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45^ o 

^ <L> ~ 
uJ •= 

♦ Spanish-American War 

♦ Wright brothers' first flight ♦ Panic of 1907: Run on banks stopped by J. P. Morgan 

♦ President McKiniey assassinated by anarchist; u s troops occupy Cuba 
J. P. Morgan organizes U.S. Steel 


♦ Robert Perry reaches North Pole 

♦ Henry Ford builds his first car 

♦ U.S. acquires control of Panama Canal Zone 

Graver Cleveland 

Theodore Roosevelt 

Woodrow Wil; 

Benjamin Harrison 

William McKiniey 

William Howard Taft 




Graysville School 

Southern Industrial School 

Graysville Academy 

Southern Training School 

— C 
O <L> 
O 73 

George W. Colcord 

N. W. Lawrence 

C.L Stone 

William T Bland 

J. Ellis Tenney 


Charles W. Irwin 

M. B. Van Kirk 











♦ Graysville School begins classes (1892) ► 4 

School canning business started (1899-1900) 

♦ Graysville administration building built (1893) ♦ Boys' dormitory burns (1900) 

♦ Three academy faculty arrested for violating Sunday laws (Mar. 1895) 
♦ General Conference assumes control of school (Sept. 1 896) 

♦ STS separates from conference as ♦ Broom-making & carpentn 

legal entity (Apr. 1906) started (1911) 

♦ Ellen G. White visits 
Graysville (1904) 

♦ Laundry & press buildings built; 
Administration building enlarged 

♦ New boys' dormi 
built (1912) 

♦ Girls' dormitory » ♦ Southern Union assumes control of school (1 901 ) 

built (1898) 

School printing business started (1900-01) 

Graysville Sanitarium built (1902-03) 

♦ STStal 

County Seats 

Graysville, Rhea County 


mama Canal opened 

♦ 19th Amendment gives women right 
to vote 

♦ Protectionist tariffs established 
♦ President Wilson awarded Nobel Peace Prize 


♦ Lindbergh makes first solo transatlantic ♦ FDR announces 'New Deal' welfare state 

Stock market 'crash' triggers the Great 

Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor- ♦ 
U.S. enters WWli 

U.S. economy 
begins to recover 

♦ FDR attempts to 'pack' 
Supreme Court 

Calvin Coolidge 

Franklin D. Roosevelt 

/ N. Atte berry 

Warren G. Harding 

Herbert Hoover 




Southern Junior 




Leo F. Thiel 

H. H. Hamilton 

John C.Thompson 


Lynn H 



Marion E. Cady 


Leo F. Thiel 

Henry J. Klooster 


♦ Collegedale Church 
.(Dec. 1916) 

► *\ ♦ SoJuConians Student Association organized (1923) ♦ The South/and Sew// begun ♦ Pre-Nursing course offered (1934) 

School expands curricula (191 9-22) ^ Collegedale Post Office opens (1 929) 

> i 

Financial crisis (1920-22) 

building built 

First Medical 
Cadet Corps 
class (1940-41) 

First faculty member with 
Ph.D. hired (1940) 

t\ Measles, influenza epidemics (1933-35) 

♦ Girls' dormitory built Normal Building built (1929-30) 

y nqi7i ▼ Telephone system - 

u ' installed (1920) ♦ South, College, and North halls named (1924) ♦ Tornado does $3,000 damage (Jul. 1931) 

* ?Feb. fej t0ry burns » j ♦ SJC secondary school accredited (1930) ♦ s ^ accredited as junior college (1936) 

♦ SJC teaches 14 grades (1918) First school annual— The Sou/Mand (1922-23) ♦ 

^ i^^^^^— ^^^— ^ Tabernacle built 

♦ Srhnni mni „. » * Sln^^M? 1 department No school annual published (1 930-38) (1 941 ' 

T&nh ? BS ?„«» begun (Oct. 1922) ♦ Monthly publication, /"A? 

Thatcher farm (1916) ^ do ▼ SoM ^ begun; ► < 

, ove Electricity installed on campus (1919) Bread bakery built (1926) Depression causes decline in enrollment (1930-39) 

b d First SJC student drafted (Jul. 1 941 )♦ 

Wave of epidemics hits Collegedale area (Influenza, small pox, measles, scarlet fever, typhoid) (1918-29) 

Chattanooga printers sue College Press; 
Collegedale Industries formed (1931-32) 

Hamilton County 

Donated from the library! 


Edgar O. Grundset. 





Dennis Pettibone is a professor of 
history at Southern College with 
twenty-five years of teaching 
experience. Before joining the 
Southern faculty in 1 988, he taugh 
history at Columbia College in 
Colorado for eight years, and at 
Atlantic Union College in Massachu- 
setts for two years. 

Dr. Pettibone's prolific writings hav 
been published in various books am 
magazines, including the National Review, 
Review. He received a first-prize award for an article published in Liberty 
magazine, and he wrote a chapter in the book The World of Ellen G. White, which 
was published in 1 987. He specializes in writing about church/state relations and 
has also made twenty-four educational videotapes and two television programs 
dealing with history and political science. 

Dr. Pettibone earned his credentials at three California educational institutions: his 
bachelor's degree in history from La Sierra College in 1958; his master's degree 
from Loma Linda University; and his Ph.D. in history from the University of 
California in Riverside in 1979. 

Dr. Pettibone holds memberships in the American Historical Association, the 
Society of Church History, and the Organization of American Historians. His 
hobbies include photography and hiking. He and his wife, the former Carol 
Nelson, and their two daughters, Lori and Teresa, live in Collegedale, Tennessee. 

Jacket Design: David Bankston, Bankston Design 


J) (MM U (lUHLDKt 



SeUhwr Advenfet University 

Colegedale. TN 37315 



Production Director: Vinita Sauder 

Manuscript Editor: Barbara Ruf 

Art and Design Director: Vinita Sauder 

Picture Researchers: Lisa Springett, Sharon Ekkens 

Footnote Editor: Russ Miller 

Indexer: Sharon Ekkens 

Book Publishing Committee: Vinita Sauder, chairman; Dean Kinsey, former chairman; Barbara Ruf, 
secretary; Charles Fleming, Jr.; Ruth Jacobs; Ben McArthur; Dennis Pettibone; Jim Ashlock 

Published by the Board of Trustees 
Southern College of Seventh-day Adventists 
P.O. Box 370 
Collegedale, Tennessee 37315 

Printed at The College Press 
Collegedale, Tennessee 

Type: New Century Schoolbook 

Paper: 70-lb. Patina Matte, S. D. Warren Company. (Chosen for its archival quality, this paper is an acid- 
free, neutral pH sheet that resists yellowing and brittleness.) 

Design: Page makeup was produced entirely with Aldus PageMaker and Aldus FreeHand software on Apple 
Macintosh computers. 

©1992 Southern College 

All Rights Reserved 

Published 1992 

Printed in the United States of America 

First Edition 

Library of Congress Preassigned Catalog Card Number 






Pettibone, Dennis Lynn 

A Century of Challenge : The 
Story of Southern College 1892-1992 

ISBN 0-9634258-0-3 


Preface 5 

Author's Foreword 6 

Chapter 1: Graysville Academy (1892 - 1901) 9 

Chapter 2: Southern Training School (1901 - 1916) 29 

Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale (1916 - 1927) 51 

Photo Essay (1892 - 1927) 85 

Chapter 4: Depression And War (1927 -1943) 123 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years (1943 -1955) 147 

Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook (The Work Program, 1916 - 1992) 174 

Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College (1955 - 1967) 202 

Photo Essay (1928 - 1992) 233 

Chapter 8: The Pinnacle (1967 - 1980) 263 

Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery (1980 - 1992) 287 

Endnotes 315 

Index 330 


As you prepare your mind-set for the history that follows, please do so realizing 
that a college such as ours can be very much like an individual — it can have both warmth and 
heart. Its birth is initially formed in the mind and imagination of some creative person or 
persons. Once born, it goes through a fragile period of infancy, often when life or death hangs by 
a thread. Many die from childhood disease. Others grow strong through hardships and survive 
only through the loving efforts of those about them and who are a part of them. And because of 
these struggles both the institution and its supporters develop a loyalty to each other that 
becomes an emotional thing — a thing of beauty that cannot be defined in words but is felt very 
deeply by all who are a part of it. 

And thus it is with those who have been a part of Southern College. That which is 
recorded hereafter is a recounting of its birth, its growing pains, its struggles, and its many 
victories when defeat seemed imminent. The committee that worked on this narrative found 
great difficulty in translating their feelings into words and pictures that can even vaguely convey 
all that this entity means to them and to many others. 

We trust you will find joy in the reading. 

Charles Fleming, Jr. 

Author's Foreword 

Having just written the last word of the first draft of the last chapter of A Century of 
Challenge, I have come to the end of a hundred-year journey, one that started in the sleepy 
little town of Graysville and ended in the "happy valley" frequently scented with the deli- 
ciously tempting aroma of brownies baking in the McKee ovens. 

For me, as a newcomer to Collegedale, it has been a rare privilege to study and write 
the history of Southern College of Seventh-day Adventists. Although graduation 1992 will 
complete only my fourth academic year at Southern, in some ways I'm beginning to feel like 
an old-timer, almost as if I'd been here one hundred years. 

"It's a wonder the school survived!" This sentence from the first chapter might be 
seen as the thesis for much that follows. Despite problems, conflicts, and tensions, the school 
did survive. Eventually it was not only surviving but thriving — that is, until the 1980s, when 
once again its future seemed clouded. But again it survived, and even learned to roll with the 

Walking a line between a whitewash on one hand and an expose on the other, I have 
attempted to write a book that, while empathetic, is honest, objective, and accurate. For 
nearly three years I've been trying to sift fact from fiction in Southern's history. I've been 
thrilled as I've uncovered previously unknown facts about the school, but my emotions have 
been mixed as my research disproved one after another of our cherished Southern myths and 
legends, feeling both a scholar's satisfaction combined with the uneasy guilt of a parent who's 
just told a child that there really isn't a Santa Claus. I didn't set out to become an iconoclast, 
but when documents contradict memories, I have chosen, for the most part, to accept the 
evidence of the documents. 

Attempting to write a history book, an honest account of the past without special 
pleading, rather than hagiography or simply a book of warm, nostalgic memories, I have 
ventured into areas that some people told me were taboo. Southern's struggle for survival, at 
times against overwhelming odds, is a drama that — in my opinion — can't be adequately told 
without some attention to the bottom line: profit and loss. By recording shadows as well as 
sunshine, difficulties as well as success, I am in no way attacking the capability, dedication, 
sincerity, or godliness of school administrators and industrial supervisors who had the misfor- 
tune of being in charge when a depression wrecked the Southern economy or a precipitous 
drop in the market price of baskets or brooms wiped out the profits of a school industry. If 
historians now know better than to blame the Great Depression on Herbert Hoover, we could 
hardly blame it on Henry Klooster! 

From time to time I have included brief biographical sketches of a few students and a 
much larger number of faculty members. Obviously I couldn't write a biography of each of 
Southern's many thousands of students and hundreds of faculty members. Various criteria 

were used in determining which faculty members to include, some logical (such as years of 
service) and some arbitrary (such as the decision to include — except for presidents, academic 
deans, and one person who started teaching here after I had already written about him as a 
representative of student leadership — only those joining the faculty before 1967). As I discov- 
ered some of the colorful, eccentric, lovable, saintly, feisty, contentious, heroic, and dedicated 
personalities in Southern's past, I found the biographies to be both some of the most difficult 
parts of the book to research and some of the most rewarding. 

I could never begin to thank all the many people who have helped me in some way as 
I researched this book. However, I would like to thank for countless hours and numerous 
valuable suggestions the members of the committee which oversaw this project: Dean Kinsey, 
Vinita Wayman Sauder, Barbara Ruf, Benjamin McArthur, Jim Ashlock, Charles Fleming, Jr., 
and Ruth Kneeland Jacobs. Some other people who were especially helpful were Bert 
Haloviak, Jessica K. Queen, Milton Reiber, and Ronald Graybill, as well as my research 
assistants, Lisa Springett and Russell Miller. I also want to thank the people I interviewed, 
either in person or over the telephone, including a few who might be surprised to see their 
names listed here since they supplied useful information in an informal conversation rather 
than a formal interview. My verbal sources include Robert Adams, William Allen, Frances 
Andrews, Bruce Ashton, John Beckett, Horace Beckner, Douglas Bennett, Peg Bennett, Eva 
Teed Beugnot, June Thorpe Blue, Jane Brown, Betty Broyles, Melvin Campbell, Ben Chon, 
Ann Clark, Jerome Clark, Earl Clough, Cecil Coffey, Betty Collins, Dale Collins, Lettie Collins, 
Bert Coolidge, Joyce Spears Cotham, Jesse Cowdrick, Donald Crook, Desmond Cummings, Jr., 
Thelma Cushman, K. R. Davis, Olivia Dean, Don Dick, Jeanne Stamper Dickinson, Roy 
Dingle, Helen Case Durichek, John Durichek, Mary Elam, John Felts, Charles Fleming, Jr., 
John Fowler, Robert Francis, Cyril Futcher, Phil Garver, Ruth Miller Gibson, Jerry Gladson, 
Laura Hayes Gladson, Loranne Grace, Ronald Graybill, Floyd Greenleaf, Betty Belew Grogg, 
Edgar Grundset, Norman Gulley, Richard Hammill, James Hannum, Lawrence Hanson, 
Pamela Maize Harris, Carole Haynes, Inelda Phillips Hefferlin, Ray Hefferlin, Ralph 
Hendershot, Volker Henning, J. W. Henson III, Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, Dorothy 
Hooper, June Snide Hooper, Ralston Hooper, Duane Houck, Katye Burger Hunt, Donald 
Hunter, Bradley Hyde, Gordon Hyde, Irma Hyde, Ray Jacobs, Ruth Jacobs, Masie White 
Jameson, Dean Kinsey, Frank Knittel, Irene Tolhurst Kriegsman, H. H. Kuhlman, Marian 
Kuhlman, Henry Kuhlman, Charles R. Lacey, Edward Lamb, Katie Lamb, Evlyn Lindberg, 
Margaret Littell, John Loor, Jr., Benjamin McArthur, David Magoon, Sue Summerour 
Magoon, Terry Martin, Wilma McClarty, Ellsworth McKee, O. D. McKee, Betty Jo Boynton 
McMillan, Robert Merchant, Margarita Dietel Merriman, R. C. Mills, Sherrie Norton, Ronald 
Numbers, Georgia Butterfield O'Brien, Martha Montgomery Odom, David Osborne, Judy 
Edwards Osborne, Helmut Ott, Myrna Ott, Louesa Peters, Carol Pettibone, Lori Pettibone, 
Susan Rozell Pettibone, Milton Reiber, Joi Richards, Arthur Richert, Jr., Joyce Cunningham 

Richert, Wayne Rimmer, Floyd Rittenhouse, Marvin Robertson, Ken Rogers, Cecil Rolfe, 
Daniel Rozell, Joann Ausherman Rozell, Donald Sahly, Helen Braat Sauls, Lynn Sauls, 
Wilbert Schneider, Thyra Bowen Sloan, Peggy Davis Smith, Kenneth Spears, Lisa Springett, 
Ronald Springett, Richard Stanley, William Taylor, Mildred Diane Tennant, Mitchell Thiel, 
Cheryl K. Thompson, Verle Thompson, Drew Turlington, Wayne VandeVere, Noble Vining, 
John Wagner, Dale Walters, Thomas Walters, Lora Winkler, William Wohlers, Marianne 
Wooley, and Edwin Zackrison. 

I also appreciate the photographs various people provided for us to use. In addition to 
some of the people already mentioned, I especially want to thank Archa O. Dart and William 
O. England, as well as the personnel of Southern's Heritage Museum. Finally, I want to 
express my heartfelt appreciation to my wife, Carol, and our two daughters, Lori and Teresa, 
for their patience while their father was engrossed in this enormously time-consuming project 
and for their critiques of the early chapters. 


Collegedale, Tennessee 
December 1991 

Chapter One 

Graysville Academy 

1892- 1901 

t's a wonder the school 

survived, plagued in 

those early years by 


firetrap buildings, 
faculties, person- 
ality clashes, 
interference by 
the local 
and confronta- 
tions over 
discipline. The 
school lurched 
from crisis to 
crisis, seeming to 
grope for a sense 
of direction while 
periodically tearing up 
its educational blueprint 
and starting over. It would 
have taken a lot of imagination 
to see in those twenty-three young 
children gathered in the second story of a 
general store the beginnings of a senior college 
that would at one time reach an enrollment of 
over 2,000 students. And yet Southern College of 
Seventh-day Adventists did evolve from that 
minuscule group of pre-collegiate scholars. In 
1892 the school was not yet a college, not even a 

▲ Earliest documented photograph of students and 
staff at Graysville, 1896. The couple on the left are 
Elder and Mrs. G. W. Colcord, founders of Graysville 
Academy in 1892. (Photo courtesy ofWm. O. England, 
from the collection of his father, Oscar England.) 

high school; that first year most students 
seem to have been in the elementary 
grades. It did not yet have a name. 
And it was not yet established in 
its permanent home. But by 
1893 it was christened 
Graysville Academy, a 
name reflecting both the 
village in which it was 
then located and the 
founders' aspiration for 
its success and growth. 
A rural mining 
town in southeast 
Tennessee, about 
thirty miles north of 
Graysville was far 
removed from the 
turbulent, changing times 
in the rest of the nation 
during the early 1890s. While 
the rest of the country marveled 
about new "horseless carriages," its 
dirt roads felt only the pressure of mule 
wagons and a few horse-drawn buggies. 
While the General Electric Company was 
incorporating to flood cities with light, 
householders in Graysville held little 
expectation of abandoning their lamps and 
lanterns, and probably had not even a great 
desire to do so. While the rest of the nation 

Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

was entering a period of industrial warfare 
escalating into pitched battles between the 
forces of capital and labor, Graysville men 
worked their shifts in the coal mines and 




▲ Graysville, Tennessee, thirty miles north of 

speculated on what prices their corn and 
tobacco crops would bring. In short, while the 
wealthy barons of commerce and industry 
were leading the nation into "the gilded age," 
Graysville inhabitants were quietly living with 
much of the same pioneer, mountain frugality 
and wisdom they had always known and 

In 1892, while national periodicals were 
debating the Supreme Court's statement that 
the United States was a Christian nation, 
Graysville had no doubts. Sunday was the 
Lord's Day, when Christians and respectable 
citizens attended church and often enjoyed 
"dinner on the grounds." And in 1892, when 
the University of Chicago opened its mighty 
doors to higher education and eventual 
renown, in Graysville a modicum of public 
education, coupled with good common sense, 
served quite adequately. Yet, in 1892 in 
Graysville, another school was bravely opening 
its doors — a school which might not achieve 
the fame and fortune of that university, but a 

school which would eventually influence 
thousands of lives worldwide. 

Adventism Comes South 

|| dventism in the South was in its 
0Ji 9 infancy in 1892. Born in New 
Kb ■ England in the 1830s and 1840s, the 
BJ Advent- movement had already spread 
through the Midwest and had 
established itself on the West Coast. But 
except for "a stray member or two in 
Maryland and Virginia and a scattered 
company in Missouri," Adventism's 
penetration of the slave states was delayed 
until after the Civil War. In the post-war 
period, as northern Ad- 
ventists sent denomin- 
ational publications to 
southern friends and 
relatives, some Southerners 
began to develop an 
interest in the Adventist 
message. 1 

Reading Adventist 
literature led a group in 
Edgefield Junction, 
Tennessee, eight miles 
north of Nashville, to begin 
observing the seventh-day 
Sabbath. Responding in 
1871 to their request, 
Elbert B. Lane held a 
series of evangelistic 
meetings in Edgefield 
Junction, thus becoming 
the first Seventh-day 
Adventist minister to 
preach in the South. His 
bi-racial audience listened 
to his lectures from two 

▲ Robert M. Kilgore, who more than any 
other individual, merits the title 
"Father of Southern College." 

separate rooms — the railroad depot waiting 
room and the telegraph room. When these 
facilities became too crowded, he moved his 
meetings to the freight room and the platform. 
After a short stay Lane returned north, but 
came back for two weeks in May 1873, 
organizing the first Seventh-day Adventist 
church in the South. Other Adventist 
evangelists followed Lane. Before long D. T. 
Bordeau was holding meetings in Kentucky, 
C. 0. Taylor was preaching in Alabama and 
Mississippi, and Robert Mead Kilgore was 
advancing Adventism in Texas. 2 

Kilgore, more than any other single 
individual, would probably merit the title 
"Father of Southern College." It was at his 
urging that George W. 
Colcord moved from Oregon 
to Tennessee to establish 
Graysville Academy. He 
helped to build the facility 
with his own hands. And, 
during the early years when 
principals changed more 
often than women's 
fashions, a measure of 
stability resulted from his 
long tenure as board 
chairman. Arthur W. 
Spalding, his former 
secretary, described him as 
a man "of a genial and 
hearty nature" who was 
"known everywhere to his 
converts and constituents as 
'Uncle Robert.'" Born in 
Tuscarawas County, Ohio, 
on March 21, 1839, he 
enlisted in the United 
States Army at the age of 
twenty-one, was captured 


A Century of Challenge 

▲ Mr. and Mrs. George W. Colcord moved from Oregon to Tennessee to help establish Graysville Academy. 

after the battle of Shiloh, participated in the 
siege of Vicksburg, was honorably discharged, 
and reenlisted. By the end of the war he had 
achieved the rank of captain. Colonel W. B. 
Bell said of Kilgore, "He was a young man of 
high Christian character when he enlisted, 
and he maintained that character during the 
entire war." 3 

He returned home in 1865 to find his 
parents observing the seventh-day Sabbath. At 
their request, he traveled thirty miles to hear his 
first Seventh-day Adventist sermon. Soon 
convinced of the truth of the Adventist message, 
he determined to share in its proclamation. His 
preparation for the ministry would consist of 
reading Seventh-day Adventist books. When he 

wrote to Adventist leader James White explain- 
ing his reasons for wanting SDA literature but 
pointing out his lack of money, White replied, "I 
send you sixty dollars' worth of books; pay your 
vows to the Most High." 

In 1867 Kilgore married Asenath M. Smith, 
daughter of one of Michigan's 
earliest Adventists. After three 
years of double duty as itinerant 
evangelist and Iowa's conference 
treasurer, he was ordained by 
James White to the gospel ministry 
in 1872; in 1877 the General Confer- 
ence asked him to become 
Adventism's pioneer in Texas. 4 

Only thirty-five Seventh-day 

A Early view 

Adventists lived in the entire Lone Star state at 
that time. The Cleburne Chronicle considered 
Kilgore no threat to the religious status quo. 
Reacting to threats against Kilgore's life, the 
Chronicle suggested that such extremes were 
unnecessary. Instead, the newspaper countered, 
Texans should permit him to "proclaim his 
beliefs as much as he pleases. He will soon run 
his race. When the excitement dies away, the 
people will remember him as one of the curiosi- 
ties of the time." There was, the paper 
proclaimed, "no danger of his ever getting serious 
recognition here. He is too far South." 5 When he 
left Texas in 1885, the conference had grown to 
eight hundred members, and the Advent Review 
and Herald reported that Kilgore was "greatly 
beloved by the Texas brethren, most of whom he 
has been the means of bringing into the truth." 6 
For the next six years he was president of 
the Illinois Conference, but three years before he 
relinquished that position he was given an 
additional responsibility — one to which he would 
devote his full time after 1891: leadership of 
District Number Two, the southeastern United 
States, an area with twenty-seven SDA churches, 
seven ordained ministers, and about fifty black 
and five hundred white Seventh-day Adventists. 
No Seventh-day Adventist institutions existed in 
the district at that time, and only one organized 
conference — the Tennessee River Conference 7 
Under his direction Adventists began creating 

of a Graysville street. 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

schools, sanitariums, conferences, and a publish- 
ing house. The first of these schools was 
Graysville Academy. 

n the South Kilgore faced interrelated 
problems of sectional and religious 
prejudice and racial segregation. 
Lingering resentment toward Northern- 
ers from the Civil War and its 
aftermath plagued Adventist evangelists. Arriv- 
ing during the Reconstruction period, Elbert B. 
Lane reported, "Every northerner is looked on 
with suspicion till he proves himself not a 
meddler with their political affairs." Like some 
who would follow him, he declared, "This is in 

Two-story administration building built in 1893. 

many respects an unfavorable field 
in which to labor, owing principally 
to the feelings of dislike which 
people bear toward the North." It 
took time for him to break down the 
wall of sectional prejudice, but he 
reported that it gradually went 
away, and the size of his audiences 
climbed from "perhaps ten or 
twelve" to "between two and three 
hundred." Once the suspicions were 
gone, he observed, Southerners were 
warm-hearted and kind. 8 

Discussing the path-breaking work of J. O. 
Corliss in Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North 
Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama, James White 
wrote, "Political issues set no bounds to the 


Tuition in the Primary Department, per month, . $2.00 
Tuition in the Intermediate Department, per month, 3.00 

Tuition in the Academic Department, per month, . 4.00 

Board, including room rental, fuel, lights, etc., per week, 2.50 

▲ From the 1896-97 calendar. 

Lord's great harvest field." Recognizing the 
existence of "strong sectional feelings," White 
blamed "unprincipled Southern ministers" for 
taking advantage of sectional prejudice to 
insulate their flocks from Adventist proselytizers. 
According to General Conference President 
George I. Butler, however, Adventism melted 
sectional prejudice: "We never received a warmer 
welcome in any section of the country than was 
given us by our Southern brethren. If sectional 
feelings existed before, the present truth has the 
power to break down all such unpleasantness." 9 

Prejudice of a religious nature manifested 
itself between 1885 and 1896 in the prosecution 
of more than one hundred Seventh-day 
Adventists for Sunday-law violations. Most of 
these prosecutions took place in the South, 
especially in Tennessee and Arkansas. Kilgore 
participated in the publicity war that helped to 
turn public opinion against such prosecutions. 10 

The third type of prejudice that Kilgore 
encountered was racial. Perhaps one of the 
reasons the Adventist pioneers in the South 
encountered sectional and religious prejudice 
was their refusal to acquiesce in the region's 
custom of segregating blacks from whites. When 
the issue was discussed in General Conference 
sessions between 1877 and 1885, the prevailing 
opinion was that Adventists should not segregate 
their churches. 


The school rented the second floor of J. W. 

Clouse's General Store to conduct its first classes. 

This photograph was taken decades later. 

Kilgore approached the question pragmati- 
cally. Concurring with a council of SDA 
ministers from Kentucky and Tennessee who 
said that anyone "laboring indiscriminately" 
among blacks and whites could have "no influ- 
ence whatever among the whites in any part of 
the South," Kilgore wrote, "It is hard for our 
brethren in the North to realize that anything 
like the color line, or a distinction between the 
two races, should exist in the minds of any, but 
there is no question about it here in the South, 
and any effort made on the part of those from the 
North to break down the distinction between the 
races, thus ignoring popular prejudices, is simply 
fanatical and unwise." He cited race-mixing as a 
reason the Tennessee Conference meeting had 
been so poorly attended: "Those who have not 
labored in the South cannot possibly appreciate 
the situation." Eventually he persuaded the 
General Conference leaders not to fight segrega- 
tion in the South. 

Not that Kilgore endorsed racial prejudice. 
He believed that the Adventist message de- 
stroyed racial prejudice as well as sectional 
feeling. "With those who have received the truth 
in the love of it, and know the power of the truth 
in their own hearts as it is in Christ Jesus, the 
prejudices that once existed are gone," he de- 
clared. The problem was not with Adventists, he 
believed, but with other Southerners who would 
be hopelessly prejudiced against Adventists if 

Graysville before 1892. The school was 
built on the large area in the foreground. 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

they continued to hold integrated 
meetings. 11 

Another problem Kilgore 
faced was the need for schools to 
educate leaders for the South. By 
the time Graysville Academy was 
established, the denomination was 
operating three colleges elsewhere 
in the United States — Battle Creek 
(Michigan), Healdsburg (Califor- 
nia), and Union (Nebraska). A 
junior college in the United States 
and a Bible school in Australia 
were established the same year as 
Graysville, which would become 
one of four Adventist academies. 12 

In 1890 the General Confer- 
ence officers had accepted a 
committee report urging the opening of a school 
in District Number Two "as soon as there is 
sufficient encouragement that the patronage will 
sustain it" but recommending that it be started 
"in a small way" with only one teacher and "no 
considerable outlay of means," spending only as 
much money as those "personally interested [are] 
able to bear." They had also recommended that a 
committee consisting of R. M. Kilgore, George I. 
Butler, and W. W. Prescott "look for the most 
favorable location" and make the "plans neces- 
sary to secure the success of the enterprise when 
it shall be started." Soon after, a gathering of 
delegates from every state in the district submit- 
ted a "very strong plea" for the establishment of a 
church school for the South, voting to establish a 
permanent school as soon as practicable and to 
consider "opening a temporary school" immedi- 
ately. They were sure they could depend on 
seventy-five to one hundred students that very 
winter. But the General Conference brethren 


Rising Bell 5 : 30 a 

Morning prayers (attendance required) 6:10 

Breakfast 6:30 

Recitations 7 : 30 a. m. to 1 : 10 p. 

Dinner 1 : 30 

Calling hour 2 : 30 to 4 : 00 

Gymnasium and other special work 4 : 00 to 6 : 00 

Study hour 6 : 15 to 9 : 30 

Evening prayers (attendance required) 6 1 15 

Silent hour (1st Div.) 6 : 30 to 6 : 50 

" " (2d ") 6: 50 to 7: 10 

First retiring bell 9 = IO 

Lights out 9 : 30 

Domestic work as assigned. 


From the 1896-97 calendar. 

thought that plans for such a big school were 
premature and advised instead small local 
schools. 13 

The next year, in 1891, Kilgore reported to 
the General Conference session with greater 
urgency: "The . . . most imperative demand of all 
for the advancement of the third angel's message 
in the southern field, is for a school where 
workers may be developed on southern soil to 
labor in this field." Southern white workers were 
needed to evangelize southern whites and 
southern black workers were needed to evange- 
lize southern blacks. If southern youth went 
north for their education, they might be tempted 
to stay there instead of returning to the South 
where they were so desperately needed. "In no 
section of the country," he insisted, "can there be 
a more pressing demand, or a louder call for 
school advantages, than that which comes from 
this portion of the land." The church leaders 
listened to Kilgore politely, but didn't vote any 

money for southern education. 14 

Kilgore was not overstating the 
case. Mass education had not been 
widely accepted in the South. 
Opposition to the idea of public 
schools had frequently taken the 
form of arson. In July 1869 
Tennessee's counties reported the 
burning of thirty-seven school- 
houses. Goodspeed's General 
History of Tennessee records that 
"teachers were mobbed and 
whipped; ropes were put around 
their necks, accompanied with 
threats of hanging; ladies were 
insulted." All public schools were 
resented as the residue of carpetbag 
governments and even as a form of 
"socialism." Schools, according to 
Virginia Governor F. W. M. 
Holliday, were "a luxury ... to be paid for like 
any other luxury, by the people who wish their 
benefits." Especially hated were schools teaching 
blacks. E. B. Lane reported in 1871, "In south 
Tennessee, in a vicinity where I was, some nine 
public school houses had been burned, where 
colored schools were started, and three northern 
teachers had been whipped nearly or quite to 
death for attempting to teach them." 15 

Although the percentage of white illiteracy 
in Tennessee had increased by 50 percent 
between 1880 and 1890, a leading historian 
states that "little effective public action was 
taken to check the retrogression before the end of 
the century." As late as 1900 fewer than half of 
the school-aged children in the South were 
regularly attending school. Kentucky was the 
only southern state with a compulsory school 
attendance law; in the rest of the country only 
two states lacked such laws. 16 

If public elementary schools were scarce 
and inadequate, public high schools were virtu- 


A Century of Challenge 

ally non-existent. The gap between elementary 
school and college was filled almost exclusively 
by private schools and academies, most of which 
accepted only males. Thus Graysville Academy 
would provide a much-needed service, 
not just for the Seventh-day Adven- 
tist denomination, but for the 
community at large. Many of its 
students came from non-Adventist 
homes in Graysville. 17 

Colcord's Private Academy 

"Now is the time to sow the seeds of 'present 
truth' all o'er the field." Graysville was not the 
first academy he established, nor the only one 
that might be considered forerunner of a college. 


hen Kilgore decided the 
Seventh-day Adventists 
needed a school in the 
South, the man he turned 
I to was George W. Colcord. 
Like Kilgore, Colcord had spent many 
years in evangelism. Both men would 
atihnes do triple duty in Graysville, 
combining their administrative 
positions with pastoring the 
Graysville Church as well as teaching 
or holding evangelistic meetings. 
Colcord was forty-nine years old at 
the time — four years younger than 
Kilgore. Prominent Adventist writer 
A. W. Spalding, one of Colcord's 
Graysville students, fondly remem- 
bered him as "a grand old drillmas- 
ter" who was responsible for his love 
of English grammar and who laid the 
foundation for his skill in using the 
English language. Milton T. Reiber 
describes him as "a man of faith and 
hard work." 

Colcord expressed the driving 
force in his life in "Sowing and 
Reaping," a poem he composed for the 
Review and Herald, proclaiming, 






Algebra, I, a, 3. 

Latin I, 1, a, 3. 

Zoology, 1 ; Civil Government, a ; 

Botany, 3. 
General History, 1, 2, 3. 

Rhetoric, I, 2, 3. 
Latin II, 1, a, 3. 
Bible III, 1, a, 3. 
Geometry, 1, a, 3. 


Eng. and American Literature, 1, a, 3. 
Astronomy, 1 ; Advanced Physiology 

and Bible Hygiene, a, 3, 
Church History, 1, a, 3. 


Algebra, 1, a, 3. 

Latin I, 1, 2, 3. 

Zoology, 1 ; Civil Government, 2 ; 

Botany, 3. 
General History, 3. 


Rhetoric, 1, a ; Physics, 3. 
Latin II, i, a, 3. 
Bible III, 1, a, 3, 
Geometry, I, a. 3. 


Eng. and American Literature, 1, 2, 3. 
New Testament Greek, 1, 2, 3. 
Latin III, 1, 2, 3. 

Astronomy, 1; Advanced Physiology 
and Bible Hygiene, 2, 3. 


Political Economy, 1 ; Chemistry, a ; 

Mental Science, 3. 

Bible IV, 1, a, 3. 

Church History, 1, a, 3. 

Pedagogy, 1, a ; Logic, 3. 

Debating and Public Speaking, i, a, 3. 


New Testament Greek, 1, a, 3. 
Political Economy, I ; Chemistry, a ; 

Mental Science, 3. 
Church History, 1, a, 3. 
Pedagogy, 1, a ; Logic, 3. 
Debating and Public Speaking, 1, a, 3. 

From the 1896-97 calendar. 

He was also the founder of Milton Academy, a 
predecessor of Walla Walla College. Unlike 
Milton Academy, however, Graysville was not 
only founded but also funded by Colcord. 18 

The town of Graysville, described 
by Ellen G. White as "a pretty little 
village," was a small, saloon-free, 
coal-rnining community. To the 
north lay Lone Mountain and to the 
west, Walden Ridge, where spring- 
time dogwood, wild rhododendron, 
daisies, and honeysuckle added 
brilliant splashes of color to the 
green slopes. Southern Review 
editor N. W. Allee described its 
"beautiful streams of sparkling 
water" and its "rocky cliffs, from 
which vast stretches of broken 
country are spread out before the 
eyes of those who delight to study 
the immeasurable greatness of the 
Creator." Humbler hills bordered 
the east between the town and the 
Tennessee River, and beyond the 
river rose the foothills of the Great 
Smoky Mountains of the southern 
Appalachians. Kilgore had recently 
moved to Graysville and transferred 
his district headquarters there. The 
local Seventh-day Adventist church, 
organized in 1888 with nine mem- 
bers, had grown to a membership of 
twenty-one by 1890. Kilgore, as he 
traveled through the South, began 
to encourage Adventists to move to 
Graysville so that their children 
could get a Christian education. By 
1895 at least one-fifth of the ap- 
proximately 450 townspeople were 
Seventh-day Adventists. 19 

When did Graysville Academy 


mt ^otttrwjrn Unrip. 

Vou 4, 

" Ftar Qod, apd H««p &'5 oommir/dfMrjts: for fylt 1$ fy« u^oli doty of m*t).' 


No. in. 

Protpirout Community 
Broken Up. 

GraysvlHe Advantists Suf- 
fer From a Bad Law. 

Th« CMatf Jail I* k* RnnHK With 

**m* «f Our •«•< CttlitM fas* 

W«rfcl«f m tuntfay. 


<°. \V. C.ilvunJ, I.C.C.U-t.r.l. 

Win burt'linnl, Owiifttt I 'Itiniti. 
IK'iiry Hun-linn!, W.J, Kvrr. 
Win. Wolf, K. H Al'tnitt. 

M. C Hiiinlvviiiu 

Prof. I. C. Colcord, carrying lum- 
ber acroii several fcncct to be used 
in car|>entering work about hl» house. 

Henry llurrhard, helping dig well. 

There were indictments against 
three other*— A. K. Harrison. K. M. 
IM mill) anil II. I.. Deffenhachcr. No 
arrests won- made in these ease*, the 
j«artioH being in other slates. 

The rase »Kainst N. II. Knglaud 
was rontinueil at hit reipiest, a* he 

consent to make a motion for an ar v 
'eat of judgment on the plea that the ', 
ndlctments were not properly drawn , 
ip. Judge Park* ove ruled thii mo- j 
ion. The AdvcntUt* assembled at* 
he court hoiwc Kriduy afternoon ! 
irepared to enter the Jail to serve' 
heir sentences, and they will be 
here by the lime thin |>s|wr reaches 
: ts readem. The school at Grays- 
ville i* rlo»cil in all iu departmentii, 

The Seventh day Adventist's trial* 
nre held Tuesday and Wednesday j 
k-fiire Judge Park* at Circuit Court. 

They were all charged with carry 
inj.' on the common avocations of 
I IV on Sunday, contrary to the law. 
ml their names and the character 
4 the work done, a* elicited by the 
Mimony of Wright Rain*, the prin-^ 
ripal witne** against them, are given ! 
Mow. They were all, nine in num- 
ber, found guilty: 

Win. Rurchard, digging well, In 
one case, and pulling fodder, in 

W. J. Kerr, painting hou»e. 

Dwight Plumb, building addition 
in hi* house. 

M. C. Sturdevant, *a\vlng stove 
«<><>d and building wire fence around 
lower lied. : v% '-v '• 

I'.lderG. W. Colcord, superintend- 
ing carpentering work in hi* house. 

V, S. Abbott, aelling goods. 

H'm. Wolf, rolling wimlla** at the 
•e-ll Burchard was digging. 

had onlv lately come from North 'and some of the scholar* are already 
Carolina, and was not prepared for . making preparations to leave for 
trial. There were in all the unlucky /their homes in other stairs 
number of thirteen Advent!*!* indict- « The Adventi*t» all *|H'ak in good 
ed. (!eo. Smith, who is not an Ad- ; terms of the courteous treatment 
ventist, was also charged with the \ they received at the hand* of the of- 
same offense, the prosecutor named [ ficial* of the court. The law seem- 
in the indictment being C. R. Wilson, ed to be plain and against them. — 
When Sijith's case was called Wilson : Davlon ( Trim.) Republican. 
failed to prosecute ai.d the case was 
dismissed, ;) 

The A<h enlists did not employ a 
lawyer but all addressed the juries. S| 

Attorney-General Fletcher did not 
prosecute any further than develop 
the testimony from witnesses. 1 

On Wednesday morning. Judge- 
Parks gave hi* decisl. n in all the ca-i ,,„,,. 
*es where there was a conviction.! (l , tvn 


The unprecedented cold and oilier-,, 
wise bad weather for *outh Georgia,* 
prevailed almost the whole of the 
time after the first night of my meet- 
ing at Quitman, so that the attend- 
ance was very small except a! the' 
Ing meeting, when there was a 
■"he defendant* were fined *«-5° | fair sized congregation, the weather' 

| being goo. I that night. We had the 
I promise on leaving of two intelligent 
i ladies lo keep Ihe Sabbath, and oth- 
tcrs interested and greatly stirred 
J'wo more were 

each, but he xaid as it was the first 
offense, and in view of the peculiar 
character of the cases, he would sus- 
pend the fines, leaving the judgment 
In force for cost* only. 

On Wednesday after the sentence 
the Adventlsts held a consultation. 
They concluded not to take an ap 

(over the matter. 

added to the Dixie church after my 
-last report, one by baptism, the oth- 
er having been previously baptized, 
peal to the Supreme Court, but to - Aftcr , eav|ng hcre , v ,„, |ei , iM ,|,i„| 
serve out their sentence in the Rhea Sa ,,, )a , n kce|>erH a , ,i irTt . ren , ,„,,„,,,, 
county jail. After this decision was who|n we „„, „,„ tKm M »ni |hc 
known ex-Attornev General Smith 

and several other lawyer* got their 

canvassers at Oglethorpe, the rem 

Coin llMH ll nil •,-iiiihI |MIK,*. 

actually begin classes? Several sources give 
February 20, 1892, as the opening day, but that 
date is improbable because it fell on Saturday. 
Evidence confirms, however, that by April 1892 
the school was already in operation. 20 Whatever 
uncertainties about opening day may persist, 
Colcord used his own money to rent the second 
floor of J. W. Clouse's General Store at the corner 
of Dayton Avenue and Shelton Street. While 
these temporary quarters were being renovated, 
the students met for a month in the Graysville ' 
Seventh-day Adventist Church. Each of the 23 
students paid a monthly tuition of four dollars. 

By the end of the first term there were 32 
students. Encouraged by an enrollment of 60 in 
January 1893, Colcord erected a "boxlike," 45 by 
45 foot, two-story building on nine acres of 
donated land. 21 The academy became a boarding 
school sometime before December 25, 1893. 

According to the 1894-95 school catalog the 
dormitory facilities were separated from the 
academy "only by a street." The weekly charge 
for room and board was $2.50. During the 
1894-95 school year enrollment reached 120 . 22 

The catalog made it clear who was and 
who wasn't wanted at Graysville, indicating in 
the process that, unlike most southern acad- 
emies, it was coeducational: "All worthy 
persons of both sexes will be welcomed." 
Graysville was "not a reform school," however; 
"The incorrigible are not desired." Admission 
would be denied to anyone using "profane or 
unbecoming language, or . . . addicted to the use 
of alcohol or tobacco, or . . . known to be in any 
way vicious or immoral." 

The school's religious mission was also 
clear: "The managers of the school have no dis- 
position to force upon students denominational 
views, yet they desire to inculcate in the minds 
of all, the practical lessons of seeking the 
kingdom of God." The academy had two socie- 
ties^ — a missionary society holding weekly 

A Century of Challenge 

meetings and a literary society "doing earnest 

In addition to its primary, intermediate, 
and high school courses, the academy offered a 
teacher training program which consisted of 
finishing the high school classes and demonstrat- 
ing one's fitness for teaching "by conducting one 
class for ten weeks." Those complying with these 
requirements would "be given the normal 
certificate or diploma." 23 

The Graysville Academy school year was 
more than twice as long as that of the average 
public school in the South, which was less than 
one hundred days until after the turn of the 
century. 24 The 1894-95 school year at Graysville 
was scheduled as four terms of about ten weeks 
each between August 27 and June 2. The 
school's announced vacation policy was unusual: 
"The school management advertises no definite 
vacations, but should a majority of the instruc- 
tors and students so desire, national holidays 
and other days may be used as short vacation 
sessions; but let all understand that the school 
year is to be devoted almost wholly to earnest 
educational work." 25 As it turned out, that 
particular school year did not go as scheduled. 
An unplanned interruption closed the academy 

Phis interruption, an outburst of Sunday 
law arrests, resulted in what a 
Chattanooga Times reporter called "one 
of the most celebrated struggles for 
religious liberty ever waged on Ameri- 
can soil" 26 and severely threatened the survival of 
the school. Many Saturday-keepers of this 
period believed that the commandment which 
required rest on the seventh day, equally de- 
manded labor on the other six days. In addition, 
the administration of Graysville Academy was 
committed to making Christian education 
affordable by letting as many students as pos- 

The Adventist "chain gang" from Graysville. 

sible earn as much of their expense as possible. 
With classes held from Monday through Friday, 
and with Saturday regarded as holy, much of 
this student labor would of necessity take place 
on Sunday. These factors, combined with a dash 
of local religious prejudice, made Graysville 
Academy and the Graysville Seventh-day Adven- 
tist Church natural targets for prosecution under 
Tennessee's Draconian Sunday law, which even 
threatened punishment to parents who allowed 
their children to play on Sunday. 27 

In March 1895 three Graysville Academy 

faculty members and six other Graysville 
Adventists were arrested and tried in Dayton's 
Circuit Court for Sunday-law violations. Choos- 
ing to appear without a lawyer, they were 
convicted of illegally engaging in common 
avocations on Sunday by such activities as 
"pulling fodder," building an addition to a house, 
and selling goods. The academy principal and 
church pastor G. W. Colcord was jailed for 
"superintending carpentering work in his house." 
The preceptor, or boys' dean, M. C. Sturdevant, 
was convicted of "sawing stove wood and building 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

[a] wire fence around [a] flower bed." The third 
faculty member, I. Celian Colcord, the principal's 
nephew, was convicted of "carrying lumber 
across several fences to be used in carpentering 
work." One non-Adventist was charged at this 
time in the same court with a Sunday-law 
violation. His case was dismissed. 

C. W. Reavis, the Southern agent of the 
Religious Liberty Association, described these 
events as involving "religious prejudice" more 
than any "offense against public morals." The 
Chattanooga Times agreed that the cases ap- 
peared "very much like persecution," noting 
that — although they couldn't censure the court 
for enforcing the law — there was a distinct 
contrast between these cases 
and those of willful violations 
by people without conscience. 28 

Although he suspended 
the $2.50 fines, the judge 
ordered each of the convicted 
Adventists to pay court costs. 
Believing that to pay would be 
in effect an acknowledgement 
of the justice of the sentence, 
they chose imprisonment 
instead. They were sentenced 
to terms ranging from twenty 
to seventy-six days. About a 
month later, the governor 
pardoned the five Adventists 
who had not yet completed 
their time, but before they 
were released, new Sunday 
violation arrest warrants were 
issued for fourteen Graysville 
Adventists, including four of 
those who had already been 
jailed. This time, despite what 
some earlier accounts have 
related, the Colcords were not 

among those rearrested. Eight were convicted 
and fined $5 to $15 each plus costs. Again they 
refused to pay the fines. This second group was 
assigned to a chain gang engaged in road work 
and in building a stone bridge at Spring City. 
When Kilgore held evangelistic meetings in 
Spring City that summer, the Adventists on the 
chain gang were permitted to attend the evening 
meetings but not Sabbath services. 29 

The six remaining members of the second 
group, including at least one academy student, 
were not brought to trial until November. The 
student, Wallace R. Ridgeway, was "charged 
with fixing the ceiling of a house on Sunday and 
with cutting firewood for a sick neighbor." Tried 

in the same courthouse and before the same 
judge as were the first violators, this group chose 
the advantage of defending lawyers. Former 
Congressman H. C. Snodgrass and Judge Louis 
Shepherd, who volunteered their services, 
argued that the law, at least as applied to 
Adventists, was unconstitutional. All were 

Reporting on these cases, The Chattanooga 
Times described Seventh-day Adventists as * 
"proverbially hard-working, steady, sober, and 
industrious." Adventists were known as good 
citizens, the paper said. "It has been ascertained 
that not a single case of breach of the peace, or 
the commission of any offense whatever against 

The Rhea County Jail, where the arrested Adventists were detained. 


A Century of Challenge 

the law of the land, has ever been committed by 
any member of the Adventist fraternity during 
their residence here," wrote a Times reporter, 
obviously excluding Sunday laws as an offense. 
Contrasting the Adventists in the courtroom with 
more typical Rhea County residents, the reporter 
described them as "without exception . . . neat 
and clean in their attire and [with] faces ruddy 
with the glow of health." Reporting on the 
verdict, the paper concluded, "Appearances 
indicate that the wave of fanaticism and preju- 
dice that has been sweeping Rhea County has 
subsided." 30 

The Graysville Adventists were not the only 
members of their denomination facing trial for 
Sunday-law violations at this time. During 1895 
and 1896 the same thing happened to at least 
seventy-six American and Canadian Seventh-day 
Adventists. Twenty-eight of them served a total 
of 1,144 days in prisons or on chain gangs. 31 

Despite the suffering caused, this type of 
prosecution was in some ways advantageous to 
the Adventists, giving them an opportunity to 
publicize their religious and constitutional 
convictions, but for Graysville Academy it was a 
nearly fatal disaster. With three of the five 
members of the academy's faculty in jail, the 
school closed down and didn't reopen until July 
22, 1895. Enrollment plummeted from 125 to 
75. 32 

General Conference 


t was at this point that the General 
Conference stepped in. Colcord had 
tried to give the school to the church 
during the 1893-94 school year, but 
denominational leaders had refused to 
accept it. They had, however, left the door open 
for a later takeover. Assuming title to the school 

in 1895, the General Conference 
took control on September 9, 1896, 
when Graysville Academy opened 
for a new school year with a totally 
new faculty, a new program, and 
new policies. 33 

The new school calendar 
announced that the revisions of 
policy and program were designed to 
put Graysville "upon the same basis 
as the other schools of the denomi- 
nation." Many of the new policies 
and regulations would influence 
Southern Industrial School, Southern Training 
School, Southern Junior College, and even 
Southern Missionary College for decades to 
come, while others would be short-lived. 

The school year was forty weeks long, from 
September 9 to June 15, divided into three terms 
with no breaks between. No stated vacations 
were scheduled, but there might be "such re- 

T From the 1896-97 calendar. 


All worthy persons of both sexes will be welcomed. The 
moral influence of the school is carefully guarded, and no one 
who uses profane or unbecoming language, or who is addicted 
to the use of alcohol or tobacco, or who is known to be in any 
way vicious or immoral, will be enrolled. 

From the 1896-97 calendar. 

The young ladies are under the immediate supervision of the 
Matron, who will have a mother's interest in their welfare, and 
to whom they may go for counsel and advice. Ladies and gentle- 
men are allowed to associate only by permission, except at table 
and in classes. On no occasion will students of different sexes be 
allowed to visit one another's rooms. Occasional receptions are 
held in the parlors, where teachers and students may come together 
for social improvement. 

cesses as may be arranged by the Faculty." The 
daily schedule began at 5:30 with a rising bell 
and ended with lights out at 9:30. "Morning 
prayers" were held at 6:10 a.m. and "evening 
prayers" at 6:15 p.m. Attendance at both was 

required. A "calling hour" was scheduled from 
2:30 to 4:00. 34 

The first four grades, intended to serve 
children of parents in the community, were 
described as the "Primary Department." People 
completing these grades were promoted to the 
Preparatory Department, where a three-year 
program was designed for those not yet ready for 
high school. The four-year Aca- 
demic Department gave students a 
choice between the scientific course 
and the classical course. There 
wasn't much difference between the 
two lock-step, no-elective programs. 
Both required such classes as 
Algebra I, Geometry, Latin I and II, 
Rhetoric, Pedagogy, Church His- 
tory, and Logic, but the classical 
course included such extras as 
Latin III, two years of New Testa- 
ment Greek, and a session of 
physics. The scientific course 
required a little more Bible and 
history. Four classes were considered full work; 
students couldn't take more without permission, 
yet to finish the classical program in four years 
they would apparently have needed such permis- 
sion at least once. The calendar also listed a 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

Five young men who 

occupied the "first men's 

dormitory, " a house near the 

school. Left to right: (Front 

Row) A. F. Harrison, C. F. 

Dart; (Back Row) Lewis 

Brandon, Luther Woodall, 

Seth Walker. 


Graysville Influence 

■ » J.J^Uji>,W, IMJ 

Doth Charles Francis Dart and Annie Mae Morgan were forced to 
leave their homes when they began keeping the Sabbath. Charles 
walked every step of the way to Graysville from Georgia, eating 
berries and nuts that grew by the wayside. But sometime during 
Charles' student years, his father had a change of heart. He sold 
his fruit farm and moved to Graysville where his younger children 
could be in a Seventh-day Adventist school. As a result of this 
move, all the younger children became Adventists and married 
Adventists. Here Charles and his wife Annie stand on the 
property that his father bought in Graysville. 

Charles attended Graysville Academy for five years and 
helped build the first women's dormitory. His son, Archa O. 
Dart, attended for five years, too, and helped build the second 
women's dorm when he was boys' preceptor in 1924. Archa 
attended SJC for two years, and his daughter attended SMC for 
two years. 79 

one-year commercial course and a special two- 
year Bible course for potential Bible workers 
with limited time. This Bible course actually 
included only two Bible classes; other require- 
ments included subjects such as history, 
grammar, physiology, bookkeeping, and botany. 35 

The courses of study were thoroughly 
overhauled the following year. The school year 
was divided into two terms instead of three. The 
Primary Department now consisted of only the 
first three grades, grades 4-6 were designated 
the Intermediate Department, and the Academic 
Department became a five-year program. Gone 
were the two academic programs, but now some 
variation was allowed in course selection: for 
instance, students were allowed to choose 
between Greek and German. 36 

School administrators couldn't seem to 
make up their minds whether they wanted the 
schedule to run on a semester or a quarter basis. 
Following the three-term 1896-97 school year 
and the two-term 1897-98 year, they continued 
the two-term plan in 1898-99, but in 1899-1900 
reverted to four terms of three months each. In 
1900 they returned to two terms of sixteen weeks 
each, plus a sixteen-week summer school. The 
vacillation continued well into the twentieth 
century, with the school retaining the semester 
plan until 1908, reverting to the quarter system 
from 1908 to 1914, and then returning to the 
semester plan for the remaining years at 
Graysville. 37 

The four-class limit would be an institu- 
tional policy for generations, as would another 
academic policy introduced in the 1896-97 
calendar: automatic forfeiture of grades for 
being absent from 15 percent of a class's 
sessions, whether or not any of the absences 
were excused. 38 

Although Graysville Academy broke with 
the southern tradition of having separate acad- 


emies for boys and girls, the school severely 
limited social relationships. "Unrestricted 
association of the sexes is not permitted, and all 
students are expected to maintain a proper 
degree of reserve in their association with the 
opposite sex," declared the 1896-97 calendar, 
further admonishing that, 

Ladies and gentlemen are allowed to 
associate only by permission, except at table 
and in classes. On no occasion will students of 
different sexes be allowed to visit one 
another's rooms. Occasional receptions are 
held in the parlor, where teachers and 
students may come together for social improve- 

The following year the faculty added another 
restriction: "Gentlemen may not escort ladies on 
the street or to and from public gatherings." 39 

With denominational control in 1896-97 
came new rules with respect to entertainment, 
food in the dormitories, dress, and Sabbath 
observance. Students were forbidden to attend 
parties, the theater, or any entertainment of an 
objectionable character. Parents were requested 
not to send any food other than fresh fruit, the 
only kind of food permitted in the dormitories 
except emergency food trays from the school 
dining room. The dress code ignored young 
men's clothing, regulating only the wearing 
apparel of young ladies. It was not to be con- 
stricting, corsets were not to be worn, and shoes 
must have low heels. The primary concern 
appears to have been that the clothing be simple 
and healthful. 

Visiting and "strolling about" were forbid- 
den on the Sabbath, and students were not 
allowed to "spend a single Sabbath away from 
the Academy' during the school terms. "How- 
ever great may be the privileges elsewhere," 
explained the calendar, "the excitement of 

A Century of Challenge 

■4 W. T. Bland, principal, 1896-1898. 

meeting friends and of visiting must prevent, in 
a measure, the benefit which might otherwise be 
gained." 40 

Apparently teachers as well as students 
were expected to live in the dormitory. The 
calendar spoke of "teachers and students 
rooming and boarding in the same building" 
and sharing "one family life." As late as 1901 
the business manager had to ask the board for 
permission to move his family out of the 
dormitory. 41 Some of the single teachers 
continued to live in the dormitory even after 
the move to Collegedale. 

In spite of restrictions, students found 
ways of striking up friendships and finding 
marriage companions. Such was the case of 
Annie Mae Morgan, whose parents expelled 
her from her privileged home, "where hired 
help did all the house work," when she ac- 
cepted Adventism. She took to Graysville "her 
clothes and a willingness to do what was 
necessary to stay there, including mopping 
floors, cleaning windows, and washing dishes." 
While there she met Charles Francis Dart, 
another student expelled from his home for 
religious reasons, who arrived "with a bundle 
of clothes and thirty-seven cents in his pocket." 
Dart not only earned all of his expenses; at 
graduation time he had a fifty dollar surplus. 

Charles and Annie graduated and went to 
Louisiana in 1898 as newlyweds, she to be the 
Louisiana Conference's first church school 
teacher, and he to be its first publishing 
director. She later returned to teach in the 
normal department, and their son Archa later 
attended his parents' alma mater. 42 

< C. W. Irwin, principal, 1898-1900. 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

Providing opportunities for students like 
the Darts to earn their expenses had been part of 
Colcord's vision for Graysville Academy from the 
very beginning. But the new management 
instituted the requirement that students engage 
in two hours of labor daily in the buildings, the 
laundry, or the grounds in partial payment of 
their expenses. This free- 
labor policy, which remained 
in effect for as long as the 
school was at Graysville, made 
it possible to lower the 
student's expense for tuition, 
room, and board from $100 to 
$80 a year, when paid in 
advance. This augmented 
Graysville's advantage over 
comparable institutions in 
other parts of the country, an 
advantage also made possible 
in part by a lower fuel bill 
resulting from a milder 
climate. 43 

This advantage, much 
needed by young people from 
the economically depressed 
South, attracted students from 
other areas as well. By the 
summer of 1896 a total of 188 
students from 20 states had 
attended the Graysville 

school. Of these, 94 had come from Tennessee, 
14 from Louisiana, 13 each from Florida and 
Georgia, and 10 from North Carolina. Other 
southern states had sent a total of 9, and 35 had 
come from the West and Midwest. Of the non- 
southern states, Illinois with 9 and Michigan 
with 8 had sent the most students to Graysville.' 

In 1897-98 the faculty emphasized the aim 
of developing the students' "physical powers" by 
expanding work opportunities. Girls could now 

N. W. Lawrence, principal, 1901. 

work at cooking, sewing, or housekeeping in the 
kitchen, dining room, parlor, library, or bed- 
rooms, and boys could work outdoors on the fifty 
acres the school had acquired. Options for the 
boys included raising fruit, vegetables, or poul- 
try, and doing carpentry. 45 Reflecting a renewed 
intention to teach useful trades, the board voted 
in November 1897 to change 
the school's name to Southern 
Industrial School. That same 
month the District Number 2 
conference voted to consider 
Graysville its "central school." 46 

The man at the helm 
during the first two years 
under General Conference 
control was William Thomas 
Bland. Prior to coming to 
Graysville he had been a public 
school teacher, an English 
teacher and administrator at 
Battle Creek College, and 
principal of Mount Vernon 
Academy in Ohio. Most of the 
teachers who came with him 
stayed only one year. The only 
faculty names to appear in 
both the 1896-97 and 1897-98 
calendars besides his own were 
Mr. and Mrs. Norris W. 
Lawrence. The faculty grew to 
eight, all college graduates, and enrollment crept 
back up to ninety during his administration. 
Also while he was principal, work was begun on 
a new girls' dormitory, which was completed 
during the administration of his successor. 47 

Bland left Graysville in 1898 to assume the 
presidency of Union College. Ironically, his 
replacement, Charles Walter Irwin, came from 
Union, where he had been teaching Greek and 
Latin for several years. He was both a capable 

administrator and a devout believer in Ellen G. 
White as a special messenger of divine guidance 
for the denomination. Irwin corresponded with 
Mrs. White, who was living in Australia at the 
time, and respectfully read both her letters and 
her published writings, as Edwin Carlton Walter 
puts it, regardless of whether they were mes- 
sages of "reproof, advice, or encouragement." 
Suggesting that Irwin's "leadership and person- 
ality" left an "indelible impression" on the schools 
he administered, Walter describes him as a man 
of boundless energy and enthusiasm for his 
work and of strong convictions and personal 
integrity who, when convinced "that a course of 

A Black nurse Annie Knight, who taught in the 
preparatory medical program. 

A Century of Challenge 

action was right, would carry it out regardless of 
the personal sacrifices involved." 48 He brought 
with him a totally new faculty, with the signifi- 
cant exception of Norris W. Lawrence, the only 
holdover from the Bland administration. 
Lawrence would for a very short time be Irwin's 
successor as principal of the Southern Industrial 

Completing the new dormitory was a 
challenge because Irwin and his board were 
committed to a debt-free policy. If they ran out of 
cash, they would quit building. Several times 
they came close to this point, but at the last 
minute the needed funds always turned up. 
Irwin called this type of financial policy the "faith 
method." Guided by two skilled masons, a 
plasterer, and a carpenter, students did a major 
share of the construction work on the three-story 
frame building with a sandstone foundation and 
basement. The 32 by 64 foot dormitory had 28 
student rooms besides a parlor, dining room, and 
kitchen. The girls began living in the unfinished 
dormitory in December 1898. 49 


nder Irwin the school scrapped its 
educational blueprint and started over 
for the third time in its short history. 
Focusing more pointedly on rapidly 
preparing messengers to "labor in the 
cause of God for the salvation of souls" in the 
South, he replaced the regular high school 
curriculum with three career-oriented programs. 
Because Irwin didn't believe Southern Industrial 
School was "a place where the lower branches 
should be taught," the Industrial School trans- 
ferred the administration of the elementary 
school to the local church. His vision for 
SIS also excluded "reformatory" work. As he saw 
it, "Those coming to this school should be those 


Excerpted from the minutes of the May 7, 1901, Board of Managers meeting. 

who desire to qualify themselves for usefulness 
in some branch of the work for this time." In 
harmony with Ellen White's letter suggesting 
that students shouldn't be encouraged to remain 
in school "for years," the board voted to make it 
the school's sole policy to quickly prepare stu- 
dents "of a mature age for entering the Lord's 
work in this field." SIS sent out an appeal for 
"earnest, devoted, fully consecrated students," 
middle-aged as well as young. It was almost as if 
Irwin were starting a brand-new school with a 
brand new objective. 50 

The faculty became even more serious 
about providing practical training. Ellen White 
had stressed the denomination's need for employ- 
ees with expertise in bookkeeping. Heading the 

list of new offerings was a radically innovative 
business program with an emphasis on learning 
by doing. Students engaged in mock business 
transactions as if they were already part of the 
business world, going through the motions of 
buying, selling, banking, managing, and doing 
the bookkeeping for these transactions in a room 
set up to resemble a bank and business office. 
Business manager L. L. Lawrence, experienced 
in bookkeeping and business, was the instructor. 
The commercial curriculum was rounded out 
with classes in commercial law, "business form 
penmanship," and the "common branches" such 
as language arts, social studies, and arithmetic. 51 
Another innovation was a more comprehen- 
sive teacher-education program. As early as 



A Century of Challenge 

^ Bookkeeping students engaged in mock business 
transactions in a room set up to resemble a bank and 
business office. (Photo courtesy of June Blue.) 

1896 all high school seniors at Graysville Acad- 
emy had been required to take a two-session 
course in pedagogy. To that nucleus were added 
such courses as psychology, school management, 
history and philosophy of education, child study, 
and public speaking. These, along with Bible, 
the "common branches," and such courses of 
potential practical benefit to the teacher as 
physiology, drawing, physical geography, nurs- 
ing, and cooking, made up the "teacher's course." 
In explaining this program, Irwin spoke of the 


_,,„ ■ ■ ; - : "^^\. 1 ^K'^ " : ' 


^^^^^^^^HB fci ^^^ 


'%'■ wT **■ -m j6 - mm 


A The old cash register used in the bookkeeping classes 
is still preserved in the Heritage Museum. 

"great demand ... for church-school teachers in 
the South" and suggested that "workers for the 
Southern field" had a greater chance for success 
if they had been educated in the region. 52 

Irwin had to surmount a major obstacle to 
launch a third type of professional program — 
health education. Observing that "neither the 
village nor the school has either a physician or a 
trained nurse," he lamented the lack of local 
personnel qualified to teach healthful living 
principles, simple disease remedies, healthful 
cooking, "and kindred subjects that are so 
necessary a part of training for the Christian 
worker, especially in the Southern field." To 
solve this problem, he defied social custom and 
hired a black nurse, Annie Knight, to teach 
nursing and cooking in the school's "Preparatory 
Medical" program. 53 

In addition to these subjects, the "common 
branches," and Bible, students in this program 
studied such scientific and health-related courses 
as anatomy, physiology, hygiene, psychology, 
physics, botany, zoology, chemistry, and medical 

The following year, 1900, the services of a 
physician, Otis M. Hayward, were secured, and 
the program was revamped as the "Health and 
Temperance Missionary Department." Therapeu- 
tic bath and treatment rooms and a laboratory 
were set up in the school's basement. Its one-year 
program included classes in "simple treatment, 
healthful cookery and dress-making." 54 

For some of the more mature, potential 
denominational workers, even these new profes- 
sional programs took too long. To meet the needs 
of those wanting accelerated preparation, a three- 
month crash course was offered between January 
2 and March 27, 1900, and a six-week 
"Canvasser's Institute" was held that spring to 
prepare those planning to sell Adventist litera- 
ture. 56 

Wanting to supplement white-collar train- 
ing with a work-study program combining 
instruction in the manual trades with an oppor- 
tunity for students to earn their educational 
expenses, Irwin determined that, "so far as 
possible," they would "do all the work connected 
with the school." A strong beginning for his 
program of integrating earning and learning 
involved training a group of boys to do most of 
the carpentry and masonry work on the new 
dormitory. When he discovered the school 
woefully lacking in the necessary equipment, he 
quickly acquired carpentry and masonry tools as 
well as horses, wagons, a plow, a harrow, and 
other essentials for the backbone of the school's 
industrial program — agriculture. The school 
farm grew from about 40 acres to nearly 100 
acres; 2,500 fruit trees were set out. Also in 
keeping with his announced determination to 
"make all the manual labor connected with the 
school educational," the 1899-1900 calendar 
announced, "A regular class in Agriculture will 
be conducted during the summer term for the 
benefit of those who are doing the actual work on 
the farm." 66 

The Irwin administration initiated a 
canning business which preserved fruits, berries, 
corn, and legumes for both school consumption 
and market. The board voted to expand this 
business during the 1901-02 school year to one 
which would be "canning by the carload." Ear- 
lier, during the 1899-1900 school year, the 
administration had announced plans to start a 
broom-making business and a printing business 
as soon as possible. In August 1901 the board 
voted to pay two students ten cents an hour to 
run the print shop. This was considerably more 
than the school's normal rates for student labor 
of five to eight cents per hour. The board also 
voted in 1901 to buy an oven so that the school 
could start a health-food bakery. 67 


Chapter 1 : Graysville Academy 

Southern Training School 


rwin was attempting to transform the 
Graysville school into what was called a 
"manual labor school," a type born 
during the early nineteenth century to 
I meet the needs of older, mature 
converts who felt called to the ministry but who 
lacked both the patience and the financial 
resources to attend six or seven years of college 
and seminary. Administrators at SIS profited 
from the experience of these other schools but, as 
some of the other schools had discovered, it could 
not always provide as much work as students 
needed. Consequently, Irwin felt obliged to point 
out, "There is necessarily a limit to the amount of 
work which the school is able to furnish." 58 
Realizing these limitations, the board in 1901 
changed the school's name again, this time to 
Southern Training School. 

By now Irwin was no longer principal, 
having been called to Australia's Avondale 
College during the middle of the 1900-01 school 
year, and the school had passed from General 
Conference control to the newly created Southern 
Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. 
The board took its time finding a replacement. 
Although N. W. Lawrence served as the de facto 
principal at least as early as April 20, the board 
did not officially ask him to fill Irwin's place for 
the unfinished school year until May 7, 1901, 
after their first choice turned the post down. But 
when the Southern Union leaders learned that 
J. Ellis Tenney was willing to move to Graysville, 
they offered Lawrence the position of education 
superintendent. On May 9 he resigned and the 
board promptly elected Tenney. Thus, as the 
1901-02 school year began, the Graysville school 
had a new name, a new owner, and a new 
principal. 59 


On this site w»i founded CraysvBle Academy by * group of Seventh- 
day Adventists who were organlited as • church on Sept, 8. 1888 

south could be expanded, * ichoot #as 
started Feb. 20, 1882 shove «M More of d. W. Clouse In 'the villaoe 
of Crayavttl*. with G. W. Colcord as principal. With the donation 
of this lend, the administration building wee erected to 1893 end 
the ichool vu neeted Crayavllle Academy. 

Later, the school waa known aa Southern Industrial School and 
Soathern Training School. In l»B the girls' dormitory buraed. and as 
a larger campus was needed, the school was moved to a location near 
Ooltewah, Tenn. and the site was named Collegedale, The school 
there. Southern Junior College, later became Southern College of 
Seventh -day Adventists. After the fire in 19T3, the Board of Trustees 
transferred the title to the local church and a school was continued 
with the name again of Graysville Academy. 

On June I. 1931. Graysville Academy was leased to I. A. Jacobs, who 
had long been connected with the school, and was operated as a boarding 
school. Because of economic conditions, the dormitories were closed 
In Feb. 1939. The last of the academy buildings was demolished la 
18*4, After the ctoslng of the boarding school, the Graysville " 
Seventh -day Advent!. t Church has operated a day school for local 
patrons until the present time. Many students of Graysville Academy 
and the Southern Training School have served the Lord in many 
countries of the world. 

This memorial was erected on the centennial of the organization of 
the Cray iv me Seventh -day Adventlst Church. Oct. 198a 

This commemorative 
sign currently stands 
near the former 
property of Graysville 

or insight into what Irwin was trying to 
accomplish and a perspective from which to 
better understand the successes and failures of 
Southern's industrial program, not only during 
the Irwin administration, but for generations 
still future, a brief look at some of the other 
manual labor schools may be helpful. 

The earliest manual labor schools were 
New York's Oneida Academy (established in 
1827), the Manual Labor Academy of Pennsylva- 
nia (Germantown, 1829), the Rochester Institute 
of Practical Education (New York, 1831), Lane 
Seminary (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1829), and Oberlin 
College (Ohio, 1833). Students in these schools 
could earn all or most of their expenses by 
working about four hours a day on farms or in 
such industries as a print shop or a barrel 
factory. Advocating the concept, Theodore Weld, 
general agent for the Society for Promoting 
Manual Labor in Literary Institutions, argued 
that manual labor by students would develop 
character and industrious habits, promote health 
through beneficial exercise, and reduce educa- 
tional expenses. 60 

But the manual labor schools soon found 
themselves in serious financial trouble. Eliza- 
beth S. Peck blames unskilled, inefficient 
students, uncooperative teachers, and the 
administration's lack of sufficient respect for "the 
importance of management and finance." Those 
that survived, like Oberlin, began eliminating or 
at least de-emphasizing their industrial program. 
They had begun as manual labor schools but 
were moving away from that category. 61 

Berea College (Kentucky), incorporated in 
1866, moved in the opposite direction, starting 
with a rather timid labor program but moving 
toward becoming the kind of school Oberlin had 

been originally. Its founders, who included Lane 
and Oberlin alumni, were discouraged by the 
experiences of the earlier manual labor schools 
from attempting such an ambitious student-labor 
program. Said Oberlin graduate E. Henry 
Fairchild, an early president of Berea College, "I 
can make a good garden, but I have never seen a 
student who could do it." 62 

Student initiative and a change of adminis- 
tration brought a change of attitude. The 
school's first skilled industry, a print shop, was 
organized by students. Shortly thereafter, in 
1892 — the very year Graysville Academy was 
founded — Berea presidential candidate William 
G. Frost wrote to the board of trustees challeng- 
ing the incumbant's statement that manual labor 
programs were always doomed to failure. Grasp- 
ing the importance of an industrial program as a 
means of enabling students to attend, Frost 
accepted the presidency only after the board 
promised "to secure better opportunities than 
now exist here or elsewhere for self-supporting 
students to assist themselves." He also per- 
suaded the board to eliminate tuition. By the 
time Irwin had become the president of Southern 
Industrial School, Berea was teaching agricul- 
ture and some other skills by a combination of 
classroom instruction and on-the-job training. 
But not until 1906 would Berea follow Oberlin 
and SIS in promoting social democracy and 
underscoring the dignity of labor by mandating 
that all students, regardless of economic status, 

work a certain number of hours each week. 63 

Alabama's Tuskegee Institute, founded in 
1887, had a similar requirement, even though 
some parents protested "that they wanted their 
children taught nothing but books." Founder 
Booker T. Washington promoted manual labor as 
a method of preparing students in both character 
and skills for life after graduation. He wanted 
them to "be sure of knowing how to make a living 
after they had left" school, and he believed that 
the skills they learned would enable Tuskegee's 
black graduates to reduce racial prejudice by 
showing the white population that they had 
"something to contribute to the well-being of the 
community." 64 

The views of Washington and Weld on 
manual labor were compatible with those of 
Ellen White. While Washington had seen 
manual skills as a means of breaking down racial 
prejudice, she saw them as a way of reducing 
religious prejudice. Both predicted that gradu- 
ates with such skills could have a beneficial 
influence on their communities and spoke of 
marketable skills as a source of economic secu- 
rity. 65 Like Washington and Weld, she suggested 
that manual training would build character and 
those personal qualities that would promote a 
successful life 66 and even success in the profes- 
sions. 67 Like Weld she promoted manual labor as 
a source of healthful exercise 68 and as an avenue 
whereby students could earn their educational 
expenses without either going into debt or 
depending upon their parents' financial sacri- 
fices. 69 She also suggested that there were 
mental and spiritual benefits from manual 
labor — especially agriculture. 70 


ith the encouragement of Ellen 
White, at least one southern Seventh-day 
Adventist school had already begun the type 
of manual labor program that Irwin was 
trying to develop: Oakwood Industrial School 
in Huntsville, Alabama, an institution 
specifically dedicated to the education of 
blacks. Established on a run-down, oak- 
studded estate, the school opened November 
16, 1896, with fifteen students. Oakwood 
accepted students without regard for their 
ability to pay; like Berea, it didn't charge any 
tuition. Instead Oakwood required that each 
student contribute five hours of labor a day. 
If students needed to earn their room and 
board as well, they could work full time and 
attend evening classes. Teachers' salaries 
and capital improvements were paid from 
charitable contributions and General Confer- 
ence subsidies. 71 

Manager S. M. Jacobs and the students 
worked patiently to improve the depleted soil. 
Within six years it produced flourishing fruit 
trees and bountiful crops. Besides agriculture, 
Oakwood was by 1903 training students in 
canning, sewing, cooking, laundering, and the 
making of buildings, brooms, molasses, roads, 
shingles, and fences. Other students were 
learning to weave carpets, care for poultry, and 
make and repair shoes. It became a junior 
college in 1917 and a senior college in 1943. 72 

Early in the twentieth century another 
southern Seventh-day Adventist manual labor 
school opened: the Nashville Agricultural and 
Normal Institute, later called Madison College. 
Acting upon a suggestion from Dr. David 

Paulson that he establish a school with "facilities 
for student self-support" that would be "open to 
any young man or woman of worthy character 
who is willing to work," Edward A. Sutherland 
resigned the presidency of Emmanual Mission- 
ary College in order to establish such a school. 
For the next forty-two years he would be presi- 
dent of the Madison school, opened October 1904 
on a run-down farm ten miles from Nashville. 73 

There were several key differences between 
Southern and Madison. Madison was an indepen- 
dent institution without any denominational 
financial support. Like Oberlin under Frost and 
Oakwood in the early years, Madison charged no 
tuition, expecting instead that its students would 
work a certain amount of time in free labor. This 
averaged six hours a day. 74 And, unlike the 
Graysville school and the Oberlin generation of 
similar institutions, Madison's manual labor 
program was a success, at least in the early years. 

But that success took much hard work and 
financial sacrifice on the part of the faculty, who 
taught half a day and worked at manual labor 
with their students the other half. Class prepa- 
ration time was extremely limited. Even 
President Sutherland and Dean Percy Magan 
were involved in the physical labor. Magan 
described what was presumably a typical work 
day for him: getting up at 4:30 a.m., working "in 
the field with a team of mules 'til one o'clock," 
resuming labor until 6:30 p.m., and conducting a 
class for one and one half hours in the evening. 
For all this, Madison's faculty members were 
paid less than half the salaries of their still 
underpaid Graysville counterparts! 75 

Both faculty and students had an extremely 

Spartan existence. Sutherland insisted that the 
buildings be small, simple, unheated, "plain, 
wooden structures" without electricity and "with 
no attempt at beauty of design or artistic archi- 
tecture." It wasn't just a matter of saving money. 
Sutherland seemed to consider austerity essen- 
tial even when it wasn't necessarily more 
economical, shunning the appearance of pride 
that brick buildings might suggest, even if the 
bricks were made on campus. Madison, unlike 
Graysville, was specifically trying to train "self- 
supporting workers," laymen who would, without 
any financial support from the denomination, 
spread Adventism throughout the poverty- 
stricken southern hill country and perhaps even 
to primitive areas overseas. Sutherland wanted 
to prepare his students for the anticipated 
austerity of their future lifestyles. 76 

The Madison project had the wholehearted 
support of Ellen White and of Southern Union 
President George I. Butler, both of whom served 
on the Madison board. Apparently unafraid that 
Madison would weaken Graysville by draining 
away potential students, Mrs. White urged that 
the Madison administrators be freed from any 
promise they might have made not to draw their 
students from the South. 77 

During more than half a century of opera- 
tion, Madison made it possible for many students 
(who would otherwise have been unable to do so) 
to receive a college education. Many Madison 
graduates, imbued with its strong sense of 
service, established self-supporting schools and 
medical clinics throughout the South and around 
the world in areas where such services were 
sorely needed. 78 


Chapter Two 

Southern Training School 

1901 - 1916 

Huring the final years of the nineteenth 
century the Seventh-day Adventist 
church and its educational system 
experienced explosive growth. Between 
1880 and 1900 the denomination's 
membership increased from 15,000 to 75,000. 
Whereas in 1895 the church had employed 35 
elementary teachers who taught 895 pupils, by 
the turn of the century it had 250 elementary 
teachers instructing 5,000 students. The result 
of this "large increase in churches and schools," 
Edwin Walter notes, was the need to train "many 
more ministers and teachers." The number of 
other denominational institutions multiplied as 
well, creating an increased demand for employ- 
ees of varied skills, which led to the 
establishment of additional Adventist colleges 
during the early twentieth century. 1 

The South shared in the denomination's 
rapid growth. When District Number Two was 
reorganized as the Southern Union Conference 
in 1901, its membership was 2,580, more than 
five times that of 1885. By 1908, with the 
membership of the Southern Union Conference 
over 3,000, six times that of only twenty years 
before, the conference was divided! The North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and 
Cumberland conferences became the Southeast- 
ern Union Conference, and the remainder of the 
older union became the new Southern Union 
Conference. 2 

Southern Training School students and 

A The Southern Training School Band in 1904. Pictured from left to right: (Front Row) Albert Phillips, Sam Moyers, 
Professor Tenney, Everett Rideout, Will Melendy, Luther Woodell, Lerue Melendy, Fred Cureer, Clint Miller; (Middle 
Row) Earl Hall, Lester Melendy, Earl Tenney, Professor C. Kilgore, L. A. Jacobs, Hubert Morphew, Ralph Smith, Will 
Harrison, R. L. Williams, Cully Woodall, Professor J. L. Crouse; (Back Row) Clyde Miller, Harlin Harrison, Hannibal 
Bech, Claude Dortch, Henry Noble, Harry Miller, Benny Roberts, Will Cineer. 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 


"A Knowledge of God 
and of Jesus Christ whom 
He hath sent, is the highest 
Education; and it will cover 
the earth with its wonderful 
enlightment as the waters 
cover the sea.'* 

f$Uc j§>WHj*irtt <Frautht# j^rWul 







-X $"rltcjpl far Cliriatiaii 3Porkfr« 

Sraysvilio, XJenn. *:. J90 

adjourned meeting met according to appointment. The matter 
of raising broom corn on the farm was spoken of and a 
motion made that Brother Moyeps be asked to grow as 
mush broom corn as in his Judgment seemed best. Unanimous- 
ly carried. 

The motion to rejeot the proposition made by 
R. L. Williams as recorded in the minutes of the morridAg 
meeting unanimously carried. Moved and seconded that 
a committee consisting of the business manager, G. A. 
Williams, L. A. Hansen and M. B. Van Kirk be appointed 
to investigate tne matter of moving the old store build- 
ing upon the school campus to be fiked over for a boys 
dormitory. Unanimously carried. Meeting adjourned. 


alumni contributed to this denominational 
growth. Many Southerners received their first 
exposure to Adventism from student 
"colporteurs" who spent their summers selling 
Seventh-day Adventist literature from door to 
door in order to earn their educational expenses. 
During the school year some of the students 
would visit people's homes in pairs to talk, pray, 
sing, and hold meetings. They also held reli- 
gious services in the county jail and gave 
attention to the sick and needy. Student-held 
evangelistic meetings led to the organization of 
a church and the establishment of a church 
school in Montague, Tennessee. 3 

Producing Seventh-day Adventist workers 
for the South was one of the school's two most 
important objectives. "The time ought to come," 
said M. B. Van Kirk, STS principal from 1906 to 
1912, "when every graduate of this institution 
should be directly engaged in the Lord's work." 4 
This conviction is reflected in the motto printed 
on the school stationery: "A School for Christian 
Workers." By July 1906 Graysville had sent 
sixty students into the denomination's southern 
work; others served overseas. By June 1914 
over 70 percent of the STS alumni were in one 
or the other of these two categories — students or 
denominational employees. 6 

One of those alumni, Rochelle Philmon, 
had inspired and encouraged her teachers by 
demonstrating a strong religious commitment. 
She had enrolled after a visit from R. M. 
Kilgore, who — attempting to persuade her 
reluctant parents to send her to STS — had 
suggested that if she attended the school she 
might become a teacher. He could never have 
dreamed of the magnitude of the fulfillment of 
that prediction. After graduating from STS in 
1904 at the age of seventeen, she became a 
church school teacher. She returned to 
Graysville as a faculty member in 1909, remain- 


A Century of Challenge 

ing with the school until it moved to Collegedale, 
at which time she became principal of Graysville 
Academy, a position she held from 1916-1919. 
She spent nine years teaching English and 
Latin at Union College, resigning to marry R. M. 
Kilgore's son Charles. After joining the faculty 
of Atlantic Union College in 1936, "she emerged," 
according to Myron Wehtje, "as 
the outstanding teacher of the 
next quarter century." Former 
students have spoken enthusias- 
tically of the inspiration they 
received in her classes. She 
remained an active member of the 
college staff until just before her 
hundredth birthday. 6 

Another early STS alumnus 
was George Gentry Lowry, '08. 
Even during his student years 
Lowry sold religious literature, 
assisted in evangelistic meetings, 
and earned a preaching license. 
Following graduation he spent a 
year as the principal of 
Mississippi's Pine Grove Indus- 
trial Academy. In 1909, after 
marrying and receiving ordina- 
tion, he went as a missionary to 
southern India where, in 1915, he 
established a training school. 
Eventually he became president 
of the Southern Asia Division of 
the General Conference of Sev- 
enth-day Adventists. 7 

One of the 1911 STS gradu- 
ates was John Francis Wright, 
who began his denominational 
career as a pastor and evangelist 
in Georgia and Alabama. After serving as 
president of the Alabama and North Texas 
conferences, he went to South Africa in 1925 as 

president of the Cape Conference. Having 
presided over the Southern African Division for 
more than a decade, he spent the last three years 
of his life as a vice-president of the General 
Conference. 8 

The other major objective of the school's 
leadership, a priority from the beginning, was 

the promoting of the 
students' spiritual 
welfare. This concern 
produced favorable 
results in baptisms, in 
student testimonies in 
religious meetings, in 
student participation 
in outreach programs 
such as the distribu- 
tion of religious 
literature, and in 
student lifestyles that 
bore witness to the 
surrendered heart. 
The faculty must have 
felt gratified when a 
non-Adventist parent, 
reporting that his son 
was learning better at 
Graysville than he had 
been at public school, 
seemed to be espe- 
cially pleased that the 
boy was learning "so 
much from the Bible." 
Another occasion that 
compensated the 
teachers for their 
stress, toil, and 
financial sacrifices was 
the faculty meeting of September 27, 1903. After 
discussing a letter from a mother concerned 
about her daughter's spiritual condition, princi- 

▲ Rochelle Philmon graduated from STS in 
1904 and returned to Graysville as a faculty 
member in 1909. 

pal J. Ellis Tenney declared that this very girl 
had "made a surrender to the Holy Spirit's 
influence at our students' meeting yesterday." 9 

Tenney's Troubled Tenure 

he Tenney administration (1901-1906) 
has been described as the longest in 
the history of the Graysville school. It 
wasn't really; it just seemed so. 
Earlier works have listed Tenney as 
principal from 1901 to 1908, but he actually left 
this position two years earlier. Perhaps part of 
the confusion stems from the fact that he re- 
mained on the board for some time after 
resigning as principal. 10 

Tenney's administration was stormy, 
tempestuous, and plagued by crisis. His man- 
agement style and the school's periods of 
financial and disciplinary crises appear closely 
related to the frequent turnover of faculty 
members. Yet Tenney's leadership also had 
positive factors. He encouraged teachers to 
present their subjects in a lively, enthusiastic 
manner, to take a personal interest in their 
students, and to rely on divine power in their 
work. 11 

Apparently a public school principal before 
he entered denominational work at Battle Creek 
College as a teacher of rhetoric and literature, 
Tenney came to STS from the principalship of 
Woodland Industrial School in Wisconsin. But at 
STS he was frustrated that, in addition to 
administrative duties, he was now expected to 
teach classes in such subjects as Bible and 
geometry. This, he felt, gave him inadequate 
time for "general oversight" and made it impos- 
sible for him to follow his public school practice of 
making visits to each classroom. 12 

Desiring to broaden the curriculum, he 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

inaugurated early in his career special summer 
school programs for teachers and other non- 
ministerial denominational workers. A 
full-fledged normal department for teacher 
training was established in 1904. For a while 
Graysville Adventist parents had to choose 
between sending their elementary school chil- 
dren to the Graysville church school or to the 
normal department's laboratory school. The 
resulting competition created tension between 
STS and the local church until STS re-assumed 
control of the elementary school which it had 
relinquished only a few years earlier. Mrs. C. F. 
Dart, the former Annie Mae Morgan, headed the 
normal department during the 1904-05 school 
year. 13 

The board chairman throughout the Tenney 
years was R. M. Kilgore, the first president of the 
Southern Union Conference. He had returned to 
the region at Ellen White's request after five 
years as superintendent of Missouri-based 
District Number Five, which included the 
southwestern United States, including Texas and 
Wyoming. After a year as president, he stepped 
down to the vice-presidency, but he stayed on as 
STS board chairman until 1907. u 

Ellen White visited Graysville in 1904. She 
had earlier spoken of the school as an institution 
"for the advancement of the Lord's work." As the 
Lord had led in its establishment, Adventists 
should, she said, encourage and assist the 
Graysville school. After touring the school 
buildings and farm, she described her visit to 
Graysville as "a very pleasant one" and said, "We 
found that the work in Graysville had made 
encouraging advancement." She later would 
complain, however, that too many Adventists 
were settling in Graysville who should be going 
out and laboring "in fields where the truth has 
never been proclaimed." There was something 
else about the situation in Graysville that 

▲ J. Ellis Tenney, principal, 1901-1906. 

bothered her. Writing to Southern Union 
Conference president George I. Butler in 1906 
that she was "greatly burdened because of the 
disunity coming in among our people," she 
specifically mentioned Graysville. 15 An examina- 
tion of the tensions between the school and the 
townspeople and also between certain faculty 
members reveals that her concern was well- 
founded. Tenney repeatedly complained of local 

interference with the school's operation and of a 
lack of parental cooperation. However, in some 
instances the "interference" by the local people 
seems to have been justified and Tenney's 
resentment unwarranted. 

The strained relationship between the 
school and the local Adventist community during 
the Tenney years is illustrated by the problem of 
the 1903 Week of Prayer. Each year the denomi- 
nation prepared a series of printed sermons to be, 
read in the local Adventist churches during a 
special devotional week, a provision which 
became an annual ritual and a special spiritual 
treat for the many tiny churches which had to 
share their pastor with several other congrega- 
tions. Not wanting to interfere with the school's 
evening study period, the faculty decided to 
schedule these readings for the school's regular 
morning chapel period rather than taking the 
students to the Graysville church each evening. 
But some local church members perceived this 
decision as a sign of alienation. Despite a desire 
to discourage such feelings, the faculty felt that 
its primary obligation was to the students, "not 
to the church," and that the students' interests 
"must come first." 16 

Another symptom of this tension was 
revealed in the January 17, 1905, faculty 
meeting. When Tenney asked the teachers if 
they thought it was a good idea to determine 
whether the students would prefer attending a 
Friday night meeting especially for them instead 
of the Sabbath afternoon youth meeting at the 
church, the business manager suggested that 
doing so would widen the "breach" between 
church and school. At this, another faculty 
member declared that "he was sick and tired of 
having that subject brought up." If the church 
members were "so dead" that they needed "the 
students to give them any semblance of life, they 
would be better buried and out of the way." 17 


A Century of Challenge 

The following year the tension reached such 
a level that Tenney threw down the gauntlet, 
informing a local church leader that the time had 
come for the church board and prominent church 
members to "take their stand, with the school or 
against it." Frustrated with the Graysville 
church's attitude "toward the school and its 
present management," Tenney declared that if 
the church members couldn't "leave matters 
alone which do not pertain to them, and cease 
exerting that influence over the school which is 
decidedly detrimental," the school should be 
moved. 18 

Among the causes of Tenney's frustration 
were attempts of local Adventists to influence 
the school's hiring decisions. For example, there 
was the matter of a certain teacher the board 
had hired before Tenney arrived at Graysville. 
Although Tenney professed to hold the "highest 
opinion" of him as a teacher and "conscientious 
Christian gentleman," Tenney twice gave finan- 
cial considerations as the reason for dispensing 
with this teacher's services, but board minutes 
suggest that his real objection to keeping him 
was a difference of opinion on discipline. Appar- 
ently the teacher in question had a more humane 
concept of discipline than his principal. Called 
before the board to explain his views, the teacher 
stated "that he was not in favor of as extreme 
measures as some were and yet he did not intend 

Mrs. Ellen G. White met with Southern educational 

leaders in 1904. Pictured from left to right: (Front 

Row) J. E. White, Mrs. Ellen G. White, W. C. White, 

Smith Sharp, Professor J. E. Tenney, N. W. Allee; 

(Second Row) W. F. McNeely, S. B. Horton, R. M. 

Kilgore, A. F. Harrison, John Macmillan; (Third Row) 

F. R. Rogers, H. G. Thurston, J. O. Johnston, 

T. A. Ford, Brother Dart, E. B. Melendy; 

(Back Row) E. T. O'Rell, S. M. Jacobs. 

to allow his opinions to interfere with the disci- 
plinary plans of others." Tenney nevertheless 
persuaded the board not to rehire him. When 
several church members petitioned for a recon- 
sideration, Tenney persuaded the board not to 
respect their wishes. 19 That petition was doubt- 
lessly one of the actions of the local church people 
that he resented. 

Although the board didn't change its mind 
in that instance, it did bow to local pressure in 
the matter of another teacher, one that had 
already been elected for the coming school year 
and for whom it had even voted a 12.5 percent 
raise. Finding out that some people on the local 

church board were unhappy over this decision, 
the board rescinded her re-election. But in 1910, 
with Van Kirk as principal, the board unani- 
mously voted to bring back former STS normal 
department teacher Minnie Hildebrand and 
rehired her every year until after Van Kirk left. 
If her other students felt the same way as Donald 
Hunter, this was the right decision. "She had the 
greatest influence of any teacher I've ever known 
on the young folks," Hunter says, adding that she 
taught them "to appreciate learning everything 
they could about everything they could find to 
get to know about." 20 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

▲ Students in the home on May 1, 1906, with the floriculture 
manager, Otto Schultz, displaying his gardening implements. 
Pictured from left to right: (Front Row) Anna Horning, Florida 
Samson, Otto Schultz, Laurence Spear, Prof. R. K. Haughey; (Second 
Row:) Lula Rodgers, Hattie Rodgers, Maud Coleman, Gertrude 
McCulloch, Gradye Brooke; (Third Row) Ruth Seale, Henry Mitchell, 
Howard Webb, Rachel Vreeland, Bertha Burrows, Edna Moor, De 
Etta Payne; (Fourth Row) Mrs. M. C. Kenyon, Leslie Wade, John 
Mitchell, Fera Maddox, Carl Hewitt; (Fifth Row) Howell Brook, 
Claud Robertson, Prof. F. O. Raymond, Sophia Termier, Fannie 
Burt, John Smith; Mr. Miller in back. 

Tenney and Van Kirk had a hard 
time finding and keeping dormitory 
deans (preceptors and preceptresses). 
Tenney's first pair of deans tried to 
run their "school home" with a firm 
hand and sometimes met with 
rebellion. Lacking support from some 
of their colleagues, they were encour- 
aged to seek other employment. It 
wasn't easy to replace them: the 
board met with several refusals 
before finding new deans. For each of 
the next three years the board had to 
go through the whole process again. 
One of those years, at least six 
choices turned down the positions, 
apparently unwilling to teach nearly 
full time while being responsible for 
round-the-clock enforcement of strict 
rules on potentially rebellious adoles- 
cents, all for $7.50 a week. Another 
year the board found a couple who 
apparently wanted the job, but they 
never showed up! Well into the 
school year, when the board learned 
they weren't coming, it asked the G. 
H. Babers to move into the dormitory. 
Elder Baber taught Bible, history, 
and Spanish, and Mrs. Baber worked 
in the intermediate department. 
Although the Babers left at the end of 
that school year, they returned in 
1908, remaining until 1911. Finally 
the school had found acceptable 
deans who were willing to stay 
awhile. 21 

One of the reasons STS had such 
a difficult time keeping dormitory 
deans was the prevalence of disci- 
pline problems. "Influences are at 
work among our students that are 

directly opposed to the work we are trying to do," 
Tenney complained. There were several stu- 
dents, "whose conduct seemed to be radically 
opposed to the best interests of the school." He 
reported to the board that students were in a 
"state of unrest." How to deal with students who 
were "indulging in immoral and otherwise 
censurable conduct" was a constant concern. 
Attempting to solve these problems took a major 
share of the time in many faculty meetings. 22 

As Everett Dick points out, "In Adventist 
schools at this time coupling off was strictly in 
bad taste in the eyes of the faculty." STS was no 
exception. The "association of young men and 
women, and the attachments formed thereby" 
was a major issue throughout the history of 
Southern Training School. Tenney's faculty went 
on record favoring "definite action" against 
"sentimentalism in the school." His successors 
continued to discourage boy-girl relationships. 
According to the Faculty Meeting Minutes for 
November 27, 1906, "The faculty took its stand 
with Prof. Van Kirk against special attention 
being shown between the boys and girls at the 
picnic." Such relationships were banned not only 
at picnics but at all other times as well. School 
catalogs made it clear that any "association 
between the sexes further than ordinary civility 
and friendly relations" would not be permitted, 
that young men weren't "allowed to escort ladies 
to or from public gatherings," and that "students 
must refrain from all kinds of flirtation." Years 

The managers of Southern Training School's 

industrial departments: (left to right) Otto Schultz, 

floriculture; David E. Youngs, blacksmithing; J. 

Luther Maroon, store-keeping; J. Ellis Tenney, 

principal; Charles L. Kilgore, manager; Elmer E. 

Woodruff, farming; F. O. Raymond, culinary science. 

Photo courtesy of the Rochelle Kilgore collection, sent by Jessica Queen 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

later president Lynn Wood's faculty would also 
be greatly concerned about boy-girl relationships, 
reducing citizenship grades for such offenses as 
making and receiving unauthorized visits, 
escorting, and being escorted. More serious 
punishment was voted for boys playing tennis 
with girls on girls' tennis days. Young men 
wanting to escort young women had to get 
permission from the faculty, whose policy was 
that they should "be allowed the privilege of 
calling on young ladies" only once a month. 23 

Not all discipline problems involved boy-girl 
relationships. They ranged from smoking to 
speaking disrespectfully. But decisions on 
whether or not to permit students to remain in 
school depended upon their attitudes more than 
any specific actions. Reasons given for sending 
them home included "general insubordination," 
breeding discontent, and an unwillingness to 
obey school rules. 24 Although Tenney's succes- 
sors would also wrestle with discipline problems, 
faculty meetings for the most part seem to have 
been calmer during the post-Tenney administra- 
tions, with fewer confrontations over discipline. 
One of the preferred ways to deal with relatively 
minor discipline problems was to give deport- 
ment grades, entered on the report cards in 
faculty meetings. 25 

A position perhaps even more demanding 
than that of dormitory dean was that of business 
manager. Since before the beginning of the 
Tenney administration, STS had been plagued 
with financial difficulties. There had been times 
when the school had been forced to borrow 
money in order to pay salaries, and other times 
when the teachers hadn't been paid at all. At 
least one business manager, untrained in book- 
keeping, had resigned in frustration. After the 
board had prevailed upon a reluctant Charles 
Kilgore, a son of R. M. Kilgore, to resign his 
position as secretary and auditor of the Southern 

▲ Charles L. Kilgore 

Union Conference to become STS business 
manager and head of the commercial depart- 
ment, financial stability returned. Not only was 
the school able to pay its teachers in full without 
going into debt, but it made a net gain of $804 
during the 1905-06 school year. Southern Union 
president George I. Butler spoke approvingly of 
Kilgore's policy of "keeping accounts serviced," 
believing it was through his "faithful efforts" that 
the school was avoiding financial reverses. If 
everyone who ever accomplishes anything faces 
criticism, Kilgore was no exception. Believing 
that the business manager had offended two or 
three community people, Tenney reportedly 
expressed this belief to faculty members, future 
faculty members, and even people outside the 
school family. Consequently, three years after 
Kilgore took office, several members of the 
faculty-elect, led by a newcomer, tried to force his 

resignation by threatening to resign if Kilgore 
were retained. The next several board meetings, 
with both Kilgores present, turned into heated 
battles between supporters and opponents of the 
younger Kilgore. Butler spoke in opposition to 
the pressure tactics, while Tenney urged the 
board to stand by Kilgore's opponents and find a 
new business manager. Through it all, Charles 
Kilgore manifested what even Tenney admitted 
was "a beautiful Christian spirit," and at 
Kilgore's suggestion, several board members 
joined in an earnest "season of prayer" about the 
problem. 26 

Nevertheless, the fireworks continued with 
Butler defending Kilgore, Tenney defending the 
faculty, and several board members speaking out 
against the attitude of "striking" and making 
ultimatums. Butler recalled an unpleasant 
episode in the history of Battle Creek College, 
when he was General Conference president, 
involving a faculty attempt to dictate the board's 
policy. Implying that, like the Battle Creek 
board, the STS board might close down the 
school, he compared Tenney's position to that of 
the Battle Creek rebels. Instead of closing the 
school, however, the board decided to fire the 
teachers who had participated in the ultimatum. 
Believing that the controversy, although unjusti- 
fied, had wounded Kilgore's potential 
effectiveness as business manager, it voted to ask 
him to "take charge of the commercial depart- 
ment" and to continue as business manager only 
until a successor was appointed. His replace- 
ment was elected a few weeks later. 27 

One of the reasons for the financial difficul- 
ties of the early Tenney years was the school's 
collections problem. An auditor's report revealed 
that hundreds of people owed the school a total 
"more than sufficient to cover all indebtedness." 
The board voted that the business manager 
should make sure that students who were 


A Century of Challenge 

greatly behind either pay their debts or leave 
school and that "no one be admitted to the school 
Home, who was in debt to the school and who did 
not have the means to pay." Dormitory students 
would be required to deposit $25 and make 
satisfactory arrangements for monthly cash 
payments before being admitted. Specific 
families were written to with the request either 
for the money owed or for the removal of their 
children from school. This did not mean, how- 
ever, that the school was indifferent to the 
financial needs of the students. The board gave 
some families who were behind on their pay- 
ments special permission for their children to 
stay in school and work off their expenses the 
following summer if the parents signed a promis- 
sory note. In addition, several teachers 
volunteered to be responsible for the expenses of 
specific students. 28 

The teachers were providing this aid out of 
meager salaries. The most any faculty member 
received prior to 1903 was $11 a week, and only 
one person received as much as $12 in the 
following years. Some faculty members were 
paid as low as $5. A typical teacher's weekly 
salary during the Tenney years was $6 to $8. 
One physician resigned from the faculty because 
her financial obligations made it necessary for 
her to earn more than $8 a week. Even as late as 
the Van Kirk administration (1906-1912) the 
maximum salary was $13. Some faculty mem- 
bers were paid during the school year only. 29 

Recipients of these princely salaries were 
permitted no moonlighting. The board became 
concerned when it suspected that one of the 
physician-teachers was practicing medicine on 
the side. When called before the board, she 
explained that she had assisted only people 
unable to obtain other medical care and that she 
had not personally profited. 30 

Although at times he made statements 

▲ A 1907 view of the school farm, with the school and the town of Graysville in the background. 

supporting the concept, in general 
Tenney seems to have been less than 
enthusiastic about Irwin's work-study 
program. Shocked at learning that 
nearly $2,500 had been paid for 
student labor the year before he 
arrived, he said, "Less work should be 
given the students so there would be a 
greater cash income." He reported that 
all board members shared his belief 
"that more work was being given 
students than necessary." 31 


View of the school farm looking 

north, and some of the livestock. 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

If the board agreed with Tenney in 1901 
that student labor should be cut back, it didn't 
keep that opinion for long. It was even willing to 
hire students to do work that would clearly be 
less costly if done by adults. But the board was 
anxious that the money students earned be used 
for their education. The school's contracts for 
student labor stipulated that payment be exclu- 
sively in the form of credit toward the expense of 
attending STS. Sometimes when a student left 
school his parents demanded that his credit be 
turned into cash. At least one family even 
threatened to sue. The board compromised by 
revising the contract to read that a departing 
student would receive 50 percent of the 
unclaimed credit in cash. 32 

To board chairman R. M. Kilgore "the 
necessity of making provision ... for students to 
earn their way" was an important priority. 33 In 
1905 the board voted that the school should have 
"a more industrial plan." It adopted a new work- 
study program that would enable a student to 
earn three years' expenses by working at the 
school for twelve months before starting classes 
and then working summers plus twenty-five 
hours a week while school was in session. 
Tenney responded to this new industrial empha- 
sis by threatening to resign, declaring that he 
was entirely ignorant of the industrial branches 
and incapable of giving them proper direction. 
Butler persuaded him to stay another year. 34 

Tenney did seem to favor greater student 
involvement in agriculture, however. He adver- 
tised for "capable young men" to head various 
agricultural departments such as small fruits, 
trees, and floraculture in order to "build up in the 
school those industries that would result in the 
greatest remuneration and would be the most 
profitable to the students." He also operated 
summer sessions so that "students would be in 
school during the summer time when their 

services were most needed." 35 

One of the major subjects of discussion 
regarding the agricultural operations was the 
question of whether or not the school farm 
should raise hogs. When the board was informed 
that this practice was stirring "considerable 
opposition throughout the conferences" and that 
many people thought it "very inappropriate" that 

Marshall B. Van Kirk, principal, 1906-1912. 

those employed in the training of workers should 
set a questionable example, Kilgore and Butler 
rushed to the farmer's defense. Kilgore thought 
this was "merely a matter of conscience" that 
wasn't violating any principle if the people 
involved didn't feel condemned for doing it. 
Butler said he had known many "consecrated 
and devoted" Adventists who with a clear 
conscience kept hogs. The following day, how- 
ever, someone found a statement from Ellen 
White opposing the practice. Consequently, the 
board voted to ask the school farmer to abandon 
the hog-raising business. 36 

Another controversial practice was the 
horse-trading of a later farm manager who 
invested his own money in animals such as 
young heifers and ponies and raised them for the 
market, turning the profits over to the school. At 
first the board was amenable. But as the num- 
ber of trading deals increased, some of the 
members questioned the practice, and Butler 
advised against involving the school in very 
much trading. 37 

In 1903 the school purchased beehives, 
strawberry plants, and enough pear trees to 
cover several acres. The following year the board 
authorized the planting of "10,000 blackberry 
plants, 700 gooseberry plants, three-quarters of 
an acre of dewberry plants," and 5,000 additional 
pear trees. The school farm also raised peaches 
and corn, and the board voted to build a green- 
house. 38 In 1901 the school canning factory 
profitably processed 12,000 cans of food. This 
would continue to be an important school indus- 
try for years to come. 39 

Board chairman Kilgore kept stressing the 
importance of establishing additional industries. 
At his suggestion a committee was assigned to 
look into broommaking as a possibility, but 
nothing came from it during the Tenney adminis- 
tration. Broommaking was still on the board's 


A Century of Challenge 

mind in 1910 when it called for an industrial 
program involving not only a strong agricultural 
department and an expanded, better equipped 
printing department, but also the creation of 
several new businesses, including poultry, 
carpentry, and broommaking. Although a lack of 
funds kept Van Kirk from establishing any new 
industries that year, thanks to camp meeting 
fund-raising, the broom and carpentry shops 
began operations the following year. 40 

Meanwhile, the print shop was becoming 
more of an asset to the school. The board autho- 
rized the purchase of additional equipment, and 
the Southeastern Union Conference helped to 
support it by paying $10 a week to have Field 
Tidings printed there. However, the board 
refused to let the shop print a local Graysville 
newspaper, believing that such a project "would 
doubtless involve the connection with worldly 
affairs, political and commercial, that would be 
likely to bring detriment to our work and our 
young people." Students working for the school 
press were paid 8 173(2 per hour. 41 

In 1902, five Graysville residents, including 
R. M. and C. L. Kilgore, each invested $100 to 
establish the Southern Training School Store, a 
business that would turn its profits over to the 
school rather than to the original investors. 
Besides making a profit for the school, it would 
save the school and sanitarium money on pur- 
chases and provide work for students. By 1903 
the store was able to donate $500 so that the 
school could expand its work-study opportunities 
by setting up a blacksmith and wagon-making 
shop, an enterprise which turned out to be a 
money-loser in the early years. 42 

During the period when J. Ellis Tenney and 
his successor M. B. Van Kirk were administering 
STS, a nationwide explosion of nine new Sev- 
enth-day Adventist colleges took place. One 
reason for this was that, compared to the general 

population, a larger percentage of Seventh-day 
Adventist young people were attending college. 
Meanwhile, by 1908 the number of Seventh-day 
Adventist schools in the South had grown to 
eight, including the three that would become 
colleges — Madison, Oakwood, and Graysville. 
The total enrollment of all eight schools was 
about 300. 43 

As for STS itself, its enrollment fluctuated 
during the Tenney and Van Kirk years. During 
the late 1890s, it had been slowly climbing 
upward, reaching 113 by February 1899, but 
dropping to 51 by October 1903. A year later 
about 70 students were attending, and by 1910 
the enrollment had reached 150, of which 29 
were in the primary grades, 36 in intermediate 
grades, and 85 in the training school proper. The 
total enrollment for 1911-12 was about the same, 
but by mid-year the number of students in the 
training department had dropped to about 60. 
Van Kirk explained to the board that some had 
been dismissed because of their unwillingness to 
live up to the school regulations, "a few" had gone 
home "by choice," and some had left "because of 
ill health." During the 1913-14 school year 223 
students registered. 44 

Enrollment may have been negatively 
affected by two or three epidemics that hit the 
South. The county health department, concerned 
about the spread of diphtheria in 1902, insisted 
that students admitted would have to give the 
school physician "satisfactory evidence . . . that 
no one would be in danger of exposure on account 
of their attendance." On another occasion the 
school board asked the sanitarium board to send 
a nurse to the school to care for a student report- 
edly sick with typhoid fever. In 1905 school 
opened with fewer students than anticipated 
because of a yellow fever quarantine. "Several 
students living in districts infected with yellow 
fever or in localities separated from the school by 

quarantine lines desire to come to the school," 
Tenney wrote, "but have not been able because of 
these restrictions." During the 1911-12 school 
year a smallpox epidemic confronted Graysville. 
Fortunately, the students had been vaccinated 
and the school was able to continue operating. 
When the Graysville church closed down for 
three weeks, the school conducted its own 
Sabbath School and church services in the 
chapel. STS was less fortunate in 1915 when a 
student died of diptheria; the primary and 
intermediate grades were closed for a week to 
prevent the disease from spreading. 45 

Marshall B. Van Kirk 


he person who really deserves recogni- 
tion as the Southern Training School 
administrator with the longest tenure is 
Marshall B. Van Kirk, principal from 
1906 to 1912. After several years of 
public school experience and two years in Sev- 
enth-day Adventist education, he came to 
Tennessee hoping a warmer climate would 
benefit his wife's health. 46 

Van Kirk was just what the school needed. 
He brought a sure management style and an air 
of professionalism to the administration. Al- 
though personality clashes and criticism didn't 
disappear overnight, the passage of time and the 
departure of some faculty holdovers brought an 
improved spirit. The students had a better 
attitude, the faculty got along "without any 
serious friction," and relations with the commu- 
nity mellowed. 47 

Van Kirk began the transformation of STS 
into a junior college. During the Tenney admini- 
stration students had entered the professional 
training school program right after the eighth 
grade. As late as 1904-05 the ministerial and 


normal courses had consisted of only two years 
each; thus prospective ministers and teachers 
had been completing only ten grades. The 
business program had taken a year longer. Even 
the addition of an "advanced study course" had 
given the students a maximum of only twelve 
grades of schooling. The advanced program had 
been incorporated into the regular course of 
study for the 1905-06 school year, when all 
students, regardless of major, were scheduled to 
study for three round-the-calendar years, includ- 
ing summer school. Eliminating the summer 
school requirement, Van Kirk extended most 
programs to four academic years. In 1908 he 
added a fifth "supplementary year." By 1909 
students were expected to complete nine grades 
before beginning their two-to four-year training 
school program. Two years later the prerequisite 
was increased to ten grades; the following year a 
regular junior college arrangement was insti- 
tuted, with completion of the twelfth grade a 
prerequisite for the two-year literary and scien- 
tific, advanced normal, and ministerial courses 
and the one-year preparatory medical course. 48 

STS, during the Van Kirk administration, 
gave grades on a uniform percentage basis: an A 
required 95%, a B 85%, and a C 75%. Anything 
below 75% received an X for failure. There was 
also a uniform test day. All teachers gave 
examinations in all classes on the fourth Tuesday 
of every month. 49 

There was no time for loitering between 
classes. Passing time was just one minute. If 
students were late, they might as well have been 
absent: teachers didn't make any distinction 
between the magnitude of the two offenses. The 
faculty decided in 1906 that three unexcused 
absences or tardiness would cause the student's 

•^ Boys' dormitory under construction. 

A Century of Challenge 

name "to be made public in some way." Later it 

voted that 1% would be deducted from a 

student's grade for each unexcused absence or 

tardiness and that three unexcused absences or 

tardinesses would "separate" a student from the 

school. To be reinstated one had to re-register 

and pay a $1 fee. If a student missed 15 percent 

of the class periods in a course, no 

grade would be given. 50 But the 

school still didn't have a clear 

policy for holidays. For instance, 

in 1906 the faculty couldn't make 

up its mind what to do about 

Christmas. On December 4 it 

leaned toward dismissing school 

on Christmas Day; two weeks 

later it decided to have school as 

usual. Two days after that it 

voted to have the day off after all. 

