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Full text of "A Study about the Persian Cultural Legacy and Background of the Sufi Mystics Shams Tabrizi and Jalal al-Din Rumi"

A Study about the Persian Cultural Legacy and Background of the 
Sufi Mystics Shams Tabrizi and Jalal al-Din Rumi 

By Rahgozari Minutalab 



October 2009, Open Source. The author is not associated with any 
modification of the current article but any author is free to use the 
materials within this article. 



Note PDF version is recommended here: 

http://sites.google.coin/site/persianpoetrumi/a-study-on-the-persian- 
poet/PersianPoetRumi.pdf?attredirects=Q&d=l 



http://www.azargoshnasp.net/Pasokhbehanirani/PersianPoetRumi.pdf 



http://www.archive.org/download/AStudyAboutThePersianCulturalLegacyA 
ndBackgroundOfTheSufiMystics/PersianPoetRumi.pdf 



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TABLE OF CONTENT 



Introduction and reason for this article 4 

On the Persianized Seljuqs 11 

Some distortions due to nationalistic reasons 15 

Shams Tabrizi and his background 25 

Tabriz in the pre-Mongol and Ilkhanid era 25 

The Tabrizi Iranian language as a special case 30 

Example of Shams Tabrizi speaking the North West Iranic dialect of Tabriz 38 

On the importance of Safinaye Tabriz 39 

On the name of Tabriz and its districts 42 

Shams Tabrizi 's work Maqalaat 44 

Shams Tabrizi of Ismaili origin? Conclusion 45 

Hesam al-Din Chelebi and other Rumi companions 46 

Baha al-Din Walad and Rumi's parents 50 

Genealogy of Rumi's parents 50 

On Vakhsh and Balkh and the languages of these areas 54 

Contribution to Persian culture and Baha al-Din Walad's native language 59 

Conclusion on Baha al-Din Walad 62 

Rumi 63 

The Persian lectures, letters and sermons of Rumi and his everyday language 64 

Response to couple of nationalistic statements with regards to Rumi's prose and Rumi's 

everyday language (not just literary language) 66 

Rumi's Persian poetry 69 

Response to an invalid arguments with regards to the Diwan 73 

Invalid Argument: "Rumi was a Turk because he has some verses in Turkish" 73 

Invalid Argument: Rumi uses some Turkish words in his poetry 76 

Invalid argument: Rumi has traces of Central Asia Turkish in his poetry 77 

Invalid argument: Rumi's usage of the word Turk shows he was a Turk 79 

Persian poetry images and symbols: Turk, Hindu, Rum, Zang/Habash 83 

Which Turks are described in Persian Poetry? 144 

Views on ethnicity in the Mathnawi 150 

Ethnicity in Aflaki 152 

Sultan Walad, Rumi's son 165 

Sultan Walad's work 165 

Sultan Walad's admits he does not know Turkish and Greek well 166 

Sultan Valad's view on the Turks 169 

Conclusion about Sultan Walad 177 

The Origin of Sama and a response to a false claim 178 

On Rumi's cultural predecessor and The Mawlawiya's Spiritual lineage 185 

Conclusion of this article 192 

Bibliography 203 

Appendix A: Nick Nicholas: Greek Verses of Rumi & Sultan Walad 208 



Introduction and reason for this article 



" // the Turk, the Roman, and the Arab are in love, 

They all know the same language, the beautiful tune ofRabab " 

Recently, UNESCO in the year 2007 declared the Persian poet Rumi as one of the world's universal 
cultural icon. The Afghanistani, Iranian, Turkish governments all laid claim to Rumi's heritage and tried 
to maximize their association with the Persian poet Rumi. Obviously such an association brings about a 
national prestige despite the fact that Rumi is a universal figure. Also recently, especially with the 
demise of the USSR, there has been an increase in pan-Turkist nationalist activism in various Altaic- 
phone regions and a many Persian cultural figures like Avicenna, Biruni, Nasir al-Din Tusi, Eyn al-Qodat 
Hamadani, Bayazid Bistami, Suhrawardi, Nizami Ganjavi and etc. have been falsely claimed to be Turkic 
without any serious argument. Many of these like Biruni and Nezami lived in an era when the area they 
were born in was Iranian. Due to penetration and incursions of Turkic nomads, eventually some of 
these Iranian speaking regions like Khwarizmia, Arran and Sherwan, Sogdiana, Marv and etc. became 
Turkified in speech the same as the Greek and Armenian languages gaveaway to Turkic speakers in 
Anatolia, and Egypt gave away to Arabic. At the time of the mentioned figures, which are claimed today 
for nationalistic reasons by some of the new countries, all of these men were of Iranian ancestry but 
more importantly, they all contributed to Iranian culture and have important Persian works. Some of 
these extravagant claims are impossible (like Eyn ol-Qodat Hamadani, Suhrawardi, Bistami who was of 
Zoroastrian descent and Nasir al-Din Tusi) that there is no need to respond to them. 

