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Bethesda, Maryland 

J / 















Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852. by 


Id the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts 

O. A. U.VORD, I'ltlNTlH, 

No. ft Van dewater Street, \ \ 


In presenting this work to the public, the author 
would indulge in a few prefatory suggestions. 

Education, to be complete, must be not only moral 
and intellectual, but physical. As the culture of the 
mind and of the affections is the subject of systematic 
attention in early life, should not the education of the 
physical powers be commenced as early ? It will 
demand no more maturity and thought to understand 
the reasons for adequate clothing, bathing, the neces- 
sity of an erect position in standing and sitting, regu- 
larity in taking food, the supply of pure air to the 
lungs, &c. than to comprehend geographical details 
or moral truths. Is not a knowledge of the laws upon 
which health depends, as important to the develop- 
ment of a vigorous physical constitution, as moral 
instruction is to the formation of correct moral prin- 
ciples ? Can any reason be given why both should 
not be taught in the school-room? 

A child should be taught to call each organ by its 
correct name. No more effort is required to learn the 
meaning of a proper, than an improper term. For 
example : a child will pronounce the word as readily, 
and obtain as correct an idea, if you say lungs, as 
if you used the word lights. 

In preparing this work, it has not been deemed 
necessary to use low, vulgar terms, for the purpose of 
being understood ; but such words have been selected 


as good usage sanctions. Should the pupil meet with 
any word he does not understand, let him consult his 
dictionary, as he should do in perusing works upon 
history, when a similar difficulty occurs. 

To insure a correct pronunciation of the technical 
words interspersed with the text, they have been 
divided into syllables, and the accented syllables des- 
ignated. An ample Glossary of technical terms has 
also been appended to the work, to which reference 
should be made. 

To the teacher we would suggest the propriety of 
calling on a pupil of the class, to describe the anatomy 
of an organ from an anatomical outline plate ; after- 
wards call upon another to give the physiology of 
the part, while a third may state the hygiene ; after 
which, the questions at the bottom of the page may 
be asked promiscuously, and thus the detailed knowl- 
edge which each pupil possesses of the subject will 
be tested. 

With advanced pupils, it is recommended that the 
subject be examined in the form of topics. The ques- 
tions in Italics are designed for this method of reci- 

For a more full and complete explanation of Anato- 
my, Physiology, and Hygiene, the pupil is referred to 
the Author's treatise, of 450 pages, for Colleges, Acade- 
mies, and Families, or to his second book, of 300 
pages, for Academies, Schools, and Families. 

To the instructors of youth, and the patrons of 
3duca*ion, this work is respectfully submitted. 

Warren, Mass., 1852. 


Chapter. Page. 

1. General Remarks, 9 

2. Anatomy of the Bones, 11 

3. Anatomy of the Bones, continued, 16 

4. Physiology of the Bones, 21 

5. Hygiene of the Bones, 24 

6. Anatomy of the Muscles, 27 

7. Physiology of the Muscles, 30 

8. Hygiene of the Muscles, 36 

9. Anatomy of the Teeth, 43 

i0. Anatomy of the Digestive Organs, 47 

11. Physiology of the Digestive Organs, 53 

12. Hygiene of the Digestive Organs, 56 

13. Anatomy of the Circulatory Organs, 62 

14. Physiology of the Circulatory Organs, 67 

15. Hygiene of the Circulatory Organs, 70 

16. Absorption, 76 

17. Secretion, 82 

18. Nutrition, 86 

19. Anatomy of the Respiratory Organs, 89 

20. Physiology of the Respiratory Organs, 93 

21. Hygiene of the Respiratory Organs, 93 


Chaptet Page 

22. Animal Heat, 106 

23. Anatomy of the Vocal Organs, 110 

24. Anatomy of the Skin, 115 

25. Physiology of the Skin, 119 

26. Hygiene of the Skin, 122 

27. Anatomy of the Nervous System, 127 

28. Physiology of the Nervous System, 131 

29. Hygiene of the Nervous System, 134 

30. Sense of Touch, 138 

Sense of Taste, 139 

Sen6e of Smell, 141 

31. Anatomy of the Organs of Vision, 143 

32. Physiology of the Organs of Vision, 149 

33. Anatomy of the Organs of Hearing, 152 

34. Physiology of the Organs of Hearing, 155 

35. Means of preserving the Health 158 

36. Directions for Nurses, 164 



INDEX, 181 






1. Anatomy is a description of the organs, or parts of a 

Examples. 1st. Flowers have roots, stems, and blossoms. 
These are their organs. 2d. The teeth, stomach, and heart, 
are some of the organs of the human body.* 

2. Physiology is a description of the function, or use of an 

Examples. 1st. The roots of flowers suck up water, to 
make them grow. This is their function. 2d. The stomach, 
in man, is one of- the organs that prepare the food for his 
growth. This is its function. 

3. Anatomy and Physiology are divided into two kinds, 
namely, Animal and Vegetable. 

* Where examples are given, let the pupil mention other analo 
gous ones. 

1. What is anatomy ? Give examples. 2. What is physiology ? Giva 
examples. 3. How many kinds of anatomy and physiology are there ? 


, 4. Animal Anatomy and Physiology are again divided into 
Human and Comparative. 

5. Human Anatomy and Physiology describe the structure 
and functions of the organs of man. 

6. Comparative Anatomy and Physiology describe the struc- 
ture and functions of the organs of other animals than man. 

Examples. As the horse, the monkey, and the whale. 

7. Vegetable Anatomy and Physiology describe the^ struc- 
ture and functions of different parts of trees, shrubs, plants, and 

8. Hygiene is the art of preserving health, or that depart- 
ment of medicine which treats of the preservation of health. 

9. All bodies in nature are divided into Organic and In- 
organic. Organic bodies include animals and plants. Inor- 
ganic bodies include earths, metals, and other minerals. 

10. All organized bodies have a limited period of life, and 
this period varies with every species. The duration of some 
plants is limited to a single summer, as many garden flowers ; 
while some trees, as the olive, live many hundred years. Some 
animals live but a short time, while the elephant lives more 
than a century. 

11. The life of man is shortened by disease ; but disease is 
under the control of fixed laws — laws which we are capable 
of understanding and obeying. How important, then, is the 
study of physiology and hygiene ! For how can we expect to 
obey laws which we do not understand ? 

4. How are animal anatomy and physiology divided ? 5. "What do 
numan anatomy and physiology describe ? 6. What do comparative anat- 
omy and physiology describe ? 7- What do vegetable anatomy and physi- 
ology describe ? 8. What is hygiene ? 9. How are all bodies in nature 
divided? What bodies are called organic? What bodies are called in- 
organic? 10. Have all animals and plants a limited period of life ? Does 
this period vary with different species of animals and plants ? Give some 
examples. 11. How is life usually shortened ? Why is the study of physi- 
ology and hygiene important to every person ? 




12. The bones are firm and hard, and of a dull white co/or. 
In all the higher orders of animals, among which is man, they 
are in the interior of the body, while in lobsters, crabs, (fee., 
they are on the outside, forming a case, which protects the 
movable parts from injury. 


13. There are two hundred and eight* bones in the human 
body, beside the teeth. 

14. These, for convenience, are divided into four parts: 
1st. The bones of the Head. 2d. The bones of the Trunk. 
3d. The bones of the Upper Extremities. 4th. The bones of 
the Lower Extremities. 

15. The bones of the head are divided into those of the 
Skull, Ear, and Face. 

16. The skull is formed of eight bones. These are joined 
together by ragged edges, called sut'ures. (Fig. 2.) 

Observation. The sutures stop, in a measure, the jars 
caused by external blows. Children should never strike each 

* Some anatomists reckon more than this number, others less, for 
the reason that, at different periods of life, the number of pieces of 
which one bone is formed, varies. Example. The breast-bone, in 
infancy, has eight pieces ; in youth, three ; in old age, but one. 

12. Describe the bones. 13. How many bones in the human body ? 
14. How are they divided ? Name them. 15 — 18. Give the anatomy of the 
bones of the head. 15. How are the bones of the head divided ? 16. How 
many bones in the skull ? How are the bones of the skull joined together > 


other upon the head, because the bones of the skull in them 
are softer than in adults. 

17. In each ear are four small bones. They aid in hearing. 

18. In the face are fourteen bones. They support the 
softer parts outside of them. 

19. The trunk has fifty-four bones — twenty-four Ribs; 
twenty-four bones in the Spi'nal Col'umn, (back-bone ;) four 
in the Pelvis; the Ster'num, (breast-bone;) and one at the 
root of the tongue. 

20. All the ribs are joined to the spinal column. There 
are twelve on each side. 

Fig. 2. 

Fig. 2. The bones of the upper part of the skull. 1, 1,2, 3, 3, The sutures that join 
tie bones. 

21. The seven upper ribs are united in front to the sternum, 
Dy a yielding substance called car'ti-lage,* (gristle.) The 

* See paragraph. 46. 

17. What is the use of sutures ? How many bones in each ear ? What 
is their use? 18. How many bones in the face? 19 — 29. Give the anato- 
my of the bones of the trunk. 19. How many bones in the trunk? Name 
them. 20. To what are all the ribs joined ? How many on each side ? 
What does fig. 2 represent ? 21. How are the first seven ribs united in 
front ? 


remaining five are not attached, directly, to the sternum. 
Three are joined to each other by cartilage ; two are not con- 
fined ; hence they are called " floating ribs." 

22. The cavity formed by the sternum, ribs, and spinal 
column, is called the Chest. It contains the heart, lungs, and 
large blood-vessels. 

23. The shape of the chest is conical, or like a sugai-loaf. 

Pig 3 The form of the chest. 1, 2, 3, The sternum, (breast-bone.) 4, 5, The 
ipinal column, (backbone.) 6, 7, 8, 9, The first rib. 10, The seventh rib. 11, The 
cartilage of the third rib. 12, The floating ribs. 

Observation. The lower part of the chest is broader and 
fuller than the upper part, when it is not made smaller by tight 

The next three ? What are the last two called ? Why ? Describe fig. 3. 

22. How is the chest formed ? What does it contain ? 23. What is the 
shape of the chest ? How does the lower part of the chest compare in 
size with the upper ? 



24. The spinal* column is composed of twenty-four 
pieces of bone. Each piece is called a vert'e-bra. 

25. Between the pieces, or vertebrae, is a thick piece of car- 
tilage, which is elastic, or springs like India-rubber. This not 
only unites the vertebrae, but permits them to move in different 

26. There is an opening in each vertebra. By a union oi 
these openings, a canal is formed the whole length of the spinal 
column, in which the spinal cord (pith of the back-bone) is 

Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

Fig. 4. The form of a vertebra of the neck. 1, The main portion of the bone 
2, The spinal canal, in which the spinal cord is placed. 4, 5, 7, 8, Points, or projeo- 
tions of the vertebra. 

Fig. 5. 1, 'Hie cartilage that connects the vertebrae. 3, 4, 5, 6, Points, or pro- 
jections of the vertebra. 7, The spinal canal. 

Observation. A good idea of the structure of the vertebrae 
maybe obtained, by examining the spinal column of a domestic 
animal, ar. the dog, cat, or pig. 

* From the Latin spi'na, a thorn ; so called from the points of the 
vertebrae that are felt beneath the skin. 

21. How many pieces of bone in the spinal column ? What is each 
piece called? 2">. What is placed between the vertebra? ? Give its use. 
20. How is the spinal canal formed, and what does it contain ? Describe 
fig. 4. Describe fig. 5. How may an idea of the structure of the verte- 
bra? be obtained ? 




27. The spinal column is a very curious anc! perfect piece 
of mechanical art. By its structure, great strength and suf- 
ficient movement or flexibility are combined. The vertebrae 
are so firmly joined together, that dislocation of them, without 
fracture, is very rare. 

28. The pelvis is composed of four bones. They are so 
arranged as to form a bony basin. The spinal column rests 
on these bones, and they also serve to support the lower 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 6. 1, 1, The hip-bones. 2, The sacrum, upon which the spinal column 
rests. 3, The extremity of the spinal column, named the coc'cyz. 4, 4, The cavities 
for the head of the thigh-bone. 

29. In the sides of these bones is a deep, round cavity, 
called a-ce-tab'u-lum, in which the head of the thigh-bone is 

27. "What is said of the structure of the spinal column ? 28. Of how many 
bones is the pelvis composed ? What is their use ? Describe fig. 6 
29. "What is found in the sides of these bones ? 




30. The upper extremities contain sixty-four bones — 
the Scap'u-la, (shoulder-blade;) the Clav'i-cle, (collar-bone:) 
and the bones of the irm, Fore-arm, Wrist, and Hand. 

31. The scapula is a broad, irregular bone, situated upon 
the upper and back part of the chest. 

32. The clavicle is a thin bone at the base of the neck. 
It is joined at one extremity to the sternum, at the other to 
the scapula. 

Observation. The use of the clavicle is to keep the arms 
from sliding toward the breast. Children should frequently 
throw their arms backward, as this exercise would tend to 
increase the length of this bone, and also to enlarge the chest. 

33. The arm is formed of a single bone, called the hu'- 

34. The fore-arm is formed of two bones — the ul'na, on 
the inner side, and the ra'di-us, on the outside, (the side on 
which the thumb is placed.) By a beautiful arrangement of 
these bones, the hand is made to rotate, or turn, permitting its 
complicated and varied movements. 

35. The wrist is formed of eight irregular bones. They 
move but little upon each other. 

36. The hand consists of nineteen bones — five in the palm, 
and fourteen bones in the fingers and thumb. 

30 — 37. Give the anatomy of the bones of the upper extremities. 30. Name 
the bones of the upper extremities. 31. Describe the scapula. 32. "Where 
is the clavicle situated ? What is the use of the clavicle ? 33. How is 
the arm formed ? 34. The fore-arm ? 35. How many bones in the wrist : 
86. How many bones in the hand ? 



37. Each finger is formed of three bones of different lengths , 
the thumb has but two. Proofs of a designing Creator are 
nowhere more manifest than in the simple but wonderful 
structure and adaptation of the human hand. 

38. The lower extremities contain sixty bones — the 
Fe'mur, (thigh-bone ;) the Pa-tel'la, (knee-pan ;) the Tib'i-a, 
(shin-bone;) the Fib'u-la, (small bone of the leg;) and the 
bones of the Foot. 

39 The femur is the longest bone of the body. It sup- 
ports the weight of the head, trunk, and upper extremities. 

Fig- 7. 

rig. 8 

Fig. 7. u, The ulna. R, The radius, s, L, c, P, u, M, t, t, The eight bones of 
the wrist 1 1 1, 1, 1, The five bones of the palm of the hand. 

Fig. 8. 10, 10, 10, The bones of the palm of the hand. 11, 12, 13, The bones of 
the fingers. 14, 15, The bones of the thumb. 

40. The tibia and the fibula are situated between the, 
knee and ankle. 

37 What i. e,id of the bone, of the n„ge„ .»d thumb ! 38-41. CK» 

bones of the lower extremities. <J9. wnat. is sam « 

Describe fig. 7- Fig. 8. 40. What bones between the knee and 

aukle ? 




41. The foot is formed of twenty-six bones — seven in the 
instep ; five in the middle of the foot ; and fourteen toe-bones. 

Observation. The bones of the foot are so united as to give 
it the form of an arch, — convex on its upper surface, and con- 
cave on the lower surface 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 9. A view of the upper surface of the bones of the foot. 1, 2, 3, 4,5, 6, 7, 
8. The bones of the instep. 9, 9, 9, The bones of the middle of the foot. 10, 11, The 
bones of the great toe. 12, 13, 14, Tile bones of the small toes . 

Fur. 10. 

Fig. 10. A side view of the bones i f the foot, showing its arched form. 1 ne arch 
rests upon the heel behind, and the ball of the toes in front. 1, The lower part of the 
tibia. 8, 3, 4, 5, Bones of the instep. 6, A bone of the middle of the foot. 7, 8, The 
bones of the great toe. 

42. The bones consist of animal matter, (jelly,) and earthy 
matter, (phosphate and carbonate of lime.) 

41. How many bones in the foot, and name them ? "What is the form 
of the foot? Describe fig. 9. Fig. 10. 42. Of what are the bones 
composed ? 



43. To show the animal without the earthy matter of the 
bones, immerse a slender bone for a few days in a weak acid, 
(one part muriatic acid and six parts water,) and it can then 
be bent in any direction. 

44. To show the earthy without the animal matter, burn a 
bone in a clear fire for about fifteen minutes, and it becomes 
white and brittle. 

45. The joints form an interesting part of the body. They 
are composed of the extremities of two or more bones, Car't%~ 
lages, (gristles,) Syn-o'vi-al membrane, and Lig'a-ments. 

Fig. 11. The relative position of the bone, cartilage, and synovial membrane. 
1, 1, The extremities of two bones, to form a joint. 2, 2, 'Die cartilage that covers 
the end of the bone. 3,3,3,3, The synovial membrane, which covers the cartilage 
of both bones, and is then doubled back from one to the other ; it is represented by 
the dotted lines. 

Fig. 12. A vertical section of the knee-joint. 1, The femur. 3, The patella. 
5. The tibia. 2, 4, Ligaments of the patella. 6. Cartilage of the tibia. 12, The 
cartilage of the femur. * * * *, The synovial membrane. 

46. Cartilage is a smooth, solid, elastic substance, that 
covers the ends of the bones that form a joint. It prevents 
the ends of the bones from wearing off, and also diminishes 
the jar that the joint receives, in walking or leaping. 

43. How can the animal matter be shown ? 44. The earthy ? 45 — 48. De- 
scribe the parts that form a joint. 45. "What is said of the joints ? Of what 
are they composed ? What is represented by fig. 11 ? Fig. 12 ? 46. Define 
cartilage. What is its use ? 



47. The synovial membrane is a thin, membranous layer 
which covers the cartilages, and is thence bent back, or reflected 
upon the inner surfaces of the ligaments which surround and 
enter into the composition of the joints. This membrane 
forms a closed sac. (Fig. 11.) 

48. The ligaments are strong, inelastic substances ; thev 
serve to connect and bind together the bones of the body. 

Fisr. 13 

Fig. 14. 

Fig. 13. 8, 9, The ligaments that extend from the hip-bone (6) to the thigh- 
bone, (5.) 

Fig. 14. 2, 3, The ligaments that extend from the collar-bone (1) to the shouldti- 
blade, (4.) The ligaments 5, 6, extend from the shoulder-blade to the first bone 
of the arm. 

Observation. The joints of the domestic animals, are similar 
in their construction to those of man. To illustrate this part of 
the body, a fresh joint of the calf or sheep may be used. 

47. Define synovial membrane. 48. What are ligaments ? What is 
their use ? What is represented by fig. 13 ? Fig. 14 ? How can the struc- 
ture of the joints be illustrated ? 




49. The bones are the framework of the body. They sup- 
port all the soft parts, as the flesh and vessels, and likewise 
afford a firm surface for the attachment of the ligaments. 

50. The use of the various bones is different. Some protect 
organs, as those of the skull and chest, while others are used 
when we move, as those of the extremities and spinal column. 

51. The bones are covered with a firm mem'brane, or skin, 
called per-i-os'te-um. This membrane and the bones, when 
healthy, give us but little pain if wounded ; but, if diseased, as 
in " felons," the pain is very severe. 

52. The joints are constantly supplied with a fluid called 
syn-o'vi-a. This operates like oil on the joints of a machine. 
By the smooth cartilages and synovia, the joints are enabled 
to bear all the motion required of them during a great number 
of years. 

53. The joints vary in their functions. Some are movable, 
as the finger-joints ; while others are immovable, as the sutures 
of the skull. 

54. The union of the spinal column with the skull exhibits 
one of the most ingenious contrivances to be met with in the 
body. 1st. It permits the backward and forward movement, 
as in bowing and nodding the head. 2d. The motion which 
is made in turning the head from side to side. 

49_51. Give the physiology of the bones. 49. What is the use of the 
bones ? 50. Give the function of some of the bones. 51. "With what are 
the bones covered ? 52—56. Give the physiology of the joints. 52. With 
what are the joints constantly supplied ? What is the use of this fluid 
ani the cartilages? 53. Mention some of the functions of the joints. 
54 W\at is said of the union of the spinal column with the skull ? 



55. This admirable piece of mechanism affords great pro- 
tection to the spinal cord, at the top of the neck ; this being, 
perhaps, the most vital portion of the whole body. Injury to 
it, or pressure upon it, is instantly fatal. 

56. Some joints move but in one direction, like a hinge of a 
door. These are called Hinge Joints ; as the ankle and the 
knee-joint. Some joints move in different directions, like a ball 
in a socket. These are called Ball and Socket Joints ; as the 
shoulder and the hip-joint. 

Fig. 15. 

Fig. 16. 

Fig. 15. The knee-joint. 1, The lower extremity of the thigh-bone. 3, 5, The 
two rounded extremities that rest upon the upper extremity of the tibia, (shin-bone.) 
2. Two ligaments within the knee-joint. 6, 7, The cartilage that tips the upper 
extremity of the tibia, (4.) 

Fig. 16. 2, The deep socket of the hip-joint. 5, The round head of the thigh- 
oone, which is lodged in the socket. 3, The ligament within the socket. 

Observation. The more movable a joint, the less firm it is, 
and the more frequently dislocated, or " put out." It is for this 
reason that the" shoulder-joint is more frequently displaced than 
any other in the body. 

55. What is protected by this admirable piece of mechanism ? 56. What 
are hinge joints ? What are ball and socket joints ? Why is the shoulder- 
ioint more frequently dislocated than any other in the body ? 

Fig. 17. 


f'.g. IT. 1,1, The spinal column. 2, The skull. 3, The lower jaw. 4, The sternum 
5 I'lie ribs. 6,6, The cartilages of the ribs. 7, The clavicle. 8, Tne humerus. 9, Th« 
shoulder-joint. 10, The radius. 11, The ulna. 12, The elbow-joint. 13, The wrist. 
14, The hand. 15, The haunch-bone. 16, The sacrum. 17, The hip-joint. 18, The 
thigh-bone. 19, The patella. 20, The knee-joint. 21, The fibula. 22, The tibia. 
23, The ankle-joint. 24, The foot. 25, 26, The ligaments of the clavicle, sternum, 
midribs. 27,28,29, The ligaments of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. 3D, The large 
rrteryof the arm. 31, The ligaments of the hip-joint. 32, The large blood-vessel 

«gh. 33, The artery of the leg. 34, 3o, 36, The ligaments of the patella, knee, and ankle. 

JV-..7C. Let the pupil, in form of topics, review the anatomy and physiology of the 

mes from fig. 17, or from anatomical outline plates 1 and 2. 




57. The bones require exercise to make them healthy. By 
use they are increased in size and strength to a limited extent 
while inaction or disease weakens them. Exercise favors the 
deposition of the substances of which they are composed. 

58. The exercise or labor should be adapted to the condition 
of the bones. The bones of a child contain more of the animal 
than the earthy matter, and are consequently weak ; though 
the child is able to exercise, its bones are not adapted to severe 
toil. On the other hand, the bones of the aged man contain 
more earthy than animal matter. This causes them to be brit- 
tle and unfit for labor. But in middle age, the proportions of 
animal and earthy matter are, usually, such as to give the 
proper degree of flexibility and strength for labor, with little 
liability to injury. 

Observation. The difference in the structure of the bones 
at different ages may be seen, by comparing the rib of a calf 
or lamb, with the rib of an ox or sheep. 

59. The clothing should be loosely worn. The ribs and 
bones of the spinal column are soft and yielding in childhood. 
A small amount of pressure on the walls of the trunk will 
lessen the size of the chest, and thus injure the lungs, stomach 
and heart. 

60. In sitting, the feet of the child should be supported. If 

57 — 63. Give the hygiene of the bones. 57. What effect has exercise 
upon the bones ? 58. Give the reasons why the amount of labor should be 
adapted to the condition of the bones. How can the difference in the 
structure of the bones at different ages be illustrated ? 59. Give a reason 
why the clothing should be loosely worn. 60. Why should the feet of 
children, when sitting, be supported ? 



the stool is so high as not to permit the feet to rest upon the 
floor, the weight of the limbs below the knee may cause the 
flexible bone of the thigh to become curved. When the feet 
are not supported, the child is inclined to lean forward, contract- 
ing an injurious and ungraceful position. 

Observation. The seats in school-rooms should not only be 
of such height as to enable the pupil to rest the feet on the 
floor, but they should have properly-constructed backs. 

Fig. 18. 

Fig. 19. 

Fig. 18. The position assumed when the seat is of proper height, and the feet 

Fig. 19. The position a child naturally assumes when the seat is so high that the 
feet are not supported. 

61. Children should stand and sit erect. This position tends 
to keep the spinal column erect and healthy When a slight 
curvature of the spine exists, it can be improved by walking 
with a book, or a heavier weight, upon the top of the head ; to 

Should seats in a school-room have backs ? 61. Why should children 
stand and sit erect ? 


balance which, the spine must be nearly erect. Those people 

that carry their burdens upon their heads seldom have crooked 


62. Pupils, while writing, drawing, and sometimes while 

studying, frequently incline the spinal column to one side, in 

order to accommodate themselves to the desks at which they 

ire seated. This position elevates one shoulder, while it de- 

oresses the other. 

Fig. 20. 

Fig. 20. A representation of a deformed spinal column. A well-formed spinal 
column has three curves, two forward and one backward, (2, 2, 2, fig. 25,) but no 
ateral curvature, (1, 1, fig. 17.) 

63. One shoulder may be thus elevated for a short time, and 
no injurious results follow, provided care is taken not to keep it 
in the raised position too long, or if the opposite shoulder is 
elevated for the same period of time. 

What is the effect of carrying burdens upon the head ? 62. What is the 
effect of pupils using desks that are too high or improperly constructed f 
153. How can one shoulder be elevated, and no injurious results follow ? 




64. All the great motions of the body are caused by the 
movement of some of the bones which form the framework of 
the body ; but these, independently of themselves, have not the 
power of motion, and only change their position through the 
action of other organs attached to them, which, by contracting, 
or shrinking, draw the bones after them. In some of the slight 
movements, as the winking of the eye, no bones are displaced, 
or moved. These moving, contracting organs are the Mus'cles, 
(lean meat.) 


65. A muscle is composed of many little strings, called 
fibres. Some of these fibres run in straight lines; others 
spread like a fan ; while some are inclined like the feathery 
part of a quill. (Fig. 21.) 

66. Toward the extremities of a muscle the fibres unite, and 
form a substance of a whitish color, harder and tougher than 
the muscle. This is called ten 1 don, (cord, sinew.) 

Observation. The pupil can examine a piece of boiled 
beef, or the lee of a fowl, and see the structure of the fibres 
and tendons of a muscle, with the attachment of the tendons 
to the bones. 

67. Tendons have various shapes. Sometimes they are 

64. How are all the great motions of the body produced ? What are 
these moving, contracting organs called ? 65—72. Give the structure of the 
muscles. 6.5. Of what is a muscle composed ? 66. What is a tendon ? 
How can the structure of a muscle be shown ? 67. What is the shape of 
tendons ? 



long, slender strings ; sometimes they are short and thick ; 
again, in some situations, they are thin and broad. They serve 
to fasten the muscles to the bones, or to each other. 

Observation. In some instances, the synovial membrane, 
which forms the sheath of the tendons, is ruptured, and the 
synovial fluid escapes. This forms a tumor, called a gan'gli-on, 
(weeping sinew.) It is called a wind-gall when on the limbs 
of a horse. 

68. In the description of a muscle, its attachments are ex- 
pressed by the terms origin and insertion. The term origin is 
generally applied to the more fixed or central attachment, or to 
the points toward which motion is directed ; while insertion is 
assigned to the more movable point, or to that most distant from 
the centre. The middle, fleshy portion, is called the " belly," 
or swell 

Fig. 21. 

Fig. 21. 1, Represents the fibres of a muscle running in straight lines. 2, The 
fan-shaped fibres. 3, 4, Fibres inclined like the plumes of a quill, t, t, Tendons at 
the extremities of the muscle, 1. 

69. In some parts of the body, there is but one layer of 
muscle over the bones; in other parts, there are five or six 

How are the tumors formed, called weeping sinews ? 68. How are the 
attachments of muscles expressed ? What is the middle portion called ? 
69. How many layers of muscles are there around the bones ? 


layers, one muscle being placed over another. They are sepa- 
rated by a thin, whitish membrane, called fas'ci-a. 

Observation. An instance is seen in the membrane which 
envelops a leg of beef, and which is observed on the edges 
of a slice when it is cut for broiling. 

70. In general, the muscles form about the bones two 
layers, called the superficial, or external muscles ; and the 
deep-seated, or those nearest the bone. 

71. There are more than four hundred muscles in the 
human body. To these, and a yellow substance, called fat, 
that surrounds and fills the spaces in the muscles, the child 
and youth are indebted for the roundness and beauty of their 

Observation. When we are sick, and cannot take food, the 
body is fed with this fat. The removal of it into the blood 
causes the sunken cheek, hollow eye, and prominent appear- 
ance of the bones, after a severe sickness. 

72. When we look at this " harp of thousand strings," and 
notice the varied, rapid, complicated, yet accurate movements 
it performs in a single day, our thoughts are lost in wonder, in 
contemplating this superb and intricate machine, framed and 
finished by the divine Architect. 

How are they separated from each other ? Give an instance where this 
membrane may be seen. 70. How many layers of muscles generally around 
the bones, and what are they called ? 71. How many muscles in the hu- 
man body ? Why are the limbs of a child more round and full than an 
aged person's ? How is the body nourished when we cannot take food ? 





73. Every motion of the body is made by the contraction 
of the fibres of the muscles ; from the awkward movement 
of the boy's first effort at penmanship, to the delicate and 
graceful sweeps of the pianist ; from the firm, the stately tread 
of the soldier, to the light, fairy-like step of the danseuse 

Illustration. The muscles and tendons are to the bones 
what the ropes are to the sails and yards of a ship. By their 
action, the direction of the sails and yards is changed. So, by 
the action of the muscles, the position of the bones of the body 
is changed. 

74. Each fibre of the several muscles receives from the 
brain, through the nervous filament appropriated to it, a certain 
influence called nervous fluid, or stimulus. It is this that in- 
duces contraction, while the suspension of this stimulus causes 
relaxation of the fibres. 

75. Muscles remain contracted but a short time ; then they 
relax, or lengthen, which is their rest. When the muscles are 
in a state of contraction, they are full, hard, and more prom- 
inent than when relaxed. 

76. The alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles 
may be shown by the following experiment : — 

Experiment. Clasp the fore-arm about three inches below 
the elbow, then open and shut the fingers rapidly, and the 

73 — 90. Give the physiology of the muscles. 73. How is every motion of 
the body produced? 74. With what is each muscular fibre supplied? 
What effect has this stimulus on the muscles ? 7o. Do muscles remain 
contracted a long time ? What is their appearance when in a state of con- 
traction ? 76. How can the alternate contraction and relaxation of the 
muscles be shown ? 



swelling and relaxation of the muscles on the opposite sides of 
the arms, alternately with each other, will be felt correspond- 
ing with the movement of the fingers. While the fingers are 
bending, the inside muscles swell and the outside ones become 
flaccid ; and, while the fingers are extending, the inside mus- 
cles relax and the outside ones swell. The alternate swelling 
and relaxation of opposing muscles may be felt in all the move- 
ments of the limbs. 

Fig. 22. 

A representation of the manner in which all of the joints of the body are moved 

Fig. 22. 1, The bone of the arm above the elbow. 2, One of the bones below the 
elbow. 3, The muscle that bends the elbow. This muscle is united, by a tendon, to 
the bone below the elbow, (4 ;) at the other extremity, to the bone above the elbow, 
(5.) C, The muscle that extends the elbow. 7, Its attachment to the point of the 
elbow. 8, A weight in the hand, to be raised. The central part of the muscle (3) 
contracts, and its two ends are brought nearer together. The bones below the elbow 
are brought to the lines shown by 9, 10, 11. The weight is raised in the direction of 
the curved line. When the muscle (6) contracts, the muscle (3) relaxes, and the el 
bow is extended. 

77. The eyebrows are elevated, or raised by the contraction 
of the muscles on the forehead, 1, fig. 23. 

78. The eyes are closed by the contraction of the muscles 
that surround them, 2, fig. 23. 

Explain fig. 22. 
Note. Let the anatomy and physiology of the muscular system be re- 
viewed, in form of topics, from figs. 23, 24, or from the outline anatomical 
plutr-s 3 and 4. 



79 The upper lip is elevated by the contraction of the mus 
cles, 3, 4, 5, 6, fig. 23. 

80. The mouth is closed by the contraction of a muscle tha* 
surrounds it, 7, fig. 23. 

81. The lower lip is drawn down, or depressed, by the con- 
traction of muscles on the lower part of the face, 8, fig. 23. 

82. The head is bent forward, as in nodding, by the contrac- 
tion of muscles on the front part of the neck, 9, fig. 23. 

83. The chin is raised, and the head is brought erect by the 
contraction of muscles on the back part of the neck, 5, 6, fig. 24. 

84. The body is bent forward, and the ribs brought down, 
by the contraction of muscles on the front and lower part of 
the trunk, 22, 23, fig. 23. 

85. The spinal column is kept erect by the muscles at the 
lower and back part of the trunk, 24, 25, 26, fig. 24. 

86. The shoulders are brought forward by the muscles upon 
the upper and front part of the chest, 11, fig. 23. 

87. The shoulders are brought back by the contraction of the 
muscles upon the upper and back part of the chest, 7, fig. 24. 

88. The arm is elevated by a muscle upon the shoulder, 10, 
fig. 23 ; and 8, fig. 24. 

89. The arm is brought to the side by muscles, 11, fig. 23; 
and 24, fig. 24. 

90. The elbow is bent by the contraction of the muscles on 
the upper and front side of the arm, 14, fig. 23. 

91. The elbow is extended by a muscle on the back part of 
the arm, 10, fig. 24. 

92. The wrist and fingers are bent by the muscles on the 
front part 'of the arm, below the elbow, 16, 18, fig. 23. 

93. The muscles on the back part of the arm, below the 
elbow, extend the wrist and fingers, 21, 22, 23, fig. 24. 

94. The muscles that bend the lower limbs, at the hip, are 
situated at the lower and front part of the trunk, and the upper 
and front part of the thigh, 25, 26, 27, 28, fig. 23. 


95. The lower limbs are extended at the hips by the 
muscles on the lower and back part of the trunk, and the upper 
and back part of the thigh, 27, 28, fig. 24. 