Three days later, on December 23, 

it reversed itself, again voting "to 

have regular school work on 

Christmas Day." Not until 1914 

did the calendar list holiday 

"recesses." 51 

Van Kirk's achievements 
included expansion of the physical 
plant. When the partially insured 
boys' dormitory burned in 1900, 
forcing the young men to move 
into a portion of the girls' dormi- 
tory, Irwin had not thought it best 
to rebuild right away. So 
throughout the Tenney adminis- 
tration all boarding students had 
lived in one building. In addition 
to the need for more student 
housing, the school faced a shortage of class- 
rooms and chapel space. Early in 1907, Van Kirk 
acted to meet these needs; a 24 by 39 foot, two- 
story building to house the laundry, press, and 

Gradye Brooke 

heating system was constructed. Later that year 
the main administration-classroom building was 
enlarged to sixteen rooms. 52 

A lack of funds delayed the construction of 
a new residence hall until 1910. Apparently 
because the school's water supply was inad- 
equate, when approving the plans for the 30 by 
46 foot dormitory in April 1910, the 
board voted "that there be no toilets 
placed in the building." But a year 
later a new steam pump capable of 
delivering 3,500 gallons of water an 
hour, together with water tanks 
and a new well, removed the 
objections to flush toilets, and Van 
Kirk now recommended that they 
be installed in the nearly completed 
building. 53 

Two STS alumni joined the 
faculty during the Van Kirk admin- 
istration. Gradye Brooke had 
graduated from the literary course 
in 1907 and returned the following 
year to complete the requirements 
for a diploma in music while 
teaching stenography three periods 
a day. She left STS for two years to 
operate the Georgia Conference 
Sabbath School and Young People's 
departments. While there she 
graduated from the Atlanta Conser- 
vatory of Music. The year that she 
left, another STS alumnus, Roch- 
elle Philmon, was hired to teach the 
intermediate grades. In 1910 Miss 
Brooke agreed to return and Miss 
Philmon agreed to remain on the 
condition that they be permitted to live and eat 
where they pleased, namely outside of the dorm. 
Gradye Brooke was now teaching music and 
stenography. 54 

Both young women were re-elected the 
following two years, although their teaching 
loads were changed. Gradye Brooke was now a 
full-time music teacher, and Rochelle Philmon 
was transferred to the Training School language 
department. "She is able to teach the Latin, and 
also do good work in the English," Van Kirk told 
the board. Although Miss Brooke had indicated 
she didn't want to return, the board was so 
pleased with her work that they unanimously 
re-elected her. Nevertheless, she declined the 
invitation and stayed away for two years, spend- 
ing at least part of that time in Alpharetta, 
Georgia. She taught at Graysville for one more 
year, then spent two years completing her 
bachelor's degree at Washington Missionary 
College. After STS became Southern Junior 
College and moved to Collegedale, Gradye 
Brooke taught at Collegedale for one year before 
marrying B. F. Summerour in October 1918. 
Rochelle Philmon, whose service to STS had been 
continuous since 1909, remained on the old 
campus to administer Graysville Academy. 55 

Gradye Brooke had lost a lot of time during 
the 1911-12 school year because of illness, one of 
the factors responsible for her declining the 
invitation to return to STS the following school 
year. Since a number of other teachers left for 
the same reason, faculty illness was a major 
ingredient in teacher turnover. On several 
occasions, ill health led to mid-year resignations. 
For some reason, this was especially true of 
single women. One of the earlier teachers who 
resigned for health reasons was Mary Alicia 
Steward, a former office assistant for Ellen 
White who had accompanied Mrs. White on her 
visit to Tennessee and had stayed to teach at 
Graysville. 56 

Although the faculty and board agreed that 
promoting the students' spiritual welfare was of 
paramount importance, they didn't always agree 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 



as to how this should be accomplished. During 
the Tenney years school leadership had seen 
bookburning as an acceptable way of accomplish- 
ing this goal, but not requiring attendance at 
Sabbath services. While the board had autho- 
rized Tenney "to take from the library such books 
as he might consider unsuitable for students to 
read and burn them," the faculty had rejected 
compulsory church attendance, deciding instead 
to "earnestly request and advise" it. Early in the 

Van Kirk administration the faculty, although 
requiring daily attendance at chapel and dormi- 
tory worships, was still reluctant to require 
attendance at Sabbath worship services. The 
policy changed in 1907, however. From then 
until 1914 school bulletins included a church- 
attendance requirement. When this requirement 
was omitted from the 1914-15 Annual Announce- 
ment, the faculty was once again confronted with 
a church-absence problem. The administration 

jj A Professor Grover Fattic (far right, first 
» row) and the dormitory boys. 

must have decided the omission was 
a mistake: the 1915-16 bulletin 
restored the phrase, "All students are 
expected to attend regular services." 57 

Other religious meetings in- 
cluded daily prayer bands and chapel 
services and weekly Young People's 
Missionary Volunteer meetings, 
prayer meetings, and vesper services. 
In addition, various "bands" of 
students were organized for holding 
evangelistic meetings, selling reli- 
gious literature, studying the Bible 
with potential converts, and learning 
about foreign missions. Another type 
of religious activity was Harvest 
Ingathering, which involved soliciting 
money for missions. 58 

The school's financial situation 
was more stable during the Van Kirk 
years. Operating on what was called 
"a safe basis," it went the entire six 
years without needing to solicit extra 
help for operating expenses. This is 
not to say balancing the budget was 
always easy. As an economy move 
the board cut the faculty's size in 1910. The 
result was that the principal and business 
manager were hard-pressed for time to fill their 
administrative responsibilities while teaching 
four or five classes a day. The other teachers 
were carrying six classes daily, a 20 percent 
overload according to Van Kirk, who told the 
board their decision had been a mistake. 59 

Throughout the history of Southern Train- 
ing School tuition for a full load of four subjects 


A Century of Challenge 

was still the same $4 a month that Colcord had 
charged two decades earlier. Some students 
during the Van Kirk administration were 
actually paying less than the amount charged 
during the Colcord years. Those who remitted in 
advance had to pay only $10 per three-month 
session, and second-year business students, 
because they were perceived to be doing work 
that helped the teacher, paid only $1 a month. 60 

Dormitory rent in 1911 was $2.25 per 
occupant per four-week month for two-window 
corner rooms on the first two floors. One-window 
rooms on these floors were $2 per person, and 
students on the third story had to pay only $1.75 
each. During the 1913-14 school year the mini- 
mum rent for the boys' dorm 
was raised to $2, and an 
extra $1 a month was 
assessed students who 
didn't live in the dormito- 
ries, in lieu of the twelve 
hours of free labor required 
of dormitory students. Also 
that year the weekly meal 
charges were raised from 
$1.75 to $2. 61 

During the last semes- 
ter of Tenne/s 
administration a legal entity 
for the school separate from 
the Southern Conference 
Association had come into 
existence. Known as the 
"Southern Union Conference 
Educational Association," its 
charter of incorporation had 
been signed on April 19, 
1906. Because Van Kirk 
considered the corporate 
name "misleading and 
confusing,'' it was changed 

C. L. Stone, principal, 1912-1914. 

by charter amendment to "Southern Training 
School of Seventh-day Adventists, Incorpo- 
rated." 62 

Soon after the formation of the Educational 
Association, the Southern Conference Associa- 
tion assigned to the new corporation the ten-acre 
campus, a thirty-five-acre hillside peach orchard, 
a vacant lot, and the land that included the farm 
manager's home and the school barn. Alto- 
gether, by the end of 1907 the school owned, in 
addition to the main campus, two houses, a 286- 
acre farm, and six other lots. 63 

The question of accepting one of these 
pieces of property caused considerable contro- 
versy. Because the school was attempting to 

avoid indebtedness, the 
STS manager requested 
that the school-operated 
farm be deeded free and 
clear to the Educational 
Association. The 
Southern Union Confer- 
ence executive 
committee balked, 
recommending instead 
that the Educational 
Association accept with 
the property the obliga- 
tion to provide a church 
member with lifelong 
support. Feeling help- 
less between the options 
of a perpetual financial 
obligation involving 
potential litigation and 
giving up the vitally 
needed farm, the Educa- 
tional Association 
rejected the offer. The 
union conference execu- 
tive committee proposed 

a solution: to accept the property and sell part of 
it to meet the obligation. The Educational 
Association board accepted the compromise. 64 
By the time Van Kirk had completed six 
years as principal, denominational leaders 
outside the South had become aware of his 
outstanding administrative ability. Invited to 
become educational secretary for the Central 
Union, Van Kirk accepted, leaving with a "tinge 
of sadness" in 1912. "I love this institution and 
shall pray for its prosperity," he said. He would 
continue moving up the denominational leader- 
ship ladder, advancing to conference and then 
union presidencies. 65 

Administrations Of Stone 
And Wood 


is replacement, C. L. Stone (1912-14), 
came to Graysville as principal, busi- 
ness manager, and Bible teacher from 
similar responsibilities at Bethel 
Academy in Wisconsin. 66 He stayed 
for only two years, but during those two years 
STS experienced explosive growth, massive 
faculty turnover, serious budget-balancing 
problems, merger with Graysville Sanitarium, 
and the first tentative steps toward transforming 
Southern Training School into Southern Junior 

Very few veterans of the Van Kirk adminis- 
tration survived the Stone biennium. Stone 
brought with him from Bethel Grover R. Fattic, 
dean of boys, and Miss Maude Warren, an 
instrumental music teacher. By Stone's second 
year, aside from the Bethel transplants and the 
other dormitory dean, only Miss Philmon and 
math and science teacher H. S. Miller remained; 
the other eight teachers for 1913-14 were all 
new. Only two of the newcomers continued on 
the faculty the following year. 67 


A Century of Challenge 

▲ Lynn H. Wood, principal, 1914-1915 and 
president, 1916-1922. 

One reason that so many new teachers 
were hired in 1913 was the school's explosive 
growth, a growth which may have had its origin 
in a board meeting in which the business man- 
ager, responding to board chairman C. B. 
Stephenson's emphasis on the "solemn obligation 
to make our school pay," pointed out that — with 
a total overhead for monthly salaries of nearly 
$400 — the school could not meet expenses, "no 
matter how careful the management might be, if 
classes did not fill." The chief requirement for a 
balanced budget, he said, was "a good atten- 
dance." Thereupon the board voted to have the 
preceptor take a recruiting trip. The trip was a 

success; enrollment took an upward leap in the 
fall of 1913, increasing by 61 percent over the 
previous year to 215. Unprepared for such a 
number, the school had to borrow beds, bedding, 
and tableware from Graysville residents. The 
massive influx of students didn't solve the 
problem, however; instead it necessitated the 
hiring of five additional teachers. Now the board 
was groaning under a combined monthly salary 
expense of $675. By this time some of the 
teachers were making as much as $12 to $16 a 
week, and the principal was receiving $17, 
although single women were earning only $10 to 
$11. 68 

In December 1900, Dr. Hayward had begun 
teaching a "Health and Temperance Missionary 
Course" in treatment rooms set up in the school 
basement. Desir- 
ing to expand this 
course into a full- 
fledged nurses' 
training program, 
the Southern 
Union Conference 
Committee voted 
to erect a sani- 
tarium building. 
Excavation for the 
building was 
underway in June 
1902 on Lone 
Mountain, three- 
fourths of a mile 
fromSTS. By 
1908 Graysville 
Sanitarium had 
become, according 
to Emmett K. 
VandeVere, the 
"best planned" of 
the four Seventh- 

day Adventist sanitariums in the South. From 
the beginning there had been cooperation 
between the school and the sanitarium, with 
nursing students going to STS for preparatory 
work and then to the sanitarium for nurses' 
training. In 1913 STS took over Graysville 
Sanitarium, but it proved to be a financial drain 
and was soon turned over to a private individual. 
Before long, it went out of business. 69 

Once again the board decided the school's 
name was inappropriate. Since the term "train- 
ing school" was now being used for reform 
schools, it gave the wrong connotation. The 
board voted in 1912 to favor eliminating the 
word "training" from the STS name at some 
future time. 70 The name wasn't changed, 
however, until the school moved to Collegedale. 

▲ The Graysville Sanitarium. 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

At the same meeting the board 
voted to work toward upgrading STS to a 
college. Reversing directions the follow- 
ing year for financial reasons, the board 
voted to drop grades thirteen and four- 
teen. Again reversing directions, it 
rescinded this action because the General 
Conference had recommended that 
beginning ministers should have com- 
pleted at least fourteen grades, and board 
members considered several of the 
southern conferences too poor to send 
their youth to Washington Missionary 
College in Maryland. 71 

Stone was followed by Wood (1914- 
15). Prior to coming to Graysville, Lynn 
H. Wood had held positions at such 
institutions as the Seventh-day Adventist 
Foreign Missionary Seminary and Union 
College. He is fondly remembered as a 
very favorite principal, somewhat stern 
but sincere, who wore eyeglasses with a 
ribbon on them that went down to the 
lapel of his coat. Reserved on a one-to-one 
basis, Wood had a way of coming alive 
before audiences with "convincing, well- 
thought-out, aptly illustrated 
discourses." 72 

A strong religious emphasis charac- 
terized the Wood administration. The 
first faculty meeting for the 1914-15 
school year began with the teachers 
singing together a stanza of "Wholly 
Thine." Another faculty meeting opened 
with a special prayer session in which 
every teacher prayed for one or more 
unconverted students. Wood suggested 
that the faculty's aim should be to win 
"every student for Christ this year." He 
planned a special extra Week of Prayer 
for the opening week of school in addition 




The above was quoted by Elder Branson in his sermon Sabbath, Feb. 20. It was at 1 
places in Graysville, and he was then announcing a week of services to follow at the cl 
must needs go through Graysville." While the devil was kindling his fire in the basen 
greater fire in the hearts of the students, and along with this and things that have foil 

At 4 o'clock Thursday morning of 
last week the girls' dormitory to the 
Southern Training School at Grays- 
ville caught fire in the basement and 
in less time than could be imagined 
the whole building was enveloped in 
flames, ft was a four-storv structure 
and was the residing place for thirty 
or more of the female students of the 
school. Miss Phelps, the preceptress, 
was first to awake to the probability 
of a fire by a Aise that sounded like 
the crackling of burning boards, then 
to a scent of smoke, at which she lost 
no time in sounding the alarm along 
the hallways and up and down the 

fully injured by jumping from the 
third-story window to the ground, a 
distance likely of 25 feet, sustaining 
a broken arm and wrench of back 
and shoulders. She was picked up 
and carried to the boys' home, where 
she received medical attention for the 
time being, and later removed to the 
Sanitarium at the side of the moun- 
tain. She is now improving and is out 
of all danger. 

Miss Eva Pickard was also injured 
by a fall from the top of the porch. 
She is now much better. 

Thos. Huxstable ascended a ladder 
and attempted entrance to one of 



stairs. By this time some one from 
the boys' side of the campus discov- 

the upper windows 
but was hurled to 

~j *i.„ a, — 

of the building, 
the ground by 

were busily engaged removing 
printing material to safer groi 
Hardly were we out before we v 
back, so quickly was the fire o 
and just so did every man work. 

All over, and almost at the br 
of day, just as everything begai 
quiet down, the bugle call ( wl 
seemed so sad "just after the batt 
was sounded from the boys' 1 
calling together all the brave, 
weary and the sad ones, but noi 
discouraged, to discuss ways 
means for the immediate com: 
etc., of those thrown out by the fire, 
soon as Prof. Wood explained the ot 
of the meeting, invitat 
were extended by the bt 
ren and sisters of the t 
to the homeless ones to c 
and partake of their h< 
talities. But breakfast 
all that was needed, as 
Graysville Sanitarium 
soon arranged for, and 
twelve o'clock in the da 
the young students i 
comfortably quartered in 
good home at the side oi 
mountain. Fortunate, inc 
for the S. T. S. that su 
place was at hand. 

At 6:30 o'clock a pi 
meeting was held in 
chapel room. Prayer 
offered by Elder Brar 
then a few remarks by 1 
Wood, Elder Hoopes 
Prof. Fattic. 

Elder Branson was fir: 
speak, who mentioned 
importance of all bearini 
under the misfortune oi 
hour and putting on a si 
He knew it was hard, 
asked all to take coui 
thank God, and "smile." 
himself put on a broad s 
that was soon copied bj 
and a better feeling i 
over the entire crowd. 
These were sad moments anc 
speakers realized that a word oi 

> tiikoi «.n 


A Century of Challenge 

of the week of prayer, when meetings had been held nightly at a dozen different 
ten he likened the above quotation to the importance at this time, and said, "And he 
e Girls' Home at the S. T. S., the Lord was in the upper rooms preparing to kindle a 
; evident that the needs are being fulfilled. Many hearts are touched as never before. 

; he could not render assistance to 
g barefooted girls;" that he had the 
es, but he knew they were "too 
ill." Here they all smiled again, 
this time it seemed they were for- 
:ing their troubles, and different 
s throughout the crowd of girls 
: the previous remarks with words 
iraise to God for His protection in 
ping them from death during the 
, and promising consecration to 
cause and begging that they may 
lose hope, and saying they wanted 
stay by the school, and not "go 
tie." One word after another 
ught utterances to " keep in good 
er," in spite of the 
il's effort to stop the 
rk. and as the meet- 
wound up good feel- 
and blessed hope took 
session of all. Miss 
>ok, the vocal teacher, 
ched the hearts of all 
en she stood and sang 
eautiful strain, fram- 
the words to suit the 

Jlder O. Montgomery, 
sident of the Southern 
lining School, was no- 
ed by telephone the 
s by fire and he, in 
npany with Eld. Wight 
the Southern Union, 
ne at once to Grays- 

Che bakery, which 
od onlya few feet from 
girls' home, was 
med, but all the flour 
a fruit stored therein 
s saved. The oven was 
c damaged beyond re- 
F< so it has been over- 
bed and placed on a 
"'base in the laundry 
™, in the rear of the 

sin? 8 ^ ffice > read y for 

>»}ess. Brother Domin- 
' s m charge, and is 
»ns as good bread as ever. 

. yone , da y'f time was lost from 

the boys' home they said they saw 
fire in the two windows in the dining 
room next to the kitchen, but by the 
time I had reached the building and 
gone around to the back side, the 
fire was all over the floor of the din- 
ing room. By this time nearly all the 
girls were out of the building, but be- 
fore all were taken out, the first floor 
had gone through in some places. 
There were twelve girls taken out 
after the piano had fallen through the 
floor into the basement. 

Miss Genevieve Roberts, of Nashville, 
was one of the first to be awakened, 
but before she could get her clothes 

After the fire the students all came 
to the six-thirty rally in the Chapel, 
and such a spirit of loyalty and earn- 
estness was never manifested before 
in the history of the school. A sub- 
scription list was started for the help 
of those students who had lost nearly 
everything in the fire. The personal 
loss of the students in the fire will run 
very close to two thousand dollars. 
The»loss of the buildings is estimated 
at close to ten thousand dollars, while 
there is about $3100 insurance. 

The girls were taken to the Sani- 
tarium for temporary quarters, but a 
large dwelling has been procured right 

Reprinted from the March 10, 1915, Field 

to the regular Week of Prayer coming 
later that session. Five of the teachers 
served as Sabbath School officers, with 
Wood filling the position of Sabbath 
School superintendent. 73 

The Monday through Friday class 
schedule and Saturday Sabbath had 
previously made Sunday an important 
day for the school industries. But 
wanting to avoid stirring prejudice in 
the community as much as possible, the 
faculty unanimously voted to hold 
classes on Sunday for the 1914-15 
school year and to designate Tuesday as 
the day for work in the industries. 

After the fire on February 18, 1915. 


and get down stairs the smoke had 
so filled the hallway that she dared 

on the campus, and this will be used 
for a Girls' Home, and a rough dm- 

£ .. ~r 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 

When some of the Sunday-keeping villagers 
protested this decision, saying they wanted to 
send their children to STS but couldn't if classes 
were held on Sunday, the faculty reversed itself, 
unanimously voting to have classes on Tuesday 
instead of on Sunday. 74 

Looking back on the Graysville years, 
Southern Junior College administrators would 
see Southern Training School's town location as 
a source of problems. One area of concern was 
the double standard resulting from the fact that 
a substantial number of students were not 
subject to school home rules. In addition to the 
local residents, several young people with homes 
away from Graysville requested permission to 
live outside the dormitory. The faculty voted to 
permit them to do so if they were living with 
brothers, sisters, aunts, or uncles or if three 
students from the same family were enrolled. 
This rule apparently assumed some adult 
supervision, because the faculty told one mother 
that she would have to secure a "permanent 
guardian to live in [the] house with her children, 
or else put them in the school Homes." A few 
other students were given permission to live with 
people that weren't relatives. Gradye Brooke 
had living with her not only her own siblings but 
two other students as well. 75 

Another problem resulting from the proxim- 
ity to an established community was that boys 
from another school — boys whose lifestyles were 
quite different from those the school was trying 
to establish — would frequently come on campus 
and play with STS students. The faculty voted 
that Wood should have a talk with these boys 
regarding the school's principles "and kindly ask 
them to remain off the campus." 76 

Financial hard times hit the school again, 
reflecting, the board said, "financial conditions 
existing throughout the South." Despite subsi- 
dies from all but one of the conferences in the 

Southern and South- 
eastern unions, STS 
experienced operating 
losses in 1914-15 
amounting to more 
than 25 percent of the 
institution's income. 
The following year 
income was down 10 
percent. The net 
operating loss was just 
under 17 percent of 
income and exceeded 
the total of all the 
teachers' salaries by 
10 percent. 77 

The school's 
difficulties were 
multiplied by the 
catastrophe of Febru- 
ary 18, 1915. Well 
before dawn that 
Thursday morning, 
preceptress Bertha 
Phelps heard a 
crackling sound, then 
smelled smoke. The 
dormitory was on fire. 
She ran down the hall, 
racing from floor to 
floor sounding the 
alarm. The Field 
Tidings reported that 
the ringing of the 

school bell "and the shrieks of young women in 
the burning building" brought out "the entire 
population of the Adventist section" of Graysville 
Although some of the girls were dazed and 
confused and three students were injured from 
jumping or falling, everyone survived. When all 
the girls had been accounted for, a boy played on 

A A. N. Atteberry, principal, 19151916. 

his harmonica "Praise 
God from Whom all 
Blessings Flow." 78 
The girls lost 
nearly $2,000 worth of 
personal property, 
including nearly all their 
clothing. Outstanding 
among the many people 
who rallied to help them 
was Rochelle Philmon, 
who provided quite a few 
girls with blouses and 
skirts. Some of the boys 
loaned girls their shirts, 
and people from near 
and far donated clothing 
and money to the 
students. The school 
itself also lost heavily; it 
had only about $3,100 in 
insurance to cover 
$10,000 in damages. 79 
Since the school 
kitchen had been 
destroyed, the sani- 
tarium staff prepared 
breakfast for the stu- 
dents that morning. The 
sanitarium also gave the 
girls a place to stay in 
the immediate after- 
math of the fire. Later 
the girls were moved for 
the rest of the year to the house that had be- 
longed to the late R. M. Kilgore. 'The spirit was 
good among the students," recalls Donald 
Hunter. "I don't think any of them left because 
of the fire." 80 

Arson was suspected. Wood offered $100 
reward for the arrest and conviction of the 


A Century of Challenge 

arsonist. But Hunter doesn't think it was a 
case of arson, suggesting that the fire could 
have started in the kitchen stove. 81 

The Decision To Move 

Eynn Wood left STS after only one year to 
become educational secretary for the 
Southern Union. His replacement was 
A. N. Atteberry (1915-16), formerly 
principal of Hazel Academy in Ken- 
tucky. The school was temporarily downgraded 
to twelve grades, and the staff was reduced. 82 

Some people saw the fire as a sign that it 
was time for the school to move. As early as 
1912, moving had been discussed. A January 3, 
1914, straw vote had revealed that a majority of 
board members favored a move. With room for 
expansion lacking and certain "elements" in the 
town making school discipline more difficult, 
some felt that "if the school was to fulfill its 
mission, the preparation of workers for the 
Southland, it needed a location and environment 
different from that of a crowded proximity to the 
mountain mining village where it had developed 
from a local school." As Atteberry puts it, the 
dormitory fire "brought the question to the 
front." 83 

A board-appointed committee studied the 
possibility of a move in the context of the larger 
question of Adventist education in the South. It 
recommended that rebuilding the dormitory be 
delayed until the future of STS was decided and 
that a joint committee consider replacing it with 
two schools, one for each union supporting STS. 
Whatever changes were made should be done 
without incurring any debt. Meanwhile, STS 
should continue to operate at Graysville but with 
only twelve grades offered. The board adopted 
the committee's report. 84 

▲ The school greenhouse. 

Ellen White, writing about the Avondale 
school in Australia, had recommended that much 
of the school's estate should be devoted to or- 
chards, "a farm and a park, beautiful with 
fragrant flowers and ornamental trees." Perceiv- 
ing this advice as the blueprint STS should 
follow, the board voted to find a farm "as central 
as possible to both the Southern and Southeast- 
ern Union Conferences," with the two unions 
cooperating in the enterprise "if the way opens." 85 

Reluctant to see the school leave, the 

Graysville Seventh-day Adventist Church 
outlined a plan to build a new dormitory and 
acquire forty-eight acres of adjacent land for the 
school. The board voted to submit this "proposi- 
tion" to the school's constituency but to continue 
looking for other locations and investigating the 
possibility of fund-raising. The Graysville church 
had already petitioned the STS board to return 
its original nine acres if the school should move. 86 

The constituency rejected the Graysville 
plan, adopting instead a report calling for the 


Chapter 2: Southern Training School 


location of an educational center "away from any 
city or village, where conditions are more favor- 
able to true Christian education." Believing that 
such education could "best be given where there 
is an abundance of land for agriculture and 
opportunities for industries," the constituency 
renamed the school Southern Junior College and 
asked the board to select for it a "large farm" that 
was "centrally and conveniently located" for the 
two unions. It authorized the board to elect an 
executive committee of five with the power to 
implement this action. 

But two strings were attached to this 
resolution: first, STS must liquidate its debt 
before the move was to be made; and second, "no 
standing indebtedness" was to be incurred in the 
process of moving the school and establishing its 
new campus. Improvements were to be made 
"only as fast as the money [was] in sight." 87 

So the decision was made to move, provid- 
ing they could raise the money. Could they do it? 
And if they did, where would they go? 

Denominational Colleges Multiply 


(ew Adventist colleges established early 
in the twentieth century included Fernando 
College in California (1901); Washington Train- 
ing College in Maryland (1904) and renamed 
Washington Foreign Mission Seminary in 1907; 
Loma Linda College of Evangelists in California 
(1906) and renamed College of Medical Evange- 
lists in 1910; Western Normal Institute in Lodi, 
California ( 1908); and German, Danish, and 
Swedish seminaries established in 1910 in 
Missouri, Minnesota, and Illinois. In 1904 
Mount Vernon Academy began offering college- 
level work. Although Walla Walla had been 
called a college since 1892, 1905 was the first 
year that its bulletin listed junior college 
courses. 88 

Also during this period Battle Creek 
College moved to Berrien Springs, Michigan, 
changing its name to Emmanuel Missionary 
College. It went through an extremist phase in 
which grades, degrees, diplomas, and "formal 
courses of study" were abolished. Another 
college which moved and changed its name was 
Healdsburg, which became Pacific Union College. 
This transformation was more than a simple 
matter of relocation. It was more like death and 
resurrection. After the Healdsburg property was 
sold to help liquidate the school's suffocating 

debts, it went through a year of non-existence 
before the opening of the new campus at Angwin, 
California. 89 

Despite its resurrection, Healdsburg's 
demise points to an important fact about the 
institution at Graysville: its survival was not 
predestined. Without strong administrative 
leadership, and especially without the competent 
financial management of people like Charles 
Kilgore, Southern Industrial School could have 
gone the way of Fernando College, Western 
Normal Institute, and the foreign language 
seminaries — Adventist colleges from this period 
that have ceased to exist. 

Chapter Three 

The Move To Collegedale 

1916- 1927 

I efore 1835, southeastern Tennessee 
j was a part of the vast Cherokee 
I territory. According to congressional 
I legislation, federal treaties, and a U.S. 
Supreme Court decision, it should have 
remained in the hands of the Cherokee. But in 
1833 and 1834, as white settlers migrated across 
the Appalachians to establish homes and villages 
in the fertile western valleys, they began moving 
into what is now Hamilton County. By 1839 the 
Cherokee were gone, driven farther west into 
Oklahoma on what has become known as "The 
Trail of Tears." 1 

By 1913, about eight- 
een miles east of 
Chattanooga, the little town 
of Ooltewah was enjoying 
its importance as a junction 
of the Southern Railway 
and as county seat of short- 
lived James County, later to 
be united with Hamilton 
County. A quiet and peace- 
loving community, it was a 
"temperance town." Oolte- 
wah — and all of James 
County, for that matter — 
had been free of saloons for 
nearly thirty years, and the 
county jailkeeper estimated 
that he had been without 
prisoners for most of the 

j n 

VI « I 

iBSSpy; i» s 

.:. ; s " 1 - *■■.■■ 

.. *v -- 



▲ Thatcher's Switch, the 
railroad stop for Thatcher's 

previous decade. 2 

Two miles southeast of Oolte- 
wah lay the 280-acre Limestone 
Valley Stock Farm with its own 
railroad station, called Thatcher's 
Switch, where four passenger trains 
stopped each day. Although the 
farm had a 2,000-tree orchard, 175 
acres in cultivation and 100 more in 
timber, it was used primarily for 
breeding horses and mules. Jim 
Thatcher, the owner, had added to 
his original holdings a limestone 

quarry and a farm with a 
large yellow house. 
Thatcher had been in the 
lime-making business from 
about 1891 until about 
1912 when poor health had 
forced him to give it up. 
Thatcher's lime had 
reportedly been used in 
building 75 percent of the 
cotton mills in the South. 3 

The Choice 

In early spring 1916, 
the locating committee 
representing the Southern 

▲ The locating committee as they test the spring water near 
Thatcher's Farm. Left to right: S. E. Wight, G. H. Curtis, B. W. 
Brown, and W. C. White. Photo by Lynn Wood. 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

▲ The college board voted a new name for the Thatcher railroad stop in 1916: 

and Southeastern unions was already looking 
for a new site for the school to be called 
Southern Junior College. The most active 
members of this committee were Southern 
Union education secretary Lynn Wood and the 
two union presidents, S. E. Wight and W. H. 
Branson. They searched for weeks, visiting 
communities in Alabama, Georgia, and Ten- 
nessee, assisted by representatives of 
companies and boards of trade, but "could not 
seem to find any place that had all the essen- 
tial requirements of a college site," Branson 
recalled. They were looking for "a large place 
that had good farm land, an abundance of 
water, [and] good roads," that was close to a 
large city yet far enough away "to insure 

isolation," and that 
had the conve- 
nience of being 
located near a 
railway station at 
which students 
could arrive and 
from which the 
school's industrial 
output could be 
sent. 4 

Almost de- 
spairing, Branson 
received a letter 
from one of his 
converts, a physi- 
cian from Ooltewah 
named J. M. Webb. 
Expecting another 
"blind lead" but 
wanting to show 
respect to Dr. 
Webb, some of the 
committee members 
visited Jim 
Thatcher's property. "As we walked over this 
place," Branson said, "we were immediately 
impressed with its possibilities of develop- 
ment," noting its convenience to the railroad, 
suitability for agriculture, its beauty, seclusion, 
two large springs, and room for expansion. 5 

The STS board visited the Thatcher farm 
and one other on April 5, 1916, and took a 
straw vote. Seventeen preferred Thatcher's 
property; only one voted for its competitor. 
The executive committee voted to offer 
Thatcher $100 for a three-month renewable 
option on his property, the "price not to exceed 
$12,500," and to offer a $25 option on a neigh- 
boring property to be purchased for less than 
$1,200. Thatcher agreed to sell for $11,000, 

but the other property owner wanted $1,600. 
Dr. Webb tentatively agreed to make up the 
$400 difference out of his pocket. 6 

On July 16 the board voted to open the 
school at Thatcher's farm on October 18, a 
date later than normal to allow adequate time 
for fund-raising. They needed not only the 
$11,000 necessary to buy the farm and some 
money for temporary buildings, but also 
$14,000 to pay off the STS debt. STS princi- 
pal A. N. Atteberry, Southern Union treasurer 
G. H. Curtis, and others traveled throughout 
the South visiting Adventists to solicit funds. 
The board adopted as its fund-raising slogan 
Tidings Wood asked every individual mem- 
ber — not family — to give $1, regardless of how 
much they had previously given. What if they 
didn't have a dollar? "Send for twenty Watch- 
man and sell to your friends," Wood advised. 
"Or, sell four dozen eggs, two or three chick- 
ens — a little garden produce, or do something 
to get the dollar." It worked. Within a few 
weeks the Graysville debt was paid off; within 
five months a total of $30,000 was raised. 7 

Meanwhile the board had three problems: 
insufficient funds, a fast-approaching opening 
date, and no time to build a campus. The 
buildings on the Thatcher farm included the 
yellow house, a crude commissary building, a 
run-down log barn, a pigpen, and some aban- 
doned shacks used by the workers at the lime 
quarry — hardly the makings of a campus. 
Visiting the farm again, the committee held a 
meeting on a pile of railroad ties under a 
giant oak, wrestling with the problem of 
whether to remain at Graysville for the 
impending school year or to purchase the farm 
and launch out with no facilities but with such 
students as were willing to rough it. As 
Atteberry recalled, "Each expressed opinion 

A Century of Challenge 

differed from all the preceding ones. . . . No 
solution seemed . . . feasible." Finally G. B. 
Thompson, secretary of the North American 
Division, said, "I think we need some light 
from heaven." After several earnest prayers 
they unanimously decided to go ahead with 
the school in James County. 8 

The postal address for the new location 
would be Ooltewah, but the board wanted a 
new name for the railroad 
station to replace 
"Thatcher." On August 30 
the executive committee 
authorized the board 
secretary to ask the rail- 
road to change the name to 
"College Park." But at a 
board meeting held Sep- 
tember 14 at the 
Chattanooga YMCA, 
Carlyle B. Haynes sug- 
gested "Collegedale." The 
name was unanimously 
adopted. At the same 
meeting the board voted 
two new faculty members 
for the 1916-17 school 
year: for president, Lynn 
Wood, but when he ex- 
pressed reticence, Leo 
Thiel, the Southeastern 
Union educational secre- 
tary, was chosen instead; 
for Bible teacher, F. W. Field. The only STS 
faculty members moving with the school were 
principal A. N. Atteberry, who became the 
Southern Junior College business manager, 
preceptor and Mrs. J. S. Marshall, and printer 
J. P. McGee. 9 

Thiel (1916-1918), a graduate of and 
professor at Union College, was described by 

ALeoF. Thiel, president, 1916-1918, 

board president Branson as especially quali- 
fied for this work, not only because of his 
professional experience but also because of his 
"practical knowledge of farming and general 
mechanical work." Masie White Jameson, an 
SJC student the first year at Collegedale, 
recalls that he enjoyed watching the students 
work. "He got a kick out of seeing us clean 
lamp chimneys and pull weeds and pick 

blackberries and things like 
that," she says, suggesting 
that perhaps he found this 
amusing because "we didn't 
know too much about what 
we were doing." She remem- 
bers him as friendly but 
"very particular." As she was 
helping to prepare breakfast, 
"he noticed some of the 
dishes were cracked, and 
that wouldn't do at all in his 
opinion, so we had to do 
away with any dishes that 
were cracked." 10 

Not everyone was happy 
about the move, particularly 
many Graysville residents. 
And some found original 
ways of communicating their 
feelings. Preceptor Marshall, 
who favored the move, raised 
white leghorn chickens as a 
hobby. Donald Hunter 
remembers that one morning, 
on the sidewalk going from the main STS 
building to the main street of Graysville, 
someone had chalked a picture of the three 
school buildings being pulled in little wagons 
by a white leghorn rooster which was crowing, 
"Oo-oo-ooltewah." Because the rooster had his 
head up in the air, he couldn't see that he was 
about to fall over a precipice. 11 

The executive committee instructed the 
administration to make preparation for sixty 
students; paint the large house; clean, paper, 
paint, and partition the commissary building 
for classroom use; have the two large springs 
tested; and purchase stoves to heat the build- 
ings. Because of the lack of housing, each 
conference in the union was asked to donate 
two tents. Thiel, Atteberry, and Marshall 
were authorized to purchase the crop on the 
Thatcher farm for about $600 — they would 
actually end up paying $1100. While 
Atteberry remained at Graysville to "load and 
ship the movable school equipment," Thiel 
took a group of boys to get the school ready. 12 

The Move 

I strange caravan left Graysville one 
Monday in October, led by Atteberry 
with his thoroughbred Kentucky 
i racehorse and rubber-wheeled buggy, 
I followed by a wagon full of calves and 
crated chickens driven by two students, 
Thomas Huxtable and Charles Bozarth, then a 
dozen Jersey cows herded by a boy named 
Foster, and finally another wagon of chickens 
and calves with Ralph Raymond and Raymond 
Carlyle at the reins. From the wagon 
streamed banners proclaiming that College- 
dale was their destination. When one of the 
cows refused to cross a fairly large creek, 
"coaxing, scolding, pushing did no good," 
Atteberry remembers. Finally, pushed into 
the water, she swam across. At Daisy the 
caravan left the road to Chattanooga and 
headed southeast toward the Tennessee River. 
Drenched by an afternoon cloudburst, they 
spent the night in a haystack of brambles and 
blackberry briars in a windy log barn belonging 



-?^S : 


/ /■ ■ ■■'111. ■ ■■ / 

Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

to a cabin-dwelling mountaineer. After crossing 
the river in three ferry trips, they travelled a 
twisting, hilly road through "almost unbroken 
forest." Friday afternoon in Ooltewah, they 
paused at the home of Dr. Webb to get directions 
for the last leg of their journey. After winding 
their way up a narrow road cut out of the steep 
side of White Oak Mountain, they caught a 
glimpse in the valley below of the Thatcher 
farmhouse. Now the pioneers knew that they 
would reach their destination before sundown. 13 

Meanwhile, Thiel and his group of boys had 
been working to make the old buildings habit- 
able, harvesting the crops, and "erecting tents 
over wooden floors and side walls for housing 
boys." Since there were only a few boys to do 
much work in a short time, their workdays 
stretched from 3 a.m. until after dark. 14 

Right on schedule, Southern Junior College 
opened its doors for students on Wednesday, 
October 18, 1916. Thirty-three students regis- 
tered the following day. Within a week 
enrollment had reached 48, with 5 or 6 more on 
the way. By the end of the year, enrollment 
reached 57. According to Lynn Wood, almost 
200 students were turned away because the 
school had no place for them to stay. 15 

Living Conditions 

Perms like "spartan" and "primitive" 
keep recurring in accounts of those 
early years. Missionaries on furlough 
from the Orient reported that condi- 
tions were more primitive in 
Collegedale than in their fields of service. 
"The pioneer spirit was dominant," Atteberry 
recalled. "The young men and women felt 

Male students lived in "tent-houses" 
and the abandoned quarry workers' quarters. 


A Century of Challenge 

Top photo: Bible teacher F. W. Field and his family 
lived in this dilapidated dwelling for three years. 
Middle photo: One of the boys' dormitories. 
Bottom photo: The old commissary building, called 
the "cracker box," provided housing for some boys 
and served as the main classroom building. 

they were experiencing some of the conditions 
our missionaries often endure and also that 
they were building for those who would come 
later." School officials reported that the 
students did very little complaining. Ironi- 
cally, according to one faculty wife, complaints 
came less from students raised in affluent 
homes than from those reared in poverty. 16 

The girls lived that first year in the 
upper story of the old, yellow, twelve-room 
Thatcher farmhouse. It had no electricity or 
central heating, and the girls had to carry 
firewood up the stairs to burn in "little sheet- 
iron heaters" in their rooms. "It's a wonder 
we didn't burn the place down, being young 
and full of life and not very careful," recalls 
Masie Jameson. The heat from the stoves was 
augmented by that from the large-chimneyed 
kerosene reading lamps. 17 

Most of the boys lived in tents, loaned or 
donated by Southern conferences, that had 
been converted into tent houses by stretching 
them over wooden frames and wooden walls 
three feet high that were nailed to board 
floors. Four boys stayed in each tent house. 
As late as the winter of 1918-19, most of the 
boys were still living in tent houses heated by 
sheet-iron stoves. Even the following summer 
the school calendar suggested that the boys 
would continue in the tents until their dormi- 
tory was completed. 18 

The school didn't have enough tent 
houses that first year to accommodate all the 
boys. Some stayed in the attic of the rough- 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

*TThe Doll House^ 

I he playhouse which Thatcher 
had built for his daughter years ago was 
elevated to the status of president's 
office. In subsequent years, the little 
one-room doll house served a variety of 
needs: music studio, pest house when a 
smallpox epidemic struck the school, 
storehouse for seed, beehive supply shed, 
shoe repair shop, barbershop, and in 
between times a dormitory room and a 
prayer room. The playhouse is now on 
display in a fenced-in area across from 
the Taylor Circle entrance to the college. 

▲ Men's Glee Club 
(1920s) in front of 

The doll house 

in its original 


sawn old commissary building they called the 
"cracker box"; others lived in the abandoned 
quarry workers' quarters. These shacks 
provided little protection from the winter 
winds entering through the cracks in the 
walls, the window holes, and even the gaps 
between the floor boards. As he made his 
rounds that winter, preceptor J. S. Marshall 
would find the boys "hovering around a little 
wood stove." Some of the shacks were in such 
poor condition that, as the demand for student 
housing increased, they were torn down so 
that the salvageable materials could be used 
to build a temporary men's dormitory to house 
twelve students. 19 

Students and faculty alike had to exist 
without plumbing, hauling water from the 
spring in what is now the student park. 
Water for bathing was collected in a rain 
barrel. On Thursday afternoon the girls 
bathed in laundry tubs near the stove; the 
boys' turn came on Friday afternoon. 20 

Faculty housing was equally austere. 
The president's family lived in a chicken coop 
"with cracks in the walls large enough for one 
to get a view of the surrounding scenery." 
Because the roof was so leaky, a student later 
reported, whenever it rained "every tub and 
pan on the place had to be drafted into service 
to catch the water." The preceptor, the music 
teacher, and the farm manager lived in share- 
croppers' shacks that had been recently used 
as cattle stalls. Elder Field and his family 
lived first in a tent "pitched camp meeting 
style," then in an old house formerly used as a 
barn. As late as July 1921, a physician 
reported that the school blacksmith and his 
family were living in unhealthful quarters. 
The cellar needed ventilation, he said, and the 
"spring should be fixed so as to keep out fish, 
frogs, and other objectionable matter." Before 

A Century of Challenge 

turning the problem over to the school's 
business management for corrective action, 
the board's executive committee informed the 
family that it deeply sympathized with them 
and would try to get them a new house as 
soon as it was possible to obtain the money. 
Two faculty families and several students 
shared a six-room farmhouse across the tracks 
from the rest of the campus, and various 
faculty members lived in tents and tent 
houses at least as late as the fall of 1919. In 
1921 president Lynn Wood, addressing a 
constituency meeting, pleaded on behalf of his 
faculty: "Our teachers have sacrificed by living 
in rudely constructed shacks ever since school 
started. They have put their own needs last, 
and have sacrificed in every way possible for 
the betterment and upbuilding of the plant. I 
think the time has come when these teachers 
should have plain but comfortable homes in 
which to live." 21 

As farm was hastily formed into school, a 
playhouse which Thatcher had built for his 
daughter some years before was suddenly 
elevated to the status of president's office. In 
subsequent demotions over the years the little 
one-room doll house served a variety of needs: 
music studio; "pest house" when a smallpox 
epidemic struck the school; storehouse for 
seed; beehive supply shed; shoe repair shop; 
barbershop; and in between times a dormitory 
room and a prayer room. 22 

After the first few months of school, the 
president's office was moved from the doll 
house to the "cracker box," the building where 
most of the classes were held. The four 

The girls lived that first year in the upper story of the 

old, yellow, twelve-room Thatcher farmhouse, 

affectionately called the Yellow House. 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

classrooms on the 
second floor of this "old 
rickety shack" were, 
according to J. B. 
Marshall, "separated by 
rough board partitions 
with cracks so large 
that you could see what 
was going on in the 
next room, and, of 
course, hear voices as 
plainly as if we were all 
in the same room." But 
he considered the 
biggest problem with 
these classrooms to be 
the difficulty in keeping 
warm when cold 
weather came. Despite 
the stoves in each room, 
on some days class- 
rooms simply didn't get 
warm enough for 
students to feel com- 
fortable even in their 
overcoats. "On those 
days," president Thiel 

reported, "we would dismiss school and every 
boy would be drafted for service in the wood 
department." Cutting firewood was one of the 
school's major industries that first winter. 23 

The college laundry was set up in a 16 by 
24 foot, leaky, and nearly floorless cross between 
a tent and a shack which kept out neither wind 
nor rain. The laundry equipment consisted of "a 
spring, old-time wash tubs, scrub boards, and 
soap." There were no irons or ironing boards 
that first year. The college bakery began 
operations in a tent house, the college press 
occupied the largest of the quarry-worker 
shacks, and a shed served as a dairy barn. 24 

▲ The students are posed in front of the commissary building from the Thatcher farm in 1916-17, their first 
year in Collegedale. 

Building A Campus 

ith the help of an architect named 
White, the administration produced a 
master plan for transforming this 
amalgamation into a campus. Actual 
I construction began in the spring of 
1917. The first completed buildings included 
the school store, a laundry, a dairy barn, and 
some cottages built with lumber salvaged from 
demolished shacks. The first major building 
project was the girls' dormitory. 25 

One of the many visitors to the campus 
while the dormitory was being built was John 

H. Talge, president of 
Talge Mahogany Com- 
pany, Indianapolis, 
Indiana, a former 
Presbyterian who had 
become a Seventh-day 
Adventist in 1914. 
After touring the 
campus, Talge asked 
Thiel and Atteberry 
what their plans were 
for obtaining furniture 
for the dormitory. They 
replied, "We have no 
furniture, nor any 
plans, except the faith 
that God, who has 
helped us to proceed 
this far, will provide 
also somehow for this 
pressing need." Quietly 
he responded, "Well, 
perhaps I can help you 
a little in getting some 
furniture." After 
itemizing what would 
be needed for the fifty 
rooms, Talge promised, "I will see that you 
have this furniture by the time you need it." 
Not only did he send beds, dressers, tables, 
chairs, and bathroom fixtures, he also pro- 
vided oak flooring for the halls. When the 
boys' dormitory was built, he furnished it as 
well, in addition to providing laundry and 
kitchen equipment. In 1919 he donated 
$3,000 toward a new barn; he also financed 
the establishment of several school industries, 
including the basket factory, gave money for 
the purchase of some additional land, sent 
shoes and clothing, donated "some decorative 
furnishings," and helped some of the students 

A Century of Challenge 

with their expenses. In 1927 the students 
dedicated their annual, The Southland, to 
John H. Talge, acknowledging, "The future 
success of the college must always be due in 
no small measure to his generous gifts." 26 

Another source of funds was the General 
Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, whose 
North American Division made a $5,000 
contribution in 1917. More important, the 
General Conference Spring Council asked each 
of the school's two constituent unions to raise 
$20,000 and assessed the other unions in the 
United States a total of $20,000 to be paid 
between April and October 1919. When 
wartime inflation made this amount inad- 
equate, the non-Southern quota was raised the 
following year to $30,000. Officials of the two 
Southern unions traveled extensively that 
summer raising funds for the construction 
projects. Among those contributing toward 
this campaign were students and faculty, who 
pledged $2,000, and the school board, which 
pledged $1,250. Although the campaign was 
successful, the school's no-debt policy meant 
that sometimes construction was delayed 
while waiting for the anticipated funds. That 
winter, because of emergency circumstances, 
the board felt obligated to violate its no-debt 
policy by borrowing $3,500, but in doing so it 
declared a building moratorium until the debt 
was repaid. 27 

Under the direction of W. H. Gorich, the 
construction work was done almost entirely by 
students. Although the building wasn't 
completed when school started in mid-October 

The first major building project was the women's 

dormitory in 1917, later known as North Hall. The 

bottom photo shows the dedication ceremony for the 

dormitory as it neared completion. 

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Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

1917, the girls moved in anyway. Electricity 
and plumbing had not been connected; fur- 
naces had not been installed; doors had not 
been hung; and stairway steps were old 
boards. The girls hung sheets and blankets 
for doors; "camp meeting-style benches" 
furnished the parlor. Edwin M. Cadwallider 
writes, "The young ladies . . . bore without 
resentment such trials as trying to sweep sub- 
flooring, studying by kerosene lamps, and 
shivering in the heatless evenings, unless they 
studied in the kitchen or dining room," where 
wood-burning stoves were located. Although 

▲ John H. Talge, president of Talge Mahogany 
Company in Indiana, who provided furniture and 
flooring for the two new dorms, as well as numerous 
other substantial gifts to the college. 

The men's dormitory, later called 

South Hall, was constructed in 

1919. In the top photo, the workbee 

volunteers pause for a photo. 

furnaces were installed before 
Christmas, the girls continued 
to shiver. Ethel Dart remem- 
bers, "It was bitterly cold that 
winter and the only fuel for 
heating the building was green 
wood" because the wartime 
government had appropriated 
the two carloads of coal the 
school had purchased. 28 

By mid-December the 
upper two stories, where the 
girls lived, were reportedly 
"practically finished," and the 
offices on the main floor were 
"usable." The main floor 
classrooms were completed 
soon thereafter. Apparently 
"practically finished" was a far 
cry from completely finished, 
because more than a year later 
students and teachers, orga- 
nized as the Collegedale 
Catchem Club, pledged to raise 
$25 each toward the $3,500 
needed to complete the girls' 
dormitory. They solicited 
funds by writing letters. 29 

When the girls had moved 
into their new dormitory, some 
of the boys moved into the 
vacated girls' rooms in the 
Yellow House, but others were 
still living in tent houses. A 



A Century of Challenge 

boys' dormitory was obviously the 
next most pressing need. Officers 
and pastors of the two constituent 
unions — and even the General 
Conference president — personally 
participated in this construction 
project as part of a ten-day 
"working bee." They put in the 
foundations, completed the 
basement, and erected half of the 
first story. As before, students 
labored in the building project 
both during and after the work 
bees. When work was suspended 
in February 1919 due to a lack of 
funds, a $17,000 contribution 
from the North American Division 
made completion possible. 30 

Like the girls, the boys 
moved into the dormitory before 
it was finished; like the girls, the 
boys lived on the upper stories. 
On the main floor were located 
classrooms and offices as well as 
the boys' parlor and chapel. By 
the end of September 1919 
electricity had been connected 
and walls had been plastered. 
The college celebrated with a 
special dedication ceremony on 
November 2, 1919. 31 

With student housing cared 
for, the building of other needed 
facilities and the raising of 

Top and middle photos: The 
administration building, later called 
Lynn Wood Hall, was constructed in 
1924. Bottom photo: The beginnings 
of the barn. 

necessary money occupied much time and 
energy for the next several years. Members of 
the constituent local and union conferences as 
well as the General Conference financed 
projects including a water system, several 
industrial and agricultural buildings, a dining 
hall, a normal (teacher-training) building, a 
number of faculty cottages, an enlarged 
laundry, and an administration building. At a 
second work bee, from October 28 to Novem- 
ber 13, 1919, between thirty and forty union 
administrators and pastors — assisted by 
students — erected two barns and a blacksmith 
shop. The students and faculty solicited 
$5,000 for a heating plant, and in 1923 stu- 
dents ran another fund-raising campaign to 
finish the boys' chapel and to replace the 
"seats" of rough flooring strips with more 
suitable ones. Two years later The Better 
Men's Society of Southern Junior College 
raised nearly $1,000 to furnish their dormitory 
parlor. Southern Publishing Association 
donated $15,000 toward a print shop, and a 
donation by J. H. Caldwell enabled the school 
to install a telephone system in 1920. The 
faculty promoted campus beautification in 
1919 by voting to purchase 1,000 gladiola 
bulbs. 32 

In 1924 the board voted to name the 
buildings. The women's and men's residence 
halls were called North Hall and South Hall 
respectively, the Yellow House became Wel- 
come, (though "Yellow House" prevailed), the 
still-unfinished administration building was 
designated as College Hall (renamed Lynn 
Wood Hall in 1945), and the cottages were 
given names such as Fair View, Springside, 
Vinewood, Priscilla, Naomi, and Rest Haven, 
the president's house. 33 

When school opened in September 1924, 
the $48,000 College Hall was pressed into 


Joys' dormitory (Named South Hall in 1924) 
Machine shops & farm machinery sheds 
Pastor & Bible teacher J. H. Behrens' home (in trees, so not visible) 
Married students' cottage (Cecil Graves, etc.) —j Corn crib 

Barn & dairy 

The Campus in 1921 

Yellow House 



Franzini house 

Fred Fuller, Jesse Cowdrick, Mazie Jameson, Ruth, Carl, and Ray Jacobs 
assisted in identifying the landmarks in these two views of the campus in 
1921. Jesse Cowdrick and Mazie Jameson were members of the graduat- 
ing class in 1919. Ruth Kneeland Jacobs arrived a few years later. Carl 
and Ray Jacobs lived in the Yellow House in 1926. Fred Fuller grew up in 
Collegedale in a log house (see photo). His father, George, held posts in the 
area from 1922 onward, including treasurer of the school, store manager, 
postmaster, and founder of an insurance business for the benefit of the 
school and worthy students. 

Williams' house 


• Girls' dormitory 

Lime kiln & quarry 
Chestnut house 

' '1 

' ■ 

hire sianon ^riuse uauj 

Girls' dormitory (Named North Hall in 1924) 

Tent houses for families 
(Slates; Miss Carter & Helen) 

Store/post office/business manager's office — 
later a two-family apartment for married students 

Yellow House 

Bible teacher F. W. Field's home 
Spring and pump house 
Lime kiln 

Lime quarry and cave 


Corn crib 
Ruskjer house 

Boswell house 
Print shop 

George Fuller log house 
Boys' dormitory 

Chambers' house (In the '40s, home of farm and dairy manager 
John B. Pierson, for whom Pierson Drive was named.) 

Horse barn 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

service, although it wasn't finished until after 
graduation the following spring. By January 
1927 a writer in the Advent Review and 
Sabbath Herald was suggesting that SJC's 
buildings made it the denomination's "best- 
equipped" school. 34 

Developing A Faculty 

Buring the time that SJC was building 
its basic campus, it was experiencing 
administrative instability. The 
presidency changed five times in 
eleven years. In June 1918, Thiel 
left Collegedale to teach English and biblical 
literature at Walla Walla College. His re- 
placement, former STS principal Lynn Wood 
(1918-1922), had been actively involved in 
promoting SJC and raising money for develop- 
ing the campus during the years when he was 
the education secretary of the Southern 
Union. Now, in addition to 
presidential duties, Wood 
taught woodworking, 
physics, and physics 
laboratory five periods a 
day. Besides that, he was 
at first given the responsi- 
bilities of business 
manager, treasurer, and 
editor of a fund-raising 
publication called Faith, 
and was expected to spend 
his summers soliciting 
money for the school. 
Wood also seems to have 
been the school's unofficial 
men's sex education 
teacher. Donald W. 
Hunter recalls that he 
"would call boys around 

, M. E. Cady, president, 1927. 

H. H. Hamilton, president, 1925-1927. 

him on the front steps of 

his little house . . . and 

talk to us about the 

things that boys needed 

to know because so many 

of us never got it at 

home." Wood accepted a 

call in 1922 to become 

president of Australasian 

Missionary College in 

Avondale, Australia. As 

a going-away present the 

faculty voted to give him 

the school library's 

valuable copies of the 

out-of-print Ellen White 

volumes, Spiritual Gifts. 35 
Wood's successor 

was his predecessor: 

having replaced Leo 

Thiel, he was replaced, in turn, by Leo Thiel 
(1922-1925). When Thiel 
resigned to accept the presi- 
dency of Union College, his 
successor, H. H. Hamilton 
(1925-1927), a Tennessee 
native, transferred to SJC from 
Western Washington Academy 
in Auburn, where he had been 
principal and business man- 
ager for three years. Prior to 
that he had taught at Walla 
Walla College and Southwest- 
ern Junior College. Called to 
the presidency of Washington 
Missionary College in the 
middle of the 1926-27 school 
year, Hamilton was replaced by 
M. E. Cady (1927) of the 
General Conference Education 
Department. 36 

The author of several 
books, Cady had a rich back- 
ground of denominational 
experience that included the 
presidencies of Healdsburg, 
Walla Walla, and Washington 
Missionary colleges. 37 With the 
end of Cady's interim presi- 
dency, SJC moved into a period 
of greater administrative 
stability. For the next decade, 
Southern would have only one 

Instability was also 
evident below the administra- 
tive level those first eleven 
years at Collegedale. Only one 
of the veterans of 1916 was 
still at SJC in 1927: Frank W. 
Field. However, there was one 

other familiar name on the 1927 teaching 
roster: A. N. Atteberry, business manager, 
agriculture director and teacher, and math- 
ematics teacher during the pioneer years at 
Collegedale, had returned in 1924 after a six- 
year absence to serve four more years as 
registrar, poultry director, and history profes- 
sor. Several faculty members had tenures of 
only one or two years. But there were others 
who, although they hadn't been at Collegedale 
at the very beginning, had come soon after 
and stayed for six, eight, eleven, nineteen, and 
even thirty-five years. 38 

The teacher who remained on the faculty 
thirty-five years (1917-1952) was Maude I. 
Jones. 39 Born in Hernando, Mississippi, in 
1872, Miss Jones graduated from a girls' 
preparatory school in Memphis and then from 
Mississippi State College for Women in 1894. 
A Latin and mathematics instructor for ten 
years on the high school and college levels, 

A Century of Challenge 

before she accepted Adventism, she joined the 
staff at SJC in its second year at Collegedale, 
initially teaching algebra, geometry, Spanish, 
and Latin, but later teaching primarily En- 
glish. In addition to teaching five classes a 
day, she shouldered responsibility for co- 
managing the library and editing the Southern 
Union Worker. Not content with doing only 
what she was asked, she also taught a weekly 
class in word etymology in the early 1920s. 

Students and colleagues from four de- 
cades remember Maude Jones with respect 
and love for her personal concern for students 
and her wise counsel. They speak of the 
qualities of her teaching: thorough, knowl- 
edgeable, well prepared, engaging. She was 
particularly fond of teaching Biblical Litera- 
ture, and even after her official retirement 
continued flawlessly to deliver annual chapel 
talks on the subject. Well versed in the 
English language, she held an unwavering 
high standard for others, expecting that every 
graduate leave with a command of the lan- 
guage and correcting in a gentle way every 
verbal miscue she heard. 

Former students still picture her pacing 
back and forth across the classroom in her 
quiet, serious way. They think of her cour- 
tesy, her pronounced Southern accent, her fear 
of snakes and germs, her love for canaries, her 
reputed partiality to boys, her scrupulous 
honesty, her insatiable curiosity, and her 
decided opinions, such as her opposition to 
starting a cemetery in Collegedale. Then 
there was her hard-to-read handwriting. She 
didn't enjoy having students point this out, so 
they felt compelled to use stategy. One would 
say, "The light is glaring on the board. Could 

Maude Jones in 1920. 

you please read question two aloud?" When 
she had read it, another student would say, 
"From here it's hard to see question three." 
The process would continue until she had 
orally read the entire assignment. Students 
still wonder whether she ever caught on. 

According to the Southern Accent, she 
played a major role in establishing SMC's 
reputation as a "School of Standards." Re- 
membered as "definitely a Victorian lady," she 
held to strict propriety of behavior. When she 
lived in the women's dormitory, though not a 
dean, she felt it her duty to be present when- 
ever couples were visiting in the parlor, and 

even after moving to the Normal Building, she 
similarly supervised the other unmarried 
teachers who lived there. Yet the Southern 
Accent called her "the favorite chaperone on 
the campus," and to some she was "a great 

The esteem in which Maude Jones was 
held received institutional recognition in the 
renaming of the girls' dormitory after her in 
1945. The following year former students 
presented her with a more tangible honor: the 
alumni association raised the money to build 
her a cottage (near the site of the present 
Miller Hall). Having lived in the women's 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

dormitory for most of her 
years in Collegedale and 
later renting a small 
apartment in the Normal 
Building, she at last had a 
home of her own. 

The teacher from 
Collegedale's pioneer years 
who — next to Maude 
Jones — remained on the 
faculty the longest was 
Frank W. Field, an experi- 
enced evangelist, 
administrator, and teacher, 
who was approaching his 
fifty-third birthday when he 
became part of the faculty 
in 1916 and who was 
seventy-two years old before 
he completely retired. Born 
in 1863, in Waukesha 
County, Wisconsin, Field 
accepted Adventism at the 
age of nineteen. With various courses in 
religion, Greek, pastoral training, and as- 
tronomy, his teaching load was generally five 
classes a semester. In addition he managed 
the college beekeeping business, pastored the 
Collegedale SDA Church, conducted evangelis- 
tic meetings, and edited the union papers. 
During the summers, he was expected to paint 
buildings, teach summer school, and recruit 
students. 40 

Field's personality was quite different 
from that of Elder J. H. Behrens, his colleague 
in the Bible department for more than half of 
his tenure at SJC. Whereas Field has been 
described as a "witty character" who wrote 
humorous little poems, Behrens was — as one 
student put it — so serious in his classes, 
especially when talking about eschatalogical 
prophecies, "that he almost scared the wits out 

Bible teacher Frank W. Field. 

A Bible teacher J. H. Behrens. 

of some of his students." 41 

Behrens came to Collegedale in 1920 after 
nearly three decades of denominational ser- 
vice. His initial responsibilities included 
chairmanship of the Bible department, super- 
vising chapels, and teaching classes. For the 
1922-23 school year his largest class, Daniel 
and Revelation, enrolled twenty-four students, 
but all his other classes ranged in size from 
three to seven. He conducted revival and 
evangelistic meetings and succeeded Field as 
Collegedale pastor. 42 

The early faculty members were not 
highly educated. Maude Jones was one of only 
four in 1923 with a bachelor's degree; only one 
had a master's degree. Sixteen of the teachers 
and industrial department heads had no 
degrees, but — the president said — twelve of 
those had received "special training in Bible, 

Normal, or industrial lines" which made "their 
services as valuable as the services of one who 
had finished a regular college course." With- 
out doubt, they were dedicated and loyal and, 
although fairly conservative, they were also 
flexible, not immune from permitting student 
persuasion to change their minds. Twenty 
hours comprised the standard teaching load: 
a typical teacher taught five classes four days 
a week. Teachers were also expected to be 
involved in the school's industries, "having a 
warm interest in industrial work" and spend- 
ing "some time working with the students 
each day." 43 

The Students 

Buring the first eleven years at Col- 
legedale, the size of the faculty, 
including industrial managers, 
doubled from 13 to 26, while the size 
of the student body, grades one 
throughl4, rose from 57 to 286 despite a steep 
decline in 1920-21 and 1921-22, the retrench- 
ment years. During much of the period 
between 1916-1927, elementary and high 
school students comprised over 80 percent of 
the enrollment. In 1923 girls outnumbered 
boys by a ratio of more than 2:1 in the high 
school grades, while boys slightly outnum- 
bered girls on the collegiate and elementary 
levels. That year, 21 percent of the students 
came from farming families, 18 percent from 
families of denominational employees, and 
nearly 12 percent from families in which the 
breadwinner was a merchant or salesman. 
Only about 2 percent of the students had 
physicians for parents, and 1 percent came 
from attorneys' homes. 44 

Three students graduated in the class of 
1917: two young women finishing the high 


SJC Graduates Step Into Leadership 


uite a few SJC graduates from this 
era entered denominational service; some 
ascended to positions of major responsibility. 
The class of 1924 alone produced four General 
Conference executives and a union conference 
president. 108 One of these was Leo Odom, who, 
with his bride Lela, '24, went directly from 
Collegedale to mission service in Puerto Rico. 
When Lela died two years later, Leo returned 
to the mainland. In 1929 he married Martha 
Montgomery, also '24, who was teaching 
Spanish at Washington Missionary College. 
The Odoms served a number of pastorates in 
the United States and mission appointments 
in Spain, Panama, and the Philippines. Leo 
worked as an editor for the Southern Publish- 
ing Association and later for the General 
Conference, producing the three-volume Index 
to the Writings of Ellen G. White and editing 
The Israelite. He 
authored thirty-seven 
books, the last one 
published in 1989. Like 
her husband, Mrs. Odom 
authored several books 
and worked in the Ellen 
G. White publications 
office of the General 
Conference. 109 

The year after the 
Odoms graduated, two 
new students arrived on 
campus — Anna Ruth King from Spring City, 
Tennessee, and O. D. McKee from Talowah, 
Mississippi. Both worked their way through 
school: Ruth checking in the cafeteria, clean- 

▲ Leo and Martha Montgomery Odom 

ing the kitchen, assisting the registrar, and 

clerking in the business office; and O. D. 

selling religious books, 

working in the college 

store, and doing janitorial 

work. They got together 

because of a box of candy 

mailed to another student 

who had withdrawn from 

school before the candy 

arrived at the campus post 

office. Two different 

relatives of the former 

student unknowingly 

offered the box of candy to 

two different people: O. D. 

McKee and Ruth King. O. D. was the first to 

claim it, and later when Ruth asked for the 

box she was told that he had already taken it 
A few days later as she 
was practicing the piano 
in a room he was clean- 
ing, she chided, "You got 
my box of candy." Thus 
began a friendship which 
led to marriage and then 
to a business partnership 
that created a company 
which eventually would 
become Greater Chat- 
tanooga's largest manu- 
facturing employer. 
To Ruth, SJC was "a little heaven on 

earth," and according to O. D. she was "the 

sweetheart of SJC." After two years of junior 

college, she began teaching in Seventh-day 

▲ O. D. and Ruth King McKee 

Adventist church schools. After O. D. com- 
pleted the SJC collegiate program in 1928, he 
and Ruth were married. 
During the next few years 
while Ruth was employed 
in secretarial and teaching 
positions, O. D. worked for 
the Southern Publishing 
Company, for Pisgah 
Industrial Academy, and 
for Old Fort Sanitarium 
as — among other things — a 
baker. During the Great 
Depression O. D. became a 
snack cake salesman. 
When his supplier went out 
of business, he mortgaged his recently pur- 
chased truck to buy Jack's Cookie Company, 
a forerunner of McKee Foods Corporation. 
Both McKees contributed to the company's 
success: he specialized in sales and product 
development, she in production and person- 
nel management. When Ruth McKee passed 
away on June 25, 1989, at the age of eighty- 
two, a Chattanooga News-Free Press editorial 
eulogized her thus: "She will be remembered 
as a lovely and conscientious lady who had 
sound priorities in her life and applied her- 
self to them in ways that showered blessings 
on others." 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

school teaching training ("normal academic") 
course, and a young man completing the 
regular high school "academic" course. By 
1925 the number of graduates was 36, of 
which 23 were high school students. 45 

Despite its small size and isolated loca- 
tion, the college was not immune from 
developments in the larger world, including 
war and pestilence. Europe already was at 
war when the Collegedale campus was being 
established, and after the United States 
became involved on April 6, 1917, the Selec- 
tive Service System called three SJC students 
in its first draft. By June 1918 a dozen young 
men had left Collegedale to serve in the armed 
forces. 46 

As the war was drawing to a close, it was 
replaced by an even deadlier scourge — influ- 
enza. Twice as many people died in the 
influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 as had 
perished in the most horrible war the world 
had yet seen. Some eighty-five SJC students 
were stricken, but there were no fatalities. 
On more than one occasion a physician told 
faculty members, "You have two or three cases 
who will likely develop pneumonia before 
morning." On each of these occasions prayer 
was offered in behalf of the student in ques- 
tion, and in the morning the student was 
always better. Another wave of the epidemic 
hit Collegedale the following year; again there 
were no fatalities. Several of the students 
courageously volunteered to assist stricken 
families in the area. 47 

Meanwhile, other epidemics struck. 
Simultaneous with the first wave of influenza 
came smallpox. A few weeks after that, 
pneumonia brought on by measles took the life 
of one student. Measles returned to the 
campus four years later, afflicting eight or ten 
students. Other epidemics striking College- 

dale during this period included pink eye, 
scarlet fever, and — most tragically — typhoid, 
which took the life of one young woman. 48 

Becoming Collegiate 

lthough the school was called South- 
ern Junior College, only twelve grades 
were offered the first year on the 
Collegedale campus. Grade 13 was 
added in 1917, grade 14 in 1919. 
From the beginning SJC offered an alternate 
program for secondary students: the normal 
course for prospective teachers. By 1918 a 
third high school program was being offered: 
the Bible workers' course. In that same year 
SJC offered three collegiate-level programs: 
the college normal course, the ministerial 
course, and the regular junior college course. 49 
In addition to four academic subjects per 
semester, all students — high school and 
college — were required to take "drills" in such 
skills as spelling, penmanship, and reading. A 
drill in "sightsinging" was mandatory for 
everyone in 1919. The spelling program 
involved testing as well as drilling: in order 
to graduate a student was required to receive 
85% on a spelling test. College students were 
also given drills in physiology, calisthenics, 
hydrotherapy, and "hygiene and sanitation." 50 

From 1919 to 1922 curricula had begun 
to proliferate: on the secondary level such 
programs as music, agriculture, and home 
economics; on the collegiate level, music and 
commercial. This trend was reversed in 1924 
when the secondary normal, home economics, 
and agricultural programs were eliminated. 
But the trend toward a wide variety of specific 
vocational classes continued. By the 1926-27 
school year these included three full years of 

woodwork, home economics, and sewing, two 
years of printing, two semesters of "Hydro- 
therapy, First Aid, and Practical Nursing," 
and one semester each of Elementary Agricul- 
ture, Gardening and Soils, Farm Crops and 
Machinery, and Animal Husbandry. Address- 
ing a constituency meeting in 1921, Lynn 
Wood claimed, "In the woodwork class ... I 
can tell more about boys and their character, 
and the way they will handle life's problems 
by the way they handle their tools, than I can 
by any amount of theoretical instruction." He 
added, "There is no work in the whole curricu- 
lum that will give a man more patience than 
woodwork." 51 

In 1920 the college administration con- 
tacted the United States Bureau of Education 
about the possibility of accreditation. With 
accreditation, SJC credits would be accepted 
by other institutions of higher learning. 
Higher education specialist George F. Zook, 
upon examining the school catalog, was 
concerned that SJC no longer required a 
foreign language and required only one year of 
mathematics. He was also concerned about 
the emphasis on religious and vocational 
subjects. But after discussing the matter with 
a Seventh-day Adventist colleague, he con- 
cluded that the school's work was "honestly 
done" and that those of its high school classes 
which coincided with university and college 

The students in hydrotherapy class learn to give 

massages to relieve pain and suffering. This is the 

treatment room with dressing booths, linen closet, 

bath, and spray. According to the 1927 annual, fifteen 

minutes in the bath causes a good perspiration. When 

the patient comes out, he or she is given a spray to 

close the pores and sometimes an alcohol rub. 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

entrance requirements should be given full 
credit, but that institutions requiring a foreign 
language or more mathematics for entrance 
should require students transferring from SJC 
to make up such courses. As for SJC's college- 
level classes, Zook suggested that "a college or 
university could afford to recognize" every- 
thing "at its full value, with perhaps the 
exception of (1) Daniel and Revelation, (2) 
Epistles, and (3) Printing." 52 

The Bureau also asked Dr. Harry Clark 
from the University of Tennessee to make a 
report. Classes were not in session the day 
Dr. Clark made his visit, but he did inspect 
the campus. He was dismayed at the school's 
equipment shortage, estimating that SJC had 
only about $500 worth of chemistry equip- 
ment, a similar amount of physics equipment, 
and a library of only about 3,000 books. Also 
disconcerting was the low number of college, 

as opposed to high school, students. Could a 
school really be serious about applying for 
college accreditation when it had only twelve 
college-level students? Besides, he didn't like 
what he heard about the business department. 
He reported that "the work in commerce did 
not appear to be up to standard." But, in Dr. 
Clark's opinion, the school had at least three 
things going for it: a good student attitude, a 
work-study program akin to that at Berea 
College, and teachers who "were not over- 
worked." 53 By "not overworked" he was 
probably referring to the teacher-student ratio. 

In spite of the negative aspects of Zook's 
and Clark's reports, J. S. Abel, acting commis- 
sioner of the Bureau of Education, stated his 
opinion that SJC could "properly be accred- 
ited." In November 1921 the executive 
committee of the school board voted to ask 
Wood to look into obtaining accreditation with 

the University of Tennessee. When Peabody 
College in Nashville asked Zook whether he 
thought George Peabody should accept credits 
from Southern Junior College, Zook suggested 
that Peabody "accredit people from this 
institution in particular courses" but he 
thought it would be impossible to give a year's 
college credit for a year's work done at Col- 
legedale: "It would seem that the deficiencies 
in foreign language and mathematics, together 
with the stress laid on religious and vocational 
subjects, would make it impossible for them to 
do the equivalent of a year's work at George 
Peabody in the same amount of time at 
Ooltewah." 54 

Unaware of George Zook's negative 
opinion, John C. Thompson, Southern Union 
Conference educational secretary and a mem- 
ber of the SJC board, wrote to him requesting 
the Bureau of Education to list Southern 

Gathering hay in the college valley, 1925. 


A Century of Challenge 

Junior College in its directory of higher- 
education institutions. Zook replied that SJC 
did not seem to be qualified for such listing 
because it did not have "at least twenty 
regular students in collegiate standing" and 
because its students did not "do at least two 
years of the usual college work." Zook has- 
tened to add that, in rejecting a school for the 
directory, the Bureau was not intending to 
reflect on its work, but was merely following 
"some consistent practice in line with what 
[was] done by the chief accrediting agencies." 
Thompson also contacted the Southern Asso- 
ciation but was informed that so far it had 
"never undertaken" to rate junior colleges. 55 

Meanwhile Wood, following the executive 
committee's instructions, had contacted the 
University of Tennessee. In reply, the univer- 
sity had asked for a copy of the SJC catalog 
and some other information. After hearing 
Wood read the relevant correspondence, the 
faculty voted to supply the material requested, 
but to table any further consideration of the 
subject pending contact with the General 
Conference education department. The board 
voted in March 1922 to leave the question of 
pursuing accreditation to the college president 
and the two educational secretaries to work 
out with the help of the General Conference 
education department. 56 

But by this time Wood was in no mood to 
work anything out. Zook's letters seem to 
have convinced him that accreditation was an 
unmitigated evil. Two days earlier, address- 
ing a constituency meeting, he had expressed 
alarm at what he considered an unenlightened 
demand by parents that SJC's classes "receive 
credit in the worldly institutions." He was 
especially concerned about those parents, 
apparently unaware of the institution's "tre- 
mendous responsibility," who were questioning 

whether their children should take Bible 
classes because the credits might not be 
transferable. Even worse, although the 
eternal salvation of their sons and daughters 
was at stake, some Adventist parents "calmly" 
sent them to public schools because they 
might have to make a small sacrifice to send 
them to Adventist schools. "If we are going to 
save our young people, we must educate them 
in our schools, regardless of the cost," he 
urged, implying that if Seventh-day Adventist 
students received all of their education in 
Seventh-day Adventist schools, there would be 
no need for transferable credit. 57 

Wood wasn't alone. A number of Sev- 
enth-day Adventist educational leaders feared 
that accreditation would limit the freedom of 
denominational colleges to accomplish their 
spiritual mission. Addressing the SJC faculty, 
former Southern Industrial School principal 
C. W. Irwin, who had been the president of 
Avondale College and Pacific Union College 
since leaving Graysville and was now an 
associate secretary of the General Conference 
education department, attacked the twin evils 
of hiring teachers on the basis of their degrees 
and of seeking accreditation with state institu- 
tions. Teachers should be selected on the 
basis of their personal qualifications, he said, 
regardless of whether or not they have a 
certain degree. "Our schools should be distinc- 
tive because they have a special work to do," 
Irwin urged. "The schools that are not re- 
quired to obtain recognition should not seek 
for it." 58 

But denominational colleges, driven 
primarily by the requirement that medical 
students study two years at an accredited 
college before undertaking their professional 
studies, were already beginning to seek and 
receive accreditation from state institutions 

and regional accrediting bodies. In order to 
avoid the heavy financial requirements for 
senior college accreditation, some SDA senior 
colleges registered with regional accrediting 
bodies as junior colleges. By 1928 three 
Adventist colleges had received some kind of 
accreditation. 59 

n the meantime on campus, student 
life was dominated by routine, but 
routine spiced with periodic variation. 
Students were awakened by a rising 
I bell at 5:30. On school days four 
hours were devoted to industrial labor, and 
about the same amount of time was scheduled 
for classes and daytime study periods. For 
several years classes were held from Sunday 
through Thursday, although during the Wood 
administration the school week was shortened 
to four days so that students could use one 
day a week for house-to-house witnessing. 
After a year this schedule was abandoned for 
one in which college students went to classes 
four mornings a week and academy students 
attended five afternoons a week. Sunday 
classes were discontinued and a Monday 
through Friday schedule instituted in 1923. 60 

The faculty continued to wrestle with the 
problem of unexcused absences and tardi- 
nesses. It finally decided in 1918 to 
distinguish between the two offenses by 
having three tardies count as an absence, and 
the following year decided to mark students 
absent when they were more than fifteen 
minutes late. Penalties included ten hours of 
free labor and a 1% grade reduction for each 
absence. In addition, for each unexcused 
absence, the students were required to attend 
supervised study hall during entertainment 
programs and were denied all social privileges 
until they had endured enough extra study 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

hall to compensate for all their absences. 
Additional penalties were imposed on students 
leaving early for vacation or coming back late 
after vacation. When the total number of 
absences came to 15 percent of the class 
sessions, automatic failure resulted, whether 
or not the absences were excused. 61 

"School Of Standards" 

escribing Mrs. I. D. Richardson, the 
preceptress (dean of women) from 
rj 1922-1924, Jeanetta Hardin wrote, 
"She was tall, slender, and very 
dignified with piercing blue eyes, and 
a wealth of fluffy, silver-grey hair. Her most 
distinguishing mark was a tape measure 
around her neck. Twelve inches was the 
highest peak that skirts could reach on girls 
over sixteen." Recalls Masie Jameson, "The 
way we had to dress was just ridiculous — long 
skirts and long sleeves. The sleeves had to 
cover our elbows." However, she adds that the 
students didn't resent the strict rules: "It 
didn't seem to make us angry or anything like 
that." On the contrary, many alumni of that 
period state that one of the positive things 
about Southern Junior College was that it had 
rules and lived up to them. Parents trusted 
the faculty to be "true fathers and mothers to 
their children," Hamilton told the teachers. 
SJC took its surrogate parental responsibility 
very seriously, and during the Wood adminis- 
tration began to advertise itself as "The School 
of Standards." 62 

How the young men dressed wasn't a 
matter of much concern for the faculty. It did 
ask that they wear shirts when outside of 
their dormitory rooms, and one former student 
says that "at one time no male student could 

▲ A school picnic around 1918: food is served from the wagon and several have parasols up as they wait in line. 

go into the dining room without wearing a 
coat." But, on the whole, little was said about 
how the boys dressed. 63 

The question of dress for the young 
women was a different matter. A vocal 
element of the constituency was shocked by 
the shorter skirts that became fashionable in 
the 1920s. The obsession with stemming this 
worldly tide hit the Collegedale campus at 
3:00 Monday afternoon, January 24, 1921, 
when Lynn Wood read a letter from a con- 
stituent conference president stating that 
"because of the worldly spirit that is creeping 
into the school, manifested in the way in 
which the girls are dressing," a woman who 
had been making financial contributions to the 
school had "decided not to give any more." 

The minister was urging that "something be 
done" to change the situation on the campus. 64 
Concerned that graduates rightly represent 
Adventism by the way they dressed, the 
faculty decided to act. 

The 1921-22 calendar states, "Extreme 
styles of hair, dress, the wearing of jewelry, 
French heels and thin hosiery, extremely thin 
waists [blouses], short or narrow skirts, low 
necks, and sleeves not covering the elbows, are 
contrary to the principles of the school." With 
just three modifications, that sentence contin- 
ued to appear in the school bulletin for more 
than a decade. By the summer of 1926 
"narrow heels or those more than one and one- 
half inches high" was substituted for "French 
heels"; "thin hosiery" was expanded to read 

A Century of Challenge 

"thin or conspicuous hosiery"; and sleeves 
were permitted to stop at "the inside bend of 
the elbows" instead of covering them. In 
addition, girls were asked not to wear lipstick, 
rouge, or eyebrow pencil. Although mixed 
swimming was not permitted, opaque stock- 
ings had to be worn when swimming. One 
member of the dress committee wanted a 
regulation mandating that girls wear heavy 
underwear in the winter, but that proposal 
was rejected as "out of the jurisdiction of the 
committee." Southern's dress code didn't 
apply only to adolescents. Anticipating the 
arrival of church school teachers who would be 
attending summer school that year, a faculty 
member suggested sending each of them a 
copy of the school's dress policies. 65 

Even more vexing than the dress question 
was the subject of relations between young 
men and women. Believing that at least some 
parents didn't want their sons and daughters 
even thinking about courtship and marriage, 
the faculty tried to segregate the sexes as 
much as was possible in a coeducational 
school. A definite line delineated that part of 
the campus where boys could walk from the 
part where girls could walk. Separate paths 
were designated for boys and girls going to 
and from the basket factory, and different 
days of the week were stipulated not only for 
using the swimming hole but also for trips to 
Ooltewah. When the faculty discussed the 
possibility of establishing a literary society, it 
voted to have separate meetings for boys and 
girls. Even in the area of "soul- winning work" 
the faculty believed that "boys should confine 
their efforts to work among boys." 66 

Coupling off at games, picnics, and other 
recreational activities, escorting a member of 
the opposite sex to or from a picnic or school 
program, and standing or "strolling about the 

campus or elsewhere" with a member of the 
opposite sex were forbidden, as was the 
writing of notes and letters, "sentimentalism, 
flirtation, and conspicuous courtship." Young 
men "of mature age" were allowed to visit with 
young women for a maximum of 1 1/2 hours 
only once a month on Thursday nights, and 
then only if both of them had earned at least 
80% in each of their subjects and had parental 
approval and "permission from the 
preceptress." 67 

When several faculty members observed 
one particular couple conversing in the halls 
and elsewhere in the administration building, 

the president agreed to talk to each of the two 
separately, informing them that they "must stop 
visiting in the school building." Various other 
students had their report-card deportment 
grades reduced for talking to members of the 
opposite sex in the halls or in the chapel. A boy 
who three times met with a girl during the 
supper hour at various places on the campus, 
including the lime kilns, was given a letter of 
censure. Another boy was asked to withdraw 
from school for kissing a girl and writing her 
notes. And a man who applied for a position 
teaching science was rejected simply because he 
was single. The executive committee feared the 

▲ The Southern Junior College Chorus in 1927: "We are trying to meet the urgent and growing demand that the 
young men and women who enter our denominational work shall have some training in musical lines and thus 
be able to use their voices effectively in the blessed evangelism of song," reported the 1927 annual. 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

The String Orchestra in 1927, led by Malvina Zachary, instructor of violin. 

possibility of a "social relationship between 
him and other members of the faculty," which 
would "make it hard for the proper discipline 
to be carried out." 68 

In addition to the dress code and rules 
concerning boy-girl relations, SJC had regula- 
tions regarding leaving the school grounds, 
using automobiles, bringing various other 
items to school, living in the dormitory, and 
observing the Sabbath. Students were al- 
lowed, by permission only, to go to 
Chattanooga once every two months and to 
Ooltewah once a month. Visiting a store 
adjacent to the campus was considered the 
same as going to Ooltewah. A young lady who 
went to Ooltewah after being denied permis- 
sion was suspended for three days and given 
the choice of working "full time without 

remuneration" or remaining in her room for 
the three days. Several other students who 
left school grounds without permission — and 
who didn't return until 3:00 in the morning — 
were expelled. 69 

Since the school barred anyone who used 
alcohol, tobacco, or playing cards, one would 
not expect to find these products on the 
campus. In addition, students were asked not 
to bring automobiles, flesh meats, chafing 
dishes, electric grills, electric curlers, irons, 
firearms, radios, phonographs, "objectionable 
literature," or athletic equipment. "The 
promiscuous use of cameras" was discouraged. 
Students who, because of special circum- 
stances, were permitted to drive automobiles 
in order to come to Collegedale were not 
permitted to operate them while here "except 

by request of the school, unless permission is 
granted by the office twenty-four hours previ- 
ous to use." Students not living with their 
parents or legal guardians were required to 
live in the dormitories unless they had written 
permission from the faculty to live elsewhere, 
namely with "very near relatives." Regula- 
tions regarding Sabbath observance were as 

Students are expected to deport themselves 
in such a way on the Sabbath as will be in 
harmony with the day and to attend Sabbath 
school and public worship. In the case of 
necessary absence the student's time should be 
spent in his own room. Students are not 
expected to make or receive calls on the 
Sabbath, or to spend the Sabbath away from 
the school, unless it be, with permission, to 
visit at the homes of near relatives, teachers, 
or conference workers. 70 

The school tried to discourage from 
attending those who would be dissatisfied with 
such rules. The calendar warned, "Giddy, 
frivolous boys and girls are out of place here." 
Applicants had to pledge to observe the school 
rules, answer such questions as "Are you 
enjoying a Christian experience?" and "furnish 
testimonials" from a church elder, a conference 
official, and a layman. 71 

Student Activities 

as it possible for students to find any 
enjoyment at an institution that so 
closely regulated their lives? What 
did the students do for recreation 
those early years at Collegedale? Not 
much, according to one student from the late 
1920s. "All we did was work, eat, sleep, and 

A Century of Challenge 

study." But an earlier 
student, Masie Jameson, 
"really enjoyed" attending 
SJC. "We just had a good 
time," she says. 72 

What did the students 
find enjoyable at College- 
dale? "The one thing that 
really thrilled me was the 
band," recalls Ray Jacobs. 
"I played the slide trom- 
bone." Jacobs says he still 
loves one of the pieces he 
played with the band, the 
"Poet and Peasant Over- 
ture." And he recalls with 
pleasure being a member of 
a small group which played 
at several churches and at 
such places as the Chatta- 
nooga fire station. Other 
campus musical organizations included the 
orchestra and chorus. Besides performing on 
campus, they were occasionally asked to play 
for a local high school graduation or perform 
on WDOD, a Chattanooga radio station. 73 

School publications provided another 
creative outlet, beginning with the 1922-23 
school year. Prior to that — except for a 1920 
periodical that died after one issue — school 
publications had been faculty-edited vehicles 
for public relations, fund-raising, and recruit- 
ment. During the early 1920s requests for a 
school paper and an annual were denied. 
When the journalism class had asked permis- 
sion to start a four-page local paper, the 
faculty, feeling that such an undertaking 
might be too expensive, suggested that the 
class might occasionally edit one of the union 
papers instead or produce a "dummy issue" of 
a denominational publication. When the 

senior class of 1922 requested permission to 
have an annual, the faculty responded nega- 
tively, considering such an undertaking too 
time-consuming and expensive. "It would be 

Acting out an "Old Fashioned School" at the 1920 
Boys' Reception. 

difficult, if not impossible, for [you] to secure 
enough advertising to make it pay," Wood told 
the seniors. They should spend the time that 
they would put into producing it into complet- 
ing their school work. He added further that 
annuals didn't "increase the desire to engage 
in soul-winning." 74 

But, with Thiel's return to the president's 
office, the faculty changed its mind. Although 
some still thought that having school annuals 
was "a worldly custom" that SJC should not 
follow, the majority of the faculty and the 
board voted to fund "the production of an 
annual, provided that in content and make-up 
it conform to high Christian ideals." Three 
years later the students launched a monthly 
periodical. Confusingly, both the annual and 
the monthly were called The Southland. 75 

Collegedale's first student association was 
a short-lived organization called the Catchem 

The physical culture class in 1926 begins a race in front of the gas station /garage. 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

A Taking care of the dairy cows in 1926. 

Club. Fund-raising seems to have been its 
primary activity. Its successor, the 
Sojuconians, was organized at the suggestion 
of the school board, who saw it as a vehicle for 
promoting increased enrollment. The 
Sojuconians not only accepted the challenge of 
recruiting students and raising money for 
school projects, it also provided leadership 
training for future denominational administra- 
tors like Jere Smith, who became the 
president of the Lake Union Conference. 76 

The women's club was called Joshi 
Jotatsu Kai, a Japanese name meaning 
"Ladies' Improvement Society." Meeting once 
a week at the time usually scheduled for 
evening worship, the club's leaders were 
serious about self-improvement, designing 
strategies to help the young women develop 

better social graces and healthier lifestyles. 
Less imaginatively, the men's club was called 
the Better Men's Society. Other campus 
organizations included a literary society and a 
poets' club, but the faculty rejected as unchris- 
tian the idea of a debating society. 77 

Various religious organizations also gave 
the students opportunities to develop leader- 
ship skills: the church, the Sabbath School, 
the Missionary Volunteer Society, and 
"bands" — prayer bands, several foreign mission 
bands, a colporteurs' band, a ministerial band, 
a Bible workers' band, and others. After the 
1924-25 school year, when one student was 
president of both the Sojuconians and the 
Better Men's Society, and another — a future 
General Conference executive — was both 
senior class president and the leader of one of 

the mission bands, the faculty voted that no 
student should hold more than one Sabbath 
School, church, or student organization office 
at a time. 78 

The big night for recreation during the 
early 1920s was Thursday, but after the school 
switched from a Sunday through Thursday 
class schedule to a Monday through Friday 
program, Saturday night became recreation 
night. For programs taking place in the 
school auditorium, young men and women sat 
on separate sides of the aisle. In the early 
1920s the faculty believed that social events 
shouldn't be "merely to entertain [but] should 
be educational as well." 79 

The first school year at Collegedale there 
wasn't much recreation, educational or other- 
wise. Since the school year had started late, 
making up lost time was of primary impor- 
tance, so most Saturday nights were spent 
preparing for Monday's classes. On one 
Saturday night in December, however, the 
students played charades and some other 
games and competed in a geography contest. 
Also one Sunday night in March they enjoyed 
listening to a borrowed Victrola. 80 

Social activities livened up considerably 
in the following years. Guests and faculty 
members entertained students with illustrated 
lectures on such topics as Yellowstone, Alaska, 
the Holy Land, and the South Sea Islands. 
Sometimes the students themselves provided 
the entertainment. Besides performances by 
the school's musical organizations, there were 
programs such as the February patriotic 
extravaganza featuring two student speeches 
about the life and work of Abraham Lincoln as 
well as band music and a flag drill. On 
another occasion, students and teachers left 
the campus to hear the John Philip Sousa 
Band perform in Chattanooga. Sometimes 

A Century of Challenge 

recreation took place outdoors: games on the 
lawn, hayrides, moonlight walks, cave explora- 
tions, and marshmallow roasts. Lively and 
intricate marches were another type of 
evening recreation. 81 

On special occasions students enjoyed 
daytime recreational activities. Sometimes 
these involved only one certain group, as when 
the farm boys had a swimming outing to 
McCallie Lake, or when the senior class 
picnicked on Signal Mountain, or the religious 
clubs sponsored a mountain-top breakfast and 
prayer service. Sometimes activities included 
the whole school body, such as the annual 
spring picnic, the beautiful March day when 
president Thiel surprised students by cutting 
the school day short for a baseball game and a 
hike up Grindstone Mountain, or special 
school clean-up days when the students 
worked in the morning and had a picnic meal 
and hike in the afternoon. 82 Most frequently, 
however, all-school daytime recreational 
activities came on a holiday, especially 

Since it wasn't practical for students to go 
home for the one-day Thanksgiving holiday, 
the day was generally devoted to a combina- 
tion of manual labor in the morning and fun 
in the afternoon, although one time at least 
the recreation began right after the 7:30 a.m. 
chapel service. Observing the first Thanksgiv- 
ing at Collegedale, students played such active 
games as three deep, dare base, and drop the 
handkerchief. That evening they competed in 
a spelldown and attended a musical program. 83 

The faculty also attempted to make the 
Fourth of July a special day for students 
working at the college during the summer. 
For Collegedale's first July 4, the students 
worked until 11:00 in the morning, after 
which they had a picnic in the woods, followed 

▲ Gas anyone? The price is 

by an afternoon of games and an evening of 
Victrola music, piano selections, and recita- 
tions. In 1923 the usual half-day July 4 
picnic expanded into an all-day picnic featur- 
ing games and ice cream in a grove near 
Apison to which the students had walked. 84 

But the school did not celebrate New 
Year's Day or Halloween. In 1922 the faculty 
rejected a student request to suspend classes 
for New Year's Day, and some students who 
quietly celebrated New Year's Eve with a 
midnight snack were suspended, presumably 

because they stayed up so late. Some other 
students had their deportment grades docked 
for Halloween pranks and for appearing in the 
dining room on Halloween "dressed up in a 
grotesque manner." 85 

Those July 4 baseball games would not 
have been tolerated during the early 1920s. 
During the Wood administration the faculty 
had a decidedly negative attitude toward 
baseball. Believing that some of the students 
may have been spending too much time 
playing baseball and consequently neglecting 
their responsibilities, the faculty voted in 1919 
to consider "discontinuing the game as a 
regular sport." In February 1920 it voted to 
permit two baseball games during the remain- 
der of the school year, provided "that no game 
of 'catch' be engaged in." In 1921 students 
were permitted a few baseball games on the 
condition that everyone involved have satisfac- 
tory grades, their mandatory free labor up to 
date, no unexcused class or worship absences 
for the month, and that there be "no catching 
or practicing between games." But then 
something happened which caused the faculty 
to reverse itself: a few boys played an unau- 
thorized game with an Ooltewah team. This 
convinced some of the teachers that they 
personally had done wrong by "encouraging 
ball playing," and the faculty as a whole 
confessed its corporate guilt for "lowering the 
standard" by "allowing the students to play 
ball" and placed itself firmly on record as not 
favoring ball games in the future. The follow- 
ing year the faculty reaffirmed its position 
that ball games were "not for the best inter- 
ests of the students, especially from a spiritual 
standpoint." But baseball at Collegedale was 
rescued the next year by some of Ellen White's 
writings to which the students appealed in 
requesting that it be permitted at least for 




w(W: : >oc : : : : : : . 

^■'r^-':l:' :A 

On Sabbath, May 19, 1917, fifteen young people of the Southern Junior College were baptized. It was the first 
time that this ordinance has been celebrated since school started. As a result of definite personal work on the 
part of students and teachers, a very good spirit had come into the school, and baptism was the natural 
sequence. Elder Branson (president of the Southeastern Union) was with us Friday and Sabbath and took 
charge of the vesper service and also the preaching service. . . . Special meetings were held with the candidates 
Friday evening and Sabbath, and it was decided to hold the baptismal service at three o'clock in the afternoon. 
Promptly at three o'clock the students and teachers assembled in the chapel and went from there to the creek 
that is north of the farm where there is an excellent place for baptizing. Elder Field, the Bible teacher, 
performed the sacred rite. The young people who were baptized are as follows: Misses Marie Worrell (in the 
water), Mangham, La.; Ruth Johnston, Birmingham, Ala.; Gwendolyn Widger, Hartfold, Ky.; Lettie Coble, 
Graysville, Tenn.; Hazle Lee Kelley, Anniston, Ala.; Ruth Hale, Macon, Ga.; Sadie Rogers, Gilbertown, Ala.; 
Messrs. Edward Bumby, Orlando, Fla.; Hugh Moomaugh, Asheville, N.C.; James Ennis, Jacksonville, Fla.; V. B. 
Highsmith, Boston, Ga.; Fred Kalar, Jackson, Miss.; Richard Bumby, Orlando, Fla.; Floren Carr, Trezevant, 
Tenn.; F. L. Adams, Collegedale. -Reprinted from Field Tidings, May 30, 1917 


A Century of Challenge 

picnics. The faculty set up a committee to 
study the issue, bound by three preconditions: 
that permission for one game not be consid- 
ered a precedent for any other holiday; that if 
baseball be permitted on picnic days, there be 
no playing of "catch" between times; and that 
"we as a faculty disapprove of organized 
baseball in the school," even if the games were 
to be held as infrequently as once a month. 
After that, an occasional baseball game was 
permitted. 86 

Spiritual Dimension 

he disquietude that baseball might be 
spiritually detrimental illustrates a 
basic fact about the Southern Junior 
College faculty members. Whatever 
they did, wisely or unwisely, ema- 
nated from a profound concern for the stu- 
dents' spiritual well-being. Seeking divine 
guidance, during the Wood administration 
they set aside the first hour of each faculty 
meeting for prayer. To encourage students to 
develop a personal religious experience, 
faculty members used their own money to 
purchase yearly devotional guides for each 
student. They visited students in their dormi- 
tory rooms and prayed with them. They took 
as a special challenge leading to Christ those 
who had not publicly professed their faith in 
Him. Year after year, baptisms gave external 
evidence that these attempts to touch the 
students' hearts had been — at least to some 
extent — successful. 87 

The Collegedale Seventh-day Adventist 
Church was organized with a charter member- 
ship of 50 in December 1916 with Elder Field 
as pastor. Services were first held in the 
Yellow House, then in the commissary, the 

girls' dormitory, and the boys' dormitory. 
When the administration building was com- 
pleted, its chapel became the congregation's 
place of worship. A Sabbath School had been 
organized the first weekend after the first 
potential student had arrived. By March 

1923 Collegedale's Sabbath School member- 
ship had grown to 181, and by November 

1924 to 275. An orchestra was a regular 
feature of the Sabbath School during 1926- 
27. Even though most of its members were 
cash-poor students, records show that the 
Collegedale Sabbath School took seriously 
its mission offering goals. 88 

Attendance at Sabbath School and 
church was required. Every student from 
the sixth grade up, whether or not living in 
the dormitory, had to sign a weekly "reli- 
gious service record, certifying the service 
he [had] attended." In addition, students 
were expected to attend morning worship, 
chapel, and evening worship every day. To 
enforce attendance at morning worship, 
which was held at 5:40 during the summer 
of 1921, the faculty ruled that no student be 
served breakfast unless he had attended 
worship. Morning worship was required 
even on days when students had no 
classes — including Saturdays. On Friday 
evenings worships were held a few minutes 
before sundown, followed by vespers at 7:30. 
The Friday night vespers, a popular favor- 
ite, were followed by student testimonies 
and then by prayers. Students were also 
expected to attend Young People's Mission- 
ary Volunteer Society meetings on Saturday 
afternoons. As if these were not enough 
religious services, the senior class of 1921 
for their class-day program substituted a 
mission skit instead of the traditional class 
wills and prophecies. It included a student- 

composed class song which said, in part, 

Love for souls 

shall spur us onward 
Led by God's own loving 

Till when he come he 

shall find us 
Serving him in every 

land. 89 

To help the students take an inventory of 
their Christian experience, Wood designed a 
folder. A copy, given to each student in 
chapel, listed ten areas of the Christian life 
(such as one's "prayer life"), ten steps toward 
achieving perfection in each area, and well- 
thought-out test questions to let the student 
know what percentage of success he was 
having at any given time. Each week the 
students were to put a sheet of tissue paper 
over the chart and graph out their current 
Christian life. 90 

One special chapel service in 1925 in- 
cluded a bonfire. Students singing "Onward 
Christian Soldiers" marched from the chapel 
to the fire and watched the burning of objec- 
tionable books, music, and other articles "that 
they had voluntarily surrendered to the deans 
and registrar." Among the books burned were 
those that a committee of three had removed 
from the college library. Other special chapels 
included the weeks of prayer. After conduct- 
ing one such week of religious emphasis, J. T. 
Boettcher reported, "I have never been present 
at any other meeting where the gentle influ- 
ence of God's spirit was so manifestly shown 
as here." 91 

Like their predecessors at Southern 
Training School, SJC students were actively 
engaged both in spreading the Adventist 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

message and in Christian service. Much of this 
work was carried on by ministerial students. 
Donald Hunter recalls that he and his ministe- 
rial classmates all held evangelistic meetings 
and all pastored local churches. He and Frank 
Ashlock conducted the first Seventh-day 
Adventist meetings ever held in Apison. In 
1927 the ministerial training class held 
meetings in Cohutta, Georgia, with average 
attendance between forty and fifty. Other 
students gave Bible studies, distributed 
Adventist literature, and assisted the sick and 
needy. On a typical summer in the 1920s 
approximately forty students spread the 
Adventist message and earned their educa- 
tional expenses simultaneously by selling SDA 
books. Students also promoted the mission of 
the church through Harvest Ingathering, an 
annual solicitation campaign which raised 
funds for the denomination's charitable work. 
Beginning in October and continuing through 
December, they solicited neighboring commu- 
nities as well as farther away places in 
Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia, raising 
more than $2,000 a year. During the 1920 
campaign, classes operated only four days a 
week with the fifth day devoted to Ingather- 
ing. During 1921 and 1922 some students 
were gone from the campus for ten days or 
more at a time. Another charitable cause for 
which students raised money was "for the 
relief of the suffering Armenian children." 
And in 1922 the senior class voted to price 
(but not to purchase) class pins, donating the 
money to a Russian relief fund instead. 92 

Students also participated in a campaign 
to reduce the school's indebtedness. Despite the 
no-debt policy the board had adopted at the 
time of the move to Collegedale, SJC operated 
at times with a deficit so serious that it threat- 
ened the very existence of the college. To help 

solve SJC's problem and similar ones elsewhere, 
General Conference officials urged Adventist 
institutions to reduce their debts by encourag- 
ing each constituent layman to sell one copy 
and each denominational employee to sell two 
copies of Christ's Object Lessons. SJC students 
and teachers sold thousands of these books in 
1917 and 1925, and hundreds in 1926. In 1918 
they substituted World in Perplexity for 
Christ's Object Lessons, and in 1927 they used 
The Return of Jesus by Carlyle B. Haynes. In 
1925 school was dismissed for a day so that 
students and teachers could sell books. 93 

Financial Crises 

outhern Junior College operated at a 
loss every school year from 1916 to 
1926 except for one year: 1919-20. 
The gap between income and outgo 
became a crisis on November 17, 
1920, when the board faced over $34,000 in 
obligations due by January 10, with no idea 
where to get $21,000 of that amount. Reluc- 
tantly, it voted to borrow the money in order 
to save the school's credit. Then, after listen- 
ing to some of its members express the belief 
that by this vote they had violated their no- 
debt pledge and betrayed the confidence the 
General Conference officials had placed in 
them, the board voted that anyone violating 
the no-debt policy in the future would face the 
"supreme punishment." But this balanced- 
budget declaration was no panacea: it 
couldn't prevent circumstances that were 
beyond the administrators' control. The board 
recognized that thirty-five more students were 
needed to cover the deficit but, despite a 
massive campaign to recruit additional stu- 
dents, enrollment declined precipitously the 
following school year. 94 

Now the school faced a crisis that 
dwarfed even that of 1920, and it appeared 
that the only option was to close the school. 
Anticipating a large deficit, the board had 
already cut the size of the faculty to what it 
considered the very lowest point. And then as 
it became clear that this wouldn't suffice, it 
had terminated more faculty members. But 
even that wasn't enough. By October 6 the 
deficit was looming much larger than previ- 
ously estimated: budgeted expenses were 
more than 2 1/2 times the school's "earning 
power." Even with the various conference and 
General Conference subsidies, anticipated to 
be $12,754, the deficit would be more than 100 
percent of the school's non-subsidy income. 
The board's executive committee voted to call 
a faculty meeting in which to present the 
urgency of the situation and to ask the teach- 
ers for advice "as to what measures might be 
taken to reduce the remaining deficit." 95 

Two faculty meetings were held: at the 
first, several teachers agreed to teach extra 
classes; at the second, board president W. H. 
Heckman explained the situation, and presi- 
dent Wood called for additional sacrifices to 
encourage the board members as they ap- 
proached the General Conference for 
additional assistance. Taking the first step, 
Wood volunteered to have his wages reduced 
to those of any department head. "Whatever 
you feel you can live on, then I will try to 
make my wants match that," he proposed. "I 
would be glad to hear from the rest as to what 
they can do." Contrary to legend, it was not 
Maude Jones, but Elder Behrens, who re- 
sponded first: "If you will furnish us a place 
to live in the dormitory and our board in the 
dining hall, and our laundry, that's all we will 
ask." Next, business manager J. R. Kennedy 
said that although he had given up a salary 


A Century of Challenge 

four or five times his 
present one to work for 
Southern, he would be 
willing to give the 
school and its students 
probably 90 percent of 
his salary. Preceptor 
H. A. Johnston, one of 
those slated for termi- 
nation, said that if no 
one agreed to take over 
the dormitory he "would 
feel it a privilege to live 
on half pay." At this 
point Maude Jones 
volunteered to "make 
the same proposition 
that Elder Behrens 
did." Then Mrs. W. E. 
Bailey, the wife of the 
basket factory manager 
(apparently not a school 
employee herself), 
volunteered to give her 
time to SJC. Four 
other faculty members 
offered to live on half salary, one agreed to 
accept termination, and various others either 
made specific concessions or promised to do 
their part. The two faculty members who 
actually forfeited the largest amount, both in 
terms of dollars and as a percentage of their 
salaries, were J. R. Kennedy and Maude 
Jones. The school survived, but for the rest of 
the decade its future was clouded in uncer- 
tainty. 96 

How had it allowed itself to be placed in 
such a precarious position? What were the 
reasons for its deficits? Wood explained that 
the crisis had been precipitated by the enroll- 
ment decline, a result of the South's financial 

▲ The Christian Salesmanship class from 1927. The students in this class, who were training to be colporteurs, 
met together once a week at 4:30 a.m. on Tuesdays. "They have found that the wonderful principles of Christian 
Salesmanship can be more readily mastered in the early hours when the mind is fresh, and are taking advantage 
of this to prepare for the stern duties of life." [From the 1927 annual.] 

depression which, according to the board, was 
due to a lowered demand for such Southern 
staples as cotton, rice, and peanuts. The 
young, fragile institution was ill prepared for 
such drastic enrollment swings. But there 
were additional reasons for its financial 
problems. One was its money-losing indus- 
tries, especially the farm and the basket 
factory. Farm and garden losses alone ac- 
counted for about 75 percent of the 1919-20 
deficit and for more than 100 percent of the 
1920-21 net operating loss. About 63 percent 
of the net operating loss of 1922-23 was due to 
the basket factory's failure to pay its own way. 
But without the work opportunities these 

industries provided, 
many students would 
have been unable to 
attend Southern 
Junior College. 97 

Another signifi- 
cant contributor to the 
school's financial 
difficulties was its 
collections problem. 
According to business 
manager A. N. 
Atteberry, a major 
reason for the 1916-17 
operating loss was the 
large sum of money 
which the board 
charged off to "lost 
accounts." Overdue 
accounts were, accord- 
ing to President Thiel, 
an even greater bur- 
den the following 
school year. Finally, 
SJC undertook an 
intensive collection 
campaign in 1920 because of the "large in- 
crease in student accounts receivable." A 
related problem was the failure of some people 
to honor financial pledges made during a 
school fund-raising campaign. Unhappy over 
the necessity of asking students to withdraw 
from school because they were behind on their 
bills, school administrators attempted to 
prevent such debts by requiring potential stu- 
dents either to make a cash deposit or to earn a 
labor credit equivalent to one-sixth of his or her 
anticipated expenses and to maintain that 
balance until five-sixths of the school year had 
elapsed. But collections continued to be a 
serious issue. 98 


Chapter 3: The Move To Collegedale 

Another drain on the school's cash flow was 
the board's compulsive buying of every piece of 
real estate adjacent to the school that went on 
the market. Determined to avoid the difficulties 
the Graysville school had experienced because of 
people living close by, the board tried to make it 
impossible for such a community to develop. In 
1923 a committee of the board went so far as to 
recommend that the board require all students to 
live either in one of the dormitories "or in a 
cottage under the control of the college," but the 
board failed to act on that recommendation. It 
did, however, regularly print a message on the 
inside front cover of the school bulletin urging 
parents not to move to the Collegedale area." 

What saved the school from total financial 
disaster were donations from church members 
and the generous financial subsidies of its 
constituent and union conferences as well as the 
North American Division and the General 
Conference. Not only were these donations and 
appropriations responsible for nearly all of SJC's 
increase in net worth, but they also accounted 
for a substantial portion of the school's operating 
budget — approximately 24 percent in 1920-21. 10 ° 

Between 1916 and 1920 the presidential 
salary at SJC had risen from $17 to $28 a week 
and teachers' salaries, which had ranged from $8 
to $16, had increased to a range of $13 to $26. 
In addition, faculty members were receiving a 25 
percent bonus on their weekly salaries. At the 
end of the first eleven years on the Collegedale 
campus the president was receiving $36 a week, 
and the teachers and industrial managers had a 
salary range from $7 to $26 a week. All male 
faculty members had fifty-two-week contracts; all 
women teachers had thirty-six-week contracts. 
Those with fifty-two-week contracts were permit- 
ted two-week vacations, unless they were taking 
summer school, in which case the school might 
eliminate the vacation and also reduce their 

salary by 50 percent while they were taking 
classes — but it paid train fare to their place of 
study. Teachers were not allowed any moon- 
lighting, not even gardening, at least if any of 
the produce was sold. 101 

Unmarried teachers were required to live in 
the residence halls, were charged the same room 
rent as students or more, and were expected to 
abide by the same regulations as students 
regarding study-period quietness. The preceptor 
was expected to eat at least one meal a day in 
the school dining room. 102 

Teachers living in shacks were charged 
$1.50 per room per month, and those living in 
tent houses $3.00 a month. If they wanted 
better quarters — either an existing building 
remodeled or a cottage built — they were gener- 
ally asked to advance the total cost, perhaps by 
taking out a personal loan, and then the school 
borrowed the money from the faculty member at 
6 percent interest while expecting the teacher to 
pay a rental of 1 percent of the value of the 
house every four weeks. The maximum cost of 
building a cottage, originally set at $1,500, was 
raised to $1,800 in December 1920. The school 
did not furnish window screens for the houses: 
these were considered the responsibility of the 
occupant. If there were fruit trees in the cottage 
yard, the teacher wasn't allowed to eat the fruit: 
it was declared to be school property not in- 
cluded in the rental. 103 

At first none of the faculty members owned 
a car. When the president and business man- 
ager purchased automobiles, the school agreed to 
pay them $.06 a mile for using their vehicles on 
school business. This was raised to $.07 a mile 
in July 1920. The school, in turn, charged 
teachers and students $.50 for a round trip to 
Ooltewah and $.75 for a round trip to Chatta- 
nooga. The board graciously permitted Mrs. 
Wood and Mrs. Kennedy to ride with their 

husbands at no charge. 104 

Faculty members were urged to do their 
shopping as far as possible at the school store. 
They were also expected to contribute $1.00 each 
toward the purchase of a school clock, $.25 a 
month toward promoting Adventism locally, 
$1.00 a week toward mission offerings, and one 
week's salary for the Week of Sacrifice Offering. 
In addition, faithful tithing was a condition of 
employment. 106 

Tuition had its ups and downs. With the 
move to Collegedale the institution abandoned 
the $4 monthly rate that it had maintained for 
twenty-four years, increasing it by 25 percent to 
$5 a month or $45 a year. Henceforth, tuition 
expenses would be indicated as annual rather 
than monthly rates. Various factors, particularly 
General Conference pressure for uniform rates 
throughout the denomination's educational 
system, caused tuition fluctuation. By 1926 high 
school tuition was $81 and college tuition was 
raised to a record high of $90. 106 

To help students from financially disadvan- 
taged families, the college actively solicited funds 
for scholarships and loans, sometimes success- 
fully, sometimes not. In the especially difficult 
school year of 1921-22, at least eighteen students 
received financial assistance, mostly in the range 
of $100 to $200 per student. Some of this money 
came from people outside the Southern Union, 
including Mr. Talge, and some came from the 
pockets of faculty members. 107 

The difficulties of financing a Christian 
education during those first eleven years were 
about to be eclipsed: the Great Depression 
was just around the corner. Would Southern 
Junior College be able to find the innovative 
and competent administrators it needed to 
devise strategies for both the institution and 
its students to weather the storm? 

Southern Training School principal A. N. Atteberry rides by the Graysville administration building in 1915 with his Kentucky thoroughbred and buggy. 



their children. No objection is made, ho - their receiving fresh frui other 

kinds of food will the room 

The years which a young girl spends at school are those in which good physical 
habits should become so confirmed as to be necessary for comfort. It will in every 
case be required that the whole outfit be in harmony with the necessities of good phys- 
ical development. The lady in charge of this department will insist upon a change of 
dress, whenever that worn is judged by her to be a hindrance to the best health. All 
dresses should be as light as is consistent with warmth ; evenly distributed ; all skirts 
hung from a waist so loosely worn that the arms can reach straight up with perfect 
ease ; sleeves, also, to admit of the freest movement. No corset should be worn with 
any suit. The shoes worn should have low heels. All students are expected to dress 
plainly. The wearing; of jewelry and any unnecessary ornamentation in dress are not 
in good taste here, and will not be in harmony with the wishes of the Managers. 


ion to 
ledges hi 
pledge is bi by such members 

and if longer retained, it tfferance of the 

Club class at Graysville Academy. 

T Proper attire . . . always. Note the 
mudscraping device on the porch step. 


On the left, a view looking 

east from Southern 

Training School to the 

Southern Railroad's trestle 

over Martin Creek. On the 

right, traveling west on 

College Street. The home 

of Professor G. H. Baber is 

on the left. 

Southern Railway's "Royal Palm" headed north. The railroad track ran right near Graysville Academy. Running parallel to the track are the telegraph wires. 

A page from a 
notebook in 

•• 1 hereby solemnlv prpmise, God helping me, 
to abstain from all distilled, fermented, ami malt 
liquors including wine, beer and cider, as a bever- 
age, and to employ all proper means to discourage 
the use of and traffic in the same." 

DaU.&Jf.lp* Name, 9jJL <^«« <^— '- 


• : -* • -■ 

*^— ._.^ -- --" • 

, Professor G. H. Baber at the main railroad tracks near the station. 


The town of Graysville turned out for a sewing machine demonstration in 1916. This is the old school store after it was sold. 

Student group in front of the girls' dormitory at 
Graysville in 1902-03. (Photo courtesy of the 
Rochelle Kilgore collection, sent by Jessica Queen) 


\m »] 

The third and 
fourth grades of 
Training School 
in the spring of 
1915. The 
student marked 
number one is 
Merrill Dart; the 
student marked 
number two is 






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e 3^ 


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v ' 


--■ ■■<'' B^b\e 

Bible %>ry . s 

VroV" Wis*-* \,pts ' 

>4a) ot f f : of £ng " 

Gen** » jurtfowq 
B \«to*y ° { Greece 

^^wh \ 

*^* «■»«■£&*** 

• • • \ctett°8 r l /s 

2^bft» tice 

Report cards were sent monthly at STS. 
Here are one student's grades in May, 
1913. Note the mark in deportment due 
to a buggy ride! 


•\ botany . . . . 

•\zooVoigy . ... 

••\Rioiogy ... 

••VteS-jJS* -.v. 

Ivhv** * ?' .. \ 

, \0» e "IIW" 1 * * 

" piao° 

■"Org« n 

..•■\|^* bt * ....... 



-. A** 




3 B6 L 


A The Southern Training School band on parade with Russell Connell's buggy and 

The 1915-16 student and faculty group represented 
the twelve grades offered during the final school year 
of Southern Training School in Graysville. 




+ v 







: ^em-' 

S f?.v>^ 


>• 4 

.-? •no^T— * 


When the girls' dorm in Graysville burned on 

February 18, 1915, some people saw the fire as a sign 

that it was time for the school to move. The joint 

committee of Southeastern and Southern Union 

officials, shown here posed next to the Thatcher 

mansion, considered replacing Southern Training 

School with two schools — one for each of the unions. 

Part of the locating committee on the footlog spanning the creek at the 

Thatcher farm. Left to right: G. H. Curtis, W. E. Abernathy, Professors A. 

N. Atteberry, Leo Thiel, Frederick Griggs; Elders W. H. Branson, J. B. 

Locken, W. H. Heckman, Mr. Sanders, C. S. Wiest, J. L. Shuler, N. V. 

Witless, G. B. Thompson, S. E. Wight, and I. H. Evans. 

Background Stories About Collegedale 

Excerpted from a student paper by Cecil Coffey, '49. 

The site of Southern Junior College had a sur- 
prisingly interesting history connected with it. Some 
of the stories can't be proven, but many are authen- 
tic. The writer has tried to differentiate between the 
hearsay and fact. 

The story can actually be traced back to Indian 
days, long before the Civil War. The pass between 
Collegedale and Ooltewah was, in bygone days, a 
beaten path of the great Cherokee nation. The valley 
of Collegedale was once a favorite meeting place for 
tribal councils and ceremonies. One of the early 
Methodist missions for the Cherokee tribe was estab- 
lished between where Chattanooga and Ooltewah 
now are. There is a story told of the Indians hiding 
some valuable treasures in the caves which are on 
the east side of the campus. Apparently this was sup- 
posed to have occurred when the eastern tribes of the 
Cherokees were being driven to Oklahoma by govern- 
ment troops. It has been said, without verification, 
that some descendents of those early tribes visited 
the campus about 1925 and investigated the caves 
with the aid of an old map, but without any known 

The next historical glimpse into the background 
of Collegedale opens to view incidents which occurred 
during the Civil War. During the famous battles 
around Chattanooga — Lookout Mountain, Missionary 
Ridge and others — Ooltewah and vicinity were not 
by-passed. Old trenches and ruins of stone fortifica- 
tions can still be seen on White Oak Ridge at the 
west side of the campus. This was part of one of the 
main lines of Confederate defense, running from 
about where the Lee Highway now is to Ringgold, 
.Georgia, and south. As the battle of Missionary Ridge 
was being lost, many southern troops fell back to 
these reserve fortifications. As it developed, however, 
the Union forces' breakthrough came considerably 
south and west of here, thus neutralizing the 
strength of by-passed forces. 

Before the fighting became so severe around the 
Chattanooga area, the fertile valleys around 
Ooltewah were battlegrounds, on a smaller scale. 
There often came in the most despised of all foes, the 
treacherous guerillas. They made raids upon the 
farms carrying away stores of food and robbing the 
people of their stock. And though that time has long 
since passed, stories are still circulated about how 
the farmers tried to protect themselves from the gue- 

The mountain road leading from 
Ooltewah to the school in 1916. 



■ - 

"*§? " 

,. -\ ■ ■-:■ 

"/ £** V.— al£«as. -i' 


▲ The valley as it was in 1916. 
main Southern Railroad line. 

In the foreground are the two lime kilns near the rock quarry, served by a spur track off the 


Known alternately as the Big House and the Yellow 
House, this main landmark on the Thatcher farm 
became a key residence facility for Southern Junior 
College until permanent residence halls could be 
built. Adjacent to the Collegedale railroad sign, 
visible on the right of the photograph above, the 
house was the first impression for many newcomers 
to Southern Junior College. The house below served 
as a faculty home. 





Our Old Home 

Excerpted from a letter from Grace Thatcher, October 1 3, 1 950. 

