- 
ple I use in Fig. 1. The program 
allows six sales tax entries per 
day. A grid six by 31 is adequate. 

I use INKEYS wherever possi- 
ble to eliminate wrong entries. 
Also 1 use CHRS(23} to display a 
large character for easier read- 
ing. 



42 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 




Cvlon • L IV 




$7 50 


Animated Hangman - L 


IV 


750 


Space Battle CS - L IV 




1495 


Level IV Graphics CS- 


L IV 


14 95 


Typing 1 - L IV 




15 00 


Typing II - L IV 




1500 


Space Battle Disk - L IV 


1995 


TVP<ng 1 & II ■ L IV 




22.50 


Warfare 1 - TSe 




7 95 


Final Approach - L IV 




10 00 


Cribbage - TSE 




795 


Tycoon - TSE 




7 95 


Concentration ■ TSE 




795 


Amazin Maze ■ TSE 




7 95 


Time Bomb - TSE 




495 


9 Games/ Pre School - 


TSE 


9 95 


Slalom - TSE 




7 95 


Ten Pin - TSE 




7 95 


Endzone- TSE 




7 95 


Star Trek 3 4 . TSE 




1495 


Adventure Mission IM - 


TSE 


14 95 


Dog Star • TSE 




9 95 


Safari ■ TSE 




7 95 


Treasure Hum ■ TSE 




7 95 


Round the Horn ■ TSE 




995 


Pork Barrel ■ TSE 




9 95 


Kamikaze ■ TSE 




795 


ST80D - TSE 




79 00 


Advance Personal Finaru:e - TSE 


24,95 


Atlantic Balloon ■ TSE 




9 95 


Tarot Cards - TSE 




995 


Ham Radio • TSE 




14 95 


Breakaway ■ TSE 




5 95 


X-Wing fighter ■ TSE 




9 95 


Simple Simon ' TSE 




4 95 


Sinkum - TSE 




4 95 


Educational Assistant - 


TSE 


995 


Home Financial ■ TSE 




9 95 


Math Drill ■ TSE 




495 


Object System ■ TSE 




995 


Te« 80 Disk ■ TSE 




5995 



Payroll Disk - TSE 

Checkers Disk - TSE 

Personal Finance - TSE 

GSF • RACT 

Remodel & Proload ■ RACT 

Remodel - RACT 

Dosort - RACT 

Comproc - RACT 

Infinite Basic - RACT 

Infinite Basic - RACT 

Copy System ■ RACT 

Autok/Qedit ■ DISC 

Autok/Qedit Sk - Discovery Bay 

Morse Code - Discovery Bay 

Win 21 - Discovefy Bay 

Gomoco ■ Discovery Bay 

Level 1 - Apparat 

New Dos - Apparat 

New Dost + • Apparat 

KVP - L Micklus 

KVP-232 - L Micklus 

Library 100 - TBS 

Electric Pencil Cass • Shay 

Electric Pencil Disk ■ Shay 

Snake Eggs/SND - SOUS 

Android Nim/SND - SOUS 

Life Two/SNO - SOUS 

Bee Wary - SOUS 

Owl Tree W/S ■ SOUS 

Great Race W/S - SOUS 

Lying Chimps • SOUS 

Concentralion W/S - SOUS 

Scrabble W/S ■ SOUS 

Level 111 Basic ■ Micr 

Micropoly - OP 

Airaid - SSS 

Barricade ■ SSS 

RSW-2 - SSS 

RSM.2D - SSS 

DCV-1 - SSS 

Basic PI - SSS 



$59 95 Sargon - Hayd. 19,95 

24 95 Sargon II - Hayd 29,95 

9 95 Poker Pete - Qual 9.95 

24 95 Fastgammon - Qual 19 95 

34 95 Fastgammon Oisk - Qual 19,95 

24 95 Advent Cass - Adve 14.95 

34,95 Advent 2 Cass - Adve 14 95 

1 1 97 Advent 3 Cass ■ Adve 14 95 

49,95 Advent 4 Cass - Adve, 14,95 

29 95 Advent 5 Cass - Adve 14.95 

14 95 Advent 6 Cass - Adve 14,95 

14 95 Advent 7 Cass - Adve, 14,95 

19,95 Advent 8 Cass - Adve. 14,95 

14 95 Advent 10 Cass - Adve 5,95 
19 00 Advent 1 &2 Oisk - Adve 24,95 

15 00 Adveni 3&4 Disk ■ Adve 24,95 
1 5 00 Advent 5.6&7 Disk ■ Adve 39.95 
49 00 Advent 8 Disk - Adve 19 95 
99 00 Bowlstats • RLS 29.95 
2995 Forth Disk - Mnl. 64 95 
29 95 Primmer - Mill. 15.00 
49 95 Space War- Mill 9 95 
99 00 Star^leet Orion- Asim. 19,95 

150 00 Invasion Orion - Asim 19,95 

14 95 Temple of Apsh - Asim 24.95 

14 95 Misosys Tape U - Aero 14 95 

14 95 Misosys Disass ■ Aero 19 95 

14 95 System Savers - Aero 14,95 

9,95 Opera Theater - Aero 9,95 

9.95 Disk Utility - Aero, 19,95 

9 95 Video Pager - Aero 9,95 

9,95 Tshori - Web 9,95 

9,95 Wordo - Micr 14,95 

49 95 Stock Exchange - Micr 15 95 

7 50 Whereami - Micr 10,95 

SPECIAL 1000 Othello - L IV 9.95 

SPECIAL 10 00 Invaders w/ sound - L IV 14 95 

26 95 Creature Tic-Tac-Toe 7.50 

29 95 Creature Tic-Tac-Toe w' sound 9.95 

9 95 XREF Cass - L. Mickius 19.95 

14 95 Renumber Cass - L MickluS 7 95 



^ 



LEVEL IV PRODUCTS, INC. .u 

32238 Schoolcraft . Livonia. Ml 48154 •313-525-6200 outside Michigan 1-800-521 -3305 

10% Off All Software Usted 

If you don't see what you want call, find out why! We carry nothing but the BEST. We also sell TRS-80* 1 0% off 

list price. 
We ship CO.D. - Add $1.50 for shipping and handling Send 25< for Catalog 
* Product of Tandy Corporation 



^ 



t^ (trader Sarvic»—S*» p*gw 1*7 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 43 



I write the data to cassette 
after each day's entry, which 
uses very little memory. This 
method uses more tape than 
string manipulation. Still, a full 
year's information can be writ- 
ten to a GO minute cassette, and 
each day's entry is capable of 
being altered in this format. 

When the program is loaded It 
asks If you have a line printer. If 
you answer yes, the menu dis- 
plays a choice of four n>odes of 
operation. If you answer no the 
menu displays only three. 

First, create a cassette by 
selecting choice one ar>d folk>w- 
ing the instructions. 

A monthly total and a year-to- 
date total is automatically writ- 
ten to cassette as a last record 
for each rrmnth. For the first 
rrronth entered, the totals are 
zero, but for additional months 
the carry-forward totals are read 
first, using choice two. Just read 
the last day or two of ttte last 
month on the tape. 

After the totals are read In, 



answer tt>e question "is ttwre 
ar>other rrxinth" with no and 
then select choice one. The 
carry-forward total will be 
displayed on the TV. 

The day of the month is auto- 
matically displayed. If you have 
no entries tor a particular day, 
key ENTER and the day will ad- 
vance one number. 

Enter the amounts as you 
would on an adding machine, 
i.e., don't use decimal points. 
The entered amount Is dis- 
played with the decimal placed 
by the program. 

If there aren't six entries per 
day, just key ENTER and zeroes 
are entered by ttw program for 
those amounts. Note: The first 
artKXjnt canrwt be zero or ttte 
day advances. 

Wfwn tf>e six amounts are en- 
tered you have tf>e opportunity 
to visually verify the amounts. If 
a mistake Is noted, the entire 
day's anwunts can be keyed 
again before any record is writ- 
ten to the cassette. 

If you answer the prompt, "is 



Program Listing 



1000 
lOlO 
IDIO 
10S3 
ID^O 
1090 
lObO 
lOTO 
1010 
1090 
llOJ 
1110 
1129 

mo 

1150 
llbO 
llTD 

iiao 

1190 
1Z03 
1110 
IZIO 
1110 
1240 
1240 
llkD 
1S0>1 
1910 
1310 
1930 
1940 
1950 
19*0 
19T0 
1900 
IS90 
IdOU 
IdlO 
1620 
IblO 
U40 
1690 
l«iv3 
IttTO 
ifcao 

1690 
ITDO 
ITIO 
ITID 
1790 
11 «D 
1790 
17b0 



JEFFERSONVILLEi 
1979» 



IN. 471 90* 



HEH •■ILL. nCNElL-Li 

REH •SEPTeWEH 111 

HEN 'HEV. 9.0* 

HEH •THS-aO LEVEL II 1*K* 

GOSUH 9S00 

HEH 'TnLE MO PHINTEH SETUP* 

PRINT! 3141 "THIS IS A SALES TAK TAPE ROUTINE' 

Si>"lltit.ff" 

PRINTB 911. "00 tOU HAVE A LINE PRINTER" 

GOSUI 1000 

TaOi SI-Oi G>Oi FoOi GOSUt 9900 

PRINT TAB(S) "i I I 1 M E N U I : I i' 

PRINTI PRINT TAllSI "TO MHITE TO TAPE - 1" 

PRINT rABI9l "TD HEAD TME TAPE - J" 

PRINT TAil3) "TO ENB THE JOB - 3" 

IF PI="Y" GOTO IttO 
PRINT! 990. -INTER YOU* CHOICE" 
UlTO 0040 

PRINT TABI91 "TD PRINT THE TAPE - - 4" 
PRINT! 990. "ENTER YOUR CHOICE' 
COSUB BOIO 

IF Mii"l" T»«" RECORD " 
IF ir«3»l-l Oft IHla-4-) T«=" PLAV " 
If Hii"4" COTO 4000 
IF Mli-l" GOTO 3000 
IF Nt*'!" GOTO ZOOO 
IF N»s"i" TrtEN 190J 
REN "TAPE WHITE ROUTINE* 
COSUB bOOOi C05UB 90JO 
TnQi iOSUt 990J 

PRINTS J94,"TYPE IN MONTH AND YEAH" 
PRINT) PRINT 
INPUT a> 
PRINT»'1, b* 
ASH COSUa 9903 
PRINT "OAT— "lA 
PRINT 

IMPUT "AMOUNT — ■)■ 

IF aiO A*«+li GOSUt 99031 SOTO ISSO 
B>d/103i PRINT! ZO!,"!"! USING SA)B 
IMPUT "AMOUNT — ")Cl C>C/10D> PRINT! 
■amount — "iDl 

■inouwT— "lEi 

"*MDgNT--"IFt 
•jhOUNT — "iCl 



0>0/10l}l 
C"E/lOJl 
FbF/IOJI 



INPUT 

INPUT 

INPUT 

INPUT 

PRINT 

PRINT "IS THE DATA COHhfCT" 

COSUB 9000 

IF ai»"*" GOTO 17*0 

IF Qli"N" TKiN 1730 ELSE 1700 

COSUa 9*101 GOSUB 99001 GOTO 1»B0 

l«T*»*C*fr*E*F»6 

PHINTI-I. A.BiC.DiE.PiG 

IF IDIa"Y"I AND IB'OI GOTO Z190 



272. 
PRINT! iib, 
PJtINT! 403 I 
PRINT! 4b<<, 
PRINTI ii». 



USING SSiC 

USING 5(1 D 

USING SllE 

USING S*IF 

USING saic 



1770 
17!0 
1790 

laos 

lilO 

1820 

laio 

1140 
1000 
2010 
2010 
2030 
1040 
2090 
2060 
lOTO 
lOBO 
Z09D 
tlOD 
lUO 
2120 
2130 
2140 
1190 
1160 
2170 

iiao 

1190 
1200 
1210 
1120 
2.;30 
^240 
iiiO 
1160 

iOao 

1010 
1023 
1010 
4000 
4010 
4010 
4033 
404D 
4090 
4060 
4070 

4oao 

4090 
4100 
4110 
4110 

4ise 

41*0 
4190 
4160 
4170 
*1B0 
4190 
*200 
*210 
*220 
4230 
4240 
4290 
4160 
4I7D 

4iaa 

9000 
90 1 3 
9010 
903C 

6000 
6010 
6020 
6010 
6d4 3 
6093 
bOtiD 
bOTD 
60BO 
■393 
bl03 
6110 
6120 
6130 
61*0 
6190 
7000 
7010 
7020 
7030 
•030 
•010 
•020 
■010 
■040 
•090 
■060 
•070 

•oas 

• 090 

• 103 
■ 110 
9000 
9010 
9010 
9900 
9910 
9920 
•910 
9603 
9*10 
9620 



casus 9610 

PRINT 

PRINT "IS THIS THC LAST DAY" 

GQSUB 9000 

IF OS'-N" AaA*li GOSUB 99001 GOTO 15B0 

IF aSa"Y' GCITU IB40 

CDTD IBOO 

G'Gl+Tt F-Ti GOTO 1790 

HEN iTtPE READ ROUTINE* 

GOSUB 60DOI COSUa 9030 

GOSUB 99001 INPUTf-li BB 

PRINT* 20. BB 

Print 

PRINT "DAY"! TASUO) "A N O U N T S" 

FOR XsL TO 4 

AxQl B>01 CkQi 0*0 1 t>Dl F'OI C'O 

lNPUTB-1, A.BiC.DiE.F.G 

IF BeO GOTQ Z140 

PRINTi PRINT Al TABI9I USING S(l BiCiD 

PRINT ""I TaBIBI using S>I EtFiG 

IF X»4 GOTO 7003 

NEXT 

FOR I<I TD 1033 

GOSUa 9903 

PRINT* 320. Sll" TOTAL IS"i USING SSIF 

MINT! A^t, "TrtE TD-DaTE TOTAL IS"I USING SI I S 

PRIHTl PRINT "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE"' GOSUB 9030 

GOSUB 990Q 

PRINT! 1941 "IS THERE ANOTHER HONTH " 

GOSUB 9000 

IF IM»<"1"1 ANO I0B""N"1 GOTO 1100 

IF |Nla"l"l AND |0S3*r") Sl'Cl GaOl FaS; GOTO 1920 

IF Oli'N" GOTO 1190 

If 0»i"Y" GOTO 1020 

GOTO Z210 

REM •EN3-af-jaa rouTin£« 

GOSUB 9900 

PRINT! 461. "E N 3 OF JOB" 

GOTO iOlO 

HEH •PRINTER ROUTINE I IF PRINTER IS AVAILABLE)* 

CDSUB 9900 

PRINT "PLACE THi PRINTER ON-LINE"! PHINTl PRINT 

GOSUB 603DI GOSUB 9000 

GOSUB «90D 

PRINT! 3Bb. "DATA IS BEINO HEAD f«OM 1*^" 

INPUTi-li >l 

LPRINT CHRKIZM POKE 16419tl 

LPRINT TABI271 Bl 

LPRIHT "■ 

LPRINT TABI9) "OAT"l TAB1271 ■* H U N T 5" 

LPRINT "" 

INPUTB-1, A.B.C.D.fitF.G 

If laO GOTO 4190 

IF A<10 Ya9 

IF A>» ¥■* 

LPRINT TtBIYIAI USIMC Sll B.C.O.E.F.O 

PaPtERI16*2S) 

IP P>9a THEN 4070 ELSE 4120 

LPRINT "■ 

LPRINT TASI9IBII TABIIOI" TOTAL tS"i USING SBlF 

LPRINT ■" 

LPRINT TABI9) -TO-DATI IOTAL IS", USING SSlG 

GOSuB 9 9 DO 

PRINT! la*. "IS THERE ANOTHER MONTH TO MINT" 

COSua 9003 

IF 3ia"H" CUSi GOTO 1100 

IF OI»"Y" ;iOI GOTO 4040 

GOTO 4190 

REK ■ALLOl'S 'ENTER' ONLY* 

IS*""! ISilNKEYAt IF lO"" GOTO 9013 

IF ASC(I>I*11 ClS else 9010 

SETUNN 

rem ■display prompts in large characters. 

clSi print CNRIIIII 

IF HS>"1" GOTO aObO 

PRINT "START TaPE AT BEGINNING — OR — " 

fRlNTl PRINT 

PRINT "READ Tape to end of last month" 

IF Hi<>"l" GOTO koaO 

PRINT "TD-DATE TOTAL IS"! USING StiGl 

phinTi print 

PRINT "Place RCCDROER IN"I T»( "HOSE" 

PRINT: PRINT 

IF «»<>"!• GOTO 61*0 

PRINT "ERASE FDRMARD SLIGHTLY" 

PRINTI PRINT 

PRINT "PRESS ENTER 1-1Ct* READY" 

RETURN 

REH iTIME DELAY FOR SCREEN DISPLAYS* 

FOR 1*1 TD lOOOl NEXT 

GOSUB 9900 

PHlNTi GDTD lOSO 

HEH lALLOi^ V OH N DN|.V« 

Pi>-"l PS-INKEYll IF Pt'" GOTO aOlO 

IF Pi="T" Return 

IF Pti"N" return ELSE BOIO 

Ren •allO' menu choices i or i or i only* 

MtalNKEYSl IF H*-"" GOTO B030 

IF (MA*"1"I OR |Mli"l"l OR (HS>-1-| GOTO 1210 

GOTO 9090 

REH ■ALLOW MENU CHOICE 4 DNLV^ 

Ht-INKEYll IF HS>"" GOTO ■D9D 

IF M»«"4" RETURN 

IF |P(a"V") AND IHS<"4"I GOTD BOtO ELSE BDBO 

REH •.(AIT FDR CHOICE FROM «NU« 

eSi""l BBUNKEYll IF B*""" GOTO 9Q10 

RETURN 

REM .SET SCREEN TO lARGE CHARACTERS* 

CLS 

PRINT CHRIII3I 

RETURN 

HEM ■Iero djt ahount buffers^ 

B>0: C*OE O'Ot E^Ol F>Oi GaO 

RETURN 



44 • BO Microcomputing. March 1980 



the data correctT', with no, the 
amounts are zeroed and the 
same day is ready to be re- 
keyed. 

If you answer the prompt wrth 
yes, the data is written to cas- 
sette. 

The next prompt "ts this the 
last day" will write the monthly 
total and locate total to the 
cassette if you answer yes. 

The last record written to 
cassette has the first tax 
amount zeroed out. This signals 
the End of the Month choice 
two. 

The prompt asks "is there 
another month" before continu- 
ing or displaying the menu. If 
you answer yes, the next month 
is ready to be entered. 

The Cassette Read 

The menu choice two is ttie 
cassette read. Four amounts 
are displayed per screen layout 
before more data is read in. The 
total amounts are displayed 
when the last record is read in 
for the particular month. The 
prompt "is there another month" 



allows you to get back to the 
menu or read in another month 
from cassette. 

Menu ctwice three terminates 
the job. 

It you have a printer ttte menu 
choice four is essentially the 
same as choice two. Follow tf>e 
prompts and make sure your 
printer is on-line. 

The TV will display 'data is be- 
ing read' as the cassette is being 
played. One month is printed per 
page for ease of reading. Stan- 
dard 8 inch by 11 inch paper is 
utilized. 

If you have a printer that uses 
narrower paper, you may have to 
modify the program from line 
4060 to line 4210 to match your 
printer requirements. 

There you have it. I hope you 
will be able to save some of your 
tax money next year. Maytw you 
can even set up a service bureau 
for others. It will take a full year 
to accumulate your amounts. 
Stick with it, as I did. and you 
should see that you nr\ay have 
t>een paying too much income 
tax all along. ■ 



ADVANCED BUSINESS 
SOFTWARE FORTHETRS-80* 



FORECASTING 
CAPITAL IHVESTMEHT 
RISK ANAirSIS 



PROOUCTIVITT ANALYSIS 
FINANCIAL SMULATIOH 
U.S. MACRO IIODEl 



ThiM pmgtanii vi eiuniol lot tMimcii pl*nning in lodar t volaiil* 
■cMomic clMniic Tan eiMi|ilti M*Kti run on TRS 80 LEVEL II mxltMitt art 
Our mSX ANALYSIS maiM whtdi biingi lh« unctdMtMi mio Ikus m6 
gnei tm the mforniiaiMin you niiri ui aiiv 10 tnaki mlocmtd buuniii 
cboKM TlwnNNl«lcanlMuiMltad(WrMHwltitrMti*'P*>*^A.O.I.'il<H 
an invtitmtnt. iht raaf* at caMi lot ■ coAtttuciion fiofia or tht diiir4iutio« 
ol tatHir houri nteiM to comptett an tflUMaanng ittitgn Svmal Ml-ia 
taatwai Maki Ifeii aM ol Ibt oaaioal tnk ^apawi li ma. Ttw onlf mpuli 
raquKMl an Ida nwn bkalf. Iha 10\ and 90% poiMi lot tht vanabtai ol 
■niaiasi From iNh inpuii Iha progiam aiBWaKaBi calculaiai Itta bala 
cmt paiamaiaii Vanabtai mn ba addai miApbod ubtactad oi dwM m 
Iht uHi modal aica This adds giaai hanbiiitir lo iim ptogtam and allOM 
graat Ircadoin m salaciing Iha propai modal Thit Monia Carta nik modll 
comas man daiailad Utai Instucttoni and can ba lun on 31K LEVEL H TR- 
80 1 ipriMai ouipui opi>onali Cosi ol Iba fbik Analriis 'nodal is 
149 

Anothci piogiair- usalul foe busmass planning n oji CAPITAL BUDGETING 
progran Mhich anaifies *Jk depfaoaiion and lai iiipacis for tn imasimant 
proiacT Tnt program allOMS mvesimani and 'Cvenuc siraamt 10 vary o*ar ihe 
■nvtllntfir ititint and includts S dittarcnl dtprtcialion mtlhods Tht 
actorc and aliei lai cashtio* lor tath ^tai is snown along Mih iht stimiwv 
data Tlw sjmmwY gaiisMs lor ha CAPITAL I program wclwdti ihc R 1 Iht 
net picstfll valui tht parbact period, iht distouni laii icosi of tapilaii and 
the p)Ofilabilil) «idta Tm cdsi oI iht Capital Bjdgiltng PTogram 11 1Z7 

Call or wnte Iw coMipttia inlafmaiion 
APPUEO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 
4005 locust Ave . Long Beach. Ca 90807 
(2l3)42«-3»2 ^47 
*TrMlamarli of Tandy Corp 



^ «««"» t RACET ec^uTE. 4 llgK SIRT MiMI 'IIM'for mod I AND MOD ir TRS-aO'- 

V...T Mow you can sort »n B5K ditkettR _,__ 

FAST ~- in tats than 3 minutas* - PAST 



Now you can sort an B5K diskotto 
in tass than 3 ninutos* 

F*erfect for your multi-diskette RANDOM file mailing lists, inven- 
tory, etc. (deal for specialized report generation, sort, merge or 
combination. AN machine language stand-alone package — 
Efficient and easy to use. No separate key files required! Physical 
records are rearranged on diskette! Supports multiple sub records 
per sector including optional sector spanning. Sorts on one or 
more fields — ascending or descending. Sort fields within records 
may be character, integer, and floating-point binary. Provides 
optional output field deletion, rearrangement, and padding. 
'Sort timings shown below are nominal times. Times will vary 
based on sort and system configurations. Nominal times based 
on Mod 1 48K 4Hjrive configuration, 64 byte records, and 5 sort keys. 

TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME 

(BylM) (Seel 

340K 1DB1 

680K 2569 

85KSOFIT+ 1757 

1275K Merge 

OSM lor Mod I (Minimum 32K. 2-drives) S75 Oit-Dtek 
DSM lor Mod II (Minimum 64K. 1-drive) $150 On-INsk** 

Mod II DewlopiMiit Packao* tlOO* * 

Machine Language SUPEFtZAP, plus Editor/Assembler and 
Disassembler patches. 
Mod II GenaraUzed Subroutine Facility *QSF S50* * 

"For Mod II Programs, Include Mod II DOS diskette with order 
For Oevelopnwnt Package, also include copy of Apparat 
NEWDOS -f 5Va diskette. 



SORT 


(iytH) 

i6k 


33 


SORT 


SORT 


32K 


49 


SORT 


SORT 


85K 


173 


SORT and 


SORT 


170K 


445 


MERGE 



CHECK. VISA. M/C. C.O.D. 

CalH. Rasidanta add 6% 

Telephone Orders Accepted (714) 637-5016 



OD BASIC lor Level II and Disk Systems S40^ 

Full MATRIX Functions — 30 BASIC commands) ! 

Mathematical ar>d common matrix functions. Change arrays In 

mid-program. Complete array hartdllng. Tape array read and write. 

including strings. Common subroutine calls. 

Over 50 more STRING Functions as BASIC commands'! String 

manipulation, translation, compression, copying, search, screen 

control, pointer manipulation and utility furtctlons. Includes 

multikey muttlvariabte machirte lar>guage sorts. Load only macMna 

language functions that you want! Where you want In memoryl 

Relocating linking loader! More than you ever expectedtl 

oo BUSINESS{Reqiilre8lnflnfleBASiqt20^ 

20 Business oriented functions includlr>g: 

Printer Automatic Pagination with headers and footarsi 

Packed Decimal Arithmetic( + ,-,*,/) 127 dlgltst 

Binary array searches and hash code generator! 

COM PROC Command Processor lor Disk Systems S10M 

Auto your disk to perform any sequence of DOS conHnands, 

machine language loads, BASIC, memory size, run program. 

respond to input statements, etc. Single BASIC command tile 

defines execution! Includes auto key-debounce, screen print and 

lower case software driver. 

REMODEL -I- PROLOADteclfy16,a%ar48KMamaiySMLH 

REnumber any portion or all of BASIC program. MOve any portkm 

of program from one location to another. DELete program lines. 

MERGE all or any portion from tape. Save arKl verify portion or 

all of combined merged programs to tape. 

GSF (Specify 16. 32. or 4aiQ 624^ 

18 Machine language routines. Includes RACET sorts. 

ns-H a A fKBISTEm TUDEHAM tF TAMT CNPOMTIIN 



WHCNONDErnHQ PLEASE 
ADVISE PUBLICATION SOURCE 



^41 



^ RACET COMPUTES-^ 

TK Padntfalo. Oranfft CA IZMS 



i-^AvmMrSwMc* 



p»gat47 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 45 



UTILin 



With these programs you can print files 
while running another program entirely! 



SPOOL and DESPOOL 



H. S. Qwitry 
Rt. 1. Box 39B 
Earlysville. VA 22936 



Simultaneous Peripheral 
Output Overlap (SPOOL) la 
a tectinlque used by most large 
computer systems to prevent 
program delay because a slow 
peripheral, like a printer, is not 



ready. The output data Is written 
(spooled) on a mass storage de- 
vice and then transterred (de- 
spooled) when the peripheral is 
ready. 

Spool 

Tt>e TRS-80 spooler system is 
divided into two maior sections, 
SPOOL and DESPOOL The first 
ot these sections is the output 
spooler, shown in Listing 1. 

The code in line numbers 300 
through 440 requests the file 



name and places it in the device 
control block (DCB) for the file. 
Line numbers 470 through 540 
open an existing file or create a 
new one and check for errors, If 
any error Is found, an error 
message is printed and the 
spool operation is terminated. 

If the file opens without error 
then lines 550 through 590 con- 
nect the spooler to the printer 
DCB and return control to the 
operating system. 

Now, each UmB the operating 











Program Listing 1. 










00100 


»TMIS IS THE PRINTER SPOOLER - 


UHEN LOADED 






00110 


fIT UILL INTERCEPT ALL PRINTER 


OUTPUT AND 






00120 


(STORE 


IT IN A 


256 BYTE BUFFER 


UHEN THE 






00130 


(BUFFER 


IS FULL THE DATA 


IS URITTEN TO 






00140 


(THE SPECIFIED 


FILE. THE 


SPOOL FILE MUST 






OOISO 


IBE CLOSED BY RUNNING THE 


SYSTEM PROGRAM 






OOl&O 


* CLOSE. 














00170 


i 










44A7 




001 BO 


DISP 


EOU 


4467H 






0040 




00190 


INPUT 


EQU 


40H 






402A 




00220 


PRDD 


EOU 


4026H 






402D 




00230 


DOS 


EQU 


402DH 






4428 




00240 


CLOSE 


EQU 


442BH 






4420 




00 250 


INIT 


EQU 


4420H 






443C 




00270 
00280 


URITE 


EQU 


443CH 






FEOO 




00290 




ORG 


OFEOOH 






FEOO 


21C5FE 


00300 


SETUP 


LD 


HLrMSGl 




fLOG ON 


FE03 


CD6744 


00310 




CALL 


DISP 






FE06 


21A4FE 


00320 




LD 


HLiINBFR 






FEOV 


0620 


00330 




LD 


Bf32 






FEOB 


CD4000 


00340 




CALL 


INPUT 






FEOE 


78 


00350 




LD 


AfB 




fOET ACTUAL • 


FEOF 


B7 


00360 




OR 


A 







system (DOS, BASIC, etc.) at- 
tempts to print a character, the 
code in lines 650 through 930 Is 
activated. The character is 
counted and stored in a 256 byte 
buffer. When this buffer is full it 
is written to the disk. This pro- 
cedure continues as long as the 
user allows it or until an error Is 
detected. 

When the spool operation Is 
completed you must close the 
spool file. This Is necessary for 
two reasons. 

First, the data printed may 
not have ended on a 256 byte 
boundary. Thus, some data may 
be in the buffer that has not 
been written to the file. Closing 
SPOOL will detect this situa- 
tion, set the unused area of the 
buffer to zeroes and write the 
last buffer to the file. 

The second reason is that the 
system program CLOSE must 
be called to update the disk 
directory. 

The spool system performs 
both of these close opwations, 
if control is transferred to label 
KLOSE (location FE76H in 
Listing 1). This may be done by 
entering DEBUG and typing 
GFE76. The memory containing 
the KLOSE program, the file 
DCB, the pointers and the 256 
byte buffer must not be changed 



46 Microcomputing. March 1980 



until the close operation is 
done. 

If you don't like using DEBUG 
to close your file you can create 
a close program as follows: load 
(but don't execute) tfie SPOOL 
program, tt>en dump the KLOSE 
part of SPOOL to a disk file 
called CLOSeCMD. Don't dump 
more memory than needed. Ac- 
tually, you only need an execu- 
tion (transfer) address. 

The dump command to close 
the file for the SPOOL in Pro- 
gram Listing 1 Is: DUMP CLOSE/ 
CMD:0 {START = X'FE76',END 
= X'FE9D'.TRA = X'FE76'). 

Now, after your spool opera- 
tion is finished, return to DOS 
and type CLOSE. The file is then 
closed and the spool operation 
terminated. You are left with an 
ASCII file containing all the 
printer output since the spool 
was started. 

Despool 

If you want to print a copy of 
the spool file the command 
PRINT could be used. However, 
this ties up the system while the 
printer is running. 

Fortunately, there is a better 
way, DSPOOL, shown in Listing 
2. This program opens the spool 
file for printing and returns to 
the operating system. 

The data In the file is then 
printed while you perform al- 
most any other job on your sys- 
tem. That's right, you can run a 
BASIC program or perform other 
disk operations while the file is 
being printed. 

There are only a few excep- 
tions; You cannot re-boot the 
system; You cannot write to the 
spool file while despooling; You 
cannot print data in the regular 
DOS manner until the despoot is 
completed; You cannot spool on 
file while despooling another. 

The last restriction is in- 
cluded only because SPOOL 
and DSPOOL use the same 
memory. 

If you move one of the pro- 
grams to another location, you 
could SPOOL and DSPOOL at 
thesametlme, although you still 
may not write and read the same 
file at one time. You must use 
two different file names. 

DSPOOL uses two links to the 
operating system, one to the 25 
millisecond interrupt and anoth- 



FEIO 28EE 


00370 




JR 


Z. SETUP 


tNO INPUT 


FE12 EB 


00380 




EX 


DE'HL 




FE13 83 


00390 




ADD 


ArE 


fADDRE5S>« 


FE14 6F 


00400 




LD 


Lf A 


!LOU ADDRESS 


FE15 7A 


00410 




LD 


AfD 


fHI ADD 


FEIA CEOO 


00420 




ADC 


AfO 




FEIQ 67 


00430 




LD 


HrA 


tHI ADDRESS 


FE19 3620 


00440 




LD 


(HL)f20H 


f BLANK CR 




00450 


;iNEiFR 


NOU HAS 


FILE SPEC UITH 


TRAILING BLANKS 




00460 


ilNIT 


THE FILE 






FEIB 21E1FE 


00470 




LD 


ML » BUFFER 


(PLACE 


FEIE 11A4FE 


00480 




LD 


OEflNBFR 


iDCB 


FE21 0600 


00490 




LEI 


BfO 




FE23 Cl\20AA 


00500 




CALL 


INIT 


fOPEN IT 


FE26 2809 


00510 




JR 


ZrOK 


iZ=l IF OK 


FE28 21D5FE 


00520 




LD 


HL.ERH 




FE2B CD6744 


00530 




CALL 


DISP 




FE2E C32D40 


00540 




JP 


DOS 


SAND GET OUT 


FE31 2A2640 


00550 


Oh 


LD 


HL»(PRDD) 


»OLD DRIVER 


FE34 22A2FE 


00560 




LD 


(SAUDD)»HL 


(SAVE IT 


FE37 2140FE 


00570 




LD 


HL. DRIVE 


iNEU DEIVER 


FE3A 222640 


00580 




LD 


(PRDD) rHL 


(PUT IT IN 


FE3D C32ri40 


00590 




JP 


DOS 


(DONE 




00600 


iFILE 


IS OPEN 


- THIS IS THE ACTUAL DRIVER | 




00610 


JIT UILL STUFF 


THE CHARACTERS 


IN THE BUFFER 1 




00620 


fIF THE BUFFER 


IS FULL A URITE TO THE DISK | 




00630 


• UILL 


BE DONE. 








00640 


» 








FE40 E5 


00650 


LiRIUE 


PUSH 


HL 




FE4I F5 


00660 




PUSH 


AF 




FE42 2A9EFE 


00670 




LD 


HL» (PRT) 


(POINT TO BUFFER 


FE45 71 


00680 




LD 


(HL) -C 


;SAVE CHARACTER 


FE46 23 


00690 




INC 


HL 




FE47 229EFE 


00700 




LD 


(PRT) rHL 




FE4A 3AA0FE 


00710 




LD 


A.<CCNT) 


(COUNT 


FE4D FEFF 


00720 




CP 


OFFH 


(DUN 


FE4F 2807 


00730 




JR 


ZfOUT 




FE51 3C 


00740 




INC 


A 


(COUNT IT 


FE52 32A0FE 


00750 




LD 


(CCNT). A 


IPUT IT BACK 


FE55 Fl 


00760 


POP 


POP 


AF 




FE56 El 


00770 




POP 


HL 




FE57 C9 


00780 




RET 




fGO BACK 


FESe C5 


00790 


OUT 


PUSH 


BC 




FE59 05 


00800 




PUSH 


DE 




FE5A DDES 


00610 




PUSH 


IX 




FE5C FDE5 


00820 




PUSH 


lY 




FE5E liA4FE 


00B30 




LD 


DE.INBFR 


(DCS 


FE61 CD3C44 


00840 




CALL 


URITE 




FE64 21E1FE 


00850 




LD 


HL. BUFFER 




FE67 229EFE 


00B60 




LD 


<PRT).HL 


(RESTORE POINTER 


FE6A Af 


00B70 




XOR 


A 


»A=0 


FE6B 32A0FE 


00880 




LD 


(CCNT). A 




FE6E FDEl 


00890 




POP 


lY 




FE70 DDEl 


00900 




POP 


IX 




FE72 Dl 


00910 




POP 


DE 




FE73 CI 


00920 




POP 


BC 




FE74 18DF 


00930 




JR 


POP 






00940 


fTHIS 


IS THE CLOSE ROUTINE - 


CALLED BY 




00950 


iTHE CLOSE FUNCTION TD CLOSE 


OUT THE LAST 




00960 


;record and then close the file I 


FE76 3AA0FE 


00970 


KLOSE 


LD 


A. (CCNT) 


(COUNT 


FE79 67 


00980 




OK 


A 




FE7A 2813 


00990 




JR 


Z.KLDS 


(NO DATA CLOSE FILE 




01000 


(DATA 


IN FILE 


- NULL REHMAINPER THEN URITE AND CLOSE | 


FE7C 2A9EFE 


01010 




LD 


HL. (PRT) 




FE7F 3600 


01020 


LOPC 


LD 


(HL) .0 




FEBl FEFF 


01030 




CP 


OFFH 


(DUN 


FE83 2804 


01040 




JR 


z.URir 


(FULL URIT IT 


FE85 3C 


01050 




INC 


A 




FEB6 23 


01060 




INC 


HL 




FEB7 18F6 


01070 




JR 


LOPC 






01080 


;this 


IS THE URIT TO THE DIS^ 


ROUTINE 


FE89 11A4FE 


01090 


URIT 


LD 


DE.INBFR 


(DCB 


FEBC CD3C44 


01100 




CALL 


URITE 






OHIO 


iTHIS 


IS THE CLOSE ROUTINE - 


IT UILL CLOSE THE 




01120 


sfile 








FESF 11A4FE 


01130 


KLOS 


LD 


DE.INBFR 


(DCB 


FE92 CD2844 


01140 




CALL 


CLOSE 




FE95 2AA2FE 


01150 




LD 


HLf (SAVDD) 




FE9B 222640 


01160 




LD 


(PRDD) .HL 


(RESTORE PRINTER 


FE9P C32D40 


01170 




JP 


DOS 


(DONE 


FE9E EIFE 


01180 


PRT 


DEFU 


BUFFER 




FEAO 0000 


01190 


CCNT 


DEFU 







FEA2 0000 


01200 


SAVlPti 


DEFU 







FEA4 20 


01210 


INPFR 


DEFM 






FEC5 53 


01220 


MSGl 


DEFH 


'SPOOL FILESPEC' | 


FEri4 03 


01230 




DFFB 


3 


1 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 47 



FEDS 53 


01240 


ERH 


DEFM 'SPOOL ERROR' 


FEEO 03 


01250 




DEFB 3 


FEEl 00 


01260 


BUFFER 


DEFB 


FEOO 




01270 




END SETUP 


00000 


TOTAL 


ERRORS 






28521 


TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 


BUFFER 


FEEl 


01260 


00470 


008S0 01 ISO 


CCNT 


FEAO 


01190 


00710 


00750 00880 00970 


CLOSE 


4428 


00240 


01140 




DISP 


4467 


00180 


00310 


00530 


DOS 


402D 


00230 


00540 


00590 01170 


DRIVE 


FE40 


00650 


00570 




ERH 


FED5 


01240 


00520 




INBFR 


FEA4 


01210 


00320 


00480 00830 01090 01130 


INIT 


4420 


00250 


00500 




INPUT 


0040 


00190 


00340 




KLOS 


FEBF 


01130 


00990 




KLOSE 


FE76 


00970 






LOPC 


FE7F 


01020 


01070 




MSGl 


FEC5 


01220 


00300 




OK 


FE31 


00550 


00510 




OUT 


FE58 


00790 


00730 




POP 


FE55 


00760 


00930 




PRDD 


4026 


00220 


00550 


00580 01160 


PRT 


FE9E 


01180 


00670 


00700 00B60 01010 


SAUDD 


FEA2 


01200 


00560 


01150 


SETUP 


FEOO 


00300 


00370 


01270 


WRIT 


FE89 


01090 


01040 




URITE 


443C 


00270 


00840 


01100 



Program Listing 2. 










00110 


JPRINTER DE-SPOOLER - UHEN 


LOADED IT CONNECTS 






00120 


J TO THE 


25HS INTERRUPT AND 


TO THE KEYBOARD 






00130 


fSCAN ROUTINE. 


THE SPECIFIED FILE WILL BE 






00140 


(LOADED 


ONE RECORD AT A TIME INTO LOCAL BUFFER 






00150 


SAND THE INTERRUPT HANDLER 


WILL 


PRINT ONE 






00160 


fCHARACTER EACH 


TIME THE PRINTER IS READY. 






001 70 


;UHEN THE EOF IS FOUND THE 


LINK 


TO THE 






00180 


; INTERRUPT HANDLER AND THE 


KEYBOARD SCAN 






00190 


fIS REMOVED. 












00200 


T 










4467 




00210 


DISP 


EQU 


4467H 




(DISPLAY MESSAGE 


0040 




00220 


INPUT 


EOU 


40H 




(INPUT HESSAOE 


4424 




00230 


OPEN 


EQU 


4424H 




(OPEN A FILE 


4436 




00240 


READ 


EQU 


4436H 




(READ A FILE 


4510 




00250 


MS25 


EQU 


451 OH 




125 MS QUEUE 


4016 




00260 


KBOD 


EQU 


4016H 




{POINTER TO KEYBOARD 


402D 




00280 


DOS 


EQU 


402DH 




(RTN TO DOS 


OOEA 




00290 


CNTREG 


EQU 


OEAH 




tCONTROL/STAT UART 


OOEB 




00300 


DTAREG 


EQU 


OEBH 




(DATA 


3FFF 




00320 


ALI)J 


EQU 


3FFFH 






OOEB 




00330 


RE3URT 


EQU 


OEBH 






00E9 




00340 
00350 


SWITCH 
i 


EQU 


0E9H 






FDOO 




00360 




WtG 


OFDOOH 






FDOO 


D3E8 


00370 


SETUP 


OUT 


<RESURT)fA 




(RESET UART 


FD02 


DBE9 


00380 




IN 


A> (SWITCH) 




(READ SWITCHES 


FD04 


E6F8 


00390 




AND 


0F8H 




(KILL LOW THREE 


FD06 


F604 


00400 




OR 


04H 






FD08 


D3EA 


00410 




OUT 


(CNTREG) > A 






FDOA 


DBE9 


00420 




IN 


Af (SWITCH) 






FDOC 


E607 


00430 




AND 


07H 






FDOE 


2172FD 


00440 




LD 


HL.BDTABL 






FDll 


0600 


00450 




LD 


BfO 






FD13 


4F 


00460 




LD 


CtA 






FD14 


09 


00470 




ADD 


HLjBC 






F015 


7E 


00480 




LD 


Ar(HL) 






FD16 


D3E9 


00490 




OUT 


(SWITCH) rA 










00500 


!UART IS SETUP 


NOW TALK TO 


OPERATOR 


FD18 


2141FE 


00510 




LD 


HL.MSGl 






FDIB 


CD6744 


00520 




CALL 


DISP 






FDIE 


2ilAFE 


00530 




LD 


HLf INBFR 






FD21 


0620 


00540 




LD 


Bf32 






FD23 


CD40O0 


00550 




CALL 


INPUT 






FD26 


78 


00560 




LD 


AfB 




(BET ACTUAL • 


FD27 


B7 


00570 




OR 


A 






FD28 


28D6 


00580 




JR 


Z» SETUP 




INO INPUT 


FD2A 


EB 


00590 




EX 


DEtHL 






FD2B 


83 


00600 




ADD 


A*E 




tADDRESS-f* 


FD2C 


6F 


00610 




LD 


LfA 




(LOU ADDRESS 


FD2D 


7A 


00620 




LD 


AfD 




(HI ADD 



er to the keyboard driver. 

The TRSW hardware Inter- 
rupts the microconnputer forty 
times per second. The operating 
system uses this interrupt to run 
ftxeground tasks. These tasks 
include the real time clock, 
TRACE, or any job you'd like to 
run. 

To run a given )ob you need to 
store the address of a pointer In 
the 25 millisecond queue list. 
The queue list Is at memory 
location 4510H and 4511H. The 
pointer is two memory bytes 
containing the address of your 
program. 

This is a little confusing so 
let's look at Listing 2 to see what 
it means. 

Lines 800 through 850 put the 
address of something called 
PINT in locations 4510H and 
451 1 H. Notice that the code also 
saves the former contents of 
4510H, 4511 H to be put back 
later. RNT is a pointer that con- 
tains the memory address of 
your program. 

In this example, 4510H, 451 1 H 
contains FD7A (the address of 
PINT) and FD7AH contains the 
address of INTHDL (FD7CH). 
Now, every 25 milliseconds 
INTHDL, the interrupt handler, is 
run. 

INTHDL 

The function of the DSPOOL 
interrupt handler INTHDL Is very 
simple. It checks the RS232 
board to see if it will accept an 
output character. If the RS232 
board is not ready, INTHDL 
returns to the operating system. 
If a character can be output, 
INTHDL ctwcks CCNT. 

As long as CCNT Is zero, 
INTHDL returns to the system. If 
it isn't, one character is output 
and counted. If the charactw is 
a can-iage return, the buffer is 
set up to output a line feed. As 
long as there is data in the buf- 
fer, INTHDL will print it. All of 
this takes place in time stolen 
from your other work by the in- 
terrupt. 

Getting data to the buffer is 
SCAN'S job. SCAN reads one 
record every time the print buf- 
fer is empty (CCNT=0). It is 
linked to the TRS-80 keyboard 
driver and runs every time the 
system checks the keyboard for 
input. 



48 • ^ Microcomputing, March 1980 



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XXI 



>^ R^ttitr Service— 5«« pagm 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 49 



FD2E: 


CEOO 


00630 




ADC 


AfO 




FD30 


67 


00640 




LD 


Hf A 


;HI ADDRESS 


FD31 


3620 


00650 




LD 


(HL)»20H 


(BLANK CR 






00660 


f INBFfi 


NOU HAS 


FILE SPEC WITH TRAILING BLANKS 1 






00670 


f INTERRUPT DRIVER IS LINKED ANY 


TIME CCNT IS 






00680 


(NOT ZERO IT WILL PUT OUT THE NEXT CHARACTER | 






00690 


J 












00700 


fNObJ TIME TO OPEN THE SPOOL FILE | 


FD33 


2161FE 


00710 




LD 


HLfBUFFEft 


{PLACE TO PUT DATA 


FD36 


lllAFE 


00720 




LD 


DE-INBFR 


;dcb 


Fri39 


0600 


00730 




LB 


B.O 


;lrl=o 


FD3E 


CD2444 


00740 




CALL 


OPEN 




FD3E 


2809 


00750 




JR 


Z.OK 


(Z-1 IF OK 


FD40 


2152FE 


00760 




LD 


HL-ERM 




FD43 


CD6744 


00770 




CALL 


DISP 




FEI46 


C32P40 


00780 




JP 


DOS 


lAHD GET OUT 






00790 


;link 


25 MS DRIVER 




FII49 


F3 


OOBOO 


DK 


DI 






FD4A 


2A1045 


00810 




LD 


HLt (MS25) 


fOLD ONE 


Fii4ri 


225FFE 


00820 




LD 


<SAV25) fHL 


fSAVE IT 


FD50 


217AFD 


00830 




LD 


HLtPINT 


fPDINTER 


FD53 


221045 


00840 




LD 


<MS25) -HL 


;link 


FD56 


FB 


00850 




EI 






FD57 


2A26FE 


00860 




LD 


HLf (SEC) 


fGET SECTORS 


Fri5A 


2217FE 


00870 




LD 


(SECTOR) -HL 




FD5D 


3A22FE 


OOBSO 




LD 


A» (BX) 


fGET BYTES TO EOF 


FII60 


3219FE 


00890 




LD 


(BCNT)tA 








00900 


;file 


OPEN DK 


NOW LINK KBD SCAN 


AND GET OUT 






00910 


JKBD SCAN UILL 


THEN FIND BUFFER 


EMPTY 






00920 


iAND READ A RECORD. 




FD63 


2A1640 


00930 




LD 


HL. (KBDD) 


SGET OLD ADDRESS 


FD66 


22C9FEI 


00940 




LD 


(KEY) ,HL 


fSAVE FOR CONTINUE 


FD69 


21&9FD 


00950 




LD 


HLfSCAN 


►NEW SCAN 


FD6C 


221640 


00960 




LD 


(KBDD) f HL 


(LINKED 






00970 


fSCAN 


IS NOW LINKED. NEED ONLY 


TO ENABLE 






00980 


S INTERRUPTS AND GET BACK TO BOS 


. SCAN WILL 






00990 


;be run euery 


TIME KEYBOARD IS 


CHECKED 






01000 


JINTHDL WILL BE RUN EUERY 25 MS 




FD6F 


C32D40 


01010 




JP 


DOS 


fGET OUT 






01020 


f THIS 


IS THE EAUDE RATE TABLE 




FD72 


22 


01030 


BDTABL 


DEFB 


22H 




FD73 


44 


0104Q 




DEFB 


44H 




FD74 


55 


01050 




DEFB 


SSH 




FD75 


66 


01060 




DEFB 


6AH 




FD76 


77 


01070 




DEFB 


77H 




FD77 


AA 


01080 




DEFB 


OAAH 




FD78 


CC 


01090 




DEFB 


OCCH 




FD79 


EE 


01100 
OHIO 




DEFB 


OEEH 








01120 


(THIS 


IS INTHDL THE INTERRUPT HANDLER 






01130 


SIT UILL PRINT 


A CHARACTER IF CCNT IS NOT 






01140 


JZERO 


AND THE 


PRINTER IS READY. 




FD7A 


7CFD 


01150 


PINT 


DEFU 


INTHDL 


fPOINTER TO INTHDL 


FD7C 


F5 


01160 


INTHDL 


PUSH 


AF 


fSAVE AF 


FD7D 


E5 


01170 




PUSH 


HL 




FD7E 


3AFF3F 


01180 




LD 


A* (ALIiJ) 




FDSl 


3C 


01190 




INC 


A 




FD82 


32FF3F 


01200 




LD 


(ALIV)fA 




FDS5 


DSEA 


01210 




IN 


Af(CNTREG) 


(STATUS 


FD87 


CB77 


01220 




BIT 


6fA 


(READY 


FD89 


281F 


01230 




JR 


ZfCONT 


(NOPE GO ON 


FD8B 


2A3FFE 


01240 




LD 


HL»<CCNT) 


(CHAR COUNT 


FD8E 


7D 


01250 




LD 


A>L 




FD8F 


FEOO 


01260 




CP 







FD71 


2005 


01270 




JR 


NZ»OTPT 


(PUT IT OUT 


FD93 


7C 


01280 




LD 


ArH 


;L=0 CHECK H 


FD94 


FEOO 


01290 




CP 







FD96 


2812 


01300 




JR 


Z.CONT 


(ALL ZERO GET OUT 


FD98 


2B 


01310 


OTPT 


DEC 


HL 


(-1 


FD99 


223FFE 


01320 




LD 


(CCNT).HL 


(PUT IT BACK 


FD9C 


2A3DFE 


01330 




LD 


HLf (ADDR) 


(GET ADDRESS OF CHAR 


FD9F 


7E 


01340 




LD 


A.(HL> 


(DATA 


FDAO 


D3EB 


01350 




fXJT 


(DTAREG)f A 


(OUTPUT IT 


FDA2 


FEOD 


01360 




CP 


ODH 


(IS IT CR? 


FIIA4 


2807 


01370 




JR 


ZiCR 


(YES 


FDA 6 


23 


01380 




INC 


HL 


(BUMP ADDRESS 


FDA7 


223DFE 


01390 




LD 


(ADDR)rHL 




FDAA 


El 


01400 


CQNT 


POP 


HL 




FDAB 


Fl 


01410 




POP 


AF 




FDAC 


C9 


01420 




RET 




(DONE GET OUT 






01430 


f FOUND CR INSERT LF 




FDAD 


3E0A 


01440 


CR 


LD 


AtOAH 


fCft 


FDAF 


77 


01450 


XCR 


LD 


(HL) rA 


(PUT IN BUFFER 






01460 


fAND DONT RUMP 


ADDRESS 




FDBO 


2A3FFE 


01470 




LD 


HL»(CCNT) 


(GET COUNT BACK 


FDB3 


23 


01460 




INC 


HL 


(PUT 1 IN FOR LF 


FDB4 


223FFE 


01490 




LD 


(CCNT)»HL 


(PUT IT BACK 


FDB7 


18F1 


01500 
01510 


i 


JR 


CONT 


(GO ON 






01520 


iTHIS 


IS SCAN 


- IT IS LINKED TC 


KEYBOARD SCAN 



If there is data in the butler, 
SCAN returns control to the key- 
board driver. But, if the buffer is 
empty, SCAN performs a file 
read, delaying the Iceyboard in- 
put for about one second. 

If all the data has been read 
from the file, SCAN disconnects 
the DSPOOL program. 

If your printer is 110 baud, the 
disk reads occur about every 30 
seconds. The spool system 
does not drive any printer (aster 
than 40 characters per second 
(one per interrupt). 

If your printer is faster than 
this, it vifill slow down to 40 CPS. 
At 40 CPS the disk reads occur 
about every 7.5 seconds. If 
reading at this rate interferes 
with the keyboard too much, 
then add a counter to INTHDL to 
stow the printer and thus the 
reads. 

Another technique that re- 
duces disk reads is reading two 
(or more) sectors at a time. 
However, this complicates the 
procedure used to find the end 
of the data. 

Modifications 

The DSPOOL program shown 
in Listing 2 is for a serial printer 
using the Radio Shack RS232 
tward. The program can t)e used 
with a parallel printer (such as 
the standard printers sold by 
Radio Shack) by making a few 
changes. 

Delete lines 370 through 500 
and move the label SETUP to 
line 510. Replace lines 1210 
through 1230 with the code in 
Listing 3. Replace line 1350 with 
LD (37E8H),A. 

If your printer automatically 
feeds a line on every carriage 
return then delete lines 1360 
through 1370 and lines 1430 
through 1500. 

If you use SPOOL-DSPOOL 
withNEWDOSorNEWDOS30,it 
works as is. If you use it with 
TRSDOS 2.1. TRSDOS 2.2 or 
VTOS 3.0, you must add DEC HL 
between lines 860 and 870. This 
is necessary because the NEW- 
DOS DCB maintains the number 
of sectors in a file, while the 
other systems maintain the 
number of sectors plus one. 

If you use TRSDOS 2.2, 
change the program ORG and 
move twth programs down to at- 



50 • 50 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Scanned by Ira Goldklang - wviw.trs 80.com 




Can yvor comptJttr raad und sofvt Thu probfrm by itaaff^ 



"ON THEIR VACATION, TOM AND DICK VISITED A 
FARM. WHILE THERE, THEY NOTICED A PEN 
CONTAINING CHICKENS AND PIGS. TOM SAID 
THERE WERE 3 TIMES AS MANY CHICKENS AS 
PIGS. DICK SAID HE COUNTED 100 LEGS IN THE 
PEN. HOW MANY CHICKENS WERE IN THE PEN?" 



I 



with N LOS/1, it can! 

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VOCABULARY, FASTER. ACTION VERBS- 
CREATES AND RUNS ITS OWN BASIC 
PROGRAMS- LEARNS PROCEDURES! 

STOP PROGRAMMING YOUR COMPUTER, 
EDUCATE ITI icASSETTE 



I 



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CYSEkMATE » 

R.D.^3B0X 192A 
NAZARETH PA 18064 



THE ULTIMATE TR8-aO SPEED-UP! 

Mumtoid MicroSyslemsannouncBSlhereleaaeDtlheSK-2 TdOFnostuersalile clock modidcHlion 
(or the TRS-SO auBilaele li leaiufes three speeds normal (' ?7MHi). 50% iBSter o' 50^ slower, 
selectable al any lime wilhoul mte'rupling e«9Culion or ciastimg l(ie prografn il rnay be 
conliqurert fty ine user lo cdange speed *itn a loggle swilth or on soflware commana It rnay be 
lied lo ineeipansion interface and will automatically returrr lo normal spueO anytime a disk drive 
IS active It Bver^ has provisions lor adding an LED 10 indicate wnen Ihe compular la not at Ifie 
normal 4pe«d II mounts ns*de the keyboard ur>it with only * necessary coonect'ons for ttie switch 
option (switch not ir^cljdi^j and is easily rerr^oved if the corripuler ever needs service The SK-2 
coiT>es lutly assernbled with illustrated in5lri,ctiO"i for imcien^enting the various ootions and 
coTioiele satisfaction ^s guaranteed S24 95 

DUPLICATE SYSTEM TAPES WITH "CLONE " 

This machine language program mades duplicate copies of ANY tape written lor Level ii They 
may Oe SYSTEM tapes (continuous or not) c data lists It isnotnecessafy toknawihefilenameoi 
where it loads in memory, and there d no chance ol iysleoi co-residency The file name, entry 
point and every byte (in ASCII formati are dispiayedon irwvideoscreen Data may t» modified 
be lore copy IS produced CLONE Si6 95 

RAM TEST FOR LEVEL II 

This machine language program rests rnemory chip^ lor open or shorted address or data Imes as 
well u iniafTTntients It Tests sacn BiT for ^Bhaity and each BYTE in the *ii»CLjtion of an actual 
mstriict^on aa m rsal prDgfamenecuiion Bad aadr^euesaredispiayedalongMriihThebaddaiaancI 
prOE^r aaia One complete T^M of 4SK ta*es I'JST 14 sAconds Also irtclude?i a *esT for erTOrs 
fnOuced by power line gliTchea iforri cuiemal equjpmenr RAMTEST 59 K 

PROGRAM INDEX FOR DISK BASIC 

Assemble an alphabetued mde" of your entire program litiraiy fruf. disn directories Program 
names and tree space are read automatically (rwed not tw typed ini and may oe alphaBctiied by 
disk or pTogram The lis' may also be searched for any disk, program or e*tertsion disks or 
programs added or deleted ana Ihe whole list or any pari sent to the printer Finally. Ihe list itself 
may tie stored on dis« for fulure access and update One driveand 32K required IMDEX $19 95 

EDIT BASIC PROGRAMS WITH ELECTRIC PENCIL 

This program allows disK users to load Basic programs or any other ASCII data lile into Ihe flisli 
version of Electric Pencil for editing Now you can edit line numbers, move program segments. 
duplicate program segmenls. and search 'or the occurance of any group ol characters 
PENPATCH S9 95 

SPOOLER FOR PARALLEL PRINTERS "^ ^'*'' 

This prog'a"^ is ^ full TeaTura pnn' formatting package feaiuring user c]«fineat>Je ime and page 
+engTh Iw^th hne feeds msefted between words or aMar puncluadonj screen dump keyboard 
aetwuncCi and prinrer pause conTro* In addJiion pnnTing is done from a 4K buffer area so *nar The 

LPRLNT or LLiST commftn<J letu'ris control to Tne user *fii!e pnnTing is beiog flone IdeaJ for 

SelectfiC Of other slow or infers Allows pr'nli"q a"d urocessirg to run toncur'e^tly 

\SPOOLER S16 95 



/* 



■ Include 75C postage California lesjdents add 6^ sates tax 

MlH Complele satisfaction or tull returid 

MUMFORD MICRO SYSTEMS 

BOX 435-E SumntwtwKl. CMtomta B3MT (MS) tn-45i7 



SIMUTEK PRESENTS 

* TRS-80 * 

GAMES 

!!! WHOLESALE!!! 



PACKAGE ONE 



■ RAPfUC'TREK "M**** - ThU full r'ViKi. fHi Vim* nrn* ^i 'uH of fnt. VHtttln^ Ktkonh ExBladlAI 
vriDian iof»*da« anil phawn 1M iha Kra«ni Vou mini ACtufliiy naviftali ttvt •HivpriH la 9Kk vfiTh 1fi« 
«*nt i«K« itiiLoni H wsii H to ■tfo'd ictin«on iofp«oo*»i H*t ittMiM, tti«citc (nMTPOrv rudout, tfamtfa 
raporli. \w^ rtnfi ttnKirt. «lci K4m I i*v*i( 'of Dtt^nn^n^, fmfam. v mpvi p<ay*ril * IHVAUOM 
VrOft« - rimac loM, IH*ci: C*fih't sour Syiiwn Htuion: Ai vhwaI of Eariri'i forcH. row }oA H lo 
HOP trw wori lnv»lan tnd dHtrqy ih*ir otfippiti on Man, Vvnui. Sjfurn. P««0iun«, «ict EartH't Foruti 
Androldt — £p«c« Fj^itri - LJiof Cinnon ^ P4outrma aiAtlvil Wor? Forc«i Roboti — UwC«t| — 
Otolntvfralori — Prolofl O«trov*ril Mul(t itrai v^ •*!> vou adyflnc* lo i rrior* (ompliutvd V**^* ■• VOu 
^1 batwi ■ iTAR WARl - kiUnutvw tfDu< ipHt hvntor Map Into th« nuckaut of ina D*itP> iiari Ofov 
VDur bornh. than aicapa vta ina on*f mn Thjt v'P'^^ti fama li nally fun' Way ina Fovea H with 
VDuP a aVACS TAnaiT ' tt^oat Al anamy Sni« with your mluHai. ir ihav awtl In • bacachuH. 
ca#tur« lh«ni - o« ii rou'rt cru«i. Hit'ov inamr FhH vapf^tci, r«a( ttmo^amai * aAUClAt- ThM fiai 
action rasAtci vama hat a tima IMUI Can you H ih* cBtnmanaar la *»n ih* #wift|Mimad crguF 
Ulti m a win HCOAa lMtn« lowtni i^atcH o^ti 



PACKAGE TWO 



CHKCKVH* t-l - FinallV A cT^vchWI provftm rhal «<i' cnal**"^ Hwrona' Eittail v >«> >iaMalaurl 
maa l-p>v traa taarch ta ftnd bail DouiHa mova he u lanaamtt oaiwaan afmai inmai la Aaauf* yow of 
nam haMnv lOanlicai ^maL ■ PO«(lll FACm - Tha ^ompwlar uhi pavUtaiofy at w«i ai io^c lo try 
and feaal irou at pfAaf Caidt a** d^Wyad ifHAf TRS-atfi 'uu yapMci, Computw 'a^iai, Cai>i, and 
lamatimM laW' lotdi' G'aal ptaclica iw yow blurday ni^t polia' nuich' (P*ayi S card 
draw), a nvCMlC — Tail ina compvtw a »«ttia abovl yowiatl and ria'ii prvd^t inwiv aboul you. you 
won'l D«l«a4< A ran m.nd lHnda«< Ccaal wmiaamanl 'or parli^ * TAHSLI UAHIA - Try Hid r«,ca 
yew o«frOAan( mio ari imrnobiv pouiiOA Vui «Btc«« out, thay'ra dv-n* ih* %wm to you' tm^i frtpttKi 
^■^a d 'ov 7 vaaP»a and i^ai oaao iriAd lo and «tuo<d aftu-Aonti- (And ^Ka^idnaiiy it«rti 
titamf) * WOAO tCAAHdLl - ThJB «Bma it fa* Two o> m** paoo^a. On* p»>o" mpuli a wdrd ta tlH 
Cdvnpwiar dfMia ina olhari loan away Th* comMdar K'a«noioi tia *a'd. lha« i n ip i iFach o' wvon^ 



PACKAGE THREE 



PO<TRT - ThLi ^Dfram latl yOti < 
tfvo THS-aa canam nouni o* Aamat. 
^ nownt, v«>M. Bdiacl'wai and atfvar 
Aift». draw, araio ano "*o»^ |<AM p 
BATTLft - Tha Sw>A*irt aAamy ■*» 
(Pity hava khot fattfa phaiari* Can i 
nal lima' ■ *0I«0 HAfUA - Ca« 
lotKai aBH-itti* Vou'M naod to, lo o 
RdOwt'Ol 1#IM tacofld iKntnf. Thil II J 



loaaa iha tubtact ai wVi at iha mood of tha paa 
nan ihafnood. a^d ■! doai ina rmtV *i nan IWMV 
H' a tLlCTlliC AHTliT - tAan^ai dra-. atat 
■ pnxii b>ii f*ai ov'« Sa«*i Aaw-ni on lae* v a< 
k ioA« Fan«a i>^ai*i Bui uaaot vavai al warp ipoao' 
Du lHitikf«f tna anamy vilhDut faltiitf daatroypd' F 

you «waii Iha loftpular't iHvdt uitnf yotv hunvan 
■at Iha compular' a AIR COMMAND — ftatUa tha KanHhaaa priotL 

FAST acltofi arcada flam* 



a BALACTIC 



I fropfHn - 



■ PACKAGE FOUR 



kJP< - Thii z-to machirta lantuapa orovam wan lull vrapntaf o«*f l(H fBiWatiani #ar mtnuio nWA^ 
iruiy ankfAaioai VotJ maha yov ttarfini vaiivrn, iM com^wtaf don iha 'ait' Prov'*^ can oa tio*«*a and 
chanvai madai Walch t\ «rowi a t^AC* LAHOIfl - Thn luH irapnKi «kmuiaiDr vti yi>u picti w«4l 
pianat. aiiaroha or moon yov with to land o^i Hat 3 thm WMtt Thai maka it tu" '« awyona. a QiitVO 
It — Muni'iavai tama ii tun and chaitanttAi^ Baai rh« civ^Hiia' ai rtiit diet aama utini yeu* knpwkadf 
Dddi and >ucv! CoTiputaf haapi inch ot hit winning vm vouri. QuKh rati aclion. Thii aam« n not 
aaiyF a THE mAllAOH - HuV Iha aoclam clly pl Aiaaanor^a' Bvr o* Mil lano Kaop your paopla troHi 
rwolllnti Sloff Iha rampaflni rati Itaqutrai a Irua pollTxai pafionallly Id bacaina aoodl * ROBOT 
HUNTER - A froup ol ranatada roboii hava aacapad and %i9 ipoitaa m an o^d ^ni lown on Mari> Voui 
top «> "Ho»ot Muniar" ii lo daiiroy ma pirata machtnat paiora may «m any mora t^irvii CatiOna 
ChWHAflnfl Full traphlcir 



PACKAGE FIVE 



tUr«H HORSCHACK - Maka yoU' EmTI 
V^Phic diipuy ijp lo V paoP'a can piav 
llfar Kaaot Ua^h of Ovwyona'l w+nnlnqt a< 
acliiVVy fal a room o' paopia chaatMa' 



Lhai I 



I of < 

aiwayi as taiiati rouia' A if 
mwHil a AlitOEBA KILLER - v 
Ol baci*ta in ihJi •ircJiinq graph* t ai 
daat'oy tha daadiy amoaba nniKii 



dAZE HOUSE 



I fo- av^yona. * lUSMAHINVH - Ihoot tofpadoai j 



l^at that aiamanl o* c**anca you laa m raa 
0( Tha f«w tomouiar vmulahoni that can 
- TPla mouta wilh a mindl Tha compul* 
Kfhat lor a way cx>l' TPm loCDtd 11m*. h*'l 
•cifi knlatii^anca^ Full P^Mhi 
roTimand a anu man tubmorin* that hat D 
iiu'a' infaciad mio iha prat»dani't bioodiinam, you* mwion ii ii 
'ava^ni hH body' • LOaiC — Thq popuiaf lam* H Batod v 
itini and ciWianpni - hat 7 lotroit o* eiay 



d«tpiay 



maidt A 



»fc<>dy 



«my ihipt to t^i POinit 



<1lan 



PACKAGE SIX 



n HOME PfNAHClAL PHOQRAMS - Fifurn 
taWot, «ar nad 'ntaraal on lavti^i and much, much t 
muti fv th« conicidniiDut. intialiOM mjndad patton 



n. daproc'atiDn raiai. 