96. The muscles upon the front part of the thigh extend the 
leg at the knee, 29, 30, fig. 23. 

97. The knee is bent by the muscles upon the back part of 
the thigh, 29, 30, fig. 24. 

98. The muscles upon the fore part of the leg, below the 
knee, bend the foot at the ankle, and extend the toes, 34, 35, 
36, fig. 23. 

99. The muscles upon the back part of the leg, below the 
knee, extend the foot at the ankle, and bend the toes, 31, 32 
33, fig. 24. 

Observation. It would be a profitable exercise for pupils to 
press their fingers upon prominent muscles, and, at the same 
time, vigorously contract them, not only to learn their situations, 
but their use ; as the one that bends the arm, 14, fig. 23. 

[Fig. 23. A front view of the muscles of the body. 1, The frontal swells of the 
occipito-frontalis. 2, The orbicularis palpebrarum. 3, The levator labii superioris 
alasque nasi. 4, The zygomaticus major. 5, The zygomaticus minor. 6, The 
masseter. 7, The orbicularis oris. 8, The depressor labii inferioris. 9, The platysma 
myoides. 10, The deltoid. 11, The pectoralis major. 12, The latissimus dorsi 
13, The serratns major anticus. 14, The biceps flexor cubiti. 15, The triceps ex- 
tensor cubiti. 10, The supinator radii longus. 17, The pronator radii teres. 18, The 
extensor carpi radialis longior. 19, The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 20, The 
annular ligament 21, The palmar fascia. 22, The obliquus externns abdominis. 
23, The linea alba. 24, The tensor vagina? femoris. 20, The psoas magnus. 
27, The abductor longus. 28, The sartorius. 29, The rectus femoris. 30, The 
vastus externns. 31, The vastus internus. 32, The tendo patella-. 33, The gas- 
trocnemius. 34, The tibialis anticus. 35, The tibia. 36, The tendons of the ex 
tensor communis. 

Fjg. 24. A back view of the muscles of the body. 1, The temporalis. 2, The 
occipito-frontalis. 3, The complexus. 4, The splenius. 5, The masseter. 6, The 
sterno-cleido mastoideus. 7, The trapezius. 8, The deltoid. 9, The infra spinatus. 
10, The triceps extensor. 11, The teres minor. 12, The teres major. 13, The 
tendinous portion of the triceps. 14, The anterior edge of the triceps. 15, Tho 
supinator radii longus. 16, The pronator radii teres. 17, The extensor communis 
di"itorum. 18, The extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis. 19, The extensor communis 
digitorum tendons. 20, The olecranon and insertion of the triceps. 21, The exten- 
sor carpi ulnaris. 22, The auricularis. 23, The extensor communis. 24, The latis- 
simus dorsi. 25, Its tendinous origin. 20, The obliquus exttrnus. 27, The gluteus 
medius. 28, The gluteus magnus. 29, The biceps flexor cruris. 30, The semi-terf 
dinoeus. 31, 32, The gastrocnemius. 33, The tendo-Achillis.] 

Fxg. 23. 

Fig. 24. 






100. TJie muscles should he used and then rested. This 
<vill increase their size and strength, by increasing the flow of 
blood to the parts called into action. A muscle should not be 
used too long, .or remain at rest too long ; both are alike 

Illustrations. 1st. The blacksmith uses and rests the mus- 
cles of his arm when striking upon the anvil. They not only 
become large, but very firm and hard. 

2d. The student uses the muscles of the arm but little, in 
holding his books and pen ; they are not only small, but soft. 

3d. Let the student leave his books, and wield an iron sledge, 
and the muscles of his arm will increase in size and firmness. 
On the other hand, let the blacksmith assume the student's 
vocation, and the muscles of his arm will become soft and 
less firm. 

101. Exercise should be regular and frequent. The sys- 
tem needs this means of invigoration as regularly as it does 
new supplies of food. It is no more correct that we devote 
several days to a proper action of the muscles, and then 
spend one day inactively, than it is to take a proper amount 
of food for several days, and then withdraw this supply for 
a day. (See note A. page 42.) 

102. Every part of the muscular system should have its 
appropriate share of exercise. Some employments call into 

100 — 118. Give the hygiene of the muscles. 100. Why should every mus- 
cle be used ? What is injurious to muscles ? How is the effect of using 
muscles illustrated ? ipi. Why should the exercise of the muscles be 
regular and frequent ? 102. What employments and amusements are best 
for the health ? 



exercise the muscles of the upper limbs, as shoe-making ; others 
the muscles of the lower limbs ; while some the muscles of both 
upper and lower limbs, with those of the trunk, as farming. 
Those trades and kinds of exercise are most salutary, in which 
all the muscles have their due proportion of action, as this tends 
to develop and strengthen them equally. 

103. The proper time for exercise should be observed. This 
is modified by many circumstances. As a general rule, the 
morning, when the air is pure and the ground dry, is better than 
the evening ; for then, the powers of the body are greatest. 
We should avoid severe exercise and labor immediately before 
and after eating a full meal, for the energies of the system are 
then required to perform the digestive function. 

104. The muscles should be used in pure air. The purer 
the air we breathe, the longer can the muscles be used in labor, 
walking, or sitting, without fatigue and injury ; hence the bene- 
fit derived in thoroughly ventilating all inhabited rooms. 

Observation. It is a common remark that sick persons 
will sit up longer when riding in a carriage, than in an easy 
chair in the room where they have lain sick. In the one 
instance, they breathe pure air, in the other, usually, a con- 
fined, impure air. 

105. The muscles should be exercised in the light. Light, 
particularly that of the sun, exercises as great an influence on 
man as it does on plants. Both require the stimulus of this 
ao-ent. Students should take their exercise during the day, 
rather than in the evening, and the farmer and the mechanic 
should avoid night toil, as it is much more exhausting than the 
same effort during daylight. 

Illustrations. Plants that grow in the shade, as under a 
board, are of lighter color and more feeble than those th aUire 

" Why? 103. What time, in general, is best for exercise? What should be 
avoided ? 104. Why should the muscles be used in pure air ? _ Gnve ^obser- 
vation 105 Why should students take their exercise in the daytime ? 
What should farmers and mechanics avoid? Why? How » the influence 
of solar light illustrated ? 



exposed to the light of the sun. Persons that dwell in dark 
rooms, are paler and less vigorous than those who inhabit 
apartments well lighted, and exposed to solar light. 

106. Every muscle should move freely. Compression by 
any means, lessens the size and strength of the muscle. 

Illustration. Let a surgeon bandage a limb for some weeks, 
when a bone is broken, and when the bandage is removed, the 
limb will be found smaller iban when the accident occurred. 
The compression by close dresses produces similar effects upon 
the muscles of the body. 

107. The state of the mind affects muscular contraction. A 
person who is cheerful and happy will do more work, and with 
less fatigue, than one who is peevish and unhappy. 

Illustration. A sportsman will pursue his game miles with- 
out fatigue, while his attendant, not having any mental stimu- 
lus, will become weary. 

108. The erect attitude lessens the exhaustion of the muscles 
A person will stand longer, walk farther, and do more work, 
when erect, than in a stooping posture; because the muscles 
of the back, in stooping, are in a state of tension, or stretching, 
to keep the head and trunk from falling forward. In the erect 
position, the head and trunk are nicely balanced and supported 
by the bones of the spinal column, and the muscles of the back 
are called but slightly into action. 

Experiment. Hold in each hand a pail of water, or equal 
weights, in a stooping posture, as long as it can be done with- 
out much suffering and injury. Again, when the muscular 
pain has ceased, hold the same weights, for the same length of 
time, in an erect posture, and note the difference in the fatigue 
of the muscles. 

Observation. The attitude of children in standing has been 

106. Why should every muscle move freely ? How is the effect of com 
prossion illustrated ? 107- Does the mind affect the action of the muscles? 
How is this illustrated ? 108. What attitude lessens the exhaustion of the 
muscles? Why? How is the effect of position shown by experiment ? 
What is said respecting the attitude of children ? 



much neglected both by parents and teachers. Let a child 
acquire the habit of inclining his head and shoulders, and the 
chest will become contracted, the muscles of the back enfeebled, 
and the deformity thus acquired will progress to advanced age. 

Fig. 25. 

Fig. 26. 

Fig. 25. 1, A perpendicular line from the centre of the feet to the upper fxtrem 
ity of the spinal column, where the head rests. 2, 2,2, The spinal column, with its 
three- natural curves. Here the head and body are balanced upon the spinal column 
and joints of the lower extremities, so that the muscles are not kept in a state of ten- 
sion. This erect position of the body and head is always accompanied with straight 
lower limbs. 

Pig. iG. 1, A perpendicular line from the centre of the feet. 0, Represents the un 
natural curved spinal column, and its relative position to the perpendicular, (1.) Tho 
lower limbs are seen curved at the knee, and the body is stooping forward. While 
standing in this position, the muscles of the lower limbs and hack are in continued 
tension, which exhausts and weakens them. 

What is represented by figs. 25 and 26 ? 



109. While studying, drawing, writing, and sewing, the 
body should he kept erect. This attitude favors a healthy action 
of the various organs of the body, and conduces to beauty and 
symmetry, of form. On the contrary, narrow chests, " hollow 
stomachs," " round shoulders," and ill health, follow a viola- 
tion of this rule. 

Fig. 27. 

Fig. 28 

Fig. 27. An improper, but not an unusual position in sitting. 
Fig. 28. A proper position in sitting. 

110. Muscles should be gradually called into action. When 
the muscular system has been in a state of rest, it should not 
suddenly be called into vigorous action. On arising from a 
bed, lounge, or chair, the first movements of the limbs should 
be slow, and then, if necessary, gradually increased. 

109. What is one cause of narrow chests and round shoulders ? 
110. What caution is given in using the muscles when they have been in 
a state of rest ? What does fig. 27 show ? Fig. 28 ? 


Observation. If a man has a certain amount of work to be 
performed in nine hours, and his muscles have been in a state 
of rest, he will do it with less fatigue by performing half the 
amount of the labor in five hours, and the remainder in four 
hours. The same principle should be regarded in driving 
horses and other beasts of burden. 

111. Muscles should be rested gradually, when they have 
been vigorously used. If a person has been making great 
muscular exertion in cutting wood, or any other employment, 
instead of sitting down to rest, he should continue muscular 
action by some moderate labor, or amusement. 

112. When the skin is covered with perspiration, (sweat,) 
from muscular action, avoid sitting down " to cool " in a current 
of air ; rather put on more clothing, and continue to exercise 

113. In cases when severe action of the muscles has been 
endured, bathing and rubbing the skin over the joints that have 
been used, are of much importance. This will prevent soreness 
of the muscles and stiffness of the joints. 

114. In labor, or exercise, the muscles should be relaxed. 
In walking, dancing, and learning to write, there will be less 
fatigue, and the movements will be more graceful, when the 
muscles are slightly relaxed, than when rigidly contracted. 
The same principle applies to most of the mechanical em- 

Experiments. Attempt to bow with the muscles of the 
limbs and trunk rigid, and there will be a stiff bending of the 
body only at the hip-joint. On the other hand, attempt to bow 
with the muscles moderately relaxed ; the ankle, the knee, and 

Give observation. Should the same principle be observed in driving 
horses ? 111. How should muscles be rested when they have been vigor- 
ously used ? 112. When the skin is covered with perspiration from muscu- 
lar action, how should it be " cooled" ? 113. How can soreness of the mus- 
cles be prevented ? 114. In what state should be the muscles of the arm iv. 
writing or performing most employments ? How is this principle shown by 
p\-r>eriments ? 

4 * 


the hip-joint will slightly bend, accompanied with an easy and 
graceful curve of the body. 

115. When riding in cars and coaches, the system will not 
suffer so severely from the jar if the muscles are slightly 
relaxed. When riding over uneven places in roads, rising 
slightly upon the feet diminishes the shock occasioned by the 
sudden motion of the carriage. The muscles, under such 
circumstances, are to the body what elastic springs are to a 

116. In jumping or falling from a carriage, or any height, 
the shock to the organs of the body may be obviated in the 
three following ways. 1st. Let the muscles be relaxed, not 
rigid. 2d. Let the limbs be bent at the ankle, knee, and hips ; 
the head should be thrown slightly forward, with the trunk a 
little stooping. 3d. Fall upon the toes, not the heel. 

117. Repetition of muscular action is necessary. To render 
the action of the muscles complete and effective, they must be 
called into action repeatedly and at proper intervals. This 
education must be continued until not only each muscle, but 
every fibre of the muscle, is fully under the control of the will. 
In this way, persons become expert penmen, singers, and 
skilful in every employment. 

118. In training the muscles for effective action, it is very 
important that correct movements be adopted at the com- 
mencement. If this is neglected, much power will be lost. 

Note A. The custom among farmers of enduring severe and un- 
due toil for several successive days, and then spending one or two 
days in idleness, to rest, is injudicious. It would be far better to do 
loss in a day, and continue the labor through the period devoted to 
idleness, and then no rest will bo demanded. 

115. What suggestion when riding in oars or coaches ? 116. In jumping 
from a carriage, in how many ways can the shock to the organs of the body 
be obviated ? Give the 1st. The 2d. The 3d. 117. How do persons be- 
come expert penmen, singers, or skilful in any employment ? 118. What 
is necessary in training the muscles for effective action ? 





119. The teeth are firmly fixed in the sockets of the upper 
and lower jaw. The first set, which appear in infancy, is 
called te?n'po-ra-ry, or milk-teeth. They are twenty in num 
ber ; ten in each jaw. 

Fig. 29. 

Fig. 29. The permanent teeth of the upper and lower jaw. a, b, The incisors 
c, The cuspids. </, e, The bicuspids. /, g, The molars, (double teeth.) A, The 
wisdom teeth. 

120. Between six and fourteen years of age, the temporary 
teeth are removed, and the second set appears, called pa 
ncnt teeth. They number thirty-two, sixteen in each jaw. 

121. The four front teeth in each jaw are called in-c 

119 — 123. Give the anatomy of the teeth. 119. In what are the troth 
planed ? What is the first set called ? How many in number ? Describe 
fig. '29. 1.20. When are these teeth removed? What is the sccoi. 
called? How many iu each jaw ? 121. What arc the teeth in front called ? 



(cutting teeth ;) the next tooth on each side, the cus'pid, (eye 
tooth ;) the next two, li-cus'pids, (small grinders ;) the next two, 
mo'lars, (grinders.) The last one on each side of the jaw, is 
called a wisdom tooth, because it does not appear until a person 
is about twenty years old. 

122. Each tooth is^ divided into two parts ; namely, crown 
and root. The crown is that part which protrudes from the 
jaw-bone and gum. The root, or "fang," is placed in the 
sockets qf the ia\y. 

Fig. 30. Fig. 31. 


Fig. 30. A side view of the body and enamel of a front tooth. 

Fig. 31. A side view of a molar tooth. 1, The enamel. 2, The body of the tooth 
3, The cavity in the crown of the tooth. 4, A nerve that spreads in the pulp of the 
tooth. 5, An artery that ramifies in the pulp of the tooth. 

123. The crowns of the teeth are covered with a very hard 
substance, called en-am 1 el. The roots consist of bony matter. 


124. The use of the teeth is twofold. 1st. By a cuttino- 
and grinding movement, they divide the masses of food into 

The next ? The next two ? Those next the bicuspids ? The last that 
appear in the jaw ? 122. How is each tooth divided ? Which part of the 
tooth is the crown ? Which the root ? 123. With what are the crowns 
of the teeth covered ? Of what does the root consist ? Describe fig. 31. 
124 — 12G. GivethcphysiologyoftJieteeth. 124. What is one use of the teeth? 


smaller pieces, so that they are more easily and readily changed 
in the stomach. 

125. 2d. The teeth aid us in speaking with distinctness 
certain letters and words. An individual who has lost his front 
teeth cannot pronounce distinctly certain letters, called dental. 

126. The teeth also give beauty to the lower part of the 
face. When they are removed, the lips and cheeks sink in, as 
is frequently seen in old age. Consequently, those simple 
observances that tend to the preservation of the teeth, are of 
practical interest to all persons. 


127. To preserve the teeth, they must he kept clean. After 
eating food, they should be cleaned with a brush and water, or 
vubbed with a piece of soft flannel, to prevent the tartar col 
lecting, and to remove the pieces of food that may have lodged 
between them. 

128. Tooth-picks may be useful in removing any particles 
inaccessible to the brush. They may be made of bone, ivory, 
or the common goose-quill. Metallic tooth-picks should not be 
used, as they injure the enamel. 

129. The whole mouth should be washed with pure, tepid 
water, at night, as well as in the morning, after which the teeth 
should be brushed upward and downward, both on the posterior 
and anterior surfaces. It may be beneficial to use refined 
soap once or twice every week, to remove any corroding sub- 
stance that may exist around the teeth, care being taken to 
thoroughly rinse the mouth after its use. 

125 Give another use of these organs. 126. Do they contribute to the 
symmetry of the lower part of the face ? 127-132. Give the hygiene of the 
teeth 127. By what means can the teeth be preserved ? 128. TV hat is sa^d 
of the use of tooth-picks ? 129. How often should the teeth be brushed .- 


130. Food or drink should not be taken into the mouth when 
very hot or very cold. Sudden changes of temperature will 
crack the enamel, and, finally, produce decayed teeth. 

Observation. On this account, smoking is pernicious, be- 
cause the teeth are subjected to an alternate inhalation of both 
cold and warm air. 

131. Care should be taken, in childhood, that the temporary 
teeth be removed as soon as they become loose, in order that the 
second set of teeth may present a regular and beautiful appear- 
ance. If a permanent tooth makes its appearance before the 
first is removed, or has become loose, the milk-tooth, although 
not loose, should be removed without delay. 

132. If the teeth are crowded and irregular, in consequence 
of the jaw being narrow and short, or when they press so hard 
upon each other as to injure the enamel, remove one or more, 
to prevent their looking unsightly and irregular, and in a few 
months, the remaining teeth, with a little care, will fill the 

Observations. 1st. It is not always necessary to have teetn 
extracted when they ache. The nerve may be diseased, and 
the tooth still be sound. 

2d. When it is necessary to have decayed teeth filled, it is 
better for the health of the person and durability of the teeth, 
to have them filled with gold foil. 

130. "What is the cause of decayed teeth ? Why is smoking injurious 
to the teeth ? 131. What remarks respecting the temporary teeth ? 
132. Give other remarks in regard to the temporary teeth. Give obser- 
vation 1st. Observation 2d. 




133. The food, whether animal or vegetable, has no resem- 
blance to the bones, muscles, and other parts of the body to 
which it gives sustenance. It must undergo certain essential 
alterations before it can become a part of the different struc- 
tures of the body. The first change is effected by the action 
of the Digestive Organs. 


Fig. 32. 

Fig 32. A view of the salivary glands in their proper situations. 1, The pirotid 
gland. 2, Its duct. 3, The submaxillary gland. 4, Its duct. 5, The sublingual 
gland, brought to view by the removal of a section of the lower jaw. 

133. Has animal or vegetable food any resemblance to the different parts 
of the body to which it gives sustenance ? By what organs is the first 
e in the food effected ? Describe fig. 32 


134. The digestive organs are the Mouth, Teeth, Sal'i- 
va-ry Glands, Phar'ynx, CE-soph'a-gus, (gullet,) Stomach 
Tn-tes'tines, (bowels,) Lac'te-als, (milk or chyle vessels,) 
Tho-rac'ic Duct, Liv'er, and the Pan'cre-as, (sweetbread.) 

135. The mouth is an irregular cavity, which contains the 
teeth and the organs of taste. 

136. The salivary glands* are six in number; three 
on each side of the jaw. They are called the pa-rot'id 
the sub-max'il-la-ry, and the sub-lin'gual. (Fig. 32.) 

137. The pharynx is a muscular, membranous sac, that leads 
to the oesophagus. 

Fig. 33. 

Fig. 33. A side view of the face, oesophagus, and trachea. 1, 2, The trachea 
(wind-pipe) and larynx. 3, The oesophagus. 4, 4, 4, The muscles of the upper por- 
tion of the oesophagus, forming the pharynx. 5, The muscles of the cheek. 6, The 
muscle that surrounds the mouth. 7, The muscle that forms the floor of the mouth. 

See paragraph 234. 

134 — 147. Give the anatomy of the digestive organs. 134. Name the 
digestive organs. 135. Describe the mouth. 136. Describe the salivaiy 
glands. 137. What is the pharynx ? "What does fig. 33 represent ? 



138 The oesophagus is a large, membranous tube, through 
which the food and drink pass into the stomach. 

139. The stomach* is in the left side of the body, below 
the lungs and heart. It is composed of three coats, or mem- 
branes, which are thin and yielding. The external is called 
the se'rous ; the middle, mus'cu-lar ; the inner, mu'eous. 

Illustration. The three coats of the stomach (anatomically) 
resemble tripe, which is a preparation of the largest stomach 
of the cow or ox. The outer coat is smooth and highly 
polished. The middle coat is composed of minute threads, 
which are arranged in two layers. The fibres of these layers 
cross each other. The inner coat is soft, and presents many 
/bids, usually called " the honey-comb." 

Fig. 34. 

Fig. 34. The inner surface of the stomach and duodenum. 1, The lower portion 
of the (esophagus. 2, The opening through which the food is passed into the stomach 
3, The stomach. 9, The opening through which the food passes out of the stomach 
into the duodenum, or upper portion of the small intestine. 10, 11, 14, The duode- 
num. 12, 13, Ducts through which bile and pancreatic fluid pass into it a, 6, «, The 
three coats of the stomach. 

* For situation of the stomach, fee, see fig. 53. 

138. What is the oesophagus ? 139. Where is the stomach situated ? 
How many coats has it ? Name them. What article prepared for food 
does the stomach resemble in structure f Explain fig. 34. 



140. The intestines, or alimentary canal, are divided into 
two parts, the small and large. The small intestine is about 
twenty-five feet in length. The upper and most important 
division is called the Du-o-de'num. The large intestine is 
about five feet in length. The largest division is called the 

141. The duodenum (called by nurses the second stomach) 
is the most essential part of the small intestine. It is about 
twelve inches in length, and commences at the lower orifice of 
the stomach. 

Pig 35. 1, 1, The duodenum. 2,2, The small intestine. 3, The connection • < 
tin- small and large intestine. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, The large intestine. 6, 7, 8, 9, Tl.j 

14" How are the intestines divided ? What is the length of the small 
intestine ? What is its largest division called ? "What is the length of the 
intestine ? What is its largest division called ? 141 Describe the 
duodenum. Explain fiu;. ?,:> 



142. The lacteals are minute vessels, which open upon the 
mucous surface of the small intestine. From the intestine 
they pass through small glands, (mes-en-ter'ic,) to the thoracic 

Fig. 3 !. 

Fig. 30. A portion of the small intestine, lacteal vessels, mesenteric glands, and 
thoracic duct. 1, The i'.iestine. 2,3,4, Mesenteric glands, through which the 
Int. ils pass to the tho' icic duct. 5, 6, The thoracic duct. 7, The point in the neck 
where it turns down 10 enter the vein at 8. 9, 10, The aorta. 11, 12, Vessels of the 
neck. 13, 14, If> The large veins that convey the blood and chyle to the heart 
17, 17, The spinal column. 18, The diaphragm, (midriff.) 

i 12. What are lacteals ? Through what do they pass as they proceed tc 
tae thoracic duct ? Describe fig. 36. 


143. The thoracic duct commences behind the liver, and 
ascends in front of the spinal column. At the lower part of 
the neck, it turns downward and forward, and pours its con- 
tents into the vein behind the collar-bone. (8, fig. 36.) This 
duct is equal in diameter to a goose-quill. 

144. The liver is in the right side of the body, below the 
right lung. On the under side of this organ is a small sac, 
which contains a yellow, bitter fluid, called bile, (gall.) 

Observation. The bile does not flow into the healthy stomach, 
but into the duodenum. With many persons, the imagination is 
bilious, not the stomach. 

145. The pancreas is a long, flattened organ, situated be- 
hind and below the stomach. From it there flows a fluid into 
the duodenum, called pan-cre-at'ic juice. 

Observation. A good idea of the liver, pancreas, and intes- 
tines can be obtained by examining these parts of a pig. In 
this animal, the sacs or pouches of the large intestine are well 

146. The spleen, (milt,) so called because the ancients 
supposed it to be the seat of melancholy, is an oblong, flattened 
organ, situated in the left side, in contact with the stomach and 
pancreas. Its use is not well determined. 

147. The omentum (caul) is composed of adipose matter, 
(fat,) deposited between layers of serous membrane. It is 
attached to the stomach, and lies on the anterior surface of the 
intestines. In some persons of gross habits, this deposit is very 

143. Describe the course of the thoracic duct. "What is its size ? 
144. Describe the liver. What is found upon its under surface ? Give ob- 
servation. 145. Describe the pancreas. How may an idea of the liver be 
obtained ? 146. Describe the spleen. Is its use well known ? 147. De- 
scribe the omentum. 




148. Substances received into the stomach as food, must 
necessarily undergo many changes before they are fitted to 
form part of the animal body. The solid portions are reduced 
to a fluid state, and those parts that will nourish the body are 
separated from the waste material. 

149. The first change in the food is made in the mouth, by 
the teeth, and the sa-li'va (spittle) from the salivary glands. 
The teeth divide, while the saiiva moistens and softens the food, 
so that, when carried into the pharynx, it is passed, with ease, 
through the oesophagus into the stomach. 

150. In swallowing, the food is pressed by the contraction 
of the muscles 5, 6, 7, (fig. 33,) into the pharynx, from which 
it is carried into the oesophagus, by the contraction of the 
muscles 4, 4, 4. As soon as the food is received into this tube, 
its muscular coat contracts upon it successively from above 
downward, and the alimentary ball is pressed onward into the 

Observation. The process of swallowing, or deglutition, is 
easily observed, when a person passes either liquid or solid 
food into the stomach. 

151. The next change in the food is in the stomach. The 
coats of the stomach contract, and the food is moved around, 
while, at the same time, a peculiar fluid is supplied by the 

148 — 159. Give the use of the digestive organs. 148. What is necessary 
before food can nourish the body ? 149. Describe the first change in the 
food. 150. Give the process by which the food is passed into the stomach. 
How may the process of swallowing be observed ? 151. Where is the 
second change in the food effected ? How is it done ? 
r # 


stomach, called gastric juice, which mixes with the food, and 
reduces it to a soft, pulpy mass, called chyme. 

152. This pulpy, grayish substance is passed into the duo- 
denum, and, by the action of the bile and pancreatic juice, it is 
changed into two parts — a milk-like substance, called chyle ; 
and re-sidu-um, or waste matter. 

153. The chyle and residuum pass from the duodenum into 
the remaining portion of the small intestine, and are moved 
along by a worm-like action of its parts. 

154. As these two substances are moved along the intestine, 
the chyle is sucked up by the lacteal vessels,* that pass through 
the small intestine, and the residuum is carried into the large 
intestine, and excreted from the system* 

155. To recapitulate : In the adaptation of the food to the 
wants of the body, it is subjected to five different changes. 
1st. It is changed in the mouth, by the action of the teeth and 
saliva. This is called mastication. 

156. 2d. By the action of the stomach and gastric juice, it 
is changed into a pulpy, homogeneous mass. This is called 

157. 3d. In the duodenum, the bile and pancreatic juice 
change the chyme into chyle. This is called chylification. 

158. 4th. By the action of the lacteal vessels and thoracic 
duct, the chyle is poured into a vein behind the collar-bone, 
and passes through the heart to the lungs ; here, by the action 
o{ the air, it becomes Mood. (See Chap. XX.) 

159. 5th. The separation and excretion of the residuum. 

* The chyle is changed by the lacteals and mesenteric glands, but 
the nature of this change is not, as yet, well denned or \mderstood. 

152. What becomes of this pulpy substance? "What change is effected 
in the duodenum ? 153. Where do the chyle and residuum then pass ? 
lot. What becomes of the chyle? Of the residuum? \o~>. Recapitulate 
mges in the digestive process. 

Note. Let the pupil review the anatomy and physiology of the digestive 
organs, from figs. 36 and 37, or from outline anatomical plate 5. 


Fig. 37. 

Fi , 37. An idea, view o, » ^ - <£ = ^ — S J * — 

5 The esophagus. 6, The trachea. 7 ; 1 ^'° ( ., st Q| . s IC . b, The duct thai 
9 , The stomach. 10, .0, The ^"^^f^^cre**. 15, 15, .5, 15, The 
conveys the bile to the cl,u„h,nun, ( V • , l ^ , arge intcsti 

..nal! intestine. 16, The openmg o th small « rtofthe8P H ia | 

17. ]8, 19, 20, The large intestine. 21, Hie spleen. , 





160. The perfection of the digestive process, as well as the 
health of the body, requires the observance of certain condi- 
tions. These will be considered under four heads. 1st. The 
quantity of food that should be taken. 2d. Its quality. 
3d. The manner in which it should be taken. 4th. The con- 
dition of the system when food is taken. 

161. The quantity of food necessary for the system varies. 
Although many things may aid us in determining the quantity 
of food proper for an individual, yet there is no certain guide 
in all cases. Age, occupation, habits, temperament, tempera- 
ture, health, and disease, all exert an influence. 

162. The child and youth require food to promote the 
growth of the bones, muscles, and the different parts of the 
body. The more rapid the growth of the child, the greater the 
demand for food. This accounts for the keen appetite and 
vigorous digestion in childhood. 

163. Food is necessary to repair the waste which attends 
the functions of the different organs. The waste is greatest 
when we exercise most. For this reason, when we increase 
our exercise or labor, the quantity of food may be increased ; 
while, on the other hand, when wc change from an active em- 

160 — 186. Give the hygiene of the digestive organs. 160. What docs the 
perfection of the digestive process require? 161. Can the quantity of 
food proper for an individual be determined in all cases ? What exert an 
influence on the quantity necessary for the body ? 162. At what age is the 
appetite keen and the digestion vigorous ? Why ? 163. Give another de- 
! for food. When is the waste greatest ? When should the amount 
id be lessened ? 


ployment to one less active in character, the food should be 
diminished in nearly the same degree that the exercise is 

164. When the girl leaves the active household employ- 
ments for the shop of the dress-maker, — when the boy leaves 
the farm for the school-room, — the amount of food should 
be diminished as soon as the sedentary employment is com- 
menced ; for, under such circumstances, the appetite will not 
guide correctly. 

Observation. It is a common observation, that in academies 
and colleges, the older students from the country, who have 
been accustomed to hard manual labor, suffer more frequently 
from defective digestion and impaired health than the younger 
and feebler students from the larger towns or cities. 

165. The food aids in supporting the warmth of the body. 
This is the reason why the appetite for food is keener in the 
winter than in the summer. It follows, then, that the system 
requires more food in cold than in hot weather. 

Observations. 1st. Well-clothed children require less food 
in cold weather than those thinly dressed. 2d. Flocks and 
herds that are sheltered in winter, will eat one third less than if 
exposed to the inclemency of the weather ; hence it is true 
economy to keep the inferior animals warm, as well as children. 

166. In all instances, the quantity of food should have 
reference to the present condition of the digestive organs. 
If they are weakened or diseased, so that but a small quantity 
of food can be properly digested or changed, that amount only 
should be taken. Food does not invigorate the system, except 
it is changed, as has been' described in Chap. XI. 

167. The quality of the food best adapted to the wants of 

164. When will not the appetite guide correctly ? What observation re- 
specting those students that have been accustomed to hard manual labor ? 
165. Why is the appetite for food keener in the winter than in the summer ? 
Give observation 1st. Observation 2d. 166. Why should the present 
condition of the digestive organs be regarded in reference to the quantity 
ur'food? 167. On what does the quality of food adapted to the wants of 
'.he system depend ? 


the system depends upon the season, climate, age, &c, of 
a person. Like the quantity necessary for an individual, there 
can be no fixed law. 

168. The kind of food which is eaten should be adapted to 
the distensible character of the stomach and alimentary canal. 
Hence the food should contain nutritious Mid innutritions mat- 
ter — nutritious, to promote the growth anrl repair the waste of 
the system ; and innutritious, to distend both the stomach and 
alimentary canal. Consequently, hot flour bread, rich pies, and 
jellies, are not so good articles for foodrfas the unbolted wheat 
bread, ripe fruits, and berries. m 

169. The influence of season and climate should be consid- 
ered in selecting food. Food of a highly stimulating character 
may be used almost with impunity, during the cold weather of 
a cold climate, but in the warm season, and in a warm climate, 
it would be very injurious. Animal food, being more stimu- 
lating than vegetable, can be eaten in the winter ; but vegetable 
food should be used more freely in the spring and summer. 

Observation. By abstaining from meats and stimulating 
drinks in warm weather, and living on nutritious, unstimulating 
food, the " season " or bowel complaints may be, in a great 
degree, prevented. 

170. The age of persons modifies the influence of food on the 
system. The organs of a child are more sensitive and excita- 
ble than those of a person advanced in years. Therefore 
a vegetable diet would be most appropriate for a child, while 
stimulating animal food might be conducive to the health of an 
aged person. 

171. The manner in which food should be taken is of much 
practical importance ; upon it the health of the diuestive 


ICS. What should all substances used for food contain? Why? 
169. Should the season of the year influence us in selecting food? GWp. 
observation. 170. What kind of food is adapted to the organs of the child ? 
Why? What kind to a person advanced in life? Why? 171. What is 
s.ak] of the manner of taking food ? 


172. Food should he taken at regular periods. The interval 
between meals should be regulated by the kind of food, the 
age, health, exercise, and habits of the individual. Children re- 
quire food more frequently than adults ; yet, strict regularity and 
punctuality should be observed in regard to their times of eating. 

173. Food should not he taken too frequently. If food is 
taken before the stomach has regained its tone and energy by 
repose, or before the digestion of the preceding meal has been 
completed, not only will the action of the stomach be imperfect, 
but the food partially digested becomes mixed with that last taken, 
inducing irritation or disease. In general, an adult should allow 
six hours to intervene between meals. 

171. Food should he well masticated, or chewed. All solid 
food should be reduced to a state of comparative fineness, by the 
teeth, before it is swallowed; the gastric fluid of the stomach 
will then blend with it more readily, and act more vigorously 
in reducing it to chyme. 

175. Mastication should he moderate, not rapid ; for the 
salivary glands are excited to action in chewing, and some time 
must elapse before they can secrete saliva in sufficient quantities 
to moisten the food. 

176. Food should he masticated and sioallowed without 
drink. As the salivary glands supply fluid to moisten the dry 
food, the use of tea, coffee, water, or any other fluid, is not 
demanded by nature's laws while taking a meal. 