I will try to give you some of the history of our old home place and I 
hope that it will be of interest to you all. 

This farm consisting of 365 acres was purchased by Mr. Thatcher 
before our marriage and I do not recall the date. On this first section 
was what was known as the lime kiln and rock quarry. On this tract 
of land there were several tenant houses for the workmen. Mr. 
Thatcher lived in one of these houses during his bachelor days, and I 
went there as a bride August 11, 1895. 

In 1902 the remaining portion of the farm was purchased, which 
consisted of the bottom land west of the rock quarry to the top of 
White Oak Mountain. There was an old boarded-up farm house built 
during or before the war of 1861 which we remodeled into the present 
two-story Yellow House. This was quite an undertaking and required 
a lot of hard work and thought in designing the house and landscap- 
ing the surrounding yard to make the type of home we wanted to rear 
our children in. 

To begin with, the house had five large rooms. The front room was 
connected to the remaining part of the house by a large hall with no 
outlet except a very small window. It was in this large hallway that 
Major Cleveland died during the Civil War. 

In order to make this a two-story house, of course it was necessary 
to open up the attic and raise the roof. In the attic we found wagon 
loads of ashes, and in cleaning them out, we found buried pieces of 
meat that were petrified, pieces of saddles, harnesses, quilts, old 
clothing and shoes, all of which, of course, had rotted except for the 
metal buckles on the harnesses. All of this we understand was 
hidden there during the Civil War. 

I would like to mention the large cave that is under the limestone 
formation at the rock quarry. This cave runs for several hundred 
yards and had all kinds of formations such as stalagmites and stalac- 
tites of various colors. At the upper end of this cave was a large lake 
approximately twenty feet square which had fish in it. At the lower 
end of the cave was a very large open spring approximately thirty feet 
below the ground where the water came out. As in every cave in the 
summer, it was very cool and the cool air would rush out of this 
opening as if a suction fan was connected, and cool the surrounding 
area degrees cooler than the normal temperature, and in the winter 
the warm air came out of this opening. At one time we put some 
watermelons in this cave and kept them until Christmas. 

This spring below the old home place which you now have enclosed 
was the purest water of all and people around the adjoining neighbor- 
hood would come for this water when there was a sickness in their 
family such as typhoid fever, as the doctor recommended they use 
this water instead of any water that they might have had, or when 
their springs or wells would go dry in dry weather. 

In 1916 we sold our holdings to the Seventh-day Adventist founda- 
tion for which we are very happy that you have built such a wonder- 
ful institution of Christianity from our old home place and that the 
missionaries have been sent to several foreign countries. 


' 3F 


W* t l 


An Ideal Rural Location 
Super Moral Advantages 
Strong United Faculty 
Industrial Education Emphasized 

Academic And Collegiate Courses 
Fourteen Grades Standard School Work 
Opportunity For Student Self-support 
Moderate Charges 

A The first years at Collegedale were spent building, 
tearing down, and making do with ramshackle farm 
and quarry buildings on the Thatcher farm. 
Students and faculty alike endured primitive living 
conditions for several years after the move from 
Graysville in 1916. 

Perhaps as an outlet for 
its manufactured prod- 
ucts and probably to 
supply students with 
limited mobility, a new 
store was immediately 
built in Collegedale. 
Storekeeper Matilda 
Nelson is shown at left. 

State of Tennessee 

barter of >rpc> atic 

STATE OF ) Personally appeared be- 

TENNESSEE [ foresee. Jno. A. Hall, 

COUNTY OF JAMES ) Clerk of the County 
Court of said County, Lynn H. Weed* one of the 
above named incorporators, with whom I am per- 
sonally acquainted, and who acknowledged that he 
executed the within instrument fop;, the purpose 
therein contained. 

WITNESS MY HAND at office this 25th day 

of July. 1919 

(Signed) Jno. A. Hall, Clerk 

{James County Court Seal) 

BE IT KNOWN, That W, H. Branson, S. E, 
, Lyon .r?. Wood, G. H, Curtis, and W. E, 
Abe 1a '.. : are hereby ceated a body politic and 
corporate by tl and style of 


at of public worship, the buildir r : and 
x. ' :n« ic< of churches, parsonages, sthoois, 
pitals, ch ■ >els, and such o is, education- 

al or benevolent institutions as may be necessary 

▲ Southern Junior College was chartered 
as a corporation in 1919 in the James 
County Court under the presidency of Lynn 
H. Wood. 


Following the move to the Thatcher farm, the lack of facilities resulted in the remodeling of almost any standing 
structure for housing and classrooms. Even so, tent houses had to be erected for additional accommodations. 
With the students so dispersed, faculty supervision was handicapped and the result was the emergence of some 
natural youthful pranks. The photographs and accompanying account testify to the dedication and spirit of the 

— _iC 



The History of We-Like-It (or The Rats) 

(Excerpted from a document written by Ralph Raymond, '17, the first male graduate of SJC.) 

1 he four illustrious young men who were to oc- 
cupy the cabin . . . were Messrs. Bozarth, Curtis, 
Swofford and Raymond, quite a combination to be 
sure. Of course the first thing to be done consisted of 
papering the wall and ceiling with building paper, 
putting in two or three windows, completely demol- 
ishing the old roof, and constructing a new one and 
covering it with tar paper. This being done, we pro- 
ceeded to move our belongings . . . into these, our new 

About the same day that we christened our little 
domiciliary "We-Like-It," we organized our legal asso- 
ciation, hereafter to be known as the "Union." Like 
any other secret society or fraternal order, we deemed 
it absolutely necessary to have semi-occasional ban- 
quets. Accordingly . . . the Union voted to install a 
suitable commissary department . . . and to carry in 
stock a sufficient line of groceries as would be neces- 
sary for these feeds and banquets. In a few days our 
first shipment came in ... . This initial stock of gro- 
ceries consisted of a case of cocoa, a bunch of bananas, 
one case crackers, besides an ample supply of butter, 
eggs, and condensed milk. Everything except the 
bananas, which were too big, were consigned to Duffs 
trunk, it being the largest trunk on the place. The 
bananas were strung up to the low ceiling (or rather 
rafters) of the back room and carefully concealed by a 

One of our favorite refreshments was cocoa, and to 
us, this tasted best about 11 p.m. Mr. Bozarth was 
chief cook when it came to the making of the cocoa. 
To suit our taste it must for sweetness be of about the 
same consistency as syrup, probably just a litter thin- 
ner, but not too thin. Then it must have plenty of 
cocoa in it, and this usually required about a box and 
a half or two boxes to the bucket- full, which was the 
usual amount to make at one time. The formula also 
called for the milk to be fifty percent pure cream, or if 
condensed milk were used, to have it of the same 
consistency as nearly as possible. 

Probably the most extraordinary, unusual, and 
exciting thing connected with the history of "We-Like- 
It" were the other occupants that had their headquar- 
ters in the attic. These inhabitants were commonly 
known as the "Rats," but their physical bodily propor- 

tions far exceeded anything ever heard of before or after 
either in history or mythology. Unlike the small ani- 
mals which man had hitherto designated as "rats," 
these possessed human intelligence, and it was not long 
before various industries and amusements were in the 
process of construction. However they were not desir- 
ous that we should visit them until everything was 
completed and in good running order. Accordingly they 
took a very hostile attitude toward us, as was demon- 
strated one night about nine o'clock when they were 
making some unusual racket while hoisting some large 
timbers into place, and one of these accidentally fell. 
We were anxious to see what was going on, and so Mr. 
Bozarth took the Rayo lamp, and proceeded to climb up 
over the back of the bed and up through the hole in the 
ceiling going up into the attic from the back room. To 
his utter amazement, as soon as he got his head and 
shoulders and the lamp up through the hole, one of the 
sentinel rats on picket duty near this hole in the ceiling 
quickly grabbed the chimney off the lamp, blew the 
light out, and smashed the chimney over his head. 
Quite a warm reception, wasn't it? Bewildered, fright- 
ened, and not knowing what else to do, he beat a hasty 
retreat without trying to rescue the lamp. We managed 
to light an old lantern sitting over in one corner, and 
made our way through the darkness to one of the other 
cottages where we borrowed a lamp to finish our lessons 
for the next day, since they had an extra one; but that 
was only the pretext, because we didn't want to let our 
real motive be known. The truth was that we were 
afraid to go to bed without a bombardment from above, 
and to be sure, it was quite late, (or rather early) when 
we closed our eyes in slumber that night. However, the 
rats were kind enough to return our lamp (minus the 
chimney) the next day, for when we came home from 
school we found it lying on the bed under the hole in the 
ceiling where the tragic event had taken place the night 

Among other things less exciting that took place, I 
might mention the disappearance of our shoes and soap 
in particular. On several occasions we went to bed 
leaving our shoes sitting beside a chair where we had 
undressed, and in the morning when we got up we 
would find that one of our shoes had been carried off, 
and sometimes both of them. Upon thorough search of 

both rooms we would generally find them away back 
under the bed where they had been pulled half-way 
through a big crack in the floor and got lodged. After 
rescuing the shoe on one occasion we found two bars of 
soap in it that the rats had forgotten to take out when 
they abandoned the shoe. 

We should also make mention in this article of the 
many thriving industries which they built up, and also 
the complete line of amusements which they established 
for their own recreation. One of the first things that 
they did was to set up a large sawmill and planing mill. 
This ran day and night for several weeks during the 
winter so that there might be no delay on the account of 
lack of material when the building operations started in 
the early spring. Also, temporary offices were erected 
in connection with the sawmill to be used until the 
permanent office building should be erected. Their 
regular office hours were 10 p.m. to 3:30 a.m., and dur- 
ing this time they had something like a dozen typewrit- 
ers, and three or four adding machines going at the 
same time. They were evidently sending out thousands 
of business letters preparing for the big spring drive 
when their business should open up in earnest. In the 
spring after the erection of a large commodious office 
building, they put up a big cotton mill with a hosiery 
mill in connection. This was not long in erection and in 
a week or two was complete with all the machinery 
installed, and running full blast. A large department 
store, and also a good-sized grocery store were erected 
and stocked about the same time. Neither were the 
dwelling houses neglected, and many large beautiful 
bungalows were built in suitable locations. In fact, 
everything that could possibly go to make a large, thriv- 
ing, progressive community was built or procured by the 

And all the other happenings at "We-Like-It," and 
how the Union was led into exile about the last of the 
month of December by the army of faculty under Gen- 
eral J. S. Marshall, are they not written indelibly upon 
the minds of all the members of the Union? They shall 
never be forgotten. 






**j-iiiiii tut tuf 

<*4 '.; 

Raw labor converted acres of timber into 
milled boards for use in the many buildings 
required to transform a farm into a college. 
The lumber was also used to make furniture, 
veneer, and baskets. Whether on the 
woodcutting crew or running the sawmill, 
there was pride in hard work. 

▼ The large peach orchard was part of the school's agricultural efforts and was located to the east of the 
campus on "peach tree hill. " Because farming was promoted by Ellen White and others as an important 
element of education, the industry endured although it brought a perennial financial loss. 




-ac ar- 



3C 3d 










The Purpose of Our Farm 

iUR COLLEGE farm is indeed beautiful fo 

ha. wi'v i.vli.i.ul. larm is lnaeea beautiful tor situation. 
' surface of the country, the clear streams, and the woods 

"The varied 
, ravines, and 

coves, all furnish abundant opportunity for recreation without indulging 
in the harmful games or sports so prevalent today." 

We might say that the farm is connected with our school primarily to 
aid in producing a crop of upright characters. 

We have a splendid gymnasium outdoors and indoors. We have six 
hundred and sixty acres in our farm, of which about three hundred are till- 
able, the remainder being woodland and pasture. One of the exercises of 
our gymnasium is the care of our fifty-five hundred fruit trees, among which 
are peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries, prunes, apricots, and quinces. 
In addition we have a nice young vineyard and two acres of strawberries. 
The orchard equipment for the gymnasium consists in shovels, hoes, plows, 
disc harrows, tractor, and a high power pressure sprayer. 

Another exercise of our gymnasium is gardening. At present we are 
growing most of our vegetables; in the near future we plan to raise all of 
them. This furnishes exercise very different from that of orchard work. 
(Connected with our garden we have hot beds and flower growing, which 
afford pleasant exercise for our lady students.) 

On the farm we grow all of the grain and hay for our fourteen mules 
and horses, and twenty Jersey cows. We have the best equipped dairy 
and most convenient barn in Hamilton County. A complete record of every 
cow is kept. The care of our dairy, mules, horses, and poultry, and the up- 
keep of farm machinery constitutes our inside gymnasium. 

Agriculture was the only occupation given to man in the beginning. 
Adam was an agriculturist, Cain a horticulturist. Abel an animal husband- 
man, and Noah a horticulturist after the flood. It is the only occupation 
that did not come about as the result of sin. It was given as a blessing and 
will continue until the end of this earth's history. We have the promise 
that Eden will be restored and then we shall farm in the New Earth. 

The practice of agriculture now offers as great a field for scientific study 
as is offered by law, medicine, or the ministry. Agriculture is a human- 
interest subject. We cannot separate our interest from the soil on which 
we walk, and the plants and animals upon which our lives depend. 

As well as being a well equipped gymnasium, our farm is a splendid 
laboratory. Textbook teaching of agriculture, while very useful, is inade- 
quate because it fails to develop the student's power to see things under- 
standing^. It is through observing and doing that most of the knowledge 
of farming is acquired. The operations in fertilizing the land, preparing the 
so.! selecting, testing, and planting the seed, gathering and saving the harvest, the produce to live stock in such a way as to bring the largest re- 
turns, are its exercise. 

"The study in Agricultural lines should be the A B and C of the educa- 
tion given in our schools, the very first work to be entered upon." ,. 

C E. Ledford. 









A labor-intensive industry, farming 
provided many job opportunities. 
Here students pick peas, harrow a 
field, and thresh some of the crop. 


The silos were built first, and then the barn. The tall building with two vents on its peaked roof, just right of the new barn, was the new garage. The garage's proximity to 
the barn reflects the curious evolution of the automobile — the garage replaced the blacksmith shop. 

Old Apison Pike is in the 
left side of this picture. 
The road came across the 
valley and turned left at 
the foot of "peach tree 

T The large farm was unmistakably the school's centerpiece. When a new barn was constructed in 1920, it 
was even the location for some Southern Junior College graduation ceremonies. Below right, some of the farm 
workers gathered by the corn crib for a photograph. Note the tractor on the right. 

A Students scrape the corn off dried cobs to provide fodder for the 
farm animals. 

One of five wagons crafted at the school in 
Graysville, inset left, this hack was used in 
the move to Collegedale and then trans- 
ported students from the train station to 
the new school. 

In addition to transporting students, below, wagons were 
used to deliver the farm's produce. Then the school 
abruptly changed the focus to automobiles. Tearing down 
the blacksmith shop, above, a new garage was built on 
the same site. "Fords a specialty" proclaims the advertise- 
ment at right, and the row of cars, below right, confirms 
it. However, mules still proved their usefulness, bottom, 
as a "tow team." 

gc 1 - 

zrzr~ jxn .a r 


ace :r ace 






Auto Repairing 





Fords a Specialty 



The Southern Railway station in Ooltewah in 1916. 

A In January 1927, the student body walked to the Ooltewah train station to say 
farewell to President H. H. Hamilton. 

The SJC band played at the station. 

▲ President Hamilton boarded the train for Washington, D. C, where he became 
president of Washington Missionary College. 



International Service 

Effective Leadership 

Flag Day 

The students of the 
Southern Junior Col- 
1 e g e showed their 
patriotism by cele- 
brating flag day in a 
very special manner. 
Out in the forest they 
found a fine seventy- 
five foot tree, brought 

it to the shop, placed 
the proper struts on it, 
and with due cere- 
mony raised it into 
place directly in front 
of the main building 
site. After appropri- 
ate chapel exercises 
and patriotic songs. 

the returned soldier 
lads carried Old Glory 
through the lines of 
students, and hoisted 
it to its proper place 
where it might 
proudly float over the 
beautiful hills sur- 
rounding one of the 
most unique schools 
in the country. 

Page eight 

In 1920 , World War I veterans hoisted the first homemade flagpole in front 
of Lynn Wood Hall. (Name of publication unknown) 

A student fire 
department was 
organized in 
1930. Here the 
practice a fire 
drill at the girls' 
dormitory. The 
hose cart is 
sitting in front 
of the "hose 
company." The 
water comes 
from a nearby 
main fed by the 
30,000 gallon 
reservoir built 
in 1920 on 
White Oak 

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▲ Several industries sprang from the timber cut around the campus. 
Advertisements from this era identified the woodwork department, which 
made cabinets, cedar chests, and church pews; the basket factory, which made 
round bushel baskets, banana hampers, and diamond split market baskets in 
one-half and one-fourth bushel sizes; and Southern Junior Veneer Works, 
where gum, poplar, tupelo and American walnut veneer was "cut from our 
own logs, which, like trusted friends, are good, honest, clean all through." In 
1924 the basket factory and the veneer plant were located in the huge barn that 
had been built for the farm. 

The Basket Factory 



I 1 V, a bit 

^HERE is the Basket Factory?" asked the little five-year-old with 
of eagerness to find his sister who was putting in her two-hour 
time at that place. 

"Oh, it's away over there in the barn," replied mother, a bit impatient 
at his ultra-inquisitiveness. 

"Whoever heard of a Basket Factory in a barn? I thought that was 
where they kept horses and cows." 

Although it did seem ridiculous, such was the location of the Basket 
Factory when installed by Brethren Talge and Bailey. The old tractor fur- 
nished the power and the wagons hauled water from the creek. 

Now when visitors come to the school they always make the Basket 
and Veneer Plant one of the first places to go. They find it very interesting 
to watch the girls as they nimbly braid the baskets and shape the handles. 
Passing into the other section they see the boys fashioning banana hampers 
for the market. In the next room they find a large electrically-driven machine 
taking huge logs and peeling them into long, thin strips of veneer. 

The plant has a two-fold aim: One is to take the huge logs from various 
parts of the South and convert them into useful articles for the public; the 
other, more important aim, is to take unskilled boys and girls and convert 
them into faithful and efficient workers, fit vessels for the Master's service. 


In 1916 when the school first moved to College- 
dale, printing was carried on in a shack on the 
hill for about two years. Gasoline engines were 
the source of power, and night work was done by 
kerosene lamp. By 1927 (below) the plant was 
housed in a well-constructed building, was 
electrically lighted, and all of the machines were 
operated by electricity. This building was located 
where Hackman Hall is today. 

■*■ the greatest 
gift by which 
God enables us 
to advance the 
things of the 

The Collegedale Laundry 

In the early days of Collegedale the process of washing clothes was 
carried on according to the fashion of our grandmothers. A shed, through 
which the wind blew unhindered, a spring, old-time wash tubs, rub boards, 
and soap constituted the laundry equipment before the conveniences offered 
by modern invention were installed. 

But this department, like all the others, has progressed. So now the 
girls in a comfortable building with steam boilers, patent wringers, electric 
irons, and large power washing machines, find the work a real pleasure. 


A I 

I 'j 



Much progress has been made this year by the students of the Sewing Classes. Not only have they 
learned to make stitches, seams, and garments ranging from dainty aprons to lovely spring coats, but 
they have gone into such subjects as the knowledge of which will make them better able to cope with 
this life's problems which come to every woman. 

Studies on Christian dress have implanted a desire in their hearts to honor their Creator in this art. 
They have learned that a person's character is judged by his style of dress, and that simplicity in dress, 
when united with modesty, will go far toward surrounding a young woman with that atmosphere of 
sacred reserve which will be to her a shield from a thousand perils. 

Economy, rather than extravagance in dress, has been very thoroughly stressed until the girls are 
enthusiastic advocates of making self-analysis. They feel as if they must anticipate their clothing needs, 
and determine upon the length of time and the amount of money they can afford to spend on their 

"So dependent is our spiritual and 
intellectual welfare upon well-being," 
states an article in the 1927 Southland 
school annual, "that no educational 
curriculum is complete, if it does not 
provide for the proper knowledge and 
upkeep of the body on the part of the 
students. It is evident that the matter of 
nutrition should receive due consideration 
in the light of these undeniable facts. 

"The Domestic Science class is highly 
favored in having modern electrical 
equipment for the use of its student-chefs 
and matrons-to-be. Here in this room the 
food is prepared under careful supervision 
of the instructor. Not only is the method of 
cooking outlined for the best results in the 
flavor and digestibility of the food, but the 
rules of good and chemically harmonious 
food combinations are also stressed as to 
their importance in the science of cookery. 

"Dressed in spotless white the waiters 
and waitresses deftly serve the choice, 
refreshing viands with a grace born of 
training and experience. It is but to be 
expected that such advantages as are thus 
presented to the students of Domestic 
Science must produce excellent results in 
their aim to qualify for this important 
branch of service." 







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K **M0** r< 


In spite of the 
heavy emphasis on 
practical learning, 
there were light 
moments, and 
courtship, but 
always attended by 
a chaperone, far 

fag * g ^^-tHE SOUTHLAftB^r^-^- 

A With ties and belts in place, the men exercised and performed 
gymnastic routines during physical culture class in 1926. 


"School of Standards" 



S. J. C. Serves The South 

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NAM E / 

DE-5CRIFnOr* OS* W0R.K. 















2- - 





7- FUEL 
'* 9— HOME EX 
12— LIGHT S . 



Kinds of Work 

Numbers by Departments 












1. Preparing Foods 

2. Cooking 
-i\ 3 ,. Serving 

I. Dish Washing 

5. Cleaning 

6. Diniiit^oorji 


1. Herding Cattle 

2. Feeding 

3. Milking 
Care of Milk 

i ng Barn 


lean'g Class Rooms 
2. Cleaning Chapel 


1. Firing Boilers 

2. Cleaning Halls, etc. 

3. Work on Grounds 


1, Washing 

2. Iron in g 



J. Ra 

2. R« 

3. Re 

This 1919 time card for W. H. Campbell provides insights into the various campus jobs available at the time. 

The photos to the left and below were 
found pasted into an unidentified SJC 
student's photo album, preserved in the 
college's Heritage Museum. The 
inscription on the page reads, "Kodaking 
the big lime kiln on Christmas day, 1919. 


□ l 












1. Always avoid anything in look, gesture, word, or tone that savors of 

2. Ever pride yoursell on being morally superior to the hypocrite who 
professes Christianity? 

3. Ever let pride stand between you and an exact statement of truth? 

4. Ever pitied yourself because of the hard place in which you were put? 

5. Ever feel your talents and accomplishments just a little more after 
being flattered? 

6. Ever write an article or give a talk which you thought just a little better 
than someone's else? 

7. Ever do or say anything to attract attention or win praise? 

8. When forgotten, neglected, or purposely set aside, do you Bmile and 
rejoice inwardly? 

9. Do you serve because of the reward ahead, or because of the deep love 
in your heart? 

10- Has Christ such complete control of your life that those following you 
are following Him? 

11. Any resentment when your wishes are crossed or opinions ridiculed? 

12. Any bitterness in your heart because of the great trials and griefs God 
allows to come to you? 

13. Do you resent any disregard of your rights? 

14. Ever doubt God's word and supply its place with a theory that leads to 

15. Does a spirit of self-vindication take possession of you when your work 
is confronted with failure? 

16. Ever feel God has granted ©there opportunities withheld from you? 

17. Ever tried to pray, and found your cherished bitterness toward another 
made real prayer impossible? 

18. Will you as readily confess a wrong to an inferior as to a superior? 

19. Ever question God's leading when hard pressed by trials or difficult 

20. Not how much can you do, but how much can you endure, and still be 

21. Any difference between the way you serve your weakest brother and the 
most exalted? 

22. In the little trials and tests of home and Bchool have you shown a Christ- 
like gentleness and meekness? 

23. Any tendency to feel you are an exception to the instruction God has 
given through Bible and Testimony? 

24. Ever excuse yourself in a wrong by Baying the temptation was too great, 
or that others stronger than yourself have fallen in the same thing? 

25. Any feeling of independence because of your efficiency in a special line 
of work? 

26. Have you entered into the spirit of Jesus aB He seeks continually to know 
Find do God's will? 

27. Is your life the greatest reason for believing in Christ? 

28. Are you really as much of a patriot for the cause of Jesus as Washington 
or Lincoln was for his country? 

29. Does your life reveal to others the fact that you would be Supremely 
happy if Jesus came tonight? 

30. Willing really to ask yourself the question, "Lord, what wilt thou have 
me to do?" and then do it? 

31. Ever justify yourself when Binning occasionally, that others do, too? 

32. Ever have a feeling of satisfaction that while peculiar in some things you 
would never Btoop to the mistakes of another? 

33. Ever use Bible texts or incidents, making jokes of them? 

34. Ever doubt another's sincerity who confesses his wrong to you? 

35. Ever use a minor or secondary reason as an excuse for an act, keeping 
the true motive hid? 

36. Because you have not caused others' guilt, do you feel you are in no way 
responsible for it? 

37. Is your heart torn and bruised by the transgressions of men, because of 
their refusal to follow Christ? 

18. Do you look upon and treat your troubles in the same light as you do 
your talents — foundations for character-building? 

39. In your leisure hours do your thoughts turn toward holy things? 

40. Do men think of Jesus when they hear your name, as you think of music 
when you hear of Beethoven? 

41. Do you excuse your conduct because of the lack of harmony between 

42. Which worries you more, others criticisms of you, or your attitude to- 









10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 















































ward them? 

43. Ever listen to gossip because of curiosity? 

44. While disliking to start gossip, are you sometimes glad if someone else 

starts it so you can let him know you are not ignorant in regard to I 
45. Do you look with scorn on those making mistakes in their Chi 
4b. liver wish it were possible for God to excuse you from workii 

clasB of people you naturally shun? 

47. Ever become impatient or disgusted with others because tl 
reahze a wrong as quickly as you do? 

48. How much patient endurance have you shown toward men 
Belfish politics to get first place? 

49. When listening to criticism of another, do you always DOint 
good qualities in his life? ^ 

50. Do you talk to the sinner about his sin — or to your neighbort 

f 1' Eyi i. su Esestions ever break down your moral reserve? 

52. Is there vice in your secret life? 

53. Do suggestive pictures and stories lure you? 

54. Can the stamp of the Master's approval be placed on your cor 

55. liver think evil thoughts when working where circumsb 
stantly suggest evil? 

56. Is there such control over your thought that even in the c 
immodesty you remain pure? 

57. Are you doing things you know would seem out of place if 
corded in the Bible that Jesus did them? 

58. Should you like to see the pictures of your heart hung on the w 
drawing room? 

59. Should you like to see the thoughts of your heart written out 
in your library for all to read? v 

60. Are you satU6ed only with such an inward life that you 
to shrink from the eye of God? 

. 61 ; . A ° v enmity in your heart against those who make a success ii 
in which you fail? 

62. When you see others perhapB not so capable as yourself exall 
jealousy aroused? 

63. Ever compare the manner of the treatment received by your 

64. Any jealousy toward the individual taking your place in the 
of another? 

65 Do you imagine of others ill for which you have no absoluti 

66. As you read these questions, are you seeing visions of the o 
with his sin and saying that surely hits ? 

67. Under momentary impulse ever give way to jealousy and evil 
08. Are you tempted to narrow your brotherliness and good will 


69. Does your presence lessen the quarreling and fussing spirit of I 

70. Have you resources of jo y that no man or misfortune can taki 

, SL' 58" al !? w sin t0 go unrebuked in your life because you're afr 
folks will say? 

72. When done a wrong, do you look upon it as a sure sign of a d 
the others life? 

??' S ver tee1, " Wel1 ' if w e must do that, what fun can a person ha 
„. y?*? y ? m "'" P'ove that you consider it too great a sac if 
all to Christ? 

75. Does your rife show to others that you are content with tl 
of man who looketh on the outward adorning? 

76. Is it policy or principle that governs your life? 

i , A S? you liv ? n ? a !'! e on the average plane, or following yoi 
closely that you clash with some of the unworthy habits in the socis 

78. Do you welcome persecution and convert it into a blessing' 

79. Is it to a life of case or of hardship and toil for the Master tl 
giving yourself? 

80. Do you judge yourself a s severely as you judge others? 

11' 5° y ? u E [ ve way when your m °tives are impugned? 

82. liver let the other person's hard feelings toward you interfere 
Christian experience? 

83. Always speak well of those who speak evil of you? 

84. Ever slight or offend those who do not especially appeal to 
So. liver Bay things to folks' backs you would not say to their 1 
86. Any malice or ill will m your heart against another? 

oo ~ re y( i u true t0 your convictions although ridiculed' 
on tS° ot "? rs criticisms brighten your spiritual life? 

89. Docs adversity upbuild or uproot your character? 

90. Do you know what it means to leave all your burdens at the 

A Lynn H. Wood, principal in 1922, designed a brochure to help students take an inventory of their spiritual experience. Each week the students were to pu 
sheet of tissue paper over the chart and graph out their current Christian life. 


Chapter Four 

Depression And War 

1927- 1943 

Es it faced the Great Depression, SJC 
was fortunate to have a president of 
the caliber of Henry James Klooster 
(1927-1937), who at age thirty-one 
replaced M. E. Cady at the end of the 
1926-27 school year. Klooster had demonstrated 
his leadership ability as a student at Emmanuel 
Missionary College by directing two successful 
campaigns to pay off a sizeable portion of the 
school debt. After graduating from EMC, 
Klooster took a second bachelor's degree from the 
University of Chicago; he earned his master's 
degree during the decade that he was Southern's 
chief administrator and would later earn a 
doctorate. Prior to accepting the presidency of 
SJC, his professional experience had been 
limited to six years of teaching and administra- 
tion at Alberta Academy and Canadian Junior 
College. 1 His administrative success at Southern 
sprang from a combination of organizational skill 
and dynamic speaking complemented by a 
distinguished appearance. 

Klooster carried a heavy load at South- 
ern. For much of the time he was the school's 
only biology and chemistry teacher. In addi- 
tion to his administrative and committee 
responsibilities, he taught three to five classes 
a semester, sponsored the senior class each 
year, solicited funds for the Harvest Ingather- 
ing campaign from Southern's business 
contacts, held evangelistic meetings, and 

A Henry James Klooster, president, 1927-1937. 
was only 31 when he assumed the presidency. 


frequently gave the Sabbath sermon in Col- 
legedale or elsewhere in the Southern Union. 2 
Animal rights activists would hardly have 
approved of a startling object lesson he used 

in a 1936 evangelistic meeting held in Catoosa 
County, Georgia: 

One night he brought a chicken, a 
hypodermic needle, a cigarette, and 
somechemistry equipment. He filled a 
gallon jug with water and attached a "U" 
tube to it so that as the water siphoned 
from the jug, the nicotine was trapped in 
the water that was in the "U" tube. He 
made a comment that this was all the 
brains that it took to smoke a cigarette. . 
. . Klooster took a needle full of the 
nicotine solution from the "U" tube and 
injected it into the chicken. It died right 
away. He had graphically demonstrated 
the deleterious effects of the use of 
tobacco. 3 

Klooster's Successors 

fter guiding Southern Junior College 
through the most difficult times of the 
Wmmt B Depression, Klooster resigned in June 
iy^BeJI 1937 to accept the presidency of 
Emmanuel Missionary College. 
Pressed for time by the immediacy of 
Klooster's departure, the college board chose 
one of its own, John C. Thompson (1937-1942), 
newly elected president of the Alabama- 
Mississippi Conference, as the next president. 
After one year of teaching at Maplewood 
Academy, Thompson had served seven years as 
education secretary of the Southern Union and 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

A John C. Thompson, president, A Denton E. Rebok, president, 

1937-1942. 1942-1943. 

A Paul Quimby, religion teacher 
and pastor of the Collegedale 


A Daniel Walther, history 

A Ira M. Gish, head of the 
teacher training department. 

A George Nelson, science and 
mathematics teacher. 

A D. C. Ludington, English 

A J. Cecil Haussler, history 

A Doris Holt Haussler, head of A Myrtle Maxwell, elementary 

the music department. school teacher. 


A Century of Challenge 

twelve years as an associate secretary in the 
General Conference Sabbath School Department. 
Like Klooster, Thompson had two bachelor's 
degrees and a master's degree. Like Klooster, 
Thompson pursued an advanced degree while at 
Southern — in his case, a doctorate. Also like 
Klooster, he sometimes preached the Sabbath 
morning sermon in Collegedale. But unlike 
Klooster, he didn't seem to enjoy being presi- 
dent. "These five years have been the hardest of 
my life," he said in March 1942 as he announced 
his resignation, effective June 1. This admission 
may explain in part the diverse reactions left in 
the minds of those who knew him as president: 
to some he appeared hospitable, understanding, 
and a public relations asset; to others he 
seemed aloof and dogmatic. 4 

Southern's next president, Denton E. Rebok 
(1942-1943), was a twenty-three-year veteran 
educator and administrator in China. For 
twelve of these years he had been a college 
president. Rebok held a master's degree from 
Emmanuel Missionary College. He spent just 
one year at SJC before leaving to become the 
president of the Seventh-day Adventist Theologi- 
cal Seminary. Kenneth Wright, his successor, 
stated, "While President Rebok remained but 
one year, his gracious and spiritual leadership 
made a lasting impression upon the College." 5 

Educated Educators 

he faculty as a whole was more 

I highly educated than it had been in 
Collegedale's pioneer period. Though 
the general tendency in Tennessee 
secondary schools during the Depres- 
sion was to relax educational standards for 
teachers, Southern — still primarily a second- 
ary school — was upgrading standards. By 
1935 two-thirds of the teachers had master's 

degrees and all but one had at least a 
bachelor's degree. The catalog even listed one 
faculty member with a doctorate: John E. 
Weaver, a former president of Walla Walla 
College, identified as an SJC "field representa- 
tive." But this was somewhat misleading: 
his real position was educational secretary for 
the Southern Union. However, the school has 
had doctorates on its teaching faculty ever 
since 1940 when it hired Paul Quimby to 
teach religion and pastor the Collegedale 
Church. The following year Dr. Daniel 
Walther and Dr. I. M. Gish were added. 6 

Quimby came to Southern from the 
presidency of the China Training Institute. 
Having worked with Chinese-speaking people 
for fourteen years, he at times thought in 
Chinese and lapsed into speaking it. He 
thrilled students with exciting stories from 
China which, coupled with a rich sense of 
humor, "kept even the one o'clock class 
awake." 7 

Walther, who was Swiss, also came to 
Southern from the presidency of an overseas 
Seventh-day Adventist institution: the 
Seminaire Adventiste du Saleve in Collonges- 
sous-Saleve, France. With his stimulating 
lectures well laced with stories and illustra- 
tions and his "tremendous sense of humor," he 
completely reversed many students' previously 
negative attitudes toward history. A doctorate 
from the University of Geneva, he taught 
American history from a Swiss perspective, 
calling attention to people of Swiss origin who 
"touched on American history." One year he 
gave the class a three-word examination. 
Arriving empty-handed on test day, he simply 
wrote on the board the words, "The American 
Revolution." Multilingual and multitalented, 
he played violin with the Chattanooga Sym- 
phony. 8 

Ira M. Gish, a graduate of Walla Walla 
College, had received his M.A. from the 
University of Washington and his Ph.D. from 
the University of Nebraska. Southern Junior 
College hired him as head of its teacher 
training department and helped him pay off 
his graduate study expenses. Described as 
bubbly, unique, and one-of-a-kind, he was a 
favorite of a close-knit group of 1942 education 
graduates who called themselves the "Gish- 
malites." 9 

But the backbone of the faculty, the 
teachers who contributed the most to the 
efforts of Klooster and his successors in facing 
the challenges of Depression and war, were 
not the earliest Ph.D.'s, whose terms of service 
were brief, but the hard-working, creative, 
flexible, loving, and dedicated teachers who 
showed an unselfish willingness to serve in 
many capacities beyond the classroom and 
who remained on the faculty for longer terms. 
Some of these teachers would, however, earn 
doctorates later, after many years of teaching, 
such as science and mathematics professor 
George Nelson, who joined the faculty in 1939 
and received his doctorate from the University 
of Colorado in 1947. He remained on the 
Collegedale campus until leaving for Loma 
Linda in 1955 and is remembered for being 
extremely knowledgeable, for having a dry 
sense of humor, and for keeping a cow in his 
back yard on what is now Morningside Drive. 10 

Collegedale's longest-tenured, early- 
Depression newcomer was D. C. Ludington, 
whose job description changed every few years 
during his twenty-three-year stay. Certified 
in a variety of fields, Ludington was willing to 
work wherever he was most needed: educa- 
tion, industrial arts, speech, English, the 
social sciences — even as principal of College- 
dale Academy. Remembered as "a low-key 


Chapter 4: Depression and War 

sort of impromptu sidewalk counselor" and 
also as ambidextrous, he would start writing 
on the board with his left hand and switch to 
his right hand. He and his wife sought to 
promote the arts, especially by the frequent 
"spur-of-the-moment musicals" at their home. 
Always ready hosts, they frequently invited 
college guests to stay at their home. 

Ludington was also very much involved 
in the religious life of the school. Year after 
year, he served on the religious activities 
committee and was repeatedly elected leader 
of the Young People's Missionary Volunteer 
Society, as well as its faculty adviser. He was 
also a deacon of the Collegedale Church and 
was personally involved in sharing Adventism 
with members of the community. 11 

Another teacher heavily involved in SJC's 
spiritual life, its recruitment program, and its 
musical organizations was history instructor J. 
Cecil Haussler. Haussler, who had attended 
Walla Walla College only to please his mother, 
had been something of a rebellious student at 
first, but had been converted largely because 
of his history professor, William Landeen. 12 

When he joined the faculty in 1928, the 
board agreed to let his wife, Doris, teach voice 
and piano for a percentage of her lesson fees. 
The next year she was promoted to head of 
the music department. While on the faculty 
she organized a four-part ladies' chorus, 
arranged and adapted "a new school song," 
conducted the college orchestra, taught a 
twelve-member class in hymn playing, and 
accompanied three young ladies from SJC as 
they sang on a department-store-sponsored 
radio broadcast promoting student-made 
aprons. 13 

Her husband also involved himself in the 
Collegedale musical program, generating 
favorable publicity for the college. He directed 

Harold A. Miller, noted composer of gospel songs, led the 1939-40 chorus. 

the church choir, a fifty-voice college chorus, 
and a male glee club; taught music directing 
to forty-five students; and sang solos on 
important occasions. He and Mrs. Haussler 
also took students from time to time to classi- 
cal concerts in Chattanooga. His men's glee 
club broadcast a concert over WFOV in Rome, 
Georgia. The station director offered the 
group a weekly program, but they considered 
Rome too far away. They did, however, 
broadcast regularly for a time over WDOD in 
Chattanooga, which led to invitations to sing 
in nearby churches. 14 

Nearly every summer Haussler traveled 
extensively in the South, visiting homes and 

attending camp meetings in search of poten- 
tial students. The college paid his salary, and 
the conferences through which he traveled 
paid his travel expenses. 15 

During the school year, Haussler carried 
a heavy program. Besides his musical activi- 
ties he taught all the history and government 
classes, and some Bible as well. He was 
responsible for some of the chapel programs, 
including one in which he organized a debate 
on the question of whether the United States 
should cancel the Allied war debts. He served 
on as many as four committees at a time, was 
Sabbath School adviser and also Sabbath 
School superintendent for much of the time, 


assisted in Week of Prayer meetings for a 
nearby congregation, actively participated in 
the Harvest Ingathering campaign, and, to 
help finance overseas missions, raised popcorn 
on "Haussler's Half Acre," across the railroad 
tracks from the school. 16 

When Haussler left in 1935 to become 
principal of Walla Walla's preparatory school, 
his successor as leader of musical organiza- 
tions was Harold Amadeus Miller, a noted 
composer of gospel songs. Under his leader- 
ship college musical organizations began 
traveling more extensively, going as far as 
Nashville, Knoxville, and Asheville, and the 
college choir began performing the Messiah 
annually with the Chattanooga Civic Chorus 
and Orchestra. Much of the music performed 
at graduation during the late 1930s was 
written by Miller. Although a number of his 
songs had been published in Rodeheaver's 
books and in the Church Hymnal, the Miller 
composition which had the greatest impact on 
the college was "Come on Down to Collegedale," 

A Harold Miller composed the spirited tune, "Come On 
Down to Collegedale. " 

Come On Down To Collegedale 




WjjjU w 


p -+ -3- 4 7+ 


Come ondownto Col-lege-dale, It's a goodplaceto be! Come 

jOJ - — K bi , .1 — *-k 


m»J t^ 






■0 ' a 

V* Jiiii'i'JU ^ 1 



on down to Col-lege-dale, Be as hap - py as we; We're 

Pf f fiFFF^I^P 


J= j=^ ^^S ^IZi 


in. / 



all one big fam-i - ly; Re - cruitswel-come as can be, Come 

jMp pc i p pi'^N jnp^pfTf 


t,M o 







on down to Col-lege dale, Join our big fam-ly tree 






Copyright 1936 by Harold A Miller. 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

▲ Robert W. Woods, 
physics and mathematics 

a spirited number written in 
1936 which the student body 
sang lustily. 17 

Miller used his musical 
talent in support of the spiritual 
mission of the college and of the 
Seventh-day Adventist Church, 
participating with his choir in 
evangelistic meetings and 
leading singing bands for the 
Harvest Ingathering campaign. 
Leading the singing for Friday 
night vespers while playing the 
piano is probably the image of 
Harold Miller most firmly etched 
in the memories of students from 
those years. He was also appre- 
ciated for his five-minute music appreciation 
periods with which he opened chapel. He 
would introduce the classical composition he 
was about to play and tell something about its 
background. Miller was at SJC from 1935 to 
1942, left to teach at Union College and then 
Pacific Union College, but returned after three 
years, remaining until 1953, when he retired. 18 

By 1939 the one 
teacher, next to 
Maude Jones, who 
had spent the most 
years at Collegedale 
was Myrtle Maxwell, 
a 1912 graduate of 
STS. She had 
arrived the same 
year as Maude Jones 
and in 1939 would 
have had a tenure 
equal to that of Miss 
Jones had it not 

been for the two 
A Stanley Brown, English , 

teacher and librarian. y ears she s P ent 

away from 1926 to 1928. During 
her first stay at Collegedale she 
served as preceptress; after return- 
ing she taught elementary school 
and summer school. Although 
during the academic year her 
classroom was in the elementary 
school, she was very much involved 
with the life of the college, serving 
on the religious activities, social 
activities, and library committees, 
presenting chapel programs for the 
college students, and holding vari- 
ous church offices. She, with two 
other people, organized the Little 
Girls Club, a forerunner of Path- 
finders. She also conducted a class 
in Christian storytelling. From time to time, 
she addressed the Home and School meeting 
on such topics as "Intellectual 
Training Suitable for Small 
Children" and "Children's Quar- 
rels and Fights." Her classroom, 
consisting of the first four grades, 
produced a "newspaper" and also 
had a musical group, sometimes 
called the "Toy Symphony Orches- 
tra." 19 

Robert W. Woods, physics 
and mathematics teacher through- 
out the Depression, was 
fascinated by radio; he operated 
two amateur radio stations and 
did technical work for Chatta- 
nooga station WDOD. Brilliant 
but absent-minded, Woods is said 
to have discovered the day before 
his high school graduation that he was one 
unit short. Staying up all night to read the 
textbook, he passed the examination for the 
missing course in time to receive his diploma. 

Allegedly, one 
Sabbath morning 
he was seen clip- 
ping his hedge, 
having forgotten 
what day it was. 20 
Six teachers 
arrived in College- 
dale between 1935 
and 1943 who 
remained on the 
faculty well into 
the 1950s, '60s, and 
even 70s. 21 Stanley 
Brown was the first 
to arrive and the 
last to leave, 

A George Dean, biology 
and chemistry teacher. 

A Olivia Brickman Dean, 
head of normal department 

serving from 1935 to 1972. When the South- 
ern Association of Colleges and Secondary 

Schools insisted in 1940 that the 
school employ a full-time librarian, 
the board chose Brown to fill that 
post. Students remember his 
skilled and deliberate use of an 
extensive vocabulary. 22 

Olivia Brickman Dean (1938- 
1972) taught grades five through 
eight for four years and was head 
of the teacher education depart- 
ment for seventeen years, 
simultaneously serving as elemen- 
tary school principal for nine of 
those years. After that she contin- 
ued teaching such education 
courses as methods in music, art, 
and reading. For a time she was 
also chairman of the art depart- 
ment and for about three years taught one or 
two sections of freshman composition, the 
assignment she probably enjoyed least. Her 
former students who entered the teaching 


A Century of Challenge 

profession describe her as "an excellent role 
model." 21 Joining the faculty a year later than 
his wife, George Dean was at first designated 
as a "graduate lab assistant." Shortly before 
he completed his master's program at the 
George Peabody College for Teachers, he 
received a regular faculty appointment in 
biology and chemistry. Remembered for his 

English Class Holds 
Outdoor Session 

Mrs. Dietel Entertains at 
Dew Drop Inn 

Last Thursday afternoon Mrs. 
Mary Dietel's English IV class con- 
sisting of thirteen members were 
happily surprised when they were 
loaded into a truck and hastened to a 
shady pasture path which led to a 
picturesque log cabin in the woods. 
After the students had inspected the 
cabin, signed in the cabin registry, 
and eaten sticks of ice cream, they sat 
down on the long rustic table in front 

kindness, his love of nature, and a dry sense of 
humor, he remained on the faculty until 1954. 24 

Theresa Brickman, a sister of Olivia 
Dean, was a teacher in business administra- 
tion from 1942 until 1963. She spent many 
hours patiently working with those who found 
shorthand difficult, "dictating over and over." 25 
Mary Holder Dietel also joined the faculty 
during this period. 
A former mission- 
ary to Spain, she 
taught Spanish, 
French, and En- 
glish and was at 
times dean of 
women. She 
remained on the 
faculty until her 
retirement in 1959. 
Having come to 
Collegedale so that 
her ten-year-old, 

of the cabin to read and act out 
extemporaneously the last selection 
in the textbook, "The Neighbors" by 
Zona Gale. The local color of the 
selection was intensified by the setting 
and the excellent imitation of the 
characters, the most outstanding of 
which was Johnny Walsh's assuming 
the part of grandmother in a high 
squeaky voice, girls being too few in 
the class. The three judges voted a 
double portion of ice cream at the close 
of the lesson to the best actors, 
William Whelpley and Ben Wheeler. 
The class was dismissed amid many 
expressions of thanks for the pleasant 
period and all walked home feeling 
that a class in the hot summer is not 
so bad after all. 

mniir nnnn i\T\Tti 

▲ Mary Dietel, 
English, Spanish, and 
French teacher. 

A Theresa Brickman, 
business administration. 

daughter Margarita 
could enjoy the 
country, ironically 
she lived with nine 
other families and 
single teachers in 
the Normal Build- 
ing for nine years 
before she was able 
to build her own 
home on a wooded, 
two-acre lot. 
Meanwhile, she 
hired some college 
students to build a 
log cabin known as 
"Dew Drop Inn," which she and Margarita — 
unable to afford vacations away from 
Collegedale — used as their vacation cabin. 26 

Stricken with crippling arthritis in 1947, 
she continued teaching for another twelve 
years, though getting ready for class — espe- 
cially combing her hair — had became an 
agonizing experience. Even after her arthri- 
tis-stiffened knee and some loose gravel 
caused her to fall and break her hip, she 
continued teaching for another seven years 
and took a group of Spanish students on a 
five-week tour of Mexico. Most of her stu- 
dents never realized the extent of her pain. 27 

Depression Finances 

outhern Junior College was finan- 
cially robust before the full impact of 
the Depression struck. Its ratio of 
total liabilities to current assets 
steadily decreased from 1926 to 1929, 
when its spokesman proclaimed the school free 
of debt. The school showed a profit every year 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

from 1927 to 1930. But even as the delegates 
to the 1930 constituency meeting rose to sing 
"Praise God, From Whom All Blessings Flow" 
over the good news, there was one overlooked 
item in the treasurer's report: the balance 
sheet showed an operating loss of $3,500 for 
the period of June 2, 1929, to January 28, 
1930. Buried in the rose-tinted avalanche of 
positive figures, it should have been an omi- 
nous warning that the school's financial 
condition wasn't as healthy as the report 
suggested. Apparently the school was able in 
the second half of the fiscal year to bring in 
enough money to compensate for the loss and 
actually show a small profit, but this was the 
last time for a long time that the balance 
would end in the black. Year after year the 
treasurer would have to report loss after loss. 
In 1931 income dropped $11,000 from that of 
the previous year. A key problem was the 
declining amount of cash received from stu- 
dents, $53,272 in fiscal 1928 to $17,188 in 
fiscal 1933. The school was so hard-pressed 
that even the tithe on student labor had 
become burdensome. The debt-free status 
quickly evaporated. By June 1931 the school 
held $3,300 in notes payable. By fiscal 1933 
administrators found it necessary to borrow 
$16,000. In March 1934, Klooster warned, 
"We have no reason to believe that the finan- 
cial condition in the world about us will be 
greatly improved, and therefore every effort 
must be made ... to see that not a dollar is 
spent unwisely." Alarmed, the board in 
November 1934 temporarily relieved the 
president and the treasurer of all teaching 
responsibilities so that they could more closely 
monitor the school's industries. 28 

Basic to Southern's problems was a 
decline in enrollment caused by the nation- 
wide Depression. With the exception of the 


#•*&*« - " • -■ -: 

Claim Ooltewah School Gives 
. Unfair Competition. 

Ten Plaintiff* Declare Work 

Solicited for Students in 

Violation of Charter. 

Ten Chattanooga printing firms yes- 
terday filed a bill In chancery court 
against the Southern Junior college, lo- 
cated near Ooltewah, seeking to enjoin 
U from engaging in the printing busi- 
ness in competition with the Chatta- 
nooga concerns. 

The operators of printing establish- 
ments who entered the litigation 
against the college were the Angel 
Printing company, Chattanooga Print- 
ing and Engraving company, George 
Barber Printing company, Arcade 
Printing company, Galyon Printing 
company, Ling Printing company, Purse 
Printing company. Target Printing 
company, Standard Printing company 
and Intertype Composing company. 

The Southern Junior college is a 
Seventh-Day Adventist institution. At- 
torney J. B. Sizer, who filed the suit 
for the printing companies, said yes- 
terday that he would not ask Chan- 
cellor W. B. Garvin to Issue a flat for 
a temporary Injunction for the time 

The bill alleged that the college Is 
violating the provisions of its charter 
in that it is operating a business' from 
which it collects a profit and is in 
competition "with taxpaylng concerns. 
The college Is not subject to taxation 
by reason of its public welfare charter, 
the bill alleged. The. charter was ob- 
tained in 1919.. 

The Chattanooga concerns, the bill 
stated, are paying taxes and giving em- 
ployment to many people. It was the 
belief of the plaintiffs that the college 
Is using student labor for which it pays 
nothing to do its printing. . For^this 
reason and for the further reason that 
the institution does* not have to pay 
taxes it can undersell the Chattanooga 
concerns. It was charged. - - 

Poi-. the purpose of carrying on Its 
Chattanooga business the college has 
acquired an office here, maintains a 
force and a telephone, according to the 
allegation^ , •'. '• , v,,'.., 

A portion of the charter was "• In- 
cluded in the bill. It stated among 
other things that, the Institution . was 
created to foster'' religious training, 
education in fine arts and various other 
similar activities-, n -' . *•••'. 'i- !. 
—■ ■ t*Jurf$fc 

1929-30 school year, the decline was continu- 
ous, dropping from 300 in 1927-28 to a low of 
194 in 1932-33. Although college enrollment 
had been steadily rising to 75 in 1931-32, it 
suffered a precipitous decline in 1932-33, 
dropping to 45. Fewer students meant 
smaller income. Other setbacks resulted from 
the failure of an Ooltewah bank, wiping out 
the school's deposits but not its loans; a 
tornado in July 1931 that did nearly $3,000 
worth of damage; and the accumulation of 
uncollected accounts amounting to $30,000 by 
1938. 29 

Part of the income decline was self- 
inflicted: in an attempt to halt enrollment 
erosion, the college slashed tuition rates. For 
the 1931-32 school year the combined total for 
room expense and tuition was cut from $248 
to $180. This was partially compensated for 
by restoring the free-labor requirement of six 
hours per week, which had been abandoned in 
1928. Even counting the value of the free 
labor, estimated at $.20 an hour, the total 
annual expenses were reduced by $25. 30 

To balance tuition reductions, teacher 
compensation was also slashed. Salaries were 
reduced by 10 percent as of January 1932, 
another cut of up to 10 percent became effec- 
tive in July 1932, and a third cut of up to 10 
percent went into effect in July 1933. For 
much of the time teachers at SJC, like those 
at many other Tennessee schools, received 
part of their salaries in coupons redeemable at 
places like the college store and the school 
garage. In August 1932 one teacher, whose 
weekly salary at the time was $18, had the 
audacity to ask for a raise. The board, "after 
carefully reviewing his connection with the 
college," dismissed him. Paid vacations were 
reduced from two weeks to one, and mileage 
reimbursement for using one's automobile on 

The Normal Building, also called 
"the demonstration school," served as 
a laboratory for teachers in training. 

school business was also re- 
duced. Tuition discounts for 
sons and daughters of faculty 
members were retroactively 
reduced in 1934 to 15 percent of 
the portion of the tuition paid in 
cash. Again, Southern Junior 
College was not alone in reduc- 
ing teacher compensation and 
paying by scrip. 31 

Another way SJC tried to 
halt enrollment decline and to 
attract more students was by 
expanding industrial employ- 
ment opportunities. This 
resulted in an increase in the 
amount earned by students from 
$2,462 in fiscal 1926 to $51,438 
in fiscal 1933. By March 1934 
Klooster was reporting, "Only 
three students are meeting their accounts 
from month to month by payment of cash." 32 

As it tried to attract students by increas- 
ing work-study opportunities, SJC faced a 
basic paradox: the same Depression that 
made such expansion necessary would also 
make it difficult for the school's industries to 
market their products. One way of meeting 
this problem was to demand preferential 
treatment. Using a barter-type strategy cut 
from the same cloth as the teachers' scrip 
payments, some college purchases were made 
conditional upon the suppliers' buying a 
certain amount of products produced by the 
school industries. 33 

The industrial expansion had the desired 

effect: total enrollment climbed from 194 in 
1932-33 to 248 in 1933-34. By 1936-37 it was 
358. However, most of the industries were 
losing money. The most important exception 
was the College Press, which earned a signifi- 
cant profit largely offsetting the losses. Thus, 
the very existence of the school was at stake 
when a group of Chattanooga printers success- 
fully brought suit to force Southern Junior 
College to abandon the commercial printing 
business. The court's decision, based on the 
fact that the school's charter didn't say it 
could engage in commercial enterprises, was 
sidestepped by the formation of Collegedale 
Industries, Inc. 34 

Another threat to the school's survival 

was the National Recovery Act, which — in 
some industries — imposed wages substantially 
higher than those which had been paid for 
student labor. The college was forced to 
respond with stratospheric increases in tuition 
and other student charges. Annual tuition 
rose from $112.50 in 1933-34 to $528.00 in 
1934-35. However, provision was made for 
students working in college industries but not 
receiving these hyper-inflated wages to receive 
instead tuition certificates in the amount of 
the wage-scale differential. These could be 
used to pay up to two-thirds of class fees and 
tuition charges. When the Supreme Court 
overturned the National Recovery Act, the 
charges for tuition, room, and board returned 

to more normal levels. College students 
taking a full load in 1935-36, or even in 1938- 
39, paid only $130 a year. Even with wartime 
inflation and compliance with the Fair Labor 
Standards Act, collegiate tuition cost only 
$162 by the 1942-43 school year, less than 31 
percent of the 1934-35 rate. 35 

A third method of attracting students was 
the offering of scholarships. The board in 
1930 set up a scholarship fund with each of 
the constituent conferences, the two constitu- 
ent union conferences, and the college 
contributing. A scholarship was offered to one 

student from each of the constituent confer- 
ences on the basis of scholastic achievement, 
cooperation with and loyalty to his or her local 
church, reputation in his or her community, 
and promise of leadership in denominational 
work. Originally the amount of the scholar- 
ship was $100, but in 1932 the amount given 
each recipient was cut in half. Instead of 
giving just one scholarship per conference, one 
was given for each denominationally accred- 
ited school of ten or more grades in the newly 
expanded Southern Union, comprising the 
1932-merged Southern and Southeastern 

•^ The college dining hall, built in 
Jones Hall in the '30s. 

Unions. By 1943 the number of scholarships 
was increased from 11 to 14. 36 

Things began looking up for the teachers 
in 1934 when the board raised wages to the 
level they had been prior to the last 10 per- 
cent cut. In 1936 the board restored the 
two-week paid vacation. For the 1942-43 
school year women teachers were scheduled to 
receive between $17.50 and $27.50 a week, 
male teachers between $19.00 and $37.00 a 
week. Because of wartime inflation these 
rates were increased by 10 percent at least 
twice that year. 37 

The institution's overall financial situa- 
tion also began to show improvement. Notes 
payable declined to $333 in 1936; by the end 
of the decade the school was again debt-free; 
and for the 1940-41 school year the books 
showed a net operating gain of $8,437. By 
1940 the college president reported a collec- 
tions rate of nearly 100 percent. 38 

The college had continued expanding 
facilities and increasing acreage during the 
good years. Amazingly, it continued this 
expansion during the hard times as well, 
buying adjacent real estate in order to prevent 
"colonization in the vicinity of the school." 
Much additional capital expenditure was for 
agricultural and industrial plant and equip- 
ment, so badly needed to provide additional 
jobs for students. More capital was expended 
to upgrade the library and the science labora- 
tories in preparation for accreditation. 39 The 
normal and manual arts buildings, a dining 
hall, an expansion of the girls' dormitory, and 
additional faculty housing comprised the 
major non-industrial construction projects. 


A Century of Challenge 

The Normal Building was the last aca- 
demic building to be completed before the 
Depression hit. It served the college educa- 
tion department and the laboratory 
elementary school. The fifteen rooms on the 
upper floor were divided into seven to ten 
apartments of from one to three rooms each, 
none with a bathroom or sink. One single 
bathroom and a sink at either end of the hall 
served all inhabitants. Inadequately insu- 
lated, the upper floor was unbearably hot in 
summer. Several teachers' cottages were 
constructed during the Depression, including a 
stone house for the president, built at a cost of 
$5,770. A teacher's daughter recalls that in 
comparison with the "substandard housing" of 
the other faculty members, this new cottage 
was "considered impressive." Also built 
during this period were a $5,000 manual arts 
building, equipped at a cost of $3,300, and a 
$5,200 dining hall, furnished at a cost of 
$1,800. In addition, the Georgia-Cumberland 
Conference built a camp meeting pavilion 

▲ The Georgia-Cumberland Conference built a camp meeting pavilion known as the "Tabernacle," which the 
school used as a gym and later as a church. 

A Teachers' cottages were built during the Depression 
president's home, built at a cost of $5,770. 

This one became the 

In 1941, a 28-room addition to Jones Hall was completed. 


Chapter 4: Depression and War 

known as the "Tabernacle," which the school 
used as a gymnasium and later as a church. 40 

As the college emerged from the Depres- 
sion, the major building project was another 
twenty-eight-room expansion of the girls' 
dormitory, completed in 1941. In addition, the 
campus road was paved, tennis courts and a 
ball diamond were built, a major landscaping 
project was undertaken, and the dining room 
enlarged. 41 

During the Depression and the years that 
followed, church subsidies were especially 
important for two very dissimilar reasons: to 
enable the school to survive the financial crisis 
and to make accreditation possible. The 
Southern Association of Schools and Colleges 
required junior colleges to have an annual 
income of at least $10,000 from sources other 
than the students. Operating subsidies from 
conferences averaged a little over $5,500 a 
year from 1929 to 1933, and capital donations 
from conferences during those years ranged 
from a high of $18,402 in 1929 to $3,302 in 
1933. Beginning in 1935, to meet the South- 
ern Association requirement, the constituent 
conferences and the Southern Union provided 
annual operating subsidies of $10,000. 
Another subsidy source at least part of the 
time was the Florida Sanitarium and Hospital. 
The Southern Publishing Association assisted 
the school directly by donating library books 
and song books and indirectly by providing 
books at half price for the fund-raising "relief 
campaigns." 42 

Alumni families were another source of 
capital funds. Especially important were 
former STS and SJC teacher and alumna 
Gradye Brooke Summerour and her husband 
B. F. Summerour, a member of the board, who 
gave thousands of dollars toward the dormi- 
tory addition, toward building an infirmary, 

A Treasurer George Fuller became postmaster in 
1929 when the Collegedale Post Office was 
established and operated out of the college store. 

and toward purchasing a grand piano for the 
music studio. 43 

Additional income during the 1930s came 
from the college insurance agency, operated by 
treasurer George Fuller, which earned the 
school more than $1,000 a year for several 
years. George Fuller was also involved in 
another source of income for the college — the 
Collegedale Post Office, established in June 
1929 and operated out of the college store. 
Until it was upgraded from fourth- to third- 

class in 1931, the post office also was a place 
where students could earn some of their 
expenses. A much smaller source of income 
was the $10 monthly rental that the College- 
dale Church began paying in 1927 for the use 
of the administration building. 44 

Producing Denominational 

ecause the school was dedicated to 
*J| carrying forward the mission of the 
church, the denomination generously 
invested in SJC, whose primary 
assignment was still seen as prepar- 
ing workers for denominational service. The 
college charter had specifically stated that its 
particular intent was "to establish and main- 
tain a college in which . . . studies necessary 
to the training of ministers of the gospel and 
missionaries in foreign and home fields, Bible 
teachers, colporteurs, and Christian workers 
in various lines of religious, benevolent, and 
philanthropical work shall be taught." There 
was no ambiguity in Leo Thiel's 1924 declara- 
tion: "The primary purpose of the Southern 
Junior College has been to train workers to 
hasten the spread of the third angel's mes- 
sage." Similarly, in 1941, J. C. Thompson 
described SJC as "the training school for white 
gospel workers" in its constituent territory. 45 
The school frequently published statistics to 
show that nearly all of its recent graduates 
were either denominational employees or 
pursuing additional studies. 46 

Looking back from a perspective of half a 
century and more, one can say that Southern 
alumni between 1927 and 1943 have served 
their church well in denominational employ- 
ment, amply repaying the denomination's 


A Century of Challenge 

investment in their education through service 
to God and humanity. 47 

Promoting Adventism 

Pn addition to educating potential 
denominational employees, Southern 
was training its students to share in 
the financing of the denomination's 
worldwide mission. Harvest Ingather- 
ing continued to be a major annual project. 
Although in the early Depression years the 
amount collected dropped, during the late 
1930s and early 1940s, the campaign usually 
collected more than $2,500 a year. Addition- 
ally, in the late 1920s and early 1930s the 
school held field days in the spring when 
students sold literature to raise money for the 
extension of Adventist missions. 48 

Students and faculty members also 
supported the church financially through their 
tithes and offerings. The tithes came to more 
than $5,000 a year during the early 1930s. 
The annual Week of Sacrifice offerings ranged 
in the neighborhood of $500 a year in the late 
1920s and early 1930s, and Sabbath School 
mission offerings averaged about $1,700. 
Beyond vicariously promoting Adventism 
financially, students and faculty members 
personally participated in its promotion, 
distributing literature, giving Bible studies, 
and conducting Sabbath services and evange- 
listic meetings in many surrounding 
communities. 49 

Undoubtedly, there was nothing more 
important to the faculty than SJC's spiritual 
impact upon its own students. During the 
Thompson administration each student was 
assigned to a faculty member who was to act 
as a "personal counsel and friend" in all areas 
of life, but especially the spiritual. "We want 
the approval of heaven upon all our plans and 
activities," Thompson said. Klooster encour- 

A. key participant in the school's evangelistic 

outreach was Robert H. Pierson. During his student years 

he held several evangelistic series, served as Young People's 

Missionary Volunteer leader and senior class pastor, and 

worked his way through school at the dairy and later as a 

night watchman. From two of those series in 1932 and 1933 

at Igou Gap, a congregation of twenty members was 

organized, which later moved to Standifer Gap. 

At the end of the 1933 summer session, Pierson 

became a denominational employee, conducting meetings in 

Albany and Columbus, Georgia. From 1937-1966 he served 

the church in such diverse areas as India, the British West Indies, and Africa, as 

well as in brief North American assignments. In 1966 he was elected president of 

the General Confer- 
ence of Seventh-day 
Adventists, a 
position he held until 
retirement in 1979. An 
author of numerous 
articles and books, he is 
remembered as a man 
who fervently loved his 
Lord. 85 

Early photo of Robert 
and Dollis Pierson and 
their sons. 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

aged his faculty to plan chapel services and 
lessons that would help students to grow 
spiritually. The faculty was not only conse- 
crated but orthodox, according to J. K. Jones, 
then president of the Southern Union Confer- 
ence: "No one can justly claim heresy is 
taught in this school." 50 

One of the ways the college promoted 
student spirituality was to conduct two reviv- 
alistic weeks of spiritual emphasis each year. 
Prominent Adventist leaders were frequently 
brought in to conduct these Weeks of Prayer, 
including former SJC president Lynn H. 
Wood, now holding a Ph.D. and serving as a 
professor at the Seventh-day Adventist Theo- 
logical Seminary; Meade MacGuire, a general 
field secretary for the General Conference; 
H. H. Votaw, associate secretary of the Gen- 
eral Conference Religious Liberty Department; 
Frederick Lee, associate editor of the Advent 
Review and Sabbath Herald; C. S. Longacre, 
editor of Liberty; W. G. Turner, a vice-presi- 
dent of the General Conference; and F. G. 
Ashbaugh, Young People's Missionary Volun- 
teer secretary for the Pacific Union 
Conference. During the Week of Prayer the 
speaker delivered two one-hour sermons a 
day — at the morning chapel hour and at 
worship time in the evening. Prayer bands 
were held just before the evening service. 
Weeks of Prayer usually ended with a baptis- 
mal service or the organization of a baptismal 
class. The number of students baptized 
each year generally ranged between four- 
teen and twenty-five. 51 

The Weeks of Prayer were just a small 
part of the numerous religious services the 
school required its students to attend. Even 
village students were required to be present 
at all the weekend religious services, includ- 
ing Sabbath School, church, and also the 

Young People's Missionary Volunteer meet- 
ing. In addition to weekend services, 
students were expected to attend chapel and 
evening worship every day. 52 

The most beloved of these services 
seems to have been Friday evening vespers: 
beautiful music, inspirational talks by one 
of the teachers, followed by testimonies. 
Students would stand up one by one and tell 
about their personal spiritual experience, 
praise the Lord, renew their commitment to 
Him, express their thanks, or request the 
prayers of their fellow students. Fre- 
quently, students would tell of how their 
parents, despite a lack of funds, had stepped 
out in faith to send their sons and daugh- 
ters to a Christian school, and how — in 
answer to prayer — the Lord had blessed and 
funds had come in, many times unexpect- 
edly. One boy told how his mother, having 
absolutely no funds, had been praying for 
the money to send her son to Collegedale. 
While they were praying, a man who had 
owed her money for over a year, came to 
pay his bill. Almost every student would 
give a testimony each Friday night, some- 
times as many as 206. Such voluntary 
statements of spiritual commitment gave 
credence to Klooster's 1932 report affirming 
the students' loyalty to the college's spiri- 
tual ideals and interest in the 
denomination's spiritual program. 53 


Ef Lynn Wood thought he had buried 
the accreditation question, he was 
mistaken. As soon as Klooster's first 
academic year was behind him, he 
began pushing for accreditation. The 
first step was to get the secondary school 

program certified. Hiring decisions began to 
be influenced with an eye to pleasing accredit- 
ing bodies. When this caused some dissension 
within the faculty, teachers were specifically 
asked to refrain from discussing the issue in 
the presence of students. By adjusting the 
teaching staff and reorganizing this curricu- 
lum, the secondary school in the fall of 1930 
was accredited by both the Southern Associa- 
tion and the Tennessee State Department of 
Education, whereupon the board authorized 
SJC to begin working toward junior college 
accreditation and Klooster began urging that 
some of the college teachers be sent to gradu- 
ate school and stressing the need for more 
college-level students in order to meet the 
Association's requirements. It took a firm 
determination on Klooster's part to keep 
pressing the issues for accreditation at the 
very time the school was staggering under 
Depression-caused budget deficits and enroll- 
ment declines. But Klooster asserted that "a 
considerable number" of Adventist young 
people were going elsewhere because SJC 
wasn't accredited. 64 

The accreditation drive was given ur- 
gency in the summer of 1933 when word 
arrived from the College of Medical Evange- 
lists that after the 1933-34 school year it could 
no longer accept students from unaccredited 
junior colleges. Four other Adventist colleges 
had received either senior or junior college 
accreditation by 1933, but the Southern 
Association denied SJC's application that year, 
stating that it couldn't possibly approve the 
junior college without some faculty changes. 
SJC reapplied the following year; again its 
application was denied. 55 

M. C. Huntley, the Southern Association 
executive secretary, spelled out the 
association's reasons for the rejection: its 


A Century of Challenge 

\°^JT ^cumSm l3^i}! { 

We take pleasure in announcing to our 
constituency that the application of 
Southern Junior College for membership 
in the Southern Association of Colleges 
was favorably acted upon at the 
meeting of the association held early 
in December. Hereafter there will be 
no embarrassment to students who enroll 
for premedical, teacher training or other 
courses where legal restrictions apply. 
While we are gratified that the association 
has seen fit to approve the school, we are 
even happier over the fact that no princi- 
ple vital to the interests of our people or 
our work has in the least been compro- 
mised in order to secure this recognition. 
On the contrary, we have had a remark- 
able opportunity to bring to the attention 
of leading educators the system of Chris- 
tian education sponsored by Seventh-day 
Adventists and have been gratified to 
find that the sound principles of Christian 
education here commanded the respect, 
confidence, and admiration of these men. 
H. J. Klooster. 

salaries were inadequate, some classes were 
too large, and the president was carrying too 
heavy a load. In addition, the system of 
financial reporting needed to be revamped "to 
show clearly income from industries which 
would not be affected by school operation or 
students in school." Moreover, the library 
holdings were insufficient, "continuation 
record of students" was incomplete, and a 
physical education program was lacking. 56 

Believing it would improve chances of 
acceptance by the Southern Association, SJC 
joined the Tennessee State College Associa- 
tion. Finally, in 1936, Southern Junior 
College was granted admission to the South- 
ern Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. Within the next two or three years it 
secured listing in the U. S. Office of 
Education's Educational Directory, obtained 
elementary teacher education accreditation 
from the state of Tennessee, and joined sev- 
eral other organizations of junior colleges, 
private schools, and other educational institu- 
tions. Accrediting bodies encouraged SJC to 
obtain more books for its 7,000-volume library, 
hire a full-time librarian, hold a series of 
twelve programs to enable the students to 
learn something about library science, reject 
credit for correspondence courses, exercise 
more selectivity in accepting students, up- 
grade teachers' educational level, and keep in 
touch with alumni as a means of determining 
the effectiveness of their education. 57 

Junior college accreditation was gratify- 
ing, but Klooster had begun agitating for 
senior college status as early as 1929. He 
traveled to Washington, urging church leader- 
ship to make plans in this direction by 
permitting the school to offer the fifteenth 
grade during the 1930-31 school year. In May 
1930 the board unanimously adopted a memo- 

rial to the General Conference for permission 
to become a senior college and even initiated a 
contest to select a senior college name, autho- 
rizing a $100 prize for the winning entry. 58 

The issue failed in 1933 and lay relatively 
dormant during the rest of the decade, until in 
1940 a letter from Chester C. Fink, registrar 
of the College of Medical Evangelists, revived 
the issue with compelling significance: CME 
was complying with an American Medical 
Association recommendation that three years 
of college be required for admission to medical 
school. Henceforth, students graduating from 
Southern Junior College would have to take a 
third year elsewhere before going to Loma 
Linda, a requirement that could discourage 
premedical students from attending Southern 
at all, especially since the AMA had deleted 
all junior colleges from its approved list. In 
other words, only a few years after the hard- 
fought battle for accreditation had been won, 
the most important advantage of such recogni- 
tion was being taken away. Added to this was 
the passage of the Selective Service Act, also 
in 1940. Ministerial students desiring draft 
exemption could feel more secure in attending 
a school that offered a four-year theology 
degree. By October 1941 the board seemed 
unanimous in the belief that the time had 
come; it set up a committee to study both the 
denomination's and the Southern Association's 
requirements for senior college status. 59 

Academic Standards 

uring the Klooster, Thompson, and 
f^fc g Rebok administrations, Southern took 
WM a number of steps to upgrade 

academic standards. One of these was 
to regulate the relationship between 
the amount of time a student spent working off 


Chapter 4: Depression and War 

his expenses and the amount of class work he or 
she was permitted to take. In 1927 the faculty 
decreed that students earning 100 percent of 
their expenses were permitted to take only two 
subjects unless they had special permission and 
that no one working more than four hours a day 
was permitted to take a full load of classes. This 
was modified to twenty-five hours a week in 1933 
and reduced to twenty hours a week in 1934. In 
1933 a student taking a half load could work as 
much as he or she wanted to, but in 1934 the 
half-time student was limited to a maximum of 
forty hours of labor a week. In 1933 special 
evening classes were offered for those unable to 
attend daytime classes because of their work 
schedule. 60 

Prerequisites for entering the collegiate 
program were a diploma from an accredited 
secondary school that represented at least 
sixteen units, including three of English, two 
of mathematics, two of social science, one or 
two units of science, one unit of vocational 
education and two units of a foreign language. 
All registering students had to take a series of 
examinations in English, spelling, handwrit- 
ing, reading comprehension, and intelligence, 
as well as a physical examination. Students 
not receiving a satisfactory score on the 
fundamentals of English were required to take 
a non-credit introduction to English course. 61 


Held —Nov. 18, 1928 

SPELLING Moved that the following recommendations on Standards for 
STANDARDS graduates, and standards for spelling be accepted. 

(a) That a standard test in Grammar and in Spelling 
be given to all candidates for graduation both 

in college and academic courses, and that a grade 
of 90$ be required for passing. 

(b) That these tests be given within the first 

(c) That in case of failure the candidate for graduation 
be required to pursue the foregoing subjects in a 
class until he can meet the requirements. 

(d) That a general examination in Spoelling be given 

at zhe end of each six week period, and that those 
receiving a grade below 90$ be required to enroll 
in the Spelling class. 
(e)That in "the written work of all students 1/2 $ 
be taken off for every misspelled word, and that 
an individual losing as many as five points, also 
join the spelling class. 
(f) That no student be penalized to the extent of failure 
bv the of these five ooints. 

Students receiving F's in two or more 
subjects were subject to expulsion. Gradua- 
tion required a C average. Some of the final 
examinations were standardized tests pre- 
pared by the General Conference, which the 


OCTOBER 20, 1929 

10:00 A.M. 


The grades of students are to be evaluated according to the scale of 


grading as given in the current Catalog: A, 9&-100; E, 90-94;- C, 

85-89; D, 80-84; E, 75-80; F, Failure; I, Incomplete. 

teachers themselves didn't see until half an 
hour before the tests were administered. 62 
Correct spelling was a major concern. 
Students misspelling more than ten words on 
a given assignment in any course were placed 
in a special spelling class. Every student was 
expected to attend a drill in spelling, hand- 
writing, grammar, or some other basic skill for 
up to thirty minutes a day, four days a week. 
In order to graduate from either the academy 
or the junior college — or even to be admitted 
to the senior class — students had to receive a 
score of 90% on examinations in grammar, 
spelling, and handwriting. The spelling test 
in 1931 was based on a list of six hundred 
words distributed by the English teachers on a 


A Century of Challenge 

Monday. The examination was given the 
following Friday. So many failed the test that 
the faculty, deciding to give the students a 
second chance, added four hundred words and 
another school week in which to master the 
whole thousand. 63 

SJC also encouraged the use of correct 
grammar through special weeks set aside as 
Good English Week. During Good English 
Week a variety of chapel programs promoted 
not only correct usage but also vocabulary 
development, the choice of good literature, and 
correct pronunciation. One of these chapel 
programs featured a dramatic "Trial for the 
Murder of the King's English." For Good 
English Week one year each student was 
given a badge which had to be surrendered to 
anyone catching him or her making a mistake 
in English. A prize was given to the student 
collecting the most badges. The winner, Ottis 
Walker, accumulated thirty-two. 64 

During the Klooster administration the 
faculty did not give grades of A, B, C, etc. 
until the fall of 1929 when the General Con- 
ference Board of Regents called for a uniform 
system of grading. Prior to that, grades were 
given as the numbers "1" through "4", with "4" 
representing failure, defined as any score less 
than 75%. The letter C for "condition" was 
given a student whose work was incomplete. 
Until 1938 both before and after the adoption 
of letter grades, grades were assigned on a 
uniform percentage basis. When letter grades 
were used, an A was defined as 94% or more, 
the lowest B was 88%, the lowest C was 81%, 
and the lowest D 75%. Students making up 
incomplete work could not get any grade 
higher than a D without a special vote by the 
faculty. 65 

No grades were given to a student absent 
for 15 percent of any class, whether or not the 

absence was excused. Students whose exces- 
sive absences were due to serious illnesses or 
circumstances completely beyond the student's 
control could appeal to the faculty for an 
exemption. Three unexcused absences in one 
semester could bring a penalty up to five 
hours of free labor. Absences occurring just 
before or after a holiday or vacation were 
counted double. 66 

Changes in the academic programs 
during the Depression years included elimi- 
nating the secondary music program in 1928, 
as well as the Bible workers' curriculum, and 
even the theological course in 1935. Students 
preparing for the ministry were advised to 
register for the associate in arts program. In 
1940, nineteen students were considered pre- 
ministerial. Every program that survived the 
period 1927-1943 at least underwent a change 
of name. The "academic course" became "the 
collegiate preparatory course" and then the 
"college preparatory department"; the junior 
literary program became the associate in arts 
degree, the collegiate normal program became 
elementary teacher training, and collegiate 
business became business administration. 
Some new programs were added, most of 
which were short-lived, including secretarial 
and home economics. The only new program 
which continued during the war years was 
science, introduced in 1928. The school year, 
longer than that of many Southern schools, 

generally ran from early September to late 
May with just one day off for Thanksgiving 
and as few as two days and no more than 
seven school days for Christmas. 67 

Social Guidelines 

lthough the faculty worked to upgrade 
its academic standards during the 
Depression years and the war period 
that followed, the term "School of 
Standards" was often used to refer 
to Southern's behavior code. 68 This code 
maintained ideas about proper Christian 
decorum that at one time had been common to 
many church institutions but which by the 
1930s had been elsewhere relaxed. The aim of 
school discipline, The Southland declared, was 
"to develop character of the highest type" and 
"to encourage a social climate conducive to 
study, work, and the development of mature, 
responsible social relationships." 

Dress, particularly that of young women, 
continued to be a concern. The 1934-35 catalog 
set forth the general principle: "All extremes . . . 
should be avoided, and in the whole wardrobe 
health, good taste, modesty, and economy should 
be considered." An additional special leaflet 
spelled out the details. At the outset of his 
administration, Klooster advised faculty mem- 
bers to check students to see if they were 
observing the dress standards. Instead of 



SEPTEMBER 29, 1929 
10:00 A.M. 

Voted that Tuesdays and Thursdays be boys' days to go to Ooltewah, and 
Mondays and Wednesdays girls' days. 

Upon motion meeting adjourned. 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

requiring that all girls, 
regardless of height, have 
skirts that came within 
twelve inches of the floor, 
the new rule stated that 
the skirts must cover one 
third of the distance 
between the floor and the 
middle of the kneecap of a 
young woman in stocking 
feet. As the girls were 
leaving for meetings, their 
dean occasionally stood at 
the door with a yardstick, 
measuring the question- 
able skirts and sending the 
wearers back to change if the numbers weren't 
right. For the first violation a student was 
reprimanded; for the second, the student was 
called before the dress committee; for the third, 
suspended; for the fourth, expelled. 69 

Social relationships were also a matter of 
concern. Particularly in the early years of this 
period when almost three-fourths of the 
student body were young, immature academy 
students, the administration encouraged only 
"large group associations." The school banned 
escorting, flirting, and the walking of couples 
together. Boys and girls still had separate 
"strolling grounds" and could go to town only 
on different days of the week, though the 
faculty did permit them to sit together on 
some special occasions such as the boys' open 

The right to visit together in the parlor 
was granted to boys of twenty and girls of 
eighteen (raised to nineteen in 1934) who were 
"in good and regular standing," had a satisfac- 
tory scholastic record, and had permission 
from both parents. On school hikes boys 
couldn't hold hands with girls so they would 

cut little sticks, and the boy would hold one 
end and the girl would hold the other. The 
rule against marriage during the school year 
was made even stricter in 1937: students who 
married before the completion of their entire 
junior college program were to be expelled. 
One rule regarding boy-girl relations, however, 
was relaxed: in the early 1920s the faculty 
had disapproved of the boys serenading the 
girls, a ban lifted in 1929.™ 

We are happy almost beyond measure. 

And we hope 'twill bring you delight; 
For to have you as guests will be pleasure. 

At our home on next Sunday night. 

the boys of south hall 

April 5. 1936 
7:30 O'clock 

The Sojuconians 

he Sojuconians, the student 
association, still appears to have been 
primarily a fund-raising organization. 
In 1928 it endeavored to raise $1,000 
for a campus fund by a letter-writing 
campaign. Using the slogan, "Lend a hand for 
the concert grand," students sent out at least 
1,986 letters and raised nearly $1,500 for a 
grand piano during the 1929-30 school year. 
Students raising $25 or more were rewarded 
with a Sunday excursion to Lookout Mountain. 
As the Depression deepened, fund-raising 
campaigns became more difficult. During the 
1930-31 school year the students tried to raise 
$1,500 to expand and improve the school's 
library collection and equipment. Again a trip 
to Lookout Mountain — with a free dinner in 
Chattanooga as well — was offered to students 
raising at least $25. Those raising more than 
$50 were promised exemption from library, 
medical, and matriculation fees, and the 
person raising the most money over $50 was 
awarded a Shaeffer pen and pencil set. But 
money came in very slowly, and the campaign 
officially closed short of its goal. Presumably 
to keep the students from feeling discouraged, 
school officials transferred $600 — the portion 
of the student matriculation fees earmarked 
for the library — to the campaign fund. Still, 
the total raised by the end of the campaign 
came to only $1,216. The following year the 
Sojuconians, attempting to raise enough 
money to complete the new dining room, 
collected only $685. 71 

Apparently discouraged, the Sojuconians 
tried to campaign for something less directly 
monetary. With a youth congress scheduled 
for Collegedale, the students wrote hundreds 
of letters encouraging Southern young people 


A Century of Challenge 

to attend. However, the Southern 
Tidings reported, "Responses from 
the young people out in the field are 
coming in rather slowly." 72 

Since the dormitory hall floors 
were "as bare as a sidewalk," the 
Sojuconians tried another fund- 
raising campaign in the spring of 

1934, but one that was less ambi- 
tious. Students attempted to raise 
$1,000 for linoleum and stair treads 
to cover the floors and stairways. 
Again they came short of their goal, 
raising only $712, which was at 
least more than they had received in 
1931-32. Again, in the spring of 

1935, the Sojuconians attempted to 
raise $1,000, this time to complete 
the girls' dormitory porch. Results 
of this campaign were not reported 
and perhaps discouraged the 
Sojuconians from further attempts 
at fund-raising. The next reference to a 
student campaign doesn't come until 1941, 
and even then it was more an undertaking of 
the alumni association than of the student 
body. Meanwhile, it appears that the 
Sojuconian student association had ceased to 
exist. 73 

Although the girls continued to call their 
dormitory club Joshi Jotatsu Kai, the boys' 
club emerged from the Depression with a new 
name. Formerly called the Better Men's 
Society, in January 1939 it became known as 
the Triangle Club. During the Depression the 
Better Men's Society had sold ice cream and 
popcorn, with the proceeds furnishing the 
second and third floor lobbies of their dormi- 
tory. In the early 1940s some of the village 
students organized the Mystery Club, with 
monthly meetings in Glen Starkey's recreation 
room. 74 

A The Triangle Club of 1939, the dormitory club in South Hall with an objective 
to "cultivate in its members the triangle of essentials of Christian manhood: 
physical, mental and spiritual powers." 

Other clubs included the Oratorial Soci- 
ety, which conducted debates, the Art Club, 
the Future Teachers of America, the 
Sojuconian Literary Society, and the Premedi- 
cal Club. The premedical group was the only 
organization requiring a certain scholastic 
attainment as a prerequisite for admission, 
demanding a B average in science classes. 
Meeting every other Saturday night, club 
members listened to lectures by physicians, 
talks on scientific topics, and papers presented 
by students; watched science films; and visited 
an observatory. In addition there were a 
music and dramatic arts club and various 
musical organizations: the band, the orches- 
tra, vocal groups, the brass choir, and the 
Collegedale String Quartet. 75 

And, of course, there were the junior and 
senior class organizations and their traditional 
rivalry. Junior pranks included hanging all 

the senior girls' banquet shoes on 
the top of a tree or flagpole and 
sprinkling a sleeping senior with a 
watering can. 76 

In 1929 the school held a 
contest to name a new school 
newspaper to be distributed free as 
a public relations medium. For his 
winning entry, Walter Ost received 
a promise that his registration fee 
would be waived the following 
school year. When the paper 
actually appeared, the title that he 
suggested, The Southern Scroll, 
was modified to The Southland 
Scroll. For several years this was 
the only publication the students 
had an opportunity to produce. As 
the school faced the financial 
desperation of the Great Depres- 
sion, the faculty went on record as 
opposing the publication of a 
school annual. Thus The Southland died in 
1930. 77 When the financial situation eased 
enough in 1938 for students to resume pub- 
lishing an annual, it was called the Triangle. 

Students from this era have pleasant 
memories of the Saturday night marches and 
roller skating in the Tabernacle, the "home- 
spun" musical programs and "readings," games 
on the lawn, hikes up Grindstone Mountain, 
and travelogues in Lynn Wood Hall. With 
student automobiles a rarity, the campus was 
the center of the students' recreational activ- 
ity. There were also picnics, baseball games, 
banquets, and at least one marshmallow roast. 
Neighborhood opposition to Sunday picnics led 
the faculty to reschedule the 1929 junior- 
senior picnic to a Monday. 78 

A major highlight of the 1928-29 school 
year was Herbert Hoover's inauguration. "An 
excellent receiving set was placed in the 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

chapel," reports the Field Tidings. "At about 
ten o'clock central standard time, class work 
was suspended" so that students could as- 
semble in the chapel to hear Hoover's 
inauguration address: "It was all very inspir- 
ing, and served to impress anew upon our 
minds the wonders of radio." 79 

The average age of the students in the 
high school and college grades increased very 
slowly from 17 in 1926-27, to 18 3/4 in 1930- 
31. Klooster considered the aging of the 
student body a positive trend which the 
administration should actively encourage by 
giving employment preference to older stu- 
dents. Raising the average age would reduce 
discipline problems, tend to improve the 
student body level of stability, responsibility, 
and dependability, and produce more reliable 
denominational workers, he said. 80 

In 1930-31, out of an enrollment of 277, 
college students accounted for only 74, a new 
record. By 1940 the school had more colle- 
giate students than students in the 
preparatory division. The 1940-41 enrollment 
of 331 included 173 college students and 122 
in grades 9-12. 81 

Influenza epidemics recurred in 1928-29 
and 1934-35, both times resulting in a read- 
justment of the school calendar. In 1929 the 
exams for the first semester and the opening 
of the second semester were postponed. Again 
in 1935, the first semester examinations were 
postponed. In addition, Christmas vacation 
was extended a week, but school officials 
decided not to add that week at the end of the 
second semester. Instead, said a report in the 
Southern Tidings, the students and teachers 
would "have to make good this loss by extra 
diligence and application." Eight teachers 
were incapacitated by the 1929 epidemic. In 
1935, with more than twenty students sick, 
the first floor of the girls' dormitory was 

converted into a temporary hospital ward. 
The previous year a measles epidemic at- 
tacked both dormitory and elementary 
students. A quarantine was enforced and the 
church school was closed for several days. 82 

Though the school was remarkably free 
from personal tragedies, the 1927-28 school 
year was marred by the deaths of two young 
women, one of whom died of pneumonia. 
Tragedy struck the student body again in 1940 
when a young man drowned at Lake 
Chickamauga. 83 


s the clouds of Depression receded, 
they were replaced by the 
thunderclouds of approaching war. 84 
During World War I the pacifistic and 
Sabbatarian principles of Seventh-day 
Adventists had led to the court-martial of 
nearly two hundred American Adventists. 
Wanting to avoid a repetition of that situation 
in the impending war, Everett Dick of Union 
College organized the Medical Cadet Corps to 
give Adventist young men training that would, 
according to assurance from the United States 
War Department, result in assignment to the 
military's medical service, where they would 
save lives instead of killing and would feel less 
pressure to violate Adventist conceptions of 
proper Sabbathkeeping. Southern Junior 
College offered the first Southern Union- 
sponsored Medical Cadet Corps, for a fee of $5 
plus room, board, and uniform costs, providing 
two weeks of intensive training. Retired U.S. 
Army Captain C. D. Bush commanded the 
corps, Dr. Quimby served as corps chaplain, 
and other faculty members participated in 
various capacities, along with some physicians 
and Illinois National Guard Captain B. F. 
Tucker. This training was given from Decem- 

ber 18, 1940, to January 1, 1941. Approxi- 
mately 80 young men, mostly SJC students, 
enrolled, studying military discipline, first aid, 
map reading, signal communication, self- 
defense, and the Seventh-day Adventist 
philosophy of military service. Smartly attired 
in dark olive-green uniforms, they spent four 
hours each day in close order drill, marching 
back and forth across a field down the hill 
from Lynn Wood Hall. In an interview with 
the Chattanooga News-Free Press, Bush said, 

Strict discipline is stressed in the 
medical corps at Collegedale. Yesterday 
while the company was standing at ease 
one of the fellows absent-mindedly threw 
an orange peel on the grounds. It wasn't 
noticed until the company had marched 
about a quarter of a mile away. . . . The 
captain immediately called the entire 
company back and asked the absent- 
minded youth to "remove the evidence." 

The boy stepped forward promptly 
and picked up the peel. Then the 
company marched back to camp. 

The Pearl Harbor bombing of December 
7, 1941, came just a few weeks before a second 
MCC course was scheduled to begin. Only 35 
students had applied for the course before 
Pearl Harbor, but after the U.S. declaration of 
war, applications flooded in. A total of 95 
enrolled, 65 of whom were not SJC students. 
One of the cadets left a day early to appear 
before his local draft board, and three or four 
were scheduled for induction a few days after 
their training. 

A third MCC training session was held 
the following year; by that time at least 56 
students had been drafted. Maurice Felts, the 
first to be called up, like most of the SJC 
draftees, had taken medical cadet training; in 
July 1941 he was doing office work for the 




Junior College Students Train For 'Life-Saving 7 In WaH 

Here arc the offi 
Seen above, left to 
Green, Capt, Boy4 

cers En charge of (he medical corps at Southern Junior College, who gav 
right, are Capt, Bush, Cnpt. Blackburn, Sergt. Frederick, Lieut. Harte 
Capt. Quimby, Lieut Williams and Capt, Tucker. 

their services gratis. 

Lieut. Spangler, Capt. 

— Sljtf; Photos by Wihvru 

Here is the medical corps with their only "weapon." a stretcher manned h 
to serve on the battle front, they carry nothing with which to defend then 
taking them. 

four men. Although they arc trained 
'Ives. Thev believe in saving lives, not 

Important Message ~ 
to Folks Who Have 



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T- T_T XJ, J *U«. 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

medics at Fort Barrancas, Florida. Despite 
national conscription, government officials 
encouraged students not to volunteer for 
military service. Affirming that "we must 
have well-educated and intelligent citizens 
who have sound judgment in dealing with the 
difficult problems of today," President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt encouraged college 
students "to continue the normal course of 
their education unless and until they are 
called." John W. Studebaker of the U.S. Office 
of Education agreed, emphasizing the impor- 
tance of education to national defense. 
"Emergencies require trained citizens," he 

Almost immediately after Pearl Harbor, 
the U.S. Office of Education directed its 
attention to speeding up the process of produc- 
ing those trained citizens. In January 1942 it 
sponsored a National Conference of College 
and University Presidents. SJC president 
Thompson reported that the purpose of the 
conference was "to determine how institutions 

of higher learning can train the largest num- 
ber of skilled men and women for the service 
of their country in the shortest period." At 
this meeting the presidents of the various 
institutions of higher learning adopted a 
number of resolutions that were to have a 
significant impact on Southern Junior College. 
First, they echoed Roosevelt's and 
Studebaker's concern that college students and 
potential college students wait for the draft, 
stating, "In their eagerness to serve the 
nation, many of our most capable youth enter 
the armed forces despite the fact that they 
may now be serving or preparing to serve the 
nation in ways more in keeping with their 
training and ability." To assure the nation of 
a continued supply of professionals qualified to 
promote morale and minister to its physical 
and mental health needs, the conference called 
upon the Selective Service System to defer 
premedical, predental, and pretheological 

The conference also urged that schools 



Cheering at the Tracks 


Lany of the SJC recruits were ordered to report to the induction center at Fort 
Oglethorpe and after outfitting were shipped by rail in troop cars to Atlanta, where 
they were dispersed to different army training camps. After passing through Ooltewah, 
the Atlanta-bound trains paused at Collegedale to pick up the mailbags. When the 
college community could learn what trains their friends would be on, they would 
gather — sometimes seventy-five or a hundred — along the tracks to cheer, shout their 
good-byes, and wave their affection. 86 

offer enough summer classes to speed up the 
education process so that students could 
complete four years' work in three. SJC had 
already announced a twelve-week summer 
session for 1942, which was repeated in 1943. 
In addition, a crash twelve-week secretarial 
science program with classes six days a week 
in shorthand, typing, business English, and 
business practice was designed to make the 
student "proficient enough ... for employ- 

Even before the National Conference of 
College and University Presidents, the Selec- 
tive Service Act of 1940 had exempted from 
active duty those students enrolled in recog- 
nized theological schools. By the time of the 
conference Thompson was already requesting 
the Selective Service System to recognize SJC 
as a theological school, although such recogni- 
tion had not been given to any junior college. 
He and those cooperating with him in this 
attempt were successful in persuading General 
L. B. Hershey, National Selective Service 
director, to grant this recognition not only to 
Southern Junior College but to all denomina- 
tionally sponsored Seventh-day Adventist 
junior and senior colleges in the United 
States. Thus, deferments were available for 
students attending these schools who were 
able to convince their draft boards that they 
were "in good faith" studying for the ministry. 

The war brought unique problems to the 
college — first of all, a two-year decrease in 
enrollment over which it had no control. 
Nevertheless, aware of the strong anti-Japa- 
nese feeling prevalent in the United States at 
the time and concerned about community 
reaction, the college declined to increase 
enrollment by complying with an official's 
request to accept a limited number of Japa- 
nese-Americans whom the government was 


attempting to relocate in the East from west- 
ern internee camps. Similarly, when the 
board received a telegram seeking admission 
for a Japanese-American, it voted to pass the 
inquiry on to Madison, which already had 
several Oriental students. 

Moreover, wartime restrictions reduced 
recruiting efforts and prevented the college 
from constructing planned building projects. 
In addition, some teaching schedules were 
adjusted, particularly those of G. J. Nelson 
and C. E. Winter, so that they could teach 
nine hours a week at the University of Chatta- 
nooga in a specialized training program for 
the army and navy. 

In December 1941 as the student body 
gathered in chapel to hear by radio President 
Roosevelt announce to the joint session of 
Congress that the United States was now at 
war, students could not have realized to what 
extent world affairs would change their 
personal lives. Educational plans of many 
young men were interrupted as they were 
drafted into service; those exempted were 
hustled into accelerated programs with com- 
pulsory year-round classes and a strict, 
government-required accounting of their 
. grades. The ratio of male to female students 
was severely unbalanced. Lack of time and 
worrisome news from overseas dampened 
spirits, reducing the number of social activi- 
ties, but different events included a 
college-sponsored Red Cross Drive and a war 
bond rally. Rationing of gasoline and unavail- 

A "Soldiers' Directory" hung in the Lynn 

Wood Hall lobby, showing the names of some of the 

students who were serving their country. By 

the end of the war, 171 young men from SJC 

had served in the U.S. armed forces. 

m tm 

Chapter 4: Depression and War 

ability of new cars to replace aging ones 
reduced field trips and caused the cancellation 
of the 1944 Academy Day. Travel to and from 
campus was more and more dependent on 
crowded trains and buses where service 
personnel had priority. Students had to 
submit their government-issued stamp books 
so that the school could set up a ration point 
bank account to facilitate buying food for the 
cafeteria, particularly butter and sugar. And 
in the Lynn Wood Hall lobby, the main exhibit 

area featured a "Soldiers' Directory," a scroll 
emblazoned with the United States seal, wood- 
burned by student-artist Ralston Hooper, 
whose own name appeared on a later, larger 
scroll. By the end of the war 171 young men 
from SJC had served in the U.S. armed forces, 
where at least 8 had met their deaths. 

Meanwhile, the college itself was being 
transformed. Before the war was over, South- 
ern Junior College had become Southern 
Missionary College. 

Village Development 

J ii^_-rv-_v-flr-*"- ._■*.■■ i* j 

Although the campus itself was 
abuzz with activity, its isolation in the early 
1940s is hard to envision today. Its sur- 
roundings had remained quiet fields and 
woods with only an occasional farm house 
or two up Camp Road until the '20s and 
early '30s when a few families — Artress, 
Bird, King, and others — from the expanding 
college staff had settled in, either buying 
existing homes or building new ones. In 
1938-39 the land bordering Camp Road 
(named for the pioneer Camp family) was 
divided into lots, and more staff and faculty 
houses followed rapidly. Electric power was 
installed in 1940, but even in 1941 the only 

telephone in Collegedale was in Lynn Wood 
Hall, and all calls had to be routed through 
Ooltewah. Fire protection for the expand- 
ing community was primitive: equipment 
consisted of a car pulling an axle on which 
was loaded a hose. Available water and 
pumping facilities were hoped for by faith 
at the scene of the blaze. Any trip was an 
adventure with the steep and winding 
course around Hickman curve challenging 
even "a fancy car in high gear." 87 Until 
Apison Pike was extended beyond Four 
Corners, travelers turned right at 
Robinson's farm and picked up the road to 
Chattanooga in Ooltewah. 

The Mail 

I he Southern Railway System took 
care of rail delivery to Collegedale. Above, 
the diesel arrives and dispatches the mail. 
Below, Tommy Ashlock takes it to the post 
office, and then the Fuller family (George 
and La Verne) sorts it and puts it in the 


B^ *"*i 

V Tv 


Chapter Five 

The Wright Years 

1943- 1955 

ntellectual stimulation, dynamic 
growth, and major student involve- 
ment in school and church affairs 
made Collegedale an exciting place 
during the administration of 
Kenneth A. Wright (1943-1955), who adminis- 
tered the college for twelve years — longer than 
any of his predecessors. The school was 
reborn — transformed from Southern Junior 
College into the fully accredited and greatly 
expanded Southern Missionary College. 
During that time collegiate enrollment grew 
from 124 to 473, teaching faculty expanded 
from 25 to 41 (46 counting academy teachers), 
and the number of majors available to college 
students increased from five two-year pro- 
grams to eight two-year programs and fifteen 
four-year programs. 1 

Kenneth A. Wright 

Wright, a red-headed graduate of 
Emmanuel Missionary College with a master's 
degree from Cornell University, had spent 
twenty years in denominational work as boys' 
dean, academy principal, and educational 
superintendent, before coming to Collegedale. 2 
Students and faculty members remember him 
as a dedicated, forward-looking, and well- 
organized administrator with a keen perception 
which enabled him to surround himself with 

▲ Kenneth A.Wright, president, 1943-1955. 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

strong and gifted people, seemingly undis- 
turbed if they didn't agree with each other. 
Former students also describe him as a 
compassionate person, gentle even when 
rebuking, who could convince students that 
homesickness was a virtue. They speak of 
him as a president who ran a balanced pro- 
gram and who helped Collegedale develop a 
more collegiate atmosphere. 

His practical, inspiring chapel talks were 
laced with illustrations that made them "come 
alive with force and meaning." He told stu- 
dents, "Fall out of bed on your knees," and 
encouraged them to spend time every day in 
prayer, Bible study, and "talking to someone 
about God and His love." Speaking on the 
importance of punctuality, he quoted a sign, 
"If more of us had a self-starter, the boss 

wouldn't have to be such a crank." His favor- 
ite Bible text was "I can do all things through 
Christ which strengthened me" (Philippians 
4:13). He also liked to quote Deuteronomy 
11:11, suggesting that it was an apt descrip- 
tion of Collegedale: "a land of hills and 
valleys" that "drinketh water of the rain of 

A major contributor to the success of the 
Wright administration was Charles Fleming, 
Jr., a 1937 graduate of Emmanuel Missionary 
College, who taught at Forest Lake Academy 
and earned an M.B.A. at Northwestern Uni- 
versity before coming to Southern as 
instructor in business administration and 
assistant business manager. After a stint 
with the Georgia-Cumberland Conference, he 
returned to Collegedale in 1946 as business 

Charles Fleming, Jr. 

Fleming had a way of enlivening meetings. 
His oral financial report at one constituency 
meeting consisted of the following: 

"I understand that it is the custom to read 
the financial report of the college at the constitu- 
ency meeting. It is tedious, isn't it? I asked 
CO. Franz [former Southern Union Conference 
treasurer] if it was compulsory to read the entire 
statement. He replied, 'At least read the first 
figure and the last figure.' So being of an obedi- 
ent nature I turn to page 2 and read $21,160.96, 
and again turn to page 4 and read $18,618.52. If 
you desire any further information, you will find 
it between these two figures, or we will be happy 
to supply it to you on request." 79 

manager, where he served for three decades. 
Fleming's winning personality ("an uncanny 
ability to make you happy even if he said no") 
and financial acumen ("the combination of 
Wright and Fleming made this school") made 
him a powerhouse in the Wright administra- 
tion. Faculty of that period recall his 
significant role in facilitating the college's epic 
period of growth and adjustment to the influx 
of veterans. 3 

A Senior College 

right's first great achievement was 
the transformation of Southern Junior 
College into a four-year senior col- 
lege — something H. J. Klooster had 
attempted to do without success. For 
many years, because Southern was only a 
junior college, students from the Southern 
Union had to attend such schools as Washing- 
ton Missionary College or Emmanuel 
Missionary College to receive a four-year 
degree at an Adventist college. The problem 
was that these students would frequently 
accept positions in the unions where they 
finished their education, depriving the 
Adventist church in the South of much-needed 
workers. As a four-year college, Southern 
would more efficiently channel potential 
denominational employees into the Southern 
Union Conference. 4 

President Wright and board chairman 
E. F. Hackman went to Washington in the 
spring of 1944 for a meeting with the General 
Conference Committee to present yet another 
memorial from the Southern Union requesting 
that SJC be permitted to become a senior 
college. When approval came, plans were laid 
to begin offering the fifteenth grade in the 
summer of 1944 and the sixteenth grade 

during the 1945-46 school year. 5 

What would the new senior college be 
called? The SJC board suggested the name 
Southern College. For two months the school 
actually called itself that, at least in its 
articles in the Southern Tidings. However, a 
union educational board, consisting of the SJC 
board, the SJC faculty, educational superin- 
tendents and academy principals of the 
Southern Union, decided rather to call the 
school Southern Missionary College. The 
school's charter was amended in August 1944 
to reflect the name change. 6 

When SMC became a senior college, the 
academy became, to a certain extent, a sepa- 
rate institution. Although operating on the 
same campus under the same board, College- 
dale Academy now had its own principal, a 
separate faculty, a different school calendar, 
and a separate graduation service. As the 
college grew, academy enrollment declined. 
Because of the lack of dormitory space, poten- 
tial academy students were encouraged to 
apply elsewhere. 7 

The first baccalaureate degrees were 
awarded to two men and four women in May 
1946. All six became denominational employ- 
ees. The two young men, class president 
Joseph Archie Crews and valedictorian 
Clarence Delmar Wellman, both ministerial 
students, gave many years of service to the 
Seventh-day Adventist ministry. 8 

Academic Standards 


he SJC board had earlier determined 
that once this permission to develop a 
senior college was granted, the school 
would seek full accreditation as soon 
as possible. Two people who played 

Volume XV 

Collegedale, Tennessee. April. 1944 

Number 12 



Since the day the General Conference 
granted permission to become a senior 
college, we have been submitting and dis- 
cussing suggestive names for our senior 
college. The name "Southern College," 
which was suggested by the board some 
time ago, did not seem to meet with gen- 
eral approval, and so the board voted 
to rescind their action and submit the 
naming of the college to the union educa- 
tional board, and the faculty of the 

The union educational board is made 
up of the union conference committee, 
the presidents of the colleges in the union, 
the heads of the normal training schools, 
the local conference superintendents and 
the principals of twelve-grade academies. 
A list of approximately thirty names was 
presented, and after a very deliberate 
consideration, a ballot was taken, and 
the above name, "Southern Missionary 
College," was chosen and made unanimous 
by the group as the new title of our School 
of Standards. 

It was felt that the word "Southern" 
is distinctive and appropriate, and that 
the word "Missionary" is indicative of the 
major purpose of our school. All future 
correspondence may be properly addressed 
to Southern Missionary College, College- 
dale, Tennessee. 

.Several inquiries have come in concern- 
ing the opening date of the fall term. 
Registration will begin on September 4, 
with the first convocation being held in 
the chapel on Sunday evening September 3. 
Now that the college has been named, 
we plan to have the new catalogue ready 
within a week, and shall be glad to mail one 
upon request. 

Kenneth A. Wright, President 

General Conference Votes Senior 
College For The South 

A $100,00(1 Expansion Program at Colleeedyle 
By President K. A. Wright 

The Spring Council of the General Conference in ses- 
sion at Chicago has approved of the Southern Union Com- 
mittee's request to raise the status of our junior college to 
that of a senior or sixteen-grade college. 

Since 1916, when the Southern Training School was 
removed from Graysville, Southern Junior College has 
served the South as it's educational center. Now, with 
nearly one thousand conference and institutional work- 
ers in our great Southern Union, the constant need for 
the replacement of college-trained workers warrants this 
advanced step. 

The College now owns 887 acres of land located in one 
of the most beautiful spots of the State of Tennessee. 
The farm and dairy is rapidly becoming one of the best 
in the State. The College oi>erates a print shop, a bnxmi 
industry, and a furniture factory, in addition to the many 
other opportunities for work in the kitchen, dormitories, 
offices, and campus. An unusual opportunity is offered 
for a student to earn a part of his college expenses. 

All who have ever visited Collegedale agree that gco- 
jUpttieatly it h, one of tlu.Vst located of any ef the 
schools in our denomination. The progressive city of 
Chattanooga is eighteen miles from our camqus. How- 
ever, there are four busses passing by the College daily. 

The Expansk n Program outlined by the Board calls 
for the expenditure of approximately $300,000 to be 
spent largely for new buildings and equipment. A library 
building, a science building, and a music building, a 
church and an additional dormitory when needed, a small 
sanitarium and a general store and post office building 
are to be built as soon as circumstances and funds will 

A student may come at the opening of our summer 
session on June 19, and take a full program of upjier [di- 
vision college work. Special courses will be offered for 
teachers in training, and students wishing to accelerate 
their high school work may take one unit and a half in 
the regular session, and two units on a special arrangement 
which will be provided. College students may begin their 
Associate in Arts, Premedical, Predental, Theological 
and Secretarial courses. 

We feel certain that God is leading " the School of Stan- 
dards" on to higher ground and greater accomplishments 
for the finishing of His work in our great Southland. 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

especially significant roles in obtaining this 
accreditation were Ambrose Suhrie and Floyd 
Rittenhouse. 9 

Ambrose L. Suhrie began teaching in 
1891, earned a Ph.D. from the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1912, and held administrative 
or teaching positions at five different colleges 
and universities before becoming professor of 
education at New York University in 1924, a 
post he held until his retirement in 1942. 
While on the NYU faculty he organized the 
Eastern States Association of Professional 
Schools for Teachers, presided over that 
organization for seven years, and edited its 
organ, The Teacher Education Journal. He 
also wrote several textbooks. An interest in 
education for blacks led him to a post-retire- 
ment position as visiting professor at Atlanta 
University; he was also a consultant to a 
group often Negro colleges. For more than 
three decades he was listed in Who's Who in 
America and also in Who Knows — and What 
and the Encyclopedia of American Biography. 
The editor in-chief of The Chattanooga Times 
described Suhrie as "one of the best-known 
authorities on education in the country." 10 

Prior to his retirement Dr. Suhrie, while 
vacationing in western North Carolina, 
became seriously ill and was rushed to 
Mountain Sanitarium and Hospital, a self- 
supporting Seventh-day Adventist institution 
affiliated with Asheville Agricultural School, 
now known as Fletcher Academy. Academy 
students, the backbone of the hospital's labor 
force, had a significant effect on Dr. Suhrie 
over the next four years. He would return to 
the hospital, a short distance from his vaca- 
tion home, for daily hydrotherapy 
treatments during his Thanksgiving, Easter, 
and summer vacations. Four years later he 
was again hospitalized there. As the acad- 

▲ Ambrose L. Suhrie 

emy students cared for his needs, he later 
described the profound impression their mode 
of life made on him: 

... no drinking, no smoking, no 
swearing, no midnight carousing at 
roadhouses, no wild drinking on public 
highways; they were always courteous, 
helpful, friendly, resilient, jovial, and 
cooperative in the highest degree. Their 
religious ideas and their knowledge of 
the Scriptures were amazing. 

He listened as they sang hymns while 

engaged in such routine duties as "serving 
trays and cleaning rooms and corridors." 
Sometimes they would invite him to join them 
for evening worship. Physically unable to do 
so, he in turn would invite them to hold a 
worship service in his room. He was greatly 
impressed and deeply touched when they did. 11 

Later, while teaching at Atlanta Univer- 
sity, he received weekly hydrotherapy 
treatments at Atlanta Sanitarium, another 
SDA self-supporting institution. One Christ- 
mas while spending a month there, he read 
Ellen White's Ministry of Healing and was 
amazed at the book's medical insights, so far 
ahead of its time. He began studying other 
aspects of Adventism, including its educational 
system. Impressed, he decided to become a 
Seventh-day Adventist. After some brief visits 
to SMC, he was hired in 1945 as "resident 
educational consultant" and would teach two 

▲ In 1949, under the direction of Dr. Suhrie, 
the college dismissed classes for Arbor Day and 
students spent the day planting 300 dogwoods, 
200 azaleas, and 10,000 pine seedlings on the 
eastern slope of White Oak Ridge. 


A Century of Challenge 

classes a session for one-third of the regular 
salary. 12 

Asked to live in the dreadful upper story 
of the Normal Building, Suhrie insisted that a 
second bathroom be added to serve the ten 
apartments. He also asked permission to 
build a $4,000 cottage on the campus. Aware 
of the board's policy against selling building 
lots, he proposed to pay 
for the construction, 
repairs, and insurance in 
exchange for free rent for 
life and payment to his 
daughter of the net rental 
income from the time of 
his death through 1960. 
Doubting the wisdom of 
having the elderly gentle- 
man live alone, the board 
modified his proposal by 
adding apartments for 
two teachers on the 
second floor. 13 

Having come to 
Collegedale with the 
intention of aiding SMC's 
accreditation, Suhrie 
helped "pilot the school" 
through the process. 
Constantly agitating to 
raise standards, he "ele- 
vated people's notions 
about the character of an 
academic community, and what intellectual 
achievement was all about." He also promoted 
vocabulary development and proper English 
usage, sponsoring the Better English program 
with statements such as "Men and women of 
refinement and culture are no more offended 
by B.O. than B.E. (bad English)" and "Vocabu- 
lary growth is the ultimate test of academic 

Floyd O. Rittenhouse, academic dean. 

achievement." 14 

Suhrie's influence enabled both students 
and teachers to have more say in the opera- 
tion of the school. He innovated a "democratic 
system of faculty-wide participation in college 
policy making." He encouraged faculty mem- 
bers to vacate their classes for one day, 
visiting other church-related colleges, while 

carefully selected students 
took over their responsibili- 
ties. Believing that 
students learn by doing 
and that education should 
include opportunities to 
apply knowledge, he 
organized and sponsored a 
student association which 
was later imitated on a 
number of other SDA 
campuses. He urged that 
for every faculty committee 
there be a comparable 
student committee. He 
coordinated all student 
projects and organizations, 
including the freshman 
orientation program. 15 

He also enthusiasti- 
cally promoted Arbor Day. 
With classes dismissed, 
various student organiza- 
tions under his direction 
would spend the day 
planting trees and bushes, many of which still 
adorn the campus. In 1949 they planted 500 
dogwoods and azaleas near the main campus 
buildings and 10,000 pine seedlings on the 
eastern slope of White Oak Ridge. In 1950 
they planted 700 shrubs; in 1951, 3,000 
shrubs over a four-day period; and in 1954, 
500 dogwoods. 16 

Stricken with cancer, Suhrie sent a final 
message to his colleagues: "Let's all try to 
teach more and preach less; live more and say 
less; guide more and drive less. What we are 
is vastly more important than anything we 
can do or say." He died in California in 1956. 
Among those speaking at his funeral in 
Collegedale was SA president Dean Kinsey: 

What we remember most was that he 
not only loved us but respected us. His 
loving respect for us who were so much 
younger, increased our self-respect and 
improved our respect not only for him, 
but for the ideals he stood for. . . . 

What the students are able to do 
today and what we may be able to do 
tomorrow in the field of leadership, we 
owe largely to Dr. Suhrie's inspiration, to 
his energy, to his Christian friendliness, 
and to his genuine greatness. 

Kinsey and his associates in student 
leadership showed their appreciation for 
Suhrie in another way as well: by commis- 
sioning a bronze likeness of the respected 
educator. 17 

The other key person in securing senior 
college accreditation was Floyd Rittenhouse, 
principal of Takoma Academy in 1938 when 
the SJC board asked him to head the history 
department. After a year at Collegedale, he 
returned to Takoma Park as registrar and 
later academic dean of Washington Missionary 
College, completing his doctorate at Ohio State 
University in 1947. The following year the 
SMC board called him back to Collegedale as 
academic dean and head of the social studies 
division. 18 

A major problem facing Rittenhouse as he 
sought to secure accreditation was that so few 
teachers had doctorates. "Before we can 
expect accreditation for the two senior years," 






he pointed out, "the level of staff training 
must be lifted somewhat." Southern had, 
however, come a long way from the days when 
most of its teachers didn't have even 
bachelor's degrees. By 1944 all of the regular 
teachers had bachelor's degrees and 40 per- 
cent had master's degrees, but only one faculty 
member had a Ph.D. By 1948 when Dr. 
Rittenhouse joined the faculty, SMC had four 
Ph.D.'s and one M.D. But the Southern 
Association wanted every department chair- 
man to have a doctorate. The administration 
tackled the problem in two ways: working to 
increase the number of doctors on the faculty 
and organizing the school on a divisional 
basis. With individual departments consoli- 
dated into divisions, fewer Ph.D.'s were 
needed. By the autumn of 1955 nine teachers 
had doctorates and only seven — primarily 
teachers of vocational subjects — were without 
at least a master's degree. 19 

Campus Expansion 

assential to accreditation were more 
academic buildings and better 
equipped ones. In the spring of 1944 
the board announced a $300,000 
building plan to include library, 
science, and music buildings and also an 
intention to build "a church and an additional 
dormitory when needed" and a small sani- 
tarium, a general store, and a post office 
building when "circumstances and funds 
permitted." With a record enrollment that 
September, Southern Union President E. F. 
Hackman reported, "Everything is overflowing 

Interior of the new A. G. Daniells Memorial Library. 
Prior to this, the library had been housed in a little 
corner room on the top floor of Lynn Wood Hall. 