On the other hand, figures like Nizami Ganjavi and Biruni were born in areas that are today Turkified or 
Turcophone. This was not the case during the time of these authors, but many people who study these 
figures do not have correct information and background on the chronology of the linguistic Turkification 
in Central Asia, Caucasus and Azerbaijan region of Iran. 

For example, during the time of Biruni, the area of Khwarizm spoke the Iranian Chorasmian language. 

I refer to the short but very significant contribution of the late French Orientalist to the al-Biruni 
Commemoration Volume published in lndia(L. Massignon, "Al-Biruni et la valuer internationale de la 
science arabe" in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume, (Calcutta, 1951). pp 217-219.): 

In a celebrated preface to the book of Drugs, Biruni states: 

"And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one 
has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions 
according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Chorasmian, science has as much as 
chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Ka'aba. " 

Indeed al-Biruni has recorded months and other names in the Iranian Chorasmian, Soghdian and Dari- 
Persian languages and he states equivalently: 



(^u^jiil 4_^jJ t j*o 1 1 . ,nr. I^jl£ (JJ j tajjlja. (Ja! Lq! j 



Translation: And the people of Khwarizm, they are a branch of the Persian tree 

(Abu Rahyan Biruni, "Athar al-Baqqiya 'an al-Qurun al-Xaliyyah"(Vestiges of the past : the chronology of 
ancient nations), Tehran, Miras-e-Maktub, 2001) 

The late eminent philologist Professor David Mackenzie on the old Iranian Chorasmian 
Language(Encyclopedia Iranica, "The Chorasmian Language", D.N.Mackenzie) states: 

"The earliest examples have been left by the great Chorasmian scholar Abu Rayhan Biruni. In his 
works on chronology and astronomy (ca. 390-418/1000-28) he recorded such calendrical and 
astronomical terms as some of the tradi-tional names of days, months, feasts, and signs of the 
zodiac." 

While showing perfect knowledge of the native Chorasmian calendar, as well as other Iranian calendars 
(Persian, Sogdian) and also Hebrew, Arabic, Greek calendars, Biruni is clear for example that he does not 
other calendars(like those of the Turks) as well: 

"As to the months of other nations, Hindus, Chinese, Tibetians, Turks, Khazars, Ethiopians and 
Zangids, we do not intend, although we have managed to learn the names of some of them, to 
mention them here, postponing it till a time when we shall know them all, as it does not agree 
with the method which we have followed hitherto, to connect that which is doubtful and 
unknown with that which is certain and known "(Athar) 

Biruni collected the months and calendars of many nations, which are recorded in his book. 

On the order of the old-Turkic (old Uighur, which he calls toquz-oghuz) month names, which are just 
ordinals (readily recognizable in any variety) jumbled, he adds a note that: 

"/ have not been able to learn how long these months are, nor what they mean, nor of what kind 
they are"(Athar, pg 83). 

However, a modern Western scholar whom we rather not name did not know about the East 
Chorasmian Iranian language and just based on modern geography, has mistaken Biruni's Iranian 
Chorasmian language for Turkic. She did not for example read about this Iranian language in the 
Encyclopedia of Islam, Encyclopedia Iranica, Iranian language sources or other linguistic sources. That is 
sometimes negligence of the history of the region produces mistakes and this is due to the fact that 
many scholars of literature do not have a grasp of the history of the region (Middle East, Caucasus and 
Central Asia) during the medieval era. So that mentioned Western author for example mistakenly 
thought that the Chorasmian Iranian language at the time of Biruni must be the same as the language 
spoken in Chorasmia (in modern Uzbekistan/Turkmenistan) today. 

Another example is Avicenna. For example, Avicenna whose father was a native of Balkh (the same 
place where Rumi's father was possibly born) and his mother was from Bukhara (her name was Sitareh 
which is Persian for star and even today the majority of inhabitants of Bukhara are Iranian 
Persians(Tajiks)). 



