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Genealogical Register 

of the 



Robert and Agnes (Leitch) Russell 

Emigrants From 

Glasgow, Scotland 


Benton County, Minnesota 


Pioneer Experiences 

"Time rolls his ceaseless course. The race of yore, 
Who danced our infancy upon their knee, 

And told our marveling boyhood legends store, 

Of their strange ventures happ'd by land or sea, 

How are they blotted from the things that be! " 


Compiled by 


and Published by 


North St. Paul, Minn., and Bismarck, N. D., Respectively 

Originally Printed by 

The North St. Paul Courier 


Reproduced 2006 by Jennifer Hesse 



The history of the development of a State may cover the main 
facts but still lack interest if it is impersonal. The story of the trials 
endured and the difficulties overcome by early settlers is always of in- 
terest and is intensified when the facts have a relation to the reader's 
own family. The story of our family is the story of the growth and 
development of a part of Minnesota from pioneer conditions to those 
of the present, a period of 70 years. In order to preserve their story 
and to perpetuate the memory of those grand men and women who 
took part in this work as well as in the hope that the memory of their 
virtues may be a source of inspiration to their descendants, we have 
endeavored to give a true picture of their lives. May we never depart, 
from their path of simple faith and honesty. The spirit in which our 
common immigrant ancestor swore his allegiance to the United States 
of America is the same spirit that called his grandsons and great 
grandsons to the defense of this country. May we ever do our part 
as true patriots. 

A brief sketch of the condition of the country at the time of the 
arrival of the Russell family will give a better understanding of their 

The Territory of Minnesota, which included all of the present 
State and that part of the Dakotas lying east of the Missouri river, 
embraced an area of between 140000 and 150000 square miles and, in 
18|50, contained a population of 6077 whites. This immense area was 
divided into nine counties. St. Paul, the metropolis, had a population 
of 1135 and St. Anthony, the land west of the river being then a part 
of the Ft. Snelling reservation, only 705. North from these towns a 
road, later maintained as a military highway to Fort Ripley, parallel- 
ed the east bank of the Mississippi river to Crow Wing where an In- 
dian mission was maintained. This road was the outlet to the whole 
upper Mississippi and Red river valleys. Supplies to the Canadian 
towns of Selkirk and Ft. Garry were hauled in Red River carts and all 
freighting was done with oxen. These animals were preferred as 
they did not require so heavy a grain ration, were less liable to mire 
in the soft roads and could be converted into beef when unfit for work. 
Sauk Rapids, the county seat of Benton County, was the only settle- 
ment of any consequence on this road. Here early financiers had rec- 
ognized! the possibilities of the waterpower and had bought most of 
the adjacent land. 

Feeling secure in the possession of a strategic point they held 
their lands at such high prices that when St. Cloud was, some years 
later established two miles down the river, it soon outgrew the older 
town. All the country to the north with the exception of small prair- 
ies near the river was a forest. Lumbering on a commercial scale had 
not been commenced and the white pine was the only timber consider- 
ed valuable. The pioneer farmers chose the lighter soils of these prai. 
ries, not alone for their proximity to the only road and the ease with 
which they could be subdued, but because the heavier soils covered 
with a growth of timber w«re too wet for cultivation. The beaver had 
dammed the small natural drains and converted the low lands into 
almost impassable swamps. 

The Mississippi roughly divided the hunting grounds of the Sioux 
and Chippew.a who were hereditary enemies. They were at that time 
separated by the Winnebagos who had been removed from Iowa in 
1848 to a reservation on the west side of the Mississippi river between 
the Crow Wing and Long Prairie rivers with their agency at Long 
Prairie, but they extended their activities down the Mississippi and 
farmed and had a village on Winnebago Prairie, opposite Watab. 
They were again removed in 1855 to a reservation along the Blue 
Ea^th river. The Chippewas held the country east of the river and 
were peaceable but lazy and' thievish. They were willing to exchange 
game, wild rice, maple sugar, or buckskins for flour, tea, or pork. They 
were always hungry (puhkuhda) and would part with their most valu- 
ed possessions for a bottle of whiskey. 

This was the country to which our people came. There was. but 
one road, no market, no school and no church. Tallow candles were 
then the sole illuminant and a lantern was a cylinder of perforated 
tin with a small pane of glass' in one side. A percussion lock, muz- 
zle loading gun was the best fire arm. Grain was sowed by hand, cut 
with a cradle and threshed with a flail. These were conditions to be 
met by a family fresh from the conveniences of the largest city of 

Platte River, Langola, Royalton, Belleview, Rice, Winnebago 
Prairie and Brockway are among the names used in the following 
pages that doubtless will become confusing as time and distances re- 
move the reader from an understanding of conditions as they existed 
when Robert Russell arrived in Benton county and changes that were 
made later. 

"Platte River" was the point where the old military road crossed 
that stream and where a village and postoffice named Langola were 
established later. Langola is the name of the civil township and ad- 
ditional fraction located in the northwes£ corner of Benton county. 
Rice became the postoffice with the advent of the Northern Pacific 
railway, and Langola postoffice was discontinued. 

Belleview is a township adjoining Langola on the north in Mor- 
rison county and called, in earlier periods, Sdhoodic Prairie, and later 
Belleview Prairie. 

Royalton was a postoffice maintained for a time at the home of 
R. D. Kinney. This was later re-established on the raiLway about one 
half mile north of the earlier location. 

Winnebago Prairie, after being surveyed, was named Brockway 
township, Stearns county. 



(1) Robert Russell, the immigrant ancestor, first son of Robert 
and Jane-Smith-Russell, was born in or near Glasgow, Scotland, on 
September 21, 1822. The. family consisted of five boys and two girls. 
After the death of Robert, Sr., Mrs. Russell again married a man 
named Scott — given name unknown — to whom she bore one son. The 
following list of the names of the family is not in the exact order of 
their birth. 

Robert Russell, 1st son, b. Sept. 21, 1822; d. July 28, 1862. 

Archibald Russell, d. Oct. 17, 1866. 

William Russell, d. Jujy'll, 1888. 

Richardson Russell; 4th son, d. 1916. 

George H. Russell, 5th son, d. 1883. 

Jane Russell, married ( ? ) Craig. Married Alex MacPhee. 

Janet Russell, twice married. 

Thomas Scott, b. Dec. 3, 1846. Married Maggie Gorman. 

Of the lives of the members of the family who remained in Scot- 
land, we have little information. In common with the majority of the 
men of their race and time, they were addicted to the use of liquor, 
which fact did not interfere with their adhering to the harsh creed of 
the Presbyterian faith. 

Archibald, William,* and Richardson served in the British army, 
returning to Scotland where they spent the remainder of their lives. 
Jane and Janet remained in Scotland as also did Thomas Scott who 
was for many years a schoolmaster in Kilmarnock. With the excep- 
tion of Janet, all left children, several of whom migrated to South 
Africa. George Russell also served in the British army and after his 
discharge followed his brother to America. At the outbreak of the 
Civil war, he enlisted in the 2nd Minn. Light Artillery and served till 
the close. He died, unmarried, at Royalton, Minn., in 1883. 

Robert Russell worked while in Scotland as a carter. In 1841 he 
married Agnes Leitch, daughter of Robert and Agnes-Freeborn-Leitch 
of Rutherglen. She was born April 3, 1820. Her family consisted of 
a brother, William, who migrated to Ontario, Can., and a sister, Jean 
Freeborn, who married Richard MacFarlene and lived in Glasgow. 

A desire to improve his condition that he might better provide 
for his growing family led Robert Russell to migrate to America. Not 
being able to raise sufficient money to pay for the passage of the 
family, he left them in Glasgow until he might earn the required 
amount. Taking with him his beloved Family Bible, he sailed for 
New York (July 28, 1848) and from there proceeded to Illinois where 
he had an uncle, one Stuart Russell. With him he left his Bible, which 
he never was able to recover, and in pursuit of employment drifted 
north to Crow Wing, Minn. From here he sent for the family, meeting 
them in Chicago (1851) and taking them to the vicinity of St. Louis, 
Mo., where they spent a winter after which they removed to Sauk Ra- 


pids, Minn. The next year he purchased 160 acres of Govt, land near 
the mouth of the Platte river. The land was the WV 2 and the SE 1 ^ of 
the NWVt, and the SW& of the NEM, of Section 11, Township 38, 
Range 32 West. The spot chosen for the home was on the west bank of 
the river. A large spring furnished an abundant supply of pure wat- 
er but the house supply had to be carried up a considerable hill. The 
house was destitute of comforts and it was not until the elder daugh- 
ter began to earn money that six common wooden chairs were pur- 
chased. At the same time she also purchased a kerosene lamp, but as 
oil was considered to be dangerously inflammable, but one quart was 
procured as an initial supply. 

Coming from a large city to this wild country; without money, 
with no practical knowledge of farming, unaccustomed to the extreme 
cold of the winter or the heat of the summer with its violent thunder 
storms, with no neighbor within sight or hearing, awed by the howling 
of wolves, the hooting of owls and the night song of the whip-poor- 
will, all new and strange to them, and fearful that some band of drun- 
ken Indians might appear during the absence of the father; the condi- 
tion of the family was scarcely a happy one. The "Guid-wife" was 
ignorant of the art of bread Imaking and they were a hundred miles 
from a bakery. She mourned the lack of oatmeal and the sea foods of 
home but the local mills ground nothing but wheat and corn and the 
fish market was but a memory. By exchanging work with neighbors 
sufficient help was obtained to break land and erect necessary build- 
ings. A neighbor presented a hen and a setting of eggs to establish 
the poultry yard and a cow was purchased to be paid for in work. By 
cooperation a school house was built and a school district was organ- 
ized. The difficulties of pioneer farming were all present. Grows des- 
troyed the corn, skunks and weasels killed the chickens, bears car- 
ried off the young swine, and for two successive seasons Rocky Moun- 
tain locusts destroyed nearly the entire crop. In spite of his difficult- 
ies Robt. Russell took an active part in the local affairs. He was one 
of the original members of the school board and retained the position 
as long as he remained in the State. He also was elected to the office 
of County Commissioner for a term. 

He assisted in the execution of a half-breed' and two Indians who 
had murdered a peddler near Gull River (1857). The murderers were 
in charge of the Minneapolis sheriff when they were overtaken on 
Rice's prairie by a number of settlers and taken to Little Palls. In or- 
der to satisfy the Indian idea of fair play, the prisoners were given a 
hearty supper, after which they were placed in a wagon and driven 
under a pole supported by two trees. Ropes being adjusted, the wagon 
was driven away and the trio entered into full membership with the 
"Good Indians." 

Growing weary of the small returns of a farmer and excited by 
the stories of big strikes in the new mining district near Pike's Peak, 
he determined to leave the family again and try his luck as a miner. 
He started in 1860 and his first letter enroute is dated at St. Paul, May 
13th. He states that he is starting the next day for Omaha City which 
he hopes to reach in a couple of weeks. From Omaha he went to 
Mountain City, Colorado, where -he worked as a miner for some time 
and then moved to Nevada, Colorado. Here he with a partner de- 
veloped a claim, sinking a shaft to the depth of 88 feet. He had ex- 
pended $725.00 as his half of the expense and considered the prospect 
good but was forced to do other work to get the funds for further de- 
velopment. He wrote the family to sell off everything but the stock, 


join a train and drive to Colorado. This he thought would be a pleas- 
ant trip in the summer, but Mrs. Russell was not well and the plan 
was not carried out. On July 28, 1862, he was caught in a cave-in 
caused by defective timbering and fatally injured, living but five hours 
after being rescued. At his request he was buried with Masonic hon- 
ors by the Gregory Mines lodge of which was a member. In his 
report to the family, the Master describes it as "The largest funeral 
ever seen in the mountains, as befitted a loved and respected brother." 

Robert Russell was an honest man. Though unduly severe in his 
discipline, he dearly loved his children and his letters to them are full 
of kind admonitions and express a great hope that they may acquire 
a good education, the lack of which he keenly felt. He greatly admir- 
ed the poems of Robt. Burns and, as his wife had failed to bring with 
her a copy, he secured one from Peter Green by giving him in ex- 
change, four bushels of wheat. He had taken out naturalization papers 
and was in full accord with American institutions. Being a man of 
convivial habits, he frequently drank to excess but never touched liquor 
except when in company with kindred spirits. 

Nothing was realized from his estate and the family were left in 
poverty. There were eight children. Robert, the elder, was eighteen 
years of age, and the youngest, born after the departure of his father, 
was not yet two and the mother was in poor health. All honor is due 
to the brave woman who faced the horror of the situation rather than 
return to the native land for which her heart longed. "The children 
will be better here," she said, and for them she endured. The earnings 
of the different members of the family were turned over to the moth- 
er who, with proverbial Scotch thrift, managed the affairs and kept 
the family together until the older members married. After this 
time she made her home mainly with her son Robert until her (feath 
in 1877. 

Children of Robert and Agnes-Leitch- Russell: 

2 Robert Leitch,- b. Mar. 24, 1844, Glasgow, Scotland. 

3 Jennie,' b. Apr. 3, 1846, Glasgow. Scotland. 

4 Agnes,* b. Dec. 22, 1848, Glasgow, Scotland. 

5 Janet,' b. Sept. 5, 1852, Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

6 William Wallace,' b. Apr. 1, 1854, Langola, Minn. 

7 Mauion,' b. June 1, 1856, Langola, Minn. 

8 Rosella, 1 b. July 27, 1858, Langola, Minn. 

9 John Higgins,' b. Sept. 6, 1860, Langola, Minn. 

(2) Robert Leitch Russell, son of Robert Russell (1), tells story 
of his own life: 

"We traveled to Platte River and stopped awhile to muse 
Where the women wear the breeches, 'tis at John Depew's 
She will ask you whence you came, 
What's your occupation and likewise what's your name. 
We next drove to Swan River and stopped to refresh our team, 
Where Brown and Duncan Stewart are trying to build a town." 
., M The Old Road. 

We sailed from Greenock in July, 1851, landing in New York after 
a voyage of six weeks and three days. I enjoyed the trip as I had 


made friends with sailors as a seven year old boy will. I used to tail 
on to help them in hoisting sails and still remember some of the chan- 
teys they used to sing to time the hauls. We had close quarters and 
were soon well peppered with lice which caused Mother a great deal of 
work and worry. From New York we went by w,ay of the Erie canal 
to Chicago where we stopped until Father, who had been working at 
Ft. Ripley, Minn., came, when we proceeded to St. Louis, making the 
trip over the Michigan-Illinois canal. Here we spent the winter and in 
the spring took a steamboat to St. Paul where we transferred to an- 
other boat which operated between St. Anthony and Sauk Rapids. I 
am probably the only man who ever made the trip from Europe to 
Central Minnesota by water, and it cannot be done now as the dams on 
the upper river have closed it to navigation. We lived in Sauk Rap- 
ids until after the birth of my sister Janet, Sept. 5, 1852. She was the 
first white child born in Benton County. We then moved to a farm 
near the mouth of Little Rock creek and again on the following sum- 
mer to a place near the mouth of the Platte river, in what is now the 
town of Langola. 

Father had bought a squatter's right from Pony Lamb, giving 
.$25.00 for his claim. The improvements consisted of twelve acres un- 
der cultivation and a shed-roofed log cabin which leaked so badly that 
the girls used to take refuge under the table when it rained. Father 
had but fifty cents when this transaction was completed and with this 
capital he started farming. The land was purchased from the Govt, 
at the established price of $1.25 per acre in cash, which Father bor- 
rowed, giving a mortgage on the land as security. This loan was later 
increased to $300.00 when we were defrauded in the sale of our first 
crop and we were never able to pay it and eventually lost the land 
under the mortgage. 

We built a house of hewn logs and furnished it with home made 
furniture. We had but one chair, with a straight back and splint bot- 
tom, which was dedicated to Mother. Stools and benches did for the 
rest of us. The other furniture was equally crude. We already had 
an ox team and Father bought a cow, paying $40.00 in work, and rent- 
ed two more, giving one half of the increase. 