A Century of Challenge 

▲ The A. G. Daniells Memorial Library, completed in 1946. 

at Collegedale." He quoted one student as 
saying, "Elder Hackman, everything needs an 
addition." The expectation that many veter- 
ans would soon be returning to resume their 
interrupted studies made expansion a further 
imperative. 20 

When Rittenhouse arrived as dean, the 
only academic building completed was the 
A. G. Daniells Memorial Library, finished in 
1946 with a capacity for 60,000 volumes and 
stocked with about $10,000 worth of new 
books. Prior to this the library had been 
housed in a little corner room on the top floor 
of Lynn Wood Hall. The college had also built 
such non-academic structures as a new laun- 
dry building, new college store, addition to the 
dairy barn, a number of faculty homes, and a 
new wing for the men's dormitory. 21 

With Rittenhouse as chairman, a commit- 
tee was formed to draw up a campus master 
plan. The dual incentives of accreditation and 
rapidly increasing enrollment were fortuitous 
in several ways. They meant that the college 
grew over a short period of time with a basic 
plan. Although the rapid growth required a 
heavy investment in buildings, roads, and 
landscaping over the brief span of a few years, 
it enabled the administration to develop its 
own full-time construction 
crew to build, under the 

The new science building 
completed in the fall of 1950 and 
named Hackman Hall after board 
chairman E. F. Hackman. Notice 
the Normal Building in the 
background. The Normal 
Building became Collegedale 
Academy in 1958; in 1971 it was 
torn down and replaced by 
Summerour Hall. 

.■.y.-.-. : .-.-.. : .;. : ..;.. : ..^ : . .■.,...;...;. . : . ,._.-...:. » >x . : «,-,....-.. 

: ;£:xSx:xv:: 

m$!w $&. 


A Century of Challenge 

The college store was built in the '40s and was 
located in the vicinity of the barn, next to the gas 
station and garage. The post office was also located 
in the store building (see windows on right side). 

capable leadership of George Pearman ( 1943- 
1956), the needed facilities at a much lower 
cost than that available on the open contract- 
ing market. Pearman also developed an 
efficient campus maintenance program. 22 

The new library — Daniells Hall — was the 
first major edifice on campus to break from 
the architectural pattern and brown-stained 
shingles of earlier buildings. The red brick, 
limestone-trimmed, Georgian Colonial exterior 
was designed by the first architects, Smith 

T The college gas station and garage was down the 
road from the barn and the creamery and right next 
to the college store. 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

and Ashby. The exterior was repeated in the 
science building, dedicated in February 1951 
and named Hackman Hall after the board 
chairman who had passed away the previous 
month. 23 

The following year construction began on 
the new music building, similar in design and 
named Harold A. Miller Hall after the newly 
retired music teacher. Also during this period, 
the school built thirty apartments for married 
students, two additions to the wood products 
factory, and a new cabinet shop. Because of 
financial constraints, a medical clinic was 
substituted for the more ambitious sani- 
tarium. 24 

At the dedication were Professor and Mrs. Miller (in 
front) and (from left to right in back) Charles 
Wittschiebe, Richard Hammill, V. G. Anderson. 

The new music building dedicated in 1954 and 
named Harold A. Miller Hall. 



outhern Missionary College was 
clearly making progress toward a 
better-educated faculty and more 
adequate facilities, but there was one 
Southern Association requirement 
that the board believed impossible for SMC — 
or any other Seventh-day Adventist college — to 
meet: that the annual salary of teachers be at 
least $4,000. Since other SDA colleges had 
been accredited by regional bodies having 
similar standards, SMC's leaders hoped to find 
some way around this problem. Perhaps they 
could persuade the Southern Association to 
accept the view that a portion of the $4,000 
was being deducted as a contribution. 25 

Meanwhile the faculty attempted to raise 
academic standards by cutting in half the 
number of absences permitted before auto- 
matic failure resulted: now grades would be 
forfeited if the total number of absences due to 
illness, "other non-avoidable non-attendance," 
and late registration exceeded one week's 
worth of classes. 26 

The Southern Association required a 
college to graduate four classes before request- 
ing accreditation. The year SMC held its 
fourth senior college graduation, Rittenhouse 
and Wright appeared before the Southern 
Association's Higher Commission to explain 
SMC's objectives and answer commission 
members' questions. Their request for an 
inspection was granted, and the inspection 
team toured the campus in October 1950. 27 

It was not satisfied with the library's 
periodical holdings, reporting inadequate 

A Century of Challenge 

representation for such subjects as foreign 
languages, economics, business, the social 
sciences, and political science. It was also 
disturbed by the large number of high 
grades. 28 

Despite the library situation and the 
grade-distribution problem, SMC was, as 
Rittenhouse says, "to our astonished surprise 
. . . granted full four-year college status" on 
December 7, 1950. Contemporaries felt it was 
extremely unusual for a senior college to be 
accredited "at the first try . . . without so 
much as a probationary interlude." Upon 
receiving word that the college had achieved 
full accreditation, business manager Charles 
Fleming, Jr., recalls, "We rang the fire siren, 
we rang the bells, brought everyone into the 
chapel and sang the 'Doxology,' and dismissed 
classes for the rest of the day." 29 

With accreditation secured, the adminis- 

tration turned its attention to certifica- 
tion for its teacher education program. 
Major responsibilities in this endeavor 
were carried by Thomas Steen, chair- 
man of the Division of Education and 
Psychology. Tennessee State Board of 
Education inspectors visited in January 
1952. In February the state approved 
the college as a four-year teacher 
training institution. Because of inter- 
state reciprocity, elementary and 
secondary certification was valid in 
many states, including thirteen south- 
ern states. 30 

Rittenhouse left SMC in 1952 to 
become dean at EMC, his alma mater. 
His successor, Richard Hammill, profes- 
sor of biblical languages and religion, 
had joined the SMC faculty in 1946 but 
had been on leave for several years 
completing his doctorate at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. A ministerial graduate 
of Walla Walla College, he had gone to 
Vietnam in 1940 as an evangelist. 
Buffeted by World War II, he and his family 
transferred to the Philippines, only to be 
interned two separate times by the Japanese 
at different prison camps. 31 

Former students testify to his excellence 
as a teacher — both for his extensive knowledge 
of the Bible and of Greek and for his ability 
"to communicate his intellectuality in under- 
standable ways." 32 

Anxious to maintain newly won accredita- 
tion, Hammill worked at correcting the grade- 
distribution problem. The Southern 
Association inspection team had complained 
that SMC gave too many high grades, espe- 
cially for a school with a non-selective admis- 

Richard L. Hammill, academic dean, 1952 -1955. 

Accreditation Gained for 

Southern Missionary College 

Full accreditation came to Southern 
Missionary College on Thursday morn- 
ing, December 7, according to Pres- 
ident K. A. Wright. The decision, 
handed down by the Southern Associ- 
ation of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools at their recent meeting in 
Richmond, Virginia, came about as 
the result of seven years of planning 
and building at this college. 

Pre-medical and pre-dental students 
will now be able to complete their 
work here before going to medical 
and dental schools. The teachers who 
graduate will be fully certified. Those 
who wish to pursue further education 
in some university will be accepted 
without any question concerning their 
scholastic ability. 

On October 2 and 3 the college 
was inspected by an inspection team 
composed of J. M. Goddard, executive 
secretary of the S. A. C. S. S., Omer 


in Louisville, Kentucky, and Gordon 
Stipe, vice-president of Emory Univer- 
sity, Atlanta, Georgia. Objects of 
their inspection were: the financial 
status of the institution, the educa- 
tional standards, and miscellaneous 
areas such as student organizations, 
general administrative . policies, .and 
dormitory life. A copy of their report 
was sent to each member of the ac- 
creditation committee. 

The S. A. G S. S. met during the 
week of December 3-9; President 
Wright and Dean F. O. Rittenhouse, 
who were in Richmond, were in- 
formed of the final decision on the 
morning of December 7. 

Until this time, SMC was the only 
Seventh-day Adventist senior college 
in the United States which had not 
been fully accredited. 

sion policy, and had urged that this be cor- 
rected. Some teachers, Hammill recalls, 
especially some continuing from the school's 
junior college period, were "giving grades out 
pretty easily." Under Rittenhouse the aca- 
demic standards committee had urged teach- 
ers not to give more than 10% As, 25% Bs, 
and 40% Cs, and to give at least 20% Ds and 
5% withdrawals, failures, and incompletes. 
Upon the committee's recommendation, the 
faculty voted to "require individual teachers to 
justify deviations to the dean." Hammill 
softened this position a bit, suggesting that 
the guidelines were more applicable for fresh- 
man courses than for upper division courses. 
He advised, however, "A good test should be 
longer than even the brightest student can 

k **^***j^ » r J^ "* 


A Century of Challenge 

Aerial view of the campus in 1952. 

cover within the time allotted," suggesting 
that 150 to 200 questions be given in a fifty- 
minute test and urging teachers to "go easy on 
essay questions" because of their "lack of 
reliability." Multiple choice questions were 
best, he believed, although between five and 
fifteen matching questions would be appropri- 
ate. Teachers should calculate their grades 
from the average score rather than the highest 
score and "give more frequent quizzes" — at 
least once a week — and prepare a schedule of 
assignments in advance. 33 Reducing the 
percentage of high grades was especially 
important in view of the disappointing perfor- 
mance of SMC students on a variety of stan- 
dardized tests. 34 

The religion department consistently 
enrolled the largest number of students during 
the Wright years — 46 theology majors in 1946. 
By 1949 the department had 113 theology 
majors, 7 Bible majors, and 10 religious 
education majors. Beginning in 1949 all of 
these majors were rechristened "religion." 
Determined to make the theology program 
practical, the department expected its stu- 
dents to participate in the summertime Field 
School of Evangelism. In addition, building 
upon a 1943 Southern Union Conference 
decision to require three months of literature 
evangelism as a prerequisite for ministerial 
internships, the faculty voted in 1950 to make 
three months of selling Seventh-day Adventist 
literature door-to-door a requirement for male 
religion majors and a recommended activity 
for young women pursuing religion degrees. 35 

Among the other programs attracting 
large numbers of students in 1946 were 
secretarial, with 44 students, and pre-nursing, 

VJTeorge Pearman, construction and maintenance 
superintendent, was known as "an outstanding builder and 
Christian gentleman," with a positive influence on the men 
who worked with him. His obituary in the Southern Col- 
umns included the following character-revealing incident: 
"Business manager emeritus Chick Fleming recalls finding 
Mr. Pearman [and his crew] straightening up the shop 
beneath the old campus store on a Friday afternoon. He 
asked Mr. Pearman why, since on Sunday he would have to 
get everything out again to resume his tasks. Mr. Pearman replied, 'I've often wondered 
what the carpentry shop in Nazareth looked like on a Friday evening.' Mr. Fleming said, 
'Thank you,' and went upstairs and cleaned his office." 80 

with 32. SJC had begun offering pre-nursing in 
1934. After finishing the one-year curriculum, 
the students completed their R.N. at Florida 
Sanitarium and Hospital in Orlando. However, 
Hammill persuaded the board to begin offering 
a B.S. in nursing in 1955. Students spent a 
year at SMC, followed by twenty-seven months 
in Orlando, after which they returned to Col- 
legedale for their final two semesters. Over the 
years, as the program evolved, variations were 
made in this sequence. 36 

A Stellar Faculty 

right and his deans assembled a 
stellar faculty. Needing Ph.D.'s for 
accreditation, they enticed several 
people who either already had 
doctorates or who had nearly 
completed them. However, few of these trans- 

ferring doctors and near-doctors stayed very 
long, some only a year. 37 Four remained for a 
period of between four and six years: Drs. Elaine 
Giddings, E. I. Mohr, Kathleen McMurphy, and 
Adrian Lauritzen. 

Elaine Giddings came to SMC in 1945 as 
head of the English and speech department. 
A two-year leave of absence allowed her to 
complete her Ph.D. at the University of 
Michigan. She returned in 1949 to head the 
newly formed Division of Language and 
Literature but remained only one year, depart- 
ing to help produce the Faith for Today 
television program. A stickler for proper 
pronunciation, Giddings labored to refine the 
accents of her students. 38 

Giddings was replaced by Elmore and 
Kathleen McMurphy, who remained until 
1956. Kathleen McMurphy, who was complet- 
ing her doctorate, taught English. Frequently 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

late to her classes, burdened with a load of 
books that she seemed invariably to drop, she 
nonetheless possessed a talent for conveying 
her passion for literature. Her husband, a 
former pastor in Washington, D. C, taught 
both religion and speech. Tall and good 
looking, he cut an imposing figure in the 
classroom. 39 

E. Irving Mohr arrived in 1949 from a 
background in teaching and mission work. 
With a newly minted Ph.D. 
from the University of 
Southern California, he 
taught physics and math on 
the campus until 1954. 40 
Adrian Lauritzen came to 
SMC as chairman of the 
Division of Fine Arts in 
1952, staying (along with his 
wife who also taught music) 
for five years. Unusual 
among his duties was his 
directing the Temperance 
Caravan, a group of students 
and faculty who toured the 
Southern Union presenting 
temperance lectures. 41 

Most of the doctoral 
stars turned out to be mete- 
ors, flashing brilliantly 
across the Southern Mission- 
ary sky and then disappear- 
ing from view. All but one of 
those recruited by Wright 
were soon enticed to greener 
pastures. The exception was Clyde Bushnell, 
who joined the language and literature divi- 
sion in 1953. Finishing his Ph.D. in Spanish 
in 1958, he remained in Collegedale until 
1965. 42 

If the college had difficulty retaining its 

Clyde Bushnell 

Ph.D.'s, it had better success holding master's 
and bachelor's prepared instructors (many of 
whom in time earned doctorates). Among the 
most notable were three who joined the staff 
in 1946: Lief Kr. Tobiassen, Edward C. 
Banks, and H. H. Kuhlman. 

Lief Tobiassen, professor of history, was a 
church education leader in his native Norway 
even through the difficult times of the German 
invasion. Coming to the United States in 

i LiefKr. Tobiassen 

. Edward C. Banks 

55 *\M 

▲ Charles E. Wittschiebe 

, Marian Kuhlman 

, Everett Watrous 

1945 to attend the Seminary, he joined the 
SMC staff the next year. Famous for his 
prodding, incisive questioning, he made 
teaching a "game of wits." Tobiassen con- 
stantly stressed the need for capable 
leadership within the church: "Be a shepherd. 

There are sheep enough." He not only urged 
the development of such qualities within men 
but also took an advanced position on the role 
of women in the church. As Student Associa- 
tion sponsor he promoted female involvement 
in student activities. 43 

Edward Banks, a professor of homiletics 
and evangelism, brought a solid background of 
pastoral work to his training of ministers. He 
had a special burden for instilling his fiery 
commitment to evangelism 
in the church. Students 
remember that the tall 
Banks had to be careful not 
to bang his head on the 
overhead pipes while teach- 
ing in the basement of Lynn 
Wood Hall. Others recall 
him standing in the pulpit of 
the Tabernacle holding up a 
string of vegetarian wieners 
while expounding on the 
dangers of trying to "get just 
as close to sin as possible 
and still maintain a Chris- 
tian lifestyle." 44 

For seven of the thir- 
teen years Banks spent at 
SMC, his colleague and for 
much of the time his depart- 
ment chairman was Charles 
E. Wittschiebe. Wittschiebe 
arrived in Collegedale 
already a veteran of over 
twenty years of denomina- 
tional work of various sorts, including stints in 
China and internment in a Philippine prison 
camp during World War II. One of the most 
colorful faculty members, with a "Brooklyn 
type of humor," he sat on his desk and told 
stories and jokes while teaching. But he also 

K. M. Kennedy 

▲ Elva B. Gardner 


Huldrich H. Kuhlman, "Mr. Science" of SMC. 

was an accomplished Week of Prayer speaker, 
counselor, and recruiter for the college. Few 
students knew that he fasted one day out of 
ten in gratitude for having survived his ordeal 
during the war. 45 

Huldrich H. Kuhlman, "Mr. Science of 
Southern Missionary," arrived on campus to 
find a biology department sharing half of a 
partitioned room in Lynn Wood Hall. This 
area served as office, library, and lecture room 
for small classes. Microbiology supplies were 
kept in a shoe box stored under a stairway, 
necessitating a walk through the chemistry 
area to retrieve them. During labs a piece 
from a dissected frog might fly across the 
partition, Kuhlman recalls, followed by a 
retaliatory stream of water from the chemistry 
students. Biology did not move to its home in 
Hackman Hall until 1952. The department's 
growth is measured in part by the increase in 
microscopes from four when Kuhlman arrived 
to 144 at his retirement in 1980. Kuhlman's 
wife, Marion, served as school nurse for 
twenty-seven years until 1976. 46 

There were of course many other faculty 
members who solidified the young senior 
college and whose influence on individual 
students was incalculable. Only a few can be 
mentioned. Gerald Boynton helped build up 
the industrial arts department. Everett 
Watrous, at various times dean of men, 
professor of history, and director of counseling 
service, left a legacy of personal concern for 
his students that earned him widespread 

J. Mabel Wood, music professor, helps a student on 

the Wurlitzer organ. 

War Surplus Boilers Lead To Central Steam 

1 he hand of God was often apparent to 
college administrators, especially in those days 
following the end of World War II, when in 
the spring of 1944 college enrollment was 124 
and twenty-seven months later was 464, an 
increase of almost 400 percent. Not only were 
instructional space and housing for students 
very inadequate, but they were also danger- 
ous. The dormitories, Lynn Wood Hall, the 
Normal Building, and the Tabernacle were 
heated by boilers at each location, tended by 
students on a contract basis. Fueled by coal 

or wood, they constituted a "fire trap." 

For the safety of the students and to 
avoid having the buildings condemned, it 
became imperative to provide a central heat- 
ing system. A sister college had recently 
remedied a similar situation by constructing a 
central heating plant and steam lines at a cost 
of $400,000. Because of the multiple needs 
arising out of the quadrupling of enrollment, 
SMC's board had expended its limit. The 
finance committee pleaded with the Lord for a 

Two answers to prayer came initially. 
The board was able to come up with $25,000, 
and the United States Office of Education 
granted a declaration of emergency need for a 
50-horsepower boiler to operate the laundry in 
order to serve the needs of the returning 
veterans. But the college required at least a 
400-horsepower boiler to serve the buildings 
on the hill (which then included both dormito- 

ries). Also, the declaration of emergency need 
was just that — a hunting license to find such 
available in war assets, surplus, the Federal 
Works Agency, or wherever. 

It wasn't long before someone observed in 
an Atlanta newspaper a picture of four 150- 
horsepower boilers, never used, but set up in 
Memphis as a stand-by for a Quaker Oats 
plant performing war service. These were now 
listed as war surplus and available for sale. 
Six-hundred-horsepower was a far shot from 
the 50-horsepower declaration of need the 
college had obtained but, as Charles Fleming, 
Jr., recounts, "We were aware that we served 
a God who could perform miracles." 

Fleming was delegated to follow through. 
Before setting off for the Atlanta branch of the 
U. S. Office of Education, he recalled Presi- 
dent Wright's oft quoted Scripture, "One man 
can chase a thousand, but two can put ten 
thousand to flight." He called Frank Ashlock, 

▼ The laundry was hooked up to the new central heating plant by steam lines, just like the rest of the campus. 
The three smokestacks represent the three boilers housed inside. Because the boilers were fueled by coal, on some 
days the smokestacks belched up uncomfortable levels of soot, which fell most noticeably near Jones Hall. 

Bible teacher and pastor of the Collegedale 
Church, to participate with him in this endeavor. 

When they arrived in Atlanta, Elder Ashlock 
said, "Rather than my going with you, let me stay 
right here in the car and pray for the Lord to 
intercede in our behalf." So Fleming entered the 
office and spoke with the very same colonel who 
had granted the declaration of emergency need 
for a 50-horsepower boiler. They thoroughly 
discussed the need of the college as well as the 
availability of the Memphis boilers. Although 
sympathetic, the colonel explained that his 
authority was limited to needs of returning G.I.'s 
and felt that he had gone as far as he was 

Leaving the Office of Education, Fleming 
went to the nearby Federal Works Agency, 
contacting an agency representative who had 
previously been helpful in making surplus equip- 
ment available to the college. After hearing the 
need and reading the article about the available 
boilers, the gentleman thought awhile and then 
said with a smile, "Understand that my responsi- 
bility with this agency is to do my best in 
assisting you to locate and secure that for which 
you have a declaration of emergency need — or as 
near to it as is reasonably possible. From my 
knowledge of the very limited availability of 
steam boilers, I believe that this is as near to 
your declaration as we are likely to find. I will 
process the order and notify you when the boilers 
will be available for pickup." 

In addition to these boilers, most of the 
steam lines were received without cost from war 
surplus. Though the total cost, including a 
building to house the equipment, exceeded 
$25,000, it was still a bargain, far below $50,000, 
and served all the buildings on the hill, the 
Tabernacle, and the laundry. 

"Again, our extremity became our Lord's 
opportunity," says Fleming. 81 

A Century of Challenge 

affection. Elva B. Gardner came to SMC in 

1949 as instructor in secretarial science and 
later became registrar until 1958. A masterful 
storyteller, she authored half a dozen books of 
mission stories, most notably Lure of India. 

J. Mabel Wood moved from Union College in 

1950 to begin her seventeen years of service in 
the music department. Despite her own 
commitment to music she would encourage 
any young woman she knew to be engaged to 
drop music lessons and take home economics. 
K. M. Kennedy taught in the education de- 
partment for over a quarter of a century until 
his retirement in 1979. Among his achieve- 
ments was directing SMC's accreditation with 
the prestigious National Council for Accredita- 
tion of Teacher Education. 47 

As a group, members of the teaching 
faculty were notable for devotion to the spiri- 
tual well-being of their students and for a 
concern with raising the academic standards 
of the college. They pursued these goals in 
return for modest weekly salaries that ranged 
in 1944 from $17 to $49. 48 

Ballooning Budgets 

I he institution's total budget increased 
more than tenfold during the first 
decade of the Wright administration, 
from $209,000 to $2,551,000. During 
Wt the period 1942-1946 the school 
showed a safe operating gain every year, due 
primarily to profits in the industrial depart- 
ments. Union Conference operating subsidies 
(increased from $15,000 to $30,000 in 1947) and 
modest faculty salaries also helped to keep the 
budget balanced. 49 

During this same period, the institution's 
net worth tripled, from $450,000 to $1,600,000, 
due primarily to the aggressive building pro- 

gram and the acquisition of additional real 
estate. Yet as late as 1950 the Southern 
Tidings was reporting that the college plant 
expansion had been accomplished "without one 
dollar of indebtedness." This was made possible 
only by Pearman's money-saving strategies and 
by special appropriations from the Southern 
Union and its constituent conferences, from the 
General Conference, and from the Southern 
Publishing Association, as well as by fund 
raising by the students, by the Southern Union 
Dorcas and Missionary Volunteer societies, and 
field representatives employed to solicit Chatta- 
nooga-area business firms. 50 

Exploding enrollment was one reason for 
the 1,000 percent budget increases, with stu- 
dent head count more than doubling from 1945 
to 1946. Another reason was inflation, which 
was reflected in tuition rates and other student 
charges. Tuition for an academic year with a 
full load of sixteen semester hours increased 
from $171 for Wright's first year at Southern 
Junior College to $400 for his final two years at 
Southern Missionary. Room rents were station- 
ary until the fall of 1947, when they were 
increased from $12 a month to $16.50, but in 
1951 they were dropped to $16 and remained 
there throughout the Wright administration. 
The average cafeteria bill more than doubled — 
rising for young men from $22 a month to $60 
and for young women from $18 a month to 
$40. 51 

A Changing Student Body 

s the student body grew, it tended to 
become more diverse. Southern had, 
for decades, been attracting students 
from outside the South, but as the 
total number of students increased 
their places of origin became more varied. In 


Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

The Collegedale Veterans Club in 1947. 

1949 SMC advertised that its students came 
from 31 states and 6 foreign countries; in 
1951, 39 states and 9 countries. By 1954, 21 
foreign nations were represented in the 
student body. 52 

The postwar period, with its returning 
soldiers, brought a lopsidedly male student 
population, largely married and more mature. 
Men accounted for over 62 percent of the 
student body in the fall of 1947 and 56 per- 
cent during the years 1951-1955. Male 
predominance and married students were 
especially visible in the upper division. Al- 
though 66 percent of the six students 
comprising the first four-year senior class 
were women, female names were scarce on the 
baccalaureate rosters for the next several 
years, perhaps due to war-delayed marriages 
and emphasis on female domesticity. The 
class of '48 had only one woman (4 percent); 
the class of '50 had only four (8 percent). Not 
only was it 92 percent male, it was also 80 
percent married. But by 1954-55 the latter 
had dropped to 29 percent. 53 

The Veterans 

MC had deliberately courted the 
returning veterans. "All of our 
colleges were flooded with applica- 
tions — far more than they felt they 
were actually able to accommodate," 
Fleming recalls. "One of the duties that 
Wright asked me to take over was correspon- 
dence of all the applications from the veterans. 
We . . . decided that we had to do everything 

The Armistice Day ceremonies and parade in 1947. 


A Century of Challenge 

Honeymoon Hill Sports 'Stork Traps' 

1 he trailer park was promptly dubbed 
"Honeymoon Hill," although lacking in the 
romantic amenities usually associated with that 
experience. Residents shared community 
bathroom buildings. Heating was by kerosene 
stove with the fuel cans stored outside each 
trailer in small, padlocked, gray plywood boxes, 
war surplus from Oak Ridge. The boxes were a 
mystery to campus visitors. By the second year, 
with a newborn in almost every trailer, inquir- 
ing strangers were informed that the trunk-like 
boxes were "stork traps." 82 

About thirty war surplus trailers were put behind old 
Talge Hall as living quarters for the returning 
veterans and their families. The families shared 
community bathrooms. 

we could to accommodate these people, 
and ... to let them know we wanted them 
here." More than 33 percent of the students 
(and 66 percent of the four-year graduates) in 
some postwar years were veterans, but as the 
great conflict of the 1940s receded into the 
past, the number decreased. Although South- 
ern Missionary College attempted to attract 
veterans of the Korean War, their numbers 
were smaller than those of World War II. 
Only seven of the fifty-two members of the 
class of 1955 were veterans. 54 

The veterans organized themselves into 
a club, the Collegedale Veterans. They 
celebrated Armistice Days by parading in 
uniform in front of Lynn Wood Hall and 
listening to special speeches given in their 
honor. 55 

"The veterans were a boon to the school 
academically. They wanted to get down to 
business," says Richard Hammill. Being more 
mature than most of the other students, they 
were more serious about their schoolwork. 
This seriousness of purpose had a positive 
impact on the classes they took. 56 

But the veterans also brought problems. 
For one thing, where would they live? With 
thirty war surplus trailers assigned by the 
Federal Housing Authority for use by married 
veterans, the college established a park behind 
the old Talge Hall with the trailers in fixed 
locations. But thirty trailers weren't nearly 
enough. The old press building was converted 
into student apartments; ten tents were 
borrowed from the Georgia-Cumberland 
Conference for other married veterans to use 


Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

pending completion of their one-room 
apartments in a new wing of the 
men's residence hall. The basement 
of the Normal Building was turned 
into a barracks for unmarried veter- 
ans and other young men. 57 

Although the government gener- 
ously provided for their educational 
expenses, the veterans had only a 
modest stipend to cover living ex- 
penses. Trying to stretch their food 
dollars as far as possible, some of the 
married students asked the board for 
permission to establish a cooperative 
grocery — Dixie Co-operative, Inc. 
Members purchased shares in the co- 
op for $10 and paid $.50 a month 
(later raised to $1) for dues. These 
fees paid for the organization's over- 
head and allowed members to buy 
groceries at cost. The co-op operated 
for nearly two years, reaching a 
membership of more than 200, then 
merged with the College Store in February 
1949 after the store agreed to a 6 percent 
mark-up policy for regular grocery items. 
Some of the veterans, upset with this decision, 
suggested that the co-op board had "sold out" 
to the college. 58 

Another type of problem facing some of 
the veterans involved marital difficulties. The 
enforced separation of up to five years led to 
many conflicts. As Dr. Hammill, trying to 
salvage one of these marriages, met with the 
couple in his Lynn Wood Hall office, the wife 
cried out to her husband, "Well, you aren't like 
you used to be." Dr. Hammill reflects, "The 
poor guy had been five years fighting the 
battles of the country, and of course he wasn't 
like she remembered. He was a far different 
person, and it was pretty hard to get some of 

▲ The Dixie Co-operative, Inc. was organized under a non-profit general 
welfare charter issued by the State of Tennessee in 1947. An eleven-member 
board was responsible for its operation. Pictured are chairman of the board 
Earl Clough; manager Sanford Graves; and board members Horace Parrish, 
Roscoe Mizelle, and John Wilson. 

these wives and some of these husbands to 
realize the change the years had made in 
them and to adjust to it." The board re- 
sponded to the problem of dissolving 
marriages by enacting a policy of rejecting 
applications from students going through the 
divorce process and by denying to separated 
students "social privileges . . . which would not 
be granted to any married man or woman." 59 

Alumni Employment 


pon graduation most of the students 
either entered denominational 
employment or went to graduate or 
professional schools for additional 
education. According to Wright, this 
was as it should be: the college's "sole reason 

for existence was to train workers 
whose ministry will hasten the coming 
of the Lord." By the spring of 1950 at 
least 21 of the 26 members of the 
class of '49 were denominationally 
employed and 2 were still students. 
In the fall of 1951 the college adver- 
tised that 90 of the 120 who had 
received bachelor's degrees were 
denominationally employed. By 
December 1952 a count showed 17 of 
them in mission service. The College 
of Medical Evangelists' 1955-56 
freshman class included 10 medical 
students and 8 dental students from 
SMC. As the Wright years were 
drawing to a close, the Southern 
Accent reported that a total of 97 
people who had graduated from 
Southern Missionary since it had 
become a senior college were now 
ministers in the Southern Union 
Conference, 39 were teaching in 
Southern Union Seventh-day Adventist el- 
ementary and secondary schools, 34 were 
denominationally employed elsewhere in the 
North American Division, seven in the Inter- 
American Division, six in the Southern African 
Division, and thirteen in the Southern Asia 
Division. 60 

Quite a few graduates from those years 
are well-known in Seventh-day Adventist 
circles, some even beyond those circles. They 
include Alfred C. McClure,'54, president of the 
North American Division of the General 
Conference of Seventh-day Adventists; 
Ellsworth McKee,'54, president of the McKee 
Foods Corporation; Joe Crews,'46, director of 
the Amazing Facts radio and television minis- 
try; Margarita Dietel Merriman,'46, long-time 
professor of music at Atlantic Union College; 


The Unforgettable Lawrence Scales 

"jtgr '-m i • j j<.|ii. ^ *-*;*. _*._> •&_*>. jk->iw > 

IVlany teachers and industrial leaders served the college for 
extended periods of time. Thus they were known by many and left 
lasting impressions. Although students abode on the campus for 
shorter periods of time and had less exposure, there were a few, 
nevertheless, who left their imprint and are well remembered. One 
such was Lawrence Scales, whose personality, wit, and ability to 
express himself articulately endeared him to most who knew him. 
"Although he was full of ideas and plans which were not always in 
harmony with school policy, still one couldn't help loving the guy and 
smiling at the mention of his name," remembers Chick Fleming. 

After Lawrence was mustered out of the Armed Forces in 1946, 
he came back to Southern to finish his education. Immediately, he 
was a leading force on campus. Not only did he become the presi- 
dent of the Dixie Co-op, but he was elected president of the Student 
Association. When his election was an- 
nounced in chapel, he was asked to come to 
the platform and acknowledge his accep- 
tance — if he were willing to serve. 

There is no copy available of the 
speech Lawrence made at this time, but his 
response, as those who were there recall, 
was something like this: 

"I am humbled and honored to be 
chosen as your Student Association presi- 
dent, but there are many reasons why it is 
expedient for me not to accept this honor. 
My grades and personal finances, as repre- 
sented in my need to spend much time in 
remunerative employment, are two of those 
factors. However, this matter of accepting 

or not accepting is not for me to choose, for that decision was made 
five years ago, and I'll tell you now why. 

"Five years ago, while a student here, I was drafted into service 
and was taken to Fort Oglethorpe for induction. There we were 
provided our apparel and were briefed on what the Armed Forces 
expected of us. After two weeks, we were told to prepare for moving 
out. We weren't told where, but word was that we would be heading 

south. The day of departure arrived 
and we were loaded on railroad cars 
which pulled out of the Chattanooga 
Southern Railway station. 

"For some unknown reason, we 
were moving very slowly. I began to 
recognize certain objects — and then it 
hit me — we weren't far from Ooltewah. 
We were going to pass through the 
beautiful Collegedale valley. 'Oh Lord,' 
I cried, 'I can't take this; I'll break 
down completely.' Then the thought 
came to me, I must get out on the back 
platform where I can see the campus, 
but others can't see my emotional 

"I started to rise out of my seat, when the sergeant standing in 
the aisle a few rows ahead called out, 'I need a helper to assist in 
checking papers.' — and looking right at me, said, 'Hey, you — you in the 
black glass frames, come up.' As he turned his back momentarily, I 
quickly put my glasses on the guy next to me and bolted down the 
aisle, through the next car, and out onto the back platform. 

"I made it there as we were leaving the Ooltewah station — 
Collegedale was just ahead. I can't explain the gamut of emotion that 
was coursing through my mind. I realized as never before how much I 
loved that place. It was the dearest spot in the world to me and it was 
now coming into full view. 

"Bawling like a baby, I raised my hands toward Heaven and cried, 
'Oh Lord, Lord, if in Your mercy You will bring me back here safely, I'll 
do whatever they ask me to do.' He has honored my petition — you 
asked me to be your president— I honor my promise to Him. I will 
serve — and each of you — may you be smart enough to learn, as I have, 
that this valley is the most wonderful place on earth." 

That was Lawrence Scales, later to become an associate pastor 
here, later president of Southwestern Junior College, and still later 
pastor of the Pacific Union College church. Those who knew him well 
will never forget him. 83 


Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

Raymond H. Woolsey,'51, associate vice- 
president for editorial services, Review 
and Harold Publishing Association; Fred 
Veltman,'51, professor of religion at 
Pacific Union College; and Thomas 
Ashlock,'50, church ministries secretary, 
North Pacific Union Conference. 

Social Regulations 

Sespite the fact that its student 
body was much older than that 
of its junior college predecessor, 
Southern Missionary College 
during the Wright years was, in 
its social regulations, "like a big acad- 
emy." Wright came to Collegedale ^ 
determined to maintain Southern's 
reputation as the "School of Standards," 
warning against lowering the standards in 
order to secure an increase in enrollment. 
Student deportment was relaxed only 
slightly from earlier years. Romantic involve- 
ments were discouraged. The guidance 
counselor would call in couples who lingered 
too long visiting in the dining room or at the 
flagpole. The only permissible times for 
couples to be together were Tuesday lunch, 
Wednesday supper, and the Saturday evening 
program. Violation of handbook rules such as 
secretly "meeting persons of the opposite sex 
or dishonesty in examinations or other class 
work, whether in giving or receiving help" was 
grounds for immediate dismissal. But most 
students of the period, though conscious of the 
rules when first arriving, do not remember 
them as oppressive or standing out. The sense 
of belonging to "a big family," of having all 
school experience centered in Collegedale, of 
doing everything "together right here," pro- 
moted a strong sense of fellowship and school 

The 1952 Camera Club. 

loyalty which dominates their recollection. 61 
Student Organizations 

i he social needs of the students are 
quite adequately met by the clubs, 

I musical organizations, lyceums, and 
the daily contacts at work and play," 

I President Wright assured the con- 
stituents, in what might be considered under- 
statement in view of the proliferation of 
extra-curricular groupings: an aviation club, a 
camera club, colporteur club, crafts club, 
French club, future nurses' club, gymnasium 
club, home economics club, Master Comrade 
club, ministerial club, model club, modern 
languages club, music club, nature club, 
parliamentarian club, poetry club, radio club, 
science club, secretarial club, Southwesterners' 
club, Spanish club, stamp club, Teachers of 
Tomorrow club, Theological Activities Associa- 
tion, veterans' club, and ushers' club. The 

campus supported local chapters of 
Future Business Leaders of America 
and the American Temperance Society. 
The women's dormitory club was called 
Dasowakita, reportedly an Indian word 
meaning "bound together for a purpose." 
The men's dormitory club was called the 
Triangle Club until the 1950s, when its 
name was changed to Upsilon Delta 
Phi. The Dasowakita purpose was 
basically the same as the "three-fold 
purpose" of the Triangle Club: to deepen 
the Christian experience, to broaden the 
intellect, and to promote physical 
abilities and activities. The married 
students had a club called Sigma 
Gamma Tau. Wives of ministerial 
students organized themselves as the 
Apollos Guild. Other clubs included a 
Bible workers' club, literary society, Junior 
Chamber of Commerce, Women's Forum, 
Men's Forum, Married Couples' Forum, and a 
debating club which argued such propositions 
as "Co-education is the abomination of the 
denomination" and "Examinations should be 
abolished in college courses." 62 

The International Relations Club, under 
the sponsorship of Lief Tobiassen, was the 
largest departmental club with over a hundred 
members and one of the most active. During 
the 1947-48 school year the members produced 
for each Friday morning chapel a simulated 
radio broadcast which was an "international 
news commentary, discussing world events 
from the Adventist point of view." That same 
year they conducted a foreign relief drive, 
soliciting fellow students for funds to provide 
nine-pound packages of soup, flour, bread, 
sugar, lentils, and rice to people starving in 
the wake of World War II. They collected 
more than $300 for this project, then wrapped 


A Century of Challenge 

and addressed the packages. They 
also showed films on such topics as 
Nazi Germany, Philippine indepen- 
dence, and the power of the Catholic 
Church in Portugal; brought in guest 
speakers; and sponsored forums and 
round-table discussions. In 1952 they 
staged a mock presidential primary 
which was won by Senator Estes 
Kefauver (TN). In February 1955 
they, together with the Missionary 
Volunteer Society and Christ's Foreign 
Legion, successor to the mission bands 
of an earlier era, sponsored an Inter- 
national Relations Week consisting of 
a Sunday-evening program devoted to ^ 
the life of pioneer missionary 
Ferdinand A. Stahl, followed by chapel pro- 
grams and weekend meetings featuring 
General Conference secretary Walter R. 
Beach. 63 

The various clubs chose representatives 

The Hi-Fi Club of 1956, pioneering new technologies. 

to the Student Senate, the governing body of 
the Student Association. The Student Senate, 
in turn, chose the members of the eight 
student committees that held joint meetings 
with the corresponding faculty committees. 

planned the annual College Days and 
Clean-up Day activities, and — according 
to Tobiassen — had "a voice in the 
college administration." 64 

One of the most lasting achieve- 
ments of the Student Association was 
the creation of radio station WSMC, 
"the student voice of Southern Mission- 
ary College" and the brainchild of 
physics major Everette Erksine' '51. A 
married student, Erksine conceived of 
the station as a means of allowing 
students' wives and other community 
members to benefit from SMC's chapel 
programs. On April 21, 1952, WSMC 
began broadcasting the chapel services 
as well as at least an hour of music 
and news on a daily basis. It suspended 
operations about a month later with the 
intention of returning to the air in the fall, 
but regular broadcasting did not actually 
resume until the next February. The station 
was again silent during the 
1953-54 school year while 
technical improvements were 
made to increase its area of 
coverage so that faculty 
members living as far away 
as Apison Pike and Camp 
Road could hear the broad- 
casts. It returned to the AM 

The 1956 Student Senate had 
broad governing powers. It chose 
the members of the eight student 
committees that held joint 
meetings with the corresponding 
faculty committees, planned 
College Days, and had an active 
voice in the college administra- 
tion. Pictured here is senate 
president Dean Kinsey. 

Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

▲ Student David Bauer, WSMC manager, 
broadcasts a chapel program. 

▲ On the air at WSMC in 1953 — everything was 
produced and operated by the students. 



▲ The Adelphian Quartet averaged twenty performances a month from 1950 to 1952. Members of the group 
were (left to right) John Thurber, Don Crook, "Wayne Thurber, and Jack Veazey. 

dial in the fall of 1954 with 25 watts of power. 
Except for the sponsors, the station's staff was 
composed entirely of students. 65 

Another lasting achievement was the 
creation of the Student Park. Initially con- 
ceived by the Industrial Arts Club during the 
1953-54 school year, the project was turned 
over to the Student Association in January 
1955, with SA vice president Chester Damron, 
'57, as coordinator. After a feasibility study, 
the Industrial Arts club had suggested that 
the park include picnic grounds, an amphithe- 
ater, and a bird sanctuary. The college 
donated $150 to bulldoze the amphitheater 
floor, various campus clubs made donations 
toward the project, and additional funds were 

solicited by the Student Association. 66 

The Student Park project was just one of 
many fund-raising drives undertaken by the SA 
and other student groups. Soliciting money was 
still a significant part of life at Collegedale. 
Besides raising funds for campus improvements, 
the SA financed special mission projects, 
supported Ingathering, subscription campaigns, 
Red Cross drives and others. Sometimes 
students engaged in two or three of these 
campaigns simultaneously. 67 

The Student Association had the honor of 
hosting the first Seventh-day Adventist 
Intercollegiate Student Association Workshop, 
held from December 9 to 11, 1950, and attended 
by delegates from several colleges. Future SA 


A Century of Challenge 

leaders would later attend similar workshops 
on the campuses of other SDA colleges. 68 

Perhaps the most visible of the various 
musical organizations on campus were the 

male quartets. "These 
were the high days of 
male quartets," says 
Don Crook, '53, 
member of what was 
probably the best 
known of these 
groups, the Adelphian 
Quartet, an organiza- 
tion which averaged 
twenty performances 
a month from 1950 to 
1952. In 1951 they 
traveled to New York 
to appear on the Faith 
for Today television 
program. Two mem- 
bers of this quartet, 
John Thurber, '56, 
and Jack Veazey, later joined the King's 
Heralds of the Voice of Prophecy radio broad- 
cast. The fourth quartet member, Wayne 
Thurber, '48, was a teacher at SMC at the 
time. 69 

The earliest of these quartets, the 
Crusaders, flourished from 1946 to 1948. They 
presented concerts as far south as Atlanta and 
as far north as Takoma Park, Maryland, where 
they held a secular benefit program for Golden 
Memories, the Washington Missionary College 
annual. They also appeared on a series of 
thirteen weekly radio programs sponsored by 
the local Missionary Volunteer Society and 
broadcast over WAGC in Chattanooga. Mem- 
bers of this quartet were Leonard Evans, 
Eugene Wilson, '54, Morris Wilson, and Jack 
Just, '48. Other quartets included the 

▲ Horace R. Beckner, 
college pastor from 
1947 to 1960. 

Sylvanaires, the Criterion Quartet, the 
Heralds of Prophecy, the Chordsmen, the 
Collegiate Quartet, the Watchmen, and a 
group from the mid-1950s which recycled the 
name Crusaders. Some members of these 
quartets later joined the Faith for Today 
television quartet; Jim McClintock,'56, from 
the Collegiate Quartet, along with John 
Ramsey,'69, later sang with Thurber and 
Veazey in the King's Heralds. 70 

The groups analogous to the male quar- 
tets were the women's trios: the Aeolian Trio, 
the Harmonette Trio, a group known simply as 

the Girls' Trio, and the Southernettes. Actu- 
ally there were two groups called the 
"Southernettes": a quartet from the 1945-46 
school year and the famous trio of 1949-1952 
consisting of Frances Bumby, Marilyn Dillow, 
and Mary Ellen Carden,'52, which moved 
intact from Collegedale to New York in 1952 
to perform for Faith for Today. Marilyn 
Dillow Cotton later became a popular Seventh- 
day Adventist recording artist appearing from 
time to time on the It Is Written television 
program. 71 

Other vocal groups included a Treble 

A When the church outgrew the Lynn Wood Hall chapel in 1946, services were moved to the Tabernacle, the 
college's gym. 


Chapter 5: The Wright Years 

Cleff Choir, an a capella choir, a ladies' 
chorus, a girls' octette, a male octette called 
the Octavians, a male chorus, and groups 
called the King's Men and the Chapel Singers. 
Instrumental groups included the college 
band, a brass trio, an ensemble, and a string 
sextette. 72 

Among the religious organizations giving 
students opportunities to develop leadership 
skills were the Missionary Volunteer Society, 
Christ's Foreign Legion, the American Tem- 
perance Society, the ministerial seminar, and 
the Religious Interest Committee of the 
Student Association. The Missionary Volun- 
teer Society held Sabbath afternoon meetings, 
organized expeditions to enroll people for Bible 
correspondence courses, and conducted off- 
campus revival meetings. It organized as 
many as fifteen "service bands" engaging 
weekly in activities ranging from distributing 
literature to visiting prison inmates, tubercu- 
losis patients, and orphanages. During the 
1948-49 school year nearly half the student 
body signed up to participate in MV Society 
outreach activities. Beginning in 1933 the MV 
Society also organized a student-conducted 
Week of Prayer. 73 

The Collegedale 


ot only did campus organizations give 
a significant number of students 
valuable leadership experience but the 
church did also. Students were elected 
I to a major share of the offices 
of the Collegedale Seventh-day Adventist 
Church. In 1949, half the members of the 
church board and half of the deacons were 
students. 74 

When the church outgrew the Lynn Wood 

Hall chapel in 1946, its services were moved 
to the Tabernacle, which had a concrete floor, 
wooden shutters instead of windows, and no 
organ. While the organist played in Lynn 
Wood Hall, an electronic speaker system 
carried the music to the Tabernacle. The 
pastor of the Collegedale Church from 1947 to 
1960 was Horace R. Beckner, the son of a self- 
supporting missionary to South Africa. He 
came to the United States at the age of fifteen 
and graduated from Atlantic Union College 
before pastoring in the Southern New England 
and Texas conferences. While pastoring the 
Collegedale Church he also supervised the 
senior ministerial students who carried the 
pastoral responsibilities at the Athens, Cleve- 
land, and Standifer 
Gap churches. He 
is remembered as a 
"good, solid man," 
personable and 
Because of his 
accent many called 
him the "beloved 
pahster." Two or 
three times a year 
Beckner, his prede- 
cessor J. F. 
Ashlock, or some 
other minister 
baptized up to 
twenty-two SMC 
students. "It is the 
policy of the college 
to have a baptismal 
class in training at 
all times," Wright 
said. 75 



tudents were not the only people 
baptized. The outreach activities of 
students and staff brought a number 
of new members to Collegedale and 
other Seventh-day Adventist 
churches. Senior class president Kenneth 
Harding, '53, alone was responsible for four 
baptisms. Students and college employees 
enrolled thousands of people in Bible corre- 
spondence courses and passed out thousands 
of pieces of literature. They also organized 
Bible study groups and branch Sabbath 
Schools, in addition to the evangelistic meet- 
ings the evangelism class held during the 

▲ When conditions became crowded for church in 1946 and the services were moved 
to the Tabernacle, administrators began to plan for a new church building. Here is 
an artist's conception of the proposed church as printed in the 1946 annual along 
with President Wright's remarks about campus expansion. 


A Century of Challenge 

school year and the Field School of Evangelism 
held in the summer each year beginning in 1948. 
These had resulted in approximately one hundred 
baptisms by November 1953. In 1949 Earl 
Clough, president of the Student Ministerial 
Association, reported that each month more than 
one hundred students were engaged in pastoral 
and evangelistic work in twenty-six churches. 
During the first four months of the 1948-49 
school year students traveled a total of more than 
14,000 miles "doing pastoral work in the 
churches." In addition, students produced a 
number of weekly religious radio programs that 
were broadcast over stations WBAC and WVUN- 
FM. During the summers as many as one 
hundred students went door-to-door selling 
Seventh-day Adventist publications. 76 

"The atmosphere was completely permeated 
with spirituality," recalls Peggy Bennett. "There 
was an obvious commitment of the students. 
There was no doubt as to your main goal in life, 
and that was to assist others to know Christ and 
be ready for the kingdom." D. W. Dunbar, one of 
the Week of Prayer speakers of 1944, wrote that 
he was deeply impressed with the school's 
"sincere religious atmosphere." 77 

SMC during the Wright years was vibrant, 
dynamic, and spiritual. But early in 1955 a 
cloud began to cross the campus. In March, 
Wright had a diabetes attack while on a trip in 
California. He was reelected president a month 
or two later, but he failed to fully recuperate. 
He was granted a six-month leave of absence, 
after which he was to become general field 
secretary for the Southern Union. A farewell 
reception in September honored Elder and Mrs. 
Wright, followed by a chapel program to bid him 
good-bye. The author of the Southern Tidings 
article reporting on this chapel service described 
Wright as "one of the best friends this college 
ever had." A less happy chapter in Southern's 
history had begun. 78 

A Robert Hamm and Robert Mathews work in the visual aids department, 
getting advertising materials ready for the field evangelists in 1948. 

▲ Members of the 1948 Temperance 
Society put the work of the visual 
aids department to good use in 
▲ The Missionary Volunteers in 1952 participated in "bomb wrapping," programs for Chattanooga area high 

for literature evangelism — good news "gospel bombs.' 



Centuj-old memories, Graysville structures and memorabilia recall a humble 
beginning. This desk, inkwell, and school bell were used in the Graysville classrooms, 

where grades one through twelve were taught. These 
items are on display in the college's 
Heritage Museum. 


5o "ty«m ; 



e "« Tib 




Vjra «ye Brooif „ Sarah R 5 a , ter 







Leaw'ng a fine administration building in Graysville in 1916 for a farm house and rough outbuildings in Collegedale took courage. Mementos such 
as the card at left recall the bright beginnings of a school founded on Christian principles. The photo above pictures the Graysville administration 
building before it was demolished in the 1980s. 

As they arrived in Collegedale, the students found what was barely a stop by the train tracks. By the time this photograph was taken in the late 1940s, passengers had to 
disembark in Ooltewah. This painting of Mr. and Mrs. James Thatcher, from whom the Thatcher farm was purchased, is on permanent display in the Heritage Museum. 

The Yellow House, below, served many functions, Including administration building, dormitory, and cafeteria. It remained as one of the first landmarks to greet 
visitors until it was torn down in 1958. The Doll House, right, was built for Evadne Thatcher by her father. It sat at the edge of the apple orchard, about 150 feet 
behind the Yellow House, and also served many functions, including president's office. It remains today as one of the oldest structures on campus. 








sident WilbertM. Schneider (1967-1971) carried campus 
ansion forward. Below, he and 0. D. McKee 
about to throw open the doors to 

Eider and Mrs. K. A. Wright, seated left of the 
podium, attended the open house of their 
namesake in 1969. 

Uv*~ < ' a ■.Hi ; 


WWW *» nr * 


^4, *l 


The Collegedale congregation finally acquired 
a permanent home of its own when this structure was built 
in 1967. The sanctuary was simple and spacious, with few luxuries. 
The college used it for chapel programs as well as for church. The Anton Heiller Memorial ' 
Organ was added in 1986, one of the largest tracker pipe organs of its kind in the U.S. Its ^ 
builder, John Brombaugh, is pictured above while tuning the organ. In 1991-92, the church 
underwent an expansion program, above right, adding an atrium, additional Sabbath 
School rooms, and a much-needed fellowship hall. 


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Funded by Ruth King McKee, the garden is a peaceful ridgetop repose tor the college and the community. 
The grounds are diligently maintained for close communion with the Creator. 

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the southern College mace. Crafted , by jot. (e(enesSi a nd (he 
four-sided segment represents balanced me p ^ ^ 

reception m a horse-drawn carnage. 

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the (Wictentatid Jvlloivs of 3fiurixird (Eollege 

<% n «»e4a r ~/iLe*&/> 


The Work Program, 1916-1992 

he year after Wright's departure, a 
three-page article about Southern 
Missionary College appeared in the 
Reader's Digest. Sandwiched between 
"I Remember Aunt Daisy" and "Classi- 
fied Classics," it was called, "College With a 
Built-in Pocketbook." Condensed from a longer 
article in the Christian Herald by Cecil Coffey, 
'49, its blurb proclaimed, "More and more educa- 
tors are casting an appraising eye toward this 
unorthodox Southern college." Describing 
Southern Missionary as an institution that 
"makes money" by violating "almost every rule 
by which a college ought to operate," the article 
focused on the college-owned industries: their 
profitability and the opportunity they provided 
for students to earn their educational expenses. 
It suggested that the primary way SMC broke 
the rules was by accepting students without 
regard to their ability to pay. 1 

This was not the first time Southern's 
work-study program had received national 
publicity in the secular press. In 1938 Seventh- 
day Adventist colleges in general, and Southern 
Junior College in particular, had been featured 
in a U. S. Office of Education publication called 
College Projects for Aiding Students. The same 
year an article in School Life regarding "Self- 
Help Colleges" had called attention to the SJC 
work program. 2 

An Urgent Imperative 

he primary object of student labor is to 
make higher education possible for 
boys and girls who would otherwise be 
deprived of it," said the School Life 
article. Without this program, Coffey 
says, "Hundreds and hundreds of people could 
never have gotten through." The move from 
Graysville had been motivated in part by the 
need for a campus large enough for expansion of 
the school's industrial program so that more 
students could earn their expenses, an impera- 
tive because so much of the South was poverty- 
stricken. "We were all in the same class," recalls 
Donald Hunter, '24. "We were all poor — about 99 
percent of us." 3 

To help solicit funds for SJC, Lynn Wood 
had published stories of students from poverty- 
stricken homes who were working their way 
through school — students like Bessie Nell Follis, 
whose mother had tried to discourage her from 
receiving any education beyond the eighth grade; 
Roy Campbell, who said he was "very thankful of 
the privilege of working" twelve to sixteen hours 
a day during the summer in order to earn enough 
labor credit to allow him to start school in 
September; and Mamie Jones, who had been 
obligated to drop out of school for five years at 
the age often in order to care for her siblings 

after the death of her mother. "I prayed a great 
deal about my education, hoping the way would 
open to me," she wrote. "I have been able to 
work my entire way this past year, and it has 
been a real pleasure to me." 4 

The need to earn most — or even all — of 
their educational expenses was not limited to 
just a few students. In 1925, 40 percent of the 
students were said to be earning 100 percent of 
their expenses. In 1939 President J. C. Thomp- 
son reported that 80 percent of all student 
charges were being paid by labor credit and that 
the value of such labor had totalled $112,000 
during the previous school year, a year when 193 
students out of a student body of approximately 
300 had worked their entire way and "only 
thirty-seven were ... on an all-cash basis." The 
1956 Digest article reported, "More than 80 
percent earn at least one fourth of their expense, 
while 25 percent work all their way." At least 
half of those who graduated in 1958 were able to 
do so because of the work-study plan. Even in 
the late 1970s 85 percent of the students were 
"learning the traditional values of hard work, 
honesty, and integrity by participating in the 
'Earn-in-Learn' work-study program." By this 
time student labor was totalling more than 
$750,000 a year. Such numbers were possible 
only because as much as possible of the 
institution's labor was done by students super- 


More and more educator£ar£, casting an appraising eye tov^apd this 
unorthodox Southern college 


r sr °Tt5--- 


_-— — 



—— — — 







College With a Built-in Pocketbook 

Condensed from Christian Herald 

Eighteen miles east of Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., stands a small 
liberal-arts school that has violated 
almost every rule by which a college 
ought to operate. First off, it will 
accept a worthy student regardless 
of his ability to pay. Even more 
starding, it will frequently reverse 
the procedure and pay the student! 
What's more, it makes money do- 
ing so. 

Through a remarkable work- 
study plan, Southern Missionary 
College has lifted itself from penury 
into a multimillion-dollar institution 
that may prove a valuable example 
to scores of private colleges strug- 
gling to survive. Here is how it 
works: In the past dozen years the 

Christian Herald (March, '56), copyright 
37 E. S9 St,, New 

Cecil Coffey 

college has developed its own busi- 
nesses and industries which now 
turn out more than two million dol- 
lars' worth of top-grade student- 
manufactured goods annually, with 
student earnings near $400,000. 
Largest unit in College Industries, 
Inc., a taxpaying corporation, is a 
furniture plant manufacturing 
chests and desks. It employs 150 
students and does an annual gross 
business of $600,000. A broom fac- 
tory, one of the largest in the South- 
east, employs 75 to 100 students, pro- 
duces $400,000 worth of brooms and 
mops a year. A printing plant and a 
laundry— the latter servicing local 
hotels and motels— each gross more 
than $100,000 annually. The college 

J956 by Christian Herald Assn., Inc., 12) 

York ,6. N. Y. 

A Century of Challenge 


The March 
1956 Reader's 
Digest carried 
the condensed 
story written 
by Cecil Coffey 
about the 
"College With 
a Built-in 
Pocketbook. " 

(This auto- 
graphed copy 
was donated to 
the college by 
Mrs. Kenneth 
A. Wright.) 

vised by industrial managers or technical spe- 
cialists. 5 

The availability of jobs for students directly 
affected the number of students who enrolled. 
SJC had faced a major crisis in 1921 when it was 
not able to provide enough employment to meet 
students' needs, a continuing problem encoun- 
tered by many of the earlier manual labor- 
oriented schools. Unless more work was 
available, students would have to withdraw from 
school. But beyond merely meeting students' 
financial needs, the school considered the work- 
study program valuable in itself, particularly for 
character-building experience. Elian B. Ratcliffe, 
reporting on general trends in education in 1938, 
found that "the idea of work as a part of educa- 
tion itself [was] gaining ground." 6 

The Digest article singled out for special 
commendation president Kenneth A Wright and 
business manager Charles Fleming, Jr. Having 
earned his own college expenses at Atlantic 
Union College and having researched institu- 
tional self-support at Cornell University, 
Wright — with the assistance of Fleming — was 
credited with transforming the financially 
troubled junior college with its "two or three 
limping industries" into a senior college with a 
multiplicity of flourishing industries, "with the 
result that the school is today virtually un- 
touched by the financial plight facing so many 
other small private colleges." 7 

To speak, as the article does, of "the new 
work-study plan" was ignoring the fact that 
Wright and Fleming were building on an already 
established foundation. The school's agricultural 
business had arrived at Collegedale along with 
the chickens and cows in Atteberry's caravan 
from Graysville. Another Collegedale industry 
had been established even several weeks earlier: 
carpentry. While Atteberry was still in 
Graysville, President Thiel and a group of boys 



I* - 

Whether for commercial purposes or consumption by 
the students in the cafeteria, fields and gardens were 
planted with a great variety of crops. 



e hand-painted photograph above 

>aks for itself: the parlor in old Talge Hall. 

1 f] : 

If * * « 1 

k. jl . J 

Helen Talge Brown pays a visit to the 
new Talge Hall in 1969. With her is 
President Wilbert Schneider. 

w, graduates cross in front of Talge Hall on their way 
sremonies in the Tabernacle in 1964. 

Jones Hall , demolished in the wake of 
construction for Brock and Mabel Wood halls, was 
replaced by a parking lot. 



rr. r rr it 

H 'fm 

Built in 1917, Jones Hall was theridgetop twin to old Talge Hall. Thus, when Talge 
was South Hall, Jones was known as North Hall. It was renamed Maude Jones Hall in 

Built in 1924 as College] 
Hall, the administration 
building, Lynn Wood Hall] 
received its current 
name in 1945. Besides 
its role as auditorium 
for the college, the 
Lynn Wood Chapel 
doubled for several 
years as the Collegedale 


■"H»S " 

Nestled among the trees, Lynn Wood Hall served many years as a 
picturesque location for administration and academics. The alumni, 
feeling that the old building was too majestic and memorable to 
destroy, rallied to its cause in the mid '80s and saved it from the 
wrecking ball. Now restored, the building houses the Heritage Museum, 
the security office, and a variety of meeting rooms, including the restored 


I H ■ I 

Above, the first Collegedale post office was established in 1929 and housed in Lynn Wood Hall along 
with the school store. 

At left, the Student Association in 1956 commissioned a bronze likeness of respected educator and 
consultant Ambrose Suhrie. The bust was mounted in Daniells Library, and is now displayed in the 

Uarltona Uiieonm 


Associated Press newswire was 
located near the station in a sm e 
closet in Lynn Wood Hall for 
years. Passersby could stop 

and catch the news through tht 


Before the major changes of the '60s, the main campus road ran past the college store, 
the large white building in the photo to the right. The bus is driving where Talge Hall is 
now located, and the store was located where Thatcher Hall is today. 

'he main road 
in past the store 
nd the gas station, 
)en past the 
fery and barn. 

*e that the girls' residence (later named Talge Hall) has already been built in the left of the photo above. In 1963, the 
aza was buift, thus replacing the old store, post office, and gas station. 

" ■ 




*««m ivmio» s \ 


1 :t-..> I 

t*' s / 

The Armistice Day celebration was an 
important event on campus in the late 1940s. Students 
who were veterans held ceremonies and paraded in 

uniform in front of Lynn Wood Hall. 

In addition to celebrations of patriotism, Collegedale hosted parades such as the 
Work Festival Parade in 1954. Since it was held the day before the annual 
College Day, academy seniors were invited to arrive early ^ 
and enjoy the festival. 


& V 0' 


(tabernacle j\ucliioriimi 


i ^IBL «h 

HLfl -^j^utI 1 



1 " i IRS 




Built in 1941 as a campmeeting auditorium, the Tabernacle was one of the most versatile 
buildings on campus. It served as auditorium, cafeteria, gymnasium, and music building. 
When destroyed by fire in 1989, it was being used for storage and church activities. The fire 
swept through the old, dry timbers before the building could be saved or most of its contents 

The clean crispness of snowiall blankets the barn, for years the local point of the college 's proud farm program and much of its other industry. Inset bottom left shows the beginning of the end for the barn, razed in 
1962. The creamery, bottom center, was the outlet for many of the farm's products. The milk bottles and creamery scoop, bottom right, are from the Heritage Museum's permanent collection. 

To replace the store and gas station displaced by Rees' grand campus design, the College Plaza was built in 1963. Later it was 
renamed Fleming Plaza. The Esso gas station became a Phillips 66, and the College Store became the College Market. A Campus 
Shop sold books and stationery items, and the new plaza included a separate post office. Then, as needs grew, the College Market 

was replaced by a new building added to the plaza in 1972 and named the Village Market. 

- T ? r"' 





..- Wt 




i c 

:p tr 


C. N. Rees (1959-1967) was president 
during most of the dramatic campus 
changes in the '60s. 

1 ' * i >l 

The Home Arts 

Center was constructed in 1958 and housed 
the cafeteria, student lounge, and the home economics department. 
Wright Hall, the keystone structure of the campus mall, was built in front of 
the Home Arts Center in 1967-68. In 1971, the poorly constructed Home 
Arts Center was razed to make room for a larger cafeteria to be built on 
the same site. 

\j im , 


The back of the old Home Arts 

Center had two entrances. Here Wright Hall is 

under construction. 



The barn was the center of activity for the college 
farm and dairy until it was demolished in the 
early '60s. 

Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook 

T This beekeeper valued head protection — but note 
the bare arms. 


WML *•• 

Bfc: ' 


■: : . . „ 

■ ■■**■ :■ 

: ■ ■:;■ 

were busily renovating the buildings on the 
Thatcher farm in preparation for the arrival of 
the business manager and his crew. 
Collegedale's agriculture and carpentry contin- 
ued to be major employers of students for de- 
cades to come. Yet the accomplishments of 
Wright and Fleming were phenomenal. 

Agricultural activity developed a large, 
diversified farm including, in the early 1920s, 

100 acres of field corn, 48 acres of hay (sorghum, 
soy beans, clover, timothy, and alfalfa), 18 acres 
of peas and beans, 3 acres of sweet corn, 3 acres 
of tomatoes, 3 acres of cucumbers, watermelon, 
and cantaloupes, 2 acres of raspberries, 4 acres of 
strawberries, and half an acre of dewberries. 
Peanuts, onions, cauliflower, celery, radishes, 
okra, beets, "vegetable oyster," "cabbage 
mangels," kale, turnips, lettuce, collards, mus- 
tard greens, pumpkins, squash, eggplants, 
pimentos, asparagus, rutabagas, and blackber- 
ries also grew in the garden. By 1926 the 
orchard included 3,350 peach trees as well as 
cherry, plum, apricot, apple, and pear trees. By 
1928 there were also ten acres of cotton. In the 
1930s the school dairy included as many as 70 
Jersey cattle. Produce from the garden and 
orchard, as well as grapes from the vineyard, 
honey from the apiary, eggs from the poultry, 
and milk from the dairy found their way to the 
school dining room as well as to markets in 
Chattanooga. Students were employed planting, 
cultivating, harvesting, canning, and drying 
fruits and vegetables, shucking corn, baling hay, 
milking cows. 8 

Administrators were proud of their award- 
winning agricultural enterprises. College hens 
won first, second, and third prizes and college 
roosters won fourth and fifth prizes at the 1917 
Chattanooga fair. One of the college dairy cows 
had the distinction of being, in the spring of 
1937, the most productive in quantity both of 
milk and butterfat of any cow in Bradley, 
McMinn, and Hamilton counties, and the college 
herd, according to the University of Tennessee 
Extension Department, had the highest average 
milk and butterfat production of any herd in the 
three counties. 9 

At first SJC tried to have its agricultural 
operations managed by college administrators, 
professors, and even students: at various times 

the business manager ran the farm, the religion 
teacher managed the apiary, the science 
teacher — or the history teacher — operated the 
poultry department, and a history teacher or 
even an academy student was in charge of the 
dairy. However, in November 1917, the board 
voted to ask Carter E. Ledford to "head up the 
agricultural work," including the dairy, orchard, 
garden, and farm departments, as well as 
functioning as the "general head" of all the school 
industries. His only teaching responsibility was 
a class in agriculture. During the winter he was 
expected to work in construction. Although the 
specific mix of agricultural departments for 
which he was responsible fluctuated from time to 
time, Ledford remained at Southern for a decade 
and a half, even after losing both arms in a corn 
shredder, a disability which would have caused 
most men to give up. 10 

The agricultural 
departments furnished 
employment for dozens of 
students, providing 
thousands of dollars of 
labor credit each year, 
but — more often than 
not — the departments 
were a drain on the 
school's financial re- 
sources. Although it, too, 
had its share of bad years, 
the dairy was the most 
profitable agricultural 
department, sometimes 
reporting a gain of nearly 
$1,000 which, however, 
came far short of offset- 
ting the losses of the other 
agricultural departments. 
There were even years 
when the farm losses 




Carter E. Ledford 





Southern Junior College dairy continues to year-old registered cow and "Collegedale 
growand provide more work for both boys and Jessie Mae," a two-year-old heifer brought 
girls and profit for our school. $650 .00 to the dairy department. 

Grade A pasteurized products from clean, 
healthy cows has increased the demand for 
college dairy products by leaps and bounds. 
Visitors come from miles away to patronize our 
attractive dairy retail counter which specializes 
in "Quality Ice Cream" and "Golden Guernsey 

Our attractive spotted Guernseys and the 
Filpail Jerseys are attracting more and more 
interest among cattle men and visitors in this 
section. Breeding stock has been sold to 
advantage. Recently "Helen of Honor," a nine- 

Improvements to herd equipment are 
constantly being made. 

A milking machine has greatly increased 
efficiency. The milk bam has been ceiled 
and painted and some new stanchions 
purchased and a shower and locker room 
for the students has been added. 

The dairy is proud of its fine cattle and 
products but most of all of the fine group of 
young people who make these things 

▲ Each cow was known by name. Here "Lady" is hooked up to 
the milking machine in the 1950s. 

. M * i j 

r ' • *■ # 


The Creamery 

The Creamery was the retail outlet of the dairy, selling ice cream, milk, and cottage cheese to the public in the '40s and '50s. 


The Creamery^* 


Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook 

A John B. Pierson, farm and dairy superintendent. 

exceeded the total amount paid in student labor. 
Over the years college treasurers blamed various 
conditions for the losses: dry summers, wet 
autumns, poultry diseases, predatory chicken 
thieves, high-priced dairy feed, as well as fre- 
quently changing and inexperienced manage- 
ment. 11 

This drain upon college finances was 
suffered for many years because of the strong 
feeling of the constituency that to follow Ellen 

White's admonition, an Adventist college must 
teach agriculture and operate a farm. Thus 
there were many who felt strongly that agricul- 
ture be an integral part of the school program 
even though few students enrolled in the courses 
and the farm was expected to operate on infertile 
land and small, hilly, broken up fields. 

By the time Wright arrived, some of the 
agricultural operations of which the college had 
been so proud had become an embarrassment. 
The peach orchard had declined seriously; most 
of its trees had ceased to be productive due to age 
or insect infestation. More serious was the 
deterioration of the college dairy. By fall 1941 its 
bacterial count was so high at times that the 
county health department feared it might 
precipitate an outbreak of diseases. At this point 
the board called John B. Pierson (brother of 
Robert) as farm and dairy superintendent. 
Pierson restored the good name of the college and 
developed one of the finest herds in Tennessee. 
Highly respected in the agricultural field, he did 
much to overcome prejudice toward Adventists. 
Serving as editor of the Hamilton County Farm 
Journal, he was available to farmers all around 
who would call him in the middle of the night 
when one of their heifers was calving, and he 
was always ready to help. 12 

Other Early Industries 


rom the time that Leo Thiel and his 
crew of boys began renovating the 
original buildings on the Thatcher 
farm, carpentry was a vital part of the 
student labor program. In 1933, H. J. 
Klooster testified, "All of our buildings have been 
erected by student labor under skilled supervi- 
sors. All of our repairs are made by student 
labor under competent supervision." Utilizing 

Students worked on demolition projects, 
pulling nails and stacking lumber. 

student labor on the administration building 
(except for the plumbing and plastering) had 
saved about $6,000. 13 

Students worked not only in construction 
but also in timber cutting and demolition. 
Pulling nails and stacking lumber, young SJC 
men helped demolish the Billy Sunday Taber- 
nacle in Atlanta. For firewood, students in the 
pioneer days harvested trees from the campus' 
forty forested acres. 14 

The College Press had been established 
even before the school moved to Collegedale. It 
printed Field Tidings for the Southeastern Union 
and Faith for the college as well as commercial 
work such as office forms, stationery, catalogs, 
and advertisements for the general public. A 
money loser at first, the press became enor- 
mously profitable after Wythe Clifton Starkey 
became its manager in 1925 — so profitable that 
its competitors tried, by a lawsuit, to put it out of 
business. After Starkey left in 1934 to establish 
his own printing business in Chattanooga, 
profits declined from a 1931 high of $6,174 to a 
1938 low of $195. In 1933 the press had em- 
ployed about 23 students, by 1938 only 14. The 
following year, while continuing to manage his 
own establishment, Starkey returned on a 
volunteer basis to help the College Press reorga- 
nize and increase its volume of business. The 
press profits increased, but did not return to 
their former lucrative level. 15 

The agricultural and printing industries 
marketed their products to the general public, 
although they also served the needs of the 
college. The construction industry, on the other 
hand, was devoted exclusively to serving the 
campus. Several other student-employing 


A Century of Challenge 

departments also catered solely — or at least 
primarily — to the college, faculty, and students: 
the laundry, kitchen, janitorial service, water 
department, residence halls, library, administra- 
tive offices, and even the "school department" — 
the academic part of the operation, which 
sometimes hired students as instructors. 16 

Several other industries started out prima- 
rily as service departments but evolved into 
commercial enterprises. The school blacksmith's 
shop evolved into a 
commercial garage 
and service station; 
the campus commis- 
sary into the college 
store; the cannery 
into a factory produc- 
ing peanut butter and 
meat substitutes. 17 

The college had 
established a bakery 
in a tent house 
between the Doll 
House and the 
business office during 
the first winter on the 

Collegedale campus, but it must have ceased 
operation soon after, because in 1921 President 
Wood told the constituents that the school had 
been buying bread from Chattanooga for several 
years. He suggested that if equipment were 
available, "we could make our own bread, and 
offer work to several students." Although several 
years passed before sufficient funds were raised, 
an 18 by 27 foot structure was completed in the 
spring of 1926; by mid-July the new bakery was 
producing 40 to 50 loaves a day. Two years later 
the bakery went commercial, placing its bread in 
several Chattanooga stores. During the first four 
weeks of the 1928-29 school year the bakery 
produced a total of almost 20,000 cookies, cakes, 

Wythe C. Starkey 


▲ The cannery began producing peanut butter and 
meat substitutes. 

jelly rolls, pies, and loaves of bread. Five stu- 
dents worked in the bakery that year. Taking 
the name "Staff of Life Products," the bakery 
purchased a new delivery truck and built a new 
addition. By mid-summer 1931, bakery workers 
had reached a daily output of 3,200 loaves of 
whole wheat, white, gluten, and salt-rising 
bread. 18 

This explosive business growth was exhila- 
rating. There was only one problem: the bakery 
was a heavy money-loser. Before 1931 was over 
the board's executive committee called a halt: 
selling to wholesalers was discontinued, the 
number of students employed was reduced 
sharply, and the bakery was instructed to 
produce only for SJC and its store, plus a small 
retail trade in Chattanooga and Cleveland. 19 

Another commercial business that grew out 
of campus needs was the wood products factory, 
a business rooted in two different concerns of the 
college administrators: providing planed lumber 
for campus construction projects and teaching a 
woodworking class. Tools and equipment used 
for the class and for construction needs could just 
as easily be used to make products for sale. As 
early as 1925 the woodwork department was 
advertising doors, church pews, souvenirs, 
novelties and special-order furniture in The 
Southland: "Let us know your wants. Our prices 

are very reasonable." In 1933 the school hired 
T. R. Huxtable, SJC alumnus, ordained minister, 
and former missionary to Africa, as a full-time 
traveling sales agent for the woodshop. He was 
so successful that the shop, up till then a small- 
scale operation, was swamped with orders and 
began running a double shift, shipping at least 
two freight cars a month of twenty different 
products: various kinds of small tables, steplad- 
ders, ironing boards, bookcases, wall racks, and 
"corner whatnots." By March 1934 the shop had 
thirty-two student employees who were earning, 
among them, $1,000 a month. 20 

Again the exhilaration of a rapidly expand- 
ing business. But again, there were problems. 
After several industrial accidents, the board 
voted to carry compensation insurance for 
students and teachers. This added expense 
naturally reduced potential profits in the wood- 
working industry. To make matters worse, the 
shop was already losing money. Believing that 
the output was too diversified, the board limited 
shop production to the six current best-selling 
items while the college management investigated 
other items, such as caskets and bee-keeping 
supplies, that might be even more profitable. 
Though Huxtable became shop superintendent, 
he wasn't able to save the business, which now 
faced a new problem with the stratospheric 
wages imposed by the National Recovery Admin- 
istration. On December 31, 1934, the woodcraft 
shop went out of business. 21 

In February of the following year the board 
decided to give it a second chance. Among the 
items produced that summer were five hundred 
folding chairs ordered by the Georgia-Cumber- 
land Conference for use in summer evangelistic 
meetings. Again the shop failed and was shut 
down, but again the board voted to reopen it, 
mandating, however, that the business proceed 
cautiously, manufacturing only items that could 

be easily sold and that could be made with 
equipment already on hand. The latter stipula- 
tion didn't seem practicable. Told in 1937 that 
reopening would require the expenditure of 
thousands of dollars, the board voted to defer 
action for a year. 22 

( Selling &. Preaching J 

W ood products and broom salesman 
and woodshop supervisor Thomas R. 
Huxtable didn't abandon the ministry when 
he joined the Southern Junior College 
industrial staff. He continued to preach 
sermons, conduct baptismal services, and 
hold weekly prayer meetings in Collegedale, 

Standifer Gap, 
and Harrison. 
He was one of 
the three 
elders of the 
Church. He 
was also 
elected presi- 
dent of the 
SJC Alumni 
Association in 
1935. Called 
to South 
America, he 
preached his 
sermon in 
Collegedale in 
April 1937. 81 

▲ Mr. & Mrs. T.R. Huxtable 


With Elder Huxtable selling, the woodshop haa 
expand to meet the increased demand. However, it 
continued to lose money. 




'■-■ •■'r*J7.M* 

■^0^' ' 



Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook 

The following year Kelly and Ratcliffe 

The furniture factory is in the process 
of reorganization. A new manager has 
recently been obtained, new high-speed 
machines purchased, and increased 
production entered upon. The college 
finds competition in this industry keen 
and up-to-date methods and equipments 
necessary. Forty students are employed 
in the factory. 23 

But a few months later the board voted yet 
another time to close the shop and liquidate its 
inventory. Faced with losing his job, the man- 
ager, L. E. Rafferty, offered to rent the shop and 
buy its inventory, making payments as he 
received money from purchases. The executive 
committee rejected this offer. It did, however, 
agree to permit the shop to fulfill its promise to 
continue supplying Rich's department store until 
six months after giving notice that the arrange- 
ment would be discontinued. 24 

It appears that this stay of execution saved 
the life of the wood products factory. Despite the 
board's vote to close it, the shop remained in 
business, perhaps because of the war-borne 
economic improvement. In January 1940 the 
board voted to spend $5,000 for enlarging and 
purchasing additional equipment. A year later, 
swamped with orders, the factory was eagerly 
recruiting student employees to help produce the 
thirty carloads of unfinished furniture (valued at 
$28,000) for which it was committed. The boom 
continued. Nearly two years later C. A. Russell 
reported in the Southern Tidings: 

"The woodworking factory, working ten 
hours a day, is unable to keep up with its orders. 
... At the peak of production last year in the 
month of January, twenty-eight carloads were 
shipped in twenty-four days. . . . More help in 

this industry is needed." 25 

Although such commercial enterprises as 
the wood products factory started out primarily 
as campus service organizations, others were 
established primarily or even exclusively to sell 
their products off campus. The earliest of these, 
after the Graysville-born College Press, was the 
basket factory. Conceived in 1920 with high 
hopes, the factory was a gift of J. H. Talge and 
W. E. Bailey. Primarily a place of employment 
for young women, it did for a time employ more 
student labor than any of the other industries, 
but it never fulfilled Lynn Wood's dream that it 
would "bring in a good revenue." The wholesale 
price of baskets declined from 85 cents a dozen 
before the factory started production to 75 cents 
at the time of the first shipment. By March 1922 
it was down to 40 cents. 26 

Desperate, Bailey — now the plant man- 
ager — contacted Talge, who advanced $1,000 for 
the purchase of walnut logs with which to make 
veneer. "We are now making veneer," the 
treasurer reported in 1922, "and I hope to realize 
enough from the veneer business to carry the 
basket industry." 27 

He was disappointed. The basket factory 

--, |~~_i ~f 

Tj^SBBb' - "' 

i i m , JS 

Ha ]&' 

feflHtt 1? 

BE*,J^^ jflrififefe* 

^Hi^KS^^ A 

, Barney Hagan repairs shoes in 1948. 

lost $6,168 the following school year, making it 
the biggest industrial money-loser on campus. 
The school's auditors suggested that the factory 
be discontinued unless it could "be operated on a 
different basis." 28 

But it wasn't discontinued, and it continued 
to lose enormous amounts of money. During the 
1924-25 school year it lost $8,296. The president 
and the treasurer, at loggerheads over what to do 
with the factory, remained deadlocked until 
H. H. Hamilton took over as president. When he 
arrived, the board authorized pay reductions at 
the factory. Its losses were cut nearly in half 
that year to $4,608, but that was still far too 
much. 29 

Sexist arguments almost closed the basket 
factory in 1926. One of the ministers on the 
board said the college was "making too great a 
sacrifice to keep the factory in operation" because 
the denomination's "great need" was "young men 
for the ministry," but the college was "giving a 
great amount of money to a factory employing 
only young women." Somebody moved that it be 
closed at the end of the school year. Somebody 
else seconded the motion. Before the board could 
vote, however, Hamilton said Talge had contrib- 
uted a subsidy for the factory's operation. The 
college would have to return this money and the 
machinery Talge had donated unless administra- 
tors could talk to him and get "help and advice as 
to how the factory could be run to profit." The 
motion to close the plant was withdrawn, re- 
placed by one creating a committee of three to 
explain to Talge that the board had unanimously 
concluded that the factory was impossible to 
operate profitably and "that it had never been 
operated except with a great financial loss, giving 
him the figures and facts." The board voted to 
wait for a report from this committee before 
taking any action. 30 


A Century of Challenge 

Hamilton thought he had found the solu- 
tion to the problem when he discovered that 
someone in Berrien Springs, Michigan, was 
selling fancier baskets for several times the price 
of the SJC products. He suggested asking 
George Fuller to take over the factory, convert it 
to the production of the more expensive baskets, 
and "create the market for this new product." 
But for some reason this didn't work out. Fuller 
left the school's employment for several years, 
and two years after Hamilton's suggestion SJC 
was still producing cheap baskets and losing 
money. The losses at that time were exceeding 
the amount of student labor the factory was 
providing. With wholesale prices continuing to 
drop, the board decided to close the plant unless 
the baskets could bring 40 cents a dozen. Appar- 
ently they couldn't. Financial statements for 
1929-30 imply that the factory was no longer 
operating. 31 

But the board hated to let go of it. Deep in 
the Great Depression, it realized that the college 
would have to create jobs to have students. 
Consequently, it decided in March 1931 not to 
sell the basket factory machinery. Maybe the 
factory could somehow be revived sometime. In 
May the executive committee approved plans to 
let the factory operate during the coming sum- 
mer. 32 

In December reality dictated that the space 
was needed by another industry. Reluctantly, 
the executive committee voted to seek Talge's 
permission to sell the basket-making equip- 
ment. 33 

In the on-going search to sustain and 
strengthen the "built-in pocket-book," college 
administrators in the pioneer days explored a 
number of different industries which could be 
operated by student labor and provide enough 
profit to pay employees. The school flirted with a 
grist mill, knitting factory, glove factory, radio 
factory, lime quarry, and shoe repair shop. Half 

of these never materialized; the other half had 
very little impact on either student employment 
or college income. 34 

Another early business that didn't look 
promising at first was the broom shop. It didn't 
do much, the treasurer explained in 1925, 
"except make up some broom corn for the neigh- 
bors," and was just about breaking even. The 
business appears to have gone into hibernation 
and may actually have been discontinued, 
because in July 1931 the executive committee 
authorized the establishment of a "broom indus- 
try." By December 1 of that year the factory's 
average production was approximately twenty 
dozen brooms a day. By the following April it 
was providing $400 of labor a month and selling 
$1,000 worth of brooms a month. 35 

But the revived broom shop was battling 
the hazards of the early Depression economy. In 

1932-33 the factory produced far more brooms 
than it had sold — $3,000 worth. Meanwhile the 
price of brooms was steadily declining, falling 50 
percent in just one year. The total losses since 
September 1931 had been $4,000. Warned 
President Klooster: "It is evident that we cannot 
continue to operate a department with losses of 
this kind accumulating month after month. . . . 
Unless market conditions are stabilized . . ., it is 
questionable whether this department should be 
maintained." 36 

It appears that market conditions did 
improve. A few months later the Southern 
Tidings was reporting that the SJC broom 
business was booming, with orders for 1,000 
dozen having been placed within a ten-day 
period. The shop's average daily output at that 
time was 60 dozen. Even though it closed the 
fiscal year with a loss of $2,453, the broom shop 

T The lime quarry was worked by Thatcher before SJC was located on the farm. Searching for profitable 
industries, the administration attempted to find a way to benefit from the land's resources. 

was the college's second biggest source of hard 
cash that year, bringing in $15,768. In October 
the remarkable Huxtable, having virtually 
drowned the furniture factory with orders, 
turned his hand to soliciting orders for the broom 
shop. By the next year students were earning 
$1,000 a month in the shop and it was selling 
$3,500 worth of brooms a month. A year later 
the factory was obtaining so many orders that it 
had to increase its work force. On January 8, 
1937, Broom and Broom Corn News reported 
that the largest carload of broom corn ever 
shipped from Wichita, Kansas, a shipment of 
44,820 pounds, had been sent to Southern Junior 
College. 37 

In 1938 Kelly and Ratcliffe reported, "The 
broom factory employs 18 to 20 students. Its 
product is sold to wholesale and retail distribu- 
tions, and it is operated on an even-paying basis." 38 

Besides resurrecting the broom factory, the 
college launched several new business ventures 
during the Great Depression, including a "nut 
crackery," reed furniture factory, cereal puffery, 
commercial book bindery, and — most signifi- 
cantly — a hosiery mill. The reed furniture plant 

lasted less than a year. The nut crackery was 
another short-lived experiment. Authorized in 
December 1928, it purchased pecans by the 
carload for students to shell. These nuts were 
then to be sold to dealers that carried the college 
bakery products. At its peak it provided work for 
between seventy-five and one hundred students, 
who, paid on a piecework basis, earned $5,898. 
Unfortunately, at least one carload of pecans 
were mildewed, and the business lost over $4,000 
in one year. In 1931 the college sold the stock 
and equipment for the pecan business to the 
former nut crackery manager. 39 

The puffery was another money-loser. 
Known as the Golden Grains Food Factory, it 
provided thousands of dollars in student labor 
and produced as many as five hundred dozen 
packages of cereal a week, but — as one college 
administrator put it — the factory was "puffing 
dollars into nickels." 40 

The hosiery mill represented a different 
approach: cooperation with private enterprise. 
In 1931 Bryan Hosiery Mill rented space from 
the college to operate the Collegedale Hosiery 

With brooms 
hanging from the 
ceiling and stacked 
on the floor, the 
broom shop literally 
swung from an early 
Depression glut of 
brooms to over- 
whelming orders. 
With Huxtable on the 
road, the broom shop 
soon had so many 
orders that it 
received "the largest 
carload of broom 
corn ever shipped 
from Wichita, 

Mill, agreeing to hire only student labor "except 
for such responsible positions as necessitate the 
services of hosiery workers of long experience 
and training." Even for these positions the 
management would give "mature, responsible 
students" preference as soon as they could 
receive adequate training. The contract stated 
that student wages would be turned over to the 
college each week to be credited to the students' 
accounts, that all employees would be people "of 
good moral character" and no one would be 
employed at the factory who used alcohol, 
tobacco, or profanity on the premises, that the 
factory would be closed one hour before sundown 
on Friday and remain closed for an hour after 
sundown on Saturday, and that all of the 
factory's printing would be done at the College 
Press. 41 

During its first year of operation the 
hosiery mill provided nearly $6,000 in student 
labor; during its second year students earned 
over $7,000. In 1936 student earnings at the 
plant were $29,889. The mill produced 624,000 
pairs of silk stockings in 1939. That year fifty- 

A Century of Challenge 

A. The puffery in 1939. 

five students earned 100 
percent of their expenses 
working in the hosiery 
mill. During the war, 
with silk and nylon 
unobtainable, the factory 
switched to rayon. 42 

Although it was not 
correct to say that 
Southern had only two or 
three industries when 
Wright took the reins, it 
was correct to describe 
these industries as 
"limping" (with the exception of the College 
Press) despite the very modest salaries the 
supervisors received and wages for students that 
generally ranged from 15 to 25 cents an hour. 
Even the privately owned hosiery mill was 
sometimes subsidized by the college. 43 Like the 
manual-labor school administrators before them, 
Southern's industrial supervisors learned that it 
was easier to find students who needed to work 
their way through school than it was to make a 
profit with their labor. Hard work and dedica- 
tion didn't exempt their industries from the 
vagaries of the marketplace and the typically 
high failure rate afflicting most new businesses. 

▼ As a cooperative venture with private enterprise, the 
hosiery mill expanded with a new building in 1936. 

Heavenly Gains 
From Earthly Losses 


ven when the industries lost money, 
they were vital to the interests of the 
school. Between 1922 and 1933 
students earned $384,668 in college- 
operated industries; between 1936 
and 1941 the figure was $507,916. In 1939 
student labor paid 70 percent of student ex- 
penses. Testifying in a lawsuit that threatened 
to shut down the school's commercial enterprises, 
H. J. Klooster testified, "There is no question but 
that the life of the school is threatened. . . . We 
have no students at this time who are not 
dependent in some way upon our industries to 
meet their expenses." 44 

Discussing the school's industrial losses, 
presidents Wood and Thiel stressed their charac- 
ter-building value. A money-losing industry was 
often a factor in saving a soul, Thiel said. Both 
read a statement from Ellen White's Counsels to 
Teachers: 'The account books may show that the 
school has suffered some financial loss in carrying 
on industrial work; but if in these lines of work 
the students have learned lessons that will 
strengthen their character, the books of heaven 
will show a gain far exceeding the financial loss." 45 

The Turnaround 

a he industries may have been 
character-building, but the fact 
remains that for most of the 
institution's junior college years the 
majority of its industries were either 
not profitable or only marginally so. During the 
Wright administration, however, the non- 
agricultural, commercial enterprises were 
generally — but not always — profitable. Yet it 

would be an exaggeration to suggest that Wright 
transformed an unprofitable collection of busi- 
nesses into a profitable group. The evidence is 
that the turnaround came not in 1943 but in 
1938 as the Depression began to ease. 46 

This is not to suggest that Wright and 
Fleming didn't bring about significant changes. 
They operated more commercial enterprises 
than previous administrations, and — what's 
more — with the exploding enrollment, the 
number of students employed in these busi- 
nesses multiplied. Furthermore, it was no mean 
achievement to extend a five-year boom for most 
of the next dozen years. In fact, comparing the 
overall financial picture of the college business 
auxiliaries for the quarter century Fleming was 
in charge with that of the previous quarter 
century, suggests that Fleming should be 
described as the Aladdin of Southern's indus- 
tries. Undoubtedly the earlier business manag- 
ers were capable and dedicated, but they 
weren't magicians. 

College Industries, Inc. 

uring the Wright years the college's 
F^fclj non-agricultural businesses were 
• I divided between two college-owned 
corporations: College Industries, Inc., 
and Collegedale Enterprises, Inc. In 
addition, the college maintenance department 
operated as an in-house construction firm. 
College Industries, Inc., originally organized in 
the previous decade, included the venerable 
broom and wood products factories, now greatly 
expanded to provide work opportunities for a 
much larger student body, as well as the newly 
commercial Collegedale Laundry. 

The industry employing the most students 


Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook 

was the wood products factory. Producing such 
furniture items as desks and chests, it employed 
40 percent of the student body — too large a 
percentage for the good of the school. Although 
the factory was profitable for most of the Wright 
years, it experienced two periods of catastrophic 
losses. Losses in 1947 led to a decision — later 
reversed — to liquidate the business. A recession 
in the furniture market brought such a disas- 
trous year in fiscal 1954 that it more than wiped 
out all the profits of the previous three years and 
threw the whole college into a financial crisis. 47 
Another large employer was the broom 

factory, a consistently profitable component of 
College Industries, Inc., for most of the Wright 
years. During this period its annual output 
increased from about $75,000 to $400,000. 
Reportedly the largest broom factory in the 
Southeast, by 1955 it was producing 500 to 600 
dozen brooms a week and had paid half a million 
dollars in student wages, employing as many as 
seventy-five students each year. 48 

The College Press was no longer the 
financial powerhouse of the Collegedale campus, 
but at least it ended most academic years in the 
black. Its profits were more modest than in the 

-&*>■-; ■-■• ■' ' 

1 l B^ 

~ji~ ■ 

. -. 

~^^\f _JL>i mm BR J 

I XSmfjjjL 

Jb ^HH 


3 *4^^ 



^U| ^ *" ,H, »t»^!J* 

;s i» 

m 2 L. 


■ :BL_^M 

_^ m 


f ■ ^^B 

. ^H 

. A look inside "The Cleanest Laundry in the South." 

early 1930s; they were also seasonal. As busi- 
ness manager Charles Fleming observed in 1954, 
"Rarely has the press shown a gain on December 
31 and rarely has it shown a loss on June 30, the 
end of the fiscal year." But, Fleming added, the 
press was "a good place for student work oppor- 
tunities. ... It pays well and gives a profitable 
training." Some students who worked at the 
College Press found a lifelong career in the 
printing business. 49 

A new component of College Industries, 
Inc., was the Collegedale Laundry. Although 
from its earliest days the school had operated a 
laundry to wash students' clothes, not until 
January 1948 did a laundry and dry-cleaning 
business emerge as a full-fledged commercial 
venture. The Southern Union Conference 
invested $15,000 into building and equipping a 
$19,000, 50 by 96 foot, cement block plant. With 
the slogan, "The Cleanest Laundry in the South," 
by 1951 it was servicing five hotels and more 
than twenty motels. Despite the zeal with which 
its sales force lined up commercial accounts, the 
laundry was a money-loser its first four years. 
The turnaround came in fiscal 1952. Over the 
next several years profits ranged from $1,019 to 
$5,948. Admitting that "for several years we 
wondered if anything good could come out of the 
laundry," Fleming described it in 1954 as the 
"one bright spot in College Industries" and 
exclaimed , "I think of that statement of David's 
in the 118th Psalm, v The stone which the builder 
rejected is become the head of the corner.'" 50 

The last factory established during this era 
was a cabinet shop specializing in church and 
laboratory furniture. It was housed in a new 
building constructed with a $10,000 donation 
from a "friend of the college." Like so many other 
enterprises, it evolved out of a campus service: 
building cabinets for college-owned buildings. 51 

Collegedale Mercantile 
Enterprises, Inc. 


ollegedale Mercantile Enterprises, 
Inc., was a new corporation created by 
the Wright/Fleming administration. 
Whereas College Industries, Inc., 
concentrated on various types of 
product production, Collegedale Mercantile 
Enterprises was an umbrella organization for a 
variety of primarily retail businesses. Most of 
these were new ventures which, during the fiscal 
years 1950-1954, collectively produced nearly 
five times as much profit as the industries. One 
of these new businesses was the Southern 
Mercantile Agency. Set up in 1947 as a purchas- 
ing agency for the college, Southern Mercantile 
began selling such items as refrigerators, wash- 
ing machines, televisions, and ranges to other 
denominational institutions and their employees 
and then to the general public. It evolved into an 
immensely profitable appliance store, but by the 
mid-1950s competitors began to reduce prices on 
large appliances, causing Fleming to declare, 
"The future of the Mercantile is not rosy." 52 

An even more profitable purchasing ven- 
ture was Collegedale Auto Expediter, an agency 
which sold, but did not stock, automobiles. 
During the postwar period, when automobiles 
were difficult to obtain, the college worked out a 
pool-purchasing arrangement to obtain cars for 
denominational institutions and employees, 
selling the automobiles for cost plus $25 to $35. 
During its brief six-year lifetime it sold 
$6,000,000 worth of automobiles, paid $20,000 in 
wages, and earned the school a profit of $41,000. 
However, declining business led to its termina- 
tion. With the war scarcity over and with an 
increasing supply of automobiles, local dealers 

had become more competitive in price and also 
were allowing trade-ins. 53 

The business which, according to Fleming, 
showed "the best profit in proportion to invest- 
ment of any on the campus" was Collegedale 
Distributors, a wholesale operation which served 
as a middleman between various manufacturers 
of vegetarian meat analogs and retail outlets 
throughout the eastern states. Inaugurated in 
1948, Collegedale Distributors produced a profit 
of $21,809 during the three fiscal years 1951- 
1954. 54 

Four branches of Collegedale Mercantile 
Enterprises served primarily the people of 
Collegedale and the surrounding area: the 
college store, the garage, and two new busi- 
nesses: the creamery and the fountain. The 
fountain was a snack bar or soda shop with four 
or five stools, a small but profitable operation. 
The creamery was a retail outlet for college farm 
and dairy products, including milk, ice cream, 
and cottage cheese. Originally a part of the 
college agricultural operations, it became a part 
of the Collegedale Mercantile Enterprises, Inc., 
in 1951. Although it lost over $3,000 in fiscal 
1952, its profits for the next two years totaled 
$13,535. 55 

The generally profitable college store sold 
groceries, reportedly for 6 to 7 percent less than 
competitors in Chattanooga. The least profit- 
able of the four was the garage, which sold 
gasoline and repaired automobiles. It operated 
pretty close to the break-even level, losing some 
years and making a small profit other years. 

Still searching for additional student labor 
opportunities, the college also operated a few 
short-lived, money-losing businesses during the 
late 1940s, including a saw mill and a visual 
aids industry. It seems to have also briefly 
resurrected the cannery and the barber and 
shoe-repair shops. Another short-lived but 

A In the post-war euphoria of ready availability of 
cash and products, Southern Mercantile was a very 
successful retailer of household appliances. 

▲ Collegedale Distributors. 

profitable business was the Southern Finance 
Agency, established in 1951 and terminated in 
1955. 56 

The college maintenance department, 
headed by George R. Pearman, employing about 
fifty students, carried out at least sixty-seven 
major construction jobs during Wright's first 
eleven years. These included Hackman, 
Daniells, and Miller halls, various faculty homes, 
several apartment buildings, a store, a mainte- 
nance building, a laundry, and several remodel- 
ing projects. 57 

But while most of the industries and 
enterprises were making money and the mainte- 
nance department was saving money, the 
school's agricultural enterprises continued 
consistently to lose large amounts. These losses 
were especially severe in 1954, when they 
amounted to $23,643 and, combined with the 
woodshop deficits of the same year, brought the 
college to a financial crisis. School administra- 
tors were hard-pressed even to meet the college 
payroll. 58 

There's a paradox here. The administration 
quickly terminated a number of money-losing 
enterprises but continued the money-draining 
agricultural program, attempting to follow for as 

long as possible the Adventist commitment to the 
virtue of working the land. 

Celebrating Labor 

J ith the creation of new commercial 
enterprises and the expansion of some 
of the older ones, the total amount 
| paid in student wages quadrupled 
between 1943 and 1955. The entire 
student body worked: about 67 percent in the 
college industries, nearly 13 percent in office 
work, and the remainder in various campus 
services. In 1948 about one-fourth were working 
6-8 hours a week, half were working 9-16 hours a 
week, and another quarter were working more 
than 16 hours a week. In 1953-54 the typical 
student was earning half of his college expenses 
and 160 of SMC's 650 academy and college 
students — roughly 25 percent — were working 
100 percent of their school expenses. The 
average student in 1952 earned between 51 and 
68 cents an hour. With the opportunity to earn 
on a piecework basis in such industries as the 
broom factory, some students were earning as 
much as $2.50 an hour by 1955. 59 

Besides creating new work opportunities for 
students, the administration desired to ennoble 
the image of labor. Beginning in 1953 school was 
dismissed for a day so that students could 
participate in the annual Work Festival, de- 
scribed by some as an "industrial commence- 
ment," a celebration designed to emphasize the 
value of the work program for the individual 
student. The second of these festivals included 
parades with floats featuring the various stu- 
dent-employing entities, guest speakers, musical 
performances, tours of the industries, work 
contests, and a special awards assembly at which 
certificates of merit were given students working 
for the same department or industry for at least 

five hundred hours. Cash and scholarship 
awards climaxing with a year's free tuition were 
given to students who turned in the best money- 
saving suggestions at their place of employment. 
Beginning in 1954 the Work Festival was held a 
day before the annual College Day; high school 
seniors were invited to come a day early and 
spend two days on the campus at college ex- 
pense. With the change of administration in 
1955 from Wright to Thomas Walters the Work 
Festival was downgraded and the industrial 
floats eliminated in the interest of economy. 60 

Toward Privatization 

l hat wasn't the only change the new 
] administration brought. Whereas the 
Wright administration had canceled 
its only alliance with private 
enterprise (the hosiery mill), Walters' 
board announced a policy of encouraging 
entrepreneurs to develop or purchase industries 
in Collegedale that would hire students. Two 
landmark transitions resulted from this new 
policy: the sale of the cabinet shop and the 
development of McKee Baking Company. 

The SMC board began discussing 
privatization of college industries early in 1956. 
A key reason seems to have been that the wood 
products factory was continuing to incur heavy 
losses following the furniture recession of 1954. 
Perhaps the whole furniture factory was too big a 
problem for the potential entrepreneurs to 
tackle, for when the actual transaction was 
made, it was the cabinet shop rather than the 
parent factory that was privatized. Collegedale 
Cabinets, Inc. continued to lease facilities from 
the college and to work closely with the college 
administration for more than a decade until, as 
Collegedale Caseworks, it moved away from 
Collegedale to the far side of Ooltewah. 61 


A Century of Challenge 

▲ Most floats in the Work Festival Parade, held only in 1954, were pretty straightforward symbolisms of the 
particular industry represented. But some departments — such as engineering, on the facing page — included a little 
humor in their entry. 

A catastrophe enabled the college to get out 
of the furniture-making business and paved the 
way for Collegedale to become host to the largest 
private employer in the Chattanooga area. Don 
McClellan was spraying furniture in the factory's 
finishing room at approximately 10:45 a.m. on 
Tuesday, July 3, 1956, when a spark from a 
short-circuited lighting fixture ignited a fire 
engulfing the entire building within fifteen 
minutes and setting off explosions in the paint, 
varnish, and stain containers. No one was hurt, 
but the fire caused between $200,000 and 
$250,000 in damage. 62 

The board decided to invest the insurance 
money in building and equipping a plant for a 
different student-employing industry. At first it 
had voted to reestablish a book bindery, but 
instead built a 100 by 300 foot building to lease 
to King's Bakery of Chattanooga, operated by 
SJC alumni O. D. and Ruth McKee. The Build- 
ings and Grounds Department employed twenty- 
two students in the construction project. In 1957 
what became known as McKee Baking Company 
began producing snack cakes on the Collegedale 
campus. Since then the plant has been greatly 
expanded and become a multimillion dollar 
operation. During the 1960s the bakery em- 
ployed as many as 375 students at a time. 63 

While King's Bakery was moving from 
Chattanooga to Collegedale, a college-owned 
business was sold and moved to Chattanooga. 
Preserving student jobs doesn't seem to have 
been a consideration in the privatization of 
College High Fidelity, which employed only three 
students. This $2,500-monthly business, devel- 
oped by music professor F. R. Constantine during 
the 1955-56 school year, gave the college "a 
practical monopoly of this kind of equipment in 
this region," according to H. B. Lundquist. The 
board didn't seem impressed and voted in 1958 to 
sell the franchise and inventory "to some repre- 


A Students on the production line of the new King's Bakery of Chattanooga, later to become McKee Baking Company. 

T Insurance money from the burned furniture factory built McKee Baking Company's Plant 1 in a move to exchange a big money-loser for profitable enterprise. 

M ' ': : -2 


A Century of Challenge 

sentative concern in the Chattanooga area." But 
concerns of this type were apparently not inter- 
ested, so the college made an arrangement with 
two students, Vinson Bushnell, '58, and Fred 
Eberhart, '57, to take over the business. When 
the new management moved the high-fidelity 
store to 2345 McCallie Avenue, it was still the 
only Chattanooga store selling high fidelity 
equipment exclusively. 64 

Unprofitable Profits 

rosperity returned to the college- 
owned industries and enterprises 
during the Walters years and con- 
tinued during the Rees and Schneider 
administrations. Throughout this 
period Charles Fleming continued to be a key 
decision-maker for the college and its industries, 
sometimes as general manager of the college, 
sometimes with more specific industrial responsi- 
bilities such as overseeing the broommaking and 
woodworking industries. SMC president Frank 
Knittel credited Fleming with doing "more for 
SMC as an individual than any other several 
men put together." For much of this period the 
broom shop was the most profitable industry, 
although it was surpassed by the College Press 
in the 1960s, and both were eclipsed by the 
phenomenal profits from Collegedale Distribu- 
tors during several fiscal years in the 1960s and 
especially during 1970-71. 65 

Those prosperous years were also years of 
expansion: Collegedale Distributors built a new 
warehouse near Orlando, the College Press built 
a $25,000 addition and stocked it with $10,000 
worth of equipment, and a supportive organiza- 
tion called the Committee of 100 for SMC, Inc., 
constructed a building to rent to the College 
Broom Factory. The college also built a new 
bindery building. 66 

The most ambitious expansion program of 
this period was College Plaza (later called 
Fleming Plaza), a $375,000 shopping center 
which officially opened on April 9, 1963. The 
plaza housed the expanded reincarnation of the 
College Store (now called College Market and 
later Village Market), the Southern Mercantile 
Agency, Collegedale Distributors, the Campus 
Kitchen (a snack bar), and various stores and 
offices leased to non-college operators: an 
insurance office, a barber shop, credit union 
office, "Washateria," religious bookstore, and post 
office. Adjacent to the shopping center was a 
new service station, also leased to a private 
operator. Rent from College Plaza leases pro- 
vided the college with a significant income in the 
years that followed; several of these businesses 
also employed SMC students. 67 

Despite the general prosperity of the 
industries and enterprises, some businesses were 
a major drain on college finances. The farm 
continued to be a big money-loser until the 
Walters administration finally decided to termi- 
nate agricultural operations. For several years 
after the school ceased to operate the farm, the 
former college farm manager rented the farm 
buildings and land for his own agricultural 
operations, but in the early 1960s the farm 
buildings were razed. After that about fifty-five 
acres were leased to another farmer as pasture 
land for three years. While the farm was being 
phased out, the formerly profitable creamery 
started losing money and was closed in 1961. 68 

Proceeds from liquidating the creamery 
were used to equip the new bindery. A consis- 
tent money-loser, the bindery was kept in 
operation for eleven finance-draining years 
before it was discontinued. By that time its 
losses had mounted to over a quarter of a million 
dollars. Another money-loser was the short-lived 
College Music House, established in 1960 prima- 

rily so that the college and its constituent acad- 
emies could purchase music and music supplies 
at a discount. It was discontinued as a commer- 
cial enterprise in 1964. Even the formerly 
profitable Southern Mercantile went through a 
difficult period which led the board's executive 
committee to decree that the Mercantile should 
no longer stock appliances but sell only on order. 
After this decision, the Mercantile once again 
became profitable. 69 

Two points should be noted here. First, the 
few money-losing industries and enterprises did 

Student Entrepreneur 

While most 
m students were 

content to work in 
industries devel- 
oped by the college, 
student entrepre- 
neur Tom Mostert, 
Sr., developed his 
own industry. Prior 
to undertaking the 
study of theology at 
SMC, Mostert had 
operated a doughnut business in Tallahassee, 
Florida. When he decided to go back to 
school, he brought his business with him. 
Before sunup each weekday he baked at his 
home 120 dozen doughnuts. While Tom was 
in class, his wife packaged them for his fifty- 
five mile afternoon delivery route to seventy- 
six Chattanooga-area stores. After his 
graduation in 1951 he exchanged his dough- 
nut oven for a pulpit. 82 

▲ Tom Mostert, Sr. 



A Century of Challenge 

•4 The College Plaza (now Fleming Plaza) was 
opened in 1963. 

not eclipse the profitability of SMC businesses, 
which earned between 1948 and 1974 over $75.4 
million in gross sales. Second, although it took a 
dozen years to abandon the bindery started with 
such high hopes, as a general rule college admin- 
istrators were able to act decisively in terminat- 
ing long-term money-losers and reorganizing 
businesses with short-term losses. 70 

Overall, the auxiliary enterprises were 
producing a good profit, but something was 
wrong: a staggering cash flow deficit reflecting the 
tension between sound business practices for 
running a commercial enterprise and those 
required for operating an educational institution. 
Instead of producing cash for the college, the 
profits were being reinvested in the businesses — 
inventories, accounts receivable, equipment — 
investments needed to maintain profitability. At 
one time the thriving broom factory needed an 
additional van to service new customers who 
would, in turn, increase sales. The $5,000 van 
could be paid for in three months of operating 
profits. But the academic dean also needed an 
additional van — to transport student nurses back 
and forth to area hospitals. Which interest should 
prevail? Could the two problems be solved? 
Administrators explored several solutions. 

Circumstances had changed since the 
pioneer days at Collegedale: greater national 
prosperity, the proliferations of loans and grants, 
and more stringent scholastic requirements had 
reduced the demand for student work assign- 
ments. Students seemed less anxious to learn a 
trade, and many of the available jobs were less 
useful in that regard than earlier. Learning good 
work habits certainly was still relevant, but that 
could be accomplished equally well, perhaps 
better, in the private rather than in the institu- 
tional setting. 71 

By July 1974, the answer was clear to 
Charles Fleming. Having worked with the 
college auxiliaries for nearly three decades, he 
knew they had been "an absolute necessity in our 
past growth," and he didn't like the conclusion he 
had reached, but the future of the institution was 
at stake. He bit the bullet and prepared a paper 
for the board outlining the facts as he saw them 
and making specific recommendations. The 
bottom line: the time had come for the college to 
divest itself of nearly all its commercial enter- 
prises. He prepared tables summarizing the 
previous twenty-six years of sales, profits, and 
net investment. The conclusion: "Although 
these auxiliaries have produced a profit of over 
$2.4 million during the past 26 years, all of this 
profit, plus an additional sum of $1,291,486 of 
institutional money, has been invested in in- 
creased receivables, buildings, and equipment of 
the auxiliaries." The college needed the money. 
It had borrowed heavily to finance the expansion 
an exploding student population had necessi- 
tated. Now, the college should pay off these 
debts by selling the campus businesses to inves- 
tors "interested in maintaining the college's 
objectives and continuing student employment." 
This was especially important because, as he 
later observed, "The General Conference had put 
a debt limit on the college; therefore, whatever 
we put up or invested in industries made it 
unavailable to instructional buildings." Another 
consideration was that tax laws going into effect 
in 1976 would require the college-operated 
businesses to pay half their profits to federal and 
state governments. As SMC president Frank 
Knittel put it, there was almost no possibility "for 
an industry to generate as much cash profit as 
could be realized through interest if the industry 
was sold." Those considerations led the board to 
go on record as agreeing "to the general concept 
of alienating some or all of the commercial 

auxiliaries." Knittel interpreted this as approval 
for the sale of these businesses "if an attractive 
offer is made," especially if the new owner 
expected to leave the business in Collegedale. 72 

Accelerated Privatization 

he previous year (1973) SMC had sold 
two relatively new money-losing 
ventures: Film Sound Productions, 
which produced slide shows for 
corporations, and Computer Spectrum, 
an attempt to sell time on the college computer. 
Other divestments followed. As early as 1972 a 
potential buyer had approached the college about 
acquiring the immensely profitable Collegedale 
Distributors, but apparently balked at the price 
tag: $1,000,000. The deal was not consum- 
mated. Before another buyer could be found, the 
business experienced a sudden reversal of 
fortune; the board voted a major retrenchment, 
including a 50 percent staff reduction, and 
suggested possible liquidation. Instead, the 
business was sold to the Landstrom Company of 
San Francisco for the value of the inventory and 
assets. The sales contract included an agree- 
ment to lease the campus facilities for at least 
five years. Most of the money received from the 
sale was applied to the reduction of commercial 
auxiliary indebtedness. 73 

Another business sold in 1975 was College- 
dale Interiors, which marketed and installed 
carpets. Unlike Distributors, Interiors had been 
a consistent money-loser. The purchaser was 
former business manager Charles Fleming, who 
had retired from the college the previous year. 74 

Next to go were the broom shop and 
Collegedale Hydroponics. McKee Baking 
Company purchased in 1976 both the broom 
business (including the building and inventory) 


Chapter 6: A Built-in Pocketbook 

and the hydroponics building and inventory. 
Collegedale Hydroponics, four years old at the 
time of the sale, raised tomatoes without soil and 
supplied plants, nutrients, and greenhouses to 
other hydroponic growers. It had been a cash- 



Within weeks after College Enter- 
prises, Incorporated was formed as a 
corporate spin-off from Southern Mission- 
ary College, the Enterprises' office safe 
was broken into by professional thieves 
and $6,500 removed. Collecting on this 
loss led to a suit against the insurance 
company, whose representatives held that 
their policy was with Southern Missionary 
College, not with Collegedale Enterprises. 
They were correct in this because the 
exposure had not yet been changed over in 
the name of the new corporation. College- 
dale Enterprises argued, however, that 
this was just a technicality inasmuch as 
the risk was the same, the premium the 
same, and the premium for the exposure 
had been paid. 

The case came up in Hamilton 
County Chancery Court, where Judge 
Alvin Ziegler presided. The insurance 
company argued strongly on precedent 
and on "the letter of the law" that it could 
not be forced to pay a claim to one com- 
pany on the loss of another company that 
was not insured by it. 

Judge Ziegler pondered the argu- 
ments of both sides. He ruled in favor of 
Collegedale Enterprises, basing his 
decision on II Corinthians 3:6, "The letter 
killeth, but the Spirit giveth life." 83 

draining, money-losing operation. The broom 
shop, on the other hand, had produced nearly a 
half million dollars of profit. Proceeds from this 
sale were used to reduce the school's long-term 
debt. Later the college repurchased the broom 
business and then sold it once again. 75 

The last of the major industries to be 
privatized was the Collegedale Laundry, sold in 
1978 to Medi-Clean, a company that was in turn 
sold in 1981 to Angelica Healthcare Services 
Group, furnishing linens to hospitals. The 
laundry had experienced its ups and downs in 
profitability but overall showed a total profit of 
$162,617 during the quarter century 1948- 
1974. 76 

One further act of privatization followed: in 
1981 the board voted to sell the beauty parlor to 
one of its operators. 77 

And Then There Were Four 

0y 1985 the college was operating only 
five commercial enterprises: the 
College Press; Village Market; Village 
Market Bakery; Campus Shop, (which 
had absorbed the Mercantile); and 
briefly the broom factory, later re-sold for a 

second time. These four enterprises which the 
school retained were making an annual profit of 
over a quarter million dollars. 78 

Times had indeed changed since the 
Graysville days of free labor. In 1956-57 total 
student earnings at the various college services 
and commercial ventures were $237,817 — more 
than the total tuition charge for SMC students. 
Only three years later that total had risen to 
$371,788. As the government raised minimum 
wages, student wages rose. Increased wages 
resulted in higher tuition, but tuition didn't go 
up as much as wages. Whereas in 1966-67 it had 
taken 1,225 hours for a student to earn his or her 
tuition, in 1977-78 it could be earned in 1,081 
hours. 79 

By then, however, it seemed that fewer 
students were interested. Business manager 
Richard Reiner told the faculty in 1979 that five 
years earlier student labor had totaled twice as 
much as student aid, but by 1978 the ratio had 
reversed. In the late 1980s a lower percentage of 
students were earning 100 percent of their 
expenses. Yet even in the early 1990s Southern 
College still had students who were shunning 
loans, determined to earn all of their college 
expenses. 80 

Collegedale Hydroponics was one of the casualties of accelerated privatization. 


Good Managers and Supervisors Were Key to Successes 

IVlanagers and supervisors of the various 
college industries filled critical posts. Admin- 
istrators sought managers who combined the 
attributes of astute businessmen, skilled 
craftsmen, wise counselors, and Christian 
examples to the young people who worked 
under them. Frank Fogg managed the broom 
factory from 1954-1973. When he died several 
years after retirement, a number of broom 
shop alumni, in tribute to his leadership, 
returned to Collegedale for his funeral. They 
remembered his continual presence in the 
shop; he had worked alongside them unloading 
700 pound bales of broom corn from the 
railroad cars and carting them to the ware- 
house. Kenneth Wright said that one of the 
greatest blessings of his Collegedale years was 
to have his three sons work under the direc- 
tion of John Pierson. Similar statements could 
have been made of other managers, including 

J i Jill .JUM 

John Goodbrad, Nobel Vining, Bruce Ringer, 
and Francis Costerisan — all men who worked 
diligently and have been fondly remembered 
with legend-like tales. 

