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Ever since a cave man drew a picture of a wild 
D-cr : "airs of Is , .n have endeavored to 

■■ion. Twenty- thouss 
years of srog] have culminated li berpleces 

lite" and "Fantasia", wi1 bill unknown 
wo:' - in a field where t - imagination 
the onl; it to ace ent . 

Jar: .; ■ arsden 
University of 'and, ] 

Lctures move, to leave a 
lent record, of action as well a; :; outline, is as 
old as art itself. On the walls of caves near Altimira, 

ain, are crude di Df animals in which f 
illusion of motion is leveral pairs of n \ . 

These ,000 years old. 

/ariati sontinued to appear 

through the centuries until, in 1324, Peter Mar et 
disco\ I "persistence of vision", a principle which 
made possible all forms c • picture . ts 

•", the first device to uti] 
not prod Dtion but consisted of a disc mounted on 
a spindle. On one side of the disc >alnted a bird 
and on the other side a cage, rapid rotation c 
disc : he bird appear to be inside the ca^e. 

In 1331 anol frenchman, Jo Antoine Plateau, 
rented the first of a series of contri s usi v 
et's principle to ore lotion in drawings. The 
^o?t; c< n] "-e of fc] i a the "wheel 

of life", invented lliam Lincoln, which was the 

first successful "motion picture" to be made in 

srica* All of these devices consisted o..' sries 
of pictures c ra lidly before the eye, and a row 
of slits or shutter openings syncronized to allow one 

, to be viewed at a time. The pictures showed 
progress! 1 ^itions in some cycle of action. 

The closest approach to the present-day animated 
toon to " - ade z 'efor3 the advent c. >hy 
known as the "Praxinoscope". s development by 
Tiaud, in 1377, combined the use of the "magic 
lantern", which he sen invented by a German, Anthonasius 
Kircher in 1640, with pictures drawn on a strip of 
transparent "Crystaloid". Reynaud w s the first man 
to present bits of Iramatic action in the form of plays 
projected on a screen. 

In 1906 Thomas Edison photographed more than 3000 
cartoons to produce .... ated cartoon on 

motion picture film. Ja: = , Dlackton, who was at that 

e a cartoonist for the Tew York Evening Ho rid , was 
assigned to interview Edison on otion Picture experi- 

it?:. ie of the inventor 

Lm to i 
for the cartoon. E is "Di :r of all animated cartoons 
released under b title of ses of 

;es", and scored such an instantanec it, 
particularly one scene i I ch an :<r 

and b] Ls eye-roll in rl friend, 

tha aced nine more cartoons. 

Err.ile CJohl, in 7rance, and V.'insor ! cCay, in 
■ rica, were fes of the resent trends in 

anj. . iroduced bhe first feature- 

length cartoon In ] , entitled "T] of the 

itania". : .s cartoon, osed of 2b ,000 di , 

befor r e ' ■ " . 
To( studios re leas:' 

matec i 'toons in the ates. rhe largest of 

sse is Walt Disney Pro . , a staff numbers 
nearly a thousand men and women. otl ". are, 5 

proximate order of si , Terry- 

Toons, 'Inc., I . 3 . I . Sartoon Division, alter Lanz 

Productions, Loon Schl >a ger Productions, Screen 
Gems, Inc.. These studios produced 192 cartoons a 
year before ar, and the ^isney studios produce 
one feature-length film each year in addition to 
hteen si ort . 

Lsney's creations oi ;r ite" , "Fantasia", 
and "Bambi" are leadii to en err of serious 

artistic endeavor in the field of animated cartooning, 
not replacing but suoplementir otive .re 

inatec Btry in the past. 

Reference : 

. : ' to !ake A lated Cartoon r . ; . alk 

: mcTation Books, her; Yo: