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Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine February 1982"



L "ubruary 1{ 
US $2.95 
jCI.80 



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the magazine for TRS-80 * users 




MEET THE MTI FAMILY OF 
LOW COST COMPUTERS 




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but has double storage capacity. 

and 2 dual headed 40 track 

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and utilizes 2 dual headed 80 
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with DOS plus 3.3. 



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MTI AUTHORIZED SALES AND SERVICE CENTERS 



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OVERSEAS 

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MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INC. 

3304 W. MACARTHUR, SANTA ANA, CA 92704 
(714) 979-9923 • TELEX 6780401 TABIRIN 



Call or write for free brochure: 

U.S. PRICES. F.O.B. SANTA ANA 

CALIFORNIA AND MAY VARY BY AREA. 




k- 28 



TRS-80* COMPUTING EDITION 



'1981 PercomDataCo., Inc. 



Qfyt percom $eripf)eral 



35 cents 



Percom's DOUBLER II tolerates wide variations in media, drives 

GARLAND, TEXAS — May 22, 1981 — 
Harold Mauch, president of Percom Data 
Company, announced here today that an im- 



proved version of the Company's innovative 
DOUBLER" adapter, a double-density plug-in 
module for TRS-80' Model I computers, is 
now available. 

Reflecting design refinements based on both 
theoretical analyses and field testing, the 
DOUBLER 11", so named, pennits even great- 
er tolerance in variations among media and 
drives than the previous design. 

Like the original DOUBLER, the DOU- 
BLER II plugs into the drive controller IC 
socket of a TRS-80 Model I Expansion Inter- 
face and permits a user to run either single- or 
double-density diskettes on a Model I. 

With a DOUBLER II installed, over four 
times more formatted data — as much as 364 
Kbytes — can be stored on one side of a five- 
inch diskette than can be stored using a stan- 
dard Tandy Model I drive system. 

Moreover, a DOUBLER II equips a Model I 
with the hardware required to run Model III 
diskettes. 

[Ed. Note: See "OS-80 8 : Bridging the TRS- 
80' software compatibility gap" elsewhere on 
this page. ) 

The critical clock-data separation circuitry 
of the DOUBLER II is a proprietary design 
called a ROM-programmed digital phase-lock 
loop data separator. 

According to Mauch, this design is more 
tolerant of differences from diskette to diskette 
and drive to drive, and also provides immunity 
to performance degradation caused by circuit 
component aging. 




>ercom DOUBLER 



Mauch said "A DOUBLER II will operate 
just as reliably two years after it is installed as it 
will two days after installation." 

The digital phase-lock loop also eliminates 
the need for trimmer adjustments typical of 
analog phase-lock loop circuits. 

"You plug in a Percom DOUBLER II and 
then forget it," he said. 

The DOUBLER II also features a refined 
Write Precompensation circuit that more 
effectively minimizes the phenomena of bit- 
arid peak-shifting, a reliability-impairing char- 
acteristic of magnetic data recording. 

The DOUBLER II, which is fully software 
compatible with the previous DOUBLER, is 
supplied with DBLDOS*, a TRSDOS'- 



compatible disk operating system. 

The DOUBLER II sells f 
ing the DBLDOS diskette. y/^lV| 



rij^s, ; 



nciua 

5& 



d- 



Circuit misapplication causes diskette read, format problems. 

High resolution key to reliable data separation 



GARLAND, TEXAS — The Percom 
SEPARATOR* does very well for the Radio 
Shack TRS-80* Model I computer what the 
Tandy disk controller does poorly at best: reli- 
ably separates clock and data signals during 
disk-read operations. 

Unreliable data-clock separation causes for- 
mat verification failures and repeated read 
retries. 

CRC ERROR-TRACK LOCKED OUT 

The problem is most severe on high-number 
(high-density) inner file tracks. 

As reported earlier, the clock-data separa- 
tion problem was traced by Percom to misap- 
plication of the internal separator of the 1771 
drive controller IC used in the Model I. 

The Percom Separator substitutes a high- 
resolution digital data separator circuit, one 
which operates at 16 megahertz, for the low- 
resolution one-megahertz circuit of the Tandy 
design. 

Separator circuits that operate at lower 
frequencies — for example, two- or four- 



megahertz — were found by Percom to provide 
only marginally improved performance over 
the original Tandy circuit. 

The Percom solution is a simple adapter that 
plugs into the drive controller of the Expansion 
Interface (EI). 

Not a kit — some vendors supply an un- 
tested separator kit of resistors, ICs and other 
paraphernalia that may be installed by mod- 
ifying the computer — the Percom 
SEPARATOR is a fully assembled, fully tested 
plug-in module. 

Installation involves merely plugging the 
SEPARATOR into the Model I EI disk con- 
troller chip socket, and plugging the controller 
chip into a socket on the SEPARATOR. 

The SEPARATOR, which sells for only 
$29.95, may be purchased from authorized Per- 
com retailers or ordered directly from the fac- 
tory. The factory toll-free order number is 
1-800-527-1222. 

Ed. note: Opening the TRS-80 Expansion In- 
terface may void the Tandy limited 90-day 
warranty. ^ 1 



Owners of original DOUBLERs may. pur- 
chase a DOUBLER II upgrade kit, without the 
disk controller IC, for $30.00. Proof of pur- 
chase of an original DOUBLER is required, 
and each DOUBLER owner may purchase only 
one DOUBLER II at the $30.00 price. 

The Percom DOUBLER II is available from 
authorized Percom retailers, or may be ordered 
direct from the factory. The factory toll-free 
order number is 1 -800-527- 1 222 . 

Ed. note: Opening the TRS-80 Expansion In- 
terface may void the Tandy limited 90-day 
warranty. 

>-258 

All that glitters is not gold 

OS-80" Bridging the TRS-80* 

software compatibility gap 

Compatibility between TRS-80* Model I diskettes and 
the new Model III is about as genuine as a gold-plated lead 
Krugenand. 

True, ModellTRSDOS" diskettes can be read on a Model 
III. But first they must be converted and re-recorded for 
Model III operation. 

And you cannot write to a Model I TRSDOS'diskette. 
Not with a Model III. You cannot add a file. Delete a file. Or 
in any way modify a Model I TRSDOS diskette with a Model 
HI computer. 

Furthermore, your converted TRSDOS diskettes cannot 
be converted back for Model I operation. 

TRSDOS is a one-way street. And there's no retreating. 
A point to consider before switching the company's payroll 
to your new Model III. 

Real software compatibility should allow the direct, im- 
mediate interchangeability of Model I and Model HI disket- 
tes. No read-only limitations, no conversion/re-recording, 
steps and no chance to be left high and dry with Model III 
diskettes that can't be run on a Model I. 

What's the answer? The answer is Percom's OS-80 5 * 
family of TRS-80 disk operating systems. 

OS-80 programs allow direct, immediate interchangeability 
of Model I and Model HI diskettes. 

You can run Model I single-density diskettes on a Model 
HI; install Percom's plug-in DOUBLERS adapter in your 
Model I, and you <.an run double-density Model III diskettes 
on a Model I. 

There's no conversion, no re-recording. 

Slip an OS-80 diskette out of your Model I and insert it 
directly in a Model HI. 

And vice-versa. 

lust have the correct OS-80 disk operating system — 
OS-80, OS-80D or OS-80/1II — in each computer. 

Moreover, with OS-80 systems, you can add, delete, and 
update files. You can read and write diskettes regardless of the 
system of origin. 

OS-80 is the original Percom TRS-80 DOS for BASIC 
programmers. 

Even OS-80 utilities are written in BASIC. 

OS-80 is the Percom system about which a user wrote, in 
Creative Computing magazine, ". . . the best $30.00 you 
will ever spend, "t 

Requiring only seven Kbytes of memory, OS-80 disk oper- 
ating systems reside completely in RAM. There's no need to 
dedicate a drive exclusively for a system diskette. 

And, unlike TRSDOS, you can work at the track sector 
level, defining and controlling data formats — in BASIC — 
to create simple or complex data structures that execute 
more quickly than TRSDOS files. 

The Percom OS-80 DOS supports single-density opera- 
tion of the Model 1 computer — price is $29.95; theOS-80D 
supports double-density operation of Model I computers 
equipped with a DOUBLER or DOUBLER II; and, OS-80/ 
III — for the Model III of course — supports both single- and 
double-density operation. OS-80D and OS-80/IH each 
sell for $49.95. ^ 429 



PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECTTOCHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. PRICES DO NOT INCLUDE HANDLING AND SHIPPING. 

PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 11220 Pagemill Road Dallas, Texas 75243 (214) 3407081 

"Trademark of Percom Data Company. Inc. 'TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trademarksof Tandy Corporation which has no relationship to Percom Data Company. 'Creative Computing Magazine, June. 1980. page 26. 




PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smylhe 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT 

Matt Smith 

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER 

Edward Ferman 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 

Jell DeTray 

MARKETING 

Debra Boudrieau, Director; Ginny 

Boudrieau. Bulk Sales Manager 

ADVERTISING 

Penny Brooks, Coordinator; John Gancarz, 

Hal Stephens, Susan Martin: Sales. 

Marcia Stone, Olfice Manager. 

New England Advertising Representative: 

John A. Garland. Garland Associates, Inc., 

Box 314 SHS, Duxbury. MA 02332. 

617-934-6464. 

DESIGN 

Clare McCarthy, Manager; Elaine Cheever, 

Corporate Designer. Denzel Dyer, Howard 

Happ. Laurie MacMillan, Joyce Pillarella, 

Diana Shonk. Susan Stevens, Donna 

Wohllarth: Consultants 



PRODUCTION 

Nancy Salmon. Manager; Michael Murphy, 

Dennis Chnstensen: Assistants. Frances 

Benton, Fiona Davies. Sandra Dukette. 

Theresa Ostebo. Dianna Ritson. Deborah 

Stone, Irene Vail, Judy Wimberly. Patty 

MacKowsky/Allen, Ad Coordinator: Steve 

Baldwin, Bruce Hedin, Jane Preston: 

Advertising Production. 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolph. Paul Babich, Bryan 

Hastings. Thomas Villeneuve 

TYPESETTING 

Sara Bedell, Debbie Davidson, Michele 

DesRochers. David Hayward, Beverly 

Jackson, Stephen Jewett. Elizabeth 

Lockhart. Anne Rocchio, Kelly Smith, 

Karen Stewart 



Manuscripts V a welcome M BO Mic recomputing, we will consider 
publication ol »ny TRS«> oriented nllMII Gukjelinos tor bod 
ding authors are rnillf" Pease Mod • sollaodrosaed enve 
ooo end as* lor "How to Write for BO Microcomputing" Enure 
contents copyrignl 1962 by 1001001 Inc No pen 0' Ills pubtKA 
lion may bo reprinted. - ■■ reproduced by any means, without prior 
written permission Irom Iho publisher All programs are pub- 
lished '0» personal ujo only All "gnu reserved 



Pt>C Au0<l#3 Circultlion 



BO Microcomputing (ISSN .0199478°) is published monthly by 
lOOtOOl inc. M Pin* St.. Poiorborough NH CMS! Phono 
003-924.9471 Second clasa poitag* paid at Potoroorougn. NM. 
and additional mailing offices Subscription rotes in U.S. are 
US lot on* year and tsi 10' Ihreo yoers. In Canada. %:: 3 ■■ 
yaar only. U.S fund*. Canadian distributor: Micro Distributing. 
409 Ouaan SI Waal. Toronto. Ontario. Canada MSV 2AS BC 
Canadian dtiinbuior. Oraymar Data Services. Ltd.. M 2S8 E. 1st 
Ave . Vancouver. BC VST 1A0. Foreign subscriptions (surface 
mall).*3S— one year only. US funds Foreign subscriptions (air 
mall), please inquire In Europe contact Monlha Nedola. 
Markstr. 3. 0-7778 Markdorl. W. Germany In Souln Alrlca con 
tact BO Microcomputing, P.O. Box 702816. Sandlon. Soutn 
Africa 2144 All US subscription correspondence should be 
addressod to BO Microcomputing. Subscription Department. 
P O Bo< 98l. Farmlngdale. NY 1 1737. Please include your ad- 
dress label with any correspondence Postmaster: Send form 
■3S79 to 60 Microcomputing. Subscription Services. P Box 
981. Farmlngdale. NY 1 1137. 



Cover and illustrations on pages 52 and 94 
by Jay Connelly 

'TRS-80 is a trademark ol Tandy Corp. 



Contents 



The Future in Miniature 53 

by John P. Mello Jr. 

Micros are becoming more pervasive in the 
nation's schools. What does the silicon 
classroom mean to the future of education? 
Some observers see bright skies on the 
horizon, but other forecasters see ominous 
consequences in today's trends. 





Anything Jodi Can Do . . . 60 

by Jodi Tallman 

When nine and a half year-old author Tall- 
man was getting bored because her mom 
was on vacation, she decided she'd show 
her dad she could write a computer pro- 
gram and make money by writing an article. 



A Look at the Future— Education and Computers 94 

by James Edward Keogh 

Most educators recognize the power of microcomputers, but unless educa- 
tional software is carefully designed with an eye on life in the typical 
classroom, micros can become a center of frustration. 



Making More Possible 128 

by Kerry Leichtman 

For the physically handicapped the computer is new hope, new in- 
dependence and new opportunity toward lessening the gap between what 
they can and cannot achieve. 



Four Into One Will Go— Part I 226 

by Jim Hawkes and Grady R. Reese 

No, you don't need a new kind of math to achieve this feat of prestidigitation. 
Just a few lessons on cramming and the 1K of unassigned memory in your 
CPU. 



4 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



February 1982 Issue #27 



BUSINESS 

238 The Trade Wins 

Stock market simulation. Adam and Mark Finkelstein 
*268 The Profit Prognosticates 

Calculating the cornerstone of management. 
R.B. Nottingham 

EDUCATION 

68 An '80 in the Apple 

Where there's a will there's a way. Stephen Radin 
*70 Computer Etch-A-Skotch 

Fast graphics in the classroom. Thomas W. Mustico 
*82 To Comma or Not to Comma 

So it won't be a question mark. John D. Perron 
100 Roll Call! 

Where's Johnny now? Michael M.T. Henderson 
* 1 04 Put Them to the Test 

Making exams easy. Barry Davis 
•112 Extra-Terrestrial 

Everything you ever wanted to know about this solar 

system. Thomas A. Wells 
*116 Learning the Elements 

Enter the Great High School Chemistry Hero. 

James W. Wood 
120 Earth to Class, Listen Up! 

Networking in the classroom. Madeline Fish 
142 RS-80Tay, Ay say Hatway? 

Speaking in Tongues. Jerold M. Stratton 
192 The Ten Key Tutor 

A program that programs you. Mel Knoyle 
202 Colorful Titrations 

Avoid getting your feet wet. James W. Wood 
256 Elementary, My Dear Primate. 

Don't let this program make a monkey of you. 

Richard C. Vanderburgh 



'166 Tumbiin' Dice 

A mind boggier. Ronald H. Bobo 
'232 Kings and Catapults 

A game of siege. William C. Adams 



GENERAL 

126 Battery Backup 

Make your own mayday. Howard F. Batie 
188 Two Transfers Please 

Eliza and Micromusic make it to disk. Bettye Hollins 
*196 Dream Team 

Your computer can make all the pieces fit together. 

Dennis Wangsness 
200 Mod III Notes 

On loading cassettes. John Ratzlaff 
210 The Bemusing Triangle 

If Pythagoras only had a TRS-80. C. Brian Honess 
220 Can You Get Me A Date? 

. . .and bachelor number three is. . . John T. Phillipp 
240 Performance Analysis 

A technique for tracking execution. C.H. Ballard 
250 Print Whiz 

Getting the most from Electric Pencil and Line Printer 

IV. John A. Parker 

GRAPHICS 

194 The Random Picture Generator 

Graphic Entropy. James A. Swarts 



HARDWARE 

184 Networking on a Shoestring. 

The $100 net. Donald R. Meinke 



TECHNIQUE 

204 Polar Generator 

Fast graphics bring you to the top of the world. 
Ken Webb 

REVIEW 

148 Model II Compiler Basic 

Trouble for Tandy? Larry Clark 
1 52 The New N EWDOS 80 

Better than ever. Paul R. Prescott 
164 Radio Shack's Compiler Basic 

For the Model I and III. Richard CVMcGarvey 
172 The Microsoft Macro Assembler 

Speed up writing machine language. G. Gratzer 
180 The SK-2 Clock Modification Kit 

More MHz for your Z80. C.H. Ballard 
222 Model II Scripsit 

Tandy enters the Big Leagues. Richard Harkness 
254 Centronics 737 

Excellent with beautiful features. Arthur J. Welcher 



TUTORIAL 

248 Tab Extender 

Pick up some more with this program. 
David C. Hedinger 



u 

260 
262 
264 

♦272 



Til ITV 



Error Code Expanded 

Off those irritating abbreviations. Roger C. Alford 

Lots of Little Letters to Litter Your Listings. 

Dealing with life before lowercase. John R. Olsen, Jr. 

As the Screen Scrolls 

Keep column headings from going over the edge of 

night. M. Keller 

Snapshot 

When trace isn't enough. Robert Rice 



DEPARTMENTS 

6 Proof Notes 

8 Remarks Wayne Green 

14 80 Input 

30 80 Accountant Michael Tannenbaum 

36 Soft Bits Roger Fuller 

40 Exclusive Oracle Dennis Kitsz 

48 Kitchen Table Software David Busch 

290 Reader Service 

294 News 

306 Reload 80 

310 Reviews 

330 80 Applications Dennis Kitsz 

344 New Products 

354 Education 80 Earl R. Savage 

356 Moneydos J.M. Keynes 

358 Input/Output James Edward Keogh 

362 Copemica Mathematica Bruce Douglass 

370 Calendar 

* = program is on LOAD 80 tape. 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 5 



MANAGING EDITOR 
Debra Marshall 

SENIOR EDITOR 
Pamela Petrakos 

NEWS EDITOR 
John P. Mello Jr. 

REVIEW EDITOR 
Michael Nadeau 

NEW PRODUCTS EDITOR 
Janet Fiderio 

EDITORS 

Lynn Rognsvoog, Carolyn Nolan: Copy 

Editors. Steven Frann, Kerry Leichtman. 

TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Jake Commander: Submissions, 

Consultant. Dennis Kitsz: Contributing 

Editor. G. Michael Vose: Features, Editor 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 
Susan Gross 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Joan Ahern, Bob Dukette, Sharon 

Phinney, Sue Hays, Anne Vadeboncoeur 

PROOFREADERS 

Peter Bjornsen, Caron Taylor, Patrice 

Laughner, Louis Marini 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Pat Graham 
Nancy Noyd 



Subscriptions: 

Problems with Subscriptions: Send a 
description of the problem and your 
current and/or most recent address to: 
80 Microcomputing, Subscription De- 
partment, PO Box 981, Farmingdale, 
NY 11737. 

Change of Address: Send old label or 
copy of old address and new address 
to 80 Microcomputing, PO Box 981, 
Farmingdale, NY 11737. Please give 
eight weeks advance notice. 
Microfilm: This publication is available 
in microform from University Micro- 
films International. United States ad- 
dress; 300 North Zeeb Road, Dept. P.R., 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48106. Foreign address; 
18 Bedford Row, Dept. P.R., London, 
WC1R4EJ, England. 
Dealers: Contact Ginny Boudrieau, 
Bulk Sales Manager, 80 Microcomput- 
ing, Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458. 
(800) 258-5473. 



Proof Nofes 

the editors look at the issues 



Education— ever since persons other 
than monkish ascetics recognized its 
value, waves of controversy have surround- 
ed it. Who should be educated? Should 
everyone meet some minimum educational 
requirement? Whose version of knowledge 
should be taught? These burning questions 
have been raised and dealt with again and 
again, often with different results. Twenty 
years ago most of us never would have 
dreamed the question of creationism ver- 
sus evolution would raise its head again; to- 
day, the news is full of accounts of states 
reinstituting the teaching of creationism as 
a viable scientific theory. 

Where microcomputers enter the realm 
of education we find new concerns: What 
teaching approach is most effective, and is 
CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) really 
a teaching method? Can a child learn from a 
machine, a tape or a video tube, or only from 
another human being? 

Most questions about education find an- 
swers through custom, the rising needs and 
values of each society, and the enterprising 
experiments of a few far-seeing individuals. 
Often the questions follow cycles, returning 
time and again to the same solutions. 

Currently we are faced with a new situa- 
tion: Computers have become standard 
equipment in most businesses. At the root 
of many jobs, they touch the lives of every- 
one in some way. They have become deeply 
entrenched in our society, and yet they are 
nearly invisible. Most of us fail to make the 
connection between computers and our 
bank balances, our grocery bills, our mail 
delivery, our newspapers. We do not realize 
that the word processors at our offices are 
a form, though limited, of computer. We do 
not comprehend that even the most basic of 
businesses, such as farming, depend on a 
computer at least occasionally. 

Computer literacy has become a basic 
skill, but that truth has not reached the 
general population. Most importantly, it has 
not reached the educators. 

Many school teachers are afraid of com- 
puters. They don't know how to run them 



and fear they will be replaced by one. Often 
students know more about the mysterious 
machine than the teachers. Documentation 
is written for programmers and experienced 
users; software doesn't fit the teacher's 
needs. The new school micro may sit col- 
lecting dust for a long time. 

We do not believe a computer will ever 
replace teachers; a teacher could never be 
replaced by a machine, especially where 
younger children are involved. But a com- 
puter can be a strong and effective teaching 
tool in the hands of a competent teacher. It 
can provide individual instruction at any 
student's optimum learning rate, removing 
some of the disadvantages of increasingly 
overcrowded classrooms. It can provide 
advanced instruction for those students 
whose learning rate surpasses his or her 
classmates or the teacher's knowledge. It 
can provide instruction in topics of in- 
dividual interest that might otherwise be 
unavailable. It can provide, most patiently, 
all the drill exercises a student may require. 
It can bring instruction to a student unable 
to attend class. Above all, it can provide the 
computer literacy our children will need to 
function effectively in their society. 

John Mello has looked into education 
and the impact the computer has there. He 
is ready to share his garnerings in "The 
Future in Miniature." 

Worlds of a different sort open for the 
handicapped who are equipped with com- 
puters. Finally able to communicate with rel- 
ative ease, they can find and hold a useful, 
well-paying job. They can attend public 
school. They can create art. Handicaps are 
no longer a barrier to a normal life when a 
computer can fill in for physical capabilities. 

Computer applications for the handi- 
capped are in their birth stages. Kerry 
Leichtman has written an overview of the 
subject, with some suggestions for pro- 
grammers wishing to add to this field, in 
"Making More Possible." 

Debra Marshall 
Managing Editor 



The led bracket, [. replaces the up arrow, t, used by Radio Shack to indicate exponentiation, on 80 Micro's 
printouts. When entering programs published in 80 Microcomputing you should make this change. 

80 formats its program listings to run 64 characters wide, the way they look on your video screen. This ac- 
counts (or the occasional wraparound you will notice in our program listings. Don't let it throw you. particular- 
ly when entering assembly listings. 



6 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Reader Service lor lacing page si— 



INTELLIGENT 
PRINTER INTERFACE 

Free Your Computer from the Mundane Task of Printing 



Imagine being able to use your 
computer seconds after beginning an 
extensive printout. 

Visualize your printout with page 
breaks, page numbering and titles, 
margins of your choice, indented 
carryover lines, on any size paper! 

Appreciate the time and money you 
will save by not waiting on your 
printer. 

SooperSpooler, a buffered printer 
interface, maintains control over your 
printer while you go on using your 
computer for more productive 
activities. Eliminate waiting while 
your printer pecks through a long 
document. SooperSpooler accepts 
information from your computer at up 
to 2500 characters per second and 
feeds it to your printer as fast as it can 
handle it — without using any of your 
computers memory or time! As soon 
as SooperSpooler has stored your 
document in its buffer, control of your 
computer is returned to you. 



SooperSpooler features include: 

16K Memory — Will handle most of 

your printing jobs (expandable, see 

options) 

Buffer Status Readout — Lets you 

know just how much data is stored 

Space Compression — Makes the 

best use of memory on columnar 

documents 

Pagination — Eliminates printout on 

page perforations 

Page Stops — For single sheet 

printouts 

Headers and Page Numbering — 

Give your listing a professional look 

Indentation on Carryover Lines — 

Easy to find the beginning of a line 

Self Test Routine — You instantly 

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$0 REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



"Change means people have to 
cope with something new — they 

have to think." 



While kids have no problem adapting 
to computers, older people, and 
that includes teachers, are generally ap- 
prehensive. Considering that it is a normal 
human reaction to resist change, this is 
understandable. Change means people 
have to cope with something new — they 
have to think. People will go to extremes 
to avoid having to think, thus keeping 
Robin Williams and the Green Bay Pack- 
ers in the chips. 

Kids, not having learned enough to 
cope even with the normal world, are more 
into having to think, so being faced with a 
computer is not much different from being 
faced with a car motor or a video recorder. 
Note that older people have one hell of a 
time coping with video recorders and car 
motors too, unless they are a member of 
the small minority of elderly who enjoy 
new things. 

As a general rule I think you'll find that 
most teachers are particularly set in their 
ways. It goes along with the psychological 
reasons they are teachers. Some teach 
because they want to, others because 
they are used to the protective environ- 
ment of academia and prefer that to trying 
to make a break into business. By the time 
one has gone through high school, col- 
lege, and then on to a masters and doc- 
torate degrees, one is so used to being in 
school it is usually too late to make a 
career change. The adventurous years 
have gone by, so it's easier to stay in 
school, teaching. This type of person, nor- 
mally, is not an adventurous one and is a 
prime candidate for trying to resist 
change. . .and computers. 

No Clear Role 

The main use of microcomputers in 
schools has been merely for the purpose 
of "computer literacy." Indeed, in the 
educational environment, the microcom- 
puter has been more of a tool looking for a 
use than a solution to any problems. That 
is why the business use of computers has 
been growing at a much faster rate, where 
there are important uses for the contrap- 
tion, uses which save money and increase 
profits. 

In schools there has been a lot of jaw- 



boning about the use of small computers, 
but the brutal fact is that there really 
haven't been a lot of practical applica- 
tions yet. It Is important that students get 
familiar with microcomputers and thus 
not fear them, so their use for computer li- 
teracy is a valid one, as long as the invest- 
ment in capital equipment is not too heavy. 

Computers do have some use for reme- 
dial work. I've been disappointed with the 
short shrift they've had in this application. 
I think a bunch of programs to help grade 
school and high school students cope 
with math, English, and so on would be far 
less expensive for parents than tutors. 
The computers are a lot more patient and 
friendly than most tutors, and could save 
enough in a short while to pay for them- 
selves. Of course, if you are not 
a parent and have not had to write checks 
for tutors, you may be insulated from this 
problem. 

Although this is a valid use for com- 
puters, it is not one which teachers are 
likely to embrace. First, it is not the 
teachers who have to pay the tutor bills, it 
is the parents. Second, it is often the 
teachers who would lose the tutoring 
money, giving them a strong reason not to 
recommend a computer as their replace- 
ment in the tutoring business. 

The development of tutoring programs 
has been virtually nil, for obvious reasons. 
It would have to be these same teachers 
who are afraid of computers and who see 
them as a threat to tutoring income who 
would break ranks and write the needed 
programs. Get out the tar and feathers. 
Then there is the problem of selling the 
programs, which is not a small one. With- 
out the recommendations of teachers, 
how are parents going to become con- 
vinced that a microcomputer is going to 
get their little darling through the course? 
At $2,500 in one whack, plus the needed 
programs, it seems easier to pay the 
amount in dribs (and possibly drabs), even 
though they end up without the computer 
when it's all over. 

All over. Ha! There'll be more tutoring 
next year, dribbling more out. No, there is 
a good market there if anyone can crack 
the pattern. 



The Spectre 

Another reason for teachers' apprehen- 
sion is the concept that computers are. in 
the end, going to take over much of the 
teaching role, leaving little for teachers to 
do other than retrain for business. Heck, if 
they were interested in business they 
would have gone that route when they 
were younger. On some level they realize 
they have traded the possibility for fame 
and fortune for a lifetime of penury and 
debts, with little thanks. But after the ad- 
venturous years, which were left behind 
during their post-graduate courses and 
extension courses, they feel it's too late to 
jump into the "rat race." Just as printers 
fought automated typesetting for a gener- 
ation, teachers are gearing up to fight off 
computers. 

You know, it wasn't until IBM came out 
with their Composer that the back of the 
typographical unions was broken. This 
system was so inexpensive even a small 
publisher could buy one and set his own 
type. Before that the unions protected the 
good old hot metal Linotype machine and 
all type had to be set by Linotype opera- 
tors, who worked for printers. If you've 
never watched the operation of a hot 
metal Linotype machine, you've missed a 
wonderful part of the printing business. 

Now, while I don't see a lot of use for the 
present generation of computers {or 
microcomputers) in education, other than 
for literacy, I do see some applications 
coming down the line which will, I believe, 
revolutionize education. There is a com- 
puter in the future— one which will be de- 
signed for educational use, and it will 
lower the cost of education tremendously 
—as well as making it available in depths 
not imagined before. 

The present educational system is ap- 
pallingly wasteful. We've gotten the idea 
that a kid's time is of no value, so we think 
nothing of wasting much of it. Is it any 
wonder kids have no concept of the value 
of their time and feel free to waste it fur- 
ther themselves? That's what they are 
taught in school, so it is natural. 

One of the uses for schools is for baby- 
sitting. It's a place to keep the kids so they 
will not have to be cared for at home. At 
the younger ages they are put in child care 



8 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Reader Service lor lacing page ** 53— 



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gO REMARKS 



centers, where they are often put on the 
floor to watch television all day. . .giving 
them a good start toward becoming illiter- 
ate gibbering idiots. Then, when we finally 
put them in school, we bus them for a half 
hour and have them sit around in "study" 
rooms, or in classes where half of them 
are bored out of their gourds at how slow 
things are going, while the other half miss 
most of what is going on because it is too 
fast for them. With thirty to sixty in a 
class, the occasional finger from the 
teacher to get up in front of the group and 
display their ignorance strikes terror into 
little hearts. 

The New Education 

Now. let's suppose we have a video disk 
player which is connected to a microcom- 



the rental store will be delivered in a few 
hours. We may even see the time when the 
information will come via radio or cable or 
laser via glass tubes, and go onto a read/ 
write disk system, getting around the 
need for an investment in program disks. 

You want to retrain for some other kind 
of work? No problem, just get the courses 
you need and get busy. With more and 
more manufacturing being automated 
and robotized, people will be able to work 
from home doing advertising, marketing, 
accounting and other white-collar func- 
tions. It is largely the problem of commun- 
ication which forces workers to drive to 
work and waste their time in offices. 

Good Lord! Do I mean that other than 
for making the disk programs we aren't 
going to need teachers some day in the 



"No number of microcomputers 

are going to be able 

to simulate the learning experience 

of working with hardware." 



puter— or perhaps has the micro built in— 
which is what will really happen. (By the 
way, I see that Texas Instruments has an- 
nounced an interface between their com- 
puter and a video disk player.) Okay, with 
an interactive system we can program the 
computer to present the material on the 
disk, in full color and motion, at the speed 
the student needs. Not so fast he misses 
much of it, and not so slow that it is bor- 
ing. The computer can do this, much like 
having an individual teacher available for 
each student. 

With the teaching system instead of a 
teacher, the student no longer has to be 
brought to the teacher, with that associat- 
ed waste of time. No more threat of being 
beaten up in the toilets, exposure to drugs, 
or other growing miseries of school life. 
The courses can be taken at home and at 
the speed desired by the student. The stu- 
dent can go as far as he wants, with an al- 
most infinite number of courses available. 

For that matter, the student can be of 
any age and the courses can be in cook- 
ing, marketing, sales rep management, ar- 
chaeology, cuniform, and so on. Courses 
available on disks would probably rent for 
$25 or so, bringing anything of interest to 
anyone willing to spend the time. You 
want to learn French? Fine, a disk from 



future? Yes and no. . . if I may equivocate. 
We won't be needing them for about 80 
percent of the role they've been playing 
for the last few hundred years. Instead of 
listening to a teacher who knows some- 
thing about a subject, we will be able to 
learn from the top people in the field, peo- 
ple who are not only knowledgeable, but 
who are showmen and make the subject 
intensely interesting. 

The world is changing ever faster, so it 
is going to take a new educational medium 
such as this to keep up with the changes. 
Our present teachers, for the most part 
frozen into stasis upon their own gradua- 
tion, have done poorly in keeping abreast 
of change. . .that old enemy change. 

But there is going to be a need for 
teachers— a serious need. I think we are 
going to have more need for teachers than 
ever before, but for a different function 
than most have provided so far. You see, 
with the movement of the regular school 
courses into the home via teaching ma- 
chines, we are still going to be left with a 
need for teaching skills. 

No number of microcomputers are go- 
ing to be able to simulate the learning ex- 
perience of working with hardware. If you 
want to learn to use a drill press, you really 
have to work with a drill press, not with a 



computer. And, at the cost of drill presses, 
it becomes worthwhile to bring the stu- 
dents to the drill press instead of the other 
way around. 

Apply that concept to a wide range of 
woodworking machines, metalworking 
machinery, electronic repair laboratory 
equipment, flying, swimming, hang glid- 
ing, driving, skiing, foundry work, survey- 
ing, and so on. We will need labs with 
equipment if we are going to teach skills, 
and we are going to need experienced 
teachers. 

During my schooling I've had courses in 
woodworking, metalworking, foundry, 
surveying, art, drafting, boxing, swim- 
ming, electronic repairs, strength of mate- 
rials testing, a wide variety of chemistry 
and physics lab experiments, fencing, 
photo darkroom work, picture taking, 
singing, speed reading and so on. This 
barely touches the skill courses which are 
possible. In labs I've worked on motors, 
generators, the repair and use of all kinds 
of electronic equipment, antenna design- 
ing and testing, etc. I can't think of any 
way that computers are going to replace 
hands-on learning with these instruments. 
You really have to use a microscope, a 
spectroscope, an oscilloscope, and so on, 
to develop a skill with them. 

When I talk with kids today I find they 
have had few of the courses I was ex- 
posed to. Something has changed in edu- 
cation. Heck, I remember taking a course 
in picture composition when I was in the 
fourth grade. And one in reading music at 
about the same time. I wonder if they are 
teaching those courses at those levels 
anywhere these days. Even in the public 
schools in Brooklyn they had music ap- 
preciation courses where we became fa- 
miliar with and could identify a hundred 
pieces of classical music. 

With computerized disk courses our 
kids could expand their worlds beyond 
arithmetic, geography and English in the 
lower grades. And they could, by going to 
school, learn a wide variety of skills. Why 
not teach juggling? Magic tricks? Swim- 
ming? Gymnastics? Bowling? Flying? 
Whittling? Painting? There are dozens, 
even hundreds of skills. Each skill learned 
enables one to cope better with the world 
and expand horizons. You learn to ride a 
horse by getting on one and having a 
damned good instructor. You aren't going 
to learn from a computer. 

One Man's Vision 

I think it's clear that computerized and 
automated education is coming. It is go- 
ing to be vastly better than the present 
system— far more efficient, and fun. The 
key to education is that it must be fun. The 



10 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



1001 



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CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 -3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



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are trademarks ol MTC. 
© 1981 by Meta Technologies 
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MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

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Products damaged in 
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PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 
February 28, 1982 

Prices, Specifications, 
and Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 

8202 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• COD. 



•Add S3.00for shipping 
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SO REMARKS 



CompuServe Update 



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courses have to be presented by enthusi- 
astic people and made interesting. 

It is also clear that though this is going 
to bring about some big changes in edu- 
cation, we are still going to need teachers 
and schools. In fact, the investment in 
schools is going to be more than ever, as 
we stock up on the hardware needed to 
teach skills. We are going to have to devel- 
op some systems for getting students to 
the hardware with efficiency so a drill 
press will be used by students as long as 
it takes to be learned. In cities this is no 
problem, but in suburban areas we may 
want to move the hardware around from 
town to town to spread out the training. 
This could take the form of mobile hard- 
ware units— labs, if you will. 

It is far too expensive for one town to 
have all the electronic test equipment it 
takes to cope with television or computer 
repairs, but if the equipment is built into a 
mobile lab it could be taken to a school 
and used for a few weeks for that group of 
students and then moved to another 
school, so more students could use the 
equipment. The teachers would travel 
with the equipment. This would keep the 
costs for elaborate set-ups down, spread- 
ing them over a wider range of students. 
Indeed, the labs could be part of exten- 
sion courses in the evenings and not just 
used days, thus getting about 14 hours 
per day use from them, further reducing 
the cost per student for the lab. 

When you get into medical labs this 
gets even more important, for the costs of 
some of the new medical electronic equip- 
ment is astronomical. It's something to 
think about. 

When? 

Are we going to wait for the slow pro- 
cess of evolution to bring about the 
changes, or are we going to start pushing 
for them to happen faster? I'm a rabble- 
rouser myself, so you can be sure I will be 
out there pushing. 

In line with that, I have been working 
with the FCC to set up a national goal of 
getting both ham clubs and computer 
clubs started in every high school in the 
country. By doing this we will expose 
more of our impressionable kids to the 
fascination of electronics, communica- 
tions and computers, and a rather high per- 
centage of them will then be attracted into 
careers in these fields. Fine... but what 
about the colleges? They are ill-equipped 
to provide a modern education in these 
fields right now. By putting pressures on 
the colleges through turning out hundreds 
of thousands of kids interested in more 
education, I think we can bring about the 
needed changes. We'll see.B 



12 • 80 Microcomputing. February 1982 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 
CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



MTCAIDS- 



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• Up to 20 USER-DEFINED FIELDS of either numeric- or character-type. 

• CHARACTER-type fields may be any length (total: up to 254 characters). 

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- ENTER FIELD (can't type-in more characters than specified). 

BACKSPACE (delete last character typed). - RIGHT-JUSTIFY FIELD contents. 

DELETE FIELD contents • SKIP FIELD (to next or previous field). 

RESTORE FIELD contents. • SKIP RECORD (to next or previous record). 

• SORTING of records is MACHINE CODE assisted. 

- 200 RECORDS (40 characters) in about 5 SECONDS. 

- ANY COMBINATION of fields (including numerics) with each field in ascending or 

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• SELECTION of records for Loading, Updating, Deleting, Printing and Saving is 
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• Specify up to 4 CRITERIA, each using one of 6 RELATIONAL COMPARISONS. 

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MAPS-III (MTC AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM), included at no charge, has the following features: 

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BELOW ARE TESTIMONIALS from owners of AIDS systems. These are absolutely authentic 
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"This program will do more for my business than all the other programs I 
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"We have 32 different Data Base Management packages for the TRS-80. AIDS-III is easily 
the best. It also makes it easier for us to step up to our Model II since the package is 
available for both computers." , . _„, , . „ ._, x „„ ... 

Jack Bilmski. President. 80 Microcomputer Services 

"Your AIDS program is far and away the finest information management system that I've 
ever seen. I am currently using it to maintain a clear picture of the demographic data on all 
the kids in our residential treatment program and it is working for me superbly." 

Frank Boehm, Director, Front Door Residential Treatment Program 



MTCCALCS-IM™ 

Models I & III $24.95 

Modelll $39.95 

MTC's most popular AIDS subsystem. Use 
for report generation involving basic 
manipulation of numeric data. Features are: 

• Columnar Headings 

• Optional Indentation 

• User-specified Columnar Totals 

• Columnar values computed using con- 
stants and/or column values 

• Balance forward calculations 

• Use for accounting, inventory, financial 
and other numeric-based systems. 



EPSON PRINTERS 



DISK DRIVES 



DISKETTES 



TRS-80 is a trademarK ol the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark ol VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS-I. AIDS-III. CALCS-III, 

CALCS-IV. MERGE-IN are 

trademarks of MTC. 
1981 by Meta Technologies 
Corporation 



¥ 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



BOOKS 
and more!! 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 
February 28, 1982 

Prices. Specifications, 
and Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 

8202 



AIDS OWNERS! 

WE HAVE WHAT 

YOU'VE BEEN 

WAITING IV. . . 

MTC CALCS-IV™, that is. 

• More Computations 

• Save Report Formats on Disk 

• Faster, and more! 

MTC CALCS-IV™ $39.95 

For Models I & III $39.95 

For Model II $59.95 



MTC AIDS MERGEIII™ 

This subsystem will combine up to 14 AIDS- 
created data files into a single, large file. An op- 
tional purge capability removes duplicate entries 
while performing the merge operation (can even 
be used to eliminate duplicates in a single file). 
Machine-code assisted for high-speed perfor- 
mance, MERGE-IIITM properly handles files sorted 
by any combination of fields, including numerics, 
with each field in ascending or descending order. 

MTC AIDS MERGEIII™ $19.95 

For Models I & III $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 



THE COMPLETE 

MTC AIDS-III™ 

PACKAGE 



Includes MTC AIDS- 
CALCS-III™ and MERGE- 



TM 



ITM 



A comprehensive system 
at a competitive price! 

MODELI&III $99.95 

MODELII $149.95 

Add $25 for CALCS-IV™ 



AIDS/P™ 

IS COMING! 



II 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• COD. 



•Add S3.00 for shipping 
& handling 
•S3.00 EXTRA for COD. 

•Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 



SO INPUT 



''There is more to life 

than TRS-80 hardware 

and software. " 



Extra DOSPLUS 



Your October issue review of DOSPLUS 
prompted me to write concerning what I 
consider to be a highly undesirable 
business practice concerning that product. 

LNW Research refuses to sell their 
LNW80 computer without also forcing the 
purchaser to pay for a copy of DOSPLUS. 
As a result I will soon have over $300 of un- 
needed and unwanted software littering 
my office (when my third LNW80 arrives). 

I agree with your reviewer that DOS- 
PLUS is a superior operating system, cer- 
tainly by comparison with TRSDOS. How- 
ever, I am strongly of the opinion that for 
any application which involves extensive 
file manipulation, NEWDOS80 simply has 
no competition. 

It is true that for a time DOSPLUS was 
the only serious choice if you were operat- 
ing double density. With NEWDOS80 Ver- 
sion 2.0 that is no longer the case, nor is 
Model l-Model III compatibility a problem. 

My business applications programs are 
all written using the variety of file hand- 
ling procedures which NEWDOS affords, 
and I simply refuse to use field-item files 
when there is any way not to. As a result I 
have no need for DOSPLUS, and I object 
strongly to being forced to buy it. 

Protests to LNW have produced no re- 
sult. Maybe shouting louder will help. Any- 
body want a copy of DOSPLUS, Cheap? Or 
two. . .or three. . .? 



Bob Penny 

Small System Design 

Boulder, CO 



LNW Responds 



/ certainly hope that our policy of sup- 
plying a DOSPLUS 3.38 Operating System 
Disk absolutely free with ourLNW80 Com- 
puter System has not caused you much 
grief. I would like to point out that we do 
not mention in our advertisements or our 
published literature that the DOSPLUS is 
part of the complete Computer System 
price. We supply DOSPLUS for the follow- 
ing three reasons: 



First, to eliminate possible support 
problems when LNW80 owners attach 
non-LNW Research peripherals to the 
LNW80 and use non-LNW Research sup- 
plied software. We needed to eliminate at 
least one unknown (software). 

Second, to supply an excellent quality 
operating system that takes advantage of 
our 4 MHz CPU speed, five inch or eight 
inch single/double-density disk controller, 
built-in RS232, etc. Although NEWDOS80 
2.0 also satisfies our requirements and is 
certainly an excellent system, we cannot 
recommend it for a first-time computer 
owner. DOSPLUS is by far the simplest 
operating system to use. 

Third, as a gift for those who have pur- 
chased the LNW80 Computer System. 

You have, Mr. Penny, caused us to take 
a second look at our practice of supplying 
the DOSPLUS for free. We do, however, 
stand by our original decision. If you have 
any other comments or suggestions we 
look forward to hearing from you. 

Kenneth M. Woog, President 

LNW Research Corporation 

Tustin, CA 



Brown Off Base 

I read every word of your editorials and 
think you bat 1000. Concerning your tech- 
nical editor, Chris Brown, I would rate him 
a generous 2Vz for his editorial article, 
"Computerization of the Workplace" [80 
Microcomputing, November 1981). What 
is worse is that it rated top billing on your 
Contents page. 

First, there is nothing in it that concerns 
the TRS-80. Second, friend Brown devotes 
a lot of space to the Air Traffic Controller's 
plight and suggests that they are exam- 
ples of "Computer Types." They are Ra- 
darscreen specialists and the computer 
only serves as a back-up. The stress they 
complain of is due to the Civil Service 
system where you get no credit for a good 
job but can be criminally prosecuted for a 
goof. 

If friend Brown had done his homework 
he would know this. Instead he listened to 
a couple of PhD. types from M.I.T. and the 



Ford Foundation. 

I agree that the unions are going to suc- 
cessfully recruit the data processors and 
programmers because they are prime tar- 
gets. First, they are specialists on a dead- 
end street. Few if any will be picked for top 
communication skills as evidenced by 
their futile attempts at documentation. 
But more important, they are a breed that 
talks technically down to their bosses. 
Top management regards the data pro- 
cessors and their staff as only techni- 
cians who know how to accumulate data 
but not how to employ it. 

Going back to Chris Brown's editorial- 
type article, take out the misinformation 
about the air traffic controllers and what 
has he said? Not a damn thing and surely 
nothing that involves the TRS-80. Hopeful- 
ly you will delegate articles such as 
Brown's to File 13. It is a great magazine 
and please keep it that way. 

Harry Wenger 
San Luis Obispo, CA 



Chris Brown Replies 

Hey Wenger, what's your beef? There's 
nothing wrong with an occasional "editor- 
ial-type" article in a 400-page computer 
magazine, especially if it gets a guy like 
you to look beyond his nose and think 
about some of the effects computers are 
having on society. (And in this case, you 
have to admit it worked!) 

As far as air traffic controllers go, it was 
not my intention to imply that they had a 
working knowledge of computers. What I 
tried to show was that, although they use 
many of the tools of the new technology in 
their work, these guys aren't all that happy. 

Finally, there is more to life than TRS-80 
hardware and software. Sure, we give you 
more information on these subjects than 
anyone else and are proud of how we do it, 
but you can always count on getting more 
from us than program listings and sche- 
matics. We also try to provide perspective 
and whether it's robotics, Al, business or 
education, 80 Microcomputing will always 
make an attempt to provoke thought as 



14 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



M ETA TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321-3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



MTC AIDS CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM- 

MODEL I . . .$24.95 MODEL II . . .$39.95 



TM 



User-specified customer activity report page 1« — 
page title 

q . .CUSTOMER DATE QTY SALE AMT SALES TAX GROSS SALES $/UNIT 

Headings "~ " == o!oq. ====== 

ACME 3/10 100 675.00 37.13 712.13 7.12 

200 1325.00 72.88 2110.00 6.99 

3/20 400 2475.00 136.13 4721.13 6.53 

J/10 600 3625.00 199.38 8545.50 6.37 

4/20 400 2600.00 143.00 11288.50 6.86 

Optional *^ 1700 10700.00 588.50 

Indentation iMETA 3/10 20Q 1345.00 73.98- TttotTas 7T09* 

7 3/15 100 674.00 37.07 13418.55 7.11 

/ 200 1295.00 71.23 14784.77 6.83 

/ 4/05 400 2435.00 133.93 17353.70 6.42 

/ 4/10 150 935.00 51.43 18340.12 6.58 

/ 4/20 600 3585.00 197.18 22122.30 6.30 

/ i 1650 10269.00 564.80 

Columnar subtotalsL-j^rr"" TZT 

venerated whpn^U? 00 3/25 200 1325.00 72.88 23520.17 6.99 

♦haroic a ^ha««2 ^^^ 4 / 10 10 ° 685 -00 37.68 24242.85 7.23 

mere is a cnange ~~\^^ 300 1940.00 106.70 26289.55.^ 6.82 

in a user-specified ^^-^___ 

column. ^"^600 3950.00 217.25 

XYZCO 3/10 150 995.00 54.73 27339.27 7.00 

200 1345.00 73.98 28758.25 7.09 

3/20 50 355.00 19.53 29132.77 7.49 

4/10 300 1975.00 108.63 31216.40 6.95 

4/15 400 2520.00 138.60 33874.00 6.65 

User-specified 4/20 700 4175.00 229.63 38279.62 6.29 
Columnar Totals 

1800 11365.00 625.08 

•5750 36284.00 1995.62 



Automatic Page 
Numbering 



. User-specified 
initial balance forward 



Columnar values 
computed using 
constants and/or 
column values 



Balance forward 
calculations (Ex: Gross 
sales equals previous 
gross sales + sale 
amount + sales tax) 



Compare AIDS-IN™ /CALCS-III™ with any other data management package under $100! 

Others make claims, CALCS-III™ delivers with user-specified: 

• Fields in any order, with optional indentation • Columnar subtotals and totals 

• Computations using field values and constants • Full AIDS-HI selection of records to be printed 

Use for accounting, inventory, financial and other numeric-based information packages. 

CALCS-III™ REQUIRES THE PURCHASE OF AIDS-IH™ 



TRS-80 is a trademark of the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark of VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS I. AIDSIII. CALCS-III. 

CALCSIV. MERGEIII are 

trademarks of MTC. 

'-"' 1981 by Meta Technologies 

Corporation 



V 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



a 



i 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 
February 28, 1982 

Prices, Specifications. 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice. 

8202 



T 



w 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• C.O.D. 



•Add $3.00 for shipping 

& handling 
•53.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 
• Ohio residents add 6'/j% 

sales tax. 



SO INPUT 



well as program listings. What differenti- 
ates the user from the machine is the abili- 
ty to think. Let's not lose it. — C.B. 



Forum-80 

Fred Blechman's article, "Adventures 
in Modemland," (80 Microcomputing, Oc- 
tober 1981) was very interesting and infor- 
mative. However, since considerable time 
has elapsed since Mr. Blechman gathered 
the data for the article, there were some 
inaccuracies in the information regarding 
the Forum-80. 

The Forum-80 system is now available 
as a complete, fully documented, ready to 
run package for $350 (not $1 50 as stated in 
the article). 

The Forum-80 Users Guide offer was 
withdrawn in June 1981. However, due to 
the immediate response to the mention of 
the Users Guides in the article, I have 
made arrangements to supply them for a 
limited time. The postage rates indicated 
were at the old rates. Using the current 
rates, interested persons should send a 
self addressed business size envelope 
with three ounces of first class postage 
affixed, to Forum-80 Headquarters. 

Bill Abney 

Forum-80 Headquarters 

7600 East 48th Terrace 

Kansas City, MO 64129 



Accel 2 Update 



My review of Accel 2 (80 Reviews, No- 
vember 1981), although accurate when 
written, was of an early version which has 
since been updated. The new release of 
Accel 2 has fixed the problem with Data 
and Read Statements. It now correctly 
compiles programs that use these com- 
mands. Compile times are also now some- 
what less. This version has been out since 
February. 

Bruce Douglass 
Vermillion, SD 



More on SuperSoft's Lisp 

I want to thank you for publishing Gary 
McGath's review of SuperSoft's Lisp for 
TRS-80, Models I and III, in your October 
issue. 

In this review, he raised a couple of 
points which the author, Ron Nicol, has 
responded to. They are as follows: 



Mr. McGath's implication that he has 
found two bugs in the interpreter is 
false. The fact that an atom must be 
followed by a special character is not 
an error. As noted on page 2 of the doc- 
umentation: "An atom is ended when a 
special character is encountered. Nor- 
mally a space is used to signify the end 
of an atom." The other Lisp special 
characters are listed in the documenta- 
tion. Mr. McGath points out that if an 
atom is given the property NIL it can on- 
ly be removed by modifying the proper- 
ty list. NIL in Lisp signifies the empty 
list. NIL should never logically be 
placed on a property list since it indi- 
cates the absence of a property. If a pro- 
perty is to be removed the Lisp function 
REMPROP should be used. 

It is true that the cassette version of 
the interpreter does not have printer 
commands. The design criteria for the 
cassette version was to produce the 
most powerful interpreter which could 
be used effectively in a 16K machine. It 
was decided that the printer functions 
could be deleted. The disk version, 
however, contains very powerful printer 
functions which, in fact, are much more 
useful than their Basic counter- 
parts — Ron Nicol 

Once again, keep up the good work. 

Herb Schildt, President 

SuperSoft Associates 

Champaign, IL 



Letter-Writer Update 

Thank you for your excellent article on 
word processing ("A Fast Round Up" 80 
Microcomputing, November 1981) by Gor- 
don McComb. We have added several more 
features to the current edition of our 
Letter-Writer since Gordon wrote his arti- 
cle. These include: tabs; page centering 
(whole page and part of a page); option to 
justify; calculating option (adds and sub- 
tracts columns of numbers for doing bud- 
gets, taxes, etc.); line numbering option 
(numbered printed lines for legal papers 
and proofreading); and direct access disk 
files (retrieves/writes any block of text. If 
only one line in a street address on a file of 
labels needs to be changed, only that one 
line needs to be accessed. You do not 
have to read/write a whole file). 

The Letter-Writer by Astro-Star Enter- 
prises (5905 Stone Hill Drive, Rocklin, CA 
95677) is now priced at $23.99 for tape and 
$37.99 for disk (Model I or III)— prices in- 
clude shipping and tax charges. As noted 



in Mr. McComb's article, customers 
should try to use various systems to find 
the one that is best for them. We have 
made testing our system easy. Customers 
can try our Letter-Writer for three months 
—where it counts, in their office, home 
or classroom. If not satisfied, return it and 
we will refund all but $3.50 to cover our 
handling and shipping costs. 

Craig Wood 

Astro-Star Enterprises 

Rocklin, CA 



Softswap 



Several months ago we sent an an- 
nouncement about SOFTSWAP, our ex- 
change of teacher-written public domain 
educational software, to 80 Microcomput- 
ing. Included in the announcement was 
the following sentence: "New disks are 
listed in the CUE NEWSLETTER, or send 
$1 for ordering/exchange information to: 
Ann Lathrop, Library Coordinator, SOFT- 
SWAP, San Mateo County Office of Edu- 
cation, 333 Main Street, Redwood City, CA 
94063. 

Unfortunately, 80 Microcomputing omit- 
ted this important information and, in- 
stead, listed the announcement as a free 
item on their Reader Service card. This 
has caused us a great deal of difficulty, as 
we run the SOFTSWAP as a largely volun- 
teer activity and do not have personnel or 
funds to print, address or mail free cata- 
logs and brochures. We have been flood- 
ed with hundreds of requests for a "free" 
item that was never intended to be free. 
We have tried to send postcards giving the 
correct information to as many people as 
possible. For those of you who did not 
receive any response, please accept our 
apologies. It is our intention to make our 
software as freely available as possible, 
and at the lowest possible cost (it is ab- 
solutely free to anyone who visits our 
Center and copies the programs onto their 
own disk or tape). We regret any delays or 
irritations that may have been caused by 
this breakdown in communication. 

Ann Lathrop 

Library Coordinator 

San Mateo County Office of Education 

Redwood City, CA 



More on the E-Z Loader 

I want to respond to a statement made 
by R. B. Shreve in his article "The Wave 
Shaper" (80 Microcomputing, September 



16 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid Ohio 44132 
CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



Let your TRS-80™ Teach You 

ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 

REMSOFT's unique package. "INTRODUCTION 
TO TRS-80' ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING" in- 
cludes ten 45-minute lessons on audio cassettes, a 
display program tor each lesson providing illustra- 
tion & reinforcement, and a text book on TRS-80* 
Assembly Language Programming. Includes use- 
ful routines to access keyboard, video, printer and 
ROM. Requires 16K - Level II. Model I. 

REMASSEM-1 $69.95 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS $74.95 



Let Your TRS-80™ Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
DISK I/O TECHNIQUES 

REMSOFT does it again! REMDISK-1 is a concise, 
capsulated supplement to REMASSEM-1. Package 
consists of two 45-minute lessons on audio casset- 
tes, and display programs providing illustration 
and reinforcement. Provides specific track and 
sector I/O techniques, and sequential and random 
file access methods and routines. 

REMDISK-1 $29.95 



EPSON 
Printers 

DISK 
Drives 

DISKETTES 

BOOKS 
and more!! 






NEWDOS/80 Version 2.0 



$139 



SPECIAL 
95 INTRODUCTORY 
PRICE 



Apparat's long-awaited successor to NEWDOS + is here! This is not an enhanced ver- 
sion of NEWDOS, but a completely new product. Simplified DOS commands can be in- 
stantly executed from BASIC, even within a program, without disturbing the resident 
code. System options, such as password protection, number and type of disk drives, 
BREAK key enable/disable and lowercase modification recognition, can be quickly and 
easily changed. Five new random-access file types allow record lengths of up to 4096 
bytes, and no FIELDing! A powerful CHAIN facility allows keyboard INPUTs to be read 
from a disk file. An improved RENUMBER facility permits groups of statements to be 
relocated within program code. Diskettes may even be designated as RUN-ONLY! 
Features all NEWDOS + utilities (SUPERZAP 3.0, etc.) and much more! One MTC 
technical staff member said having NEWDOS/80 is "better than sex" (you'll have to 
judge for yourself!). 

MODEL III VERSION 

Has all the features of the Model I version plus enhancements. Allows any mix of 
single- or dual-sided 40- or 80-track disk drives. Most BASIC and many machine 
code programs written for the Model I will run without modification. Includes a 
utility for converting Model I single density to Model III double density. 



NEWDOS/80 # SPECIALS 

CALL REGARDING OUR UPGRADE PRICING 



$139.95 



Michael Shrayer's 

ELECTRIC PENCIL 
VERSION II 

for 
Model I and Model III 

An expanded version of the critically ac- 
claimed original word processing system! 
Includes all features of Version I plus many 
new extensions. Runs under most disk 
operating systems, has improved video 
text handling, loads any ASCII file for 
editing (including BASIC files), single sheet 
mode for printing on letterhead and more! 
Simple to use, features 2-key commands. 
An incredible package at an incredible 
price! 

SPECIFY MODEL I OR III 

Disk Version $79.95 

Tape Version $69.95 

CALL FOR AVAILABILITY 



Let your TRS-80™ Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by David Stambaugh 

A complete checkup for your MODEL I or 

I MODEL III. THE FLOPPY DOCTOR-Version 3 

, completely checks every sector of single or 

double density 35-, 40-, 77-, or 80-track disk 

drives. Tests motor speed, head positioning, 

controller functions, status bits and provides 

i complete error logging. THE MEMORY 

DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper write/read, 

' refresh, executability and exclusivity of all ad- 

< dress locations. Includes both diagnostics and 

complete instruction manual. 

SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS .$24.95 
For MODEL III $29.95 



TJSlU 



PRODUCTS 



TRS-80 is a trademark ol the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark ot VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS). AIDS-MI. CALCSIM. 

CALCS-IV. MERGEIM are 

trademarks ol MTC. 
1981 by Meta Technologies 
Corporation 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 






PRICES IN EFFECT 

THRU 
February 28, 1982 

Prices, Specifications, 
and Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 

8202 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• C.O.D. 



T 



Add S3. 00 (or shipping 
& handling 
'S3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 

•Ohio residents add 6.5% 
sales tax. 






A 



SO INPUT 



1981). Mr. Shreve states that the E-Z 
loader, a cassette pulse re-shaper for the 
TRS-80 designed by myself and Dave Mil- 
ler, is more complicated than it has to be. 
I would like to take this opportunity to 
restate the design features of the E-Z load- 
er and let your readers decide for 
themselves. 

Unlike most pulse re-shapers, the E-Z 
loader attacks the cassette interface pro- 
blem from three angles simultaneously. 
The incoming signal is first transformer- 
coupled and stepped up to 10-20 volts. At 
this point the pulses are peak detected, 
and used to trigger VSj of a 74LS123. This 
peak detection is the first important fea- 
ture of the E-Z loader. If simple threshold 
detection were employed, as the record- 
er's volume increased from zero a point 
would be reached where the unit would 



CTR-41 normally produced negative-going 
pulses, and another recorder I used pro- 
duced positive pulses. Although an input 
that recognizes a rising voltage as a trig- 
ger will work with negative pulses due to 
the capacitive coupling used, it will not 
always be triggering reliably due to the in- 
version. The TRS-80 and the E-Z loader 
both recognize either polarity, and as ex- 
plained above, the E-Z loader looks for the 
peak of positive or negative pulses. 

We feel the E-Z loader goes several 
steps further than other pulse re-shapers 
and comes as close as possible to elimi- 
nating cassette load problems. The E-Z 
loader was designed taking more than 
one potential problem into account, and 
its slightly more complex circuitry is the 
result. Since a circuit board is available 
and parts count is actually not much 



'Is the E-Z loader, a cassette 

pulse re-shaper for the TRS-80, more 
complicated than it has to be?" 



trigger correctly. As the volume continued 
to increase, a second point would be 
reached where not only valid pulses would 
be capable of triggering the input, but also 
any secondary pulses and noise that hap- 
pened to be on the tape would trigger the 
input and "blow" the load. The peak 
detection scheme used in the E-Z loader, 
although simple, effectively sets the trig- 
ger threshold a fixed amount below the 
pulse peak and maintains that relation- 
ship regardless of the actual pulse 
amplitude, even if it is changing rapidly. 

The second section of the E-Z loader is 
similar to Mr. Shreve's device and most 
other pulse re-shapers, creating an output 
pulse of fixed duration and amplitude for 
each input trigger. However, the E-Z 
loader goes a step further. It is fairly com- 
mon to see multiple pulses recovered 
from the tape for each single pulse record- 
ed. This sometimes is more than a simple 
device can handle, since to the input, the 
"extra" pulse looks like any other pulse. 
The E-Z loader uses the other half of the 
74LS123 to disable the pulse shaper input 
for approximately one-half the period be- 
tween successive pulses, eliminating the 
possibility of a false trigger from a double 
pulse, noise, and so on. 

A further problem with input schemes 
such as that used on Mr. Shreve's device 
is it recognizes only the positive-going 
component of the signal. Although the 
output from the TRS-80 is a symmetrical 
square wave centered on zero volts, my 



higher than Mr. Shreve's device, I feel the 
slightly more complex E-Z loader presents 
no problem. 

For more information, see the Septem- 
ber 1979 issue of 73 Magazine or send a 
SASE to : Paul Goelz, 2228 Madison PL, 
Evanston, I L 06202. 

Paul Goelz 
Evanston, IL 



RSBasic 

A few weeks ago I purchased the new 
Radio Shack Compiler Basic written by 
Ryan McFarland. I had been waiting pa- 
tiently for over a year since Tandy first ad- 
vertised the compiler. With a wait like that, 
I should have known there were problems. 

I should not have wasted my money. 
The compiler is slow. The internal editor (a 
part of RSBasic) is slow and very limited. 
The loader for the text file is extremely 
slow. 

The external editor (BEDIT/CMD) provid- 
ed with the compiler package has several 
bugs. I don't understand why, since it 
seems to be based on the old Microsoft 
Edit-80 supplied with Radio Shack's For- 
tran and Macro Assembler. Although that 
package also had a few bugs, they were 
not the same ones I encountered with 
BEdit. 

The data files created by the Basic 
Compiler are not compatible with any 



data files created by Radio Shack's Level 
II Disk Basic or Fortran. The result of this 
incompatibility is that any existing data 
base is worthless if I want to use compiled 
Basic. I cannot see any easy way to con- 
vert files from one format to the other, 
either, and no conversion program was 
supplied. I suspect a similar situation ex- 
ists with Radio Shack's Cobol package, 
also authored by Ryan McFarland. 

I wrote to Radio Shack to complain, and 
they responded promptly. To their credit, 
they authorized my return of the software. 
To their discredit, I don't think they fully 
understood the nature of some of my com- 
plaints. I also do not think they realize the 
major problem caused by file structure in- 
compatibility. If they do recognize it, they 
clearly do not care. 

Paul Jaeger 
New York, NY 



Complaints About RSBasic 

When I purchased Compiler Basic I ex- 
pected easy integration of machine 
language and possibly Fortran programs 
with Basic; speed computation coupled 
with ease of program creation; and the 
ability to create programs that would op- 
erate in a stand-alone environment. 

Ten General Complaints 

First, the Compiler, RSBasic, needs a 
run-time system (Radio Shack's, not mine) 
for the compiled program. It does not 
create a stand-alone (/CMD) program. 

Second, Fortran and the Assembler 
create relocatable files then linked into 
the finished program. RSBasic-compiled 
programs cannot easily be integrated with 
machine language code. In this respect it 
is as awkward as Level II Basic. 

Third, RSBasic file structures are total- 
ly different from your Disk Basic and For- 
tran files, forcing a monstrous conversion 
process if I want to use existing data files. 

Forth, different file structure also cre- 
ates the inability to use both Disk Ba- 
sic/Fortran and RSBasic programs on the 
same data base. Programming flexibility 
is thereby non-existent. Frankly, I was 
dumbfounded and totally outraged when I 
discovered the incompatibilities. 

Fifth, unlike the Level II editor, the inter- 
nal editor for RSBasic is worthless for 
anything more than very minor changes. 
Editing source text must usually be done 
by BEdit. That entails saving the source 
file on disk, leaving RSBasic and going to 
DOS, running BEdit, loading the text file, 
editing the text, saving the source file, go- 
ing to DOS, reloading RSBasic, and re- 



18 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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RETURN ANY DISKETTE GOOD, BAD OR OTHERWISE AND WE WILL 
REPLACE IT FREE WITH NO QUESTIONS ASKED. YES - WE MEAN IT! 

PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 5%" for 10 diskettes. . . S2.95 
FLIPSORT DISKETTE FILE BOX 5V." for 50 diskettes. . $19.95 with 50 SHRNNON MAGNCTICS disks. . $109.95 

VERFIN DISK DRIVE HEAD CLEANERS 

These drive cleaning diskettes assure properoperation of all types of S'A" disk drives by removing dirt and 
debris which can cause read/write errors and lost data. Designed for use with double or single density dual 
or single headed drives of any track count. They will provide maximum effective cleaning for drive of any 
brand name without harsh liquid chemicals which may damage delicate mechanisms or cause excessive 
head wear. The kits contain two cleaning disks and instructions in a reusable hard plastic diskette box 
Everything you need is included. |NO TOOLS or SPECIAL SOFTWARE Required You can use it in just 
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COMPLETE KIT $24.95 Two kits $39.95 

with two disks 

TANDON DISK DRIVES $289.00 

Complete with Cabinet and power supply 

Two Drives in a Horizontal Cabinet $489.00 

Three Drives in a Horizontal Cabinet $689.00 

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and provides easy access to drive edge card connections. 

Two Drive Cabinet $75.00 

Three Drive Cabinet $99.00 

$10.00 Trade in allowance for the return of a used One Drive Cabinet. 

TRS-80 Model I and III compatible 

To Order: 

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WE OFFER ATTRACTIVE DISCOUNTS TO DEALERS IN SMALL QUANITIES 



►'See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 19 



SO INPUT 



loading the source file. If you are out of 
breath reading that sentence you can im- 
agine my weariness at creating and de- 
bugging an RSBasic program. 

Sixth, RSBasic is very, very slow in 
loading a source file from disk. This adds 
to the aggravation of item five above. 
Perhaps the program must do a lot more 
than just get the text into RAM, but it ap- 
pears the loader software is just not well 
constructed. 

Seventh, I can find no way to freeze or 
terminate a listing of text under RSBasic. 
This is very aggravating when the program 
is 400 lines long. 

Eighth, the compilation process is very 
slow, with the disk constantly starting and 
stopping as the source text is read in and 
compiled. 

Ninth, some of the language structure 
is strangely different from Level II. For ex- 
ample. Print Using in Level II has a 
semicolon following the format item, 
whereas RSBasic requires a comma. 
Perhaps that difference is necessary, but 
if it is not, I would only call the difference 
stupid. 

Tenth, there is no way to stop a compi- 
lation. If the system was fast (using the 
Fortran compiler as a comparison) I would 
not complain. But since the compilation 
process is so slow, I have time to think, 
and sometimes I will catch errors or make 
changes in my head before compilation is 
done. Then I have to sit and wait for the pro- 
cess to finish even though I don't need it. 

I also encountered several bugs caus- 
ing either keyboard freeze or system re- 
boot. I have been able to document and re- 
peat the following three problems using 
TRSDOS 2.3B: 

First Bug 

First, execute BEdit and insert some 
text. Second, exit the insert mode and give 
the [incorrect] command L (for List, since 
we just got through using the RSBasic 
editor). Third, to the query about append- 
ing the new file, forget that we are sup- 
posed to hit Break (still thinking we are in 
the RSBasic editor) and respond N. Now, 
as the system attempts to load a non- 
existing file, we have lost the text in the 
buffer, but the worst is yet to come. Fourth, 
attempt to insert some text. The editor will 
respond 'No room between lines'. Fifth, in- 
sert at the end of the text (command I*). 
Wonderful. We can put in that line. It is 
numbered one higher than the last (non- 
existing) line that we lost after the L. Sixth, 
hit Enter to terminate that line and enjoy a 
dead keyboard! 

Second Bug 

First, enter RSBasic and create a new 
source file using AUTO. Second, save the 



file on disk: SAVE filename. Third, while 
still in the compiler, do some editing. 
Fourth, save the file on disk again: SAVE. 
Fifth, when the keyboard freezes up we re- 
member that the compiler only remem- 
bers the name of the working file if it was 
previously loaded under an old command. 

Third Bug 

First, create a program with BEdit, mak- 
ing liberal use of the Tab(shift— ) character. 
Second, give the command to Compile 
filename, filename. Third, watch the com- 
piler fail as it encounters the unknown 
ASCII character 09 hex. 

Paul Jaeger 
New York, NY 



"There is no 

way to stop 

a compilation." 

Radio Shack Responds 

Let me address your specific com- 
plaints one for one: 

First, I know of no compiler Basic which 
generates true "native code." All require a 
run-time — Microsoft accomplishes this 
by appending the run-time system to the 
linked modules (which adds 8- 12K to each 
/CMD file you create). 

Second, RSBasic was never intended to 
produce or use relocatable code. 

Third, RSBasic has always been adver- 
tised as different from our current inter- 
pretive Basic and intended for program 
development, not conversion of existing 
applications. 

Fourth, TRSDOS had to be changed to 
correctly support variable length records. 
Compiler Basic was never specified or in- 
tended to be used with interpretive Basic 
and Fortran. 

Fifth, this process is essentially the 
same as developing a program with any 
other compiler. RSBasic provides the 
ability to develop a program interactively 
prior to compiling which others do not. 

Sixth, RSBasic does perform many op- 
erations when loading source code but it 
is very well constructed. 

Seventh, to freeze the listing of a pro- 
gram under RSBasic, simply use shift @ 
as in Level II or Disk Basic. 

Eighth, RSBasic is designed to compile 
in a disk-to-disk environment. This pro- 
vides you the ability to write source code 



much larger than would fit into available 
memory if needed. 

Ninth, different programs use different 
syntax. 

Tenth, this is a good suggestion and 
I will be sure it is passed to systems 
software. 

I have also passed your bug list to our 
software development group and asked 
them to verify them and take the appropri- 
ate action. If you cannot live with the "pro- 
blems" in the Basic Compiler, please con- 
sider this authorization to get a refund 
from your local store. 

Bill Wash, Director 
Radio Shack Computer Customer Service 

Please see this month's review pages 
for a review of RSBasic— Eds. 



The following is an open letter to equip- 
ment manufacturers and software 
publishers — Eds. 



Educational 
Materials Wanted 



We are a group of inmates confined at 
Folsom State Prison who are seriously in- 
terested in becoming computer program- 
mers and system analysts during our per- 
iod of confinement. We are attempting to 
locate software applications and pro- 
gramming tools for use with our TRS-80 
Model I (48K. two disk system), helping us 
to learn programming techniques and pro- 
gram development, as well as increase 
our knowledge of microcomputers. 

There are about 200 inmates here at the 
prison interested in programming and 
eventually we hope the Education Depart- 
ment will be able to offer comprehensive 
programming courses. There are no funds 
available at present to obtain equipment 
and materials nor does it appear there will 
be any in the immediate future. In re- 
sponse to a number of letters sent to 
equipment manufacturers and a letter 
sent to the editors of a popular computing 
magazine, we have received several 
pieces of equipment and a number of 
computer textbooks and some software 
materials. However, we are still far short 
of instructional materials for use by the 
large number of men interested. We have 
a real need for instructional application 
software materials and programs. 

An awful lot of real talent is locked up 
here at Folsom and it is my firm belief that 
much of this talent could be utilized in a 
constructive way if given a proper direc- 
tion. While not everyone may have the 

Continued on page 26 



20 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



M& DATA RESOURCES Mk 

QUALITY SOFTWARE FOR YOUR TRS-80® DISK SYSTEM 
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SA 



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Data Resources is pleased to continue its commitment to professional quality TRS-80 
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DATA RESOURCES NEW SUBSYSTEMS FOR AIDS 



AIDS DISK SORT 

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MODEL I $24.95 



AIDS DATA ENTRY MODULE 

Designed for inputting data directly into AiOS 
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RIBBON CABLES 

Model I or III Printer S18.95 

2 Drive Disk Cable $19.95 

4 Drive Disk Cable S29.95 



THE MICRO ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

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MAS/80 complete $489.00 



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For Model I and III $89.00 



THE FLOPPY DOCTOR 

By Dave Stambaugh 
FLOPPY DISK/MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 
Computer "professionals" have long known the 
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MODEL I $24.95 MODEL III 529.95 



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/66& 



MASTERCARD fi^ 
AND VISA 22 
WELCOME 
We also accept 
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MONEY ORDERS 



.Data Resources Corporation 

Business & Professional Center 8000 East Quincy Ave. 
Denver, Colorado 80237 (303) 773-6665 



ALL SOFTWARE SUPPLIED ON DISKETTE. 
ORDERS IN U.S.A. SHIPPED U.P.S. FREE. 
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ATTN: DEALERS • We offer attractive pricing and terms to small 
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'1981 DATA RESOURCES CORP. 
TRS-80S IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



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SO INPUT 



50 AID 



Merge Malady 



I was all excited over the article 
"Merge for Level II" by William J. 
Dalesandry, Jr. (80 Microcomputing, 
November 1981) until I tried to run Pro- 
gram Listing 2 on my 16K Model III. 

On entering Merge (to append the 
second program), the cassette does 
not turn off until tape ends, then the 
computer resets itself. Hitting Break 
to stop the cassette prints only the 
first line of the second program, then 
garbage. 

A friend had identical results with 
his independently prepared program 
on his Model I, Level II. 

Would it be possible to obtain a cor- 
rection? 



Monroe Mayer 

2104 Dalloz Road 

Columbia, SC 29204 



TWOHAF Aid 



In the July 1981 issue of 80 Micro- 
computing, you printed a program writ- 
ten by Gil Spencer called TWOHAF. 
Since I do not own an editor/assem- 
bler, I tried POKEing the object code in- 
to memory. That worked, but how do I 
activate the program? The USR and 
SYSTEM commands did not work. 
Please tell me how to get this program 
running. Are there any revisions to the 
program? 

Anthony Wenzel 
14537 Perry wood Drive 
Burtonsville, MD 20866 



Access Time 



I have just upgraded my Model III 
from a 16K tape to 48K with two disk 
drives. I saved a considerable amount 
of money by answering ads in 80 Mi- 
crocomputing, and by buying non-Ra- 
dio Shack disk controller board and 
drives. Everything works except 
TRSDOS. The problem is, my drives are 
Shugarts model 400L. They have a 



track-to-track access time of 20 milli- 
seconds. TRSDOS is written to have a 
six millisecond access time. Can 
anyone help me with patching informa- 
tion? Calling the customer service in 
Texas only got me, "We didn't write the 
program, so we don't know how to 
change it." 

Dick McKenna 

10231 Greenbrook Court 

Indianapolis, IN 46229 

Date? 

I am looking for information on a 
patch to Model III TRSDOS 1.3 that will 
disable the Date and Time prompts on 
power-up. The AUTO function engages 
only after these two are taken care of. I 
use my TRS-80 for educational pur- 
poses. Why have a student answer 
these questions of no significance to 
the task at hand? It would make more 
sense to turn the computer on and 
have the desired software executed 
immediately. Radio Shack claims that 
they can offer no help. 

Tony Nardo 

845 Nancy Street 

Niles, OH 44446 

Time Delay Relays 

We are planning on using a TRS-80 
to do some in-house testing of eight 
time delay relays at one time. We wish 
to determine the length of time each 
particular relay takes from activation 
to close. I have a definite need for this 



on-line equipment as a means of test- 
ing products we manufacture. 

Gerald H. Servos, President 

Instrument and Control Systems Inc. 

520 Interstate Road 

Addison, IL 60101 

NEWDOSPLUS Graphics 

I have a Microline-80 printer which 
can print TRS-80 graphics, and NEW- 
DOSPLUS converts all graphics sym- 
bols to periods. Does anyone have a fix 
that will permit the screen-print to 
send the graphics codes to the printer 
unaltered? 

Jerry M. Lentz 

P.O. Box 5153 

Falmouth, VA 22403 

ROM RND Fix 

This letter is in response to Tom 
Jones' random number problem 
("ROM RND Hangup," 80 Aid, Novem- 
ber 1981). The secret to random num- 
ber generating is to adjust the seed 
with each number generated. While 
the routine shown in Program Listing 1 
may not be the most elegant, it does 
the job in 29 bytes. 

By the way, if you want the RND(O) 
function, simply delete lines 210-270, 
and line 300. In either case, the result is 
left in 4121H-4124H. Using the full 
routine, the integer result is also in HL. 

The ROM entry points used are from 

Continued on page 26 



00200 RND 


CALL 


14F0H 


;RND)0) 


00210 


CALL 


9A4H 


;PUSH WRA1 TO STACK 


00220 


LD 


HL.100 


;RND(100) 


00230 


LD 


(4121H).HL 


;PUT LIMIT INTO WRA1 


00240 


CALL 


OACCH 


;CONVERT TO SINGLE PRECISION 


00250 


POP 


BC 


:GET OPERATOR FROM STACK 


00260 


POP 


DE 




00270 


CALL 


847H 


;MULTIPLY 


00280 


LD 


HL,(4121H) 


;ADJUST RANDOM NUMBER SEED 


00290 


LD 


(40ABH).HL 




00300 


CALL 


0ABAH 


;CONVERT TO INTEGER 






Program Listing 1. 



24 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



THE LATEST BLAST 
FROM BIG FIVE... 

J^kDEFENSE 
""^COMMAND 



ALL GAMES '■ 

l6KLevel2. Mod 1 + Mod 3 Cassette: S15.95 

32k Level 2. Mod 1 + Mod 3 Diskette: $19.95 

10% discount (or 2 games, 15% for 3 or more 

\Games may De played with or without joystick./ 



IS THE ALPHA JOYSTICK 
SUCH A SUCCESS ? 



Because of games like these 




SCARFMAN 




DEFENSE 
COMMAND 






Big Five has done it again! Now the most popular 
arcade game of all time has a fascinating new twist. 
The Invaders are back! You are alone, valiantly 
defending the all important nuclear fuel cannister 
stockpile from a convoy of thieving aliens who 
repeatedly break off and attack in precision forma- 
tions. An alien passes your guard, swiftly snatching 
up a cannister and flying straight off Quick! you 
have one last chance to blast him out of the sky. 
Great action and sound 1 



BEST 

^SELLER- 



SCARFMAN 

THE LATEST ARCADE CRAZE now runs on your 

TRS-80. 

It's eat or be eaten. You control Scarfman around 

the maze, gobbing up everything in your path. You 

attempt to eat it all before the monsters devour you. 

Difficulty increases as game progresses. Excellent 

high speed machine language action game. From 

The Cornsoft Group. With sound. 

CAUTION: Played with the Alpha Joystick. Scarfman 

may become addictive. 




SUPER NOVA* 



Asteroids float ominously around the 
screen You must destroy the asteroids 
oetore tney destroy you' (Big asteroids 
creak into little ones ) Your ship will 
respond to thrust, rotate, nyperspace 
and tire Watch out tor that saucer with 
the laser' As reviewed in May 1981 Byte 
Magazine 



LUNAR LANDER 

As a vast panorama moonscape scrolls 
t). select one ol many landing sights 
The more perilous the spot, the more 
points scored — if you can land salely 
You control LOM main engines and side 
thrusters Absolutely tne Best use of 
TRS-80 graphics we have ever seen' 
From Adventure international With 
sound 



■ = ■ > 

■ ■■»■■■ 

> * « 



ATTACK FORCf 

As your ship appears on the bottom ol 
the maze, eight alien ships appear on the 
top. all traveling directly at you' You 
move toward them and lire missiles But 
the more aliens you destroy, the laster 
tne remaining ones become if you get 
too good you must endure the "Flag- 
ship With sound eflects' 




COSMIC FIGHTER 

Your ship comes out of nyperspace 
under a convoy ot aliens You destroy 
every one But another set appears 
Tnese seem more intelligent You 
eliminate them, too Your fuel supply is 
diminishing You must destroy two more 
sets belore you can dock The space 
station is now on your scanner With 
sound 1 



METEOR MISSION W 



As you look down on your view 
astronauts cry out for rescue You must 
maneuver through tne asteroids & 
meteors (Can you get oack to tne space 
station') Fire lasers to destroy tne 
asteroids, but watch out. there could be 
an alien FLAGSHIP lurking includes 
sound eflects 1 



THE ALPHA JOYSTICK: 
REAL ARCADE ACTION 



□ Features the famous ATARI JOYSTICK 
□Works with any Level II or disk system 

□ Plugs directly into KB or E/l (next to printer port) 
□Compatible with any other TRS-80 accessories 
□Saves your keyboard 

□ Fun to experiment in BASIC. Simply use A = INP(O) 
to read the joystick 

□Fully assembled, ready to plug in and use. 

Price includes Atari Joystick + Alpha Interface + 
instructions + demo program. The Alpha Joystick 
is backed by an unconditional money back 
guarantee. If you are not delighted with it, return it 
within 1 4 days for a prompt and courteous refund . 



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MODEL III 
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I Moduli 

version 
shown) 




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SO INPUT 



80 AID 



Continued irom page 2* 

Inside Level II by Mumford Micro 
Systems. By using these, the number 
type flag at 40AFH is finessed, so you 
do not have to monkey with it. 

Now, for my problem: Radio Shack's 
Disk Editor/Assembler package in- 
cludes the Fortran subroutine library, 
which the manual says contains a 
number of useful arithmetic routines. 
But your $100 investment is not good 
enough to get the whole story. In addi- 
tion to the arithmetic routines, there 
are many double-precision trigonome- 
try and LOG routines, along with some 
disk I/O routines, which are not 
documented. 

If somebody out there has figured 
out how to access any of them, I would 
like to swap notes. In the meantime. I 
will be digging through them for 
goodies to pass along. 

G.E. Waldron 

2357 East Mall Drive 

Apartment 305 

Fort Myers, FL 33901 

RND Fix 

Mr. Jones' problem with the RND 
function in machine language (80 Aid. 
November 1981) is one that I had faced 
and conquered. The program that does 
what he wanted is shown in Program 
Listing 2. 

The important line in here is CALL 
0A7FH. which converts the number in 
WRA1 (single precision, double preci- 
sion, or integer) to an integer. 

Do not try ROM calls from Mi- 
crosoft's Z-Bug. While the Edi- 
tor/Assembler Plus is an excellent pro- 



gram, its monitor (Z-Bug) plays havoc 
with the NTF (number type flag)! This 
could be part of Mr. Jones' problem. 

Has anyone found a way to get the 
expression evaluation routine at 
2337H to work? Roger Fuller's Super- 
map offers no advice, and even Micro- 
soft Basic Decoded does not help 
much. I have followed all the advice, 
yet all I get is "?OV ERROR", "?OM ER- 
ROR", "?SN ERROR", and so on. Any 
ideas? 

David Librik 

2211 East Reservoir 

Peoria, IL 61614 

Output Driver for 
IBM Selectric 

I am interested in hearing from any- 
one who has written an output driver 
routine to allow a Selectric terminal of 
the IBM 2741 or GTEIS/NOVAR 5-50 
variety to be used as an output printer 
for Scripsit from the serial port. 

William C. Bennett 

3270 Melendy Drive 

San Carlos, CA 94070 



Microfile Sort Wanted 

Has anyone been able to add a sort 
routine to Radio Shack's Microfiles 
program? I need a routine than can 
sort one or more fields at one time. Pro- 
file's pitifully slow sort routine gives 
the disk drive a real workout. 

William Greenwood 

149 Piccadilly Place, Apt E 

San Bruno, CA 94066 



LD HL.50 




LD (4121H).HL 


:Save parameter (50) in WRA1 


LD A.2 




LD (<10AFH).A 


:Slore "integer" in NTF 


CALL 14C9H 


:Do a RND— single precision result 


CALL 0A7FH 


Convert WRA1 to INTEGER 


LD HL.I4121H) 




LD (RVAL).HL 


-.Store random number in RVAL 


Program Listing 2. 



Continued irom page 20 

need or desire to obtain a BS or BA 
degree, nearly all of us in here do have the 
need— if not always the desire— to have 
gainful employment upon release at the 
end of our sentence. If we can learn about 
computers, programming, applications, 
and system development, enough to at- 
tract prospective employers— then one 
major goal of our group would be reached. 
It is to this extent that our programming 
studies are being directed. 

Any consideration that your firm may 
be willing to give in obtaining program in- 
structional materials for use with our 
TRS-80 would be deeply appreciated. You 
can be assured that the materials would 
be constructively utilized. 

If the possibility exists that you may be 
willing to send us copies of your program- 
ming materials and should you require ad- 
ditional information before doing so, I 
would be pleased to answer any ques- 
tions that I possibly can. 

We do realize that software materials 
are expensive to develop and produce, 
and that you are in business to turn a pro- 
fit. But if you can see your way clear to 
send us any of your programs or publica- 
tions they would be most welcome and 
sincerely appreciated. 

Gottfried R. von Kronenberger 

PO Box B49542 

do Mr. R. E. Miller, 

Supervisor of Education 

Folsom State Prison 

Represa, CA 95671 

Screen Printing with 
NEWDOS80 V2 

In the November 80 Input column, 
Herbert S. Dubois presented zaps for 
screen printing from NEWDOS + and 
NEWDOS80 VER 1.0. The following zap is 
for those of us that have NEWDOS80 Ver. 
2.0. Execute Superzap, and use the DFS op- 
tion to load FILESPEC-SYS3/SYS. Enter 
the find command as follows: F,3E,2E. 
The flash cursor will stop at byte C1H of 
DRS 184, FRS 4. Enter "MODC1 ". Change 
the "3E2E" bytes to "C620". This stops 
NEWDOS80 V2.0 from replacing charac- 
ters above the system AX = PARM with a 
period. It now adds 20H to put the charac- 
ter up the MX-80 graphics range. 

Larry Eckenrode 
Berkeley Heights, NJ 

Captran Modifications 

The Captran program (Capitals to 
lower-case, Buzz Gorsky, June 1981) is 

Continued on page 28 



26 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



NOVA/ MODEL I AND MODEL III ! 



Now Model III users can take advantage of the ALPHA I/O system too. Our new 
MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER allows most port based Model I accessories (such as 
our ANALOG-80, INTERFACER 2 and INTERFACER-80) to connect to the Model III 
bus. MOD III/I BUS CONVERTER, complete with all connectors, only $39.95. 




2 Printers? 3 

4K? 



_ 



PRINTSWITCH 

Have 2 primers on line al all limes and select printer 1 or 
2 Oy means ot a conveniently located switch. End the problem 
ot constantly plugging and unplugging printer cables. PRINT- 
SWITCH is a compact module that plugs onto the pareHel printer 
port ot your TRS-80 and provides an edge connector lor eacn 
ol your two printers It works with any two types ol printers: 
dol matrix, daisy wheel, plotters. TRS-80 converted selectncs. 
etc. Assembled, tested, ready to use with connector and in- 
structions. For Model I or III (please specify) ONLY . S59.00 



©S 


40Ph,8 - 
34 Ph. 42 
34 Pln.54 


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p p p p 


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SUPERIOR QUALITY REPLACEMENT 4 EXTENSION CABLES 
Highest quality cable and high force, gold plated contacts 

ensure the utmost in connection reliability 

O KEYBOARD TO EXPANSION INTERFACE . S21 

© OISK ORIVE CABLE FOR 1 OR 2 DRIVES S32 

© DISK DRIVE CABLE FOR 3 OR 4 DRIVES $45 

© DISK ORIVE CA8LE EXTENDER . . $22 

© PRINTER CABLE EXTENDER $24 

© 40 PIN 8US EXTENDER -2 ft S22 4 11. $24 
Custom cable configurations are also available Call us 




YOU ASKEO FOR IT: "EXPANDABUS ' XI. X2. X3 AND X4 
CONNECT ALL YOUR TRS-80 DEVICES SIMULTANEOUSLY 
on the 40 pin TRS-80 Ous Any device mat normally plugs 
■mo the keyboard edge connector will also plug into the 
EXPANDABUS' Tne 'X4 is shown with protective 
covers (included) Tne TRS-80 keyboarc contains the bus 
drivers (74LS367) lor up to 20 devices, more than vou will 
ever need Using the E/l. it plugs cither between KB and E/i 
or in the Screen Printer pon Professional duality gold 
Dialed contacts Computer grade 40 conductor nooon caoie 
X2 S29 X3 $44 X4 S59 X$ $74 

Custom conliourations are also available can us 



TRS-80 , 




ANALOG-80: A WORLD OF NEW APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE 
8 DIGITAL MULTIMETERS PLUGGED INTO YOUR TRS-80- 
Measure Temperature Voltage Current Light. Pressure, etc 
Very easy lo use tor example let s read input channel »4 to 
OUT 4 Selects input »4 and also starts the conversion 20 
A=INP(0) Puis the result in vanaoie A Voila' 
Specifications input range 0-5V to 0-500V Eacn channel 
can oe sei to a different scale 

Resolution ?0mV(on5V range) Accuracy 8 oust 5%) Port 

Address lumper selectable Plugs into keyboard Ous or E'l 

(screen printer pom Assemoied and tested 90 day warranty 

.Complete with power supply connector manual $139 



DISK ORIVE EXTENOER CABLE. FREE YOUR MINI-DRIVES. 

End the daisy-chain mess once and for all. Fits all mini- 
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cover, plug in the EXTENDER CABLE and replace the cover 

Now you can change and move your drives without dis- 
assembly. Keep the cover on and the dust out. High reliability 
gold plated contacts, computer grade 34 conductor cable 
Tested and guaranteed 

Get one lor each drive . ONLY $8.95 





TIMEDATE 80: REAL-TIME CLOCK/CALENDAR MODULE 

Keeps quart? accurate turn: for 3 years on '/ replaceable 
AAA batteries (not included) Gives MO'DAU YH DAY ol 
WEEK MR MIN SEC and AM/PM Features IN1W.IGEN1 
CALENOAR and even provides for leap Yew Itlts impact 
module simply plugs into rear of Keyboard (if Sidl 

Expansion Interface tniay be shpped inside I n includes 

cassette software tor setting clock and paicluni) to any DOS 
(including NEWOOS 80 2 0» Optional v conneel 

for lurltier expansion lo' Model I lolly as ■ I eo 
tested Complete with instructions and cassette 
SO500^>^mt^iii 

s power relays undei 

your 



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INTERFACER-80: tne most powerful Sense/Control module 

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•8 convenient LEDs constantly display the relay states 
Simple OUT commands (in oasic) control me 8 relays 

• 8 optically-isolated inputs lor easy d»ect interlacing to 
external switches photocells keypaus sensois etc 
Simple iNP commands rcao tne status a: tne 8 inputs 
Selectable port address Clean compact enclosed design 
Assemoied tested 90 days warranty Price includes powe' 
supply cable connector superb user s manual $159 



GREEN SCREEN 

WARIMIIMG 

IBM and all the biggies aie using green screen monitors 

its advantages are now widely advertised We feel that every 

TRS-80 user should en|oy the benefits it provides But 

WARNING: ai 1 Green Screens are not created equal Here is 

what we lound 

•Several are iust a Hat piece of standard colored Lucite The 

green tint was not made for this purpose and is iudged Dy 

many to be too dark increasing the brightness control will 

result in a lu//y display 

•Some are simply a piece of mm plastic turn taped onto a 

cardboard frame The color is satisfactory but the wobbly Mm 

gives it a poor appearance 

•One optical titter is in tact plain acrylic sheeting 

•False claim A tew pretend to reduce glare" in fact their 

Mat and shiny surlaces (both film and Lucite type) ADD meir 

own reflections lo the screen 

•A lew laughs: One ad claims to reduce screen contrast 

Sorry gentleman but it's just tne opposite One of tne Green 

Screen's major benefits isto increase the contrast between 

the text and the background 

•Drawbacks Most are using adhesive strips to fasten their 

screen to the monitor This method makes it awkward to 

remove tor necessary periodical cleaning ah (except oursi 

are fiat Light pens will not work reliably because of tne big 

gap between the screen and the lube 

Many companies have been manulactunng video fillers lor 

years We are not the first (some think they arei. but we have 

done our homework and we think we manufacture the best 

Green Screen Here is why 

•n ins right onto the picture tube like a skm because it is the 

only CURVED screen MOLDED exactly lo the picture tube 

curvature it is Cut precisely to cover inc exposed area ol tne 

picture lube The lit is sucn that the static electricity is 

suflicient to keep n in place' We also include some invisible 

reusable tape for a more secure lastenmg 

•The liller material that we use is iust right, not too dark nor 

too tight Tne result is a really eye pleasing display 

We are so sure mat you will never take your Green screen oil 

mat we offer an unconditional money-back guaranty try our 

Green Screen for 14 days II lor any reason you are no! 

delighted with it. return it for a prompt refund 

A last word We mmk that companies, like ours, who are 

selling mamiy oy mail snou'd «iist their street address*have a 

phone numoer (for questions and orderswecept CODs. not 

every one likes lo send checks to a PO oox«oller the 

convenience of charging their purchase to maior credit cards 

How come we are the only green screen people doing if 

Order your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today St 2 50 



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SO INPUT 



gO MBUg 



Basic Disassembler Fix 

While running a dump of my Model 
III ROMs using Basic Disassembler 
from your July 1981 issue. I encoun- 
tered two small problems 

First, I discovered that two op codes 
are not supported: 34H-INC (HL). and 
35H-DEC (HL). This is easy to fix. In- 
sert in line 9008 after "INC SP": 
l$(52) = "INC (HL) ,- :I$(53) = "DEC 
(HL)":. This will give you the proper 
printout. 

The second problem was that while 
trying to run that long a dump all at 
once. I got an OS error after about 
2.500 bytes. To fix this change the 
CLEAR1000 in line 1 to read CLEAR- 
3000. In a 16K machine this will not 
leave any memory for the machine 
language program, but it will work for a 
ROM dump. If you have 32K or more, 
this will work all the time as long as the 
machine language is in high memory. 
This also has another advantage in 
that it speeds up the program slightly, 
cutting down on the need for the gar- 
bage collection process. 

Jay Hayes 

331 14th Street 

Montara, CA 94037 



Baudot LPRINT Bugs 

There is an error in my article, 
"Baudot LPRINT" (80 Microcomput- 
ing, November 1981). 

In Program Listing 1 location 7F13 
should be 6C instead of 5C. The look- 
up table was omitted from the listing. 
The look-up table is locations 7E00- 



Line 1070 was missing from the 
program listing "The Pace- 
maker," November 1981, page 
222. It should have appeared as 
follows: 

1070S=1:TF«(X) = 



7E7F. If the reader desires to type in 
the Assembly version, the code can be 
obtained from Listing 2, lines 1000- 
1022. Notice that the mnemonics are 
not accurate, as they were printed with 
a Baudot printer. 

A reminder about the Basic version. 
The right bracket in line 50 is an up ar- 
row on the keyboard, and remember to 
protect memory before loading the 
program. 

I will be happy to assist anyone who 
has a problem using this routine. 

Win ford Rister 

Route 10. Box 33 

Lake City, FL 32055 

UCLBAS Fix 

I have the Radio Shack Lowercase 
Driver Mod installed in my Model I, 
Level II and use their 26-1104 "Lower- 
case Driver" (ULCAS). Recently, when 
entering a fairly large program, the key- 
board suddenly produced only one 
graphic character — no matter what 
key I hit. 

ULCAS can be loaded at any time. It 
loads in at 7000H and, after the *? / 
Enter routine, it relocates itself to just 
below any previous limit set by the 
memory size response. It also resets the 
memory size pointer to protect the 
driver routine from Basic. 

In the R/S program, one address is 
not corrected during the transfer and a 
large Basic program will overwrite this 
information. The fix is simple. Enter 
ULCAS in the normal fashion. Immedi- 
ately enter and run this short program 
below. 

Nate Salsbury 

608 Madam Moore's Lane 

New Bern, NC 28560 



10 Y = PEEK(16561) + 256 ' Peek(l6562) + 

20 H = INT(Y/256) 

30 L = Y - 256 • H 

40 POKEY + 64. L 

50 POKE Y + 65. H 



Program Listing 



Continued horn page 26 

designed for Mr. Gorsky's personal word- 
processing program. It can be used with 
the Electric Pencil by altering the buffer 
location from 5500H to 6C02H. My system 
has the memory size of 65000 so I change 
the buffer size (BUFSIZ) from A000H to 
91F0H, allowing large files to be 
translated. 

To use the program (with TRSDOS 2.3) 
Pencil is entered and the text to be trans- 
lated loaded. Then with control "O" return 
to DOS from pencil. The text remains in 
memory. Run CAPTRAN/CMD, and the 
program returns to DOS. Now type Debug, 
then the Break key. When in Debug type 
G5C61 , which brings up the Electric Pencil 
with the new (lowercase) text in the nor- 
mal operating condition. 

Kelly Swainson 
Sarasota, FL 

Superlist Modifications 

Here are a few changes to the excellent 
Superlist program published in the No- 
vember issue. 

To allow a different ORG use: 



120 
130 
140 



ORG wherever 
LD (STACK). SP 

LD SP. STACK 



3610 BUFF DEFS 
3620 STACK EQU 
3630 END 



164H 
S 



To use Superlist with Disk Basic use: 



300 



l.D 



LD 



IY. (40A4H) 



DE. (40A4H) 



.40A4H Points 
;to beginning 
:o( BASIC 



To solve the problem created by line- 
feeds (the down-arrow key = 0AH) in a 
Basic line use: 



632 


CP 


0AH 


:check for crlf 


634 


JR 


A. A2 


:i( so, ignore it 

T. J. Reibold 
Superior, Wl 



"Symbolic Dump Printout" 

Mr. Bcaslcy's note (80 Microcomputing, 
November 1981) interested me. I had tried 
a patch for hard copy but could not get it 
to work. When I saw Mr. Beasley's note I 
tried it. It works on a 16K version, although 
the last five lines (7F87-7F8B) are super- 



28 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



fluous. However, Mr. Beasley*s comments 
about values for other versions of RSM are 
just plain wrong. First, for a 32K version 
the addresses start with B. and for a 48K 
version they start with F. In addition, some 
of the values to be inserted are also dif- 
ferent for 32K and 48K versions. Finally, 
the print routine for a 48K version will be in 
the FF80 range, and cannot be saved. It 
must be located at a lower address. Table 
1 gives the correct values. 

Maynard B. Neher 
Columbus, OH 



Scrips it-NEWDOS80 Zaps 

If you have tried running the Radio 
Shack disk based Scripsit program under 



NEWDOS80 you may have discovered as I 
have that the cassette operations no 
longer function properly. Although the 
lack of cassette capability is not critical 
with a disk based system, it is convenient 
to be able to make a cassette back-up of 
important documents. 

The problem can be noted in either of 
two ways. If the cassette recorder is con- 
nected to the expansion interface port 1 , it 
will not start at all when you issue the tape 
commands. If the recorder is connected di- 
rectly to the keyboard jack, the recorder 
starts and begins loading, but an error mes- 
sage (Tape loading error) soon appears. 

Fortunately, all of these problems are 
easily overcome with a few additional 
zaps, Apparat's euphemism for patches, 
applied directly to the disk file. The proce- 
dure is as follows. First, make a back-up 



Location Current Value 




New Value 




16K 32K 48K 


16K 


32K 


48K 


606E B06E F06E F1 


C3 


C3 


C3 


606F B06F F06F 77 


81 


81 


F0 


6070 B070 F070 F5 
6081 B081 EBFO 00 (a) 


6F 


BF 


EB 


F1 


F1 


F1 


6082 B082 EBF1 00 


D3 


D3 


D3 


6083 B083 EBF2 00 


F8 


F8 


F8 


6084 B084 EBF3 00 


F5 


F5 


F5 


6085 B085 EBF4 00 


C3 


C3 


C3 


6086 B086 EBF5 00 


71 


71 


71 


6087 B087 EBF6 00 


60 


B0 


F0 


(a) Depending on previous programs, there 








may be non-zero values from here on. 








Table 1 








SCRIPSIT/CMO.00.C3 








Change 57 F3 ED to 57 FB ED 








SCRIPSIT/CMD.00.03 








52 18 3D 43 4F 50 59 52 49 47 48 54 


20 31 39 37 39 


20 




52 3E 00 32 E4 37 C3 3F 52 F3 C3 94 


66 F3 C3 14 63 


20 




SCRIPSIT/CMD.25.59 








Change 65 14 63 2A to 65 0C 52 2A 








SCRIPSIT/CMD.25.6A 








Change 67 94 66 94 66 CB to 67 08 52 08 52 CB 








Table 2 









1 Input "How much memory would you like to set aside (or items"; B: CLEARB. 
Input "How many items to sort"; A: dimAS(A): For X = 1 to A: inputAS/A): 

2 Forx = 2toA; For X1 = 1 toX-1: if AS<X)»AS(X1) Then 4 else Next 

3 Next X: Goto 5 

4 B$ = A$(X): For X2 = X to X1 + 1 step- 1: A$(X2) = AS(X2 - 1): Next: AS(X1) = 8S: Goto 3 

5 CIs: ?"Done": Input "Hit ENTER to continue"; B: For X= 1 to A: ?AS<X):" ";: Next 

Program Listing 1 



copy of the original Scripsit program and 
work from the back-up. rather than the 
original. Next apply the first four zaps 
from chapter 13 of the NEWDOS80 man- 
ual per the directions supplied by Ap- 
parat. Do not apply the zap five. Instead, 
apply the four zaps shown in Table 2. 

These patches set the cassette latch in 
the expansion interface to port 1 on pow- 
er-up and disable the interrupts only dur- 
ing cassette operations. The interrupts 
will be enabled at all other times and thus 
allow use of the interrupt driven features 
of NEWDOS80. such as JKL, DFG. and so 
on. These features will not be active dur- 
ing cassette operations, however. 

R. Lee Holstege 
Millersville, MD 



Goldflam Sort 

I created a sort routine (see Program 
Listing 1) that is easier than using a Shell- 
Metzner or bubble sort. When sorting (es- 
pecially with a large number of items) my 
subroutine beats the S.M. method by a 
considerable amount of time. The only 
time my method is slower is when the 
items to be sorted are already in order, 
and then it still beats the S.M. method, but 
loses to the bubble method by one or two 
seconds. 

Michael Goldflam 
Massapequa Park, LI. NY 




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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 29 



#? ACCOUNTANT 

h\/ Minhaol Tannflnhonm PDA 



by Michael Tannenbaum C.P.A. 



"Not surprisingly, tax 
preparation software headed the list." 



The year 1981 is fast coming to a 
close. For accountants this is espe- 
cially significant: It is projection time. 
Needless to say, projection time is always 
quite valuable but this year the passage of 
the Tax Act of 1981 has created unique 
situations. The mechanics of the law and 
the effect of taxable income have received 
wide publicity. Woe to the accountant 
who fails to advise clients of possible 
benefits or pitfalls! 

With our increased sensitivity to client 
needs we looked for tax projection soft- 
ware for our Model II. Our search was fruit- 
less: We found only a package for the Ap- 
ple prepared by our old friends Aardvark 
Technical Services. When we contacted 
them, they kindly sent us a well-written 
manual and indicated that in the future 
a CP/M compatible version might be 
available. 

We could have used one of the tax prep- 
aration programs for projections, but 
these programs are oriented towards a fi- 
nal return. Accordingly they do not pre- 
pare the comparative projections offered 
by the Aardvark package. For this year, at 
least, we will use a combination of service 
bureau packages and the old pen and pen- 
cil. Hopefully next season Aardvark and 
others will provide tools for Model II users. 

During our search for Model II tax soft- 
ware packages, we polled our profession- 
al staff about what software would be 
most valuable for their future desktop 
computers. Not surprisingly, tax prepara- 
tion software headed the list. It seems 
that most dream of plugging in their cli- 
ent's data and having their micro pop the 
return out of a slot, ready to mail. 

Also high on their lists was software to 
help assemble client tax data. Many com- 
plained that the hazards of data collection 
waste many valuable hours. All had "war 
stories" of completing a complex return 
only to find a small fact inadvertently 
omitted. The resulting recalculation and 
repeat preparation is doubly frustrating 
because the problem always happens 
when filing time is short. 

From an economical point of view, soft- 
ware which reduces costly last minute 
preparation to an absolute minimum is 



worthwhile. The best approach to achiev- 
ing this goal is to develop software accu- 
mulating the taxpayer's information dur- 
ing the year. Finalizing the return is then 
simple. The resulting data, summarized in 
machine-readable form, can be input di- 
rectly into one of the more sophisticated 
tax preparation packages available from 
established service bureaus. 

Because taxpayers will never get data 
to the accountant on time, we still have to 
process an enormous amount of informa- 
tion in a very short time. The best use of 
microcomputers in the tax preparation 
process is in the data entry phase. Of all 
data processing devices currently avail- 
able, micros are least capable of handling 
large volumes of printing and processing. 
The average configuration is usually 
equipped with slow speed disk storage 
and character printers. Even a fast 
character printer has rates under 100 lines 
per minute. 



"If something breaks 

(or Murphy joins 

your staff) you 

will have some 

reserve capacity." 



If your firm is planning to prepare tax re- 
turns in-house on your microcomputer 
this season, plan to double up on your 
data processing equipment before the 
end of March. Rent or arrange for use of 
additional equipment. If something 
breaks (or Murphy joins your staff) you will 
have some reserve capacity. In addition, 
consider preventive maintenance for your 
present installation. Have your drives ser- 
viced now and lay in a good supply of 
printer ribbons and disks. Hang the cost 
and select a conservative approach— you 
will not be sorry. 



Data Accumulation 

Although current micro configurations 
are not well suited for volume tax prepara- 
tion, they are ideally designed for data ac- 
cumulation. The limited disk capacity so 
constrictive for general business applica- 
tions is just right for accumulating data 
on a single client's financial activity. Un- 
less the client is very unusual, 500K of 
disk storage is more than adequate. With 
the low cost of disks, devote a separate 
disk to each client, and store each client's 
activity disk in a loose-leaf binder. As you 
receive data, enter it into the appropriate 
file on the disk and retain it in the loose- 
leaf binder. 