M. E. Connell was the competent and 
respected manager of the broom factory from 
1946-1954. One day Connell decided to check 
stock to determine whether he had on hand a 
replacement arm to fit each broom stitching 
machine. As he held the part beside a ma- 
chine to determine if it would fit, suddenly the 
operating arm broke with a bang; all the 
workers looked for the source of the noise. 
They saw Connell standing there with the 
replacement arm ready to be installed. 

Says one old timer, "To this day, his 
workers swear that Connell knew his ma- 
chines so well that he knew just when an arm 
would break and stood there ready to replace 
it." 84 

, Murrell Connell, Broom Factory 


A John Goodbrad, Collegedale 

▲ Noble Vining, College Press 

. Bruce Ringer, Mercantile 

. Francis Costerisan, Engineering 

Chapter Seven 

A Maturing Senior College 

1955- 1967 

fter Kenneth Wright left the presi- 
dency of Southern Missionary College, 
the mood at Collegedale changed so 
perceptibly that SMC seemed like an 
entirely different school. Gone was 
the spirit of buoyant optimism, of unity in 
diversity, of welcoming student participation in 
college governance — replaced by a pessimistic 
mood, a divided faculty, and an attempt to reduce 
the power of the Student Association. However, 
after three years the mood changed again; the 
college entered another era of optimism and 

Thomas W. Walters 


t the center of the storm was Thomas 
W. Walters, 1 Ed.D., a veteran of more 
than two decades of academy and 
conference administration. Anyone 
who follows in the wake of a superstar 
is likely to find the rowing tough. In Walters' 
case the difficulty was reportedly magnified by a 
board mandate to reverse some of Wright's 
popular policies by reducing the degree to which 
both teachers and students were perceived as 
influencing administrative decisions. A 1934 
graduate of Walla Walla College with both a 
master's and doctor's degree in educational 
administration from Stanford University, 
Walters had never served on a college faculty 

Thomas W. Walters, president, 1955-1958. 

until his arrival in Collegedale to take up duties 
as academic dean a mere three months before his 
elevation to the presidency. He had, however, 
spent six years as principal of the largest 
Seventh-day Adventist boarding academy, where 
he had earned a reputation as an excellent 
academy administrator. Apparently that was 
what the board wanted: someone who had never 
experienced a college faculty's climate of 
collegiality, someone who was used to dictating to 
students — high school students — and to their 
teachers. The board elected Walters 
unanimously and gave him another difficult 
mandate: to pay off the debts incurred during 
the previous administration's building program. 
Pleased with his successful attack on the debt, 
Walters says, "We worked night and day to pay it 

Among the talents which Walters brought 
to his office was a mastery of the English lan- 
guage. He "wrote beautiful letters" and gave 
memorable chapel talks. He also showed a 
personal interest in students, nearly every week 
inviting several to his home for Sabbath dinner. 
Along with many of the students, he enjoyed 
sports. During his tenure intramurals assumed 
greater importance: the college adopted an 
intramural constitution, and games were regu- 
larly reported in the Southern Accent. 

But a love for sports was not enough to 
redeem his leadership in the minds of those 
students who had enjoyed the atmosphere of the 
previous administration and who had appreci- 


A Century of Challenge 

ated the relaxation of some of the rules. Describ- 
ing Walters' attempt to "tighten things up," 
especially for the young women, a student 
explained the time-card system used to keep 
track of coeds. When a female student went to 
the library in the evening, the time she left the 
dormitory was entered on a card which she 
would take to the library, where the time she 
arrived would be entered. If too much time had 
elapsed between check-out and check-in, she 
would be disciplined. 

Tensions between the administration and 
the Student Association led to tensions between 
the administration and certain faculty members 
closely associated with the SA. When some of 
these school employees shared their concerns 
with the board, these employees, along with the 
president, were relieved of their positions. 

Meanwhile, the students seemed to be 
voting with their feet. A steadily declining 
enrollment aggravated the financial problems 
that had begun surfacing late in Wright's tenure. 
In February 1957, Walters bluntly told the board, 
"Southern Missionary College is struggling to 
survive." Despite criticism that his earlier 
reports were too pessimistic, he assumed the 
responsibility of bringing board members "to face 
the unpleasant facts of life pertaining to the 
situation at Southern Missionary College." 

At a time when the total enrollment was a 
mere 480, Walters said, "We need 100 more 
students to balance our budget" — an increase of 
more than 20 percent. 

One Thousand Students 


essimism switched to optimism when 
Conard N. Rees assumed the 
presidency. Enrollment really did 
increase that September by the 20 
percent Walters had needed, and it 

kept climbing at astronomical rates throughout 
the next decade. More than a thousand students 
registered for the 1964-65 school year; for 
1966-67 the total was 1,211. 2 

By this time, the composition of the student 
body had changed significantly. For one thing, it 
had more women. At the beginning of the 
Walters administration, females had constituted 
less than 42 percent of the student body. By the 
end of the Rees administration they had reached 
parity. Perhaps more significant was that 
women were more likely to complete the full four 
years of college than they had been a few years 
earlier. 3 

Not only did SMC have more coeds by 1967, 
it also had a few representatives from a group 
not previously represented: blacks. SMC had 
made its first steps toward integration — hesi- 
tantly, slowly, reluctantly. There was reason for 
the reluctance. Representing an alien religion, 
administered by a sequence of transplanted 
Yankees, populated with a cosmopolitan student 
body, the college was loath to impose between 
itself and its neighbors a third wall of prejudice: 
racial as well as religious and sectional. Just so 
they wouldn't forget, local Klansmen kept tabs on 
the school, monitoring the sleeping arrangements 
of visiting musicians from Oakwood College and 
reportedly burning crosses from time to time as a 

SMC Board of Trustees, 



1965 --page 





of race, 

to accept qualified student 
color or national origin. 

applicants to the 



reminder to walk the line. 4 

As early as 1961 General Conference 
representatives had urged SMC to prepare for 
integration. The following year the faculty, 
recognizing its inevitability, believed that the 
time was approaching for at least token integra- 
tion. But the board, aware that the vast majority 
of people in the South were still of a culturally 
segregated mind-set, called for delay, noting, 
"Further preparation is necessary prior to the 
admission of qualified negro students." 
President Rees appointed a committee chaired by 
history professor Jerome Clark to study the 
problem. The Clark committee recommended 
that blacks be accepted. In February 1965 the 
board voted to accept qualified applicants "re- 
gardless of race, color, or national origin." 6 

The expected backlash never materialized. 
There was no large-scale negative reaction on 
campus to the presence of blacks. In fact, when 
the new policy was announced in chapel, the 
students gave it a standing ovation. The editor of 
the Southern Accent, Robert Murphy, included a 
portion of Martin Luther King's famous Lincoln 
Memorial address in the paper's literary supple- 
ment. His successor as editor, William S. Nelson, 
called for a color-blind Christianity that viewed 
the race question from the perspective of God's 
Fatherhood and man's brotherhood. 6 

The simplicity of 
the minutes 
belies concern 
over anticipated 
Fortunately the 
concerns proved 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

Not that everyone was happy with the new 
situation. Some constituents had difficulty 
adjusting to the overthrow of long-held custom. 
Even on campus there were a few signs of 
resistance, including complaints about the King 
piece and a segregation-defending letter to the 
editor which took issue with Nelson's editorial. 
Some may have been insensitive; some may have 
been unkind; but others welcomed the change 
and believed that ethnic diversity was beneficial 
to the school. 7 

Although more evenly divided between men 
and women and racially integrated, the student 
body was still training for denominational 
service. Of the 65 percent of the four-year 
graduates of 1966 who planned to enter the work 
force immediately, 69 percent were entering 
denominational employment. Of the 33 percent 
going on for advanced study, nearly one-third 
were planning to attend the Seventh-day 
Adventist Theological Seminary. 8 

Plans for denominational employment were 
not the only similarities between the Rees-era 
students of Southern Missionary College and the 
earlier students of Southern Junior College. 
Another was their vulnerability to war and 
pestilence. This time the war was Vietnam; the 
pestilence was hepatitis, a disease that mysteri- 
ously incapacitated eighty-three students and 
teachers up to eight weeks during the winter of 
1965-66. Hamilton County health authorities 
were unable to find any evidence of food, water, 
or milk contamination upon which to blame the 
outbreak. To prevent its spread, the college 
health service and the college physician gave 
about one thousand gamma globulin injections. 9 

If only an injection could have warded off 
the Vietnam war. It lurked over the student 
body, threatening to snatch away young men 
before they completed their education. Yet the 
student body as a whole seemed strangely 

unconcerned. Aside from a couple of young men 
who made a peace sign, the campus escaped the 
demonstrations, teach-ins, and protests that 
enveloped so many other campuses during this 
period. When the editor of the Southern Accent 
took Lyndon Johnson to task, it was not for the 
war but for his failure to attend Winston 
Churchill's funeral. 10 

Not that the student body was about to 
organize an LBJ fan club. In the 1964 election, 
according to a Southern Accent poll, 82% of the 
juniors, 61% of the sophomores, 59% of the 
freshmen, and 53% of the seniors supported 
Barry Goldwater. 11 

Accommodating A 
Threefold Increase 

Phe college never could have 
accommodated an enrollment that in 
1966-67 was nearly triple that of 
1957-58 without a massive building 
program. Several times during that 
decade of explosive growth college officials 

indicated that the school had nearly reached its 
saturation point. In 1960, with an enrollment of 
583, President Rees told the board, "Limited 
facilities provide an automatic check on any large 
increases of enrollment." Two years later — in 
order not to overtax the school's physical facili- 
ties — the board voted an enrollment limit of 
1,100 to 1,200 students, a ceiling smashed five 
years later. 12 

To make room for the additional students, 
SMC transformed itself from a hilltop campus to 
one sliding down into thevalley. "It seems that 
the earth movers were working almost forever in 
preparing that valley down there for the expan- 
sion of the campus," recalls professor Gordon 
Hyde. 13 

During the Walters years a ten-year master 
plan for campus development was adopted, 
College Drive was rerouted so that it no longer 
ran through the heart of the campus, and con- 
struction was begun on a new $150,000 building 
to house the home economics department and the 
cafeteria. In addition, a new elementary school — 
named after STS teacher Arthur W. Spalding — 

T Hepatitis made headlines at SMC when Vietnam was the headliner on most American campuses. 

Hepatitis Cases Decline, 
Reports Health Service 

The epidemic of infectious 
hepatitis that struck SMC after 
Christmas, affecting nearly 75 
persons is over according to Mrs. 
Marian Kuhlman, Health Serv- 
ice Director. She emphasized, 
however, that it is impossible to 
be completely sure for a period 

of many weeks, because a dis- 
ease like this is very hard to 
trace. She explained that it can 
be symptomatically over but 
that it can appear again after a 
few weeks. 

Mrs. Kuhlman said, ''Gamma 
globulin, a protein blood frac- 

tion, is very effective in pre- 
venting the disease if taken 
within a week of exposure. The 
Health Service has given over 
870 injections, Dr. T. C. Swin- 
yar, campus physician, has 
given well over 100 and many 
students got injections before 


1WK Km w-~ 
nir m 



.iijMii J 

|hiwi -■»■■■!? 

Pi j *>«*■** 

* iSa,.^ 

: 1 — t:.-' 

:'.' . - : ;.-.; ;-:^^ : ^/-\ : :;^.^^}}^y^: : p\ 

A Century of Challenge 

77ie raeu; cafeteria / home economics/ student lounge 
building was finished in 1958. Across campus, the 
new A.W. Spalding Elementary School was built at 
the corner of Camp Road and College Drive East. 

was constructed, and the old Normal Building 
was renovated for use by the academy students. 14 

But it was during the Rees administration 
that the real transformation of the campus 
began. The first major building to invade the 
valley was the new 275-bed women's residence 
hall (later known as Talge Hall), completed in 
1961. When the women moved into the new 
dormitory, freshmen men took over Maude Jones 
Hall; the other men remained in the old Talge 
Hall. Hardly had this new dormitory been 
completed when administrators perceived it to be 
inadequate, and within three years a new wing 
was added. 15 

To accommodate additional married stu- 
dents and faculty members, the college built a 
new mobile home park and several houses. The 
trailer park was relocated behind the Student 
Park with spaces for fifty mobile homes, while 
two new subdivisions for faculty homes were 
opened on White Oak Drive and Pierson Drive. 16 

Meanwhile, the floor space of Hackman 
Hall was doubled, a greenhouse added, and the 
cafeteria building enlarged at least twice. A new 
heating plant failed to deliver on its promise to 
eliminate the soot that polluted Collegedale's 
atmosphere, but a new $175,000 sewage system 
enabled cafeteria workers to use "such conven- 
iences as garbage disposals." Other new build- 
ings in the valley included the Collegedale 
Seventh-day Adventist Church and the College 
Plaza shopping center. 17 

The campus expanded in the other direction 
as well. A new industrial arts building, designed 
by an architectural drawing student (with an 


The Campus in 1962 

When the new cafeteria / home economics building was constructed in 1958, 
College Drive was no longer a thoroughfare. Talge had been built in 1961 as 
a women's dormitory, and Jones Hall was now occupied by freshmen men. 
Notice that Talge has only one wing toward the back. The old college store 
and garage are still operating, but the new College Plaza will be built soon 
and open in April, 1963. The creamery and barn still stand in the lower left 
of the photo, but the barn will be torn down in the fall of this year. 

▲ Rees, right in top photo, attended many ribbon 
cuttings during his administration. Clockwise from 
above, the College Plaza, Collegedale Church, McKee 
Industrial Building, College Trailer Park, and Talge 



A Century of Challenge 

architect's revision) and largely built by students 
taking a construction class, with funds provided 
by the O. D. McKee family, was completed in the 
summer of 1964 in the valley behind Hackman 
Hall. Originally called the McKee Industrial 
Building, it is now known as Ledford Hall. 18 

O. D. McKee was partially responsible for 
another major construction project: the physical 
education center, officially opened in September 
1965. This project was primarily funded by the 
Committee of 100 for S.M.C., Inc., an organiza- 
tion that McKee helped to launch in 1963. 
Conceived as an advisory body to promote the 
college and assist in campus development, the 
committee had recruited 100 members by May 
1964, the month of its legal incorporation as a 
non-profit corporation. Its first president — 
serving for a quarter of a century — was William 
A. lies, of Orlando, Florida. The new building 
was later named after him. Former SMC presi- 
dent Kenneth Wright was another charter 
member of the committee. Besides providing 
more than $200,000 toward the construction of 
the physical education center and financing a 
new broomshop, the committee persuaded the 
college board to employ a full-time fund-raiser. 19 

The final major building project undertaken 
during the Rees years was the new administra- 
tion building, named Wright Hall in honor of the 
former president. Moving the administrators 
freed up space in Lynn Wood Hall for additional 
classrooms. 20 

Such an ambitious expansion program 
could hardly have been undertaken without the 
continuing services of the college's own 
construction team, under the leadership of 
George Pearman, who was followed by Perry 

Named after members of the Committee of 100 who 
helped to raise money for their construction, Wright 
Hall, top, and lies Physical Education Center (named 
for William A. lies in the '80s) crowned the era of 


iMnft mm 

^ "-^W 

i M:. 


7%e Campus in 1967 

Wright Hall has been completed, but the cafeteria behind it will be torn down 
in 1971 and replaced by the current cafeteria I student center building. 
Thatcher Hall is under construction, soon to be occupied by the women. Talge 
Hall will be given to the men shortly after the women move to Thatcher. 

A Century of Challenge 

Coulter (1956-1962), succeeded, in turn, by 
Francis Costerisan (1962-1984). Under these 
supervisors the construction team "performed 
unbelievable feats by building at a cost per 
square foot well under the current market," 
according to a 1975 report by Jack Tyler and 
Associates, architects for many of the major 
structures. Averaging per square foot about 50 
percent below the architect's estimated cost, the 
team saved the college $3,004,280 between 
1961-1967 on five major buildings alone: Talge, 
Thatcher, Wright Hall, the shopping center, and 
the physical education center. 21 

While new buildings were being added to 
the campus, some old landmarks were being 
subtracted, including the Yellow House, razed in 
1958. The old college store, service station, 
creamery, and bull pen were demolished in 
1963. 22 

Paying The Bills 

I hile the expansion communicated a 
WaWA sense of optimism and vigor to the 
TA ^H campus and added much-needed 

facilities for the increasing number of 
students, at least one key faculty 
member, academic dean J. W. Cassell, Jr., 
suggested that the program had "become too 
ambitious." Declaring "a college expansion 
program must never jeopardize, curtail, or 
supercede the instructional program," he called 
upon the board in February 1967 to put on the 
brakes. Complaining that building projects had 
taken more than $95,000 from operating funds 
that year, he expressed the opinion that this was 
"not an acceptable or sound financial practice." 23 
Cassell's complaint was precipitated by the 
fact that the college was once again experiencing 
financial difficulty. After a glorious decade of 
balanced budgets and debt liquidation, it ap- 

peared that the fiscal balloon had burst. Even 
during the good years the budget had contained 
an Achilles' heel: during most of the decade the 
instructional division of the college had shown a 
loss, although it had been offset by gains in the 
industries and other auxiliary operations. 
Another important component of the balanced 
budget was denominational subsidy; part of the 
problem for the 1966-67 budget was that these 
subsidies had remained unchanged for six years 
despite increasing enrollment and greatly 
expanded physical facilities. 24 

A partial solution, the budget committee 
decided, was to increase tuition again — to raise it 
by more than 10 percent — an increase that would 
cost the students an additional $100 per year 
when, at the time of the previous increase a year 
earlier, it was already more than twice as much 
as it had been at the beginning of the Walters 
administration eleven years before. Complaining 
in 1957 that tuition, fees, room, and board 
expenses were already too high, Walters had 
opposed using tuition raises as the major method 
of increasing income. Although some of the 
tuition increases were mandated by inflation and 
the higher cost of student labor resulting from 
rising minimum wage laws, and although 
expense comparisons of Seventh-day Adventist 
colleges repeatedly showed that only Oakwood 
was less expensive, at least some students found 
that they were unable to afford SMC. Registrar 
Cyril F. W. Futcher calculated in 1965 that one 
out of six students who had dropped out over the 
previous five years had done so for financial 
reasons. 25 

Supplementing the work-study program, 
the college and its friends attempted to make 
SMC affordable to more students through a 
variety of scholarships, loans, and personal gifts. 
The number of scholarships available to academy 

seniors was increased in 1962 and the amount 
was doubled in 1964. Privately funded scholar- 
ships were available for future elementary 
teachers, nursing students, McKee Bakery 
employees (both full-time and part-time), and 
residents of Arkansas. The college and Southern 
Publishing Association granted $300 scholar- 
ships to students showing "potential abilities 
toward the publishing business." The Southern 
Union Conference provided grants in aid of up to 
$300 for elementary education majors and up to 
$600 for nursing students who agreed to work for 
denominational hospitals in the Southern Union 
for at least a year. The college and various other 
denominational entities provided scholarships in 
addition to or in lieu of compensation for stu- 
dents who sold Adventist literature, conducted 
evangelistic meetings, assisted at summer 
camps, and served as student missionaries. 26 

The SMC board voted to participate in the 
student loan program of the National Defense 
Education Act in 1960. Other loan funds were 
set up by the Alumni Association and various 
private donors. Formal scholarships and loans 
were not the only sources of student aid. Needy 
students from time to time received help on an 
individual basis from faculty members, alumni, 
fellow students, and others. 27 

Conard N. Rees 

Bne of the key people who had worked 
to make those scholarships possible 
was SMC president Conard N. Rees. 28 
Rees, fifty-nine years old, was a 
sports-loving Union College graduate 
in English with a Ph.D. in school administration 
from the University of Nebraska. A former 
Lincoln city tennis champion who had served the 
Nebraska public school system as athletic coach, 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

principal, and school superintendent, Rees was 
able to devote thirty-one years to Seventh-day 
Adventist schools as boys' dean, academy 
principal, and college administrator, including 
the presidency of Southwestern Adventist 

Rees counseled the faculty, "We need to 
learn humility, meekness, and peaceableness." 
He practiced what he preached. Unassuming, 
kind, and pleasant, he brought peace to a 
troubled campus and was beloved by students. 
Approachable and supportive, he was 
appreciated by teachers — but not by everybody. 
His administrative style, which permitted SMC 
to experience more than a decade of dynamic 
growth and balanced 
budgets, was seen by 
some as weak, not 
assertive enough. But 
what some perceived 
as weakness may have 
resulted from his 
conscious attempt to 
carefully choose 
top-quality administra- 
tors and then give 
them room in which to 
operate. "He delegated 
authority well," says 
former administrator 
Bill Taylor. Meeting 
weekly with his 
administrators, Rees 
came not "bringing a 
solution," but "seeking 
a solution." Desiring a 
congenial atmosphere 
and a harmonious 
faculty, he was "more 
of a diplomat or 
compromiser than a 

dictator." Once the administrative council had 
made a decision, however, Rees could be both 
decisive and assertive. Professor Cecil Rolfe 
remembers that one time the faculty "voted and 
debated and voted and debated until he finally 
got the vote he wanted." 

By the time of the school's 1967 financial 
problems, Rees was gravely ill, having suffered a 
stroke. Collegedale responded with an 
outpouring of sympathy. Hoping that he would 
recover, the board hesitated to consider a 
replacement. Meanwhile, board chairman H. H. 
Schmidt instructed the academic dean, business 
manager, dean of student affairs, and director of 
college relations to continue operating each in his 
own area, with academic 
dean Jack Cassell acting 
as coordinator. The 
board reluctantly ac- 
cepted Rees's resignation 
in February 1967, 
appointed Cassell acting 
president for the remain- 
der of the year, and 
asked Atlantic Union 
College president Robert 
Reynolds to take SMC's 
reins for the 1967-68 
school year. 29 Reynolds 

Acting president 
Cassell, a history gradu- 
ate from Washington 
Missionary College with 
a Ph.D. from Michigan 
State University, had 
become in 1963 the 
college's fifth academic 
dean in the eight years 
since newly installed 
dean Thomas Walters 

Conard N. Rees, president, 1958-1967. 

had been elevated to the presidency with the 
resignation of Kenneth Wright. In that emer- 
gency the General Conference had sent former 
SJC president D. E. Rebok to act as dean for the 
1955-56 school year. Ray Underhill and George 
Shankel followed Rebok for about two years each, 
after which future SMC president Wilbert M. 
Schneider filled the post for three years. 30 

Although Cassell was designated as acting 
president, some of the other members of the 
interim administrative team had more lasting 
impact on SMC. One of these was Charles 
Fleming, Jr., who had resumed his position as 
business manager when Rees had become 
president. Three of the people who joined 
Fleming in financial administration during the 
Rees years continued to play an important role in 
college finances at least as 
late as 1991: Robert Mer- 
chant, Louesa Peters, and 
Kenneth Spears. Merchant, 
a 1945 honor graduate of 
Emmanuel Missionary 
College, had served in the 
financial departments of 
several schools. A certified 
public accountant with an 
M.B.A., he was college 
treasurer from 1961 until 
retirement in 1991. 

Co-worker Louesa Peters was his assistant from 
1964 to 1991. 31 

Spears came to SMC as a student in 1961. 
After graduating in 1966, he became college 
manager in 1967 (Fleming was now general 
manager of finance and development), dean of 
student affairs in 1970, and director of admis- 
sions and records in 1977. In 1980 he became 
associate business manager, moving up to 
vice-president for finance in 1984. He retired in 
1991. 32 

A Jack W. Cassell 


A Century of Challenge 


▲ £/sie Mae Taylor 

Bill Taylor was an- 
other dynamic and influen- 
tial member of the interim 
administrative team. He 
served Southern for more 
than thirty years in a 
number of posts, but par- 
ticularly as dean of 
student affairs, college 
relations director, and 
director of development. He 
helped launch the Committee of 100 in 1963 and 
the ten-million-dollar endowment campaign in 
1984. He and his wife, Elsie Mae, (switchboard 
receptionist) were honored for their faithful years 
of service with the naming of the drive in front of 
Wright Hall as "Taylor Circle" in 1986. 33 

Taylor's replacement as dean of students 
was Kenneth R. Davis, dean of men. During a 
stint at Atlantic Union College he earned a 
second master's degree — this one in counseling 
from Boston University — and returned to SMC 
as director of counseling and testing, a position 
he held for more than two decades. Among his 
other duties at Southern have been teaching 
religion classes, assigning student employment, 
recruiting for eight to ten weeks each summer, 
and — for more than twenty years — sponsoring 
the Student Association, a responsibility he 

William H. Taylor 

describes as "the most 
enjoyable part of my work." 

In 1973 the board 
voted him a letter of com- 
mendation for "work beyond 
the call of duty," including 
his "extra mile" carpentry in 
building the Student Park 
shelter, various sets for 
student talent programs, 
saunas for the dormitories, 
and many other projects. Says Des Cummings, 
Jr., '65, "He was a person who believed in young 
people, even when they didn't believe in them- 
selves." His wife, Jeanne, served as executive 
secretary for three presidents. 34 

An alumna who joined the administrative 
faculty as assistant registrar in 1965 was Mary 
Elam, a 1951 English graduate. She became 
records director in 1980, a title changed to 
associate vice president for academic administra- 
tion in 1990. Miss Elam defines her job as "to 
help people graduate." To that end, among other 
innovations, she streamlined student registration 
from a time-consuming process to a highly 
efficient one. She was awarded a Distinguished 
Service Medallion in 1989. 35 




A Robert Merchant 

. Louesa Peters 

Kenneth Spears A Kenneth R. Davis ▲ Jeanne Davis 

Overworked And 

By the fall of 1960 the heads of all 
academic divisions held doctoral 
degrees, the number rising to 21 in 
1965-66, when Southern Memories 
reported the "largest number of 
Ph.D.'s per student of any Seventh-day Advent- 
ist college." The 1962 self-study for accreditation 
reported that the teachers had an average of 
fifteen to twenty years' teaching experience, 88 
percent held membership in 
learned societies, and 53 
percent had attended profes- 
sional conventions at school 
expense the previous school 
year. 36 

At a time when 
teachers were carrying up to 
sixteen semester hours of 
classes or more, Cassell told 
the board, "Teaching loads 
are not excessive but defi- 
nitely need to be reduced in 
line with increased demands for research and 
scholarly writing, personal counseling, and 
greater proficiency in rapidly expanding fields of 
knowledge." Under pressure from the Southern 
Association of Schools and Colleges, the board 
adopted guidelines reducing the maximum to 
twelve hours for department chairmen and 
fourteen hours for others. 37 

Not only were teachers overloaded, accord- 
ing to the Southern Association they were also 
underpaid. The Association asked the college 
president in 1958 to justify the school's low 
teaching and administrative salaries, which 
ranged from $64 to $81 per week for full-time 
male college teachers and from $53 to $58 for 

▲ Mary Elam 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

Ml-time female teachers in departments other 
than nursing. The highest nursing department 
salary was $64. One female administrator made 
$60 per week; the top male administrative salary 
was $84. Actually those salaries were an 
improvement over two years before, at the 
beginning of the Walters administration, when 
men teachers had received between $31 and $67 
weekly, women teachers had earned between $22 
and $50, the highest-paid woman administrator 
had been paid $52, and the top male 
administrator's salary had been $72. Despite 
Southern Association concern, the maximum pay 
rates in each category were unchanged for the 
1959-60 school year. Although most salaries rose 
gradually during the inflationary 1960s, nursing 
instructors received hefty raises, with some 
earning just pennies a week less than the college 
president. By 1967 many nursing instructors 
were earning more than the president. The 
highest paid nursing teacher earned $6,180 a 
year; the highest paid college administrator 
earned $5,278 a year. 38 

Nursing On Three 

he academic departments were 
grouped into eight divisions 
offering as many as twenty- 
five baccalaureate majors. 
The division attracting the 
largest number of majors during the 
mid '60s was nursing, representing 26 
percent of thel967 graduates. By this 
time the nursing division was operat- 
ing two completely distinct programs — 
B.S. and A.S. — on three campuses: 
Collegedale, Orlando, and Madison. 39 
The Collegedale-Orlando B.S. 

program was rooted in the earlier cooperative 
arrangement between the Florida Sanitarium 
and Hospital School of Nursing and Southern 
Missionary College. Most students preferred a 
college-campus degree curriculum to a four-year, 
hospital-based, no-degree R.N. program. 
Wanting "to attract more students into nursing 
in the Southern Union," but finding its own 
school on the verge of disintegration, the hospital 
board voted an annual subsidy of more than 
$30,000 in order to make it financially feasible 
for Southern Missionary to take over its nurses' 
training. Students attended three semesters at 
Collegedale, then four semesters at Orlando, 
where they took the bulk of their nursing classes, 
then returned to Collegedale for the final 
semester. After 1966, students spent only the 
junior year at Orlando. Back at Collegedale for 
their entire senior year, they obtained clinical 
experience at Moccasin Bend Hospital and at the 
Chattanooga-Hamilton County Public Health 
Center. The National League for Nursing 
granted the division full accreditation in 1962. 40 
The Orlando campus had its own separate 
student association. Students considered one of 
the advantages of the Orlando campus to be the 
small size of its student body. "You could get to 
know everybody better," says Dorothy Hooper, 
'68. "Classes down there have been close 
and very supportive." 41 

The division chairman from the 
1956 merger until 1960 was Mazie A. 
Herin, R.N., who had previously taught 
nursing at SMC from 1944-1947. She 
chaired the committee that oversaw the 
transition from hospital to college 
control, and under her leadership the 
division promoted the profession by 
setting up Future Nurses clubs at three 
Southern Union academies. The 
tie Herin nursing education building was named 

in her honor in 1976. 42 

Her second time at SMC, Miss Herin stayed 
only four years; her successor, Dr. Harriet Smith 
Reeves, stayed seven. Despite the premium pay 
scale, the division had a very high turnover rate. 
Only three nursing teachers from this era stayed 
a whole decade: Doris Davis (1966-1976), Zerita 
Hagerman (1961-1973), and Maxine Page 
(1965-1975). Those three represented only 10 
percent of the nursing faculty of 1966-67, when it 
included twenty-six full-time and four part-time 
instructors. 43 

SMC's other nursing curriculum, the A.S. 
program, grew out of the demise of Madison 
College. If the availability of government loans 
had a crippling effect on the Southern Missionary 
work-study program, it may have sounded the 
death-knell for Madison. With students no 
longer compelled to earn 100 percent of their 
expenses in order to attend college, Madison lost 
its biggest drawing card. Then, faced with a 
government imperative either to spend millions 
to modernize the hospital buildings or close 
down, the constituents of the cash-poor, 
self-supporting institution felt that they had no 
choice in 1963 but to turn their school and 
hospital over to the denomination. 44 

When it accepted Madison, the Southern 
Union Conference found itself operating two 
colleges in the same state. Union officials made a 
brave attempt to make it work, placing former 
Collegedale pastor Horace R. Beckner in the 
presidency of Madison College and distinguish- 
ing it from SMC by designating its mission as 
technical and vocational training. Promised 
Southern Union Conference president Don R. 
Rees, "The Southern Union Conference Commit- 
tee, the entire staff of Madison College and the 
board of trustees will pledge their earnest efforts 
to make Madison College one of the outstanding 
schools in the organization." 45 


A Century of Challenge 

It didn't work. Within a year they decided 
to discontinue the experiment. In a desperate 
attempt to salvage something from its educa- 
tional program, the Madison board asked SMC to 
assume that responsibility. The SMC board 
voted to take over Madison's nursing and medical 
technology programs but to discontinue the 
agriculture curriculum. 46 

Thus SMC found itself operating two 
unrelated nursing programs. The two-year 
degree, with one year at Collegedale and the 
second at Madison, proved to be more popular 

Nursing students divided their time between 
Collegedale and Orlando, where they received most of 
their nursing courses. 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

than administrators anticipated. Expecting a 
maximum of twenty students, they were 
flabbergasted when fifty-eight enrolled for the 
1965-66 school year. 47 

Preparing Preachers 


he second most popular major during 
this period was religion, which 
accounted for 18 percent of the 
four-year graduates in 1967. The 
3 chairman of the religion division for 
all but two years from 1955 until retirement in 
1963 was Otto Christensen, recipient of a doctor- 
ate in 1951 from the University of Chicago's 
Oriental Institute. He had chaired the Depart- 
ment of Biblical Languages at Emmanuel 
Missionary College from 1947 to 1955 and prior 
to that had served as the director of the SDA 
Mongolian Mission, where he 
had been the first person to 
translate portions of the 
Bible into the local language. 
Reportedly one of only two or 
three Americans with a 
working knowledge of the 
Mongolian language, he 
wrote a Mongolian grammar 
text. He knew at least 
twelve languages and served 
on the board of the National 
Association of Professors of 
Hebrew. 48 

Christensen was 
determined that his faculty 
be theologically orthodox. He 
would, in an inoffensive 
manner, ask potential 
religion teachers questions 
about such Adventist doc- 
trines as the sanctuary, a 
strategy which caused one of 

Otto Christensen 

▲ Robert Francis 

his interviewees, Robert Francis, to reflect, 
"Every teacher at a Seventh-day Adventist 
college should subscribe to at least 99 percent of 
the beliefs listed on their baptismal certificate." 

Francis, who had spent most of his first 
seventeen years in an orphanage, had been 
converted to Adventism at the age of seventeen 
largely through the influence of another 
seventeen-year-old he happened to meet at an 
Adventist camp meeting — George Vandeman. 
He was encouraged to attend college by a series 
of encounters he regarded as providential. 
Joining the SMC faculty in 1960, he taught for 
the next eighteen years until his health-related 
retirement. Even after his retirement he was 
prevailed upon to help out in emergencies. 49 

His tenure was nearly matched by that of 
colleague Frank Holbrook. Like Francis, 
Holbrook was an alumnus of Washington Mis- 
sionary College and the 
Seventh-day Adventist 
Theological Seminary. 
While on the faculty 
Holbrook wrote a monthly 
column for These Times 
called "Frank Answers." An 
Old Testament scholar, he 
left SMC to join the Biblical 
Research Committee at the 
General Conference. 50 

The religion teacher 
setting the record for longest 
tenure was Douglas 
Bennett, '51, an Alabama 
native who had worked as a 
bank teller in Columbus, 
Georgia, for five years before 
attending college and later 
£"- Andrews University. He 

Wk ~" joined the faculty in 1962, 

A JlBa^k, chaired the religion depart- 
BBk ^^ ^1 ment from 1970 to 1983, and 
Douglas Bennett 

■»? Ji 

▲ Frank Holbrook 

WI0S 930-M» 


▲ Evangelism field schools led to organization of 
new churches and baptism of hundreds. Here, Lavoy 
Garner shakes members' hands after serving as 
pastor-of-the-day at a local church in 1963. 

in 1987 was appointed to the newly endowed 
chair in religion. During the first semester of 
1990 he taught classes at the Seventh-day 
Adventist seminaries in Poland and Czechoslova- 
kia. As Southern College entered its second 
century, Bennett completed thirty years on the 
college faculty. 51 

SMC's ministerial training program contin- 
ued to emphasize practical experience in minis- 
try. Bennett was a key participant in the religion 
division's annual summer field school of evange- 
lism. Participation in the field school, he says, 
keeps him in touch with people away from the 
college, helps him understand students' heart 
struggles, recharges him, and helps him to do 
better in the classroom. "Religion has to be 
experimentally participated in," he says. 52 

The religion division conducted several 
evangelistic series in the Chattanooga area 
during the school year as well as the summer 
field schools in such places as Pensacola, Char- 
lotte, and Knoxville. These led to the organiza- 
tion of new Adventist congregations in St. 
Matthews, Kentucky, and Ringgold, Georgia, and 
to the baptism of hundreds of people. 53 


A Century of Challenge 

Training Teachers 

he third most popular major at SMC 
in the mid-1960s was elementary 
education, one of two majors offered 
by the Education-Health and Physical 
Education Division. In 1967, 
eighteen percent of the four-year graduates 
qualified for either elementary or secondary 
teacher certification. 54 

The college's first request to have the 
education program accredited by the National 
Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education 
was unsuccessful. At the second request in 1967, 
NCATE hesitated, troubled by the school's lack 
of library space, "the lack of choice in religious 
philosophy open to students," the teachers' low 
salary schedule, and the heavy teaching loads 
imposed upon them. It did, however, commend 
the attempt made to lighten teacher loads. 
Despite these reservations, NCATE granted 
accreditation to the elementary education 
program in the fall of 1968. 55 

Other than veterans Olivia Dean and 
division chairman Kenneth Kennedy, the tenure 
champions among the education teachers of the 
Walters years were Drs. James M. Ackerman 
and LaVeta Payne. During his thirteen years 
Ackerman was director of testing as well as 





A major in 

>*$** '** > 


education, and 

^Idr N 

w? '-'Vf 

recreation was 

7 * ' 

introduced in 


A James Ackerman ▲ LaVeta Payne 

professor of education, and at various times had 
additional responsibilities in such areas as 
admissions, counseling, and audio- visual media. 
A widower, he married SMC music teacher 
Dorothy Evans in 1953. He retired from the 
college in 1970 to become city manager of the 
newly incorporated city of Collegedale. 56 

LaVeta Payne, professor of education and 
psychology, taught at SMC from 1966 to 1977. 
One of her readers, Pamela Harris, '75, remem- 
bers the "musty Southern dampness" of her office 
in the basement of Lynn Wood Hall and the pink 
Plymouth or Dodge in which the poetic Dr. Payne 
drove her to meetings of the Chattanooga Artists 
and Authors Association. "She probably made 
me want to be a teacher more than anybody in 
the whole world," declares Peggy Smith, '75. 57 

A major in health, physical education, and 
recreation was introduced in 1964, under the 
chairmanship of Dr. Cyril Dean. Standing for 
excellence, whether in student performance or in 
the care given to the newly built physical 
education complex, he was "tough but loved," one 
who highly motivated his students. Dean 
continued teaching at SMC until 1972. 58 

The Practical 

pplied arts and sciences was another 
popular division. It included business 
administration, home economics, 
industrial arts, library science, and 
office administration. During the 
1965-66 school year 83 students were registered 
as business and accounting majors and 76 were 
majoring in office administration. 59 

The chairman of this division during the 
latter years of the Rees administration was the 
youthful Wayne VandeVere, who arrived in 1956. 
VandeVere's mandate included helping with the 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

▲ Wayne VandeVere 

development of a new 
program to prepare stu- 
dents to pass the Tennessee 
Certified Public Account- 
ant's Examination. He 
headed the business admin- 
istration department from 
1962 until at least the end 
of the college's first century 
three decades later. Mr. 
and Mrs. VandeVere 
sponsored the "Usher's 

Club." Male and female students in dressy black 
and white outfits ushered people to their seats 
for chapel, Friday night meetings, and Saturday 
night programs. The club also held parties, 
picnics, and outings for its members. 60 

VandeVere's many other activities outside 
the classroom have included conducting 
in-service training for denominational adminis- 
trators, auditing denominational offices in Africa, 
Asia, and Europe for the General Conference of 
Seventh-day Adventists, serving as mayor of 
Collegedale, and spending twenty years as board 
chairman of the Collegedale Credit Union. 61 

During Dr. VandeVere's first thirty-six 
years at Southern about 800 students received 

▼ VandeVere teaches business in the basement of 
Lynn Wood Hall in the late '50s. 

Cecil Rolfe 

degrees in business. 
VandeVere was honored in 
1990 with the college's 
Distinguished Service 
Medallion and occupies the 
Ruth McKee chair for 
Entrepreneurship and 
Business Ethics. 62 

One of VandeVere's 
colleagues in the business 
administration department 
from the late Rees years into 
the 1990s was Cecil Rolfe, 
who joined the department 
in 1964. Born in Zambia, he 
earned an M.B.A. and a 
Ph.D. at the University of 
Maryland. 63 

The secretarial science 
department changed its 
name in 1964 to office 
administration. Nearly all 
of its majors were female. 
Although SMC offered a B.S. in office adminis- 
tration, most of the majors were enrolled in one 
of the two-year curricula: office administration, 
medical office administration, or editorial office 
administration. During the Walters years the 
college also offered a one-year secretarial course 
to meet the urgent demand for secretaries. 64 

The department prided itself in producing 
employment-ready secretaries. For example, 
Richard Stanley, department chairman from 
1964 to 1979, judging that a student who could 
type 40 words per minute was employable, made 
his goal to have the average student type 80 
words per minute; most of them did not disap- 
point him. He remembers one young woman who 
typed 105 words per minute for five minutes with 
no errors. Even students who were below 
average compared to their classmates became 

Richard Stanley 

above-average secretaries. When one graduate, 
less well-prepared than her classmates, had been 
on the job for a month, her employer called to 
say, "If you have any more like her, please send 
them to me." 65 

For all but three of Stanley's fifteen years at 
SMC his colleague in the department was Lucille 
White, who joined the faculty in 1962 and 
remained until 1976. 66 

Another coed-centered department was 
home economics. The chairman of this depart- 
ment from 1957 to 1963 was Dorothy 
Christensen, wife of the religion division chair- 
man. Mrs. Christensen suggested that every 
female college student should take at least a 
minor in home economics. "Whatever may be her 
profession," she wrote, "she must be a home- 
maker even if only for herself." 67 

In 1957 Mrs. Christensen was joined in the 
home economics depart- 
ment by Thelma Hemme 
Cushman. Mrs. Cushman 
became chairman of the 
home economics depart- 
ment in 1969 and re- 
mained on the faculty for 
thirty years, witnessing 
construction of two 
different home economics 
buildings, demolition of 
the first one and — shortly 
after her retirement in 
1987 — sadly observing the 
elimination of her beloved 
department. 68 

If home economics 
was stereotyped as a 
department serving young 
women, the industrial arts 
department primarily 
instructed young men. 

▲ Thelma Cushman 

A Century of Challenge 

A Auto mechanics has been taught since the 
blacksmith sign was replaced by "Fords a Specialty." 

How highly school leaders regarded industrial 
education fluctuated widely during the Rees and 
Walters administrations. During the Walters 
years the department offered a B.S. degree and 
taught courses in such fields as welding, building 
construction, woodworking, drafting, machine 
shop, auto mechanics, printing, and creative 
design. Harry Hulsey, one of the department's 
teachers, wrote in 1957 of the desperate need of 

public schools and 
Adventist schools alike 
for industrial arts 
teachers, and mentioned 
a letter from the super- 
intendent of a county 
where two alumni were 
teaching: "Please tell 
me where I can find ten 
more industrial arts 
teachers this year." Yet 
less than two years later 
the board voted to 
discontinue the indus- 
trial arts major and to 
offer instead a limited 
number of courses "for 
which there has been a 
consistent demand." The 
following year it autho- 
rized the creation of a 

. John Duricheck 

two-year industrial education program. In 1963 
the college executive committee declined William 
Rose's offer to start an appliance repair program 
because SMC was "primarily a liberal arts 
college." In 1965 the board restored the B.S. 
program in industrial arts. 69 

These fluctuations reflected an ambivalence 
in the school's self-image. An institution whose 
history was rooted in manual training and in 
Ellen White's admonitions about its importance 
was now increasingly thinking of itself in more 
traditional collegiate terms. Student vocational 
preferences tended more toward white collar 
jobs, and the college's curricular changes re- 
flected that in the coming years. 

SMC alumnus Drew Turlington, '51, 
headed the industrial education department from 
1960 to 1981. Some of the classes Turlington 
taught included gardening, animal 
husbandry ,woodworking, electronics, drafting, 
auto mechanics, welding, and such teacher 
education courses as the history and philosophy 
of industrial education. His students partici- 
pated in both designing and building Ledford 
Hall and later in the construction of Ledford's 
addition. 70 

Turlington was joined in 1964 by another 
alumnus, John Durichek, '58. After two years at 
SMC he accepted an invitation to serve at 
Highland Academy as principal, but three years 
later returned to SMC. By the beginning of 
Southern's second century he had taught at the 
college a total of twenty-five years. In 1987, 
under Durichek, the department moved into the 
computer age and was renamed "technology." 
While attending SMC Durichek was not only 
manager of the concert band but also a full-time 
oboe-player for the Chattanooga Symphony. 
Later, as a faculty member, he played with the 
SMC concert band. As faculty sponsor, bus 
driver, and supervisor, he spent eight summers 

working with students at the college's mission 
outpost in Nicaragua. 71 

Scientific Respect 

he Division of Applied Arts and 
Sciences may have enrolled more 
majors, but the two divisions 
generating the most publicity were the 
one called natural sciences and 
mathematics and the one called language arts. 

The facet of the science program which 
received the most attention was its research 
projects. Central to much of this research was 
Ray Hefferlin, who joined the physics faculty in 
1955. By 1990 he had broken Maude Jones' 
record to become the professor with the longest 
tenure in the school's history. 

Born in Paris of an American father and a 
Swiss mother, Hefferlin lived in Paris until the 
age of seven when his father decided to take him 
to California — beyond the potential reach of 
Adolf Hitler. Wanting his son to become ac- 
quainted with nature, he sent him to stay with a 
Seventh-day Adventist family on a San Juaquin 
Valley ranch to work in the summer. After 
reading most of the books in this family's library, 
Ray returned to his urban home and on his own 
initiative studied with Pastor Arthur L. Bietz. 
He was baptized at the age of fourteen. He 

graduated from Pacific 

Union College and later 
received his doctorate from 
^j& the California Institute of 
Technology in 1955. 72 

Dean Richard Hammill 
v^ was proud of having lured 
^ - ^^ this bright young scholar to 
^M M Collegedale. Soon reports of 

H W M the research that Hefferlin 

and his students were doing 
▲ Ray Hefferlin 


began tumbling from the pages of Southern 
Tidings and the Southern Accent. Accounts of 
research grants, new equipment purchases, 
presentations before learned societies, and 
scholarly publications followed one after another. 
What made these reports so exciting to collegiate 
readers was not just that their professor was 
doing all of these marvelous things, but that he 
was actively involving his students — sometimes 
even letting them write the articles, deliver the 
papers, and receive the research stipends. Even 
the Hefferlin-sponsored physics club received a 
research grant in 1965-66 from the Bendix 
Corporation through the American Institute of 
Physics as a result of student- written grant 
proposals. 73 

"The golden era of the physics department," 
says Dr. Hefferlin, "was about 1960 to 1964." 
During those years the department had about 

Noted for involving students in his research projects, 
Hefferlin evokes the thrill of discovery in teaching. 

thirty-five majors and research grants of about 
$10,000 a year. However, Hefferlin says, "The 
money came to an end largely because of the 
Vietnam War." 74 

Hefferlin didn't let the drying up of funds 
put an end to his research. He continued to 
present papers and to publish the results of his 
research. One of these papers, presented in 1971 
to the American Physical Society's Division of 
Electron and Atomic Physics, culminated an 
eight-year study. 75 

After the Vietnam War Hefferlin received a 
grant from the National Academy of Sciences to 
conduct research at the Soviet Academy of 
Sciences in Leningrad. He lived in the Soviet 
Union for a major portion of at least two school 
years and in the People's Republic of China 
another year. Since then he has returned to the 
Soviet Union and to other Eastern European 
countries repeatedly to present scientific papers. 
Besides traveling to the Soviet Union at least 
eight times, he has also had Soviet and Chinese 
scientists and other Soviet citizens visit him in 
Collegedale and address Southern students and 
faculty. 76 

From 1976 through the early 1990s 
Hefferlin and his students continued working on 
creating a periodic chart of molecules. Some of 
the results of his research were published in his 
1989 book Periodic Systems and their Relation to 
the Systematic Analysis of Molecular Data and in 
the 1991 McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science 
and Technology. Since September 1987 his 
research has been funded by an endowed chair. 77 

Hefferlin has received several awards: the 
college yearbook dedication in 1971, the Student 
Association's Professor of the Year award in 
1976, the Southern College President's Award in 

1983, the Zapara Award for teaching excellence 
in 1988, and the Southern College Distinguished 
Service Medallion in 1991. In 1985 he was one of 
ten finalists in the Professor of the Year competi- 
tion of the Council for Advancement and Support 
of Education. 78 

Hefferlin and his colleagues in the physics 
department were not the only science professors 
to be actively engaged in research. John Chris- 
tensen, the division chairman from 1955 until 
the division system was abolished in 1969, con- 
ducted, for at least a decade, student-assisted 
research on periodate oxidation using a series of 
grants from such organiza- 
tions as the Petroleum Re- 
search Foundation of the 
American Chemical Society. 
Christensen also supervised 
a research project which 
demonstrated that nearly 
all of the caffeine that 
chemists had supposedly 
found in chocolate was real- 
ly theobromine, a compound 
with similar chemical struc- 
ture but very different 
physiological properties. 
Among Christensen's other scholarly activities 
were co-authoring a paramedical chemistry text- 
book, writing for Chemical Abstracts, and chair- 
ing the subcommittee which produced the 1970 
American Chemical Society Examination in 
Inorganic-Organic Biological Chemistry. He 
continued to teach in the chemistry department 
for several years after his retirement in 1974. 79 

Research grants were also awarded to 
Norman Peek of the chemistry department and 
H. H. Kuhlman and Edgar Grundset of the 
biology department. Grundset joined the faculty 
in 1957. He is especially remembered for his 
out-of-state field trips, particularly the spring 

. John Christensen 


A Century of Challenge 

▲ In the thick of many social events, Ye Olde Time- 
keeper Grundset made some annual adjustments. 

break ornithology expedition to Florida. On a 
typical trip the students would identify about 150 
species of birds, with Grundset excitedly jumping 
up and down when he spotted several scarlet 
ibises. He is also remembered as a fun-loving 
chairman of the student 
affairs programs subcommit- 
tee and as Santa Claus at 
Christmas parties. By the 
beginning of Southern's 
second century Grundset 
had completed thirty-five 
years on its faculty. 80 
Among the other 

, Edgar 0. Grundset 

Mitchell Thiel 

long-tenured professors to 
join the science-math faculty 
during the Rees administra- 
tion were Mitchell Thiel, 
Cecil E. Davis, and Lawrence 
E. Hanson. Davis became 
assistant professor of math- 
ematics in 1963. For the 
next three years he taught 
all of the math classes except 
for one or two. He was joined 
in 1966 by Lawrence 
Hanson, who will be dis- 
cussed in a later chapter. 
Davis remained on the 
faculty for sixteen years. 81 

Mitchell Thiel, son of 
the first Southern Junior 
College president, joined the 
chemistry faculty the same 
year as Davis but remained 
at the college for over a 
decade longer. Thiel spent 
three summers at White 
Sands Missile Range helping 
to research ozone levels in 
the upper atmosphere. He 
became chairman of the 
chemistry department in 
1976; when the college 
reinstated the division 
system in the mid-1980s 
Thiel was named director of 
the science division. 82 

By the end of the Rees administration the 
division was offering bachelor of arts degrees in 
biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics as 
well as bachelor of science degrees in chemistry 
and physics. 83 

▲ Lawrence Hanson 

The Communicators 

l he departments of communications, 
English, and modern languages made 
i up the language arts division. 
Journalism, speech, broadcasting, and 
public relations were all included in 
the communications major which SMC began 
offering in 1959. Besides the major, which could 
be taken with either a speech or a journalism 
emphasis, the department offered minors in 
communications, speech, and journalism and 
cooperated with the office administration depart- 
ment in making available a two-year curriculum 
in editorial office administration. In addition the 
communications department offered seminars 
and workshops in photography, school 
publications, and public relations. 84 

The department provided students with 
various opportunities for practical experiences, 
including producing sound slide programs for the 
Southern Union, summer internships for 
denominational periodicals, and working for the 
college radio station. WSMC was no longer a 
local AM carrier-current station but a fully 
licensed 80,000-watt FM station. This 
transformation began in November 1958 when 
the college applied to the Federal 
Communication Commission for a license to 
operate a ten-watt, non-commercial FM station. 
The original plan was for it to be operated by the 
Student Association (like its AM predecessor), 
but the Federal Communication Commission 
wouldn't grant a license to the Student Associa- 
tion, so the college itself had to make the applica- 
tion and assume responsibility. At first the SA 
retained partial control of the new station and 
chose its officers. The Student Association, the 
college board, and the Collegedale Church jointly 
participated in the purchase of the transmitter. 85 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

The FCC issued the station's initial license 
in December 1959 and soon thereafter approved 
the call letters WSMC-FM, but the station didn't 
officially begin operation until December 1961. 
Part of the delay involved waiting for the FCC to 
assign the station a frequency; part was caused 
by technical problems. Meanwhile, the AM 
carrier station had ceased operation. 86 

The FM station began broadcasting with 10 
watts of power at 88.1 on the dial from a studio 
in Lynn Wood Hall that had not been 
sound-proofed. The transmitter was in a room 
behind the studio and the antenna was on the 
roof. WSMC was still primarily a campus 
station, "The Student Voice of SMC." 
Programming included campus news as well as 
world news, classroom lectures and assembly 
programs as well as classical and semi-classical 
music. For College Days at least one year 
WSMC-FM announced the arrival of the 
incoming academy groups. One of the early 
campus-oriented programs was "Pulse," directed 
in the spring of 1963 by freshman 
communications major Allen Steele. This 
half-hour broadcast included interviews, college 
and club news, student opinion polls, and light 
music. Among the station's early educational 
programs were "Religion and the Intellectual," 
"Fine Arts Fantasia," and "Tips for 
Homemakers." Broadcasting about thirty-six 
hours a week, it used forty students in its 
operations. 87 

As a campus-oriented station, WSMC-FM 
followed the cycles of the institution it served. 
When the school year ended, the station ceased 
operation. This changed in 1964. The decision 
that year to keep operating with a reduced 
schedule during the summer was a key step in its 
transformation from a plaything of the Student 
Association into a real radio station. Even then 
it shut down from August to September. The 

previous year it had taken other important steps 
in that transformation, soundproofing its studio 
and subscribing to the United Press Interna- 
tional teletype for news. After three years with 
UPI the station switched in 1966 to the Associ- 
ated Press. Another key step, a controversial 
one, came in 1965 when, in anticipation of an 
expensive expansion, the Student Association 
voted to sever its ties to the station, turning 
control completely over to the communications 
department. Students objecting to the transfer 
published a paper called The Backlash, which 
was countered by another publication, The 
Whiplash. A Southern Accent-backed compro- 
mise proposal to resurrect the campus-only, 
carrier-current AM station was defeated by the 
Student Association General Assembly 356 to 
292 after a thirty-minute debate. Despite the 
severed ties with the Student Association, a 1965 
telephone survey suggested that most students 
with FM radios listened to the station an average 
of ten hours a week. 88 

Meanwhile the station had taken other 
steps toward a more professional image, 
including expanding its hours of operation and 
providing all-night election coverage on 
November 12, 1964, complete with taped 
interviews from national political headquarters 
in Washington, D.C., as well as on-the-spot 
coverage from the Democratic and Republican 
headquarters in Chattanooga by means of a 
newly installed phone patch. It joined both the 
newly organized Adventist Radio Network and 
the Tennessee Association of Broadcasters, a 
professional organization that included, among 
others, six other Chattanooga-area radio sta- 
tions, such as WDEF-AM and FM, and WFLI. 
Most important, the board had created a 
power-expansion fund to receive donations for a 
tower and transmitter to increase the station's 
range. Land for the new tower on White Oak 

Mountain was donated by Dr. Dewitt Bowen, '49. 
The tower itself was donated by WRCB-TV in 
Chattanooga. 89 

On March 21, 1967, U. S. Congressman 
William E. Brock III and other dignitaries spoke 
at the opening ceremonies for the new, more 
powerful stereo WSMC-FM, the second most 
powerful radio station in the Chattanooga area 
and the most powerful station owned by a 
Seventh-day Adventist institution and one of the 
nation's ten most powerful educational, 
non-commercial, stereophonic stations, now 
located at 90.7 megacycles on the FM dial. This 
achievement was made possible by the financial 
contributions of students, alumni, Collegedale 
Church members, and the Georgia-Cumberland 
Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, as well as 
college board appropriations. The single indi- 
vidual receiving the most credit for the newly 

T From a 10-watt station in 1959 to 80,000 watts in 
1967, WSMC was the most powerful FM radio 
station owned by an SDA institution. 


A Century of Challenge 

powerful status of the college 
station was James Hannum, 
the station's broadcasting 
director and faculty advi- 


. James Hannum 

By June 1967 the 
station was broadcasting 66 
hours per week, with 13 1/2 
hours of classical music, 24 
hours of "light music," and 
11 hours of religious music. 
Other religious program- 
ming accounted for 9 hours, news and commen- 
tary for 5 hours, and programs of an educational 
informative nature — including some classroom 
lectures — 3 1/2 hours. That summer — for the 
first time ever — WSMC-FM stayed on the air all 
summer and continued to broadcast every 
day — even on holidays. By December 1967 it was 
operating 16 hours a day or 112 hours a week — a 
70 percent increase in six months. 91 

The master of ceremonies for the festivities 
inaugurating the newly powerful station was 
Gordon Hyde, language arts division chairman, 
under whose guidance WSMC-FM had flourished 
and expanded. Hyde, an ordained minister and 
frequent contributor to denominational publica- 
tions, was invited in 1965 to replace Elmore 
McMurphy as speech teacher. He was at first 
the college's only communications teacher, but a 
decade later he headed a communications 
department of eight and a language arts division 
of seventeen teachers. 92 

In 1963 the board selected Hyde to replace 
Otto Christensen as chairman of the religion 
division, but, "prompted by the scarcity of men in 
the denomination to serve the communications 
area," he decided to remain with the communica- 
tions department. The board then chose Bruce 
Johnston, but when Johnston left in 1968, Hyde 
became a full-time religion professor and ac- 

cepted the religion division chairmanship; 
however a year later he became director of the 
Biblical Research Institute of the General 
Conference of Seventh-day Adventists in 
Washington, D.C. Emerging from a brief 
retirement, he returned to Southern in 1982, 
resuming his old position as religion chairman. 
In 1988 he retired from that post but not from 
the college, serving for several years as editor of 
Adventist Perspectives, a Southern College 
publication. 93 

Although the subject of less media attention 
than the radio station, the English department 
was hardly neglected, receiving publicity for a 
remarkably improved performance by SMC 
students on the National Sophomore English 
Test, a revamped curriculum with more 
upper-division emphasis on literature, and the 
phenomenal success rate of students who 
competed in the Youth's Instructor's annual Pen 
League contest. In 1960 SMC freshmen received 
9 of the 15 top awards and 14 out of a total of 30 
awards altogether. In 1962 SMC students won 
19 of the 29 awards, including the grand award 
in the Freshman English section (won by future 
SMC English teacher Bernice Gearhart). In 
addition the magazine accepted for publication 
sixteen of the other articles submitted by SMC 
students. The performance of SMC students in 
1965 was even more amazing: they won 28 of the 
prizes. 94 

Many of these winners were students in the 
freshman composition class taught by Miss Evlyn 
Lindberg. A member of the English faculty from 
1959 to 1977, she had remarkable abilities to 
"pull the creativity out of students," to make 
grammar challenging and exciting, and to prod 
student minds into clear, logical thinking. By 
1963 the large scrapbooks she kept of all the 
articles her students had written were bulging: 
168 manuscripts written for her classes had been 


1 he student most responsible for 
WSMC's transformation from a 
campus service to a powerful in- 
strument of public relations was 
Allen Steele. Steele was involved 
with the station from the time he 
arrived on campus as a freshman 
communications major in 1963 
until he graduated at the end of 
the first semester of the 1966-67 
school year. He began his campus 
broadcasting career as station 
relations director and announcer 
under station manager Des 
Cummings, Jr. The following year 
he was promotions and program director, 
became the station's general manager in 
1965 and was reappointed in 1966, becoming 
the first person to serve in that position for 
more than one year. During his senior year 
the 675-station Intercollegiate Broadcasting 
System, organized in 1940, named Steele to 
its convention-organizing national college 
conference committee, made him director of 
the IBS Southern Region, and chose him as 
vice-president in charge of coordinating its 
various regional organizations. 153 

After graduating from SMC Steele 
pursued graduate studies in radio-TV at 
the University of Florida, Gainesville; 
eventually he earned a doctorate. He has 
been manager of WAUS at Andrews 
University, of Adventist World Radio-Europe 
in Lisbon, Portugal, and of Adventist World 
Radio- Asia in Agat, Guam. 154 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

accepted for publication. Happily remembering 
that many of her students have continued 
writing, "Miss Lindy" describes her students as 
her special joy. 95 

She had never planned to be an English 
teacher. A music graduate of Willamette Univer- 
sity who had just converted to Adventism, Miss 
Lindberg had accepted a call to teach music at an 
academy, "and to be dean and librarian in her 
spare time." But the first year she was there, she 
was asked to help fill in for an English teacher 
who had left for health reasons — a circumstance 
Miss Lindberg refers to as "one of the Lord's little 
jokes in my life." 96 

In dedicating to Miss Lindberg the 1963 
yearbook, the Southern Memories staff said that 
their Kansas-born, Swedish-American, 
pizza-loving former sponsor had found a special 
place in their hearts primarily by giving her 
students "not only a part of yourself, but all of 
yourself." They told the lady with the twinkling, 
sky-blue eyes who had spent hours with so many 
of them in individual writing conferences, "We'll 
always remember the way you patiently worked 
and worked with us as we struggled to become 
young writers." 97 

Miss Lindberg's immediate predecessor as 
well as several of her colleagues in the English 
department were SMC alumni; some had even 
been her students. The 
predecessor, Frances 
Andrews, '49, had been both 
editor (as a student) and 
sponsor (as a teacher) of the 
Southern Accent. She 
returned to her alma mater 
to teach from 1953 to 1959 
and returned again from 
1975 to 1987 as associate 
professor of communications. 
Says Georgia O'Brien, '87, 


one of her English students. "She had that class 
laughing the entire time, telling story after 
story." 98 

Other alumni teaching in the English 
department during the Rees administration 
included Carolyn Luce, '60, from 1964 to 1974; 
Ann Clark, '61, who taught at Southern for more 
than a quarter century; and Minon Hamm, '66, 
described as "an absolutely inspiring professor of 
literature." 99 

Another alumnus on the English faculty 
was Richard Lynn Sauls, serving from 1964 to 
1969. Baptized into 
the Seventh-day 
Adventist Church in 
July 1950 as a 
result of contacts 
with a student 
literature evange- 
list, Sauls worked 
his way through 
SMC selling books 
and making brooms. 
Sauls returned in 
1989 when he 
became the chair- 
man of the journal- 
ism department. 
The Associated 
Church Press 
honored him with 
its 1988 Award of 
Merit for magazine 
news story writ- 
ing. 100 

All students 
pursuing a bachelor 
of arts degree were 
required to take six 
hours of 

A "Miss Lindy" carries theme folders on the way to class in 

foreign language; the bachelor of science pro- 
grams in chemistry and physics also required six 
hours of foreign language; for chemistry that 
foreign language was specified as intermediate 
German. SMC offered a German major begin- 
ning in 1965; minors were available in Spanish 
and German. The modern languages depart- 
ment also offered a few courses in French and for 
a brief period of time, Russian. 101 

The college attempted to help students 
develop a working, conversational knowledge of 
foreign languages. Methods employed included 

summer field schools 
ranging in length 
from two weeks to two 
months in 
Mexico; building a 
$6,000 language 
laboratory in the 
basement of the A. G. 
Daniells library in 
1961 and staffing it 
with students who 
had lived in foreign 
countries; replacing 
this lab in 1967 with 
a $36,000 remote 
control language 
laboratory; and 
joining Adventist 
Colleges Abroad 
starting in the 
1966-67 school year to 
provide students with 
an opportunity for a 
year of intensive 
language study at an 
overseas Seventh-day 
Adventist campus. 102 


A Century of Challenge 

Promoting The Arts 

he Division of Fine Arts consisted of 
the art and music departments. The 
music department offered two majors: 
one leading to a bachelor of music, the 
other to a bachelor of arts. Although 
the art department offered only a minor, some of 
its students were able to exhibit their work in the 
Gillman Gallery and the Hunter Gallery in 
Chattanooga as well as in various locations on 
campus. Sponsoring such organizations as the 
orchestra, the concert band, the brass ensemble, 
the woodwind ensemble, the keyboard ensemble, 
the collegiate chorale, the college choir, the 
Encomium Singers, and the ladies' chorus, as 

well as special 
events such as the 
annual Messiah 
performance, the 
fine arts division was 
responsible for much 
of the sacred music 
and the weekend 
entertainment on 
campus as well as 
public relations tours 
away from campus. 
A campus musical 

organization not sponsored by the division but 
widely known in Seventh-day Adventist circles 
was the folk-gospel recording group known as the 
Wedgwood Trio. 103 

Chairman of the division for most of the 
Rees years was Morris Taylor, a well-known 
pianist. He had previously taught at Atlantic 
Union College and Walla Walla College. 104 

The star vocalist of the Taylor team was the 
beloved Dorothy Evans Ackerman, outstanding 
both as a performer and as a teacher. According 
to the 1963 college yearbook, "Mrs. Ackerman's 
students testify that her genial disposition and 
empathetic ability make voice lessons a pleasure 
rather than an embarrassment." 106 

"She was a well-known contralto soloist 
throughout the Southeast," says Dr. Marvin 
Robertson, who succeeded Taylor as division 
chairman in 1966. She gave numerous concerts 
in the Chattanooga area and elsewhere and gave 
solo performances with the Chattanooga Civic 
Chorus, the Chattanooga Symphony, and the 
Knoxville Symphony. She also sang on the Faith 
for Today television program for two years and 
presented a number of concerts in the Northeast. 
She taught as many as fifty voice lessons a week. 
Among other things, she is remembered for 
keeping "banana bread and candies and goodies 
in her office." She retired in 1979 and passed 
away in 1989. 106 

Learning About 


he division coming last in alphabetical 
listings was social sciences, which 
until 1966 included just one 
department sometimes designated as 
history-political science-sociology. 
Although history was the only major the division 
offered most of the time, in 1955-56 it listed three 

majors: social science, history and an interde- 
partmental major in business and economics. 
Economics was later transferred to the business 
department, and the social science major was 
dropped in 1958, but in 1964 the division began 
offering a new major: community sciences, an 
interdisciplinary behavioral science major with 
its heaviest emphasis on psychology. In 1966 
this major was placed under the umbrella of a 
new department within the division: behavioral 
science. 107 

The division's most highly publicized 
offerings were its historical tours. In 1957 
division chairman George Shankel led twenty 
summer-school students, most of whom were 
church school teachers, on a three-week educa- 
tional field trip in the Mid-Atlantic states and 
New England. Shankel's successor as division 
chairman, Everett T. Watrous, planned a history 
tour for June 1962 that included all of the states 
east of the Mississippi except Florida and West 
Virginia. 108 

More ambitious were the history tours con- 
ducted by Jerome L. Clark, who joined the fac- 
ulty in 1959. Clark's 
first overseas tour was 
a two-week journey to 
Belgium, Switzerland, 
France, and Germany 
in 1966, sponsored by 
the college and the 
Conference. Four 
years later Dr. and 
Mrs. Clark conducted a 
six- week tour of Brit- 
ain, sponsored by the 
English and history 
departments. Students 
remember Clark for 
local field trips as well, including battlefield tours 
and professional meetings. 109 

▲ Jerome L. Clark 

. Dorothy E. Ackerman 

, Marvin Robertson 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

Clark was a demanding teacher, recalls 
Brian Strayer, 73: 

A compulsive choleric, Dr. Jerome Clark 
for thirty years taught history students the 
importance of using time wisely. "There are 
no shortcuts in mastering history," his bass 
voice resonated from the wall of Lynn Wood 
Hall 218. "It's slow and steady that wins in 
the study game." 

To help his often terrified freshmen master 
the intricacies of Western Civilization 104 and 
105, Dr. Clark prepared elaborate study guides 
with scores of names, dates, treaties, wars, and 
vocabulary words typed in two double-spaced 
columns. Days before a major exam, students 
could be seen all over campus filling in these 
multi-page sheets, often quizzing each other over 
them. Those expecting an A on a Clark exam 
defined every term! 

Appreciative of the research and study 
skills he and his peers learned from Clark, 
Strayer says these skills, "saw many a history 
major through his or her master's, J.D., or Ph.D. 
degree years later." 110 

Always a scholar, Clark authored a 
three-volume, thousand-page work 1844, "a 
study of the social, economic, and political milieu 
of the period which saw the rise of the Millerite 
and Adventist movements." 111 

A member of Phi Alpha Theta, the national 
historical honor society, he established and 
sponsored a branch of that society at SMC in the 
1970s. He also sponsored the International 
Relations Club for about twenty years and the 
literature evangelists' club for about ten. An 
active promoter of first-amendment rights, he 
served for many years as the religious liberty 
secretary of the Collegedale Church. Clark was 
chairman of the department from 1967 until 
1974, and was curator of the McKee Library's 

Lincoln and Civil War collections from 1979 to 
1984. 112 


n preparation for the 1962 
reaccreditation by the Southern 
Association of Schools and Colleges, 
SMC prepared a self-study directed by 
Dr. K. M. Kennedy which examined, 
among other subjects, admission policies, 
freshman and senior testing, grade distribution, 
intellectual atmosphere, and the library. It 
found that the college had tightened admission 
requirements within the previous five years: 
making it harder for students passing the 
General Educational Development Test to get in, 
increasing the prerequisite number of high school 
units from fifteen to eighteen, and directing C 
average in "solid" subjects rather than all 
subjects. New requirements also mandated that 
college students take standardized exams so that 
the school might better assess its instruction. 113 

One concern of the self-study committee 
was that grade inflation might jeopardize 
reacreditation. Despite the faculty's 1958 vote 
that the school's overall grade point average 
should be 2.0 (C) on a four-point scale, it was 
actually a little higher: 2.49. In self-defense, the 
report pointed to similarities between Southern's 
grade distribution and those reported in Frank 
Edson's study of eighty midwestern liberal arts 
colleges. 114 

The college proudly pointed to the constant 
growth in the number of volumes available in the 
college library: 12,000 in 1947-48; 17,696 in 
1950-51; 28,167 in 1959-60. In addition, there 
were 2,500 volumes on the Orlando campus by 
early 1961. It estimated that in 1961-62 each 
student spent an average of 5.36 hours per week 
in the library. Most of that time was devoted to 

Stanley Brown 

reading assignments in reserved books. 115 

Stanley Brown continued to be the head 
librarian throughout the 
Walters and Rees adminis- 
trations. In addition to 
student assistants he had 
two full-time assistant 
librarians in Collegedale as 
well as assistants in Orlando 
and Madison. Mariannne 
Evans (later Wooley), the 
assistant librarian for 
Orlando, had the longest 
tenure of any member of the 
Orlando faculty: from 1966 
until into the college's second century. 116 

Another reaccreditation concern was the 
physical separation of the academy from the 
college. When notified that "operating a second- 
ary school in the same building as the college" 
put the college's accreditation in jeopardy, the 
self-study committee suggested that academy 
classes be moved from the top story of Lynn 
Wood Hall into the old Normal Building. An- 
other step in distancing the college from the 
academy was the establishment in 1961 of a 
separate Collegedale Academy library. The 
divorce between the two institutions was com- 
pleted in 1966 when Collegedale Academy 
became a day school serving a local 
Chattanooga-area constituency and the college 
board relinquished control of the academy to the 
Greater Collegedale School System, a new 
organization representing that constituency. 117 
The college also upgraded academic stan- 
dards by stricter attendance policies. In 1956 the 
college had resurrected the idea of automatically 
failing students with excessive absences, excused 
as well as unexcused, by introducing the report 
card grade of FA — failure because of poor atten- 
dance^ — but the failure point was higher than it 


A Century of Challenge 

had previously been: up to 25 percent of class 
meetings, cut in half three years later. From 
time to time the academic deans reminded the 
faculty of this provision as well as the special 
circumstances under which it could be waived. 
Wayne VandeVere remembers warning a stu- 
dent who had already missed his limit that he 
had better not miss any more classes even if it 
meant that he "had to be carried in." The 
student began attending regularly, until the last 
class of the semester, when he was belatedly 
carried in on a stretcher. 118 

A visiting team inspected the campus in 
1962. On December 9 the college was informed 
that the Southern Association had granted 
complete, unreserved accreditation. Not content 
to rest on its laurels, the administration contin- 
ued to upgrade academic standards by calling for 
comprehensive examinations over an entire 
semester's work in every class and by implement- 
ing tougher admission requirements, more 
comprehensive testing, and the expulsion of 
students with unsatisfactory academic records. 
"Since higher education is a dynamic process," 
academic dean J. W. Cassell told the board, "it is 
necessary to keep pace with the times by continu- 
ally improving the quality of the academic 
program." Southern Missionary College could 
not accept every student who applied, he 
said — not even every Seventh-day Adventist. He 
saw "increasingly selective admissions" as a 
method of improving "the intellectual quality of 
the student body." This was accomplished by 
specifying the American College Testing Service 
examination and the completion of certain 
prerequisites for admission. To be admitted a 
student had to have either a C average in En- 
glish, mathematics, science, social studies, and 
foreign languages or an ACT composite score and 
English score of at least 15. Students from 
outside the Southern Union were required to 

have even higher grades for admission. 119 

In February 1965 Dean Cassell told the 
faculty that fourteen students had been dropped 
second semester because their first semester 
grades had not been high enough. Three months 
later registrar Cyril Futcher reported that 5.6 
percent of the students who had dropped out of 
SMC during the previous five years had done so 
because of failure to maintain a C average. That 
same year the college expelled four students for 
cheating on exams. 120 

Association And Fun 

he Student Association survived, but 
according to SA presidents from both 
the Walters and Rees years, neither of 
the college presidents really wanted 
the SA to have the kind of power it 
had during the Wright administration. "Rees 
saw the SA as a public relations arm of the 
school, not at all as a voice of the students," says 
Ron Numbers, SA president for 1962-63. Yet 
participants in SA leadership testify of its value 
to themselves personally. 121 

The Student Association planned the 
annual school picnics; scheduled some of the 
chapel speakers; organized the College Days 
activities; and produced Southern Memories; the 
Southern Accent, the school newspaper; the Joker 
(renamed Eccos in 1967), a student-identification 
picture book; and an announcement sheet called 
the Campus Accent. As of 1955 the school 
publications were no longer marketed through 
subscription campaigns. Instead, a portion of 
each student's Student Association fees was 
designated for a copy of the annual and two 
subscriptions (one for the student and one gift 
subscription) to the Accent. 122 

Other Student Association responsibilities 
included operating the campus radio station be- 

fore it was surrendered in 1965 to the communi- 
cations department, overseeing the intramural 
sports, and planning the student week of reli- 
gious emphasis as well as various programs — 
including orientations, benefits, and social ac- 
tivities. In 1956 the Student Association made 
the Salk polio vaccine available to students; it 
assisted in administering the Sabin oral polio 
vaccine in 1964. Its officers substituted for col- 
lege administrators on Student Administration 
Day while other students substituted for the 
teachers. They also engaged in the school's old- 
est student-organi- 
zation activity: 
fund-raising. 123 
Two of the 
Student Associa- 
tion fund-drives 
were especially 
noteworthy: the 
1956-57 campaign 
for "suitable soft 
seats" in Lynn 
Wood Hall chapel 
and the 1964-65 
swimming pool 
campaign. After 
the college reno- 
vated and en- 
larged the Lynn 
Wood Hall chapel, 
at a cost of about 
$16,500, President 
Walters suggested 
that the students 
be invited to solicit 
funds to raise 
$6,000 toward 
purchasing a 
grand piano and 
replacing the 

▲ Student Association events 
included a range of activities 
from sports to banquets. 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

T Like a political party convention, lines for the 
Chair Campaign were drawn geographically. In the 
end, the Border States prevailed. Shown here is a 
demonstration of the Border States party in 1956. 

chapel's worn-out wooden seats with five hun- 
dred padded opera seats. The college would 
match whatever money the students collected. 
Single faculty members were asked to donate $18 
for one opera seat; those with families were 
asked to give twice as much. Leadership for the 
campaign was provided by a Walters-appointed 
faculty committee and SA officers. 124 

A Wednesday-morning chapel rally in 
October 1956 launched the campaign, dividing 
the students into three "parties" on the basis of 
their home region — the Deep South, the Border 
States, or Independents. "How long, O College- 
dale, how long will we permit juvenile indiffer- 
ence and immature inhibitions to keep us from 

writing letters and soliciting funds for college 
campaigns?" asked SA president John Harry 
Culp in the keynote address. "How long . . . will 
you sit in this auditorium and suffer unbearable 
pain when in a few months you could be sitting 
in luxury?" Said student Larry McClure on 
behalf of the Deep South party, "The platform of 
the Deep South doesn't have any planks in it. . . . 
We feel we have been sitting on planks long 
enough." 125 

Contributing from their own pockets as well 
as "asking, begging, cajoling" in person or by 
letter, students collected cash and pledges. 
Student letters were supplemented by articles 
and advertising in the Southern Tidings urging 
each constituent to pay for one or more seats. 
"Nothing has taken place in recent years which 
has enlisted a larger amount of enthusiasm and 
work than this campaign," reported the Southern 
Tidings. 126 

When the official campaign ended in 
November, the Border States team was declared 
the winner. The total raised was just over 
$5,000 — short of the announced goal but, with 
the matching funds, enough to pay for the 462 
seats on the main floor but apparently not the 
balcony. The new seats were installed during 
Christmas vacation. 127 

Unlike the soft seats campaign, the swim- 
ming pool campaign was initiated by the Student 
Association leaders. The board approved their 
plan to raise $30,000, enough to build an 
Olympic-size pool but not to enclose it. The plan 
was to build the enclosure later, whenever funds 
were available. SA president Bert Coolidge 
launched the campaign in November 1964, 
stating, "When we finish this project this will be 
the largest amount of money raised by any 
Seventh-day Adventist college Student Associa- 
tion." Prizes were promised to the most success- 
ful solicitors. The administration offered a bonus 

incentive that if students succeeded in raising 
their goal by the December 10 deadline, an extra 
day would be added to Christmas vacation. 
Again letter- writing was the heart of the 
fund-raising strategy. In order to help students 
reach their individual goals, the administra- 
tion — at the suggestion of Robert Merchant — 
decided to let students put up to $30 on their 
accounts "to be paid in part or in full depending 
on the amount of money received . . . from other 
sources." Payments could be spread over six 
months. By December 6, only $24,000 of the 
$30,000 goal had been either received or pledged, 
but by the deadline the total had reached 
$30,335. About 90 percent of the students had 
participated. Joann Campbell, who had solicited 
$500, the highest amount raised by any one 
student, won the first prize, a portable stereo set. 
Appreciative of the students' efforts, the board 
decided to build the pool and its enclosure at the 
same time after all, applying a $25,000 gift from 
Chattanooga's Benwood Foundation earmarked 
for expansion "toward a structure to enclose the 
new swimming pool." 128 

Various types of clubs continued to play a 
major role in campus life: professional clubs 
related to a wide variety of academic disciplines, 
religious clubs, dormitory clubs, a married 
couples' club, and a number of hobby clubs. In 
addition there were the clublike organizations of 
the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior 
classes, each of which had parties and an annual 
picnic. 129 

The most expensive club was undoubtedly 
the Flying Club, organized in 1963 and spon- 
sored by religion chairman Bruce Johnston. 
Annual membership fees of $100 were supple- 
mented by $7.50 monthly dues. Membership 
qualified students for free flying lessons at the 
Cleveland airport. Within a year the club bought 
its first airplane, a Cesna 140, for which it 


A Century of Challenge 

charged members $4 an hour rental. By 1966 
the Flying Club had twenty-five members and 
owned three airplanes. 130 

The Business Club provided 
entertainment for the whole student 
body with its annual "Producers on 
Parade" audience-participation program. 
The club's correspondence committee 
wrote letters to producers soliciting gifts 
for contestants, and the advertising class 
wrote promotions for these products. 
Contestants who correctly answered a 


* ■ — »- - - ■ — ■■»-jt*-.->-j.".- i x .->j< ji 

▲ Jokes referred to the Grand Coolidge Dam 
Reservoir and 1964: Year of the Swimming Pool, but 
successful completion of the project represented a 
monumental accomplishment for the Student 
Association. Here Coolidge floats a navy of wooden 
"boats" in the newly poured foundation of the pool. 

1 he driving force behind the suc- 
cessful swimming pool campaign was 
Herbert Everett Coolidge, '65, an ac- 
counting major with a history minor who 
was awarded the prestigious Danforth 
Fellowship for graduate study as well as 
being listed in Who's Who in Ameri- 
can Colleges and Universities. At 
the pool's opening somebody pushed 
him into the water, 
clothes and all. Fortu- 
nately he was a good 
swimmer. Coolidge was 
the treasurer of the 
Southern Accent and 
promotional director for 
WSMC-FM his sopho- 
more year, treasurer of 
the Student Association 
his junior year, and Stu- 
dent Association presi- 
dent his senior year. He 
earned a Ph.D. in 1970. 
Positions he held in- 
cluded assistant director 
of institutional analysis 
at the University of Vir- 
ginia, president of 
Fletcher Hospital and 
Academy, Inc., and fi- 
nancial consultant for 
Merrill Lynch. In its 
centennial year he re- 
turned to Southern, this 
time as a member of the business 
administration faculty. 155 

qualifying question were asked to perform a 
stunt in competition with others who had an- 
swered their questions correctly. The contestant 
performing the stunt first or best received a 
prize, such as a home appliance, luggage, or 
camping equipment. Everyone attending was 
given a gift of some kind. One year it was a 
sample box of Ruskets cereal provided by Loma 
Linda Foods. Over $700 worth of prizes were 

w? m ■ ■* \^tir* 

A A skit to encourage students to contribute to the 
pool campaign. 



A In 1966 the Flying Club was responsible for developing the Collegedale 
Airport, now Chattanooga's number two airport. This Cessna 172, owned by 
the Flying Club, flew to over thirty states on various missions. 

awarded in 1962, the year the Business Club 
itself spent spring vacation in the Chicago area, 
visiting such places of business interest as the 
Board of Trade, the Chicago Federal Reserve 
Bank, and Sears Roebuck. 131 

Every Saturday night during the school 
year an eagerly anticipated, school-sponsored 
entertainment or activity was attended by most 
of the students, virtually all of the faculty, and 
even a large segment of the community. Stu- 
dents were personally introduced to each faculty 
member at the annual handshake. The whole 
community enjoyed the school's watermelon feed. 
There were marches, concerts by members of the 
music faculty and by campus music organiza- 
tions, seasonal parties, banquets, club activities, 
oratorical contests, and films like The African 
Lion, The Vanishing Prairie, and A Man Called 
Peter. Not just the local community but the 
entire Southern Union was invited to the Ly- 
ceum Series travelogues, including the 
ever-popular Stan Midgley and his 
"chuckelogues," as well as concerts by such 
groups as the Concordia Choir, the Tucson Boys' 
Chorus, and the United States Navy Band, and 
such individuals as opera star Nell Rankin, 
pianist Stewart Gordon, folk singer Karen Duke, 

and classical guitarist Alirio 
Diaz. 132 

One previously popular 
form of recreation died 
during the Rees era: roller 
skating. Students had 
enjoyed skating in the old 
Tabernacle, especially after 
a wood floor was installed. 
"We had two or three 
hundred people in there 
skating," remembers John 
Durichek. "Everybody 
skated." But the floor of the 
new gymnasium was not 
suitable for skating, and efforts to revive the 
activity were unsuccessful. 133 

Not all of the recreational activities were 
officially sponsored. According to Ron Numbers, 
a basketball team from SMC played in Chatta- 
nooga surreptitiously. Had the administration 
known about this, Numbers says, it could have 
led to the expulsion of the team members. 134 
Occasionally the two men's dormitories 
waged water balloon fights. One time, when the 
top administrators were attending a meeting at 
Andrews University, the "boys" from Jones, 
expecting a water balloon attack by the "men" 
from Talge, armed themselves with a fire hose 
and stormed up the fire escape of Talge Hall. 
Somebody called the fire department. Deciding 
that this was a riot, the firemen tried to hose 
down the participants, but the students took 
away their hoses and unleashed them on each 
other. After two or three hours of brawling, with 
water running down the staircase, while a 
student without a hose was using a water-filled 
wastebasket as his weapon, somebody turned off 
the water main. College administrators made 
sure this did not become a tradition. 135 

The first snowfall always brought excite- 
ment, especially for the students from Florida. 

"We would go wild," says Dianne Tennant, '65. 
"It usually came in January, just before exams." 
Students would take cafeteria trays, plastic wash 
pans, "anything sleddable," to the hill behind 
Summerour Hall. "We thought it was real neat 
to slide all the way to the cabinet shop," she says. 
One south Mississippian could ski upright down 
that slope "just in his shoes." 136 


Elthough the social policy of the 
Walters years may have discouraged 
growth, the more moderate but still 
thoroughly conservative policies of the 
Rees years and beyond were widely 
perceived as popular with the constituency and a 
major reason for the college's dynamic expan- 
sion. 137 

And yet among the students themselves the 
attitude toward the regulations was mixed. On 
the one hand, some of the students from conser- 
vative homes — especially some who had attended 
boarding academies — tended to be accepting of 
SMC's rules. "It was so much more liberal than 
the academy," says one. "After coming from 
academy, I couldn't believe the latitude." Some 
even agitated for stricter standards. But other 
students felt differently; some of the discontented 
wrote letters to the editor and even editorials in 
the Southern Accent pushing for change. The 
1962 self-study reported, "Over one-third of those 
polled thought that the social regulations of the 
campus were too restrictive." 138 

For purposes of social regulation, students 
were divided into two categories, collegians and 
upper collegians. Upper collegians were juniors, 
seniors, and lower classmen age twenty or above 
who had been at SMC for at least nine weeks, 
and had earned a C grade point average. All 


A Century of Challenge 

A Not exactly intended utilization of cafeteria trays, students nevertheless 
found the plastic rectangles suitable for the occasion. 

other students were collegians. Young men and 
women were not permitted to sit together at any 
Sabbath religious services (In 1966 an exception 
was made for Sabbath School classes.), although 
they were now permitted to walk together "to 
and from various appointments during the 
week." Couples were still not allowed to visit 
together in public buildings, and the public 
display of affection was "out of order" anywhere 
on campus. Young men and women entered the 
cafeteria from separate entrances. Collegian 
men and women weren't permitted to shop 
together but could "go to concerts or other 
occasions in nearby cities with an approved 
chaperone." Upper collegians, however, could 
either attend concerts or go shopping together 
provided two couples went together and re- 
mained together the entire time. 139 

Until 1966, freshmen were not permitted to 
bring cars and sophomores were not permitted to 
drive them unless they were upper collegians. As 
of 1966 freshmen were permitted to bring 
automobiles if they were at least twenty years of 
age. Collegians still had to obtain specific 
permission to use their automobiles; at night all 
students were required to obtain such permis- 
sion. Each student was assigned a designated 

parking space, checked by 
monitors. 140 

Women were not 
permitted to wear trousers 
"except for certain types of 
work or recreation." Shorts 
were banned until 1965, 
when Bermuda shorts were 
legalized whenever the 
wearer was "actually 
engaged in recreational 
activities." Dresses had to 
"cover the whole knee while 
standing." Young men were required to wear 
neckties to all religious services and to formal 
and semi-formal social activities such as lyce- 
ums. Mixed swimming was not acceptable. 141 

Students were expected to attend 7:30 
chapel three mornings a week as well as morning 
worship on at least every non-chapel day and 
evening worship every day. Disciplinary action 
was taken against students missing more than 
four or five worships or weekend services a 
month or three chapels a semester. 142 

The 1966-67 handbook relaxed several of 
the rules. Among other things it lifted the ban on 
sleeveless dresses and the prohibition of record 
players in the women's dormitory. Students 
unhappy with the rules achieved another victory 
in 1967, when the President's Council voted that 
dormitory lights could be on all night. 143 

Spiritual Growth 
And Outreach 

Fhe college has no right to continue its 
existence if the students fail to grow 
spiritually," asserted president Rees. 
Many alumni emphatically testify that 
the school was successful in achieving 
this objective in their own lives. The 1962 

self-study suggested that most of the students 
were happy with the spiritual climate: respond- 
ing to a questionnaire, 231 students thought the 
campus religious life was wholesome, 76 thought 
religion wasn't stressed enough, and only 30 
thought it was stressed too much. 144 

The faculty was concerned with the spiri- 
tual growth of all students, but especially with 
those who had not been baptized, including those 
from non-Adventist backgrounds. Said Rees, 
"Practically every non-Adventist who comes to 
this campus and remains for the academic year is 
baptized before the close of the year." 145 

Bible conferences and weeks of prayer (or 
spiritual emphasis) supplemented the regular 
daily and weekly religious services. Weeks of 
prayer brought to the campus a galaxy of 
Adventist religious speakers: Roland Hegstad, 
future editor of Liberty, at the time book editor 
for the Southern Publishing Association; Edward 
Heppenstall, professor at the Seventh-day 
Adventist Theological Seminary; E. L. Minchin, 
associate General Conference Youth leader; 
H.M.S. Richards, Sr., speaker of the Voice of 
Prophecy radio broadcast (accompanied by Del 
Delker and the King's Heralds); Joe Crews, 
speaker of the Amazing Facts broadcast. In 
addition to the two regular weeks of prayer each 
year generally conducted by guests, a third week 
of spiritual emphasis was conducted by the 
students themselves. 146 

The students led out in other religious 
growth experiences as well, including hilltop 
prayer bands, dormitory prayer bands, and a 
student-instituted, pre-lunch prayer session 
called "The Power Hour." In 1955-56, 85 of the 
270 offices of the Collegedale Church and Sab- 
bath School were held by students. 147 

The student-led Missionary Volunteer 
Society served the community with spiritual and 
humanitarian ministries to hospitals, prisons, 


Chapter 7: A Maturing Senior College 

and homes for the elderly. It also conducted 
evangelistic meetings, enrolled people in Bible 
studies, distributed religious books, and began 
sponsoring student missionaries to foreign 
lands. 148 

The doctrine that the body was the temple 
of the Holy Spirit received strong reinforcement 
from an active and successful campus chapter of 
the American Temperance Society, fighting to- 
bacco and illegal drugs as well as alcohol. SMC 

contestants frequently did well in nation-wide 
ATS jingle, essay, and oratorical contests. In ad- 
dition, the ATS chapter had a phenomenal suc- 
cess rate akin to that of the composition classes 
in Pen League contests, winning year after year 
the national temperance leadership excellence 
plaque. The society sponsored quite a few fair 
exhibits, showing motion pictures and giving out 
literature portraying the dangers of chemical ad- 
dictions, conducted temperance workshops on 

, In the '50s and '60s, roller skating in the Tabernacle was a popular pastime 

campus, sent teams to put on programs at public 
high schools, and even conducted church ser- 
vices. 149 

Donating and soliciting funds for humani- 
tarian aid, students and faculty enthusiastically 
participated in the United Way and Ingathering 
campaigns. On at least two occasions the 
"United Givers Fund" presented SMC with an 
award for 100 percent participation. The amount 
raised rose from a mere $382 in 1957 to $1,238 in 
1962. For the next four years straight 
the college exceeded its United Way 
goal. In 1966 it raised $2,010. 150 

Totals solicited and donated on the 
annual Ingathering field day also 
showed a general upward trend. In 
1956 the 250 participants brought in 
about $4,500, $1,500 short of their goal. 
In 1963 they broke the $10,000 barrier, 
with totals steadily climbing each year 
to $13,515 in 1966. With William 
Taylor's enthusiastic leadership and 
careful organization, 511 participated 
that year. In addition, many of the stu- 
dents who stayed behind gave all or 
part of the money they earned that day. 
The number of students doing this in 
1966 was 450. Support for what was 
being called "Missions Promotion Day" 
showed that, despite the debate that 
had already begun over the college 
name, SMC was still a missionary- 
minded college. 151 

The Rees years were, as Des 
Cummings, Jr., had put it, "a very for- 
ward-looking time" when the students 
emulated the faculty's "sense of opti- 
mism and vigor." 152 But the best was 
yet to come. The late 1960s and 1970s 
would be for SMC a period of even more 
dynamic growth and enthusiasm. 


This 1930s photo is labeled "noon hour," with students headed for the basement dining room 
in North Hall, the girls' dormitory. (College Hall, later called Lynn Wood Hall, is the 
administration and classroom building, and beyond College Hall is the College Press and 
South Hall, the boys' dormitory.) 







1 928- 1 992 





Ooltewah is on the Atlanta Division of the Southern Rail- 
way, fifteen miles east of Chattanooga. Five passenger trains 
each day pass here, and nearly all stop. 

Students coming from west of Chattanooga should take the 
Southern Railway, if possible, to avoid changing stations 
there. From many points through trains to Ooltewah can be 
had. Those coming on the N. C. & St. L. Railway must change 
stations in Chattanooga. Tickets should be bought to Ooltewah, 
and baggage checked to that point. 

All students taking the local trains from Chattanooga or 
Atlanta which stop at Collegedale, should buy their tickets 
and check their baggage to that point, and turn their baggage 
checks with their tickets over to the conductor in order to have 
baggage taken off at Collegedale. This will save time and 
trouble for both the College and railway company. 

Students from the East should take the Southern Railway 
if possible. Connections with this road can be made at Knoxville 
and Atlanta. Those who arrive by bus from Chattanooga or 
Knoxville may get off at the Ooltewah crossroads. Students 
should notify the College by letter or telegram, stating the hour 
of their arrival at Ooltewah. If this is done, a conveyance will 
meet them and bring them directly to the College. 

The College office may be called on the telephone through 
the Chattanooga exchange by calling County 2602 between 
the hours of seven A. M. and six P. M. There is no toll charge 
for calls from Chattanooga. 

The 1964 Programs Committee of the Student Association poses at the Ooltewah train stat 


A stately ship lay sweet and calm — 
At rest beside the sea of life, 
Its course is guided by a psalm 
Protecting it from worldly strife. 

For several days it anchors there 
While godly men into the hold 
A priceless cargo store with care — 
A treasure that will ne'er be sold. 

And now the stalwart ship goes forth 
Its precious mission to fulfill. 
A message, glad, of gospel truth, 
This wretched, blood-stained world 
to thrill. 
— Lyle Marie Wallace 


A This 1950s entrance to the college was located where the Collegedale 
recycling center is today. 

Directional signage in 1949. 



" ' \\i t M i f/ 

E-WAH "/4 



SNSSO10 > 










For tiie sake of others who nay need to 
do some pressing for the Sabbath, please do 
not sign up for more than half an hour. 

6:30^ Tkc/^X 


7:30 fl^n^/AAj^/ 


8:30 Mc^ 

12;00 CWU fo*«(*4 

12;30 TiuiJLAj^Pl' 

3; 00 fiJC&ML 
9:00 ]jA^rui^,0i^cL 3 :3 o ^^^t^^^O 
9 : 30 >^ — ^ ^v, 4 : 00 4$UMjU M&rr hjby 

10:56 <^4-c-c*^£. /4c^4j """" — "."• — 


^ i. . i 
- V- 


1929: 7%e | 

sign warns, 

"Look out for 

the cars when 

you hear the 

whistle or 



^%^^^**^ tHh.ii^ MIV^W <MMRI>#' 4MHWV ^i******^*" '^^■trttf 

▲ On £/ie way to chapel in 1929- 
the men arrive from South Hall 
and the women from North Hall. 

(Far left) The Friday pressing 
sign-up sheet from the early 1930s. 


•^ The seal used in 
SJC's charter document 
in 1919 consisted of two 
concentric triangles and an 
eagle carrying a scroll to the 
world, around which is draped 
a ribbon proclaiming, "the ever- 
lasting gospel to every nation and 
kindred and tongue and people this 
generation. " The seal carried the founding year for Graysville Acad- 
emy and the year of the move to Collegedale. (The date 1893 re- 
flected the confusion as to when the school really started. It was 
later changed to 1892.) The triangle was chosen because it "is the 
most stable of all forms," according to the 1938 Triangle, the year- 
book. "The circle is easily dented, the square can be crushed, but the 
triangle can withstand great strain. SJC stands for a triangular 
education . . . the physical, mental, and spiritual phases of life ... a 

three-fold preparation. " 

1ST? 9132 vJMMms 
Meal W Ticket 


Not TratisiVrablp ff 

A The photos on this page are taken in the late '20s and early '30s. Above is the graduating class of 1928 in 
the Lynn Wood Hall chapel. 


|j||JPi : IJ!)lJI'!ll : iliHllUW' 

W5 | 


The Student Association's Social Education Committee chose up to twenty-five 
scouts each year to determine the most courteous man and woman on campus 
during the annual Courtesy Week. These students were then dubbed Courtesy 
King and Queen in a special ceremony. Usually one day of the week was called 
Reverse Courtesy Day, when the women performed the courtesies ordinarily done 
by the men, such as seating the men in the dining room, opening doors, carrying 
books, and walking next to the road when escorting a man down the sidewalk. 

Ted Graves and Flossie Rozell were crowned Courtesy King and Queen in 
December 1952 by the previous year's winners, Art Butterfield and Carol Jean 



A King Smuts Van Rooyen and Queen Candy Scott are surrounded by their court 
in 1963: Robert Murphy, Diane Mills, Maximo Rojas, Anne Louise Sonestam, 
Terry McComb, and Judy Edwards. 

The Medical Cadet Corps training in 1940. In the background is the girls' dormitory along with the soot-producing boiler smokestacks. 

In the kitchen of Maude 
Jones Hall in 1950. 

A 1951 






' il 



Banquets in the li 





Posing for 

portraits at 

the 1970 

Sigma Theta 



The 1972 Sigma Theta 
Chi reception 
transformed the gym 
into a "flower-filled 
avenue in Paris." 

Reprinted from the Southern Accent, April 22, 1955 

i ' i 

College Officials 
Surrender Offices 

The annual College Visitation Day 
came last Wednesday, when all tne fa- 
culty and teachers left the SMC campus 
early in the morning. 

Their destinations were several sister 
colleges in Tennessee, Georgia, and 

Assuming administrative responsi- 
bilities were the four major officers of 
the Student Association, James Ray Mc- 

Kinney, president; Chester Damron, 
vice president; Norman Trubey, treas- 
urer; and Kathryn Wooley, secretary. 

During the day the SA president 
occupied President Wright's office; the 
vice president used Dean Hammill's 
office; the treasurer took the place of 
general manager Fleming; and the sec- 
retary acted in the place of coordinator 
of student activities. 

Classes met as usual, with the excep- 
tion of the teachers, who were "guest" 





v .i 

▲ The Student Senate and the Student Association 
held broad powers in the early '50s. Here the Senate 
meets in Daniells Library. 


The telephone system for both college and 
community was operated from this 
switchboard in Jones Hall. This photo was 
taken in 1950. 

A Recreation and organized activities in the '50s took place in the field across the road from 
Lynn Wood Hall, where Wright Hall is now located. 

College Days Through The Years 





P 2 \H ' 

In 1970, College Days visitors were welcomed with a Civil War theme 

College Days Through The Years 

•u . ^10 i."Wi.W**«tP4 

From Academy Day 
program in 1936. 

Sunday Morning- -April 19 

View of Sunrise from Lookout Mountain 

Trip to Lookout Mountain starting four o'clock 

Meet on the porch of the Girls' Dormitory 

Breakfast on the Mountain 

Story ot war days Veteran Negro Guide 

School family breaktast 8: 00—8: 30 o'clock 

Dinner served at the Picnic Grounds 1: 00 p. m. 


(Far right) 1964: The 
rebel flag is part of the 
welcoming convoy. 
(Middle) 1970: To give 
the welcome a big bang, 
this tank was fired 
each time another 
senior class was 
escorted to campus. 
(Right) 1964: Cars 
lined up for the parade 
to welcome seniors from 
the Southern Union. 

▲ Mrs. James 0. Thatcher (woman far left) 
attended the third annual Founders' Day program 
in 1952, the year that the name of the old Thatcher 
homestead was changed from the Yellow House to 
Thatcher Hall. 

A In 1969, the new girls' dormitory was named 
Thatcher Hall. At the naming ceremony were 
(left to right) Evadne Thatcher Smith, Jason 
Thatcher, and Mr. and Mrs. Paul Thatcher. 

A C.N. Rees, president from 1958 to 1967, receives the dedication of the 1967 Southern 

A Kenneth Spears, business manager for 
the Southern Accent in 1964. 

A 1985: Sanford and Martha Ulmer hold the 
plaque which officially names the Student 
Center after them, in recognition of their 
commitment to the students of Southern College. 
The Ulmers gave leadership and support to the 
founding of the college's endowment campaign. 

A Robert Merchant, SA sponsor in 1978, is cheered by SA president Ken Rogers and his 

m ens Jfr 

s ^s,?ALL 

Gordon A. Madgwick, chairman of the English department, pauses with his dog, Little Joe, in 1963. 

A Kenneth R. Davis, dean of men, photographed in 1966. 

A Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Wright pose next to the plaque which names Wright Hall. 


G.C. President Robert Pierson visits with Frank Knittel in the 70s. 



▲ In February 1988, William J. Hulsey, president of the 
Committee of 100, pays tribute to Mr. and Mrs. William A. lies 
for their work with the college throughout the years. In a 
special convocation, the physical education center was named 
the William A. Res Physical Education Center. 








I |^B 

▲ Ray and Inelda Hefferlin in the late Ws. 

^ Tennessee Governor Lamar Alexander 
autographs a copy of his book during his 
visit to the campus in 1986. 


• ' 



■ii • 1 1 

js* gm 




▲ Professor Ed Lamb received New York's 
Salvation Army Volunteer Award in 1984 on 
behalf of scores of Southern College students 
who have fed New York's homeless on 
Thanksgiving Day since 1977. 

M In 1986, the road in front of Wright Hall 
was named Taylor Circle after Mr. and Mrs. 
William H. Taylor, who have served the 
college over thirty years. "Taylor Circle will 
provide us with the opportunity to literally as 
well as figuratively follow in their tracks of 
dedicated service to God and humanity," said 
President John Wagner. 


N? 549|5t)3BX 


Identification of person to whom issued: PRINT IN FULL 

{(Vat name) (Middle name) (Last name) 

Street number or rural route 

City or post office 




Ft. In. 


.Signature -— 

{Person to whom book is lamed. If such person i« unable to sign because Of age or incapacity 


This book is the property of the 
United State* Government, It is 
unlawful to sell it to any other per- 
eon, or to use it or permit anyone 
efcm to use it, except to obtain 
.rationed* goods in accordance with 
regulations of the Office of Price 
Administration,. Any person who 
finds a lost War Ration Book must 
return it to the War Price as** 
Rationing Board which issued i 
Persons who violate rationing regir 
lations are subject to $10,000 fine ox' 
imprisonment, or both. 


Ooltew&h, Tenn. 










Maude Jones came to Southern Junior 
College in 1917 and taught English and 
Biblical literature until 1950. Her 
personal interest in each student, her 
words of encouragement, and her 
enthusiastic example of a consistent 
Christian life left an impression on 
hundreds of young men and women 
through the decades. She passed away 
in 1961. 





This agreement made in duplicate and entered into between 
Southern Junior College, party of the first part, hereinafter 

designated "College" and tlB11 . p T _ T party of the 

second part, hereinafter de s igna ted "Tea cher ; ' 


In consideration of the premises ana mutuality hereof it is 
agreed by and between the parties hereto as follows: 

1. The College agrees to employ the teacher for the 19J3019J51 
school term, salary and services to begin September 9 1 9 50 
compensation to be at the rate of % 2^.00 per week. 



T To end the Week of Prayer, a baptismal service in the early 
'40s took place in the baptismal pool near Daniells Hall. 

T Students visit 
nursing home resi- 
dents during 
Sunshine Bands in 


Outreach . 

Malcolm Mackenzie and John Swafford demonstrate 
Smoking Sam in 1966. 

▼ The F.T. Fogg Clinic was one of 
four clinics established in the '70s in 
Nicaragua by SMC. This clinic was 
funded by a generous donation from 
Mrs. Frank T. Fogg in remembrance 
of her husband, former broom shop 

Each year a sizable 

number of students 

volunteer a year to become 

missionaries in foreign 

countries. Here Ashley 

Hall poses with her 

students in the Marshall 

Islands in 1990. 

A Under the direction of Bible instructor E. C. Banks, this group of student workers conducted a Field School 
of Evangelism in the summer of 1949 in Montgomery, Alabama. A harvest of nearly thirty souls was gleaned. 

. Rhonda Huffaker and Sharon Ingram lead out in Story Hour in 1970. 


Coal- Powered Heat 

Beginning in the late '40s, the campus enjoyed central heat provided by big steam boilers. In 
1963, two new coal-powered boilers were to be delivered by truck to the campus. The first 
long-awaited boiler, left, arrived safely. The truck delivering the second boiler was struck by a 
passenger train on a railroad crossing only eleven miles from campus. The locomotive, above, 
was derailed and rolled over on its side, and the boiler, above right, was demolished. A 
replacement boiler was shipped in and installed, and in later years the boilers were converted 
from coal to gas. 

When the old whistle blew 

When the college installed a central heating system after World War II, admin- 
istrators thought it would be ideal to utilize the excess steam from the new boilers 
with a steam whistle. The 30-inch tall, 8-inch wide, 60-pound, solid brass whistle 
was donated to the college by the Southern Railway System, which had tracks 
through the campus and was the main line from Chattanooga to Atlanta. The 
whistle came from one of the many passenger trains that carried students, 
teachers, and mail to and from Collegedale's "old Thatcher Station." The steam 
whistle became a very important signal to the campus and the community as its 
shrill, musical call broadcast the time to awake, go to work, and go to class. One 
long blast signaled rising time and noontime. A medium blast sounded five 
minutes before the hour, and two short blasts announced the hour. The feeling of 
unity the whistle contributed to the campus and the memory of its piercing cry will 
live on in the minds of those who responded to its call so many times. The whistle 
was used until the late '60s. 


The "Ad" Building (1924-1968) 

Memories of Lynn Wood Hall include registration, the stench of chemistry lab, the tantalizing aromas from 
the home ec rooms, organ and piano practice, chapel, rushing to classes, and paying the school bill. 

The College Hall library operated until Daniells Library was built in 1946. A Chemistry lab. 

▲ Chapel in the early '50s. Attendance by the faculty was 
required, too; they sat in seats under the balcony. 


The "Ad" Building (1924-1968) 

▲ Cooking class in Lynn Wood Hall 

▲ Typing class in Lynn Wood Hall in the '50s. A Physics lab in Lyr* *~*nn Wood Hal 


The ice plant in the dairy was installed in 
1929. Look hard to see the newly made ice 
blocks on top of the freezer unit. 


A In July 1956, the wood products factory went up in flames. The insurance money from the blaze was invested in 
building a facility to house McKee Bakery. Later, a new broom shop was erected on the site where the woodshop 

A Collegedale Wood Products manufactured desks, chests, night 
tables, dressers, beds, bookcases, headboards, and mirrors in three 
different styles. This five-piece set of maple bedroom furniture sold 
for $90.75 in 1955. 

A The College Store and post office in 1962. Notice that the women's residence 
hall (now Talge Hall) has already been built. The Fuller Insurance Agency is 
located to the right of the building. 

The College Store and 
gas station in 1962. 

▼ The barn is razed in 
1962. Old Talge Hall 
in the background was 
not demolished until 

A View from the gas station up to the Home Arts Center in 1962. Wright Hall is 
now located where the car is parked. 


Margarita Dietel 


Collegedale Forever! 

Majoric Wynn-Hall 






• hW fr3» m i — *- far 



1. Sou - thern Mis - sion - ar - y Col - lege, 

2. Ne - stled snug - gly in the foot - hills 

3. Tink-ling brook - lets, whis-p'ring pine trees 

»• jig 

Glo - ry in your grow - ing fame; 

Pierced by lanes for de - cades trod. 
Blend with flut-tering an - gels" wings; 




* — I 

* ' * ' *t 



r^-g^V i I Jr3 

Draw and hold us, "School of Stand - ar da," 
Lies our col - lege sweet - ly rest - ing 
In our cher-ished "School of Stand-ards" 

By what's no - ble in your name. 
Near the ve • ry heart of God. 

Tru - ly all ere - a - tion sings. 




J- a w -i P * > 





Sou - them friend-ships root the deep • est. Sou - them skies seem a! - ways blue 



<• — 1» 

v •»* ■" 



1 — i 

■ r^ r 


j I i i J 


r *p ' J J g 3 

1 CH 

Sou - them charm will live for - e - ver; 

Col - lege • dale, we're true to you. 









ttr^r Ftffr i f 1 i^iTf [[ N' ^f=? 

TTie school song, "Collegedale Forever!", was very popular in the '40s, '50s, and '60s. Composer Margarita 

A new college seal, updated from the triangular form to a 
circular one, was voted by the Board of Trustees in 1963. 
The seal features the Bible, the shield of faith, the helmet 
of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit. "Veritas Vincit" 
means "truth conquers." The seal is placed on all official 
transcripts from the college. 



The college logo was voted by the Board of Trustees in 
September 1985, and appears on all official college 
stationery. The logo is designed to portray academic 
excellence through the use of the campus' familiar 
architectural symbol, the columns. The four columns 
represent the four pillars of Southern's educational 
philosophy — mental, spiritual, social, and physical 
development. They are encircled by a symbol of spiritual 
unity and harmony. The circle globe also points to the 
college's commitment to world service. The color bands 
behind the columns convey the feeling of warmth, caring, 
and the college's ideal location in the Sunbelt. 

Tiiotol (AAorrimnn) mriQ n aturlont nf Pmftxzvnr pfarnlrf ]\/fiJIpr 

Chapter Eight 

The Pinnacle 

1967- 1980 

nrollment figures kept climbing: 480 
in 1957; 1,150 in 1966; 1,412 in 1971. 
Pausing to catch its breath, the enroll- 
ment total repeated that figure in 
1972, then bounded upward with 
annual leaps of as much as 141 students a year, 
before breaking the 2,000 mark in 1979 and 
reaching its all-time high of 2,079 in 1980. 1 

Similarly the number of graduates multi- 
plied: just over 80 in 1962, 165 in 1967, and 
about 380 in 1976. "I handed more diplomas to 
graduates than all the previous presidents put 
together," says Frank Knittel, president of 
Southern from 1971 to 1982 and academic dean 
for the preceding four years. 2 

These statistics translated themselves into 

Enrollment Tops Record 

According to the official 
computer count of September 
3, 2033 students have regis- 
tered at SMC, reports Ken- 
neth Spears, Director of Ad- 
missions and Records. That's 
a record high for SMC, up 208 
over last year's enrollment of 

This year 629 new freshman 
have joined the ranks, com- 
pared with 524 in 1978. The 
senior classes, however, have 
shrunk. There's a total of 
408 two- and four-year seniors 

this year, while last year 
boasted a 428 total. 

Special students add up to 
151 this year, an increase of 
nearly 40 per cent. Nearly 80 
of these are from Georgia 
Cumberland, Pisgah, and 
Laurelbrook Academies, 
where extension courses are 
being taught. There's also 
been a significant increase of 
students coming to SMC di- 
rectly from high school — 107 
this year, compared with 80 
last year. 

The nursing division claims 
the largest number of majors 
enrolled with 440 students. 
Business comes next with 209. 
Theology, elementary educa- 
tion, and biology follow with 
137, 130, and 112 respectively. 

The 2033 students represent 
46 states and 34 foreign 
countries. People have mi- 
grated to SMC from such 
diverse corners of the world as 
Iran and Egypt, Singapore and 
Switzerland, Norway and 

A The September 6, 1979, Southern Accent proclaimed enrollment of more than 2,000 students. It reached an all- 
time high of 2,079 the next year. 

an upbeat attitude, a positive spirit, and a large 
dose of school pride. The years 1967 to 1980 
were an exciting time to be at Southern Mission- 
ary College, for students and faculty alike. 3 

SMC's population explosion was exciting, 
but it came at a price. Several who were stu- 
dents or teachers before the explosion and who 
remained here or returned afterwards have said 
that previously the school had "more of a family 
spirit": the faculty was much closer, the students 
"pretty much knew everybody," the campus 
community was close-knit. "As we grew we lost a 
lot of this personal touch," says Louesa Peters. 4 

Rebuilding The Campus 

or the school's leaders the twenty- 
three-year enrollment growth pre- 
sented a "delightful dilemma" — how to 
accommodate the hundreds of indi- 
vidual human beings that made up 
those exhilarating totals. Again a major building 
program — one nearly amounting to "a total 
rebuilding of the campus" — seemed imperative. 
Already in progress was a new women's resi- 
dence with accommodations for 510 students, 
slated to bear the name of its original predeces- 
sor, Maude Jones Hall. However, soon after its 
completion in 1968, the board named it after 
James and Grace Thatcher instead. Meanwhile, 
true to Southern's tradition, the new dormitory 
was being occupied before completion, with one 
wing used as an overflow men's residence and 


Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

▲ Thatcher Hall became the new women's residence in 1968. 

the other for women. Again, true to tradition, 
when Thatcher Hall was completed, the dormi- 
tory constructed a few years previously and 
known simply as the Women's Residence Hall 
was renovated, rechristened — like its predeces- 
sor — Talge Hall, and turned over to the young 
men. Another renovation was also in progress: 
converting the former administration building 
(Lynn Wood Hall) to classroom use. 6 

Knowing that a larger library was needed 
to maintain accreditation, the board planned an 
addition to the existing building that would 
double its size; in order to raise $25,000 of the 
needed $150,000, a special offering was taken 

throughout the Southern Union in September 
1967. Five days later the board decided to 
construct a completely new library on the site of 
the first Talge Hall, demolished during the 
summer of 1968. Financing this project, how- 
ever, was a problem. The Southern Union 
Conference, historically the chief source of capital 
funds, was short on money because of the Madi- 
son takeover. SMC president Wilbert Schneider 
approached SJC alumnus O. D. McKee, who — 
with his family — gave a substantial contribution. 
The faculty pledged $25,000. Thanks to private 
gifts, donations by local foundations and indus- 
tries, and contributions from Southern Union 

Charles Fleming, President Schneider, O. D. McKee, 

and Charles Davis are shown top right inset, left to 

right, at the 1970 dedication of McKee Library. 

Moving from the old Daniells Library took five days, 

bottom right. 

Conference constituents, the building, valued at 
$1,211,504 (but with Fleming's prudent manage- 
ment, careful budgeting, and student labor built 
for $638,000) was completely paid for by the time 
it was constructed. In view of the McKees' 
significant contribution, the board named the 
new building the McKee Library. Consequently, 
McKee requested that the McKee industrial 
education building be renamed. At a special 
assembly in November 1970, it was rechristened 

▼ The library is dedicated to Mr. and Mrs. O. D. 
McKee and their children. A plaque outside the 
building reads, "to commemorate and honor their 
devotion to truth, their interest in Christian 
education, and their unstinting generosity. " Pictured 
left to right: Mr. and Mrs. Jack McKee, Mr. and Mrs. 
Ellsworth McKee, and Mr. and Mrs. O. D. McKee. 


, y 

• » 



Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

in honor of former farm manager C. E. Ledford. 
Meanwhile, 66,000 books were moved mainly by 
student volunteers from the old Daniells Library 
to the new McKee Library, a process that took 
five days. On September 24, 1970, congressman 
William E. Brock III was the featured speaker at 
the official opening ceremonies. At a cost of 
about $100,000, Daniells Hall was converted into 
classrooms, laboratories, and offices for the 
physics and mathematics departments. 6 

The next major construction project, other 
than the enlarged shopping center, resulted from 
an embarrassing situation: the hastily built, 
"new" Walters-era cafeteria and home economics 
building, considered by some to be unattractive, 

A The decade-old cafeteria I home economics building 
was brought down within two days following the 
1971 graduation commencement ceremonies. 