PACKAGE SEVEN 



VACKAAiiMdOM l.i - 2 di'iarani i4,ii> Wvaii mab4 Thu «a<na a rnaitaA^ ig av^av 
<Noi raEommandOd Td' D*«innvi^ Loom fv boat poti>b«a m<»*a lo Paai you' fantast*c c 
^ayt d^upiat and um irtiarnai tonal ruiai. * ftPVED REAOlNO — mcraaMi you> raadlni i 
chKkt r^i (omorahantio'i of malarial, (^rpai To* tadna«ar> ana adurti to impr^va 'oaOint ifeiiii 
— Ofop dapTh enar^ on mov^na >uh- Loarar daplht vat hi^ia* p<ynit ^n tn.i fait acTii 
■ama a vAHTIKE — nay vahiroa wi|h iha co^ipvi* Thii popular ta^na >i ovan mcf 
challanvnf a«am«l a Tl)S-aa> * WALL tTRflET - Can you turn your ftS0,OO0 ■ 
Thart ina objaci o' thu fraai fanta. Simwiaioi an tciua* itoca mifiiaii 



piayan. 
ARHICS. 
■Od. Alio 



'.;. L sfOHfs Ai\' :.:Mt. Hi 



INSTRUCTION BOOK WITH EACH PKG. 



ONLY 12.95 EACH'!'! 



ALL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED TO LOAD 
CASSETTE PACKAGES REQUIRE 16K LEVEL II 
PACKAGES ON DISKETTE (32K) $5.00 EXTRA 



,J*" 



Sand chMk. Mgrwy Ordw or Bank Card # 

TO: SIMUTEK, P.O. BOX K 35298 
TUCSON, ARIZONA 85740 
(602) 882-3948 



PHONE ORDERS WELCOME' 



iSE ADD $2.50 POSTAGE & HANDLING PER ORDER I 
3 OR MORE PACKAGES GET 10% DISCOUNT 



!/• Heaaer Service— iee page M7 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 51 



01530 fAND WILL WATCH CCNT. IF CCNT IS ZERO THEN 

01540 (SCAN WILL READ A RECORD. IF EOF IS FOUND OR 

01550 fANY READ ERROR IS ENCOUNTERED SCAN WILL 

01560 tDISCDNNECT ITSELF AND THE 25 MS HANDLER 







01570 


i 










FDB7 


F5 


01580 


SCAN 


PUSH 


AF 






FDBA 


E5 


01590 




PUSH 


HL 






FDBB 


2A3FFE 


01600 




LD 


HL.(CCNT) 






FDBE 


7D 


01610 




LO 


A.L 






FDBF 


B7 


01620 




OR 


A 






FDCO 


2004 


01630 




JR 


NZrEXIT 






FDC2 


7C 


01640 




LD 


AfH 






FDC3 


E7 


01650 




OR 


A 






FDC4 


2805 


01660 




JR 


ZfRRCD 


iYES READ RECORD 








01670 


!NOPE 


- RETURN 


TO KEYBOARD 






FDC6 


El 


01680 


EXIT 


POP 


HL 






FDC7 


Fl 


01690 




POP 


AF 






FDCa 


C30000 


01700 




JP 





i DUMMY JUNP 




FDC9 




01710 


KEY 


EOU 


«-2 


fBACK up 2 




FDCB 


C5 


01720 


RRCD 


PUSH 


BC 






FDCC 


D5 


01730 




PUSH 


DE 






FDCD 


DDE5 


01740 




PUSH 


IX 






FDCF 


FDE5 


01750 




PUSH 


lY 






FDDl 


HIAFE 


01780 




LD 


DErlNSFR 


fDCB 




FDD4 


CD3644 


01790 




CALL 


READ 


.READ RECORD 




FDD7 


2817 


01800 




JR 


ZfOKR 


.READ OK SET CQUND 






01810 


(NOT OK KILL EVERYTHING 






FDD9 


F3 


01820 


CLOS 


DI 




tSTOP INTS. 




FDDA 


2A5FFE 


01B30 




LD 


HLf (SAIJ2S) 


fOld address 




FDDD 


221045 


01840 




LD 


<NS25).HL 


tPUT BACK 




FDEO 


2AC9FD 


01850 




LD 


HLf (KEY> 


fOLD KBD 




FDE3 


221640 


01860 




LD 


(KBDD) »HL 


fPUT BACK 








01870 


fNOU POP REGISTERS AND RESTORE 


STACK 




FDE6 


FDEl 


01880 


POP 


POP 


lY 






FDE8 


DDEl 


01890 




POP 


IX 






FDEA 


Dl 


01900 




POP 


DE 






FDEB 


CI 


01910 




POP 


SC 






FDEC 


FB 


01920 




EI 








FDED 


C3C6FD 


01930 




JP 


EXIT 










01940 


;read 


IT OK SET 


UP CCNT THEN GET OUT 




FDFO 


2161FE 


01950 


OKR 


LD 


HL r BUFFER 






FDF3 


2230FE 


01960 




LD 


(ADDR)fHL 






FDF6 


2A17FE 


01970 




LD 


HL. (SECTOR) 


(GET SECTORS 




FDF9 


7D 


01980 




LD 


A>L 


(TEST 




FDFA 


FEOO 


01990 




CP 





(ZERO? 




FDFC 


200D 


02000 




JR 


NZf DECIT 


INOPE DEC IT AND 


STORE 


FDFE 


7C 


02010 




LD 


AfH 






FDFF 


FEOO 


02020 




CP 





fHI =ZER07 




FECI 


2008 


02030 




JR 


NZf DECIT 


fNOPE 








02040 


(SECTOR COUNT=0 


F USE EOF BYTE 


COUNT NOT 256 




FE03 


3A19FE 


02050 




LD 


A> (BCNT) 






FE06 


6F 


02051 




LD 


LfA 






FE07 


2600 


02060 




LD 


HfO 






FE09 


1807 


02070 




JR 


SCNT 






FEOB 


2B 


02080 


DECIT 


DEC 


HL 






FEOC 


2217FE 


02090 




LD 


(SECTOR) .HL 






FEOF 


210001 


02100 




LD 


HL.256 






FE12 


223FFE 


02110 


SCNT 


LD 


(CCNT)fHL 






FE15 


IBCF 


02120 
02130 


i 


JR 


POP 


^RESTORE AND GET 


OUT 


FE17 


0000 


02140 


SECTOR 


DEFU 









FE19 


00 


02150 


BCNT 


DEFB 









FEIA 


20 


02160 


INBFR 


DEEM 


' 






FE26 




02170 


SEC 


EQU 


INBFR+12 






FE22 




02180 


BX 


EOU 


INBFR-f8 






FE3D 


61FE 


02190 


ADDR 


DEFU 


BUFFER 






FE3F 


0000 


02200 


CCNT 


DEFU 









FE41 


44 


02210 


MSGl 


DEFH 


'DSPOOL FILESPEC?' 




FE51 


03 


02220 




DEFB 


3 






FE52 


44 


02230 


ERM 


DEFM 


'DSPOOL ERROR 






FE5E 


03 


02240 




DEFB 


3 






FE5F 


0000 


02250 


BAV25 


DEFU 









FE&l 


00 


02260 


BUFFER DEFB 









FDOO 




02270 




END 


SETUP 






OOOOO TOTAL 


ERRORS 












25999 TEXT 


AREA BYTES LEFT 








ADDR 


FE3P 


02190 


01330 


01390 01960 






ALiy 


3FFF 


00320 


01180 


01200 








BCNT 


FE19 


02150 


00890 


02050 








BDTABL FD72 


01030 


00440 










BUFFER FE61 


02260 


00710 


01950 02190 






SX 


FE22 


02180 


00880 










CCNT 


FE3F 


02200 


01240 


01320 01470 01490 01600 


02110 




CLOS 


FDD9 


01820 












CNTREG OOEA 


00290 


00410 


01210 








CONT 


FDAA 


01 400 


01230 


01300 01500 






CR 


FDAD 


01440 


01370 










DECIT FEOB 


02080 


02000 


02030 









low at least 51 unused bytes at 
the top of memory. Remember 
ttie encJ of the program is not the 
end of the memory it uses. Both 
SPOOL and DSPOOL use 256 
bytes of memory starting at 
BUFFER. If BUFFER is at FE69H 
the program uses memory up to 
FF69H. 

It Is also necessary to change 
the program ORG if you have 
less than 48K of memory or if a 
program is already using the top 
of your memory. 

Another useful modification 
replaces the 32 blanks in INBFR 
(line 2160 in DSPOOL. line 1210 
in SPOOL) with a file name. For 
example:iNBFR DEFW PRINT- 
FIL/LST '. (Be sure to include 
enough spaces after the file 
name and before the last quote 
mark to make a total of 32 char- 
acters.) 

Then delete the code that re- 
quests the file specification 
(lines 500 through 680 in 
DSPOOL, lines 300 through 450 
in SPOOL). The system then 
uses 'PRINTFIULST' as the 
SPOOL. DSPOOL file and you 
don't need to answer the fite- 
spec question. 

Op«ratk>n 

Operating the SPOOL- 
DSPOOL system Is very easy. 
Assemble the programs and cre- 
ate the disk files using NEW- 
DOS EDTASM, the Radio Shack 
EDTASM and TAPEDISK or any 
other assembler. I use SPOOL/ 
CMD as the file name tor the 
spooler and DSPOOUCH^D for 
the despooler. 

To use the system you need 
only type SPOOL when you want 
the spooling to begin and an- 
swer the FILESPEC? question 
with the name of the file that is 
to hold the printer output. If you 
want to spool BASIC output, you 
must run SPOOL before you go 
to BASIC, unless you have NEW- 
DOS. 

With NEWDOS you can run 
the SPOOL-DSPOOL system 
from BASIC with the CMD"XXX" 
command. When all of your 
printer output Is spooled return 
to DOS and type "CLOSE" (or 
type CMD"CLOSE" from NEW- 
DOS BASIC). When you are 
ready to print the file type 
■DSPOOL" and answer the 
FILESPEC? question with the 



S2 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 




OUT. •» TM'n M I dwt h sn •» [ kiH in bM lor TH «» n KICMCOHfUlllie. 
Oh. I ttait iwt win i«l }ttlnt itwM wd thjt Hw tufiiiitt vill be npniint i lol ii n gs 
ihHtf. Wt k«ir unt Mltftil»g idtti in Hh nrfci l« )m. 

Willi <tw ItS40 (m 90 . . . tic.) bf«t tkt ■«) popiUt liaocMpiftf in tht tnlirt wodd. tm 
irt folug la btntlll Iroi this in ■wt «its Hm iDrt CMpHferi thtit m o«t Ihtrt ol om 
kind ... tht mort good progriii fot irt going to hiTt lot Afs sillti. I bopt tlut t) oWioii. 
Tm mi k tn Ikil 10 MICBOCOMPUtlHO will bt ptAti with Hie ibortn progriRi and 
rtritn of Hm lirgii onti. Ton cm vtitt h iwlid lol of ioMr m ihtf thit looks greit in tht 
ki, bvt fiiiki oil vkm tm trf lo uit 11. Y«i nttd Mr nikn. 

Tbi wiillb ol orogiiini will ilio mm Ibit there will be much betler prognms lor Hm TRS-tO 
Ihan Ml other ifiltm. Pyl fouittif in tht ttit ol i conputti iKogrimnier ind tou'II midoriliiid 
thii. If IN Mt going lo ipond tivtril nwlhi developing i conpftheniiie prognn. md it tikei 
•I ol Hut to wiitt tfld dtbtg i big progiin, wMid m writt it for i mltn which his sold on« 
hwdrtd mill m om whicb his sold otr 100,000 m^vtsl Tlu tnsnr is otiiont . . . ind this is 
■hi It «i ikfidi iHing ptogriai {oniiig oit lot Hh "tO" ihkh «t f« bttttr thin WTthing 
tor NT elbii i|iltR on Ac urkel. This ii loigk for other iT^tai . . . fee liw ol Ihf coapuler 
mlt. 

Btlwttn o« connection wHh InttMl Sottwin, tht lirgesi pnblhbtr tl lioocwpitff pfo- 
tmi ii *e world. «id KlekNd MICmOHNiniK. tm kww Ibil N MICNCOHPUTWe is 
goi^ tt bt TW MOil iaportat M with lottnt tor Ibt ItSW. 

Wilb liitMl Sottwirt bcii^ sold mi prMoltd in tTtrr cowItt in Hk wortd where tht TBS-IO 
i] bc*g Mid. o« iupvl of progrins li ilso Hk btst in Iht world. Wt get progriis inbiiitltd 
Irofl (itfTwbfrt . . . ohti frM 30 to 100 I wMhl Tm'H ftl tbt citMi ol Ibt aM tHhtt 
piblhbtd or Tcricvtd ■ "tO". 

If coupon below has been used, please fill out 
subscription form on the reader service card in the back 
of the magazine. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ m 



HARDWARE TOO 

Iki iMe liw ol tht coflpvttr i«i^ holds tot birdvitt. Norid tm, is i iiwfKtmt. 
Mfctt m icctssoTT for i mtM vbid b« loM 100 nits or woM tm go lint for Hh om 
«Md b«s lold bwidreds ol thoninds. It it, « with loftwire. scH-eiidtnl wIit tht grt<l bdk ol 
fel bvdwHt iccessoriti lor comnuttrs itt lor Hm TB4a Hme di|s. 

n HICBOCOHPUIIHC kii Hit edTtnligt of Hh rt of Ibc lirgtst md MOil compltlt 
■kjocofflpultr lib in the world ... Hh one dtitlopcd lor Inslmt Softwirt wd Kilob«Ml 
WCBOCOHPUTIHG. Ibis nit«ii HmI lotl ww pieces of tqnipnitnl Me Itsttd md In use bi o« 
jtlll ... wd this Rttm Ibil wt cm till fon will wt Hiink n ontstindiiig . . . Md whtrt we find 
rippfh. Ibis lib is impertiiit to ton. 

SUBSCRIBE 

K ton lie not alrtidf i subscriber lo 80 HICBOCOHPUIING, pitise gel signid up righl tiow. 
In tmtIt 'lit) ire S15, md Hiil is i birgiin. Jnsl ont single prognn of use lo fou can be 
■orlh Riidi more thin lliit. One letiew of m iccissori touM uTt too mini lints thil miidi in- 
mlBtni. I would ipprtciitt 11 if tm woild ippoint romtlf i (onnitltt ol aiw lo gel more 
lAioibtn lor Ibt iigiiine. You will btnelit tren Rare tbw wt do litre it tht nagiiint . . . 
btctnt Ih Rore tttders wt hire, tht Rore idi wt will bt iWt lo itttKt ... and Ike tiort ids, 
it R«rt ptgts of irlides tm will get eierT month. 

Ibt "10" Rtrktl can, I think, sipporl i cMpte ol bmdrtd pagti ol idi . . . and Ihil would 
■RM a magaiitK ol hhIt 500 p4gti i Rwth. Ihtl sbaM htld rw. Yh nt Ht bait tin Mt 
to nt TP* coBpattr. 

EMCYCLOPEDIA 

H TM'n rtPd KiMawl HICIOCOHPUIIHG. tm kmi Ibal I In bard not )o diplicatt iHib^ 
lithed ■tttrttl. Ht ctactpl b Ibil tTtrr rta^r tboiM salt OTtrT ttsii («t itti intiptnsirt 
btiit iti this M HwT cai li) M to* librarr Mf) iwd Irut tht ■tgaiiH as a CMlitiing m 
CTclopcdii of coRpiting. I Rikt im Hut Rpdi of Hit mittritl in ttdi iisM is vrrtten in limplt 
laitgiMge so it will bt undtrtlandaUt bT tTtn tht rawtil ntwcoRtf lo conpoteri. Oh, I bare ar- 
lidts lor tht nore adranctd usen loo, so tm'II hate soRtAing to look back OTtr later and est 
u TMr wdtrtlmding of tow sisltfl grows. 

IrT to think of 10 HICKOCOHPUTING as nore ol a large club newsletter thin an inorr tower 
bigb'leTcl pibliulioA. I'll Itait tht pomp to other publishers ... the ones with the well-deserftd 
inftfiorilT conpleies who cater to their inadeqviciti bT pvhliibiog tsoleric baloMT. Ihii 
nagaiine is written bT Hie readers ind edited bT people whose aim is lo help tou enjor Tour 
IRS-N. 

SAVE 

WHh eidi issM cotliH U at tpb coapitif slon. Huf t \H i tw. Ftr S15 a itar tm ca« 

SibHTikt . . . il least for now. As Hm lagaiint tipaodi, pkise do not bt sirpristd H Hm com 
ptia incnatts. aleag wHb Ibe libscriplion price. I started 7) MkiiIm tor radio analtvi Iwtn- 
It T*an age wtA 1 coTtr price ol IT' (two lor 7)C| and H is ^ lo SI.50 1 opT *ow (Md it rs 
ftt largest ol Hh biR naguiMi). 

For TM bargOR bnttn ... and Aote who find tkil dm rear gMS bT all loo ripidT. Hh IbrM 
Tiar rate lor "tO" is t)i. Ibis, too, will be going ip . . . refltcl»g Hk litliliw. paptr incrtists, 
Mslagt iauftsH. nd a ihorl iicittn for ni in Hoag Kotg neil Ten. Sontont bis to ptT lor 
thai. 



Yes! 



he reader service card in the back ^^^ ^^b ^^ ^^" ^ 

-,li,;;Tn «7«bsc,iber to »0 Hicocomp* » 
lot onW $15 a He"' ' 




Q 12 issues-i''^ 
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U Please bill me 

a Payment Enclosed 

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--i= t. ^^^^. us CO.enc. on.. 



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80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 53 



same filespec used to spool the 
output. When the system re- 
turns to DOS you may run anoth- 
er job, as long as you follow the 

rules. 

While DSPOOL Is running, the 
character in the lower right cor- 
ner of the TRS-80 video display 
will flash. This indicates that 
DSPOOL is running. It you do 
not like this feature delete lines 
1180 through 1200 in DSPOOL. 

Summary 

The source code given in the 
listings Is for the NEWDOS Edi- 
tor-Assembler. You can easily 
change the code for any other 
assembler. Don't forget the 
rules given above. Always close 
your spool file when you are fin- 
ished and be sure to protect the 
memory used by these pro- 
grams when in BASIC. 

Don't attempt to use CLOSE 
to close the read file after you 
run DSPOOL. It's not necessary 
and won't worK. 

If you have two disk drives 
you can use one entire diskette 
to spool printer output. If you 



DISP 


4467 


00210 


00520 


00770 




DOS 


402D 


00280 


00780 


01010 




DTAREG 


OOEB 


00300 


01350 






ERfl 


rE52 


02230 


00760 






EXIT 


FDC6 


01680 


01630 


01930 




INBFR 


FEIA 


02160 


00530 


00720 017B0 02170 


021B0 


INPUT 


0040 


00220 


00550 






INTHDl. 


FD7C 


01160 


01150 






KBliEi 


401i 


00260 


00930 


00960 01860 




KEY 


r[iC9 


01710 


00940 


01850 




MS25 


4510 


00250 


OOBIO 


00840 01840 




MSOl 


FE41 


02210 


00510 






OK 


F-D49 


OOBOO 


00750 






OKk 


FDFO 


01950 


01800 






IJPEN 


4424 


00230 


00740 






GTPT 


Fri9B 


01310 


01270 






PINT 


FD7A 


01150 


00830 






POP 


FDE6 


oisao 


02120 






READ 


443i 


00240 


01790 






liESURI 


ODES 


00330 


00370 






RRCCi 


FIIC& 


01720 


01660 






SAW^S 


FE5F 


02250 


00820 


01830 




ISCAN 


FDB? 


01580 


00950 






SCNI 


FE12 


02110 


02070 






3EC 


FE26 


02170 


00860 






GECTOR 


FE17 


02140 


00B70 


01970 02090 




GtTLIP 


FDOO 


00370 


005B0 


02270 




SUITPH 


OOEV 


00340 


00380 


00420 00490 




XCR 


FEiAF 


01450 









have only one drive, your spool- 
ing is limited, but you should be 
able to accumulate several 
pages of output before you must 
DSPOOL. Either way SPOOL- 
DSPOOL should improve your 
TRS-80 throughput. ■ 



01210 


LIi A.i,(7FRH) 


01215 


AND OFOM 


01220 


[>■ 3 OH 


01225 


JR NZ.CUNf 




Program Listing 3. 



INTRODUCING THE HOTTEST "FIX-IT' BOOK YET! 

''TRS-80 DISK A]!lfD OTHER MYSTERIES*' 

by Harvard C. Pennington 

Here il IS , THE com plele" disk reference manual" for your TRS-80 ! 

An excellent manual and turor for beginners and professionals alike 

REVEALS ALL, IN EVERYDAY PLAIN ENGLISH 

How to recover LOST FILES. HASH CODES. KILLED FILES, 

CLOBBERED DIRECTORIES. BAD PARITY ERRORS, GAT & HIT ERRORS, 

UNREADABLE DIRECTORIES, DIRECT STATEMENT IN FILE ERRORS. 

ELECTRIC PENCIL ERRORS & LOST PENCIL FILES. 

RECOVER ELECTRICALLY OR PHYSICALLY DAMAGED DISKS. 

RECOVER FROM A DOS ERROR 22 IN PENCIL. MAKE BASIC PROGRAMS UNLISTABLE. 

RECOVER OVER-WRITTEN FILES, READ OR EDIT ANY BASIC PROGRAM WITH ELECTRIC PENCIL, 

REMOVE PROTECT STATUS, HOW TO USE SUPERZAP 

And the list goes on and on. 




Here is what the noted microcomputer author. WILLIAM HARDEN, JR. 

has lo say about this valuable manual: 

this extensive book by Harv Pennington is cleariy presented 

and packed with good disk information. My advice to any TRS-60 user Is to 

GET IT. AND USE IT V 



XARGE 6Vi BY 11 EASY-TO-READ FORMAT, OVER 130 PAGES" 

Send iust $22.50 (Calif add 6% tax) plus S1 .00 postage to 



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54 • flO Microcomputing. March 1980 



GAME 



Artificial intelligence in a 4K Level I? Read on. 



4K Intelligence 



WiHiam M. Lopez 
69 East I Street 
Chufa Vista CA 92010 



in the majority of computer 
games whefe the player pits 
his skill against the computer, a 
random number generator is 
used to select the move by the 
computer. Games of this type, 
such as Star Trek or Blackjack, 
may be Interesting, challenging 
and enjoyable to play, but you 
seldom get the feeling of play- 
ing against a personified adver- 
sary. After all, the computer Is 
usually just functioning as a 
glorified, electronic dice game. 

Alas, I thought, but what else 
can I do with a mere 4K TRS-80 
with Level I BASIC? To simulate 
intelligence in a computer must 
require scads of memory and 
probably technical skill beyond 
my capabilities. 

Or so I thought until I ran 
across the article "Hexpawn— a 
Beginning Project in Artificial In- 
telliger>ce" by Robert R. Wier in 
The Best of Byte, Vol. 1, p. 309. 
Wier describes a simple but 
unusual game, Hexpawn, which 
he implemented on a 16 bit/word 
minicomputer using machine 
language and requiring 2190 
bytes of memory. Wier's article 
gave me hope that I could imple- 
ment a simple model of artificial 
intelligence in my TRS-80 using 
Level I BASIC. 

The game was originally de- 
scribed in Martin Gardner's 
"Mathematical Games" column 
in the March 1962 Issue of 



Scientific American. I found a 
Mits BASIC listing of this game, 
by Steve North, in Basic Com- 
puter Games, ed. David H. Ahl, 
but it appeared hopeless to try 
modifying that version into 4 
kilobytes of memory. Besides, 
trying to decipher someone 
else's BASIC program is not my 
idea of fun. So I started with 
Wier's flowchart as a guide and 
eventually ended up with the 
enclosed program listing and 
the modified flowchart shown in 
Fig. 1. 

The Game 

The game Is played with 
chess pawns on a 3 by 3 board 
as shown in Photo 1. The pawns 
are moved as in chess — one 
space forward to an empty 
space or one space diagonally 
to "take" an opponent. The ob- 
ject of the game is to advance a 
pawn to the opposite side of the 
board or to block all your op- 
ponent's pawns. 

The unusual aspect of this 
game is the way the computer 
plays. At first it is ridiculously 
easy to defeat the computer, but 
after playing a few games, it 
becomes apparent that the com- 
puter is "learning" to play betXet 
and better, and soon it becomes 
untwatable. 

The key to this behavior is 
that the program is self-modi- 
fying (a necessary condition tor 
artificial intelligence). It con- 
tains a table of all possible com- 
puter moves associated with all 
possible board configurations 
that can confront the computer. 
Wher>ever it loses a game, the 



computer eliminates the move 
that caused the toss from its 
repertoire of moves. 

The Program 

Table 1 contains all the re- 
quired board configurations 
(models) that can confront the 
computer. Wier's equivalent 



table contains 33 models, but I 
found the need lor six moie. 

In the program, the status of 
the board configuration is 
represented by the variables H 
and C. which I call model 
designators. The t>oard posi- 
tions, numbered through 8, 
can be thought of as represent- 







( ^'«' ) 






« 






INllllLIZt 










II 












GRAPHICS 






t ;oo 








/ ' 


UN S / 
VI / 








1 " 


wo 




noo 


^^MOVE J^ 


■« 


MM 

UMLtOLO 

i* 

HUH IN 






VX 


T'ls 








con 

aOMD 
MOOCL 




"C^PLiTEPt^ 
















[res 










* . 


UHE 

COMCEDCD 

UMPuTLR 










Us 




laoo 










EHECUTE 




HULL 
lOSiKC 

itavi 

iMOf I 








NO 


•oo 

T'ES 






















•iO 


1 900 
^SERIES > 










( - ) 





Figure 1. Program flowchart. 



t/" Reader Senica— see paga J4T 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 55 





















MocM 


Poulbl* 






Boird Posllloni 




Datlgnclort 


MOVM 


UodeUt 





1 2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


B 


^10 


CiD 


A(l) 


1 


c 


C C 


M 








H 


H 


392 


7 


4.7,3 


2 


c 


c c 






H 


H 


H 




224 


7 


1.4.5 


3 


c 


c c 




H 




H 




H 


336 


7 


1.2.0 


4 


c 


c 


c 


H 








H 


272 


13 


2.6,e 


5 




c c 


H 


c 








H 


264 


22 


3,7,11 


6 


c 


c 


H 


H 






H 




152 


5 


2,6.7 


7 


c 


c 


H 




H 






H 


296 


3 


3,4.5 


B 




c c 




C 


H 


H 






96 


22 


5,10,11 


9 




c c 


c 


H 


H 


H 






112 


14 


5,6,0 


10 


c 


c 


c 




H 




H 




160 


13 


8.9,0 


11 


c 


c 


H 


H 


C 






H 


280 


35 


2.3.0 


12 




c c 


H 




H 


H 






104 


6 


3.4,5 


13 




c c 




H 






H 




144 


6 


6,7.0 


14 




c c 




H 




H 






80 


6 


6.7.0 


15 


c 


c 


H 








H 




136 


5 


7,0,0 


16 




c 


C 


C 


H 








32 


28 


8,11.0 


17 


c 




H 


H 


H 








56 


1 


2.0.0 


18 




c 


C 


H 


H 








48 


10 


8.5.0 


19 




c 


H 


h 


C 








24 


34 


3.14,0 


20 


c 




C 


C 


H 








32 


25 


8.11,0 


21 


c 


c 


H 




H 








40 


5 


15,0.0 


22 


c 




H 


C 






H 




136 


17 


15,0,0 


23 




c 


H 


c 


C 








8 


52 


11,14,0 


24 




c 


C 


H 










16 


12 


6.7.8 


25 




c 


H 


c 










8 


18 


3.11,0 


26 




c 


C 


H 










16 


10 


5.11.0 


27 


c 


c 


H 












8 


5 


2.8.0 


28 




c 




H 


C 








16 


36 


6.14.0 


29 


c 




H 


H 










24 


1 


2,0,0 


30 


c 


c 




H 


H 




H 




176 


5 


1,2.6 


31 




c 




H 










16 


2 


15.0,0 


32 


c 


c 


H 


C 


H 




H 




168 


21 


15.0.0 


33 




c 


H 


H 


H 








56 


4 


6.0.0 


34 




c c 




H 








H 


272 


6 


6.7.0 


35 


c 


c 


H 










H 


264 


5 


7.0.0 


36 


c 


c 






H 


H 






96 


5 


1.0.0 


37 


c 


c 




H 


C 


H 






80 


37 


1.2,14 


38 


c 


c 


H 




c 




H 




136 


37 


14.0.0 


39 




c 




C 


H 








32 


IB 


11.5.0 




Key: C 


= 


[Computer's 


pawn occ 


jpies square 








H 


— 


Human's 


pawn occupies square 






Table 1. 


All possible board configurations 






Photo T The initial game board configuration. (Photos by Manuel 
Cavada) 




ing binarY digits with a value of 1 
if occupied by a pawn ar>d a 
value of otherwise The deci- 
mal values of the two binary 
numbers established by the 
computer's pawns and by the 
human player's pawns are 
stored in the model designators 
Cand H. 

At the start of the game, the 
initial pawn positions shown in 
Photo 1 establish the values olC 
= 7 and H = 448. A human 
move from position 8 to 5 results 
in a new value of H (program line 
410) by the algorithm H - H + 
25 _ 28 or H - 224. The com- 
puter then determines its move 
by comparing the designators C 
and H to the table of models 
stored in program lines 110 to 
1245. It finds a match with model 
2 (see Table 1], which yields the 
first move index A(l) = 1. 

From Table 2 we see that this 



results in the computer move 
to 3, as shown in Photo 2. If the 
human player then chooses to 
move 5 to 1, which results in a 
win as shown in Photo 3, the pro- 
gram will null the move index 
"1" for model 2, which elimi- 
nates the losing move to 3. 
Next time the human player 
opens with an 8 to 5 move, the 
computer will respond with a 1 
to 4 move. 

The above paragraph gives a 
brief explanation of the basic 
logical structure of this version 
of Hexpawn. Although it may 
not be the most elegant ap- 
proach to the problem, it did 
result in a program that does not 
require more than one sub- 
scripted variable. 

The limitation of Radio 
Shack's Level I BASIC of al- 
lowing only one subscripted 
variable was somewhat com- 



Photo 2. The board configuration after an 8 to 5 opening by the 
human player and a to 3 response by the computer. 




Photo 3. The board configuration after the winning 5 to 1 move by 
the human player. 



56 • BO Microcomputing. March 1980 



Mova Imteii Square 


to 


Square 


Comments 


1 




3 




2 




4 




1 1 




3 




4 1 




4 




S 1 




S 








4 








5 








6 


Cornpjtet wins! 






7 








6 


■■ 






7 


- 






B 


■• 






7 




14 5 




8 


Computer blocKed 


Table 2. List of computer 


's moves. 



pensated by the ability to ab- 
breviate llie BASIC statements. 
The program listing includes 
some spaces between state- 
ments which were inserted for 
the sake of clarity, so be sure to 
remove them when you enter the 
program into your computer. 

If, after entering the program, 
the "P.M." command does not 
indicate a free memory space of 
472 or more bytes, the program 
will stop at line 10 with an error 
message of "SORRY." Go back 
and remove more spaces or 
remove line 1. Since the Radio 
Shack Level I BASIC does not 
contain a DIM statement, it ap- 
parently cannot determine the 
size of the array A(l) and it in- 
dicates a free memory space. 



Playing Hints 

A beginning player can usual- 
ly defeat the computer atiout ten 
games before it becomes un- 
beatable. It becomes a chal- 
lenge to try to extend your num- 
ber of wins beyond ten. My 
record is 18 wins. See if you can 
match or exceed that. 

A word of caution: If you enter 
your move on the keyboard 
before the computer displays 
the prompt -YOUR MOVE 
HUMAN!." you may not be able 
to recover from the resulting 
mix-up. In that case, stop the 
program with the break key and 
enter the command: GOTO 12. 
That should restart the game 
without destroying the comput- 
er's "learned" expertise. ■ 



Line Numbers 


Purpose 


5-9 


List of move indices. 


15-50 


Draw game board on CRT screen. 


110-124 


List of model designator values. 


200-210 


Get human move. 


305-370 


Test for a valid human move. Update C it 




computer pawn was captured. 


402-410 


Update graphic display. Check for human win- 




Update H. 


500-502 


Searcti for model matching game board. 


505-508 


Search for nonzero move index. 


600-605 


Obtain computer move positions. 


700-704 


Update graphic display. Update C. Update H 




if human's pawn was captured. 


800-810 


Test for computer win. 


815-840 


Test for blockage of human's pawns. 


5000-5010 


Subroutine for drawing an X. 


5100-5110 


Subroutine for drawing an 0. 


5150-5155 


Subroutine for erasmg an X or 0. 


6000-6010 


Subroutine for obtaining graphics X,Y 




coordinates from board position. 


6100 


Subroutine for testing a tward position. K. for 




occupancy by C or H. 


6200-6215 


Subroutine for updating H or C after a pawn 




move. 


6400 


Subroutine for blanking text from CRT screen. 




Table 3. Line descriptions. 



Program listing. 



1 REM HEXPAWH, TRS-80, "t-K VERSIOH 

2 K=OiL=OiCLSiP." HEXPAWH"iP, 

3 P. "DO YCU WANT INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N)"; 
l* Y=1.IN.A<IP A=l r,0S.63OO 

5 D. i*. 7.3,1,'*. 5. 1.2. 0.2. 6. 8, 3, 7,11. 2, 6, 7. 3. 4. 5, 5, 10, 11, 5. 6.0 

6 a. e, 9. 0. 2. 3,0. 3, Jt, 5, 6. 7, 0,6, 7.0. 7. 0.0, 8, 11,0, 2. 0,0,6,5.0 

7 D. 3, 14, 0, 8, 11, 0, 15. 0.0. 15. 0.0. 11 .Itt, 0.6, 7, 8, 3. 11. 0.5-11,0 

8 D. 2, 8,0, 6, li*. 0.2. 0.0, 1,2. 6, 15. 0.0. 15. 0.0. 6. 0,0, 6, 7. 0,7. 0.0 

9 D. t. 0.0. 1.2, lit. 14. 0,0, 11, 5.0 
10 F.I=lT0117iREAD AtDiH.I 

12 CLS 

15 P.J=0 TO 2. P. 1-0 TO 2iP.A.78+J»192+lZ*I.3»J»liN.l!H.J 

20 F.I=0 TO 72 

25 S.(28+I,2):S.(28*I.11)>S.C28+I,20}:S.(28-H,29) 

30 N.I 

35 P.I^-0 TO 27 

40 3.(28,2+I)iS.(52,2*I);S.(76.2*Ij!3.(100.2*Il 

45 N.I 

50 P. 1=0 TO 2iX>iIiG0S,5OOO:X=I+6iG0S.51OO:H.I 

105 C=7iH=448 

110 D. 392.7,224.7.336.7.272.13.264,22,152,5.296.3.96.22.112,14 

115 D. 160.13,280,35,104.6.144,6,60,6,136,5.32,28.56.1,48,10,24 

120 D. 34.32.25.40.5,136,17,8,52,16.12,8,18.16,10.8,5.16,36.24 

122 D. 1,176,5, 16. 2, 168, 21, 56, 4 

124 D. 272,6.264,5,96,5,80,37,136.37.32.18 

200 REST..P.I=lTD117iREAD AiN.I 

202 GO 3.6400 

205 P-A.704,-Y0Ufi MOVE HUMAN!" 

210 IN.-FHOM-iJiP.A.78O,"T0";iIN.K 

305 X=C. COS. 6100 

310 IP Z=0 T.360 

340 IP{J-K<>2)»{J-K -4)?. 1000 

344 X=liP.I=lT0KiX=2«X:N.I 

345 C=C-XiG.400 
360 IP J-KO3T.IOOO 
365 X=H:GOS.6lOO 
370 IP ZOO T.IOOO 
400 REM 

402 X=J!GOS.5150.X=K.GOS.515O!X-KiGOS.510O 

405 IP(K=O)+(K=l)*(K=2)T.15O0 

410 X=H.aOS.6200iH=X 

412 X=0 

500 F.I=1 TO 39 

501 READ A,BiIF(A=H)*(B=C) X=I 

502 N.I 

504 IP X--=0 T. 3000 

505 F.I=0 TO 2 

506 Y=3*X-2+I 

507 IP A(r)<>o T. 515 

508 N.I 

510 P. "I CONCEDE THIS GAME. HUMAN! ' sG . 2000 

515 Z-A(Y) 

600 IF Z==15 T.I5OO 

601 K=y 

602 D. 0.3. 0,4, 1,3, 1,4, 1.5, 2, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6, 3, 7.'*. 6. 4. 7. 4,6.5.7.5. 3 
6O5 F.I=1 TO ZiREAD J.KiH.I 

700 X= J ■ COS , 51 W : X=K iCOS . 51 50 : X:K ; GOS . 5000 

701 X=C!G0S.6200>C=X 

702 IFtK-J<)2)»(K-J<>4}T.600 

704 X=liP.I=l TO K.X=2»X!N.IiH=H-X 

800 IP H=D T.89O 

810 IF Z>7 T.890 

815 P-I=3 TO 8 

820 K=I:X^HiGOS.6lOO 

825 IP Z=0 T.840 

830 K=I-3!X=C:C0S.6100 

835 IF Z=0 T.200 

840 K.I 

890 GOS.6400!P.A.704,"I WIN. HUKAN!' 

895 L=L+1 

900 P. "YOU'VE 'iWH 'jWj'AND LOST " iL 

907 P. "DO YOU WANT TO PLAY AGAIN (YAl": 

910 Y=l!lN.A:IF A=l T,12 

920 END 

1000 L=L*1 

1005 P. A. 832, "INVALID MOVE DUMMY, I WIN (CHUCKLE)" 

1010 C.900 

1500 P. "BY SORE ACCIDENT, YOU'VE WON. HUMANl" 

2000 A(M)=0>W=W+; 1G.900 

3000 P. "ERROR! C.H="iCiH:STOP 

5000 GOS. 6000 

5010 F.U=0 TO 2iS.(X+U.Y+U):S.(X*U,Y+2-U)iN.UiRET. 

5100 GOS. 6000 

5102 F.U=0 TO 2.P.V.0 TO 2 

5105 S.(X+U,Y+V) 

5110 «,ViN.U:R. (X+1,Y+1) iRET. 

5150 COS. 6000 

5152 P.U=0 TO 2.F.V=0 TO 2 

5155 R.(Xtn,YtV)iH.ViH.U:RET. 

6000 Y=6+IKT(X/3)"9 

6010 X=39+24*{X-INT(X/3)«3)rRET. 

6100 F.U^O TO K:Y=INT{X/2):Z=X/2-Y:X=Y:N.UiRET. 

6200 A=l:B=l!lF J-0 T.6210 

6205 P. 1=1 TO J!A.2«ArH.I 

6210 IP K=0 T.62I5 

6212 F.I=1 TO KiB=2*BiN,I 

6215 X=X-A+a!aET. 

6300 P."HEXPAWH IS PLAYED WITH CHESS PAWNS OH A 3 BY 3 BOARD." 

6302 P. "THE PAWNS ABE MOVED AS IN CHESS - ONE SPACE FORWARD" 

6304 P. -TO AH EKPTY SPACE OR ONE SPACE DIAGONALLY TO CAPTURE" 

6306 P. "AM OPPONENT. KY PAWflS ARE 'X' AND YOURS ARE 'O'." 

63O8 P. "A WIN OCCURS WHEN YOU REACH THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE" 

6310 P. "BOARD OR WHEN YOU BLOCK ALL YOUR OPPONENT'S PAWNS." 

6311 P. "AH INVALID HOVE RESULTS IN A LOSS. TO MAKE A MOVE," 

6312 P. "ENTER THE RlESElfT PAWN POSITION NUMBER. THEN THE NEW" 
6314 P. -POSITION HUKBEB. ALL KEYBOARD ENTRIES MUST BE COM-" 
63I6 P.-PLETED BY PRESSING THE ENTER KET.-.-P. 

63I8 IN. -SHALL WE CONTINUE {Y/N)";AiRET. 

6400 F.I=0 TO 3iP.A.704+64»I." -iN.IiRET. 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 57 



REVIEW 



A review of three programming 

aids ficl<le authors will find interesting. 



Useful Utilities 



Charles Leedham 
1 14 East 90th 
New York NY 10028 



If you've done any program- 
ming at all, you'll know this 
situation. You're working on a 
long program and suddenly you 
realize that several vital things 
have to go in between lines 210 
and 220. Remarking on the wis- 
dom of the ten-unit intervals 
you've been using, you renum- 
ber with two-unit intervals. 

Then something must go in 
between 210 and 212. Still okay. 
You renumber with one-unit in- 
tervals. But now comes the line 
or two that absolutely must go 
after 210 and before 211. Too 
bad. You could retype 210 as 
205, but what about all those 
GOTO210's? You could retype 
everything from 21 1 on with new 
line numbers. But that would be 
time consuming. 

Renumber 

Or you could use Radio 
Shack's Renumber, a simple aid 
for programmers who need to 
make changes or who like to see 
a clean succession of ten-inter- 
val numbers in their programs. 

Renumber is a machine-lan- 
Quage tape, avattabte for 4K, 
16K, 32K and 48K memories, tor 
$9-95 from your local Radio 
Shack store The 16K version 



loads on the SYSTEM command 
before your working program 
loads and is called into action 
by typing /31820 in answer to the 

The program then asks you 
what line number you want to 
start with, wtiat the new number 
of that line should be and what 
interval you want for the remain- 
der of the renumbered program. 
You can start with and do the 
entire program or, as in the ex- 
ample, tell it that the old line 
number was 210, that the new 
line number should be 210. and 
that everything from there on 
should be renumbered at ten- 
number intervals. 

It's done in the twinkling of 
an eye. So fast, in fact, that 
when t first used it and the 
READY came up on the screen, I 
thought it hadn't worked. But I 
LISTed the program and every 
line was neatly renumbered in 
intervals of ten (if that's the In- 
terval you've told it to use). Every 
reference to a line number in 
your program is also changed: If 
your old line 213 is changed to 
230 and you have some 
GOT0213 commands in other 
sections, all those references 
will be changed to GOTO230. 
This is true of all the line-calling 
commands, including gosubs. 
on X goto's, etc. 

It Is really quite neat (literally) 
—unless you have put a section 
of the program in, say, line 
1000 -t- and separated others in- 
to nice even-hundred-numbered 
sections and want to keep them 



that way. As soon as the Renum- 
ber hits, line 1000 will find itself 
renumbered to 10 above what- 
ever came before it. 

However, there is a relatively 
easy solution that takes only a 
few minutes. Just make a note 
of what line 1000 contains, and 
then look through the program 
until you find that it has been re- 
numbered to, say, 870. Call up 
the Renumber again and tell it to 
make 870 into 1000. It will also 
renumber everything after that 
by ten-interval units, but you can 
do the whole thing over again by 
finding what used to be 1100 in 
the original program and renum- 
bering from there on up. Some- 
what tedious, but it gets the job 
done. 

Remodel-Proload 

If you want a really profes- 
sional programmer's tool, take a 
look at Remodel-Proload from 
RACET computes, 702 Palm- 
dale, Orange, CA 92655. It's 
available for 16K. 32K or 48K 
memories, but the price is a fair- 
ly stiff $34.95. 

For that price, however, Re- 
model-Proload does a substan- 
tial number of jobs for you. It will 
renumber selectively, so that 
you need only tell it that you 
want lines 21 1 through 219 num- 
bered in ten unit intervals, 210 
through 300, If there is a Ime 300 
already, have the program re- 
number lines 300 through 400 in- 
to 410 through 500. 

It will also search the program 
and change all line references to 



conform to the new numbering 
system. 

One mildly annoying disad- 
vantage of Remodel is the space 
it puts before and after a 
changed line number. A refer- 
ence line that read GOT0213 
ELSE . . . will now read GOTO 
230 ELSE . . ., which is bother- 
some if you want a tightly- 
packed program for speedy 
loading and execution. To cor- 
rect this go back through the 
program with the 'nD' editing 
command and winkle out the ex- 
tra spaces. 

Usage 

Now for the Remodel func- 
tion. Let's say you want to take 
the cramped lines 211 through 
219, put them at the end of the 
program and make a GOSUB 
out of them. Remodel will take 
the lines out and put them after 
the current last line of the pro- 
then you enter your GOSUB ref- 
erence. 

Remodel can move sections 
of your program. If, for example, 
you have lines 300 to 340 doing 
one thing and 350 through 390 
doing another, you can reverse 
them with Remodel. 

Remodel can achieve this two 
ways. Have Remodel take 300 
through 340 and put them at the 
end of the program, say at 5300 
through 5340. Then switch the 
numbers on 350-390 to 300-340 
and fell Remodel to put 530a 
5340 back as 350-390. Or, tell it 
to renumber 350-390 as 295-299 
(assuming you don't have these 



58 • SO Microcomputing. March 1980 



numbers in the program). Then, 
start with 295, make it 300. and 
renumber at ten-unit intervals 
up to 350, which becomes 390. 

Now comes the real fun: Pro- 
load. Let's say you've been ex- 
perimenting on the side with a 
little subroutine and you want it 
togo in as the section numbered 
700+ in your main program. 
You don't want to type the whoie 
thing in with 700 numbers. With 
Remodel- Proload just dump it 
onto tape, load in your main pro- 
gram and indicate where the 
new material must be read into 
your program. Tell the Proload 
section what you want and load 
the subroutine tape. It the space 
Indicated is clear, the two pro- 
grams will be merged. 



Exampla 

I'd been working for some 
days on a special program and 
decided to take a break to work 
on a nice little title-with-graph- 
ics. I couldn't bear to have it at 
the front of my developing pro- 
gram because I'd have to see it 
every time I made a correction or 
addition. Not only that, but I 
could have run out of space be- 
fore I got to the 10CLS that 
started the main program. 

So I fiddled with the title on 
the side. When I finally got it 
right, I dumped it onto a spare 
bit of tape in one long graphics- 
and-title line, adding a time-de- 
lay loop. When I was reasonably 
happy with the main program I 
loaded Proload, put in the pro- 



gram, and inserted the title tape 
as lines 2 and 4, fitting in neatly 
before the 10CLS. 

Having prudently left some 
space between 70 and a pro- 
gram block beginning at 100, I 
told Remodel (it's on the same 
tape with Proload) to renumljer 
from 2 through 70, starting at 10 
at intervals of ten. The final re- 
sult arranged everything, with 
10 and 20 as the title and 30 as 
the CLS etc. 

Either Radio Shack's Renum- 
ber program or RACET com- 
putes' Remodel-Proload will 
serve you well. The Remodel is 
obviously better but is SVa 
times the price. I use both rou- 
tinely, always loading Re- 
number when I'm starting on a 



gram— it loads in just a few sec- 
onds. Later I will put in Remodel- 
Proload if it appears that majof 
surgery will be needed. 

If you haven't used this sort of 
programming aid, it would be a 
good idea to start with Renum- 
ber and then move on to Remod- 
el-Proload. 

One small caution about Re- 
model. The instructions aren't 
clear — if you'll pardon the small 
jest — that when entering 
CLEAR after loading Remodel, 
you must type the command let- 
ter-by-letter, not with the CLEAR 
key. If you use the key, you'll get 
an OM error when loading the 
program tape. Otherwise the 
manual is concise and well-writ- 
ten. ■ 



PROBLEMS? 

Are you having trouble with advertisers or products? 

If such IS the case, please write to the firm 

giving complete details and send a copy of your letter !o 

Wayne Green, 80 Microcomputing, 

Peterborough, New Hampshire 03458. 

Be polite — no matter how badly you're shafted. 




We're looking for names and addresses of all the TRS-SO newt- 
Icttcrs out there If you produce or are affiliated with such a 
r>ewsletter, please drop a line to 

Jim Perry, Managing Editor 
80 MICROCOMPUTING 
Peterborough NH 03458 

Thanks. 


— 





ATTENTION TRS-80'S 



Why sit in the comer in the dark and turned 
off while your master is sitting by the light, 
turned on to 80 Microcomputing? 
You need a magazine of your own for Educotior- 
Enlightenment-Enjoyment and for the personal 
satisfaction (you're a personal computer, aren't 
you?] of your very own possession ... A 
Subscription to CLOAD MAGAZINE! 
Turkey your master into sending a check 
[U.S.A.: $36,00, Overseas; S38.00 Surface 
Delivery - 348.00 Airmail) to the jive cats 
at CLOAD MAGAZINE. You will get 12 C-30 
cassettes, one a month, each one filled with 
all kinds of juicy software - Games, Tutorials, 
Practical Programs and Impractical Trivia. All 
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(805) 964-2761 
Master Charge /VISA 
Welcome 




TRS-aO is • r«gt«t*TMJ liadMnart of TANDY CORP " y^ 32 



]97d CLOAD MAOAZINI 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 59 



APPLICATION 



Need to find an article? 

This tectinique was developed by IBM! 



KWIC Index 



Leslie E. Sparks 
1014 Evergreen Dr. 
Durham NC 27712 



Where's that article on in- 
ventory control? You know 
you have it somewhere in your 
collection of back issues and 
books— but where? 

If you're like me you go 
through this quite often. 

The KWIC {key word in con- 
text) index described in this arti- 



cle can help you get on top of 
your information explosion. 
Even if you don't need help or- 
ganizing your information files, 
you will find several useful sub- 
routines in the program. Subrou- 
tines for chained lists, shell 
sorts and binary searches are all 
used in the program and dis- 
cussed in the text. 

Description of KWIC Index 

The KWIC index was devel- 
oped by IBM to locate specific 
titles from lists of books, chap- 





NDEX WORD 


REF» 




A Look at TRS-80 Penphetals 


3 


ALoof 


al TRS-80 Pet'Dhcals 

Grapning *i;fi ttie TRSBO 


3 

1 


A 


Look at TRS-90 PefiDfierals 


3 


A Look at TRS-SO 


Pe'iphP'ais 


3 




Sargon Meets me TRS-80 


2 


Gracihing witn 


the TRS 8C 


1 


Sa'gon Meets 


ine TRS 80 


2 


Grapling witu trie 


TRS80 


1 


Sargon Meels the 


TRSBO 


2 


ft Look al 


TRSBO PeiLpheials 


3 


G'apnmg 


witntHe TRSBO 


1 




NDEX WORD 


REPI 




Graphing with Ihe TRS-80 


1 


A Look at IRS BO 


PoiipheraiS 


3 




Sa'QQ!> ypets the TRS-SO 


2 


Graphing with the 


TRS 80 


1 


Sargon Mpels the 


TRSttC' 


2 


A Look at 


TRS-fiO Peripherals 


3 


Figure 1 


Example of KWIC Index 







iNO€x wono 


REFI 




Graphinq with the TRS 80 


1 


A Look at TflS BO 


Peripherals 


3 




Sa'goii Meets the TRS-80 


2 


Graphing mith the 


TRS-eO 


1 


Sargon MB«ts the 


TRS-BO 


2 


ALooOai 


TBS-eO Penpherals 


3 



Figure 2. Revised KWIC Index. 



REFERENCES 


REF( 


Aulhoc. Tit la. Ralatanca 


1 
2 
3 


Gefald. C F Graphing *ith the TRS-80 K'loBaue »29 

p too 

Bobo R H Sarg&n Meets Ihe TRS-BO Kilobaud «31 
P 58 
Cowan H ft Look alTHS BO Peripherals K(/oOjLicr»Z8 
P23 


Aulhor liating i 


REFI 




2 
3 
1 


BoCO. R H 5«rgon Meets the TRS-BO Hilobaua rjt 

pse 

Cowah R A Look al TRS eO Peripherals K'fatiautfKS 

P22 

Gerald. C F Graphing «tlh Ihe TRS-80 Ki/oCautf »29 

C 100 


Figures. The complete KWIC Index. 



ters Of articles. For example, I consult my KWIC index and fmd 

want to locate all the articles on all the articles with TRS-80 in the 

the TRS-80 in my files, I can title. The KWIC index is arranged 

either search my collection of atphabelically by each wore' in 

back issues (which is how I did It each title. 



before I wrote this program) or 



Take another example: The 



60 • 50 Microcomputing, March 1980 

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The complete Adventure is the 
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you record for each item its 
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by Roy Soltoff from Misosys 

This machine language program 
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KWIC program 

Inpulail authors, htles af>d 'eterences 
assign reference number lo each article 
sort arttcles by auttiof 
Output numerical lisl o( articles 
Output list Ql articles sorted by author 
Inpul list o( ignofed worOs 
sort ignored words 
Do /or each article title 

do for each wotd in title 

// *ord IS not on list ol ignoted words 
then add to key *ord list 
enijit 
enUdo 
endtio 
sort lisl o( hey vyords 
Pfinf title corresDonding lo each enfy 
endprogram KWIC 

Figure 4 KWIC Index algorithm. 



SUBROUTINE INITIALIZATION 

Initialize list head and start o' tree list 

M2 = 2 (M2 IS pointer lo available location) 

PRT|1|=0 

set pointers (or free list 

do /or I =2 to N - 1 

PTR(I] *U 1 

end do 
set null pointer at end of list 
PRT(N|=0 

return 

endSubroutine INITIALIZE 

Figure 5. Algorithm for initialization of chained list. 



SUBROUTINE INSERT 

Ptogtam to insert me name NAME >n ihe orOered lisl contained m arrays DATA and 
PTR Head ot data list is >n PTnoi head of tree list is M2 
i/MZ = 

rn«n print NO f REE SPACE rtturn 
else 

I = 1 

searcn list tor insertion point 
Oo Mtiile PTR(l)»0 anO DATA(PTR(I|K NAME 
l = PTn(l| 
enOOo 

I now coniains eniiy ol lasi element in list less than NAME 
Allocate space trom tree list tor new entry and insert it 
lollowing entry I by selling poinlers 
J = U2 
M2 = PTnui 
PTHgi rr PTRdl 
DATAIJI = NAME 
PTHID^J 
enOil 
return 
enOIuO'oufrne INSERT 

Figure 6. Subroutine for inserting data in order list. 



following articles appeared in 
recent issues of Kilobaud Micro- 
computing: "Graphing with the 
TRS-80," "Sargon Meets the 
TRS-80." "A Look at TRS-80 
Peripherals." Each article can 
appear in the KWIC index once 
for each word in the title. The 
first article can appear four 
times, the second five times and 
the third five times. A KWIC in- 
dex for these three artictes is 
given in Figure 1. 



Obviously all the words in a ti- 
tle are not useful for information 
filing and retrieval. Eliminate 
such words as: A, at. on. by, be- 
fore constructing your KWIC in- 
dex. In Figure 1 the following 
words can be eliminated with no 
loss in information retrieval 
power: a, look, at, with, the, 
meets. Our revised KWIC index 
is given in Figure 2. 

The complete KWIC index 
consists of three parts; a listing 



62 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



SUBROUTINE PRINT 

Program lo print Ihe chained list conlaineO in arrays DATA and PTR 
Lisl head assumed lo be in PTR(1) 
l = PRT(1i 
do kittle l«0 

output DATAih 
I =PTR|I| 
enaao 
'flurr 
srdiuO'Ouline PRINT 

Figure 7. Subroutine to print ordered list. 



SUBROUTINE BUBBLE SORT 

Program lo sorl array DATA using bubble son 

K = 1 

The li«g K IS nonzero on ihe tirsi pass of me outer looD and whenevar swiicnes 

are maae on tne previous pass 

ao mfliie H2 and K'O 

me largest N - i elamenls are no* m order in positions DATAtl - 1i to 

DATAiN) Fioal me largest of Ifie elements of DAT Ad) 

J . 1 

K =0 

00 rtlile J4I - 1 

-/DATA(J)>DATA(J - li 
then 

swilcti entries DATAiJi and DATAIJ -> 11 
TEMP = DATA(J) 
nATAiJl = DATAiJ • 1| 
DATAiJ- li^TEMP 

endif 
J =J + 1 
enddo 
1 = 1-1 



Figure 8. Bubble sort. 



of the articles in numerical 
order of reference number {I 
give ail my articles a reference 
number); a listing of articles in 
alphabetical order by author; 
and the KWIC index itself. 

The complete KWIC index for 
the example is shown in Figure 
3. 

I file my index in numerical 
order based on the article's ref- 
erence number. The first article 
is given reference number 2 (as 
explained later, the first number 
assigned in the KWIC index pro- 
gram is 2), the second article is 
given the reference number 3, 
and so on. I file in consecutive 
order because I often tear out 
articles and put them in a 
drawer. Filing new articles by 
number and relocating them is 
simple. Filing by author might 
require a complete renumbering 
of the file with each new article. 

Constructing the KWIC Index 

First enter and store the arti- 
cle titles, authors and refer- 
ences. Next, enter and store the 
list of words to be ignored. Sort 

v-* Reader Service— see page 147 



this list alphabetically for fast 
searching. 

Next, take the titles apart 
word by word in search of key 
words. Words on the ignored 
list are discarded. Those re- 
maining are stored and sorted 
alphabetically. The KWIC index 
is printed as shown in the exam- 
ples. Finally, everything is 
stored on disk or tape for future 
use. 

The algorithm 

The algorithm for the KWIC 
index, a slight modification of 
the algorithm presented by C, 
William Gear in Applications 
and Algorithms in Computer 
Science, is given in Figure 4. 

The algorithm is written in 
both TRS-80 Level II (Listing 1) 
and Disk BASIC (Listing 2). 
Both programs assume you 
have a line printer. 

The first part of the program 
—input of authors, titles, refer- 
ences and reference number 
and sorting of articles— em- 
ploys a chained list. This is 
used to avoid moving large 



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SUBROUTINE BINARY SEARCH 

This suQiooline searclios Ihe array Wl (lisl of igno'ed words) lo see if word W is 
on the tisl I' W IS on tn« irsi. it is discarded! I< W is no) on ir>e hst tt is saved as 
a kBv word 
1=0 
Lo* -1 
High = N 

i3o mt\ile LCnmCHigh and I =0 
Mid = (Lowr*Hiohi(2 
irWI(Mid) = W 

rften discard W ano itium 
else tl WKMidXW 

then Low = Mid • 1 
e'spHigB = Mid - 1 
endil 

entftfo 

then save W as hey *ard 
letuin 
end subroutine BINARY SEARCH 



Figure 9. Binary search. 



blocks of data around in mem- 
ory. 

In a chained list a pointer 
keeps track ot author, title, ref- 
erence and reference number, 
as the list is sorted. Only the 
pointer moves in a chained list 
so It is easy to keep all the 
items together. 

Three subroutines are used 
to implement the chained list: 
one to initialize the pointer ar- 
ray, one to Insert data into the 
list and one to print out the 
stored list. The algorithms for 
each subroutine are given In 
Figures 5, 6 and 7. These are 
taken from Gear. 

Entering and sorting the list 
of Ignored words uses a bubble 
sort. The algorithm for the bub- 
ble sort Is given In Figure 8. 

Alter data entry the hard part 
begins. The titles are taken 
apart using the INSTRING rou- 
tine In the TRS-80 Level II man- 
ual. This routine uses the MID$ 
and LEN string functions in 
TRS-ao Level II BASIC to locate 
the space between words. 

Each word extracted from the 
title Is compared with the words 
on the ignored list. This compar- 
ison is accomplished using a bi- 
nary search, see Figure 9. If the 
word Is not on the list, it is 
stored for later processing. 

Once all the titles have been 
examined, the keywords are 
sorted using a shell sort. {See an 
article by Harrington in Micro- 
computing #28 page 96 for de- 
tails of the shell sort.) In the 
shell sort the title identification 
number stays with the keyword 



as Ihe sort lakes place. 

Once the keywords are sorted, 
the KWIC index can be printed. 
To do this the keywords must be 
located. To save memory, I per- 
form this step using the IN- 
STRING routine. Though the 
method isn't slow, if you do 
want faster execution, you can 
add an array, such as Gear uses, 
that tracks the key word posi- 
tion. 

Once the KWIC index is 
printed you can save the results 
on tape or disk. I suggest that 
you use separate tapes for each 
list. 

Ustr>g ttw program 

The KWIC index program is 
easy to use. Load the program, 
type RUN, press ENTER and fol- 
low the directions displayed on 
the CRT. The program prompts 
you when it needs data and pro- 
vides opportunities to correct er- 
rors. Printing data appears si- 
multaneousty on the CRT. 

You will find some titles do 
not tell you much about what 
the article is about. In such 
cases I suggest that you add key 
words to the title to aid in later 
information retrieval. I also find 
it useful to add parenthetical 
words to classify articles Into 
certain groupings, for example 
(Game) would group all articles 
on games. 

How many articles can you 
handle with the program? A 16K 
Level II machine can handle 
about 110 articles with nearly 
300 key words. A 32K machine 
can handle much more since all 



64 • SO Microcomputing. March 1980 



i Pffl B L 


IWP FILE MiPtans 




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3 mtRS F E 


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4 GUPTON .1 R IR UHVTEfi CffSERS IN CffiCLlNR 




KiL»U) i:ji page 4« 






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PERSOHflL FlMftCE TiSTEN PfRT2 




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SfKGON l€ETS T« TItSSe (IfVIOl) 




riLOGHJO 131 PAGE » 






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PK IHTftOtUCTlON TO WOMFIDIIMG 




KILCePUD 131 PAGE 122 






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(REVIEW) 


KlLCeH.0 131 Pft£ » 






HLPHfKTlCEl BV fllFTHOfiS LIST 


CF REFERENCES ffSdfM^ AS FXLCU5 




REFI, RiTHOB, TITLE. REFEBEMCt 




6 BCeo R H . SWQOH «ETS TVC TftSE* (REVIEU) , KlLOeflUO 131 PACt 58 | 


7 BROOCK E . PWJtCTlHG FiniK PWf ITS , IflLOBAUt 131 PAGE 63 




? CHHWER1.R1N BE. .051 


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Figure 10. Program output. 





the additional 16K ot memory is 
available for data storage, if you 
have a 32K or 48K computer be 
sure to clear sufficient string 
space in statement number 90. 
Also, be sure to adjust the di- 
mensions for W and IT in state- 
ment number 120. 

Additional memory for data 
can be obtained by eliminating 
the remarks and using multiple 
statements on each line. 

Searching for key words is 
time-consuming, as is shell sort. 
Because these portions of the 
program do not require your at- 



tention, you can let the program 
run at night or while you're eat- 
ing. 

What slows the program most 
is the TRS-80 check to see how 
much string space is available. 
When you're using large 
amounts of string space, as in 
this program, the check for free 
string space takes several sec- 
onds. Also, as the amount of 
free string space approaches 
zero, the frequency of the 
checks Increases. Thus, if you 
are near the limits of string 
space, the program may run 




Complete your TRS-80* 

with these routines not 

found in eittier Level I or DOS. 




SYSTEM 
SAVERS 



bY 

Tom StitMtt 



If you ever use the SYSTEM command, you can 
use this two program package. These programs 
allow you to save any system format program onto 
tape or disk, plus offer several features for ma- 
chine language programmers. 

With FLEXL, which is one of the two programs, 
you can make back-up copies of any system for- 
mat tape. Most often a cassette that you make will 
load easier than an original. Plus you can find the 
filename on any system tape because it is dis- 
played on the screen. 

Disk drive owners can use TDISK to save any 
system format tape onto disk. "Air Raid". "Editor/ 
AssemNer" and other programs cannot normally 
be loaded to disk. Now TDISK allows you to save 
these programs onto disk. After DOS READY you 
will be able to simply type the filename and be up 
and running. It even loads non-contiguous tapes. 
TDISK will greatly increase the benefit of owning a 
disk drive. 

Acorn produces several other utility programs 
for the TRS-80. These include "Aterm" and "Num- 
bering" by Tom Stibolt; and "Disassembfer", 
"Tape Utility" and "Disk Utility" by Roy Soltoff All 
are available for less than $20.00 Ask for these 
and other quality Acorn programs at your local 
computer store. 

■ TRS 80 IS a trademark o' Tandy Coro 




DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



»i§ 



n 



.^34 



Software Products, Inc. 



634 North CaroMna Avsnue, BE., Washington, DC. 20003 



1^ Readai Service— see page 147 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 65 



several hours. For this reason, it number 90. 