At some time during the year, run a pro- 
jection program and compare the results 
to a summary of the previous year's actual 
and estimated tax activity. The source of 
the data for this projection can be the ac- 
tual activity files and your best educated 
estimates. Discuss the results of this pro- 
jection with your client; it can serve as a 
feedback loop to identify missing data. 
Then update the activity files and sche- 
dule the final touches to be applied at 
year's end. 

A system with decentralized files such 
as this can be difficult to control. With 
each client's file maintained just in a note- 
book, management of a firm's tax practice 
is impossible. As growing firms acquire a 
large volume of returns to process, they 
find a "tax control" facility necessary to 
ensure that client returns do not "drop 
through the cracks." 

Here's a Project For You! 

To control the decentralized file struc- 
ture, consider linking each desktop micro 
together in a network. In such a network 
each local unit communicates with a con- 
trol program located in the tax controller's 
computer each time a local client file is 
opened. The control program indicates 
processing status and activity of client 
files to the tax controller. Absence of ac- 
tivity at a local unit is as significant as 
high volume. The same network transfers 
data to a larger facility for final processing. 

The hardware required to implement 



30 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



this system is already available. Based on 
the current Radio Shack users' newslet- 
ter, Tandy is planning to offer ARCNET 
(Datapoint's attached resources network) 
compatibility to Model II users this year. In 
addition, the IBM/3270,3780 and ReFor- 
maTTer software permit the Model II to be 
used as an input device in many IBM main- 
frame systems. In short, the Model II is as 
close to being a universal input device as 
any piece of data processing equipment. 
Unfortunately the only missing links are 
the local microcomputer programs re- 
quired to implement the system design. 

If you plan to implement such a project, 
keep the following elements in mind: You 
should develop a taxpayer profile to main- 
tain personal data about the taxpayer and 
his or her dependents; arrange the pro- 
gram so potentially taxable events relat- 
ing to the taxpayer are highlighted when- 
ever you execute the program. An exten- 
sion to the personal data program should 
deal with your client's employment his- 
tory and salaried earnings. Since most 
salaried individuals have an earning pat- 
tern, you could apply regression analysis 
techniques to project potential earnings 
even if you lack specific information. 

Another important component of a 
micro tax data acquisition system is a se- 
curities trading analysis package. This 
program would maintain an inventory of 
capital assets and summarize transac- 
tions likely to appear on schedules B and 
D. Trading analysis packages are starting 
to appear for investors. In general these 
are difficult to apply to accounting needs; 
they are designed to evaluate portfolio 
performance and accordingly do not have 
the accounting detail required. 

For other business activities usually 
listed on Schedule C, you can use current 
financial software. Even the least compli- 
cated general ledger system that I have 
seen maintains a listing of receipts and 
disbursements. You can use the resulting 
income statements as a summary for the 
return. You will need special software 
packages to manage tax shelter record- 
keeping.These packages will vary depend- 
ing on the nature of your firm's clientele. 

In setting up system design paramet- 
ers, make a provision for all software to 
have a VisiCalc interface. In addition, you 
should be able to link all data files into tax 
projection and tax preparation programs. 

The Estate Planning Model 

While tax data accumulation would be 
the primary mission of a desktop comput- 
er, you could use this resource for other 
client support tasks. For example, the 
new ERTA tax act provides opportunities 



for significant family tax savings through 
intelligent estate tax planning. Fortunate- 
ly software has already been developed 
for this area. 

The software, the Estate Planning 
Model (EPM), is available from the Beard 
Software Development Company, 59 Sky- 
line Avenue, Canfield, OH. The proprieter, 
Ralph A. Beard, is an attorney. EPM, writ- 
ten in Radio Shack Compiler Basic, is sup- 
plied in compiled form. 

Compiler Basic differs from the Basic 
supplied free with the Model II in several 
respects: It has a different syntax and can 
be compiled to operate more quickly than 
the normal Basic. The same software firm 
that supplied the Cobol Development sys- 
tem developed this version of Basic. Like 
the Cobol system it uses a run time mod- 
ule to execute the compiled source code. 

If you already have Compiler Basic, you 
own the run time module. In this case, 
Beard Software Development will sell you 
the code alone for a license fee of $475. If 
you do not own Compiler Basic, the run 
time module is available from either Radio 
Shack or Beard for only $30. 



". , .apply regression 

analysis techniques 

to project 

potential earnings. . . ' 



The EPM system is supplied with an ex- 
cellent manual. This manual provides a tu- 
torial on the system use, and frankly dis- 
cusses the assumptions made during the 
system design. Potential purchasers 
should read it. Beard offers a copy without 
the software, for $50. You can apply this 
cost to the purchase of the software. 

It is apparent that the system's author 
is not only an experienced estate planner 
but a data processing professional. The 
documentation's clarity and the smooth- 
ness with which the software operates is 
a testimony to many hours of careful 
preparation and thought. The profession- 
al presentation of a complex subject 
(estate planning using a computer) is well 
expressed in the manual. 

The manual is organized into four main 
chapters, a table of contents and an in- 
dex. The first two short chapters are de- 
voted to an overview and the mechanics of 
getting started. The third chapter, a 
familiarization tutorial, uses a test case 
as an example of the system's features. 



The fourth chapter contains technical 
details such as program size, specifica- 
tions, limitations and troubleshooting. 

System operation is designed to be sim- 
ple. You insert the disk and satisfy the nor- 
mal Tandy initialization requests, and the 
system automatically calls up the Run-Ba- 
sic module and executes the main menu. 
The system assumes no data processing 
expertise, but the user should have ex- 
perience and estate tax planning. The 
manual, program menu captions and out- 
put reports refer to sections of the code 
and the estate tax return familiar to those 
specializing in this area. 

Once in the system, you enterclient and 
spouse financial inventory data. If a 
computer is not available at the time of 
the client interview, an estate planning 
worksheet is provided. The system in- 
cludes a special program to print as many 
pro forma copies of this worksheet as de- 
sired. The worksheet serves as an inven- 
tory of the client's assets: Use it to calcu- 
late a tentative gross estate. 

In addition to a tentative gross estate, 
the worksheet provides for accumulation 
of additional data (such as Section 2039 
benefits not included in the gross estate, 
joint property, life insurance and entered 
marital bequests). Because the planned- 
for event is, hopefully, some time in the fu- 
ture, a provision allows you to apply a 
growth rate to estate assets. The growth 
rate provision is an extremely important 
factor in establishing the estate plan. 
Even a modest potential estate can grow 
to taxable proportions in a very short time 
with today's high interest rates. Provi- 
sions are also made for charitable be- 
quests, gifts after 1976 and the exemption 
used in the period 9/8 to 12/31/76. You 
complete the worksheet by entering a pre- 
sumed date of death for the client and 
spouse. 

After data entry, the program stores all 
variables on the disk. At this point, you 
can generate an estate tax projection, 
however, EPM makes several assump- 
tions. These include an estimate of an ex- 
pense factor of 5 percent of the gross es- 
tate and the use of Ohio estate tax rates in 
the state tax projection. 

Alter these defaults to more nearly ap- 
proximate the estate planner's local situa- 
tion. The 5 percent expense figure was in- 
tended to apply only to attorney and exec- 
utor's fees. This percentage was based on 
Beard's observations for estates in ex- 
cess of $250,000. You should recognize 
the effect of debt by offsetting it against 
the assets scheduled in the inventory. To 
utilize a different state tax amount EPM 
offers two other alternatives: a state tax 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 31 



$9 ACCOUNTANT 



amount equal to the credit allowed on the 
federal return or a general state tax as- 
sumption based on a formula. Unfortu- 
nately New York levies a tax considerably 
in excess of the federal allowance, conse- 
quently we had to alter the default to the 
general assumption. Fortunately chang- 
ing the defaults resulted in a change of 
the disk data. The new values became the 
defaults and did not have to be reentered. 

The resulting projections of estate tax 
are presented with values calculated 
using six different assumptions. These 
assumptions range from a simple will to a 
calculated optimum marital deduction 
formula and bypass trust. Because of 
screen size limitations, all calculations 
cannot be presented at once on the moni- 
tor screen. However using the 132 charac- 
ter width of the printer, you could prepare 
a complete comparative analysis of all 
alternatives. 

The printing program allows control 
over such factors as page number, top of 
form and a selection of a fancy report title 
page. The printing program also displays 
our firm's logo on each page. The printing 



menu allows reentry of variables if you 
should notice an error or require a differ- 
ent set of assumptions. If desired, you can 
switch the dates of death of the client and 
spouse and print a new schedule. 

The program and the resulting reports 
are intended for the professional estate 
planner. Therefore, if data is inserted with- 
out expert knowledge, the resulting re- 
ports will be of little use and could prove 
misleading. Beard indicates that a first- 
time user should test the system by enter- 
ing known data and comparing previously 
prepared projections to the system's out- 
put reports. This procedure, always wise 
when using a new system, is especially 
valuable in this case since understanding 
assumptions and system defaults is vital 
to proper use. 

The ERTA tax act of 1981 constitutes a 
revolutionary change in taxing philosophy 
concerning the transfer of wealth. By 
means of memoranda and seminars we 
alert our saff and clients to the opportunit- 
ies created by this new legislation. Soft- 
ware such as the EPM system will greatly 
simplify this task.B 



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32 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Percom Disk Storage 

Quality Percom products are available from 
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A dependable disk system 
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Why? Because solder-plated 
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Gold-plated connectors are 
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twice as much on a TFD 80-tracl< drive. 
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What's the key to getting the most from your 
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8002 



SOFT BITS 

a basic/assembly column 



by Roger Fuller 

"I did not set any more 
machine language for nearly a year. 



During a phone conversation about a 
short piece of code I was assaulted 
by malapropisms spoken in a vain attempt 
to impress me with the caller's expertise. 
Ignorance is a prerequisite for learning. To 
feign knowledge you do not have is to pre- 
pare a cream pie for later application to 
your face. This bit of philosophy precedes 
a discussion of a few words used and mis- 
used in reference to assembly and ma- 
chine language programming. While I can- 
not make the issues black and white, I can 
reduce the amount of greyness associat- 
ed with their use. 

Memorize This List! 

A pointer is an address which points to 
a specific location in memory. This loca- 
tion (but not necessarily the pointer) is in 
read/write memory. An example of a point- 
er is address 40A7H-40A8H, which con- 
tains the LSB and MSB of the keyboard buf- 
fer location. ROM uses this address to 
locate character storage during Input or 
List. A pointer does not direct program 
flow. 

A vector is an address which directs 
program flow. For example, the vector at 
401 EH-401 FH contains the address of the 
video driver. ROM uses this address in 
processing a video output operation. 
Since control is directed to the driver, this 
address is a vector. By changing this ad- 
dress you can redirect program flow to 



another driver. This is how a lowercase 
driver can be implemented in a TRS-80. 

A flag or switch represents a condition. 
An example of a flag is a traffic light. A 
motorist should make a decision on the 
basis of the light's condition but does not 
have to obey. The byte at address 411BH 



". . ./ can reduce 

the amount 

of greyness associated 

with their use." 



is a flag byte. It is used by ROM in pro- 
cessing the tracing function: If it is zero 
the trace is off. 

Similar to flags or switches are control 
bytes. A control byte will force an opera- 
tion to occur. In Basic, the control byte 
OAH causes a line feed. 

All the above items can be arranged in 



' USR INPUT ROUTINE BY ROGER PULLER 

1 ' 
10 

20 
30 
40 



PUBLIC DOMAIN 



CLEAR 1000 
GOSUB 65000 
TEST$-STRING$(10,32) 

IF PEEK(16396)-195 THEN U"USR(VARPTR (TESTS) ) 
ELSE U»USRl(VARPTR(TEST$) ) 
50 PRINTCHR$(13) «=========>• TEST$ 

60 GOTO 30 

65000 U=PEEK(16551) + 256 * PEEK(16552) +192 

: FOR B=0 TO 67 : READ BYTE : CKSUM-CKSUM + BYTE 
: POKE U+B, BYTE : NEXT 

: IF CKSUM06823 THEN PRINT "CHECKSUM ERROR" : STOP 
65010 IF PEEK(16396)=195 THEN DEFUSRl=U t RETURN 

ELSE POKE 16526, U AND 255 : POKE 16527, U / 256 : RETURN 
65020 DATA 205,127,10,229,70,72,35,94,35,86,235,62,14,205,51,0,205,73,0,254 
,32,48,21,254,13,40,31,254,8,32,241,120,185,40,237,62,8,205,51,0,4,43,24,22 
8,95,120,183,40,223,123,119,205,51,0,35,5,24,214,62,15,205,51,0,121,144,225 
,119,201 

Program Listing 1. User Input Routine. 



memory in the form of areas, regions, 
blocks, or tables. All the information, 
pointers, vectors, flags, switches and con- 
trol bytes are called the reserved area in 
the TRS-80. A table usually contains a 
well-ordered group of similar items. Basic 
variables are stored in the variable table. 
A pointer used to reference a table is 
called an index if the pointer is relative to 
the table only. The IX and IY registers are 
not index registers but are used in an in- 
dexing scheme. The index itself is called 
an offset. In the Z80 the IX and IY are used 
as pointers and their associated offsets 
are the real indexes. Displacement is an- 
other word for index. Think of a pointer as 
an index to all of read/write memory. 
While that makes the IX and IY indexed 
pointer registers, they are commonly re- 
ferred to as index registers. 

Intro to Machine Language 

I bought my TRS-80 in the summer of 
1978. After a few months I upgraded to 
16K Level II and had a TTY for a printer. 
The TTY was connected via a cassette 
port interface. The interface required a 
software driver, which printed brackets 
rather than the TRS-80's up arrows. Be- 
cause I wanted the TTY printing to match 
the computer type, I decided to fix the 
driver program. 

A disassembled listing of the driver 
and the RSM2 monitor program made it 
easy. First I figured out how the driver 
worked by reading the comments in the 
listing and looking up what the accompa- 
nying mnemonics meant in the editor/as- 
sembler manual. I concluded I only need- 
ed to substitute the up arrow TTY code for 
the TRS-80 character. I inserted 254,91 ,32, 
2,62,94 into the data statements of the 
"POKE it in from Basic" driver. This is the 
assembly code: 

CP 91 
JR Z,$ + 2 
LD A,94 

That took five hours. I did not write any 
more machine language for nearly a year. 
My next attempt was to produce a driver 
for a correspondence code Selectric print- 
er. This took a total of fifty hours; I had to 



36 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



'■ ■ 



If you liked MICROPROOF, then you'll love SON OF MICROPROOF: 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER 




The ultimate spelling checker. 



IMPROVED: 

• One-step proofing and correcting. 

• Lists errors to screen or printer. 

• Can display errors in context. 

• Can display dictionary to locate correct spellings. 

• New precise symbolic dictionary will not miss an error. 

• Remarkably compact (50.000 word dictionary will fit on 
one 5 inch disk). 

• Even FASTER than MICROPROOF (formerly the fastest 
available). 

• Simple Grammatical Checking (Optional Feature). 

• Hyphenates automatically (Optional Feature available for 
some Word Processing programs). 



SELECT APPROPRIATE RESPONSE: 
CORRECT MISSPELLED WORD: 
LEAVE WORD 'AS IS": 
DISPLAY WORD IN CONTEXT: 
DISPLAY DICTIONARY: 
ADD WORD TO DICTIONARY: 
EXIT: 



ENTER CORRECT WORD 
HIT <ENTER> KEY 

@ ■ 



WORD: 
RESPONSE: 



(Your error) 



EASY TO USE: Prepare your text on any Z-80 based micro 
computer, using any of a number of popular word process- 
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document, displaying misspellings and typos on the screen. 
Then correcting ELECTRIC WEBSTER can display each 
error separately, requesting you to enter the correct 
spelling for each. You are also given the option of displaying 
errors in context or adding words to ELECTRIC WEB- 
STER'S 50,000 word vocabulary. If you do not know the 
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ELECTRIC WEBSTER corrects your document. All in less 
than a minute. 

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patch to integrate with your word processing software. For 
each patch, optional Grammatical Checking feature, or 
optional Hyphenation feature, add $35. (Integration patch 
not necessary for Wordstar.™) 



SPEED is the single most important factor in a dictionary 
program. All dictionary programs will find your potential 
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proofread a several page letter in 20 seconds. 

ELECTRIC WEBSTER'S FULL 50,000 WORD VOCAB- 
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in the lists of potential errors that ELECTRIC WEBSTER 
identifies. The mini dictionary programs, with their 10,000 
and 20,000 word vocabularies, have many correctly spelled 
words omitted from their vocabularies. Consequently, they 
identify as potential "errors" many words that are actually 
spelled correctly; five to ten times as many such words as 
does ELECTRIC WEBSTER. So, when you use ELECTRIC 
WEBSTER, you will have far fewer extra words to evaluate, 
a major time savings. There will be less need to look up 
words in order to verify that they are in fact spelled correct- 
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Electric Webster generates. 

HERE'S WHAT THE REVIEWERS HAVE TO SAY 
ABOUT MICROPROOF: 

"I have already found that the use of (MICROPROOF) has 
greatly enhanced the quality of my letters and reports. This is a 
very useful product and should be obtained by anyone who 
uses a word processor.' 

Michael Tannenbaum, CPA 

80 Microcomputing, August 1981 

"The summary review of this program? One word — Excellent. 
I highly recommend it for anyone using a word processor for 
any need — articles, manuals, reports, and even letters of 
substantial length." 

A. A. Wicks - Program Previews 

Computronics, September 1981 

In a comparative review of proofreading programs (with small- 
er dictionaries), MICROPROOF was found to be considerably 
faster than all the others, when tested against a 400 word 
sample document. 

Phillip Lemmons 

BYTE Magazine, November 1981 

"(MICROPROOF) operates with good speed and efficiency. A 

1500 word document took 26 seconds to load, process, and 

proof when the program was run on a TRS-80 Model II under 

CP/M." 

"Once the program is integrated, it is very friendly and any 

person able to use a word processing program can master it in 

moments." 

Frank Derfler 

Info-World, January 1982 







-See List of Advertisers on page 290 



See your local microcomputer dealer or write to: 

CORNUCOPIA SOFTWARE 

Post Office Box 5028, Walnut Creek, California 94596 • (415) 524-8098 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 37 



SOFT BITS 



learn how to use the editor/assembler and 
the RS-232 interface. A short time later I 
sold this driver; it was installed into a DOS 
written in Basic by none other than the 
legendary Jesse Bob Overholt. 

Z80 Loads 

One of the most common Z80 instruc- 
tions are load instructions. (In fact, 19 
percent of the Z80's instructions are 
loads.) Below is a list of functions and 
capabilities which apply to all 132 load 
instructions. 



LD DESTINATION , SOURCE 



• All load instructions follow the above 
format. 

• Pointers are always enclosed in pa- 
rentheses. 

• Source and destination cannot both 
■ be specified by pointers. 

• The source is never destroyed by a 
load. 

• A register pair to register pair load is 
impossible except: 



N 




00100 


; USR 


INPUT SOURCE CODE BY 


ROGER FULLER PUBLIC DOMAI 




00110 










7F00 




00120 
00121 




ORG 


7F00H 


; ARBITRARY LOCATION 






00122 


; 


ROM ROUTINES MODEL 


I AND MODEL III COMPATIBLE 






00123 


. ** *********** 


************* 


*************************** 


0033 




00130 


DSPLY 


EQU 


0033H 


; VIDEO DISPLAY 


0049 




00140 


KEYBD 


EQU 


0049H 


; INPUT A CHAR FROM KEYB 


OARD 


















00141 


.***** 


************************************************ 






00150 




; 






7F00 


CD7F0A 


00160 




CALL 


0A7FH 


;GET STRING DESCRIPTOR 


ADDRESS 












7F03 


E5 


00170 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE LENGTH POINTER 


7F04 


46 


00180 




LD 


B, (HL) 


;GET STRING LENGTH 


7F05 


48 


00190 




LD 


C,B 


;C=INPUT BUFFER LENGTH 


7F06 


23 


00200 




INC 


HL 




7F07 


5E 


00210 




LD 


E, (HL) 


;GET LSB OF STRING ADDR 


ESS 














7F08 


23 


00220 




INC 


HL 




7F09 


56 


00230 




LD 


D, (HL) 


;GET MSB OF STRING ADDR 


ESS 














7F0A 


EB 


00240 




EX 


DE,HL 


; ADDRESS TO HL 


7F0B 


3E0E 


00250 




LD 


A,0EH 




7F0D 


CD3 300 


00260 




CALL 


DSPLY 


;TURN ON CURSOR 


7F10 


CD4900 


00270 


NPUT 


CALL 


KEYBD 


;GET A CHAR 


7F13 


FE20 


00280 




CP 


20H 




7F15 


3015 


00290 




JR 


NC, ASCII 


;IF A PRINTABLE 


7F17 


FE0D 


00300 




CP 


0DH 




7F19 


281F 


00310 




JR 


Z, EXITCR 


;IF A CARRAIGE RETURN 


7F1B 


FE08 


00320 




CP 


08H 




7F1D 


20F1 


00330 




JR 


NZ,NPUT 


;IF NOT A BACK SPACE 


7F1F 

TH 

7F20 


78 


00340 




LD 


A,B 


; ELSE GET INPUT LENG 


B9 


00350 




CP 


C 


; COMPARE TO ORIGINAL LE 


NGTH 














7F21 


28ED 


00360 




JR 


Z,NPUT 


?IF NOTHING IN BUFFER 


7F23 


3E08 


00370 




LD 


A,08H 




7F25 

EN 

7F28 


CD3300 


00380 




CALL 


DSPLY 


ELSE BACKUP ON SCRE 


04 


00390 




INC 


B 


; INCREASE ROOM LEFT IN 


BUFFER 












7F29 


2B 


00400 




DEC 


HL 


; BACKUP IN BUFFER 


7F2A 


18E4 


00410 




JR 


NPUT 




7F2C 


5F 


00420 


ASCII 


LD 


E,A 


;SAVE CHAR 


7F2D 


78 


00430 




LD 


A,B 




7F2E 

ER 
7F2F 


B7 


00440 




OR 


A 


; CHECK FOR ROOM IN BUFF 


28DF 


00450 




JR 


Z P NPUT 


; IF NONE LOOP BACK 


7F31 


7B 


00460 




LD 


A,E 




7F32 


77 


00470 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


;PUT CHAR IN BUFFER 


7F33 


CD3300 


00480 




CALL 


DSPLY 


; AND ON SCREEN 


7F36 


23 


004 90 




INC 


HL 


;BUMP BUFFER POINTER 


7F37 

ER 

7F38 


5 


00500 




DEC 


B 


;DROP ROOM LEFT IN BUFF 


18D6 


00510 




JR 


NPUT 




7F3A 


3E0F 


00520 


EXITCR 


LD 


A,0FH 


;TURN OFF CURSOR 


7F3C 


CD3300 


00530 




CALL 


DSPLY 




7F3F 


79 


00540 




LD 


A,C 


;GET ORIGINAL LENGTH 


7F40 


90 


00550 




SUB 


B 


; REMOVE REMAINING LENGT 


H 
7F41 


El 


00560 




POP 


HL 


; RETRIEVE STRING DECSRI 


PTOR 


BLOCK 












7F42 


77 


00570 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


;SET LENGTH OF STRING I 


NPUTTED 












7F43 


C9 


00580 




RET 






0000 




00590 




END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 
















Program Listing 2. Source Code. 



LD SP.HL 
LD SP.IX 
LD SP.IY 

Pointers can be either a register pair or 
an immediate address contained in the in- 
struction itself. Pointers can be for source 
or destination. If a source is specified by a 
pointer it is pronounced "Load Destina- 
tion from where Source." If a destination 
is specified by a pointer it is pronounced 
"Load where Destination with Source." 
For this scheme to work, an immediate ad- 
dress used as a pointer is considered to 
point to the location in read/write memory 
specified by that address. See the ex- 
amples in Fig. 1. 



LD 


A,(HL) 


— load A from where HL 


LD 


(HL),A 


—load where HL with A 


LD 


A,B 


— load A with B 


LD 


(IX + 4),A 


—load where IX offset 4 with A 


LD 


A,(IX + 4) 


— load A from where IX offset 4 


LD 


DE.HL 


—load DE with HL 

Fig. 1. 



Loads involving immediate addresses 
can confuse DE with ODEH and BC with 
OBCH. This is no problem for disassem- 
blers because they work backwards from 
the instruction code itself. It is no problem 
in an assembler since hex numbers must 
always begin with a numeric digit. To 
avoid such confusion in speaking, use the 
suffix "hex" after an immediate address. 
Do not forget that immediate addresses 
point to a specified memory location, not 
the location contained in the instruction 
(like register pair). See Fig. 2. 



LD 


DE.(42E9H) —load DE from 42E9 hex 


LD 


(42E9),DE —load 42E9 hex with DE 


LD 


DE.42E9H —load DE with 42E9H hex 




Fig. 2. 



By now you should have a good grasp 
on how loading works in the Z80. As a test 
of your understanding, what is wrong with 
"load 42E9 hex from where DE?" If you 
can't explain you had better read the 
lesson over. 

Four instructions in the Z80 involve 
loads but don't conform to the above 
rules. Think of these four instructions 
(block moves LDD, LDDR, LDI, and LDIR) 
as macro instructions. That is, they can be 
made from a group of other less powerful 
instructions. For example LDIR could be 
made as in Fig. 3. 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



SOFT BITS 



An easy way to remember this instruc- 
tion is its function (a block move of at 
least one byte), and its setup (involving 
three register pairs). You would need to 
know where the code to be moved is now, 
where it is going, and how much to move. 
The HL (High Low address) is the source, 
the DE (DEstination) is where it's going, 
and the BC (Byte Count) is how much is 



moved. The LDI instruction transfers only 
one byte. Produce LDDR by decrementing 
DE and HL instead of incrementing them. 
LDD moves only one byte. In memory the 
LDIR moves the old block to the new loca- 
tion bottom up. The LDDR moves the old 
block top down. 

Three more instruction types (Bit, Set, 
and RES) take up 35% of the instructions. 



LDIR LD 


BC.BYTCNT 


;BYTCNT = number of bytes 


to move 




;0000H=64K 


LD 


HL.SOURCE 


;SOURCE = source address 


LD 


DE.DESTIN 


;DESTIN= destination 


address 






PUSH 


AF 


;save register pair 


LOOP LD 


A,(HL) 




LD 


(DE),A 


transfer byte 


INC 


HL 


;bump source 


INC 


DE 


;bump destination 


DEC 


BC 


;drop count number 


LD 


A,B 




OR 


C 


;see if BC = OOOOH 


JR 


Z.LOOP 


;if not loop til done 


POP 


AF 

Fig. 3 


;restore register pair 



Bit tests a single bit in a byte specified by 
a register or pointed to by HL, IX + offset, 
or IY + offset. The zero flag contains the 
results of the test. Thus, 

LD A.01H 

BIT 0,A 

would reset the zero flag since bit 1 in 
register A is not zero. The carry flag is not 
affected by this instruction. Set and RES 
does not affect any flags in setting or 
resetting the specified bit in the target 
byte. See Fig. 4. 



BIT 


1,A —test bit 1 of A 


BIT 


1,(HL) —test bit 1 of where HL 


SET 


O.B —set bit of B 


RES 


7,(IX+ —reset bit 7 of where IX offset 23 




Fig. 4 



These four types of instructions (Load, 
Bit, Set and RES) cover 54 percent of the 
Z80's mighty instruction set.B 



CONVERT YOUR SERIAL PRINTER TO PARALLEL 



NEW MODEL UPI-3 SERIAL PRINTER INTERFACE MAKES IT 
POSSIBLE TO CONNECT AN ASCII SERIAL PRINTER TO THE 
PARALLEL PRINTER PORT ON THE TRS-80. 

Software compatibility problems are totally eliminated because 
the TRS-80 "THINKS" that it has a parallel printer attached. 
NO MACHINE LANGUAGE DRIVER NEEDS TO BE LOADED 
INTO HIGH MEMORY BECAUSE THE DRIVER ROUTINE FOR 
THE UPI-3 IS ALREADY IN THE TRS80 ROM! SCRIPSIT, PENCIL. 
RSM 2, ST80D, NEWDOS, FORTRAN, BASIC etc. all work as if a 
parallel printer was in use. 

The UPI-3 is completely self contained and ready to use. A 34 
conductor edge card connector plugs onto the parallel printer 
port of the model I Expansion Interface or onto the parallel 
printer port on the TRS-80 III. A DB25 socket mates with the 
cable from your serial printer. The UPI-3 converts the parallel 
output of the TRS-80 printer port into serial data in both the 
RS232-C and 20 MA. loop formats. 



bd 



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• 1 or 2 Stop Bits per Word 

• Parity or No parity 

• ODD or EVEN Parity 

UPI-2 for TRS80 Model II 

UPI-3 for TRS80 Model I or 3 

UPI-4 for use with Model 1 and RS Printer 

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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 39 



THE EXCLUSIVE ORACLE 



by Dennis Kitsz 



"Take a walk to your 

dining room and turn off 

that light dimmer." 



Qln the October 1981 issue of 80 Microcomputing an article 
■ appeared describing a screen twitch, reminding me of a 
problem I have. Mine is not a twitch, but more of a small wave 
which travels slowly up the video display, disappearing at the top 
and reappearing at the bottom. 

It seems to have no more effect than to annoy me over the fact 
that it spoils an otherwise almost perfect computer setup. I have 
a Model I, Level II, 48K, two-disk system with an Epson MX70 
printer, and the problem has been with me since my 4K Level I 
days. I suspect a component in the video display, but my knowl- 
edge of electronics is scant. 

Raymond T. Schreiner 
Tuckerton, NJ 

A. Take a walk to your dining room and turn off that light dim- 
mer, Ray. The plastic case and unshielded cable used in the 
Model I monitor made it susceptible to electrical interference, 
which from your description appears to be the electronic dimmer 
syndrome. If it's not that, check for flukey fluorescent lights or 
even see if any of the neon pilot lights on your hi-fi have an effect. 

Q. I tried to load programs from cassette. I let the recorder run 
for a few minutes and never saw an asterisk appear on the 
screen. I know there is something on the cassettes, because I 
can hear it when I take out the ear plug. I ran this program, which 
always printed 255: 

10 OUT255,0:PRINTINP(255):GOTO10 

I ran the program with the cassette cable connected and dis- 
connected from the computer. The relay works and I can gener- 
ate music. What is the problem? Can I fix it? 

Ken M. Hickey 
Redwood City, CA 

A. I'll assume that the volume control of your cassette recorder 
was turned up to the right level. That would point to a failure in 
the cassette input circuitry; the most likely component to give up 
is Z4, an LM3900 operational amplifier. However, CR4, CR5, CR6 
and CR7 might have been destroyed by too much input, part of the 
Z24 (74LS132) input latch might be damaged, one gate of Z44 
(74LS367) might be out of commission, or any one of a host of 
small parts in the cassette input circuitry might be open or shorted. 

You'll need a copy of the Technical Reference Handbook and 
some electronics skills (or a friend with either or both) to do the 
repairs. Try replacing Z4 first, then the diodes. If you have access 
to an oscilloscope, hook up the tape recorder and look for a point 
along Z4 that the signal disappears. If it looks good straight 
through to the input at pin 9 of Z24, then replace Z24 and/or Z44. 
Check sheet 2 of the TRS-80 schematic for details. 

If you get everything back in working order, be careful not to 
overload the input. Some tape recorders (especially Panasonic 
and Sony) provide a very loud output that can wipe out low-level 
analog integrated circuits like Z4. Also, make sure R67 (a 



100-ohm resistor) is soldered across the cassette input jack; this 
resistor keeps most of those super-loud outputs from damaging 
the system. 

Q. Can the Micro Front Panel circuit (May) be modified to dis- 
play in either hex or decimal on seven-segment LED displays? 

Paul Rivera, Jr. 
Rego Park, NY 

A. It's great to have a short question for a change. The Micro 
Front Panel may be modified, but I suspect its usefulness would 
be seriously limited by this change. Here's why. Say the com- 
puter was working vigorously around addresses 4406 and 4222. If 
you used seven-segment displays, you would get the first "4" 
okay, but the second "4" and "2" would combine to look like 
an "8", the "2" and "0" would look like an "8", as would the "6" 
and "2". 

However, the binary readout would show alternating 01000100 
0000 0110 and 0100 0010 0010 0010. The leading 0100 would be 
bright, the combined 0100 and 0010 would result in a dimmer 
01 10, as would the dimmer 0000 + 0010 and the dimmer 01 10 + 
0010 with the third digit emphasized. From that you could make a 
closer guess— either 4222 and 4406 or 4422 and 4206 was being 
displayed. The relative intensity of the binary digits can tell a 
great deal which a randomly flickering batch of Arabic numerals 
might not. 

If you insist on changing to hex digits, look into the Texas In- 
struments hexadecimal seven-segment displays with built-in 
binary-to-hex decoding; you can get them at surplus for around 
$4 each. 

Q. What can be done to give the Model I's five-volt power sup- 
ply a higher current rating? Is there a regulator that can be substi- 
tuted for the present chip? If not, can another regulator circuit be 
added in parallel with the first? 

Secondly, I plan to upgrade my Z80 CPU for a new Z80B, but I 
know that at six MHz, my 80's keys may bounce right off their cir- 
cuit board. Do you know of a clock-independent bounceless 
switch circuit that may work? Would a circuit similar to Radio 
Shack's cassette fix work here, only allowing the keyboard buffer 
to open for a specific time period? Or would it be easier to 
reprogram all my programs by increasing their timing loops? 

William T. Faulkner 
Marshfield, Wl 

A. I'd be curious to know why you would need to extend the 
TRS-80 power supply capacity. If it is to drive more chips, you 
might be relieved to know that the computer's power supply has 
a built-in reserve of about 150 mA — enough to piggyback an ex- 
tra dozen LS TTL integrated circuits, or 16K more memory. With a 
bigger heat sink attached to the pass-transistors Q2, Q3 and Q6, 
plus perhaps a fan for extra ventilation, you can pull nearly half 
an amp more (though I wouldn't recommend that). 

If you are serious about the added current, I would suggest a 



40 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



,, iiiinii I IIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIII I Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I ■ HII 



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second power supply designed similar to the present Model I 
supply. You will get 1.5 amps or more of clean current, and the 
Model I "black box" transformer is inexpensive. Don't merely par- 
allel the extra circuit with the first, though, because one supply 
will always try to do all the work, overloading itself. Instead, 
power the basic TRS-80 with its own supply, and power any 
peripheral or piggyback boards with the new supply. Keep the 
ground leads thick and short, and make sure that both supplies 
share a common ground nearby the regulators. Lastly, you will 
need additional ventilation. 

Your second set of questions leads me to suspect that you're 
trying to create a "Super-80" from your trusty Model I. If you plan 
to install the Archbold Electronics speed-up kit, okay, but just up- 
ping the clock rate and getting a faster CPU isn't the answer for a 
homebrew speed-up. You'll have to consider: 

• Do you want the 500-baud cassette rate? If not, do you have 
the XRX-II cassette mod? It will have to go. 

• How fast are your memories? You will have to install a com- 
pletely new memory refresh/select circuit using (preferably) a 
digital delay line. If you have a buffered cable, noise problems 
will seriously increase. 

• Are you using disk? Can your DOS handle high speed, only 
low speed, or a mixture of speeds? Can it boot at high speed? 

• Will you be switching back and forth between speeds? How? 
As for the key-bounce question, high speed will make it much 

more prominent. The easiest solution is the Radio Shack Hall- 
effect (ALPS) keyboard, a $75 (but permanent) fix, completely 
assembled. Other options include purchasing a Cherry or similar 
high-quality keyboard, or perhaps an IBM pullout— those System 
6 keyboards are solid and bounceless. Otherwise, you'll be 
forever afflicted with having to clean contacts or change all of 
your key-bounce delay routines. 

A timed window like that used in the cassette mod isn't a 
viable solution unless you are a predictable and rather slow typ- 
ist. You would shortly get out of sync and miss letters here and 
there. Even key debounce routines can slow up some typists; a 
fast typist can take 50 mS or less on common words like "the." 

One option remains. You can use the keyboard column con- 
nections (see the Technical Manual) to trigger a one-shot flip-flop 
(such as a 74LS121) which will in turn activate a complete set of 
open-collector buffers— one for each key. Not a very economical 
solution. 

• • • 

I would like to share with you the insights of two 80 Microcom- 
puting readers— Art Brothers, a maverick telephone baron in 
Utah, and Richard L. Brocaw, for whom no amount of flickering 
lights can be too many. 

Art (whose pioneer independence recently brightened the "To- 
day" show) writes from Salt Lake City to expand on data trans- 
mission problems experienced in small or badly maintained tele- 
phone systems: 

"A pair of wires stretched for miles and miles (over three) has 
unacceptable losses to high frequencies; the audio roll-off filter- 
ing to higher frequencies in the audio is unacceptable. Capaci- 
tive reactance (Xc) is added to the cable. To get rid of it, or bal- 
ance it out, you have to add load coils, which provide inductive 
reactance (X1). The result is a bandpass to audio with sharp roll- 
off above about 3.5 KHz. It is easy to check this if you have some- 
one somewhere in the system connect an audio oscillator to his 
phone through a 600-ohm or 900-ohm repeat coil, after having 
dialed you up. Then you connect a dB meter (HP 400 works fine, 
for sale at surplus for $35 to $50; or borrow some voltmeter with a 
dB scale or which will read down to a half volt or less, etc.); then 
send a tone at 500 Hz, again at 1000, and then at 2000 or 3000 and 
see what you get. If you get lots of roll-off at 2 KHz, you've got 



troubles. If you are friendly with the telephone company, and 
they are bigger than mine, you can get someone at the test desk 
to send you the tones. . . and you measure." 

Thanks, Art. By the way, Art tells me he'll string wire on any- 
thing—even a cow if it will stand still long enough— to get a 
working telephone to his customers. 

Finally, Richard Brocaw (Bosque Farms, New Mexico) loves 
micropyrotechnics. His letter: 

"I thought the Micro Front Panel would be an interesting proj- 
ect. After all, who ever heard of a real computer without flashing 
lights? The big drawback of the circuit as presented is that the 
lights must be placed fairly close to the computer or perhaps 
plugged into the expansion port. I wanted to have the lights at 
some distance so they could be easily seen (see photos). But 
noise problems can really get you when you arbitrarily run an un- 
terminated extension line about five feet long. 

"With my LNW computer, the problem of placing the lights 
was greater than with the TRS-80. I used a piggyback board in- 
side the computer containing all the ICs and a connector going 




Photo 1. My complete system: The front panel is at the right of 
the CPU. My front panel also has a general-purpose eight-bit in- 
put and output port. Above the front panel is an RS-232 monitor 
and a running-time meter. To the right of that is a home-grown 
cabinet containing one 77-track and three 35-track drives. On top 
of that, an X-Y plotter. 




Photo 2. The piggyback board. The flat ribbon on the left is for the 
RS-232 signals from the LNW. The cable from the back of the 

board goes to the light box. 



42 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



MICRO MAINFRAME 

HARD DISKS 

SETTING THE INDUSTRY 

STANDARD 



Compare MMF's features with those of 
our competitors. All MMF hard disk sys- 
tems feature ECC (error correction 
code). Not all of our competitors can say 
that. Error correction is an absolute 
necessity in the hard disk environment, 
as hard disk media does develop bit pat- 
tern sensitivity with time. 

Mainframe hard disk suppliers have 
been using error correction techniques 
for years, but many of the micro com- 
puter hard disk suppliers are selling 
units with CRC error detection only. This 
means that as the media ages, disk sec- 
tors will become unreadable and valu- 
able data will be lost. This operating is 
identical to floppy disks and your expen- 



sive hard disk becomes only slightly bet- 
ter than the floppy you replaced. 

All Micro Mainframe units shipped 
after February 1982 will operate in con- 
junction with our Micro Network Mul- 
tiplexer. Each Micro Network will allow 
up to four computers to be connected to 
one of our hard disk systems. Additional 
networks may be connected for further 
expansion. 

MMF is pleased to announce our new 
M200-C series hard disk system con- 
sisting of a 10 Megabyte Removable car- 
tridge, and a 10 Megabyte fixed hard 
disk. This unit functions with the Micro 
Network Multiplexer and features ECC. 



SYSTEM PRICING 



MICRO NETWORK MULTIPLEXER $ 795.00 

10 MEGABYTE REMOVABLE CARTRIDGE WINCHESTERS 

M100-R1 Modi or Mod-Ill version $5350.00 

M100-R2 Mod-H $5395.00 

5 MEGABYTE FIXED WINCHESTERS 

M50-F1 Modi or Mod-Ill* version $3750.00 

M50-F2 Mod II version $3795.00 

120 MEGABYTE FIXED WINCHESTERS 

M1200-F1 Modi or Mod-Ill version $9950.00 

M1200-F2 Mod-H version $9995.00 

FIXED AND REMOVABLE SYSTEMS 

M200-C1 Modi or Mod-Ill version $8750.00 

M200-C2 Mod-H version $8795.00 

Call for the location of your nearest Micro Mainframe Dealer. 
Dealers please inquire on your letterhead. 



MICRO MAINFRAME 

2227 McGregor Ave. 
Rancho Cordova, CA 95670 
(916) 635-3997 .„ 



80 Microcomputing. February 1982 • 43 




SCRIPLUS 3.0 



Scriplus is a modification to Scripsit c which enables 
you to take advantage of the special functions, 
features, and print formats of your printer while your 
document is being printed. Allows you to: 



change expairidedl print 
change no. of characters per inch 
or underline in mid— line! 



All in accordance with the capabilities of your printer. 
You can change your print size at will! Features: 

1) The user can send commands to the printer to 
activate special formats 

2) Scriplus will not crash programs protected in high 
memory. 

3) "END" returns to DOS READY instead of re- 
booting. 

4) The initial line-feed is changed to a carriage return 
to empty the text buffer. 

5) The user can get an ALPHABETIZED directory 
from within scriplus. 

6) Optionally select automatic line feed after carriage 
return. 

7) Supports custom printer drivers (not included) 

8) Modifies Scripsit/LC or /UC. (MOD I) 

9) Works with MOD I and MOD III! (Including MOD III 
3.1 Scripsit!) 

10) Specifically written for the MX-80, but will work 
on ANY Printer that accepts CHR$ codes for 
control. 



TAPE -24.95 DISK - 39.95 



— DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED — 

PowerSoft 

■ 11500 STEMMONS EXPRESSWAY, SUITE 1 2 Smmm 
DALLAS, TEXAS 75229 m* 

PHONE (214) 484-2976 ««■ 

TRS80&Sc«psii»e MICRONET 70130,203 ^27 

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ADD $5 SHIPPING/HANDLING 




SELECTOR IN 

REMOTE CABINET I 74 L S08 I 



Fig. 1 



40 PIN 

FEMALE HEADER 

GLUED TO 

BOARD 




40 PIN 

MALE HEADER 

TO LIGHTS AND 

SELECTOR 

SWITCH 



Fig. 2. A 40-pin, right angle, dual-row strip line converter was 
soldered to the expansion connection on the LNW. This board 
plugged in and is supported on the right by a V2-inch rubber 
grommet. 



to the display. But what to do with the selector switch? I did not 
want to run important signals like RD* and WR* any further than 
necessary. My solution is a hardware switch remotely selected 
by TTL signals (see Figs.). 

"My system consists of the 48K LNW computer, Doubler II and 
an NEC monitor. The front panel is to the right; it also has a gen- 
eral-purpose eight-bit input and output port. Above the front 
panel is an RS-232 monitor and running-time meter; to the right is 
a homemade cabinet with one 77-track and three 35-track disk 
drives. On top of that is an X-Y plotter." 

Well, Richard, your system looks like real battleship comput- 
ing (whatever happened to the "micro" in Micro Front Panel?). 
Seriously, this is an excellent solution to a general-purpose re- 
mote-switching problem, and seeing Richard's system should 
give readers a surprising glimpse of a complete non-TRS-80 TRS- 
80-based system. ■ 



Desperate? Send your questions on TRS-80 Model I or 
Color Computers to Dennis Kitsz, Roxbury, VT 05669. 
Please describe your complete system, and the problem in 
as much detail as possible, including all tests you have 
made and their results. I'll try to give you a personal reply if 
you enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope (two in- 
ternational postal reply coupons outside U.S., Canada or 
Mexico). 



44 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Newly Revised Mail 

List System. Even better 

than before! 

Note: Price will increase soon 



PROVEN MONEY MAKERS FOR YOUR TRS-80* 

*Tandy Corp. Trademark 



FORM LETTER( 



) $29.95 



Use alone or with the 
mail list system below 

Create letters and store on disk. Just type in your letter con- 
tinuously as you would with a typewriter and make corrections 
with almost unlimited use of the backspace key. What you see 
on the screen is exactly what you get in the printout.. Then print 
the letters using your mailing list. You will be able to select 
continuous printing or cut sheet, paging, tabing, test printing, 
and optional printing on envelopes. 



MAIL LIST SYSTEM ( "££!£" ) $69.95 

Our easy-to-use system will accomodate almost any "custom" 
requirement of even your most demanding clients. A glance 
below will show that we are far ahead of any other system in 
speed, variety of features, and sheer volume of names 
handled., but don't let that fool you. This system can be used 
just as easily on one disk for a small Christmas card list. 

• Maintain virtually an infinite number of disks all in con- 
tinuous alph. or zip order. ..essential for large lists. 

• Sort 2260 entries (2 full 40 track double density disks) in 
only 32K or an incredible 4640 entries (2 full 80 track 
double density disks) in only 48K!...Made possible with 
our unique date compression techniques on the Model III. 

• Super fast sort by alph. or zip order (8 sec. for 1000 
entries). ..both orders can exist simultaneously on disk. 

• High speed recovery of entries from disk. ..speed of sort is 
meaningless if retreival from disk is slow. ..ours pulls in 
over11 per sec! ^ 

• I ransfers old riles over to our system r^^BBBUB LOOK! 

• In zip order all entries with same zip code are also 
arranged alphabetically. 

• Four digit zips have a leading "0" appended on labels. 

• Backup data disks are easily updated as entries are 
created, edited, or sorted. ..extremely useful!! 

• Optional reversal of name about comma for that non- 
computer, personalized look. 

• Permits telephone and/or account numbers. 

• Master printouts of your list in several formats (not just a 
rehash of the labels). Optionally continuous or page 
oriented. ..Your customers will want this! 

• Prints labels 1, 2, or 3 across. 

• All 0's in address labels are replaced by easier to read 0's. 

• All labels optionally support an "Attn:" line. 

• Many user defined fields with plenty of options for 
simultaneous purging and selecting. ..even allows for 
inequalities. ..powerful and easy to use!! 

• Continuous display of numbers of labels/envelopes printed. 

• Each disk entry automatically "remembers" how many 
mailings have been made for that particular entry. ..Can 
be tied in with purge/select. 

• Primarily written in BASIC for easy modification... 
embedded machine code for those speed sensitive areas. 

• Editing is simple and fast. ..automatic search. 

• Supports the 9 digit zip code. 

• Deleted entries have "holes" on disk filled automatically 
...and alph. order is still maintained! 

• Test label printing lets you make horizontal and vertical 
adjustments with ease. 

• Optional "one time" mailing for some selected entries. 

• Extensive use of error traps (both operator and machine 
induced). ..even recovers from a power failure during a 
printout!. ..recycling on disk errors. 

• Patch program allows you to upgrade the system to 
any DOS. 

• Documentation manual available alone for $3.95. 

• Hardware requirements: 32K, printer, and 1 or 2 drives. 



Precision Prototypes 



Provide your customers with a CALENDAR $9.95 

printed calendar (along with standard banker's holidays) of any 
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Same features as Calendar SUPER CALENDAR 

Additionally prints our large 

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Loan amortization sche- 

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be able to charge $7 plus per schedule. Multiply that times the 
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Sign (Tape only) $9.95 

Produce large (reduced 50% here) attention getting signs with 
your printer. ..supports most keyboard characters. ..will print 
multiple lines. ..use alone or interface to your own BASIC 
program. ..requires just over 16K and a printer. 



SSSSSSSSS TTTTTTTTT 000000000 PPmWPP U 

SS SS TTTTTTTTT 00 CO PP PP LL 

SS TTT 00 00 PP PP LL 

SSSSSSSSS TTT 00 00 PPPPPPPPP ======= LL 

SSSSSSS55 TTT 00 00 PPPPPPPPP LL 



SS 



TTT 



00 



SS SS TTT 00 00 PP 

SSSSSSSSS TTT 00000COX PP 



000000000 000000000 KK KK 

00 00 00 00 KK KK 

CO 00 00 00 KK KK 

00 00 00 00 KKKK 

LL OO 00 00 00 KKKK 

LL 00 00 00 00 KK KK 

LL 00 CO 00 00 KK KK 

LLLLLLLLL 000000000 COOCOOCOO KK KK 



Interfaces to your own rM3 I 3UR I 

basic programs. ..sort with (handles multiple dim. arrays) 

the speed of machine code and 

but with the convenience ALPH ABETIZER 

of basic. Just use your disk (disk only)$1 9.95 

to merge our short basic programs (with embedded machine 
code) with your own basic program. Follow our simple 
instructions to poke several values before making the user call 
from basic. The pokes will set up a sort of string, integer, single, 
or double precision arrays (also ascending or descending order). 
Use one of two programs to sort arrays of the form A(1) or 
A(Q(1))...The disk includes 8 simple basic programs that are 
ready to merge with the main sort programs. Use them for 
learning and evaluation. ..Also included is a ready to use basic 
program (already merged with the ORDER program). Use it to 
obtain a printout of alphabetized names. This program alone is 
worth $19.95. 

Sample Sort Times 
8 sec. for 1000 dbl. prec. numbers. .50 sec. for 5000 integers. 
(Ours is one of the only alphabetizers that both ignores non alph. 
characters and treats upper and lower case alike.) 



410 E. Roca 

Refugio, Tx. 78377 

(512-526-4758) 



• Specify Model I or III when ordering 

• Add $2.00 for postage and handling 



Visa 

Mastercharge 

COD 



^See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 45 




FANFARE™ 

by Jon Bokelman, author of Orchestra-80, 85 and 90 

PLAY MUSIC AND SOUND EFFECTS 
IN UP TO FOUR-PART HARMONY 
THROUGH YOUR MODEL I 
OR MODEL III CASSETTE PORT! 



Includes our four finest software-only synthesizers: • 

SOLO Plays single musical notes and effects. 

DUO Plays two simultaneous musical notes 

or effects, (two-part harmony) 

TRIO Plays three simultaneous musical notes 

or effects, (three-part harmony) 

QUARTET Plays four simultaneous musical notes 
or effects, (four-part harmony) 

Now you can add fantastic music and sound 
effects to your BASIC program! Our machine- 
language synthesizers are called from BASIC. 
Here's your chance to experiment with music 
synthesis at an incredibly low price! 



BONUS 

Includes a full-length graphics cartoon 
demonstrating sound effects by FANFARE. 



These software synthesizers play through the 
cassette port— no hardware is required 

Each synthesizer comes complete with a special 
song that you will enjoy 

FANFARE includes four music synthesizers and 
sample music for each (ready to load and 
play) plus complete documentation. Supplied 
on cassette. 



$24.95 SUPPLIED ON DISK 

plus $2.00 postage and handling 
($5.00 for overseas airmail) 
CA residents add 6% sales tax 
Mastercard and Visa accepted. 



Software Affair 

858 Rubis Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
(408) 295-9195 




Greatest Hi 

Now Available For Orchestra-8 0/8 5/90 

• Volumes land II each contain 11 NEW classical 
music files. 

• Fantastic music by great composers like Bach, Mozart, 
Tchaikovsky, Grieg, Liszt and many others. 

• These Computer Classics are ready to load and play. 

• Includes "The Nutcracker March; "Dance of the Sugar 
Plum Fairy", "Hungarian Rhapsody #2", "Turkish March", 
"In the Hall of the Mountain King", "Friska", "Anitra's 
Dance", "Gavotte", "March of the Dwarfs", "Morning", 
"Dance of the Reed Pipes", plus many more. 

• All STEREO arrangements! (Orch85/90) 

Volumes I and II 

• $10 each on cassette (Orch85/90 only) 

• SPECIAL: ALL 22 Computer Classics on DISK for only $20. 
(Specify Orchestra-80, 85 or 90) 

• Add $1 postage and handling 



Sometimes a product is marketed that is of such good quality 
ai id value that it soon becomes the standard in its class. 
Orchestra-80 is this kind of program." 
Jim Heid 
80 Microcomputing, May 1981, p. 30 

Now three years after its appearance on the market, it is 
i a >ssible to use the TRS-80 to its fullest capabilities in music 
generation The company responsible for this breakthrough is 
Software Affair, Ltd The product is Orchestra-80." 

Elizabeth Cooper and Yvon Koyla 
BYTE, November 1981, p. 264 



Orchestra-80™ 

MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 

$79.95 

plus $2.00 postage and handling 
($5.00 for overseas airmail ) 
CA residents add 6% sales tax 
MasterCard and Visa accepted 



UPGRADING ORCHESTRA-80 
TO ORCHESTRA-8 5 

Send your Orchestra-80 PC board with $69.95 plus 
$2 shipping and handling. You will receive a com- 
plete new Orchestra-85 STEREO music synthesizer! 
Offer void if your PC board has been modified, 
misused, or damaged in anyway. CA residents 
must add $7.80 sales tax. 



"Unquestionably, if you own a 16K TRS-80, along with a stereo 
speaker system, you will find Orchestra-85 an amazing and 
delightful way to produce music." 

Robb Murray 

Softside, November 1981, p. 79 
"The Orchestra-80 and 85 systems are outstanding achieve- 
ments in cost vs. performance in the music synthesizer area. 
They provide a fine sound, and program so easily that novices 
have little trouble creating music with their first efforts." 

George Somers 

Pianist and former Julliard instructor 



46 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 




TM 



Orchestra-90 

by Jon Bokelman 

Stereo Music Synthesis and Percussion 
for the Model III. 



All the great features of Orchestra-85 enhanced by 
Jon Bokelman's SPECIAL COMPOSER'S EDITION software. 

Orchestra-90 now includes ORCHUTIL. a powerful utility 
program for ASCII/Binary conversion, music file packing, 
Model I to Model III tape conversion, and tape/disk 
transfer, 

Plays existing Orchestra-80 and 85 music files in stereo. 

Plugs into any 16K Model III Level II or disk system without 
voiding the warranty. 



Special Composer's Edition 

Orchestra-90™ $149.95 

plus $2.00 postage and handling 
($5.00 for overseas airmail ) 
CA residents add 6% sales tax 
MasterCard and Visa accepted 
Please specify TAPE or DISK version. 



Software Affair 

858 Rubis Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 9408 ■ 
(408)295 9* </f, 



SYNTHESIZE MUSIC AND PERCUSSION IN STEREO! 

STEREO— Separation by instrument! For ex- • New editing features and commands! ^^^#%,E%#%d*j^#^ QC 

ample, play trumpet and oboe through • P | ugs into any 16k m^^ , keyboard or \^FWll"SM I VI H Ow 

channel A clarinet and organ through expansion interface wirhout voiding A M *%g\ f\ f- 

channel B. You can switch instruments warranty! N*| ^f W W j 

from channel to channel at anv time! _.__._._.,_ .... ■ ■•■^■^^^ 



STEREO— Separation by instrument! For ex- 
ample, play trumpet and oboe through 
channel A clarinet and organ through 
channel B. You can switch instruments 
from channel to channel at any time! 
PERCUSSION— Now you can add a wide 
range of percussive sounds and special 
effects to your music! 

• Existing Orchestra-80 files load and play 
in stereo automatically! 
Optional 5th Voice for use with 
speed-up mods! 



New editing features and commands! J* 

Rugs into any 16k Model I keyboard or \l 

expansion interface wirhout voiding 

warranty! 

Includes tape and disk versions on 

cassette, 4 sample music files, manual, 

and fully assembled and tested printed 

circuit board! 



plus $2.00 postage and handling 

(55 for overseas airmail) 

CA residents add 6% sales tax 

MasterCard and Visa 

accepted 



w *vfc**v~ v ^ 


wm Jt A 

version * jggP 

ion*** 








Includes the new 

SPECIAL COMPOSER'S EDITION 

software! 



Software Affair 

858 Rubis Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 0408 ; 
(408) 295-91V. 



■See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 47 



News From 

KITCHEN TABIE SOFTWARE, INC. 

by David Busch 




Data storage technology took several 
quantum leaps forward when Kit- 
chen Table Inc. introduced the world's 
first half-inch hard disk drive with 7500 
megabytes of on-line storage. 

At a press conference at KTI's sprawl- 
ing corporate headquarters in suburban 
Atwater, OH, the firm unveiled its diminu- 
tive drive to be sold to customers for $950; 
to OEMs buying 10 or more for $57.49. 

Regular readers of 80 Micro will recall 
KTI is a fictitious supplier of non-existent 
space age products. These include the 
TLS-8E microcomputer, DROSSDOS 7.3, 
and OPENSESAME— the world's first 
voice-actuated garage-door opener. 

The company provided both reporters 
attending the session with working proto- 
types of the KHD-7500 drive attached to a 
souvenir keychain. 

An intense question and answer period 
unearthed the following tidbits: 

• The KHD-7500 measures 1 by 3-1/2 
inches and will fit a standard 40-pin 
DIP socket. Unlike larger drives, the KTI 
unit may be installed inside any TRS-80 
Model I's expansion interface, Model Ill's 
keyboard, TLS-8E models I — I V or Sinclair 
ZX81. 

It is rumored KTI is working on incorpor- 
ating the drive in a slightly larger version 
of their slow-selling Pockets Computer. If 
the plan comes to fruition, the PC will be 
possibly the only hand-held computer in 
the world able to store 7500 megabytes of 
information. 



• The KHD-7500 was conceived by ac- 
cident. Kitchen Table's U.S. management 
sent a cablegram to the firm's research fa- 
cility in Sri Lanka asking it to design a 
3.5-inch drive compatible with Sony's 
mini-mini-floppy system. But when the 
first prototypes were shipped to the 
United States earlier this year, KTI offi- 
cials realized the "3" had been deleted by 
mistake from the cable. 

• Installing the KHD-7500 is child's 
play, although most adults can also do 
the job. Pry loose the 1771 disk controller 
in your TRS-80 or TLS-8E and replace it 
with the KTI hard disk device. The old con- 
troller may be sold to any friend who was 
careless when installing his or her data 
separator. 



"The non-erasability 
of the media should 

be welcomed 
by programmers." 



The KHD-7500 includes a "piggyback" 
40-pin DIP socket so the drives may be 
stacked up to the space limits in your 
computer. If you own a TLS-8E with the im- 
proved 1250-watt power supply, you may 
add eight or more drives to your machine. 
However, TRS-80 owners, after piggyback- 
ing three or four drives, will probably blow 
a fuse. Kitchen Table also cautions there 
is a small chance the heat generated by a 
multiple configuration may melt a few 
non-critical solder runs. 

• Once data has been written to disk, it 
is impossible to erase the information. A 
rachet mechanism prevents the write 
head from returning to a recorded track. 
The read head, on the other hand, can ac- 
cess any track. Once the disk has been 
filled, you must expand your system by 
adding another drive. 

However, KTI points out that with 7500 
megabytes of storage, you could fill a 
megabyte of space daily and not deplete 
the KHD-7500 for more than 20 years. 

Such storage capabilities create the 



possibility of building respectable mi- 
crocomputer data bases. Those of you 
who have mailing lists of every house- 
hold in mainland China must swap disks 
like crazy every time you sort or up- 
date. No more. The capacity of the 
KHD-7500 is so large, KTI included as a 
free demo program all the U.S. census 
data from 1890 to date. 

The non-erasability of the media should 
be welcomed by programmers. Usually, 
halfway through the 15th enhancement of 
a complex piece of software, the program- 
mer realizes the program has taken a 
wrong turn and he or she needs to return 
to an earlier version of it. 

The KTI operating system (DRECK- 
DOS 1.0), introduced especially for the 
KHD-7500, automatically appends an "in- 
visible" numeric extension to files. By 
entering "LOAD filename/ext PREVI- 
OUS," the computer will search and find 
the most recent version of a file. 

It required sophisticated technol- 
ogy—most of it proprietary— to develop 
the KHD-7500. Kitchen Table engineers 
have provided me with detailed informa- 
tion on the drive, but I have sworn to 
keep it a secret. I am honoring my pledge 
by sharing the information with only 80 
Micro readers, so if David Ahl calls any of 
you, just politely hang up without telling 
him anything. 

The key to the ultra-high density of the 
KHD-7500 is the low flying height— mea- 
sured in tenths of an angstrom— of its 
write head. This creates the problem of 
large air molecules being too big to 
squeeze between the head and the disk. 
Carbon monoxide (CO) is okay but carbon 
dioxide (C0 2 ) can cause some horrible 
head crashes. 

Kitchen Table's solution to that prob- 
lem was to create a near-perfect vacuum 
in the disk chamber. The disk "floats" on a 
tiny pad of Teflon II and is driven at 13,000 
rpm by an electromagnetic field that 
"grips" the disk's center but does not leak 
over to spoil the data. 

This unique process has not been pat- 
ented by KTI. Instead, each KHD-7500 is 
rigged to explode when dismantled or 
x-rayed. (Don't take your computer 
through an airport security area!) 



48 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



HAPPINESS IS. ..NEWSCRIPT 

THE WORD PROCESSOR FOR 
BUSINESSMEN AND PROFESSIONALS 

We offer you ongoing support by answering 
your questions and providing reasonably 
priced enhancements. 



A FEW OF NEWSCRIPT'S STANDARD FEATURES: 

*Form Letters with merging of names and addresses 
*Gives superb appearance to your final documents 
^Comprehensive manual with hundreds of examples 
•Centering, top/bottom titles, indents, pagination 
•Underlining, boldface, double-width, italics 1 
•Sub-scripts, super-scripts, proportional pitch ' 
•Generates Table of Contents, sorted Index 
•Allows block graphics, special symbols t 

•Search and replace globally or within a range 
•Block move, copy, delete, insert from other file 
•AUTOSAVE, WHOOPS, DIRECTORY. KILL. REPEAT 

•Based on IBM's "EDGAR" and "SCRIPT" systems 
•Supplied ready-to-run on "tiny" DOSPLUS 

•Easily transferred to NEWDOS. NEWDOS/80. LDOS, TRSDOS 
•Includes handy Quick Reference Card 

NEWSCRIPT CONTROLS THESE PRINTERS: 

•EPSON MX-80, MX-100: all 12 fonts, plus underlining 
and block graphics; italics with GRAFTRAX 

•Centronics 737, 739; Radio Shack L.P. IV, L.P. VIII, 
Daisy Wheel II, NEC PC-8023A, TEC 8500R, C.ITOH 8510 
Right-justified true proportional printing (ledding) 

•Good support for: Diablo, Spinwriter, Starwriter, QUME, Microline 
Anadex. modified Selectric 

TYPICAL USER AND REVIEWER COMMENTS: 

the manual: 
"It definitely rates the first '10' given to any documentation reviewed in this column." (A.A. Wicks. COMPUTRONICS. October. 1981) 

the software: "An excellent Word Processor" (D.H.); "Absolutely fantastic" (S.E.S.); "You have features that I cannot duplicate 
on my $14,000 system" (J.B.) 

the support: "Your phone information system and the prompt and courteous staff that you provide to help your clients. ..are worth 
the cost of the system." (V.H.H.) 




REQUIRED CONFIGURATION: 48K TRS-80 with one disk drive. Specify Model I or Model III. 



t Some features work only il your printer has the mechanical capability. 



TO ORDER, CALL NOW, TOLL-FREE: 

(800) 824-7888, Operator 422 

CALIF: (800) 852-7777, Oper. 422 

ALASKA/HAWAII: (800) 824-7919 

FOR TECHNICAL INFORMATION CALL: 

(213) 764-3131, or write to us. 



NEWSCRIPT: 

MAILING LABELS OPTION: 

Special: NEWSCRIPT + LABELS: 

"PENCIL" to NEWSCRIPT Converter 

Manual Only (180 pages): 

Reference Card Only: 

MICROPROOF + CORRECTION FEATURE: 149.95 

Full DOSPLUS 3.4 Operating System: 149.95 

Order from your Software dealer, or from: 



$99.95 

29.95 

115.00 

14.95 

30.00 

1.50 



PRO^M 



DEPT. C, BOX 839 • NO. HOLLYWOOD, CA 91603 

TTflMS.We accept VISA. Mastercard, checks. Money Orders. C.O.D. and even cash. We pay shipping via 

surface UPS inside U.S.A. Please add $3.00 for Blue Label. 6% tax in California, and 15% outside North America (air shipment). 



-441 



The 

Lawyer's 

Microcomputer 

A Newsletter for Lawyers 

Using the TRS-80* 

• Articles for Lawyers 

• Law Office Applications 

• Lawyer Information 
Exchange 

• Software Reviews 

• Hardware Reviews 

• Advertisements Directed 
to Lawyer Users 

• Technical Tips 

• Letters and Suggestions 

• And Much More 

A New Monthly Newsletter 
For Lawyers 

Send $28 For A 
One Year Subscription 

The Lawyer' s Microcomputer™ 

Post Office Box 1046A 
Lexington, S.C. 29072 



KITCHEN TABIC SOFTWARE, INC. 



MM l.inrty Coil) 



S 106 



Since most microcomputer users will 
be unable initially to purchase two 
KHD-7500s, how can the single-drive user 
back up 7.5 gigabytes of data convenient- 
ly? The TLS-8E's eight-track tape system 
or the cassette port of the TRS-80s may be 
used for disk dumps to cartridge or 
cassettes. 

I pointed out to KTI's head engineer 
that at 500 baud it would take 174 days to 
dump 7500 megabytes onto nearly 4200 
C-60 cassette tapes. The engineer chided 
me for resorting to a worst case example. 
It was more likely, he said, a user would 
dump only a megabyte or two at a time 
and for that size dump, a few times a week 
would be sufficient. 

As a higher-speed option, KTI offers an 
interface allowing disk dumps at 18,000 
baud to a VHS or BETA videocassette sys- 
tem. It dropped plans for generating print- 
image tapes for a computer-output micro- 
filmer when its research revealed few mi- 
crocomputer users own or have access to 
these $75,000 devices. 

Wayne Green Inc. is very excited about 
the possibilities of the new half-inch 
drives. Three of them will hold the sub- 



scription lists for 80 Micro, 73 Magazine 
and Kilobaud Microcomputing— with 
room left over for Desktop Computing. 

And Wayne Green is busy working on a 
plan for marketing the devices under the 
brand name Superload 80. Sold for $995, 
each drive will be loaded with every Z80 
compatible program ever written. How's 
that for instant software?^ 




S1C0L0R COMPUTE 

k "^jP k]li COMPUVOICE TRS-80 MADNESS & THE M 

\^jRl v,^W ^" Give your computer a voice of its own build M I MOT AG R 

^^^^^m^P speech into your BASIC programs This machine The ()( . s , adventure game avai | ab | e f or tne co , C: 

m language program ,s a must for your library no computer Over 200 rooms. 6 creatures 8 magic Jf '* ""*■*%? 

mPMI ■ hardware modificat.on needed S44 95 spe||s |oads ot treasures Wrjlten machine [l J» ^ 

*WtB • F XrffHD MFMORV language, extended Basic not required. 5 1 9.95 '■ i-** 1 *- ~ -'*" 

RAMfHARHFR from i6Kt<-> j?k NEW EXTENDED 

^/hVl^V5!! • '™^ompa,,N, w,,h BASIC GAMES! it I vu >rl Vj 

32K UPGRADE .JSER^^ .scjbhunt m.95 ^J^WJ&rlf* 1 

• f its ms,de computer • LASER ATTACK S10.95 /^n~^i IL jCw 

Space Invaders " "*» • A \ CAJR h AZ h » , $ h 8 -» \j9 SV vmd * " 

■ , . j \ * — ■ „ . - Complete with high resolution graphics and i^ 1 }^ A\ 

Space War ^B S Ep-^ £ g^ > '~ • croid $12.95 Uf^y^.JL*--^- ' k jL. H 

^^»»*-*"^ Eliza type artificial intelligence game. ' " ' 

- tv o » ,- a , u. THE FACTS sogndsogrce 

• The Best Games Available ■■■*-■ ™*- « Stor< musjc or ^ ^ g ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

• Hiqh Resolution Graphics A ' ldS » « complete description of computer and display it on the TV screen j ,!■ s j fc: / 

the guts ' of the Color Computer Shorten it. lengthen it. modify it and replay it 

• Fast, Machine Language Specs on all the ICs. complete through the TVs sound system. Build and test 
« r- » n m .0 schematics theory of operation your own sounds for games No hardware mods/ / .^mHH^ k 

• Ext. Basic Not Required and pr0 g rammin g examples n «ded S -"WPSMBl^.'S^ 

iSSr "- utilities — SPECTRAL I 

EXTENDED BASIC GAMES _ • EDITOR/ ASSEMBLER $34.95 * COVM ATFQ 

• I OTHAR'S I ABYRINTm ^7^ # SCJPER MONITOR 1 9.95 M»3»3UWIM I Cii? 

Word Search! Puzzle X/ * EPROM PR OGRAMMER 89.95 1 45 HARVARD AVE. 

• BATTLEFLEET (Program your own ROMs for the ROMPAC port) TaCOma. Washington 98466 

BatrJeship Search Game (one or * ^S&^f,^ into ihe' color com^ef WRITE F ° B COMPLETE CATALOG 

rwr> r>b«/Arc^ ADD 3% FOR SHIPPING S I 00 minimum I 

• CDAr P TDAHPDQ * TYPING TUTOR 19.95 Allow 2 3 wks for delivery 

^ I . K/ \^ tKJ > • TEXT EDITOR / 9ft fi\ «>««> RzlR^ 

Galactic trading game (<dOb) !>b5-B4B:5 J 

$14.95/ea. DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED VISA OR MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 




50 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 




INCOME TAX SYSTEM 

FOR TRS-80* MODEL I, II or 

For four successive years! 



Our system, running on the magnificent line of TRS-80 computers, has 
prepared thousands of lightning-fast, error-free tax returns a day in 
accounting offices nationwide. 

Now we introduce! 

SYSTEM THREE! 

SYSTEM THREE is an Improved, still more interactive version — Totals W-2's and 
computes FICA overpayment — Includes "QWIKTAX," a fast tax calculator for tax 
planning — Has automated Client Billing — More! 

And, as always— 

1. Full interactive user control, in tax-form language only, line-by-line. 

2. Screen display of full 1040 and all schedules, prior to printout. 

3. All formats IRS and State approved. 

4. Schedule amounts automatically entered on Form 1040. 

5. Your Preparer's Information automatically printed at bottom of Page 2, Form 1040. 

6. Built-in Validation Check tests entire system, hardware and software. 

7. Special printer adjustment routines: Margin Offset, Text Position, etc. 

8. Fills in pre-printed forms (we supply) or use overlays. Your choice. 

9. AUTOMATICALLY COMPUTES: Tax — Earned Income Credit — Maximum/Minimum Tax — Least Tax 
Method — All Percentage of Income Limitations — All Fixed Limitations. 

DOES INCOME AVERAGING IN EIGHT SECONDS! 

10. Full support through the tax season, no charge. 

11. Inexpensive yearly updates in accordance with tax-law changes. 

SYSTEM THREE comes in four modules. You select the ones you need. There is no 
system like it, for any computer, and the cost is literally nothing. In one season, our users 
have paid, out of savings, for the software and the computer. 

35-page Descriptive Manual - $7.50 

(Refundable on order) 

MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIRED: Model I, 48K, 1 Disk Drive 

CONTRACT SERVICES ASSOCIATES „ 

706 SOUTH EUCLID • ANAHEIM, CA 92802 • TELEPHONE: (714) 635-4055 



"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



■ See Lis! ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 51 



The micro in the classroom is more than a microcosm. 



The Future in Miniature 



by John P. Mello Jr. 
80 Micro Staff 

The schools of the country are its future in 

miniature." 

— Tehyi Hsieh 

Call it what you will: The information 
explosion, the post-industrial revolu- 
tion; it's here, it's growing, and where it and 
its standard-bearer, the computer, take our 
schools will be where they take our future. 

The digital generation is upon us. A gen- 
eration of school children have already 
been taught to accept the computer, ac- 
cording to a report released by the Office of 
Technology Assessment of the U.S. Con- 
gress. It observed: "The first generation to 
grow up with computers is now reaching 
maturity. These 'computer literate' young 
adults accept computers as a natural part 
of their world." 

Make no mistake about it. Computers are 
in the classroom now and more will be there 
in the future. A survey last year of 15,442 
school districts showed 42 percent of them 
use instructional computers. More and 
more schools will be buying computers sell- 
ing for less than $10,000, according to 
Market Data Retrieval, which conducted the 
survey. The Westport CT firm predicted the 
school computer market, which was $35 
million in 1980, would explode to $145 
million by 1985. 

"People are still going to buy building 

blocks and erector sets and coloring 

books." 

—Alan Chernoff, Mego Toys 

Computers are not only used to teach 
children in school, but out of school, as 
well, through educational games like the 
Children's Discovery System by Mattel and 
Speak and Spell by Texas Instruments. 



Questions have been raised about the 
value of these games, which represent an 
$85 million market. In a report in the New 
York Times, Ken Komoski— an associate 
professor at the teachers' college at Colum- 
bia University and executive director of the 
Education Products Information Exchange, 
an independent consumer agency that has 
completed a study of learning aids for the 
Ford Foundation— observed: 

"One generalization is that while most of 
these games are awfully good practice for 
what a youngster already knows, unless 
there is an adult willing to work with the 
youngster to create a set of activities, they 
will not learn very much that is new. These 
products are valuable for practice devices 
for what is already in the repertory." 

At Texas Instruments, they are careful 
what they say about their learning games, 
Director of the Learning Center at Tl, Dr. 
Ralph Oliva, told the Times: "We are careful 
not to overclaim. Our claim is that our prod- 
ucts are valuable aids for drill and practice. 
They are an enrichment tool using new 
technology for parents and teachers, not a 
replacement for a classroom." 

"It is very hard to grab a child's attention 
and keep it," Milton Bradley Senior Vice 
President of Marketing George R. Ditomas- 
si, Jr., said in the Times report. " Electronics 
has allowed us to do this because respons- 
es keep coming from the product and it of- 
fers a tremendous amount of variety. Elec- 
tronic technology dramatically extends a 
child's attention span." 

Michael Katz, vice president of marketing 
at Coleco, added in the report, "Our philoso- 
phy is that the magic of electronics— the 
sounds and lights — can put fun into 
education." 

Does this bells and whistles approach to 
education — an approach akin to the one 
used in the Public Broadcasting System's 
"Sesame Street"— help a child in his or her 



studies? The answer isn't in yet, and the 
Office of Technology Assessment report 
asks a similar question: "Has Sesame 
Street improved the educational level of its 
viewers, or has it conditioned young chil- 
dren to a short attention span and to an ori- 
entation toward learning as entertainment, 
unsuitable for serious academic work?" 

"Instead of believing they were stupid, the 
children understood and learned from their 
errors; the teachers could begin to build 
better ways to teach." 
—John Seely Brown, Xerox Corp. 

Although the bells and whistles ap- 
proach may be questioned, the value of 
computers in the classroom is not. 

At the University of California at Los An- 
geles, a computer program named Homer, 
after the Greek bard, is included in the 
school's $1.6 million war on bad writing. 
When a student logs on at UCLA, he or she 
is greeted with Dante's homage to Homer: 
Honor the great poet — his shade, which 
has departed, now returns. 

The student enters a writing sample and 
Homer analyzes it for flaws — overly long 
sentences, too many uses of the verb "to 
be," too many prepositions, awkward con- 
struction, and other symptoms of 
overblown prose. 

Homer tends to be a witty fellow. He tells 
students, "What a horrid mess" or "For all I 
can tell, this is good writing— but then, 
what does a dead poet know?" 

He also warns students: "Remember, do 
not take my comments as gospel— I am 
really just a machine. I only look at your 
writing's surface. You must supply the log- 
ical thought, effective organization, and 
above all, something worth saying." 

When Homer is finished with the 
student's work, he admonishes the writer, 
"Go thou and sin no more." 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 53 



"Corporations aren't the only ones 
worrying about the existing educational 
establishment providing adequate 
training in computer science. . . " 



Meanwhile, in Massachusetts, an experi- 
ment is being conducted on slow readers in 
six school districts. One thousand sixty-sev- 
en students were divided into two groups. 
Each group received half-hour reading 
lessons, but one group's lesson included 10 
minutes of drill on a computer. The results 
have been termed "significant." In grades 
two through nine, the mean gain in reading 
level for computer students was 7.00 com- 
pared to .72 for non-computer students. The 
most significant gains were by children in 
grades one and two: 17.94 for computer 
users, 8.98 for non-users. 

"The first year I taught Title I students, 
we didn't have computers," Linda Sparks, a 
teacher at the Dutile School in Billerica, MA, 
told the Boston Globe. "Students would 
have to be called out of regular classes for 
extra drill and were made to feel different 
from their classmates. Now, non-Title I stu- 
dents ask if they can use computers, too." 

Dracut, MA, Title I teacher Janice Souza 
added: "I am not surprised by the good re- 
sults of the study. Most of my sixth and 
seventh graders made more than a year's 
gain in eight months last year and three of 
my students made fantastic two-year gains 
during the same period. Only two out of 37 
didn't make much progress." 

"The main difference that computers 
make to me is in diagnosing student's 
needs," she said. "They give me a better 
idea of what their skills are, even in a one 
shot test. ..." 

"The records kept on individual students 
by the computer would not be possible for 
many teachers, particularly those whose 
classes have been enlarged because of 
[budget cutting]," George Hanify, director 
of computer application for the Merrimack 
Education Center, told the Globe. 

Although the future of computer applica- 
tions in the schools lies in programs like the 
one in Massachusetts, some educators 
have expressed concern over the impact of 
federal budget cuts on such experiments. 

But Peter Burchyns, coordinator of plan- 
ning and evaluation, for the San Mateo 
County, CA, office of education, told the 
computer newspaper InfoWorld that reduc- 
tions in federal money might encourage the 
use of computers because of the high cost 
of personnel in the school. 

However, how long will it be before 
school budget cutters attempt to use com- 
puters to lay off teachers? Never, William 
Engel, director of the $50,000 Florida Center 
for Instructional Computing, told a Florida 



newspaper. "Computers will actually be 
able to make the teaching process more hu- 
mane," he said. "If a teacher is teaching a 
class and not managing well, that's not a 
humane way to learn." 

"They teach in academies far too many 
things, and far too much that is useless." 
—Goethe 

At least one university has made a signif- 
icant commitment to the "humane way to 
learn" and if it is fulfilled, college education 
will never be the same again. Echoing a by- 
gone political promise of a "chicken in 
every pot," the president of Carnegie- 
Mellon University in Pittsburgh announced 
last fall the school planned to provide a per- 
sonal computer terminal for each student, 
starting in 1986. 

College education hasn't been the same 
since the arrival of computers, anyway. 
Computer firms are siphoning off faculty 
from computer science departments and 
even starting their own quasi-colleges that 
may be diverting money from the financially 
hard-pressed institutions of higher learning. 

Wang Laboratories, Bell & Howell Educa- 
tion Group and International Business Ma- 
chines have started up their own schools. 
The Wang Institute — whose entering class 
included employees from Digital Equip- 
ment Corp., Prime Computer and Honey- 
well—offers a degree in software engineer- 
ing. Bell & Howell, a wholly-owned subsi- 
diary of Bell & Howell Co., offers degree pro- 
grams in computer science for business. 

It has been estimated IBM annually 
spends an average of $2,000 per employee 
for education. Despite that commitment, 
however, the corporation felt it had to 
establish its own graduate level school 
in New York City, The Systems Research 
Institute. 

Former vice president for technical per- 
sonnel development, Jerrier Haddad, told 
the New York Times the institute was 
designed to enable engineers to keep up 
with rapidly changing technology in areas 
they do not directly work in and to broaden 
their perspective. 

The institute, he said, enables IBM to 
educate far more engineers than it can send 
to a university; it stresses IBM products and 
can be more up-to-date than universities. 

However, Murray Turoff, a professor at 
the New Jersey Institute of Technology and 
at the IBM institute, maintained in the same 
Times report that commitments by IBM and 



other companies to their own educational 
programs might limit their contributions to 
universities, which are suffering from inade- 
quate equipment and faculty shortages. 

Diminishing university computer science 
departments could backfire on the corpor- 
ate giants, the Office of Technology As- 
sessment suggested. It said: "Because of 
this close connection between technology 
and research, the vitality of the computer in- 
dustry is in part dependent on the vitality of 
academic computer science. However, uni- 
versity departments of computer science 
are experiencing problems." 

"The direction which education starts a 
man will determine his future life. " 
—Plato 

Corporations aren't the only ones worry- 
ing about the existing educational estab- 
lishment providing adequate training in 
computer science; so are many parents of 
school-age children. Those parents may 
seek alternatives like Computer Camp East, 
in East Haddom, CT, and the Randolph 
School in Huntsville, AL, to give their 
children an "edge" in the future. 

In a New York Times report, William Gib- 
son, director of instruction at the computer 
camp, noted: "Parents are sending their 
children here because computer skills will 
be necessary no matter what field they get 
into. Parents are not confident schools are 
keeping up with this trend, and they want 
their kids to have a head start." 

"Because of the role of the computer in 
society today," Randolph School Headmas- 
ter Dennis Brown told the Huntsville Times, 
"we feel that schools should assume the 
responsibility to expose students to them in 
a coordinated program." 

The Randolph School's computer pro- 
gram runs from kindergarten to grade 12. 
"We have two levels in mind," said Jeff 
Farber, computer coordinator for the 
school. "For the elementary school, it is 
on a computer awareness level. For high 
school students, it goes into the function 
and application of computers in all dis- 
ciplines." 

As the approach adopted by Computer 
Camp East and the Randolph School be- 
comes more prevalent, even traditional 
graduation ceremonies may be changed. 
William Geist of the New York Times de- 
scribed the send-off at the computer camp: 
"After dinner came the final night's cere- 
monies, a time at most camps for bonfires, 
group song and ceremonies reminiscent of 



54 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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". . . as the information society evolves, 
information literacy will become 
essential for employment" 



Indian rituals." 

"Here, however, the campers sat on pic- 
nic tables looking at a Quasar video moni- 
tor. As certificates of merit were handed out 
to each camper, a staff member attempted 
to play 'Pomp and Circumstance' on a com- 
puterized music synthesizer." 

"The philosophic aim of education must be 
to get each one out of his isolated class and 
into the one humanity. " 
—Paul Goodman 

Horace Mann, the father of public 
schools, said education was the balance 
wheel of the social machinery, but some 
observers feel the education system under 
the influence of computers will have just 
the opposite effect on society. 

According to the Office of Technology 
Assessment report, "Some observers have 
suggested that the advent of information 



technology will widen the gulf between the 
haves and have-nots in society. This view is 
based on relative differences in what might 
be called information literacy, the ability to 
use information technology to cope with 
every-day life." 

According to the Congressional report, 
as the information society evolves, informa- 
tion literacy will become essential for 
employment. However, obtaining informa- 
tion literacy today seems to be a function of 
wealth: Educational games range from $60 
to $140; computer camp costs $795 for two 
weeks; and tuition at the Randolph School 
ranges from $1,000 to $2,250. 

"The most important factors in the use of 
computers for instruction are wealth of the 
school and wealth of the population served 
by the school," according to the Market 
Data Retrieval survey. 

"In school districts spending over $75 per 



student for instructional materials (the 
wealthiest districts in the United States), 46 
percent have instructional computers. In 
school districts spending under $30 per stu- 
dent for instructional materials, the figure 
falls to 20 percent. 

"Computer use per capita income of the 
school district's population follows the 
same pattern. Thirty percent of the schools 
in upper income areas use computers for in- 
struction while only 12 percent of low in- 
come area school buildings have access to 
computer-aided instruction." 

However, there may be a source of light 
for this bleak prospect. Computer technolo- 
gy has continued to lower the cost of 
computer-aided education, William Gattis, 
director of Tandy/Radio Shack's education 
division told InfoWorld. If that trend con- 
tinues, universal access to micros could 
prove to be a social equalizer. ■ 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Reader Service lor lacing page ^8 - 




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EDUCATION 



They don't call it Basic for nothing! 



Anything Jodi Can Do . . 



Jodi Tallman 
3468 SE Roanoke 
Hillsboro, OR 97123 



I was sitting in our family room one day 
reading a code book, and I heard my dad 
talking about writing programs. I wanted to 
write a program on our computer before my 
brother (he's older). I wanted to show my 
brother and dad you can be any age and 
write a program. I also wanted to learn more 
about computers. 



My dad was always saying things about 
writing a program. I only knew how to play 
games, so I wanted to write one. I wanted to 
have fun with computers. I was getting 
bored because my mom was on vacation, 
so I didn't have anything to do but work on a 
program. My dad was also always talking 
about how much money you can make by 
writing an article. I thought about a program 
I could do and I came up with the idea of a 
program about codes. 

My program is a game called "Code 
Guesser." I worked on it with ourTRS-80; it 
didn't take very long because my dad 
helped me. It took only two days. I typed it 




Photo 1. Jodi at the Computer 
60 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



into the TRS-80 and saved it on a floppy 
disk. A floppy disk is a square thing you 
save your program on. It stores a lot of infor- 
mation like a tape, but the computer makes 
the floppy go faster than tape. My dad gave 
my brother and I each a floppy to use. 

Writing the Program 

To get me started, my dad wrote a pro- 
gram that shows all the programs on the 
floppy when you first turn on the computer. 
It keeps the programs in a list. I added the 
name Code Guesser to the list. 

As I was working I saw how much this 
program grew from my other programs 
about my family. The other programs about 
my family were simple programs— just 
Print commands. 

The commands I learned to use are: 
CMD"S", Save, Print, Edit, Run, List, CLS, 
and Input. CMD"S" directs the computer so 
you can use DIR to see everything on the 
floppy disk. Save means the computer will 
put whatever you type in, like SAVE 
"CODES" (name of your program), on the 
floppy. Then it will save it. Print means put it 
on the screen so whoever is running the pro- 
gram can see it. I used Print statements to 
give instructions to whoever is running my 
code program. Edit is used for making 
changes. The command List shows you the 
program so you can see it in case some- 
thing goes wrong or you want to change 
something in the program. It also means 
print the program on the screen. CLS means 
clear the screen. Input makes the computer 
wait so you can type what it tells you to. I 
used Print statements to give instructions 
to the user of my code program. 

I thought about how I was going to write 
my program. Then I started to type it in so 
the computer could understand and do it. 
When I started a list for the computer to 
understand, I typed commands and how to 
run it. I thought of some codes and wrote 
them down and worked on them. I thought 

Reader Service lor lacing page ^357— 






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"My brother was making a program too, 
so we set a time limit. . . " 



of some sentences I could have be my ques- 
tions in the game. I typed the codes and 
questions into the program. I got quite a bit 
of help from my dad. He thought some 



things were too hard to explain to me so he 
just typed them in. 

I think it is a pretty good program if you 
like to solve problems and figure puzzles out. 



Program Listing 1. Jodi's Game, Code Guesser 



:ee clear (51 2) 

110 CLS 

120 PRINT'THIS IS A CAME WHERE YOU TRY TO GUESS A CODE THEN YOU HILL TYPE IT IN 

USINC NORMAL LETTERS DO NOT H! !! II ANSWER THE QUESTION 

130 PRINT"THERE HILL BE 3 KINDS OF CODES 

140 PRINT'I HILL GIVE YOU 1 OF THOSE CODES 

150 PRINT'THE CODES HILL BE DIFFERENT 

160 PRINT'THE CODES HILL FLASH ON TOP OF THE SCREEN. YOU CAN HRITE THEM DOWN OR T 

RY TO REMEMBER THEM 

170 PRINT'I WILL ASK YOU YOUR NAI1E 

IG0 PRINT'COOD LUCK! !!!!'! H ! H 

1*0 PRINT'WHAT IS YOUR NAME? 

200 INPUT N* 

210 CLS 

220 PRINT N« 

230 PRINT'THE CODES WILL FLASH ON TOP OF THE SCREEN THEN I WILL ERASE THEM." 

240 PRINT'THIS IS THE CODE 

250 PRINT'A BCDEFCHIJ K 

240 PRINT'I 2345*73* 10 11 

270 PRINT 

280 PR I NT "Y Z" 

2*0 PRINT "25 26" 

300 PRINT 

310 PRINT'THIS IS THE SECOND CODE 

320 PRINT"A 8 C D E F C H 



H 



U V 



w 



X" 



12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 1* 20 21 22 23 24" 



330 PRINT"26 25 24 23 22 21 20 1* IS 17 14 15 14 13 12 11 1( 

333 PRINT 

334 PRINT'W X Y Z" 

335 PRINT'4 3 2 1" 

350 PRINT"PUSH ENTER FOR MORE CODES"? 

360 INPUT At 

370 CLS 

330 PRINT"THIS IS YOUR THIRD CODE 



S T U V 
G 7 6 5" 



26 



D E F 
25 3 24 



Z" 
14" 



< I 

23 5 



J K 
22 6 



21 



n n o 

7 20 3 



IV 



R S T U" 
IS 10 17 11" 



3*0 PRINT'A 
400 PRINT"! 

410 PRINT 

420 PRINT'V U X Y 

430 PRINT'16 12 15 13 

440 PRINT 

450 PRINT 

460 PRINT"THIS IS YOUR FOURTH CODE 

470 - PRINT"CROSS OUT THE LETTERSIN ORDER C-O-D-EITHEY HAVE TO BE IN ORDER OR ELS 

E IT WONT WORK 

480 PRINT 

4*0 PRINT"PUSH ENTER FOR YOUR QUESTION 

500 INPUTQ* 

510 CLS 

520 PRINT"HERE IS THE QUESTION 

530 M=l 

540 READQ*:IFQ*< > "END"THENH = M + 1:GOTO540 

550 RESTORE:N=RND(M-l) 

540 F0RI=lT0N:READQ*:NEXTI:01*=Qi 

570 Z=INSTR(Q«." " ) 

530 IFZ>0THENQ«=LEFTi(Q*.Z-l)+RICHTi<Q*iLEN(Qt)-Z):GOTO570 

5*0 PRINT OS 

400 A=RND(3) 

910 ON A GOSUB 710 iS10 ,840 

620 PRINTC* 

430 PRINT'WHAT DO YOU THINK THE QUESTION IS? 

440 INPUT A* 

445 IF A»OQl« THEN PRINT"WRONG . TRY AGAIN": GOT0630 

t>50 PRINT'YOU GUESSED THE CODE. WOULD YOU LIKE TO TRY AGAIN"; 

640 DATA HOW OLD ARE YOU 

442 INPUT A*:IFA$="YES "THEN4*0 

463 RUN "HENUE" 

o70 DATA WHAT DO YOU THINK OF COMPUTERS 

680 DATA DO YOU SKI 

6*0 DATA WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO FOR VACATION 

700 DATA WHAT IS YOUR NAME 

710 REM 

720 B*="ABCDEFGHIJKLHNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" 

730 C* = "" 

740 F0RI=1T0LEN(Q») 

Program continues 



62 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



How it Works 

Here is how it works: The instructions 
aren't too hard to follow. The computer will 
flash all the codes on the screen. Then it will 
give you a coded sentence and you have to 
figure it out. There are three different codes 
and five different messages. The computer 
will say if your guesses are wrong or right. 

I had the computer print what happened 
if the guess is wrong, and if it is wrong, to 
print "You are wrong, you can try again." If 
they got it right, it prints "Correct. Would 
you like to try again?" If the answer is yes, 
the game starts' over. If no, the computer 
runs the Menu. 

I have a listing of the program. Here is an 
explanation of what each part is: At the be- 
ginning my dad put in line 100. Lines 1 10 to 
180 put the directions on the screen. Lines 
190 to 200 ask for your name. Line 210 
clears the screen. Lines 220 to 350 print ex- 
amples. From line 360 to line 490 the com- 
puter prints your third code. Lines 500 to 
510 stop the game and clear the screen. My 
Dad did lines 520 to 600, about how to pick 
the code. Lines 610 to 620 pick the code. In 
630 to 663 the program asks you to type in 
your answer and then checks it. Lines 670 to 
700 contain the questions the computer 
makes into codes. From line 710 to 1170 is 
the part my dad wrote that helps the com- 
puter put the sentences into codes. 

After Effect 

I had a few problems. My brother was 
making a program too, so we set a time limit 
for each of us and then worked on our pro- 
grams (one at a time). It was the only fair way. 
Another problem was that I had a frustrating 
time because I just learned the keyboard. It 
wasn't really a big problem because once I 
got started I remembered the keys. 

I had fun showing the game to my friends. 
When my friends came over to see my pro- 
grams on my family (the first programs I did, 
mentioned earlier), they thought they were 
dumb, so I wanted them to enjoy something 
I wrote on the computer. I noticed my friends 
had more fun playing my game than seeing 
the earlier programs. Playing the code game 
is fun for them although it isn't much fun for 
me because I know the answers. 

Now it is done I know a lot about com- 
puters, like how to print things on the 
screen; how to edit, run, save, input and 
how to change the line with edit. ■ 

Jodi Tallman is 9'/2 years old, and is 
learning to program computers. This is her 
first published article. 

Reader Service lor lacing page ^352— 



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"Love at first sight" - your TRS-80 and 
the Smartmodem! 

Brawny- because it does so 
many things. Auto-dial and auto-answer 
features built in. With the Smartmodem. 
your TRS-80 can automatically dial the 
telephone, answer the telephone, receive 
and transmit, and hang up the telephone. 
Completely unattended. 
Pulse dialing or Touch-Tone. ** The 
Smartmodem can be connected to any 
telephone system in the U.S. because it 
allows pulse-dialing. Touch-Tone dialing 
or a combination of the two. FCC 
approved. 

Program controllable in any language us- 
ing ASCII character strings. This is a unique 




Microcomputer Component Systems 

feature of the Hayes Smartmodem. 

Brainy — because it does them 
all so simply. Seven LED indicators on 
the front panel give you visual signals of 
the status of the Smartmodem: 
MR- Modem Ready. SD- Send Data, 
CD- Carrier Detected, etc. 
The audio monitor feature lets you "listen 
in" on the call being dialed and the con- 
nection made. You are i mmediately alerted 
to busy signals, wrong numbers, etc. 
Over 30 different commands can be en- 
tered directly from your TRS-80 keyboard, 
including the unique "Set" commands 
which allow you to select and change var- 
ious optional parameters such as dialing 
speed, escape code character, length of 



time for a dial tone, and number of rings to 
answer. There are 17 "Set" commands. 
The Smartmodem is completely compat- 
ible with the Bell-103 type modems, the 
type of modem most time-sharing systems 
have. Operation can be in full or half-duplex, 
with a transmission speed of 0-300 baud. 

The Smartmodem is ready to 
"get-together" with your TRS-80. 
TRS-80 Model II and TRS-80 Color Com- 
puters have RS-232 serial ports and can 
immediately interface with the Smart- 
modem. Expansions that permit use of 
the Smartmodem with TRS-80 Model I 
and Model III are available through your 
TRS-80 dealer. 

Match your TRS-80 with a Hayes 
Smartmodem for a sophisticated, high 
performanced data communication 
system. Available at computer stores 
nationwide (except T RS-8 dealers) - 
call or write for the ^F^ - 
location nearest I 4 I HrJVf^S 
you. And don"t set- \JLJ * 

tie for anything less than Hayes. 
Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 
5835 Peachtree Corners East. 
Norcross. Georgia 30092 (404) 449-8791 



%urTRS-80 computer 

and the Hayes Stack" Smartmodem. 

Beauty, Brains, and Brawn! 





If you have 

anything to do 

with the TRS-80* 

System you 

should be 

reading the 

EIGHTY 

SYSTEM 

NEWSLETTER 

every week! 



Don't miss a single issue of the new Eighty 
System Newsletter . . . published weekly and 
mailed every Friday by First Class Mail. This 
is the only publication designed for personnel 
in the TRS-80* industry, including manufac- 
turers, distributors, dealers and computer 
users. The Eighty System Newsletter is 
compiled and edited by Ken Gordon, producer 
ol the National TRS-80" Show, the Eighty/ 
Apple Show, the NJ Microcomputer Show, 
and publisher of the Amateur Radio Equip- 
ment Directory. Here is valuable information 
in professionally prepared format about TRS- 
80' hardware, software, peripherals, trends in 
the industry, and latest news. In addition, 
each weekly issue contains brief digests of 
articles related to the TRS-80' system 
appearing in over 100 computer related and 
general interest publications. This bibliography 
will save you both time and money in keeping 
up with articles in print on the TRS-80* 
computer system. The Eighty System News- 
letter is a must for all active TRS-80* users, 
plus anyone involved in any way with the 
manufacturing, distributing or retailing of 
TRS-80* products. 

Subscribe today: Mail the coupon with 
your check for $39 for the next 52 weekly 
issues (sent First Class Mail that's only 
75c per week.) If for any reason you are 
not satisfied with the Eighty System 
Newsletter — we will refund the undelivered 
portion of your subscription. 



KENGORE CORPORATION 

3001 Route 27 
Franklin Park, NJ 08823 
(201)297-2526 

D Enclosed is my check for 
$39 for the next 52 issues 
of The Eighty System 
Newsletter (sent First Class 
Mail). 

Name 

Company 

Address 

City _ 



State 



Zip 



•TRS-80 is a Registered Trademark of Tandy 
Corporation/Radio Shack Division. 



I 



Program continued 



759 

•re 

7 80 
"*© 

3ie 

320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
330 
3*0 
>00 
M© 
>20 
•>30 
?40 
?50 

?*0 

>70 
/30 
>*0 

1000 
1010 
1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1040 
1070 
1080 
10*0 
1100 
1110 
1120 
1130 
1 140 
1150 
1160 
1170 



Dt = l1ID*<0t, 1,1) 

E=INSTR(Bi.D») 

D«=STR»(E> 

C* = C*tD*f " 

NEXTI 

RETURN 

REM 

B* = "ZYXHUUTSRQP0NI1LKJIHGFEDC&A- 
COTO730 

REM 

C» = "" 

F0RI=1T0LEN(0») 

Dt=niD*(0».I.l) 

IFDt = "A"THENE* = "f 

IFD*="B"THENE«="26" 

IFD*="C"THENEi="2" 

IFDt = "D'-THENE» = "25" 

IFD*="E"THENE*="3" 

IFDi="F"THENE*="24" 

IFD»*"C'*THENE«="4" 

IFD*="H"THENE»="23" 

IFD* = T'THENE* = "5" 

IFD$=-J"THENEt='22" 

IFD*="K"THENE*="6" 

IFD*="L"THENE»="21" 

IFD»="fTTHENE«="7" 

IFDi="N"THENE*="20" 

IFD*=-(rTHENE* = "3" 

IFDt="P-THENEt= "19" 

IFD*="Q"THENE«="9" 

IFD»= •R"THENE*= - 1S" 

IFD$="S"THENE*="10" 

IFD*="T"THENE*="17" 

IFD«="U"THENE$»'ll" 

IFD« = "VTHENEi = "16" 

IFD*="W"THENE«="12" 

IFD*="X"THENE*="15" 

IFD*="Y"THENE*="13" 

IFD*=-Z'THENE*="14" 

Ci=C«+E*+" " 

NEXT I 

RETURN 

DATA END 



This smart little program lets 
you talk back to bis computers* 



Scripsit,™ Pencil,™ 

BASIC and source 

code files. 



Continuous 
status display. 



User-friendly 
operation. 



User-defined sign-on 

and communications 

settings. 



Transmits 

special and control 

characters. 



Handy menu 
of commands. 




other computers and a variety of bulletin board systems. COMMWHIZ e is so 
simple to use, you'll wonder why it hasn't been done before. Yet it offers 
professional terminal capabilities to Mod I and Mod III users who have32K 
with one disk or more. And at the COMMWHIZ price of $79.95 post-paid, 
talk is cheap. (VA residents add 4% sales tax). 

name 

crry „ 



STREET 



, STATE __ 



ZIP. 



□ Modi □ Mod III DVISA DM/C □ Check or m/o enclosed. □ Send me more info. 
Acct. # Expiration Date 

Signature . 

TRS-80 and Scnpsit are TMsof the Tandy Corp. Electric Pencil >s the TMcf Michael Shrayer Softwa-e Inc 

Vol ksMicro Computer Systems Inc. 

202 Packets Court, Suite C, Wilhamsburg,VA 23185 804-220-C005 ^-549 
I 1 



64 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



How I Taught My Children 



by Jim Tallman 



decided to acquaint my children to the 
TRS-80 in a way that wouldn't over- 
whelm and confuse them. I wanted to 
avoid the need to deal initially with the 
concepts of directories, DOS, and Basic. I 
chose to show them a few basic pro- 
cedures, but to insulate them from the 
things they didn't need to know yet, letting 
their need and questions guide the rate of 
growth. Also, I decided to avoid sitting be- 
side them all the time they were working, 
to allow them to proceed at their own 
speed, to experiment, and to use their 
imaginations. I was concerned that if I 
watched over them continually, they would 
feel I was imposing pressure on them. I let 
them make their own decisions as often as 
I could. 

To get them started with the computer, I 
first showed them, with little explanation, 
how to turn it on. To start the program, I 
used the Auto command in NEWDOS to 
get the TRS-80 to go to Basic and load 
their program. I later added a menu driven 
program, so they might select between a 
variety of programs they had written. Jodi 
refers to that in her manuscript. 

Launching the Exploration 

We began, therefore, with one of the 
simplest and most useful commands, the 
simple version of Print. I chose this com- 
mand because it's useful and easy to un- 
derstand and use. This decision was rein- 



forced by its selection by the author of the 
Level I manual as his starting point, also. 

Using only Print statements allowed 
the children to learn and exercise some 
important concepts about the computer. 
For example, Basic's way of using the 
numbers to identify each line and using 
line numbers to control where additional 
lines are to be added within those already 
entered. We needed to remove some lines 
in the children's programs, so I explained 
how to do that; just type the line number 
with no Print command to erase it. Cor- 
recting an error in a line required retyping 
the whole line over. I postponed explain- 
ing how to use the Edit capabilities of the 
TRS-80 for the time being. 

The children learned some control con- 
cepts. They grasped the concept of this 
hidden thing which controls the comput- 
er's operation called a program. They could 
create it and interact with it. They under- 
stood-the idea of Listing a program to see 
it, and Running it to begin its operation. 

My two children took alternating turns 
on the computer. To maintain the insula- 
tion from system concepts, I would save 
their programs and restart the other child's 
at each shift change. I quickly tired of this 
and they learned the Save command. 

It was FUN 

This level of interaction with the com- 
puter was exciting because the children 



Program Listing 2. Jodi's Dad's Menu Program 

50 REM MENU 

100 AUTO LOAD PROGRAM FOR EASIER USE 

110 ONERRORGOTO1000 

126 Din NAK40) ,PROGi<40> 

140 J=1:CLS:PRINTCHR»<23) 

140 PRINTe0."NUMBER"TAB<14)"NAME":PRINT 

200 RESTORE 

226 READ NA*(J) ,PR0G»< J):IF NAS < J ) ■"HUD" THEN 32e 

260 IFJ<ieTHENPRINTTAB<l)j;" ";na«<j> 

238 IFJ=>10THENPRINTJi" "?NA$(J) 

3ee J=J+1:GOTO220 

326 PRINT8*04,"TAP rOUR SELECTION " ; 

348 I*=INKEY»:IFI*=""THEN340ELSEPRINTI* 

360 I=VAL(I»> 

3S8 IF I>=JTHENPRINTe**e."THE NUMBER MUST BE" i J- 1 5 "OR SMALLER" ? : COTO320 

4ee IFK1THENPRINTI»960."THE NUMBER MUST BE 1 OR LARGER ";:COTO320 

420 CLS:PRINTCHR*<23>:PRINT(?76.NA*<I>:L0AD PR0Ct<I),R 

5ee DATA MY RELATIVES, PEOPLE 

52e DATA ABOUT NY MOMMY. MOMMY 

546 DATA ABOUT MY DADDY. DAD 

550 DATA ABOUT MY BROTHER . STEVE 

560 DATA ALL ABOUT MEiJODI 

570 DATA MY FRIENDS ARE .... FRIENDS 

530 DATA CODE CUESSER . CODES 

5*0 DATA ELIZA, ELIZA 

700 DATA END. END 

1000 REM ERROR HANDLER 

1020 IFIERR/2X >53THEN1200 

1040 PRINT:PRINT" I CAN NOT FIND THAT PROGRAM" :PRINT:PRINT" TAP ANY KEY TO MAKE 

ANOTHER SELECTION" 

1030 A»=INKEY$:IFA*=""THEN10S0 

1200 RESUME 140 

Program continues 



were typing on the keyboard (which they 
always want to do on our typewriter), but 
also, they were having fun making the 
computer respond, understanding, and 
controlling this mysterious thing, the 
computer. Their interest was sustained by 
their early success at having the comput- 
er respond to their wishes. Using the Print 
command quickly led to questions about 
how to start the program, and allowed 
them to expand their understanding. They 
were quite receptive to new commands 
when they had a need, and not so receptive 
when they couldn't identify the applicability. 
There were some concepts I judged too 
hard to teach them at this early stage. 
Rather than explain the decoding and en- 
coding algorithms for Jodi, I decided to 
program them for her. She selected the 
coding patterns, using me to try out ideas, 
but I programmed the algorithm. I wasn't 
sure she could grasp the mathematics and 
even if she could, explaining them could 
distract her from the main activity, getting 
acquainted with the computer. She ac- 
cepted that readily. 

What Was Successful 

I feel comfortable with the approach I 
took regarding the rate of supplying new 
information about new commands. The 
children had some acquaintance with the 
computer from playing games on it, so 
they knew it could ask questions and use 
their responses. When they encountered a 
need for that, they asked about it. I then 
explained the Input command. I feel this 
approach was successful. 

The children learned some program- 
ming commands and concepts, like List- 
ing, Running, and Saving. Later they 
learned about the floppy disk. 

Both children had trouble with a few 
concepts, which they eventually mas- 
tered. They both confused the letter O 
with the number 0. This was a problem 
during line numbering and using the 
GOTO command. Naturally, most of us 
draw the two to look the same, but they 
are quite different to the computer. The 
children also had lots of trouble with the 
crazy keyboard we have all grown to ac- 
cept. They found the needed keys even- 
tually and became used to it. 

Not All Worked Out as Planned 

I tried numerous times to get Jodi and her 
brother to read the manual and teach them- 
selves. I never was sure why, but they didn't 
respond to the manual. They much pre- 
ferred to have me get them started and con- 
sistently persuaded me to provide the de- 
sired information. I even opened the book 
to the page with the relevant information 
for them, to no avail. Perhaps they knew I 
knew the answer and would give them in- 
dividual attention. In any event, I regularly 
succumbed to their persistence in querying 
me rather than see them get discouraged. 

