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Full text of "A botanical dictionary"

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 

Bethesda, Maryland 





^tf 



A 

t 

BOTANICAL 



DICTIONARY, 

BEING 

A TRANSLATION FROM THE FRENCH 



OF 



LOUIS-CLAUDE RICHARD, 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AT THF MEDICAL SCHOOL IN PARIS; 
WITH EXTENSIVE ADDITIONS FROM 

MARTIN, SMITH, MILNE, WILLDENOW, ACHARIUS, 

MUHLENBERG, ELLIOTT, NUTTALL, FURSH, 

AND OTHERS. 



BY AMOS EATON, A. M. 

LECTURER ON BOTANY, GEOLOGY, &C. CORRESPONDING MEMBER 
OF THE NEW-YORK LYCEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



SECOND EDITION, 

WITH ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS, AND THE TERMs 



ACCENTUATED. 



NEW-HAVEN: 

PUBLISHED BY HOWE & SPALDING. 
Clark & Lyman, Middlctotvn... -Print 

1819. 



District of Connecticut, ss. 
BE IT REMEMBERED ; That on the thirteenth 
day of January, in the forty-first year of the independ- 
ence of the United States of America, Hezekiah Howe, 
of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title 
of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Proprietor, in the words 
following, to wit ; 

" A Botanical Dictionary, being a translation from the French of 
Louis-Claude Richard, Professor of Botany at the Medical School 
in Paris ; icith additions from Martin, Smith, Milne, Willdenow, 
.icharius, &c." 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, en- 
titled, " An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing 
the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the authors and proprie- 
tors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." 

H. W. EDWARDS, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut- 

A true copy of Record, examined and Sealed by me, 
H. W. EDWARDS, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. 



o 



TO 

ELI IVES, M. D. 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY AND MATERIA MEDICA IN 

YALE COLLEGE. 

Although this Dictionary has not received the benefit 
of any corrections immediately from your hand, I have 
been governed by your opinions in all cases of doubt. 

Your liberal explanations in answer to my numerous in 
quiries, together with free access to your extensive libra- 
ry, have left me almost without excuse for my errors. 

I beg permission to place the work under your protec- 
tion ; with the hope that my strenuous exertions to exe- 
cute it in an acceptable manner will be received as an 
apology for its defects. 

I am, with gratitude and esteem, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

THE AUTHOR 

New-Haven, Sept. 16, 1816. 



PREFACE. 



In a book like this, where its usefulness depends whol- 
ly on the faithfulness with which the opinions of others 
are given, it is desirable to know from what authorities 
and by what course of proceeding it was compiled. 

1. The terms contained in Richard's Bulliard, and not 
in Martyn's Language of Botany, were interlined in the 
open spaces, or inserted in the broad margin of Martyn, 
with their definitions as translated from Richard. When 
there was not sufficient room, slips of paper were attach- 
ed. Then the definitions of the terms common to both 
authors were made, principally from Richard, and insert- 
ed as before. 

2. All the terms and definitions in Willdenow's Princi- 
ples of Botany were compared with the above, and addi- 
tions and corrections made. 

3. All the terms and definitions in Smith's Elements of 
Botany were compared, and additions made from that 
also. 

4. Milne's Botanical Dictionary was then compared 
with the compilation throughout ; and such additions 
were made from it, as were admissible upon the plan of 
this work. 

5. To all this was added the new nomenclature of Li- 
chens by Professor Acharius, as translated by President 
Smith of London. All the modern terms of Willdenow, 
Persoon, and others, relating to Cryptogamous plants,, 
were also inserted in their proper places. 

1* 



VI PREFACE. 

6. All these materials thus combined, were then co 
pied for the press, with occasional remarks, from the 
hint9 of able botanists. 

Notwithstanding the diminutive size of the book, the 
author almost ventures to hope, that all the terms used 
by botanical writers in Latin or English, who follow the 
Linnean System, will be found here satisfactorily defined 
and illustrated. 



PREFACE 

TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The first edition having been favorably received by 
the public, no essential alterations have been made. The 
Systematic Terminology has been enlarged, by including 
the substance of a pamphlet, entitled, " First Lessons in 
Botany," compiled by Mr. Edwin James of Albany. The 
new terms introduced by Nuttall, Barton, and some others, 
have been carefully denned and arranged in their proper 
places. 

The improvement, which will be most valued, is the 
accentuation. For this the reader is indebted to Dr. 
Amatus Robbins, Corresponding Secretary of the Troy 
Lyceum of Natural History, and late Tutor in William's 
College. Perhaps no botanist in our country is more 
competent to perform this great desideratum. 

N. B. When the accent is annexed to a vowel, it is 
to be pronounced long ; but when it is annexed to a con- 
sonant, the accented syllable is to be pronounced short. 

Albany, Feb. 11, 1819. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 



The principal elementary terms, together with the 
Classes and Orders, should be fixed in the memory, 
previous to entering upon the exercises of a practical 
botanist. The student must therefore be directed to 
commit to memory the definitions of the following 
terms, according to this arrangement. All other terms 
may be looked out occasionally. 

Every plant is either Phenogamous, or Crypto- 
gamous. 

Phenogamous plants have their stamens and pistils 
sufficiently manifest for examination. 

Cryptogamous plants either lose the staminate 
organs before they become manifest, or they are 
too minute for inspection. 

The Classes, Orders, and Genera of the Linnean' 
system, are founded wholly on the seven elementa- 
ry organs of fructification. 

These are, 
t. Calyx. The outer or lower part of the flower, 

generally not coloured*. 

2. Corol. The coloured blossom, within or above 
the calyx. 

3. Stamens. The mealy or gluttinous knobs, gene- 
rally on the ends of filamentous organs. 

* In the language of Botany, any part of a plant is not colour- 
ed when it is green ; as the calyx of the apple is said not to be co- 
loured, because it is green ; and that of the nasturtion is coloured, 
'■■ecause it is not green. 



10 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

4. Pistil, The central organ of the flower, whose 
base becomes the pericarp and seed. 

5. Pericarp. The covering of the seed, whether 
pod, shell, bag, or pulpy substance. 

6. Seed. The essential part containing the rudi- 
ment of a new plant. 

7. Receptacle. The base which sustains the other 
six parts, being at the end of the flower-stem. 

Subdivisions op the Calyx. 

Every Calyx is either monophyllous, consisting 
of one leaf ; or polyphyllous, consisting of more than 
one leaf. 

1. Perianth. That calyx which adjoins and sur- 
rounds the other parts of the flower, as of the 
apple, rose, &c. About two thirds of all plants 
have perianths. 

2. Involucre. That calyx which comes out at some 
distance below the flower, and never encloses it. 
It is commonly at the origin of the peduncles of 
umbels, and sometimes attached to other aggre- 
gate flowers. 

Involucres are either universal, placed at the 
origin of the universal umbel, as in caraway, lo- 
vage, &c. ; or partial, placed at the origin of a 
particular umbel, as in coriander; or proper, 
placed beneath a single flower. 

3. Spalhe. That kind of calyx, which at first en- 
closes the flower, and after it expands is left at a 
distance below it, as daffodil, onion, Indian tur- 
nip. 

4. Glume. That kind of calyx which is compos- 
ed of one, two, or three valves or scales, com- 
monly transparent at the margin, and often ter- 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOCY. 11 

minated by a long awn or beard. All grasses 
have glume calyxes. 

5. Ament. An assemblage of flower-bearing 
scales, arranged on a slender thread or recep- 
tacle ; each scale generally constituting the la- 
teral calyx of a flower, as in the willow, chesnut, 
pine, &c. 

C. Calyptre. The cap or hood of pistillate mosses, 
resembling in form and position an extinguish- 
er set on a candle. Conspicuous in the common 
hair-cap moss. 

7. Volva. The ring or wrapper at first enclosing 
the pileus or head of a fungus ; and which, after 
the plant has arrived to maturity, contracts and 
remains on the stem or at the root. 

Subdivisions of the Corol. 

Every corol is either monopetalous, consisting 
of one petal ; or polypelalons, consisting of more 
than one. 

Monopetalous Corols are, 

1. Bell-form. Hollowed out within the base, and 
generally diverging upwards, as Canterbury bells, 
gentian, &c. 

2. Funnel-form. With a tubular base, and the 
border opening gradually in the form of a tun- 
nel, as thorn-apple, morning-glory. 

3. Salver-form. Having a flat spreading limb or 
border, proceeding from the top of a tube, as 
lilac, trailing arbutus, &c. 

4. Wheel-form. Having a spreading border with- 
out a tube, or with an exceeding short one, as 
borage, laurel. 



*~ STSTEMAT1C TERMINOLOGY. 

5. Labiate, A labiate corol is divided into two ge- 
neral parts, somewhat resembling the lips of a 
horse or other animal. Labiate corols are either 
personate, (with the throat muffled,) as snap-dra- 
gon ; or ringent, (with the throat open,) as mint, 
motherwort, catnip, monkey-flower. 

Polypetalous Corols are, 

1. Cruciform. Consisting of four equal petals 
spreading out in the form of a cross, as radish, 
cabbage, mustard, &c. 

2. Caryophylleous. Having five single petals, each 
terminating in a long claw, enclosed in a tubular 
calyx, as pink, catchfly, cockle, &c. 

3. Liliaceous. A corol with six petals, spreading 
gradually from the base, so as altogether to ex- 
hibit a bell- form appearance, as tulip, lily, &c. 

4. Rosaceous. A corol formed of roundish spread- 
ing petals without claws, or with extremely short 
ones, as rose, apple, strawberry, &c. 

5. Papilionaceous. A flower which consists of a 
banner, two wings and a keel, as pea, clover, &c. 
If a corol agrees with none of the above descrip- 
tions it is called anomalous. 

Subdivisions op the Stamen. 

3. rfnlher. The knob of the stamen, which con- 
tains the pollen ; very conspicuous in the lily, 
&c. 

2. Pollen. The dusty or mealy substance contain- 
ed in the anthers. 

3. Filament. That part of the stamen which con- 
nects the anther with the receptacle, calyx, or 
pistil. 



systematic terminology. 13 

Subdivisions op the Pistil. 

1. Stigma, The organ which terminates the pistil ; 
very conspicuous in the lily, and hardly distin- 
guishable in the Indian corn. 

2. Germ. That part of the pistil which in maturi- 
ty becomes the pericarp and the seed, as in the 
cherry, pompion. 

3. Style. That part of the pistil which connects 
the stigma and the germ; very conspicuous in 
the lily, wanting in the tulip. 

Subdivisions of the Pericarp. 

1. Silique. That kind of pod which has a lon- 
gitudinal partition, with the seeds attached al- 
ternately to its opposite edges, as radish, cab- 
bage, &c. 

2. Legume. A pod without a longitudinal parti- 
tion, with the seeds attached to one suture only, 
as the pea, &c. 

3. Capsule. That kind of pericarp which opens 
by valves or pores and becomes dry when ripe, 
as the poppy, which opens by pores, and the 
mullein by valves. 

4. Drupe. That kind of pericarp which consists 
of a thick fleshy or cartilaginous coat enclosing 
a nut or stone, as in the cherry, in which it is 
said to be berry-like, and in the walnut, where it 
is dry. • 

5. Pome. A pulpy pericarp without valves, which 
contains within it a capsule, as apples, quinces, 
&c. 

6. Berry. A pulpy pericarp enclosing seeds with- 
out any capsule, as currant, grape, cucumber. 
melon- 



14 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

7. Strobile. An anient with woody scales, as the 
fruit of the pine. 

Subdivisions op the Seed. 

1. Cotyledon. The thick fleshy lobes of seeds ; 
very manifest in beans, whose cotyledons grow 
out of the ground in the form of two large su- 
culent leaves. Many plants, as Indian corn, 
wheat, the grasses, &c. have but one cotyle- 
don. 

2. Corcle. The rudiment of the future plant, al- 
ways proceeding from the cotyledon : easily dis- 
tinguished in chesnuts, acorns, &c. 

3. Tegument. The skin or bark of seeds, it se- 
parates from peas, beans, Indian corn, &c. on 
boiling. 

4. Hilum. The external mark or scar on seeds, 
by which they were affixed to their pericarp. 
In beans, and the like, it is called the eye. 

Subdivisions op the Receptacle. 

1. Proper. That which belongs to one flower 
only. 

2. Common. That which connects several dis- 
tinct florets, as in the sunflower, daisy, teasel. 

3. Rachis. The filiform receptacle, connecting 
the florets in a spike, as in Jieads of wheat. 

4. Columella. The central column in a capsule to 
which the seeds are attached. 

5. Spadix. An elongated receptacle proceeding 
from a spathe, as Indian turnip. 

General divisions of Flowers. 

1. Simple. Having a single flower on a receptacle, 
as in the quince, tulip, &c. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 15 

2. Aggregate. Having on the same receptacle, 
several flowers, whose anthers are not united, as 
teasel, button- bush, &c. 

3. Compound. Having several florets on the same 
receptacle, with their anthers united, as sun- 
flower, china-aster, &c. 

4. Staminale. Having stamens only, as those in 
the tassels of Indian corn. 

5. Pistillate. Having pistils only, as the fer.tile 
flower of the cucumber. 

6. Perfect. Having both stamens and pistils. 

Inflorescence. 

The manner in which Flowers are situated on 
Plants. 

1. Whorl. In which the flowers grow around the 
stem in rings one above another, as motherwort, 
catnip. 

2. Raceme. Having the florets on short pedicels, 
arranged along a general peduncle, as cur- 
rants. 

3. Panicle. Having some of the pedicels, along the 
general peduncle of the raceme, divided, as in 
oats. 

4. Thyrse. A panicle contracted into a compact, 
somewhat ovate form, as in lilac. 

5. Spike. Having the florets sessile, or nearly so, 
on the elongated general receptacle, as wheat, 
mullein, &c. 

6. Umbel. Having the flower-stems diverging 
from one place like the braces of an umbrella, 
bearing florets on their extremities, as carrot, 
dill, fennel, &c. 



16 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

7. Cyme. It agrees with the umbel in having its 
general flower-stems spring from one centre, but 
differs in having those stems irregularly subdivid- 
ed, as elder, &c. 

8. Corymb. In the corymb the peduncles take their 
rise from different heights along the main stem, 
but, the lower ones being longer, they form near- 
ly a level top, as yarrow. 

9. .Fascicle. In general external appearance it 
resembles the umbel, but the foot-stalks are irre- 
gular in their origin and subdivisions, as sweet- 
william. 

10. Head. In this the flowers are heaped together 
in a globular form without peduncles, or with 
very short ones, as clover. 

Roots and Herbage. 
The substance of Roots and Herbage consists of: 

1. Cuticle. The thin outside coat of the bark, 
which seems to be without life, and often transpa- 
rent. Very conspicuous on some kinds of birch, 
cherry, currant-bushes, &c. 

2. Cellular integument. The parenchymatous sub- 
stance between the cuticle and bark, often 
green. Easily seen in the elder, &c. after re- 
moving the cuticle. 

3. Bark. The inner strong fibrous part of the 
covering of vegetables. 

!. Camb. The mucilaginous or gelatinous sub- 
stance, which, in the spring of the year, abounds 
between the bark and the wood of trees. 

. Wood. The most solid part of the trunks and 
roots of herbs and trees. 

S. Pith. The spongy substance in the centre of 
the stems and roots of most plants. Large in 
'he elder. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. IT 

Roots are the descending parts of vegetables, and 
are annual, biennial, or perennial. They are of 
seven kinds. 

1. Branching. Having the whole root divided into 
parts as it proceeds downwards, as the oak, ap- 
ple-tree, &c. 

2. Fibrous. The whole root consisting of filiform 
parts, originating immediately from the base of 
the stem, as many of the grasses. 

3. Creeping. Extending itself horizontally, and 
sending out fibrous radicles, as gill-overground, 
mint, &c. 

4. Spindle. Thick at the top, and tapering down- 
ward, as carrot, parsnip, &ic. 

5. Tuberous. Roots which are thick and fleshy, 
but not of any regular globular form. They 
are knobbed, as the potatoe; oval, as those of or- 
chis ; abrupt, as the birdsfoot-violet ; or fasci- 
cled, as asparagus. 

6. Bulbous. Fleshy and spherical. They are 
either solid, as the turnip ; coated, as the onion ; 
or scaly, as the garden lily. 

7. Granxdated. Consisting of several little knobs 
in the form of grains, strung together along 
the sides of a filiform radicle, as the wood- sor- 
rel. 

Herbage is all the plant except the root and 
fructification. It includes stem, leaves and ap- 
pendages. 

Stems are, 
t. Tidge. The ascending herbage-bearing trunk 
or stem of all phenogamous plants, except the 
grasses, as the trunk of the oak, the grape vine. 
the mullein stalk. 

2* 



18 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOOY. 

2. Culm. The stalk or stein of the grasses, as wheat- 
straw, sugar-cane, &c. 

3. Scape. That kind of flower-bearing stem which 
springs immediately from the root, and is destitute 
of leaves, as dandelion. 

4. Peduncle. The flower-bearing stem which springs 
from any part of the stem or branches, as apple, 
cucumber, &c. 

5. Petiole. The foot-stalk of the leaf. 

6. Frond. Applied entirely to cryptogamous plants. 
It includes the herbaceous, leathery, crustaceous, 
or gelatinous substance, from which the fruit is 
produced. 

7. Stipe. The stem of a fern, of a fungus, of 
compound egret, and of a pericarp when ele- 
vated from the receptacle, as of maiden-hair; 
of a mushroom ; of a dandelion ; and of spurge- 
caper. 

Leaves are evergreen or deciduous. 
Simple leaves are, 

1 . Orbicular. Nearly circular, as the leaves of red 
clover, of cabbage, &c. 

2. Ovate. Resembling the longitudinal section of an 
egg, the base being broader than the extremity. 
One of the most common forms of leaves. 

3. Oval. Differing from ovate in having both ends 
equal in breadth. 

4. Oblong. The length more than twice the breadth, 
and the sides somewhat parallel. 

5. Obovate. Ovate with the narrowest end to- 
wards the stem, as those of primrose and 
daisy. 

6. Cordate. Heart-shaped, the hind-lobes being 
rounded, as lilac. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 19 

7. Obcordate. Cordate, with the apex or narrowes* 
end towards the stem. 

8. Kidney-form. Hollowed in at the base, with 
rounded lobes and rounded ends, as mallows. 

9. Lanceolate. In the form of the ancient lance, ta~ 

f>eringfrom near the base to the apex, and of some 
ength, as the leaves of most of the willows, of rib- 
. wort, &c. 

10. Linear. Continuing of the same width through 
nearly the whole length ; usually pointed at one 
or both ends. 

11. Awl-form. Linear at the base, and becoming 
more or less curved at the point. 

12. Awl-pointed. Any kind of leaf terminating more 
or less suddenly in a point turned towards one edge 
of the leaf. 

1 3. Arrow-form. Shaped like an arrow-head ; differ- 
ing from cordate in having the hind-lobes more 
or less acute. 

14. Halbert-form. Hastate. Shaped like a halbert, 
as field sorrel, creeping snapdragon. 

15. Guitar-form. Oblong, broadish near the base 
and contracted at the sides. 

16. Lobed. Deeply parted, and the divisions large, 
with rounded sides or ends. 

17. Palmate. Resembling the hand with the fingers 
spread, as horse-chesnut. 

18. Pedale. Resembling a bird's foot. 

19. Sinuate. Having the margin hollowed with 
deep sinuses or bays. 

20. Pinnatifid. Divided transversely by deep inci- 
sions, not extending to the midrib. 

21. Lyrate. Pinnatifid, with the largest division at 
the apex, and diminishing from thence to the base, 
as hedge-mustard. 

22. RuncinaU. Pinnatifid, with the divisions point- 
ing backwards, as dandelion. 



20 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

23. Serrate. Having sharp notches resembling 
saw-teeth along the margin, and pointing to- 
wards the apex, as those of cherry-trees, roses, 
&c. 

24. Toothed. Having projections from the margin 
of its own substance, which are neither serratures, 
nor crenatures, as those of blue-bottle. 

25. Crenate. Having uniform notches on the margin 
of the leaf, which do not incline either towards 
the apex, or the base, as gill-overground. 

26. Emarginate. Notched at the termination of the 
midrib. 

27. Retuse. Emarginate with a shallow sinus. 

28. Obtuse. Having the apex of the leaf more or less 
rounded. 

29. Acute. Terminating in an angle, that is not 
rounded. 

Compound leaves are, 

1. Ternate. Having three leafets proceeding from 
the end of one petiole. 

2. Biternate. Twice ternate ; when the petiole is 
ternate, and each division bears three leafets. 

3. Triternate. Three times ternate. 

4. Pinnate. With distinct leafets arranged on oppo- 
site sides of the same petiole, as locust. 

5. Bipinnate. Twice pinnate. 

6. Tripinnate. Thrice pinnate. 

7. Interruptedly-pinnate. Having smaller leafets dis- 
persed among the larger, as potatoe. 

Surfaces of leaves are, 

1. Hairy. Having distinct strait hairs. 

2. Downy. Covered with fine cotton-like down. 

3. Silky. Covered with soft close-pressed hairs. 

4. Bristly. Set with stiff hairs. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 21 

5. Ciliate. Edged with parallel hairs or bristles, re- 
sembling eye-lashes. 

6. Nerved. Furnished with midrib-like fibres run- 
ning from the base to the apex. 

7. Veined. Having tendinous fibres variously 
branched. 

Positions of leaves are, 

1 . Decurrent. When two edges of the leaf ex- 
tend along the stem below the place of insertion. 

2. Clasping. Sessile with the base more or less 
heart-form, so as entirely or in part to surround 
the stem. 

3. Sheathing. With the leaf prolonged down the stem, 
so as to cover it, in the manner of the grasses. 

4. Perfoliate. Having the stem passing through the 
leaf. 

5. Connate. Leaves opposite, with their bases united. 

6. Peltate. With the foot-stalk attached to the low- 
er side of the leaf, so as to resemble a shield. 

7. Opposite. Standing at the same height with base 
against base. 

8. Whorled. Surrounding the stem in horizontal 
rings or rows. 

9. Imbricate. Lying over each other like shingles on 
a roof. 

10. Fascicled. Growing in bunches from the same 
point. 

11. Radical. Proceeding immediately from the root. 

Appendages are, 

1. Stipule. A leafet or scale at or near the base of a 
petiole. 

2. Bract. A leaf among or near the flowers, differ- 
ent from the other leaves of the plant. 

3. Thorn. A sharp process from the woody part of 
a plant. 



22 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 



4. Prickle. A sharp process from the bark, as those 
on raspberry bushes, &c. 

5. Sting. Hair-like processes mostly from the 
leaves, as nettles. 

6. Gland. A roundish, generally minute, appendage 

to different parts of plants. 

7. Tendril. The filiform appendage by which climb- 
ing plants support themselves on other bodies. 

NUMERALS. 
The Latin and Greek numerals are so frequently 
compounded with other words by botanical writers, 
that an English student ought to commit them to 
memory, as here laid down. Eis, Duo, Treis, &c. 
are not used. 



Latin. 
U'nus 
Bis 
Tres 
Quat'uor 
Quin'que 
Sex 

Sep'tem 
Oc'to 
Nov'em 
Dec'em 
Un'decim 
Duod'ecim 
Tred'ecim 
Quatuor'decim 
Quin'decim 
Sex'decim 
Septen'decim 
Octo'decim 
Noven'decim 
Vigin'ti 
Mul'tus 



twice, 



Nos. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
3 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
Many 



Greek. 

Mon'os 

Dis 

Treis 

Tes'sares 

Pen'te 

Hex 

Hep'ta 

Ok'to 

En'nea 

Dek'a 

En'deka 

Do'deka 

Deka'treis 

Dekates'sares 

Dekap'ente 

Dek'aex 

Deka'epta 

Decaok'to 

Decaen'nea 

Ei'kosi 

Pol'us 



single, 
twice, 
thrice. 



SVSTEMATIC TERiMINOLOOY. 

PHYSIOLOGICAL terms, general remarks and 
directions, to be read in the following order. 

Seed, cotyledon, vitellus, albumen, tegument, hi- 
!um, corcle, plumula, rostel. Root, bulb, scion. 
Stem, cuticle, cellular integument, bark, camb, wood, 
pith, sap, vessels, tracheae, shoot, tree, shrub, dex- 
trorsum, sinistrorsum. Leaf, bud, gemmation, leaf- 
ing season. Appendages, thorn, prickle, sting, galls. 
Fructification, flower, sexus, pollen, perfect, imper- 
fect, fovilla, fertilization, chorion, caprificalion, hy- 
brid, efflorescentia, monstrous, florist, full-flowered, 
ergot or spurred rye. Elementary heads ; natu- 
ral history, partes primariae, gentes, plant, phytolo- 
gy, system, vegetable, vegetable kingdom, vegetable 
substance, herbage. Durability; ephemerus, an- 
nual, biennial, perennial, caducous, deciduous, per- 
manent, evergreen. Qualities; medicinal, qua- 
lities of plants, natural orders, sapor, poisons, poi- 
sonous vegetables. Directions ; botanical exer- 
cises, botanical garden, herbarium. Terms; rela- 
tive proportions, synonyms, terminations, compound 
terms. Miscellaneous ; analysis, analogy, habit, 
ages, irritability, sleep of plants, temperature, light, 
varieties, indigenous, anomalous, phanerogamous. 



24 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

LINNEAN SYSTEM OF VEGETABLES. 

All Vegetables are divided into twenty-two* 
classes. These classes are divided into orders. 
Orders are divided into genera. Genera are di- 
vided into species. Species are frequently chang- 
ed into varieties. Varieties, however, are more pro- 
perly within the province of the Gardener, than of 
the Botanist ; at least the method of procuring va- 
rieties. 

When a Botanist finds a plant which he never saw 
before, and wishes to know its name and uses ; he 
proceeds as follows. 

1. He takes the unknown flower in his hand, (no 
unknown plant can be ascertained without the flow- 
er,) and compares its parts with the description of 
each class, until he finds the class to which it belongs. 

2. He then goes to the orders of that class and 
finds its order in the same way. 

3. Next he goes to the genera of that order, and 
reads their descriptions, until he finds the genus to 
which it belongs. 

4. At last he looks over the species of that genus, 
until he finds the exact description of his plant, 

5. Thus he finds the Apple to be Class 12, Or- 
der 5, Genus Pyrus, Species Malus. 

* Linneus divided them into 24 classes. But farther discoveries, 
since his death have proved the classes Polyadelphia and Polygamia 
to be too uncertain and variable to be any longer retained Per- 
eoon, therefore, and other eminent botanists have rejected them. 
See these classes in the Dictionary. 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOOY. 25 

LINNEAN CLASSES. 

1 . Monan'dria, one stamen, or one sessile anther in 
the flower. 

2. Dian'dria, 2 stamens, 6v 2 sessile anthers. 

3. Trian'dria, 3 stamens, or 3 sessile anthers. 

4. Tetran'drta, 4 stamens, or 4 sessile anthers. 

5. Pentan'drja, 5 stamens, or 5 sessile anthers. 

6. Hexan'dria, 6 stamens, or 6 sessile anthers. 

7. Hettan'dria, 7 stamens, or 7 sessile anthers. 

8. Octan'dria, 8 stamens, or 8 sessile anthers. 

9. Ennean'dria, 9 stamens, or 9 sessile anthers. 

10. Decan'dria, 10 stamens, or 10 sessile anthers. 

11. Dodecan'dria, 12tol 9 stamens or sessile anthers. 

12. Icosan'dria, about 20, or more, standing on the 
calyx. 

13. Polyan'dria, always 20 or more, on the recep- 
tacle. 

14. Didyna'mia, 4 stamens, 2 of them uniformly the 
longest. 

1 5. Tetradyna'mia, 6 stamens, 4 of them uniformly 
the longest. 

1G. Monadet/phia, stamens united by their fila- 
ments in one set, anthers remaining separate. 

17. Diadel'phia, stamens united by their filaments 
in two sets, (sometimes in one set,) flowers papi- 
lionaceous. 

18. Syngene'sia, stamens 5, united by their anthers 
in one set, flowers compound. 

19. Gynan'dria stamens, stand on the germ, style, 
or stigma, separate from the base of the calyx 
and corol. 

20. Monoe'cia, stamens and pistils in separate flow- 
ers, on the same plant. 

21. Dice'cia, stamens and pistils on separate plants. 

22. Cryptoga'mia, stamens and pistils so obscure that 
the plants can only be classed by natural families. 

3 



26 



SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 



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SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 2? 

EXPLANATIONS FOR THE PRECEDING PAGE. 

Mon. Monogynia, 1 style, or 1 sessile stigma. 

Dig. Digynia, 2 styles, &c. 

Tri. Trigynia, 3 styles, &c. 

Tet. Tetragynia, 4 styles, &c. 

Pen. Pentagynia, 5 styles, &c. 

Hex. Hexagynia, 6 styles, &c. 

Hep. Heptagynia, 7 styles, &c. 

Dec. Decagynia, 10 styles, &c. 

Pol. Polygynia, more than 10 styles, &c. 

Gym. Gymnospermia, seeds naked. 

Ang. Angiospermia, seeds in capsules. 

Silic. Siliculosa, having pods whose length and breadth 

are nearly equal. 
Siliq. Siliquosa, having pods whose lengths are more than 
double their breadths. 

In the 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th, 21st classes, the names 
and characters of preceding classes, are taken for orders. 
In which, Mon. Monandria. Dia. Diandria. Tri. Tri- 
andria. Tet. Tetrandria. Pen. Pentandria. Hex. 
Hexandria. Oct. Octandria. Dec. Decandria. Pol. 
Polyandria. Mon. Monadelphia. 

In the 18th class. 1. teq. Polygamia ^Equalis. 2. 
Sup. Polygamia Superflua. 3. Frus. Polygamia Frus- 
tranea. 4. Nee. Polygamia Necessaria. 5. Seg. Poly- 
gamia Segregata. 

The 1st order in the 18th class is distinguished by 
having all the florets perfect. The 2d, by having those 
of the disk perfect, while those of the ray are pistillate. 
The 3d, by having those of the disk perfect, while those 
of the ray are neutral. The 4th, by having those of the 
disk staminate, while those of the ray are pistillate. 
The 5th, by having the florets all perfect, while each 
floret has a perianth of its own. 

In the 22d class, the orders are distinguished by na- 
tural family characters. 1. Filices, (ferns) which bear 
fruit on the back of the leaves, or in which some part 
of the leaves seem as it were metamorphosed into a 



28 SYSTEMATIC TERMINOLOGY. 

kind of fruit-hearing-spike. The appendix to tlnsordet 
includes the Pterioides, which bear fruit on a peculiar 
appendage. 2. JMusci, (mosses) which hear, on leafy 
items and branches, one-celled capsules, opening at the 
top, where they are covered by a peculiar lid. 3. He- 
paticae, (liverworts) which bear, on herbaceous fronds, 
four-celled capsules opening with four valves. 4. Algae, 
(seaweeds, &c.) which bear in an aquatic or gelatinous 
frond, vesiculous or filamentous fruit. 5. Lichcnes, (li- 
chens) which bear fruit, on fibrous, compact or gelati- 
nous fronds ; contained in clefts, spangles, puffs, buttons, 
tubercles, hollows, cellules, globules, shields, targets, 
orbs, or knohs. 6. Fungi, (mushroom, &c.) which are 
destitute of herbage, consisting of a spongy, pulpy, 
leathery, or woody substance, and bear fruit in a naked 
dilated membrane, or within the substance of the plant. 



BOTANICAL DICTIONARY. 



Latin names are printed in Italics. But when the Latin 
and English differ only in a terminal letter or two, the 
Latin is often omitted. The orders are in Italic 
CAPITALS, and the classes in Roman CAPITALS. 



A. 

Abbreviated pe'rianth. Shorter in proportion to 
its breadth, than is generally observed in other 
plants. 

Abbrevia'tions. Although any botanist may em- 
ploy such abbreviations as best suit his purpose, 
by explaining their import ; yet the following are 
in such general use, that it is convenient to know 
them : 

Rad. root. Fr. fruit. 

Fol. leaf. Ph. leafet of calyx, or leaf. 

Stip. stipule. Per. Pericarp. 

Flo. flower. Mas. staminate flower. 

Cal. calyx. Fern, pistillate flower. 

Cor. corol. Neu. neutral flower. 

Pet. Petal. Her. perfect flower. 

Stam. stamen. O annual. 

Fil. filament. 2 biennial. 

Anth. anther. U perennial. 

Pist. pistil. h woody. 

Stig. stigma. 



30 ACI 

Words which are numerical are expressed by 
figures : as quadrifid, 4-cleft ; quinquefid, 5-cleft ; 
quinquangular, 5-angled, &c. 

Two Latin words are often contracted into one, 
as incurvus for introrsum curvus. 

Abbreviates. See abbreviated. 

Abor'tiens. See abortive. 

Abor'tive flower. Not arriving to perfection ; the 
proof of which is the want of perfect seed. 

— — seed. Not increasing, or not becoming perfect 
for want of the reception of pollen by way of the 
stigma. 

— — pistil. Defective in its external form. 

stamens. Not furnished with anthers ; or with 

those which have no opening cells, or which 
are mere sketches or rudiments of anthers. 

\brupt' leaf. A pinnate leaf, which has not an odd, 
or terminal leafet. 

root. Appearing as if bitten off; as bird-foot 

violet. 

Abrup'te. Abruptly. See abrupt. 

Acalyc'inus. Without a calyx. 

Acau'lis. See stemless. 

Ac'cessory. Additional. Annexed and of a differ- 
ent kind, when applied to the border, &c. of the 
receptacle of a 1'chen. 

Acero'se leaf. Needle-form. Generally inserted 
on the sides of branches, as in the pines. 

Acero'sus. See acerose. 

Acicula'ris. Form of a small needle. 

Acinac'iform leaf. Sabre-form. One edge sharp 
and convex, the other thicker and strait or con- 
cave. Cutlass-form. 

Acinacifor'mis. See acinaciform. 

Ac'ine. One of the little globules constituting a 
compound berry ; as the raspberry. 

Ac'inus, See acine. 



M Q U 31 

Acotyled'onous plants. Having no cotyledons, or 
seed-lobes : and consequently no seminal leaves. 
See Cotyledon and Seed-leaves. 
Aculea'tus. See prickly. 
Acu'leus. See prickle. 

Acu'minate. When the leaf, calyx, &c. terminate 
suddenly in a point, which is more or less curved 
towards one edge of the leaf. 
Acumina'tus. Awl-pointed. See acuminate. 
Acutangula'ris. Sharp-cornered. 
Acu'te. Any part of a plant terminating without a 
curved, or rounded termination. An obtuse angle 
or any other angle in mathematics, is acute in 
botanical language. 
Acu'te. Acutely. As acute- dentatus, sharply toothed. 
Acutius' cuius. Acutish. That is, the apex, corner, 
&c. is hardly rounded so as to be called obtuse, and 
is rather too nearly round to be denominated acute. 
The termination ish as a diminutive is now suffi- 
ciently authorised by President Smith, and others. 
Adna'te. Adhering. Any two or more parts of a 
plant being attached to each other, in cases where 
analogous parts are separate in other plants. As 
the bulbous offsets of Daffodil. The stipule in 
some cases is detached from the petiole, in others 
it is adnate, &c. 
Adna'tus. Growing together. See adnate. 
Adpres'sus. See appressed. 
Adscen'dens. See ascending. 
Ad'verse leaf. Presenting its upper surface to the 

sun. One edge presented towards the stem. 
JEQUA'LIS POLYGA'MIA. The 1st order of the 
class Syngenesia. The florets of the disk and of 
the ray are all perfect. Examples; Leontodon, 
(dandelion) Lactuca (lettuce) Hieracium (hawk- 
••veed) Arctium (Burdock) Eupatorium (boneset.) 