Observation. Were it customary not to place drinks on the 
table until the solid food is eaten, the evil arising from drinking 
too much at meals would be obviated. 

177. The condition of the system should be regarded 
when food is taken. 

172. How should food be taken? How should the intervals between 
meals be regulated ? What should be observed in giving food to children ? 
17:;. What is the effect if food is taken too frequently ? 174. Why should 
be well masticated? 17-5. Why should we not eat rapidly ? 176. Why 
do we not require drink while chewing our food ? 177. Should the con- 
dition of the system bo regarded when food is taken ? 


178. Food should not be taken immediately after severe exer- 
tion, either of the body or mind ; for all organs in action require 
and receive more blood and nervous fluid, than when at rest. 

Observation. The practice of students and accountants 
going immediately from severe mental labor to their meals, is 
a pernicious one, and a fruitful cause of indigestion and menial 
debility. The custom of farmers and mechanics hurrying 
from their toil to the dinner-table, " to save time," — which, to 
say the least, is poor economy, — does much to cause dyspepsia 
among these classes in community. 

179. Severe mental or physical labor should not be entered 
upon immediately after eating. The amount of blood and 
nervous fluid supplied to the stomach and alimentary canal 
during the digestion of food is increased, and a deficiency con- 
sequently exists in other organs. If the blood is diverted from 
the stomach to the limbs or brain by active exertion, it will not 
only cause disease of the digestive organs, but chyle will not be 
formed, to nourish the system. 

180. Pure air is necessary to give a keen appetite and vigor- 
ous digestion. The digestive organs not only need the stimulus. 
of blood, but they absolutely need the influence of pure blood 
which cannot exist in the system, except when we breathe 
pure air. 

Illustration. A manufacturer stated before a committee of 
the British parliament, that he removed an arrangement for 
ventilating his mill, because he noticed that his men ate much 
more after his mill was ventilated than previous to admitting 
fresh air into the rooms. The apology for removing the venti- 
lators was, that he could not afford to have them breathe 
pure air. 

178. Why should not food be taken after severe exertion ? What i<; one 
cause of indigestion among students and accountants ? What is said o 
farmers and mechanics hurrying from their toil to the dinner-table ? 
170. Why should not severe exertion be made immediately after eating ? 
1 H| ) AVTiat effect has pure air on digestion ? Give illustration. 


181. Persons should abstain from eating, at least three 
hours before retiring for sleep. It is no unusual occurrence 
for those persons who have eaten heartily immediately before 
retiring for sleep, to have unpleasant dreams, or to be aroused 
from their unquiet slumber by colic pains. 

Illustration. A healthy farmer, who was in the habit of 
eating one fourth of a mince pie immediately before going to 
bed, became annoyed with unpleasant dreams, and, among the 
varied images of his fancy, he saw that of his deceased father. 
Becoming alarmed, he consulted a physician, who, after a 
patient hearing of the case, gravely advised him to eat half of a. 
mince pie, assuring him that he would then see his grandfather. 

182. When the general system and digestive organs are 
enfeebled, mild, unstimulating food, in small quantities, should 
be given. In the instance of a shipwrecked and famished 
mariner, or a patient recovering from disease, but a small 
quantity of nourishment should be given at a time. 

183. Water and most fluids are removed from the stomach 
in a very few minutes,, by the action of the veins. In instances 
of great feebleness, the body can be strengthened sooner by 
liquid than by solid food. 

184. When travelling in coaches or cars, the stomach is not 
in a state to digest large quantities of food. When food is 
taken, it should be of the mildest character, and small in 

185. To prevent disease, it is as necessary that the alimen- 
tary canal be evacuated regularly, as that we take food into 
the stomach at regular periods. 

186. Sitting, standing, and walking erect, aid in keeping the 
digestive organs healthy. 

181. What is the effect of eating immediately before retiring for sleep ? 
How is this illustrated in the case of a healthy farmer ? 182. How should 
food be given when both the digestive organs and general system are en 
feebled ? 183. Which are introduced into the system soonest, fluids or 
solid food ? 184. What is said in regard to food while we are travelling 
186. What position of the body aids digestion ? 





187. The blood is distributed to every part of the system. 
There is no part so minute, that it does nut receive this circu- 
lating fluid. This distribution is effected by the agency of the 
Heart, Ar'te-ries, Veins, and Cap'il-la-ries. 


188. The heart is situated in the chest, between the lungs. 
(Fig. 53.) It is a double organ, or has two sides, called right 
and left, which are separated by a muscular septum, or 

189. Each side of the heart has two cavities. The upper 
cavity is called the au'ri-cle, (deaf ear.) The lower cavity is 
called the vcntri-cle. These cavities are separated from each 
other by folds of membrane, called valves. (Fig. 38.) 

190. Between the auricle and ventricle of the right side of 
the heart, there are three valves, railed tri-cus'pid. Between 
the auricle and ventricle of the left side of the heart, there are 
two valves, called mitral. 

Observation. To obtain a clear idea of the heart and its 
valves, it is recommended to examine this part of an ox or 
calf. In order that each ventricle be opened without muti- 


187- What, is said of the distribution of the blood ? How is it effected' 
188 — 19M. GM the anatomy of the circulator;/ organs. 188. Describe the 
heart. 189. Ilnw many cavities has it ? What is the upper cavity called ? 
What is the lower cavity called ? How are these cavities separated • 
U)0. How many valves between the right auricle and ventricle, and what are 
tlit y called ? How many valves between the left auricle and ventrich 
what are they called ? How can an idea of the heart be obtained ? 



bating the parts that compose its internal structure, cut on each 
side of the septum parallel to it. This may be easily found 
between the ventricles, as they differ in thickness. 

191. The arteries are the vessels that carry the blood from 
the heart. The right ventricle of the heart gives rise to the 
■pal mo-na-ry artery ; the left ventricle to a large artery, called 
the a-ort'a. At the commencement of both of these vessels 
are valves, and from their shape, they are called sem-i-lu'nar 

Fie. 38. 1, The descending vein. 2, The ascending vein. 3, The right auricle. 
4, The opening between the right auricle and the right ventricle. 5, The right ven- 
tricle. 6, The tricuspid valves. 7, The pulmonary artery. 8, 8, The branches of 
the pulmonary artery that pass to the right and left lung. 9, The semilunar valves of 
the pulmonary artery. 10, The division between the two ventricles of the heart. 
11,11, The pulmonary veins. 12, The left auricle. 13, The opening between the 
left auricle and ventricle. 11, The left ventricle. 15, The mitral valves. 16, 10, The 
aoita. 17, The semilunar valves of the aorta. 

Observation. The parts of the circulatory organs most liable 
to disease are the valves of the heart, particularly the mitral. 

191. What are arttfKes ? Where does the pulmonary artery take its 
rise? The aorta? What valves at the commencement of these vessels ? 
Describe fig. 38. What parts of the circulatory organs are most liable tc 
ilisease ? 



When these memhranous folds become ossified or ruptured, 
the blood regurgitates, and causes great distress in breathing. 

192. The pulmonary artery commences in front of the 
aorta. It ascends obliquely to the under surface of the arch of 
the aorta, where it divides into two branches, one of which 
passes to the right, the other to the left lung. This artery 
conveys the dark-colored or "venous" blood to the lungs, and, 
with its corresponding veins, establishes the pulmonic circu- 

Fig. 39. 

Fiz. 39. t, The windpipe, h, The heart, a, The aorta, p, The pulmonary 
artery. 1, The branch of the pulmonary artery that divides in the left lung. 2, The 
Drench that divides in the right lung. 

The divisions of this artery continue to divide and subdivide, until they become no 
larger than hairs in size. These minute vessels pass over the air-cells, represented by 
*uiall dark points around the margin of the lungs. 

192. Describe the pulmonary artery. What is the function of this 
artery ? Explain fig. 39. What is said of the divisions of the pulmonary 
artery ? 



193. The aorta proceeds from the left ventricle of the 

heart, and contains the pure or " arterial " hlood. This vessel 

gives off branches, which divide and subdivide as they advance, 

until they are distributed to every part of the body. This 

artery, with its corresponding veins, establishes the systemic 


Fig. 40. 

Fig. 40. The aorta and its branches, a, The commencement oi the aorta. 

193. Describe the aorta. What is represented by fig. 40 ? 

6 * 



194. The veins are the vessels which return the blood to 
the auricles of the heart, after it has been circulated by the 
arteries through the lungs and other parts of the body. At 
certain intervals, they are furnished with valves, which allow 
the blood to flow toward the heart only. In general, they are 
nearer the surface of the body than the arteries. 

195. The capillaries constitute a microscopic net-work, 
and are so distributed through every part of the body as to ren- 
der it impossible to introduce the smallest needle beneath the 
skin without wounding several of these fine vessels. They 
establish the communication between the termination of the 
arteries and the beginning of the veins. 

196. The relation of the capillaries to the arteries and 
veins, is illustrated by figs. 41 and 42. 

Fi;;. 41. 

Fh. 42. 

Fig. 41. An ideal view of a portion of the pulmonic circulation. I, I, A branch 
of the artery that carries the impure blood to the hums. 3, 3, Capillar) ires 
2,2, A vein through which the red blood is returned to the left side of the heart. 

Fij. 4?. An ideal view of a portion of the systemic circulation. I, !, A Branch 
of the aorta. This terminates in the capillaries 3, 3. 2, 2, A vein through which 
the impure blood is carried to the n^ht side of the heart. 

194. What are veins? With what are they furnished? 195. What do 
the i institute! What do they establish ? What does fig. 41 

Fig. -12? 




107. The walls of all the cavities of the heart are composed 
of muscular fibres, which are endowed with the property of con- 
tracting and relaxing, like other parts of the muscular system. 
The contraction and relaxation of the muscular fihres of the 
heart increase and diminish the size of its cavities. 

198. The two auricles dilate at the same instant, and also 
contract at the same instant. The two ventricles contract, while 
the auricles dilate. Thus the blood is forced from the heart to 
every part of the body, and received again on iis return. 

199. The course of the blood through the heart, arteries, 
and veins, may be easily comprehended by attention to fig. 43, 
which gives an ideal view of the circulation of the blood. 

200. The heart aids in forcing the blood through the arte- 
ries, to the different parts of the body. Every time the heart 
contracts, there is a " pulse," or " pulsation,' 1 in the arteries. 

Experiment. Apply the fingers upon the artery at the wrist, 
at two different points, about two inches apart; if the pressure 
be moderately made, the "pulse" will be felt at both points. 
Let the upper point be pressed firmly, and there will be no 
pulsation at the lower point; but make strong pressure upon 
the lower point only, and the pulsation will continue at the 
upper point ; proving that the blood flows from the heart, in 
the arteries, to different parts of the system. 

107 — 213. Give the physiology of the circulatory organs. 197 What do 
the contraction and relaxation of the muscular walls of the heart produce ? 
198. What is said of the contraction and dilatation of the auricles ? Of 
the ventricles ? 200. What causes the "pulse," or '-pulsation," in the 
arteries? How is it proved that the blood flows from the heart in the 
arteries ? 


201. The frequency of the pulse varies according to the 
age, sex, and degree of health. In adults, it is usually from 
seventy to seventy-five "beats" in a minute. 

202. There is no pulsation in the veins, and the return of 
the blood to the heart through them can be shown by the fol- 
lowing experiments. 

Experiments. 1st. Press firmly on one of the veins upon 
.he back of the hand, carrying the pressure toward the 
fingers ; for a moment the vein will disappear. On removing 
the pressure of the finger, it will reappear, from the blood 
rushing in from below. 

2d. If a tape be tied around the arm above the elbow, the 
«reins below will become larger and more prominent, and also a 
greater number will be brought in view. At this time, apply 
the finger at the wrist, and the pulsation of the arteries still 
continues, showing that the blood is constantly flowing from 
the heart, through the arteries, into the veins ; and the increased 
size of the veins shows that the pressure of the tape prevents 
its flowing back to the heart. 

203. From the right ventricle of the heart, (2, fig. 43,) the 
dark, impure blood is forced into the pulmonary artery, (3 :) 
and its branches (4, 5) carry the blood to the left and right 
lung. In the capillary vessels (6, 6) of the lungs, the blood 
becomes pure, or of a red color, and is returned to the left auri- 
cle of the heart, (9,) by the veins, (7, 8.) From the left auri- 
cle the pure blood passes into the left ventricle, (10.) By a 
forcible contraction of the left ventricle of the heart, the blood 
is thrown into the aorta, (11.) Its branches (12, 13, 13) carry 
the pure blood to every organ, or part of the body. The 
divisions and subdivisions of the aorta terminate in capillary 
vessels, represented by 14, 14. In these hair-like vessels 
the blood becomes dark-colored, and is returned to the right 
auricle of the heart, (1,) by the vc'na ca'va de-sceridens (15) 
and ve'na cava as-cen'dens, ( 16.) The tricuspid valves ( 17) pre- 
vent the reflow of the blood from the right ventricle to the right 

201. What varies the frequency of the pulse ? 202. Is there pulsation 
m the veins ? How is it proved, by experiment 1st, tha* *he blood is 
returned to the heart by th" veins ? By experiment 2cW 



• 'ricle. The semilunar valves (18) prevent the blood passing 
fiom the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle. The mitral 
valves (19) prevent the flow of blood from the left ventricle to 
the left auricle. The semilunar valves (20) prevent the reflow 
of blood from the aorta to tbe left ventricle. 

iVcis. From fig. 43, give the course of the blood through the heart, arto 
ries, and veins, or from anatomical outline plates 6 and 7. 




204. The clothing should be loosely worn. To have good 
health, the blood must circulate freely. Consequently, no arti- 
cle of apparel should be worn so as to prevent a free flow of 
blood through every organ of the body. 

205. Strings, bands, or belts, however narrow, should not 
be worn so tightly as to cause an indentation of the skin of the 
trunk, o) extremities. 

Observations. 1st. Inelastic bands, worn upon the lower 
extremities, are a frequent cause of enlarged veins and painfu' 
limbs. 2d. The fulness and the crimson tint of the face, gid 
diness, fainting, and many derangements in the functions oi 
different organs, are produced by pressure upon the blood 
vessels of the trunk. 

206. The skin should be kept clean, and every part of an 
equal temperature. These conditions favor free and vigorous 

Observation. When intending to ride in a cold day, wash 
the face, hands, and feet, in cold water, and rub them smartly 
with a coarse towel. This is far better than to take spirits into 
the stomach, to keep the extremities warm. 

207. Muscular exercise is important in maintaining a 

_ 5- . , 

204 — 214. Give the hygiene of the circulatory organs. 204. Why should 
the clothing be loosely worn ? 20-5. What is said ot* bands or belts ? What 
is the effect of wearing inelastic bands upon the lower extremities ? What 
is a frequent cause of giddiness, faintness, and derangement of the func- 
tions of many organs ? 206. In what condition should the skin be kept ? 
( m •• e observation. 207. What is the effect of muscular exercise upon the 
circulation of blood ? 


healthy circulation. The muscles, when used, force the 
blood more rapidly to and from the heart. 

Illustration. The coach-driver and teamster throw their 
arms around their bodies to warm them, when cold ; because 
the muscles that are called into action in swinging the arms, 
force a greater quantity of blood into the chilled parts, and 
more heat is produced. 

208. Idle men and women, who complain of cold feet, and 
take " warming bitters" to quicken the blood, would find them- 
selves warmer and more invigorated by calling the muscles into 
action in the mechanic's shop, or the kitchen, or in some active 

Observation. In cold weather, when travelling in cars, the 
feet will not become chilled so readily when standing as when 
sitting. Again, the feet will be warmer by allowing them to 
swing, instead of being supported the whole time, because the 
muscles, called into action in swinging them, increase the cir- 
culation of the blood. 

209. The quality and quantity of the blood modify the action 
of the heart and blood-vessels. If this fluid is abundant and- 
pure,. the circulatory vessels act with more energy than when 
it is deficient in quantity or defective in quality. 

Illustrations. 1st. In an athletic man, whose heart beats 
forcibly, and whose pulse is strong, if a considerable quantity of 
blood is drawn from a vein, as in bleeding, the heart will beat 
feebly, and the pulse will become weak. 

2d. When the blood is made impure by inhaling vitiated air, 
the action of the heart and arteries is diminished, which pro- 
duces an effect similar to that which takes place when blood is 
drawn from a vein. 

210. When large blood-vessels arc wounded or cut, the 

Give illustration. 208. What is better for cold feet and hands than 
" wanning bitters " ? Give observation. 209. What effect have the quantity 
and quality of the blood upon the circulatory vessels ? Give illustration 
1st. Illustration 2d. 210. What is necessary when large blood-vessels arc 
\\f a ruled or cut ? 



flow of blood must be immediately -stopped, or the person 
will soon die. If a large artery is wounded, the blood will be 
thrown out in jets, or jerks, every time the pulse beats. The 
flow of blood can be stopped until a surgeon arrives, either by 
compressing the vessel between the wound and the heart, or by 
compressing the end of the divided artery in the wound. 

Fig. 44. 

Fig. 45. 

Fig. 44. The track of the large artery of the arm. 1, The collar-bone. 9, 10, The 
large artery of the arm. 

F'ig. 45. B, The manner of compressing the artery near the collar-bone. A, The 
manner of compressing the large artery of the arm, with the fingers. C, The manner 
of compressing the divided extremity of an artery in the wound, with a finger. 

211. After making compression with the fingers, as described 
and illustrated, take a piece of cloth or handkerchief, twist it 
eornerwise, and tic a hard knot midway between the two ends. 

What is shown by fig. 44 ? By fig. 45 ? 211. What is to be done afte.- 
compressing the wound, as before described ? 



This knot should be placed over the artery, between the wound 
and the heart, and the ends carried around the limb and loosely 
tied. A stick, five or six inches long, should be placed under 
the handkerchief, which should be twisted until the knot has 
made sufficient compression on the artery to allow the removal 
of the fingers without a return of bleeding. Continue the 
compression until a surgeon can be called. 

Fig. 47. 

Fig. 46. The method of applying the knotted handkerchief to make compression on 
this artery. A, B, The track of the large artery of the arm. 

Fig. 47. A, C, The track of the large artery of the thigh. B, The method of apply- 
ing the knotted handkerchief to compress this artery. In practice, the twisting stick B 
should be placed opposite the knot over the artery A, C. 

Observation. When an artery of the arm is cut, elevating 
the wounded limb above the head will tend to arrest the flow of 
blood. In a wound of a lower limb, raise the foot, so that it 
shall be higher than the hip, until the bleeding ceases. 

Illustration. On one occasion, the distinguished Dr. Nathan 
Smith was called to a person who had divided one of the large 
arteries below the knee. After trying in vain to find the bleed 
ino- vessel, so as to secure it, he caused the foot to be elevated 

Give observation. Relate a simple 

What is shown by figs. 46, 47? 
operation by Dr. Nathan Smith. 



higher than the hip. At the first instant the blood was forced 
from the wound about twelve inches; in a minute, it was dimin- 
ished to three or four ; and, in a short time, the bleeding ceased. 
This Dr. S. called his "great" operation; and it was truly 
great in simplicity and science. 

212. In "flesh wounds," when no krge blood-vessel is 
divided, wash the part with cold water, and, when bleeding 
has ceased, draw the wound together, and retain it with narrow 
strips of adhesive plaster. These should be put on smoothly, 
and a sufficient number applied to cover the wound. In most 
instances of domestic practice, the strips of adhesive plaster are 
too wide. The/ should not exceed in width one fourth of an 
inch. Then appiy a loose ba.idage, and avoid all " healing 
salves," ointments, and washes. 

Fig. 48. 

Fig. 48. The manner in which strips of adhesive plaster are applied to wound* 1 

213. The union of the divided parts is effected by the action 
of the divided blood-vessels, and not by salves and ointments. 
The only object of the dressing is to keep the parts together, 
and protect the wound from air and impurities. Nature, in all 
cases of wounds, performs her own cure. Such simple incisions 
do not generally require a second dressing, and should not be 
opened till the parts are heabd. In removing the dressing 
from a wound, both ends of the strips of plaster should be 
raised and drawn toward the incision. The liability of the 
wound re-opening is thus diminished. 

■ How should " flesh wounds " he dressed ? 213. How is the union of 
divided parts effected ? What should be avoided ? How should the 
kinps of plaster be removed from a wound ? 


214. The proper position of the limbs favors the union of 
wounds. If the wound be upon the front part of the leg, 
between the knee and ankle, extending the knee and bending 
the ankle will aid its closing. If the wound be upon the back 
part of the leg, by extending the foot and bending the knee, 
the gaping of the wound will be diminished. When wounds 
occur upon the trunk, let the position of the person be rega'ded. 

Fig. 49. a, a, Wounds on the back part of the ami and fore-arm. b, ft, Wounds 
on the front part of the arm and fore-arm. By bending the elbow and wrist, the 
wounds at a, a, are opened, while the wounds at ft, 6, are closed. Were the arm ex- 
tended at the elbow and wrist, the wounds at a, a, would be closed, and those at ft, ft, 
would be opened. 

215. In wounds made by pointed instruments, as a nail, or 
in lacerated wounds, as those made by forcing a blunt instru- 
ment, as a hook, into the soft parts, there will be no direct and 
immediate union. In these cases, apply a soothing poultice, as 
one made of linseed meal, and also keep the limb still. It is 
judicious to consult a physician immediately, in punctured or 
lacerated wounds, because they often induce the most danger 
ous diseases. 

214. Does the proper position of the limbs favor the union of wounds r 
215. How should punctured and lacerated wounds be dressed ? 




216. Absorption is the process by which the nutrient por- 
tion of the food is removed from the alimentary canal to be 
conveyed into the circulatory vessels. It is likewise the process 
by which the particles of matter that have become injurious or 
useless, are removed from the mass of fluids and solids of 
which the body is composed. These renovating and remov- 
ing processes are performed by two sets of vessels. 


217. The vessels that act exclusively for the growth and 
renovation of the system, are found only in the alimentary 
canal. They are called lac'te-als* 

218. The vessels whose sole function is to remove particles 
of matter already deposited, are called lym-phat'ics. The 
radicals, or commencement of the veins, in many, and it may 
be in all parts of the body, perform the office of absorption. 

Fig. 50. A representation of the lymphatic vessels and glands. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, The 
lymphatic vessels and glands of the lower limbs. 7, Lymphatic glands. 8, The 
commencement of the thoracic duct. 9, The lymphatics of the kidney. 10, Of the 
stomach. 11, Of the liver. 12, 12, The lungs. 13, 14, 15, The lymphatics and 
glands of the arm. 16, 17, 18, Of the face and neck. 19, 20, Large veins. 21, The 
thoracic duct. 20, The lymphatics of the heart 

* See paragraph 142. 

216. What is absorption ? 217. What are those vessels called that act 
exclusively for the growth and renovation of the body ? 218 — 221. Give 
the anatomy of the lymphatic vessels. 218. Name those vessels that remove 
the atoms already deposited. What other vessels perform the office of 
Rbsorption ? What does fig. 50 represent ? 

Pig. 50. 


219. The lymphatic vessels are very minute at their com- 
mencement; so much so, that they cannot be seen without 
the aid of a magnifying glass. As they proceed, they unite 
and form larger trunks, that open into the veins. 

220. Lymphatic vessels are found in every part of the 
body, except the brain, yet, it is supposed they exist in this or- 
gan. The knotted appearance of these vessels is owing to 
the arrangement of their internal coats, to form valves. 

221. In certain parts of the body, as the neck, these ves- 
sels pass through small, soft bodies, called lymphatic glands, 
which are to these vessels what the mesenteric glands are to 
the lacteals. 

Observation. Sometimes, when we are afflicted with a 
cold, these glands in the neck enlarge ; they are usually 
called " kernels." 


222. Though the lacteals and lymphatics resemble each 
other in their structure and termination, yet they differ as to the 
nature of the fluids which they convey, as well as the nature of 
their functions. The lacteals open into the small intestine, 
and possess the power of rejecting all substances in the passing 
food but the chyle. 

223. The lymphatics, on the contrary, not only imbibe, or 
suck up, all the various constituents of the body, both fluid and 
solid, when their vitality has ceased, but they absorb foreign 
and extraneous substances when presented to their mouths. 

Observations. 1st. When little or no food is taken into the 
stomach, life is supported by the lymphatic vessels imbibing 

219. Describe the lymphatic vessels. 220. Where are they found ? To 
what is the knotted appearance of these vessels owing ? 222 — 224. Give 
the use of the lymphatic vessels. 221. "What are lymphatic glands ? Give 
observation. 222. What is said of the lacteals and lymphatics ? Give 
the function of the former. 223. Give the use of the lymphatics. How 
is life supported when little or no food is eaten ? 


rtie fat, and reconveying it into the circulatory vessels. It is 
the removal of this substance which causes the emaciation of 
the face and limbs of a person recovering from a fever. In 
consumption, the extreme attenuction of the limbs is caused by 
the absorption, not only of the fat, but also of the muscles and 
more solid parts of the body. 

2d. Animals which live in v half torpid state during the 
winter, derive their nourishment from the same -source. In 
other words, we may say the starving animal lives for a time 
upon itself, eating up, by internet absorption, such parts of the 
body as can be spared, under urgent necessity, to feed these 
organs, and continue those functions that are absolutely essen- 
tial to life. 

224. The most important absorbing surfaces are the 
stomach, intestines, lungs, anc 1 skin. Through the lungs, 
absorption is not only very great, but extremely rapid. 

Illustration. In inhaling sulnhuric ether, or letheon, it is 
introduced into the vessels of the lungs in the form of vapor, 
and through them it is rapidly conveyed to the brain, and thus 
influences the nervous system. 


225. By the action of the lymphatics, substances of an inju- 
rious, as well as of a beneficial character may be conveyed 
into the system. These vessels, under certain conditions, are 
more active in their office than at other periods ; and it is of 
practical utility to know what influences their action. 

226. The function of these vessels is increased by moisture, 

What causes the extreme attenuation of the limbs in consumption ? How 
do those animals derive their nourishment that live in a half torpid state 
during winter ? 224. What are the most important absorbing surfaces ? 
How is letheon introduced into the svstem ? 225—229. Give the hygiene 
of the lymphatic vessels. 225. What Is said respecting the action of the 
lymphatic vessels ? 226. What influences the function of these vessels ? 


and lessened by an inactive state of the lacteals. Obser- 
vation shows that the ill-fed, and those persons that live in 
marshy districts, contract contagious diseases more readily than 
those individuals who are well fed, and breathe a dry and 
pure air. 

227. The skin and the apparel of nurses and watchers 
should be clean, and as free of perspiration as possible. The air 
of the sick-room should also be dry. The observance of these 
conditions tends to prevent the absorption of the poisonous 
matter of contagious diseases, as small-pox, measles, &c. 

Observation. When we have been visiting, or attending on 
a sick person, it is judicious to change the apparel worn in the 
sick-room, and also give the skin a thorough bathing. The out- 
side garments, also, should be aired, as poisonous matter may 
have penetrated the meshes of the cloth. 

228. The stomach should be supplied with food of a nutrient 
and digestible character, in proper quantities, and at stated 
periods. The chyle formed from the food stimulates the 
lacteals to activity, which activity is attended with an inactive 
state of the lymphatics of the skin and lungs. Thus due at- 
tention should be given to the food of the attendants on the 
sick, and the children of the family. 

Observation. Many individuals, to prevent contracting dis- 
ease that may be communicated from one person to another, 
use tobacco, either chewed or smoked ; and sometimes alco- 
hol, with decoctions of bitter herbs. These substances do not 
diminish, but tend to increase the activity of the lymphatics. 
Thus they make use of the means by which the poisonous 
matter formed in the system of the diseased person, may be 
more readily conveyed into their own. 

What does observation show ? 227. Why should the skin and apparel 
of nurses and watchers be as free of perspiration as possible ? What sug- 
gestion when we have been visiting or attending on the sick ? 228. Why 
should the stomach be supplied with food of a nutrient and digestible 
character ? What is said of the use of alcohol or tobacco, in preventing the 
introduction of the poisonous matter of contagious diseases ? 


229. Absorption by the skin is most vigorous when the ex- 
ternal layer is removed by vesication, or blistering. Then, 
external applications, as ointments, are brought in immediate 
contact with the orifices, or mouths, of tne lymphatics of the 
skin, and by them rapidly imbibed and circulated through the 
system. The same results follow, if the skin is only punctured. 

Observation. 1st. In case of an accidental wound, it is best 
immediately to bathe the part thoroughly in pure water, and to 
avoid all irritating applications. In some instances, it would be 
well to apply lunar caustic immediately. 

2d. When shrouding dead bodies, or removing the skin 
from animals that have died of disease, it would be well to 
lubricate the hands with olive-oi' or lard. This affords pro- 
tection to the minute portions of the skin from which the 
external layer may be removed 

3d. In all cases where there is an ulcer, or sore, the part 
should be covered with something impervious to fluids, as 
court-plaster, before exposing the system to any animal, vege- 
table, or mineral poison. 

229. When is absorption by the skin most vigorous ? Give observation 
1st. Observation 2d. Observation 3d. 





230. In the human body are found many fluids and solids of 
dissimilar appearance and character. These are produced by 
the action of organs called Se'cre-to-ry. Some of these organs 
are of simple structure, while others are very complicated in 
their arrangement. 


231. The secretory organs are of three kinds, namely, 
the Ex-ha'lents, Fol'li-cles, and the Glands. 

232. The exhalents are supposed to be terminations of the 
arteries, or capillaries. They are of two kinds, external and 
internal. The latter terminate on the surfaces within the body, 
and the former upon the outside. j} 

Fig. 5W*$| 

lg. Ui..,*» *»» 

m V 


Fig. 51. A secretory follicle. An artery is seen, which supplies" the material for its 
secretion. Follicles are also supplied with veins and organic nerves. 

233. The follicles are small bags, or sacs, in the deeper 
layer of the skin and mucous membrane. The pores seen on 

the skin are the outlets of these bodies. 

230. How are the fluids and solids of the body produced? 231 — 234. Give 
the anatomy of the secretory organs. 231. Name the secretory organs. 
232. Describe the exhalents. What does fig. 51 represent ? 233. Derirfl 


234. The glands are the chief agents of secretion in the 
body. They are formed of minute arteries, veins, and tubes, 
wound together. These organs vary in size from a mustard- 
seed to that of the liver, which weighs from two to four pounds. 
Every gland, however minute, has a small duct for collecting 
and carrying off the secreted fluid. 


235. Secretion is one of the most obscure and mysterious 
functions of the body. It has the same meaning (physiologi- 
cally) as separation. Not only is the process by which sub- 
stances are separated from the blood, called secretion, but the 
same term is also applied to substances thus separated. 

Fig. 52. , a,'a, A secretory gland, b, b, Minute ducts that are spread through tha 
glands. These coalesce to form the main duct, c. 

236. All the fluids of the body are derived from the blood, 
and this element, when distributed to the different glands and 
follicles, is similar in composition and character; but the fluids 
secreted by them, vary in appearance in a remarkable degree. 
The office of the glands is principally to form different secre- 

234. What is said of the glands ? Explain fig. 52. 235—237. Give the 
physiology of the secretory organs. 235. What is secretion ? 236. From 
what are all the fluids of the body derived ? What is the principal office 
of the glands ? 


tions. Thus the salivary glands secrete the insipid saliva; the 
liver, the yellow, ropy bile ; and the kidneys, the acrid urine. 

237. When any substance which is not demanded for nutri- 
tion, or does not give nourishment to the system, is taken up by 
the lymphatic vessels and conveyed into the blood, it is dis- 
charged by secretions. 

Illustration. A few years since, a poor inebriate was carried 
to a London hospital in a state of intoxication. He lived but a 
few hours. On examining his brain, nearly half a gill of fluid, 
strongly impregnated with gin, was found in the cavities of this 
organ. This was secreted from the vessels of the brain. 


238. Unless the secretions are regularly maintained, dis- 
ease will be the ultimate result. Let the secretions from the 
skin be suppressed, and fever or some internal inflammation 
will follow. If the bile is impeded, digestion will be impaired. 
If any other secretion is suppressed, it will cause a derange- 
ment of the various internal organs. 

Observation. Ardent spirits derange the secretions, and 
change the structure of the brain. This is one reason why 
inebriates do not live to advanced age. 

239. The quantity of blood influences the character of the 
secretions. If it is lessened to any great extent, the secretions 
will be lessened, as well as changed in character. 

Illustration. When a person has lost a considerable quantity 
of blood, there is a sensation of thirst in the throat, attended 
with a cold, pale, dry skin. When reaction comes on, the 

237. What becomes of those substances which are taken up by the 
lymphatics, and do not nourish the body ? How is this illustrated ? 
238 — 241. Give the hygiene of the secretory organs. 238. What is the effect 
^n the system if the secretions are not regularly maintained ? What is 
fc reason that inebriates do not live to an advanced age ? 239. What effect 
on the secretions when the quantity of blood is lessened ? How is this 
i'lustrated ? 


perspiration is cold, attended with nausea, and sometimes 

240. The amount of action modifies the condition of the 
secretory organs. When a secretory organ is excessively 
stimulated, its vigor and energy are reduced. The subsequent 
debility may be so great as to suppress or destroy its functional 

Illustrations. 1st. In those sections of the country where flax 
is spun on a " foot-wheel," the spinners sometimes moisten the 
thread with saliva. This seems to operate economically for a 
time, but debility of the salivary organs soon follows, and they 
are incapable of supplying saliva sufficient to moisten the food, 
producing, in a short time, disease of the digestive organs. 

2d. The habit of continual spitting, which attends the chew- 
ing of tobacco and gums, induces debility, not only of the 
salivary glands, but of the system generally. 

241. The secretions are much influenced by mental emo- 
tions. If we smell savory food, there will be an increased flow 
of saliva ; if we hear the intelligence of the death of a cherished 
friend, the tear will quickly course down the cheek. 

Observation. Such is the nice sympathy which exists be- 
tween different parts of the body, that in the evenings of the 
warm season, a chill upon the impressible skin that suppresses 
the perspiration, is frequently followed by a diarrhoea, dysen- 
tery, or cholera morbus. These can be prevented by avoiding 
the chill. An efficient means of relief, is, immediately to 
restore the skin to its proper action. 

240. What is the effect if a secretory organ is excessively stimulated ? 
How is this effect illustrated by the use of the salivary glands ? 241. Does 
the state of the mind influence the secretions ? What is said of the sym- 
pathy between different parts of the body ? 




242. The blood is the nutritive fluid of animals. It is com- 
posed of two parts — a watery fluid, called se'rum, and a solid 
portion, called co-ag'u-lum, (clot.) 