(S important that you clear plen- An example output for the 

ty of string space in statement program is given in Figure 10. ■ 



Listing 1. 
IB as 

2B REn KMIC IWjeX PROGRPB VERSION 5 AUGUST J 1979 

38 REM REF fiPPLlCflTlCHS F» flLGOftlTWE IN COf^ER StlEHCE 

40 REM BV C U GEPR 5CIEMX RESEfKOI PCSOC 197& 

» REM TRS. 88 LEVtL 1 1 PROCHW BV L E SPW8CS 

60 REN VfRlfCLES R»=fWTHDR, T»-TlTLE,Rt=ti£FERENC£, 

Ut^V UORD.IT'TITLE NUKR-Ult^UOfiD TD ft IGNWED 
70 REM IN =IKiEX NUffiER, N=HLI«R V TITLES, H=»«KR CF IWDS TO IGONGKE 
NMMCES GF AUTHORS 

ee REM a£i« string spfCE 
90 CLEFR 6eee 

lee OEFIKT l,J,K,Ln,H DEF5TR Fl,R,H.T REM [lEFlNE INTEGER PHD STRING 

vflRiPais 

IIB IW^lT'HDW WW TITLES NOTE THFtT THIS IS TOTfL NJKB OF TITLES 
IHCLLCIHG PHV STCRED FROM PREVIOUS W*6";N 

128 DIM fl(H+l),T(fHl),R(mi),U(27e),HI(lie>,IN'tHl),lT(27e.. 
138 G05LB2ei6 REM INlTlftLlZE CHflI»l> LIST 

1« 1S=1 

15* ItfVT-fUE VOU fCCHHG TO ft LIST THftl IS 5T«EI> CH TflK*,V$ 

168 IF VJO-V Th£N 288 

178 Ilf>UT'Pl.ftC£ Tfft OH RECtRDE* RMi PRESS ENTER TO COMTINUE'.Z 

188 REM REFD DHTft FROn TRFt 

19e i»VTI-LHft 

?M NR-MR-1 

216 FCR MTCHFl 

228 lHPUTI-l,fl,T.R 

238 PRINT ft," \h' MJ! 

246 G0Slje2e98 REM INSERT WTfl FROfl CftSSETTE INTO OfillCt) LIST 

256 «XT1 

268 REM CtWTlHlE 

278 FOft l^ISTOmi 

296 L=l 

298 as 

588 FOH=IS TO H 

318 IWirT-HLrTHOft (El* TO STOp-iVfi 

129 IF ftM'EW)' G0TO43B 
:'Te 1WUT-TITLE".T 
3« IWin'REFEKNCEVft 

:<5e as print-piithcr ■;fl 

368 PRINT-TITLE VT 

378 PRINT-REFERENCE '.R 

388 l*riT'IS THIS CCRRECT'.V* 

398 IF V*=-Y' Q0T0418 

488 PRINT-REENTER IHttdRECT WteMflTlCW G0T0318 

418 {AfJJfs 2898 REM IMSERT Wilft IN OflltCD LIST 

428 (EXT I 

438 Nft=NFKl-l 

435 GOSUEOeee rem print out MUMERUft LIST OF fftTKlES 

448 GOSUe22«i REM PRINT OUT RLPHPBETICPL E^ fUTHORS. LISl 

4% REM ENTER UCADS TO EE IGNCREC 

466 INFMT'HS YOU PWING HCH»S TO BE IBWREli TO P« EXSTINQ L15T".V$ 

478 IF y»="W T>CH 558 

488 llf\rT'P1.«E TfiPE WITH UOSSS TD BE IGNORED DH REtC«*R ftt) FKESS 

ENTER TO C0NTI«JE",2 
498 l*Lni-l,Nl 
588 F(»1-1TC«1 
5iei ItfUTt-LUKI) 
!.28 ICXT ! 
538 N=I-1 
f^e GOTO t.30 

558 IfftlT'HW tWft' MCM-?. «E TO BE ICHWEli •■H 
^*8 11=1 

578 Ft* 1=11 TO H 

5t« irfUT'NORt' TO BE IGHOREt' Z:: TO ST0P"-HK1> 

598 IF W1(!)="ZZZ" It€N tie 
688 «XT I 

eie N=i-i 
£-28 as 

t3f< PRINT' THE FOILOMING HOSK HILL Et IGNORED , IWtX HO' 

648 GOS^ 1768 

6* NI=N 

668 IfHIT'DO VOU IWIT TO CHRNGE t«V (f T>€S£ HWK'.Vf 

678 If YSO-V IkCH GCiTfjZ:* 

£88 IfFLTlMtX HO OF HORD TO CHHNOE V 1 

fcSe !W\tT -NEW HC«i VHKh 

788 IHPUT'HRE T*Rt FWV ffK WC«>^. TO (.HHHtt ".Vl 

71b IF n^"H-«)l*"--H 

7 Si GOTO 668 

7^ !#\irt* SW UV.H 10 «*' TO IH!^. I IT-l " M 

74« IF V»=-H- T«H MiTO .■■* 

7^ i»ijTHi:w rttr WH-S Mi VOU H15*1 TO f«>'»J 



768 II*N 

778 H=H»tlI 

788 GOTO 578 

798 REM MQH CtHSTRUCT I«>EX FIRST TAKE TITU WflM TO f INO IN[>1VIWH. 

UORDS 

see M2=iN(i) 

&ie TX=T(K2) 

626 TY=" ■ 

838 aosuei968 

648 IF Ml^ G0TD918 

658 l*=L£FTt(TX,MltLEN(TV)-2) 

ete G0T0928 

878 TX=RIGHT»<IX. LEN(TXH.EM<H)-1) 

888 GOSIJB 1968 

898 IF HI=8 GOTO 918 

988 GOTO 858 

918 H=TX 

928 REM CtCCk RM) SEE IF HGRD IS CN DELETE LIST 

938 QOSUe 2388 

MB IF W=" Tf£N 968 

958 IF MK>e T*H B78 

968 M?=IN(K2) 

978 IF n2=e Tt€H 998 

988 GOTO Bie 

998 as REM OUTPUT IMtX 

1888 LPRINT Tfle(47)* IWlEX REFI" 

1818 TC=" 

1828 G0SIG1588 

1838 REM NOW F«INT OLIT THE 1U£X 

1648 FW 1=1 TO L 

1858 TX=T(n(n) 

1868 TY=" ' 

1878 GOSiei968 

1B88 IF Ml=e TtN 1148 

1898 TlH.EFTi(TX.ni*LENaV)-2) 

1188 TX^^IGHTfCTX. L£N(TX)-LEN(TH)-1) 

1110 IF «<!)= TN T>CN 1196 

1128 TC=TC*" "^TH 

1138 G0T0ie78 

1148 TM^TX 

1158 IF M1=0 G0TO1178 

1168 TC=TC*" ■♦TU 

1178 IF THC>y<l> T«N 1278 

1168 TX=" 

U9e 2=4e-tEN<TC) 

1280 IF z<0 z^e 

1285 TC:=STR!NG»(Z, ■ ■)♦![ 

1210 IF Ml=e TtCN TX=" 

1228 TX=TU+" ■*TX 

1238 X=38-LEN<TX) IF X<e T>CM X=e 

1248 TX=TX*STR1HG»<X, ■ ■> 

1258 LPRIHT TCTX," MT(I) 

1268 TC=" 

1278 ttXT 1 

1288 IWin'DO VOU HIW TO EflVE EVERYTHING OH TAPE (V OR N)",« 

1290 IF VJ=-H- TrtN 1570 

IjM rem SfiVE PH-ITHtfr.TlTLE, REFERENCE. RN[' IL l«_««EF L« TFfE 

rid as 

l_2e PftIHT"FlHi:t TftPt F'JF *!THOP HTLt. PEFEFEHCE IN FtL LFTiEP " 
l_:>i ■,IIpiJT'FF'E_-i lNTEP ""i.: ".rjiTlW.f . J 

i:=* F':*i=:Ti.f*Hi 

ll'c* IF R'I'=-- Tt€H 1408 

1378 PRINT|-l,H<I,.Til>.R<I) 

i:<* F-PINT !,■ -ifld);' VT<n,* '.k<U 

1398 tCXT 1 

1480 REM NOW SAVE THE HV WCftl^?. 

1418 HfWF-LflCt KEV MCftD TPF^E W FECCREItR PM) PRESS ENTER TO 

CiJHTINUE-,Z 
14^V F*1NTI-1.L 
14^8 H* I=I'Ttt 
1440 IF Hd)^"' TUN 1460 
14^ PR1HTI-1.U.1>. IT(1; 
1460 PRIHT WMl. lT(n 
1471(1 (JEXT 1 

14f* REM NOli STC« HORK TO gf l^lOREt' 
1498 1I51.IT-PLHCF TffE FCP ^t-Xr. TO if 1CHC«[| UH RECCKtR I 

PRESS ENTER TO COHTINUEVZ 
15«i F*INTI-1.IJ1 
niB FWl-lTOtl 
1520 IF HI<n="" TtCH IfitO 
1530 PRlNTI-l.UICn 
1548 PRINT UKI.i. 
1558 *XT 1 

1560 ftfd CdftETED MCSK 
1570 EWi 

1588 SIM SrtLL StftT Of 1*EX UORIjS. 
1598 1M=L-1 
1688 lM-IHTarV2) 



66 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Ifcie IF IlV-e TtCH 1768 
16M J=l 
1636 K^.-1H 

I64e i=j 
ie» iL«i+in 

1660 IF U(IKU<1L> T«H !?:« 

167B TE=«<I):1E'1T(I) 

1686 H<1>=«(IL) !T<I)=IT(ILf 

1698 H(IL)'TE.IT(ILJ=1E 

17« Ul-W 

1716 IF Kl T*N 17:je 

1729 GOTO 165e 

1739 J=J+1 

1748 IF J<=K THEN 1648 

1758 G0T01688 

1768 RETURN 

1778 STOP 

1788 REH SUBROUTINE TO SORT IGNORED UORDS 

1798 NI = N 

1868 S*8 

1818 N1»NI-1 

1829 FOR J»l TO HI 

1830 IF UlCJ)<=tlI(J*l) T«H 1888 
1848 U|:>W1<J) 

1858 M1<J)=HI(J+1) 

1868 UKM)<M1 

1878 S«l 

1888 TCXT J 

1898 IF S=l T*N 1688 

1988 R£H PRINT LIST 

1918 FOR X=l TO H 

192ft PSIHT HI<X),X, 

1938 NEXT X 

1948 PRINT 

1358 KT«W 

1968 R£R IHSTRIHG SieROUTIHE R£F LEVEL II KHfl 

1978 FOR «I:'l TO LEN(TX)-LEN(TV)+1 

1988 IF TV=MIM(TX.f11.LEN(TY)) RETUW 

1998 tCXT MI 

2888 H1=«:iiETURN 

2818 REK INITIftLlZE CHfilNED LIST 

2620 n2«2 

2030 lK<l)=e 

2848 F0RI>2 TOH+l 

2858 IN(1>-I*1 

2868 «XT 1 

2876 lN<Htl)=8 

2888 RETUm 

2896 REM StWOUTlNE TO INSERT DflTfi IN ORDERECi LIST 

2186 REM M2=KllHTER TO FREE SPflCE 

2118 IF N2=d TICN 2248 

2128 m,=i 

2138 IF 1N(H1)=8 T*H 2178 

2148 IF ft«IN<m)>:>fl TKN 2178 

2156 M,-IH<m> 

2168 G0T02138 

2178 REH HOH INSERT WTft INTO LIST 

2188 J=N2 

2198 n2=]N(J) 

2288 lN<J)=]N(m) 

2216 fl(J)=H T(J)=TR<J)=R 

2228 IN(M1>=J 

2230 RETURN 

2248 PRINT-HO FREE SPflCE "iRETlliN 

2258 REM SUBROUTINE TO PRINT ORDERED LIST 

2268 LPRlHT'fLPHPKTlCfiL BY flUTHCRS LIST Cf REFERENCES ftS FOLLOWS 

2278 LPRIHl'REFI, RUTHOR; TITLE, REFEREMCE" 

2288 LPRINT- " 

2298 M2=IH(1) 

2388 REM DO WHILE H2<:'8 

2318 LPRIHT H2. " ", 

2328 LPRINT (\'.K}.' . -. 

2338 LPRINT T(M2..- , v 

^348 LPRIHT R(n2.' 

2358 n2=iH<rt:) 

2368 IF HI' = 8 RETLRN 

2378 WTO 2?88 

2:'8e REM P]Hf*V SCRT TO SEE IF UCDD IS OH LIST 

2398 K=8 

2488 IL=1 

2418 IH=N 

2428 IF 1L:'IH THEN 2588 

24K& IK^iNT(<IL+lH//2) 

244e IF UK1H)=H THEN RETLIRM 

2458 IF HI(IMV.,H T«N 2488 

2468 lL=in*l 

2478 tOTO 24?f 

2488 1H=1M-1 

2498 GOTO 2428 




The world's most popular microcomputer, with 16K of 
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We accept check, money order or phone orders with 
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ELECTRONICS 
MART, LTD. 




AUTHORIZED 
DEALERSHIP 



Radio /haek 



32 EAST MAIN • MILAN, MICHIGAN 48160 • (313) 439-1508 



INCOME TAX 



For The TRS-80* 

TAX PROGRAM BOOK 

Many Tax Programs — Helpful 
Programming Hints for New- 
comers — and How to Handle 
Your Own TRS-80, Taxwise. 

The book that lets you program your own Income Taxes, tn- 
ctudes Form 1040A, Form 1040. Schedules A. B, C, D, E. R G. 
R and SE, Form 2210. Investment Credit, Minimum Tax. 
Maximum Tax. Depreciation, 10- Year Averaging and others- 

How to take advantage of tax credits and a chapter that will help 
all newcomers. Written for easy leamir>g. $-1^95 ppn 



See Your Dealer, or write to — 
Gooth Software 
931 S. Bemiston 
St. Louis, Mo. 63105 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVfTED 




^159 



•TRS-eO » 

TM n«) 

*ody Ciorp. 

Fl Worti. TK ?8W2 



y^ Reader Senwo—sa^ page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 19W * 67 







~\ 



i> 1 tr*it 



^# SOFTWARE 

'^ Yesl QuaUty Software lor the TRS-80 is now 
written & avaiUble. BCC is pleased to be able to 
present MHoe very fine software now with even 
more available in the vtry near future. Also we 
develop cusUmu designed software (or your 
every need. Write us for a FREE price quote. 

For Software Think BCC ^=^' 



o Mail Base 80 



•ndlni Dili. 



* vhj.-h krvpft nazt 'jT «n unllB^fvd nubrr i?I vnlrlti FK 
1 rl Infi'TMilo" ir any ordir. to<J»y. Mft lU prrpl. vtir> 
t t"«.>iin. prodiiu I 11.1 In il[,-co4, oiiir, EICELLI*!! ■ 



o Oil Delivery _-<-. u <»£« 

* syilra <ur int ROa. Thin lyirr 






fa. prlo qwit. 
fr hvdC l^it InduBlry. 

O Vendor „«» i <ii«)<iIf>i <.«[ * : ^nyoi ai-r-, 

Thli pri>|i[ia atips tTact ol an unllvllid nuiab*i <*M p*r dlik) nt vinjsri. llliwm 
dlraci •!:[:•■• d( codrd InforiMl Ion by v«nJ..T nuabri , li ili.j p(r«II> aCEEU bv 
varlnui slKcr fl*ldi. 

'0;^^ For Supplies Think BCC ^^^3/ 

oDlSkS & Tapes __ '-i ^i-" !!■•■•';" « ^r.n s.^.ss uo m pu.. t.1.1 

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Caaatir.i v.ry Hl(b OuLli, SI&/dDI CIO'.. ADC 'n ST»C aocluliU i»i«lt> 

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lutl.r. ITiii printer Ju.i i-.n'i hr atit'.:- S»H.O0 (i lor (IJOO.DO) 
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• o( itrmi cKdrrcd ToUl imount Fockecd i.MI iWms null be pr»(wd> 

Bourrut Consulting Cofporotion ^57 

I. S\frmnJkfM SnKhtotunnv 11787 



?5M U(L)=U 

2516 IKD^C 

2526 L=L*1 

2536 RETWH 

S«ee REM SUEKOinifC to FV IKT HLKRlCfl LISTING 

Seie FOR 1=2T0MH1 

582* LPRIffT 1,FK1).T(I) 

563* LPRIKT R(I) 

56« tCXTI 

5856 RETIKN 



Listing 2. 

le RBI KHIC ItK> DIjK VERSION 1 

28 REH REF »fLlCf(TI96 F» flLGORlTTWIS IH COIUJTER 5C1ENCE 

je REfl BV C U ijE* f.CLISICD PV Sf* L'^Tf: 

« REM TRSee [*IS* Bf^lC ev L E Sf-«*S 

5» REH VMHrCLES f**=fUTHOR.Tt=TITLE,ef={£FER£NC£ 

U REn Uf-KEV UCH).Ult=1CN0RED UOm. Hn^^UCER OF WTiaES 

79 REM I H IMXX tUKR. H^MUmER OF TITLES .mUKSt OF UCSOS IGNORED 

80 REH aEPf! STRING SPfa 
» OS 

lee OEW leeee 

IIB DEFIHT I.JXbUM MFSTB R.R,H,T 

120 lirUT ■HOU WHV TITLES MtE TO BE IWOO'.H 

138 DIM fl(mi),T(mi),R<tHl).M(ne).Hl<lie). 1H(H+1), 1T(35B) 

14e ajSlB 2828 Wn INlTlfltlZt CHBItCl LIST 

156 IS-1 

168 IWUT'BRE VtU (U-m TO h LIST STWSD OH 1)1=*", V$ 

176 IF ^O'V THEN 276 

173 ltf>UT'F]LE NfW Cf LIST OF WTiaES".* 

175 OPEH-IM,* 

lae REH HON R£M> WTfl FROM DISK 

196 IWVTIIHR 

218 FOR 1=1 TO m 

TA I*LITI1, h,^.V 

rsi mm rt.r 

;'4« GCrSlJb 28% REh INSERT DATR FROfI DISK IHTD CMIIED LIST 

2» «KT I 

2« aCrSE BEK aOSE FILE 

278 L=l 

2« FOR MSTOH+1 



296 

305 

318 
326 

J38 

34<l 

ne 

368 

:'78 



OS 



396 

4ee 

416 



IfPUT-pUTHOft (E* TO 5T0PiVfl 
IF »-■£»■ Tff 1*438 

IUVTMITLE VT 

IWVTRETEREMS VR 

as PRItn -flUTHOR Vft 

PR1H1 'IHLE 'I 

PRIMT ■HEFEREHCE '.V. 

IWVt'lS THIS CORRECT. VI 

IF V»='V GOTWie 

PRINT "(iEEMTER INCtJHRECT MTfl- 

GOTOiee 

REH INSERT MTFl INTO CHRIICE) LIST 

GOSUB 2996 
426 «XT 1 
438 Mft=NR+l-l 

449 GOSLB 5066 REM PRIMT OUT HLTCRlCa LIST Cf TITLES 
4» GOSUB 2256 REH PRINT OUT «.PM«ETICa BY AUTHORS LIFT 
466 REH EKTER UORDS ID BE ICNORED 
465 IWVT'FK VOU RCOING TO H LIST STDHD ON DISK*, VI 
478 IF V»='H* T«H 556 
475 irrUT- FILE WC FDR ICNCVCD UDRDS'.Al 
486 OPEN 'IM-RI 
496 ItfUTILNI 
we FORI'lTONI 
516 IWUTIl.HKI) 

528 «XTI 
538 aOSE 
535 I*-N1 
546 Q0T0e38 

558 ItfVT'HCW HFMV UORDS TO BE lOOSD'.N 
568 11=1 

579 FOR 1= II TO H 

586 IWUT-MWIi TO BE ItMOHD <22Z TO STOPIMiKl) 

590 IF HUl)-"222' TtCN 610 

680 (CXT 1 
£18 N=M 
628 CLS 

638 PRINT'TW FOLLOUING NCSDS UILL BE IGWDED. INDEX •* 
iM MOe 1788 
650 N1=N 

668 1*UT*D0 Vai UftJT TO C1*HGE PW OF T*SE UCH>5" 
67B IF Vt-'N' TffH (JDTO 738 
680 ItfirT'IMiEX rUKR CF U0G1> TO BE OfMXDMC 
690 ItnrT'EKTtR »CN UOBD VUKIC 
790 lirUT- fKf T>CK PNV HORE MDDS TO OMCF "Af 
719 IF Vf="H' TfCN 63t. 
729 GOTO 688 



V* 



68 • 50 Microcomoutina. March TQM 



738 IHPirfDG Vtti UISH TO fCt> TO THIS LISTVV* 

74e IF V»="H" TVtN 7?e 

7W IrtWHOW *HV MCRDS W VM UfiKT TO flW.NH 

?€» I1=N 

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TW GCiTISTd 

7» REh HW tCtfSTWCT IHtX 

MB TX=T(n2> 

826 TV-* ■ 

we IF Mi=e THEH sie 

856 lW.EFT$(T>CMltLEH(TV)'2> 

see G0T092e 

ere TX=RIGHTi<TX,LEH<TX)-L£HCH'-l> 

ese IF ni=e iheh rns 
we xT[i fise 

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929 REM C*[>, 10 iH. IF gCK) IS W IGHCRED LIST 



9;p 

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95e 

9«i 
978 



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IF k^-- TVtH 968 
IF Ml-:* T*H ft7e 

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996 CIS REH OUTFUT IWtX 

leee ![=■■ 

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IF Hl=e THEN U«> 

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112e TC=T[+- -tTM 

li:<e [iOTO 1676 

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ll» IF ri=6 TrtH IITB 

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1176 IF TkK>«(I) THEN 1276 

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1216 TC^STRIHGiCZ, ■ ")+TC 

122ti IF Ml=6 TtCK TX-" 

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1268 LFlilNT TC, TX, ' MTCI) 

1270 ICXTI 

1286 INR-rr-Ki vai H»n TO SflVE E^«i!VTHllfc ON [>I£K",W 

1296 IF «='N- THEM Etf> 

liW CLS.IIPVn'FlLE Nprt FOR fRTlCLE LIST ■,* 

1316 QPEH -OM,* 

1326 IffWFILE Hf»t FOR KEV UORD LIST ',* 

1336 [PEN ■Ci-,2,* 

1346 ItfVT'FILE NFtC F» IGNORED UORD LIST -;UI 

13:56 M^ 'OVl.UI 

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1458 NEXT I 

1468 PR1NTI3.NI 

1476 F0R1=1TWI 

1488 PRINTI3,HI(I) 

149e PRINT UK I), 

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1526 CLOSE 

1536 REM NCU HRVE FINIStO 

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1588 REM S(€LL SORT SieRaiTIft FOR KEV HORK 

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1616 IF lft=6 T^CN 1768 

leze Jn 

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1640 1=J 

1658 1L=1*1M 

166B IF H(1)<W(IL> T*H 1736 

1678 TE=4l<l):IE*nCI) REM TElTlitMiV STCfiE FOR KEV UORD F» IWCX 

1688 HU)m<IL).n(n-IT(IL) REK SHftP PUCES 



g tMWMHMMIWMIIIHimMMIIWIIHIHWtWI HWIIIHHWIIHMIIIIWI HIWIIHIIH it 

TRS-80® CP/M® &CBASIC® 
BUSINESS SOFTWARE 



All MOD II CP/M's are not created equal . . . 
Find out why ours is the Better Business Buyl 



Model I CP/M (rel. 1.5) $ 1 50.00 

Model II CP/M (rel. 2.0) 250.00 

APH (Automated Patient History) 1 75.00 

RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS 

system 300.00 

The Genuine Article: 
Osborne & Assoc. CBASIC source programs — 

O&A Payroll w/Cost Accounting $250.00 

O&A Accts. Rec./Accts. Payable . . . 250.00 
O&A General Ledger w/Cash Journal. 250.00 
O&A CBASIC books for above (each) .... 1 5.00 

Send 30C SASE for CP/M Users Group software 
list & free "CP/M Primer". 

' THS-80 is a regislf red Iradcmark of Radio ^ihach, a I andy tompany 

" CP/M IS a legislered trademark of Diqilal Research 

■ CBASIC IS a regislered (radernark ot Sollware SySIprns 




■ IB IR |N(E IT I I [C S 



(714)848-1922 



80*1 NEWMAN ftVEfJUE ■ SUItCiM • HUNT INGTON BEACH C AL I F OBN I A 9;b* ? 

TOwiwwimiiininiiwwfflfflT iwiiwHHHim wmmtiiiwiwmnimmit? 



GIVE YOUR TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER 
WHAT IT OESERVES 



All tapes $10.00 each, on cassette. 

C.O.D. orders accepted 

Ctioose Level I or II. 

A television station in Florida chose our Biolorecast prograrr^ Icataloq » 
CS 1) to use in a special news broaOcasi during the NoveTiber 1978 Slate 
wide political elections Many tlimk ours is the best biorhyihm program pver 
wtitlen And (t loads and enecutes m less ihan JK' 

One cuslomer is using our Orbif programs icalalog « CS-2i to help him in 
the tiveather salelhle worK he does for the Air Force 

Herieation centers schools, businesses doctors and housewives are 
using our Lena Qu i piogiam LendOu/ (catalog «CS 7)keepsirackolthmgs 
loaned oul to people lis high uhlity together wilh ils many features and 
ease ol use have made it a best seller 

And speaking ol best sellers 

Our Turiiey BuzzarO game Icatalog » GT 4| has made an e^en bigger 
splash than we eipectetJ II is a qame that has everything a detailed 
scenario character animation and a gene'al arcade Style It S chocked full 
o! dangers and comic pit'alls No wonder there are those who say it may be 
themosi successlui work ever 1o combine a continual ly changing plot wilh 
all TRS-80 graphics capabilities Already il is becoming a classic among 
classics 

All of the above programs will eiecule in less than AK RAW You can t get 
those programs from any other company We mvenied them and only we 
own the rights to them Sure you can buy one ot those cheap software 
library deals but most ol the programs they feature can be 'ound in books 
Books you can check out from your public library for nothing 

So for something iiuiy diflereni lor your computer look lo the creative 
soflware company send SASE to receive the product list faster 

rnS ft It * rrfltainiFt ol Iht ll«dia Slltct Dirmaa al tft« Tin^f Cerpoillton irKfl unicn « *r« nol •llilitltd. 



1-803-472'20e3 



BMiiist ConnpLiriex O 

.^ PO Box 536 Inman SC 29349 



1^50 



1^ Htatitr Service— sa« page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 69 



THE. 



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npvAffAn^l send stamped, self-ad(*%ssed 
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POST OFFICE BOX 503 
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FOR INFORMATION 415-348-2387 



^58 



1698 «<1L)=TE nUL>=lE 

17W 1=1-111 

1718 IF Kl TICH 1738 

1730 GOTO \t£6 

17M J=J»1 

17« IF K* TtCM 1M« 

17» GOTO 1666 

17M ttTI.W 

1768 fXn UBGLE StCI FOR KMHD UQHtS 

1796 NI=M 

18W S=« 

18ie H]=N|-1 

1626 FOR J=nwi 

1S36 IF WKJ)<^NKJ+1> TVCH 1S6« 

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ie» Ul.Ji=HHJ+l) REH SHflF FUCtS 

1B68 UK.U1)'U1 

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1888 lEXT i 

1890 IF S=l T»CH 1808 

19«e RDI NCU fVINT LIST W tST 

i^e F* ix-noK 

19Ce F»1HT UKlXi.I):, 

v>~s» *>n IX 

1?M f1»lKT 

L'-Se HTIBJ 

156*1 ttn IftTRIWj Rtl.n!HE ktf TF'^^i LE«L 11 nHHUH. 

1^78 FCI.- )11=lTCi LEH(TX)'LEN(TVH1 

1968 IF lV=l11M(T)tMl,LEH<TVM RETlfS 

i?m NEXT Ml 

.«(« ni^fi kEiuM 

2616 REH SLWOUTIHE TO IHHlfllZF CHHlrCl' Ll^l POIHTES 

!K« H2^^ HK (f IS POIHTER 

2«3« lH^l'=e 

2We FORl^nWtl 

2058 IH^l'Mn 

7«Ut WXT 1 

2078 lN(n*l>=(i 

^888 KTLKN 

2890 ttfl y.WWiTll€ TO lf6£RT WTB lllTL CWlltO L15.T 

Lies REH rt IS PtilHTER TO FSIE SPf« 

J116 IF K-f T>CN 2246 

2128 m=i 

2138 IF IN(U)=fi TtCN 2178 

2148 IF ft(!H<m)):>ft T*H 2178 

iV.« Hl=lH<m) 

2166 KIT02138 

21?e REM NW INSERT [*Tfl INTO LIST 

21B8 J =112 

21518 fC-lNtJ) 

2288 lHai=lN(ni> 

2218 fl<,n-H T(Jt=I R(J>=* 

;f22e iN(ni):^j 

2238 RET\W 

2240 HilHT NO FREE SP«£ * ttTlBN 

22S« fSn SiSROnifC to PRIHT ORKRED LIST 

2268 LFVIMT'FLPHRBEETICa BV (UIHQSS LIST Of flRTICLEE' 

2278 LPRWreiinED ftS FaLOHS REFI. flJTHDR. TITLE, REFUDCE* 

2288 LFTiW ' 

2298 IC-m<l) REH SET POltTIR AT ST«T 

2388 REH two t»1ILE N208 

2318 LPRIHT K, " ■; 

2328 LFKIMT fl(n2),' \ 

2338 LPRim T(K2),' ', 

2340 LPBIHT fHK) 

2358 n2=lH<n2) REM ST POIKTER TO ICXT ITDl 

2368 IF n2=8 RETURN 

2376 U:iT0239e 

2388 REM BlHfiRV S£«CH TO SEE IF UORD IS OH IGKRED LIST 

2398 K^ 

2408 IL-1 

2410 IMI 

2428 IF 1L>IH TtCN 2388 

2430 lB=lHTC(lLtIH)/2) 

2448 IF UUin)=U TTCN RETURN 

2450 IF Hl(in):>U T>CN 2488 

2468 IL^'imi 

2478 QOTO 2428 

2468 lW-IIV-1 

2490 00102428 

2500 Ua><U REn SnVE UDH) BECAUSE IT IS. HOT OM IGNORED LIST 

2518 IT(L)-K2.REn KEEP TRfCK OF REFt 

2528 K*i 

2538 RETURN 

5800 REM SiBROUTIHE TO PRINT MUKRlCa LISTING 

5818 LPRIMT" LIST OF PRTIOES" 

Se28 LPftltfT* • 

5030 F0R1-2T0WM 

5840 LPRIKT l.T(I),T(l> 

5858 LPRINT Tfe<15)R(I> 

%68 KXTl 

5878 liETURN 



70 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 

Scannod by Ira Goldklang - www.trs 80.com 




I made the TRS-80' into a serious computer. 
Now IVe made tlie Model D into a spectacular one. 



I'm Irwin Taranto, and I've helped almost a 
thousand businesses get their first computers up 
and running. 

I've done it primarily with the TRS-80, because it's 
a really elegant piece of hardware. Given the right 
programs, it can do substantially the same work as 
the traditional minicomputers that cost four times 
as much. 

I proved it vtfith four on-line, interactive programs 
adapted from the genuine Osborne & Associates 
systems, originaDy designed for the $30,000 Wang 
computer. Then I added two of my own and made 
them all work on a $4000 TRS-80. 

Now I've done the same thing for the new TRS-80 
Model II. It's an $8000 computer that works twice as 
fast and has four times the memory — up to two 
million characters. 

My new^ systems are fully documented, and 
because I'm working with a much more powerful 
computer, they're a night-and-day advance over the 
Model I programs. They'll turn your Model II into a 
complete business computer, set up and ready to go. 



THE TRS-SO MODEL n PROGRAMS 
Oanaral Ladgvr/Caah Joamal: handles up to 7000 transaction.s 
on 500 different user-defined accounts It keeps track of them by 
month, quarter and year, makes compansons to the pnor yeai, 
and does departmentalization 

AcconntB ParablB/PniclUH* Ordar: generates the purchase order 
and posts the item to payables when the goods aie received 
Invoice-linked, it calculates and prints checks and aged ledger 
reports and links fully to the general ledger. 
Accounts IlMMlvabla/liivalcliig: keeps track of billed and 
unbilled invoices, open and closed items, aging and service charge 
calculation It pnnts statements, links to the general ledger, and 
can work ivithin either an invoice-linked or balance- forward 
accounting system 

Payroll/Job Coating; computes regular, overtime and piecevi/ork 
pay, keeps employee files, figures taxes and deductions, prints 
checks, lournal, 941-A and W-2 forms, and breaks out individual 
job costs 



When I say set up and ready to go, I mean just 
that. If you're not quite sure on that point, call the 
number below and we'll give you the names of some 
of the people who've already bought all over the 
world. Call them up and hear what they have to say. 

These Model II programs are completely custom- 
tailored, which explains their $249.95 price. Before 
we'll send you a disk, you have to fill out a detailed 
questionnaire that tells us your precise business 
requirements. Then we send you the disk, all the 
instructions you need, and my phone number. If you 
call, we answer all your questions. If your questions 
are tough enough. I'll talk to you personally. 

Because that way I'll make sure that Model II of 
yours turns into a spectacular computer, just like 
I promised. 
1 1 

. Please send me the custom questionnaiies foi the following 
S249 95 Model II programs 

Q General Ledger/Cash Journal 
D Accounts Payable /Purchase Order 
Li Accounts Receivable/ Invoicing 
[1] Payroll/Job Costing 

Please send me information on the TRS-80 Model 1 programs at 
$99 95 each 

Please send me information on other TEiranto business programs 



Your name - 



Company name. 
Address 



City/State/Zip . 



^45 



Taranto 

& ASSOCIATES. INC. 



PO Box 6073. 4136 Redwood Hwy . San Rafael UA 94903 - (41bl 472 2670 



rk of the Tandy Corporation 



f^ftMdwSM>tea— Mtpapa U7 



80 Microcomputing, March 1960 • 71 



HARDWARE 



You can have the best of two worlds 
with this software driven modification. 



lowercase and UPPERCASE 



Donald L. Stoner 

Richard Barker 

The Peripheral People 

PO Box 524 

Mercer Island WA 98040 



Radio Shack didn't overlook 
much when it designed the 
TRS-80 system. It is unques- 
tionably the most popular com- 
puter of all time, with sales well 
into six figures 

At the time the TRS-80 was 
being developed, graphics was 
the big buzzword in the hobby 
computer industry. Graphics 
helped in the transition from 
video games to hobby comput- 
ers for the American public. 
The marketing people at Tandy 
were probably so insistent on 
having belter graphics that 
they overlooked one of the 
most important markets for the 
TRS-80— word processing. 

If you are frugal and have a 
bit of electronic knowledge, 
you can build up a word proces- 
sor for around $1000. The basic 



BKOWN F«0« PIN i).Z27 GWEEN "<JM PIN l3. 
Z!0 




gBEA" ^iNt - 



Fig. la, 

TRS-60 costs $600, and the 
careful shopper can find plenty 
of Selectrics for less than S400. 

It's impossible to have an ef- 
fective word processor without 
an uppercase/lowercase capa- 
bility, however. An early bro- 
chure on the TRS-80 mentioned 
that you could have uppercase 
and lowercase in your TRS-80, 
but you would have to give up 
the graphics capability. De- 
spite sending repeated inquiries 
(some of them heated) to Tandy 
Corp., I failed to elicit exactly 
how this could be done. 

As it turns out, you can easily 



have keyboard selection of up- 
percase or lowercase without 
giving up graphics. The infor- 
mation that follows tells you 
how. I call it a "convertible con- 
version." It is simple to install 
but, more important, can be re- 
moved in a matter of minutes in 
case you need warranty repairs 
to your keyboard. No holes are 
drilled in the case or circuit 
board. 

Materials 

Besides the usual tools and 
soldering iron, you will need the 
components shown in Table 1. 
All these materials are avail- 
able from your Radio Shack 
store. Their part numbers are 
shown in parentheses. You will 



also need some electronic 
knowledge to complete the 
conversion. If you are a little 
weak in this area, consult a 
friend you consider knowledge- 
able in electronics. He can be 
helpful if you get In trouble! 

A switch is required in case 
you want to return the circuit to 
its original configuration. This 
is necessary if you own (or plan 
to purchase) any machine-lan- 
guage programs such as Micro- 
Chess 1.5. Without the switch, 
the alpha characters in Micro- 
Chess (and similar programs) 
appear as weird control charac- 
ters. However, the switch is 
normally left in the conversion 
position and does not affect 
BASIC programs. 



short tenglhs ol Kynar wire (278-M3) 

one type 2103 IC (276-35011 

one type 7466 IC {276-1B371 

one 4 7k. ' . Watt resistor (271-030| 

one DPDT toggle switcfi (275^14) 

five 6 inch lengths of hookup wire (see Fig. 2) 

Table 1. Parts list. 



72 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Conversion Procedure 

Ready for the big step? Start 
by forgetting you paid more 
than $600 for the TRS-60 and 
plunge ahead. 

1. Disconnect your keyboard 
and lay it face down on a bath 
towel to prevent scratching. 

2. Remove the six screws. 
Note there are three different 
types. Be sure to get them back 
in the correct hoies when reas- 




SREAK i;me 



Fig. lb 



sembling. 

3. Carefuily turn the case 
over and remove the top cover. 
Lift out the keyboard assembly 
from the posts and remove the 
plastic spacers. Remove the 
second circuit board and set 
the bottom case section aside. 
Do not flex the copper cable 
(which connects the two boards) 
excessively. The two boards do 
not disconnect from each 
other. 

4. Set the two boards down, 
component side up (with the 
keyboard to the rear), on your 
work towel. The values marked 
on the main board should read 
correctly (not upside down). 

5. Observe the lower left 
area of the main circuit board 
(not the one with the keys). Lo- 
cate IC chips Z60 and Z61. You 
will be piggybacking a new IC 
on top of each one of these 
chips. If you do not know how, 
learn to read the pin numbers of 
these integrated circuits. Pin 1 

CONVERTED 





&«t£N TO PIM IS, 130 
'tL^O* TO P'H \1, Z6il 

oi«atiG€ to PIN 4. zeo 

HEO TO Pin ). Z60P 
SHOWN 10 PIN li. 12! 



Fig. 2. Pre-wire the switch as 
shown here. Don 'I forget to add 
the jumper. 



is the reference pin located at 

the upper left-hand corner of 
the chip, nearest the Z number 
printed on the circuit board. 
There is also a dot indentation 
in the plastic body of the chip 
nearest pin 1, 

The pins are numbered suc- 
cessively from pin 1 down one 
side and up the other. Thus the 
highest-numbered pin (usually 
14 or 16) is opposite pin 1. Note 
that Z60 (marked 74LS367) and 
Z61 (marked 2102) are both 
16-pin chips. Also locate Z30. 
You are actually going to do a 
coronary bypass by cutting a 
circuit board trace near this 
chip and another circuit trace 
on the bottom of the board. 

Still game? It is not too late 
to put everything back to- 
gether, get some orange model 
airplane cement (butyl acetate). 
touch up the warranty paint 
seal, and Radio Shack will be 
none the wiser! Proceed, you 
say? Stout fellow! 

6. We are going to stack the 
new 2102 chip on top of Z61, 
which also happens to be a 
2102. First, however, bend up 
pins 11 and 12 of the new 2102 
(lets call it Z61 P, for piggyback) 
at right angles so they cannot 
touch pins 11 or 12 of Z6l. 

7. Next, solder (pin for pin 
and don't get It reversed end for 
end) Z61P on top of Z61. Use ex- 



treme caution to get all pins 
(except 11 and 12, of course) se- 
curely connected. Equally im- 
portant, do not gel any solder 
bridges between pins or from 
one of the pins to the circuit 
board. 

8. Connect a short, direct 
wire from pin 5 of Z60 to pin 1 1 
of Z61P, Pin 12 of Z61P will be 
connected to the toggle switch 
later. 

OK, that was the easy part. 
Next we have to piggyback the 
7486 chip on top of Z60, We'll 
call this added chip 260P. Un- 
fortunately, Z60P is a 14-pin 
chip, while Z60 has 16 pins. 
Thus, we cannot make a pin-f or- 
pin connection as we did with 
the 2102, 

9- Bend pins 8. 9. 10. 11, 12 
and 13 of Z60P at right angles 
so that they cannot touch the 
pins of Z60, Only pin 14 on this 
side of the chip will be used. 

10, Bend pins 1, 14 and 7 
slightly so they will contact 1, 
16 and 8 when Z60P is joined to 
Z60, 

11, Bend pins 4 and 5 of 
Z60P away from each other so 
they will contact pins 4 and 6 of 
Z60 when the two chips are 
joined, 

12- Bend pins 2, 3 and 6 of 
Z60P at right angles so they 
cannot touch the pins of Z60. 

13, Place Z60P over Z60 to 
ensure you can make Ihe fol- 
lowing solder connections. 
Look good? OK, solder the con- 
nections. The first number is 
Z60P; the second is Z60, 

Pin 1 to Pin 1 
Pin 14 to Pin 16 
Pin 7 to Pin 8 
Pin 5 to Pin 6 
Pin 4 to Pin 4 

14, Connect the 4.7k, 1/4 
Watt resistor between pins 1 
and 14of Z60P, 

15, Connect a short, direct 
length of Kynar wire from pin 2 
to pin 6 of Z60P, For the mo- 
ment, leave pin 3 of Z60P dis- 
connected. It will be connected 



Fig. 3. Circuit diagram of the converted uppercase/lowercase 
TRS-80. (Courtesy of Radio Shack) 



Connect the green wire to pin 13 of Z30. 
Connect itie orange wire lo pin 4 ot Z60. 
Conned Ihe yellow wife to pin 12 ot Z61P, 
Connect the red wire lo pin 3 of Z60P 
Connect the brown wire to pin 13 o1 Z27. 

Table 2- Connecting the switch. 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 73 



BF60- 


F5 


3A 


16 


40 


FE 


01 


20 


06 


79 


C5 


CD 


3B 


no 


CI 


^^ 


19 


BF70: 


40 


FE 


01 


28 


04 


F1 


C3 


58 


04 


F1 


DD 


6E 


03 


DD 


66 


04 


BF80: 


DA 


9A 


CM 


DD 


7E 


05 


B7 


28 


01 


77 


79 


FE 


80 


D2 


A6 


04 


BF90: 


FE 


20 


DA 


06 


05 


FE 


40 


DA 


7D 


04 


FE 


60 


X 


06 


F6 


20 


BFAO: 


C3 


7D 


04 


E6 


9F 


C3 


7D 


04 


3A 


19 


40 


FE 


01 


?n 


14 


79 


BFBO: 


FE 


41 


38 


OE 


FE 


7A 


30 


OA 


FE 


5B 


38 


04 


FF. 


20 


36 


02 


BFCO: 


EE 


20 


4F 


3A 


1A 


40 


FE 


01 


C2 


8D 


05 


79 


FE 


OD 


28 


05 


BFDO: 


FE 


OA 


C2 


8D 


05 


11 


00 


20 


IB 


7A 


83 


20 


FB 


3E 


00 


32 


BFEO: 


E8 


37 


n 


00 


20 


IB 


7A 


B3 


20 


FB 


3E 


OA 


32 


E8 


37 


11 


BFFO: 


00 


30 


1B 


7A 


B3 


20 


FE 


OE 


OD 


C9 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 














Listing 1. 



















to the toggle switch later. 

16. Refer to the sketch in 
Fig. 1 (a). Locate the area shown 
between Z29 and Z30 and cut 
the trace with an X-acto knife at 
the point shown. This point can 
be bridged with a short piece of 
bare Kynar wire if it is neces- 
sary to remove the conversion. 

17. Similarly, on the reverse 
side of the board, locate the cir- 
cuit trace that goes from pin 13 
of Z30 to pin 4 of Z60 (see Fig. 1 
(b)). Make a small cut in this 
trace that can be bridged later, 
if the conversion is removed. 

18. The last conversion step 
is to connect the toggle switch. 
Use the 6 inch lengths of hook- 
up wire to prepare the switch as 
shown in Fig. 2. Connect the 
switch as directed in Table 2. 
Don't forget to include the 
jumper on the switch, as shown 
in Fig. 2. Place the switch in the 
conversion position (with the 
handle toward the green wire 
end). 

This completes the case con- 
version of the TRS-80. Carefully 
reviev^ your work to make abso- 
lutely certain there are no 
shorted wires or solder bridges. 
Check things with an ohmme- 
ter if you have any doubt about 
any connection. Once you are 
certain all is well, reassemble 
everything by reversing the dis- 
assembly steps done earlier. 
Route the cable (with the toggle 



switch on the end) out the hole 
where the interface plug con- 
nects. 

Power Up 

After reconnecting every- 
thing, power up the system nor- 
mally. The screen display 
should be the same as before 
with one small exception. Your 
cursor will no longer be a dash 
but, rather, will look like 13. 
This is one of the control char- 
acters mentioned earlier. It 
takes some getting used to, but 
pretend it's a happy face! 

Despite all that work, we still 
have no lowercase letters. For 
this, you are going to have to 
enter some software. If you did 
not purchase a software tape 
from The Peripheral People, 
use your T-BUG or DOS to enter 
the machine-language program 
in Listing 1. It is relocatable, de- 
pending on how much memory 
you have. 

The BF is the location. It 
should be 7F, BF or FF for 16K, 
32K or 48K. respectively. Don't 
forget to protect your memory 
at 32605, 48991 or 65375, or 
your programs will go crashing 
into this routine with disas- 
trous results. Incidentally, 
don't forget to also save the 
routine on tape or disk. Having 
to enter the machine code each 
time you want to use the upper- 
case-lowercase conversion can 



POKE 1M1 4,96^ POKE 1 641 5.XXX POKE 1&422. 1 67: POKE 1 6423.XXX 

Example 1. 



INPUT' WOULD YOU LIKE UPPER AND LOWER CASE";AS 

IF LEFT$<AJ,1} = "Y"THEN POKE 8H4019,1 ELSE POKE aH4019,0 

Example 2. 



become messy. 

Testing 

To see if all your hard work 
and electronic expertise paid 
off, type and enter the patch (in 
Example 1) to the start of the 
routine. The XXXs are the start- 
ing address and are the deci- 
mal equivalent of 7F, BF or FF 
for 16, 32 and 48K. respectively. 
This patch will be required at 
the start of any program that re- 
quires uppercase and lower- 
case. Next, type and enter 
&H4019,1. 

The screen should show 
READY in lowercase letters. 
Besides this, the first thing you 
will probably notice is that the 
letter a is sitting above the 
baseline of the words. Early 
TRS-80S had a N^otoroia char- 
acter generator ROM with an er- 
ror in the font for this letter. In 
later units, this ROM error was 
corrected. 

You will also find that the 
tails on letters such as p, q, y 
and so on don't extend below 
the baseline. This is because 
the character generator is only 
a 5 X 7 matrix. There simply are 
not enough dots available to 
print the tails below the base- 
line. The letters could be shifted 
electronically, but this is hardly 
worth the complication, trouble 
and expense (translation: I don't 
know how). Once you get used 
to the shifted letters, you won't 
notice them anyway. 

You can return to uppercase 
only by typing POKE &h4019,0. 
The two POKE statements can 
be built into your program (see 
Example 2). 

It is interesting that an un- 
modified TRS-80 does have up- 
percase and lowercase printing 
capability. Naturally, this is on- 
ly apparent with a printer hav- 
ing a lowercase capability. 
However, LPRINT produces up- 
percase printing all the time un- 
less you use the shift key when 
writing the program. Unfortu- 
nately, pressing the shift will 
cause lowercase letters to be 
printed, which is just the oppo- 
site of what you want. 

The Program 

The program which accom- 
panies this article has provi- 
sion for reversing the case out 



the printer port. The case rever- 
sal to the printer is made auto- 
matically When you use the 
above POKE statement. Natu- 
rally, when you POKE back to 
zero, the normal unshifted up- 
percase printing occurs. 

The accompanying program 
also has provision for inserting 
an automatic line feed with 
each carriage return. If you 
have a Teletype or similar ma- 
chine that requires this, simply 
POKE &H401A,1 to turn it on 
and &H401 A,0 to turn it oft. The 
program will even add a carriage 
return after a line feed as re- 
quired by some printers. 

Finally, the program has an 
echo routine. To the best of my 
knowledge, this is the first time 
this feature has been offered to 
TRS-80 owners. This is extreme- 
ly handy for a couple of rea- 
sons. Let's say you have a num- 
ber of PRINT statements that 
must be changed to LPRINT be- 
fore the printer will work. You 
can type POKE &H4018.1 just 
before these statements. Any 
subsequent print statements 
will echo on the screen and 
printout without adding L ahead 
of each. 

The echo is also handy to 
turn your printer into a type- 
writer. By entering the echo 
POKE statement, anything you 
type on the keyboard will echo 
on the printer. When you want 
to turn off this feature, simply 
type POKE &H4018,0, 

These features are all incor- 
porated in the Electric Secre- 
tary word-processing program, 
which was used to type this 
manuscript. It is available from 
The Peripheral People for $50 
postage paid on a customer- 
supplied DOS-formatted disk 
for the TRS-80, The Electric 
Secretary can also be supplied 
on cassette for the same price, 
for customer transfer to a disk. 
Note, however, it is a disk- 
based system only. Because of 
the self-contained hyphenating 
dictionary (and other features) 
a cassette-based system is not 
fast enough. A complete con- 
version kit of parts, including a 
machine-language program 
tape, is also available from The 
Peripheral People (Box 524, 
Mercer Island WA 98040) for 
$20 postage paid.H 



74 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1960 



rr. 



v^ 



TRS-80: 

"TRS-ao is « r*glal«rM] IrMtomarli of TAHOV COUP." 
FINDISK^Il AuIomaiicaHy extract user 
file names from disks, print disk directory 
labels and indexed master list of all disk files 
Automatic update Optional descriptions 
TRSDOSorNEWDOS S20.00 

SOLAR-I Passive solai analysis Input ar\^ 
latitude, orientation slope, storage, roof 
shading Output solar angles, heat gam loss. 
% solar fuel use. hourly monlhlv, vearly 
in presentation formal By solar architect 
easy use Comprehensive manual $30.00 

SOLAR-ll As above plus lifecycle cosi 
optimization S 50.00 

RIA-II R^ai Estate Investment Analysts 
business or homeowner Input costs, loan. 
lay. data Output beforf after lax cash 
flows, rates of leturn depreciation profit gain 
of sale for an\ iim.' series complex essentiai 
investment caiculaCons in seconds S30.00 

All .i2K Tape or I.)isk (one dnve order tape/ 

Fotlowing mm req. 16K Level-ll: 

DEPRECIATE-I Calculate, sums, print 
depreciation schedules 1 to 500 items, plus 
pnnt Tax Schedule C Automaticaily up- 
date 12 facts on each item such as re 
maining bal & life Prompts optimum 
switch DDB to SL . , $10.00 

STRUCT-! Calculate and print beam si^es. 
moment, shear diagrams Oplimiie beam, 
joist selections Simple span cantilever, 
uniform and/or point loads Also momenl 
transfer calculations for unusual shapes 
Screen and printer graphics $15.00 

DOCUMANSOFTWARf --sa 

B0X,W7D KAI.AMA/OO MI4')l)liS 
bib) i44 ilMii,') VISA MC 



yj 







J. A «S^ .^ «* .4, >> 



^V* 









'^^. 



4^' <«^* 



Personal Checks 

* Payables Checks 

* Payroll Checks 

* Combination Checks 

* Statements 

* Invoices 

* Small Minimum Orders 

* Fast Delivery 

Checks 



To-Go 



.^46 



* Rsglstered Tradnmark at Tandy Corp, 

P.O. Box 148. Spring Valley. California 92077 (714) 460-4975 



MALL 




L^? PRODUCTS [8URS-80- ^™ 



YSTEM 



MALL 
k-FYSTEM 



MACHINE LANGUAGE GAMES 

UM MIk, UMICUC Of- nL-1: - aiO.OO fich, ill ! for tB.OO 






sil DDDulir gtar. Crojrit) bated 
t ! Mouri oY fun ' 



UailC«>E: "BIEAKOUr" far trvr TIS-SO ' Brtik tDrough S mill iifth 
hign-ip«K) ball and kt^board controUta oaadlrl M ili(f(r*nt ontioni! 

nL-1: EnTtr M'tcrni ailh repeating ■ej'Doara! Save palttrm sfi lap* (^ 
furniihed). Hay Jotm Cwi-ar's LIfE. <»Si - aboul 1 itcond per gcncratian! 



kanwruM' st4.n each, (; 



r, 112. so each] 



7 vcriioni: 1 -»dv«nlurtland, J-P'rite'i Jldventu'*, i-"'iiion lapoiiible, 
k-»oo<>oo Caitle, 4-rhe Coijit , 6-St'-ang« Odyiier, 7-Pti>iterj fun itouie. 

UTILITIES 

MM-l: MCNIH UMWWtl NWITOa FM lie rK-«>I - SZ6.9S 

MK-n: TNME HKian or tn»-2 FM KIK STSTER - zv.vs 

■SV-I MLOCaTM: rvT tS»-2/fB MmMEH » lUMIT - 9.9S 

■ actiine Language ■on'iori Hitfi Z-BO di laiieaDLer ! HEi ant) jtSCII ■caorr 
lliMOi; E»IT, "OVE, EICHAMGE, VESIFT, FILL, lEHO, TEST, or SEARCH Be-or,, 
read/Hritc STSrE" tapet, enter BREACPDINTS, PRINT vitn TRS23Z or Centromci, 
read/KTite dim lecion dirccllr' Km-l tape Loads at top of 16K LEVEL I sr 
II; ISM-fe d<ik includci ! ventom for 16K, 3n and UK. 

KV-1: CCnflBT JTtTEH PtOfiURS TO BISK FILEI -a9.VS. Eiecute Advenlure, 
At Raid, BSL-I, ESP-1, T-«U6, ett. fro" di»k, ev«n if they interfere Btth 
TRSDOS' Men vcrtion norkl with TRSDOS 2.1. 

MSIC-IP: LEVEL-1 HUIC MITN PBIHTlMt - 119.95. Run anr LEVEL-1 BASK 
prograa on your 16K Lev*!-?. PLUS LPRIRT and LLIST uith our TRSJJJ or 
Centronici. Furmihed v taoe; can be uied froa diik. 

OTHEB PtOMKTS F0< THE TIS-W* 

ES^I: S29.9S. Aiieabler, Edilar, Horitor (SOSO ancBonici) 
UT-I: I.OD. Lilting at Level-1 BASIC aith soae coHrnti 



See your dealer or order 
CALIFORNIA rciidenti pli 



reel fro* SbiLL Systea Softvare! 
include At for state lalei ta>. 



MODEL-)! TRS-80" 

CPni''WtSIIM Z.a F0« the KWEL-I1 - liro.in. Lateit vemon froa B'gital 
Research. Runs bot'' s'ngLe and double denin, a. ski' "Sianajrd" we's^on 
'uns nearly any CP/N lott.are, mcljamg Cotjol, Fortran, C-Bai>(, N-9*si:, 
busineis ar»a atcounttng oackaget, etc. MunOred! of proqra"i j.aiiable' 

ISnil: EMNRCEB RSN MWITM fob the RWEL-1I - f».95. RelotataBle veri>on 
o' RSN-Jb plus screen editor 'or modi + yng either aeaory or diM wctofs m 
both He> and ASCII, Wlit screen scrolling, and for»atied se-ial or parallel 
printing. Sold on lelt-bootirtg disk; directions lo ia.e as TRSBOS file. 

PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 

■ICIOWfr MCM USEIBLEI - taO.OO. Editor, Linking Loader, Editor, C-oss 
Reference utilities. ProOuces relocatable code: Requires S2s, 1 disk. 

HtCROSOFI FOBTUa - sao.OO. /o'tran Co-piler, Editor, Librargr. Linking 

Loade- forms Foftrjr, AiM»b>y a"d L-briry -n^lfs into on* prograa' )2«, 1 
disk. SAVE' Order bol" tacro-Asie^ler and Fortran tor 1150,00. 

T« ELfCTBIC PENCIL FOB THE TBS-«: T»Pt-«99.95, BISK-B150.00. Popular 

wideo editor 'or creating and saving teit 'lies. Pnnts foraatted copy nith 

right ;uiti f icat ion, page filing ( nuabering, etc. Upper case only, or 
lower case -ith aodi f 'cat ion. IW Level-1 o' 2 (tape). 

CP/«"OnUTIM STSTEB FOB THE KOOEL-I - BU5.00. The SOBO/IBO "Soflware 
Bus for the Roflel-I 'RS-80. Includes T«S3!Z and ai-2l2-i software, 
laaer-caSB suoport, deboixice, BCV-i and other ijiioue utHU'et. Allows use 
of "any available ftfograas written for (P'N. 

PRINTER SUPPORT 

TBS212 PBIHTE* INTEIFME - U9.95 (HJ.OO shiocmg). AsseableO and tested 
printer interface for RS232 or ?0-«il current loop printers, inpansion 
interface not required. Print fro. level-ll BASIC, CP/N, BASIC-IP, ELECTRIC 
PENCIL, etc. Standard cassette software included. 

TRSn? "FOWMTTEr" SOFTVAtE PACKAGE - «!*.«. Adds page and line length 
control, printer pause, "snart" line teraination, etc, to T»SZ!i, 

RSIIZ52: Adds K-112-Z capability to BS«-i/?B - 19,95 
PER2U: RS-23J-C for cassette Electric Pencil - 9.95 
EBT232: TR5;3Z and RS-232-C for disk/tape EOTASX - 9.«5 



••CP/N tn Digital Reif 



ch, Inc, 



♦ TBS-80 in Tandy Corp, 



^20 



SHALL STSTEMSOFTNIRE 



P.O. m 3iG 



HEVIURT PMK. CH 91320 I SMALL SYSTEM SOFTWARE 



P.O. BOX 3GE 



NEWBURY PARK. CA SI320 



«^A«ad«r5«rvrcfl— sff«p«0* 147 



^Microcomputing, March 1980 • 75 



Introclucing 

COBOL + FORTRAN + 64K RAM 



FOR YOUR TRS -80 



Release your software chains with the NEW FftEEDOM OPTION, a plugable change 
that restructures the TRS-80' on command to perform like a large Z80 system . 
All the TRS-80' features are retained. All TRS'80' software will run without 
Interference. The option Is supplied with a fully assembled & tested FREEDOM BOARD, 
T6/08 on a5\"dlsk, and complete Instructions. T8/OS allows your TRS-80' to execute 
most software originally written for CDOS^ , TSA/OS,, and CP/M, operating systems. 
T8/OS opens the door to higher level languages and existing programs. 

To further enhance your TRS-80' processing power, a MEMORY EXPANSION OPTION 

is available to replace, on command, the ROM and provide A FULL 64K RAM. 
This option is switched into operation by the FREEDOM BOARD providing 57K of 
USER RAM with TB/OS loaded. Both options are fully assembled & tested and fit 
Into the TRS- 80' keyboard enclosure. Write for more details. 6 Mo. Board Warranty. 

FREEDOM OPTION $245 

MEMORY EXPANSION OPTION $295 




Send Check or Money Order to: 

(MASS RESIDENTS. PLEASE I NCLUOE 5% TAX) 

r«B«\a« ltd. '^"^ (617)944-5320 

P.O.Box 2368 •Woburn, MA. 01888 



■TRS-SO ® Tandy Corp 
t-CDOS tt Crmamco Inc. 
2-TSA OS <S TSA 5ollwa(« Inc 
3-CP M <S Olaital Raiaatch Ir 




CREATE YOUR OWN PROGRAMS 

Custom prQgrarrt5 aie Ihe besf way to ensure 
that your ccmpiitcr does what you want 

■"Computer Programing lor the Complete Idiot" 
simplifies programing by describing a format that 
shows how to organize BASIC into meaningful 
program; tt^at acheve specific tasks. A Payroll 
Program is useil as sn example Detailed instrut- 
tions then show how to apply this piocess to 
creating original p'ograms 

This book features the TRS-80 and is an excel- 
lent guiife lor the begmrer with many usrIlI 
relerences tor the advanced programer 

??iYJ115_ _ 228 _PAGES 

Please lend m? copies of "Computer 

Programing tor the Complete Idiot" at J5.95 each 
plus (1.00 for shipping. (California residents add 
sales tax of JO-36 per book ) 

'J Check or Money Order Enclosed. 

Charge to my: ^ Master Charge ~ Visa. 
Card No: 



Exp, 



Name: _ 

Udress : 



Zip: 



DESIGN ENTERPRISES OF SAN FRANCISCO 

Dept, 803, P.O. Box 27677 

San Fiancisco, CA, 94127 ^^3^ 

76 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



SOFTWARE AND 

HARDWARE FOR 

MODEL I COMPUTER 

DISK DRIVES 

HIGH-SPEED PRINTERS 

MICRO-COMPUTER CASSETTES 

DISKETTES 

BUSINESS AND PERSONAL 

PROGRAMMING 

UTILITY PROGRAMS 

CUSTOM PROGRAMMING 

MODEL I COMPUTERS 

'CIRCLE READER SERVICE NUMBER' 
OR WRITE FOR BROCHURE 

COMPUTER GENERATED DATA 

700 Baker Road Suite 115 
Virginia Beach, Virginia 23462 
{804)497-1165 ^,3, 



TRS-SO"^ STRUCTURED 
BASIC 

Now available lor TRS-80 disk systems 



.\ prc-compiler addini; performed pro- 
cedures. ea-.e structures, repeal while, until 
and man> other siruciured language siale- 
menis 10 the already powerful Los el II 
BASIC, Diskette S5().0(). Listing S,1-VIX). 
Manual purchased separately $10.00, 



313 Meadow Lane 
Hastings. Michigan 49058 

(616) 945-5334 
I Dealer inquiries invHettl 

'RS 80 ■■-■. 3 rtademdix al Tanav Corp 



REVIEW 



Seems that a label can cost more than $100, read why. 



Quick Printer 



Henry G. Riekers 
208 Phelps Avenue 
Glen Burnie MD 21061 



Centronics Data Computer 
Corporation of Hudson NH 
manufactures the P1 Microprint- 
er, which is also Itnown as the 
Quick Printer when sold under 
the Radio Shacft label. 

The PI is a seven-bit ASCII 
TTL printer with strobe and ac- 
knowledge pulse that employs 
nonimpact discharge technolo- 
gy that requires only four mov- 
ing parts to produce variable- 
pitch 5x8 dot matrix charac- 
ters at a rate of 150 lines per 



minute, with a vertical density 
of 5 lines per inch. The paper, 
which is 4.75 inches wide, car- 
ries a conductive aluminized 
coating that is vaporized by a 
low voltage discharge from the 
printhead. Printed characters 
are highly legible, and excellent 
copies can be made. 

A number of software com- 
mands initiated by the TRS-80 
provide the user with con- 
siderable flexibility, such as 
printing at either 5, 10 or 20 
horizontal characters per inch. 
Underlining may t>e started and 
stopped by separate com- 
mands. An audio alarm, also 
under software control, pro- 
vides a loud two-second tone. 



The full 96-character ASCII set, 
including both upper and lower- 
case letters, can be printed. 

Connection of the PI to the 
THS-80 Is accomplished through 
a Radio Shack 26-1401 cable 
and the Radio Shack 26-1 140 Ex- 
pansion Interface. (Note: Radio 
Shack has recently announced 
a lower-priced alternative for the 
connection of parallel printers 
to the TRS-eO without the need 
for the Expansion Interface.) No 
electrical changes are required 
to the Centronics PI printer to 
make it compatible with the 
TRS-80. 

The Centronics manual pro- 
vides the octal software codes 
for printer control. Since the 



TRS-80 initiates these com- 
mands in decimal format, they 
must be converted by the 
operator. Thus, LPRINT- 
CHR$(29) prints 20 characters 
per inch; LPRINTCHR$(30) 
prints 10 characters per inch; 
and LPRINTCHR$(31) prints 5 
characters per inch, which is 
typed into the computer, for ex- 
ample, as LPRINTCHR$(31) 
"Radio Shack." Underlining is 
started and stopped using 
LPRINTCHR$(15) and (16). 
respectively. The audio alarm is 
sounded by LPRINTCHR$(07). 

The commands for print size 
may be given prior to listing a 
program or may be included in 
the txxly of the program to ob- 




80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 77 



tain various printing effects. In 
addition, lowercase letters may 
be printed directly on the PI by 
depressing ttie shift key when a 
program is typed on the key- 
board. The printing will still ap- 
pear as all uppercase on the 
CRT. but will be both upper and 
lowercase on the PI tor what- 
ever printing density is selected. 

Since each character can be 
printed using its ASCII code in 
the CHR$ format, it is possible 
to print characters not other- 
wise possible, such as quota 
tion marks. In addition, printing 
may be stopped and started. 
paper advanced and printhead 
positioned. 

The PI is 13 inches wide, 10.5 



inches deep. 4.25 inches high, 
weighs 10 pounds and con- 
sumes 40 Watts while printing. 
The case is made of rugged 
plastic decorated in ivory and 
black. Controls on the front of 
the printer consist ot a power 
switch to turn the unit on and 
off, a select switch that allows 
data to enter the printer and a 
paper-feed button that permits 
the operator to advance the 
paper. Even though power is 
"on," the motor turns off when 
no data is present. 

Indicators consist of lamps 
displaying power "on" and 
"'paper empty." which also 
sounds an audio alarm. Paper is 
available from Radio Shack or 



directly from Centronics in 
either shiny or matte aluminum 
finish. The printer is not sup- 
plied with a mating connector. 
The Centronics P1 is available 



through many supply houses for 
$395 each. The Quick Printer is 
sold by Radio Shack for $499 
and is available off-the-shelf in 
many stores. ■ 



M I OROF^ff^ I IMTt R- 


MICROPRINTER 


t^ium.ifm 


Mid r^op" 1 — in "C-^r^ 


M i c rop r i n t-er- 


^kr9-ri!itir 


Sample output from PI. 



DUST COVERS 

& software/hardware 

TRS-80 
three piece set 
keyboard- tape -video 
durable black vinyl 
$16.95 
+$2 long video ( expint ) 
L,2 music prgm $4.95 
tape controller with 
spkr/vol control $9.95 
prgm+cont roller $13.95 
all prices POSTPAID 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

13495 W. Center Dr. 

Denver, Co. 80228 

■ "TnS-801sa ragtltsred tradAmBrh ot TANDY CORP " i 



MicroPhase Systems 

Announcss 

WORDSCRIBE for TRS-80s 

LetWOflOSCRIBEtrirsfDnn your Model 1 or Bode 1 II 
TRS-BO into i fiigfi quality word processing systew. 

WONDSCRtBE features Include: fu11 screen 

editing, margin Justif icatton, line iniertiofl, 
line deletion, block n»ve, tilock copy, find, 
change, and mucfi much mart. 

Model II J149.95 

reg. 1 disk, 6<k neir. 
Model 1 disk version t 99.95 

reg. 1 disk, *8k meir. 
[tocuiwntation only I 9.95 

(can be applied to later purchase) 

STOCK HARKET DftT« TAPES for THS-80 Model I •.•. 

Each tape cassette contains one imjnths data for 
the N»SE or AMEl Stock of your choice. Data 
Includes daily high, Ioh, close, «nd tolume 
infoTtnation. Can be read by any Level II Basic 
program Hitti simple input statements. Available 
for Jan. 1979 to present. Please Specify ■onth 

and stock name. 

one months data i 5.95 

charting program 149. 9S 

(plots hig'i, low, close and 2 moving avgs.) 

MicroPhase Systems 
11??3 E. 45 St. So. (31* ►-123 

Tulsi, Ok, 74145 



TRS-80 CAI 
for Educators, Parents, Managers 



fjWUm, 



^^20 




3 levels ot text 
detail 

Question models 

mpl choice 

one word ans 



Mic'oGnome Presenis 

CAiWARE 

Tne compuie' prog'am 

I flat lets /OLi 

AUTHOR 

your o*n 

COMPUTER ASSISTED 
INSTRUCTION 
on youf TRS-BO" 



A iraaemafh at Tandy Corp 



MicfoGnomes CAIWARE ^s available or cassette 
tO' 16K TRS 80 .fi LEVEL II BASIC tor $24 95 
UD resiOenis ada Ji 25 lai O'Oer on Iwiaste' 
Cfiafge Visa Ceftrtieo Cnecti or Money Oraei 
Pefsonai Ct^ects reguFie 14 aavs to clear Sciftwa'e 
waffanieeo tof replacement only Oiae' uom 
FiresiOe Compuling (nc 5843 Wonlgomery Ra 
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78 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



GENERAL 



You too can earn money 
with your computer expertise. 



Part-Time Consultant 



Michel Monn 
15 Jasper Rd. 
Candiac Quebec 
Canada J5R 4E7 



I am an audio-visual technician 
and a computer hobbyist who 
originally bought a TRS-80 to 
play Star Trek and develop a sys- 
tem to play music with an organ. 
I have since become a part-time 
consultant on the TRS-80 Busi- 
ness System, This article is a 
description of a recent project in 
which I am still involved. 

Background 

In October 78. a local Radio 
Shack store manager asked me 
if I was willing to help two poten- 
tial customers who had a prob- 
lem that might be solved by a 
TRS-80 Business System. These 
two customers operated school 
buses and other inter-urban 
buses and wanted to produce a 
set of specialized and complex 
reports. Fifteen of these reports 
were to be completed yearly and 
sent to the provincial govern- 
ment. They were to be based on 
data that the bus operators had 
never compiled in the past. 

After studying their problem 
and the specs of the Radio 



Shack System, I accepted the 
challenge. Both of them placed 
orders for a 32K Business Sys- 
tem with two disk drives and a 
printer. 

At that time, Radio Shack 
Canada was taking orders for 
disk based systems, but nobody 
had ever seen one. My first move 
was to get. by nearly fraudulent 
means, a copy of the DOS manu- 
al that was to come with the sys- 
tem. Until then, I had had no ex- 
perience with Disk BASIC. 

1 deciphered the bus com- 
pany's reports and determined 
that I would have to put the 
whole accounting of the busi- 
ness on the system. Since I 
didn't know the first thing about 
the subject, I found some help in 
the form of a younger brother 
who's an accountant. 

Our first decision was to write 
a General Ledger program to 
which we could add others as 
the need arose. The ledger 
would need 235 accounts and 
most of these had to appear six 
times. We created the flow 
charts from scratch and wrote a 
few program lines, while waiting 
for Radio Shack peripherals. 