▲ B. F. and Gradye Brooke Summerour, above, were 
remembered for their years of service to the college 
when the new home economics building, right, was 
named for them. 

poorly located, and badly constructed, was 
coming apart: in places the floors were danger- 
ously pulling away from the walls. Moreover, a 
feasibility study of the plan to build a new 
kitchen and tie it in with the old one revealed 
that this would be more expensive than to 
demolish the building and build a new one from 
scratch. But how would the constituents react to 
the destruction of a comparatively new building? 
How would faculty members react to such 
destruction when they were so desperately short 
on classroom space — when, for example, the art 
department in the basement of old Jones Hall 
was subject to regular flooding during heavy 
rains? After explaining the situation, Schneider 
received the cooperation of an initially hesitant 
faculty; a confrontation with the general Advent- 
ist public was avoided by knocking down the 
building within a two-day period right after 
commencement in May 1971, "before anyone 
knew about it." 7 

Since the academy had relocated in a new 
educational complex across the valley from the 
college, the old Normal Building had already 
been razed in November 1970 to make way for 
the new home economics building. Completed in 
the autumn of 1971, it was named Summerour 

Hall in honor of former board member B. F. 
Summerour. 8 

Solving the cafeteria problem wasn't so 
simple. The new food service-student center 
building, actually an addition to Wright Hall, 
wouldn't be completed until 1973, nearly two 
years after the demolition of the old cafeteria. 
Meanwhile the food service operated in the old 
Tabernacle, now known to students as the 
"Tabeteria." Most of the equipment from the old 
building was transferred to the Tabernacle, the 
main exception being the dishwasher. Conse- 
quently, the students used paper plates, plastic 
tableware, and disposable trays. This arrange- 
ment, the college found, was more economical 
than paying students to wash the dishes but, 
complained the Southern Accent editor — "You 
can't slide down hills" on cardboard trays. By the 
end of the twenty-three months the students 
were weary of paper and plastic table service. 
Some pranksters put a toilet filled with dirt and 
the offending items in front of the Tabeteria with 
a placard that read, "Death to paper plates and 
plastic silverware." Eecalls one student, "Faculty 
members were not amused." 9 

By this time some key administrators were 
convinced that the time had come to bring 


A Century of Challenge 

campus expansion to a halt. President Schneider 
warned of the possible consequences of an 
overbuilt campus should the enrollment drop. 
Heeding the warning, the board had voted in 
June 1967 to limit future enrollment to "pres- 
ently planned residence hall facilities." Calculat- 
ing that the new dormitories would accommodate 
approximately 1,000 students and that there 
might be perhaps 400 village students, Schneider 
suggested that enrollment should be limited to 
1,400. 10 

But that's easier said than done. Antici- 
pating an overflow of male students in 1970-71, 
the board's executive committee voted to remodel 
the third floor of Jones Hall for their use. As it 
turned out, when that time actually arrived SMC 

had a surplus of both young men and young 
women seeking dormitory housing. The Talge 
Hall recreation room was turned into a barracks 
for the extra men, and Jones Hall once again 
became a women's dormitory. 

In the spring of 1971 general manager 
Charles Fleming, Jr., suggested that it was time 
to stop building. Explaining that each addition 
increased the college's operating expenses and 
overhead, he warned that it would no longer be 
possible to provide money for capital expansion 
from operating funds without abandoning the 
Southern tradition of keeping its tuition lower 
than that of its sister colleges. In retrospect, one 
veteran professor suggests that the decision 
makers should have listened to Fleming. SMC 

should have put a ceiling on enrollment and 
raised its admission standards. Instead, he says, 
"We overbuilt." But it's hard to turn away even 
nominally qualified students desiring a Christian 
education enough to either work for it or pay for 
it. 11 

Besides, there was a pressing need for a 
nursing building. By 1973 nursing was the 
largest division, with 26 teachers and more than 
400 students, yet its classrooms and offices were 
divided between two floors of Lynn Wood Hall 
and three mobile trailers parked near the science 
building. An unexpected gift of $100,000 ear- 
marked toward putting the whole division under 
one roof, led the board to authorize the project if 
the administration could raise enough additional 


1 1*1 HI & 

\i_ * 

K:: "'< 

< ''wife * *■* 

' V :J , 

A With things that are difficult or unpleasant at the time, there later exists a certain nostalgic 
appeal, like the closeness of hundreds of students crowded into the "Tabeteria" (Tabernacle- 
turned- cafeteria), at left, or the quiet moments of a solitary student dining by the window, center. 
But just the same, the students were ready for the move into the new cafeteria building when it 
finally came, as shown by the "sculpture," above right. 


▲ Herin Hall was a powerful affirmation of the school's commitment to its School of Nursing. 

money to complete it. After several months of 
fund-raising had brought in an additional 
$100,000, the Committee of 100 provided the 
final $100,000. Although the actual furnished 
cost of the building, named Herin Hall in 1976, 
came to $430,000, the Committee of 100 com- 
pleted the structure and gave it to the college 
debt-free. 12 

By this time the college admissions office 
had been ignoring the 1,400-student ceiling for 
several years; in September 1975 President 
Frank Knittel was telling the board he needed 
more dormitory space. The next January the 
board approved dormitory additions to accommo- 
date 116 more young men and 252 additional 
young women. Construction began shortly 
thereafter, transforming Talge from a U-shaped 
to an E-shaped structure. The million-dollar 
addition to Thatcher was, however, a separate 

building connected by a breezeway or bicycle 
shed. The Committee of 100 financed both 
projects. 13 

Meanwhile, housing needs of married 
students were not neglected. The college pur- 
chased six more mobile homes in 1969 and 
expanded the trailer park to accommodate thirty- 
six more units. Students in the two-year build- 
ing technology program built a new apartment 

T Built by students for students, these apartments, 
along with the trailer park, were the school-provided 
housing for married students. 

complex for married students in 1975; assisted 
by the engineering department, they built 
another one in 1978. After a new medical 
complex was constructed near the intersection of 
Apison Pike and Ooltewah-Ringgold Road, the 
old clinic was converted into apartments for 
married students. 14 

Nor were the students on the Orlando 
Campus neglected. In response to a grant 
request by development director Dwight S. 
Wallack, the Edythe Bush Charitable Founda- 
tion donated $85,000 for the renovation of the 
Orlando dormitory. 15 

Other construction projects completed 
during this period of expansion included the 
enlargement of Ledford Hall and several im- 
provements in the physical education complex, 
including a new block of four tennis courts and 
three gifts from the Committee of 100: racquet- 
ball courts, a resurfaced track, and a new foyer 
for the gymnasium. 16 


eanwhile, the administration had 
reversed itself on enrollment projec- 
tions. Whereas in 1976 it had fore- 
seen continuous growth until at least 
1985, at which time the college was 
expected to have nearly 2,350 students, in the 
spring of 1978 it took note of the fact that na- 
tional enrollment projections were down. When 
enrollment dipped in 1978, Knittel warned that 
between the state of the economy, the demo- 
graphic projections, and the shifting priorities in 
Adventist homes, continued decline was a real 
possibility. He predicted that if the present trend 
continued, a year from then enrollment would 
have declined by about 200 students within a 
two-year period. If that happened, he warned, 
"We certainly are not all going to be needed." In 

A Century of Challenge 

July 1979 Knittel told the faculty to look for a 
decline in the number of college-age young people 
for the next ten years so serious that the number 
of college-bound students might drop by as much 
as 50 percent. But for Southern, the evil day of 
either decline or leveling off would wait a few 
years, despite the brief dip. 17 

Why? A major reason was the number of 
students coming from outside the Southern 
Union, believed to be due largely to SMC's 
reputation for having a spiritual atmosphere 
enhanced by a conservative social code. Other 
attractive assets were its low tuition (compared 
with sister colleges), new buildings, and attrac- 
tive campus. Although the college didn't spend a 
cent recruiting students from outside its constitu- 
ent territory, as many as 38 percent of its stu- 
dents came from other areas of the United States 
and from foreign countries. In 1976, 86 students 
were citizens of some country other than the 
United States. Typically the student body was 
about 45 percent male and 55 percent female; in 
1972-73 the percentages among unmarried 
students were 40 male, 60 female. 

The Vietnam War may have been partially 
responsible for some of those lopsided statistics. 
With the elimination of deferments for college 
students and the introduction of the birthday- 

T Crowding around the AP wire, SMC men 
anxiously await their number during the drawing of 
the draft lottery. 

,*m Wrings for 248 &0a 

Phyllis Ann Sttvene - Ivan Louis Whtddan, '6B. Feb 8, 1969, forest City, Fl«. 
Kathryn Edith Wooley, '55 Jama* Hinson, Aug 17. 1969, Orlando, Fla, 
Chartane Gad P*o*n, '69 - Thomas Raphael Wilton, Nov. 16. 1969 Ootiawah, 

Linda Suwn Voas. 69 . Ronald Hirmin, Nov 23. 1969. Gantry, Ark. 
Msrgarat Glbb* Woodrow Whidd*n. '67. Nov 27. 1969. Courtland. NY. 
Ruth Rom Softon. '66 - Thomas Prosier, Jr. Dae. 21. 1969 
Batty Sua Watkins. 69 - Bruca Ntwmm, Doc 28. 1969, Apison. Tann. 
B«v*rty oibuck Stasnar, '67 - LeRoy Boiian. Jan. 1970. No-port N«w*. Va. 
Qranda Annan* Northrop - George William Adams. Fab 1. 1970. KMn* Te*. 
Miriam Grace Moor*. 43 - G«n« Miracla, Fab 26. 1970. Glandaia. Calif. 
Mary Pal Horwath. 67 - Ronald Ouan* Mtin* Apr 5, 1970. Kettering, Ohio 
Donnie Gay Vanca. '66 - Jonathan Daan Ol.s. May 10. 1970. Panama City. Fla 
Cynthi* Eugenia Twing. '7P ■ Jamas Theodore Richardson, Jr.. 70, June 1. 

Tina Wodzenaki ■ Donald Laroy Wast, Jr., 68. Juna 7, 1970, Hegsrstown. Md. 
Barbara Lucila Hoar. 64 - Jotapn John Arena, Juna ft, 1970. Rockville 

Center, N.Y. 
Anatia Mana Palm, '68 • Or Paul Gilbert Johnson. Juna 24, 1970. Loma 

Linda. Calif. 
Glenna Fay* Footer. '67 • Ernest Theodore Ahl, '68, Juna 28, 1970, Atlanta. 

Rom A. Meister, '21 - Cider Laonard E. Allan, Juna 28. 1970, Daar Lodga, 

Sandra Jean Smith. '?Q ■ Austin Q. Regal. Jun* 21. 1970. Orlando, Ft*. 

Ola Virginia Daw*, '70 - Marion Allan McFarland. Ju!y 5. 1970. Miami, Fla. 
1 Ruth Hapwo. ' 
6olt*weh, Tann. 

Nancy Ruth Hopwood, '69 - Jsmn Barnard I 

■68. July 19, 1970. 

tow Anno Shefqal - Bill Lorrama Crofton. 70. Au(. )6, 1970, Tracey, Calif. 
Margaret prrscUla Phillips • Jamas William Walters. '68, Aug. 23. 1970, VYythe- 

viile, Va. 
Sharon Ann OeRosia, '68 - Barnard Noal Qumn, Aug. 23. 1970. Rivarsida. 

Jo Anna Mohr. '70 - Mark Russall Codington. 70, Nov. 8. 1970. Andtrson. Ind. 
Lmd* Gayla AmoW. 71 - Gary Leon Miles. Dec 19, 1970, Woodbury. Tenn. 
Bonnia Lynn Pumford. '71 - Danny Eldon Hogan. Doc. 21. 1970, Ooltewah, 

Joyce Ann Coo*. '70 - 

Daniel Wayne Man^ano. 71. Dec. 22. 1970. Orlando. 
Orville Raymond Ruckle. '70. Dec. 22. 1970, 

Shirley Jean Scftneider, 

Collagadal*. Tann. 

Batty Yvonne Roof - Clifford Carroll Myers. '71. Dec. 22. 1970, Ooltewah. T*nn. 
Sandra Faye Mayee, 71 • Jama* Albert (Click) Sweeney. Dec 23. 1970. Mt 

Vernon. Ohio 
Ladonna Eil*n* White Gary Allan Gryte. '70. Dec 27. 1970. Ooltewah. Tenn. 
Ann Elizabeth Cone, '70 ■ David LeRoy Vimng. Dec. 29. 1970. Marietta. Ga 
Dona Mary Miliar. '71 - Clifford Bruce Mm a Jen, 1. 1971, Naples fla 
Linda Jean Feagin. 71 - Ronald Albert Brown. Jan. 24. 1971. Ooltewah. Tenn. 
Barbara Ann DuPuy. '67 - David L. George, Feb. 7. 1971. New Orleans La. 
Ramona Joy Jopling. '68 - Dr. Bradford Ames Flack. March 6, 1971, Las 

Vegaa. n** 
Linda Jean Meacunana • Robert William Cash. III. '71. March 9, 1971. Cray. 

villa. Tenn. 
Ruth Amelia Halvoraan - Dan Verne Stock*. March 13, 1971. Decatgr, Mich. 
Mary LourM Holm**, 70 - Benjamin Carl Ma .son, '71, March 14, 1971. 

Memphis, Tenn. 
Rebecca Jane Maulsby • George Alton Alder. Apr, 9. 1971, Lookout Mountain, 

Meredrth Ann Jennings. '71 ■ Robert L. May. Apr 16. 1971, Rockvill*. Md. 
Eitretia Elonsa Acoata-Velez - Robert Wilhem Donesky. May 16, 1971, Moca. 

Puerto Rico. 
Roberta LM Parker - Robert Floyd Hegar. May 16. 1971. Cotlegedal*. Tann. 
Kathryn CluaDeth Johnson, '71 ■ Frederick Meitisld Brannan. '71, May 16, 

1971. Ooltewah. Tenn. 
Nancy Lh Wardla. 70 - Fred Lm Turner. May 16. 1971, Chattanooga. Tenn. 
Thane*. Joanne Griamore - Garland Charles B*nti«n, May 23, 1971, Bunker 

Hills, Ind. 
Alien* Roberta H-jnt, '70 ■ Charles JoMph W*rsnar. May 23, 1971. Berrien 

Springs. Mich 
Nancy Ruth Brass - Benjamin Douglas Koc he newer, May 23. 1971. Charlotte. 

Bemrta May Foreman - Bradley Amen Lewis, Way 23. 1971. Sheridan. Ill 
Linda Sue Nantl. 71 - William Francis Worth. Jr.. '71. May 23. 1971, College- 
dale. Tenn. 
"sfty Jeanne Walker. '66 - Donald Gene Smith. May 23. 1971. Lexington, Ky. 
Donna Gail Cock ran . Chester Arvid Caswell. '70 May 30. 1971. Danville. Va. 
Lynda Roberta Eedte • Ronald Van Fowler. May 30. 1971. Spartanburg. S C. 
Kathryn LourM Evans - Richard Edward Trumper. May 30. 1971. Miami. Fta. 
Connio Leigh Thor*) • Steve Edward Knight. '69. May 30, 1971. Charlotte, N.C. 
Andnsa Paige Grovor - Allen Richard Steele. '67, May 30. 1971, Washington. 

Sandra 3u« Welch, '71 - Robert Cad Peeke. '71. May 30. 1971. Atlanta, Ga. 
Sharon Olson Burgeaon, '61 - David L. Barnes, Juna, 1971. Kettering. Ohio. 
Barbara So* Day. '71 . John Benton Taylor, Juna 6, 1971. Sedan Kan. 
Jeraidena Joan He*g*r - Wayne Herrts Hicks. 71, Jun* 6. 1971. Angwm. Calif 
Linda U)u«* Hagenbaugh, '70 - Kurt Davis Schneider, June 6. 1971. Dallas, 

Evelyn Lanora Harper - Gerald Estt* Gilkeson. June 6. 1971. Chicago. Ill 
Cheryl Lynn Wslper - Cart Benjamin Magoon. 71. June 6. 1971. Madison, 

Barbara Ann Swop* - Joseph Parry Priest. '70. Jun* 6. 1971. Buchanan. Mich 
Marsha Lm Mabry, '70 - Michael Douglas Coa. June 10, 1971. Orlando, Fla 

Postponing a wedding is very 
bad luck. 

When a chicken comes into the 
house with a piece of straw in its 
beak and lays down, there will 
be a wedding soon. 

It is bad luck to have a gray 
horse at a wedding. 

On board the sea of life the 
principle of Noah's ark is best 
. . . two by two. 

Marriage is a diamond of which 
lone is trie sparkle. 

Love is the prized possession of 
the emotionally wealthy. 

There is no time limit on honey- 

Helen Ruth Beracz. '71 - Michael Lawrence Hicks, Juna 13, 1971. Berlin Woe 

Arlene Elizabeth Barren ■ Harold Clauda Reynolds, Juna 13, 1971, Ooltewah. 

Patricia Ann* Brock, '71 • Frederick Bryan Woods, Jr.. Jun* 13. 1971. Madi- 
son, Tenn. 

Sharon Elizabeth Johnson - Las Dudley Holland, Juna 13. 1971. Chunky 

Ida Clara Kincatd, 69 - Reppard Grady Sapp, II, June 13, 1971. Orlando, Fla 

Marion Suun Rozall. '66 ■ Donald Mark Pett.bone, June 13. 1971 Silver 
Spring, Md. 

Cynthia Carol Tandy • Jon Michael Gear-hart. Juna 13, 1971, Concord. Tenn. 

Sharon Ana Wenuelmen. '71 

Louis, Mo. 
Phyllis Ann Bryant, 
Donnalene Aoaanne Gerald, '71 

Silver Spring. 

•a McNeil. 

Paul William Robbanton. Juna 13. 1971. St. 
Walter WHlism Labrenz. June 20. Louisville, Ky. 

David Bruce BMrdsiey, '69. June 20. 1971 

Richard Lawrence Hancock, June 27. 1971, Tazewell, 

'. 1971 

Mary Sua I 

Wynen* Louts* Preston ■ Jamas Ernast Wayne Fanderson. Jui 

Collogedale. Tenn. 
Joy Kegels Smith - John PWrc* BrowniM, Juna 27, 1971. Toledo. Ohio 
Joyce Dean Holland ■ Larry Rogers. July 2. 1971, Mayfield. Ky 
Mary Tereaa Brown • Mark Allen Patmour, July 3, 1971. Atlanta Ga. 
Dm Om Little - Michael Eugene Feaworth, '71, July 4, 1971. Portland, Ore. 
Judith Kay Osborne, '71 - Jimss Ira Crabtna*. July 4. 1971. Avon Part, Fla. 
Meredith Joy Smith - Richard Eugene Pomeray, July 4, 1971. Parkarsburg, 

Susan Lorraine Wilcox ■ Robert Matthew Korzyniowski, July 4, 1971. Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Deborah Lucille Arney ■ Robin Bernard Parrssh, July I, 1971. Portland. Tenn. 

Rae Elim« English, 66 - Donald Myers, July 18, 1971. Raleigh. N.C. 

Nancy Carol Foster ■ John Ronald Shoemaker. '68. July 24, 1971. Chatta- 
nooga. Tenn. 

V. Geyle CarUblanca ■ Douglas Gregory Foley, '71. July 25. 1971, Oalton. Ga. 

Bonnie Sue Oemdoerfer ■ Eddie Chrtstopha*- Tow!**, '70, July 23, 1971, 
Louisville. Ky. 

Rebecca Jo Hamilton • Jamas Cartyta Ingeraoll, July 25, 1971, Birmingham, 

71 ■ James Alan Klnganorth, Jr., Aug. 1. 1971. Mednun, 


, Cleburne, 

TereM Gail Can 

Janet Mane MeJendy ■ Chns Leslie Davit, Aug. 1, 1971, Nashville. Tann 

Evelyn Elaine Holt, 68 - Vyron Metvin Carpenter, Jr., Aug. 1, 1971, Clebui 

Neomi Elain* Strickland. '71 ■ David Lawrence Gustafson. Aug. 1. 1971, 
WetervHie. Maine. 

Sharon Masine Swlnson, '71 - Gerald Woodrow Priest. Aug. 1, 1971. Jackson- 
villa, Fla. 

Mary Elizabeth Wahl ■ V. Lynn Nielsen, '69, Aug. 1. 1971. Memphis, Tenn. 

Mrs. Theresa C. Wright ■ Dr. Kenneth M. Kannedy. Aug. 1, 1971. Ooltewah. 

Betty Jun RamMy, 69 • Daniel Paul Frederick. Aug. 7, 1971, CoJIegedale. 

Karen Leigh Taylor ■ BUI Wayne SwilWy. 71. Aug. 7. South Fulton. Tenn. 

Vivian Lm Galey, '71 -Hkshard Clyde Snyder, Jr., Aug. I. 1971. Hamsburg, 

Martha Jane Oerace, '71 . James Kenneth Hoppa, Aug. 8, 1971. Miami. Fla. 
Tanya Gorman. '71 - Dr. Glenn Thomas Hart, Aug 8. 1971. Ootteweh. Tenn. 
Annie Sue Mitae - Michael Lewi* FoKworthy, '71, Aug. 8, 197L Columbia. S C. 
Mary Edith (Dm Dm) Saaley - Randall Hugh Hen-man. Aug. 8, 1971, Clerks- 

field. Ohio. 
Cefeen Amber SaKz. '71 - Richard Edmund Stanley, '71, Aug. t, Glandaia. 

Jacqueline Stanley - Edgar Ross Lyman. Aug. 8. 1971. Collegedeie. Tenn. 
Nancy Lou Shepherd ■ Warren Jay Voagele, Aug. 8. 1971. Plerra, 3.D. 
Short Marie Wittenberg. '71 - David Lamar Fardulle, Aug. 8, 1971, Winter 

Park. Fla. 
Mary Jo Pippin - Robert Ray Davenport. Aug. 12, Naahvlli*. Tenn 
Barbara Ann Moon ■ Warren Allan Sredenkamp, Aug. 12, 1971. Ootteweh. 

Elian Carlene Bramson, '70 - Gary Edward Jameraon. Aug. 15. 1971. Gtendala, 

Astrid Diana Lazaration, '71 • Larry Donald Howard. Aug. 15. 1971, J>*mri 

River, N.Y. 
Double Wedging 

Marge LouTm Martin, '71 - Elton Robert Kerr, '71, Aug. 15. Avon Park, 

Selma Kay Martin ■ James Arthur Neubrender. Aug. 15. 1971, Avon Park. 
Elsie-Re* Pike, 

■_Benton Lyie D*w«. Aug. J5._J971,_Ea*l Killlngly. Conn. 

_ - Edward Lewis 
Manitoba. Canada. 

Betsy Jane Renau. '71 - David Allen Ertal. Aug. IS. 1971. Charleston, S.C. 
Winsome Diane Gallant ■ Edward Lewis Croker, Aug. 22, 1971, Winnipeg, 

Becky Jeen Heath. '71 • Edgar Allan Soepes. Aug. 22, 1971. Madison, Tenn. 
Lynda Varlene Hughes. '71 - Devid RusmII S«td*(, Aug. 22. 1971, Candler, 

Janice Celeste McElroy, '71 - Stephen Laurence Phelpe, Aug. 22. 1971, Nome, 

James Lm Pleasants, '71. Aug. 29. 1971. Collegedeie, 
Don William Ambler. September 5. 1971. Jackson, 
Paula Maria Hawthorne - James L*e SchaRer, Sapt. S. 1971, Seffher. Fla 

Jane Regine Loor 

Gayla Lynn Gardner 

▲ Little wonder that, for many, SMC stood for Southern Matrimonial College with wedding announcements for 
248 people printed in the Southern Accent in July 1971. 


▲ Garland Dulan 

, Lorenzo Grant 

based, Selective 
Service lottery, 
perhaps one-third 
of SMC's young 
men over eighteen 
years of age found 
themselves facing 
induction. The 
trepidation felt by 
the male students 
as they crowded 
around the WSMC 
teletype machine in 
Lynn Wood Hall in 
December 1969 to 
see what priority 
their date of birth 
would have, must 
have been intensi- 
fied by the fact that 
about two weeks 
previously the Southern Accent 
published the news that former 
student Ronald Delong had been 
killed in Vietnam. They felt great 
relief in March 1973 when Richard 
Nixon withdrew the last American 
troops from Vietnam. But a greater 
danger than the Vietnam War 
remained for the student body: the 
American highway. During the 
1970s the Southern Accent reported 
the accident-caused deaths of at 
least seven current or recent 
students: six in automobiles and 
one in a private airplane. 18 

For some unmarried students 
the letters "SMC" seemed to stand 
for "Southern Matrimonial College." 
The Southern Accent in August 
1970 listed forty-four weddings that 

▼ Wilbert Schneider, president, 

. Karen Warren 


had taken place or were 
scheduled to take place 
between February and 
August of that year; a year 
later a similar list appeared 
under the headline, "Wed- 
dings for 248." 19 

As the college gradu- 
ated more and more stu- 
dents, a smaller percentage 
of these graduates were 
entering denominational 
employment. Whereas 
previous administrators had 
considered producing 
church workers to be the 
school's top priority, 
Schneider told the faculty 
that the denomination could 
no longer provide jobs for 
the majority of graduates 
from its colleges. In 1920 one out of every 14 
Seventh-day Adventists was a denominational 
employee, and even as late as 1950 the figure 
was one in 19. By 1970 it was only one in 31 and 
by 1980 one in 38. 20 

Although representing a smaller percent- 
age of the total student population than at some 
other Seventh-day Adventist colleges, blacks 
were a growing segment, increasing from about 
five in 1967-68 to 111 in 1980-81. SMC had 
several black teachers: Garland Dulan in 
behavioral science, Lorenzo Grant in religion, 
Karen Warren in nursing. The college had 
officially adopted a racially nondiscriminatory 
employment policy in 1969 and a policy for 
affirmative action in the employment of women 
and members of minority groups in 1973. By the 
late 1970s it was celebrating Black History 
Week. 21 

Wilbert Schneider 


wo men presided over Southern 
Missionary College during this dy- 
namic period — Wilbert Schneider 22 and 
Frank Knittel. Schneider, an Okla- 
homa-born alumnus of Southwestern 
Junior College and Union College with a Ph.D. in 
economics from the University of Southern 
California, came to the presidency after twenty- 
four years of denominational service: hospital 
accountant, food company treasurer, academy 
dean of students, college business manager, head 
of the business administration department or 
division of four colleges (including SMC), and 
academic dean of three colleges (including SMC 
in 1960-1962). The author of numerous scholarly 
articles and of a book on banking history, 
Schneider combined the strengths of the aca- 
demic researcher with those of a practical, level- 
headed businessman. 

T President meets president as Wilbert Schneider is 
greeted by Lyndon Johnson at the White House on 
National Prayer Day in 1967. 

A Century of Challenge 

Having appreciated Schneider as an 
academic dean, several of the faculty members — 
delighted that he had been chosen president — 
met him at the airport with a sign reading, 
"Welcome home." Although some were disap- 
pointed that the current dean had been by- 
passed, Schneider skillfully pulled the whole 
faculty together. Jerome Clark speaks of 
Schneider as "the man with the velvet glove: he 
had control of things in such a smooth way that 
people hardly knew they were being controlled." 
Others praise his good judgment, his consistency, 
his decisiveness, his willingness to listen to 
people, his diplomatic skill — a firm but non- 
arbitrary leadership style, and his devotion to 
hard work. 

Schneider was thankful for the college's 
conservative image and for the widespread, 
enthusiastic support among its constituents. 
Once, when Charles Fleming, Jr., had returned 
from traveling in the Southern Union bearing 
glowing reports of the feedback he had received, 
Schneider told him, "We can't be as good as they 
say we are, but it sure feels good." However, he 
cautioned the faculty, if the college didn't keep its 
image by upholding its standards, "We are pretty 
much through." Although careful to distinguish 
between school regulations and divine mandate, 
Schneider's personal commitment to a conserva- 
tive Adventist lifestyle is reflected in the devo- 
tional messages he presented in faculty 
meetings, such as the one in 1971 when he 
suggested that the concept "By beholding we 
become changed" was particularly applicable to 
television. He practiced what he preached. 
Among the members of his teaching and admin- 
istrative team who testify to his superlative 
spiritual qualities is his secretary, Jane Brown, 
who describes him as "a very godly man" with "a 
beautiful Christian character." 

Frank A. Knittel 


chneider's brilliant, dynamic, charis- 
matic academic dean and successor, 
Frank A. Knittel, 23 had started his 
education at the age of three, spend- 
ing his first four years of school in an 
experimental rapid-reading program. "At the 
end of the fourth grade," he says, "all of us 
children in the program were reading high school 
and college material." After graduating from 
Southwestern Junior College at the age of 
seventeen, he became an elementary-school 
teacher for a one-room school in Louisiana with 
twenty-one students; he was also head elder of 
the local Seventh-day Adventist church. While 
majoring in English and history at Union Col- 
lege, he edited both the school paper, the Clock 
Tower, and the annual, Golden Cords. At Union 

, Frank Knittel, president, 1971-1983. 

he also played on a Goodyear-sponsored school 
baseball team. 

Graduating from Union College in 1947, 
Knittel accepted a position teaching English at 
Enterprise Academy. He was drafted in 1951 
and reached the rank of first lieutenant before 
completing his two-year hitch. At the University 
of Colorado (Boulder) he earned both an M.A. 
and a Ph.D. in the field of English and worked as 
a graduate-assistant men's dean. While studying 
in Boulder, the twenty-eight-year-old Knittel met 
and married Helen Dean in 1956. From the time 
he left Boulder until he moved to Collegedale, he 
was on the faculty of Emmanuel Missionary 
College (later Andrews University), first as an 
English teacher and finally as vice-president for 
student affairs. While there he constructed his 
home with his own hands. 

Early in his presidency Knittel told a 
faculty colloquium that for Southern Missionary 

College to deserve its 
status as a Seventh- 
day Adventist institu- 
tion, it was imperative 
for each class to reflect 
Seventh-day Adventist 
ethics. "This philoso- 
phy should be clearly 
stated in the syllabus 
for each class in each 
discipline," he said. 
"Unless SMC main- 
tains this distinctive- 
ness, it has no 
justification for exist- 

Similarly in his 
first chapel as presi- 
dent, Knittel told the 
students that "SMC 


Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

exists for the purpose of furthering the aims and 
philosophy of the Seventh-day Adventist Church 
in and through the students." Warning them 
that any attempt to change the rules "by embar- 
rassing the school" through marches, demonstra- 
tions, or Southern Accent editorials was 
"ungodly," Knittel declared, "Anything written or 
said to embarrass or deface the school" was 
"going against God." 

Probably no other administrator in 
Southern's history has been simultaneously both 
so highly admired yet so highly controversial. 
Although agreeing with his admirers that he was 
intelligent and outgoing, an excellent teacher, 
and a gifted and sought-after public speaker, 
Knittel's detractors — especially among his 
administrators — resented what they considered 
to be an impulsive, arbitrary management style 
that was prone to disregard established channels 
of authority and undermine his administrators. 
Knittel's resurrection of the division system and 
his attempts to expand all classes to four semes- 
ter hours each were two especially unpopular 
policies. But perhaps even more galling was his 
alleged favoritism: granting certain privileges to 
personal friends that were denied to others. 

On the other hand, many Southern teach- 
ers have nothing but praise for Knittel's manage- 
ment style, speaking of him as approachable and 
decisive, praising the freedom of expression for 
faculty members as well as the vitality and 
intellectual stimulation that characterized the 
Knittel years when "the search for excellence" 
was not just a cliche. Says one professor, "Those 
were the golden years of the school, a time when 
Southern was making a serious bid to becoming 
the premier undergraduate college in the Ad- 
ventist system, a time of progressive enlighten- 
ment and of upgrading the faculty: bringing in 
people with a cosmopolitan view of things." 

A similar dichotomy marks faculty evalua- 

tions of his relations with the teachers. Some 
recall his sociability ("he didn't know any strang- 
ers"), his concern about the welfare of each 
faculty member, his ability to make people feel 
good about themselves. Yet others speak of 
widespread hostility against what they perceived 
as unfair treatment, suggest that he didn't do as 
well as his predecessors with keeping people 
informed, and describe his treatment of certain 
faculty members as insensitive. 

Student evaluations of Knittel were more 
consistent. They speak of his treating them with 
respect, showing a personal interest in them, and 
talking to them as a friend. They also speak of 
his accessibility, his "open door policy" for stu- 
dents. As dean he developed rapport with 
students by holding monthly press conferences 
and faculty-student encounter sessions called 
"Intercom." As president he held dormitory 
"feedback" forums. A more frequent type of 
encounter came in the classes he regularly 
taught. Appreciating the opportunity "to be with 
the students in a totally unadministrative 
capacity," Knittel fascinated students with his 
storehouse of knowledge and his dynamic presen- 
tations. He was, according to Bill Taylor, "prob- 
ably the most knowledgeable of our presidents." 
Says John Beckett, "Any time I read about J. H. 
Kellogg, Frank Knittel's image comes to my 
mind — all the way down to his white shoes." 

Knittel's replacement 
as academic dean was 
admissions and records 
director Cyril F.W. Futcher, 
a native of England, an 
alumnus of Newbold College, 
Emmanuel Missionary 
College, the University of 
^^L * London, and the University 

^k &<m of Western Australia with 

an M.Ed, and Ed.D. from the 

Cyril Futcher 

University of Maryland. Educationally he was a 
Renaissance man, having completed majors in 
religion, history, mathematics, and education 
and minors in physics and English. Before 
joining the faculty in 1962 he had taught at three 
other colleges. Futcher spent nine years as 
records director and a total of nine years as 
academic dean at Southern; he retired in 1978 
after seven years in that position. Four years 
later, he was again pressed into service for an 
additional two years, 1982-1984. Evonne 
Richards, his secretary, described him as "a boss 
who is non-pressurized, who plans ahead, and 
who is prompt to get things done." She admired 
his patience: "his ability to treat student #450 
the same as student #1." 24 

Futcher's 1978 
successor as academic dean 
was Wisconsin-born 
Lawrence Hanson, a 
mathematics graduate of 
Los Angelas State College 
with a master's from the 
University of California, 
Davis, and a Ph.D. in 
mathematics education 
from Florida State Univer- 
sity. Before coming to 
Southern, Hanson had taught at the University 
of Oregon, California State Polytechnic College, 
and Florida State University. 25 

Hanson had joined the mathematics 
faculty as department chairman in 1966, had 
been the first recipient of the Professor of the 
Year Award (1971), and had been largely respon- 
sible for the creation of the faculty senate in 
1972. He was a teacher who never said an 
impatient word, says Terry Martin, '76, adding, 
"He had a genuine concern that everyone suc- 
ceed." Loyally promoting Knittel's pet project, 
Hanson resurrected the widely resisted division 

Lawrence Hanson 


T Nursing students gain a wealth of practical 
training in affiliate hospitals. 

system. Although some teachers complained 
that it forced people to make decisions beyond 
their area of expertise, others thought changing 
from a department with perhaps only three 
• teachers to a larger division was beneficial. 
Some lasting results of this short-lived restruc- 
turing have been the mergers of the two nursing 
departments and that of the business depart- 
ment with the department of office administra- 
tion. 26 

The years of expanding enrollments during 
the Schneider and Knittel administrations were 
generally years of balanced budgets. For the 
students, however — thanks at least in part to the 
mega-inflation the United States experienced 
during the Johnson, Nixon, Ford, and Carter 
years — such balanced budgets required con- 
stantly increasing tuition. A day student taking 

A Century of Challenge 

a full load of 16 hours for two semesters paid 
$1,095 for tuition and fees in 1967-68; by the 
1981-82 school year this figure was nearly four 
times as high: $3,920. However, SMC main- 
tained its position as the union conference- 
sponsored Seventh-day Adventist college with 
the lowest or second lowest tuition in the United 
States. Dormitory rent increased more slowly, 
rising from $270 (for rooms in the newer build- 
ings) to $800. The amount the school budgeted 
for student aid, the wages paid for student labor, 
and the amount available for student loans also 
increased. The size of the scholarships granted 
to the top 5 percent of Southern Union academy 
graduating classes was doubled to $200 in 1969. 
In 1978 the college used two large gifts totalling 
$200,000 to establish an endowment fund, 
investing the $200,000, as well as additional 

contributed money, and using the income for 
scholarships. 27 

Tennessee's Largest 
Nursing School 

ddressing the faculty in 1976, Hanson 
I suggested that probably few colleges 
nnlthe size of SMC in the United States 
| ffij provided as many career opportuni- 
ty ties. Indeed, the most popular majors 
were those preparing their students for a specific 
career. Elementary education, theology, and 
business were at various times the second most 
popular major during the Schneider and Knittel 
administrations while nursing was consistently 
the major attracting the most students, with the 
total enrolled rising from 241 in 1967 to 488 in 

1975, then dropping slightly to 440 in 1979. In 
1973 the Southern Accent reported that SMC had 
Tennessee's largest nursing school. The college 
began limiting the program to 80 beginning 
nursing students per semester. Said Knittel in 

1976, "If we had taken all of the students who 
wanted to come into nursing during the last five 
years, we could have four or five hundred more 
students on our campus than we presently 
have." 28 

The most important development in 
nursing during this period was the integration of 
the associate's and bachelor's degree curricula 
into a one-track "ladder" program allowing 
students to take their state examinations at the 
end of two years and to continue attending 
college an additional two years to complete their 
bachelor of science requirements. Bringing this 
about required four years of feasibility studies, 
diplomatic negotiations between the two nursing 
departments, and upgrading the nursing 
faculty's academic preparation. Key participants 


Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

in this process were Knittel, Futcher, and 
nursing professor Lois E. Graham. 29 

SMC reorganized its associate degree 
program in 1970 when the Madison campus 
closed, citing the lack of a stable, qualified faculty 
on the Madison campus and deficiencies in the 
Madison hospital facilities. Students now took 
all four school-year semesters on the Collegedale 
campus. A summer practicum in various South- 
ern Union Seventh-day Adventist hospitals was 
substituted for the clinical experience at Madi- 
son. However, four years later, after Madison 
enlarged its facility and upgraded its staff, 
SMC — responding to a directive from the Gen- 
eral Conference Board of Higher Education 
requiring all SDA nursing programs to include 
laboratory experience in a Seventh-day Adventist 
hospital — again reorganized its program to 
include one semester at Madison. 30 

Five years after reopening the Madison 
campus, SMC closed it permanently. Reasons 
given included "the expense of maintaining two 
extension campuses" and — once again — the 
"limited clinical facilities at Madison Hospital." 
This time the clinical semester was transferred 
from Madison to Orlando. Consequently, nurs- 
ing students were spending a total of two semes- 
ters — one lower division and one upper 
division — at Florida Hospital, the denomination's 
largest. In addition, the Orlando campus offered 
the last two years of the B.S. program for people 
in the community. Terry Martin, who completed 
her non-ladder nursing program in December 
1976, says her junior year at Orlando was the 
greatest year in her single life. "I learned a lot 
because I didn't have a lot of outside distrac- 
tions," she says, adding, "We didn't worry much 
about dating." 31 

Despite cooperation from Memorial and 
Erlanger hospitals, the major obstacle to operat- 
ing the entire nursing program on the College- 

dale campus was the difficulty in arranging 
clinical experiences, especially after the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee at Chattanooga began offering 
nursing. Even before this, in 1971, the problem 
was serious enough for the board to set up a 
committee to study once again the possibility of 
opening a Seventh-day Adventist hospital in 
Collegedale. No Collegedale hospital material- 
ized, but nursing students, in cooperation with 
the Chattanooga Public Health Department, 
operated a free clinic in an impoverished section 
of Chattanooga during the early 1970s. 32 

Facing reaccreditation of its four-year 
degree by the National League for Nursing, the 
college worked to upgrade the entire nursing 
program. At least two nursing teachers earned 
doctorates in 1978. The pass rate of the associ- 
ate degree nursing students on the state board 
examinations in the late 1970s was far above the 
national average. In 1979 the National 
League granted the four-year program full, 
continuing, unlimited approval. Of the fifty 
nursing schools with a ladder program 
applying for League accreditation or 
reaccreditation "in the recent past," Knittel 
reported, only eleven had been approved. 33 

Other Popular Majors 

outhern's second most popular 
major in 1967 was elementary 
education. With 218 students, it 
was just 23 short of nursing. The 
college also began offering two 
related majors: early childhood education 
and a two-year curriculum in pre-school 
education. During most of the 1970s 
theology was the second most popular major 
with a steadily increasing enrollment trend. 
The college was extremely successful in 
placing its theology graduates, Futcher 

recalls. Non-ministerial religion majors also 
accounted for a substantial number of students. 34 

By the end of the decade the Division of 
Business and Office Administration was, next to 
nursing, attracting the most majors: 209. Most 
popular among the division's curricula were the 
business administration and accounting pro- 
grams. SMC was especially successful in produc- 
ing certified public accountants: approximately 
one-third of all Seventh-day Adventist CPAs in 
1973 were Southern alumni. 35 

Atlanta businessman E. A. Anderson 
added a new dimension to the accounting and 
business administration majors beginning with 
the 1971-72 school year by funding the E. A. 
Anderson Lecture Series. This series often 
second-semester lectures per school year featured 
business executives from near and far with 
expertise in business areas not covered in the 

▲ Elementary education was second in enrollment 
only to nursing during the late '60s. 


A Century of Challenge 

department's regular classes. Two hours of 
credit were given to students attending the 
lectures and taking quizzes over the talks. The 
general public was invited at no cost. Anderson's 
generosity also funded summer business work- 
shops for denominational administrators. 36 

Young Scientists 

I iology was SMC's favorite science, 
I # I consistently enrolling well over 100 
f ^ J majors throughout the 1970s and 
l^^jjBff peaking, according to the Southern 
Accent, at 180 in the fall of 1976, 
a semester when a total of 678 students were 
taking biology classes. 37 Other science depart- 
ments, although attracting fewer majors, contin- 
ued making contributions to their academic 

Proud of the quality of his department's 
students, physics pro- 
fessor Henry Kuhlman 
says, "We get good 
students coming in and 
we graduate good stu- 
dents, but we don't get 
many students because 
unless they've taken all 
the math and science 
offered in high school, 
they can't do physics in 
college." 38 

A scholarly 
article by physics major 
Joe Mashburn ap- 
peared in the April 

1976 issue of the Journal of the Tennessee 
Academy of Science. In 1978, as a freshman 
physics major, Young Huh discovered a new 
mathematical theorum. In 1971, the physics 
department presented to the American Physical 

▲ E. A. Anderson 

Society a paper reporting on the research of 
physics students Johannez Penz and David 
Wheeler and professors Hefferlin and Kuhlman. 
Kuhlman himself also discovered and published 
a new physics formula in 1976. The department 
and the student chapter of the American Insti- 
tute of Physics each received at least one re- 
search grant in the late 1960s, although these 
were much smaller than some of the grants from 
before the Vietnam War. 39 

Under the umbrella of the physics depart- 
ment, SMC began offering a computer science 
minor in 1970 and an associate degree in com- 
puter science in 1976. Another new area the 
department ventured into was religion. Devel- 
oped and taught by physics professor Ray 
Hefferlin, Issues in Physical Science and Religion 
could be taken for either physics or religion 
credit. 40 

The Arts 

And Humanities 

, he music department faculty was 
\ young and stable, with several teach- 
; ers in their thirties. However, the 
department was geographically frag- 
mented, with some music classes 
meeting in Miller Hall, some in the Old Taber- 
nacle, the choirs meeting in the nursing building, 
and organ lessons being given in the church. The 
department's musical organizations began to 
expand touring horizons. Besides giving numer- 
ous performances on campus, in the Southern 
Union, and in other parts of the United States, 
they began taking international tours. After the 
band toured in Canada and the Collegiate 
Chorale visited Jamaica, the orchestra, under the 
direction of Orlo Gilbert, went even farther from 
home with tours of the Far East and Australia. 
SMC was granted full membership in the Na- 

tional Association of Schools of Music in Novem- 
ber 1972. 41 

The college began offering an art major, 
rather than just a minor, in 1970. By the second 
semester of 1975-76, 38 students were registered 
as majors, while 12 were working toward a 
bachelor's degree in interior design — an empha- 
sis that had been moved from home economics to 
the art department. 42 

Declining interest generally in the humani- 
ties led the board in 1973 to drop the three-year- 
old French minor and in 1974 to reduce the 
modern languages teaching staff. In 1979, the 
faculty senate voted to reduce the course offer- 
ings in Spanish and German, making spending 
the sophomore year abroad the only way to 
complete a B.A. in German or Spanish. The 
modern languages department conducted Euro- 
pean tours in 1972 and 1978. 43 


Phe communication department offered 
three major emphases: communica- 
tion media (broadcasting), journalism, 
and speech. In 1976 the department 
added an associate degree in media 
technology. Students in the department per- 
formed plays for their 
fellow students, wrote a 
television script for 
WDEF-TV, created 
"Experience," a multi- 
media production, 
wrote and edited a com- 
munity newspaper, and 
participated in the op- 
erations of the 
department's radio 
station, WSMC-FM. In A There was at least one 
addition, for a time, dummy in the art 



Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

broadcasting students operated WCCR, a cam- 
pus "radio" station that operated for ninety min- 
utes a day through the dormitory intercoms. 44 

WSMC's broadcasting was the best known 
of the department's activities. "The community 
thinks of the institution as a radio station with a 
college in the basement," says former broadcast- 
ing director James Hannum, quoting president 
Knittel as saying, "The station is becoming the 
tail that wags the dog." A Chattanooga bank 
official told Knittel, "Don't ever let go of that 
radio station. It's worth a million dollars a year 
to you." The station was broadcasting sixteen 
hours a day in 1967 and seventeen hours a day in 
1969. Again in 1970 it added an extra hour. 45 

WSMC began broadcasting National Public 
Radio's in-depth news program, All Things 
Considered, in 1972. Some programs produced 
by the staff were broadcast nationally over NPR, 
including a thirty-minute 1971 Fourth of July 
special featuring Senator Hubert Humphrey, 
Astronaut Frank Borman, and former NBC 
television newscaster Chet Huntley conversing 
with alumnus and postgraduate student Ray 
Minner, '70, the program host. In 1976 All 
Things Considered broadcast a 2 1/2-minute 
feature on the congressional race produced by 
Mike Bradley, WSMC news director. It took 
Bradley more than twelve hours to prepare this 
feature. 46 

The station begin receiving a $7,500 
annual grant from the Corporation for Public 
Broadcasting in 1971. CPB's 1976 grant was 
$25,000. Other sources of funding included 
community and listener contributions, corporate 
underwriting, grants from the college, and — at 
least on one occasion — the showing of a benefit 
film {The Sound of Music). The college's contri- 
bution to the station's budget rose from $31,368 
in 1972-73 to $50,000 in 1975-76, by which time 

WSMC was counting on $25,000 from underwrit- 
ing and $17,640 in contributions in order to meet 
its expenses. The William Bingham Foundation 
made a $65,000 grant in the late 1960s. Most of 
the station employees were students. 47 

To streamline decision making, WSMC 
severed its connection with the communications 
department in 1979. In retrospect, Hannum 
believes this was a disadvantage for the depart- 
ment, causing it to lose momentum. 48 

Other Majors 

n the fall of 1975, 51 students regis- 
tered as health and physical education 
majors, 33 as home economics majors, 
and 65 as behavioral science majors. 
I Seven were pursuing the associate 
degree in food service and bakery management, 
and two were studying toward a one-year certifi- 
cate in food service. 49 

The industrial education department 
offered a bachelor of science in industrial arts, 
which enrolled 21 majors in the fall of 1975, an 
associate degree in industrial education with two 
different emphases at that time, and an associate 
degree in construction technology, one of the 
fastest-growing programs during the early 1970s, 
registering 23 students that fall. Construction 
technology students built nine or ten houses 
around Ooltewah. They also built the Tennessee 
apartment complex for married students. Sec- 
ond-year construction technology students were 
paid $2 an hour for their labor plus half of the 
profits from the sale of their project houses. 
Beginning in 1979 the department offered a one- 
year diploma in auto body. It also taught several 
classes in aviation. 50 

A Growing Library 

f the library is not a serious factor in 
your educational processes," Knittel 
told the students in his chapel talk of 
September 5, 1972, "your teachers are 
not fulfilling their teaching mission 
and your educational experience here will be a 
sloppy one." The college took a major leap in its 
library budget for new books between 1967-68, 
when it was $13,800, and 1968-69, when it was 
approximately $40,000. S1 

At about the same time the college library 
began changing its cataloging system from the 
Dewey Decimal system to Library of Congress 
cataloging. During the 1971-72 school year 
library workers reclassified 3,850 books from the 
old to the new cataloging system as well as 9,029 
new books. By the fall of 1972 the library was 
employing 45 students and had holdings of 
71,605 volumes. 52 

The following year the library grew by 70 
percent when SMC acquired 50,000 volumes 
from Dr. Vernon Thomas of Keene, Texas. 

▼ Industrial education majors included an associate 
degree in construction technology, below, and a 
diploma in auto body, right. 


A Century of Challenge 

Included in this acquisition were two special 
collections: one of Civil War books and docu- 
ments; the other, the John W. Fling, Jr., collec- 
tion of Abraham Lincoln books and memorabilia. 
These collections included photographs, cancelled 
checks, and handwritten letters as well as books 
and published documents. Six years later, 
Glenmore Carter, a member of the Committee of 
100, donated another handwritten letter: an 
eyewitness account of the fight between the 
Monitor and the Merrimac. These collections, 
now housed on the third floor of the McKee 
Library, have been a useful resource for student 
research. 53 

Academic Policies 

ntil 1970 SMC followed its traditional 
practice of starting school in mid- 
September, ending the first semester 
in late January and the second semes- 
ter in late May, and conducting 
summer school from mid-June until the first or 
second week of August. Summer school students 
were expected to attend classes five days a week, 
even on holidays. More than once their instruc- 
tors were reminded that classes were to be 
conducted on the Fourth of July. 54 

When planning for the 1970-71 academic 
year, the board accepted a new concept for the 
school calendar: starting early enough in the fall 
to finish the first semester before Christmas 
vacation. This meant that subsequent summer 
sessions could start at the beginning of June and 
conclude before the end of July. The summer 
session was split into two halves the following 
summer, with July 4 coming in between. From 
then on, the Fourth of July continued to be a 
vacation day even when it didn't fall between 
sessions. In 1977 the college began squeezing in 
an extra summer session in May. 55 

Changes in the school calendar were 
followed by adjustments in the grading system, 
modifications in the attendance policy, and a 
restructuring of the general education require- 
ments. Grades with pluses and minuses were 
initiated in 1973. This led to a modification of 
the rule that no grade less than a C would count 
on a major or minor: henceforth no grade less 
than a C- would count. 56 

The health service requested in September 
1976 that it be permitted to discontinue giving 
absence excuses; subsequently instructors had 
the responsibility of excusing absences for their 
classes. Immediately the absence rate dramati- 
cally increased. This put a particular hardship 
on the nursing division because each laboratory 
session was vital to the successful completion of 
the nursing program. Confronted with a deluge 
of requests for make-up laboratories, heavily 
overloading the department's clinical staff, the 
nursing faculty begged for a modification of the 
policy: the reinstatement, at least for their 
division, of the previous policy of requiring a 
written excuse from either a physician or the 
health service. This led to the creation of an 
absence committee to decide the validity of 
absence excuses. 57 

A new general education program went 

into effect with the 1975-76 school year which 
reduced the number of semester hours required 
for graduation from 128 to 124 (except in nurs- 
ing, which still required 128). The new program 
was more flexible but did not allow students to 
count toward their majors any courses taken for 
general education. 58 

Although the college made some of the 
policy changes recommended by the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Schools at the time of 
SMC's reaccreditation, these were primarily 
adjustments in structure and terminology rather 
than academic changes: modifying the composi- 
tion of the board, merging some related depart- 
ments, and setting up a committee to consider 
changing the school name. The college chose, 
however, to ignore some of the visiting 
committee's more substantial recommendations: 
offering fewer majors, reducing the religion 
component of the general education require- 
ments, and substituting generic religion courses 
for "the more professional theology courses" with 
their narrow Adventist orientation. On the other 
hand, the administration did take steps to deal 
with another of the visiting committee's academic 
concerns: grade inflation. 59 

Perhaps the reason SMC felt free to ignore 
some of the recommendations, especially those 
which might be seen as undermining the college's 
very reason for existence, was the general tone of 
the committee's report. As Knittel recalls, the 
chairman said, "Committee members are bit 
embarrassed because they feel the recommenda- 
tions they're going to make are really quite 
peripheral." One reason for their generally 
positive impression was the "incredibly high" 
combined morale of students, faculty, and 
administration. 60 

When the visiting team was on campus, 
Knittel was able to point with pride to the 
constantly improving level of faculty academic 


Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

preparation, anticipating that in the upcoming 
school year all but two departments would have 
at least one person with a doctorate. By the 
1975-76 school year more than half the faculty 
members outside the nursing department had a 
doctorate and only one teacher outside that 
department had less than a master's. 61 

Changing Student 

0y 1980 the Student Association consti- 
tution bore little resemblance to the 
document Ambrose Suhrie had helped 
to draw up during the Wright admin- 
istration. Throughout the 1970s it 
seemed that the SA was constantly amending its 
constitution or even adopting a new one. Finding 
the existing constitution "too long, unwieldy, and 
confusing," the SA senate appointed a committee 
to draw up a "short, workable constitution" for 
the "specific purpose of giving the SA more 
freedom of movement." Written by Elton Kerr, 
'71 and David Patterson, '70, the 1970 constitu- 
tion, departing from Suhrie's assumption that 
the Student Association would have governing 
power, "assumed that the SA existed not to 
govern but to offer services to the student." The 
size of the senate was reduced; its members were 
elected from geographical districts. This consti- 
tution was amended in 1972, changing the 
number of vice-presidents from one to three: 
executive, religious, and social. Two years later 
the number of vice-presidents was back down to 
one, and the only elected officials were the 
president, the vice-president, and the editors of 
the Southern Accent, Joker, and Southern 
Memories. Still another constitution was 
adopted in May 1976. 62 

Student apathy was responsible for some of 
these constitutional changes. Although there 

was generally healthy competition for the 
presidency, a large number of candidates for 
other offices were generally unopposed, and 
sometimes nobody at all chose to run for some 
particular official or senatorial position. Reduc- 
ing the number of elected positions made sense 
when so few people showed any interest in 
running for these positions and so few students 
seemed to care who was elected. In 1973 less 
than 30 percent of the students bothered to 
vote. 63 

One way of fighting apathy was the 
attempt to make the Student Association more 
relevant to students' lives by restoring the 
organization's voice in determining social and 
academic policies. Unhappy over faculty rejec- 
tion of SA proposals that women be permitted to 
wear pantsuits and that seniors be exempt from 
final examinations, the senate voted to ask 
Knittel "to appear before a general meeting of 
the student body" to explain the administration's 
position on these issues. The following year 
another student petition to excuse from final 
exams second-semester seniors earning at least a 
B was approved by the faculty senate, but more 
than 20 percent of the faculty asked that the 
measure be taken up by the faculty general 
assembly. After hearing arguments that such a 
policy would interfere with academic freedom, 
the faculty assembly vetoed that senate action. 
Noting that in European universities the final 
examination was often the only basis for a grade, 
mathematics professor Lawrence Hanson 
explained, "While I do not concur with this 
practice, I would hesitate to enact a policy which 
prohibits a teacher from following it or at least 
giving considerable weight to a final examina- 
tion, especially in upper division classes." 64 

That same year an SA committee investi- 
gated the relationship between prices and costs 
at the cafeteria, the Campus Kitchen, the Cam- 

pus Shop, and the Southern Mercantile; it 
reported that these services were not making 
excessive profits. The 1972-73 SA also held a 
student plebescite on whether the final examina- 
tions should be scheduled between 8:00 a.m. and 
5:45 p.m. rather than between 7:00 a.m. and 
4:45. Other issues of concern included better job 
placement for seniors and whether school should 
start earlier so that Thanksgiving vacation could 
be a full week long. 65 

Students were represented on faculty 
committees during both the Schneider and 
Knittel administrations. In the late 1960s they 
were appointed by the college president; in the 
late 1970s by the SA president. In 1969-70 
twenty-five students served on eight faculty 
commitees; by 1977-78 students were serving on 
sixteen faculty committees. 66 

Fund-raising continued to be an important 
SA activity: unsuccessfully attempting to raise 
$7,000 for the student lounge in 1969-70; putting 
on a benefit variety musical in the Tivoli Theater, 
the proceeds of which (about $1,000) went to the 
Siskin Foundation, a charity concerned with 
rehabilitating the handicapped; raising $8,120 in 
1979-80 for Cambodian refugees. In addition to 
soliciting, the SA made appropriations from its 
own funds: $1,000 in 1970-71 for the "Wayout," a 
youth ministry of the Voice of Prophecy; $8,500 
toward a shelter in the Student Park, completed 
in 1976; and $186 to help the orchestra meet 
expenses for its tour of the Orient. The SA also 
purchased lights for the tennis courts, lockers for 
the village students, sound systems for the 
dormitory chapels, typewriters for students to 
use in the library, and a game table, chairs, and 
other furniture for the Student Center. 67 

The SA sponsored talent shows, intramural 
and interscholastic College Bowl competitions, 
College Day activities, at least one dramatic 
production, and a community clean-up day. A 


new type of SA-sponsored program began in the 
spring of 1979: the Strawberry Festival, a three- 
screen slide review of the school year followed by 
strawberries and ice cream. 68 

As late as 1969 the SA was still holding 
annual off-campus picnics. The 1969 picnic, at 
the Hamilton National Bank's picnic grounds on 
Harrison Bay, included water skiing in addition 
to such traditional picnic activities as relay races 
and volleyball games. Lunch and supper were 
both served at the picnic area. After the students 
returned to the campus, they watched a motion 
picture in the cafeteria. The previous summer 
the SA had sponsored a weekend camping trip in 
Cherokee National Forest. In 1970 the SA 
planned a road rally. 69 

By 1978 over half of the Student Associa- 
tion's budget was being spent on publications. 
Frustrated with what it perceived as the paper's 
negative contribution to college public relations, 
the administration turned the Southern Accent 
into a publication for distribution on campus 
only. Discarding the name Eccos, the SA's stu- 
dent-identification directory once again began 
calling itself Joker in 1968. Other SA publica- 
tions included Legacy, an annual booklet of stu- 
dent-produced literature and art; a student tele- 

phone directory; and Southern Memories, the 
school yearbook. In 1978 Southern Memories in- 
cluded a seventeen-minute phonograph record 
featuring interviews of students and college ad- 
ministrators. 70 

The campus continued to host a multitude 
of clubs during the Schneider and Knittel admin- 
istrations. Chapters of at least two national 
honor societies were chartered: Phi Alpha Theta 
(history) and Alpha Mu Gamma (foreign lan- 
guages). The Southern Tai Kwon-Do Associa- 
tion, also known as the Karate Club, became 
official in 1972. Other new clubs included the 
Collegedale Home Economics Association, 
organized in 1977; and BYKOTA (Be Ye Kind 
One to Another), which, among other things, 
began sponsoring Black Culture and History 
Week in 1978. After several years of dormancy 
the local chapter of Music Educators National 
Conference revived in 1974. Among the other 
active organizations was a physical education 
club sponsoring such activities as canoeing and 
camping trips. 71 

A young married couples' club had its own 
Sabbath School class and planned such activities 
as a potluck dinner, a hot dog roast, a water 
skiing party, and a weekend campout. Upsilon 
Delta Phi, the men's club, sponsored road rallies 
and tournaments in such sports as table tennis, 
two-man basketball, paddleball, free-throw 
basketball, par 3 golf, and horseshoe pitching. 
Sigma Theta Chi, the women's club, raised 
money by placing vending machines stocked with 
candy and potato chips in the dormitory base- 
ment. It sponsored a banquet every other year. 72 

In 1972 the Missionary Volunteer Society, 
the American Temperance Society, and the 

Dr. Melvin Campbell, chemistry professor, throws out 
a College Bowl question to competing teams from 
SMC and Oakwood in 1970. 

A A variety of cars were driven in the Student 
Association-sponsored road rallies. This 73-mile 
rally was held in November 1970. 

Religious Liberty Club were integrated into the 
Student Association under the SA's religious 
vice-president. Although the specific organiza- 
tional structure might vary, the basic feature of 
having all the religiously oriented clubs under 
one umbrella organization continued. Even the 
name of the umbrella organization changed 
during the 1970s, with Missionary Volunteers 
giving way to Campus Ministries. Among other 
previously existing organizations incorporated 
into the new grouping was the Colporteur Club, 
renamed the Literature Evangelism Club. As 
the campus ministry program flourished and 
expanded, a variety of new clubs and ministries 
were organized: Leaves of Autumn, devoted to 

▲ Karate Club in 1977. 


Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

▲ Be Ye Kind One To Another (BYKOTA) Club in 1979. 

giving away Adventist literature; Story Hour, 
conducting programs for children; Bonny Oaks, 
providing big "brothers" and "sisters" for lonely 
children; Sunshine Bands; Prison Ministry; 
Adopt-A-Grandparent; Christian Growth Semi- 
nars; branch Sabbath Schools; New Testament 
Witnessing; Personal Prayer Ministry; Inner City 
Evangelism. The Collegedale American Temper- 
ance Society changed its name to Collegiate 
Adventists for Better Living (CABL) and broad- 
ened its focus from fighting substance abuse to 
healthful living in general, including nutrition 
and exercise. The organization conducted Five- 
Day Plans to Stop Smoking , cooking schools, and 
blood pressure testing, and sponsored such 
activities as hayrides, bicycle trips, and 
campouts. One of its chapel programs featured 
Paul Anderson, reportedly the world's strongest 
man. 73 



MC was still able to draw large 
crowds to its Saturday-night pro- 
grams. Over 2,200 people came to see 
the film Born Free during the 1967-68 
school year. A decade later all 
seats for Allen Funt's program "The Best of 
Candid Camera" were sold out within a four-hour 
period. Said Jack McClarty, Artist Adventure 
Series director, "We had planned on opening a 
ticket booth at the College Plaza, but it was all 
too apparent that we would not be able to go any 
farther than the Student Center." 74 

Both programs attracted large crowds, but 

▼ Clowning for CARE Campus Ministries. 

there was a difference. In the '60s and early '70s 
large attendance at Saturday night programs 
was the norm; by the end of the '70s such crowds 
were unlikely unless drawn by a famous person- 
ality. Ironically, the crowds on a typical Satur- 
day night were bigger when the student body 
was smaller. As the size of enrollment was 
approaching its peak, attendance began declin- 
ing. 75 With many students now having cars at 
their disposal, off-campus Saturday night enter- 
tainment presented strong competition to that 
on campus. Students increasingly sought their 
recreation independent of the college, but in so 
doing sacrificed a sense of community the school 
had always possessed. Collegedale was no longer 
the isolated, remote village it had once been. 
Some of the most popular attractions, 

especially before the mid-1970s, were motion 
pictures: Walt Disney films like Third Man on 
the Mountain and Gus, musicals like Fiddler on 
the Roof and The Sound of Music, and religious 
films like The Hiding Place and The Cross and 
the Switchblade. The history club was respon- 
sible for scheduling some of the films: The Diary 
of Anne Frank and To Kill a Mockingbird. 
Beginning in 1978 the Historical Classics Film 
Series was a regular feature on the special events 
calendar. The series opened with The Great 
Locomotive Chase. 16 

Some of the motion pictures were travel- 
ogues with live narration by guest lecturers: 
Clay Francisco with Brazil, Willis Butler with 
Holiday in Holland, Curt Matson with Switzer- 
land — in 4 Seasons, Jean-Michel Cousteau with 
Underwater Jungle Law. Especially popular 
were travel films with humorous narrations by 
two men who came to Collegedale repeatedly: 
Don Cooper and Stan Midgley. 77 

Music continued to be an important 
Saturday night entertainment, with classical 
instrumental soloists such as pianists Jon 
Robertson, Van Cliburn, and Paul Badura- 
Skoda, violinist Patricio Cobos, '66, trumpeter 
Raphael Mendez, and harpsichordist Igor Kipnis. 
Among the instrumental groups were the India- 
napolis Symphony Strings, the Lucktenberg Duo, 
pianists Ferrante and Teicher, the Romero guitar 
quartet, the Clebanoff Strings, and the United 
States Navy Band, which visited repeatedly. 
Vocal performances were given by the Sons of the 
Pioneers, the Roger Wagner Chorale and three 
boys' choirs: Vienna Choir Boys, Arizona Boys' 
Chorus, and California Boys' Choir. The Norman 
Luboff Choir sang at least twice. Other guest 
performers presented music and folk dances from 
such countries as Korea, Mexico, Chile, and 
Trinidad, as well as the Ozark and Appalachian 
mountains of the United States. 78 

Celebrities appearing at Collegedale on 
Saturday nights included advice columnist Ann 
Landers, pianist-comedian Victor Borge, and 
Roots author Alex Haley. Actor Alexander 
Scourby presented a program called Walt 
Whitman's America. 79 

But much of the entertainment still 
represented local talent: plays like You're a Good 
Man, Charlie Brown, faculty talent shows, and 
performances by SMC's musical organizations. 
The college band concerts were always well 
attended, at least until the late 1970s; for the 
Christmas band concerts the gymnasium was as 
packed as at commencement. The annual 
Christmas Tree Lighting in front of Wright Hall 
was another popular event. Other types of 
recreation included parties in faculty homes and 
get-togethers like the annual Fall Festival. Some 
Saturday nights were devoted to sporting events, 
including a performance by the Harlem Wizards 
and, beginning in 1970, the annual Rees Basket- 
ball Series. 80 

Not all of the programs were on Saturday 
night. The school began experimenting with 

▲ Paul Anderson, 370-pound Olympic champion, 
visiting in 1969, back presses 1,600 pounds with 
eight men sitting on a wooden table. 

Ballet Folklorico 
Mexicano, spon- 
sored by the 
Mexican govern- 
ment presented 


some on 

Sunday nights 

and even 


At least one of 

Stan Midgley's 


and several of the Kodak shows took place on 

school nights. 

And, of course, there were unoffical recre- 
ational activities: pranks like putting a card- 
board box on top of the flagpole and fads like 
wall-climbing. According to a Southern Accent, 
in 1977, "242 students suspended themselves 
across the six-foot hallway of Talge Hall." Six 
Thatcher Hall residents entered the competition 
for the 1973 Peach Bowl football queen but 
withdrew before the final elimination contest 
when they learned that — contrary to what they 
had been previously told — it would take place on 
Saturday. Another unofficial recreational 
activity ended tragically: a football accident left 
a freshman student paralyzed. 81 

Changing Fashion 

merican colleges and universities 
were, during the late '60s and early 
'70s, torn by protests, demonstrations, 
sit-ins, student seizures of campus 
buildings, violent confrontations, and 
even bombings. Although much of this agitation 


▲ The annual Christmas Tree Lighting. 

centered on such national issues as racism and 
the Vietnam War, other disturbances focused on 
the local campuses: curriculum revisions, the 
relationship between school policies and these 
national issues, and the right of students to use 
publicly words considered obscene. The bottom 
line was this: the demonstrators wanted to take 
charge, to dictate — or at least have a say in — the 
policies of both the federal government and the 
educational institution. 

SMC students were not immune from this 
desire. Although Collegedale escaped the disrup- 
tive turmoil of Berkeley, the seizures of Colum- 
bia, and the blood-letting of Kent State, SMC 
students politely but vociferously demanded the 
relaxation of some of the school rules. 

To prevent the types of demonstrations 
that had occurred on other campuses, Southern 
Missionary College adopted a seven-point 
program outlining the steps to be taken to 
terminate protest marches, sit-ins, building 
seizures, and other disruptions: "The college will 
not tolerate any group of students forcibly 

interrupting the normal activities of the college, 
nor will the college negotiate with any group . . . 
under conditions of duress." Any disruptive 
activity called for disciplinary action; failure to 

TAs many as 242 students at one time climbed the 
walls at Talge. 

disperse within ten minutes would bring immedi- 
ate and indefinite suspension. On the other 
hand, the seven-point program outlined policies 
to guarantee that channels of communication 
were open and that administrators would give a 
respectful hearing to student suggestions. 82 

Although some students complained that 
the school's standards were too low in some 
areas, many of the student suggestions had to do 
with relaxing the rules, especially the dress and 
grooming code. Special targets were the bans on 
blue jeans, women's pants, and men's beards. 
SMC had a long-standing rule against female 
students wearing slacks for general campus 
wear. A 1969 revision specified that, although 
banned from the classrooms, the cafeteria, and 
"general campus appointments," slacks were 
permissible in certain places, including picnics, 
outdoor recreation, and art laboratories. At a 
1970 meeting of Intercom, a faculty-student 
encounter session, senior "Bradley Hyde rather 
hesitantly introduced the issue of ladies wearing 
pantsuits in cold weather," reports the Southern 
Accent. Five other students "presented support- 
ing arguments including practicality, healthful- 
ness, and modesty." Knittel responded with the 
main arguments in favor of the status quo. The 
Southern Accent printed articles, editorials, and 
letters by students and even faculty members 
opposing the ban on pantsuits. 83 

Two faculty votes during the 1970-71 
school year yielded conflicting results: a Decem- 
ber 1970 poll of faculty members indicated by 43 
to 20 that, since "the present manner of dress of 
many of the girls is not modest," they would favor 
the legalization of pantsuits; but the following 
month, a proposition that pantsuits be allowed 
for general wear was defeated by a faculty vote of 
12 to 69. Dean of students Kenneth Spears later 
explained this paradox: the fear that "faded blue 
jeans and things of that nature" would appear on 


Refrigerators, Pantsuits 
Discussed at Lively Intercom 

By Lynnda Armstrong 

Intercom was the place to be at 
7:30 last Monday night. Rick 
Trvon raised the question of re- 
frigerators, which up tn 
have not be*' 



the : 

is mi 


they said, are attractive, practical 
and convenient. One 
the other is no* "*" 


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The el c\assro»- n report on the „ 

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s i Zt 

Women in Pants Is a Matter 
Off Individual Conscience 

By Robert Merchant 

A Special Feature 

The principle is 

"V stated in the Bible 

V .-a ; n Mrs F.llen 

veil. A man wearing a veil in 
Biblical times or in some countries 
today wou'.d be directly violating 
Deut 22:5. There is nothing wrong 
in wearing a veil in itsef, but it 

1 mannish suit with a man's hai 
cut, she could easily be mistak. 

for a man. 

Concerning modesty, there is 
doubt but that the fairly long, 
... :. »u„ ™™t modest apparel 1 

The subject of 
women wearing 
pantsuits to class 
headlines in the 
1970 and 1971 
Southern Accent. 

campus more frequently if any type of pants were 
legalized. Nearly three years later, while retain- 
ing the general ban, the faculty senate made an 
exception for the Student Center after 7 p.m. 84 

Despite all the agitation for legalizing 
pantsuits, signed student letters to Knittel 
regarding a 1974 proposal before the faculty 
senate to permit pantsuits and dress slacks were 
all in opposition. Explained the Southern Accent: 
"Since pantsuits are generally worn by women 
who are past their college days, and slacks and 
jeans are worn by college women, it was gener- 

ally felt that the 
decision was 
whether or not 
to allow Levi's 
as classroom 
attire." The 
proposal was 
defeated. 85 

The dike 
was breached in September 1976 when the 
faculty senate voted to approve a pantsuit 
uniform for nursing students. The dam broke 
the following July when the faculty granted 
blanket approval for women's pants, although it 
continued to ban blue jeans in classrooms, dining 
room, and library. 86 

Beards were another major subject of 
discussion and debate. The 1969 ban on beards 
survived attempts to legalize them in 1971, 1973, 
and 1974. Finally, in 1976 the faculty senate 
decided to permit "well-groomed" beards. 87 

A Century of Challenge 

Missionary College 

esistance to SMC's conservative dress 
code was not simply a matter of 
rejecting the college and its basic 
values. "The spirit was very positive," 
remembers Volker Henning, '77. 
"Students were glad to be here. There was a lot 
of school pride." 88 

In board and faculty meetings Knittel 
spoke highly of the students' "positive religious 
commitment." In reply to a retired couple's 
critical letter, Knittel wrote, "I wish you could see 
the missionary zeal of our students. You would 
thrill to talk with our student missionaries, our 
students in witness groups, or any one of the 
thirty or more young people who are here be- 
cause SMC students shared their [religious 
beliefs] with them." Addressing the faculty, 
Knittel said in 1972, "We have far more students 
now involved in witnessing than ever before." 
According to Des Cummings, Jr., campus chap- 
lain from 1971 to 1976, over four hundred 
students at a time were involved in witnessing 
programs. 89 

SMC students and a teacher established a 
Seventh-day Adventist congregation in Hixson, 
Tennessee, and launched the construction of the 
SDA church in Rock Spring, Georgia. Together 
with students from Bass Memorial Academy they 
gave hundreds of Bible studies, made thousands 
of visits, and distributed more than ten thousand 
pieces of literature in southern Alabama. They 
held several evangelistic campaigns in downtown 
Chattanooga as well as in such places as Nash- 
ville, Birchwood, and Hixson, Tennessee, and 
Calhoun and Clayton, Georgia. They produced a 
magazine called HOPE, "structured around the 


Chapter 8; The Pinnacle 

▲ Sabbath afternoon at the Gate: Jim Leker, Edie 
Stone, and Bob DuBose host the weekly story hour for 
nearby ghetto children. 

personal religious experiences of students, 
faculty, and others." They attempted to reach 
the counterculture's youth through a "coffee 
house" called The Gate, staffed with student 
volunteers. At least one conversion resulted from 
this controversial, short-lived project. Students 
also held religious services in the Chattanooga 
Work House, the Bradley County jail, and the 
Hamilton County jail; conducted a branch 
Sabbath School and day camp for East Brainerd 
children; and organized a traveling singing- 
witnessing group call The Way. Humanitarian 
projects included operating a big brother-big 
sister program for the homeless children of the 
Bonny Oaks School, and rebuilding a home that 
had been practically destroyed by fire. They also 
helped in the construction of a Seventh-day 
Adventist school in Murphy, North Carolina, and 
La Gunore Island, Haiti, as well as the Rock 
Spring, Georgia, church. They gave blood for 
Blood Assurance, donated and solicited more 
than $8,000 for Cambodian refugee relief, raised 
money for the March of Dimes and the United 
Way, and solicited funds for the denomination's 
Ingathering campaign, but the amount of money 

solicited on the Ingathering field day declined 
from $15,586 in 1968 to $8,388 in 1980. 90 

Southern Missionary even had missionar- 
ies in the traditional sense: student missionaries 
serving in foreign lands, something like an 
Adventist Peace Corps, taking a year off from 
their studies to work with people of different 
cultures. They taught in high schools, English 
language schools, and even a college, in India, 
Thailand, the Caroline Islands, Japan, Hong 
Kong, Korea, and Rwanda. They engaged in 
pastoral and evangelistic work in Honduras and 
Costa Rica and served as nurses in Haiti, Nicara- 
gua, and the Caroline Islands. Some worked in 
the refugee camps along the Thai-Cambodian 
border. Others worked in Zambia, Panama, 
Bolivia, Sarawak, and Puerto Rico. By the late 
1970s SMC was sending out as many as nineteen 
student missionaries a school year. 91 

The college also developed and operated its 
own mission station originally under the sponsor- 
ship of Professor Mel Campbell, on-campus 
director of student missions. It was probably the 
only American Seventh-day Adventist college to 
do so. "That fact permeated much that went on 
on campus," says Ed Lamb. "The students were 
proud that it was their college's project — unique 
to SMC," says Pam Harris, 75. "The entire 
student body fasted one day and gave the money 
saved to the mission." The project was originally 
a Student Association undertaking, initiated by 
1970-71 SA president Elton Kerr, '71, and SA 
pastor Ben Davis, who secured approval from the 
SA general assembly. The class of '71 donated 
$1,000, the alumni gave $3,000, and a benefit 
concert brought in $1,500. The following sum- 
mer the "Nicaragua Nine" — seven students and 
two faculty members — set out on a thirteen-day, 
4,000-mile journey in a jeep, pulling a supply- 
loaded truck, to work with the Miskito Indians. 
Making their temporary headquarters in Puerta 

Cabezas, they began looking for land. Someone 
suggested Cefat, seventy miles to the north. 
After driving the truck to Francia Sirpi, they 
hiked a jungle trail for 2 1/2 hours to Cefat before 
deciding against that location. Writes Lyleen 
Henderson, '73, "The myth of mission glamor 
faded as the group trudged back over the muddy 
jungle trail with flies buzzing around their 
sweating bodies." 92 

They obtained permission to build in the 
Tasba Raya area in the village of Francia Sirpi, 
and under the leadership of John Durichek, 
faculty on-site sponsor of the mission for its full 
eight years of operation, began to construct a 
dwelling for the staff. Meanwhile, they lived in a 
building owned by Instituto Agrario de Nicara- 
gua and began using their jeep as an ambulance 
to take patients to a hospital more than forty 
miles away; once they delivered a baby in the 
jeep. They also began conducting church ser- 
vices. 93 

That fall, Hurricane Edith propelled a 
"tidal wave of mud" that devastated northern 
Nicaragua, sending a flood of homeless refugees 
to Francia Sirpi, doubling the village's size in a 
week. Writes Ms. Henderson, 

The students now became the life-line to 
over nine hundred destitute people. They 
were responsible for trucking in the food, 
helping the sick, and putting up the tents 
that were sent in to house the people. 94 

At first the students called their mission 
Dawan Pleiska (Place of God), but in 1973 it was 
officially registered with the Nicaraguan govern- 
ment as the Seventh-day Adventist Mission of 
Tasba Raya-S.M.C. After modern languages 
professor Rudolf Aussner (the mission's adviser/ 
coordinator at that time) personally spoke with 
Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza, the 


The Nicaragua Mission 

Images from a dedicated effort. At right, the 
Nicaragua Nine (number nine is John Durichek): on 
the left, David E. Smith, Milford Crist, Christine 
Pulido and Judy Bentzinger; on the right, Don Pate, 
Prof. Genevieve McCormick, Gladstone Simmons and 
Raymond Wagner. 

Chapter 8: The Pinnacle 

▲ Aussner shakes hands with General Anastasio Somoza, president 
of Nicaragua. 

mission received permission to import supplies 
for the clinic duty-free. 95 

In 1975 the problem of providing insurance 
for the students at Francia Sirpi led the college 
board to declare the mission "an official exten- 
sion campus of Southern Missionary College." 
By 1977 $9,000 came from student and faculty 
donations, $4,500 from the college, $2,500 from 
the Student Association, and $2,500 from special 

gifts. That year the board 
also set in motion a three- 
year plan to provide a 
more stable staff by 
turning the facilities over 
to the Nicaragua Mission 
and Central America 
Union by 1980. 96 

Students conducted 
branch Sabbath Schools, 
evangelistic meetings, and 
operated four clinics in 
four different villages. 
They built a church 
seating 175 people. 
Eighteen people were 
baptized at Tasba Raya in 
December 1976. During 
its eight-year existence 
about seventy-five people 
joined the church because 
of the mission. In 1977 the govern- 
ment gave the mission about 250 
acres of land. The students hoped to 
develop an experimental farm and 
build a twelve-bed hospital and even 
a boarding academy on this acreage. 97 

With Somoza's government 
under attack by the leftist Sandinista 
revolutionaries, the Southern Accent 
reported in mid-September 1978 that 
the civil war had not affected the mission's work, 
that it was running smoothly, and that — being 
two hundred miles from the fighting — it was 
unlikely to "be endangered." But as the fighting 
drew closer to Tasba Raya, the five student 
missionaries and the rest of the Americans 
employed there "found it necessary to leave 
Nicaragua." The college turned the facilities over 
to the Nicaragua Mission and declined the 

▲ Aussner receives the title for the land to the mission house; the clinics 
at Francia Sirpi, St. Clara, Wisconsin, and Tasba Pain; and the 12-bed 
hospital, elementary school, academy, and experimental farm in Cefat. 

mission's request to continue sending student 
missionaries. 98 The following summer the 
Sandinistas were victorious. 

Dr. Floyd Greenleaf, Aussner's successor as 
adviser/coordinator, stated that in his opinion 
this student missionary program had markedly 
improved the living conditions, health habits, 
and even the economic situation of the Miskito 
Indians by providing transportation enabling the 
Miskitos to sell their produce in the city. 99 

After the withdrawal from Nicaragua, 
Southern Missionary College continued to send 
student missionaries to other parts of the world: 
it was still a missionary-minded college. But 
pressure was increasing to drop the middle word 
from the college name. 


Chapter Nine 

Retrenchment And Recovery 

1 980 - 1 992 

outhern's dizzying ascent up the 
enrollment ladder was transformed in 
the fall of 1981 into a six-year, 764- 
student (37 percent) plunge 
precipitating a financial crisis. The 
resulting retrenchment cut a number of staff and 
faculty positions and disrupted the careers of 
even tenured professors. But after this low point, 
enrollment began to inch steadily upward. 1 

Why the sudden plunge? And why the 
1987 turnaround? Was the falling enrollment 
simply a matter of demographics, a decline in 
the college-age population? Or was it because 
rank and file Seventh-day Adventists were — 
rightly or wrongly — losing confidence in 
Southern as an orthodox exponent of their 
denomination's historic teachings? Faculty 
members disagreed. Some described it as 
simply a demographic trend; others countered 
that the enrollment had fallen faster than the 
demographic projections. They could have 
added that the enrollment increases of the late 
1970s had defied demographic projections, as 
would those that would come in the late 
1980s. Was it simply coincidental that the 
enrollment crisis came at a time of theological 
controversy and that the upturn followed 
Southern's high-profile reassertion of its 
commitment to the old-time religion? 

One thing is for sure: the early 1980s 
were a troubled time for Southern. The 
theological controversies, involving the accusa- 
tions of extreme conservatives and also the 

misgivings of moderates about what some 
correctly or incorrectly perceived to be the 
arrogant attitude of certain religion professors 
toward denominational leadership and some of 
the church's long-cherished beliefs, were only 

one dimension of a complex interaction of 
forces. These forces included enrollment and 
financial problems and the deep-seated frus- 
tration of some faculty members with 
administration policies that had nothing 

Faculty cut 

U by Tom Hunter 

By the end of this school 
year at Southern Missionary 
College there will have been 
16 to 20 people dropped from 
faculty and staff employment. 
Half of this figure will come 
from the instructional area 
while the balance will affect 
other college personnel. 

The latest faculty members 
to receive notice of their 
dismissal are Dr. Robert Sage 
of the music department and 
.Malcolm Childers of the art 
department. Both Sage and 
Childers have contracts which 
have been interrupted and will 
receive some salary continua- 
tion as is afforded them by 

Eight to ten other instruc- 
Iprs will be let go before the 

:ar is over. Business 

inager Richard Reiner says 

by Tom Hunter 
these'people are under one- 
year contracts which simply 
won't be renewed. Their 
names could notbe released 
until the February board 
meeting at which time all 
contracts for the following 
year will have been negotiated 
and all affected personnel 

Reiner thinks those most 
recently notified of their 
termination are taking it in a 
good spirit but conceded that 
he had no way of being sure as 
unemployment is not a very 
pleasant experience. He also 
remarked that among other 
instructors there seem to be 
feelings of uneasiness and 
paranoia which are to be 
expected. Reiner feels the 
people to be notified should 
have some idea of where they 

stand through discussions 
with the various division chair- 

Teachers now being con- 
tracted to teach one or two 
classes will likely be dropped 
and their class load absorbed 
by the remaining personnel. 

Staff being released have 
been evaluated by the presi- 
dent and the academic dean, 
conclusions being based on 
several criteria such as con- 
tract status, class productivity 
and their proximity to retire- 

These cutbacks of staff are 
probably the last the school 
will have to face this year and 
barring any future drop in 
enrollment, Reiner feels the 
college will meet all budget 
requirements before the 
1982-83 school year begins. 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

Southern /lecent 

Volume 37, Number 6 

Southern Missionary College, Collegedale, Tennessee 

M,l..l.-t -V MM 

SMC tightens financial belt 

by Tom Hunter 

Campus-wide budget cuts 
are in order for Southern 
Missionary College following 
a decision reached by the 
College Board of Trustees. 
The Board decided that SMC 
needs to cut the budget by at 
least another $150,000 for this 

year. The decision was reach- 
ed following examination of 
the college's projected budget 
for this year. 

The projected budget put 
out last year was based on a 
group decision that enrollment 
would experience a decrease 

Business Manager Reiner explains proposed budget cuts. 

of about 30 students. This 
figure was drastically miscal- 
culated and the actual enroll- 
ment of over 250 students less 
than last year resulted in the 
loss of over a million dollars in 
revenue for the college. 

Several proposals for the 
reduction of spending are 
under scrutiny at this time, 
including the termination of 
some college staff. Business 
Manager Richard Reiner was 
hesitant to give specific areas 
of cut-backs as the proposals 
had yet to be discussed by an 
Internal Review committee. 

He did relate several facts 
of interest, however, which he 
feels will be incorporated into 
the future plans of the college. 
Ultimately, economizing can 
recover most of the loss. 

Though the academic pro- 
gram will remain stable at 
SMC, the smaller elective 
classes will be closely examin- 
ed and are prime candidates 
for the budget axe next year. 

There will also be this year 
the basic reductions of spend- 
ing in travel, and students will 
be sought to fill positions 
currently filled by adults in the 


Though basic services to the 
students will continue, a pos- 
sibility for savings was cited 
as being the elimination of 
student insurance coverage 
for next year. 

Reiner also feels that there 
is substantial room for savings 
in the area of energy conser- 
vation. Presently, TVA is con- 
ducting a survey on campus 
which could result in a 5 
per cent decrease in the utility 
expenses of the college. This 
will be a substantial amount as 
the utility bills have been 
running over $600,000 per 
year, and the proposed reduc- 
tions will amount to about 

Reiner feels these steps for 
future-as well as present- 
cut-backs are necessary as the 
budget problem is not going to 
go away. 

He speculated that there 
will be a low enrollment again 
next year, the main reasons 
being the reduction in federal 
aid to students, lower num- 
bers of academy seniors this 
year, a generally smaller num- 

ber of 18-year-olds in America 
and the ever present possi- 
bility of a military draft. These 
factors indicate that enroll- 
ments will remain stable or 
continue to drop until 1986. 

As a result of the financial 
state of the college, the Com- 
munications building, pre- 
sently under construction and 
slated for completion in 12 to 
18 months, will not likely be 
completed for two to three 
more years. 

The possibility for future 
tuition increases is present as 
Southern Missionary College 
presently has the lowest cost 
per credit hour of all Adventist 
institutions. If tuition were to 
go up, it would be comparable 
to other similar colleges. 

Outside of the dismissal of 
some staff members and over- 
all expense control, Reiner 
feels that a mere "shifting of 
resources" will be sufficient to 
get the college through the 
year. He also made it a special 
point that no student will lose 
his or her job. "Departments 
cannot cut staff to please us by 
cutting student labor," he 

whatever to do with either theology 
or demographics. The consequences 
were a change in the presidency 
and, for several years, a troubled 
faculty. 2 

Dropping The 

dded to this explosive 
■ combination was a heated 
I debate over the school's 
name, an issue which had 
[been simmering since the 
1960s, when every other North Ameri- 
can Adventist college with the word 
missionary in its name had discarded 
it. The SMC executive committee had 
recommended as early as 1968 that 
the college reconsider its name; the 
following year it voted to establish a 
board-faculty committee to submit a 
recommendation. The Southern 
Association accrediting inspection 
team in 1972 suggested that Southern 
Missionary College gave "an inaccu- 
rate connotation" which was "detri- 
mental to the school's image": an 
underdeveloped "Bible college" rather 
than a liberal arts institution of higher 
learning. In response the board 
created another committee to restudy 
the question. Rejecting all of that 
committee's suggestions (Southern 
Christian College, Adventist College of 
the South, Southern Adventist College, 
Christ College of the Arts, Principia 
College, Sherim College, Shiloh 
College, Lynn Wood College, Bates 
College, or Daniells College), the board 
voted not to change the name. 3 


▲ On campus, emotions ranged from dismay, frustration, and 
bitterness to simple relief when the name was finalized — for now. 

^ MlOUIO p™~— ■ 

possibility for MMM 
— . m /~* fc- -. *~ r* /3 the college * _ 

; me Things AlwaysChang^^ , l8 

na^ e 

JST«oA ^.TW^ 


'■Name Change 


>ue. . 
(her i 

What School is this? 

I came here in '82 

To a school whose name I thought I knew 

Then the Big Thing in '83 

Was renaming good old S.M.C. 

And now again in '84 

Petitions float around once more 

What I'm wondering is, in '85 

Will we be finished with this changing jive 

Let's pick a name and let it stay 

So when friends ask me to what school I go 

I won't have to hang my head and say. . . 

"I don't know." 

Brae* 1Mb 

Name change finalized 

by Tom Hunter K^J 

As of July 1, 1982 Southern 
Missionary College will be no 
more. In a meeting held 
Tuesday, February 16, the 
Board of Trustees voted 
unanimously to change the 
name of the institution to 
Southern College of Seventh- 
day Adventists. 

Of the 19 members present, 
all were in favor of the name 
chosen. Also present at the 
meeting were about SO 
members of the Committee of 
100 and 20 or so faculty 
members. In a general vote 
taken, all but two were 
opposed to the name chosen, 
but all were in favor of 

Reasons given for the name 
change included the problem 
some graduates were having 
on job searches with the word 
"missionary", as employers 
were concerned that students 
were trained for oversea 
mission work instead of recog- 
nizing SMC as the liberal arts 
college which it is. Another 
reason given by Dr. Wayne 
Thurber. College Public 

Relations Director, was that 
when trying to get various 
foundations to donate money 
to the school they are appre- 
hensive about the word 

The name was derived from a 
suggestion by a name change 
committee headed by Bryan 
Strayer — Southeastern 
College. The name was short- 
ened to Southern for a couple 
of reasons according to SMC 
President Frank Knittel; the 
first reason being that the 
union in which our college is 
situated includes more than, 
the southeast region of the 
country; the second being to 
avoid confusion with the new 
Southeastern Conference of 
Seventh-day Adventists. 

Dr. Knittel reported that he 
will fully support the name 
changed decision. when 
questioned about the student 
reaction to the change Knittle 
said, "There is always an 
initial adverse reaction when 
an institution changes its 
name," and cited a similar 
discordant attitude which 

existed when Emmanuel 
Missionary College changed 
its name to Andrews 
University in the past. 

When speaking about the 
apparent length of the name 
compared to the present one 
Knittel says, "I anticipate that 
an abbreviated version, 
Southern or Southern College, 
will become common vocab- 
ulary." Knittel also feels that 
the addition of "Seventh-day 
Adventists" to the end of the 
name is no major concern as 
several other church related 
institutions, hospitals, etc., 
have this addition to their 
names. Thurber reported that 
this name change idea has 
been anticipated for three or 
four years. 

The general reaction of the 
students is one of strong 
opposition. Soon after the 
name change was voted on, 
before the faculty-board 
banquet which followed the 
board meeting was over, more 
than 700 students had signed 
a petition that asked the board 
to reconsider its decision. 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

After the issue was revived at the Febru- 
ary 1977 board meeting, the Southern Accent 
noted the resentment toward the word mis- 
sionary in certain foreign countries and 
suggested that some graduates had encoun- 
tered hostility from foreign officials because of 
the name of the college from which they 
received their degrees. Citing recent polls, the 
article suggested that the most popular choice 
for a new name would be 
Southern Adventist College. 
Arguing for a name change, 
development director Dwight 
S. Wallack reported two 
experiences involving person- 
nel officials of American 
corporations who assumed 
that the word missionary in 
the college name meant that 
the school was "an 
unaccredited, small college 
operated by some small, 
unattached missionary 
society." He said that in 
some countries graduation 
from a missionary college 
was grounds for visa denial. 4 

But again the board 
voted not to change the 
school's name — this time 
because of the current fund- 
raising campaign for a fine 
arts complex. The adminis- 
trative council had suggested to the board 
that, "because of the immediate need to 
approach the people of Chattanooga, it would 
be unwise at this time to change. . . , as 
Southern Missionary College is the name by 
which we are well known in Chattanooga." 5 

In 1981 the board voted that at its 
February 1982 meeting it would finalize on a 

John Wagner, president, 1983-1985. 

new name. The executive committee consid- 
ered Southeastern University the best of those 
suggested, while public relations director 
Wayne Thurber — noting that the present 
name had presented problems for alumni 
applying to graduate schools and had been an 
impediment to the school's fund-raising 
efforts — suggested such names as Spalding 
Memorial College, Lynn Wood College, and 
Wright College. 6 

Of the six names sug- 
gested by Brian Strayer's 
name change committee, 7 
faculty and students alike 
preferred Southeastern 
College. Some teachers 
suggested merging the names 
Southern and Sutherland (for 
Madison College founder 
E. A. Sutherland) to form 
Southerland. 8 

Rejecting all these 
names, the board unani- 
mously voted to adopt the 
name Southern College of 
Seventh-day Adventists. 
Some faculty members 
objected that the board had 
"bypassed the opinions of 
both faculty and students" 
and that putting the 
denomination's name in the 
school's name would strike 
Southern from the list of schools Malaysians 
were permitted to attend. Pressured by the 
faculty, the board agreed to allow a New York 
marketing firm to study the matter. Although 
the study was still in process, and despite the 
fact that after the board had chosen the name, 
someone discovered that Orlando had an 
unaccredited Southern College, Southern 

College of Seventh-day Adventists became the 
school's official name on July 1, 1982. Many 
people were dissatisfied. 9 

The following February several students 
suggested to a Southern Accent reporter that 
they would prefer such names as Southern 
Adventist College (or University) or Southern 
Memorial College. Several months later a 
committee headed by Kentucky-Tennessee 
Conference president Clayton Farwell sug- 
gested Daniells College. The board asked this 
committee to further study that name as well 
as the one already chosen and also Southern 
Adventist College, consulting students, faculty, 
and constituents about their preferences. 
Meanwhile, the study by Tony Romeo Associ- 
ates suggested using "the name of a prominent 
Adventist leader." The executive committee 
voted in May 1984 to have Farwell's commit- 
tee hold an open hearing that fall in which 
students, teachers, and others could "give 
ideas on a name." When the hearings were 
over, the board in November accepted the 
committee's suggestion that the school retain 
the name Southern College of Seventh-day 
Adventists. "We sense a growing acceptance 
of the name," said President John Wagner. 10 

John Wagner 


( agner had become president in May 
1983, two years after the enrollment 
slide had begun. He came to Southern 
[from Union College, where he was 
'academic vice president. Previously 
he had served as a conference education superin- 
tendent and as a faculty member of four acad- 
emies, including Madison and Forest Lake, 
where he was principal. A graduate of Atlantic 


▲ Ribbon-cutting ceremony at Brock Hall. 

A Richard A. Brock 

A flurry of construction and destruction dramatically altered the north end of the 
campus during the early 1980s, including the construction of, clockwise from left, 
J. Mabel Wood Hall and Richard Brock Hall, and destruction of Jones Hall. 
Also, the Anton Heiller Memorial Organ was added to the Collegedale Church. 

Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

Union College, he held a master's from Andrews 
and an Ed.D. from the University of Florida. 11 
Despite the continuing enrollment decline and 
resulting faculty retrenchment, campus expan- 
sion continued during the early 1980s, partially 
financed by the Committee of 100 and by funds 
solicited for that purpose from the Chattanooga- 
area business community. Begun before the 
decline, J. Mabel Wood Hall (named for the 
college's late music teacher) was completed 
during the latter part of the Knittel administra- 
tion, and Richard Brock Hall (named for a 
corporation executive who played a major role in 
the fundraising campaign) was completed during 
Wagner's term of office. Another major project 
completed during the 1980s was the construction 
and installation in the Collegedale Church of the 
Anton Heiller Memorial organ, the largest 
tracker organ built in this century in North 
America. The renovation of Miller Hall to serve 
the religion department was undertaken by 
alumni from the junior college years; hence the 
building was, for a period of time, called So-Ju- 
Conion Hall, although the name Miller Hall was 
restored, at alumni request, in 1991. 12 

But the 1917 venerable Maude Jones 
Hall, beyond restoration, was demolished due 
to age and condition. More than one teacher 
watched misty-eyed as the oldest building on 
campus (other than the Doll House restored by 
the Alumni Association in 1981) was razed. 
The process took several days, recalls English 
professor Ann Clark, whose office had been 
located in the building just a few weeks 
earlier. "It was like watching someone being 
assaulted in a park." 13 

Praised by his board chairman for "his 
ability to communicate well and his inter- 
personal skills," Wagner is remembered as a 
warm, appreciative, conscientious, organized 

president with a deep, resonant voice, who 
"seemed to rally students around him." Fac- 
ulty members describe him as "the apex of 
graciousness, kindness, and love," a Christian 
gentleman who "handled criticism in a very 
Christlike manner." The 1985-86 school year 
had hardly begun when Union College invited 
Wagner to be its president the following year. 
Hoping that Wagner would decline the invita- 
tion, hundreds of Southern students and 
faculty members signed a giant card urging 
Wagner to stay. But he accepted the call to 
Union. 14 

Donald Sahly 
(1986- ) 

is successor, Donald Sahly, 15 was a 
Canadian with twenty-two years of 
teaching and administrative 
experience who came to Southern from 
Singapore, where he was associate 
education director of the Far Eastern Division. 

▲ After the inauguration, Dr. Sahly and then board 
chairman Al McClure, along with their wives, rode to 
the reception in an open carriage. 

▲ Donald Sahly, 
president, 1986- 

Prior to that he had 
been academic dean 
(and interim president) 
of Southeast Asia Union 
College in Singapore, 
administrator of the 
Adventist English 
School in Bangkok, 
assistant to the vice- 
president for develop- 
ment at Andrews 
University, and princi- 
pal of Seventh-day 
Adventist elementary 
schools in California 
and British Columbia. He received both his 
bachelor's and master's degrees from Andrews 
and his Ed.D. from the University of the Pacific. 

Although Sahly was Southern's twenty- 
second chief executive, he was the first to be 
formally inaugurated. More than forty col- 
leges and universities sent representatives to 
the ceremony, which was personally financed 
by some of the board members. Charles 
Fleming, Jr., chairman of the inauguration 
planning committee, described the occasion as 
an opportunity to "welcome Sahly, introduce 
him to the public, increase the college's visibil- 
ity, and reaffirm our commitment to Christian 
education." After listening to an address by 
Loma Linda University president Norman 
Woods, Southern's 115 faculty members 
rededicated themselves in commitment to the 
school's mission. 

As Sahly took up his duties at College- 
dale, he announced several goals for his 
administration: increasing enrollment, balanc- 
ing the budget, and encouraging student and 
teacher "commitment to the goals and philoso- 
phies of Adventist education." Describing 
himself as a "conservative person who makes 

William Allen 

changes," he consciously promoted Southern's 
image as "the most traditional of the Advent- 
ist colleges." Under his leadership, 
enrollments did rise, budgets were balanced, 
and Southern regained its 
reputation for commitment 
to historic Adventist 
principles and values. 

The vice president for 
academic affairs during 
Wagner's last two years 
and Sahly's first year at 
Southern, William Allen, 
had previously been for 
sixteen years a chemistry 
professor at Loma Linda 
University's Riverside campus. He held a 
Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Univer- 
sity of Maryland. 16 

Allen developed a new seven-division 
academic structure which merged eight of the 
previous ten divisions into four while adding a 
Division of Adult Studies and Special Pro- 
grams. Each of these four newly merged 
divisions contained between three and six 
departments, but the 
nursing, religion, and adult 
studies divisions had no 
separate departments. The 
board eliminated the 
academic divisions in 
1987. 17 

Allen's successor, 
Floyd Greenleaf, 18 was a 
1955 graduate of SMC. At 
the time of his vice presi- 
A Floyd Greenleaf dential ap p ointmen t he 

had been on Southern's history faculty for 
twenty-one of his thirty-two years as an 
educator. He had been chairman of both the 
history department and the Division of Arts 


and Letters. Greenleaf had an M.A. from 
George Peabody College for Teachers and a 
Ph.D. from the University of Tennessee. A 
well-traveled specialist in Latin America, he 
authored a two-volume history of the Seventh- 
day Adventist Church in Latin America and 
the Carribean. 

Balanced Budgets 

Bespite the enrollment decline, the 
Knittel, Wagner, and Sahly 
administrations managed to balance 
the budget every year but one 
throughout the 1980s and into the 
1990s. It was, however, a Herculean task 
involving streamlining operations for greater 
efficiency, anticipating enrollment drops when 
developing the budget, making adjustments in 
terms of actual registration totals, and the 
especially painful ordeal of reducing the size of 
the faculty and phasing out some academic 
programs. The Sahly administration went 
beyond balancing the budget by paying off over 
$4 million of the school's $5.3 million in long- 
term indebtedness. 19 

Helping to ease the pain of the budget 
crises was the generosity of the college's 
friends. During the Wagner administration 
Southern became the first Seventh-day Ad- 
ventist college to have a fully endowed chair, 
the Ruth McKee Chair for Entrepreneurship 
and Business Ethics. The appointment of 
veteran business professor Wayne VandeVere 
to this chair enabled the administration to 
hire an additional teacher for the business 
department. Two other endowed chairs were 
established in the 1980s: the Ellen G. White 
Memorial Chair of Religion and the Ray 
Hefferlin Chair of International Research 
(physics). Another type of endowment was the 

▲ Ruth McKee receives recognition from President 
Wagner for first Adventist endowed chair. 

$10 million Century II Scholarship Endow- 
ment fund suggested by board member 
Sanford Ulmer in 1983 and propelled forward 
by a $100,000 donation by Martha Ulmer. By 
November 1991 Southern had $10 million in 
endowment funds: $7.4 million for scholar- 
ships; $2.6 million for endowed chairs and 
other special purposes. In 1991 income from 
Century II endowment brought $375,000 for 
scholarships. 20 

Spurred on by a challenge grant from the 
Business Executives' Challenge to Alumni, 
Southern alumni gave unrestricted donations 
of $84,844 during 1981-82. This amount rose 
steadily to $177,399 in 1986-87. In addition, 
alumni contributed heavily to other funds, 
including Century II. In 1985-86 total dona- 
tions to Southern exceeded $2 million. The 
following year, Sahly reported, the college's 
benefactors were "more generous" than ever 
before. They donated $1.3 million during the 
summer alone. More than 18 percent of the 
school's $8.1 million 1987-88 budget came 
from private gifts and grants. 21 

The Southern Union Conference was 
another major source of operating funds. 
Beginning with the 1986-87 school year, the 
operating subsidies from the Southern Union 
came to more than $1 million yearly. By 1991 
they came to more than $1.4 million. The 
union conference contributed an additional 
$433,000 a year to capital improvements; this 
money was applied to the long-term debt 
incurred by the building projects dating from 
the Knittel years. 22 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

▲ The Century II Endowment Fund was launched at 
the 1984 Alumni Weekend with a huge check. 

With the help of generous friends, the ad- 
ministration was able not only to reduce the 
school's indebtedness from earlier construction 
but even to undertake several new projects. The 
Committee of 100 financed a $100,000 beautifi- 
cation of the college entrance and a restoration 
of Wright Hall's front pillars. The upper cam- 
pus promenade was another Committee of 100 
project. Other contributors helped fund a 
$650,000 refurbishing of Talge Hall. 23 

When the business and humanities 
divisions moved into Brock Hall, the oldest 
remaining major campus building, Lynn Wood 
Hall, seemed superfluous. Expensive to heat 
and maintain, it had badly deteriorated and 
was the most flammable of campus structures. 
The board decided in 1986 to raze it, but 
alumni balked. Those who had attended 
Southern during its junior college years were 
especially reluctant to see demolished the last 
surviving classroom building of that era. 
Memories of academy classes, college classes, 
church services, weddings, and funerals 
flooded their minds. "I remember during the 
wartime sugar rationing we would flock 
downstairs to the store when it was rumored 
that some candy had come in," one said. "I 
had my first deep spiritual experience in Lynn 
Wood Hall," said another. 24 

The board agreed to give the Alumni 
Association time to come up with a plan for 
renovating the building, a cost estimate, and a 
fund-raising strategy. At the May 1987 board 
meeting, restoration committee chairman Bill 
Taylor and an architect presented a plan; the 
board voted to undertake the project if by the 

first of August $250,000 in cash and $100,000 
in additional pledges had been raised. "No 
resources from the college are to go into this 
project," the action stated. By July 31 the 
terms were met, thanks largely to the Com- 
mittee of 100's $100,000 contribution for 
restoring the Lynn Wood Hall chapel. Soon 

Garden Of Prayer 

It's early morning. Shadowed by giant 
boulders; encircled by a profusion of color from 
dogwood, rhododendron, azaleas, roses, and 
golden pfitzers; and softly caressed by the 
gentle melodies of a familiar gospel tune, a 
young couple sits on a bench, Bibles open, 
heads bowed. A squirrel scampers up a tree, 
and a robin alights on the ground nearby. 
Ruth McKee would have been pleased. 

Envisioning such a scene at the time col- 
lege officials began discussing renovating 
Miller Hall for the religion department, Mrs. 
McKee donated the funds to build and main- 
tain the Garden of Prayer and the adjacent 
parking lot, presenting the garden as a memo- 
rial to her parents, Symon and Leota King. "I 
could think of nothing more appropriate than 
to have a little garden dedicated as a place of 
quiet retreat where teachers, students, and 
friends in the community might go for medita- 
tion and prayer, a place away from cold and 
austere buildings," she said. 

Grounds superintendent Charles R. Lacey 
designed and constructed this verdant refuge 
adjacent to Miller Hall. Complementing the 
white oaks and hickories already there, Lacey 
and his crew added hemlocks, abeles, Japa- 
nese maples, and various other plants, as well 
as an automatic sprinkler system, lights, 
sound equipment, six benches, and two large 

wooden plaques-one bearing the Ten Com- 
mandments, and the other featuring an inspi- 
rational message about the love of God from 
Ellen White's Steps to Christ. One of the 
trees, a dogwood transplanted from Grays- 
ville, was descended from a tree that had 
been part of the landscaping at Southern 
Training School. A cross-section of a five 
hundred-year-old redwood, with markers 
pointing to historical dates on its annual 
growth rings, contrasts the brevity of man 
and the timelessness of God. 

The Garden of Prayer was dedicated in 
October 1985. Since then, hardly a day has 
gone by, summer or winter, without at least 
one student stopping by this little sanctuary 
to meditate and pray. 132 

Garden of Prayer 


J. he Garden of Prayer was just one of 
many campus beautification projects under- 
taken during the '70s, '80s, and early '90s by 
Charles Lacey and his grounds department 
crew. On 
Lacey's office 
wall in the 
oldest campus 
old basket 
factory and later 
the broomshop- 
hang plaques 
and certificates 
honoring his 
contributions to 
both the Col- 
legedale campus 
and to the 

visitors come on 
the campus for 
the first time, their first impression of what 
we stand for is the grounds," says Jeanne 
Dickinson, '64, a former member of Lacey's 
supervisory team. "The grounds crews take a 
lot of pride in their work. It's very important 
to them to keep this campus looking immacu- 
late." Says Lacey, "I've been told by people in 
charge of recruiting that we're their best tool." 

Employing between twenty and forty-five 
students (down from about seventy in 1973), 
under five foremen assisted by the department 
secretary, Lacey's wife Gloria, the grounds 
department is responsible for planting, nurtur- 

Charles Lacey 

ing, and maintaining all the flowers, shrubs, 
trees, and grass on campus, beginning with 
the precisely timed seed planting for the 
greenhouse-grown bedding plants that are set 
out in due season to keep the campus colorful 
the year around. Other responsibilities 
include collecting the campus trash, operating 
the college recycling program, and even 
digging the graves at the Collegedale cem- 
etery. During the 1970s the department also 
operated a commercial greenhouse and truck 

Major projects of the 1990s included 
rebuilding Industrial Drive, lowering the hill 
Hall for greater 
safety, and 
expanding the 
parking facili- 
ties for Brock, 
Miller, and 
halls. During 
the 1980s one 
of the most 
projects for 
Lacey was what 
he calls the 
"Cross Country 
Walk," a side- 
walk that 
enables wheel- 
students to go 
from Wright 

Hall to Brock Hall, eliminating the need to 
use stairs or even elevators. 

The department's biggest campus trans- 
formation during the 1980s was the upper 
campus promenade, replacing a crumbling 
asphalt automobile road with a spacious, 
concrete, tree-lined pedestrian walkway 
complete with a man-made stream and water- 
fall, fish and lily ponds, benches, and an 
adjacent alcove with picnic tables. Initially 
funded by the Committee of 100 and designed 
by Lacey, the promenade was completed in 
1987 with special gifts from the McKees and 
from Denzil McNeilus, '81. 133 

▲ The Alcove was a beautification project undertaken in 1987 to enhance the upper 
campus promenade. The Alcove is located in front of Daniells Hall and features a man- 
made stream running through a bed of rocks, crossed by a wooden bridge. 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

the project was under way. By the time the 
renovation of the main floor was completed 
during the 1989-90 school year, the Alumni 
Association and the Committee of 100 had 
spent over $400,000. The alumni's Heritage 
Museum was then moved from J. Mabel Wood 
Hall to much more spacious quarters in the 
south end of Lynn Wood Hall. 25 

While nostalgic alumni were busy pre- 
serving one storehouse of memories, fire 
erased another. Shortly after noon on Sab- 
bath, November 4, 1989, flames caused by an 
electrical surge destroyed the north end of the 
old Tabernacle, the only other survivor of the 
main junior college campus. "About 60 to 70 
percent of the structure was gutted," noted the 
Chattanooga News-Free Press. Weakened by 
the damage, the rest of the structure, deemed 
unsafe, was demolished several weeks later. 26 

The science departments were occupying 
the oldest classroom buildings on campus 
other than Lynn Wood Hall. Deciding that it 
would cost more to renovate the outdated 
science facilities than to build a new science 
center, the board launched a $3.9 million 
fund-raising campaign. Originally designating 
a building site between Talge and Mabel Wood 
halls, the board responded to Student Associa- 
tion objections and other considerations by 
locating the three-story, 50,000-foot brick and 
concrete structure on the former site of the 
Tabernacle. By April 1991 $2.6 million had 
already been pledged. 27 

Student Expenses 

he relentless march of inflation was 
reflected in Southern's tuition charges. 
A full load of sixteen semester hours, 
costing $1,960 per semester in 1981- 
82, was $3,550 a decade later. 

▲ A Sabbath afternoon fire in 1989 destroyed the 
Tabernacle. Architect's drawing, at right, of the 
proposed science building. 

However, throughout the 1980s Southern was 
able to maintain its reputation of having the 
lowest tuition of any Seventh-day Adventist 
college in the United States except for Oakwood 
(which was subsidized by the General Confer- 
ence). 28 

In 1982 Larry Hanson suggested giving 
free tuition and room rent for new students 
attending the fourth summer session. That 
summer, of the 360 students who took advan- 
tage of the offer, 290 returned in the fall. Of 
the summer school freshmen who had been 
accepted for the fall, 86 percent actually 
attended, compared with 73 percent among all 
accepted freshmen. Considering the experi- 
ment successful, Southern continued the 
program throughout the '80s and into the '90s, 

eventually making one modification: $100 of 
the $250 summer school deposit would be 
applied to the fall tuition but forfeited if the 
student chose not to return. The remainder of 
the deposit was credited toward summer 
cafeteria charges. 29 

Another special tuition plan was adopted 
as of January 1985: college graduates could 
take courses at half the regular tuition rate. 
Exceptions were made for individual-oriented 


A Century of Challenge 

Welcome to Southern 
A great place to be 

. Free. . 