Observation. That portion of the serum which remains fluid 
after coagulation by heat has taken place, is called se-ros'i-ty. 
It is more abundant in the blood of old, than in that of young 
animals ; and it forms the " red gravy " in roasted meats. 

243. The blood is not necessarily red. It may be white, as 
in the fish ; transparent, as in the insect ; or yellowish, as in 
the reptile. There is no animal in which the blood is red in all 
parts of the body. The ligaments and tendons, in man, are not 
supplied with red, but with white blood. 

244. Nutrition is the vital act by which the different parts 
of the body renew the materials of which they are composed. 
Digestion, circulation, absorption, and respiration, are but sepa- 
rate links in the chain of nutrition, which would be destroyed 
by the absence of any one of them. 

245. The nutritive process is a kind of secretion, by which 
particles of matter are separated from the blood, and conveyed 
with wonderful accuracy to the appropriate textures, or parts 
of the body. 

246. The function of the nutrient vessels antagonize those 
of absorption ; while one system is constructing, with beautiful 

242. "What is the nutritive fluid of animals ? Of what is it composed ? 
What forms the red gravy in roasted meat ? 243. "What is said of the color 
of the blood? 244 — 248. What remarks respecting nutrition? 2t4. What 
is nutrition ? 245. What is said of the nutritive process ? 246. "What can 
you say of the function of the nutrient vessels ? 


precision, the animal frame, the other is diligently employed 
in pulling down this complicated structure. But amid this 
simultaneous renovation and decay, the form and beauty of the 
organs are preserved. 

Observation. This ever-changing state of the body is shown 
by giving animals colored matter, mixed with their food, which 
in a short time tinges their bones with the same color as the 
matter introduced. Let it be withdrawn, and in a few days 
the bones will assume their former color — evidently from the 
effects of absorption. The changeful state of the body is fur- 
ther shown, by the losses to which it is subjected ; by the 
necessity of aliment; by the emaciation which follows absti- 
nence from food. 

247. The renewal of every part of the body is not perfected 
merely by the passage of the blood through the arteries of the 
systemic circulation, but by the smallest capillary vessels, 
called the vessels of nutrition. 

248. " As the blood goes the round of the circulation, the 
nutrient capillary vessels select and secrete those parts which 
are similar to the nature of the structure, and the other portions 
pass on ; so that every part takes up and converts to its own 
use the very principles which it requires for its growth ; or, in 
other words, as the vital current approaches each organ, the 
particles appropriate to it feel its attractive force, — obey it, — 
quit the stream, — mingle with the substance of its texture, — 
and are changed into its own true and proper nature." 

Illustration. When a bone is broken, or a nerve wounded, 
minute vessels shoot out from the living parts, and immediately 
commence their operations, by depositing bony matter, where it 
is required to unite fractured bones, and nervous substance to 
heal the wounded nerve. 

Give a proof of the ever-changing state of the body. Give other instances 
illustrative of the changeful state of the body. 247. By what vessels is the 
renewal of every part of the body perfected ? 248. What is said of the 
office of the nutrient capillary vessels ? When a bone is fractured, by what 
process is it healed ? 


Fig. 53. 

Fig. 53. A front view of the organs within the chest and abdomen. 1, 1, 1, i* The 
musrles of the chest. 2,2,3,2, The rihs. 3,3.3, The upper, middle, and lower 
lobes of the right lung. 4, 4, The lobes of the left lung. 5, The right ventricle of 
the heart, 6, The led ventricle. 7, The right auricle of the heart. 8, The left auri- 
cle. 9, The pulmonary artery. 10, The aorta. 11, The vena cava descendens. 
12, The trachea. 13, The oesophagus. It, 14, 14, 14, The pleura. 15, 15, 15, The 
diaphragm. 16, 16, The right and left lobe of the liver. 17, The gall-cyst. 18, The 
stomach. 26, The spleen. 19, 19, The duodenum. 20, The ascending colon. 
21, The transverse colon. 25, The descending colon. '22,22,22,22, The small in- 
testines. 23, 23, The abdominal walls turned down. 24, The thoracic duct, opening 
Into the left subclavian win. (-J7 1 




249. The nutrient portion of the food is poured into the 
vein at the lower part of the neck, and is carried to the right 
cavities of the heart. The fluid in these cavities consists of the 
chyle mixed with the venous blood. Neither cf these two 
elements is fitted to promote the growth or repair the waste of 
the body. They must be subjected to a process, by which the 
first can be converted into blood, and the second freed of its 
impurities, (carbonic acid and water.) This is effected by 
the Respiratory Organs. 


250. The organs of respiration are the Lungs, (lights; ) 
the Tra'che-a, (wind-pipe ;) the Bronch'i-a, (subdivisions of 
the trachea ;) and the Air Ves'i-cles, (air-cells at the extrem- 
ities of the bronchia.) The Di'a-phragm, (midriff;) ribs, and 
several muscles, also aid in the respiratory process. 

251. The lungs are conical organs, one on each side of the 
chest, embracing the heart, and separated from each other by a 
membranous partition. The color of the lungs is a pinkish gray, 
mottled, and variously marked with black. They are com- 
posed of air-cells and tubes, beside many small blood-vessels. 

252. Each lung is surrounded by a membrane, called the 

249. "What fluids are conveyed into the right cavities of the heart ? What 
is necessary hefore they can be adapted to the wants of the body ? By what 
organs are these changes effected ? 250 — 256. Give the anatomy of the 
respiratory oryans. 250. Name the respiratory organs. WTiat organs also 
aid in the respiratory process? 251. Describe the lungs. 252. Describe 
the pleura. 



pleu'ra, which not only surrounds these organs, but is reflecteu 
upon the walls of the chest. The lungs, however, are on the 
outside of the pleura, in the same way as the head is on the 
outside of a cap doubled upon itself. 

Observation. When this membrane, that covers the lungs, 
and also lines the chest, is inflamed, the disease is called 
" pleurisy." 

253. The trachea is situated in the front part of the neck, 
and extends from the mouth to the lungs. It is composed of 
cartilaginous rings, which are very elastic. 

254. The bronchia are the divisions of the trachea at its 
lower extremity, behind the upper part of the heart. One 
branch passes to the right lung, and the other to the left. 
These branches, upon entering the lung, divide into an almost 
infinity of smaller branches. 

Illustration. The trachea may be compared to the trunk of 
a tree ; the bronchia to two large branches ; the subdivisions of 
the bronchia to the branchlets and twigs ; the air-cells to the 
buds seen on the twigs in the spring. 

255. The air-cells are very small sacs, or bladders, at the 
end of the minute divisions of the bronchia. Their walls are 
extremely thin, the interior of which, as well as the trachea 
and bronchia, are lined by mucous membrane. These cells 
are variable in size, and are most numerous in the middle and 
lower part of the lungs. 

Observation. When the mucous membrane of a few of the 
larger branches of the wind-pipe is slightly inflamed, it is called 
a " cold ; " when the inflammation is greater, and extends to the 
lesser air-tubes, it is called bronchitis. Coughing is a violent 
expulsory effort, by which air is suddenly forced through the 
bronchia and trachea to remove offending matter. • 

What is the disease called when this membrane is inflamed ? 2-53. De- 
scribe the trachea. 254. What are the broncnia ? To what may the 
trachea and branches be compared ? 255. Describe the air-cells. Where 
are they the most numerous ? Mention some diseases of the membrane 
that lines the bronchia. 

v. * 




Observation. The structure of the trachea and lungs may 
be illustrated by taking these parts of a calf or sheep, and 
inflating the bronchial tubes by forcing air into the wind-pipe 
with a pipe or quill. The internal structure may then be 
seen by opening the different parts. 

Fig. 54. 

Fig. 54. A representation of the larynx, trachea, bronchia, and air-cells. 1, 1, 1, An 
outline of the right lung. 2,2,2, An outline of the left lung. 3, The larynx 
4 The trachea. 5, The right bronchial tube. C, The left bronchial tube. 7, 7, 7, 
8' 8, 8, Bronchial tubes of right and left lung. 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, Air-cells. 

256. The diaphragm is a flexible, circular partition, that sep- 
arates the respiratory from the digestive organs, and the chest 

How can the structure of the trachea and lungs be illustrated? 
scribe the diaphragm 

2.%. \\ 



from the abdomen. Its margin is attached to the spmal column 
the sternum, and cartilages of the lower ribs. In a state of re- 
pose, its centre rises into the chest in the form of an arch. 
When air is forcibly expelled from the lungs, its upper point 
reaches as high as the fourth rib. It is depressed as low as the 
seventh rib, when air is drawn into the lungs. 

Fig. 55. 

Fig. 56. 

Fig. 55. A section of the chest when the lungs are inflated. 1, The diaphragm. 
2, The muscular walls of the abdomen. 

Fig. 56. A section of the chest when the lungs are contracted. 1, The diaphragm, 
in common expiration. 2, 2, The muscular walls of the abdomen. 3, The position 
of the diaphragm in forced expiration. 

These engravings show the diaphragm to be more convex, and the walls of the 
abdomen more flattened, when the lungs are collapsed, than when they are inflated. 

What is its form when not in action ? How high does its central portion 
rise in forced expiration ? How low does it descend when air is drawn into 
the lungs ? 'What do figs. 55 and 56 illustrate ? 




257. Respiration, or breathing, is that process by which 
air is drawn into the lungs and expelled from them. The prin- 
cipal object in breathing, in animals, is to free the dark blood 
of one of the principal substances that compose the old and 
useless particles of the body. 

258. When air is drawn into the lungs, the muscular margin 
of the diaphragm contracts, which depresses its central portion ; 
the chest is then enlarged at the expense of the abdomen. At 
the same time that the diaphragm is depressed, the ribs are 
thrust forward and upward by means of muscles placed be- 
tween and on them. Thus the chest is enlarged in every 

259. The lungs follow the variations of capacity in the chest, 
expanding their air-cells when the latter is enlarged, and con- 
tracting when the chest is diminished. Thus, when the chest 
is expanded, the lungs follow, and consequently a vacuum is 
produced in their air-cells. The air then rushes through the 
mouth and nose into the trachea and its branches, and fills the 
vacuum as fast as it is made. This mechanical process 
constitutes inspiration. 

260. After the expansion of the chest, the muscles that ele- 
vated the ribs relax, together with the diaphragm. The elas- 
ticity of the cartilages of the ribs depresses them, and the 

257—266. Give the vse of the respiratory organs. 257. What is respira- 
tion ? What is the principal object in breathing ? 2-58. Describe how the 
chest is enhrged in respiration ? 259. Do the lungs follow the variations 
of capacity in the chest ? What constitutes inspiration ? 260. How is the 
air expelled from the lungs ? 



cavity of the chest is diminished, attended by the expulsion of 
a portion of the air from the lungs. At the same time, the 
muscles that form the front walls of the abdominal cavity, con- 
tract and press the alimentary canal, stomach, and liver, up- 
ward against the diaphragm ; this, being relaxed, yields to the 
pressure, rises upward, and presses upon the lungs, which re- 
treat before it, and another portion of air is expelled from these 
organs. This process is called expiration. 

Fig. 57. 

Fijr. 57. A front view of the chest and abdomen in respiration. ., 1, The position 
of the walls of the chest in inspiration. 2, 2, 2, The position of the diaphragm in 
inspiration. 3, 3, The position of the walls of the chest in expiration. 4, 4, 4, The 
position of the diaphragm in expiration. 5, 5, The position of the walls of the abdo- 
men in inspiration. 6, 6, The position of the walls of the abdomen in expiration. 

261. Thus it is obvious that the enlargement of the chest, 
or inspiration, is produced in two ways — 1st. By the depres- 

What does this constitute ? Explain fig. 57. 261. In how many ways 
the chest enlarged ? Name them. 



sion of the central, arched portion of the diaphragm. 2d. By 
the elevation of the ribs. On the contrary, the contraction of the 
chest, or expiration, is produced by the depression of the ribs, 
and elevation of the central part of the diaphragm. These 
movements are successive during life, and constitute res- 

Experiment Place the ear upon the chest of a person, and 
a murmuring sound will be heard, somewhat like the soft sigh- 
ings of the wind through forest trees. This sound is caused 
by the air rushing in and out of the lungs, and is peculiarly 
distinct in the child. 

262. As before mentioned, the dark, impure blood, that 
passes from the heart to the lungs, is unfit to sustain the vital 
action of the various organs of the body. Its impurities must 
be removed. When this is done, the blood loses its blackish 
red color, and becomes of a bright scarlet red. 

263. The dark color of the blood is owing to the presence 
of carbonic gas. This is formed in the blood-vessels by the 
union of carbon (the principal element of the dead, waste 
atoms) and oxygen. 

264. There is also, mixed with the dark blood, hydrogen, 
which, when united with oxygen, forms water. Both carbon and 
hydrogen are supplied to the blood through the food. They 
are carried out of the system not only by the lungs, but by the 
skin and other organs. 

Observation. The presence of carbonic acid and watery 
v;ipor in the expired air, can be proved by the following 
experiments. 1st. Breathe into lime-water, and in a few 
minutes it will become of a milk-white color. This is owing 
to the carbonic acid of the breath uniting with the lime, 
forming the carbonate of lime. 

How is it contracted? What do these successive movements con- 
stitute ? Give an experiment. 262. What change must be made in the 
blood before it can sustain life ? 263. To what is the dark color of the 
blood owing ? Where is this gas formed ? 264. What element 
carbon is found in the blood ? What does it form when united with oxygen 1 



2d. Breathe upon a cold, dry mirror, for a few minutes, and 
it will be covered with moisture. This is condensed vapor 
from the lungs. In warm weather, this watery vapor is invisible 
in the expired air ; but, in a cold, dry morning in winter, the suc- 
cessive jets of vapor issuing from the mouth and nose are 
sufficiently obvious. 

265. Atmospheric air, or that which fills the air-cells of the 
lungs, is composed of two gases, ox'y-gen and ni'tro-gen. Oxy- 
gen has the property of supporting life, while nitrogen alone 
would destroy it. But combined with the former gas, it serves 
to neutralize the otherwise irritating action of the oxygen. 

Fig. 58. 

Fig. 58. 1, A bronchial tube divided into three branches. 2, 2, 2, Air-cells. 

3. Branches of the pulmonary artery, that spread over the air-cells. Through the 
pulmonary artery, the dark, impure blood is carried to the air-cells of the lungs. 

4, Branches of the pulmonary vein, that commence at the minute terminations of the 
pulmonary artery. Through the pulmonary vein, the red blood is returned to the heart 

266. We will now pass to the change which the air effects 
when it comes in contact with the blood in the lungs. As the 
impure blood is passing in the minute vessels over the air-cells, 
the oxygen passes through the extreme thin coats of the air- 
cells and blood-vessels, and unites with the blood. At the same 
time, the carbonic acid and watery vapor leave the blood, and 
pass through the coats of the blood-vessels and air-cells, and 
mix with the air in the cells. These are expelled from the air- 

How arc these elements supplied to the blood ? How may the presence 
of carbonic acid in the expired air be proved ? The presence of watery 
vapor ? 265. Of what is the air composed ? What property has oxygen i 
Has nitrogen? 266. Explain how the blood is changed by the action of 
the air. 



cells every time we breathe. This interchange of gases pro- 
duces the change in the color of the blood. 

Experiment. To show that gases may be interchanged 
through membranes, fill a bladder with dark blood drawn from 
any animal. Tie the bladder closely, and suspend it in the 
air. In a few hours, the blood next the* membrane will have 
become of a bright red color. This is owing to the oxygen 
from the air passing through the bladder, and uniting with the 
blood, while the carbonic acid has escaped through the mem- 

Fig. 59. 


Fig. 59. An ideal view of the pulmonary circulation. 1, 1, The right lung. 

8, 2, The left lung. 3, The trachea. 4, The right bronchial tube. 5, The left 
bronchial tube. 6, G, G, G, Air-celts. 7, The right auricle. 8, The right ventricle. 

9, The tricuspid valves. 10, The pulmonary artery. 11, The branch to the right 
lung. 12, The branch to the left lung. 13, The right pulmonary vein. 14, The 
left pulmonary vein. 15, The left auricle. 16, The left ventricle. 17, Tha 
mitral valves. 

Note. Let a review of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratoiy 
organs be given from figs. 53, 59, or from outline anatomical plates 5 and 7. 





267. For man to enjoy the highest degree of health, it ia 
necessary that the impure "venous" blood be properly changed. 
As this is effected in the lungs by the action of the air, it follows 
that this element, when breathed, should be pure, or contain 
twenty-one per cent, of oxygen to about seventy-nine per 
cent, of nitrogen. 

268. The quality or purity of the air is affected by every 
respiration. The quantity of nitrogen is nearly the same in 
the expired, as in the inspired air. But the quantity of oxygen 
is diminished, and that of carbonic acid is increased. Thus, 
every time we force air from the lungs, it becomes unfit to be 
breathed again. 

Experiment. Sink a glass jar that has a stop-cock, or one 
with a glass stopper, into a pail of water, until the air is expelled 
from the jar. Fill the lungs with air, and retain it in the chest 
a short time, and then breathe into the jar, and instantly close 
the stop-cock. Close the opening of the jar that is under the 
water with a piece of paper laid on a plate of sufficient size to 
cover the opening, invert the jar, and sink into it a lighted candle, 
The flame will be extinguished as quickly as if put in water.* 

* As a substitute for a jar with a stop-cock, take a piece of lead 
pipe bent in the form of a siphon, and insert it in the mouth of a 
reversed jar. This experiment is as conclusive whether the air is in- 
k Q lcd once only, or breathed many times. 

267 — 285. Give the hygiene of the respiratory organs. 267. What is ne- 
cessary that man may enjoy the highest degree of health ? What propor- 
'k>n of oxygen and nitrogen should the inspired air contain ? 268. What 
is the difference between inspired and expired air ? How can this differ- 
ence b? shown ? 


Remove the carbonic acid by inverting the jar, and place a lighted 
candle in it, and the flame will be as clear as when out of the jar. 

Observation. It is familiarly known that a taper will not 
burn where carbonic acid exists in any considerable quantity, 
or when there is a marked deficiency of oxygen. From this 
originated the judicious practice of sinking a lighted candle into 
a well or pit before descending into it. If the flame is extin- 
guished, respiration cannot there be maintained, and life would 
be sacrificed should a person venture in until the noxious air 
is removed. 

269. Air, in which lamps toill not burn with brilliancy, is 
unfitted for respiration. In crowded rooms, which are not 
ventilated, the air is vitiated, not only by a decrease of oxygen 
and an increase of carbonic acid, but by the waste, injurious 
atoms thrown out from the lungs and skin of the audience. 
The burning lamps, under such circumstances, emit but a feeble 
light. Let the oxygen gas be more and more expended, and 
the lamps will burn more and more feebly, until nearly ex 

Illustrations. 1st. The effects of breathing the same air 
again and again, are well illustrated by an incident that occurred 
in one of our halls of learning. A large audience had assembled 
in an ill-ventilated room, to listen to a lecture ; soon the lamps 
burned so dimly that the speaker and audience were nearly en- 
veloped in darkness. The oppression, dizziness, and faintness, 
experienced by many of the audience, induced them to leave ; 
and in a few minutes after, the lamps were observed to rekindle, 
owing to the exchange of pure air on opening the door, which 
supplied to them oxygen. 

2d. The "Black Hole of Calcutta" received its name from 
the fact, that one hundred and forty-six Englishmen were shut 

Why should a lighted candle be sunk in a well or pit before a person 
descends into it ? 269. How is the air of crowded, unvcntilated rooms 
vitiated ? "What effect has such air upon the burning lamps ? Give an 
incident that illustrates the effects of impure air upon burning lamps. 


up in a room eighteen feet square, with only two small windows 
on the same side to admit air. On opening this dungeon, ten 
Hours after their imprisonment, only twenty-three were alive. 
The others had died from breathing impure air, that contained 
animal matter from their own bodies. 

270. Churches, concert-halls, and school-rooms should be 
well ventilated. If they are not, the persons assembled in them 
will be restless, and complain of languor, and perhaps head- 
ache. These unpleasant sensations are caused by a want of 
pure air, to give an adequate supply of oxygen to the lungs. 

Observation. In all school-rooms, where there is not ade- 
quate ventilation, it is advisable to have a recess of five or ten 
minutes each hour. During this time, let the pupils breathe 
fresh air, and open the doors and windows, so that the air of the 
room shall be completely changed. 

271. While occupying a room, we are insensible to the grad- 
ual vitiation of the air. This is the result of the diminished 
sensibility of the nervous system, and gradual adaptation of the 
organs to blood of a less stimulating character. 

272. In the construction of every inhabited room, there 
should be adequate means of ventilation, as well as warming. 
No room is well ventilated, unless as much pure air is brought 
into it, as the occupants vitiate at every respiration. This can 
be effected by making an aperture in the ceiling of the room, 
or by constructing a ventilating flue in the chimney. This 
should be in contact with the flues for the escape of smoke, but 
separated from them by a thin brick partition. 

273. Provision should also be made, by which pure air 
may be constantly coming into the room, as the crevices of the 

Of the effects of breathing impure air. 270. Why should churches and 
school-rooms be well ventilated ? What suggestion when a school-room is 
not well ventilated ? 271. Why are we insensible of the vitiation of the 
lir of the room in which we are seated ? 272. What is very important in 
.he construe tion of every inhabited room ? How can a room be well venti- 
ated ? 273 Should provision be made to have pure air introduced into 
a. room ? 



doors and windows are not sufficient. There should be ai 
aperture at or near the floor, to connect with the outer walls of 
the building or external air. 

274. The sick-room, particularly, should be so arranged that 
the impure air may escape, and pure air be constantly coming 
into the room. Curtains around the bed, and the sheet over the 
face, are injurious. The effect is similar to that produced by 
sleeping in a small, unventilated room. 

275. The change that is effected in the blood while passing 
through the lungs, not only depends upon the purity of the air, 
but the amount inspired. The quantity varies according to the 
size of the chest, and the movement of the ribs and diaphragm. 

Ete. 60. Fi S- 6L 

Fig. 60. The skeleton of a deformed chest. 
Fig. 61. The skeleton of a well-formed chest. 

276. The size of the chest, and lungs can be diminished hj 
moderate and continued pressure. This is most easily done in 
infancy, when the cartilages and ribs are yery pliant; yet it 
can be effected at more advanced periods of life. 

Observations. 1st. The Chinese, by compressing the feet of 
female children, prevent their growth ; so that the foot of a 

274 What rooms particularly should be well ventilated ? Why are cur- 
tains around abed injurious ? 27-5. What va.ies the amount of air received 
into the lungs ? 276. How can the size of the chest he diminished ? What 
does fig. 60 represent ? Fig. 61 ? Give observation 1st. 

9 * 


Chinese belle is not larger than the foot of an American girl of 
five years. 

2d. The American women compress their chests, to prevent 
their growth ; so that the chest of an American belle is not 
larger than the chest of a Chinese girl of five years. Which 
country, in this respect, exhibits the greater intelligence ? 

3d. The chest can be deformed by making the linings of the 
waists of the dresses tight, as well as by corsets. Tight vests, 
upon the same principle, are also injurious. 

Fig. 62. Fig. 63. 

Fig. 62. A correct outline of the Venus de Medici, the beau ideal of female sym- 

Fig. 63. An outline of a well-corseted modern beauty. One has an artificial, 
insect waist ; the other, a natural waist. One has sloping shoulders, while the shoul- 
der* of the other are comparatively elevated, square, and angular. The proportion of 
the corseted female below the waist, is also a departure from the symmetry of nature. 

277. In children, who have never worn close garments, the 
circumference of the chest is generally about equal to that of 

Give observation 2d. How may the chest be deformed as given by obser- 
vation 3d ? 277. What is the size of the chest of a child that has always 
worn loose clothing ? 


me body at the hips; and similar proportions would exist 
through life, if there were no improper pressure of the clothing. 
Those persons that have large, full chests, particularly at the 
lower part, are not so liable to diseases of the lungs, as those 
who have narrow, contracted chests. 

278. A contracted chest, caused either by injudicious dress- 
ing, or by any other means, can be enlarged, although the 
person is thirty years of age, by permitting the muscles that 
elevate the ribs and diaphragm to perform their proper function. 

Observation. Scholars, and persons who sit much of the 
time, should frequently, during the day, breathe full and deep, 
so that the smallest air-cells may be fully filled with air. While 
exercising the lungs, the shoulders should be thrown back and 
the head held erect. 

279. When the lungs are properly filled with air, the chest 
is enlarged in every direction. If any article of apparel is 
worn so tight as to prevent the full expansion of the chest and 
abdomen, the lungs, in consequence, do not receive air suffi- 
cient to purify the blood. The penalty for thus violating a 
law of our being, is disease and suffering. 

Observation. Many individuals do not realize the small 
amount of pressure that will prevent the enlargement of the 
chest. This can be shown by drawing a tape tightly around 
the lower part of the chest of a vigorous adult, and confining it 
with the thumb and finger. Then endeavor fully to inflate the 
lungs, and the movement of the ribs will be much restricted. 

280. The position in standing and sitting influences the 
movement of the ribs and diaphragm. When the shoulders are 
thrown back, and when a person stands or sits erect, the dia- 

What persons are most free from diseases of the lungs ? 278. Can 
narrow, contracted chests be enlarged ? How ? What practice is recom- 
mended to scholars and sedentary persons ? 279. What is the effect if the 
apparel is worn so tight as to prevent the full expansion of the chest ? How 
can the amount of pressure necessary to prevent the enlargement of the 
chest be shown ? 280. Show the effect of position on the movement of the 
ribs and diaphragm. 


phragm and ribs have more freedom of motion, and the abdomi- 
nal muscles act more efficiently ; thus the lungs have broadei 
range of movement, than when the shoulders incline forward 
and the body is stooping. 

281. The state of the mind exercises a great influence upon 
respiration. If we are depressed by grief, or feel anxious 
about friends or property, the diaphragm and muscles that ele- 
vate the ribs will not contract with the same energy as when the 
mind is influenced by joy, mirth, and other enlivening emotions. 
Consequently, our breathing is not as frequent and full in the 
former as in the latter condition. 

282. To recover persons apparently drowned, it is necessary 
to press the chest, suddenly and forcibly, downward and back- 
ward, and instantly discontinue the pressure. Repeat this 
without intermission, until a pair of bellows can be procured. 
When the bellows are obtained, introduce the nozzle well upon 
the base of the tongue, and surround the mouth and nose with 
a towel or handkerchief, to close them. Let another person press 
upon the projecting part of the neck, called "Adam's apple," 
while air is introduced into the lungs through the bellows. Then 
press upon the chest, to force the air from the lungs, to imitate 
natural breathing. 

283. Continue the use of the bellows, and forcing the air out 
of the chest, for an hour at least, unless signs of natural breath- 
ing come on. Wrap the body in warm, dry blankets, and place 
;t near the fire, to preserve the natural warmth, as well as to 
impart artificial heat. Every thing, however, is secondary to 
filling the lungs with air. Avoid all friction until breathing is 
restored. Send for medical aid immediately. 

284. In cases of apparent death from hanging or stran- 
gling, the knot should be untied or cut immediately ; then use 
artificial respiration, or breathing, as directed in apparent death 

281. Does the state of the mind influence our breathing ? 282. How 
should persons apparently drowned be treated ? 284. How should appa 
• put death from strangling be managed ? 



from drowning. In asphyxia from electricity, (lightning,) arti- 
ficial respiration should be resorted to. 

Observation. It is a common impression, in many sections 
of the country, that the law will not allow the removal of the 
cord from the neck of a body found suspended, unless the cor- 
oner be present. It is therefore proper to say, that no such 
delay is necessary, and that no time should be lost in attempting 
to resuscitate the strangled person. 

285. When life is flparently suspended, from breathing 
carbonic acid gas, the person should be carried into the open 
air. The head and shoulders should be slightly elevated, the 
face and chest should be sponged or sprinkled with cold water, 
or cold vinegar and water. Apply friction to the skin, with a 
coarse cloth or flesh-brush, and resort to artificial respiration. 

Observation. 1st. Many persons have died from breathing 
carbonic acid that was formed by burning charcoal in an open 
pan or portable furnace, for the purpose of warming their 

2d. In resuscitating persons apparently dead from the already 
mentioned causes, if a pair of bellows cannot be procured im- 
mediately, let their lungs be inflated by air expelled from the 
lungs of some person present. To have the expired air as pure 
as possible, the person should quickly inflate his lungs, and in- 
stantly expel the air into those of the asphyxiated person. Place 
the patient in pure air, admit attendants only into the apartment, 
and send for a physician without delay. 

What treatment should he adopted in asphyxia from lightning? What 
is said of the impression, common in some sections of the country, when 
a body is found suspended? 285. What should be done when carbonic 
acid has been inhaled ? What sad results frequently follow the burning of 
charcoal in a close room ? Give the 2d observation. 




286. The true sources of animal neat are still imperfectly 
known. We see certain phenomena, but the causes are hidden 
from our view. Its regular production, to a certain degree, is 
essential both to animal and vegetable life. 

287. The temperature of the_human body is about ninety- 
eight degrees, whether we examine it in the Icelander in his 
snowy hut, or the Negro under an equatorial sun. 

288. To enable man to maintain an equilibrium of temper- 
ature under such extremes of heat and cold, naturally suggests 
two inquiries. 1st. By vyhat organs is animal heat generated ? 
2d. By what means is its uniformity maintained ? 

289. In combustion, or burning of wood, coal, oil, &c, the 
oxygen of the atmosphere unites with the carbon and hydrogen 
of these substances, and carbonic acid and watery vapor are 
produced. This process is attended with the disengagement 
of heat. 

290. The quantity of heat disengaged in combustion is 
always in proportion to the amount of carbon and hydrogen 
consumed ; thus a piece of wood weighing one pound, in 
burning slowly, would give out the same quantity of heat as a 
pound of shavings of the same wood, in burning rapidly. Upon 
the principle of combustion, the production of animal heat may 
be understood. 

286 — 296. What is said respecting animal heat? 286. Is the true source 
of animal heat known ? 287. What is the temperature of the human body ? 
288. "What inquiries are naturally suggested ? 289. What takes place in the 
combustion, or burning of wood, oil, &c. ? 290. Upon what does the quan 
tity of heat disengaged in oombustion depend ? How is this illustrated ? 


291. As before mentioned, die food contains carbon and 
fiydrogen. These exist in the chyle. The old and waste 
atoms of the body, likewise, contain the same elements. It is 
now supposed that the oxygen of the inspired air enters the 
capillary vessels of the lungs, and mingles with the blood, with 
which it is carried to the heart, and from thence to the nutrient 
capillary vessels of every part of the system. 

292. In the capillary vessels, the oxygen of the arterial 
blood unites with the carbon and hydrogen of the waste atoms, 
(which are conveyed into the blood by the lymphatics,) and 
carbonic acid and water are formed. 

293. This change of state among the particles of bodies 
is attended with the disengagement of heat. fThe carbonic 
acid and water are returned to the lungs in the blood, and car- 
ried out of the body by the expired air.i The inference is, that 
heat is generated in every part of the body. 

294. Our next inquiry is, by what means is the uniformity 
of temperature in the body maintained ? It has been ascer- 
tained that the principal agent in keeping the body at a uni- 
form temperature,' is the immense evaporation that takes place 
from the skin and lungs. 

295. When cold air comes in contact with these membranes, 
heat is given off to restore the equilibrium.' The quantity de- 
pends somewhat on the rapidity of the change of air. And 
this is greatest when we are in a current of dry air, or a brisk 
wind is blowing upon us. 

296. The skin, in an ordinary state, is constantly giving out 
a watery fluid, which is converted into vapor and carried off' by 
the surrounding air. To effect this, heat is taken from the 
system, and the conversion of the perspiration into vapor 

291. From what source are the carbon and hydrogen in the body derived ? 
The oxygen ? 292. Show how heat may be produced in every part oi' the 
body. 294. What is the principal agent by which a uniform tempera- 
tare of the body is maintained ? 295. What is the effect when cold air 
comes in contact with these membranes ? When is the greatest amount 
of heat niven off? 296. How is the surplus heat of the body removed. 


conveys a large proportion of the surplus heat from the body ; 
and in consequence, the temperature is maintained at ninety- 
eight degrees. 

Observations. 1st. In all ages and climes, it has been 
observed, that the increased temperature of the skin and 
system in fevers, is abated as soon as free perspiration is 

2d #i In damp, close weather, as during the sultry days of 
August, we feel a disagreeable sensation of heat, because the 
saturation of the air by moisture prevents the escape of heat 
through the lungs and skin. 


297. The amount of heat, generated in the human system 
depends upon the x quantity and quality of the food, ag=\ exer- 
cise, the amount and character of the inspired air, condition of 
the brain, skin, and general system^ 

298. » Animal heat is modified by the proportion of carbon 
which the food contains, and by the quantity consumed*. As 
the kind of fuel that contains the greatest amount of combus- 
tible material gives off the most heat when burned, so those 
articles of food that contain the greatest quantity of carbon pro- 
duce the most heat when converted into blood. 

299. Age is another influence that modifies the generation 
of animal heat. f The vital forces of the child being feeble, less 
heat is generated in its system than in that of an adult. I Hence 
the young child, and the enfeebled, aged person, need more 
clothing than the vigorous individual of middle age. i 

What lias been observed in all ages and climes ? Why do we feel a dis- 
agreeable sensation of heat in the sultry days of August ? 297 — 304. Give 
the hygiene of animal heat. 297. On what does the amount of heat gener- 
ated in the human system depend ? 298. What element of the food in- 
fluences the generation of heat? 299. Does age modify the generation of 
What persons need the most clothing ? 


300. (Exercise is an influence that modifies the generation 
of animal heat. , Whatever increases the flow of blood in the 
system, increases also the deposition of new atoms of matter 
and the removal of the waste particles. This change among the 
particles of matter is attended with an elevation of temperature. 
For this reason, a person in action is warmer than in a state 
of repose. 

301. The amount and character of the air which is breathed, 
modify the heat of the system," In the generation of heat in 
a stove, air, or oxygen, is as essential as the wood or coal. It 
is equally so in the production of animal heat. The oxygen 
of the inspired air should be in proportion to the carbon and 
hydrogen to be consumed. This requires capacious lungs, to- 
gether with free movements of the ribs and diaphragm. 

302. The condition of the brain and nervous system affects 
the generation of animal heat. If the mind is aroused from 
fear, the breathing becomes slow, and a chilliness pervades the 
body, particularly the extremities ; while, on the other hand, 
joyous and agreeable emotions quicken the circulation of the 
blood, and this increases the generation of heat. 