Our only near neighbors were Alex Paul, who lived on the east side 
of the Platte and south of the road crossing, and John Depew, who liv- 
ed north from us and near to the present village of Royalton. As these 
two men also had families they joined with Father in organizing a 
school district and in building a schoolhouse. The building was erect- 
ed about a half mile north of our house and was built of tamarack logs 
which we cut in a swamp on the Mississippi river bottom. I acted as 
teamster in this work and I remember that the black flies were so bad 
that the cattle were almost wild. The building was furnished with a 
long table or desk built down the middle of the room and flanked by 
benches. Our first teacher was a Mrs. Fletcher. This was the first 
school in Benton County, District No. 1. As it was necessary to main- 
tain a school for three months before school money could be drawn, a 
tuition of ten cents a day was charged for each pupil. There were but 
ten pupils and five were from our house so Father stood half of the ex- 
pense of running the school and boarded the teacher half of the time. 

For several years school was maintained but three months each 
year. Teachers were paid from $8.00 to $15.00 per month and "board- 
ed around," patrons boarding the teacher in proportion to the number 
of their children attending school. Some of our teachers were very 
harsh. "Preacher" Adams* used to throw his open pen knife at any one 

•Missionary of the Presbyterian Church. 


he saw misbehaving and Albert Hodgdon would take a boy by the lobe 
of the ear and take off all the skin with his thumb nail. Whippings 
were common and, to make it worse, when one of our family got one 
in school he or she got another at home. 

This school house was burned a few years later, presumably by 
persons who wished to have a school nearer to the town that had 
grown about a mile south, and one term of school was held in our 
house. For the rent of a room for this purpose we received five dol- 
lars. In 1861 the Wm. Higgins house with a half acre; of land was 
purchased at a cost of $160.00. This was converted into a schoolhouse 
and used until 1883 when it also burned. The present building occup- 
ies the same site. The second building was built of lumber and was 
more elaborately furnished, it having built-in pine desks arranged to 
face the front of the room. 

Our first crops, wheat, oats, and corn, brought good prices as 
many new settlers were coming and needed seed. Wheat went as high 
as $2.00 per bushel. In 1856 a flight of grasshoppers landed just as 
we began cutting our grain. We were lucky enough to get some 
help from a man who owned a reaper and saved the greater part of the 
crop but next year, with the exception of a little late corn and a few 
potatoes, our crop was wiped out by another flight. In later years we 
were obliged to haul our wheat to St. Anthony (Minneapolis) to dis- 
pose of it. The trip took a week and the price had fallen to as low as 
fifty cents per bushel. 

During 1854-1856 quite a settlement grew up on the river just 
south of our farm and the road that had heretofore crossed the river 
to the north of us and just below where the railroad now crosses, was 
diverted through the village. In 1855 George and Lewis Stone put in 
a dam and built a grist mill. (A mill equipped to grind wheat and 
corn, a toll being taken' from each grist.) Another dam was put in and 
a saw mill erected about a mile up the river from this, but was never 
operated. A few years later the lower dam went out during a freshet 
which also cut a new river channel through the village and was never 
rebuilt. A part of the inhabitants moved on to newer places and the 
village diminished until nothing now remains. After the loss of our 
mill, -I was forced to haul my grist to a mill at the mouth of the Little 
Elk — about twenty miles — where I ferried across the Mississippi in a 
dug-out canoe that was only large enough to carry two sacks at a time 
and from the landing to the mill on my back. 

Father had learned to speak Chippewa and was always on friendly 
terms with the local Indians, who often visited us. Hole-in-the-Day 
often came and on one occasion was bemoaning the loss of his pony 
which had mysteriously disappeared. Father volunteered to assist 
him and the pony was found hidden in the stable of one of our neigh- 
bors. The golden rule did not govern the greater part of the dealings 
of the whites with the Indians. 

We bought most of our venison and other game from the Indians 
as we owned no fire arms, except an old fllint-lock and Father never 
hunted. I never owned a very good gun and had very little time to 
hunt. In spite of the fact that deer were plentiful for many years I 
have never killed but one and that I killed with an axe after running 
him down in the deep snow when the crust was strong enough to carry 
me. The buffalo and beaver had disappeared 1 by the time we came 
though the well preserved dams of the latter showed that they had 
abounded very recently. Geese, ducks, prairie chickens, partridges and 
pigeons were abundant and some elk were still to be found. Deer were 
so plentiful that saddles (legs off and hide on) were sold as low as 
three cents per pound. The front quarters were not handled by deal- 


ers and hunters left most of them in the woods. Buffalo robes and ov- 
ercoats were cheap. A good buffalo overcoat could be bought for $15, 
and nearly every man had one. 

Dancing was the principal social amusement. Dances were given 
at the homes where there was sufficient room and every one was invit- 
ed. Each male attendant was expected to chip in to pay the fiddler 
who also called off for the square dances of our time. I was a regular 
attendant after I grew old enough as Father never objected and al- 
ways furnished me with a quarter for the fiddler except when the 
dances were held on a Saturday night. These I was not allowed to at- 
tend as they were likely not to break up until after midnight and 
thereby desecrate the Sabbath. 

The summer after Father left for Pike's Peak I worked in Lit- 
tle Falls at building boom piers and was paid $1.25 a day in gold. This 
was the last coin that I saw for several years as green backs and shin- 
plasters were all we used during the war and for several years after. 
While on this work I boarded with a Mr. Ferguson who was an old 
friend of Father's. When I wanted to pay my bill he told me that when 
my father came home with the $40,000.00 that he had promised to get 
he would take the money, but until then "No." With the help of the 
younger children I carried on the farm work, driving team in the log- 
ging camps during 1 the winters and working as a log driver in the 
spring, until the summer of 1863 when I began freighting. I started 
with two teams but a wet summer and difficulty in getting loads left 
me in debt at the end of the season. The next year I added another 
team to my outfit and continued in the business until the fall of 1871. 
I hauled from the end of the railroad — now the Great Northern — that 
was being built from St. Paul and had reached St. Cloud when I began 
this work, to the forts in Dakota — Totten, Wadsworth, and Ransom — 
and to the head of navigation on the Red river. The latter point shif- 
ted according to the stage of the water. With, good water the boats 
could reach Fort Abercrombie, but at other times were obliged to stop 
at Georgetown, Frog Point, or Grand Forks. Prices for hauling vari- 
ed, but a dollar per hundred weight, for each hundred miles hauled was 
about the standard price with a little more for hard trips or in bad 
seasons of the year. Each teamster usually had two or three teams on 
as many wagons as the soft trails would not hold up a heavy load. 
There were no roads and teams on loads had to be doubled through 
difficult places. We travelled in small trains, seldom more than a doz- 
en teamsters, and I was usually put in charge. I was held personally 
responsible for the safe delivery of the freight and, especially on one 
trip when one of my loads consisted of liquor that each teamster was 
anxious to tap — this was quite a burden. We made our camps at the 
most convenient places, forming a corral by driving the wagons into a 
circle inside of which the cattle could be confined after grazing. We 
slept on the ground under the wagons and were never molested though 
we were never armed for defense, and in fact seldom carried more than 
one or two guns with which we got a little game. The Sioux were 
camped all around Ft. Totten but we went through without an escort 
and never had any trouble. 

The trip to Totten was a hard one, especially if made in the late 
summer, as the heat was terrific, feed poor and good water very 
scarce. Most of the ponds were so alkaline that we could not let the 
cattle drink as it would physic them badly, but if the water had rushes 
growing in it, it was fit to use. When we came to such a one we would 
unhitch and turn the cattle in to enjoy themselves. A good teamster 
looks out for his team first, and by the time we got around to get wa- 


ter for ourselves the pond would be pretty well muddied and tea made 
from that water tasted of pretty nearly everything besides tea. 

We crossed the Red river at Abercrombie and made an air line to 
the tort. We crossed the Cheyenne river three times and when after 
travelling for days over that hot prairie where the cracks in the dry 
ground were two inches wide and looked deep enough to run down to 
China, we would come to the edge of the Cheyenne valley and look 
down on the trees, green grass and running water, it did look good to 
us. At the time of the first Riel rebellion we once loaded for Grand 
Forks, with supplies for the Canadian government, but on arriving 
there we were ordered on to Pembina as the water was so low that 
the boats could not get up. I got a tip that from there we would be 
sent to Ft. Garry (Winnipeg) and I refused to leave the Forks unless 
an order that I be unloaded at Pembina be given me. I got this and on 
arriving at Pembina found that they had no warehouse room and wan- 
ted delivery made at Ft. Garry .We were four hundred miles from 
home and the first snows of the winter were beginning to fall. We did 
not care to add another hundred miles to our journey so I produced my 
order. It caused some profanity but we were unloaded and turned for 

I made one trip to Leach Lake and one to White Earth. On the 
latter I had my only real scare from the Indians. We were loaded by 
N. P. Clarke at St. Cloud with supplies for the agency. No one knew 
the road but we were directed to go to Ottertail where it was thought 
that we would find some one who could direct us. After leaving that 
place and while skirting the west shore of Detroit Lake we were stop- 
ped by the Indians. I was at the rear helping to double some loads 
through a soft place and when I got to the front I found that a band 
of tough looking, customers had made a half circle across the road and 
each one had a gun sloped across his pony. They were a mixed bunch 
of Chippewa and Sioux, about twenty-five in all, on the way to Otter- 
tail to smoke the pipe of peace. They wanted food and said iif we did 
not furnish it they would kill one of our oxen. Some of the men 
thought that we had better let them have what they wanted and avoid 
trouble but I could not see it that way. If we let them have anything 
we would be held for the value while if they took it by force we would 
not. We could not fight them for there was but one shot gun in the 
train, but a good bluff was always worth trying. I made a talk to the 
Indians and told them that our loads were for the Indians at the agen- 
cy and that supplies could only be had there, that if we let them have 
anything that we would be obliged to pay for it and that was some- 
thing that we would not do. I ordered the head teamster to start on 
and he did so. The Indians slowly drew aside and let us pass but as 
long as we could see them they were bunched and evidently talking 
over the situation. We drove as far as possible before camping 
as we feared that we might have a visit from them during the night. 
We did not corral the cattle and in the morning two of them were mis- 
sing. We hunted for several hours but could find no trace of them and 
concluded that the Indians had them. We abandoned one wagon, divid- 
ing the load among the others and started on but had only gone a few 
rods when the strays came out of a swale where they had been lying, 
to follow us. I was too poor then and it was hard enough to get some- 
thing to eat and clothing to keep us warm to feel like paying for grub 
for a lot of lazy Indians. I wore pants and a roundabout made from 
seamless sacks, and as it was impossible to keep clean on the road, I 
used to feel ashamed of my appearance. Father had worn the same 
kind of clothing even when he attended the meetings of the county 


commissioners and no one seemed to notice them, but he was always 
clean. Mother saw to that. 

Another time we came near having trouble with a white man. We 
were waiting at Morris for loads, that being the end of the rails then. 
Morris was a canvass town and pretty wild. I had to stay with the 
wagons as I was, in charge, but Bob Muncy and Bill McDougall went 
over to town and while there had some trouble with a freighter named 
Kelly. A few days later we loaded and on our way we passed an outfit 
camped near the road but under a hill. I could hear Kelly swearing at 
us, using the vilest words imaginable. Neither Bob nor Bill said any- 
thing, but I called to him to "Go to Hell." Pretty soon I saw Kelly 
coming with a revolver in his hand. I swapped ends with my goad- 
stick and started for him. In those days I could hit just where I look, 
ed. Kelly stopped and when I came near him he called out, "Oh! Is 
that you Russell? Excuse me, excuse me! I thought that it was 
some other outfit and I did not want them to camp near and get mixed 
with us." We had no more trouble with Kelly but if I had not called 
his bluff he would have bullied us the whole trip. I have found that 
the surest way to get on with a man when he gets cockey, is to call 
his bluff. 

We carried supplies for a round trip as there were few places 
where we could get them. We did not live very high but we sometimes 
got a little game to help out. One time I saw a jackrabbit near the 
camp and borrowed a musket to shoot it. The Swede who owned the 
gun told me in broken English that it was loaded with, "Two Shot." I 
suppose that he meant two balls, but I found after it was too late to 
do any good, that he had put in a second load, thinking that the gun 
had been fired. I got my rabbit and also the full benefit of those two 
loads. I lost all the skin from one side of my nose. This caused a great 
deal of amusement and one man kept riding a free horse till I got tired 
of it and offered him a chance, to skin the other side if he could. We 
celebrated one Fourth of July with a big feed which we obtained by 
each man stealing a can of some kind^of fruit from his load. We saw 
some buffalo in Dakota but we never hunted them. In spite of our 
slow gaited teams we made good mileage. One year we averaged 25 
miles a day for the entire season. 

Most of the boys of our town enlisted when the war broke out — 
five from the Adams family — and I was very anxious to go but Mother 
felt that she could not spare me and when we learned of Father's 
death I was obliged to give up the idea. No draft was made in our 
town as our quota was more than filled. I was away haying at the 
time of the Sioux outbreak and when I returned home I found the 
place deserted. The folks had gone to the stockade at Little Falls, 
where all of the women with the exception of Mrs. John Higgins had 
been, assembled for safety. The Chippewa at Crow Wing were danc- 
ing and it was feared that they would make common cause with their 
hereditary enemies. Our only protection was a small force of soldiers 
at Ft. Ripley. I remained at home but met other neighbors at night 
when a guard was maintained until the Chippewa ivere calmed down 
and the folks came home. 

In 1873 I moved to my homestead on the west side of the Mississ- 
ippi in the town of Brockway where I farmed until 1880, when I again 
moved to Langola where I had bought a farm on the Mississippi and 
west from Rice's Station. Here I farmed and operated a ferry until a 
bridge was built. When the village of Rice was organized, I was elec. 
ted on the first council. I held this position for twenty-five years, 
when I declined further election. A few years ago I sold the farm and' 


moved to my present home near the station. I took up the business of 
buying- and shipping stock and continued in this until a stock shipping 
association was formed. I had no desire to compete with this and re- 

When we first came to the Platte River there was no mail or tran- 
sportation service, but in 1854 a stage line was established between St. 
Paul and Crow Wing. Pour-horse coaches were run on a daily sched- 
ule until the railroad was built to St. Cloud when the service was cut 
to a two-horse coach and a tri-weekly schedule which was maintained 
until 1879 when the Northern Pacific closed the gap in their line by 
building from St. Cloud to Brainerd. With the stage had come the 
mail and the postoffice at Langola was established with R. D. Kinney 
as postmaster. Not so much mail was handled at that time. While 
the horses on the stage were being changed the mail bag was taken in 
and all local mail sorted out when it was returned to the stage. A desk 
and a few pigeon holes were all the equipment necessary. Cancellat- 
ion and post-marking was done with a pen. 

1 have lived in this locality for seventy years. I have seen the coun. 
try change from a wilderness to well tilled farms. Instead of a log hut 
dimly lighted with tallow candles, I have a good brick house with elec- 
tric lights and a telephone. In place of my oxen, 1 drive a car. Yet, I 
have some of the old things. We are still using- the cook stove that I 
bought in 1870. I think that we ought to have a new one but my wife 
does not think the new ones are so good. 

Editor's Note — 

This narration possibly brings to the reader of the present age, 
an idea' of a quarrelsome nature which is quite the opposite to the 
disposition of the man. Although not shown in his story, Robert is a 
kind hearted, peaceable, generous man whose honesty is proverbial 
among his acquaintances. 

His sincerity in his religious views, although not affiliated with 
any church, is shown in the lact that while operating his ferry he re- 
fused to accept toll from any one, irrespective of creed, who was cross- 
ing to attend church services. A life long abstinence from the use of 
liquor and tobacco and a singularly clean speech, quite different from 
a large part of the men who formed his early associates, shows his 
strong clean mind, and his popularity in his large circle of acquaint- 
ances emphasizes the charity and democracy of his nature. 

His good judgment saved the village of Rice several thousand 
dollars when he refused to accept the first bridge built across the Mis- 
sissippi on account of poor materials used in the piers. 