32 AGE 

JEquival'vis. Valves of a capsule equal among 
themselves. It is also applied to valves (chaffs) 
of a glume calyx. 

JErugino'sus. Light bluish green, verdigris colour. 

JEstiva'tio. Summer residence. See Estivation. 

Estiva'tion. The manner in which petals lie in the 
flower-bud, before it opens. 1. Convolute, petals 
rolled all one way like a roll of paper or cloth. 
2. Imbricate, petals lying over each other so as to 
break joints, like shingles on a roof. 3. Condupli- 
cate, each petal having its edges rolled in, till the 
two opposite rolls meet on the midrib. 4. Valvate, 
when, just before they open, they stand like the 
husks of an ear of Indian corn. 5. Unequal-valved, 
when the petals differ in size. 

Jijftnis. Having relation, or affinity, to something 
supposed to be previously known. 

Jlga'mia. (a without, garnia matrimony,) Necker's 
name for the class cryptogamia. 

A'ges of plants. Some plants spring up, flower, 
ripen seed, and die in a few hours or a day, which 
are called ephemeral. Others live a tew months, 
or a summer, which are called annual. Others 
spring up in one summer and ripen and die the 
next, which are called biennial. Others live an in- 
definite period, either with the whole stem and 
branches, or only by the root, which are called 
perennial. 

The ages of trees may be known by counting 
the concentric rings, or grains. Our author, Ri- 
chard, supposes that trees have three ages. 1. 
The age of increase, or growth. 2. The age of 
maturity, when there is no increase. 3. The age 
of decay. But is there not sufficient proof, that 
all trees, while in a living state, continue to deposit 
new layers of wood every year ? If so, the age of 
maturity must be rejected. 



A L G 33 

Ag'grecate. Many springing from the same point 
or from the same receptacle. Sometimes this term 
is rather loosely applied to heaps or bundles. 

Aggregate flowers are those where several stand 
on the same receptacle without united anthers. 
•These flowers have rarely any inclination to yel- 
low colour like compound flowers ; but are blue, 
purple, or white. See Smith, page 308. 
Ai'grette, Egret. The flying, feathery or hairy 
crown of seeds ; as the down of thistles and dan- 
delions. It includes whatever remains on the top 
of the seed after the corol is removed. 

stiped (stipulatus) when it is supported on a 

foot-stem. .. 

simple (simplex) when it consists of a bundle 

of simple hairs, without branches. 

plumose (plumosus) when each hair has other 

little hairs arranged along its sides, like the beards 
on a feather. 

membranous, thin transparent leaves. 

Martyn recommends this term under the word 
pappus; Barton adopts it, and Ives approves. 
On these authorities, it is introduced here from 
the French botanists. 
Ai'gretted. Bearing egret. 
Ala. See wing. 
Ala'ted, Ala'tus. Having wings. 
Albicans. Whitish, growing while. 
Albumen. The farinaceous, fleshy, or horny sub- 
stance, which constitutes the chief bulk of mono- 
cotylcdonous seeds; as wheat, r>e, &r. Smith 
says they are more properly seeds without any 
cotyledons. 
Alburnum. See Aubier. 

ALGM. The fourth order of the class cryploga- 
mia ; containing those sea-weeds and aquatics ot 



34 A M E 

fresh waters, which are apparently mere pellicles 
or membranes ; or branching leaves with bubbles 
along their substance; or mere formless fibres in 
appearance. The definition of this order is : The, 
fruit is vesiculous or filamentous , in an aquatic or 
gelatinous frond. 

Linneus comprised the plants of the orders 
Hepaticae and Lichenes under this order. 

A'lienated. When the first organs, as the stamens, 
leaves, &c. give place to others different from the 
natural habit of the plant. 

Al'pine. Growing most naturally on high moun- 
tains. 

Alternate. Branches, leaves, flowers, &c. are 
alternate, when arranged upon opposite sides of 
the stem, or whatever supports them ; beginning 
at different distances from its base, and continuing 
in nearly equal series. Sometimes they are in 3 
series. 

Alternating. When one organ is arranged alter- 
nately respecting another; as the stamens, in the 
first ten classes, mostly alternate with the petals, 
or divisions of petals. 

Alter'nt pinna'ta. Alternately pinnate. 

Alve'olate receptacle. Having cells so as to re- 
semble a honey-comb, with more or less of each 
seed imbedded in it. 

Alveola' lus. See alveolate. 

A'ment. An assemblage of small flower-bearing 
scales, which serve as lateral calyces. These 
are arranged along a kind of rachis, and each 
encloses either the stamens or pistils of flowers, 
if not abortive. The pine, willow, oak, chesnut, 
walnut and nettles are good examples. 

Amenta'ceus. Growing in aments, amentaceous. 

Amentum, See ament. 



A N G 35 

Amplexicau'lis. See clasping. 

Am'plius. Enlarged, abundant. 

Ampul' lus. See utriculus. 

Anal'ogy. In botany, it is frequently necessary to 
reason from analogy. That is, after becoming 
acquainted with those organs which usually ac- 
company each other, if we discover one of them 
in analysing plants, we frequently assume the 
existence of others when the latter are too mi- 
nute for inspection. This principle becomes in- 
dispensable in most cryptogamous plants. 

Anal'vsis. To analyse a plant botanically, is to 
search out the number, form, position, &c. of its 
organs, as they exist in a natural state. But to 
analyse chemically, the parts must be decomposed, 
combined with tests, &c. 

Ariceps. Sec ancipital, 

Ancip'ital. Two-edged. Having two opposite 
edges or angles. 

Androgynous plants. Bearing staminate and pis- 
tillate flowers on the same root without any per- 
fect ones ; as the Indian corn. 

spike, has both staminate and pistillate flowers 

distinct on different parts of it. 

flower, has stamens or pistils only, and is on 



the same plant with other flowers having different 
organs from itself. 

Androg'ynus. See androgynous. 

Anfractuous. Winding inwards by angular turn- 
ings. 

Angiocar'pus. Fungi bearing seeds internally. 

ANGIOSPER'MIA. The second order of the class 
didynamia. The seeds are inclosed in a capsule. 
(Aggos capsule, spermq, seed.) Antirrhinum (snap- 
dragon.) Scrophularia (fig-wort.) Fedicularis 
(louse- wort) are examples. 



36 APE 

An'gular. By means of intervening grooves, the 
stems, calyces, capsules, &c. often have ridges 
running lengthwise, which give them this appel- 
lation. Sometimes the angles project considera- 
bly ; particularly the side-points or projections 
of leaves, which are also called angles. 

Angxda'tus. See angular. 

Angustifol'ius. Narrow leaved. 

An'notine. Of one year. 

An'nual. Which springs up, perfects fruit, and dies, 
in the same year. The herbage is often annual 
with a perennial root. But the^root is always in- 
tended, unless the other parts be particularly men- 
tioned. 

Annula'tus. Having a ring around the capsules in 
ferns ; or a fungus with a ringed stipe. See ring. 

An'nulus. See ring. 

An'nuus. See annual. 

Anom'alous. (« without, nomos law.) Whatever 
forms an exception to the assumed rules or sys- 
tems. In the attempts of old botanists at natural 
arrangement, many plants were necessarily thrown 
into anomalous classes. 

An'ther. The essential part of the stamen ; being 
composed of one or more delicate capsules, con- 
taining a powdery or glutinous substance called 
pollen. 

The forms of anthers are frequently used in 
generic and specific descriptions. For these, see 
the several forms of leaves, &c. under the respec- 
tive terms. 

Antherid'ium. Used by Nuttall for the cell of an 
anther. 

Antherif'erous, Anlkerif'era. Flowers bearing ses- 
sile anthers ; that is, anthers without filaments. 

Antho'dium. See perianth calyx. 

Aper'tio. See blooming. 



ARC 37 

Apet'alous. A flower without a corol. Sec sta- 
mineus. 

Ap'ex. The tip or end. 

Aphyl'lous. Leafless. 

Apicula turn. Covered with fleshy, erect, short points. 

Apophysis. A process from the base of the thcca of 
mosses. 

Apothc'cium. The receptacle of lichens, being the 
part whereon the seeds are formed and ripened. 
The saucer-form cups on those greenish leathery 
scabs on fences and stones, are examples. See 
Border of Lichens. 

Appen'dage. See fulcrum. 

Appendic'ulate. Appendaged. Having something 
attached to a leaf, corol, &c. as a wing on a peti- 
ole, a nectary at the end of a petal as in some 
species of Polygala, &c. 

Appen'dicule. Appendiculate. Nutt. 

Appres'sed. -Closely pressed ; as leaves against 
the stem, &c. 

Approximate. Growing near each other, or near 
to a different part. 

Ap'terous. Without wings. 

Aquat'ic. Growing most naturally in or near water. 

Arachnoi'deus. Covered with interwoven hairs, so 
as to resemble a spider's web. 

Araneo'sus. See arachnoideus. 

Ar'bor. See tree. 

Arbo'reous. Tree-like ; not bushy or shrubby. 

Arbores'cent. Becoming woody when approach- 
ing maturity. 

Arbus'cuta. See suffrutex. 

Arbusti'vus. Bush-like. 

Arch'ed. Curving above. See vaulted. 

Arcuate, Arcua'tus. Bent like a bow. See bowed. 

Arcua'tim. Archwise. 

4 



38 ASP 

Arena'rius. Growing in sand. 

Areola' his. Raised a little so as to resemble a gar- 
den-bed. 

Argeriteus. Silver-coloured. 

Argu'tus. See sharp. 

Argyroc'omus. Silky and silvery white. 

Arid, A'ridus. Dry and rough. 

Aril, Aril'lus. The outer coat of a seed, which, not 
contracting with it in ripening, falls off. Scopoli 
calls it Theca, but this name is now exclusively 
appropriated to the capsule of mosses. 

Aris'tate, Aris'ta and Arista'tus. See awn and 
awned. 

Arms. The spines and prickles of plants. 

Aromat'icus. Aromatic, sweet scented. 

Ar'row-form. Shaped like an arrow-head. It dif- 
fers from heart-form in having the side-lobes acute. 

Arlic'ulus. See joint. 

Artic'ulated. Jointed ; which see. 

Articula'te. Jointedly. 

Artificial Arra'ngement. The bringing together 
of many plants under one head by the number, 
figure, situation, connection, and proportion of as- 
sumed parts, without any regard to their natural 
affinities. Such is the Linnean artificial system. 
It is absolutely essential in finding out unknown 
plants. Then his Natural orders and those of 
Jussieu, bring us back to the natural affinities. 
See Natural Orders. 

Arundina'ceiis. Resembling reeds. 

Arven'sis. Growing in cultivated fields. 

Ascen'din'g, Rising gradually between a horizontal 
and vertical position. 

Ascid'ium. Bottle-form leaf or appendage ; q c > 
the Sarracenia, 

Asperate, As'per. See rugged. 



A X I 39 

Asperifol'ius. Rough-leaved. 

Assur'gent, Assur'gens. Rising in a curve from a 

declined base. 
Asti'ped. Pappus or a fungus without a stem, or 

stipe. 

Atropurpu'reus. Dark Purple. 

Attenuated, Attenuates. Tapering gradually till " 
it becomes slender. 

Au'bier. Sap-wood, the last year's deposit. 

Auc'tus calyx. Having an outer row of leafets ; as 
the Dandelion. 

Ave'niwn. Veinless. 

Anranti'acus. Orange-coloured. 

Aure'us. Gold- coloured. 

Auricula'tus, or auri'tus. See eared. 

Autumna'lis. Coming to maturity in autumn. 

Autumna'tio. The effect of autumn on plants. 

Awl'-form. Linear at, and adjoining, the base; 
and becoming sharp and more or less curved to 
one side at the point. 

Awl'-pointed. Acuminate. 

Awn. A short slender process, or stiff beard, pro- 
ceeding from the top or back of glumes, or chaff. 
Processes resembling awns are called by this 
name, which proceed from anthers or any other 
parts of vegetables. 

Awn'ed. Having awns. 

Awn'less. Without awns; sometimes it means a 
blunt pointless awn. 

Ax'e-form. Nearly cylindric towards the base, with 
one side projecting towards the end ; which pro- 
jection is sharp-edged. 
Ax'il. The arm-pit. Applied to vegetables, it means 
the angle formed by the meeting of a leaf or pe- 
tiole with the stem, or of a branch with the main 
stem. 



40 BEL 

Ax'illary. Any thing growing from the axils. 
Azu'reus. See Cceruleus. 



B. 



Badca. See berry. 

Baccif'erus. Berry-bearing. 

Baccil'lum. Pedicel of lichens. 

Ba'dius. Liver-brown. 

Ban'ner. The upper petal in a papilionaceous- 
flower. 

Barb. A strait process armed with teeth pointing 
backwards. 

Bur'ba. See beard. 

Barba'tus. See bearded. 

Bark. Properly the inner strong fibrous part of the 
covering of vegetables. But in a more extended 
sense it includes also the cuticle and cellular in- 
tegument ; which see. Also see cortex. 

Sar'rkn. Producing no ripe seed. See staminale, 
neutral and abortive* 

Bas'is. Base. The part of a stem, leaf, flower, &c. 
nearest to the place through which it derives its 
nutriment. 

Beak'ed. Terminated by a process, formed like a 
bird's bill. 

Beard. Parallel hairs. It is applied to the filamen- 
tous nectaries on the petals of Iris. The lower 
lips of ringent corols are sometimes called beard. 

Be'ardless. Destitute of beard. 

Bell'form. Swelling out at the base and without 
a tube. Properly applied to monopetalous corols 
only; but it is frequently extended to liliaceous 
flowers, and some others. 

\Ui, lying. See Ventricose. 



B I IS 41 

Ber'ry. A pulpy pericarp enclosing seeds without 
covering them with capsules, or themselves ever 
splitting into valves. As currant, grape, cucum- 
bers, gourd, orange. Raspberries are compound 
berries ; being made up of an assemblage of 
smaller berries or globules, called acines, 

Bib'ulus. Sucking water. 

Bicap'sular. Two capsules to one flower. 

Bicor'nis. Anthers with two horns, or two horn- 
form processes. 

Bicus'pidate. Having two lengthened points, each 
terminated with a small bristle. 

Bid' ens. Having two teeth. 

Bien'nial. Springing up one summer, flowering 
and dying the next, as wheat. 

Bifa'rius. Facing two ways, presenting two oppo- 
site series. 

Bif'erous. Bearing twice in a year. Common in 
hot climates. 

Bi'fid. Two cleft, split into two divisions. 

Bif'idus. Bifid. 

Biflo'rus. See two flowered. 

Bif'orus. Having two openings or holes. 

Bifurca'tus or Bifur'cus. Forked. 

Bigem'inate. Twin-forked. Having a forked stem 
with two leaves on each part. 

Biglan'dulous. Having two glands. 

Bu'uGous. A pinnate leaf with two pairs of leaves 
on each part. 

Bila'biate. Corol with two lips ; as in most of the 
class didynamia. 

Bilam'ellate. Composed of two lamellae; it ap- 
plies to a flattened stigma split lengthwise. 

Bilo'bate. Divided into two lobes. 

Biloc'ular. Two-celled. 

Bi'nate. Two standing up together on the top of 
4* 



42 B O R 

one stalk. If they spread out horizontally, they 
are called conjugate. 

Biner'vis. Two-nerved. 

Bipart'ible, or Bipar'tile. Naturally divisible 
into two parts. 

Biparti'lus. Divided into two parts to the base, 
but still remaining in one piece ; as the petals of 
stellaria. 

Bipin'nate. Doubly pinnate. The general petiole 
with a second range, bearing pinnate leafets ar- 
ranged each side of them. 

Bipinnat'ifid. Doubly pinnatifid. When the di- 
visions of a pinnatifid leaf are cut in, or pinnatifid 
again. 

Biros'trate. Having two beaks. 

Biseria'lis. See Lamella. 

Bistri'ate. Having two slender lines. 

Bisul'cal. Having two furrows or grooves. 

Biter'nate. Doubly-ternate. When the petiole 
is ternate, and each division of it has three leaf- 
ets. 

Bi'valve. When a capsule is composed of two 
pieces, or valves ; or when the glume calyx of 
grass, &c. consists of two chaffs, or husks. 

Bivascula'ris. With two horn-form or cup-form cells. 

Blis'tered. See bullate. 

Bloom'ikg. The precise time when all parts of the 
flower are completely developed. 

Blos'som. The corol. 

Blunt. Round-obtuse. 

Boat'-form. Hollowed one side with a compress- 
ed longitudinal ridge on the opposite side. 

Bole. The naked trunk of a tree. 

Bor'der in Lichens. The edging of their recep- 
tacles (apothecium.) It is proper, when of the 
same substance and colour of the receptacle. It 



BOT 43 

is accessory, when of a different substance or co- 
lour from the disk of the receptacle. 

Border of corols, leaves, funguses, &c. The spread- 
ing brim. 

tenuis. Thin border of a fungus. 

colornta. Coloured border. 

equalis. When the stem of a fungus is in the 

centre. 

crassa. Thick border, &c. 



Bos'sed. Bunched up in the centre ; as in some 
agarics. 

Bot'anv. (Bolane, an herb.) The science which, 
by the aid of systematic arrangement, enables 
us ; 1st, to find out the name of any plant before 
unknown to us ; 2, to ascertain its general medi- 
cal and economical uses. Whether the physiolo- 
gy of vegetation is strictly a part of the science 
of Botany or of Natural Philosophy, we will leave 
to school-men to decide. 

Though Materia Medica comes not under this 
head, no one can study it with satisfaction to him- 
self without a knowledge of botany. 

Botan'ical Exercises. Learners should be exer- 
cised in the application of botanical terms, after 
having committed to memory the elementary 
names and definitions, or the grammar of botany. 
This should be done by question and answer as 
follows. 

Let each pupil have a specimen of some com- 
mon simple flower. The teacher must point to 
each part of it and ask its name ; to which the pu- 
pil must answer from these definitions. After the 
application of the names of the various parts of 
fructification is understood, all the other parts of 
plants must be attended to in the same manner. 
In a few weeks, the pupils may enter upon that 



14 BOT 

practical part of the science, which leads to the 
discovery of the names of plants. Exercises in 
that part should be repeated in the following man- 
ner, with every plant, which pupils can procure. 

Common apple flower. 
Teacher. To what class does it belong ? 
Pupil, lcosandria. 
T. Why? 

P. It has 20 or more stamens fixed on the calyx. 
T. To what order does it belong ? 
P. Pentagynia. 
T. Why? 
P. It has 5 styles. 
T. To what genus does it belong ? 
P. Pyrus. 
T. Why? 
P. It has a 5-cleft superior calyx ; corol 5-pctall- 

ed ; pome 5-celIed ; each cell about 2-seeded. 
T. What species is it ? 
P. Malus. 
T. Why? 
P. The flowers are in sessile umbels ; leaves 

ovate, serrate. 
T. What are its qualities ? 
P. It belongs to the Natural order Pomace ae, which 

contains mostly refrigerants. See Nat. Ord. 

It will be perceived, that a suitable system de- 
scribing the plants of the country where pupils 
are taught, is essential. 

Though the lecturer's chair is a more dignified 
place than that of one in such a schoolmaster-like 
employment ; yet the pupils will derive more be- 
nefit from a season spent in this way, and in col- 
lecting and preserving plants, than from half a do- 
zen courses of formal lectures. See herbarium. 
Botan'ical Garden. A few rods of ground enclos- 



B R I 45 

ed, comprising the border of an old garden or rub- 
bish ground, will produce many species of wild 
native plants. If to this be added all the wild 
roots which show a little herbage in April, as well 
as the wild shrubs in the neighbouring woods ; a 
very amusing and instructive wild botanic garden 
in miniature may be had, containing two or three 
hundred species of plants, at a very cheap rate. 

Botan'ical names of plants. They should always 
have a Latin termination, in order to be equally 
convenient for all nations. 

Bot'rus. A cluster, like grapes. 

Bough. See branch. 

Bowed. Curved over downwards. 

Bowl'-form. About half of a hollow sphere. 

Brac'hiate. Branches nearly horizontal and de- 
cussate. 

Brach'ium. See Measures. 

Bract. Brac'tea. Floral leaf. A leaf near or 
among flowers, which differs in shape, or colour, 
or both, from the other leaves of the plant ; as on 
the bass-wood, (lilio.) 

Bractea'tus. Bracted, ha g bracfts. 

Br act eij or mis. Resembling brar*s. 

Branch. A division of the ma i,or main root. 

Br\nch'ed. , Divided into -• ; . Applied to 

roots of trees. 

Branch-leaves. Leaves grov ing on branches. 

Branch'let. Subdivision of > branch; a twig. 

Branch-pe'duncle. A peduncle proceeding from 
a branch. 

Brev'is. Short, 

Brevis'simus. Very short. 

Brist'les. Very stiff hairs. They are simple or 
hooked. 

Brist'le-form. Nearly proportioned to a bristle 
in length and breadth. 



46 BUT 

Brist'ly. Set with bristles. 

Bruma'lis. See Hyemalis. 

Brun'neus. Brown, dusky, dun. 

Bud. The winter residence of leaves and flowers. 
Generally wanting in hot countries. They are 
defended by imbricate scales and mostly by a 
clammy glutinous substance also. They are : 

1. Leaf- bearing. Which are more slender and 
sharp. 

2. Flow' er-bearing. Which are thicker, not so 
hard nor so sharp. 

3. Leaf and Flow' er-b earing. Which are gene- 
rally smaller than either of the other kinds. See 
foliation. 

Bulb. Bulbus. Bulbous roots. Though we call 
the turnip, the onion, &c. roots, they are strictly 
buds; or the winter residence of ihe future plants. 
Some bulbs are borne above ground, as on seve- 
ral species of onion, (allium.) 

Bulbif'erous. Producing bulbs above ground. 

Bulbo'sus. Bulbous. Growing from bulbs. 

Bulb'ous root. Fleshy and spherical. 

Bul'bulus. Small lateral bulbs shooting from larger 
ones. 

Bul'late. Raised in bunches or blisters ; as when 
the parenchymatous substance of a leaf rises up 
between the veins. 

Bun'dle. See fascicle. 

But'terfly-form. See papilionaceous. 

But'tons, Tri'ca. That kind of receptacle of lichens 
which when magnified resembles a coiled horse- 
hair. They are roundish, sessile, unexpanding, 
compact, black, and solid ; continued along then- 
whole surface. Upper side they are in concentric, 
or coiled, plaited and twisted folds ; covered every 
where with the same membrane ; containing seeds 
without cells, or cases. Smith. 



C A L 47 

c. 

<Jadu'co«s. Any part of a plant is caducous, which 
falls off earlier, compared with other parts of the 
same plant, than is usual for similar parts in most 
plants. As the calyx of the poppy falls off before 
the corol is hardly expanded. 

Coeru'leo-purpur'eus. Blue- purple, violet colour. 

Cceru'leus. Blue. 

Ca'sius. Sky-blue, pale-blue. 

Ces'pitose. Turfy. Several plants growing toge- 
ther, or from the same root, forming a turf. 

Calamus. Reed-like. 

Cal'car. A conic spur. See Spur. 

Cal'carate. See spurred. 

Calic'iform. See Calyciform. 

Calic'ulate, Calicula'tus. Having a smaller outer 
calyx. See auctus. 

Ca'lix. See Calyx. 

Calyc'iform. Resembling a perianth calyx. 

Ca'lycine. Appertaining to a calyx. 

Calyc'inus or Calic'inus. See Calycine. 

Ca'lycle. The outer calyx-like part of the crown 
of some seeds. Also see auctus. 

Ca'lycled. See auctus. 

Calyc'ulus. See calycle. 

Calyp'tra. Calyptre, or veil. The cap or hood of 
pistillate mosses ; resembling in form and position 
an extinguisher set on a candle. It is ranked 
among calyxes, and so used in descriptions. But 
in reality it is the corol closed; which after being 
detached at the base like other corols, its form still 
keeps it on the capsule a while. See villose, also 
Perichxzlium, which is the true calyx of mosses. 

Calyptra'tus. Having a calyptre. 



84 C A M 

Ca'lyx. {Kaluxy Gr.) That, floral organ, which 
proceeds from the germ, receptacle, or pedun- 
cle, below all the other organs. It is generally 
green ; or, in botanical language, not coloured. 
When the calyx or corol is wanting, it is often 
difficult to determine which is present. Our au- 
thor, Richard, says : when but one is present, it 
ought always to be called the calyx. But as no 
one can change the language of botanists, which 
is already adopted in descriptions of plants, we 
must endeavour to understand it as it is. 

If the stamens alternate with the leafets or divi- 
sions, Linneus calls it a corol; and if the stamens 
stand opposite to the leafets or divisions, he calls 
it a calyx, without regarding the colour or tex- 
ture. Where the stamens are numerous, this rule 
cannot apply ; neither has Linneus made it ne- 
cessary in his descriptions. 

Willdenow's rule. The Calyx is hardly as long 
as the stamen ; the corol quite as long or longer ; 
the calyx green and firm ; the corol coloured and 
tender. This rule is to apply where but one of the 
organs is present ; and he allows a lew excep- 
tions to this. 

double. When one calyx is outside of ano- 
ther ; as in the holly-hock, (althea.) 

common. When one calyx includes many flo* 

rets, as the thistle. 

proper. When florets, included in a general 

calyx, have calyxes of their own. 

There are seven kinds of calyx : 1. Perianth. 
2. Involucre. 3. Spathe. 4. Glume. 5. Ament. 
6. Calyptre. '. Volva. See each. 

Camb, ♦ im'bium Du Hamel's name for the mu- 
cilagi or 8 latinous substance between the 

wood ami bark. 



CAP 4a 

At the time of the year when the camb is most 
abundant, many farmers in North America have 
peeled off all the bark from the body of bark-bound 
apple-trees ; it is soon replaced, especially if 
carefully wound up in swingling-tow, &c. But 
the slightest scratch upon the camb will cause a 
large opening in the new bark, and leave a large 
spot of dry dead wood. The same is always ob- 
served in the operation of inoculating trees. 

Every one, who is accustomed to observe Ame- 
rican forest trees, has frequently seen trees which 
are injured by the frequent fires in the woods, 
whose whole bole is totally dead, leaving a mere 
thin sheet alive next to the bark, on the side op- 
posite the course of the fire ; and still these trees 
continue to grow, flourish and bear fruit as usual. 
Then if all outside of the camb may be taken off, 
and all inside destroyed, and the tree still survive, 
it is evident that it is by means of the camb that 
the tree is supported. More especially as the least 
removal of camb is always succeeded by dead 
wood ; all other parts remaining undisturbed. 

Campan'ulate, Campanula' tus. See bell-form. 

Campes'tris. Growing in uncultivated fields. 

Canalicula'tus. See channelled. 

Can'cellate, Cancella'tus. See latticed. 

Capilla'ceus. See capillary. 

Cap'illary, Capilla'ris, Capilla'ceus. Hair-form ; 
longer than bristle- form in proportion to its thick- 
ness. 

Capil'lus. Hair. See pilus. 

Cap'itate, Capita'tus. Head-form; growing in 
heads. 

Capit'ulum. See head. 

Capre'olus. Sec tendril. 

Capiufica'tion. The fertilizing of pistillate flowers 

5 



50 C A U 

by sprinkling pollen "upon them. This is impor- 
tant in raising figs. 

Cap'sule, (cap'sula, a little chest.) That kind of 
pericarp, which opens by valves and becomes dry 
when ripe ; not including siliques nor legumes. 
When it is one-valved, it is called a follicle, 
follicidus, which see. It consists of valves, par- 
titions, columella, and cells, which see. One kind 
of capsule never opens and is called samara. 

Cari'na. See keel. 

Car'inate. See keeled. 

Carina'tus. See keeled. 

Car'neous, Car'neus. Flesh-coloured. Nuttall uses 
it for fleshy. 

Carno'se, Carno'sus. Fleshy. 

Car'pogena'tion. {Karpos, fruit ; gennao, to bring 
forth.) A substitute for the word fructification. 
A multiplication of terms is very injurious to the 
science. But in teaching botany to young per- 
sons, a word so often to be repeated and so very 
difficult to pronounce, is extremely troublesome. 
This term is both easy and perfectly applicable. 
In a synopsis presented to Professor Mitchill of 
New- York, this substitute was proposed and re- 
ceived his approbation. 

Cartilaginous. Hard and somewhat flexible. It 
applies to a leaf, when it is bound around with a 
strong margin, different from the disk of the leaf. 

Caryophyl'leous. Pink-like, as to the corol ; hav- 
ing five petals with long claws, all regular and set 
in a tubular calyx. 

Castra'ta. Filaments being without anthers. 

Cate'nula. A thread in some mosses, serving to unite 
or chain together the seeds. 

Catkin, Cat'ulus. See ament. 

Cau'date, Cauda. See tail. 

Cau'dex. The main body of a tree or root. 



CER 51 

Caules'cent, caules'cens. Having a caulis, or stem, 

besides the peduncle or scape. 
Cau'line, cau'linus. Growing on the main stem. 
Cau'lis. The main herbage-bearing stem of all 
plants, except of the grassy kind ; as trees, weeds, 
&c. We have no English name for this stem ; 
neither can any English termination assimilate this 
term with ouridiom. It has been usual in such 
cases to look into some modern language for a 
suitable term. How would the French word Tigt 
be received ? (Pronounced tidge in English.) 

Cell. The hollow part, or cavity of a pericarp or 
anther. It is more generally applied to the cavi- 
ties of pericarps, where seeds are lodged. Ac- 
cording to the numbers of these the pericarps are 
called one-celled, two-celled, &c. 

Cel'lular integument. The parenchymatous sub- 
stance between the cuticle and bark. This sub- 
stance is generally green. It constitutes the most 
considerable part of leaves ; in which the juices 
are operated upon by air and light, and the pe- 
culiar secretions of vegetables principally elabo- 
rated. 

Cel'lules, cis'tula. That kind of receptacle of 
lichens, which is globose, terminal, and formed of 
the substance of the frond. It is filled with un- 
coated seeds, intermixed with fibres ; at length it 
bursts irregularly. Smith. 

Celltdosus. Cellular. Having cavities within, which 
are small and irregular ; and in which sometimes 
granules are nested. 

Centralis. In the eentre. 

Cep halo did. See knobs. 

Ccrealis. (Cer'es, goddess of corn.) Any grain of 
which bread is made. 

Cer'nuus. When the apex or top only droops or 



H C I N 

bends down. See nutans, and the difference in 
the two terms. 

Ces'pitose. See Casspitose. 

Chaff. Thin membranous covering of the seeds ot 
grass, grain, &c. See glume. It is also applied 
to whatever resembles chaff; as the substance left 
on the receptacles of some compound flowers, af- 
ter the seeds are removed ; to the crown of some 
seeds, &c. 

Chaf'fy. Bearing chaff. 

Channelled. Hollowed out longitudinally with a 
rounded groove of considerable depth. 

Char'acter. That description of a plant, which dis- 
tinguishes it from all others. In making out the 
character, Situation, Proportion, Connection, 
Number and Figure, are considered. The two 
last are not so constant as the other three. 

Generic characters are limited to the flower and 
fruit. 

Specific characters are restricted no farther, 
than to avoid running into the characters of the 
genus. 

G'ho'rion. A clear limpid liquor contained in a 
seed in the time of flowering. This liquor, after 
the pollen is received, becomes a perfect embryo 
of a new plant, and takes the consistence usual in 
perfect seeds. But without the reception of the 
pollen, neither any thing like the embryo or per- 
fect seed, is ever formed. Malpighi. 

Ghrysoc'omus. Golden locks; or a yellow bundle 
of threads. 

Cic'atrice, Cica'trix. The mark or natural scar 
from whence the leaf has fallen. 

Cil'iate, cilia'tus. Edged with parallel hairs or 
bristles, resembling eye-lashes. 

Gine'reous. Of the colour of wood-ashes. 



C L A « 

Cirigens. Surrounding, girding around. 

Cir'cinal. Rolled in spirally beginning with the 
tip, which continually occupies the centre; as 
ferns. 

Circina'tus. Circinal. Also compassed about. 

Ctrcumcisus. Cut round. Opening transversely, 
not lengthwise ; as the capsules of purslain. 

Circnmscrip'tio. The circumference of a leaf. 

Cirrif'erus. Bearing tendrils. 

Cirro'se, cirro'sus. Terminating in a tendril. 

Cir'rus. (Curled bushy hair.) See tendril. This 
term is also applied to that kind of clouds which 
resembles flax, as it is pulled from the distaff. 
This kind of clouds ascends 4 or 5 miles high ; 
much higher than any other kind. 

Cis'tula. See Cellules. 

Clam'mv. See viscid. 

Clas'per. See tendril. 

Clas'ping. The base of the leaf being more or less 
heart-form and sessile, so that the two hind lobes 
partly surround the stem. 

Class, clas'sis. The highest division of plants in a 
system. Each class is defined to be the agree- 
ment of several genera in the parts of fructifica- 
tion, according to the principles of nature, distin- 
guished by art. Linneus divided all plants by their 
stamens and pistils, into 24 classes ; but Persoon 
and other approved systematic writers have distri- 
buted the plants of the 18th and 23d classes 
among the others, and rejected these two ; leav- 
ing but 22 classes. These are rejected on ac- 
count of the liability of their characters to per- 
petual variations. See each ciass in its proper 
place, also system. 
Cla'vate, clava'tus. Club-form. Growing larger 
towards the end. 



H C L O 

Clavic'ula. See tendril. 

Clau'sus. Closed, shut up. 

Cla'vus. See spurred rye. 

Claw. The lower narrow part of a petal by which 
it is fixed on the calyx or receptacle. It can ex- 
ist only in Polypetalous corols. 

Cleft. Split down, not exceeding half way to the 
base ; with nearly strait edges on both sides of the 
fissure. The parts into which it is split are num- 
bered in descriptions 5 as once split making two 
divisions, is called 2-cleft ; two splits, 3-cleft, &c. 

Clefts, lird'la. That kind of receptacle of li- 
chens, which is open, elongated, sessile, black, 
very narrow or linear, with a somewhat spongy 
disk ; the border is parallel on each side and pro- 
per. Sometimes it has an accessory border from 
the crust besides. The clefts are either simple 
and solitary; or aggregate, confluent and branch- 
ed. Smith. 

Climbing. Ascending by means of tendrils, as 
grapes : by leaf-stalks, as virgin's bower ; by 
cauline radicles, or rootlets, as the creeping Ame- 
rican ivy, (rhus radicans.) It differs from twining, 
which see. 

Clouds. (Though this article does not relate to the 
subject of this dictionary, it was thought proper 
to introduce it here; because the Natural History 
of clouds is not of sufficient extent to form an in- 
dependent work, and it is not to be found in any 
book of a portable size. For an extensive view 
of this subject, see Rees' Cyclopaedia, article 
Clouds.) 

Clouds may be divided into the Regular and 
Anomalous. 



CLO 55 

Regular Clouds. 