303. During sleep, when the brain is partially inactive, less 
heat is generated than when awake. This is one reason why 
an individual who sleeps in the same clothing that was ade- 
quate to prevent chills while awake, contracts a cold, unless he 
throws over him an additional covering. 

304. The system suffers less when the change of tempera' 
ture is gradual. The change in the production of heat, as 
well as in the evaporation of fluids from the system, is gradual, 
when not influenced by foreign causes. By this means, the 
body is enabled to endure tropical heat and polar cold. 

300. What effect has exercise on animal heat ? 301. To what should the 
oxygen of the inspired air be proportional ? 302. Mention the effects of 
some of the emotions on animal heat. 303. "Why do we need more cloth- 
ing when asleep than when awake ? 304 How is the body enabled to en- 
dure tropical heat and polar cold ? 





305. The beautiful mechanism of the vocal instrument, 
which produces every variety of sound, from a harsh, un- 
melodious tone, to a soft, sweet, flute-like sound, can never be 
imitated by art. It has been compared, by many physiologists, 
to a wind, reed, and stringed instrument. This inimitable, yet 
simple instrument, is the Lar'ynx. 



306- The larynx (Adam's apple) is a kind of cartilaginous 
tube, which, taken as a whole, has the general form of a hollow 
reversed cone, with its base upward toward the tongue, in the 
shape of an expanded triangle. 

307. It is composed of several pieces of cartilage, that 
not only connect with each other, but with the tongue, 
lower jaw, and trachea. # 

308. There are stretched across the cavity formed by 
these cartilages, four folds of membrane, two on each side, 
called vocal cords. 

309. The space between the cords on each side is called 
the glottis, or chink of the glottis. The cavity between the 
upper and lower vocal cords is called the ventricle of the 

30o — 310. Give the anatomy of the vocal organs. 305. What is said of the 
structure of the vocal instrument ? What instruments have physiologists 
compared it with ? What is the vocal instrument called ? 306. Describe 
the larynx. 307. Of what is it composed ? 308. Describe the vocal cords. 
309. What is the space betweeu these cords called ? 



310. Behind the base of the tongue, is a piece of car 
tilage, resembling a leaf of parsley, called the ep-i-glot'tis. 
The duty of this sentinel is to keep the food and drink 
from passing into the air-passage, or trachea. 


311. In the formation of the voice, each part already de- 
scribed performs an important office. The cartilages give form 
and stability to the larynx, and by the action of muscles attached 
to them, the width of the glottis is varied. 

Fig, 62. 

Fie. 63. 

Fig. 62. A side view of the cartilages of the larynx. 1, The bone at the root of 
the tongue. 3, 4, 5, 6, Cartilages of the larynx. 7, The trachea. 

Fig. G3. A section of the larynx. 1, 1, The upper vocal cords. 2, 2, The lower 
vocal cords. 3, 3, The glottis. 4, 4, The ventricles of the larynx. 

312. When air is forcibly driven from the lungs through 
the glottis, it causes a vibration, or trembling of the vocal 
cords. This produces sound ; and it is varied by the tongue, 
the teeth, and the lips. 

310. "Where is the epiglottis situated? 311, 313. Give the function of 
the vocal organs. 311. Of what use are the cartilages of the larynx ? 
What does fig. 62 represent ? Fig. 63 ? 312. How is sound produced ? 


313. The size of the larynx, the capacity and health of the 
lungs, the condition of the throat and nasal passages, the eleva- 
tion and depression of the chin and tongue, and the state of the 
mind, influence the modulations of sound. 


314. Common observation shows that the voice can be 
changed and modified by the habits ; sailors, smiths, and 
others, who are engaged in noisy occupations, exert their 
vocal organs more strongly than those of more quiet pursuits. 
This not only affects the structure of the vocal organs, but 
varies the intonations of the voice. 

315. The voice is strong in proportion to the development 
of the larynx, and the capacity of the chest. Singing and 
reading aloud, improve and strengthen the vocal organs, and 
give a healthy expansion to the chest. The enunciation of the 
elementary sounds of the English language, aids in developing 
the vocal organs, as well as preventing disease of the throat 
and lungs, (laryngitis and bronchitis.) 

316. The attitude also affects the modulation of the voice. 
When an individual stands or sits with the head and trunk erect, 
the movements of the whole respiratory apparatus are most 
free and effective. Sound, in consequence, is more clear and 

Experiment. Kead with the head bowed forward and the 
chin depressed ; then read with the head erect and the chin ele- 
vated, and the difference in the movement of the vocal organs, 
together with the difference in the voice, will be manifest. 

313. What influences the modulation of sound? 314—321. Give the 
hygiene of the vocal organs. 314. What does observation show in reference 
to the voice ? 315. How may the voice be strengthened ? 316. What 
effect has the erect attitude upon the modulations of {he voice ? State 
the experiment. 


Fig. 64. Fig. 65. 

Pig. 64. An improper position, but one not unfrequently seen in some of our rnm- 
mon schools, and in some of our public speakers. 
Fig. 05. The proper position for reading, speaking, and singing. 

317. The muscles of the neck should not he compressed. 
[f the muscles of the neck and larynx are compressed by a 
high cravat, or other close dressing, not only will the free and 
forcible use of these parts be impeded, but the tones, instead of 
being clear and varied, will be feeble and ineffective. 

Observations. 1st. The loss of voice which is prevalent 
among public speakers, may be ascribed in part to the in- 

What is represented by fig. 64 ? By fig. 6o ? 317. Why should not the 
muscles of the neck be compressed ? What is a common cause of loss of 
voice ? 

10 * 


judicious dressing of the neck, and improper position when 

2d. When individuals have been addressing an audience in 
a warm room, or engaged in singing, they should avoid all 
impressions of a cold atmosphere, unless adequately protected 
by an extra garment. 

318. The opening of the jaws, and condition of the nasal 
passages and throat, modify the voice. The enunciation of 
words is rendered more or less distinct, in proportion as the 
jaws are separated in speaking, and the throat and nasal pas- 
sages are free from obstruction. 

319. Repetition is essential to distinct articulation of 
words. In teaching a child to articulate a letter or word, in 
the first instance, make an effort to induce a proper state of 
the vocal organs by which the particular sound is produced. 
Repeat the letter or word again and -again, until it can be 
uttered with accuracy. 

Observation. The drawling method of talking to young 
•.hildren, as well as using words that are not found in any 
written language, (called baby talk,) is decidedly wrong. A 
child will pronounce and understand the application of a cor- 
rect word as quickly as an incorrect one. 

320. When foreign bodies, such as cherry-stones, buttons, 
&c, get into the throat, they cause excessive irritation, and 
sometimes death. It is not necessary to ascertain which pas- 
sage the foreign body is in, for the immediate treatment ought 
in either case to be the same. 

321. Some person should place one hand on the front of 
the chest of the sufferer, and, with the other, give two or three 
smart blows upon the back, allowing a few seconds to inter- 
vene between them. 

Give 2d observation. 318. Does the condition of the throat and nasal 
passages modify the voice ? 319. Is repetition essential to distinct articu- 
lation ? What method is suggested in teaching a child to articulate letters 
or words ? Give observation. 320. What should be done when foreign 
bodies get into the throat ? 




322. The skin is a membranous covering, enveloping the 
bones and other parts of the system. In youth, and in females 
particularly, it is smooth, soft, and elastic. In middle age, and 
in males, it is firm, and rough to the touch. In old age, in 
persons who are emaciated, and about the flexions of the joints, 
it is thrown into folds. 


323. The skin of the human body is composed of two 
layers of membrane, namely, the cu'ti-cle, and the cu'tis ve'ra, 
or true skin. 

324. The cuticle, or that part of the skin which is seen by 
the eye, is, at first, a fluid thrown out by the blood-vessels over 
the internal layer of this membrane. 

325. While layers of this fluid are continually forming 
on the upper surface of the true skin, the external layers of 
the fluid become dry, and resemble small scales. 

J //ust rat ions. The cuticle is that part of the skin which is 
raised by a blister. Sometimes from disease, as erysipelas, or 
fever, it comes off from the surface of the body in pieces of 
considerable size. 

322. What is the skin? Mention its different appearances in its differ- 
ent conditions in the human frame. 323—336. Give the anatomy of the 
skin. 323. How many layers of membrane has the skin ? What are they 
called ? 324. How is the cuticle first formed ? 325. What is the appe;ir 
ance of the external layers ? Give illustration. 



326. The arrangement of the cuticle, in different parts of 
the human body, is worthy of notice. Where feeling is most 
acute, the cuticle is delicate and thin. Where there is motion, 
as over the joints, it is lax and movable. Where it is in con 
siant use, it becomes harder and thicker. 

Illustration. The soles of the feet and the palms of the 
hands afford good examples of the cuticle thickened by use. 

327. This part of the skin has- no blood-vessels or nerves , 
consequently, a needle may be passed under it, to some extent 
and cause no pain, nor will any blood ooze from it. 

Fig. 66. 

Fig. 66. 1,1, The cuticle. 2,2, The colored layer of the cuticle. 4,4, The net 
work of nerves. 5, 5, The true skin. 6, 6, 6, Three nerves that divide to form the 
net-work, (4, 4.) 

328. The cuticle, when clean, looks like a thin shaving of 
soft, clear horn ; but when filled with dust and other foul 
matter, it becomes dark-colored. 

Observation. The hair and nails, also the hoofs of animals, 

326. Mention the arrangement of the cuticle in different parts of the 
body. What parts of the body afford examples of the cuticle thickened by 
use ? 327. Has the cuticle blood-vessels or nerves ? 328. What is the 
general appearance of the cuticle ? Give observation 


■ -e appendages of the skin. They are so connected with the 
cuticle, that by scalding they come off with this tissue. 

329. In the inner and newly-formed layers of the cuticle, 
there exists a peculiar kind of paint. This colored layer, in the 
Negro, is black; in the Indian, copper-colorgd ; in the Euro- 
pean, it is very light, differing, however, in different persons. 

330. The cutis vera, or true skin, is so called, because 
it is the most essential of the two layers of the skin. It 
contains several sets of vessels, namely, Arteries, Veins, and 
Lymphatics. Beside these vessels, there are found both Oil 
and Perspiratory (sweat) Glands, and Nerves. 

331. The arteries and veins form a net-work upon the 
surface of the true skin ; hence, cut any part of this layer of the 
skin, and it will bleed. By the arteries the skin is nourished. 

Observation. When this layer of the skin is destroyed by 
cuts or burns, it is never formed again, and produces scars 
which do not disappear. 

332. The nerves, like the blood-vessels, are very numer- 
ous, for no part of the skin can be pricked or cut without 
giving pain. The minute extremities of these nerves, together 
with the capillary vessels, form small, conical prominences, 
called pa-pil'lce. (Fig. 68.) 

Observation. These prominences can be seen in the palm 
of the hand and sole of the foot. On the ends of the fingers 
they are curiously arranged ; some in concentric ovals ; others 
pursue a serpentine course. 

333. The lymphatics are those small vessels which open 
upon the inner layers of the cuticle. These vessels are called 

329. What is found in the inner and newly-formed layers of the cuticle ? 
What color is it in the Negro? Indian? European? 330. Why is the cutis 
vera so called ? What does it contain ? What vessels exist in this layer 
beside the last mentioned ? 331. What do the arteries and veins form 
upon the true skin ? By what vessel is the skin supplied with blood ? 
What is formed when the true skin is destroyed by cuts or burns? 
332. What is said of the nerves of the true skin ? How are the papilla 
formed ? Where may they be seen ? 333. What are the lymphatics of the 
skin ? 



into action when ointments are rubbed on the skin ; i.nd also in 
vaccination, to prevent the small-pox. 

334. The perspiratory apparatus consists of minute tubes, 
which pass inward through the cuticle, and terminate in the 
deeper meshes o£ the true skin. In their course, each little 
tube forms a beautiful spiral coil ; and, on arriving at its desti- 
nation, coils upon itself in such a way as to constitute an oval- 
shaped, or globular ball, called the perspiratory gland. 

335. The oil-glands are small bodies embedded in the true 
skin. They connect with the surface of the skin by small 
tubes, which traverse the cuticle. In some parts these glands 
are wanting; in others, where their oh":oe is most needful, ihoy 
are abundant; as on the nose, the head, ci:d the ears. 

Fig. 67. 

Fig. R7. 1, 2, 3, Oil-glands and tubes from different parts of the body. A, A, A 
Gland,". B, B, B, The ducts of these glands. 4, An oil-gland, and tube from th« 
zc:\]\). The glands (A) form a cluster around the tube of the hair, (C.) These duett 
open into the sheath of the hair, (B.) The figures, from 1 to 4, are magnified thirty- 
eight diameters. 

Observation. When there is an unnatural accumulation of 
oil in the tubes, it produces the "worm," or " grub." 

S34. Of what does the perspiratory apparatus consist? 335. Describe 
the oil-giands. What is said of their distribution ? Explain fig. 67 
^Vhat does an unnatural accumulation of this oily matter produce ? 




336. The skin invests the whole of the external surface of 
tne body, following all its prominences and curves, and gives 
protection to all the organs it encloses, while each of its several 
parts has a distinct use. 

337. The cuticle is insensible, and serves as a sheath of pro- 
tection to the highly sensitive skin (cutis vera) situated beneath 
it. The latter feels; but the former blunts the impression 
which occasions feeling. 

338. The cuticle, also, prevents disease, by impeding the 
evaporation of the fluids of the true skin, and the absorption of 
the poisonous vapors, which necessarily attend various employ- 
ments. It, however, affords protection to the system only when 
unbroken, and then to the greatest degree, when covered with 
a proper amount of oily secretion from the oil-glands. 

339. The nerves of the skin are the organs of the sense of 
touch and feeling. Through them we receive many impressions 
that increase our pleasures ; as, the grateful sensations imparted 
by the cooling breeze in a warm day. In consequence of their 
sensitiveness, we are individually protected, by being warned 
of the nearness of destructive agents. 

340. A large proportion of the waste of the body passes 
through the outlets of the skin ; some portions in the form of 
ok others in the form of watery vapor and carbonic acid. 

336 — 346. Give the physiology of the skin. 336. What is said of the skin ? 
337. Mention a function of the cuticle. 338. Give another use of the 
cuticle. 339. Of what use are the nerves of the skin ? 340. Through 
what membrane does a large proportion of the waste atoms of the body pass ? 



341. The oily fluid with which the skin is bedewed, is sep 
arated from the blood by means of the oil-glands. This secre- 
tion is spread over those parts of the skin most exposed to the 
changes of temperature and moisture. The action of these 
glands renders the skin soft, and it is also one source by 
which the blood is purified. 

342. The perspiratory glands separate from the blood the 
perspiration, or sweat. There are more than two thousand of 
these glands, with ducts, in every square inch of skin, and more 
than five million of them in this natural covering of the bodv. 

t g. 68. 1, 1, The lines or ridges of the cuticle, cut perpendicularly 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, The 
fun ws or wrinkles ot the same. 3, The cuticle. 4, 4, The colored layer of the 
cuticle. 5, 5, The cutis vera. 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, The papillae, each of which answers to 
tin; lines on the external surface of the skin. 7, 7, Small furrows between the pa- 
pillae. 8, 8, 8, 8, The deeper furrows between each couple of the papilla;. 9, 9, Cells 
filled with fat. 10,10,10, The adipose layer, with numerous fat vesicles. 12, Two 
hairs. 13, A perspiratory gland, with its spiral duct. 14, Another perspiratory glani, 
with a duct less spiral. 15, 15, Oil-glands with ducts opening into the sheath of the 
hair, (12.) 

341. What is the use of the oil-glands ? 342. What is the use of the 
perspiratory glands ? How many of these glands with ducts upon everv 
square inch of skin ? 


343. In health, these glands are in constant action, and the 
skin is moist. When this moisture cannot be seen, it is called 
insensible perspiration. When it can be seen in drops, it is 
called sensible perspiration. 

Experiment. Put the hand into a cold, dry, glass jar, or any 
glass vessel, and wind around the wrist and mouth of the jar a 
handkerchief. In a few minutes, the inside of the jar will be 
covered with moisture from the hand. 

344. The function of these glands is very necessary to 
health. During twenty-four hours, from twenty to thirty ounces 
of waste, useless matter passes out of the body by these ducts, 
or through the pores of the skin. 

345 If perspiration is suppressed from disorder of the skin 
or cold, the whole of this injurious matter is circulated through 
the system by the blood, disturbing the action of the lungs, 
stomach, and other organs. 

346. Many cases of chronic coughs, headache, dyspepsia, 
and diarrhoea, originate in this way. If any one organ of the 
system has been weakened, this organ is more susceptible of 
disease than others. In persons whose lungs are weak or 
diseased, a chill will immediately cause an irritation and often 
inflammation of these organs. If an individual is predisposed 
to stiffness of the joints and rheumatic pains, a chill will affect 
these diseased parts. 

343. "When is perspiration called insensible ? "When sensible ? 344. How 
many ounces of waste matter pass through the skin in twenty-four hours ? 
345. What is the effect if perspiration is " checked " ? 346. "What is the 
result if any organ of the body is weakened or diseased ? 

Note. Let the anatomy and physiology of the skin be reviewed from 
fig. 68, or from anatomical outline plate 9. 






347. The sensibility of the skin, and the activity of the oil 
and perspiratory glands, are modified by the condition of the 
cuticle, the temperature of the skin and body, the purity and 
warmth of the air, and the character of the light to which the 
body is exposed. 

348. To maintain a healthy action of every part of this 
membrane, attention to clothing, bathing, light, and air, is of 
great practical importance. 

349. Clothing, in itself, does not bestow heat, but is chiefly 
useful in preventing the escape of heat from the body, and in 
defending it from the temperature of the atmosphere. In select- 
ing and applying clothing to our persons, the following sugges- 
tions should be observed. 

350. Tlie material for clothing should be a bad conductor of 
heat ; that is, it should have little tendency to conduct, or remove 
heat from the body. This depends on the property possessed 
by the material in retaining atmospheric air in its meshes. 

351. Moisture renders clothing a good conductor of heat. 
Thus all articles of apparel should not only be non-conductors 
of heat, but should not possess the property of absorbing and 
retaining moisture. 

347 — 373. Give the hygiene of the skin. 347. What influences modify 
the action of the oil and perspiratory glands ? 348. To what must atten- 
tion be given to maintain a healthy action of the skin ? 349. Does clothing 
bestow heat? What is its use ? 350. Mention a property that the material 
for clothing should possess ? 351. What property in the selection of 
clothing should we avoid ? 


352. Woollen cloth retains more air in its meshes than any 
other article except furs, and it absorbs but very little moisture. 
Consequently, it is an excellent article for clothing. 

353. Cotton contains less air in its meshes than woollen, but 
much more than linen. In texture, it is smoother than wool, 
and less liable to irritate the skin. This fabric absorbs moisture 
in a small degree. In all respects, it is well adapted for gar- 
ments worn next the skin. 

354. The clothing should be of a porous character. The 
skin is not only an important agent in separating from the blood 
those impurities that otherwise would oppress the system and 
occasion death, but it exercises great influence in respiration. 
Consequently, the apparel should be made of a material that 
will permit the air to pass through its meshes. 

355. The clothing should be not only porous, but fitted 
loosely. The garments should retain a layer of air between 
them and the body. Every one is practically aware that a 
loose dress is much warmer than one which fits closely ; that 
a loose glove, boot or shoe, afford greater warmth than those of 
smaller dimensions. 

356. More clothing is necessary when a vital organ is 
diseased. When vital organs, as the lungs, heart, &c, are 
diseased, less heat is generated in the body. For this reason, 
in consumption, dyspepsia, and even headache, the skin is pale 
and the extremities cold. 

357. More clothing is required in the evening than during 
the day. In the evening we have less vital energy, and, there- 
fore, less heat is generated in the system, than in the early part 
of the day ; beside, the atmosphere is damp, the skin has 
become moist from perspiration, and heat, in consequence, is 
rapidly removed from the body. For this reason, when re- 

352. Give the properties of woollen cloth. 353. What are the quali- 
ties of cotton as an article of dress ? 354. Why should the material foi 
clothing be porous ? 355. Why should garments be fitted loosely ? 

356. Why do we need more clothing when the lungs or brain is diseased ? 

357. Why do we need more clothing in the evening than during the day i 


turning from crowded assemblies, we should be provided with 
an extra garment. 

358. A person of active habits requires less clothing than 
one of sedentary employments ; for exercise increases the cir- 
culation of the blood, which is always attended with the disen- 
gagement of a greater quantity of heat ; consequently, an 
increase of warmth is felt throughout the system. 

359. An excessive, as well as an insufficient., amount of 
clothing is alike injurious. The custom of wearing an undue 
amount on some parts of the body, and leaving exposed the 
arms and upper part of the chest, cannot be too highly 

360. The clothing should he kept clean. No article of ap- 
parel is entirely free from absorption ; even wool and cotton 
possess it in a small degree. They take up a portion of the 
perspired fluids, and thus the fibres of the cloth become covered 
with the waste matter contained in the perspiration. A neglect 
of a frequent change of apparel, is one cause of disease with 
many persons, particularly the poorer classes in the community. 

361. The clothing in which we sleep, as well as beds and 
bed-clothes, should h$ aired every day. If this is not done, the 
moist bedding will cause a chill, and the perspired matter may 
De carried into the system of the next occupant. Many dis- 
eases are thus contracted. 

362. When the clothing has become wet, it is best to change 
it immediately. The skin should then be rubbed with a dry, 
crash towel, until reaction, indicated by redness, is produced. 
If the garments are not changed, the person should exercise 
moderately, so that sufficient heat may continue to be generated 
in the system to dry the clothing and skin without a chill. 

358. Why does the active laborer require less clothing than a person of 
6edcntary employment ? 359. Is too much as well as too little clothing 
injurious? 360. Why should the clothing be kept clean? What arises 
from neglect of a frequent change of apparel ? 361. Why should beds and 
bed-clothes that are used be aired every day ? 362. What is necessary 
when the clothing has become wet ? 


3G3. Changes of dress, from thick to thin, should always he 
ninth in the morning, for then the vital powers are in full play. 
Sudden changes in wearing apparel, as well as in food and 
general habits, are attended with hazard ; and this is propor- 
tionate to the weakness or exhaustion of the body when the 
change is made. 

364. Bathing is necessary, in order that the perspirable 
matter may nass freely through the " pores" of the skin. 
The whole W>dy should be bathed frequently, as perspira- 
tion is not confined to the face and hands. 

365. Cold water — or water at about seventy degrees in 
summer, and eighty degrees in winter — is more strengthening 
to the system than water that is warmer. 

366. No person should bathe when the body is fatigued, 
either by mental or physical labor, or immediately after a 
meal. The best time for bathing, particularly for sick per- 
sons, is about two hours after breakfast. Persons in health 
may bathe in the morning, or in the evening. 

367. The sponge bath is, perhaps, the simplest and best 
method of bathing. In this but a small portion of the surface 
of the skin is exposed to the air, and the brisk rubbing that 
immediately follows the wet sponge, prevents a chill of the 
skin. No colds would be contracted in bathing, if persons 
would wipe dry, and use friction with a coarse towel or flesh- 
brush, until redness or warmth of the skin is produced. 

368. The air is an agent of importance in the functions of 
the skin. It imparts to this membrane oxygen, and receives 
from it carbonic acid. It also removes from it a large portion 
of the perspiration and the more fluid portions of the oily mat- 
ter. In order that the air may accomplish these ends, it is 

363. When should changes in dress from thick to thin be made ? Why ? 
364. What is said of the necessity of bathing ? 365. What temperature of 
water is best for the system ? 366. When should persons not bathe ? 
When is the best time for bathing ? 367. What method is the simplest 
for bathing ? How are colds prevented when bathing ? 368. What is said 
of the influence of the air on the functions of the skin ? 
11 * 


necessary that it come in contact with the body. This is one 
of the many reasons why we should wear loose and porous 

369. Light exercises a salutary influence upon the skin. 
Thus we see, that those individuals who labor in low, damp, 
dark rooms, are pale and sickly. The light, permeating the 
skin, not only exercises a salutary influence upon this mem- 
brane, but upon the blood, and, through this fluid, upon the 
whole system. 

370. This established fact shows how important it is that 
school-houses, mechanics' shops, kitchens, and sitting-rooms, 
be not only well ventilated, but favorably situated to receive 
light. For the same reasons, the kitchen and the sitting-room, 
which are the apartments most used by ladies, should be se- 
lected from the most pleasant and well-lighted rooms in the 

371. When any portion of the skin has been frozen, apply 
ice, snow, or cold water. The fire and a warm room should 
be avoided. If the frozen p.-tts blister, treat them as you 
would burns. 

372. In scalds and burns, when there is no blister, or if one 
is formed, and the external skin is not broken, apply cold water, 
as long as the smarting pain continues. After the pain has 
subsided, cover the blistered part with a patch of cotton or linen 
cloth, on which is spread lard and bees-wax. 

373. If the external skin is removed, apply lime-water 
mixed with " sweet oil," fresh cream, or lard and bees-wax. 
When the dressings arc applied, they should not be removed 
until they become dry and hard. 

369. Show the effect of light on the skin. 370. What is said of the se- 
lection of those rooms that are the most used ? 371. What should be 
applied when the skin is frozen ? What should be avoided ? 372. In 
scalds or burns, what is necessary if a blister is formed ? 373. What is 
necessary if the external skin is removed ? How often should the dres- 
sings be removed ? 




374. In th* preceding chapters, the structure and use of the 
bones and muscles have been explained, the process by which 
the food is converted into chyle and mixed with the blood, 
together with the manner by which this fluid is conveyed to 
every part of the body, has been described. 

375. It has also been shown, that lymphatic absorption com- 
mences as soon as nutrition is completed, and conveys the 
useless, worn-out particles of the different parts back into the 
circulating fluid ; while the respiratory organs and secretory 
glands perform the work of preparing the waste atoms to be 
conveyed from the body. These functions must succeed each 
other in proper order ; and such is the mutual dependence of 
these processes, that a medium of communication is necessary 
from one organ to another. This is effected by means of the 
Nervous System. 


376. The nervous system is composed of the Brain, 
Cranial Nerves, Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and the Sym- 
pathetic Nerve. 

377. The brain is a pulpy organ within the skull-bones. 
The upper and front portion is called the Cer'e-brum. The 
lower portion, situated at the back part of the skull, is called 
the Cer-e-bel'lum. 

374 What has been described in the preceding chapters ? 37-5. What 
has also been shown ? 376-388. Give the anatomy of the nervous system. 
37G Of what is the nervous system composed ? 377. Describe the brain. 



378. The cerebrum, or larger portion of the brain, is com- 
posed of a whitish substance, with an irregular border of gray 
matter around its edges. 

379. The cerebellum is also composed of white and gray 
matter, but the latter constitutes the largest portion. The white 
matter is so arranged, that when cut vertically, the appearance 
of the trunk and branches of a tree (ar'bor vi'ta) is presented 

Fig. 69. 4 

Fig. 69. a, a, The scalp turned down, b, b, b, The cut edges of the bones of the 
skull, c, The external membrane of the brain suspended by a hook, d, The left side 
of the brain, showing its convolutions. 

380. The brain is surrounded by three membranes. The 
external membrane is thick and firm ; the middle membrane is 
thin, and looks somewhat like a spider's web ; the inner mem- 
brane consists of a net-work of blood-vessels. 

378. Describe the cerebrum. 379. Describe the cerebellum. 380. What 
is said of the membranes of the brain ? What does fig. 6f> represent .' 



381. On removing the upper part of the skull-bones and 
membranes, the brain presents an undulating, folded appear 
ance. These ridges are called con-vo-lu'tions. 

382. The spinal cord is composed of a whitish substance, 
similar to that of the brain. It is covered with a sheath, or 
membrane, and extends from the brain through the whole 
length of the spinal column. The upper portion, within the 
skull-bones, is called the me-dul'la ob-lon-ga'ta. 

Fig. 70. 

Fig. 70. A section of the brain and spinal cord, showing the relation of the crania! 
nerves to these organs. 1, The cerebrum. 2, The cerebellum, with its arbor vitte 
represented. 3, The medulla oblongata. 4, The spina] cord. 6, The first pair, or 
nerve of smell. 7, The second pair, or nerve of sight. 9, 10, 12, The third, fourth, 
and sixth pairs of nerves. These pass to the muscles of the eye. 11, The fifth pair, 
or nerve of taste, and also the sensitive nerve of the teeth. 13, The seventh pa.r. 
This passes to the muscles of the face. 14, The eighth pair, or nerve of hearing. 
i:,. L6, 18, 19, The ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth pairs. These pass to the tongue, 
larynx, and neck. 20, Two spinal nerves. 

381. What is the appearance of the brain when the skull-bones and mem 
branes are removed ? What are they called ? 382. ^escribe the spinal 
enrd What is the medulla oblongata ? Explain fig. 70. 



383. The nerves are small, white cords, that pass from the 
brain and spinal cord. They are distributed to every part of 
the human system. 

384. The cranial nerves, that connect with the base of the 
brain, are arranged in twelve pairs. They are generally dis- 
tributed to the parts about the face. 

385. The spinal nerves, that connect with the spinal cord, 
are arranged in thirty-one pairs, each arising by two roots ; an 
anterior, or motor root ; and a posterior, or sensitive root. 

Fig. 71. 

Fig. 71. A, The spinal cord, surrounded by its sheath, (E, E.) B, A spinal nerve, 
formed by the union of the motor root, (O,) and the sensitive not, (D.) At D, the 
ganglion, or knot, upon this root is seen. 

386. Every nerve, however small, contains two distinct cords 
of nervous matter. One gives feeling, while the other is used 
in the motion of the part to which they are distributed. 

387. The sympathetic nerve consists of a series of 
gan'gli-a, or knots, extending each side of the spinal column, 
forming a chain its whole length. It communicates with both 
the cranial and spinal nerves, and likewise distributes branches 
to all the internal organs. 

383. What are nerves ? 384. "What is said of the cranial nerves ? 
385. What is said respecting the spinal nerves ? 386. "What does every 
nerve contain ? Describe fig. 71. 387- Describe the sympathetic nerve. 





388. The brain is the organ of the mind. To the cerebrum, 
or large brain, the faculties of thinking, memory, and the will, 
are ascribed. In the human body, this part of the brain extends 
so far backward as to cover the whole of the cerebellum. Tc 
the cerebellum, or little brain, is ascribed the seat of the animal, 
or loioer propensities. 

389. The brain is the seat of sensation. It perceives the 
impressions made on all parts of the body, through the medium 
of the sensitive nerves. That the impressions of external 
objects, made on these nerves, be communicated to the brain, 
where sensation is perceived, it is necessary that they be not 
diseased or injured. 

390. There is a plain distinction between sensations and im- 
pressions ; the latter are the changes produced in the extremities 
of the nerve ; the former, the changes produced in the brain 
and communicated to the mind. 

391. What part of the brain receives the impressions, or has 
the most intimate relation with the intellectual faculties, is un- 
known. Some portions, however, are of greater importance 
than others. Pieces of both the white and gray matter, have 
been removed by injuries without impairing the intellect or 
destroying life. 

388-394. Give the functions of the brain. 388. What is said of the bram ? 
What is ascribed to the cerebrum? To the cerebellum? 3S9. Where is 
sensation perceived ? Through what medium are the impressions of exter 
ul objects conveyed to the brain ? 390. What is the difference between 
sensations and impressions? 391. Is it known what part of the brain has 
the most intimate relation v> th the intellectual faculties ? 


392. This organ, although it takes cognizance of every sen- 
sation, is, of itself, but slightly sensible. It may be cut or 
removed without pain, and the individual, at the same time, 
retain his consciousness. The medulla oblongata, unlike the 
brain, is highly sensitive ; if slightly punctured, convulsions 
follow ; if much injured, respiration, or breathing, immediately 
ceases. * 

393. The brain is the seat of the rvill. The contraction, or 
movement of the muscles, is caused by an influence sent from 
the brain by the act of the mind, or the will. The medium of 
communication from this organ to the muscles, is the motor 
nerves. If the brain is in a state of repose, the muscles are at. 
rest ; if, by an act of the will, the brain sends a portion of 
nervous influence to a muscle, it immediately contracts, and 
those parts to which the muscle is attached, move. 

394. The sympathetic nerve, although it confers neither 
sensibility nor power of movement, yet it gives vitality, or life, 
to all the important parts of the system. Every portion of the 
body is, to a certain extent, under its influence, as filaments 
from this system of nerves accompany the blood-vessels through- 
out their course. This establishes a union, or sympathy, with 
the different organs of the body. 

Illustration. When the brain is jarred by a blow, nausea 
and vomiting follow. Again, when food is taken that irritates the 
nerves of the stomach, it produces headache, from the sympathy 
of the brain with the stomach, through this system of nerves. 

Fig. 72. A back view of the brain and spinal cord. 1, The cerebrum. 2, The 
cerebellum. 3, The spinal cord. 4, Nerves of the face. 5, The brachial plexus, or 
union of nerves. 6, 7, 8, 9, Nerves of the arm. 10, Nerves that pass under the ribs. 
11, The lumbar plexus of nerves. 12, The sacral plexus of nerves. 13, 14, 15, 16, 
Nerves of the lower limbs. 

392. What is said of the sensibility of this organ ? Of the medulla 
oblongata ? 393. Describe how the contraction of a muscle is effected. 
394. What is said of the sympathetic nerve ? Explain fig. 72. 

Note. Let the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system be re- 
viewed from fig. 72, or anatomical outlin% plate 8. 



Fig. 72. 




395. As the different organs of the system are dependent on 
the brain and spinal cord for efficient functional action, and as 
the mind and brain are closely connected during life, the former 
acting in strict obedience to the laws which regulate the latter, 
it becomes an object of great importance in education to dis- 
cover what these laws are, and escape the numerous evils con- 
sequent on their violation. 

396. For healthy and efficient action, the brain should be, 
primarily, sound ; as this organ is subject to the same general 
laws as other parts of the body. If the brain of the child is 
free from defects at birth, and acquires no improper impressions 
in infancy, it will not easily become diseased in after life. 

397. The brain requires a due supply of pure blood. It is 
estimated that one tenth of all the blood sent from the heart 
goes to this organ. If the arterial blood be altogether with- 
drawn, or a person breathes air that is filled with Carbonic gas, 
the brain ceases its proper action, and sensibility with con- 
sciousness become extinct. The effects of slight differences in 
the quality of the blood upon the action of the brain, are not so 
easily recognized. 

Illustration. Let a person remain, for a time, in a crowded, 
ill-ventilated hall or church, and headache or faintness is gen- 
erally produced. This is caused by the action of impure blood 
upon the brain. 