Dad had fun doing this too! ■ 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 65 



HARDWARE BREAKTHROUGH 

DESIGN SOLUTION inc. presents the AN-SERIES DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 
for TRS-80™, Apple II™, Commodore PEP M , Superbrain™* 



DISK CONTROLLER *129 95 DOUBLE DENSITY CONVERTER 





An afford- 
able multidrive 
floppy disk in- 
terface. The AN- 
760 supports 35, 40, 
80 and 160 track 
drives. Using proprie- 
tary Digital Data Separ- 
ation Techniques, maxi- 
mum permissible data 

transfer integrity is assured. Read, write, and step LED 
indicators prompt operator during all disk I/O. The 
AN-760 comes complete with power supply module and 
operation manual. (Operating system software optional.) 

8K FIRMWARE INTERFACE 

8K Bytes of 
User Program- 
able Firmware 
(4-2716 Eproms) 
are automatically 
loaded by system 
/12345 Command con- 
trolled by a 2716 con- 
troller chip. The user can 
create his own firm 
operating system to load and execute programs from 
Eprom or to provide user defined arithmetic functions. 
Comes complete with power supply, operation manual 
and controller chip. (The AN-522 requires AN-551 Eprom 
programmer.) 

>qg9S EPROM PROGRAMMER 



An enhanced 
version of our 
original Eprom 
Programmer, the 
AN-551 will now pro- 
gram the single sup- 
ply 2516, 2716, 2532 
and 2732 

Eproms from Basic or 

machine language. Software provided will load Eprom 
from TRS-80 Ram or load TRS-80 Ram from Eprom with 
complete on-screen verification. The AN-551 comes com- 
plete with power supply and operation manual. 

All connections made to AN-SERIES products from your bread- 
board are simply pushed through the front panel. Custom connec- 
tors on the P.C.B. provide super reliable connection for thousands 
of operations. All AN-SERIES products are warranted for a full 
90-DAYS under DSI's limited warranty policy. Complete documen- 






Using DSI Pro- 
prietary Data 
Separation and 
Write Precompen- 
sation Techniques, 
the AN-920 provides 
approximately 1.6 times 
more data 
storage capacity on 

your 5 1 /4 disk drives. The AN-920 can be used in con- 
junction with the AN-760 FDC or the TRS-80 expansion 
interface. Double Density System comes complete with 
power supply module and operation manual. (Required 
Newdos-80 Ver 2.0 Disk Operation System Optional.) 

MULTI-RANGE DVM INTERFACE 

Analog Sig- 
nal Interface 
is now as easy 
as turning a knob. 
EE-1670 provides 
DVM functions volts, 
and milli-amps and 8 
ranges, 1-200 milli- 
volts, 0-2, 0-20, 0-200 
volts, 0-200 micro amps, 

0-2, 0-20, 0-200 milliamps, standard banana jacks and test 
leads create perfect connection scheme for real time 
analog data acquisition. EE-1670 system is complete 
with power supply and manual of operation. 

RS-232 INTERFACE 

Can be con- 
figured to 
communicate 
with data com- 
munications equip- 
ment or data termin- 
al equipment at 110, 
150,300,600,1200,2400, 
4800 and 9600 Baud. The 
AN-464 provides 20MA 

loop output and RS-232C through a DB-25P connector. 
Software selectable odd/even parity, 5-8 bit word lengths 
and stop bit formats are standard along with power sup- 
ply module, software driver, and operation manual. 

tation is provided for each model in an attractive folder, including 
theory of operation, and special interest projects and applica- 
tions. All units are supplied with external power supply modules 
that connect through a mini-jack on the front panel. 




DESIGN SOLUTION inc. 

BOX 1225, FAYETTE VILLE, AR 72701 



C.O.D. add $5.00 — Other add $3.00 S/H. 

(Exports slightly higher) 

Orders and Information: (501) 521-0281 



^ 123 



HARDWARE BREAKTHROUGH 



DESIGN SOLUTION inc. presents the AN-SERIES DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 
forTRS-80™, Apple II™, Commodore PET™, Superbrain™* 



'269 



95 



o Q/ 




MULTI— PROGRAMMER 

The EE-1470 Multi-Programmer provides a very 
cost effective mass Eprom programming system. 
The EE-1470 supports all single supply 2516, 2716, 
2532, and 2732 Eproms. Erasure verification, device 
programming and data transfer validation are all auto- 
matic functions. Defective Eproms are identified and 
locked out by the EE-1470 on-board microprocessor. 
The EE-1470 copies from a master Eprom up to 10 
Eproms simultaneously. Validation checks are then com- 
pleted on each Eprom copy. Copy errors or defective 
Eproms are identified by red 'Fail' LED while good copy 
Eproms are indicated by green 'Pass' LED. Fast and easy to 
use in the lab or on the production floor. The EE-1470 comes 
complete with internal power supply and operation manual. 



32K RAM EXPANSION 



At last high 
speed memory 
for your TRS-80 
or DSI AN-7000 
CPU. Simply con- 
nect the AN-890 to 

your CPU expansion 

connector 

and add an additional 

32K of Dynamic Ram with 250 Nano Second Access 

Time. This unit contains all DRAMS and is exercised 

and tested. The AN-890 comes complete with power 

supply and operation manual. 




MODEL I III INTERFACE 

Now the 
TRS-80 Model 
III user can in- 
terface most port 
based hardware 
available for the 
TRS-80 Model I Com- 
ter. No modification of 
the Model III is required 
and only slight software 
changes allow Model I hardware operation with the Mod- 
del III system. The AN-587 come complete with external 
power supply module operation manual. 




12 BIT ANALOG PORT 



The AN-549 
Analog Port is 
a tracking 12 bit 
analog to digital 
and digital to analog 
converter. Conversion 
__ __ z rate of 50us and DAC 
settling ~~ ~~ 

time of 750 nanosec- 
onds provide a truly flexible analog interface. Simply 
reading a port provides the user with instant real time 
date conversion. The AN-538 comes complete with 
power supply and operation manual. 




All connections made to AN-SERIES products from your 
breadboard are simply pushed through the front panel. 
Custom connectors on the P.C.B. provide super reliable 
connection for thousands of operations. All AN-SERIES 
products are warranted for a full 90-DAYS under DSI's 
limited warranty policy. Complete documentation is pro- 
vided for each model in an attractive folder, including 
theory of operation, and special interest projects and 
applications. All units are supplied with external power 
supply modules that connect through a mini-jack on the 
front panel. 



*APPLE II™, Commodore PET™, and 
Superbrain™ Converters ON THE WAY!! 



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•123 



EDUCATION 



A story on inner-city computing and a teacher who cared. 



An '80 in the Apple 



Stephen Radin 

751 Bard Ave 

Staten Island, NY 10310 



I began teaching children to program in 
grades six through eight in 1971 when it 
became apparent that a supplement to our 
regular curriculum was needed for our most 
gifted youngsters. At the time, I was 
teaching and supervising in a New York City 
Title I (poverty level) school, it was very 
unlikely that computers, which then cost 
more than $100,000 apiece, were a viable 
possibility. 

The youngsters were very bright. Their 
competitive spirit was often tested and 
usually ranked among the top in New York 
City despite the fact that the students' 
average reading and math abilities were far 
below those of many other local schools. I 
designed a course for them which included 
two years of advanced study (some of our 
eighth graders completed both the ninth 
and eleventh year New York State mathe- 
matics curriculum before they left us). We 
also provided them with enrichment studies 
in subjects such as: symbolic logic, special 
relativity, and statistics to name just a few. 

I felt that we should try programming. 
Not only did it appearthat it would provide a 
useful skill for their future lives but it would 

68 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



keep them stimulated and occupied. 

I met with my most persistent students 
after school one day with a programmable 
calculator which I was able to borrow from 
a local store. I taught them the rudiments of 
programming on this machine. A few months 
later we were able to get a similar machine 
of our own. 

My students soon mastered the basics of 
a calculator and wanted more. I was in- 
terested in introducing them to the power of 
a computer and began to look around. Sure- 
ly we could never own one but maybe some- 
one would let us use theirs. 

Developing Slowly 

The College of Staten Island had an IBM 
1130 machine, and after some convincing 
they were kind enough to allow us to use 
their facility during periods when their 
machine was underutilized. I could now 
teach my students to program. I began with 
PL/1 (a language) and programs which were 
used by the college for their introductory 
course. The subjects included array han- 
dling, string manipulation and some fun- 
damental arithmetic manipulation. 

It took some adjustment at first, but 
within a few months my students were pro- 
gramming the Fibonocci sequence, grade 
averaging programs, file management work 
and the like. The course developed over the 
next few years. I trained two of my col- 
leagues and they helped me to transport the 
students and to teach them. We were able 
to develop a beginning and an advanced 
level course. 

This went on for five years until Tandy 



released their first microcomputer. Now a 
computer for one fiftieth of the former cost 
was available. We had to have one! The ma- 
chine could help with both our enrichment 
problem as well as our serious skills retar- 
dation problem. 

Getting the Funds 

Unable to raise the $1,000 for a machine 
from either our school P.T.A. (Title I parents 
have very little money), or our local com- 
munity, we searched for other sources of 
funds. Our college friends came to the 
rescue. They advised us to write proposals 
to various governmental agencies (city, 
state and federal), applying for funds. I 
wrote to governmental agencies both local- 
ly and in Washington. I also applied to many 
private foundations for the necessary funds 
and crossed my fingers. My fingers got very 
tired that year, but it paid off. A grant of 
$2,200 was forthcoming from our state gov- 
ernment which allowed us to buy a TRS-80 
microcomputer, a lot of paper, and sup- 
plies. 

A little thought made it clear that if my 
students could program the machine for 
their remedial classmates who needed 
arithmetic and English vocabulary practice 
we would be able to kill two birds with one 
computer. 

Software Needs 

I wrote the first few programs which in- 
cluded an interactive Computer Aided In- 
struction program in mathematics, as well 
as some file management programs for 
maintenance of our class records. The pro- 



grams covered the fundamental skills of 
whole number and decimal arithmetic, as 
well as fraction and percent work and many 
word problem types. It became clear that 
the remedial students were very attracted 
to the new format of instruction because 
they saw the screen as an extension of their 
home television set. We had tapped the TV 
generation syndrome and found a gold 
mine. Many teachers told me that the 
children who came out of the lab were much 
more relaxed and orderly the following 
period than at any other time of the week. 
Curriculum supplementation was possi- 
ble in fields other than math. We began tak- 
ing advantage of the equipment to support 
other areas such as music, art and typing. 

Student Power 

Students soon began to write all the 'in 
house' programs. Their free use of graphic 
cartoon characters and sound were excel- 
lent, making my earlier efforts pale by com- 
parison. Student power became a useful 
means to our end. 

Over the next few years we were able to 
get four more microcomputers and two 
LA36 Decwriters. The Decwriters allow us to 
communicate with the three IBM 370 com- 
puters at the City University. This has al- 
lowed us to expand our program to include 
an advanced class as well and have some 
children work in other languages not avail- 
able on our microcomputer. 

Our biggest problems seemed to be get- 
ting the staff and children away from the 
machines at outrageous times of the day. 
This past year more than two classes full of 
children and eight of our teachers were in- 
volved with programming, and ten of our 
remedial classes were involved in remedial 
practice. Many teachers see computer pro- 
gramming as a way to enliven their class- 
work, while others have expressed an in- 
terest in computing as a second career. 

We have reaped the benefits of this 
energy in the many programs which have 
been written in the areas of language arts, 
mathematics, modern languages and art, 
as well as the many spinoffs such as school 
scheduling, treasury, data file mainte- 
nance, music composition and test readi- 
ness. 

Our primary source of funds has been 
through the receipt of grants from govern- 
mental agencies. Many of our colleagues in 
other schools have been successful in ob- 
taining help from private industry and even 
local department stores. Still others wrote 
to private foundations for funds. There is 
money available for public, private and 
parochial schools who are interested in us- 
ing computers as an educational aid. Just 
keep your fingers crossed and you will suc- 
ceed. ■ 



Has your TRS-80 Model I, Model III, 
or Color Computer 

READ A GOOD TAPE LATELY? 

SOFTWARE CLASSICS ON TAPE EACH MONTH 
(nearly as cheap as a library card). 



Is your TRS-80 tired of looking at the 
same ol' programs? Is software senility 
setting in? CLOAD Magazine is just 
what your computer needs to stimu- 
late those RAM chips and keep its 
memory fresh. 

CLOAD Magazine is a cassette tape 
with 6 to 8 programs on it, which your 
computer will receive, by First Class 
Mail, every month! Just CLOAD and 
RUN. Games, tutorials, practical pro- 
grams, and utilities to keep your TRS- 
80's video bright and alive. 

Put more culture and variety in your 
computer's life. Get a subscription to 
CLOAD Magazine. 




The Fine Print: 

issues are seni first Class Mail 

All issues from Oci. 78 on available - ask lor hst 

(24 .evel I issues also) 

Programs are lor I6K Level II, I6K Model III, and 

occasionally for disks 

California residents add 6% to single copies 

Overseas - add $10 to subscriptions, and $' 10 

single copies Sent AO rale 

The Bottom Line: 

' year (12 issues) J 42 00 

6 months (6 issues) $23 00 

Single copies - Back issues $4 SO 

Good Games* I J 12 00 

Adventures*! $13 00 

TRS-80 is a trademark ol Tandy Corp 
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PO. Box 1448, Santa Barbara, CA 93102 

(80S) 962-6271 



Trying to educate your CoCo can be a trying experience. Pounding 
on the keyboard is not the positive reinforcement your computer 
needs. CHROMASETTE Magazine is the civilized way to introduce 
your computer to the world of good software. 



With CHROMASETTE Maga- 
zine, CoCo gets both quantity 
and quality. Every month, 6 to 
8 programs arrive by First Class 
Mail. No need to type them in 
— CHROMASETTE Magazine 
is a cassette tape with educa- 
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game programs on it. Just load 
and run. Ah, the life of luxury! 



Give your computer a cultural 
lesson. Get a subscription to 
CHROMASETTE Magazine 



The Bottom Lirte: 

1 year (12 issues) $45 00 

6 months (6 issues) $25.00 

Single copies $5.00 

Calif residents add 6% to single copies 
Overseas — add $10 to subscriptions, and 




The Fine Print: 

Issues are sent First Class Mail 

All issues from July 81 on available — ask for list. 

Programs dre for the Extended BASIC model only 



it to 



smgle copies. Sent AO rate. 



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Magazine 

PO. Box 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 93102 (805) 963 1066 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 69 



TECHNIQUE 



LOAD 80 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 

Model I 

16K RAM 

line printer required 



Learn to add special graphic routines to your educational programs. 



Computer Etch-A-Sketch 



Thomas W. Mustico 
RD #2 Route 104A 
Sterling, NY 13156 



Educational programming on the 
TRS-80 presents some very special 
challenges when graphics are used for 
reward or for illustration. Though there 
have been several excellent articles 
demonstrating the use of the Set, POKE 
and CHR$ commands, the typical pro- 
gramming teacher usually finds incor- 
porating graphics into a learning program 
a difficult task. This is because most 
graphics are too slow, either in execution 
or in initialization. 

Most of us are envious of the speed pro- 
duced by machine code or by packed 
strings that allow fast action games that 
capture the undivided attention of 
students. For teachers, however, exten- 
sive use of machine code is out of the ques- 
tion. Also, many teachers find translating a 
graphic idea into CHR$ codes and produc- 
ing concatenated strings not only very hard 
work but very expensive in terms of memory 
use 

After months of wondering how to ac- 
complish effective graphics with rea- 
sonable expenditure of programming time, 
I found the solution by mixing a number of 
ideas from William Barden Jr. (Program- 
ming Techniques For Level II Basic), Dan 
Keen ("Kid Stuff," September, 1980), David 



Grimes ("Stringy Machine Code," Septem- 
ber, 1980), and Valerie Vann ("Season's 
Greetings," December, 1980). 

My solution is called GSETTR6/BAS 
(pronounced G SETTER 6) which combines 
the notion of a machine etch-a-sketch and 
packed strings through the use of the 
POKE and VARPTR commands. Once the 
graphic has been accomplished on the 
screen, GSETTR6/BAS will produce a self- 
modifying program that produces graph- 
ics at high speeds and yet minimizes both 
memory requirements and initialization 
time. With a small amount of coaxing you 
may also inter-mix characters with the 
graphic codes. 

Once GSETTR6/BAS has written the 
graphics program, producing the finished 
package can be approached either by 
merging or adding additional code which 
makes use of the graphics. The only 
problem is that GSETTR6/BAS can only be 
printed before it is run the first time; that is, 
before it modifies itself. 

Program Requirements 

GSETTR6/BAS was designed for a 32K 
TRSDOS 2.3 configuration but has been 
altered so that it will work on a 16K Level II 
Model I if the system has a line printer. 
Under the DOS version the generated pro- 
gram is stored in ASCII format on the disk 
and can be run directly. The DOS version 
is preferable because it eliminates the 
necessity of typing the generated program 
back into the machine. 

Generating the Graphics Program 

When GSETTR6/BAS is run it produces 
the option of reviewing the directions, 
assigning a program name, or printing the 



generated program. In general, the produc- 
tion of graphics is only a matter of moving 
a flashing cursor to a desired position on 
the screen and then setting or resetting 
the position. The cursor position is moved 
by the four arrow keys. After the flashing 
cursor has been positioned, the pixel can 
be set by hitting S or reset by hitting R. 
Holding any arrow key and S or R 
simultaneously allows you to set or reset 
continuously until one or the other of the 
two keys is released. (Sorry, but you can- 
not achieve diagonal motion by simul- 
taneously holding two arrow keys.) 

Once the graphics are produced on the 
screen, shift G causes GSETTR6/BAS to 
write the generated program to disk, 
printer, or both. The generated program 
will contain a translation of the screen 
stored in data statements and a section 
which will POKE the data into an estab- 
lished dummy string array of minimum 
length. Using space compression and line 
control codes helps to minimize space re- 
quirements. The third section of the pro- 
gram will delete all data statements, the 
POKEing section and the Delete instruction 
itself, when the program is run. 

All that remains at this point is a 
minimum program containing the graph- 
ics in one or more elements of a string ar- 
ray named DG$(i), and a loop which will 
print it. If you are not working with a disk 
system, be sure to save the generated pro- 
gram to tape before entering Run the first 
time (just in case one of Murphy's Laws is 
operative). 

GSETTR6/BAS Commands 

Of course, you realize that nothing is as 
simple as it first appears, so there are a 



70 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



"The typical teacher finds 

incorporating graphics into a 

learning program a difficult task." 



few more commands at your disposal 
when using GSETTR6/BAS. Only two of 
them, however, are absolutely necessary 
for success. 

When the translation of the graphics on 
the screen takes place, the program re- 
quires a marker for the upper left and lower 
right corners of a rectangle as the defini- 
tion of the area to be translated. These 
markers are inserted by positioning the 
cursor in these two positions and entering 
a B(egin) and an E(nd) at the upper left and 
lower right positions, respectively. Thus, 
the minimum set of commands for 
GSETTR6/BAS are S, R, B, E, shift G and 
the arrows. 

The H command is an easy and conve- 
nient way to get the cursor out of the way. 
Hitting H will return the cursor to the 
H(ome) position, the upper left corner of 
the video screen. 

F is also a cursor-oriented command 
which is used to control the number of set 
positions that the cursor will move in 
response to hitting an arrow key. After F, 
hit any number from one to nine and the 
cursor will jump into the F(ast) mode. The F 
command can be used to create patterns 
for every other or every third, etc., position. 

The V command is for planning ahead 
when you may want to pinpoint certain 
coordinates during the use of the 
graphics. Hitting V will cause the Set coor- 
dinates for (X,Y) to be printed in the lower 
left hand corner of the video screen. 

The use of X causes the program to scan 
the video screen over the entire rectangle 
defined by the B and E positions and to 
store the necessary CHR$ codes to 
reproduce the graphics on the video 
screen. 

The D and shift D commands cause the 
stored graphics to be displayed on the 
screen. The difference between the two is 
that the D will clear the screen before 
displaying the graphics, but the shift D will 
not. Both D commands form the display 
graphics one character at a time by POKE- 
ing to video memory. (The D, shift D, L, and 
P commands must be preceded by the use 
of an X.) 

The List command will form the graph- 
ics as a set of concatenated packed strings 
and list these strings to a printer, if one is 
connected. If no printer is connected, the 
program will simply form the strings neces- 
sary to produce the graphics. Once the 
strings have been formed, the P command 
can be used to print the graphics to the 
screen at high speed. The final command of 



this group, M, will multiply the graphics by 
printing it such that the upper left corner of 
the block is located at the position of the 
cursor. M will not clear the screen before 
printing (or over-printing as the case may 
be). The M command will not be of much 
use for multiplying the graphics in the 
horizontal, however, if the Begin position is 
the first location of any video print line. 
Why? Because in this case, GSETTR6/BAS 
will use internal codes to move to the begin- 
ning of the line. 

In the process of putting GSETTR6/BAS 
through its paces to eliminate any bugs, I 
discovered that it would be advantageous 
to allow some form of lettering to be part 
of the graphics. Thus came the Q com- 
mand which will calculate the cursor's 
nearest printable location and print 
keyboard characters to the screen until 
Enter is pressed. The Q command will not al- 
low a quotation mark (") to be entered be- 
cause this would cause an unintended termi- 
nation of the string built by the program. Let- 
tering should probably be postponed until 
the graphics are finished because the cur- 
sor cannot pass through the lettering as it 
does the graphics. The Q command is ter- 
minated by pressing Enter. 

If you are using the Q command with the 
Model I which contains the upper/lower- 
case modification, you should activate the 
driver before using GSETTR6/BAS. When 
the driver is inactive the internal codes in 
video memory turn out to be 64 less than 
you expect. If you PEEK at a location con- 
taining an A, the result is one instead of the 
expected 65. I felt it simpler not to load 
ULCDVR, so I added this line of code to the 
program: 535 IF PEEK(IP)>0 AND 
PEEK(IP)<27 THEN POKE IP, PEEK 
(IP) + 64. 

My Model I is one of the early versions 
where the screen distorts badly when 
whited out; but for those of you with later 
and more stable video screens the shift W 
will white the screen and allow you to use 
the R command to produce a graphic which 
is black on white. Even earlier versions will 
look okay if there is enough black used in 
the areas where the screen tends to bend. 

Now that you have read about all of your 
options the last may turn out to be the 
best. The shift H command is recognized 
by the program as a request for help. This 
command will automatically log the 
graphic and then produce a list of direc- 
tions. When you hit Enter to continue, the 
program will redraw the graphic and allow 
you to continue. Even if you have specified 



a B(egin) and E(nd), the program will log 
the entire screen. The program will then 
reset your original B and E. 

How GSETTR6/BAS Makes Decisions 

GSETTR6/BAS will allow the choice of 
sending the generated program to disk, 
printer or both. It will PEEK location 14305 
to find out if it is in a disk operating system 
and, if not, will automatically send the 
generated program to the printer. This ac- 
tion will be taken no matter what the 
response is to the print option (after all if 
you don't send something to either disk or 
printer, you must have loaded the wrong 
program). 

Because the generated program must 
have a name to be stored on disk, 
GSETTR6/BAS will present an opportunity 
for you to enter the name of your choice. If 
you fail to do so, and a disk write operation 
is performed, you will find the generated 
program on the disk under the name DUM- 
MY/TXT. This feature will keep a lot of 
ASCII coded files from resulting in a Disk 
Full message at the wrong time. 

When the program is running, the printer 
status is continuously examined for a 
ready state by PEEKing 14312. If a L(ist) 
command is given and the printer is out for 
repairs, off or reset, the program will still 
perform the function of generating con- 
catenated strings even though they are not 
directed to the printer. These strings are 
the bases for the use of the high speed 
prints to video by the P(rint) and M(ultiply) 
commands. 

GSETTR6/BAS is willing to accept a new 
command at any time when the cursor is 
flashing. If the cursor is not flashing, then 
the program is either busy or waiting for in- 
put. 

Some Notes for the Model III 

Because GSETTR6/BAS uses no 
machine ROM routines and both the video 
and keyboard memories are in the same 
locations in the Model I and Model III, the 
program should work on either machine. 
(I'm still waiting for my Model III DOS 
manual, so I can't promise some ad- 
justments won't be required.) 

I have loaded GSETTR6/BAS and gen- 
erated graphics on a Model III disk system 
and it worked without a hitch. Of special 
interest is that the Model III will actually 
List the graphics rather than a bunch of 
translated tokens that drive the video 
crazy. One thing to note on the Model III is 
lowercase— GSETTR6/BAS expects com- 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 71 



Computer Information Exchange 
Box 159 (714) 757-4849 ^22 
San Luis Rey CA 92068 



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"There are a few more commands 
at your disposal. . . only two of them, 
however, are necessary for success." 



mands to be from an uppercase keyboard. 
Remember, that means a shift G is a lower- 
case letter. 

Features of the Generated Program 

Programs generated by GSETTR6/BAS 
will contain statements to reduce the clear 
space back to 50. They will also define l-N 
as integers, and X-Z as strings. The 
dummy string array will be set up starting 
at line number 50. Data statements which 
contain CHR$ codes will begin at line 
number 205 and the program segment to 
POKE the CHR$ codes into the dummy 
string array will begin at line number500. A 
short program segment to print the 
graphics will begin at line number 905. 

When the generated program is run for 
the first time, the information contained in 
the data statements is POKEd into the 
dummy string array by the program seg- 
ment beginning at line number 500. After 
this operation is complete, the statement 
at line 900 will delete all code from lines 205 
to 900. At this point you will have a Ready 
message on the screen. Entering Run will 
then produce your new graphics with 
amazing speed. 

You may now store this short version on 
tape or disk; or begin immediately to add 
new statements to manipulate the 
graphics. If you are using TRSDOS 2.3, 
please note that you cannot use the Merge 
command to link two graphics files con- 
taining packed strings. While it is possible 
to edit other lines in the program, you can 
not edit the lines containing the packed 
strings (well you can— but they won't work 



if you do). It is possible to renumber the 
program without causing errors. 

If you are determined to merge two 
GSETTR6/BAS programs here are some 
hints. Let me assume you have two pro- 
grams that are named A and B. Load pro- 
gram B and change all references to DG$(i) 
to some other variable name such as 
BG$(i); Delete the Clear, DEFINT, and Di- 
mension lines; and then renumber the pro- 
gram so it starts with line 1000. Now save 
the version (note that it has not been run 
before saving). Next load and run program 
A, delete 950, and merge program B. 

If you are using TRSDOS 2.3 remember 
that program B must be saved with an A 
option in order to successfully use the 
Merge command. 

Avoid Typing Long Programs 

If you have examined the accompanying 
program listing you may have noticed the 
heading contains a reference to CLEAR-80 
(College Library for the Exchange of 
Educational Applications of the Radio 
Shack TRS-80). For those of you out there 
who send either a tape or a disk (contain- 
ing TRSDOS 2.3) with a proper self 
addressed-postage paid return, I will send 
back the recorded program. 

What's the hitch? Well, I hope that when 
you produce an educational program 
which you allow to be freely exchanged 
that you would send it along to CLEAR-80. 
It would be appreciated by teachers who 
are trying to find good programs to use in 
educational environments at the right 
price (free). ■ 



Program Listing 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT n GSETTR6/BAS DOS 2.3 32k OR 

LEVEL II 16K WITH PRINTER 

30 PRINT n BY T. W. MUSTICO 

STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT OSWEGO 

40 PRINT "PROGRAM DISTRIBUTED THROUGH 

OSWEGO CLEAR-80 

STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE AT OSWEGO 

110 POUCHER HALL 

OSWEGO NY, 13126 

50 INPUT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;A$ :CLS 

60 CLEAR 3000 

70 DEFINT I-N 

80 DIM IG(1025) f GG$(12) 

90 CLS:INPUT "DO YOU NEED DIRECTIONS" ;D$: IFLEFT$ (D$ f l) ="Y"THEN G 

OSUB1160 :CLS ELSE CLS 



Program continues 



72 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Now my accounting systems 
run on CP/M as well asTRSDOS. 

So they'll work with your micro, 
no matter which it uses. 



I'm Irwin Taranto, and I originally designed my 
Model II systems to work with TRSDOS, the operating 
software Radio Shack supplies with the TRS-80. 

I designed them extremely carefully, with features 
other microcomputer accounting systems don't have. 
Mine all integrate with the general ledger, and, 
where it helps, they integrate with each other. 

My general ledger system gives year-to-year 
comparisons, in dollars and percentages. It figures 
budgets and it even has a report generator. 

My accounts receivable systems can do sales 
analysis by product code and figure in salesmen's 
commissions. They generate mailing lists by customer 
code or zip code for up to 2000 customers. 
You can choose either an open item system or a 
balance forward system which works on a cash or 
an accrual basis. 

My payroll system can handle up to 600 
employees in multiple departments, with any state 
tax routine (we provide them all). It can make any 
miscellaneous deductions you ask it to — it even 
does tips and meals. 




TRSDOS and TRS-80 are trademarks of the Tandy Corporation. 
CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Corporation. 



My inventory control system stores up to 5000 
items. It can report by vendor, tell you when you're 
out of stock or when you need to reorder. It can 
update price or cost automatically, and integrates 
fully with my invoicing system. 

There's a lot more, too. Over the years, I've 
had thousands of phone conversations with 
my customers, working out the bugs and kinks and 
adding desirable features. Everybody talks about 
"user-oriented" systems, but because of all these 
phone calls, it really means something when I say it. 
These may well be the most thoroughly researched 
small business accounting programs in the world. 

They're also the best supported, at least as 
far as microcomputer systems go. If you have a 
problem, just call. If your problem is tough enough, 
I'll get on the phone myself. There's no charge for 
phone assistance, ever. 

All these calls keep me upgrading my systems 
constantly. If you own one, you're eligible for a 
standing offer I've made all along: send me your 
diskette, and I'll send you the latest upgrade for 
only $25. 

Now I've taken another step. More and more 
owners are switching over to CP/M software these 
days. It seems to be where the whole microcomputer 
industry is heading. 

That's fine with me, because I've just converted 
all these accounting systems, and can sell them for 
the prices I've listed: 

General Ledger/Cash Journal $ 299 

Accounts Payable/Purchase Order 349 
Open Items Accounts Receivable/Invoicing 349 

Balance Forward Accounts Receivable 399 

Payroll 299 

with Job Costing Option 399 

Inventory Control 399 

For mail-order programs, these prices may seem 
high. But for serious accounting programs, nothing 
can touch them. 

Michael Tannenbaum, the "80 Accountant" 
in 80 Microcomputing, just called them "a very 
impressive product at a very reasonable price." 

Our TRS-80 Model I and Model III systems 
aren't quite as sophisticated. But they're tremendous 
buys at $99 each ($149 for general ledger). 

So call me and take your choice — CP/M or 
TRSDOS. Same price, same support. My systems 
are ready and waiting. 



Taranto 

45 & ASSOCIATES, INC. 



121 Paul Drive, San Rafael CA 94903 

Outside California, toll free (800) 227-2868. In California, (415) 472-2670. 



■ See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 73 



REMSOFT, INC. 

Let Your TRS-80® 

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ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

Tired of buying book after book on assembly 
language programming and still not knowing your 
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• A display program for each lesson to provide 
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• Step-by-step dissection of complete and useful 
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• How to access and use powerful routines in 
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Presently available for Model 1 only 
REMASSEM-1(ta P e) only $69.95 
REMASSEM-1 ( disk) only $74.95 

LEARN TRS-80® 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

DISK I/O 

Your disk system and you can really step out 
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REMDISK-1, a "short course" revealing the details 
of DISK I/O PROGRAMMING using assembly 
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Intended for the student with experience in 
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language programming, this "ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE DISK I/O PROGRAMMING" course in- 
cludes: 

• Two 45-minute lessons on audio cassette 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80'" video 
monitor serve as a blackboard for the instructor. 

• A display program for each lesson to provide il- 
lustration and reinforcement for what you are 
hearing. 

• A booklet of comprehensive, fully-commented 
program listings illustrating sequential file I/O 
random-access file I/O, and track and sector I/O. 

• A diskette with machine-readable source codes 
for all programs discussed, in both Radio Shack 
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• Routines to convert from one assembler format 
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Presently available for Model 1 only 
REMDISK-1 only$29.95 

Dealer inquiries invited 

These courses were developed and recorded by 
Joseph E. Willis and are based on the successful 
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Ohio. The minimum system required is a Level II, 
16K RAM. 



REMSOFT, INC. 

571 E. 185 St. 

Euclid, Ohio 44119 

(216)531-1338 



SHIPPING CHARGES: 

$2.50 WITHIN UNITED STATES 

$5.00 CANADA AND MEXICO 

OTHER FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 20% 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 5Vz % SALES TAX 





• 70 



TRS-6 



IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 



:IFJA<>0 GOTO1300 



Program continued 
100 INPUT "TO PRINT PROGRAM UNDER <SHIFT> <G> OPTION ENTER <1>"; 
MP 

110 IF LLIST(14305)=255 THEN MP=1 

120 GN$= n " : INPUT "INPUT NAME TO SAVE FILE OF GRAPHIC TO DISK 
DEFAULT NAME WILL BE DUMMY/TXT" ;GN$ 
130 IF GN$= nn GN$= n DUMMY/TXT n 
140 CLS 

150 'TO TRANSLATE ANY GRAPHIC - INSERT AT 9000 AS A SOUBROUTINE 
160 'GOSUB9000 
170 A$= nn :IX=0:IY=0:J=l 
228 LC=POINT(IX,IY) :JX=IX:JY=IY 
190 JA=PEEK(14400) :KA=PEEK( 14340; 
200 IFA$= n D" GOSUB 600 :GOTO170 
210 IFA$="d"GOSUB610 :GOTO170 
220 IFA$="Q" GOSUB1410 :GOTO170 
230 IFA$="S" THEN SET( IX, IY) :GOTO420 
240 IFA$="R" THEN RESET(IX,IY) :GOTO420 
250 IF A$= n H" THEN GOTO170 

255 IFA$="h"THEN JB=IB: JE=IE:GOSUB1030 :GOSUB510 :GOSUB 1160:GOSUB 
600:IB=JB:IE=JE:GOTO170 
260 IF A$="F" GOSUB490 

270 IF A$= n B" GOSUB980 : IB=LO:NX=IX:NY=IY 
280 IF A$= n E" GOSUB980 : IE=LO:MX=IX: Y=IY 
290 IF A$="L" G$= nB :LX=0:GOSUB660 :GOTO170 
300 IF A$="X" THEN GOSUB1030 :GOSUB510 :GOTO170 
310 IF A$="P" GOSUB1140 :GOTO170 
320 IFA$="w" THEN GOSUB 1120 

330 IFA$="g n THENGOSUB 1030 :GOSUB500 :GOSUB 1470 :GOTO120 
340 IFA$="M n THEN GOSUB 970 :GOSUB1140 :GOTO 180 
350 IFA$="V"PRINT @960, IX;, IY; 
360 GOTO 450 

370 IF L =-1 THEN SET(JX,JY) ELSE RESET(JX,JY) 
380 IF IX>127 THEN IY=IY+1:IX=0 
390 IF IX<0 THEN IY=IY-1: IX=127 
400 IF IY<0 THEN IY=0 

410 IF IY>47 THEN IY=47 

500 NC=POINT(IX,IY) 

430 SET(IX,IY) :RESET(IX,IY) 

440 IF IR=1 RETURN 

450 A$=INKEY$: IF A$= nn GOTO430 

460 IF NC=-1 THEN SET(IX,IY) ELSE RESET(IX,IY) 

470 GOTO180 

480 ' ETCH VALUE FOR CURSOR INCREMENTS 

490 J=VAL(INKEY$) :IFJ=0 THEN GOTO 490 ELSE RETURN 

500 • TRANSLATING ROUTINES HERE 

510 FOR I=IB TO IB+IH*64 STEP 64 

520 FOR J=0TOLG:IP=I+J 

530 IF PEEK(IP)=128 POKE IP, 32 

535 IFPEEK(IP) >0ANDPEEK(IP)<27 THEN POKE IP,PEEK( IP) +64 

540 IG(IP-15360)=PEEK(IP) 

550 NEXTJ:NEXTI 

56 RETURN 

570 FOR I=1TO!024:PRINTCHR$(IG(I)) ;:NEXT 

5 80 RETURN 

590 'THIS ROUTINE REDRAWS GRAPHIC AND RETURNS FOR ALTERATION 

600 CLS 

610 FOR I=IB TO IB+IH*64STEP64 

620 FOR J=0TOLG:IP=I+J 

630 POKE IP,IG(IP-15360) 

640 NEXT J:NEXTI 

650 RETURN 

660 'THIS ROUTINE TRANSLATES SCREEN & PRINTS STRING SERIES 

670 G$= nn :FOR I=lTOLX*GG$ (I) = nn :NEXTI 

680 IF PEEK(14312)=63 THEN LP=1 ELSE LP=0 

690 IF LG=64 THEN LF$= nn :LF=0 :LE$= nn : ELSE LE$=CHR$ (26) : LF$="CHR 

$(26) ":LF=1 

700 BS$=LF$+ n +TRING$("+STR$(LG+LF)+",24) " 

710 IF LG+LF>=64 BS$="+CHR$ ( 9) " 

720 IF LP=lLPRINT n NOTE BS$= " ;BS$ :LPRINT" " 

730 IC=0:N=1:FOR I=IB TO IB+IH*64 STEP64 

17124 IF IC=1 AND LP=1 LPRINT"+BS$ n ; 

750 IF IC=1 G$=G$+LE$+STRING$(LG+LF,24) :GOSUB1080 

760 IC=l:FOR J=0TOLG-1: IP=I+J 

770 IF PEEK(IP)=128 POKEIP,32 

780 IF PEEK(IP+1) INSTR128 POKEIP,32 

790 IF PEEK(IP) =PEEK(IP+1)THEN N=N+l:GOTO 820 

800 IF N=l GOSUB 890 :GOTO820 

810 GOSUB 920 :N=1 

820 NEXTJ 

830 IF N>1THENGOSUB920 :N=1 

840 NEXTI 

850 IF N>1GOSUB920 

860 IF LP=1 LPRINT" " 

870 RETURN 

Program continues 



74 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 




VOYAGE OF THE VALKYRIE 

You are in command of the attack 
ship Valkyrie. Your mission is to battle 
your way against giant, laser-weilding 
war birds and capture the island 
Fugloy. You must explore Fugloy's 
mountainous terrain and choose the 
proper mountain passes in order to 
reach the ten island catles. Definitely 
one of the finest graphics-based 
adventures for the TRS-80 Model I & III. 
Both versions include sound. 

Cat. No. 3346 Model I & ill, cass., 16K 

$34.95 

Cat. No. 3347 Model I & III, disk, 32K 

$39.95 

THE OFFER 

Mention this ad and WE PAY SHIPPING! 
(UPS Ground only.) HW ELECTRONICS 
19511 Business Center Dr., Dept V1 
Northridge, CA 91324 
(800) 423-5387 (21 3) 886-9200 



Increase your disk capacity 2-4 times for a 
^'fraction of the cost of adding additional disk. 
Reads, writes and formats either single or 
double density diskettes. Runs TRSDOS, 
NEWDOS+, or Percom OS-80. (DBLDOS 
included). Installs without rewiring or trace 
cutting. 
Cat. No. 2971 $155.00 



THE CUSTOM TRS-80 & OTHER MYSTERIES 

The book for TRS-80 owners who want to 
build it themselves! Projects include high- 
resolution graphics, music making & synthe- 
sizer control, real time clock, and more! 
Cat. No. 3374 $29.95 



HOW TO ORDER 

Write or phone. Pay by check, M/C, VISA, 
or COD (add $1.40 for COD). Offer expires 
Feb. 1, 1982. 



WHEN IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, VISIT OUR RETAIL STORES 



ELECTRONICS 



19511 Business Center Dr. 
Northridge, CA 91324 



2301 Artesia Blvd. 
Redondo Beach, CA 90277 



^\ V % N 

LOWESTPRICES 



ON 



TRS-80 




Model II 64K$ 3298 




Line Printer VII. $329 

Microline 80 $394 
Microline 82 $499 

$369 



OKI DATA 
EPSON MX-70 



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$ 



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VERBATIM DATALIFETM DISKETTES 
5'/4-inch (box of 10) $25.95 

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* Payment Money Oder Cashier's 
Check. Certified Check Personal 
Checks require 3 weeks lo clear VISA. 
MASTERCHARGE — Add 3% 

WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR COMPLETE PRICE LIST. 

CALL (602) 458-2477 

bmbbm All prices are mail order only ■■■«■ 

RAND'S ,m 

2185 E. FRY BLVD. 
9 SIERRA VISTA, AZ 85635 

^. TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



Program continued 

880 'THIS ROUTINE TRANSLATES SCREEN AND PRINTS CHR$ SERIES 

890 IF LP=1 LPRINT "+CHR$ ( n ; PEEK (IP) ; ") n ; 

900 G$=G$+CHR$(PEEK(IP) ) :GOSUB1080 

910 RETURN 

920 IF LP=1 THEN GOTO 930 ELSE GOTO940 

930 IF PEEK(IP)<>32 THEN LPRINT"+STRING$ ( " ;N; " , " ;PEEK(IP) ; ") " ; 

ELSE IF N<63 THEN LPRINT"+CHR$ ( ";192+N; ") " ; ELSE LPRINT "+CHR$(1 

0)"; 

940 IF PEEK(IP)<>32 THENG$=G$+STRING$ (N,PEEK(IP) ) ELSE IF N<63 T 

HENG$=G$+CHR$(192+N) ELSE G$=G$+CHR$ (10) 

950 GOSUB1080 :N=1 

960 RETURNP>READTHEN' ROUTINE TO DETERMINE POKE POSITION ON SCRE 

EN FOR IX, IY 

980 ID= IY/3 

990 IO=IX/2 

1000 LO =ID*64 +10 +15360 

1010 RETURN 

1020 'ROUTINE TO CALCULATE BLOCK 

1030 IF IB=0 AND IE=0 THEN LG=64: IH=15 : IB=15360 : IE=16383 :RETURN 

1040 LG=(MX-NX)/2+1.6:IFLG>64 THENLG=64 

1050 IH=(IE/64+n99)-(IB/64+.99) 

1060 IF IH>15:IH=15 

1070 RETURN 

1080 'MULTIPLE STRING ROUTINE 

1090 IF LEN(G$)+LG >253 THEN LX=LX+1:GG$(LX) =G$:G$="" ELSE RETUR 

N 

1100 EDITLP=1 LPRINT" ": LPRINT" " 

1110 RETURN 

1120 W$=STRING$ ( 255 ,191) : PRINT@0 ,W$; : FOR I=1T03 : PRINTW$ ; : NEXTI :W 

$="" :P0KE16383 ,191 :POKE16382 ,191 :POKE16381 ,191 :RETURN 

1130 ' PRINT GRAPHIC F 

21280 TRING CONCATENATIONS IN GG$ 

1140 IFA$="M"THEN A$="" :K=LO-15360 ELSE K=IB-15360 :CLS 

1150 PRINT@K , ; : FORI=lTOLX : PRINTGG$ ( I ) ; : NEXT : PRINTG$ ; : RETURN 

1160 CLS:PRINT"ARROWA CAUSE BLINKING CURSOR TO MOVE IN DIRECTION 

OF ARROW 
S - WILL SET THE POSITION" 
1170 PRINT "R - WILL RESET THE POSITION 
B - INTERNALLY LOGS UPPER LEFT POSITION OF GRAPHIC 
E - LOGS LOWER RIGHT POSITION OF GRAPHIC 

F - FOLLOWED BY 1 TO 9 CONTROLS CURS 
R JUMPS" 

1180 PRINT"H - HOMES THE CURSOR 
X - LOGS THE GRAPHIC FROM B TO E" 

1190 PRINT"D - DISPLAY THE GRAPHIC USING CHR$ POKES 
L - CONVER TO CONCATENATED STRINGS - PRINT IF PRINTER ON" 
1200 PRINT"P - DRAW HIGH SPEED GRAPHIC (L MUST BE USED FIRST) - 
IF NOT CORRECT ALTERA B OR E" 

1210 PRINT"M - DRAW HIGH SPEED AT CURSOR POSITION USE L FIRST" 
1220 PRINT"V - OUTPUT X,Y SET COORDINATES OF CURSOR" 
1230 PRINT"Q - INSURT A LABEL AT CURSOR POSITION" 
1240 INPUT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;D$ 
1250 PRINT" <SHIFT> D - DISPLAY WITHOUT CLS" 
126 PRINT" <SHIFT> W - WHITE^OUT THE SCREEN 
<SHIFT> G - CREATE PROGRAM ON DISK TO DRAW GRAPHIC 

AND/OR PRINT CREATED PROGRAM" 
1265 PRINT"<SHIFT> H -ELP WITH COMMANDS" 
1270 PRINT" 
BLINKING CURSOR INDICATES COMMAND COMPLETED 



1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 
1430 
1435 
1440 
1450 
1460 
1470 
1480 



RESET(IX,IY) :NC=0 
SET(IX,IY) :NC=-1 



INPUT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE" ;D$ 

RETURN 

'FAST CURCOR ROUTINE 

IF JA =8 THEN IY=IY-J: GOTO 1350 

IF JA =32 THEN IX=IX-J: GOTO1350 

IF JA =64 THEN IX=IX+J: GOTO1350 

IF JA =16 THEN IY=IY+J:GOTO1350 

IR=1:GOSUB370 

IF KA=4 A$="R" 

IF KA=8 A$="S" 

IR=0 

JA=PEEK(14400) :JA=0 

GOTO460p 

ME$="":GOSUB980 :RESET(IX,IY) :PRINT@LO-15360 , "" ; 

B$=INKEY$:IF B$="" OR B$=CHR$ (34) GOTO1420 

IF B$=CHR$(13) RETURN 

IFB$=CHR$(24) THEN GOTO1440 ELSE GOTO 1450 

B$="":IF LEN(ME$) >0THENME$=LEFT$ (ME$,LEN(ME$) -1) 

ME$=ME$+B$ 

PRINT@LO-15360,ME$;:GOTO1420 

•GENERATE BASIC PROGRAM IN ASCII NON-COMPRESSED HERE 

IFPEEK(14305) <>255 THEN OPEN "0",1,GN$ 



Program continues 



76 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 





na^MMHiMJnBlMIB 



Introducing the 

T80-FS1 

on disk with 

enhancements... 



... 











When you crave the realism and challenge 
of this sophisticated simulation, the 
Flight Simulator Enhanced Disk will give you 
more than just convenience, it will give you 
more enjoyment. 

Disk enhancements include increased world 
projection rates, a 10-frame-per-second 
precision approach mode, an infinite horizon, 
exciting hit/crash detection, and more. 



If you order direct, please specify whether you have 
Model I or Model III and whether you want disk or cassette 
(the media are different). Include $1.50 and indicate UPS 
or first class mail. Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. 
Visa and MasterCard accepted. 
If you don't yet own a disk, don't fret. You can upgrade 
anytime. Cassette users may send back their cassette (but 
nor the manual), along with $10 (first class shipping 
included) and receive the disk version. 




Available for Model I or Model III. 
$25.00 on cassette or 33.50 on disk. 
All versions require 16K memory. 

See your dealer! 



LOGIC 

Communications Corp. 
713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, I L 61820 
(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 - 



<**\V*Xr* 




. 




We will meet or 
beat any price 
in the U.S.A. on 




MICROCOMPUTERS 

In fact, no matter what price 

you see advertised by Micro 
Management, Perry Oil, Pan 
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Radio Shack dealer for TRS- 
80 Computers with pure fac- 
tory installed memory and 
full warranty, wellfcajjti 

ATARI 

MICROCOMPUTERS 




We have consistently offered 
the complete TRS-80, ATARI, 
EPSON, APPLE, and MAXELL 
lines at the best prices in the 
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If you're looking for the best 
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the others but call Computer 
Discount of America. 

TRS-80 and Radio Shack are trademarks of Tandy Co 



CALL TOLL FREE: 
800-526-5313 



Computer 



of America 



COMPUTER DISCOUNT OF AMERICA. INC. 
15 Marshall Hill Road. West Milford Mall 
West Milford. New Jersey 07480-2198 
In New Jersey Call 201-728-8080 



78 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program continued 

1490 GOSUB2150 

1500 K=IB-15360:CC=0 

1510 LI=0:GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"REM **GRAPHICS IN THIS PROGRAM 

GENERATED WITH GSETTR6/BAS 

BY T. W. MUSTICO** NAMED "+GN$ :GOSUB2040 

1520 GOSUB2140 : DG$=DG$+" CLEAR 50" :GOSUB2040 

1530 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+rDEFINTI-N:DEFSTRX-Z" :GOSUB2040 

1540 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"DIM DG$ ( 9) " :GOSUB2040 

1550 LI=200 

1560 KA=(K/64-INT(K/64) ) *64:GOSUB2070 

1570 IC=0:FOR I=IB TCTlB+IH*64 STEP 64 

1580 IF IC=1 THEN LI=LI+5:GOSUB2000 :DG$=DG$+DB$:GOSUB2030 :CC=C 

C+BC 

1590 LI=LI+5:GOSUB2000 

1600 N=1:IC=1:FORJ=0TOLG-1:IP=I+J 

1610 IFJ<L-1ANDPEEK(IP)=32ANDPEEK(IP+1) =32THENN=N+1 :GOTO1710 

1620 IFN=1 THEN II=PEEK (IP) :GOSUB2010 :GOTO1710 

1630 IFJOLG-1 GOTO1670 

1640 IFPEEK(IP)=32 THEN II=192+N 

1650 IF II>255 THEN 11=193 :GOSUB2010 :II=255 

1660 GOSUB2010 :GOTO1700 

1670 II=192+N:IF II>255THEN 11=193 :GOSUB2010 :II=255 

1680 GOSUB2010 

1690 IFPEEK(IP) <>32 THEN II=PEEK(IP) :GOSUB2010 

1700 N=l 

1710 NEXTJ:GOSUB2030 

1720 NEXTI 

1730 LI=495 

17 40 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+" REM CLEAR SPACE FOR "+STR$(CC)+ B CHA 

RACTERS.":GOSUB 2040 

17 50 NA=CC/22%:NB=CC-NA*225 

1760 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"REM EDIT DG$ ( "+STR$ (NA) +") TO "+STR$(NB 

)+" CHARACTERS" :GOSUB2040 

1770 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"I=0 : J=0 : A=0: 11=0 : AK=0 : IG=0" :GOSUB2040 

1780 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+ n FOR I=0TO4" :GOSUB2040 

1790 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+ n B=VARPTR(DG$ (I) ) " :GOSUB2040 

1800 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"REM CA\CULATE POKE ADDRESS" :GOSUB2040 

1810 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"A =PEEK(B+2) *256+PEEK(B+l) " :GOSUB2040 

1820 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"IF A>32767 THEN A=-l* (65e36-A) " :GOSUB20 

40 

1830 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"REMREAD AND THEN POKE EACH CHARACTER" :G 

OSUB2040 

1840 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"FOR J=1T0225" :GOSUB2040 

1850 GOSUB21d0 :DG$=DG$+" IG=A+J-1" :GOSUB2040 

1860 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"IF I*225+J>"+STR$ (CC) +"GOTO900" :GOSUB20 

40 

1870 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"READ II: POKE IG, II :NEXTJ" :GOSUB2040 

1880 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"NEXTI" :GOSUB2040 

1890 LI = 895:GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"DELETE 205-900" -.GOSUB2040 

1900 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"CLS:IK=INT("GOTOSTR$(CC)+"/225) :PRINT@" 

+STR$ (K) +" ,Z$; " :GOSUB2040 

1910 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"FOR I=0TOIK:PRINT DG$ (I) ; :NEXTI" :GOSUB2 

040 

1920 LI=945:GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"OTO950" :GOSUB2040 

1930 LI=45 

1940 IFCC<225GOTO1980 

1950 FORI=0TONA-1 

1960 GOSUB2140 :DG$=DG$+"DG$ ( "+STR$ (I) + ") ="+F$:GOSUB2040 

1970 NEXTI 

1980 IFNB>0:GOSUB2140 :G$=DG$+"DG$( "+STR$ (NA) +") ="+LEFT$ (F$, NB+ 

1)+CHR$(34) :GOSUB2040 

1990 IFPEEK(14305) <>255 THENCLOSE: RETURN ELSE RETURN 

2000 DG$=RIGHT$(STR$(LI) ,3)+" DATA":RETURN 

2010 IF LEN(DG$)>235 THEN GOSUB2030 :LA=LI:LI=LI-4:GOSUB2140 :LI 

=LA:DG$=DG$+"DATA n 

2020 CC=CC+1 : DG$=DG$+RIGHT$ ( STR$ (II) , 3) +" , " : RETURN 

2030 IF RIGHT$(DG$,1)="," THEN KG=LEN (DG$) -1 :DG$=LEFT$ (DG$ ,CG) 

2040 IF PEEK(14305)<>255 THENPRINT#1 ,DG$ 

2050 IF MP=1 LPRINT DG$ 

2060 RETURN 

2070 KC=3:DB$="26":IF KA=0 THEN KC=1 

2080 IFKA+LG>=64 KC=2 

2090 IFKA=0 AND KC=2 THEN D 

14626 ":BC=1:RETURN 

2100 ON KC GOTO 2110 ,2120 ,2130 

2110 DB$="10":BC=1:RETURN 

2120 DB$="9" 

2130 FOR I=lTOLG:DB$=DB$+","+"24":NEXTI:BC=LG+l:RETURN 

2140 LI=LI+5:DG$=RIGHT$(STR$(LI) ,3) : RETURN 

2150 C$="THIS IS A DUMMY STRING " 

2160 F$=C$+C$+CS+C$+C$+C$+C$+C$+C$+C$ 

2170 F$=LEFT$(F$,225) 

2180 F$=CHR$(34)+F$+CHR$(34) 

2190 RETURN 



The BASIC COMPILER TRS-80 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR 

ZBASIC 2.0 



ALL NEW FEATURES INCLUDE: 



10. 



11 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 

22. 
23. 

24. 



AVERAGE SPEED INCREASES OF 10-100 TIMES IS 

TYPICAL AFTER COMPILING!!!!! 

ZBASIC 2.0 code Is fully relocatable. Move it anywhere! 

ZBASIC 2.0 now supports STRING and NUMERIC 

ARRAYS to any dimension (Memory being the only limit) 

ZBASIC 2.0 now supports all variable names. Variable 

names like AB, ZP. GROSS, E3, LENTH etc. are 

supported. 

ZBASIC 2.0 now supports DISK SEQUENTIAL 

FILES. 

ZBASIC 2.0 now supports special CASSETTE I/O. 

ZBASIC 2.0 IS STILL 1 00% INTERACTIVE! No need 

for tedious linking loaders or runtime modules. 

Jumping back and forth between BASIC and 

COMPILER is easy and fast. 

DEBUGGING IS A BREEZE WITH ZBASIC 2.0. 

ZBASIC 2.0 now supports STRINGS in DATA 

statements. 

COMPILING A PROGRAM IS AS EASY AS TYPING 

IN 3 KEYS! (,./) 

ZBASIC 2.0 nowsupports HIGH PRECISION MATH 

to 62 digit precision, (add, subtract, multiply, 

divide). There are no Binary rounding problems 

because ZBASIC 2.0 uses BCD! 

ZBASIC 2.0 compiles the entire program! No 

partial compilation, like some other compilers. 

TYPICAL COMPILATION TIME IS 10-15 

SECONDS! 

ZBASIC 2.0 NOW SUPPORTS MID$, LEFT$, 

RIGHTS, STRINGS! 

NO ROYALTIES IMPOSED ON PROGRAMS 

COMPILED BY ZBASIC! 

ZBASIC 2.0 will LOAD and COMPILE existing 

BASIC programs, but almost all will require some 

modifications. 

MOD I compiled programs will run on MOD III and 

VISA-VERSA! 

Programs may be compiled and relocated to top of 

memory to be used as BASIC USR calls. 

TRON/TROFF now supported! 

Improved run-time error handling. 

ZBASIC 2.0 saves object code to tape or disk. 

(Depending on version.) 

50+ page manual with many examples. 

DISK CHAINING with VARIABLE SAVE 

subroutines in manual. 

NEW FUNCTIONS IN ZBASIC THAT BASIC 

DOESN'T HAVE! 

A. MUSIC AND SOUND EFFECTS COMMAND. 

B. HIGH SPEED BLOCK MEMORY MOVE 
COMMANDS. (LDIR, LDDR) 

C. HIGH SPEED INVERT COMMAND. 

D. INTERUPTS ON/OFF COMMANDS. 

E. STACK POINTER CONTROL 

F. SPECIAL HIGH SPEED MULTIPLY/DIVIDE 
COMMANDS. 

G. 16 bit PEEK. 

H. Special USR calls. Pass parameters to DOS or 
ROM subroutines! Customized USR calls. 
I. High accuracy delay loop command from .00005 
sec. to 18 hours. 



J. HIGH SPEED MEMORYSEARCH COMMANDS. 
(CPIR, CPDR) 

K. ZBASIC (Disk version) comes with CMD/File 
program from MISOSYS for transfering machine 
language files from disk to tape!! 

***ZBASIC 2.0 DIFFERS from BASIC 
in these ways: 

1 . NO RANDOM ACCESS DISK I/O OR COMMANDS. 

2. NO SINGLE OR DOUBLE PRECISION VARIABLES or 
COMMANDS (Use ZBASIC 2.0's HIGH PRECISION 
INSTEAD.) 

3. The following SCIENTIFIC MATH functions are not 
supported: ATN, EXP, COS. SIN, LOG, SIN. or TAN 
(Subroutines to do these functions are included in the 
ZBASIC 2.0 manual.) 

4. Some ZBASIC 2.0 commands do not work exactly as 
BASICS commands work For instance, END jumps to 
DOS, STOP jumps to BASIC READY Other commands 
may also differ slightly. 

5. MEMORY LIMITATIONS A simple equation to 
approximate memory required to compile a given BASIC 
program is your FREE MEMORY SIZE, MINUS 6000, 
DIVIDED by TWO. 

6. Since programs compiled by ZBASIC 2.0 are no longer in 
BASIC, DIRECT COMMANDS like EDIT, CONT. LIST, 
LLIST, MEM AUTO etc. are not supported. Although they 
may be used while in BASIC before compiling 

7. All other commands not supported by ZBASIC 2 not 
described above: CMD, DEF. FN, ERR, ERROR, ERL, 
RESUME, USING, FIX, FRE, INSTR, TAB, TIMES, CDBL, 
CINT, CSNG. 

So if you'd like the high speeds and controls capabilities of 
assembly language, but want the ease of use of BASIC, ZBASIC 
2.0 is the answer. 



ZBASIC 2.0 is available for TRS-80 MOD I or 
III or PMC-80 computers. 

ZBASIC 2.0 16K, 32K/48K TAPE VERSION and MANUAL 79.95 

ZBASIC 2.0 32K/48K DISK VERSION and MANUAL 89.95 

ZBASIC 2.0 TAPE and DISK VERSIONS and MANUAL 99.95 

ZBASIC 2.0 MANUAL (APPLIES TO ZBASIC PURCHASE PRICEl . . . 25.00 

SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

SIMUTEK 
COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

4877 E. SPEEDWAY BLVD. 
TUCSON, ARIZONA 85712 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

VISA-MASTERCARD-AMEX-COD ORDERS 

CALL TOLL FREE: 800-528-1 149 (Order Line Only) 

GET OUR FREE 100 PAGE CATALOG!!!!! 

TECHNICAL QUESTIONS PLEASE CALL (602) 323-9391 

TRS-80 IS A TM OF RADIO SHACK A TANDY CORPORATION 

PMC IS A TM OF PERSONAL MICROCOMPUTERS INC *^ 1 9 



►'See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 79 




UDFUD-GRRPHII5 



i 



PROCESSOR 



-Mr -Mr 



1 



If you own an EPSON or QKIDAJA printer, 
and a JRS = 80 MODEL I OR III COMPUTER, 
SIMUTEK'S SCP WORD/GRAPHICS PROCESSOR 
IS JUST WHAT YOU'VE BEEN WAITING FOR! 
Let's face it, if your printer has the capabilities to do BOLD 
printing, GRAPHICS, UNDERLINING, DIFFERENT CHARACTER SIZES, | 
EMPHASIZED PRINTING and wore, WHY NOT USE THEN???? 

SCP is not a patch to SCRIPSIT(TB) but a whole new word proces- | 
sing and GRAPHICS editor prograw. Look at all the features that 
cowe standard with SCP: 
COMPLETE TEXT EDITING FEATURES: 



a. INSERT yORDS/CHARACTERS 

b. DELETE LINES/CHARACTERS 

c. EXTRA SIMPLE BLOCK HOVE. 
NO MARKERS TO DEFINE. 

d. PAGINATION 

e. FOOTERS/HEADERS 

f. AUTO KEY REPEAT 

g. FIND/REPLACE 

h. BLINKING CURSOR 

i. COMPLETE FORMAT CONTROL 

j. JUSTIFICATION 



k. CENTERING 




(CLEOPATRA?) 



: 



SPECIAL_FEAiyRES_INCLUDEi 

a. GRAPHICS! SCP graphics use a special blinking 
pixel cursor that you control with the four 
arrow keys. Drawings of graphs, logos, cartoons 
borders, diagram etc. can be drawn into the 
text easily and way be erased, deleted, block 
■oved etc. 

b. SCP allows UNDERLINING on both EPSON and OKIDATA! 
(EPSONS REQUIRE EPSON TYPE TRS-88 CABLE) 
SCP allows you to change character size in the 
text at will, even on the same line! 
SCP allows full control of EMPHASIZED and DOUBLE 
EMPHASIZED printing, even on OKIDATA printers! 

e. Fast scrolling of screen left, right, up or down. 
Screen is like a window on your documents. 

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80 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



1 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 81 



EDUCATION 



dMD 



LOAD 80 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I 
16K RAM 



Help school children learn the rules of punctuation. 



To Comma or Not to Comma 



John D. Perron 

527-41 st Avenue 

San Francisco, CA 94121 



One of the most arbitrary writing skills 
taught in school is punctuation. A 
teacher may introduce a rule for using a 
comma after an introductory clause, only 
to have a student come up with a pub- 



lished manuscript that breaks the rule. 
Even with general agreement on the basic 
rules, writers find distinctive situations 
where the rules have to be bent. 

So why not use "real writing" to teach 
usage? 

Punctuation Put-On helps teachers do 
this by presenting different styles of 
writing in a game format. It includes a 
diagnostic feature that keeps track of 
errors and helps students come to grips 
with their individual weaknesses. A Level II 
program, Punctuation Put-on uses 246 
lines (see Table 1) or nearly all of 16K. Its 
fairly rapid motion (see Fig. 1 for flowchart) 
is based on positioning the most used 



Line Numbers 


Program Information 


1-8 


Title 


9-21 


Wrong answer subroutine 


22-24 


Typing help subroutine 


25-32 


Correct answer subroutine 


33-40 


Run-time reminders 


41-42 


Entry points for selections 


43-84 


Cursor placement for different selections 


85-87 


Blinking cursor/answer check 


88-90 


End of selection/assign score 


91-94 


Start again/end 


95-97 


Writing selections 


98-107 


Choice processing 


108-119 


Full writing of Selection #1 "Ken Asks His Mother" 


120-129 


Full writing of Selection #2 "Reward for the Robot" 


130-141 


Full writing of Selection #3 "A Not-so-fast Fly" 


142-155 


Punctuation Mark Display— Typing Help 


156-165 


Final Score subroutine 


166-177 


Diagnosis of errors 


178-181 


No errors subroutine 


182-216 


Graphic eyes subroutine 


217-246 


Student instructions 


Table 1. 


Program Lines for Punctuation Put-On 



subroutines up front and eliminating all 
superfluous semicolons. 

Why Punctuation? 

Punctuation is a way of demonstrating 
the pauses, gestures, and emotional con- 
tent of speech; the rules written com- 
munication requires for exactness. Yet, 
creativity depends on expanding the rules 
somewhat— and that can only be taught in 
actual writing situations. 

Punctuation Put-On tries to provide a 
close sense of the real writing event. The 
program is written for upper elementary 
school students. Table 2 illustrates the 
punctuation marks in Punctuation Put-On 
and places them by grade where they are 
taught in the first eight years of school. 

How it Works 

To use Punctuation Put-On, a student 
simply chooses one of three writing selec- 
tions: 



Selection 1 
Selection 2 
Selection 3 



Ken Asks His Mother 
Reward for the Robot 
A Not-so-fast Fly 



(Hard) 

(Harder) 

(Hardest) 



Selection 1 is mainly dialogue, with punc- 
tuation arising through directly quoted 
speech (see Fig. 2). Selection 2 is a nar- 
rative in which the punctuation depends 
more on the flow of events than on quota- 
tions. And finally, selection 3 is a poem in 
which the punctuation appears totally ar- 
bitrary (although a poet always has subtle 
reasons for the choices!). 

Students may wish to repeat the same 
selection, or they may prefer to play all 



82 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



"One of the most arbitrary 

writing skills taught in school 

is punctuation." 



three (in any order, although each is 
weighted according to difficulty). Prior to 
the first use of a selection, the program 
presents it slowly in its entirety to allow 
the student to read or study it. There are 
also run-time reminders (brief instruc- 
tions) during the program which supple- 
ment the longer instructions presented at 
the start of the program. However, after a 
selection has been once used, the 
reminders and study time are eliminated, 
allowing students faster movement be- 
tween selections. 

Each writing selection covers the upper 
two-thirds of the screen, leaving the bot- 
tom third clear for processing answers. 
The computer randomly selects a punctua- 
tion mark and replaces it with a blinking 
cursor. Students must decide which punc- 
tuation mark goes there, based on the con- 
text of the writing; that is, they see what 
goes before and what comes after the 
punctuation mark, which helps them make 
an informed decision. When they type in 
their choice, it appears in the actual 
screen position — and the computer im- 
mediately tells them whether they're right 
or wrong. 

If they're right, the computer prints an 
asterisk or a verbal response. The program 
moves on to another punctuation mark at 
the student's request, repeating this pro- 
cedure 10 times for each writing selection. 
If the student's choice is wrong (for in- 
stance, the choice is an exclamation mark 
when the correct answer is a question 
mark), the computer responds with: "No, it 
is not (!) It is (?) Watch it blink . . ." And the 
question mark blinks in place on the 
screen. 

When the program begins the student is 
shown where the punctuation marks are 
located on the keyboard. Whenever the 
student makes an error when responding 
to the blinking cursor, he or she is again of- 
fered the help routine for locating punctua- 
tion marks. 



Scoring 

After each selection, students see their 
score (number correct out of 10). When a 
student elects to quit playing, the final 
scores are presented, including the last 
student scores on the three selections 
(and their overall total). When there are er- 
rors, the student is shown a diagnostic 
chart containing the type and number of 
punctuation errors (see Table 3). The stu- 
dent can use this information to focus on 
his or her actual weaknesses in punctua- 
tion skills. If a student completes any 
number of selections without making an 
error, the program moves to a congratu- 
latory display, allowing the student a 

• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



chance to share the score with the teacher 
(via an option to loop back through the 
final score routine). 

I prefer diversions to rewards— espe- 
cially when rewards must be repeated 
again and again in rapid-fire motion. I 
have, therefore, included a graphic eyes 
subroutine. As a diversion, it occurs on the 
second and fifth writing selection. It ap- 
pears as if a little man inside the computer 
is having trouble finding the selection. 

True learning depends on how close the 
practice situation comes to the real thing. 
The major goal of any course design, text- 
book or software, should be a learning 
situation that complements or extends the 
natural writing or reading act. That's a 
main ingredient of Punctuation Put-On, 



placing the learner in the shoes of the 
writer and providing full contextual sup- 
port. 

Novice Courage 

I'd like to summon all my novice courage 
and admit one thing: This is my first at- 
tempt at programming. I bought myTRS-80 
last June and have been struggling to 
learn Basic ever since. I'm still learning, 
and I'm sure there may be better ways of 
doing some of the things in Punctuation 
Put-On (if you find them, let me know!). 
Still, the bottom line is that everything 
works, and there are enough error traps to 
allow even the youngest user to operate 
the program easily and smoothly. 

One interesting problem I ran across 




Fig. 1. Flowchart 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 83 



"I'd like to summon all my novice courage 

and admit one thing: 

This is my first attempt at programming." 



may help others overcome a similar dif- 
ficulty. I needed some kind of routine early 
in lines 43-84 to allow me to randomly 
select 20 numbers (NC) without repeating 
any one. A friend came up with the answer: 
Set up a 20-position array, P(NC), and treat 
each array position as a signal holder. 
Thus, when an NC number has been ran- 



domly selected, P(NC) is checked; if the ar- 
ray position of that number is a zero, the 
number has not been used before; the pro- 
gram then uses the number and places a 
one in that array position. The next time 
through, if that same NC number is ran- 
domly selected, there will already be a one 
in the array position, so the computer will 



Ken wanted to go to the circus. After school he came home and asked his mother: "Can I goH" 

"Where?" she asked. 

"You know," he said 

"No," she answered, "I don't know." 

"But all the other kids are going! " he shouted. 

"But where are they going?" she shouted back. 

"Oh," Ken said. "They're going to the circus." 

"Oh," his mother laughed, "Well, why didn't you say so?" 

Ken looked at her. "Well, can I go?" 

"Go ask your father!" his mother said and turned away. 



Fig. 2. Excerpt from Selection 1. The cursor blinks in place of a punctuation mark. 
The student decides what belongs there and types it in. This is repeated at ten 
randomly selected punctuation mark positions (out of 20 per selection). The stu- 
dent may then repeat the selection, or choose one of the other two. 



return for another selection until it finds 
one with a zero array position. 

More Memory? 

If you have more memory at your 
disposal, let me offer one suggestion for 
upgrading the program. As it stands, a stu- 
dent learns the number and type of errors 
made, but since the initial selection pro- 
cess is random, one never knows how 
many times a punctuation mark may have 
been presented during a run. By adding a 
counter to the wrong answer routine (lines 
9-21) and placing this information in a 
separate column in the diagnostic chart 
(lines 166-177), the teacher and student 
would benefit by knowing whether the 
number of errors was significantly related 
to the number of times the mark was ac- 
tually presented in the program. 

Another possible extension involves 
adding to or replacing the selections used 
in this collection. Those in the program are 
my own original works. Replacing these 
writings with your own is a fine idea- 
even better would be to replace them with 



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84 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



'.. this is not only a worthwhile book 
but a great book. My advice is to get it 
and USE it!' - William Barden Jr. 




OTHER 
MYSTERIES 



132 pages 
$22.50 



Now available at 
selected DALTON 
bookstores 




312 page 
$29.95 



Get them at your local I JG dealer! 



'It has twelve thousand one-liners 
in it, and every one is great!' 
- Dennis Kitsz. 



Phone orders (714) 946-5805 

TRS-HO is a trademark of Tandy, Microsoft is trademark of Microsoft. 



TRS-80 Disk and Other Mysteries is the 
definitive fixit book for disk users. Writen 
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Please send me the following 
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□ TRS-80 Disk for $22.50 

D Microsoft BASIC Decoded for $29.95 

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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 85 




16 - DIGIT ACCURACY 

AND MORE 

STATISTICAL POWER 

Software For Model I 

and III 



Stepwise Multiple Regression - For up to 

61 variables. Each step output (addition or 
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$120 

Analysis of Variance - Multiple factor, 
analysis of variance for up to ten main 
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Analysis of Covariance - Multiple factor, 
analysis of variance ( up to five main effects) 
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Tables include: source, degrees of free 
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Factor Analysis - Principal components, 
VARIMAX and oblique simple structures, for 
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Discriminant Function - For up to 58 var- 
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ANY FOUR PROGRAMS $220 

ALL FIVE $240 

Each program includes one master diskette 
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permanent storage of data on blank disk- 
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of cases and editing. Each program can 
produce printed output of raw data and 
computations are performed in 16- digit 
double precision 

All programs run in Tandy BASIC and re 
quire48K RAM and at least one disk drive. A 
printer is recommended but is optional. 
Model I or III versions. (Model II version 
planned release date is 6/82.) 



"Guaranteed against damage and defects 
for 90 days." 

Make checks payable to: 
R.R. Belanger, Ph.D. 

541 West Sixth St 
Azusa, CA91702 

Tandy BASIC is a product of Tandy, Inc. 

k-545 



"Students have to bring 
a knowledge of punctuation 
to the program." 



the writings of your students. The job of 
locating the cursor positions of the punc- 
tuation marks is a tough one, but there's 
always one student who would benefit 
from the challenge! The main thing to 
remember is that each selection should 
contain at least 20 punctuation marks (in 
lines 43-84). 

One final note: Punctuation Put-On 
can't tell students anything about the 
rules of punctuation: It is not trying to 



replace the teacher. Students have to 
bring a knowledge of punctuation to the 
program. It then gives them a chance to 
test their skills against the variety that ac- 
tually exists in the written word— and all in 
the spirit of fun!B 

John Perron is a curriculum writer of 
language arts and course software, and 
has published several books on these 
topics. 



Punctuation Mark Grade Levels 

Ending: 

Period (.) «« 

Question Mark (?) !ZZZ"ZZZ"""".ZZ Z! 1-8 

Exclamation Mark (!) j_g 

Other: 

Comma (,) j_g 

Apostrophe (') 3_3 

Quotation Mark (") 4_8 

Semicolon (;) 5_g 

Colon (:) ZZZZ..Z.Z. 5-8 

Hyphen (•) 5 . 8 

Table 2. Punctuation at Elementary Grade Levels 



Here are the kinds of errors you made, if any: 

Type of Error Number of Errors 

Exclamation Mark (!) 1 

Quotation Mark (") o 

Apostrophe (') 4 

Question Mark (?) 

Comma (,) 1 

Period (.) 

Semicolon (;) 

Colon (:) 

Hyphen (-) 

Total 6 

Write down your score before your press <Enter>? 

Table 3. Error Diagnostics. Final score comes just before the diagnostics, so a 
student knows how many selections have been attempted and the individual 
and total scores overall. 



Program Listing 



REM MIXED GRADES (uPPER ELEMENTARY) SAMPLER VERSION 6.6 

CLEAR 200:DEFINT A-Z 

DIM P(20) :CLS 

PRINT@204,CHR$( 23) "PUNCTUATION PUT-ON" 

PRINT@348 f "BY";:PRINT@464,"JOHN D. PERRON" 

PRINT@590,"527 - 41ST AVENUE" 

PRINT@708,"SAN fRANCISCO, caLIF 94121" 

8 PRINT@848, "COPYRIGHT 1980" :FOR T=l TO 4500:NEXT TrGOSUB 218-GO 
TO 96 

9 REM *** WRONG ANSWER SUBROUTINE *** 

10 IF B$=CHR$(13) THEN B$="<ENTER>" 

11 NC=0:C=C+1:PRINT@768,"NO, IT IS NOT ( "B§" ) IT IS ( "C$" ) 
WATCH IT BLINK... ";:FOR T=l TO 500:NEXTT 

12 FOR J=l TO 30:PRINT@LC,C$;:FOR T=l TO 25:NEXT T:PRINT@LC," "; 
:FOR K=l TO 25:NEXT KrNEXT J:PRINT@LC,C$; 

13 IF C$="l" THEN Wl = Wl + 1:G0T0 23 

14 IF C$=CHR$(34) THEN W2 = W2 +1:G0T0 23 Program continues 



86 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program continued 

15 IF C$="'" THEN W3 = W3 + 1:G0T0 23 

16 IF C$="?" THEN W4 = VI 4 + l:GOTO 23 

17 IF C$="," THEN W5 = W5 + l:GOTO 23 

18 IF C$=". n THEN W6 = W6 + l:GOTO 23 

19 IF C$=";" THEN W7 = W7 + l:GOTO 23 

20 IF C$=":" THEN W8 = W8 + l:GOTO 23 

21 IF C$="-" THEN W9 = W9 + 1 

22 REM *** TYPING HELP REQUEST *** 

23 R$= n ":PRINTia896, "WOULD YOU LIKE TYPING HELP (Y=YES/N=NO) ?" ; :R 
$=INKEY$:IF R$="" THEN 23 

24 IF R$ <> "Y" THEN PRINT@768,STRING$ (3 ,255) ; : GOTO 42 ELSE CLS: 

GOSUB 143: CLS: GOTO 41 

25 REM *** CORRECT ANSWER SUBROUTINE *** 

26 NC=0:C=C+1:R=R+1:G=RND(14) :ON G GOTO 27,27,28,27,27,29,27,27, 
30,27,27,31,27,27 

27 PRINT@768,TAB(20) "*":GOTO 32 

28 PRINT@768,TAB(20)"VERY GOOD, "Z$"!":GOTO 32 

29 PRINT@768,TAB(20) "GREAT, "Z$"l":GOTO 32 

30 PRINT@768,TAB(20) "THAT'S CORRECT. ": GOTO 32 

31 PRINT@768,TAB(20) "THAT'S RIGHT." 

32 FOR T=l TO 300:NEXT T:PRINT@896 , "PRESS <ENTER> WHEN READY FOR 
THE NEXT ONE";:INPUT 1$: PRINT@768,STRING$ (3 ,255) ; :RETURN 

33 REM *** RUN-TIME REMINDERS *** 

34 CLS:PRINT@448,"HERE IS PUNCTUATION PUT-ON STORY #"; S: PRINT: PR 
INT"READ IT FIRST. THEN LOOK AT THE PUNCTUATION. ": PRINT : PRINT :F 
OR T=l TO 2000:NEXT T:ON S GOSUB 109,121,131 

35 PRINT@916,"WHEN YOU FINISH READING, PRESS <ENTER>" ;: INPUT 1$: 
CLS 

36 PRINT@128,STRING$(63,42);:PRINT@215,"*** REMINDER ***":PRINT@ 
389, "THE BLINKER FLASHES WHERE A PUNCUATION MARK SHOULD GO." 

37 PRINTTAB(5) "TAKE YOUR TIME. i ' LL WAIT UNTIL YOU CAN DECIDE W 
HICH" 

38 PRINTTAB(5)"MARK GOES THERE. WHEN YOU TYPE YOUR CHOICE, IT W 
ILL" 

39 PRINTTAB(5) "SHOW UP ON THE SCREEN IN PLACE OF THE BLINKER. ":P 
RINT@704,STRING$(63,42) ; 

40 PRINT@920, "READY TO BEGIN? PRESS <ENTER>" ;: INPUT I$:CLS 

41 IF C>=10 THEN 89 ELSE ON S GOSUB 109,121,131 

42 IF C>=10 THEN 89 

43 REM *** ON-SCREEN PRINT@ SELECTOR *** 

44 NC=RND(20) :IF P(NC)=1 THEN 44 ELSE P(NC)=1 

45 ON NC GOTO 46,48,50,52,54,56,58,60,62,64,66,68,70,72,74,76,78 
,80,82,84 

46 IF S=1,LC=35:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE IF S=2,LC=57:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE L 
C=8:C$=CHR$(45) 

47 GOTO 86 

48 IF S=1,LC=96:C$=CHR$(63) ELSE IF S=2,LC=113:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE 
LC=31:C$=CHR$(59) 

49 GOTO 86 

50 IF S=1,LC=140:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2,LC=143:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE 
LC=56:C$=CHR$(33) 

51 GOTO 86 

52 IF S=1,LC=206:C$=CHR$(44) ELSE IF S=2,LC=197:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE 
LC=137:C$=CHR$(44) 

53 GOTO 86 

54 IF S=1,LC=151:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE IF S=2,LC=221:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE 

LC=148:C$=CHR$(33) 

55 GOTO 86 

56 IF S=1,LC=87:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2,LC=220:C$=CHR$ (63) ELSE 
LC=155:C$=CHR$(63) 

57 GOTO 86 

58 IF S=1,LC=261:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2,LC=294:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE 
LC=265:C$=CHR$(46) 

59 GOTO 86 

60 IF S=1,LC=279:C$=CHR$(44) ELSE IF S=2,LC=358:C$=CHR$ (44) ELSE 
LC=272:C$=CHR$(44) 

61 GOTO 86 

62 IF S=1,LC=358:C$=CHR$(33) ELSE IF S=2,LC=386:C$=CHR$(39) ELSE 
LC=277:C$=CHR$(45) 

63 GOTO 86 

64 IF S=1,LC=389:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2,LC=453 :C$=CHR$(34) ELSE 

LC=288:C$=CHR$(33) 

65 GOTO 86 

66 IF S=1,LC=414:C$=CHR$(63) ELSE IF S=2,LC=468:C$=CHR$(33) ELSE 
LC=312:C$=CHR$(33) 

67 GOTO 86 

68 IF S=1,LC=433:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE IF S=2,LC=475:C$=CHR$ (39) ELSE 
LC=392:C$=CHR$(44) 

69 GOTO 86 

70 IF S=1,LC=456:C$=CHR$(44) ELSE IF S=2,LC=493:C$=CHR$(44) ELSE 
LC=399:C$=CHR$(44) 

71 GOTO 86 

72 IF S=1,LC=474:C$=CHR$(39) ELSE IF S=2,LC=503:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE 
LC=405:C$=CHR$(44) 

73 GOTO 86 

74 IF S=1,LC=543:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2,LC=517 :C$=CHR$(34) ELSE 

LC=411:C$=CHR$(59) 

n c COTO ftfi 

Program continues 




EIGHTY/ 

APPLE 

COMPUTER 

SHOW 

(Formerly the Natl TRS-80 Show) 

FOR APPLE* and 

TRS-80* COMPUTER 

SYSTEMS 

April 2-4, 1982 

New York Statler 

7th. Ave. & 33rd. Street 

New York, NY 

The EIGHTY/APPLE COMPUTER 
SHOW will feature over 100 exhibitors 
of equipment, supplies, books, maga- 
zines, parts, software and accessories 
for the TRS-80 and Apple Computer 
systems. There will be demonstrations 
of new and exciting products for the 
TRS-80 and Apple systems, for the 
businessman, professional, educator 
and hobbyist. In addition, most exhibi- 
tors will be selling their products at the 
show for immediate delivery. If you 
own a TRS-80 or Apple Computer, or 
have been thinking of purchasing one 
of these two exciting systems, don't 
miss the Eighty /Apple Computer Show. 
SAVE $2.00 on admission by bringing 
in the coupon below! 

SHOW HOURS 
Friday April 2 11AM to 7 PM 
Saturday April 3 11AM to 7 PM 
Sunday April 4 11AM to 5 PM 

REGISTRATION $5.00 Day 

Children under 12 ■ $1.00 

FOR EXHIBITOR INFORMATION 
CONTACT 

Kengore Corporation 

3001 Route 27 

Franklin Park, NJ 08823 

(201) 297-2526 

'TRS-80 is a Trademark of Tandy Corp. and Apple is 
a Trademark of Apple Computer Co. 

■ — — — — SAVE $2.00 ■■ ■ ■ " ' 



• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



This coupon is good for Two Dollars 
($2.00) off the regular daily registration 
fee of $5.00. Limit one coupon per per- 
son, not applicable to children's admis- 
sion. Only original copies of this cou- 
pon will be accepted. 

EIGHTY/APPLE SHOW 
April 2-4, 1982 
NY Statler 
(NO CASH VALUE) C 

L. — - — - SAVE $2.00 m m — m m 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 87 




monitor 
analog data 
quickly and 
inexpensively 

ADhN\ 

provides analog data 
monitoring for your micro- 
computer. With proper 
transducers it allows you 
to sense temperature, 
wind direction, electrical 
current, or joysticks and 
convert the sensors 
analog voltages into digi- 
tal readings your micro- 
computer can process. 

SPECS 

8 bit resolution A/D 
0-5 volt input range 
16 Analog Input channels 
MODELS 

ADAM with TRS-80 inter- 
face $190.00 
ADAM with R5-232/RS-423 
interface $250.00 
ADAM with RS-422 inter- 
face $275.00 
Dealer inquiries welcomed. 




small system design 

P. 0. BOX 4546 • MANCHESTER, NH 0311 



Representatives Pacific North- 
west Data Systems Marketing 
(503) 297-8444 

New England American Data 
Systems Marketing (617) 341-0171 



Program continued 

76 IF S=1,LC=558:C$=CHR$(39) ELSE IF S=2 ,LC=520 :C$=CHR$ ( 44) ELSE 
LC=441:C$=CHR$(58) 

77 GOTO 86 

78 IF S=1,LC=571:C$=CHR$(63) ELSE IF S=2, LC=528 :C$=CHR$(44) ELSE 
LC=522:C$=CHR$(33) 

7 9 GOTO 86 

80 IF S=1,LC=601:C$=CHR$(34) ELSE IF S=2 ,LC=529 :C$=CHR$ (34) ELSE 
LC=529:C$=CHR$(63) 

81 GOTO 86 

82 IF S=1,LC=616:C$=CHR$(63) ELSE IF S=2 ,LC=570 :C$=CHR$(63) ELSE 
LC=542:C$=CHR$(33) 

83 GOTO 86 

84 IF S=1,LC=698:C$=CHR$(46) ELSE IF S=2 ,LC=602 :C$=CHR$ (34) ELSE 
LC=570:C$=CHR$(33) 

85 REM *** ANSWER PRINT@ POSITION *** 

86 B$="":PRINT@LC,CHR$(128)+CHR$(8) ; : B$=INKEY$ : Z=NOT Z : FOR X=l T 
15:PRINT CHR$ (15+Z) ; : NEXT X:IF B$=" n THEN PRINT CHR$ (15) ; : GOTO 

86 ELSE IF B$=CHR$(13) PRINT CHR$ (15) ; : GOTO 87 ELSE PRINT B$;CH 
R$(15); 

87 IF B$ <> C$ THEN 10 ELSE GOSUB 26:GOTO 42 ' CHECK ANSWER 

88 REM *** END A STORY/ASSIGN SCORES *** 

89 CLS:PRINT@256,"THAT'S ALL FOR THIS STORY. YOU GOT "R" OUT OF 
10.": IF S=l THEN G1=R ELSE IF S=2 THEN G2=R ELSE IF S=3 THEN G3 

=R 

90 PRINT:PRINT"THAT MEANS A SCORE OF" INT ( R/10*100) "PER CENT FOR 
STORY #"S". n :R=0 

91 REM *** RECYCLE OR END *** 

92 R$="":PRINT@704,"WANT TO TRY ANOTHER STORY ( Y=YES/N=NO) ?" ; : R$ 
=INKEY$:IF R$="" THEN 92 

93 IF R$ <> "N" AND R$ <> "Y" THEN CLS: PRINT@930 , "PLEASE TYPE Y 
OR N.":GOTO 92 ELSE IF R$="N" THEN CLS: GOSUB 157 :PRINT@470 , "GOOD 
BYE FOR NOW.": GOTO 94 ELSE IF R$="Y" THEN CLS :C=0: GOTO 97 

94 END 

95 REM *** SELECTIONS *** 

96 PRINT"O.K., "Z$", WHICH SELECTION WOULD YOU LIKE TO TRY FIRST 
?":PRINT:PRINT:F=F+l:GOTO 100 

97 FOR NC=1 TO 20 : P (NC) =0 :NEXT NC:CLS : PRINT"ALL RIGHT, "Z$", PIC 
K ANOTHER SELECTION :": F=F+1 : PRINT 

98 REM *** SELECTION TITLES *** 

99 REM *** DIALOGUE *** 

100 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 5) "SELECTION #1: KEN ASKS HIS MOTHER (HA 
RD) " 

101 REM *** NARRATIVE *** 

102 PRINT:PRINTTAB(5) "SELECTION #2: REWARD FOR THE ROBOT (HA 
RDER) " 

103 REM *** POETRY *** 

104 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 5) "SELECTION #3: A NOT-SO-FAST FLY (HA 
RDEST) ": PRINT 

105 S=0:PRINT@832,"PICK YOUR CHOICE AND TYPE ITS NUMBER (1, 2, O 
R 3): "; : S$=INKEY$: IF S$="" THEN 105 ELSE S=VAL(S$> 

106 IF S=>4 OR S<=0 THEN PRINT: PRINTTAB( 3 0) "THE NUMBER MUST BE 1 
, 2, OR 3":FOR T=l TO 500:NEXT T:CLS:GOTO 100 ELSE IF F=2 OR F=5 

OR F=9 THEN CLS:GOSUB 183 

107 IF S=l AND G1>0 OR S=2 AND G2>0 OR S=3 AND G3>0 THEN 41 ELSE 
GOTO 3 4 

108 REM *** SELECTION # 1 *** 

109 CLS:PRINTTAB(5) "KEN WANTED TO GO TO THE CIRCUS. aFTER SCHOO 
L HE CAME HOME" 

110 PRINT"AND ASKED HIS MOTHER: "CHR$ (34) "CAN i GO?"CHR$(34) 

111 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "WHERE?"CHR$ (34) " SHE ASKED." 

112 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "YOU KNOW, "CHR$ (34) " HE SAID." 

113 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "NO, "CHR$ (34) " SHE ANSWERED, "CHR$(34)"i 
DON'T KNOW."CHR$(34) 

114 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "BUT ALL THE OTHER KIDS ARE GOING! "CHR$ (3 
4) " HE SHOUTED. " 

115 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "BUT WHERE ARE THEY GOING?"CHR$ ( 34) " SHE 
SHOUTED BACK." 

116 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "OH , "CHR$ (34) " KEN SAID. "CHR$ (34) "THEY ' R 
E GOING TO THE CIRCUS . "CHR$ (34) 

117 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "OH , "CHR$ (34 ) " HIS MOTHER LAUGHED, "CHR$( 
34)"WELL, WHY DIDN'T YOU SAY SO?"CHR?(34) 

118 PRINTTAB(5) "KEN LOOKED AT HER: "CHR$ (34) "WELL, CAN I GO?"CH 
R$(34) 

119 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34) "GO ASK YOUR FATHER! "CHR$ ( 34) " HIS MOTHER 
SAID AND TURNED AWAY. " :RETURN 

120 REM *** SELECTION # 2 *** 

121 CLS:PRINTTAB(5) "ONE DAY A ROBOT NAMED WUNTOO WAS ROLLING DOW 
N A ROAD. ALL" 

122 PRlNT"OF A SUDDEN IT SPIED A BAG OF MONEY IN THE BUSHES. TH 
ERE WAS" 

123 PRINT"NO ONE IN SIGHT. " : PRINTTAB ( 5) CHR$ (34) "I WONDER WHO LOS 
T THIS?"CHR$(34) " BEEPED WUNTOO." 

124 PRINTTAB(5) "ON THE BAG WAS THE NAME OF A BANK. wUNTOO TOOK 
IT TO" 

125 PRINT"THE BANK MANAGER. WHEN WUNTOO ARRIVED, THE BANK MANAG 
ER SAID" 

126 PRINT"HE'D JUST BEEN ROBBED." 

Program continues 



88 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Mow there's a revo- 
lutionary new data 

base manager 
and operating system 
with an easy to use 
conversational 
business language. 

This is the first truly 
relational system with 
full conversational 
JOIN capabilities so 
that you can inter- 
actively establish 
hierarchical or net- 
work structures. 

Available on the 
TRS/80 Model II or 
DEC 11/23. Data Ace 
includes its own 
operating system. 

EASY TO USE con- 
versational commands 
to set up Data Relations 
and Fields which may 
be CHANGEd without 
altering application work. 

ENGLISHLIKE 
LANGUAGE to ADD, 
CHANGE, DELETE, LIST, or 
JOIN relations or data 
on the tly generating 
analytical or exception 
reports immediately. 

AMAZING PER- 
FORMANCE and 
response because of 
the memory resident 
DATA DICTIONARY 
which provides rapid 
access to the Relations 
you want. 

COMPREHENSIVE 
ERROR TRAPPING with 
powerful HELP messages 



you may request accord- 
ing to the context of your 
commands resulting in a 
system which is virtually 
self- teaching. 

FULL TEXT 
PROCESSING EDITOR 

which helps you store, 
write, and change pro- 
grams (written in the 
specially provided Data 
Manipulation Lan- 
guage), helps you store 
or change those COM- 
MANDS you may wish 
to use later or simply 
store and correct text 
for letters or memos. 
USER VIEWS pro- 
vided by PROCEDURE 
with complete control 
at the FIELD level. 



MULTI TERMINAL USE 

supported on DEC 11/23 
with CONCURRENT use of 
records within a database 
and full INTERLOCK 
handling- warm restart with 
TRANSACTION LOGGING,, 
control of synchronization 
points and PASSWORDS. 

BRING MAINFRAME 
POWER TO YOUR MICRO- 
PROCESSOR 

This is the first appli- 
cation development tool 
to be provided on 8 bit 
and 16 bit computers with 
a full range of ENGLISH-like 
conversational power 
normally only available 
on large mainframes 
which demand mega- 
bytes of memory. 




! 




SMART 
DATABASE 

MANAGER 

YES! Show me how smart you are. 

i I Send me a FREE copy of the DATA ACE information 
leaflet. 

[ iSend me the DATA ACE User Manual covering the Rela- 
tional Data Base Manager, the Editor, the conversational 
data retrieval and command facilities and the interac- 
tive data definition language. My check for $75.00 is 
enclosed. Mail to: Aregon Systems, Inc. 1911 Wright Circle 
Anaheim, Ca. 92806, (714) 634-9012 



Name. 



Title. 



The SMART Data Base Management 
System 



*a rnc 



Company 
Address _ 

City 

Phone 



.State. 



.Zip. 



:<:c • 



•546 I 



OMNITEK COMPUTERS 

INTERNATIONAL, INC. 

1899 MAIN STREET 

TEWKSBURY, MASS 

6 17-85 1 -4580 



^105 



Scotch S.S/S.D 5.25" Diskettes 25.00 

Elephant Memory 5.25" Diskettes.. .23. 00 

1 6K RAM KITS 14.00 

TECO 12" B&GMonitor 1 19.00 

Okidata Microline 80 339.00 

Okidata Microline 82A 489.00 

Okidata Microline 83A 749.00 

Epson Mx-80 479.00 

Radio Shack Mill w/48K 879.00 

Radio Shack Mill w/48K and 2 40T dr 

1699.00 

40 track 5.25" Tandon TM- 1 00- 1 .284.00 
80 track 5.25" Tandon Dual Head. 484. 00 

5.25" Power Supply and case 49.00 

8" Power Supply and case 1 19.00 

Apple II plus w/48K, I drive, RF mod 

1690.00 

Comet 1 25 CPS printer 299.00 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of 
Tandy Corp. 

Prices are for mail order only. 

TERMS: Check, money order, Mastercard 

and Visa accepted. F.O.B. Tewksbury- 

freight extra. Mass residents add 5% 

sales tax. Write for FREE CATALOG. 



PORTFOLIO 
Management System 



• Stores multiple portfolios of stocks, 
puts, calls, warrants, mutual funds, 
and bonds. 

• Retrieves market quotes from your 
Dow Jones News Service Account* 

• Prints analysis by Portfolio- 
High • Low • Last • Close • Volume 
Current Value • Gain or Loss 
Value Change • Price Change 
Dow Averages 

• Creates Tax Record 



MODEL I /III 

$149.95 



MODEL II 
$495.00 



Send Check or Money Order to: 

Snowden E. Bunch, Ph. D. 

C / O Ehlen Enterprizes 

6319 Briarwood Road 

Columbia, SC. 29206 

(803) 787-7256 



* Account established separately with 

Dow Jones, Inc. ^^ 



Program continued 

127 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34)"YOU ARE A HERO! HERE'S A $1,000 REWARD, 
"CHR$(34)" HE SAID." 

128 PRINTTAB(5)CHR$(34)"NO, THANKS, "CHRS(34) " BEEPED WUNTOO. "CH 
R$(34)"bUT DO YOU HAVE ANY OIL? i" 

129 PRINT"HAVE A SQUEAK IN MY WHEEL. "CHR$(34) :RETURN 

130 REM *** SELECTION # 3 **** 

131 CLS:PRINTTAB( 5) "ZIG-ZAG, BUZZ, FLASH, STOP;": PRINT 

132 PRINTTAB(5)"BUZZ, ZIP, SLAP! GONE?":PRINT 

133 PRINTTAB(5)"BACK. BUZZ, ZIG-ZAG, SLASH! " :PRINT 

134 PRINTTAB(5) "ZIP, FLASH, BUZZ, STOP;":PRINT 

135 PRINTTAB(5)"SWISH! MISS? BUZZ, SLAP!":PRINT 

136 FOR T=l TO 1000: NEXT T:PRINT@53 , "MAD! "; :GOSUB 141 

137 PRI NT @181, "GRAB"; :GOSUB 141 

138 PRINT@3 09,"BAT!";:GOSUB 141 

139 PRINT@437,"BUzZ:";:GOSUB 141 

140 PRINT@565, "SPLAT!": RETURN 

141 FOR T=l TO 300: NEXT T: RETURN 

142 REM *** PUNCTUATION DISPLAY *** 

143 PRINT"HERE'S WHERE TO FIND THE PUNCTUATION MARKS ON YOUR KEY 
BOARD": PRINT 

144 PRINTTAB(5)"PRESS THE SHIFT KEY WITH THE FOLLOWING:" 

145 PRINT" (1) EXCLAMATION MARK -- TOP ROW ON LEFT (1ST KEY)" 

146 PRINT"("CHR$(34)") QUOTATION MARK — TOP ROW ON LEFT (2ND KE 

147 PRINT" (?) QUESTION MARK — BOTTOM ROW ON RIGHT (NEXT TO SHIF 
T KEY) 

148 PRINT" (') APOSTROPHE — TOP ROW IN MIDDLE (KEY #7)":PRINT 

149 PRINTTAB(5)"THE FOLLOWING ARE TYPED ALONE (NO SHIFT KEY):" 

150 PRINT" (,) COMMA — BOTTOM ROW ON RIGHT (3RD FROM SHIFT KEY)" 

151 PRINT" (.) PERIOD — BOTTOM ROW ON RIGHT (2ND FROM SHIFT KEY) 

152 PRINT" (;) SEMICOLON — SECOND ROW FROM BOTTOM (NEXT TO ENTER 
KEY) " 

153 PRINT" (:) COLON — TOP ROW ON RIGHT (STAR KEY *) " 

154 PRINT" (-) HYPHEN -- - TOP ROW ON RIGHT (NEXT TO BREAK KEY)" 

155 PRINT :PRINTTAB( 15) "PRESS <ENTER> WHEN READY TO GO ON";:INPUT 
I$:CLS:RETURN 

156 REM **** FINAL SCORE SUBROUTINE **** 

157 CLS:IF G1<=0 THEN 158 ELSE PRINT: PRINT "YOU G0T"G1"0UT OF 10 
ON SELECTION #1" :PRINTTAB(30) "SCORE. ... "INT(G1/10*100) "%" :PRINT 

158 IF G2<=0 THEN 159 ELSE PRINT"YOU G0T"G2"0UT OF 10 ON SELECTI 
ON #2":PRINTTAB(30)"SCORE...."INT(G2/10*100)"%":PRINT 

159 IF G3<=0 THEN 160 ELSE PRINT"YOU G0T"G3"0UT OF 10 ON SELECTI 
ON #3":PRINTTAB(30) "SCORE. ... "INT(G3/10*100) "%" :PRINT 

160 IF G1<=0 AND G2<=0 AND G3<=0 THEN RETURN 

161 IF G1<=0 AND G2<=0 THEN G4=10:GOTO 164 ELSE IF G1<=0 AND G3< 
=0 THEN G4=10:GOTO 164 

162 IF G2<=0 AND G3<=0 THEN G4=10:GOTO 164 

163 IF G1<=0 OR G2<=0 OR G3<=0 THEN G4=20 ELSE G4=30 

164 PRINT"THAT MEANS YOU G0T"G1+G2+G3 "CORRECT OUT 0F"G4 "OVER-ALL 
,":PRINTTAB(30) "TOTAL SCORE. ... "INT( (Gl+G2+G3)/G4*100) "%" 

165 PRINT :PRINT"wHEN YOU'VE READ YOUR SCORE, PRESS <ENTER>"; • INP 
UT I$:CLS:IF (Gl+G2+G3=30) OR (Gl+G2=20 AND G3=0) OR (Gl+G3=20 A 
ND G2=0) OR (G2+G3=20 AND G1=0) THEN 178 ELSE IF (Gl=10 AND G2+G 
3=0) OR (G2=10 AND Gl+G3=0) OR (G3=10 AND Gl+G2=0) THEN 178 

166 PRINT"HERE ARE THE KINDS OF ERRORS YOU MADE, IF ANY: "-PRINT 

167 PRINTTAB(5)"TYPE OF ERROR NUMBER OF ERRORS" :P 
RINT 

168 PRINTTAB( 5) "EXCLAMATION MARK (!) "wi 

169 PRINTTAB(5) "qUOTATION MARK ("CHR$(34)") "W2 

170 PRINTTAB( 5) "APOSTROPHE (') »w3 

171 PRINTTAB( 5) "QUESTION MARK (?) «W4 

172 PRINTTAB(5) "COMMA (,) » W 5 

173 PRINTTAB( 5) "PERIOD (.) " W 6 

174 PRINTTAB( 5) "SEMICOLON (;) »W7 

175 PRINTTAB(5) "COLON (:) » W 8 

176 PRINTTAB( 5) "HYPHEN (-) » W g 

177 WW=W1+W2+W3+W4+W5+W6+W7+W8+W9:PRINTTAB(15) "TOTAL 

"WW:PRINT@960,TAB(5)"WRITE DOWN YOUR SCORe'bEFORE* 

YOU PRESS <ENTER>";:INPUTI$:IFWW>0THEN181 

178 CLS:PRINT@448,CHR$(23)"W OW! NO ERRORS! !":F0R 
T=l TO 50:NEXT T:U=U+1:PRINT@448,CHR$(255) :F0R T=l TO 50:NEXT T« 
IFU<=10 THEN 178 ELSE U=0:CLS:R$="" 

17 9 PRINT@320, "WOULD YOU LIKE TO SHOW YOUR RESULTS TO YOUR TEACH 
ER?":PRINT@448,"THEN CALL YOUR TEACHER OVER BEFORE YOU TYPE Y (F 
OR YES) ,":PRINT@576,"IF NOT, JUST TYPE N (FOR NO) . " :R$=INKEY$-IF 
R$="" THEN 179 

180 IF R$="Y" THEN CLS:GOT0157 ELSE IF R$<>"N" THEN CLS : PRI NT " TY 
PE Y OR N, PLEASE... ":G0T017 9 

181 CLS: RETURN 

182 REM *** GRAPHIC EYES SUBROUTINE *** 

183 E1$=CHR$(156)+CHR$(172)+CHR$(193)+CHR$(156)+CHR$(172) 

184 E2$=CHR$(198) 

185 E3$=CHR$(140)+CHR$(188)+CHR$(193)+CHR$(140)+CHR$(188) 

186 E4$=CHR$(18 8)+CHR$(140)+CHR$(193)+CHR$(188)+CHR$(140) 

187 E5$=CHR$(176)+CHR$(188)+CHRS(193)+CHR$(176)+CHR$(188) 

188 E6$=CHR$(188)+CHR$(176)+CHR$(193)+CHR$(188)+CHR$(176) 

Program continues 



90 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Reader Service for facing page * 572— 




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Program continued 

189 E7$=CHR$(159)+CHR$(175)+CHR$(193)+CHR$(15 9)+CHR$(175) 

190 H=RND(3):0N H GOTO 191,192,193 

191 PRI NT: PRINT "HMMMMMM.. .NOW LET'S SEE... WHERE DID I PUT THAT 
NE?":GOTO 194 

192 PRINT: PRINT"LET ME THINK... WHAT DID I DO WITH THAT 0NE?":G0T 
194 

193 PRINT:PRINT"HMMMM.. .WHERE DID I PUT IT?" 

194 FOR T=l TO 80 0: NEXT T 

195 HA=RND(3):ON HA GOTO 196,197,198 

196 PRINT@640,"HERE?":GOTO 199 

197 PRINT@370,"UP HERE?":GOTO 199 

198 PRINT@448, "MAYBE HERE?" 

199 FOR T=l TO 800:NEXT T 

200 HB=RND(3):ON HB GOTO 201,202,203 

201 PRINT@734,"HOW ABOUT HERE?":GOTO 204 

202 PRINT@832, "DOWN HERE?":GOTO 204 

203 PRINT @6 85, "OVER HERE?" 

204 FOR T=l TO 300:NEXT T:GOSUB 211 

205 CLS:HP=RND(3) :0N HP GOTO 206,207,208 

206 HS$=" HEY, i FOUND ITl":GOTO 209 

207 HS$="GREAT! HERE IT IS!":GOTO 209 

208 HS$="WOW! i FOUND IT!" 

209 PRINT@460,CHR$(23) ;HS$:FOR T=l TO 50:NEXT T:U=U+1 :PRINT@460 , 
STRING$(LEN(HS$) ,32) :FOR T=l TO 50:NEXT T 

210 IF U<=10 GOTO 209 ELSE U=0 :HS$=" B :CLS: RETURN 

211 PRINT@512,E1$:G0SUB 215 : PRINT@512 ,E2$:GOSUB 216 : PRINT@916 ,El 
$:GOSUB 215:PRINT@916,E3$:GOSUB 215 :PRINT@916 ,E1$:G0SUB 215 

212 PRINT§916,E4$:GOSUB 215 :PRINT@916 ,E1$:G0SUB 215 : PRINT@916 ,E2 
$:GOSUB 216:PRINT@476,E1$:G0SUB 215:PRINT@476 ,E5$:GOSUB 215:PRIN 
T§476,E1$:G0SUB 215 : PRINT@475 ,E2$:GOSUB 216 

213 PRINT@476,E1$:G0SUB 215 :PRINT@476 ,E6$:GOSUB 215:PRINT@476 ,El 
$:GOSUB 215:PRINT@475,E2$:GOSUB 216 :PRINT@476 ,El$ 

214 GOSUB 215:PRINT@476,E7$:GOSUB 215:RETURN 

215 FOR T=l TO 500: NEXT T: RETURN 

216 FOR T=l TO 50:NEXT T:RETURN 

217 REM **** STUDENT SECTION BEGINS **** 

218 CLS:PRINT@384,"TYPE YOUR FIRST NAME... THEN PRESS <ENTER>":IN 
PUTZ$:IF Z$="" THEN 218 ELSE PRINT 

219 PRINT@512,"YOUR NAME IS SPELLED "Z$", RIGHT?" :PRINT@640 , "TYP 
E 'Y' (YES) OR 'N' (NO) " ; : R$=INKEY$: IF R$= n " THEN 219 

220 IF RS<>"Y" THEN 218 ELSE CLS 

221 PRINTTAB(5) "HI, "Z$", WELCOME TO PUNCTUATION PUT-ON! " :PRINT 

222 PRINTTAB(5) "I'LL PRESENT A STORY, POEM, OR OTHER WRITING FOR 
YOU TO" 

223 PRINT"READ. LOOK CAREFULLY AT THE PUNCTUATION BECAUSE i HAV 
E A" 

224 PRINT"CHALLENGE FOR YOU. i'M GOING TO KNOCK OFF A PUNCTUATI 
ON MARK . " 

225 PRINT"YOU'RE GOING TO PUT IT BACK ON!":PRINT 

226 PRINTTAB( 5) "HERE'S HOW IT WORKS: FIRST, A SELECTION WILL AP 
PEAR" 

227 

228 PRINT"ON THE SCREEN WITH A BLINKING LIGHT IN PLACE OF ONE OF 
THE" 

229 PRINT"PUNCTUATION MARKS. YOU'LL DECIDE WHICH MARK GOES THER 
E AND" 

230 PRINT"TYPE IT. IF YOU'RE RIGHT, i ' LL PRINT A STAR (*) — USUA 
LLY— AND" 

231 PRINT"MOVE ON WHEN YOU'RE READY. IF YOU'RE WRONG, i * LL BLIN 
K THE" 

232 PRINT"RIGHT MARK ON THE SCREEN. I'LL REPEAT THIS 10 TIMES F 
OR EACH" 

233 PRINT"SELECTION.":PRINT@960, "PRESS <ENTER> WHEN YOU'RE READY 
FOR MORE INSTRUCTIONS."; :INPUTI$: CLS 

234 PRINTTAB(5) "THERE ARE THREE DIFFERENT SELECTIONS. YOU MAY P 
ICK" 

235 PRINT"ANY ONE AND REPEAT IT AS OFTEN AS YOU'D LIKE. i ' LL SH 
OW YOU" 

236 PRINT" YOUR SCORE AFTER EACH SELECTION. WHEN YOU WANT TO QUI 
T f i'LL" 

237 PRINT"PRESENT YOUR LATEST SCORES AND OVER-ALL TOTAL. i'LL A 
LSO TELL" 

23 8 PRINT" YOU WHAT KINDS OF ERRORS YOU MADE — IF ANY.": PRINT 

239 PRINTTAB(5) "SOME PEOPLE MAY NEED HELP FINDING THE PUNCTUATIO 
N MARKS." 

240 PRINT"NEXT, i'LL SHOW YOU WHERE THEY ARE LOCATED ON YOUR KEY 
BOARD . " 

241 PRINT" IF YOU MAKE AN ERROR AT ANY TIME, i'LL OFFER TO SHOW Y 
OU AGAIN.": PRINT 

242 PRINTTAB(5) "pUNTUATION PUT-ON CAN'T TELL YOU ANYTHING ABOUT 

THE RULES" 

243 PRINT"OF PUNCTUATION. YOU HAVE TO KNOW THAT YOURSELF. BUT 
IT WILL" 

244 PRINT"GIVE YOU A CHANCE TO TEST YOUR SKILLS WITH DIFFERENT K 
INDS OF" 

245 PRINT"WRITING. ": PRINT 

246 PRINTTAB( 20) "READY TO CONTINUE? PRESS <ENTER>" ;: INPUT I$:CL 
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A look at the future — education and computers. 