1. Strato'se clouds. They are those stratified 
horizontal ranges of vapour, which often appear 
in the morning, near and adjoining the earth ; 
usually called fog. When the sun shines upon 
them, they ascend gradually in a highly rarified 
state ; and at length re-unite in another form, and 
take the name of 

2. Cumulo'se clouds. They are those bright 
shining clouds, which have their bases straitish 
with their upper sides in roundish brilliant heaps. 
They mostly float awhile near the horizon in de- 
tached masses, and then gradually break up and 
ascend still higher in fine flakes or sprays, and 
form 

3. Cirro'se clouds. They are those fibrous 
clouds which resemble flax when it is gradually 
pulled from the distaff. They are the highest of 
all clouds ; often forming at the height of five or 
six miles. After a few hours, they generally set- 
tle down gradually and become 

4. Cir'ro- cumulo'se clouds. They are those 
which are formed by the knotting or curdling of 
cirrose clouds. When first forming, they exhibit 
rows of small heaps, often in long regular curved 
lines very near each other. Sometimes they be- 
come confluent, and at length cover the whole 
sky. This last variety furnishes the materials 
for long steady rains. But they generally break 
up in fair weather in the afternoon, and out of 
their fragments are made 

5. Cir'ro-strato'se clouds. They are those stra- 
tified patches, seen near the horizon, mostly at 
evening; generally disappearing entirely after 
dark. 



5G C L U 

Remark. This is the usual process during the 
pleasant part of spring, summer and autumn, In 
the year 18] 5. I kept an exact diary of clouds at 
Greenwich, in New York, more than five months. 
I found this to be their regular course more than 
half of that period. 

Anomalous Clouds. 

6. Nimbo'se Clouds. They are those dense 
clouds, which ascend from the horizon, at first 
with heads like the cumulose, which soon shcot 
into cirrose branches extending towards the ze- 
nith. They are usually called thunder-clouds, 
and almost always bring showers. 

7. Vello'se clouds. They are those fleecy 
clouds, which fly swiftly about the sky, of an 
open texture, without any defined sides or bases. 
One variety of these clouds is called scud. 

8. Cu'mulo-slrato'se clouds. They are the most 
rare, as well as the most remarkable of clouds. 
But one appeared in the year 1815, and I have 
observed but two since, (three years.) A cumu- 
Jous-like cloud seems to rise up from the horizon 
in a compressed channel, and to become united 
with a cirro-stratose cloud. Soon after this union, 
the cloud spreads out to great extent, and finally 
covers a great proportion of the hemisphere ; 
while its base or stem remains as at the com- 
mencement. Its form and sudden growth has 
given it the appellation of Mushroom-cloud. I 
have never seen this cloud except at six or seven 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

Clo'ven. See cleft. 
Club'-form. See clavate. 
Clus'tered. See racemed, 



COL 57 

-Cly'peate, Clypea'tus. Form of a buckler. See 
peltate. 

Coad'unate. With united bases. 

Coaeta'neous, Coada'nus. Existing at the same 
time. Applied to willows and to some other 
plants, it implies that the flowers and leaves ap- 
pear at the same time. 

Co'alit, Coali'tus. Thickened, increased, as the 
anthers of potatoe flowers. 

Coarc'tate. Compact. Pressed or squeezed close 
together. 

Coat'ed. Consisting of concentric coats, layers 
or skins, as the bulbous root of onions. 

Cob'webbed. See arachnoideus. 

Coccin'eus. Scarlet-coloured. 

Coc'cum. A grain or seed. Tricoccous, 3-seeded ; 
pentacoccous, 5-seeded, &c. 

Coch'leate, cochlea'tus. Coiled spirally, like a 
snail-shell. 

Cohe'rens. Cohering, attached. 

Coil'ed. Twisted like a rope; or rather resembling 
the form of one thread of a rope, after the other 
threads arc removed. 

Colli'nus. Growing on hills. _ 

Col'oured. Of any hue except green; but in the 
language of botanists green parts are not colour- 
ed. See temperature, also glaucous. 

Colora'lus. Coloured. 

Columel'la. That which connects the seeds to the 
inside of a pericarp. It is generally applied to a 
central pillar in a capsule ; which takes its rise 
from the receptacle, and has seeds attached to it 
on all sides. In mosses it is called sporangidium 
by Willdenow ; and he sometimes applies this 
term as a substitute for columella; and says it is 
found only in 2-vaIved capsules. 



ok COM 

Colum'nar. Sec terete. 

Colurnnif'era. Stamens and pistils disposed in the 

form of a column. 
Com'a. (Kom'e, a head of hair.) A tuft of bracts 

on the top of a spike of flowers. 
Commis'sure. The place where one thing or part 
is joined to another. Nuttall applies it to sides 
or edges of two seeds, growing on umbelliferous 
plants, where they are joined together ; as those 
of the carrot and fennel. 
Com'mon. Any partis common, which serves to in- 
clude or sustain several parts, similar among 
themselves. 

perianth. Including several florets; as in the 

thistle. 
involucre. Surrounding the base of the pedun- 
cles, in an umbel, which are subdivided above. 
This term is often used for frequent also. 
Commu'nis. See common. 
Como'se. Having a coma. 
Compac't. See coarctus. 

Comple'te, comple'tus. Having both calyx and co- 
rol. When the corol is wanting, the flower is in- 
complete. When the calyx is wanting, the flower 
is naked, if it has a corol. 
Complicate, complica'tus. Folded together. 
Compos'itus. Compound. 

Com'pound. One whole, formed of many similar 
parts. 

flowers. Those comprised in the class synge- 

nesia, with several florets on one receptacle, each 
with united anthers. 

Compound flowers are divided into five kinds 
by the relations and kinds of florets ; upon which 
divisions are founded the five orders of the syn«e. 
nesia class, 



COM 59 

1. The florets ;iro all perfect, each having 5 
stamens and one pistil. The anthers are all unit- 
ed into one set, forming a tube around the pistil. 
See a3(jualis. 

2. The Hovels of the disk are all perfect; but 
those of the ray, or the edging-florets, are pistil- 
late. See superilua. 

3. The florets of the disk all perfect ; but the 
florets of the ray neutral, having neither stamens 
nor pistils ; except in some cases they have abor- 
tive pistils. See frustranea. 

4. The florets of the disk staminate ; but those 
of the ray pistillate. See necessaria. 

5. The florets all perfect as those of the 1st 
kind ; but differ from them in each floret's having a 
little perianth of its own, which is wanting in all 
the four preceding kinds. See segregata. This 
last kind is not so common as the others. 

leaf. When several leafets grow on one petiole. 

raceme. When several racemes grow along 



the side of a peduncle. 

spike. When several spikelets grow along 

the side of a fruit-stalk, or general spike. 

umbel. Having the peduncles subdivided into 

peduncles of lesser umbels, &c. 

petiole. A divided leafstalk. 

peduncle. A divided flower-stalk. 

Com'pound terms. When any part of a plant is to 
be described, which does not agree with the defi- 
nition of any term in use ; two or more terms 
must be compounded, so as to convey to the mind 
correct information. For example the chesnut 
leaf has notches on the margin pointing towards 
the apex, which answers to the description of ser- 
rate leaves ; excepting that the notches are hol- 
lowed out. But these hollowed notches are not 



GO CON 

deep enough for sinuses ; therefore the two terms 
are compounded, making sinuate-serrate. Com- 
pound terms are always united by a hyphen. 

Compres'sed, compres'sus. Flattened, as if squeez- 
ed or pressed. 

Con'cave, con'cavus. Hollowed a little on one side. 
It is sometimes applied to deeper hollows ; though 
rarely. 

Concepta' culum* See follicle. 

Con'color. The same colour in all parts. 

Conden'sed. See coarctate. 

Condu'plicate. That kind of foliation where the 
leaf, while in the bud, has its two sides shut to- 
gether, like two leaves in a book. 

Cone, co'nus. See strobile. 

Confer't, confer'tus. Thick-set ; leaves, flowers, 
&c. standing so closely together, as to seem to 
crowd each other. 

Con'eluent. Running together. It is applied more 
particularly to the receptacle of some lichens, 
which run together in disorder and become indis- 
tinct. 

Conge'neres. Plants of very similar habits, &c. 

Conges'tus. See heaped. 

Conglomerate. See glomerate. 

Con'ic With a broad base and approaching a point 
towards the top. 

Conif'era. Bearing cones. 

Conjugate. See binate. 

Conna'te. Leaves being opposite with their bases 
growing together, so as to form the appearance 
of a single leaf. Anthers are sometimes connate 
also. 

Conni'vent, Conni'vens. See converging. 

Consim'ilis. Resembling. 

Contig'uus. Near, next. 



COR «i 

Continuous. Uninterrupted. 

Contor'ted, contor'tus. Twisted. It is also applied 
to corols, which have the edge of one petal lying 
obliquely over the next. 

Contractus. Close, narrow. 

Contra 'rium. See partition. 

Converging. Approaching, or bending towards 
each other. 

Con'vex. Swelling out in a roundish form. 

Convex' us. Convex. 

Con'volute, convolu'tus. Rolled into a cylindric 
form, like a roll of paper, lengthwise with the mid- 
rib. Applied to the situation of leaves in the bud. 

Cor'cle, cor'culum. (Cor, the heart.) The em- 
bryo of the new plant in a seed, situated between 
the cotyledons in dicotyledonous seeds. It con- 
sists of the plume and rostel, which show them- 
selves soon after vegetation commences. See 
plume and rostel. 

Cor'date. Heart form ; so called from its suppos- 
ed resemblance to the heart. It ir hollowed be- 
hind with the side-lobes rounded at the base. 
See arrow- form. 

Cor'date ob'long, cor'date-lance'olate, &c. par- 
take of the formation of both compounds. 

Coria'ceous. Leathery or parchment-like. 

Cor'nered. Having angles or corners. Three- 
cornered, four-cornered, &c. is often expressed 
trigonus, &c. 

Cor'niform. Horn-form. 

Cor'nu. A horn or spur. 

Cornu'te, Cornu'tus. Horn-form, or having horns 
or spurs. 

Co'rol, corol'la. (A diminutive of corona, a crown.) 
The inner delicate covering of the flower, which 
constitutes its principal ornament in most cases. 
6 



62 COT 

In a few cases, as the barisia coccinea, the corol is 
dull and unsightly, while the calyx is gaily co- 
loured. See petal and nectary. 

Corol'let, corol lula. A little corol. 

Corollif'erus. Bearing the corol. 

Corol'linus. Resembling, or appertaining to, a corol. 

Coro'na. See crown. 

Corona' rius. Forming a crown. 

Corona'lus. Crowned ; as the thistle seed is crown- 
ed with down. 

Coro'nula. A little crown. 

Cor'rugated, Corruga'tus. Wrinkled. Applied 
also to ridges, in some measure resembling wrin- 
kles. 

Cor'tex. The bark, which see. It consists of a 
number of layers equal to the number of years the 
tree has been growing ; though they are often too 
thin to be numbered. The inmost layer is called 
the liber. 

Cor'tical, Cor'ticate. Having its origin from the 
bark, or having bark. 

Coryda'lis. (Kor'os, a helmet.) Plants with hel- 
met-form corols. 

Co'r ym b, Corym'bus. Flowers umbel-like in their 
general external appearance, but their peduncles 
or supporting stems stand at different distances 
down the main stem ; as yarrow. 

Cory mbif 'era. Bearing corymbs. 

Cos'tate, cosla'tum. Ribbed. 

Cot'tony. See tomentose. 

Cotyle'don. The thick fleshy lobes of seeds. Very 
manifest in beans at the first commencement of 
germination. These lobes soon become thick suc- 
culent leaves, after they rise out of the ground. 

Jussieu's Natural Orders are founded princi- 
pally upon the cotyledon. He makes three great 



CRU 63 

aibes, or divisions, of plants. 1 . Acotyle'dones, 
plants without cotyledons ; as mushrooms, mosses, 
ferns, &c. 2. Monocotyle'dones, plants with 
one cotyledon ; as wheat, grass, Indian corn, cat- 
tail, sweet-flag, sedge, Solomon's seal, onion, iris, 
ladies' 1 slipper, pond-lily, &c. 3. Dicotyle'- 
dones, plants with two cotyledons ; as beans, 
pease, dock, plantain, lilac, sage, tobacco, milkweed, 
dandelion, &c. See Natural Orders. 

Cow'led. When the edges meet below and expand 
above, and generally separate ; as the spathe of 
the arum, Indian turnip. 

Cras'sus. Thick. 

Cree'imno. Running along the ground, or along 
old logs, &c. nearly in a horizontal direction, and 
sending off rootlets. 

Cre'nate. Scolloped, on the rim or edge. Notches 
on the margin of a leaf, which do not point or 
incline towards either the apex or base. When 
large crenatures have smaller ones on them, they 
arc doubly-crenate. 

Cre'nulate. Very finely crenated. 

CREs'cErjT-FORM. Resembling the form of the moon 
from its change to half-fulled. 

Crest'ed. Having an appendage somewhat re- 
sembling a cock's comb in form. 

Cre ta. Growing on chalky land. 

Crimtus. Long-haired. 

Cris'pus. See curled. 

Cris'tate, Crista'tus. See crested. 

Cross'-armed. See brachiate. 

Crowd'ed. See confert. 

Crow.v. The calycle, hair, or feathers on the top 
of some seeds ; as the dandelion. 

Crown'ed. See coronatus. 

Cruciate. Cruciform, or resembling the cruciform. 



64 CRY 

Crucia'tim. Crosswise. Opposite pairs of branches 
or leaves successively crossing each other. See 
decussate: 

Cru'ciform. (Crux, a cross.) Corols with four 
petals, whose lamina form a cross. Plants with 
such corols belong to the class tetradynamia. 

Crusta'ceous. Leafy appearance, but consisting 
of small crusty substances lying one upon an- 
other. 

CRYPTOGA'MIA. (Kruptos, concealed; gamos, 
marriage.) The name of the last class in the Lin- 
nean Artificial system. It includes those plants, 
whose stamens and pistils are too minute or ob- 
scure to be used as classic characters. This class 
is therefore distinguished by natural affinities ; 
and cannot be said to be artificial, though arrang- 
ed with the other classes in the artificial system. 
It includes the natural families of 1. Filices, ferns ; 
as brakes, polypods, maidenhair, ground-pine, 
acouring-rush, &c. 2. Musci, mosses ; as water- 
moss, earth-moss, fork-moss, great or hair-cap 
moss, &c. 3. Hepaticce, liverworts ; less com- 
mon, except a few species. 4. Algce, seaweeds, 
&c. as the common weed about docks with blub- 
bery swellings, and the green threadform sub- 
stance in brooks, which is not much like a ve- 
getable substance in appearance. 5. Lichens ; 
as the light green patches on fences and stones, 
the whitish spots on stones with black spangles 
appearing like fly-dirt, the long fibrous substance 
common on trees, which is erroneously called 
iree-moss, &c. 6. Fungi; as the common mush- 
room and toadstool, puff-ball, touchwood, mould, 
blight or rust on grain, smut, &c. All these are 
organized substances bearing seeds, and are high- 
ly interesting subjects for the microscope. 



C Y A 65 

Cryptog'amous. Belonging to the class crypto- 

gamia. See phanerogamous. 
Cu'bit. A measure from the elbow to the end ol 

the middle finger. 
Cucul'late. See cowled. 

Cucurbita'ceous. Resembling gourds or melons. 
Culinary. Suitable for kitchen cookery. 
Culm, Cul'mus. The stem of grain and grass, when 
dry it is usually called straw. It is applied to all 
grassy plants ; as Indian corn, sedge, sugar-cane, 
&c. 
Culmif'erous. Having culms. 
Culmin'eous. Having an affinity to grasses, or 

culmiferous plants. 
Cum'ulus. Heaped. This term is also applied to 
that kind of clouds, which have a strait base and 
roundish heaped upper side. See Vellus. 
Cuneiform, Cune'iforme. See wedge-form. 
Cup'-form. Hollow within, resembling a little cup. 
Cupula' ris. Cup- form. 
Curl'ed. When the periphery of a leaf is too large 

for the disk, it becomes waved or curled. 
Curv'ed. Bent inwards. See incurved. 
Cusp. The bristle of a cuspidate leaf, calyx, &c. 

Nuttall. 
Cus'pidate. Having a sharpened point and that 
tipped with a bristle, a prickle, or lengthened 
apex, not curved. See mucronate and observe the 
distinction ; also acuminate. 
Cu'ticle. The thin outside coat of the bark, which 
has no life and is very durable, often transparent. 
Jt greatly resembles the scarf-skin of animals. 
Very distinct on elder, currant and birch j on one 
species of birch it resembles paper. 
Cya'neus. Blue. 
J 6* 



66 DEC 

Cyathifor'mis. Wineglass-form. Cylindric, widen 
ing gradually upwards, margin not revolute. 

Cylin'dric. A circular shaft, of nearly equal di- 
ameter throughout its whole extent. 

Cymbifor'mis. See boat-form. 

Cyme, cy'ma. Flowers umbel-like in their general 
external appearance. It agrees with an umbel in 
having its common stalks spring from one centre ; 
but differs in having those stalks variously and al- 
ternately subdivided ; as the elder, (sambucus.) 
Smith. 

Cymo'sus, cymo'se. Being in cymes. 

Cyphel'lce. See pits. 

D. 

Dadal'eus. The end broad, waving and torn. 

Dagger-pointed. See cuspidate. 

De' bills. Weak, feeble, lax. 

DECAGYN'M. (Deka, ten ; gune, female.) Ten- 
styled. The name of the tenth order in each of 
the first thirteen classes. Let the class be which- 
ever of these it may, if the pistil consists of ten 
styles or sessile stigmas, it is of the 10th order. 
In North America there is not a native plant in 
this order, excepting poke-weed, (phytolacca,) and 
in England there is none. 

DECAN'DRIA. (Deka, ten ; an'er, male.) Ten- 
stamcned. The name of the tenth class. It com- 
prises all plants, whose flowers are perfect, with 
ten stamens in each, which are not united by 
heir filaments in one or two sets. 

It is also the name of the tenth order in those 
classes, where the characters of the first 1 3 classes 
are taken for orders $ as the geranium in the class 



D E F 67 

monadelphia, the pea (pisum) in the class diadel- 
phia, &c. 
Decaphyl'lus. Ten-leaved. 
Decern' jidus. Cut into ten parts, or 10- cleft. 
Decemlocula're. Ten-celled. 
Decid'uous. Falling off in the usual season for 
similar parts to fall ; as leaves falling at the de- 
cline of the year ; corols falling off at the time 
the stamens fall, &c. See caducous and perma- 
nent. 
Decli'nate, DECLi'NED,</ec/ina'fus. Carved down- 
wards archwise. 
Decompoun'd, Decompos'ilus. Doubly-compound. 
When a compound, or divided, petiole has a com- 
pound leaf on each part, the whole is a decom- 
pound leaf. The same with umbels, &c. Sec 
supra-decompositus. 
Decortica'bilis. Easily peeled. 
Decum'bent, decum'bens. When the base is erect, 
and the remainder is procumbent. It applies to 
stems, stamens, &c. 
Decur'rent. When the two edges of a leaf extend 
downwards below the points of insertion and be- 
come projecting wings to the stem. The gills of 
agarics are decurrent, when they run down the 
stipe in a single ridge. 
Decursi've. Decurrently. 

Decur'sively pin'nate. When the leafets of a pin- 
nate leaf run along the petiole with their extend- 
ed bases. 
Decus'sate, decussa'tus. When leaves or branches 
are opposite in pairs, and each pair stands at right 
angles with the next pair above or below on the 
same stem. 
Deflec'ted, dejlex'us. Bending down archwise. 
.Dejlora'tus. Having discharged the pollen. 



68 D E F 

Befolia'tion, defolia'tio. The shedding of leaves in 
the proper season. 

Defolia'tio no'tha. The shedding of leaves before 
the proper time, on account of injuries received. 

Dehis'cent, dehiscen'tia. The natural opening of 
capsules in the proper season. 

Deliq'uium. See debilis. 

Dei/toid, deltoi'deus. A leaf with four corners ; that 
is, one at the stem, one at the apex, and one each 
side ; but the side ones are nearer to the base than 
to the apex. When the side angles are about as 
near to the apex as to the base, it is called a 
rhomboid leaf. Both kinds are called diamond- 
form in English. Willdenow considers a deltoid 
leaf as a thick 3-sided leaf, a transverse section of 
which he supposes intended, as giving the deltoid 
form. See page 155. 

Demer'sus. See submersed. 

Dense, den'sus. Close, compact. A panicle with 
abundance of flowers very close is dense. See 
thyrse. 

Den'tate, denla'tus. Toothed. 

— haf. (This term is of such almost unlimited 

extent, it is best defined negatively.) Projections 
from the margin of a leaf, which are of its own 
substance ; and not serratures, nor crenatures. 

. root. That kind of granulated root, which re- 
sembles teeth strung together. 

Dentic'ulate. Having very small teeth. 

Den'toid. Remotely resembling teeth, or having pro- 
cesses somewhat of that form. 

Den'ture. A tooth. 

Denu'date. Plants whose flowers appear before the 
leaves, consequently have a naked appearance, 

Deor'sum. Downwards. 

Depaupera'tus. Few-flowered. 



D E X 63 

Depen'dens. Hanging down. 

Depressed. When the upper surface of a succu- 
lent leaf is a little concave. It applies to seeds 
also. 

Descen'dens. The entering of a root into the 
ground. The direction is vertical, as the beet ; 
horizontal, as the mint ; oblique, as the branching 
roots of most trees. 

Descrip'tions of plants. In writing a complete de- 
scription of a plant, begin with the fructification, 
and describe: 1. Calyx. 2. Corol. 3. Stamens. 
4. Pistil. 5. Pericarp. 6. Seed. 7. Recepta- 
cle. Then go through with the root and herbage, 
thus: 1. Root. 2. Stem and branches. 3. Buds, 
including the foliation. 4. Leaves. 5. The ap- 
pendages •, that is, Stipules, Bracts, Thorns, Pric- 
kles, Stings, Glands, Tendrils. To this add the 
Inflorescence. 

Then add the general appearance and size of 
the plant, and what well known plant it most re- 
sembles. Give an account of the soil and situa- 
tion where it grew ; whether high or low, wet or 
dry; the precise time of flowering, colour of all 
parts, whether annual, biennial or perennial. 
Then close with the name of the town, country, &c. 
and what quantity of the same kind of plant is to 
be found there ; and what name the common peo- 
ple call it by, if any. Accompany this descrip- 
tion with several specimens ; so selected as to ex- 
hibit the plant in all its parts. 

There can be no better exercise for students, 
than to write several such descriptions every day. 
See Diagnosis. 
Desicca'tio. Dryness. 
Desi'nens. Terminating. 
Dextror'sum, Twining from left to right ; that is, 



70 D I A 

with the apparent motion of the sun ; as the hop- 
vine. 

DIADEL'PHIA. (Dis, twice ; adelphos, brother.) 
Two brotherhoods. The name of the seventeenth 
class. It comprises all plants, whose flowers are 
perfect, with the stamens united by their filaments 
in two sets. This was the character given the 
class by Linneus. But Lvpines and others of this 
class have the stamens united in one set ; which 
is the character of the Monadelphia class. The 
form of the corol has therefore been taken Into 
the description by some writers, thus : 

Stamens united by their filaments in one, or two 
s-ets, cor ols papilionaceous. 

Diadel'phous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class diadelphia. 

Diagno'sis. A short description containing only 
what is essential. Linneus made it his rule, 
never to let a specific description exceed twelve 
Latin words. Willdenow says more must be ad- 
ded if necessary. It should extend no farther 
than to express the difference between that, and 
the other species. 

Di'amond-form. See Deltoid. 

DIAN DRIA. (Dis, twice ; aner, male.) Two 
stamened. The name of the second class. It 
comprises all plants, whose flowers die perfect. 
with two stamens in each not growing- en the pi^ti!. 
It is also the name of the second order in those 
classes where the characters of the fist 13 classes 
are taken for orders ; as the ladies' slipper (cyp- 
ripedium) in the class gynand"ia, the drrk-meat 
(lemna) in the class monoida, willow (salix) in the 
class dicecia. 

Diaphanous. Admitting the transmission of light 
obscurely. 



DID 71 

Dichot'omous. Forked. Stem, &c. parted in 
pairs, each branch parted in pairs again, and so 
on. When it is parted but once it is more pro- 
perly called forked, fur calm. 

Diclin'ia. (Dis, twice; kline, bed,) stamens in 
one flower and pistils in another, whether on the 
same or on different plants. This is the name of 
a class in Pursh's Flora, comprising most of the 
plants of the classes Moncecia and Dioecia. 

This class is subdivided into three orders. 1. 
Segregate. This includes plants, whose flowers 
are monoecious or dioecious ; but are not in 
aments or strobiles. 2. Amentaceie. This in- 
cludes plants, whose flowers are in aments which 
are not strobiles. 3. Coniferce. This includes 
plants, whose flowers are in strobiles. 

Dicoc'cous. Two-grained. Consisting of two co- 
hering grains, or cells with one seed in each. 

Dicotyled'onous. Plants with two cotyledons. 
See Cotyledon. 

Did'ymous, di'dyma. Twinned. 

DIDYNAM'IA. (Dis, twice ; dunamis, power.) 
Two overtopping or overpowering others. The 
name of the fourteenth class. It comprises all 
plants, whose flowers are perfect, with 4 stamens, 
two of which are regularly longer than, or over- 
topping, the other two. Plants of this class have 
labiate corols. But on account of adhering rigid- 
ly to the character of the class, some ringents are 
placed in the 2d class. The student should be 
directed to look in the second class, under the 
sections of irregular corols, when he has a rin- 
gent flower, whose generic character he does not 
readily find in the 14th class. 

Didyn\mous. Belonging to, or varying into the 
ctass didynamia. 



72 DIP 

Dijfor'mis. Applied to a monopetalous corol whose 
tube widens above gradually, and is divided into 
irregular or unequal parts. — Willdenovv. It is 
also applied to any distorted parts of a plant. 

Diffu'sed, diffu'sus. Spreading. Expanded in an 
open loose manner. 

Dig'itate. Fingered. When the base of several 
leafets rest on the end of one petiole ; as the 
strawberry and fivefinger. 

DJGYN'IA. (Dis, twice; gune, female.) Two- 
styled. The name of the second order in each 
of the first thirteen classes. It comprises all 
plants in each class respectively, whose flowers 
have two styles in each : or, if the styles are 
wanting, two sessile stigmas : as the blite, (bli- 
tum,) in the class monandria ; the sweet-scented 
grass (anthoxanthum) in the class diandria ; wheat 
(triticum) in the class triandria ; witch-hazel (ha- 
mamelis) in the class tetrandria; rice (oryza) in 
class hexandria ; pink (dianthus) in the class de- 
candria ; agrimony (agrimonia) in the class dode- 
candria. 

Dilata'lus. Expanded, widened. 

Dilu'te. Prefixed to a colour implies, that it is re- 
duced ; as dilute-purpureus, pale purple. 

Dimidia'tus. See halved. 

DICE'CIA. (Dis, twice ; oikos, house.) The name 
of the 22d class, or the 21st if the 18th be reject- 
ed. It includes those plants whose flowers are 
not perfect ; but the stamens and pistils grow on 
different plants of the same species. The Hemp, 
Hop, Willow, and Poplar, are good examples. 

Dke'cious, dioi'ca. Belonging to, or varying into, 
the class dicscia. 

Dipet'alous. Having 2 petals. 

Dtphyl'lous.' Having 2 leaves. 



D O D 73 

Dipteryg'ia. bee wings. 

Dis'coid. Having a disk without rays. Such com- 
pound flowers as are wholly made up of tubular 
florets ; that is, though they may have marginal 
florets differing from those in the disk in the es- 
sential organs, yet the corols will be all tubular, 
and not capitate. 

Disk, dis'cus. The whole surface of a leaf, or of 
the top of a compound flower, as opposed to its 
edge or periphery. This term is also applied to 
the aggregate florets of an umbel. 

Disper'mus. Containing but two seeds. 

Dissec'tus. Gashed in deeply. 

Dissep'iment, Dissepimen'lum. See partition. 

Dissil tens. A pericarp is dissilient, when it bursts 
open with a spring ; as the touch-me-not, (impa- 
tiens.) 

Dis'tans. Standing off remotely. 

Dis'tichally. See distichus. This is a very odd 
adverb introduced by Nuttall. 

Di'stichus. (Dis, twice ; slichos, row.) Two rank- 
ed. When branches, leaves, or flowers are ar- 
ranged along opposite sides of the stem or spike, 
so as to point two opposite ways ; as the leaves 
of the hemlock tree, (pinus canadensis.) 

Distinc't, distine'lus. Separate, opposed to con- 
nate or confluent. 

Divar'icate, divarica'lus. Branches spreading out 
from the stem so far, as to form more than a riglu 
angle with it above. 

Diverging, Diver'gens. Branches spreading out 
from the stem so far, as to form almost a right an- 
gle with it. 

Diur'nus. Enduring but a day. 

Divi'ded, divisus. Severed into parts. 

DODECAN'DRIA. {Dodeka, twelve ; ancr, male.) 



74 DRU 

Twelve stamened. The name of the eleventh 
class. It comprises all plants, whose flowers arc 
perfect, with from 12 to 19 stamens which are not 
united by their filaments in one or two sets. En- 
decandria would seem to be the proper name for 
the 1 1th class. But there has not only never been 
a plant found, whose flowers uniformly contained 
1 1 stamens ; but it is so contrary to all analogy of 
parts, it is presumed there is no such plant. 

Dodecan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class dodecandria. 

Dodecaphyl'lus. Having twelve leafets. 

Do'drans. Long span. Distance between the end.s 
of the thumb and little finger, both being extend- 
ed. 

Dolabrifor'me. See axe-form. 

Dor'sal, dorsn'lis. Fixed to the back. Awns are 
dorsal, when proceeding from the outside of a 
glume and not from the tip. 

Dorsif'erous. Bearing the fruit on the back ; as 
ferns. 

Dot'ted. Besprinkled with dots. See punctate 
and perforated. 

Doub'le. Two in the place where most plants have 
but one ; as the double calyx of the holly-hock, 
(althea.) 

Doub'le-flow'ered. See full-flowered. 

Doub'ly. See duplicate. In English it has its com- 
mon appropriate meaning; as doubly-crenate, 
when the crenatures are crenated, &c. 

Doub'ly-pin'nate. See bipinnate. 

Down or down'v. See tomentose. 

Droop'ing. See cernuus. 

Drupe, drup'a. That kind of pericarp which con- 
sists of a thick, fleshy, succulent or cartilaginoi:* 
coat, enclosing a nut or stone. It is berry-like 



E F F 75 

(baccata) as in the cherry, or dry (exsucca) as in 

the walnut (juglans.) 
Drupa'ceous. Bearing drupes, or fruit resembling 

them. 
Dub'ius. Doubtful. 
Dul'cis. Sweet. 

Dumo'sus. Bushy, or resembling bushes. 
Duodecem'Jidus. Cleft in 12 divisions. 
Dn'plex. Double. 
Duplka'to. Doubly. This term is often prefixed to 

others, in all which cases it simply means doubly. 

As duplico-ternatum, doubly-ternate or biternate. 
Duplica'lus. Doubled. 
Dura'tion. Sec ages. 



E. 



Eared. This term applies; 1st, to the round ex- 
tended, or appendaged lobes of a heart-form leaf: 
2d, to the side lobes near the base of some leaves : 
and 3d, to twisted parts, in some ferns and some 
liverworts, which are supposed to resemble the 
conchus, or passage into the ear. 

Ebraciea'tus. Without bracts. 

Ebur'neus. Ivory white ; as the whole plant mono- 
Iropa, called beechdrops, or birdsnest. 

Ecalcara'tus. Without a spur. 

Echi'nate, echina'lus. Hedge-hog-like. Beset with 
erect prickles. 

Ecos'tate. Nerveless or ribless. 

Ffplores'cence. The powdery substance on some 
Lichens, composed of minute deciduous globules. 

EJjiorescen'lia. Flowering season of different sorts of 
plants. More simple flowers come out in June 



7B ENN 

than in any other month in North America. Very 
few compound flowers appear before August. 

Effolia'tion. Unnatural falling of leaves by mean? 
of improper culture, worms, &c. 

Egg'-form. See ovate. 

Eglandulo'sus. G landless. 

Egret. See aigrette. 

Elas'tic. See dissiliens. 

Elip'tic. Longer than wide, rounded at or near 
both ends, and nearly equal in breadth towards 
both base and apex. 

Elon'gated. Lengthened out, as if extended be- 
yond what is usual in similar parts. 

Emar'cidus. See withering. 

Emar'ginate. Notched in the end at the termina- 
tion of the midrib. See Retuse. 

Embra'cing. See clasping. 

Em'bryon. See hilum. 

Emta'lemknt. See calyx. 

End'-bitten. See praemorsus. 

Ener'vate. Nerveless. 

ENNEAN'DRIA. (Ennea, nine; aner, male.) Nine- 
stamencd. The name of the ninth class. It 
comprises all plants, whose flowers are perfect, 
with 9 stamens in each. The number of stamens 
are very variable in most plants in this class ; 
particularly in the genus laurus, including the 
common sassafras- and spice-bush. 

It may also be the name of the ninth order in 
'hose classes where the characters of the first 13 
classes are taken for orders ; should any discove- 
ries hereafter require it. Linneus's system is so 
contrived, that it not only provides for all known 
plants ; but also assigns a place for all possible 
discoveries. 



E R I 77 

Ennean'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 

class enneandria. 
Enneapet'alus. Nine-rjetalled. 
Eno'dis, eno'de. Knotless. Having no joints ; as 

the bulrush. 
En'sate, ensa'lus. Having sword-form leaves. 
En'siform. Sword-form. Two-edged, tapering from 
base to apex mostly, and a little arching towards 
one edge ; as flag and cat-tail, (Iris and Typha.) 
Enti're. Continued without interruption. A mar- 
gin of a leaf, calyx, corol, &c. is entire, when it 
is neither serrate, toothed, notched, nor in any 
manner indented. 
Ephe'merus. Of very short duration. 
Epicar'peus. On the germ. See superior. 
Epider'mis. See cuticle. 
Epiphrag'ma. A thin membrane stretched over the 

mouth of the moss, polytrichum. 
E'qual. Similar parts equal among themselves. 
The calyx, corol, &c. are equal, when the leafets, 
petals, or subdivisions, are similar in form, size 
and direction. Opposed to unequal. 
Equinoc'tial flowers. Opening at stated hours 

each day. 
E^'uitant. Opposite leaves embracing each other, 
so that they alternately enclose each others 
edges ; as the leaves near the roots of the Iris 
and yellow garden lilies, (hemerocallis ;) also the 
position of the leaves in some unopened buds. 
Erec't, erec'tus. Upright. Not so perfectly strait 
and unbending as strictus. When applied to any 
thing laterally attached to the stem, as leaves, &c. 
it implies that it makes a very acute angle with it. 
Erectius' cuius. Erectish. 
Er'got. See spurred rye. 
Erina'ceus. Hedge-hog- like. See uhinatus. 
7* 



m E Y t 

Ero'se, ero'sus. Gnawed. Unequally sinuatcd, as 
if the sinuses had been eaten by insects. 

Es'culent. Eatable. 

Essen'tial character. See diagnosis. 

Essen'tials. The stamens and pistils. 

Ev'ergreens. Such plants as retain their leaves 
throughout the year ; as white pine, laurel, &c. 

Evergreen. Verdant throughout the year. 