Finally, in January 79, the disk 
drives arrived at the store and I 
think they were the first ones in 
the Montreal region. 

Problems 

The first problem we had, 



because of our lack of experi- 
ence and problematic Instruc- 
tions from Radio Shack was set- 
ting up the system. We thought 
we had the system working and 
decided to make a couple of 
backups of the DOS just in case. 
Alas, Radio Shack didn't have 
diskettes to sell in Canada, so 
we had to buy some Verbatim at 
an outrageous price in the only 
computer shop in Montreal. 

The GL accounts would be 
kept in a random file and the dai- 
ly transactions in a sequential 
file which we'd scrap each 
month, after producing a de- 
tailed journal of accounts. 

The DOS (version 2.1) started 
acting up and on at least three 
occasions zapped all of our 
files, while committing suicide 
itself. After much searching, we 
found that one of the disk drives 
had tracking problems and luck- 
ily we found a replacement for it. 

We had problems each time 
the drives were trying to write or 
read a sequential tile and re- 
solved to avoid using them and 
to post transactions as they 
were entered in the ledger. 

Another problem was time. 
One of our programs that gener- 
ated a beautiful report took 
about 12 hours to run because 
of certain characteristics of 
Disk BASIC using sequential 
files. We scrapped that report 
and produced a summary of 



transactions for each session at 
the computer that took a lot less 

time. 

Our handicap in these early 
attempts was Radio Shack's 
version 2.1 DOS. 

Right now, our customers use 
the programs daily and they 
work just fine. Since each trans- 
action is posted as entered, they 
can always generate up-to-date 
financial reports and they love 
that! 

We are currently working on a 
set of programs that will keep 
track of data pertaining to the 
operation of each vehicle, 
which, when combined with the 
General Ledger will yield all the 
statistical information desired 
by the government. 

Conclusion 

This initial experience has led 
me to other customers with spe- 
cial applications problems for 
which I write programs. If a cus- 
tomer has standard applica- 
tions. I encourage him to buy 
the Osborne programs sold by 
Taranto or Computronics and I 
translate them into French for 
his system. 

Why the Osborne programs? 
Because Radio Shack is unable 
to fill its customer orders. My 
first customers are still waiting 
for Radio Shack's Canadian 
payroll program, first promised 
IVz years ago. ■ 



UTILITY 



If you've installed some additional 

memory and want to put it to the test— read on. 



Test Your Memory 



Milan D. Chepko 

119 Bellevilte Court 

Thief River Falls MN 56701 



After adding a disk drive to 
my 16KTRS-80 system, I be- 
gan to teel a "memory crunch" 
because of the DOS and DISK 
BASIC lying up some of the 
RAM. Though Radio Shack will 
cheerfully install another set of 
16K RAM chips for $200, this 
seems a iittle steep, especially 
now that several companies sell 
kits of the same chips for 
around $70. 

Installing the chips in the Ex- 
pansion Module was relatively 
easy (why do the first set of 
Chips go in sockets Z9-Z16 
while the second set go in 
sockets Z1-Z8?), but later I 
began to have some nagging 
doubts about how good my new 
memory really was. I had some 
bad experiences with my old 4K 
RAM boards using 2102s a few 
years ago, so I decided to check 
out the new memory completely 
before entrusting my programs 
to it. 

First, I reviewed the memory 
structure ot the TRS-80 system. 
As shown in Fig. 1, the total 
addressable memory space is 
broken into two blocks of 32K, 
the first half residing in the 
CPU/keyboard and the second 
half in the Expansion Module. 

In the CPU, the first 16K is 
used for the ROM chips holding 
Level II BASIC, the video RAM 
chips and the memory space al- 
lotted to the keyt>oard itself. 

The second 16K is made up of 



eight RAM chips and is gener- 
ally available for programming 
(although several hundred bytes 
at the beginning are used by the 
processor for "housekeeping" 
tasks, so only 15K or so is really 
usable). PEEK and POKE can be 
used to address any of these 
locations, which are numbered 
from to +32767 in digital for- 
mat. 

In the Expansion Module, 
there is space for a total of 32K 
of RAM in two banks of eight 
memory chip sockets. Each 
bank of eight sockets provides 
16K of RAM when the chips are 
inserted. The addresses (in digi- 
tal format) for this second half 
of memory run from -32768 to 
- 1, which causes some confu- 
sion at first. The best approach 
is to figure that the location just 
after -f 32767 is -32768, the 
next is - 32767 and so on. 

Testing the Memory 

Testing the memory turned 
out to be easier than figuring out 
the addresses I Essentially, all 
memory tests consist ot storing 
a specific bit pattern at a loca- 



tion, reading it back and com- 
paring the result with what 
should be there. If the results 
are different, an error message 
is generated. 

No memory test could ever 
cover all the possible bit pat- 
terns tn a reasonable running 
time, so some shortcuts must 
be used. One effective meth- 
od is to store alternating bit 
patterns like 10101010 and 
01010101 in sequential memory 
locations, then check to see if 
any have been forgotten or dis- 
turbed by their neightxirs. If the 
pattern at any location is not as 
expected, there is a defect ei- 
ther in a memory chip or in the 
traces on the board. 

While it is helpful to know 
which bit is incorrect, it is even 
more useful to know which 
memory chip is at fault. Each of 
the eight bits in a memory loca- 
tion resides in different memory 
chips, tying side by side on the 
board. By determining which bit 
is incorrect, we narrow the prob- 
lem down to a specific memory 
chip. 

Once a bad chip is identified. 



it is always a good idea to swap 
it for one of the known good 
chips on the board and run the 
memory test again. If the defect 
moves with the chip, pack it up 
and send it back to the supplier. 
If the defect stays at the original 
location, the chip is probably 
OK, but there may be something 
wrong with the board itself — 
possibly a solder bridge that you 
can find and remove with a little 
searching. 

The program contains its own 
instructions along with REM 
statements to describe the func- 
tion of each section. After deter- 
mining the locations to be 
tested, the program tills them 
with the alternating bit pattern. 
It then goes back and checks 
first for one pattern and then the 
other. 

The pattern is reversed for the 
second pass through memory, 
and whenever a defect is en- 
countered the program 
branches to a subroutine that 
determines which chip is at 
fault. 

There is provision for use of a 
line printer, which can be very 



CPU/1ETBO4H0 


EXPANSION MODULE 


IGH 

LE«EL n ROM 
VIDEO DISPLftY 
KEIBOtRO 


4K 

OAM 


H 


H 


16 H RAU 


H* RAW 


IGK NAM 


16!BJ 
OOOO 3FFF 
COO-000 077-37T 


16304 

4000 
100-0 


oo 


32767 

TFff 

IT7-3T7 


-32768 
BODO 
200-000 


-16385 

BFFF 

277- 377 


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COOO 
300-000 


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fig. 1 



BO • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 

Scanned by Ira Goidkiang - www lrs-80 com 



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80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 81 



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useful If more than two or t^ae 
defects are present. Ttie pro- 
gram directs al( output to ttie 
screen unless the printer is con- 
nected and turned on, in which 
case POKE statements trick the 
processor Into sending the out- 
put to the line printer. The use of 
PRINT" " causes a line feed 
regardless of whether the TV or 
line printer is being used. 

Conduston 

The oniy possible problem is 
in using the negative numbers 
to address the memory loca- 
tions being tested, as explained 
above. 

Also, if you are testing a full 
16K block, be prepared to wait 
about 10 minutes. I've found It 
helpful to test for one location 
beyond what I know is there 



(-16384), so that there Is 
always an error statement gen- 
erated at the end of each check- 
ing routine. Above all, be sure 
that you protect the Expansion 
Module memory by entering 
'32767' for MEMORY SIZE, or the 
program will try to store vari- 
ables in the same memory you 
are testing! 

In case you have been think- 
ing about testing the 16K of 
RAM in the CPU/keyboard, don't 
bother. Since part of it is used 
■for "housekeeping" and part of 
it contains this program and its 
variables, you can't really check 
all the locations, so any test like 
this would have no meaning. If 
necessary, you could swap 
those eight chips for eight from 
the Expansion Module, and run 
the test again. ■ 



Program Listing 



IN CLS Pfiiim«aB>-«»« TBs-ae rtnopv test •*.- psitu 

UB 'BV nlUM D OCPKO. R D THIEF ftl*^» FFLLS. rtl ^£781 

in JU.V 1979 

Ue KFIHT ft-Z 

14e PRIHT-THIS PROOWtl HILL TESI T« IMTEGftlTV CF THE ftt* 

ISe PRINT-CHIPS IN THE EtfWISIOH INTEHFfCE. DETECTING RHV 

Ite PRINT-STORHGE ERRORS HM) LISTlr« T* DEFECTIVE CHIP ' PRINT 

170 PRINT-BEFORE STARTING THE TEST, VCW fUST PROTECT THE BLOCK 

lee PR1NT"0F RRM BV HNSWERING '32767' fiS THE 'MEnORV SIZE' 

198 PRlNT:PRINT"THe BOUNDflfilES FOR THE EXPHNSION RFW FIRE 

30 PRINT- BLOCK 1 - -12768 -16383 

216 PRINT- BLOW 2 - -16J84 -1 

220 PR1NT-<Y0U CM OM-V TEST LOCATIONS KTtCEN -32768 fW -1> 

218 PRINT PRINT HMT-NIT ENTER' UCH FEWV-^M 

24* CLS PRlNT-fCTIVfiTt LI* PRINTER (IF FMILFBLE)- PBINT PRINT 

258 '•** DCTERIWS rCHWV PCDNESSES TO K TESTED *** 

2« IW^(T-LO*ST <OtCIP«.i flDCSESS TO BE lESTW.Btl* 

27B IF fia»-l 0010268 

2Se PRINT IfPUT-HIGteST <DtClr«.) MjORESS TO BE TESTED" i Rt2> 

m IF fl(2)>-l G0T02ee 

388 '»*• CHECKS TO SEE IF Lltt PRINTER ffiWILflBLE •« 

3ie IF P£EK<, 14312) -63 THEN POKE 16411,1*1 POKE 16*15.5 

320 '■■*- BEGlfmlNG OF TEST ROUTINE •-• 

338 PRINT PR I NT -BEGINNING FIRST PFWT OF rtErORV TEST 

348 X=17e V=85 PRINT 00506448 

258 IF ]*« PRINT-MO ERRORS ENCOUNTERED 

368 IF J>e PRINT-ERROPS flS NOTED 

378 PRlir- - PRINT-PROCEEDING TO SECOW PMT CF TEST 

388 X-8S V-l?a PRINT C^>Ste44e 

i98 IF J^ PRINT-MO ERROffS EMCOJNTEREI. 

4«e IF JM PRINT-EPWftS ftS NOTED 

41B PRINT- - PRINT-TEST OF rtTORV LOCTTIOW -.ft<l),-TO -. ft(2>, "COW.ETED 

428 PWE 16414,88 POKE 16415.4 E«) 

43» •" SETS-UF PLTERNBTIHG BIT PflTTEW IN IBOW ••* 

448 J-e FOR I=ft(ll TO flC?) STEP2 

458 POKE l.X POKE 1*1.V 

469 NEXT I 

478 ■•"» CHECKS FIRST BIT PHTTERN •*■ 

480 Z-X FOR I"fl(l) TO H(2J STEP2 

4M B-ftEKUrlF B<>Z 0051)6578 

»e rCXT I 

516 ••• OCCKS SECO» BIT PflTTERM ••• 

528 Z-V FOR I = 'Bllj»l' TO ft<.^J 5TEP2 

538 ^^tEXti) IF ek:>z Q0Sie5?e 

548 rCXT I 
%8 RETUM 
5te -••• Fm>S T« DEFECTI4 BIT ••• 

576 J-J+l FOR r-« TO 7 

see E-IHT<B/2[K>-2»INTtB/2lUtl^i 

598 D-IHT(Z,'2tK)-2-INT(Z^2li.K'-l)) 

600 IF E-D GOToese 

616 PRINT-BIT f; K, "INCORRECT AT LOCflTICW i"; I 

628 ••• FINDS T« DEFECTIVE CHIP •-• 

630 IF 1>-I6ie5 PRINT- EXFTWSIOH CHIP ;-, 8-K. -DEFECTIVE- GOTOSM 

to46F*mi- E»«HS10W CHIP Z", l6-«, "DEFECTIVE 

S5» Itrr t WIHT- ■ RETlfX 

NotK TTm bncfcat hi HnM sao and 580 Is actuuMf I. 



82 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



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^fl«tf«s*o-,«-s«p*g-M7 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 83 



MATH 



Techniques for algebraic equation solutions on your 80. 

Equations 



Allan S. Jotfe W3KBM 
1005 Twining Road 
Dresher PA 19025 



Sooner or later, you may. as I 
did, explore what your com- 
puter can do to solve algebraic 
equations. Ttiere are exotic 
methods and there are simple 
methods. I chose the latlet ap- 
proach. 

First I had to determine what 
I could not do, that is, solve an 
equation for its imaginary roots. 
These are roots that involve the 
square root of a negative num- 
t)er as part of the root or the en- 
tire root- A sample equation 
with two imaginary roots is 

How Many Solutions? 

This still leaves quite a bit of 
territory open for exploration, 
which can start with an equa- 
tion such as X' -t- 2 = 0. Initially, 
you must recognize that the 
highest numerical value of the 
exponent of the unknown (here 
it is 2) represents the number o1 



roots the equation has. Thus an 
equation with X^ would have 
three roots, and one where the 
highest exponent value is Y* 
would have six roots. 

This does not tell you how 
many of the roots may be posi- 
tive, negative or imaginary. All 
it tells you is how many roots 
should exist. The root (or a zero 
of the equation, as it is some- 
times called) is any value that, 
when plugged back into the 
equation, will prove the equa- 
tion true. For example, the root 
lor the equation X - 1 =0 would 
be -1-1 because if -h 1 is in- 
serted in place of X, the equa- 
tion is true. 

What we are trying to do so 
far is to define the problem at 
band. While it is easy to suc- 
cumb to the temptation to initi- 
ate a computer problem by 
playing "kitten on the keys," 
less frustration is encountered 
by first "putting the brain in 
gear." 

Posltivs or Nsgatlva 

We can get at least one more 
set of guideposts by observing 
what 17th-century mathemati- 
cian Rene Descartes had to say 
about what the roots of an 
equation might be. Consider 



the equation 2X'-5X'-4X+3 
= 0. Descartes postulated that 
if you counted the sign changes 
of the terms of this equation, 
you would be able to predict the 
maximum number of positive 
roots that the equation might 
have. 

Let's step through the equa- 
tion term by term to see how 
this works. The sign of the first 
term is positive, the second 
term negative, the third term 
negative and the fourth term is 
positive. If we list these changes 
symbolically, -f - - + , we 
will see a series of two sign 
changes in total. This means 
that the equation can have a 
maximum of two positive roots. 
This does not mean that it will 
have two positive roots but that 
It can have no more than two 
positive roots. It can turn out 
that it will only have one posi- 
tive root or it may have no posi- 
tive roots. 

Descartes then made avail- 
able a simple way of determin- 
ing the maximum number of 
negative roots that the equa- 
tion might have. Consider the 
same equation but reverse the 
sign of any term having the un- 
known raised to an odd power. 
The sign order is now symboli- 



cally: - - + -K , which shows 
one sign change. 

This means that the equation 
can have a maximum of one 
negative root, with the same 
equivocation as for the positive 
root count— it might have no 
negative roots at all but will, in 
any case, not have more than 
one. 

In applying this method for 
determining the possible num- 
ber of negative roots, do not 
forget that if the variable ap- 
pears without any exponent, it 
really is raised to the one power, 
so that any such term must 
have its sign changed to get an 
accurate count by this method. 

The first step is to arrange 
your equation so that it is equal 
to zero. For example, if our 
equation had been in the form 
2X' - 5X' = 4X - 3, we would re- 
write it in this form: 2X^ - 5X' - 
AX + 3 = 0. 

Since the TRS-80 demands 
that the equation be entered in 
such a way that it looks like 
this, = 2X' - 5X' - 4X -(- 3, we 
will do so or its electronic in- 
sides will give us an unwanted 
error message. At the same 
time we will, for the sake of ele- 
gance, use the letter Y in place 
of zero. 



84 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1960 



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80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 85 



Y=X' + 3X'-10 


+ 1.49 


Y=X'-3X-1 +188, 


-.347, -1.53 


Y = X= + X - 3 


-2.3, +1.3 


Y = X' + X - 6 


-3. +2 


Y - X* + 4X= - 6X* - 20X - 23 


-4.60. +2.60 


Example 1. 





The Proflram 

If we have made it this far, it 
must be time tor a program. It 
is, but every program has to 
work on some premise that we 
hope will be true and proper. 
Our implied premise is that it 
we find some value of X that, 
when inserted back into the 
equation, will make it equal to 
zero, then that value will be a 
root or zero of the equation; 
hence, at least part of the solu- 
tion of the equation has multi- 
ple roots. 

In essence, we are going to 
"guess" a number that we think 
is the solution and plug it into 
the equation to see if we get 
zero upon doing so. Since we 
have available a computer, 
whose strong point is repetitive 
calculation, we can insert our 
guess and have the computer 
either increment or decrement 
the guess in small steps which 
it can do rapidly 

Program A shows a simple 
program that uses the comput- 
er as a scorecard or a scratch 
pad. I call it the "Let your eye- 
balls do the walking through 
the Yellow Pages ' approach. 

When you hit RUN, the com- 
puter is ready for you to input X 
and D, X is your initial guess. 
and D is the increment or decre- 
ment factor you wish applied to 
X. 

An excellent trial guess for X 
is 1, and a corresponding excel- 
lent value for D is 0.1 . This infor- 
mation will speed up your use 
of the program. The only time 
the general choice of 1 for X will 



10 


CLS 


20 


INPUT X.D 


30 


X = X + D 


40 


INSERT EQUATION IN THIS LINE 


50 


PRINT X.V 


60 


GOTO 30 




Program A. 



fall short is if 1 happens to be a 
root. You should also keep in 
mind that X and D can be pres- 
ent in various sign combina- 
tions: 

X D 

+ + 

+ - 
- + 
all varieties of which may be 
useful in obtaining the roots of 
the more complex equations. 

Let us start with a simple 
equation to demonstrate the 
methodology. Insert the follow- 
ing equation into line 40: Y = X* 
+ 8X + 12. In TRS-80 form this 
will be: Y^XT4 + 8*X-12. 

When we run the program, 
the ? appears indicating that 
we should input our X and D 
values, separated by a comma, 
on one line. As Indicated we 
have to make a choice of sign 
for both X and D, so let's choose 
positive values for both. Your 
entry would be: ? 1.,1. 

Now hit RUN and let the 
screen fill with about ten or 15 
lines of X. Y values and stop the 
display by using SHIFT @, Ex- 
amine the listing and you will 
see the following sequence of 
lines. 



1.1 


-1.7359 




1.2 




- .3264 


1.3 




1.2561 


1.4 




3.0416 


1.5 







The first column is X values; the 
second is Y values. Notice that 
the series of Y values con- 
verges toward zero and that 
there is a sign change between 
X values for X - 1.2 and X = 1.3. 
A sign change in the Y col- 
umn shows the value of X that 
will satisfy the equation. At this 
stageof thegame, thisisan ap- 
proximate answer. To refine the 
answer, we take the value of X 
just before the sign change of Y 
and rerun the program using 
this value for X. To refine the 



precision of the answer, we fine- 
tune our D value, adding at least 
two more decimal places to D 
(if the initial root is less than 1, 
the next D value should be .01). 
Thus D was originally .1 and 
now becomes .001. 

We rerun the program using 
the new X and values and 
again scan the display using 
the SHIFT @ to control the dis- 
play. This time when we detect 
the sign change, you will see 
opposite the newly determined 
value of X (1.221) that the value 
in the Y column reads -9.39179 
E - 03. Whenever you get a val- 
ue such as this in the Y column 
(i.e.. a value accompanied by a 
negative exponent), you can 
hang up your hat and call it a 
day. The computer has delivered 
a value for X that, if plugged 
back into the equation, will sat- 
isfy it to within a gnat's eyelash. 

If you had examined the 
equation and applied Des- 
cartes' rule of sign changes. 
you would have determined 
that there is at least one posi 
tive root (which we have just 
found) and one negative root. 
Well, how do we get the nega- 
tive root to come out of the 
woodwork? 

Generally, when the positive 
root has been found with X and 
D of 1 and .1. you can usually 
find the negative root by ap- 
plying the identical values but 
with the sign changed. Thus we 
run the program using X = - 1 
and D= -.1. 

Now upon running the pro- 
gram you will get a series con- 
verging toward zero and show- 
ing an area where there is a 
sign change between two 
successive lines. When you 
spot the sign change, stop the 
display, remembering that the 
sign change we are looking for 
is only one that takes place in 
the Y column of figures. 

The portion of the display 
where the sign change takes 
place is now listed: 



2 


-12 


2.1 


-9.3519 


2.2 


-6.1744 


2.3 


-2.4159 


2.4 


1.97761 



last negative value in the Y col- 
umn before the sign change. 

We can now refine the nega- 
tive root in the same manner as 
we did for the positive root. This 
time our new X is - 2.3 and our 
new D is - 001. When the pro- 
gram is again run, you will spot 
opposite the value - 2.357 in the 
X column the value 6,81877 
E - 03 in the Y column. Your cal- 
culation has given you a good 
value for the negative root of 
the equation. 

A brief tabular listing of the 
values around the area of the 
answer shows; 



2.355 


- 0818005 




2.356 


- .0375195 




2.357 


6.81877 E- 


03 


2.358 


.0512257 





Thus our rough answer for the 
negative root value of X is 
-2.3, since it is opposite the 



If you need further accuracy, 
you can make the new X value 
-2.357 and the new D value 
-.00001 and run the program 
again. This time when your Y 
value with the negative expo- 
nent shows up, the absolute 
value of Y will be so close to 
zero that you'll have to split the 
gnat's eyelash. 

As a clinical exercise this 
might be worth doing at least 
once, but for practical calcula- 
tion, it is a poor use of the elec- 
trical juice, it is certain that 
good judgement is better than 
pushing the limits of technology 
just so you wont get that feel- 
ing you have somehow let the 
"machine" down. 

Watching the Xs Go By 

There are equations that will 
start with a series of Y values 
that diverge from zero; in other 
words, as you watch the screen, 
the Y values proceed to get 
larger. This is not always 
caused by an unfortunate sign 
choice for the X and D values, 
although this is the most likely 
cause. 

There are equations where 
the generated Y values do in- 
deed diverge from zero, but if 
you are patient and allow at 
least one screen's worth of val- 
ues to go by, you are often re- 
warded by seeing the generated 
Y values start to diminish In val- 
ue and finally generate a sign 
change in the Y column, which 
means you have found a root of 
the equation. 



86 ■ 50 Microcomputing. March 1980 



Let us run through one more 
equation to solidify the meth- 
od. Consider X'-4X^-6X' + 
20X + 9^0- According to the 
sign convention, it may have 
tvt^o positive roots and two neg- 
ative roots. 

If we first search using X = 1 , 
D = .1, we will get the answer 
2.4 at our first sign change 
point. If we then rerun the pro- 
gram using X -2.4 and D =001, 
we will get X = 2.414. Thus we 
have found one of the positive 
roots. 

Next we can search for an- 
other possible root by using 
X= -1, D= -.1. The X value 
this search turns up opposite 
the first sign change in the Y 
column is - 2.1. If we again re- 
fine this by rerunning the pro- 
gram using D = .001. we will 
come up with the answer for 
this negative root of -2.162. 

Our next search will utilize 
one of the remaining two pairs 
of possible X and D sign possi- 
bilities; this linne X = 1, D = -.1. 
Running this pair in the pro- 
gram will produce an initial X 
value of - .4. and refining this 
in the same manner as before 
will produce a final X value of 
-.4139. 

With the experience you have 
gained from running this pro- 
gram for many equations with 
known roots, you should know 
that when you have succeeded 
in smoking out two possible 
roots of like sign (here we have 



the two possible negative roots) 
and one root of the opposite 
sign, it usually means that you 
should find the missing posi- 
tive root (in this case) by return- 
ing to the original sign pair that 
produced the first positive root. 
This wasX = 1. D = .l, 

Since you have already used 
the pairing X-1 and D = ,1 to 
produce the first positive root, 
the next guess to insert is two 
times the previous value of X, 
which, in this case, is X = 2. If 
you run these values (keeping 
D = .1), you will see that a posi- 
tive root is indicated, but it is 
the same value as the first posi- 
tive root developed Once again 
double the last value of X so 
that now X = 4. again keeping D 
as ,1, Now when you run the 
program, a positive root of 4.1 
will be produced. You can now 
use X and D values of X=4.1 
and D = .001 to refine the an- 
swer; the missing positive root 
is 4.162. 

Following this general proce- 
dure, I have found that if the 
missing root is not found with a 
still further doubling ot the X 
value, you may be rather cer- 



10 tor X= -5 to 5 step .1 

20 Entef equation in Ihis line 

30 Print »,y 

40 Ne>t X 



Program B. 



tain that the "missing roof 
does not exist as a real root but 
is an imaginary root. That X in 
the equation is raised to the 
fourth power guarantees the 
existenceof four roots but does 
not tell you how few or how 
many of them may be imaginary 
roots. 

There exist many algebra 
books that will provide you with 
all sorts of theorems, postu- 
lates, etc., to enable you to prog- 
nosticate just how many roots 
are real and how many are imag- 
inary. However, if you are in my 
ring and have not grappled with 
classical algebra for several 
decades, this could produce 
severe mental strain. I prefer 
the use of the computer plus a 
bit of educated guesswork. 

The technique presented 
here is very simple, taking more 
words to describe than it takes 
time to implement- There may 
come a time in your life when 
you can't find a root of an equa- 
tion, a root that blind intuition 
says does exist. Asa fast check 
in such a situation, we can go 
from the simple to the bare- 
bones. Consider the four-line 
program in Program B. 

This will produce a readout 
stream on your video display 
that will stop when the assigned 
limits of X have been reached. If 
you watch the display tor sign 
changes in the Y column, just 
as with the previous efforts, 
you will see that the roots in the 



X column will be printed beside 
the last value of Y prior to any 
sign change in the Y column. 

The values for X listed in line 
10 ot Program B are practical 
for any equation where the un- 
known is raised to the third 
power or higher. It is obvious 
that a term having the unknown 
raised to the highest power will 
usually be the determining fac- 
tor in fixing the value of the sum 
of the parts of the equation. For 
an equation where the unknown 
is raised only as high as the 
second power, change line 10 
to read: 10 For X = -9 to 9 step 
- 1. 

1 hope this will ensure that 
you do not miss a possible root 
in this type of equation where 
the second power of the un- 
known might not be that power- 
ful in fixing the composition of 
the roots. Remember, this 
whole method of solving equa- 
tions depends on your using 
the ability you have to reason, 
coupled with the ability of the 
computer to carry out the re- 
sults of that reasoning process 
in a rapid mechanical fashion, 

1 have included a series of 
equations with the known real 
roots (see Example 1). By run- 
ning these samplers, you can 
gain familiarity with just how 
simple the techniques are for 
playing algebra through, what 
my wife has up to now called, 
"your kilobuck etch-a- 
sketch.'H 



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80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 87 



HARDWARE 



// you intend investigating 

machine code, a tiex l<eypad can make life easier. 



Babybug Keypad 



Dennis Bathory Kitsz 
Roxbury, VT 05669 



If you find machine-language 
programs enjoyable and chal- 
lenging, you nnlght be interested 
in performing a simple yet 
powerful modification to your 
TRS-80. Adding a hexadecimal 
Keypad, numbers to 9, A to F, 
plus backspace and enter. Is In- 
expensive and easy. 

The decimal numbers func- 
tion normally, and all the 
characters can be used in con- 
junction with Babybug {Feb. ^ 
Microcomputing) for quick key- 



ing of machine code. 

Radio Shack offers its deci- 
mal-only keypad conversion for 
around $70; a complete hex key- 
pad is available from Jameco 
Electronics (1021 Howard 
Avenue. San Carlos, CA 94070) 
tor $10.95 plus shipping. Since it 
is not encoded, it Is easy to 
parallel-connect its keys to the 
main keyboard and, by using 
one dead key, turn your TRS-80 
into a powerful microcomputer. 

I converted my computer in 
about two hours. All you need 
(other than a dose of warranty- 
voiding courage) is some wire, a 
soldering iron, two ten-inch long 
Vi-inch by Vz-inch pieces of 
plastic rod, five-minute epoxy, 
some assorted tools and a hot 
razor blade. 




Photo 1. Keyboard and CPU board after removal of ROMs and 
mounting of hex i<eypad. Note cable to Level II ROMs at bottom 
center of photo. ROMs are remounted in the feet of the case bot- 
tom. 

M • 90 Microcomputing. March 19S0 



How to Start 

First, carefully undo the 
cabinet (noting the different 
sizes of screws used to fasten it 
together). Take the electronics 
out of the case and set every- 
thing on a spacious work sur- 
face. You will notice that the 
Level II ROMs are fastened to 
the right of the keyboard with 
double-face tape; these will 
have to be lifted off the circuit 
card. 

The interconnect cable to the 
ROMs is long enough to re- 
mount them inside the base of 
the cabinet, in one of the depres- 
sions that serve as feet. If the 
double-face tape has not been 
damaged, they may be fastened 
immediately; if the tape cannot 
be reused, fasten them by some 
other method, but be cautious 
not to cover them as heat build- 
up shortens their useful lives. 

The Jameco Electronics key- 
board base is identical to the 
TRS-80'5 in height and depth, so 
the two ten-inch plastic strips 
can serve as a rigid trailer hitch 
for the smaller board. Carefully 
support both boards so they are 
parallel and the hex pad meets 
the TRS-80 printed-circuit base. 
Cement the plastic strips in 
place; the vertical alignment of 
both sets of keys should now be 
Identical. 

When the glue has set, use 
the plastic shell to design a 
cardt>oard template of the cur- 
rent key positions and, with the 
aid of a ruler, draw extension 
lines across the right side of the 
template. These t}ecome the up- 



per and tower limits of the new 
keypad opening. Align the tem- 
plate with the new double Key- 
tx>ard assembly and mark the 
vertical positions of the keys, 
allowing about 1/32" additional 
on both sides. This should bring 
you within V* inch of the pilot 
LED. 

Remove the black portion of 
the cover by turning it over and 
snapping it out of the six locking 
tabs along the edge. Using the 
template and a hot razor blade, 
carefully cut an opening, work- 
ing from the face of the soft 
plastic cover. 

This procedure is time-con- 
suming and must be done with 
care to achieve an as-built ap- 
pearance. Double check all work 
to make sure the cover fits over 
both keyboards and that the 
keys are free to move (trim or file 
where necessary). If you have 
made any nicks in the soft 
plastic face, rub them with a 
glass marble and they should 
disappear into the background 
of the face texture. 

Interconrwct the Wires 

Now it is necessary to Inter- 
connect wires from the hex key- 
board to the main keyboard's 
printed circuit card. Rest the 
keyboard on its face but take 
care not to strain the band of 
wires connecting the card and 
CPU board. Set aside the white 
plastic spacers, and keep the 
board well supported during sol- 
dering. 

For interconnections, I used 
wire-wrap wire because it was 
thin and flexible, although any 



fine wire will do. First, solder all 
the connections at the hex pad 
as shown in Fig. 1. You will be 
soldering to very fine terminals 
which are part of the key con- 
tacts and springs, so be careful 
to avoid excessive solder or 
heat. The solder should flow 
easily onto the gold-clad con- 
tacts. 

Next route individual wires 
from the hex key groups to the 
points printed on the circuit 
card, as indicated in Fig. 1. If 
you have a TRS-80 technical 
manual, you may notice that 
some of the keys do not match 
the wiring on the master sche- 
matic. I have a very early TRS-80 
and have not been able to check 
this difference with other Level 
II machines, so I recommend fol- 
lowing the circuit traces to as- 
sure that your parallel wiring 
matches that of the keys 
pressed. 

Once you are sure all the con- 
nections are properly made, flip 
the board over. Avoid putting 
stress on the keyboard intercon- 
nect cable. Replace the white 
plastic spacers, insert the 
cables to the monitor and power 
supply and power-up the com- 
puter. 

Type all the characters on the 
main keytxiard to make sure it 
operates normally, then type the 
letters and numtiers on the hex 
keytraard. Also test the back- 
space (at this point the twttom 
right-hand key is dead). Press 
the button currently marked 



SHIFT (this will be the enter key), 
and the lines of randomly typed 
test characters should certainly 
cause a ?SN ERROR nwssage. 

All keys should now be work- 
ing properly. Any problems will 
occur in the form of incorrect let- 
ters or patterns of repetitive let- 
ters caused by incorrect or 
shorted wiring of the new key- 
pad. If most characters work, 
but some do not, a wiring error is 
likely. 

Recheck all wiring, and it no 
problem is evident, insure that 
the wiring shown in this article 
is correct for your machine. 
(Master schematic differences 
in my unit involved the back- 
space and enter Keys.) Check 
also for solder splashes or dam- 
aged printed circuit board 
traces. 

Remove the cables and 
power, gently reinsert the circuit 
cards into place and replace the 
white spacers, the keytxiard as- 
sembly and the cover. Take care 
that the LED power light sits in 
tf>e front panel and that all the 
keys move freely. After replac- 
ing the screws and cables you 
are ready to run Babybug again. 

Try the programs described in 
Part I of this article. The new 
keyboard should speed the pro- 
cess along considerably. 

Th« Control Key 

The absence of specialized 
function keys, on the TRS-60, 
confines the user to type-written 
commands. Its simplicity makes 




Photo 2. Wires run from poirjls on the main keyboard's p.c. card 
directly to hex keyboard. White rectangles are plastic foam that 
helps cushion the author's abusive typing style. 



the TRS-80 a very accessible 
machine, but with that accessi- 
bility have come a few disadvan- 
tages. Sometimes the need 
arises for an escape from a pro- 
gram without BREAKing in, or 
for some additional control over 
a program's execution. The 
dead key on the new hex keypad 
offers those special functions. 

This control key (dead key) is 
valuable when using your own 
machine-language modules. 
This key can send the contents 
of the screen to the line printer; 
convert to lowercase*; direct an 
array of edit commands in a 
word-processing program; call 
up any number of machine-lan- 
guage modules; or obtain 
TRS-80 graphics from the key- 
board. 

Let's first see how this key 
might be used in BASIC. Like the 
shift key, the control does not 
produce a character by itself. 



but changes how the computer 
reads another character typed 
simultaneously. Set up and RUN 
the following BASIC program: 



5 CLS 

10 A = PeEK(14464) 

20 IF A = 128 GOTO 50 

X AS = INKEYS PRINT AI: 

40 GOTO 10 

50 AS = INKEYS 

60 IF AI = GOTO 10 

70 PRINT CHRS(ASC(AS) ♦ 1011: 

ao GOTO 10 



As you type, letters will ap- 
pear on the screen as they 
would on the page. With the ex- 
ception of some of the com- 
mand keys like ENTER every- 
thing operates as before. 

Now shift with the new con- 
trol key and type. The screen dis- 
plays TRS-80 graphics! Release 
the control key and normal typ- 
ing resumes. 

How does this work? Each 
key occupies a position in a grid 



2t 

PiHt 



Zi 

PIN 4 



PIN 12 



Zt 






zz 

Pin 4 



PIN 



.i..-i*;''ii 



Its •- 



«2 *- 



n? 



I»4 *- 



RS 



R« ♦- 



JO!^T 



f 



Fig. 1. Wiring of (A) address and(B)data lines on the hex keypad. Lines marked with an asterisk differ from the pin connections on the TRS-BO 
master schematic. 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 89 



Addrtss 


PROGRAM 


DaicriptJon 


Mnentontc 


4CO0 


F5 


Save Ihe current conlenls of the accumulalor and Ihe condition flags 


PUSH AF 


-JCOI 


3A80 3e 


Load the accumulator wilh the contents of memory location ,WW1 (wtiere SHIFT and 








CONTROL are located) 


LD A,(3880) 


4C04 


FE80 


Compare Ihe conlents of the accumulator with 80 hex (which is the number produced 








when CONTROL is depressed). If il compares exactly, set the zero" flag. 


cpeo 


4C06 


28 04 


If the zero Hag is set (meaning t>ers that Ihe CONTROL key was depressed). )ump 








ahead four places 


JPZ.04 






The next two instructions woutd be executad ONLY if they were not jumped over Dy 








the previous mslruclion: 




4C08 


F1 


Reload the accumulalor arxJ Hags with then original contents tiefore this 'patch ' pro- 








gram. 


POPAF 


4C09 


C3 58 04 


Jump to 0458, the place where the keyboard scan "switchboard " originally directed. 


JP 0458 


4C0C 


3A 01 38 


Load the accumulator with the contents ot memory address 3801 , the address of keys 








S- A. B, C, D. E, F and G. 


LD A.|3a01) 


4C0F 


FE02 


Compare the contents of the accumulator with 2. the number prcxJuced it letter A ' is 








depressed 


CP02 


4C11 


20 EE 


It ttie result does not compare eiactiy |i e,. the 7ero" flag is not set), jump back 18 








steps to address 4001. it it does compare precisely 


JP NZ,EE 


4C13 


03 00 00 


. . . jump to 0000, the beginning of BASIC 

Program Listing 1. 


JPOOOO 



wired so the processor inter- 
prets it as a memory bank -one 
line of addresses crossing one 
line of data. The keyboard is 
scanned, and a depressed key 
drops a one into its allotted data 
bit in a memory location. The 
keyboard-scanning subroutine 
in BASIC checks the memory 



locations in order, arxJ, upon 
finding a one, jumps to another 
routine that displays that key's 
character upon the screen. 

There are many additional 
routines to keep keys from end- 
lessly repeating, to differentiate 
between character keys and 
command keys and to keep up 




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with fast typists. 

The memory slot for our new 
key is 14464 (3880H). When the 
shift key is depressed, a one ap- 
pears in this slot's least signifi- 
cant bit (00000001); the control 
key is wired to insert a one in 
the most significant position 
(10000000). 

BASIC'S keyboard scanning 
routine is written to read the 
shift key, but is blind to the new 
control key. The only way to find 
whether the key is pressed is to 
PEEK into location 14464 (line 
10 of the program). 

The result of that PEEK would 
be either 1 (SHIFT) or 128 (CON- 
TROL). Our BASIC program ig- 
nores the SHIFT, displays what- 
ever key is depressed and loops 
back to the beginning of the pro- 
gram. If it finds the control key 
depressed, it goes to line 50, 
searching (using INKEYS) for an- 
other key to be depressed. 

It continues with the above 
loops until it finds both the con- 
trol key and a character key 
depressed. Determining the let- 
ter's ASCII value, the program 
adds 101 (to alter the value to 
that of a graphics character) 
and displays the result. The new 
control key makes this a simple 
way to display both characters 
and graphics. 

A Telephone Switchboard 

To exploit the broad powers 

of this control key, it is neces- 
sary to know a few things about 
the TRS-60 design. The ROM 
(Read-Only-Memory) is fixed, 



and contains the BASIC lan- 
guage. It occupies atx)ut 12,000 
bytes of space, with some un- 
used areas set aside for future 
improvements. 

Upon power-up, the ROM exe- 
cutes a great deal of housekeep- 
ing, the most important part of 
which is cordoning off a section 
of volatile memory for storing 
temporary information and es- 
tablishing a kind of "telephone 
switchboard" located in the area 
of rrwmory about 1,000 bytes 
long, starting at location 4000H. 

Many of the BASIC subrou- 
tines momentarily jump to this 
area, and then back into the 
BASIC ROM, to a location set up 
during housekeeping. The ex- 
citing aspect of this switch- 
board is that we can patch our 
own call through it! The control 
key will use one of those patch- 
es. 

At the start of BASIC'S key- 
board scan routine, it jumps to 
location 401 D in the switch- 
board to receive instructions for 
its next move; housekeeping 
has inserted 0458 into locations 
401E and 401F. We will be 
changing this jump, but before 
we modify anything in the com- 
plex BASIC language, it will be 
necessary to decide precisely 
what we want to do with the con- 
trol key. 

My first use of the control key 
was to gain a new command: 
Return to MEMORY SIZE?, with- 
out turning off the computer and 
losing the contents of memory 
or wasting my only USR(O) loca- 
tion. Program Listing 1 checks 
to see if the control key and let- 
ter "A" are depressed. If both 
conditions are met (in that order, 
as with the SHIFT key), it returns 
to a r^^EMORY SIZE? condition 
(prepare the program with the 
aid of Babybug). 

After you have prepared the 
program, your next move is to 
patch it into the keyboard scan. 
Since the keyboard's scanning 



06 DEC B 

B1 ORC 

B5 ORL 

EO BO LOIR 

10 Nn DJNZOO 



Results of dec'emeril m 
Besulls ol decrement in 



Table 1. The ZERO flag is af- 
fected by (among others less 
important for these few simple 
programs) these instructions. 



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80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 91 



program cannot be modified 
from the keyt>oard, write the fol- 
lowing line: 

100 POKE 16414,00 : POKE 16415,76 

This is the address 4C00H 
broken into two decimal pieces; 
when you RUN 100, the patch 
will be Inserted. At first you will 
see no difference, and all keys 
should function normally; the 
patch is totally transparent to 
BASIC, to programs and to all 
keyboard functions. Unless the 
processor finds the control key 
depressed, it skips right back to 
the scanning routine (the con- 
trol key too will have no effect by 
Itself). 

Now depress control plus "A". 
You will be returned instantly to 
MEMORY SIZE? This control- 
plus-letter concept is for- 
midable; each key on the key- 
board can represent the path- 
way to an entire program, that 
is. It can represent a command 
Independent of BASIC! 

Challmge Your Skills 

As a challenge to your new 
programming skills and to pro- 
tect some memory, reload Baby- 
bug to create a program tfiat 
performs the following: 

1. The program is transparent to 
BASIC. 

2. The program uses the control 
plus letter "A" to call up the 
white-screen module. 

3. The program uses the control 
plus letter "B" to call up the 
cassette-load module, but loads 
only 255 bytes, then returns to 
BASIC. 

4. The program uses the control 
plus letter "C" to call the "BASIC 
Bounce" module, listens to and 



displays only 255 bytes, then re- 
turns to BASIC. 

To write this program, you will 
need some additional informa- 
tion and a few hints. 

First, do not let your cassette- 
load module overlay its input 
data atop any of your current 
programs. Place It well out of 
the way, in your highest memory 
area. Remember to POP infor- 
mation off the stack as many 
times as you PUSH it on and 
note that every time you call a 
subroutine, the program's cur- 
rent address Is PUSHed onto the 
stack. 

Letters A. B and C are in mem- 
ory location 3801 H. A is data 02 
(binary 00000010), B is 04 (binary 
00000100) and is OB (binary 
00001000). 

If you need more toops than 
you have registers, remember 
that the current value of a loop 
can be stored in memory while 
you perform other operations 
and retrieved when it Is needed. 
For example, if you start a loop 
in the B register, you can store It 
and use the B register for anoth- 
er function. 

Later, you can store that infor- 
mation and retrieve your loop 
status; decrement the loop's 
value, store it; and again you 
can retrieve the stored Infor- 
mation. 

The author wishes to express 
his thanks to Philip K. Hooper 
for his encouragement, and for 
his astute criticism of the soft- 
ware content of this article, as 
well as to Stan Ockers for his im- 
provements to Babybug for non- 
typists. ■ 

NotM to Text 

'An upper/lowercase character- 



generator circuit is already part 
of the TRS-80, but no access has 
been provided. The Peripheral 
People (P.O. Box 524, Mercer 
Island, WA 98040) offer free, ex- 



cellent lowercase conversion in- 
formation. Both hardware and 
software instructions are in- 
cluded, and the conversion can 
be achieved with just a few ICs. 




Photo 3. Finished modifications on the TRS-dO before cover is 
reinstalled. Note the four-conductor ROM cable that runs over top 
of CPU board, and the author's lowercase modification svi/itch at 
bottom. 



Call ■ aubroutlTiF 


CD 


Lr 


Ki 


CALL 9Ht 


Call ■ Hubroutlne If ■ lara flag 










Is set 


cc 


Li 


Hi 


CALL ^,0M> 


Call a aubrouilne if a zero flag 










Is not aet 


C4 


Li 


fi 


CALL HZ.tftM 


CoapaTF the contents of the 










accunlitar ulth in Integer 


FE 


Nn 




CP H 


I>ccr«scnC the B reglBter 


«5 






DEC 1 


Decreaent the C reglslet 


m> 






DEC C 


Decr^nt the HL reglater pair 


2t 






DEC HL 


nccre*«nt the T>t rcgliter pair 


IB 






□EC DE 


Detresent the BC register pair 


it 






DEC BC 


Increaent the B regliter 


94 






IHC 1 


Increaenl the C reglater 


•c 






IHC C 


Incrcaent the HL register pair 


1] 






IK HL 


Increaent the DF regisIeT pair 


13 






IHC D« 


Juap to laeBory location 


C3 


Li 


Hi 


JP 9*H 


JuMp to WKWory location If a Ecro 










flag la act 


CA 


Li 


Hi 


JP Z.0M4 


Jump tn oeBory location If ■ zero 










flag is not set 


C2 


Li 


Ki 


JP NZ, 41)40 


Jiwp a relative distance 


IS 


Nn 




JR it 


JuDp a relative distance If a 










lero flag ts set 


28 


Hn 




JR 7..M 


Jusp I relative distance If 










lero flag ts not set 


29 Nn 




JR NZ.M 


Load the ■ccumlatar Kith an 










Integer 


3E 


Nn 




LD A, 01 


Load the acci^lator vjih the 










B register 


78 






LD A.B 


Lod the sccuBulatoT vlth Che 










H register 


7C 






LD A,H 


Load the accionilator ulth contents 










of aewirr location HL 


7E 






LD *.(HL) 


Load the acciMulator with contenla 










of ^aory location DE 


lA 






LD A,(Dt) 


Load the accuiaulator ulth contents 










of BBBory location 


3A 


Li 


Mi 


LD A,{4M0) 


Losd the contents of aeBory location 








HL with the accumvilator 


77 






LD (HL) ,A 


Load Ihc contents of acnoCf lacatl 


on 








DE vllh the accumulator 


1! 






LD (DE) ,A 












location vlth a nnker 


lb 


Nn 




LD (HL> ,114 


Load Che HL register with Em 










bytes 


21 


Li 


«i 


LH m..4M4 


Losd the DE register with two 










bytea 


11 


Li 


Mi 


LD DE.WM 


Load the BC register with two 










bytes 


11 


Ijt 


Hx 


LD RC.4404 


Load the B register with a byte 


K. 


Nn 




LD H.44 


Load the C register with a byte 


n 


Nn 




LD r.,99 


Load the B register with the byte 










found at HL acnory location 


46 






LD B.fHLl 


OR the contents of the accumlator 










with the C register 


Bl 






OR C 


OR the contenii of the accuaulatoi 










with the L register 


b; 






OR L 


PUSH the two bytas in the RL 










register onto the stack 


e5 






PUSH HL 


PUSH the two bytes In the AE 










register onto Ihc stack 


Ei 






PUSH AE 


PUSH the two bytes in the BC 










register onto the stack 


C5 






PUSH BC 


POP the to(i two bytes in Che 










■ tack into tiie HL register 


El 






POP HL 


POP the top two bytea In the 










Btack Into the AE register 


Fl 






POP AF 


POP the top two hytes In the 










stack into the BC register 


CI 






POP BC 


Load the aeBory contents of BL 










into the aewirr location DE; 










InccaacnC HL and DE; decreaent 








■C; loop back if BC not MTQ 


ED 


Bl 




LDIR 


Decresent BC; loop back Indicated 










dlatance if not lero 


l« 


No 




DJHZ 99 


Return 


C9 






RET 


Return if the lero flag is aat 


C8 






RET Z 


Return If the zero flag ts not 










■at 


C» 






RKT m 


(Lx = Least Significant Byte. Mx 


^Most 


Significant Byte. 


Nn - One-Byte integer) 










Table 2. These instructions are a limited selection of the Z-80 


instruction set; there are nea 


riy 


700 commands in total 


though the program can be effectively created with just these. 



92 • 60 Microcomputing. March 1980 



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SO MiCfOCQfpputing. March 1980 • 93 



STYLE 



Why write software when you can use the 
inbuilt Level II assembly language subroutine! 

Inside the ROMs 



Bruce S. Stock 
537 33rd Ave. South 
Seattle WA 96144 



One of the more fascinating 
aspects of owning a Level 
II TRS-BO computer is knowing 
that buried within it are over 
twelve thousand bytes of lovety 
machine- language routines just 
waiting to ease the load of the 
intrepid assembly language pro- 
grammer. This fascination has 
caused me to spend hours poll- 
ing about in listings, following 
chains of subroutines all over 



memory, to find some of the 
more immediately useful sec- 
tions for my own assembly lan- 
guage programs. The search 
has been in turn frustrating, in- 
structive, and rewarding. In this 
article I hope to share the re- 
wards, while keeping the frus- 
trations to a bare minimum. 

Keyboard Routines 

The keytxiard routines are a 
good starting point. Let's begin 
with a top level routine for input- 
ting data into a program. This 
routine is one step removed 
from the INPUT command in BA- 



EMTMY 






POINT 


DESCfUPTION 


RBURKS 


1B83M 


Pnnis ">' . incuts data 


Data goes into BASIC mpul bultet 241 chai mai 




un'il entet is hit. dis- 


HL points lo location pfioi to tiist character on rfr 




plays data on sc'e«fi 


lurn Uses *F. HL DE 


361H 


Same ai 16B3H. less 
prornpl 


As above 


049H 


Rat urns trtten a single 
cnaiacter has t)een 


Criaracter in A Uses AF. DE 


02BH 


Insianianeous «ead of 


A = [XI return it key not pfessed, e<se A = cnarac 




heyboa'd 


ler code Uses AF. DE 


010H 


Restan ^DH Advances 
HL, loads A with |HL). 
sets carry flag. 


C - il alpna, C = 1 IS numeric Usea AF. HL 


)E1AH 


Processes decimal 
numOw mto binary 


See ten. 




Table 1. Keyboard Routme Summary 



SIC. The entry point of the rou- 
tine is at 1B83H (all addresses 
are given in hexadecimal). A call 
to this location results in a ques- 
tion mark on the screen, fol- 
lowed by a space. The operator 
is now free to input data, which 
is placed into the BASIC input 
buffer. As it's typed, the data 
also appears on the screen and 
you can backspace to correct er- 
rors. 

Terminate the input by hitting 
the entry key. When the routine 
returns, the HL register pair con- 
tains one less than the buffer 
start address. 

Now that the data Is in the 
buffer, how do you get at It? Exe- 
cuting an RST 10H (Restart 10H) 
instruction advances the HL 
pointer to the first character en- 
tered (skipping any spaces), 
loads the character into the A 
register and sets the carry flag 
to indicate whether the char- 
acter is numeric (C = 1) or 
alphabetic (C=0). Each RST 
10H executed loads the next 
character Into A (again, skipping 
any spaces) for you to process. 
When the RST 10H returns a 
value of zero, you have reached 
the end of the entered data. If 
you don't want the question 



mark prompt printed at the 
twginnlng of the routine, enter it 
at 361H instead of 1BB3H. 

Suppose you don't want a 
whole buffer full of data, but on- 
ly a single keystroke (i.e., the IN- 
KEY$ type function)? A call to 
IM9H returns when a key has 
been hit. The A register contains 
the character. 

In many cases, you will want a 
routine which returns immedi- 
ately after checking the key- 
board, even if no key is punched. 
In this case, call 02BH. This rou- 
tine will return immediately with 
A = if no key Is pressed at the 
instant the routine is called, or 
with A equal to the correct key 
code If a key is depressed. 
Neither of these routines dis- 
plays the character entered. If 
the character must be dis- 
played, use one of the routines 
in the following section. 

The last keytioard routine to 
be discussed takes a decimal 
number In from the keyboard 
and returns with the equivalent 
binary value In the DE register 
pair. This is a very handy routine 
when the input needed is a deci- 
mal integer between 1 and 
65.5^. The routine used fol- 
lows; 



94 • 80 Microcomputing, March 19^ 



ADDRESS 


DATA 


MNEMONtC 


COMMENT 


5000 


21 50 50 


LD HUS050H 


: load poinIM 
Tfilo HL 


5003 


CO A7 28 


CALL 28A7H 


, ootpul message 


S006 


CO B3 IB 


CALL 1BB3M 
{process inpuO 
End 


. gel inpul 


SOW 


59 4F 55 52 


YOUB 


meSMge 


5054 


20 4D 4F 56 


MOVE 




50S8 


45 OD X 


on 




Table 2. An 


example of the use ot the message routine. 



CALL 1BB3H 
RST 10H 
CAU 1E5AH 

The first instruction gets the 
data into the input buffer. The 
second advances HL to point to 
the first character that was en- 
tered. The last processes ail en- 
tered digits into a binary value 
which is left in DE. The three rou- 
tines taken together use the A. 
DE, and HL registers. 

Table 1 summarizes the key- 
board routines. The Remarks in- 
dicate which registers are util- 
ized by the called routine. You 
should save these registers if 
your program is also using 
them. 

ScrMn Routines 

The next series of routines 
deals with getting data onto the 
screen. We begin at the top 
again with a routine that prints a 
whole message on screen. Level 
II uses this routine to print the 
MEMORY SIZE message, as 
well as several others. To use 
this routine you must have a 
message stored somewhere in 
memory. 

The message is a string of 
ASCII characters and must ter- 
minate with a byte containing 
zero. It may also contain control 
codes or graphics codes, but no 
quotation marks. First, the HL 
register must be loaded with the 
address of the first character of 
the message- Then a call to 
28A7H does the rest. 

Table 2 shows how it is done. 
In the example, the message 
"YOUR MOVE" is being output 
to prompt an input to a chess 
program. The processing rou- 
tine following the 1 BB3H call de- 
codes the move input. The pow- 
er of this call should not be over- 
looked, since, by including car- 
riage returns, tab codes and so 



forth in the message, it is pos- 
sible to format a complete dis- 
play with a single call. 

Now, let's display a single 
character at a time. Suppose 
that 04gH has been called to get 
a character in from the keyboard 
and now it must be displayed on 
the screen. Call 32AH. This rou- 
tine wilt take whatever is in the A 
register and print it on the screen 
without disturbing data in any of 
the other registers. The routine 
at 033H does almost the same 
thing, but It disturbs the DE reg- 
ister pair. These routines are 
good for many functions, for ex- 
ample, to shift to thirty-two (32) 
characters per line, just load 
17H into the A register and call 
32AH. 

The last screen routine is 
short and sweet. A call to 1C9H 
clears the screen and sends 
home the cursor. The cursor 
may be turned on or off by load- 
ing OEM or OFH, respectively, in- 
to A. followed by a call to 32AH. 
The screen routines are sum- 
marized in Table 3. 

Cassette Routines 

Since Level II has a nice com- 
plement of cassette-related rou- 
tines (CSAVE, CLOAD, INPUT #, 
etc.), it may seem unnecessary 
to go into more here. However, 
the routines described here al- 
low input and output formats to 
best suit the situation. They can 
be used to improve the efficien- 
cy of data storage, or, as I have 
done, they may generate tapes 
that can be read by the BASIC 
SYSTEM command. 

First turn on the cassette mo- 
tor and record the synchroniza- 
tion pattern. This is done with a 
call to 284H. The synchroniza- 
tion pattern consists of 256 
zeros, followed by a single byte 
containing the value ASH. Now 



that the motor is running and 
the sync pattern is on tape, 
record some data. Load the byte 
to be recorded into the A regis- 
ter and call 264H. When the final 
byte of data has t>een recorded, 
a call to 1 F8H turns off the cas- 
sette motor. Be wary of doing 
too much data processing be- 
tween output of data bytes, 
since the delays introduced 
could foul up the synchroniza- 
tion when the tape is read back. 

To read in data which has 
been written on tape requires a 
call to 293H. This routine wilt 
turn on the cassette motor, read 
the leader until the ASH sync 
byte is found, print two aster- 
isks in the upper right corner of 
the screen and then return. The 
following data can now be read 
a byte at a time by repeated 
calls to 235H. Again, don't 
spend too much lime process- 
ing bytes between calls to 235H, 
or you may lose synchroniza- 
tion. When all data has been in- 
put, a call to 1F8H will turn the 
motor off. 

If the idea of blinking the right 
asterisk appeals to you. each 
call to 22CH will reverse its 
state, on to off, or off to on. (The 
CLOAD and SYSTEM commands 
blink the asterisk each time a 
BASIC statement is read in or 
each time the checksum value is 
verified.) 

Note that all the motor con- 
trol routines described above 



are intended for use with the 
cassette plugged into the key- 
board, not into the expansion 
lx>x. 

Table 4 summarizes the cas- 
sette routines. 

Conclusion 

The use of these routines 
should considerably simplify 
the I/O sections of yournext pro- 
gram. Bear in mind, however, 
that all this does not come total- 
ly free. Most of these routines 
use pointers and buffers which 
reside within the area of RAM 
dedicated to BASIC. As a result, 
you can't locate programs In ad- 
dresses below approximately 
4300H. or you will disrupt the 
pointers. Also, several of the 
routines have additional fea- 
tures beyond those described, 
so, if you deviate significantly 
from the examples given, the re- 
sults may be confusing, to say 
the least. Lastly, since the BA- 
SIC stack is used, the MEMORY 
SIZE cannot be set too low in 
value, or insufficient stack 
space will result. 

These few restrictions are a 
small price to pay for I/O that is 
nearly as easy as using PRINT, 
INPUT, and INKEY$. With these 
routines available, the only real 
work remaining is to decide 
which of the programs you've 
been putting off will be the 
first you'll write incorporating 
them. ■ 



ENTRY 






POINT 


DESCRIPTION REMARKS 1 


28A7H 


Q«n«ralliM massag* oulpul routine 


HL must point to message Message 
must end wilH 00 Uses *F. BC. DE 
ML 


32AH 


Pul ona cha'actef on screen 


Enter with character in A Uses AF 


033H 


Pul ona cfiaraclef on screen 


Enter vaitn cnaracter in A Uses AF 
DE 


1C9H 


Clear screen. 


Also sends home cursor lo upper 
letl comer 




Table 3. Summary of Screen Routines. 


ENTRY 






POINT 


DESCRIPTION 


REMARKS 


2S4H 


Tuffi on motor, write leadef 


Uses AF Leader is 256 ;eros lot 
lowed by A5H 


264H 


Writes Dyle to tape 


Byte must tw in A 


IFBM 


Turn oft motor 




293H 


Reads leader artd locales sync byte 


Turns motor on Sync = ASH Uses 
AF 


235H 


Reads Cryte tram tape 


Returns wilti Dyte m A Uses AF 


22CM 


BliriKs rightmost asterisk 


Uses AF 




Table 4. Summary of Cassette Routines. 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 95 



HARDWARE 



A real work, real time 

application project for handy 80 owners. 



A Home Brew Interface 



C.R. Vince 
27 Ventnor Way 
Ottawa, Ontario 
Canada K2J1M2 



After becoming the proud 
owner of a TRS-80 system 
in April of 197B, I soon realized 
that the Level I, while an excel- 
lent teaching aid of the BASIC 
language, left much to be de- 
sired when it came to making 
my computer more than just an 
expensive toy. After waiting anx- 
iously for several months (due, I 
suppose, to the extremely heavy 
demand), my Level li arrived and 
was installed. 

Now i could really make my 
"toy" earn its keep, or could I? 
Yes I could, providing I put out 
another $439 (Canadian) for an 
expansion interface. But wait, 
all that would give me would be 
a real-time clock, mini-disk con- 
troiiers, cassette and line printer 
controllers and "space for an 
additional PC board" (to add 
whatever), according to Radio 
Shack advertising. What about 
my home climate control, model 



railway control and other appli- 
cations? 

There had to be another way, 
and I hope that after reading this 
article you will agree with me 
that there is another way, per- 
haps even a better way, at least 
for hobby use. 

Introduction 

This article will descrltw an in- 
terface unit for the TRS-80 Level 
II that will provide the following 
features: 

1) An interface tioard to the 
TRS-80 itself. 

2) An output board having up to 
16 8-bit parallel output ports. 

3) An input board having up to 16 
8-bit parallel input ports. 

4) A TTY interface board, 

5) A home climate control 
system. 

8) A model railroad speed con- 
trol system. 

I would like to point out here 
that I am no expert in electronic 
circuit design. In this article, 
most of the circuits have t}een 
previously described in other 
books and publications, in- 
cluding Microcomputing. I have 



merely put them together In one 
package as simply and as eco- 
nomically as possible. However, 
the circuits have been tested 
and do work; in fact, they are in 
daily use. 

To enable novices to under- 
stand the workings of the inter- 
face unit I have arrowed per- 
tinent lines in the figures to 
show the directional flow of 
data on that particular line. 

The unit has been built on five 
separate PC boards (excluding 
the power supply). I use the term 
PC boards loosely, as these 
boards were handmade, and on- 
ly the common lines such as 
data bus, address bus and 
power lines were etched; other 
lines such as enable lines were 
wired. 

Edge card connectors used 
were of the 62-pin type since 
they were the least expensive 
and most available at the time; 
consequently, pin connections 
given are for these 82-pin vari- 
ety. Others such as 44 pin could 
be used providing they have 
enough pins to accommodate 
all lines entering or leaving the 



board. The edge card connec- 
tors were mounted on a piece of 
wood and like-numbered pins for 
the -fS V, ground supplies, the 
data and the address lines were 
multiplied from one connector to 
the next. 

I strongly recommend the use 
of sockets for all ICs, as trouble- 
shooting Is made so much 
easier if you can simply replace 
a suspect IC to localize the prob- 
lem. To emphasize this point, 
when I first plugged in the inter- 
face board, I had problems on a 
new IC, which seemed to work 
OK on static bench tests but 
failed In the unit. By simply ex- 
changing two ICs, the problem 
was localized in minutes. In ad- 
dition, don't forget to use .01 uF 
bypass capacitors on about 
every fifth IC. 

Intwfaca Board 

To allow for expansion, I de- 
cided to use 74LS367S to buffer 
all signals coming from the 
TRS-80 (see Fig. 1). I Initially buf- 
fered the data bus in both direc- 
tions, but found that this caused 
problems because the interface 



96 » 80 Microcomputing, March 7980 



unit bus is, in effect, parallel 
with the internal TRS-80 bus, 
and each time an input to the 
Z-80 processor is effected (e.g., 
from memory), it also inputs 
from the interface unit. 

Since the interface unit data 
bus had no signal on it, the buf- 
fers interpreted this as a high {or 
a 1). This high caused errors 
because at times it was trans- 
ferred to the Z-80, overriding the 
low {or 0) that should have been 
there. Therefore, in the final 
design presented here the data 
bus is buffered in one direction 
only— out to the interface unit. 
Unfortunately, this results in 
two data buses in the interface 
unit: one in (not buffered) and 
one out (buffered). 

This type of arrangement is 
not uncommon, of course, and 
presents no problems, except 
for some additional wiring. Buf- 
fered lines are denoted by ttie 
"B" following the line designa- 
tion (e.g., D6B means that data 
line 6 has been buffered). 

The interface board is con- 
nected to the TRS-80 by means 
of a 40-wire cable. At the TRS-K) 
end an AMP P/N 88103-1 card 
edge connector (or equivalent) is 
required. At the interface board 
end I chose to cable directly to 
the sockets holding the ICs. 

This has presented no prob- 
lems, but connection could be 
made to the interface board 
card connector if desired (if 
enough pins are available). 
While two 20-wire ribbon cables 
would seem desirable and 
easier to connect on the AMP 
P/N 88103-1, my unit works suc- 
cessfully using regular 40-wire 
cable about 12 inches long. 

The Interface Board itself can 
be described in four separate 
sections: 

Data Bus Buffers. The data 
bus (D0-D7) is buffered by ICs a 
and b. As mentioned earlier, on- 
ly data to be output is buffered; 
input data is presented directly 
to the TRS-80 without buffering. 
The buffers are enabled by IC g, 
which provides a low signal 
whenever the OUTB or WRB 
control lines go low. To avoid 
overloading these buffers, no 
more than 40 output ports 
should be used unless addi- 
tional buffering is provided. 

Address Bus Buffers. The ad- 



dress lines (A0-A1 5) are buffered low signal from any one of the lines from the TRS-80 are what I 
in much the same way as the four control lines OUTB, WRB, refer to as control lines. Once 
data lines. The buffers are INB, RDB. again I chose to buffer the con- 
enabled by IC h on receipt of a Control Lines. The remaining trol lines that are output from 




Fig. 1. Interface board. 



60 h^icrocomputing. hAarch 1980 • 97 



the CPU; the one input line, INT, 
is not buffered. I decided not to 



buffer the WAIT, TEST and 
SYSRES lines, since i couid fore- 
see no use for them in the near 
or even distant future; however, i 
wired them to the interface 
board just in case, so they couid 
be buffered if desired in the 
same way as other lines. 

The controi lines are buffered 
by iCs e and f. Note that there 
are three GND iines. These 
shouid be connected to the GND 
of the interface board power 
suppiy. The iine connected to 
pin 39 of the TRS-80 edge con- 



nector warrants mention here. 

in the Levei i manuai (page 
228) this line is shown con- 
nected to +5 V in the TRS-80. 
Prior to having my Level il in- 
staiied, this was, in fact, the 
case; however, after the installa- 
tion of the Level II, I noticed that 
the land to pin 39 had been cut 
and pin 40 had been strapped to 
pin 39, making pin 39 a ground 
line. 

Since I do not know the state 
of other units with regard to this 
pin, I recommend that this pin 
not be wired. Of the nine control 
lines wired, only two are used by 



circuits described in this article 
—the OUT and IN lines— how- 
ever, the board has been de- 
signed to allow for the easy ad- 
dition of memory and an inter- 
rupt board at a later date, which 
require the additional control 
lines. 

Output and Input Port Initial 
Selectors. Whenever the TRS^ 
executes an input or output 
(port) instruction, the port ad- 
dress is placed on the lower 
eight bits of the address bus 
(A0-A7). At the same time, the 
OUTB line (on an OUT instruc- 
tion) or the TRH line (on an INP 



> - 



fROM 
BOARD 



•i- -ir -.y ^y -y •y -^ 

TO OTHER OUTPUT POB'S 



A 



A 



FROM 

INTEBFfiCE 

BOARD 



^ 






TO TTT BOaRD 



-> Z9 '3 ITY flOOHD 



7a. 5/5 




" N 5 


GND 


PIN \2 


Tfl C4 




PI N la 


GND 


"IN 7 


74 15a 




p N ja 


GND 


PIN 2 



Fig. 2. Eight-bit parallel output port board (only three ports shown). 



Instruction) is enabled. The in- 
put or output port initial selec- 
tors (iC I or j) are selected by 
these lines. This causes the high 
four bits (A4-A7) to be decoded 
by the selected IC i or j, which 
are 74154, four line to 16-line 
decoders. 

The output of the 74154 is us- 
ed to select a particular input or 
output board where the final 
port address is decoded. Thus 
using this configuration, up to 
16 input and 16 output boards 
could be selected, providing ad- 
ditional buffers are used. 