The Classroom Crystal Ball 







James Edward Keogh 
121 Gordon Street 
Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660 



Most school systems throughout the 
country, although they are in serious 
need of funds, recognize the power micro- 
computers have as an educational tool. 
Lacking carefully designed instructions- 
software— computers can become a center 
of frustration. 

The future for new educational programs 
is bright and will probably be an area of 
fastest growth for software in the next few 
years. Many teachers and programmers will 
turn their thoughts to designing new course 
software for their students. Before embark- 
ing on a program design that will revolution- 
ize teaching methods it is important these 
creative minds first consider a few aspects 
of the typical classroom. 

This article will discuss many aspects of 
the classroom environment, the needs of 
students and teachers, and ways the micro- 
computer will affect them. The educational 
software designer must take into consider- 
ation both the physical and emotional 
needs of the student. The programmer must 
also have a teacher's understanding of the 
material the program is to present, as well 
as skill to communicate to and motivate the 
student. In short, the programmer must 
wear several hats— programmer, educator 
and expert in the material being presented. 



94 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



The Dehumanized Classroom 

When designing a computer program for 
the classroom, the programmer must seri- 
ously confront the issue of learning without 
teachers. How computers dehumanize so- 
ciety is an emotion-packed subject that 
causes lengthy discussion. We are only a 
few years away from 1984: The rapid 
development of the microprocessor and 
microcomputer may prove George Orwell's 
projections to be fairly realistic. 

The issues are not merely theoretical 



"How computers dehumanize society 
is an emotion-packed subject. . . " 



problems posed by educators, but real ob- 
stacles that must be overcome if students 
and teachers are to truly benefit from the 
classroom computer. It is important the 
educational programmer realize the com- 
puter is not replacing the teacher, but 
is only assisting the teacher to educate 
the student. 

Educational software is often designed 
so the microcomputer may take over many 
of the teacher's traditional roles. The com- 
puter displays the major points of the les- 



son and quizzes the student until correct 
answers are given. 

When the lesson has ended— determined 
by the computer— the student continues to 
another programmed lesson. 

Although it may appear that teachers will 
be required only to take attendance and 
monitor student transitions, this vision (or 
nightmare) is false: There will still be teach- 
ers teaching. Microcomputers are limited, 
and the need for adaptable, responsive 
teachers will always be present. 



Targeting The Software Market 



by James Edward Keogh 



A programmer's first step towards sell- 
ing software is to identify an unful- 
filled need of microcomputer owners. This 
can be determined by researching micro 
owners to discover what they are using 
their microcomputer for. 

To gather this information try con- 
tacting various microcomputer manufac- 
turers or companies which sell micros 
to obtain their marketing and statisti- 
cal surveys. 

If you are more interested in educa- 
tional software research the various ways 
school systems are using the computer. 
What grades is the computer most used 
in? And in what areas is software most 
needed? This information can alert the 
programmer to types of software the 
school systems are likely to purchase. 

Once you have a good idea of the type 
of programs you would like to write, sur- 
vey the marketplace, search computer 
magazines, stores, and major software 
houses for similarly-titled software pack- 
ages available on the market. There is no 
point in putting a lot of time and effort into 
a program design only to find the market 
is glutted with similar packages. 

Your next step is to determine the quali- 
ty of any existing programs. Review your 
competition's products and estimate their 
strengths and weaknesses. Your product 
should eliminate many of the weaknesses 
and incorporate all the strengths of the 
competition's products. 



By following these steps closely you 
will determine whether your software can 
compete in the market place, or out-per- 
form those already there. Your next step is 
to sell it. 

At this writing there are few uniform 
steps to follow to sell software. There are 
four methods used: computer stores, 
magazine advertisements/mail order, di- 
rect mail, and software houses. Computer 
stores do exist, but the concept is still in a 
growth cycle. They do, however, offer the 
software producer an excellent potential 
for a sale. One benefit is the sales staff 
can answer any questions the computer 
owner may have and direct his or her at- 
tention to your software. If the product is a 
good seller, the programmer will have to 
be concerned with bulk orders. 

Although computer stores may be the 
ideal outlet for you, you are not the ideal 
source for the store owner. The store 
owner who is used to dealing with compa- 
nies such as Apple and Commodore will 
want a professional staff to support the 
products he is selling, as well as a com- 
plete line of software. 

Advertising in computer related maga- 
zines also offers the programmer an out- 
let to sell software. Although advertising 
rates may seem very expensive you must 
realize the number of readers reached by 
the magazine. You may actually be paying 
only a few cents per reader for the adver- 
tising space. 

One of the drawbacks of advertising in 
a magazine is that your ad will be mingled 
with more than 100 pages of articles and 
other ads. The placement of the ad within 



the magazine is very important. 

The most expensive and the highest- 
risk method of selling software is by direct 
mail, sending your sales literature directly 
to the consumer. Direct mail can cost 
more than 60 cents per address with a re- 
turn of only one or two percent. Of a hun- 
dred letters mailed, two letters, or orders, 
will return. Remember, those two orders 
must pay for the cost of the mailing plus 
a profit. 

An additional approach you might ex- 
plore in an attempt to market your wares 
is to contact a major distributor of com- 
puter software or a software house. These 
firms purchase software from indepen- 
dent programmers and package them into 
a marketable product. They have a trained, 
full-time sales staff who assure the prod- 
ucts get to market. 

These distributors usually duplicate 
your cassettes or disks at their expense 
and pay a royalty for each one sold. This 
method may prove to be the least expen- 
sive and most profitable unless you have 
top business skills and contacts in the 
industry. 

One last method you might consider is 
to develop a complete product line and 
contact a major firm who is currently sell- 
ing products to your market, for example, 
an educational publisher. If your products 
are top quality, the firm may want to pur- 
chase your complete line or agree to dis- 
tribute the line for you. 

Creating and selling software is by no 
means easy but it is possible. If you have a 
noteworthy program you can compete in 
this growing market. ■ 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 95 



"Most microcomputer programs are 
written for users who have 
basic capabilities — the ability 
to read and spell. . . " 



The Student 

The prime objective of an educational 
program is to present material in a logical 
and interesting way, which can be easily ab- 
sorbed. This may appear to be an easy task. 
However, there are a few steps which must 
be taken when designing educational soft- 
ware which complicate matters. 

Most microcomputer programs are writ- 
ten for users who have basic capabilit- 
ies—the ability to read and spell, for exam- 
ple. The educational programmer, however, 
does not have this freedom. Software 
designed for use in the classroom must be 
directed at a specific age group with specif- 
ic capabilities. 

We all would be able to guide a first or 
second grader through a lesson, but the 
programmer must translate an oral lesson 
into an understandable program— often for 
a student who may not yet be able to read or 
write. Although the programmer may be 
very facile with written communications di- 
rected at adults, he or she must be extreme- 
ly careful when writing for young students. 

Microcomputers pose an additional prob- 
lem for the young student: The letter and 
number display on a microcomputer screen 
differs from the formation of letters and 
numbers with which they are familiar. For 
example, the numerals three and four can 
be presented in several ways. Most adults 
can identify these numbers in almost any 
form, but most young students can recog- 
nize a number only in the single form they 
are familiar with. 

Programmers must assure the teacher 
that the student can read and understand 
the characters presented on the display 
screen. Research and creative thought 
must be given before deciding how the 
characters should appear. The first step 
is for the programmer to review printed 
material designed for the same age group 
as the program which the programmer is 
working on. 

Educational publishers spend time and 
money researching this and have arrived at 
a few solid guidelines. The printed material 
you review will give you a good indication of 
character design. The programmer's objec- 
tive is to project characters on the screen 
that match those in the printed material. 

Programs designed for students in the 
upper grades will probably use characters 
which are directly generated by the micro- 
computer. So the programmer will have lit- 
tle control over the appearance of these 
characters. Usually students in the upper 
grades have assimilated the various char- 

96 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



acter constructions, so microcomputer- 
generated characters will give him little 
difficulty. 

Young children, however, will rely on the 
creative skills of the programmer. Normally, 
computer-generated characters are too 
small for these students to read. The pro- 
grammer must enlarge the characters by 
"painting" the character on the screen. For 
example, a math addition problem will re- 
quire the programmer to "fill" the screen 
with the entire problem. 

In these circumstances the programmer 
will design the character to conform with 
those in educational printed material. 

Very few computers can be programmed 
to alter character formation. Teachers who 
have tested educational programs in the 
classroom have pointed out that the size of 
the displayed characters is important. 
Many students have found it difficult to 
recognize the small letters and numbers 
displayed by the computer. They have 
a greater chance of recognizing an en- 
larged character. 

Aside from the mechanical difficulties in- 
volved in programming for the classroom, 
the programmer must also have a feeling 
for how the student views the new experi- 
ence of using computers. Many students 
will associate the new learning tool with 
computer games rather than a text book. 

Because the computer is new to the stu- 
dent and is associated with fun and enter- 
tainment, the programmer has a captive 
audience— at least for a moment. Tech- 
niques developed for computer games can 
be combined with the material to be learned 
and designed into an entertaining educa- 
tional program. 

Students are willing to learn as long as 
the material presented to them is interest- 
ing and presented in an intelligent manner. 
The material should encourage the student 
to think and reason within his or her own 
capabilities. For example, a student in the 
younger grades may find computer anima- 
tion an acceptable learning form. Older stu- 
dents may be insulted by such childishness 
and demand more involved graphics and 
higher difficulty levels in educational 
games. As many teachers learn quickly— 
never doubt the student's capabilities. Give 
the student a little more than he or she is 
ready to handle. 

Encouragement is a Factor 

Encouragement is a strong motivating 
factor in education. Students need some- 
one to say "You've done a good job" from 



time to time. For a student, praise from a 
teacher seems more valuable than that 
from a computer. 

The educational programmer must real- 
ize the computer is not replacing the teach- 
er, but assisting the teacher in educating 
the student. 

Teachers and students have apprehen- 
sions about computerized teaching. At a 
recent state teachers' convention a news- 
paper reported a teachers' union leader 
warning his members: "Soon you will be re- 
placed by a computer." 

Such a remark was not made in jest and 
articulates one of the first visible fears 
which a few teachers have developed. 

Is this fear justified? No. The educational 
microcomputer programmers and educat- 
ors will determine how the microcomputer 
will be used in the classroom. These fears 
may reflect an uneasiness with the un- 
known since the microcomputers are just 
beginning to enter the classroom. The pro- 
grammer who is designing educational 
software must consider his leadership role 
in changing the attitudes of educators. 

Students too will have their apprehen- 
sions about microcomputers although they 
should more readily adjust to this develop- 
ment. The student's biggest fear is the ease 
of interfacing with the microcomputer and 
the software. 

Students are familiar with books. Once 
the book is open the student immediately 
enters the lesson. With a microcomputer, 
the student must master the mechanics- 
load the tape or disk, find his or her way 
through a typewriter keyboard, read letters 
and numbers from a television screen, and 
then learn the lesson. In the back of the 
minds of many students is the fear of break- 
ing the microcomputer. 

There is no easy solution for the program- 
mer. He can only do his job with 200 
percent accuracy to make the educational 
community comfortable with the reliability 
of educational software. 

The Teacher 

Before any school administration agrees 
to introduce a microcomputer into the 
classroom, they must feel certain the teach- 
ing staff is comfortable with the software 
systems. Like students, teachers will ap- 
proach microcomputer technology with var- 
ious preconceptions and expectations. 

The teacher is the educational expert 
to whom the educational programmer must 
prove the usefulness of his or her software 
package. 



"... it is difficult to describe 

the difference between entertainment 

and learning material." 



Educational programs will be judged by 
school administrators and teachers by edu- 
cational standards— not programming 
standards. The program must be challeng- 
ing for students and meet their educational 
needs. The program must be able to co- 
exist with current learning methods and 
text books. 

Educators will be looking for programs 
which are simple to use and understand, 
requiring little or no active participa- 
tion from the teacher. Ideally, students 
could use the software package on an in- 
dividual basis, permitting the teacher to 
spend more time with those students who 
require closer attention. 

The primary objective of educational 
software is to help students learn. Teachers 
will not respond well to programs that are 
too entertaining and have little educational 
merit. Educational experts agree that it is 
difficult to describe the difference between 



entertainment and learning material. Many 
of us have grown up learning from the enter- 
tainment media. Somehow, the educational 
programmer must sift through these vague 
terms and come up with a product that will 
meet everyone's expectations. 

The Program 

Before designing a program, the pro- 
grammer must anticipate every possible 
problem that might arise during a learn- 
ing session, and develop contingencies 
for them. 

All ambiguous words and phrases must 
be removed; educators have found through- 
out the years that students will ask teach- 
ers to clarify questions during a test. The 
computer can respond only to input consid- 
ered by the programmer. 

The computer's inability to communicate 
intelligently with the student is not the 
only problem which must be addressed. 



Unless the software is very carefully 
assembled and debugged, the student and 
teacher can be left very frustrated. 

Documentation is important for any soft- 
ware package. Each package should con- 
tain two professionally written and printed 
instruction sets. One booklet should be di- 
rected to the student and a separate book- 
let directed to the teacher. Learning objec- 
tives must be clearly stated in the teacher's 
booklet, with examples of how the student 
is to use the package. The student's booklet 
need only inform the student — using 
vocabulary suited to the student — how to 
use the program. 

Researching Your Material 

A good place to start researching your 
material is by going to your local library 
and reviewing a few books designed for the 
same group as your proposed program. 

Another tip is to visit a specialized library 




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Simple one-key operation, runs under any 
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Small (276 bytes), fast (processes 800 
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^139 



■ See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 97 



: LOW-LEVEL CENTER : 

• TRS-80 Model l/lll J 

• • 

$ STRETCH SUPERSTEP: New third generation Z80simu- $ 

a lator is the leading element ot the Software CPU design base. Ani- # 

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FLTCUR2-D byte oriented editor with lull floating cursor and auto- 

repeat plus innovative 8UFSTF user-defined buffer/window 

setup for flexible skeleton program views. Use BUFSTF to view 

large amounts of disassembled code, isolate all instances ot 

selected instructions in several formats, more Gather instruction 

frequency counts in straight-line or program-flow order for 

sophisticated analysis of subject programs and Z80 resource use. # 

Many formatled transparent printer options, including screen pix 

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aspects. Pictorial manual gives easy intro to program operation. 

Nothing newer for byte-entry, debugging and analysis of Z80 

machine language programs. $39.95 + $2.00 shipping 

• • 

EMU 02e: Detailed instruction-level 6502 simulator with ani- S 

mated before/after 6502 Programming Models (registers, flags 

and stack) and scrolling instruction stream disassembler active in 

Single-step and 4-speed TRACE modes, also special high speed 

interpreter running over 5% actual 1 mhz 6502 processor speed. 

Have a 6502 without having a 6502. find out why the 6502 brain 

was picked by Apple. PET, Atari, arcade machines, etc. $29.95 

+ $2.00 shipping X 



BALCODE 80A: Highly interesting mid-level language tor 
TRS-80 Model I. IBM's BAL (Basic Assembler Language) is an 
idealized machine instruction set currently in use on the IBM 
360/370. BALCODE 80A implements an extended BAL subset via 
a -text editor and macro assembler; you write in BAL with 20 
p-registers (16 general purpose, 4 floating point) and powerful 
addressing modes, then assemble to fast Z80 code. Hands on 
introduction to BAL, source programs are highly portable to make 
your TRS-80 an IBM workalike! Includes 106 page IBM reference 
publication describing BAL. From Balcode Software. $79.00 + 
$3.00 shipping 



COMPILER 
WORKSTATION 

TRS-80 Model I and III 

Your BASIC program development 
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EDIT: Full-Screen BASIC editor with floating cursor and auto- 
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move or position BASIC text at the character, string, line or 
block level. Developed in Britain by Southern Software. Mod I, 
III $40.00 + 1.50 shipping. 

PACKER: (Cottage Software) Editing tool will unpack, shorten, 
repack, renumber all or part of your BASIC text. The UNPACK 
segment is very useful when preparing BASIC source pro- 
grams lor compilation by ACCEL2. Mod I. Ill $29.95+1.00 
shipping. 

Then your BASIC program 
could go faster. . . 

ACCEL2: Compiler for TRS-80 Mod I. Mod III Disk BASIC. New 
functional improvements in place to give more ease-of-use, 
quicker compilation of large programs, better chaining ot com- 
piled and non-compiled programs. Size read-out helps you 
monitor code growth during compilation . REM NOARRAY option, 
lets you use variable-bound arrays. Professionals note: Com- 
prehensive instructions show how to organize your compiled 
programs lor resale on tape, ES/F wafer or disk. No royalties! 
Developed in Britain by Southern Software. Specify Mod I or III. 
$88.95 + $2.00 shipping. 

TSAVE: Writes compiler output to independent SYSTEM tape. 
$9.95 + $1.00 shipping. 



• EXEC: Command-List Processor for TRS-80 Mod I. Prepare, 

! execute, pass as many as nine parameters to lists of TRSDOS 
or NEWDOS commands and/or BASIC statements. Simplilies 

9 repetitive procedures such as power-up sequences, file set- 

5 ups. etc. Compatible with ACCEL2 compiler disk output. 

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11 



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that deals primarily with teachers located 
at universities or teachers' colleges, to give 
you a better understanding of the subjects 
taught at each grade level and help you de- 
velop an understanding of the methods 
used to teach students. Also, review several 
of the educational series published by ma- 
jor publishing houses; these series contain 
books designed to completely educate a 
child from grades one through eight. 

If you are not close to such a library, you 
may be able to obtain the same information 
by contacting your local school district. 

The programmer can control the size and 
the formation of letters and numbers. For 
example, on the TRS-80 characters on the 
screen can be enlarged by pressing two 
keys. Another way to enlarge the characters 
is by "drawing" the letters and numbers on 
the screen. This is a lengthy process and 
may require more than 16K of memory, but 
the results are worth the effort. 

Drawing characters is only suited for pro- 
grams which require a limited display on 
the video screen, such as drills in addition 
and subtraction. 

The program length and the amount of 
loading time is another factor to be consid- 
ered. Remember— the load time of a pro- 
gram shortens the student's lesson time. 

Testing the Software 

When it comes to marketing software the 
only judgement that matters is the buyer's. 
The software producer must convince the 
potential customer of the quality of the 
package. Consider for a moment some of 
those mail order programs you have pur- 
chased that just did not live up to their 
advertising. Make sure your programs per- 
form and are thoroughly debugged and 
tested. 

Before marketing your software thor- 
oughly test it in a simulated classroom envi- 
ronment. Such tests provide insight and 
useful student feedback. 

A Look into the Future 

Ira the 21st century microcomputers may 
be preparing individually designed tests 
based on each students educational pro- 
file. The computer would correct the test, 
grade the student, and present the teacher 
with an outline of the student's strengths 
and weaknesses. The teacher would then 
interpret this information and prepare an 
educational plan for that student. The 
only fragment that makes this scenario in- 
complete for today's classroom is the lack 
of creative educational software. ■ 



Visit Your Heathkit 
Electronic Center* 

where Heath I Zenith Products are 
displayed, sold and serviced. 



PHOENIX, AZ 

2727 W. Indian School Rd. 

602-279-6247 

ANAHEIM, CA 

330 E. Ball Rd. 

714-776-9420 

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2350 S.Bascom Ave. 

408-377-8920 

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6000 Potrero Ave. 

415-236-8870 

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8363 Center Or. 

714-461-0110 

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2309 S. Flower St. 

213-749-0261 

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1555 N.Orange Grove Ave. 

714-623-3543 

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2001 Middlefield Rd. 

415*365-8155 

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1860 Fulton Ave. 

916-486-1575 

WOODLAND HILLS, CA 

22504 Ventura Blvd. 

213-883-0531 

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5940 W. 38th Ave. 

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395 W. Main St. (Rt. 44) 

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813-886-2541 

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224 0gdenAve. 

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2112 E. 62nd St. 

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5960 Lamar Ave. 

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12401 Shelbyville Rd. 

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1900 Veterans 

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1713E. Joppa Rd. 

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5542 Nicholson Lane 

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165 Worcester Ave. 

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18645 W. Eight Mile Rd. 

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612-938-6371 

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1645 White Bear Ave. 

612-778-1211 



BRIDGETON.MO 

3794McKelveyRd. 
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OMAHA, NE 
9207 Maple St. 
402-391-2071 

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1013 State Hwy. 35 
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35-07 Broadway (Rt. 4) 
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15 Jericho Turnpike 
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937 Jefferson Rd. 
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28100 Chagrin Blvd. 
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2500 Morse Rd. 
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48 S. Byrne Rd. 
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516 S.E.Chkalov Drive 
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98 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



•Units ot Veritechnology Electronics Corp. CP-199R3 



Reader Service lor lacing page ^383— 



CLEAR.QUICK. QUIET. 
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You get sharp, easy-to-read printouts. You get them fast, 
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The Heath/Zenith 25 Printer is a heavy-duty, high-speed, 
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The features described below tell only part of the story. You 
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Pick the store nearest you from the list at left. And stop in 
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Adjustable tractor-feed 
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That gives you great 
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Standard RS-232C 
interfacing for compati- 
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Also 20mA current loop 
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Character set includes 
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CP-204A 



EDUCATION 



This program makes keeping track of students easy. 



Roll Call! 



Michael M. T. Henderson 
Department of Linguistics 
University of Kansas 
Lawrence, KS 66045 



Microcomputers are amaz- 
ing machines. If used 
properly, they save you time, 
money and trouble. But the road 
to efficient use of a micro is not 
yet smooth. This is the story of 
one attempt to use a TRS-80 to 
manage student records; a story 
instructive to those contemplat- 
ing a desktop computer for 
similar uses. 

For several years, I was the di- 
rector of an English program for 
foreign students. Our student 
body grew so large that we had 
to change the way we kept rec- 
ords. We were in danger of los- 
ing track of students, and our 
secretaries were drowning in 
paperwork. During the first three 
weeks of every semester stu- 
dents move from class to class, 
necessitating retyping two 
class rosters for every move 
made— and with the names our 
students have, this was painful 
and error-prone work. I dreamed 
of typing each student's name 



only once a semester, and 
changing records by entering 
only the new data. We also 
wanted more statistical anal- 
ysis than we had time to do 
by hand. 

We began using our campus' 
academic computer, a Honey- 
well mainframe. I wrote the pro- 
grams. A semester later, we 
were very impressed with the 
productivity increase, but we 
were dissatisfied with the slow 
phone line communication, and 
with the rather primitive Basic 
supported by the Honeywell (far 
less sophisticated than the 
Basic supplied with the TRS-80 
in ROM). We needed our own in- 
house computer system; a 
micro would cost less than one 
year of connect fees to the 
Honeywell. 

We decided to buy a TRS-80 
for two reasons. I already had 



one, so I knew its capabilities 
and could develop the software 
at home. The software support 
for the TRS-80 is greater than 
that of its competitors, especial- 
ly in data base management. I 
would write the software myself, 
since our needs were quite 
specialized; we needed, for in- 
stance, 25 fields in each student 
record. At the time no commer- 
cial DBMS system offered that 
many to micro users. 

Eventually the great day 
came when our two disk, 48K 
RAM system with RS232 and a 
Line Printer I arrived from the 
independent Shack dealer who 
submitted the lowest bid. I 
eagerly unpacked everything, 
pleased as a kid at Christmas. 
My first impressions were not 
good. The printer ribbon had 
spilled all over the inside of the 
crate, and had to be replaced. 



"Til 

[ 
[ 




m ' ir^-^H' 


L == ^' 's fj~f1 



The RS232 interface did not 
work at all: It was attached by 
only one screw. A trip to the 
drawer of tiny screws in my 
basement took care of that. The 
printer would not line up col- 
umns. Warranty service fixed 
that problem. The printer was 
returned with a testy note to the 
effect that we should not expect 
nice column alignment with a 
worn-out drive belt. I thought of 
telling them the thing was a 
brand-new printer, but decided it 
was not worth the postage. 

In my innocence, I thought all 
disk drives were the same. After 
all, Tandy got theirs from Shu- 
gart, and my two Shugart 
SA-400s from Apparat per- 
formed beautifully. The two 
drives with the Radio Shack 
labels on the front were very, 
very different. One, a Shugart 
35-track drive, would boot a disk 
most but not all of the time; the 
other, a Tandon 40-track drive 
(as I found out a year later), 
sounded like a garbage disposal 
trying to digest a beer can pop- 
top, could not turn a constant 
300 rpm, and produced parity er- 
rors much of the time. The drives 
also went in for warranty work, 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I 
48KRAM 
NEWDOS80.2 
2 Disk Drives 
Line Printer IV 



100 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



along with the expansion inter- 
face (in case it was causing the 
problems). The drives came 
back in a week, aligned and 
trimmed, and the interface came 
a week later, with a new disk 
controller chip and a couple of 
new RAM chips. My own inter- 
face, with cheap RAM from 
somewhere in California and the 
old buffered cable, has consis- 
tently worked better and faster 
than the one with name-brand 
RAM that came factory-sealed 
from the Shack. I had based my 
decision to purchase a TRS-80 
for the office largely on the fact 
that my own system worked so 
well. I did not know then that the 
TRS-80 is a great machine inside 
the keyboard unit, but for 
reliability, buy your peripherals 
elsewhere. The office system 
had the new keyboard with 
numeric pad, no keybounce and 
a much nicer monitor than my 
old 1978 model. That at least 
was an improvement. 

The warranty service did not 
take care of our hardware prob- 
lems. The printer has worked 
well since we installed the Ser- 
vice Technologies motor control 
so the motor does not run all the 
time. The disk drives have never 
worked satisfactorily. They con- 
tinue to give too many parity er- 
rors for anyone but a computer 
hacker. I exchanged them for my 
ancient, reliable Shugarts, 
which now do four hours of work 
a day at the office with no prob- 
lems. Unexplained glitches still 
show up from time to time. 
Power is rather erratic in the 
Great Plains, probably because 
of the high winds, and some- 
times it stops altogether. We 
tried a Mayday, but it did not 
work. A Radio Shack Line Filter 
has cleaned up the power con- 
siderably, but just the other day 
the system hung up on me, and 
not even the reset button would 
release if from Silent Death. 
Liberal applications of a pink 
eraser to the contacts between 
the keyboard cable and the ex- 
pansion interface helped con- 
tain this problem. 

I have gone into some detail 
about hardware problems; peo- 
ple contemplating the purchase 
of a desktop computer should 
know that you cannot plug them 
in and forget them. Perhaps the 

-•See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



new generation of one-piece 
computers will perform better in 
this regard. 

We could not use the operat- 
ing system that came with the 
machine, TRSDOS. I needed a 
system that could perform sev- 
eral functions automatically at 
power-up, such as enter Basic 
with a defined memory size and 
execute a menu program. NEW- 
DOS Plus got the system going 
automatically, and apparently 
fixed all the errors in TRSDOS. 

Even paring NEWDOS Plus 
down to the barest essentials, 
we soon ran out of disk space 
because of the complexity and 
variety of the programs we need- 
ed. Just in time Percom came 
out with the Doubter, Apparat 
with NEWDOS80 and Circle-J 
with Doublezap. The new file for- 
mats available with NEWDOS80 
have not worked, probably 
because we are trying to use 
them with Doublezap. I have 
high hopes for them with NEW- 
DOS80 version 2.0, but it is still 
incompatible with Bionic Basic, 
a utility from Apparat which has 
cut our processing time for 
class rosters by two thirds. I ex- 
pect that Apparat will resolve 
the incompatibility quickly; they 
say they are working on it. 

I recommend the following 
software products to anyone 
using a TRS-80 for desktop com- 
puting, whether for data base 
management, word processing, 
or other business uses: NEW- 
DOS80 (the best DOS so far); 
Bionic Basic (includes many 
time-saving utilities); Keyedit 
or Keyplus (saves the program- 
mers hours of frustration); 
DDT/BAS (vitally necessary- 
use every three months); BOSS/ 
CMD (tremendously useful for 
debugging and variable tracing); 
and ST80D (has always worked 
beautifully in transferring files 
to or from our mainframe). 

I expect the Model III will over- 
come many of the hardware 
problems, but I would still order 
disk drives from some vendor 
other than Radio Shack. You do 
not have to restrict yourself to 
an all-uppercase printer any 
more; I have excellent results 
from the Line Printer IV at home, 
and I have heard good things 
about the IDS Paper Tiger. A 
green screen on the office com- 



puter has cut down significantly 
on eyestrain. 

What lessons can be learned 
from my experience? Comput- 
ers can significantly increase 
office productivity. We now 
enter each student's name and 
test data only once; we use an 
edit utility to update only those 
fields that have changed. The 
machine makes the alphabet- 
ized class rosters every week. At 
the end of the semester, we 
enter the final scores and 
grades, and the computer prints 
English proficiency reports for 
each student. 

Developing a good system 
takes time. Do not expect to be 
up and running for several 
months after you first acquire 
the machines. Use your index 
cards and shoeboxes for at 
least one term or business cycle 
even after you are positive that 
everything is working. But don't 
give up: Persistence pays off. 

Somebody in the office must 
understand what computers 
can and cannot do. If It is the 
boss, as in my case, so much 



the better for overriding the 
doubting Thomases when they 
see their first inaccurate print- 
outs. Even more importantly, the 
person who programs the sys- 
tem must know why he or she is 
doing it. Many computerized 
operations fail because the 
programmers never understood 
the reasons for the programs 
they were writing, and none of 
the users could communicate 
with them. 

Finally, despite all the prob- 
lems, we have an excellent sys- 
tem which has made it possible 
for our staff to concentrate on 
improving instruction instead of 
just keeping track of student 
records. It has been worth it, and 
it has been fun for me. Perhaps 
that is the key: Somebody has to 
enjoy playing with the comput- 
er, or the whole project will end 
with the hardware gathering 
dust in a storeroom. ■ 
Michael Henderson is Associate 
Professor of Linguistics at the 
University of Kansas. He has 
been playing with TRSSOs since 
1978. 




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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 101 




TKtn ^ 1 


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could have 
done it in 3 days. 



"Of course, nothing is better than my original master 
plan however, DOSPLUS 3.4 could have made it a lot 
easier. For instance, got any idea how many computer/ 
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on a little thing like a rock? And trees — forget it. 

The friendly nature of DOSPLUS 3.4 would have made 
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Disk Operating System to have. 'All DOS' are not created 
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DOS . . . DOSPLUS 3.4, it does it all. 

MAXIMUM FEATURES AND 
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Here are just a few. 
1) BASIC array sort — multi-key, multi array 



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3) Input @ (controlled screen input) 

4) Random access and ASCII modification 
on Diskdump 

5) BASIC checks for active "DO" 

6) Much improved Backup (more reliable) 

7) Repeat last DOS command with "/" <ENTER> 

8) Single file convert from Model III TRSDOS 

9) COMPLETE device routing supported (DOS 
and BASIC) 

10) Ability to read 40 track disks in 80 track drives. 

• Plus many more improvements. 

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102 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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For only $2995 you get the DOSPLUS "PLUS." 

THE DOSPLUS 4.0 FEATURES 

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• Hard Disk— disk editing utilities 

• Incredible I/O speed 

• Runs any combination of densities or tracks 

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with expanded users guide and complete DOS technical 
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"PLUS" MANY OF THE SENSATIONAL NEW DOSPLUS 3.4 
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• BASIC array sort — multi key multi array 

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NOTE: The final versions of 3.4 and 4.0 will have almost 
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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 103 



EDUCATION 



•:> 



LOAD 80 



You'll love this program at exam time. 



Put Them to the Test 



Barry Davis 
24 Parson Drive 
Stony Brook, NY 11790 



Test writing is among the 
most tedious jobs teachers 
have. Over the years I have had 
to write thousands of test ques- 
tions, so I finally wrote a pro- 
gram to ease the burden. My stu- 
dents are not as pleased about it 
as I am— it has led to my giving 
more tests because they are so 
easy to create. 

A single 40-track disk holds up 
to 350 questions in single density 
or 650-700 in double density. 
With modifications the program 
will run on any micro configura- 
tion. The program is menu- 
driven and self-prompting. 

Five modules carry out all the 
functions for storing questions 
or writing a test. 

Module I— Question Entry 

This brief section (lines 100- 



The Key Box 

Disk Basic 

Model I or III 

32K RAM 

TRSDOS, NEWDOS or 

DOSPLUS 
1 Disk Drive 
Paper Tiger Printer 



150) is deceptively simple. Most 
work is done in a subroutine at 
line 730. All you do is type in a 
question and a set of multiple- 
choice answers: How many an- 
gels can dance on the head of a 
pin? a) one; b) two; c) a thou- 
sand; d) a million; e) none of 
these. The right parenthesis, ), 
must be used to set off each 
choice; it is used as a marker 
later in the program. The num- 
ber of choices can vary from 
question to question. 

The program jumps to the edit 
subroutine shared with the edit- 
ing module. In this subroutine a 
question can be edited or re- 
placed before being stored. The 
subroutine first checks the 
question length and reports if 
the 250 byte limit is exceeded, 
offers a menu to cancel the edit 
mode and return to the main 
menu without storing the ques- 
tion, change the question just 
typed, cancel the question and 
enter another in its place, and 
cancel the changes just made 
and return to the original for 
reediting and for storing the 
question. 

Line 820 asks for the word or 
phrase to be modified. Line 830 
finds the start of the phrase or 
word to be replaced. It also noti- 
fies you if the target phrase 
does not exist in the original 
question. Line 840 asks for the 
new (replacement) word or 
phrase. Line 850 divides the 
question into three parts. The 



first part includes everything in 
the question up to the beginning 
of the word or phrase to be mod- 
ified. The second portion is the 
target, and the third part in- 
cludes everything from the end 
of the target word or phrase to 
the end of the question. Line 860 
concatenates the pieces into a 
single, corrected version of the 
question and sends the program 
back to the editing section for 
further changes or for storage. 
As an example we will use the 
question: How may angels can 
dance on the head of a pin? a) 
one; b) two; c) a hundred; d) a 
thousand; e) none of these. We 
will change the word dance to 
sit. When we answer the edit 
menu with choice two, it 
prompts "Enter word or phrase 
to be replaced." Answer with 
dance. The next prompt is "Type 
the corrected version." Answer 
with sit. The computer then 
creates the strings "How many 
angels can", "sit", and "on the 



head of a pin? a) one; b) two; c) a 
hundred; d) a thousand; e) none 
of these." 

Finally, the program concate- 
nates the pieces into a single 
question and displays it for fur- 
ther editing. The length of the 
target string and its replace- 
ment need not be the same. 

To insert new words so the 
question reads "How many an- 
gels or other nonphysical be- 
ings can dance on the head of a 
pin?" answer the edit prompt 
with "angels can" as the target 
phrase. The replacement phrase 
is "angels or other nonphysical 
beings can." The reconstruction 
is the same as in changing 
a word. 

Module II— Edit 
Question From File 

This section (lines 160-220) 
asks for the file number of the 
question to be edited. The com- 
puter gets the question and 
passes control to the editing 



Program Listing 1 



TESTHAKER PROGRAM 

COPYRIGHT, 1981, BARRY DAVIS 

24 PARSON DR, STONY BROOK, NY 117 90 

20 CLEAR50O0: 

0PEN"R",1,"TESTFILE":PIELD1,255 AS QS 

30 CLS:PRINTTAB(23) "TEST MAKER PROGRAM" : PRINT: PRINT 

40 PRINTTAB(20) "1. Enter new questions": 

PRINT:PRINTTAB(20)"2. Edit a question in the file": 
PRINT:PRINTTAB(20) "3. Print questions sequentially": 



Program continues 



104 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program continued 



PRINT:PRINTTAB(20)"4. Print a test": PRINT 



59 PRINTTAB(20)"5. Remove 'USED' marker": 
PRINT:PRINTTAB(20)"6. End this run" 

60 GOSUB930;:INPUTMD 

70 IF MD<1ORMD>6THENGOSUB690:GOTO30 

80 IF MD-6THENCLS:PRINT§468,CHR$(23)"RUN ENDED" :CLOSE: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT:END 

90 ON HD GOTO 110,210,240,340,610 

100 ' 

QUESTION ENTRY 

110 CLS:PRINTTAB(18) "Adding Questions to File":PRINT 

120 QN-LOP(l)+l 

130 PRINT"Enter Question ('END' to stop)" 

140 PRINT: FRINT:LINEINPUTQQS:GOSUB900:IFQQS«"END"THEN30 

150 Q2S-QQS:GOSUB740:GOTO110 

160 ' 

EDIT QUESTION FROM FILE 

170 CLS:PRINTTAB(25)"File Editor ": PRINT: PRINT 

180 PRINTTAB(20)*1. Edit question": 

PRINT:PRINTTAB(20)"2. Return to main menu": 
PRI NT : PRI NT : PRI NT : PRI NT 

190 GOSUB940;:INPUTH1:IFH1<1ORH1>2THENGOSUB6 90:GOTO17B 

200 IF H1-2THEN30 

210 CLS:PRINTTAB(23) "Editing Question": PRINT: 

INPUT"What is the % of the question to be edited ('0' to return to men 
u)";QN: 

IF QN-0 THEN 30 ELSE IF QN>LOF(1)THENGOSUB690 :GOTO210 

220 GET1,QN:QQS=QS:P»INSTR(QQS," ") : 

QQS=LEFTS(QQS,P-1) :Q2S-QQS:GOSUB740:GOTO170 
230 ■ 

PRINTS OUT ENTIRE FILE 



240 CLS:PRINTTAB( 20) "Prints Entire File":PRINT: 

INPUT'At what question shall the printout start" ;SN: 



Program continues 



routine. The rest of this section 
operates as Module I. 

If you do not know the ques- 
tion's file number, you can get it 
by calling for Module III. 

Module Ill- 
Prints File Sequentially 

Module III (lines 230-32Q) calls 
the questions in order, starting 
at any number you choose, and 
goes to the end of the file or to 
any other number you select. 

The subroutine, starting at 
line 950, breaks the question in- 
to lines of print. It will not break 
up a word or separate a letter 
from the choice it designates. 

In line 960 the initial length of 
the first print line is set at 63 
bytes. A five byte answer line, 
STRING$(5,95), and a question 
number is added later to the first 
line. These additions bring the 
first print line to about 70 bytes. 
Line 970 checks the last byte of 
the first print line. If the last byte 
is not blank, the line length is in- 
creased by one byte and is 
checked again. This process 
continues until a blank is found 




Wftlfll 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 105 



Program continued 



PRINT: IPSN<1ORSN>LOF(1)THENGOSUB690:GOTO240 



259 INPUT'At what question should the printout end ('E' for end of file)"iC 
NS: 

GOSUB910 

268 IF CNS«"E"THENCN-LOF(l)ELSECN«VAL(CNS) 

270 IP CN>LOP(1)ORCN<SNTHENGOSUB690:GOTO250 

280 CLS:PRINT@4S6,CHR$(23)"FILE BEING PRINTED" 

290 LPRINTCHR$( 01) "Sequential Printout - Questions ";SN;" to *;CN;CHRS(02) : 

LPRINT" ":LC=LC+2 

300 FOR I-SN TO CN:GET1,I:QQ$=Q$:P=INSTR(QQ$," ") : 
QQ$»LEPT$(QQ$,P-1) :GOSUB968: 
NUS-STR$(I)+". ":LPRINTTAB(5)NU$;Ll$: 

LPRINTTAB(5)L2S:LC«LC+2:IPL3$<>""THENLPRINTTAB(5)L3$: 
LC=LC+1 

310 IFL4SO""THENLPRINTTAB(5)L4$:LC-LC+l 

320 GOSUB710:L1$-" :L2S-"" :L3$="" :L4$="" : 
LPRINT" " : LC-LC+1 : NEXTI :GOTO30 

330 ' 

TEST PRINTER 

340 CLS:PRINTTAB(24)"TEST PRINTER" : PRINT 

350 PRINT8448, "COURSE NAHB " ; :LINEINPUTC$:PRINTe448,STRING$(64 ," ") 

360 PRINT6448, "POINT VALUE OF EACH QUESTION " ; : INPUTV:PRINTe448,STRING$(64 , 

378 PRINT6448,"AT WHAT QUESTION SHALL I BEGIN THE SEARCH ";: 
INPUTSN:PRINT@448,STRING$(64," ") 

380 PRINT§448,"HOW MANY QUESTIONS ARE TO BE PRINTED ";: 
INPUTN:PRINT@448,STRING$(64," ") 

390 PRINT6448, "TEST TITLE OR I ">: 
LINEINPUTTTS:CLS: 
PRINT@448,CHR$(23)"Set Paper to Top of Form and hit <ENTER>"; : INPUTZZS 

400 CLS:PRINT@448,CHR$(23)"Test Heading Being Printed" 

410 LPRINT C$;TAB(54)"NAME";STRING${19,95):LPRINT 

420 LPRINT "":LPRINTTT$;TAB(54)"DATE"jSTRING$(8,95);"PERIOD";STRING$(5,95) 

430 LPRINTSTRING$(2,138) :LPRINT"Multiple Choice -";V;" Points Each": 
LPRINT" " :LPRINT" " : LC-8 

440 FORI-SNTOLOF(l) :QN-I 

450 GET1,I:QQS»Q$:P=INSTR(QQS," ") :QQ$-LEPT$(QQS,P-1> :Q2S-QQS 

460 IP LEPT$(QQS,2)="« "THEN U-l:QQS-RIGHTS(QQS,LEN(QQS)-2) :GOTO460 

470 CLS:PRINTTAB( 25) "QUESTION I ■ ; I:PRINT:PRINTQQ$:PRINT: PRINT:PRINT 

480 IP U«l THEN PRINT6725, "QUESTION USED" :U-0:PRINT:PRINT 

490 P$»"":INPUT"HIT <P> TO PRINT QUESTION - <ENTER> FOR NEXT QUESTION" : PS: 
IFPS-"p"THENPS="P" 

500 IFP$=""THENNEXTI:GOTOS70 

510 IP PSO'P" THEN GOSUB690:GOTO470 

520 GOSUB960:NN=NN+1:NU$=STRING$(S,95)+STR$(NN)+". ": 
LPRINTNUS;L1S:LPRINTTAB(5)L2S: 
LC=LC+2:IFL3$<>""THENLPRINTTAB(5)L3S:LC»LC+1 

530 IFL4SO""THENLPRINTTAB(5)L4S:LC-LC+l 

540 LPRINT" ":LC=LC+1:QQS»Q2S:Q2S-"" 

550 GOSUB710:L1$""":L2$-"":L3$-"":L4$="": 

QQ$»"" "+QQS:GOSUB810:IFNN-NTHENNN-0:CLS: 
PRINTe448,CHRS(23)"TEST IS COMPLETED" :FORT«1TO500: 
NEXTT:GOTO30 

560 NEXTI 

570 CLS:PRINTei92,"END OF FILE REACHED" : PRINT: 

PRINT'At what question I should file seach recommence": 
PRINTTAB(15);: INPUT '{'0' to end search) ";M4 

580 IF H4=0THEN30ELSEIFH4>LOF(1)THENGOSUB690:GOTO570 

590 SN-M4:M4-0:GOTO440 

600 ' 

REMOVES "QUESTION USED' MARKERS 

610 CLS:PRINT6448,CHRS(23)"USE MARKERS BEING REMOVED* 

620 FOR I=lTOLOF(l) 

630 GET1,I:QQS-Q$ 

640 IF LEPTS(QQ$,2)<>"» "THEN 680 

650 IP LEFT$(QQ$,2)<>"» "THEN670 

660 QQS=RIGHTS(QQS,LEN(QQS)-2) :GOTO650 

670 LSETQ$»QQ$:PUT1,I 

680 NEXTI :GOTO30 



Program continues 



106 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



in the last position of the string. 
The print line cannot end in the 
middle of a word. Line 980 
checks the length of the print 
line to see it does not exceed the 
capabilities of the printer. Line 
990 checks the first print line for 
a ")" in the last two bytes of the 
line. If so, the line is shortened 
and line 970 again searches for 
a blank. Line 1000 increments 
the pointers used to break up 
the question. The rest of the 
subroutine repeats the process 
for the second and, if necessary, 
the third and fourth print lines. 

After breaking up the ques- 
tion the program returns to line 
300-310 where the question 
number and the question are 
printed. Then the process be- 
gins for the next question. 

The Paper Tiger has a 2K buf- 
fer to eliminate time lag be- 
tween breaking the question in- 
to print lines and actual printing. 
Printers without a buffer do 
create a time lag. Eliminate the 
lag by using a spooler such as 
the one included with Microsys- 
tems DOSPLUS 3.3. The spooler 
creates a buffer to feed the 
printer while the CPU works on 
other things. 

Module IV— Test Printer 

This section (lines 330-590) 
prints the multiple choice sec- 
tion. It provides a heading and 
an automatic form feeder based 
on a 66-line page. You are asked 
to enter the name of the course, 
how many points each answer is 
worth, where the computer 
should start searching for ques- 
tions, how many questions are 
needed for the test and the test's 
title (Midterm, Spring, 1982). 

The program prompts you to 
set the printer to the top 
of the page and then prints 
the heading. 

The first step in handling the 
question is a check performed 
by line 460 for "question used" 
markers. If any are attached to 
the question a flag is set and the 
markers are removed. Line 470 
prints the requested question 
on the screen. If the question 
has been used on a previous 
test, line 480 prints this informa- 
tion on the screen. Line 490 
allows you to designate a null, 
sending the computer to the 

Reader Service for facing page s4B— 





And guess who stars as the 
movie monster. You ! As any of six 
different monsters. More if you 
have the disk version. 

You can terrorize and destroy 
four of the world's largest and 
most densely populated cities in 
over 100 possible scenarios. 
From Tokyo to the Golden Gate, 
you are the deadliest creature in 
the air, on the land, or in the sea. 

You can be the deadly am- 
phibian who simultaneously 
smashes street cars, lunches on 
helpless humans and radiates a 
ray of death. 

If you were a giant winged 
'creature, think of the aerial 
attacks you could make on the 
terrified but tasty tidbits beneath 
you. 

\ But as in all the best monster 
fmovies, you're up against every- 
thing the human race can throw 
:atyou — even nuclear warheads 
;and a strange concoction devel- 
oped by a team of mad scientists. 
j For only S29.95 you get 6 stu- 
ipendous monsters, each with its. 
'own monstrous summary card, 
4 teeming metropoli displayed in 
Igraphic detail on your computer 
.display and mapped in the 
^accompanying 48-page illustrat- 
ed book, the awesome sounds of 
monsterly mayhem, and spine- 
tingling, real-time, edge-of-your- 
seat excitement. 



^jt** 






1 1 ■ 




GET CRUSH, CRUMBLE & CHOMP 

! now at your local dealer for your APPLE, ATARI, 
or TRS-80 . . before if s too late. 



Program continued 



ERROR MESSAGE 
690 PRINT: PRINT" Improper input - Piease try again": 
PRINT :FORT=1TO350:NEXTT: RETURN 



719 IF LO-60 THEN LPRINT STRINGS (66-LC+4, 138) :LC»4 

720 RETURN 

738 ' 

SUBROUTINE EDITS QUESTIONS 

740 CLS:PRINTTAB(23) "Question Editor " :PRINT 

750 PRINTQQS:PRINT:IFLEN(QQS)>250THENPRINT: 

PRINT'THIS QUESTION IS TOO LONG FOR THE FILE BY ";LEN(QQS)-250 

760 PRINTTAB(13)"Edit menu" :PRINTTAB(17) "1 . Exit edit mode" :PRINTTAB(17) "2. 
Make change in present form":PRINTTAB(17) "3. Redo entire question" :PRINTTA 
B(17)"4. Cancel changes and return to original form" :PRINTTAB(17) "5. Store 
present form of question" 

770 GOSUB949:INPUTH3:IFH3-1THENRETURNELSEIFH3<1ORH3>5THENGOSUB690:GOTO770 

780 IFM3-2THEN820 

790 IF H3=3 THENCLS: 

PRINT"What is the new question": PRINT: 
LINEINPUTQQS:GOTO740 

800 IFH3»4THENQQS-Q2S:GOTO740 

810 LSETQS»QQS:PUT1,QN:RETURN 

820 CLS:PRINTQQS: PRINTs 

PRINT'Enter word or phrase to be corrected. If punctuation is to be 
altered, enter nearest word BEFORE the punctuation and include the punctua 
tion mark. ('0' to cancel edit)": 

PRINT: LINEINPUTTS:IFTS="0"THENCLS:GOTO750 

830 P1-INSTR(QQS,TS)-1: 

IFP1— lTHENCLS:PRINT"The word(s) you want to correct don't exist - Tr 
y again": 

PRINT:GOTO750 

840 PRINT :PRINT"Type the corrected version" :LINEINPUTNS:L-LEN(NS) 

850 P2-P1+LEN <TS) : LS-LEFTS (QQS ,P1) : RS-RIGHTS (QQS , ( LEN (QQS) -P2) ) 

860 QQS-LS+NS+RS:GOTO740 

870 ' 

CONVERTS LOWER TO UPPER CASE 

880 IFZS-"y"THENZS="Y":GOTQ920 

890 IFZS="n"THENZS="N":GOTO920 

900 IF QQS="end"THENQQS°"END":GOTO920 

910 IFCNS»"e"THENCNS»"E" 
920 RETURN 

930 ' 

MENU QUESTION 

940 PRINT: PRINT'INPUT THE I OF THE PROCESS TO BE CARRIED OUT" ;: RETURN 

950 ' 

BREAKS UP QUESTION INTO PRINT LINES 

960 EL-63 

970 L1S-LEPTS(QQS,EL):IFRIGHTS{L1S,1)<>" "THENEL«EL+1:GOTO970 

980 IF LEN(L1S)>69 THEN EL»EL-15:GOTO970 

990 IP INSTR(RIGHTS(L1S,2),")")>0 THEN EL=EL-6:GOTO970 

1000 EL=EL+l:E2=EL+68 

1010 IF LEN(QQS)<= LEN(LlS)+74 THEN L2S=RIGHTS (QQS, LEN(QQS) -(EL-1) ): RETURN 

1020 L2S=MIDS(QQS,EL,E2-EL): 

IFRIGHTS(L2S,1)<>" " AND LEN(QQS)> LEN (LIS) +LEN(L2S) THENE2=E2+1 :GOTO 
1020 

1030 IF L1S+L2S-QQS THEN RETURN 

1040 IF LEN(L2S)>78 THEN E2-E2-15 :GOTO 1020 

1050 IF INSTR(RIGHTS(L2S,2),")")>0THEN E2-E2-6:GOTO1020 

1060 EL-E2:E2-EL+68 

1070 IF LEN(QQSX-LEN(LlS)+LEN(L2S)+74 THEN L3S=RIGHTS(QQS,LEN(QQS)-(EL-1) ) 
RETURN 

1080 L3S-MIDS(QQS,EL,E2-EL) : 

IF RIGHTS(L3S,1)<>" " AND LEN(QQS) >LEN(L1S) +LEN (L2S) +LEN( L3S) THEN E2 
"E2+1: 

GOTO1080 

1090 IFL1S+L2S+L3S-QQS THEN RETURN 

1100 IP LEN(L3S)>78 THEN E2=E2-15 :GOTO1080 

1110 IFINSTR(RIGHTS(L3S,2),")")>6THENE2-E2-6:GOTO1080 

1120 EL=E2:L4S=RIGHTS(QQS,LEN(QQS)-(EL-1)):RETURN 



next question, or a P, sending 
the computer to the 950 sub- 
routine, incrementing a ques- 
tion counter and sending the 
question to the printer. Finally, 
in line 550 a marker is added to 
the question so you will know 
the question was used. Every 
time you use the question 
another marker is added. This 
continues until the number of 
questions you designated has 
been printed. If you reach the 
end of the file before completing 
the test, you will be asked to 
designate a starting question 
number to begin the search cy- 
cle again. 

Module V 

This section checks each 
question for a Used marker and, 
if present, removes it. It is used 
at the end of the course to re- 
fresh the file. 

Subroutines 

While the functions of most 
subroutines are obvious, an in- 
dex would be useful. Subroutine 
690 is the error message. It 
flashes if you enter an incorrect 
Input anywhere in the program. 
Subroutine 700 checks after 
each question to see if 60 or 
more lines have been printed. If 
so, several line feeds are en- 
tered to move to the top of the 
next page. My Paper Tiger print- 
er needs a CHR$(138) for each 
line feed. Most printers use 
CHR$(10). Subroutine 730 is the 
editor. Subroutine 870 converts 
lowercase input to uppercase. 
Subroutine 930 prints the menu 
questions used in both menus. 
Subroutine 950 breaks the ques- 
tion into print lines. 

Possibilities 

This program can be helpful 
for any application requiring se- 
quential recall of data. A key 
word search routine would ex- 
pand the program's usefulness 
while effectively eliminating the 
sequential aspect of the search. 
A line would be necessary to 
designate the key word. A sec- 
ond line can check if the key 
word is a null. If not, only ques- 
tions containing the key word 
will be displayed. These two 
lines can be included in a sub- 
routine or as part of Modules 
III and IV. ■ 



108 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



MTI® can upgrade your 
TRS-80 Model III 
to have giant data storage 
like the Big Boys. 

with prices like the little guys. 



WINCH ESTER/e 




MTI DOES IT AGAIN. Our WINCHESTER/e 
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INCREASED APPLICATIONS. With the MTI 

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OURS IS REALLY USEABLE: Giving you 
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BACK-UP CAPABILITY. The MTI WIN- 
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MTI is a Registered Trademark. 



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EA 



MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY INC. 

3304 W. MACARTHUR, SANTA ANA, CA 92704 
(714) 979-9923 • TWX 910-595-1902 MTISNA 



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5/10 Mbyte TRS-80® Model III 



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Over 10 Mbytes of storage is attained 
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/HMPUTFX Model III Systems 



Model 325- 5+ Mbytes 

Over 6.0 Mbytes of storage is attained 
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1.4 Mbyte floppy disk storage with 
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370 Kbyte floppy disk storage with 
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SPECIFICATIONS 

Microprocessor • Z-80 runs 2.03 MHz, 4.0 MHz 

optional. 

Winchester Drive Specifications • Tandon Winchester 

storage up to 10 Mbytes on 5Va " fixed disk • backup to 

floppy by file/ name or sector count • hardware is 

Tandon TM602/TM603 Winchester, Western Digital 

WD1000 drive controller • Computex host adaptor/ 

drive controller and switching power supply • Win- 



chester drive-is accessed as drive #4 • standard DOS 
commands are used in all Winchester accesses. 
Floppy Disk Drive • Disk drives: Tandon TM100 series 
supporting track-to-track access time of 5ms. • storage 
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controller board by Computex. 

Transient Protection • all systems include a metal 
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i 






SERVICE, ETC. 

Every system is thoroughly tested before It leaves the plant and Is backed by a 90-day parts and labor warranty. Annual 
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burned in • 90-day warranty 

M3DK0 - Drive kit with one Tandon single-sided M3DK2 - Drive kit with two Tandon double-sided 
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40-track drives $765.00 80-track drives $1,195.00 




m 



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• disk drive speed test • disk drive alignment program 
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VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRESS ACCEPTED • Net-30 terms for 
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XJMPL/TEX 



^392 



321 El Dorado • Webster Texas 77598 (713) 488-8022 



EDUCATION 



LOAD 80 



Read all about the planets in this program. 



EXTRA-Terrestrial 



Thomas A. Wells 

2401 Division St. Apt. E8 

New Orleans, LA 70001 



How nice it would be to have 
our sun's solar system 
available for inspection! Other 
programs that do this on the 
TRS-80 are not complete enough 
for me. 

Planets provides a more de- 
tailed look at the subject. A map 
(within the limits of the com- 
puter's graphics) shows the lo- 
cations and relative sizes of the 
planets in our solar system. 

Planets provides facts about 
each of the planets including 
their known satellites, their ac- 
tual sizes, distances from the 
sun and more. 

One of the program's unique 
features is the option of compar- 
ing any planet to any other. If 
you are curious about how the 

112 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



earth's size compares with 
Saturn's, for example, just fol- 
low the prompts. 

Running the Program 

Type in the program as listed. 
Enter run. Answer the "Ex- 
plorer's Name?" question and 
press Enter. Answer "Y" to the 
"Ready" question. The program 
then presents the menu. From 
this point the Enter key is not 
needed. Press the key corres- 
ponding to your menu choice. 
Wherever you go, there will be a 
prompt near the lower section of 
the screen. Press any of the let- 
ters indicated between quotation 
marks (for example, "L") to go to 
another program section. When 
you have seen enough, press Q 
to quit. Happy learning! 



Program Description 

The program is commented 
throughout to identify each sec- 
tion. You can omit the com- 



ments when typing it in. 

Lines 20-50 are housekeeping. 
Here any variable beginning with 
the letter P is a string variable, 
saving a little typing. CHR$(34) is 
a double quote mark. 

Lines 60-95 are all subroutines. 
The GOTO100 in line 50 jumps 
over them to continue execution. 

The subroutine in line 60 
clears the bottom and right side 
of the screen. Variable KP tells 
this line where to start clearing a 
line on the right of the screen; the 
whole screen does not have to 
be rewritten. This is used when 
comparing planets and listing 
satellites. 

Line 70 is the INKEY$ key- 
board input. 

Lines 80-95 read the informa- 
tion from the data statements in 
lines 4990-5170. The If statement 
in line 90 determines whether 
there are any satellites belonging 
to the planet whose data is being 
read. If there are, line 80 reads 







Program Listing 


10 REM 


Planets 


- (C) 1981 - T.A. Wells - N.O., La. 76118 


19 REM 


Declare, 


dimension & assign variables. 

Program continues 



the satellite names. 

Lines 500-590 build strings 
for the solar system display. 
This takes less time than Set. 
The remainder of the program 
uses the same format: The 
screen is cleared and the re- 
quested data or list is displayed. 
Operator options are also dis- 
played and a GOSUB70 waits for 
operator input. When a key is 
pressed, it is checked for valid- 
ity and the program branches to 
the requested action. 

Lowercase Note 

I developed the program for 
the TRS-80 Model I using the 
lowercase option and the Radio 
Shack ULCDVR lowercase 
driver. It should work on any 
machine without lowercase with 
no changes to the program. If 
you do not have the lowercase 
option, leave out the part of 
each If statement containing 
lowercase. ■ 



The Key Box 

Basic Level li 
Model I 
16K RAM 



Program continued 

20 CLEAR4B8 

30 DEPSTRP:DEPDBLD,M:DEPINTI-L 

40 DIHP(9) ,DI(9) ,PV(9) ,PR(9) ,0D(9) ,SG(9) ,PW(9) ,PT(9) f PS(9,16) ,PH 

(9) 

50 PQ=CHRS(34) :KP-25:GOTO100 

59 REM 

Subroutine to clear bottom & right side of screen. 

60 PRINTe640,CHRS(31) ; :F0RI»1T016 :PRINT6KP-1 ,CHR$(30) ;:KP=KP+64: 
NEXT: KP-45: RETURN 

6 9 REM 

Subroutine for keyboard input of choices. 

70 P»INKEY$:IFP-""THEN70ELSERETURN 

79 REM 

Read data. 

80 F0RJ»1T0NS(I) :READPS(I,J) :NEXT:RETORN 

90 FORI«0TO9:READP(I) ,DI(I) ,PV(I) ,PR(I) ,OD(I) ,SG(I) ,PW(I) ,PT(I) , 
NS ( I ) : IFNS ( I ) >0THENGOSUB80 : NEXT: RETURNELSENEXT: RETURN 
95 F0RI-1T09 :READPM( I) : NEXT: RETURN 

99 REM 

Title. 

100 CLS:PRINTe274,CHRS(23)*P 1 a n e t S" 

110 PRINTP398,"of the Solar System" :GOSUB90:GOSUB95 

120 PRINTe640,:INPUT"Explorer's Name - type it 

then press <ENTER>";PE 

130 IFLEN(PE)>8THENPE-LEFTS(PE,8)ELSEIFLEN(PE)-0THENPE-"Explorer 

139 REM 

Assign variables for planet display. 

140 PP(0)-"Planet":PP(l)-"Distance from Sun (Km) ":PP(2) -"Revolve 
s around Sun in" : pp(3) -"Rotates on its axis in" :PP(4) -"Diameter 
(Kra)":PP(5)-"Density (Water - 1) " :PP(6) -"Mass":PP(7) -"Teroperatur 
e (deg C) " :PP(8) -"Number of Satellites* 

199 REM 

Introduction. 

200 CLS:PRINT§30,"P 1 a n e t s" 
210 PRINTei92,"Hi, "PE"." 

220 PRINTO320," I'm your friendly space exploration helper. If 
you give me directions I can tell you about any planet in the 
Solar System." 
230 PRINT" When we look, you'll be able to find out some thing 
s about the planet we're exploring. You'll also be able to com 
pare the planet to another planet or list its satellites." 
240 GOSUB500:PRINT:PRINT" Are you ready (Y/N)?" 
245 GOSUB70 

250 IFP<>*Y"ANDP<>"y"ANDP<>"N"ANDPO"n"THEN245ELSEIFP-"Y"ORP-"y" 
THENCLSELSE4000 

299 REM 

Menu. 

300 CLS:PRINT818,"P 1 a n e t s" 

310 PRINT9128,"O.K., "PE". Here is a list of the places we can 

go: 

320 PRINT:PRINT"0 - Sun"TAB(30) "5 - Jupiter 

1 - Mercury"TAB(30)"6 - Saturn 

2 - Venus"TAB(38)"7 - Uranus 

3 - Earth'TABOflJ^S - Neptune 

4 - Mars"TAB(30)"9 - Pluto 

A - Asteroid Belt"TAB(30) "D - Display Solar System" 

330 PRINT: PRINT'Press "PQ"L"PQ" to get back this list when you w 

ant to. 

Press "PQ"Q"PQ" to quit (anytime)." 

340 PRINT: PRINT'Where shall we go? <Press 0-9, "PQ"A"PQ" or "PQ 

"D"PQ">":GOSUB70 

350 IP-VAL(P) :IT-IP:IF(IP>0)OR(IP=0AND(P-"D"ORP-"d"ORP»"Q"ORP="q 

"ORP="a"ORP-"A"ORP»"0"))THEN360ELSEGOSUB70:GOTO350 

360 IFP-"0"THEN3000ELSEIFP-"D"ORP»"d"THEN600 

370 IFP-"Q"ORP="q"THEN4000 

400 IFPO"a"ANDPO"A"THEN1000ELSE2000 

499 REM 

Assemble strings for Solar System graphic. 

500 PB=CHRS(24)+CHRS(26) 

510 PS-CHR$(140)+CHRS(176)+CHR$(144)+PB+CHR$(131)+CHR$(141)+CHRS 

(180)+CHR$(144)+PB+CHR$(130)+CHRS(141)+CHR$(176)+CHR$(26)+CHR$(1 

37)+CHRS(14 4)+PB+CHR$(130)+CHRS(16 4)+PB+CHR$(130)+CHR$(148)+PB+C 

HRS (189) +PB+CHRS (159) +PB+CHRS ( 24 ) 

520 PS-PS+CHRS(160)+CHRS(133)+PB+CHRS(24)+CIIRS(24)+CHRS(160)+CHR 

S(134)+PB+STRINGS(2,24)+CHRS(152)+CHRS(129)+-PB+STRINGS(4,24)+CHR 

$( 160) +CHR$(156)+CHR$ (131) +PB+STRINGS( 5,24) +CHRS( 160) +CHR$( 152)+ 

CHRS(134)+CHRS(129) 

530 PS-PS+PB+STRINGS(5,24)+CHR$(140)+CHR$(134)+CHR$(129) 

540 MMS-CHRS(132):EVS-CHRS(140):JUS-CHR$(174)+STRINGS(3,191)+CHR 

S (157)+" Jupiter ":SAS-CHRS( 174) +CHRS( 191) +CHRS( 191 )+CHRS( 157) +"Sa 

turn":UR$-CHR$(17 4)+CHRS(157)+"Uranus":NE$=CHR$(174)+CHR$(13 2)+" 

Neptune" 

590 RETURN 

599 REM 

Display Solar System. 

600 CLS:PRINT864,PS; 

610 PRINT§332,MMS"Mercury";:PRINT8397,EVS"Venus";:PRINT@462,EVS" 

Earth", -:PRINTe527, MMS'Mars";: PRINT9405, JUS; 

620 PRINT@475,SA$;:PRINTe486,URS;:PRINT8499,NE$;:PRINT@440,"Plut 

o "CHRSU29); 

630 PRINT8450, "SUN" ;:PRINT@74, "Note: Distances and sizes are onl 

y approximations.'; :PRINT8144, "If you are going, use a better ma 

Pi" J 

640 PRINT§848,PQ"L"PQ" - to return to List of Planets"; 

650 GOSUB70 

660 IFP-*L"ORP-"l"THEN300ELSEIFP-"Q"ORP="q"THENPRINT:GOTO4000ELS 

E650 

999 REM 

Print planet data. 

1000 CLS 

1010 PORI-0TO8:PRINTPP(I) :NEXT 

1020 PRINTgKP,P(IP)" (*"IPCHR$(24)")";:KP-KP+64:PRINT@KP-11+LEN( 

STRS(DI(IP)))+1«(DI(IP)<1000000000) ,;:PRINTUSING"tMMMMM,l"; 

DI(IP) ;::KP-KP+64:PRINT@KP,PV(IP) ;:KP=KP+64 

1030 PRINT8KP, PR ( IP) ; : KP-KP+64 : PRINT0KP+LEN ( STRS (OD ( IP) ) ) -7 , ; : PR 

INTUSING"M',#M";OD(IP);:KP-KP+64:PRINT@KP,;:PRINTUSING"».#";SG 

Program continues 




SIGMON 

SIGMON is a complete machine Language develop- 
ment tool for your TRS-80 Color Computer and it's 
super powered 6809E microprocessor. 

Features: 

MONITOR: Display memory in HEX and ASCII, Direct HEX and 
Decimal entry into memory/ registers, Move, Find, Tape Read and 
Write, Output to printer and more. 

DISASSEMBLER: Display Addresses, Opcode operand, 
Mnemonics, and Address expressions for specific range of 
instructions. 

MINI ASSEMBLER: Allows you to enter instructions in Symbolic 
form and have them converted to Machine Language. 

DEBUGGER: Allows Stepping and Break point execution of 
Machine Language programs. 

With SIGMON you can awaken the awesome powers that lurk 
within the dark recesses of your color computer. 

Cassette and Source Code 

for the TRS-80 Color Computer $39.95 

(Screen Edit Control System) 

SECS adds new power to your TRS-80 Color 
Computer. If you have been waiting for Enhanced 
BASIC and it's capabilities, then you are ready to take 
the next logical step. 

Features: 

FULL SCREEN EDITOR: Full Cursor control with auto repeat, 
Insert, Delete, Join lines, Relocate lines and Audible error warning. 

HI RES GRAPHICS: Two modes of Hi Res graphics, Set point, 
Set line, Set color, Set programmable character, Set screen, and 
Toggle between Low Res and Hi Res/Normal and Inverted 
Screens. 

HI RES CHARACTER GENERATOR: Sixty-four definable charac- 
ters, Save and Load Characters sets to and from tape, Define 
Characters, and Place on screen in any color and in any position. 

The entire system is linked into BASIC and is completely 

transparent to the user. As a BASIC programming tool, SECS is 

unsurpassed. 

Cassette for the TRS-80 Color Computer $29.95 

Software Utilities for the 
TRS-80* Color Computer 

Order through your local software dealer or send check or 
money order plus $2.00 Shipping & Handling to: 

• 407 




nXx COMPUTER SOFTWARE 



19519 Business Center Drive, Northridge, CA 91324 
(213)701-5161 

•TRS-80 is a resistered trademark of Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Corporation 



• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 113 



Program continued 

(IP) ;:KP-KP+64 

1040 PRINTeKP r PW(IP);:KP-KP+64:PRINTeKP,PT(IP);:KP=KP+64:PRINTeK 
P-3+LEN(STRS(NS(IP) ) ) ,CHRS(3fl) ; :PRINTUSING"M" ;NS(IP) :KP=25 
1050 IP-IT:PRINT@640,CHRS(30);"Here are some things you can do:' 

1060 PRINTPQ'CPQ'-Corapare to another Planet "PQ'M"PQ"-More Da 

ta on "P(IP) 

1070 PRINTPQ'L'PQ'-Return to List of Planets "PQ*S*PQ"-See "P( 

IP);:1FRIGHTS(P(IP) ,1) »"s"ORRIGHTS(P(IP) ,1) «'S"THENPRINT" ' Satel 

lites"ELSEPRINT"'s Satellites" 

1080 PRINT-Your orders, Captain "PE"?" 

1090 GOSUB70 

1100 IFP»"S"ORP-"s"THEN1288 

1110 IFP="1"ORP»"L"THEN300 

1115 IFP»="M"ORP="m'THEN1500ELSEIFP="Q"ORP-"q"THEN4000 

1120 IFP<>"C"ANDP<>"c"TH£N189B 

1139 REH 

Compare planets. 

1140 KP=45:GOSUB60:KP»25:PRINTe640,CHRS(31); -Compare 'P(IP)" (#■ 
IP;CHR$(24)") to which of the others?" 

1160 FORIG=1T09:IFIGOIPTHENPRINTIG"- "P(IG) , : NEXTELSENEXT 

1180 GOSUB7B:IX=VAL(P) : IFIXOIPANDIX>8THBNIT»IP:IP-IX:KP-46 :GOSU 

B60:GOTO1020ELSE1180 

1199 REH 

List satellites. 

1200 KP-45:PRINT8640,CHRS(31);:GOSUB60:IFNS(IP)«0THENPRINTeKP," 
No";:PRINT@KP+64," Satellites"; :PRINT(?KP+128," Known"; : IP=IT:GOT 
01220 

1210 FORIS=lTONS(IP) :PRINT0KP,CHRS(30)" I "IS; PS (IP, IS) ;:KP-KP+64 
:NEXT 

1220 PRINTe640,PQ"L"PQ" - List of Planets"; :PRINT9704 ,PQ"C"PQ" - 
Compare Planets"; :PRINT8768,PQ"H"PQ" - More Data on "P(IP);:PRI 
NTe896,"Your Choice?" ; 
1230 KP-24-.GOSUB70 

1240 IPP="L"ORP="l"THEN300ELSEIFP="Q"ORP«"q"THEN4000 
1250 IFP=*H"ORP="ra"THEN1500 
1260 IFP»"C"ORP-"c"THEN1140ELSE1230 

1499 REM 

Compare planets. 

1500 KP-45:GOSUB60:KP=2S:PRINT@64B,CHR$(31)PM(IP) 

1510 PRINT: PRINTPQ*L"PQ" - List of Planets"TAB(32) PQ"C"PQ" - Com 

pare another Planet" 

1520 PRINTPQ"S"PQ" - See *P(IP) ; : IFRIGHTS(P(IP) ,1) -"s"ORRIGHTS(P 

(IP) ,1)»"S"THENPRINT" Satellites" ; ELSEPRINT" 's Satellites"; 

1530 GOSUB70 

1540 IPP-"L"ORP="l"THEN300ELSEIFP="q"ORP""Q"THENPRINT:GOTO4000 

1550 IFP=*C"ORP»"c"THEN1140 

1560 IPP«"S"ORP="s"THEN1200ELSElS30 

1999 REM 

Asteroid belt. 

2000 CLS 

2010 PRINTTABl 20) "Asteroid Belt' :PRINT 

2020 PRINT'Location: Between Mara (• 4) and Jupiter (» 5). 

2030 PRINT'Composition: Mostly rock fragments. 

2040 PRINT:PRINT" Asteroids range in sizes from 1,000 km. to 1 

ess than 1 km. They are thought to be leftover debris from the 

formation of ourSolar System." 
2090 GOTO3070 

2999 REM 

Sun. 

3000 CLS 

3010 PRINT'The "P(IP) :PRINTPP(3)TAB(30)PR(IP) 

3020 PRINTPP(6)TAB(30)PW(IP) 

3030 PRINTPP(4)TAB(29);:PRINTUSING"MM#MM,";OD(IP) 

3040 PRINTPP(7)TAB(30)PT(1P) :PRINT 

3050 PRINT" The Sun is a rotating nuclear furnace composed mos 

tly of 

hydrogen and helium." 



3060 print" Sunspots are magnetic storms, cooler places on the 

Sun's 
surface. Sunspot activity occurs in eleven year cycles. The 
latest maximum sunspot activity occurred in 1980." 
3070 PRINT:PRINT 

3080 PRINTPQ"L"PQ" - List of Planets"TAB(32) ; : IFIPO0THENPRINTPQ 
"M'PQ" - More Data on *P<IP) ELSEPRINT 

3090 IFIPO0THENPRINTPQ"C"PQ" - Compare another Planet ";:PRI 

NTPQ"S"PQ" - See "P(IP);:IFRIGHT$(P(IP),l)-"s"ORRIGHT$(P(IP),l)= 
"S"THENPRINT" Satellites"; ELSEPRINT" 's Satellites"; 
3100 GOSUB70 

3110 IFP-"L"ORP»"l"THEN300ELSEIFP»"q"ORP«"Q"THENPRINT:GOTO4000 

3115 IFIP-0THEN3100 

3120 IFP»"M*ORP»"m"THEN1500 

3130 IFP»"C"ORP»"c"THEN1148 

3140 IFP«"S"ORP»"s"THEN12O0ELSE3100 

3999 REM 

End... 

4000 PRINT"O.K. "PE", I am...";:END 

4989 REM 

Data for Sun, Planets i Satellites. 

4990 DATASun,,,25 days at its equator ,1400000, ,"333,000 x Earth" 
,+15x10(6 Core / +5S00 Surface, 

5000 DATAMercury, 57900000, 88 Days, 59 Days, 4878, 5. 4, 0.055 x Earth 
,+430 Day/-170 Nite,0 

5010 DATAVenus, 108200000, 225 Days, 243 Days, 12100, 5. 3, 0.8 x Earth 
,+480,0 

5020 DATAEarth, 149600000, 365. 3 Days, 23. 9 Hours, 12756, 5. 5, 6x10121 
Met. Tons,Avg. +15,1, Moon 
5030 DATAHars, 227900000, 687 Days, 24. 6 Hours, 6787, 3. 9, 0.1 x Earth 
,Avg. -58,2,Phobos,Deimos 

5040 DATAJupiter, 778300000, 11. 86 Years, 9. 9 Hours, 142800, 1.3, 318 
x Earth, -130 e Cloud Tops, 16, 1979 J 3,Adrastea,Amalthea,1979 J 2 
,Io,Europa, Ganymede, Callisto,Leda,Hiraalia,Lysithea,Elara,Ananke, 
Carme , Pas iphae , Sinope 

5050 DATASaturn, 1427000000, 29. 46 Years, 10. 7 Hours, 120600, .7,95 x 

Earth, -185 § Cloud Tops, 16, 1988 S 28,1980 S 27,1980 S 26,1980 S 

1,1980 S 3, Mimas, Enceladus,Tethys, 1980 S 13 (?) ,Dione,1980 S 6, 
Rhea, Titan, Hyper ion, Iapetus, Phoebe 
5060 DATAUranus, 2870000000, 84 Years, 177-24? Hours, 51800, 1.2, 15 x 

Earth, -215 @ Cloud Tops, 5, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel,Titania,Oberon 
5070 DATANeptune, 4497000000, 165 Years, 18(?) Hours, 49500, 1.7, 17 x 

Earth, -200 @ Cloud Tops, 2, Triton, Nereid 
5080 DATAPluto, 5900000000, 248 Years, 6. 4 Days, 3000, 1,0. 002 x Eart 
h, -230,1, Charon 
5098 DATAHeavily cratered and airless. This dead planet is much 

like Earth's moon. It has changed little since volcanic act 
ivity stopped about 3 billion years ago. 

5100 DATAVenus' atmosphere is about 180 times denser than Earth' 
s. Radar reveals both impact craters and an immense volcan 

o. 

5110 DATAThe only planet known to support life. It is tectonica 
lly active - the surface broken into slowly drifting plates 

Shaken by both earthquakes and volcanos. 
5120 DATADry red planet with polar caps of water and carbon diox 
ide. Also a volcano 24 km. high - a 5088 km. long canyon sys 

tem - dunes t dry channels (possibly from running water) . 

5130 DATARapidly spinning ball of gas compressed to liquid in th 
e center. A high pressure storm first seen 300 years ago 

makes the Great Red Spot. Volcanos may feed the planet's fai 
nt ring. 

5140 DATAIcy particles Make up the seven rings. The moon Titan 
is the only one in the Solar System known to have an atmospher 
e (mostly Nitrogen) . 

5150 DATAAxis tilted 98 degrees. Atmosphere mostly Methane - sh 
ines blue/green. Nine narrow rings apparently held in place 

by small satellites. 

5160 DATAProbably has Methane clouds at the top of its atmospher 
e. Also may have rings not yet observed. 

5178 DATAAppcars to be a snowball of Methane and water mixed wit 
h rocks. For a 28 year period each revolution it passes inside N 
eptune's orbit. 



TRS • 80 (1 > Model I 
or Model III 

48K, 2 disks 
TRSDOS' 1 ' or LDOS 
formats available 

PRICE $149.50 

TRS • 80< 1) Model II 

64K, 2 disks 
TRSDOS (1) format 
expanded version 

PRICE $224.50 



GANTT-PACK: AUTOMATED PROJECT CHARTS 

This powerful, flexible program will save you time in project planning, 
scheduling, tracking and reporting. You need no prior Gantt experience; 
screen prompts guide you all the way. Scratchpad entry lets you keep 
track of unassigned tasks while structuring your project. Automatic 
project organization. Fast edit lets you correct errors, modify schedules, 
explore alternatives. Saves alternative plans from original database. 
Helps you visualize the project at all stages. 

Large capacity allows up to 100 tasks per phase and multiple phases per 
project, each phase with its own chart. Hard copy to parallel or serial 
printers. Scroll to any portion of any chart and print selected region. 
Charts show projected, elapsed and overrun times. Get professional 
results quickly and easily with Libra Lab's Gantt-Pack. 



E 



□ Libra Laboratories, Inc. 
495 Main Street 
Metuchen, N.J. 08840 

(201) 494-2224 



Gantt-Pack © Libra Laboratories, Inc. 1981 

(1) TRS-80 and TRSDOS Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 

(2) LDOS Trademark of Logical Systems, Inc. 



• 57 



114 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



FORBIDDEN CITY 

(Talking Adventure) 
by William Demas 




PF 



■ 




MODEL I & III 



PRICE $39 



95 



48K DISK 



(See Your Local Dealer) 

— Dealers Inquiries Invited — 

The adventure continues, you are at the gates of the Forbidden City. . . once you enter, there is no turning back 

It's you and your talking computer's skill against the city's master computer and it's robots. This is a continuation of Forbidden Planet, 
but you do not have to have Forbidden Planet to play Forbidden City. 



• Talks Through Cassette Port 

• Three (3) Different Voices 

• Machine Language 



Fantastic Software 

3110 Polaris, #3 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89106 



(702) 362-1457 



VISA 



s225 



EDUCATION 



LOAD 80 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I or III 
16K RAM 



Captain Chemistry to the Rescue. 



Learning the Elements 



James W. Wood 
424 N. Missouri 
Atwood, IL 61913 




Deep within the cellars of Atwood Ham- 
mond High School lurks a figure. He is 
seen only by those brave souls enrolled in 
chemistry. He is their very own bungling 
hero— Captain Chemistry. The Captain has 
been known to emerge from behind the 
shelves of compounds with goggles askew 
and lab apron backwards for a cape. His 
adventures at first caused concern among 
administrators, but now they realize that he 
is harmless. The Captain may even help stu- 
dents learn chemistry. 

Recently becoming the star of a local sci- 
ence movie raised his ego and the Captain 
now wishes to have his very own computer 
program. So help Captain Chemistry battle 
the evil elements. 

This program is designed to teach the 
symbols for chemical elements. The Cap- 
tain and evil elements are trying to destroy 
each other's castles. With each correct 
symbol the Captain's laser becomes 
stronger; each incorrect answer helps the 
evil elements. Once the correct symbol is 
given for an element, it will not be asked for 
again. Toward the end of the game the com- 
puter may take about five seconds longer to 
find an element. Blow the evil elements 
away and earn your cape, the highest award 
given to students of chemistry. ■ 

116 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Lines 

10— Sets dimensions for elements names and symbols; initializes positions for laser's beam. 

60-100— Draws castle. 

201-252— Places symbols and elements names into array. 

290— Picks elements at random; chooses another if that one is already answered correctly. 

300— Asks for symbol. 

320— Checks symbol. 

500— Shoots Captain's laser; determines If Evil's castle was hit; fixes elements so that it will not be chosen again. 

510— Chooses positive response. 

1000— Shoots Evil's laser, determines if Captain's castle was hit. 

1010— Chooses negative response. 

1310— Gives correct answer. 

1500-1508— Graphic reward for winning. 

2000— Losing message. 

1000— Sets difficulty with V = V - 3; changes 3 to 1 or 2 for easier game; changes 3 to 4 or 5 for harder game. 

Line Description 



Program Listing 

5 REM JAMES W. WOOD, JANUARY 1981 

8 CLEAR250 

10 CLS:DIM A$(104):DIM B$(104):DIM B(104) :U=11 :V=114 tRANDOM 

20 PRINT"HELP CAPTAIN CHEMISTRY BATTLE THE ELEMENTS." 

30 PRINT"EACH TIME YOU GIVE THE CORRECT SYMBOL" 

40 PRINT"THE CAPTAIN'S LASER PISTOL IS STRENGTHENED." 

50 PRINT"BUT EACH TIME YOU ARE WRONG, THE ELEMENT'S LASER " 

55 PRINT"BEC0MES STRONGER." 

56 FOR Q=l TO 5000 :NEXT :CLS 

60 PRINT @ 0, "CAPTAIN'S PLACE" : PRINTS 47, "EVIL ELEMENT'S" 

100 SET(6,6) :SET(8,6) :SET (10,6) : FOR X =115 TO 121 STEP2 

101 :SET(X,4) :NEXT X 

110 FOR X=115 TO 121 :FOR Y =5 TO 8:SET (X,Y) :NEXT Y:NEXT X 
120 FOR X=6 TO 10:FOR Y=7TO 8:SET(X,Y) :NEXT Y :NEXTX 

201 A$(l)="HYDROGEN":B$(l)="H":A$(2)="HELIUM":B$(2)="HE" 

202 A$(3) ="LITHIUM":B$(3)="LI":A$(4)="BERYLLIUM":B$(4)="BE" 

203 A$(5)="BORON":B$(5)="B":A$(6)="CARBON":B$(6) ="C" 

204 A$(7)="NITROGEN":B$(7)="N":A$(8)= B OXYGEN":B$(8)="0" 

205 A$(9)="FLUORINE":B$(9)="F" : A$ (10) ="NEON" :B$ (10) ="NE" 

206 A$(ll)="SODIUM":B$(ll)="NA":A$(12)="MAGNESIUM n :B$(12)="MG" 

207 A$ ( 13) =" ALUMINUM" :B$( 13 )="AL":A$ (14 )="SILICON":B$ (14 )="SI" 

208 A$(15)="PHOSPHORUS":B$(15)="P":A$(16)="SULFUR":B$(16)="S" 

209 A$(17)="CHLORINE":B$(17)="CL":A$(18)="ARGON":B$(18)="AR" 

210 A$(19)="POTASSIUM":B$(19)="K":A$(20)="CALCIUM":B$(20)="CA" 

211 A$(21)="SCANDIUM":B$(21)="SC":A$(22)="TITANIUM":B$(22)="TI" 

212 A$(23)="VANADIUM":B$(23)="V":A$(24)="CHROMIUM":B$(24)="CR" 

213 A$(25)="MANGANESE":B$(25)="MN":A$(26)="IRON":B$(26)="FE" 

214 A$(27)="COBALT":B$(27)="CO":A$(28)="NICKEL":B$(28)="NI" 

215 A$(29)="COPPER":B$(29)="CU":A$(30)="ZINC":B$(30)="ZN" 

216 A$(31)="GALLIUM":B$(31)="GA":A$(32)="GERMANIUM":B$(32)="GE" 

217 A$(33)="ARSENIC":B$(33)="AS":A$(34)="SELENIUM":B$(34)="SE" 

218 A$(35)="BROMINE":B$(35)="BR":A$(36)="KRYPTON":B$(36)="KR" 

219 A$(37)="RUBIDIUM":B$(37)="RB":A$(38)="STRONTIUM":B$(38)="SR" 

220 A$(39)="YTTRIUM":B$(39)="Y":A$(40)="ZIRCONIUM":B$(40)="ZR" 

Program continues 



Program continued 

221 A$(41)= 

222 A$(43)= 
U" 

223 AS(45)= 

224 A$(47)= 

225 A$(49) 

226 A$(51)= 

227 A$(53)= 

228 A$(55)= 

229 A$(57)= 

230 A$(59)= 
"ND" 

231 A$(61) 



'NIOBIUM" : B$ ( 41 )="NB":A$( 42 )="MOLYBDENUM":B$( 42 )="M0" 
TECHNETIUM" :B$( 43) ="TC" : A$ (44) -"RUTHENIUM" :B$ (44) ="R 

'RHODIUM" :B$( 45) ="RH":A$( 46) ="PALLADIUM":B$( 46) ="PD" 
"SILVER":B$(47)="AG":A$(48)="CADMIUM":B$(48)="CD" 
="INDIUM":B$(49)="IN":AS(50)="TIN":B$(50)="SN" 
"ANTIMONY" :B$( 51) ="SB":A$( 52) ="TELLURIUM":B$( 52) ="TE" 
"IODINE":B$(53)="I":A$(54)="XENON":B$(54)="XE" 
"CESIUM":B$(55)="CS":A$(56)="BARIUM":B$(56)*="BA" 
"LANTHANUM" :B$( 57) ="LA" :A$(58) ="CERIUM" :B$(58) ="CE" 
"PRASEODYMIUM" :B$( 59) ="PR":A$ (6 0) ="NEODYMIUM" :B$ (60)= 



="PROMETHIUM":B$(61)="PM":A$(62)="SAMARIUM":B$(62)="SM 

232 A$(63)="EUROPIUM":B$(63)="EU":A$(64)="GADOLINIUM":B$(64)="GD 

233 A$(65)="TERBIUM":B$(65)="TB":A$(66) ="DYSPROSIUM" :B$(66) ="DY" 

234 A$(67)="HOLMIUM":B$(67)="HO":A$(6 8)="ERBIUM":B$(6 8)="ER" 

235 A$(6 9)="THULIUM":B$(69)="TM":A$(70)="YTTERBIUM":B$(70)="YB" 

236 A$ (71) ="LUTETIUM" :B$ (71) ="LU" : A$ (72) ="HAFNIUM" jB$ (72) ="HF" 

237 A$(73)="TANTALUM":B$(73)="TA":A$(74)="WOLFRAM":B$(74)="W" 

238 A$(75)="RHENIUM":B$(75)="RE":A$(76)="OSMIUM":B$(76)="OS" 

239 A$(77)="IRIDIUM":B$(77)="IR":A$(78)="PLATINUM":B$(7 8)="PT" 

240 A$(7 9)="GOLD":B$(79)="AU":A$(80)="MERCURY":B$(80)="HG" 

241 A$(81)="THALLIUM":B$(81)="TL":A$(82)="LEAD":B$(82)="PB" 

242 A$(83)="BISMUTH":B$(83)="BI":A$(84)="POLONIUM":B$(84)="PO" 

243 A$ ( 85) =" ASTATINE" : B$ ( 85) ="AT" : A$ ( 86) ="RADON" :B$ ( 86) ="RN" 

244 A$(87)="FRANCIUM":B$(87)="FR":A$(88)="RADIUM":B$(88)="RA" 

245 A$(89)="ACTINIUM":B$(89)="AC":A$(90)="THORIUM":B$(90)="TH" 

246 A$(91)="PROTACTIUM":B$(91)="PA":A$(92)="URANIUM":B$(92)="U" 

247 A$(93)="NEPTUNIUM":B$(93)="NP":A$(94)="PLUTONIUM":B$(94)="P 
U" 

248 A$(95)="AMERICIUM":B$(95)="AM":A$(96)="CURIUM":B$(96)="CM" 

249 A$(97)="BERKELIUM":B$(97)="BK":A$(98)="CALIFORNIUM":B$(98)=" 
CF" 

250 A$(99)="EINSTEINIUM":B$(99)="ES":A$(100)="FERMIUM":B$(100)= 
"FM" 

251 A$(101)="MENDELEVIUM":B$(101)="MD":A$(102)="NOBELIUM":B$(102 
)="NO" 

252 A$(103)="LAWRENCIUM":B$(103)="LW":A$(104)="RUTHERFORDIUM":B$ 
(104)="KU" 

290 A=RND(104) :IF B(A)=1 THEN 290 

300 PRINT@ 384, "GIVE THE SYMBOL FOR ";A$(A);" " 

310 INPUT C$ 

320 IF C$=B$(A) THEN 500 ELSE 1000 

500 B(A)=l:U=U+l:FOR X=ll TO U:SET (X,7) :NEXT:FOR X=ll TO U:RESE 

T(X,7) :NEXT:IF U=115 THEN 1500 

510 D=RND(5):ON D GOTO 520,530,540,550,560 

520 PRINT8448, "LUCKY GUESS" :GOTO 700 

530 PRINT§448,"ARE YOU CHEATING?" :GOTO700 

540 PRINT@448,"KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK" :GOTO700 

550 PRINT8448,"PUT THE PERIODIC TABLE AWAY1 I 1 " :GOTO700 

560 PRINT@448,"SHOW OFF":GOTO700 

700 FOR Z=l TO 600:NEXT:PRINT@448,STRING$(130," ") ; 

990 GOTO 290 

1000 V=V-3:FOR X=114 TO V STEP-1: SET (X,7) :NEXT:FOR X=114 TO 

V STEP-1: RESET (X, 7) .-NEXT: IF V<=10 THEN2000 
1010 D=RND(5): ON D GOTO 1020,1030,1040,1050,1060 
1020 PRINT8448, "OH NO":GOTO 1300 
1030 PRINT@448 f "NOT SO HOT" :GOTO1300 
1040 PRINT@448,"WHAT A DUMB GUESS" :GOTO1300 
1050 PRINT8448, "BETTER STUDY" :GOT013 00 
1060 PRINT@448, "FOOLISH CHILD" :GOTO1300 
1300 FOR Z=l TO 600:NEXT Z :PRINT@448,STRING$ (130," ") ; 
1310 PRINT8448, "THE CORRCT SYMBOL IS ";B$(A):FOR Z=l TO 600:NE 
XT:PRINT@448,STRING$(130," ") ; 
1490 GOTO 290 

1500 CLS:PRINT@768, "THANK YOU FOR HELPING CAPTAIN CHEMISTRY DE 
FEAT THE EVIL ELEMENTS" 

1501 PRINT8138,CHR$(136)+CHR$(183)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(187)+CHR$(132) 

1502 PRINT§201,CHR$(191)+CHR$(175)+STRING$(3,191)+CHR$(159)+CHR$ 
(191) 

1503 PRINT@264,CHR$(160)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(170)+STRING$(3,191)+CHR$ 
(149)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(144) 

1504 PRINT@329,CHR$(131)+CHR$(16 8)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(131)+CHR$(191) 
+CHR$(148)+CHR$(131) 

1505 PRINT@394,CHR$(170)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(128)+CHR$(191)+CHR$(149) 

1506 PRINT@456,STRING$(4,131)+CHR$(128)+STRING$(4,131) 

1507 FORQ=1TO1000:NEXTQ:PRINT@160,"YOU HAVE EARNED YOUR CAPE";:F 
ORQ=1TO1000:NEXTQ 

1508 FORQ=10TO17:SET(26-Q,Q) :SET(Q+23,Q) :NEXTQ:FORQ=10TO19:SET(Q 
,17) :NEXTQ:FORQ=30TO39:SET(Q,17) :NEXTQ 

1510 GOTO2010 

2000 CLS:PRINT@76 8, "BETTER STUDY1 1 1 111 I ! I 11 1 THE CAPTAIN NEEDS 
A FEW GOOD STUDENTS." 

2010 FORQ=1TO3000:NEXTQ:CLS:INPUT"CARE TO TRY AGAIN" ; Z$: IFLEFT$ ( 
Z$,1)="Y"THENRUN 

2020 PRINT"GOODBYE, CAPTAIN CHEMISTRY NEEDS TO GO CLEAN HIS TEST 
TUBES NOW" :FORQ=1TO2000:NEXTQ:CLS 



Electronic 

Circuit 

Analysis 



• Detailed analog circuit analysis 

• Very fast, machine language 

• Infinite circuits on multiple passes 

• Worst case analysis 

• Dynamic modification 

• 64 Nodes 

• Compare circuits 

• Log or linear sweep 

• Full file handling 

• Chaining and spooling facilities 

• Frequency response, magnitude and 
phase 

• Complete manual with examples 

• A truly professional program with 
features previously available only on 
large systems 

• TRS-80 model I or model III. disk or 
cassette. 575.00 

Tatum Labs 
P.O. Box 722 
HawleyvUle, CT 06440 
(203) 426-2184 



TRS-80 is J trjdenurk i>l 
i>t Tandy Corp. 



^211 




First in 

Its Class 

and 

Looking 

for 

Work. 



TRS-80 Model I, II, III 

Five multiple regression procedures 
(including stepwise, backward elimination, all 
subset, and ridge), 24 transformations, com- 
prehensive data base manager (with search 
and sort), descriptive statistics, hypothesis 
testing (7 tests), time series analysis (7 
models), random variate generation, discrete 
probability distributions, sampling distribu- 
tions, nonparametrics (5 tests), and com- 
plete documentation. 

Complete package with manual — $125 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping 

and handling to: 

Quant System* ^271 

P.O. Box 628 

Charleston, S.C. 29402 

803-571-2825 

S.C. residents add 4% sales tax 

Overseas orders add $7 for shipping 



• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 117 




Because your computer is 



BUSINESS ANALYSIS 

Business Analysis is a flexible, professional time series analysis and forecast- 
ing package. It features a unique graphing capability and can direct any chart or 
graph to your printer. Ideal for personal or business applications, Business Analy- 
sis can be used in sales and stock market analysis, forecasting, product or 
business planning, and family spending and energy consumption trends. Docu- 
mentation included. Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 

TRS-80," Tape. W140R-28 $$75.00 

TRS-80," Disk, ff0152RD-28 $99.95 

EASY CALC 

Easy Calc Is a unique program that will turn your computer into an electronic 
worksheet with all the speed and power of a programmable calculator. In addition 
to the regular calculator features, you can calculate percentages, summations of 
all rows of columns and other time saving functions. Your worksheets can be 
merged with Scripslt* word processor files for complete, professional reports. 
ENTER and SAVE your calculations with a touch of a single key! Easy Calc's 
special library feature allows you to name each file with up to 28 characters. All op- 
tions are MENU selectable and described in plain English. A detailed User's 
Manual is provided. 

TRS-80,' Disk, (K3369R3D-28 (Model III version) $49.95 

TRS-80; Disk, #0269RD-28 (Model I version) $49.95 

TLDIS/DLDIS 

Tape and disk-based Labeling Disassemblers, TLDIS and DLDIS are three-pass 
disassemblers which assign labels (where appropriate) to routines in a machine- 
code program to give an output which is identical to a hand-assembled source 
code. Options enable you to send the disassembly to a lineprinter or to tape. TLDIS 
and DLDIS have many other special features and come complete with documenta- 
tion. Model I & III, Level II. 16K. 

TLDIS. TRS-80; Tape. #0230R-28 $14.95 

DLDIS, TRS-80,* Disk. #0231RD-28 $19.95 

THE ELECTRONIC BREADBOARD 

The Electronic Breadboard permits the design and analysis of analog circuits. It 
can be used to evaluate voltages, currents, impedance and the frequency response 
of any circuit. This package is ideal for audio component repairmen, ham radio 
operators, hobbyists, electrical engineers, telecommunications engineers, 
audlphiles and students of electronics. It Is a great training aid! Documentation is 
included. Model I & III, Level II. 16K. 
TRS-80." Tape. W287R-28 $49.95 

SUPER»TERMINAL 

The most flexible and powerful microcomputer terminal program available at 
any price, Super»Terminal, allows you to communicate with almost any other 
computer system quickly and efficiently. It provides single key auto sign-on, file 
transfer capabilities which include prompted output and Xon/Xoff code recogni- 
tion, and a continuous count of parity, framing and overrun errors. These and many 
more features make communications with Super»Terminal fast, efficient and 
easy to use. Requires TRS-80" Model I or Model III with 32K memory and one disk 
drive. Documentation is included. 
TRS-80; Disk, #5700RD-28 $95.00 



TYPING TEACHER 

Transform your computer into both a typewriter and an instructor with this com- 
plete seven-part package. Includes on-screen diagrams and practice sessions. 
Your computer becomes a bottomless page for typing practice. The lessons are 
tailored to the keyboard, but train you to use any standard typewriter. Manual. 
Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 
TRS-80,* Tape, S0099R-28 $12.95 

SPACE SHUTTLE 

Instant Software's Space Shuttle puts you in the command pilot's seal of 
America's first reusable space shuttle. Until commercial space flight becomes a 
reality, this is the closest you'll get to the ultimate flight. Complete with documen- 
tation. Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 

TRS-80." Tape, #0332R-28 $14.95 

JET FIGHTER PILOT 

After you've flown a few missions with the Jet Fighter Pilot package, you'll know 
you've earned your wings. Jet Fighter Pilot is a brilliantly realistic simulation of a 
real mission putting you in total control of the aircraft. All controls respond the 
same as they would on a real jet fighter. This combat flying program comes with 
comprehensive documentation. Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 
TRS-80; Tape, #0159R-28 $14.95 



DANGER IN ORBIT 

Danger In Orbit is a real-time, machine-code space game with variable levels of 
difficulty, superb highspeed graphics, sound effects and automatic scorekeeping. 
Destroy asteroids with your anti-matter cannon! Prevent alien spacecraft from in- 
vading the Terran Defense Network. Avoid alien attacks from hyperspace. Only 
lightning reflexes and nerves of steel will enable you to survive Danger In Orbit. 
Comes with documentation. Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 
TRS-80," Tape, ff0237R-28 $14.95 



SKYBOMBERS II 

Skybombers II is an aerial war game pitting two nations against each other. Bat- 
tlesounds and graphically displayed explosions give each battle a vivid reality. The 
scores for both countries are constantly updated at the bottom of the display 
screen. Experience air warfare at its best with Skybombers II. Requires 32K RAM, 
Applesoft in ROM and game paddles. Documentation is included. 

APPLE; Tape, W0183A-28 $9.95 

APPLE." Disk, #0271AD-28 $19.95 

BALL TURRET GUNNER (with sound) 

Ball Turret Gunner is a deep space, laser attack game. As a member of the Ball 
Turret Gunner service you're at the console of Ihe spaceship: your mission- 
destroy the enemy! Multiple levels of difficulty, optional sound effects, superb 
graphics and complete documentation enhance this program. Model I only. 
TRS-80; Tape, SO051R-28 $9.95 




only as good as the software 



GEOGRAPHY EXPLORER:USA 

Learn the vital lacts about each state in our union in the most fun and 
fascinating way yet. The program displays computer generated maps of the United 
States, its seven regions and even its individual states. Questions may be multiple 
choice, recognition or fill-in format. A unique TEACHER mode allows multiple op- 
tions of how the material is to be presented. As an added bonus, Geography Ex- 
plorer:USA has the capability of supporting a light pen. The union of sophisticated 
software with the speed and novelty of the light pen represents a milestone in Com- 
puter Assisted Instruction. Fully documented, this program is educational for any 
age group. Model I or III, Level II, 16K. 
TRS-80," Disk, #0071RD-28 $49 - 95 



MASTER REVERSI 

Master Reversi is a state-of-the-art game that's simple to play, yet infinitely 
challenging. It is a tournament-winning program that has more features than any 
other reversi program on the market. Master Reversi offers a special library of 
tournament-level games for you to analyze. Whether you're having fun or studying 
for the world championship, Master Reversi is the game for you. Documentation In- 
cluded. Model I, Level II, 16K. 
TRS-80," Disk, #0378RD-28 $29.95 



AIR FLIGHT SIMULATION 

An actual simulated take off, flight and landing, Air Flight Simulation is 
both fun and educational. Basic flight instructions, explanations of basic 
aerodynamics, principals of flight and well illustrated documentation included. 
TRS-80* version requires Model I or III, Level II, 16K. APPLE" version requires 16K 
RAM and Applesoft. 

TRS-80; Tape, M1017R-28 

APPLE,* Tape. #0l48A-28 



Here's how to order: 

RETAIL: Ask us for a list of the instant Software dealers nearest you. If there is 
not one near you. let us know. Meanwhile, if you would like to order any of the 
products featured on these pages call toll-free 800-258-5473, or use the handy 
reply card in this magazine (a photocopy of it is acceptable). Just fill in the 
necessary inlormation and return it to us. To receive a free copy of our latest 
catalog, just ask, or check the appropriate box on the reply card. Visa. Master- 
card, American Express and personal checks or money orders are accepted. 
Sorry, no C.O.D.'s. Please add $2.50 per order for postage & handling. 

DEALERS: If you would like to join the hundreds ol Instant Software dealers in 
the United States. Canada and Europe who are already celebrating our software, 
fill m the coupon below (a photocopy is acceptable) or call toll-free 800-258-5473 
and ask for our dealer sales department. 

'TRS-80, and Scripsit are trademarks of Tandy Corp. APPLE is a trademark of 
Apple Computer Co. 

Instant Software 



A SUBSIDIARY OF WAYNE GREEN INC., 



PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 



$9.95 
$9.95 



COSMIC PATROL 

With Cosmic Patrol you get the best of the search and destroy space games. Im- 
pressive sound option and superb graphics make Cosmic Patrol the best of Its 
kind. Defend your interstellar space and prey on the enemy with this fast, real-time 
action game program. Documentation included. Model I & III, Level II, 16K. 

TRS-80." Tape, WJ223R-28 JJ4M 

TRS-80," Disk, #0224RD-28 51!,s:> 

SANTA PARAVIA AND FIUMACCIO 

Build a powerful kingdom from your tiny city-state. Set in the year 1400 AD. 
in Italy, this challenging program allows you to test all your leadership skills. 
See if you have what it takes to be a wise and competent ruler. Well 
documented. TRS-80' version Model I & III. Level II. 16K. APPLE" version requires 
Applesoft in ROM. 

TRS-80." Tape. #0043R-28 •**■ 

APPLE; Tape, #0174A-28 • «■»* 

APPLE," Disk, #0229AD-28 * , * w 



/ 1 want to join the celebration! \ 

-:- rN As an IriMiini Software dealer you can open up a new world 

of software for yOW customers. You'll receive the finest i 

business, utilities, applications, games, simulations and cduca- I 

tional software for most popular microcomputers. Find out I 

how you can increase your profits as an Instant Software 
dealer. Inquire today-you owe yourself a celehration. 

□Call me directly. ' 

□Send me dealer information, i 




State. 



Zip. 



AREA CODE 

Instant Software. Inc.. Peterborough, NH 03458 



C-28 



EDUCATION 



Classroom networking comes of age. 



Earth to Class, Listen Up! 



Madeleine Fish 
Grant Union High School 
1400 Grand Avenue 
Sacramento, CA 95838 



Radio Shack's Network Con- 
troller ($500) makes it pos- 
sible to use up to sixteen 
computers synchronously in a 
classroom. 

The heart of the network is the 
controller box. On the backside 
are sixteen positions for plug- 
ging in connector cords. The 
other end of each cord connects 
to the tape position on each of 
the student computers. The con- 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 

Model I 

16K 

Radio Shack 

Network Controller 



troller box also connects to the 
tape output port on the teach- 
er's computer. The teacher first 
loads a program from a disk or 
tape into the instructor's com- 
puter. The teacher then CSAVEs 
the program, sending it out 
through the tape port to the con- 
troller box. This amplifies the 
signal and sends it to the tape 
ports of the students' com- 
puters which have been set up 
with a CLOAD command. In this 
way the teacher can load six- 
teen systems simultaneously 
with the same program. 

A network system also makes 
communication in the opposite 
direction possible. Student sta- 
tions selected via a numbered 
dial on the controller box can 
send programs to the teacher's 
computer. Using the system in 
this manner the teacher can 
save programs written by a stu- 
dent on the main system's flop- 
py disk or obtain a hard copy on 
a printer connected to the in- 
structor's computer system. 