395 — 108. Give the hi/picne of the nervous system. 395. Why is it im- 
portant to know the laws which regulate the action of the brain ? 396. "What 
is necessary that the actionpf ^he brain be healthy a id efficient ? 397. Why 
does the brain require a ou« supply of pure blood ? How is this 
trated ? 


Observation. If a school-teacher wishes to have his pupils, 
on the day of examination, appear creditably, lie will be care- 
ful to have the room well ventilated. Ventilating churches 
might prevent the inattention and sleepiness that are observed 
during the afternoon service. 
" 398. The brain should be called into action. This organ, 
like the muscles, should be used, and then allowed to rest, or 
cease from vigorous thought. When the brain is properly 
called into action by moderate study, it increases in size and 
strength ; while, on the other hand, if it is not used, the action 
of this organ is enfeebled, thereby diminishing the function of 
all parts of the body. 

399. The number of hours that the brain should be vigor- 
ously used, depends on its development, and the general 
health of the body. The child with a large brain and an active 
mind, should not be induced to pursue studies above the 
capacit^>f children generally. On the other hand, children 
of sluggish minds, particularly if they have good health, should 
be incited to study. 

400. Excessive and continued mental exertion is injurious 
at any time of life ; but in infancy and early youth, when the 
structure of the brain is still immature and delicate, permanent 
injury is more easily produced by incorrect treatment than at 
any subsequent period. 

Observation. It is no unusual occurrence, that on "exam- 
ination day," the best scholars appear indifferently. This is 
the result of nervous exhaustion, produced by extra mental 
effort in preparing for the final examination. Such pupils 
should divert their minds from study, for a few days previous 
to examination. During this time, indulge in light reading and 
physical recreation. 

Give a practical observation. 398. "Why should the brain be called into 
action ? What is the effect if the brain is not used ? 399. How long should 
the brain be actively used ? What is said respecting the child with a large 
brain ? Those of sluggish minds ? 400. When is excessive and continued 
mental exertion particularly injurious ? Give observation. 


401. We should not enter upon continued mental exertion, 
or arouse deep feeling, immediately after a full meal. Such 
is the connection between the mind and body, that even in a 
perfectly healthy person, unwelcome news, sudden anxiety, or 
mental excitement, occurring soon after eating, will impede 
digestion, and cause the stomach to loathe the masticated food. 

402. We should engage in intense study in the early part 
of the day. Studies that require close application should be 
pursued in the morning. The evening should be devoted to 
entertaining conversation, music, and light reading. This will 
fit the system of the student for quiet and refreshing sleep. 

Observation. The idea of gathering wisdom by burning the 
" midnight oil " is more poetical than profitable. The best time 
to use the brain is during the day. 

403. Those whose employment is arduous, and the growing 
child, need more sleep than the idler or the adult. As sleep is 
the natural repose of all organs, it follows that the m^f all the 
organs of the system are employed, the more repose they 
require. The organs of the child, beside sustaining their proper 
functions, are busy in promoting its growth. This nutritive 
process is attended with a certain degree of exhaustion. 

404. The condition of the brain is modified by changing 
the action of the mind. If we think intensely of a subject, 
the face will become flushed, and dizziness or pain of the 
head will be induced. Change our thoughts to something 
of a more trifling character, and these peculiar sensations 
will cease. 

405. The brain can exercise its full power upon only one 
object at a time. If its energies are directed to two or more 
operations, neither will receive that full power of exertion that 
it would, if only one object had engaged the mind. 

401. Why should we not arouse deep feeling immediately after a full 
meal ? 402. When should we engage in intense study ? Gi'-e observation. 
403. What persons require the most sleep ? 404. Show how the action of 
the mind modifies the condition of the brain. 405. Why cannot the brain 
exercise its full powers on more than one object at a time ? 


406. Regularity is of great importance in calling the brain 
into action. Let us take our dinner at a certain hour for sev- 
eral successive weeks, and we at last find our appetites indi- 
cating its approach with the greatest regularity. The same is 
true of the nervous system ; call it into action at regular periods, 
and without previous thought, we enter upon that mode of 
action when the time approaches. The formation of " habits " 
are promoted by this principle. 

407. Repetition is necessary to make a durable impression 
on the mind. Repetition of mental action is as important as 
repetition of muscular action. It is by this means that thoughts 
are durably impressed upon the brain. This principle has been 
too much neglected in the moral and intellectual education of 

408. In injuries of the brain, the person is generally insen- 
sible, the extremities are pale and cold, the pulse feeble, and 
the breathing is less frequent and full. When these symptoms 
exist, the patient should be placed in- pure air. Friction, with 
dry warmth, should be applied to the extremities, to restore 
proper circulation in the blood-vessels. There should be no 
bleeding until the skin of the extremities becomes warm. 

406. Should the brain be called into action at regular periods ? 407. Why 
is repetition of mental action necessary ? 408. What is the effect on the 
system when the brain is injured ? What is necessary to be done when 
such symptoms exist ? 





409. Sensation is an impression made upon the mind 
through the medium of the senses. There are five senses, 
namely, Touch, Taste, Smell, Hearing, and Vision. 

410. Touch is the sense that enables us to tell whether a 
body is rough or smooth, cold or hot, sharp or blunt. This 
sense and feeling reside in the nerves of the skin. 

411. The nerves that contribute to the sense of touch, pro- 
ceed from the anterior half of the spinal cord. Where sensa- 
tion is most acute, we find the greatest number of nervous 
filaments, and those of the largest size, as at the ends of the 
fingers and lips. 

Observation. The sense of touch varies in different persons, 
and also in individuals of different ages. Thus the sensibilities 
of the child are more acute than those of the adult. 

412. This sense is modified by the condition of the brain 
and nerves ; by the quantity and quality of the blood supplied 
to the skin ; by the thickness of the cuticle ; and by cultivation. 

Observation. Blind persons, by whom the beauties of the 
external world cannot be seen, cultivate this sense to such a 
degree that they can distinguish objects with great accuracy; 
and the rapidity with which they read books prepared for their 
use, is a convincing proof of the niceness and extent to wliich 
the cultivation of this sense can be carried. 

409. Through what medium are sensations received? Name the senses. 
410- -412. What is said of the sense of touch? 410. "What is touch? 
411. AVhy is sensation acute at the ends of the fingers and lips? What 
is said respecting the sense of touch in different persons ? 412. "What 
modify this sense ? "What is said of blind persons ? 




413. Taste is the sense by which we perceive the flavor or 
relish of a thing. The tongue is the principal organ of taste, 
though the sides of the cheeks, and upper part of the throat 
share in this function. 

414. The surface of the tongue is thickly studded with 
papillae, or points ; these give this organ a velvety appearance. 
To these points the gust'a-to-ry, or nerve of taste, is distributed. 

Fig. 73. 

Fig. 73. The distribution of the fifth pair of nerves. 1, The orbit for the eye. 
2, The upper jaw. 3, The tongue. 4, The lower jaw. 5, The fifth pair of nerves. 
6, The first branch of this nerve, that passes to the eye. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, Divis- 
ions of this branch. 7. The second branch that passes to the teeth of the upper jaw. 
l") 16 17 18, 19, 20, Divisions of this branch. 8, The third branch that is distributed 
to'the' toifcue and teeth of the lower jaw. 23, Tne division of this branch, called 
ptstatory. 24, The division that is distributed to the teeth of the lower jaw. 

41J3 419. What is said respecting the sense of taste f 413. Define taste. 

What is the principal organ of taste ? 414. Where is the nerve of taste 
distributed ? Explain fig. 73. 


Observation. By applying strong acids, as vinegar, to the 
tongue, with a hair-pencil, these points will become curiously 

415. Substances, to be tasted, must be either naturally fluid, 
or partially dissolved by the saliva. When fluids are taken into 
the mouth, the papillse dilate and erect themselves, and the 
particular sensation excited is carried to the brain by the nerve 
of taste. But if dry, solid food is taken, it must be acted upon 
by the saliva before the impi'ession is perceived. 

416. The use of tasle is to guide men and animals in the se- 
lection of their food, and to warn them against the introduction 
of injurious articles into the stomach. This sense has been made 
to vary more than any other by the refinements of social life. 

417. The Indian's like or dislike to particular kinds of food, 
generally extends to every person of the same tribe ; but among 
civilized men, no two individuals can be found alike in all their 

418. This sense is modified by habit, and not unfrequently 
those articles which at first were disgusting, become highly 
agreeable, by persevering in the use of them ; as in learning to 
chew tobacco, &c. 

419. Tasle, as well as touch, may be improved in acuteness. 
Those persons whose business leads them to judge of the quality 
of an article by their taste, can discriminate' shades of flavor 
not perceivable by ordinary persons. Epicures, and tasters of 
wines and teas, afford examples. 

Observation. Many persons impair their taste by bad habits, 
as chewing or smoking tobacco, and using stimulating drinks, 
&c. These indulgences lessen the sensibility of the nerve, and 
destroy the natural relish for food. 

How can these points upon the tongue be seen ? 415. How must sub- 
stances be, in order to be tasted ? Show how the taste of substances is 
perceived by the brain. 416. What is the use of taste ? "What is said of 
the difference among persons as regards taste ? 418. What effect has habit. 
on this sense ? 419. What effect has cultivation ? Give illustrative ex- 
amples. How may the taste be impaired ? 



420. Smell is the sense that enables us to discern the odor, 
or scent, of a thing. This sense is located in the air passages 
of the nose. 

421. The air passages, or nostrils, are lined by mucous 
membrane, which is continuous with the skin externally, and 
with the lining membrane of other cavities which communicate 
with them. To this membrane the ol-fact'o-ry, or nerve of 
smell, is distributed. 

422. To protect the delicate filaments of the nerve of smell, 
thus freely exposed to the air and to the painful stimulus of 
sharp, pungent odors, the membrane is kept constantly mos. 
bv a fluid secreted by the glands, with which it is provided. 

Fig. 74. 

) 74. A side view of the passages of the nostrils, and the distribution of the first 
paii (f nerves. 4, The olfactory nerve. 5, The fine and curious divisions of thia 
nerv» on the membrane of the nose. 

423. When substances are presented to the nose, the air 
that is passing through the nostrils brings the odoriferous parti- 

420 — 127. What is said in reference to smell? 420. What is smell ? Where 
is this sense located? 421. Describe the air passages of the nose. 422. H->v» 
are the filaments of the nerve of smell protected irom pungent odors ? 
What does fig. 74 represent ? 423. How is the odor of substances carried 
to the brain ? 


cles of matter in contact with the filaments of the nerve of 
smell, that are spread upon the membrane that lines the air 
passages, and the impression is then carried to the brain. 

424. This sense is closely connected with that of taste, and 
aids man, as well as the inferior animals, in selecting proper 
food. It also gives us pleasure by the inhalation of agreeable 

425. The sense of smell, like taste and touch, may be im- 
proved by cultivation. Thus the North American Indians can 
easily distinguish different tribes, and different persons of the 
same tribe, by the odor of their bodies. 

426. This sense is seen to be remarkably acute in the dog ; 
he will trace his master's footsteps through thickly-crowded 
streets, and distinguish them from thousands of others ; he will 
track the hare over the ground for miles, guided only by the 
odor that it leaves in its flight. 

427. Acuteness of smell requires that the brain and nerve 
of smell be healthy, and that the membrane that lines the nose 
be thin and moist. Any influence that diminishes the sensibility 
of the nervous filaments, thickens the membrane, or renders it 
dry, impairs this sense. 

Observation. Snuff, when introduced into the nose, not only 
diminishes the sensibility of the nerve, but thickens the lining 
membrane. This thickening of the membrane obstructs the 
passage of air through the nostrils, and thus obliges " snuff- 
takers " to open their mouths when they breathe. 

424. What is the use of this sense ? 425. What is said of this sen: 3 
among the North American Indians ? 426. In the dog ? 427. What does 
acuteness of smell require ? What will impair this sense ? What effect 
has snuff upon the nasal organ ? 




428. This sense contributes more to the enjoyment and hap- 
piness of man than any of the other senses. By it, W3 per- 
ceive the form, color, size, and position of objects that surround 
us. The beautiful organ of vision, or sight, is the Eye. 


429. The eye is shaped like a globe, and is placed in a 
cavity in front of the skull. The sides of the globes are com- 
posed of three coats, or membranes. The interior of the globe 
is filled with certain substances called Hu'mors. 

430. The coats are three in number : 1st. The Scle-rot'ic 
and Corn'e-a. 2d. The Cho'roid, Iris, and Cil'ia-ry processes. 
3d. The Ret'i-na. 

431. The humors are also three in number : 1st. The 
A'que-ous, or watery. 2d. The Crys'tal-line. 3d. The 
Vit're-ous, or glassy. 

432. The sclerotic coat is firm, and its color white; hence, 
it is frequently called the " white of the eye.' 1 From its tough- 
ness, it forms the principal support to this organ. This mem- 
brane, with the cornea in front, encloses the eye. 

433. The cornea is the transparent part of the eye in front, 
which projects more than the rest of the globe. It is shaped 
like the crystal of a watch, and, in health, gives the eye its 
sparkling brilliancy. 

428 — 449. Give the structure of the different parts of the eye. 429. De- 
scribe the eye. 430. Name the coats of the eye. 431. Name the humors 
of the eye. 432. Describe the sclerotic coat. 433. Where is the cornea 
situated ? 



434. The choroid coat is of a dark color upon its inne; 
surface. It contains a great number of blood-vessels, which 
give nourishment to different parts of the eye. 

435. The iris is situated a short distance behind the cornea. 
It is the most delicate of all the muscles of the body. This 
part gives the blue, gray, or black color to the eye. 

436. In tne centre of the iris is an opening called the pu'pil* 
which enlarges or contracts, according to the quantity of light 
that falls upon the eye. 

Fig. 75. 

Kig. 75. A section of the eye, seen from within. 1, The divided edge of the three 
c»;tis. 2, The pupil. 3, The his. 4, The ciliary processes 5, The scolloped border 
of the retina. 

437. On v ; ewing the part of the eye near the pupil, small 
lines, of a .lghter color, will be seen passing to the outer part of 
the iris ; these are called ciliary processes. They are about 
sixty in number. 

438. The retina is the innermost coat of the eye. It is 

* From pu'pa, Latin, a babe ; because it reflects the diminished 
image of the person who looks upon it. 

434. Describe the choroid coat. 435. Where is the iris situated? What 
is said of this coat ? 436. Where is the pupil of the eye ? Explain fie,. 
75. 437- Describe the ciliary processes. 438. Give the structure of the in 
ucrmost coat of the eye. 


i 15 

formed, in part, by an expansion of the optic nerve over the 
bottom of the eye, where the sense of vision is first received. 

439. The aqueous humor occupies the space between the 
cornea and crystalline humor, both before and behind the iris. 

440. The crystalline humor (lens) lies behind the aque- 
ous humor and pupil. Its form is different on the two sides. 
When boiled, it may be separated into layers like those of an 

Observations. 1st. The lens in the eye of a fish is round, 
like a globe, and when boiled, it may be separated into layers, 
resembling those of the human eye. 

Fig. 76. 

Fig. 76. A section of the globe of the eye. 1, The sclerotic coat. 2, The cornea. 
This connects with the sclerotic coat by a bevelled edge. 3, The choroid coat. 6, 6, Tha 
tris. 7, The pupil. 8, The retina. 10, 11, 11, Chambers, or cavities of the eye that 
contain the aqueous humor. 12, The crystalline lens. 13, The vitreous humo- 
t5, The optic nerve. 14, 16, One of the arteries of the eye. 

2d. When the crystalline lens, or the membrane which sur- 
rounds it, is changed in structure, so as to prevent the rays of 
light passing to the retina, the affection is called a cataract. 

441. The vitreous humor is situated in the back part of 

439. Where is the aqueous humor found ? 440. The crystalline humor ? 
How can the structure of this lens be seen ? Explain fig. 76. 441. Wli< r<i 
is the vitreous humor situated ? 



the eye. It occupies more tnan two thirds of the whole inte- 
rior of the globe of the eye. 

Observation. The structure of this organ can be seen, by 
first freezing the eye of a sheep, or an ox ; it then can be cut 
in various directions, and each part separately examined. 

442. The optic nerve, or nerve of vision, extends from 
the brain to the back part of the eye, where it expands on a 
portion of the choroid coat. On this expansion the image of 
objects are first formed. 

Fig. 77. 

Fig. 77. The second pair of nerves. 1, 1, The globe of the eye. The one on the 
left is perfect, but the sclerotic coat has been removed from the one on the right, to 
*how the retina. 2, The crossing of the optic nerve. 3, 4, The brain. 5, 6, The 
commencement of the spinal cord. 7,8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, The cranial nerves. 

443. The eyebrows and eyelids protect the eye from too 
strong impressions of light, and also prevent particles of dust 
and perspiration from falling into it. 

^tow can the structure of the eye be seen ? 442. What is said of the 
.ic nerve ? What is represented by fig. 77 ? 443. What is the use of the 
eyebrows and eyelids ? 


444. The eyelashes are attached to the eyelids ; and when 
tlie eye is closed, they interlace, and thus prevent particles of 
matter from injuring this delicate organ. They add veiy 
greatly to the expression of the eye. 

445. The eyelids not only protect the eye, by closing it in 
front, from too brilliant rays of light and from dust, but dis- 
tribute equally over the globe of the eye a watery fluid secreted 
by glands, with which they are provided. 

446. Beside this, there is another fluid, (tears,) secreted by 
the lach'ry-mal, or tear-gland, above the eye. The tears flow to 
the eye by several minute ducts. As this fluid passes over the 
eye, the small atoms of dust are swept away, by the process 
of "winking," and with the tears pass into two ducts at the 
inner corner of both eyelids. 

Fig. 78. 

Fig. 78. 1, The tear-gland. 2, The ducts that pass from this gland to the ey« 
i, 3, Ducts at the inner corner of the eyelids. 4, The duct that opens into the nose. 

447. These small ducts usually convey the tears away as quick- 
ly as they are formed ; but when the eye is irritated, or the mind 

444. What is the use of the eyelashes ? 44.5. Give another use of these 
protecting parts of the eye. 446. Where ar8 tears formed ? What is tho 
use of tears ? What does fig. 78 represent ? 447. What is the effect when 
the eye is irritated ? 



affected by various emotions, they flow to the eye too rapidly to 
be conveyed to the nose, and they then course down the cheek. 

448. The orbit, or bony cavity, in which the globe of the 
eye is placed, is lined with a thick cushion of fat, in order that 
the eye may move in all directions, with perfect freedom and 
without friction. 

449. The eye is moved by six muscles, one extremity of 
which is attached to the bones of the orbit ; the other extrem 
kv to the globe of the eye. 

Fig. 79. 

Pig. 79. A view of the eye and its muscles, a, b, c, d, e, Five of these muscles. 
/, The optic nerve. The bone is seen above and below the eye 

Observation. If the external muscle is too short, the eye i3 
turned out, producing the "wall eye." If the internal muscle 
is contracted, the eye is turned inward toward the nose. It is 
then called a " cross eye." 

448. How are the movements of the eye facilitated ? 449. How many 
muscles move the eye ? What is the effect if the external muscle is con- 
tracted ? The internal muscle ? 





450. As the eye is strictly an optical instrument, it is neces- 
sary to know the laws that regulate the transmission of light, 
before the use of the different parts of this organ can be 

451. It is a law of optics., that the rays of light, while passing 
through the same medium, proceed in straight lines ; but that 
they are turned out of their course when they pass from one 
medium to another of different density. They are then said to 
be refracted. 

Fig. 80. 

Fig. 80. The course of the rays of light coming from an object and passing through 
Jhe eye. A, A pen, an inverted image of which is painted on the retina of the eye, 
at B. 

452. Another law is, that the rays of light, as they become 
more distant from the luminous body, diverge, or extend farther 
from each other. We would also add, that the rays of light 
from an object, in passing through the eye, cross each other. 
Hence, the image of the object is inverted on the retina. 

450 — 454. Give the physiology of the organs of vision. 450. What is 

necessary before the use of the different parts of the eye can be understood ? 

461. Give the first law in reference to light. What is represented by fig. 80 ? 

k'>2. The second law. Why is the image of objects inverted on the retina? 



453. We will now pass to the use of the different parts of 
the eye. The eyebrows, eyelids, and eyelashes, are pro- 
tecting organs to this delicate instrument ; while the coats give 
form and protection to the more delicate parts within. 

454. The transparent cornea and humors are mediums of 
different density ; so that the direction of the rays of light that 
leave the object at which we look, are refracted and form upon 
the retina a small, but clear image of that object. The im- 
pression of the image upon the retina, is then carried to the 
brain by the optic nerve. 

Observations. 1st. When the cornea and crystalline lens 
become flattened, as in old age, the image is formed beyond 
the retina. This defect is remedied by wearing convex glasses. 

2d. When the cornea and crystalline lens are too convex, 
an image of the object will be formed before the retina. This 
defect of the eye is called near-sightedness. To give such 
persons longer vision, it is necessary to wear concave glasses. 


455. The eye, like other organs of the body, should be used, 
and then rested. If we look intently at an object for a long 
time, the eye becomes wearied, and the power of vision dimin- 
ished. On the contrary, if the eye is not called into action, its 
functions are enfeebled. 

456. Sudden transitions of light should be avoided. The 
iris enlarges or contracts, as the light that falls upon the eye is 
faint or strong; but the change is not instantaneous. Hence the 

453. What parts of the eye are used to protect this delicate organ ? 
To grvo it form ? 454. What is said of the use of the cornea and humors ? 
When do persons need convex glasses ? When concave ? 455 — 4G1. Give 
the hygiene of the organs of vision. 455. How should the eye be used ? 
What is the effect of using the eye too long ? Of not calling it into action ? 
45G. What should be avoided in using the eye ? 

Note. Review the anatomy and physiology of the eye from fig. 76, 
or from anatomical outline plate 10. 


.mperfect vision in passing from a strong to a dim light, and the 
overwhelming sensation experienced on going from a dimly 
lighted room to one brilliantly lighted. 

457. As far as possible, avoid all oblique positions of the 
eye, when viewing objects. If the eye is turned obliquely in 
viewing objects, it may produce an unnatural contraction of the 
muscle called into action. This contraction of the muscle is 
called strabismus, or cross-eye. 

458. Children should be trained to use the eye upon objects 
at different distances. This is necessary, in order that the 
vision may be correct when objects at various distances are 
viewed, as the eye accommodates itself to receive impressions 
from objects remote as well as near. 

459. When particles of dust get upon the eye, the individual 
should be placed before a strong light, the lids held open, and 
the particles removed with the corner of a fine linen or silk 
handkerchief. Sometimes the substance is concealed under 
the upper eyelid, and it may be then exposed by turning back 
the lid in the following manner. 

460. Take a knitting-needle, or small, slender piece of stick, 
which is perfectly smooth, and place it over the upper lid, in 
contact with and just under the edge of the orbit ; then, holding 
it firmly, seize the lashes with the fingers of the disengaged 
hand, and gently turn the - Hd back over the stick. 

461. Too many trials oughtnot to be made, if unsuccessful, 
as much inflammation may rjeinduced ; but a surgeon ought 
to be consulted as soon as possible. Eye-stones ought never 
to be placed in the eye, as they often cause more irritation 
than the evil which they are intended to remedy. 

467. What should be avoided in viewing objects ? 458. Why should we 
view objects at different distances ? 459. What should be done when 
particles of dust get upon the eye ? 460. How can particles of dust be 
removed from the upper eyelid ? 461. What should be avoided ? 




462. The sense of hearing is next in importance to that of 
vision. Through this sense we are enabled to perceive sounds 
that not only subserve to our comfort and pleasure, but are 
instrumental to our intellectual enjoyments. The organ of 
hearing, or the Ear, is one of the most complicated in the 
human body. 


463. The ear is composed of three parts : 1st. The Ex- 
ternal ear. 2d. The Tym'pan-um, or middle ear. 3d. The 
Lab'y-rinth, or internal ear. <. * ^ 

464. The external ear 'presents many ridges and furrows, 
arising from the folds of the cartilage that form 'it. A funnel- 
shaped tube extends from the external to the middle ear. 

Observation. Marly tmimals have small muscles that move 
the external ear, in order to catch sounds from every direction 
The hare, rabbit, and horse, afford good examples. 

465. At the internal extremity of the tube, is a thin, semi- 
transparent membrane, that separates the external from the 
middle ear. It is called mem'bra-na tym'pan-i, or drum of 
the ear. This and the bitter wax found around the hairs in the 
tube, prevent insects from entering the head. 

466. The middle ear is connected with the internal and 

462. What is said of the sense of hearing ? 463 — 476. Give the anatomy 
of the organs of hearing. 463. Name the parts of the ear. 464. Describe the 
external ear. "What is said of the ears of horses, rabbits, &c. ? 465. De- 
scribe the drum of the ear. 466. How is the middle ear connected with 
the internal cavity ? 


]. r )3 

most important cavity, by four small hones, which are the 
most delicate and beautifully shaped bones in the body. 
These are so arranged, as to form a chain from the mem- 
brana tympani of the ear to the labyrinth. 

467. From the middle ear, a tube opens into the back part 
of the throat, called Eu-sta'chi-an, which admits air into tnis 
part of the ear. If tbis tube is closed by disease of the throat, 
hearing is impaired. 

Fig. 81. 

Fig. 81. a, The external ear. c, The tube that leads to the middle ear. g, The 
membrana tympani. e, k, The middle ear. b,f, h, The internal ear. t", The tube that 
leads to the throat d, The auditory nerve. 

468. The internal ear is very intricate, and the uses of 
its various parts are not well known. It is called the labyrinth, 
from its many windings. Tbis part of the ear is composed of 
a three-cornered cavity, called the ves'ti-bule, the coch'le-a, 
(from its resembling a snail-shell,) and the sem-i-cir' cu-lar canals. 

467. What tube opeafcinto the middle ear ? What is its use? Explain 
-il. 468. DcscnflHfclmterual ear. 



469. The internal ear is the only part that is absolutely 
essential in hearing. Other parts, already described, may be 
removed, and yet the person may hear. 

Fig. 82. 

Fig. 82. A view of the labyrinth laid open. This figure is highly magnified 

I, 1, The cochlea. 2, 2, 3, 3, Two channels, that wind two and a half turns around 
a central point, (5.) 7, The central portion of the labyrinth, called the vestibule. 

II, 12, 13, 14, 15, lfi, 17, 18, The semicircular canals. The cochlea and semicircular 
canals open into the vestibule. 

470. The auditory nerve, or nerve of hearing, proceeds 
from the brain, and expands upon the membrane that lines the 
internal ear, similar to the expansion of the optic nerve. 

469. What part of the ear is absolutely essential in hearing ? What doei 
fig. 82 represent ? 470. Describe the auditory nerve. 




471. Hearing is that function by which we obtain a knowl- 
edge of the vibratory motions of bodies, which constitute 
sounds. The precise function of all the different parts of the 
ear are not known. 

472. The function of the external ear, is to collect sounds 
and reflect them into the tube that connects the external with 
the middle ear. The " membrana tympani " receives all the 
impressions of the air which enter the tube, and conveys them 
to the bones of the ear. It also serves to moderate the in- 
tensity of sound. 

473. The supposed office of the middle ear, is to carry the 
vibrations made on the membrana tympani to the internal ear. 
This is effected by the air which it contains, and by the chain 
of small bones that are enclosed in this cavity. 

474. But little is known of the functions of the internal ear; 
its parts are filled with a watery fluid in which the filaments of 
the auditory nerve terminate. 

475. The auditory nerve, like the optic, has but one function, 
that of special sensibility, or transmitting sound to the brain. 
The nerves which furnish the ear with ordinary sensibility, 
proceed from the fifth pair. 

476. The transmission of sound through the different parts 

471 — 476. Give the me of the organs of hearing. 471. What is hearing ? 

472. What is the function of the externa 1 , ear ? Of the drum of the ear ? 

473. What is the use of the middle ear ? 474. What is said of the func- 
tions of the internal ear ? 475. Of the auditory nerve ? 


of the ear, will now be explained by the aid of fig. 83. The 
vibrations of the air are collected by the external ear, and 
conducted through the tube (1) to the membrana tympani, (2.) 

Fig. 83. 

Fig. 83. A view of all the parts of the ear. 1, The tube that leads to the internal 
ear. 2, The membrana tympani. 3, 4, 5, The bones of the ear. 7, The central part 
of the labyrinth named the vestibule. 8, 9, 10, The semicircular canals. 11, 12, Tho 
channels of the cochlea. 13, The auditory nerve. 14, The channel from the mid- 
dle ear to the throat, (eustachian tube.) 15, The chorda tympani nerve. 1G, The 
styloid process. 17, The seventh pair of nerves, (facial.) 18, The mastoid process 
of the temporal bone. 

From the membrana tympani the vibrations pass along the 
chain of bones, (3, 4, 5.) The bone (5) communicates with 
the internal ear, (7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12.) From 
the internal ear the impression is carried to the brain by the 
auditory nerve, (13.) 

Note. Let the pupil review the anatomy and physiology of the ear from 
fig. 83, or from anatomical outline plate 10. 



477. Hearing, like the other senses, is capable of very great 
improvement. By cultivation, the blind are enabled to judge 
with great accuracy the distance of bodies in motion. It is also 
capable of improvement when all the other senses are perfect. 
Thus the Indian will distinguish sounds that cannot be heard 
by the white man. 

478. If this sense is destroyed in early life, the person 
also loses the power of articulating words. Hence a man 
born deaf is always dumb. 

479. Acute hearing requires perfection in the structure and 
functions of the different parts of the ear, and that portion of 
the brain from which the auditory nerve proceeds. 

480. The common causes of impaired hearing, are a thick- 
ening of the membrana tympani of the ear, an accumulation 
of wax upon its exterior surface, a closure of the eustachian 
tube, disease of the brain, palsy of the auditory nerve, and 
destruction of the middle and internal ear. 

481. It is injurious to put the heads of pins into the ear, as 
they frequently cause inflammation. The wax can be softened 
by dropping into the tube some oil, and in a few hours remove 
it, by ejecting warm soap-suds into the ear. 

Observation. When worms and insects find their way into 
the tube of the external ear, they can usually be driven out, by 
dropping in warm olive-oil. 

477—481. Give the hygiene of the organs of hearing. 477. Show how the 
faculty of hearing is capable of improvement. 478. What follows the loss 
of hearing in early life? 479. On what does acute hearing depend? 
480. State some of the causes of impaired hearing. 481. What caution is 
given respecting the use of pins in the ear ? How can insects be removed 
from the ear ? 





482. Our bodies are constituted according to certain laws, 
and every person should learn these, in order to regulate his 
actions and duties, so that the health may be unimpaired, and 
the power of enjoyment, activity, and usefulness continue while 
life lasts. 

483. It is a law of the muscles, that they should either be 
used in some occupation, or called into action by some social 
play and active sport. (See Chap. VIII.) 

484. All admit that food is necessary to sustain life; and 
unless it be of a proper quality, taken in proper quantities, and 
at proper times, the functions of the digestive organs will be 
deranged, and disease produced. (See Chap. XII.) 

485. Pure air is essential to the full enjoyment of health. 
The close, impure air of heated rooms and crowded assemblies 
may be breathed, and the effect be so gradual as not to arrest 
attention ; yet it is a violation of the physical laws. (See 
Chap. XXI.) 

486. The body also requires sleep ; and if it is not taken at 
the right time, or with regularity, we do not feel a full refresh- 
ment from " tired nature's sweet restorer." Let youth be taught 
that " early to bed and early to rise " gives him health and its 
attendant blessings. The brain, like other organs of the body, 
should be called into action at proper times. (See Chap. XXIX.) 

482. Why is it incumbent on every person to learn the laws of health ? 
483. Give a law of the muscles. 484. In preserving the health, why is it 
necessary to give attention to the food which is eaten ? 485. What beside 
food is essential to the full enjoyment of health ? What is said of the im- 
pure air of heated rooms and crowded assemblies ? 486. What should he 
observed in regard to sleep ? 


487. From the extent of the surface of the skin, and the 
close sympathy that exists between it and those organs whose 
office is to remove the waste particles of matter from the body, 
it is, therefore, very important in the preservation of the health, 
that the functions of this membrane be properly maintained 
(See Chap. XXVI.) 


488. It is seldom that a physician is called in the first stages 
of disease. At this period, the treatment adopted should be 
proper and judicious, or the sufferings of the patient are in- 
creased, and life, to a greater or less degree, is jeopardized. 
Hence the utility of knowing what should he done, and what 
should not he done, in order that the health may be rapidly 

489. In all instances of acute disease, it is proper to rest, 
not only the body, but the mind. To effect this, the patient 
should cease from physical exertion, and also withdraw his 
thoughts from study and business operations. This should be 
done, even if the person is but slightly indisposed. 

490. Select a room for a sick person that is exposed to as 
little external noise as possible, as impressions made on the 
ear greatly influence the nervous system. Likewise select a 
spacious, well-ventilated apartment, that has no superfluous 
furniture. The practice of placing a sick person in a small, 
ill-arranged sleeping-room, when a more spacious room can be 
used, is poor economy, not to say unkind. 

491. Care is necessary in regulating the light of a sick-room. 
While a strong light would produce an increased action of the 
vessels of the brain, on the contrary, a moderate light would be 

487. Why should the functions of the skin be properly maintained ? 

488. What is important in the first stages uf disease ? 489. What is proper 

in all instances of acute disease ? How can it be effected ? 490. What 

eoms should be selected for the sick ? Why ? 491. What is said in refer- 

c lie to the quantity of light admitted into a sick-room ? 


an appropriate stimulus to this organ. It is seldom necessary 
to exclude all light from the sick chamber. 

492. A sick person, whether a child or an adult, should not 
be disturbed by visitors, even if their calls < short. The ex- 
citement of meeting them is followed by . pression of the 
nervous system. The more dangerous and apparently nearer 
death the sick person is, the more rigorous should be the obser- 
vance of this suggestion. 

493. Nor should the sick-room be opened to privileged 
classes ; for the excitement caused by a visit from relations 
and the virtuous, will do as much injury to the sick, as that 
produced by strangers and the vicious. The custom of visiting 
and conversing with sick friends during the intervals of daily 
labor, and particularly on Sunday, is a great evil. No person 
will thus intrude herself in the sick chamber, who cares more 
for the welfare of the suffering friend than the gratification of 
a sympathetic curiosity. Inquiries can be made of the family 
respecting the sick, and complimentary or necessary messages 
can be communicated through the nurse. 