Exan'nulate. Ferns whose capsules are without 
rings. This comprises one section of ferns. 
Those which have an apparent vestige of, but 
not in reality, a ring, form another section. 
Those with a ring, another. See annulatus. 

Exara'tus. See sulcate. 

Exaspera'tus. Sec roughened. 

Excava'tus. Hollowed out. 

Exot'ic, exot'icus. Plants not growing spontaneous- 
ly in a wild state in that particular country, or 
section of a country. 

Expan'ded, expan'sus. Spread. 

Explana'tus. Unfolded. 

Exsert', exser'lns. Standing out. Stamens are ex- 
sert when protruded out of the corols. Pedun- 
cles of spikes in culmiferous plants are exsert, 
when protruded out of the sheaths; as carex fol- 
liculata and pubcscens. 

Kxstip'ulate. Without stipules. 

Exsic'cup* Juiceless. 

Ex'limus. At the very top, or extreme end. 

ExTRAfoLiA'cEOUs. Outside of the leaf. A stipule 
is extrafoliaceous when it comes out a little lower 
than the leaf does. 

Exlror'sum. Outwardly. 

Eye. See hilum. 



FAS 79 

I P. 

Fac'ies. The general external appearance of a plant. 
Factit'ious character. An essential character, where 
the number of parts or some other circumstance, 
not of essential importance, are taken into it— Will- 
denow. Artificial marks distinguishing one genus 
from another — Martyn. What is not natural — 
Richard. It admits of fewer or more characte- 
ristic marks, than are absolutely necessary— Milne. 
It serves to discriminate genera that happen to 
come together in the same artificial order or sec- 
tion. It can never stand alone, but may some- 
times commodiously enough be added to more es- 
sential distinctions. — Smith. 
Fal'cate. See acinaciform. 
Fam'ilies. See gentcs. 
Fan form. Spread out, or tapering towards the 

base like a fan. 
Farc'tus. Stuffed, full. It is opposed to fistulous, 

hollow. 
Fari'na. See pollen. 
Farino'sus. Mealy, powdery. 
Fascia'las. Having parallel bands, or coloured 

stripes. 
Fas'cicle, fascic'ulus. A bundle. Flowers level- 
topped, umbel-like in the general external appear- 
ance, with footstalks irregular in their origin and 
subdivision. The fascicle differs but little from 
the corymb, excepting Jn having shorter foot- 
stalks, which do not extend so far down the main 
stem. Sweet-william (dianthus) is a good exam- 
ple. 

A bundle of tuberous roots is called a fascicle ; 
as the asparagus roots. Also a bundle of leaves ; 
as of the white pine. 



80 FIG 

Fascic'ulate. An unnatural bundle of branchlets. 
F astiq' i ate, fas tigia'tus. Level-topped. Applied 
to aggregate flowers, which are elevated to an 
equal height or nearly so ; forminga level, convex, 
or concave top, differing but little from a plane. 
It is also applied to leaves ; as the hog-weed (am- 
brosia artemisifolia.) 
Favo'sus. See alveolate. 

Faux. Jaws. The throat or opening into a corol. 

That precise spot, where the tubular part of a rin- 

gent corol begins to separate or expand into lips 

or mouth, is the faux. 

Feat'her. See Aigrette. The plumose crown of 

seeds. 
F e'm ale, femin'eus. See pistillate. 
Fence. Involucre of Withering. 
Fen'ced. Walled around, as the stamens are by the 

scales in brookweed (samolus.) 
Fe're. Almost. 
Ferns. See Alices. 

Ferru'ginous, ferrugin'eus. The colour of iron- 
rust. See glaucous. 
Fer'tile. See pistillate. 

Fertilization. The application of the pollen, 
which is formed in the cells of anthers, to the stig- 
ma ; which is essential to the production of per- 
fect seed. See chorion. Richard is too lengthy 
upon this subject for the plan of this Dictionary ; 
which is intended for definitions and illustrations, 
but not for physiological discussions. 
Fi'bre, fi'bra. Any thread-form part. The small 
flexible thread-form roots of grasses and many 
other plants, are called fibres. 
Fi'brous. Composed of fibres. 
Fid'dle-form. See panduriformis. 
Figu'ra. See icones. 



FLA 81 

Figura'tum. This term is applied to the mouth of 
the capsule of a moss, when it is set round with 
membranaceous teeth. 

Fil'ament, fi lame n' him That part of the stamen 
which is between a. id connects together the an- 
ther and the re-.ep ado, calyx or pistil. When 
the filament is wanting, the anther is sessile. In 
monopetalous corols, the filaments are generally- 
inserted into, or are attached to, their bases. 
FIL'ICES, ferns. The first order of the class cryp- 
togamia. It includes all that natural family of 
plants, whose fruit grows on the backs of leaves, 
on a peculiar appendage, or on a leaf (frond) 
wholly metamorphosed into a kind of fruit-bearing 
spike. See cryptogamia, annulatus, and exannu- 
latus. Brake, polypod, and maidenhair belong 
to this order. 

Fil'iform. Thread-like. Of nearly equal thick- 
ness throughout, round and cylindric. It is ap- 
plied to spikes which are very long in proportion 
to their diameters. But it is generally confined 
to smaller parts. 

Fimbria'lus. Fringed. Differs from ciliate in being 
less regular and of coarser parts. 

Fimeta'rius. Growing naturally on manure-heaps. 

Fin'gered. See digitate. 

Fis'sure. A cleft or slitted aperture. 

Fis'sus. See cleft. 

Fis'tulous. Hollow like a pipe, flute or reed. 

Flab'elliform, See Fanform. 

Flac'cid, jlac'cidus. Too lax or limber to support 
its own weight. See lax. 

Flagel'lum. See runner. 

Flagellifor'mis. Resembling a whip-lash. 

Ftam'meus. Flame-coloured. 

Flat. See planus. 



82 FLO 

Fla'vus. Yellow. 

Flesh'y. Thick and filled with pulp within. 

Flex'ible, Jlex'ilis. Easily bent. 

Flexuo'se. Bending and frequently changing direc- 
tion. A stem is flcxuose, or zigzag, which uni- 
formly bends at regular intervals ; as from joint 
to joint, branch to branch, leaf to leaf, &c. 

Flex'us. Bent. This relates to but one bending. 
See geniculate. 

Flo'ating. See natant. 

Flocco'se. Woolly, or resembling the flocks shear- 
ed from cloth. 

Floral. Relating to a flower. 

bud. Containing an unopened flower. 

leaf. See bract. 

Florescen'tia. See efflorescentia. 

Flo'ret. Little flower. Whether the flower is 
large or small, it is a floret, if it is one of a num- 
ber all of which constitute an aggregate or com- 
pound. As the little flowers which make up the 
head of a thistle, a head of wheat, the umbel of a 
carrot, Szc. 

Floribun'dus. Abounding in flowers. 

Florif'erous. Bearing flowers. A leaf is florife- 
rous when a flower grows out of its disk or mar- 
gin. 

Flo'rist. One whose employment is that of creat- 
ing monsters ; that is. double and various colour- 
ed corols ; as carnations, double roses, Szc. These 
meet a more ready sale than the most interesting 
plants in their native state, among persons of- a 
coarse unscientific taste. Such persons, to be con- 
sistent, should prefer the high coloured daubings 
of a sign painter, to the delicate touches of a Sa- 
vage, a Trumbull, or a Vanderlin. 

Flos. See flower. 



F O L 83 

Flos'cular, flosculo'sits. See tubulous. 

Flos'culus. Tubular floret. Nuttall applies it to 
the florets of grasses ; but ought not to be follow- 
ed. 

Flow'er. The stamens and pistils with their cover- 
ing. These two organs, or rather their anthers 
and stigmas, are essential to all plants. But the 
calyx, corol, and even nectaries when present, are 
parts of the flower. The flower is perfect with a 
single stamen and pistil. But if either of these be 
wanting, it is imperfect, however splendid and gay 
the corol, &x. as it can never bring forth perfect 
seed nor in any manner produce its kind. Raising 
plants from bulbs, roots, &c. is now known to be 
only an extension of the same individual, which 
will cease to grow, when it arrives to its stated 
limits. For this reason grafts from a kind of tree 
long known and often transferred from tree to tree, 
sooner die of old age, than those taken from a 
kind later from the seed. It is for this reason 
also, that any kind of potatoe, however excellent, 

- ceases to produce good crops, after being for 20 
or 30 years extended by planting the root. It 
must be renewed from the seed from time to time, 
or become extinct. Smith says," all other modes 
of propagation (excepting by the seed) are but the 
extension of an individual, and sooner or later 
terminate in its total extinction." See page 240. 

Flow'ering se'ason. See efflorescentia. 

Flow'er stalk. See pedunde. 

Fluvia'tilis. Growing naturally in rivers and brooks. 

Fiz'tidus. Smelling disagreeably. 

Fold. Annexed to numerals denoting so often com- 
bined ; as 5-fold leaves, growing in fives, &c, 

Folia'ceous. See leafy. 

Folia ris cirrus. A tendril on a leaf. 



64 FRO 

■ gemma. A bud containing leaves only, 

Folia'tion, /o/m'/io. The manner in which unopen- 
ed leaves are situated within the bud. The modes 
of foliation are : 1. Involute. 2. Resolute. 3. 
Obvolute. 4. Convolute. 5. Imbricate. G. 
Equitant. 7. Conduplicate. 8. Plaited. 9. Rc- 
clinate. 10. Circinal. See each in its proper 
place. 

Folia'tus. Leafy. 

Foliif'crus. Particularly adapted to bearing leaves, 

T ol' iole, foli'olum. See leafet. 

Folio'sus. See leafy. 

Folium. See leaf. 

Fol'licle, Follk'ulus. A pericarp with one valve, 
which opens lengthwise on one side only ; as milk- 
weed (asclepias.) 

Fontina'lis. Growing naturally about springs. 

Foot'stalk. See peduncle and petiole, it is put for 
both. 

Fora'men. A hole. 

Foraminulo'sus. Pierced with many small holes. 

Fork'ed. See dichotomous. 

Fornica'tus. Arched. See vaulted. 

Fov'ea. A nectariferous cavity for the reception of 
honey. 

Fovil'la. The fine substance contained in the parti- 
cles of pollen. When the ripe pollen comes it: 
contaci with the moist stigma, it explodes and dis- 
charges the fovilla. 

Frag'ilis. Breaking easily and not bending. 

Free. See libera. 

Freq'uens. Very common, or frequent. 

FH'gidus. Growing naturally in cold countries. 

Fain'ged. Sec firnbriatus. 

Frond. An herbaceous, a leathery, a crustaceous, 
or gelatinous leaf, or somewhat of a leaf-like sub- 



F R U 85 

stance, from which or within which the fruit is 
produced. It is applied exclusively to the class 
eryptogamia — Smith. But formerly it was also 
applied to palms. 

Frondescen'tia. See leafing. 

Frondo'se. Frondo'sus. Leafy, or leaf-like. It is 
applied to mosses to distinguish them from liver- 
worts by Willdenow ; who retains them in the 
same order. 

Frons. See frond. 

Frutescen'iia. Applied to palms and such others as 
have a simple stem, and leaves only at top. 
Willdenow, page 268. 

It is applied by Martyn to the time when vege- 
tables scatter their ripe seeds. 

Fructif'erous. Bearing, or becoming, fruit. 

Fructifica'tion, fructified' tio. " The temporary 
part of vegetables, which is destined for the re- 
production of the species, terminating the old in- 
dividual and beginning the new." — Linneus. It 
consists of seven parts ; 1. Calyx. 2. Corol. 3. 
Stamen. 4. Pistil. 5. Pericarp. 6. Seed. 7. 
Receptacle. See each in its proper place. 

Fruit, fruc'tus. The seed with its enclosing peri- 
carp. If the seed grows naked, the seed alone is 
the fruit ; as of the sage. 

Fruit'-dots. Assemblages of capsules on the backs 
of ferns. Also small assemblages of powdery bo- 
dies on the fronds of lichens, called soredia. 

Fruit'-stalk. See peduncle. 

FRUSTRA'NEA. (Frustra, in vain,) polygamia. 
The 2d order of the class syngenesia. The florets 
of the disk are perfect, of the ray neutral. Ex- 
amples. Helianthus (sunflower.) Centaurea 
(bluebottle. 1 ) 

8 



uQ FUN 

Frutes'cent, frutes'cens. Woody ; or from herba- 
ceous becoming woody. 

Frut'ex. A shrub, which see. 

Frutico'sxts. See shrubby. 

Fug'ax. Fugacious. Soon disappearing. Flying 
off. See ring. 

Fulcra'lus. Having appendages. 

Fulcrum. These are seven — 1. Stipule. 2. Bract. 
3. Thorn. 4. Prickle. 5. Sting. 6. Gland. 7. 
Tendril. See each in its proper place. 

Full-flowered. When the petals of the corol are 
so multiplied as to exclude the stamens ; which is 
effected by the stamens becoming petals ; as the 
peony, rose, &c. This rarely takes place in mo- 
nopetalous corols. Double flowers are totaly un- 
fit subjects for botanical exercises. See florist. 

Ful'vous, Ful'vus. Yellowish, rust-colour. 

FUNGI) funguses. The sixth order of the class 
cryptogamia. It comprises that natural family of 
plants which is totally destitute of all herbage or 
herbaceous substance, but is of a spongy, pulpy, 
leathery or woody texture. See Angiocarpus and 
gymnocarpus, also cryptogamia. 

They are now known to be organized bodies, 
propagating their kind by seeds, like other vege- 
tables. However unsightly a common toadstool, 
the mould on old scraps of leather in damp 
places, or the blight in grain, may appear to the 
careless observer; they are all beautifully or- 
ganized, and highly interesting to the student in 
Natural History. But " their sequestered and 
obscure habitation, their short duration, their mu- 
tability of form and substance, render them indeed 
more difficult of investigation than common plants." 
Smith, page 500. 

Fungo'se. Fleshy and spongy. 



GAS 87 

Fun'gus. This term is sometimes put for pileus. 

Fu'nicule, Funiculus umbilica 'lis . The thread 
by which a seed is fastened at the hilum. 

Fun'nel-form. A corol with a tubular base, and a 
border opening gradually into the form of a re- 
versed cone. 

Furca'tus. See dichotomous. 

Fur'rowed. See sukate. 

Fus'cus. Sooty-yellow, dark-yellow. 

Fusiform, fusifor'mis. Spindle-form. A root thick 
at the top and tapering downwards to the point 
is fusiform ; as the beet and carrot. 

G. 

Galea. See labiate. 

Ga'leate, Galea'tus. Resembling a helmet. 

Galls, gal'lce. Excrescnces produced by the stings 
of insects. The balls found on oaks which are 
used in dyeing, the common large green oak-balls, 
the singular green lumps found on the wild ho- 
ney-suckle, «fec. are examples. The irritation 
upon the delicate sap-vessels, produced by the 
sting and egg of the insect, causes a greater flow 
of sap in that direction. This pressure of sap 
distends and distorts the capillary tubes and mem- 
branes, until those excrescnces are formed around 
the egg. In due time the egg becomes a larva, 
or maggot, which after feeding a while upon the 
gall, changes into the pupa, or chrysalis, and at 
last escapes a perfect insect, or fly. Each fly pro- 
duces a gall of a peculiar form. Willdenow. 
Gape. The opening between two lips of a labiate, 

or irregular, corol. 
Gap'ing. See hians. 
Gas'hed. See incisus. 



88 GEN 

Gem'inus. See double. It is also used for paired, 
in pairs or twins. 

Gem' ma. See bud. 

Gemma' t to. Budding. The gemmation of plants 
comprehends the dcvelopement of a new plant 
from the bud, as well as the foliation ; according 
to Richard. See foliation. Buds arc of four kinds. 
I . Bud, properly so called, which see. 2. Turion, 
'he radical bud,* or lender shoot which rises from 
the root in the spring, before it expands its leaves ; 
as the early asparagus shoots. 3. Bulb, which 
see. 4. Propago, a longish round body proceed- 
ing from the mother plant in mosses, which itself 
becomes a new plant. This is placed among the 
buds by Richard : but Linneus calls it the seed ; 
and Gartner applies it to the seed of lichens also. 

Gemmip'arous. Producing buds in the axils of 
leaves. 

Gen'eral. See partial. 

Gen'eral fence. Universal involucre. 

Geker'ic char'acter. The definition of a genus. 
It is confined entirely to the flower and fruit. It 
is essential, factitious, or natural ; which see. 

Gene'ric name. The name of a genus. Milne 
enumerates 21 rules respecting the naming of ge- 
nera ; which with his examples, occupy 40 pages. 
The principal names are founded upon some sup- 
posed virtues of plants, expressed in Latin or 
Greek — the habit, place of growth, &c. express- 
ed in the same manner — given in honour of some 
distinguished botanist — or borrowed from the fa- 
bles of poets. 

It seems to be an established modern rule, that 
no genus shall have the name of a politician, or 
©f any other character however distinguished. 



GEN 89 

unless liberal patronage, or skill in the science of 
Botany, will warrant it. 

Geniculate. Kneed. Forming a very obtuse an- 
gle, like a moderate bending of the knee. 

Gen'tes. Nations. Linneus divided plants into nine 
great natural tribes or casts. 1. Palms (palmac ;) 
as the date and cocoa-nut. 2. Grasses (gramina ;) 
as Wheat, Indian-corn, sugar-cane, rice, timothy- 
grass, &c. 3. Lilies (lilia;) as lily, tulip, daffo- 
dil, &c. 4. Herbs (herbae ;) as thistles, nettles, 
pease, mint, potatoes, hemp, plantain, beets, and 
all other herbaceous plants except the above. 5. 
Trees (arbores ;) as oak, chesnut, pine, willow, 
dogwood, currants, lilac, whortleberry, cranberry, 
and all other plants with a woody stem. 6. Ferns 
(Alices ;) as brake, polypod, maidenhair, ground 
pine, and all other plants of this order, which see. 
7. Mosses (musci.) See the order. 8. Alg*:. 
This tribe includes the plants of the orders, he- 
paticce, alga and lichenes, which see. 9. Fungi. 
As mushroom, toadstool, puff-ball, mould, blight, 
&c. 

Ge'nus, (plural gen'era.) A number of plants which 
agree with one another in the structure of the flow- 
er and fruit. — Willdenow. The classes are divided 
into orders, and then the orders are divided into 
genera, the genera into species. This is the ana- 
lytic method. The species are united into their 
respective genera by rejecting the specific dis- 
tinctions; genera are united into their respective 
orders, by rejecting the generic distinctions ; or- 
ders are united under their respective classes by 
rejecting (he taxinal character. This is the syn- 
thetic method. Thus it will be readily perceived, 
that scientific botany is practical logic. 
Plants of the same genus possess similar medical 
8* 



90 G L A 

powers, though in very different degrees. — Milno. 
This rule is certainly liable to some exceptions 

Germ, ger'men. That part of the pistil, which, after 
the pollen is received, soon contains the rudimen' 
of one young plant, or more. Its whole substance 
becomes the pericarp and seed, as it enlarges itself. 
When the calyx comes out below the germ, the 
germ is superior, and the calyx inferior ; when the 
calyx comes out of the upper part of the germ, the 
germ is inferior, and the calyx superior. 

The mirabilis and sanguisorba, have the germ 
between the calyx and corol. But Smith says, 
the corol can be traced to the base of the germ in 
the sanguisorba ; and Dr. Ives showed trie wri- 
ter of this article a sanguisorba media wherein he 
had distinctly separated the corol from the germ 
entirely to its base. It is therefore very doubtful, 
whether there is a plant, whose germ is between, 
the calyx and corol. 

Ger'minate. Appertaining to the germ. 

Germina'tion. The swelling of a seed, and the un- 
folding of its embryo. 

Gib'bous. Bunched out. When one or both sides 
are swelled out. 

Gills. See lamella. 

Gil'vus. Iron-grey. 

Glabel'lus. Bald. Without hairs. 

Gla'brous, glab'er. Sleek. Having no pubescence. 
Glaber is often translated smooth, which in most 
cases conveys a correct idea ; or at least does not 
lead to error. But a leaf with soft cottony pubes- 
cence is smooth, though it is not glabrous. 

(iladia'ius, A Sword-form legume is sometimes 
called gladiate. See ensiform. 

Gland, glan'dula. A round, or roundish appendage 
^hich serves for transpiration and secretion. 



G L O oi 

They are situated on leaves, stems, calyxes, and 
particularly at the base of stamens in some cruci- 
form flowers; as mustard. Glandular hairs, or 
hairs with glandular heads, are very abundant oa 
the common hazlenut calyx of North America, 
(corylus americana.) 

Glan'dular, Glan'dulous, glandulosus. Havinc 
glands. 

Glandulif'erous. Bearing glands. 

Glass'-form. See Cyathiform. 

Glas'sy. See hyaline. 

Glau'cous. Clothed with a seagreen mealine3s, 
which is easily rubbed off. It is sometimes put 
for a greenish-grey colour. This colour, ferru- 
ginous and hoary, are so constant, that they are 
used in specific descriptions. All other colours 
are excluded on account of their being too varia- 
ble to be relied on. 

Globo'se, Globo'sus. Spherical, round on all sides 
like a ball. This term is often applied in cases 
where the part is rather roundish than perfectly 
globular. 

Glob'ules. That kind of receptacle of lichens, 
which is globose, solid and crustaceous, formed of 
the substance of the frond, and terminating its 
points or branches ; from whence they fall off en- 
tire, leaving a pit or cavity. They are supposed 
to be covered all over with a coloured seed- bear- 
ing membrane. Smith. 

Glob'uli. Globules. 

Glo'chis. See barb. 

Glome. A roundish head of flowers. 

Glom'erate, glomera'tus. When many branchlets 
are terminated by little heads — Richard. A spike 
is glomerate when it consists of a collection oi 
sperical heads — Willdenow. 



92 G R A 

Glom'erule, glomerulus. The small heads consti 
tuting a glome, or a small glome. 

Gluma'ceous. Glume-like, or bearing glumes. 

Glume, glu'ma. Consists of the scales or chaff; 
which surround or enclose the stamens and pistils 
in the flowers of grasses. The outer ones are 
called the calyx, the inner ones the corol. 
- Each scale, chaff, or husk, is called a valve ; 
which gives the names bivalve, with 2 husks or 
chaffs ; univalve, with one, &c. 

When several flowers are arranged along a ra- 
chis in a spikelet with a valve or two, or more, 
below the lowest flower, these are called the com- 
mon or general calyx (gluma communis ;) and the 
glume to each floret on the spikelet above is 
called partial (gluma partialis.) 

Richard says, glumes ought to be called bracts ; 
as they are not properly either calyx or corol. 

Glumo'se. Having glumes. 

Glu'tinous. Having on some part more or less of 
adhesive moisture. 

Gnaw'ed. See erose. 

Gon'gulus. A knot. It is applied to a round, hard 
body, which falls off upon the death of the mother 
plant, and becomes a new one ; as in the fucus. 
Willdenow. 

Gonop'terides. Angle-fruit fern. One of the new 
orders of Ferns. It is adopted by Pursh, Tor- 
rey, and a few other writers on American botany. 
The receptacles of the fruit are polygons ; as of 
the genus Equisetum. 

Gram'ina. The family of grasses. See gentes. 
But in a limited sense, the sedges, rush-grasses, 
&c. are not included. See Natural Orders. Cul- 
miferous is the most extensive term; and most of 
this vast family have three stamens in each flower, 



GYN 93 

though many of them are monoecious. The rice, 
star- grass and rush-grass have six stamens to the 
flower. 

Graminifol'ius. Having leaves resembling those of 
grasses. 

Grandiflo'rus. Having large flowers. 

Granif'erus. Bearing grains or kernels ; as those 
on the valves of dock-flowers. 

Gran'ulate, granula'tus. In the form of grains. 
A granulate root consists of several little knobs 
strung together along the side of a filiform radicle. 
It differs from the knobbed tuberous roots in this ; 
that the latter are strung together by rootlets 
which proceed from near the middle of one knob 
to another. 

(jranula'tions. Grain-like substances. 

Grave'olens. Having a strong odour or scent. 

Groov'ed. See sulcate. 

Grossifica'tion. The enlarging of the fruit afic; 
the florescence. 

Guitar'-torm. See panduriformis. 

Gymnocar'pi fun'gi. Such as bear seeds in a naked 
hymeniam, which see. 

Gymnosper'mus. (Gumnos, naked ; sperma, seed.) 
With seeds naked, or growing without pericarps. 

G YMNOSPER'MIA. The name of the first order in 
the class didynamia. It includes those plants, 
whose seeds have no pericarps ; as mint, mother- 
wort, pennyroyal, hyssop, catnip, thyme, heal-all, 
&c. The rudiments of the four naked seeds may 
be seen around the base of the pistil, as soon as 
the flower opens. 

GYNAN'DRIA. (Gune, female ; aner, male.) Sta- 
men and pistil united. The name of the 20th 
class, or of the 1 9th if the 1 8th be rejected. It in- 
cludes all plants whose stamens are inserted on 



94 H A M 

the germen, style, or stigma, separate from the 
base of the corol. Formerly plants were placed 
here, as the passion flower, &c. whose stamens 
were attached to an elongated receptacle. 

The pollen in most plants of this class is glutin- 
ous. Many of them have the anther on a movea- 
ble lid on the top of a style. Plants formerly in 
the second order of this class are mostly removed 
to the first by Swartz. What was formerly consi- 
dered as two anthers is founrUo be 2 cells of one 
anther. The pollen is often in stalked masses, 
which might appear to a student like so many an- 
thers. 

H. 

llabita'tio. The native residence of plants ; or the 
situation wherein they grow most naturally. 

Hab'it, hab'itus. The external appearance of a 
plant by a general view of which we know it with- 
out attending to any of its essential characters. 

A knowledge of the habit of plants is to be 
acquired ; by first seeing them in a growing state, 
and then by repeatedly reviewing them in an her- 
barium, which see. 

Hair. See pilus. 

Hair'-like. See capillary. 

Hair'v. See pilose. 

Hal'bert-form. See hastate. 

Halv'ed. One-sided, as if one half had been taken 
off; as the halved spathe of some Indian-turnips, 
one-sided involucres, &c. 

Ha'mus. A hook, as the hooked spines on burdock. 

Hamo'sus. Hooked. 

Hamulo'sus, With very small hooks. 



HER 95 

IIand'-form. See palmate. 
Hanging. See pendent. 

Has'tate. Halbert-form, or shaped like an espon- 
toon. A leaf with processes near the base from 
each edge, which are acutish •, as common sorrel 
leaves. When these processes point considerably 
backwards the leaf is sagittate. 
Hatch'et-form. See axe-form. 
Head. Flowers heaped together in a roundish form 
with no peduncles or very short ones ; as clover- 
heads. This term is applied to a globular stig- 
ma also. 
Heap'ed. Compact, but hardly so close as dense. 
Heart. See corcle. 
Heart'-form. See cordate. 
Hedg'e-hogged. See erinaceus. 
Hel'met. See labiate. 
Hem'isphere. Half a sphere. 
HEPAT'ICJE. See cryptogamia. 
HEPTAGYN'IA. Seven-styled. The name of the 

7th order in each of the first 13 classes. 
HEPTAN'DRIA. (Hepta, seven ; aner, male.) Se- 
ven-stamened. The name of the seventh class. 
It comprises all the plants whose flowers are per- 
fect, with 7 stamens in each. 

It may also become the name of the seventh or- 
der in those classes where the characters of the 
first 13 classes are taken for orders should future 
discoveries require it. See enneandria. 
Heptan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 

class heptandria. 
Herb, her'ba. Any plant which has not a woody 
stem. But when applied to the 9 families (see 
gentes) it includes neither grasses nor lilies. 
Herba'ceous. Not woody. Also applied to plant; 
which perish annually down to the root. 



96 HER 

Herb'age. All that part of a vegetable which is 
bounded by the root below, and by the fructifica- 
tion above. It comprises all parts of every plant, 
except the root and fructification, whether herba- 
ceous or woody. See partes. 

Herba'rium. A collection of dried plants. No 
person can ever become a good practical botanist 
without an herbarium. See habit. A man of 
science may acquire a knowledge of the physiology 
of plants-, and obtain a general view of the science 
of botany from books. But to become a practi- 
cal botanist, so far as to be able to apply the 
principles of the science to any useful purpose, 
an herbarium is essential. 

The uses of an herbarium are principally these : 

1. To acquire a knowledge of plants. Any per- 
son of either sex, who is desirous to know the 
names of all the plants in any neighbourhood, 
(which in the compass of three or four miles, will 
amount to 6 or 7 hundred species in most parts of 
North America, exclusive of cryptogamous plants) 
should make an herbarium according to the fol- 
lowing directions. Let this be sent to the near- 
est practical botanist ; who will readily annex to 
each its generic and specific name. Make an in- 
dex to these names ; and frequently look over the 
plants and compare others with them, in a grow- 
ing state ; which is all that is required to obtain 
the object desired. 

2. To revive in the memory the names and habits 
of plants. No memory is sufficiently retentive to 
permit nothing to slip, relating to several hundred 
species of plants ; unless they are frequently pre- 
sented to the eye. 

3. When plants are not in flower, they often 
want some of their most striking habits also, it is 



HER 97 

.herefore very convenient and satisfactory to com- 
pare the more minute parts, in order to insure cor- 
rectness in relation to plants, which we have oc- 
casion to examine at various seasons of the year. 

Directions for making an herbarium. 

Those, who are desirous to know all the various 
modes of performing this interesting task, are re- 
ferred to Smith's Elements, page 504. Willde- 
now's Principles, p. 4. Richard under the word 
herbier. But the object of the author being to 
give an account of the most simple and conven- 
ient method ; a detail of the various plans pro- 
posed will not be proper here. 

1. Provide yourself with about 100 old news- 
papers ; or other coarse paper about equal to that 
in quantity and texture. Let these papers be 
very thoroughly dried. This will be a sufficient 
stock for the season. 

2. Procure two smooth inch-boards of the size 
of half of a paper; also a weight of lead, stone, 
or other substance, of twenty pounds. 

3. Gather 3 or 4 specimens of each plant, as it 
comes in flower. If you collect but few speci- 
mens, and wish to preserve them in the most beau- 
tiful form, put them between the leaves of a port 
folio in the field. Let the specimens be so large 
as to include the various parts of the plant. If it 
be a small plant, take the root also. If large 
take it in two pieces ; one to include the flower 
and parts adjoining, the other the root-leaves, if 
any, and those near the root. Place these be- 
tween the folds of the papers, as nearly in their 
natural state as possible. If the plant curved, 
let it curve in the papers ; if the flower drooped 
in the field or woods, let it droop in the papers. 



9S HER 

&c. Lay the papers between the boards with 
the weight upon them. If 20 or 30 filled papers 
lie upon each other, it is all the same. 

4. Twice or three times each week lay your 
papers, containing plants, separately in the sun, 
with small stones on the corners, for three or four 
hours. When taken in, put them in press again. 
This exposure to the sun is not necessary, however, 
with single specimens of small plants. Or if seve- 
ral leaves of paper be allowed to each specimen. 

5. As fast as your plants become dry, put them 
jp in books made of the same paper, with about 
a dozen sheets in each. Most plants will be fit 
to put up, after sunning five times, and pressing 
two weeks. When the roots are taken up, if bul- 
bous, they should be immersed in boiling water, or 
they will be very long in drying. Most ever- 
greens and succulent plants, except aquatics, 
should be immersed in boiling water, or they will 
drop their flowers, &c. 

6. After the season is past, (which is about the 
end of November,) make a large book of stiff print- 
ing paper; and fasten one or more of your best 
specimens of each species to the first page of 
each leaf. Put as many specimens on a leaf as 
will fill it up ; leaving room for names, &c. under 
each. Some glue them on ; others cut through the 
papers and raise up slips, like loops, and run the 
specimens under these loops. The latter method 
is best and cheapest. 

Your herbarium will now be ready to send to 
the practical botanist, as before mentioned. 

It may be proper to observe, that if a long sea- 
son of wet weather occur, or if you have not time 
or convenience for drying your papers in the sur. 
while containing the plants, you may effect the 



HEX 99 

same object by drying other papers thoroughly by 
a fire, and then shifting your plants into them. 

Plants should never be dried so as to become 
brittle. They should resemble the state of well 
dried hay. The object in drying them between 
papers is ; to prevent their crisping, and to retain 
more of their natural colour and texture, than can 
be done openly. But still many plants cannot 
possibly be made to retain their natural colours. 
Simple and woods flowers abound in the fore 
part of the season ; compound and field flowers 
come most after the middle of July. An indus- 
trious collector will have 400 species by the first 
of July ; and will find 250 species afterwards, 
before the season closes. See efflorescentia, tem- 
perature, and species. 

Hcrba'rius. An herbist. One who collects and sells 
plants. 

Hermaph'rodjte. See perfect. 

Hexag'onal, hexago'nus. Six-cornered. 

HEXAGYNM. (Hex, six ; gune, female.) Six- 
styled. The name of the sixth order in each of 
the first thirteen classes. Plants of either of these 
classes with six styles or sessile stigmas are of the 
6th order of such class ; as Wendlandia is of the 
6th order of the 6th class. 

HEXAN'DRIA. (Hex, six ; aner, male.) Six-sta- 
mened. The name of the sixth class. It com- 
prises all plants, whose flowers are perfect; with 
six stamens in each, not united by their filaments 
in one or two sets, nor regularly with 4 longer 
than the other 2. Liliaceous plants belong here. 
It is also the name of the 6th order in those 
classes, where the characters of the first thirteen 
classes are taken for orders ; as fumaria and cory- 
dalis in the class diadelphia, aristolochia (birth- 



100 HOO 

wort) in the class gynandria, wild-rice (zizania) 
in the class moncecia, green-briar (smilax) in the 
class dicecia. 

Mexan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class keocandria. 

Hexapet'alous. Six-petalled. 

Flexapetaloi'des. A one-petalled corol so deeply di- 
vided as to appear G-petalled, 

Hexaphyl'lus. 6-leaved. 

Hi'ans. See gaping. 

Hi'lum. The external scar or mark on a seed, 
where the funicle, or thread, is attached to it and 
conveys its nutriment till ripe. 

•Uirsu'te, hirsu'tus. Rough-haired. Covered with 
stifTish hairs, but hardly stiff enough to be called 
bristles. 

llir'tus. Covered with short stiff hairs. Nearly the 
same as hirsute. 

His'pid, His'pidus. Bristly. Beset with stiff hairs, 
or rather with bristles, which are very short. 
Perhaps it differs from hirtus only in having the 
hairs shorter and sliffer. It seems to be applied 
in some cases, however, where the bristles are 
not very short. 

Hiul'cus. Cracked open ; a gaping chink. 

Ho'ary. Whitish coloured, arising from a scaly 
mealiness. See glaucous. 

Holera'ceous. Suitable for a pot-herb. 

Hoi/lows, (thalamia.) That kind of receptacle of 
lichens, which is spherical, nearly closed, lodged 
in the substance of the frond, lined with its pro- 
per coat, under which are cells 2 or 4-seeded. 
Each hollow finally opens by an orifice in the 
surface of the frond above. Smith. 

Hon'ey-cup. See nectary. 

Mood'ed. See cowled. 



HYE 101 

Hoof'-form. See ungulatus. 

Hook. See hamus. 

Hora'rius. Continuing but an hour. 

Horizontal. Parallel to the horizon. Leaves 
are horizontal, when they form right angles with 
erect stems. 

Horn. See spur. 