In the design presented here 
only one input and one output 
board is used, each one contain- 
ing ports 0-15. To select addi- 
tional boards, simply use the 
proper output from the 74154s 
to select the desired board (e.g., 
to select ports 16-31, the output 
from pin 2 of the relative 74154 
would be used). 

Output Port Board 

The output port board (see 
Fig. 2) provides up to 16 8-bit 
parallel output ports. In my con- 
figuration I have used ports to 
8, since this was the physical 
limit of the size of the board I 
have available. 

The board is selected by the 
OUTSELO line from the interface 
board. This enables IC ma 
74154, which now decodes the 
four bits presented to it on the 
A0B-A3B lines. 

The output from IC m is a low 
on one of the 16 output lines, 
corresponding to the binary 
value of lines A0B-A3B. This low 
is inverted and subsequently en- 
ables a pair of 74LS75 quad 
latches. The data on the DOB- 
D7B bus is now latched by the 
74LS75 quad latches. The true 
data is now held by the latch and 
can be used to control external 
devices. The use of the edge 
card connector pins is left to the 
discretion of the user. 

Input Port Board 

The input port board (Fig 3) 
operates in a similar fashion to 
the output port board. The input 
board is selected by the iNSELO 
line from the interface board, 
enabling the 74154 to decode 
the final port address, accord- 
ing to the data on the A0B-A3B 
lines. The output from the 74154 



98 • 50 Microcomputing, March 1980 



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LETTER PROCESSOR - 

The LETTER PROCESSOR is a multi -purpose utility 

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receipts, nionuscripts, and letters .You have the choice 

with receipts and letters of hoving each personal ly 

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from either the keyboard or cassette. 

For use on the TRS-80 lev. 2 I6K. Pteose remit »I59S 

ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS SYSTEM - 



This systefTi performs simple double entry bookkeepirtg 
There are two fixed accounts ir odditior to any the user 
moy create. One is under assets called cash on hand , 
the other is under i labilities called debt to owner 
Automotic second entries ore made to the appropriote 
of these two accounts by one of the two system pro- 
grams wher updoting the data base The program quier - 
ies the data base ond produces a Balance Sheet and 
Prafit-Lcss statement. 

TRS-80 lev.2 l6Kand PET. Please remit *20.9?. 
STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS SYSTEM - 



Technical analysis ,12 daily and 15 weekly indicators 
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OPTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM - 



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80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 99 



(IC o) strobes the selected Input 
port (IC n), and the data present 
on the input lines is transferred 
to the data bus. Again, due to 
physical limitations, my board 
only has nine input ports. 

Either 74LS367 or 74LS368s 
can be used as the input port; 
the pinout for either is identical. 
The only difference is that the 
74LS368 inverts the data pre- 
sent on the input lines, whereas 
the 74LS367 does not. This can 
be useful. 

Imagine a port (x) with 
74LS367S and only one input, bit 

0, on that port being used. Per- 
forming a y = lnp(x) instruction 
will result in y having a value of 
254 or 255, depending on 
whether the input is high or low. 
The other seven inputs are seen 
as high by the TRS-80. 

However, if 74LS368S are 
used, then the highs on bits 1-7 
will be inverted and seen by the 
TRS-80 as low or 0. Consequent- 
ly, y will now have a value of or 

1. This does make programming 
a little easier. 

Now that we can input and 
output to the TRS-80, a whole 
new world has opened up! The 
following are three of the uses 
that I have successfully tried to 
date, obviously there are many 
more. 

TTY Interface 

Shortly after completing the 
interface board, I purchased a 
Model 33 at almost bargain- 
basement price (even in our de- 
valued Canadian dollars!) from 
a local dealer at a clearout sale. 

I constructed the TTY board 
(see Fig. 4) in a couple of even- 
ings. It uses a popular UART, the 
AY-3-1015, and was selected pri- 
marily because of the single 5 V 
supply required. Other UARTs 
would probably work just as 
well. Whichever UART you pur- 
chase, I suggest you obtain a 
copy of the specification 
sheets, as many variations are 
allowed (e.g., parity, number of 
stop bits, number of bits/char- 
acter, etc). 

To list the numerous varia- 
tions here would be too lengthy; 
however, the circuit as shown 
will run a Model 33 Teletype at 
110 baud, 20 mA current loop in 
half duplex operation. No pro- 
gramming is necessary to con- 

100 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



vert the serial data to parallel or 
vice versa, as this is done by the 
UART. 

The 555 timer circuit supplies 
clock pulses at 16X the desired 
baud rate; therefore, the clock 
frequency for 110 baud Is 1760 
Hz. The actual serial data is 
transmitted to and received 
from the TTY by the two 4N26 
optical couplers and the 2N2222 
transistors. These couplers pro- 
vide electrical isolation between 
the TTY and UART. 

At the start of any program 
that will input or output data 
through the UART, an OUT 11,0 
instruction should be used to 



reset all internal UART registers 
and flags toO. 

To input data from the TTY, an 
INP9, (x) instruction will enable 
the SWE-0 line {status word 
enable). If bit 1 is a 1, the DAV 
(data available flag) line will be 
high, indicating that the UART 
does, in fact, have data to input. 
An INPIO(x) will enable the RDE 
line (received data enable) and 
will result in the data being 
placed onto the data bus. 

Following this, an OUT 10,0 
sho uld be executed to enable 
the RDAV line (reset data avail- 
able flag). Obviously, to ensure 



that no input Is missed, these in- 
structions should be contained 
in a loop, with a branch out only 
when a character is read. 

To output data to the TTY an 
INP9,(x) instruction will again re- 
sult in the status word being 
output on the data bus. This 
time, however, we are interested 
in bit 0, which will be the TBMT 
flag (transmitter buffer empty). 
If the TBMT flag is a 1 then the 
data may be output to the UART 
for transmission. To do this, an 
0UT9,(x) instruction is required. 

Note that during transmis- 
sion from the UART the EOC line 
on pin 24 goes low. This keeps 



-ROM 

IN'ERFO 

BOiRD 




Vrr ■ PifJ '6 OND ■ Oln 8 



V-r ' ' '^ ^^ GND-fNS 



TO INPUT 

POUTS 11-1! ; 

^lf USED! 



Fig. 3. Eight-bit parallel input port board (only three ports shown). 

Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www trs-80 com 



BOARD 



enou 

INTEBFACE 

eoAHo 




Fig. 4. TTY interface. 



F»0» 

OUTPU' 

PORT 

BOflBD 




- J 



Fig. 5. Furnace control. 



the output from the 7400 high, 
which prevents the DART from 
seeing the transmitted char- 
acter on the receiver side (pin 
20), 

Three other flags are output 
on the data bus: the OR 
(overrun), FE (framing error) and 
PE (parity error). These can be 
checked by software if required, 
but this is not absoluteiy neces- 
sary. 

Home Climate Controls 

Programmabie timers that 
will turn down the thermostat 
setting at night are available, 
however, the cost of two more 
thermostats is even less, and 
besides that, it gives your 
TRS-80 something to do while 
you are working! 

My house has three levels, 
and so a thermostat on each 
level is enabled by a signal from 
an output port under program 
control. As a safety feature, 1 
have wired three outputs 
through a plug and socket 
arrangement, so that in the 
event of a failure of the com- 



puter, by disconnecting the 
plug, all three thermostats are 
automatically enabled (see Fig. 
5). (There's nothing worse than 
trying to fix a program bug when 
you can't see the monitor for the 
ice crystals!) 

The triac— I used one from my 
junk box, as the voltage and cur- 
rent demands are minimal 
(check this on your unit)— turns 
on the furnace as the thermo- 
stat used to do. The triac is 
turned on by a simple circuit 
consisting of a LED and an LDR 
(light dependant resistor), which 
I bought at Radio Shack. Of 
course, these two items must be 
enclosed in a lightproof con- 
tainer to be effective. 

To provide a means of keep- 
ing time in the computer, I used 
a one-minute pulse from a 
digital clock (which I had built 
some time ago) connected to in- 
put port 0. The clock itself is 
driven by a 160 kHz crystal, 
which is divided by a number of 
binary counters {7493s) con- 
nected in series to produce a 
one-minute pulse. The input port 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 101 







00005 






















00010 


;ttyopi 


ALLOWS USE DF A REGULAR 


TTY WITH THE 






00020 


;trs-8 


. THIS ALLOWS DIRECT USE 


OF LLIST AND 






00030 


;lprimt 


COMMANDS. IT RESIDES AT 


7F00(H) WHICH 






00040 


; I S THE 


ADDRESS C32512D) THAT MUST BE ANSWERED 1 






00050 


; i:j respq-jse 


TO "MEMORY SIZE?". 


AFTER LOADING 






00060 


;a "/" 


WILL LOAD THE DCB C4026H 


I 4027HJ WITH 






D0070 


;THE "START" 


ADDRESS AND WILL THEN JUMP TO | 






OOOBO 


: BASIC 












□ 0090 










7F0D 




ODIOO 




ORG 


7F0OH 




7FO0 


D30B 


001 ID 




OUT 


t 1 n^A 


; RESET UART 


7FD2 


21 1 07F 


00120 




LD 


HL* START 


;adDR of TTYOPl 


7F0 5 


222640 


00 130 




LD 


C402eH) *HL 


.'INTO DCB 


7F08 


212A40 


00140 




LD 


HL^402AH 


jchar count ADDR 


7F0B 


36^0 


00150 




LD 


CHL)^ 64 


;L0AD # OF CHAR/LINE 


7F0D 


C319 lA 


00 160 




JP 


1A19H 


iJP TO BASIC 


7F1 


79 


00170 


START 


LD 


A^C 


;CHAn TO BE 0/P 


7F1 1 


FEDD 


OOISO 




CP 


13 


;CK IF CR 


7F13 


2004 


00 190 




JR 


NZ^Al 


;JP IF NOT 


7F15 


CD2F7F 


00200 




CALL 


CRLF 


;CR+LF ROUTINE 


7F18 


C9 


00210 




RET 






7F19 


CD267F 


00220 


Al 


CALL 


OPCHAR 


JCHAR 0/P ROUTIiJE 


7F1C 


DD7E05 


0023D 




LD 


A> C IXt5) 


;LD * OF CHAR LEFT 


7F1 F 


FEOO 


0024D 




CP 





;CK IF CRLF NEEDED 


7F2I 


CO 


00250 




RET 


HZ 


;RET if NOT 


7F22 


CD2F7F 


00260 




CALL 


CRLF 


;CR+LF ROUTINE 


7F2 5 


C9 


D270 




RET 






7F26 


CD3E7F 


00280 


QPCHAR 


CALL 


CKTBMT 


;CK IF TBMT 


7F29 


D309 


290 




OUT 


C 09),A 


;0/P CHAR 


7F2B 


DD3505 


003DD 




DEC 


C lX+5) 


J DEC CHAR CO'JNTER 


7F2E 


C9 


00310 




RET 






7F2F 


3E0D 


00320 


CRLF 


LD 


A^ 13 


;load CR 


7F31 


CD267F 


00330 




CALL 


3PCHAR 


;o/p char 


7F3'^ 


3E0A 


00340 




LD 


A^ 10 


;load lf 


7F36 


CD267F 


00350 




CALL 


OPCHAR 


;q/p lf 


7F39 


DD360540 


00360 




LD 


C 1X*5) ^ 64 


;rel3ad char coujter 


7F3D 


C9 


00370 




RET 






7F3E 


F5 


003BD 


CKTBMT 


PUSH 


AF 


;SAUE char in a 


7F3F 


DB09 


00390 




IN 


A* C09) 


; i/p UART flags 


7F^1 


E6 1 


00400 




KID 


1 


1 STRIP OFF TBMT 


7F4 3 


FEO 1 


00410 




CP 


I 


;CK IF MT 


7F«5 


20FB 


00420 




JR 


NZ*CKTBMT+I 


JJP IF NOT 


7F^7 


Fl 


00430 




POP 


AF 


J RESTORE A REG 


7F4 8 


C9 


00440 




RET 






7F00 




00450 




EtD 


7F0 0H 




OODOC 


TOTAL ERRORS 










CKTHMT 7F3E 












OPCHAR 7F26 












CRLF 


7F2F 












Al 


7F19 












STAR! 


7FI G 




















Program A. 





is continously monitored for a 
change in state. Other methods 
could be used, e.g., a FOR-NEXT 
loop or a 555 timer circuit if you 
are not too concerned about ac- 
curacy. 

Model Railway Speed Control 

The speed control shown in 
Fig. 6 is a simple digital to ana- 
log converter circuit. With bit 3 
low, the output of the converter 
circuit is low, hence Q1 and Q2 
are turned off. With bit 3 high, a 
voltage is presented to the base 
of Q1 , turning it and 02 on. The 
exact voltage is determined by 
the binary value of bits 0, 1 and 
2. The output voltage appearing 
at the emitter of Q2 is incre- 



mented in eight steps by decre- 
menting the binary value of the 
four inputs to the 7406 (bits 0-3). 

Perhaps the easiest way to 
explain this is by saying that 
with a value of B, Q1 and Q2 are 
off and with a value of 0, they are 
full on. Thus, the train is stopped 
with a value of 8 and runs at 
its fastest speed with a value of 
presented to the converter cir- 
cuit from the output port. For 
values between and 7, the train 
runs at a correspondingly 
slower speed. The actual voi- 
tage is from about 6 V, which is 
the lowest voltage that most 
HO-scale trains will run at, to 
about 11.5 V (assuming a 12 V 
supply}. 



Software 

If you decide to build the TTY 
interface board, the following 
programs should greatly en- 
hance the capabilities of your 
computer. 

Programs A and B allow the 
use of the resident TRS-80 LLIST 
and LPRINT commands with a 
model 33 (or similar) TTY and the 
TTY interface board previously 
described. 

The TRS-80 is designed to pro- 
duce hard copy on a line printer 
through a memory mapped I/O 
port at address 14312 (37E8H). 
The software routines neces- 
sary to permit this function are 
continued witfiin the BASIC 
ROM. 



I first thought that 1 would be 
able to use these routines by 
decoding address 14312 and wir- 
ing the UART circuit to it. 
However, I found that the ROf^d 
routines do not issue a tine feed 
command, at the end of a line of 
print only a carriage return com- 
mand is issued. Obviously the 
Radio Shack line printer auto- 
matically line feeds whenever it 
receives a carriage return. A 33 
TTY does not! 

With the help of the RSM 
monitor I eventually found the 
answer. 

On power-up initialization a 
number of addresses m RAM 
are loaded with information 
used by the BASIC interpreter. 
Two of these addresses 16422 
and 16423 (4026H & 4027H) are 
loaded with the entry point of 
the line printer output rou- 
tine— 1421 (0580H). By providing 
my own TTY handling routine 
and directing the BASIC inter- 
preter to it by changing the con- 
tents of 16422 and 16423, the 
TRS-80 can output to TTY rather 
than to the line printer. 

Programs A and B do just 
that. Program A is the actual 
assembly language program 
which I produced using the Ra- 
dio Shack Editor Assembler. It 
generates a line feed whenever 
a carriage return is performed. It 
also generates a CR and LF 
when 64 characters are printed 
on any line, thus the hard copy 
looks exactly the same as dis- 
played on the monitor. 

If you have the Editor As- 
sembler program, I recommend 
producing program A and mak- 
ing a tape copy of it. Simply load 
it using the system command 
and enter a "/". This loads the 
pointer addresses 16422 & 16423 
and returns to BASIC. 

For those who do not have the 
Editor Assembler, program B is 
provided. This is a BASIC lan- 
guage program which POKEs 
the machine (or assembly) lan- 
guage program into high memo- 
ry. Once POKEd, the BASIC pro- 
gram can be deleted and the 
TTYhandler program will remain 
in high memory until power is 
removed. 

Two versions are shown: one 
for 4K and one for 16K. Remem- 
ber that whatever method you 
use, the memory size must be 



102 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



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ANNOUNCES 
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PROGRAMMERS 



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p^ Rvatier S»nnce—s»9 page 147 



&) Microcomputing, March 1980 • 103 



10 REM THIS IS THE 4K VERSION OF A BASIC PROGRAM FOR LOADIMG 

3D REM A MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM INTO HIGH MEMORY TO ALLO U 

30 REM ';SE OF A TTY WITH LLIST AND LPRINT COMMA-JDS. 

40 REM OMCE LOADED* THE TTY HANDLER WILL REMAIN IN MEMORY 

50 REM i.rjTIL POWER IS REMOVED* AMD THIS PROGRAM MAY BE ERASED 

60 REM MEMORY SIZE MUST BE SET AT 20224 PRIOR TO RUMNING THIS 

70 REM PROGRAM. OUTPUT TO THE TTY IS THROUGH PORT 9 

90 CLS 

100 FOnX=2022ilTO20296 

I 1 READY:POKEX*Y 

120 NEXT 

130 P0KE16526* 0!POKE16527* 79 

135 PRINT"TTY HANDLER LOADED" 

140 X-MSRCO) 

1 50 END 

1000 DATA21 1* I 1*33^ 16* 79 *34*38* 64*33*42* 64* 54* 64* 19 5*25*26* 121 

10 10 DATA2 54* 13*32*4*20 5*47*79*201*205*38*79*221*126*5*254*0 

1020 DATA192* 205*47* 79* 20 1*205* 62* 79* 2 1 1 * 9* 22 1 * 53* 5* 2 1 * 62* 1 3 

1030 DATA2 5*3 6* 79* 62* 1 0* 20 5* 38* 79* 22 1 * 54* 5- 64* 20 1 * 245* 2 19*9 

I 04 DATA23 0* 1*254* 1 * 32* 248* 24 1 * 20 1 

Program B. 



Bit 


Meaning 





Always (TBMT) 


1 = 


1 DAV (data available) 


2 = 


1 OV (overrun error) 


3 - 


1 FE (framing error) 


4 = 


1 PE (parity error) 




Table 1. 



lines 1150-1195 can be replaced 
by: 

1150 AJ^ "TTY ERROR, FAULT CODE":S» 

= STBS(S):AJ = AS + S$ 
1160 PRINT A$:GOSUB1 300 

In this case, you must break 
down the decimal fault code 
given into binary and Table 1 
used to determine the error. 



set to 20224 for a 4K computer 
or 32512 for a 16K computer. If 
you use program B take care 
when entering the DATA state- 
ments. One wrong entry will 
probably cause your computer 
to get lost which will require a 
Power-Off reset to get it back, 
which will erase your program 
entirely. 

Program C. Program C is a 
TTY test and demonstration pro- 
gram. It initially requests the op- 
erator to input the number of 
"fox" messages required and 
then goes on to output the 
number of times requested the 



standard TTY test message: 
"The quick brown fox jumps 
over the lazy dog. 0123456789". 

The operator is then prompt- 
ed to type a message. Note that 
the message is terminated with 
a semicolon (;). The typed letters 
are displayed on the monitor 
screen and are also typed back 
on the TTY providing that no er- 
ror flags are set. 

Thus, if you have a suspect 
TTY, the location of the problem 
can be determined (i.e., key- 
board or printing unit) by using 
this program. For example; if the 
"fox" message types OK and 



1DD0 CLC^R^aO 

JDIO I^PUT-« OF nx MESSAGES-;^ 

1020 TJTl l.0iGr)SIIB133D 

I [123 A1--TTY TEST PROGflAM' i GOSUB 1 300 

1036 A»-'TKE OUICK BKim FaX JUMPS 3UER THE LAIY DO G. 01 234567B9' 



1 010 
1035 

loao 

1 050 
IDTO 

Idea 

1090 
1 100 
1110 
IIZO 
1130 
1131 
1135 
1137 
1 I5D 
1 160 
I ITD 
1171 
1 IBD 

usa 

11Q0 
119S 
1 19S 
1197 
1200 
1210 
13II0 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 



G1S'JB1300 

fEXT 

AI""PLEASE TYPE A MESSAGE" i GaSUB130 

CLS 

Al--- 

S-IVP(9HS-SA.VD3DlirS-OTKEM109 

IFS»ZTHEN1 150 

A-I-gPt 10)iOL'T10*0llFA-59THENl 1301REM ) TERMINATES IMPUT 

Xl>CHRICA)iAl-A«'XSiPRI;4TIS56f AIiGOT0ia9Q 

GOSUB1330 

C? 5 UB 1 3 

A»-"TTY IMPUT LOOKS OK-PLEASE TYPE AGAIN" i GOSUB 1 300 

OQTO 107D 

SS-5ISS-SSA.N016I I FSS*> OTHDJ 1 1 BO 

SS"SlSS-SSA.'*DBiIFSS<>OTKEfill90 

SS-SiS5«SSA.-JD«rIFSS<»(]THE?lll95 

GO TO 11 9 7 

AI-" PARITY ERROR" rPRlrJTAii GOSUB 130 

GO TG 1 1 6 D 

a»«"rRAMIMG ERROR" I PRlMTAIi GOSUB 1 30 D 

CO TO 1 I 7 

Al- "OVERRUN ERR0R"lPni?JTA»iG0SUB13DD 

A»-"TYPE AGAI!V"l PRIHTASlOOSLIBlSOII 

rORZ-ITDlOOtMEXT 

OUTIIjOiGOTOIOBO 

FORX-lTOLPI(A») 

CfMIDKAt.Xi n iC-ASCCC>)iG0SUBI36ll 

^ext 

C-13iGOSirai360 

G>1 Oi aOSUSI360 

RETURN 

S-I!4P(9) t5>SANDllirS-0THEM136n 

3UT9.CtRETURM 



Program C. 



the characters displayed on the 
monitor are incorrect, then 
obviously the trouble is in the 
keyboard or transmitter portion 
of the TTY. Of course, the UART 
wiring is also checked by this 
test. 

Line 1090 is a line in a contin- 
uous loop monitoring the status 
word flags for a change. If a 
change in state on any flag ex- 
cept the TBMT flag is detected, 
line 1100 will determine whether 
an error is present with the 
received character. If an error 
exists, then a transfer will be 
made to line 1150, where the par- 
ticular error is determined. If no 
error has been detected by the 
UART, control will drop through 
to line 1110, where the received 
character is processed. 

To save typing and memory. 



Conclusion 

In addition to the uses already 
described, the interface unit has 
been used to turn on and off out- 
side lighting at Christmastime, 
as a telephone dialer and is pre- 
sently being used to control 
basement lighting in addition to 
the climate control system pre- 
viously described. 

Providing care and patience 
are used, even a novice should 
be able to build this unit, as no 
special tools are required. Once 
this unit is built, I am sure that 
you will discover that your 
TRS-80 is no longer just an "ex- 
pensive toy," but rather a useful 
addition to your household. 

Should you decide to build 
the unit and if you have any com- 
ments or suggestions, I would 
be pleased to hear them. ■ 




Fig. 6. Model railway speed control. 



104 ■ 80 Microcomputmg, March 1980 



UTILITY 



How to share your video 
information with your line printer 



LPRINT Routines 



Craig Werner 

Abington Computing Group 
1824 Watson Rd. 
Abington PA 19001 



Working with the TRS-80 
microcomputer and its 
companion iine printer presents 
many inherent probiems be- 
cause, unlike many terminais, 
the printer is not directiy con- 
nected to the keyboard, so that 
data on the video screen wili not 
be typed out onto the printer, 
and vice versa. There is also the 
probiem of the TRS-80 ex- 
ecuting an LPRINT statement 
when either the printer or the ex- 
pansion interface, or both, are 
turned off, or when no printer ex- 
ists. 

In the first two cases, the 
computer wiil "lock up," but 



ILI 


NPUT"L 


i_ 1 ',' 1 


ILI HH-','\- 


H PPlNlfR'. 


Vf-. PR rJLl ' " 


R* 












.-■Li 


f- H* = ' 


Nu" 


JHf-N 1 


^ 1 




















itn"i 


rt- = T**ttt«« 


tt# 






















IIG 


PPIN f 


THE 


■^.RL.E.-:. 


TRX t 


IN THE 


I TEN 


I-;" . U'-, 


ING i:*, T 












l^'W 


1^ Q=1 


FHFN 1?:0 


ELSE 


LPR 1 NT 


"THE 


SHLES 


TR;: UN THE 


I TEN 


1 ■-'■ " 


ij:-: 


ING rt: T 


3ie 


PRINT' 


THE 


T D r HL 


r. o-^.r 


\9.": U-; 


inn C*. r; 














14ti 


It- U^i 


TH(-_N ±■z^li^ 


EL ---.F. 


1. PRINT 


" IHE 


TiiTRl 


~rv^ 1 !■-_.". H 


■■irj 


J 1 


i. 1" 






1 5ti 


PPINT' 


1HF 


RMOUN" 


h I rJuNll E L-' I 


-. " . \l 


.irjij it 


^ 












160 


IF = 1 


THLN 1.7G 


El SE 


LPRINT 


"THE 


RMPUrJT 


FINRNCEC' 


I'^" 


U' 


. J NG 


r* 


F 


IZti 


PRINT' 


THE 


NONTMl 


W PH'Vr-IFNT I 


=^". LINING C* 


P 












i :-:a 


IF Q = l 


THEN ISmi 


ELSE 


I RklNt 


" T HE 


MPNTHL 


T- PHVHtNF 


IS" 


us I UU 


L * 


P 


■1 [F'M 


PEM rHFRt 


hre -^ 


MLiP-E 


:-.TtHTtNKN 1 S 
























Example 1. 


Repetition of statements 













oniy until the respective hard- 
ware is turned on. The outcome 
of the last case is dependent on 
whether the computer is hooked 
up to an expansion Interface. If 
it is not, then the lock-up can be 
broken by simply pressing the 
Reset button in back of the key- 
board. If an interface is connect- 
ed, then the Reset button will 
cause a power-up, and the resi- 
dent program will be lost. 
(However, even though it is lost 



it is still retained in memory and 
can be accessed by using a re- 
covery procedure not to be dis- 
cussed here.) 

Robbing Peter to Pay Paul 

A direct link between the key- 
board and the printer is possi- 
ble, but only at the expense of 
the video display. It Is accom- 
plished by POKEing the con- 
tents of the printer driver ad- 
dresses into the video driver ad- 



111 INP 
20 IF 

lie H* 

150 R* 
170 H* 
L^ij RE 
7*0 00 C 
7010 P 
7020 I 
70j:0 L 
7040 R 



R* 



Ur"i.'Li '.'OLI HR'v'E R PPINTER'-.VES OR Nu 

Ht="NCi" THErJ y>--x 

= "THE SHLES I RX riN I HE ITEM IS":S = T GOSLIB70eiei 

=^"THF TQTRL COST IS" S^C GOSIJB,'0GI0 

^"THE RMDIJNT FINRNCED IS" S-F GOSUE7O00 

= "THE r-IQNTHLV PRVMENT I S" S=P GDSUB7000 

M tHFRE HRE y MURE srRTEMENTS 

*=*»#««» tttt 

RINTRt; USING L». S 

F n=l THEN RETURN 

PRINT R*. USING C*; S 

E TURIJ 

Example 2. Use at a printer subroutine. 



dresses. These numbers, 141 in 
16422 and 5 in 16423. when 
POKEd into 16414 and 16415, re- 
spectively {i.e., POKE 16414,141: 
POKE 16415,5), will cause all 
output to go to the line printer. 
Nothing will appear on the video 
screen. All functions, including 
the AUTO and EDIT functions, 
will continue to work as before; 
however, all keyboard input will 
be input blindly, since the input 
line will not be printed on the 
line printer until ENTER is 
pressed. 

This technique can also be 
used backwards by POKEing 
the video commands into the 
printer addresses (POKE 
16422,88 : POKE 16423,4). This 
will cause all LPRINTs to be 
printed on the video and ignored 
by the printer, becoming tor all 
intents and purposes, PRINTs. 
It is useful in testing a program 
containing LPRINTs for text er- 
rors and formatting without us- 



&) Microcomputing, March 1980 • 10S 



ing paper or even the printer. 

Duplication and Some 
Alternatives 

In most cases, however, it is 
desired to have output to both 
the video and the line printer 
concurrently. The simpiest way 
to do this is to type the line 
twice— once with PRINT, the 
other with LPRINT, as in Exam- 
ple 1. This is the most obvious 
approach, but it is a terrible 
waste of time and memory, 
especially with conditional 
LPRINTs and many statements, 
as in the example. With a four 
line subroutine, all duplication 
can be avoided, as in Example 2. 
In this particular instance, the 
modification saved 700 bytes. 

Another alternative to dupli- 
cation is direct conversion of all 
PRINTS to LPRINTs. The com- 
mand code for PRINT is 178, 
while the LPRINT code is 175. To 
change all PRINTS to LPRINTs, 
use the command in Example 3. 
While this command is de- 
signed to be used in the direct 
mode, it is easily adaptable to 
the programming mode. To re- 
verse the process and go from 
LPRINT to PRINT use the com- 
mand in Example 4. 

These two commands are 
complex for a reason. They will 
change only PRINT and LPRINT 
statements and will leave all 
programs pointers, line 
numbers, GOTOs, GOSUBs and 
variables untouched, and will 
automatically end at the end of 
the resident program if the pro- 
gram is less than 16K. 

A More Viable Solution 

These routines are useful, but 
in practice the most useful 
method of outputting to the line- 



printer is by PEEKing the video 
display memory addresses and 
outputting the information to 
the line printer. )t is useful in 
that it retains the format of the 
screen and will support PRINT 
@s and near graphics, which 
are normally ignored. 

For best results, the subrou- 
tine should be called after the 
screen is filled and all inputs are 
entered. It is also necessary to 
CLEAR 150 bytes of memory for 
string manipulation. 

The Screen Printer subroutine 
is found in Example 5. It is 
ideal for a sample run of a pro- 
gram, and could be called every 
time the screen is filled. It would 
type out every character in its 
place, including graphics. 

Lines 20000 and 201 15 make it 
possible to control access to the 
subroutine. Because of those 
lines, if the line printer is either 
initially off or is turned off dur- 
ing execution, the program will 
RETURN and continue execu- 
tion and will not lock-up. (The 
address 14312, the line printer 
address, will store a 255 when 
the line printer's power is off, a 
223 when its power is on but its 
motor switch Is off, a 191 when 
its I/O buffer is partially full and 
a 63 when it is ready to receive 
instructions.) 

The routine need not be typed 
in with the program, nor need It 
remain an intrinsic part of the 
program, although it could. 
Rather, it can be written with 
high line numbers (20000 or 
30000), stored on a separate 
tapeand Appended to the end of 
the resident program. 

To Append: Print the PEEK of 
16633 for the LSB of the End-of- 
Program pointer and the PEEK 
of 16634 for the MSB, then sub- 



FOR N = 171?e TO 3Z76fa if PEEK(M-0 AND PEEKiN . = AND PbEKlN -t 2j - 
THEN END ELSE IF PEEKiNi = THEN N - N t 4 NEXT ELSE IF PEEK(N) =^ 1 ?B THEN 
POKEN.175 NEXT ELSENE?!T 



Example 3. 



20000 IF PEEK'.1431.S:j<>63 THtN RETURt-J 
20010 LPRINT sTRlMG*<.e4, " + "> 
20020 FOR rJ=l^:-;60TO16T:83: STEP €4 

20030 q=peek<n:i 

2o040 if q.> = 127 rnd q<: = 191 then q = 42 

200?0 R* = i::HR*':.Ql 

200^0 FOP Q = l TCife.:-^: 

^■0U",'ti :j = Pbt»: '.r-i+CJ'' 

20080 IF Z:- = 127 RND Z< = 191 THEN Z^42 

20090 e*=C:HR*(:Z,~' 

20100 Rt=R*+B* 

20110 NEXT Q 

aOll-? IF PEEK ( 14312 -iOf^STHEN RETURN 

2012O LPRINT'' ■':LPRIHT H* 

20iZ!:0 ne;-:t n 

20140 LPRINT STRING*' e4. "-^" ■> 
20f=.t' FHR N = 1TD3 LPR I N ) " "NEXT 
20160 RETURN 

Example 5. Screen Printer subroutine. 



.-"I0k10 


rJl=PFFK' 1641 r ■*2'-".f-".--' •■.4<-pu::.':.0"' >4PEEK (. 1641tiJ 


.-■ 1 Mill 


r J. -' = Nit- -.-.?■ 


21 020 


R = PFFV. ■ NJ ■ IF R:-^=^12r RNO R-^-ll^*! 1 MFN R-4;' 


^■10^0 


Ri^LHRt ' H 1 


.■J 040 


N1=^N1 + 1 I^LIP H^rJl "ID fJ,' 


."'1050 


P = Pb:F-» M=l > IF h. =1117 RrJL' R --l--<i THFfJ F:--4^' 


210lS0 


Bf^CHPt ' P • Ht^Hl+Pr 


2_1_0,'^0 


N(:;-:t m 


.:.' 1 n;r;u 


L F-h IfV 1 H* 


2 10'='0 


RETURN 




Example 6. Single line Screen Printer subroutine. 



FOR N - WI2d TO 32/68 !F PEEKINi-O AND PEEKiN • 1i = AND PEEKIN 


- 21-U 


THEN END ELSE IF PEEKiNi - THEN N - N . a NEXT ELSE IF PEEK'N) _ VE 


THEN 


POKE H 178 NEKT ELSE NEXT 




Example 4. 





tract two from the LSB (unless 
the LSB is or 1 , in which case 
subtract one from the MSB and 
add 254 to the LSB). Take the 
new LSB and MSB and POKE 
16548, LSB : POKE 16549, MSB. 
Then load the subroutine using 
CLOAD, and POKE 16548,233 
(186 if a Disk is attached) : POKE 
16549,66 (104 with a disk sys- 
tem), then type in CLEAR:RE- 
STORE, and the program is 
ready to run. 

After Appending, add all nec- 
essary GOSUBs. One additional 
tip is helpful — choose uncom- 
mon variables in the subroutine 
(AZ,ZQ,Q9, etc) SO that they can 
be Appended indiscriminately 
without fear of conflicting with 
program variables. 

A similar routine for output- 
ting a certain N number of lines 
can also be used (see Example 
6). As is, the routine will LPRINT 
only the entire previous line. To 
LPRINT more than one line, 
simply add 64 for each addi- 
tional line to be LPRINTed to the 
second term of line 21000 
(64 + POS(0)) and to line 21010 
N2 = N1-i-63. For example, if 
three lines were to be LPRINTed, 
the above lines would read 
(192-*- POS(O)) and N2 = 



N1 +191, respectively. 

To make it completely gen- 
eral, with the value of N to be IN- 
PUT, the above lines could be 
changed lo (64'N -t- POS(O)) and 
N2^N1 +64*N - 1, respective- 
ly. It works because the memory 
locations 16416 and 16417 
return the current cursor posi- 
tion, and the POS(O) term returns 
the cursor, as far as the program 
is concerned, to the beginning 
of the line, so it need not be 
reset. 

This remains an incomplete 
list of printer applications; 
however, we have found that 
these five routines form a useful 
and, in fact, almost indis- 
pensable advantage when work- 
ing with the line printer. These 
routines could be extended into 
a text editor in BASIC, using the 
IN KEY function to type a text on- 
to the screen and then using 
either a shifted key or the 
ENTER key (which returns an 
ASCII 10) to branch to the 
Screen printer subroutine and 
output the text to the printer. 
Further applications are limited 
only by the imagination of the 
programmer. (Note: I would like 
to thank Jeff Eisen, Gene Fred 
Wieland and Robin Salmansohn 



106 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



: 1 N 1 kul-'UL 1 Nb 




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CANADA/MEXICO: ADD $3/YEAR FOREIGN: ADD S 1 2/YEAR 







^ R,,def s*ry.ce^^e€ page 147 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 - 107 



for their various contributions 
along the way.) 

Addendum 

Since I did my original re- 
search on this topic, a few devel 
opments have changed certain 
data found in this article. These 

changes fall into two cate- 
gories. 



1) When I researched the arti- 
cle TRSDOS 2.1 was the only 
Disk Operating System avail- 
able. Since then Radio Shack 
has introduced TRSDOS 2.2 and 
TRSDOS 2.3 and they have been 
widely distributed. Because of 
memory allocation, the begin 
ning of a BASIC program is not 
always found at 17129 as in Lev- 





eeiie 


. PTLPCV PRINT 


TO LPRINT COMVERSION 




will 


. TO CMflHGE TO 


.PTPCV LPBIHT TO P*INT CONVERSION 




eeii;^ 


. cnnNGE crccK 


(Lire 2961 TO -CP 17T BW 




oem 


,CHPHC£ SMI TO 


(LINE 33»> TO -LD 11X>.1?8' 


[)[>^;f<H44t 


eeise 


LD IX, I40A4HJ 


.eeoirMiNQ of basic 


[>D2B 


aei30 


DEC IX 




M>7C8e 


aeiaa stspt 


LD n <ix> 




0C7Eei 


eeise 


LC' H- ' IX*li 




ddteb; 


00160 


Lc ft. <iy»;> 




FEM 


eei70 


cp e 


TEST FOB END OF PROGPfln 


cni9ifl 


aeisa 


JP Z Ifll^H 


■ BfCK TO BASIC 


ODTEM 


eei?e 


LD fl <!>:' 




ftae 


Mise 


CP a 


.TEST FC* POINTER 


2oec 


ee^ie 


JS t*2. OCCV 




MiFa 


ee^M 


PUSH IX 


.EXCMHNQE PEGlSTEftE 


El 


00230 


POP HL 




eie^ee 


W2*e 


Lf BC,5 


, SKIP POIHTERS 


*3 


9es50 


M>0 HL.BC 




E^ 


ae^ee 


PUSH ►*. 




Dt'El 


iD0;7«i 


POP IX 


. suftp ewk 


13C'F 


m::so 


.IP STt»I 




fee; 


aej96 CHEc* 


CP 178 


.OtCK FOR PPIHT 


;se4 


eeiee 


JB Z. SWITCH 




M>;-:; 


eesie 


IHC IX 




1307 


ae:i» 


JR START 




D[i3eeoni 


ee^ie switch 


LD aX!. 175 


. Ct<«NliE TO LPBINT 


(■o;'3 


Ml^dQ 


INC IX 




13CF 


Mise 


JR STBRT 






88368 


Ere 








Example 7. 



el II BASIC. This affects AP- 
PENDing instructions and the 
PRINT to LPRINT conversion 
routine. 

The values in question are 
stilt stored in addresses 16633 
and 16634 and should be 
PEEKed for each individual ver- 
sion. Values for TRSDOS 2.1 are 
found in this article, and the 
value for TRSDOS 2.2 and 2.3 are 
36 and 106 respectively. It is a 
purely academic point, however, 
since TRSDOS 2.2 and 2.3 each 
have APPENDing instructions 
built in. Still, manual appending 
is handy to have when a full disk 
prevents the user from SAVEing 
a disk program in the TXT mode. 

The change in the beginning 
of the program also affects the 
PRINT to LPRINT conversion. To 
use the BASIC conversion pro- 
gram contained in the article, it 
is necessary to change the be- 
ginning address of the FOR- 
NEXT loop to 26809 for use with 
TRSDOS 2.1 and 27171 for use 
with TRSDOS 2.3. 

Another problem is the expan- 
sion of memory usually associ- 



ated with a disk system. BASIC 
is either too slow or incapable of 
changing all addresses in such 
a system. The following ma- 
chine language code is identical 
in function to Example 3 and 
accomplishes the same task 
about 50 times faster. It can be 
accessed via the system com- 
mand in Level II BASIC, and the 
CMD'T', "filespec" mode in BA- 
SIC. IN 2.1 it should be loaded in- 
to high memory before entering 
BASIC and then accessed as a 
USR routine. My designated file 
name for LPRINT to PRINT con- 
version is LPTPCV/CMD and for 
PRINT to LPRINT is PTLPCV/ 
Cf^D- 

2) Not all printers, particularly 
the newer models, enter the 
same data in the driver address 
at 14312 when the Print Inhibit 
Switch is turned off. It will not 
affect the Screen Printer Sub- 
routine in this article as 63 still 
designates ready to go and 255 
still designates that the power is 
off, but depending upon the 
printer, certain signals in other 
states will change. ■ 



TRS-SO PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNT- 
ING AND BUSINESS SOFTWARE 



General ledger, accounts payable, 
accounts receivable, payroll. 



Used and supported by our 
accounting office and programers. 
This Turnkey System will put your 
TRS-dO in the professional business 
computer category I 



G/L: 200+ Accts, 1700+ trans per 
month, auto verify while posting, 
randome files, cash journal, auto DR 
CR entry, complete audit trails, mini 
report generator, plus more 

Payroll: Auto pay CALC, complete 
audit trails, auto tax W/H. after the fact 
posting, journals, check writing. W*2'5, 
941 5. insurance reports, absentee 
reports, plus more A/R and A/P: 
statements, extensive invoice/CR 
Memo/DR memo files, integrates with 
G/L on three disk system, check 
writing, audit trails etc.. plus much 
more 



PER PROGRAM $»0.00/PACKAGE 
$299.00 (PLUS SHIPPING). 



To order or lor more information call or 
write to Full Service Accounting and 
Processing P O Box 2366 Springfield. 
VA 22152. Between 9:00 am and 5.00 
pm est. (703) 573-7301. Call or write 
now. VtSA/Master Charge Accepted. 



TRS-80© 
TAPE DIGITIZER 



Used by the 
l.S. Coast 
Guard and 
U.S. Navy 



-ELIMINATES CASSETTE 
LOAOMO AND COP VINO 
PROBLEMS EVEN 
-SYSTEM' TAPES! 

-MAKES TAPE PnOOHAM 

LOADtNa piiactk:alit in 

DEPENDENT OF VOLUME 
CONTROL SrmNQ! 

'HAKES PERFECT COPIES 
OF ANT TAPE WOITALLT 
WITHOUT USmO COM- 
PUTER, OKUTIZED TO EX 
ACT REPLICA OF TN«ri 
StONAt. WHILE REHOVIHO 
HUM, NOtSC AND OTHER 
MINOR DROPOUTS 

-AC POWERED NO UT 
TERIES CASSFTTE SWITCH 
ALLOWS MANUAL OR COM 
PUTEH CONTROL OF CAS- 
SETTE RECORDER 

'FEED rOUR CASSETTE TO 
THE TAPE DtamZER AND 
FEED VOUR COWPUTER 
THE EXACT DKIITAL 
WAVEFORM THE TRS40 
GAVE TO THE TAI^ WHILE 
MAHMO A COPT AT THE 
SAME TIME' 

-THE TAPE DKUTIZER IS 
COMPLETELY COMPATIBLE 
WITH LEVEL I AND II 



1^124 



*LSO .\yAILABLt tHIHOtT 




244taurphon« 
(T07)M7-723r 



IBM SELECTRIC I/O PRINTER. 



' 



OS^^'il 



TRS-80® 

DIRECT INTERFACE 

$795.00 

# cleaned and Functionally 
Checked IBM I/O Terininal 

• ASC M, Parallel 

• Service and Parts Manuals 

• 3 to 4 weeks Delivery 

• Heavy Duty Packing $25.00 

• Shipping Collect 

• Cashier Check, Money Order 



N^ 



McClain & Associates. Inc. 
5104 E. 65lh Street 

Indianapolis, Indiana 46220 
(317)842-0526 



108 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Software for the 80' s 



Enter the world ol "80" programs from Instant Software. A world where 
you and your TRS-80 can rule duchies, play poker, learn speed reading, ex- 
plore caves, design antennas, launch rockets, or simply pay your bills. 



Final 
Frontier 



SPACE Tft£K II ProiKi t^• quadrtnl from 
ttt« irtvsdt'^ Klirgon Msrarnpft Tht EfiMt- 
prist '9 VQW'PPM wiin DtMiwt, ptolofi 
torpcdOM, im()u>M pow«r, and WMp anra 
tr* you aJona and y«ur TRS«0 Lflira< I «K 
Lev«t II 16K •oainat tn» •nvmy OftfH No. 
0OO2N 17.98 



SPACE TRCK IN \M yoiKMlf so to fht Iv 

•ndi o< Itw sdw tytlwri-and bvyond 

TN» ptckae* ineiudM 

••hiIv Wan - StKWl down ih« Tk* lightart 

•nd (MtKov it>* Death S^»r 

■Wanataty Latidar - Land youf tpaoacrart 

and plant your Hag ac ros^ ine solar ayslam 

Tfwfts on»-pi«vt' gan^as r«au>ft ■ TRS-N 

L««al I 4K Oitfar Ho. DOaiR STJS. 



SPACE TNCK IV Tfada or nage Mat on a 

pianalarr scai« TM> packaoe <nclucMa: 

•Slatlaf Wan-Engaga and dMtroy Tto 

ti||t)t«rs m your attack or iha Oaatti Siar 

Fof on«|»Uy«f 

•^•^IMlaN Slmalatlaa - A iwopiayar 

gam* nrhata you control tha aconomy of 

two noi0nboi'ng ptaneti 

Vou dacida. gtrna or Owilat. wllh your 

TRSaOLavaill leK Ot«arHo.lxa4llt7.N. 




RAMAOM PATROLniE FMHTEAfKUNO 
ON CAPTUnc Duch noQara navcr had >t ao 
900a Ergaga tn axlralarraatrial warfar* 
*ith; 

•Ramrem Pakol - Oaslroy \hm Ramrom 
sMpe b«<o«a inay caplura you 
•T>a Fkglilar -Daatroy th« anamy Ti« 
hghtar* arwi bacoma a '^arool ttw raMliMri. 
• KHneoA Captaira - You ntit** capturt tna 
Klingor' shif <rlacl M't you and yoor 
TRS-«0 Lava' <l t6K batixng acroat irta 
galajiy Onlar Ha 009sn tr JL 



iASIC AHO INTERyEOlATE LUNAR 

LAHDCR Bring your Iwda* In undar manual 
corlrol Tha t)aa>c «araio« it for twglnrwra, 
Vm inlarmadiat* varaMri i» mora ditncun. 
«Nth a cnotoa ol landing araaa and ' uggad 
tarraln. For ona ptayar wnh a Tnsao Laval i 
4K Lava> II IBK Ordar No. OOOIR %TM 




Technical Data 



HAM PACKAOEI This versatile package tets you 
solve many of the problems commonly encoun- 
tered in electronics design. With your Level I 4K 
or Level II 16K TRS-80, you have a choice ot: 
•Basic Elactronlcs with Voltage Divider -Solve 
problems Involvmg Ohm's Law, voltage dividers, 
and RC time constants. 

•DIpola and Vagi Antennas - Design antennas 
easily, without tedious calculations. 
This IS the perfect package tor any ham or techni- 
cian. Order No. 0007R $7.95. 



ELECTRONICS I This package will not only cal- 
culate the component values for you. but will 
also draw a schematic diagram. You'll need a 
TRS-80 Level I 4K. Level II 16K to use: 
•Tunad Circuits and Coll Winding -Design 
tuned circuits without resorting to cumbersome 
tables and calculations. 

>5S5 TImar Circuits — OuicKly design astable or 
monoslable liming circuits using this popular IC. 
■LM 381 Praamp Daalgn - Design IC preamps 
witti this low-noise integrated circuit. 
This package will reduce your designing time 
and let you build those circuits fast. Ordar No. 
0008R S7.es. 




&J^ 



Educational 
Games and 
Simulations 



AIR FLIGHT SIMULATION Turn your TRS^SO into 
an airplane. You can practice takeoffs and land 
ings with tt>e benefit of full instrumentation. This 
one-player simulation requires a TRS-80 Level I 
4K. Level II 16K Ordar No- M17R $7.95. 

SANTA PARAVIA AND FlUMACCIO Become the 
ruler of a medieval city-state as you struggie to 
create a kingdom. Up to six players can compete 
to see who will become the King or Queers first. 
This program requires a TRS-80 Level I or II 1BK. 
Ordar No. D043R $7.95- 

OIL TYCOON Avoid oil spills, blowouts and dry 
wells as you battle to become the world's richest 
oil tycoon. Two players become the owners ot 
competing oil companies as they search for oil 
and control theif companies. Requires a THS-80 
4K Level I or II Ordar No. 0023R $7.95. 

DOODLES AND DISPLAYS II Wait until your 

children get hold of this package: 

■Of>od)a Pad -Draw pictures and save them on 

cassette tapes. 

•Symmatrlcs - An electric kaleidoscope that 

changes Irom black to white and back again It's 

almost hypnoticl 

■Drawing — Like Doodle Pad, but for the senous 

artist. Over 40 user commands! 

•Random Paltam Display — The computer does 

the drawing, but those with itchy fingers can 

tamper. 

•Mathcurvas - Bring those geometry lessons 1o 

life. Six different geometrical curves on the 

screen of your TRS-80. 

• Rugpattams- Yes, II does design rug patterns; 

and with a choice of user or computer control, it 

can do a whole lot more. 

For the Level II 16K TRS-SO. Ordar No. MH2R 

$7.95. 

WHO-DUN-IT? Criminal elements have com- 
mitted five dastardly crimes. As the investigating 
detective, you musi solve Ihem. 

You can compete against either Detective 
Nybbles, a computerized sleuth, or up to lour 
other human detectives Requires a TRSW Level 
II 16K. 

•Deduction -Guess the order of tour symbols 
out of SIX or seven different ones To make things 
even more complicated, you can let the computer 
repeat symbols and have a range ot 2401 possi- 
bilities You II need a TRS-80 Level II 4K. Ordar 
No. 0047R $7.95. 



^ Aaactor Senr/cc—se* pmgm 147 



BO Microcomputing, March 1980 • 109 




GAMES 



CARDS This one-player package will let you play 
cards witn your TRS-80- talk about a poker face! 
• Draw irKl Stud Pokw- These two programs will 
keep your game sharp. 

•No-Tmmp Bridg* - Play this popular game with 
your computer and develop your strategy. 
This package's name says it all. Requires a 
TRS-80 Level II 16K. Ord«r No. 00«3R S7.95. 



BEGINNER'S BACKGAMMON/KENO Why sit 
a1or>e when you can play these fascinating 
games with your TRS-80? 
■Backgammon — Play against the computer. 
Your TRS-80 will give you a steady, challenging 
game that's sure to sharpen your skills. 
■K*no — Enjoy this popular l^s Vegas gambling 
game. Guess the right numbers and win big 
You M need a TRS-80 Level I or II. Onl*r No. 0004R 
^$7.95. 



CAR RACeRAT TRAPfANTI AIRCRAFT Enjoy 

these ctiallenging, fun-filled programs: 

•Car Race — You and a friend can race on ■ 

choice of two tracks. 

•RalTrap — Trap the ral in his maze with your two 

cats. For one player. 

•Antiaircraft -Aim and shoot down the enemy 

airplane. Requires Level I 4K TRSW. Ordw Na 

0011R$7.S5. 



DESTROY ALL SUBS/GUNBOATSJBOMBER This 
package of three programs is fun for the whole 
family. Included are: 

•Destroy All Subs — Hunt down enemy subs 
while avoiding mirws and torpedoes. A one- 
player game. 

•Qurtboats - Try to blow the enemy's ship out of 
the water. For one or two players. 
•Bomber-Caretully release your bomb to 
destroy the moving sutmiarirw. A one-player 
game. 

To enjoy these programs, you'll need a TRS-80 
Level I 4K. Order No. 0021 R $7.95. 



BOWLING Let your TRS-60 set up the pins and 
keep score. One player can pick up spares and 
get strikes. For the TRS-80 Level I 4K. Level II 
16K. Order No. 0033R $7.S5. 



QOLF/CROSS-OUT Have fun with these exciting 

one-player games. Included are: 

•Golf- You won't need a mashie or putter — or a 

caddie, for that matter — to enjoy a challenging 

t8 holes. 

•Crote-Out- Remove all t>tjt the center peg in 

this puzzle, and your nelghtxKs will call you a 

genius. 

You'll need a TR&80 Level 1 4K, Level II 16K 

Order No. ODOSR S7.95. 



Utilities 




Education 



VIDEO SPEED-READING TRAINER You can in- 
crease your reading speed and comprehension 
with this package. It uses the principle of the 
lachisloscope, a device that leaches by display- 
ing images for a fraction of a second. This pro- 
gram can train you to recognize words and 
phrases quickly, so that your everyday reading 
becomes an uninterrupted process To increase 
your throughput, you'll need a Level II 16K, Order 
No. 0100R »7.95. 

MUSIC MASTER lets you compose music, play 
your keyboard as if it were a piano, and experi- 
ment with programming to produce music suited 
to your taste. This package includes: 
•Micro Orgar>-The program will let you play 
flats and sharps to imitate Ihe sounds of an 
organ, a harpsichord, or a piano. 
•Kaleidopy — Now you can have a computerized 
"player piano." Generate a symmetrical graphics 
pattern and then see it transformed into music. 
•Composer- EKpenmenl with computer-gen 
eraied music. This program allows you to select 
tfie length of the piece, the scale it will be played 
in, and the tempo, 

•Keymania - This game will test not only your 
memory, but your musical ear. They may laugh 
when you sit down at the keyboard of your com- 
puter, but not after they hear what the Music 
Master package can do. All you will need is a 
TnS-80 Level II 4K. Order No. OOMR. $7.95. 



TYPING TEACHER This complete seven-part 
package takes you all the way from initial 
familiarization with the keys, through typmg 
words and phrases, to complete mastery of the 
keytx)ard. Your computer can even t>ecorT>e a tx)t' 
tomless page for typing practice. It requires a 
TRS-eO Level 1 4K or Level II 16K, Ordtr No. 0099R 
$7.95, 

TEACHER 

What do you need to learn? Would you like to 
know all ot the cranial nerves? Electronic color 
codes? Civil War Ijattles? Signs of the zodiac? 
Whatever your subject matter, the Teacher pack- 
age can help you learn it. You simply input up to 
twenty questions and answers at one time. Next, 
review the material, and then lake the test until 
you have your lesson down pat The program 
gives you up to three hints per question and even 
offers graphic rewards for children, all at your 
discretion. All the information can be saved on 
cassette tape (or reuse. 

This package also contains the Teacher Data 
Transfer program, which allows you to combine 
several tests on one tape. That means you can 
learn a number of lessons sequentially witfK>ut 
changing tapes. 

Teacher is an effective instrument for anyone 
who needs to learn a lot of material in the short- 
est possible time. For decades leading educa- 
tors and computer scientists alike have been pro- 
rrwting the future role of computers in education 
Now you and your family can reap the benefits of 
computer assisted instruction in your own home. 
The program is furnished with a blank data cas- 
sette tape. You'll need a TRS-80 Level II 16K, 
Order No. 006SR S9.95. 

GRADE BOOK Teachers, now you can use the 
speed and accuracy of the TRS-80 to help you 




TRS-80 UTILITY I Ever wonder how some 
programmers give their programs that pro- 
fessional look? Instant Software has the 
answer with the TRS-80 Utility I package. In- 
cluded are: 

•RENUM — Now you can easily renumber 
any Level II program to make room for 
modification or to clean up the listing. 
• DUPLIK — This program will let you 
duplicate any BASIC, assembler, or ma 
chine-language program, verify tfve data. 
and record the program on tape. You can 
even do Level I programs on a Level II ma- 
chine. For the TRS-80 Level II 16K. Order 
No. 0081RS7.95. 



TRS-80 UTILITY II Let Instant Software 
change the drudgery of editing your pro- 
grams into a quick, easy job. Included in 
this package are: 

•CFETCH- Search through any Level II 
program tape and get the file names for all 
the programs You can also n^rge BASIC 
programs with consecutive line numbers 
into one program 

•CWRITE - Combine subroutines that work 
in different memory locations into one pro- 
gram. This works with BASIC or machine- 
language programs and gives you a general 
checksum. 

This package is just the thing for your 
TRS-80 Level II 16K. Order No. 0076R S7.95. 



calculate student grades. Just type In the grades 
for tests, quizzes, homework, classwork. or 
special projects. The Grade Book program will 
calculate and display individual grade averages. 

The program permits you to weigh student per- 
formance scores and convert raw score totals to 
a 100-points-equals-perfect-score basis. 

You can also average students' quarterly 
grades with grades tor the previous quarter, 
semester, and final exam to obtain an average 
grade for the year 

When grading time comes around, don't chain 
yourself to a calculator. Go modern with the 
Grade Book package. It requires a TRS-80 Level I 
4K or Level II 16K. Order No. 0060R $7.95. 



WORDWATCH This package combines four dif- 
ferent programs to entertain and educate. 
•Word Raea- Here's a game for two would-be 
Grand Prix drivers who can define words ac- 
curately. The more you get right, the closer you 
come to the checkered flag. 
•Hid* N Spell -First you must find the miss- 
pelled word, then correct it. The faster you find It. 
the higher your score will be. 
•Spelling Bee-This program is unique In that 
the student types back a spelling word in re- 
sponse to hearing it from your tape recorder. If 
the response is incorrect, hints and clues are 
given. Review up to 40 words in each session. 
•Spelling Tutor— Load a spelling lesson, then sit 
back ar>d observe as the computer does the rest. 
For variation the words are presented in different 
fashions, including reverse-order, with letters 
missing, and with altered letters. 

There you have it; Wordplay x four = Word- 
watch. 

Requires a TRS-80 Level II 16K- Ordw No. 0111R 
$7.95. 



110 • 80 Microcomputing, March 19B0 



Scannod by Ira Goldklang - www.trs 80, com 




EH .0^ 



■\-\ 



<;v --.^^--x — 



Business 



FINANCIAL ASSISTANT Compute the figures for 

a wide variety of business needs Included are: 

■D«pr»clatlon — This program lets you figure 

depreciation on equipment m live different ways. 

■Loan Amortization Schedule -Merely enter a 

tew essential factors, and your TRS-80 will 

display a complete breakdown of all costs and 

schedules of payment for any loan. 

• Financier — This program performs thirteen 

common rinanciai calculations. Easily handles 

caiculations on investments, depreciation, and 

loans 

•1% Foracsstlng-Use tnis simple program to 

torecasi sales, expenses, or any other histofical 

data series 

All you need is a TRS-dO Level II 16K Order No. 

0D72fl $7.85. 



BOWLING LEAGUE STATISTICS SYSTEM This 

package is the answer to the prayers ol harried 
bowling league scorekeepers The Bowling 
League Statistics System will keep a computer- 
ized list of league data, team data, and data for 
each bowler. It is extremely flexible and has a 
total of 16 different options to let you modify the 
program to suit your league's rules. The program 
is very easy to use and has extensive "butlt-in" 
aids to help you along. Requires TRS-80 Level II 
16K- Ordw No. 0058R $24.95. 



BUSINESS PACKAGE I Keep the books for a 
small business with your TR5-80 Level I 4K. The 
SIX programs included are. 
•Gerteral Inlonnation-The instructions tof us- 
ing the package. 




Home 
and Personal 




\>^^ 



■: 



m 



HOUSEHOLD ACCOUNTANT Let your 
TRS-80 help you out with many of your daily 
household calculations. Save time and 
money with these fine programs: 
■Budget snd Exponte Analysis — You can 
change budgeting into a more pleasant job 
with this program With nine sections tor in- 
come arKl expenses and tt>e option tor one- 
and three-nwnth review or year totals, you 
can see where your money is going. 
■Ufa Insureneo Cost Comparison - Com- 
pare the costs ol various life insurance 
policies. Find out the difference in price 
between term and whole lite. This program 
can store arxl display up to six different 
results. 

All you need is TRS-80 Level II 16K. Ordw 
No. 0069R S7.85. 

PERSONAL FINANCE I Let your TRS-80 

handle all the tedious details the next time 



you figure your finar>ces: 
•Personal Flnanco I -With this program 
you can control your incoming and outgo- 
ing expenses. 

•Checkbook -Your TRS-W can baiaiy» 
your checkbook and keep a detailed list of 
expenses for tax time 
This handy financial control for the home 
requires only a TRS40 Level 1 4K. Order No. 
0027n $7.95. 

STATUS OF HOMESJAUTO EXPENSES Two 

long awaited programs that have got to 
save you money at work or in the home: 
•Status of Homes -This program will allow 
you to keep track of all the expenses in- 
volved in building one house or an entire 
sutxjivision. 

■Auto Expenses -Find out exactly what it 
costs you to drive your car or truck. 
These programs require a TRS-80 Level 1 4K. 
Order No. 001 2R S7.95. 



•Fixed Asset Conlrot — This will give you a list of 
your fixed assets and term depreciation 
•Detail Input — This program lets you create arKl 
record your general ledger on tape for fast ac- 
cess 

•Month and Year to Dale Merge -This program 
wilt take your monthly kedger data arxj give you a 
year to date ledger 

•Profit end Loss -With this program you can 
quickly get trial balance and protit-and-loss 
statements. 

■Veer-End Balance-This program will combine 
all your data from the profit-and-loss statements 
into a year-end balance sheet. 
With this package, you can make your TRS^ a 
working partner. Order No. 001 3R $29.95. 



BUSINESS PACKAGE III This package can 
change your TRS-80 into a full working partner 
for any businessman: 

■Inventory-Maintain a computer-based inven- 
tory for a constant inventory system. 



•Commissions and Percentages - Let your corrv 
puter figure out markup and discount calcula- 
tions, sales tax and ntore This is a perfect time- 
saving package for any small business 
For the TRS-80 Level I 4K. Order No- 0061 R $7.95. 



BUSINESS PACKAGE IV This package can help 

any businessman get the right information tor 
those critical decisions. 

■BuslrwsB Cycle Analysis- This program can 
plot the expansion and contraction cycles of any 
aspect of your business. You'll see in black ar>d 
white |usl what's happening 
■Financial Analysis -Now you can get the 
figures for any type of annuity, sinking fund, or 
mortgage, and compute the yield and value for 
bonds. 

The package includes a blank data tape and re- 
quires a TRS-80 Level I 4K or Level II 16K. Order 
No, 0019R$9.95. 

'A Irademark ol Tandy Corporalion 



SEE INSIDE BACK COVER FOR LIST OF DEALERS NEAR YOU. 



Order Your 

Instant Software 

today! 



It ttw stora rwarBst you dovs not stock Instant SoMtware. 

us* this order blank to purchase your softtware 

directly, or call Toll-Free 1-800-25a-5473. 



Name 



Addmt. 

City 



Zip 



Oicck ~ Monry Ortkr 



CradHcardf 
SIgnMwc 



OuHtllft 


CMtNo. 


P'Ofl-KT. n.m. 


Unil Call 


Torn cm 
































































Sfl-PPMlfl 




HOD 


Mailt« 


>: 




TlMVaitfV 





[i^i 6ate 



Insta nt Softw ae- ■" 

PeterbOfOugn NH 0345flUSA [>pt 70C0 



*^ Reader Service— see page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 111 




Don't be misled by more expensive Imitations! 

This is the original Photo point light pen pre- 
ferred and supported by some of the leading 
software sources like. "Quality Software" — "In- 
stant Software"— "Level IV "products and so on. 

Just imagine . . . 

In playing backgammon, (included) when you 
want to move a man. you just point at where you 
want to move from, then point at where you 
want to move to. and your man moves!!! No 
more fumbling with keyboards— -YEA! 

Your Photo Point package comes complete; 

" 1 Photo point light pen (of course) 

• Info sheets on how to connect the pen and 
how to write your own programs 

ALL IN BASIC 

• Two apertures 

• AND two sensitivity settings 

■ A cassette tape with 4 informative programs 
and games 

• Ready to connect to your TRS-80 System. 
(DOS loo!) 

• Does not void any Radio Shack warranties 

Requirements: 

• Level II t}asic 

• And a little /mag/naf/on." 

For fast real time programming it is your lowest 

cost peripheral at *19.* 



Announcing 
NEW PEN BASIC by Steve Bjork 

Steve is one of the Best Assembly Lang, pro- 
grammers around, and he has come up with PEN 
BASIC. This low memory routine will add 6 more com- 
mands to Level II such as PENGET which searches the 
entire screen for the pen and returns a number between 
0-1024 in about 1 sec. Plus 5 other commands Perfect for 
you lightware authors and NEW light pen owners 
too! only >14.»5 




(COUPON) 

Micro Matrix 

P.O. Box 938 • Pacifica. CA 94044 

Send for yours NOW: (415)355-4635 

Name ^ 



Address 
City __ 

Zip - 



St.. 



Photopoint 
n $19.95 

Pen Basic 
LJ $14.95 



Card# 

Ex. 

Date_ 



Money 
CK. Order Visa MC 



INTELLIGENT 
TERMINAL SOFTWARE 

WITH FULL 
PAGING CAPABILITIES 

• CASSEHE AND DISK VERSION • 

Z80 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PfJOGRAI^ GIVES 
YOUR COfVlPUTER THESE FEATURES. 

• Line Scroll Up/Scroll Dov/n 

• Page Up/ Page Down 

• Screentock Top arid Bottom 

• Full Cursor Control 

• N^emory Buffer Overflow Protection 

• Automatic Right Justification 

• Automatic Formatting 

• Fuil/Holf Duplex 

• Disk Version-Rle Upload/File Download 

LEVEL II COMPUTERS - TERMCOM'" RS-232 

INTERFACE BOX GIVES YOU INTELLIGENT TERMINAL 
CAPABILITIES WITHOUT EXPANSION INTERFACE. 

TERtvlCOM" RS-232 Interface Box Includes 
RS Connector, Power Cables and Cassette 
Intelligent Terminal Software SI 25 OO 

Disk Software S 35 OO 

Documentation Only SI O.OO 

STATCOM,. ' 

5758 Bolcones Drive Suite 202 
Austin, Texos 78731 51 2/451 -0221 



CHESS * BACKGAMMON * MORE" 

NEW MACHINE LMJGbAGE GAMES' 



FOn ISK LEVEL 



Z-CHESS- 

Play ime classic gbme of CHESS using the 
TRS-W c^vfAfHics Seven levels of d'fficultv 
(li* io six levels of "look •me»ij"| frovide 

A CMULLEN&ING CAME FOR ALL AlfHaBeT* 

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112 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



HARDWARE 



Smooth out your 80's power 
glitches with a simple regulator. 



Regulate it! 



William Klungle 

1820 W. Lakewood Blvd. 

Holland Ml 49423 



As stated many times before 
in Microcomputing, the 
Radio Shack TR&60 is a lot of 
computer tor the money invest- 
ed. However, even vi/ith a good 
product such as the TRS-80, 
there is room for improvement. 

One of the areas that Radio 
Shack seems to have over- 
looked is the voltage regulation 
of the monitor. The regulation 
in the computer itself is ex- 
cellent, but voltage regulation 
in the monitor is almost nonex- 
istent. Any variation in the ac 
house current, such as may be 
caused by a pump or a dish- 
washer or a disk drive, results 
in a noticeable fluctuation of 
the video display. 

Shortly after purchasing a 
TRS-80, i decided, for aesthetic 
reasons, to place the separate 



power module of the computer 

inside of the monitor case. This 
allowed the computer to reside 
on" the family-room book- 
shelves and, with a small 
amount of rewiring, provided a 
single power switch for the en- 
tire system (see "Turn it Off!" 
Microcomputing, April 78, p. 
1 14), As long as the monitor was 
on the workbench anyway, I 
took a close look at the power 
supply circuit to see what could 
be done about the regulation 
problem. 

Regulating Transistor Circuit 

The original circuit consisted 
of a half-wave rectifier and 
several RC filter networks (Fig. 
1). The characteristics of the 
transistor circuits tend to 
amplify even the small varia- 
tions in supply voltage, so that 
without some type of regula- 
tion the video display would 
never stand still. 