Considerable pressure was brought to bear but he stood firm and 
was vindicated when the first ice movement carried away the struct- 

Robert Leitch Russell, married Sept. 16, 1874, Hannah Isabel 
Demeritt, born March 21, 1852. Daughter of James Y. and Laura J. 
(Gray) Demeritt. James Y. Demeritt was born in Woodstock, 
New Hampshire, Feb. 16, 1822. He was married in June 1851 to Laura 
J. Gray, born 1829, died Nov. 24, 1918, also of Woodstock; in 1855 they 
came to Minnesota and first settled near Platte River in Morrison 
County but in Nov. of the same year located west of the Mississippi 
on what proved later, when surveyed, to be section 36; he then pur- 
chased it from the Government. They crossed the river in a birchbark 
canoe, swimming the stock. It was a number of years before enough 
concerted action could be had to open a road to St. Cloud, the trading 
point. Mr. Demeritt was active in the organization of Brockway 


township, first called Winnebago, which was effected in 1858. The 
North Prairie postoflice was maintained at his home for a time with 
Mrs. Demeritt as postmistress. An adjoining neighbor was Wm. Mc- 
Neal, also pioneer settler, both were important factors for many years 
in the affairs of their township and county. The old homestead is still 
in the possession of and operated by a younger daughter, Eva E. 

Children of Robert L. and Hannah Isabel Russell : 

10 John Alfred, 3 b. Sept. 3, 1875, Brockway, Minn. 

11 Laura Agnes, 3 b. July 27, 1877, Brockway, Minn. 

12 Ella E. 3 b. Sept. 16, 1879, d. Oct. 14, 1890, Brockway, Minn. 

13 Jessie J. 3 b. Nov. 3, 1880; died Sept. 2, 1882, Brockway, Minn. 

14 James R., 3 b. Sept. 27, 1887; d. March 15, 1900, Langola, Minn. 

(3) Jennie Russell, 1st daughter of Robert (1), born in Ruth- 
erglen, Scotland, April 3, 1846; died May 4, 1920. 

Jennie (originally Jeanie) being the oldest daughter in a large 
family of children and the mother becoming an invalid had a heavy 
responsibility thrust upon her while still a young girl. She attended 
the local school and taught a term or two. 

The following obituary is copied from the Royalton, (Minn.) Ban- 
ner, of May 6, 1920. 

"Mrs. J€nnie Russell Flint, territorial pioneer and a resident of 
Benton County for sixty-eight years, passed away at her home at 
Rice on the morning of May 4th, after a lingering illness of many 
months. Jennie Russell came to America in 1851. After spending the 
winter in Chicago her parents moved on to the wilds of Minnesota, lo- 
cating on a claim near the Mississippi river in the town of Langola, 
near what is now the village of Royalton. On April 18, 1867, she was 
married to Francis S. Flint at St. Cloud by the Rev. E. V. Campbell.* 

"After their marriage the young couple settled on a farm in Lan- 
gola where they resided until 1902 when they moved into Rice where 
Mr. Flint was postmaster until his death in 1908. Mrs. Flint was a 
woman of admirable character and principles and her influence was 
always for the bettering of the community. She was a devout church 
ttiember and Worker and passed away with the assurance that all was 
well. She was intensely patriotic. Her husband was a veteran of the 
Civil war and during the World war she proudly displayed a service 
flag with four stars, two stars for her sons, Erwin and Howard, and 
two grandsons, sons of Nelson Flint." 

Francis S. Flint, husband of Jennie Russell, was an only son of 
Schuyler and Ann B. (Mosher) Flint, descendants of early colonial 
stock, Who moved from Vermont to Minnesota in 1856, buying a farm 
in Langola, Benton county, near the village of Platte River — now long 
since abandoned. Schuyler Flint's farm, S. E.M Sec. 10, Twp. 38, Rg. 
32, on the east bank of the Mississippi river, was one of the finest in 
that section during his occupancy. An island in the river near this 
farm and once his, still bears his name. He was an influential citizen 
and held at various times the office of the county commissioner, town- 
ship supervisor, school director and postmaster. Schuyler Flint was 
a son of Cheney (819) as recorded in the "Flint Genealogical Register" 
printed in Andover, Mass. 1860. That register is authority for the 
statement that the emigrant ancestor was one Thomas Flint who came 

"This was the first marriage ceremony performed by the Rev. E. V Campbell 
who was pastor of the St. Cloud Presbyterian church for more than fifty years. 



to America from Wales about 1G50. Schuyler Flint was born June 16 
1814, and died Jan. 23, 1882. 

Ann Benson (Mosher) Flint, widely known as an excellent woman 
With unusual energy, was born in Sharon, Vt. Nov. 10, 1818, and died 
in Langola, Minn. Nov. 6, 1882. 

In further direct reference to Francis S. Flint the following obitu 
ary is copied from the Royalton Banner of Oct. 29, 1908:. 

"Death, that grim reaper which calls upon one and all in his mer- 
ciless rounds, sounded taps for a veteran and early pioneer at Rice 
last Friday, when Francis Flint received the final summons to cross 
the great divide. Deceased was 62 years, 9 months and 22 days old. 

Mr. Flint was stricken by death suddenly at eleven o'clock Friday 
morning when engaged 1 in the regular performance of his duties as 
postmaster. His death which resulted from heart failure came as a 
distinct shock to his family and friends, for until his dead body was 
found in his office chair, where he had been sitting but a few minutes 
no intimation of suffering had been given. Close friends had been 
aware for a year that he had been subject to heart trouble and a sev- 
ere attack came near ending fatally some months ago. His health had 
been quite good the past summer, however. 

Francis Schuyler Flint was born in Strafford, Orange county, Vt., 
Jan. 1, 1846, His early childhood was passed in the east and at ten 
years of age he came with his parents and settled in the town of Lan- 
gola upon a farm about three miles southwest of Royalton. At the 
outbreak of the Civil war, Mr. Flint, then a boy of sixteen, responded 
to the call for volunteers and on Jan., 14, 1862, joined the 2nd Minne- 
sota Light Artillery, Hotchkiss' Battery, at Ft. Snelling and went to 
the front. Throughout the war he served with distinction, received 
his discharge March 21, 1864, and promptly reenlisted to serve until 
the close of the war. He served in most of the important battles of 
the army of the Cumberland, and was promoted to corporal at the age 
of nineteen. He was taken prisoner by Capt. Forrest and held four 
months, being exchanged from Libby Prison. At the close of the war 
he returned to Langola and the duties of a private citizen and prosper- 
ed. In the fall of 1870 he took a homestead in Swan River township, 
Morrison county, where he resided, several years and during which 
period he served as a commissioner of that county. Later he bought 
and moved to a farm in Langola, part of Sec. 10, Twp. 38, R. 31. 

In April he was married to Jennie Russell. This union was bless- 
ed by ten children, all of whom are living. 

From early manhood Mr. P'lint took an active interest in social, 
business and political affairs and for many years had held offices of 
trust in the town and district in which he resided. He was at all times 
practical and trustworthy, inviting the confidence of his fellow citizens 
who delighted to honor him in every way, knowing that in him justice 
was combined with loyalty and ability to serve. Seven years ago he 
was appointed postmaster at Rice and has since held that position, 
discharging his duties faithfully and in a manner most pleasing to the 

For many years Mr. Flint has been a member of the Masonic order 
and 0. E. S. and a prominent member of the G. A. R. He was comman- 
der of Phil Sheridan Post 157 at Royalton for several years. The 
•"inie life of the deceased was all that could be desired. As a neighboi 
he was always kind and obliging, and, though living for over fiftj 
years within ten miles of his boyhood home, he had no enemies, and 
every person who had the good fortune to know him, was an admiring 

A large concourse of sympathizing friends throughout Morrison 


and Benton counties were in attendance at his funeral to pay last res. 
pects to one whom all loved and who will live in the memory of the 
entire community for many years." 

To F. S. and Jennie Russell Flint were born ten children: 

15 Lucetta J.,' b. Feb. 1, 1868. 

16 Nelson,' b. July 23, 1869. 

17 Robert F., 3 b. Jan. 13, 1872. 

18 Janet E.,' b. Sept. 13, 1874. 

19 Agnes A., 8 b. July 7, 1876. 

20 Olive," b. Sept. 10, 1878. 

21 Gertrude, 8 b. June 21, 1882. 

22 Adalia, 8 b. June 7, 1884. 

23 Erwin W., 8 b. April 13, 1888. 

24 Howard R., 8 b. Oct. 11, 1892. 

(4) Agnes Russell, 2nd daughter of Robert (1), born Dec. 22, 1848, 
,at Rutherglen, a suburb of Glasgow, Scotland, and died May 22, 1919 
at Brockway, Minn. 

At the time of Agnes' birth her father had departed for America 
and the family was not united until the Winter of 1851-2, at Chicago, 
when she was three years of age. Being one of the older children she 
participated actively in the pioneer experiences of the family, attend- 
ed the local school and later taught two terms, one in a school just 
south of Little Falls on the east side of the Mississippi river, the other 
in Brockway township on the west side of the river about six miles be- 
low the mouth of the Platte river. Both schools were small; she re- 
ceived twelve dollars per month and boarded around among the pat- 

Married Jan. 24, 1870, Edward J. Smart, born May 10, 1841, Ply- 
mouth, Maine, died Dec. 4, 1916. 

Edward J, Smart, but recently discharged from the army, arrived 
at Platte River settlement in 1866 where an ■older brother, Henry B., 
had preceded him. He taught the school that winter and Agnes and 
other younger Russell children were among his pupils. 

He took a homestead joining his brother's in Sec. 20, Twp. 126, 
R. 28, Brockway town and established bachelor's quarters in a log cab- 
in at the foot of the hill west of the old State road and south of the 
spring brook. Later he acquired the claiftni of A. A. Morril \n Sec. 17 
and moved the log house on it fartihier south to a point north of the 
brook. This structure!, still standing, is one of the oldest houses in 

The brother, Henry's claim, extended north between Edward's and 
the Mississippi river, so they made a trade. Edward giving up the 
southern portion of his, lying west of the road, and receiving in return 
the northern part of Henry's between road and river. The farmhouse 
now in use stands east of the road on a slight eminence overlooking 
the river, distant about forty rods. The original portion of this house 
was erected about 1880. To this farm Edward J. brought his wife in 
1870 where they resided until their death. The property is still in the 
family being owned and occupied by his third son Robert (32). 

The Smarts were of English parentage, landing at Hingman, 
Mass. in 1633 from Hingman, Norfolk Co., England in a company of 
206 persons with their pastor, Peter Hobajrt. At the time of the Revo- 
lution the majority of them lived around Exeter and Ossipee, N. H. 


and some of them served under Washington near Boston while others 
were with Col. John Stark at Bennington. The immediate progenitor 
of Edward J. Smart was disqualified for military service because of 
lameness caused by an accident. He was a mason by trade and marri- 
ed Staples. His son Joshua, grandfather of Edward J., born 

1769 at Eaton, N. H., married Hannah Nickerson at Ossipee in 1788, 
and moved to Swanville, Maine in 1797 where he died March 31, 1859.' 
Their children were Joseph and Nehemiah (twins), Edward, Joshua, 
Richard and Hannah. 

Edward, father of Edward J., born Feb. 5, 1798, married Miriam 
Parsons and their children were: Henry B., Hannah, Harriet, Ruth, 
Ann, Sarah, Drusilla and Edward J. Smart. Two brothers, Henry B. 
and Edward J. and a sister, Ann, then Mrs. James L. Gray, moved to 
Minnesota. An aunt, Sarah, daughter of Richard, married Jonathan 
Crosby and also moved to the Platte river neighborhood. All four are 
buried in the Brockway cemetery. 

Edward, the father, had been a soldier in the war of 1812, also a 
member of the Maine legislature. At eighty-six years of age, in 1884, 
he visited Minnesota unattended, returned to Maine, where he died in 
1895 at North Dixmond. 

Edward J. received the best education available at the country and 
village schools of Penobscot county. As a youth, during winters, he 
went from farm to farm threshing wheat with a flail, receiving as 
compensation every fifth bushel, he was also a sailor making several 
trips to the Grand Banks for cod. 

Early in 1862 he enlisted in the 22nd Maine Inf.; reenlisted in the 
2nd Maine Cavalry, being enrolled as sergeant. He was honorably dis- 
charged in Sept. 1865. 

On their timber farm in Minnesota the Smarts lived as did most 
pioneers of the locality by an abundance of hard labor, with few con- 
veniences and less luxuries. The children were in school about six 
months a year. Of books there were few in the home, aqd of music 
nome until May, the oldest child, bought an organ after she began 

Of periodicals there was a juvenile, and a farm paper, and the St. 
Cloud Journal Press was a weekly visitor for fifty years. 

St. Cloud and Sauk Rapids, distant about twelve miles, were the 
market towns until the Northern Pacific railroad was extended to 
Brainerd in 1879, and the village of Rice was established three miles 
distant on the eastside of the Mississippi river. Access to the new 
trading point was possible during summer by a ferry until a bridge was 
constructed about 1902. 

Mr. Smart was clerk of school district No. 8, Stearns county for 
forty years; and much of this time he was also a town supervisor, us- 
ually being chosen chairman. He was a just man with a keen sense of 
his duties toward the community. 

Ten children: 

25 Miriam Agnes,' b. Nov. 15, 1870. 

26 John Franklin, 3 b. Feb. 13, 1872. 

27 Wallace Edward, 3 b. Nov. 12, 1873. 

28 Jennie Ann, 3 b. June 8, 1875. 

29 Edith Lillian, 3 b. June 23, 1877. 

30 Harriet Elizabeth, 3 b. Dec. 20, 1878. 

31 Ada Ruth, 3 b. Dec. 19, 1880; d. Aug. 30, 1881. 


32 Robert James, 3 b. Oct. 23, 1884. 

33 Joshua, 3 b. Nov. 7, 1887; d. Aug. 1909. 

34 Mildred Isabelle, 3 b. May 2, 1895. 

(5) Janet Russell, 3rd daughter of Robert (1), born September 
5, 1852, Sauk Rapids, Minnesota; first white child born in Benton 

Under pioneer rural conditions where a lack of schooling was not 
considered a serious handicap, nor marked in contrast, Janet develop- 
ed an ambition for an education and things educational. This remain- 
ed an outstanding characteristic, and her influence has been the means 
of encouraging and assisting many persons to secure a better educat- 
ion than they otherwise might have secured. She attended the inter- 
mittent local school in Langola township, where her parents settled, 
then the state teachers' training school at St. Cloud from which she 
graduated in 1876, and taught for several years with exceptional suc- 

Married August 21, 1878, Orlando Ferdinand Trace, second son of 
Ferdinand and Charlotte (Cram I Trace. 

The Traces are of English descent* and settled in America during 
early colonial days. Ferdinand Trace was born in Pennsylvania in 1819, 
He became a farmer, moved to Minnesota in 1856 where he died in 
189ft. During the Civil War he organized and drilled a company of 
volunteers by which he was elected captain, but was disqualified from 
entering the service because of a crippled ankle. Charlotte Cram (for- 
merly Von Cram) born in Ohio in 1823 was of Dutch descent, her fath- 
er's people having come to Boston from England in 1635 and later set- 
tling at Exeter, New Hampshire. Her father, born in Vermont, was a 
veteran of the war of 1812, and a grandmother, Charlotte Hotchkiss, 
was a member of a church choir that sang at a Washington memorial 
service at New Haven; a brother Orvill Cram was a veteran of the Ci- 
vil war, wounded, taken prisoner and confined several months in An- 
dersonville prison. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ferdinand Trace were exceptionally strong mentally 
and physically and imparted these qualities to their five sons and four 

In 1871 Orlando F. Trace was one of a civilian section of the par- 
ty that made the first survey west of the Missouri river for the North- 
ern Pacific railway, then under construction east of Fargo, N. D. West 
of the Missouri river was at that time distinctly hostile Indian terri- 
tory. Of this trip he writes: "Clarke and McClure of St. Cloud had 
the contract to carry supplies for the citizens' section of the survey. 
The train consisted of about 100 two horse teams and drivers. These 
were hired in St. Cloud and Sauk Center. Starting from St. Cloud in 
August 1871 the train of teams came to Sauk Center where other 
teams joined. From here it went by way of Glenwood to Morris, then 
the most westerly settlement in central Minnesota and at that time 
the end of the rails on the Great Northern railroad, and a village of 
tents largely. From Morris we went by way of Brown's Valley to Ft. 
Wadsworth (later Ft. Sisseton) where we laid over a few days, then 
began our journey to Ft. Rice on the Missouri river accompanied by a 
troop of soldiers under command of Col. Bates. 