Avicenna in the book of "The Healing: (Ash-Shifa) in Chapter 5 (Concerning the caliph and Imam: the 
necessity of obeying them. Remarks on politics, transactions and morals) states: 

"...As for the enemies of those who oppose his laws, the legislator must decree waging war 
against them and destroying them, after calling on them to accept the truth. Their property and 
women must be declared free for the spoil. For when such property and women are not 
administered according to the constitution of the virtuous city, they will not bring about the good 
for which the property and women are sought. Rather, these would contribute to corruption and 
evil. Since some men have to serve others, such people must be forced to serve the people of the 
just city. The same applies to people not very capable of acquiring virtue. For these are slaves 
by nature as, for example, the Turks and Zinjis and in general those who do not grow up in 
noble climes where the condition for the most part are such that nations of good 
temperament, innate intelligence and sound minds thrive"(Chr\s Brown, Terry Nardin, Nicholas 
J. Rengger, "International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the 
First World War", Published by Cambridge University Press, 2002, pg 156-157). 

Let us look at the original Arabic of this sentence as well: 

IfjlUuj &l IfJlja) >SI JJl\ 4hjill\ {All] jje ^9 IjUiu £jJJ| 4l»aib j 'gjjllj 4>J) J" 'J^L "Aye tfi 4lu2aliJl JiH {p, 

Jj^*il j njljiiJI 4aja ya 4aJ^VI -'-■■■La. 

In another phrase, Ibn Sina states: "In the languages we know..." and then he brings an example of 
Persian and Arabic. Had he known any other languages, then he would have given examples as well. 
Thus he did not even speak Turkish and all his works are in Persian and Arabic. 

The statement of Avicenna with this regard is given here from his book Ishaarat (Dehkhoda dictionary): 

QujjSiWj 0§\$suS Oj^zJI 0Jl& ,_s\JLc ,_s\iJI Jlo&Luil ,>c LpjLLc ,_sv9 CjJL> a9 VySjsO ,_s\jJI olaJUl ,j3J 

As per Nizami Ganjavi, there exists a detailed article on how USSR nation building and modern ethno- 
nationalism have forged the most baseless arguments (even false verses) in order to deprive of his 
Iranian heritage: 

Doostzadeh, Ali. "Politicization of the background of Nizami Ganjavi: Attempted de-Iranization 
of a historical Iranian figure by the USSR", June 2008 (Updated 2009). 
http://sites.google.com/site/rakhshesh/articles-related-to-iranian-history 

(see PDF file) 

http://www.archive.org/details/PoliticizationOfTheBackgroundOfNizamiGaniaviAttemptedDe- 
iranizationOf 

Sufficient to say, his mother was Iranic Kurdish(lranic speaking), he was raised by a Kurdish uncle and 
his father-line goes back before the coming of the Seljuqs and is of Iranian Anyhow, there is no doubt 



that culturally, mythological relics, poetry (he considered himself a successor of Ferdowsi) he was 
Iranian and his stories are rooted in Iranic/Persian folklore. An important manuscript that shows the 
Iranian culture of the Caucasus before its Turkification in language has come down to us by the Persian 
poet Jamal Khalil Shirvani: 

Mohammad Amin Riyahi. "Nozhat al-Majales" in Encyclopedia Iranica 

http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/o 
t grp!4/ot nozhatalmajales 20081215.html 



This article attempts to address the background of Rumi as well as the fact that people have tried to 
deprive him of his Iranian heritage. Note when we say Iranian, we mean it in the ethno-cultural- 
linguistic sense rather than citizenship of modern Iran. Thus this term covers the totality of Iranian 
speaking civilizations and those that have been greatly affected by it enough to be absorbed and melted 
in to it. 

We start by quoting a Turkish scholar with this regard. 

Even according to the Turkish scholar Talat. S. Halman: 

"Baha ad-din (Rumi's Father) and his family eventually settled in Konya, ancient Iconium, in 
central Anatolia. They brought with them their traditional Persian cultural and linguistic 
background and found in Konya a firmly entrenched penchant for Persian culture. In terms of 
Rumi's cultural orientation - including language, literary heritage, mythology, philosophy, and 
Sufi legacy -the Iranians have indeed a strongly justifiable claim. All of these are more than 
sufficient to characterize Rumi as a prominent figure of Persian cultural /w'story"(Rapture and 
Revolution, page 266). 

Although Professor Talat S. Halman does not delve into ethnic genealogy of Rumi, he remarks: 

"The available documentary evidence is so flimsy that no nation(lranian/Persian, Arabic, Turkish) 
can invoke jus sanguinis regarding the Rumi genealogy" and he also mentions: "Rumi is patently 
Persian on the basis of jus et norma loguendi". 