Horn'-form. Shaped like a horn, or rather like a 
cock's spur. See spur. 

Horolog'ium. A botanist, who watches the progress 
of vegetables as they approach maturity, parti- 
cularly the developement of flowers, through 
every hour of the day. A table kept of such 
progress is called, by the French, horologue. 

Hu'midus. Moist, humid. 

Hu'mifuse, humifu'sus. Spread over the ground. 
Richard defines it ; spread on the ground and not 
rooting. 

Hum'ilis. Low, humble. 

Husk. The larger kind of glume ; as the husks of 
Indian-corn. 

Hyaline, hyali'rms. Colourless. Transparent like 
glass or water. 

Hyber'nicle, hybernac'ulum. See bud. 

Hyberna'lis. Growing in the winter season. 

Hy'brid, hy'brida. A mule. A vegetable produc- 
ed by the mixture of two different species. The 
seeds of hybrids will not propagate. They are 
produced by sprinkling the stigma with the pollen 
of a different species. Care must be taken in 
such cases to prevent any pollen of its own spe- 
cies from falling on it first. 

IIydrop'terides. Water fern. A new order of 
Ferns. It is adopted by Pursh, Torrey, &c- 
Isoetes, Azolla and Salvinia are placed here. 

Hyema'lis. Growing in the winter season. 
■9* 



102 I M M 

Hyme'nium. An exposed or naked, dilated, appro- 
priate membrane of gymnocarp fungi, in which 
the seeds are imbedded. 

Hypocraterifor'mis. See salver- form, 

Hypog'ynas. Under the style. 



Jag'ged. See laciniate. 

Jaws. See faux. 

I 'cones planta'rum. Figures or drawings of plants. 

ICOSAN'DRIA. (Eikosi, twenty; aner, male.) 
Tvventy-stamened. The name of the 12th class. 
It comprises all plants, whose flowers are perfect, 
with 20 or more stamens growing on the inside 
of the calyx, not on the receptacle. Some au- 
thors say, any number of stamens over 12, pro- 
vided they grow to the calyx. Lithrum, however, 
has the stamens on the calyx ; also agrimonia, and 
they are not always constant in the number of 
stamens. Perhaps the better way is to leave this 
class as Linneus left it; and annex the genera, 
which vary from it, to the end of orders in the 
usual way. 

The calyx is always monophyllous and the 
claws of the petals fixed into the inside of it along 
with the stamens. 

Icosan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class icosandria. 

Jc'terus. The change of colour in leaves in autumn. 

Jmber'bis. Beardless. See beard. 

Lm'bricate, imbrica'lus. Leaves, scales, &c. lying 
over each other, or one covering the place where 
two others meet, like the shingles or tyles- on a 
roof. 

1 jjmar'giwate, Having no border or peculiar margin. 



I N C 103 

(mmer'sed. See submersed. 

Im'pari-pinna'tus. Unequally pinnate. When a 
pinnate leaf is terminated by a single or odd leafet. 

Jmper'fect, imperfec'tus. Wanting the stamen or 
pistil. No flower is perfect without both organs : 
but with an anther and stigma the flower is per- 
fect, though destitute of calyx and corol. 

Imi'unc'tate. See punctate. 

Inazqua'lis. Unequal, which see. 

Fnceqaivalva'tus. Valves of capsule or glume unequal. 

Ina'nis. Having a spongy pith. 

Inaper'tus. Hollow, but without any opening. 

Inca'nus. See hoary. 

Incama'tus. Flesh-coloured. 

Inci'sed, Inci'sus. Cut in like a gash with a knife, 
but not deep enough to be called a cleft. If the 
crenatures or serratures of a leaf are cut down, to 
appearance, with a slit or gash, this term applies. 

Incli'ned, inclina'lus. Bent towards each other. 
Also bent towards something different. 

Inclu'ding, inclu'dens. One thing containing an- 
other within it ; as the calyx shutting up the seed, 
capsule or corol. 

Inclu'sus. Enclosing. Opposed to exsert. 

Incomple'te. See complete. 

Inconspic'uus. Not apparent without the aid of a 
magnifier. 

Incras'sate. Thickening. When a flower-stem 
grows thicker upwards towards the flower. 

In'crement. The quantity of increase. 

Incum'bent, incumbens. Leaning upon or against. 
When an anther lies, as it were, somewhat hori- 
zontally upon the top of the filament. 

Incur'vep, incurva'tus. Bent inwards. As a leaf 
bent in at the point towards the stem, a filament 
towards the pistil, a prickle towards the stem. 



104 INP 

Indig'enous. Plants, growing naturally and origi- 
nally in a country, are indigenous to that coun- 
try. It is often very difficult to determine, whe- 
ther a plant is exotic or indigenous. Who can 
say, whether the chess (bromus secalinus) stone- 
seed (lithospermum arvense) and cockle (agros- 
temma githago) are native or exotic ? 

Jndivi'sus. Undivided. Not cleft into parts. It 
may however be serrate, crenate or toothed ; it 
is therefore not the same as entire. 

In'durated, indures'cens. Becoming hard, lough, or 
leathery. 

Indu'sium. A shirt. It is used by some authors for 
the thin membranous covering on the fruit of ferns. 
But Smith prefers retaining the old name, involu- 
cre, which see. 

Iner'mis. See unarmed. 

Infer'ne. Downwards. Towards or near the base 
or root. 

Infe'rior, in'ferus. Below. A calyx or corol is 
inferior when it comes out below the germ. See 
germ. 

In'fimus. At the very bottom or base, lowest. 

Infla'ted, infla'tus. Appearing as if blown up with 
wind. A very small degree of inflation is some- 
times noticed in descriptions ; as the calyx in si- 
lene. 

Inflex'ed, inflex'us. The same as incurved. Smith. 

Inflores'cence, inflorescen' tia. The mode by 
which flowers are connected to the plant by the 
peduncle. It is of 10 kinds. 1. Whorl. 2. Ra- 
ceme. 3. Panicle. 4. Thyrse. 5. Spike. 6. 
Umbel. 7. Cyme. 8. Corymb. 9. Fascicle. 
10. Head. See each in its place. 

Infrac'tus. Bent in with such an acute angle as to 
appear as if broken. 



1 N T 105 

Infundibilifor'mis. See funnel-forrn. 

Inodo'rus. Having no smell. 

Inser'tus. Inserted, fixed to or on. 

Insi'dens. Sitting upon. 

fnsigni'tus. Marked. 

Instruc'tus. Furnished with. 

In'teger. See entire. 

fnteger'rimus. Very entire, having no dentation 
whatever. 

Interfolia'ceous. Situated along the stem be- 
tween the origin of the leaves, not opposite to 
them. 

Intermed'ius. Between two extremes. 

Interno'de, inlerno'dius. The space between joints 
or knots. 

Inter'nus. Within the inside. 

Interpo situs. Placed between. 

Interrup'te. Interruptedly. 

Tnterrup'ted, interrup'lus. A spike is interrupted, 
when leaves or smaller flowers are interposed at 
intervals. 

Interrup'tedly pin'nate. When smaller leafets 
are interposed among the larger ; as the potatoe 
and agrimony leaves. 

Inli'mus. Entirely within. 

Intor'sion, intor'sio. Twisting, twining or bending 
from a strait upright position. See twining con- 
torted and twisted. 

Intor'tus. Twisted inwards. 

I.vtrafolia'ceous. Within the leaf. A stipule is 

intrafoliaceous, when it originates a little above 

the origin of the petiole, which brings it, as it 

were, within the bosom of the leaf. 

Introduced. Not originally native. Brought from 

some other country. 
Intror'sum. Inwardly. 



106 I R R 

Inversely heart'-form. See obcordate. 

Inunda'lus. See submersus. 

Involu'crate. See involucred. 

Involucre, involu'crum. That kind of calyx which 
comes out at a distance below the flower, and ne- 
ver encloses it like the spathe. It is further dis- 
tinguished from the spathe in being of a leafy tex- 
ture and colour, whereas the spathe is generally 
membranaceous or coloured. It is generally 
found at the origin of the peduncles of umbels ; 
and sometimes attached to other aggregate flow- 
ers. When it is all on one side it is called dimi- 
diate, halved. See partial. 

Involucres of ferns generally lie on the tops of 
the capsules, like a piece of linnen spread out to 
dry; hence they are called indusium, a shirt. 
They are denominated cornicidalum, when cylin- 
dric, hollow and enclosing the seed. 

Involu'cred, involucra'lus. Having involucres. 

Involu'cel. A partial involucre, or a little involucre. 

Jnvol'vens. Arching over. 

Involute, involu'tus. Rolled inwards. A term in 
foliation ; applied to leaves whose opposite mar- 
gins are rolled in and continued rolling, till the 
two rolls meet on the midrib and parallel to it. 

Joints. Swelling knots, rings, or narrowed inter- 
stices, at regular intervals along glumes, pods, 
spikes, leaves, &c. 

Joint'ed. Having joints. 

Irid'eous, Irides'cent. Reflecting light somewhat 
like a rainbow. 

Irreg'ular, irregularis. Differing in figure, size, 
or proportion of parts, among themselves. 

Irritabil'ity. The power of being excited so as 
to produce contractile motion. That there is such 
a thing as vegetable irritability is evident to every 



KNO 107 

one, who examines the common barberry flower. 
Touch the inside of a stamen near its base with 
the end of a horse-hair, or any thing about the 
same size, and it will instantly strike its anther 
against the pistil and shoot a quantity of pollen 
upon the stigma, or in that direction. 

Ish. See Acutiusculus. 

Isthmus. Long narrow joints in legumes or loments. 

Jug'um. Yoke. In pairs. 

Julus. See ament. 

K. 

Keel. The lower petal of a papilionaceous corol. 
The stamens and pistils lie enclosed in it. 

Keel'ed. Having a ridge resembling the keel of a 
boat or ship. A leaf, capsule, calyx, &c. is keel- 
ed when it has the midrib, angle, or peculiar pro- 
cess, running along the back of a compressed 
form, and attached by one edge. 

Ker'nel. See nucleus. 

Kid'ney-form. Hollowed in at the base with round- 
ed lobes and rounded end. Its breadth is gene- 
rally, as great as its length. 

Kne'ed. See geniculate. 

Knob'bed. In thick lumps; as potatoes. 

Knobs. (Cephalo'dia.) That kind of receptacle 
of lichens, which is convex, more or less globular, 
covered externally with a coloured seed-bearing 
crust, and placed generally at the extremities o! 
stalks, originating from the frond, permanent: 
rarely sessile. Sometimes they are at first span 
ghs on rilauientous lichens, and afterwards be- 
come convex irregular knobs. They are simple, 
compound or conglomerate. Smith, 



108 LAM 

Knot. A swelling joint. See joints. 

Knot'ted. Having swelling joints. 

Knot'less. Without swelling joints. See enodc. 

L. 

La'biate. Having lips ; or a calyx or corol divid- 
ed at top into two general parts, somewhat re- 
sembling the lips of a horse or other animal. 

Labiate corols are divided into ringent and per- 
sonate, 

Eingent, such as have the lips open or gaping. 
Personate, such as have the lips closed or muffled. 

Lahyrinthifor'mis. Winding and turning by various 
involutions and contortions like a labyrinth. 

Lac'erated, lac'erus. Torn. Cut, or apparently 
torn, into irregular segments. 

Lacin'ia. The division of a calyx, corol, leaf, &c. 
into which they are cleft, torn or divided. 

Lacw'iate, lacinia'tus. Jagged. Irregularly di- 
vided and subdivided, cut or torn. Hardly dif- 
ferent from lacerated. 

Lactes'cence, lactescen'tia. Milkiness. The milky 
juice of some plants ; as the milkweed (asclepias.) 
It is also called by this name, when the juice is 
red ; as in the bloodroot (sanguinaria.) 

Lac'teus. Milk-white. 

Lacu'nose, Lacuno'sus. Hollow between the veins 
of a leaf. When the blisters are under side of the 
leaf instead of the upper. See bullate. 

Lacu'stris. Growing most naturally in or about 
lakes. 

Lce'vis. Smooth, even, polished ; not striate, or 
wrinkled. 

Lamella. A thin plate. Applied to the gills or 



L A T 109 

vertical plates -under the hat or pilcus of the aga- 
ric fungus, or toadstool. 

— equa'lis. When all the gills reach from the 
stem to the margin of the hat. 

inequa'lis, or intermp'tus. When some reach 



but part of the way. 

— biseria'lis. When a long and short gill alternate. 

— triseria'lis. When 2 long and 2 short gills al- 
ternate in pairs. 

ramo'sa. When several gills unite in one, so 



as to appear branched. 
— decur'rens. When they run down the stem 



more or less. 

veno'sce. When so narrow as to have the ap- 



pearance of veins. 

Lamel'late. In the form of thin plates, or having 
thin plates. 

Lam'ina. The broad upper part of the petal of a 
polypetalous corol. See petal. 

La'nate, lana'tus. Woolly. Covered with curly, 
crooked, close, thick pubescence. Not so fine, 
nor so closely matted together as tomentose. 

Lance'olate, lanceola'lus. In the form of the lance 
of the ancients. When the length greatly ex- 
ceeds the breadth ; and it tapers gradually from 
near the base to the apex. 

Lance-o'vate, &c. lanceola'to-ova'ius,$rc. Pertak- 
ing of the lanceolate form and of that with which 
it is compounded. 

Lanu'go. Down. 

Lappula'ceus. Burr-like. 

Laterifol'ius. Side-leaved. 

Lat'eral, latera'lis. On one side. 

Latifol'ius. Broad-leaved. 

Lateri' this. Brick-coloured. 

Lat'itans. Hidden t concealed. 
10 



110 LEA 

Lat'ticed. Resembling network. 

Lax, lax'us. Limber. See flaccid. 

Leaf. That part of most vegetables, which pre 
sents more surface to the atmosphere, than all 
other parts ; and consists principally of the cellu- 
lar integument covered with the cuticle. Leaves 
imbibe and give out moisture; generally more 
with one surface than the other. Aquatic leaves 
perspire faster than dry-land leaves ; which is the 
reason for their drying so much sooner. Some 
leaves imbibe sufficient moisture from the atmos- 
phere for their support for a long time ; as the 
common liveforever will grow, if broken off and 
stuck up in a dry place. 

Leaves are divided into simple, when one leaf 
grows on one petiole ; and compound when seve- 
ral leafets grow on one petiole. 

They are ev'ergreeti, remaining through the 
"winter *, or deciduous, falling off at the close of the 
year. 

They are farther distinguished by their forms, 
surfaces, and positions. All of which are describ- 
ed under their peculiar names. 

Le'afing season. That time in the year when 
most leaves come out. In North America the 
proper leafing season is in April. 

Le'afet, or le'aflet. One of the lesser leaves 
which, with others, constitute a compound leaf. 
A simple leaf is never a leafet, however small. 

Le'afless. Destitute of leaves, naturally. This 
term does not apply in cases of defoliation, which 
see. 

Le'af-stalk. See petiole. 

Le'afy. Furnished with leaves. Abounding 
leaves. Leaves intermixed with flowers on a 
spike. 



L I G 111 

Leathery. See coriaceous. 

Legume, legu'tnen. A pod, without a longitudinal 
partition, with its enclosed seeds attached to one 
suture only ; as the pea. Those with tranverse 
partitions are usually called loments, which see. 

Leguminous. Bearing legumes. 

Lentic'ular, lenticula'ris. Lentil-form. It is ap- 
plied to a kind of glandular roughness on the sur- 
face of some plants. Form of a convex lens. 

Lepan'thium. Used as a substitute for nectary by 
Nuttall. 

Lev'el-top'ped. See fastigiate. 

Li'ber. The innermost layer of the bark, or the 
last year's deposit. Smith, page 25. 

Libera. Free, not adnate, or attached. 

LICHENES. See cryptogamia. 

Lid of mosses. See operculum. 

Light. Various motions and inclinations of plants 
prove the effect of light upon them. Trees pre- 
sent their leaves outward in quest of light, be- 
cause it is darkest in the centre. Plants in a 
green-house all present the upper surfaces of their 
leaves towards the enlightened side of it. Wheat- 
heads hang towards the sun. Most compound 
flowers follow the sun through the day. Plants 
deprived of the light lo6e their green hue ; as po- 
tatoe tops growing in a dark cellar. 

Ligno'se, ligno'sus. Woody. 

Lig'num. See wood. 

Lig'ula. A strap or strap-form organ. It is gene- 
rally applied to the membrane or stipule at the 
top of the sheath of a grass-leaf. 

Lig'ulate, ligula'tus. That kind of floret, in some 
compound flowers, which consists of a single 
strap-like petal which becomes tubular at the base 



112 L O M 

only ; as all the florets in a dandelion, and the ray 
florets in a sunflower. 
Li'lia, lil'ies. The family of lilies. See gentes. 
Lilia'ceous. A corol with six petals spreading 
gradually from the base, so as altogether to exhi- 
bit a bell-form appearance. 
Limb, lim'bus. The broad spreading part of the pe- 
tal of a monopetalous corol. 
Line, li'nea. The breadth of the crescent at the 

root of the finger nail. 
Lin'ear, linea'ris. Continuing of the same breadth 
throughout most of the extent. Linear leaves al- 
ways, or with very few exceptions, become nar- 
rowed or pointed at one or both ends. 
Lin'eate, linea'tus. Marked with lines. 
Lin'guiform. Tongue-like. Thick, fleshy, linear, 

blunt at the end. 
Li'on-tooth'ed. See runcinate. 
Lip, or lip'ped. See labiate. 
Lirel'hz. See clefts. 
Litlora'lis. Growing on the sea-coast; also on the 

shores of rivers. 
Li'vidus. Dark grey, inclining to violet. 
Lobe, lob'us. Divisions, which are rounded, or part- 
ed by rounded or curved incisions. Sometimes 
it seems to be applied to cases where it has no- 
thing to distinguish it from a segment cut off by 
a cleft incision, except by its being larger. 
Lo'bed, loba'tus. Divided into lobes. Deeply part- 
ed, with the segments distant or spreading and 
large. 
Loculamen'tum. See cell. 

Loc'ulus. The little cell of an anther, which con- 
tains pollen. 
Lo'ment, lomen'tum. A legume pod with transverse 



MAR IIS 

partitions. This terra is generally applied to the 

legumes in the Natural Order Lomentacee. 
Longifol'ius. Long-leaved. See relative proportions. 
Longis'simus. Very long. 

Lon'gus. Rather long. See relative proportions. 
Loose. Open, not compact. 
Lo'rula. The long threads of Usnea. This lichen, 

so common on trees, is erroneously called moss 

by most people. 
Lu'cidus. Bright, shining. Nearly the same as ni- 

tidus. 
Lu'nulate, lunula'tus. Shaped like a crescent, 

which sec. 
Lu'rid, luridus. Of a palish, dull, deathly colour. 

Most plants with lurid petals are more or less 

poisonous ; as tobacco, henbane, thorn-apple. 
Lutes'cent, lutes'cens. Approaching to a yellow 

colour. 
Lu'teus. Yellow. 

Luxuriant, luxur'ians. See full-flowered. 
Ly'rate, lyra'tus. Pinnatifid, with the division at 

the apex largest. 
Ly'rate-pin'nate. Pinnate with the odd terminal 

leafet largest. 

M. 

Macula 'tus. Spotted. 

Male. See staminate. 

Manifes'tus. Very apparent. 

Ma'ny. Whenever there are more than are usually 
numbered of that kind; as we say, 1 -seeded, 2- 
seeded, 3-seeded, 4-seeded, many-seeded. 

Marces'cent, marces'cens, or mar'cidus, See with- 
ering. 

10* 



114 M E A 

Mar'ginated, margina'tus. Having a margin dif- 
fering in some measure from the disk. 

Mar'gin, mar' go. The circumference or edge. See 
border. 

Marit'imus. Growing naturally near the sea -board. 
It may be extended several miles from the water. 

Mar'row. See pith. 

Mas' cuius. See staminate. 

Mas'ked. Personate. See labiate. 

Matu're, matu'rus. Full-grown, but not entered 
upon a state of decay. 

Meas'ures. Proportion between parts is better than 
any measure. But when measures are adopted, 
they should be taken from parts of the hand and 
arm. Because the parts of plants vary about as 
much as the hand ; and in adopting these mea- 
sures the same allowance should be made. 

1. Line, the crescent at the root of the nail. 
About one-twelfth of an inch. 2. Nail (unguis.) 
Length of the nail. About half an inch. 3. Inch 
(pollex.) Length of the first joint of the thumb. 
4. Palm. " Breadth of the four fingers. About 3 
inches. 5. Short'-span (spithama.) Distance be- 
tween ends of thumb and fore-finger. About 7 
inches. 

Long'-span (dodrans.) Distance between ends 
of thumb and little finger. About 9 inches. 

Foot (pes.) Distance between the point of the 
elbow and the second joint of the thumb. About 
12 inches. 

Cu'bit (cub'itus.) Distance between the point 
of the elbow and of the middle finger. About 18 
inches. 

Arm (brachium.) Distance between armpit 

and the end of middle finger. About 24 inches. 

Fathom (orgy a.) Distance between the ends 



MET 116 

of the middle fingers, when the arms are extend- 
ed. 
Medic'inal, medicina'lis. Plants possessing princi- 
ples sufficiently active to entitle them to a place 
in the materia medica. Many physicians dai- 
ly trample under foot plants, which possess si- 
milar qualities with those which they purchase 
from Europe, and often the very same plants ; but 
being ignorant of those botanical principles by 
which the names and properties of plants are as- 
certained, they are consequently ignorant of the 
absurdity. See qualities. 
Medio'cris. Averaging in dimensions compared with 

other parts. See relative proportions. 
Med'ius. In the middle. This term is used when 
one part is between the other parts, though some- 
times much nearer one than the other ; as a bract is 
in the middle of the peduncle, when it is much near- 
er the flower than to the base of the peduncle. 
This name is sometimes given to species holding 
a middle place between extremities, expressed 
by the names of other species of the same genus. 
Medulla. See pith. 
Mellif'erous, mellifera. Producing or containing 

honey. 
Melli'go. Honey-dew on leaves. 
Membranaceous. Made up, apparently, of the two 
plates of the cuticle, without any cellular integu- 
ment between them. Nearly transparent, very 
thin and colourless. 
Membrana'tus. Flattened and resembling a mem- 
brane. 
Mensu'ra. See measures. 

Meth'od, method'us. A mode of arranging plants 
in classes, orders, &c. Richard has 14 pages on 
this head \ in which he gives the methods of Tour- 



1I6< MON 

nefort and Linneus at length. But as we have 
given the method of Linneus under Systematic 
Terminology, and throughout the Dictionary ; and 
as Tournefort's method is no where adopted in 
this country ; this article is principally omitted. 
It may be observed that : 

Tournefort's method 
Divides plants into herbs and trees. The Herba- 
ceous plants are divided into 17 classes. Four- 
teen of these are distinguished by the form of the 
corols ; as, 1 . Infundibiliformis. 2. Personate, 
&c. The other 3 classes are apetalous and dis- 
tinguished by having stamens, no apparent flowers, 
and no apparent seed. The Tree kinds are di- 
vided into 5 classes. 

Mid'rib. The main or middle rib of a leaf running 
from the stem to the apex. 

Milia'ris. In the form of millet seed. 

Minia'tus. Scarlet, vermillion colour. 

Minutis'simus. Extremely small or minute. 

Mi'tre-form. Terminating in two divisions, in 
some measure resembling a bishop's mitre. 

Molendina' cea. Many winged. 

Mollis. Seft. 

MONADEL PHIA. (Monos, one ; adelphos, bro- 
ther.) One brotherhood. The name of the 1 5th 
class. It comprises all plants, whose flowers are 
perfect with the stamens united by their filaments 
in one set and the flowers not papilionaceous. 

It is also the name of ihe 16th order in those 
classes, where the characters of the first 1 3 classes 
are taken for orders. Though this is not of the 
first 13 classes, yet it is adopted upon the same 
principle in the class monozcia and diozcia ; as the 
pine, white-cedar, cucumber, squash, &c. in the 
former j and red-cedar, yew, &c. in the latter. 



MON 117 

Monadel'phous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class monadelphia. 

MONAN'DRIA. (Monos, one ; aner, male.) One- 
stamened. The name of the first class. It com- 
prises all plants, whose flowers are perfect, with 
one stamen in each, not growing on the pistil. 

It is also the name of the first order in those 
classes, where the characters of the first 13 classes 
are taken for orders ; as the orchis and arethusa 
in the class gynandria. 

Monil'iform. See granulate. 

Monocotyle'dones. See cotyledon. 

MONCE'CIA. (Monos, one; oikos, house.) The 
name of the 21st class ; or the 20th, if the 18th 
be rejected. It includes those plants whose flow- 
ers are not perfect, but the stamens and pistils 
grow in different flowers on the same plant. As 
in the Indian-corn, the stamens are in the tassels, 
and the pistils are the silks of the ear. 

Monoecious, monoi'cus. Belonging to, or varying 
into, the class moncecia. 

MONOGYN IA. (Monos, one ; gune, female.) Onc- 
pistilled. The name of the first order in each of 
the first 13 classes. It comprises all plants in 
each class, respectively, whose flowers have one 
style in each ; or, if the style is wanting, one ses- 
sile stigma; as samphire (salicornia) in the class 
monandria, lilac (syringa) in diandria, Iris in 
triandria, plantain in tetrandria, mullein in penlan- 
dria, lily in hexandria, horse-chesnut in heptandria, 
laurel (kalmia) in dccandria, purslane in dodecan- 
dria, cherry in icosandria, poppy in poly andria. 

Moxopet'alous. The whole corol in one piece. 
Sometimes it is so deeply parted, that it appears 
to be polypetalous until it is pulled off and close- 
ly examined at the base. In most monopetalous 



118 MUL 

corols, the stamens are attached to the tube. They 
are divided into Bell-form, Funnel-form, Salver- 
form, Wheel-form, and Labiate, which sec. 

Monophyl'lous. (Mon'os. one ; phullon, a leaf.) 
One-leafed. A calyx all in one piece. All the 
calyxes in the class icosandria are of this kind. 
They are often so deeply divided, that a student 
may mistake them for polyphyllous, without par- 
ticular attention. 

Monopteryg'ia. See wings. 

Monopyre'nus. Enclosing but one nut or stone. 

Monosper'mus. One seed to a flower. 

Monoslac'hyos. (Monos, one ; stachus, spike.) Sin- 
gle spiked. 

Mon'strous. Plants producing any part different 
from the same part, when growing wild. As the 
rose has but five petals in a wild state ; but, by 
rich cultivation in gardens, the stamens are most- 
ly changed to petals. Carnations and peony are 
examples also. These are all monsters. See 
florist and full-flowered. 

Monta'nus, Growing most naturally on mountains. 

Moon-form. See crescent-form. 

Mos'ses. See musci. 

Mouth. See faux. 

Mu'cidus. Resembling mouldiness, or mucor. 

Mu'cronate, mucrona'tus. Having a rounded end, 
tipped with a prickle ; which often appears rather 
an extension of the midrib. 

Mule. See hybrid. 

Multangula'ris. Many-angled. Having several cor- 
ners or ridges. 

Mullicapsula'ris. Many-capsuled. Several capsules 
to each flower. 

Mullicau'lis. Producing many stems. 

Multidenta'tus. Many-toothed. 



N A T 119 

Mul'tifid, Mullif'idus. Many-cleft. 
Multiflo'rus. Many-flowered. 
Mullil'obus. Many-lobed. 
Multilocula'ris. Many celled. 
Multipartite, Multipart? lus. Many-parted. 
Mul'tiphx. Many-fold. Having petals lying over 

each other in two rows. 
Multiplied, multiplied 'tus. See full-flowered. 
Mullisiliquo'sus. Many pods proceeding from the 

same point. 
Multival'vis. A glume with many chaffs or valves. 
Multot'ies. Often times. 
Mu'niens. Leaves drooping down and hanging over 

the stem, &c. at night. 
Mnni'lus. See fenced. 
Mu'ricate, murica'tus. Armed with sharp spines. 

Covered with subulate prickles. 
MUS CI, mosses. The second order of the class 

cryptogamia. All mosses have lids on the cap- 
sules. See cryptogamia. 
Mnt'icus. See awnless. 
Mutilated, mutila'tus. Not producing parts with 

their full complete forms. 

N. 

Na'ked. Wanting a covering analagous to that of 
most plants. As stem without leaves, leaves with- 
out pubescence, corol without a calyx, seed with- 
out a pericarp, receptacle without chaff, pubes- 
cence, &e. 

Na'nus. Dwarfish, very small. 

Nap. See tomentose. 

Napifor'mis. Resembling a turnip. 

Na'tant, nat'ans. Floating. When the plant is 



no NAT 

fixed by the root at the bottom and its leaves float 
on the top of the water, as the pond lily, (nym- 
phasa.) 

Na'tions. See gentes. 

Native. Originally of that country. Not intro- 
duced. 

Nat'ural char'acter. The description of the 
parts of fructification at large ; without regard to 
any method : or at least so given as to be capa- 
ble of being used under any method. See descrip- 
tions. 

Natural class. See natural orders. 

Nat'ural his'tory. That department of Science, 
which treats of the productions of nature as they 
come from the hand of the Creator : without any 
decomposition or chemical analysis. 

It is generally divided into four branches. 

1. Zool'ogy. Which includes all animals ; as 
Beasts, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Snails, 
Clams, Worms and Corals. 

2. Bot'any. Which includes all plants. As 
Palms, Grasses, Lilies, Herbs, • Trees, Ferns, 
Mosses. Liverworts, Seaweeds and Mushrooms. 

3. Mineral'ogy. Which includes the unorga- 
nized mass of our globe. As Pit-coal, Common 
salt, Flint, Lime, Clay, Iron-ore, Silver-ore, Lead- 
ore, with the ore of 26 other metals, &c. 

4. Aerol'ogy. Which includes the atmosphere 
and whatever floats in it. This takes in the natu- 
ral history of lightning, meteors, &c. But it is 
more particularly concerned with clouds as it re- 
spects systematic arrangement. 

Nat'ural Orders. An arrangement of plants ac- 
cording to their natural affinities, without regard- 
• ing their artificial characters. Such an arrange- 



NAT 121 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LIXN'EUS. 

saent is of great use both in finding out a plant, 
and examining its relations and qualities. 

Ft is considered advisable to insert here the two 
celebrated systems of Linneus and Jussieu. For 
this Dictionary is intended as an assistant in read- 
ing any system, which may fall into the hands of 
a student; and after he has found out a plant, he 
may be desirous to examine it by these systems. 

Linneus supposes, (Rose, Milne and others fol- 
low his opinions, and Cullen in some measure,) 
that plants of the same natural order possess si- 
milar medical qualities. But the scent of plants 
must certainly be taken into consideration ; as 
all nauseous-scented umbelliferous plants are poi- 
sonous, while the sweet-scented are pleasant sto- 
machics, &c. See qualities. The medicinal qua- 
lities are annexed from Milne, Woodville, Thorn- 
ton and others, that the student may avail him- 
self of whatever advantage can be derived from 
such natural affinities. " Several plants charac- 
terized by a particular virtue, possess it to such 
a degree of strength or weakness, that we may 
reasonably expect very different effects from this 
difference of intensity in the same quality ." Milne. 

Natural Orders of Linneus. 

1. Pal'm^e. Palms and their relatives ; as Co- 
coanut, Frog's bit. Farinaceous diet. 

2. Piperi't*:. Pepper and its relatives. Tn 
crowded spikes ; as Indian-turnip, sweet-flag. 
Tonics and stomachics. 

3. Calama'rijE. Reed-like grasses, with culms 
without joints ; as cat-tail, sedge. Coarse cattle 
fodder. 

11 






122 N A T 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNEUS. 

4. Gra'mina. The proper grasses with jointed 
culms ; as Wheat, Rye, Oats, Timothy-grass, In- 
dian-corn. Farinaceous diet and cattle fodder. 

5. Tripetaloi'de-e. Corol 3-petalled or ca- 
lyx 3-leaved; as Water-plantain, Rush-grass, Ar- 
row-head. Tonics and rough cattle fodder. 

6. Ensa't.e. Liliaceous plants with sword- 
forra leaves ; as Iris, Blue-eyed grass, Virginian 
spiderwort. Antiscorbutics and Tonics. 

7. Orchid'e-e. With fleshy roots, stamens on 
the pistils, pollen glutinous, flowers of singular 
structure with the germ inferior; as Ladies' slip- 
per, Arethusa. Farinaceous diet and Stomachics. 

8. Scitamin'e.e. Liliaceous corols, stems her- 
baceous, leaves broad, germen blunt-angular ; as 
Ginger, Turmeric. Warming stomachics. 

9. Spatha'ce^. Liliaceous plants with spathes : 
as Daffodil, Onion, Snow-drop. Secernant stimu- 
lants. 

10. Corona'ri^:. Liliaceous plants without 
spathes ; as Lily, Tulip, Star-grass. The nau- 
seous-scented and bitter are antiscorbutic and ca- 
thartic, the others Emollient. 

11. Sarmenta'ceje. Liliaceous corols with 
very weak stems ; as Smilax, Asparagus, Bell- 
wort. Tonics and Secernant stimulants. 

12. Olera'ceje, or Holera'ce^. Having flow- 
ers destitute of beauty, at least of gay colouring ; 
as Beet, Blight, Pig- weed, Dock, Pepperage. If 
nauseous, Cathartic; others, mild stimulants and 
nutrientics. 

13. Succulen't^:. Plants with very (hick 
succulent leaves ; as Prickly pear, House-leek, 
Purslain. Antiscorbutic and Emollient. 



NAT 123 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNEUS. 

14. Gruina'les. Corols with five petals, cap- 
sules beaked ; as Flax, Wood-sorrel, Cranes-bill. 
Tonics and Refrigerants. 

1 5. Inunda'ta. Growing under water and hay- 
ing flowers destitute of beauty; as Hippuris, 
Pond- weed. Astringents. 

16. Calyciflo'rje. Plants without corols, 
with the stamens on the calyx ; as Poet's casia, 
Seed buckthorn. Astringents and Refrigerants. 

17. Calycan'themje. Calyx on the germ or 
growing to it, flowers beautiful ; as Willow-herb, 
Ludwigia, (Enothera. Astringents. 

18. Bicor'nes. Anthers with two strait horns; 
as Whortleberry, spicy and bitter Winter-green, 
Laurel. Astringents. 

19. Hesper'ides. Sweet-scented, leaves ever- 
green; as Myrtle, Cloves, Mock-orange. As- 
tringent and stomachic. 

20. Rota'ceje. Corols wheel-form ; as Gen- 
tian, St. John's wort. Tonics. 

21. Prec'i.e. Plants with early spring flowers 
of an elegant specious appearance ; as Primrose. 
Astringents. 

22. Caryophyl'leje. Plants with caryophyl- 
lous corols ; as Pink, Cockle. Astringent and Se- 
cernant stimulants. 

23. TRiHiLA'TiE. Flowers with 3 stigmas, cap- 
sules inflated and winged, and generally 3-seeded 
with distinct hilums ; as Nasturtion, Horse-ches- 
nut. Tonics and Nutrientics. 

24. Coryd'ales. Corols spurred or anoma- 
lous ; as Fumatory, Touch-me-not. Narcotic 
and Antiscorbutic. 

25. Putamin'eje. Plants which bear shell- 



124 NAT 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNEUS. 

fruit ; as Caperbush. Detergent and Antiscorbu- 
tic. 