"In due time we reached the Missouri and crossed to Ft. Rice 
where we again rested a few days and in the meantime reloaded for 
the balance of the journey. From Ft. Rice we were accompanied by a 
guard of infantry and artillery numbering 1000 to 1200 men and also 


a supply train of government sixrmule teams. Our course Was toward 
the Heart river which we reached in a day or two and were there join- 
ed by the engineers, General Rosser being the chief. The expedi- 
tion was in command of Gen. Whistler. We followed up the Heart 
to the source of the river, then across the Bad Lands through which 
the little Missouri makes its way. Continuing westward we came to 
the Yellowstone river, probably where Glendive, Mont, is now located. 
We reached home in October." 

,-, Mr- ,T race £ raduated from the state teacher's training school at 
St. Cloud in 1876. In the early eighties he joined the general westward 
movement that marked that decade and took up land in Edmunds coun- 
ty, South Dakota, prior to the extension of the railroads to that sect- 
ion. While there he suffered a severe fracture of an ankle in a bron- 
cho runaway. This made it necessary for him to abandon farming as a 
livelihood. He has since taught in Minnesota, South and North Dakota. 
He was elected and served as county superintendent of schools of Ben- 
ton County, Minnesota, for a number of terms. 
Residence, Tindall, Mont. 

Six children: 

35 Leslie Orlando, 1 b. Sept 9, 1879, Haven, Sherburne County. 
Minn.; d. Dec. 12, 1883, Rice, Minn. 

36 Arthur Russell, 3 b. May 30, 1881, Haven, Sherburne County. 
Minn. " 

37 Fred Cram, 3 b. April 14, 1883, Rice, Benton County, Minn. 

38 Robert Ferdinand, 3 b. October 22, 1885, Roscoe, S. D. 

39 Orrin Flint, 3 b. Nov. 23, 1888, Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

40 Hazel, 3 b. Nov. 9, 1890, Motley, Minn. 

(6) William Wallace Russell, second son of Robert (1) born April 
1, 1854, Langola, Benton county, Minn. 

Residence, Spokane, Wash. 

Wallace, that being the family appellation, grew to early man- 
hood on the farm in Langola, When about twenty years old he began 
working his way through high school at St. Cloud. 

Later he became associated with his brother John H. at Gull River, 
Minn, in the retail meat and produce business, a line which he has fol- 
lowed with slight variations since at Royalton, Brainerd and Duluth 

Married 1883, Royalton, Minn. Mary Elizabeth, daughter of James 
M. and Charlotte A. (McCollum) Muncy, both of whom were born in 
New Brunswick. Charlotte A. was a daughter of Peter McCollum, born 
in Scotland. Her mother was born in Maine. James M. was a son of 
Samuel Muncy, who with seven sons and three daughters moved about 
1866 from St. Stephens, New Brunswick to the vicinity of Royalton. 
Minn. Mr. Muncy had been engaged in farming and lumbering in 
Washington county, Maine, and in New Brunswick and the sons con- 
tinued in like activity in Minnesota for many years. 

There were no children born to Wm. Wallace and Mary Elizabeth 


(7) Marion Russell, fourth daughter of Robert (1), born June 1, 
1856, Langola, Minn. 

Married, Dec. 27, 1876, Frank M. Caughey, born June 22, 1843, at 
Parish of Perth, New Brunswick, son of Wm., born in Ireland, and 
Jane (MaCrea) Caughey. The father, Wm. Caughey, met an accid- 
ental death when Frank was an infant. Frank had three brothers, 
Samuel, William, and Andrew — Frank being the youngest — all of 
whom came west. In the fall of 1870 he came to St. Cloud, Minn. 
Though without technical training, he won local distinction as a judge 
of horses and in his earlier years was a keen trader. Being exception- 
ally fond of horses, he chose to follow lines of activity in which they 
performed an important part. In the summer of 1871 he was a team- 
ster in the civilian section of the Northern Pacific railway surveying 
expedition west of the Missouri river to as far as where Glendive is lo- 
cated, "carried" mail from St. Cloud to Brockway, North Prairie and 
Two Rivers until 1877, and during 1901-1904 from Brainerd to Shep- 
perd P. O., Crow Wing county. He also spent a number of winters 

Mir. Caughey farmed for a time in Brockway township and then 
purchased a farm beautifully located on the east bank of the Mississ- 
ippi river in Watab township, Benton county. In 1885 he sold this farm 
and moved to Royalton that the children might have better school op- 
portunities, but continued farming. In 1898 he homesteaded in Dag- 
gett Brook, Crow Wing county, where he died, July 28, 1909. 

Mrs. Caughey still resides on the homestead which is operated by 
her sons, R. L. and C. E. Caughey. With the exception of Maud, de- 
ceased, all of her children reside in the neighborhood. 

Ten children: 

41 Hester J.,' b. Oct. 2, 1877, Brockway. 

42 Eva E., 3 b. March 2, 1879, Brockway. 

43 Walter P., 3 b. Nov. 12, 1880, Watab. 

44 Maud R., 3 b. March 17, 1884, Watab. 

45 Agnes M., 3 b. April 19, 1886, Royalton. 

46 Flora M., 3 b. June 22, 1888, Royalton. 

47 Francis Preston,' b. Dec. 4, 1890, Royalton. 

48 Georgia Alma, 3 b. March 6, 1893, Royalton. 

49 Robert Lauren, 3 b. Oct. 9, 1895. Royalton. 
60 Colvin Eugene, 3 b. April 3, 1898, Brainerd. 

(&) Rosella Elizabeth Russell, youngest daughter of Robert (1), 
born July 27, 1858, Langola, Minn. 

Married, March 20, 1879, at St. Cloud, Hiram Huntington Clifford, 
born July 16, 1854, Waterbury, Vt.; died Dec. 20, 1918, Little Falls, 
Minn., H. H. Clifford was a son of Samuel, a carpenter, and Zeruah 
(Blodgett) Clifford who moved from Vermont to Minn, in 1855, locat- 
ing on a farm in Linden township, Stearns county, where Samuel later 
became a township supervisor, county commissioner and a member of 
the local school board. They had six children, four boys and two girls. 

In the spring of 1876 Hiram went to St. Cloud where for a number 
of years he was employed in the Novelty Wood Works and became a 
skilled wood worker. In Oct. 1885 he moved to Royalton, Minn, where 
he worked at his trade and farmed. He was a member of the Royalton 


school board for 10 years and at all times an active member of the 
Masonic lodge. In 1912 he moved to Mount Hope, Wash, where he op- 
erated a general store; returned to Minn, in 1916 making the trip by 
auto accompanied by his wife and wife's sister, Jennie Flint, visiting 
friends and relatives enroute. They left Mt. Hope June 8th and arriv- 
ed at Royalton, Minn., July 13. He died of Spanish influenza, being 
the only victim among the immediate families of the Russell descend- 
ants of that epidemic. 

Their children: 

51 John Gilman," b. Feb. 12, 1880, St. Cloud, Minn. 

52 Harry Earnest,* b. April 25, 1881, St. Cloud, Minn. 

53 Bertha Marion, 3 b. February 24, 1883, St. Cloud, Mirm. 

54 Russell Hiram, 3 b. August 25, 1887, Royalton, Minn. 

55 Ira Warren,' b. July 14, 1889, Royalton, Minn. 

(9) John Higgins Russell, third son of Robert (1), born Sept. 6, 
1860, Langola, Minn. 

Residence, Royalton. Minn. Occupation, merchant. 

John Russell attended the local school till 1873 when he accom- 
panied his mother and older brother, Robert L., to the west side of the 
Mississippi river in Brockway township, Stearns county, continuing in 
school, then the Union high in St. Cloud and the Curtis Business col- 
lege, Minneapolis. He provided the funds to attend the latter schools 
by working summers. 

In 1880 he entered the butcher business at Gull River, Minn., at 
that time a thriving saw mill town, in partnership with his brother 
Wallace and E. A. Bowers, under the firm name of Russell Brothers 
and Bowersi In Dec. 1881 the Russell Brothers sold their interest at 
Gull River and in January 1882 opened a general merchandise store at 
Royalton, Minn., under the firm name of Russell Brothers. A iew 
years later W. W. Russell withdrew and J. H, continued until April 7, 
1917, having sold his store interests after 34 years of successful mer- 
cantile activity in Royalton. Since retiring his attention has been giv- 
en to his farms and selling life insurance. 

The line of the Northern Pacific from St. Cloud to Brainerd was 
graded during the early 70s but owing to the financial crisis of 1873 
the laying of rails was delayed until 1879, when train service was es- 
tablished and the station of Royalton, Minn., came into existence. A 
"station" consisting of a sidetrack and a water tank rapidly developed 
into a village but in the transition there must necessarily be organized 
and financed churches, schools, lodges, volunteer fire department, a 
band, a newspaper, and cemeteries. The burden of which was almost 
entirely borne by those early citizens who were actively engaged in 
business. A roster of anv of the early activities of Royalton contains 
the name of J. H. Russell. 

In. addition to the semi-public organizations with which he was 
affiliated he was treasurer of Belleview township eighteen consecutive 
years, postmaster under President Arthur, village president a number 
of terms and a trustee many additional terms and also a member of 
the school board and in each position gave faithful service. He was as- 
sociated with the first creamery established in Royalton, m 1887. and 
in 1893 extended his interests to one at Clear Lake, Minn, with C. T. 
Montanye as partner under the firm name of Acme Creamery Co. The 
partnership was discontinued in 1894, Mr. Montanye withdrawing, fol- 
lowing which. 1895, a creamery was established at Dixville by Mr 


Russell who continued with the plant at Royalton until about 1906, 
when he sold his creamery interests. 

For a period of more than 25 years he maintained an elevator for 
handling grain, built the first and only potato warehouse to date at 
Royalton and operated it for seven years. 

Married Caroline A. Nielson, daughter of Peter and Anna Nielson, 
born January 19, 1868 and died January 19, 1893. 

Four children by this marriage: 

56 Earl Alfred, 1 b. Sept. 14, 1884. 

57 George H.," b. Nov. 17, 1888; d. Jan. 27, 1889. 

58 Howard," b. Feb. 9, 1890; d. May 14, 1891. 

59 Robert,* b. Dec. 20, 1891; d. Oct. 31, 1892. 

Married December 21, 1901, Blanche A. Martin, daughter of Lycer- 
gus F. and Flora F. (Knapp) Martin. L. F!. Martin was born in Cana- 
da, moved to Wisconsin in 1865 and married at Manitowoc in 1867. A 
son, Alfred L., was born at La Crosse in 1869. In 1870 they moved to 
Watab, Minn., where Jera Kenneth was born in 1871 and Maud Estella 
in 1874. Blanche Alma was born in Buckman township, Morrison coun- 
ty, April 11, 1876. In March 1884 the Martins moved to Rice, Benton 
county and engaged in the hotel business, thence to Little Falls from 
where in 1900 Mr. and Mrs. Martin moved to Sentinel Butte, N. D. 
where their eldest son had preceded them several years. L. F. Martin 
died in Sentinel Butte on September 16, 1910, Mrs. Martin in Minnea- 
polis March 3, 1918. 

Blanche Martin graduated from the State Teachers' Training col- 
lege at St. Cloud, Minn., in 1899 and taught in the schools of Little 
Falls, Brainerd and Breckenridge, Minn. 

Children by this marriage: 

60 baby girl, b. Oct. 24, 1908; d. same day. 

61 baby girl, b. Jan. 22, 1910; d. Jan. 23, 1910. 

62 John Kenneth, 3 b. Jan. 17, 1911. 

63 Blanche Alma, 1 b. Feb. 12, 1914; d. Oct^. 12, 1916. 

64 Harold Wallace, 1 b. Jan. 29, 1916. 


(10) John Alfred Russell, 1st son of Robert (2), born September 
3, 1875, Brockway, Minn. 

Operated his father's farm and ferry west of Rice for a number 
of years, then went to Canada since which time his movements are un- 

Married September 5, 1898, Sadie O. Clepper, born July 9, 1878, 
at Brockway, whose parents were among the early settlers and sub- 
stantial farmers of that township. 

Mrs. Russell resides at Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

Five children: 

65 Robert Lorin, 4 b. July 11, 1899. 

66 Erwin Alfred, 4 b. May 29, 1901. 

67 John Allen,* b. May 18, 1903. 

68 Ruth Lillian, 4 b. May 21, 1905. 

69 Raymond, 4 b. Feb. 9, 1908; d. April, 11, 1919. 







(11) Laura A. Russell, 1st daughter of Robert (2), b. Julv 27 
1877, in Brockway, Minn. «"*"'. 

Married June 12, 1901,Oscar A. McGee who was born in Brockway 
Minn., Nov. 3, 1876, son of John D. and Eva A. (McDonald) McGee 
who moved to Seattle, Wash, in 1888. Oscar enlisted in the National 
Guard of Washington in 1893 and remained a member until the out- 
break of the Spanish war when they were mustered into the service 
of the U. S. as the 1st Washington Infantry serving in the Philip- 
pines. Shortly after the close of the war he entered the regular army 
His service record is: Co. "B" 1st Regt. Nat. Guard of Wash. June 
27, 1893 to May 17, 1898. Sergt. Co. "B" 1st Wash. Inf. May 17, 1898 
to July 23, 1899. Private Co. "K" 36th U. S. Vol. Inf.. July 24 to July 
29, 1899. 1st Lieut. 36th U. S. Vol., Inf., July 31, 1899 to March 16, 
1901, date of muster out of service of the regiment. 

2d Lieut. 9th U. S. Cavalry Nov. 13, 1901 to March 30, 1902. 

1st Lieut. 2d Cavalry March 31, 1902 to Oct. 2, 1912. 

Capt. 12th U. S. Cavalry Oct. 3, 1912 to Feb. 13, 1913. Transfer- 
red to 5th Cavalry Feb. 12, 1913. 

Appointed Maj. Field Artillery Nat Army Aug. 5, 1917. 

Promoted Lieut. Col. Feb. 13, 1918. 

Honorably discharged from the Nat. Army May 8, 1920 — reverted 
to grade of Capt. Cavalry, unassigned, Regular Army. 

Promoted Lieut. Col. July 1, 1920. 

John McGee, grandfather of Oscar, was one of the early settlers of 
Minn,, coming to Little Falls, in 1855 and removing to Brockway in 
1857. Farmer and lumberman. 

He married Mary Gallop in St. Johns, N. B. in Nov. 1840. 

No children born to Laura A. and Oscar A. McGee. 

(15) Lucetta J. Flint, first daughter of Jennie (3), born in Lan- 
gola township, Benton county, Minn., Feb 1, 1886. Attended the State 
Teachers' Training College at St. Cloud but did not graduate; taught 
school and served as deputy postmaster at Rice; married Oct. 8, 1903, 
Daniel Fenlason, born July 27, 1870, Brockway, Minn., son of Harris 
M. and Orinda (Getchel) Fenlason both born in Wesley, Maine ana 
married mere in 1845. They moved to Winnebago Prairie, (Brock- 
way,) Stearns county, Minnesota, in 1855 where Mrs. Fenlason died 
Nov. 10, 1895 and Mr. Fenlason in 1902. Daniel Fenlason is a farmer 
owning the farmstead formerly occupied by his parents. 

Postoffice, St. Cloud, Minn. 

Four children. 