In the monitor's early life as a 
portable television, there were 
provisions made on the chassis 



for an additional transistor 1o 
be mounted. The chassis has 
been punched to mount a TO- 
66-style transistor in the same 
area that the rectifier is 
mounted. Voltage regulation 
can easily be added by using 
only four inexpensive parts. 
The regulator circuit is not 
critical in its specifications, 
and any components that meet 
or exceed the minimum require- 
ments may be used success- 
fully. The original power supply 
provides approximately 120 V 
dc @ 350 mA. Any NPN silicon 
transistor in a TO-66-style case 
with a break-down voltage 
(VCEO) of over 150 volts and 



♦*— 



maximum current rating (Ic) of 
500 mA should work. 

Unfortunately. Radio Shack 
does not list some of the parts 
needed for this modification, 
so unless your local store hap- 
pens to carry parts that are not 
in the catalog, you will have to 
seek another parts supplier. 
The parts I used are shown in 
Table 1, 

The regulator circuit is wired 
as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, The 
180k resistor serves as a current 
limiting resistor for the zener 
diode. The zener holds the base 
of the regulator transistor at 
100 V dc. The transistor's emit- 
ter will always be within .6 volts 



•■8- SUPPLY 



T 




Fig. 1. Original circuit. 



1 


Sylvania transistor 


EGG 124 


1 


Sylvania socket 


EGG 421 


1 


Sylvania zener diode 


EGG 5050 


1 


180k 1W resistor 




Tot 


al cost should not exceed $5. 






Table 1. Parts list 


• 



BECTIFIES ;joQ 

— ¥^ 



T 



T 



-»■• SJPPLY 



-» — »B* SuPPLt 



Fig. 2. Modified circuit. 

80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 113 



dc of the base voltage. The 130 Short the 22 Ohm resistor 



Ohm. 7 Watt resistor, which was 
a part of the original power sup- 
ply, distributes the supply volt- 
age, which is in excess of the 
100 volt output of the regulator. 



OWIdlNSl COilllON or ^^ 

150 0"M HISISrOR - .... ,^'\iTZr 

tii* POSITION Of 
ISOOMM BESlS'OR —-r- 



(jumper**) with a piece of wire. 
Removing this resistor allows 
the regulator to function over a 
greater range of line voltage 

variations. 




INSTALL JUMPER WIRE 



ZCNER OK>Ot 



Fig. 3. Circuit modification. 



Modification Tips 

Consider the following possi- 
ble hazards: 

1. Be sure to unplug the 
power cord before you work on 
the monitor, 

2, When installing the tran- 
sistor, be sure to use the mica 
insulator and the two in- 
sulating washers supplied with 
the transistor. These isolate 
the transistor from the chassis, 

3, Use a silicone-based heat- 
sink compound between the 
transistor and the mica and be- 
tween the mica and the 
chassis. The silicone ensures 
proper heat dissipation. 

4. Use caution when working 
around the exposed CRT (pic- 



ture tube), A sharp blow on the 
neck of the tube could cause an 
Implosion, which would be, at 
the least, costly— not to men- 
tion dangerous. Place a large 
towel or heavy cloth over the 
tube while it is exposed; this 
will protect you in case of acci- 
dent. 

5, Before putting the backon, 
turn the monitor on and check 
to make sure the raster is filling 
the screen. If not, adjust the 
centering rings located around 
the neck of the tube at the rear 
of the deflection yoke. 

This entire project should 
take about one hour to com- 
plete and will put an end to the 
TRS-80's "dancing display. "■ 



TRS-J«) users 

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114 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



UTILITY 



Forgotten which tapes are what? 
Use Whazit to identify system and BASIC tapes. 



Whazit? 



J. B. Penny 
1537 Ram ada 
Houston, TX 77062 



The Radio Shack TRS-80 com- 
puter with the Level II up- 
grade has two schemes for 
loading memory locations from 
cassette. The most frequently 
used is the CLOAD command. 
This reads in a tape in the BASIC 
format. A second scheme 
employs the SYSTEM com- 
mand. This command is normal- 
ly used to load machine lan- 
guage tapes. 

Even though both methods 
operate at 500 baud, the formats 
are different. Any attempt to 
load using the wrong method 
will, at best, result in a simple 
failure to load. At worst, it could 
force you to reset or power- 
down to regain control of the 
machine. 

Deviations 

To further complicate things, 
several available utility pro- 
grams allow you to write cas- 
settes in other than CLOAD or 
SYSTEf^ formats such as RSM- 
1S, GSF and The Electric Pencil. 
The Level II version of Micro- 
chess, for example, incor- 
porates a special program 
loaded as a preamble to the 
main program. 

Couple this with a typical hob- 
by computerist's tape labeling 
ar^d filing system and you'll get 



a fair sized mess. I must have a 
dozen tapes labeled simply 
"TEST". Some aren't latwled at 
all! 

Machine code programs are 
particularly fond of deviations. 
Though the TRS-80 requires a 
file name when operating under 
the SYSTEM command, T-BUG 
allows you to load machine ob- 
ject code without one. But if you 
don't know where your "mys- 
tery" program is located, you 
may crash both programs. 

Since I believe "it is better for 
me to light one small candle 
than to curse the darkness," I 
am furnishing the following 
listing. I call it WHAZIT. Though 
it's a long way from a total solu- 
tion, WHAZIT can be a great 
help. 

After loading WHAZIT I can 
read the header (and machine 
code trailer) from a 500 baud 
cassette without actually 
loading the tape into memory. 
The file name and memory loca- 
tion are displayed on the screen. 
Do yourself a favor; write it on 
the tape lat}el this time. 

What's WHAZIT? 

WHAZIT was written on the 
Radio Shack Editor/Assembler. 
Its first 170 lines or so are the 
business end of the program. 

After sync is found, the first 
eight bytes are read from the 
tape and stored in an assigned 
work space. A three way branch 
is then set up where the first 
byte after sync is checked to 
make a tentative format assign- 



ment. If neither Radio Shack for- 
mat is found, the default mes- 
sage is printed on the screen. 
BTEST and STEST do further 
checking to confirm the format. 
If the format is BASIC, then the 
tape player is stopped and the 
file letter is printed on the 
screen along with the other in- 
formation. 

If the tape is in the SYSTEM 
format, then it is read all the way 
to the end to calculate the end 
address and extract the start 
point addresses. The start point 
address occupies the last two 
data bytes stored on the tape. 
This address is located when 
'ENTER is typed after loading a 
SYSTEM tape. 

Clever programmers have 
been known to write TRS-80 pro- 
gram tapes where address 
blocks are not contiguous. The 



SYSTEM format allows this by 
preceding each data block with 
its own start address. If the ad- 
dresses don't make sense, this 
may be the reason. Confusion 
may also be caused by a bad 
load. 

Error checking is not included 
in the program. 

Subroutines 

A couple of useful subrou- 
tines can be found buried in the 
program. COMPU will output 
whatever is loaded in the HL 
register as a four digit hexa- 
decimal address. OUTPUT will 
print a string of ASCII char- 
acters, beginning with the ad- 
dress pointed to by the HL 
register plus one The first byte 
should contain the length 
(numtjer of characters) to be 
printed in the string. ■ 









Program listing. 


•» WUZIT/NS 










4C*B 




00100 




OBO 


4CABB 






00110 


jPROGRAH RAME 


WHAZIT: PRimV PIU HAMES 






00120 


;AIIC OTRR GOOD STOPT. BV J. B. PEimT | 


4CKB 


JlOOiC 


001 30 


START 


LD 


IIL.3C00RI UMB CURSOR 


4CAe 


II2O40 


00140 




LC 


1 40201), HL 


«ce< 


CBTC05 


001 SO 




CAIL 


li'CB : CUUR SCRBCM 


4CM 


2irB4D 


00)60 




LO 


WL,mw^ 


4CBT 


CD1C4D 


oono 




CM,L 


OUTPUT 


4CM 


PDJBOO 


001 so 


KBC 


CALL 


2BH iKXYBQARD SCAR 


4CBD 


B7 


00190 




OR 


A ifKLLB THRU 


4CU 


»FA 


00200 




JR 


Z.KBD IIP CARRAoe 


4CC0 


FSOD 


00210 




CP 


13 iRSIURM 


4cx:a 


2ore 


00220 




JR 


m.KBD 


4CC4 


AP 


0023 




lOR 


A INARB AaO 


4CCS 


CD1 202 


00240 




CALL 


3121 iDSPin DRIVB 


4CCI 


CDH03 


00250 




CALL 


29«a iFiK) sric 


4CCB 


31ID4D 


00260 




ua 


RL,NBUPP 


4CCH 


osoa 


00270 




LD 


B,B 


4CD0 


CD350i 


00200 


LDIiOOP 


CALL 


2351 (READ 1 9T S 


4CD3 


77 


00290 




LD 


(KL),A I bytes INTO 


4CD4 


J] 


00300 




iik; 


Ki tnsH tumti 


4CDS 


lOM 


00310 




DJHZ 


LDUMP 


4CDT 


2IKD4D 


003 20 




LD 


KL,MBUPP|HBaiR TEST 


4CM 


K55 


00330 




LD 


A,S5I ICBCK FOR 


4CDC 


BE 


00340 




CP 


(n.) |SYB . BEADBR 


4CDD 


2815 


00350 




JR 


Z , STEST 



»^flmtfwS«fV/C»— BMpJ^ 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 115 



4CDP JtOl 


00160 


LD 


A.ODIB 


tCKCK na 


4CEt n 


00370 


CP 


(n.) 


t BASIC DADB, 


ACK2 2SI4 


OO330 


J» 


z.msT 




4CE4 an5« 


00390 DTPALT 


LO 


ta..nsa2 


irePAtfLT HSC 


4f-E7 CD)C4D 


0O400 


t-ALL 


om^rr 




4CEA ED SB 2 040 


004 to 


LO 


De,(4010H]|CESTIIBtTION | 


4CEe 21BD4D 


004 23 


LD 


IL.KaOPP 


1 SOORCI 


4CFI OIOBOO 


00430 


LD 


BC.B 


1 B!fTE COtTHT 


4CP4 EDBO 


00440 


LDIR 




I XPEB DATA 


4CPk 1040 


004SO 


JR 


TOFP 




4CP8 33 


004 60 BTEST 


IltC 


BL 


mST FOR 3 


4cr9 BE 


004 7 


CP 


(HL) 


|D3'S III A ROM 


4CPA 30EB 


00490 


JP 


HZ.DTFALT 1 


4CK 13 


0O4)0 


IHC 


IL 


IDE FAULT IP 


4CPD BE 


00500 


CP 


(HLl 


tHDT roox) 


4CPE 20E4 


00510 


Jt 


m , OEPALT 1 


4D00 2I164P 


0O520 


LD 


BL.I(903 




4D03 CD3C4D 


00530 


CALL 


OOTPITT 




4IX)6 IIPMD 


00540 


LD 


SL.MBUPT 


*3 


4D09 7E 


OO550 


LO 


A,(BL] 


iPmirr tie 


4DaA C 03 300 


00560 


CALL 


331 


iFIU I^HS 


4D0D 1B2] 


00570 


LD 


A,32B 


ICUSE 


4D0P rD330D 


00580 


CALL 


33R 




4011 ia3t 


00590 


JK 


TOPP 




4014 CD350I 


00600 STEST 


CALL 


1351 


iREAD BYTE 


4017 47 


00610 


LD 


B,A 


tCOUMT fc LO. 


401 fl C0664D 


00610 


CALL 


HLADDR 


tSnRT ADDR. 


401 B 22PS40 


00630 


LD 


( STARTA ! 


,RL 


401E 05 


00640 


ADD 


A,L 




401 P 4P 


00«50 


LD 


C.A 




4020 rD6P4D 


00660 


CALL 


BLOCK 




4023 C03502 


0067 LOOPO 


CALL 


33SH 




4026 Pt7B 


00681 


CP 


781 


iCKCit POD nmr 


4028 29iT 


00690 


JB 


Z.EITDSYS 


1 POIirr BEADCR 


4D2A PE3- 


00700 


CP 


3Ci 


ICBCK PDK START 


4D3C 20P5 


00710 


J' 


RZ, LOOPO 


1 OF DATA BCADCIt 


4D1I CD1502 


O0720 


CALL 


335H 




4DI1 47 


007 30 


LD 


8, A 


\wm coam 


4D32 CD6MD 


00740 


CALL 


KLADDB 




4D3S SS 


007 50 


ADD 


A,L 




4D3« 4P 


00160 


LD 


C.A 




4D17 CD6P4D 


OO770 


CALL 


BLOC" 




4DJk 1«E7 


00780 


JB 


LOOPD 




4DK 4« 


00790 OUTPUT 


LD 


B,(BL) 


iPRIBT A STRINO 


4DlD 23 


ooaoo 


INC 


IL 


EOF ASCII ClAM. 


4B3I 7b 


ooaio 


LO 


A,(IL) 




4BSr CDIIOO 


00830 


CALL 


331 




4D42 ion 


00810 


DJKZ 


0UTPOT*1 




4D44 e* 


00840 


BET 






4M9 313010 


00850 TOPP 


LD 


BL, 20 101 1 raita off | 


4D4a 313I3C 


00860 


LD 


(3C3EB1 


HLi BOTl "'B 


4IMB CDPSOI 


00870 


CALL 


1PBB 


1 AIO HOTOR 


4MI 31kA4P 


00880 


LD 


KL.NSOS 




4DS1 CDK40 


00890 


CALL 


OUTPUT 




4DM CD2BO0 


0O900 A9<« 


CALL 


3BB 


|9CAH KEyBOARD 


40 57 B7 


00910 


OP 


A 


tPOR BREAK OR 


4D9S 38PA 


00910 


JR 


Z.ABK 


ICARRAOE RET. 


4D5A P101 


00930 


CP 


1 


iBBEAK PtEANS 


409C CAS 600 


0O940 


JP 


Z,66b 


|RZT. TO ROM 


4D5P PEOD 


00950 


CP 


13 


ICABRAQE RET. 


4M1 CAAB4C; 


00960 


JP 


Z , 9 TART 


iHEAm TO 


4D64 30C! 


0097 


JP 


HZ, ASK 


iSnRT OVER 


4D«« CD3S02 


0O9S0 BLADDR 


CALL 


1I5B 


llOAD IBXT 2 


4IX9 ftp 


00990 


LO 


L,A 


iBVns PROH 


4D«A CD3502 


01000 


CALL 


1351 


IWFC 6 LOAD 


4D«D 67 


01013 


LD 


H,A 


ilNIO THE BL 


4D6C C9 


01020 


BET 




iRBSISRR 


4D6P SS 


01030 BLOrt 


ADO 


A,L 


llEADS A BLOCK 


4070 4P 


01040 


LD 


C.A 


|OF DATA UP TO 


4071 CD3502 


01050 


CALL 


135b 


|156 BTTES LOnO 


4D74 33 


01060 


IMC 


la 


IflUKP POIWTER 


4075 81 


01070 


ADD 


A.C 


I KEEP CK9UH 


4D76 4F 


01080 


LD 


C.I 


itN RES. C 


4D77 CC3BO0 


01090 


CALL 


2BH 


;KBD SWEEP 


4D7A PE01 


01100 


CP 


1 


;STOP OK 


407c 28C7 


01110 


Jft 


z.Torr 


; BREAK 


4D7E 10P1 


01120 


DJUZ 


BL0C<(*2 


: LOOP TILL DOKE 


4D80 CDSSO: 


01130 


CALL 


235H 




4Dfl3 B9 


01140 


CP 


C 


lis CKSin WALID? 


4DS4 CC2C02 


01150 


CALL 


Z,23CH 


iTKK BLI-W • 


4DS7 C9 


01160 


HET 






4DB8 2B 


01170 SKDSY1 


O^C 


HL 


;Slnie EK) ADDR. 


4Da9 12P740 


oiiao 


LD 


( ENDA ) . 


■L 


4DSC CD6M0 


01190 


CALL 


HLADDR 


;ST01C EIITHY PT. 


4Dap 31P44:: 


01700 


LD 


( EimtyA ) . m. 


4093 113C4F 


01 210 


LD 


BL,M904 


iSTSRM HSG. 


4095 CD3C40 


01210 


CALL 


OUTPUT 





41)98 0606 


012)0 




LO 


B.6 


1 PRim- 


4D9A 11EE40 


01240 




LD 


RL , MBUFF 


»1 i TMF 


4D9D 7B 


01250 


LOOPF 


LD 


A,(HL) 


i PIW 


4D9E CD 3 100 


01260 




CALL 


33R 


MkME 


4DA1 3 3 


01270 




IHC 


RL 




4DA2 10P9 


01280 




DJHZ 


LOOPF 




4DA4 11A84P 


01290 




Ln 


BL,nSG6 




40A7 CD3C4D 


01 )00 




CALL 


OUTPUT 




4DAA 2Ar54 


01 310 




LO 


HL,( START* 1 I 


4DAD CDr44D 


01320 




CALL 


COKPU 


iPRTirr START ADDR. 


4DB0 CDCB40 


01330 




CALL 


COTIMA 


1 


4DB3 2AP74D 


01 340 




LO 


HL,(EHnA) 1 


4CB6 CD'14r 


G1^50 




-«LL 


CO.'iPO 


lPRI>ff EMD UDOR. 


4DB9 CD'-niD 


01 J60 




CALL 


70MMA 




4DBC 3AP94D 


01 3T: 




Lr 


HL.'EHTKYA) | 


4 DBF CD-44^ 


(31 >3T 




CALL 


70-PU 


iPKIFfT EHTRY ADDR, 


43^3 1881 


01^90 




JR 


TOFF 




4CC4 7c 


01 4 00 


i-O^p-J 


:,- 


^,"- 


;"RITES KL BEG. 


4DC5 CDD*4r 


01410 




C'LL 


OUTHL 


:CO!*IT(»rS AS 4 


4DCB 70 


014 7C 




t.2 


A,L 


;CIGIT HEX ADDR. 


4DC9 IflO*! 


01430 




JR 


OUTHL 




4DCB 3F2C 


0144:1 


~0-"H 


LD 


*,2CH 


iWTB IN COMMA 


4DCD CD33O0 


01450 




CALL 


33k 




4DD0 3E20 


014 60 




LD 


A.20H 


:ANC SPACE 


4DD2 CD3300 


01470 




CALL 


33H 




4DD5 C9 


014^0 




RET 






4DD6 P5 


01490 


OUTHL 


PUSH 


AF 




4DD7 OP 


01500 




RRCA 




;SWAP PLACES 


4008 OP 


01510 




HRC* 




;WITH BITS 0-1 


40D9 or 


015 20 




RRCA 




iAND BITS 4-7 


4D0A OP 


01530 




BRCA 






4DDB CDDf4D 


01540 




CALL 


BIASCI 




4 DDE PI 


01550 




POP 


AF 


;DO IT TWICE 


4DDP E60P 


01560 


■lASCI 


AMD 


15 


ICLTAR BITS 4-7 


4DE1 rr.au 


01570 




CP 


10 


:JUHP IF A<io 


4063 3B02 


01590 




JR 


C.HWBER 


jIP IC9 THEM 


40C5 C601 


01^90 




ADD 


».7 


iCmiCE TO LTR. 


40F7 C630 


01600 


(TfKBER 


AED 


A.'O' 


(ASCII OFFSET 


4DE9 CD3 300 


01'IC 




CALL 


33H 




4D^C C9 


01620 




RET 






4 DEO OOOO 


01630 


"BUFF 


DEfV 





; FIRST 8 BYTES 


4DEP 0000 


01 640 




D'FW 





;READ FROM TAPE 


4DP1 0000 


01650 




DEFW 





|ARE STORED HERE 


4 OF 3 0000 


0166? 




DEFT* 







4Dr5 0000 


0167-' 


■IT^RT^ 


Dfrv 





;STRRT ADDRESS HFRE 


40^7 0001 


0161"' 


'HVh 


DTK 





:END KODRESS RTRE 


4DP9 0000 


01*^90 


'ST'fh 


D'^FH 





lewTRY ADDRESS RCRE 




01o9S 


■LIST 


Pf 






00000 TOT*L 


^3P0=S 










PEACY C^SS-^TTT 










•PI 695:" 












01695 "LIST 


OFF 










01700 H9C1 


DFFE 


1 21 


JSCBETN HSCS. 


HERE TO END 


01710 


O'-- 


'THIS 


PROG' 


AM READS A 


SOC MUD TAPE' 


017 20 


DEFH 


■ HEAD'^R & 


PBIMTS TKT 


SYSTEM' 


01730 


DEPB 


13 








01740 


DEFI* 


'FIL'' 


NAMr 


OR BASIC FILE LETTER. ' 


01750 


DKF1 


'LOAD 


TAPF 


AND HIT EHTtR.' 


017 60 


DEFW 


OOOCH 








Omo HSG2 


DEFP 


161 








01780 


OEFH 


■the 


HEADEP 


JUST READ 


WILL IDT LOAD' 


01790 


3EF1 


' usiMG eitbeR the "system"' | 


01 BOO 


DEFB 


13 








01810 


DEF1 


'COHMAKD OR "CLOAD". 


A ORAPnC ' 


01 BIO 


DCPK 


■RTPBESPirrATIOIl OP TTB FIRST* | 


01 830 


:!!FB 


13 






1 


0ia40 


C'FM 


'EIGHT BYTES FOLLOWIK " j 


01850 


DEFM 


THE 


STWC CODE ARE ' 




01860 n5G3 


DEFB 


37 








01S70 


DEFM 


' HEADER IS 


IN BASIC ' 




oiaso 


DEF" 


'FORMAT WSE CLOAD "' 




01890 H5G4 


DEFB 


4S 








01900 


DPFK 


'READER IS 


IH "sYStWt 


PDMAT. 


01910 


DEP" 


'FILE 


HAME 


IS 




01920 HSa5 


DfB 


61 








01930 


D^FB 


1) 








01940 


DEFM 


'PRESS EItT*R 10 SO AOAIII. BREAK ' 1 


01950 


DEFH 


'TO ^IT AMD RETTnm TO BASIC | 


01960 


DEFB 


1 J 








01970 PISC6 


DEFB 


62 








01980 


DEFB 


13 








01990 


DCPH 


'BEX 


STARTIMO, ERDIBG 


ARD ERTRY PT. 


02000 


DEF« 


'ADDRESSFB 


ARE AS roUOWBt' | 


02010 


DEPB 


13 








02020 


EMD 


START 







JOB LOT BIDDING 
Manufacturara or dealers with 
job lots of merchandise, systems, 
software, publicationB, parts, test 
equipment, printers, terminals, 
disks, tapes, monitors, etc. Please 
contact Sherry Smytha at Ba3-924- 
3873. KB Microcomputing/BO/ISI 
need these for the lab and we would 
like to bid on your equipment. You 
could do better than ui auction . . .a 
kit better. 



X 



PETERBOROUGH NH 03458 


















































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116 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



APPLICATION 



Find out how you are 
physically, mentally and emotionally. 



Biorhythms 



Ralph E. Holthausen 
25 WHIets Drive 
Syossei. NY 11791 



Even (t you don't believe in 
biorhythms. your friends 
witi enjoy this program when 
you draw their biorhythm curve 
for them. The program, created 
for the TRS-80 Level II BASIC, 
can be adapted to other BASIC 
units. For anyone who wants a 
numerical Indication of the daily 
biorhythms there is a short alter- 
nate program included. 



The idea behind the main pro- 
gram is that biorhythms can 
best t>e represented by a sine 
cun/e. Normally, on paper, this 
curve is plotted on a horizontal 
axis. However, on the computer 
cun/e plotting is easier on a ver- 
tical axis. IHighs or plus values 
are on the right of the vertical 
axis and lows or minus values 
are on the left. 

The Theory 

Biorhythm means rhythm of 
life. The basis of the biorhythm 
theory is that our lives are 
governed by cycles that start at 
our day of birth. There are three 



such cycles wfwDse curves are 
plotted by the following pro- 
gram. The theory has been ap- 
plied recently to accident pre- 
vention. Many companies are 
studying biorhythms and their 
effects on airline pilots, athletic 
teams; doctors and surgeons, 
relative to performing opera- 
tions, have studied biorhythms. 
From the day we are born, the 
theory states, we are goverr>ed 
by cycles. The 23 day cycle 
called the physical cycle gov- 
erns the condition of one's 
body. The 28 day cycle called 
the emotional or sensitivity cy- 
cle governs one's temperament. 



The 33 day cycle, called the in- 
tellectual cycle, influences our 
intellect or thinking capacity. 
Those who have investigated 
the theory seem to agree on the 
length of these cycles as 23, 28 
and 33 days respectively. 

The physical cycle is said to 
affect our vitality and strength. 
The plus period which will be on 
the right side of the curve as 
printed by our computer, lasts 
1 1 Vi days and these are days of 
physical vitality, stamina, 
strength and durability. It is a 
period of self confidence, 
courage and progressive spirit. 
Athletes usually find this period 



B I W H Y 



H M S 



PRINT - 

PRINT 

PRINT "THERE ARE THREE CURVES ... PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL AND" 

PRINT 

PRINT "INTELLECTUAL, HICHS ARE TO THE RIGHT LOWS ARE" 

PRINT 

PPINT 

PRINT 

PRINT "THIS DATE. 

PRINT 

INPUT -E-iTEB YOUR BIHTHDATE . .MONTH, DAI. YEAR" : M.D.YB 



-TC THE LEFT. FLASHER INDICATES YC'JR BIORHYTHM FOP' 
FLASHER ON LINE IS A CRITICAL." 



IP M 

Di = 



(DT/23 - INT(DT/23))) 



<- Z THEN 50 
INT(3t5-25 • YR) 

D2 = IST((K ■• 1) ' 30.6) . [lOTO 70 

Dl " INT(365.?5 • (YR - D) 

ca = INT(K f 13) • 30.6 

D3 ^ □ ■• 31 » D2 

INPUT "ENTER TODAY'S DATE.. MONTH, DAY. YEAR' i K,D,YR 

IF M C=- 2 THEN 120 
100 Dl = INT1365.25 • YR) 

lie D2 - :NT((K •■ 1) • 30.6) 1 SQTO 1^0 
120 Dl - INT065.25 * (YR - 1)) 
130 D2 = IST(!M » 13) • 30-6) 
11*0 04 = D * Dl ♦ D2 
150 DT = Di* - D3 
160 P ^ INT(23 
170 CLS 

IBO FOR I = |( TO 2 • 3. Wishes STEP .lt8 
190 PRINT T*6(20 • El + Sm(I))) i '■*' 
200 NEXT I 
210 X ^ 1*0 
220 FOR Y = ^ TO 1*7 
230 SET(X, Y) 
21*0 NEXT Y 
21*5 PRINT "PHYSICAL" 
250 LET XI = UO • (1 + SIH( P 
260 LET Yl = 2 ♦ P • (39/23) 
265 FOR N = i( TO 20O 
270 SET(Xl,Yll 
280 HESET(Xl.Yl) 
2B5 NEXT N 

287 INPUT "DO YOU WISH TO SEE THE EMOTIOMAL FOB TODkf 

288 IF 2$ - "YES" THEN 300 
290 END 



.273182)) 



iZ4 



300 E = 1NT(^8 
310 CLS 

320 FOR I = TO 2 
330 PRINT TAB(20 • 
31*0 NEXT I 

350 X - UO 

360 FOR Y - ^ TC i*? 

370 SETtX, Y) 

380 NEXT Y 

385 PRINT "EMOTIONAL" 

390 LET X2 = 1*0 • (1 -- SIN(E 

1*00 LET T2 = 2 ♦ E • (39/28) 

1*05 FOR N = ^ TO 200 

410 SET(X2.Y2) 

1*20 RESET(X2.Y21 

425 NEXT N 

1*27 INPUT "DO YDU WISH TC 

1*28 IF Z$ - "YES" THEN 

1*30 END 

500 L = 1NT(33 • 

510 CLS 

520 FOB I = ^ TO 

530 PRINT TAB(20 

5**0 NEXT I 

550 X - ^0 

560 FOR Y " i) TO 1*7 

570 SET{X.Y) 

580 NEXT Y 

5B5 PRINT -INTELLECTUAL" 



;DT/2e - lNTtDT/26})) 

' 3.11*159265 STEP .kH 
[1 f SIN(I))) i "•" 



.22t*4)) 



EE THE INTELLECTUAL FOR TODAY" ;Z3 



500 



DT/33 - INT[DT/33))) 

• 3.1^159265 STEP .1*8 
(1 -* SINtl))) i "*- 



(1 

L • 
200 



SIN(L 
(39/33) 



.19CW)) 



590 LET X3 - '*0 

600 LEI Y3 - 2 ■* 

60; FCR N - TC 

610 SET(X3,Y3) 

620 RE5ET(X3.Y3) 

625 NEXT N 

627 CLS 

630 INPUT "DO YDU WISH ANOTHER BIORHYTHM" ;Z3 

61*0 IF Z$ -- "YES" 20T0 650 

61.2 PRINT " I HCPE YOUR BIORHYTHMS WERE ^DCD TCDA Y . . . iOCi'-BYt 

6I.5 END 

65c CLS : ^OTC 2 

Program Listing 1 



^ H»ad9r S»rvicB — see pagt 147 



SO Microcomputir)g, March 1980 • 117 



best for competitive sports. 

The minus period (left side of 
the curve) also lasts 11Vi days 
and is a period of reduced ener- 
gy. One tires more easily, is 
more liable to infectious dis- 
eases; medicines seem to work 
weii, according to authorities. 
This is a period of rejuvenation 
where our body seems to be re- 
charging; a good period for rest 
and relaxation. 

The emotional cycle affects 
our nervous systems. The plus 
period lasts 14 days and is a 



period of cheerfulness, creative 
ability and moral energy, This is 
a period where we are full of 
energy, good for contests, 
public performance, conducting 
jobs where teamwork is re- 
quired. 

The minus period also lasting 
14 days is a period where we 
lack ambition, tend to be moody 
and should be careful in our per- 
sonal relation with others. 

The intellectual cycle affects 
our understanding, adaptability, 
logic, wit, ludgement and con- 



Er*.iT iOTML 



INTELLCCTUHt 



Graphics Program 1 




Photo 1: Here, note that the marker is on the line: a critical day. 



centration. The plus period, last- 
ing leVa days, is the best time 
for study, planning, examina- 
tions and decisions. 

The minus period, also lasting 
I6V2 days, is a period in which 
we are apt to be lacking in good 
judgement. It is a good time for 
gathering data or for jobs that 
require repetition. 

Critical days are those during 
which a cycle crosses the cen- 
terline {vertical in the program) 
in an upswing (to the right) or a 
downswing (to the left). The term 
critical is relative, it is a period 
of change where our system is 
in a state of flux. 

Statistical research for over 
30 years seems to disclose that 
during these critical days, espe- 
cially the physical and emotion- 
al ones, we are more accident 
prone, lacking in coordination, 
judgement and alertness. Dur- 



ing an emotionally critical day, 
one is apt to make a slip of the 
tongue, irresponsible utter- 
ances, quarrel or have disputes. 
An intellectually critical day 
might cause failure of memory 
or mistakes. Critical days occur 
on our computer program where 
the blinking signal is on the ver- 
tical centeriine 0I the curve or 
very close to it. 

The Program 

Whether or not you believe in 
biorhythms, you can still have a 
lot of fun running this program. 
Lines 2 through 1 1 are standard 
print statements and self ex- 
planatory. In lines 15 and 80 
dates are input. It is important 
that they be entered correct- 
ly—tor instance May 8, 1979 
would be entered 5,8,1979. The 
full year must be written, not 
merely 79, and commas must be 




118 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 




Photos 2 and 3: The rectangle, which is the marker, flashes on the 
screen and shows the location of that day's biorhythm — emotional 
(Photo 2), intellectual (Photo 3). 



fig 



used (or the Level II BASIC on 
the TRS-80, 

Statements 20 through 70 are 
a calendar routine to find the 
number of days to day of birth. 
Lines 20, 50 and 60 tal^e care of 
the months of January and Feb- 
ruary which are considered the 
13th and 14th months of the pre- 
vious year in the formula. 

Statements 90 thru 140 also 
make up a calendar routine for 



to today's date as entered. 
Statement 160 calculates 
today's position in the physical 
cycle of 23 days. This is a frac- 
tion of the complete cycle of 23 
days. A subroutine could be 
used for steps 20 to 60 and 90 to 
130, hovi/ever I did not feel that H 
was worth the bother. 

Statements 180 through 200 
draw the sine curve. For ease in 
plotting, this curve Is drawn on 
Its side. In tine 180 the curve is 



the curve a slightly different 
form. 

Lines 210 through 240 draw 
the zero line of the curve; this 
utilizes the TRS-80's graphic 
ability. 

Lines 250, 260, 170 and 280 
plot today's physical location 
on the curve, while lines 265 and 
285 establish a timer loop. This 
timer loop makes the marker 
blink. 

Line 280 can be omitted fixing 
the marker on the screen for the 
length of the timer loop. 

In line 190 one is added to the 
sine to make it positive. It is also 
multiplied by 20 in order to print 
the curve more clearly on the 
screen. (I found these the best 
values for a nice looking sine 
wave.) 

In statements 250, 390 and 
590 the X value (horizontal) of 
the respective biorhythm Is cal- 
culated. Statements 260, 400 
and 600 give the Y value (verti- 
cal). 



The constants .273182, .2244 
and .1904 represent the values 
of 2ti divided by 23, 28 and 33, 
the biorhythm periods of the 
physical, emotional and intel- 
lectual cycles. 

The position of the marker for 
subsequent dates can be esti- 
mated or plotted day by day by 
inputting the appropriate dates. 
For those who do not have 
graphics capability on their 
computer or anyone wishing to 
substitute a numerical value for 
the graph there is an alternate 
program. It is much simpler. 
Steps 2 through 11 are omitted, 
substituting any printed mes- 
sages that the programmer 
wishes. Lines 15 through 150 are 
retained as shown in the main 
program listing. Lines 160 on- 
wards could be changed as in 
Example 1, 

The same sort of thing can be 
done for the emotional and in- 
tellectual cycles changing the 
cycle interval in statement 160 
appropriately to 28 or 33. ■ 



160 P = DJI23- INT(DT/Z3) 

170 BP = StN(P . 2 ■ 3.14159265) 

then something like this could be added — 

175 PRINT 
180 PHINT 
190 PHINT ON A SCALE OF MINUS ONE TO PLUS ONE" 



numDef-Qi 



present dat^ 



Ir^tiated frorr zero-*o Zn, which 
is one complete sine wave since 



200 PRINT ■■ THE NUMERICAL VALUE OF YOUft PHYSICAL BIORHYTHM IS "': BP- 
210 PRINT 



the" 



HARDWARE 



Add this low cost interface and you'll be able to turn 

on any memory location you want for control or monitor use. 



I/O Ports Plus 



Brian A. Harron 
67-3691 Albion Rd. 
Ottawa Ontario 
Canada K1T1P2 



By adding the low-cost inter- 
face described in this arti- 
cle, you will be able to "PEEK" 
and "POKE" your way around 
In the real world outside your 
TRS-80 cabinet. 

To begin, let's examine Level 
II BASIC'S PEEK and POKE 
commands. The POKE X,Y com- 
mand will store the value Y into 
memory location X. where Y is a 
decimal number between and 
255 representing an 8-bit binary 
byte and X Is the decimal value 
of any writable memory loca- 
tion. Conversely, the PEEK(X) 
command will return the value 
(0 to 255), which is read from 
memory location X(declmal). 

This all seems useful, but 
what shall I PEEK at and where 
will i POKE? Well, let us add 
some input/output ports in 
memory address space, then 



we will be able to send and 
receive bytes of data via these 
new ports, or registers. 

The Interface 

Fig. 1. shows the connec- 
tions necessary to add an Intel 
8255 programmable peripheral 
Interface IC to the TRS-80 bus. 
On the right side are our 24 in- 
put/output lines, each capable 
of sourcing 1 mA of current at 
1.5 volts (TTL compatible) and 
on the left side are the TRS-80 
bus connections and pin func- 
tion names 

The 7404 hex inverter and the 
7430 8-input NAND gate are re- 
quired to properly decode the 
memory addresses where our 
I/O registers will reside. These 
address decoders will allow the 
8255 to be selected (via OS) only 
when data is read or written at 
addresses 12288-12291 (3000- 
3003 hex). These locations were 
chosen because they were in 
an unused area of memory just 
above the last Level II ROM and 
well below the keyboard scan 
RAM area. It also seemed very 
improbabie that Radio Shack 
peripherals would ever use 



10 POKE 12291.153 ;REM A-IN BOUT C-IN CONTROL VTORD 

20 l = PEEK(12288) ;REM SETI = VALUE AT PORT A 

30 J = PEEK(12290) , REM SET J = VALUE AT PORT C 

40 IF I =J THEN POKE 12289.240 ;HEM 240 = 1 1110000 BINARY 

50 GOTO 10 

Sample BASIC program to demonstrate the 8255 interface. 



these locations. 

It should be noted at this 
time that with Level II BASIC in- 
stalled in your TRS-80. the inter- 
nal 5-volt supply is not avail- 
able to the user, so an external 
5-volt source capable of pro- 
viding at least 500 mA of cur- 
rent will have to be made 
available. All other required 
tines are available at the 40-pin 
edge connector located inside 
the rear access door ot the 
CPU/keyboard housing. 

The 8255 has three modes of 
operation that may be selected 
under program control: mode 



iTHS BO Bus IN 



0— basic input/output, mode 
1— strobed input/output with 
interrrupt support. For our in- 
terface we will confine our 
thoughts to mode only. Fur- 
ther details concerning the 
8255 PPI can be found in the 
manufacturers' data hand- 
books. 

Port A and B are 8-bit ports 
and port C is split into two 4-bit 
ports. Port C has the additional 
feature of offering bit set/reset 
capability. All outputs are 
latched, while the inputs are 
not. The port function con- 
figuration depends upon which 



FUNCTION VPAHENTMESES 




GItQ 



Fig. 1. Schematic of 24 I/O line interface. 



120 • 50 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Scanned by Ira Goldklang - www.trs-80.com 



ontrol 


Port A 


PortC 


PortB 


Pone 


Word 
>cimal 


(bO-b7) 


Upper 
(b4-b7) 


(bO-b7) 


Lower 
(bO-bS) 


128 


OUT 


OUT 


OUT 


OUT 


129 


OUT 


OUT 


OUT 


IN 


130 


OUT 


OUT 


IN 


OUT 


131 


OUT 


OUT 


IN 


IN 


136 


OUT 


IN 


OUT 


OUT 


137 


OUT 


IN 


OUT 


IN 


136 


OUT 


IN 


IN 


OUT 


139 


OUT 


IN 


IN 


IN 


144 


IN 


OUT 


OUT 


OUT 


145 


IN 


OUT 


OUT 


IN 


146 


IN 


OUT 


IN 


OUT 


147 


IN 


OUT 


IN 


IN 


1S2 


IN 


IN 


OUT 


OUT 


153 


IN 


IN 


OUT 


IN 


154 


IN 


IN 


IN 


OUT 


155 


IN 


IN 


IN 


IN 



Table 1. Input/output mode control word chart. 



control word is POKEd into ad- 
dress 12291 (3003 hex). Sixteen 
different combinations of input 
and/or output are listed in Table 
1. 

For example let's POKE 
12291,137, Port A (address 
12288) is an 8-bit output port, 
port B (address 12289) is 
another 8-blt output port and 



port C (address 12290) Is an 
8-bit input port. 

If port C were configured to 
be an output port {i.e., POKE 
12291,144), you could turn on or 
turn off any of the individual 
bits of port C by POKE 12290,2, 
where Z is a word from Table 2 
defining which bit is to be acted 
upon. This becomes handy for 



controlling custom peripherals 
that require strobing or mode- 
setting bits of data. For exam- 
ple, consider the challenge of 
controlling eight railroad model 
switches or turning house and 
yard lights on and off. 

Let's try a BASIC program ex- 
ample where we will look at 
ports A and C, and if they are 
equal we wilt turn on bits 4, 5, 6, 



7 or port B. The sample program 
will keep looping and show a 
binary 11110000 on port B 
whenever ports A and C are 
equal. 

One final warning: If after 
adding this interface you still 
cannot think of anything to 
control and/or monitor, then 
your TRS-80 may suffer from 
"terminal" boredom !■ 



Control Word 


Port C Bit 


(Decimal) 


Set or Reset 





bO RESET 




1 




bOSET 


2 


b1 RESET 




3 




b1 SET 


4 


b2 RESET 




5 




b2SET 


6 


b3 RESET 




7 




b3SET 


8 


b4 RESET 




9 




b4SET 


10 


b5 RESET 




11 




bSSET 


12 


b6 RESET 




13 




b6SET 


14 


b7 RESET 




15 




b7SET 



Table 2. Port C bit set/reset control word chart. 



E 



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1^ Readar SarvicB—aa» pag* 14? 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 121 



LTILITY 



A Level I program to 

help you document your programs. 



Screen Editor 



William L Colsher 

4328 Nutmeg Lane. Apt. Ill 

Lisle IL 60532 



What, you might ask, is a 
screen editor and why 
Should I want one tor my 
TRS-80? Well, first I'll tell you 
why you should want one so 
you'll be nrotivated to read the 



rest of this article and get the 
program running on your 
system. (And by then you'll 
know what one is.) 

There is one absolutely hor- 
rendous problem with pro- 
gramming small computers in 
BASIC (or in any other non- 
compiled language, for that 
matter). Even with a small pro- 
gram, once you put in all the 
REMarks and start in on the user 
instructions, you begin to find 



1 Load ir>e screen editor tape wilh CLOAD. Since this is a machine-tanguage tape 

the aslerisK won t blmti very much 

2 When ir>e monitor scfeen clea<5, you re ready to enter a screen of intofmation 
There aie tour special keys used to move Ihe cursor arour>d It>e screen. 

UP — tfie up arro* — — |hotd down Ihe Sfiilt keyl moves the cursor up one tine 

DOWN — ir>e down arrov* — i — (hold down the shifl key) moves Ihe cursor down one 

lirie 

RtGHT— the "right arrow' — |— (hold down the shiti key) moves the cursor righf one 

space 

LEFT— Ihe ■ letf or back arrow '~|— (hold down the shttt key) rrtoves the cursor back 

one space 

3. When the screen is just Ifie way you want il, ready your tape recorder and till the 
S' key l( Ihis IS the /as/ screen ol data, tiil the "L' key If there are more screens to 
enter, hit the "M key When the screen clears agam yotjrB ready to edit 

4 Wnen you have recorded the last screen ot data, press lt>e RESET button on Ihe 
back of the THS-eO Now CLOAD the BASIC program you wiole the inslruclion screens 
lot and make sure it loaded correctly Then CSAVE it onto the end of the instruction 
screen tape. 

5 To use your composite tape, load it into your recorder, press play, type CLOAD A 
screen lull of information will be displayed as last as il can be loaded from tape. When 
you want to conlinue to the neit screen, nit enter and it will be loaded. After you hit 
ENTER on the last screen, the HEADY message will appear and you can then type 
CLOfcO again \o load the BfcSlC program 



Screen editor user's guide. 



that space is limited. In fact, I'm 
sure you've seen programs that 
have no built-in instructions (or 
even REMarks) for this very 
reason. This problem is so com- 
pletely universal that most of us 
don't even think of it as a prob- 
lem. 

The obvious solution to the 
problem of providing good user 
instructions in a limited amount 
of space Is to segregate them 
from the main program in a 
module of their own. As soon as 
you do that, however, you begin 
to find that writing instructions 
that are going to be displayed 
on a video screen can be a real 
pain in BASIC. 

The first thing you realize is 
that typing P." nine zillion times 
can be boring. Then, when you 
RUN the program to take a look 
at the instructions, they zip by 
too fast to see. So you have to 
go back and stick in either an IN- 
PUT statement every 15 lines (on 
a TRS-80) or some sort of timing 
loop to slow things down. Final- 
ly, if your program requires a lot 
of instructional material (as is 
the case with some of the so- 
phisticated simulation games), 
you can still run out o1 memory 
and have to add one or more ad- 



ditional instruction modules. 

Nondestructive Cursor 

The solution to all this 
miserable tooling around with 
PRINTS and two or three extra 
programs is (you guessed it) a 
screen editor. A screen editor is 
actually a simple sort of text 
editor. Since all we're concerned 
with is one screen full ot infor- 
mation, the editor doesn't have 
to be smart. All that's needed is 
a nondestructive cursor to get 
the information where we want 
it and some mechanism tor sav- 
ing the information for future 
use. Because the requirements 
are simple, a screen editor is 
simple to use — no messing 
around with PRINTS and wait 
loops. 

If you think about it for a few 
minutes, you will find that the 
nondestructive cursor is the ma- 
tor part of writing a screen 
editor. On a TRS-80 (or any other 
system where the cursor is an 
automatic part of keytward in- 
put), there is an additional prob- 
lem. The automatic cursor fouls 
up the nondestructive goal. It 
has to go. 

The way to get rid ot an 
unwanted cursor is simple: Just 



122 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



delude the routine that handles 
it. All we have to do is see to it 
that the offending routine thinks 
the video display memory is 
someplace it isn't. . . preferably 
out of the way where the cursor, 
trailing its cloud of characters, 
can't do any harm to our pro- 
gram or our neatly edited 
display. This turns out to be 
quite simple on the TRS-80. 
There is a location in RAM 
where the TRS-80's built-in 
routines store the current loca- 
tion of that nasty cursor. That 
location is at the two bytes 
beginning at 4068<*. As is usual- 
ly the case with an address, it is 
stored backward, high-order 
byte second. 

The only safe place to make 
the cursor think the video mem- 
ory is turns out to be the ROM 
area. Anyplace else might affect 
the program. In ROM though, 
the cursor can gaily write 
characters all day and not do 
the slightest amount of damage. 
To make sure it stays "down on 
the ROM" all we have to do is 
stick a zero at location 4069<i. If 
we do that every time we input a 
character from the keyboard 
we'll always be safe. There are 
probably more elegant ways to 
pull this off, but it only takes two 
lines of code (starting at 4411ia 
in the program listing) and 
doesn't materially affect the 
speed of the program. 

Now that we have the built-in 
cursor permanently out of the 
way, we need to take a look at 
how to make our cursor nonde- 
structive. That means that when 
we back it up, for example, the 
cursor should just slide over the 
characters already typed. Of 
course, at any given location, 
the cursor character itself is 
what's on the screen. The cursor 
character we're using is the 

underscore When we move 

the cursor to another location, 
the character that was there 
before the cursor reappears. 

This is easy to implement. 
Every time a cursor command is 
Input from the keyboard, we im- 
mediately put the old character 
back where the cursor was. 
Then we generate a new loca- 
tion for the cursor (depending 
on the command entered), save 
tha character at that location 
and then write in the cursor. The 



four lines that make up the 
"save" part of this routine begin 
at location 4416'» in the pro- 
gram. 

Cursor Commandt 

Cursor commands are special 
characters that are used to tell 
the program what direction to 
move the cursor. A quick glance 
at the TRS-BO keyboard reveals 
that there are four arrow keys. 
Since each arrow points in one 
of the lour directions (right, left, 
up and down), we want to move 
the cursor so we don't have to 
use up any of the other char- 
acters to get our work done. 



While I was working on this 
program, it occurred to me that 
some people might want to use 
the arrows in their display. To 
make this possible. I decided to 
use the shifted arrows for the 
Cursor commands. This also has 
the advantage of keeping the 
cursor from flying all over the 
screen if you accidentally hit 
one of the control keys. 

In addition to moving the cur- 
sor around, we also need some 
way to tell the program that 
we've finished with the screen 
and to save it on tape. I decided 
to use the "at " symbol (ig). (The 
reason for this is just that I've 



never used it for anything else 
and decided it was about time.) 
Because there are only five 
commands to be processed, we 
can use the brute-force method 
instead of using branch tables, 
etc. Our method consists of a 
series of compares and jumps. It 
a comparison is true, then we 
jump off to handle the com- 
mand. The 15 lines starting at 
location 441Diri contain this 
series of jumps. Incidentally, if 
you don't like the characters I 
picked out for control purposes, 
just substitute your own 
choices in the compare (CP) 
statements. 











Program listing 












TRS-80 SCRS33f 


• 
EDITOR • 








AUTHOR - UITXIAK I. C0L5KER • 








SYSTCH - TRS-80, UK^ ttVEL I • 








THIS 


SIKPl£ SCREEN SDITCR WAS WRITTSN TO • 








SIHPUrr D5VSL0P5313HT OF 


INSTRUCTIONAL • 








MATSPIAL TO ACCOMPANT »SIC I>NGUA(2 • | 








PROCRAffS. 


• 
• 








THE FOLLCMIMG SEGHEHT OF 


CODE CLEARS THE 








MONITOR SCRSSN IK PREPARATION FOR EDITING 1 


mtoo 


21003c 


START 


ID HL,3C00H 


START OF VIDfi» MEMORY 


W*03 


11013c 






ID DE.3C01H 




liiiOb 


010004 






ID BC,0400H 


BYTE COUNT 


Ui09 


3B20 






ID A,20H 


PUT A BUNK IN FIRST SPOT 


iUtoh 


77 






ID (KL}.A 


,, 


440C 


EDBO 






IDIR 


CIZAR THE SCRS3( TO BIANIQ 








THE 


NEXT SECTION CF CODS 


PROC£SSgS THE INPUT. 








IF A CONTROL CHARACreB IS IMPJT, IT IS HANDED | 








OVER TO TM APPBOPRIATK 


WUTINE. ORDINARY 








CHARACTERS ARS PlACED ON 


THE SCFEEN AND THE 








CURSOR LOCATION INCREHEN'reD 8r 0N£. 1 








CONTROL CHARACTERS 1 










5B - 


UP ARROW - MOVES CURSOR UP 








5C - 


DOWN ARROW - HOVES CURSOR DOWN 








5D - 


IXn' (OR BACK) ARROW - KOVBS CURSOR IZFT ONE 








5E - 


RIGHT ARROW - MOV-S 


CURSOR RIGHTOKE SPACE 








40 - 


THE • SYMBOL - GIVaS CCWTROL TO SAVE ROITTINE. 1 


iMK 


21003c 






ID HL,3C00H 


INITIAL CURSOR IA:aTI0N 


wm 


3E00 


EDIT 


ID A,OOK 


KILL RADIO SHACK CURSOR 


WH3 


326940 






ID (4069M},A 


. . 


Uil6 


7E 






ID A,(HL) 
ID (4000) »A 


C£T CURRENT CHARACTCR 


WH7 


32004c 






AND SA'/E IT 


lti»U 


3E5r 






ID A.STH 


PUT IN OUR CURSOR 


wuc 


77 






ID (KL) ,A 


• # 


t)41D 


CD400B 


HiOT 


CALL KBDIN 


READ A KEYBOARD CHARACIIR 


IA20 


CAiI}44 






JP Z.WAIT 


, , 


li423 


rajB 






CF 5BK 


IF UP ARROW THEM 


tiUZS 


CA4644 






JP Z,UP 


HOVE CURSOR UP 


4426 


rase 






CP 5CH 


IF DOWN ARROW THEN 


UUZk 


CA5144 






JP Z.DOWN 


MOVE CURSOR DOWN 


442D 


rs5D 






CP 5DH 


IF IfflT ARRCM THEN 


mar 


CA5C44 






JP Z.IUT 


MOVE CURSOR I£FT 


K432 


resB 






CP 5B 


IF RIGHT ARROW THEN 


4434 


CA6344 






JP Z, RIGHT 


MOVE THE CURSOR Hir^fT 


4437 


PV40 






CP 40H 


XT • THEN 


4439 


aL6A44 






JP ZtSAVE 


SAVE THE SCPEEN C« TAPS 


443c 


77 






ID (HL)^ 


OTHERWISE PUT IT OH THE SCREW 


443D 


23 






INC HL 


MOVE OUR CURSOR OVER ONE 


44ir 


C31144 






JP KDIT 


AND CWriNUE EDITING 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 123 



Ultlt\ 


3A0OllC 


lAVt 


77 


l*W*5 


C9 



Uti*6 


114000 

ED52 

C31144 


W51 

W*57 
W*59 


CD41M 
114000 
SD$A 
C311W* 




CD41U4 

2B 

C311Wi 


IU»63 
1A67 


CDUllti» 

23 

C31144 



tMA 


CD8B44 


ttitiiD 


000000 


0470 


000000 


11473 


000000 


4476 


000000 


447A 


00 


447B 


CDC9(V 


b48l 


Z1003C 
110042 


i»484 


CD4B0r 


4487 


030044 



448fi 


CD400B 


itt*m 


re4c 


4490 


CAAD44 


4493 


W4D 


4495 


CA9B44 


449B 


011900 


449B 


210040 


44A1 


2Ere4l 


44A4 


21BC:44 


44A7 


110040 


44AA 


ED BO 


44AC 


C9 


44AD 


21C300 


44B0 


22D244 


44B3 


210000 


44B6 


22D444 


44B9 


C39B44 



44BC 


CD400fi 


44BP 


reoD 


44C1 


C20040 


44C4 


21003c 


44C7 


11013c 


4ilCA 


oifro3 


44CD 


720 


44Cf 


77 


4400 


EDBO 


U4D2 


C!)F40B 



THIS 13 TKS "RESTOHT' ROUTINE. IT IS CALI£D 
EVESmME A CURSOR COHUNS IS PROCESSED TO 
RSTOK THE CHARACIXR THAT HAS 'UMDER' THE CURSOR 
BBTOHE IT KOVKD. 



RESTOS 



U) A,(4C00H) 
U) (HL).A 
RET 



car THE CHARACTER 
PUT IT BUCK 

RETURM TO CALI£R 



THE POLUWIXC CODE HANDLES ALL HOVEHENT OF THS CURSOR 
INITIATED BY A CONTROL CHARACTER. 



UP 



DOWN 



lEFT 



RIGHT 



CALL RSTORS 
ID I1E,0040H 
SUB HLfDB 

JP EDIT 

CALL HESTOIE 
ID DE,0040H 
ADO HLfEE 
JP EDIT 

CALL RESTORE 
DSC KL 
JP EDIT 

CALL RESTORE 
INC HL 
JP EQIT 



PUT BACK THE OLD CHARACTER 

64 

(HL) - 64 



PUT BACK THE OID CHARACTER 

64 

(HL) + 64 



PUT BACK THE OIL CHARACTER 
(HL) - 1 



PUT BACK THE OU) CHARACTER 
(HL) ♦ 1 



THE FOLLOWING CODE HAHDIffi THE SAVING OF COHPiaTKD 
SCREEKS ON TAPE, NOT THE SLIGHTLY DirTERENT 
PRCCEDUfC FOR THE UST SCREEN SAVED. 



SAVE 



CALL RKADBR 

NOP.NOP.NCP 

NOPtNOF.NCF 

HOP, NOP .NOP 

NOP.NCP.HOP 

NCP 

CALL CTCW 

W HL.3C00H 

10 DE,4200H 

CALLCSAW) 

JP START 



SET UP PROGRAH TO GO WITH TAPE 
MO OP'S IN PUCE CV TEST CCSK 



TURN ON TAPE RECORDER 

POINT TO START M* SAVED AREA 

POINT TO END OF SAVED AREA 

SAVE IT 

AND BEGIN AGAIN 



THE FOLLOHING CODS HAHDU3 THE (ZHERATKM OF THE 
SHALL PROGRAM WHICH WIIX GO ON TAPE WITH THE 
SCREEKS. ALL SCRSEIC BUT THE lAST HAVE A ROUTIIfB 
WHICH WAITS FOR AN 'ENTER'. THEY THEN CLEAR THE 
MONITOR AND READ IN THE NEXT SCREEN. THE LAST SCRSffl 
WAITS FOR AN 'ENTER' AND THEM CLEARS THE MONITOR 
FINALLY JUHPIHC TO UX:aTIOH OOOOK TO IHITIAUZE BASIC 

READER CALL XBDIN FEAD A CHARACTER FROM THE KEYBOARD 

IS IT AN L7 
YS3, DO SPECIAL STWF 
IS IT AH M? 
YES, SET UP STANDfcRD PROGRAM 

HOSE U) BC.0019H WCTtS IN PROGRAH 

START GP PROGRAM 
T»LL THS-80 ABOUT IT 
POINT TO COPY OF PROGRAM 
DBSTDiATIQH OF PROGRAH. 
MOVE IT IN 
GO BACK AND SAVE THE SIVFT 

LAST ID HL,OOX SET UP A JP TO OOOOH 

STORE FIRST 2 BYTE (F JP 
(XT 2 MORE BYTES (F 'S 
STORE SECOND PAIR W BYTES 
AND GO DO THE REST. 

THIS SECTION or CCHK IS NOT EXSCUTKD IN THIS PROGRAM, 
IT IS THE PROGRAM THAT 13 STORED WITri THE SCREENS TO 

CHAIN THEM TOCETHER. 



CALL XBDIN 


CP 


4CH 


JP 


Z.UST 


CP 


4DK 


JP 


ZfHOB 


U) 


BC.0019H 


w 


KL,4000H 


ID 


(41FTO),HL 


U) 


HL.44BCH 


ID 


DE,4000H 


IZIIF 




KT 




ID 


HL,003C 


U) 


44D2H,HL 


LD 


KL.OOOOH 


U] 


41U)4K,HL 


JP 


MORE 



CALL XBDIN 


READ KEYBOARD 


CP ODH 


ENTER? 


JP NZ,4000H 


NOT YET 


ID HL,3C00H 


SET UP TO CI£AR SCR<:SN 


ID DE,3C01H 


. . 


LD BC,03FFK 


. . 


ID A.ZOH 


CKT A BLANK 


U) (HL).A 


STICK IT IN 


IDIR 


CIEAR THE SCREEN TO SUNXS 


CALL CLOADO 


LOU) NEXT SCREES 



Actually, processing the cur- 
sor commands is simple too. 
The only special thing we have 
to do is make sure that the old 
character is pulled out of 
storage and put back where it 
belongs v^ihen the cursor is 
moved. A little routine called 
RESTORE (only three lines long 
beginning at 4441 ts) handles 
this. After that's done, we can 
generate a new cursor address 
by adding or subtracting 1 or 64, 
depending on the direction we 
want to move. 

Handling the "save" com- 
mand is trickier. In fact, about a 
third of this program is used to 
do it. The reason for this is sim- 
ple. We want to make our in- 
struction screens easy to use. 
The most obvious way to 
simplify things is to eliminate 
any need for the user to do 
anything but read the informa- 
tion and tell the program when 
he's done. So, each screen full 
of information has to have a lit- 
tle program along with it that 
waits for the user to hit ENTER. 
When he does, the routine 
clears the screen and starts 
loading the next instruction 
screen. 

Because BASIC programs 
load differently, we have to do 
something different with the 
last screen of information. All 
this involves is changing that lit- 
tle program so that when the 
user hits ENTER instead of load- 
ing another instruction screen, 
the computer displays the 
READY message. 

Applications 

The screen editor can be used 
for other things besides making 
up instruction screens tor 
BASIC programs. With another 
program to help it. you can use it 
as a sign generator. In a 4K 
TRS-80, you can store three dif- 
ferent pages of information. The 
additional program consists of 
a time delay routine and a cou- 
ple of statements to move in a 
new display. This can be used 
for an automated bulletin board 
at club meetings, or a cable TV 
station could use it for its local 
news and weather channel. 
Most places tie up a perfectly 
good wall and camera on this 
right now. You can probably 
think of other uses.B 



124 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



UTILITY 



Add your own error messages to Level IL 



Extra Errors 



Charles Moses 

New England Digital Corp. 

PO Box 305 

Norwich VT 05055 

One feature of TRSDOS is 
that Disk BAStC describes 
non-disk errors rattier than give 
a two-ctiaracter abbreviation as 
does Level II. Ttiougti Level II of- 
fers a number of error com- 
mands (ERR, ERL. etc.), making 
it easy to write an error-trapping 
routine, I wanted one ttiat would 
do more. 

A closer inspection of ttie 
operating system revealed that 
for syntax errors the Editor is 
automatically Invoked. Looking 
over the list of Error Codes in the 
Level II manual, I decided there 
were ottier errors which might 
be corrected quickly by using 
the Editor. Consequently, I 
needed three things from my 
routine: a more detailed expla- 
nation of errors; flexibility to de- 
cide which errors I wanted to 
handle as special cases and 
those that Level II could handle 
In the normal way; a way of In- 
voking the Editor for immediate 
repairs like syntax errors. 

PRINT Statements 

The first is satisfied by using 



PRINT statements containing a 
one line description of the error. 
The second can be satisfied in a 
variety of ways, such as in Ex- 
ample 1. 

The IF THEN statement traps 
those errors that you want the 
operating system to handle You 
could also send all those errors 
to the same line number in the 



10 ON ERROR GOTO 1000 



■ 1000 IF ERR = 10 OR ERR = 120R 
ERR = 14 THEN ON ERROR GOTO 



■ ■ 1010 ON ERR/2 * 1 GOTO 1020, 
1030, 1040 1050 1060 

1020 PRINT 'NEXT WITHOUT FOR 
tN LINE , ERL 



2000 END 

-ERR =lErrot Code - 1).2 or ERRJ- 
2 + 1 = Error Code ON ERROR 
GOTO IS Ihe way you get oul o' 
the eiror -trapping routine and let 
Level II handle Ihe error. 
"Level II will pass over the com- 
mas as though Ihey were line 
numbers. It ERH/2 + 1 = 's a value 
tor which there is no line numlior 
you will get a '■?UL ERROR IN 
1010" error! 



Example 1 



Example 2 


•■1020 PRINTPRINT SYNTAX 
ERROR IN-, ERL. LIST 




1030 PRINTPRINT ■RETURN 




WITHOUT GOSUB ■. ERL. EDIT 




1040 PRINT PRINT OUT OF 


2 REM EXAMPLE OF ERROR 
HANDLING ROUTINE 


MEMORY IN-; ERL: EDIT 

■ ■ • 1200 ON ERROR GOTO 


4 REM SYNTAX ERRORS WILL 


2000 END 


LIST THE LINE AND GO TO EDIT 


'Line 1040 IS in the seventh posi- 


6 REM ALL OTHERS REQUIRE 


tion so It IS the seventh error code 


THE USE OF THE EDIT COM 


Give dillerenl line numbers for the 


MAND'L' 


errors you want lo handle, give 


8 REM TO LIST THE LINE AS IN 


1200 for all the others 


THE NORMAL EDITOR iERL = ER- 
ROR LINR NUMBER 
100 ON ERROR GOTO 1000 


"' List accomplishes what the 
Editor viouia normally do but with 
Ihe added iwisl that the line is 


110CLS:DEFINTI 
120FORU1TO10 


already listed lor you Using EDIT 
(or synta> errors *iU work eiicept 


130 PRINT 1; 


Ihai the command is slacked 


140 NEXT 1 


twice and afler the program runs 


150 END 


ok, the Editor will try to EDIT the 


■1000 ON ERR/J-H GOTO 1010, 


line an error occurred on again. 


1020, 1030, 1200, 1200, 120C. 1040 
(23 codes) 


alter the READY appears 

■ ■ 'The normal error and/or Editor 


1010 PRINT PRINT 'NEXT 


will be invoked when this line is 


WITHOUT FOR IN-, ERL EDIT 


read, automatically. 



ON ERR/2 + 1 GOTO statement, 
containing the single statement 
ON ERROR GOTO O. 

Number 3. the most difficult, 
was satisfied using another 
curious ability of Level II: A com- 
mand, like RUN or LIST can be 
executed from a BASIC state- 
ment like this; 

10 PRINT "HELLO'' 
20 RUN IQ 

For the third we will use 



"EDIT." (and "LIST.", explained 
later) which is supposed to edit 
the current line. But. when used 
In an error-trapping routine, its 
current line is that in which the 
error occurred! We can invoke 
the Editor by placing the com- 
mand EDIT in the program in- 
side (he error routine, as shown 
in Example 2. 

If the program is run and there 
are no errors the following 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 125 



SOFTWARE 
FOR THE TRS-80' 




NOW! 

A LIGHT PEN 

FOR THE TRS-80 

AND 

SOFTWARE 

THAT USES IT! 



QS LIGHT PEN. We hdve laken the excelieni PtiotoPoinl lighi pen and packaged ii wiih out 
own cusium software. You gel the liglil pen, wMich plugs into yULi' tape teturdef, and an 
insimction booklet thdt includes the software yuo need to interface a light pen to youi own 
BASIC programs. Out software muli n ei are in BASIC and a simple GOSUB puts the hjht 
pen in actmn . Two program enamples are included. The "menu select" mode lets yoo set up 
selection squates anywhere you wish on the screen. The "screen location" mode searches for 
the Den position and returns the screen add'ess to the calling progran^ One 9V battery 
required, not included. Light Pen - S19.9S 

SKETCH-80T" by Bob Chnsiiansen. Use the GS light pen to draw figures on ihe TRS 80 
screen. Figures are d<awn ai three limes normal size. Then save yotir sketch in memory and 
start another one. Your sketch can be displayed at normal size or at the enlarged si/e at 
which they were drawn. Combine two or more sketches on Ihe same screen. Save your 
sketches to tape or disk. You can even ask the computer to print out the POKE values re 
quired to produce your sketch. This system program figures out how much memory your 
TRS SO has and allocates storage accordingly. Requires level II, 16K. On calotte - S14.9S 

THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS REQUIRE LEVEL II. 16K. AND CAN BE 
PLAYED WITH OR WITHOUT A LIGHT PEN. 



BGSQE 



POKER PETE"^ by Dave Gubser, Play Iiub 
card draw poker one on-one against an am 
mated PETE, Watch PETE shuffle and deal 
the cards. He will challenge you with bluffs, 
raises, calls and folds in this winnertakB-all 
showdown. And wBlch out ■ -PETE'sgiila 
guni Three levels of skill. Written in BASIC, 
On cassette - S11.95 

LOWBALL POKER by Danny Shea. How low can yuu go' It's you against Micro Molly and 
Ihe lowest hand wins. That's the rule m lowball poker. This version plays ttie popular 
Gartfena, California rules. Don't take her for granted -- Molly plays an eicellent game. 
Written in BASIC. On cassette - S11.95 

RUtMMY MASTER by Dave Gubser. Play tummy against the computer. Exceptional 
graphics display your hand, Ihe discards, and the cards that have been melded. You see your 
opponent shuttle and deal ou! the cards. Tested in an arcade, this program was a big hit. 
Written in BASIC. On cassette - 811.95 

MATCH CARDS by Danny Shea. BANKSHOT by Bob Christiansen. Two ptogtams on one 
cassette. MATCH CARDS is a concentiation type game wheie you match numbets. lettets, 
01 graphic shapes. Fot 1 ot 2 playets. Automatic scoring rales your recall ability. Wiitten m 
BASIC. BANKSHOT is a billiatd like game fot those who thmk they know all the angles. 
Hit Ihe ball into the pocket, hut you must hit a wall first. Written in BASIC with machine 
language subroutines. Just CLOAO and RU^i. For 1 or 2 players. On cassette - S9.95 

THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS REQUIRE LEVEL II. WK. AND DO NOT 
USE A LIGHT PEN. 