26. MuLTisii/i<au.&. Having several pod-form 
capsules to each flower ; as Columbine, Lark- 
spur, Rue, American cowslip. Cathartic and 
Caustic. 

27. Rhoj:a'deje. Plants with caducous calyx- 
es, and capsule or siliques ; as Poppy, Blood-root, 
Celandine. Anodyne and Antiscorbutic. 

28. Lu'RiDiE. Corols lurid, mostly monopeta- 
lous ; flowers Pentandrous, or Didynamous with 
capsules; as Tobacco, Thorn-apple, Nightshade, 
Foxglove. Narcotic and Antiscorbutic. 

29. Campana'ce*:. Having bell-form corols, 
or those whose general aspect is somewhat bell- 
form ; as Morning-glory, Bell-flower, Violet, 
Cardinal flower. Cathartics and Secernant stimu- 
lants. 

30. Contor't^:. Corols twisted or contorted ; 
as Milk-weed, Periwinkle, Choak-dog. Cathar- 
tics and Antiscorbutics. 

31. Vepre'cul-se. Having monophyllous ca- 
lyxes, coloured like corols ; as Leatherwood, 
Thesium. Antiscorbutic and Emetic. 

32. Papiliona'ce^e. Having papilionaceous 
flowers ; as Pease, Beans, Locust-tree, Clover. 
Emollient, Diuretic, Mutrientic. 

33. Lomenta'cejE. Having legumes or fo- 
ments, but not perfect papilionaceous flowers ; as 
Cassia, Sensitive plant. Emollient, Astringent, 
Cathartic. 

34. Cucurbita'ce^:. Fruit pompion-like, an- 
thers mostly united ; as Melons, Cucumbers, Pas 
sion-flower. Cathartic and Refrigerant. 



N A T 126 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNEUS. 

35. SENTico'siE. Prickly or hairy, with Poly- 
petalous corols and a number of seeds either nak- 
ed or slightly covered; as Rose, Raspberry, 
Strawberry. Astringent and Refrigerant. 

36. Poma'ce;e. Having many stamens on the 
calyx, and drupaceous or pomaceous fruit ; as 
Pear, Currant, Cherry, Peach. Refrigerants. 

37. Columnif'er.e. Stamens united in the 
form of a column ; as Hollyhoc, Mallows, Cotton. 
Emollient. 

38. Tricoc'c/e. Having 3-celled capsules ; as 
Castor-oil plant, Spurge, Box. Cathartic. 

39. SiLiquo'siE. Having silique pods ; as Cab- 
bage, Mustard, Shepherd-purse. Diuretic, Antis-> 
corbutic, Kutrientic. 

40. Persona'tje. Having personate corols ; 
as Snapdragon, Monkey-flower. Deobstruentr 
and Cathartics. 

41. AsPERiFOL'iiE. Corols monopetalous, with 
5 stamens, seeds 4, naked, leaves rough ; as Com- 
frey, Stone-seed, (lithospermum.) Astringent? 
and Deobstruents. 

42. Verticilla'ts:. Having Labiate flow- 
ers ; as Sage, Thyme, Catmint, Motherwort. 
Stomachics and Astringents. 

43. Dumo'sje. Bushy pithy plants with small 
flowers, petals in 4 or 5 divisions; as Sumac, 
Elder, Holly. Tonic and Cathartic. 

44. Sepia'rije. Having mostly tubular divid- 
ed corols with few stamens ; being ornamental 
shrubs ; as Lilac, Jasmine. Astringent. 

45. Umbella'ts:. Flowers in umbels with 5- 
petalled corols, stamens 5, styles 2 and 2 naked 

11* 



Its N A T 

NATURAL ORDERS OF LINNEUo. 

seeds ; as Fennel, Dill, Carrot, Poison-hemlock. 
Stomachic and Narcotic. 

46. HEDERA'cEiE. Corols 5-cleft, stamens 5 to 
10, fruit berry- like on a compound raceme; a; 
Grape, Ginseng, Spikenard. Tonics and Refri- 
gerants. 

47. Stella'tje. Corols 4-cleft, stamens 4, 
seeds 2, naked, leaves mostly whorled ; as Bed- 
straw, Dogwood, Venus's pride. Tonics and De- 
obstruents. 

48. Aggrega't^. Having aggregate flowers; 
as Button-bush, Marsh-rosemary. Tonics and 
Secernant stimulants. 

49. Compos'iTjE. All the compound flowers ; 
as Sun-flower, Boneset, Tansey, Thistle. Tonics 
and Secernant stimulaiits. 

50. Amenta'ceje Bearing pendent aments ; as 
Hazle, Oak, Chesnut, Willow. Astringents. 

51. CoNiF'ERiE. Bearing strobiles; as Pine, 
Juniper, Cedar. Tonics and Stomachics. 

52. Coaduna'tve. Several Berry-like peri- 
carps, which are adnate ; as Tulip-tree, Magno- 
lia. Tonics. 

53. Sca'brid/e. Leaves rough, flowers desti- 
tute of beauty ; as Nettle, Hemp, Hop, Elm. As- 
tringents. 

54. Miscellanea. Plants not arranged by 
any particular character; as Pond-lily, Poke- 
weed, Amaranth. Their qualities are various. 

55. Fil'ices. All ferns ; as Brakes, Maiden- 
hair. Secernant stimulants. 

56. Mus'ci. All mosses ; as Polytrychum. 
Cathartics and Secernant stimulants. 

57. Ai'gjb. All Liverworts, Lichens and Sea* 



N A T 127 

NATURAL ORDERS OP JUSSIEU. 

weeds ; as Jungermannia, Fucus, Usnea. To- 
nics. 

58. Fun'oi, All fungusses ; as Mushroom, 
Toad-stool, Puff-ball, Touchwood, Mould. To- 
nics and Cathartics. 

Natural Orders of Jussieu. 

Jussieu's System is a very great improvement 
upon that of Linneus. But I have seen no attempt 
at giving the medical qualities of each order. Ac- 
cording to the maxim of Linneus and others, the 
student has only to acquaint himself with the vir- 
tues of one or two plants in order to be able to 
form some general opinion of all other plants in 
that order. 

1st Division. Seeds without lobes or cotyledons. 

1. Fun'gi. All fungusses. As Mushroom, 
Toad stool, Puff-ball. 

2. Al'gje. Lichens and Seaweeds. As Ulva, 
Usnea. 

3. Hepat'ice. Liverworts. As, Anthoceros, 
Jungermannia. 

4. Mus'ci. Mosses. As Hypnum. 

5. Fil'ices. Ferns. As Polypod, Brake, Mai- 
denhair. 

6. Nai'ades. Water plants. As Pondweed, 
Mare tail. 

2d Division. Seeds with a single lobe, or one 
cotyledon. 

7. Aroi'deje. Indian-turnijp-like. As Skunk- 
cabbage, Sweet-flag. 

8. Tv'PH*. Cat-tail-like. A s the Burr-red. 



128 . NAT 

NATURAL ORDERS OF JtJSSIEU, 

9. Cyperoi'deje. Cyperus-like. As Sedge, 
Club-rush, Bog-rush. 

10. Gramin'e*. The proper grasses. A? 
Wheat, Oats, Timothy-grass, Indian-corn. 

II.Pal'm*:. Palm-like. As Cocoa-nut, Ground- 
rattan, Palmetto. 

12. Aspar'agi. Asparagus-like. As Smilax- 
Solomon-seal, Yam. 

13. Junc'i. Rush-like. As Arrow-grass, Vir- 
ginian Spiderwort. 

14. Lilia'ce*. Lily-like. As Tulip, Dog- 
tooth-voilet. 

15. Brome'lia. Pine-apple-like. As Agave, 
False moss. 

16. Asphod'eli. Asphodel-like. As Hyacinth, 
Onion, Star-of-Bethlehem. 

17. Narcis'si. Daffodil-like. As Star-grass, 
Pickerel-weed, Sea-Daffodil. 

18. I'rides. Iris-like. As Blue-eyed-grass, Ixia. 

19. Mu's^. Banana-like. No common ex- 
ample. 

20. Can'n*:. Indian-reed-like. As Ginger. 

21. Orchi'deje. Orchis-like. As Ladies' Slip- 
per, Neottia, Cymbidium. 

22. Hydrochar'ides. Frogbit-like. As Wa- 
ter-lilly, Pond-lily. 

3d Division. Seeds with two lobes, or two cotyledons* 

23. Aristoloc'hle. Birthwort-like. As Asa- 
rum. 

24. JEleag'ni. As Pepperage, Sea-buckthorn. 

25. Thymel'e-e. As Leatherwood. 

26. Pro'teje. Silver-tree like. No common 
example. 



NAT 129 

NATURAL ORDERS OF JUSSIEV. 

27. Lau'ri. Camphor- like. Sassafras, Spicc- 
bush. 

28. Polygon'eje. Buck-wheat-like. As Water- 
pepper, Dock. 

29. Atrip'lices. Orache-like. As Pigweed, 
Pokeweed, Blite, Saltwort. 

30. Amaran'thi. Cockscomb-like. As Chaff- 
weed, False-knotgrass. 

31. Planta'gines. Plantain-like. As Ribwort. 

32. Nycta'gines. As Hogweed. 

33. Plumba'gines. Leadwort-like. As Marsh- 
rosemary. 

34. Lysimac'hije. Loose-strife-like. As Prim- 
rose, Brookwced. 

35. Pedicuea'res. Lousewort-like. As Milk 
wort, Speedwell, Painted-cup. 

36. Acan'thi. Bearbreach-like. As Malabar- 
nut. 

37. Jaskin'e;e. Jasmine-like. As Lilac,Ash. 

38. Vi'tices. Chastetree-like. As Vervain. 

39. Labia'tje. Rigent-flowered plants. As 
Sage, Mint, Motherwort. 

40. Scrophula'rke. Figwort-like. As Hedge- 
hyssop, Snapdragon. 

41. Sola'ne.e. Nightshade-like. As Tobac- 
co, Thorn-apple. 

42. Boragin'ec Borage-like. As Comfrey, 
Stoneseed, Turnsole. 

43. Convol'vuli. Bindweed-like. As Dod- 
der, Cypress-vine. 

44. Polemo'nia. Greek-valerian-like. As 
Phlox, Cantua. 

45. BiGNo'NiiE. Trumpet-flower-like. As Ca- 
talpa-tree, Snakehead. 



130 NAT 

NATURAL ORDERS OF JUSSIEU. 

46. Gentia'nje. Gentian-like. As PinkrooJ, 
False-gentian. 

47. Apocyn'eje. Dogbane-like. As Milkweed, 
Choak-dog. 

48. Sapo'tje. As Bromelia. 

49. Guaiaca'n.e. Lignum-vitae-like. As Date- 
plumb, Silver-bell. 

50. Rhododen'dra. Rosebay-like. As Laurel, 
Wild-honeysuckle. 

51.Eri'c*. Heath-like. As Spicy-wintcrgreen, 
Bearberry, Crowberry. 

52. Campanula'ce^. Bellflower-like. As Car- 
dinal-flower. 

53. Cichora'ce*. (Compound.) Endive-like. 
As Lettuce, Dandelion, Hawkweed. 

54. Cinarocep'halje. (Compound.) Bearing 
head-form flowers. As Burdock, Thistle, Blue- 
bottle. 

55. Cohymbif'er*. (Compound.) Corymb- 
bearing. As Yarrow. Wormwood, Fleabane. 

56. Dipsac'e*. Teazel-like. As Valerian. 

57. Rubia'ce*. Madder-like. As Button-bush, 
Bed-straw, Partridge-berry. 

58. Caprifol'ia. Honeysuckle-like. As Dog- 
wood, Elder, Snow-ball. 

59. Ara'li*. Spikenard-like. As Ginseng. 

60. Umbellif'erje. Bearing umbels. As Fen- 
nel, Angelica, Carrot, Celery. 

61. Ranuncula'ce*. Crowfoot -like. As Wind- 
flower, Larkspur, Virgin's bower. 

62. P^paveiuce*. Poppy-like. As Fumatory, 
Bloodroot, Celandine. 

63. CRuciF'ERiE. Bearing cruciform flowers. 
As Mustard, Watercress, Shepherds-purse, 



N A T 131 

NATURAL ORDERS OF JUSSlLt. 

64. Cappari'des. Caperbush-like. As Sundew, 
Parnassus-grass. 

S5. Sapin'di. Soapberry-like. As Heart-seed. 

66. Ac'era. Maple-like. As Horse-chesnut. 

67. Malpig'hi*. As Mylocarium. 

68. Hvperi'ca. John's-wort-like. As Asarum. 

69. Guttif'er*. Bearing secreted drops. As 
the Balsam tree. 

70. Auran'tia. Orange-like. As the Lime 
tree. 

71. Mel'i*:. Beadtree-like. As Mahogany 

tree. 

72. Vi'tes. Grape-like. As American ivy 

vine. 

73. Geran'ia. Cranes-bill-like. As Wood-sor- 

rel. 

74. Malva'ce*. Mallows-like. As Hollyhock, 

Cotton. 

75. Magno'li.e. Magnolia-hke. As White- 
wood, Anise-tree. 

76. Anno'n.e. Papaw-like. As Porcelia. 

77. Menisper'ma. Moonseed-hke. As Schi- 
sandra, Wendlandia. 

78. Berber'ides. Barberry-like. As Witch- 
hazel, Poppose-root. 

79. Tilia'ces. Basswood-like. As Linden- 

tree. 

80. Cis'ti. Rockrose-like. As violet. 

81. Ruta'ce.e. Rue-like. As Caltrops. 

82. Caryopuyi/le*. Pink- like. As Cockle, 
Flax, Catchfly, Sandwort. 

83. Sempervi'vJe. Liveforever-hke. As btone 

crop, Virginian orpine. 



132 NEC 

84. Saxif'raga. Saxifrage-like. As Alum- 
root, Tmrella. 

85. Cac'ti. Prickly-pear-like. As Currant. 

86. Portulac'eje. Purslane-like. As Knawel, 
Claytonia. 

87. Ficoi'de*. Fig-like. As Sesuvium. 

88. On'agr*. As Enchanter's Nightshade, 
Willowherb. 

89. Myr'tus. Myrtle-like. As Mock-orange, 
Pomegranate. 

90. Melas'tom*. As Deergrass. 

91. Salica'ri*. As grass-poly, Isnardia, Glaux. 

92. Rosa'ceje. Rose-like. As Thorn, Plumb, 
Pear, Strawberry. 

93. Legumino's*. Bearing Legumes. As Pea, 
Clover, Locust-tree. 

94. Terebin'thi. Turpentine-like. As Wal- 
nut, Sumac. 

95. Rham'ni. Buckthorn-like. As New-Jer- 
sey-tea. 

96. Euphor'bije. Spurge-like. As Box, Pal- 
ma-christi. 

97. Cucurbita'ces:. Pompion-hke. As Melon, 
Balsam-Apple. 

98. Ur'ticje. Nettle-like. As Hemp, Hop, 
M.*I berry-tree. 

99. Amenta'ce.k. Bearing pendant aments. 
As Oak, Willow, Beach. 

100. Conif'er^. Bearing strobiles, or cones. 
As Pine, Juniper, Cedar. 

Na'velled. See umbilicatus. 

Navicular, navicula'ris. See boat-form. 

NECESSARM, polygamic The fourth order of 
the class syngenesia. Florets of the disk stami- 
nate, of the ray pistillate. The disk florets seem 
to be perfect at first view ; but on a close exami- 



N O T 133 

nation they are found without stigmas. The iva 
(a salt marsh plant) is a good example. 

Neck. The upper part of the tube of a corol. 

Nectarif'erous. Bearing nectaries. Producing 
honey. 

Nec'tary, necta'rium. That part of a flower, which 
secretes honey. It is either a distinct horn, 
gland, spur, scale, cup, &c. or the claw or some 
other part of the corol secreting honey. This 
name is applied to any appendage to the flower, 
which has no other name. 

Kemoro'sus. Growing naturally in groves, where 
the under brush is cleared away. 

Nervo'se, ner'ved, nervo'sus. Leaves are nerved, 
when they have rib-like fibres running from the 
base towards the apex. In numbering nerves for 
a specific character, the midrib is counted with 
the lateral nerves. 

Neu'tral. Having neither stamens nor pistils, con- 
sequently barren ; as the ray-florets of the Sun- 
flower. 

Nick'ed. See emarginate. 

Mdulans. Nesting. When seeds are placed in 
cotton, &c. as in a nest. 

Nig'er. Black. 

Nigricans. Blackish, sooty. 

Ni'gro-coirul'eus. Dark-blue. 

Ni'sus formati'vus. That principle of vital energy, 
which tends to restore lost or injured parts. 

Nit'idus. Glossy, glittering. 

Niv'eus. Snow-white. 

Nodding. See nutans. 

Node, No'dus. See knot. Used by Barton for in- 
terlude. Fl. Ph. p. 61. 

No'men, name. See generic name and specific name. 

:\ T orrHVr>. See crcnate. 
12 



*%, 



134 O B L 

Nu'bilus. Grey and white, cloudy. Resembling 
cumulous clouds. See cumulus. 

Nucamen'tum. See Anient. 

Nu'ciform. Resembling a nut. 

Nuc'hus. Nut or Kernel. The inner seed or ker- 
nel is properly the nucleus ; and its hard shell is 
the putamen. But the whole including both pu- 
tamen and nucleus, is the nut, nux. 

Nu'dus. See naked. 

Nudius'culus. Nakedish. 

Nul'lus. None. 

Numero'si. Many. An indefinite number. 

Num'erits. A determinate number. 

Nut, nux. See nucleus. 

Nu'tant, Mt'tans. Nodding. When above half of 
whatever it is applied to, droops or hangs down. 
See pendulus. 

Nuta'tio. The various inclinations of the parts aris- 
ing from the effect of the Sun's rays. 

o. 

Ob, obvers'e. Reversed or inversed. Often com- 
bined with ovate, cordate, &c. as obcordate, in- 
versely heart- form. 

Obcon'ic. Conic with the point, or apex, down- 
wards. 

Obcor'date. Heart-form, with the apex next to 
the stem, or place of insertion. 

Oblance'olate. Lanceoalate with the base the 
narrowest. 

ChLi'^uE, obli'quus. A position between horizontal 
and vertical ; or between perpendicular and the 
plane of the base. It is also applied to leaves, 
petals, calyxes, &c. which are, as it were, cut ob- 



OCT 135 

liquely ; or whose bases are shorter on one side 
than on the other. 
Ob'long, oblon'gus. Having the length twice or 
more than that of the breadth, with the opposite 
sides somewhat parallel. 
Oblongius' cuius. Somewhat oblong. 
Obo'val, obova'lis. If it differs at all from obovate, 

it must be more nearly oval — having the ends 

nearer equal in width. 
Obo'vate. Ovate, with the narrowest end towards 

the stem or place of insertion. 
Obscu're. Obscurely. 
Ob'solete, ob'soletely, obsole'tus, obsoh'te. When 

teeth, notches, serratures, &c. are obscure and 

appear as if worn out. 
Obtu'se. Obtusely. 
Obtu'se. See obtusus. 

Obtu'se-acumina'lus. Blunt with a small point. 
Oblusius' cuius. Obtusish, 
Obtu'sus, obtu'se. Ending bluntly, or in an apex 

more or less rounded. 
Obver'sus, obvers'e. See ob. 
Ob'volute, obvolu'tus. A term in foliation ; applied 

to leaves where two opposite ones are condupli- 

cate, with one edge of each leaf between the 

edges of the other. 
Occlu'sus. Closed. 
Oc'hrea. A cylindric sheath or stipule. It is ap 

plied to the membranaceous stipules of most of 

the species of Polygonum ; also of some species 

of Cyperus. 
OCTAN'DRIA. (Oc/o, eight; aner, male.) Eight- 

stamened. The name of the eighth class. It 

comprises all plants whose flowers are perfec; 

with eight stamens in each, not growing on the 



136 OPE 

pistil nor united by their filaments in one or two 
sets. 

It is also the name of the eighth order in those 
classes, where the characters of the first thirteen 
classes are taken for orders. As polygala in the 
class Diadelphia. 

Octan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class octandria. 

Octo'fidus. Eight- cleft. 

OCTOGYN'IA. (Oc/o, eight; gune, female.) Eight- 
styled. The name of the eighth order in each of 
the first thirteen classes. It comprises all plants 
in each class respectively, whose flowers have 8 
styles in each ; or if the styles are wanting, 8 ses- 
sile stigmas. But there are no plants of this or- 
der yet discovered. 

Octolocula'ris. 8-celled. 

Octopel'alus. 8-petalled. 

Octophyl'lus. 8- leaved. 

Odora'tus. Scented, odorous. 

Ojficina'Iis. Such plants as are sold in the shops for 
some use, either in medicine or the arts. 

Oid, Ol'dcs. When this terminates a word it im- 
ports resemblance to the part or plant to whose 
name it is annexed. Petaloid, resembling a pe- 
tal ; thalictroides, resembling a Thalictrum, &c. 

Oligosper'mns. Few- seeded. 

One-si'ded. Flowers, &c. on one side of a stem, &c. 

Opa'que, opa'cus. Neither transparent nor shining. 

Oper'culate, opercula'lus. Having a lid. 

Oper'culum. The lid or covering on the capsules of 
mosses. This is generally covered by the calyp- 
tre when young. After the calyptre is gone and 
the seeds are ripe, the lid falls also. This term 
is also applied to the covering of other capsules., 
resembling the lids of mosses. 



OVA 137 

Op'posite, oppos'itus. Standing at the same height 
with base against base, on different sides of a stem. 

Oppos'ite. Oppositely. 

Oppositifol'ius. Set opposite to the base of a leaf; 
as some peduncles and stipules are placed. 

Oppos'ite-pinna'tus. Leafets of a pinnate leaf set 
opposite to each other. 

Orbicularis. Nearly circular. 

Orbil'lcB. See orb. 

Orbs. That kind of receptacle of lichens, which is 
flat, orbicular and dilated, of the substance of the 
frond, terminal, peltate, without a border, but of- 
ten surrounded with radiating shoots. The mem- 
brane, or disk, under which the seeds are lodged, 
is smooth, nearly of the colour of the frond. 
Spurious orbs bordered like shields or spangles 
when young, are sometimes found in the genus 
cornicularia. Smith. 

Orchid'eous co'rol. Like the orchis ; having 4 
arched petals, and the fifth longer. 

Or'gya. Fathom. See measures. 

Or'ifice. Any hole or opening into a capsule, co- 
rol, &c. 

Os. See faux. 

Os'seous. Bony, hard. 

O'val, ova' lis. The length exceeding the breadth 
in any proportion, with the two ends of an equal 
breadth, curvature and form, or nearly so ; the 
sides curving from end to end. 
Ova'rium. Used by Nuttall for an ovate germ. 

O'vate. Egg-form. The length exceeding the 
breadth in any proportion, the end next to the 
stem, exceeding the other in breadth ; the. side* 
curving from end to end. 
° 12* 



138 PAP 



P 



Pa'gina. The surface of a leaf. The Upper sur- 
face is pagina superior ; the lower surface, pagina 
inferior, 

Pal'ate. A prominence, process or elevation in 
the lower lip of a labiate corol, which tends 
more or less to close the throat. 

Pal'ea. See chaff. 

Palea'ceous. See chaffy. 

Palma'ris. Hand's breadth. 

Pal'mate, palma'tus. Divided deeply and spread- 
ing, so as to resemble the hand with spread fingers. 
When the divisions are very narrow and almost 
down to the stem of a leaf, it is called pedate, 
from its supposed resemblance to a bird's foot. 
Some pedate leaves are hardly connected at all 
at the base, and almost run into the compound 
digitate leaf. 

Palu'slris. Growing naturally in swamps and 
marshes. 

Pandurifor'mis. Guitar- form, or fiddle- form. Ob- 
long, broadish near the base and contracted near 
the sides. 

Pan'icle, panic'ula. When the peduncles along the 
sides of the main peduncle of a raceme, are divid- 
ed, it takes the name of panicle ; as oats. But 
tf it is still in a close, compact form, it is called a 
thyrse, as the lilac. 

Pan'jcled, panicula'tus. Disposed in the form of a 
panicle ; or bearing panicles. 

Papiliona'ceous. (Papilio, a butterfly.) Butter- 
fly-form ; as the pea-flower. When complete, it 
consists of the banner, the upper petal which ge- 



PAR 130 

nerally spreads over or above the others ; the 
wings, the two side petals, next below the ban- 
ner; the keel, the lower boat-form petal, general- 
ly enclosing the stamens and pistil. It is some- 
times called the pea- bloom flower. 

Patillo'se, papillo'sus. (Papilla, a nipple.) Co- 
vered with fleshy points or protuberances. See 
verrucose. 

Pappo'se, pappo'sus. Bearing pappus or aigrette. 

Pap'pus. See aigrette. 

Papulo'se, papulo'sus. (Papula, a pimple.) Pim- 
ply, bladdery or blistered. 

Parabol'ic. Conic, with the top rounded oft', con- 
siderably below where it would terminate in the 
apex, if completed in the conic form. 

Par'allel, parallel lus. Two lines or opposite 
sides, running nearly equal distances from each 
other. The opposite edges of a leaf are parallel 
when the leaf is linear. 

Parasit'ic Drawing support from another plant. 
Growing out of another; as the dodder. 

Paren'chyma. A succulent vegetable substance ; as 
the thick part of leaves between the opposite 
cuticles, the substance around the pith of herbs, 
the pulpy part of apples, &c. 

Pari'etal, parieta'lis. Walled around. Having 
an enclosing or encircling ring. 

Par'tes prima'riai. The three primary parts of a 
vegetable are : 1. The root, or descending part- 
2. The herbage, or ascending part, except ; 3, 
The fructification, comprising the flower and fruit. 

Par'tial, partia'lis. Particular, not general. Ap- 
plying to an entire part of a general whole. The 
perianth, involucre, petiole, &c. of one floret, or 
of a separate part of all the florets, which with 
others constitute a compound or aggregate. The 



140 P E D 

perianth, involucre, &c. to the whole is called ge- 
neral or universal. 
Par'tible, parli'bilis. Easily separating into parts. 

Bipartible, into 2 parts. Tripartible, into 3 parts, 

&c. 
Partition. The membrane, &c. which divides 

pericarps into cells. It is parallel, when it unites 

with the valves, where they unite with each other. 

It is contrary or tranverse, when it meets a valve 

in the middle, or in any part not at its suture, or 

juncture with another. 
Par'ted, parti'tus. Deeply divided, almost to the 

base. 
Patel'lulce. See spangles. 
Pat'ens. Spreading so as to form a moderately 

acute angle ; considerably less than a right one, 

or a square. 
Patentis'simus. Spreading almost to a right angle. 
Pal'ulus. Somewhat spreading. Open, loose. 
Pau'ci. Few in number. 
Pauciflo'rus and paucifol'ius. Few-flowered and 

few-leaved. 
Pe'a-bloom. See papilionaceous. 
Pec'tinate, pec'tinated, peclina'lus. So finely 

pinnate or pinnatifid as to resemble the teeth of a 

comb. 
Peda'lis. About a foot high. 
Pe'date, peda'tus. See palmate. 
Pedat'ifid, pedatif'idus. Nearly the same as pe- 

date ; perhaps hardly so deep-cut. 
Ped'icel, pedicel' his. A partial peduncle. 
Ped'icelled, Pedicel'late, pedicella'tus. Having 

a pedicel. 
Pe'duncle. See pedunculus. 
Pe'duncled, peduncula'tus. Having a peduncle. 



PEN Hi 

Peduncula'ris. Appertaining to, or fixed on, a pe- 
duncle. 

Pedwi'culus, pe'duncle. The stem bearing the flow- 
er and fruit, which does not spring naked from 
the root. Those which spring immediately from 
the root without leaves, are called scape. As the 
dandelion has a scape, the apple a peduncle. 

Pel'licle, pellicula. A thin membrane-like sub- 
stance. The close covering of some seeds ; some- 
times it is a little mucilaginous or downy. 

Pel'tcn. See targets. 

Pel'tate, pelta'tus. Having the petiole attached to 
the under side of the leaf. In all cases of leaves 
and flat stigmas, when the petiole or style is at- 
tached to the disk instead of the margin, they are 
peltate ; as the leaf of nasturtion and the stigma 
of the yellow water-lily. 

Pen'dant. Hanging down. 

Pen'dulous. When the whole of the part droops, 
or hangs down. 

Pen'cil-form, pennicil"lifor'mis. Shaped like a 
painter's pencil, or little round paint-brush. 

Pentacoc'cus. A 5-grained capsule. 

Pentag'onal, pentago'nus. Five-cornered. 

PENTAGYN'IA. (Pente, five ; gune, female.) Five- 
styled. The name of the sixth order in each of 
the first thirteen classes. Plants of either of 
these classes with five styles or sessile stigmas are 
of the fifth order of such class. As Spikenard 
and Flax of the 5th class, Woodsorrel and Cockle 
of the 10th class, Apple of the 12th class, Colum- 
bine of the 1 3th class. 

PENTAN'DRIA. (Pente, five ; aner, male.) Five- 
stamened. The name of the fifth class. It com- 
prises all plants, whose flowers are perfect and do 



142 PER 

not grow on the pistil, and have five stamens to 
each flower. 

Pcntan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class pevtandria. 

Pentapet'alus. 5-petalled. 

Pentapteryg'ia. See wings. 

Penlaphyl'lus. 5-leaved. 

Peregri'nus. Exotic, foreign, strange, wandering. 

Peren'nial, peren'nis. Continuing more than two 
years. 

Perexi'lis. Slender. 

Per'fect flow'er. Having both stamens and pis- 
tils. 

Perfo'li ate, perfolia'tus. Perforating a leaf. Hav- 
ing the stem running through the leaf. But the 
leaf is not formed by the union of opposite bases, 
as in the boneset (eupatorium ;) for in this case 
the leaves are connate. 

Perfoliate is sometimes the specific name where 
the leaves are nearly connate (as eupatorium per- 
foratum ;) and even where the leaves are merely 
clasping (as companula perfoliata.) 

Per'forate, Per'forated, perfora'tus. Having 
holes as if pricked through. Punctate may dif- 
fer in presenting spots like points, which are not 
holes. Pertuse perhaps is synonymous with per- 
forated. These dots may be seen by holding St. 
John's wort and many other leaves to the light. 
This term is applied to stigmas, drupes, &c. 

Per'ianth, perian'thium. (Peri, about ; anthos, flow- 
er.) That kind of calyx, which is immediately 
adjoining the corol, stigmas and pistil, or to such 
of these organs as are present. It is superior 
when it grows on the germ ; it is inferior, when 
it grows out from below the germ. See mono- 
phyllus and polyphyllus. 



P E T 143 

Per'icarp, pericarpmm. (Peri, about ; fcarpos, fruit.) 
Seed-case. Any bag, shell, pod, pulp, berry, or 
other substance, enclosing the seed. 
Pericheth, pericha' lium. (Peri, about; chaile, 
crest.) An involucre surrounding the base of the 
peduncle of mosses, among the leafets, but differ- 
ing from them in form. See calyptra. 

Perid'inm. A round membraneous dry case, enclos- 
ing the seeds in some angiocarp fungusses. 

Per'igone. A perianth calyx. Raf. 

Per'isperm. A substitute for pericarp. Nuttall. 

Perispor'ium. Capsule. Nuttall uses it to ex- 
press a chaffy covering to seed. 

Peristom'ium. The fringe, teeth, or membrane, 
around the mouth of the capsules of mosses, un- 
der the lid. 

Per'manent. Any part of a plant is permanent, 
which remains longer compared with other parts 
of the same plant, than is usual for similar parts 
in most plants. As the calyx of the quince re- 
mains on the end of the fruit, till it ripens. 

Perpusil'lum. Very little. 

Persis'tens. See permanent and ring. 

Per'sonate, persona'lus. See labiate. 

Pertu'se, pertu'sus. Punched. See perforated. 

Pes. See measures. 

Pe'tal, /jcf'a/wm. The coloured leaf or leaves of the 
corol. The petal of a monopetalous corol is di- 
vided into the tube and limb ; which see. Each 
petal of a polypetalous corol is divided into the 
claw and lamina ; which see. 

Pe'tal-form, petalifor'mis. Resembling a petal in 
shape. 

Petal'inus. Attached to, or being part of, a petal. 

Pe'taloid, pelaloi'des. Having petals, resembling 
petals. 



I M 

Pe'tiole, peti'olus. The footstalk of a leaf. Leaves 
which have no footstcms are sessile. 

Petiola'te, pe'tioled, petiola'tus. Having a pe- 
tiole. 

Petiol'ulus. A partial petiole, which connects the 
Ieafet to the main petiole ; as the butternut. 

Phanerog'amous, Phcenog'amous. Having the sta- 
mens and pistils sufficiently apparent for classifi- 
cation. Applied to all plants, not included in (he 
class cryptogamia. M'Bridc. 

Though phanerogamous is correctly derived 
from phaneroo, to make manifest ; yet as phenoga- 
mous (of phaino, to shew,) is perfectly appropri- 
ate, there seems to be no necessity for encumber- 
ing the language of botany with another term of 
greater length. Ives. 

Phami'ceus. Purple, dark-red. 

Phytol'ogv. (Phule, a plant ; logos, a treatise or 
discourse.) The science which treats of the prin- 
ciples of vegetables. It is nearly synonymous 
with (he physiology of vegetables. 

Pic'eus. Blueish-black, resembling dark pitch. 

P ileus. The hat of a fungus. The top and most 
spreading part. It may be without stype, and 
thus constitute the whole ascending part. It al- 
ways contains the seeds, though it requires the 
highest magnifiers to discover them in most cases. 

Pilid'ia. See puffs. 

Pilif'erous. Bearing hairs. 

Pilo'se, pilo'sus. Hairy. Having distinct straitish 
hairs. Pappus is pilose, hairy or simple, when 
each hair is without any lateral branches. See 
aigrette. 

Pil'us. A hair. An excretory duct of a bristly 
form, leading off a fluid. See sting. 

Prit'PLED. See papulose. 



P i T 145 

Pinna. A wing-feather. It is applied to leafets, 
which resemble feathers by their positions. 

Pin'nate, pinna'tus. Winged, or feathered. Leaves 
are pinnate, when distinct leafets are arranged 
along opposite sides of a simple petiole. Sec 
bipinnate and tripinnate. 

Pinnat'ifid, pinnalif'idus. Cut-winged. Leaves 
are pinnatifid, when, instead of leafets as in pin- 
nate leaves, segments or divisions of a leaf are 
along opposite sides of the midrib. Pinnate are 
compound, but pinnatifid are simple ; because the 
divisions never reach the midrib. When pin- 
natifid leafets are on a pinnate leaf, it is called 
pinnale-pinnatifid. 

Pis'tillate flower. Having pistils only, without 
stamens ; as the flower of the fertile cucumber. 

Pis'til, pistil'lum. The central organ of a perfect 
flower. It generally consists of the germen, style 
and stigma. But the style is frequently wanting; 
then the stigma is seated on the germ, or sessile. 
The stigma receives pollen from the anther, and, 
in some manner not yet discovered, fertilizes the 
germ. Without this operation, no perfect seeds 
are produced. See flower, style and stigma. 

Pistillif'erus. See pistillate. 

Pitch'er-form. See urceolate. 

Pith. The spongy substance in the centre of the 
stems and roots of most plants. Most woody 
stems have no appearance of a pith after they be- 
come old. 