70 Harris M.,' b. Oct. 20, 1904, Brockway, Minn. 

71 Lois J.', b. Feb. 28, 1907, Brockway, Minn. 

72 Francis S.,* b. Feb. 24, 1909, Brockway. 

73 Donald W.,* b. Nov. 5, 1910, Brockway, Minn. 

(16) Nelson Flint, 1st son of Jennie (3); born July 23, 1869, Lan- 
gola, Minn. 

Railway expressman; lives in North St. Paul, Minn. 

Married, June 29, 1895, Duluth, May J. Williams; born Van Buren 
county, Michigan, May 6, 1871; daughter of (Capt. 13th Mich.) Smith 
G., born Orleans county, New York, Dec. 27, 1834, and Adeline 
(Adams) Williams, born Oswego county, New York, July 24, 1845. 


May Williams was a graduate of the State Teachers' Training School 
St. Cloud, Minn., class of 1892 and taught. Nelson Flint also attended 
that school; later was employed in mercantile line at Boyalton, and 
Grand Rapids, Minn., when the latter village was 75 miles distant 
from the' railway and extremely difficult to reach other than by boat 
on the upper Mississippi, excepting during winter, becauseof swamps 
and lakes and the lack of passable trails. In 1893 he became associat- 
ed with the Northern Pacific express company at Duluth; from 1897 
to 1900 was agent at Superior; then messenger on run from St. Paul 
to Winnipeg until 1908; and since then from St. Paul to Msndan and 
Forsythe. He takes unusual interest in things historical and has as- 
sembled a rare collection of Minnesota and North Dakota relics. 


74 Francis C.,* b. June 5, 1896, Duluth, Minn. 

75 Leroy A.' b. Sept. 13, 1897, Langola, Minn. 
7« Margaret M„ (adopted) b. July 7, 1915. 

(17) Robert F. FKnt,^nd son of Jennie (3), born Jan. 13, 1872, in 
Swan River township, Morrison county; creamery operator from 1892 
to 1904 inclusive, at Royalton, Minn, and New Salem, N. D., going to 
the latter place in 1899; Dairy Commissioner of North Dakota, 1905 to 
1914 inclusive;Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor of North Dako- 
ta, 1915-16; Assistant in Charge Dairy Extension, Dairy Division, U. 
S. Department of Agriculture with headquarters in Washington, D. C. 
1917 to June, 1919; in commercial dairy work from June, 1919 to Nov. 
23, 1921; Dairy Commissioner of North Dakota to Jan. 1, 1923, when 
he resigned to reenter commercial dairy work. 

Married, Feb. 20, 1900, Camille E. St, Cyr, born Sept. 1, 1872 at 
St. Cloud, Minn., daughter of Ahner and Ellen (Monigan) St. Cyr. 

Abner St. Cyr, born March 17, 1837 at Pnairie du Chien, Wis., 
came to Sauk Rapids, Minn, in the spring of 1849, the following year 
he was employed by Brown & Stewart (general merchandise and hotel) 
at Swan River. In 1853 he removed to Big Lake, still in the employ of 
Brown & Stewart. He moved to St. Paul in 1857 and was employed on 
the river four years, the test two as pilot on the Minnesota river; com- 
missioned 1st Lieut. G. Company (which he helped to recruit), 4th 
Minn., Oct. 1, 1861; wounded before Vicksburg, and honorably discharg- 
ed at Huntsville, Ala., in April, 1863; served state and federal authori- 
ties as interpreter at various times throughout northern Minn., and 
Pembina, Dakota; fatally injured in a tornado in Sauk Rapids, April 
14, died April 15, 1886. His grandparents were pioneer settlers, of St. 
Louis when still under Spanish rule, his grandfather going there from 
Quebec, his mother's family from New Orleans.* 

Michael Monigan, father of Ellen, with his wife, Jane (Nelson) 
emigrated from Roscommon county, Ireland to New York State in 

In 1855 they moved to Minnesota and settled on government land 
in Minden township Benton county. The homestead is still in possess- 
ion of their descendants. Ellen Monigan was born in New York State. 
Oct. 15, 1843, died August 10, 1890. 

Residence, Bismarck, N. D. 

One child: 

77 Robert Jerome, 4 b. Nov. 18, 1912, Bismarck. 

♦See "Annals of Old St. Louis," Vol. I and II, by F. Ii. Billon. 


(18) Janet E. Flint, 2nd daughter of Jennie (3), b. Sept. 13, 1874 
in Swan River township, Morrison county, Minn. 

Attended the State Teachers' Training School at St. Cloud, Minn, 
and taught for a number of terms. Moved to Washington in 1900 
where she also taught school. 

Married July 16, 1902, Chas. W. Preuninger who was born Jan. 18, 
1865, at Springfield, Ohio, and died at Fairfield, Washington, Sept. 22, 
1919. Mr. Preuninger was of German parentage. 

Farmer, and resides at Rockford, Wash. 

Two children. 

78 Reuben Curtis,* b. May 9, 1903. 

79 Ralph M., 4 b. Jan. 24, 1905. 

(19) Agnes A. Flint, 3d daughter of Jennie (3), born July 7, 1876, 
Langola, Minn. 

Attended the State Teachers' Training School at Winona, Minn. 
Married June 8, 1898 Ozro S. Holland, born Feb. 25, 1866. Mr. Holland 
was a son of Ozro and Lavinia (Briggs) Holland, the former born in 
Vermont, the latter in Pennsylvania on Jan. 22, 1840. She came to 
Minnesota in 1858, was married to Mr. Holland in 1861. They resided 
on a farm near Dover, Minn. Mr. Holland died July 4, 1865, and Mrs. 
Holland later married John R. Crane. 

Gardener and orchardist and lives at Winona, Minn. 

Five children: 

80 Ruth A., 4 b. Aug. 19, 1899. 

81 Harold, 4 b. Jan. 9, 1901; d. Jan. 27, 1901. 

82 Merrill 0., 4 b. Jan. 11, 1902. 

83 Marjorie M., 4 b. May 1, 1904. 

84 Harriet B. G., 4 b. April 29, 1916. 

(20) Olive Flint, 4th daughter of Jennie (3), born September 10, 
1878, Langola township, Benton county. Graduate of State Teachers' 
Training School, St. Cloud, 1903. Married October 14, 1903, Alfred 
H. Gates, only child of Wm. Alonzo and Lydia M. (Moore) Gates. Wm 
A. Gates, born June 16, 1834, Otsego, N. Y., died July 22, 1879, at St. 
Cloud, Minn. Lydia Moore, born April 18, 1843, Farmington, Mich., 
died July 22, 1899 at Little Falls, Minn. They were married at St 
Cloud in 1859. 

Wm. A. Gates came to Stearns county, in 1858, on a hunting-trap- 
ping (trip in the vicinity of Grand Lake, where he first met his future 
wife. Following their marriage they lived in St. Cloud and Mr. Gates 
freighted, principally from St. Cloud to Ft. Abercrombie, until the ex- 
tension of the railway. In May, 1878, he moved to the GatesVf arm in 
Langola township. While on a trip to St. Cloud for the purpose of pro-, 
curing one of the first Osborne wire binding harvesters in that region 
he met with an accident which caused his death, being kicked by one of 
his mules. 

Occupation, farmer; secretary-manager of the Rice Cooperative 

Residence, Rice, Minn. 


Their children: * 

85 Winnifred O., 4 b. Oct. 30, 1904, St. Cloud, Minn. 

86 Alfred A., 4 b. May 2, 1906, Rice.Minn. 

87 Francis H., 4 b. Oct. 30, 1908, Rice, Minn. 

88 Helen Dorothy, 4 b. Feb. 24, 1918, Rice, Minn. 

89 Wm. Harold, 1 b. Feb. 23, 1920, Rice, Minn. 

(21) Gertrude Flint, Bth daughter of Jennie (3); born June 21, 
1882, Rice, Minn. 

Married Oct. 10, 1906, Leonard J. Olson, born July 14, 1881, Stock- 
holm, Sweden. His occupation, auditor. Lives at Libby, Mont. 

Leonard J. is the son of Lars Magnus, born Dec. 21, 1854, Karlstad, 
Sweden and Louise Charlotte (Johnson) Olson. Lars Magnus came to 
the United States in 1883, direct to Sauk Rapids, Minn. Louise Char- 
lotte Johnson was born August 12, 1855, Adelso, Sweden; came to Un- 
ited States one year later than her husband. 


90 Leone G., 4 b. July 8, 1908, Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

91 Howard L., 4 b. March. .22, 1910, Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

92 Donald Flint, 4 b. Aug. 18, 1917, Libby, Mont. 

(22) Adalia Flint, 6th daughter of Jennie (3), born June 7, 1884, 
Langola township, Benton county, Minn. 

Postmistress, Rice, Minn., 1908 to 1914. 

Married June 9, 1914, Chas. Austin Graham, born Dec. 9, 1882, 
Graham township, Benton county. (Graham township so named in hon- 
or of Sheldon Graham, one of the substantial farmers living there and 
grandfather of Chas. A. Graham.) Chas. A. Graham is the son of Fre- 
mont and Belle (Tuttle) Graham, the former born in Hoiicon, Dodge 
county, Wis., Oct. 7, 1856; died Feb. 4, 1920, Little Falls, Minn. Belle 
Tuttle born in Minneapolis June 1, 1857, is the daughter of Calvin Aus- 
tin Tuttle,* born in Tolland county, Conn., Dec. 31, 1811, came to Minn, 
in 1836 aided in building first mill in St. Anthony; was territorial trea- 
surer six years; settled on a farm at mouth of Two Rivers, Morrison 
county in 1867, where he operated a ferry over the Mississippi river 
about fifteen years; died in Los Angeles, Nov. 1900. Fremont and 
Belle (Tuttle) Graham, married Jan. 19, 1881. 

Merchant, lives at Remer, Minn. 

Their children: 

93 Austin Tuttle, 4 b. June 9, 1916, Remer, Minn. 

94 Richard Russell, 4 b. May 22, 1919, Remer, Minn. 

96 Rilfa 4 '' 1 i twins ' b> Jan - 5 ' 1923 ' Be™ 1 ^ 1 ' Minn - 

(23) Erwin W. Flint, third son of Jennie (3), born April 13, 1888, 
Langola, Minn. Yardmaster, resides at Fargo, N. D. 

Married, June 21, 1911, Eliza B. Erickson, born April 6, 1888 at 

*Mrg. Calvin Tuttle is said to have been the first white woman resident of 
St. Anthony and her son, Wllmot, the first white child born there. While living; 
in St. Anthony their children crossed the Mississippi river on boom sticks to 
attend school on the west side. Mr. Tuttle donated 10 acres to the University 


Sauk Rapids, Minn. Eliza B. is the daughter of Aaron, born in Swed- 
en, and Hanna (Boothroyd) Erickson, of English descent. 
Military record of E. W. Flint: 

Enlisted May 31, 1918, Moorhead, Minn., entrained June 1st, 1918 
for Camp Meade; trained three weeks at this camp with 154th Depot 
Brigade, then transferred to Camp Leach, D. C, 68th Engineers, B. 
Company; left New York Sept. 1, 1918 on H. M. S. Belgie, landing at 
Liverpool Sept. 13, 1918; left Liverpool by train Sept. 14th for South- 
ampton, crossed channel night of 15th U. S. S. Yale; LeHavre to Mon- 
tier-chaume, France, by train, where headquartered for remainder of 
time overseas. Three weeks building railroad yard at this camp trans- 
ferred to A. Company, same regiment and put on as conductor in train 
service until April 30th, 1919, when recalled and prepared to come 
home. Left Montierchaume May 17, 1919 with 54th Company, Trans- 
portation Corps, the new name for old A. Company, 68th Engineers, 
arrived at Bordeau, May 18th. Sailed June 2, on U. S. S. Arcadia, 
and landed at Newport News, Va. June 16th. Left Newport News 
June 19th, entrained for Camp Grant, 111. Honorable discharge given 
June 24, 1919 from Camp Grant. 


97 Robert M., 4 b. June 17, 1912, Fargo, N. D. 

98 Alice L., 4 b. March 4, 1914, Fargo, N. D. 

99 Mary Elizabeth, 4 b. July 11, 1915, Fargo, N. D. 

100 Janet, 4 b. Oct. 31, 1920, Fargo, N. D. 

(24) Howard Russell Flint, 4th son of Jennie (3), Dorn Oct. 11, 
1892, Rice, Minn. 

Graduated in 1916 from University of North Dakota, with degree 
of B. S. in civil engineering, having begun practical work with the 
State Engineer of North Dakota while in the second year of high 

Enlisted at Bismarck, N. ID., Sept. 24, 1917, private in) A, Com- 
pany, 164 Inf., 41 Div.; promoted to sergeant Oct. 19, 1917, stationed 
at Camp Green, N. C; embarked at Hoboken, Dec. 14, 1917 on U. S. S 
Leviathan! on the first trip made by this boat to Europe under the U*. 
S. flag; transferred as private to F Company, 116 Engineers, 41 Div., 
Jan. 19, 1918; promoted Sgt. 1st class, Jan. 24, 1918; discharged at 
Langres (Haute-Marne, France) Sept. 30, 1918 to accept 2nd Lieut- 
enancy and was assigned to active duty with 115th Engineers on duty 
with 6th corps; debarked from Leviathan at Hoboken, July 5th, 1919; 
honorably discharged at Washington, D. C n office of Chief of U. S. 
Engineers, July 14, 1919. 

Occupation, civil engineer with Bureau of Highways of State of 
Idaho; residence, Pocatello. 

Married, June 14, 1922, at Grand Forks, N. D., Ruth Ellen Muir, 
born June 1, 1898 at Jackson, Minn., daughter of John W., born 
March 1, 1876 at Hibbert, Ontario and died Jan. 18, 1922 at Minnea- 
polis, Minn., and Helena (Arp) Muir, born Jan. 13, 1867 at Wentdorf, 
Holstein, Germany. John W. Muir was a son of Robert Crawford and 
Mary (MacLean) Muir, the former born in Ontario) of Scottish an- 
cestors, the latter in Argyleshire, Scotland. 

One child: 

101 Nancy Louise, b. May 30, 1923. 


(25) Miriam Agnes Smart, 1st daughter of Agnes (4), born Nov. 
15, 1870, Brockway, Stearns county, Minn. 

Graduate State Normal, St. Cloud, and taught for several years. 

Married William Albert Fifield, Oct. 2, 1899. Mr. Fifield was 
born in Lynn, Mass. Dec. 5, 1871, son of Warren and Harriet E. (Bo- 
ley) Fifield. Warren Fifield of English descent, was born in Maine, 
his wife's parents were born in England and married there. 

William's parents moved from Lynn to Sauk Rapids, Minn., when 
he was about one year of age. About ten years later, in company with 
another family, they moved by covered wagon, during February, to a 
claim near Aberdeen, S. D. — then Dakota Territory. 

A few days after their arrival and when but a 10x10 foot shanty 
had been erected a severe snow storm set in and lasted several days. 
During which time four grown persons and ten children occupied the 
small shanty and in addition it became necessary to make room for 
three horses. Several years later they returned to Minnesota. 

In 1900 William, then married, filed on a claim in North Dakota, 
twenty miles from a railroad. Three years later a railroad was con- 
structed within three miles of their claim and the village of Glenburn 
sprang into existence near them. 

In 1909 they moved to Swift Current, Sask., took a claim seventy 
miles northwest and moved out in wagons. Since that time a rail- 
road has been extended and trading points established near them, and 
telephones, good roads, schools and churches constructed. They take 
an active part in the affairs of the community. 

Reside: Abbey, Sask., Canada. 

Five children: 

102 Wm. Wallace,* b. Dec. 8, 1900. 

103 Harold Franklin, 4 b. Nov. 14, 1902. 

104 Harriet Agnes, 4 b. April 25, 1905. 

105 Chas. Edward, 4 b. June 1, 1906. 

106 Warren Albert, 4 b. Sept. 29, 1909. 

(26) John Franklin Smart, 1st son of Agnes (4), born Feb. 13, 
1872, in Langola, Benton county, Minn. 