*\ i 

7 A\ 






f Vj^gC^J Ym 

A Advertisement for free summer session tuition. 

classes such as music lessons; in classes with 
limited enrollment preference was given to 
students paying full tuition. This plan was 
continued into the college's second century. A 
senior citizen discount plan was adopted in 
1989: people over sixty-five could, on a space- 
available basis, audit regular college courses 
free or take them for credit at one-fourth the 
regular rate. 30 

Student labor continued to be an impor- 
tant method of making education affordable. 
By 1987 the college was budgeting $1 million 
annually for student labor; in addition, many 
students had off-campus jobs. Besides, over 
75 percent of the students were receiving some 
type of grant, loan, or scholarship. Total 
financial aid in 1990-91 was $5,929,834. Still, 

Sahly told the faculty in 1987 that he thought 
the college could have four hundred more 
students "if we could meet the financial 
barrier." 31 

Students struggling to meet expenses 
were especially appreciative of the empathy, 
compassion, and "exceptional abilities" of 
Laurel Wells, student finance director from 
1968 to 1988. Noted for her outstanding 
expertise in helping students obtain financial 
aid and her patient exploration of all possible 
aid sources, Mrs. Wells was honored by a 
Southern Memories dedication in 1984, was 
named Business Associate of the Year by a 
local chapter of the American Business 
Women's Association in 1985, and was 
awarded a Southern College Distinguished 
Service Medallion in 1989. Between 1981 and 
1986 her office processed nearly $22 million in 
financial aid in addition to helping students 
locate work. "We guarantee every student a 
job," she said in 1981. 32 

A Leaner Faculty 

Balancing the budget in the years of 
declining enrollment demanded a 
reduction inthe size of the faculty. In 
terms of full-time equivalencies (as 
opposed to total head count), the 
faculty size dropped from 122 in 1980-81 to 83 in 
1987-88 before climbing to 101 in 1990-91. In 
terms of actual people, the 1988-89 full-time 
equivalency of 87 faculty members translates 
into 74 salaried faculty and 37 (part-time) 
contract teachers. The student-teacher ratio for 
the 1980s and early 1990s, again in terms of full- 
time equivalencies on both sides of the equation, 
fluctuated between a high of 13.85 in 1980-81 
and a low of 11.07 in 1983-84. The total number 
of full-time instructors (not administrators) with 

A Laurel Wells 

earned doctorates 
declined slightly 
between 1985 and 
1992, from 36 to 34, 
but this was balanced 
by an increase in the 
number of adminis- 
trators with earned 
doctorates. 33 

Balancing the 
budget resulted in a 
leaner faculty in 
another sense: 
rapidly escalating 

costs for faculty medical benefits led the 
administration to offer modest financial 
incentives for participation in a comprehensive 
wellness program. Under the guidance of 
Charles Knapp, M.D., scores of faculty and 
staff members reduced their risks for serious 
(and expensive) health threats such as heart 
attacks. In the process, a number of over- 
weight teachers lost pounds-over a thousand 
pounds in one year alone-and the college 
saved a substantial amount from its projected 
medical reimbursements. 34 

Nursing Regains 
The Lead 

fter a drop in the mid-1980s, nursing 
I regained its position as the 
department enrolling the most majors 
I in 1989 and retained that distinction 
into Southern's centennial year. It 
was the largest nursing school in the state of 
Tennessee and the largest nursing department of 
any Seventh-day Adventist college. 35 

But at the beginning of the 1980s the 
department's very survival was in jeopardy. 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

Despite student performance consistently 
above the national average on state board 
exams and despite a 1979 evaluation by the 
National League for Nursing that was, Knittel 
said, "so praiseworthy as almost to be embar- 
rassing," Tennessee had SMC on a 
"conditional approval" status from 1978 until 
January 1982. Although 20 percent was the 
national average failure rate, the state had 
arbitrarily decided that any school with more 
than a 15 percent failure rate was subject to 
closure. By instituting a mandatory remedial 
program for students doing poorly on a com- 
prehensive examination, the college was able 
to bring its failure rate down to 8 percent in 
the fall of 1981, thus qualifying for the resto- 
ration of its "full approval" status in 1982. 
The mean score for Southern's 75 candidates 
that year was 525; passing was 350. 36 

Southern nursing students continued to 
do well on state boards: throughout the 1980s 

▲ Nursing standards were strengthened even more under state 
accreditation pressures. 

and early 1990s the passing rate dropped 
below 88 percent only three times. All 82 
students who took the examination in July 
1991 passed on their first try. National 
League for Nursing accreditation for both the 
associate and bachelor's degree programs was 
renewed in 1985. 37 

Southern's nursing students had several 
advantages over many other nursing students: 
the ladder program gave them opportunity to 
increase their earning power while continuing 
their education; Southern was the only college 
whose students were certified in Advanced 
Cardiac Life Support before they received 
their bachelor's degree; and they had more 
than the usual amount of clinical experience. 
"I know of a hospital in the Chattanooga area 
that requests only SC graduates when it 
contacts nursing pools," said nursing division 
director Katie Lamb in 1986. "Even our two- 
year graduates have clinical experience in 
areas such as critical care that most A.S. 
students have not had." 38 

In order to obtain that clinical 
experience Southern's nursing 
students had to be early risers. "I 
remember waiting for the [motor 
pool] vans at 6:00 a.m. in 32°F 
weather to take us to the hospi- 
tal," says Georgia O'Brien, '87. 
Associate-degree students on the 
Collegedale campus spent their 
mornings two days a week in 
various Chattanooga-area hospi- 
tals and attended on-campus 
classes the other three days. In 
1986 the nursing division honored 
motor pool director William 
McKinney for providing the 
necessary transportation. "Van 
mileage for this purpose has often 

totaled over 2,000 miles per week," reported 
the Southern Tidings. 39 

Southern's nursing students in the 1980s 
and 1990s benefitted from the Florence Oliver 
Anderson Lectureship, a series of skill- 
oriented workshops funded by a substantial 
gift from Mrs. Anderson, a former nursing 
teacher at Washington Missionary College and 
at Washington Sanitarium and Hospital who 
had given up her nursing career to work with 
her husband, E. A. 
Anderson, sponsor of the 
business lectureship, in 
his business. She 
donated the money to 
support continuing 
education programs to 
promote excellence in 
nursing and remind 
nursing students of the 
importance of Adventist 
nursing. Dozens of 
Chattanooga-area nurses, seeking continuing 
education credit, and even some from other 
parts of the United States, joined Southern's 
students at these workshops, which featured 
expert guest lecturers from throughout the 
United States. Among the subjects considered 
were AIDS and hepatitis, pain management, 
eating disorders, motivating students through 
creative teaching, bioethics, legal issues in 
nursing, and the role of imagination in the 
healing process. Workshops typically started 
at 8:00 a.m. and lasted until 2:30. 40 

As of 1985, baccalaureate "nursing stu- 
dents were no longer required to spend one of 
their two final semesters at Orlando; the 
requirement that associate-degree nursing 
students spend time on the Orlando campus 
was eliminated in 1987. Meanwhile, the 
Orlando campus was in a state of flux. "Every 

William McKinney 


A Century of Challenge 

year or two something changed," says 
Marianne Wooley, Orlando librarian. Since 
the mid-1970s the Orlando branch had oper- 
ated its own self-contained, upper-division 
bachelor of science program for local graduate 
nurses. In 1983 the Florida State Board 
granted the college permission to operate a 
self-contained associate-degree program at 
Orlando. Classes for the new program began 
that fall with 32 students. In 1985 belief that 
a "glut" of nurses existed, disagreement 
between the college and Florida Hospital over 
the financial aspects of the cooperative ven- 
ture, and other problems, including one 
involving National League for Nursing accredi- 
tation, led the Southern College executive 
committee to decree a phase-out of the two- 
year nursing program at Orlando. No 
freshmen were accepted that year; but in 
1986, before the phase-out was completed, 
these problems were solved and the death 
sentence for the associate of science at Or- 
lando was revoked. But again the following 
year Southern's board ordered the program 
discontinued. Again came a last minute 
reprieve with a new agreement that gave 
Southern the responsibility of providing the 
academic program while Florida Hospital 
provided the funding. 41 

The Florida Hospital Foundation raised 
an endowment fund to pay 100 percent of the 
tuition of 40 first-year and 40 second-year 
students. Upper division students all at- 
tended on a part-time basis. If they were 
employees of Florida Hospital, they received 
free tuition as a benefit. By the end of the 
decade the Florida campus was strictly aca- 
demic, lacking any student organizations. As 
Southern entered its second century the 
situation at Orlando was changing again. A 
College of Health Sciences was being estab- 
lished to operate the two-year program that 

Southern had been operating, and Southern 
was scheduled to disassociate itself from the 
Orlando associate degree after a transition 
period. 42 

Meanwhile, in the Chattanooga area 
Southern operated another hospital-based 
nursing education program. A "consortium" 
offered evening classes at local hospitals for 
nurses working toward a bachelor of science 
degree. Forty-nine registered nurses partici- 
pated in the fall of 1989. The program was 
phased out a few years later 43 

Graduate nurses in the Chattanooga area 
wanting even more education could pursue a 
master's degree in nursing offered on campus 
by Andrews University. Two major emphases 
were available: nursing administration and 
nursing of adults. Loma Linda University 
also offered graduate studies in Collegedale 
leading to a Master of Public Health. 44 

Business And 

he business, office administration, and 
industrial education departments were 
yoked together in Bill Allen's 
reorganization scheme. Of these, 
business administration was the most 
popular, even surpassing nursing in the number 
of majors in 1988-89. When the division struc- 
ture disintegrated, business and office adminis- 
tration remained together as one department. 
By Southern's centennial year the department 
was offering bachelor of business administration 
degrees in accounting, management, marketing, 
and computer information systems; bachelor of 
science degrees in business administration, long- 
term health care administration, and office 
administration; and associate degrees in office 
administration and health information adminis- 

tration. Most popular was management, which 
enrolled 173 students in the fall of 1989. Total 
fall department enrollments in the late 1980s 
and early 1990s ranged from 295 to 351. 45 

One hundred fifty out of a total of about 
300 accounting graduates passed the CPA 
examination; half did so on their first try, 
including all 1987 and 1988 graduates who 
took the test. This compares to the Tennessee 
success rate of 7 percent in 1990. 46 

The long-term health care administration 
major, initiated in 1979 to help meet the 
pressing need for nursing-home and convales- 
cent-care administrators, was the only such 
program in the Seventh-day Adventist denomi- 
nation. It included "an intensive 400-hour 
internship." The college reported in 1985 that 
every long-term health care graduate desiring 
employment had been "placed in a good 
position within the health care industry." 
Enrollment in the program during the late 
1980s and early 1990s ranged from 29 to 40. 
Between 95 and 100 percent of the graduates 
passed the national board. 47 

The marketing major was instituted in 
the fall of 1989. Enrollment rose steadily 
from 10 to 38 before the end of Southern's 
first century. 48 

Business students continued to benefit 
from the E. A. Anderson Lecture Series. 
Guest speakers discussed such topics as stress 
management, the United States bond market, 
the defense budget process, time management, 
fraud detection, embezzlement, and effective 
communication. Noted lecturers included 
Robert Goralski, former NBC news correspon- 
dent; Donald L. Jernigan, president, 
Metroplex Hospital, Kileen, Texas; Lindley B. 
Richert, former Wall Street Journal columnist; 
and Lee Anderson, editor of the Chattanooga 
News-Free Press. 49 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

The fact that Southern was now graduat- 
ing more business administrators than 
ministers and teachers didn't mean that the 
college was abandoning its historic mission. 
Business department graduates served the 
denomination in such capacities as General 
Conference auditors, hospital administrators, 
and "Christian business people," according to 
department chairman Wayne VandeVere. 50 

The industrial education department 
underwent an almost total metamorphosis 
during the 1980s and 1990s. Under chairmen 
Drew Turlington and Wayne Janzen the 
department had achieved full collegiate status, 
offering a major in industrial education and 
teacher certification for those desiring it. But 
the same problem became evident as that 
which had doomed Madison College and was 
already affecting SC's home economics depart- 
ment: namely, shrinking student interest in 
courses of that type, despite valiant recruiting 
attempts in the constituent academies. Di- 
minished enrollment and increasingly 
demanding state requirements for teacher 
certification made the programs too costly to 
continue. Aviation courses, the associate of 
technology in construction, and the one-year 
trade competency diploma, with emphases in 
electrical wiring, plumbing, or refrigeration 
and air conditioning, were all dropped. Both 
the BS in industrial education and the AS in 
industrial technology were discontinued in 
1987, as were the teaching endorsements in 
drafting, industrial arts, metals, power me- 
chanics, and woods and construction. Only 
two of the department's programs survived the 
1980s: the industrial education minor (re- 
named technology) and the one-year diploma 
in auto body repair and refinishing, begun in 
1979. 51 

As it adapted to the realities of changing 

demand, the department was reorganized and 
renamed industrial technology. It experienced 
rebirth by creating a new AS program, com- 
puter-aided technology, in 1988; by 
introducing an associate degree in architec- 
tural studies in 1989; and by developing 
cooperative programs with Andrews Univer- 
sity leading to bachelor of technology degrees 
in graphic arts and technical plant services. 
In 1990 the architectural studies and com- 
puter application programs moved from the 
technology department to the computer science 

▲ Computer technology was taught as part of the 
graphic arts bachelor of technology offered in 
cooperation with Andrews University. 

department (renamed computer science and 
technology). 52 

Although religion no longer attracted as 
many majors as business, it was still a popu- 
lar choice, enrolling a steadily increasing 
number in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In 
the fall of Southern's centennial year, 115 stu- 
dents registered as religion majors. 53 

The religion department had been the 
subject of intense controversy during 
the 1980s, with serious accusations — many of 
which were clearly untrue — being leveled 

against the orthodoxy of some of its teachers. 
By the late 1980s, however, the department 
had decided that the best defense was to go on 
the offensive, using the newly established col- 
lege publication Adventist Perspectives as a 
vehicle for demonstrating the religion faculty's 
commitment to historic Adventist teachings. 
Members of Southern's religion faculty were 
also instrumental in establishing the Adven- 
tist Theological Society, an organization 
devoted to Adventist orthodoxy. The religion 
faculty of the late 1980s and early 1990s had, 
according to Ron Springett, "much more soli- 
darity" than it had in the early 1980s. "We 
don't all agree," he says, "but we read off the 
same page. We play the game by the same 
rules, but respect each other's right to dis- 
agree." 54 

Besides the creation of Adventist Perspec- 
tives and the endowed chair in religion, 
developments during the final decade of 
Southern's first century included the creation 
of the religion research library, the institution 
of the Robert H. Pierson Lectureship series, 
and the resurrection of the evangelism field 
school. Adventist Perspectives was originally 
funded by the same anonymous donor who 
endowed the Ellen G. White Chair in Religion. 
Its initial subject matter was the twenty-seven 
fundamental beliefs of the Seventh-day 
Adventist Church. Private contributions were 
also responsible for the religion research 
library. 65 

The Pierson Lectureship brought distin- 
guished Seventh-day Adventist theologians 
and church administrators to Collegedale for a 
weekend of meetings for Southern's religion 
majors. Among the early Pierson Lectureship 
speakers were former General Conference 
president Robert Pierson, retired Pacific Union 
College professor Leslie Hardinge, General 


A Century of Challenge 

Students in Field School 
Find Joy of the Harvest 

"I think this is the best part of my 

The poised young lady bubbles 
with enthusiasm. Terri Lynch is a 
religion major and the only woman 
among the 15 students enrolled in 
the summer's evangelism classes. 

"The part I enjoy the most is 
seeing the reaction on people's faces 
when they discover Bible truths that 
eluded them before," offers Evan 
Valencia 'To watch people change — 
if s just amazing." 

Full-scale evangelistic meetings 
began in Asheville, N.C., on July 19 
under the joint direction of South- 
ern's Department of Religion and the 
Southern Union Conference. Ashe- 
ville, 200 miles east of Collegedale, 
neighbors the Blue Ridge Parkway. 
The series ended August 25, just in 
time for participating students to 
return to campus for the fall semes- 
ter. At that point 42 had already 
been baptized. 

Six hours of academic credit in 
public and personal evangelism are 
offered each summer. Along with 
invaluable experience, students 
receive a scholarship from the 
Southern Union. All church ministry 
majors are expected to participate. 

"We had classes from 9 to 12, 
visited from 4 to 6, and then helped 

with the 7 o'clock meetings," reports 
Terri. "We worked with the pastors 
of eight local churches and visited 35 
or 40 interested people." 

Dr. Doug Bennett represented . 
Southern College in this segment of 
professional training. (He calls it a 
"living lab.") Evangelist was Ron 
Halvorsen, director of church growth 
and evangelism for the Southern 

"Ron's an excellent teacher and 
evangelist, so enthusiastic that it 
can't help but rub off on you," Terri 
says. His Christ-centered, Bible- 
based messages brought 600 to 650 
people out on average, some 130 of 
them not yet members of the 
Seventh-day Adventist Church. 

While all students explored frame- 
work topics such as evangelistic 
organization, advertising, and 
budgeting, each student took a 
particular role. 

Has the summer increased their 
personal interest in evangelism? 

"Absolutely. I think every church 
needs an evangelistic series every 
year," responds Evan. 

"If s therapeutic for the Adventist 
Church," declares Terri. "Sometimes 
we forget that people are out there 
wanting to find God's answers." fnt 

Reprinted from the Southern Columns Fall 19V0 

Conference public affairs and religious liberty 
director Bert B. Beach, and retired Ellen G. 
White Estate director Robert Olsen. Most of 
these speakers addressed the student body as 
a whole in an assembly the Thursday before 
their weekend series. 56 

Evangelism field schools had been held 
annually for the twenty years ending in 1984. 
In a typical month-long field school, Douglas 
Bennett conducted a two-hour class in the 
morning, students made house calls for four 
hours in the afternoon, and then students 
participated and observed in the evening 
meeting. But for a time in the 1980s, the 
program was discontinued. It was revived in 
1988, when participation became a require- 
ment for all church-ministry religion majors 
and the time involved was increased to two 
months. 57 

Field-school experience was considered to 
be one of the reasons for Southern's success in 
placing its ministerial students. In the early 
1980s Southern claimed the best ministerial 
placement record of any Seventh-day 
Adventist college. In the late '80s and early 
'90s college spokesmen stated, "Virtually all 
ministerial students are placed promptly after 
graduation." 58 

Andrews University offered courses 
toward the Master of Divinity and Doctor of 
Ministry degrees on the Collegedale campus. 59 

Mathematics And 
The Sciences 

Bill Allen's division organization 
combined the biology, chemistry, 
computer science, mathematics, and 
physics majors in the science division. 
By far the most popular of these 
departments was biology, which vied with 

religion in the late '80s and early '90s as the 
major enrolling the third largest number of 
students. The primary occupational objective of 
most biology majors was medicine. 60 

Southern's biology department joined 
with those of five other Seventh-day Adventist 
colleges in December 1985 to affiliate with the 
Rosario Beach marine biology station north of 
Seattle, Washington, operated by Walla Walla 
College. Introduction to Marine Biology, 
Marine Invertebrates, and Behavior of Marine 
Organisms were some of the classes taught at 
the forty-acre, forested coastal campus. An- 
other special opportunity for studying marine 
biology was the annual week-long, summer 
field laboratory excursion in the Bahamas 
under the direction of department chairman 
Stephen A. Nyirady. Among other biology 
classes scheduling expeditions were E. O. 
Grundset's ornithology class, with its annual 
trip to Florida, and Duane Houck's Smoky 
Mountains Flora class, taught every other 
summer, which included a camping trip of ten 
days to three weeks in the Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park. 61 

Beginning in 1987 allied health was 
listed as a department in the SC catalog. 
Previously, curricula preparing students for 
the allied health professions had been listed as 
interdepartmental programs. The college 
offered all but the senior year of a bachelor of 
science in medical technology and, beginning 
in 1987, offered associate degrees in allied 
health for students planning to take profes- 
sional courses in dental hygiene, occupational 
therapy, and physical therapy. Fall semester 
enrollment for each of these majors fluctuated 
between 68 and 74 during the last four years 
of Southern's first century. The most popular 
of these programs was pre-physical therapy, 
enrolling between 41 and 50 students. 62 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

▲ Marine biology field trip in the Bahamas. 

A F/ora dass in i/ie Smoky Mountains. 

Another new associate degree program in 
1987, engineering studies, enrolled 30 stu- 
dents in 1988, although it was down to 18 in 
1991. The various computer science and 
technology programs enrolled between 33 and 
40 students in the late '80s and early '90s. 
Chemistry, mathematics, and physics enroll- 
ments each ranged between 11 and 21 during 
this period. 63 

Despite its relatively small size, 

Southern's physics department was making an 
impact in the world of science. Listed in the 
International Directory of Professional Astron- 
omical Institutions, the Directory of Atomic, 
Molecular, and Optical Scientists, and the 
Directory of Research in Physics and Astron- 
omy at Undergraduate Colleges and 
Universities, the department brought to the 
campus such distinguished guests as Dr. 
Arseny Berezin, a thermonuclear physicist 
with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. By 1984 
more than thirty of Southern's physics stu- 
dents had had articles published in 
professional journals. In January 1991 Robert 
Marsa, a senior math and physics major, 
presented a paper at a joint meeting of the 
American Association of Physics Teachers and 
the American Physical Society. In the early 
1990s six of Southern's physics graduates were 
teaching in Seventh-day Adventist colleges in 
the United States and twenty-four had taught 
or were teaching science in secondary 
schools. 64 

Human Development 

he Division of Human Development 
included the education; behavioral 
science; home economics; library 
science; and health, physical 
education, and recreation depart- 
ments. Two of these departments were phased 
out in the 1980s. 66 

Elementary education was the most 
popular of these majors, enrolling between 76 
and 103 students during the last four years of 
Southern's first century. However, as the 
century ended, the college was restructuring 
the program due to Tennessee certification 
regulations requiring new teachers to have 
completed an academic major other than 

education. The department developed special 
curricula in psychology and in social science 
for prospective elementary teachers. Between 
70 and 101 students a year were preparing for 
secondary teaching between 1988 and 1992. 66 

Southern's education department had an 
excellent record in placing its graduates and 
in preparing them for the National Teaching 
Examination. All but three of the twenty-five . 
1982 elementary graduates and all but five of 
that year's eighteen secondary education 
graduates found teaching jobs immediately; 
some of the others had chosen to go on to 
graduate school. These statistics seem to be 
typical. NTE results between 1986 and 1990 
ranged from about 90 percent passing to a full 
100 percent passing. Education graduates 
could pursue a master's at Collegedale 
through a La Sierra University extension. 67 

Psychology was transferred from the 
behavioral science department to one renamed 
"education and psychology" in 1987. Between 
53 and 62 students annually registered as 
psychology majors during the final 
quadrennium ending in 1992. 68 

After losing the psychology major, the 
behavioral science department was left with a 
bachelor of science in behavioral science and a 
bachelor of social work. Behavioral science 
programs were enrolling between 45 and 62 
majors each fall. 69 

Each year at Thanksgiving time depart- 
ment chairman Ed Lamb took a group of 
sociology students to New York to study ethnic 
groups, social problems, urban change, and 
social agencies. On the agenda each time was 
helping the Salvation Army feed the homeless 
and hungry. In 1984 the New York Salvation 
Army gave Lamb one of its three volunteer 
awards for the hundreds of hours of Southern 
student participation. 70 


A Century of Challenge 

The two departments phased out were 
library science, accepting no more students for 
its minor after August 1986, and home eco- 
nomics, axed in 1989, just three years after it 
had begun offering a new major in food service 
administration. College officials blamed 
declining interest in the field. 71 

The health, physical education, and 
recreation department provided for the needs 
of the entire student body with its intramural 
program, in which more than one-third of the 
students participated, as well as by sponsoring 
such special fitness events as the annual 
triathlon, initiated in 1984. Its gymnastics 
team, the Gym-Masters, generated publicity 
for the college by putting on exhibitions in 
area schools, hosting academy gymnastics 
workshops, and appearing at half time in 

,i" ■;' \;, ':... ••■ : . , . -\'-'XttM 

%«pt <■ 9 

81 asat. ^1 

""■<*■ *! 



2 ■" 1 

A Ed Lamb and his sociology students help to feed 
the homeless in New York at Thanksgiving. 

professional sporting events. 72 

The department offered majors in health, 
physical education, and recreation; health 
science (phased out beginning in 1990); and 

corporate/community/wellness management 
(initiated in 1990). The number of students 
enrolled as majors in the department rose 
steadily in the latter '80s and early '90s, from 
42 to 61. 73 


he departments of art, communication, 
English, history, modern languages, 
and music were grouped together in 
the Allen reorganization as the 
Division of Humanities. The art 
department, although enrolling few majors, 
enriched the lives of a cross section of the student 
body through classes, exhibits, and tours. In 
addition to paintings by its own students, it 
sponsored exhibitions of paintings by Jorgen 
Henriksen, associate professor at the Massachu- 
setts College of Art; Covenant College professor 
Ed Kellogg; Daud Ahkriev, a Russian artist; and 
Melissa Hefferlin. Other exhibitions in the Brock 
Hall art gallery have included photographs by H. 
Wayne Eastep, 70, a commercial photographer; a 
collection of department-owned, wood block and 
silk-screen prints, etchings, and engravings by 
artists ranging from Salvador Dali to former 
Southern College teacher Malcolm Childers; and 
a valuable collection of World War I posters 
donated by alumnus Ron Numbers. Every year 
the art appreciation class visited New York 
museums during Thanksgiving vacation; the 
department also participated in overseas tours. 
Declining enrollment led the administration to 
discontinue the art major. No new students were 
admitted into the program after the 1988-89 
school year; however, the department continued 
to offer a minor. 74 

Another department which enrolled few 
majors but provided a service for all bachelor 
of arts students was modern languages. In 

cooperation with 
Adventist Colleges 
Abroad, Southern 
College offered bach- 
elor of arts degrees in 
French, German, 
Spanish, and interna- 
tional studies, but 
none of these majors 
attracted more than 
four students at any 
one time during the 
last several years of 
Southern's first 
century. "More than 
before, it has become 
a service department," 
says Helmut Ott, 
department chairman. 
Both Adventist 
Colleges Abroad and 
special summer 
European tours gave 
language students 
opportunities to learn 
modern languages in 
their native setting. 75 

Enrolling 28 
majors per year in the 
late 1980s, 76 no 
department did more 
to enrich the cultural 
experience of 
▲ Gym-Masters in 1987. Southern > s stu dents 

than did music. Not only did the band, 
orchestra, and various choirs and musical 
ensembles-as well as music major soloists- 
educate, entertain, and edify in a kaleidoscope 
of assemblies, recitals, vesper programs, 
worship services, and Saturday night pro- 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

grams, but students performing with some of 
these organizations had priceless opportunities 
for both regional and international travel in a 
role that set them apart from ordinary tour- 

The Southern College Symphony Orches- 
tra performed in Hawaii, Australia, New 
Zealand, and Fiji (1981); the Soviet Union and 
Romania (1983); the Far East (1986); Greece 
(1989); and Spain (1991). Die Meistersinger 
male chorus visited the Soviet Union twice 
(1982 and 1987); it also traveled to Romania 
(1982), Poland (1987), and Canada (1991). 
Another group that visited the Soviet Union 

The orchestra performed in Greece in 1989. 

was the Southern Singers. The Southern 
College Concert Band toured Puerto Rico, 
Jamaica, Haiti (1984), and Mexico (1991), and 
visited Canada twice. A highlight of the 1985 
Chamber Singers' (forerunner of Scola 
Cantorum) tour of Yugoslavia, Italy, and 
Austria, was singing in St. Mark's Cathedral 
in Venice. Most of these groups also per- 
formed in various parts of the southeastern 
United States; both the band and the orches- 
tra appeared at the Knoxville World's Fair in 
1982; and several performances were tele- 
vised. The orchestra performed in Carnegie 

Hall in 1989. 77 

Music department productions presented 
in Collegedale have included the Messiah 
(1980, 1989), Elijah (1981), The Sound of 
Music (1982), My Fair Lady (1984), Annie 
(1988), and The King and I (1990). A 1986 
gift of $100,000 endowed the Eugene 
A. Anderson Organ Concert series, 
bringing six noted organists per year 
to play on the Anton Heiller Memo- 
rial Organ. 78 

English was another department 
providing services for the entire 
college which far exceeded its work 
in training about 30 majors per year. 
With virtually every student required 
to take College Composition 101 and 
102, and with class sections limited 
to 25, it was not uncommon for the 
department to offer a dozen or more 
sections of composition classes each 
semester. In addition, English 
teachers offered guidance to students 
preparing writing projects for other 
classes. In 1990 the department 
hosted the southeastern regional 
meeting of the Conference on Christi- 
anity and Literature. 79 

The history major became 
increasingly popular in the latter 
years of Southern's first century, enrolling 52 
students in the fall of 1990. To meet the 
needs of the approximately 40 students per 
year whose career objective was law, the 
department initiated an interdisciplinary 
political economy minor in 1990. Like most of 
the other departments in the humanities 
division, history provided opportunities for 
international travel, especially with the 
European Study Tour, conducted at least 
every other year since 1982 by history profes- 

sor (and, since 1988, vice president for student 
services) William Wohlers. During the sum- 
mer of 1987 another history professor, 
Benjamin McArthur, led a two-week U. S. 
Constitution Study Tour focusing on Philadel- 
phia but ranging from Boston to Washington. 80 

The communication 
department — the depart- 
ment in the humanities 
division enrolling the 
most majors in the late 
1980s and early 1990s 
(67 in 1988) — experienced 
a major transformation in 
both structure and 
curricula. In the early 
1980s the department 
offered only one baccalau- 
reate major, 
communication (B.A.), 
with three variations: a 
radio-TV-film emphasis, a 
journalism emphasis, and 
a speech emphasis. It 
also offered an associate 
degree in media technol- 
ogy. In 1984 the speech 
emphasis was dropped; 
the following year a 
bachelor of science in 
public relations was added. Under the chair- 
manship of Bill Oliphant the department's 
name was changed to journalism, the media 
technology degree was dropped, public rela- 
tions became a bachelor of arts program, and 
the communication major became a major in 
journalism (with either a news editorial or a 
broadcasting emphasis). Speech courses were 
transferred to the English department. The 
department developed internship programs 
with several local television stations, and two 

▲ The symphony orchestra also 
performed at Carnegie Hall in 
May 1989. 


A Century of Challenge 

professors, together with a local journalist, 
launched the East Hamilton County Journal 
in 1989 as a laboratory for student reporters. 
Meanwhile, journalism students continued to 
write some of the Southern Accent stories. 80 

Although WSMC had severed its formal 
ties with the communication department, it 
continued to provide broadcasting students 
with practical experience in radio station 
operation. Beyond that, the station served the 
college as a public relations medium. A 1987 
survey suggested that the vast majority of one 
hundred Chattanooga community leaders 
perceived WSMC as an asset to the Southern 
College image. Describing the station's 
broadcasting as "the most visible thing South- 
ern does," they said that by providing a 
valuable service to the community it caused 
people to "think well of Southern College." 
Said one respondent, "WSMC helps Southern's 
image as being an intellectual center, as well 
as being a religious center." By 1990 WSMC 
had become the second most-listened-to 
station for morning news in the Chattanooga 
area. Overall, it rated fourth-up from eighth 
in 1979. According to WSMC development 
director Jeff Lemon, the station had between 
• 10,000 and 15,000 listeners during any fifteen- 
minute segment of its news programs. In 
1991 it was the only Tennessee radio station 
to be a finalist in the competition among both 
commercial and noncommercial radio stations 
for the Crystal Award for community service 
from the National Association of Broadcasters. 
Program director Dan Landrum described 
WSMC's average listener as "a business owner 
or a person in management, in the middle- 
income bracket." 82 

Community appreciation for WSMC 
translated into ever-increasing financial 

support from listeners during the station's 
annual pledge drive, steadily rising from 
$13,000 in 1979 to $66,450 in 1991. Other 
sources of support, aside from the college 
itself, included program underwriters and the 
Corporation for Public Broadcasting. 83 

In October 1981 the station — now broad- 
casting at 100,000 watts — changed 
frequencies, moving from 90.7 to 90.5 on the 
FM dial to avoid signal clashes with an 
Atlanta station. It adopted a format of classi- 
cal music and National Public Radio news in 
1985. Later that year the studios were moved 
to the newly completed Brock Hall. In 1986 it 
began broadcasting twenty-four hours a day. 84 


he Allen reorganization created one 
totally new division: Adult Studies 
and Special Programs. When the 
enrollment drop eliminated the need 
I for the Thatcher Hall annex as a 
dormitory, this facility was taken over by the 
new division, rechristened the Conference 
Center, and used to house off-campus guests, 
particularly those attending the division's 
recurring Elderhostel program. 85 

Certified by the International Elder- 
hostel Organization, it enabled people over 
sixty and their spouses to spend a week on 
campus taking up to three noncredit courses, 
most of which were taught by members of the 
faculty. Often these courses focused on 
nutrition, the Civil War, and the history of 
organ music. Diplomatic relations, literature, 
and Cherokee Indians were some of the other 
subjects. Between twenty-five and thirty-two 
people attended Elderhostel each time; the 
sessions were held three times a year. 86 
With the elimination of the division 

system in 1987, this division became the 
department of adult education. 87 

"A Very Healthy School" 

ess than eight years after its 1982 
I reaccreditation by the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Schools, 
Southern began a two-year self-study 
I in preparation for its 1992 Southern 
Association evaluation. Halfway through this 
self-study, the director, English professor Jan 
Haluska, said, "The picture of a very healthy 
school is beginning to emerge." 88 

▲ Conference Center, site of the Elderhostel program. 

As usual, a significant portion of the 
study was devoted to the libraries. Acquiring 
between three and four thousand volumes 
yearly, about half of which were Library of 
Congress donations, McKee Library spent 
$696,425 on acquisitions during the 1980s, 

bringing the total 
number of volumes 
to nearly 100,000. 
The Orlando library 
had 4,822 books. 89 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

examinations suggested that the typical 
Southern student had received an above- 
average education in both his or her high 
school preparation for college and in his or her 
college general education courses. In 1987 the 
American College Testing (ACT) composite 
score average for incoming freshmen was 
19.04. (The national average was 18.7 and the 
Tennessee state average was 18.0.) Two years 
later, the ACT for Southern's incoming fresh- 
men had risen to 19.1, while both national 
(18.6) and state (17.9) averages had declined. 
The Academic Profile II examination was 
given in March 1990 to 276 students complet- 
ing their second year at Southern. "SC met 
national norms in two of the seven subareas 
and exceeded the norms in the other five 
areas," reported registrar Mary Elam, associ- 
ate vice president for academic 
administration. 90 

The college launched a new honors 
program in 1981, designed "to challenge the 
exceptional student who wants more than 
average education." Admission to the program 
required an extremely high grade point aver- 
age, while the program itself, called "Southern 
Scholars" as of 1983, demanded that the 
student maintain a 3.5 grade point average, 
pursue an especially rigorous general educa- 
tion curriculum, participate in great-books 
seminars, and produce a major interdiscipli- 
nary research project. 91 

Peggy Brandenburg was the first to 
graduate as a "Southern Scholar." Completing 
a double major in English and psychology with 
a French minor, she graduated summa cum 
laude in 1984 with a grade point average of 
over 3.9. She was a practicing attorney by 
decade's end. 92 

Five Southern Scholars graduated in 
1987. Four of them went on to medical school; 

the other received a graduate fellowship to 
study mathematics at Duke University. The 
following year 33 students were enrolled in 
the program, including three seniors. 93 

Students And 

he typical student during the last 
decade of Southern's first century was 
a female from Tennessee, Florida, or 
i Georgia whose family income was 
below average. In the fall of 1990, 57 
percent of the students were female, 43 percent 
male. Although the college continued to attract 
more students from outside its constituent union 
than any other North American Seventh-day 
Adventist college, between 60 percent (1981) and 
68 percent (1987) came from the Southern Union. 
Students from outside the United States ac- 
counted for between 4 and 6 percent of the 
student body. In 1988, 46 states, 29 foreign 
countries, and the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico, 
Guam, and the Virgin Islands were represented. 
In the early 1990s the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics and the People's Republic of China 
each sent two students. In 1988, 146 students 
were black, 70 Hispanic, 43 Asian, and five 
Native American. Despite the oft-repeated 
faculty remark that students drove better cars 
than the teachers, at least as late as 1984 
statistics indicated that 75 percent of Southern's 
students came from homes with below-average 
incomes. 94 

Entertaining and informing this diverse 
student body, the Student Association received 
1.25 percent of the full-time tuition. About 
half of that money went for SA publications. 
In addition to the Southern Accent, Southern 
Memories, and Joker, the Student Association 
produced the Campus Chatter, a weekly 

events calendar, Numerique, a student tele- 
phone directory, and Wallside Journal, a 
scanvertiser the senate purchased in 1985 and 
placed in the cafeteria. This lighted message 
board with continuously moving announce- 
ments could be described as a scaled-down 
version of the giant headline news display in 
New York's Times Square. 95 

Student Association entertainment 
included mixers, banquets, picnics, talent 
programs, game nights, Christmas parties, 
barn parties, the Strawberry Festival (a 
photographic review of the year using from 
2,000 to 6,000 slides), and a "beach party"— a 
midwinter attempt to recapture the summer- 
time mood (indoors, of course). The 1982 
picnic, held on an October Sunday at Red Clay 
State Park, included the opportunity to ride a 
hot air balloon for a dollar. 96 

But the Student Association didn't limit 
itself to informing and entertaining its members. 
In addition to its traditional campus improve- 
ment projects, attempts to influence 
administration decision-making, and choosing 
seven of the thirteen students serving on faculty 
committees, the student leaders launched 
projects reflecting concern for both the environ- 
ment and those less fortunate than themselves. 
SA social vice-president Krisi Clark announced 
that the theme for the 1991 SA Christmas party 
was giving. "Bring non-perishable food and 
canned goods to the party to put under the 
Christmas tree," she instructed Southern Accent 
readers. "All proceeds will be placed in food 
baskets to be given to needy families in our 
community." At the suggestion of student 
senator Angela Dyer, 1990-91 SA president 
Woody White set up a fund to help needy 
students obtain "necessary items such as cloth- 
ing and hygienic supplies." 97 

White also launched an environmental 


▲ Student Association Talent Night. 

program calling for the elimination of 
styrofoam in the cafeteria and a comprehen- 
sive campus-wide recycling program. After his 
anti-styrofoam resolution passed the student 
senate in October 1991, the cafeteria agreed to 
permit students to substitute paper for an 
extra four cents per meal. Naming November 
15, 1990, as Environmental Awareness Day, 
White announced that on that date environ- 
mentalist Abyd Karmalli would present the 
assembly program and students would have 
an opportunity to vote on a ballot resolution 
calling for eliminating the use of styrofoam at 
the two campus snack bars. This resolution, 
although it passed by a 58 percent vote, was 
quite controversial: sophomore Rick Mann and 
junior Harvey Hillyer publicly challenged the 
facts and logic behind White's preference for 
paper. K. R.'s Place and the Campus Kitchen 
agreed to use half paper, half styrofoam. On 
December 1 the college launched a comprehen- 
sive recycling program. 98 

A Century of Challenge 

During the previous semester, concern for 
the environment had led to the formation of a 
new campus club, SAVE (Students Aware of 
our Valuable Environment), the outgrowth of 
a class project for Larry Williams' Contempo- 
rary Social Problems class. SAVE was one of 
a small handful 
of special- 
interest clubs on 
campus at this 
time. Although 
the dormitory 
and departmen- 
tal clubs 
continued to 
exist, a couple of 
new occupational 
clubs were 
organized (pre- 
law and long- 
term health 
care), and 
Campus Minis- 
tries coordinated 
dozens of reli- 

and health- 
very few hobby 
clubs remained, 

nothing like the multitude that flourished in 
the Wright-era club heyday." 

A new departmental club organized in 
1990 was Engineering and Technology. An- 
other departmental club, the Kappa Phi 
chapter of the Tri-Beta National Biological 
Society, produced its own E. O. Grundset 
Lecture Series in 1991. It consists of six 
natural history lectures, five by guests, the 

S.A. Opposes Styrofoam 
Use in Cafeteria 

other by a Southern College professor, and a 
research seminar conducted by a guest profes- 
sor. 100 

Two of the most active non-departmental 
clubs were the International Club and Beta 
Kappa Tau. Each year the International Club 

sponsored a 
Sabbath School, 
food extravagan- 
zas, two potlucks, 
and several social 
events, all with an 

v Shern Plan and Kevin Snider 

issue facing the entire world, and 
it's an issue facing each individ- 
ual. This year the Student Asso- 
ciation is incorporating and de- 
veloping new ideas and concepts 
to do its part and set examples for 
other schools to follow. 

The first program is the styro- 
foam replacement in the cafele- 

See Woody White's environ- 
mental resolution, page 16. 

ria. Another program is the 
comprehensive paper recycling 
system. In some of the SA of- 
fices there is a box set up to put 
used paper in to be taken to the 
recycling center. Several trips 
have already been made to the 
Collegedale recycling center; 
more are on the way. 

The SA is in the process of 
forming an environmentalism 
committee, as well. The purpose 
of this committee is "to explore 

The S.A. is working to rid the college of styrofoam products, 
like those used in our cafeteria. 

specific environmental issues the 
SA will be involved in and fa* 
cilitatc a comprehensive program 
for the school," said Woody 
White, SA president. 
Protecting the environment "is 

▲ Styrofoam food containers targeted by Student Association in 
1990. (Reprinted from the Southern Accent, October 18, 1990.) 

theme. 101 

Beta Kappa 
Tau (originally "Be 
kind to one an- 
other"; later 
Kinship, Together- 
ness"), the black 
students' club, 
sponsored a 
basketball team, 
club parties, 
weekly Adventist 
Youth Society 
meetings, and the 
Black History 
Week program 
each February. 
For several years 
the club had a choir which traveled to various 
churches putting on weekend services. Among 
the special Black History Week guests were 
Terrence Roberts, one of the seven black 
students who integrated Little Rock's Central 
High School during the Eisenhower adminis- 
tration, recording artists Kim and Reggie 
Harris, and actress Alice McGill portraying 
Sojourner Truth. 102 

something everyone should be 
aware of. It is our responsibility 
to know," said White. 

"Environmentalism is a team 
effort," said Kevin Snider, SA 
public relations director. 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

Toward Broader 

he Black History assemblies were a 
small portion of the college's 
continuing effort not only to provide 
spiritual enrichment but also to 
broaden students' cultural horizons 
through both mandatory assemblies and volun- 
tary Saturday night programs. By the late 1980s 
the morning assemblies were taking place less 
frequently (only once a week except during the 
three annual weeks of spiritual emphasis), and 
students could elect to substitute certain evening 
cultural events for a portion of their assembly 
attendance requirement. The privately funded 

▲ International Food Fair 

President's Lecture Series brought to the campus 
such distinguished guests as author Chaim 
Potok, Nobel laureates Carleton Gajdusek and 
Roslyn Yalow, sculptor Alan Collins, and former 
CBS news president Fred Friendly. 103 

Another specially funded assembly lecture 
series, Staley Christian Scholars, was sup- 
ported by the Thomas F. Staley Foundation. 
Among the speakers for this series were Dr. 
Carl F. H. Henry, editor of Christianity Today 
from its inception in 1956 until 1968, and Dr. 
Anthony Campolo, professor of sociology, 
Eastern College, PA. Other well-known guests 
for morning assembly programs included 
Russian poet Alexander Ginzburg; Dr. George 
Sheehan, medical editor of Runner's World; 
Elizabeth Dole, former Reagan administration 
transportation secretary; career planning 
adviser and drug counselor Calvin Hill, a 
former player for the Dallas Cowboys; H. M. 
S. Richards, Jr., speaker of the Voice of Proph- 
ecy radio broadcast; Grammy Award nominee 
Wintley Phipps, pastor of the Capitol Hill 
Seventh-day Adventist Church, Washington, 
D.C.; and National Public Radio's Robert 
Siegel, co-host of All Things Considered. 104 

Several of the 1982-83 chapel programs 
emphasized the importance of putting into 
one's mind only "that which will enhance one's 
religious experience" and were designed to 
educate students regarding such issues as 
Sabbath observance, social relations, absti- 
nence from alcohol, and theater attendance. 
Three times a year a Week of Spiritual Em- 
phasis involved chapel assemblies and evening 
worships in the church, as well as the Sabbath 
morning worship service. Students presented 
one of these weeks each year; the others 
generally featured guest speakers. 105 

After the on-campus revival of Southern's 
College Bowl academic competition in 1984, 
one assembly program during the second 
semester each year was devoted to its champi- 
onship finals. Preliminary contests were held 
during the supper hour in the back of the 

cafeteria. In a typical season, the competition 
involved sixty students forming twelve 
teams. 106 

With students and constituents less 
interested in attending cultural programs on 
Saturday night, many programs of the type 
formerly scheduled for the weekend Artist 
Adventure Series were held on evenings 
during the school week as alternative assem- 
blies. These included the annual Chamber 
Music Series in Ackerman Auditorium featur- 
ing such solo artists as saxophonist Neal 
Ramsay, pianist Yin Cheng-Zong, and harpsi- 
chordist John Paul, as well as ensembles like 
the Georgia Chamber Consortium, the Atlanta 
Chamber Players, and the Audubon Quartet. 
Classical vocalists presenting evening concerts 
included soprano Vertrelle Cameron and 
baritone Daniel Lichof. Other evening assem- 
blies featured religious drama and 
characterization: performances by the Parable 
Players and by Tom Key as "Screwtape in 
Person." 107 

Friday evening vespers, with attendance 
required of all dormitory students since the 
beginning of the Sahly administration, also 
provided, in addition to the usual homilies and 
gospel concerts, cultural and dramatic perfor- 
mances. Examples include the contemporary 
passion play Behold the Lamb and the classi- 
cal music of pianists Stephen Nielson and 
Ovid Young as well as that of the Hanover 
Chamber Choir. Evensong, scheduled just 
before sunset on Saturday evening, regularly 
featured classical sacred music, vocal or 
instrumental. 108 

Except for performances by Southern's 
own musical organizations, classical music on 
Saturday night became a rarity. The United 
States Marine Corps Band concert of October 


Southern /lecent 

Volume 37, Number 20 

Southern Missionary College, Collegedale, Tennessee 

March 11,1982 

After many debates and several votes, the blue jeans issue has finally been settled— and jeans are in. 

Faculty finally 
take the plunge 

Blue jeans were voted 
acceptable by the Faculty 
Senate on Wednesday, Febru- 
ary 24, just before the majority 
of students left for Spring 
Break. This was the second 
time the senate had consider- 
ed this issue. 

The first time the jeans 
proposal was voted on, it 
passed the senate but missed 
passing general faculty 
assembly by one vote. The 
same speeches and arguments 
were used effectively enough 
this time around to convince 
faculty to allow jeans to be 
used as an acceptable attire in 
the classroom and in the 
cafeteria all day. This passing 
made SMC the last Seventh- 
day Adventist college to allow 
jeans in classes. 

According to Jolene Zackri- 
son, secretary for the Faculty 
Senate, most of the faculty 
who were against jeans felt 
that the students would abuse 
the privilege and wear dirty. 

sloppy jeans to classes and 
that the Board of Trustees 
would feel that the school 
standards were being let 

Some of the arguments for 
jeans were that the rule was 
inconsistent — that if green, 
red, and brown jeans were 
allowed, then blue ones 
should be also. Some of the 
faculty also felt that college 
students should be mature 
enough to handle the 
responsibility of wearing nice 
jeans to classes without abus- 
ing the privilege. 

The announcement of vote 
results were announced to the 
faculty early on Wednesday 
morning, and was passed on 
to the students by noon. 

This vote went into effect 
immediately and now allows 
the students to wear jeans 
anywhere on campus at any- 
time except during Sabbath 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

1981 was one of the last. Similarly, Saturday 
night travelogues became rarities. Two 
exceptions were Jens Bjerre's "China After 
Mao" (1981) and John Wilson's "Galapagos 
Island Wildlife" (1984). Except for the Hu- 
manities Film Series, which was generally 
sparsely attended, Saturday night films 
tended to be more light-hearted: the annual 
Warren Miller ski movie or Disney comedies 
served with pizza in the cafeteria. An excep- 
tion was A Cry in the Dark, a true story of a 
Seventh-day Adventist woman falsely con- 
victed of murdering her infant. Student 
Association activities and programs frequently 
fell on Saturday nights, as did various types of 
participatory and exhibitionistic sports: ice 
skating, softball, the Gym-Masters' home 
shows, and the Rees basketball series champi- 
onship games. 109 

More and more, students were spending 
their Saturday nights away from the campus. 
"We always went to Taco Bell," recalls Georgia 
O'Brien, '87. "Anytime we went, there was 
always someone else from the college." 110 

But there probably weren't too many 
students at Taco Bell on Saturday night, 
January 9, 1988. Snowball fights were more 
likely. Collegedale had been buried the 
previous Thursday under ten inches of snow, 
the most since 1927. With driving conditions 
extraordinarily treacherous, classes were 
canceled that Thursday and Friday. 111 

Jeans At Last 

ome of those snowball fighters were 
V doubtlessly clad in blue jeans. The 
pariah garment had been legal in 
Collegedale since 1982, when 
Southern — true to its conservative 

tradition — had become the last Seventh-day 
Adventist college to lift the ban. Jeans were now 
permitted on campus everywhere and anytime 
except during the Sabbath. 112 

This left some students in the uncomfort- 
able position of needing something else to 
complain about. It didn't take them long to 
start airing new grievances: soon some were 
complaining because they couldn't have 
television sets in their dormitory rooms or 

▲ Trimmings of the Agape Feast. 

because they weren't permitted to attend the 
Van Halen rock concert in Chattanooga. 
When Sahly took over as president, they found 
even more reason to complain: they had to 
attend five evening worship services a week 
(up from three), the mandatory church atten- 
dance rule was reinstated, the administration 
declined to relax the dress code any farther, a 

faculty committee deleted Elvis Presley and 
Chuck Berry tunes from a Student Association 
"50s Fling," and — most terrible of all — the 
faculty senate adopted a rule for men to avoid 
radical hair styles. Other students, however, 
were untroubled by such regulations. "I didn't 
find the rules oppressive," says Joi Richards, 
'88. "My parents were very spiritual-minded. 
Everything that the school stood for, we had 
to adhere to pretty much at home." 113 

Always A 
Missionary College 

tespite its name change, the 
legalization of blue jeans, and libelous 
rumors to the contrary, Southern was 
still committed to the historic 
principles of the Seventh-day 
Adventist church. Southern College was first 
and foremost a religious institution. John 
Wagner defined his job as working "in the 
interest of preparing our youth for life and 
eternity." Upon taking office, Don Sahly de- 
clared, "As president of Southern College I plan 
to take seriously the spiritual dimensions of our 
heritage." Affirming, "Our programs . . . are 
empty and valueless without Jesus Christ," he 
told the faculty in 1987, 'This must become a 
campus where students are confronted on a daily 
basis with what an SDA philosophy and lifestyle 
is and should be." 114 

To those who say that students were 
more spiritually minded in an earlier age, Roy 
Dingle, '79, manager of the Village Market 
Bakery, responds, "A lot of students are still 
religious." 115 A visitor sitting with the stu- 
dents for Friday evening vespers or the 
student Sabbath School in Thatcher Hall can 
quickly sense that this is true. 


A Century of Challenge 

Assistant chaplain Bill DuBois, '86, 
observed in 1985, "The 'Spiritual Revolution' 
we have prayed for has most definitely ar- 
rived. Many students throughout the campus 
are meeting their Saviour once again, and 
some are on their knees for the very first 
time." As evidence for this, he mentioned a 
record Friday evening attendance at After- 
glow, the voluntary post-vespers service, of 
350-400 and growing; Friday evening dormi- 
tory prayer bands involving "nearly 200 
students . . . scattered throughout the dorms"; 

▲ Collegiate Adventists Reaching Everyone (CARE). 

and a combined turnout of about 90 people the 
previous Sabbath for literature and sunshine 
bands. 116 

Sahly noticed a similar trend in 1987. 
"At the end of the fall week of prayer, we set 
up the cafeteria for the Agape feast . . . based 
on . . . the turnout we have had . . . over the 
last few years. We were about seventy seats 
short." A mother visiting the campus in 1987 
was moved to tears as she ate in the cafeteria 

"and saw a young man and his girlfriend clasp 
hands across the table as they prayed." In the 
fall of 1991, senior religion major Virgil Covel 
reported that more than one-fourth of the 
residents of Talge Hall were involved in 
voluntary small-group Bible studies. 117 

The institution itself set the tone for the 
threefold Seventh-day Adventist concept of 
religious service: unselfish humanitarian 
assistance, the promotion of a "wholistic" 
healthy lifestyle, and sharing one's faith. The 
college sent relief vans to South Carolina in 

church's Ingathering campaigns until 1982, 
and it continued participating in United Way 
for at least another decade. SC employee 
United Way contributions rose steadily from 
less than $7,000 in 1985 to $12,422 in 1991. 
Besides encouraging its employees to give, the 
college itself donated the services of a "loaned 
executive" for a number of off-campus United 
Way campaigns. In 1991, 64 percent of the 
faculty and staff participated. For years, Don 
Dick coordinated the campus campaign. 119 
Southern's nursing students found sev- 

▲ Clown Ministry, one avenue of community service for Southern students. 

the wake of Hurricane Hugo, donated farming 
equipment to a secondary school in Honduras 
operated by a 1980 alumnus, and raised 
$1,679 from students and faculty in 1985 for 
famine relief in Ethiopia. 118 

Southern was directly involved in the 

eral avenues for community involvement. 
Nursing Club members renovated the sitting 
room of a boarding home for indigents, raising 
$3,000 and doing much of the work them- 
selves, assisted by various college personnel, 
local church members, and members of the 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

Student Missions Club. College president 
John Wagner was among those doing the 
painting. Nursing students were also involved 
with Senior Neighbors, providing foot care and 
"loving concern" for senior citizens; taught 
CPR and first aid in private schools; gave 
talks on dental health and other areas of 
healthful living; assisted in health screening 
and health fairs; and discussed various as- 
pects of cardiac care on an AM radio station. 120 

Another academic department directly 
involved in humanitarian service was behav- 
ioral science. Students accompanying Ed 
Lamb to New York during Thanksgiving 
vacation served meals to the homeless, distrib- 
uted clothing, and talked with lonely people. 121 

Operated by students in cooperation with 
the campus chaplain and an assistant chap- 
lain who generally was a new alumnus serving 
as a Task Force volunteer, the organization 
coordinating student humanitarian, health- 
promoting, and faith-sharing service activities 
was Collegiate Adventists Reaching Everyone 
(CARE), divided into three branches: Campus 
Ministries, Collegiate Adventists for Better 
Living (CABL), and Collegiate Missions. 
While campus hobby clubs were shriveling up, 
CARE organizations seemed to proliferate, 
reaching more than forty in 1989, up about 
ten from 1984. That year, 40 percent of the 
female students and 25 percent of the male 
students were actively involved in at least one 
of the CARE programs. Students reached out 
to the elderly with weekly sunshine bands and 
the Adopt-a-Grandparent program; they 
enriched the lives of handicapped, hospital- 
ized, homeless, and single-parent children and 
teenagers with the Orange Grove Project, 
Clown Ministry, and Big Brother/Big Sister. 
They volunteered to work at the Chambliss 
Shelter, a community day care service and 

shelter for children temporarily removed from 
their homes. In 1988 Andrea Nicholson 
launched a campaign in which students gave 
more than $600 to buy books as Christmas 
presents for each of the 237 impoverished 
children at a public school in a nearby state. 
Rake 'n' Run, another 1987 project, involved 
thirty students who did yard work for elderly 
people unable to do their own. A similar 
program two years later was called Helping 
Hands. Some of CARE's other humanitarian 
programs for 1989-90 were Project Overcoat, 

▲ Destiny Drama Company. 

collecting coats for the homeless; Silverdale 
GED, helping prison inmates prepare for their 
high-school equivalency test; and Soup Kitch- 
ens, serving food to the homeless. Advanced 
Learning was a program using college stu- 
dents as tutors at the A. W. Spalding 
School. 122 

CABL was a CARE branch which empha- 
sized physical fitness and health awareness. 
It sponsored camping, hiking, running, skiing, 
weight lifting, swimming, scuba, and spelunk- 
ing clubs as well as a triathlon club; planned 
all-day hiking outings and camping trips; and 

arranged health screening for students. It 
also invited Blood Assurance bloodmobiles to 
the campus up to six times a year and urged 
students to donate blood "and perhaps save a 
life." So many students responded in Septem- 
ber 1989 that the bloodmobile had to turn 
people away. Reaching out to the community, 
CABL set up booths at malls and fairs, pre- 
sented programs in churches and schools, 
conducted cooking schools, and did health 
screening. 123 

Some CARE activities were more specifi- 

▲ The Honduras project. 


A Century of Challenge 

cally religious: giving out copies of Happiness 
Digest (Steps to Christ), visiting various 
neighborhoods to tell children Bible stories, 
conducting services in prisons and small 
churches, conducting student Sabbath Schools 
and various voluntary religious services, 
showing religious films, scheduling prayer 
sessions on the hour every hour in the Stu- 
dent Center prayer room, coordinating small 
group Bible studies and prayer bands in the 
dormitories and in the student center, spon- 
soring a Bible marking program, conducting 

▲ Student missionary Brenda Sparks with refugee 
children in 1986-87. 

Christian growth seminars, and sending 
students to intercollegiate Bible conferences. 
CARE Prayer was a program in which a group 
of students prayed for five specific persons 
each day. In 1986 twenty-four students spent 
their spring vacation participating in a lay 
evangelism training seminar, Maranatha '86. 124 

One of the most visible campus ministries 
was Destiny Drama Company, created in 1979 
by Frank Roman, a student who wanted "to 
share Christ with large audiences." Admission 

to the group was by competitive audition. 
Announcing as its mission conveying "the 
pertinence, power, and personality of Jesus 
and His gospel," the organization presented 
local programs on campus, at Covenant 
College, and at Hamilton Place Mall; in 
addition it frequently traveled to Southern 
Union academies, churches, and youth rallies. 
During the 1989-90 school year company 
members also performed at Andrews Univer- 
sity, Columbia Union College, Pacific Union 
College, and four academies in northern 

A In a traditional "missionary" moment, teaching 
from a picture roll at a refugee camp. 

California. The following year Destiny per- 
formed at Tomlinson College, Cleveland, 
Tennessee; Kettering College in Ohio; and an 
Ohio youth rally. Its 1990 home performance 
Eyewitness, an original and very moving play, 
depicted the life of Christ in a contemporary 
setting. 125 

Southern students were still conscious of 
Seventh-day Adventism's worldwide mission. 
Graduates continued to leave for foreign 
shores in denominational service. In addition, 

some students held evangelistic meetings in 
foreign lands during their vacations. Evange- 
listic meetings held in the Soviet Union in 
July 1991 by Ben Chon, '92, and seven others 
resulted in 104 baptisms. He returned to hold 
more evangelistic meetings during the 1991-92 
Christmas break. 126 

Southern's organized attempt to promote 
foreign missionary activities by students was 
carried on by a third branch of CARE: the 
Collegiate Missions Club. The club, enrolling 
as many as 150 students a year, supported the 
student missionary program and its domestic 
equivalent, Task Force, and raised money to 
help finance the transportation costs of stu- 
dent missionaries by its annual International 
Food Fair, with colorful booths, foreign and 
American food, and exotic costumes and 
entertainment. Much of the food was donated, 
prepared, and served by members of local 
churches. The 1990 fair raised $3,900. 127 

Besides the food fair, the other two 
highlights of each school year for the missions 
club were the Student Missions Call Book 
Fair and the spring mission trip. The Call 
Book Fair — complete with costumes, souvenirs, 
and decorated booths representing potential 
mission destinations — held in the fall, permit- 
ted potential student missionaries to talk with 
former student missionaries; look at videos, 
slides, and picture albums; and apply for 
specific overseas openings as listed in the Call 
Book. 128 

Each year, from 1984 until 1991, between 
seventeen and fifty students visited the island 
of Roatan off the coast of Honduras during 
spring vacation. They built, among other 
things, an addition to the Adventist school 
there, as well as a church and a 122 by 62 foot 
market. In 1992 a group of students went 
instead to the Dominican Republic to cooper- 


Chapter 9: Retrenchment And Recovery 

ate with a Maranatha International project to 
build twenty-five churches in fifty days. The 
cost for a student participating in one of these 
trips (transportation, room and board, and 
insurance) was about $500. According to 
James Herman, campus chaplain from 1976 to 
1991, these trips had two objectives: to fulfill 
"a need that would go unmet without the 
students' presence" and to allow "students who 
live in an affluent society to see how it is to 
live in a less fortunate environment." Spring 
mission trips were successful on both counts, 
as Brent Van Arsdell, '87, reported after the 
1987 trip: 

The food we ate was more adven- 
turous than having to sleep in a 
shrimp boat or on a retired barge, as 
most of the guys did. After about the 
third day, it made us long for good 
Southern College cafeteria and 
Campus Kitchen food. The staples on 
the islands were beans and rice 
served exactly the same way at every 
meal. For variety we ate cooked 
bananas that tasted like potatoes, 
deep fried banana chips that were 
salty, or cooked bananas that were 
sweetened. Occasionally we tried 
bananas that tasted like bananas. 129 

By 1992 Southern had sent out more 
than 450 student missionaries — forty-four 
overseas student missionaries and three Task 
Force workers for the 1991-92 school year 
alone. Promotional material reporting this 
fact declared, "We are always a missionary 
college." Students taught in English-language 
schools in Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Hong 
Kong, Thailand, Taiwan and Israel; taught at 
church-operated elementary and secondary 
schools in the Marshall Islands and other 
Pacific-island nations as well as in Ireland, 
Spain, England, Puerto Rico, and West Vir- 
ginia; helped set up and operate a 
Seventh-day Adventist radio station in Guam 
and in Denmark; worked as assistant dormi- 
tory deans in Iceland, England, and the 
United States, as builders in Guam, as nurses 
and health educators in Thailand, and as a 
translator in Chile. About to graduate, jour- 
nalism and business administration major 
David Barasoain, '90, turned down a position 
as an editorial video journalist with CNN to 
serve as a student missionary in Korea; after 
completing his year of service he asked to 
return a second year. Tiffany Wilson, '91, a 
broadcasting graduate, turned down a news 
reporting position at a Nevada television 
station so that she, too, could be a student 

missionary in Korea. "It seemed like the Lord 
was telling me 'If you go work for Me for a 
year, everything will fall into place when you 
come back,'" she said. 130 

"If the educational system fails, the 
church fails," declared Sahly. "If our schools 
flourish, our church will blossom and grow." 
The mother whose eyes filled with tears of joy 
as she observed two students join hands and 
pray, wrote, after her visit, "As I have looked 
at these youth, I have hope for tomorrow and 
for our Church." 131 

Southern had come a long way, from 
Graysville to Collegedale, from the second 
story of a store building to a campus of 
unsurpassed beauty, from twenty-two students 
to the largest North American Seventh-day 
Adventist college without a graduate program, 
from horse-and-buggy simplicity to modern 
sophistication — truly a century of challenge. 
Generations have come and gone, programs 
have been added and discarded, and some- 
times the tempests have seemed overwhelming, 
but Southern's compass still points upward. 
Regardless of its official title, it will always be 
Southern Missionary College. 






AA Annual Announcement 

AR Adventist Review 

BM Board Minutes (also includes documents distributed at 

board meetings and filed with board minutes) 

BUL Bulletin 

CAL Calendar 

CAT Catalog 

CFP Chattanooga Free Press, Chattanooga News-Free Press 

ECM Executive Committee Minutes 

FMM Faculty Meeting Minutes 

FT Field Tidings 

GA Graysville Academy 

GCDB General Conference Daily Bulletin 

PAR Principal's Annual Report 

PR President's Report 

R&H Review and Herald; Advent Review & Sabbath Herald 

R&HPA Review and Herald Publishing Association 

SA Southern Accent 

SC Southern College of Seventh-day Adventists 

SCOL Southern Columns 
SDA ENCY Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia 

SIS Southern Industrial School 

SJC Southern Junior College 

SM Southern Memories 

SMC Southern Missionary College 

SPA Southern Publishing Association 

SR Southern Review 

SS The Southern Scroll 

ST Southern Tidings 

STS Southern Training School 

YB Year Book; Yearbook 


1. Arthur Whitefield Spalding, Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, 
II (Washington: R&HPA, 1962), p. 168; Louis A. Hansen, From So Small A 
Dream (Nashville: SPA, 1968), p. 29. 

2. R&H, XXXVII (May 2, 1871), p. 158, (Dec. 5, 1871), p. 198, XXXIX (Mar. 
5, 1872), p. 94, XLIII (May 19, 1874), p. 182, L (Aug. 9, 1877), p. 54, LVIII 
(Nov. 22, 1881), p. 331. 

3. Spalding, II, p. 189; R&H, LXV (Jun. 5, 1888), p. 363, LXLX (Jul. 26, 
1892), p. 477, LXXXIX (Aug. 1, 1912), p. 13; T. A. Kilgore, "Shiloh," pp. 3, 6, 9 
(MS provided by Jessica K. Queen). 

4. R&H, XXXVI (Jul. 5, 1870), p. 22, (Aug. 2, 1870), p. 56, XLIV (Nov. 3, 
1874), p. 150, (Nov. 24, 1874), p. 174, XLDC (May 17, 1877), p. 158, LXXXIX 
(Aug. 1, 1912), p. 13. 

5. Cleburne Chronicle, quoted in ibid., LXX (Sep. 12, 1893), p. 588. 

6. R&H, L (Nov. 22, 1877), p. 166, LIV (Dec. 11, 1879), p. 190, LXII (Aug. 18, 
1885), p. 541, LXXXIX (Aug. 1, 1912), p. 13. 

7. Ibid., LXIII (Oct. 12, 1886), p. 637, LXV1 (Oct. 29, 1889), p. 683; SDA, YB 
1889 (Washington: R&HPA, 1889), p. 28, YB 1890, pp. 29, 58, YB 1891, pp. 
26, 67, YB 1892, p. 10; Daily Bulletin of the General Conference, TV (Mar. 8, 
1891), pp. 19-20; Hansen, p. 154; Spalding, II, p. 185. 

8. R&H, XXXVIII (Sep. 26, 1871), p. 119. 

9. Ibid., LVI (Dec. 9, 1880), p. 376, LXII (Aug. 18, 1885), p. 528. 

10. Dennis Lynn Pettibone, "Caesar's Sabbath: The Sunday-law Controversy 
in the United States, 1879-1892" (Ph.D diss., University of California- 
Riverside, 1979; Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, May 1979), pp. 306- 

329; R&H, LXIII (Aug. 31, 1886), p. 551. 

11. Spalding, II, pp. 187-188; R&H, LXVI (Oct. 29, 1889), p. 683. 

12. Walton J. Brown, Chronology of Seventh-day Adventist Education 
(Washington: Department of Education, General Conference of Seventh-day 
Adventists, 1972), pp. 9-10, 14. 

13. SDA, YB 1891, pp. 61, 65, YB 1892, p. 57; R&H, LXVII (Nov. 25, 1890), 
p. 731. 

14. Daily Bulletin of the General Conference, TV (Mar. 8, 1891), pp. 20-21. 

15. Goodspeed's General History of Tennessee (Nashville: Goodspeed 
Publishing Company, 1887; reprint, Nashville: Charles and Randy Elder 
Booksellers, 1973), pp. 421, 432; C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New 
South, 1877-1913 (n.p.: Louisianna State University Press, 1951), p. 61; R&H, 
XXXVIII (Sep. 26, 1870), p. 119. Lane hastened to add, "In other parts 
schools are tolerated and quite well sustained." 

16. Woodward, pp. 62-63, 96, 399; Goodspeed's, pp. 436, 440; Stanley J. 
Folmsbee, Robert E. Corlew, and Enoch L. Mitchell, Tennessee: A Short 
History (Knoxville: University of Tennesseee Press, 1969), p. 459. 

17. Woodward, p. 400; Folmsbee, pp. 274, 415, 459; Wilma Dykeman, 
Tennessee: A History (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984, 1975), p. 
167; STS, AA 1905-06, [p. 41 (Andrews University). 

18. SDA Encyclopedia (Washington: R&HPA, 1966), p. 276; R&H, XXXVI 
(Feb. 7, 1871), p. 62, (Feb. 21, 1871), p. 78, XLIV (Jul. 28, 1874), p. 54, LI 
(Mar. 7, 1878), p. 79; Elizabeth Spalding McFadden and Ronald W. Spalding, 
A Fire in My Bones (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 
1979), p. 24; Milton T. Reiber, Graysville— 1888-1988: Battle Creek of the 
South (Collegedale, TN: The College Press, 1988), pp. 7, 91; American 
Sentinel, X (Mar. 21, 1895), p. 89. 

19. R&H, LXVIII (Aug. 25, 1904), p. 7; Edward M. Cadwallader, "A History 
of Seventh-day Adventist Education" (n.p.: by the author, 1958(?)), pp. 209- 
210, mimeographed (SC); SR, X (Dec. 4, 1900), p. 92; Reiber, pp. 1-4, 105; 
Margaret Littell, interview by author; Ron Graybill, "Tales of a Tennessee 
Chain Gang," Liberty, LXVIII (Jan.-Feb. 1973), p. 3, cf. Chattanooga Daily 
Times, 5 Nov. 1895, p. 3. 

20. The problem must be the date, Feb. 20, and not the year. Feb. 20, 1891, 
is improbable as a date for starting school — it was a Friday, and Feb. 20, 
1893, is clearly too late. Graysville church records strongly imply that the 
school was already in operation in Apr. 1892 and definitely state that this 
was the case on Oct. 1, 1892. Graysville Church, Record of Meetings, Apr. 3, 
Oct. 1, 1892 (D provided by Margaret Littell). In addition, an article in the 
R&H of Jan. 24, 1893, (pp. 60-61), describes the school in such a way that it 
had clearly been in session awhile. Elder and Mrs. G. W. Colcord transferred 
their church membership to the Graysville Seventh-day Adventist Church on 
Oct. 1, 1892 (Reiber, p. 98). An article in the CFP, 7 Aug. 1938, p. 7, col. 2, 
suggests that the school started in Apr. 1892. Arthur W. Spalding — who was 
there at the time — says the school was founded in 1892 (II, p. 127). He says, 
"Elder Colcord came to Graysville in the spring of 1892. That spring, in May 
I think, he opened a short term school of three or four weeks, but the real 
opening came in the fall of 1892." Arthur W. Spalding, to K. A. Wright, 19 
Oct. 1952, TLS (SC). 

21. Reiber, pp. 7-8; SDA ENCY, p. 1237; Cadwallader, p. 210; R&H, LXX 
(Jan. 24, 1893), p. 61; Daily Bulletin of the General Conference, V (Mar. 1, 
1893), p. 433. 

22. SR, extra, rV (Jan. 9, 1894), pp. 225-226; GA, Announcement 1894-95, pp. 
2-4 (SC). 

23. GA, Announcement 1894-95, pp. 2-3. 

24. Woodward, p. 62. 

25. GA, Announcement 1894-95, p. 4 

26. Chattanooga Daily Times, 6 Nov. 1895, p. 7. 

27. Sunday Law, Code of Tennessee, sec. 2289 (1884). 

28. Dayton Republican, quoted in Reiber, pp. 9-10; Cases 1218-1262, State 
Dockett, Attorney General's copy 9-15 (Rhea County Cir., Mar. 1895), Trial 
Dockett 88-89, Trial Minutes, III, Mar. 8, 1895, pp. 335-349; Chattanooga 
Daily Times, 5 Nov. 1895, p. 3, 6 Nov. 1895, p. 4. 

29. American Sentinel, X (Mar. 14, 1895), p. 88, (Mar. 21, 1895), p. 90, (Apr. 
4, 1895), pp. 112-114, (Apr. 11, 1895), p. 120, (Apr. 18, 1895), pp. 127-128, 
(Jul. 11, 1895), pp. 217-218, (Jul. 25, 1895), p. 240, (Sep. 5, 1895), p. 273; 

Graybill, p. 4; R&H, LXXII (Jul. 9, 1895), p. 448, (Aug. 20, 1895), p. 539; 
Cases 1218-1356, State Dockett, Attorney General's copy 21-34, Clerk's copy 
25-34 (Rhea County Cir., Jul. 1895), Trial Minutes, III, Jul. 3, 1895, pp. 496- 
520. Some secondary sources have confused the two arrest waves and 
assumed that those arrested in the first wave served on the chain gang. 
Hansen, p. 156; Elva B. Gardner, A School of His Planning (Chattanooga: 
Starkey Printing Company, 1962), p. 15. However, it was the second group, 
not the first, that was assigned to the chain gang. A careful study of the lists 
of names of both those arrested and those convicted in the second wave does 
not show that either of the Colcords was arrested or convicted a second time. 
Rhea County Cir., Jul. 1895, loc. cit. But the legend of Colcord on a chain 
gang goes back at least to 1909. STS, AA 1909-10, p. 43 (Andrews 

30. Cases 1335-1354, State Dockett 92 (Rhea County Cir., Nov. 1895), Trial 
Minutes, Nov. 5, 1895, pp. 43-47; American Sentinel, X (Jul. 11, 1895), p. 217; 
Chattanooga Daily Times, 5 Nov. 1895, p. 3, 6 Nov. 1895, p. 7. 

31. Religious Liberty Association, American State Papers, 3d rev. ed. 
(Washington: The Religious Liberty Association, 1943), p. 562. 

32. American Sentinel, X (Apr. 18, 1895), p. 127; Cadwallader, p. 210; 
Hansen, p. 156; Reiber, p. 12; SR, V (Apr. 7, 1896), p. 29. 

33. Daily Bulletin of the General Conference, V (Mar. 1, 1893), p. 433; Reiber, 
pp. 13-14; SDA ENCY, p. 1237; GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 5 (SC). 

34. GA, CAL 1896-97, pp. 4-5, 8, 31 (SC). 

35. Ibid., pp. 13-14. 

36. GA, AA 1897-98, p. 15 (SC). 

37. Ibid.; GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 4; SIS, AA 1898-99, p. 2 (SC), AA 1899-1900, 
pp. 15-16 (SC); SIS, BM, May 7, 1901, p. 2 (SIS and STS BM are found in 
SC's Heritage Room. SJC BM are in the SC treasurer's vault. SMC BM from 
the very early years of the Wright administration are also in the treasurer's 
vault. From the Wright administration to the present, BM are in the SC 
president's office and at the headquarters of the Southern Union Conference 
of Seventh-day Adventists.) STS, AA 1905-06, p. [2], AA 190910, [before p. 
1]; STS, CAL 1904-05, p. 4, CAL 1906-07, p. [2], CAL 1907-08, p. 3, CAL 
190809, p. 1 (Andrews University), CAL 191213, p. 2 (D provided by Sue 
Summerour Magoon); STS, Quarterly, I (Jul. 1, 1910), p. 1, III (no. 4, 1913), 

p. 2, IV (2d quarter, 1914), p. 1, V (2d quarter, 1915), p. 1. 

38. GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 28. 

39. Ibid., pp. 9, 29; GA, AA 1897-98, p. 11. 

40. GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 29. 

41. Ibid., pp. 6-7; SIS, AA 1899-1900, p. 5; SIS, BM, Apr. 6, 1901. The 
request was granted. BM, May 7, 1901. 

42. Reiber, pp. 35-36; R&H, LXXXI (Oct. 27, 1904), p. 21. 

43. GCDB, VIII (Feb. 17, 1899), p. 16, VI (Feb. 22, 1897), p. 109; GA, CAL 
1896-97, p. 7; Reiber, p. 16; Cadwallader, p. 211. 

44. GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 31. 

45. GA, AA 1897-98, pp. 4-5; Reiber, p. 14. 

46. Reiber, p. 14; SR, VII (Sep. 27, 1898), p. 29. 

47. SDA ENCY, p. 138; GA, CAL 1896-97, p. 3, AA 1897-98, p. 6, inside back 
cover; Cadwallader, loc. cit. 

48. Cadwallader, loc. cit.; Reiber, p. 16; SDA ENCY, pp. 610-611; Edwin 
Carlton Walter, "A History of Seventh-day Adventist Higher Education in the 
United States" (Ph.D diss., University of California-Berkeley, 1966; Ann 
Arbor, MI: University Microfilm, 1966), pp. 120-121. 

49. GCDB, VIII, loc. cit.; SR, VII (Sep. 13, 1898), p. 23, (Sep. 27, 1898), p. 29; 
Reiber, pp. 16-17; Cadwallader, loc. cit.; SIS, AA 1899-1900, p. 4. 

50. SR, VII (Sep. 27, 1898), p. 29, DC (Jan. 30, 1900), p. 117; Reiber, p. 20; 
Ellen G. White, to George A. Irwin, 22 Jul. 1897, Spalding-Magan Collection 
of Unpublished Testimonies, p. 95. 

51. Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church (Mountain View, CA: Pacific 
Press Publishing Association, 1948, 1889), p. 553; SR, VII (Oct. 11, 1898), p. 
34; Cadwallader, p. 212; GCDB, loc. cit.; SIS, CAT 1899-1900, p. 9. 

52. SIS, CAT 1899-1900, p. 9; GCDB, loc. cit. 

53. GCDB, loc. cit.; SIS, CAT 1899-1900, pp. 2, 9; J. H. Kellogg, to L. A. 
Hoopes, 15 Jun. 1900 (General Conference Archives). 


5 4. SR, X (Dec. 4, 1900), pp. 92-93; Reiber, p. 20. 

5 5. Cadwallader, p. 213; SIS, AA 18991900, p. 16. 

5 6. SR, VII (Sep. 13, 1898), p. 23, (Sep. 27, 1898), p. 29; GCDB, loc. cit.; SIS, 
^A 1899-1900, p. 7. 

5 7. SIS, AA 1898-99, p. 4, A4 1899-1900, p. 8; SIS, BAf, May 22, 27, 1901; 
g^S, BAf, Aug. 21, 1901; 

5 g. S/i, VII (Sep. 13, 1898), p. 23. 

5 g. SIS, BAf, Apr. 20, 22, May 7, 9, 1901; STS, BM, Aug. 21, 1901. 

g0. Robert Samuel Fletcher, A History of Oberlin College From the 

fglindation Through the Civil War, I (Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College, 1943), 

p. 34, 40-43, 50, 56-57, 634-637; Elizabeth S. Peck, Berea's First 125 Years, 
jggS-1980 (Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 1982), pp. 110-111. 
6J . Peck, p. Ill; Fletcher, pp. 657, 661, 663-664. 
g2. John A. R. Rodgers, Birth of Berea College: A Story of Providence 
(Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates & Company, 1903), pp. 67, 72-73; Peck, pp. 
35, 111-114- 

g3 . Peck, pp. 113-115, 122-123. 

g4. Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery: An Autobiography (Garden 
C j t y, NY: Doubleday & Company, 1900, 1901), pp. 126-127, 154-156, 312. 
g 5. Ellen G. White, Testimonies, VI (n.p., 1900), p. 176; idem, Education 
.fountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1903), pp. 214, 
220; idem, Counsels to Parents, Teachers and Students Regarding Christian 
r^iication (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1913), 
p. 3H- 

6 g. Ellen G. White, Counsels, pp. 315-316; Signs of the Times, VIII (Jun. 29, 
igg2), p. 289; idem, Testimonies, V, p. 90; idem, The Ministry of Healing 
/fountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1905, 1909), p. 
402; idem, Education, pp. 214, 221. 
67 . Ellen G. White, Education, p. 220. 

gg Signs of the Times, loc. cit.; Ellen G. White, Fundamentals of Christian 
gjtication (Nashville: SPA, 1923, 1890), p. 146. 
70 , Ellen G. White, Education, p. 221. 

~i Ellen G. White, The Story of the Patriarchs and Prophets (Mountain 
vie w, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1890, 1913), p. 601; idem, 10 
Ju j. 1902, Letter 98, p. 10 (D provided by Jessica K. Queen). 
~2. Brown, pp. 16-17; Louis B. Reynolds, We Have Tomorrow: The Story of 
caventh-day Aduentists with an African Heritage (Washington: R&HPA, 
iQtfi^ PP- 50. 190-192; Cadwallader, pp. 178, 180-181, 184-185, 187. 

73 Cadwallader, pp. 181, 186, 191; Reynolds, pp. 194, 201; Brown, p. 140. 

74 Ira Gish and Harry Christman, Madison, God's Beautiful Farm 
.fountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1979), p. 171; SDA 
EtfCY, pp. 733-734; Arthur W. Spaulding (later changed name to "Spalding"), 
The Men of the Mountains (Nashville: SPA, 1915), p. 150. 

7 e Gish, p. Ill; Richard W. Schwarz, Light Bearers to the Remnant 
.fountain View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1979), p. 246. 

76 Gish, pp. 92, 120; Merlin L. Neff, For God and C. M. E. (Mountain View, 
rfc. Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1964), pp. 118-119. 

77 Neff, pp. 115, 118, 120; Spaulding, Men, p. 153; Gish, pp. 92-93, 110, 113- 
114, H9- 

78 Gish, pp. 103, 120; Neff, pp. 113-115; SDA ENCY, p. 734, 828; Ellen G. 
vyjjjte, to the Southern Union Conference Committee, 24 Feb. 1907 (D 

^vided by Jessica K. Queen). 


Archa Dart, letter, Summer 1990. 


j falter, p. 118; Cadwallader, p. 290. 

o peiber, pp. 22, 41; Emmett K. VandeVere, in Adventism in America, ed. 

Gar y Land (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1986), p. 6. 

3 SR, V (Apr. 7, 1896), pp. 29-30, 32; R&H, LXXIII (May, 19, 1896), p. 316; 
qq])B, loc. cit.; Reiber, p. 48. 

4 STS, PAR, 1911, p. 1 (n.p.). 

5 jbid., p. 8; STS, PAR, 1912, p. 1 (n.p.); Reiber, pp. 38-47. 

6. STS, FMM, Nov. 22, 1903 (FMM are found in SC registrar's vault); Reiber, 
pp. 47, 91; SDA, YB 1905, p. 31, YB 1920, p. 237, YB 1923, p. 206, YB 1936, 
p. 229; David D. Rees and Everett Dick, Union College: Fifty Years of Service 
(Lincoln, NE: Union College Press, 1940), p. 136; Everett Dick, Union: College 
of the Golden Cords (Lincoln; NE: Union College Press, 1967), p. 397; Myron 
F. Wehtje, And There Was Light: A History of South Lancaster Academy, 
Lancaster Junior College, and Atlantic Union College, I (South Lancaster, 
MA: The Atlantic Press, 1982), p. 236; Accent on AUC, XXXVII (Fall, 1987), p. 
12. She served in the Georgia Conference Sabbath School Department in 
1907 and 1908. SDA, YB 1907, p. 29, YB 1908, p. 75. 

7. SDA ENCY, p. 725. 

8. Ibid., p. 1437. 

9. Reiber, pp. 8, 33, 46; STS, FMM, Sep. 27, Nov. 15, 1903, Nov. 11, 1904, 
Oct. 8, 1906; Cadwallader, p. 214. 

10. STS, BM, May 27, 1906, Feb. 8, 1907. 

11. STS, F MM, Sep. 20, 27, Nov. 15, 1903. 

12. Ibid., Sep. 27, 1903, Oct. 16, Nov. 20, 27, 1904; SIS, BM, May 9, 1901; 
Emmett K. VandeVere, The Wisdom Seekers (Nashville: SPA, 1972), p. 85. 

13. Cadwallader, loc. cit.; STS, BM, Feb. 14, 1904, Jan. 5, 1905, Feb. 16, 
1906; R&H, LXXXI (Oct. 27, 1904), p. 21. 

14. R&H, LXXX (Nov. 26, 1903), p. 19, LXXXI (Dec. 15, 1904), p. 21, LXXXIX 
(Aug. 1, 1912), pp. 13-14; Reiber, p. 23; SIS, BM, Apr. 20, May 7, 9, 1901; 
STS, BAf, Jun. 4, 1907. 

15. Ellen G. White, Testimonies, VII, p. 231; Arthur L. White, Ellen G. White: 
The Early Elmshaven Years (Washington: R&HPA, 1987), p. 347; R&H, 
LXXXI (Aug. 25, 1904), p. 7; Ellen G. White, to Elder N. C. McClure, 12 Jul. 
1904, Ellen G. White Manuscript Release #193-8, Letter 245; Ellen G. White, 
to Our Brethem in Graysville, Tennessee, 1 1 Feb. 1907, Spaulding-Magan 
Collection of Unpublished Testimonies, pp. 397-98; Ellen G. White, 1906, 
Ellen G. White Manuscript Release #841-2, Letter 86, cf. Ellen G. White, to 
the Brethern Assembled in Council at Graysville, Tennessee, 6 Mar. 1906 (D 
provided by Jessica K. Queen). 

16. STS, FMM, Dec. 6, 12, 1903. 

17. Ibid., Jan. 17, 1905. 

18. STS, BM, Apr. 19, 1906. 

19. Ibid., Oct. 23, Nov. 5, 6, [1902], [Feb. 13], 1903. 

20. Ibid., Nov. 5, 1905, Feb. 5, 19, 1906, Mar. 6, 1910, Jan. 3, 1911, Jan. 29, 
1912; Donald W. Hunter, interview by author. 

21. STS, FMM, Jan. 17, 1904; STS, BM, Feb. 2-4, 9, 1904, Jul. 16, Sep. 17, 
Nov. 17, 1906, Feb. 8, May 27, Jun. 5, 1907; SDA, YB 1905, p. 89, YB 1907, 
p. 108, YB 1908, pp. 79, 141, YB 1909, p. 155, YB 1910, p. 156, YB 1911, p. 
155; Gardner, pp. 192, 210. 

22. STS, FMM, Jan. 10, 1904; STS, BM, Nov. 5, Dec. 14, [1902], Apr. 19, 
1906, cf. STS, AA 1904-05, pp. 5-6 (SC). 

23. STS, FMM, Dec. 4, 1904, Nov. 27, 1906; Dick, p. 270; STS, AA 1905-06, 
[p. 9], AA 1909-10, pp. 8, 10; STS, CAL 1907-08, p. 9; STS, Quarterly, II (2d 
qtr., 1911), p. 29, V (2d qtr., 1915), p. 11 (SC). Oberlin had similar 
regulations. Cadwallader, p. 13. 

24. STS, FMM, Oct. 15, 18, 25, Nov. 1, 8, 1903, Oct. 23, Dec. 4, 1904, Dec. 
11, 1906. 

25. STS, PAR, 1911; STS, FMM, Jan. 31, 1907. 

26. STS, BM, May 26, Aug. 21, 1901, Apr. 6, Nov. 6, 1902, Jan. 26, Feb. 12, 
May 10, Sep. 30, 1903, Mar. 6, 1905, Mar. 19, 20, May 2, 27, Jul. 16, 1906; 
STS, AA 1904-05, p. 33. 

27. STS, BM, Mar. 20, Apr. 19, May 2, 27, 1906. The Battle Creek episode is 
narrated in VandeVere, Wisdom Seekers, pp. 42-47. See also Walter, p. 47. 

28. STS, BM, [Fall, 1902], Dec. 14, [1902], Jan. 20, Feb. 1, Nov. 22, 1903, 
Jan. 29, 1907. 

29. SIS, BM, May 7, 12, 23, 1901; STS, BM, Nov. 7, [19021, Sep. 30, 1903, 
Sep. 29, [1904], Jan. 2, Nov. 5, 1905, Nov. 19, 1906. 

30. STS, Finance Committee Minutes, May 21, [19021, (n.p.); STS, FMM, Nov. 
22, 1903; STS, BAf, Feb. 1, 1903, Feb. 25, 1904. 

31. STS, FMM, Sep. 20, 1903; STS, BAf, [Fall, 1901], Oct. 30, 1901, Sep. 20, 
1903, Oct. 25, 1904, Mar. 6, 1905. 

32. STS, BAf, Jul. 16-17, 1906. 

33. STS, FMM, Oct. 4, 1903; STS, BM, Oct. 25, 1904, Mar. 6, 1905. 

34. STS, BAf, Jan. 2, 5, 6, 1905. 

35. Ibid., May 1, 1904; STS, AA 190405, pp. 7-8, AA 1905-06, [p. 8]. Later 
administration eliminated the summer school. STS, CAL 1906-07, [p. 2]. 

36. STS, BAf, Feb. 2-3, 1904. 

37. Ibid., May 1, 1904, Mar. 19, 1906. 

38. Ibid., Feb. 12, 15, 1903, Apr. 19, 1906; Reiber, p. 36; Arthur L. White, p. 

39. STS, BAf, Apr. 7, [1902]; Reiber, loc. cit. 

40. STS, BAf, Feb. 4, 1904, Jan. 24, 1907, Mar. 6, 1910; STS, PAR, 1911, p. 
1, PAR, 1912, pp. 2, 6. 

41. STS, BAf, Jan. 19, 1910, Jan. 29, 1912, Feb. 14-15, Apr. 25, 1913; 
Contracts in folder with ibid., Apr. 26, 1913. 

42. Reiber, p. 36; STS, BAf, Feb. 2, 1904, Feb. 20, 1905. 

43. Emmett K. VandeVere, Rugged Heart: The Story of George /. Butler 
(Nashville: SPA, 1979), p. 106. 

44. STS, FMM, Oct. 4, 1903; R&H, LXXXI (Oct. 27, 1904), p. 21; Walter, p. 
27; Cadwallader, p. 214; STS, Quarterly, TV (2d qtr., 1914), p. 5. 

45. STS, BAf, Sep. 23, [1902], Jun. 28, n.d.; R&H, LXXXII (Oct. 26, 1905), p. 
18; FT, VII (Mar. 3, 1915), p. 8; Reiber, p. 45; STS, F MM, Feb. 28, 1915. 

46. STS, BAf, Apr. 19, May 27, 1906; STS, PAR, 1912, p. 9. 

47. STS, BAf, May 30, Jun. 4, 1907, Feb. 22, [1909]; STS, PAR, 1911, p. 2; 
Hansen, p. 157; STS, AA 190910, p. 7; SDA, YB 1908, pp. 72, 78. 

48. STS, AA 1904-05, pp. 11, 18-19, 21-30, 32, AA 1905-06, [pp. 11-13], AA 
1909-10, pp. 20-23; STS, CAL 1906-07, [pp. 15-171, CAL 1908-09, pp. 22-26, 
CAL 1912-13, p. 28-32; STS, Quarterly, I (Jul. 1, 1910), pp. 11, 20-22, 191, II 
(2d qtr., 1911), p. 59; Some earlier writers dated the junior college program 
too soon. Cadwallader, p. 21; Brown, p. 120. 

49. STS, FAfAf, Oct. 15, 1906. Registrar's records for the Van Kirk period 
show percentages rather than letter grades. 

50. STS, Quarterly, IV (2d qtr., 1914), p. 9; STS, FAfAf, Sep. 23, Nov. 20, 
1906, Sep. 13, 1914. 

51. STS, FMM, Dec. 4, 18, 20, 23, 1906; STS, Quarterly, IV (2d qtr., 1914), p. 
1. The following year, the calendar would again avoid listing any holiday. 
Ibid., V (2d qtr., 1915), p. 1. 

52. Reiber, pp. 40, 43; STS, BAf, Apr. 12, 1910, Dec. 13, 1911; STS, PAR, 
1911, p. 1, PAR, 1912, pp. 1-2, 7. 

53. STS, FMM, Feb. 18, Mar. 14, 1907; STS, BAf, Jun. 5, 1907, Mar. 21, 
1910; Sue Summerour Magoon (her daughter), interview by author; SDA, YB 
1909, p. 75, YB 1910, p. 75, YB 1911, p. 155. There were one or two other 
students, at least, who taught part-time at STS during the early 1900s. 
Hansard Presley taught typing and stenography. Marie Van Kirk, who 
taught Latin, seems to have been a student, judging from the extremely low 
pay she received. STS, BAf, Mar. 20, 1910, Jan. 3, 1911, Mar. 8, 11912]. 

54. STS, BAf, Jan. 29, 1912; STS, PAR, 1912, p. 8; Sue Summerour Magoon, 
interview by author; SDA, YB 1913, p. 166, YB 1915, p. 176, YB 1916, p. 183, 
YB 1918, p. 202; Reiber, p. 91. 

55. STS, BAf, Mar. 13, 1904, Oct. 31, 1906, Feb. 8, 1907; SDA ENCY, p. 

56. STS, BAf, Aug. 4-18, n.d., meeting held in connection with education 
convention at Anniston, AL; STS, FMM, Oct. 30, 1904, Dec. 11, 1906, Sep. 15, 
1914; STS, AA 1905-06, [p. 6], AA 1909-10, p. 9; STS, Quarterly, I (Jul., 1910), 
p. 6, II (2d qtr., 1911), p. 30, III (no. 4, 1913-14), p. 19, TV (2d qtr., 1914), pp. 
8-11, V (2d qtr., 1915), p. 11; STS, CAL 1907-08, p. 10, CAL 1912-13, p. 26. 

57. STS, FAfAf, Nov. 6, 1906, Sep. 15, Nov. 29, Dec. 6, 1914, May 9, 1915. 

58. STS, BAf, Jan. 3, 1911; STS, PAR, 1911, pp. 2-3, PAR, 1912, p. 2. 

59. STS, Quarterly, V (2d qtr., 1915), p. 14; STS, BAf, Oct. 6, 1910. 

60. STS, BAf, Jan. 3, 1911, Feb. 15, 1913, n.d. [C. L. Stone administration]; 
STS, Quarterly, loc. cit. 

61. STS, BAf, Apr. 19, 1906; Southern Union Conference, Sectary's Records, 
p. 1 (SC); Southern Union Conference Educational Association, Constituency 
Meeting Minutes, Jan. 3, 1910 (SC). 


62. Southern Union Conference Educational Association, Director's Meeting 
Minutes, Jul. 15, 1907 (SO; Deed Register, in Southern Union Conference 
Educational Association, Minute Book, p. 188 (SO. 

63. Southern Union Conference Educational Association, Director's Meeting 
Minutes, Jul. 1517, 19, Oct. 2, 1907, Apr. 5, 1908 (SO. 

64. SDA, YB 1914, p. 24, YB 1920, p. 16, YB 1923, p. 25; STS, PAR, 1912, p. 
9; FT, XDC (Apr. 15, 1927), p. 1. 

65. SDA, YB 1912, p. 160. 

66. Ibid., YB 1913, p. 166, YB 1914, p. 173, YB 1915, p. 176. 

67. STS, BM, Feb. 15, Sep. 13, 18, 1913, n.d. [C. L. Stone administration]; 
STS, Inc., Minutes, Dec. 30, 1913 (SO; Reiber, p. 46-47; Hansen, p. 157. 

68. Reiber, pp. 25-26, 31-32; Cadwallader, pp. 214-215; VandeVere, Rugged 
Heart, p. 106; STS, BM, Jan. 26, 1903, Sep. 18, 1913. 

69. STS, BM, Oct. 29, 1912. 

70. Ibid., Oct. 29, 1912, Jan. 3, 1915; Reiber, pp. 47-48. 

71. VandeVere, Wisdom Seekers, p. 172; Donald W. Hunter, Ray L. Jacobs, 
Jesse S. Cowdrick, telephone interviews by author. 

72. STS, FMM, Sep. 13, Nov. 22, Dec. 20, 1914, Jan. 4, 1915. 

73. Ibid., Sep. 13, 17, 1914. 

74. Ibid., Sep. 16, 22, 1914. 

75. Ibid., Nov. 23, 1914. 

76. STS, BM, Jan. 3, 1915; STS, Balance Sheet, Jun. 30, 1915, Jun. 30, 1916 

77. FT, VII (Feb. 24, 1915), p. 4; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by 
author; Reiber, p. 54. 

78. FT, loc. cit., p. 5; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author; STS, 
FMM, Feb. 28, 1915. 

79. FT, loc. cit., VII (Mar. 3, 1915), p. 8, (Mar. 10, 1915), p. 4; Reiber, p. 53; 
Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author. 

80. STS, BM, Apr. 28, 1915; Reiber, p. 54; Donald W. Hunter, telephone 
interview by author. 

81. Reiber, p. 59; STS, BM, May 24, 1915; SDA, YB 1915, p. 176, YB 1916, p. 

82. SDA ENCY, p. 1237; Reiber, p. 48; A. N. Atteberry, "Graysville— 
Collegedale," p. 1 (Ms at SO. 

83. STS, BM, Apr. 27, 1915. 

84. Ellen G. White, Testimonies, VI, p. 187; STS, BM, Aug. 9, 1915. 

85. STS, BM, Feb. 10, 1916, Apr. 27, 1915. 

86. STS, Constituency Meeting Minutes, Apr. 3, 1916 (SO. 

87. Walter, pp. 96-106, 113-117, 120. 

88. Ibid., pp. 82-91. 


1. Allen Guttmann, States Rights and Indian Removal: The Cherokee Nation 
v. The State of Georgia (Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath & Co., 1965), pp. 5, 16, 
58, 75; Goodspeed's, p. 797; Polly W. Donnelly, ed., James County: A Lost 
County of Tennessee (Ooltewah, TN: Old James County Chapter, East 
Tennessee Historical Society, 1983), p. 56. 

2. Goodspeed's, p. 797; Donnelly, pp. 3, 7, 15, cf. East Hamilton County 
Journal, 2 Aug. 1989, p. 2; 1913 James County Booster Edition of the James 
County Times, Ooltewah, Tennessee (Georgetown, TN: Old James County 
Historical Society, n.d.), p. 8. 

3. 1913 James County Booster Edition, pp. 10, 32. 

4. W. H. Branson, to Cecil Coffey, 4 Mar. 1949, p. 2 (SO. 

5. Ibid.; Atteberry, p. 3. 

6. STS, BM, Apr. 5, 1916; STS, ECM, Apr. 5, 1916 (SO. 

7. STS, BM, Jul. 6, 1916; FT, VIII (Jul. 12, 1916), p. 1, (Apr. 12, 1916), p. 1, 
(Aug. 23, 1916), p. 1; Atteberry, loc. cit.; Hansen, p. 158. 

8. Atteberry, p. 4. 

9. STS, ECM, Aug. 30, 1916; STS, BM, Sep. 14, 1916, Aug. 6, 1916; SDA, YB 
1916, p. 183, YB 1917, p. 193. 

10. FT, VIII (Sep. 20, 1916), p. 2; Masie White Jameson, telephone interview 
by author. 

11. Donald W. Hunter, Jesse S. Cowdrick, telephone interviews by author. 

12. STS, ECM, loc. cit.; Atteberry, pp. 5-6. 

13. Hansen, p. 158; Donald W. Hunter, Mrs. Margaret Littell, telephone 
interviews by author; Atteberry, pp. 6-7. 

14. Branson, to Coffey, p. 3; FT, VIII (Oct. 25, 1916), p. 1; Cecil Coffey, 
"Early History of S. M. C," p. 2 (Ms at SO. 

15. FT, Vin (Sep. 20, 1916), p. 2, DC (Jun. 20, 1917), p. 1; SDA ENCY, p. 

16. SMC, FMM, Nov. 21, 1977, p. 5; Atteberry, p. 10; Mitchell Thiel, Masie 
White Jameson, telephone interviews by author; FT, DC (Aug. 15, 1917), p. 8. 

17. Cadwallader, p. 217; Masie White Jameson, telephone interview by 
author; Coffey, p. 5. 

18. FT, VIII (Sep. 20, 1916), p. 2, XI (Feb. 5, 1919), p. 8; SJC, Industrial 
Meeting Minutes, Aug. 19, 1918, Sep. 1, 1918, (n.p.); SJC, BM, Feb. 13, 1919; 
Cadwallader, loc. cit.; Coffey, p. 3; Hansen, p. 160; SJC, CAL 1920-21, p. 12. 

19. Atteberry, p. 8; Coffey, pp. 1, 3-4; Southland, 1927, [p. 53]; FT, VIII (Nov. 
15, 1916), p. 8, (Dec. 20, 1916), p. 8, DC (Aug. 8, 15, 1917), p. 8; SJC, CAL 
1919-20, p. 10; Mitchell Thiel, interview by author; J. D. Smith, in Southland, 
1923, [pp. 26-271. 

20. Mitchell Thiel, interview by author; Masie White Jameson, telephone 
interview by author; Coffey, Ip. 5|; Atteberry, p. 8; Hansen, p. 161; 
Cadwallader, p. 218. 

21. Mitchell Thiel, interview by author; J. D. Smith, loc. cit. Gardner (A 
School of His Planning, p. 54) takes a different view, suggesting that the 
chicken coop was the president's office rather than his home, but this appears 
to contradict Huxtable's recollection (p. 6) that the president's office was in 
the "cracker box" the first year and the implication in Atteberry's manuscript 
(p. 7) that a principal's office in the commissary had been partitioned off 
before the caravan arrived. Coffey, pp 3-4; FT, VIII (Nov. 15, 1916), p. 8, 
(Dec. 20, 1916), p. 8, (Dec. 27, 1916), p. 8; SJC, ECM, Jul. 31, 1921, Jan. 17, 
1918; Cadwallader, p. 217; SJC, FMM, Sep. 10, 1919; SJC, PR, Constituency 
Meeting, Feb. 10, 1921, p. 6 (SO; Masie White Jameson, telephone interview 
by author. 

22. FT, VIII (Dec. 20, 1916), p. 8, XII (Nov. 5, 1920), p. 3; Atteberry, p. 9; 
Southland, 1927, |p. 54 1; SJC, Building Committee Minutes, May 18, 1917 
(SO; SJC, FMM, Oct. 1, 1922; SA, 24 Jan. 1947, p. 1; Betty Belew Grogg, 
telephone interview by author. 

23. Atteberry, pp. 1, 8; Coffey, pp. 1, 3; Southland, 1923, [p. 27]; FT, DC (Aug. 
8, 15, 1917), p. 8. 

24. FT, VIII (Dec. 27, 1916), p. 8, DC (May 30, 1917), p. 8, (Aug. 8, 1917), p. 
8; Southland, 1924, [p. 43]; Atteberry, p. 9; Coffey, p. 3; State of Tennessee, ex 
ref, etc. v. Southern Junior College, Case 25,252, (Chattanooga Chancery 
Court, 1933), deposition of Mr. Henry J. Klooster, deposition, Mar. 17, 1933. 

25. Atteberry, pp. 10-11; SJC, BM, Jan. 18, 1917; STS, BM, Sep. 4, 1917; FT, 
DC (Apr. 4, 1917), p. 8, (Jul. 4, 1917), p. 8, XI (Jan. 9, 1919), p. 8; Coffey, [p. 
5]; SJC, ECM, Jun. 23, 1917. 

26. FT, DC (Apr. 4, 1917), p. 8, (Jun. 13, 1917), p. 8, (Jul. 4, 1917), p. 8, X 
(Nov. 13, 1918), p. 8, (Dec. 18, 1918), p. 8, XI (Jan. 9, 1919), p. 8, (Mar. 26, 
1919), p. 8, (Nov. 5, 1919), p. 1, XIII (Apr. 6, 1921), p. 7; Coffey, loc. cit.; SJC, 
ECM, loc. cit.; STS, BM, loc. cit.; "John H. Talge," [p. 1] (Ms at SO; 
Atteberry, p. 12; Hansen, p. 161; SJC, PR, loc. cit.; Southland, 1927, [p. 4]. 

27. SJC, Building Committee Minutes, May 18, 1917; General Conference 
Bulletin, VIII (Apr. 4, 1918), p. 58, (Apr. 9, 1918), p. 117; FT, DC (Jun. 20, 
1917), p. 1, (Aug. 22, 1917), p. 2, (Nov 14, 1917), p. 3; Hansen, pp. 160-161; 
SJC, BM, Dec. 24, 1917, adjourned meeting. As a way of soliciting funds 
from those who were not affiliated with the denomination, the board 
authorized the publication of a four-page monthly publication called the 
Southern Junior College Bulletin. BM, Sep. 4, 1917, Dec. 24, 1917, adjourned 
meeting; Atteberry, p. 11. 

28. Atteberry, pp. 11-12; FT, DC (Oct. 24, 1917), p. 1; Hansen, p. 160; Masie 
White Jameson, interview by author; Cadwallader, p. 218; Southland, 1927, 
[p. 54]; Coffey, [p. 6]. The delay in getting the electricity hooked up was due 
to a combination of a shortage of funds and the fact that once they received a 
request to connect the school, it would take the Tennessee Power Company 

seven to eleven months to run the power lines. SJC, BM, Jan. 18, 1917; SJC, 
ECM, May 3, Jun. 23, 1917; SJC, Minority Board Minutes, Nov. 18, 1917 

29. FT, DC (Dec. 19, 1917), p. 8, XI (Mar. 26, 1919), p. 8; Coffey, [p. 5]; SJC, 
FMM, Mar. 23, 30, 1919. 

30. Coffey, [p. 6]; FT, X (Jun. 26, 1918), p. 8, (Oct. 28, 1918), pp. 1, 8, (Oct. 

30. 1918), p. 8, (Nov. 6, 1918), p. 1, XI (Mar. 5, 1919), p. 8; Branson, to 
Coffey, p. 3; SJC, ECM, Oct. 7, 1918; Hansen, p. 162; SJC, Special Committee 
on Future Building Programs Minutes, Feb. 24, May 19, 1919. 

31. Hansen, p. 62; Tennessee Power Company and SJC, electric service 
agreement, Aug. 26, 1919; FT, XI (Jun. 18, 1919), p. 8, (Sep. 10, 1919), p. 8, 
(Sep. 17, 1919), p. 8, (Nov. 5, 1919), p. 1; SJC, ECM, May 19, 1919. 

32. Southland, 1923, [p. 45], 1927, |p. 54]; SJC, ECM, Jun. 23, 1917, May 12, 
Jun. 24, 1920; STS, BM, Jul. 29, 1917; SJC, Minority Board Minutes, Nov. 18, 
1917; SJC, BM, Dec. 24, 1917, adjourned meeting, Jul. 29, Nov. 12, 1919, Jul. 
21, Jan. 21, 1920, Feb. 13, 1921, Jan. 24, Jan. 28, May 24, 1923, Jan. 24, Oct. 
19, 1924, Aug. 3, 1925; Hansen, pp. 162, 165; FT, X (Jan. 16, 1918), p. 8, 
(Apr. 24, 1918), p. 8, XI (Oct. 22, 1919), p. 3, (Nov. 11, 1919), p. 2, (Nov. 19, 
1919), p. 8, XVII (Oct. 28, 1925), p. 7, (Nov. 18, 1925), p. 7, XVIII (Feb. 10, 
1926), p. 7; SJC, PR, Constituency Meeting, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC, Special 
Committee on Future Building Programs Minutes, Feb. 24, 1919, corrected 
copy; R&H, CI (Sep. 25, 1924), pp. 19-20; Branson, to Coffey, loc. cit.; SJC, 
FMM, Jan. 26, 1919. 

33. SJC, BM, Jul. 24, 1924; SMC, BM, Mar. 28, 1945 (SO. 

34. Atteberry, p. 13; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author; R&H, 
CII (Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17, CIV (Jan. 27, 1927), p. 19. 

35. SJC, BM, Apr. 11, 1918, Dec. 24, 1917, Feb. 2, Jul. 20, 1919, Apr. 8, 
1920, Jun. 9, 10, 1921, May 25, 1922; FT, XTV (Aug. 30, 1922), p. 7; SDA, YB 
1919, p. 211, YB 1918, p. 91; Southern Union Worker, XII (Jul. 25, 1918), p. 6; 
SJC, ECM, Apr. 14, 1921; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author; 
SJC, FMM, Oct. 22, May 25, Jul. 18, Sep. 17, 1922, Nov. 30, 1919. 

36. SJC, BM, Feb. 2, 1925; Leo Thiel, to W. H. Heckman, 1 Feb. 1925 (SO; 
Southland, 1926, [p. 6]; Hansen, p. 162; R&H, CII (Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17; 
SDA, YB 1925, p. 234; FT, XVIII (Nov. 10, 1926), p. 7, XTX (Feb. 2, 1927), p. 
6; SJC, FMM, Jan. 24, 1927. 

37. SDA ENCY, p. 182; Walter, p. 139. 

38. SDA, YB 1917, p. 193, YB 1927, p. 263; Elva B. Gardner, A School of His 
Planning, rev. ed. (Chattanooga: Starkey Printing Company, 1972), pp. 300- 
315; SA, 19 Jan. 1962, p. 1. 

39. This brief biography of Maude Jones is distilled from interviews with 
Frances E. Andrews, H. Douglas Bennett, Betty L. Collins, Lettie Collins, 
Edythe Stephenson Cothren, Jesse S. Cowdrick, Mary E. Elam, Charles 
Fleming, Jr., Ruth Miller Gibson, June Snide Hooper, Ralston Hooper, Donald 
W. Hunter, Ray L. Jacobs, Irene Tolhurst Kreigsman, Sue Summerour 
Magoon, Betty Jo Boynton McMillan, Martha Montgomery Odom, Arthur 
Richert, Jr., Joyce Cunningham Richert, Thyra Bowen Sloan, Drew M. 
Turlington, and from the following published sources and unpublished 
documents: SA, I (Oct. 12, 1945), pp. 1-2, (Apr. 5, 1946), p. 1, TV (Oct. 24, 
1948), p. 4, XVII (Jan. 19, 1962), p. 1; SMC, Annual Catalog, II (Jun., 1952), 
p. 9 (SO; SJC, SS, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 8; SMC, Teacher Roster, 1951- 
62, (D courtesy of Mary Elam); FT, X (Sep. 25, 1918), p. 8, (Jul. 24, 1918), p. 
6; Patti Hare, to the author, 18 Oct. 1990 (SO; SDA, YB 1917, p. 193; SJC, 
PR, Jan. 22, 1923; SJC, FMM, Oct. 14, 1918; SJC, ECM, Oct. 6, 1921, Apr. 6, 
Jun. 5, 1938; Maude Jones Guest Book, Oct. 10, 1949 to Jun. 16, 1955; 
Southland, 1924, [p. 1]; Triangle, 1946, p. 4; SMC, BM, May 22, 1945, Feb. 5, 

40. SDA, YB 1917, loc. cit., YB 1927, loc. cit.; FT, X (Jul. 24, 1918), pp. 1, 6, 
XVIII (Jan. 6, 1926), p. 8, XXII (Jul. 23, 1930), p. 7, XXIV (Mar. 16, 1932), p. 
8; SJC, BM, Feb. 11, Jun. 9, 1921, Jul. 21, 1920; SJC, PR, Jun. 22, 1923; 
Southland, 1925, pp. 4-5. 

41. Jesse S. Cowdrick, telephone interview by author. 

42. SDA, YB 1892, p. 5; SJC, FMM, Nov. 22, 1919, Mar. 9, 1926; SJC, BM, 
Feb. 11, 1921; SJC, PR, loc. cit.; FT, XVI (Mar. 6, 1924), p. 4; Collegedale 
SDA Church, Arise and Build (fund-raising pamphlet), [p. 4], (n.p.). 

43. SJC, PR, loc. cit.; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author; SJC, 
FMM, Sep. 15, 1919; SJC, BM, Feb. 11, 1921, Jan. 28, 1923, Aug. 3, 1925; 
SDA, YB 1917, loc. cit. Sometimes a professor's teaching load would be 


slightly reduced when he took on heavy managerial responsibilities. See, for 
example, SJC, FMM, Oct. 14, 1919. 

44. Official reports of enrollment figures contain some discrepancies, but it 
appears that enrollment reached a peak in 1924-25 and then leveled off until 
1927-28, when it reached 288. SDA ENCY, p. 1237; SDA, YB 1917, loc. cit., 
YB 1927, loc. cit.; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 7, 1922, Jan. 22, 1923, Feb. 1, 

1925, 1928; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 7, 1922 (SO; R&H, CII (Jun. 18, 
1925), p. 17. 

45. The report in earlier books that the first Commencement was held in a 
tent is incorrect. It began on the lawn of the yellow house, but a rainstorm 
forced removal to an unfinished building. Atteberry, p. 10; FT, IX (Jun. 6, 
19171, p. 8; R&H, CII (Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17. 

46. FT, K (Aug. 1, 1917), p. 8, X (Jun. 19, 1918), p. 8. 

47. F. Walter Wallbank, et al., Civilization Past and Present, 6th ed. 
(Glenville, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1987), p. 767; FT, X (Oct. 28, 
1918), p. 8, (Oct. 30, 1918), p. 8, XII (Mar. 17, 1920), p. 8, XVIII (Feb. 24, 
1926), p. 6; SJC, BM, Apr. 12, 1920; Southland, 1923, (p. 361. 

48. SJC, FMM, Nov. 24, 1918, Feb. 1, May 5, 1924, Oct. 3, Dec. 28, 1920, 
Nov. 4, 11, Dec. 2, 8, 1923, undated minutes; SJC, BM, Feb. 13, 1919, 
extraordinary session Jan. 15, 1924; FT, XI (Mar. 26, 1919), p. 8, XV (Apr. 11, 
1923), p. 3; SJC, ECM, Dec. 31, 1925; SJC, PR, Feb. 15, 1924, Feb. 1, 1925; 
Martha Montgomery Odom, telephone interview by author. 

49. FT, DC (Jan. 17, 1917), p. 1, X (Jul. 24, 1918), p. 3; STS, Inc., ECM, Nov. 
7, 1916; SJC, FMM, May 4, 1919; Southern Union Worker, XII (Jul. 25, 1918), 
pp. 2-3, 5. 

50. SJC, FMM, Mar. 16, Sep. 15, 1919, Nov. 8, 1923; SJC, CAL 1922-23, p. 
57 (SO; Southland, IV (Jul., 1926), pp. 60-61. 

51. SJC, BM, Feb. 13, 1919; SJC, CAL 1919-20, p. 48, CAL 1921-22, pp. 55- 
57, 60-62 (SO; SJC, FMM, Jun. 4, 1924; Southland, IV (Jul., 1926), pp. 50- 
54; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921. 

52. George F. Zook, to Shelton Phelps, SJC Board Minute Book, 8 Dec. 1921 
(SO. Apparently the school was motivated by a new Alabama requirement 
regarding teacher education. SJC, FMM, Dec. 18, 1921. 

53. Zook, to Phelps, loc. cit. 

54. J. S. Abel, acting commissioner, Department of the Interior, Bureau of 
Education, 19 Oct. 1920 (SO; SJC, ECM, Nov. 28, 1921; Zook, to Phelps, loc. 
cit., emphasis supplied and spelling corrected; SDA, YB 1921 , p. 66. 

55. George F. Zook, to John C. Thompson, 4 Jan. 1922 (SO; Bert E. Young, 
to John C. Thompson, 19 Jan. 1922 (SO. 

56. SJC, FMM. These minutes are dated Dec. 27, 1921, but if the dates on 
the correspondence are correct that date is impossible. More likely would be 
Jan. or Feb. 27, 1922. BM, Mar. 9, 1922. 

57. SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922. 

58. Another concern expressed by at least one Adventist educational leader 
was the financial cost of complying with accreditation requirements when 
SDA schools were already heavily burdened with debt. SJC, FMM, Nov. 17, 
1923, Dec. 13, 1924; Walter, pp. 159-160, 165. 

59. SJC, FMM, loc. cit.; Walter, pp. 131, 133, 143-44, 155. 

60. The time of the rising bell varied from year to year and from school year 
to summer. It could be as early as 5:00 or as late as 6:00. SJC, FMM, Jun. 
12, Sep. 4, 1921, May 2, Oct. 10, Nov. 5, 1922, May 23, Sep. 15, 1923, Sep. 13, 

1926, Nov. 19, 1918, Sep. 15, Oct. 30, 1919; SJC, Industrial Meeting Minutes, 
Sep. 21, 1924, Sep. 23, 1918; Southern Union Worker, XIII (Jul. 25, 1918), pp. 
4-5; SJC, BM, Jan. 28, 1923, Nov. 17, 1920, Feb. 12, 1919; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 
1921; SJC, CAL 1919-20, p. 19, CAL 1923-24, p. 24, CAL 1924-25, pp. 5, 24, 
CAL 1925-26, pp. 3, 25 (SO; STS, BM, Jan. 12, 1917; FT, X (Jun. 12, 1918), 
p. 8, XI (Jun. 11, 1919), p. 8; Southland, TV (Jul., 1926), p. 24. 

61. SJC, FMM, Oct. 14, 1918, Jan. 12, Mar. 23, 1919, Oct. 19, 1920, Nov. 18, 
1923, Jan. 21, 1924, Sep. 22, Dec. 2, 15, 1925, Jan. 12, May 4, 1926; SJC, 
ECM, May 19, 1919; SJC, CAL 1919-20, p. 20, CAL 1920-21, p. 23, CAL 1922- 
23, p. 25; Southland, IV (Jul., 1926), p. 25. 

62. An earlier rule had specified that skirts come down to the top of the 
high-top shoes. Southland, 1923, [p. 39]; SJC, FMM, Apr. 25, 1920, Sep. 13, 
1926; Masie White Jameson, Ruth Miller Gibson, telephone interviews by 
author; FT, XIII (Jul. 14, 1926), p. 7. 

63. SJC, Industrial Meeting Minutes, Sep. 13, 1926; Reiber, p. 34. 

64. SJC, FMM, Jan. 24, 1921, cf. SDA, YB 1921, p. 65. 

65. SJC, FMM, May 23, 1923, Feb. 21, 1927, May 11, 1926. The elbow rule 
was revised in 1925. FMM, Sep. 7, 1925; SJC, CAL 1921-22, p. 27; 
Southland, IV (Jul., 1926), p. 30; Irene Tolhurst Kreigsman, telephone 
interview by author; Martha Montgomery Odom, interview by author; SJC, 
Dress Committee Minutes, Oct. 11, Nov. 16, 1922 (SO. 

66. It was also suggested that it would be a waste of money to educate 
potential denominational workers who fell in love before completing their 
education. SJC, FMM, Feb. 23, 1919, Apr. 4, 25, 1920, Apr. 11, May 9, Jun. 
12, 1921, Jan. 15, Feb. 5, Apr. 9, Sep. 24, Oct. 14, Nov. 5, 1922. 

67. SJC, FMM, Dec. 29, 1918, Jan. 19, Feb. 23, 1919, Sep. 25, Nov. 21, 1920, 
Feb. 13, Jun. 29, Sep. 24, Oct. 14, Nov. 5, 26, 1922, Sep. 29, 1925, Feb. 7, 
1927; SJC, CAL 1921-22, pp. 23-24, 26; Southland, IV (Jul., 1926). p. 26. 

68. SJC, FMM, Nov. 5, 1922, Mar. 23, May 15, 1926; SJC, Discipline 
Committee Minutes, Apr. 4, 1926 (SO; SJC, ECM, May 23, Jun. 10, 13, 1921. 