Illustration. While attending a Miss B., of N. H., sick of 
fever, I pronounced her better, withdrew medicine, directed 
a simple, low diet, and the exclusion of all In the 
evening, I was sent for, to attend her. There was a violent 
relapse into the disease, which continued to increase in severity 
until the fourth day, when death terminated her sufferings. 1 
learned that, soon after I gave directions that no visitors be ad- 
mitted into her room, several particular friends were permitted 
to enter the chamber and talk with the«ick girl. Their conver- 
sation produced a severe headache ; and, to use the language 
of the patient, " it seemed as if their talk would kill me;" and 
it did kill her. 

494. No solid food should be taken in the first stages of dis- 

492. What effect have calls on the sick ? 493. What is said of the cus- 
tom of calling^ and conversing with the sick during the intervals of daily 
labor ? Give an illustration. 494. What suggestions relative to food, in 
the first stages of disease ? 


ease, even if the affection is slight. The thirst can be allayed 
by drinking cold water, barley-water, and other preparations of 
an unstirnulating character. It is wrong to tempt the appetite 
of a person who is indisposed. The cessation of a desire for 
food, is the warning of Nature, that the system is in such a state 
that it cannot be digested. 

495. When a patient is recovering from illness, the food 
should be simple, and in quantities not so great as to oppress 
the stomach. It should also be given with regularity. " Eat 
little and often," with no regard to regularity, is a bad practice. 

496. When u physician attends a sick person, he should 
have the special management of the food, particularly after the 
medicine has been withdrawn and the patient is convalescent. 
The prevailing idea that every person may safely advise rela- 
tive to food, or that the appetite of the convalescing person 
will guide correctly* is dangerous, and cannot be too much 

Illustration. In 1832, I attended a Miss M., sick of fever. 
After an illness of a few days, the fever abated, and I directed 
a simple, unstirnulating diet. Business called me from the town 
two days. During my absence, an officious matron called ; 
found her weak, but improving ; and told her she needed food 
to strengthen her ; and " it would now do her good." Accord- 
ingly, a piece of beefsteak was prepared, and given to the con- 
valescent girl. She ate heartily, and the result was, a relapse 
into a fever more violent than the first attack. 

497. It is very important in disease that the skin be kept 

clean. A free action of the vessels of this part of the body 

exerts a great influence in removing disease from the internal 

organs, as well as keeping them in health. If the thirty ounces 

495. When the patient is convalescent, how should the food be given ? 
What is said of the practice of eating "little and often"? 496. Who 
should have the special management of food when medicine is withdrawn ? 
What idea prevails in the community ? Give an illustration of the evil 
effects attending such an idea. 497. Does the skin exert a great influence 
in removing disease from the internal organs, as well as in keeping them 
in health ? 



of waste, hurtful matter, that passes through the " pores" of the 
skin in twenty-four hours, is not removed by frequent bathing 
and dry rubbing, the action of these vessels is deranged, which 
increases the disease of the internal organs. 

Illustration. Mrs. M. R., of N., Mass., was afflicted with 
disease of the lungs and cough. This was accompanied with a 
dry, inactive condition of the skin. As medicine had no salu- 
tary effect in relieving her cough, she was induced by the 
advice of the clergyman of the parish to enter upon a system- 
atic course of bathing twice every day. Soon the skin became 
soft, its proper functions were restored, the disease of .ne lungs 
yielded, and the cough disappeared. 

498. The sick-room should be kept very clean, and in per- 
fect order. When a sick person sees every thing neat and in 
its proper place, a feeling of comfort is induced, which aids in 
the recovery of the health ; while filth and disorder are objects 
of annoyance, and tend to depress the nervous system. 

499. Every sick person should breathe pure air. The purer 
the blood that courses through the body, the greater the energy 
of the system to remove disease. The confined, vitiated air of 
the sick-chamber not unfrequently prolongs disease ; and in 
many instances, the affection is not only aggravated, but even 
rendered fatal, by its injurious influences. 

Illustrations. 1st. In 1833, I was called, in consultation 
with another physician, to Mr. H., who was much debilitated 
and delirious. For several successive days he had not slept. 
His room was kept very warm and close, for fear he would 
" take cold." The only change that I made in the treatment, 
was to open the door and window, at a distance from the bed. In 
a short time, the delirium ceased, and he fell into a quiet slum- 
ber. From this time he rapidly recovered, and I have no doubt 
that the delirium was the result of breathing impure air. 

498. How should the sick-room be kept ? 499. Why should every sick 
person, particularly, breathe pure air ? Are not diseases prolonged, and 
even rendered fatal, from breathing the impure, vitiated air of the sick 
chamber ? Give illustration 1st. 


2d. Formerly, every precaution was used to prevent persons 
sick of the small-pox from breathing fresh air. When Mrs. 
Ramsay had this disease in Charleston, S. C, her friends, sup- 
posing that life was extinct, caused her body to be removed 
from the house to an open shed. The pure air revived the vital 
spark, and she lived to be an ornament to her sex. 

500. Medicine is sometimes necessary to assist the natural 
powers of the system to remove disease ; but it is only an assis- 
tant. While emetics are occasionally useful in removing food 
and other articles from the stomach, that would cause disease 
if suffered to remain, and cathartics are valuable, in some in- 
stances, to relieve the alimentary canal of irritating residuum, 
yet the frequent administration of either will cause serious dis- 

501. Although medicine is useful in some instances, yet, in 
a great proportion of the cases of disease, including fevers and 
inflammations of all kinds, attention to the laws of health will 
tend to relieve tlic system from disease, more certainly and 
speedily, and with less danger, than when medicines are 

502. Thomas Jefferson, in writing to Dr. Wistar, of Phila 
dclphia. said, • I would have the physician learn the limit of hi:. 
an. ' 1 would say, Have those who are continually advising 
"herb teas, puis, bitters," and other "cure-alls," for any com- 
plaint, labelled with some popular name, learn the limits of 
their duty, namely, attention to the laws of health. The rule 
of every family, and each individual, should be, to touch not, 
•taste not, of medicine of any kind, except when directed by 
a well-educated and honest physician, (suddea disease from 
accidents excepted.) 

(rive illustration 2d. 500. "What is said of the use of medicine ? 

501. What is said of its use in fevers and many other cases of disease ? 

502. What remark by Thomas Jefferson to Dr. Wistar? What should be 
the rule of every person in regard to taking medicine ? What exception ? 




503. The nurse requires knowledge and practice to enable 
her to discharge aright her duty to the patient, as much as 
the physician and surgeon do to perform what is incumbent 
on them. Woman, from her constitution and habits, is the 
natural nurse of the sick ; and, in general, no small portion 
of her time is spent in ministering at the couch of disease and 

504. As the young and vigorous, as well as the aged and 
the infirm, are liable to be laid upon the bed of sickness, by an 
epidemic, or imprudent exposure, or by some accident, it is 
therefore necessary that the girl, as well as the matron, may 
know how she can render services in an efficient and proper 
manner. No girl should consider her education complete who 
is not acquainted with the principles of the duties of a general 
nurse and a temporary watcher. 

505. It is to be regretted, that, while we have medical 
schools and colleges to educate physicians, there is no institu- 
tion to educate nurses in their equally responsible station. In 
the absence of such institutions, the defect can be remedied, to 
some extent, by teaching every girl hygiene or the laws of 
health. To make such knowledge more available and com- 
plete, attention is invited to the following suggestions relative 
to the practical duties of a nurse. 

506. Bathing. The nurse, before commencing to bathe 

503. Does the nurse require knowledge and practice in her employment, 
as well as the physician ? 504. Who is the natural nurse of the sick ! 
What, then, is incumbent on every girl? 505. Should there be schools to 
educate nurses, as well as physicians and surgeons ? 506. What should t> 
nurse provide hrrsclf with, before bathing a patient ? 


the patient, should provide herself with water, two towels, a 
sponge, a piece of soft flannel, and a sheet, and also notice 
the temperature of the room. 

507. When the patient is feeble, use tepid or warm water. 
Cold water should only be used when the system has vigor 
enough to produce reaction upon the skin. This is shown 
by the increased redness of the skin, and a feeling of warmth 
and comfort. Before using the sponge to bathe, a sheet, or 
fold of cloth, should be spread smoothly over the bed, and un- 
der the patient, to prevent the bed-linen on which the patient 
ties from becoming damp or wet. 

508. Apply the wet sponge to one part of the body at a 
time ; as the arm, for instance. By doing so, the liability of 
contracting chills is diminished. Take a dry, soft towel, wipe 
the bathed part, and follow this by vigorous rubbing with a 
crash towel, or, what is better, a mitten made of this material ; 
then use briskly a piece of soft flannel, to remove all moisture 
that may exist on the skin, and particularly between the fingers 
and the flexions of the joints. In this manner bathe the entire 

509. The sick should be thoroughly bathed, at least twice 
m twenty-four hours. Particular attention should be given to 
the parts between the fingers and toes, and about the joints, as 
the accumulation of the waste matter is most abundant on these 
parts. In bathing, these portions of the system are very gen- 
erally neglected. The best time for bathing, is when the 
patient feels the most vigorous, and freest from exhaustion. 
The practice of daubing the face and hands with a towel 
dipped in hot rum, camphor, and vinegar, does not remove 
the impurities, but causes the skin soon to feel dry, hard, 
and uncomfortable. 

507. When should cold water be used ? 508. How should the bathing 
then be performed, so that the patient may not contract a cold ? 509. How 
often should a sick person be bathed ? What is said of daubing the face 
and hands merely with a wet cloth ? 


510. Food. It is the duty of every woman to know how to 
make the simplest preparations adapted to a low diet, in the 
most wholesome and the most palatable way. Water-gruel,* 
which is the simplest of all preparations, is frequently so ill 
made as to cause the patient to loathe it. Always prepare the 
food for the sick in the neatest and most careful manner. 

511. When the physician enjoins abstinence from food, the 
nurse should strictly obey the injunction. She should be as 
particular to know the physician's directions about diet, as in 
knowing how and when to give the prescribed medicines, and 
obey them as implicitly. 

512. When a patient is convalescing, the desire for food is 
generally strong, and it often requires firmness and patience, 
together with great care, on the part of the nurse, that the food 
is prepared suilably, and given at proper times. The physician 
should direct how frequently it should be taken. 

513. Pure Air. It is the duty of the nurse to see that not 
only the room is well ventilated in the morning, but that fresh 
air is constantly coming in during the day. Great care must 
be taken, however, that the patient does not feel the current. 

514. Bed-linen, as well as that of the body, should be aired 
every day, and oftener changed in sickness than in health. 
All clothing, when changed, should be well dried, and warmed 
by a fire previous to its being put on the patient or the bed. 

515. Temperature. The warmth of the chamber should 
be carefully watched by the nurse. The feelings of the patient 

* Directions for making the simple preparations for the sick are 
found in almost every cook-book. 

510. Should every woman know how to make the simple preparations 
adapted to a low diet ? 511. Should the nurse strictly obey the injunctions 
of the physician relative to food ? 512. What period of a person's illness 
requires the most care in regard to the food ? 513. Give another duty ot 
the nurse. 514. What directions respecting the bed-linen of the patient? 
What is necessary when there is a change of clothing ? 515. Why should 
there be a well-adjusted thermometer in every sick-chamber ? 


or nurse are not to be relied on, as an index of the temperature 
of the room. There should be a well-adjusted thermometer in 
every sick-room. This should be frequently consulted by the 

516. The temperature of the sick-chamber should be mod- 
erate. If it is so cold as to cause a chill, the disease will be 
aggravated. If, on the other hand, it is too warm, the patient 
is enfeebled and rendered more susceptible to cold on leaving 
the sick-chamber. The Latin maxim, "In medio tutissimus 
ibis,'''' (in medium there is most safety,) should be regarded in 
the rooms of the sick. 

517. Quiet. The room of the patienfr should be kept free. 
of noise. The community should be guided by this rule, that 
no more persons remain in the room of the sick, than the wel- 
fare of the patient demands. It is the duty of the physician to 
direct when visitors can be admitted or excluded from the 
sick-room, and the nurse should see that these directions are 

518. The movements of the attendants should be gentle and 
noiseless. Shutting doors violently, creaking hinges or shoes, 
and all unnecessary noise, should be avoided. Most persons 
refrain from loud talking in the sick-chamber, but are not 
equally careful to abstain from whispering, which is often 
more trying than a common tone. 

519. The deportment and remarks of the nurse to the patient 
should be calm and encouraging. The illness of a friend, or 
persons who have recently died, should not be alluded to in the 
sick-room. No doubts or fears of the patient's recovery, either 
by a look or by a word, should be communicated by the nurse 
in the chamber of the sick. 

516. What is said of the temperature of the sick-chamber ? 517. Should 
the sick-room be kept quiet? 518. What is said of noise in the sick- 
chamber ? Of whispering ? 519. What should be the deportment of the 
nurse toward the patient ? Should doubts and fears of the patient's 
recovery be communicated in the sick-room ? 


520. When such information is necessary to be communi- 
cated, it is the duty of the physician to impart it to the sick 

521. The nurse should not confine herself to the sick-room 
more than six hours at a time. She should eat her food regu- 
larly, sleep at regular periods, and take exercise daily in the 
open air. To do this, let her quietly leave the room when the 
patient is sleeping. A watcher, or temporary nurse, may supply 
her place. There is but little danger of contracting disease, if 
the nurse attends to the simple laws of health, and remains not 
more than six hours at a time in the sick-room. 


522. These necessary assistants, like the nurse, should have 
knowledge and practice. They should ever be cheerful, gentle, 
firm, and attentive, in the presence of the patient. 

523. A simple, nutritious supper should be eaten before 
entering the sick-room ; and it is well, during the night, to 
take some plain food. 

524. When watching in cold weather, a person should be 
warmly dressed, and furnished with an extra garment, as a 
cloak or shawl, because the system becomes exhausted toward 
morning, and less heat is generated in the body. 

525. Whatever may be wanted during the night, should be 
brought into the sick-chamber, or the adjoining room, before 
the family retires for sleep, in order that the slumbers of the 
patient be not disturbed by haste, or searching for needed 

520. When necessary to impart such intelligence, on whom does it de- 
pend ? 521. How long should a nurse remain in the sick-chamber at a 
time ? 522. What qualifications are necessary in a watcher ? 523. What 
directions in regard to the food of the watcher ? 524. When watching in 
cold weather, what precaution is necessary ? 525. What suggestion to 
watchers ? 


526. The same general directions should be observed by 
watchers, as are given to the nurse ; nor should the watcher 
deem it necessary to make herself acceptable to the patient by 
agreeable conversation. 

527. It can hardly be expected that the farmer, who has 
been laboring hard in the field, or the mechanic, who has toiled 
during the day, is qualified to render all those little attentions 
that a sick person requires. Hence, would it not be more 
benevolent and economical to employ and pay watchers, who 
are qualified by knowledge and training, to perform this duty 
in a faithful manner, while the kindness and sympathy of 
friends may be practically manifested by assisting to defray 
the expenses of these qualified and useful assistants ? 

526. What should watchers observe ? 527. What is said of employing 
those persons to watch who labor hard during the dav i 



628. Poisoning, either from accident or design, is of such frequency ana 
st&nger, that it is of the greatest importance that every person should know 
the proper mode of procedure in such cases, in order to render immediate 
assistance when within his power. 

529. Poisons are divided into two classes — mineral (which will include 
the acids) and vegetable. 

530. The first thing, usually, to be done, when it is ascertained that a 
poison has been swallowed, is to evacuate the stomach, unless vomit- 
ing takes place spontaneously. Emetics of ground mustard, or the sul- 
phate of zinc, (white vitriol,) or ipecacuanha, (ipecac,) or the wine >f 
antimony, should be given. 

531. When vomiting has commenced, it should be aided by large and 
frequent draughts of the following drinks : flaxseed tea, gum-water, slip- 
pery-elm tea, barley-water, sugar and water, or any thing of a mucil°ginous 
or diluent character. 


532. Ammonia. — The water of ammonia, if taken in an over-dose, and 
in an undiluted state, acts as a violent corrosive poison. 

533. The best and most effectual antidote is vinegar. It should be ad- 

528. Is it useful to know the antidotes or remedies for poison ? 529. Into how tinny 
Classes are poisons divided ? 530. What is the first thing to he done when it is ascer- 
tained that poison has been swallowed ? 531. What should be taken after the vomit- 
ing has commenced- 532. What effect has an over-dose of ammonia? 533. The 

antidote ' 



ministered in water, without delay. It neutralizes the ammonia, and ren- 
ders it inactive. Emetics should not be given. 

534. Antimony. — The wine of antimony and tartar emetic, if taken in 
over-doses, cause distressing vomiting. In addition to the diluent, mu- 
cilaginous drinks, give a tea-spoonful of the sirup of poppies, paregoric, or 
twenty drops of laudanum, every twenty minutes, until five or six doses 
have been taken, or the vomiting ceases. 

535. The antidotes are nut-galls and oak bark, which may be administered 
in infusion, or by steeping in water. 

536. Arsenic. — When this has been taken, administer an emetic of 
ipecac, speedily, in mucilaginous teas, and use the stomach-pump as soon 
as possible. 

537. The antidote is the hydrated peroxide of iron. It should be kept 
constantly on hand at the apothecaries' shops. It may be given in any 
quantity, without injurious results. 

538. Copper. — The most common cause of poisoning from this metal, 
is through the careless use of cooking utensils made of it, on which the 
acetate of copper (verdigris) has been allowed to form. When this has been 
taken, immediately induce vomiting, give mucilaginous drinks, or the 
white of eggs, diffused in water. 

539. The antidote is the carbonate of soda, which should be administered 
without delay. 

540. Lead. —The acetate (sugar) of lead is the preparation of this metal 
which is liable to be taken accidentally, in poisonous doses. Induce imme- 
diate vomiting, by emetics and diluent drinks. 

541. The antidote is diluted sulphuric acid. When this acid is not to be 
obtained, either the sulphate of magnesia, (epsom salts,) or the sulphate 
of soda, (glauber's salts,) will answer every purpose. 

542. Mercury.— The preparation of this mineral by which poisoning is 

Should an emetic be given for this poison ? 534. What effect has an over-dose of 
the wine of antimony or tartar emetic? 535. What is the antidote ' 536. What 
should immediately be done when arsenic is swallowed ? 537. What is the anti- 
dote? Can any quantity of this preparation of iron be given without injurious re- 
sults? 538. What should be given when verdigris has been taken into the stomach? 
539. What is the antidote? 540. What should immediately be given when suga* 
of lead is taken 5 541. What is the antidote? 


commonly produced, is corrosive sublimate. The mode of treatment to be 
pursued, when this poison has been swallowed, is as follows : The whites 
of a dozen eggs should be beaten in two quarts of cold water, and a tum- 
bler-full given every two minutes, to induce vomiting. When the whites 
of eggs are not to be obtained, soap and water should be mixed with 
wheat flour, and given in copious draughts, and the stomach-pump in- 
troduced as soon as possible. Emetics or irritating substances ought not 
to be given. 

543. Nitre — Saltpetre. This, in over-doses, produces violent poison- 
ous symptoms. Vomiting should be immediately induced by large doses 
of mucilaginous, diluent drinks; but emetics, which irritate the stomach, 
ought not to be given. 

544. Zinc. — Poisoning is sometimes caused by the sulphate of zinc, 
(white vitriol.) When this takes place, vomiting should be induced, 
and aided by large draughts of mucilaginous and diluent drinks. Use 
the stomach-pump as soon as possible. 

545. The antidote is the carbonate or super-carbonate of soda. 

546. Nitric, (aqua fortis,) muriatic, (marine acid,) or sulphuric 
(oil of vitriol) acids, may be taken by accident, and produce poisonous 

547. The antidote is calcined magnesia, which should be freely admin- 
istered, to neutralize the acid and induce vomiting. When magnesia 
cannot be obtained, the carbonate of potash (salseratus) may be given. 
Chalk, powdered and given in solution, or strong soap suds, will answer 
a good purpose, when the other articles are not at hand. It is of very 
great importance that something be given speedily to neutralize the acid. 
One of the substances before named should be taken freely, in diluent and 
mucilaginous drinks ; as gum-water, milk, flaxseed or slippery-elm tea. 
Emetics ought to be avoided. 

548. Oxalic Acid. — This acid resembles the sulphate of magnesia, 
(epsom salts,) which renders it liable to be taken, by mistake, in poison- 
ous doses. Many accidents have occurred from this circumstance. 
They can easily be distinguished by tasting a small quantity. Epsom 

542. Give the treatment when corrosive sublimate has been swallowed. 543. What 
effect has an over-dose of saltpetre ? What treatment should be adopted ? 54}. What 
is the treatment and antidote for white vitriol.' 547. What is the antidote for aqua 
funis and oil of vitriol ? Should emetics be avoided ? 548. How can oxalic acid be 
distinguished from epsom salts? 


salts, when applied to the tongue, have a very bitter taste, while oxalic 
acid is intensely sour. 

549. The antidote is magnesia, between which and the acid a chemical 
action takes place, producing the oxalate of magnesia, which is inert. 
When magnesia is not at hand, chalk, lime, or carbonate of potash, 
(salceratus,) will answer as a substitute. 

•550. Give the antidote in some of the mucilaginous drinks before named. 
No time ought to be lost, but the stomach-pump should be introduced as 
soon as a surgeon can be obtained. 

551. Ley. — The ley obtained by the leaching of ashes may be taken 
by a child accidentally. The antidote is vinegar, or oil of any kind. The 
vinegar neutralizes the alkali by uniting with it, forming the acetate of 
potash. The oil unites with the alkali, and forms soap, which is less 
caustic than the ley. Give, at the same time, large draughts of muci- 
laginous drinks, as flaxseed tea, &c. 


552. The vegetable poisons are quite as numerous, and many of them 
equally as violent, as any in the mineral kingdom. We shall describe the 
most common, and which, therefore, are most liable to be taken. 

553. Opium. — This is the article most frequently resorted to by those 
wishing to commit suicide, and, being used as a common medicine, is 
easily obtained. From this cause, also, mistakes are very liable to be 
made, and accidents result from it. Two of its preparations, laudanum 
and paregoric, are frequently mistaken for each other ; the former being 
given when the latter is intended. 

554. Morphia, in solution, or morphine, as it is more commonly called 
by the public, is a preparation of the drug under consideration, with 
which many cases of poisoning are produced. It is the active narcotic 
principle of the opium ; and one grain is equal to six of this drug in its 
usual form. 

555. When an over-dose of opium, or any of its preparations, has been 

549. What is the antidote for an over-dose of oxalic acid ? When magnesia can- 
not be obtained, what will answer as a substitute ? 551. What is the antidote 
when ley is swallowed ? 552. Are vegetable poisons as numerous and as violent 
;n their effects as mineral? 553. What is said of opium and its preparations? 
555, 556. What treatment should be adopted when an over-dose of opium or any 
of its preparations is taken ? 



swallowed, the stomach should be evacuated as speedily as possible. To 
effect this, a teaspoonful of ground mustard seed, or as much tartar emetic 
as can be held on a five cent piece, or as much ipecacuanha as can be held 
on a twenty-five cent piece, should be dissolved in a tumbler of warm 
water, and one half given at once, and the remainder in twenty minutes, 
if the first has not, in the mean time, operated. In the interval, copious 
draughts of warm water, or warm sugar and water, should be drank. 

556. The use of the stomach-pump, in these cases, is of the greatest 
importance, and should be resorted to without delay. After most of the 
poison has been evacuated from the stomach, a strong infusion of coffee 
ought to be given ; or some one of the vegetable acids, such as vinegar 
or lemon-juice, should be administered. 

557. The patient should be kept in motion, and salutary erfects will 
often be produced by dashing a bucket of cold water on the head. Artifi- 
cial respiration ought to be established, and kept up for some time. If 
the extremities are cold, apply warmth and friction to them. After the 
poison has been evacuated from the stomach, stimulants, as warm wine 
and water, or warm brandy and water, ought to be given, to keep up and 
sustain vital action. X 

558. Stramonium — Thorn-Apple. This is one of the most active 
narcotic poisons, and when taken in over-doses, has, in numerous in- 
stances, caused death. 

559. Hyosciamus — Henbane. This article, which is used as a medi- 
cine, if taken in improper doses, acts as a virulent irritating and nar- 
cotic poison. 

560. The treatment for the two above-mentioned articles is similar " > 
that of poisoning from over-doses of opium. 

561. Conium^ — Hemlock. Hemlock, improperly called, by many, cicuta, 
when taken in an over-dose, acts as a narcotic poison. It was by this 
narcotic that the Athenians used to destroy the lives of individuals 
condemned to death by their laws. Socrates is said to have been put 
to death by this poison. When swallowed in over-doses, the treatment 
is similar to that of opium, stramonium, and henbane, when over-doses 
are taken. 

557. Should the person be kept in motion? What is said of artificial respira- 
tion, warmth, friction, and stimulants? 5tJ0. What should he the treatment when 
II n overdose of stramonium or henbane is taken? 561. What name is some- 
times improperly given to covium, or hemlock? How was tffis narcotic poison used 
liv the Athenians? How are the effects of an over-dose counteracted ' 


562. Belladonna — Deadly Nightshade. Camphor. Aconite — 
Monkshood, Wolfsbane. Bryony — Bryonia. Digitalis — Foxglove, 
Dulcamara — Bitter-sxceet. Gamboge. Lobelia — Indian Tobacco. 
Sanguin.uua — Bloodroot. Oil of Savin. Spigelia — Pinkroot. 
Strychnine — Nux vomica. Tobacco. All of these, when taken in 
over-doses, are poisons of greater or less activity. The treatment of 
poisoning, by the use of any of these articles, is similar to that pursued 
in over-doses of opium. (See Opium, page 173.) 

563. In all cases of poisoning, call a physician as soon as possible. 


564. It is no uncommon occurrence, that persons considered dead, have 
been restored to life at the moment when a post mortem examination was 
to have been made, or even when they were in the coffin or tomb. This 
mistake arises from the difficulty of distinguishing real from apparent 

565. In death, although the limbs are stiff, their position is easily 
changed, but they remain where last placed. When a limb is stiff from 
convulsions or asphyxia, its position is changed with difficulty, and it im- 
mediately returns to its former state. Cessation of breathing, or the 
"beating" of the heart, coldness, or insensibility, are no certain indica- 
tions of death. The sign most certain, is well-marked putrefaction ; but it 
does not belong to the unprofessional to decide whether putrefaction has 
commenced ; the physician alone can establish the fact. 

562. What is the treatment when an over-dose of deadly nightshade, monks- 
hood, foxglove, bitter-sweet, gamboge, lobelia, bloodroot, tobacco, &c, is taken' 
563. Should a physician be called in all cases when poison is swallowed ? 5(i5. Hot 
can death be distinguished from aspnyxia.' 


Ab sorp'tion. From the Latin ab- 
sorbere, to suck up. 

A-ce-tab'u-lum. From the Latin ace- 
tum, vinegar. The cavity in the hip- 
bone, so called from its resemblance to 
the ancient Greek vinegar vessel. 

A-NAT o-my. From the Greek ana, 
through, and temnd, I cut. A descrip- 
tion of the structure of animals. 

A-ORT'a. From the Greek aorte, to keep 
in air. The large vessel that carries 
blood from the heart. 

Ap-pa-ra'tus. From the Latin ad, for, 
and parare, to prepare. A collection of 

Ap-pend'ix. From the Latin ad, to, 
and pendere, to bang. Something 

A'que-ous. From the Latin aqua, water. 
A humor of the eye. 

Ar'te-RY. From the Greek arteria, 
formed from a'er, air, and terein, to 
keep. The ancients believed that the 
arteries were filled with air, like the 

As-phyx'i-a. From the Greek a, priva- 
tive, and sphuxis, pulse. Suspended 

At'mos-phere. From the Greek atmos, 
vapor, and sjiftnira, a sphere. The air 
which surrounds the earth. 

Aud'it-o-ry Belonging to the sense 
of hearing. 

Au'RI-CLE. From the Latin aunt, an 
ear. The two cavities of the heart 
derive the name from their resemblance 
to ears. 

Bl-CUS'PIDS. From the Latin bis, two, 
and cuspis, a point. The name of cer- 
tain teeth. 

Bile. A yellow, bitter, nauseous fluid, 
secreted by the liver. 

Brain. The pulpy mass enclosed in 
the cranium, or skull-bones. 

Bronch'i-a. From the Greek brogchos, 
the throat. The two branches of the 

Cap'il-la-ry. From the Latin capillus, 
hair. The capillary vessels are the ex- 
tremely minute terminations of the ar- 
teries, and commencing branches of the 

Car'bon. From the Latin carbo, a coal 
An elementary combustible substance. 

Car-BON'IC. Containing carbon. 

Car'PUS. From the Greek karpos, the 
wrist. There are eight bones in the 

Car'ti-lage. Gristle ; a part of the 
animal body, softer than bone, but 
harder than ligament. 

Ca'va. Latin. Hollow. Vena Cava, the 
hollow, or deep-seated vein. 

Cer-e-bel'lum. The lower and small- 
er portion of the brain. 


Cer'e-brum. The upper and larger 
portion of the brain. 

Chest. The part of the body between 
the neck and the belly. 

C'HO'koid. From the Greek chorion, the 
skin, and eidu*, resemblance. A coat 
of the eye. 

Chyle. From the Greek chulos, nutri- 
tious juice. 

Chyme. From the Greek chumos, a 
grayish juice. 

Cil'ia-RY. Latin. Relating to the eye- 

Clav'i-cle. From the Latin clavis, a 
key. The collar-bone. 

Coc'cyx. Latin. The lower extremity 
of the spinal column. 

Cocii'le-a. Latin. A snail-shell. A 
name given to one of the three cavities 
of the internal ear. 

Co'lon. Greek. A portion of the large 

Con'cave. Hollow ; as the inner sur- 
face of a spherical body. 

Con'vex. Bulging; as the external sur- 
face of a spherical body. 

Corn'e-a. From the Latin cornu, a 
horn. One of the coats of the eye. 

Crys'tal-line. A humor, or lens of 
the eye. It serves to transmit and re- 
fract the rays of light. 

Cus'PID. From the Latin crisis, n point. 
The name of certain teeth. 

Cu'ti-cle. The external layer of the 

Cu'Tis Ve'ra. Latin. The true skin. 
The internal layer of the skin. 

Dj'a-PHRAGM. From the Greek dia- 
phragma, a partition. The muscle that 
BeparateB the lungs and heart from the 
stomach, liver, and intestines. 

Di-ges'tion. The process of dissolving 
food in the stomach, and preparing it 
for circulation and nourishment. 

Duo dk'num. The first of the small 

intestine, being about twelve fingers' 
En-am'EL. The smooth, hard substance 
which covers the crowns of the teeth. 

Ep-i-glot'tis. From the Greek epi, 
upon, and glottis, the glottis. A kind 
of cartilaginous valve at the upper 
part of the larynx, behind the base of 
the tongue. 

Eu-sta'chi an Tube. So called from 

its discoverer, Eustachius. A tube that 

connects the middle ear with the 

Ex-HA'LENT. From the Latin erhalarc, 

to throw out. 
Ex-trem'i-ties. The limbs; as the 

legs and arms. 
Fas'ci-A. Latin. A thin membrane that 

surrounds the muscles and tendons. 
Fe'MUR. Latin. The thigh-bone. 
Fi'bre. An organic filament, or thread, 

of a solid consistence, which enters 

into the composition of every animal 

and vegetable texture. 
Fib'u-la. Latin. A clasp. The outei 

and lesser bone of the leg. 
Fil'a-ment. From the Latin filum, a 

thread. A small fibre. 
Fol'li-cle. From the Latin foltis, a 

bag. Very minute secreting avities. 
Fore-arm. That part of the , rm be- 
tween the elbow and wrist. 
Func'tion. From the Latin fimgor, 1 

act, I perform. The action of organ- ; 

as the function or action of I he eye is to 

see, the ear to hear. 
GAN'GLI-ON. FromtheGreek gagghon, 

a knot. An enlargement upon a nerve 

or tendon. 
Gust'a-to-RY. From the Latin gustus, 

the taste. Belonging to the sense of 

GAS'TRIC JUICE. From the Greek "-as- 
ter, the stomach. The fluid secreted by 

the stomach. 



GlOt'tis. A small, oblong opening at 

the upper part of the larynx. 
Glands. From the Latin glans, a nut. 

Soft, fleshy organs, of various sizes. 
Heart. A muscular organ, situated in 

the left side of the chest. 
Hu'MER-us. The bone of the arm, sit- 
uated between the shoulder-joint and 
Hu'MOR. Every fluid substance of an 
organized body ; as the chyle, the blood. 
Hy'dro-GEN. From the Greek hydro, 
water, and geinornai, I engender. A 
gas which constitutes one of the ele- 
ments of water. 
IIy-GI-ene'. The science of preserving 

the health 
IN-CI'SOR. From the Latin incido, I cut. 

The fore-teeth. 
Iw-TEs'tine. Latin. The alimentary 

I'ris. Latin. The rainbow. The col- 
ored membrane around the pupil of 
the eye. 
Lab'y-rinth. From the Greek laburin- 
thos, a place full of turnings. A name 
given to the windings of the internal 
Lach'ry-MAL. From the Latin lachry- 

ma, a tear. 
Lac'te-al. From the Latin lac, milk. 
The vessels that convey the chyle, or a 
milk-like substance, into the veins. 

Lar'ynx. From the Greek larugx, a 
whistle. The upper part of the wind- 

Lig'a-MENT. From ligo, I bind. A 
strong, fibrous substance, which binds 
bones, &x., together. 

Liv'er. A large gland situated below 
the right lung. 

Lym-phat'ics. Vessels that perform 
the office of absorption. 

Me-dul'la. From the Latin medulla, 

Me-dul/la Ob-lon-ga'ta. The sdI- 
nal cord that is situated within the 
Mem'brane. From the Latin membra- 
na, a film, a delicate web. A name 
given to different thin organs. 
Mes'en-ter-Y. From the Greek mesos, 
in the middle, and cnteron, an intestine. 
A membrane in the middle of the intes- 
tines, by which they are attached to the 
spinal column. 
Met-a-car'pus. From the Greek meta, 
after, and karpos, the wrist. That part 
of the hand between the wrist and fin- 
Met-a-TAR'sus. From the Greek meta, 
after, and tarsos, the instep. That part 
of the foot between the instep and toes 
Mid'riff. The diaphragm. 
Ml'TRAL. Resembling a mitre, or bishop's 
bonnet. The name of two valves of 
the heart. 
Mo'lar. From the Latin molo, I grind. 