At Grant Union High School in 
Sacramento we have eleven 
TRS-80s (16K Level II) connected 
through a network system. We 
have used the computers in the 



math and science programs. 
The students write their own 
programs and perform drill exer- 
cises on the computer. The 
school library also contains 
three systems available for stu- 
dent use. 

We have used the computer 
network to assist our students 
in mastering all levels of science 
instruction from general sci- 
ence through physics. College 
preparatory and basic level stu- 
dents also use the network. 
They work in groups of two or 
three per station. 

In the physical sciences 
much of the material presented 
to the students requires that 
they practice solving problems. 
We have observed that students 
attempt many more problems 
when presented with them one 
at a time on the computer, com- 
pared to the traditional ap- 
proach involving a page of prob- 
lems. A student faced with a 
great many problems is often 
discouraged before attempting 
the first exercise. A computer 
provides a true second chance 
to solve a problem. The com- 
puter can inform a student that 
a solution is incorrect and 



provide a hint to help with a new 
approach. 

During the past few years an 
increasing amount of commer- 
cial software has been directed 
toward the education market. It 
is still, however, difficult to find 
programmed material tailored 
to a particular school's curricu- 
lum or written at the target level. 
Finding funds for software is 
often a major problem for the 
classroom teacher. A teacher 
using computers for instruction 
must therefore be prepared to 
author many lessons. 

Several moderately priced au- 
thoring programs allow a teach- 
er to enter questions and an- 
swers. When the student uses 
these programs they require a 
two-step loading process. A gen- 
eral program is first loaded; the 
computer can then accept the 
second load containing the ques- 
tion and answer data. This pro- 
cedure is not directly possible 
on the network system. The soft- 
ware requires considerable mod- 
ification before it can be used 
with a network of computers. 

Educators who are novices in 
computer programming, but 
wish to develop their own com- 



120 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



COMPUTER BOOKS FOR BEGINNERS 



Everything you need to know to get started programming your own computer. These handy program sourcebooks, each 
jam-packed with easy-to-understand info for beginners, are crammed with hundreds of tips, tricks, secrets, hints, short- 
cuts, and techniques, plus hundreds of tested ready-to-run programs. TRS-80 Color Computer. TRS-80 Pocket Computer. 
Sharp PC-1211 Pocket Computer. Casio FX-702P Pocket Computer. Four of the most popular computers for beginners. 



Color Computer 

101 Color Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, learn-by-doing instruc- 
tions, hints, secrets, techniques, shortcuts, insights, tor TRS-80 Color 
Computer. 128 pages $7.95 

55 Color Computer Programs for the Home. School & Office, practical 
ready-to-run software with colorful graphics. 1 28 pages S9.95 

55 MORE Color Computer Programs for Home, School & Office, 

sourcebook of useful, plug-in-and-run software with colorful graphics, 
for TRS-80 Color Computer. 1 1 2 pages $9.95 

The Color Computer Songbook. 40 favorite pop. classical, folk & seasonal 
songs arranged for the TRS-80 Color Computer, ready-to-run music pro- 
grams. 96 pages $7.95 

My Buttons Are Blue And Other Love Poems From The Digital Heart Of An 
Electronic Computer, for poetry lovers, computer lovers, just-plain 
lovers, a high-tech classic. 66 heartwarming poems written by a TRS-80 
Color Computer, great gift for someone close to you, includes the ex- 



clusive ARCsoft Poetrywriter program. 96 pages 



$4.95 



PRACTICAL 
PROGRAMS 



FOR 
THE 



CASIO 



50 



I Programs 
In BASIC 
ForTheHome, 






POCKET 
COMPUTER 

PROGRAMMING 
MADE EASY 



/ 



/ ^ 

TV 




JAJp«k.l 

| \f I Computer 

Programming 
Tips & Tricks 



gZf\ MORE 

«# \J Programs 
In BASIC for the 



Murder — ,SL 
In The 
Mansion 

And Other Computer Adtentures 
In Pocktt-BASIC For The TRS-80 



1 y ii 1 ,. 

« i 



Program Worksheets 

Handy printed forms make writing BASIC software easy and fun. 
Customized for your own computer system, or use the universal form 
good for any BASIC computer. 40-sheet tablets: 

Color Computer Coding Form 52.95 

Pocket Computer Coding Form $2.95 

APPLE Computer Coding Form $2.95 

IBM Personal Computer Form $2.95 

Universal Coding Form $2.95 

Electronics Projects 

25 Easy-To-Build One-Night & Weekend Electronics Projects, useful 
gadgets, readily-available parts, 96 pages $4.95 



My Buttons |55 MORE 



Are Blue 

and Other Love Poems 

From The Digital Heart 
of an Electronic Computer 



Color 
Computer 
Programs For The 
Home, Schoolfi Off ice 




£^*> 




a? 



«ocoi££&. s 2:Kf«» 



Pocket Computer 

50 Programs in BASIC for the Home, School & Office, useful plug-in-and- 
run software for TRS-80/Sharp PC-1211 pocket computers, 96 



pages 



$9.95 



50 MORE Programs in BASIC for Home, School & Office, sourcebook of 
tested ready-to-run software for TRS-80/Sharp PC-1211 pocket com- 
puters, 96 pages $ 9 - 95 

101 Pocket Computer Programming Tips & Tricks, secrets, hints, short- 
cuts, techniques from a master programmer, for TRS-80/Sharp PC-121 1 
pocket computers. 1 28 pages $7.95 

Murder In The Mansion and Other Computer Adventures, murder 
mystery, space, adventures, loads of fun. 24 game programs for TRS- 
80/Sharp PC-1211 pocket computers. 96 pages $6.95 

35 Practical Programs for the Casio Pocket Computer, useful plug-in-and- 
run software for the FX-702P. 96 pages $8.95 

Pocket Computer Programming Made Easy, new fast and easy way to 
make the world's smallest computer work for you. 128 pages $8.95 

Order direct from this ad. Send check or money order. In- 
clude $1 shipping for each item ordered up to a maximum 
of $3. Or write for our free catalog. Mail orders to: 

ARCsoft Publishers 

Post Office Box 132Q 
Woodsboro, Maryland 21798 

(301) 663-4444 



• 491 



Customers outside North America wanting airmail send S6 per book. Foreign customers pay in 
U S dollars. For lirst-class mail delivery in North America include S2 per oook. Maryland 
residents add 5% sales tax. Sorry, no COD TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp/Radio Shack. 



ction 




"The Hardware Company" 



omputers 



Centronics Printer Sale 

Completely Refurbished, 30 Day Warranty 



Model # 
101 



101A 



101AL 



102 A 



*306 



501 



503 



165 c.p.s., 132 print positions, 5x7 dot matrix, 
areal work horse only $449.00 

Same as above with the added features of 9 x 7 
dot matrix and USASCII 95 character 

only $549.00 

Added Bells and Whistles. All the features of the 
101 line plus LSI only $749.00 

330 c.p.s., 125 L.P.M. bi-directional print 9 x 7 dot 
matrix only $949.00 

The best of Centronics line at the best price, 
compact, 120 characters per second, 5x7, VFU, 
top of form and more only $689.00 

Quietizer covers available for this model only 

only $ 89.00 

165 c.p.s., 30 L.P.M. at 132 character lines, 150 
L.P.M. at 30 character lines, 5 x 7 dot matrix, 
sprocket feed, motor control only $600.00 

165 c.p.s., sister to the 501 with bi-directional 
print at twice the speed — self tests only $700.00 



• Print stands available for all models only $ 70.00 

• Paper catchers for all models only $18.00 

• Inforex 9" CRT w/power supply and keyboard 
as is: only $35.00 

Options Interfaces 

• Add lower cbm to most Cen- 
tronics Prlntsrs only $89.00 

• Foreign character sets 
available. 

• Add Motor Control to your 
779 printer only $95.00 
Our Conversion Kit I gives most 
Centronics printers the ability 
to print in upper and lower 
case • $89.00 

Our Conversion Kit II turns 
your motor on and off auto- 
matically. Increases the life of 
your printer $95.00 
Both kits require NO soldering, 
etch cuts, software mod. or 
interface. Easy Installation. 



action 



• Now use your Centronics 
Parallel Printer on any Computer 
with a serial Port. Available in 
four models all with switchable 
baud rates. 
Model 
CSP - 100 

No buffer only $175.00 

CSP - 200 

256 char, buffer only $225.00 
CSP - 200X 

X on/X off Protocol only $340.00 
CSP - 2000 

2048 char, buffer only $395.00 

PS Models 

parallel to parallel 

devices $125.-$150. 

PPS Models 

Software control serial to 
parallel or combination, 
multiple ports $350-$395 

MS Model 

Single modem shared by 
4 devices $310 

Many More Interfaces Available 



/^ctio 
^^romputers 

85 Factory Street 
Nashua, N.H. 03061 
To order: Call 603-883-5369 
Inquiries Always Welcome 

Shipping and Handling Extra 
Yes We Ship C.O.D. 



^297 



VISA 



puter assisted instruction mate- 
rials will find the program pre- 
sented here useful. This pro- 
gram is easy for the teacher or 
parent to use and loads easily 
from tape or disk with a net- 
work configuration or a single 
computer. 

The following program allows 
an instructor to write a series of 
questions, with one hint, in a 
succession of data statements. 
The answers may be numerical 
or alphabetic characters. 

This program is very simple. A 
teacher with beginning program- 
ming skills can understand its 
logic and tailor the basic model 
to his own teaching situation. 

The program reads the ques- 
tion, hint (if the first answer is in- 
correct) and answer from data 
statements. If the answer is a 
string of alphabetic characters 
it must agree exactly with the 
teacher's answer. If the answer 
is numerical, a factor of plus or 
minus 10 percent triggers a cor- 
rect answer message. This can 



be easily changed. The student's 
score is displayed on the screen 
at the end of the program. The 
student can recycle through the 
questions or end. 

The first data line contains 
the name of the exercise and the 
total number of questions. The 
format for entering the data is 
question, answer and hint sepa- 
rated by commas. Do not use 
commas or colons in the ques- 
tion, hint or answer. 

You can enter the intial text 
material and instructions with a 
series of print statements. You 
might make the data statements 
the initial part of the program. 
Then delete the program beyond 
the data, text and instructions 
for storage and merge it with the 
body of the program for use. 

If you use this program to pre- 
pare a computational exercise, 
you can enter the computer's 
calculator mode by Breaking the 
program and using the print 
command. Enter CONT to pro- 
ceed with the program. ■ 



10 REM PROGRAM TO FORMULATE A DRILL EXCERCISE 

20 REM ALL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WILL BE ENTERED THROUGH DATA ST 

ATEMENTS ■ 

30 CLEAR 3000 'CHANGE DEPENDING ON NUMBER OP QUESTIONS 

40 DIM QS(20) r AS(20) ,HS(20) 'SET FOR MAXIMUM OF 20 QUESTIONS 

50 CLS 

60 INPUT'FIRST NAME";NS 

70 INPUT'LAST NAME";L$ 

80 INPUT "DATE(M/D/YR)";D$ 

500 CLS: PRINT" TEXT MATERIAL" 

1400 INPUT'PRESS ENTER WHEN READY TO GO ON";ZZ 

1500 CLS: PRINT" INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPUTER PROGRAM" 

1900 INPUT "PRESS ENTER WHEN READY TO GO ON";ZZ 

2000 REM PROGRAM FOR RETRIEVING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FROM DATA 

2010 RESTORE:K=0 

2020 READ P$ f Z 'PROGRAM TITLE AND NO. OF QUESTIONS 

2030 FOR X = 1 TO Z 

2040 READ Q$(X),A$(X),H$(X) -READS QUESTION, ANSWER AND HINT 

'-v jb CLS 

2060 PRINT@64, Q$(X) ? 

2070 INPUT R$ 'R$ IS STUDENT RESPONSE 

2080 IF VAL(R$)=0 THEN 2110 'RESPONSE WAS A WORD 

2090 IF ABS(VAL(R$)-VAL(A$(X)))0.1*VAL(A$(X)) THEN GOSUB 5000:N 

EXT X:GOTO 2130 'ALLOWS +/" 10% ON NUMERICAL ANSWER 

2100 GOSUB 6000 :NEXT X:GOTO 2130 

2110 IF R$=A$(X)THEN GOSUB 5000.-NEXT X:GOTO 2130 

2120 GOSUB 6000:NEXT X:GOTO 2130 

2130 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT N$;" ";L$;" "-DS" 

";P$:PRINT 

2140 PRINT "YOU SCORED "K" CORRECT OUT OF "Z" ON THE FIRST TRY"- 

PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"YOU HAD "(K/Z)*100"% CORRECT" 

2150 PRINT: INPUT" DO YOU WISH TO REPEAT THESE QUESTIONS" ;CS 

2160 IF LEPT$(C$,1)<>"Y" THEN END 

2170 GOTO 2010 

2180 GOSUB 6000:NEXT X 

5000 REM CORRECT ANSWER SUBROUTINE 

5010 PRINTS 704, "CORRECT ANSWER ";N$:K=K+1 

5020 FOR Y=l TO 700:NEXT Y 

5030 RETURN 

6000 REM WRONG ANSWER ROUTINE 

6 602 !»ANS»?£ S AGAIN - HERE IS A HINT - " = PRINT H$ < X > 

6030 IF VAL(R$)=0 THEN 6060 

6040 IF VAL(R$)=0 AND A$(X)=R$ THEN 6100 

tn^ V ABS(VAL(R$)-VAL(A$(X)))<= . 1*VAL( AS (X) ) THEN 6100 

6060 IF RS=A$(X) THEN 6100 

6070 PRINTS 704, "ANSWER IS ";A$(X) 

6080 INPUT'HIT ENTER KEY WHEN READY TO GO ON":ZZ 

6090 RETURN 

6100 PRINT@704,"THATS USING "jN$;"'S BRAIN POWER" 

6110 FOR Y=l TO 600:NEXT Y 

6120 RETURN 

7000 DATA CHAPTER 1,2 

7010 DATA WHAT IS THE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF WATER, 18, USE PERIODIC 

TABLE FOR ATOMIC WEIGHTS OF H AND O. 

7020 DATA WHAT IS THE NAME OF THIS COURSE, CHEMISTRY, CHECK THE TI 

TLB OF YOUR TEXT BOOK 



Program Listing 



122 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 




IT 



provides you with more information on your TRS-80* than any other single source 

gives you 20-30 new programs to use each month 

reviews equipment and software so you know what or what not to buy 

gives you the truth about the TRS-80— its good points and its limitations 

{80 Microcomputing is not affiliated with Tandy) 

lets you save money— lots of it— by comparison shopping within the ad pages 

clues you in on how other TRS-80 owners are using and updating their systems 

lets you in on what is really happening in the industry 

brings you Wayne Green's outspoken 

and often controversial editorials every 

month 

and best of all it gives you a no risk 

subscription offer- 



Subscribe today— if you are not satisfied with 
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80 Microcomputing • PO Box 981 • Farmingdale, N.Y. 11737 

*TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 123 



THIS MANY DEALERS CANT BE WRONG 



/ 



V 



ALABAMA 


QEOftQIA 


MINNESOTA SOFTWARE Wh.i e Beat Lake 


MICRO MINI COMPUTER WORLD Columbus 


UHF SALES. E»ana 


THE COMPUTER SHOP Gadadan 


ATLANTA COMPUTER MART Atlanta 


RURAL AMERICA ENTERPRISES. Marst.au 


TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SHOP Cincinnati 


WISCONSIN 


OLENSKY BROS Moo.* 


BAILEYS COMPUTER SHOP Augusta 


ZlM COMPUTERS Brooklyn Cante- 


WANNA PLAY Cincinnati 


BYTE SHOP. Gnaanikakl 


ALASKA 


DELTA DATA DYNAMICS. Tucker 


MISSISSIPPI 


OKLAHOtAA 


BYTE SHOP. Miiwaukaa 


COMPUTER TALK Anchoiaga 


ENERGY LOGIC Columbus 


C-COM Jackson 


COMPUTER STORE. INC . Tulsa 


COMPUTER WORLO ApplMon 


AMZOHA 


FLEMING ORUG CO Wrens 


OYER'S INC West Pomi 


COMPUTER WORLD. TuiSA 


COMPUTER WOOL D. Graan Bay 


CFRF Phoani. 


HAWAII 


SOFTWAREHOUSE Jackson 




COMPUTERLAND. Madlaon 


COMPUTER STORE. Phoanu 


HONOLULU ELECTRONICS Honolulu 


MISSOURI 


RAOlO SHACK ASSOC STORE. Guymon 


COMPUTERLAND. MlhwauAaa 


MESA ELECTRONICS. Maea 


MILLS ELECTRONICS Lanam* 


CENTURY NEXT COMPUTERS Columbia 


SOUNDS. ETC Watonga 


COMPUTERLAND. Wauaau 


MILLETS ELECTRONICS. Maaa 


RADIO SMACK ASSOC STORE Honolulu 


COMPUTER CENTER JO0im 


OREGON 


COMPUTERLAND OF FOX RIVER VALLEY. 


PERSONAL COMPUTER PLACE. Mesa 


IDAHO 


COMP U TRS. Florissant 


COMPUTER SPECIALTIES. Saiam 


OahAosb 


SIMUTEK. Tuceon 


COK A NELSON Mokow 


CRC COMPUTERS .'opim 


COMPUTERLAND OF PORTLAND Tigard 

lar electronics. Grant Pass 


MAGIC LANTERN COMPUTER. Madison 


TOV BOX Starr a Vlata 


DENNIS STONE ENTERPRISES Fruiliand 


OS Cameron 


OMEGA MICROS. Mliwauftae 


AWKAWAJ 


ELECTRONIC SPECIALTIES Bo>« 


HOUSE OF COMPUTERS Jopim 


PIONEER ELECTRONICS Sandy 

PENNSYLVANIA 


PETTED MICROSYSTEMS. Miiwaukaa 


MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS Mot Sor.ngs 


IDAHO MICROCOMPUTER. Buhl 


SO?t^A S rT^a*ck Btfion"* 


SAO TV SALES. Monroa 


CAUPOMMA 

ADVANCE RADIO (R/S DEALER). Grass Vallay 


MONTANA 

COMPUTER STORE Bil'mgs 
THE COMPUTER PLACE Kal.spail 
NEBRASKA 


ALLIED HOBBIES Phiiadaiphia 
ARTCO ELECTRONICS K.ngstfin 


WYOtAINO 

COMPUTER CONCEPTS. Oayaorv* 


ADVANCED COMPUTER PftOOUCTS Santa Aft* 


ALPINE COMPUTER CENTER Aod'o'd 


BELL El ECTRONICS. Edmbc-o 


AUSTRALIA 


ALBANY TYPEWRITER. Albany 


CHICAGO MAIN NEWSTAND E" vans Ion 


BEll FlFCTRONlCS.G.rard 


ClSA MICROCOMPUTING. S»dnay 


ALLTRONICS. San JOM 


COMPREHENSIVE MICROSYSTEMS Chicago 


APPLETREE SOFTWARE BaH'e C'f«k 


COMPUTERLAND G.bson.a 


DE FOREST SOFTWARE Nunawadlng. Vic 


AMCO ELECTRONIC SUPPLY Azuse 








CANADA 


ASAP COMPUTERS. Signal Hill 


COMPUTER STORE Rocklord 
COMPUTERLAND. Ntlas 


LEZOTTI STUDIO Onaiial* 

MICROAGE COMPUTER STORE Omaha 


ERIE COMPUTER. E'ia 




BYTE INDUSTRIES. Haywerd 




BYTE SHOP. Mountain Vkw 

CAPITOL COMPUTER SYSTEMS. Sacremen-o 


CREATIVE PROGRAMMING '"' 'a-lesli r 
GARCIA A ASSOCIATES Chicago 


JAE COMMUNICATIONS. Altoona 
MAFEX ASSOCIATES JOhnsiOwn 


mTcrond.str,but,ng. 


CHASCO COMPUTERS. El Monle 


JNL COMPUTER SYSTEMS. Down..* GrOve 




PERSONAL COMPUTER CORP Paon 


Toronto. Onl 


COAST ELECTRONICS. Mono Bay 








COMPUSUP. Unc**!* 

COMPUTER MART OF CALIFORNIA INC 


MiOWEST MICRO COMPUTERS. Lombard 
WALLACE COMPUTERS Peona 


HURLEY ELECTRONICS Las Vegas 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

8ITSN8YTES COMPUTER CENTER ConcO'd 


PITTSBURG COMPUTER STORE Pillsburg 
STEVENS RADIO SHACK OEAI ER. PVWnuviite 
RUMPEI.STILSKIN TOY SHOP Ne* Hop* 


ALLIED COMPUTER CENTRE Th„ndei Bay. 
Ontario 


Diamond Bar 


INDIANA 


TELEVISION PARTS COMPANV INC 


ARKON ELECTRONICS Toronto Oniano 


COMPUTERLAND. San Francisco 
COMPUTER PLUS. Sunnyvale 


DAD ELECTRONICS. Angola 


PAUL'S TV. Framoni 


New Brighton 
PUERTO RICO 




COMPUTER STORE San Leandro 


DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY. Latere 


PORTSMOUTH COMPUTER CENTER 




CENTRA! DISTRIBUTORS LTD lachma. 


COMPUTER WORLD. Weatmlnsler 


FALL CREEEK ELECTRONICS. Pendleton 


Potsmoiilh 


RHODE ISLAND 


Ouabac 


lXROSE.au APPLIANCE A REPAIR Weave-viiia 


GAME HUT. Bloommgton 


RADIO SHACK. Claremonc 
RIDER RADIO l*S Of ALERl 
Peterborough 


COl ONIAL ENTERPRISES |R/S DEAl ER). 




DIMENSIONAL SOFTWARE. San Dlaoc 
M W ELECTRIC. NortnMdge 


GAME PRESERVE ind.anapoiu 
PROFESSIONAL MICROCOMPUTER 




COMPUTER BARN Sarnie. Ontario 


EXATRON. Santa Clara 


SOFTWARE. Muneia 


OMNI ELECTRONICS. Charleston 


COMPUTER CIRCUIT. London Onlar.o 


OAMEO-RAMA. Santa Barbara 


SIMONTON LAKE DRUGS Elkhai 


TENNESSEE 


COMPUTER INNOVATIONS. Ottawa. 0nta"O 


OOOO FAIflE NATURAL FOODS. Lompoc 

HUNTINQTON COMPUTING. C©reo«an 
INLAND ELECTRONICS. RhWBMa 


THE BOAOOROOM Indianapolis 
THE HAM SHACK. F tJ „, ir 
IOWA 


ABE S TV SALES A SERVICE G'assboro 
ADEl MAN S STATIONERY CO UnM>n City 
BARGAIN BROTHERS Waal li«nton 
CHANNEL t RADIO SHACK MeolO'd 
COMPUTER FORUM RftdOank 


ACE MINI SYSTEMS OarKsvilie 

CHATTANOOGA COMPUTER CENTER 

Chaiianooga 

COMPUTER WORLD Nashviie 




MAiiBu MICROCOMPUTING. Mallbu 


LENWOOO SYSTEMS Cenla* Pomt 


COMPUTERLAB Memphis 


CREATIVE COMPUTERS. V.ctor.a. B C 


MARFAM CO . San jow 




COMPUTER MADNESS Englnhiown 


H*H ELECTRONICS T„iiihoma 


DATATEC COMPUTER SYSTEMS LTD . 


MICROCOMPUTING. Corcoran 


SERNETT LEISURE CENTE". Car.o'l 






NET PROFIT COMPUTERS. To»ance 
OPAMP/TECMNICAL BOOKS. Loa Angales 
OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEARNING. Chetsworin 
PC COMPUTERS. El Carrito 


KANSAS 

CENTRAL KANSAS COMPUTERS Har.nglon 


COMPUTERWORLD OF WESTFtElO WeslMd 
CROWlE'S Wh.tehouse Stahon 
DAVE'S El ECTRONiCS. INC Pennsvitl* 


AUDIO WORKS lulkm 
CODE DATA INC Arlington 
COMPUTER CONCEPTS Beaumont 


GA*Acr?CA C col^ 


Q l COMPUTERS. INC.. Lawndaia 


GOSUB iNTi. Wichita 


ELECTRONIC WORLD. Maniua 


COMPUTER PORT. Afimgton 


iRiSCO DU QUEBEC. Sta Fov. Ouabac 


RAC PRODUCTS. San Joaa 


HATCH COMPUTER CENTER Alliance 


J^eYeCTRONIC WORLD* M nt 


LYONS LOGIC LTD London. OfltVtO 


RADIO SMACK. El Cajon 
RADIO SMACK. Palm Sp'lnga 


KENTUCKY NOLOGY W ' Ch "' 


IASHEN ELECTRONICS INC Denv.li* 


COMPUTER SALES A SERVICE. Fori Wo-th 


MiCROSHACK Saskatoon. Sask 


RADIO SMACK. San Olago 

RAV SOUND (R/S DEALER). Fortune 


CBM. INC . Laxinglon 


MIDAS DATA SYSTEMS INC Mar'tfln 


MiCRO SHACK. Ragina. Sask 


COMPUTER MAGIC. Louisville 


RADIO SHACK ASSOC STORE MnwMIW* 


COMPUTERS By NElLL. lake Jackson 


M»w COMPUTERS. Mississauga. Ontario 


SALINAS HOBBY CENTER. Salinas 




SOFTWARE CITY P.'na Btooh 






SHAVER RADIO. San Joaa 






SILVER SPUR ELECTRONICS. Chino 


ACME BOOK CO Baton RouQe 


SOFTWARE CITY Rival Fflge 


COR S ^,R EX F | W wrh' H 


SAULT OFFICE MACHINES. Sauil St Maria. 


SOFTWARE PLUS El Toro 


COMPUTER SERVICES OF SHREVEPORT 


NEW MEXICO 


Omai.o 




Shf«vBpoi 


AUTEl ELECTRONICS CO *IDuQu««Qua 


GATEWAY ELECTRONICS Houston 


STATUS COMPUTER SYSTEMS. St Carinas. 


STACEY S BOOKSTORE. San FrenoeOO 


COMPUTER SHOPPE Meiairie 


JAW ENTERPRISES Clovis 


^"/^Hi"''"'*"' 


Ontano 


STRAWFIOWER ELECTRONICS (R/S DEALER). 


MAINE 


MICROAGE COMPUTER STORE 




Halt Moon Bay 


FRVEBURG COMPUTER CENTER FryeOurQ 


Aibuque'Que 


WEST WORLD COMPUTERS. Edmonton. 


THE COMPUTER STORE. Sanla Monica 


MAINE COMPU'RONICS Bangor 


MITCHELL MUSiC Carlsbad 


MARVMAC INDUSTRIES (R/S DEALER). 


Aibarta 




MAINE MICRO SYSTEMS INC Autxxn 


THOMAS ( CARRjEWElfcB Aiamoqo'd" 






THE SOFTWARE STORE. Huntinginn Baach 




WARGAMESWES1 Aib-.Qut'qu^ 
NEW YORK 


MICRO COMPUTER CONCEPTS Piano 


ITALY 


WABASH APPLE. Ei Toro 

WENNEP BUSINESS SYSTEMS, Los Altos 

COL OKA DO 


COMM CENTER Laurel 

PROGRAM STORE Bal|.mn-e 

SOFTWARE ETC Freoantk 

WILLS COMPUTER STORE Marlov. Ha/igMS 


ARISTO CRAFT DISTINCTIVE MINIATURES 
Pougnkaap&ifl 


RL COLES ELECTRONICS San Antomo 
ROY s CB A ELECTRONICS Aiansas Pass 
80 SOFTWARE. San Anion.o 
TOTAI COMPUTER STORE Baaumont 


FRANCE 

NETHERLANDS A BELGIUM 


FISTEL S MICRO ELECTRONICS. Oan.er 
POOR RlCHARO'S CALCULATORS. Fort Collins 


MASSACHUSETTS 

UNO Of ELECTRONICS. Lynn 


BERLINER COMPUTER CENTER 






Naw HyOa P»i» 


waghalter BOOKS INC Houston 




CONNECTICUT 


MARK GORDON COMPUTERS. Camb<"lge 


COMPUTER CORNER Wnt* Plains 


COMPUTERLAND. Salt Lake Cy 


SOFTWARE IMPORT BRABANT. 




MlODl EBORO MUSIC (R/S DEALER! 




Emdhoven NelP 


COMPUTER LAB. New London 


MICROCON Wetsrlown 


COMPUTER SHOP Kingston 
COMPUTER 'REE Endwall 


FOOTHIl l MODELERS Sail L»ka City 
OUALlTY TECHNOLOGY Salt Lake City 


INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS COMPUTERS 




Maneltaaia) 


OMNtTEK SYSTEMS Tewksbury 


COMPUTERLAND Ca'ie Place 


VERMONT 




TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS. B*1ha' 


SOUND COMPANV Springfield 


COMPUTERLAND OF NYC Ne« York 


TEMPO CO iR-'SOEALER) B'amaboro 


COMPUTER COl l ECTlEF. Amsterdam 


THE COMPUTER STORE. Slamlo'd 


STAR COMPUTING. Frammgham 


DIG'BYTE SYSTEMS. New York 


VIRGINIA 


MICRO COMPUTING. Krommen>e 


DCLAWARE 


THE GAME SHOP Easl Acton 


80 MICROCOMPUTER SERVICES Cohoe* 


COMPUTER SOI UTlONS Le*sburg 


MICRO OYNAMICS. Emdhoven 




MICHIGAN 


FUTURE VISIONS COMPUTER STORE Malvilla 


COMPUTER WORKS. INC . Mamsonburg 


MUSICPR1NT CHIP. Arkel 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 


ALL FOR LEARNING W Bioom'.eid 


MlCROHU' Brooklyn 


FRAME GALLERY Herndon 


OVEL GONNE OraChtan 


THE PROGRAM STORE. Washington. D C 


ALTERNATE SOURCE lansmg 


MODERN TEK SHOPS Snyder 


HOME COMPUTER CENTER INC 


RAL MICROCOMPUTERS. The Hague 


FLORIDA 


AM ELECTRONICS. Ann Aibor 


MR COMPUTER Wappmgers Falls 


Virginia Baach 


NEW ZEALAND 


ALL SYSTEMS GO. Winter Garden 


COMIC KINGDOM Oelroit 


PNR CLEAN AIR ENTERPRISES 


little SOLDIER. Aie«anona 


VISCOUNT ELECTRONICS. Paima-slOn Noth 


AMF MICROCOMPUTER CENTER Tampa 


COMPUTER CENTER Gardan Ol, 


PiatlSDurgh 


SYSTEMS MARKETING Arlington 


NORWAY 




COMPUTER CONNECTION. Faimington H.lls 


PHANTOS RESEARCH Cammus 


WASHINGTON 


fl-'S SORLUND Vadavagan 


COMPUTER HAVEN Melbourne 


COMPUTER MART Cla*SOn 


PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. Je'icho 


AMERICAN MERCANTILE COMPANY Seattle 


SWEDEN 


COMPUTER JUNCTION. Fort Lauderdale 


COMPUTER MAPI Flint 


SOFTRON SYSTEMS Rensselaer 


C*J ELECTRONICS Richland 


SFNTEC AB. Jartaiia 


COMPUTER SYSTEM RESOURCES. Ga.nesvHIe 


COMPUTERLAND. Kantwood 


WATERLOO HOBBIES MirtMla 


COMPUTERLAND. Batievue 


UNITED KINGDOM 


COMPUTER WORLD. Clearwater 


COMPUTERLAND. SouthlieM 


WORLO OF COMPUTERS Port Cnester 


COMPUTERLANO Federal Wa T 


CALISTO COMPUTERS. Birmingham 




COMPUTRONICS. Midland 


NORTH CAROLINA 


COMPUTERLAND. Spokane 


THE SOFTWARE HOUSE. London 


COMPUTERLAND. Sarasota 


EIGHT BIT CORNER. Muskegon 


RAYRURN MICRO Pi ECTRONICS Sylv* 


'ME ELECTRONIC SHOP. Olymp.a 


WEST OERMANY 


COMPUTERLAND. Tampa 


FERRIS RADIO Hazel Park 


SOUND MILl HavelOCk 


EMPIRE ELECTRONICS. Seattle 


MICROSTUFF. Franklurt 


COMPUTERLAND. Wesl Palm Beech 


GOLOEN ANVIL. South Haven 


OHIO 


EMPIRE ELECTRONICS. Sunnys'de 




CREATIVE COMPUTING. Orlando 


HOBBY HOUSE. Battle Crea* 
LEARNING CENTER I TO Ann Arbor 


Al TAIR SYSTEMS. INC . Oaylon 


J B SALES Snonomoish 
lOROS. Pol Angelas 








HAM HOBBY SALES. Sarasota 
MEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. Hiaieah 


MAINSYSTEMS.INC.Fl.nl 
MIDMlCHlGAN MEMORY. Oimondale 


ASTRO VIDEO ELECTRONICS lNC.Lanc«ie- 


PERSONAL COMPUTERS INC Spokane 


YOUR NAME COULD 


HIS COM PU TERM AT ION. Melbourne 


NEWMAN COMMUNICATIONS Grand Raoids 


COMPUTER STORE Toledo 






KOBY S KORNER. Pansacoia 


NEWMAN COMPUTER EXCHANGE. Ann A<ho< 


COMPUTERLAND Colum&uS 


WESTERN MICROCOMPUTER CENTER. 


BE HERE. CALL: 


M1CROCOMP LTD. Miami 


TRI COUNTY ELECTRONICS A SOUND 


COMPUTERLAND MayfiflM Heignis 


Bellmgham 




MINI CONCEPTS. Holly Hill 


CENTER. Fanlon 
WEATHERWAK DRUGS. Brooklyn 
WIZARD'S ARSENAL tail Lanj.ng 


COMPUIERIANO NormOlmsied 
COMPUTERlANO Wacen 
JERRYS COMPUTER Cleveland 


WEST VIRGINIA 

COMPUTER CORNER. MorQ*nlo-n 
COMPUTER STORE Huntington 


1-800-258-5473 


MICRO DATA BASE. Lakeland 




RAYS AMATEUR RAWO. Claarwatar 


YE OLOE TEACHERS SHOPPE. Yps.lam. 


JOBAR ENTERPRISES Middradehj 


OHIO VALLEY ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS. 




RICKS TV. Ocala 


MINNESOTA 


MICROAGE Columbus 


Wheeling 




SOUND IOEAS. GalnaavllM 


CODE ROOM Eden PrAifia 


MICRO COMPUTER CENTER Cente'vme 






SOUTH EAST MICRO DATA. Orlando 






MOigantown 





WHAT DO THEY KNOW THAT YOU DON'T? 

Find out. Fill out this coupon (or make a photocopy) and 
mail it today. You'll receive a dealer pack, filled with details 
on how you can join the ranks of the successful dealers 
listed above— with Instant Software. 



\ 



NAME: 



ADDRESS: 
CITY: 



Instant Softvvarelnc 



.STATE: 



_ZIP:_ 



Peterborough, N.H. 03458 603-924-7296 dc-28 



/ 



124 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Education = Microcomputers. 





*to the power of 
Instant Software 

Einstein's equation helped explain the properties 
of relativity, but didn't do much to speed the learn- 
ing process. Instant Software's equation means in- 
dividual attention and greater comprehension. Ev- 
eryone knows the best student-teacher ratio is 1:1. 
That was a problem in years past, but now it's as 
easy as C.A.I. (Computer-Aided Instruction). These 
Instant Software programs will guide and teach 
each lesson with the infinite patience only a com- 
puter can provide, thus allowing students to pro- 
gress at their own pace. 

Einstein had the right idea, but if he'd only known 
then what we know now 






(for the TRS-80™)* 










-$&- Typing Teacher 

A complete seven-part package that guides you from famil- 
iarization of the keyboard through typing words and phrases to 
mastery of touch-typing. Your video monitor becomes a bot- 
tomless page for typing practice, and your own private TYPING 
TEACHER, ready to teach when you're ready to learn. Model I, 
Level II, 16K; Model III, 16K. Order No. 0099R -25 $12.95 plus $2.50 

shipping. 

Triangle Trig (for the trsso™)* 

Instant Software is proud to offer TRIANGLE TRIG, the latest ad- 
dition to our educational software inventory. This tutorial package 
is designed for everyone involved in learning mathematics from 
the junior high school level on up. It features two programs that are 
introductions to the mathematics of triangles, an essential compo- 
nent of the engineering sciences. 

TRIANGULAR GEOMETRY includes twelve lessons that care- 
fully teach all of the basic concepts that must be understood 
in order to deal with right and similar triangles. BEGINNING 
TRIGONOMETRY explains tangents, sines and cosines, and 
allows the student to use his new knowledge in practical 
situations. MOD I, 16K Level II, Mod III, 16K. Order No. 0309R 25 

$19.95 plus $2.50 shipping. 

Geography Explorer: 

U.S.A. (for the TRS-80™)* 

This program allows your child to travel the country and learn 
vital facts about each of our 50 states. Geography Explorer offers 
the most fascinating way of learning yet. Learn each state's 
name, capitol, largest city, nickname, etc. As a bonus, this 
package offers the capability of light pen use. Model I, Level II 
16K, expansion interface with 16K, one minidisk drive. Order No. 

0071RD--25 $49.95 plus $2.50 shipping 



Capitalization (fortheA PP ie™r 

Here's the most patient grammar teacher a 
student will ever have. . .CAPITALIZATION. It's 
one module among several in the English Lan- 
guage Series of CAI (Computer Aided Instruc- 
tion) programs from Instant Software. This pro- 
gram introduces and exercises the twelve rules 
for capitalization in English. The student may 
study the rules in order from 1 to 12, or may sin- 
gle out one particular rule for study and practice. 
Start with CAPITALIZATION and graduate to 
proper grammar and a better understanding of 
the English language. Applesoft Basic 32K, 1 
disk drive. Order No. 0339AD -25 (disk-based) 

$24.95 plus $2.50 shipping 



"Why didn'UQfp 
I think 
of that?" 



TO ORDER: 

See your local 

Instant Software dealer 

or call toll-free 

1-800-258-5473 

orders only 

In New Hampshire 

1-603-924-9471 

Mon.-Fri. 8:00 am-4:30 pm E.S.T. 



Instant Software 




SSSn.J 



Peterborough, N.H. 03458 USA 



A subsidiary of Wayne Green Inc. 



*TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack division of 

Tandy Corp, 

"Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Company 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 125 



GENERAL 



Don't lose your cool because the power company blows a fuse. 



Battery Backup 



Howard F. Batie 
12002 Cheviot Drive 
Herndon, VA 22070 



A recent project involving the use of a 
TRS-80 computer to aid the handi- 
capped has the need to provide a battery 
backup. The circuit described here features 
automatic battery takeover if the 110 volt 
line fails, and as an extra bonus, a cooler- 
running TRS-80 both under 110 volt and bat- 
tery operation. 

Many nursing homes, hospitals and spe- 
cial education centers have emergency 
power lines or generators which are exer- 
cised at regular intervals. When this is 
done, there can be a very brief period (frac- 
tions of a second to a few seconds) when 
the power is off altogether while switching 
to the alternate power. If computers are 
used as an educational/therapeutic tool or 
as a learning aid the power must be con- 
stant or the memory will be wiped out and 
the program will bomb. If tape or disk is 
used for storage, the program can always 
be reloaded; however, this can be a frustrat- 
ing process for someone who is totally un- 
familiar with a computer. Additionally, any 
files or information which were not yet 
saved on a permanent storage medium will 
be lost. This TRS-80 battery backup was de- 
signed to keep the computer memories up 
while switching over to the backup power 
source. 

Operation 

The TRS-80 battery backup circuit shown 
126 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



in Fig. 1 is built around Digital Innovations' 
DC-80 power converter designed specifical- 
ly for the TRS-80. To trace its operation both 
from the 110 volt line and fromthebattery.it 
is easiest to consider each case separately. 
First, assume that the battery B1 is re- 
moved from the circuit. A standard 110 volt 
to 12.6 volt two-ampere filament transform- 
er is connected to a full wave rectifier 
bridge formed of D1-D4. The output of this 
bridge, when filtered by C1, provides ap- 
proximately 19 volts DC with no load, and 
about 15 volts with a load current of 1 
ampere. D5-D8 provide a 1 .4 volt drop which 
is essentially independent of the current 
drawn through the diodes (2x0.7 = 1.4 
volts). Thus, the 13.6 volt potential at point A 
would provide the input power for the 
DC-80. 

Now if diodes D5-D8 are removed, and 
the battery is placed back in the circuit, the 
battery terminal voltage is provided to the 
DC-80 through diodes D9 and D10, giving an 
input voltage to the DC-80 of 11.9 volts 
(13.6 - 0.7 = 1 1.9). If D5-D8 are replaced, the 
13.6 volt potential at point A from the AC 
supply is greater than the 1 1.9 volt potential 
from the battery; D9 and D10 are therefore 
back-biased and no current flows through 
them from the battery. Instead, the AC sup- 
ply furnishes all power to the DC-80 and 
TRS-80. But if the 110 volt line fails, point A 
would fall to zero volts if it were not con- 
nected to D9 and D10. When the AC supply 
voltage at point A falls below 1 1 .9 volts, the 
battery automaticlly takes over and fur- 
nishes current for the DC-80. 

The relationship of the input voltage to the 
DC-80 as a function of the size of the filter 



capacitor C1 and the number of voltage- 
dropping diode pairs is shown in Fig. 2. The 
DC-80 input voltage from the AC power sup- 
ply has both a DC and AC component. The 
DC component is primarily a function of the 
number of diode pairs used to drop the volt- 
age of the full wave bridge output; the value 
of the filter capacitor C1 does not have a 
marked effect on the average DC voltage 
component above a value of about 1000 
microfarads. However, since the DC-80 
must furnish about 1 ampere to power the 
TRS-80, the AC (RMS) voltage component is 
dependent on the size of C1 (see the curved 
line of Fig. 2). 

In order to prevent the current from being 
drawn from the battery while the DC-80/ 
TRS-80 is being powered from the AC sup- 
ply, the voltage at point A in Fig. 1 must re- 
main above 11.9 volts. This means that the 
AC supply must furnish at least a voltage of 
the average DC voltage minus the AC com- 
ponent. With a 2200 microfarad capacitor 
for C1, no more than three diode pairs 
should be used with a 13.6 volt battery. 

The diodes used are 50-volt silicon rec- 
tifiers rated at 3 amperes. In the rectifier 
bridge they run warm, but not hot to the 
touch, since current flows through each 
diode for only half of the duty cycle. How- 
ever, in the voltage dropping diodes, DC cur- 
rent is flowing continuously. If D5 and D7 
are removed. D6 and D8 are very hot to the 
touch after a few minutes. By adding D5 
and D7 in parallel with D6 and D8, the cur- 
rent through each diode is halved, and they 
also run warm, but not hot. The same con- 
sideration applies to D9 and D10. 

The length of time the TRS-80 can be 



". . . one DC-80 will power 
either a TRS-80 or an Expansion Interface. . . " 



powered from the battery is determined by 
the battery ampere-hour rating. For in- 
stance, if a 100 A-h battery is used, about 
100 hours of service is possible if the battery 
starts out fully charged. The DC-80 can ac- 
cept input DC voltages down to about 9 
volts. Since recharging the battery while it 
is connected to the DC-80 can damage the 
DC-80, disconnect the battery from the cir- 
cuit of Fig. 1 before recharging the battery. 

Construction 

The components shown in Fig. 1 are as- 
sembled on a small perfboard which along 
with the transformer and DC-80 is housed in 
a single ventilated enclosure. The on/off 
switch S1 and AC power LED are optional. 
The 110 volt line is fused by F1, a panel- 
mounted half-amp fast-acting fuse. F2 is 
part of the DC-80 as supplied and should be 
retained. The DC-80 output DIN plug goes 
directly into the TRS-80 power jack, and the 



original TRS-80 power supply is no longer 
needed. 

One final note: one DC-80 will power eith- 
er a TRS-80 or an Expansion Interface (El), 
but not both. If you intend to provide battery 
backup to both the TRS-80 and an El, two 
DC-80's will be required. In addition, heftier 
components for Fig. 1 will be needed to han- 
dle double the current. In this case, I'd 
recommend that a 6-amp molded full wave 
bridge rectifier be used instead of diodes 
D1-D4, a 12.6 volt at 5A transformer forT1, 
at least three silicon 3A diodes in parallel 
for each diode pair shown in Fig. 1, and a 
computer-grade filter capacitor of at least 
6000 microfarads rated at 15 volts DOB 

The DC-80 is available for U.S. $49.95 plus 

U.S. $3.00 per unit for shipping from 

Digital Innovations 

37 Stony brook Drive 

Kitchener, ONT N2M 4L6 Canada 




TO TRS-80 
POWER JACK 



Fig. 1. Schematic Diagram. 



AVERAGE 
DC VOLTS 



AC VOLTS 
(RMS) 

A 



DC-V 



NO LOAD 



DC-V 



CI VOLTAGE 




2.0 



1.5 



1.0 



- 0.5 



"ft 



V M000 



2000 



3000 4000 



5000 6000 



7000 



CI ( M F) 



Fig. 2. Voltage at point A as a function of the size of C1 and the number of diode pairs. 

■See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



MMSFORTH VERSION 2.0: 
MORE FOR YOUR RADIO SHACK 
TRS-80 MODEL I OR MODEL III ! 

* MORE SPEED 

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* MORE ROOM 

Very compact compiled code plus VIRTUAL 
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MMSFORTH Newsletter 

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(requires MMSFORTH V2 0. 1 drive & 32K RAM) $39.95* 

FORTHCOM: communications package provides RS-232 
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THE DATAHANDLER Vt.2: a vory sophisticated data- 
base management systom oporabie by non-pro- 
8 rammers (requires MMSFORTH V2.0. 1 drivo 4 32K 
AM) . $59.95" 

MMSFORTH GAMES DISKETTE: real-lime graphics 4 
board games w/source code. Includes BREAKFORTH. 
CRASHFORTH. CRYPTOQUOTE. FREEWAY. OTHELLO 
S TICTACFORTH (roquiros MMSFORTH V2.0. 1 drive 4 
32K RAM) $39.95" 

Other MMSFORTH product* under development 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MMSFORTH USERS MANUAL • without Appendices, lor 
non owners $17.50* 

STARTING FORTH 
ual 

THREADEO INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES advanced, 
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PROGRAM DESIGN S CONSTRUCTION • Intro to slruc 
tured programming, good lor Forth ..$13.95* 

FORTH 79 STANDARD MANUAL • official roforonce lo 
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FORTH SPECIAL ISSUE. BYTE Magazine (Aug. 1980) • 
wo slock this collector's item tor Forth users and begin- 
ners M.00* 

* - ORDERING INFORMATION Software prices include 
manuals and require signing of a single system, single- 
user license SPECIFY for Modol I or Model III' Add 
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add 20%. UPS COD. VISA 4 MIC accepted: no unpaid 
purchase orders, please. 



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Good dealers sougnr 



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SERVICES <M2) 

61 Lake Shore Road, Natick. MA 01760 

(617)653-6136 

S 112 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 127 



Microtechnology is making more possible for the physically handicapped. 



Making More Possible 



by Kerry Leichlman 

80 Microcomputing staff 

The personal computer is many things 
to many people. To the businessman it 
is an instrument of efficiency, to the games 
player it is a way to grope through dank un- 
derground corridors while hunting demons. 
The computer's uses are as varied as its 
users: hobbyist, economist, writer, scientist 
—the list goes on and on. Most generally, 
the machine is a resource of available pro- 
grammed information manipulated by the 
operator to obtain certain results. The oper- 
ator telling the machine what to do is the 
normal human to computer relationship. 

The normal relationship? A computer ma- 
nipulating a person must then be an abnor- 
mal relationship. Seems like it should be. 
But really, who is telling who what to do 
when a flashing prompt translates into. 
"You didn't shut the disk door properly, stu- 
pid."? Or who is controlling things when 
suddenly you find yourself, powerless, drift- 
ing in a distant galaxy surrounded by hos- 



tile alien warships? Although the computer 
would be nothing more than an expensive 
paperweight without human control, its use 
as a functional extension to do what a 
human cannot could be its greatest asset. 
The advent of the microcomputer has 
transformed this electronic technology 
from specialized super-calculators into a 
powerful teaching tool. School systems are 
taking advantage of the microcomputer's 
convenience to help students grasp every- 
thing from English grammar to abstract 
equations. As an educational medium for 
ordinary students, the computer is proving 
itself to be efficient, productive and 
motivating. As an educational medium for 
extraordinary students, the physically 
handicapped, the computer is new hope, 
new independence and new opportunity 
toward lessening the gap between what 
they can and cannot achieve. 

A New Age 

Like everything related to computers, ap- 
plication for the handicapped is a new con- 




Photo 1. Joel Stevey uses a magnet strapped to his watch to select the components of his 
message. 

128 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



cept. The days of computer operators in 
long white lab coats scurrying around a 
maze of huge mainframes, carefully noting 
functions and data on clipboards, has long 
been over. It is no coincidence that as 
machines became more compressed, fast- 
er and less expensive, so did the white glove 
approach to them. Computer technology 
became accessible to virtually every- 
one—including the handicapped. 

Johns Hopkins University, along with 
Radio Shack and the National Science 
Foundation, recently seized this opportuni- 
ty of accessibility by encouraging develop- 
ment of handicapped applications through 
a contest: "Personal Computing to Aid the 
Handicapped. The Johns Hopkins First Na- 
tional Search." The fact that these three or- 
ganizations have combined forces should 
be proof enough that microcomputers and 
the handicapped have a future together. 
The fact that the contest was sub-billed as 
being the first national search clearly in- 
dicates the organizers expect the relation- 
ship to be worthy of continuing effort. 

Programs and hardware will undoubtably 
become more sophisticated as time goes 
on. But, as this is the start of the coupling of 
computers and the handicapped, the ob- 
vious has to be dealt with first. Some of 
mankind's greatest inventions and con- 
cepts did not exist until someone said, 
"Hey, I could drag this load further and 
easier if it had wheels." "What are wheels?" 
his less imaginative friend might have 
asked in reply. The would-be inventor could 
not describe the wheel as looking like a 
donut, as they did not yet exist; he had to in- 
vent the wheel. More realistically, you might 
not be reading this had Gutenberg not in- 
vented moveable type. 

The handicapped person, with crippling 
disabilities such as cerebral palsy, does not 
have the ability to type with two fully func- 
tional hands. In some cases, limited to one 
or two fingers, a mouthpiece, or headgear, 
the handicapped computer user has the 
ability to poke only one key at a time. Con- 
ventional typing courses, however, require 
full use of eight fingers. 
Ruth Lambert, Inventor 

While it may seem obvious, until Ruth 

Lambert invented it, One Hand Touch Typ- 

conlinued on page 138 

Reader Service lor facing page ^9~ 



TM 



THE NEW PUBLICATION 

FOR SERIOUS SMALL BUSINESS 

COMPUTER USERS 



LEARN HOW TO Rt 1I1.Y USE YOUR COMPUTER 



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*> MEW COMPUTERS fr RELATED PRODUCTS 



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BUSINESS CMW1M6 FOR YOUR COWItR 

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• PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 

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PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN RECENT ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 

• FINCALC • A COMPLETE FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS PACKAGE 

• INFORMATION SYSTEM REVIEW 

• STATISTICAL COMBINATIONS 

• PASCAL'S TRIANGLE 

• ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE FOR BEGINNERS 

• DISK FILES 

• MOD III REVIEW 

• KEYBOARD THUNDER AND LIGHTING EXPLAINED 

• DOS COMMANDS IN LEVEL II 

• PROBABILITY CURVE GENERATOR 

• CALCULATOR SIMULATIONS 

• THE MEGABYTE GAP 

• STOCKS AND BONDS 

• BUDGET ANALYSIS (FOR BUSINESS AND HOME) 

• NFWDOS 80 REVIEW 

• DUTCH1NG THE HORSE SYSTEM THAT CANT LOSE 

• A SIMULATED GOLF GAME 

• CONTINUOUS FORM SOURCES 

• TAX SAVER REVIEW 
AND MORE 



* *S1 



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A Complete Financial Analysis Package Used 



C$$y To Calculate Markup, Margin, Annuities, Compound Interest, Nominal 

O^ And Effective Rares, Sinking Funds, Mortgage Calculations, Future Value, 

tK^V Savings and Insurance, Percentage Difference Between Two Numbers, 

*■*" Amortization Schedule and More 



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130 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



^ a » ^^ Department of the Treasury — Internal Revenue Service 

1 u4U U.S. Individual Income Tax Return 



UeJ 



81 



For Privacy Act Notice, See page 3 Of Instructions | For the year January 1-December 31. 1979, or other tax year beginning 



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• •• EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 ... 

TRS-80 Is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Cor(M>ratlon 

1981 INCOME TAX PAC 

Completely Revised * Latest Tax Tables * Fully Tested * Complete Manual and Documentation 
* * The New Version Of The Income Tax Pacs Are Full Of Error Catching Codes • * 

• • Making It Impossible To Make An Error * * 
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• FORM 1040 (LONG FORM! 

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• FORM 2106 EMPLOYEE BUSINESS EXPENSE 

• FORM 2210 UNDERPAYMENT OF ESTIMATED TAX BY INDIVIDUALS 

• FORM 2440 DISABILITY INCOME EXCLUSION 

• FORM 2441 CREDIT FOR CHILD AND DEPENDENT CARE EXPENSES 

• FORM 3903 MOVING EXPENSE ADJUSTMENT 

• FORM 4797 SUPPLEMENTAL SCHEDUl E OF GAINS AND LOSSES 

• SCHEDULE A ITEMIZED DEDUCTIONS 

• SCHEDULE B INTEREST AND DIVIDENDS 

• SCHEDULE C PROFIT (OR LOSS) FROM BUSINESS OR PROFESSION 

• SCHEDULE D CAPITAL GAINS AND LOSSES 

• SCHEDULE E SUPPLEMENTAL INCOME SCHEDULE 

• SCHEDULE F - FARM INCOME AND EXPENSES 

• SCHEDULE G INCOME AVERAGING 

• SCHEDULES R & RP-CREDIT FOR THE ELDERLY 



• • PROFESSIONAL • • 
INCOME TAX PAC C 



FOR MODEL I and MODEL III (32K) 

or MODEL II (64K) 

WITH 1 OR MORE 

DISK DRIVES 

ALL SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



SCHEDULE SE-COMPUTATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY SELF-EMPLOYMENT TAX 

SCHEDULE TC TAX COMPUTATION 

OUTPUT TO VIDEO OR LINE PRINTER 

FORMATS FOR TRACTOR FEED OR INDIVIDUAL FQRM FEED PRINTERS 

AUTOMATIC MEMORY STORAGE FOR INCOME TAX PREPARERS 

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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 131 



CQIYIPLITRQNICS 



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• • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80™ • ATARI™ • APPLE™ • PET™ • CP/M™ • XEROX™ • IBM™ • • 

* TRS-80 is i trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. - ' ATARI is a trademark ol Atari Inc. - ' APPLE is a trademark ol Apple Corp. - * PET is a trademark of Commodore 
• CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research - "XEROX is a trademark ol Xerox Corp. - • IBM is a trademark of IBM Corp. 



BUSINESS PAC 100 



. m - , „ se d u*hin 24-Hour* 



100 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 128 Page Users Manual 

Inventory Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations. 

Checkbook Maintenance Accounts Receivable Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM LIST 



NAME DESCRIPTION 

1 RULE78 Interest Apportionment by Rule of the 78s 

2 ANNUl Annuity computation program 

3 DATE Time between dates 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a particular date falls on 

5 LEASEINT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKEVN Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL StraighUine depreciation 

8 DEPRSY Sum of the digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

1 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs. depreciation tables 

1 2 CHECK2 Prints NEBS checks along with daily register 

13 CHECKBKI Checkbook maintenance program 

14 MORTGAGE/ A Mortgage amortization table 

1 5 MGLTMOM Computes time needed for money to double, triple, 

1 6 SALVAGE Determines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVARIN Rate of return on investment with variable inflows 

1 8 RRCONST Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

1 9 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

21 PVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOANPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWITH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent & nonequivalent dated values for oblig. 

26 ANNCJDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP * Markup analysis for items 

28 SINKFCJND Sinking fund amortization program 

29 BONDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVAL! Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a wan-ant 

34 BOMDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BFfTAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPE1 Portfolio selection model-i.e. what stocks to hold 

38 OPTWRrTE Option writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXPVAL Expected value analysis 

41 BAYES Bayesian decisions 

42 VALPRIMF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADINF Value of additional information 

44 UTILITY Derives utility function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear programming solution by simplex method 

46 TRAMS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quantity inventory model 

48 QUEUE 1 Single server queueing (waiting line) model 

49 CVP Cost volume-profit analysis 

50 CONDPROF Conditional profit tables 

51 OPTLOSS Opportunity loss tables 

52 F QUOQ Fixed quantity economic order quantity model 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages permitted 

54 FQEOQPB As above but with quantity price breaks 

55 QUEUECB Cost-benefit waiting line analysis 

56 NCFANAL Net cash-flow analysis for simple investment 

57 PROF1ND Profitability index of a project 

58 CAP1 Cap. Asset Pr. Model analysis of project 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate on loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL True rate on discounted loan 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FINRAT Financial ratios for a firm 

64 NPV Net present value of project 

65 PRINDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRINDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 T1METR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time series analysis moving average trend 

70 FUPRINF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Mailing list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-links with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 BUSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 T1MECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timeclock info. 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts payable system-storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVENT2 In memory inventory control system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 

82 TIMUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of loans 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Arbitrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZONE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSFILE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOANAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEAS Sale-lea seback analysis 

99 RRCONVBD Investor's rate of return on convertable bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



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132 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Tired Cf your 

GENERAL LEDGER? 



VERSA- 
LEDGER 



• THE ULTIMATE PERSONAL CHECK REGISTER 

• A PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

• A PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGER 

• A SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

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• . - ■ ^ ,. m m ims mmmm • win oo • QoML • mm • mi 
at ««[?? «(g giiw^g 

HCW IT WORKS 

VERSALEDGER is a complete accounting system that grows as you or your business grows. To 
start, your VERSALEDGER acts as a simple method of keeping track of your checkbook. Just 
enter your check number, date and to whom the check is made out to. As you or your business 
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explanations, etc. 



VERSALEDGER 



VERSALEDGER can give you an instant cash 
balance at anytime. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER can be used as a small per- 
sonal checkbook register. (IF YOU WANT IT 
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VERSALEDGER can be used to run your 
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VERSALEDGER printschecks. (IF YOU WANT 
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VERSALEDGER stores all check information 
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VERSALEDGER can handle more than one 
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VERSALEDGER can be used to replace a 
general ledger. (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

VERSALEDGER HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY .... 

(300 checks per month on single density 5V*" disk drives such as the TRS-80 Model-I) 

(500 checks per month on the Apple II) 

(2400 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model III) 

(6000 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model II) 

(3000 checks per month on single density 8" CP/M) 

VERSALEDGER will soon have an add-on payroll package. (IF YOU NEED IT) 

— CAN BE USED WITH 1 or MORE DISK DRIVES — 




INTRODUCTORY PRICE 

$ 99. 95 



VERSALEDGER HAS BEEN CREATED 
WITH THE FIRST TIME COMPUTER USER IN MIND 



iCQMPlJTRQNICS! 



fVlATV^^AAT < 



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SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 




* ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

* ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

* ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

* ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE U.S., CANADA & MEXICO 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



*** ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE *** ^9 



-See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 133 



CQMPLITRQNICS 



N 
C. 



• • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80™ MODEL I, II or III • • 
APPLE AND ALL COMPUTERS USING MICROSOFT BASIC 



i trademark of Tandy Corp. 



BUSINESS/80 



presents 



• All orders processed within 24 Hours. 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 
• Add $3.00 tor shipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4 00 for COD or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5.00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 




Professional 
Business 
Systems Jr& 




* Each Module Can Be Operated Individually Or As A Completely Coordinated System. 

* Turn-Key Error Catching Operation For Beginners. 

• Each Module Is Accompanied By More Than 100 Pages Of Step-By-Step Documentation. 

• Manuals Available Separately. ($50 each) • Complete Sample Report Listings ($10) 

$195 (Model I Or Model III TRSDOS Version) 
$250 Apple Version (From Peachtree - Requires CP/M) 
$295 (Model II TRSDOS Version) 
$495 (Model II Peachtree CP/M Version) 

BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 * BUSINESS/80 



GENERAL LEDGER 

Processes 

* Flexible design allows system to be easily adapted to both small business- 
es and also to firms performing client wrifeup services. 

* Add. change or delete records within the Chart of Accounts (Master) File 

* List the Chart of Accounts File. 

* Key in transactions into the Transactions (Journal Entries) File 

* List the Transactions File. 

* If other Peachtree Software packages are present, pass summary trans- 
actions from these packages to the General Ledger at the end of the 
accounting period 

* At the end of an accounting period, print out the major reports: 

(1) Trial Balance (Detail Report) 

(2) Transaction Registers 

(3) Balance Sheet 

(4) Prior Year Comparative Balance Sheet 

(5) Income Statement 

(6) Prior Year Comparative Income Statement 

(7) Department Income Statements 



File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the General Ledger 
System. 

(1) The of Accounts File 

Account Number 

Description 

Account Type 

Balance Sheet Column Code 

Current Amount 

Year-To-Date Amount 

Budget Amount 

Prior Year Monthly Amounts 

(2) The Transactions File 

Account Number 

Description 

Source Code 

Reference 

Date 

Amount 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Processes 

* Add. change or delete records within the Customer File. 

* List the entire Customer File, or any Customer within the File. 

* Enter invoices, payments, credits and ad|ustments. 

* Prepare invoices and statements. 

* Produce the following reports: 

(1) Aged Accounts Receivable 

(2) Invoice Register 

(3) Payment, Credit and Adjustment Register 

(4) Customer Account Status Report 

* At the end of a month, post the following items to the General Ledger: 

(1) Invoiced Sales 

(2) Freight Charges 

(3) Sales Tax 

(4) Service Charge Income 

(5) Cash Payments 

(6) Discounts Allowed 

(7) Returns/Credits 

(8) Income Adjustments 

(9) Accounts Receivable 
File Information 

There are three main computer files maintained 
ble System, the Customer File, the Invoice File, an 
CUSTOMER FILE 

Customer Account Number 

Customer Name 

Address 

Phone 

Type of Account 

Credit Terms 

Credit Limit 

Tax Rate 

Discount Rate 

Date of Last Credit 

Date of Last Debit 

Amount of Last Credit 

Amount of Last Debit 

Current Balance 

High Balance 

Year-To-Date Sales 

Year-To-Date Payments 

Automatic Billing Amount 



within ihe Accounts Receiva- 
d the Transaction File. 



INVOICE FILE 

Invoice Number 
Invoice Date 
Invoice Amount 
Credit Terms 

TRANSACTION FILE 
Transaction Type 
Transaction Date 
Transaction Amount 



134 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Processes 

* Add. change or delete records within the Vendor File. 

* List the Vendor File. 

* Enter vouchers. 

* Automatically determine which vouchers to pay. 

* Print checks and a Cher.K Register. 

* Produce the following reports: 

(1) Open Voucher Report 

(2) Accounts Payable Ageing Report 

(3) Cash Requirements 

* At the end of a month, prepare the General Ledger Transfer Fiie passing 
the following information for each debit or credit transaction. 

(1) Account Number 

(2) Description 

(3) Source Code 

(4) Date 

(5) Amount 

File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the Accounts Payable 
System, the Vendor File and the Voucher File. 
VENDOR FILE 

Vendor Code 

Vendor Name 

Address 

Phone 

Year-To-Date Purchases 

Year-To-Date Payments 

Current Balance 

Last Payment 

Date of Last Payment 

Monthly Entry Flag 

Due Date of Month 

Debit Account Number 

Amount (Debit) 

Month Last Paid 
This file may also contain information to enable generation of automatic 
vouchers for those items such as rent or bank payments that are paid every month 

VOUCHER FILE 

Voucher Code 
Voucher Date 
Amount Due 
Date Due 
Discount Percent 
Discount Amount 
Discount Date 
Invoice Number 
Invoice Date 
Status 
Plus up to six account number-amount fields for General Ledger account 
numbers to which the amount due is to be distributed. 



PAYROLL 

Processes 

* Add. change or delete records within the Employee File. 

* List the Employee File. 

* Modify the Tax Information Files 

* At the end of a pay period - 

(1) Calculate Pay 

(2) Print Checks 

(3) Print Payroll Register 

* At the end of a month - 

(1) Print the monthly summary 

(2) Print the Unemployment Tax Report 

;3) Prepare the General Ledger Transfer File, passing the following 
information: 

Net Pay (Cash) 

Employee FICA Withheld 

Federal Tax Withheld 

Insurance Deductions 

Miscellaneous Dedutions 

State Tax Withheld 

Local Tax Withheld 
The gross pay for up to twenty payroll departments may also be 
passed to the General Ledger 

* At the end of a quarter, print the 941A report information 

* At the end of a year, print the W-2 forms 

File Information 

There are two main computer files maintained within the Payroll System, the 
Employee Master File and the Tax File. 
EMPLOYEE MASTER FILE 
Name 
Address 
Local Code 
State Code 
Marital Status 
Exemptions. Federal 
Exemptions. State 
Social Security Number 
Pay Period 
Pay Type 
Pay Rate 

Insurance Deduction 
Miscellaneous Deduction 
Date Employed 
Date Terminated 
Last Check Information 



Payroll (con't) 

And current, month-to-date, quarter-to-date and year-to-date totals for: 
Regular Earnings 
Overtime Hours/Earnings 
Other Hours Rate-Earnings 
Commission Earnings 
Miscellaneous Income 
FICA Deductions 
Federal Deductions 
State Deductions 
Local Deductions 
insurance Deductions 
Miscellaneous Deductions 

TAX FILE 

(for single and married persons) 

Fedeial Tax Information Tables 

State Tax Information Tables 

Local Withholding Tax Information Tables 



An Overview of the Inventory System 

Inventory is probably the most speculative of all of a company's assets A true 
measure of the effectiveness of management is the ability with which it supervises 
the inventory control function 

The Peachtree Software'" Inventory Management System is designed to (1) 
give you better merchandise control. (2) allow you to lower your dollar investment 
in inventory, and (3) improve customer service and response 

The System maintains detailed information on each inventory item including 
the part number, description, unit of measure, vendor and reorder data, item 
activity, and complete information on current item costs, pricing, and sales. 
Transactions effecting inventory (sales, receipts, adjustments) may be applied at 
any time to insure the inventory data is always up to date and accurate 

As with all Peachtree products, the system is interactive, simple to operate, 
and provides reports that are up to date and comprehensive 

Particular features ol the Peachtree Software'" Inventory Management 
System include 

• Interactive, menu-driven programs 

• Self-instructing user documentation 

• Long item number - up to 15 characters 

• Departmentalizing of items 

• Multiple pricing levels 

• Processes items on reserve (committed but still in stock) 

• Online item query at any time 

• Comprehensive management reporting 

• Automatic month end file backup 

• Recovery routines for hardware failures 

• Sample data for demonstration and training 
How the System is Designed 

The Inventory Management System operates with an Inventory Master File 
which allows for the creation of each inventory item and for the recording of 
transactions (sales, receipts, returns, reserves, and adjustments) to each inven- 
tory item 

The Inventory Masler File contains the item number, description and various 
other data on item costs, prices, reorder levels, vendor refereence. and activity The 
items within the Master File are entered, changed, deleted, and queried through 
the Inventory Master File Maintenance program AM data on all items may be listed 
by using the Detail Inventory Report program 

Transactions may be applied at any time to the Master File through the Enter 
inventory Transactions program An Update Report automatically prints during 
this entry process to provide an audit trail of all inventory acitivity 

Several reports are available for the maintaining of stock, analysis, and fore- 
casting These reports include the Physical Inventory Worksheet, Inventory Price 
List, Departmental Summary Report, Inventory Status Report, the Reorder Report 
and the Period-to-Date and Year-to-Date reports 

At the end of an accounting period (usually a month), and then again at the 
end of a year, the End ot Period Processing program is run to update current 
balances and clear previous balances. 



•CQMPlJTRQNICS! 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 




~^PV * * HOUR 
QS 24 ORDER 
V-- LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



^9 



ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 135 





fro* TO 



SIS 




FOR THE TRS-80 MODEL I AND MODEL III 

1 System Diagnostic | 0veJ ^m 

i_i— For cassette or Disk 



T es ta ja^y-£ 2B!P - 



oneoL^^^ 



IS YOUR COMPUTER WORKING? 



$99.95 



ROM: 

RAM: 

VIDEO DISPLAY: 

KEYBOARD: 

LINE PRINTER: 

CASSETTE RECORDER: 

RS-232-C INTERFACE: 

DISK DRIVES: 



ARE YOU SURE? 

checksum test 

four separate tests including every address and data value. 

character generator, video RAM, and video signal. 

every key contact tested. 

character test. 

read/write/verify data. 

connector fault, data transmission, framing, data loop, baud rate generator. 

disk controller, drive select and restore, track seek and verify data, read/write/verify all tracks and 



sectors with or without erasing, sector formatting, disk drive timer, disk head cleaner. 

— Individual tests of each device with operator monitoring and intervention. 

— Continuous sysem tests run continually for hours testing each component, with diagnostic reports optionally written on line printer. 

— One program adapts to any system configuration and hardware. 

— Complete instructions and documentation. 



MON-3 and MON-4 

The TRS-80 Monitor Programs #3 and #4 are powerful utility programs 
enabling you to interact directly with the TRS-80 in Machine Language. 
They are as useful for beginners as for advanced programmers. 

• BEGINNERS can learn to interact directly with the computer in 
Machine Language. 

• 40-PAGE MANUAL provided with each program. 

• SIMPLE commands, easy to use. 

The Features Of The Monitor Pro g rams Enable You To The Followin g 

• DISPLAY memory in different ways. 

• DISASSEMBLE memory to see Machine Language commands. 

• MOVE and COMPARE memory areas. 

• SEARCH through memory to find specific values. 

• MODIFY memory in various ways. 

• RELOCATE object programs. 

• PRINT output on video display or line printer. 

• READ and WRITE object tapes in SYSTEM Format. 

• UNLOAD programs using low RAM on disk. 

• SAVE and READ disk files (MON-4 Only). 

• INPUT and OUTPUT of disk sectors (MON-4 Only). 

• SEND and RECEIVE data over RS-232-C Interface (MON-4 Only). 

• Create SYMBOLIC Tapes (MON-3) or Files (MON-4) of Disassem- 
bled output for Editor/Assembler program. 

MON-3 (For Cassette Systems) $39-95 
MON-4 (For Disk Systems) $4995 



SMART TERMINAL 

Enables your TRS-80 to be used as a remote terminal to a time sharing 
computer system. Supports upper/lower case and full range of control 
keys, including control key mapping into any ASCII character. Automatic 
transmission of files between TRS-80 and host computer. Files can be read 
from or written to cassette tape or disk. Incoming data can be printed on 
line printer or stored in memory for subsequent save to cassette or disk. 
Disk and tape files are fully compatible with the ELECTRIC PENCIL pro- 
gram. Baud rate and RS-232-C sense switches can be reset without open- 
ing Expansion Interface. Requires RS-232-C interface and modem. 

Cassette or Disk Version $69*95 



FASTSORT 

A series of machine-language subroutines (for 16K, 32K and 48K Sys- 
tems) to sort data from BASIC programs. Data may be alphabetic (string) 
or numeric (integer only). Works equally well with Level II or Disk Basic. 
Complete instructions and examples provided for interfacing with your 
BASIC programs. 

Cassette or Disk Version $9-95 



MAILING LIST 

Maintains mailing lists of over 1000 names. Commands allow adding, 
changing, deleting, and finding names. Sorting is done by machine lan- 
guage according to the information in any field (i.e., name, address, zip 
code). Labels printed in 1, 2, or 3 columns, in master list on one line, or on 
video display. 

Disk Version Only $69-95 



HOME BUDGET 

Combines the maintenance of your checkbook with analysis of your 
income, expenses, and monthly bills. Handles data including bills, in- 
cluding bills, income, deposits, checks and debits to your checking ac- 
count, and cash expenses. Computes checkbook balance, list of unpaid 
bills, monthly and year-to-date summaries of income and expenses show- 
ing income tax deductions. All output printed on video display or line 
printer at user's option. Complete instructions for customizing to suit 
your own budget. 

Disk Version Only $49 95 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

Based on Dome Bookkeeping Record #612, this program keeps track of 
income, expenditures, and payroll for a small business of up to 16 employ- 
ees. Income and expenditures can be entered on a daily, weekly, or 
monthly basis, and the program computes monthly, through last month, 
and year-to-date summaries. Payroll section keeps record of individual 
employees and their paychecks with up to six categories of payroll de- 
ductions. Employee payroll record and year-to-date payroll totals can be 
computed. Manual contains complete instructions for customizing to suit 
your business. 

- " Disk Version $49-95 

Cassette Version $29-95 
(Cassette Version does not contain payroll) 



■CQIYIPJTHQMICS 



C ^9 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 10977 






NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



» All orders processed within 24 Hours 
• 30-Day money back guarantee 
• Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4.00 for COD. or NON-UPS Areas 
• Add $5.00 to Canada or Mexico 
• Add exact postage to all other countries 



136 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



CQMPLJTRQNICS 



H 

i 

E 

• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 
And All Microsoft BASIC Computers 



N 
C. 



kTM 



rk ol the Radio Shack Di> 



I Tandy Corp. 



^d^ DCS RANDCH ACCESS 
J^^ 40 ^ & BASIC PILE HANDLING 



Written For TRS— 80 and All Computers Using MICROSOFT basic 

FINALLY IT IS HERE. At last someone wrote a book on disk random 
aooess and file handling. A book written for the non-programmer. 
Written for the businesman and professional who need to solve and 
write special programs for in house business problems. 

Written for the hobbyist who wants to go beyond the cassette recorder and into disk storage and file 

manipulation. 

This book handles a subject of reasonable complexity, so simple and down to earth, that anyone 

with some Level II experience can cope with the material. 

This book is written using a simple program as a starting point. The programs grow in ability and 
complexity as the book progresses into the various aspects of file handling and record manipula- 
tion. Extensive effort has been made to keep the material coherent and every program line is 
explained in detail. 

The programming material presented in this 150 page self-instruction tutorial will provide any non- 
programmer with the ability to write special programs for inventories, mailing list, work scheduling, 
record keeping, research project data manipulation, etc. The subjects covered in this edition are as 
follows 



(A) The writing of a Menu to summarize program functions. 

(B) The writing of a screen format to accept record data. 

(C) The creation of the basic record. 

(D) The Fielding and LSET routines for buffer preparation. 

(E) The writing of the record to disk in a Random Access mode. 

(F) The retrieval of a record from disk in a Random Access mode. 

(G) The ability to change or edit a record. 

(H) The LPRINT capability from disk using three different formats 

(I) Deleting a record from a Random file. 

(J) Sorting the Random file. 

(K) Searching the Random file by name or other keyfield. 
(L) The ability to search in a "NEXT or PRIOR" fashion. 
(M) The ability to purge a disk file from deleted records. 
(N) The ability to calculate with data from a disk file. 
(O) The provision for future expansion of the data fields. 
(P) The use of flags to prevent program crashes. 
(Q) Date setting, printer on-line, and many other routines that 
make a program run like a commercial written program. 

DSC, Publishing, Div of, DEALERS— CALL D.S.C. PUBLISHING DIRECTLY FOR 
DSC, INCORPORATED D.S.C. PUBLISHING, P.O. Box 769, Danbury, 






DEALER PRICING— (203) 748-3231 or write to 
CT 068100769 



ICQMPUTRQNICS 



^Aar^*^AA*<A 1 aj*\tx^' 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

• ADD S3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 

* ADD $4.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

• ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

* ADD PROPER POSTAGE OUTSIDE U.S., CANADA & MEXICO 

*** ALL PRICES & SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE *" 




DOS RANDOM ACCESS 

& BASIC FILE HANDLING $29.95 



"*s^»V HOUR 

Q£ 24 ORDER 
\- — ' LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




• 9 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



■See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 137 



continued from page 128 

ing did not exist. Ruth's typing method is 
taught through a software program distrib- 
uted by Instant Software. For a majority of 
the physically handicapped the keyboard is 
the only barrier between them and the com- 
puter. Ruth's method won her an honorable 
mention in the Johns Hopkins Search. 

"The average person in society is not go- 
ing to rearrange anything for you (the handi- 
capped person). They're going to expect 
you to conform like everyone else," says 
Lambert. If the keyboard itself has to be re- 
arranged to become accessible to the hand- 
icapped, not much has been gained. The 
idea is not to rearrange technology's tools; 
that is cost prohibitive. A businessman will 
be less likely to hire a handicapped recep- 
tionist if they need to spend thousands of 
dollars for a special typewriter, as well. But 
if the standard typewriter is all the equip- 
ment needed, then why not? 

Ruth's method rearranges the person's 
orientation to the keyboard, not the hand- 
ware itself. In One Hand Touch Typing the 
home row is different. Rather than the eight 
fingered a-s-d-f-g and ;-l-k-j-h, it is four 
fingered f-g-h-j. Her method also incorpor- 
ates those limited to headgear, mouthgear 
and other supportive equipment. 

The software takes the handicapped stu- 
dent letter by letter through the keyboard, 
just as in a conventional typing course. 
Each lesson contains keyboard character 
identification, finger position display (home 
row), introduction of new characters, new 
character reach coordination, drill on new 
characters and integration of new with old 
characters. After using the program to 
master the keyboard, the handicapped per- 
son is able to use the computer for every- 
thing from programming to journalism. The 
possibilities are endless. "Nine times out of 
ten." says Lambert, "the handicapped per- 
son will measure up over and above any 
normal person' because of their desire to 
succeed." 

Joel Stevey, User 

One person with that desire is Joel 
Stevey. Joel is a 24 year old quadraplegic. 
He converses, writes and does all his work 
via computer. Joel's wheelchair has more 
than the usual equipment. Attached to it is 
the Autocom communication system byTSI 
(Telesensory Systems, Inc.). 

The Autocom is a portable electronic 
communication aid built into a special 
wheelchair lap tray. The lap tray is divided 
into a grid of 128 squares. The squares 
represent individual vocabulary items. 

138 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



"The computers cannot be 

credited for Joel's intelligence, but 

they have created an outlet 

and a means to nurture it. " 



There are 59 levels to the Autocom, for a 
total of 7552 vocabulary items. Joel uses his 
mostly as a word processor. 

Joel's father: "It is operated by micro- 
switches under the squares... He has a 
magnet strapped to his watch. That magnet 
activates the switches. He can move that 
over the board. . .and that's how he talks. 
There is an LED readout which faces toward 
him and there is another one, which is on a 
flexible kind of gooseneck, directed toward 
the people talking with him." 

"In fact, that was his invention. TSI 
bought the contract from the University of 
Wisconsin. Wisconsin sent them out here 
because they said Joel has done more with 
his board than anyone else. They asked 
Joel what the system lacked. He told them, 
'People have to stand behind me to see 
what I'm saying.' And that's when they 
came out with this gooseneck idea." 

The Autocom was developed at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. At the time, Joel's 
family did a lot of traveling. His father, a 
minister, served with the Army for 22 years. 
It was a case of being in the right place at 
the right time. Joel's speech therapist had 
heard about the development of the Auto- 
com and arranged for Joel to get one of the 
40 prototypes. 

"When Joel first got the original Auto- 
com he had a date. He told me later, 'This 
thing paid for itself already'," said Joel's 
father, John Stevey, in a telephone inter- 
view. "Joel now can have friends apart from 
Dad and Mom. He goes to classes at Nyack 
College ... he can talk with kids without us 
being around. The computer provides him 
with an awful lot of freedom he didn't have 
before. . . He moves his hand slowly, some- 
times he uses his nose, but he does it." 

The Autocom was not Joel's first ex- 
posure to computers. In Virginia he went to 
Fairfax and Edison High School. They had a 
computer studies program using a Hewlett/ 
Packard 2000S and 2000E hooked to an 
IBM. He belonged to a computer explorer 
scout post. Being on an Army base, the 
scouts had access to its sophisticated 
equipment and were permitted to use the 
night vision laboratory. 

Joel's first computer was a TRS-80 Model 
I with 32K and two disk drives. "When he got 
the Radio Shack computer he rewrote some 
of their programs. He told me, 'Dad, this is 
wrong. This is not operating right.' And they 
really did have design problems and he 
knew enough to correct them." 

Joel later sold his Model I and bought a 
Model III. During our conversation, Joel's 



father, John, continuously praised their 
local Radio Shack store for their helpful- 
ness and desire to assist. "I can't say 
enough good things about the Radio Shack 
store at the Nanuet Mall." 

Joel writes his own programs. He keeps 
his bank book and his address book in his 
computer, and he uses it to do all his corre- 
spondence. "It's really opened up a whole 
new world . . . This is what he does most of 
the time. He enjoys writing programs. . . 
We're looking around now and asking, 'How 
do we make it pay?' That's an aspiration he 
has even though he's limited. He feels the 
same need for independence that everyone 
else feels." 

Aside from computers, Joel is extremely 
bright. In high school his IQ was measured 
at 140. During his last two years in high 
school he was listed in Who's Who in 
American High Schools. When he was born 
his parents were told he was a vegetable 
and they should put him away. The com- 
puters cannot be credited for Joel's intelli- 
gence, but they have created an outlet and a 
means to nurture it. 

Two weeks out of every summer Joel is a 
counselor for handicapped kids at the Mo- 
nadnock Bible Conference in New Hamp- 
shire. By working with the kids, his father 
said, "It says to them, 'Hey, one of our guys 
is making it.' " 

Filling The Need 

The research for this article was uncom- 
monly easy to do. It seemed everyone I men- 




Photo 2. Although the red LED lettering is 
easy for a person to read, the camera didn't 
pick up Joel's message: "This is my 
freedom machine." 



MKEEANGEL 
BRINGS 



Graphic 





FEATURES 
YOU'VE NEVER SEEN BEFORE. 

Hardware total screen inverse video 

Two modes of density: 
384 x 192 or 192 x 192 for Model I 
512 x 192 or 256 x 192 for Model III 

Every dot can be set, reset or tested. 

12288 bytes Video Memory 

Select normal, high or very high resolution with or 
without inverse video via output port. 

Disable Mikeeangelo's memory via output port. 



Designing a computer that people could use in business and leisure, 
without spending alot of money was once a problem. Thanks to the 
TRS-80* there are now over 200,000 Microcomputers in homes and 
business today. 

Unfortunately in keeping the price of the TRS-80 down, the Random 
Access Memory was kept down to only 17K. Yes. 17K. (16K User Memory 
and IK Video Memory. 128 x 48 or 6,144 Independently controlled dots.) 
BUT WE'VE CHANGED ALL THAT. 

NOW HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS 
ARE HERE! 

MIKEEANGELO is 16 times better with the Model III 
and 12 times better for the Model I. 

That's 512 x 192 or 98,304 dots for Model III, 
and 384 x 192 or 73,728 dots for Model I. 

MIKEEANGELO connects to your TRS-80 easily." 3 You can do it 
yourself with our instruction book in minutes and a handy tool kit is 
available, if you need one for $15. Please specify Model I or III 
TRS-80. 

Order Now For Only $340. Complete 

Order today complete with power supply, case, software and excellent manual for $340. Check, Money 
Order, Master Charge, Visa, Mastercard or COD's accepted, '4 

Or write for free booklet and more information. 



IK1 



•i MIKEEANGLEO is a trademark for Mikee Electronics Corp. 

•2 TRS-80 is a trademark for the Tandy Corp. 

•3 Opening your TRS-80 will void the limited warranty. 

*4 90 day warranty , full refund or replacement. 

Introductory Special for 90 days only! 

sSee List of Advertisers on page 290 



MIKEE ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 
P.O. Box 3813 Bellevue, Washington 98009 " 537 
Telephone 206/451-0574 

Stock to 30 days for delivery. 
Washington residents must add sales tax. 

"Dealers Inquiries Invited" 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 139 



"Simplicity is often overlooked 
in favor of the 
overly sophisticated." 



tioned the project to knew of someone in- 
volved in the use or creation of computer- 
ized handicapped aids. I learned of Joel 
Stevey through a proofreader at 80 Micro- 
computing who is involved with the Monad- 
nock Bible Conference. Ruth Lambert 
works a few miles down the road at Instant 
Software. Wherever I turned, whoever I 
spoke to seemed to be able to supply me 
with information. I was soon overwhelmed 
with names to contact, phone numbers, 
brochures, pamphlets and other literature. 

I found out about a braille display reader 
with a cassette input that forms words us- 
ing braille cells on a display surface; digital- 
ized speech programs; programmed teach- 
er's aids to eliminate the more tedious du- 
ties from a teacher's time so they are free to 
spend more time with students; data input- 
ing via bio-feedback devices; and hardware 
that allows the deaf to use the telephone. 

Cost and practicality is a problem with 



much of what is being developed. Although 
the needs of the handicapped are special, 
to succeed they must help the handicapped 
user function as a normal user or person. It 
would be unrealistic to expect a computer 
to make a handicapped person normal, but 
it is not unreasonable to expect the comput- 
er to fill most gaps. For the computer appli- 
cation to be successful, it needs to be com- 
patible with the non-handicapped society. 

The specially designed car works 
because it functions the same as a stan- 
dardly equipped vehicle. It can keep up with 
other cars on the road. The control mechan- 
isms are specialized, but the car functions 
on a par with all others. 

Much of the computer technology devel- 
oped for the handicapped is only applicable 
in special environments. Simplicity is often 
overlooked in favor of the overly sophisti- 
cated. Work produced by government 
grants and large institutions is usually pain- 



stakingly slow. Software and hardware de- 
velopers for the handicapped should take a 
hint from Ruth Lambert's idea: aim to make 
it easier for the handicapped to adjust to 
society. 

Consider business, entertainment and 
other software. Though many companies 
put out quality products, most users also 
write their own. Part of the fun of owning a 
microcomputer is writing original software 
or improving existing programs. Through- 
out the research of this article I had a reoc- 
curring thought: Why don't computer hob- 
byists write programs and design modifica- 
tions for the handicapped? The only answer 
I could come up with was they were not 
aware of the need.B 

80 Microcomputing would be pleased to 
publish any well-written programs devel- 
oped for use by the handicapped in future 
issues. The best programs will be featured 
as a "Program of The Month." 



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Who needs it? Everyone who writes Of uses programs in BASIC. 
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Memory contents & control 

Special *l graphics char. 

Graphics synthesis 

Line renumber (discrete) 

BA8IC program appending 

Sound generator 

Reliable CSAVE 8, CLOAD? 

Fast data sort 

I/O routing (Tape -VDU-RAM-Prlnler) 



This System was designed to be used as -stock- for ALL 
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* It will show you what your TRS- 80 can really do! 

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140 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



It takes squeezing 

to get out what is 

trapped inside." 



Thoughts on Being Handicapped 



by Joel Stevey 



Communication is the most difficult 
problem in my life. Since cerebral 
palsy has robbed me of most of that func- 
tion, I feel like a full bottle with its cork 
stuck. Most my life is spent listening and 
thinking, but I really long to contribute. 
Can you imagine how it is to love humor 
but not have the ability to tell a joke? I 
know many, but I cannot tell them. Oh 
well, that is just the beginning. 

Not having speech is a particular prob- 
lem. I am often included in groups physi- 
cally, but how to get into the conversation 
is another matter. My contributions are 
slow and require assistance. Sometimes 
my message gets twisted in translation. 
That bugs me. I am sure it bothers others 



too. As a result, I am often ignored or 
another breaks in and the conversation 
moves on. There are some who exercise 
patience and understanding and refuse to 
be distracted. I appreciate them. 

If I could do any one thing well, I would 
choose writing. I am perturbed when I 
have a good thought or idea and cannot 
record it. I am a night person and do much 
thinking in bed. Some of it I would like to 
write down. Closely related to this is the 
ability to use reference materials. I am 
hoping for future help in this area. 

Typing is a very important part of my 
communication system. All my homework 
is done that way, and my finger gets tired. 
Have you ever tried a long division prob- 



lem with a typewriter? Time is the major 
problem. Some days I type for three hours. 
Remember that I, too, make mistakes. 
Some day I will get a self-correcting type- 
writer, but until then, my folks help. 

My frustration is illustrated in the first 
paragraph when I pictured myself as a 
bottle. Talking, working, playing, dating 
and many other areas are affected. I am 
also like a sponge. It takes squeezing to 
get out what is trapped inside. ■ 



Written by Joel as an English class 
assignment in 1976. 









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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 141 



EDUCATION 



The Key Box 

Basic Level li 
Model I 



Can your computer help you learn Spanish or French? 



RS-80Tay, Aysay Hatway? 



' xxx La Computadora Inter naeional 

for the model If bw Jerold stratton 
10 CLS:CLEAR7G00!DIMW*<500) rC*(i»9>»C<500> :S4=STRING*<12Qf32> :Pl=256tP2=516JRR$= 
CHR$(191) :GOTO300 

99 'xxx INPUT AND CHECK THE FILE 

100 CLS:PRINT(?89f "ENTER STUDY WORDS" 

110 PRINTBPIf "FOREIGN TRANSLATION "» S INPUTW* < I) ! PRINT0P2 , "ENGLISH TRANSLATION ' ', i I 

NPUTW*:W*<I)=W4(I>+RR* + W*+V !WS=" * 

120 IF"STDP"+RR4+"STOP/"=W*(I)THEN130ELSEPRINT@P1fS*:PRINT(?P2fS4:I=I+1:GOT0110 

130 cls:input"check study list < y/n) • »f* j iff* = "n "thf.n20 

140 forj=otoi:a=j:gosue:2OOo:prinT0pi» "foreign word: • j:forji=otoci:printc*(o»ji 
)»"... ";:next: prints*: printspzf "English translation: • ? :forji=otoc2:printc*(1f j 
l >"...•; : next: prints* 

150 R*=INKEY*:iFR*=" " THEN15 0ELSEIFR*= "E *THEN160ELSEIFR*= ' o" THEN130ELSEIFR4= " S* TH 

EN17 0ELSENEXT:GOTO130 

160 INPUT-FOREIGN CORRECTION " 5 W4 < J) JINPUT "ENGLISH CORRECTION" , W* :W* ( J)=W* C J) +RR* 

+w*+v :printppifS*;s*;s*:next 

170 printep2»s*»printbpif "} j input 'foreign word to be searched for" i a* i fork=0toi 

:a=k:gosue:2ooo:forji=otoci:ifa*=c*<OfJDfJ=k-i:nextjelsenextkfJ 

199 'x** STUDY THE FILE 

200 Q=0 :CLS:A=RND(I)-1 !E: = RND(2) JIFBB*=" FOREIGN" fE: = 1El.SEIFBB4="ENGLISH" fB=2 
210 IF(VANDC<A) ) fGOTO2 0ELSEGOSUB2 JONBGQTO230 f250 

230 PRINTPP1fC*(0fRND<C1)-1) i S* ! GOSUB28 : FORJl=0TOC2 i IFA*=C* < 1 f Jl )THEN29 0ELSENEX 

t:print*sorryf charlie. the answer is" :print:forji=otoc2:printc*(1fJD ■...•; :w= 
w+i:next:forj=itoi5oo:next:c<a)=o:goto20o 

250 PRINT8P1»C$(1»RND(C2)-1);S*:GOSUB280:FORJ1=0TOC1:IFA$=C*<0fJ1)THEN290ELSENEX 

t:print"I'm afraid you goofedi the answer is* :print:foRw'i=otoci:printc*(OfJD ■• 
.. • ; :next:w=w+i:forj=itoi50o:next:c<a)=o:goto2 0o 

280 PRINT(?P2f ' ' ! :INPUTA*:IFA*="STOP"THEN300ELSERETURN 

290 PRINT0212f "CORRECT! ! ! " : R=R+1 : PRINT " PERCENTAGES R/ ( W+R )*i :FORJ=lTO120 :NEXT 

:ifnotvfC(a)=i 

291 GOTO200 

300 cls:print" 

2) 
3) 
4) 



5) 
6) 



1) SAVE WORDS 
INPUT FROM TAPE 
ADD WORDS TO MEMORY 
STUDY WORDS 
CHANGE FORMAT 
USE UNUSED QUESTIONS OR ALL. 

)0f350f320:GOTO30( 



■ ; :inputf:onfgoto40 0f500f10 
320 v=notv:goto3oo 

350 INPUT" FOREIGN f ENGLISH , OR NO PREFERENCE "! BB*.' GOTO30 

40 input 'first foreign word to be saved "! n* ( )! input ■ seccnd foreign word to be 
saved" ;n*(1) :forj=otoi:a=j:gosub2ooo:forji=otoci:ifc*(Of ji >=n*(n> fN<n>=j:n=n+i:i 

FNMTHEN450 

410 NEXTJIf j:printn*(N) ■ COULD not BE FOUND" :GOT0300 

450 INPUT'TAPE READY < Y/N ) " i Ft : IFF$= "N" f 30 

460 PRINT*-1fN(1)-N(0) : FORJ=N ( )TON ( 1 ) I PRINT*- 1 , W* < J ) : NEXT : GOTO30 

500 input'tape ready ( y/n) ■ i f* : iff$= "n"then300 

510 input#-1fj:fori=itoi+j:input*-1fW*<d: next: 1=1-1 :goto300 

1999 'xxx subroutine to seperate words in file string 

2000 forji=oto9:c*<Of jd = " :c*(1fJD = " • :next:ci=o:c2=o:c=o:qq=i:forg=itolen<w*<a 
)>:jj*=mid*(w*(a> fQfD :ifjj4=rr4cosub2 3o:dg=q+i:next:elseifjj4<>v,nextelseonc 

+ 1GOSUB201 Of 20 20 :GQ=G + 1 .'NEXT 

2001 RETURN 

20 10 C*(C»C1)=MID4(W$(A> fGGfQ-GG) : C1 = C1 + 1 ! RETURN 
2020 C*<CfC2)=MID*(W*(A)fQQfQ-Q0):C2=C2+1:RETURN 
2030 GOSUB2010:C=C+1!RETURN 



Program Listing 



Jerold M. Stratton 
148 S. Division 
Hesperia, Ml 49421 



I designed this program to help 
me study Spanish and French. 
You can easily modify it for 
other languages or study needs. 

The program first displays a 
menu. The first time you use the 
program, you must enter 3 (add 
words to memory). The com- 
puter asks for the foreign word 
and then the English transla- 
tion. It will continue to ask for 
these until you enter Stop for 
both questions. I have provided 
a sample file shown in Table 1 to 
help you check out this pro- 
gram. Enter the words exactly 
as they are shown. A slash be- 
tween words separates different 
definitions of the same word. 

The computer asks if you 
want to check the file for errors. 
Enter Y and the first set of words 
("Buenos dias..." and "Good 
morning. ..Good day...") ap- 
pears. To change any set of 
words, type E and enter the cor- 
rect words. Hit the space bar to 
advance to the next set of 
words. You can access the 
search function at any time 
while a set is displayed by hit- 
ting S. The computer will ask for 



142 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Professional/Scientific 

WORD PROCESSING 



Since introducing Qwerty 3.0 in September, 
people have been calling to ask if we were 
making ludicrous claims. The answer is NO' 
QWERTY 3.0 does all we claim it does and 
more 1 No other software of this type can 
match QWERTY 3.0 . . 

n a. rJ. 

t: 



Ol 



y 



ol 



1 Si 



V. ill. 



p' 



2 e 1 



o 1 



o 



It is the best. Period. We guarantee you 
will agree 1 If for some reason you find that 
this program does not meet your needs, 
return the entire package within 14 days for 
a prompt and cheerful refund. 

(Actual QWERTY text above). 



SOME FEATURES OF QWERTY 3.0 

1 . Automatically prints in proportional print, with a suitable format Transitions between the 
three print styles are easy, including all expanded print modes. 2. QWERTY 3.0 adds 75 new 
symbols, including upper and lower case Greek letters, mathematical symbols such as 
integrals and summations, arrows, brackets, and probability symbols. 3. Any character can be 
used as a subscript or superscript, even simultaneously. Carats, bars, and tildes can be placed 
over any character, with precise position control. 4. Underlining, with or without underlining of 
spaces, including long ratios and mathematical expressions. 5. FOOTNOTES can be placed 
on any page so that they remain on the desired page, even if text is inserted later. 6. TABLE 
commands enable positioning of the print head anywhere on a line. Invaluable in printing neat 
mathematical layouts, tables, columnar material, etc., in proportional print. 7. PRETTY com- 
mands allow printing of repetitions of a chosen character. When combined with TABLE, 
decorative borders can be produced with ease. 8. FOUO format produces output in two or 
three columns per page, in either proportional or 16.7 cpi mode. Ideal for newsletters. 9. 
Supplies a third output mode, in which only SCRIPSfT commands are obeyed. Allows printing 
of special QWERTY commands for future reference. 10. PAGE END indicates where pages 
will end, and the page number, without printing the text. One can prepare an almost error-free 
document without ever using paper. 1 1 . Correction of SCRIPTSTTs errors and inconvenien- 
ces, extensive documentation, and much more! 

For cautious buyers, we offer the manual (over 70 pages) for $10. When you decide to buy 
QWERTY 3.0, we will credit the full manual price. 

Qwerty 3.0 Disk. Manual. Reference Card, and Printer Table Rule S49.95 

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-rr 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 143 



the foreign word and advance 
the display to the set you re- 
quested. You can change it, if 
necessary, by pressing E. To 
leave the "Check Study List" 
mode hit shift Q, and answer N 
to the next question. 

You are now in the study 
mode. The computer will display 
a word or definition. If it is in a 
foreign language (for example, 
"el pueblo"), enter the corre- 
sponding English answer ("town" 
or "village"). If you answer incor- 
rectly, the TRS-80 will display the 
correct answer. The computer 
displays your percentage of cor- 
rect answers. To leave the study 
mode, enter Stop to any ques- 



tion, and the program returns to 
the menu. 

Menu option 5, Change For- 
mat, allows you to have the com- 
puter give only the foreign trans- 
lation or only the English word in 
the study mode. If you choose 
menu option 6, Use Unused 
Questions Or All, you will be 
asked questions which were not 
asked before, or which you an- 
swered incorrectly. Enter menu 
option 6 again to return to nor- 
mal execution. 

If you want to save the words 
on tape, choose menu option 1, 
Save Words. The computer will 
ask for the first and last words 
to be saved. To save everything, 



Foreign translation 




English translation 


BUENOS DIAS 




GOOD MORNING/GOOD DAY 


DE LA MANANA 




A.M./IN THE MORNING 


HASTA LA VISTA/HASTA LUEGO 


UNTIL LATER/SO LONG/I'LL SEE YOU LATER 


TENERQUE 




TO HAVE TO 


PENSAR 




TO THINK/TO PLAN 


EL PUEBLO 




TOWN/VILLAGE 


DETRAS DE 




BEHIND 


STOP 




STOP 




Table 1. 


Sample phrases 



enter "Buenos dias" for the first 
and "Detras de" for the last 
word. If you enter "tener que" 
and "el pueblo", only "tener 



que", "pensar", and "el pueblo" 
are saved. 

Buenos dias! Aprendan us- 
tedes bien! ■ 



Variable Function 

A the number (X) of the current W$(X) being studied 

B determines if the foreign or English will be asked 

BB$ stores if you want only foreign or only English asked 

C(X) records whether question W$(X) was answered correctly 

C$(X,Y) stores the individual words separated from W$(X) 

C1 the number of foreign words in W$(X) 

C2 the number of English words in W$(X) 

C stores whether or not foreign or English words are being separated 

(subroutine at line 2000) 

F$ for all input statements requiring a 'Y' or a 'N' answer 

F the answer to the menu 

I stores how many strings in the file 

J,J1 used in For. . . Next statements 

K the For. . . Next variable in the search routine 

N$(1),N(1) first string to be saved (W$(n(1)) is first) 

N$(2),N(2) last string to be saved (W$(N(2» = N$(2)) 

P1 position for PRINT® statement 

P2 another position for PRINT® statements 

Q current position in W$(A), in subroutine at line 2000 

QQ position of the first letter in the current word being separated from 

W$(A) 

R$ used for the INKEYS statement 

RR$ CHR$(191)— separates foreign section of W$(X) from English section 

R the number of questions answered correctly 

S$ a string of spaces 

V stores whether only questions that were not yet asked, or were 

answered incorrectly will be asked (see text) 

W$(X) stores a set of corresponding foreign and English words 

W the number of questions answered incorrectly 

Table 2. Variable functions 



ADVENTURES!!! 

For TRS-80 and COLOR-80. These Ad- 
ventures are written in BASIC, are full fea- 
tured, fast action, full plotted adventures 
that take 30-50 hours to play. (Adventures 
are interactive fantasies. It's like reading a 
book except that you are the main char- 
acter as you give the computer commands 
like "Look in the Coffin" and "Light the 
torch.") 

Adventures require 16K. They sell for 
$14.95 each. 
ESCAPE FROM MARS (by Rodger Olsen) 

This ADVENTURE takes place on the 
RED PLANET. You'll have to explore a 
Martian city and deal with possibly hostile 
aliens to survive this one. A good first 
adventure. 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olsen) 

This is our most challenging ADVEN- 
TURE. It is a treasure hunt in a pyramid 
full of problems. Exciting and tough! 

TREK ADVENTURE (by Bob Retelle) 

This one takes place aboard a familiar 
starship. The crew has left for good reasons - 
but they forgot to take you, and now you 
are in deep trouble. 

DEATH SHIP (by Rodger Olsen) 

Our first and original ADVENTURE, 
this one takes place aboard a cruise ship - 
but it ain't the Love Boat. 

VAMPIRE CASTLE (by Mike Bassman) 
This is a contest between you and old 
Drac - and it's getting a little dark outside. 
$14.95each. 



QUEST 



QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVEN- 
TURE GAMES! Different from all the 
others. Quest is played on a computer 
generated map of Alesia. Your job is to 
gather men and supplies by combat, bargain- 
ing, exploration of ruins and temples and 
outright banditry. When your force is strong 
enough, you attack the Citadel of Moorlock 
in a life or death battle to the finish. Play- 
able in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different 
every time. 
16K COLOR-80 OR TRS-80 ONLY. $14.95 




ARCADE AND THINKING GAMES 
16K and extended or level II BASIC 

TIME TREK, REAL TIME REAL 
GRAPHICS TREK. See the torpedoes fly 
and Klingons explode. No more scoll- 
ing displays, no more turn taking. — This 
one has real time and real displays. In 
BASIC - for 16K level II or extended color 
BASIC. $14.95. 

STARFIGHTER - This one man space 
war game pits you against spacecruisers, 
battlewagons, and one man fighters. You 
have the view from your cockpit window, a 
working instrument panel, and your wits. 
Another real time goody. $9.95. 

BATTLEFLEET - This grown-up ver- 
sion of Battleship is the toughest thinking 
game available on 80 computers. There is 
no luck involved as you seek out the 80's 
hidden fleet. This is a topographical toughie. 
$9.95. 

SLASHBALL - A two player game of 
strategy and skill, this is like nothing you 
have ever seen before. This takes fast 
fingers, quick wits and concentration. Play- 
able from age 6 to 65, it is a good family 
game. $9.95. 

MINOS - 8K - Features amazing 3D 
graphics. You see a maze from the top, the 
screen blanks, and when it clears, you are in 
the maze at ground level finding your way 
through on foot. Realistic enbugh to cause 
claustrophobia. $12.95. (COLOR-80 ONLY) 




TRS-80 



Please specify system on all orders 
This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. Send for free catalog to: 

.129 AARDVARK-80 
2352 S. Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 
(313)669-3110 



^7 



COLOR-80 



144 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



NEWSLETTER 



35 Old State Road, Oxford, CT 06483 



A NEWSLETTER FOR POCKET COMPUTER USERS 

This timely, compact publication provides up to the minute informa- 
tion on pocket computers, including models such as the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer, Sharp Electronics' PC-1211, the Casio 
FX-702P, Panasonic's RL-H1000, and others as they are announced. 
We only cover pocket computers that are capable of executing a high 
level language such as BASIC. We also report on attachments and 
software (programs) as they are made available for these devices. 
Strictly for Busy People 

This is a newsletter. It is not a magazine. Ten times a year we deliver 
a highly compact 4 - 8 pages of condensed, relevant,' timely infor- 
mation of value to users of pocket computers. This vital data is pro- 
vided in a format that can be readily digested by the busy, important 
executive, engineer or professional in just a few minutes of brisk, in- 
teresting, informative reading. If you have hours to dawdle away each 
month, there are lots of magazines you can browse through. Yet, even 
if you were to read a dozen magazines a month, you would be unlikely 
to find all the relevant pocket computer information contained in each 
issue of The POCKET COMPUTER NEWSLETTER. 
Up to the Minute News 

If it has to do with pocket computers, we tell you about it. New pro- 
duct releases. Current prices. Industry speculation — even an occasional 
rumor. Since we are a newsletter you get news fresh, not months after 
it happens as occurs with magazines. Our material is sent directly to 
you by first class mail! 
Product and Equipment Reviews 

As new models of pocket computers and related equipment become 
available we publish professional, forthright reviews as reported to us 
by actual purchasers and users. Books, software packages and related 
materials are similarly reviewed by actual users or our professional 
staff. 

Important Operating Tips 

Every computing device has its strengths and weaknesses, its ins and 
outs. Our publication quickly compiles information and tidbits from 
users and passes this on to you. How to save keystrokes, better capi- 
talize on a capability, uncover hidden talents; this type of valuable 



information is regularly reported on by The POCKET COMPUTER 
NEWSLETTER. 

Practical Programs 

Approximately one-half of each issue consists of actual programs and 
routines for pocket computers. Practical, useful programs that enhance 
the value of your personal unit. In previous issues we have published: 
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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 145 



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*TM Tandy Corp. ^563 



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REVIEW 



Radio Shack may have trouble with this one. 



Model II Compiler Basic 



Model II Compiler Basic 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
Fort Worth, TX 
$199 

Larry Clark 

Perimeter Data Systems 
4449 Oak Trail Drive 
Atlanta, GA 30338 

As a professional programmer en- 
gaged in building large applications 
systems, I eagerly awaited Radio Shack's 
Compiler Basic for the Model II. I anticipat- 
ed a significant performance advantage 
over the interpretive Basic that comes with 
the system. In addition, I felt that the ability 
to distribute programs in object form would 
provide increased protection against soft- 
ware piracy. 

I knew that my existing programs would 
require modification. Radio Shack clearly 
indicates that the language differs from in- 
terpretive Basic, and suggests that it is pri- 
marily suitable for new application devel- 
opment. To achieve higher performance, I 
expected that the compiler language would 
require some additional specification. But I 
was utterly unprepared for what I encoun- 
tered: gratuitous changes for the sake of 
change, callous disregard for human factors, 
and woefully disappointing performance. 