"Frank" Smart began district school at five and continued until 
fourteen years of age with the exception that each fall from an early 
age, in company with his brother Wallace, he was detained at home 
until the ground froze to assist with the farm work He attended 
the State Normal at St. Cloud and University, Minneapolis but did 
not graduate from either; taught school two terms receiving $30 per 
(month for the first and $40 for the second, the customary wages for 
rural school teachers, and paying $12 per month for board. 

In 1893 he went, as time keeper, with a railroad construction 
crew to Cathay. N. D. >and later for several years performed similar 
service for lumbermen. During winter he worked in logging camps and 
in spring on drives, chiefly on the Crow Wing River and tributaries. 

In 1898, in company with his brother Wallace, he started 
farming in Daggett Brook, Crow Wing county. He was influential in 
thei organization of and the first clerk for school district No. 68 of 
that county. In 1906 he was elected Auditor of Crow Wing county 
and served in that official capacity from 1907 to 1914 inclusive when 
desiring a more out of door life he declined to again stand for elect- 






In 1915 he made a visit to the Gulf States and later that year 
moved from Brainerd, Minn, to Pairhope, Ala. where he is farming 
and taking an active part in a farmers' club of which he is secretary. 

Like his father, Mr. Smart enjoys good literature, has an ex- 
cellent memory for detail and is recognized as a well informed man. 

Married Sept. 18, 1901, Myrtle Elinor Gates, born Aug. 22, 1883 
at Olivia, Renville county, Minn., daughter of Byron H. and Mary 
(Hagadone) Gates. Byron H. was a son of Joshua H. and Lucinda 
(Soper) Gates who settled in southern Minnesota in the early fifties. 
Joshua Gates was born in New York state. Mary Hagad'one's father 
was William, a German by birth, and her mother Harriet L. Sterns, 
born in Michigan, Feb. 12, 1834, and living at the age of 85. Harriet 
Sterns' »father, William, died at the age of ninety-seven years, her 
Imother's name was Nancy Johnson, the former of English, the latter 
Scotch descent. They lived in the New England states. 

Residence; Fairhope, Ala. 

Eight children: 

107 Child died at birth, Oct. 19, 1902. 

108 Harriet Elinor,' b. Oct. 16, 1903; d. May 23, 1910. 

109 Elwin John, 4 b. Oct. 7, 1906. 

110 Agnes Mary,* b. Oct. 30, 1908; d. June 23, 1910. 

111 Donald Vincent,' b. May 10, 1912. 

112 Neil Russell,* b. March 29, 1914. 

113 Dorothy Isabelle,' b. March 23, 1918. 

114 Archibald Franklin,' b. Dec. 18, 1919. 

(27) Wallace E. Smart, 2nd son of Agnes, (4) born November 
12, 1873, Brockway, Minn. 

Farmer in town of Long Lake, Crow Wing county, Minn, where 
he settled in 1899. 

Married June -26, 1900, Ethel TVnlason. daughter -of Freeman H. 
and Cynthia A. (Shajlafoo) Fenlason. 

Post office, Brainerd, Minn. 

Nine children: 

115 Edward Freeman,' b. April 22, 1901. 

116 Robert Wallace,' b. Aug. 19, 1902. 

117 Alice May,' b. Oct. 21, 1904. 

118 Alfred Leroy,* b. May 29, 1906. 

119 Loren Henry,* b. April 15, 1908. 

120 Ruth Evangeline,* b. June 1, 1909. 

121 Mildred Irene,' b. Dec. 16, 1910; d. May 25, 1915. 

122 Leonard Caughey,* b. Aug. 13„ 1911. 

123 Lily Belle,* b. April 16, 1914. 

(28) Jennie A. Smart, 2nd daughter of Agnes (4), born June 8, 
1875, Brockway, Minn. Teacher. Married Sept, 6, 1911, John W. 
Gillespie, born Nov. 15, 1855 at Mt. Pleasant^-now Farmer City— Illi- 
nois, son of Harmon and Nancy (Moore) Gillespie. Resides at Farm- 
er City, 111. No children. 


10 7./ 2 D 9> ? dith L - Smart 3rd daughter of Agnes (4), born June 23, 
1877, Brockway, Minn. Married June 19, 1905, Ehvin G. Ellithorp 
born Dec. 5, 1871, Porreston, 111., son of Myron W. and Zilpha (Mandi- 
go) Ellithorp. Mr. Ellithorp's father was born in Illinois, his mother 
in Ontario, Canada; they moved from Illinois to Sauk Rapids, Minn- 
in 1872. Residence Fairoaks, Calif. 

SbC children: 

124 Ina Myrtle, 4 b. July 30, 1906. 

125 Leslie Myron, 4 b. July 8, 1908. 

126 Zilpha A., 4 b. April 28, 1911. 

127 Clarice H., 4 b. Oct. 9, 1914. 

128 Lois W., 4 b. March 21, 1916. 

129 Jennie M., 4 b. Sept. 10, 1918. 

1B 7Q (3 « ) Harriet E. Smart, 4th daughter of Agnes (4), born Dec 20, 
}%!%' m 00 ^*?' Mlnn - Mar ned Christian A. Christenson, Dec' 11 
1907. Mr. Christenson was born June 7, 1875 at Langelin, Denmark! 
? on ,2 f c^' nt j n and Laurenten a (Hanson) Christenson who came to U S 
in 1878 and settled in Swan River, Morrison county, Minn. Harriet 
began her married life on a homestead in northern Minnesota where 
her husband had earlier packed provisions 60 miles on foot over forest 
trails. Five years later they moved to their present location. Resi- 
dence, Red Bluff, Calif. 

Three children: 

130 Edith H., 4 b. April 14, 1909. 

131 Douglas D, 4 . b. July 16, 1911. 

132 Wesley W., 4 b. April 5, 1918. 

(32) Robert J. Smart, 3rd son of Agnes (4), born Oct. 23, 1884. 
Urockway, Minn. A farmer and owns and! occupies the farm which 
was the parental estate since 1870. Married, Oct. 19, 1918 Alta R. 
Wolhart, born April 30. 1889, Watab, Minn., daughter of George E 
and Emma R. (Smart) Wolhart. G. E. Wolhart was the son of Jacob 
and, Mary, natives of New York State who moved to Benton county 
Minnesota, when the former was but a child, Emma R. Smart was a 
daughter of H. B. and Miriam Smart. P. O., Rice, Minn. 

o ,o ( i 4) n MiI f red Isabelle Smart, 6th daughter of Agnes (4), born May 
2, 1895, Brockway, Stearns county, Minn. Married Oct. 1, 1919, Arch- 
ie E. Crosby. Teacher, and residles at Brockway. 

(36) Arthur R. Trace, 2nd son of Janet (5) born in, Haven, Sher- 
,JJ^ e T C i >u ^: Mlnn - May 30 ' 188L Twice married. Married April 7, 
,o?o' J T a W ^ on ' born 0ct - 31 > 1884 ' Ontario, Can., died' March 20 
1918. Ida Wilson was a daughter of Wpi. Wilson/ born at Saymour 
Ont., Sept. 8, 1833, and died in Feb. 1905, and) Isabella Caithnes, born 
m the Orkney Islands, Scotland, June 29, 1841, they were married in 
January 1864, at Saymour. 

Lumberman and resides at Fargo, N. D. 

Children by first marriage : 

133 Carr© Janet, 4 b. Jan. 9, 1910, Minot, N. D 

134 Neil Wilson, 4 b. April 26, 1912. 1 m . 

135 Baby Girl, 4 d. April 27, 1912. / Twlns 


136 Arthur Ronald, 4 b. July 4, 1914. 

137 Elizabeth Aileen, 4 b. July 30, 1917. 

Married Feb. 26, 1920, Nellie Alvina Lund, born Aug. 13, 1899, 
Bowbells, N. D., daughter of Nels J. Lund, born Jan. 30, 1873, Schles- 
wig Holstein, and Anna H. Sampson, born April 30, 1875, Denmark. 
Married April 16, 1897, Sioux City, la. 

Borti by second marriage: 

138 Hazel Alvina,* b. March 18, 1922, Coeur d' Alene, Idaho. 

(37) Fred Cram Trace, 3rd son of Janet (5), born April 14, 1883. 
Graduated from High School, St. Cloud, Minn. Unmarried. Office 
manager with lumber and shipping corporation, Eureka, Cal. Prior 
to entering the lumber business he worked seven years in the store de- 
partment of the G. N. Railway shops at St. Cloud; was chief, clerk at 
Everett, Washington. 

(38) Robert Ferdinand Trace, 4th son of Janet (5), born October 
22, 1885, After graduating from high school, spent one year in law- 
yer's office, two years at Carleton College and one year in the law de- 
partment of the University of Minnesota. Unmarried. Salesman. 
Died Sept. 9, 1915, Tindall, Mont. 

(39) Orrin F. Trace, 5th son of Janet (5), born November 23, 
1888. Inducted for service in World War at Glendive, Mont., May 28, 
1918, stationed at Camp Lewis. Honorably discharged March 7, 1919, 

holding warrant as sergeant. Married Nov. 17, 1919, Bernice Wolf, 
born Sept. 23 1891, Davenport, Neb., daughter of Samuel Wolf, born 
April 16, 184,5, Portland', Taylor county, West Virginia, and Alice 
Jane (Bowman) Wolf, born Nov, 29, 1851, near Danville, 111., they 
having married March 13, 1873 at Lincoln, Neb. To this union; were 
born twelve children. The father, Samuel Wolf died Feb. 28, 1913, at 
Miles City, Mont. Interior lumber dealer, St. Paul, Minn. 

(40) Hazel Trace, daughter of Janet (£), born Nov. 9, 1890. 
Graduate of State Normal, St. Cloud, Minn:, and from Seigel-Myers 
school of music, Chicago, public school music department. Taught 
school several years. Married, September 11, 1914, at Glendive, Mont., 
Theodore O. Evenson, born March 21, 1888, Devilsl Lake, N. D., son of 
Evan and Ingeborg (Nordskog) Evensong born in Norway, came to 
America when children, and married April 10, 1887. Farmers on 
homestead near Devils Lake. Theodore O. graduated from the State 
normal school at Mayville, N. D., homesteaded near Charbonneau, Mc- 
Kenzie county, in 1913, before the railroad was extended to that sec- 
tion, and taught school. Banker, resides at Alexandria, N. D. 

(41) Hester Jane Caughey, 1st daughter of Marion (7), born Oct. 
2, 1877, Stearns county, Minn. She attended the State normal school 
at St. Cloud and taught for a number of years in the rural schools of 
Benton, Morrison, Crow Wing, and Stearns counties. Married Dec. 27, 
1906, Robert B. Thompson, who was born Sept. 3, 1880, in Hants coun- 
ty, Nova Scotia. Mr. Thompson is the third son of George and Lucilla 
(Cameron) Thompson, who were born in Nova Scotia and movedi to 
Minn, in 1881, taking a homestead in Crow Wing county, where they 


lived till the father's death in Dec, 1901. Concrete worker and con- 
tractor. Resides near Brainerd, Minn. 

Their children: 

139 Frank C.,* b. April 4, 1909. 

140 Lucilla Maud, 4 b. April 30, 1910. 

141 Georgia Isabel,' b. Feb. 7, 1912. 

142 Marion Evangeline, 4 b. Sept. 20, 1913. 

143 Margaret Elizabeth,' b. March 4, 1915. 

144 Robert B.,* b. June 26, 1916. 

145 William W.,* b. Feb. 25, 1918. 

146 Janet Esther,* b. Oct. 4, 1920. 

(42) Eva E. Caughey, 2nd daughter of Marion (7), born March 2, 
1879, Brockway, Minn. Surgical nurse. Resides at Brainerd, Minn. 
Graduate nurse of St. Luke's hospital Spokane, Wash., 1910, previous 
to which she taught school in Minnesota and Washington. 

(43) Walter Presley Caughey, 1st son of Marion (7), born Nov. 
12, 1880 at Watab, Minn. Married Sept. 15, 1908, Rose Brusseau, 
born Jan. 19, 1887, at Belle Prairie, Minn. She is a daughter of Oliver 
and Lucile (Marchand) Brusseau. Oliver Brusseau was born in Mon- 
treal, Can., Dec. 1, 1854, and came to Little Falls, with his parents 
in 1858. For sixteen years he toted from St. Cloud to Leach Lake, 
During the Civil War he participated in suppressing the Indian up- 
rising, and later farmed near Little Falls. Lucile Marchand was born 
in Canada July 12, 1860, emigrated td Little Falls in 1876, married 
Oliver Brusseau at Belle Prairie, April 28, 1878. Farmer and lives 
near Brainerd, Minn. 

Four children: 

147 Lucile Marion, 4 b. Feb. 18, 1910. 

148 Eva Isabell,* b. Oct. 22, 1911. 

149 Donald Eugene,* b. Feb. 23, 1916. 

150 Walter Presley,* b. Dec. 28, 1919. 

151 Betty Jane Alma,* b. Oct. 22, 1922. 

,„ lt 4) Maude R - Caughey, 3rd. daughter of Marion (7), born March 
17, 1884, Watab, Minn.; died March 12, 1918, Teacher. Married Jan. 
20, 1917, Carl A. Berggen. 

( o 45) Agnes M - Caughey, 4th daughter of Marion (7), born April 
19, 1886, Royalton, Minn. Hert parents moved from Royalton to a 
farm near Brainerd in 1898. Married March 17, 1909, Peter Henry, 
born Oct. 15, 1881, son of Alphonse J. and Alida (Dunnewold) Henry. 
Alphonse J. Henry was a native of Belgium coming to Benton county 
Minn, when fourteen years of age; the mother a native of Holland and 
emigrated at six years of age. Farmer. Residence, Foley, Minn. 

Their children: 

152 Marian A.,* b. Feb. 11, 1910; d. Feb. 23, 1910. 

153 Eugene A.,* b. Jan. 7, 1912; d. Jan. 12, 1912. 


154 Eva Jane, 4 b. Sept. 28, 1914. 

155 Nancy Kathleen, 1 b. Sept. 30, 1916, 

156 Kerney Caughey, 4 b. May 24, 1919. 

157 Robert Peter,' b. June 13, 1922. 

(46) Flora M. Caughey, 5th daughter of Marion (7), born June 22, 
1888, Royalton, Minn. Married, March 6, 1916, Samuel Alexander 
Rardin son of George N. and Ida B. (Scott) Raitdin, who< was born 
Feb. 26, 1888 in Long Lake township, Crow Wing county, Minn. Far- 
mer and resides near Brainerd, Minn. 

Two children: 

158 George Nelson,* b. March 1, 1917. 

159 Dorthy Estella, 4 b. April 25, 1918. 

™ (47) Francis Preston Caughey, second son of Marion (7), born 
Dec. 4, 1890, Royalton, Minn. Farmer. Residesi, Brainerd, Minn. Rl. 
Married Jan. 17, 1917, Martha Marie Hohensee, borri March 21, 1898, 
St. Mathias, Crow Wing county, Minn., daughter of Wilheftn F. and 
Caroline (Wendt) Hohensee, natives of Germany. 

Their children: 

160 Eugene Lauren, 4 b. April 24, 1918. 

161 Kathleen Vernice, 4 b. April 23, 1920. 

,, 1 48 > Georgia Alma Caughey. sixth daughter of Marion (7), born 
March 6, 1893, Royalton, Minn. School teacher, graduate of State 
Normal, St. Cloud. During 1918 and part of 1919 she wasi employed 
in Washington, D. C. in the Bureau of War Risks. 

i OOC ( t 9) R° ber t Lauren Caughey, 3rd son of Marion (7), born Oct. 9, 
1895, Royalton, Minn. Farmer, and lives near Brainerd, Minn. Mili- 
tary service: Inducted from Brainerd, Minn., April 9, 1918. Request- 
ing service in military aeronautics he was sent to Pittsburg,, Pa., and 
assigned to B. company, Carnegie Institute Detachment, till June, 12- 
transferred to 4th Provo Regt. Mobilization Depot of M. A Camp 
Green, N. C. to July 8, to 35th Recruiting Squadron Dept. of Military 
Aeronautics, Camp Green July 10; transferred to 808 Aero Squadron, 
Washington D C, from which organization and location, he received 
an honorable discharge Jan. 31, 1919. 