FASTGAMMGN"^ by Bob Christiansen, Our popular machine language backgammon game 
that started us in business. The computer plays against you and makes good moves instanta- 
neously. Option to replay dice rolls ttom the previous game. An eight-page msttuctinn 
booklet IS included. Gn cassette S19.95 

On diskette - SZ4.9S 

DEBUG by Sob Pieice. Debug machine language programs by stepping through one Z 80 m 
siruciion ai a lime, flelocalable. Several display options Multiple break points. Modify 
memory and registers. On cassette S14.95 

Z-80 DISASSEtMBLER by Vic Tolomei. Decode machine language programs, including 
THS 80 ROM wilh this 2-80 Disassembler written in BASIC. Instruction mode prints out 
machine code and Zilog mnemonics in standard format. Or use ttie ASCII mode which con 
vetis machine language code to ASCII. On cassette S14.9S 

QUTiLrry soFTWTiRe 

6660 Reseda BlvO Suite 103 Reseda CA 91335 ^^^ 
Telephone ^J tiou'^ seven flays a *eek i213l 3^46599 

HOW TO ORDER MasterCharge and Visa cardholders may telephone their otdets and we 
will deduct S' from orders over SIB to compeniate for phone charges. Or mail yout order 
to the address above. California residents add 6% sales tax. Ordets outside rjorth America 
add S5 fot regisieted aitinail. pay in U.S. cutrency. 

""THS 80" IS a tegislered trademark ot Tandy Corp 




shoulij appear: 

1 234 56 7 89 10 
READY 

i 

If there is a syntax error, like 

making line 130 read; 130 RINT 

I,, this appears: 

SYNTAX ERROR IN 130 

130 RINT I; 

READY 

130 

You can then edit using all the 

normal commands and RUN the 
program again. II there was an 
error in line 140—140 NEXT W, 
you would see: 

NEXT WITHOUT FOR IN 140 

140 (Type an L'l 

140 NEXT W 

140 (Use Editor normally) 

If two lines are added to the 

program; 115 DATA 1,2.3 and 
125 READ X, there would be a 
number four error code which 
sends the error to 1200 and out 
to the normal error messages 
and response. 

''CD ERROR IN 125 
READY 

Every possible error can be 
tested by using the ERROR 
command/statement. By listing 
a line in the program like 105 ER- 



ROR 1 (or 2, or 20 . . . ). your error 
trapping code can be tested 
directly, without having to 
create a specific error. 

Conclusion 

Using this routine has saved 
me thumbing through the Level 
II manual to find the error I've 
created and saved time by being 
able to go directly into the 
Editor. 

The idea ot the routine was to 
trap certain errors which could 
be corrected by producing the 
error line, but obviously, some 
errors cannot be handled that 
way. For example, a UE Unprint- 
able Error or an L3 Disk Basic 
Only, must be corrected by the 
operating system. 

Also, a LIST ?-? works well for 
isolating a cluster of related 
lines, for instance a loop, as in 
the example program LIST 
120-140. Even without the long 
statements describing the er- 
rors a LIST ?-? could be used to 
look at a number of different 
sections of the program at once. 
The idea is flexibility.! 




TRS-80 OUNEftS? 

We have a FREE program just for yOu . IDEA SEEDST a rien concept 
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ACT AT ONCE. ..Send your self addressed-stamped envelope NOW 

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"TRS-aO Is a registerBd Irademarli ol TANDY CORP " 



126 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



APPLICATION 



How to make sure you 
have the right people, in the right place — at the right time. 



Duty Roster 



Dick M. Straw 
891 Michigan 
Pasadena CA 91104 



If one of your tasks at the of- 
fice, in your church or in your 
club involves putting people in- 
to schedules on a fair, random 
basis, Duty Roster will help. 

Many organizations can use 
an effective but simple way of 
sharing the work load. Assign- 
ing church ushers and acolytes 
to their weekly duties is a good 
example. Here, the object is to 
try to use everyone about 
equally often and to spread 
them out as much as possible. 
In Toastmasters' Clubs and 
others, various tasks are taken 
by different members each 
week. Making up a month's 
schedule can be a problem. 

Maybe you want a method to 
distribute the necessary even- 



ing duties in your store as 
equitably as possible, and a 
fixed rotation is undesirable- 
after all, who wants to be stuck 
working Friday night every 
week? The Duty Roster pro- 
gram will do all of these tasks. 

Coding 

Written for the TRS-80 In 
Level II BASIC, this program 
uses about 6K of storage, but 
the total will really depend on 
how long a list of names is in- 
cluded in it. It will assign every 
individual on the list to any job 
available until the list is ex- 
hausted, or it can restrict as- 
signments to some jobs to per- 
sons known to be qualified to 
do them. For example, if the 
duties of the chairman of a 
meeting are rotated, but it is de- 
sired to limit the post to mem- 
bers with more experience, a 
second, coded option should 
be chosen. 

In the standard coded op- 
tion, individuals with higher 



codes can be assigned to low- 
er-level jobs, but higher-level 
tasks will not be given to per- 
sons whose codes are too low. 
If there are really separate cate- 
gories, so that some persons 
should be assigned only to one 
group of tasks and others to a 
different group of tasks, a sim- 
ple change in two program 
lines will accomplish it. 

The acolyte-and-usher prob- 
lem falls into the last basket, 
probably. But a little imagina- 
tion will point out some other 
occasions to use the program. 
For example, proper coding will 
allow random assignment of 
partners for the weekly bridge 
club meeting. Should you want 
to be sure your daily menu 
would include each of the ma- 
jor food groups, you could ro- 
tate the acceptable choices 
randomly to get a varied fare! 

As currently Implemented, 
four categories, coded 1 to 4, 
are allowed. Some Improvement 
in efficiency results If fewer can 



be used in practice, but more 
can also be added. Naturally, as 
individuals gain experience, 
their code levels can be in- 
creased, and job-level codes can 
also be changed as appropriate. 

How the Program Works 

The program uses informa- 
tion stored In DATA statements 
at Its end. Line 4990 carries 
three parameters: the number 
of jobs, the number of persons 
and the option code (zero if re- 
stricted assignments, nine if 
not). The data format is differ- 
ent for each. 

Lines 5000 and up carry the 
job names and their associated 
codes in pairs (for example, 
5000 DATA "CHAtRMAN".4. 
"HOST" ,3,). Higher-code tasks 
should be listed first for best ef- 
ficiency to avoid assigning all 
the high-code personnel to low- 
er-level Jobs before they can be 
used in the higher ones. 

From line 51 00 onward are the 



^ Rmmdmr Service— se* pMge 147 



ao Microcomputing, March 19^ • 127 



persons' names in the same for- 
mat. The parameters and the 
data must all agree with one an- 
other in order to make the pro- 
gram go. As you well know, of 
course, the DATA statements 
can be anywhere you like so 
long as they are in the right 
order. The codes are omitted 
for option "nine." 

After the preliminaries are 
out of the way and you teli the 
program to proceed, the data 
are read (lines 800-900) and 
checked (the subroutine begin- 
ning at line 4300). To begin with, 
there must be at least as many 



persons to assign as there are 
weekly tasks. That is not usual- 
ly a problem. This check will 
also trap you, in most cases, if 
you reverse the order of the first 
two parameters, although it will 
not give an appropriate diag- 
nostic. It then counts how 
many jobs there are at each lev- 
el (if coded) and how many per- 
sons on the list are qualified to 
fill each. This is reported out. If 
the number of qualified per- 
sons is too smalt tor a single 
weekly roster, the program will 
stop at the job level where this 
is delected. 



Then the shuffling begins. 
The random list is constructed 
in array K such that each index 
number is used only once. This 
is done by the subroutine be- 
ginning at line 4100. This seg- 
ment also zeroes the counters 
and resets any negative job 
codes in the person-list. 

Assignments are taken care 
of in the main program. For un- 
restricted assignments, the 
simple routine begins at line 
1100. It reads the random K ar- 
ray and places the individuals 
index numbers into the assign- 
ment array, K2. When the list is 



exhausted before the end of the 
run, it calls the shuffling rou- 
tine and continues on. This 
sometimes causes the same 
person to be given two jobs on 
one day, but if the list of people 
is long enough compared to the 
job list, that should be rare. You 
can eyeball a switch or run it all 
over again. 

Restricted postings are made 
beginning at line 1200. It oper- 
ates basically the same way, 
but checks to make sure the 
person assigned has a high 
enough rating tor each job. 
When an assignment is made, 



Duty Roster program. 



56 CLEAR jeee as 
ee ON ERfiw cCTo 45ee 

70 DEFIMT H-n DEF5TP G, '■ 

tee F=«IM7 CHR*'J2) 

lie PRIMT93:;4, -Dirrv tOETEt ■ 

ise foKi-iTpwe K-i rtxii 

138 CLE PBINT-'THI? PBOOPflH WILL fKSI&W .'GES TO IWIVIOUflLS ON- 

13? pciMT-R RfMXir ce STRfiTiFiEc. RWJDon Basis ■ 

;4e F>RiNT INPUT-DO vou itfi^ ft brief fWMRfin MSceifTioij" p? 

!5« kCPC H. n. LB 

lee tjin gcn> L'N'.Pfni.ij'ni K<"i,K2'K,4i hxa^ 

i7e REti G'joes. L>Joe cqoes, p-PtffsoNS, l2-persdiw cooes 

ise Bzn t-RfwooH list, ki-ossicwmentj. H-coynTERS 

;«e roRi'iTon lo-b 

2IB FOBJ^lTOl K2iI,Ji-P 
22» rJE-TT J, 1 

27e FORi'iTon L2<!)»e k'iwb ttyTi 

388 IF ftSC<P9)-e9 GOSue 488 

;ie GOTO Tve 

4ee Rfn PROGRfln description 

4ie PRINT PRINT-THE f^tOGBflU PROVIDES CUTV ROSTERS FOR FOUR PERIODS (WEEKS),' 

426 PRINT-BHSED OH fl RRNCWMIZEti LIST IF THERE FIRE NOT ENOUGH PERSONS' 

430 PRIMT-LEFT FOR TVC NEXT ROSTER, THE LIST IS RE-SHLFFLED ' 

435 INPUT FOR MCftE. PRESS ENIER'-PS 

440 CLS PRINT-IN Ott ORTICiN, EVEBV PERSON IS ELIQIELE FOR «LL J08S " 

43e PRlNT-lN T* OTfCR. JOBS «ND PERSONS «R£ COOEf TO RESTRICT- 

468 PRIfVT-RSSIGWtNT TO SOft JOBS TO MORE IXWLIFIED PERSONS " 

478 PRIhfT-H PERSW CnwCT BE BSSIGWD » HIOtCR-CODE JOB, BtlT- 

468 PRIMT-r»*V BE GIVEN ft LO«B-C00t JOB TUO SIW1.E «X 1 F I CUT 1 ONS " 

498 PBIMT-WILL RSSIGH PERSONS ONLV UITHIN TktIR CATEGORIES ■ 

5ee pRiNT-nssiGtCD coots rre ersilv mocified jobs or persons" 
510 print-limited to one ossigwcnt sholld be otiitted fro*i lists " 

520 print PRINT-PROWWI PPRflTtTERS «RE IN D**TFI LI»C 499* " 

530 PRINT-.Ice r**CS Find CCC€S F«E in DfiTFi LIWS STARTING -(T 5888 ' 

54e PRINT-PERSONS flW COCES fWE IN LIW5 5180 <*t> UP • 

55e PRIHT-Sflf»=LE DflTR FOB TRIfIL RUN ARE INCLUCED FOLLOU Tk€- 

568 PRINT-EXflnPLES TO ENTER VOL* OW DfiTfl OflM NUTCRIC COOES* 

578 PRIMT-FOR NO-RESTRICTION OPTION COOCS 1 TO 4 «LLQMED " 

580 RETLRN 

700 PR!NTTFei5>. If#^T-fiRE VOU REF»V TO PROCEED <V/N)-,P9 

riB IF RSC'PS'-eS GOTO 608 

?Ze CLS PRINT PRIHT-HLL RIGHT, UWN VOLJ HRVE ENTERED THE DATA, JUSI" 

730 PRINT-'BLfJ' THE PfiOGRW OGfllN BEHEfBER TMHT VCKJ CRN CSPVE'- 

748 PRINT-T« PROGPFW WITH THE ORTR TO JSE RGRIN LATER " 

768 STC*> 

880 CLS PRINT-REflDIMG [WTR" 

ni0 IF Le-e goto 858 

820 FOR I-l TO N 

622 REPT G(I) 

624 «J(T i 

338 FOR I-l TO H 

ei2 REfiD P(I) 

334 f«XT I 

340 GOTO aw 

ese FOR 1=1 TO N 

352 REPHO Gcn.Ldl 

65* NEja I 

360 PCS 1-1 TO n 

862 RE«> P<1'.L2<I> 

S64 (CXT I 

550 GPSue 4380 

5108 QOSLiE 4188 

?1B PRINTHORKIMG ON THE ftSSIGWCNTS" 

leee if Le-e goto 1200 

1090 REH unrestricted FtSSK>«1ENTS 
1108 FOR 1?*-1 TO 4 

me FOR J9»i TO u 

1120 K21J9, I9)=f:iHlBO 

1130 H<0)-H<e) + 1 IF K(e' .■ M GOSL* 4100 

1148 NEXT J9 

1150 rCXT 19 

1168 MiTf! 2eW 

1190 REM RESTRICTED RS-SIGWtNTS 

1200 FOR 19-1 TO 4 

1285 IF H > H-H<e> TfCN GOSUC 4180 



1218 
1228 

1230 
1240 
1245 
125e 
1260 
1270 
1272 
1274 
1268 
1290 
1308 



FOR .t^-^l TO N 
L1«L<J9) 

Ki= t;(H<Li>) 

IF L2<K1) >■ U GOTO 12?P 

REM FOR CiNLV-IH-CSTEGOPV. CHHNGE ■-' TO - IN L 

H.Ll '-MiLl 'tl IF HiILl' -- M GOTO 1218 

H-Ll '=1 

FOR I=1'0M 

IF L2<I '= -LI THEN LEI L2U>= -L2el) 

HE-.'l 

GOTO 1230 

''2iJ9, I9'»K1 

L2'K1>' -L2'KI> 



H<e)-H<8>«l 



200C 
2818 

2028 
2058 
2068 

2070 

21 ee 
2iie 

3080 
3818 
3828 
3038 
3040 
4808 

4180 

4110 
4128 
4138 
-1148 
415e 

4160 

417^ 
4180 
4190 

4288 

4308 
4318 
4320 
4 330 
4348 
4358 
4370 
4368 
439© 
4395 
4488 
4405 
441B 
-1415 
4420 
4425 
4438 
4435 
4448 
4445 
4458 
44«8 
4470 
4588 

4510 

4528 
4548 
4560 
4910 

4928 
4998 

4995 
5000 
5010 
5095 
5180 
5110 
5128 
5130 
5148 



FCS 19 = 1 10 4 

Cl^ PR1NT-«R£ HRE TW ftSSia#«NTS FC* ieEtCI9 

fS:NT TWC?), ■JCie-,Tf€l'35>. -PERSC**- 

FCit J9'I TO N 

F*IH' c.rf.! THe'-2e>,P(K2<J9, 19)1 

HE XT .1? 

IHFIIT-UHEN REfiOV PRESS EMTER-,P9 
HE>,T i<^ 

CLS F'RI"ICHRt'22) 
PRIHT9:30 "HOPE IT WHS HELf-FUL' 
FRlN1»47a, ''THE END" 
FCiRI=ir05B6 K«l rCXTl 
CLS 
END 

RfiNfiOn PRlNTSHLIFFLIIrti- 
FOR 1-1 'U M 
KSiRTJDiM I 
FC* Jjl ID 1 
IF K' ] '=K^ GOTO 4120 
NEXT ) 
k' I '=K5 
HE/T 1 



Hil)-1 «XT I 
L2(Il-flBSiL2a)> WXT I 



FC«- 



"joes 



FOB |teT04 

FOR I=1T0M 

RETURN 

PEt" CMECUNG RC"-'']'* 

PRINT'LHECHHG [■fiTR" 

PRlPJT-vmi HRVt- 1 -PERSCitIS 

IF M = N GOTO 4:-7e 

pftiNT-ME cnmcn f'roceed lmless there is fit lefiet one psrson- 

PRINT'FC*' EHCH .IC* SUGGEST vai tED£FI« JOSS ■ STOP 

FOR 1-0104 H<l>-6 NEXTI 

IF LB'? GCJTO 4470 

FOR I'l TO N 

IF LUXl OR L(I)>4 PRINT.IUe CODE OUT OF PHNGE ■ 5T0P 

H(L(!)) • mL<ii)*i 

NEXT I 

F(* 1.4 TO 1 STEP -1 

FC« J-1 TO N 

IF L2(J)<1 OR L2(J>>4 PRIMT-PEPSOli CODE CUT OF P«IGE" STOP 

IF L2<J)-1 T>CK HfOltJCOHl 

ne>:t J 

PRlNTT«.(5"'.H''ej "PERSONS CF*- I(*E JOBS OF LEVEL". 1 

ir H, e> " ^ H' I I GOTO 4450 

PflN'-NCi"' ENOUO" PERSONS QL«ilTFIEO FOR Tf«SE JOBS" STOP 

C€M IF C»ILV-IN-CfiTEGC*V WFlNILi IHSEC' N-0---8 HERE 

NEXT I 

RETLIRN 

(Jtri ERROR •**ltiLl'*C 

IF ERR-24 C* ERP=2 PRINT"vt«JR C-RTR "*€ HOT E'/TER£[' (■(. :iF fc i, l V " 

IF ERf-€ PRINTNCT EHC.IGH DRTB -- '.HECt RHD Rt^TORT- J'CiP 

IF £RR:B I*N F9---V CESLWE 

ON ERR-OF GOTO C- 

REM WTR LINE 499* H«5 N-i CF lOeS- M-» OF PERSONS, no 

REM CODE FOR OPTICPfl. 8 - RESTRICTED 9 - HOT RESTRICTED 

DRTO 7. 20. e 

REM ,108 DRTR FROU LIME 5BB0 nn HIGHEST COPE .TCCS FIRST 

DRTR ■CHHIRDHN". 3, "SECRETRRV. 2, "SERQEfiNT-RT-FlRME". 1 

[)flTR"LE«>ER 1" 1, "LERDER 2".l "LEADER 3", 1. -LEADER 4-.1 

REM PERSON DRTH LINES 5100 ON 

DATR " 10HES". ;, -SMITH" 1. "STONE" 2, "HRRDV 2 "WALLACE". 1 

DATA -EVAMS', 3, "ROttRS" ? 'APAHS" 1 -UHIT£- 1 "CASEv- 1 

DATR-OUIMTV-. 2, -CROSS". 1. "WILLIAMS-. 3. -CIS* ■■ 2 "OUENS-,! 

DATR- JHCKSCW. 1. -JOHNSON". -:, -TRVI^CiR" 2 "TRNC'V 1 

[>ATti "BflX- 2 



128 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



the individual's job-level code 
is set negative so he will always 
be ■■unqualified" for subse- 
quent jobs until a re-sort and re- 
set occurs. If not enough per- 
sons remain unassigned for a 
whole day's roster, the list will 
be reshuffled. 

Customizing the Program 

Because there may be fewer 
highly qualified persons than 
are needed for the full four- 
weelt array of rosters, an inter- 
nal adjustment of the counters 
and codes allows those premi- 
um individuals to recycle more 
often than the rest. The count- 
ers in array H, by the way, allow 
the search to begin where it left 



off last time. 

Then everything is printed 
out a weel( at a time by the seg- 
ment beginning at line 2000. 
The job and people's names are 
accessed with the index num- 
bers that have been shuffled 
around up to this point. 

In order to assign persons 
within a single category only, 
two changes are needed. One is 
to change the ■greater than or 
equal to" symbols in line 1240 
to "equals." The counter in the 
checking subroutine should be 
set baci( to zero at the end of 
each loop by inserting line 4450 
H(0) = 0. 

Since out-of-range codes are 
trapped, the number of valid 



codes can only be increased by 
changing the dimensions of ar- 
ray H (line 160) and the indices 
for loops that use the code 
levels, at lines 4180, 4395, 4410 
and 4420. The number of weeks 
allowed can be increased by 
changing the second dimen- 
sion of array K2 at tine 160 and 
the statements that use it — 210. 
1 too, 1200 and 2000. All other ar- 
rays and loops are set by the in- 
put parameters. 

Although the program is writ- 
ten in Level II BASIC on the 
TRS-80. there is little unique in 
it- The special features that are 
used are either nonessential 
(such as the 32-character dis- 
plays at the beginning and end) 



or are easily written around. 
Two string arrays are declared 
by a DEFSTR statement at line 
70. Conversion might require 
seeking out the few places the 
string arrays are referenced (in 
the dimension statement at line 
160. the reading statements be- 
tween BOO and 900 and the 
printout routine beginning at 
line 2000) and changing the Gs 
and Ps to G$ and P$. The guts 
of the program are standard 
BASIC. 

Now, when you rotate the 
kids among the dish-washing, 
yard-work, car-washing and 
dog-walking chores, at least it 
can be purely random and 
fair.H 



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i^ deader Service ~ see page 14? 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • "129 



HOME 



Want to see how much you spend each 
month? This program plots time versus rate. 



Graph Plotter 



Scott King 

7905 59th Ave. N. 

New Hope, MN 55428 

Have you ever had to create 
a need to put in front of 
your solution? That was my 
problem. After I spent the 
money for a Level II TRS-80 



{16K), my wife said, "Kind of ex- 
pensive for a Star Trek game, 
isn't it?" I had to accept the 
reason 1 bought a computer: it 
was really neat. 

For those of you who join me 
in the middle-to-low income 
bracket, "really neat" is hard to 
justify to the wife and the 



budget. So I set out to create a 
need for the computer that I 
already had. 

One of the returns on my 
endeavor was this program to 
display my gas, electric, water, 
etc., bills on a time graph so 
that i might compare the bad 
months to the good ones, 



Program listing. 



10 REM *»**♦ TlriE''RflTE DISPLfiV PROGRHfl *••♦ 

20 REM ♦•*•* BV SCOTT KING 2/16/79 **■■* 

30 REM ••••• TRS-80 12K BRSIC ••*+ 

40 REM •»«a««»»<«i«*«i*«i<<***«*****4L^^4'4'*^*^«*« 

45 CLS 

50 PRINT" TIME/RATE DISPLHV PROQRflM 

55 PRINT" PRESS ENTER TO BEGIN ". .INPUT RH 

90 CLERR 1000 

106 DEFSTR fl. B, C, D 

110 DIM R<?5) 

120 N-1 

130 INPUT"ENTER X HXIS LR8EL ", B 

140 INPUT'ENTER V «XIS LABEL "; C 

141 IF LEN<C)>15 THEN PRINT" THIS LftBEL IS LIMITED TO IS CHflRflCTERS" GOTO 146 
145 INPUT"ENTER FIRST X RXIS INCREMENT I E. JHN MOMPRV ETC " i D 

14S INPUT " WILL THERE BE MORE THAN 16 ENTRIES MfiDE", RH 

149 IF RH<>"NO" THEN Zl"l 

150 INPUT" IS THERE R TRPE TO LORD". RR 
160 IF RR-'-NO" THEN 200 

170 INPUT" LORD THE TRPE RND PRESS ENTER"; RH 

171 INPUT«-1,B 

172 PR1NT"X- RXIS -".e 

173 INPUTB-l.C 

174 PRINT" V- RXIS »". C 

175 INPUTtt-1. [i 

176 PRINT"FIRST X INCREMENT". D 

177 INPUT«-1, Zl 

178 IF Zl=l PRINT" HIGH DENSITV DISPLRV 
130 INPUT»-1. R<N' 

185 PRINT N. R(Ni. 

190 IF R(N) = "ENC." THEN GOTO 200 

195 N=N+1 GOTO 186 

200 INPUT " ORE THERE RNV ENTRIES TO BE MRDE "; RR 

210 IF «fl»"NO" THEN 240 

220 PRINTN INPUT "ENTER DfiTH AMOUNT"; RCN:' 

230 N-N*-! GOTO 200 

240 R(N)»"EN[i" 

250 INPUT"DO VOU WISH TO CHANGE RNV ENTRIES"- RR 

251 IF AA="NO" THEN 260 

252 1NPUT"ENTER NUMBER TO BE CHANGED"; N 

253 1NPUT"ENTER NEW VRLUE"jR<N> 
260 CLS 

270 M=l 

271 PRINT "X" "i B 

272 PRINT "V= ". C 

273 PRINT "X STHRTS RT "; D 

280 PRINT M.RiM>. : IF M<»=N THEN M=M+1 GOTO 280 

290 INPUT" DO VOU WISH TO SAVE THIS OATR ON TAPE"; RR 

300 IF AR""NO" THEN 350 

305 INPUT-SET UP R TRPE FOR RECORDING RND PRESS ENTER". RR 

310 M"l 

311 PRINT4I-1, E 

312 PRINTH-l, C 

313 PRINT#-1,D 

314 PRINTt-1, Zl 
320 PRINTII -1, R(M> 

330 n»M+l IF M<:=N GOTO 320 



check to see if my energy- 
conservation measures were 
doing any good and plan ahead 
tor bills that fluctuate through- 
out the season (e.g., my gas 
bill). 

The Program 

This program was written on 
a TRS-80 Level II, but with minor 
changes, it will easily run on a 
Level 1. It is designed to plot any 
two sets of numbers on an x-y 
type graph. The x (horizontal) 
scale has two different resolu- 
tions, 16 and 75 points. If you 
are working with the high-den- 
sity scale (75 points), you can 
"blow up" a section of it for a 
better look. 

The y-axis (vertical) Is self ad- 
justing. Its lowest resolution is 
to 20, but it will automatically 
adjust to the largest number to 
be displayed. 

Operation 

The program starts by asking 
you to label the x-axis (for this 
example we will use months, 
but it could be days, weeks, 
hours or even, in some cases, 
people, money, cars . . . any- 
thing, as long as It doesn't ex- 
ceed 75). 

Next, enter the y-axis label, 
which may not exceed 15 char- 
acters. We will use kilowatt- 
hours (kWhr) for this example. 
So this graph will be a plot of 
kWhr used over a period of 
months. 

The next entry to be made is 
the starting point of the x-axis; 
we will begin ours at January 
1979. 

Now the program will ask if 



130 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



there is an old tape to load. If 
this is the first time you have 
run this, then enter no. But If 
you have data, load the tape 
and dump it into memory. 

If there are any manual en- 
tries to be made, such as a new 
bill arrival, then enter them at 
this juncture. Next, you will 
have the opportunity to change 
any entries previously made. 

After all of this has taken 
place, the computer will display 
the current data and ask If you 
wish to save It on tape (which 
you should do). When this is 
done, the computer will draw 
the graph, go through the y-axis 
automatic scaling and plot the 
data on the display. The graph 
will stay until you press ENTER, 
at which point it will asl( if you 
would like an expanded view of 
any section. 

Conclusion 

I have found this program 
useful In keeping track of my 
bills, but it could easily be used 
to plot a curve for any situation 
where you have both time and 
rate numbers. ■ 



ISe RErl ••• PLOT DftTft •**•• 

151 CLS 

3Se S-LEN(C) 

370 U-1 T-e 

380 PRINT«T, niDSCC. U. 1> 

390 W-U+1 IF U>S THEN SOS 

400 T-T+S4 GOTO 380 

5»e PRINT a 970,8." STRRTING UITH ", D^ 

^le FOR X-5 TO 110 

529 V"40 SET<X, Y> NEXT 

530 FOR V-e TO 43 
546 X-5 SETiX, Vi 

541 X-110 5ET<X, V) 

542 NEXT 

543 IF Zl-1 THEN FOR X-ieTOllO STEP 2,V-41 SET CX,V):NEXT 

546 IF Zl-l THEN 350 

547 Q-899 F"l 

546 PRINT9G, F F-F+1 0-O+3 IF IK945 THEN 548 
550 QOSue 650 
555 GOSue 700 

ste x-10 

570 FOR V- 40 TO <4B-<VHL<n<N) )-^) ) STEP -1 

575 SET<X, V) NEXT 

577 IF 21-1 N-N+1 X-X+2 : IF HCN>-"END" Tt«N 600 

578 IF Zl-1 THEN 585 

S80 N-N*l X-X*6 IF nCN}-"END" THEN 608 

585 IF <Z1-0>«ND<N>16J THEN 600 

586 GOTO 570 
BCif INPUT f4« 

620 INPUT " DO VOL! WISH TO SEE fl BLOWUP OF ftHV ONE SECTION", ftfi 

621 IF ft«-"MO" THEN RUN 

622 INPUT" 16 PLftCES HILL BE OlSPLftVED . ENTER FIRST POINT TO BE SHOWN" 
625 FOR V-ITOIB R<V)"ft<M3 IF HCM)-"END"THEN fi( V>-"END" : GOTO 625 

624 M-M*l NEXT 

625 fl(V>--ENC>" Zl-e 

626 GOTO 350 

650 REn •••• SIZING ROUTINE ••••• 

655 K- 5:11-1 

660 IF R<H>-"END- RETURN 

662 IF n>74 THEN RETURN 

665 2"V«L<fl(I1>^ 

670 X*Z/*. 

675 IF X> 4^ THEN K^K*- 5 QOTO 660 

680 n-M*! GOTO 669 

700 L-57 H-4e 

710 PRINT 9 L. lNTCH*K>i 

728 L-L+64 H-H-3 

730 IF H>-0 THEN 710 

740 RETURN 





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t^ Rmadtr Samcesoe pagm 147 



dO Microcomputing. March 1980 • 131 



HARDWARE 



Keep all your wires out of sight, 

but under control with this cabinet idea. 



Box It In 



John Zainerunas 

3034 W. Columbus Ave. 

Chicago IL 60652 



Ever since my TRS-80 was 
delivered, the problem of 
strung-out wire, cables and 
components taking up too 
much of my already limited 
space kept cropping up. This is, 
no doubt, a problem with many 
computers, particularly home- 
brew systems, but it should not 
be a problem with a fully 
assembled store-bought unit, t 
was determined to correct this 
before attempting any serious 
programming. 



A console "walnut veneer" 
custom TRS-80 is shown in the 
photo. It is portable, turns on 
with one switch and plugs in 
with one cord. It even has a 
tape-recorder control switch to 
bypass the computer. 

The "power on" and "tape 
control" additions were taken 
from previous issues of Kilo- 
baud, (see Lien and Water- 
man's articles, "Cassette 
Recorder Disaster: Ground 
Loops," p. 110, May 1978, and 
"Turn It Off," p. 114, April 1978) 

The visible part of the con- 
sole is constructed of walnut 
veneered, shelf boards. These 
boards have a brown-grained 
appearance, a good match for 




Computing is more organized and professional with a homemade 
console for your TRS-80 system. The author's son Paul illustrates 
how relaxing programming can be 




® 



© 



-U- 



NOTE All «000 PINE.S "BE !/•" Twi:" , ElCEi'I {g , WHICH 'S i/4" -hic« 



Fig. 1. 



^k-^ 




(e) END PlMtL 

SjPOOB' 12 HEQ01 



BBUCE liBEODl 



the silver gray and black of the 
TRS-80. 

I used a 314 inch plywood 
panel for the full one-piece bot- 
tom support and wood-stained 
all visible edges to match the 
walnut veneer color. 

You can use pine boards in 
place of the walnut boards, if 
desired. These can be cut into 
panels and covered with a 
wood-grained "contact paper." 
Later you can add some metal 
trim for a professional look. 

Construction 

Start by cutting up all panels 
to exact dimensions as shown 
in Fig. 1, Drill holes and make 
up the required amount of each 
panel as indicated. Mounting 
screw holes are not dimen- 



132 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



sioned but can be positioned 
approximately as in Fig. 2. Use 
a #8 or #10 brass wood screw, 
IV2 inches long, for all mount- 
ings. 

First assemble both (A) 
panels to the bottom plywood 
board. Pre-drill holes, apply 
white glue to mounting edge 
and screw panels together. You 
can recess the screws so they 
can be tilled in with wood putty 
for a neater look. 

Mount the top monitor panel 
(C) next by applying white glue 
and screwing this panel to both 
side panels. I even used white 
glue on all screw threads for ex- 
tra holding power, since the 
walnut panels were made of 
particle board. 

Now glue in the two small (E) 
supports and the center brace 
(F) to the bottom plywood. Use 
a two-part epoxy glue so mount- 
ing screws will not be re- 
quired. 

A simple bracket for the mini- 
jack can be made as shown in 
Fig. 2 and mounted on the left 
side panel. A spring plate is 
mounted on the center front 
edge of the plywood board. 
Press this plate edge into the 
slotted seam of the keyboard to 
hold it in place. Use two of them 
side by side if needed. I used a 
plate made from a piece of 020 
phosphorous bronze. 

Final Assembly 
Place your tape recorder over 



the center brace (F) and push it 
under the monitor panel. The 
recorder should fit snugly, right 
up to its counter switch. (Add 
shims to brace, if required.) 

Wire an SPST switch to the 
left end (D) panel for recorder 
control, as shown in Fig. 3. Now 
epoxy this panel in place. 
Epoxy the right (D) panel and 
hold down in place with some 
weights; screws are not re- 
quired. 

Place your computer key- 
board over the plywood panel. 
Connect and route all cables as 
shown. Push the keyboard for- 
ward to check the fit. You prob- 
ably will have to carve out a 
small part of the right side 
panel (A) to make a better fit for 
the far right cable plug on the 
keyboard. When a good fit is 
obtained, push the keyboard 
fully forward and attach the 
locking spring plate. This 
spring plate allows the com- 
puter keyboard to be moved 
back slightly to get at the reset 
and off/on switches when re- 
quired. 

If you decide to mount the 
monitor permanently to the top 
panel (C), use #8 wood 
screws — 1Vr inches long with 
large washers and mounted 
from inside of monitor case 
(through slots), one in each 
corner. 

With the console completed, 
programming is now more 
enjoyable.! 




SWtltG PL»TE 



UNDtOSlDe W 
LEFT PSNCL 



IRS-aO PULLID MCR — 
TO SHOO WIRE POSITIONS 



Fig. 2. 



-e*tK END OPEN 



NOTE. PUlCt liPE 
SECOROeH OVEB © 
SUPPO"T TO LOCATE 
C(«CT FOREWORD 
POSiTON BEFORE 
GLUING M PLICE 



-WEDGE fOmH 
SUPPL' IN WITH 
CLUED WOOD 



■lOOWEO I 

■ a** I 
, ^■J■ • — 1 



^t-^ 



-NOTE TOP END 
PUNELS ® 
REMOVED 



(TOP VIEW) 

Fig. 3. 




DEBBYMAE 




rn«* m ■EKDlulely no li»y» or riMdi lo pre*fin». 
TTiua, yAi pan oittf u muctv V « Utll« inlormation 
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o( information, ail mlnn on IM umr n«i|«l. all 
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varyii^ type of inlormalion atnil • number of w>i)ecls. 

Obmous applicalioiu are foe salesmen, miniitcrs. and 
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I I Dragee retrieval application -fhicri docm't rei^uirr 
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^LlnLemaLionalj^^tJ 



"Highejl rated games die the Adventure gafT^es". 
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80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 133 



REVIEW 



Apparat software allows old programs in new BASIC. 



One into Two 



Sherman R. Waniz 

424 NW Lakeview Dr. 
Sebring FL 33870 

If you have been giving serious 
thought to modifying your 
TRS-80 Level II BASIC system 
so that it will accept all of those 
Level I BASIC programs you 
have saved on cassette tape, 
wait. You don't have to void 
your Radio ShacK warranty by 
opening your Level II machine's 
case, cutting circuit board 
traces, installing a Level I HOM 
and adding several resistors 
and a switch. There's a simpler 
way. 

Apparat, Inc., of Denver, Col- 
orado, offers a software pro- 
gram on cassette tape that will 
make your Level II BASIC sys- 
tem act as though it were a Lev- 
el I BASIC machine. The price 
of the "Level I In Level II RAM" 
program cassette is a modest 
$14.95, plus $2 for handling and 
shipping. 

If you have very many Level I 
BASIC program cassettes on 
hand that you haven't been 
able to convert for use in your 
Level II system, the price of the 
program is quite reasonable. I 
was never able to get Radio 
Shack's "Program Conversion, 
Level I to Level 11" cassette to 
work satisfactorily. 

Apparat's program is written 
in machine language and oc- 
cupies about 4.3K bytes of 
memory space at the upper end 
of your Level II 16K byte mem- 
ory bank. That leaves almost 
12K bytes ot memory available 
tor use by any Level I program 
you want to RUN. There are 
some— but not many — pro- 
grams written in Level I BASIC 



that require that much memory. 

The program cassette sup- 
plied by Apparat comes with- 
out any supporting documenta- 
tion. However, almost all you 
have to know to use the pro- 
gram is written in just seven 
words and symbols that appear 
on a label attached to the cas- 
sette's plastic shipping box. 

After you turn "on" your Lev- 
el II BASIC system, you type 
SYSTEM on your keyboard and 
press the Enter key. The "'?■" 
prompt will appear on your 
monitor's screen to indicate 
that the computer is ready to 
accept a machine-language 
program. You then place the 
"Level I In Level 11 RAM" pro- 
gram cassette in your tape re- 
corder and engage the record- 
er's Play lever. 

Type LEVEL I and press the 
Enter key. This will activate 
your recorder's motor and will 
start loading the program into 
memory. If your recorder's vol- 
ume control has been adjusted 
correctly, you should see the 
usual double asterisks (one of 
which blinks) appear in the up- 
per-right corner of your video 
monitor's screen, 

It you fail to obtain the dou- 
ble asterisk/blinking indication 
during loading, rewind the cas- 
sette tape, reset your record- 
er's volume control, press the 
reset button inside the left rear 
cover of your computer's key- 
board assembly and repeat the 
loading procedure described 
above. 

After the "Level I In Level II 
RAM" program has been trans- 
ferred to your computer's mem- 
ory, the tape recorder's motor 



will stop turning and the "*?-" 
prompt will again appear on 
your monitor's screen. Type "/" 
and press the Enter key. The 
computer will clear the moni- 
tor's screen, will print READY 
and will display the familiar ">-" 
BASIC prompt. From that point 
on, your Level 11 machine will 
perform as though it were oper- 
ating under control ot BASIC 
contained in a Level I ROM. 

Rewind the Apparat tape and 
remove the cassette from your 
recorder. Insert in the recorder 
the Level 1 program tape you 
wish to use, activate the record- 
er's Play lever, type CLOAD on 
your keyboard and press the 
Enter key. 

As your Level I program is 
transferred from tape to mem- 
ory, you will notice that the dou- 
ble asterisk now appears in the 
upper left corner of your moni- 
tor's screen. When your Level I 
program has been loaded into 
memory, the recorder's motor 
will stop and the ">-" prompt 
will reappear. Now, all you have 
to do to use the program in 
memory is type RUN and press 
the ENTER key. 

Operating in Level I 

I have been particularly 
pleased to find that I do not 
have to readjust my recorder's 
volume setting after I load the 
"Level I In Level II RAM ' pro- 
gram and then CLOAD my Level 

I program. I think that condition 
is attributed to just plain luck 
on my part. But after having fid- 
dled SO long with my recorder's 

volume control to load my Level 

II program tapes made on other 
recorders, it is refreshing to re- 



call how uncomplicated it used 
to be to load tapes a year ago 
when my system was using 
Level I BASIC, 

The computer's response to 
the LIST command fills the 
monitor's screen with program 
lines. You use the "f" (up-arrow) 
key to step through successive 
program lines. You can "dump" 
(record) your program to cas- 
sette tape using the CSAVE 
command. The format of the re- 
corded program will be Level I 
and the data transfer rate will 
be 250 baud. 

Even the error messages are 
pure Level I, i.e., "What," 
"How" and "Sorry." If you have 
forgotten what these error mes- 
sages mean, you had best dig 
out that dusty "User's Manual 
For Level 1" and refresh your 
memory. 

Ot course, since your system 
is now operating in Level 1 BA- 
SIC, you do not have access to 
the convenient editing func- 
tions that Level ll BASIC pro- 
vides. Nor will you be able to 
use the LLIST and LPRINT com- 
mands that Level II provides for 
printout of your programs. 

You will be pleased to learn 
that when you use the NEW 
command, the Level I BASIC 
program in the computer is 
erased, but the "Level I in Level 
II RAM" program remains. 
Therefore, you will be able to 
load successive Level I BASIC 
programs into your computer 
without having to reload Ap- 
parat's program. 

However, if one of your pro- 
grams' "hangs up" during load- 
ing and you are forced to acti- 
vate the computer's reset push- 



134 • 80 Microcomputing, March 19^ 



button switch to regain control, 
you will probably have to reload 
the "Level I In Level II RAM" 
program before you can load 
another Level I BASIC program. 
As soon as you turn your com- 
puter off, the "Level I In Level II 
RAM" program disappears and 
your system reverts to its Level 
11 BASIC configuration. 

Limitations 

My experience with Apparafs 
program has uncovered one or 
two minor problems that ! attri- 
bute to my having loaded the 
program at too low a volume 
setting on my recorder. 

One of my programs con- 
tained a line that used AS and BS 



separated by a colon. The B$ 
string was continually trun- 
cated (shortened) even though 
it consisted of less than the al- 
lowed 16 characters. I moved 
B$ to a separate program line 
and had no more problems. 

Another problem I experi- 
enced involved my use of the 
ON N GO TO statement. In one 
portion of my program, the 
computer would not respond to 
the shorthand dialect ON N G. 
__. . However, in several other 
parts ot the same program, the 
computer did accept the short- 
hand statement without default. 

Since these problems have 
not occurred in any of a number 
of other Level 1 programs I have 



RUN using the Apparat pro- 
gram, I assume that the prob- 
lems alluded to above were self- 
induced and were not the fault 
of the conversion program. 

I have heard that the "Level I 
In Level II RAM" program will 
not accept programs written in 
machine language. Since Ap- 
parat did not furnish documen- 
tation with its program tape to 
warn against attempting to use 
the program with machine code, 
perhaps it will perform properly 
in exactly the same manner that 
a Level I BASIC program in ROM 
would operate. Since I have no 
machine-code programs in my 
library, I could not test the con- 
version program to validate the 



claim that it is incompatible 
with machine language. 

I'm very pleased to have the 
capability that Apparafs pro- 
gram provides. The price was 
right and the program's opera- 
tion has been better than satis- 
factory. My on!y fear is: Mur- 
phy's Law is bound to come in- 
to play and, somehow. I'll inad- 
vertently erase my program 
tape. But that's just the way my 
luck runs. 

For those of you who might 
want to order the Level t In Lev- 
el II RAM program cassette 
write to: Apparat, Inc., 6000 E. 
Evans Ave., BIdg #2, Denver CO 
60222. ■ 



CENSUS CHECKER 



The Census Ctiecker system is a sel o1 programs 
designed lo check ihe accuracy of ttie 1980 cen- 
sus The census will provide ttii; populalion counts 
that *ill be used by all leuels ol government for ihe 
next ten years. It they dte inacc;urale and omit peo- 
ple, then your city or county will sutler. Revenue 
sliaring, lederal and state grants and future plan, 
ning depend upon an accurate census. Census 
Chechef can help 

The Census Checlier is designed for the Radio 
Shack TRS-80 microcomputer and may be used on 
any other BASIC micro with BASIC and disk tiles 
Small cities and counties will benetil most trom 
the use of this system The progriims are straight 
forward and may be moditied to' special focal 
ptoblems 

For lutlhet information writs: 

MICRO DECISION SYSTEMS 

3008 Redwood Ave. 
Lakeland FL 33803 ^lee 

other gover-iment and census reiaied micro soft- 
ware in deveiopmer.i 



For Canadian 
* Owners 



Lower Case Modification . . $65.00 
Cassette Load Modification . S20.00 
Radio Shack Numeric Keyboard 

Installation $50.00 

[You supply numeric pad) 

RS232C Serial 1/0 Port for Printer 
etc. (Complete with connectors) 
For Use With or Without Expansion 
Box $169.95 

For a complete catalog and credit 
vouchers worth $25.00 on future 
purchases send S5.00 lo: 

•AV Quotum Cmntdian Funda 

ORTHON "Jl^iTHF 

12411 Stony Plain Rd., 
^ '°6 Edmonton, Alta. T5N 3N3 



TRS-80 SYSTEMS 

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■ TRSDOS 1.1— tl4.9S 

IINCLUOU MANUAL! 

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1. Some compulensls pay less bul may not get j 

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T 8" SINGLE SIDE ■ DOUBLE DENSITY a 

n Box of 10 FOR $50.00 e 

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HOURS: Tues. to Sat. — 9 to 5 | 

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Software 



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accoiinianl' and general buMncssmcn proMdcs large-icalc 
compuler lealure* al mitrii-Lomputer sofl>*ate cosls; 

■ dtiitned for uit tn prrsrnr rmpltntn 
' o//fmi for up in SOO aecou/iit 

' deparimrnial finaniial ilalfmmti iiKluding 

* rtlain\ tlandard journal enlrie\ 

* automatic hatancinjf oj Iraniat'tlurii 
' fast entry i pfulinf of tianiOiitora 

■ easy lo fnWow audit trail 

* conventional accounting .\ymhoL\ u.\ed 

hor ^-program paikagc on di>.licltt *ilh use: manual 
send 5495 lo: 

T\SK C<>MIH'TEK Al»l"LICATIOXS 

Dayton, Ohio PO Box 24001 
45424 
(513)233-2118 ^''' 



CANADIAN INCOME TAX 

Runs on 16K Level II or Disk 
2 programs are avaMaDie 

T-1 SPECIAL-1979 

Ttiis package is tor tnose wtio do riol need to tile the 
more detailed GENERAL RETURN Based on your in 
Gome and deOuCtioos tor 1978 Vou cannot use tris 
return if your income is over S2O670. Or you claim 
Capital gams or losses Commission sales Divi- 
dends. Self. employment, or you claim Alimony. 
Ctiild care eipenses. Deductions transtefred IfOm 
spouse 
This package IS S39. 00 + Ont Sales Tai 

T-1 GENERAL— 1979 

Needs Level II. preferable 2 Tape recorders or Disks 
This program is a complete Income Ta> progr., 
usable not only for your own return bul also for use 
by professional Income Tax Preparers. It calculates 
all schedules, 1 to 10 (schedule 1 1 has not been im- 
plemented, because of the Fall of the Gov ) 
You can. *ith it, prepare income tan returns for profit 
-You set the fee- 
This package is S90.00 + Ont Sales Tax 

To order send check (and slate your equipment con- 
tiguration) lo; 



I R SOFTWARE 

177 Linus Rb 

Suite BOB 

NORTH YORK Willovudaic 

Ontaiio, M2J 4S5 



,--155 



fi^ Reader Service— see page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 135 



REVIEW 



The Radio Shack board 

lets your 80 do the talking— to other computers. 



RS232 



Roger L. Hicks 

5534 Woodberry Circle 

Marietta GA 30067 



Communications has come 
to the TRS-80, and, at $99, it 
may be the biggest bargain 
since Level II BASIC. I am refer- 
ring to the RS-232C board 
(shown at right). 

Even if you are not inter- 
ested In communications, read 
on! The RS-232 board has a 
variety of uses that do not In- 
voive communications in the 
usual sense of the word. 

Most of us are familiar with a 
parallel interface, which moves 
all eight bits simultaneously 
over eight separate lines. A 
serial interface handles the 
same eight bits, but one at a 
time over a single line. The Elec- 
tronics Industries Association 
(El A) has established a standard 
for serial interfaces referred to 
as RS-232C. While this ap- 
proach clearly lends itself to 
telecommunications, there are 
other uses. 

The RS-232 is the only feature 
I know of offered by Radio 
Shacit that gives the user a stan- 
dard way of connecting a variety 
of peripheral devices from other 
manufacturers. In my case, I 
was able to implement a low- 




cost hard-copy line printer into 

my system. 

Implementation 

The board in the accompany- 
ing photo installs under the 
large access cover in your ex- 
isting expansion interface and 
comes with a ribbon cable, 
Instruction manual and 
machine-language program that 
allows your TRS-80 to emulate a 
standard asynchronous ter- 



minal (provided a modem, 
acoustical coupler or direct con- 
nect is available). The board 
plugs into a 42-pin connector 
that is part of the expansion 
interface. Some early produc- 
tion versions have the connec- 
tor already in place, but you will 
probably have to take your 
expansion interface to your 
nearest Radio Shack service 
center for installation (no extra 
charge). 



The early version of the 
Instruction manual has a 
number of errors (however, the 
quality of the rest of the feature 
is excellent). Table 5 on page 16 
erroneously shows 130 baud as 
the result of loading 5H into the 
BRG (baud rate generator). A 5H 
will, in reality, yield 300 baud. 

The DIP switches are labeled 
on the board (S1-S8), but no- 
where is the user told in which 
direction to push a DIP switch to 
open or close the circuit. To 
open, push each switch in the 
direction of the UART (large IC 
chip). The remaining errors are 
minor (easy to figure out), and all 
remaining implementation in- 
structions are clear. 

Line Printer Application 

The remainder of this article 
describes the programming 
considerations in using the 
RS-232 interface to add a line 
printer to a 16K system (I expect 
this to be the most common 
noncommunications applica- 
tion). Referring to your Level II 
BASIC manual, the trick is get- 
ting your RS-232/printer to re- 
spond to LPRINT and LLIST 
commands. Beginning on page 
26, the RS-232 manual describes 
the procedure. 

The line printer driver pro- 
gram is In ROM and is designed 
for a printer connected to the 
standard parallel interface. This 



136 ■ 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



5 PDlCE 16421 ,2«P()KE i 6422 . 1 B3iP(KE 16423,12/ 

10 RlH X-326i»5 To 32767ifi£A0 ViPOKE X.YtNEXT 

15 END 

20 UATA 229.197.245,51,255.127,2^4,1 .40. J2. 62, I ,50,2^5,127 

2b DATA 211 .232, 219, 233, 23U,24«. 246. 4, 50, 254. 127, 2n .234 

30 DATA 219.233.230,7,33,246,127,6,0, 79,*, 126. 211,233,241 

35 DATA 193.225.219,234,203.119,40.250.121,211,235.254,(3 

40 DATA 32,4.14,10,24,239,20! ,34.69.95. 102. ri9. I 70,204,238,0.0 



Listing 1. 



10 POKE 16413. 2iP()KK l 64 I 4 . 1 83" POKE 16415.127 
5000 Poke 16413, 7tPC>KE 1641 4,88iP()KE 164i5.4 

Listing 2. 



driver program is, however, a 
subroutine that is called each 
time a character is to be printed. 
This call address is in RAM and 
can be modified (POKE) to ex- 
ecute a user-suppiied driver 
stored in RAM. The assembly- 
language listing of this driver 
begins on page 27 of the 
manual, and a BASIC program 
to POKE the machine-language 
code into upper RAM is on page 
29. My only problem here was 
wasting 256 bytes for a driver 
program that only needs 73. 

Listing 1 is a modified version 
of the program shown on page 
29, except that it only occupies 
the last 73 RAM locations. On 
power up, enter a memory size 
of 32694 (instead of 32511 for 
the Radio Shack version). Load 
and run the BASIC program; you 
can now enter NEW and pro- 
ceed with any program or activi- 
ty using LPRINT and LLIST at 
will. Execution of NEW will not 
erase the driver program begin- 
ning In location 32695 (it will, In 
fact, remain until you power- 
down). 

If you are like me, you have at 
least one large program with a 
lot of PRINT statements that 
you will now want to change to 
LPRINT. Wait, there is an easier 
way! It so happens that the 
driver program for the video 
display is also a ROM-resident 
subroutine called by an address 
stored in RAM. 

Referring to Listing 2, if you 
add line 10 to the beginning of 
your program, all subsequent 
PRINT statements will go to the 
RS-232/printer instead of the 
video display. Be sure to ex- 



ecute line 5000 before stopping, 
or the video's output will con- 
tinue to go to the printer (if you 
get an unanticipated break that 
prevents this, simply enter 
RUN5000). Needless to say, if 
you are redirecting video output 
to the printer, you cannot use 
PRINT @ or video graphics. 

One Final Problem 

The software we have covered 
assumes ttiat at 300 baud, for 
example, each character can be 
decoded and printed in the time 
it takes the RS-232 to handle one 
byte (approximately 34 milli- 
seconds). This is a valid 
assumption unless the char- 
acter decodes to a carriage re- 
turn (in which event, the driver 
program automatically inserts a 
line feed as the next character). 
Depending on the type of printer 
involved, the next one (or more) 
printable character(s) may arrive 
before the printer is ready (and 
be lost). 

If your printer manual does 
not cover this subject, it can be 
corrected (if encountered) in one 
of two ways: 

1. After each LPRINT that 
completes a line, add 

LPRINT STRINGJ [5, CHR$(001); 

This transmits five (subject to 
change) nonprintabie char- 
acters, which gives the printer 
an extra (5 x 34) 170 milli- 
seconds to get ready. 

2, Execute a FOR-NEXT loop 
to stall the program, for exam- 
ple: 

FOnX=1 TO100:NEXTX 

With a little luck, you will not 
encounter the problem except at 
high baud rates (1200 -)-).■ 



MICRO 
BEEP' 

ADDS SOUND 
TO YOUR 

TRS-801 

MAKES GAMES MORE INTERESTING 



BCfPSON ERROHS • AT EMD Of BSORT ■ AFTEd PniNTII^G • nHENEVEH YOOMANIi 



SIMPLE HOOK UP JuH otiiq 



EASILY COMROLlEDfROM BASIC 



out 255 4 - ON 
OUT ?55 = Off 



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Accounr No. , 

E.Di^Jt or. Dale ._ 

WORKS ON ANV MODEL ONE TRS40 



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FEATURES S FANTASTIC PtOCRAHS AT AN UNHEARD OF PRICE! 



BACKGAMMON 5 

The best batfc^r-imon (Kciyram for Ihe TRS-80 Ptayl itandard 
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mouei Uses doubling dien Features fines! graphic cfisijlay yet available'" 

SPEED READING (C.A.I. I 

tficreate youf ceading speed and comprehension miiti this educational 
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YAHTZEE 

Up to lour people rnav play against <he computet Excelleni animated 
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You and opponents buy and sell computer generated stock in this exciting 
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t^ fitmMr Service— S9e page 147 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 137 



APPLICATIOIN 



Soundex is used to class similar sounding 
names together, for easier genealogical research. 



Soundex Codes 



Robert A. Hodge 
417 Peiham Street 
Fredericksburg. VA 22401 



ble, especially under a time 
pressure, to code a list of names 
without making errors. Because 
of this, I try to prepare all codes 



to be searched well in advance 
of attempting to use the 
records. 
Working with my TRS-80, I 



have developed a program 
which accurately produces the 
Soundex code for any name 
entered.! 



I have been involved in gene- 
alogical research for a 
number of years, and occasion- 
ally have found it necessary to 
use the records housed in the 
National Archives. There, a num- 
ber of records, particularly the 
latest available census records, 
are indexed according to an 
elaborate coding system called 
Soundex. 

Developed to group similar 
sounding names together re- 
gardless of spelling, the system 
uses the first letter of a name for 
alphabetical filing and converts 
all other letters into numbers as 
follows: 

• 1 is assigned to b,f,p,v; 

• 2 is assigned to c,g,j,k,q,s,x,z; 

• 3 is assigned to d,t; 

• 4 is assigned to I; 

• 5 is assigned to m,n; 

• 6 is assigned to r; 

• no value is assigned to 
a,e,h,i,o,u,w,y {normally); 

Complications sometimes 
arise because only one of any 
two consecutive equivalents 
are recorded (including, in this 
case, the first letter, normally 
not coded at all). The final result 
must be adjusted to consist of 
one letter and a 3-digit number, 
extra digits being discarded; ab- 
sent ones are recorded as zeros. 

I have found it nearly impossi- 



100 

105 

llfl 



115 



120 

125 
130 
135 
140 
145 
150 
155 
160 
165 
17 
17 5 
100 
185 
190 
195 
200 
205 
210 
215 
220 
225 
230 
235 
240 
245 
250 
255 
260 
265 
270 
27 5 
280 
265 
290 
295 
300 
305 



CLS 

PRINT TAB(20)"THE SOUNDEX CODE' 

PRINT: PRIHT"A NUHBER OF RECORDS IN THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES HAVE BEEN INDEXED 
ACCORDING TO A SYSTEM ALLOWING SIMILAR SOUNDING NAMES TO BE GROUPED 
TOGETHER REGARDLESS OF SPELLING. THIS SYSTEM IS TERMED THE 'SOUNDEX SY 
ST EH ' " 

PRINT!PRINT"IF ONE IS GOING TO THE ARCHIVES, IT WOULD BE HELPFUL AND TIME- 
SAVING TO HAVE THE SOJNDEX CODES ALREADY AVAILABLE FOR THE SURNAMES ( 
LAST NAMES) ONE WILL BE SEEKING.' 

PRINTiPRINT'I AM PROGRAMMED TO DETERMINE THE SOUNDEX CODE FOR YOU' : PRINT: INP 
UT'TAP ENTER WHEN READY'jA 

DIMA${25),BS(25),C[25) 
CLS 

PRINT"TYPE THE SURNAME (LAST NAME) TO BE CODED AMD PRESS ' ENTER" : INPUT" " i AS 

A-LEN(A$] 

C(1)-ASC(LEFTS(AS,1)) 

FOR B-2 TO A 

B$(B]-HIDS{A$,B,1) 

NEXT B 

FOR B-2 TO A 

C(B)-ASC(B$(B)} 

NEXT B 

FOR B-1 TO A 

IF C(B)-66 OR C(B)=70 OR C(B)-80 OR C{B)-a6 THEN C(B)=1 

IF C(B)=67 OR C(B)-71 OR C(B)-74 OR C(B)-75 THEN C{B)-2 

IF C{B)-B1 OR C(B)-83 OR C(B)-BB OR C[B}-'90 THEN C(B)-2 

IF CfBj-ee OR C(B)-B4 THEN C(B)-3 

IF C(B)-77 OR C{B)-78 THEN C(B)-=5 

IF CIB)='76 THEN C[B)-4 

IF C(B)-82 THEN CtB)-6 

IF C(B) >6 THEN C{B)-0 

IF C(B-1)-C(B) THEN C(B)»0 

NEXT B 

CLS:X-0 

PRINT'THE SOUNDEX CODE FOR "AS" ISi" 

PRINT:PRINT!PRINT LEFT${AS,1), 

FOR B-2 TO A 

IF CtB)»0 GOTO 275 

PRINT C(B) , 

X-X+1 

IF X-3 GOTO 295 

NEXT B 

FOR B-1 TO 3-X 

PRINT ■0', 
NEXT B 

PRINT: INPUT'IF YOU HAVE ANOTHER NAME, PRESS 

IF A5»"N0' GOTO 305ELSE 130 

CLS: END 

Program Listing. 



■ENTER' OTHERWISE TYPE 'NO"jAS 



138 • 80 Mlcrocomputir}g. March 1980 



HOBBYWORLD 
ELECTRONICS 

America's Largest Mail-Order Computer Store 



^. 



MATCHLESS SYSTEMS 

TRS-SO 
MINIDISK $395 

DRIVE 2torS775 

Th* b«l dfive available todiyT 
Campktc tnd ready lo uw, wilh 
tree 2-driw cable f Irvc soltwarr 
for ipcvdinf up your Acce» lime 
from ISmi In Urns' Oplkmal 
9oit**rt lor incrcaunf da la 
Horate tmm S?k lo b7.BK on 
your fir*l drive, jnd to Wfc on 
y«jr fdrond rWiv«* full 120 dav 
mono back (uarantre! 




Cjl No 


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1175 


Ortvp wt2 drive 




cjble 


IWt 


4 drive cib\t 




lllonc] 


19)S 


Tucks %-«a 




wftwArr 


1147 


Veffcjtim dni- 




»««. 10 lof 



HAZELTINE TERMINALS 

Sundard inlPrJacinK M moil Sisrems' 

Cjl No. Modrl Ontrtpltan Prkr 

IU7- 1400 53kty.Mi24d<tpli>.d<iiTib »4a 

21t>a- 1M0 Intrllitenl, 74 l>», M I 24 Sll^i 

2169- 1520 Intrllijttnl. ei key, 9S (lur. tlSSt 



ATARI 

THE AFFORDABLE COMPUTER 



Ihe perfect computer for 
Sophiiliratrd, y«l simpJv. Dr- 
ujinvd by th« cipcrl in home 
computer bai«d acctuoriet. It 
won't become obtolele, becaw 
It hai an vtpandabk mvfnnryr 
advanced peripheral cnmpn- 
nerkli, and comprehfn!fite arrat 
dI utftware modules. Whrlhrr 
you've had pfORramnwif etpeit- 
ence or not, you'll find your^ell 
DfjeralinA *■>*■ AUii in no Hme 
at all* f raturn oi ihr Model 400 
include: ^^ key keyboard, hifh- 
resolution color grapbin, buiJl- 
in TV modulalor tor dirrct fort- 
nection wilh any ilandard cohn 
TV. SK RAM. BK BASIC ROM 



SAROON II 

Hoyden 

The ch^mp nf fhimfii! SuriMitei 
Microcheii, And even Sargort II 
OMcri cofnpLei moves, 7 I«ve1i 
of pbv. JCttvity indic^roi, a 
speciil "hint" mode, plui moref 
The belt che»» profiam everl 
Cil No. «N1 IR&ao I29.4S 
Cat No 20« Arm II »299i 



TRS-80 FORTH 

Prograrrvna 

A cofnpjct threaded UngujRe- 
VocjbuUry luted, u&cr m^y 
tailor Ihe lyilem lo the needt 
and tiruclurc of a specitic ap- 
plication tier definei new 
wordi, which may in turn defir 

complex applications 
Cjt No. 2111 mS-SOL2.16KSM.95j 



both hcime and business' 
plus more and morel The model 
MW tui all the fealurei ol Ihe 
400 plus two channel diRiUl re- 
corder, «K RAM. (eipandable lo 
4aKi and IMC ROM. le.pandable 
to t2K). 

Cat No Dewription Price 

2172 Aliri 400 Per- S550.aO 

tonal Computer 
217b Digital Recorder 90.00 

for 400 
2171 Atari MO Per *«san 

u>nal Computer 

2174 Minididi Drive 7SO.0O 
lor 900 

2175 line Printer for liOO.OO 
fUM 



TRS-80 PIE 

Prootomma 

1 dimensional, turtoi based 
editor. Features blinkin| cursor, 
cursor movement ul 

upidoHnflcttlrighl, plus tahK 
character inserU delete: siring 
search forwards and bacLwards; 
plus more and more' The best 
editor available for Ihe IRS-MI 
Cat So. 2114 TRS-M.l2,IUlsm.95 



SYSCOP 

Duplicates SYSTEM tapes >fr) 

backup i 

JKHO U. 411. 

Cat No. 16SI S9«> 



BARRICADE 


^ 


Similar t'> breakout. 


A real time 


game, with fiptinrts 


of speed. 


balk. 'nfle. etc. 




TRS-BO LIIU IM. 




Cll No. llfcj tl4.9 


' 



BRIDOE 
CHAUENOER 

You and (iummy play a|ain«l thr 
computer in regular contracl 
bridfe- tilhef you or comp teti 



TIEUNE 

Prooramma 

Tumi your IRS-SD into a 
timeshare mainframe, smart ter- 
ninal, and allows you to 
icndhetelve BASIC and data via 
phoflt. Requires modem. RS13J, 
12K. DOS 2.1 or later. 
CalNo.2117 16.95 



ANDROID NIM II 

Super improved version ol SIM 
Corrstant etcitemeot! 
IRSOT. 12. IbK 
Cal\o 1bM S14«s 



STAR TREK III 

The mosi advanced 
«e've seen! 

TRfr«0 12, 16K 

I. 1041 *14,9S 



ADVENTURE 

fiplore an alimnt endk-Vi ma/p 

nf treaturh and pirfalk Chal- 

lenjiini; jnd fun! 

TRS^W L2. Ibh 

Cal No n.l S14.9S 



HUNT 

Pfogramma 

A rtew clais of |ame wttere you 
invent your own characlerv 
rulei. and w on. All the beil of 
Adventure, Dunicon^ Quett, 
Dragorq all rolled into one! 
Cat Na.2t4S TR&Wl U,1bKSl^.95 , 



LEVEL III BASIC 

Ives your TRS-SO Ihe power of 
full siie system. Diili conv 
rrunds, advanced edilinf. elc. 
IRS-BO 12, 16K 
Cat No. 1)12 S49 



NEWDOS 



Betlei thanlRSDOS' Allows DIR 
while in basic, and then retumr^ 
tr> basic. DIRCHECK DI5A5SEM 
IDTASM. and SCPtRZAP! A 
must loi disk osvnersi 
Cal No iy9IR«0. U ■ diikios 



8" Disks 

S37 box of lO 

3 boxes for SI 00 

• IBM compal/b/e 

• Smsle density 

• irMii\ 'dually certified 

Cat No. 1145 Typ* 12-1000 

Description 

32 s*clor holes, 1-index hole 

Cal No. 1146 I>pe34-10O0 
interchjriRCJible wilh IBM32, 
3740. 3770. 1790, etc- 

Vertxitim 

5V4 DISKEHES 

the ninsl popular diskette in 
the isimW 

S29/box of 10 

2forS55 

Cat No. Type Description 
t147 5IMP1 SofI, THS-80 
114S US-10 ID hole hard. 
Apple. North- 
star, H8 
1144 ^2S-16 16 hole hard. 
Micropolis 

DISKETTE/DISK 
BINDERS 

Ori^mres artd prolecFs youi riala 
files! 5'i" disks f 'I tynzi per insert 
f fit one per interl. Binders irv 
dudes 10 inserts. 
Cat No. Descriplioo Price 

1b50 5'< " binder M3S 

1651 S " b>nde> M.9S 
1653 e.tra B" inserts .95 

1652 eitra B''i" inserts .95 



VERBATIM 
CERTIFIED 
CASSEHES 



2 for 
S4.95 



Certified ^>ecificaliy for pergonal 

computers tuch ai the TRS-SO, 

Apple, Pet tU. Splice-free, 

leaderfeu, with folding recordinf 

Ubi. 

Cat No. 1^^ 



SOUNDWARE 

Add rmisK and sound eliects to 
vouf programs. Complete with 
soltvtare and hardware Installs i 

coods 
Cat No. ir« IR^«0. L2 i29.9S 



TRS-80 
LOWER CASE 


519 


MODIFICATION KIT 


Modifjei yn 
diipUy btilh 
cate. Imtalli ii 
drill, tolde 
screwdriver 
inalrudion*. 


ur machine In 
upper and lower 
1 miruln. requires 
ring iron and 
Wilh complete 
Cal No. 1550 



LEEDEX 

12" MONITORS 

Black and white, hi^ mnhjlion. 
Accefilt compost le input No 
tntpment^ 
Cat No. 1204 



$139 



16K MEMORY 


ADD-ON 


S75 


2 for 5140 


For rRS-filf, Apple, Fxidy \ 


Inslalls 


in minules, no special 1 


tools required. Complete with | 


detailed 


insliuclions. Wt4oi 


Cal No 


Description 


1156 


For IR^m keyboard 




uml 


H5*A 


lftS-80 wilhcml bul- 




lered cable 


nstiB 


TR5-M Mith buffered 




cable 


1156C 


For Apple 


11)tD 


For [lids Soicerei 



CALL TOLL FREE: 
(800) 423-5387 USA 

IN CALIF: 
(SCO) 382-3651 

LOCAL & OUTSIDE USA 
(213) 886-9200 



FUII£R ElfCTRONICS 

TRS-SO DUAL CASSEHE 
CONTROL CENTER 



$74.95 



Aids and simphlie'i caaette loading' 

Allovis veil lo (isfen lo c^sselles as Ihey ati' lijadini;' 



No more pluHinn and unplug- 
|ing cassette cables! Saves wear 
and tear on your computei 
system, adds Ihe fleiibilits Ihal 
<ou need loi iesel 11 data 
storage! Internal speaker allows 
you to listen lo CSA\ F and 
CIO AD, also allows iiiu (o litlen 
Is iasi forward and rewind 
iCTR-41). Independent volume 
control lels >(KJ adjust nvsotlor 
volume without affeclinx 
loading volume. Buili-in LED's 



let 10U know status of one or 
both recorders. Now you can 
simultaneously CSAVE with both 
recorders. ClOAD wilh either 
recorder; cross tape oilh both 
recorders levied and reviewed 
in March ~9 Creative Com- 
pulinj. Compact, onl* 4" s 3-." 
I 2'*" hijih. Complelelv assem- 
bled and tested Vtl 16 oi. 