The Development System 

Programs are normally written and de- 
bugged using the Development System. 
This is a complete environment that closely 
resembles interpretive Basic— programs 
can be written, saved, executed, modified, 
etc., without returning to TRSDOS. There is 
also a stand-alone editor called BEdit, 
which allows more powerful editing opera- 
tions, and a stand-alone run-time package 
that can execute previously compiled 
programs. 

The editing commands in the Develop- 

148 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



ment System are annoyingly different from 
the familiar Edit command of interpretive 
Basic. In fact, there is no Edit command; its 
function is performed by Change, which is 
better suited to global changes than to in- 
tra-line corrections. The BEdit program 
uses another scheme (including an Edit 
command), but differs from both of the 
above mentioned, and from Edit-80, which it 
closely resembles. This makes it incredibly 
difficult to switch from the Development 
editor to BEdit. The difficulty is compound- 
ed if the user also works in interpretive 
Basic and/or Edit-80 (e.g., for Assembly- 
code or Fortran work). 

If you have existing programs in interpre- 
tive Basic, forget trying to use them as a 
starting point. The file format used for stor- 
ing source programs by Compiler Basic is 
different from either of the formats used by 
interpretive Basic. I managed to write a con- 
version program, but the language differ- 
ences are so significant that I'd have been 
better off starting over. 



Data Types 

The compiler supports only two types of 
numeric data, integer and real. Integers oc- 
cupy two bytes and perform as in interpre- 
tive Basic. Reals, on the other hand, are 
stored in floating packed decimal, and oc- 
cupy eight bytes each. Each real number 
carries up to 14 significant digits. The use 
of a decimal base would seem a good 
choice for accounting work, since it elimi- 
nates the possibility of roundoff errors. 

Strings have both maximum and current 
lengths. The default maximum is 255 (as 
with interpretive Basic). However, if the user 
knows that the string will never be that long, 
he can assign a shorter maximum to save 
space. Unlike interpretive Basic, strings 
always require enough storage to hold their 
maximum length. This avoids the inter- 
preter's string compaction delays, but may 



prevent programs with large string arrays 
from fitting into memory. 

Variable names may be arbitrarily long, 
and the first six characters are significant. 
Thus, Joe and Joseph are different vari- 
ables, although Joseph and Josephine are 
the same. A variable's type may be set im- 
plicitly (Real is the default), or specified by 
appending a type tag ($, %, or #). The first 
mention of a variable is binding— if the first 
line of a program refers to A$, the compiler 
treats every reference to A as a string, 
regardless of the presence of the $ tag, and 
the variables A% and A# are not available. 

Arrays of all data types are available, but 
may not have more than two dimensions. 
Although relatively few programs need 
more than this, those that do become 
extremely awkward. The limitation seems 
arbitrary. 

Needless Differences 

Some of the other differences seem 
pointless. Their primary effect is to frus- 
trate users who are accustomed to interpre- 
tive Basic. 

• Quotation marks are not used around 
filespecs on commands such as 
Save and Kill. 

• Load will load only an object file, not 
a source file. You must use Old for 
source files. 

• LLIST <range> is replaced by List 
<range> {PRT}. The braces are man- 
datory. 

• In concatenating strings, the plus 
sign has been replaced by an amper- 
sand. 

• In debugging a program, you cannot 
use Print <var> to see its value; you 
must Display <var> or Dl <var>). 

• RENUM is not recognized, but Re- 
number and RE are. 

• Print@(6,3),<list> must be written as 
Print CRT(6,3);<list>. 

• To determine the cursor position, 






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Editor/Assembler-Plus. A powerful editing, assembly and 
debugging tool with many sophisticated features that make 
writing TRS-80 assembly language programs easier, faster 
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• Full disk capabilities. 

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code then reload for execution. 

• Macro capability that allows you to define macros for 
commonly used sequences of instructions. 

• Conditional assembly that allows you to generate more 
than one version of a program. 

• Eight breakpoints at a time for program debugging. 

• The INCLUDE statement that allows you to call additional 
disk files for assembly. 

• Other features include extensive operators, automatic 
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in memory, five type-out modes, four type-in radices, plus 
extensive edit commands. 

A more powerful BASIC. With Level III BASIC, you get 
power to perform tasks in BASIC that used to require 
assembly language. Plus, new ease-of-use features for 
your TRS-80. 

• Advanced graphics. Develop charts, graphs, even anima- 
tion in Level III BASIC. Draw a line, an outline box or 



a solid box by specifying just two points. Then save and 
recall it with BASIC commands. 

• MENU. One command that allows you to construct an 
entire menu. 

• CHAIN and COMMON commands allow you to call 
another program and pass variables to it. 

• Powerful editing commands such as COPY/TRANSFER, 
FIND and CHANGE. 

• DUMP command that makes debugging easier. 

• Time-limit response. New INPUT # LEN and LINE INPUT 
# LEN commands allow you to set a time limit on response. 

• RS-232 output from BASIC. With a single command. 

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Talk to your Microsoft™ dealer. Ask for a demonstration 
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TRS-80: Level III BASIC and Editor/Assembler-Plus. On 
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^579 




CONSUMERS PRODUCTS 

10700 Northup Way, Bellevue, WA 98004. (206) 828-8080 



"A close reading. . . reveals 
that Compiler Basic is 
not a true compiler." 



ROW(x) and POS(x) have been re- 
placed by CRTX and CRTY. (This 
would be fine if they hadn't reversed 
the normal usage of the coordinates.) 

• The End statement marks the end of 
complication, not the end of execu- 
tion. 

• The INSTR function has been rela- 
beled POS, and accepts only the two- 
argument form. 

• The MID$ function has been renamed 
SEG$. 

The above list is far from complete, but 
indicates the nature of the changes. If the 
compiler were to be used in a vacuum, the 
choice of syntax wouldn't matter. But every 
Model II is already supplied with interpre- 
tive Basic, and most potential users of 
Compiler Basic are probably already using 
it. (If they wanted to start from scratch, they 
would be better off using a language other 
than Basic.) So these changes simply make 
life needlessly difficult. 

Input/Output 

The file I/O commands are also markedly 
changed, but in this case there is some jus- 
tification. Compiler Basic provides a rich 
variety of I/O options, including fixed or vari- 
able-length records; sequential, direct, or 
indexed access; and stream, formatted, or 
binary formats. However, most of the inter- 
esting combinations seem to waste an inor- 
dinate amount of space. 

Direct access files automatically include 
two bytes of overhead per record — one for 
the record length and a second that's un- 
used. (The record length indicates how 
much of the record is actually used, even 
though the physical records must be fixed 
in length.) 

ISAM files also have two bytes of over- 
head per record, but round the storage to 
the next larger multiple of 32 bytes. Thus, a 
file with a record length between one and 30 
bytes requires 32 bytes per record. 

Numbers in formatted files are written in 
ASCII. Thus, an integer may take six bytes, 
including sign. 

Real numbers within binary files carry a 
length byte in addition to the internal repre- 
sentation. This means that nine bytes may 
be (and therefore are) required to store 
a number. 

The ISAM format was apparently dictat- 
ed by considerations of (limited) compatibil- 
ity with the Cobol compiler. Considering 
how much these two languages have in 
common, I wonder whether (or why) any- 
body would even want to try to marry them. 

Program Segmentation 

Perhaps the most welcome feature of 
Compiler Basic is that it allows true subpro- 
grams, which can be called by name (not by 

150 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



GOSUB<line>) and passed arguments. Ex- 
cept where declared as Common or as for- 
mal parameters, the variables in the sub- 
program have nothing to do with those in 
the calling program. "At last!", I thought, "I 
can actually write programs with a reasona- 
ble degree of modularity and structure." 
Wrong! 

A close reading of the manual reveals 
that Compiler Basic is not a true compiler. It 
does not convert source programs into ma- 
chine code, but rather, into an intermediate 
pseudo-code, which still must be interpret- 
ed at run time. (This is also true of most im- 
plementations of Pascal.) The pseudo-code 
is more compact than true object code 
would be. 

Subprograms can be compiled either se- 
parately or in conjunction with the main 
program. If they are compiled separately, 
they can be loaded together before begin- 
ning execution, but the result can only be 
executed, not saved. The pseudo-code can- 
not be linked with true object modules. It is 
still possible to invoke machine code, but 
the technique is similar to the USR calls of 
interpretive Basic— the code must be pre- 
loaded into high memory that has been re- 
served, and the entry point addresses must 
be coded into the program. 

The inability to combine independently 
compiled modules into a single executable 
whole makes the concept of separate com- 
pilation virtually useless. In designing large 
systems for beginners, I want to give them 
simple directions, such as "Enter the com- 
mand Do Daily and follow the prompts." I 
certainly don't want to tell them to enter 
RSBasic, load a half-dozen modules, then 
say Run. Worse yet, if they have only the 
run-time system (sold separately for just 
such applications), they can't load multiple 
modules even if I wanted them to. So 
without a linkage mechanism, ail necessary 
subprograms must be compiled at once. 

This is easier said than done. The Devel- 
opment System requires room in memory 
for the entire source program it is compil- 
ing, plus the compiler itself. (I suspect it 
may also keep the object code in memory, 
since I was able to compile an oversize pro- 
gram by reducing some dimensions.) Con- 
sequently, the largest program that can be 
compiled in one shot is limited, and I 
reached the limit on my first attempt. 

Chaining 

So we can't combine modules that were 
compiled separately, and we can't compile 
a very big collection of modules at once. 
What's left? Chaining. 

The program chaining facility is a mild 
improvement over what's available in inter- 



pretive Basic. It allows you to save the con- 
tents of certain variables in Common, 
where they can be retrieved by programs 
later in the chain. Except for this feature, it 
is no different from the Run program state- 
ment in interpretive Basic. 

I thought there might be some smaller ap- 
plications that could benefit from the per- 
formance improvements that come from 
compilation. To see how much improve- 
ment the compiler produced, I wrote a sim- 
ple benchmark to find out. 



Interpretive Basic 

10 DEFINT A-Z 

20 PRINT TIMES 

30 FOR I = 1 TO 1000 

40X = (l*3 + 6)/7 

50 NEXT I 

60 PRINT TIMES 

70 END 



Compiler Basic 

10 INTEGER 

20 PRINT TIMES 

30 FOR i = 1 TO 1000 

40X5(l*3 + 6)/7 

50 NEXT I 

60 PRINT TIMES 

70 END 



This seemed like a fair test, since both 
systems would be doing arithmetic using 
the same internal number format. Upon run- 
ning these test cases, I was amazed by the 
relative performance of the two systems: 
Interpretive Basic, 13 seconds; Compiler 
Basic, 22 seconds (plus 14 seconds com- 
pilation). 

Where I expected at least a threefold im- 
provement (probably more like tenfold) in 
performance, I actually achieved a degrada- 
tion of about 70 percent. Either Microsoft 
does things awfully well, or Ryan and Mc- 
Farland (the authors of Compiler Basic) are 
doing something terribly wrong! 

Conclusion 

I have never bought a program with such 
high expectations, and wound up feeling so 
totally ripped off. It is inconceivable to me 
that a compiled program— or even a partial- 
ly compiled one — can perform so poorly. 

I am equally appalled by the unnecessary 
incompatibilities between this and the stan- 
dard version of Basic for the Model II. It 
shows an utter lack of concern for the peo- 
ple who will inevitably use both. 

If the compiler is intended for developing 
applications programs, the authors should 
recognize that program linkage is a neces- 
sity, and that disk space may be a precious 
resource. In any case, there is little ration- 
ale for needless overhead bytes. 

After my first experience with the compil- 
er, I put it on the shelf and dismissed it as 
useless. Several months later I brought it 
back out for another try, hoping against 
hope that I had missed something crucial. It 
appears that I hadn't. 

There may be a few limited applications 
where Compiler Basic might be useful. If 
you know of one, please contact me. I'm 
willing to sell my copy at a sizable 
discount.! 











■HHjngunHUn 


i .', ; : -1' 






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• Complete and ready to install — no software needed 

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• Designed by 80 Microcomputing's Dennis Bathory Kitsz 

$79.95 complete 




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Bare board and kits available. Call or write for information. 

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^92 



COD— Visa— Mastercard 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 151 



REVIEW 



Version 2.0 for Models I and III. 



The New NEWDOS 80 



Paul R. Prescott 

737 Wood lawn Avenue 

Dallas, TX 75208 

NEWDOS 80 Version 2.0 
Apparat, Inc. 
Denver, CO 
$149.00 



Apparat revolutionized TRS-80 disk op- 
eration with their initial release of 
NEWDOS 2.1 several years ago, correcting 
TRSDOS bugs and adding several modifica- 
tions. NEWDOS 80 followed in mid-1980, ad- 
ding additional commands and routines to 
DOS and Disk Basic. With the release of 
NEWDOS 80 Version 2 for both the Model I 
and III, this group has produced an exten- 
sively revised system that can meet any 
challenger head-on! NEWDOS is a new op- 
erating system rather than a debugged and 
enhanced TRSDOS. 

Apparat supplies seven other programs 
on the NEWDOS disk. Superzap allows di- 
rect disk access for applying corrections. 
Chainbld provides a mini-text editor for 
writing chain files. EDTASM is Radio 
Shack's Editor/Assembler with disk capa- 
bilities. LMOFFSET loads machine lan- 
guage programs from tape to disk and vice- 
versa, and applies a relocating appendage 
to keep them from crashing DOS while load- 
ing. Dircheck reads a directory to provide 
essential repair information. Disassem, a 
machine language disassembler, writes a 
source file readable by EDTASM to disk. H. 
S. Gentry's automatic spooler ASPOOL 
feeds a print file from disk to the printer 
while the computer processes another pro- 
gram. Version 1 owners note that none of 
these programs as supplied with Version 1 
operate under Version 2. Read the docu- 
mentation carefully when converting. 

Documentation 

The most serious shortcoming of 
NEWDOS 80 Version 1 was its documenta- 
tion. The new Version 2 manual consists of 
258 pages, including a badly needed index. 

152 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Chapters are sectioned by DOS functions 
and Basic enhancements, instructions for 
other programs supplied with NEWDOS, 
and technical information on DOS routines 
for assembly programmers. A short chapter 
provides information on converting from 
Version 1 to Version 2, and converting from 
Model I to III. The operating system con- 
sists of 14 DOS overlay modules while Disk 
Basic is made up from one resident module 
and eight new overlays. Chapter 5 docu- 
ments all modules; select only those mod- 
ules necessary for each disk and kill the 
rest to provide more disk space. 

Version 2 and Version 1 incompatibilities 
make some programs inoperative unless 
you incorporate changes. The same applies 
to TRSDOS, mainly with machine language 
programs that call certain DOS routines. 
New entry point addresses are documented 
if you need to make changes. Apparat also 
supplies zaps for Scripsit, Visicalc, 
APL80/CMD, and Racet's DSM and Infinite 
Basic so they function properly. As with 
other operating systems differing from 
TRSDOS, not all programs from other 
sources run correctly. 

Technical jargon can be confusing even 
for knowledgeable operators. For example, 
Apparat coined the word "lump" to, in the 
words of the manual, "avoid using the 
words track and cylinder." Standard DOS 
operation for the Model I allows five sec- 
tors/granule and two grans/track, which 
gives 10 sectors/track. For the double den- 
sity Model III this is three sectors/gran and 
six grans/track, or 18 sectors/track. 
NEWDOS 80 Version 2 maintains the five 
sectors/gran, but creates a "lump" which 
can be set by the user to contain 2-8 
granules/lump, or 10-40 sectors/lump. 
Because the word "track" implies that a 
track could span several physical tracks on 
the disk Apparat created "lump." A lump 
can span several tracks, and a granule can 
start in one track and end in another. Dou- 
ble density and eight inch disks can use the 
maximum sector/track count and maintain 
the same directory structure. If grans/lump 
is set to eight, the directory can ac- 



commodate 7,608 sectors which, again in the 
words of the manual, "might suffice for a 
while." 

The manual provides an extensive ex- 
planation of the disk directory structure in- 
cluding the GAT and HIT sectors, File Direc- 
tory Entries, File Primary Directory Entries, 
and File Extended Directory Entries. Ap- 
parat changed these structures by defining 
previously unused bytes. Other operating 
systems defining these bytes differently are 
incompatible with NEWDOS. The File Con- 
trol Block structure is similarly explained. 

NEWDOS Zaps 

A glossary of terms and a short error 
chapter appear at the end of the manual, 
along with an explanation of Apparat's up- 
dating procedure. Apparat provides 
NEWDOS owners with changes (zaps); to 
receive these return the registration card. 
Installation instructions are straightfor- 
ward, but for those uneasy with zapping, 
Apparat provides an update service. Ap- 
parat will perform a full disk copy on your 
original NEWDOS 80 Version 2 disk from 
Apparat's master copy if you return your 
disk. Save any non-NEWDOS programs on 
another disk before the update or they will 
be lost. 

With Version 1, after all new zaps were 
applied to a master system disk, the user 
faced the tremendous task of copying the 
zapped files to all other disks that con- 
tained them. Since many disks contain only 
part of the original system this took time. In 
NEWDOS 80 Version 2 Apparat has modi- 
fied Copy format six to recognize a Copy By 
File (CBF) parameter. Files are copied one 
at a time rather than as a full disk backup. 
This copy format recognizes two new pa- 
rameters: Destination Files Only (DFO) 
copies only those files on both the destina- 
tion and source disks; and Inclusion List 
File (ILF), specified by filespecs that you 
create and save on the master disk. The zap 
duplicating procedure could not be simpler. 
After you apply the zaps an ILF specifies 
those zapped files. Then use the following 
command: 



"You can set the number of tries 

at verifying a read or write to disk 

before declaring an error. " 



COPY.0,1„NFMT DFO CBF ILF = filespec:0 

NFMT prevents the destination disk on 
drive one from being formatted and CBF in- 
dicates file copy. With this command the 
computer checks the ILF to find out which 
files to copy; DFO checks the destination 
disk to see if it already contains that file. If 
so, the zapped file is copied; if not, it is ig- 
nored. No other files are touched. After one 
disk is updated, enter R from the DOS Ready 
message to repeat the copy command for 
another disk. Single drive owners could not 
use the CBF option with Version 1 but can 
use it with Version 2. Several disk swaps are 
necessary but the procedure is greatly sim- 
plified. This new zapping ability alone jus- 
tifies the price of NEWDOS 80 Version 2! 

System Customizing 

System is a standard library command al- 
lowing you to specify options activated dur- 
ing each reset. Version 1 allowed 20 such 
options; Version 2 includes 36 for the Model 
I and 33 for the Model III. A few Version 1 op- 
tions are no longer defined. 

Several options are available through a 
built-in keyboard intercept routine included 
in NEWDOS 80 Version 2. JKL prints the 
screen to a printer, 123 invokes Debug, and 
DFG invokes Mini-DOS (more on this later). 
For older Model I's a debounce routine 
makes separate software unnecessary. You 
can selectively enable or disable all four of 
these options. Disable the entire intercept 
routine via a System option or by pressing 
the up-arrow key during a reset/power-up. 

You can specify the number of diskdrives 
to avoid wasting time searching for files on 
non-existent drives. Set any drive as the de- 
fault drive for the DIR command. When you 
save a file the system searches all drives to 
see if it already exists. If not, you can speci- 
fy the drive number to begin searching for 
free space. No drive less than this will be 
written to. This feature prevents writing a 
file to a system disk in drive if you forget 
the write protect tab. 

You can set the number of tries at verify- 
ing a read or write to disk before declaring 
an error. The usual number is 10 but five 
saves time. You can also set the number of 
write-with-verify tries. With this option you 
can force the system to rewrite and try 
again. If you set this at two and the other at 
five, the system writes a file and attempts 
verification five times. If an error occurs 
the process repeats, including a second 
write, before declaring an error. Previously, 
if the error occured after five verifies, I/O 

s-See Lisl of Advertisers on page 290 



stopped and you had to try again. 

You can protect high memory at each 
reset rather than specify a memory size. 
You can make any key repeat, and adjust 
the time from first hitting a key until repeat 
starts. If your printer cannot accept cha- 
racters above a given ASCII code you can 
replace them in the LPRINT stream with 
spaces or periods. You can enable a DOS 
command that repeats the last DOS com- 
mand by entering R; this is a great time- 
saver when you want to format more than 
one disk or make multiple copies. To make 
disk backup easier, you can perform full 
disk copy commands without passwords 
even if passwords are enabled for pro- 
gram use. 

You choose a blinking cursor and specify 
the cursor character. You can force the sys- 
tem to perform a separate verify of all 
tracks after Format is finished in addition to 
the track verify performed after each track 
is formatted. In double density this helps 
to ensure that a disk is usable. By set- 
ting another option to Y or N the sys- 
tem knows whether a lowercase modifi- 
cation has been installed. If so, a lowercase 
driver can be activated, again eliminating 
separate software. A system shift-lock can 
be set to force all uppercase. Since I use 
The Patch for lowercase I cannot test these 
functions. You can tell the system to ask for 
the date and time at each power-up. These 
questions can be asked or bypassed at 
each reset as well. Version 2 permits active 
CPU speed-up mods during disk operations; 
you may set timing loops internal to the 
system according to the actual speed-up 
time. 

In a business environment the user may 
not understand how the system works. To 
avoid accidental Break and Clear functions, 
disable these keys. To protect programs or 
data, enable passwords and place the sys- 
tem in a run-only mode which disables 
Break, prohibits any Basic direct commands, 
and disables 123, DFG, and JKL. You must 
then use an auto command to select and 
run the desired program or execute a chain 



command file; the "DOS ready" message 
forces an endless loop in which case press- 
ing R forces a reset. As with all other sys- 
tems you can disable the Auto command by 
holding Enter at power-up or reset. You can 
also disable the Auto command by run-only, 
or you can selectively disable it by setting 
anotheroptionto N. If the system is brought 
up via a Chain file the commands are 
displayed as they are executed. To provide 
secrecy for program names and proce- 
dures, another option automatically elimi- 
nates all display, including DOS and Basic 
messages, until a program turns the display 
back on. 

DOS Features 

Machine language programmers can in- 
voke a Debug routine by pressing 123 simul- 
taneously or by executing Debug from the 
"DOS is ready" message to inspect or 
change memory or disk or to single step the 
program. In addition your machine lan- 
guage program can access a DOS Call rou- 
tine to execute any DOS command or other 
program. This routine is documented, in- 
cluding its entry point and use of registers. 
NEWDOS allows you to insert an interrupt 
routine into the DOS interrupt chain. 

Mini-DOS allows you to interrupt a main 
program to invoke one or more DOS library 
commands and then return to the main pro- 
gram where you left it. For example, by 
pressing DFG and entering Mini-DOS, you 
can examine directories and kill files while 
executing Scripsit even though these fea- 
tures were left out of Scripsit itself. You can 
then return to Scripsit by entering MDRET, 
or abort and return to the "DOS ready" 



LOAD GSF/CIM 

BASIC 1,62168 

DEFUSR = &HFE80 

CLEAR 

RUN "DIR/GSF" 

Fig. 1. Chain File 



DRIVE 1 A1A 


08/23/81 


39 TRKS 


37 FDES 


85 GRANS 




EOF LRL 


RECS GRANS 


EXTS 


SIUEC. . . .UAL 


SUPERCOP/OBJ 


05/088 256 


06 2 


1 


C. . . .UA0 


EDTASM/CMD 


35/000 256 


35 7 


1 





SUPERCOP/SRC 


28/134 256 


29 6 


2 


. .UE 












NEWDOS/80 READY 












Fig. 2. Directory Command Display 


i 



'Microcomputing, February 1982 • 153 



i 



lllf- 

i 




- 

11 






Fill this space with a GRAFTRAX graphic 
and win a trip to Japan. 

The Epson 
"Softwear" Sweepstakes. 



We're looking for the Picasso of programming. So we 
drew up an art contest for people who don't know a 
painting pallet from a PROM. 

If you've got an Epson printer, a computer and a little 
imagination, you could win a week-long trip for two to 
Japan. Or our top-of-the-line 136-column MX-100 
printer. Or his and hers Seiko Quartz Watches. Or a 
whole lot of honorable mention prizes. And you'll get a 
T-shirt with the winning graphic just for entering. 

All you have to do is program a GRAFTRAX graphic 
— abstract, landscape, still life, whatever — using an 
Epson MX-70, MX-80, MX-80 F/T or MX-100 printer. 
We'll not only put it on our T-shirts, we'll be displaying 
the winning entries for all to see in June at the National 
Computer Conference in Houston. 

Why, you may ask, are we being so generous? It's 
simply because GRAFTRAX is the most incredible 
graphics capability made for micros. And we want to 
see it used to its full potential. 



All entries will be judged on originality, creativity 
and best use of computer equipment. They must be 
postmarked no later than May 1, 1982, and be accom- 
panied by the software program, so we can recreate the 
winning entries for verification. Make sure the graphic 
is no larger than 8" x 10" and no smaller than 4" x 6". 
And remember, if you digitize art or a photograph, it 
must have been originally created by you. 

So get busy and enter. 
You might be a winner. 
And your software 
»"F !i f3H could be your "soft- 
wear." 




EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



3415 Kashiwa Street • Torrance, California 90505 




EPSON 

"SOFTWEAR" 

SWEEPSTAKES 

RULES 

1) Any computer equipment may be used to format the entry, 
but the grapnics output must have been printed on an Epson 
MX-70, MX-80, MX-80 F/T or MX-100 printer with either 
built-in or optional GRAFTRAX. Winning entries will be re- 
created by Epson for verification. 

2) Each entry must be accompanied by the software program 
used to create' it. All entries and software and the rights to use 
them become the property of Epson America, Inc. 

3) All entries must be at least 6"x 4" and no larger than8"x 10" 
in size. 

4) Art or photographs, if used, must have been created by the 
entrant. 

5) All entries will be judged by an independent panel of 
judges on their creative merit, originality and best use of com- 
puter equipment. Decision of the judges is final. 

6) This contest is valid from January 1, 1982 until May 1, 1982. 
Entries must be postmarked no later than May 1, 1982. 

7) Participation in the Epson "Softwear" Sweepstakes is open 
to any except the following: employees of Epson America, 
Inc., its service agencies, or their families. 

8) Winners will be notified by mail no later than June 1, 1982. 
A list of winners will be made available by sending a stamped, 
self-addressed envelope to Epson America, Inc., 3415 Kashiwa 
Street, Torrance, CA 90505. 

9) Entries will be maintained on file at Epson America, Inc. 
until January 1, 1983. 

10) Prizes are as follows: First prize includes round-trip 
economy air transportation for two to Tokyo, from the airport 
nearest the winner's place of residence, and six nights stan- 
dard hotel accommodations, double occupancy. Trip does not 
include airport departure taxes, hotel service charges, cost of 
transportation or other expenses incurred before leaving the 
airport of initial departure, returning to Tokyo airport and re- 
turning home from the airport of initial departure; nor does it 
include meals or gratuities. Second prize consists of one 
Epson MX-100 Printer. Third prize consists of his and hers 
Seiko Quartz Watches. Additional prizes include 25 Micro- 
Nine Printheads, 50 Epson Digital Watches, and 100 Epson 
Ribbon Cartridges. 

11) You may enter more than once, but each entry must be 
accompanied by the official entry coupon below. 

12) Void where prohibited by law. 



Attach this form firmly to the back of each graphic you enter 

NAME 

STREET 

CITY 

STATE ZIP 

PHONE ( ) 

COMPUTER EQUIPMENT USED 



PRINTER MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER 



M 



T-SHIRT SIZE S 

Mail entries to: 

"SOFTWEAR" SWEEPSTAKES 
Epson America, Inc. 
3415 Kashiwa Street 
Torrance, California 90505 



XL 



EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



"Mini-DOS supports chain files 
invoked from DOS or from a Basic program." 



message by entering MDBORT. Caution: Do 
not interrupt disk I/O. You can execute only 
library commands, not programs, and use 
all commands except Append, Chain, Copy, 
and Format. A special Mini-DOS command, 
MDCOPY, copies one file at a time. 

Mini-DOS supports chain files invoked 
from DOS or from a Basic program. In many 
instances a standard series of keyboard or 
disk input is necessary. The computer auto- 
matically processes these inputs in se- 
quence whenever a chain file is called. An 
example from my own use is in Fig. 1. I 
wrote a disk directory program using the 
GSF sort routine. Entering the GSF initiali- 
zation commands each time before running 
the program required looking up the correct 
procedure and a lot of typing. Now, by in- 
voking the chain file via the Auto command 
CHAIN, CHAIN/JCL this is automatically 
completed at reset. Chain with NEWDOS is 
more versatile because you can separate 



each file into sections identified by section 
ID's. The appropriate section is then in- 
voked by CHAIN, FILESPEC1,SECTION #. 
One file on a disk is used by several pro- 
grams; separate sections are called as need- 
ed' by one program. Chaining also allows . 
message display and user input requests. 
DOS command DO performs exactly like 
Chain. You can manually pause chaining 
with the right arrow key, restart it with 
Enter, and cancel it with the arrow key. Ap- 
parat includes a Basic program, CHAINBLD/ 
BAS, for use in writing Chain files. You can 
also use Scripsit or Electric Pencil. 

Library Commands 

NEWDOS 80 Version 2 supports all the 
usual TRSDOS library commands. Many are 
revised and several new commands have 
been added. 

Use Attrib to prevent or allow DOS to 
allocate more space to a file during pro- 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 155 



". . .additions to Basic editing and programming features 
provide my Model I with most of the Model ill capabilities." 



gram execution, and to reallocate unused 
file space at a program Close to free the 
space. DOS marks each updated file in the 
directory. You can also use an Attrib 
parameter to remove or create this mark. 
You can remove the marks for all updated 
disk files at the same time by the PROT 
command with parameter RUF. Update 
marking is helpful in maintaining backup 
disks. 

Blink enables and disables cursor blink- 
ing; Break does the same for the Break key. 
Clear clears all device routing, removes all 
user interrupts from the timing chain, can 
reset memory protection, and zeros mem- 
ory in specified addresses. CLS performs 
the same as the Basic CLS. 

The Create command allocates disk 
space for a file before it is used in a pro- 
gram. Designate in advance the file's name, 
logical record length, and allocation status. 
You can write a specified number of records 



consisting of 00. 

DIR has parameters in addition to A, I, 
and S. U displays only those files marked as 
updated; "/ext" limits the display to files 
having the stated filename extension; and P 
sends the directory to the printer. With sin- 
gle drive systems it was not possible to ob- 
tain a directory on a formatted data disk 
since system files are not present. Now, en- 
tering DIR $ with a system disk on drive 
prompts you to mount the target disk before 
the directory is shown. Under NEWDOS the 
A option provides much more information, 
as shown in Fig. 2. The last column provides 
for 12 flags; only eight are presently de- 
fined. These flags disclose password pro- 
tection and protect level. 

Killing unwanted files has always been a 
chore. NEWDOS provides Purge with two 
parameters to make life easier: USR leaves 
untouched all system and invisible files, 
while "/ext" removes all files with the speci- 



fied extension. Purge is not automatic. It 
first displays each file specified by the pa- 
rameters; you must respond Y to kill the file 
or N to leave it. A Q response ends purging. 

Apparat has at last added a somewhat re- 
stricted device routine to Version 2. Routing 
is provided for the keyboard, printer, 
display, and null (transfer nothing) for the 
Model I; RS-232 input and output are added 
for the Model III. Routing can be to a speci- 
fied memory address giving a user routine 
location. The best way to understand device 
routing is with examples. ROUTE PR DO: 
LPRINT'S go to the display (DO), not the 
printer (PR). ROUTE DO DO PR: display out- 
put goes to the display and the printer. 
ROUTE PR NL: discards printer output, 
NL= null. It is no longer necessary to have 
separate Print and LPRINT statements 
transmitting the same information. 

NEWDOS does not provide a Backup 
function; instead, six different forms of the 



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156 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Copy command are available. The first four 
provide for single file copy, while five and 
six are for full disk copies. Form six, the 
most useful, allows a Copy By File (CBF) 
parameter. Check File With Operator (CFWO) 
displays each file name and prompts 
you for Yes copy, No copy. Restart, or 
Quit. The UPD parameter copies only those 
files marked updated. In addition to the ILF 
files mentioned in connection with zapping, 
Copy recognizes Exclusion List File (XLF). 
Any file name in an XLF file is not copied; all 
others are. Transferring programs from Ver- 
sion 1 to Version 2 disks is thus simplified. 
Via an XLF file on the NEWDOS disk your 
programs can be copied from old disks to 
Version 2 disks; all Version 1 programs are 
ignored. 

For the Model III only, you can specify 
printer lines per page and characters per 
line with a Forms command. Setcom ac- 
tivates and deactivates the RS-232 inter- 



"Because I often leave a GOSUB reference 

with an undefined line number. . . 

renumbering failed frequently 

unless I included dummy lines. 



face, and can set or change word length, 
baud rate, stop bits and parity. Setcom 
directs whether the input routine should 
wait until an input byte is received or an 
output byte is sent. 

Basic Enhancements 

Apparat has enhanced older Basic abili- 
ties and added new ones. Specify the 
number of files, memory protect size, and a 
Basic command sequence from DOS or by 
an Auto command. Two direct editing com- 
mands have been added: a colon scrolls 
one display page toward the start of the 
text, while @ does the same toward the 
end. Dl and DU move lines from one area to 
another. A Renew command recovers pro- 
grams lost by an accidental New. 

Chain programs without losing variables 
or file areas by appending ",V" at the end of 
a Run or Load command. All variables re- 
main unchanged for the new program to use 



except DEFFN variables; open file areas are 
left open. Merge can be called from within a 
program and functions for ASCII or packed 
files while protecting variables. 

Version 1 contained a built-in Renum 
command with an annoying feature: Re- 
numbering failed if any undefined line num- 
bers were present. Because I often leave a 
GOSUB reference with an undefined line 
number until I write the actual subroutine, 
renumbering failed frequently unless I in- 
cluded dummy lines. Now you can use 
Renum with a new X option. As long as the 
undefined line number is not within the 
range of lines renumbered the procedure 
will function. The Reference command is 
similarly enhanced; it still provides a cross 
reference table to variables or line numbers 
and you can now use it to find strings, any 
Basic key word, or a series of keywords 
such as GOTO or LPRINT. 

NEWDOS 80 Version 2 incorporates 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 157 



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158 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



"If you are a Version 1 
owner who gave up on 
these new files, try again. 

Basic CMD functions similar to Model III 
TRSDOS. Command C removes spaces or 
remarks; E displays error messages; J con- 
verts calendar dates from Julian to day-of- 
the-year and back; and T and R disable and 
enable interrupts on the Model I. T and R are 
not implemented for the Model III. As in Ver- 
sion 1. you can call CMD "DOSCMD" from 
Basic to execute most DOS library com- 
mands and then return to the Basic program. 

Apparat provides a greatly enhanced 
Basic sort routine with command O. You 
can implement a direct sort on up to nine 
single or multi-dimensional arrays. In addi- 
tion, an indirect sort builds a new integer ar- 
ray which forms a table of pointers to 
elements of other arrays in sorted order 
without changing the other arrays. You can 
then use the new arrays to read the other ar- 
rays in sorted order. Both sorts function in 
ascending or descending mode. 

Further refinements to delight any veter- 
an programmer are available through nine 
CMD F functions. To bail out of complex 
programming and prevent program crash- 
es, F = POPS purges all For... Next and 
GOSUB-Return controls; F = POPR purges 
only the current GOSUB level and For. . . 
Next controls at the same level; F= POPN 
purges only the current For. . . Next control; 
and F = POPN vn purges the For . . . Next as- 
sociated with variable vn and any controls 
set while the vn loop was active. Further F 
functions change string area size without 
clearing variables, clear specified variables, 
keep specified variables and clear all the 
rest, delete program lines without stopping 
execution, and swap values between two 
variables. 

Apparat's new system also incorporates 
a Basic program single stepping routine to 
help debug programs. When you invoke this 
routine direct command or during program 
execution, the program pauses at the end of 
each line and displays the next line number 
on the screen. Enter executes the next line 
and updates the displayed number. You can 
specify the line number at which to com- 
mence single stepping. This routine is strict- 
ly line oriented; one full line executes with 
each Enter. If there are multiple statements 
per line the routine executes all statements 
and pauses at the next line. This may not be 
as powerful as Boss but is extremely useful. 

Disk File Enhancements 

TRSDOS defined sequential and random 
disk file structures. NEWDOS 80 Version 1 
redefined these files and added two other 
file types with a total of five subtypes. Se- 
quential files became print/input files; ran- 



dom files became field item files. Apparat 
added "marked item" files with subtypes 
Ml, ML), and MF, and Fixed Item files with 
subtypes Fl and FF. Because Apparat's 
documentation was poor, I doubt that very 
many Version 1 users took advantage of the 
vast file structure improvement. 

Version 2 leaves all five file types. The 
new documentation is much better. Twelve 
pages and two separate appendices provid- 
ing numerous examples of actual use ac- 
company Version 2. Understanding these 
file structures is still not easy and requires 
time and effort, but no more than the 
original TRSDOS manual. If you are a Ver- 
sion 1 owner who gave up on these new 
files, try again. Their ease of use with ex- 
perience will surprise you. 

Disk Drives 

PDRIVE allows various combinations of 
disk drive sizes and densities. Version 2 
supports up to four physical drives; the 
PDRIVE table maintained by the system 
allows for ten. I do not know if we can ex- 
pect more in the future, but the possibilities 
are exciting. 

Version 2 supports standard single den- 
sity disks along with PERCOM. LNW, and 
Apparat double density boards on 35, 40, 77, 
and 80 track single or dual headed five inch 
or eight inch drives. You can implement any 
combination. Version 2 treats double sided 
drives as a single disk with one directory 
and the tracks divided between the two 
sides. Mixing such drives with single sided 
drives may present problems, but the docu- 
mentation says this has been done. Dual 
head drive users should contact Apparat for 
further information. Version 2 does not ac- 
cept five inch double sided double density 
disks created with Version 1. You must 
transfer the files to new disks for use. 

Double density presents certain prob- 
lems with data transmission. To ensure that 
a formatted disk is stress tested, Apparat 
supplies two optional zaps using the byte 
6DB6 for formatting in place of the standard 
Model I E5E5 or Model III 5B5B patterns. 
The manual states that up to 30 percent of 
disks not certified for double density may 
fail using the worst case 6DB6 formatting. 
Since I just added double density none of 
my old disks are DD certified. Using 6DB6, 
NEWDOS 80 Version 2, and the new Percom 
Doubler II, only three percent failed. Appar- 
ently Version 2 and the Doubler II are a per- 
fect team! 

The PDRIVE command specifies each 
drive's type, track count, head step rate, 
grans per lump, starting lump for the direc- 



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The Source isn't limited to your 
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The value with the guarantee. 

For all the communications and in- 
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See your dealer, or mail card 
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To learn more about The Source, 
visit one of the more than 800 computer 
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SOURCE 

AMERICA'S INFORMATION UTILITY 

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McLean, VA 22102 



.Please send me your free 16-page 



color brochure without obligation. 



(name) 



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Do you own a microcomputer, 

terminal or communicating word pro- 
cessor? 



If yes: 



(make/model) 

The Source is a servicemark of Source 
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sSee List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 159 




#22 SOFTWARE 



ULTIMATE SOFTWARE PLAN 



We'll match any advertised price on any 
item that we carry And if you find a lower 
price on what you bought within 30 days of 
buying it, just show us the ad and we'll 
refund the difference. 
It's that simple 



DISK WITH / 
MANUAL / 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 

Medical(PAS-3: $849/540 

Denial (PAS-3) 5849/540 

ASYST DESIGN 

Prof Time Accounting 5549/540 
General Subroutine 5269/540 
Application Utilities 5439/540 
COMPLETE BUS. SYSTEMS 
Creator. . $269/525 

Reporter 5169/520 

Both 5399/545 

COMPUTER CONTROL 
Fabs IB-tree) 5159/520 

UltraSort II. . 5159/525 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS 

Pearl (level 1) 5 99/525 

Pearl (level 2) 5299/540 

Pearl (level 3) 5549/550 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 

CP/M 2.2 

NorthStar 

TRS-80 Model 

Micropohs 



MANUAL 
ONLY 

MICROTAX 

Individual 
Professional 
Partnership 
Package 



Combine our price protection with the 
availability of full professional support and 
our automatic update service and you have 
the Ultimate Software Plan 

It's a convenient, uncomplicated, logical 
way to get your software. 

iS (New items or new prices) 

CP/M users: 

specify disk systems and formats Most formats available 



$2S0/na 
51000/na 
$750/na 
.$1500/ na 
ORGANIC SOFTWARE 
TextWriter III. 5111/525 

DateBook II 5269/525 

Milestone 5269/530 



Cromemco 

PL/ 1-80 

8T-80 

Mac 

Sid 

Z-Sid 

Tex 

DeSpool 

CB-80 

CBasic-2 

DMA. 

Ascom 

Formula 

GRAHAM-DORIAN 
General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Job Costing 
Payroll II 

Inventory II 
Payroll 
Inventory 
Cash Register 
Apartment Mgt 

MICRO-AP 

S-Basic 

s Selector IV . . . 
^ Selector V 



5149/525 
I (P + T! $159/535 
5169/525 
5189/525 
5459/535 
51/9/530 
5 85/515 
5 65/515 
5 90/515 
$ 90/515 
5 50/510 
5459/535 
5 98/520 



5149/515 
5539/545 

5729/540 
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5493/540 
5493/540 
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5269/525 
5295/535 
5495/550 



OSBORNE 

General Ledger 

Acct Rec/Acct Pay 
Payroll w/Cost . . 

All 3 

All 3 + CBASIC-2 
Enhanced Osborne 
With "C" Basic 

PEACHTREE" 

General Ledger . 

Acct Receivable 

Acct Payable 

Payroll 

Inventory . ... 

Surveyor 

Property Mgt 

CPA Client Write-up 
<s Order entry (Cobol) 
s Mlg Address 

P5 Version 

SOFTWARE WORKS 

Adapt (CDOS to CP/M) 

Ratfor 

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MatchMaker . 
Worksheet 



$ 59/520 
5 59/520 
$ 59/520 
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5199/575 
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$399/540 

5399/540 

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5900 

5349 

Add 5129 



69/Sna 
86/Sna 



5 97/520 
5177/520 



STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

GL or AR or AP or Pay Call 



MICRO DATA BASE SYSTEMS 



HDBS 

MDBS 

DRSor QRSorRTL 

MDBS PKG 

MICROPRO- 

WordStar 

Customization Notes 
Mail-Merge 



$269/$35 

$795/540 

5269/510 

51295/560 

5319/560 
. $429/5 na 
5109/525 



WordStar/Mail-Merge 5419/585 



DataStar 

WordMaster 

SuperSort I 

Spell Star 

CalcStar . . . 

MICROSOFT 

Basic-80 

Basic Compiler 

Fortran-80. 

Cobol-80 

M-Sort 

Macro-80 
<s Macro-86 . 

Edit-80 

MuSimp/MuMath 

MuLisp-80 
s Multi Plan 
»* Manager Series 



5249/560 
5119/540 
5199/540 
5175/540 
5259/Sna 

$298 
$329 
$349 
$629 
$124 
$144 
$259 
$ 84 
$224 
$174 
Call 

Call 



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Letteright 


.. .Call 


QSort 


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SUPERSOFT 




Diagnostic I 


. ..$ 49/$20 


Diagnostic II 


. .$ 84/520 


Disk Doctor 


. . .5 84/520 


Forth (8080 or Z80 


5149/530 


Fortran 


. ..$219/530 


Fortran w/RatfOr . 


5289/535 


C Compiler 


5174/520 


Star Edit 


. ..$189/530 


Other 


less 10% 


TCS 




GL Or AR or AP or 


Pay$ 79/525 


All 4 


. 5269/599 


Compiled each 


$ 99/525 


Inventory. . 


. 5 99/525 


UNICORN 




Mince 


$149/$ 2d 


Scribble 


$149/$ 25 


Both 


$249/$50 


PASCAL 




S Pascal/MT+ Pkg. . 


. .5429/530 


v Compiler 


$315 


^ Sp Prog 


$175 


Pascal/Z 


. . .5349/530 


Pascal/UCSD4 


5429/550 


s Pascai/M . . 


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WHITESMITHS 

C" Compiler $600/530 

Pascal (incl "C") 5850/545 

WORD PROCESSING" 
^Corrector 5109/Sna 

WordSearch $179/550 

SpellGuard 5229/525 

VTS/80 5259/565 

Magic Wand. . $289/545 

Spell Binder 5349/545 

Select 5495/$ na 

OTHER GOODIES 

Forecaster $199,'$na 

Micro Plan 541 9/5 na 

Plan 80 .. $269/530 

SuperCalc $269/$ na 

Target $189/530 

s BSTAM 5149/Sna 

^BSTMS.. .. 5149/Sna 

Tiny "C" 5 89/550 

Tiny "C Compiler... 5229/550 
Nevada Cobol 5129/525 

MicroStat 5224/525 

■-'Vedit 5130/515 

MiniModel 5449/550 

StatPak 5449/540 

Micro B + 5229/520 

Raid 5224/535 

String 80 5 84/520 

String/80 (source! 5 279/5 na 

ISIS CP/M Utility 5199/550 

Lynx . 5199/520 



INFO UNLIMITED 

EasyWriter $199 

Datadex $249 

EasyMailer $128 

Other less 15% 

MICROSOFT 

Softcard (Z-80 CP/M) $298 

Fortran $179 

Cobol $499 

Tasc $ 1 39 

MICROPRO 

Wordstar 

MailMerge 

Wordstar/MailMerge 

SuperSort I 

Spellstar 

PERSONAL SOFTWAR 

Visicalc 3.3 

Desktop/Plan II 

Visiterm 

Visidex 

Visiplot 

Visitrend/Visiplot 
Visifile .... 



DATA BASE 

FMS-80 
dBASE II 
Condor II 
Access 8i 
Access 8i 
Access Si 
Optimum 



Level 1 
Level 2 
Level 3 



$649/545 

5595/550 

5899/550 

5249 

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$679 

$749/$ 50 



PEACHTREE" 

General Ledger 
Acct Receivable 
Acct Payable 
Payroll 
Inventory 

OTHER GOODIES 

dBASE II . . 
VU #3R 

(usew/Visicalc) . . 
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Micro Courier. . . . 
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$269 

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All items subject to availability • ®— Mfgs. Trademark 

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tory, and directory size between two and six 
granules. You can set step pulses between 
tracks to allow 80 track drives to read 40 
track disks. This is enough to accomodate 
any drive available. 

Model III TRSDOS disks can not be read 
by NEWDOS 80 Version 2 due to a differ- 
ence in disk structure. However, the Model 
III Convert utility works on Version 2 five 
inch single density disks if the directory is 
properly laid out. Also, Version 2's Copy 
command, combined with the proper 
PDRIVE specification, allows you to trans- 
fer files between the two systems. You can 
swap disks between Model I and Model III 
if you follow certain limitations and 
specifications. 

Choosing an Operating System 

Choosing an operating system in 1979 
was easy since only NEWDOS 2.1 and 
TRSDOS were available. With the addition 
of LDOS, ULTRADOS, VTOS 4.0, and 
DOSPLUS the choice is more difficult. 

NEWDOS 80 Version 2 represents an im- 
provement over Version 1 and is a worth- 
while investment. Its extensive additions to 
Basic editing and programming features 
provide my Model I with most of the Model 
III capabilities. Apparat goes to a great deal 
of time and effort to remove bugs from 
NEWDOS, but does not supply phone sup- 
port personnel. Apparat also charges for 
new on-disk copi.es of NEWDOS zaps. 

There are trade-offs in any operating 
system. The NEWDOS routing capabilities 
should suit most needs although they do 
not approach the niceties provided by the 
LDOS phantom device routing. LDOS also 
allows you to customize key entry. How- 
ever, LDOS does not supply Disk Basic, 
choosing instead to apply patches to the 
user's TRSDOS Disk Basic which provide 
features incorporated by NEWDOS. To my 
knowledge no one supplies a facility in any 
way similar to NEWDOS Mini-DOS, or the 
various disk file structures briefly men- 
tioned. NEWDOS support of the Percom 
Doubler II makes double density operation 
easy for the Model I. Also, NEWDOS will not 
crash a disk if a file is killed while open. This 
can happen with LDOS, and is completely 
disastrous with TRSDOS. 

The best way to choose between all alter- 
natives would be to use them, but expense 
prohibits this. For the same reason no one 
has yet provided a comprehensive side-by- 
side comparison article. NEWDOS 80 
Version 2 still represents the state of 
the art. ■ 



160 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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EDITOR ASSEMBLER 
DEBUGGER 



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95 



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1 Supports ANY serial printer 



• Automatic or manual capture 

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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 161 



WINCHESTER 
HARD DISK 

for 

TRS-80™ 

Add 6.3 meg to 1 9 meg to your TRS- 80 



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• Heavy duty Power supplies 

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• 115/230 VAC, 50/60 Hz. 



Optional Mod III Configurations: 

9.5 Meg HD (internal) add $500.00 

80tk1 side floppy add $120.00 

80tk2sidefloppy add $240.00 

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configurations: 

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2x9.5 meg drives $5495.00 



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162 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



— — 



DISK 111 



100% Compatible 

Model III Disks 



Complete Business 
System includes: 
48K TRS-80™ Model 
III, Disk III™ 2 Drive 
System, TRSDOS 
and Manual. 



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$599 



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mounting hardware, and applicable cables. 



DISK III Two 

drive assy 864.00 
DISK III Assy 

w/out drives 435.00 
TRSDOS™ & 

Manual 21.90 

External drives 

(3&4) 275.00ea. 



IMMEDIATE DELIVERY - COMPARE AND SAVE 

VR Data's DISK III features: 

• Completely compatible with TRSDOS 

State-of-the-art circuitry 

Fully tested, calibrated & burned-in 

Up to 4 drive configuration 

Warranty 120 days - 100% parts and labor 

Installation with simple hand tools 

Optional 80 tk and 2 sided drives 
READ 40 - Pgm. to read 40 tk. Diskettes 
on 80tk. Drives $25.00 

FCC CERTIFIED 



Peripherals 

Epson MX-80 500.00 

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Lexicon modem 105.00 



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ALL PRICES ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 

TRS-80 and TRSDOS are trademarks of Tandy Corp. 

DISK III is a trademark of VR Data Corp.' Dealership available. 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 163 



REVIEW 



For the Models I and III 



Radio Shack' s Compiler Basic 



Compiler Basic 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
Fort Worth, TX 
Models I & ill 
$149 

Richard C. McGarvey 
221 Hirsch field Drive 
Williamsville, NY 14221 

Before you buy the Basic Compiler pro- 
gram, go to your Radio Shack store, 
read the documentation and spend several 
hours testing the software. You may find, 
like I did, that the program is not what 
you want. 

What's in a Name? In this case — 
everything! This new software is not a 
Basic language compiler. It is Compiler 
Basic, an entirely new and different type of 
Basic that is designed to be compiled by 
this program. 

Compiler Basic is composed of several 
programs that work together in the develop- 
ment and operation of a compiled program. 
The first part is RSBasic, the Basic 
language that the Compiler recognizes. It is 
similar, but not identical to Level II Basic. 
RSBasic does not support many Level II in- 
structions. RSBasic also has many new and 
unique commands. 

The difference between Basics is only a 
minor inconvenience. The important point 
is will you use the compiler often enough to 
warrant learning the new Basic? RSBasic is 
not compatible with Level II Basic. Level II 
Basic programs cannot be compiled with- 
out substantial changes. 

The second part is the Run-Time pro- 
gram. That's right! You must have a Run- 
Time program in the computer before you 
can run any compiled program. This is 
an important point and I will cover it more 
fully later. 

The third part of Compiler Basic is the 
compiler, a function of RSBasic. The com- 
piler is invisible to the programmer. With 
the Run-Time, DOS and RSBasic programs 
in memory a 32K machine has about 1,500 
bytes of programming room left. A 48K ma- 
chine would have a little over 16K of pro- 

164 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



gramming room. Even with 48K you would 
have to keep your programs modest in size 
and use overlay or multi-program styles 
to implement a complicated programming 
application. 

The fourth part of Compiler Basic is the 
TRSDOS operating system, version 2.3B. It 
is not compatible with any other DOS. 
Radio Shack supplies an upgrade module 
that will permanently change any previous 
TRSDOS to version 2.3B. If you use a differ- 
ent operating system forget it. If you have 
implemented speed modifications on your 
computer you must disable them to get the 
slow TRSDOS to operate. 

The package contains additional mod- 
ules such as BEDIT, an editor module for 
editing the Basic source code. These mod- 
ules are mostly controlled by RSBasic and 
are fully covered in the documentation. 

Documentation 

Compiler Basic documentation is exten- 
sive. A binder 3 1 /2 inches thick holds a man- 
ual 1 1 /2 inches thick. The greatest part of 
this publication explains RSBasic. 

I cannot say how well written or how com- 
plete the documentation is. I had no trouble 
understanding the program's operation but 
I did not use it during any major program- 
ming efforts. Interested buyers should stop 
by a store and read the documentation 
carefully before making the purchase. Be 
sure you can achieve your programming 
goals with the Compiler before you pur- 
chase it. 

Speed? 

I always thought that a compiled pro- 
gram was faster than its high-level lan- 
guage source. This does not seem to be the 
case here. ZBasic, Microsoft Basic Com- 
piler and Accel 2 give varying speed in- 
creases. ZBasic is the fastest but also the 
most limited. Microsoft seems to be the 
slowest but the most versatile. Accel 2 ap- 
pears to be the most well rounded compiler; 
it sacrifices some freedom to increase 
speed and some speed to retain versatility. 

Expecting greater speed, I compiled a 
short test program that would indicate a 



start and stop point for timing the program's 
operation. While this simple program was 
not a very good test of the compiler it did 
give interesting results. The compiled 
program took 24.5 seconds to run. The 
same program under normal Disk Basic 
took 12.6 seconds. 

If speed is your goal stay away from this 
compiler. Speed is not the goal of Radio 
Shack's Compiler Basic and it does not ap- 
pear to be a secondary benefit. 

Radio Shack says that this Compiler is 
business oriented and intended for use as a 
tool for the development of new software. 
They are serious about this and unless your 
goal is new business software then look 
elsewhere. 

Operation 

Operation is fairly simple. The manual 
says you will be prompted for date and time 
when you boot the system but in practice no 
such prompting occurs, at least not by the 
package I examined. 

Next you load RSBasic. With features 
such as the Auto command you can enter 
your Basic program from the keyboard. If 
you have a Basic program already on disk 
you can load and finish it in RSBasic. 
RSBasic loads Level II Basic programs if 
they are on a 2.3B disk. It will not compile 
Level II programs. 

After you write your program you can run 
it. This command first compiles and then 
runs the program for debugging. Next you 
can compile the program by issuing the 
Compile command. This compiles and 
saves the compiled program to disk under 
the name you give it. 

One drawback is that the so-called com- 
piled version you save on disk is not really 
compiled. The compiler in RSBasic com- 
piles the program into intermediate code. 
Each time you want to run your program 
you must run it with the Run-Time program 
which compiles the intermediate code into 
final code. This leads to some problems 
when you try to sell your programs. 

Selling Your Creations 

Radio Shack is aware that you might 



'To be fair, the program 

seems to function well and 

it appears to be properly documented." 



wish to sell the programs you create with 
Compiler Basic. They do not charge royal- 
ties for the use of their compiler. Of course 
TRSDOS 2.3B and the Run-Time package 
are needed to operate the program you sell 
and they are copyrighted. You cannot sell 
copies of the Run-Time program without 
violating the copyright. 

Radio Shack has generously provided a 
way around this dilemma. You can sell your 
program in one of two ways. First, you can 
buy a Run-Time disk for the Model I or 
Model III. These cost $20 each. You then put 
your program on the Run-Time disk and sell 
the Run-Time disk with your program on it. 
This method is fine if you plan to sell your 
program for a high enough cost to cover the 
$20 per copy Run-Time fee. If you plan to 
develop a complete business system that 
will sell for several hundred dollars you can 
simply mark it up $20 per copy. 

The second way is to sell your program 
on a plain disk and tell your customer that 
he must buy the Run-Time disk in order to 
use it. Either way the cost of the Run-Time 
disk is passed on to the consumer. Once 
the customer has the Run-Time disk, re- 
gardless of which method is used, he can 
make as many copies of it as he wishes. 
Each customer need only pay for one Run- 
Time disk. 

Remember, selling your program on a 
copy of the Run-Time disk violates the copy- 
right. 

Flexibility 

I do not rate this program highly for flexi- 
bility. First, it recognizes only the exact syn- 
tax of RSBasic. If you have spent a great 
deal of time writing Level II programs ex- 
pect to spend the same amount of time to 
make them work in RSBasic. 

Second, you are restricted to TRSDOS 
2.3B. No other DOS works. You cannot 
move the finished program to a different 
DOS. You could modify another DOS, how- 
ever the time and expertise necessary to 
modify the receiving DOS to run correctly 
would make it an unlikely undertaking. 

Third, you must have the Run-Time disk 
to run the finished product. This limits the 
salability of the product you create by 
establishing a minimum price of $20. Your 
profit is then tacked on top of that. 

If Radio Shack has intended to create a 
very complicated way of making Basic pro- 
grams secure from theft they have succeed- 
ed. With Compiler Basic you can write a 
Basic program that cannot be listed. The 
original source code will be almost totally 
indecipherable. 

Value 

Is the program valuable to the average 
programmer? Consider the following points: 

s-See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



• Cost— Compiler Basic costs $149. If 
you wish to sell your programs you must 
figure on a minimum cost of $20 plus pro- 
fit per program disk. 

• Flexibility — You are limited to one 
Basic, one DOS and you must have the 
Run-Time program resident in memory in 
order to operate your resultant program. 
If you wish to alter your program you 
must load the original Basic source and 
then edit or add to it as necessary. Others 
cannot alter your program to fit their 
needs. This lack of flexibility may turn off 
many prospective buyers. 

• Security— If you lose the original Basic 
source you are out of luck. No one can 
tamper with your program but that is not 
necessarily a benefit. If the person buy- 
ing the program wishes to make altera- 
tions he cannot, but he can make limit- 
less copies of the program. While your 
source is safe the resultant program is 
not. There are many security tricks to pro- 
tect Basic code. None are foolproof but 
all are free if you read the right magazines. 

• Use — This program is for developing 
new, business-oriented software. As I 
pointed out earlier, the salability of such 
software is in doubt. If, on the other hand, 
you are writing the programs for personal 
use, then why not just use Level II Basic? 
It appears to be faster and you already 
know it! 

• Size— While the Run-Time program 
and the application program can be quite 
large in theory, in practice they are 
limited by the size of the compiler. You 
cannot develop a program that will run in 
a 32K machine with room to spare on a 
32K machine. In fact, a 48K machine can 
compile only a 17K program. This means 
that the largest program that can be com- 
piled will be small when in actual opera- 
tion. A serious business system is about 
32K. To use this efficiently the applica- 
tion program should be as complete as 
possible. The Compiler limits the pro- 
gram size so that each program will have 
to access the disk to get overlays or addi- 
tional programs. Since you cannot merge 
compiled programs you must write your 
programs in a segmented style. While 
most programs can be kept under 17K it 
is not always the best programming 
method. This is especially true of larger 
business applications. 

I think Radio Shack's new Compiler Basic 
is a poor investment. To be fair the program 
seems to function well and it appears to be 
properly documented. If you need this type 
of program then Compiler Basic is a good 
risk. It does exactly what it claims. But 
average programmers might purchase the 
program expecting something that they will 
not get.B 



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MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACE IC's 

8T20 $3.25 8T96 $1.49 74LS242 $1.79 74LS245 $2.85 

8T26 2.15 8T97 149 741S243 1.79 74LS273 1 69 

8T28 2.30 74LS241 1 10 74LS244 1 10 74LS373 2.50 



AMP SWITCHES 



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930 DPST 4 pos w/cover 8.45 920 SP 10 pos P.C. Rotary 7.81 

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SP1000F F.E.T. Input Volt-Ohm Milliammeter 105.95 

SP15 Pocket Sue Volt-Ohm Milliammeter 19.95 

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IC TEST POWERED QT-18S 4.25 

CLIPS PROTO BOARD 4001 Pulse Generator $235.00 

PC-14 $4.50 PB-104 $7000 5001 Universal Counter $360.00 

PC-16 4.75 PB-102 32.90 Logic Monitor JUMPER 

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PC 40 1600 PB-100 20.10 LM-1 $75.00 WK-1 $900 

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^301 



GAME 



LOAD 80 



This one will boggle your mind! 



Tumblin' Dice 



Ronald H. Bobo 

3246 Gravois 

St. Louis, MO 63118 



Boggle, a word game from 
Parker Brothers, is addic- 
tive. You can play it alone or in 
competition with others. You 
need a pencil and paper for each 
player, sixteen dice whose sides 
bear letters of the alphabet rath- 
er than numbers, and a three- 
minute egg timer. 

To play the game shake the 
dice within their transparent 
container. Next form as many 
words as possible using the let- 
ters on the tops of the dice. When 
all the sand runs through the 
glass, stop and figure your score. 

The dice are left in the con- 
tainer to maintain the 4 by 4 
layout of letters. Words may be 
formed by combining adjacent 
letters forward, backward, up, 
down, or on the diagonal. No 
single letter may be used more 
than once in a word, but where 
letters are duplicated, both may 
be used. 

Why go through all that stren- 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I 
Tape or disk 



uous exercise shaking dice 
when your TRS-80 can do it for 
you? Where is the egg timer 
when you really need it? Let the 
TRS-80 keep time. In the heat of 
the game, it's fairly easy to 
forget the egg timer when you 
are concentrating on the dice. 
With the TRS-80 keeping time, 
it's almost impossible not to 
notice when time is up. 

I wrote Boggier on the Model 
I, but it also should run on the 
Model III. The Basic is straight- 
forward and will work on tape or 
disk systems. 

The program contains com- 
plete rules for Boggier. After the 
title screen, you may go through 
the instructions or skip to the 
main routine. Following the in- 
structions, enter the number of 
players. I suggest no more than 
ten players in a game, since the 
array is not dimensioned. 

After you enter the names, the 
program prints sixteen letters in 
a 4 by 4 format using special ef- 
fects. You can check the time on 
the clock printed underneath 
the letters. 

At this point, start to form 
your words and write them down 
on paper. 

The program will give warn- 
ings at two minutes 30 seconds 
and at two minutes 50 seconds. 
After the three minutes are up, 
the program prints further in- 
structions. Comply with these 
instructions and touch any key 



to return to the scoring table, 
where scores are figured and 
entered into memory. 

Once all scores have been 
entered, you may play another 
round or quit. If you play more 
than one round, the computer 
keeps a score for each round 
and a cumulative score. 



When you quit, the program 
sorts the cumulative scores. It 
then lists players, their scores, 
and announces the winner. It 
will also announce if there has 
been a tie for first. 

All single-key input is by IN- 
KEY$, making it easy to step 
through the program.! 



Program Listing 



BOGGLER * 

SUGGESTED BY THE PARKER BROTHERS' GAME "BOGGLE" 
PROGRAMMED BY RONALD H BOBO, ST LOUIS, MO, JAM 1979 
REVISION 2, AUGUST 1981 



THEN GOSUB 1050 



10 REM 

20 REM 

30 REM 

40 REM 

50 CLS 

60 CLEAR 200 

70 RANDOM 

80 PRINT@475,"BOGGLER":PRINT@542,"BY" 

:PRINT@600 , "RONALD H BOBO" 

90 FOR X=25 TO 100:SET(X,15) :SET(X,36) :NEXT 

100 FOR Y=15 TO 36:SET(25,Y) :SET(100,Y) :NEXT: 

FOR T=l TO 1500: NEXT 

110 CLS:PRINT@128,STRINGS(63," = ") ; :PRINT@832,STRING$(63, " = ") ; 

120 PRINTS450, "WOULD YOU LIKE INSTRUCTIONS? (TYPE Y FOR YES, 

FOR NO) ... 

130 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 130 ELSE IF A$=" 

LSE CLS 

140 GOSUB 1720 

150 DIM A$(96) 

160 REM * READ CHARACTER SET 

170 FOR C=l TO 96:READ A$(C):NEXT C 

180 DATA A,A,A,A,A,A,A,A,B,B,B,C,C,C,D,D,D,D,E,E,E,E,E,E,E 

190 DATA E,E,E,F,F,G,G,G,H,H,H,I,I,I,I,I,I,I,J,K,K,L,L,L,L,L 

200 DATA M,M,M,N,N,N,H,N,O,O,O,0,O,O,P,P,P,Q,R,R,R,R,S,S,S,S,S 

210 DATA T,T,T,T,T,U,U,U,U,V,V,W,W,X,Y,Y,Y,Z 

220 REM * PRINT FIRST ROW 

230 P=4 

240 PRINTCHRS(23) 

250 PA=24 

260 V=RND(96) 

270 IF A$(V)="" THEN 260 

280 A$(V)=AS(V)+CHR$(32) 

290 FOR X=PA TO PA+7*64 STEP 64:PRINT6X,A$(V) ; .-FOR Y=l TO 25:NEX 

T:PRINT@X," " ; : NEXT X:PRINT@X,A$(V) ; 

300 PA=PA+4 

310 A$(V)="" 

320 P=P-1 

330 IF PO0 GOTO 260 

340 REM * PRINT SECOND ROW 

350 P=l 

360 V=RND(96) 

370 IF AS(V)="" THEN 360 

380 A$(V)=A$(V)+CHR$(32) 

390 ON P GOTO 400,420,440,460 

400 FOR X=576 TO 602 STEP 2:PRINT@ X,A$(V);:FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:P 

RINTgX ," ";:NEXT X:PRINT@X,AS(V) ; 

410 A$(V)="":P=P+l:GOTO 360 

420 FOR X=638 TO 610 STEP -2:PRINT@X, A$(V) ; :FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:P 

Program continues 



166 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



[^^^^l^Tproirains^y^race^^^^^Q 




Create your own adventures *•*»* look * J perform ex« c ti 4 like 

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9 f\r. adventure driver for executing ijour aaventure creations: 

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TASMON 

The Alternate Source MONitor 



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PUIPOSe: The purpose of TASMON is to allow study, debugging, 
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jser sessions 



"other excellent disassemblers are ... The Alternate Source's 
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William Barden. Jr. 



eg u 1 res 



I drive and 48 K RAM 



Command Summary: 



I Replace registers 

Mod.f 4 ,ne TO ^ 
}— Je* memomj dump 
ASCII w^ dump 
L^'S csser*»bled dump 
L/'SciSsernble to printer 
Dump «reen to printer 
Sum ke» values 
Subtract Ke« values 
Pnd I -4 consecutive b 4 tes 
Sk.p forward one «W« 
Dock up one instruct 'On 

I Relocate programs 

I |ove b'ocl\ or memorn 



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V«/veHV'CMDMfJ 

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Dissemble to disk 
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Set Uakpo.nl, .n ROM 

Set Uckpo.nl, ,n RAM 
Set breakpoints (Q total) 
D^pl"H breakpoints 
(_lear breakpoints 
S'"gle stepping (two »04s) 



Plus: 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 167 



Program continued 

RINTgX," ";:NEXT X:PRINT@X,AS(V) ; 

430 AS(V)=":P=P+1:G0T0 360 

440 FOR X=576 TO 598 STEP 2:PRINT@X,AS(V) ; :FOR Y=l TO 25. -NEXT- PR 

INTgX," ";:NEXT X : PRINT@X,A$(V) ; 

450 AS(V)="":P=P+l:GOTO 360 

460 FOR X=638 TO 614 STEP -2:PRINT@X,A$(V) ; :FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:P 

RINTgX," ";:NEXT X:PRINT@X,AS(V) ; 

470 A$(V)=" 

480 REM * PRINT THIRD ROW 

490 P-l 

500 V=RND(96) 

510 IF A$(V)=" THEN 500 

520 A$(V)=A$(V)+CHR$(32) 

530 ON P GOTO 540,560,580,600 

540 FOR X»640 TO 666 STEP 2 : PRINTgX,A$ (V) ; : FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:PR 

INTgX,' ";:NEXT X : PRINTgX, AS < V) ; 

550 A$(V)=":P=P+l:GOTO 500 

560 FOR X=702 TO 674 STEP -2:PRINT@X,AS(V) ; :FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:P 

RINTex," ";:NEXT X : PRINTgX, A$ (V) ; 

570 A$(V)=":P=P+l:GOTO 500 

580 FOR X=640 TO 662 STEP 2: PRINTgX, AS(V) ; :FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:PR 

INTgX,' "; :NEXT X : PRINTgX, A$ (V) ; 

590 AS(V)=":P=P+l:GOTO 500 

600 FOR X-702 TO 678 STEP -2:PRINTgX,AS(V) ; : FOR Y=l TO 25:NEXT:P 

RINTgX," ";:NEXT X:PRINTgX,AS(V) ; 

610 A$(V)=" 

620 REM * PRINT FOURTH ROW 

630 PA=984 

640 FOR P=l TO 4 

650 V=RND(96) 

660 IF A$(V)=" THEN 650 

670 A$(V)=A$(V)+CHR$(32) 

680 FOR X=PA TO PA-3*64 STEP -64 : PRINTgX, AS (V) ;: FOR Y=l TO 25:NE 

XT:PRINTgX," " ; : NEXT X : PRINTgX, A$ (V) ; 

690 PA=PA + 4:AS(V)=" 

700 NEXT P 

710 ' START CLOCK PROGRAM 

720 PRINTg2S6,STRINGS(31,'-") ; : PRINTg960 .STRINGS (31, "-") ; 

730 C=0 

740 D=INT(C/10) :C=C-(D*10) 

750 A=0 

760 B=INT(A/10) :A=A-(B*10) 

770 FOR N=l TO 500: NEXT 

780 A=A+1 

790 IF C=2 AND B=3 AND A=5 THEN PRINTg0 ,CHRS (30) ; 

800 IF C=2 AND B=5 AND A=5 THEN PRINTg0 ,CHRS (30) ; 

810 IF A>9 GOTO 830 

820 GOTO 910 

830 A=0 

840 IF C=2 AND B=2 AND A=0 THEN GOSUB 2300 

850 IF C=2 AND B=4 AND A=0 THEN GOSUB 2310 

860 B=B+1 

870 IF B>5 GOTO 890 

880 GOTO910 

890 B=0 

900 C=C+1 

910 PRINTg916,C;":";B;A; 

920 IF C=3 GOTO 940 

930 GOTO 770 

940 PRINT"STOP" 

950 FOR Z=l TO 200: NEXT Z 

960 PRINTg 896, "CHECK ANSWERS TO HAKE SURE" 

970 PRINT'ALL WORDS ARE CONTAINED IN" 

980 PRINT'THE DISPLAY. AFTER CROSSING" 

990 PRINT"OUT DUPLICATES, PRESS ANY KEY" 

1000 PRINT'TO VIEW SCORING TABLE." 

1010 AS = INKEYS:IF AS=" THEN 1010 

1020 GOSUB 1440 

1030 GOTO 1870 

1040 GOTO1040 

1050 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT'EACH PLAYER WILL NEED PENCIL AND PAPE 

R." 

1060 PRINT: PRINT"OBJECT OF THE GAME IS TO LIST, WITHIN THE TIME 

LIMIT," 

1070 PRINT'AS MANY WORDS AS YOU CAN FIND AMONG THE RANDOM" 

1080 PRINT'ASSORTMENT OF LETTERS." 

1090 PRINTg896,STRINGS(63,'="); 

1100 PRINTg960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 

1110 AS»INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 1110 ELSE CLS 

1120 PRINT: PRINT'WHEN THE TIMER STARTS, EACH PLAYER LOOKS FOR WO 

RDS OF" 

1130 PRINT'THREE OR MORE LETTERS. WHEN A PLAYER DISCOVERS A WO 

RD," 

1140 PRINT'IT IS WRITTEN DOWN. PLAYERS WILL HAVE APPROXIMATELY 

1150 PRINT'THREE MINUTES FROM THE TIME THE LETTERS ARE DISPLAYED 

1160 PRINT'A 'Q' IS ALWAYS TO BE CONSIDERED 'QU' SINCE 'Q' IS AL 

WAYS 

FOLLOWED BY 'U' IN ENGLISH WORDS. THE , U' WAS LEFT OUT SO AS 

NOT TO DISRUPT THE DISPLAY WITH IMPROPER SPACING." 

1170 PRINTg896,STRING$(63,"=") ; 

1180 PRINT0960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 

1190 A$=INKEY?:IF AS="" THEN 1190 

1200 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"WORDS ARE FORMED FROM ADJOINING LETT 

ERS. LETTERS" 

1210 PRINT'MUST JOIN IN THE PROPER SEQUENCE TO SPELL A WORD." 

1220 PRINT'THEY MAY JOIN HORIZONTALLY, VERTICALLY, OR DIAGONALLY 

1230 PRINT'TO THE LEFT, RIGHT, OR UP-AND-DOWN. NO SINGLE LETTE 

R," 

1240 PRINT'HOWEVER, MAY BE USED MORE THAN ONCE WITHIN A SINGLE 

1250 PRINT'WORD. OF COURSE, ANOTHER LETTER OF THE SAME TYPE" 

1260 PRINT'MAY BE USED, SO LONG AS IT IS ON A DIFFERENT ADJOINI 

NG" 

1270 PRINT"SQUARE. " 

1280 PRINTg896,STRINGS(63,"=") ; 

1290 PRINTg960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 

1300 AS=INKEYS:IF A$="" THEN 1300 

1310 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"ANY WORD, INCLUDING PLURALS, 

FORMS AND TENSES" 

1320 PRINT'IS ACCEPTABLE SO LONG AS IT CAN BE FOUND IN A STANDAR 

D" 



1330 PRINT'ENGLISH DICTIONARY. WORDS WITHIN WORDS ARE ALSO" 
1340 PRINT "ALLOWED; E.G. SPARE: SPA, PAR, ARE, SPAR, PARE." 
1350 PRINT: PRINT'WHEN THE TIMER STOPS, EVERYONE QUITS WRITING. 

EACH" 
1360 PRINT'PLAYER THEN READS ALOUD HIS/HER LIST OF WORDS. ANY' 
1370 PRINT'WORD APPEARING ON MORE THAN ONE LIST MUST BE CROSSED" 

1380 PRINT"OFF ALL LISTS, INCLUDING THAT OF THE READER." 

1390 PRINTg896,STRINGS(63,"=") ; 

1400 PRINT8960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 

1410 AS=INKEY$:IF AS="" THEN 1410 

1420 GOSUB 1440 

1430 GOTO 1520 

1440 CLS :PRINTTAB( 28) "SCORING" 

1450 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"NO. OF LETTERS 3 4 5 6 7 8 OR 
MORE" 

1460 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"POINTS: 112 3 5 

11" 
1470 FOR X=0 TO 80:SET(X,20) :NEXT 
1480 PRINTg896,STRINGS(63,"=") ; 

1490 PRINTS960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 
1500 AS=INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 1500 
1510 RETURN 

1520 CLS:FOR X=l TO 15:PRINTCHRS(23) :PRINTg466 , "REMEMBER" :FOR Y= 
1 TO 50:NEXT:PRINTg466,STRINGS(8,32) :FOR Y=l TO 50:NEXT:NEXT X 
1530 CLS 
1540 PRINT: PRINT'MULTIPLE MEANINGS OF THE SAME WORD DO NOT EARN" 

1550 PRINT'MULTIPLE CREDIT." 

1560 PRINT: PRINT'THE SAME WORD FOUND IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE 

GRID" 
1570 PRINT'DOES NOT COUNT FOR MULTIPLE CREDIT." 

1580 PRINT: PRINT'THE 'Q' COUNTS AS TWO LETTERS, SINCE IT IS CON 
SIDERED TO BE 
FOLLOWED BY THE 'U'." 

1590 PRINT: PRINT'FULL CREDIT IS ALLOWED FOR BOTH THE SINGULAR A 
ND PLURAL" 

1600 PRINT'FORMS OF A NOUN - PROVIDED THEY ARE LISTED AS SEPARA 
TE WORDS." 

1610 PRINT@896,STRINGS(63,"=") ; 

1620 PRINTg960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 
1630 AS=INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 1630 

1640 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"COMMON WORDS TEND TO BE FOUND 
BY MORE THAN" 

1650 PRINT'ONE PLAYER. IF YOUR WORDS ARE UNIQUE AND UNUSUAL, T 
HEY" 

1660 PRINT'ARE MORE LIKELY TO EARN POINTS." 
1670 PRINT@896,STRINGS(63,"=") ; 

1680 PRINTg960, "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."; 
1690 A$ = INKEYS:IF AS = " THEN 1690 
1700 RETURN 
1710 STOP 

1720 CLS:PRINTgl92,STRING$(63,"=") ; : PRINT@76 8, STRINGS (63 , "=") ; 
1730 PRINTg470,"HOW MANY PLAYERS?" 

1740 ANSS=INKEYS:IF ANSS="° THEN 17 40 ELSE NN=VAL(ANSS) 
1750 PRINT@470,CHRS(30) ; :PA=960 

1760 PRINT@192,STRINGS(63," = ") ;: PRINTP768, STRINGS (63 , "=") ; 
1770 FOR PL=1 TO NN 

1780 PRINTg464,"TYPE NAME OF PLAYER NUMBER";PL 
1790 INPUT NAS(PL) 

1800 PRINTgPA,NAS(PL) ;:IF NN=1 THEN PRINT" IS PLAYING ALONE";:EL 
SE PA=PA+16:IF PL=4 OR PL=8 OR PL=12 THEN PRINT: PRINTg384 ,CHRS (3 
0) ;:PRINT@448,CHRS(30) ;:PA=960 
1810 NEXT PL 

1820 PRINT@512,CHR$(30) ;:FORX=l TO 500:NEXT 
1830 PRINT@464,CHRS(30) ; 

1840 PRINTg460, "PRESS ANY KEY TO PLAY. ..GOOD LUCK!" 
1850 AS=INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 1850 
1860 CLS: RETURN 
187 FOR PL=1 TO NN 

1880 CLS :PRINT§470, "ENTER " ;NA$ (PL) ; " ' S SCORE..." 
1890 INPUT SC(PL) 
1900 TS(PL)=TS(PL)+SC(PL) 
1910 NEXT PL 

1920 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

1930 PRINT'PLAYER", "CURRENT SCORE" , "TOTAL SCORE" 
1940 FOR PL=1 TO NN 
1950 PRINTNAS(PL) ,SC(PL) ,TS(PL) 
1960 NEXT PL 

1970 PRINT@960,"TO PLAY ANOTHER ROUND, TYPE Y, OR TYPE ANY" 
1980 PRINT'OTHER CHARACTER TO END THE GAME AND GET THE FINAL SCO 
RE.' 

1990 A$=INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 1990 ELSE IF A$="Y" THEN 2010 
2000 GOTO 2020 
2010 CLS: RESTORE: GOTO 160 

2020 CLS: PRINT: PRINT TAB ( 25) "FINAL STANDING" : PRINT 
2030 FOR PL=1 TO NN-1 
2040 FOR J=PL+1 TO NN 
2050 IF TS(PL) >=TS(J) THEN 2090 
2060 S=TS(PL) :SS=NAS(PL) 
2070 TS(PL)=TS(J) :NA$(PL)=NAS(J) 
2080 TS(J)=S:MAS(J)=S$ 
2090 NEXT J 
2100 NEXT PL 

2110 IF TS(1)=TS(2) THEN 2200 
2120 PRINT TAB(15)"THE WINNER IS ";NAS(D;" WITH" ;TS (1) ; "POINTS. 

2130 PRINT: PRINT 

2146 FOR PL=1 TO NN 

2150 PRINT"", NAS(PL) ,"",TS(PL) 

2160 NEXT 

2170 PRINT@960,"NICE GAME... LET'S PLAY AGAIN SOON." 

2180 GOTO 2180 

2190 STOP 

2200 PRINT TAB(23)"WE HAVE A TIE GAME" 

2210 PRINT TAB(22)"HERE ARE THE SCORES:" 

2220 PRINT: PRINT 

2230 FOR PL=1 TO NN 

2240 PRINT"", NAS(PL) ,"",TS(PL) 

2250 NEXT PL 

2260 PRINT@960,"PLAY A TIEBREAKER ROUND? (TYPE Y OR N) . 

2270 AS=INKEYS:IF AS="" THEN 2270 ELSE IF AS="Y" THEN 2010 

2280 GOTO 2170 

2290 END 

2300 PRINT@14,"30 SECOND WARNING" ;: RETURN 

2310 PRINT@22,"10 SECONDS" ; .-RETURN 



168 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



EPSON 

PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 

Common Features ol the MX80, MX80FT & MX100 Printers 



80 characters per second 
Replaceable print head by user 
User programable from BASIC 
Bi-directional logic seeking printhead 
96 ASCII characters 
Programable tabs (vert./horz.) 
Cartridge ribbons 
Self-test mode 



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Extreme reliability 
12 type fonts under software control 
9x9 & 9x18 matrix 
Programable form feeds 
Compressed/expanded letters 
Parallel interface standard 
Double strike & emphasized modes 



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►'See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 169 



Aerocomp's 
Proven 
Best-By Test! 
The 



it 



in 




Double Density Controller 

• Technical Superiority 

At last! a double density controller for Model I with higher probability of data recovery than with any other 
double density CONTROLLER ON THE market TODAY! The "DDC" from Aerocomp. No need to worry about the pro- 
blems that keep cropping up on existing products. AEROCOMP'S new analog design phase lock loop data separator 
has a wider capture window than the digital types currently on the market. This allows high resolution data center- 
ing. The finest resolution available with digital circuitry is 125 ns (nano seconds). The "DDC" analog circuit allows in- 
finately variable tuning. Attack and settling times are optimum for 5-1/4 inch diskettes. 
The units presently on the market use a write precompensation circuit that is very "sloppy". Board to board 
tolerance is extremely wide - in the order of +100 ns. The "DDC" is accurate to within + 20 ns. 
The bottom line is state of the art reliability! 

* Test Proven 

Tests were conducted on AEROCOMP'S "DDC", Percom's "Doubler A"* and "Doubler ll"* and LNW's "LNDoubler"** using 
a Radio Shack TRS80*** Model I, Level 2, 48 K with TRS80 Expansion interface and a Percom TFD100* disk drive 
(Siemens Model 82) Diskette was Memorex 3401. The test diskette chosen was a well used piece of media to deter- 
mine performance under adverse conditions. The various double density adapters were installed sequentially in the 
expansion interface. , . _ ____ 

The test consisted of formatting 40 tracks on the diskette and writing a 6DB6 data pattern on all tracks The 6DB6 
pattern was chosen because it is recommended as a "worst case" test by manufacturers of drives and diskettes. An 
attempt was then made to read each sector on the disk once ■ no retrys. Operating system was Newdos/80, version 
1 with Double zap, version 2.0. Unreadable sectors were totalled and recorded. The test was run ten times with 
each double density controller and the data averaged. Test results are shown in the table. 



• Features 

TRS80 Model l owners who are ready for reliable double 
density operation will get (1) 80% more storage per 
diskette, (2) single and double density data separation 
with far fewer disk I/O errors, (3) single density com- 
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• value 

$149.95 for the BEST double density 
controller on the market. 

$189.95 for "DDC" complete with DOSPLUS 3.3D 
$239.95 for "DDC" complete with LDOS 



• TEST RESULTS • 



MFR & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT(avc) 


AEROCOMP "DDC" 


j 


PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 


LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 | 



Note: test results available upon written request. All tests conducted prior to 8-25-81 

Aerocomp's 14 day money back guarantee applies to hardware only. 

Specials will be prorated. Shipping S2.00 in Cont. US. see opposite page for details. 



Data Separators 

The advances that make the "DDC" great are incorporated in the new AEROCOMP Single 
and Double Density Data Separator ("DDS"). 



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if you already own a Percom "Doubler A", "Doubler ll" or LNW 
"LNDoubler", the AEROCOMP "DDS" will make It right. Look at the test 
results: 



MFR. & PRODUCT 


SECTORS LOCKED OUT 


WITHOUT "DDS" 


WITH "DDS" 


PERCOM "DOUBLER II" 


18 


1 


PERCOM "DOUBLER A" 


250 





LNW "LNDOUBLER" 


202 


o i 



• "DDS" $49.95 

(Use 1791 chip from your DD con- 
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y{ L/L/^> with disk controller 
chip included y /*7.*s5 

* Disk controller 

chip $34.95 

(Shipping $2.00 Cont us • see opposite 
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Plugs directly into your existing 



Note: Same test procedures as "DDC". 
* Trademark of Percom Data Co. 

"•TC^iSU corporation Double Density Controller. 



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See opposite 
page»»» 




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■95 



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• NEW EXTERNAL DRIVE CABLE 

CONNECTION, (no longer need to remove [he 
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EPSON 




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TRS80 Cable (I & III) $29.95 

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include cable. 

MX80 F/T 

All the features of MX80 plus Friction 
Feed. Shipping & cables as above. 

S 579 .oo 






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• 40-Track Drive $299.95 

• 80-Track Drive $429.95 

• 40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. . . . $329.95 

• 80-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. . . . $449.95 

• 40-Track Dual-Head Drive. . $449.95 

• 80-Track Dual-Head Drive. . $579.95 

Al! above drives are complete with silver enclosure, power supply 
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50/60 H? available on special order 

• 40-Track Bare Drive $269.95 

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• 40-Track "FLIPPY" Bare Dnve$299.95 

• 80-Track "FLIPPY" Bare Drive$4 19.95 

• SPECIAL PACKAGES* 

STARTER A $339.95 

40-Track Drive, 2-drive cable, TRSDOS 
2.3 Disk & Manual, Freight & Ins. 

SRARTER B $369.95 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive, cable, TRSDOS 
2.3 Disk & Manual, Freight & Ins. 

COMBO C $465.00 

40-Track "FLIPPY" Drive, 2-drive cable, 
LDOS ■ Freight & Ins. 

COMBO D $585.00 

80-Track "FLIPPY" Drive. 2-drive cable, 
LDOS' Freight & Ins. 

COMBO E $709.00 

Two 40-Track "FLIPPY" Drives, 4-Drive 
cable, TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Mannual, 
Freight & Ins. 

COMBO F $999.00 

Two 80-Track "FLIPPY" Drives, 4-drive 
LDOS . Freight & Ins. 

COMBO G $909.00 

Two 40-Track Dual-Head Drives, cable, 
TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Manual, Freight & 
Ins. 

COMBO H $1299.00 

Two 80-Track Dual-Head Drives, cable. 
LDOS . Freight & INS. 

DOSPLUS 33 or NEWDOS / 80,2.0 
available with any package. 

Add$ S. 00 per drive for snipping & handling (Corn. US). 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Order your AEROCOMP Disk Drive anc 
use it with your system for up to 14 
days. If you are not satisfied for ANY 
REASON (except misuse or improper 
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WARRANTY 

We offer you a 1 20 day unconditional 
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defect in materials and workmanship. In 
the event service, for any reason, 
becomes nescessary. our service depart- 
ment is fast, friendly and cooperative. 

100% TESTED 

AEROCOMP Disk Drives are completely 
assembled at the factory and ready to 
plug in when you receive them. Each 
drive is 100% bench tested prior to ship- 
ment. We even enclose a copy of the 
test checklist, signed by the test techni- 
cian, with every drive. AEROCOMP 
MEANS RELIABILITY!! 

ORDER NOWII 

To order by mail, specify Model 
Number(S) of Drive, cable, etc. (above), 
enclose check, money order. VISA or 
MASTERCHARGE card number and ex- 
piration date, or request C.O.D. ship- 
ment. Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
Add $5.00 per drive for shipping & handl- 
ing (Cont. US). Please allow 2 weeks for 
personal checks to clear our bank. No 
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NOT be charged until the day we ship.!! 

DRIVE CABLES 

2-DRIVE 

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$24.95 
$34.95 



WRITE AEROCOMP TODAY 
FOR MORE VALUES II! 



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• See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 171 



REVIEW 



Speed up writing machine-language programs. 



Microsoft Macro Assembler 



G. Gratzer 
75 Laval Drive 
Winnipeg, Man. R3T 2X8 
Canada 



For some time I have been 
working on a book develop- 
ing Fast Basic, a systematic 
merging in Basic with assembly- 
language subroutines. The As- 
sembly-language subroutines 
are easy to write if you can over- 
come your impatience: The code 
is extremely repetitious. It was a 
natural thought then to use a 
macro assembler to write these 
subroutines, so I ordered one 
made by Microsoft. 

It accepts files prepared by 
the Editor, so I put the EDIT/ 
CMD file on my NEWDOS/80 
disk and called the Editor. 
EDIT-80 then asks for a file and I 



typed TEST Break. According to 
the manual, Break creates a new 
file while Enter calls an old file. 
Unfortunately, hitting Break pro- 
duced no response. I suddenly 
remembered NEWDOS/80 han- 
dles Break in a strange way. Af- 
ter running into problems with a 
modified NEWDOS/80, 1 decided 
to use the Microsoft system un- 
der TRSDOS 2.3. 

The Editor is easy to use. It 
has two modes: Interline Editing 
and Alter. Interline editing has 
16 commands: Insert, Delete, 
Print (on the screen), List (print 
on the lineprinter), reNumber, 
Replace (for delete and insert), 
and some others. 

Alter put me into the editing 
mode. Just as with all the com- 
mands, Alter can be followed by 
any range of line numbers. The 
Alter mode has about 20 com- 
mands including insert charac- 
ters, spaces; move the cursor; 
and delete characters or text. It 
took me awhile to get used to 
the Alter mode. The line being 
edited is shown only up to the 
cursor and I could not see what I 
wanted to edit. If the cursor was 
too far down the line, I automati- 
cally used the back arrow to 
backtrack (as in the Interline 
mode), which deleted characters. 

When I finished the correc- 
tion, I filed the document with 



Exit. I got an Illegal Command 
message. I checked the manual 
again. "E writes the edited text 
to disk and exits the editor." So I 
tried it again. After a few tries I 
gave up. 

I soon realized I should not 
rely on the command summary; 
it is full of holes. The manual 
points out that Exit requires a 
new file name when the file 
edited is not new. I overlooked 
this. 

My computer hung up a cou- 
ple times when I used List to list 
lines on the screen. (Shift, down 
arrow, Obliterate was supposed 
to take me out of this, but it did 
not.) The Print instruction was 
strange. Without parameters it 
printed the next 20 lines. 

I could not make the Oblit- 
erate command work. O <text> 
Break in Alter mode is supposed 
to delete all text up to <text>. My 
computer just hangs up. 

To sum it up, this is a good 
editor with some very nice fea- 
tures, such as replacement of a 
string by another one in any 
range of line numbers. None of 
the instructions are compatible 
with the Level II Editor or with 
the Editor of the Radio Shack 
Editor/Assembler. And do not 
rely too much on the command 
summaries. Aside from this, the 
manual is readable, and some of 



the commands are illustrated 
with examples. 

Macro Assembler 

I could not make any sense 
out of the Macro Assembler 
manual. I could not understand 
the modes of symbols (absolute, 
data relative, program relative 
and common). I could not under- 
stand the related pseudo-ops 
ASEG, CSEG, DSEG and Com- 
mon. But the worst part of the 
manual is easily the explanation 
of macros. Only one example is 
given to explain what a macro 
call does and even that uses 
8080 opcode. In fact, all through 
the manual the scanty examples 
use 8080 pseudo-ops. 

I learned that Radio Shack 
sells the Microsoft Macro As- 
sembler under license. I asked 
my Radio Shack manager to get 
me this package so I could com- 
pare it with what I had. 

The Radio Shack package 
contained two disks with the 
same four files and with the file 
FORLIB/REL thrown in for good 
measure. To my great disap- 
pointment, the manual was the 
same, except that mine had a 
disclaimer that it is not intended 
as a tutorial (they are not kid- 
ding); and a reference is given to 
a Zilog manual: Z80-RIO, Relo- 
cating Assembler and Linker 



172 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



User's Manual. A call to Zilog as- 
sured me a copy of the manual. 

The Zilog Manual 

I read the Zilog manual. What 
a pleasure! It explained the Ma- 
cro Assembler in less than 30 
pages. They even explained how 
the Assembler works. Every- 
thing was illustrated with exam- 
ples, and for just $7.50. 

The manual explains four ma- 
jor points: the concept of relo- 
catable modules; the mode of 
an expression (absolute, relo- 
catable, external); conditional 
assembly; and macros. It does 
much more; it gives an excellent 
explanation of pseudo-ops, list- 
ing format, etc. But let us con- 
centrate on the first four points. 

When assembling a program 
with the Radio Shack Editor/As- 
sembler, the assembly takes 
place from the location speci- 
fied by the ORG (origin) state- 
ment. For instance, take the 
following simple example from 
the book: 



00100 ORG 7000H 

00110 LD A.31H 

00120 LD (3E20H),A 

00130 LOOP JP LOOP 
00140 END 



and in assembled form: 



7E00 00100 ORG7E00H 

7E00 3E31 00110 LD A.31H 

7E02 32203E 00120 LD (3E20H),A 
7E05 C3054A 00130LOOPJP LOOP 

7E00 00140 END 

00000 TOTAL ERRORS 
LOOP7E05 



Thus LOOP stands for 7E00 
plus five. This number five is 
the offset. If the ORG is changed 
to 8000H, Loop would be 8000 
plus five. 

A relocatable program typi- 
cally has no ORG statement. 
The above program is assem- 
bled from 0000, and Loop has a 
value 5 and is marked with an R 
for relocatable. Similarly, each 
line is marked where change is 
needed when the origin be- 
comes known. 

Thus, assembly does not pro- 
duce object code but relocata- 
ble code. It is the task of the 
Linker to take relocatable files 
and load them into core. Wher- 
ever the Linker finds a code 
marked as relocatable, the link- 
er adds X to it, where X is the lo- 



cation from which the program 
is loaded. This X is either given 
by the user or generated by the 
Linker as it puts one relocatable 
segment after another. 

This makes it easy to under- 
stand some of the rules of form- 
ing expressions. If Loop is relo- 
catable, we cannot use 2* LOOP 
in an expression because add- 
ing X will not make this right. 
(We would have to add 2*X, and 
our Loader cannot do this.) 

A label or a number can thus 
be relocatable or absolute. A 
label can also be external, 
meaning defined in another 
module. Such labels have to be 
defined in another module as 
global. For example, in module 1 
we define: GLOBAL LOOP; then 
in module 2 we declare: EXTER- 
NAL LOOP. Then module 2 can 
use the value for Loop (this is as- 
signed to Loop when module 1 is 
loaded). 

Conditional assembly takes 
the form: 

COND expression 
ENDC 

If the expression evaluates 
to non-zero the code is assem- 
bled (up to ENDC) otherwise as- 
sembly continues with the first 
line after ENDC. This is useful 
when writing code that is to be 
applicable in various setups. 
Its real usefulness is, however, 
in macros. 

To illustrate macros look at 
Program Listings 1 and 2. 

Program Listing 1 is an As- 
sembly-language subroutine for 
single-precision addition in a 
Basic program. It is immediately 
apparent that lines 210-240, 
300-330, 500-530 are identical. 
This is exploited by the macro in 
Program Listing 2. The macro 
has a name: Load and three 
dummy variables: What, Into, 
From. When Load is called 
these three are specified, e.g., 
LOAD X,SA,HL, and the body of 
Load is copied into the code 
with What replaced by X, Into by 
SA, From by HL. 

Conditional assembly can be 
illustrated by the following 
macro type: 



MOVE MACRO X.Y,SAVE 

COND 'SAVErs'S' 
PUSH BC 



PUSH 


DE 


PUSH 


HL 


ENDC 




COND 


'SAVE?' = 'S' 


POP 


BC 


POP 


DE 


POP 


HL 


ENDC 





If this macro is called MOVE 



AB,SUP,S, the registers are 
saved before the code is exe- 
cuted, while MOVE AB,5 will 
not save the registers. Since 
macros without a conditional 
can reproduce only one pattern, 
we gain much greater economy 
of coding by using macros with 
conditionals. 



100 


VARFTR 


EQU 


260DH 


110 


ADDSP 


EQU 


0716H 


120 


LDSAHL 


EQU 


09B1M 


130 


LDRAHL 


EQU 


09C2H 


110 


LDHLSA 


EQU 


09CBH 


20c 




ORG 


7E00H 


210 




LD 


HL.VARX 


220 




CALL 


VARPTR 


230 




EX 


DE.HL 


210 




CALL 


LDSAHL 


300 




LD 


HL, VARY 


310 




CALL 


VARPTR 


320 




EX 


DE.HL 


3.30 




CALL 


LDRAHL 


100 




CALL 


ADDSP 


500 




LD 


HL, VAR7. 


510 




CALL 


VARPTR 


52c 




EX 


DE.HL 


530 




CALL 


LDHLSA 


5'IC 




RET 




600 


VARX: 


DEEM 


'X ' 


610 




DEFB 





620 


VARY: 


DEFM 


•1 ' 


630 




DEFB 





610 


VARZ: 


DEFM 


.7. 



LOOKING FOR X 

DE POINTS AT X 

NOW HL POINT:'. AT X 

LOAD X INTO SA 

LOOKING FOR Y 

ADDRESS IN DE 

NOW HL POINTS AT Y 

Y INTO RA 

CALL SINGLE PRECISION ADDITION 

LOOKING FOR Z 

ADDRESS IN DE 

HL POINTS AT Z 

LOAD RESULT INTO VARIABLE TABLE 



Program Listing 1 



100 




.REQUEST LABELS 






1 10 




EXTERNAL VARPTR, ADDSP. LDSAHL, 


LDRAHL, 


LDHLSA 


110 


LOAD 


MACRO 


WHAT. INTO, FROM 






150 




LD 


HL. VARJUIIAT 






160 




CALL 


VARPTR 






170 




EX 


DE.HL 






180 




CALL 


LD&INTMFROM 






190 




ENDM 








200 




ORG 


7E00H 






210 




LOAD 


X . SA , HL 






300 




LOAD 


Y, RA.HL 






100 




CALL 


ADDSP 






500 




LOAD 


Z.HL.SA 






510 




RET 








600 




IRP WHAT,<X, Y,Z> 






610 


VAR&WHAT: DEFM 'WHAT - 






620 




DEFB 


O 






630 




ENDM 








610 




END 


Program Listing 2 







80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 173 



The Microsoft Manuals: 
Another Try 

I tackled the Microsoft man- 
uals again, fortified by my un- 
derstanding of theZilog manual. 
It became immediately clear 
that this is not an implementa- 
tion of the Zilog Assembler, but 
a reworked version of an 8080 
assembler. Thus the terminol- 
ogy used is 8080 terminology 
with some Zilog terminology 
thrown in to confuse the user. 
For example, to understand the 
three modes of expressions is 
hard enough, but to understand 
Global is much more difficult 
since three names are used for 
this concept: Global. Entry and 
Public. To confuse matters 
worse, there are two kinds of 
relocatables: one for code and 
one for data. How these are han- 
dled is not explained until you 
get to the Link manual, and 
there you carefully read the fine 
print explaining the two switch- 
es, P and D. 

Nevertheless, I proceded as 
follows. First, I rewrote the man- 
ual for the Z-80 terminology: 



where you find 


substitute 


■ he pseudo-op 




iFT 


COND 


ENDIF 


EN DC 


PAGE 


'EJECT 


OB 


DEFB (it a single byte is 




defined) 


DS 


DEFS 


DW 


DEFW 


DB 


DEFM (if used for text) 


SET 


DEFL 


PUBLIC 


GLOBAL 


EXT or EXTRN 


EXTERNAL 


the opcode 




MVI 


LD 


MOV 


LD 


!NX 


INC 


JNZ 


JR.NZ 



Rewrite the few examples to 
avoid loading into ROM. (The 
typical example loads at zero 
of 800H.) Luckily, there are so 
few examples that the whole re- 
writing is finished in less than 
an hour. 

In the Macro Assembler, the 
labels have five attributes 
(modes): absolute, code (pro- 
gram) relative, data relative, 
common and external. We can 
safely ignore common (this is 
included to interface with For- 
tran). The only difference be- 



tween code relative and data rel- 
ative is that the Linker will put 
the code relative segments one 
after another at the address spe- 
cified to the Linker, and the data 
relative segments will come one 
after another at another address 
specified to the Linker. 

The mode of the labels is de- 
termined by the segments they 
are in. A segment is declared ab- 
solute, code relative or data rela- 
tive by the pseudo-ops ASEG, 
CSEG and DSEG. respectively. 
These pseudo-ops have no oper- 
ands so they cannot be used to 
set where the segments will be 
loaded. Unfortunately, the de- 
fault condition is CSEG and the 
default origin is zero. 

Since the pseudo-ops are pre- 
sented without exampie some 
experimentation is needed to 
find out how they work. I noted 
in my manual that the label in 
EQU and in Macro takes no col- 
ons (colons are compulsory for 
labels as a rule). 

There are a number of pseu- 
do-ops in the Macro Assembler 
that cannot be found in theZilog 



manual. For instance, the Re- 
quest file directs the Linker to 
the search file for external 
labels. We used this in Listing 2. 
This is very convenient; we can 
set up a file called Labels con- 
taining nothing but the defini- 
tions of often-used labels. 

Conditionals have been ex- 
panded to eight formats and 
they also support Else state- 
ments. Having learned condi- 
tionals from the Zilog manual, 
I had no difficulty understand- 
ing these. 

in addition to macros, the 
Macro Assembler has a number 
of useful block operations: 
REPT (repeat), IRP (indefinite 
repeat), IRPC (indefinite repeat 
character). 

REPT is quite simple: 

REPT 10 
DEFS 5 
ENDM 

This simply generates DEFS 5 
10 times. Instead of 10, we can 
also have expressions. 

IRP is like a macro with a sin- 
gle dummy label; the code is re- 



Simeon ^Escape 



vhlch takes quick thinking and strategy! 



[,i'!e 



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* Interactive Sound * 
nlng techniques * 



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the creator's ghost has sensed an intruder, and he Is deter- 
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you're always "on the go" 

* Written by an experienced gamer in fantasy role-playing, 
based on the game Dungeons 8 Dragons. 

Objective: Your character begins on the first of a three level 
dungeon, searching for magical "stones" which permit you to 
descend to the next lower level 

The Adventure: There are numerous traps, and over a dozen 
hostile monsters that come in varioussizes. shapes and degrees of 
nastiness. It has various treasures and magic items (weapons, 
elixers. cloaks, scrolls, etc.) You can become a fighter, a theif or a 
magic-user. Each time you piay you get a totally different and 
exciting game. 

This short description only begins to tell you of the many ad- 
ventures and some of the features of this exciting game. 
This will be your favorite adventure game! 
Complete documentation included. 
You must specify Model I or Model III. Available on: 
Tape. 1 6K $1 9.95 Diskette, 32K $24.95 

ALIEN DEFENDER New version of best arcade game on the 

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Excellent check writing program for small business. Prints 
checks on printer, sorts into 32 catagories for bookeeper and 
IRS. 

THE TWO YEAR DISK'S 

All Wabash Disks are certified 1 00% error free for two years by the 
manufacturer. If you have any problems return them to us for new 
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5 H single density 

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levels. Now finally, a device to let you set the correct volume 
levels for loading any tape. You will now load any tape the 
FIRST time. SUPERMETER plugs in (no cutting or soldering) 
between your tape recorder and the computer and lets you set 
the volume to the level that your computer wants. 

SUPERMETER $29.00 



FAMILY TREE tape 32.00/disk $39.00 

Excellent Family Genelogy program works on both Model I 
and III. 



DOS SALE 

Multl Dos (the one we recommend) $79.00 

L Dos $1 59.00 

New Dos 80 2.0 $1 45.00 

Dos Plus 3.4 $1 39.00 

We sell them all We recommend and use MULTI DOS 

Don't let its low price fool you. It'll do everything the others will 
and quite a few things they can't. 

MULTIDOS has the BEST BASIC - - it's the EASIEST to use 
and its the FASTEST system around. For more details see Cos. 
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much for a operating.system that's not as good. Multe Dos is 
written by Vernon Hestor author of Boss and Ultra Dos. 

SPECIALS 

MULTI DOS with Aerocomp Doubler $209.00 

MULTI DOS with Super Directory $99.00 

MULTI DOS with Super D & Doubler $229.00 

AEROCOMP DOUBLER $1 39.00 



SUPER DIRECTORY 



This will be the standard of which all other Directories are judged. It will read any normal type of diskette Mod I or III, 
Multi Dos, Ldos, Dos Plus, Tri Dos, New Dos, Double Density, Single Density, 35, 40 or 80 track drive's. 

It is easy to use but at the same time has all the features you will ever need. No limit to the number of Disks or the number of 
programs. Display to screen or to printer. Displays by program, or disk, or subject. 

You can even add a line to help tell what the program is about Example: 
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Traceprt/cmd is file name on disk 146 is disk number U is for utility PRINT TRACE OF MACHINE LAGUAGE is 
descriptor file. 

Special Introductory offer with each directory ordered before June 1 st we will include 4 blank Wabash double density 

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(313)673-2224 



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PLEASE ADD $2.00 

FOR SHIPPING IN U.S.A. 

►-433 



174 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 







EXPENSIVE - The LNW 
System Expansion II comes with a :.'".*:&' 
full 32K of 200ns RAM, and built-in • 
RS232c 20 MA current loop serial interface. 
That's for starters. Next, consider our heavy gauge 
steel case, power indicator lamp, gold-plated 
connectors, FR-4 glass epoxy circuit board with 
solder mask and silk screen legends. Then there is 
the parallel printer port, screen printer port, real 
time clock, and extra heavy duty onboard power 
supply with over current protection, over voltage 
protection and thermal shutdown. If that's not 
enough then there is the floppy disk controller, 
guaranteed operation at a 4MHz CPU speed and 
our 6 month warranty. Every one of these features 
is STANDARD. This is true system expansion. 
You get every 'expensive' feature without 
spending more. 

CHEAP - Our price is $399.95. Any way you 
compare, features or price, LNW's System 
Expansion II is the clear winner. The LNW 
System has been field tested for over two years 
with thousands of users. It works with any DOS, is 
100'< TRS-80 Model -I compatible and it works 
'right out of the box'. If there is any doubt in your 
mind as to whether you should buy ours or the 
'other guys', just ask an LNW owner! 

WE ARE #1 - Number one in price, features, 
reliability, performance and delivery. LNW is 
committed to "expensive' features and quality at 
reasonable prices. LNW is committed to support, 
thorough documentation, and reliability. 



made us the number one 
manufacturer ■••.' of- system expansion units 
and accessories for the Model I computer. 

EXPANSION OPTION - 8-inch drive capability 
is as easy as plugging in the LNDoubler 5/8 
option*. Now you can have any combination of 
single- or double-density, single- or double-sided, 
8"* and/or 5" disks on-line! 8-inch disk storage 
increased to 591,360 bytes - 77-track single-sided, 
double-density or 1,182,720 bytes - 77-track 
double-density, double-sided. 