(50) Colvin E. Caughey, 4th son of Marion (7), born April 3 1898 
Daggett Brook, Minn. Farmer, resides near Brainerd, Minn. ' 

q* ^f 1 ^ ™ hn G \» Mff ? r f. lst son of Rosel la (8), born Feb. 12, 1880, 
St. Cloud Minn. Married April 8, 1903 to Jessie Abigail Hunter, born 
June 23, 1885 at Morrill, Minn., daughter of Johnfr. who was born 
in Crawford county, Pa., Sept. 20, 1852, and Luella M. (Sawdy) Hun- 
ter, born at Lockport, Pa., March 23, 1867. Residence. Little Falls 
Minn. ' 

Four children: 

162 Rosella Maud, 4 b. Sept. 9, 1904. 

163 Glen Hiram, 4 b. June 21> 1906. 

164 Ethel Luella, 4 b. Aug. 21, 1912. 

165 Isabel Frances, 4 b. March 27, 1917. 


2* iRR^ 5 B r7 ^ a ^- St C1 ^° rd -' f^, 80 " of Rosella (8) ' born A P riI 
25, 1881, St. Cloud, Minn. Married July 15, 1914, Eva Angeline Car- 
penter, born March 3, 1887, Langola, daughter of James P. and Eliza 
(Sparrow) Carpenter. Mr. Carpenter was born July 15, 1845 White- 
water, Wis., his wife April 25, 185;5, Quebec, Canada. For many 
years they were residents of Sauk Rapids, Minn., where Mr. Carpent- 
er s parents were early settlers. James Carpenter was a veteran of the 
Civil War, Army of the Cumberland, enlisted at Ann Arbor Mich 
August 29, 1864 in Company A. 28th Inf., commissioned 2nd Lieut' 
and mustered out at Raleigh, N. C, June 5, 1866; died April 24, 1916 at 
Sauk Rapids. 

Miller, and lives at Madison, Minn. 

Two children: 

166 Byron Huntington, 4 b. July 1, 1916, Foley, Minn. 

167 Hallie Angeline, 4 b. January 7, 1918, Foley, Minn. 

Fab afMS** M™ Clifford only daughter of Rosella (8), born 
,<?« t' i' St- Cloud, Minn. Married Wm. I. Manley, born Oct. 25, 
187b, beward, Neb., son of Chas. and Effie (Duncan) Manley The 
Manley parents were married in 1874 in Seward, Neb.; moved to Iowa 
m 1881 and to Royalton, Minn, in 1889. Effie Duncan, daughter of John 
20 , 1918 WSS ^ Milkrsburg ' m - Feb - 10 > 1856 ; died in Iowa July 

Resides at Little Falls, Minn. 
Their children: 

168 Carmen Pearl, 4 b. Aug. 17, 1902, Royalton, Minn. 

169 William Harry, 4 b. Sept. 5, 1904, Royalton, Minn. 

170 Charles Clifford, 4 b. June 29, 1911, Muscatine, la. 

171 Rosella Agnes, 4 b. July 2, 1915, Royalton, Minn. 

172 Robert Loren, 4 b. May 8, 1919, Little Falls, Minn. 

2«? i«w p USS ?*" H t am C ^ d ' 3rd son of Rosella (8), born Aug. 
H- r y T°9 n U^™- < Enhst T ed June 18 > 19" at Redwood' Fall!, 
Minn., in Co L, 2nd Minn. Inft. Left Redwood Falls for Camp Codv 
N. M. Sept. 27, promoted to 1st class private Dec. 6, assigned as stu& 

Ort C i°s 0k ii?» N0V ' 1 l 17 - S ^ d l T ° m New York * OT over seas service 
Oct. 13, 1918 as cook in 3rd Army Replacement Battalion. Left 
Coblenz, Germany, May 22, 1919 and at St. Augnan, France, was trans- 
ferred to casual company 5476. Embarked at Brest. June 10 1919 

MHlT W P« at i?iT ^ k ? U ?\ 19 ' and honora Wy discharged at Camp 
Mills June 28, 1919 Married August 1, 1920 to Hildegard Blum, dau- 
ghter of Mr. and Mrs. C. Blum, of Hazen, N. D. Retail Mercantile 
clerk. Liv«s at Dawson, N. D. 

188Q f p 5> h 3 W ^- ren SJff " 1, 4th son of Rosella E - (8), born July 14, 
1889, Royalton, Minn. Telegraph lineman. He left home at 15 years 
of age going to Pierre, S. D. and for a time was employed on construc- 
tion work for the Northwestern Ry., then being extended from Pier- 
r j 1° ^fadwood, S. D., thence to Omaha and after about a year return- 
ed to Minn. In 1909 he became associated with the Northern Pacific 


Railway Co., being advanced to the position of division lineman with 
headquarters and residence at Dawson, N. D. Married Aug 25, 1911, 
Barbara Wagner, born at New Vienna, la., Nov. 10, 1888, daughter of 
Nickolas, a tailor, and Barbara Wagner, the latter died when the 
daughter was but two years of age. 

One child: 

173 Iris Rosella, 4 b. Sept. 11, 1912. 

(56) Earl Alfred Russell, 1st son of John H. (9), born Sept. 14, 
1884, Royalton, Minn. Employed in banking from 1904 to 1913 in Minn, 
and N. D. and advanced to position of cashier; in general merchandisi- 
ing with his father at Royalton till 1917; enlisted March 28, 1917 in 
First Minn. National Guard Regt. as musician and stationed at Ft. 
Snelling; Oct. 9, 1917 transferred to Camp Cody, N. M. and to the en- 
listed personnel of the 34th Division; attended officers training school 
at Camp Cody and commissioned 2nd Lieut, while at Camp Dix, N. J. 
enroute for service in France; assigned to K Company, 113th Inft., 
29th Div. and placed in charge of 10 portable laundries in salvage 
branch with headquarters in LaMons; had a knee cap broken June 29, 

1919 in a motorcycle accident and confined to a hospital; returned to 
U. S. Aug. 6, 1919 and held for treatment at hospital at Ft. Sheridan, 
111.,; honorably discharged Aug 7, 1920 at Ft. Sheridan. Married 
Septy 3, 1921 at St. Paul, to Margaret Crydermann, a nurse, born 
March 26, 1886, Perth, Ont., daughter of William and Anna Marie 
(Davis) Crydermann. Wm. Crydermann was born Dec. 25, 1851 at 
Osnabrock Center, Vt.; died May 4, 1903 at Fargo, N. D, where for a 
number of years he conducted a imonument works. Anna Marie Cry- 
dermann was born April 27, 1852 in Edinburgh, Scotland. Lives in 
St. Paul, Minn. They were married June 24, 1874 at Perth, Ontario. 
E. A. Russell is an accountant, residence, St. Paul, Minn. 

(65) Robert Lorin, 1st son of John Alfred Russell (10), born July 
11, 1899, Rice, Minn. Enlisted at St. Cloud, Minn., March 6th, 1918. " 
Served with Machine Gun Troop, 14th Cavalry. Went! to Jefferson 
Barracks, thence to Texas where he was on patrol duty along the Mex- 
ican border until discharged, Sept. 22, 1919. Plumber, working in St. 
Paul, Minn. 

(66) Erwin Alfred, 2nd son of John Alfred! Russell (10), born 
May 29, 1901, Rice, Minn. Enlisted in Montana July 11, 1920 for three 
years to study radio. Went to training school at Great Lakes, 111., re- 
maining a year. He is at present on the U. S. S- New York. 

(67) John Allen, 3rd son of John Alfred Russell (10), born May 
18, 1903, Rice, Minn. Enlisted at Vancouver, Washington, Nov. 8, 
1920. Served with 8th Engineers. Went to Ft. Bliss, Texas, was two 
months at Pueblo, Colorado, then back to Ft. Bliss. Discharged Nov, 
11, 1921. 

(74) Francis C. Flint, 1st son of Nelson (16), born June 5, 1896, 
Duluth, Minn. Enlisted U. S. Marine Corps, St. Paul, June 17, 1917. 
Served in Philadelphia until May 1918; St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, to 

1920 as private in Searchlight Battalion and Sergeant in Quarter- 
master's Dept.; also at Charleston, S. C< and Philadelphia. Honora- 
bly discharged June 26, 1921 at Philadelphia. Married Dec. 27, 1921, 


Callie Munger, born in Chicago April 16, 1892; daughter of Dan P , 
born in Vermont!, and Mina (White) Munger, the latter born in 111. 
Callie Munger is a graduate nurse and served four years in that capa- 
city with the Rockefeller Hospital in Pekin, China. Residence North 
St. Paul; occupation, bookkeeper. 

One child: 

174 Mina May, 5 b. Aug. 30, 1923, St. Paul, Minn. 

(75) Leroy A. Flint, 2nd son of Nelson (16); born Sept., 13, 1897, 
Langola, Minn. Enlisted in U. S. Navy, Minneapolis May' 6, 1917; 
trained as electrician in Brooklyn Navy Yard; from Feb. to July 1918, 
assigned to U. S. Transport Covington as electrician; made four trips 
to Brest with troops; torpedoed off Brest July 1, 1918; returned to 
Boston, Mass. Detailed to U. S. S. Laub (destroyer tinder construct- 
ion) ; met an accidental death in Boston, Feb. 28, 1919. Buried at Roy- 
alton, Minn., with military honors. 

(80) Ruth Agnes Holland, 1st daughter of Agnes (19), born Aug. 
19, 1899, Winona, Minn. Milliner. Married Feb. 10, 1920, Claude J. 
Kruse, a veteran of the World War who saw active service in France 
on the western front. Barber; Manning, Iowa. 

Their children: 

175 Wallis Claude," b. Oct. 14, 1920.\ 

176 Donald Holland, 5 b. Oct. 2, 1921. 

(114) Edward F. Smart, 1st son of Wallace E. (27), born April 
22, 1901. Married, November 30, 1921, Arnetta M. Nelson, born March 
4, 1903, daughter of Laurence E. and Thersa (Schwenderman) Nel- 
son. Farmer, and resides near Brainerd, Minn. 


177 Kenneth Edward, 5 b. July 1, 1922. 



Mountain City, Colorado Territory. June 22, 1861. 

Dear Son (Robert) : 

I received your letter of May 19th and was glad to hear from you 
and glad that the people there are for the Union. It is a noble thing and 
may God save our Union and the American Republic, for it is the haven 
to' all nations and the pride of the world. I hope to get back and see 
the Stars and Sta-ipes still waving over this our land of adoption. For 
me, its all I want to see that flag untrampeled and our rights main- 
tained. No doubt I would have like to have heard the speeches made, 
but that was not to be. 

I think you had better plant some corn. It will maybe get ripe. 
A late spring, a late fall. I want you to grow cabbage to make at least 
one barrel of crout as I think that I will want it to eat as I do not get 
vegetables out here. I paid fifty cents for four pounds of potatoes, 
one gets tired of bread all the time. 

It is getting hot and they say that the rainy season will set in 
about thi^i time, but I ami at work so far down that the rain will not 
trouble me. We are down 125 feet and it is all dry and comfortable 
only we get pretty black — black as coal diggers. They say it pays big. 
One thing, its nice gold they get out of it. I work week about, nights 
and days. I have $3.50 a shift. This week I will have seven shifts 
making $24.50. This is about as high as they are paying for good blas- 
ters. The other hands get $2.50. We have to board ourselves. This 
is good pay and if I had may health and as good pay since I came out 
here I would have had quite a pile by this time. Still I hope to make 
a little yet, I will know by fall I think, whether or not. 

I hope you will try and do the best you can at home. 

Last week there was a man killed and another badly hurt. The 
shaft broke in <on them. The man that got killed had a wife and two 
children. They are going to raise money to 1 send them home. This is 
all the news I have at present. 

From your affectionate father, 

Dear daughter (Jennie) : 

I was glad to hear from you and sorry too about your wrist being 
sprained. You bathe it with salt and sweet milk and poultice it, then 
shower it with cold water. You are young and it may get stout again. 
In my last letter to Mother I wanted to know if she was not in need of 
a little money and if she is to send me word right off and I will try and 
send it if I be spared until fall. It will be late before I start for home. 

Try and be a good girl and remember your Creator in youth. 
Of ourselves we are nothing. Guard the evil ways of the world. May 
God help you to try. 

Write all the news to your affectionate father. R. R. 

Dear daughter (Agnes): 

I am glad that you are improving in your writing. I can read it 
very well but I think it will bother you to read mine. This time my 
pen is very bad and the spelling as bad and I hope you will try and beat 
me in both. If the writing is not so good, if the spelling is good, its not 



so bad. Try and be a good girl. Be your father's pride and your moth- 
er's pride and be kind to each other. One thing; when you write never 
begin with, "I sit down to write" or, "I take my pen in hand" but be- 
gin right off with what you have to say. It is so old the other way. 
Wrote to John Higgins and hjave not got an answer yet. Give me all 
the news you can. 

I remain your affectionate father, R. RUSSELL. 

Dear Agnes: 

I have a little spare paper yet, but one thing, I have not so bad an 
opinion of my old queen as she thinks. You say things are cheap, 
"eggs only five cents a dozen." After you have all that you want to 
eat, salt some down for me and, if the Lord spares me to get back this 
fall, you will have use for them. I think clothing is cheap here and so 

are provisions to what they were. Butter is from 35 to 50c, and eggs 

I do not know how they sell or eat. I hope that you are getting better 
and Agnes, name the boy yourself.* He is a fine looking boy. He took 
very well. My love to them all and to yourself from me, 


The following are clippings from papers published in Scotland. 
The names of the papers do not appear but the clippings were publish- 
ed early in 1916. They refer to Richardson Russell, brother of Robert 
Russell (1). 

"A MUTINY VETERAN— Richardson Russell, a veteran of the 
Indian Mutiny, whose death has taken place at Parkhead, Glasgow, 
where he resided, enlisted over 70 years agou He served in the Persian 
War, took part in the march to save the women and children at Cawn- 
pore, was one of the column which advanced on Lucknow, and took part 
in the capture of the city in March, 1858." 

"FUNERAL OF MUTINY VETERAN— The funeral took place 
yesterday to Janefield Cemetery, Glasgow, of Private Richardson Rus- 
sell, an Indian Mutiny veteran, who died at his house in Parkhead on 
Wednesday. Military honors were accorded to the old soldier, whose 

?o 11 !: y I1 car * er began nearlv 70 vears ago, when he enlisted in the old 
78th Foot (Ross-shire Buffs.) He took part in many campaigns during 
his service, and marched with General Sir H. Havelock to the relief of 
Cawnpore and Lucknow. The coffin was borne on a gun carriage drap- 
ed with the Union Jack. A detachment of men of the Royal Field Ar- 
tillery preceded the gun carriage, which was drawn by six horses, and 
following came a number of the military from Parkhead Forge. Among 
those present were Captain and Adjutant Stanley Jones, 10th Battal- 
ion Seaforth Highlanders, accompanied by officers and men of the re- 
giment who are at present in Glasgow in connection with recruiting. 
A son-in-law of the dead soldier and four grandsons in uniform walked 
in the procession, anxi among other mourners were a number of vet- 
erans, one of them Sergeant D. Russell, of the 42nd Highlanders, who 
had known Private Russell since they met after the relief of Luc- 
know. On arrival at the cemetery the coffin was borne to the grave by 
relatives. The Rev. Andrew Halliday read the service. Three rounds 
were fired by men of the Royal Field Artillery, and a bugler sounded 
the "Last Post." There was a large attendance of the public at the 
graveside. Private Russell was well known and highly respected in 
the Parkhead district." 

•Referring to a pifcture of the son (John H.) born since his departure. 



I — I 










Diary of F. S. Flint while on a freighting trip from St. Cloud, 
Minn., to Frog Point (Belmont), Dakota Territory. At that time he 
was twenty-three years of age. He started from his farm home in 
Langola Township, Benton county, Minnesota, about twenty miles 
north of St. Cloud. 

"May 17, 1869; Left home bound for Georgetown; camped at Lit- 
tle Rock Creek. 