Pits, (cyphellae.) That kind of receptacle of lichens, 
which consists of open, cup-like, naked, white or 
yellow little spots, on the under side of the frond ; 
which is generally downy. They are at first im- 
mersed, globose, minute dots, which at length burst 
with an irregular margin, and discharge a powder. 
13 



P O I 

Pit'ted. See lacunose. 

Placenta. Fleshy receptacle. 

Placenta'tion. The disposition of the cotyledons 
in the germination of the seeds. 

Plaited. Folded somewhat like a fan, when nearly 
full spread. In foliation it is more closely folded. 

Plane. Flat, with an even surface. 

Pla'no-con'vex. Convex or roundish one side 
and flat the other. 

Plant. Any substance growing from seed. As 
trees, grass, puff-ball, mould. See vegetable. 

Ple'nus-Jlos. See full-flowered. 

Plica'tus. Sec plaited. 

Plumo'se. Feather-like. 

Plumose pap'pus. Feather-like down. When a 
hair has other hairs arranged on opposite sides 
of it. 

Plu'mula. The ascending part of a plant at its first 
germination. 

Plu'rimus. Very many. 

Pod. That kind of pericarp which is composed of 
two valves with the seeds attached to one or both 
sutures, or a longitudinal partition at the edges im- 
mediately adjoining the sutures. The pod is 
either a legume or silique. 

Pede'tia. The peduncles of lichens, whether hol- 
low or solid. 

Poin'tal. See pistil. 

Poi'sons. The definition of poisons and the man- 
ner, of their operation has not yet been satisfac- 
torily made out. It will here be no farther no- 
ticed, than as it respects vegetables, and then not 
physiologically. 

Poi'sonous Veg'etables. Persons of all descrip- 
tions have frequent occasion to make some use of 
plants, when they are not in a situation minutely 



P O I 147 

to investigate their nature and qualities. As many 
plants are narcotic and injurious to the human 
constitution, it is very convenient to have at 
hand, or in the memory, a few concise rules on 
this subject. The following have been selected 
with great care from the authors whose names 
are given at the end of each rule. 

CENERAI, RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONS. 

Plants not poisonous. 

1. Plants with a glume calyx, never poisonous. 
As Wheat, Indian-corn, Foxtail-grass, Sedge- 
grass, Oats. Linneus. 

2. Plants whose stamens stand on the calyx, 
never poisonous. As Currant, Apple, Peach, 
Strawberry, Thorn. Smith, page 392. 

3. Plants with cruciform flowers, rarely if ever 
poisonous. As Mustard, Cabbage, Watercress, 
Turnip. Smith, page 487. 

4. Plants with papilionaceous flowers, rarely if 
ever poisonous. As Pea, Bean, Locust-tree, Wild- 
indigo, Clover. Smith, page 446. 

5. Plants with labiate corols bearing seeds with- 
out pericarps, never poisonous. As Catmint. 
Hyssop, Mint, Motherwort, Marjoram. Smith, 
page 434. 

G. Plants with compound flowers, rarely poison- 
ous. As Sunflower, Dandelion, Lettuce, Bur- 
dock. Milne. 

Poisonous plants. 

1. Plants with 5 stamens and one pistil, with a 
dull-coloured lurid corol, and of a nauseous sickly 
smell, always poisonous. As Tobacco, Thorn- 
apple, Henbane, Nightshade. The degree of 
poison is diminished where the flower is brighter 



148 POL 

coloured and the smell is less nauseous. As po- 
tatoes are less poisonous, though of the same ge- 
nus with nightshade. Smith, page 415. 

2. Umbelliferous plants of the aquatic kind and 
a nauseous scent are always poisonous. As Wa- 
'er-hemlock, Cow-parsley. But if the smell is 
pleasant, and they grow in dry land, they are not 
poisonous. As Fennel, Dill, Coriander, Sweet- 
cicely. Smith, page 416. 

3. Plants with labiate corols, and seeds in cap- 
sules, frequently poisonous. As Snapdragon, Fox- 
glove. 

4. Plants from which issues a milky juice on be- 
ing broken are poisonous, unless they bear com- 
pound flowers. As Milkweed, Dogbane. Milne's 
Contortae and Lactescentia. 

5. Plants having any appendage to the calyx or 
'■orol, and eight or more stamens, generally poi- 
sonous. As Columbine, Nasturtion. Linneus. 

Most general rule. 

Plants with few stamens, not frequently poison- 
ous, except the number be five ; but if the number 
be 12 or more, and the smell nauseous, heavy 
and sickly, the plants are generally poisonous. 
Milne's Multisiliquce and Sapor. 

JVb/e. Many plants possess some degree of the 
narcotic principle, which are still by no means 
hurtful. But the use of such plants is to be de- 
ferred, till fully investigated. See qualities. 
Pol'len. Meal. The dusty or mealy substance con- 
tained in the cells of anthers. In the anthers of 
most of the plants in the gynandria class, the pol- 
len is glutinous. And even the dry pollen is al- 
ways moistened by a peculiar liquid on the stigma, 
before it fertilizes the germ. These dry globules 



POL US 

always explode on touching the moist stigma. On 
being viewed through a magnifier, they are found 
of various forms. In the sunflower, it is a prick- 
ly ball ; in geranium, perforated ; in comfrey, 
double ; in mallows, a toothed wheel ; in violet, 
angular; in daffodil, kidney-form, &c. 

Pollin'ia. Rolls or masses of pollen, not included 
in cells of anthers of the common form and tex- 
ture ; as of the Orchis, Asclepias, &c. Nuttall. 

Pollimf'erous. Bearing pollen. 

POLYADEL'PHIA. (Polus, many ; adelphos, bro- 
ther.) Many brotherhoods. The name of the eigh- 
teenth class as first established by Linneus. This 
class includes all plants with perfect flowers, whose 
stamens are united by their filaments in three or 
more sets, or brotherhoods. As St. John's wort 
Orange, St. Peter's wort. This class is still re- 
tained by the translators of Linneus, Willdenow, 
and others. But it is rejected by Persoon and 
others, on account of the extreme uncertainty in 
its character. Very few species of the genera ar- 
ranged under it are constant in their character. Of 
the late American writers, Muhlenberg, Bigelow, 
and Elliot, have retained it ; Pursh, Nuttall, Bar- 
ton, the author of the American Genera, &c. have 
rejected it. 

Polyadel'phous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class polyadelphia. 

POLYAN'DRIA. (Polus, many ; aner, male.) 
Many stamened. The name of the thirteenth 
class. It comprises all plants, whose flowers ar^ 
perfect, with twenty or more stamens in each, 
growing to the receptacle. It is distinguished 
;"rom the 1 1th class by having more stamens, and 
:'rom the 12th by their not growing to the calyx. 
It is also the name of the thirteenth order in 
13 * 



150 POL 

those classes, where the characters of the first 
thirteen classes are taken for orders. But the 
character of the 13th class is not rigidly adhered 
to in this order. If the number of stamens ex- 
ceed ten, the plant is placed in this order. And 
those which are very variable in number are ge- 
nerally placed in it; as the Arum has sometimes 
G or 8 stamens. Some of the examples of this or- 
der are Mallows and Hollyhock in the class mo- 
nadelphia, Indian turnip, Oak, Chesnut, Button- 
wood in the class moncecia, Poplar in the class 
dice cia. 

Polyan'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class polyandria. 

Polycotyled'onous. Plants with more than two 
cotyledons. See cotyledon. 

I'OLYGA'MIA. (Polus, many ; gamos, marriage.) 
Many unions. The name of the twenty-third 
class as established by Linneus. It comprises all 
plants, which have some perfect flowers, and 
others which are staminate and pistillate, or both 
kinds. This class is divided into three orders. 
I. Moncecia, having perfect flowers and either 
•itaminatc or pistillate ones or both on the same 
plants. 2. Dicecia, having perfect flowers on 
<ome plants, and either staminate or pistillate 
lowers, on others of the same species. 3. Trice- 
cia, having perfect flowers on some plants, stami- 
nate on others, and pistillate on others of the 
same species. This class like the 18th, is abo- 
lished by Pcrsoon and others, and the plants un- 
ler it distributed among the other classes. Pre- 
sident Smith thinks it ought to be discarded. See 
page 485. 

Polyg'amous. Varying into, or inclining to, the 
class polygamic^ 



PR£ 151 

Polygo'nus. Many cornered, or many-angled. 
POLYGYN'IA. (Polus, many; gune, female.) 
Many-styled. The name of the thirteenth order 
in each of the first thirteen classes. Plants of 
either of these classes with any number of styles 
or sessile stigmas over 12, are of the 13th order of 
that class. But we have no writer on North Ame- 
rican plants, who has adopted the order Dodeca- 
gynia ; therefore we may here take this order for 
all plants in the first 13 classes, whose flowers 
contain over 10 styles or sessile stigmas. Exam- 
ples. Yellow-root in the class pentandria, Water- 
plantain in the class hexandria, Strawberry in the 
class icosandria, Crowfoot in the class polyandria. 
Polymorphous. Presenting various forms and ap- 
pearances. 
Polypet'alous. Many-petalled. If the corol con- 
sists of more than one petal, it is polypetalous. 
Polyphyl'lous. Many-leaved. A calyx of more 

than one distinct piece is polyphyllous. 
Polypre'nus. Enclosing more than one nut, or stone. 
Polysper'ma. Many-seeded. 
Polystach'ius. Many-spiked. 

Pome, po'mum. A pulpy pericarp without valves, 
which contains within it a capsule. See berry and 
note the difference. Apples, quinces, &c. are 
pomes. 
Pomif'erus. Bearing pomes. 
Po'rous, poro'sus. Full of holes, cellules, or tubu- 
lar openings. 
Porrec'tus. Lengthened out, stretched, straitened. 
Prn'cox. Rathe-ripe. Coming to maturity early in 

the season. Flowering before leafing. 
Prjemor'se, Prcemor'sus. Bitten off. Terminating 
bluntly, as if bitten off. As the root of the pe- 
date or birdfoot violet. 



t«2 P S I; 

Pras'inus. Green, like a leek. 

Praten'sis. Growing naturally in meadow land. 

Prem'ens. Pressing. 

Prick'le. A sharp process fixed to the bark onl) 
not to the wood ; as on the Raspberry, Rose, Bar- 
berry. 

Prism ht' ic, prismat'icus. Linear, with several flat- 
tish sides. A cylinder with flat sides. 

Probos'cides. Proboscis-like. Resembling a pro- 
jecting horn. 

Procerus. Tall, elevated. 

Proc'ess. A projecting part. 

Procum'bent, procum'bens. Lying on the ground 

Profun'de. Deeply. 

Prolif'erous, pro'lifer. Putting forth branches or 
flowers from the centre of the top of a preceding 
one. 

Prominent, pro'minens. Standing out more or less 
beyond what is usual in other plants. 

Promin'ulus. A little prominent. 

Pro'nus-dis'cus. The under side, or back of a leaf. 

Prop. See fulcrum. 

Propagation. See flower. 

Propa'go. See gemma tio. 

Propa'gitla. See efflorescence. 

Propen'dens. Apparently on the point of falling. 

Prop'er, prop'erus. See partial. 

Pros'trate, prostra'tus. See procumbent and kumi 
fuse. 

Protru'ded. See exsert. 

Prox'imus. Very near. 

Prui'na. The mealiness or hoariness on plumbs, 
peaches, &c. 

Pru'riens. Hairs which excite itching. 

Pseu'do. When prefixed to a term, it implies Um 
same as obsolete. 



QUA 153 

Pubes'cent, pubes'cens. Hairy, having hairs, wool, 
down, glandular hairs, &c. 

Puffs, (pilidia.) That kind of receptacle of li- 
chens, which consists of little round bordered 
knobs, whose disk finally turns to powder. It is 
at first covered with a membraneand often cloth- 
ed with a fine grey hoariness. These receptacles 
are elongated below into a stalk fixed to the crust, 
but totally different from it. 

Pul'lus. Dull brownish colour. 

PuLp'y, pulpo'sus. Filled with a tenacious kind of 
parenchyma. 

Pulver'ulent, pulverulen'lus. Turning to dust. 

Puhi'nnli, (garden beds.) Excresences found on 
the surface of the fronds of some lichens, some- 
times clustered or branched. Their use is unknown . 

Pu'milus, Small, low. 

Punch'ed. See perforated. 

Punc'tate. Dotted or sprinkled with coloured, 
generally diaphanous, specks. Sec perforated. 

Punctic'ulate. Having minute punctures. 

Pun'gent, purigens. Sharp, piercing, pricking 

Punic'eus. Scarlet-coloured. 

Purpuras' cens. Inclining to a purple colour. 

Purpur'eas. Purple. 

Pusil'lus. Low, small, diminutive. 

Puta'men. Nut-shell. See nucleus. 

Pyramida'lis. Conic, pyramid- form. 

Pyrifor'mis. Pear-shaped. 

Q. 

Quadran'gular, quadrangula'ris. Having four cor- 
ners, or angles. 
Quadricap'sular. Having 4 capsules. 
Quadridenta'tus. Four-toothed. 



164 QUI 

Quadrifa'rius. Facing 4 ways. 

Quad'rifid, quadrif'idus. Four cleft- 

Quadrijio'tus. Four- flowered. 

Quadrij'ugus. Four- paired. 

Quadril obus. Four lobed. 

Quadrilocida'ris. Four-celled. 

Quadriner'vis. Four-nerved. 

Quadriparti'tus. Four- parted. 

Quadrival'vis. Four-vnlvcd. 

Q'ladrivascula'ris. Four cup-form cells. 

Qual'ities or plants. Richard says that plants of 
the same taste and odour, are generally possessed 
of similar qualities. Also that the smell and taste 
are always the same. He divides the odours of 
plants into, I. Fragrant. 2. Aromatic. 3. Am- 
brosiac (resembling amber.) 4. Alliaceous (resem- 
bling garlic.) 5. Fetid (asasafuelida,&c.) 6. Nau- 
seous (causing the stomach to heave.) As the fra- 
grant, the aromatic and ambrosiac, are always free 
from all hurtful qualities, and as the fetid and nau- 
seous are generally poisonous ; it seems that man- 
kind have in some measure an instinctive princi- 
ple by which food is to be selected. 

Quuter'nus. Four together in a whorl. 

Qui'nus. Five together in a whorl. 

Qui'nate, quina'tus. Five leafets on one petiole. 

Qidnquangula'ris. Five-cornered. When a l< 
has five points ; as the cucumber. 

Quinquecapsula'ris. Having b capsules. 

Quinquecos'tate. Five-nerved. 

Quinquef'idus. Five-cleft. 

Quinqueflo'rus. Five-flowered. 

Quinquej'ngus. Five-paired. 

Quinquel'obus. Five-lobed. 

Quinquelocula'ris. Five-celled. 

Quinquener'vis. Five-nerved. 



ft A At 

luepartitus. Five-parted. 
Quinquetal'vis* Five-valvcd. 
Quinquevaseula'ru. Five cup- form cells. 

R. 

Race me, race'mus. (Rax, a bunch of grapes.) That 
kind of inflorescence, wherein the florets have un- 
divided pedicels arranged along the sides of a 
general peduncle. As currants, grapes. 

Race'med, racemo'sus. Flowers in racemes. 

Rac'his, (Rachis, the back-bone.) The filiform re- 
ceptacle connecting the florets in a spike. As in 
wheat-heads. It is sometimes put for the midrib 
in ferns. 

Ra'dial. Belonging to the ray. 

Ra'diate, radia'lus. The spreading florets around 
the margin of a compound flower. As the Sun- 
flower. See Compound. 

RaiVical, radica'lis. Proceeding from the root with- 
out the intervention of a stalk. As the leaves of 
plantain. 

Ra'dicans. See rooting. 

Radica'tus. Sending on roots. 

Rad'icle, radic'ida. The little fibrous branches 
proceeding from the main root; which imbibe 
the moisture and other nourishment for the plant. 

Radius. See ray. 

Ra'dix. Sec root. 

Ragged. See Squarrose. 

Ramen'tum. Applied to the loose scales frequently 
in the angles of peoples, &c. called in English, 
raments. s * 

Ra'mcum folium. See branch leaves. 

Rami'fcrvs. Producing branches. 



15G REC 

Ramosis'simus. Very branching. 

Ramo'sus, ramo'se. Branching. 

Ra'mulus. See branchlet, 

Ra'mus. See branch. 

Ratijto'rus. Flowers few and distant. 

Rarifol'ius. Leaves few and distant. 

Ray. The outer margin or circumference ol a 
compound flower. It is also applied to the pe- 
duncles and outer florets of an umbel ; particu- 
larly when they differ in any respect from the 
inner, or disk, florets. 

Ra'yed. Having rays. 

Receptacle, recepta'culvm. The base by which 
the other parts of the fructification are connected 
and supported ; being the end, or at the end, of 
the peduncle. It is considerably used in the 
generic characters of compound flowers ; but very 
little noticed in any others. Perhaps this part 
may hereafter be noticed on account of the change, 
it in some way produces on the vegetable secre- 
tions. Dr. Smith mentions the wholesomeness of 
some fruits, while the other parts of the plant are 
poisonous. See page 392. Every one has no- 
ticed the delicate flavour of the pond-lily, (Nym- 
phea odorata,) while all back of the receptacle is 
extremely different. Numerous similar instances 
may be cited to prove the very great change in 
some way effected by the receptacle. When 
»Persoon applies receptacle (receptaculum) to a 
capsule, he intends the columella. 

Recli'ned, reclina'tus. Bent down so that the apex 
of a leaf, &c. is lower than the base. Applied to 
the stem it implies that it is bowed towards the 
earth. 

Recompos'itus. Twice compound. 

Recon'ditus. Concealed. 



RET 157 

Rcctius' cuius. Straitish. 

Rf.c'tus. Strait. 

Recur'ved, recurva'tus. Curved downwards. 

R>t:uti'lus. Appears as if peeled. 

Reflex'ed, rejlex'us. Bent back, nearly or quite 
to touch the stem or peduncle. 

Refrac'ted, refrac'tus. Bent back in an angular 
form, so as to appear as if broken. 

Reg'num vegeta'bile. The vegetable kingdom as tak- 
en into view with the animal and mineral. 

Regular, regula'ris. See equal. 

Rel'ative proportions. When dimensions are ex- 
pressed indefinitely, as long, very long, short, 
large, &c. such expressions are to be understood 
as long, &c. compared with the proportion which 
similar parts usually bear to other parts, in plants 
generally. But when such terms are used for spe- 
cific names, the proportion between the parts of 
species of the same genus, which were known 
when the names were given, are compared. Thus 
Kahnia latifolia has a broader leaf than Kalmia 
angustifolia ; but it has a narrow leaf compared 
with any species of trillium. 

Remo'te, remo'lus. See relative proportion. 

Re'niform. See kidney-form. 

Repand', repan'dus. Having small sinuses, separated 
by teeth in the form of segments of small circles. 

Re'pens. See creeping. 

Rep'lans. See creeping and runner. 

Re.s'tans. See permanent. 

Resupina'tus. Upside down. 

Retic'ulate. Netted. Having veins crossing 
each other like net-work. 

Re'tiform. Net-form, net-like. 

Ret'roflex, retroflex'us. Bending io various di- 
rections. 

H 



168 Roo 

Retrofrac'tus. See refracted. 
Retror'so-denta'tus. See runcinatc. 
Retu'se, retu'sus. Ending in a sinus generally hol- 
lowed out but very little. Sec emarginatc. 
Reversed. Bent back towards the base. 
Rev'olute, revolu'tus. Rolled outwards. A term 
in foliation ; applied to leaves whose opposite mar- 
gins are rolled outwards and continued rolling, til 
The two rolls meet on the back of the midrib and 
parallel to it. It is the reverse of involute. 
Rhizosper'ma. Fruit on the root of some ferns. 
Rhom'bic, rhom'bevs. See deltoid. 
Rhomboi'deus. See deltoid. 
Rib. A nerve-like support to a leaf. 
Rib'bed. When the midrib sends off lateral ribs 
nearly strait to the margin. It is sometimes put 
for nerved. 
Ric'tus. See gape. 
Rig'id, rig'idus. Stiff, inflexible, or not pliable; 

or if attempted to be bent, will rather break. 
Rimo'se, rimo'sus. Chinked, abounding in cracks, 

as the outer surface of the pitch-pine tree. 
Ring. The band around the capsules of ferns, 
which is elastic. See exanulatus. 

It is also the thin membrane attached to the 
stem of; a fungus. When young it is attached to 
the pileus. It is erect when the upper edge is not 
fastened— inverse when the lower edge is not fas- 
tened— sm?7e, when it is attached by one Bide 
only— moMe, when it may be pushed up and 
down— »erm*en«, when it is as durable as the 
pjleus— /ugaci'ous, when it disappears at the open- 
ing of the fungus. 
Rin'gent, rin'gens. See labiate. 
Ri'sino. See assurgens. 
Root. The descending part of a vegetable, wl 



RUN 159 

enters the earth, or other substance, in search of 
nourishment for the plant. Roots are annual, bi- 
ennial, or perennial. See ages. They are Branch- 
ing, Fibrous, Creeping, Spindle-form, Tuberous, 
Bulbous, or Granulated. See each term in its place, 

Root'ing. Bending or extending to the earth and 
striking root. 

Root'-leaf. See radical. 

Rootlet. A fibre of a root. 

Ro'ridus. Humid. Appearing as if covered with dew- 

Rosa'ceous. A corol formed of roundish spreading 
petals, without claws or with extremely short ones. 

Ros'eus. Rose-coloured. 

Ros'tel, rostel'lum. That pointed part, which tends 
downwards at the first germination of the seed. 
Soe corclc. 

Rostra'tus. Sec beaked. 

Ro'tate, rota'lus. See wheel-form. 

Rolun'dus. Round. Without angles. 

Rough. Covered with dots, which are harsh to the 
touch, but not apparent to the naked eye. See- 
rugged. 

Round. See rotundus. 

Ru'bra. Red. 

Ihtbigino'sus. Rust-coloured. 

Rudera'lis. Growing among rubbish about build 
ings, &c. 

Rug'ged. Covered with invisible dots, which arc 
harsh to the touch. See rough. 

Rugo'se. Wrinkled. Veins more contracted than 
the disk, so that the intermediate pyrenchyma 
rises up between them. 

Ru'fous. Reddish yellow. 

Run'cinate. Pinnatifid, with the divisions point 
ing backwards ; as the Dandelion. 

Rvn'ner. A shoot producing roots and leaves a' 



160 S A P 

the end only, and from that place giving rise to 
another plant. 
Rupet'lris. Growing naturally among rocks. 

s. 

Sa'bre-form. Sec acinaciform. 

Sac'cate. Furnished with a little bag. Bag-like. 
ittate, sagitta'lus. See arrow-form. 

Sal'sus. Salt-tasted. 

Sal'ver-form. A monopetalous eorol with a flat 
spreading limb proceeding from the top of a tube. 
ara. A winged pericarp not opening by valves ; 
as the Maple. 

Samaroi'd. Resembling a samara. 

Sap. The watery ilaid contained in the tubes, and 
cellules of vegetables, which furnishes the means, 
or is itself, the support of their growth and life, 
;:nd their preservation from decay. That part of 
:he sap which supplies materials for the growth, 
foliage and fructification, evidently ascends by 
way of the cumb. See camb. But that, which 
fills the insterstices among the woody fibres, and 
serves to preserve them from decay, is probably 
raised by capillary attraction. Freezing and 
thawing in some way or other suspends for a day 
or two the effect of capillary attraction. It then 
descends by its natural gravity ; at which season 
only can the sap be obtained from the sugar ma- 
ple. That it descends is evident from the fact, 
that no sap is obtained from below the incision, 
except a few drops at the first moment alter it is 
made. That the sap descends from the woody 
fibres and not from the camb appears from inspec- 
tion. That this sap serves only to preserve the 



S C A 16* 

wood appears from the rapid decay of the wood 
in the sugar maple directly above the incision 
to the whole extent of the bole ; while the in- 
cision produces but little effect below it. And 
the herbage of the tree with the outer layers 
of wood continue as flourishing after the tree has 
been drained of its sap annually for half a centu- 
ry, as its neighbours, which have never lost any 
sap. It may be observed further ; that sap can 
never be drawn from the same vessels above the 
incision where it has been drawn in any preced- 
ing year; unless a new incision be made several 
feet above the old one. Nor even then if the pre- 
ceding draining had been very considerable ; or, 
in other words, if the sugar-making season had 
been very favourable, and the incision large. 

Sapin'dus. Having some kind of taste. 

Sap'or. Having a relish, pleasant tasted, any taste. 
Colour sometimes indicates the taste. White 
berries are generally sweet; red, sour; blue, 
sweet and sour; black, insipid and poisonous. 
Willdenow. But certainly our spicy wintergreen 
(gaultheria,) partridge-berry (mitchella,) and 
whortleberries (vaccinium,) are exceptions to 
WilldenowV rules. 

Sarmento'se, sarmento'sus. A running shoot, which 
strikes root at the knots or joints only. Generally 
applied to shrubs. See runner. 

Sau'cer-form. Shaped like a common tea-saucer. 

Scab'er, sca'brous. See rough. 

Scabrit'ies. Roughness. 

Scal'lopped. See repand. 

Sca'ly. Covered more or less with scaly appen- 
dages, as Fern roots; or consisting of substances, 
in some measure resembling coarse fish-scales ; 
as the scales of Lily roots. 
J 14* 



162 SEE 

Scan dens. See climbing. 

Scape, scap'us. See peduncle. 

Sca'rious, scario'sus. Dry and membranous, ge- 
nerally transparent. 

Scat'tered. Standing without any regular order , 
that is, neither opposite, alternate, nor in any de- 
finable series. 

Schismatop'terides. Dehiscent ferns. One of 
the new orders of ferns. It is adopted by Pursh, 
Torrey, &c. Osmunda, Lygodium and Schizaea 
are placed here. 

Sci'on. Shoots proceeding laterally from the roots 
or bulb of a root. 

Sco'red. See sulcate. 

Scrobic'ulate, scrobicula'ius. Deep round pits on 
the receptacle gives it this name. 

Scutel'lce. See shields. 

Sculel'latus. See saucer-form. 

Scvm'itar-form. See acinaciform. 

Hcyph'ifer, ScypKus, Cup-bearing. See cyathiform. 

Sec'tion. The genera of some orders and the spe- 
cies of some genera are divided into sections. 
Sections judiciously constructed greatly facilitate 
the investigation of plants. But they often mis- 
lead ; and must be sometimes disregarded, and 
the whole order read over ; especially under those 
orders which are made up of natural families. 
See the orders siloquosa in the class Tetrady- 
namia of Linneus's system. 

Secun'dus. Turned to one side. One-sided, one- 
ranked. 

^eed. The matured part of fructification, destined 
for the reproduction of the species. It contains 
'he rudiment of a new plant and is analogous to 
'he egg of animals. It consists of the corcle., 
cotyledons, tegument and hilum ; which see. 



SEM 163 

Bee'd-bud. See germen. 

See'd-coat. See aril. 

See'd-leaves. The cotyledons expanded into 
leaves. 

See'd-lobes. See cotyledons. 

See'd-vessels. Sec pericarp. 

Seg'ment. The parts into which a calyx, corol, 
leaf, &c. is divided or cut. 

SEGREGA'TA polyga'mia. The 5th order of the 
class syngenesia. The florets are all perfect like 
those of the first order ; but it differs from that in 
having a partial perianth to each floret. In all 
other plants of this class, the florets are destitute 
of partial perianths. The elephant-foot (elephan- 
topus) is the only native of North America in thi> 
order. 

Se'jugus. Six -paired. 

Se'men The seed. 

Semiamplexicau'lis. Half clasping the stem. 

Semicolum'nar. See semiterete. 

Semicylindra'ceus. Half-cylindric. In form of a 
round ruler split lengthwise. 

Semiflos' cuius, semi-flo'ret. See ligulate. 

Semi-in'ferus. Half-inferior. When the calyx grows 
on the side of the germ, so that it is neither su- 
perior nor inferior. 

Semina'lis. See seed-leaves. 

Semina'tio. The sowing of seeds. 

Seminifera. Bearing the seed. 

Semiorbic'ular, semiorbicula'tus. In form of a half 
sphere. 

Semiquinquef'idus. Half 5-cleft. 

Semisagitta'tus. Half-arrowform. That is* one side 
wanting ; as in the vicia pusilla. 

Semisex'Jidus. Half 6-cleft. 

Sf.miter'ete, semiter'es. Half terete. See terete, 



164 SEX 

Semper 'vir ens. Living through the winter and re- 
taining the leaves. 

Se'nus. Six-fold. Growing in sixes. 

Serisilis, sen'sitive. Moving on being touched. 
See irritability. 

Sep'als. The divisions of a calyx. Raf. 

Septif'erous. Supporting partitions. 

Seria'tus. In a row, or in rows. 

Seric'eus. Silky. Covered with soft close-pressed 
hairs. 

Seroti'nus. Coming to maturity late in the season. 
Applied to willows, and to some other plants, it 
implies, that the time of flowering is after the 
leafing. 

Ser'pentine mar'gin. See repand. 

Serrate, serra'tus. (Serra, a saw.) Having sharp 
notches, appearing as if cut, about the edge or 
margin, pointing towards the apex. 

Ser'rulate, serrula'tus. When a serrate leaf has 
the teeth serrate again. It is also applied to any 
serratures, which arc very fine. 

Sesquial'ter. When a large fertile floret is accom- 
panied by a small abortive one. 

Ses'sile. Sitting down. When a leaf, flower, seed- 
down, pileus of a fungus, receptacle of a lichen, 
&c. are destitute of a petiole, peduncle, stipe, &c. 

Se'ta. A bristle. 

Seta'ceus. Bristle-form. 

Setig'erous. Bearing bristles. 

Selo'sus, seto'se. Bristly. Having the surface set 
with bristles, or stiff strait hairs. 

Sexangula'ris. Six-angled. 

Sex'Jidus. Six-cleft. 

Sexflo'rus. Six-flowered. 

Sex'jugus. Six-paired. 

Sexlocula'ris. Six-celled. 



SHI 165 

Sex'us, Sex. When Linneus first adopted the sta- 
mens and pistils as the organs of classification, he 
addressed his arguments to physicians, who were 
conversant with animal anatomy. He therefore 
took advantage of the analogy between animals 
and vegetables in the reproduction of their kind, 
in order to illustrate his theory. He called the 
stamens males, and the pistils females, &c. But 
nothing can be more ridiculous and disgusting 
than to keep up these references at this day. Dr. 
James Edward Smith, President of the Linnean 
Society at London, has totally discarded all sexual 
allusions. Under the word Clitoria, in Rees' Cy- 
clopedia, he has treated the subject with great se- 
verity. Dr. Bigelow, in his incomparable descrip- 
tion of the plants about Boston, as far as it goes, 
has no where defiled his work with a single allu- 
sion of the kind. 

Sexval'vus. Six-valved. 

Shaft. See style. 

Shag'gy. See hirsute. 

Sharp. Tapering to a point. Acute differs from 
sharp, as it may apply to the tip of a leaf, which 
becomes broad immediately back of the point. 

Sheath. The prolongation of a leaf down the 
stem, which it encloses ; as in most culmiferous 
plants. 

She'athed. Having a sheath. 

Shields, sculcl'lcc. That kind of receptacle of li- 
chens, which is open, orbicular, saucer-like. The 
underside and border are of the substance and co- 
lour of the frond. The disk is of a different co- 
lour and substance from the border and frond, con- 
taining the seeds in extremely minute vertical 
cells. The shields are thick and tumid, when they 
are sessile ; and membranous when stalked or 



166 S I L 

elevated. Very rarely they are perforated in the 
centre. Smith. 
Shi'ning. See lucidus. 

Shoot. Each tree and shrub sends forth annually 
a large shoot in the spring, called the spring 
shoot} and from the end of that a smaller one 
about the 24th of June, called St. John's shoot. 
There is always the appearance of a joint where 
the latter springs out, very perceptible alter the 
whole shoot is matured. 
Shriv'elling. See withering. 
Shrub. A vegetable with a woody stem. It is ge- 
nerally put for that kind of woody plant, whose 
stem divides into branches near the ground, with- 
out being elevated by a bole, like trees. Sec tree 
and suffrutex. 
Siihub'by. Having woody stems or branches. 
Sic'cus. Dry, neither humid nor succulent. 
Sick'le-form. A very much curved keel. 
Sil'icle, silic'ula. A little silique, whose length 

and breadth are nearly equal. 
SILICULO'SA. The name of the first order of the 
class letradynamia. It includes those plants 
which have a silicic, whose length is never twice 
that of its breadth. As the Shepherd's purse, 
Ilorse-raddish, Pepper-grass. 
Silique, sil'iqua. That kind of pod, which has a 
longitudinal partition with the seeds attached to 
both edges of it alternately. As the radish. 
Si'lique-form. Shaped like a silique without its 

essential character. 
SILIQUO'SA. The name of the second order of the 
class tetradynamia. It includes those plants, which 
have a silique, whose length is more than twice that 
of its breadth. As Mustard, Cabbage, Watercress. 
Siii'KY. See sericeus. 



S O M iG'. 

Sim'ple, sim'plex. Undivided. Single, opposed to 

compound, or aggregate. 
Simplicis'simus. Very simple. 
Sin'gle. Only one. Also opposed to full-flowered. 

Sinistrnr'sum. Twining from right to left, that is, 
contrary to the apparent motion of the sun ; as 
the pole-bean. 

Sin'uatk, sinua'tut. (Sinus, a bay.) Having round- 
ed incisions. The margin hollowed out, resemb- 
ling a bay; as the white-oak leaf. 

Sin'uate-ser'rate. Having serratures hollowed 
out ; as the Chesnut. 

Sin'us. A roundish incision into the edge of a leaf 
or other organ. 

Sit'ting. See sessile. 

Sii'us. Situation ; as opposite, alternate, &c. 

Sleek. See glabrous. 

Sleep of plants. The effect of night upon the 
external appearance of some plants ; as the leaves 
of Pease closing over the very young flowers. 

Slender. See tenuis. 

Smarag'dinus. Grass-green. 

Smooth. Sometimes put for glabrous, but not syno- 
nymous with it. For glabrous means sleek or slip- 
pery ; whereas smooth may be applied to fine 
chamois leather. 

Sobolif'erous. Bearing shoots. 4 

Sol id, sol'idits. Of an uniform substance, not na- 
turally partible ; as the turnip. See coated and 
scaly. 

Sol'itary, solita'rius. Standing alone, or very dis- 
tant from others of the same kind. 

Solu'tus. Disengaged. Not adnate. 

Somewhat. Used as a diminutive; implying in 
some degree, not fully. President Smith trans- 
lates sub, by somewhat, when combined with 



an adjective; as subtrifidus, somewhat three 
cleft. 

Som'nus plania'rum. See sleep of plants. 

Sor'dide albicans. Dirty white. 

So'rus and Sore'dia. See fr iit-dots. 

Spadi'ceus. Chesnut brown. 

Spa dix. An elongated receptacle proceeding from 
a spathe, or resembling such in texture and ap- 
pearance. 

Span'gles, patel'lula. Open and orbicular, like 
shields, but sessile, and not formed of any part of 
the crust, from which they differ in colour, being 
most usually black. The seeds are lodged be- 
neath the membrane that covers their disk, as in 
the former, and the disk is surrounded by a pro- 
per border. Their seeds are observed to be 
naked in the cellular substance of the disk, not 
enclosed in cases. Disk sometimes concave or 
flat, oftener convex, and even globose without 
any apparent border when in an advanced state. 