Cal No 1971 (or CTR-41 
■Cal No. 1974 For CTR-M or CTR-21 



FUliER afCTRONCS RF-3 

TRS-80 I/O 8r AUXILIARY $39.95 
CONTROL CENTER 

• Coniroh lights, video fpcorders. appliances thru your IRS-BO' 

* With complete apphcation %ohv^aie and dor. umentation 

• Built-in rel3y pfOfff fs your TRS-dO retsv' 

* Contfoh from ftai.Tions or a second to rj^onrh^' 

to check youf RS-J32 nulpul 
without turning on ihe prinler 
Buill-in mlernal relav protecfs 
and btpjftei tonlrol current 
trom >nur Hmilivt TRS-«0 rrlav 
Sow you can even operate b or 
more cas»erte terorders safeh 
*or CSAVI HOU: IIOVAC 
COMROLLIR IS NOT INCLUD- 
ED. A iimple schematic arrd 
pdtts list ri supplied- Size; 2" t 4" 



The most vetsatile TRS-80 ac 
ceswry available today! Otters 
leafu^e^ fmind onlv in units 
costinjt much mijre. No* >ou 
can control lij^hts *hen you're 
rwt home, at rarnkim limes! Tutn 
vrdeo recording equipment on 
and off at prevl limes, even 
months in advance- Internal 
beeper can be used to (ifrul the 
er>d oi a lortf son llalsu lels you 
linow wilh one beep, two beep^ 
etc. eiLJctly what part ol the pro 
fram you're int Also allows you 



DIRECT 
CONNECT MODEM 



Novation 



A ns wef/Ofigina !(? ' 

300 Baud' 

DesiRnw/ specificallv ioi penonal computers' 



Model 4iaiB, the lop ol the line in 
retiatiility. ecrKiomy. convenience! 
Usable on either dial-up or leased 
telephone lines, the 410iB is Bell 
lOlA or 111B compatible Operates 
al the hi(hesl standards ol -<>dem 
for transmit level, and -SOdBm serv 
ftivity. Meels all FCC requirements 
for direct lirie hookup, all units sup- 
plies with standard new modular 



"T-PIuk". Low prolile design conv 
plimenls the appeararvce of all com- 
puter sysletTH. Uav be mounted on 
eilher wall or desk Front panel has 
LED indicalmii RS212 interlace 
status Compact power pak plugs 
diredlv into wall socket, reduces 
heal and shock haiard. 
Wetghl: 1 lb 
Cat No. 2214' 



$395 



Novation "Cot" 

Acoustic Modem 

The first quality compact mndem 
designed specifically for (he imall 
compulef user, Deiinned lo 
transmit data over sllnd^rd 
telephone lines, the Cat has many 
uses for tHjsiness and tvibbyist- 
Allows orke termirul o* computer to 
interact with others, pevmirtinf nrsr 
access to daU from remote kx> 
tions. htobbyish can etchance da la 
artd programs- Compatibie with any 
Bell 10} modem and. ol couise. all 



other Cati! Also perfectly compati- 
ble with Ihe new Radio Stuck 
modern {ifs the same unit). Data en- 
chdnge can occur al any speed up 
lo 30 charfsec. low profile case 
fealures iwitcties lor mode selec- 
tion 4nd operation, also for CEO's 
disptayir^ unit status. Acoustic «e)1- 
le^l is standard CompJete and 
ready -lo-use- Rerjuires 110 VAC. 
60Hz. 
Cat No 14B0 



$169 



HOW TO ORDER 

Pay by check. Mastercharf^e, 
Viu, or COD. CharRc orders 
pleaie include eipiratinn date. 
Foreign pav in U.S. lunds. Older 
by phone 01 mail, or it our retail 
MINIMUM ORDER S10. please 
include phone number and mag- 
a^ine/issue you are ordering 
from. Prices valid thru last day of 
covei djte SHIPPING- US4 : 
add S2 00 for the first 2 lbs. For 
giound add li< lor jiddtl lb. For 
air idd 7SC fa, addfl lb FOR- 
EICM: surface: add SI 00 for first 
2 lbs, MK per addfl lb Ait: add 
Jlt,00 for first 2 lbs, *> lor tich 



iddfl lb. CODs SI addfl. Guar- 
anteed satisfaction fni 120 days 
DT your money back! Not re 
sponsible lot lypoKraphical 
eriors. Siinie items subjecl lo 
piior sale- We reserve Ihe rijjhl 
lo limit quanlilies. 

SEND FOR FBfE CATAIOC 
FEATURING: 
Computers and accessories, disk 
drives, printers, inlegiated cir- 
cuits. lEDs, semiconductors, 
bonks, soilware. cnnnectois, 
plus rnote jnd motel The widest 
selection tl Ihe lowest prices! 
Circle our reader service number 
or phooefwrite loday for vour 
copy! 



19511 Business Center Dr. Dept. V3 Northridge, Ca. 91324 



t^ R9»<f»r S»ryic»—»»» pafft t47 



80 Microcomputing, March 1980 • 139 



SBm svsTEfns, inc. 



►^154 



Conipiiter St'rt/ici's • H:irdware • Softv^jrc • Cunsiifting 

Professional Business Software to operate on 
TRS-80* computer 

• ISAM Accounting Package: 

— Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable, 
General Ledger with Cash Journal, In- 
voicing and Payroll 

Integrated Accounting System $425.00 

Separate Modules $ 99 00 

• ISAM Inventory Control $125 00 

— Above Systems require 2 - 3 drive Systems. 

— Integrated System requires 3 - 4 drive Systems. 

— Systems operate under NEWDOS by Apparat 
(not included) 

• Machine Language Disk Sort $ 49.95 

— Multiple Keys - Ascending, Descending 
Callable under Basic 

TO ORDER CALL: 




mi->U" .n.i'ije 



VISA 



(617) 685-0151 



•Trademark of Tandy Corporation 

•• Accounting Package not available in the State of California. 




TRS-80*— CONDENSE 

Tbi Ultlmti in BASIC 
Conpnsslon Utilltlis <|^ 



RalNM 1.3 N8W Avillibli 



Write BASIC programs using single statement lines for ease 
of maintenance. 

Write BAStC programs with unlimited remarks and comments 
to rmprove program readatiility and documentation.. 

— AND STILL GET — 
OPTIMUM USE OF MEMORY — FASTER PROGRAM 
EXECUTION 

Compresses programs up to 70% of ongmal size 

Improves execution time by as much as 30% 

Creates multiple-statement program lines 

Blank compression 

Remark and comment deletion 

Renumbers GOTO. GOSUB, THEN. ELSE, and RESUME 

statements which reference deleted line numbers 

PLUS THESE NEW USER REQUESTED OPTIONS 

- Retention ot low numbered remark statements 

- Checkpoint / Restart Facilities 

- Phase 1 work file 



MiM I S21.95 

(Diskette) 



Modil II $24.95 

(Diskette) 



INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE ASSOCIATES 

P.O. Box 14805 
Onahi, Ne. 68124 



^-187 



Tandy Corporation* 



TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

from 

Snfli-L CQflPJTEH SVSTEIUS 

The Software People 

DATAMAH3 DoW Manogemwil SyiWm ■ S49 96 
EOnOKI r«.tcif<dPiogfomEaitof S90 95 

•OOK . EDITO01 UTILITY tor cnf^^ 0"0 orOO"' 

ir>g mafiuaB S24 95 

WnW pf ogicynj wiin iaD«tt inil«oa of Hne 

numbsfj Si J 95 

Piogrom TNOtX' Oroan««, kXX» onO 

runscxograms Of» jlBp operatio'' 

S2J95 

Cor ana MortgoOS omoftiMtion 

COQIOfTl S 1 J 05 

G«iiotal porposn oipfia numeoc JOfting 

routine . (14 95 

HmIisIic stock market nam* - St4.95 

lM» Vagas tavonto S14 95 

CompiitenzscS drawing t>oaid $14.95 

These programs were written for the TRS-flO 
Computer System and its peripherals. A 
minimum of 32K of memory and at least 
one disk drive are required tor all. All soft- 
ware is supplied with Full Documentation 
PLUS applications examples. 
For Quolty Som«3re-jee "The SoCNwire Propte" 

Sflfli-L COnPUTEH SVSTEnS 

2935 East McDowel Rood Phosntx. AZ 85008 
{602)275-3108 

AOdit-onol irlwafure orid monuati (»• OWOitOtSW 

Call oi Wiilolor piicftj 
P1c»^G Ordcs WeKTome 
Masterchoroefk VISA Cof Os Accop'ea i^83 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
"TR&40 Is a rvglaMrMl hadwrwrti o< TANDY CORP." 



UIHIIVI 



DKNU 



AMO« 

son 

STOCK 

OHO 

DRAW 





When you buy your 
TRS 80™ equipment! 

Use our toll free number to 
check our prke before you bu> 

a TRS HOT** . . . anywhen:! 



ful R(Kio5hack warranty 





"R5-80UTIUIY PROGRAMS 



■•BotwT ttie UVEI. I iCbrivlitlani rnii r"" !"■ 
vfatffl r«i |af L£VCL IE? Hov r^^ >^v^ FuHe cvei 
■sri. Otll— (»,r DVT III uilni lASK llfx 10 

tir oorli til fouc clwlo. A r>i1 IlH uvcf 

An Imfiovtd Itfv iQidLnt routla* lUc ^oethi 
IlUsi celil IsniSlpi itid »>•• L£VEL U inti • 
uilly i< imL 1. Lnid. l^id-ial-ia. or cop 
uy LEVEL II up*. ?!i?LA'i dac« F»-li>a loadtd 



Tdwi pTa|(aB El DOT vniLEvlr dvttroyri by 

llnhs Htd T»«I| pclalVT* H Hue fo^t proftlu 
fEBVa troa fh« «■>»« llk« Eh« l«fHtd4ry no*ii 

KalrKfttrB T^>vr prvtTnr 



ihouE 



•1(11; 



uFT«fl. b«r irtplu 



Jl MSIC pioimlhii uUI PI 

$sa KjlELpl* InfKElvbt on tA« 4<r***i «ad a 
ntrm MM mlL. Ca]cwL«l« r™'^ dal* 'Bd 
It la • Ubl. OT la •rT-4<. Call FrUJT ■> • ft- 

a (ltd If m llkf . 



Eh« Ahjv« prnj^rH 



11 1> • SISTER laiHti 

rPUjr 1. .vjll.bl* in 



tft toi 'jytL I] Ibl mac 
lliEl-q mini Z-ao >I.~IF 
E>tL i: WSIC <•!••<>• o 



S3. 93 each (cassecce or lisclntt. specify) 
plus $1.30 per order for poscage ami 
handJlng (foreign orders S3. 00 per order 
for postage and handling. Texas realdencs 

add 611 aalea tax) 



MARIG01.0 ASSOCIATES 

P. 0. BOX 58101 
HOUSrOM, TEXAS 77058 

^156 



140 • 80 Microcomputing. March 1980 



■^ TRS-80 
SERIAL I/O 

• Can input into baSiC 

• Can use LLIST and 
LPRINT to output, or 
output continuously * 
RS-932 compatible • 
Can be used with or 
without the expansion 
bus • On board switch 
selectable baud rates 
of 110.150.300,600. 
120G, 2400, pantv or 
no pantv odd or ever. 
5 to B data bits, and 1 
or 3 stop bits D T R 
line • Requires +5, 
-12 VDC •Board only 
S19.95PartNo 9010, 
with parts S59 95 Part 
No. 60 IDA, assembled 
S79 95PartNo 8010 
C No connectors pro- 
vided, see below 




Ell/RB-ZIZ ar^- 
nactor Pwrl Ho 

9 B condbClor 
cMMllOMBrl 



COMPUCRUISE 




$1 2a95;¥Wthcnjsecar- 
trolffi 169.95 



THE TELESIS 

VAR-SO 

INTERFACE 

UNIT 




QTir 



For tfie TRS-aO with 
Level II BasK: • Provides 
a outputs • ProvHles 8 
inputs • 2 ft erf inter- 
connectaTg cable w/ con - 
nector • Plugs directly 
into TRS-80 • Power 
supply provided • As- 
sembled and tested. 
Part rjo.VARBO, Intro- 
ductory pnceSI 09.95. 



GAME PADDLES 
& SOUND 




Includes: 2 game pad- 
dles. interfBce. soft- 
ware, speaker, power 
supply, full documerv 
tacion including: sche- 
matics, theory of 
operation, and user 
guide, plus 3 games on 
cassette CPono and 
StarshipWwI. S79.95 
Complete Part No 
7922C 



16K RAMS 

For the Apple. 
TRS-80 or Pet SB 
each Part No, 41 16; 
2117. 



DIGICOM DATA 
PRODUCTS INC. 

Series 312 
Acoustic Coupler 

300 BAUD Originate. 
Part Mo. AC3122. 
$219.95. 300 BAUD 
Answer. Part No 
AC3122, 521995 
300 BAUD Answer/ Or- 
onata Part NaACa 123. 
S229.95 



LIGHT-PEN 
ForYourTRS-aO 




Your TRS-80 Light-Pen 
is a carefully engineered 
instnjment and with the 
proper care will give 
satisfactory use an6 
many years of service. 
Part No. TflSBOLP 
$2495 



SYSTEM 
EXPANSION 

from 
LNW Research 

• Serial HS232C/20 
mA l/D • Floppy con- 
troller • 32K bytes 
memory* Parallel print- 
er port • Dual cassette 
pon • Real-time clock 

• Screen printer bus • 
Onboard power supply 

• Software compatible 

• Solder mask, silk 
screen. PC board and 
user manual, Part No 
LNWBO, $6935, 



DISKETTES 




Vfcrbalim 



BoKOf 10. 5"$29 95. 
8- $39.95. 
Plastic box. holds 10 
diskettes, 5' - $4 50. 
B- - $6 50 



CASSETTE TAPE 
ERASER 




Removes recordings m 
one second! ERASER-B 
$19.95 



S-10a INTERFACE 




AN S-1 00 bus Adapter— Mcthertxwrd for the 
TRS-SO Kit. Part N0.HUH81DLXK. $29595 
Assembeled. Part No HUH81DLXA,$375 95 



NOW! 

A FULL SUPPORT SYSTEM 

FOR TRS-80 




• 32K of RAM • EPROM firmware • Disk 
control • Data acquisition • Parallel I/O • 
Serial I/O • Plug into GPA's Motherboard 
GPA s quality design includes • 6-44 pm edge 
connectors • ■ 5^ -5V, • 1 2V, -1 2V external 
power supply required • Active terminatjon. 
The Motherboard, Part No. GPA80, is only 
$14995 

TAKE ADVANTAGE OF 

GPA-EXPANSION CARDS 

FOR THE GPA80 

Memory card*: Now with Fortran compilers 
available lor your TRS-80. additional expansion 
memory is a musU Card with sockets only. Part 
No. GPA801 .$1 1 995 Card with 1 6K of 41 1 6 
Dynamic Ram. Part Mo. GPABD2. $224.95. 
Card v*nth 32K of 41 1 6 Dynamic Ram, Part No. 
GPA603. $329.95 All cards come equipped 
with sockets to accomodate 32 K of Ram. 
EPROM firmware card. Put those valuable 
subroutines in firmware Don't waste tjme 
loading and untoading tapes and disks. For 2708 
or27l6EPnOMS,PartNo.GPA806.$79,95 
Serial I/O card. Here's what you've been 
asking for, a full serial terminal interface, with 
RS-232Cor20mA.Currentloop Input/ output 
capabilities Part No. GPAB07,$79 95. 
Parellel I/O Cerd. Control functiors in the 
outside world, monitor and store real time 
events. Two parallel output ports Dip switches 
select ports [0-254] Part No. GPA808. 
$79.95 



LEEDEX 
MONITOR 



O 



12" Black and White- 
12 MHz Bandwidth 
• Handsome Plastic 
Case*$13g 00 




FLOPPY DISK 
STORAGE BINDER 

Three-ring binder 
comes with ten trans- 
parent plastic sleeves 
which accommodate 
either twenty, five-mch 
or ten, eight-inch 
floppy disks. Binder & 
lQhQkJers$14.95Part 
No. 8800; Extra hoWers 
95II each. Part No. BOO, 



DIGITAL 
CASSETTE 




5 mm. each si0e Box 
of 1019.95 



Holds two 5-1/4 inch 
diskettes and will fit 
any standard three nng 
binder $9.95/ 10 Pack. 



TRENDCOM 
PRINTER 

EJ 

• 40 characters per 
second • 4-7/16 inch 
wide thermal paper • 
Graphics [TRENDCOM 
lOQh 4B0 sevendot 
print postons per line. 
TRENDCOM 100. Part 
NoTRC0100.$49595. 
TRENDCOM 200. Part 
NaTRC0200,S37595, 
Interface for TRS-80. 
PartNo.T80A$45 95. 
For Apple II, Part No. 
TRCAII. $75 95 For 
PET. NO. TRCP2. 
$79,95.ForScoccerer, 
TRCSR1 $4595. 



SARGON: A Computer 
Chess Program 

Features the complete program that won the 
1978 West Coast Computer Faire Tourna- 
ment. Part No. 00603 — TRS-80 Level II, 
Part No. 00604 — Apple II (g4K]. $19 95 



SOUND EFFECTS AND MUSIC 
FOR YOUR COMPUTER 




SOUNDWARE is a complete system. It includes 
a speaker /amplifier unit with volume control, 
earphone jack, and cornectors It boasts 
excellent lone quality yet is small and convenient 
to use Add batteries, plug it in. and play One 
year warranty. SOUNDWARE package (in- 
cludes INTRO to SOUNDWARE programsl 
PET ISK). Part No. 20003. $2995 TRS-80 
Level II (1BKJ, Part No 20002. $2995. 
Compucolor II (8K). Part No 20001 . $39 95. 
INTRO to SOUNDWARE programs only PET 
and TRS-BO. Pait No, 20005, $1 4.95. Compu- 
color II Part No. 20006. $1 9 95. 



lb Ordfir * ^^^^'O" P^^^ ^°- description, and price. In USA shipping paid by us for orders accompanied by check or rrmney order, 

' \Ate accept COD, orders in the U S, only, or a VISA or Master Charge no., expiration data, signature, phone no,. 

p^gy^ I^^B shipping charges will be added CA residents add 6,5% for tax Outside USA add 10% for air mail postage and han- 

IhU I^MU dling. Payment must be in U S, dollars. Dealer inquiries invited. 24 hour order line [408) 448-0800 



►^26 



Send tor FREE Catalog a big self-addressed envelope with 41* postage gets it tastesi' 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS ^^p* ^° ^ ^ ^°^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 



i^ Reaaer Service— sea page 147 



80 Microcomputing. March 1980 • 141 



If you enjoy driving, you're going to get a 
COMPUCRUISE. Once you see what it can 
do, you Just won't be able to live without It. 



f« 




This gadgel lits mlo mos! dashboards . no strain even in a lini^ sports car IJhe the Mazda RX-7 , . . and ' 
once you have il, every trie is like (lying a 747 The darned thing tells you Ihe lime, how fast you're going, how 
far you've been on this Inp or since the last regassmg, how many miles per gallon you're gelling, either at the 
instant or the average on the trip or gallons per hour at the moment or lor the trip temperature outside 
. . . inside (or coolant temperature, it you preter) . oh, i1 has an elapsed lime for the trip, a Slop watch, lap 
time, an alarm how mucti further lor your trip, how many gallons more the trip will taite, how much longer 
fof the trip at your present average speed . . . yes, it gives you your average speed tor the trip. You prefer it in 
metric, no strain . . liters remaining, etc Did we mention that it also has cruise control either at a speed set 
on the control Iroarb or at whatever speed you are traveling? The Compucruise will keep yoo busy and enter- 
tained during any trip . . . telling you more than you will ever want to know. 

The Compucruise is not ditlicult to install though it does connect to everything eicepi the cigarette 
lighter Until you've tried computerized travel, you haven't found out how much fun driving can be. It will wofK 
on any car not having fuel ir|ection and there Is a front-wheel drive accessory gadget available for only 
W.40-#P001 (regularly $5 50). 

The price lor the Compucruise is regularly J 199.95 . and a bargain at that price Well sell you one of these 
fantastic gadgets tor $159 95 with cruise control (Model 44-#P002), and SI 27 95 without (Model 41 #P0031 Send 
monay , . . and start having lun! 



MAIL ORDER MICROS ^ 

Dept M80 • PO Box 427 • Marlboro NH 03455 
Phone: (603) 924-3041 




Steal stopper 



Ever had your car stolen? 

The first reaction is one of disbelief . . . 

. . . you fcnow it was right there! 

What you Dvanl is a rnodern combmalion lock on your ignition . . 
The Steal Stopper. It's easy to install and almost impossible to 
defeat You can by-pass it, if you want, for parking attendants or a 
car wash. Other than thai, you set up a secret four digit code and 
only will then De able to start the car even if you leave the iieys 
in the ignition. 

"ThFs protection retails for S50 bu! we have a special for you at 
S39 95. Don't procraslmate Order #9004 

Note. This product works best on Detroit cars Mazda RX7 
owners must order additional module. »TO08. which costs SB The 
Steal Stopper can be modified for Mercedes. Porsche, Ferrari, or 
olher high performance European cars by returning unit to 
manufacturer with 13. They promise quick modification and relu'n 



PROCESSOR TECH 

HARDWARE 
I Procauor Tach VIdao 
Dttplay Moduta— Memory 
mapped video tor S-100. ei- 
cellent condition 
#D009-S144 each. 



PROCESSOR TECH 
SOFTWARE 

2 Processor Tecti Extandad 
Dith BASIC-This is full 
disk BASIC on 8 ' disk lor 
HELIOS II disk controllers 
with PTDOS and greater 
than 16K #D015-$80 each 

1 Extandad Disk BASIC on 
cassatta— This is the same 
as previously mentioned for 
the Disk BASIC from Pro- 
cessor Tech Needs more 
than 16K. <rO017-(72 

8 Extandad Cassatta 

BASIC— This includes all 
tile operations, advanced 
functions for doing more 
than playing games; for 
SOLOS, CUTTER, and CON 
SOL Monitors »D016-I22 
each. 
19 BASIC S (rom Procassot 
Tach— This is a simple 
BASIC for a SOLOS, CUT- 
TER, or CONSOL Monitor 
and SK of RAM (rtX)13- 
$11.60 each 

4 Procassor Tach QAMEPAC 
for above BASIC — Various 
simple games. WX)14-$1 1 60 
each 



ASTROLOGICAL 

COMPUTER AND 

4-FUNCTION 

CALCULATOR 

ASTRO"- 

Gives you a fascinating look into 
your personality traits. Compares 
16dilferenl combinations. 
Matches your astrological influ- 
ences to any day — past, present, 
or future. Gives In-Oepth analysis 

I ol vou' compatibilitv wi\ti your 
Ixjss. your spouse, your lover, 
your child Regularly $4995 

, #fTO?0-$39 95 SPECIAL PRICE, 



'PROCESSOR TECH SOL 
4 SOL Computare— eK RAM 

Monitor, S-100, excellent 
condition. #0004-5980 each 
19 TREK-M on cassette lor 
SOL — This IS one ol the 
best real time space games 
available today; needs 8K. 
«X»5-S11 each. 
9 Elactiic Pencil on casselte 
(or SOL — Word processor, 
needs 8 K XD006-S80 each. 



MICRO TERM 

ACT TERMINAL 
MicroTerm ACT Terminal 
— Need a video monitor, up 
lo 600 Baud, good condi- 
tion. •S035-S200 each 
SPECIAL PRICE 



COMPUCOLOR 

HARDWARE 

Compucolor Computer S001 

(use as computer or 75 

MHZ Color Monitor)- 8K 

RAM, BASIC and DOS in 

ROM, good condition. 

#S025-S1500each SPECIAL 

PRICE 

Compucolor MinlFloppy 

— 5'.'« inch, good condition. 
»S026-$525 each SPECIAL 
PRICE 

Compucolor 8K RAM card 

- Static RAM, good condi- 
tion. »S027-$200 each 
SPECIAL PRICE, 
Compucolor Floppy Tape 
Driva— Uses eight track car- 
tridges, good condition. 
»S028-$7a each. SPECIAL 
PRICE 



PANASONIC 

TAPE DECKS 
Panasonic RS261 US SIsrao 
Cassette Decks— with auto-stopj 
record level adjust, VU meters, 
used condition; all have had 
heads replaced and aligned 
«T001-S50 

PiiuBonlc RS260 US SterM 
Cassatta Dacks— same as above J 
but also has bias switch for 
chrome tapes. <n"00Z-$50 



POLYMORPHIC 

HARDWARE 
PolyMorphic Video Terminal 
Interface Memory mapped 
video for S 100 bus. good to 
eKcellent condition 
*(SO44-I150 each SPECIAL 
PRICE 

PotyM Orphic Cassette Inter 
(acfl— Plugs into Poly CPU 
only, new »D047-$29.60 
each. 

PolyMorphic S-100 Cabi- 
nets— Nice 5-slot 3-100 
mainframe, good to excel- 
lent condition #D049-S248 
each 



>OLY-88 ACCESSORIES^ 

Parallel Keyboard— Good 
condition «S001-S50 each. 
SPECIAL PRICE 
Soltware on 5V."— This is 
system soHware that re- 
quires a PolyMorphic Disk 
Controller in a System 88 
Cabinet. »D002-$100 
Electric Pencil-#D0C3-$80^ 



ALS-80 
ALS-80 Operating 

system— This system re- 
quires 12K RAM Irom DOOO 
to FFFF, as well as either 
the SOLOS or CUTTER 
monitor; it includes an As- 
sembler/Edilor. #D018- 
$11.60 each. 



NORTH STAR 

HARDWARE 
Nortti Star Floating Point 
BASIC card—With special 
BASIC, new. »D0059-$287. 
North Star Floating Point 
BASIC card (kit)— With 
special BASIC, S-100, new. 
«D0060-$207. 

North Star Floppy Dish Con- 
troller card — Single density, 
S-100, new «D0061-$248. 
S-100 Edge Connec- 
tor—Gold Contacts, new. 
»D050-$2 each 
Extender Card lor S-100 
(kit)— New #0051-524 each 



BALLY GAMES 

Bally VideoCode Cassettes 
— They consist ol two 
qarnes Speed Malh and 
Bingo Malh »D029-S16 
each 

ABACUS 

Abacus Paperweight — 
Hefty, brass, excellent con- 
dilion «S024.I3 SPECIAL 
PRICE. 



MUSIC 

2 Software Tachrralooy S-100 
Music system on cassette 
—This IS an S-100 Music 
system contains the proper 
hardware. •D005M19.60 
each 

COMPUTER TRAINER 

1 lASIS COMPUTER-IN-A- 
BOOK— 8080 Microcomput- 
er, comes built into training 
manual, excellent condi 
lion #D020-$240 



ICOM 

DISK DRIVE 
ACCESSORIES 

ICOM Dual Disk Drive- 
Single density. 512K 
storage, S-lOO controller, in- 
cludes CPIM ROM. good 
condition #S030-$1500 
SPECIAL PRICE, 
ICOM PROM and 8" Disk 
lor SOL FDOS-Thisdisk 
requires an ICOM S-100 
Disk Controller installed in 
an S-100 #D031-$160. 
ICOMCPfM on B" Disk for 
S-100 — Requires an ICOM 
S-100 controller in an S-100 
cabinet, #O032-S100 
ICOM FDOS-llonS" Disk 
for S-HXJ— Requires an 
ICOM S-100 controller m an 
S-100 cabinet, no documen- 
tation «D033-SlB0each 
ICOM FOOS-11 on 5V." Disk 
lor S-100— Requires an 
ICOM S-100 Mini-Floppy 
Controller in an S-100 
cabinet «D034-S168. 



142 • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



IMSAI HARDWARE 

IMSAI 8800 Msintrima 

S-100— Encelient condition 
»D0087$839 

IMSAI 8ai5 S-IOO Dvvatop- 
mant Syalcm— Partially 
assembiM. needs a CPU 
card, excellent condition 
•6008fr$S2S as is SPECIAL 
PRICE 

IMSAI BUM S-100 Dev«k>p- 
nwnt Syttem— Kil. rnain- 
tfame cover miastng, needs 
a CPU ca'd, excellent con- 
dition irS008»S500 as is. 
SPECIAL PRICE. 
IMSAI 4K RAM card-S-tOO. 
good condition. »O0055- 
S89.60 



IMSAI 
SERIAL I/O CARDS 
I IIV'*"%w1allfOcard 
2 ^OtOp.;j-»rts,MI 



'OUT 



RS<f,=^ . "Wr J, good 
condition nOixnr^ .186. 
IMSAI S«rtal I/O card 2-2 
(liHl— Two serial porta, full 
RS-232 control, S-100, new. 
»D0091-$124. 
IMSAI S«rial UO card 2-1 
(kit)— One serial port, lull 
control HS-232 control, 
S-lOG, new #O0O92-$100. 



IMSAI 

PARALLEL I/O CARDS 

(MSA) Parallel UO card 

44— Four parallel ports, 
S-ICW. excellent condition. 
■00093$ 186 

IMSAI Parallel IK) card 4-1 
(kilt— One parallel port, 
S-100, new. »O0094-$74 40. 



IMSAI SOFTWARE 

IMSAI IMOOS V2.02 on 8 

Disk forS-100-No 
docurnentalion, t>ul this is 
apparently IMSAI s version 
ot CPIM tor S-100 syslems 
*tlhan IMSAI Dtsl( Con 
Iroller aOOtKe-SOe each 
IMSAI BASIC M-This 
BASIC IS tor an S-100 
system with a TAflBELL 
cassette mtertace #00067- 
S22 

TARBELL CasaetM Intar- 
laca (kit)— Kansas Cily In- 
letface. Tarbell Phase en- 
coding, S-10O, new »D0064- 
196 



^:Jm^^ 20% OFF 

MAIL ORDER MICROS ^— ^-— ' ^-^ ^— ' o 

Dcpc MBD • PO Boir 427 • Marlboro fUH 03aSS 

Phone |Ga3] 3SA 3011 . . ^m^^ JK ^^^m 

Inventory ^^ A ^^ 

Clearance ^jAA L ^ 



>HONE INTERFACE 
Novation Mcxjem 
*3102A— Connects to any 
phone, originate only, good 
condition tSOZI-SieSeach. 
SPECIAL PRICE 
No**tion Modem 
■31 Qi^l P. —" 'cany 
ph. ^°*-0 OUT ite 
good condition. -_ ?-$200 
each SPECIAL PRICE 
Novation Modem 1143- Con- 
nects to any phone, 
originate only, good condi- 
tion, 1(8023^155 SPECIAL 
PRICE 



VECTOR GRAPHIC 

S-100 

I Vector Qfaphic ROM/RAM 

card-i2K empty ROM 
sockets. IK BAM, excellent 
condition. #00078-51 19 60 
> Vector Graphic Analog In- 

tarlace- Allocs hobbyist lo 
interface analog eiperi- 
menis, S 100, r*e* #00079 
$79.20 
I V' 
Ic 



— '•■r Analog In- 

HOLDOUT « 

s-100. new .w"' 5560 



TDLZAPPLE 

TDL Z-80 8K BASIC-This is 

lor a Z 80 system with a 

ZAPPLE Monitor »D007l 

S30 

Tr "■ " ■"' Moni- 

ic SOLOOUT ''^"* 
system with »cnji..^il6. 
TOL ZAP IK Monitor- Sim 

pie monitor «O0073S13 



NEXT MONTH . . . 

WATCH THIS SPACE 
FOR 20% {OR MORE) 
DISCOUNTS ON 
POPULAR BRAND 
NAME SOFTWARE 
FROM MOM'S. 



Inventory 
Clearance 



BOOK CLEARANCE 

UP TO 50% OFF 

Take a Chance with Your Calcula- 
tor (Lithium publisher) »BK1002 

-was $8 95, no* S4 50 
ChemiStrv with a Computer lEtlu- 

comp-puBiisher)fBK1010— was 

$9.95. now S5.00 
Ckimputei Dictionary (Camelot 

publisher) «BK1018- was S5 95, 

now S3 OO 
FORTRAN Programming iCame- 

lot publisher) #BK10l9-was 

$7 95. nowS4 00 
FORTRAN Workbook (Cameiot- 

publisherl •BK1020-was 54 95, 

now $2 50 
A Quick Ltxik at BASIC (Camelot 

publisher) »BK1043-was$4 95, 

now $2 50 



DL SOFTWARE-DISK 

TDL FDOS 1 SuparBASIC 

on 8" Disk — This requires 
an ICOM Disk Controller 
and at least 20K ol memory, 
plus a ZAPPLE Monitor in 
an S-100 Catlrnel (Allair, IW 
SAi.etcl #00065-5137 
TOL System Sottware on 
5%"dl»k— This set ot 
system software requires a 
North Star Disk Controller, 
a TDL Systems Monitor 
Board I, and consists of 
12K BASIC, Relocator/Link- 
ing Loader, Z-80 Editor, arvd 
Tent Processor dOOOee- 
5183 

TDL System Sottwara on 
5v." diak — This IS the same 
as above, t)ut does not re- 
quire the Syslems Monitor 
Board I *D0067 5200 
TDL System Soltware ocf 
5V»" dlik- Again, as above, 
but requires a HELIOS Disk 
Controller and the TDL 
Systems Monitor Board ■ 
|noi II #00068-5183 



HONEYWELL 

15 Honeywell ASR-33 Communi- 
cations Contolet with TTY, 
paper tape reader and punch 
Used, working when removed 
from service Shipped (reight 
collect or you pick up. WeigM | 
300 lbs. 5395 Order #P006. 



MOUNTAIN 
HARDWARE 

Mourttain Herdwafa AC 
Cortlroller— Hemoie AC out- 
let control, S 100, new 
#0040-5100 each 
Mounuin Hardware remote 
outlel — Remote module tor 
above, two channels, new 
110041 $72 eacti 



HEURISTICS 

SPEECH LAB 

Heuristics Speech Lab— 

S-10C. used, (air condition. 

#8042 $100 as IS SPECIAL 

PRICE 

Heuristics Speech Labs- 

S-100. new #0043-5151 

each 



SHUGART 

MINIDISK DRIVES 
SlH' -n MInlDISk □rivBG 



suppi 



Por 



-lie (or 



-' SQi ^ ^nd power 

uppiy. 
North Star, yi.**' jndilion 
#5036-5320 SPECiAL 
PRICE. 

Shugart MiniUak Drtvei 
—No cabinet, good condi 
tion »S037 S300 each 
SPECIAL PRICE 
Power Supplies (or 
a Dove- good condition 
''5038-530 each SPECIAL 
PRICE- 



Prices include 20" » discount 
PRICE includes more than 20°. 



SPECIAL 

discount 



Quantities are limited, immediate retund (( 
ordered item is no longer available ' Phone 
answered by machine Orders taken with 
credit cards Questions answered by mail. 

TERMS: FOB Marlboro, NH USA Limited 
stock, everything guaranteed as described. 
you pay postage on returns PRINT orders 
clearly. Minimum order $10 plus $2 50 ship 
ping and handling charge in USA only 
DOUBLE THAT ELSEWHERE Orders over 
$50 add 5°.> (or shipping in USA, 10' = 
elsewhere (we will re(und excess!. Orders 
Shipped UPS or insured mail only NoCODs 
please Send US funds by check or money 
order For credit card purchases, add 4%, 
list AE. MC or VISA, number, and eipiralion 
date Mail to MOM's Department M80, PO 
Box 427 Marlboro NH 03455 

Condition dI Inventory: 

New = original conlatner 

ExcellenI - new. but not in original 
container 

Good = tested or used in store 



Qty 



Catalog* 



Description 



Unit Price 



Total 



Delivefv :3to6week8. 

Encltwed % 

Bill AE MC 

Card no 




MAIL ORDER MICROS 



Shipping & Handling _ 

Credd Card | » 4"/.) 
Total 
Exp Dele,. 



Name 
Address 
City 



_State_ 



-Zip. 



t/* Reader Service—see page 147 



Ship 



UPS 



insured mail Signature 



BO Microcomputing. March 1980 • 143 



iW"a^^^^T""^f<""W""T^^V"^"7V 



microcomputing : bookshelf 



C»^- 



r 



ii@¥^ 



basW haste 



ys 



• PROGRAMMING THE Z-80-BKn22- by Rodnay Zaks Here is 
assembly language programming for the 2-80 presented as a pro- 
gressive, step-by-step course. This book is both an educational 
text anda self-contained reference book, useful to both the begin- 
ning and the experienced programmer who wish to learn about the 
Z-80. Exercises to lest the reader are included. $14.95.* 

• Z-80 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK ~BK1045 

-by Nat Wadsworth. Scelbi's newest cookbook! This book con- 
tains a complete description of the powerful Z-80 instruction set 
and a wide variety of programming information. Use the author's 
ingredients including routines, subroutines and short programs, 
choose a time-tested recipe and start cooking! $14.95.* 



*«*<A.u2 



• LEARNING LEVEL H-BK1175-by David Lien. Written 
especially for the TRS-80, this book concentrates on Level II 
BASIC, exploring every important BASIC language capability. 
Updates are included for those who have studied the Level I 
User's Manual. Sections include: how to use the Editor, dual 
cassette operation, printers and peripheral devices, and the 
conversion of Level I programs to Level II. $15.95.' 



• BASIC BASIC (2ND EDITION)- BK1026 - by James S. 
Coan. This is a textbook which incorporates the learning of 
computer programming using the BASIC language with the 
teaching of mathematics. Over 100 sample programs il- 
lustrate the techniques of the BASIC language and every sec- 
tion IS followed by practical problems. This second edition 
covers character string handling and the use of data files, 
$9 45.- 



• M/CROCOMPUT/NG CODING SHEETS M/crocomputine's dozen or so programmers wouldn't try to work without these handy 
scratch pads, which help prevent the little errors that can cost hours and hours of programming time. Available for program- 
ming is Assembly/Machine Language (PD1001), which has columns for address, instruction (3 bytes), source code (label, op 
code, operand) and comments; and for BASIC (PD1002) which is 72 columns wide. 50 sheets to a pad. $2.39.* 

• HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE! - BK7322 - If you (or a friend) 
want to come up to speed on how computers work . . . hardware 
and software . . . this is an excellent book. It starts with the fun- 
damentals and explains the circuits, and the basics of program- 
ming. This book has the highest recommendations as a teaching 
aid for newcomers. $4.95.* 

• THE NEW HOBBY COMPUTERS- BK7340- This book takes it 
from where "HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE!" leaves off, with 
chapters on Large Scale Integration, how to choose a micropro- 
cessor chip, an introduction to programming, low cost I/O for a 
computer, computer arithmetic, checking memory boards . . . and 
much, much more! Don't miss this tremendous value! Only $4.95.* 

• HOW TO BUILD A MICROCOMPUTER -AND REALLY UNDER- 
STAND IT-BK7325-by Sam Creason. The electronics hobbyist 
who wants to build his own microcomputer system now has a prac- 
tical "How-To" guidebook. This book is a combination technical 
manual and programming guide that takes the hobbyist step-by- 
step through the design, construction, testing and debugging of a 
complete microcomputer system. Must reading for anyone desir- 
ing a true understanding of small computer systems. $9.95.* 

• TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONICS - 8K7348 - is an easy-to-understand book writ- 
ten for the beginning kit builder as well as the experienced hobbyist. It has numerous pictures 
and descriptions of the safe and correct ways to use basic and specialized tools for electronic 
projects as well as specialized metal working tools and the chemical aids which are used in 

repair shops. $4.95.* 

Um Ihc oxAr.' card in the back of this magarine or ilcmiic your orrirr on a Etparatc piece ol paper and mail to 
BO flic rot om puling Bookshelf • Pctcrbotough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed crcdil card infoimation. All ofders add S 1 OO handling. 

kPlcdK olk)« 4-6 weeks fo( delivery. Questions regarding yout order? Please write lo Cuslotner Service at the atwve address. jf 

■ ■■ '^ ' 




FOR TOLL FREE ORDEmHG CALL 1 '800.258-5473 




r 



microcomputing 



bookshelf 

\ — "" 



•THE BASIC HANDBOOK - BK1174 - by David Lien. This book is 
unique, it is a virtual ENCYCLOPEDIA of BASIC- While not favoring 
one computer over another, it explains over 250 BASIC words, how 
to use them and alternate strategies, (t a computer does not 
possess the capabilities of a needed or specified word, there are 
often ways to accomplish the same function by using another 
word or combination of words. That's where the HANDBOOK 
comes in. It helps you get the most from your computer, be it a 
"bottom-of-the-line" micro or an oversized monster. $14,95.' 

• ADVANCED BASIC-BK1000-Applications and problems by 
James Coan is for those who want to extend their expertise with 
BASIC. Offers advanced techniques and applications. $7.95.* 

• PIMS: PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM- 
BK1009 — Learn how to unleash trie power of a personal computer 
for your own t)enelit in this ready-to-use data-base management 
program. $9.95.* 

• PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING -IN BASIC-BK1001 - 
by L. Poole & M. Borchers, includes program listings with remarks, 
descriptions, discussions of the principle behind each program, 
file layouts, and a complete user's manual with step-by-slep in- 
structions, flowcharts, and simple reports and CRT displays. 
Payroll and cost accounting features Include separate payrolls for 
up to 10 companies, time-tested interactive data entry, easy cor- 
rection of data entry errors, job costing (labor of distribution), 
check printing with full deduction and pay detail, and 16 different 
printed reports, including W-2 and 941, $20.00." 

• LOW-COST. PERSONAL COMPUTER-BASED INVESTMENT DECISION SYSTEMS- BKIIOI -Use this guidebook by Man- 
Computer Systems. Inc.'s president. Jerry Felsen, to develop inexpensive personal computer systems that can help you maKe 
better investment decisions. $15,00." 

• HOW TO MAKE MONEY WITH COMPUTERS- BK1003- In 10 information-packed chapters. Jerry Felsen describes more 
than 30 computer-related, money-making, high profit, low capital investment opportunities. $15.00,* 




'^RETURN 







• SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS- BK1053-published by 
Adam Osborne & Associates, Inc. Perfect tor non-technical com- 
puterists requiring ready-to-use programs. Business programs, 
plus miscellaneous programs. Invaluable for the user who is not 
an experienced programmer. All will operate in the standalone 
mode. $12,50 paperback." 

• WHAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN- BK1071 - PCC s first 
book of computer games ... 48 different computer games you can 
play in BASIC . . . programs, descriptions, many illustrations. 
Lunar Landing, Hammurabi. King. Civel 2, Qubic 5. Taxman. Star 
Trek. Crash. Market, etc, $10.95.' 

• BASIC COMPUTER GAMES- BK1074- Okay, so once you get 
your computer and are running in BASIC, then what? Then you 
need some programs in BASIC, that's what. This book has 101 
games for you from very simple to real buggers. You get the 
games, a description of the games, the listing to put in your com- 
puter and a sample run to show you how they work. Fun. Any one 
game will be worth more than the price of the book for the tun you 
and your family will have with it. $7.50." 

• SIXTY CHALLENGING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC SOLUTIONS 
(2nd Edition)- BK1073- by Donald Spencer, provides the serious 
student of BASIC programming with interesting problems and 
solutions. No knowledge of math above algebra required. Includes 
a number of game programs, as well as programs for financial in- 
terest, conversions and numeric manipulations. $6.95.* 



k^ 



Gm the ofdK tard in th« l>ack o( this magaiint of itetniie your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to 

80 Mkrocomputing Bookshelf • Peterborough NH OS-ISS. Be sure lo include check or detailed credit card iiilonriddon. All orders add S 1 .00 handling. 

Please allow 4.6 weeks (or delivery. Questions regarding vour order? Please write to Customer Service at the aboie address 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 






M Uicrocompuling, Marc/i IMO • 146 



Ji9 PREVIEW 



WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN THE APRIL 



SO 



PENCIL V 
SCRIPSIT 

The reigning champion of 
word processing software, 
Michael Shrayef's Electric Pen- 
cil, has a challenger — Scripsit 
from Radio Shack Next month 
we have an in-depth evaluation 
of both packages. Find out 
what they can and can't do. 

MORK& 

MINDY 

MONITOR 

Tired of carrying your Radio 
ShacK monitor from place to 
place? With this article you can 
find out how to use any televi- 
sion set as a computer monitor. 



REVERSE 
OEDIV 

More than an hour or two at 
the keyboard of your system is 
liable to result in tired fingers 
and bleary eyes. We don't know 
what to do about your fingers, 
but Reverse Video can help 
ease the strain on your eyes. 
Black lettering on a white 
screen makes working with a 
computer like reading a book. 



BUILD A 
LIGHT PEN 

Your keyboard is not the only 
way of interacting with the 
computer With next months 80 
you can build a simple Light 
Pen, and just point at the 
screen! Complete software is 
included for using the device, 
both in BASIC and Assembly 
Language. 



TRUE CONFESSIONS 

Purchase of a THS-80 can produce a dramatic change in both 
life-style and character. Staying up into the wee small hours of the 
morning, talking in BASIC to strangers in the street . . . Follow the 
sad tale of a member of Computers Anonymous, It could happen to 
you! 



ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 

If you know what 50H means 
then this new column is not for 
you. For the remaining BO per- 
cent of our readers we are start- 
ing an Assembly Language col- 
umn in the April edition. 
Through worked example and 
clear explanation this series 
will cover Assembly Language 
A-Z. By the way, 50H is '80' in 
hexadecimal. 



ALL THIS 

PLUS 

MUCH MORE! 



527 ADVERTISERS 



Bi 


A B Computers 


131 


44 


Data Tram Inc 


103 


113 


34 


Acorn SollwaiB PrMiKts. \nc 65 


175 


Data Tram Inc ... 


20 




97 


Adventure lnternat)onal 


133 


139 


Design Enterprises o( San 




53 


69 


AloriaByleStorage 


131 




Francisco 


. 76 


14 


124 


AlpKanetics 


108 


101 


Discovery Bay Software Co 


87 


15 


13tl 


The Allernale Source. . 


114 


88 


Documan Software 


7S 


1.W 


181 


T^e Alternate Source 


.20 


110 


Dr. Lee 


129 


87 


4/ 


Applied Economic Analysis 


46 


58 


Electronic Specialisls. Inc.. 


64 




14ti 


Audio-Video Systems (AVS|. 


129 


26 


Electronic Systems 


141 


90 


1tU 


Audio-Video Systems (AVS). 


..19 


40 


Esmark incorporated 


33 


179 


4tj 


Automated Simulations 


.99 


3 


Exatron Cov. IV 


156 


49 


Basics & Beyond. Inc 


66 


141 


F.E.C. Ltd. 


76 


71 


122 


Bill Archbold Electronics.. 


129 


12 


FMG Corpocalkxn 


37 


128 


a 


The Bottom Shell, if>c 


35 


120 


Fireside Computing Inc 


7B 


104 


t' 


Bourrul Consutitng Corp 


btl 


133 


Full Service Accounlir>s and 




20 


•i* 


Brown Graphic Press. 


99 




Processing 


10B 


54 


14b 


C&5 Electronics Marl. Ltd. . . 


6; 


75 


Godbout Elect rontcs. . . 


121 


180 


62 


Cecdat, (nc 


12fi 


159 


Goolh Software 


67 


28 


46 


Checks To-Go. 


75 


182 


Gooth Software 


20 




32 


Cload MaQazine, Inc. . 


59 


93 


Granite Stale Instrurrwnl Co 


93 


186 


100 


CompuCover . 


133 


177 


Group Technotogy, Ltd. . . . 


. 19 


105 


W8 


Compusott 


. 19 


92 


H&H Trading Company 


86 


72 


125 


Computer Data Services. . . . 


119 


23 


Mobby World Electronics. 


139 


6A 


IX 


Computer Generated Data 


/6 


115 


HorT>e Software Exchange. . 


87 


29 


66 


Computer Products 


.r& 


13 


Houston MicrQ-Computer 




73 


bC 


Computrex 


m 




Technologies. Inc 3, 4 


103 


123 


» 


Computronlcs Inc 40, 41 


103 


Howe Software 


114 


112 


ID 


Contract Services Associates S3 


37 


IJG, Incorporated 


.54 


15fi 


52 


Cost Effective Computer Serv. 62 


2 


Instant Software Inc. 




144 


119 


Crown Plaalic Co 


76 




Cov. 111,109, lie 


111 


173 


ISO 


Crown Plastic Co 


78 


165 


interactive Microware. . 


. 19 


17fl 


51 


Cryptext Corporalioo 


70 


187 


internal lOnal Software Asso- 




143 


7 


Custom Computer Center, Irv: 25 




ciates 


140 




121 


Custom Electronics Irx;. . 


135 


155 


J R Software 


135 


116 


11 


Cybermate 


51 


137 


Jerry E Bartram. CPA 


91 






CyOerrwtics Irx: 


69 


85 


Johnson Associates 


99 


177 


TU 


DAR Sales 


114 


174 




19 


74 


59 


DC Sottware & Computer Prod. 70 


157 


KEMCO, Ltd 


9 


168 


1(X) 


Data Associates 


20 


149 


Kogyosha Co.. Ltd 


103 





Kurtz Micro-Computer Software 

.... 87 

LNW Research 90 

Level IV Products, Inc ... 43 

Lobo Drives 39 

Lords Corp 91 

Management Systems Software 

inc 103 

Manhattan Software, Inc. . 91. 121 

Manhattan Software. Inc 19 

Mangold Associates 140 

McClam & Associates. Inc . 10B 
Med Systems Software 129 

Mercer Systems Inc 78 

Meta TechrxMogies Corp. . . 6. 7 
Micro ArcTvtecl ... 63 

Microcomputer Spectatists. 20 
Microcomputer Techrxjtogy 
Incorporated/Appaial. irtc 62 

Micro Decision System. 135 

Micro-Futures Trading Co 114 
Micro IManaoement Systems 62 
Micro Matrix .... 112 

Micro-Uega 32 

Micron, Inc 131 

MicroPtiase Systems 78 

Miller Microcomputer Ser 119 

MOM'S 142, 143 

Mumford Micro Systems 51 

Mumlord Micro Systems 20 

National Maikeling 18 

NEECO .... 21 

NRI ScfKmls. .. BI 

Newby Software Development 

Co... . 129 

Nonpareil 133 

Northeast Microware 91 

Occupational Computing Co. Irx:. 
.20 



108 Orlhon Compuler 135 

2 Percom l^ov. II 

163 Percom 20 

169 Percom . 20 

43 The Peripheral People 34 

21 Programma International. Inc 11 

186 Quality Software 126 

41 RACET Computes 45 

1 72 RACET Comixites 20 

5 Radio Shack 29 

64 Radio Shack Autriorizod Sales 
Center 64 

135 Radio Shack (Ohio) ii4 

17 Realsolt/The Program Store. . . 61 

70 REMsoft, Inc 103 

154 S&M Systems, Inc 140 

131 S-Systems 99 

132 Sawyer Software 116 

91 Scott instruments 121 

19 Simulek 51, 137 

67 Sirius Systems 93 

1B Small Busir>ess Systems Group 

93 

83 Small Computer Systems 140 

X Small System Software 75 

60 The Software Association 112 

42 Software. Etc 85 

109 The Software Farm 114 

189 STATCOM Inc 112 

80 Steven E Shaw. P E 99 

S2 SturdivanI and Dunn, Inc X 

151 Sun Technotofly. Inc ffi 

1 1 The TRSflO ftotebook 107 

146 Tab Sales Co 140 

45 Taranto li Associates, Inc 71 

147 Task Compuler Applications. 135 

136 Typewriters UnlimiteO. . . .129 

84 Ultimate Computer Systems. . 76 
31 VR Data 49 

111 Vern Sireei Products i36 

65 The Vista Computer Co. ... 26. 27 
27 Web Associates 49 

From 80 Microcomputing ...S3. 144. 145 

From Kilobaud Microcomputing 63 

* HehI«t Seme* uiQum*! Dot honorrd. 
Pltasc CDDtBft ulTCrtkArT dirrctlr. 



14C • 80 Microcomputing, March 1980 



Ask for Instant Software at a computer store near you 



Alibimi 

Anoe'son Com put bib 

31M Unlvsraily D' , HunlailllB 

Corripulviandoi Huntiviiia 

3030 Unlvartdy Dr . Hunltvill* 

Olsngky BIOS 

37B3 Ai'pon Blvd., Motril* 

Arizona 

4S0 e-A N. ieih Si . Phoenoi 

MillBttTV & Radio 

62t E««l Bioodwav. M*m 

Calllornia 

Byle Shop ol F«»ll«l(] 

B7 Marina Cenler St . Suiaun Clly 

Syl* Shop 

BOaa Ciaiimonl Mat* Blvd.. 

San Olego 

BylBShOp Ol Mt View 

1415Wa«t EICamlnoRaal. Ml Vi«w 

Byta Shop of Sacra(n«nio 

e041 Qiaanback Ln., Olrua HWghis 

Capital Compulai Syatams 

33BG El Camino Ave . Saciamanio 

Compulets UaOe Eaty 

BIS Eut Ave O-e, PalmdalB 

Compulai Slora o' San LaanOro 

701 MacAithui Blvd., San Leandio 

Compute' WortO 

6791 Wellrnlnile' Ave . Weslinmslei 

CompuieriBni] 

16720 5 Hawthorne, Lawndale 

Coitipulodandol S«n fianciaco 

1 iT Pfemonl St . San F'ancisco 

ComDulBiianoo' W L* 

eS'O La Cler>*ca Blvd . Ingtewooa 

CoaM Electron I ca 

3iiaNo. Main Si . Wo'ro Bay 

HoOCiy WoriO 

1Sei 1 Business Cli Or , limi 6 

Boithrk>g« 

I.C E House Inc. 

396 Hann E SI , San Bernardino 

Mlcroaun Computer Cenlat 

2BM Nonn Main St . Walnut CrseK 

OpampfTachnicBi Books 

1033 N Sycamore Ave., Lob Angeles 

I Computers Inc. 

i5Sia Hawihoma Bivd , Laondale 

Radio Shack Deale' 

B250 MIra Mesa Blvd , San Diego 

Santa flosa ComDutei Center 
604 7in St , Sania Rosa 
Silver Spur Eloci Comm 
135S3 Central Ava , Chmo 
The Compulei Store 
820 Broadway, Santa Monica 

Colorado 

Byle Shop 

3464 S. Acoma St EriQiewOOd 
Colorado Computer Systems 
311 W 7«ih Avi , WMlmlnsler 
Compolefland ol North Oenve' 
S749 Wldswonh Blvd . Arvada 
TheCompulsr Broker 
I300WellonSI , Denver 
TheCompjle' Store 
2300W8itoiS1 Denver 

Connaclicul 

American Business Compuls's 
*i* Thames SI , Grolon 
Compulerlah 
laOJe'leison New London 

Computer I and 

i70OPoaLRd., Fa.riieiO 

Computer Works 

1439 Post Rd. E Liberty Praia. 

Wasiport 

D.C. 

TlK Program Slori 

4200 WlaCOhiln Ave.. N W.. 

Wasningion. DC, 



Rorld* 

Advenijre inter net lortal 

2X Bald Cyprsts Ct.. Longwood 

AMF Electronics 

11I«6N aOtnSi , Tampa 

Boyd Ebeft Corporalion 

1328 West 15th 51 , Panama Clly 

Compute' Cenler 

S67fiCenlral Ave.. St PalBraburg 

Computenand ol Fi. Lauderdale 

3963 N Fsdeiai Hwy . FI Lauderdale 

Compulerland ol Jacksonville 

2777-6 Universily Blvd W 

Jacksonville 

Compulei Shack 

3336 Beach Blvd , JBckaonviiia 

Curl la Waters Enterprises 

236 Talboi Ave . Melbourne 

rtoathKll Electronic 

470SW lethAve Center Hiaieah 

Sound Ideas 

ifOI'CN.W I3lh. QainsBvllla 
Uhatan Computer Slo'e 
Alroort Rd Oestin 
WllllamE Radio & TV Inc. 
2062 Liberty Si . Jacksonv.lW 

Ottorgia 

Atlanta Computer Mart 

Atlanta 

Computenand Ol Atlanta 

2423 CoOb Parkway, Smyrna 

Hawaii 

Compulerland ol Hawaii 
567 N, Federal Hnry Honolulu 
Radio Shack Assoc Sloie 
1712 S King St , Honolulu 

Idaho 

Electronic Speclallsis 
6411 Fairview Ave , Boise 
lllinolB 

Bloomington Normal 

Computer Worlis 

124 E Beaulorl, Normal 

Computerlary] 

«S07 North Sterling, Peoria 

Computer Station 

3658 Nameokl Rd„ Gran.ie Cily 

Midw«sl Micro Compulera, Inc 

TOe S Mem St , Lombard 

Indiana 

Computer Center of South Band 
51581 LIS 31 North. South Bend 

Iowa 

Memory Bank 

*}2B Brady SI , Davanporl 

Kansas 

Cenlral Kansas Compulert 
6S Broadway "e'lngion 

Louisiana 

Computer Shoppe Inc. 

3226 Danny Park Su<le 223. Metalne 

Maryland 

JacK Fives Electronics 

4608 Debiien Circle Plkesvllle 

The Comm Cenler 

9624 Ft Meade Rd Laurel 

Massachuattts 

Compule'Cily 
5 Deiter Row, Chariestown 
Compulerland ol Boston 
?14 Worcester Ro . Wenesloy 
Computer Packages Ltniimiled 
24* W Boylsion St., Wee! Boyliton 
Llghttiouse Computer SollwS'e 
14 Fall R'ver Ave . ReboDath 
New England Electronics Co 
679 Highland Ave , Needham 
The Computer Store 
120 Cambridge St , Burlingion 

Tults Radio & Electronics 
206 Mystic Ave , Medlord 



N«w York 

Ansio Cra't 

314FH1h Ave , NYC 

Bill i Bytes 

2600 Strelghl M . Frsdonis 

Computer Corner 

200 Mammon Ave.. While Plains 

Com pu let Factory 
48SLo«lngton Ave.. NVC 
Computer House, inc 
721 Atlantic Ave , Rochester 

Compulerland ol Nassau 

79 Weslbury Ave , Carte Place 

Compute' World 

519 Boston Post Hd.. Port Chester 

Comtek Eiecltonics. Inc 

2666 Coney island Ave , Brooklyn 

Comiek Eieeironics. Inc 

Staten Island Mali 

Store 220A, Staten island 

Home Computer Cenler 

671 Monroe Ave., Rochester 

Key Eleclronlr^s 

Schenectady 

M' Computer 

Imp, Piaia, Rle 9, Wapplngera Fsils 

Soft ion Systems 

306 Columbia Turnpike, R»nss«iae' 

The Computer Tree Inc. 

409 Hooper Rd,. Endweii 

Upstale Computer Shop 

629 French Rd , Campus Plaza 

New Hartlord 

North Carolina 

Byte Shop ol Raleigh 

1213 Hiiisboiough St.. Raleigh 

Ohio 

Aiisir Business Syslems, inc. 
5252 North Dime Or Dayton 
Astro Vldwj Eiecl'onics 
504 E, Mam St , Lancagtei 
Cincinnati Comp uier Store 
481S imarstate 0'., Cmclnnsll 
Compulerland 
46T9 Great Northern Blvd , 

N 01 m& I sad 

CompulerlafW 

1286 Som Rd , May'leid Heights 
Computer Store ol Toledo 
tS Hiiiwyck D' , Toledo 
Forbees Microsystems inc 
35 N Broad. Fslrbom 
Microcomputer Center 
7900 Paragon Rd . Daylon 
Micio-Mini Computer World 
74 RoblnwooO, Columbus 
2is1 Century Shop 
16 Convention Way, Cincinnati 

Oklahoma 

Vern Street Products 
Radto Shack Dealer 
114W Tall St.Sapuipa 

Oregon 

Compulerland ol Portland 
12020 SW MainSL.Tigard 
Computer Pathways Unlimited, inc 
21StDBvco'Si S,E Saiem 

Pennsylvania 

Arlco Elect. 

302 Wyoming Ave,. Kingston 

Arlco Elect 

Back Mountain Shop Clr, 

Shaverlown 

Computer Wofkshoppe 

3B46 William Psnn Hwy, Monroevilie 

Computeiiand ol Hsnisbuig 

4644 Cartisle Pike, Mechanicshurg 

Erie Computer Co 

2127 West 8lh St Erie 

Personal Computer Corp 

24-26 WSSI Lancaster Ave , Psoli 

Person si Computer Corp 

Fraiar Mail. Lancaster Ave.. Frazer 



Instant Software Inc 

Peterborough, N.H. 03458 603-924-7296 



Michigan 

Computer Center 

28251 Ford Hd.. Garden City 

Computer Connections 

38437 Grand River Farmlngton Hills 

Compulerland ol Grand Rapid ■ 

2927 2eth St St. Kentwood 

Compulerland ot Wocheslar 

301 S Livernois, Hochesler 

Compuiertand ol Southheid 

29673 Northwestern H«ry„ Soutnlleld 

Computer Mart 

560 W i4MlieRd,,C1iwson 

I43bby House 

1035 w Terrliorlsi M . Battle Creek 

ye Oide Teacher Srioppe 

1823 Wllmyre Si , VpSllantI 

Mlnnaaola 

Compuletlano ol Hopkins 

tiaiJHwy F.. Hopkins 

Zim Com put era 

5717 Kerjes Ave N B'ooklln Center 

Mississippi 

Dyers, inc 

200 E Mam SI.. West Point 

Missouri 

Computorvan. Inc 

51 FiorisBsnt Oaks Shoppirtg Center 

Florissant 

Conso< idaledSo'twars 

16501 Greenwaid Court. Ballon 

Montana 

intermountein Computer 

529 So 9th Si , LlYlngslon 

Personal Computer 

121 Red Oak Dr , Carl Junction 

The Compgler Slore 

121B leih Si W 135, Billings 

Nabraska 

Compulerland oi Omaha 
11031 Elm SI,, Omaha 
Midwest Computer Co Inc 
8625 I St Omaha 
Midwest Compuier Co inc 
4442 S. 64lh SI , Omaha 
Midwesi Compuier Co. inc 
4403 S S7tn St , Omaha 
Navada 

Century 23 

4566 Spring Mountain Rd . Las Vegas 

Ntw Hampshire 

BitsnDyies Computer Cenler 

566 Pleasant St . Cortcord 

CompulerClly 

1S2S S, Willow. Manchasle' 

Portsmouth Computer Center 

31 Raynes Ave , Portsmouth 

Naw Jarsty 

Compuier Encounter 

2 Nassau St.. Pnnceton 

Computerlend 

36 Plata Rte »4 W Paramus 

Compuier Man ol NJ 

501 Rte 27, Iselin 

Radio ShscWJSJ Electronic 

MansHeid Shopping CD 

Ri 57 Allen Hd , Hackettstown 

The Bargain Brothers 
Glen Roc Shopping Center 
216 Scoicn Road, Trenton 

Naw Msxico 

Legey and Associates 

2906 Tahiti CI, N E , Albuquerque 

South West Computer Center 

121 Wyati Drive, Suite 7, Las Cruces 

South Dakota 

CB Radio Stuck 

2i»l and Broadway, Tankio" 

Tann*ssM 

Computeriab 

671 S Menden Hall Rd.. Memphis 

HAH Electronics inc 

SOe U. Jackson SI . Tullahoma 

Taxas 

Computercali inc 

3211 Fond'en. Houston 

Computer Pon 

926 N Coiiig. Arlington 

Houston Micnscompoler Tech 

5313 BIsBonet, Belt Aire 

In terse live ComputerB 

7620 Dashwood Rd . Houston 



K.A. Elect 

0OK Stemmona Frwy . Dallu 

Pan American Elect. Inc. 

1 1 1 T Conway. Mission 

Ram Micro Systems 

6353 Cemp Bowie BivO , FI Worth 

Vlrolnla 

Home Computer Center 

2927 Vltsmia Sesch Bhrd, 

Virginia Beach 

Souihilde Radio Comm 

135 Pickwic" Ave., Colonial Helghis 

Washington 

American Mercantile Co Inc. 

2418 isl Ave, S , Seattle 

Compulerland o' South King Co 

1SWS 336 SI , Suite 12 

Federal Way 

Personal Computers 

S 104 Frev*. Spokane 

Ye Old Compular Shop 

130' G Wsehington, Richland 

West Virginia 

The Computer Corner Inc 

22 Beechu'sl Ave.. Morgantown 

The Computer Store 

Municipal Parking Bidg , Charlestoo 

Wisconsin 

Byte Shop 01 Milwaukee 

6019 West Layton Ave,, OreenlleW 

Wyomlrtg 

Computer Concepts 

617 W 16th St , Cheyenne 

Puarlo Rico 

Tl\e Microcomputer Slore 
1568 Ave Jesul T Plnero 
Caparra Ts'racs 

Ouam 

TheFun Factory 

851 Marine Dr., Tamumirtg 

Canada 

CANADIAN DISTRIBUTORS- 

Mlcron DiStfiI>Ullng 

409 Queen St W Toronto, Onl 

M6V M5 

CompuleiUnd o* Winnipeg 

715 Portage Ava , Winnipeg, Man, 

Comoumart 

41 1 Roosevelt Ave , Ottawa. Ontario 

Ckimpuler Mart. Lid 

1055VongeSI , Suite 206 

Toronto. Ontario 

Oalaciia Compuleri 

103rd Ave , Edmonton, Alberta 

Micioffiahc Systems me 

101 81 36 Park Hd.. Richmond, BC 

Micro Shack ol W Canada 
333 Park Street, ReQina SasK 
Olhon Holdings Lid. 
12411 Stony Plain Road 
Edmoolon. Alberta 
Total Compuier Systems 
A|a> Ontario 



England 

Tamays & Fair Lid 
4 Morgan SI . London 

Franca 

Sideg 

45 Rue de la CtMp*"*. R*"* 

SIvea s a 

20, Rue da Leningrad. Pans 

Italy 

HOMIC i r I 

Plana De Angeti I Mllano 

Wast Germany 

Electrcnic Hobby Shop 
Kaiserstr 20. Bonn 

MicroShop BoOensee 
Marktii 3, 7776 Markdort 

Australia 

Computerwaie 

62 Paisley St . Foot sera y VIC 

Deforest Software 

36 Glen Tower Drive 

Glen Waverty. ViC 

Solironics Micro Systems 

Lindliek) 

Sure-Load So it ware 

PO Bo«2e. Weston, A.C.T. 

South Africa 

Eddie Talberg 

PO Boi 745. Johanrtesburg