May 18, Moved to below Sauk Rapids; went over to St. Cloud. 

May 19, loaded and moved out of St. Cloud with 6020 pounds of 
freight; J. H. Miller credit to one lock chain; W. Carter credit to on« 
ox wagon tongue; Picket & Abbot credit to one pair shoes. 

May 20, moved to Rockville; grist mill here and store on small 
stream which empties into Sauk river — about 12 miles from St. Cloud 
on the south side of Sauk. 

May 21, camped 8 miles west from Richmond. Mailed a letter at 
Cold Springs to Jennie. 

May 22, moved 19 miles to Potato creek, good feed here. 1% miles 
east of Shinbarn's — a hotel — I bought two bushels of potatoes at 25c 
per. Bought a small fish from a small boy for 5 cents. 

May 23, Sunday, laid over. Burget & Bishop train passed us after 
dinner. Nice farming country here but little timber. 

May 24, moved 8 miles, camped four 4 miles east of Sauk river 
bridge; passed Burget's train; rained in. afternoon and night; cleared 
a place in popple thicket for oxen. 

May 28, rained till noon; moved to within one mile of Sauk Center. 

May 26, rained in the morning; moved about 10 miles; had to dou- 
ble twice; roads very heavy. 

May 27, rained all day; moved about three miles to Gordon's on 
the bank of Osakis Lake. Roads very bad, had to double several times 
on the prairie. 

May 28, rained most of the day, did not move at all; went to Osak- 
is — one mile distant — to see the sights, they have two stores, two hotels 
and a grog shop; only visited the stores, plenty of goods. Like the 
looks of this country, should like to farm here. 

May 29, moved two miles, had to double, treble and more than 
that, mud, mud, mud, and still it rains, prospects of taking all sum- 
mer to get through. Dick* broke a wagon; Burget's train passed us by 
taking another, better road. * 

May 30, moved about 5 miles to the woods; rained in the evening. 

May 31, went in rear of Burget's and Adley's trains through the 
woods; broke a wagon; camped at Alexandria. 

June 1, moved about 8 miles. 

June 2, moved to 2 miles above Chippewa. 

June 3, left two oxen; put 11 of my bales on L's* wagon, which 
had ten of his own, and two bales on Porterfleld's; moved to Pelican 
Lake about 3 miles from Pomme de Terre. 

June 4, moved about 14 miles; camped at Mustinkum. river on 
Stony creek. 

June 5, moved about 15 miles to near the crossing of the Ottertail 
river; met Red River carts. 

June 6, moved 11 miles — bad roads again, Breckenridge flats as 
bad as they were a few days ago, but getting better, met about 100 
Red River carts. 

June 7, moved to Abercrombie, about 17 miles; met a lot of carts. 

♦ Richard Lambert, sometimes mentioned as "L," "Dick" and Lambert. 


June 8, moved about 6 miles; Shed* broke a wagon; rained in fore- 
noon, roads heavy. 

June 9, moved about IB miles; unloaded Shed's wagon twice; he 
broke a yoke; met lots of carts. 

June 10, moved about 16 miles to Prexfield's, at 12 mile point^l2 
miles from Georgetown postoffice; Here Shed* bought 20 pounds of 
flour at 10c per; left one of L's and one of my oxen here, lame. 

June 11, arrived at Georgetown, no one here to receive freight, 
other train gone to Frog Point, we are unable to go, no provisions 
and teams unfit; rained in the evening. 

June 12, laid over waiting for agent; worked on ferry for $1.50 in 
silver, and fished; fish don't bite, afraid we are out of luck, rainy. 

June 13, no agent yet; Stevenson's, Elliott's, Burgadink's, Ad- 
ley's and Burg«t's trains returning from Frog Point; can catch no 
fish; traded a piece of pork for a little flour; rainy weather. 

June 14, out of luck entirely, a fish gobbled our hook last night, 
and before we had caught one; rainy; planted one half acre of corn; 
shot two pigeons; about two o'clock the mail carrier came and said the 
agent would be back that evening. 

June 15, the man loaded four carts from our wagons, took 1,000 
pounds to each cart; for dinner we had dried elk meat, rubaboo meat, 
flour, onions, and Dick knows what, camped at Elm river, 12 to 14 miles 
from Georgetown; Elm river is salt water. 

June 16, moved about 16 miles to beyond Goose river, ate supper 
at the river. 

June 17, moved to Frog Point, unloaded and came back 5 miles; 
bad weather; raining; heap mosquitoes, big ones; mighty glad to get 
started towards home; out of sugar, salt, butter and tea; jolly for all 

June 18, came to Elm river; issued an order for $20.00 to Mushow, 
half of which is due from Lambert. 

June 19, rainy; received 20 pounds of flour, one gallon of molasses, 
3 pounds of pork from S. Putman; paid the ferryman $2.00, and camp- 
ed 5 mjles south of Georgetown; saw a white colt. 

June 20, moved about 5 miles; got the cattle at Prexfield's, paid 
$1.10 for keeping mine, Lambert paid $1.35. 

June 21, moved to near Ft. Abercrombie; rained in the evening. 

June 22, to ten miles of Old Crossing. 

June 23, as we were going into camp a young man belonging at 
West Union and with another train shot himself accidently through 
the hip. 

June 24, camped at Pelican lake, saw plenty of pelicans. 

June 25, to 2 miles below Chippewa lake; got our oxen and wagon 
paid $2.00 for keeping. 

June 26, to Fairfield's; saw a fair at Alexandria — horse race. 

June 27, left the train at West Union, came to Long Prairie; saw 
Nate Richardson, staid over night with him. 

June 28, took dinner at Barnum's, 30 miles from home, came home 
in the afternoon — 42 miles for the day." 

Benton county was organized January 7, 1859 and contained all 
the territory bound by lines "beginning at the mouth of Rum River, 
thence up said river and west branch thereof to the source, thence 
north to the Mississippi rivea-, and down the Mississippi to the place 
of beginning." 

* Shed Lambert, brother of Richard. 


According to C. C. Andrews' "Minnesota and Dakota" published 
in 1857, the postoffices in Benton and Stearns counties established up 
to December, 12, 1856 were as follows: 

Postoffice Postmaster 

Belle Prairie . Calvin C. Hicks 

Big Lake Joseph Brown 

Clear Lake F. E. Baldwin 

Crow Wing Allen Morrison 

Elk River ...,..., John Q. A. Nickerson 

Itasca , John C. Bowers 

Little Palls C. H. Churchill 

Royalton ■. R. D. Kinney 

Sauk Rapids C. B. Vanstest 

Swan River James Warren 

Watab David Gilman 


Clinton John H. Linneman 

Neenah Henry B. Johnson 

Saint Cloud Joseph Edelbrook 

Torah Reuben M. Richardson 

February 1921 
Mr. H. Amerland, an early settler of Fargo, relates of riding with 
a former Ft. Abercrombie-Ft. Ransom mail carrier, who when driv : ng 
past a tree close to the old trail, remarked that he "used to feel easier 
when he had passed that tree as its branches afforded a good hiding 
place for any Indian who might wish to pot him." Mr. Amerland also 
said the reason the early travelers from Ft. Abercrombie toward the 
Missouri river did not keep south and west of the Sheyenne river in- 
stead of crossing near Dindned and again at Ft. Ransom was because 
of the sand dunes formed at the old delta of the Sheyenne in the area 
adjacent to McLeod -which made' difficult traveling and affording excel- 
lent ambush places for Indians. The trails, where possible, kept on the 
open back from streams but not so far. distant as to prevent securing 
wood and water when required. 

March 1921 

Mr. Gust. Lykken, Butzville, "came to Fargo in 1874 when Moor- 
head and Fargo were saloons and a few other buildings." Later he 
homesteaded near where Davenport is now. He relates that early set- 
tlers took land along the streams in Dakota because of the shelter and 
fuel, believing that it was impossible to live on the open prairie. 
Nothing was left for the later comers but the open prairie and they 
soon learned that they could live there. He also recalls seeing consid- 
erable freighting over the Ft. Totten Trail. Government freight was 
usually hauled by six and eight mule teams. Indians also passed back 
and forth in different kind of conveyances, some afoot, some with pon- 
ies, oxen and pony carts, dog or pony travis, packing furs and supplies. 
Two hundred Indians camped one night on the Sheyenne near his place. 
The Ft. Totten Trail was traveled until well into the seventies. At the 
point where the trail crossed the Sheyenne west of Abercrombie a log 
bridge had been constructed. This was low, just well above low water 


and when the river was high the bridge could not be seen. Elm, 
ash, and box elder grow along the stream so timber for bridge con- 
struction was available. 

March 1921 
During the later sixties and seventies mail from Ft. Abercromb- 
ie to Ft. Totten was transported during the winter by dog sleds. An 
early rancher near where Grace City is now, says that a dog mail car- 
rier had a dugout on the bank of a small lake near thene; in this he 
had a stove and other conveniences necessary for a stopping place. 
When he arrived at the dugout a pole was hoisted on which was attach- 
ed a piece of red cloth as a signal to the rancher, about one half mile 
distant, that the mail had arrived. 


Our grandfathers came to Minnesota with the intention of opening 
and operating farms, but a lack of capital forced them temporarily in- 
to other lines of activity. Lumbering, or logging, was the only occu- 
pation in which the early Settler could find profitable employment dur- 
ing the winter months. The camps also absorbed no small part of the 
farm products, thus providing a market for many crops that would 
have been otherwise unmarketable. The lumber supply of Minnesota 
was supposed to be inexhaustible. Not only was there more pine than 
could ever be cut, it was often said, but there could be no use for such 
an amount of lumber if it were possible. This belief naturally led to 
a waste of timber and the methods of the early lumbermen have been 
the subject of much criticism. This, while partly merited, comes with 
but scant grace from the many who have since robbed the soil of its 
fertility and in other ways exhibit as great a disregard for the rights 
of posterity. 

The first lumbermen cut nothing but the best of the white pine 
and that only when within convenient distance from the larger streams 
down which the logs could be floated (driven) into the Mississippi, and 
down that river to below the falls of St Anthony, where thay were 
rafted to the mills of the lower river. As the industry developed, logs 
were landed on smaller streams, on lakes drained by them and on ponds 
formed by dams. By the erection of dams, enough water could be stor- 
ed to float the logs into the larger streams, except during seasons when 
an insufficient snow or rain fall failad to fill the ponds or when the 
blowing of a dam lost the head of water. Such calamities "hung" the 
drive and the logs remained stranded until the next spring. Loggers 
usually contracted to deliver their logs at the booms during the season 
and if their drive hung they were unable to pay their labor and supply 
bills and were often forced into bankruptcy. 

Few of the fortunes made in lumber were acquired! by the men 
who did the logging. The amount of the snow and rainfall so greatly 
affected the cost of hauling and driving that contracts to deliver logs 
contained too great an element of chance. 

The value of small streams, in the movement of logs, caused them 
to receive more attention than those in other localities and the name 
and location of each was well known throughout lumbering circles. Af- 
ter the cutting of the pine their importance diminished and their names 
are almost forgotten. Many a narrow brook, scarcely noticed by those 
who cross it and whose ankle deep waters now serve but to cool the 
feet of the barefoot boys or pastured cattle, was once a well known 
driving stream whose capricious floods made or broke many a lumber- 


A lumberman had a working knowledge of many trades. Besides 
the regular work of cutting, hauling and driving logs, he was able to 
lay out roads on the best grades, erect' dams with adequate gates and 
sluice-ways, build camps and hovels^ make ox yokes and logging sleds, 
and build boats and wanigans. He was his own blacksmith and with 
the aid of a pocket compass, could run out the lines of the early sur- 
vey. His value as an all-round man was demonstrated during the Civil 
war. Prom any convenient material he could erect a shelter for himself. 
Without the aid of engineers, he could rebuild bridges and roads. He 
could build dams, and it was by a series of these that the boats of the 
Banks' Red River Expedition were saved. In addition, he was a fight- 
ing man, courageous, cool and calculating. Overcoming apparently 
insurniioaintable obstacles was a part of his daily work at home. He as- 
serted, and could very nearly demonstrate, that anything that could be 
made of wood, could be made with an axe and a two-inch auger. 

A logging camp would be built near to the proposed cuttings and 
convenient to a water supply. The buildings for a crew of an average 
camp, about fifty men, would be; a combined cook and dining room, a 
a bunk house, a blacksmith shop, a storehouse, an office and hovels. 
These were built of logs, the buildings for the crew being roofed with 
splits and floored with roughly hewn logs. Hovels were covered with 
coarse hay or balsam boughs. Along each side of the bunk house for 
nearly the entire length, double, two high, bunks were built of poles 
and padded with hay or balsam boughs. Against the front of the tiers 
of bunks, long benches of hewn timber were placed, and these, whether 
one or more, was known as the "deacon-seat". A small window in one 
end and couple of lamps partially lighted the camp. The door in the 
end opposite the window opened into a roofed alley between the camp 
and the cook room. A box stove burning four foot wood and surmount- 
ed by a tank for hot water, a sink and a rack of small poles hung above 
the stove for convenience in drying clothing, completed the furnish- 
ings. An inverted barrel with holes cut in the sides projected thru the 
roof and carried off a part of the tobacco smoke and odor of the drying 

A cook, a cookee, and if the number of cattle warranted it, a "bull- 
cook 1 ' composed the camp crew. Camp supplies were hauled from the 
nearest town by a "tote" team and the wood and blacksmith work 
was done by the "handy-man". The timekeeper was a "clerk" who also 
had charge of the "wanigan box", the stock of clothing and tobacco 
carried for the convenience of the crew and profit of the employer. 

The first cutting was done by axe-men who worked independently 
but this system was discarded and cutting crews substituted. Such a 
crew was composed of an "undercutter" who notched the trees, marked 
the length of the logs into which the fallen trunks should be cut, and 
cut into each log the bark mark of the owner, and two sawyers who 
felled the trees and cut them into logs. A "swamper" cleared trails 
from the logs to the skidways on the nearest road and a skidding team 
with a driver and "chain-tender" dragged in the logs either by a chain 
hooked around the butts, by huge tongs or by a short, one bunked 
wooden sledge which supported the butts. The latter contrivance was 
known as a "go-devil" and was often used in landing logs when the haul 
was not great. 

Logs were loaded from the skidways by a crew of two loaders as- 
sisted by a teamster and a yoke of oxen, these animals being preferred 
as they were slower in their movements and, if halted, would hold a 
steady strain on the partly loaded log; a difficult thing to teach to 
horses. Loading was probably the most dangerous work in logging, re- 


quiring perfect coordination of men and team and quick judgment and 
skill with a canthook on the part of the loaders. The logging sleds 
were usually drawn by four horses or oxen and were huge affairs with 
bunks sometimes fourteen feet in width. The size of the load depended 
on the condition of the road, the length of the haul and the size of the 
logs. Loads scaling 30000 feet have been hauled but these were built 
of selected logs. The road was as level as practicable, with iced ruts 
for the runners, and was kept in repair by a "road-monkey". A man 
on the landing assisted in unloading and stamped an end of each log, 
by means of a heavy hammer bearing the necessary characters in relief, 
with the owner's mark. Both stamp and bark mark were registered 
and logs were scaled under these marks by a scaler appointed by the 
Surveyor General of the State. 

The work of driving varied greatly according to the character of 
the stream. It began as early as the melting of the ice permitted and 
was rushed as much as possible in order to get the logs out on the 
spring flood. The crew was worked from daylight until dark and four 
meals were furnished. ' A wanigan; a flat boat, about 12x60 feet, with 
a cabin covering all except the bow and stern and containing a cook 
room and bunks or tents and bedding for the crew, was floated as near- 
ly as was possible to the center of the operations. Meals were served 
on tables set on the bank, where each man filled his plate and tin cup 
and retired to some convenient seat. 

All the work of logging was hard, dangerous and a large part of 
it very disagreeable, but had a peculiar fascination. Rivalry between 
crews as to which could complete the most work kept up the spirits of 
the men and noi class of workmen ever exhibited a greater interest in 
the welfare of their employers.