Thus there is no dispute about Rumi's culture, literary heritage. And even his native language as 
mentioned was Persian. However some people try to point to genealogy and we shall look at this issue 
in this article. The problem with that approach is that the genealogies of many people are not known in 
the 13 th century. And if it is known, up to what ancestor is this genealogy known? We will explore the 
genealogy issue in this article as well, but if genealogy was a concern, than majority of Anatolian Turks 
are not of Turkic genealogy but resemble Greeks, Armenians, Kurds and other natives of Anatolia. DNA 
evidence thus far has established: 

"Another important replacement occurred in Turkey at the end of the eleventh century, when 
Turks began attacking the Byzantine Empire. They finally conquered Constantinople (modern 
Istanbul) in 1453. The replacement of Greek with Turkish was especially significant because this 



language belongs to a different family— Altaic. Again the genetic effects of invasion were 
modest in Turkey. Their armies had few soldiers and even if they sometimes traveled 
with their families, the invading populations would be small relative to the subject 
populations that had along civilization and history of economic development. After 
many generations of protection by the Roman Empire, however, the old settles had become 
complacent and lost their ability to resist the dangerous invaders"(Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza , in 
"Genes, People and Languages", 2000, pg 152). 

So when speaks about the 13 th century, one is clearly speaking about culture and native language. If a 
person's native language is Persian and their father's native language is Persian, then that is sufficient to 
say they were genealogically Iranian. The genealogy of Rumi is not really known well beyond his great 
grandfather (Ahmad Khatibi) , although some later sources had claimed it went back to the Caliph Abu 
Bakr. This point is discussed later on this article and we show that this is not accepted by modern 
scholars. 

This study is concerned with the cultural identity and ethnic background of Jalal al-Din Rumi. Although 
there is no disagreement among serious Rumi scholars about his Persian cultural identity, there have 
been some groups within nationalist pan-Turkist circles trying to downplay his Persian cultural identity, 
language and ethnicity. Their politicized theory rests on three or four invalid and false arguments which 
we shall respond to in detail in this article: 

A) Rumi wrote Persian because it was more poetic or common. 

B) Rumi was genealogically Turkish 

C) Rumi has a few scattered Mual'ammas in Turkish and uses archaic Central Asian Turkish words so he 
was Turkish 

D) Sama' was Turkish phenomenon 

Thus there have been some people from Turkey or Turkic language background who advocate a Turkic 
genealogy for Rumi. We will show there is no proof of this and all indicators is that Rumi had an 
lranic(Persian or other Iranian language group) background. Note, as it is well known, cultural identity, 
ethnicity (defined by native language and culture) and genealogy are different issues. For example 
many people in the non-Arabic Muslim world claim descent from the Prophet of Islam (SAW) but 
culturally they are no different than those who do not have such a background. On the other hand, 
most Egyptians are descendant of ancient Egyptians rather than Arabs of Arabian peninsula, however 
culturally they identify themselves as Arabs. Most Turkish speakers of Anatolia are closer genetically to 
their Greek neighbors than to the Turkic people of Central Asia. In other words, their cultural identity 
defines their ethnicity and not their 20 th ancestor. Given there is hardly if any pure backgrounds in the 
Middle East, then cultural identity will supersede genealogy when assigning a poet to a particular 
civilization. Thus repeating for emphasis what the Turkish professor Talat Halman has stated: "Baha ad- 
din (Rumi's Father) and his family eventually settled in Konya, ancient Iconium, in central Anatolia. They 



brought with them their traditional Persian cultural and linguistic background and found in Konya a 
firmly entrenched penchant for Persian culture. In terms ofRumi's cultural orientation - including 
language, literary heritage, mythology, philosophy, and Sufi legacy -the Iranians have indeed a strongly 
justifiable claim. All of these are more than sufficient to characterize Rumi as a prominent figure of 
Persian cultural history" { Rapture and Revolution, page 266) and d he also mentions: "Rumi is patently 
Persian on the basis of jus et norma loguendi". 

As per modern scholars, virtually all the Western sources we have looked at identify Rumi as a Persian 
poet and a native Persian speaker. Few scholars however have taken the legendary claim that his 
father's lineage goes back to the first Caliph Abu Bakr and we shall discuss this issue later. However if 
this legendary claim was correct, Rumi would still be considered a native Persian since he was a native 
Persian speaker and of Iranian cultural orientation. 