Spatha'meus. A span high, or a span long. 

Spa'the. That kind of calyx, which first encloses 
the flower and after it expands is left at a distance 
below it. As Daffodil, Onion, Indian Turnip. 

Spa'the-form. Resembling a spathe. 

Spat'ulate, spatula'tus, or spalhula'lus. Roundish 
and diminishing into a long, narrow, linear base. 

Spe'cies. The lowest division of vegetables. There 
have been about thirty thousand species described. 
In North America about four thousand species 
have been described ; of these about twenty-five 
hundred are found to the north and northeast of 
Virginia. About one thousand species have been 
examined by Professor Ives in a wild state, with- 
in five miles of Yale College. Very few places 
of the same extent will afford more than eight nun- 



S P I 16? 

elred, and few less than six hundred, in the North- 
ern States. Phelps gives a catalogue of thirteen 
hundred and forty species as a complete list of all 
the British plants. In all these calculations, re- 
lating to America and Great Britain, the crypto- 
gamous plants are left out. 

Specif'ic char'acter. See diagnosis and descrip- 
tions. 

Specif'ic name. In common use we apply this to 
what Linneus called the trivial name. The spe- 
cific name he calls all those several descriptive 
words, which express the essential difference, or 
diagnosis. 

The rage for changing specific names has be- 
come a great nuisance to the science. Richard 
proposes the establishment of a literary tribunal, 
having authority to fix the names in every depart- 
ment of science for the whole globe ; in order to 
check the growth of this child of vanity and ig- 
norance. 

Spha'celate. Withering, becoming blackened. 

Spiiagno'se. Wet, mossy, swampy. 

Spi'culus. See spikelet. 

Spike, spi'ca. Having florets arranged along the 
sides of a general elongated peduncle or recepta- 
cle, without partial peduncles or with extremely 
short ones. As a Wheat-head, or Mullein. 

Spi'kelet, spi'cula. One of the subdivisions of a 
spike. 

Spin'dle-porm. See fusiform. 

Spine, spi'na. See thorn. 

Spines'cent, spines'cens. Becoming thorny. 

Spino'se, spino'sus. Thorny. 

Spi'ral, spiralis. Twisted like a screw. 

Spit-poin'ted. Barton substitutes this for cuspi- 
dal. 

15 



170 b PU 

Spilh'ama. Short span. See measures. 

Spongio'sus. Spongy. 

Spor'ce. The seeds of lichens. 

Sporati gium. A name given to the pericarp by 
Hedwig. 

Sporangia 1 ' ium. Willdenow's name for the columel- 
la of mosses. See columella. 

Stot'ted. Having spots differing in colour from 
the principal part. 

Spreading. See patens. 

Spur. An elongated process from the base, or from 
near the base of the calyx or corol or nectary, 
somewhat resembling a horn or cock's spur. As 
the Larkspur, Orchis and Nasturtion. 

Spur'red. Having a spur. 

Spur'red-ry'e, or spur'red gra'in. An enlarged, 
elongated seed, projecting out of a glume, of a 
black or violet colour, brittle texture, somewhat 
spur-form. It is that morbid swelling of the seed, 
called Ergot by the French. The black or dark 
coloured kind is called the Malignant ergot. 
" Large doses of which cause head-ache and fe- 
brile symptoms. Under proper regulations it may 
be considered a valuable addition to the present 
stock of medicinal agents. The dose usually ad- 
ministered is from ten grains to half a drachm, in 
decoction." Bigelow. The pale violet kind, 
called simple ergot, is harmless and inactive. 
Willdenow. 

Grain growing in low moist ground, or new 
land is most subject to it. Also spring grain 
more than winter grain ; and rye more than wheat, 
barley or oats. 

When crops are so much infected with it a» 
greatly to injure them, the loss may be in a grea: 
.•neasure made up by collecting the ergot, and sell 



S T E 171 

mg it to druggists. It should be thoroughly win- 
nowed out of the grain, as it is said to be very in- 
jurious in bread. The ergot may then be collect- 
ed from the chaff. 

Squamulo'se, squumo'sus, or squama' tus. See scaly. 

Squarro'se, squarro'sus. Ragged. When the points 
of scales, &c. bend outwards, so as to make a 
ragged appearance. It is also used for scurfy, or 
when covered with a bran like scurf. 

Stachyop'terides. Spiked ferns. One of the 
new order of Ferns. It is adopted by Pursh, 
Torrcy, &c. Lycopodium, Botrychium, Bern- 
hardt and Ophioglossum are placed here. 

Stalk. See stem. 

Stamen. The part of the fructification next to the 
central organ. It consists of a knob of one or 
more cells containing pollen. It is either elevat- 
ed on a filament ; or sessile upon the germ, style, 
stigma, receptacle, calyx or corol. 

Stam'inate. Having stamens only, without a pis- 
til ; consequently barren. As the flowers in the 
tassels of Indian-corn. 

Stamin'eus. Having no corol, the stamens serving 
in its stead. Ray. 

Stammif'erus. See staminate. 

Stan'dard. See banner. 

Stel'late, stella'lus. Spreading out in a radiate 
manner. Leaves are stellate, when three or more 
surround the stem in a whorl. Flowers and the 
volva of a fungus are stellate, when the petals or 
segments spread out, so as to resemble the vulgar 
representation of a 'star. 

Stem. The main base or supporter of the fructifi- 
cation and herbage. It is either Tidge, Culm, 
Scape, Peduncle, Petiole, Frond, or Stipe ; which 
see. 



172 S T R 

Stem-clas'ping. See clasping. 

Stem'-leaf. Inserted on the stem: Sec caulinc 

Stem'less. Having no stem. 

Ster' iLv,ster'ilis. Barren flower. Staminate flower 

Stiff. See rigid. 

Stig'ma. The top of the pistil. It is generally 
moist when in full perfection, for the better recep- 
tion of the pollen. See pollen. Some care is 
required in numbering sessile stigmas. No more 
must be numbered, than can be found quite dis- 
tinct on the germ. 

Stings, etim'utu Hair-like processes, which excite 
itching punctures ; as on the Nettle. They arc 
generally hollow with a sack at the base, contain- 
ing an acrid liquor. By pushing against their 
points, the sacks are compressed, and thrust out 
the liquid. 

Stipe, sii'pes. The lower part of the midrib of a 
fern ; the stem of a fungus ; or the stem of the 
down on the seeds of Dandelion ; the stem of a 
germ elevating it above the receptacle; or any 
other stem-like organ, not otherwise particularly 
named. 

Stip'itate, sti'ped, stipita'lus. Having a stipe. 

Stip'ule, stip'ula. A leafet or scale at or near the 
base of a petiole, which in some respect differs 
from the leaves. 

Stip'uear, slipula'ris. Formed of, or connected with, 
stipules. 

Stip'uled, itipula'lus, or stipula'ceow. Having sti- 
pules. 

Hiol'o. See sucker. 

Stolonif'erus. Putting forth suckers. 

Strad'dlixg. See divaricate. 

Straight, or strait. In nearly aright line. 



STY 173 

Stra'itish. A little curving, but not sufficiently to 
take the appellation of curved. 

Stramin'eus. Straw-coloured ; straw-like. 

Strap'-form. See ligulate. 

Stra'tum prolig'erum. The seed-bearing disk of the 
receptacles of lichens. 

Stri'ate, stre'aked, stria'tus. Marked or grooved 
with slender lines. 

Stric'tus. Both stiff and strait, or perfectly strait, 
See erect. 

Strictis'simus. Very stiff and strait. 

Strigo'se, strigo'sus. Armed with small, close, 
rigid bristles, which are thickest below. Willde- 
now. 

Strobila'ceus. In form resembling a strobile. 

Stro'bile, strob'ilus. An ament with woody scales ; 
as the fruit of pine. 

Strobilifor'mis. See strobilaceus. 

Style, stylus. (Stulos, a column.) That part of a 
pistil, which is between the germ and stigma. It 
is often wanting ; as in the Tulip. 

There is frequently a difference in opinion 
among authors in fixing the orders of some plants, 
on account of their numbering the styles differ- 
ently. As in the Mountain rice (Oryzopsis.) 
Richard made it the first order, because the 
two styles seemed to unite a little above the 
germ. But Muhlenberg makes it the second or- 
der, because they are at least separable, if not 
always separate in perfect maturity. It grows in 
abundance about New-Haven, with styles per- 
fectly separate in all stages. From this example 
the student will perceive the importance of look- 
ing through all the orders, where his plant can 
possibly be found, before he determines in diffi- 
cult cases. 

15* 



174 SUP 

Sty'loid. Resembling a style. 

Sua'vis. Sweet, agreeable. 

Sub. Used in combination as a diminutive. See- 
somewhat. 

Subero'se, subero'sus. Corky. 

Submer'sed, subiner'sus. Growing under water. 

Subterra'neus. Growing and flowering under ground. 
This may be applied to the shoots of the Polygala 
rubella. 

Sub'tus. Beneath. 

Sub'ulate, subula'tus. See awl-form. 

Subunijlo'rus. Generally one flowered, but some- 
times more. 

Succulen'tus, suc'culent. Juicy, abounding in juice. 
It is also applied to a pulpy leaf, whether juicy 
or not. 

Suc'cus. See sap. 

Suc'ker. A shoot from the root, by which the 
plant may be propagated. 

^uffru'ticose, suff'rutex. An under-shrub. A 
plant whose branches annually die, but the lower 
part of the stem is woody and remains ; as the 
Spireaalba, white steeple-bush ; also Sage. 

Suffrutico'sus. Undershrubby. 

Sul'cate, sulca'tus. Furrowed*. Marked with deep 
lines. 

Sulphnr'eus. Sulphur- coloured. 

Sup'erans. Exceeding in height. 

Superax'illary. Above the axil. 

Superdecompound'. See supradecompositus. 

Superfic'ies. See pagina. 

SUPER'FLUA polyga'mia. The second order of 
the class syngenesia. The florets of the disk are 
perfect, of the ray pistillate. As Life-everlas- 
ting, Wormwood, Tansey, Elecampane, Yarrow, 
Mayweed. 



S Y N 

Super'ne. Upwards, towards the top. 

Supe'rior, sup'erus. A calyx or corol is superior 
when it proceeds from the upper part of the germ. 
See germ. 

Supi'nus. Face upwards. See resupinus. 

Suppo'rt. See fulcrum. 

Supra-axilla'ris. See suprafoliaceus. 

Supradecompos'itus. More than decompound ; which 
see. When a petiole is divided and the divisions 
divided at Feast once more, and the last divisions 
have leafets. 

Suprafolia'ceus. Inserted above the axil, or base 
of the leaf. 

Sur'culus. A little branch or twig. Applied to the 
stem or shoot which bears the leaves of mosses. 

Su'ture, sutu'ra. A seam-like appearance at the 
meeting of two parts; as the valves of pea-pod, 

Swim'ming. See natant. 

Sword'-form. See ensiform. 

Sylvat'icus. Growing in woods. 

Sylves'tris. Altogether wild ; growing in wild 
woods. 

SYNGENE'SFA. (Sun, together; genesis, spring- 
ing up.) Anthers growing up together in an unit- 
ed tubular set. The name of the eighteenth class, 
if polyadelphia be rejected, or the nineteenth as 
established by Linneus. It comprises all those 
plants, whose flowers are compound, having the 
anthers in each floret with more or less of their 
edges adnate ; so that the whole (which are always 
5) form a tube. Formerly the union of the an- 
thers was the only circumstance noticed in defin- 
ing this class ; which brought the violet, the car- 
dinal flower, &c. into it. But now the flower be- 
ing compound is taken into consideration ; which 
makes a perfectly natural class, The order mo- 



176 SYS 

nogamia, which was allotted to the simple tlowers ; 
is of course rejected. The present orders are 
Polygamia cequalis, superjlua, frustranea, necessa- 
ria and segregata; which see. 

Syno'nyms, synon'yma. Different names for the 
same plant. A list of synonyms has now become 
essential to every publication, containing descrip- 
tions of plants ; on account of the vast multipli- 
cation of names. This is ascribable to two 
causes. 1. A Botanist with but little knowledge 
of plants, falls in with a plant which he cannot 
find out ; though it is familiar to practical Bota- 
nists. He immediately gives it a name, and puffs 
himself into the face of the public as the disco- 
verer. 2. Vanity is often a quality of the indo- 
lent. And we find many vain men, who, feeling 
a strong uesire to be cited as the authors of some- 
thing, sit down at home, and split up and new- 
name genera and species ; which they at length 
crowd into books to the great injury of the 
science. 

Svnop'sis. A condensed systematic view of a sub- 
ject, or science. 

Sys'tem, syste'ma. An arrangement of natural bo- 
dies according to assumed characters •, for the 
purpose of aiding the mind and memory in ac- 
quiring and retaining a knowledge of them. Sys- 
tems have been proposed in abundance. And we 
are still infested with system-makers and reform- 
ers, which are among the greatest evils incident to 
Natural Science. Any man of ordinary talents 
may make a tolerable system in half a day ; that 
is, sixty systems per month. But why not adhere 
to that which is universally known and establish- 
ed? There may be improvements in the Linnean 
system. But let them be adopted with caution, 



TEM 177 

and on the authority of the oldest and most expe- 
rienced botanists. 



T. 



Tania'nus. Ribbon-form. 

Tail. A filiform process terminating a seed, &c> 
As the Virgin's bower. 

Tale'a. Sucker. 

Ta'pering. See attenuatus. 

Targets,/^/'***?. That kind of receptacle of lichens 
which is flat, close-pressed, and attached to the 
frond by its whole underside, as if glued ; some- 
times attached to the bark of the frond. It is 
broad, kidney-form, or oblong, rarely irregular ; 
covered with a thru coloured disk, with no border 
except occasionally a very minute accessory one, 
which seems to circumscribe it. In an early 
stage it is concave, and concealed by a thin gela- 
tinous fugacious membrane, or veil. Smith. 

Tar'oet-form. See peltate. 

Taste. See sapor. 

Ttc'tus. Covered. 

Teeth of mosses. The outer fringe of the peristo- 
mium is generally in 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 divisions, 
which are called teeth. See peristomium. 
Teg'ens. Covering. 
Teg'ument. The skin or bark of seeds ; as appears 

very distinct on a boiled pea or bean. 
Tem'perature. The degree of heat and cold to 
which any place is subject. This is not limited 
to degree of latitude; as high mountain 1 * in 
Pennsylvania produce many plants, most natural 
about Hudson's bay. In cold regions white and. 



178 TER 

blue petals principally prevail ; in warm region-' 
red and other bright strong colours. 

In the spring season white petali predominate; 
towards autumn the yellow arc most prevalent. 
Willdenow. 

Tendril. That kind of appendage, which is fili- 
form and reaches out to grasp bodies to climb by. 
As the climbers of grapes and pease. 

Tenel'lus. Tender, delicate and fragile. 

Tenuifol'ius. Slender-leaved. 

Ten'uis. Thin and slender. 

Ter'es. See terete. 

Ter'ete. Round, columnar, and tapering from the 
base to the other end. 

Teretius' cuius. Somewhat terete. 

Tergem'inus, tfrgkm'inate. Thrice-paired. The 
petiole is forked, these branches forked, and the 
last branches with paired leafets. 

Terminal, termina'lis. Proceeding from or occu- 
pying the end of a stem, branch, style, &c. 

Terminations. In expressing resemblance it 
would greatly lengthen descriptions to introduce 
words drawing full-length comparisons. As a 
leaf resembling the form of an arrow. To avoid 
this, terminations united to the substantive word 
by a hyphen have been used ; as arrow-shape, 
or arrow-form, i prefer the termination form. 
making the whole a compound adjective noun. 
There are cases where like becomes a convenient 
termination ; as petal- like stigma in the Iris. 
Here form or shaped would be inadequate ; as its 
resemblance consists rather in texture and gene- 
ral appearance, than in shape. 

Ter'nate. Three-fold. In threes. This term is 
also applied to compound leaves, where 3 leafets 
proceed from the end of one petiole ; as in the 
Strawberry. See biternate and triternate. 



T E T 179 

Terra'neus. Appertaining to the earth. 

Ter'reus. Earth-coloured. 

Tes'selate, tcssela'tus. Chequered. 

Te'ter. Having a disagreeable smell. 

TETU ADYNAMIA. (Tessares, four; dunomis, 
power.) Four stamens overpowering, or over- 
topping the other two. The name of the fifteenth 
class ; including all plants whose flowers contain 
six stamens, four of which are uniformly longer 
than the other two. The corols of this class are 
always cruciform. This class is divided into two 
orders, siliculosa, and siliquosa ; which see. 

Tetradyn'amous. Belonging to the class tetrady- 
namia, or varying into it. 

Telrago'mts. Four-cornered. 

TETRAGYNUL (Tessares, (our ; gune, female.) 
Four-styled. The fourth order of each of the 
first thirteen classes. It contains all the plants of 
those classes, whose flowers have four styles or 
four sessile stigmas. As Holly (ilex,) Pearlwort 
(sagina,) Pondweed (potamogeton,) in the class 
Ulrandria. Parnassus grass in the class pentan- 
dria. Lizardtail (saururus) in the class heptan- 
dria . 

TETRANDR1A. (Tessares, four; aner, male.) 
Four-stamened. The name of the fourth class. 
It comprises all plants with perfect flowers, hav- 
ing 4 stamens in each ; which are not united nor 
regularly two long and two short. 

Tetran'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class telrandria. 

Tetrapet'alous. Four petalled. 

Tetraphyllus. Calyx with 4 leafets. 

Tttrapteryg'ia. See wings. 

Tetrasper'mus. Having 4 seeds to a flower 



106 TOR 

Tetret'dra. A 4-sided pod. 

Thalam'ia. See hollows. 

T/u'ca. The hidden capsules of mosses. 

The'cie. The frond, or whole herbage of lichens* 
The cases or cells containing the seeds in the disk 
of scutella? and some other receptacles of lichens. 

Thorn, or spine. A sharp process from the woody 
part of a plant. It is an indurated imperfect bud, 
which, when the plant grows in a rich soil, 
changes to a branch. Pears bear thorns in a poor 
soil, which disappear in richer. Willdenow. 

Thkead'-form. See filiform. 

Three'- fold. See ternate. 

Thrice-pin'nate. See tripinnate. 

Thrice-pinnat'ifid. See tripinnatifid. 

Throat. See faux. 

Tliynioi'des. Flowers disposed in the form of a 
nosegay. 

Thyrse, thyr'sus. See panicle. 

Tidge, or tige. See caulis. 

Tincto'rius. Plants suitable for dyeing or pigments. 

Tomento'se, tomenlo'sus. Covered with fine downy 
or cottony substance matted together. See la- 
nate. 

Tong'ue-form. See linguiform. 

Tooth'ed. See dentate. 

Tooth'letted. See denticulate. 

Top'-form. See turbinate. 

Torn. See lacerated. 

Toro'se, toro'sus. Protuberant. Raised in bunches 

or vein-like protuberances or ridges. 
Tor'sio. See intorsion. 
Tor'tilis. See coiled. 

Torulo'se, torulo'sus. With swelling ridges, like 
the muskmelon. 






T R I 181 

f'rac'hece. The air-vessels of Grew. They are 
spiral channels supposed by Grew to be designed 
for receiving and distributing air in the vegetable. 

Tra'iling. See procumbent. 

Transld'cent. Transmitting light faintly. 

Transverse, transver'sus. Crosswise. It is ap- 
plied to a partition when it meets the valves of a 
pericarp in any other part than at the sutures. 

Trapezifor'mis. Having four unequal sides. 

Tree, (arbor.) A large woody plant. The word 
large is very indefinite ; but the distinction be- 
tween tree and shrub is very difficult to express. 
Perhaps large and small, interpreted according to 
the rules relating to parts under Relative propor- 
tions, will serve to distinguish trees and shrubs as 
well as an elaborate definition. These terms are 
not used in specific descriptions. See shrub and 
suffrutex. 

TRIAN'DRIA. (Tm, thrice ; aner, male.) Three- 
stamened. The name of the third class. It in- 
cludes all plants whose flowers are perfect, with 
three stamens in each, not growing to the pistil. 
This class includes most of the grasses. 

Trian'drous. Belonging to, or varying into, the 
class triandria. 

Trian'gular, triangularis. Having 3 angles or 
corners. It is applied to a leaf with 3 points or 
corners. 

Tribes, trib'us. See gentes and cotyledon. 

Tribrac'teate. Having three bracts. 

Tri'cx. See buttons. 

Trichot' omus . Three-forked. See forked. 

Tricoc'cus. A 3-seeded capsule ; or rather 3-grain- 
ed. It is applied to capsules, which appear as 
if three, of one cell and one seed each, were 
grown together. 

16 



182 T R 1 

Tricuspida'tus, Three pointed. Sec cuspidalt 

Triden'tate. Three- toothed. 

Trid'uus. Enduring 3 days. 

Trifa'rius. Facing 3 ways. 

Trif'idus. Three-cleft. See cleft. 

Triflo'rus. Three- flowered. 

Trifolia'tus. Three-leaved. 

Triglo'chis. Three-barbed. See barb. 

Trigo'nus. Three-cornered. See triangular. 

TRIGYN'IA. (Tris, thrice ; gwie, female.) Three- 
styled. The name of the third order in each of 
the first thirteen classes ; comprising all the 
plants in those orders, whose flowers contain 3 
styles or three sessile stigmas in each. As Carpet- 
weed (mollugo) in the 3d, Alder in the 5th, Dock 
in the 6th, Buckwheat in the 7th, Rhubarb in the 
3th, Sandwort in the 10th, Spurge in the 11th, 
classes. 

Trij'ugus. Three-paired. 

Triloba'ceous, tril'obus. Three-lobed. See lobed. 

Triloc'ular, Irilocula'ris. Three-celled. 

Triner'vis. Three-nerved. See nerved. 

Tri'nus. Leaves in threes. 

Triparti'tus. Deeply divided into three parts. 

Tripet'alus. Three-petalled. 

Triphyl'lus. Three leafets to a calyx. 

Tripin'nate, tripinna'tus. Having the petiole pin- 
nated with other petioles ; and this second range 
of petioles supporting a third range with leafets. 

Tripinnat'ifid, tripinnatif'idus. A pinnatifid leaf, 
with the divisions pinnatifid, and those latter di- 
visions pinnatifid again. See pinnatifid and bi 
pinnatifid. 

Tripliner'vis. See trinervis. 

Triply-compound. See Supradecompositus. 

Trip'teris. Three-winged. 



TUB 183 

Trique'trous, trique'ter. Three-sided. 

Trisper'ma. Three-seeded. 

Tris'tis. Dull-coloured, melancholy. 

Triter'nate, triterna'tus. When a petiole is divid- 
ed into three branches ; and the branches again 
divided, each in three parts ; and on each of the 
last divisions three leafets. See biternate. 

Trival'vis. A pericarp with 3 valves. 

Trivascula'ris. Having three cup-form cells. 

Triv'ial name, trivia'lia no'mina. The name of a 
species, not including the descriptive terms. 
President Smith says, trivial name is now super- 
fluous ; as specific name is no longer used for the 
descriptive terms. See specific name. 

Trun'cate, trunca'tus. The end appearing as if 
cut off. Terminating in a strait edge, either per- 
pendicularly or obliquely transverse. 

Trunk, trun'cus. The bole of a tree. See bole. 
It is also applied to the stem of plants not woody ; 
and sometimes to the caudex of a root. 

Tube. The lower hollow cylinder of a monopeta- 
lous corol. 

Tu'bercles, tuber'cula. That kind of receptacle 
of lichens, which is spherical or slightly conic, 
nearly closed, crustaceous, black ; more or less 
immersed in the surface of the crustaceous frond, 
which it elevates ; or sometimes it is exposed, 
being merely sessile. Each contains a ball, or 
mass, of connected seeds, destitute of cells, en- 
veloped in a common membrane. The whole 
mass of seeds is at length discharged together 
by an orifice at the top of the tubercle. We 
often find these tubercles after the seeds are dis- 
charged. 

Tuber'culate, tuber'cula. See tubercles. This 



184 V A G 

word is sometimes applied to rough points on 
leaves, &c. 

Tu'berous, ttibero'sus. Roots, which are thick and 
fleshy, but not of any regularly globular form. 
They are knobbed, as potatoe ; oval as Orchis and 
some Anemones ; Abrupt, as the Bird-foot voilet ; 
Fascicled, as the Asparagus. 

Tu'bular, tubula'tus. Having a tube, or being rn 
the form of a tube. 

Tu'bulous, tubulo'se, iubulo'sus. That corol of a 
compound flower, which forms a whole tube, not 
a ligulate floret. It is also applied to a perianth, 
if the whole or the lower part is a hollow cylin- 
der. 

Tuft'ed. See fascicle. 

Tu'nicate. See coated. 

Tur'binate, turbina'tus. Top-form. A cone with 
the point downwards. 

Tur'gid, tur'gidus. Thickened, swollen, but not 
inflated. 

Tu'rion, ta'rio. See gemmation. 

Twin. Two connected or growing together. 

Twi'ning. Ascending spirally. Sea dextrorsum 
and sinistrorsum. 

Twis'ted. See coiled. 

Two-rank'ed, or two-row'ed. See distichus. 

V. 

Vagi'na. Sheath. That prolongation of a leaf, 
which forms a cylinder around the stem. See 
sheath. 

l/alva'lus. Resembling the valves of a glume* 

yagi'nam. Sheathing. 



V E G 185 

Vagina'lus, Sheathed. 

Valve, val'va. The several pieces of a pericarp, 
which separate naturally on ripening, are called 
valves. Also the leaves, or chaffs, of a glume. 
Each piece is called a valve. This name is 
sometimes applied to the scales, which close the 
tube in some corols. 

Val'velet, val'vula. Little valve. 

Variega'tus. Variously coloured. 

Vari'ety, vari'etas. The changes produced among 
plants of the same species by accidental causes ; 
as by soil, situation, culture, climate, &c. These 
changes respect magnitude, fulness of flowers, 
crisping of leaves, colour, taste and smell. If the 
same kind of plant can possibly be produced from 
the seed of other kinds-, these are but varieties of 
the same species. All apples are but varieties of 
the same species ; because if the seeds of a sour 
apple be planted, they will produce trees bearing 
sour, sweet, tart, red, green, large and small ap- 
ples promiscuously. But the Quince is a differ- 
ent species; because it cannot possibly be pro- 
duced from apple seeds. 

Va'sa, vessels. The sap-vessels of vegetables 
have formed the subject of much inquiry and dis- 
cussion. The best summary of the various theo- 
ries may be found in Smith's Elements : beginning 
at the 43d page. See sap and camb. By cutting 
very thin transverse segments of aquatic plants 
and holding them to the light, considerable prac- 
tical knowledge may be obtained on this subject. 

Vaul'ted. Arched over like the roof of the mouth ; 
as the upper lip of some labiate corols. 

Veg'etable. An organized substance, whose pro- 
creative organs decay before the individual diest 
As in the pea ; the stamens and pistils decay be- 
16* 



10b V E G 

fore the rest of the plant. It is divided into the 
fructification, root and herbage. See natural his- 
tory. 

Vegetable king'dom. This is the name Lin- 
neus gives to all the subjects of the science ot 
botany. See natural history. 

Vegetable substance. The elementary principles 
of vegetables are principally carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen ; some contain nitrogen. 

The proximate principles are very complicated. 
1. Gum is a mucillaginous substance ; as Cherry 
gum, Arabic gum, &c. Most gums are softening 
and sheathing to the stomach, but not very active. 
Professor Silliman found the gum of sassafras 
(laurus sassafras) the most effectual remedy for 
his eyes, after they had been greatly injured by 
the explosion of fulminating silver. 2. Resin, is 
found in most pines. In a more refined and vo- 
latile state it becomes the true balsam ; but the 
substance usually called balsam is a coarse mix- 
ture of resin and volatile oil. Resin and gum 
combined was the substance burned, when/rank- 
' incence offerings were made by the Jews. 3. 
Starch, is the most nutritious part of vegetables. 
The Potatoe consists almost entirely of starch 
crystals. The starch should be washed out of 
flour in making paste ; which can be done best 
after the paste is raised by a little yeast. It 
rhen leaves the gluten almost pure, and very 
strongly adhesive. [Extract from MS. notes ta- 
ken at Professor Silliman's lectures in March, 
1816.] 

Incipient germination seems to increase the 
proportion of gluten and diminish that of the 
starch. For flour made of grain, which had be- 



V I G 187 

gan to sprout in the field during a wet harvest, is 
very adhesive, when manufactured into dough. 

Veil. See calyptra. 

Vtl'lus. Fleecy, or a fleece. This term is also 
applied to that kind of clouds which float swiftly 
about the sky, without any strait side, and re- 
semble an open fleece of wool. See cirrous and 
natural history. 

Vein'ed, veno'se, veno'sus. A leaf with the ribs or 
tendinous fibres variously branched. 

Ventrico'se, venlrico'sus. Swelling out as if blown, 
up with wind. Or rather bellied out. See in- 
flated. 

Ventriculo'sus. A little ventricose. 

Verna'lis. Coming forth early in the spring. 

Verna'tion, verna'lio. See foliation. 

Verru'ccb. Variously formed protuberances, solid 
and usually smooth, on the crust of some lichens. 
Sometimes the receptacles grow on them. 

Verruco'se, verrucosus. Warty. Having little 
warty knob-like substances on the surface. 

Versatile, versa'tilis. Lymg horizontally and 
moving freely on a point. Particularly applied 
to anthers lying on the point of the filament. 

Ver'tex. The summit. 

Ver'tical, vertica'lis. Standing or hanging up and 
down at right angles with the horizon ; or paral- 
lel to the stem. 

Verticilla'tus. See whorled. 

Vesic'ular, vesicula'ris. Containing, or consisting 
of, a cellular substance. 

Ves'sels. See vasa. 

Vexil'lum. See banner. 

Vigil'ix planta'rum. The determined hours of the 
day, when certain plants expand and shut their 
flowers. See sleep. 



183 (JMB 

Villo'se, villo'sus. Having a superficial covering, 
of long soft whitish hairs. The calyplra of some 
mosses consists wholly of a mat of hairs. 

Villus, Fine soft hairs. 

Vi'men. A withe. A twig which is slender and 
flexible. 

Viola' ceous. Violet coloured. 

Vires'cens. Inclining to green. 

Vir'gate, virga'tus. Wand-like. Slender rod. 

Vir'idis. Green. 

Virgul'tum. Small twig. 

Viro'sus. Nauseous disgusting smell. 

Viscid, vis'cidus. Covered superficially with a te- 
nacious juice. 

Viscid'ity, visco'sitas. Clamminess. Possessing 
an adhesive quality. 

Vitel'linus. Yellow with a tinge of red. 

Vitel'lus. A thin substance in the seeds of some plants, 
closely connected with the embryo, but never ris- 
ing out of the ground with it in germination, his 
never in plants with genuine ascending cotyle- 
dons; and perhaps it may serve to perform the 
functions of cotyledons. It is between the albumen 
and embryo, when albumen is present. It com- 
poses the bulk of the seeds of mosses and ferns. 
Smith. 

Vit'reus. Glassy, colourless. See hyaline. 

Viviparous. Producing its offspring alive, either 
bj bulbs instead of seeds or by seeds germinat- 
ing on the plant. 

Uligino'sus. Growing in damp places. 

Ulna. Arm's length. 

Umbel, umbel'la. That kind of inflorescence, where 
several flower-stems diverge from one place, like 
the braces of an umbrella ; bearing florets on their 



UNI 189 

extremities. If these flower-stems are subdivid- 
ed, a partial umbel is formed. 

Umbelliferous. Bearing umbels ; as Carrot, Dill, 
Fennel. 

Um'bellet, umbel'lula. A partial or lesser umbel. 

Umbil'icus. A navel. 

Umbil'icate, umbilica'tus. Navelled. Having a 
kind of central roundish hollow or protuberance ; 
as on the end of an apple, or of a pompion. 

Umbona'lus. See bossed. 

Unangula'lus. One-angled. 

Unarm'ed. Having no thorns nor prickles. 

Uncia'lis. As long as the thumb-nail. 

Un'oinate, uncina'tus. Hooked at the end. See 
hamus. 

Unctuo'sus. Greasy, unctuous. 

Un'dulate, undula'tus or unda'tus. Wavy. Ris- 
ing and falling, or extending and receding in 
waves. 

Un'dershrub. See suffrutex. 

Undivided. See indivisus. 

Une'qual. The parts not corresponding in size, 
form and duration. 

Unguic'ulate, unguicula'tus. A petal with a claw. 

Un'guis. A claw, which see. 

Un'gulate, ungula'lus. In the form of a horse's 
hoof; as the common touch- wood, (boleteus ig- 
niarius.) 

Unicapsula'ris. Having one capsule to each flower. 

U'nicus. Single. Only one. 

Unifio'rus. One- flowered. 

Unifor'mis, All parts alike, or corresponding. 

Unilabia'tus. One-lipped. 

Unilateral, unilatera'lis. See one-sided. 

Unilocula'ris. One-celled. 

Uniner'vial. One-nerved. 



190 VV II O 

Unisex'us. Either staminate or pistillate, not per- 
fect. 

thival'vxs. One-valved. 

Univascula'ris. Having one cup-form cell. 

Univer'sal, universalis. See partial. 

Vol'va. The ring or wrapper of some fungous 
plants, which contracts in size as the plant grows 
older; as the mushroom. VVilldenow calls that 
the volva only, wuich encloses the fungus in the 
young state, and remains close upon the ground 
ever after. The ring around the stem above, he 
calls annulus. See ring. 

Volu'bilis. See twining. 

Upri'ght. See erect. 

Urceola'te, urceola'tus. Bellying out like a 
pitcher, and not contracting much at top. 

U'rens. Stinging, armed with stings. 

Urn'-form. Swelling in the middle and contract- 
ing at the top ; as the calyx of the Rose. 

Ustila'go. Smut in grain. 

U'tricles. The little bag-like reservoirs for sap. 

Utric'ulus. A little bladder. 

Utrin'que acu'lus. Sharpening at both ends. 

glab'er villo'sus, &c. sleek, downy, &c. both 

sides. 



w. 

Wand-like. Sec virgatus. 
Wa'ved, or wa'vy. See undulate. 
Wedge-form. Obovate with straitish sides. 
Wheel'- form. A monopetalous corol with a 

spreading border and an extremely short tube. 
Whorl'ed. Surrounding the stem in numbers at 



Z I G 191 

intervals ; as the leaves of Bedstraw, and the 

flowers of Motherwort. 
Wings. The two side petals in a papilionaceous 

corol. 

It is also applied to the membranes affixed to 

seeds or pericarps. Monopterygia, 1 -winged. 

Dipterygia, 2-winged. Trypterygia, 3-winged. 

Tetrapterygia, 4-winged. Pentapterygia, 5-wing- 

ed. Polypterygia, many- winged. 
Withe. See Vimen. 
Withering. Having a shrivelled and decaying 

appearance, though not actually in a state of de- 
cay ; as the flowers of elm, (ulmus.) 
Wood. The most solid part of trunks and roots of 

trees and shrubs. It is also applied to the part of 

herbaceous plants between the bark and pith. 
Wood't. Not herbaceous. 
Wool'ly. See lanate. 
Wrink'led. See rugose. 
Wri thed. See coiled. 

z. 

Zigzag. See flexuose. 



Wz~ 

70 



c » 



n