The LNDoubler's unique 5/8 switch allows you 
to boot from 5- or 8-inch system disks and it's 
accessible from outside the interface. The $219.95 
LNDoubler 5/8 comes with a double-density disk 
operating system (DOS+ 3.3.9), complete with 
BASIC and utility programs... ready to run your 
software. 

Each of your present 40-track, single-sided 5-inch 
drives will store up to 184,320 bytes (formatted 
storage) - that's an 80% increase in storage 
capacity for only half the cost of just one disk 
drive. With three 8-inch double-density, 
double-sided drives your Model I will have 3.75 
Megabytes of online storage - that's more storage 
than a Model II or Model III! 



^571 



LNW Research Corp 



2620 WALNUT Tustin, CA. 92680 
(714) 641-8850 (714) 544-5744 



*8" drive operation requires 
requires 3.55 MHz CPU sj 
4 MHz computer. 




special cable, 8" double-density 
-up modification or LNW-80 



TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandv C 



peated as many times as neces- 
sary to go through the given list 
of parameters. This is illustrated 
in Program Listing 2. IRPC is 
similar but the list of parameters 
is replaced by a character 
string. Apparently, these can 
also call each other. 

When I try out a new piece of 
software, I try to go in small 
steps. So to try out the Loader, I 
started with Program Listing 1 
which has already been tested 
with the Radio Shack Editor/As- 
sembler. I typed the program in 
under the name FIG3/MAC. 
There was a typing error, so I 
called it back again for correc- 
tion. The second time around it 
could not be filed under 
FIG3/MAC, RENAME FIG3/MAC 
TO FIG3/MAC. I wish the Editor 
would give me a choice and let 
me retain the name. 

I typed M80, to call the Macro 
Assembler. I typed = FIG3, 
which means the same as A/NO 
for the Radio Shack Editor/ 
Assembler; it assembles FIG3/ 
MAC (the default expression) 
but creates no code. M80 re- 



sponds: No Fatal Error(s). I 
would prefer not to see the word 
fatal if there is no mistake. 
Encouraged, I typed FIG3.FIG3 
= FIG3. This means: assemble 
FIG3/MAC, create a file FIG3/ 
REL (the relocatable code), and 
another one, FIG3/LST, for the 
listing. I exited M80 with Break 
(this works about 50 percent of 
the time) and typed L80 to call 
the Linker. I typed FIG3 (the 
default is REL) and it loaded. 
But when I used Debug to see 
how it loaded I got a big zilch. I 
quit to reread the Linker manual. 

The explanation was simple. 
The ORG statement does not 
override the default in the Macro 
Assembler and Linker: CREL, 
code relative. Since FIG3 con- 
tained no ASEG, despite ORG 
7E00H the segment was assem- 
bled as code relative. Thus, as a 
default, a program will always 
load into ROM. I have seen many 
stupid defaults, but this must 
take the prize. 

I added ASEG to FIG3, went 
through the same procedure, 
and it worked. I got more am- 



bitious and tried out Program 
Listing 2, using the file name 
FIG4. This contains three impor- 
tant features of the Macro As- 
sembler. I added ASEG to the 
code. It ran with no difficulty. 

Rereading the Loader man- 
ual, I realized that everything 
that was left open by the pro- 
cedure of building five kinds of 
relocatable modules has to be 
resolved by instructions to the 
Loader. Typing -P:address1,-D: 
address2 sets the starting ad- 
dress of the program (so the 
CSEG segments load from here) 
and of the data area (for the 
DSEG segments). By default the 
numbers you specify are deci- 
mals. Type -H, to make the ad- 
dresses hexadecimal. So to cre- 
ate an object file for FIG4 we 
type: -H,-P:7E00,FIG4-N,-E. -N 
(N for name) creates an object 
file called FIG4/CMD (this is 
slightly misleading, CIM would 
be more appropriate), and -E ex- 
its to the operating system. 

Summary 

This is definitely not a friendly 



system. Each module has the 
same prompt (an asterisk) and 
there are four different exit pro- 
cedures. Numbers are thrown at 
you without explanation, e.g., 
when running L80, and com- 
mand lines take the place of 
prompting questions. Neverthe- 
less, the system is simple 
enough to learn given the proper 
instructions. 

A number of important fea- 
tures are missing: There are no 
local labels; macros cannot be 
called from another file; there is 
no library manager; and no run- 
time system is provided that 
would facilitate overlaying. 

Compared with using a non- 
macro assembler, however, 
working with this assembler is 
like driving a Cadillac. The soft- 
ware itself works smoothly. 

To make this package accept- 
able, some improvements would 
have to be made. But even as it 
is, the Macro Assembler seems 
indispensible for anyone want- 
ing to write Assembly-language 
programs with the ease only 
macros can provide. ■ 



TheDAEA-TRANSlOOO 



A completely refurbished 
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*FOR YOUR TRS-80 WITH OR WITHOUT 
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• 14.9 characters per second 
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• Reliable heavy duty Selectric 
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• RS-232C Interface 

• Documentation included 

• 60 day warranty — parts and 
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• High quality Selectric print- 
ing Off-line use as typewriter 

• Optional tractor feed 
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• 15 inch carriage width 



Also works with Exa- 
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For orders and information 

DATA-TRANS 

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Phone: (408) 263-9246 



176 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



"DOS 

RANDOM 

ACCESS 

& 

BASIC 

FILE 

HANDLING" 



DSC Publishing 

2 Dogwood Drive 

PO Box 769 

Danbury, CT 06810 

Phone Order 
(203) 748-3231 




the HOW TO, SHOW & TELL, STEP by 
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learning HOW TO WRITE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 
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Phone Orders (203) 748-3231 
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IS THERE ANY OTHER SOFTWARE THAT ENABLES YOU TO~1 

Enhance DOS commands to rename, kill. copy,... multiple 
files with common name or extension? 

Link EDTASM source files via new %INCLUDE command; 

Assign and use symbolic labels in DEBUG? 

Compile, link and execute FORTRAN program(s) by entering 
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Organize conditional chained execution? 

Save hours of typing and have a good time with your com- 
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These are but a few examples of what can be done with the 

INTERACTIVE CONTROL LANGUAGE 

ICL is a very fast machine-code program executing pro- 
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ICL is designed to work as a "middleman" between the user 
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Superb documentation with detailed "how-to-use" and 
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PRODUCTS FOR YOUR RADIO SHACK 





MICROTEXT COMMUNICATIONS VIA YOUR MODEM! 



Now you can use your printer with your modem! Your computer can be an 
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tape, or printer, or both. Microtext can be used with any printer or no printer at 
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send any ASCII character. You'll find many uses for this general purpose 
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SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

The Micro Works Software Development System (SDS80C) is a complete 6809 
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THE 




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Star Blaster — Blast your way through an asteroid field in this action-packed 
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Pac Attack — Try your hand at this challenging game by Computerware, with 
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Berserk — Have fun zapping robots with this Hi-Res game by Mark Data 
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Adventure — Black Sanctum and Calixto Island by Mark Data Products. Each 
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R0MLESS PAK I — is an empty program pack capable of holding two 2716 or 

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2-PASS DISASSEMBLER — with documentation package. 16K; cassette. 80C 

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CBUG — Machine language monitor. CBUG Cassette Price: $29.95 

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PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE — serial to parallel converter allows use of all 

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-See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 177 



^F^PROGRAM STORE 




TIME 
DUNGEON 





TRS-80/ 

Unless l| Model 
Otherwise) 
Noted 



NOW FOR MODELS I OR III 



By Howard Berenbon from AOS 
A delightful fantasy qame with an educational 
slant. Explore the graphic dungeon, collect - 
ina cold and meeting alien travelers. When 
you enter a "Time Portal," you are transport- 
ed to a special date in history. Should you 
answer the question posed you'll be rewarded 
in gold; a wrong answer costs you treasure. 
The questions may be true/false, multiple 
choice, or short answer, and they're not 
easy! 

TIME DUNGEON U.S. 16K tape $24. 95 

32K disk $29.95 
TIME DUNGEON - WORLD 16K tape $24.95 

32K disk $29.95 

LANGUAGE 
TEACHER 




-80 

SPACE 

RAIDERS 



From Bosen Electronics 

You are in command of the Starship "Defi- 
ant." The center of the screen is your "win- 
dow" to the vastness of three dimensional 
space. Above and below it are readouts of 
critical information. Your orders are simple 
enough: Patrol the area and destroy all enemy 
spacecraft; return to base as needed for re- 
pairs and supplies. Carrying out these orders 
is more difficult! 

An exciting and fast paced game, -80 Star 
Raiders presents a flicker-free, animated 
view of the action from the pilot's perspect- 
ive. Remarkably realistic. 




ALIEN 
DEFENSE 



•Madrid 

By Cindy and Andrew Bartorillo 
Learn the basics of a foreign lanciuage. LAN- 
GUAGE TEACHER offers hundreds of word 
combinations, verb conjugations and phrases. 
There is an option for having multiple-choice 
answers and for being retested on missed 
items. Full printer capability and a great deal 
of "human engineering" further enhance the 
programs. Teachers will appreciate the ample 
documentation and the ability to get printouts 
of quizzes. Currently available languages are 
French, Italian, German I 6 II, and Spanish I 
£ II. 

$29. 95 for each program on 32K disks 



SPEAK! 



By Larry Ashmun from Soft Sector 
Piloting your ship across the horizontally 
moving terrain, you must battle the various 
enemy spacecraft. You are under attack al 
most constantly from missiles and bombs, and 
to make matters worse, your ground patrol 
people are being picked up by the alien 
landers. To save them, you must shoot the 
landers and swoop down to "catch" the falling 
man. This fast action game requires skill and 
rapid reflexes. The model III version makes 
excellent use of that model's special graphic 
features. 

Model I, Tape: $19.95 Disk: $24.95 
Model III, Tape: $19.95 Disk: $24.95 

JABBERTALKY 



By William Neville III 

Incredible new voice digitization/generation 
program that needs no voice synthesizer. You 
use your cassette recorder's microphone to 
input words or phrases. SPEAK! digitizes 
them and produces a disk file for later use in 
your own programs. The speech generated is 
sent out through the cassette port to any 
amplifier. Create your own talking games and 
voice prompted programs! While a model III is 
required for speech input, the resulting voice 
output will work with models I or III. You 
have to hear it to believe it! 

48K disk. ..$39.95 

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216 2 13311231 2 2 

A-C-E--H L-NOP-R-TUV--YZ 



From Mind Toys 

A "programmable word game" that lets you 
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your choice of anagram sentences or crypto- 
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by JABBERTALKY's "Language language," 
using the built-in vocabulary or your own. 

16K tape... $29. 95 32K disk. . . $29. 95 



OmniTerm 

From Linbergh 

An extraordinarily comprehensive smart term- 
inal program for data communications. You 
can set all data transmission and reception 
parameters, define both input and output 
translation tables, and make all adjustments 
necessary to enable your TRS 80 to "talk" to 
just about any type of communications compu 
ter. Features include auto sign-on, prompted 
data transmission (a test editor is included), 
error checking S tabulation, autodialing (if 
your modem is so equipped), communication 
status checking, and much more. Also includ- 
ed are programs for preparing machine lang- 
uage for transmission, decoding received 
machine language programs, and special set- 
up tables for CompuServe, Source, and Dow 
Jones News Service. Complete with thorough 
documentation. Requires RS-232, modem. 

32K disk.. .S99.95 

Also Available : 

ATERM 1.4 -- a less complicated smart term- 
inal program. . .$19.95 



fYOUltf 



r tei 



By Chuck Acree from Acorn 

A comprehensive genealogical program. It 
quickly and easily sets up a data base that 
holds name, date and place of birth, marriage 
and death information, plus a comment line for 
each ancestor. 

YOUR FAMILY TREE will display /print a com- 
plete 'pedigree" for any family member; a 
3 generation chart may be displayed /printed 
showing the number of known ancestors 
beyond each branch of the tree. The program 
will also display a U.S. outline map showing 
migration across the country. You get full 
search capabilities on any key field. Capaci 
ties: 16K tape: 45-55 ancestors. 32K tape: 
175, disk: 100. 48K tape: 300, disk: 225. 

16K Tape or Disk. . .$29.95 



MONEY 
MANAGER 







^^^v^ 



By Andrew P. Bartorillo from Acorn 
A complete management tool for the home bud- 
get, it accurately keeps track of your check- 
book and provides an easy method of budget 
allocation. You can store information on up to 
100 checkbook entries per month (250 with 
48K), specify any automatic withdrawals, 
keep records of tax-deductibles, and record 
expenses by category. You can even break up 
charge account payments into the proper 
categories. 

32K disk... $39. 95 



Center • Falls Church, VA & W.Bell Plaza • 66OO Security Blvd.- Baltimore, MD 



Q& TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800 424-2738 



For information 
Call (202) 363-9797 



THE PROGRAM STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Dept. 8E02 Box 9609 
Washington, D.C. 20016 



MAI L ORDERS: Send check or M.O. for total purchase 
price, plus $1.00 postage & handling. D.C. residents, add 
6% tax. Charge card customers: include all embossed 
information on card. 



Get the most from your micro with 
software and accessories from one of 
the world's largest selections. 



The 

Frog ram 

Store 



CALL TOLL FREE 

800424-2738 



VOYAGE OF THE 

VALKYRIE 




By Leo Christopherson from AOS 
Combine the animation and music techniques 
pioneered by Christopherson with the chal- 
lenge of his first fast moving arcade game 
and you have VOYAGE TO VALKYRIE! 

You speed through a magical maze guarded by 
ferocious birds that swoop down to attack if 
you don't get them first. To. list all the play 
and options of this exciting game would take 
the 16 pages of instruction included. 

Tape (TRS-80 16K) $31.95 

Disk (TRS-80 16K, Apple 48K ) $39.95 




DUEL 

«N» 

DROIDS 



By Leo Christopherson from Acorn 
Teach your "animated android" how to wield a 
laser sword! Leo Christopherson, author of 
"Android NIM," "Dancing Demon," "Voyage to 
Valkyrie" and other animations, has developed 
a new type of animation and high quality 
sound in this work. 

Starting out as a lowly clown, you teach your 
'droid to use a laser sword by controlling its 
movements -- advance, attack, even retreat if 
necessary. Then you enter the tournament 
against the program's skilled 'droid. Revel in 
the fanfares of the victorious or hear the 

funeral dirges of the defeated! Entertainment 
for all apes. 

I6K protected tape. . .S14. 95 
16K protected disk. . .$20.95 



SCARFMAN 



From Cornsoft Group 

Action filled arcade game that pits you against 
the monsters. Race your Scarfman around a 
maze, gobbling up scoring dots. You are pur- 
sued by five monsters: if you eat a "+" they'll 
lower their eyes and you can eat them, other- 
wise they'll eat you! 

With exciting graphics and sound, SCARF- 
MAN may be played using the keyboard or 
Alpha Product's Joystick. WARNING: MAY BE 
HABIT-FORMING! 
Tape. ..$15.95 
Disk (specify mod. I or I II) . . . $19.95 



ypjrrfwrrmm ^ 




From Med Systems 

You are sitting alone at 2 AM. Your eyes are 
bloodshot as you peer into your computer's 
screen and cry, "I must be CRAZY!" If this 
has never happened to you, you've never 
tried ASYLUM. It's Med Systems most ambi 
tious 3-D graphics adventure yet! 

ASYLUM places you on a cot in a small 
(padded?) room. Periodically the janitor lobs a 
hand grenade through the window. What you 
do next could mean escape or disaster. 

16K tape... $14. 95 
32K disk...S19.95 

Also order DEATHMAZE 5000, Med System's 
challenging 3 D maze game. Same prices as 
above. 

FORBIDDEN PLANET I 

By Wm. Demas from Fantastic Software 
The first TALKING adventure! With skill, 
luck, and tenacity — and a little help from 
your chatty TRS-80 you may survive Part 

One of this multipart adventure! You don't 
need a voice synthesizer, this program talks 
to you via the cassette port. And it's a good 
thing it does, 'cause otherwise you'd get 
mighty lonesome on desolate FORBIDDEN 
PLANET. 

48K disk... $39. 95 

LOST COLONY 

By David Feitelberg from Acorn 
It's the world's first deep space colony and 
you are the economic manager. A remarkable 
simulation, LOST COLONY arms you with maps 
and charts as tools for resource management. 
You assign human and robotic labor, explore 
new land, and set production quotas. At the 
same time you must determine equitable pay 
scales and taxes. 

Communicate through your model I or III using 
full sentences or short commands. A chal- 
lenging game, it might give you insight into 
real life management as well. 

16K protected tape... $19. 95 
32K protected disk. ..$19.95 

Prices Subject lo Change 




mm 

Crush,Crumble 
and Chomp! 

From Epyx 

It's a monster movie, and you are the 
monster! You can be The Glob, Kraken, Man- 
tra, Mechismo, Arachnis, or Goshilla — or 
even design your own "custom" monster (disk 
version only). This hilarious action game is 
loaded with graphics and sound as you prac- 
tice your villany. With 6 monsters, 4 cities, 
and 5 game objectives, you get a choice of 
more than 100 possible scenarios. A monster's 
life is not all carnivorous crunching, though: 
The combined resources of the police, sci- 
ence, and armed forces are bent on your 
destruction. 

TRS-80 (16K tape or 32K disk), Apple (48K 
disk). ..$29. 95 

BATTLE OF SHILOH 

From Strategic Simulations 
Now Civil War buffs can engage in a realistic 
simulation of a major battle. Marching through 
the war-torn countryside, strategically using 
the forests, creeks, hills for defense, you re- 
create every facit of the battle on a hex-grid 
map. If you had been in charge, would we 
still be whistling "Dixie?" 

16K tape. ..$24. 95 

Unbelievable Realtime 3-D Graphics! 



FLIGHT SIMULATION 

From Sub Logic 

The wait is over! If 3-D graphics seem impos 
sible on the low resolution TRS-80, you 
haven't seen this brilliant program. During 
FLIGHT SIMULATION, you instantly select 
instrument flight, radar, or a breathtaking 
pilot's-eye-view. But be sure to strap your- 
self in — you're liable to get dizzy! 

Once you put in some air time learning to fly 
your TRS-80, head for enemy territory and 
try to bomb the fuel depot while fighting off 
five enemy warplanes. Good Luck! 

NOW FOR MODELS I £ III! 
16K tape... $25. 00 
32K disk. ..$33. 50 



THE PROGRAM STORE • Pept8E02Box9609- 4200 Wisconsin Ave, NW ■ Washington, P.C 20016 



tern 



Price 



Postage $1 .QQ 
Total 



n CHECK nVISA 

□ MASTERCARD MC Bank #. 



name 
addr 
city 



state 



zip 



Card# 



Exp 



J. 



REVIEW 



Now you can run your Z80 at 2.5 MHz. 



The SK-2 Clock Modification Kit 



SK-2 

Mumford Micro Systems 

Summerland, CA 

Model I 

$24.95 



C. H. Ballard 

Box 824 

Monticello, MN 55362 



Many personal computer 
owners are disappointed 
with their machine's lack of 
speed. The TRS-80 has taken 
quite a bit of flak in this regard 
because the Z80 microproces- 
sor does not run at its best clock 
speed of 2.5 Megahertz. 

Some people substitute a 
new, higher-frequency oscillator 
crystal for the original crystal on 
the CPU. But you are stuck at 
the new higher speed forever, 
leading to a host of software 
problems (unreadable tapes and 
disk load errors). 

Choosing A Clock 
Modification Kit 

Before you attempt any mod- 
ification, be aware that you will 
void Radio Shack's 90-day war- 
rantee by opening the case. 
Also, do not attempt the mod 
yourself unless you are confi- 
dent with your abilities. 

In my search for a clock modi- 
fication, I established the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

• The modification should re- 
quire a minimum of modifica- 
tions to the original equipment 
circuits. This makes it easier to 
restore the circuit to its original 
configuration if the need arises. 

• The speed option should be 

180 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



switchable between low and 
high speeds to minimize the im- 
pact on software. Mechanical 
switching should enable the 
user to determine what speed 
the machine comes up in when 
the power is turned on. Software 
switching through an output in- 
struction would be a nice 
feature. 

• Disk system interaction 
should be accounted for: A hard- 
ware option should slow the 
system back down when disk 
accesses are made. 

• The modification should in- 
dicate what speed the computer 
is running in at all times. 

• The modification should 
cost as little as possible to 
operate. 

With these criteria in mind. I 
began my search. My search 
gradually narrowed in on the 
SK-2 clock modification pro- 
duced by Mumford Micro Sys- 
tems. Before buying, I wrote 
for information on installation 
difficulty and was rewarded by 
return mail with a complete 
copy of the actual installation 
instructions. 

First, decide which options 
you intend to implement on the 
SK-2. After removing the six 
screws holding the keyboard 
unit together, determine where 
to mount the SK-2 circuit board. 
I have Level II ROMs and Radio 
Shack's XRX-2 cassette modifi- 
cation board; only a small relo- 
cation of the Level II ROMs was 
necessary to mount the SK-2 
board. 

The options list of the SK-2 
takes almost two pages. First, 
you have the choice of optional 
speeds. In its standard configur- 



ation, the SK-2 allows a 50 per- 
cent increase or a 50 percent de- 
crease in selectable clock 
speed. (A decreased clock 
speed is useful for slowing 
down listings, debugging and 
for cutting down on keybounce 
problems during long input ses- 
sions.) You can have only one 
speed as an option. The 100 per- 
cent speed increase option re- 
quires some rework of the SK-2 
board and probable replace- 
ment of certain circuits on the 
CPU (switching to a Z80A(B) and 
faster 4116 memories) that can 
be substituted in place of the 50 
percent speed reduction. 

I believe the 100 percent 
speed up should be offered as 
an SK-3 kit, with a new board not 
requiring rework and including a 
Z80A to complete the package. 
Implementing that option with 
the present kit is somewhat 
tedious. 

Having chosen which speeds 
to include, you must make them 
available to the user. You can in- 
stall a simple single-pole switch 
to select normal speed or an op- 
tional speed. If you want two op- 
tional speeds, you need another 
single-pole, double-throw switch. 
For software control alone, you 
can wire the SK-2 to accept an 
OUT 255,32 to change to the op- 
tional speed, or an OUT 255,0 to 
return to normal speed. The soft- 
ware option requires two more 
connections to the CPU. 

As a grand-slam, you can 
choose the "Combination Op- 
tion." This scheme requires re- 
placing the single-pole, option- 
al-speed switch with a single- 
pole, double-throw switch with a 
center-off position. In one on po- 



sition, the CPU is at normal 
speed at all times. In the center- 
off position, the clock runs at 
the optional speed. When in the 
remaining on position, the 
speed is software selectable. I 
chose the combination option 
as well as two switch-selectable 
optional speeds (50 percent 
faster and 50 percent slower). 
This required mounting two 
small toggle switches (the type 
often used on computer front 
panels for address switches) on 
the front of the keyboard case 
bottom. When mounted in the 
case there was about V« inch of 
clearance between the switch 
terminals and the circuit board. I 
used a hot soldering iron to melt 
a hole through the case where I 
wanted the switch and then 
trimmed the still-warm plastic 
with an X-acto knife to remove 
burrs and established the final 
hole dimension. This method is 
less stressful on the circuit as- 
sembly than drilling on the case. 
A disk-based system should 
automatically return to normal 
speed when any disk I/O occurs. 
This requires connecting the 
SK-2 to the motor-on signal from 
the expansion interface. The in- 
structions suggest running a 
wire with a connector in the mid- 
dle to the expansion interface. I 
felt it looked more professional 
to use two connectors — one on 
the keyboard and one on the in- 
terface. A connecting cable with 
mating connectors could be 
used rather than a loose wire 
dangling from the keyboard and 
expansion interface. 

Finally, if you would like an in- 
dication that the CPU is not run- 
ning at normal speed, consider 




LANGUAGE 
TEACHER 

By Cindy and Andrew Bartorillo 

Learn the basics of foreign language with your TRS-80* model I or III. Choose among French, 
Italian, German and Spanish, and do the essential vocabulary study in a manner more satisfying 
and interesting than the traditional format. 

An enhanced skill-and-drill form of computer assisted instruction, each LANGUAGE TEACHER 
offers hundreds of word combinations, verb conjugations and phrases. You choose the topic of 
the drill and whether you wish foreign language-to-English or English-to-foreign language (e.g., 
phrases, Spanish-to-English). There is an option for having multiple-choice answers and for being 
retested on missed items. The program provides a running percentage of correct answers. 
Full printer capability and a great deal of "human engineering" further enhance the programs. 
Teachers will appreciate the ample documentation and the ability to get printouts of quizzes. 
Acorn publishes several foreign languages in the LANGUAGE TEACHER series. Currently 
available are French, Italian, German I & II, and Spanish I & II. Each program is $29.95 on disk and 
requires a TRS-80* model I or III with a minimum of 32K RAM and one disk drive. 



ACORN PROGRAMS ARE AVAILABLE AT FINE COMPUTER STORES EVERYWHERE 



fYOUI(\ 



Ye, 



By Chuck Acree 

A comprehensive genealogical 
program that lets you set up a data 
base of information about your 
ancestors. It will display/print a 
complete "pedigree" or a 3- 
generation ancestral chart. As a 
novelty, the program will display a 
U.S. migration map. 

Information access is virtually 
unlimited, with full search 
capabilities on any key field. 16K 
RAM has space for 45-55 records. 
A 32K cassette system will hold 
about 175; a 48K, about 300. In all 
cases, a disk system will hold 
about 75 less. Available for 
TRS-80* models I and III on tape or 
disk for just $29.95. 



MONEY 
MANAGER 



LOST COLONY 





By Andrew P. Bartorillo 

A complete management tool for 
the home budget, it accurately 
keeps track of your checkbook 
and provides an easy method of 
budget allocation. 

You can store information on up to 
100 entries per month (250 with 
48K), specify automatic with- 
drawals, keep records of tax- 
deductibles, and record expenses 
by user-defined category. You 
can even divide charge ac- 
count payments into multiple 
categories. Lineprinter output is 
supported. 

Requires TRS-80* model I or III 
with a minimum of 32K and one 
disk drive. Order now for only 
$39.95. 



By David Feitelberg 

It's the world's first deep space 
colony and you are the economic 
manager. A remarkable simula- 
tion, LOST' COLONY arms you 
with maps and charts as tools for 
resource management. You 
assign human and robotic labor, 
explore new land, and set produc- 
tion quotas. At the same time you 
must determine equitable pay 
scales and taxes. 
Communicate through your Model 
I or III using full sentences or 
short commands. A challenging 
game, it might give you insight in- 
to real life management as well. 
Available on 16K tape or 32K disk 
for only $19.95 each. 
"Trademark of Tandy Corp. 




(202) 544-4259 

Acorn 

Software Products, Inc. 



634 North Carolina Avenue, S.E., Washington, DC. 20003 



ALL ACORN ENTERTAINMENT 

SOFTWARE SUPPLIED FOR 

TRS-80* MODELS I & III 

MAIL ORDERS: Include $2.00 shipping & handling 
(D.C. residents add 6% sales tax). 
CHARGE CARD CUSTOMERS: Call (202) 544-4259 
for fastest service. 



^34 



►'See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 181 



the LED option. You must sup- 
ply and mount a small, low-pow- 
er LED (the current limitation is 
not specified) and run leads to 
two points on the SK-2 circuit 
board. The LED lights any time 
the CPU is not running at normal 
speed. If you have more than 
one optional speed, I suggest 
labeling the switch positions. 

Actual installation is relative- 
ly simple, although I would rec- 
ommend you have a copy of the 
Technical Reference Handbook 
(Radio Shack Catalog No. 26- 
2103) for the TRS-80 when you 
do the installation. All options 
require that one trace be cut and 
four wires be soldered to four 
points on the CPU. If you want 
software-selectable speeds, 
two additional wires must be 
soldered onto the CPU. An ex- 
cellent figure is provided for the 
first four connections and the 
trace cut. 

The same cannot be said for 
the two software selection op- 
tion connections; a clear figure 
would simplify the process both 
here and in the Expansion Inter- 
face option. 



Using the SK-2 

With my fingers crossed, I 
turned on the power for the in- 
famous smoke test. No curly 
white wisps ascended from the 
case vents and the CRT lit up 
with the memory size question. 
(I left the Expansion Interface 
disconnected in case of trou- 
ble.) I entered a small test pro- 
gram from the instructions. I 
could get the printout to speed 
up and slow down by flipping 
the switches correctly. Once in a 
great while the CPU hung up 
when I switched from normal to 
high speed. The problem never 
occurred when switching from 
normal to low speed or when the 
speed change was software se- 
lected, so it may be a contact 
bounce problem. 

My first real problem came 
when I attached the Expansion 
Interface to the keyboard; I 
could not run reliably at high 
speed. While frantically re-read- 
ing the instructions I found a 
note on page four of the instruc- 
tions for owners of the new Ex- 
pansion Interface. The cable 
from the keyboard to the new 

182 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



interface is not buffered (there 
is no black box in the middle 
of the cable). A restrictive hard- 
ware timing arrangement in the 
interface must be undone be- 
fore the memory in the interface 
will run at the higher speed. Im- 
portant information like this 
should be earlier in the instruc- 
tions, tell you how to identify the 
problem interfaces, and help 
you locate the circuits to be 
modified with illustrations. In 
my case the circuit board was 
laid out so I could locate the 
circuits by counting chips; the 
Expansion Interface Service 
Manual (Catalog No. 26-1140) 
was also a help. The modifica- 
tion instructions were badly 
convoluted; they should have 
been step-by-step. 

Once I had made the changes 
to the Expansion Interface, I no 
longer had a problem. 

User Experience 

I have been satisfied with the 
performance of the SK-2. I now 
use software corrections to 
allow disk operation at higher 
speeds. I obtained these correc- 
tions from Mumford; by now 
they may be part of the standard 
instructions. The author of 
these corrections has also pub- 
lished them in an April 1981, 80 
Microcomputing article. 

I am still able to occasionally 
hang the system during me- 
chanical switching over to high 
speed, so for critical applica- 
tions I use software switching. 
The LED option prevents grief 
when I forget to switch out of 
high speed and try to load an old 
cassette. 

The Mumford Micro Systems 
SK-2 clock modification lives up 
to all its advertising. The com- 
pany is responsive to questions 
and inquiries, both before and 
after the sale and orders are 
rapidly processed. 

Consider the SK-2 as a cost- 
effective clock modification 
alternative that can be imple- 
mented in the software-con- 
trolled version. 

If my experience with this 
modification could be of any 
use to you, feel free to write me 
at the address above or contact 
me through EMAIL on Compu- 
Serve at 70225,332. ■ 



SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 

DALLAS, TEXAS 




SPECIAL PURCHASE! 
SPECIAL PRICES! 

All Equipment 100% RADIO SHACK® 

FULL WARRANTY 
NO foreign memory, NO foreign drives 

RETAIL YOUR PRICE 

TRS-80 COMPUTERS® 

Model II 64K w/built in 8" drive $3899.00 $3220.00 

Model II 64K with 4 8" drives $6249.00 $5249.00 

Model III 48k w/dual 5'/ 4 drives, 

RS232 $2495.00 $2048.00 

Model III 16K Level 3 Basic $999.00 $850.00 

Color Computer 32K $749.00 $600.00 

PRINTERS 

RS Line Printer V $1860.00 $1549.00 

RS Line Printer VI $1160.00 $1049.00 

RS Line Printer VII :.. $399.00 $330.00 

RS Line Printer VIII $799.00 $649.00 

RS Daisy Wheel II $1960.00 $1674.00 

RS Plotter/Printer $1460.00 $1299.00 

DISKETTES (Sold in case lots of 100 only!) 

Memorex 5'/4" single density /single sided $195.00 

Verbatim 5 l A" double density/ single sided $215.00 

Memorex 8" double density/single sided $260.00 

Verbatim 8" double density/single sided $325.00 



All orders for above items must be prepaid by 
cashiers check or money order. No COD's or 
personal checks. All orders are shipped freight 
collect. Texas residents add 5 % sales tax or photo 
copy of tax permit if dealer. 

Radio Shack & TRS-80 are registered trademarks of the Tandy Corporation. Software 

Concepts is not affilliated with Tandy or Radio Shack. 



SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 

13534 Preston Rd. Suite 142 

Dallas, Texas 75240 

(214)458-0330 



^•299 





PTS 

Dallas, Texas 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS FOR HOME & BUSINESS 



SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 



OTHER FINE SOFTWARE 



Who is Software Concepts? We are the originators ALL NEW ELECTRIC PENCIL!!! 

of Special Delivery wordprocessing software for the now AVAILABLE FOR THE MOD III! While the original 

TRS-80. We are now expanding our product line to PENCIL set a standard that other editors have yet 

include items used in our daily business operations, to achieve, the NEW ELECTRIC PENCIL reaches even 

We consider these to be better than any other greater heights with many exciting new features Expansion Interface 

product we have tried for its price/ performance that make it the easiest-to-use text editor available Disk Drives " 

ratio. If we sell it - we use it! for the TRS-80 Mod I or III!! 

SPECIAL DELIVERY Elect " c Penc " ms '° n 1" m% 

EDAS 

This is the assembler from Misosys which is used 
assemblies of Special Delivery. We had real 



NEC 8000 Computer 

Z80a compatible, 4MHZ, 64K ram, color supported, 
RS-232, 163. 8K per disk, parallel interface. 5 
function keys, numeric keypad 

NEC 8000 keyboard unit $1200.00 

Green phosphor screen $250.00 



$1200.00 

Parallel Printer Cable $44.00 



"...If you're presently looking for a mailing list 
processor, this represents the current state of the j ' r '" a j 



art 

80 MICROCOMPUTING ■■ 80 REVIEWS - JULY 1980 

SPECIAL DELIVERY is the best mail list processor 
available for the TRS-80, just ask our customers! 
Use Special Delivery to maintain your mailing iist 
with fill-in-the-form ease. You create, edit, sort, 
extract, and otherwise manipulate your mailing list 
with the speed and ease of use possible only in 
100% machine language software. Special Delivery 
will merge data from the mail list into a letter 
created by your own text editor (Scripsit, Electric 
Pencil, etc.) to generate a "personalized form 
letter" to any or all names in the list. Print free 
form mailing labels, envelopes, even legal docu- 
ments! Print any character (including escape 
codes) your printer is capable of printing! Boldface 
and underscore is supported for most printers, now 
including the Daisy Wheel II! 



headaches until this came along. A must for any 

assy, language programmer. 

EDAS MOD l/MOD III $75.00 

THE DISASSEMBLER 

This is simply the most advanced disassembler we 
have ever seen. Creates EDAS source code, inserts 
predefined labels, disassemble disk or memory, 
generates ORGS & EQUates. By Ed Stitt. 
THE Disassembler - Mod I, III $89.00 



LDOS 

Features previously available only on a 
mainframe. Real powerhouse DOS. Good 
support. 

NEWDOS80V2.0 

See above. Fantastic BASIC enhancements. 
The well equipped software developer will 
own both LDOS & NEWDOS but one or the 
other is a must. 

LDOS $159.00 

NEWDOS V2.0 $145.00 



EPSON PRINTERS 

Epson has become the standard by which other low- 
cost printers are measured. Highly recommended! 

MX80 $510.00 

MX80F/T $650.00 

MX70 $419.00 

MX100 $785.00 

Printer Cable $35.00 

TRS80 Bus Board/Cable $100.00 

GRAPHTRAX80 $85.00 

Ribbons $14.00 

Print Heads $28.00 

Apple Board/Cable $110.00 

DRIVE TABS 

Dress up your system with professionally engraved 

drive number tabs. Numbers thru 3. Avoid 

confusion. 

Setof 4 $3.50 



HARDWARE 



SPECIAL DELIVERY includes: 

MAIL FORM: data entry at its best, just fill in the 

form! Sort, extract, page forward and back, insert/ 

delete, more! 

MAILRITE: print letters, etc. created with your 

editor while inserting text from your MAILFORM list. 

SEVERAL printer drivers (EDAS source code as well 

as /cmd files), and letter and list samples to get 

you started. 

XTRA! SPECIAL DELIVERY includes: 
EVERYTHING in regular SPECIAL DELIVERY. 
Enhanced MAILRITE: with the ability to print varia- 
ble text from a "KEY" file (greatly expanding the 
capacity of each record in your list). 
MAILABEL: 1,2, 3, or 4 across label printer. 

MAILSORT: will sort by any field, a full 40 track Another breakthrough. Add double density to your 
double density data diskette (over 1500 names) in 



PRODUCTS WANTED 

If you have a machine language program that is the 
best there is, contact Software Concepts. We are 
interested in publishing all first rate software. 

DISCOUNTS 

Users groups and computer clubs, write for group 
discount information. 

OTHER SOFTWARE AVAILABLE. 
Call if you don't see what you need. 



Add 3% Shipping & Handling 



DATA SEPARATOR 

The lifesaver. If you have a MOD I with disk drives , . 

and no data separator you have problems. Order Texas Residents add D% bales lax On 

from us or someone else but get a data separator. 

Data Separator $27.95 

DOUBLER 



MOD I. Includes built in data separator. 

Doubler $165.95 



DISKETTES 

20 Name Brand diskettes packaged in bulk. Re- 
inforced hub, double density, double sided. 
Pkgof 20-5V4 inch $55.00 

GREEN SCREENS 



only48K! 

ZIPSORT: sorts on zip only, but will handle over 

4500 names! 

NOTE TO 
REGISTERED OWNERS 

Registered SPECIAL DELIVERY owners can upgrade 

to XTRA! by returning their ORIGINAL disk with Not much difference between green screens but 

$74.00 + $2.00 shipping and handling. everybody should have one. If you don't buy ours, 

FOR YOUR MODEL I OR III: SSfflSn in Si 7 Q1 

(requires minimum of 32K, single drive) ™nn i/i mw i'nn %??ll 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $125 MODII/LLtULX 100 **.» 

XTRA SPECIAL DELIVERY $199 

FOR YOUR MODEL II: IJG BOOKS 

(requires TRSDOS version 2.0 & does NOT work Disk Mysteries $21.50 

with Scripsit) BASIC Faster & Better $28.95 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $199 BASIC Decoded $28.95 



all hardware items. 
Specify whether MOD I, II, or III when ordering. 

(214) 458-0330 

MasterCard & Visa charge customers 

may leave order on 

Micronet 70130,232 

SOFTWARE CONCEPTS 

13534 Preston Rd. Suite 142 

Dallas, Texas 75240 

or 

visit our new retail store at 

1 16 Preston Valley 

Shopping Center 

Dallas, Texas 

Dealer enquiries invited. ,** 

TRS-80 & Scripsit are Reg. Trademarks of Tandy Corp. 



HARDWARE 



Tie 'em all together for $100! 



Networking on a Shoestring 



Donald R. Meinke 

2507 Blaine SE 

Grand Rapids, Ml 49507 



One method of stringing sev- 
eral TRS-80's together is to 
buy Radio Shack's Network I 



Controller. The controller costs 
$499. Since it basically contains 
an amplifier and a switching cir- 
cuit, I built a system to do the 
same thing that costs only 
about $100. 

As a teacher of physics and 
computer math at Creston High 
school in Grand Rapids, Michi- 
gan, I have 10 TRS-80s that I have 



Fig. 1. Block Diagram of System 



networked together. The master 
computer (Photo 1) has an ex- 
pansion interface with 48K of 
memory and a disk drive. I have 
run the master computer using 
only 16K of memory and Ex- 
atron's Stringy Floppy for mass 
storage. 

The system scheme is shown 
in Fig. 1. The ear and auxiliary 
plugs for output to the tape re- 
corder are plugged into a stereo 
amplifier. One channel of the 
amplifier is used to send signals 
to the remote computers and 
the other channel is used to re- 
ceive signals from the remote 
computers. A three-wire con- 
ductor runs from the amplifier to 
the remote units. There is a com- 
mon ground for the send and re- 
ceive lines and a parallel circuit 
coming off the receive line that 
runs to a Small Systems Soft- 
ware TRS-232 interface which 
drives the printer. Any printer 
having an RS-232 or 20 ma inter- 



face can be used in this system. 
I am driving a Decwriter LA-36. 
At each remote unit there is a 
switch that allows the student 
to control several options (see 
Photo 2 and Fig. 2). 

Option 1 

Option 1 allows the student to 
receive any program being sent 
by the master computer. The 
student must have his switch in 
the receive position and must 
also have typed and entered 
the command Load. I am using 
Level II Basic from Microsoft, 
so Load is a legal command. 
CLOAD would be used with 
Level III Basic. On the master 
computer SAVE "name" or 
CSAVE "name" would be en- 
tered. Of course the program to 
be sent should previously have 
been loaded into the master 
computer. 

Pushing the Enter key on the 
master computer will send the 




Photo 1. Master Computer: Model 1 48K with single disk drive and 
Stringy Floppy. 

184 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Photo 2. Switch: REC — Receive from master; TAPE — Tape 
recorder only; PRINT — Send to printer or master. 



program out the auxilliary jack 
on the tape recorder interface. 
The signal enters the amplifier 
where it is boosted to the neces- 
sary level to be picked up by as 
many remote computers as are 
requesting that program, i find I 
need the sending channel ampli- 
fier volume control turned up 
halfway to send to all com- 
puters at once. Once the volume 
control is set, it needs no further 
adjustment. I have read that the 
volume multiplication factor 
needs to be 10 to 1. 

Each remote computer will re- 
ceive the program as if it were 
coming off the tape recorder. 
The asterisks will blink normally 
and the baud rate will be 500. In 
effect we are merely bypassing 
the tape recorder while sending 
a program, greatly increasing 
the reliability of the load. If the 
master computer successfully 
loaded the program, then the re- 
mote will also have a successful 
load. The only exception to this 
is if the master is using a DOS 
and the clock is not turned off 
through the CMD'T" function. 

Option 2 

To send a program back to the 
master computer the student 
must have his switch in the send 
mode. Here the role of the mas- 
ter and remote are reversed. 
LOAD or CLOAD has been typed 
on the master and the Enter key 
pushed. SAVE"name" or 
CSAVE"name" has been typed 
and the enter key pushed on the 
remote. The signal travels from 
the remote to the second chan- 
nel on the amplifier. The volume 
control on this channel is also 
turned up one half. When the 
program has loaded on the mas- 
ter it is saved on disk or stringy 
floppy. 

This system allows students 
working on projects in physics 
to send me their programs, and 
obviates the need for cassette 
tape. 

Option 3 

This option is very similar to 
Option 2. The student switch 
setting is the same, but the 
printer is turned on. Since the 
printer parallels the receive line 
for the master computer, the 
signal also passes through the 
TRS-232 interface. Now the stu- 



dent is able to print whatever is 
on his computer. 

Our set-up is such that the 
student can LLIST his program 
to the printer or, using a special 
software command, List and run 
his program on the printer. The 
output will go simultaneously to 
the screen of the remote com- 
puter and the printer, so the stu- 
dent will be able to see exactly 
what is printing. The master 
computer printer also has a 
TRS-232 interface. It would be 
possible to have both printers 
Listing a program at the same 
time. 

Option 4 

One remote unit may send a 
program to one or more remote 
units by bypassing the master 
computer and routing the signal 
from the receive line into the 
amplifier and back out the send 
line. Any remote in the receive 
position with the Load com- 
mand entered would receive the 
program. 

Option 5 

The computer math classes 
use tape for mass storage. The 
remote switches may select 
tape recorder only. Tape record- 
er use is completely cut off 
unless this switch selection is 
made. This is to prevent some- 
one from leaving their switch in 
the send or receive position and 
then trying to Load or Save with 
tape. I don't want signals on the 
line that don't belong there. 

Why Network TRS-80S? 

The idea to network com- 
puters did not originate with the 
need to send, receive or print stu- 
dent programs. When I switched 
from a time-share system with 
two terminals to a system with 
10 micros I created a problem 
for myself. Each of the nine re- 
mote micros has two resident 
programs in RAM; Level III Basic 
and a printer driver. 

Level III offers most of the ad- 
vantages of DOS except DOS in- 
put and output. There are several 
other advantages of Level III; 
two of these are important to my 
setup. Level III offers keyboard 
debounce and less sensitive 
cassette I/O, which has saved 
me a great deal of hassle with 
the old style keyboards on the 



Model I. Level III resides in low 
RAM. 

The printer driver for the 
TRS-232, called Formatter (from 
Small Systems Software), al- 
lows great versatility in printing. 
This program resides in high 
RAM. Both these programs are 
in machine code which makes 
them very sensitive to the tape 
recorder volume setting. Each 
morning I would have to load 
nine micros with both these pro- 
grams from nine different tape 
recorders. This was a time and 
load reliability problem. To 
avoid this I left all the computers 
on overnight which made me un- 



easy. With the network system I 
can load all the remote com- 
puters in 10 minutes by myself 
and in about five minutes with 
my lab assistant's help. 

With machine code programs 
the System command must be 
used to load them. To send 
these programs from the master 
computer I load them from disk 
along with a third program 
called RSM (also from Small 
Systems Software). RSM is a 
monitor program that has a 
Punch command similar to the 
Punch command used by T-Bug. 
Once this is loaded into the 
master computer, the System 



fcs 



± 



(§> 



£~ 



Fig. 2. Switch Box Wiring Diagram 



TAPE RECORDER AUX 




Fig. 3. Switch Wiring Diagram 




Photo 3. Front of amplifier Selector to tape/tuner: Mode— Stereo; 
Tone— Fully counter-clockwise; Left— Receive channel; Right- 
Send channel. 

80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 185 



command can be entered on all 
the remotes. The name given in 
response to the *? query can be 
anything; I usually use a single 
letter. Once all nine remotes are 



AUX 
(GREY] 



n 



SEND 



l_. 



ready, each resident program is 
sent out by the Punch command 
with the beginning and ending 
memory addresses. This tech- 
nique can be used with any ma- 



n 



.j 



Fig. 4. Switch Schematic 




chine code. 

Wiring the Switch 

Wiring the switches takes the 
most time in this project. You 
can eliminate the switches from 
the system and solder phono 
plugs into the line, so you can 
plug the ear and auxilliary plugs 
directly into the line from each 
remote. I originally designed the 
system this way, but it puts a lot 
of strain on the cassette cable. 
The students had to plug and 
unplug the cables to go back 
and forth between the recorder 
and the receive and send 
modes. It was also a lot of has- 
sle to load the computers every 
morning by this method. 

To wire the switch, refer to the 
schematic in Fig. 4 and the wir- 
ing diagrams in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. 
I used a two-pole, six posi- 
tion switch. This many connec- 
tors are not needed but this 
switch was readily available at 
Radio Shack (catalog # 275- 
1386). When wiring the switch, 
remember to have a common 
ground for the ear, auxiliary and 
three-wire conductor from the 



Photo 4. Remote Micros 



2 miniature phono plugs 

2 miniature phono jacks 

1 subminiature phono plug 

1 subminiature phono jack 

1 rotary switch, 2 pole 6 position 

1 component box 

Fig. 5. Parts list 



master computer. A simple 
jumper wire between the ground 
connections on the ear and aux- 
iliary jacks will suffice. Once the 
ground jumper is in, solder the 
send-receive ground to it. 

System Cost 

The major cost of this net- 
work system comes from the 
purchase of a stereo amplifier, 
Radio Shack catalog #31-1982A, 
($30). The other major cost is the 
remote switches, again pur- 
chased from Radio Shack ($58). I 
put the switches together my- 
self so there was no labor 
charge. The last charge came 
from the purchase of two rolls of 
75 foot three-conductor wire. 
One roll was used for the net- 
work and the other as hook-up 
wire for the switches. 

Time Share? 

It would be convenient if the 
system could use software for 
all the options mentioned above 
and also if the baud rate could 
be increased so programs could 
be saved on disk, eliminating 
tape completely. This would 
bring the system very close to 
being a timesharing one— not a 
timesharing system in the sense 
of using time from the master 
computer, but in being able to 
save and load rapidly to the 
master. This system would be 
helpful not only in the class- 
room, but anywhere a number of 
micros need to be combined.! 



AUTHORIZED TRS 80® DEALER #R491 





26- 1062 

Model III 16K RAM 
Model III, BASIC 




26 - 4002 

Model II, 64K 



TRS-80 Color Computer With 
Extended Color BASIC 

$825.00 

WE ACCEPT CHECK, MONEY ORDER, OR PHONE ORDERS WITH VISA OR MASTERCARD. SHIPPING 
COSTS WILL BE ADDED TO CHARGE ORDERS. DISK DRIVES, PRINTERS, PERIPHERALS, AND SOFT- 
WARE- YOU NAME IT, WE'VE GOT IT. WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR COMPLETE PRICE LIST. 
C& S ELECTRONICS, LTD. 32 EAST MAIN ST. MILAN, MICH. 48160 

(313)439-1508 (313)439-1400 " U5 



I C & S ELECTRONICS MART IS AN AUTHORIZED TRS 80" SALES CENTER STORE #R491 

186 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 











STATISTICAL 


s 


I 


fc 


mm 


P 


n 


PACKAGE FOR 
MICROCOMPUTERS 


Med Systems is proud to announce SPM, the Statistical Package for Microcomputers. Written by Bruce Powel Douglass (see below), this 
is an integrated package of nine different programs providing a wide range of statistical analyses and data manipulations. 

Each of the seven menu-driven SPM analysis programs can be run as a separate, self-contained analysis program. Each allows data entry 
and editing, with file size limited only by the computer's memory capacity. Files created by each program are optimized for speed in that 
i procedure. 

The disk version of SPM has two additional data handling programs which make it an integrated statistical package. In this version, files 

for one procedure can be transformed into files for any other procedures using FILETRAN. Previously entered files may be concatenated or 

j new variables added using the EDIT program. Files can be merged and new variables created from functions of other variables. EDIT also 

provides 1 7 different data transformations, including linear, logarithmic, and exponentiation transforms, absolute values, and trigonometric 

functions. Transforms can be nested 30 deep. 

The seven analysis programs in SPM provide a wide range of statistical analyses, from simple descriptive statistics to complex nonlinear 
regressions. Hard copy output is available from all programs. 
I The individual programs can be run in 1 6K. Tape versions are sold separately, see below. Tape versions save data to tape, disk versions to 
i disk. WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND ALL DISK USERS TO BUY THE DISK VERSION. Since FILETRAN and EDIT are only available on disk, 
I full use of SPM's many features can simply not be made using tape. 

SPM offers features usually found only in mainframe statistical packages. In fact, it offers some not found in mainframe statistical 
packages! SPM is incredibly flexible, allowing transformations and combinations of variables to be created and analyzed. SPM is one of the 
finest professional microcomputer products ever offered. / 
I ABOUT THE AUTHOR . . . Bruce Powel Douglass is a familiar name to most readers of '80 Microcomputing and other computing 
magazines. His software reviews, letters, and articles appear often, usually in regard to the scientific and statistical applications of 
microcomputers. He will soon have his own monthly column in '80 Microcomputing. Mr. Douglass is a candidate for a Ph.D. degree in 
I neurophysiology at the University of South Dakota. 

SPM (Seven Analysis Programs) TRS-80 Cassette: $74.95 (All nine programs) TRS-80 Diskette: $89.95 

_ __ — _ -. _^_-_-^^^__— —_^— -— = 




. . . and for the kids . . . 

THE PLAYFUL PROFESSOR is a mathematical tutorial that provides 
instruction in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, with or without 
fractions. The program places the user(s) in a 60 room mansion haunted by an 
intelligent ghost who holds the key to the only exit. Correct problem answers are 
rewarded with moves through the castle. Incorrect answers prompt a full screen 
tutorial in a step-by-step, blackboard format that is easily understood by most 
children. Options include 3 difficulty levels, choice of problem type, one or two 
players, and split difficulty levels to allow parent and child to compete equally. A 
"Pass" feature allows input of a password to bypass the problems and leave only 
the game. Graphics are fast and extensive. All aspects of solving, including 
finding common denominators, reducing to lowest terms, and graphic long 
division are included. 

The Playful Professor was judged one of the Top Ten Educational Programs by 
Robert Jackson, Mead School, as published in Microcomputers in Education, 
Vol. 1 No. 1 0. He says "every home with children and a computer should own this 
program. At the Mead School we use it daily." 

"My 7 year old daughter had a fun way to review her math this summer, and my 
4 year old daughter enjoys playing using the "pass" feature (what an experience it 
is to watch a 4 year old use a computer!)." S.C., Highland, Md. 



The Playful Professor 

TRS-80 Cassette: $14.95 



TRS-80 Diskette: $17.95 



MED SYSTEMS SOFTWARE 

RO. BOX 2674 CHAPEL HILL NC 27514 

TO ORDER, CALL: 1-800-334-5470 



S 128 



• See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 187 



GENERAL 



The Key Box 



Basic Level II 
Model I 
32K RAM 
TRSDOS 



Eliza and Micromusic board a disk. 



Two Transfers Please 



Bettye Hollins 
1525 Farnell Court 
Decatur, GA 30033 



Previous articles in 80 Micro- 
computing illustrated pro- 
cedures for transferring some of 
Radio Shack's Level II system 
tapes to disk. The utilities given 
by Irwin Rappaport in "Get 
T-Bug High," January 1980; 
"Relocate with PEEKPOKE," 
February 1980 and Robert 
Butler's "Edtasm on Disk," 
February 1980 make it possible 



to use Edtasm, T-Bug and Micro- 
chess 1.5 with the ease and effi- 
ciency of disk input. I had no 
success wishing Eliza and 
Micromusic to disk so I tried the 
procedures on these two system 
tapes. 

The heart of the procedure is 
the simple, powerful block move 
but its application requires the 
starting, ending and entry ad- 
dresses of the program you wish 
to transfer. To determine this re- 
quires a little work, but unless 
you love cassette input, it is 
worth the effort. 



8100 


00100 


ORG 


8100H 




8100 210043 


00110 


ID 


HL ,4 30011 


•.SOURCE ADDRESS 


8103 110083 


00120 


LD 


DE.83O0H 


;DEST. ADDRESS 


8106 010007 


00130 


ID 


BC.0700H 




8109 EDB0 


0J140 


IDIR 




;M0VE IT 


810B C3191A 


00150 


JP 


1A19H 


; RETURN TO BASIC2 


0000 


00160 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


5RR0RS 












Program Listing 1 





Starting Address 5000H 
Ending Address 7586H 

Org. 7FF0(32727) Org. A800H 

Source Address 5000H Source Address 8000H 

Dest. Address 8000H Dest. Address 5000H 

No. of bytes 358F No. ot bytes 358F 

Block Move #1 Block Move #2 

Save program using tapedisk 

Starting Address 8000H 
Ending Address A80FH 
Transfer Address A800H 

Fig. 1 



I examine memory before and 
after loading the program using 
T-BugHi which I use for ad- 
dresses lower than 7300H. This 
is where T-BugHi resides. First, 
get into Level II Basic and press 
the Reset button to prevent the 
loss of Level II while moving 



back into DOS. Load T-BugHi 
and note the contents of several 
memory locations starting at 
4000H. Level II Basic extends to 
51C8H. The result is a disk ver- 
sion of Eliza and Micromusic. 

To transfer Eliza to disk I used 
the procedure given by Robert 





Hex 


Dec. 


TRS-80 Dec. 


Start Peeking 


8300 


33533 


- 32003 


Stop Peeking 


89FF 


35318 


-30218 


Org. High Order Start 


43 


67 


67 


Org. High Order End 


49 


73 


73 


New High Order Start 


83 

Table 1 


131 


131 



8A00 


00100 


ORG 


8A00H 




8A0O 210083 


00110 


ID 


HL, 8 30011 


SOURCE ADDRESS 


8A03 110043 


0U120 


LD 


DE.4300H 


DEST. ADDRESS 


8A06 010007 


00130 


LD 


BC.0700H 




8A09 EDB0 


00140 


LDIR 






8A0B C30043 


00150 


JP 


4300H 




0000 


00160 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


iRRORS 


Program 


Listing 2 





1 

8SB9 




00100 




ORG 


88B9H 




7E88 




00110 


MSG 


EQU 


7E88H 




7E00 




00120 


DUMP 


EQU 


7E00H 




7E68 




00130 


DCB 


EQU 


7E68H 




88B9 


21887E 


00140 


SETUP 


LD 


HL.MSG 


;PUT QUERY IN HI. 


88BC 


CD6744 


00150 




CALL 


4467H 


; DISPLAY ON SCREEN 


88BF 


21687E 


00160 




LD 


HL.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


88C2 


0620 


00170 




LD 


B,32 


; LENGTH OF DCB 


88C4 


CD4000 


00180 




CALL 


4 OH 


; INPUT 


88C7 


78 


00190 




LD 


A.B 


;GET CHARACTER 


88C8 


B7 


00200 




OR 


A 


;TEST FOR ZERO 


88C9 


28EE 


00210 




JR 


Z .SETUP 


;GO IF NO INPUT 


88CB 


210C8A 


00220 




LD 


HL.8A0CH 


;USER START 


88CE 


110F00 


00230 




LD 


DE.0OOF11 


J (J OF REC TO WRITE 


88D1 


CD007E 


00240 




CALL 


DUMP 


;JUMP TO DUMP SUBROUTINE 


88D4 


C3FD88 


00250 




JP 


88FDH 


; RETURN TO PROGRAM 


0000 




00260 




END 






00001 


TOTAL 


iRRORS 




Progra 


m Listing 3 





188 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 




Rose 



You've cot 

TOTAL ACCESS 

( specializing In TRS80 *) 

TO YOUR COMPUTER HARDWARE & S OFTWARE 
NEEDS. CALL ROSE TODAY! 



© 



iv'e got 

• DISK DRIVES 

TA400 (40-T) S289 

TA800 (80-T) $419 

TA400 Flippy $319 

TA800 Flippy $439 

TA400-2 Dual Head $439 

TA800-2 Dual Head $549 

Complete with silver enclosure & power supply. 

All ta Drives are MPI. 

• CABLES 

2-Drive $23.95 

4-Drive $33.95 

Extender Cable $14.95 

• BARE DRIVES 

TA400B $259 

TA800B $389 

TA400B Flippy $289 

TA800B Flippy $409 

• EPSON PRINTERS 

MX80 $469.00 

MX80 F/T $579.00 

MX100 $799.00 

Parallel Cables $29.95 

MX 70-80 Ribbons $12.95 

• OPERATINC SYSTEMS 

TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Manual. . . . $19.95 

LDOS $139.95 

NEWDOS/80 $129.95 

DOSPLUS 3.3,3.3D $89.95 

• IRON 

Disk Drive Power Supply, 

Single $37 

Disk Drive Case (silver) and Base $19 
Memo rex Diskettes (bx of 10) . $25 

90 day warranty on DRIVES. Add $5.00 freight per 
drive in Cont. U.S. UPS COD charge $1 .50. There is also 
a 15 day FREE TRIAL on TA drives. If not completely 
satisfied I'll refund your money (less shipping). I'll 
take exception to improper use or mishandling. 

• RADIO SHACK COMPUTERS 

26-1061 Mill, LI. 4K $595 

26-1062 Mill, Ul, 16K $835 

26-1065 Mill, 48K, 1 Drive $1695 

26-1066 Mill, 48K-2 Dr-RS232. . $2099 
26-3001 4K Color Computer. . . $315 

26-3002 16K W/ext. Basic $485 

26-3003 32K w/ext. Basic $566 

26-3501 Pocket computer. . . . $185 
26-4002 Mil, 64K, 1-dr $3288 

• PERIPHERALS - Model I, II, III 

26-1140 OK Exp. interface $249 

26-1140 With 16K Mem. Tstd/Cuar 

$299 

26-1140 With 32K Mem. Tstd/Cuar 

$349 

26-1145 Ml RS232 W/cable $85 

26-1148 Mill RS232 W/cable $89 

26-1172 D.C. Modem I $135 

26-1173 D.C. Modem II $169 

26-1206 ctr-80 Recorder $51 

26-3008 CC joysticks, pr $21 

26-3010 13" color Video $353 

26-4150 Mil 8.4MB Disk $3820 

26-4151 Mil Hard Disk N0.2. . . $2970 
16K 200nsec Memory Guar lyr. $29 



The complete line of Radio Shack products is 
available through ta with standard RS limited 
warranty, call me for price and delivery. Just 
cause you don't see it don't mean we ain't got it. 
I ROSE 



k OTHER PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 

26-1158 Daisy Wheel II $1694 

26-1455 Acoustic Cover $339 

26-1447 Tractor Assy $208 

26-1448 Sheet Feeder $1111 

26-1165 Line Printer v $1581 

26-1166 Line Printer VI $986 

26-1167 Line Printer Vll $339 

26-1168 Line Printer Vlll $679 

26-1191 Flat Bed Plotter $1695 

26-1195 Digitizer $379 

ANADEX DP-9500, 9501 $1295 

NEC 7730 Spinwriter, 55cps. . $2484 
Daisy wheel Printer, 45cps. . . $1779 

Tractor for above $237 

Sheet Feeder for above $1250 

26-1308 Printer Stand $88 

26-4302 Printer Stand $129 

26-1401 or 4401 Printer cable. . $32 

• NEC COMPUTERS 

PC-8001A Keyboard & Processor. . . 

$1099 

PC86ii A Expansion "unit. '. '. '. '. . $699 
PC-8031A 2-drive Expansion 

Unit $1099 

PC-8041A Green Phos. Video. . $225 
PC-8043A HighRes color Mon. . $925 



ROSE'S 
SPECIAL 
OF THE 
MONTH 

•AEROCOMPS* 

ALL NEW 

double density 
controller 

ddc" $149.95 

Here's a Double Density Controller for 
Mod. 1 that does away with all those data 
separation problems that seem to keep 
cropping up! Rose wouldn't fun ya now, 
would she? Don't be scared of Double 
Density any more, aerocomp has design- 
ed some advanced circuitry that even I 
don't understand - but I do know it 
works. Better order now. Quanities are 
going to be a bit short. 

$189.95 complete 

With DOSplUS 3.3D. 

how many do you 
want? 12? 



ZENITH MONITORS 

12" screen * Green Phospher 
This is the one you have been waiting 
for. Well built, works great with the 
model I. Also has 40/80 column switch so 
the Apple folks can use it. 90 day warran- 
ty good Nationwide. Sell your old Model I 
monitor and be the first on your block to 
have a "real "green screen. 

12" zenith Green Phos. Mon $135 

Cable for Model I $7 



* RADIO SHACK SOFTWARE 

I have most all R/s software in stock 
and it can Pe yours at 15% off the 
R/S retail price. Call me for the 
latest availibility. 

DOUBLE DENSITY 

DATA SEPARATOR 

FROM AEROCOMP 

$49.95 

If VOU own a PERCOM "DOUBLER A", "DOUBLER 
ll"* or "LNDOubler" " upgrade it with the "DDS". 
Plugs right in. No more lock-out! you deserve 
one of these. 

ORDER NOW! 
TOLL FREE 
800-527-3582 

write or call ROSE TOLL FREE at 
1-800-527-3582. Texas residents call 
214-234-1770. Please use the toll 
free lines for orders and literature 
requests only. Technical help or ser- 
vice use the Texas line. Prices are 
mail order only. You pay by VISA or 
MASTERCARD, you can send check or 
money order (allow a couple of 
weeks for personal checks to clear) 
or order COD (we ship COD'S cash, 
certified check or money order on- 
ly). 25% deposit required on all COD 
orders. Rose will take American 
money in just ahout any form. Add 
freight (UPS where possiPle) on all 
orders.Texas residents cough up 5% 
sales tax. Allow 2-4 weeks for 
delivery. Order today - l need the 
money! 

TOTAL ACCESS. 

P.O. BOX 3002 
RICHARDSON, TX 75080 

214-234-1770 



Trademark of PERCOM DATA CO., "Trademark of LNW * TRS80 & Radio Shack are trademarks of Tandy Corp. copyright 1981 TOTAL ACCESS 



■ See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 189 



Butler for Edtasm. See Fig. 1. 
Follow instructions A through E 
below for Micromusic, substitut- 
ing the appropriate block 
moves. Eliza requires 16K, so 
you must have 32K to perform 
the transfer. 

For Micromusic, a simple 
transfer is insufficient. The pro- 
gram itself uses cassette input 
and output for loading and sav- 
ing the music you write. To 
change this requires appending 
a subroutine for disk input and 
output. By combining features 
from H. S. Gentry's "Spool and 
Despool" March 1980 80 Micro- 
computing, and William Barden, 
Jr.'s Dump/Read program, "As- 
sembly Line" November 1980, 80 
Microcomputing, with a disas- 
sembled listing of the program 
using NEWDOS disassembler, I 
obtained a fully operational disk 
program. 

The instructions are for a 32K 
system. In addition, you need a 
disk copy of Irwin Rappaport's 
PEEKPOKE program, February 
1 980, 80 Microcomputing. 

Loading and transferring the 
program. 

At DOS ready, enter Debug 
and press Enter, Break. Enter 
D8100, press Enter. Enter 
M8100, press Spacebar. 

Now enter the object code 
from block move #1, Program 
Listing 1. Enter G402D. Enter 
Debug (OFF). Enter Dir. 

At DOS Ready Enter Basic2. 
Enter System. Enter music. At 
the second ? Type /33023 
(8100H). Press the Reset button. 

At this point you have two op- 
tions, if you only want a disk ver- 
sion proceed to section E; if you 
want the full program, skip E 
and go to F. 

Enter Debug, press Break. 
Display 8A00H. Enter block 
move #2 as in block move #1 . En- 
ter G402D. Debug (off). Enter 
TAPEDISK/CMD. Save the pro- 
gram using HIMUSIC:0 8300 
89 FF 8A00 

The program now on disk will 
enter at 8A00H which will trans- 
fer the program from 8300H 
back to 4300H, and operate like 
the cassette version. 

Relocation 

At DOS Ready Enter Basic. 
Load and run PEEKPOKE. An- 

190 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



swer queries with the data in the 
last column of Table 1. Reloca- 
tion will take about 10 minutes 
and should display 124 changes. 
Unfortunately, more changes 
will have to be done manually. 
Press the Reset button. Enter 
Debug, press Break. Now make 
the changes listed in Table 2. 

Disk save and load 

Still in Debug Display 88B9 
and enter the code in Program 
Listing 3. Display 8917 and enter 
C33889. Display 8938 and enter 
the code in Program Listing 4. 
These two programs request 
Filespec when saving and load- 
ing, and then jump to the Dump/ 
Read subroutine. 

Dump/Read subroutine 

Now display 7E00H. Enter 
program in Program Listing 5. 
To enter the code starting at 
7E68H using Debug, perform the 
following: Leave 32 spaces from 
7E68H to 7E87H. At 7E88H, 
enter the ASCII code for the 
word, Filespec?. The code is 46, 
49. 4C, 45, 53, 50, 45, 43, 3F. 
Enter 0D at 7E91 and OF at 7E92 
and the object code is complete. 
Enter G402D. Enter DEBUG 
(OFF). Enter TAPEDISK/CMD. 
Save the program using DKMU- 
SIC/CMD:0 7E00 89FF 8300. 

You now have a copy of 
Micromusic on disk with disk 
save and load. The program will 
save and load 960 bytes or 15 
video lines of music. A word of 
caution: You must load DIR be- 
fore loading the program or the 
Break key will not operate prop- 
erly. Instead of going to com- 
mand, it will drop out of the pro- 
gram and go to Memory Size?. 

Running the program 

Center the program under 
DOS, it will load in and the blink- 
ing asterisk will appear. The pro- 



Address 


Contents 


Change To 


885 E 


4A 


8A 


8861 


4A 


8A 


886E 


4A 


8A 


88A2 


4A 


8A 


88E1 


4A 


8A 


8905 


4A 


8A 


890D 


4A 


8A 


8945 


4A 


8A 


89FB 


4A 

Table 2 


8A 



gram operates as in the Micro- 
music instructions except for 
save and load. To save your 
music, press the Break key. The 
screen will respond with Com- 
mand?; Enter Save or Load. The 
screen will respond with File- 
spec?. Type a one to eight letter 
title with or without an exten- 
sion. You can use MUS as an ex- 
tension to identify the songs on 
the disk. 

i also write the filespecs of all 



my songs on the screen as 
though I were composing a song 
and save it under DIR/MUS. 
Anytime during the program I 
can see which songs are on the 
disk and how I saved them by 
Dressing Break, entering Load, 
and answering filespec with 
DIR/MUS. Micromusic will at- 
tempt to play this directory, but 
no harm will be done. To update 
the list, load it, add the new 
filespecs and resave \\M 



! 

8938 




00100 




ORG 


893811 




7E88 




00110 


MSG 


EQU 


7E88I1 




7E39 




00120 


HEAD 


EQU 


7E39H 




'E68 




00130 


DCB 


EQU 


7E68H 




8938 


21887E 


00140 


SETUP 


LD 


HL.MSC 


;PUT QUERY IN HI. 


893B 


CD6744 


00150 




CALL 


4467H 


;DISPLAY ON SCREEN 


893E 


21687E 


00160 




LD 


HL.DCB 


:CET DCB ADDRESS 


8941 


0620 


00170 




LD 


B.32 


; LENGTH OF DCB 


8943 


CD4000 


00180 




CALL 


4 OH 


; INPUT 


8946 


78 


•00190 




IJJ 


A,B 


[GET CHARACTER 


t<947 


B7 


00200 




OR 


A 


;TEST FOR ZERO 


3948 


28EE 


00210 




JR 


a, SETUP 


;<;0 IF NO INPUT 


894A 


210C8A 


00220 




LD 


HL.8A0CH 


(USER START 


894D 


CD397E 


00230 




CALL 


READ 


.JUMP TO READ SUBROUTINE 


8950 


C3FD88 


00240 




JP 


88FDH 


; RETURN TO PROGRAM 


0000 




00250 




END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 


















Program Listing 4 





>E0O 


00100 




ORG 


7E00H 




I 7EO0 D5 


00110 


DUMP 


PUSH 


DE 


;SAVE * OF RECORDS TO WRITE 


7E01 E5 


00120 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE START ADDRESS 


7E02 21947E 


00130 




LD 


11L, BUFFER 


;CET BUFFER ADDRESS 


7E05 11687E 


00140 




LD 


DE.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


7K08 0640 


00150 




U) 


B.64 


;64 BYTE LRL 


7E0A CD2044 


00160 




CALL 


4420H 


; INITIALIZE 


7E0D 2808 


00170 




JR 


Z.DMP020 


;G0 IF NO ERROR 


7E0F F680 


00180 


DMP010 


OR 


80H 


;PUT ERROR CODE IN A 


7E11 CD0944 


00190 




CALL 


4409H 


; ERROR DISPLAY ROUTINE 


7E14 CD2D40 


00200 




CALL 


402DH 


; REBOOT 


7E17 El 


00210 


DMP020 


POP 


HL 


;RET START ADDRESS 


7E18 E5 


00220 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE START ADDRESS 


7E19 11687E 


00230 




LD 


DE.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


7E1C CD3C44 


00240 




CALL 


443CH 


jVERIFY 


7E1F 20EE 


00250 




JR 


NZ.DMP010 


;GO IF ERROR 


7E21 El 


00260 




POP 


HL 


;GET START ADDRESS 


7E22 Dl 


00270 




POP 


DE 


;GET (» OF REC TO WRITE 


7E23 IB 


00280 




DEC 


DE 


;DECREASF. COUNT 


7E24 7A 


00290 




LD 


A,D 


;GET MS OF BYTE 


7E25 B3 


00300 




OR 


E 


;TEST FOR ZERO 


7E26 2808 


00310 




JR 


Z,DKP030 


;GO IF DONE 


/E28 014000 


00320 




LD 


BC,64 


;LRL 


7E2B 09 


00330 




ADD 


HL.BC 


;GET NEXT START ADDRESS 


7E2C D5 


00340 




PUSH 


DE 


;SAVE OF REC 


7E2D E5 


00350 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE NEW START 


7E2E 18E7 


00360 




JR 


DMP020 


; CONTINUE 


7E30 11687E 


00370 


DMP030 


LD 


DE.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


7E33 CD2844 


00380 




CALL 


4428H 


; CLOSE 


7E36 20D7 


00390 




JR 


NZ.DMP010 


;GO IF ERROR 


7E38 C9 


00400 




RET 




; RETURN 


7E39 3A927E 


00410 


READ 


LD 


A, (NORECl) 


;GET OF REC TO READ 


7E3C 32937E 


00420 




LD 


(NOREC2),A 


; STORE OF REC TO READ 


7E3F E5 


00430 




PUSH • 


HL 


-.SAVE START 


7E40 21947E 


00440 




LD 


HI., BUFFER 


;GET BUFFER ADDRESS 


7E43 11687E 


00450 




LD 


DE.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


7E46 0640 


00460 




LD 


B.64 


;64 BYTE LRL 


7E48 CD2444 


00470 




CALL 


4424H 


;OPEN 


7E4B 20C2 


00480 




JR 


NZ.DMP010 


;G0 IF ERROR 


7E4D El 


00490 


REA010 


POP 


HL 


;GET START 


7E4E E5 


00500 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE START 


7E4F 11687E 


00510 




LD 


DE.DCB 


;GET DCB ADDRESS 


7E52 CD3644 


00520 




CALL 


4436H 


;READ ONE RECORD 


7E55 20B8 


00530 




JR 


NZ.DMP010 


;GO IF ERROR 


7E57 3A937E 


00540 




LD 


A,(NOREC2) 


;GET D OF REC TO READ 


7E5A 3D 


00550 




DEC 


A 


;DECREASE COUNT 


7E5B El 


00560 




POP 


HL 


;GET START 


7E5C 32937E 


00570 




LD 


(NOREC2),A 


;SAVE * TO REC TO READ 


7E5F 28CF 


00580 




JR 


Z.DHP030 


; RETURN IF DONE 


7E61 014000 


00590 




LD 


BC.64 


;LRL 


7E64 09 


00600 




ADD 


KL.BC 


;GET NEW START 


7E65 E5 


00610 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE NEW START 


7E66 18E5 


00620 




JR 


REA010 


; CONTINUE 


0020 


00630 


DCB 


DEFS 


32 




7E88 46 


00640 


MSG 


DEFM 


'FILESPEC?' 




7E91 0D 


00650 




DEFB 


0DH 


;PUT RETURN HERE 


7E92 OF 


00660 


NOREC1 


DEFB 


15 


;15 - 64 BYTE RECORDS 


0001 


00670 


•WREC2 


DEFS 


1 




0100 


00680 


BUFFER 


DEFS 


256 




0000 


00690 




END 






00000 TOTAL ERRORS 
















Program Listing 5 









., 1 m \ 



nil lift. Ill il 1 t 









^mmSSSumm^mmmmmmmmmmmmmamam 




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»^452 



EDUCATION 



You've got ten fingers and ten toes, so. . . 



The Ten Key Tutor 



Mel Knoyle 

223 Marietta Street S.E. 

Salem, OR 97302 



w 



e live in a world that 
seems to revolve around 



numbers. Every day we are chal- 
lenged, frustrated, excited, 
frightened, thrilled or threat- 
ened by them. Ten key devices 
can enhance our digital dexter- 
ity and touch operation is not 



1 CLS 

2 PRINT" 

3 PRINT" 

4 PRINT" 

5 PRINT' 



TEN KEY T I 
Version 1.3 August 30,19! 



R 

by Mel Knoyle 



6 PRINT@330,"A LIST OF NUMBERS WILL BE DISPLAYED" 

7 PRINT?456, "POSITION YOUR FINGERS OVER THE KEY PAD" 

8 PRINT@57 9,"ENTER THE NUMBERS KEEPING YOUR EYES ON THE SCREEN" 

9 PRINT@719,"KEEP A STEADY RHYTHM" 

10 '***************.**.**********.****«**.***.*. .********,*♦.*, 

20 •»*««» INITIALIZATION ..... 

30 ER = 0:PN=0:X = 9:M$ = "####,*IHt" 

40 PRINT0969, "TOUCH ANY KEY WHEN READY TO CONTINUE"; 

50 GOS=INKEY$:IF GOS="" THEN GOTO 50 ELSE T=0 : A=0 : B = : CLS 

100 I..*.**.*****...*******.*.*********,,*,.**,,,.,,.*..,,,,,,,, 

110 i..*.* PROBLEM SET-UP ..... 

120 PRINTP0, "EXERCISE #";:IF E PRINT PN ELSE PN=PN+1 : PRINT PN 

130 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

140 IF E=0 THEN A(I)=RND(X) 

150 PRINT6I*64,; :PRINTUSING MS ; A( I ) : A=A+A( I ) 

160 NEXT I 

170 PRINT@704,STRINGS(9,"-") : PRINT@768, ; : PRINTU5ING MS;A; 



INPUT ROUTINE 



205 ■».**« 

210 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

215 PRINT@I*64+36,"? " ;CHR$ ( 95) ; 

220 QS=INKEY$:IF T THEN T=T+.02 

225 IF QS="" THEN 220ELSE T=T+.02 

230 IF QS=CHR?(13) THEN BS="":GOTO 245 

235 IF LEN(B$)<5 THEN BS=BS+QS:B ( I ) =VAL ( B$) 

240 PRINT«I*64+31,;:PRINTUSING MS; B( I) ; : GOTO 220 

245 PRINT" ";:B=B+B(I) 

250 NEXT I 

255 PRINT@735,STRINGS(9,"-") ; : PRINT@799 , ; : PRINTUSING MS;B 

300 I*****..**.***********.***.*.,*.*.****,*..***,**,***** 

305 ■.».** PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 

310 PRINT" ELAPSED TIME =" ; FIX (T*2) ; "SEC . " 

315 E=B-A:IF EO0 PRINTUSING"ERROR ="+MS;E:GOTO 355 

320 XN=INT(LOG(X+1)/LOG(10)) 

325 IF T<XN+2 THEN X=X*10+9: PRINT" EXCELLENT" :GOT0345 

330 IF T<XN+4 THEN PRINT"GOOD" :G0T034 5 

335 IF T<XN+8 THEN PRINT"KEEP A STEADY RHYTHM" :G0TO345 

340 PRINT"RELAX..TAKE A DEEP BREATH. .AND TRY AGAIN." 

345 IF X=327679 AND E=0 THEN GOTO 380 

350 IF X>32767 THEN X=32767 

355 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

360 IF A(I)OB(I)THEN PRINT0I *64 + 40 , "?" ; 

370 NEXT I 

375 ER=ER+E:GOT0 40 

380 IF ER THEN PRINT'TRY TO IMPROVE YOUR ACCURACY" :GOTO 30 

385 IF PN>5 THEN PRINT"TRY TO INCREASE YOUR SPEED" : GOTO 30 

390 PRINT'CONGRATULATIONS, "; 

399 PRINT'YOU ARE A PROFICIENT TEN-KEY OPERATOR! ": END 

999 >..................*. END 0F PROGRAM ............... 



Program Listing 



difficult. A Level II TRS-80 with a 
ten key pad on the keyboard, 
this program and a little practice 
will turn you into a proficient ten 
key operator. 

The program monitors your 
progress as you practice. As ac- 
curacy and speed increase so 
will the difficulty of the exer- 
cises, until you successfully 
complete a column of ten five- 
digit numbers. 

The Ten Key Tutor is relatively 
short. The program is designed in 
five separate modules to make 
later modifications easier. Each 
module has only one exit except 
the Initialization Section and 
lines 375, 380 and 385 where pro- 
gram repetition is controlled. 
Table 1 identifies all the program 
variables and Table 2 lists all 
lines referring to the variables. 

The Tutor 

Lines 1-9 display the initial 
screen with brief instructions. 
This section is not essential to 
the program. 

Actual program execution be- 
gins with line 30. After initializa- 
tion, the program repeats from 
line 40. This section develops 
and displays the exercises. If 
the previous results contained 
errors, the exercise is re- 
displayed. Otherwise a new set 
of numbers is printed. 

INKEYS is used instead of In- 
put, allowing the program to 
keep track of response time. The 



timer begins when the first digit 
is entered and stops when Enter 
is pressed. 

Lines 305-399 check for 
elapsed time and errors and 
print the results. Line 320 con- 
verts the random number limit to 
the number of digits per entry in 
the last exercise. Lines 355, 360 
and 365 identify the errors. 

Using The Ten-Key Tutor 

On the ten key pad your index 
finger operates the 7, 4 and 1 
keys and rests over the 4. Your 
middle finger operates the 8, 5 
and 2 keys and rests over the 5. 
(The.decimal point is not used in 
this program.) Your fourth finger 
rests over the 6 and operates the 
9, 6 and 3 keys. Your thumb oper- 
ates the and your pinky the 
Enter key. 

Type RUN and touch Enter. 
Read the screen and touch 
Enter again. Problem 1 should 
be on the left side of the screen. 
The cursor is near the center op- 
posite the first number in the 
column. Begin entering the 
numbers. Keep a steady rhythm, 
don't look at the keys and keep 
practicing. ■ 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I 
Ten Key Pad 



192 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Variable 


Definition 


A 


TOTAL OF PROBLEM VALUES 


A(1-10) 


ARRAY CONTAINING PROBLEM VALUES 


B 


TOTAL OF INPUT VALUES 


B(1-10) 


ARRAY CONTAINING INPUT VALUES 


B$ 


HOLDS MULTIPLE DIGITS (INKEYS) 


E 


ERROR VALUE 


ER 


ERROR INDICATOR 


G0$ 


PAUSE CONTROL (DUMMY VARIABLE) 


I 


LOOP COUNTER 


M$ 


NUMERIC OUTPUT MASK 


PN 


PROBLEM NUMBER 


Q$ 


INKEY$ INPUT VARIABLE 


T 


ELAPSED TIME COUNTER 


X 


RANDOM NUMBER LIMIT 


XN 


NUMBER OF COLUMNS 




Table 1. Program Variables 



Variable 


Line Numbers 


PN 


30,120,385 


X 


30,140,320,325,345,350 


M$ 


30,150,170,240,255,315 


ER 


30,375,380 


GO$ 


50 


A 


50,150,170,315 


T 


50,220,225,31 0,325,330,335 


B 


50,245,255,315 


XN 


50,320,325,330,335 


I 


1 30, 1 40, 1 50, 1 60,2 1 0,2 1 5,235,240,245,250,355,360,370 


A(1-10) 


140,150,360 


E 


140,315,345 


Q$ 


220,225,230,235 


B$ 


230,235 


B(1-10) 


235,240,245,360 




Table 2. Variable Locations 




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^217 




METAPHORIC ASSOCIATES 



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Trademark of Tandy Corporator 



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No matter how your Model I, II or III is used, whether It be business or pleasure, this product can benefit you. 

The FATIGUE FIGHTERTM reduces the operator fatigue (irritated, watery eyes and headaches) caused by the harsh white video 
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^E 



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COLORTERM (c) 




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uith 51 or 


&N 


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• 300 or 110 Baud 




• any data format (commercial 


• encode data for more secure 


i • user programmable keys 




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storage 


• automatic repeat when 




• memory buffer for incoming 


• macro buffers for often-used 


key is held down 




data— save buffer— scroll 


output 


• dump your files to host 




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• patch the 51 or 64 column 


• reverse video 




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^196 



sSee List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 193 



GRAPHICS 



Pop art's out, comp art's in. 



The Random Picture Generator 



James A. Swarts 

758 West Dale Avenue 

Muskegon, Ml 49441 

The TRS-80 is more than a 
microcomputer— it's an art- 



ist! With the proper software 
you can paint modern art mas- 
terpieces on the computer's 
video display in a matter of sec- 
onds. You can create everything 



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Ph 08 424826 Telex 88156 

STRATEGY SIMULATIONS 

MERCENARY FORCE 

Command a mercenary army 
Decide the number of men, type 
ol weapons, armor, air support, 
medical aid and transports. Bat- 
tle the enemy in jungles, under- 
water, on moons and in space 



EXATRON 

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Build an Empire in the stars. 
Choose your cargo, means of 
shipping, and security. Risk 
pirates, ion storms, engine failure 
and other hazards while you try 
to become a Space Merchant. 



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(TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP.) 



from Indian art to spaceship 
portraits. Your imagination is 
the only limit. 

The Random Picture Genera- 
tor (see the Program Listing) is a 
very simple program! It was the 
first program I ran on my TRS-80. 
Later I decided to add a routine 
to produce reverse video pic- 
tures. I quickly wrote the neces- 
sary Assembly language pro- 



gram and converted it to numeric 
data which I POKE into high 
memory. I changed all the Set 
verbs to Reset in order to have 
dark pictures drawn on a light 
background. 

The Random Picture Genera- 
tor isn't a complicated program, 
but it is an entertaining pro- 
gram. It also proves that TRS-80 
graphics aren't all that bad.H 



30 RANDOM:FORN = 1TO50:CLS 

40 X = RND(128)-1:A = RND(128)-1 

50 Y^RND(48)- 1:B = RND(48)-1 

60 FORI = 1TO10:D = RND(8):F0RJ = 1TORND(20) + 5 

70 ONDGOSUB1 50.1 70,190,210,160,180,200,220 

80 IFX<0THENX = 127:ELSEIFX>127THENX = 

90 IFA<OTHENA = 127:ELSEIFA>127THENA =0 

100 IFY<0THENY = 47:ELSEIFY>47THENY = 

110 IFB<0THENB = 47:ELSEIFB>47THENB = 

120 SET(X,Y):SET(127 - X,Y):SET(X,47 - Y):SET(127 - X,47 - Y) 

130 SET(A,B):SET(127 - A,B):SET(A,47 - B):SET(127 - A.47 - B) 

140 NEXTJ:NEXTI:FORT = 1TO1500:NEXTT:NEXTN:END 

150 X = X + 1:A = A-1 

160 Y = Y + 1:B=B-1:RETURN 

170 Y = Y + 1:B = B-1 

180 X = X-1:A = A+1:RETURN 

190 X = X-1:A = A + 1 

200 Y = Y-1:B = B + 1:RETURN 

210 Y = Y-1:B = B + 1 

220 X = X + 1:A = A-1:RETURN 

Program Listing 



15 FORL = 32000TO32015:READP:POKEL,P:NEXTL:POKE16526,0:POKE16527,125 

30 RANDOM:FORN = 1TO50:U = USR(0) 

120 RESET(X,Y):RESET(127 - X,Y):RESET(X,47 - Y):RESET(127 - X,47 - Y) 

130 RESET(A,B):RESET(127 - A,B):RESET(A,47 - B):RESET(127 - A,47 - B) 

225 DATA 229,33,0,60,54,191,17,1.60,1,255,3,237,176,225,201 



Modifications to the Program 



194 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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"Frankly, after hundreds of hours of frustration, I 
seldom ever try to keyboard a published program. 
Inevitably, I mess it up when I keyboard it. Who needs the 
aggravation? 

"This is why I started a new series of cassettes called 
LOAD-80. Each cassette will have program dumps of the 
listings in an issue of 80 Microcomputing. These listings 
are direct from the authors and tested by the 80 
Microcomputing staff. All but the very short program 
listings will be on the LOAD-80 cassettes. Thus, you will be 
able to save hours of inputting programs and even more of 
debugging your keyboard errors." ^-n 

Wayne Green /f /] 

Publisher, 80 Microcomputing V U 



The LOAD-80 cassette is simply the program listings 
that appear in the articles in 80 Microcomputing. It was 
created to save you the time involved in typing the listings 
yourself. Successful loading of the programs depends on 
reading the documentation in the articles. If you have your 
current magazine at hand when you load the cassette, you 
should have no difficulty. If you still have problems, please 
return the tape for replacement. 

LOAD-80 began with the April 1981 issue. To order back 
issues, look for the back issue advertisement in this 
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To order LOAD-80, fill in the attached card and we will 
send you your LOAD-80 cassette for the major programs in 
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Foreign air mail, please inquire. 2/82 



GENERAL 



LOAD 80 



A program for coaches to help put together a winning unit. 



Dream Team 



Dennis Wangsness 
2978 Cohansey Drive 
San Jose, CA 95132 



Getteam creates optimum 
teams based on informa- 
tion you supply about the skills 
and positions for the team. A 
soccer team needs 11 people. 
There are nearly 40 million ways 
to arrange those people among 
the 11 team positions. Sixteen 
people can be arranged in over 
170 billion ways among the same 
11 positions. 



The Program 

You will have to input in- 
formation concerning skills, 
names of people, person's skill 
level numerically valued, names 
of tasks/positions to be filled, 
values of skills to tasks and 
order of importance of tasks. 

Assume, again, we are plac- 
ing people on a soccer team. 
Some of the skills to list are 
heading, dribbling, playmaking 
and passing. Tasks/Positions 
might be striker, center fullback, 
right wing and left halfback. 

Quantities requiring numer- 



Program Listing 



5 '***•****•******* GETTEAM/BAS ******************* 

10 CLEAR 1000 

15 DEFINT A-Z:CH=1 

20 DIM S$(20) ,N$(20) ,PS(20,20) ,T$(20) ,ST(20,20) ,PT(20,20) ,1(20) , 

J(20),I$(20) 

25 CLS:INPUT"DO YOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N)";QS 

30 IF Q$<>"Y"ANDQSO"N" THEN GOTO 25 ELSE IF Q$="Y"THEN GOSUB600 



35 CLS: INPUT-WANT TO RECALL SAVED INFORMATION (Y/N)";Q$ 

40 IF Q5O"Y"ANDQS<>"N"THENG0T035 ELSE IF Q$="Y"THEN GOSUB6500 

42 IF Q$="N" THEN GOTO 100 

45 CLS: INPUT-WANT TO CHANGE ANY NAMES OR SCORES (Y/N)";Q$ 

50 IF Q$0"Y"ANDQ$0"N" THEN GOT045 

52 IF Q$="Y" THEN GOSUB 4000 

55 CLS:IF QS="N"THEN GOTO400 ELSE INPUT'ANY MORE CHANGES (Y/N)"; 

Q$ 

60 IF Q$0"Y"AND Q$<>"N"THEN GOT055 ELSE IF Q$="Y" THEN GOT052 

70 GOTO 400 

100 PRINT" INPUT SKILL WHEN PROMPTED, WHEN DONE ENTER -LAST" 

110 S=l 

120 PRINT-INPUT SKILL";S;" ";:INPUT S${S) 

130 IF S$(S)<>"LAST" THEN S=S+l:GOTO 120 

140 S=S-1 

150 CLS:PRINT"INPUT PERSON'S NAME AND SKILL SCORE AS PROMPTED" 

160 PRINT'ENTER - LAST WHEN FINISHED" 

170 N=l 

180 PRINT'ENTER NAME NUMBER";N;" ";:INPUT N$(N) 

190 IF N$(N)="LAST" THEN N=N-l:GOTO 250 

200 FOR 1=1 TO S 

210 PRINT'INPUT ";N$(N);"'S SCORE FOR "; S$(I) ;: INPUT PS(N,I) 

220 NEXT I 

230 N=N+1 

240 GOTO 180 

250 CLS: PRINT" INPUT TASK/POSITION AND SKILL VALUE AS PROMPTED" 

260 PRINT" IT WILL BE CONVIENT TO INPUT TASKS IN ORDER" 

270 PRINT'OF IMPORTANCE. ENTER - LAST WHEN DONE." 

280 T=l 

290 PRINT'ENTER TASK/POSITION NUMBER" ;T; : INPUT T$(T) 

300 IF T$(T)="LAST" THEN T=T-l:GOTO 355 

310 FOR 1=1 TO S 

320 PRINT'ENTER VALUE OF ";SS(I);" TO ";T$(T);" "; : INPUTST(I,T) 

Program continues 



ically valued input should be of a 
common range. Names of team 
members, skills and tasks should 
be kept short for a neat output. 

The program first asks if you 
want instructions. If you answer 
N it then asks if you want to re- 
call saved information. An N re- 
sponse causes the program to 
proceed to data entry. 

You will be asked to enter the 
names of the skills. When you 
have no more skills to list enter 
Last. 

After the skill names, you are 
prompted for the name of a per- 
son. After each name the pro- 
gram requests a score for each 
skill. The cycle repeats until you 
enter Last. 

Next is task/position names 
and scores. This sequence pro- 
ceeds as did the names and abil- 
ity levels. The scores indicate 
the relative importance of skills 
to positions. Again, enter Last 
when no further input is needed. 

When keyboard input is com- 
pleted you are asked if you want 
to change anything. A response 
of Y produces a menu of things 
to change. After your changes, 
the program calculates the 
strategy matrix. This grades 
each person's abilities at each 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I 
32K RAM 
TRSDOS 
1 Disk Driver 
Printer optional 



position. The matrix can be dis- 
played or printed. 

You will be asked to specify 
the task order of importance. If 
you choose not to specify, it is 
assumed that you have input the 
tasks in order of importance. If 
not, input your choice from the 
displayed possibilities. 

The Best Team 

The program calculates your 
best team by picking the best 
player for the most important 
position, the best of the re- 
maining players for your second 
most important position, and so 
on, until all positions are filled. If 
desired you can display or print 
the team listing. 

Next the program asks if you 
want a computer optimized 
team. If you respond Y the 
players are arranged and rear- 
ranged until the strongest team 
is found. Again you are given the 
chance to display or print. 

Once the computer optimized 
team is picked you can change 
the task order of importance. Do 
not be surprised if the computer 
optimized team is similar for 
each choice of task order of im- 
portance. The optimized team is 
usually very balanced. 

At the end of the program 
you are able to save the 
information. ■ 



Dennis Wangsness' formal 
training is in Engineering 
Physics. His computer appli- 
cation interests include sports 
and education. 



196 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program continued 
330 NEXT I 

34B T=T+1 

350 GOTO 290 

355 FOR 1=1 TO T: I ( I) =1 :NEXT I 

360 CLS:PRINT"DO YOU WANT TO CHANGE ANY VALUES (Y/N)" 

370 INPUT QS:IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 360 

380 IF Q$="Y" THEN GOSUB 4000 

390 IF CH=0 THEN GOTO 470 

400 CLS:PRINT§466, "COMPUTING PERSON-TASK MATRIX" 

410 FOR 1=1 TO N 

420 FOR J=l TO T 

430 PT(I,J)=0 

440 FOR K=l TO S: PT ( I , J) =PT ( I , J) +PS( I ,K) *ST (K,J) :NEXT K 

450 NEXT J 

452 PRINT@543,I; 

455 NEXT I 

460 CH=0 

470 CLS:INPUT"WANT THE COMPLETE STRATAGY MATRIX PRINTED (Y/N)";Q 

s 

480 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 470 

490 IF Q$="Y" THEN GOSUB 2500 

510 PRINT'DO YOU WANT TO SPECIFY THE TASK ORDER OF IMPORTANCE (Y 

/N)" 

520 INPUT Q$:IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 510 

530 IF QS="Y" THEN GOSUB 3000 

600 GOSUB2000: REM *******DETERMINE BEST TEAM******* 

610 GOSUB3500: REM *******PRINT THE BEST TEAM******* 

613 GOSUB2200: REM ***** REFINE TEAM ************ 

616 IF Q$="Y"THEN GOSUB3500: REM ****** PRINT REFINED TEAM *** 

620 INPUT'WANT TO MAKE ANY CHANGES TO YOUR INPUT (Y/N)";Q$ 

630 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 620 ELSE IF QS = "Y" THEN GOTO 

380 
635 INPUT'CHANGE TASK ORDER OF IMPORTANCE (Y/N)";QS 
637 IF QS="Y" THEN GOTO 530 

640 INPUT'WANT YOUR INPUTS SAVED (Y/N)";QS 
650 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO"N"THEN GOTO 640 ELSE IF QS="Y" THEN GOSUB 

5500 
655 IF Q$="N" THEN GOTO 6 80 

660 CLS: INPUT'WANT TO SAVE A BACKUP OF YOUR DATA (Y/N)";Q$ 
670 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 660 ELSE IF QS = "Y" THEN GOSU 
B5500 

680 CLS: INPUT'WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";Q$ 

690 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 680 ELSE IF Q$ = "Y" THEN GOTO 
3 80 

700 END 

2000 REM ************* FIND BEST TEAM ***************** 
2005 CLS:PRINTe472, "FINDING GOOD TEAM" 

2010 FOR J=l TO N:J(J)=0:NEXT J : REM-INIT. PLAYER INDEX VECT. 
2020 FOR 1=1 TO T: REM **** TASK LOOP **** 
2030 M=0 

2040 FOR J = l TO N: REM **** PERSON LOOP **** 

2050 IF J(J)=0 AND PT(J,I(I) )>=PT(M,I(I) ) THEN M=J 
2060 NEXT J 
2070 J(M)=I(I) 
2075 PRINT@542,I; 
20 80 NEXT I 
2100 RETURN 

2200 REM ******* SUBROUTINE TO REFINE TEAM ************ 
2210 PRINT'WANT COMPUTER TO SEARCH FOR BETTER TEAM (Y/N)"; 
2220 INPUT Q$:IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO2210 

2230 IF QS="N" THEN RETURN 

2231 SS=0 

2232 FOR 1=1 TO N 

2233 IF J(I)<>0 THEN SS=SS+PT(I,J(I) ) 

2234 NEXT I 

2240 CLS :PRINT§470, "REFINING THE TEAM" 

2242 C=0 

2245 Q-0 

2250 FOR K=l TO N-l 

2260 IF J(K)=0 THEN GOTO 2320 

2270 FOR L=K+1 TO N 

2280 IF J(L)=0 THEN GOTO 2310 

2285 SD=PT(K,J(L))+PT(L,J(K))-PT(K,J(K))-PT(L,J(L)) 

2290 IF SD>0 THEN TK-J(K) z J(K) =J(L) : J (L) =TK:Q=Q+1 : SS=SS+SD 

2310 NEXT L 

2315 PRINTg542,K; 

2320 NEXT K 

2322 C=C+l:PRINTe58,C;:PRINT@122,Q;:PRINT@186,SS 

2325 IF Q=0 OR C=20 THEN RETURN ELSE GOTO 2245 

2330 RETURN 

2500 REM *********** PRINT STRATAGY MATRIX ************* 

2510 CLS 

2520 PRINT'INPUT THE NUMBER CORRESPONDING TO YOUR PRINT OPTION" 

: PRINT: PRINT 

2530 PRINT" 1 - PRINT ON SCREEN ONLY" 

2540 PRINT" 2 - PRINT ON PRINTER ONLY" 

2550 PRINT" 3 - PRINT ON SCREEN AND PRINTER" 

2555 INPUT Q 

2560 IF Q<1 OR Q>3 THEN GOTO 2510 

2570 IF T/5=INT(T/5) THEN Kl=l:K2=T/5 ELSE Kl=l:K2=INT(T/5) +1 

2580 FOR K=K1 TO K2 

2590 I0=5*K: 11=10-1 :I2-I0-2: 13=10-3: 14=10-4 

2600 IF Q-l OR Q=3 THEN PRINT TAB( 10) TS ( 14) ;TAB( 20) TS (13) ; TAB(30 

)T$(I2) ;TAB(40)TS(I1);TAB(50)TS(I0) 

2610 IF Q=2 OR Q=3 THEN LPRINT TAB(10)TS(I4) :TAB(20) TS(I3) ;TAB(3 

0)TS(I2) ;TAB(40)TS(I1) ;TAB( 50) TS( 10) 

2620 FOR 1=1 TO N 

2630 IF Q=l OR Q=3 THEN PRINTNS(I) ;TAB(10) PT ( I ,14) ;TAB(20) PT ( I , I 

3) ;TAB(30)PT(I,I2) ; TAB (40) PT(I ,11) ;TAB( 50) PT(I ,10) 

2640 IF Q=2 OR Q=3 THEN LPRINT NS(I) ;TAB(10) PT(I ,14) ;TAB(20) PT(I 

,13) ;TAB(30)PT(I,I2) ;TAB(40) PT(I, II) ;TAB(50) PT(I ,10) 

2650 NEXT I 

2660 PRINT:PRINT 

2670 NEXT K 

2675 IF Q=2 OR Q=3 THEN LPRINT" " 

26 80 RETURN 

2990 IF SD>0 THEN TK=J(K) : J(K) =J(L) : J(L) =TK:Q=Q+1 :SS=SS+SD 

3000 REM *********** TASK RANKING ************** 

3010 CLS 

3020 PRINT'EACH TASK/POSITION WILL BE LISTED AND YOU ARE TO PROV 

IDE" 

3030 PRINT"IT'S RANK IN IMPORTANCE. NO TWO TASKS CAN HAVE" 

3040 PRINT'THE SAME RANK. IF THERE ARE N TASKS/POSITIONS, THEN 

ALL" 

3050 PRINT'OF THE NUMBERS FROM 1 THROUGH N MUST BE USED " 



3060 PRINT'IN THE RANKING. THE CURRENT RANK WILL BE IN PARENS" 

3070 PRINT"AFTER EACH TASK/POSITION. 

3071 FOR 1=1 TO T:TS=STRS(I) :L=LEN(TS) 

3072 T$=STRINGS(4-L," ") +T$zI$(I) -T$ 

3073 NEXT I :PS="":FOR 1=1 TO T:PS=PS+IS( I) :NEXT I 

3074 PRINTg704,P$ 

3075 PRINT 86 40, "RANKS REMAINING": 
3080 FOR 1=1 TO T 

3090 PRINT8512, TS(I);" (";I(I):") NEW RANK =';:INPUT 1(1) 

3092 IS(I(I))=" ":PS="":FOR J=1T0T:PS=PS+IS(J) :NEXT J 

3094 PRINT@704,P$ 

3095 PRINT@512,STRINGS(60," ") ; 
3100 NEXT I 

3110 PRINT: INPUT'THAT IS ALL. WANT TO CHANGE THEM AGAIN (Y/N)"j 

QS 

3120 IF QSO'Y'AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 3110 

3130 IF QS="Y" THEN GOTO 3010 

3140 RETURN 

3500 REM ********** print SELECTED TEAM ************ 

3510 CLS:PRINT"TO PRINT THE TEAM -" 

3520 PRINT" INPUT THE NUMBER CORRESPONDING TO YOUR PRINT OPTION": 

PRINT: PRINT 

3530 PRINT" 1 - PRINT ON SCREEN ONLY" 

3540 PRINT" 2 - PRINT ON PRINTER ONLY" 

3550 PRINT" 3 - PRINT ON SCREEN AND PRINTER" 

356 INPUT Q 

3570 IF Q<1 OR Q>3 THEN GOTO 3510 

3575 FOR 1=1 TO N 

3580 IF J(I)=0 THEN GOTO 3610 

35 90 IF Q=l OR Q=3 THEN PRINT TS(J(I>):" - ";N$(I) 

3600 IF Q=2 OR Q=3 THEN LPRINT CHRS (14) ;TS ( J ( I) ) ; " - ";NS(D 

3610 NEXT I 

3615 IF Q=2 OR Q=3 THEN LPRINT" ":LPRINT" ":LPRINT" " 

3620 RETURN 

4000 REM ********* MODIFICATION OF INPUT *********** 

4010 CLS:PRINT"ENTER NUMBER CORRESPONDING TO WHAT YOU WANT TO CH 

ANGE." 