Among the Western scholars, one can quote Franklin who clearly states: 

Franklin Lewis, Rumi Past and Present, East and West, Oneworld Publications, 2000.: 

"How is it that a Persian boy born almost eight hundred years ago in Khorasan, the northeastern 
province of greater Iran, in a region that we identify today as Central Asia, but was considered in 
those days as part of the greater Persian cultural sphere, wound up in Central Anatolia on the 
receding edge of the Byzantine cultural sphere, in which is now Turkey, some 1500 miles to the 
west?" (p. 9) 

Annemarie Schimmel also remarks on Rumi's native tongue in the " The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the 
Works of Jalaloddin Rumi", SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193: 

"Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish 
and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse" 

And even Halman agrees although he tries to provide justifications for Western scholars although 
Western scholars have looked at other reasons besides culture and background (for example sedentary 
population of Vakhsh or the Balkhi language and Aflaki's Manaqib and its clear references to various 
ethnic groups and etc.). Halman states(pg 266): 

"In the West scholars have always accepted Rumi as a Persian on the basis of his exclusive use 
of the Persian language and because he remained in the mainstream of Persian cultural 
heritage. No account seems to have been taken of the Turkish and Afghan claims, except some 
occasional references such as the one by William Hastie in his introduction to The Festival of 
Spring, featuring his translations from Rumi's Divan: 

The Turks claim Jelaleddin as their own, although a Persian of royal race, born ofBalkh, 
old Bactra, on the ground of his having sung and died in Qoniya, in Asia Minor. ..Whence 
he was called Rumi "the Romans," usually rendered "the Greek," as wonning wihin the 
confies of old Oriental Rome. 



Obviously the native language, exclusive use of Persian language and also mainstream Persian cultural 
heritage are sufficient to describe Rumi as a Persian poet. This author (writer of this article) claims 
Iranian ethnicity and speaks Persian as a native language and Inows his ancestors up to three 
generations back who spoke Fahlavi-type Iranian dialect. However we do not know our 20 th ancestor. 
Thus if genealogy is of concern, then it can have bearing on ethnicity only to the point where such a 
genealogy is known consciously to that person and that genealogy is different from the culture and 
language of the person who knows that genealogy. In the case of Rumi, his father was a native Persian 
speaker (as shown later in the article) and one concludes that genealogically he is Persian up to the 
ancestors we know. However as mentioned, ethnicity is defined by culture, mythological orientation 
and native language. 

We should make a point on the Afghan claim here. Rumi according to most up to date scholarly sources 
was born in Vakhsh Tajikistan, although Vakhsh itself was part of the greater province of Balkh at that 
time. However, when we talk about Persian/Iranian in this article, we are not talking about modern 
nation-states or citizenships. Rather we are taking the viewpoint of Persian culture, Persian native 
language and Persian background (which is mainly defined by native Persian language since today most 
Anatolian Turks are not genetically related to the Turkic groups of Central Asia and are closer genetically 
to Greeks and many native Persian speakers might not be descendants of the Achaemenids but rather 
various groups who adopted the Persian language and culture). 

In this sense, the term Iranian/lranic/Persian covers the main groups of Afghanistan (Pashtuns, Tajiks, 
Nuristanis, and Baluchs) and the term "Turk" covers Oghuz Turks, Kipchak Turks and etc. That is 
generally, despite the shared Islamic civilization, we can state that several majors groups existed 
(although by no means an exhaustive list): 

1) Iranians ('Ajam, Tajiks, Tats, Persians, Kurds) which covers all Iranic speakers. 2) Turkic groups (to 
which we should add Islamicized Mongols who became Turcophones). We should note some sources 
have mistaken the Soghdians and other Iranic speakers for Turks due to geographical proximity 3) Arab 
speaking Muslims, most of these whom lived in territories that was not Arabic speaking before Islam and 
hence many scholars consider them Arabicized 4) Indian Muslims covering all Indie languages 5) Berbers 
of Africa. 6) Caucasian groups such as Daghestanis, Lezgins and etc. 7) (and other groups of course in 
East Asia, Africa, China and etc.) 

So to say Rumi was an Afghan or Turkish based on where he lived is actually retroactively misplacing 
history and an anachronistic usage of modern boundaries for a time when such boundaries did not exist 
and there was no concept of nation-state or citizenship based on set borders. At that time even, there 
was no Ottoman empire and so Rumi cannot be an Ottoman. So from a geographic point of view, Rumi 
as shown by his culture was part of the Iranian zone of Islamicate culture. 