The name of certain teeth. 
Mu'cus. A viscid fluid secreted by the 
mucous membrane, which it serves to 
moisten, and also to defend. 
Mus'cle. A bundle of fibres enclosed in 

a sheath. 
Nerve. An organ of sensation and 

motion in animals. 
Ni'tro-GEN. From the Greek nitron, 
nitre, and gennad, I beget. One of the 
gases that compose atmospheric air. 
Nu-tri'tion. The act or process of pro- 
moting the growth, or repairing the 
waste of the system. 
CE-soph'a-gus. From the Greek oi6, 
I carry, and phagd, I eat. The tube 
that, leads from the mouth to the 
Ol-FACT'O-RY. From the Latin olfac- 
tus. Belonging to the sense of smell. 

O-MEN'TUM. Latin. The caul, so called 
because the ancient priests prophesied 
from an inspection of this membrane. 



Or'gan. From the Greek organov, an 
instrument. A part of the system des- 
tined to exercise some particular func- 

Ox'r-GEN. From the Greek oxus, rxid, 
and geinomai, I engender. A gas which 
constitutes about one fifth of our atmos- 

Pan'cre-as. From the Greek pan, all, 
and kreas, flesh ; that is, quite fleshy. 
A gland situated behind the stomach. 

Pa-PIL'la. From the Latin papilla, nip- 
ple. Small, conical prominences seen 
on the tongue and skin. 

Pa-ROT'ID. From the Greek para, about, 
and ous, the ear. A gland situated un- 
der the ear. 

Pa-tel'la. From the Latin patina, a 
dish. The knee-pan. 

Pel' vis. Latin. A basin. The name 
of a bony structure at the lower part 
of the trunk. 

Per-i-os'te-um. From peri, about, and 
os, bone. The membrane, or skin that 
surrounds the bones. 

Per-spi-ra'tion. The evacuation of 
the fluids of the body through the pores 
of the skin. 

Pha-lan'ges. From the Greek pha- 
lagx, a file of soldiers. The bones 
composing the fingers and toes. 

Phar'ynx. From the Greek pharugx, 
the pharynx. The swallow. 

Phys-i-ol'O-gy. From the Greek phu- 
sis, nature, and logos, a discourse. The 
science which treats of the functions 
of animals and vegetables. 

Pleu'RA. Greek. The membrane that 
lines the chest and surrounds the lungs. 

Pul'MO-NA-RY. Belonging to the lungs. 

Plex'us. Latin. Any union of nerves 
or fibres, in the form of net-work. 

Ra'di-US. Latin. A spoke. The small 
bone of the fore-arm. 

Rec'TUM. The .ower and straight por- 
tion of the intestines. 

Re-sid'u-um. Residue. The waste re- 
mains of the food. 

Ret'i-na. From the Latin rete, a net. 
The net-like expansion of the optic 
nerve on the inner surface of the 

Sa'crum. A bone so called because it 
was offered in sacrifice. The lower 
portion of the spinal column. 

Sa-li'va. Latin. The fluid secreted in 
the mouth. 

Scap'u-la. Latin. The shoulder-blade. 

Scle-rot'IC. From the Greek skleroo, 
I harden. A membrane of the eye. 

Se-CRE'tion. From the Latin secernere, 
to separate. The function of several 
glands, by which they separate from 
the blood the material which they re- 
spectively demand for their several pur- 

Sem-i-lu'nar. From the Latin semi, 
half, and luna, moon. The name of 
two valves at the commencement of 
the aorta and pulmonary artery. 

Skel'e-ton. From the Greek skclld, 
I dry. The articulated, dry bones of 
an animal. 

Spi'nal Cord. A prolongation of the 

Spine. From the Latin spina, a thorn. 
The back-bone. 

Spleen. The milt. It was supposed 
by the ancients to be the seat of mel- 
ancholy, anger, and vexation. 

Ster'num. Greek. The breast-bone. 

Stom'ach. The principal organ of di- 
gestion, situated below the left lung. 

Sub-lin'GUAL. From the Latin sub, 
under, and lingua, the tongue. The 
name applied to the gland under the 

Sub-max'il-la-ry. From the Latin 
sub, under, and maxilla, the jaw-bone 
The name applied to the gland under 
the jaw. 

Sut'ure. From the Latin suo, I stitch 



The seam or joint which unites the 

Syn-o'vi-a. From the Greek sun, with, 
and uon, an egg. The lubricating fluid 
of the joints. 

Sys'tem. From the Greek sun, to- 
gether, and istcmi, I place. An assem- 
blage of organs, arranged according to 
some plan or method ; as the nervous 

Sys-tem'ic. Belonging to the general 

Ten'don. From the Greek teinb, I 
stretch. Strong, white cords, that con- 
nect the muscles to the bone which 
they move. 

Tho-kac'ic. From the Greek tliOrax, 
the chest. 

Tib'i-a. Latin. A pipe or flute. The 
largest bone of the leg. 

Tra'ciie-a. From the Greek trachus, 
rough, and arteria. The canal that 
conveys air to the lungs. 

Tri-cus'pid. From the Latin tres, three, 
and cuspis, a point. The three valves 
in the light side of the heart. 

Trunk. The body of animals, without 
the limbs. 

Tym'pan-um. Latin. The drum of the 

Ul'na. Latin. A cubit. A bone of 
the fore-arm. 

Valve. From the Latin valva, a 
small door. Any membrane, or dou- 
bling of any membrane, which pre- 
vents fluid from flowing back in the 
vessels and canals of the animal body 

Veins. From the Latin vena. The 
vessels that carry the blood to the 

Ven'tri-cle. Latin. A small cavity 
of the animal body. 

Vert'E-bra,-.E. From the Latin ver- 
to, I turn. A joint of the spinal 

Ves'i-cle. From the Latin vesicula, a 
small vessel, or bladder. 

Vi'tal. From the Latin vita, life. 

Vit're-OUS. Pertaining to .glass. A 
name given to one of the humors >f 
the eve. 



Absorption, 76 

Acids, Antidotes for, 172 

Air, Composition of the, 96 

, the Effects of, when impure, 99 

, the Effects of, upon the Skin,. ..125 

Air-Cells, 90 

AMMONIA, Antidotes for, 170 

Aorta, 65 

Arsenic, Antidote for 171 

Arteries, 63 

, Nutrient, 87 

, Pulmonary, 64 

of the Skin, 117 

, Treatment of divided,.... 72 

As i'n v xi a, from Carbonic Gas, 105 

, from Electricity, 105 

, from Drowning 104 

, from H;ui^ms;, 104 

Attitudes, 25 

Auricles of the Heart, 62 


Bathing, Necessity of, 125 

, Method of, 164 

Belladonna, Antidote for, 175 

Bile, .- 52 

Blood, Composition of, 86 

, Circulation of, 67 

, Change of, 97 

BONES, Structure of, 11 

, Physiology of, 21 

, Hygiene of, 24,26 

_- ofthe Head, 11 

. — ofthe Trunk, 12 

ofthe Upper Extremities, 16 

of the Lower Extremities, 17 


, Membranes of, 128 

, Functions of, 13-1 

, Injuries of, 137 


Bronchitis, 9°, 112 

and Scalds, Treatment of,.. 126 


Capillaries, ■•• • -©6 

Carbonic Gas, *>> lu < 

the Effects of, when 

breathed, 99 

Cartilage, -19 

cerebellum, ]28 

cerebrum, ■■••}» 

CHEST, 13 > !"• 

Chyle M 


Chyme , a4 

Circulatory Organs, G2 

, Physiology of, 67 

, Hygiene of, ....70—75 

Clothing, Amount of, 123 

, Change of, 124 

, Kind of, 122 

should be loosely worn, 

24, 70, 123 

Conium, Antidote for, 174 

Copper, Antidote for, 171 

Cuticle, 115, H9 

Cutis Vera, ... 117 


Diaphragm, 91 

Digestive Organs, 48 

, Physiology of, . .53 

, Hygiene of, 56 — til 

Drinks, 59 

Drowned, Treatment of Persons,. .104 
Duodenum, 50 


Ear, Anatomy of, 152 

, Physiology of, 155 

, Hygiene of, 157 

Ex ha lents, 82 

Eye, Anatomy of, 143 

, Physiology of, 149 

, Hygiene of, 150 

, Method of removing Dust from, 151 


Fascia, 20 

Fibres, 27 

Follicle, 82 

Food, Changes of, during the Diges- 
tive Process, 54 

, Quantity of, 56 

, Quality of, 57 

, Manner of taking, 58 

, Time for taking, 60 

Frozen Limbs, Treatment of, 126 


Gastric juice, 54 

GLANDS, Structure of, 83 

, Lachrymal, 147 

, Lymphatic, 7H 

.Mesenteric, 51 

, Oil 1 

., Perspiratory, 118, 120 

, Salivary, 48 

Glottis, no 



Health, Means of preserving, 158 

Hearing, Sense of, 152 

Heart, 62 

, Contractions of the 67, 69 

Heat, Animal, 106 

, Hygiene of, 108, 109 

Hemorrhage, Means of arresting,... 72 


Intestines, '. 50 

v J. 

joints, Structure of, 19 

, Use of, 21 


Lacte ALS, 51 

Larynx, 110 

Lead, Antidote for, 171 

Ligaments, 20 

Light, Influence of, 37, 126 

Liver, 52 

Lungs, 89 

Lymphatics, 76 

, Physiology of, 78 

, Hygiene of, 79—61 

, of the Skin, 117 


Medulla Oblongata, 129 

Membrane, 21 

Mercury, Antidote for, 173 

Mineral Poisons, 170 

Muscles, Anatomy of, 27 

, Physiology of, 30 

, Hygiene of, 36—42 

, Compression of, 38, 113 


Nervous System, 127 

, Physiology of, ..131 

, Hygiene of,134— 137 

Nerves, 130 

, Sympathetic, 130 

, of the Skin, 117, 119 

, Gustatory, 139 

, Olfactory, 141 

, Auditory, 154 

, Optic, 146 

Nitre, Treatment fur an Over-dose. . 170 
NURSES, Directions for, 164 


cesophagus, 49 

Omentum, 52 

Opium, Treatment for an Over-dose,.. 173 


Pancreas, .52 

Periosteum, 21 

Pharynx, 48 

Poisons and their Antidotes, 170 

R. FAOh 

Reading, the proper Pos tion in, 113 

Removal of Disease, 159 

Respiratory Organs, 89 

, Physiology of, 193 

, Hygiene of, 98—10.= 

Retina, 44 

Ribs '2 


Saliva, 53 

Secretory Organs, 82 

, Physiology of. 83 

, Hygiene of, 84, a5 

Senses, 138 

Skin, Anatomy of, 115 

, Physiology of, 1 19 

, Hygiene of, 122, 106 

Smell, Sense of, 141 

Sound, Ill, 155 

Spinal Column, 14 

, Curvature of, 26 

Cord, 129 

Spleen, 52 

Stramonium, Treatment for an 

Over-dose, 174 

Stomach, 49 

Synovia, 21 

Synovial Membrane, 20 


Taste , Sense of, 139 

Teeth, Anatomy of, 43 

, Physiology of, 44 

, Hygiene of, 45, 46 

Tendon, 27 

Thoracic Duct, 52 

Throat, extraneous Bodies in, 114 

Touch, Sense of, 138 

Trachea, 90 


Ulna, 16 


Valves of the Heart, 62 

of the Aorta, 63 

of the Pulmonary Artery, 63 

Veins, 66 

of the Skin, 117 

Vegetable Poisons, 173 

Ventilation, 100 

Ventricles of the Heart. 62 

VertebrjE, 14 

Vision, 143 

Vocal Organs, 1 10 

, Physiology of, Ill 

, Hygiene of, ...112, 114 


Watche rs, Directions for, 168 

Wounds, Treatment of, 74 





In using these plates, we would suggest, that the pupil carefully examine 
the illustrating cuts interspersed with the text, in connection with the 
lesson to be recited. The similarity between these and the plates will 
enable the pupil to recite, and the teacher to conduct his recitation, from 

the latter. . . 

Let a pupil show the situation of an organ, or part, on an anatomical 
outline plate, and also give its structure; while other members of the class 
note all omissions and misstatements. Another pupil may give the use of 
that organ, and if necessary, others may give an extended explanation. 
The third may explain the laws on which the health of the part depends, 
while other members of the class supply what has been omitted After 
thus presenting the subject in the form of topics, questions may be pro- 
posed promiscuously, from each paragraph, and where examples occur in 
the text, let other analogous ones be given. 

If the physiology and hygiene of a given subject have not been studied, 
confine the recitation to those parts only on the pi»pi»P«J«t 
When practicable, the three departments should be muted; but this can 
only be done when the chapter on the hygiene has been learned, while 
the physiology can be united with the anatomy, in all chapters upon 


Bones of the Head. 7, The sphenoid bone. 8, The frontal bone. 10 The 

7, u 11 The os unguis. 12, The superior maxillary bone, 

fu P ;tawTl3 Th^boS. 14, The ethmoid bone. 15 Themalar 

on cheek-bone.) 16, The vomer. 17, The inferior maxinary bone, 

(the lower jaw.) a, Its body, b, Its ramus, or branch. 18, The teeth 

Bonesof the Trunk. 1, 1, The spinal column. 2, The sternum. 3,3, The 

ribs 4, The sacrum. 5, The innommatum. 

Bor^ofthe Upper Extremities. 19, The clavicle, (collar-bone.) 20, The 


scapula, (shoulder-blade.) 21, The humerus. 22, The ulna. 23, The 
radius. 24, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, The bones of the carpus, (wrist.) 

32, 32, 32, The five bones of the metacaipus, (the palm of the hand.) 

33, 33, 33, The first range of finger-bones. 34, 34, The second range of 
finger-bones. 35, 35, 35, The third range of finger-bones. 

Bones of the Lower Extremities. 36, The femur, (thigh-bone.) 37, The 
patella, (knee-pan.) 38, The tibia, (shin-bone.) 39, The fibula. 40, 40, 
40, The bones of the tarsus, (instep.) 41, 41, The bones of the metatarsus, 
(middle of the foot.) 42, 42, The bones of the toes. 

Akticulations. (Left side of the plate.) 

Ligaments of the Trunk. 1, 1, The common spinal ligament. 2, 2, The 
intervertebral ligament, (cartilage between the vertebra;.) 9, 10, 11, 12, Ar- 
ticulations of the ribs with the spinal column. 13, 13, 14, 15, 16, Liga 
ments that connect the cartilages of the ribs with the sternum. 

Ligaments of the Upper Extremities. 25, The ligament that connects 
the clavicle and sternum. 27, The ligament that connects the upper rib 
and clavicle. 28, 29, 30, Ligaments that connect the clavicle and scapula 
31, 32, 33, 34, Ligaments of the shoulder-joint. 35, 35, 36, Ligaments of 
the elbow-joint. 37, 38, 39, 40, Ligaments of the wrist. 41, 42, 43, 44, 
Ligaments of the fingers. 

Ligaments of the Lower Extremities. 49, 49, Ligaments of the hip-joint. 
50, 50, Ligaments of the patella. 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, Ligaments of the 
knee-joint. 56, A large bursa mucosa. 57, The ligament of the tibia and 
fibula. 58, 58, The interosseous ligament. 59, 59, Ligaments of the an- 
kle-joint. 60, 61, 62, Ligaments of the metatarsus. 63, 64, Ligaments of 
the toes. 

A, The brachial artery. B, The brachial vein. C, The radial artery. 
D, The femoral artery. E, The femoral vein. F, G, The anterior tibial 



Bones of the Head. 5, The occipital bone. 6, The parietal bone. 7, The 
temporal bone. 8, The frontal bone. 9, The sphenoid bone. 15, The 
malar bone. 16, The nasal bone. 17, The superior maxillary bone, (upper 
biv.) 18, The inferior maxillary bone, (lower jaw.) 19, The teeth. 

Bones of the Trunk. 1,1, The spinal column. 2, The sacrum. 3, The 
coccyx. 20, The innominatum. 4, 4, The ribs. 

Bones of the Upper Extremities. 21, The clavicle, (collar-bone.) 22, The 
icapula, (shoulder-blade.) 23, The humerus. 24. The ulna. 25, The 
adius. 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, The bones of the carpus, (wrist.) 
!3. 33, 33, The bones of the metacarpus, (palm of the hand.) 34, 34, 34, 
I'lie fi-st lange of finger-bones. 35, 35, The second range of finger-bonrs 
J6, 36, on, Tin third range of finger-bones. 


Bones of the Lower Extremities. 37, The femur, (thigh-bone.) 38, The 
patella, (knee-pan.) 39, The tibia, (shin-bone.) 40, The fibula. 41, 42, 
43, 44, 45, The bones of the tarsus, (instep.) 46, 46, The bones of the 
metatarsus, (middle of the foot.) 47, 47, Bones of the toes. 

Articulations. (Left side of the plate.) 
Ligaments of the Trunk. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Ligaments of the 
spinal column. 14, 14, 15, 15, Ligaments that connect the ribs and spinal 
column. 11, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, Ligaments that connect the sacrum 
and innominatum. 

Ligaments ofthe Upper Extremities. 27, 28, Ligaments that connect the 
clavicle and scapula. 29, The capsular ligament of the shoulder-joint. 
30, 30, Ligaments of the elbow. 31, 32, 33, 34, Ligaments of the carpus, 

Ligaments of the Lower Extremities. 9, Tendon of the gluteus muscle. 
35, The capsular ligament of the hip-joint. 36, 36, Ligaments of the knee- 
joint. 37, The ligament that connects the tibia and fibula. 38, The in 
terosseous ligament. 39, 40, Ligaments of the ankle-joint. 


Muscles of the Head and Neck. 7, The sterno-mastoideus muscle. 
8, The sterno-hyoideus muscle. 9, The omo-hyoideus muscle. 10, The 
trapezius muscle. 11, The orbicularis oculi muscle. 12, The frontal 
muscle. 14, The orbicularis oris muscle. 15, The elevator muscle of the 
nostrils. 16, The zygomatic muscle. 17, The depressor of the lower lip. 
18, The depressor anguli oris muscle. 19, The triangular muscle of the 
nose. 20, 21, The aural muscles. 22, The masseter muscle. 

Muscles ofthe Trunk. 2, 3, The external oblique muscles. 

Muscles of the Upper Extremities. 1, The grand pectoral muscle. 
3, 4, The serratus muscle. 23, The deltoid muscle. 24, The biceps 
brachialis muscle. 2-5, The coraco-brachialis muscle. 26, The anterior 
brachial muscle. 27, The triceps brachialis muscle. 28, The long su- 
pinator muscle. 29, The external radial muscle. 30, The pronator teres 
muscle. 31, The anterior radial muscle. 32, The palmaris brevis muscle. 
33, The anterior ulnar muscle. 35, The palmar muscle. 36, The abductor 
muscle of the thumb. 37, The adductor muscle of the thumb. 38, 39, 
Small flexor muscles of the thumb. 40, The abductor muscle of the little 
finger. 41, 41, The lumbricales muscles. 61, 61, The bifurcation of the 
tendons of the superficial flexor muscle, in the fingers. 

Muscles of the Loioer Extremities. 42, The fascia lata muscle. 43, The 
sartorius muscle. 44, The rectus femoris muscle. 45, The vastus externus 
mascle. 46, The vastus internus muscle. 47, The internal straight muscle. 
48 The pectineus muscle. 49, The adductor muscle. 50, The psoas 



muscle. 51, The tibialis anticus muscle. 52, The long extensor muscle 
of the great toe. 53, The long extensor muscle of the toes. 54, The 
anterior peroneal muscle, ob, The long lateral peroneal muscle. 56,57, The 
gastrocnemii muscles. 58, The long flexor muscle of the great toe. 
59, The short extensor muscles of the toes. 60, The abductor muscle of 
the great toe. 

The figures and letters on the left side of the plate, indicate the position 
of important fasciae, that cover the muscles and enclose the tendons. 



Muscles of the Head and Neck. 4, The sterno-mastoideus muscle. 
5, The complexus muscle. 6, The mylo-hyoideus muscle. 7, 8, The oc- 
cipito-frontalis muscle. 9, The masseter muscle. 10,11,12, The anterior, 
middle, and posterior aural muscles. 13, The temporal muscle. 

Muscles of the Trunk. 1,1, The trapezius muscle. 2, The latissimus dorsi 
muscle. 3, The rhomboideus muscle. 4, The external oblique muscle. 

Muscles of the Upper Extremities. 5, The deltoid muscle. 6, 7, The 
infra-spinatus muscle. 9, The triceps extensor muscle. 10, The internal 
brachial muscle. 11, The long supinator muscle. 12, The external radi- 
al muscle. 13, The second external radial muscle. 14, The anconeus 
muscle. 15, 16, The extensor digitorum communis muscle. 17, The ex- 
tensor carpi ulnaris muscle. 18, The flexor carpi ulnaris. 19, 20, The 
extensor ossis metacarpi pollicis muscles. 21, An extensor muscle of the 
thumb. 22, 28, Interossii muscles. 

Muscles of the Lower Extremities. 29, The gluteus maximus muscle. 
30, The gluteus medius muscle. 31, The biceps flexor cruris muscle 
32, The semi-tendinosus muscle. 33, The semi-membranosis muscle. 
34, The gracilis muscle. 35, The adductor muscle. 36, The vastus ex- 
ternus muscle. 37, The sartorius muscle. 38, 39, The gastrocnemii 
muscles. 40, The long peroneal muscle. 41, The external peroneal mus- 
cle. 42, The long flexor muscle of the great toe. 43, The long extensor 
muscle of the toes. 44, The short extensor muscle of the toes. 47, The 
short flexor muscle of the toes. 

The figures and letters on the left side of the plate, indicate the position 
of membranous fasciae which envelop the muscles and tendons. 



Fig. 1. The Mouth and Neck. (A Side view.) 1, The upper lip. 2, Th« 
tower lip. 3, The upper jaw. 4, The lower jaw. 5, The tongue. 6, The 
n ird palate, (roof of the mouth.) 7, The parotid gland. 8, The sub 


lingual gland. T, The larynx. 10, The pharynx. 11, The (esophagus 

12, The upper portion of the spinal column. C, The spinal cord. 

The Chest and its Organs. 9, 9, The trachea. It, The right auricle 
of the heart. L, The left auricle. 13, The left ventricle of the neart. 
14, The right ventricle. 15, The aorta. 16, The pulmonary artery. 
17, The vena cava descendens. 18, The right subclavian vein. 19, The 
left subclavian vein. 20, The right jugular vein. 21, The left jugular 
vein. 22, The right carotid artery. 23, The left carotid artery. 24, 25, 
26, The upper, middle, and lower lobes of the right lung. 27, 28, The 
upper and lower lobes of the left lung. 29, 29, 29, The diaphra-m. 
P, P, P, P, The pleura, that lines the cavity of the chest S, S, The clavi- 
cles. O, O, O, O, The ribs. M, M, M, M, Muscles of the chest. 40, The 
thoracic duct, opening into the left subclavian vein. 

The Abdomen and its Organs. 30, The stomach. 31, 32, The right and 
left lobe of the liver. F, The fissure that separates the two lobes. 33, The 
gall bladder. 34, 34, The duodenum. 35, The ascending colon. 36, The 
transverse colon. 37, The descending colon. 38, 38, 38, 38, The small 
intestine. 39, 39, The walls of the abdominal cavity turned down. 41, 
The spleen. 

Fig. 2. The Relation of the Lacteals and Thoracic Dieet. 1, 1, A section 
of the small intestine. 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, Mesenteric glands, through 
which the lacteals from the intestine pass. 3, Several lacteal vessels 
entering the enlarged portion and commencement of the thoracic duct. 
5, 5, 5, The thoracic duct. 6, The thoracic duct opening into the left sub- 
clavian vein. 7, (See 40, Fig. 1.) 8, The right subclavian vein. 9, The 
vena cava descendens. 10, 11, 11, The aorta. 12, The carotid arteries. 

13, 13, The jugular veins. 14, The vena azagos. 15, 15, The spinal col- 
umn. 16, The diaphragm. 

Fig. 3. The Relatioyi of the Larynx, Trachea, Bronchia, and Air-cells. 
1, 1, 1, An outline of the right lung. 2, 2, 2, An outline of the left lung. 
3, The larynx. 4, The trachea. 5, The right bronchia. 6, The left bron- 
chia. 7, 7, 7, 7, Divisions of the right bronchia. 8, 8, 8, 8, Divisions of the 
left bronchia. 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, Air-cells. 

Fi"-. 4. An ideal View of a lateral and vertical Section of the Larynx, 

1, 1, The superior vocal cords, (ligaments.) 2, 2, The inferior vocal cords 
3, 3, The glottis. 4, 4, The ventricles of the larynx. 


Fig. 1. The Heart and large Arteries. 1, The right auricle of the heart. 

2, The right ventricle of the heart. 3, The left auricle. 4, The left ven- 
tricle. 5, The pulmonary artery. 6, The aorta. 7, 7, The descending 
aorta. 8, The arteria innominata. 9, The left carotid artery. 10, The left 
subclavian artery. 56, The right subclavian artery. 


Arteries of the Neck and Head. 15, The right carotid artery. 16, The 
left carotid artery. 17, The right temporal artery. 50, The right facial 
artery. 54, The left temporal artery. 

Arteries of the Upper Extremities. 11, 11, The left brachial artery. 
12, The left radial artery. 13, 13, The right brachial artery. 14, The 
right radial artery. 51, The right ulnar artery. 

Arteries of the Lower Extremities. 18, The left iliac artery. 19, The right 
iliac artery. 20, The left femoral artery. 21, The right femoral artery. 
22. The peroneal artery. 23, The left anterior tibial artery. 24, The mus- 
cular artery. 25, 25, The right and left arteria profunda. 26, The right 
anterior tibial artery. 27, The right peroneal artery. 

The Veins of the Neck and Head. 28, The vena cava descendens. 
29, The left subclavian vein. 30, The right subclavian vein. 31, The 
right jugular vein. 32, The left jugular vein. 53, The right temporal 
vein. 55, The left temporal vein. 49, The right facial vein. 

Veins of the Upper Extremities. 33, The left brachial vein. 34, The left 
radial vein. 35, The right brachial vein. 36, The right radial vein. 
51, The right ulnar vein. 

Veins of the Lower Extremities. 37, The vena cava ascendens. 38, The 
left iliac vein. 39, The right iliac vein. 40, The left femoral vein. 41, The 
right femoral vein. 42, The left anterior tibial vein. 43, The left per- 
oneal vein. 44, The right anterior tibial vein. 45, The right peroneal 
vein. 46, 46, The profunda veins. 47, The muscular veins. 48, 48, 48, 
48, 48, 48, Intercostal arteries and veins. 

Fig. 2. The Relation of the Cavities of the Heart to the large Blood-vessels. 
1, The vena cava descendens. 2, The vena cava ascendens. 3, The right 
auricle of the heart. 4, The opening between the right auricle and right 
ventricle. 5, The right ventricle. 6, The tricuspid valves. 7, The pul- 
monary artery. 8, 8, The branches of the pulmonary artery that pass to 
the right and left lung. 9, The semilunar valves of the pulmonary artery. 
10, The left pulmonary veins. 11, The right pulmonary veins. 12, The 
left auricle. 13, The opening between the left auricle and left ventricle. 
14, The left ventricle. 15, The mitral valves. 16, 16, The aorta. 17, The 
semilunar valves of the aorta. 18, The septum between the right and left 

Fig. 3. An ideal View of the Heart, Arteries, and Veins. A, The right 
auricle. B, The right ventricle. C, The tricuspid valves. D, The open- 
ing between the right auricle and right ventricle. E, The left auricle. 
F, The left ventricle. G, The mitral valves. H, The opening between 
the left auricle and left ventricle. I, The septum between the right and 
left ventricle. K, The pulmonary artery. L, The semilunar valves of the 
pulmonary artery. M, M, The right pulmonary artery. N, N, The left 
pulmonary artery. O, O, O, O, O, O, The capillary vessels of the lungs 
P, P, P, The right pulmonary vein. Q, Q, The left pulmonary vein 
R, R, The aorta. S, The semilunar valves of the aorta. T, T, A branch 
i.' the aorta to the upper extremities. U, U, U, U, A branch to the lower 
extremities. V, V, V, V, V, V, The capillary vessels at the extremity 


of the branches of the aorta. W, W, The descending vena cava. 
X, X, X, The ascending vena cava. 

In Figs. 1, 2, 3, the course of the blood through the circulatory vessels 
is indicated by arrows. 



Fig. 1. 1, The right auricle of the heart. 2, The left auricle. S, The 
right ventricle of the heart. 4, The left ventricle. 5, The pulmonary 
artery. 6, The branch of the pulmonary artery to the left lung. 7, The 
branch of the pulmonary artery to the right lung. 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 
Branches of the pulmonary artery in the right and left lung. 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 
Air-cells. 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, Small pulmonary veins in the right 
and left lung. 11, The left pulmonary vein. 12, 12, The right pulmonary 

Fi°-. 2. An ideal View of the Pulmonary Circulation. 1, 1, The right 
lung°' 2,' 2, Theleftlung. 3, Thetrachea. 4,4,4,4,4, The right bronchia. 
5, 5, 5, 5, 5, The left bronchia. 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, Air-cells, with arteries and 
veins passing around them. 7, The right auricle of the heart. 8, The 
right ventricle of the heart. 9, The tricuspid valves. 10, The pulmonary 
artery. 11, 11, U, H, The right pulmonary artery. 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, The 
left pulmonary artery. 13, 13, 13, 13, The right pulmonary vein. 

14, 14, 14, 14, The left pulmonary vein. 15, The left auricle. 16, The 
left ventricle. 17, The mitral valves. 18, The septum between the right 
and left ventricles. 

Fig. 3. An ideal View of the Capillaries. 1, 1, A branch of the pul- 
monary artery. 2, 2, A branch of the pulmonary vein. 3, 3, Capillary 
vessels between the artery and vein. 

Fig 4 An ideal View of the Relations of the Bronchia, Air-cells, 1 ul- 
monary Arteries, and Veins. 1, A bronchial tube. 2, 2, 2, Air-cells. 
3 A branch of the pulmonary artery. 4, A branch of the pulmonary vein. 



1 The cerebrum. 2, The cerebellum. 3, 3, The spinal cord. 4, The 
brachial plexus of nerves. 5, The lumbar plexus of nerves. 6, The sa- 
cral plexus of nerves. 7, The facial nerve. 8, 17, The radial nerve. 
9, 9, 16, The ulnar nerve. 10, The median nerve. G, The circumflex 
nerve of the shoulder. 

11, 11, The great sciatic nerve. 12, The external popliteal, or peroneal 


nerve. 13, 13, The posterior tibial nerve. 14, The external tibial nerve. 
15, The muscular branch of the external peroneal nerve. 18, The muscu 
lar branch of the sciatic nerve. P, Q, The posterior tibial nerve. 

The letters and other figures indicate minor nervous filaments dis- 
tributed to the various muscles and the skin. 



Fig. 1. A perspiratory Tithe and Gland. 1, 1, The contorted portion of 
the tube that forms the gland. 2, 2, Two branches which unite to form 
the main duct of the gland. 3, 3, The perspiratory tube. 4, The cuticle. 
5, Its colored portion. 6, The cutis vera, (true skin.) 7, 7, Fat vesicles, 
in which the gland is imbedded. 

Fig. 2. A Papilla of the Skin. 1, 1, Two papillae, formed of an artery, 
vein, and nerve. 2, 2, 2, 2, Nerves forming a loop in the papillae. 3, 3, Ar- 
teries of the papilla;. 4, 4, Veins of the papilla?. 5, 5, A net-work of 
arteries, veins, and nerves. 6, 6, Nerves of the skin. 8, 8, Arteries of 
the skin. 7, 7, Veins of the skin. 

Fig. 3. A Hair, and its Oil-Glands. 1, 1, The hair. 2, 2, The sheath 
of the hair. 3, Oil-glands that surround the bulb of the hair, the ducts of 
which open into the sheath of the hair, (2, 2.) 

Fig. 4. A Section of tlie Skin. 1, 1, The cuticle. 2, 2, Its colored por- 
tion. 3, 3, The papillary layer. 4, 4, A net-work of arteries, veins, and 
nerves, upon the upper surface of the cutis vera. 5, 5, 5, 5, The cutis 
vera, (true skin.) 6, 6, 6, Hairs that originate in the cutis vera. 7, 7, 7, Oil- 
glands, the ducts of which connect with the sheath of the hair. 8, 8, 8 8, 
8, 8, 8, 8, Perspiratory glands and their ducts. 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, Nerves of the 
skin. 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, Arteries of the skin. 11, 11, 11, 11, 11, Veins of 
the skin. 12, 12, 12, 12, Papillae, or ridges of the skin. 


Fig. 1. 1, 1, The sclerotic coat. 2, 2, The cornea. 3, 3, The choroid 
coat. 4, 4, The retina. 5, 5, The iris. 6, 6, The posterior chamber of 
the eye that contains the aqueous humor. 7, 7, The anterior chamber. 
8, 8, The pupil. 9, The crystalline humor. 10, 10, The vitreous humor. 
11, The optic nerve. 12, A representation of a pen. 13, An inverted 
image of the pen (12) on the retina. 14, 14, A canal surrounding the 
crystalline humor. 15, 16, The bevelled junction of the cornea and scle- 


rotic coats. A, a perpendicular ray of light from the pen. B, B, oblique 
••ays, that are refracted in passing 'through the humors of the eye. 

Fig. 2. A View of the External, Mir/die, and Internal Ear. 1, 1. The ex- 
ternal ear. 2, The meatus auditorius externus, (the tube that connects 
with the middle car.) 3, The membrana tympani, (drum of the ear.) 
8, 8, The tympanum, (middle ear.) 4, The malleus. 5, The incus. 
6, The orbicularis. 7, The stapes, (stirrup-bone,) that connects with the 
vestibule of the internal ear. 9, 9, (4, 5, 6, 7, The small bones of the mid- 
dle ear,) 10, 11, 12, The semicircular canals. 13, 13, The cochlea. 
14, The auditory nerve. 15, The division of the auditory nerve to the 
semicircular canals. 16, The division to the cochlea. 17, 17, The 
Eustachian tube. 18, The chorda tympani nerve. 19, The seventh pair 
(lav-iU) nerve. 20, The styloid process of the temporal bone. 21, 21, 
21, 21, 21, Tut parous or hard portion of the temporal bone, in which 
-he parts of the middle and internal ear are situated. 

tfe'o-w i* o-iven tne Title of a Book on a new plan, just published, in- 
tended for beginners in the study of Physiology. 








3 Pahk Ilow