4020 PRINT:PRINT 

4030 PRINT" 1 - CHANGE SKILL NAME 

4040 PRINT" 2 - CHANGE PERSON NAME" 

40 50 PRINT" 3 - CHANGE PLAYER SKILL SCORE" 

406 PRINT" 4 - CHANGE TASK NAME" 

4070 PRINT" 5 - CHANGE SKILL VALUE TO TASK" 

4080 PRINT" 6 - NO CHANGES" 

4100 INPUT Q:IF Q<1 OR Q>6 THEN GOTO 4010 

4105 IF Q=6 THEN RETURN 

4110 CH=l:ON Q GOTO 4200,4400,4600,4800,5000 

4200 CLS: PRINT "EACH SKILL WILL BE DISPLAYED." 

4210 PRINT'PRESS THE Y KEY IF YOU WANT TO CHANGE THE NAME." 

4220 PRINT'PRESS THE N KEY TO LEAVE THE NAME." 

4230 FOR 1=1 TO S 

4240 PRINT@389,SS(I) 

4250 QS = INKEYS:IF QSO"Y"AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4250 

4260 IF QS="N" THEN GOTO 4290 

4270 PRINT@453,"OLD NAME IS ";SS(I>;" NEW NAME =";: INPUT SS(I) 

4280 PRINT@453,STRINGS(64," ") 

4290 NEXT I 

4300 INPUT'WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";QS 

4310 IF QS="Y" THEN GOTO 4010 ELSE IF QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4300 

4320 RETURN 

4400 CLS:PRINT"EACH NAME WILL BE DISPLAYED." 

4410 PRINT'PRESS THE Y KEY TO CHANGE THE NAME." 

4420 PRINT'PRESS THE N KEY TO LEAVE THE NAME" 

4430 FOR 1=1 TO N 

4440 PRINT@389,NS(I) 

4450 QS=INKEYS:IF QSO'Y'ANDQSO'N" THEN GOTO 4450 

4455 PRINTg389,STRING$(64," ") 

4460 IF QS="N" THEN GOTO 4490 

4470 PRINT@453,"OLD NAME IS ";N$(I)j" NEW NAME =" : : INPUTNS(I) 

4480 PRINTS453, STRINGS (64," ") 

4490 NEXT I 

4500 INPUT'WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";Q$ 

4510 IF QS="Y" THEN GOTO 4010 ELSE IF QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4500 

4520 RETURN 

4600 CLS:INPUT"WHICH PERSONS SKILL SCORE NEEDS CHANGING" :QS 

4610 FOR 1=1 TO N 

4620 IF QS=NS(D THEN J=I:GOTO 4650 

4630 NEXT I 

4640 INPUT'NAME NOT FOUND, INPUT NAME AGAIN. " ;QS: GOTO 4610 

4650 PRINT"INPUT " ;N$(J) ; " «S SCORE FOR TASK INDICATED" 

4655 BS=STRINGS(64,* *) 

4660 FOR 1=1 TO S 

4670 PRINT8453,S$(I);"(";PS(J,I);")";:INPUT PS(J,I) 

4675 PRINT@453,B$ 

46 80 NEXT I 

4690 INPUT'WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";QS 

4700 IF QS="Y" THEN GOTO4010 ELSE IF QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4690 

4710 RETURN 

4800 CLS: PRINT" EACH TASK WILL BE DISPLAYED." 

4810 PRINT'PRESS Y IF YOU WANT TO CHANGE THE TASK NAME." 

4820 PRINT'PRESS N TO LEAVE THE TASK NAME ALONE." 

4825 BS=STRINGS(64," ") 

4830 FOR 1=1 TO T 

4840 PRINTe389,T$(I) 

4850 QS=INKEY$:IF QSO'Y" AND QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4850 

4860 IF QS="N" THEN GOTO 4890 

4870 PRINT@453,"OLD TASK NAME IS ";T$(I):" NEW NAME =";: INPUT TS 

4880 PRINT§453,BS 

4890 NEXT I 

4900 INPUT'WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";Q$ 

4910 IF Q$="Y" THEN GOTO 4010 ELSE IF QSO'N" THEN GOTO 4900 

4920 RETURN 

5000 CLS: PRINT'EACH TASK WILL BE DISPLAYED." 

5010 PRINT'PRESS THE Y KEY TO CHANGE THE SKILL VALUE FOR THE TAS 

K" 

5020 PRINT'PRESS THE N KEY FOR NO CHANGE" 

5025 B$=STRINGS(64," ") 

5030 FOR 1=1 TO T 

5040 PRINT8389,TS(I) 

5050 Q$=INKEYS:IF QSO'Y" AND QSO"N" THEN GOTO 5050 

5060 IF QS="N" THEN GOTO 5107 

5070 FOR J=l TO S 

5080 PRINT6453, "SKILL VALUE FOR ":SS(J):" IS" ;ST( J, I) ; " NEW VALU 

E =";: INPUT ST (J, I) 

Program continues 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 197 



THEN GOTO 5120 



Program continued 

5100 PRINT@453,B$ 

5105 NEXT J 

5107 PRINT@389,B$ 

5110 NEXT I 

5120 INPUT-WANT THE MENU AGAIN (Y/N)";Q$ 

5130 IF QS="Y"THEN GOTO 4010 ELSE IP Q$<>"N" 

5140 RETURN 

5500 REM ******** SAVE INFORMATION ********* 

5510 CLS: INPUT" WHAT SHOULD THE DATA FILE NAME BE";FILE$ 

5520 OPEN"0",l, FILES 

5530 PRINT#1,S;N;T; 

5540 FOR 1=1 TO N 

5550 FOR J=l TO S 

5560 PRINT#1,PS(I,J) ; 

5570 NEXT J, I 

5580 FOR 1= 1 TO T: PRINTil ,CHRS (34) ( T$( I) ;CHR$ (34) 

5585 FOR 1=1 TO N:PRINTI1 ,CHR$(34) ;N$( I) ;CHR$(34) 

5587 FOR 1=1 TO S:PRINT*1 r CHRS(34) ;SS( I) ;CHRS(34) j :NEXT I 

5590 FOR 1=1 TO S 

5600 FOR J=l TO T 

5610 PRINTtl,ST(I,J) ; 

5620 NEXT J, I 

5630 FOR 1=1 TO T:PRINT#1 ,1 (I) ; : NEXT I 

5640 FOR 1=1 TO N: PRINTI1 , J ( I) ; : NEXT I 

5650 CLOSE 1 

5660 RETURN 

6000 REM ************** INSTRUCTIONS ***************** 

6010 CLS 

6020 PRINT"YOU WILL BE PROMPTED FOR ALL THE INPUT REQUIRED. 

6030 PRINT"YOU WILL BE ASKED FOR:" 

6040 PRINT" 1 - THE SKILLS REQUIRED" 



; :NEXT 

::NEXT 



6050 PRINT" 2 - NAMES OF PEOPLE" 

6060 PRINT" 3 - PERSONS SKILL VALUE/RANK (INTEGERS)" 

6070 PRINT" 4 - NAMES OF TASKS/POSITIONS TO BE FILLED" 

6080 PRINT" 5 - VALUE OF SKILLS TO TASKS (INTEGERS)" 

6090 PRINT" 6 - ORDER OF IMPORTANCE OF TASKS" 

6100 PRINT'YOU WILL BE ABLE TO MAKE CORRECTIONS. THE" 

6110 PRINT"PROGRAM WILL PROMPT YOU FOR CORRECTIONS AT THE 

6120 PRINT'APPROPRIATE TIME." 

6130 PRINT'PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 

6140 Q$=INKEY$:IF Q$="" THEN GOTO 6140 ELSE RETURN 

6500 REM ******** 0ATA FETCH ROUTINE *********** 

6510 CLS: INPUT" INPUT DATA FILE NAME";FILE? 

6520 OPEN"I",l,FILESS 

6530 INPUT#1,S,N,T 

6540 CLOSE:OPEN "I",1,FILESS 

6550 INPUT#1,X,Y,Z 

6560 FOR 1=1 TO N 

6570 FOR J=l TO S 

6580 INPUT#1,PS(I,J) 

6590 NEXT J, I 

6600 FOR 1=1 TO T:INPUT#1,TS(I) :NEXT I 

6605 FOR 1=1 TO N: INPUT»1,N$(I) : NEXT I 

6607 FOR 1=1 TO S: INPUTI1 ,S$( I) :NEXT I 

6610 FOR 1=1 TO S 

6620 FOR J=l TO T 

6630 INPUT#1,ST(I,J) 

6640 NEXT J f I 

6650 FOR 1=1 TO T: INPUT#1,I(I) :NEXT I 

6660 FOR 1=1 TO N: INPUTtl , J(I) :NEXT I 

6670 CLOSE 

6680 RETURN 



MEMOREX 

FLEXIBLE DISCS 

WE WILL NOT BE UNDER- 
SOLD!! Call Free (800)235-4137 

for prices and information. Dealer 
inquiries invited and C.O.D.'s 
accepted. 

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93401 InCal. call 
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Vendor Expense Report 
Income Tax Report 
Ail Reports Can Be Printed 
Complete Documentation 
Easy Data Entry & Edit 
200 Units per File 



Price $225.00 

Real Estate Analysis Modules: 

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TftS-MO is a 'eg. trademark of Tandy Corp. 



198 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



How to Buy or Sell 

Computer Equipment 

and Software 




Begin your search in the 
index of Computer Shop-, 
per's bargain filled pages. 
Locate the category and 
page number of items 
that interest you from 
TRS-8Q and Apple to soft- 
ware and peripherals. 




► 



Start or add to your com- ; 
puter system by finding 
money saving bargains in 
each month's issue from 
individuals who no longer 
need their personal equip- 
ment. 




Illlllllllllllll^ 



You've got your computer 
hardware, but what about 
the software? Use a Com- 
puter Shopper ad to find 
what you need. Someone 
advertising in Computer 
Shopper probably has what 
you want. 




If you need help with any ; 
computer related problem < 
whether it's an interface. „ 
problem or advice on the 
right peripheral for. a home- 
brew system, use the free 
HELP column especially 




As you outgrow your 
system or want to trade up 
(most dealers won't take 
je-ins), use Computer 
)pper ads to sell your 
;ms to 20,000 readers na- 
tionwide for the low cost of 
12 cents per 




Computer Shopper is THE nationwide magazine for buy- 
ing, selling and trading Micro and Mini-computer equip- 
ment and software. Each issue has over 60 pages full of 
bargains of new and used equipment. 

You can save hundreds of dollars by getting the equip- 
ment you need from the hundreds of classified ads in- 
dividuals place in Computer Shopper every month. 

Now is the time for you to join over 20,000 other com- 
puter users who save time and money with a subscription 
to Computer Shopper. 

Subscribe today and get your first issue and a classified 
ad absolutely FREE. Type or print your ad on a plain piece 
of paper and send it along with your subscription. 

Just fill in the coupon or MasterCard or VISA holders 
can phone TOLL FREE 1-800-327-9920 and start making 
your computer dollar go further today. 



Cut out and mail to: COMPUTER SHOPPER 

P.O. Box F138 • Titusville, FL 32780 

Yes, I'll try Computer Shopper, I understand that if I'm 
not satisfied with my first issue I can receive a full re- 
fund and keep the first issue free. 

□ 1 year $10.00 ($30.00 in Canada) 

D I have enclosed my free classified ad. 

□ I want to use my free ad later, send me a coupon. 

NAME: 

ADDRESS: 



STATE: 



COmPUTBR SHOWER 

P.O. Box F138 • Titusville, FL 32780 
Telephone: 305-269-3211 



^212 



-See List of Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 199 



GENERAL 



On monitors and cassette I/O. 



Mod III Notes 



John Ratzlaff 

Mount Pisgah Academy 

Candler, NC 28715 



After several years on a 
TRS-80 Model I, I bought a 
Model III and chose to use a 
cassette recorder other than the 
CTR-80orCTR-41. 

I used a Hitachi TRQ-276 cas- 
sette recorder on my Model I, 
but the high speed cassette load 
would not work on my Model III. 

I experimented with different 
tapes and cleaned and adjusted 
the record head, but found no 
improvement. 

Another tape recorder of the 
same type worked perfectly. I 
concluded that when reading 
and writing tapes at high speed 
where high frequencies are 
much more important, the con- 
dition of the record/play head in 
the recorder is crucial. 

Cassette Modifications 

I made two modifications, 
published several times in 
TRS-80 literature, to my cas- 
sette recorder. A switch con- 
trols the cassette motor and a 
resistor permits hearing the 

200 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



sound even when the earphone 
plug is in place. 

My recorder has the Cue/Re- 
view capability. You can hear 
the sound while in fast-forward 
or rewind modes, facilitating 
program location. My current 
library consists of three tapes 
containing dozens of programs, 
rather than many tapes contain- 
ing one or two programs each. I 
identify programs by recording 
their names by voice with the 
built-in microphone. 

Monitors 

A machine-language monitor 
is indispensable for any ma- 
chine-level work. Few monitor 
programs are designed for the 
Model III; so I tested my old 
monitors for the Model I. I had 
three available: T-Bug (Radio 
Shack), RSM-2D (Small Systems 
Software), and MON-3 (Hubert 
Howe). T-Bug is rather primitive, 
good for elementary use but 
lacking a disassembler and 
printer output. 

All three monitors work to 
some extent on the Model III. 
When creating a machine- 
language tape T-Bug and RSM 
use their own cassette routines 



"My current library 
consists of three tapes 
containing dozens of programs. . 



rather than ROM routines. Their 
tape output is at 500 baud 
regardless of the Model III 
speed. (They are really slightly 
faster than 500 baud; the 2.0 
MHz Model III clock runs ap- 
proximately 18 percent faster 
than the 1.7 MHz Model I clock.) 
Also, since the Model III uses a 
different port for cassette motor 
control, these monitors do not 
turn the cassette on or off and 
cannot create standard ma- 
chine language tapes. 

MON-3 uses ROM routines for 
all cassette operations and is 
useable on the Model ill. It will 
create machine-language tapes 
at high speed (1500 baud). 

The monitor-created ma- 
chine-language tapes loaded 
properly with the System com- 
mand, but the MON-3 program 
would not read any tapes with 
the L command. The placement 
of a Return (C9) into the RST28 



and RST38 jump addresses at 
400CH and 401 2H created the 
problem; this section at the 
beginning of MON-3 can be 
replaced with NOPs. 

Monitor programs advertised 
as ROM-independent do not use 
any ROM routines, avoiding dif- 
ficulty with the different Model I 
ROMs. These programs are not 
hardware-independent, because 
they use the same cassette port 
and clock speed as the Model I. 
They cannot work on the Model 
III. A program using ROM in- 
put/output routines will work, 
since Radio Shack kept Model I 
I/O routine addresses on the 
Model III. 

All other MON-3 commands 
work properly on the Model III. 
Even the Model Ill's repeating 
keyboard is active under MON-3, 
convenient for scanning slowly 
through disassemblies, ASCII, 
or hex dumps. ■ 




LLELIRON1C N(j 1 1 BOO* 



A totally new concept in 5Mll-scale information woagewnl 'or t 

<R>. IOCS i ■. ar. assembly language utility »hirh fills the gap b« 

editors and data ba-.e managers to provide a tr.ie I r ee form 1 
storaae and retrieva: system -1th unheard-o» ease ot operation. 



LDG/CMD creates on a formatted diskette a LOG file from 1 to 1 70 | 
each page containing 1 fi.ll screen of information. Paqes ar . 
individually or sequentially, as if thumbing through a book. Inf. 
added, updated, or deleted from each paqe in free form bv ac 
cur sor-or lented te-t editor. Each diskette bec.orr.es a separate 
notebook to use and re-use as you pleaie. 



ages long. 

r mat i on is 

integral 



Insert, Delete, 



penci 1 and pape 



repeat. All functions operate -it 
ing Global Search. Output to p 



computer, do yc 



i te or Cal 1 



KSoft 

316 Lakeside Drive 

Brandon, MS 39042 



(TRS-BO IS a trademark of Tandy Corpc 



<601> 992-2239 

Master Car d and Vl 
MS Residents pay 
We pay shipping a 



-id I ing. 

S 216 



MOVING? 

Let us know 8 weeks in advance so that you won't miss a sin- 
gle issue of 80 V • ■ '■;./- g. 

Attach old label where indicated and print new address 
in space provided. Also include your mailing label 
whenever you write concerning your subscription. It 
helps us serve you promptly. 



□ Address change only 
G Extend subscription 
G Enter new subscription 
G 1 year $24.97 

Canadian $27.97 US funds. Foreign surface $44.97 US funds. Foreign air mail please inquire 



! I Payment enclosed 

(1 extra BONUS issue) 
Q Bill me later 



80 MICROCOMPUTING 



If you have no label handy, print OLD address here 
cc Name. Call 



Address 



t City. 



State. 



Zip. 



print NEW address here 



Name 

Address. 
City 



Call 



PO Box 981 • Farmirigdale NY 11737 



COMPUTER AIDED INVESTMENT 

Had you ever missed opportunities to purchase stocks at their low 
points, and/or had hesitated to sell and resulted in financial losses? 

One of the secrets for success in the STOCK-MARKET is timing. 

A computed program. STOCKCHARTI '", for usage on the TRS-80" 
models I & III, APPLE II*, & ATARI-800* computer systems, will time'the 
stocks in your portfolio for BUY & SELL opportunities. The BUY & SELL 
signals are based on a unique price-trend analysis technique developed 
by Micro-Investment Software. It only requires the weekly high, weekly 
low, and the last trading day of the week's close stock prices. With this 
program, you no longer need to guess or listen to rumors foi your invest- 
ment decisions. 

Aside from its ability to assist you on deciding when to BUY & SELL, it 
also will generate a price-chart from the High, Low, and Close stock 
prices. The user has the option to select the price-chart to be generated 
onto the video screen or to the line-printer. And many other useful 
features. . . . 



STOCKCHART-r — 



Features: 



generate BUY/SELL signal 
generate price-chart from 
High. Low. & Close slock prices 
data entry in newspaper format 
(accept fractions) 

SPLIT mode for price data readjust- 
ment on stock split 
EDIT mode for dala changes and/or 
corrections 

STATUS mode display BUY/SELL 
signal for all stocks on file 
Fully menu driven, user friendly 
LIST mode for price data 
print out onto video or line 
printer 



Sample Results: 

• Tandy Corp. -5/19/80 to 9/07/81 

3 BUY/SELL signals 
ROI: 163% 

• Hewlett Packard-5/25/80 to 8/30/81 

4 BUY/SELL signals 
ROI: 42% 

• Adv. Micro Dev. -5/12/80 to 6/22/81 

3 BUY/SELL signals 
ROI: 51% 

• Nat'l Semi. -5/25/80 to 6/22/81 

3 BUY/SELL signals 
ROI: 40% 

• Storage Tech. -5/18/80 to 6/22/81 

3 BUY/SELL signals 
ROS: 111% 



m 



mi,. l.HJN, I'll. 



hjfiii; 

III I • I II 



r*t" »V 



i > • i 



An Investment Tool 
for the Serious Investors 



System Requirements: 

• cassette version - min. 16K RAM 

• disk version - min. 32K RAM. 1 disk drive 

• printer optional 

To order, see your local computer/software dealers or send check, 
money order, or C.O.D. to: 

■j«"jij" Micro-Investment Software 

MIS 9621 Bowie Way 

— r— Stockton, CA 95209 

cassette version $30 per copy 

disk version $50 per copy 

TM STOCKCHARTI is a trademark ol Micro-Investment Software 
•trademare ot TANDY CORP.. APPLE COMPUTER. & ATARI respectively 
ROI ■ return on investment 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



■ See List ot Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 201 



APPLICATION 



Isolate a specific element 

in a chemical solution with the Color Computer. 



Colorful Titrations 



James W. Wood 
424 North Missouri 
Atwood, IL 61913 



Microcomputers are found 
in more schools and class- 
rooms across the country every 
year. They are easy to apply to 
spelling and math drills, but 
their potential to simulate sci- 
ence problems should also be 
tapped. 



A common lab assignment in 
high school chemistry courses 
is titration. Program Listing 1 is 
atitration simulation forthe Col- 
or Computer. It prepares stu- 
dents for their lab assignment 
and lets them practice titration 
problems. 

Actual titration procedures 
mix measured quantities of an 
acid whose strength is unknown 
with a base of known strength. 
The acid and base are dis- 




Photo 1 
202 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



pensed from burettes which are 
graduated to the tenth of a milli- 
liter. The chemicals are collect- 
ed in a flask containing an indi- 
cator. (The indicator is one color 
when it is in a base and another 
color when it is in an acid.) The 
base and acid are added to one 
another until they are neutral- 
ized—the point when one drop 
of acid or base changes the in- 
dicator's color. 

When the chemicals are neu- 
tralized, a simple calculation us- 
ing the formula in Fig. 1 deter- 
mines the strength of the acid. 

In practice, students usually 
repeat the procedure several 
times before they perform a ti- 
tration for a grade. Sometimes 
they forget to take the initial 
reading, and the chemicals are 
wasted. Other times they forget 
to let the air out of the burette 
tips. This will cause the amount 
of chemicals used to be read in- 
correctly which adds error to 
their experimental determina- 
tion of the acid's normality. 

Time and the cost of chemi- 
cals make it impossible to do 
enough titrations for every stu- 
dent to receive maximum bene- 
fit from the lab experiment. This 



simulation gives students a 
chance to become familiar with 
the procedures before they per- 
form the actual experiment. The 
actual lab session can go more 
smoothly. 

The simulation randomly picks 
acid and base values, stating 
only the value for the base. 
Burettes are drawn on the 
screen. The level of the liquids in 
the drawings lowers slightly to 
indicate that air is eliminated 
from the tips of the valves (see 
Photo 1). 

Pressing A on the computer 
keyboard dispenses acid, and 
pressing B dispenses base. 
When the solution is neutral, the 
student can test the value of the 
normality of the acid by press- 
ing the space bar on the key- 
board. The program gives the 
true value of solution concentra- 
tion and the percent of the stu- 
dent's error. And without wiping 
off the table or washing the 
flasks, the simulation is ready to 
begin again. 



The Key Box 
Color Computer 



Unfortunately, the burettes in 
the simulation can only be read 
to the nearest milliliter. In the 



actual experiment students use 
burettes graduated to tenths of 
a milliliter. ■ 



. ( v base final ~ v base initial >' N bas e 
( v acid final ~~ ^acid initial ) 



Fig. 1 



Determines strength of acid and base 

1-3 Instruction 

10 Defines graphics screen 

20 String to draw burette 

30-60 Draws and colors burette 

70 Draws container to collect acid and base 

200-230 Calibrates burette 

240-270 Makes extended calibrations on burette 

291 Strings for numbers 2,3,4,5,0 on graphics screen 

300-390 Draws numbers next to burette 

450 Determines starting point for acid 

460 Determines starting point for base 

470 Records starting point 

500-540 Loops to look for a request to dispense acid, dispense base, give answer 

or change the color of the indicator 

10000 Graphics to lower acid 

10010 Graphics to lower acid 

20000 Graphics to lower base 

20010 Determines if all the base is used 

25000-26000 Changes the color of the indicator 

30000-30030 Checks answer for acid's normality 

Table 1. Line Functions 



A= ( 4+RND ( 11 ) ) /l : B= ( 4+RND ( 1 1 ) ) /IB 

1 CLS: PRINT "WELCOME TO THE TITRATION LAB" : PRINT : PRINT"TIIE ACID W 
ILL BE ON THE LEFT" : PRINT"THE BASE IS ON THE RIGHT" : PRINT"PRESS 
A TO RELEASE ACID" : PRINT"PRESS B TO RELEASE BASE ": PRINT" PRESS SP 
ACE BAR WHEN READY TO GIVE NORMALITY OF ACID" 

2 PRINT"THE BASE'S NORMALITY IS" ; B: PRINT: PRINT" PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

3 KS=INKEYS:IFKS=""THEN3 
10 PMODE3,l:PCLS:SCREENl,l 

20 XS="D15 5R10D15R5U15R10U15 5R2L29" 

30 DRAW"BM100,0XXS;" 

40 DRAW"BM15 0,0XXS;" 

50 PAINT(102,2) ,6,8 

60 PAINT(152,2) ,7,8 

70 LINE(80,175)-(190,196) ,PSET,B 

200 FORQ=3TO150STEP3 

210 LINE(100,Q)-(125,Q) ,PSET 

220 LlNE(150,Q)-(175,Q) ,PSET 

23 NEXTQ 

240 FORQ=15TO150STEP15 

250 LINE(95,Q)-(100,Q) ,PSET 

260 LINE(175,Q)-(180,Q) ,PSET 

2/0 NEXTQ 

291 YS="R5D10L5U10":MS="L5D5R5D5L5":N$="D5R5U5D10":OS="R5D5L5R5D 

5L5":PS="R5D5L5D5R5" 

300 DRAW"BM80,25D10":DRAW"BM84,25XYS; n 

310 DRAW"BM190,25D10":DRAW"BM194,25XY$;" 

320 DRAW"BM75,55XPS;":DRAW"BM84,55XY? ; " 

330 DRAW"BM186,55XPS;":DRAW"BM194,55XYS; " 

340 DRAW"BM75,85XO$;":DRAW"BM84,85XY$; " 

350 DRAW"BM186,85XOS;":DRAW"BM194,85XYS; " 

360 DRAW"BM75,115XN$;":DRAW"BM84,115XY$;" 

370 DRAW"BM186,115XN$;":DRAW"BM194,115XY$;" 

3 8ss DRAW"BM80,145XMS;":DRAW"BM84,145XY$;" 

390 DRAW"BM191 ,145XM$; " :DRAW"BM19 4 ,145XY$; 

450 C = RND(7) : FORE=lTOC: PAINTl 102 , 3*E-1) ,5, 

D=RND(7) :F0RE=1T0D:PAINT(152,3*E-1) ,5, 

F=C:G=D 

A$=INKEY$ 

IFAS="A"THENGOSUB10000 

IFAS="B"THENGOSUB20000 
525 IFA- (C-F) >B* (D-G) TKENGOSUB25000ELSEGOSUB26000 
530 IFAS=" "THENGOTO30000 
540 GOTO500 

10000 C=C+1:PAINT(102,3*C-1) ,5,8 
10010 IFC=51THEN10100 
10050 RETURN 

10100 CLS: PRINT "SORRY, YOU RAN OUT OF ACID":END 
20000 D=D+1:PAINT(152,3*D-1) ,5,8 
20010 IFD=5lTHEN20100 
20050 RETURN 

20100 CLS: PRINT" SORRY, YOU RAN OUT OF BASE":END 
25000 PAINT (82, 17 7) ,5, 8: RETURN 
26000 PAINT(82,177) ,7,8:RETURN 

30000 CLS:INPUT"WHAT IS THE NORMALITY OF THE ACID";AA 

30010 PRINT'THE CORRECT ANSWER IS", -A 

30020 PRINT'YOUR ERROR IS" ; INT ( ABS ( AA-A) /A*100+. 5) ; "%" 
30030 INPUT"ANOTHER LAB" ; L$ : IFLEFT$ ( L$ , 1 ) =" Y"THENRUN 



460 
470 

500 
510 
520 



8:NEXTE 
8:NEXTE 



Program Listing 1 



MONEY MAGIC! 

yv , * douqfiflo. 

DOUGHFLO. The Most Useful Program s Home or 
Business Msnager Can Have! * 124 




Designed For The Decision Maker, Doughflo is an interacting system of 
programs for cash flow analysis, budget planning, and bookkeeping. 
In The Home, Doughflo becomes a key tool in solving the puzzle of balancing ex- 
penses vs. income. Doughflo shows you where the money goes. 
Fire Your Bookkeeper! You, the new bookkeeper, wl have easy access to 
all expense records. Rapidly find and display any number of entries by description, 
type, amount, date, or number. 

Simple To Use, Doughflo is quick and efficient, carefully guiding you from data 
entry to report generation. 

Ueer Friendly input screens and single keystroke commands alow quick and 

easy data entry and computer interaction. 

Amazingly Versatile! Indispensable in home or business for: 



• Budget Planning 

• Tax Preparation 

• Bookkeeping 

• Financial Analysis 



Gain Valuable Insight. Doughflo is ready to save you time and money. 
Requires 32K and one or more disk drives, specify Model I or III. $98.95 postpaid 
to continental North America. For more information check reader service 
number. 




597 Forestville, Ca. 95436 
24 hr. phone [707] 887-7237 



"A 

PERFECT 

CLOAD 

EVERY 

TIME"* 



tape diqitlzer 




1 September-October 1 980 Elementary Electronic 



Reprints available upon request 



^232 



At last there is a cure for TRS-80 tape cloading blues! For over 
three years, Alphanetics has been selling the TRS-80 Tape Digitizer, a proven 
hardware solution for your software problems. No longer need you juggle the 
recorder's volume control endlessly, trying for a perfect cload of a pre-recorded 
program. Just pop the tape into the cassette recorder, process the signal 
through our digitizer, and you're ready to RUN a perfect load! 
Just check out the Tape Digitizer's features . . . 



• Makes tap* program loading virtually independent of 
votum* control sotting. 

• Allows copying system and normal tap** without using 
computar. 

• Makes a porfact digital copy of any tape without using com- 
putar, removing hum, noiae, and cures minor dropouts. 

• Ca sse tt e switch allows manual control of cassetts 
recorder, independent of computer control. 

• "GOOD DATA" indicator easily enables setting proper 
volume . . . doubles as a tape monitor. 

• AX. powered — no batteries to replace. 

• Housed in e sturdy, attractive metal case. 

• Completely compatible with Level I fi II, also LOW speed 
[BOO baud} Modal III. 



Feed your cassette to the Afchanetics Tape Digitizer and feed your computer the 
exact digital waveform the TRS-80 gave your tape. Get rid of your tape bugs 
today — $64.95 postpaid to continental North America, or return within 10 
days for a full refund! ' 



■ See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 203 



TECHNIQUE 



Use this graphics technique in your game. 



Polar Generator 



Ken Webb 
88 Presland Road 
Ottawa, Ont. 
Canada K1K2C3 

Six months ago I began 
planning a complex game, 
simulating the discovery of the 
northern polar regions. I de- 



signed a procedure to display on 
the screen a partial map of the 
arctic, and then, at the player's 
command, to give an expanded 
view of any desired section. This 
was all to be done in machine 
language for maximum speed. 
During ship movement, water 





00810 












***** 
















00820 


* CALLS ROM RANDOM NUMBER 


GENERATOR 




00830 


* AND 


DISPLAYS 


GRAPHIC 


EQUIVALENTS 




00840 


* TO 


\CCCESS ROUTINE: 








00850 


* 


SYSTEM 


/32620 








00860 


*(OR) 


POKE 16 


526,108: 


POKE16527,127: X=USR 


(0) * 
















00870 


***** 


********* 


******** 


* * 


*********.**.**** 


..... 


00880 












7P6C DD21003C 


00890 




LD 


IX,3C00H 


; SCREEN LOCA 


TION 














7F70 010004 


00900 




LD 


BC r 1024 




; SCREEN BYTE 


COUNTER 














7F73 117F00 


00910 




LD 


DE,127 




;GRAPHICS IN 


CREMENT 
















00915 


MUMFORD'S ROM 


CALL 






7F76 214000 


00920 


RND 


LD 


HL,64 




; UPPER LIMIT 


OF RANDOM t 














7F79 CDCC14 


00930 




CALL 


14CCH 




;ROM RANDOM 


t ROUTINE 














7F7C CD7F0A 


00940 




CALL 


0A7FH 




; CONVERT TO 


INTEGER 
















00942 


END OF MUMFORD 


■S ROM CALL 




7F7F 19 


00950 




ADD 


HL,DE 




(NOW 128 - 1 


91 














7F80 DD7500 


00960 




LD 


(IX) ,L 




; DISPLAY GRA 


PHICS CHAR. 














7F83 DD23 


00970 




INC 


IX 




,-NEXT SCREEN 


LOCATION 














7F85 0B 


00980 




DEC 


BC 




,-LOOP 1024 T 


IMES 














7F86 78 


00990 




LD 


A,B 






7F87 Bl 


01000 




OR 


C 






7F88 20EC 


01010 




JR 


NZ,RND 






7F8A C9 


01020 




RET 






;TO BASIC 


0000 


01030 




END 








00000 TOTAL ERRORS 
















Program Listing 1 







would be shown with ice condi- 
tions that would be consistent 
with the geographical location 
and time of year. A ship would 
be unable to get through any ice 
shown on the screen. The prob- 
lem was how to generate up to 
1024 (one for each screen loca- 
tion) random numbers in a frac- 
tion of a second. 

Generating and Characters 

I finally accomplished this by 
using RND(11000) in Basic to 
generate a random address in 
ROM which is then passed to a 
machine language routine. The 
routine takes the number at 
each sequential ROM address 
up to 1024, and adjusts it with 
Set and Reset based on the con- 
tents of a table. The table speci- 
fies ice conditions, and loads 
the resulting byte into screen 
memory. There are three types 
of ice, only two are randomly 
generated. 

As a further example of the 
random method of generating 
numbers, use your editor/as- 
sembler, or a machine language 
monitor such as T-Bug to enter 
Program Listing 4. This pro- 
gram takes the contents of suc- 
cessive ROM locations, and 
converts them to X and Y coor- 



dinates which are then Set and 
Reset on the screen. 

Listing 3 is a Basic driver pro- 
gram that defines the overall 
shape of the patterns created by 
the assembly/machine lan- 
guage routine. When you power- 
up, answer the memory size 
question with 32544. 

I would like to describe one fi- 
nal machine language method 
of wringing random numbers 
out of your TRS-80. The R regis- 
ter is continuously cycling 
through every integer between 
and 255 (just why it does this I 
can't say). 

Program Listing 6 gets the 
contents of the R register 255 
times, and prints a graphic 
equivalent of each of these num- 
bers on the screen. You should 
get a different pattern each time 
you run this routine, but each 
pattern will repeat itself at a reg- 
ular interval. On my TRS-80 
Model I the interval is 64, so 
each line is the same as the one 
above it. The routine prints every 
ninth graphics character. By ad- 
ding a delay loop, you should be 
able to get it to print every tenth 
character, or every twenty-third, 
etc. So Program Listing 6 does 
not generate very good random 
numbers because we easily pre- 



204 



'Microcomputing, February 1982 



Poor 

Man's 

Floppy 



HIGH SPEED CASSETTE SYSTEM 



Now the widely acclaimed 
JPC Cassette System is available 
for your TRS-80* computer. 
The price is only $90.00 

TC-8 Cassette System 
JPC Products 
Albuquerque, NM 
Kit: $90 
Assembled: $120 

by Carl A. Kollar 

1 guess I don't have to tell any TRS-80 owners 
how frustrating the cassette system that 
comes with the computer can be. Even with the 
factory mod that's available, the annoyance of 
loading and checking programs becomes just 
barely tolerable. 

If you're like me, after you've just plunked 
down a chunk of money for a Level II 16K ma- 
chine, "you ain't got nuttin left" for even one 
disk drive at 500 bucks apiece. So you suffer. 

A reasonable alternative is the Exatron 
Stringy Floppy (ESF). This will cost you about 
250 bucks and totally eliminates your loading 
and saving problems, automatically and fast. 
I've had one of these for about six months and 
love it! 

But, if the price is still too steep, have I got a 
device for you! 

The Device 

The February 1980 issue of Microcomputing 
had an ad that intrigued the hell out of me. It 
was a high-speed cassette system by JPC Prod- 
ucts acclaimed as a "poor man's floppy." It 
made all sorts of seemingly ridiculous claims 
such as "loads five times faster," "stores 50,000 
bytes on a 10-minute cassette," "less than one 
bad load in a million bytes with the volume con- 
trol anywhere between one and eight." 

All this for a measly [90] bucks? How could 
this be? A call to Albuquerque answered a few 
questions: Yes, it had its own power supply, 
and, it stored programs five times faster be- 
cause it utilized higher density data. The com- 
puter outputs the information at a higher rate 
out of the rear keyboard connector. 

The ad had even claimed anyone could build 
it even if you have never soldered before. JPC 
would make it work, if you couldn't — for free. 
I was sold. I placed my order, and it arrived 
about two months later (parts shortage). 

I work in electronics, so I found the unit ex- 
ceptionally easy to build. It took about an 
hour. The manual is superb. (That's better than 
ereat.) It was clear, concise and exact with no 




FOR TRS-80 



[Reprint of June 1980 Review, 80 Microcomputing] 



ambiguities. Important parts placements are 
stressed (polarity markings on electrolytics, 
bands on diodes, etc.). 

JPC was right! With these instructions, you 
couldn't go wrong. The board quality is excel- 
lent. It is double-sided and parts locations are 
clearly marked on the component side of the 
board. There are no jumper wires to install. 
JPC utilizes PC traces and plated-through 
holes for connections to traces on the other side 
of the board. 

Also, there are absolutely no adjustments or 
settings to bother with. 

The documentation is a sheaf of 8 Vi x 1 1 pa- 
pers stapled together. It is written in the nicest 
format I've seen in a while. Each command 
and/or subjects is covered on its own sheet in 
large type. All explanations are in easy to read 
English — not computerese. 

Commands and Features 

SAVE"filename": Saves your BASIC pro- 
gram on cassette. 

LOAD: Reads the next BASIC program from 
the cassette. 

LOAD"filename": Searches for and loads the 
specified file from cassette. 
LOAD? and LOAD?"filename": Reads file 
from cassette, and compares contents to mem- 
ory. 

LOADN: Prints a list of all the programs on a 
cassette, until interrupted by the "break" key. 
LOADN"filename": Same as above except the 
tape will stop at the end of the program named. 
KILL: Removes the file manager program 
from memory so that the extra memory can be 
used by large programs. 
RSET: Allows the operator to rewind and posi- 
tion the tape on tape recorders that have these 
functions tied to the motor control jack. 
RUN"fllename": TC-8 searches for a specified 
program and runs it immediately. 
PUT"filename": Same as SAVE "filename", 
except it is for use with system tapes. 
GET: Same as LOAD, except it is for use with 
system tapes. 

GET"filename": Same as LOAD "filename", 
except it is for use with system tapes. 
GET? and GET?"filename": Same as LOAD? 
and LOAD? "filename", except it is for use 
with system tapes. 
GETN and GETN"fiIename": Same as 



LOADN and LOADN"filename", except it is 
for use with system tapes. 
OPEN: Required before cassette input or out- 
put of a data file can be attempted. 
CLOSE: Required to end a cassette data file. 
PRINT#: Allows numerical or string data to be 
output to a cassette file. 

INPUT#: Allows numerical or string data to be 
input from a cassette file. 

I haven't counted them, so I don't know 
about the "one load in a million bytes" claim, 
but my son, Anthony (age 1 1), loaded about 30 
of his programs from his Radio Shack format 
tape to a new TC-8 format tape. He's run them 
all and found no bad loads. 

Unlike the standard tape system, you can po- 
sition your tape anywhere before the program 
you want and not have to look for a blank spot 
between programs. The TC-8 patiently waits 
for the program you want and then starts load- 
ing without getting confused by the portion of 
the previous program you just fed it. 

Try that on your regular cassette system; 
you'll wear out the reset button. ■ 

ORDER NOW 

To order your TC-8 kit, send your check or 
money order for $90.00 plus $3.50 postage 
and handling to JPC PRODUCTS CO., 12021 
Paisano Ct., Albuquerque, NM 87112 (New 
Mexico residents add 4% sales tax). Credit card 
orders accepted by phone or mail. Personal 
checks will delay shipment. We will otherwise 
immediately ship you the TC-8 kit, the cabinet, 
the ribbon cable, the power adapter, an instruc- 
tion manual, and a cassette containing the 
software. 




^ 190 



JPC PRODUCTS CO. 
Phone (505) 294-4623 
12021 Paisano Ct. 
Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 



^See List ot Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 205 



diet the interval between one 
number and the next. You may, 
however, be able to use some- 
thing like it in a very restricted 
application. It is short and 
very fast. 

Program Listing 7 adds an ex- 
tra random element, an irreg- 
ular delay. This routine rolls two 
dice, one at a time. First hit the 1 
key, then the 2, and repeat each 
time you want to roll. The result- 
ing numbers are unpredictable 
(although there are more fives 
and ones than I would expect). 

You may want to combine two 
of the methods described in this 
article. In a machine language 
program, to create part of the 



surface of an alien planet, I use 
both the numbers from some ar- 
bitrary section of ROM and the R 
register. One simple device 
would be to And/Or the contents 
of a ROM location with the R 
register. The result may less re- 
petitive than using either meth- 
od alone. 

If you need a small number of 
good random numbers, or you 
are not too concerned with 
speed, then use the built-in ROM 
routine. But if you want speed, 
try linking the random method 
with use of the R register. I 
doubt that you will find a faster 
way of churning out random 
numbers. ■ 



25 


'RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR 












30 


Dl = 


2 | 31 














40 


Y# - 


568731 'ANY 


NUMBER 


BETWEEN 100000 


AND 


999999 






INPUT 


"LOWER LIMIT, 


UPPER 


.,IMIT";M,N 'LIMITS 




RANDOM 




RS 


















60 


X# = 


(15625 * Y# * 


22221) 


/ D» 










70 


Y» = 


(X# - INT(X#) 


* D# 














X = t 


+ INT( UN - M + 1) 












90 


PRINT 


X; 














100 GOT< 


60 




















Program Listing 2 











30 'CONVERTS CONTENTS OF ROM LOCATIONS TO DISPLAYABLE GRAPHICS C 

HARACTERS 

40 FOR X = TO 12287 

58 PRINT CHRSI (PEEK(X) AND 63) + 128); 

60 NEXT 



Program Listing 3 













Program 


Listing 4 












00100 


****** 


******** 


...*.....*..**... 














00110 


* RANDOM PATTERN GENERATOR 


* 














00115 


* BY KEN WEBB 




* 














00120 


* ALL 


RIGHTS RESERVED 


* 














00130 


****** 


******** 


***************** 












7F21 


00140 


TART 


EQU 


7F21H 


; CHANGE TO R 












ELOCATE 












TS 












00150 


X HORIZONTAl 


POSITION 




7F7B E5 


00630 


PUSH 


HL 






00160 


XLIMI1 


* XADDS 


+ XCONST MUST 


BE >0 AND <127 


7F7C 3A2C7F 
SUM 


00640 


LD 


A, (XVALUE) 


;GET RANDOM 


7F21 

OF RANDOM « 


00170 


LIMIT 


EQU 


START 


; UPPER LIMIT 


7F7F 84 
T TO SUM 
7F80 67 


00650 
00660 


ADD 

LD 


A,H 
H,A 


;ADD CONSTAN 
; FINAL X COO 


7F22 


00180 


ADDS 


EQU 


START+1 


; » OF RANDOM 


RDINATE 










1 ' S TO ADD 












7F81 3A2D7F 


00670 


LD 


A, (YVALUE) 




7F23 


00190 


CONST 


EQU 


START4 2 


; ADDED TO FI 


7F84 85 


006 80 


ADD 


A,L 




NAL RANDOM # 












7F85 6F 


006 90 


LD 


L,A 


; FINAL Y COO 




00200 


Y VERTICAL POSITION 




RDINATE 












00210 


YLIMIT 


* YADDS 


+ YCONST MUST 


BE >0 AND <47 


7F86 3A2B7F 


00700 


LD 


A, (STRST) 


;GET SET/RES 


7F24 


00220 


LIMIT 


EQU 


START+3 




ET FLAG 








7F25 


00230 


ADDS 


EQU 


START+4 




7F89 CDAF7F 


00710 


CALL 


PIXEL 


; SET/RESET A 


7F26 


00240 


CONST 


EQU 


START+5 




BIT 










7F27 


00250 


OMLOC 


EQU 


START+6 


; LOCATION IN 


7F8C El 


00720 


POP 


HL 




ROM 












7F8D CI 


00730 


POP 


BC 


;GET BIT COU 


7F29 


00260 


ITCNT 


EQU 


START+8 


;# OF BITS T 


NTER 










SET/RESET 












7F8E 0B 


00740 


DEC 


BC 


;BIT COUNTER 


7F2B 


00270 


TRST 


EQU 


START+10 


;0=SET 1=RE 


= ? 










SET 












7F8F 78 


00750 


LD 


A,B 




7F2C 


00280 > 


VALUE 


EQU 


START+11 


;SUM OF RAND 


7F90 Bl 


00760 


OR 


C 




OM 1 'S 












7F91 C5 


00770 


PUSH 


BC 




7F2D 


00290 1 


VALUE 


EQU 


START+1 2 




7F92 E5 


007 80 


PUSH 


HL 




7F2E 


00300 




ORG 


START+13 




7F93 20A7 


00790 


JR 


NZ,STARTX 


;GO IF COUNT 


7F2E ED4B297F 


00310 




LD 


BC, (BITCNT) 


;GET BIT COU 


ER > 










NTER 












7F95 El 


00800 


POP 


HL 


; ELSE FIX ST 


7F32 C5 


00320 




PUSH 


BC 


;SAVE BIT CO 


ACK 










UNTER 












7F96 CI 


00810 


POP 


BC 




7F33 3A237F 


00330 




LD 


A, (XCONST) 


;GET CON STAN 


7F97 C9 


00820 


RET 




; RETURN TO B 


TS 












ASIC 










7F36 67 


00340 




LD 


H,A 




7F98 57 


00830 


LMT LD 


D,A 


;SAVE UPPER 


7F37 3A267F 


00350 




LD 


A, (YCONST) 




LIMIT 










7F3A 6F 


00360 




LD 


L,A 




7F99 1EFF 


00840 


LD 


E,0FFH 


;MASK, BINAR 


7F3B E5 


00370 




PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE CONSTA 


Y 11111111 










NTS 












7F9B CB27 


00850 


SHFT SLA 


A 


;TEST HIGH B 


7F3C FD2A277F 


00380 J 


TARTX 


LD 


IY , ( ROMLOC) 


;GET ROM CON 


IT OF LIMIT 










TENTS 












7F9D D8 


00860 


RET 


C 


;GO IF IT'S 


7f40 3A217F 


00390 




LD 


A,(XLIMIT) 


;GET UPPER L 


SET 










I14IT 












7F9E CB3B 


00870 


SRL 


E 


;ELSE ADJUST 


7F43 CD987F 


00400 




CALL 


LMT 


; CREATE MASK 


MASK 
7FA0 18F9 


00880 


JR 


SHFT 




7F46 3A227F 


00410 




LD 


A, (XADDS) 


;GET 1 OF RA 


7FA2 FD23 


00890 


ROMBYT INC 


IY 


;NEXT ROM LO 


NDOMS TO ADD 
7F49 47 


00420 




LD 


B,A 




CATION 
7FA4 FD7E00 


00900 


LD 


A,(IY) 


;GET ROM CON 


7F4A 3E00 


00430 




LD 


a, a 


; INITIALIZE 


TENTS 










SUM TO 












7FA7 A3 


00910 


AND 


E 


; RESET HIGH 


7F4C 322C7F 


00440 




LD 


(XVALUE) ,A 




BITS 










7F4F CDA27F 


00450 : 


OOP1 


CALL 


ROMBYT 


;GET A SINGL 


7FA8 BA 


00920 


CP 


D 


; COMPARE WIT 


E RANDOM # 












H LIMIT 










7F52 3A2C7F 


00460 




LD 


A, (XVALUE) 


;GET OLD SUM 


7FA9 F2A27F 


00930 


JP 


P, ROMBYT 


;GO IF >= UP 


7F55 81 

t TO OLD SUM 


00470 




ADD 


A,C 


;ADD RANDOM 


PER LIMIT 
7FAC 3C 


00940 


INC 


A 




7F56 322C7F 
UM 


00480 




LD 


(XVALUE) ,A 


.•STORE NEW S 


7FAD 4F 
7FAE C9 


00950 
00960 
00970 


\LD 

RET 


C.A 




7F59 10F4 

TIMES 

7F5B 3A247F 

RTX 

7F5E CD987F 


00490 




DJNZ 


LOOP1 


;LOOP XADDS 


* 










00500 S 


TARTY 


LD 


A,(YLIMIT) 


;SAME AS STA 


» 


00980 


; * SET/RESET 


ROUTINE BY WILLIAM 


BARDEN, JR. 


00510 




CALL 


LMT 






00990 


;* 80 MICROCOMPUTING, AUG 1980, 


P. 25 


7F61 3A257F 


00520 




LD 


A, (YADDS) 






01000 


.*******«.*.* 


****************** 


************* 


7F64 47 


00530 




LD 


B,A 




a 










7F65 3E00 
7F67 322D7F 


00540 
00550 




LD 
LD 


A,0 

(YVALUE) ,A 




7FAF F5 
SET FLAG 


01010 


PIXEL PUSH 


AF 


;SAVE SET/RE 


7F6A CDA27F 


00560 L 


OOP 2 


CALL 


ROMBYT 


;SAME AS LOO 


7FB0 5C 


01020 


LD 


E,H 


;X 


PI 












7FB1 7D 


01030 


LD 


A,L 


; Y 


7F6D 3A2D7F 


00570 




LD 


A, (YVALUE) 




7FB2 CB3B 


01040 


SRI, 


E 


;GET CHAR PO 


7F70 81 


00580 




ADD 


A,C 




SITION (0-63) 


IN E 








7F71 322D7F 


00590 




LD 


(YVALUE) ,A 




7FB4 1600 


01050 


LD 


D,0 


;SET COL# TO 


7F74 10F4 


00600 




DJNZ 


LOOP 2 















7F76 FD22277F 


00610 S 


ETT 


LD 


(ROMLOC) ,IY 


;SAVE NEW RO 


7FB6 3001 


01060 


JR 


NC,SET10 


;GO IF COL«= 


M LOCATION 























7F7A El 


00620 




POP 


HL 


;GET CONSTAN 


7FB8 14 


01070 


INC 


D 


;COL#=l 




















Program Listing 4 continues 



206 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program Listing 4 continued 








7FB9 06FF 


01080 SET10 


LD 


B,0FFH 


;-l TO B 


7FBB 04 


01090 SET20 


INC 


B 


,-BUMP QUOTIE 


NT IN B=LINE# 








7FBC D603 


01100 


SUB 


3 


; SUCCESSIVE 


SUBT FOR /3 










7FBE F2BB7F 


01110 


JP 


P,SET20 


;GO IF NOT N 


EGATIVE 










7FC1 C603 


01120 SET25 


ADD 


A, 3 


;ADD BACK FO 


R REMAINDER' 


ROW* 








7FC3 07 


01130 


RLCA 




; (ROH«)*2 


7FC4 82 


01140 


ADD 


A,D 


; (ROW#) *2+CO 


L»=BIT POS 










7FC5 4F 


01150 SET27 


LD 


C,A 


;SAVE BIT PO 


S IN C 










7FC6 68 


01160 


LD 


L,B 


;LINE # 


7FC7 2600 


01170 


LD 


H,0 


;NOW IN HL 


7FC9 0606 


01180 


LD 


B,6 


; SHIFT COUNT 


7FCB 29 


01190 SET30 


ADP 


HL.HL 


; MULTIPLY LI 


NE#*64 










7FCC 10FD 


01200 


DJNZ 


SET30 


;LOOP TIL DO 


NE 










7FCE 1600 


01210 SET32 


LD 


D,0 


;DE NOW HAS 


CHAR POS 










7FD0 19 


01220 


ADD 


HL,DE 


; (LINEI)«64+ 


CHAR POS IN 


HL 








7FD1 11003C 


01230 


LD 


DE,3C00H 


; START OF VI 


DEO 










7FD4 19 


01240 SET34 


ADD 


HL,DE 


; (LINE#)*64+ 


CHAR POS+3C00H 








7FD5 0600 


01250 


LD 


B,0 


;BC NOW HAS 


BIT POS 










7FD7 Fl 


01260 


POP 


AF 


;GET SET/ RES 


ET FLAG 










7FD8 B7 


01270 


OR 


A 


,-TEST FLAG 


7FD9 200C 


01280 


JR 


NZ, RESET 


;GO IF RESET 


7FDB DD21F37F 01290 


LD 


IX, MASK 


; START OF MA 


SK TABLE 










7FDF DD09 


01300 


ADD 


IX,BC 


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SK 










7FE1 7E 


01310 


LD 


A, (HL) 


;LOAD PIXEL 


7FE2 DDB600 


01320 


OR 


(IX) 


;SET PIXEL 


7FE5 77 


01330 SET36 


LD 


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DEO 










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01340 


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01360 


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; POINT TO MA 


SK 










7FED 7E 


01370 


LD 


A,(HL) 


;LOAD PIXEL 


7FEE DDA600 


01380 


AND 


(IX) 


; RESET PIXEL 


7FF1 18F2 


01390 


JR 


SET36 


;GO TO STORE 


, RETURN 










7FF3 81 


01400 MASK 


DEFB 


81H 


;MASK TABLE 


7FF4 82 


01410 


DEFB 


82H 




7FF5 84 


01420 


DEFB 


84H 




7FF6 88 


01430 


DEFB 


88H 




7FF7 90 


01440 


DEFB 


9011 




7FF8 A0 


01450 


DEFB 


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7FF9 FE 


01460 MASK1 


DEFB 


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7FFA FD 


01470 


DEFB 


0FDH 




7FFB FB 


01480 


DEFB 


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7FFC F7 


01490 


DEFB 


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7FFD EF 


01500 


DEFB 


0EFH 




7FFE DF 


01510 


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0DF1I 




0000 


01520 


END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 









5 'DRIVER PROGRAM FOR ASSEMBLY LISTING 2 

6 ' BY KEN WEBB 

7 'ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

10 FORX=15360TO16383:POKEX,191:NEXT 'WHITE OUT SCREEN 
20 POKE16526,46:POKE16527,127 
'=7F2EH 

MACHINE LANGUAGE ENT 
RY POINT 
25 READM 

' I OF DATA SETS 
27 FORY=lTOM 

30 P=32545:FORX=0TO10:READA:POKEP+X,RND(A) :NEXT '=7F21H TO 7F2 
BH PASSES DATA TO MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINE 
40 X=USR(0) 
45 NEXTY 

50 RESTORE :GOT02 5 
200 DATA 2 



205 '#-> 1 
210 DATA 63, 2, 
220 DATA 10, 3, 



23, 

4, 



2, 0, 

3, 17, 



500 'DESCRIPTION OF DATA ELEMENTS (SEE ALSO FIRST LINES OF ASSEM 
BLY LISTING 2) 



650 
659 
660 



690 
700 

1000 



1030 
1040 



'#; ASSEMBLY NAME: 

'0 XLIMIT 

1 1 XADDS 

1 2 XCONST 
'3 YLIMIT 
'4 YADDS 

1 5 YCONST 

1 ROMLOC 

'6 LOW BYTE 

'7 HIGH BYTE 

'BITCNT 

1 8 LOW BYTE 

'9 HIGH BYTE 

'10 STRST 



0=S£T 



<127 

<=127/XLIMIT 

<127-XLIMIT*XADDS 

<47 

<=47/YLIMIT 

<47-YLIMIT*YADDS 

< = 255 
<=ABOUT 8 

<=255 

<=ABOUT 8 
1=RESET 



'TO CHANGE THE TYPE OF PATTERN: 

' -CHANGE "RND(A)" TO "A" IN LINE 30 

-CHANGE THE NUMBER OF DATA SETS (MORE DATA STATEMENTS) 
-ALTER THE DATA, BUT KEEP IT WITHIN THE RANGES INDICATE 



D IN LINES 600 TO 76 



Program Listing 5 



PRACTICAL • ORIGINAL • SINGULAR • SUPERB • UNUSUAL 
REFWARE THESAURUS 
INNOVATIVE READY-REFERENCE PROGRAMS ; 
WHAT'S THE BEST WORD??? 

How many times have you racked your brain for just the right word 
when writing an important letter, report, or article? How many times have 
your ideas been misunderstood because the words you used didn't express 
your thoughts clearly and accurately? 

Now, by using the remarkable new REFWARE THESAURUS programs, 
your computer can speedily find those words that are on the tip of your 
tongue but that you can't quite remember at the moment. And it tells you 
how to spell them! 

.Just slip a REFWARE THESAURUS disk into your disk drive. Then type 
in your sentences or paragraphs. The computer will quickly offer a variety 
of alternatives, retyping your sentences or paragraphs with substitute 
possibilities chosen from its multi-thousand word vocabulary. It displays 
the revised sentences on your monitor or types them on your printer as you 
choose, so that you can mull them over and choose the one that most ac- 
curately expresses what you REALLY mean to say. 

Having helped thousands of writers learn to express themselves with 
clarity as editor of such publications as the World Book Encyclopedia the 
Encyclopedia Americana, and the Reader's Digest Almanac and Yearbook, 
David C. Whitney has drawn on decades of editorial experience to prepare 
the revolutionary REFWARE THESAURUS programs, bringing the speed 
and power of the computer to the aid of anyone who wishes to improve his 
writing or speaking. 

In addition to the specific programs capable of substituting suggested 
alternate words for nouns and adjectives, REFWARE THESAURUS Builder 
enables engineers, physicians, lawyers, educators, business, physicists, 
chemists, and other professionals and specialists to develop their own in- 
dividually tailored vocabularies of hard-to-remember technical words. 

REFWARE THESAURUS Adjectives 1 .0 

6,200 adjectives assist you in choosing the most accurate modifiers 
in your ads, letters, reports, and speeches. 

REFWARE THESAURUS Nouns 1.0 

6,200 nouns suggest alternates for the names of persons, places, things, 
and ideas that you use in your writing and speaking. 

REFWARE THESAURUS Builder 1.0 

Series of eight utility programs enables the user to develop specialized 
computer thesaurus disk programs of hard-to-remember technical words 
and their alternates for personal use. Functions independently of Adjec- 
tives and Nouns programs. 

REFWARE THESAURUS User's Manuals: Complete descriptions of use of 
each of the above programs. Included at no additional charge with each of 
program disks listed above. If ordered separately, price of documentation 
is refundable upon receipt of order and payment for program disk. 

MINIMUM System Required TRS 80* Mod I or Mod III 48K with two disk drives. 
* A Trademark of Tandy Corporation 

REFWARE* Reference software division David C. Whitney Associates. Inc. 

P.O. Box 451, Chappaqua, N.Y. 10514 
■ A trademark of David C. Whitney Associates, Inc. 



Specify Mod l( ) or Mod III i 
Qty. Order No. 



Unit Price 





1001 RT 


Adjectives 1.0 


S39.95 






2001 RT 


Nouns 1.0 


$39.95 






5001 RT 


Builder 1.0 


$149.95 






6001 RT 


User's Manual Adj 


S9.95 






6002 RT 


User's Manual Nouns 


$9.95 






6003RT 


User's Manual Builder 


$14.95 








Postage and handling 


$ 3.00 


Enclosed $ ( ) Check ( ) Money Order TOTAL 


$ 







qj Card # 

> 



Exp. Date Interbank # 



fjj Signature 
O. 



CO 



Phone ( 



2 

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q Mailed First Class, but allow 3 to 4 weeks for delivery, no COD. orders ^ 374 

•AHiaoMasivud • giavMavwau • nn-jniMS • 3iavmvAN 



' Microcomputing, February 1982 • 207 




IJG would 

like to apologize to all 

readers, and dealers, who ordered 

The Custom TRS-80 and have been wondering where it is. 

Magazine advertisements have to be prepared 2 to 3 
months before they actually appear in print. Originally the 
book was scheduled for printing in early May, just as the 
first advertisements were to appear, but the Editor must 
have been in a time-warp when he made the original 
production estimates! 

He completely under-estimated the time needed to 
prepare and process the dozens of photographs, circuit 
diagrams, printed circuit layouts, assembly language 
programs and reams of information that Dennis Kitsz had 
provided. 

The book has now been scheduled for printing in early 
November, and should be available before the end of the 
month. It will be worth the wait, it's one heck of a book! 

Credit card orders are not being processed until the book 
is back from the printers. If you prepaid by check, and 
would prefer not to wait, then you can obtain a full refund 
prior to shipment - or use your credit towards other IJG 
products. 

Sorry about this, thank you for waiting, 





00150 










***** 














00160 


* PRINTS GRAPHIC EQUIVALENTS OF THE R REGIS 


TER * 












t 


00170 


* TO 


ACCESS 


ROUUTINE: 






00160 


* 


SYSTEM /32512 






00190 


*(OR) 


POKE 


16526,0: POKE 


16527,127: X=USR( 


0) * 














00200 


***** 


****** 


************* 


***************** 


***** 


00210 










7F00 


00220 




ORG 


7F00H 




7F00 21003C 
N 


00230 




LD 


HL,3C00H 


; CLEAR SCREE 


7F03 11013C 


00240 




LD 


DE.3C01H 




7F06 01FF03 


00250 




LD 


BC,1023 




7F09 3680 


00260 




LD 


(HL) ,128 




7F0B EDB0 


00270 




LDIR 






7F0D 21003C 


00280 




LD 


HL,3C00H 


; SCREEN LOCA 


TION 












7F10 06FF 

R 

7F12 ED5F 


00290 




LD 


B.255 


;LOOP COUNTE 


00300 


RLOOP 


LD 


A,R 


;GET CONTENT 


S OF R REG. 












7F14 CBFF 


00310 




SET 


7, A 


; CONVERT TO 


GRAPHICS 












7F16 CBB7 


00320 




RES 


6, A 




7F18 77 


00330 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


; DISPLAY GRA 


PHICS CHAR. 












7F19 23 


00340 




INC 


HL 


;NEXT SCREEN 


LOCATION 












7F1A 10F6 


00350 




DJNZ 


RLOOP 


;LOOP 512 TI 


MES 












7F1C 21403E 


00360 




LD 


HL,3E40H 


;MOVE CURSOR 


LOCATION 












7F1F 222040 


00370 




LD 


(4020H) ,HL 


;TO LOWER SC 


REEN 












7F22 C3191A 


00380 




JP 


1A19H 


; RETURN TO " 


READY" 


00390 














Program Listing 6 





IZs-fc 



•*-1 



Jim ('What year is it?') Perry, Editor 




1260 West Foothill Blvd., 
Upland, California 91786 

(714) 946-5805 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
208 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 





00410 








***** 














00420 


;* SIMULATES 


DICE ROLL USING 


R REGISTER 




00430 


; * TO 


ACCCESS ROUTINE: 






00440 


;* 


SYSTEM /32549 






00450 


;MOR) 


POKE 


16526,37: POKE 


16527,127: X=USR 


(0) * 














00460 


.***** 


********************** 


**************** 


***** 


00470 










7F25 21003C 

N 

7F28 11013C 


00480 




LD 


HL,3C00H 


; CLEAR SCREE 


00490 




LD 


DE.3C01H 




7F2B 01FF03 


00500 




LD 


BC,1023 




7F2E 3680 


00510 




LD 


(HL) ,128 




7F30 EDB0 


00520 




LDIR 






7F32 DD21DE3D 


00530 




LD 


IX.3C00H+478 


; CENTER OF S 


CREEN 












7F36 0E30 


00540 




LD 


C,30H 


; ASCI I NUMBE 


R CODE 












7F38 3A1038 


00550 


DIEl 


LD 


A,(3810H) 


;TEST KEYBOA 


RD 












7P3B FE02 


00560 




CP 


02 


;IS IT "1" ? 


7F3D 20F9 


00570 




JR 


NZ,DIE1 


•LOOP TIL "1 


" HIT 












7F3F DD360480 


00580 




LD 


(IX+4) ,128 


; BLANK 2ND D 


IE 












7F43 CD5A7F 


00590 




CALL 


RANDOM 


;GET A RANDO 


M t 












7F46 81 


00600 




ADD 


A,C 


;MAKE IT AN 


ASCII # 












7F47 DD7700 


00610 




LD 


(IX) ,A 


; DISPLAY ON 


SCREEN 












7F4A 3A1038 


00620 


DIE2 


LD 


A,(3810H) 


;TEST KEYBOA 


RD 












7F4D FE04 


00630 




CP 


04 


;IS IT "2" ? 


7F4F 20F9 


00640 




JR 


NZ,DIE2 


;LOOP TIL "2 


" HIT 












7F51 CD5A7F 


00650 




CALL 


RANDOM 


;GET A RANDO 


H « 












7F54 81 


00660 




ADD 


A,C 


;MAKE IT AN 


ASCII 1 












7F55 DD7704 


00670 




LD 


(IX+4) ,A 


; DISPLAY ON 


SCREEN 












7F58 18DE 


00680 




JR 


DIEl 




7F5A ED5F 


006 90 


RANDOM 


LD 


A,R 


;GET CONTENT 


S OF R REG. 












7F5C 47 


00700 




LD 


B,A 


; RANDOM DELA 


Y COUNTER 












7F5D E607 


00710 




AND 


7 


;MAKE IT 7 


R LESS 












7F5F FE07 


00720 




CP 


7 


;TRY AGAIN I 


F IT'S 7 












7F61 2805 


00730 




JR 


Z , TRYAGN 




7F63 FE00 


00740 




CP 





;TRY AGAIN I 


F IT'S 












7F65 2801 


00750 




JR 


Z, TRYAGN 




7F67 C9 


00760 




RET 






7F68 10FE 


00770 


TRYAGN 


DJNZ 


S 


;LOOP RANDOM 


t OF TIMES 












7F6A 18EE 


00780 




JR 


RANDOM 


;TRY AGAIN 






Program 


Listing 7 





Looking for a 

SPELLING CHECKER 



PRESSJ (L) learn mord (R) replace word <s> skip word 

WORD IN ERROR*, Misstate 



This is an exanple of a text being checked by 
HEXSPELL. The text scrolls up the screen as it is checked. 
When an error is detected, you have three choices. 

1) REPLACE the incorrect word. The replacement word 
is INSTANTLY RE-CHECKED for correctness, then inserted in the 
text. 

2) The word is correct, leave it as it is. 

3) Tell HEXSPELL to LEARN this word for future 
reference, with just one keystroke. 

Hexspell requires just one step to check, arid 
correct a text, arid learn new words. Your docunent is ready to 
print as soon as Hexspell is finished. A word that is in error 
e.g. nisstake, is highlighted in the text for easy correction. 



HEXCON - HEXAGON CONTROL FILE EDITOR 
SET HEXSPELL OPTIONS 

A) Work File Nane = DOCD'.l 

B) Input File Nane = TEST 

C) Next Progran Nam? = NONE 

D) Alternate Char. Set = 

E) Extended Word List = N 

F) Auto Learn On = N 

G) Wait For SPELL disk = N 

Press appropriate key to change an option* 
Press (X) to exit edit. 



Get more than just a spelling checker — 

HexspeLL z 

the EVERYTHING checker. 

HEXSPELL CHECKS: 

Product codes*zip codes«French words •engineering formulae*typesetting commands«German words* 
numbers*addresses # chemical formulae* Greek words*names*amounts*printer commands«Japanese 
words»acronyms*dimensions*mathematical formulae«values . . . and of course plain old English words. 



Hexagon Systems is proud to announce another 
first in text checking — an everything checker. Hex- 
spell 2 checks not only dictionary words, but learns 
and checks codes, formulae and numbers which are 
so essential in many commercial and technical 
documents. With Hexspell 2 you define which cha- 
racters make up a "word", then teach Hexspell the 
new "words" it needs to check your text. This ad- 
vanced system builds on the unique features of the 
original Hexspell (the first TRS-80 spelling checker). 

When we introduced Hexspell nearly a year ago, it 
was the world's first adaptive learning spelling 
checker. Hexspell constantly adapts its wordlist to 
your usage. No complicated editing of the wordlist. 



Hexspell remembers words as long as you use them. 
If you never use a word again Hexspell will eventual- 
ly forget it to make room for new words. Extending 
this feature in Hexspell 2 gives you a text checker 
that can learn to check everything that you write. 

Hexspell 2 is the product of nearly three years 
research and experience. Unlike other microcom- 
puter spelling checkers Hexagon Systems didn't 
simply rewrite the multi-step batch process found on 
large computers, we invented a simple one-step pro- 
cess that capitalizes on the interactive strengths of 
the personal computer. Hexspell's simple one-step 
process makes it practical for daily use on all your 
letters and documents. 



HEXSPELL VERSION 1 USERS — GET THESE HEXSPELL 2 ENHANCEMENTS: 

Programmable character set • Disk error trapping - Extendable word list, up to 50,000 words • Speed 
control - Longer words, up to 40 characters • Auto learn function - User settable system options • Control 
file editor • Built in lower case driver. 



Hexspell 2 upgrade for registered owners of Hexspell Vers. 1 
— $35 from Hexagon Systems or your nearest dealer. 

Hexspell requites a TRS-80 Mod I Of Mod III with 2 drives and 48K. Works with most word processors. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



US $99. 

Manual $12 



VISA 



d 



HeXAGON 



P.O. Box 397, Station A 
Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6C 2N2 
Telephone (604) 682-7646 
Electronic MailMicronet 70235,1376 



^125 



'See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 209 



GENERAL 



The Key Box 

Basic Level II 
Model I or III 
4K RAM 



Use your TRS-80 to implement the trapezoidal rule. 



The Bemusing Triangle 



C. Brian Honess 
22 Shaftesbury Lane 
Columbia, SC 29209 

Assume we have a simple 
linear figure (Fig. 1), and we 
want to find the area under the 
line. In other words, we just want 
to find the area of a 6 by 3 right 
triangle. This is easily done by 
multiplying the base by the 
height, and dividing by 2: 



But there is another way to 
find the area. We can find the 
height at point A, the height at 
point B, average these two 
values, and multiply by the 
width (Fig. 2): 



A = 0+ - 3 -6 = 1.5-6 = 
2 



What we're really doing is 
finding the area under the dot- 



ted line (Fig. 3). We're sort of 
"folding'' area A over into area B 
and thereby changing the prob- 
lem from one where we want to 
find a triangular area to one 
where we calculate the area of a 
rectangle. 



We can use this idea to find 
the areas of some shapes other 
than triangles. In each case, the 
method will involve finding the 
average height of a figure (by 
taking half of the sum of the 
height on the left side and the 
height on the right side), and 
then multiplying by its width. Ex- 
amples should make this clear 
see Fig. 4). 





/2 



Area = L^-1=L 5 -, = ,.25 
2 2 



Area = i^ 6 -2 = 10 -2 = 5-2 = 10 
2 2 



Suppose we have a function, 
plotted as in Fig. 5, and want to 
know the area between points A 
and B. Y could be almost any 
function of X, so that the curve 
has as many twists and turns as 
you like. 

To find the area under the 
curve between points A and B, 
section the distance between A 
and B into many little rectangles 
and find the area of each, then 
add all the areas together (see 
Fig. 6). Of course the areas 
won't be exact if the curve isn't 
straight at any particular point, 
but by making the rectangles 



B 




Fig. 2 

210 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Fig. 3 




B 



narrow enough, we can cut 
down the error. We could reduce 
the error in the difference in area 
between the two shaded areas 
by reducing the width of the in- 
terval. 

Now consider a problem in- 
volving the Power Function, 
where: y = x 2 . 

Let's look at all values of y for 



values of x from to 10, inclu- 
sive. We could plot the curve 
and thereby visualize the area 
we'd like to find (Fig. 7). 

We'll begin with some rather 
large width increments, say, one 
unit, giving us 10 rectangles. 
What we'll be doing is shown on 
an enlarged section of just the 




Fig. 5 



Fig. 6 



r 



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on TRS-80™ & Hewlett-Packard® Computers 

With This Coupon* 

Now you can own a great little computer at a great big discount off the manufacturer's 
list price. 

• FREE SHIPPING in the 48 continental contigious states on prepaid orders of $100 or more. 

• NO SALES TAX collected on out-of-state orders. TRS-80 

• CONVENIENT ORDERING — Call us TOLL FREE - 800/531-7466 Model II 

• FREE COMPLETE PRICE LIST available upon request. 




Description 



Catalog 
Number 
Radio Shack' TRS-80 Model II 

26-4002 64K 1-Disk Modei II 

26-4150 Model II Hard Disk System (installation Not included) 

Radio Shack' TRS-80 Model III 

26-1062 Model III 16K 

26-1065 Model III 48K — 1 Disk 

26-1066 Model III 48K — 2 Disk 

Radio Shack' TRS-80 Color Computer 

26-3001 4K Color Computer 

26-3002 16K Color Computer 

26-3003 32K Color Computer 

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Hewlett-Packard" HP-125 



List Price 

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Pan American Electronics 



-•64 



CALL TOLL FREE 800/531-7466 • Texas & Principal Number 512/581-2766 • Telex 767339 

Dept 35 • 1117 Conway Avenue • Mission, Texas 78572 

FORT WORTH BRANCH: 

2912 N. Main, Fort Worth, Texas 76106 • Phone Number 817/625-6333 



TRS-80 is a Trademark of Tandy Corp. 'With This Coupon Only! — Otter expires 3731/82 Prices subject to change without notice — Slightly higher tor Credit Card Orders. 



■ See List ol Advertisers on page 290 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 211 



left side of the curve (Fig. 8). 

I've labeled the distance from 
the X axis to the curve where X = 
1, "h," (which stands for "height 
one"), and the distance from the 
X axis to the curve where X = 2, 
"h 2 ", etc. This is a special case 
situation, since we want the 
area all the way down to the 
origin, so h = 0, and h 10 = 100. 
Each of the rectangles has a 
width of 1: w = 1. 

The Trapezoidal Rule 

The preceding information 
has been preparation for the 
presentation of what is known 
as the Trapezoidal Rule, where 
n is the number of rectangles, 
or trapezoids, you want to use 
(Example 3). 

The first height (h ) and the 
last height (h n ) are used only 
once, while the others are each 
used twice. This allows us to get 
that big formula down to a more 
manageable size (Example 4). 



We could simplify it further by 
putting a summation symbol in- 
side the inner pair of paren- 
theses, but that might be more 
confusing than helpful. 

Soon we'll write a Basic pro- 
gram to find the area under the 
curve, but first let's work out the 
answer so we have something 
with which to compare the com- 
puter results (see Example 5). 

Note: This is an approximation of the area 
under the curve using numerical integra- 
tion and the Trapezoidal Rule. If you know 
some calculus you can easily verify that the 
actual area is 333.333, since: 



10 10 

f 1 

| x ! dx = — I 

) J» 





1000 
= 333.333 



If you don't know calculus, you'll have to 
take my word for it, because I'd rather not 
get into that any deeper! 

Knowing that the answer 
should be 333.333, let's code a 
simple program and see if we 
get it (see Example 6). 

Lines 40 and 50 calculate the 



limits of the sums of the values 
of Y for the second through the 
next to last values of X. If my 
lower limit of X (L) is zero, and 
the upper limit of X (U) is 10, then 
A and B will be 1 and 9 respec- 
tively. Line 60 initializes the sum 
(SM) to 0, and then the 70 to 100 
loop forms the sum. I had to put 
the function (in terms of Y and X) 
in line 80; if you use the program 
for other functions, you'll need 
to change line 80. 

Line 110 then calculates the 
area. We had to find the Y value 
for the lower limit of X (LT2) and 
for the upper limit of X (Ut2) and 
these two terms would also 
have to be changed if you want- 
ed to find the area for some 
other function. The 2 * SM term 
would not have to be changed, 
nor would the W / 2 term, since 
they are a part of the Trape- 
zoidal Rule formula. 

Run the program with the 
values of L, U and W, 0, 10 and 1 



respectively, and you'll get an 
area of 335, which is exactly 
what we suspected. Intuition 
tells us that if we make the in- 
terval smaller, we could expect 
an answer closer to the answer 
found by calculus, 333.333. Let's 
cut the interval width to V 2 , 1 / 4 , 
etc. I ran it four times using the 
data shown, and got these re- 
sults: 

L U W Area 
10 1 335. 

10 .5 333.75 



.25 333.438 
.2 333.4 



Enjoy playing with this simple 
program. See what you can do 
with the power function for 
values of X from to 25, etc., 
then try some situations where 
the lower limit isn't zero— say a 
case of X going from 3 to 16. 

Simpson's Rule 

A second method for finding 
the approximate area bounded 



/ h„+ h, . \ / h, + h, . \ / h, + h, . 

Area-( — wJ + (__>- w ) + (_£_ - 






Example 3 



Area = h 



2 (h, + 2h, + 2h a + 2h 3 + . . . + 2h n _ , + h n ) 



= -- (h. + 2<h, + h, + h s + ... + h n _-,) + h n ) 



Example 4 



Area 


- -5 <h„ + 2(h, + h, + ... + (!„_,) + h n ) 




= — (0 + 2 (1» + 2' + 3' + . . . + 9 J ) + 10 2 ) 
2 




= -5 (0 + 2 (285) + 100) = 670 / 2 = 335 




Example 5 



I00 - 




Y 50 - 



2 3 4 5 6 7 
Fig. 7 
212 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



9 10 



Y 5 



10 INPUT "WHAT IS LOWER LIMIT OF X"; L 

20 INPUT "WHAT IS UPPER LIMIT OF X"; U 

30 INPUT "WHAT INTERVAL WIDTH TO USE"; W 

40 A = L + W 

50 B = U - W 

60 SM = 

70 FOR X = A TO B STEP W 

80 Y = X t 2 

90 SM = SM + Y 
100 NEXTX 

110 AR = W/2 ' (Lt2 + 2 ' SM + Ut2) 
120 PRINT AR 
130 END 

Example 6 




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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 213 



by a curve is called Simpson's 
Rule. It provides a little more ac- 
curacy in many cases. I'll pre- 
sent the formula without deri- 
vation, although you may want 
to play with it and see if you can 
discover how it was derived (Ex- 
ample 7). 

We smooth things out a little 
by finding three heights for each 
term, and therefore dividing the 
interval width by three. We count 
the first and last height just 
once, and alternately multiply- 
ing the other terms by 2 and 4 
(Example 8). 

The function is in lines 90 and 
two places in line 160. Again 
we're finding the sum (SM) in the 
80 to 150 loop, and then calcu- 
lating and printing the area in 
lines 160 and 170. This time 
there is more going on inside the 
loop. Look at the formula: The 
coefficient for h, is 4. This is the 
first value needed inside the 
loop. After that we alternate be- 
tween 2 and 4. Line 70 initializes 
this coefficient to 4, and lines 
110 through 140 make it alter- 
nate between 4 and 2. Manually 
go through a few iterations of 
the loop until you get the idea. 

The Trapezoidal Rule gave a 
value of 335 for the area be- 
tween the X values of and 10. If 



you try the same thing with 
Simpson's Rule, you get 333.333 
which is also the answer we de- 
rived using calculus. The actual 
area under the curve for values 
of X between and 25 is 
5208.333. I tried the Trapezoidal 
Rule program with an interval of 
1 and got 5212.50. Not bad! The 
Simpson's Rule program doesn't 
get too close with an interval 
width of 1 , but if we reduce width 
to .25, it comes up with the exact 
answer. 

Normal Distribution 

Let's turn our attention to a 
much more interesting curve, 
the Normal Distribution (Fig. 9). 
This normal, or bell shaped 
curve, is used to approximate 
the distribution of a large num- 
ber of things— from I.Q. to the 



life of lightbulbs. Basically it 
shows a clustering of values 
around the mean; as you get far- 
ther away from the mean, there 
is less and less likelihood of 
those values appearing. 

If we set the area under the 
curve equal to 1, we can make 
probability statements about 
anything we assume is normally 
distributed. Tables are available 
showing the area under the 
curve for various x values. The 
area between a point one stan- 
dard deviation below the mean 
and one standard deviation 
above the mean is about 68.27 
percent of the area (Fig. 10). Vir- 
tually all the area lies between 
- 3 standard deviations and + 3 
standard deviations from the 
mean. 

To illustrate this concept, 



Area = ^r(h„ + 4h, + 2h 2 + 4h 3 + 2h, + 



Example 7 



+ h n > 



10 


INPUT "WHAT 


IS LOWER LIMIT OF X' 


; L 


20 


INPUT "WHAT 


IS UPPER LIMIT OF X" 


U 


30 


INPUT "WHAT 


INTERVAL WIDTH TO USE"; W 


40 


A = L + W 






50 


B = U - W 






60 


SM = 






70 


I = 4 






80 


FOR X = A TO B STEP W 




90 


Y = Xt2 






100 


SM = SM + I 


' Y 




110 


IF I = 4 THEN 


140 




120 


I = 4 






130 


GOTO 150 






140 


I = 2 






150 


NEXTX 






160 


AR = W/3 " (L t 2 + SM + U t 2) 




170 


PRINT AR 






180 


END 








Example 8 





suppose the average life of a 
lightbulb is 2,000 hours, with a 
standard deviation of 200 hours. 
Consider the distribution of 
lightbulb life to be normal. We 
can then make the following 
(and many other) statements: 

• 68.27 percent of the bulbs will 
last between 1,800 and 2,200 
hours before burning out. 

• 34.13 percent of the bulbs will 
last between 1,800 and 2,000 
hours before burning out. 

• Half the bulbs will last more 
than the average life of 2,000 
hours. 

• 13.59 percent of the bulbs will 
last between 2,200 and 2,400 
hours. 

This is all very nice, but we 
will rarely find a problem that in- 
volves just those intervals. We 
need to be able to find the area 




Fig. 9 







Fig. 10 



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under the curve between any 
two points on the X axis. 

We worked with a simple 
power function in the last two 
example programs (y = x 2 ), but 
now the equation for the normal 
distribution is more formidable 
(see Example 9). 

Assume a mean of and a 
standard deviation of 1: this pro- 
duces the Standard Normal Dis- 
tribution, which is what the 
tables are produced for. With 
tables for the standard normal 
distribution, you can adjust the 
entries for any values of mean 
and standard deviation. 

This short program will check 
what we've done thus far, using 
the values from the tables in 
most statistics books. 

10 PI = 3.14159 

20 E = 2.71828 

30 T = 1 / SQR(2 * PI) 

40 INPUT "WHAT VALUE OF X"; U 

50Y = T - Et(-Ut2/2) 

60 PRINT Y 

We're reading in an X value, 
and calculating Y (the height of 
a line drawn from the X axis to 
the curve) for that particular 
value of X. We're not finding the 
area yet! (See Fig. 11.) 

The following are answers the 
computer calculated, compared 
with answers from the statisti- 
cal table: 



Actual Y Computed Y 




Fig. 11 




Fig. 12 






.3989 


.398942 


0.5 


.3521 


.352065 


1 


.2420 


.241971 


1.8 


.1295 


.129518 


2 


.0540 


.053991 1 


3 


.0044 


.00443186 



You'll noticethat in line 30 I've 
calculated T (which stands for 
Term) which is the reciprocal of 
the square root of 2n. 

Keep the first four lines of our 
testing program and add code to 
find the area between the mean 
(0) and the value of X read in by 
line 40 (Fig. 12). 

Since the curve is symmetri- 
cal, we don't have to bother with 
negative values of X— we can 
just fold over the area for a cor- 
responding positive X. 

Trapezoidal Rule 

We'll use the Trapezoidal 
Rule to find the area under the 
curve. Assume that the lower 
limit of X is always zero; we al- 
ready have input the upper limit 
value. We'll have to decide on 
the interval width to use, set up 
limits for the summation pro- 
cess, and then initialize our 
summation variable (SM) to 
zero. This is the program: 

10 PI = 3.14159 

20 E = 2.71828 

30 T = 1 /SQR(2*PI) 

40 INPUT "WHAT VALUE OF X"; U 

50 INPUT "WHAT INTERVAL WIDTH"; W 

60 A = + W 

70 B = U - W 

80 SM = 

90 

If you later want to change the 
program to find areas where the 
lower limit isn't zero, add an in- 
put to enter the lower limit (L), 
and then change line 60 to read 
60 A = L +W. Continuing the 
program to incorporate the 
Trapezoidal Rule from our first 
example: 

90 FOR X = A TO B STEP W 
100 Y = T ' Et(-Xt2/2) 
110 SM = SM + Y 
120 NEXTX 
130 AL = T' Et(-Lt2/2) 



~Vi (X - X)^ /OV 



(ysvTn 



where: Os = 



the standard deviation 
3.14159 
2.71828 

the arithmetic mean 
the value of X tor which 
you want to find the corre- 
sponding value of Y 



Example 9 



216 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



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12. Supports single and double precision REAL 

13. Files are compatible with TRSDOS 

Extensions 

14. OTHERWISE clause on case statements 

15. Identifiers may contain '$' and '-' characters 

16. Automatic type conversion in arithmetic expressions and assignment 
statements ■ - * 

17. Constants may be expressed in decimal or hexadecimal 

18. Characters within strings may be specified by ascii code. Allows non- 
printable characters in strings. 

19. Type transfer operator to override type matching requirements 

20. ESCAPE allows exit from anywhere in a procedure 

21. LOCATION function returns the address of a variable 

22. SIZE function returns the amount of memory required for a variable 

TRS-80 Library 

23. Graphics routines (setpolnt, cteargraphics ....) 

24. Interface to assembly language routines with parameter passing 
•Can call operating system and ROM routines 

•Memory may be protected from Pascal for use 
by assembly language routines. - 

25. Read keyboard (scan or wait for character) 

26. Write to CRT screen with cursor addressing 

27. Direct access to memory with PEEK and POKE 

28. Input and output to 10 ports from pascal 

29. Programs may perform their own recovery from file and device errors 

30. File or device names lor Pascal files are determined from the 
keyboard when a program is executed. Alternatively a program may 
internally specify file names. 

Full Screen Text Editor 

31. Included with Pascal or available separately 

32. No limit on file size (except disk capacity) 

33. FuV cursor movement and scrolling 
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35. Insert, delete, duplicate, split, merge lines 

36. Find string, replace string 

37. Typewriter style tabs and autoindent 

38. Show file , Insert file 

39. Horizontal scrolling allows editing of files containing lines wider than 
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40. Key and command mode access to commands 

41. On-line documentation with HELP command 

42. Fltos are compatible with TRSDOS 

43. Can also edit text and BASIC programs 

44. Many additional features 

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Pseudocode (Pcode) for compactness 
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47. Links separately compiled routines 

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49. Can create command files that are callable as commands from 
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250 Page Documentation Package 

50. Beginner's guide 

51. Pascal Tutorial with 500 line Data Base program, (source supplied on 
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52. Pascal Reference Manual 

53. System Implementation Manual 

54. Text Editor Manual 

55. Handy System Reference Card 

56. Cross reference index for documentation package 

Optional Advanced Development Package 

57. Pcode optimizer 

•Reduces the size of a program by 25-30% 
•increases execution speed 

58. Z80 native code generator 
•Pioduces relocatable, reentrant native code for the Z80 
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Name 



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140 AU = T * E t ( - U t 2 / 2) 

150 AR = W/2 • (AL + 2 * SM + AU) 

160 PRINT AR 

170 END 



Consult a statistics table: The 
area between the mean and an X 
value of +1 should be 0.3413. 
We must decide what interval 
width to use so that our program 
accurately approximates this 
area. 

Let's try 10, 20 and 100 trape- 
zoids and compare the results. 
Run the program three times, 
using a value of X each time of 1, 
and a value of W of 0.1 , 0.05 and 
0.01. 

X Width Actual Area Computed Area 



width of 0.01. Run the program 
and see what the area is corre- 
sponding to other values of X, 
and how things compare with 
the book values: 

X Width Actual Area Computed Area 



1 


.01 


3413 


.341343 


1.5 


.01 


4332 


.433192 


2 


.01 


4772 


.477249 


2.5 


.01 


4938 


.493791 


3 


.01 


4987 


.498651 


3.5 


.01 


4998 


.499768 



.3413 
.3413 
.3413 



.314535 
.328592 
.341343 



You can see that we'll have to 
use an interval width of 1/100th 
of a standard deviation (0.01) in 
order to get the desired accu- 
racy. We'll settle on an interval 



We don't have to modify the 
program to find the area be- 
tween two X values, both of 
which are something other than 
zero. We can simply run the pro- 
gram for each value of X, and 
then subtract (Fig. 13). 

The area between values of X of 1 and 2 = 
.477249 
- .341343 

.135706 

The only problem you'll have 
is applying it to situations where 
the mean of the distribution is 
other than zero and/or the stan- 
dard deviation is other than one. 



For these situations transform 
the given mean and standard 
deviation into a standardized 
mean and standard deviation of 
zero and one, respectively. This 
is done using the formula: 
_ x - x 

SD 

and then using the z value where 
we used the X value previously. 
Suppose the grades on an ex- 
amination are normally distrib- 
uted with a mean of 70 and a 
standard deviation of 5, and we 
decide to award a grade of B to 
those scoring between 73 and 
81. There are 129 in the class. 
How many get a B? (see Exam- 
ple 10). 




Fig. 14 




Fig. 13 



-3 -2 -1 
55 60 65 



+ 1 +2 +3 standardized 
75 80 85 actual 



Example 10 



Compute z values for the two 
limit values: 

73-7 81 - 70 „„ 
z, = = 0.6 and z, = = 2.2 

5 5 

A score of 81 is 2.2 standard 
deviations to the right of the 
mean, and a score of 73 is 0.6 
standard deviations from the 
mean (Fig. 14). 

If you run the program and 
enter a value of 2.2 for X, and a 
width of 0.01, you should get an 
area (from to 2.2) of 0.486097. If 
you again run the program and 
enter a value of 0.6 for X, and a 
width of 0.01, you should get an 
area (from to 0.6) of 0.225745. 
Subtracting the second value 
from the first, we get an area be- 
tween 0.6 and 2.2 of 0.260352. In 
other words, a little over 26 per- 
cent of the area under the curve 
is between those limits, or 26 
percent of the class earned a B. 
To determine how many earned 
a B, just multiply the class size 
of 129 by 0.260352 and you get 
33.5854. 

To end this article on a happy 
note, we'll go ahead and give 
that 5854/10000 of a student a B 
too, so that makes 34. ■ 



MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYSMISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS MISOSYS S 

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• 14-character labels including 
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• Expression evaluator supports 
+, - *, /, MOD plus logical AND, 
OR, and XOR. 

• Paged & titled listings with page 
numbers and date/time. 

. PAGE, TITLE, SUBTTL, SPACE, 
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• Set memory size, page prompt, 
JCL execution, Abort option. 

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2 SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI SASOSIIAI 

218 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Software for TRS-80 





— APPARAT' B F^LI-X-TEIX-r ZOO — 1 




F^LJT" "■ S F^EF* I In| THE "' EIF'-SOlsl »■ 


| FLE 


TV a 

:XTEXT/80 provides a SCR I PS IT path to EPSON power. Users will: 1 


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Print superscripts and BUbsc . ts anywhere in text. J 


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Underline any te>t t: (including ~-B-~ and . scripts). 


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Mix 10/ inch and 16.5/inch characters (unjustified)- ij 




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Mix normal and «~* X crn ri ccj <=* ir. «=? crl characters in any -format. j 




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* D y n amicall y c h a n g e line s p a c i n g 



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* print block graphics (graphically stated) 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 219 



GENERAL 



Ask your computer to help you keep out of a daze. 



Can You Get Me A Date? 



John T. Phillipp 
104 Scout Ratios Street 
Diliman, Quezon City 
Metro Manila, Philippines 



This article presents Date- 
read, a subroutine which 
may be added to any program 
and which will allow you to enter 
a date in just about any format 
you like— even 31 Aug 47 for 
those with a military inclination! 
The Dateread subroutine (Pro- 
gram Listing 1) starts at line 



65000 so that these numbers will 
not conflict with those of the 
calling program. It internally 
uses the A variables (A to A9, 
and A$ to A9$) so use of its vari- 
ables can be easily avoided. Re- 
gardless of the format in which 
the date is entered, Dateread 
returns six values: 

MO— The numeric value of 

the month (AUGUST returns 

MO = 8) 

DA — The numeric value of the 

day (DA = 31) 

YR — The numeric value of the 

year (1947 returns YR = 47) 

MO$ — The name of the 



month (AUGUST) 
DA$— The number of the day 
as a string (DA$ = 31) 
YR$— The numeric value of 
the year as a string (YR$ = 47) 

These values may be used by 
the calling program in any way 
the programmer likes. The im- 
portant thing is that the user is 
not restricted to any one format 
when he is asked to type in the 
date. 

This program is divided into 
five sections: 

• Input date string (lines 
65000-65035) uses the IN KEYS 
function to accept any date, 



Program Listing 1 



*********4»***i**n*H**************4t**************t 



* DATEREAD * 

* A UNIVERSAL DATE INPUT SUBROUTINE * 

* by John T. Phillipp, MD * 

* Manila, Phillippines * 

* ^ * 
***************************************************** 



1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

2000 GOSUB65000 

2100 CLS:PRINT@448,"YOUR BIRTHDAY IS ";M0$;" ";DA$;", 19";YR$;". 

2150 PRINT: PRINT "MO =" ;MO: PRINT"DA =" ;DA: PRINT" YR =";YR 
3000 END 

65000 ' * DATE READER * 

65005 CLS:PRINT@448,"WHAT IS YOUR BIRTHDAY? 
65010 A3$=CHR$(24)+" "+CHR$ ( 24) +CHR$ ( 24) +CHRS ( 95) 
65015 Al$ = "" :A4$='*" :A5$ = "" : A6$="" : PRINTCHR$ ( 95) ; 
65020 A$=INKEY$ 

65025 IFA$=""THEN6 5020ELSEIFA$=CHR$(13)THEN65035ELSEIFASC(A$) =8T 
HENPRINTA3$; : GOTO65030 : ELSEPRINTCHRS ( 24 ) ;A$;CHR$(95) ; : A1$=A1$+A$ 
:GOTO65020 

65030 IFLEN(AIS) >0THENA1$=LEFT$ (A1$,LEN (Al$) -1) :GOTO65020 
65035 IFLEN(A1$)=0THEN65000 
65040 PRINT@448,CHR$(30) ; "THINKING. . ."; 



Program continues 



even those including commas, 
as a string. Input will not accept 
commas, and the line input com- 
mand is not available in Level II. 

• Remove spacers (lines 
65040-65120) steps through the 
date-string as it was typed in, 
and separates it into a month 
string, day string, and year 
string ignoring all non-numeric, 
non-alpha spacer characters (/ : 
* - etc.). 

• Alpha month to numeric 
(lines 65135-65155) converts a 
month string typed in (AUG) to a 
numeric value (8). 

• Numeric month to alpha 
(lines 65160 to 65165) converts a 
month value typed in (8) to a 
month string (August). 

• Error message (lines 65170- 
65175) repeats the date string 
that was entered, and suggests 
standard formats if the program 
can't make sense of what was 
typed in. 

Dateread can help prevent the 
comment, "If that computer of 
yours is so smart, why do I have 
to enter the date like that?" 
referring to the MM/DD/YY for- 
mat. Now all you have to do is 
write the program to use it.B 



The Key Box 



Basic Level II 
Model I 



220 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



Program continued 

65045 F0RA=1T0LEN(A1$) 

65050 Al=A:A2$=MID$(Al$,Al,l) 

65055 IFASC(A2$) <480RASC ( A2$) >57ANDASC ( A2$) <65THENNEXTA 

65060 F0RA=A1T0LEN(A1S.) : A2=A: A2$=MID$ ( Al$ , A2 , 1 ) 

65065 IFASC(A2$) >47ANDASC (A2$) <580RASC (A2$) >64THENA4$=A4$+A2$:NE 

XTA 

65070 F0RA=A2T0LEN(A1$) : A3=A: A2S=MID$ ( Al $ , A3 , 1 ) 

65075 IFASC(A2$) <480RASC ( A2$) >57ANDASC ( A2$) <65THENNEXTA 

65080 F0RA=A3T0LEN(A1$) : A4=A: A2 ?=MID$ ( Al $ , A4 , 1 ) 

65085 IFASC(A2S) >47ANDASC ( A2 $) <580RASC ( A2$) >64THENA5$=A5$+A2$ : NE 

XTA 

65090 F0RA=A4T0LEN(A1$) : A5=A: A2$=MID$ (Al$ , A5 ,1) 

65095 IFASC(A2$) <480RASC (A2$) >57ANDASC ( A2$) <65THENNEXTA 

65100 F0RA=A5T0LEN(A1$) : A2$=HID$ ( Al$ , A, 1 ) 

65105 IFASC(A2$) >47ANDASC ( A2$) <580RASC ( A2S) >64THENA6 $=A6 $+A2$ : NE 

V'p A 

65110 IFASC(LEFT$(A4$,1) ) <65ANDASC ( LEFT$ { A5 $ , 1 ) ) > = 65THENMO$=A5$ : 

DA$=A4$ELSEMO$=A4$:DA$=A5S 

65115 YR$=RIGHT$(A6$,2) :YR=VAL(YR$) 

65120 DA=VAL(DA$) 

65125 IFVAL(MO$) =0THENGOSUB65135ELSEMO=VAL(MO$) :GOSUB65160 

65130 RETURN 

65135 MO=0:A7$="JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJULAUGSEPOCTNOVDECAAA" 

65140 A8$=LEFT$(MO$,3) 

65145 F0RA=1T039STEP3 

65150 A9$=MID$(A7$,A,3) :M0=M0+1 

65155 IFA8$OA9$THENNEXTA 

6 5160 IFM0=1THENM0?="JANUARY"ELSEIFM0=2THENM0$="FEBRUARY"ELSEIFM 

0=3THENM0$= "MARCH "ELSEIFMO=4THENMO$="APRIL"ELSEIFMO=5THENMO$= "MA 

Y"ELSEIFM0=6THENM0$=" JUNE "ELSEIFM0=7THENM0$=" JULY" 

6516 5 I FM0=8THENM0$= "AUGUST" ELSEIFM0=9TKENM0$=" SEPTEMBER" ELSE IF 

MO=10THENMO$=" OCTOBER" ELSEIFMO=llTHENMO$=" NOVEMBER" ELSE I FMO=12TH 

ENMO$=" DECEMBER" 

65170 IFMO<1ORMO>12ORDA<1ORDA>31ORYR<1THENPRINT@448,CHR$(30) ; "SOR 

RY. I DON'T UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU MEAN BY " ; CHR$ ( 34 ) ; Al$; CHR$ ( 34) ; 

TRY SOMETHING LIKE AUGUST 31, 1947 OR 8/3 1/ 47 . " ; : ELSE RETURN 
65175 FORA=1TO15 00:NEXTA:GOTO6 5000 



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80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 221 



REVIEW 



Good features + Good price = Success. 



Model II Scripsit 



Model II Scripsit 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
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$300 



Richard Harkness 
1224 King Henry Drive 
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Scripsit for the Model II is Tandy's high- 
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system. Scripsit's features compare favor- 
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ticated, screen-oriented machine language 
wordmashers like Electric Pencil, WordStar 
and Magic Wand. 

Word processing comprises two basic 
functions: editing and formatting. Use the 
edit functions to create and revise text. The 
formatting functions make the printout look 
like you want. 

I need flexible formatting features, but 
my primary emphasis as a professional 
writer is text editing. The commands should 
be simple and require a minimum of key- 
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Moving the Cursor 

The arrow keys scroll and position the 



cursor. Some other programs require the 
control key and four different character 
keys. You can move the cursor one char- 
acter at a time in any of the four directions 
indicated by the arrows. Pressing the Re- 
peat key and an arrow simultaneously 
moves the cursor continuously. Pressing 
the Hold key and an arrow transports the 
cursor to the left or right margins or to the 
top or bottom of the page. Press Hold and 
then U or D with a number to move the cur- 
sor a specific number of lines. Press Hold 
and then L with a number to move the cur- 
sor to a specific line. 

Basic Editing 

The two special function keys F1 and F2 
serve as your single-stroke edit keys. F1 
opens the text at any place you position the 
cursor to allow insertions. F2 deletes text. 

Scripsit uses Model ll's reverse video 
feature to highlight selected text portions 
for bulk deleting, moving and duplicating. 
You do not have to use special text boun- 
dary markers. For example, to move a 
paragraph of text from one place to another 
within a document, press Control and D to- 
gether (to set the define function); press P 
(for paragraph) to highlight the text in re- 
verse video; and press M (for move). Posi- 
tion the cursor where you want the text and 
press Control and R together. Presto! 

The Define command, used to highlight 
text for manipulation, has several varia- 
tions. Press W to define a word, S to define 
a sentence, P to define a paragraph, A to 
define all text above the cursor, and B to 



The Key Box 



Model II 

64KRAM 

TRSDOS 

1 or more disk drives 

Daisy Wheel Printer II or other Radio Shack printer 

Direct Memory Access 



define all text below the cursor. 

Basic Formatting 

A special format line showing the format 
settings appears as a line of dashes along 
the bottom of the video display. Set the left 
and right margins on this line with { and }. 
Typing O sets the standard outline tab to in- 
dent the first line of each paragraph. 

A status line directly below the format 
line indicates the margin settings. It also 
shows the document name; current page 
number; cursor position on the page (which 
changes as you move the cursor); the left 
edge of the screen window area (if you 
scroll the text horizontally); line spacing; 
mode (the regular mode is called "outline"); 
and locked block (shown by an asterisk). 
Locked block protects text blocks you do 
not want split over two pages. 

Printing 

You can print text at any time while you 
are working in a document. You can print a 
document from beginning to end continu- 
ously, or pause after each page to allow in- 
sertion of another sheet of paper. Other op- 
tions are: paper size in lines (1-99 with 66 as 
default); maximum number of text lines per 
page (default is 50); justification by char- 
acter, word or space insertion; pitch (10 for 
pica or 12 for elite); number of copies of 
document needed (from 1 to 254); request 
printing of line numbers; parallel or serial- 
driven printer (default is parallel for all 
Radio Shack printers); and line feed after 
each carriage return (not for Radio Shack 
printers). 

Scripsit commands use all the Daisy 
Wheel Printer ll's features. There is bold 
printing; underlining; bold and underlining 
together; double underlining; overstrike (to 
create accented or other special characters 
e.g. £"°f); superscripts and subscripts 
(characters printed a half line above or 
below the text line); printing of vertical lines; 
and headers and footers in multiple varia- 
tions. There is a procedure for printing 
multi-column text, especially useful for 
newsletters. 



222 • 80 Microcomputing, February 1982 



General Comparisons 

Scripsit uses only a portion of available 
RAM (about 8K) for text storage. RAM- 
oriented programs like Electric Pencil, 
Magic Wand, WordStar, and Auto Scribe 
use all available RAM (between 31 K and 50K 
depending on the program— and assuming 
64K of RAM) for text storage. With Scripsit, 
you cannot fill computer memory. Each 
time you begin on a new page, Scripsit 
saves the former page to disk. WordStar 
and Auto Scribe also have automatic save- 
to-disk transfers when RAM is filled. With 
Scripsit your document length is not limited 
by the amount of RAM you have. With RAM- 
oriented systems like Electric Pencil and 
Magic Wand, you must break a document 
into portions if it is too long for available 
RAM. There is a trade-off with a page-at-a- 
time system like Scripsit, however. Doc- 
uments longer than one page produce the 
delays inherent in disk access. Scripsit is 
fairly fast in its disk procedures, but trans- 
ferring a page between disk and RAM re- 
quires a few seconds. The other programs 
do not require disk access with documents 
that fit into RAM. Making changes within 
them is as fast as doing this within a single 
page in Scripsit. Scripsit, like WordStar and 
Auto Scribe, formats the pages on the video 
display exactly as they will be printed. 

Scripsit is a completely integrated pro- 
gram, as are WordStar, Electric Pencil, and 
Auto Scribe. This means the editor and for- 
matter are in the same program; you can 
print a portion in a specified format while 
you are editing (WordStar requires that text 
be saved to disk before printing, however). 
In Magic Wand, on the other hand, the 
editor and formatter are separate pro- 
grams. With this arrangement, when you 
finish editing the text, you must run the for- 
matter program. In separate programs the 
formatter does not take up any RAM during 
editing, leaving the largest possible 
memory space for text. 

Scripsit in Detail 

Once you become familiar with Scripsit, it 
will be easy to use. When you first sit down 
with this program, you could be a mite over- 
whelmed, especially if this is your first ex- 
posure to word processing. Because it is a 
rather complex package, Tandy includes an 
eight lesson audio cassette training course. 
Additionally there's an onscreen Help menu 
to call up when you get bogged down. 

You start each Scripsit session with the 
directory, which lists the current date, the 
amount of disk storage space in use (ex- 
pressed as a percent) and the number of 
documents on it, plus the base information 
for each document shown in Fig. 1. 

Press the F1 key to create a new docu- 
ment. A prompt asks for a password; press 



Enter to bypass. The Create New Document 
menu appears, in which you name the docu- 
ment, set the format line, give the author or 
operator's name, type comments or a de- 
scription, set the number of lines per page, 
set the activity level (H, M, L or N), and set 
the format (V or H). You can choose a de- 
fault setting by pressing Enter. Press Enter 
at the end of the menu and a blank page ap- 
pears with the cursor at the top left corner 
ready for text. Scripsit allows up to 84 lines 
on a page. If you try to input more than that, 
an error message appears: "There are too 
many lines of text on this page." Press 
Break and get a new page by pressing Con- 
trol and N together. Continue inputting text 
when a new page appears. You can scroll by 
page in the document with Control and N 
(next) to go forward or Control and P 
(previous) to go backward. You can also go 
directly to a page by pressing Control and G 
(get), the page number, and Enter. 

To open an existing document, position 
the cursor next to the document name and 
press 0. The open document menu appears 
with the base information you typed in 
when you first created the document. If you 
do not want to change any information, 
press the Escape key to bypass the menu 
prompts and display the first page of the 
document. Add new pages between exist- 
ing pages by typing a decimal page number 
after pressing Control and G. For example, 
to insert a page between pages 7 and 8, type 
the number 7.1 (up to 9 decimal pages can 
be inserted this way). There is a procedure 
to renumber pages and start over if you 
need to insert more than 9 new pages. 

The repagination utility reorganizes a 
document with a uniform number of lines 
per page. You will be using it a lot. Be sure 
to repaginate a revised document before 
printing it. Otherwise there may not be a 
uniform number of lines per page or the last 
line of a page may not be complete. This 
procedure lets you reformat the document 
and hyphenate if desired. 

Scripsit provides almost unlimited for- 



"There is a trade-off 

with a page-at-a-time 

system like Scripsit. . . " 

matting variations within a document. You 
can reset the format line with new margins 
and change line spacing at any time for the 
complete document or any portion of it. You 
can set three kinds of tabs for columnar 
work: regular tabs, align tabs (for typing col- 
umns of numbers easily), and combination 
tabs. You can even save and recall up to 
eleven frequently used margin and tab 
settings. 

Around the Keyboard 

There are five special keys (besides F1 
and F2) you will use often with Scripsit: Use 
Enter to end a paragraph, or move the cur- 
sor back to text area from a format line or 
status line. Use Control together with an- 
other key to give an instruction. You can 
use this key to bypass the prompt lists. 
Escape begins a utility, such as printing, 
copying, repagination; bypasses a docu- 
ment menu; goes to screen prompts on sta- 
tus line; and goes to disk directory. Break 
cancels an instruction and clears an error 
message. Press Hold before an arrow key to 
move the cursor quickly; Hold also cancels 
entries within a document menu and re- 
turns to default settings. 

You can program five user-defined keys (J, 
K, Q, Y and Z) to hold up to 32 characters of 
repetitive information (such as a company or 
project name) or frequently used instructions 
(print instructions for underlining, bold print- 
ing, superscripts and subscripts). To call a 
user-defined instruction sequence, press 
Control and the particular key. 

Other Features 

The un-edit command cancels any edit 
changes and redisplays the page as it was 
last recorded. 

Error messages appear and flash on the 
status line when you enter an instruction in- 
correctly. Press Break to cancel. 

The merge utility constructs form letters 
by combining a base document with a merge 
(variable) file. This requires a two-drive 
system. You can, however, with a one-drive 



Document name 

Format (vertical for standard-sized paper; horizontal for some legal forms) 

Date created 

Date revised 

Author/Operator initials (optional) 

Number of pages 

Size (percent of disk used) 

Efficiency (machine speed/performance in percent form) 

Activity level (projected amount of revision— H for high, M for moderate, L for low, N for none) 

Comments/description 

Selection prompts (one keystroke commands to Open a document; Copy a document; Create a document; Delete 

a document; Next screen to see next page of directory; Disk to see the directory for disk in drives 1, 2, or 3; Disk 

Utilities to format, backup, swap disks or end a session, list directory to printer, change disk defaults, enable 

printing from disk, disable printing from disk, print from disk). 

Fig. 1. Directory information for each document. 



80 Microcomputing, February 1982 • 223 



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"If you have a one-drive 
system, be prepared 
for some hair-pulling." 

system, use a simple form of this utility for 
printing addresses on envelopes or labels. 

The video mode (press Control with V) 
shows paragraph ends, soft returns and tab 
settings. It's a good practice to be in this 
mode when you insert and delete text, so 
you can see exactly what is happening. To 
center a line, press Control with L 

The global find/delete/replace utility 
finds a word, phrase or unique string of 
characters throughout a document and re- 
places or deletes it. You can choose to ig- 
nore upper/lowercase; you can stop at each 
occurrence or repeat continuously. You can 
begin the search at the beginning of the 
document, on any page, or from the cursor 
position. 

Drawbacks 

Scripsit's page-at-a-time orientation can 
be frustrating. As such, Scripsit works 
within the relatively small RAM space of 8K 
(8064 characters, about 11 50 words). It does 
this quite well for same-disk operations. 

Suppose you want to make a backup copy 
on another disk. Common sense and Mur- 
phy's Law dictate that a safety backup copy 
should be made after each major revision. 

The copy utility copies the entire docu- 
ment one page at a time. Page one is trans- 
ferred from disk to RAM, displayed on the 
screen, and copied; page two is trans- 
ferred from disk to RAM, displayed, copied 
and so on. Now, if you have a two-drive sys- 
tem, this is done automatically. All you do 
is sit and wait. 

If you have a one-drive system (like me), 
be prepared for some hair-pulling. You have 
to manually swap disks after each page is 
copied. A 20 page document requires 20 ex- 
changes of disks! Believe me, you will be 
cursing vehemently after the tenth swap. 

Why not use the backup utility? That 
takes about 20 minutes and copies user and 
program material, overkill when you need a 
copy of one document. This, too, requires 
manual swapping of disks several times on 
a one-drive system. 

Tandy programmers should make a 
special provision to utilize all available RAM 
so as many pages as possible are loaded in- 
to computer memory, copied, then RAM 
completely filled again and copied. Copying 
only one page at a time is needlessly incon- 
venient and wasteful of a 64K system's 
capabilities. 

I have found two ways to ease this 
burden. I repaginate the document before 
copying it to ensure that each page com- 
pletely fills the 8K slice. This means that 
each page is set to the full margin width (96 
characters) and the maximum number of 
lines (84) with single spacing. A 15 page 
document with standard settings (margin 
width of 60 and 50 lines per page), when re- 



paginated, becomes a six page document 
requiring only six disk exchanges. After the 
copy process, repaginate the original docu- 
ment back to the standard settings. 

Second, break a long document into man- 
ageable chunks or chapters and treat each 
as a separate document. Revise and copy 
each as a smaller, independent entity. Com- 
bining this technique with the first one, you 
can usually keep each chapter to five or six 
pages (5,000-7,000 words). 

If you need to combine some of the chap- 
ters into a longer unbroken document, use 
Scripsit's Assembly utility. 

Scripsit would be more efficient if its 
developers had taken a tip from Scripsit for 
the Model I and the other micro-based pro- 
grams and provided a RAM buffer large 
enough to hold and manipulate 15 to 20 
pages of text. The only advantage of the 
program in its present form is that, in the 
event of a power failure, you lose a max- 
imum of a single page. However, with most