In this article, we examine more than cultural, linguistic, heritage and genealogical background of Rumi. 
We also examine the background of close friends of Rumi, mainly Shams Tabrizi and Hesam al-Din 
Chelebi. We provide an overview of the usage of the term "Turk" in three majors: Diwan Shams Tabrizi 



(where misinterpretations have taken place), the Mathnawi and finally the Manaqib al-'Arifin. We also 
overview Rumi 's father (Baha al-Din Walad) and Sultan Walad's (Rumi's son) literally output. The study 
shows that Rumi's everyday language (not just poetic language) was Persian and thus his native 
language was Persian. His cultural heritage was Persian. His genealogy is also discussed and based on 
the work of his father, we also show that his father's native language was Persian and hence Rumi's 
genealogy is also Persian. On his particular genealogy, there have been some that have claimed he was 
a descendant of the Caliph Abu Bakr and we examine this claim as well. However from our point of view 
since Rumi's native language was Persian and his literary output was in Persian, then he is an Iranian 
cultural icon and eventually the genealogy of most figures in the 13 th century Islamic world cannot be 
traced back to more than their great grandfather (Ahmad Khatibi in the case of Rumi). And going back 
further, the genealogy of all humans go back to caveman and possibly a single man and women in Africa 
and the only firm statement is that the genealogy of Rumi which is through his father was Persian as 
they were native speakers of Persian and Persian was their mothertongue. 



On the Persianized Seljuqs 

The Seljuqs and the Seljuqs of Rum (1077 to 1307) were the dynasty that controlled Konya at the time 
of Rumi. While the Seljuq's father-line was Turkish (in the sense of Altaic tribes of Central Asia and 
specifically the Oghuz tribes), they were completely Persianized after they rose to power. From the 
point of view of culture, identity and administration, the Seljuqs are Persian and one can see that Sultan 
Walad disparages Turks in one of his poems (see the section on Sultan Walad) while he praises the 
Seljuq ruler Sultan Mas'ud. Similarly, Rumi disparages the Oghuz tribes but at the same time he was in 
favor with the Seljuqs. Thus the Seljuqs despite their Altaic father-line were completely Persianized in 
language and culture by the time of Rumi and the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum. 

With this regard, the eminent historian Rene Grousset states: 

"It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not 
Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who 
voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to 
protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture 
from the Turkoman menace"(Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University 
Press, 1991), 161,164) 

And many other authors and historians agree. 

Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge 
University Press, 1991. pg 123: 

"For the Seljuks and ll-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were 
"Persianized and Islamicized". 



Even their lineage was slowly changed according to some sources. 

M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition: 

"... here one might bear in mind that turco-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs 
and llkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to 
the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..." 



John Perry states: 

"We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the 
language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the 
Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature in their 
domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written 
Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the 
influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol 
armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), 
progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages. 
Although it is mainly the results of this latter process which will be illustrated here, it should be 
remembered that these developments were contemporaneous and complementary. 

Both these processes peaked with the accession of the Safavid Shah Esma'il in 1501 CE. He and 
his successors were Turkish-speakers, probably descended from Turkicized Iranian inhabitants of 
the northwest marches. While they accepted and promoted written Persian as the established 
language of bureaucracy and literature, the fact that they and their tribal supporters habitually 
spoke Turkish in court and camp lent this vernacular an unprecedented prestige."(John Perry. 
Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN 
RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN) 



According to Professor Ehsan Yarshater ("Iran" in Encyclopedia Iranica): 

A Turkic nomadic people called Oghuz (Ghozz in Arabic and Persian sources) began to 
penetrate into the regions south of Oxus during the early Ghaznavid period. Their 
settlement in Khorasan led to confrontation with the Ghaznavid Masud, who could not 
stop their advance. They were led by the brothers Togrel, Caghri, and Yinal, the 
grandsons of Saljuq, whose clan had assumed the leadership of the incomers. 

Togrel, an able general, who proclaimed himself Sultan in 1038, began a systematic 
conquest of the various provinces of Persia and Transoxiana, wrenching Chorasmia from 
its Ghaznavid governor and securing the submission of the Ziyarids in Gorgan. The 
Saljuqids, who had championed the cause of Sunnite Islam, thereby ingratiating 



themselves with the orthodox Muslims, were able to defeat the Deylamite Kakuyids, 
capturing Ray, Qazvin, and Hamadan, and bringing down the Kurdish rulers of the Jebal 
and advancing as far west as Holwan and Kanaqayn. A series of back and forth battles 
with the Buyids and rulers of Kurdistan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia ensued; and, although 
the Saljuqids occasionally suffered reverses, in the end their ambition, tenacity, and 
ruthlessness secured for them all of Persia and Caucasus. By the time Togrel 
triumphantly entered Baghdad on 18 December 1055, he was the master of nearly all of 
the lands of Sasanian Iran. He had his title of Sultan confirmed by the caliph, and he now 
became the caliph's protector, freeing the caliphate from the bond of Shiite Buyids. 