69. SJC, FMM, Oct. 29, 1918, Jan. 1, 1922, Jan. 12, May 15, 1926. 

70. The reason for banning "chafing dishes, electric grills, irons, etc." was the 
possible "damage to furniture." Southland, TV (Jul., 1926), pp. 27-29; SJC, 
CAL 1919-20, pp. 22-23, CAL 1920-21, pp. 13, 25, CAL 1925-26, p. 30; SJC, 
FMM, Mar. 2, 1919, Oct. 11, 1922; SJC, ECM, Dec. 29, 1919, Oct. 24, 1920. 

71. Southland, TV (Jul., 1926), application blank; SJC, CAL 1920-21, pp. 12- 
13; SJC, BM, Jul. 21, 1920. 

72. Eva Teed Beugnot, Masie White Jameson, telephone interviews by 

73. Ray L. Jacobs, telephone interview by author; IT, XII (May 5, 1920), p. 
8, XVIII (Apr. 14, 1926), p. 7, [May 5, 1926), p. 7, (Jun. 2, 1926), p. 7, XIX 
(Apr. 6, 1927), p. 7; SJC, FMM, Apr. 22, 1924, Mar. 16, 1926. 

74. SJC, BM, Dec. 23, 1918, Feb. 4, 1920; Coffey, p. 7; Gardner, rev. ed„ p. 
78; SJC, FMM, Feb. 15, 1920, Feb. 13, 19, 1922. 

75. SJC, FMM, Dec. 31, 1922; SJC, BM, Jan. 24, 1923; FT, XVIII (Apr. 28, 
1926), p. 7. 

76. FT, XI (Mar. 26, 1919), p. 8, XV (Jun. 6, 1923), p. 1, (Jun. 28, 1923), p. 1; 
SJC, BM, Feb. 4, 1920, Jan. 28, 1923: SJC, FMM, Mar. 13, 1923; SJC, ECM, 
Dec. 11, 1924, Nov. 24, 1926; SDA, YB 1968, p. 46. 

77. FT, XVIII (Feb. 10, 1926), p. 7; Southland, 1924, |p. 991, 1925, pp. 16, [p. 
591; SJC, FMM, Jan. 3, 1921, Nov. 19, 1922, Apr. 14, 1924. Similarly, the 
board disapproved of organizing an alumni association in 1919. SJC, BM, 
Jul. 29, 1919. By 1924, however, the faculty, at least, were in favor of having 
such an organization. 

78. Southland, 1925, |pp. 15-161, Ipp. 55-561; FT, X (Oct. 16, 1918), p. 8, 
XVIII (Jan. 13, 1926), p. 7; SJC, FMM, Jan. 12, Dec. 14, 21, 1919, Jan. 11, 
1920, Nov. 4, 1921, Fob. 3, 1924, Dec. 6, 1926, Jan. 24, 1927. 

79. SJC, FMM, Dec. 14, 1919, Oct. 1, 1922. 

80. FT, VIII (Dec. 6, 1916), p. 8, (Dec. 27, 1916), p. 8, IX (Mar. 21, 1917), p. 

81. SJC, FMM, Aug. 14, Oct. 12, 1921, Jan. 8, Nov. 5, 1922, Sep. 29, 1925; 
FT, XIV (Jun. 14, 1922), p. 7, (Nov. 1, 1922), p. 7, XVII (May 20, 1925), p. 7, 
XVIII (Jan. 6, 1926), p. 7, (Mar. 3, 1926), p. 7, (Mar. 10, 1926), p. 7, (Mar. 24, 
1926), p. 7; Southland, 1925, p. 95; Irene Tolhurst Kreigsman, telephone 
interview by author. 

82. FT, XVII (Mar. 18, 1925), p. 8, XIX (May 19, 1927), p. 7, (Jun. 29, 1927), 
p. 7; Southland, 1925, [p. 971; Irene Tolhurst Kreigsman, telephone interview 
by author; SJC, FMM, Apr. 13, 1926, May 5, 1925, cf. Jan. 19, 1918, Feb. 21, 

83. FT, VIII (Dec. 6, 1916), p. 8, XII (Dec. 1, 1920), p. 8, XIII (Nov. 30, 1921), 
p. 8, XTV (Dec. 13, 1922), p. 8, XVII (Dec. 2, 1925), p. 7, XVIII (Dec. 1, 1926), 
pp. 7-8; Southland, 1923, Ip. 42]; SJC, FMM, Oct. 20, 1925. 

84. FT, DC (Jul. 11, 1917), p. 8, XV (Jul. 11, 1923), p. 2, XVII (Jul. 15, 1925), 
p. 1, XVm (Jul. 14, 1926), p. 7. 

85. Masie White Jameson, telephone interview by author; SJC, FMM, Oct. 
31, Nov. 5, 1922. 

86. The faculty permitted a game to be played on Sunday, October 9, 1924, 
to fulfill a promise made the previous year. However in the fall of 1925, they 
denied a student request to permit a game the Sunday after examinations, 
stating that no games were to be played before 4:45. In 1927, the old lament 

appeared in the faculty minutes: some faculty members felt that baseball was 
causing some students to neglect their studies. SJC, FMM, Apr. 27, 1919, 
Feb. 21, 1920, Mar. 1, 14, 28, May 17, 23, 1921, Feb. 26, Nov. 26, 1922, Jun. 
1, 1924, Oct. 20, 1925, Mar. 14, 1927; Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview 
by author. 

87. SJC, FMM, Dec. 15, 1918, Oct. 12, 19, 1919, Dec. 30, 1920, Sep. 13, 1926, 
Mar. 14, 1927; FT, DC (May 30, 1917), p. 8, (May 22, 1918), p. 8, XIII (Apr. 
20, 1921), p. 7, XV (Jun. 6, 1923), p. 1, XVIII (May 12, 1926), p. 7, XDC (Apr. 
20, 1927), p. 7; Masie White Jameson, telephone interview by author. 

88. Coffey, [p. 6]; FT, VIII (Dec. 13, 1916), p. 8, XIII (Apr. 20, 1921), p. 7, XV 
(Mar. 21, 1923), p. 8, XVI (Nov. 5, 1924), p. 8, XVIII (Nov. 24, 1926), p. 7, 
XVIII (Oct. 27, 1926), pp. 7-8; SJC, FMM, Dec. 14, 1920; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 
Dec. 27, 1921, Oct. 21. 1925; Southland, 1924, Ip. 411. 

89. SJC, FMM, Mar. 16, 1919, Jan. 24, Feb. 21, 1927, Jan. 29, Sep. 17, Oct. 
1, 1922, Sep. 15, 1925, Jun. 12, 1921. Worship was earlier during the 
summer of 1923. FMM, May 23, 1923; SJC, CAL 1922-23, p. 27; Southland, 
rv (Jul., 1926), p. 27; SJC, ECM, Sep. 22, 1920, Apr. 14, 1921; FT, VIII (Nov. 
15, 1916), p. 8, XIII (Jun. 15, 1921), p. 7, XTV (Nov. 1, 1922), p. 7; Southland, 
1924, [p. 35]. 

90. Jesse S. Cowdrick, telephone interview by author. 

91. SJC, FMM, Nov. 12, 1925; R&H, CIV (Jan. 27, 1927), p. 19. 

92. Donald W. Hunter, telephone interview by author, cf. Southland, 1923, 
[pp. 31-35]; Ibid., 1924, [pp. 42-45]; FT, X (Oct. 16, 1918), p. 8, XI (Jan. 9, 
1919), p. 8, XIII (Apr. 20, 1921), p. 7, (Nov. 23, 1921), p. 7, XTV (Mar. 15, 
1922), p. 7, (Dec. 13, 1922), p. 8, (Jan. 31, 1923), pp. 6-7, (Jun. 6, 1923), p. 1, 
XVI (Mar. 6, 1924), p. 4, XIX (Mar. 16, 1927), p. 7; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, 
Mar. 7, 1922; SJC, FMM, Dec. 15, 1918, Oct. 19, 1919, Oct. 24, 1920, Nov. 8, 
Dec. 18, 27, Oct. 30, 1921, Jan. 29, Oct. 11, Nov. 19, 1922, Feb. 20, 1923; 
R&H, CII (Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17; SJC, ECM, Sep. 22, 1920. For an example of 
an individual converted by the ministerial band, see FT, X (Jan. 16, 1918), p. 

93. SJC, FMM, Dec. 13, 1924, Jan. 31, Feb. 7, Apr. 18, 1927; SJC, BM, Jan. 
19, 1917, May 6, 1925; FT, XVII (Mar. 4, 1925), p. 8, XVIII (Mar. 31, 1926), p. 
7; SJC, Industrial Meeting Minutes, Jun. 24, 1918. 

94. In 1918, the constituents voted to close the school down, but rescinded 
the action. In 1921, the board voted a new job description for the treasurer 
which listed as one of his duties to see that the no-debt policy was "carefully 
guarded." SJC, BM, Jul. 29, Nov. 15, 1919, Nov. 17, 1920, Feb. 11, 1921; 
STS, BM, Sep. 4, Feb. 12, 1917; SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922, Feb. 27, 1933; SJC, 
Balance Sheet, July 1, 1919, Sep. 1, 1920, Jun. 7, 1921 (SO; SJC, ECM, Jul. 
31, 1921, Aug. 1, 1922; SJC, Budget, Sep. 19, 1921 (SO; SJC, Treasurer's 
Report, Feb. 21, 1923, Feb. 1, 1925 (SO; SJC, Financial Statement, 1925-26 
(SO; F. L. Harrison and Burton Castle, Report to the Board, fiscal year 
ending Jun. 25, 1923 (SO. 

95. SJC Board, to the Executive Committee of the General Conference, 7 
Sep. 1921 (SO; SJC, BM, Sep. 19, 20, 1921; SJC, FMM, Oct. 6, 1921, cf. SJC, 
Budget, Sep. 19, 1921; SJC, ECM, Oct. 6, 1921. 

96. SJC, FMM, Oct. 6, 7, 1921; SMC, FMM, Nov. 21, 1977; SJC, Budget, Oct. 
9, 1921. Soon some of the other faculty members found that they were 
unable to live on their reduced wages, and adjustments had to be made. SJC, 
ECM, Nov. 28, 1921; SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC Board, to the Executive 
Committee of the General Conference, loc. cit. 

97. SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC Board, to the Executive Committee of the 
General Conference, loc. cit.; SJC, BM, Nov. 15, 1919; SJC, Condensed Report 
of Loss and Gain, Apr. 26, 1921 (SO; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; 
Harrison and Castle, loc. cit. 

98. STS, BM, Sep. 4, 1917; SJC, BM, Apr. 6, 1918, Jul. 21, 1920, Jul. 24, 
1924; SJC, Auditor's Statement, Sep. 1, 1920 (SO; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 
22, 1920; SJC, ECM, Nov. 28, 1921; SJC, CAL 1919-20, p. 18, CAL 1925-26, 
p. 24; SJC, PR, Feb. 1, 1925. 

99. STS, BM, Feb. 12, 1917; SJC, Building Committee Minutes, Feb. 5, 1917; 
SJC, BM, Feb. 12, 13, Nov. 12, 29, 1919, Nov. 17, 1920, May 24, 1923; SJC, 
PR, Feb. 10, 1921; SJC, CAL 1924-25, inside front cover; Southland, IV (Jul., 
1926), inside front cover. 

100. SJC, BM, Feb. 4, 1920, Jul. 24, 1924; SJC, Board Minute Book, 1921, 
pp. 181-82 (SO; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 22, 1920; SJC, Treasurer's Report, 
Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 7, 1922, Feb. 1, 1925; SJC, Condensed Operating and 


Revenues Statement, Jun. 27, 1922 (SC); SJC, Financial Statement, 1925-26; 
SJC, Financial Statement, 1926-27; SJC, FMM, Dec. 13, 1924, Oct. 6, 1921; 
SJC, PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934; Klooster, deposition, p. 15. 

101. STS, ECM, Aug. 30, 1916; SJC, BM, Apr. 12, 1920, Mar. 3, 1926, Jul. 
29, Nov. 15, 1919; SJC, ECM, Jun. 13, 1921, Mar. 15, May 25, 1922, May 12, 
Jun. 24, 1920; SC, ECM, Dec. 2, 1990. 

102. SJC, ECM, Jun. 23, 1917; STS, Inc., ECM, Nov. 7, 1916; SJC, BM, Nov. 
16, 1920; SJC, FMM, Nov. 18, 1919. 

103. STS, Inc., ECM, Nov. 7, 1916; SJC, BM, Apr. 12, Jun. 24, Nov. 16, 1920, 
Jun. 9, Jul. 21, 1921, Oct. 16, 1922, Feb. 2, 1925; SJC, FMM, Nov. 18, Jun. 7, 
1919; SJC, ECM, Jun. 23, 1917, May 12, 1920, Apr. 14, 1921. For an 
exception, see SJC, BM, Apr. 14, 1921. 

104. Atteberry, p. 11; SJC, BM, Jul. 29, 1919, Jul. 21, 1920. 

105. SJC, FMM, Nov. 5, Dec. 3, 1922, Oct. 14, 1923, Oct. 21, 1925; SJC, BM, 
Nov. 20, 1926, Feb. 25, 1925. 

106. SJC, BM, Nov. 5, 1922, Oct. 14, 1923, Feb. 21, Oct. 21, 1925, Nov. 20, 
1926, Apr. 12, 1920; STS, BM, Feb. 12, 1917; "Ooltewah School Board 
Minutes," May 26, 1918 (SC); SJC, ECM, May 19, 1919, Apr. 11, 1922, May 
12, 1920, Apr. 14, 1921; Southland, TV (Jul., 1926), p. 18. 

107. STS, BM, Jan. 12, 1917; SJC, BM, Jan. 28, 1923; SJC, FMM, Apr. 21, 
1926, Sep. 4, 5, 18, Oct. 7, Dec. 4, 1921; FT, XVIII (Mar. 10, 1926), p. 7. 

108. Southland, 1924, [pp. 9-19], 1925, Ip. 61]; SDA, YB 1925, pp. 77, 194, 
227, YB 1948, p. Ill, YB 1968, pp. 13, 16, 18, 46; Martha Montgomery Odom, 
interview by author. 

109. Southland, 1925, 1pp. 19, 61]; SDA, YB 1925, pp. 193, 194, YB 1926, pp. 
211, 212, YB 1927, pp. 225, 226, 227, YB 1929, pp. 89, 392, YB 1930, p. 88, 
YB 1931, p. 84, YB 1932, p. 425, YB 1934, p. 359, YB 1938, p. 139, YB 1939, 
p. 421, YB 1940, p. 325, YB 1943, pp. 262, 307, YB 1944, p. 268, YB 1945, p. 
268;, YB 1948, pp. Ill, 411, YB 1958, p. 19, YB 1982, pp. 510, 807; R&H, 
CXCIN (Oct. 7, 1965), p. 17; Martha Montgomery Odom, interview by author; 
SJC, SS, I (Jul. 5, 1929), p. 4; SJC, AA 1934-35, p. 93. 

110. CFP, 26 Jun. 1989, pp. Al, A5; East Hamilton County Journal, 5 Jul. 
1989, pp. 1, 4, 5, 6; O. D. McKee, interview by author. 

111. East Hamilton County Journal, loc. cit., pp. 4, 5, 6; Southland, 1928, [p. 
34]; SDA, YB 1929, p. 90; CFP, loc. cit., p. A4, A5; Ellsworth McKee, 
interview by author. 


1. VandeVere, Wisdom Seekers, pp. 133-134, 184; SJC, AA 1932-33, p. 5 (SC); 
SJC, SS, VII (cat. no. 1935-36), p. 5 (SC); Gardner, p. 189; FT, XIX (Apr. 6, 
1927), p. 8, XXII (Feb. 12, 1930), p. 7; Klooster, Deposition, p. 1; Walter, p. 
177; Ray L. Jacobs, Ralph M. Hendershot, interviews by author. 

2. SJC, SS, V (cat. no. 1933-34), pp. 7, 45, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), pp. 7, 9, 48- 
49 (SC); SJC, AA 1928-29, p. 41, AA 1929-30, pp. 9, 11, 49, AA 1930-31, p. 11, 
AA 1931-32, p. 11, AA 1932-33, pp. 9, 45, AA 1933-34, p. 9 (SC); Southland, V 
(Jul., 1927), pp. 41-42; Ray L. Jacobs, telephone interview by author; FT, 
XXII (May 14, 1930), p. 7, (Oct. 22, 1930), p. 7, XXVII (Feb. 20, 1935), p. 8, 
(Mar. 13, 1935), p. 8, (Sep. 18, 1935), p. 18, XXVIII (Jan. 22, 1936), p. 8, (Apr. 
15, 1936), p. 15, (Jul. 22, 1936), p. 8, (Jul. 29, 1936), p. 8, (Aug. 19, 1936), p. 
8, XXDC (Jan. 27, 1937), p. 8, (Apr. 21, 1937), p. 8. He was one of the three 
local elders of the Collegedale SDA Church. Ibid., XXVIII (Jan. 1, 1936), p. 8. 

3. John William Henson III, Lucy Eula Henson (Chattanooga: by the author, 
1990), [pp. 88-89]. 

4. H. J. Klooster, to Elder J. K. Jones and members of the SJC board, 13 
Jun. 1937, TLS (SC); SJC, BM, Oct. 24-25, 1938, Jun. 14, 1937, Mar. 24-25, 
1941; SS, XII (Nov., 1940), p. 1, XIII (Mar., 1942), p. 1; SJC, SS, XIII (cat. no. 
1941-42), p. 5 (SC); SJC, Local Board Minutes, Aug. 2, 1937 (SC); ST, XXIX 
(Jul. 28, 1937), p. 8, (Aug. 25, 1937), p. 16; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 1942 (SC); Thyra 
Bowen Sloan, Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, June Thorpe Blue, William M. 
Schomburg, interviews by author; Olivia Dean, Milton T. Reiber, telephone 
interviews by author. 

5. SJC, SS, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 5; ST, XXXVI (Oct. 7, 1942), p. 5; 
VandeVere, Wisdom Seekers, p. 157; SDA, YB 1944, p. 246; SMC, PR, 1947 

6. Folmsbee, p. 466; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 1934, p. 3, Mar. 4, 1942, p. 5 (SC); 
SMC, PR, 1947, p. 3; SJC, SS, VII (cat. no. 1935-36), pp. 5-7, XTV (cat. no. 

1942-43), p. 5; SDA, YB 1935, p. 58, YB 1936, p. 60, YB 2937, p. 13; SJC, 
Triangle, 1942, p. 14; SJC, BM, Oct. 7, 1940, Oct. 1, 1941. 

7. SJC, SS, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 5; June Snide Hooper, Margarita Dietel 
Merriman, telephone interviews by author; William M. Schomburg, interview 
by author. 

8. SJC, SS, XTV, loc. cit.; William M. Schomburg, June Thorpe Blue, 
interviews by author; June Snide Hooper, Margarita Dietel Merriman, 
telephone interviews by author; SMC, SS, XVI (cat. no. 1944-45), p. 6. 

9. SJC, BM, Oct. 1, 1941; William M. Schomburg, Thyra Bowen Sloan, 
interviews by author; SMC, SS, XVII (cat. no. 1945-46), p. 7. 

10. SMC, CAT 1952-53, p. 11; SJC, SS, XI (cat. no. 1939-40), p. 6; SDA, YB 
1955, p. 234, YB 1956, p. 324; Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, Thyra Bowen 
Sloan, interviews by author; June Snide Hooper, Peggy E. Bennett, telephone 
interviews by author. 

11. Information about Luddington is distilled from interviews with Edythe 
Stephenson Cothren, Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, Wayne Rimmer, Thyra 
Bowen Sloan, Ellsworth McKee, Cecil R. Coffey, Lora Winkler, Peggy E. 
Bennett, Milton T. Reiber, Olivia Dean, Margarita Dietel Merriman, as well 
as the following published sources: SDA, YB 1931, p. 311, YB 1934, p. 246, 
YB 1936, p. 269, YB 2952, p. 267, YB 1953, p. 274; SJC, AA 1932-33, p. 7; 
SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1932-33), p. 7, VI (cat. no. 1933-34), pp. 7, 47, VII (cat. 
no. 1934-35), pp. 7, 9, XTV (cat. no. 1941-42), p. 10, XV (cat. no. 1942-43), pp. 

6, 10; SMC, SS, XVII (cat. no. 1945-46), p. 6, XVIII (cat. no. 1946-47), p. 9 
(SC); FT, XXIII (Apr. 1, 1931), p. 7, (May 6, 1931), p. 7; ST, XXTV, (Oct. 26, 
1932), p. 8, (Nov. 9, 1932), p. 16, XXV, (Jun. 21, 1933), p. 8, XXVI, (Jan. 10, 
1934), p. 8, (Mar. 28, 1934), p. 8, (Jun. 20, 1934), p. 8, (Sep. 26, 1934), p. 8, 
XXVIII, (Jan. 1, 1936), p. 8. 

12. SJC, ECM, Jun. 15, 1928 (SC); Carol Pettibone, interview by author; 
Doris Holt Haussler, From Immigrant to Emissary (Nashville: Southern 
Publishing Association, 1969), pp. 55-56. 

13. SJC, ECM, Oct. 16, 1928, cf. Apr. 13, 1931; FT, XX (Nov. 7, 1928), p. 7, 

XXI (May 29, 1929), p. 7, (Sep. 11, 1929), p. 7, (Sep. 25, 1929), p. 7, (Oct. 2, 
1929), p.' 7, XXII (Jan. 15, 1930), p. 7, XXIII (Aug. 26, 1931), p. 7, (Nov. 11, 
1931), p. 7; SJC, FMM, Mar. 15, 23, 1930; SJC, BM, Oct. 1, 1931. 

14. FT, XX (Oct. 24, 1928), p. 7, (Dec. 26, 1928), p. 7, XXI (Mar. 3, 1929), p. 

7, (May 1, 1929), p. 7, (Jun. 5, 1929), p. 7, (Sep. 25, 1929), p. 7; Edythe 
Stephenson Cothren, interview by author; ST, XXV (Oct. 12, 1933), p. 16, 
XXVI (Jul. 25, 1934), p. 8, XXVII (Mar. 27, 1935), p. 8, (Apr. 10, 1935), p. 8, 
(Apr. 24, 1935), p. 8, (May 29, 1935), p. 8, (May 1, 1935), p. 8, (May 15, 1935), 
p. 16, (May 29, 1935), p. 8. 

15. SJC, BM, Mar. 5, 1931, May 26, 1933. 

16. SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), pp. 7, 11, 41; ST, XXV (Feb. 15, 1933), p. 

8, cf. XXI (Nov. 20, 1929), p. 7; SJC, AA 1929-30, p. 11, AA 1931-32, p. 11; 
FT, XXI (Jan. 2, 1929), p. 8, XXII (Jan. 8, 1930), p. 7, (Nov. 24, 1930), p. 7, 
XXIII (Jan. 7, 1931), p. 7, XXV (Sep. 20, 1933), p. 8, XXVI (Jan. 10, 1934), p. 
8, (Jun. 20, 1934), p. 8, (Sep. 26, 1934), p. 8. 

17. Haussler, p. 97; The Seventh-day Adventist Hymnal (Washington: 
R&HPA, 1985), no. 492; The Church Hymnal (Washington: R&H, 1941), nos. 
23, 28, 59, 79, 80, 147, 170, 215, 236, 240; SA, I (Jul., 1946), p. 4, IV (Nov. 5, 
1948), p. 1, VIII (Nov. 7, 1952), p. 3; Donald W. Crook, telephone interview by 
author; Harold Amadeus Miller, Songs Along the Way (Collegedale, TN: The 
College Press, 1950), 18 pp.; ST, XXDC (Sep. 8, 1937), p. 8, XXX (Feb. 23, 
1938), p. 8, XXI (Jun. 7, 1939), p. 8, XXVIII (May 6, 1936), p. 8, (May 13, 
1936), p. 8, XXDC (Sep. 22, 1937), p. 8, XXX (Jul. 6, 1938), p. 8. 

18. SS, XII (Nov., 1940), p. 1; ST, XXXIII (Oct. 29, 1941), p. 4; William M. 
Schomburg, Wayne Rimmer, Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, Thyra Bowen 
Sloan, interviews by author, Milton T. Reiber, Donald W. Crook, June Snide 
Hooper, telephone interviews by author; SJC, SS, XIII (cat. no. 1941-42), p. 7; 
SDA, YB 1943, p. 246, YB 1944, p. 251, YB 2945, p. 243, YB 1953, p. 274, YB 
1954, pp. 284, 462. 

19. Reiber, p. 93; SJC, SS, V (cat. no. 1933-34), p. 7, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), p. 
7, VIII (cat. no. 1936-37), p. 8; ST, XXII (Feb. 12, 1930), p. 7, XXIII (Mar. 11, 
1931), p. 7, XXVI (Oct. 17, 1934), p. 8, XXVTI (May 22, 1935), p. 8, (Dec. 11, 
1935), p. 8, XXLX (Jul. 12, 1937), p. 13; SJC, PR, Feb. 1, 1925 (SC); FT, XX 
(Jun. 13, 1928), p. 7, XXI (Jan. 2, 1929), p. 8, (Mar. 6, 1929), p. 7, (Mar. 27, 
1929), p. 7, (Apr. 17, 1929), p. 7, (Sep. 25, 1929), p. 7, (Dec. 4, 1929), p. 7, 

XXII (Feb. 5, 1930), p. 7, (May 14, 1930), p. 7, XXTV (Jun. 15, 1932), p. 8, 
XXV (Jun. 23, 1933), p. 8; SJC, AA 1929-30, p. 9, AA 1932-33, p. 7. 

20. SJC, SS, VIII (cat. no. 1936-37), p. 6, X (cat. no. 1938-39), p. 8; ST, 
XXVII (Aug. 7, 1935), p. 8, XXDC (Jan. 20, 1937), p. 8, (Feb. 17, 1937), p. 8; 
Milton T. Reiber, June Snide Hooper, telephone interviews by author. 

21. One of those six, George Nelson, is discussed above. 

22. SJC, SS, VII (cat. no. 1935-36), p. 5; SMC, "S. M. C", XXI (2d qtr., 1971), 
p. 116; SJC, BM, May 7, 30, 1940; Thrya Bowen Sloan, Lorabel Peavey 
Midkiff Hersch, interviews by author; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone 
interview by author. 

23. SMC, Annual Bulletin, XII (May, 1962), p. 10; SJC, BM, Mar. 21-22, 
1939, May 7, 1942; ST, XXX (Oct. 19, 1938), p. 6; SJC, SS, XTV (cat. no. 1942- 
43), p. 7; Olivia Dean, Betty Jo Boynton McMillan, telephone interviews by 
author, cf. June Thorpe Blue, Thyra Bowen Sloan, Margarita Dietel 
Merriman, interviews by author. 

24. SJC, SS, XTV, loc. cit.; ST, XXX, loc. cit.; SMC, Announcements 1947-48, 
p. 9, Announcements 1948-49, p. 9; SMC, Annual Catalog, III (Jul., 1953), p. 
13; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone interview by author; Thyra Bowen 
Sloan, Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, interviews by author; Mary Holder 
Dietel, Pets Aplenty (Nashville: SPA, 1960), pp. 92-93, 96, 129. 

25. SJC, SS, loc. cit.; SMC, Annual Bulletin, loc. cit.; Helen Case Durichek, 
telephone interview by author. 

26. ST, XXX (Oct. 26, 1938), p. 6; SJC, SS, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 5; SJC, 
BM, Apr. 7, 1943; SA, XV (Jul. 31, 1959), p. 3; Triangle, 1943, [p. 7|; SDA, YB 
2959, p. 257; Mary Holder Dietel, The Future Yields to the Brave (Nashville: 
Southern Publishing Association, 1963), pp. 13, 15; Dietel, Pets, pp. 72, 101- 
102; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone interview by author. 

27. Dietel, Future, pp. 11, 13, 19, 28-29, 76, 137; SA, loc. cit.; E. Dale Collins, 
R. Lynn Sauls, interviews by author. 

28. SJC, PR, n.d., 1932, p. 4, Feb. 27, 1933, Mar. 4-6, 1934, pp. 6, 8; SJC, 
BM, Nov. 6, 1934; SJC, Constituency Meeting Minutes, Mar. 4, 1930 (SC); FT, 
XX (Dec. 12, 1928), p. 7; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 2, 1929 to Jan. 28, 1930; 
SJC, ECM, Dec. 1, 1931. 

29. SJC, PR, Feb. 27, 1933; SJC, BM, Oct. 1, 1931, Jan. 20-21, 1938; George 
N. Fuller, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 3, 1931; ST, XXX (Apr. 27, 1938), p. 7. 

30. The contrast is not quite as obvious in the AA, which includes a $10/ 
month minimum for meals in the 1931-32 total "period charge," but not in the 
1930-31 equivalent. SJC, BM, Apr. 13, 1931; SJC, AA 1930-31, p. 26, AA 
1931-32, p. 26. 

31. SJC, ECM, Sep. 1, 1930, Dec. 22, 1931, Mar. 24, 1933; SJC, BM, Jun. 16, 
1932 [supplement], May 26, 1933; ST, XXV (Mar. 23, 1933). For a temporary 
reversal of that policy, see SJC, BM, Dec. 22, 1931. SJC, BM, Apr. 19, Jun. 
16, 1932, May 26, 1933, Jul. 6, 1934; Folmsbee, p. 465; George Brown Tindall, 
The Emergence of the New South, 1913-1945 (n.p.: Louisianna State 
University Press, 1967), p. 493. 

32. SJC, PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934. 

33. Fuller, Treasurer's Report, 1933; SJC, BM, Dec. 22, 1932. 

34. SJC, BM, Oct. 17, 1933, Jan. 3, 1934, Feb. 14-15, 1935; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 
1934; George N. Fuller, to the Constituency, 23 Feb. 1937 (SC); SJC, 
Auditor's Annual Report, Jun. 2, 1930; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Apr. 19, 20, 
1932, Feb. 27, 1933, 1934 rpt; State of Tennessee, ex ref, etc. v. Southern 
Junior College, Case 25,252 (Chattanooga Chancery Court, 1933). 

35. SJC, SS, V (cat. no. 1933-34), p. 27, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), pp. 27, 28, VII 
(cat. no. 1935-36), p. 14, X (cat. no. 1938-39), p. 17, XV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 
19; Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. Reports, 495; SJC, BM, 
Mar. 6, 1934, Sep. 24, 1939; SJC, Executive Board Minutes, Jul. 31, 1939; 
SJC, Local Board Minutes, Apr. 8, 1941. 

36. SJC, BM, Mar. 4, May 30, 1930, Dec. 27, 1932, Mar. 5, 1934, Jan. 14-16, 
1936, Apr. 12, 1937, Apr. 7, 1943; FT, XXII (May 21, 1930), p. 7, XXIII (Mar. 
18, 1931), p. 7; ST, XXTV (Apr. 27, 1932), p. 8, XXV (Mar. 15, 1933), p. 8, 
XXVI (Mar. 21, 1934), p. 8. 

37. Three male faculty members received wages outside this 1942-43 range. 
Two who weren't considered full-fledged teachers received less and one 
administrator received $2 more. SJC, BM, Jul. 6, 1934, Jan. 14-18, 1936, 
Mar. 6, Jun. 24, 1942, May 3, 1943. 

38. Fuller, to the Constituency, loc. cit.; R&H, CXVII (Jul. 18, 1940), p. 17, 
CXVIII (Aug. 21, 1941), p. 18; SJC, BM, Jul. 30, 1941; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 1942. 

39. SJC, PR, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1942. 


40. FT, XX (Sep. 12, 1928), p. 7, XXI (Jan. 2, 1929), p. 7; ST, XXVI (Apr. 18, 
1934), p. 8; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone interview by author; 
Dietel, Pets, pp. 70, 72; SJC, PR, 1932, 1933, 1942; SJC, Treasurer's Report, 
1934; SJC, BM, Mar. 6, 1934, Oct. 31, 1935. 

41. SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 24, 25, Apr. 30, 1941; ST, XXXIII (Jul. 9, 
1941), p. 8; R&H, CXVIII (Aug. 21, 1941), p. 18; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 1942, p. 5. 

42. SJC, BM, May 26, 1933, Oct. 31, 1935, Apr. 12, 1937, May 3, 1943; SJC, 
PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934, p. 5; SJC, Constituency Meeting Minutes, Apr. 19, 1932; 
FT, XXI (Nov. 20, 1929), p. 7, XXIII (Mar. 4, 1931), p. 7; ST, XXJV (May 11, 
1932), p. 8. 

43. SJC, BM, Jul. 21, 1938, May 7, 1940, Mar. 24-25, Apr. 30, 1941, Mar. 16- 

17, 1943. 

44. SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 31, 1931, Apr. 19, 20, 1932; FT, XXI (Jun. 
26, 1929), p. 7, XXIII (Apr. 1, 1931), p. 7, (Aug. 26, 1931), p. 7; SJC, BM, Oct. 

18, 1932, Aug. 19, 1937; SJC, ECM, Oct. 12, 1927, May 31, 1931. 

45. SJC, PR, Feb. 15, 1924; R&H, CXVIII (Aug. 21, 1941), p. 18; State of 
Tennessee, Charter of Corporation, Southern Junior College, Jul. 25, 1919. 

46. ST, XXXII (Oct. 9, 1940), p. 6; SJC, PR, 1931, 1942. 

47. SCOL, XL (no. 1, 1988), p. 20, (no. 2, 1988), p. 20, XLI (no. 1, 1989), pp. 
17, 18, XLII (no. 1, 1990), p. 19; ST, XXXIII (Jul. 23, 1941), p. 7; SS, XII 
(Sep., 1940), p. 4; SJC, ECM, May 8, 1930; Lorabel Peavey MidkifF Hersch, 
June Thorpe Blue, William M. Schomburg, Ralph M. Hendershot, Eva Teed 
Beugnot, interviews by author. 

48. FT, XXI (Jan. 9, 1929), p. 7, (Apr. 24, 1929), p. 7, (May 8, 1929), p. 7; 
SJC, PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934, Apr. 4, 1942; SJC, BM, fall council, 1936; The 
Youth's Instructor, LXXXVII (Aug. 8, 1939), p. 12; SJC, FMM, Apr. 28, 1929, 
Mar. 12, 1930, Mar. 15, 1931. 

49. SJC, PR, Feb. 27, 1933, Mar. 4-6, 1934, Mar. 4, 1942; FT, XIX (Dec. 7, 
1927), p. 7, XXI (Jun. 9, 1929), p. 7, XXIII (Feb. 25, 1931), p. 7; ST, XXV 
(Jun. 18, 1933), p. 8, XXVIII (Feb. 26, 1936), p. 8, (Jun. 24, 1936), p. 8, 
XXXIII (Nov. 13, 1940), p. 8; SS, XII (Nov., 1940), p. 1. 

50. Youth's Instructor, loc. cit., p. 9; SJC, FMM, Dec. 22, 1929; ST, XXXI 
(Jul. 12, 1939), p. 1, cf. SDA, YB 1940, p. 62. 

51. R&H, CXVII (Jul. 18, 1940), p. 17; Youth's Instructor, loc. cit.; SJC, PR, 
Apr. 2, 1929, 1932, Mar. 4, 1942; SDA, YB 1940, pp. 10, 53, 308; ST, XXXIII 
(Apr. 23, 1941), p. 8; SJC, FMM, Apr. 7, 1929; FT, XX (May 16, 1928), p. 7, 
(May 30, 1928), p. 7, XXI (May 15, 1929), p. 7, (May 29, 1929), p. 7. 

52. In addition to weekend services, students were expected to attend chapel 
and evening worship every day, although after Oct. 20, 1927, they were no 
longer required to attend two religious services each morning. Southland, V 
(Jul., 1927), p. 20; SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), p. 21; SJC, Student 
Handbook 1943-44, pp. 11-12; SJC, FMM, Oct. 20, 30, 1927, Dec. 23, 1928, 
Jan. 7, 1931, Sep. 3., 1933. Each chapel period included devotional exercises. 

53. ST, XXXVI (Jul. 22, 1942), p. 3; Ralph M. Hendershot, interview by 
author; FT, XX (Mar. 28, 1928), p. 7, (Oct. 10, 1928), p. 7; SJC, PR, 1932. 

54. SJC, ECM, Jun. 15, Sep. 4, 1928, Jan. 14, 1930; SJC, PR, Apr. 2, 1929, 
Mar. 3, 1931, Feb. 27, 1933, Mar. 4-6, 1934; SJC, BM, Dec. 10, 1930, Dec. 22, 
1932, Aug. 7, 1933; SJC, FMM, Sep. 7, 1930. 

55. SJC, BM, Aug. 7, Oct. 17, 1933, Nov. 7, 1934; Walter, pp. 151, 156; 
Brown, p. 87. 

56. SJC, BM, Feb. 14, 15, 1935, cf. Aug. 23, 1938. 

57. Ibid.; ST, XXVI (Jan. 31, 1934), p. 8, XXX (Apr. 27, 1938), p. 8, (Dec. 14, 
1938), pp. 8, 9, XXXI (Jan. 11, 1939), p. 1; Youth's Instructor, loc. cit., p. 8; 
SDA ENCY, p. 1238; United States Department of the Interior, Office of 
Education, Educational Directory 1938, pt. 3 (Bulletin 1938, no. 1), p. 59. 

58. SJC, FMM, Dec. 15, 1929; SJC, BM, Mar. 5, 1930; SJC, SJC Board, 
Memorial to the General Conference Committe, May 5, 1930. 

59. SJC, BM, Oct. 7, 1940, Oct. 1, Dec. 9, 1941. 

60. SJC, BM, Oct. 1, Dec. 9, 1941; SJC, FMM, Sep. 20, 1927, Sep. 3, 1933, 
May 7, 1934; ST, XXV (Oct. 4, 1933), p. 8. 

61. SJC, AA 1932-33, p. 34; SJC, SS, V (cat. no. 1933-34), p. 34, VI (cat. no. 
1934-35), pp. 35, 37, VII (cat. no. 1935-36), p. 25, VIII (cat. no. 1937-38), p. 
26; SJC, FMM, Apr. 16, 1930; ST, XXTV, (Sep. 14, 1932), p. 8. 

62. SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), p. 35; SJC, FMM, Jan. 5, 1930, Jan. 14, 
28, May 13, 1934. 

63. SJC, FMM, Nov. 6, 1927, Nov. 18, 1928, Jan. 20, Mar. 14, Sep. 15, 22, 

1929, Feb. 16, 1930, Mar. 8, 15, 1931, Jan. 14, Feb. 4, 1934; FT, XVIII (Oct. 
24, 1927), p. 7, (Nov. 30, 1927), p. 7. 

64. ST, XXV (Jan. 11, 1933), p. 8, (Jan. 18, 1933), p. 8, (Jan. 25, 1933), p. 16, 
(Nov. 22, 1933), p. 8, (Nov. 29, 1933), p. 16, XXVI (Oct. 24, 1934), p. 8. 

65. SJC, FMM, Oct. 30, 1927, Nov. 4, 1928, Oct. 20, 1929; SJC, SS, VI (cat. 
no. 1934-35), p. 34, IX (cat. no. 1937-38), p. 23. 

66. Southland, V (Jul., 1927), p. 17; SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), p. 19, XI 
(cat. no. 1939-40), p. 25, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), p. 15; SJC, FMM, Apr. 7, 
1929, Jan. 5, 1930, Apr. 15, May 7, 1934. 

67. Southland, loc. cit., pp. 3, 66; SJC, AA 1928-29, pp. 60, 61, 64, AA 1929- 
30, p. 69, AA 1930-31, AA 1931-32, p. 70, AA 1932-33; SJC, SS, V-XV (cat. 
nos. 1933-1943), incl. VI (cat. no. 1934-35), pp. 69, 71, 81, VII (cat. no. 1935- 
36), pp. 38-42, XTV (cat. no. 1942-43), pp. 42-44, 46; SS, XII (Oct., 1940), p. 1; 
SJC, Local Board Minutes, Aug. 2, 16, 1937; SJC, FMM, Nov. 6, 1927, Nov. 5, 
1933; Tindall, p. 495. 

68. Youth's Instructor, loc. cit., p. 12. 

69. SJC, FMM, Sep. 18, Nov. 13, 1927, Sep. 16, 1928; SJC, ECM, Nov. 9, 
1927; SS, I (Aug. 2, 1929), p. 1; June Thorpe Blue, interview by author. 

70. SJC, FMM, Nov. 26, 1922, Jan. 19, May 9, 1928, Mar. 24, Apr. 11, 25, 
Sep. 29, 1929, Apr. 13, 1930, Apr. 8, 1931, Jan. 21, 1934; Southland, loc. cit., 
p. 16; SJC, Student Handbook 1943-44, p. 13; SJC, ECM, May 11, 1937; 
Ralph M. Hendershot, interview by author; SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), pp. 
22, 24. 

71. FT, XX (Feb. 29, 1928), p. 7, XXII (Jan. 22, 1930), p. 7, (Jan. 29, 1930), p. 
7, (Feb. 19, 1930), p. 7, (Mar. 19, 1930), p. 7, (Dec. 24, 1930), p. 7, XXIII (Mar. 
18, 1931), p. 7, XXIV (Jan. 13, 1932), p. 7, (Mar. 3, 1932), p. 7; SJC, ECM, 
Nov. 19, 1929, Dec. 1, 1931; SJC, FMM, Apr. 16, 1930; FT, XXII (Dec. 24, 
1930), p. 7; SS, II (Dec. 24, 1930), p. 2; SJC, PR, 1931; SJC, BM, Mar. 3, 4, 

72. ST, XXV (Apr. 5, 1933), p. 16, (April 12, 1933), p. 8, (Apr. 19, 1933), p. 8. 

73. Ibid., XXVI (Feb. 28, 1934), p. 8, (May 30, 1934), p. 8, XXVII (Mar. 13, 
1935), p. 8, XXXIII (Apr. 3, 1941), p. 8. No reference to the organization was 
found in Triangle, 1938-43. 

74. Triangle, 1938, lp. 43 1; SS, XII (Aug., 1940), p. 1, XIII (Dec., 1941), p. 2; 
Triangle, 1939, p. 39; ST, XXVII (Nov. 20, 1935), p. 8, XXVII (Apr. 15, 1936), 
p. 16; Thyra Bowen Sloan, interview by author. 

75. Southland, 1928, |pp. 69, 881, 1929, lp. 67|; Triangle, 1938, lp. 441; SS, 
XII (Nov., 1940), p. 1, XIII (Jan., 1941), p. 1, (Jul., 1941), p. 1; S7\ XXV (Mar. 
15, 1933), p. 8, XXVI (Jan. 17, 1934), p. 8, (Apr. 25, 1934), p. 8, (May 16, 
1934), p. 8, (Nov. 21, 1934), p. 8, XXVIII (Oct. 28, 1936), p. 8, XXIX (Oct. 20, 
1937), p. 8, (Nov. 24, 1937), p. 8, (May 10, 1939), p. 8; SJC, FMM, Mar. 5, 11, 
1928, Mar. 14, 23, 1930; FT, XIX (Nov. 23, 1927), p. 7. 

76. He got up, put on his raincoat, and went back to bed. June Thorpe Blue, 
interview by author. 

77. FT, XXI (May 29, 1929), p. 7; SJC, BM, Mar. 26-27, 1940; SJC, FMM, 
Oct. 30, 1930; Gardner, p. 205. 

78. June Snide Hooper, Lora Winkler, telephone interviews by author; 
Lorabel Peavey Midkiff Hersch, Ralph M. Hendershot, interviews by author; 
ST, XXXIII (Jul. 9, 1941), p. 8; SJC, FMM, Nov. 1, 23, 1927, Feb. 23, 1928, 
Apr. 7, 25, May 9, 11, 1929, Apr. 9, 1930; SS, XIII (Jul., 1941), p. 1. 

79. FT, XXI (Mar. 13, 1929), p. 6. 

80. SJC, PR, 1929, 1930, 1931. 

81. Ibid., 1931; SS, XII (Oct., 1940), p. 1. 

82. FT, XXI (Jan. 16, 1929), p. 7; ST, XXVI (Mar. 7, 1934), p. 16, (Mar. 21, 
1934), p. 8, XXVII (Jan. 2, 1935), p. 8, (Jan. 15, 1935), p. 8. 

83. Southland, 1928, lp. 501; FT, XX (Jan. 11, 1928), p. 7; SS, XII (Aug., 
1940), p. 1. 

84. Schwarz, p. 431; Everett N. Dick, "The Adventist Medical Cadet Corps as 
Seen by its Founder," Adventist Heritage, I (Jul., 1974), p. 19; SJC, ECM, Oct. 
30, 1939, Nov. 1, 19, 20, 1940; ST, XXXII (Sep. 11, 1940), p. 5, (Dec. 4, 1940), 
p. 3, XXXIII (Jul. 9, 1941), p. 8, XXXVI (Feb. 11, 1942), pp. 7, 8, (Feb. 18, 
1942), p. 1, (Apr. 29, 1942), p. 1, 2, 8, (Jul. 22, 1942), p. 6, (Oct. 7, 1942), p. 5, 
(Oct. 28, 1942), p. 8, XXXVII (May 26, 1943), p. 6, XXXVIII (Feb. 16, 1944), p. 
8; CFP, quoted in S7\ XXXIII (Jan. 29, 1941), p. 2; ST, XXXIII (Jul. 2, 1941), 
p. 6, cf. SJC, BM, Jun. 6, 1941; Gardner, rev. ed., pp. 144-45; SS, XII (Oct., 
1940), p. 1, (Jan., 1941), p. 1, XIII (Jan., 1942), p. 3, XIV (Jul., 1943), p. 43, 

(Oct., 1943), p. 1, XV (Jan., 1944), p. 4, (Feb., 1944), p. 1, (Mar., 1944), p. 1; 
SM, 1946, p. 67; SA, I (Mar. 22, 1946), p. 1; SMC, PR, Feb. 13, 1947; Lorabel 
Peavey Midkiff Hersch, interview by author; SJC, BM, May 2, 1935, Jul. 30, 
Dec. 9, 1941, Mar. 6, May 7, 1942, Mar. 16, 17, Jul. 20, 21, 1943, Feb. 23, 24, 
May 4, 1944; Triangle, 1944; SJC, SS, XV (cat. no. 1943-44), pp. 2, 3; SMC, 
SS, XVI (cat. no. 1944-45), p. 17. Hershey's letter granting this recognition 
mentioned that the question first arose in connection with SJC. SMC, BM, 
Jun. 28, 1944. 

85. ST, XXTV (Jul. 20, 1932), p. 12, XXV (Mar. 22, 1933), p. 16, (Apr. 12, 
1933), p. 8, (Apr. 26, 1933), p. 16, (Jun. 21, 1933), p. 8, (Aug. 2, 1933), p. 8, 
XXVI (Jul. 11, 1934), p. 8, (Dec. 5, 1934), p. 8, XXVII (Mar. 13, 1935), p. 8, 
(Mar. 27, 1935), p. 8, (Jun. 26, 1935), p. 8, (Jul. 31, 1935), p. 8, XXVIII (May 
20, 1936), p. 8, XXIX (Jun. 9, 1937), p. 8; SCOi, XLI (no. 1, 1989), p. 23; 
SDA, YB 1942, p. 347, YB 1943, pp. 23, 362, YB 1944, p. 368, YB 1945, p. 
119, YB 1948, p. 120, YB 1949, p. 132, YB 1950, p. 133, YB 1951, p. 200, YB 
1954, p. 200, YB 1955, p. 60, YB 1957, p. 62, YB 1958, p. 67, YB 1959, p. 166, 
YB 1965-66, p. 249; SMC, BM, May 16, 1961; R&H, CXLIII (Jun. 19, 1966), 
p. 1; AR, CLVI (Jan. 4, 1979), pp. 2, 3, CLXV1 (Mar. 23, 1989), p. 2. 

86. Information provided by Dave Magoon. 

87. Information provided by Elwin Artress, Ralph Hendershot, Corinne King 
and Thura Sloan. 


1. SMC, PR, Feb. 13, 1947; SA, X (Apr. 4, 1955), p. 3; R. Lynn Sauls, 
interview by author; SDA, YB 1943, p. 243, YB 1955, pp. 234-235; SJC, SS, 
XIV (cat. no. 1942-43), pp. 5-8, 42-48; SMC, "S. M. C", IV (3d qtr., 1954), pp. 
9-15, 48-74. 

2. Sources describing Wright's background, characteristics, and chapel talks 
include SJC, Southland, XV (Jun., 1943), p. 1; SMC, "S. M. C", loc. cit., p. 9; 
ST, XXXII (Jul. 11, 1940), p. 5, XXXVI (Jul. 22, 1944), p. 4, (Sep. 20, 1944), p, 
8, XXXIX (Jun. 6, 1945), p. 2, XL (Jan. 23, 1946), p. 8; H. Douglas Bennett, 
Floyd L. Greenleaf, Wayne Rimmer, R. Lynn Sauls, Charles Fleming Jr., 
Dean Kinsey, interviews by author; Jane R. Brown, Richard Hammill, Peggy 
E. Bennett, Margarita Dietel Merriman, Cecil R. Coffey, Helen Case 
Durichek, E. Dale Collins, Olivia Dean, Betty Jo Boynton McMillan, 
telephone interviews by author. 

3. ST, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 9; SJC, BM, Apr. 8, 30, 1941, May 9, Dec. 19, 
1946; SJC, SS, XIII (cat. no. 1941-42), p. 6; SJC, Southland, XIII (Jul., 1941), 
p. 1; SA, I (Jul., 1946), p. 4; Henry Kuhlman, Marian Kuhlman, H. Douglas 
Bennett, R. Lynn Sauls, interviews by author; Cecil R. Coffey, telephone 
interview by author; Floyd O. Rittenhouse, to author, 31 Jul. 1989, TLS (SO; 
SMC, CAT 1974-75, pp. 129, 133. 

4. Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author; Walter, p. 157; SJC, 
FMM, Nov. 23, 1930; SMC, FMM, Nov. 21, 1977, cf. R&H, CXXI (Nov. 2, 
1944), p. 18. 

5. SJC, Local Board Minutes, Mar. 23, 1944; SJC, Southland, XV (Apr., 
1944), p. 1; SJC, BM, Feb. 23, 1944; R&H, CXXI (Nov. 2, 1944), p. 18. 

6. SJC, Local Board Minutes, loc. cit.; ST, XXXVIII (Apr. 26, 1944), p. 1, 
(Jun. 28, 1944), p. 8; SMC, PR, Feb. 13, 1947; SJC, BM, Jun. 28, 1944; State 
of Tennessee, Charter Amendment, Aug. 29, 1944. 

7. ST, XXXDC (Jun. 6, 1945), p. 2, XLI (Apr. 5, 1947), p. 8, XLV (Aug. 29, 
1951), p. 5; SMC, PR, Feb. 5, 1946. 

8. SMC, PR, Feb. 13, 1947; ST, XL (Mar. 20, 1946), p. 1, (Jul. 10, 1946), p. 6; 
SM, 1946, pp. 14-16; SDA, YB 1964, pp. 441, 520, YB 1986, p. 734; AR, CLXII 
(Apr. 18, 1985), p. 30. 

9. SJC, BM, Feb. 23, 1944; SMC, Joint Faculty-Board Meeting Minutes, Apr. 
11, 1948; Rittenhouse, loc. cit; Richard Hammill, Cecil R. Coffey, Jane R. 
Brown, telephone interviews by author; Charles Fleming Jr., H. H. Kuhlman, 
Marian Kuhlman, interviews by author. 

10. Ambrose L. Suhrie, Teacher of Teachers (Rindge, NH: Richard R. Smith, 
Publishers, Inc., 1955), pp. 92, 333, 337; ST, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 13; SA, 
V (Mar. 10, 1950), p. 1, XI (Mar. 12, 1956), p. 3; quoted in ST, XLIV (Jul. 12, 
1950), p. 1. 

11. Suhrie, pp. 346-347. 

12. Ibid., pp. 349-352; SA, XI (Mar. 12, 1956), p. 3; SMC, BM, May 22, Sep. 
19, 1945. 

13. SMC, BM, Oct. 17, 1945, Feb. 5, 1946; Ambrose L. Suhrie, to K. A. 
Wright, 16 Oct. 1945, filed with BM, SMC, Local Board Minutes, Feb. 28, 


1946. Dr. Suhrie's house was demolished in 1990. 

14. SA, DC (Mar. 19, 1954), p. 1; Cecil R. Coffey, telephone interview by 
author; Marian Kuhlman, Floyd L. Greenleaf, interviews by author; SMC, 
FMM, Oct. 12, 1947, Jan. 14, 1951, Dec. 5, 1953; Suhrie, p. 342. 

15. Floyd L. Greenleaf, William H. Taylor Jr., R. Lynn Sauls, interviews by 
author; Suhrie, p. 353; ST, XLI (Oct. 15, 1947), p. 12, XLIII (Mar. 2, 1949), p. 
8; SMC, FMM, Dec. 14, 1952, Mar. 12, 1953; SA, XII (May 1, 1957), p. 1. 

16. SA, IV (Mar. 25, 1949), p. 4, V (Mar. 24, 1950), p. 1, VI (Apr. 13, 1951), p. 
1, IX (Mar. 19, 1954), p. 2; Joyce Spears Cotham, Marian Kuhlman, 
interviews by author; Suhrie, p, 354. 

17. Rittenhouse, loc. cit.; Jane R. Brown, telephone interview by author; SA, 
XI (Sep. 23, 1955), p. 2, (Mar. 12, 1956), pp. 1, 2, 3, XII (May 1, 1957), p. 1. 
Other interviewees speaking highly of Suhrie included R. Lynn Sauls, Marian 
Kuhlman, Joyce Spears Cotham, and Betty Jo Boynton McMillan. 

18. SJC, BM, May 18, 1938, Jun. 13, 1939; Rittenhouse, loc. cit.; SMC, EM, 
Feb. 2, Mar. 22, 1948; SA, III (Apr. 19, 1948), p. 1; Ellsworth McKee, Floyd L. 
Greenleaf, Wayne Rimmer, Dean Kinsey, interviews by author; Betty Jo 
Boynton McMillan, Cecil R. Coffey, E. Dale Collins, telephone interviews by 
author. Jane R. Brown describes him as a wonderful person with a 
wonderful memory. Jane R. Brown, telephone interview by author. 

19. SA, IV (Apr. 11, 1949), p. 1; SMC, SS, XVI (cat. no. 1944-45), pp. 6-7; 
SMC, BUL 1948-49, pp. 8-11, BUL 1950-51, pp. 10-14, BUL 1955-56, pp. 9-15; 
SMC, Joint Faculty-Board Meeting Minutes, Apr. 11, 1948; Rittenhouse, loc. 
cit.; Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author. 

20. SMC, Joint Faculty-Board Meeting Minutes, loc. cit.; Southland, XV (Apr., 
1944), p. 1; ST, XXXVIII (Sep. 20, 1944), p. 1. 

21. SMC, PR, 1947; SMC, BM, Oct. 17, 1945; SMC, Joint Faculty-Board 
Meeting Minutes, loc. cit.; ST, XXXIX (Aug. 22, 1945), p. 1, XXXX (Mar. 20, 
1946), p. 1, (Nov. 6, 1946), p. 8, XLI (Aug. 6, 1947), p. 2, XLIV (Jul. 12, 1950), 
p. 2; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone interview by author. 

22. Rittenhouse, loc. cit.; information supplied by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

23. Information supplied by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

24. Rittenhouse, loc. cit.; SA, TV (Apr. 11, 1949), p. 1, (Jun. 5, 1949), p. 3, 
(Jul. 3, 1949), p. 1, V (May 12, 1950), p. 8, (Aug. 14, 1950), p. 3, VI (Feb. 23, 
1951), p. 1, (Summer, 1951), p. 3, IX (Sep. 18, 1953), p. 1, (Feb. 12, 1954), p. 
1, X (Oct. 15, 1954), p. 1, (Jan. 21, 1955), p. 4, (Apr. 22, 1955), p. 3; ST, XLIV 
(Jul. 12, 1950), p. 2, XLV (Feb. 14, 1951), p. 10, (Jul. 18, 1951), p. 2, XLVII 
(Jan. 7, 1953), p. 4, (Dec. 2, 1953), p. 2, XLVIII (Feb. 10, 1954), p. 3, (Feb. 24, 
1954), p. 3. 

25. SMC, FMM, Feb. 1, 1948; SMC, Joint Faculty-Board Meeting Minutes, loc. 

26. With the instructor's permission, exceptions to the automatic failure 
policy could be made for students on the Dean's List who were doing 
satisfactory work for the class in question. Otherwise, forfeited grades could 
be restored only by the Curriculum and Academic Standards Committee. 

■SMC, SMC Policy Regarding Class Attendance (1948-49), filed with FMM, 
Oct. 24, 1948; SA, IV (Oct. 5, 1948), pp. 1, 4; "S. M. C", I (Jun., 1951), pp. 38- 
39. This was omitted from the bulletin when Hammill became dean. Now 
teachers were asked to prevent the stretching of vacations by giving 
examinations the day before the vacation and quizzes the day after. Since 
Thanksgiving vacation was only one day long, the faculty voted to do 
everything possible "to persuade students to stay here during Thanksgiving 
Vacation." For Thanksgiving they modified the policy to read that a test that 
could not be made up should be given on Friday over Wednesday lectures. 
SMC, FMM, Oct. 4, Nov. 1, 1953. 

27. ST, XLIII (Dec. 21, 1949), p. 5; SA, V (Dec. 15, 1950), p. 1. 

28. SMC, FMM, Dec. 17, 1950. 

29. Rittenhouse, loc. cit.; SA, loc. cit.; Frank Knittel in SMC, FMM, Nov. 21, 
1977, cf. H. H. Kuhlman, interview by author; information supplied by 
Charles Fleming, Jr. 

30. Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author. 

31. SA, VII (May 9, 1952), p. 1; Richard Hammill, lecture for Adventist 
Forum, at Seattle, WA, Oct., 1989; ST, LXIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 10; SMC, 
BM, Jul. 31-Aug. 1, 1946. 

32. Dean Kinsey, R. Lynn Sauls, Floyd L. Greenleaf, interviews by author; 
Jane R. Brown, E. Dale Collins, Drew M. Turlington, telephone interviews by 

author; ST, LXIII (Jan. 5, 1949), p. 9. 

33. Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author; SMC, FMM, Dec. 17, 
1950, Apr. 29, 1951, Feb. 10 (supplement!, Nov. 10, 1952, Mar. 1, Oct. 4, 
1953. This paragraph assumes that the dean prepared the faculty meeting 
handout February 10, 1952. 

34. SMC, FMM, Sep. 12, 1947, May 27, Nov. 11, 1951, Oct. 12, 1952, Oct. 18, 

35. SMC, PR, Feb. 5, 1946; ST, XLIII (Feb. 2, 1949), p. 5; SMC, BUL 1949-50, 
revised, p. 103; SJC, BM, Nov. 18, 1943; SMC, Joint Faculty-Board Meeting 
Minutes, Apr. 11, 1948; SMC, FMM, Jan. 29, 1950. The major was called 
religion, but the degree awarded future ministers was called a Bachelor of 
Arts in Theology. "S. M. C", I (Jun., 1951), p. 121. 

36. SMC, PR, Feb. 5, 1946; Richard Hammill, Marianne Wooley, telephone 
interviews by author; SA, X (Jan. 21, 1955), p. 1. 

37. ST, XLVII (Nov. 18, 1953), p. 3, XLVIII (Nov. 17, 1954), p. 2; SDA, YB 
1956, p. 238. 

38. ST, XXXfX (Aug. 1, 1945), p. 1, XLIII (Mar. 30, 1949), p. 2; SA, V (May 

12, 1950), p. 8, VI (Mar. 27, 1951), p. 4, (Summer, 1951), p. 3; SMC, AA 1947- 
48, p. 9; SMC, CAT 1951-52, p. 11; Margarita Dietel Merriman, telephone 
interview by author. 

39. SA, VI (Summer, 1951), p. 3; ST, XLVI (Feb. 6, 1952), p. 2; Peggy E. 
Bennett, Norman R. Gulley, telephone interviews by author; Dean Kinsey, R. 
Lynn Sauls, interviews by author; SMC, CAT 1955-56, pp. 12, 14. 

40. SA, TV (Jul., 1949), p. 3, V (Jun. 4, 1950), p. 2; SMC, CAT 1953-54, p. 10. 

41. SA, VII (Mar. 28, 1952), p. 1; ST, XLVIII (Jul. 7, 1954), p. 2, XLIX (Mar. 
23, 1955), p. 3; SMC, CAT 1956-57, p. 10; SMC, BUL 1961-62, p. 9; SDA, YB 
1956, p. 238. 

42. ST, XLVII (Oct. 21, 1953), p. 1; SMC. CA7: 1955-56, p. 11, CAT 1965-66, 
p. 121; SA, X (May 31, 1955), p. 3. 

43. SA, II (Oct. 11, 1946), p. 3; ST, XLII (Apr. 7, 1948), p. 12, XLIII (Jun. 15, 
1949), p. 13, XLIV (Feb. 1, 1950), p. 4, XLV (Dec. 12, 1951), p. 3, XLIX (Jun. 
15, 1955), p. 3; SDA, YB 1941, p. 261, YB 1942, p. 224; Peggy E. Bennett, 
Joanne Ausherman Rozell, Cecil R. Coffey, Betty Jo Boynton McMillan, 
telephone interviews by author; Joyce Spears Cotham, Floyd L. Greenleaf, R. 
Lynn Sauls, Dean Kinsey, interviews by author. 

44. ST, XLI (Nov. 5, 1947), p. 8, XLIII (Feb. 2, 1949), p. 6, (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 
6; SA, V (May 12, 1950), p 6; R. Lynn Sauls, Thelma Cushman, Wayne 
Rimmer, interviews by author; Helen Case Durichek, Joann Ausherman 
Rozell, Cecil R. Coffey, telephone interviews by author. 

45. ST, XLI (Feb. 5, 1947), p. 8, XLIII (Feb. 2, 1949), p. 5, (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 

13. His thesis topic was "Problems of Seventh-day Adventist Young People of 
Academy and College Age." SMC, FMM, Nov. 15, 1953; Cecil R. Coffey, Drew 
M. Turlington, telephone interviews by author; Wayne Rimmer, Dean Kinsey, 
R. Lynn Sauls, interviews by author. 

46. SA, I (Mar. 22, 1946), p. 1, rV (Dec. 17, 1948), p. 3; ST, XL (Apr. 3, 1946), 
p. 8, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 10; SMC, BM, Feb. 5, 1946; H. H. Kuhlman, 
Marian Kuhlman, Terry Taylor Martin, Dean Kinsey, Loranne Grace, Duane 
Houck, interviews by author; John W. Fowler, telephone interview by author; 
SMC, BUL 1962-63, p. 9, BUL 1979-80, p. 203; SMC, CAT 1975-76, p. 132. 

47. SA, HI (Apr. 19, 1948), p. 1, IV (Nov. 19, 1948), p. 3, VI (Feb. 24, 1950), p. 
2, V (Oct. 10, 1949), p. 2, (Jun. 4, 1950), p. 4, VI (May 25, 1951), p. 2, X (Dec. 
10, 1954), pp. 1, 4, XXV (Feb. 20, 1970), p. 3; ST, XXXIX (Aug. 1, 1945), p. 1, 
XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), pp. 7, 13, XLIV (Mar. 22, 1950), p. 3, (Apr. 3, 1950), p. 
4; SMC, CAT 1951-52, p. 10, CAT 1956-57, p. 11, CAT 1957-58, pp. 9, 13, 
CAT 1969-70, pp. 113, 121, CAT 1978-79, p. 178, CAT 1979-80, p. 198; Melvin 
Campbell, R. Lynn Sauls, Verle B. Thompson, Wayne Rimmer, Thelma 
Cushman, Edward Lamb, Katie Lamb, K. R. Davis, Ellsworth McKee, Peggy 
E. Bennett, interviews by author; Judy Edwards Osborne, Olivia Dean, 
telephone interviews by author; SMC, AA 1949-50, p. 12, AA 1950-51, p. 12; 
SMC, BM, Jan. 30. 1945, Mar. 16, 1967; Gardner, rev. ed., p. 239. 

48. Floyd L. Greenleaf, interview by author; ST, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 5; 
SJC, BM, Feb. 24, 1944; SMC, PR, 1947; SMC, BM, Feb. 5, 1946. 

49. SMC, PR, 1947; SMC, Operating Statement, Jun. 1, 1946; SMC, BM, May 
13, 1947; SA, IX (Sep. 18, 1953), p. 1. 

50. ST, XLIV (Mar. 8, 1950), p. 5; SA, DC (Sep. 18, 1953), p. 1; SMC, BM, Feb. 
23, Jun. 28, 1944, May 26, 1946, Mar. 3, Aug. 12, 1947, Feb. 2, Jun. 3, Aug. 

2, 1948. 

51. SJC, BM, Mar. 16-17, 1943; SMC, CAT 1950-51, p. 136, CAT 1951-52, p. 
136, CAT 1954-55, p. 146, 147, 148; SMC, BUL 1949-50, rev. ed., p. 117; SA, 
VI (Jan. 12, 1951), p. 1. Students in rooms with adjoining bathrooms in the 
women's residence hall paid an extra $2 a month. SMC, AA 1946-47, p. 22; 
SJC, SS, XV (cat. no. 1943-44), p. 27. 

52. ST, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 15, XLVI (Dec. 3, 1952), p. 3; SA, TV (Apr. 

11, 1949), p. 8, VI (Summer, 1951), p. 1, VII (Sep. 28, 1951), p. 1, X (Oct. 1, 
1954), p. 3. 

53. ST, XLI (Oct. 15, 1947), p. 12, XLIV (Mar. 8, 1950), p. 5, XLIX (Feb. 16, 
1955), p. 2; SA, VI (Summer, 1951), p. 1, X (May 13, 1955), p. 2; SMC, PR, 
Feb. 5, 1946. 

54. SMC, BM, Nov. 14, 1946; SA, III (Sep. 29, 1947), p. 1, V (Oct. 2, 1949), p. 
4, VI (Summer, 1951), p. 1, VIII (Sep. 26, 1952), p. 1; ST, XXXVIII (Aug. 23, 
1944), p. 8, XLIV (Mar. 8, 1950), p. 5, (Jul. 5, 1950), p. 5, XLVI (Oct. 22, 
1952), p. 1, XLIX (Feb. 16, 1955), p. 2; information provided by Charles 
Fleming, Jr. 

55. SA, I (Feb. 22, 1946), p. 1, III (Nov. 21, 1947), p. 1, IV (Nov. 19, 1948), p. 

56. Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author. 

57. SMC, BM, Feb. 28, Jul. 31-Aug. 1, 1946; SA, I (Feb. 22, 1946), p. 1, (Jun. 
21, 1946), p. 1, II (Sep. 27, 1946), p. 1; Floyd L. Greenleaf, interview by 
author; ST, XL (Sep. 5, 1946), p. 8, (Nov. 6, 1946), p. 8. 

58. SMC, BM, Oct. 21, 1947, Jan. 1, 1948; SA, TV (Jan. 28, 1949), p. 1; Earl 
M, Clough, telephone interview by author. 

59. Richard Hammill, telephone interview by author; SMC, BM, Mar. 3, 1947. 

60. R&H, CXXI (Nov. 2, 1944), p. 18; SA, TV (July, 1949), p. 1, V (Mar. 24, 
1950), p. 1, DC (May 10, 1954), p. 3, X (Apr. 4, 1955), (Apr. 13, 1955), p. 2; ST, 
XLV (Feb. 21, 1951), pp. 1, 2, (Jul. 4, 1951), pp. 3-4, (Jul. 19, 1951), p. 28, 
XLVI (Dec. 3, 1952), p. 3, XLIX (Jul. 27, 1955), p. 3, (Oct. 5, 1955), p. 3. It 
was not necessary to complete college before entering dental school. Only two 
years of college were required as late as 1955. SMC, BUL 1954-55, p. 75. 

61. R. Lynn Sauls, Joyce Spears Cotham, Wayne Rimmer. interviews by 
author; Southland, XV (Jun., 1943), p. 1; SMC, PR, 1947; ST, XLI (Feb. 5, 
1947), p. 8; SJC, Student Handbook 1943-44, pp. 10-11, 13, 14, 19-20; SMC, 
Student Handbook 1945-46, p. 10-11, 14, 29; S. M. C. and You [1951-521, p. 9, 

12, 16, 19; SMC, FMM, May 7, 1950; SMC, BM, Mar. 3, 1947; Olivia Dean, 
Norman R. Gulley, telephone interviews by author. 

62. SMC, PR, 1947; SA, II (Oct. 25, 1946), p. 3, HI (Oct. 10, 1947), p. 1, (Oct. 
24, 1947), p. 2, (Nov. 21, 1947), p. 1, (Dec. 5, 1947), p. 3, (Jan. 23, 1948), p. 1, 
(Feb. 20, 1948), p. 4, (Apr. 19, 1948), p. 2, IV (Nov. 5, 1948), p. 3, V (Oct. 21, 
1949), p. 5, (Dec. 2, 1949), p. 3, (Feb. 10, 1950), p. 3, (Feb. 24, 1950), p. 3, VI 
(Nov. 3, 1950), p. 3, (Jan. 12, 1951), p. 3, (Feb. 23, 1951), p. 3, (Mar. 14, 
1951), p. 1, VII (May 30, 1952), p. 3, X (Feb. 25, 1955), p. 3; SM, 1946, p. 54, 
56, 1950, p. 91, 1952, p. 22, 25, 29, 1953, p. 85; ST, XLI (Nov. 12, 1947), p. 8, 
XLII (Jan. 14, 1948), p. 8, (Feb. 14, 1948), p. 10; SJC, Triangle, 1944, [pp. 40- 

63. The affirmative won on both of these questions. SA, III (Dec. 5, 1947), p. 

3, (Jan. 9, 1948), p. 1, (Jan. 23, 1948), pp. 1, 3, VII (May 30, 1952), p. 3, X 
(Feb. 25, 1955), p. 3; ST, XLI (Nov. 12, 1947), p. 8, XLII (Apr. 14, 1948), p. 

10. Dwight Eisenhower came in second. XLIX (Mar. 2, 1955), p. 2. 

64. ST, XLIII (Mar. 9, 1949), pp. 6-7, XLIX (Feb. 2, 1955), p. 3; SA, TV (Mar. 

11, 1949), pp. 1, 4, V (Oct. 21, 1949), pp. 1, 4, VII (Mar. 14, 1952), p. 1, X 
(Mar. 24, 1955), p. 1. 

65. SA, VII (Apr. 25, 1952), p. 4, (May 30, 1952), p. 2, VIII (Feb. 20, 1953), p. 

1, X (Oct. 1, 1954), p. 1, (Feb. 4, 1955), p. 3. 

66. SA, X (Feb. 4, 1955), p. 1, (Mar. 14, 1955), p. 3; S7\ XLIX (Mar. 3, 1955), 
p. 3. 

67. Southland, XV (Mar., 1944), p. 1; SA, VII (Apr. 25, 1952), p. 2, VIII (Nov. 
7, 1952), p. 1, X (Feb. 25, 1955), p. 2, (Mar. 24, 1955), p. 1; ST, XXXVII (Feb. 

2, 1944), p. 8, XLVIII (May 12, 1954), p. 3, (Dec. 15, 1954), p. 2, (Dec. 22, 
1954), p. 3; SMC, BM, Nov. 14, 1946, Jul. 7, 1947. 

68. ST, XLIV (Dec. 20, 1950), pp. 9, 12; Joann Ausherman Rozell, Norman R. 
Gulley, interviews by author. 

69. Donald W. Crook, telephone interview; SA, VI (Jan. 12, 1951), p. 4, VIII 
(May 30, 1952), p. 4. The four members of this quartet were singing together 


at least as early as January 1950 under the name "Southern Missionary 
College Male Quartet." V (Jan. 27, 1950), p. 1. 

70. SA, I, (Feb. 8, 1946), p. 3, II (Oct. 25, 1946), p. 3, (Nov. 8, 1946), p. 4, 
(Jan. 10, 1947), p. 1, (Mar. 7, 1947), p. 4, (May 2, 1947), p. 1, IV (Apr. 11, 
1949), p. 7, VI (Dec. 5, 1950), p. 4, (Feb. 23, 1951), p. 3, VIII (Jan. 16, 1953), 
p. 1, X (Oct. 1, 1954), p. 4; SM, 1948, p. 54, 1949, [p. 37), 1953, [p. 481; ST, 
XLVIII (Jan. 27, 1954), p. 3, XLDC (Feb. 23, 1955), p. 3; Donald W. Crook, 
telephone interview by author. 

71. SA, I (Feb. 8, 1946), p. 3, II (May 16, 1947), p. 4, VIII (Aug. 8, 1952), p. 1; 
SM, 1949, [p. 37], 1951, p. 15; ST, XLVI (Oct. 22, 1952), p. 3. 

72. SJC, Triangle, 1944, [p. 461; SM, 1946, pp. 64, 66, 67, 1948, p. 54, 1949, 
[p. 371, 1951, p. 25, 1952, p. 32, 1953, p. 107; SA, III (Nov. 8, 1946), p. 3. 

73. ST, XLI (Feb. 19, 1947), p. 8, XLII (Nov. 10, 1948), p. 8, XLVIII (Apr. 21, 
1954), p. 2, (Oct. 6, 1954), p. 4, XLK (Jul. 27, 1955), p. 3; SA, VIII (Jan. 16, 
1953), p. 1; R&H, CXXXI (Mar. 18, 1954), p. 19. 

74. ST, XLIII (Mar. 16, 1949), p. 3; SA, III (Jan. 9, 1948), p. 1, IV (Jun. 5, 
1949), p. 2, (Nov. 19, 1948), p. 1, X (Jan. 21, 1955), p. 1. 

75. H. H. Kuhlman, Thelma Cushman, interviews by author; SA, I (May 3, 
1946), p. 1, II (May 2, 1947), p. 4, (July, 1947), p. 1, III (Feb. 4, 1948), p. 1, 
(May 28, 1948), p. 1; SDA, YB 1960, p. 381, YB 1961, p. 396; Gordon Hyde, 
telephone interview by author; SMC, PR, 1947; SMC, BM, Jun. 28, 1944; ST, 
XXXDC (Jun. 6, 1945), p. 1, XL VII (Dec. 16, 1953), p. 4, XLDC (Jan. 26, 1955), 
p. 12. 

76. ST, XLII (Oct. 6, 1948), p. 12, XLIII (Feb. 2, 1949), p. 5, XLVI (Dec. 3, 
1952), p. 3, (Jul. 16, 1952), p. 12, XLVII (Dec. 16, 1953), p. 4, XLVIII (Jan. 27, 
1954), p. 3, (Apr. 28, 1954), p. 2, (May 19, 1954), p. 2, XLDC (Feb. 23, 1955), p. 
3; SA, II (July, 1947), p. 3, IV (Feb. 11, 1949), p. 4, (Apr. 11, 1949), p. 7, V 
(Oct. 10, 1949), p. 1, VIII (Mar. 20, 1953), p. 1. 

77. Peggy E. Bennett, telephone interview by author; R&H, CXXI (Apr. 13, 
1944), p. 18. 

78. SA, X (Mar. 14, 1955), p. 2, XI (Sep. 23, 1955), p. 2; ST, XLLX (Sep. 7, 
1955), p. 1, (Oct. 5, 1955), p. 3. 

79. SMC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 13, 1947. 

80. SCOL, XL (no. 1, 1988), p. 23. 

81. Information provided by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

82. Information provided by June Snide Hooper. 

83. Information provided by Charles Fleming, Jr. 


1. Cecil R. Coffey, "College With a Built-in Pocketbook," Reader's Digest, 
LXVHI (Mar., 1956), pp. 123-126; Cecil R. Coffey, "The College With a Built- 
in Pocketbook," Christian Herald, (Mar., 1956), reprint; Cecil R. Coffey, 
telephone interview by author. 

2. United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education, Bulletin 
1938, no. 9; Fred J. Kelly and Ella B. Ratcliffe, College Projects for Aiding 
Students (Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1938), pp. 
56-61; Ella B. Ratcliffe, "Self-Help Colleges," School Life, XXIII (Apr., 1938), 
pp. 273-274. 

3. School Life, loc. cit., p. 274; Cecil R. Coffey, telephone interview by 

4. Bessie Nell Follis, "A Struggle for Success"; Roy Campbell, "Early 
Traditions"; Mamie Jones, "The Power of Prayer." Each of these is a one- 
page publication located in the SC Treasurer's vault. 

5. R&H, CII (Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17; Youth's Instructor, LXXXVII (Aug. 8, 
1939), pp. 9, 12; Reader's Digest, loc. cit., p. 124; H. B. Lundquist, 
"Opportunities Unlimited," Signs of the Times, LXXXV (Mar., 1958), p. 12; 
SMC, SMC Project '80 (Chattanooga: Starkey Printing Company, [n.d]), Ipp. 

5. 251; SJC, ECM, May 23, 1921. 

6. SJC, BM, Feb. 13, 1921, afternoon mtg.; SMC Project '80, loc. cit., [p. 25]; 
SMC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC, FMM, Jul. 29, 1923; School Life, 
loc. cit. 

7. Reader's Digest, loc. cit., p. 125. 

8. FT, DC (Jul. 4, 1917), p. 8, (Sep. 26, 1917), p. 8, X (Aug. 28, 1918), p. 8, 
XIV (May 24, 1922), p. 7, (Jun. 14, 1922), p. 7, XV (Mar. 14, 1923), p. 2, XVIII 
(Apr. 7, 1926), p. 7, XX (Oct. 24, 1928), p. 7; Thompson, Youth's Instructor, 

loc. cit., p. 9; SJC, BM, loc. cit.; SJC, FMM, Jan. 26, 1919; STS, BM, Jul. 29, 
1917; Klooster, Deposition, p. 25; Southern Union Worker, loc. cit., p. 6; 
Hansen, p. 159; Coffey, "The First Year," [p. 9]. 

9. FT, DC (Oct. 10, 1917), p. 8; E. E. Shouse, county agricultural agent, to D. 
H. I. A. members, 26 Mar. 1937, 19 Apr. 1937 (filed with SJC BM). 

10. Coffey, "The First Year," [p. 12); SJC, BM, Feb. 2, Nov. 12, 1919, Nov. 17, 
1920, Feb. 11, 1921, Feb. 27, Oct. 17, 1933; SJC, ECM, Jul. 31, 1921; SDA, 
YB 1917, p. 193, YB 1927, p. 263; FT, X (Jul. 24, 1918), p. 1, XTV (Nov. 1, 
1922), p. 7; Cadwallader, p. 218; Martha Montgomery Odom, interview by 
author, cf. Southland, 1927, p. 13; SJC, Minority Board Minutes, Nov. 19, 
1917, cf. FT, X (Jul. 24, 1918), pp. 1, 6. 

11. The farm, poultry, and dairy departments employed 19 students during 
the 1927-28 school year. SJC, PR, 1928, Mar. 4-6, 1934; SJC, Treasurer's 
Report, Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 7, 1922, Jan. 21, 1923, Feb. 1, 1925, Mar. 4, 1930, 
Mar. 3, 1931, Apr. 19, 20, 1932; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; SJC, 
Trading Profit and Loss Statement, year ending Jun. 22, 1920; SJC, Financial 
Statement, 1925-26, 1926-27; SJC, BM, Nov. 15, 1919; SJC, Condensed Report 
of Loss and Gain, Apr. 26, 1921, Jan. 21, 1923; SJC, ECM, Aug. 1, 1922; 
Harrison and Castle, loc. cit. 

12. SJC, ECM, Feb. 15, 1931; SJC, BM, Mar. 8, 1936, Sep. 11, 1941; John 
William Henson III, interview by author; information provided by Charles 
Fleming, Jr. 

13. Coffey, "The First Year," [p. 15]; Klooster, Deposition, p. 19; R&H, CII 
(Jun. 18, 1925), p. 17. 

14. SJC, ECM, Jan. 17, 1918; Coffey, "The First Year," [pp. 9, 10]; Klooster, 
Deposition, p. 27. 

15. Coffey, "The First Year," [p. 10]; SJC, FMM, May 6, 1919; Kelly and 
Ratcliffe, p. 60; SJC, Trading Profit and Loss Statement, year ending Jun. 22, 
1920; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 10, 1921, Feb. 1, 1925; SJC, Balance 
Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; SJC, PR, Feb. 1, 1925, Feb. 27, 1933, Mar. 4-6, 1934, 
Mar. 4, 1942, cf. SJC, BM, Feb. 14-15, May 23, 1935, Jan. 14-16, 1936; SJC, 
Financial Statement, 1925-26, 1926-27; SDA, YB 1926, p. 249, YB 1933, p. 
242; State of Tennessee, ex rel. v. Southern Junior College, Hamilton County 
Chancery Court no. 25,252, Apr. 20, 1933; Noble Vining, interview by author; 
SJC, BM, Mar. 21-22, 1939; Klooster, Deposition, p. 21. The competing 
printers won their case when the court ruled that SJC's charter did not 
permit it to engage in commercial business. State v. SJC, p. 6. In response, 
SJC incorporated Collegedale Industries, Inc. State of Tennessee, Charter of 
Incorporation, Collegedale Industries, Inc., Nov. 29, 1933; ST, XXV (Dec. 6, 
1933), p. 8. 

16. Southland, 1924, [p. 43], SJC, Trading Profit and Loss Statement, year 
ending Jun. 22, 1920; Gardner, rev. ed., p. 98; SJC, ECM, May 3, Jun. 23, 
1917, Jun. 8, 1919; SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922; Hansen, p. 159; Coffey, "The First 
Year," (p. 10]; Klooster, Deposition, p. 18; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; 
SJC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 10, 1921; SJC, FMM, Sep. 29, 1925. 

17. SJC, BM, Dec. 24, 1917, Feb. 13, Jul. 29, 1919, Oct. 31, 1935, Mar. 8, 
1936, May 7, Sep. 7, 1942; SJC, Trading Profit and Loss Statement, year 
ending Jun. 22, 1920; SJC, Balance Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; FT, XVII (Nov. 25, 
1925), p. 7, XXII (Jun. 18, 1930), p. 7; Klooster, Deposition, p. 18. 

18. FT, VIII (Dec. 27, 1916), p. 8, XVIII (May 5, 1926), p. 7, (May 12, 1926), 
p. 7, (Jul. 14, 1926), p. 7, XX (Sep. 19, 1928), p. 7, (Oct. 24, 1928), p. 7, XXI 
(Jun. 26, 1929), p. 7, (Jul. 3, 1929), p. 7, (Jul. 31, 1929), p. 7, XXIII (Jun. 3, 
1931), p. 7, (Jul. 15, 1931), p. 7, (Jul. 29, 1931), p. 7; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, 
Apr. 2, 1929; SJC, ECM, May 31, 1931. 

19. SJC, ECM, Dec. 1, 22, 1931; Klooster, Deposition, p. 16. 

20. SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, cf. Klooster, Deposition, pp. 19-20; Southland, 
1925, Ipp. 44, 70]; SJC, BM, Aug. 6, 1925; ST, XXV (Jul. 5, 1933), p. 16, (Jul. 
12, 1933), p. 8, (Aug. 2, 1933), p. 16, (Aug. 9, 1933), p. 16, (Nov. 1, 1933), p. 8; 
SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 4-6, 1934. 

21. SJC, BM, Mar. 5, Jul. 12, 1934, Feb. 14-15, 1935; Victor Esquilla, To 
whom it may concern, 11 May 1934, filed with SJC, BM, cf. SJC, PR, Mar. 4- 
6, 1934; SJC, SS, VI (cat. no. 1934-35), p. 10. 

22. SJC, BM, Feb. 14-15, 1935, Sep. 23, 1936, Apr. 12, 1937; ST, XXVII (Jun. 
26, 1935), p. 8. 

23. Kelly and Ratcliffe, p. 60. 

24. SJC, BM, Nov. 18, 1938; SJC, ECM, Dec. 21, 1938. 

25. Southland, XII (Aug., 1940), p. 1; ST, XXXIII (Feb. 19, 1941), p. 8, (Apr. 
23, 1941), p. 8, XXXVI (Oct. 7, 1942), p. 6; William Schomburg, interview by 
author; SJC, BM, Jan. 22, 1940. 

26. SJC, ECM, Sep. 22, Dec. 22, 1920; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921; SJC, BM, Jul. 
21, 1920; SJC, FMM, Sep. 17, 1922; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 7, 1922. 

27. SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC, ECM, Dec. 30, 1920; SJC, 
BM, Jun. 10, 1921; SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922. 

28. Harrison and Castle, loc. cit. 

29. SJC, Financial Statement, 1925-26; SJC, BM, May 6, Aug. 3, 1925. 

30. SJC, BM, Mar. 3, 1926. 

31. SJC President, letter to the members of the Board, 8 Jul. 1926 (SC); 
SDA, YB 1927, p. 263, YB 1929, p. 291; SJC, BM, Mar. 28, 1928; SJC, 
Operating Statement, Jun. 2, [1929] to Jan. 28, 1930, Dec. 30, 1929 to Jan. 
28, 1930, statement for the year ended Jun. 2, 1930. 

32. SJC, BM, Mar. 3, 4, 1931; SJC, ECM, May 31, 1931. 

33. SJC, ECM, Dec. 1, 1931. 

34. Ibid., May 3, Jun. 23, 1917; SJC, Minority Board Minutes, Nov. 18, 1917; 
SJC, BM, Sep. 4, 1917, Jun. 9, 1921; SJC, Financial Statement, 1925-26, 
1926-27; Klooster, Deposition, p. 17; FT, XX (Oct. 31, 1928), p. 7; SJC, PR, 
Apr. 2, 1929. Lack of additional reference to them would suggest that the 
knitting glove and radio factories never materialized. 

35. SJC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 10, 1921, Feb. 1, 1925, Apr. 19 20, 1932. 
To put these figures in perspective, the broomshop manager was earning no 
more than $15 a week. SJC, Financial Statement, 1925-26, 1926-27; SJC, 
PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934; SJC, ECM, Jul. 6, Dec. 1, 1931; R. C. Hampton, letter to 
Pres. H. J. Klooster, 29 Sep. 1932, filed with SJC, BM (SC). 

36. SJC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 27, 1933; SJC, PR, Feb. 27, 1933. 

37. ST, XXV (Jul. 12, 1933), p. 8, (Nov. 1, 1933), p. 8, XXVII (Jun. 26, 1935), 
p. 8, XXDC (Jan. 20, 1937), p. 8; SJC, PR, Mar. 4-6, 1934; SJC, Treasurer's 
Report, Mar. 4-6, 1934. 

38. Kelly and Ratcliffe, pp. 60-61. 

39. SJC, BM, Mar. 8, 1936; ST, XXDC (Mar. 24, 1937), p. 8; Klooster, 
Deposition, p. 17; SJC, ECM, Dec. 3, 1928, May 31, 1931; SJC, PR, Apr. 2, 
1929; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 3, 1931; SJC, Auditor's Annual Report, 
Jun. 2, 1930; FT, XXI (Jan. 30, 1929), p. 7, (Mar. 6, 1929), p. 7, (Jul. 3, 1929), 
p. 7, (Oct. 21, 1929), p. 7, (Nov. 20, 1929), p. 7; John William Henson III, 
interview by author. 

40. SJC, ECM, Jun. 5, 1938; Fuller, to the constituency, loc. cit.; ST, XXX 
(Jun. 15, 1938), p. 4, (Jul. 6, 1938), p. 8; Henson, |p. 112]. 

41. SJC, ECM, Sep. 1, 1931; H. J. Klooster, to Bryan Hosiery Mill, 9 Sep. 
1931 (SC); Contract between Bryan Hosiery Mill and SJC, supplement to SJC 
BM, Oct. 1, 1931. 

42. SJC, PR, Feb. 27, 1933, Mar. 4-6, 1934; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 4- 
6, 1934, Feb. 23, 1937; Kelly and Ratcliffe, p. 60; Thompson, Youth's 
Instructor, loc. cit., pp. 9, 12; ST, XXXVI (Oct. 7, 1942), p. 6. 

43. SJC, BM, Nov. 15, 1919, May 29, 1934, Feb. 14-15, 1935, Jan. 27, Sep. 

18, 1939, Mar. 26-27, 1940; SJC, PR, Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 4-6, 1934, Mar. 4, 
1942; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Feb. 10, 1921, Mar. 7, 1922, Feb. 1, 1925, Apr. 

19, 20, 1932; SJC, Trading Profit and Loss Statement, Jun. 22, 1920; SJC, 
Balance Sheet, Jun. 7, 1921; State v. SJC, p. 3; Klooster, Deposition, pp. 9, 
22; H. J. Klooster to Bryan Hosiery, loc. cit.; Contract, Bryan Hosiery Mill, 
loc. cit.; STS, BM, Jul. 29, 1917; SJC, ECM, Apr. 14, 1921, Aug. 1, 1922, cf 
Jun. 8, 1919; Kelly and Ratcliffe, p. 59. 

44. Klooster, Deposition, pp. 14, 25; SJC, Treasurer's Report, Mar. 14, 1942; 
Thompson, Youth's Instructor, loc. cit., p. 9. 

45. SJC, PR, Mar. 7, 1922; SJC, FMM, Jul. 29, 1933; Ellen G. White, 
Counsels to Parents, Teachers and Students, p. 316. 

46. SMC, Operating Statement, Jun. 1, 1946; SMC, PR, 1947; Christian 
Herald, loc. cit.; SJC, PR, Mar. 4, 1942. 

47. SA, IV (Dec. 3, 1948), p. 3, V (May 12, 1950), p. 8, X (Oct. 1, 1954), p. 4; 
SMC, Business Manager's Report, Feb. 10, 1954; SMC, BM, May 13, 1947, 
Aug. 10, 1949, Feb. 14, 1955; SMC, Subcommittee Minutes, May 13, 1947; 
SMC, Minority College Board, Aug. 12, 1947. 

48. A major exception to the broomshop's general profitability came in 1954. 
SMC, Operating Statement, Jun. 1, 1946, Jun. 30, 1953; SMC, BM, Aug. 10, 


1949, Feb. 22, 1950, Mar. 10, 1952, Feb. 14, 1955; R&H, CXVIII (Aug. 21, 
1941), p. 18; SMC, PAR (abridged), 1950, p. 10; Reader's Digest, loc. cit., p. 
123; ST, XLIX (Jan. 5, 1955), p. 3; SA, X (Jan. 4, 1955), p. 3. 

49. SMC, BM, Aug. 10, 1949, Feb. 22, 1950, Mar. 10, 1952, Feb. 14, 1955; 
SMC, Business Manager's Report, loc. cit.; Henson, [p. 115]. 

50. SMC, Local Board Minutes, Mar. 1, 1945, Feb. 28, 1946; SMC, BM, Apr. 

9, Nov. 14, 1946, Aug. 10, 1949, Feb. 22, 1950, Feb. 14, 1955; ST, XLV (May 
2, 1951), p. 2; SMC, Business Manager's Report, loc. cit. 

51. Reader's Digest, loc. cit., p. 124; SA, X (Oct. 15, 1954), p. 1; Gardner, rev. 
ed., pp. 103-104. 

52. SMC, BM, May 13, 1947, Aug. 10, 1949, May 10, 1951, Mar. 10, 1952, 
Feb. 4, 14, 1955; H. H. Kuhlman, Marian Kuhlman, interviews by author; ST, 
XLV (May 2, 1951), p. 2, XLVI (Jul. 16, 1952), p. 11; Reader's Digest, loc. cit., 
p. 124; SMC, Business Manager's Report, loc. cit. 

53. SMC, BM, Feb. 14, 1955; ST, XLV (May 2, 1951), p. 2; SMC, Business 
Manager's Report, loc. cit.; Charles Fleming, Jr., to author, 19 Mar. 1991, 

54. SMC, Business Manager's Report, loc. cit.; Gardner, rev. ed., pp. 108, 109; 
SMC, BM, loc. cit. 

55. SMC, BM, loc. cit.; SMC, Business Manager's Report, loc. cit.; ST, XLV 
(Jul. 18, 1951), p. 2; Henson, [p. 1141. 

56. SMC, Operating Summary, Jun. 1, 1946; SMC, BM, Apr. 9, Jul. 31-Aug. 
1, 1946, Sep. 24, 1947, Aug. 10, 1949, Nov. 17, 1953, Feb. 14, Nov. 14, 1955; 
ST, loc. cit.; SJC, BM, Jul. 20, Sep. 20, 1943; SMC, Local Board Minutes, Feb. 
28, 1946. 

57. SCOL, XL (no. 2, 1988), p. 23; ST, XLVII (Oct. 28, 1953), p. 2, XLVIII 
(Feb. 24, 1954), p. 3; SMC, PR, Feb. 10, 1954, pp. 5-8; SMC, PAR (abridged), 

1950, p. 8. 

58. SMC, Operating Statement, Jun. 1, 1946; SMC, BM, Aug. 10, 1949, Aug. 
8, 1954, Feb. 4, 14, 1955. 

59. ST, XLII (Oct. 6, 1948), p. 9, XLIII (Jun. 15, 1949), p. 8, XLVII (Jun. 3, 
1953), p. 2, (Dec. 23, 1953), p. 2, XLVIII (Mar. 31, 1954), p. 3; SA, V (May 12, 
1950), p. 1, VI (Apr. 27, 1951), p. 3; Christian Herald, loc. cit. The average 
male college student was earning 68 cents an hour, the average female 
college student was earning 58 cents, academy boys were earning 61 cents 
and academy girls were averaging 51 cents an hour. SMC, BM, Mar. 10, 
1952. The hourly wage was from 40 to 80 cents an hour in 1951. ST, XLV 
(Aug. 29, 1951), p. 4. Wages largely depended on how long one had worked in 
a given industry. After 750 hours in one industry, a student would receive 75 
cents an hour. SA, V (Mar. 24, 1950), p. 1. 

60. Dean Kinsey, interview by author; SMC, BM, Feb. 24, 1953, Feb. 14, Apr. 
8-9, 1956; ST, XLVIII (Mar. 31, 1954), p. 3; SA, DC (Mar. 19, 1954), p. 1, (May 

10, 1954), p. 1. 

61. SMC, BM, Nov. 14, 1955, Feb. 14, Apr. 8-9, May 9, 1956, Feb. 4, 1964; 
Gardner, rev. ed., pp. 103-104; SMC, ECM, Aug. 11, 1960. 

62. SA, XI (Aug. 10, 1956), p. 1. 

63. SMC, BM, Jul. 9, 23, Nov. 8, 1956, May 16, 1961; ST, L (Jul. 23, 1956), 
p. 2, (Aug. 1, 1956), p. 2, LI (Mar. 13, 1957), p. 3; SMC, Special Committe, 
Minutes, Sep. 18, 1956; Ellsworth McKee, interview by author; SMC, ECM, 
Aug. 11, 1960; SC, ECM, Mar. 18, 1987. 

64. ST, L (Feb. 15, 1956), p. 4; SA, XI (Aug. 10, 1956), p. 1; SMC, BM, Apr. 
8-9, 1956. 

65. SMC, BM, Feb. 14, Nov. 8, 1956, Aug. 28, 1957, Jan. 26, 1961; SMC, 
Budget Summary of Operations, fiscal year ending Jun. 30, 1964, Jun. 30, 
1965; SMC, Operating Budget, year ending Jun. 30, 1968, Jun. 30, 1971, Jun. 
30, 1972; SMC, Business Manager's Report, Feb. 13, 1957. 

66. SMC, ECM, Mar. 22, 1959, Apr. 15, 1966; SMC, BM, Feb. 10, 1966; 
Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to the Board of Trustees of SMC, Apr. 29, 1971. 

67. For a time the college operated a beauty parlor and washateria. SMC, 
ECM, Nov. 11, 1962, Apr. 2, 1963, Nov. 11, 1964; ST, LVI (Mar. 14, 1962), 
LXI (Apr. 14, 1967), p. 37; SMC, BM, Jan. 28, May 2, 1960, May 15, 1969, 
Sep. 30, 1974, Sep. 20, 1977; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, Jul. 8, 

68. SMC, BM, Sep. 13, 1956, Aug. 28, 1957, Jan. 26, Mar. 10, May 16, Jun. 

11, 1961, Jan. 25, Nov. 13, 1962; Gordon Hyde, interview by author; SMC, 
ECM, Mar. 9, Jun. 20, 1961; SMC, Finance Committe Minutes, Nov. 6, 1962. 

69. SMC, Abbreviated Operating Summary, for 10 months ending Apr. 30, 
1964; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, loc. cit.; SMC, BM, Jul. 1, Aug. 
28, 1957, Nov. 14, 1960, May 16, 1961, Sep. 30, 1971; SMC, Summary of 
Financial Operations, May 21, 1964; SMC, ECM, May 14, 1957, Feb. 12, 
1958; SMC, Budget, fiscal year ending Jun. 30, 1964, Jun. 30, 1965. 

70. For other examples of money-losing businesses that were quickly 
terminated, see Charles Fleming, Jr., loc. cit. 

71. Information provided by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

72. Charles Fleming, Jr., "A Study in Financial Direction Especially 
Pertaining to the Commercial Auxilaries," Jul. 8, 1974; Charles Fleming, Jr., 
to author, 19 Mar. 1991, TLS; SMC, FMM, Oct. 7, 1974; SMC, BM, Sep. 30, 

73. SMC, Industrial Board Minutes, Dec. 7-8, 1972, Jan. 29, Jun. 25, Aug. 6, 
Dec. 5, 1973, Nov. 11, 1974, Jan. 22, Sep. 22, Oct. 23, 1975, Apr. 7, 1976; 
SMC, BM, Jan. 30, Apr. 6, 1973, Nov. 25, 1974, Jan. 28, Sep. 22, 1975, Jan. 
28, 1976; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, loc. cit.; John A. Beckett, 
interview by author; SMC, Operating Budget, year ending Jun. 30, 1972. 

74. SMC, Operating Budget, loc. cit.; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, 
loc. cit.; SMC, Industrial Board Minutes, Dec. 15, 1975; SMC, PR, Sep. 30, 

75. SMC, BM, Apr. 8, Sep. 27, 1976; SC, BM, Nov. 3, 1983, Mar. 12, 1984, 
Apr. 27, 1989; SMC, Industrial Board Minutes, Jan. 29, Apr. 3, 1973, Nov. 11, 
1974, Jan. 28, Apr. 7, 1976; Gardner, rev. ed., p. 100; Charles Fleming, Jr., 
Report to Board, loc. cit., cf. SMC, Operating Budget, loc. cit.; SMC, ECM, 
Nov. 23, 1976. 

76. SMC, BM, Jul. 14, 1980; Robert G. Adams, telephone interview by 
author; SMC, Operating Budget, loc. cit.; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to 
Board, loc. cit. 

77. SMC, BM, Sep. 24, 1981. 

78. SC, BM, Sep. 17, 1985; Transcript, Sep. 28, 1989; SC, Budget, 1987-88, 
revision of Mar. 18, 1987. 

79. Signs of the Times, loc. cit., p. 12; SMC, BM, Nov. 14, 1960, Apr. 17, 
1974; SA, XXI (May 27, 1965), p. 4; SMC, Financial Survey Minutes, Mar. 9, 
1966; ST, L (Feb. 15, 1956), p. 4; SMC, FMM, Mar. 26, 1979. 

80. Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, loc. cit.; SMC, FMM, Mar. 26, 
1979; Ray Hefferlin, interview by author; interviews with various students. 

81. ST, XXV (Jul. 5, 1933), p. 16, XXVI (Dec. 19, 1934), XXVII (May 22, 
1935), p. 8, (May 29, 1935), p. 8, (Nov. 13, 1935), p. 8, (Dec. 25, 1935), p. 8, 
XXVIII (Jan. 1, 1936), p. 8, (Apr. 28, 1937), p. 8. 

82. SA, V (Jun. 4, 1950), p. 4; SDA, KB 2955, p. 58. 

83. Information provided by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

84. Ibid. 


1. This section is based upon interviews with Thomas W. Walters, R. Lynn 
Sauls, Wayne VandeVere, Gordon Hyde, Richard Hammill, Jane R. Brown, 
Dan W. Rozell, John T. Durichek, Ray Hefferlin, and Dean Kinsey. "S. M. C", 
V (Dec., 1955), p. 1, VI (3d qtr., 1956), p. 10; SA, X (Aug., 1955), pp. 1, 4, XI 
(Oct. 10, 1955), p. 3, (Jan. 13, 1956), p. 4, XII (Mar. 29, 1957), p. 4; ST, XLIX 
(Jul. 13, 1955), p. 1, (Aug. 3, 1955), p. 2, (Sep. 7, 1955), p. 1, L (Sep. 26, 
1956), p. 1, (Oct. 3, 1956), p. 2, LI (Sep. 28, 1957), p. 12; SMC, FMM, May 4, 
1952; SMC, PR, Feb. 14, Nov. 14, 1955; SMC, BM, Feb. 14, Nov. 14, 1955, 
Jun. 28, Nov. 8, 1956, Aug. 28, 1957, Jun. 2, 26, 1958. 

2. ST, LII (Nov. 9, 1958), p. 9; SA, XV (Oct. 9, 1959), p. 1, XVII (Sep. 22, 
1961), p. 1, XX (Sep. 24, 1964), p. 1, (Feb. 11, 1965), p. 1, XXI (Sep. 16, 1965), 
p. 1, XXII (Oct. 7, 1966), p. 1; SMC, PR, May 21, 1964; J. W. Cassell, Jr., 
Report to the Board of Trustees, Feb., 1967. 

3. SMC, enrollment statistics, Nov. 11, 1955, filed with SMC, BM, Nov. 14, 
1955, cf. SA, XXI (Aug. 15, 1966), p. 1; SMC, Self-Study Report, Mar., 1962. 

4. Thelma Cushman, John Felts, interviews by author. 

5. SMC, Survey Committee Minutes, Apr. 11-12, 1966; SMC, Faculty 
Colloquium Minutes, Sep. 7, 1962; SMC, BM, Sep. 17, 1962, Nov. 11, 1963, 
Feb. 11, 1965; Jerome Clark, Cecil Rolfe, interviews by author. 

6. See, for example, SMC, BM, Apr. 7, 1965; Inelda Phillips Hefferlin, Cecil 
Rolfe, interviews by author; Laura Hayes Gladson, Mitchell Thiel, telephone 

interviews by author; SA, XX (Apr. 18, 1965), p. 9, XXI (Feb. 17, 1966), p. 2. 

7. Richard Stanley, Mary E. Elam, Mitchell Thiel, Cecil Rolfe, Thelma 
Cushman, interviews by author; SA, XX (May 13, 1965), p. 2, XXI (Mar. 10, 
1966), p. 2; SMC, FMM, Feb. 19, 1967. 

8. SA, XXI (Jun. 3, 1966), p. 4. 

9. Ibid., (Jan. 20, 1966), pp. 1, 4; SM, 1966, p. 91. 

10. SA, XK (Sep. 29, 1964), p. 2, XXI (Sep. 15, 1966), p. 1, (Mar. 2, 1967), 
pp. 3, 5; M. Dianne Tennett, telephone interview by author. A registrar's 
office bulletin board featured a large map of Vietnam and the words, 
"UNLESS YOU STUDY." SM, loc. cit. 

11. SA, XIX (Sep. 29, 1964), p. 2, (Oct. 8, 1964), p. 2, (Oct. 29, 1964), p. 2. 

12. SMC, BM, Sep. 19, 1960, May 10, 1962; ST, LrV (May 11, 1960), p. 3. 

13. Gordon Hyde, interview by author. 

14. SMC, BM, Nov. 8, 1956, Feb. 13, May 14, Jul. 1, 1957, Apr. 15, 1958; SA, 
XII (Dec. 19, 1956), p. 4, XIII (Oct. 4, 1957), p. 1; ST, LII (Mar. 5, 1958), p. 5. 

15. ST, LV (Aug. 2, 1961), p. 7, (Sep. 13, 1961), p. 13; Kenneth E. Spears, 
interview by author; SMC, BM, Sep. 29, 1966; SA, XVIII (Aug. 31, 1962), p. 2, 
(Apr. 15, 1963), p. 5; SMC, PR, May 21, 1964. 

16. SMC, ECM, Jun. 22, 1962, Mar. 23, Jun. 25, 1965, May 2, 1967; SMC, 
BM, Feb. 11, Sep. 29-30, 1965; SA, XX (Aug. 20, 1964), p. 3; Louesa Peters, 
interview by author. 

17. ST, LVII (Apr. 24, 1963), pp. 40, 41, LX (Apr. 7, 1966), p. 6, (Oct. 4, 
1966), p. 2, (Oct. 14, 1966), p. 3; SMC, BM, Jul. 31, 1962, Feb. 13, 1967; SMC, 
ECM, Mar. 1, Apr. 2, 1963; SA, XVIII (Aug. 31, 1962), p. 2, XTX (Feb. 13, 
1964), p. 3, (Aug. 20, 1964), p. 3, XX (May 27, 1965), p. 4, XXII (Sep. 15, 
1966), p. 4; Ellsworth McKee, Verle B. Thompson, interviews by author. 

18. Drew M. Turlington, telephone interview by author; SMC, BM, Nov. 11, 
1963; ST, LTX (Jun. 25, 1965), p. 18; SA, XX (Aug. 20, 1964), p. 3. 

19. Ellsworth McKee, O. D. McKee, Cyril Futcher, William H. Taylor, 
interviews by author; ST, LVII (Nov. 20, 1963), p. 3, LVIII (Jun. 26, 1964), p. 
3, LXI (Dec. 8, 1967), pp. 3, 4; Certificate of Incorporation of the Committee of 
100 for S. M. C, Inc., May 7, 1964; SMC, ECM, Jul. 22, 1963; SMC, BM, Sep. 
29-30, 1965; SMC, FMM, Feb. 20, Apr. 10, 1966. 

20. ST, LX (Oct. 14, 1966), p. 5; William H. Taylor, promotional release, Dec. 
29, 1967. 

21. Information provided by Charles Fleming, Jr. 

22. SMC, BM, Nov. 16, 1958, Sep. 23, 1963; SMC, ECM, Apr. 2, 1963. 

23. Desmond Cummings, Jr., telephone interview by author; J. W. Cassell, 
Jr., Report to the Board, Feb., 1967. 

24. SMC, Survey Committee Minutes, Apr. 11-12, 1961; Charles Fleming, Jr., 
Report to the Board, Feb. 13, 1967; SMC, BM, Aug. 28, 1957, Apr. 15, 1958, 
Feb. 18, 1960, Jan. 26, 1961, Sep. 17, 1962, Jan. 21, 1963; SMC, Budget of 
Operations, Jun. 30, 1964, Jun. 30, 1965; SMC, PR, May 21, 1964; SMC, 
Business Manager's Report, Feb. 13, 1957; SMC, FMM, Dec. 18, 1966. 

25. SMC, Budget Committee Minutes, Dec. 13, 1966; "S. M. C", XVII (2d qtr., 
1967), pp. 116, 118, V (3d qtr., 1955), p. 148, XVI (2d qtr., 1966), pp. Ill, 116; 
SMC, PR, Feb. 13, 1957; SA, XXI (May 27, 1965), p. 4; ST, LIII (Mar. 18, 
1959), p. 17; "Comparative Costs of Tuition, Fees and Rentals," filed with 
SMC, BM, Dec. 12, 1963. 

26. SA, XXI, (May 27, 1965), p. 6; SMC, ECM, Apr. 11, 1962, Jul. 26, 1965; 
SMC, BM, Feb. 4, Sep. 28, 1964, Sep 29-30, 1965; "S. M. C", XVI (2d qtr., 
1966), pp. 120-121; ST, LIII (Feb. 25, 1959), p. 5, LX (Mar. 4, 1966), p. 15, 
LXI (Mar. 31, 1967), p. 17; Charles Fleming, Jr., Report to Board, loc. cit. 

27. SMC, BM, Nov. 9, 1958, Feb. 18, 1960; "S. M. C", loc. cit., pp. 121-122; 
SMC Alumi Bulletin, X (Nov., 1960), p. 5; ST, LII (Nov. 12, 1958), p. 12; R. 
Lynn Sauls, interview by author. 

28. This biographical sketch of Conard Rees is based on interviews with Dan 
W. Rozell, Robert W. Merchant, Kenneth E. Spears, Inelda Phillips Hefferlin, 
H. Douglas Bennett, R. Lynn Sauls, Cecil Rolfe, David D. Osborne, Thelma 
Cushman, William H. Taylor, Evlyn Lindberg, Richard Stanley, K. R. Davis, 
Lawrence Hanson, Jerome Clark, Jane R. Brown, and Louesa Peters; ST, LX 
(Dec. 9, 1966), p. 10; SA, XXII (Jan. 17, 1967), p. 1, (Mar. 2, 1967), pp. 1, 3, 
(Apr. 13, 1967), pp. 1, 2; SMC, FMM, Jan. 6, 1963; SM, 1967, p. 20. 

29. SA, XXII (Jan. 17, 1967), p. 1; William H. Taylor, interview by author; SMC, 
FMM, Dec. 4, 1966; SMC, BM, Feb. 13, 1967; ST, XLI (Mar. 3, 1967), p. 5. 


30. SMC, FMM, May 19, 1963; ST, XLIX (Sep. 28, 1955), p. 3, LII (Aug. 20, 
1958), p. 3, LIV (Mar. 16, 1960), p. 23, LVII (Jun. 19, 1963), p. 4; SMC, BM, 
Apr. 15, Jun. 2, 1958; SA, XXII (Mar. 2, 1967), p. 3; SM, 1964, p. 144. 

31. ST, LII (Aug. 20, 1958), p. 3, LV (Aug. 30, 1961), p. 4, LLX (Aug. 6, 1965), 
p. 14; SMC, BM, Jul. 11, 1958; Louesa Peters, interview by author. 

32. SMC, BM, Sep. 23. 1963; Kenneth E. Spears, Louesa Peters, interviews 
by author; SA, XXIX (Oct. 10, 1973), p. 4, XLVI (Aug. 25, 1991), p. 22; "S. M. 
C", XVIII (2d qtr., 1968), p. 114, XXVII (2d qtr., 1977), p. 170; SMC, CAT 
1981-82, p. 206; SC, CAT 1985-86, p. 246. 

33. ST, LII (Sep. 10, 1958), p. 4, LVI (Oct. 24, 1962), p. 2; Gordon Hyde, 
William H. Taylor, Robert W. Merchant, interviews by author; SMC, BM, Jul. 
11, 1958; SMC, Self-Study Report, loc. cit.; William H. Taylor, "Director of 
College Relations," SMC, BM, May 21, 1964; "S. M. C", XXVI (2d qtr., 1976), 
p. 138, XXVII (2d qtr., 1977), p. 170. 

34. Biographical sketch of K. R. Davis is based on interviews with K. R. 
Davis, Desmond Cummings, Jr., David Osborne, Kenneth E. Spears, Robert 
Francis, Ken E. Rogers, and Judy Osborne; SA, XVII (May 28, 1962), p. 1, 
XXIII (Jan. 27, 1977), p. 5; SDA, YB 1945, p. 337, YB 1946, p. 350, YB 1947, 
p. 227, YB 1948, p. 228, YB 1949, p. 257, YB 1970, p. 300; ST, loc. cit., LII 
(Jun. 18, 1958), p. 3; SMC, ECM, Apr. 11, 1962; SMC, BM, Dec. 12, 1970, 
Nov. 1, 1973; "S. M. C", XV (2d qtr., 1965), p. 119, XVI (2d qtr., 1966), pp. 
125, 129, XX (2d qtr., 1970), p. 112; SC, CAT 1986-87, p. 227, CAT 1987-88, 
p. 227, CAT 1989-90, pp. 267, 270; William H. Taylor in BM, May 21, 1964. 

35. SA, LX (Sep. 17, 1954), p. 1, XXVII (Apr. 6, 1972), p. 3; SDA, YB 1954, p. 
259, YB 1961, p. 240, YB 1965, p. 291, YB 1966, p. 291; SMC, BM, Sep. 28, 
1964; SMC, ECM, Nov. 23, 1976; SMC, CAT 1980-81, p. 208; SC, CAT 1990- 
91, p. 265; ST, LXXXIII (Jul., 1989), p. 12. 

36. SMC, BM, Sep. 19, 1960; SMC, Self-Study Report, loc. cit, p. 9; ST, L 
(Sep. 26, 1956), p. 1, LVII (Apr. 24, 1963), p. 40, LX (Dec. 9, 1966), p. 10; 
SMC, PR, May 21, 1964; SM, 1966, p. 15. 

37. SMC, Self-Study Report, loc. cit., pp. 70, 77; Jerome Clark, interview by 
author; SMC, BM, May 26, 1964, Jun. 27, 1967. 

38. SMC, BM, May 14, 1957, Jan. 16, 18, 1958, Sep. 17, 1961, Nov. 11, 1963, 
Sep. 28, 1964; SMC, Salaries and Prerequisites, schedules 12 and 13, Jun. 30, 
1955, schedule 14, Jun. 30, 1959; SMC, Coordinating Committee Minutes, Jul. 
24, 1960; Charles Fleming, Jr., "Several S. D. A. Schools of Nursing: 
Comparative Compensation of Nursing Instructors (Monthly Basis)," Oct. 27, 
1963; SMC, Division of Nursing, Budget of Direct Salary, Housing and Travel 
Allowance, Jul. 1, 1963 through Jun. 30, 1964; SMC, Operating Budget, 1966- 

39. *S. M. C", XVI (2d qtr., 1966), p. 31; SMC, Self-Study Report, loc. cit., p. 
37; SA, X (May 31, 1955), p. 6, XXI (Dec. 17, 1964), p. 4; J. W. Cassell, Jr., 
Report to the Board, Feb., 1967; SMC, BM, Feb. 10, 1966. 

40. SMC, Coordinating Committee Minutes, Nov. 9, 1958; ST, L (Jul. 25, 
1956), p. 1, (Nov. 7, 1956), p. 1, LI (Jul. 10, 1957), p. 12, LII (Dec. 17, 1958), 
p. 9, LVII (Apr. 24, 1963), p. 40, LVIII (Feb. 21, 1964), p. 6; SMC, Division of 
Nursing, Report to the Board, Feb. 13, 1957; SMC, Minutes of Special 
Committe appointed by Board of S. M. C. and F. S. H„ Jul. 9, 1956; SMC, 
BM, Jan. 16, 1958, Sep. 29, 1966. 

41. ST, LV (Nov. 8, 1961), p. 4; Dorothy J. Hooper, interview by author. 

42. Originally she was called "Dean of the Collegiate School of 
Nursing.TSMC, BM, Apr. 8, 9, 1956; ST, LI (Sep. 28, 1957), p. 12, LII (Feb. 
26, 1958), p. 3; SA, XXXII (Oct. 28, 1976), p. 1; SDA, YB 1956, p. 242; "S. M. 
C", IX (2d qtr., 1959), p. 12; Coordinating Committee Minutes, 1956. 

43. This includes two teachers on study leave. SMC, Division of Nursing, 
Coordinating Committee Minutes, May 2, 1967; "S. M. C", XVI (2d qtr., 
1966), pp. 83, 128, XXII (2d qtr., 1972), p. 122; SMC, CAT 1974-75, p. 136, 
CAT 1975-76, p. 134. 

44. Jerry Moon, "The Rise of the Self-Supporting Movement in Seventh-day 
Adventist Education," Self-Supporting Worker, VIII (Jun., 1990), p. 14; ST, 
LVII (May 22, 1963), p. 20. 

45. ST, loc. cit. 

46. Walter, p. 176; SMC, ECM, Jul. 22, 1964; SMC, BM, Sep. 28, 1964; 
Hansen, p. 167. 

47. SMC, FMM, Jan. 24, Oct. 17, 1965. The only relationship between the 
two was that they shared the same division chairman. SMC, BM, Nov. 20, 


48. SA, XVII (Apr. 23, 196