After nearly 200 years since the rise of the Saffarids in 861, this was the first time that 
all of Persia and its dependencies came under a single and powerful rule which did not 
dissipate and disband after a single generation. Togrel (1040-63) was followed by his 
nephew Alp Arslan (q.v.; 1063-73). He was a warrior king. In his lifetime the realm of 
the Saljuqids was extended from the Jaxartes in the east to the shores of the Black Sea in 
the west. He captured Kottalan in the upper Oxus valley, conquered Abkhazia, and made 
Georgia a tributary, and he secured Tokharestan and Caghanian in the east. In 1069 he 
crowned his triumphs with his defeat of the eastern Roman emperor, Romanos Diogenes, 
by sheer bravery and skillful planning; after extracting a huge tribute of 1,500,000 dinars 
he signed a peace treaty with the emperor for 50 years. This victory ended the influence 
of Byzantine emperors in Armenia and the rest of Caucasus and Azerbaijan, and spread 
the fame of the Saljuqid king in the Muslim world. 

Alp Arslan was succeeded by his son Maleksah (1073-92). Both were capable rulers 
who were served by the illustrious vizier Nezam-al-Molk (d. 1092). Their rule brought 
peace and prosperity to a country torn for more than two centuries by the ravages of 
military claimants of different stripes. Military commands remained in the hands of the 
Turkish generals, while administration was carried out by Persians, a pattern that 
continued for many centuries. Under Maleksah the Saljuqid power was honored, through 
a number of successful campaigns, as far north as Kashgar and Khotan in eastern Central 
Asia, and as far west as Syria, Anatolia, and even the Yemen, with the caliph in Baghdad 
subservient to the wishes of the great Saljuqid sultans. 

The ascent of the Saljuqids also put an end to a period which Minorsky has called "the 
Persian intermezzo"(see Minorsky, 1932, p. 21), when Iranian dynasties, consisting 
mainly of the Saffarids, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids, the Kakuyids, and the 
Bavandids of Tabarestan and Gilan, ruled most of Iran. By all accounts, weary of the 
miseries and devastations of never-ending conflicts and wars, Persians seemed to have 
sighed with relief and to have welcomed the stability of the Saljuqid rule, all the more so 
since the Saljuqids mitigated the effect of their foreignness, quickly adopting the Persian 
culture and court customs and procedures and leaving the civil administration in the hand 
of Persian personnel, headed by such capable and learned viziers as ' Amid-al-Molk 
Kondori and Nezam-al-Molk. 

After Maleksah' s death, however, internal strife began to set in, and the Turkish tribal 
chiefs'tendencies to claim a share of the power, and the practice of the Saljuqid sultans to 



appoint the tutors (atabaks) of their children as provincial governors, who often became 
enamored of their power and independence, tended to create multiple power centers. 
Several Saljuqid lines gradually developed, including the Saljuqids of Kerman (1048- 
1 188) and the Saljuqids of Rum in Anatolia (1081-1307); the latter survived the great 
Saljuqs by more than a century and were instrumental in spreading the Persian culture 
and language in Anatolia prior to the Ottoman conquest of the region. 



According to the Encyclopedia of Islam; 

"Culturally, the constituting of the Seljuq Empire marked a further step in the dethronement 
of Arabic from being the sole lingua franca of educated and polite society in the Middle East. 
Coming as they did through a Transoxania which was still substantially Iranian and into Persia 
proper, the Seljuqs with no high-level Turkish cultural or literary heritage of their own - took 
over that of Persia, so that the Persian language became the administration and culture in their 
land of Persia and Anatolia. The Persian culture of the Rum Seljuqs was particularly splendid, 
and it was only gradually that Turkish emerged there as a parallel language in the field of 
government and adab; the Persian imprint in Ottoman civilization was to remain strong until the 
19 th century."("Saljuqids"in the Encyclopedia of Islam). 



Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 2004, p. 24: 

"Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor 
and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks." 

C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, 
titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, 2000. p. 391: 

"While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, 
the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely 
Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubad, 
Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been 
essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated 
in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees 
fleeing before the Mongols, Baha' al-DTn Walad and his son Mawlana Jalal al-DTn RumT, whose 
MathnawT, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian 
literature." 



The Turkish scholar Halman also states: 



"Bahaddin and his family eventually settled in Konya, ancient, Iconium, in central Anatolia. They 
brought with them their traditional Persian cultural and linguistic background and found in 
Konya a firmly entrenched penchant for Persian culture. " (Halman, 264) 

Koprulu mentions: 

Meanwhile, the Mongol invasion, which caused a great number of scholars and artisans to flee 
from Turkistan, Iran, and Khwarazm and settle within the Empire of the Seljuks of Anatolia, 
resulted in a reinforcing of Persian influence on the Anatolian Turks. Indeed, despite all claims to 
the contrary, there is no question that Persian influence was paramount among the Seljuks of 
Anatolia. This is clearly revealed by the fact that the sultans who ascended the throne after 
Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw I assumed titles taken from ancient Persian mythology, like Kai- 
Khusraw, Kai-Ka us, and Kai-Qubad; and that. Ala'al-Din Kai-Qubad I had some passages from 
the Shahname inscribed on the walls of Konya and Sivas. When we take into consideration 
domestic life in the Konya courts and the sincerity of the favor and attachment of the rulers to 
Persian poets and Persian literature, then this fact {i.e. the importance of Persian influence} is 
undeniable. (Mehmed Fuad Koprulu , Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, Translated by Gary 
Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149) 

In our opinion, to claim that Rumi grew up in a Turkish environment or in a Turkish state is a nationalistic 
point of view and is baseless. What matters in the medieval Islamic period is that the concept of nation 
states did not exist. So the concept of culture and self-identity is paramount. Even Turkish scholars do 
agree that the Seljuqs lacked Turkish identity (how else can someone like Sultan Walad call Turks as 
world-burners and thank Sultan Masu'd for defeating them? Or in another poem ask Sultan Masu'd to 
fight against the Turks?) and were Persianized. 

Without a doubt Konya and the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum was diverse and from numerical point of view, 
Iranian refugees were probably a minority relative to Armenians, Greeks, Turks, and etc. However from 
a cultural point of view, Iranian culture and literature predominated and the Seljuqs themselves lacked a 
Turkish identity. So Iranian culture was predominant in the Seljuq Sultanate and this was due to such 
refugees as Rumi's father and the Persianization of the Seljuks. In modern Turkey, Iran and etc. the 
majority of the population cannot trace their lineage more than their grand-father or great grand-father. 
Of course DNA might help, but overall, it is culture that makes identity. For example many "Turks" in 
Anatolia are descendants of Greeks, Albanians, Slavs and other diverse people of the Ottoman empire 
who have adopted Turkish identity. The same can be said about other countries of the region. With this 
regard, the Seljuqs from an ethnicity and identity point of view should be considered a Persianized 
group despite their Altaic lineage. And the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum should be considered as a 
Persianate state and most of the administrators of this state were Persians and Persianized muslims. 



Some distortions due to nationalistic reasons 



According to C.E. Bosworth:"Similarly such great figures as al-Farabi, al-Biruni, and Ibn Sina have been 
attached by over enthusiastic Turkish scholars to their race". ( Clifford Edmond Bosworth, "Barbarian 
Incursions: The Coming of the Turks into the Islamic World." In Islamic Civilization, Edited by D. S. 
Richards. Oxford, 1973. Pg 2) and he references specifically :"See, for instance the arguments of A.Z. V. 
Togan regarding the putative Turkishness of al-Biruni, in his Umumi Turk Tarihine Giris (Istanbul, 
1946), pp 88-9. " (pg 2) 

We should note that Farabi although described as a Persian(By Ibn Abi 'Sayba and Al-Shahruz in the 13 th 
century) or Turk by Ibn Khalikan (13 th century) was in all likelihood an Iranian Soghdian from central 
Asia and his usage of Soghdian words and even modified Soghdian-Arabic Alphabet in the Kitab al- 
Horuf provides an elegant proof. 

An article on his probable Sogdian origin can be found here: 

G. Lohrasp," Some remarks on Farabi's background: Iranic (Soghdian/Persian) or (Altaic)?" (2009) 

http://www.archive.org/download/SomeRemarksQnFarabisBackgroundIranicsoghdianpersianQraltaic/Far 
abiremarksonbackground.pdf 

http://www.archive.org/details/SomeRemarksQnFarabisBackgroundh'anicsoghdianpersianQraltaic 

The other two scholars, Abu Rayhan Biruni and Avicenna were Iranians and their native language was 
Chorasmian and Persian respectively. 

Unfortunately, one scholar which we would rather not mention has based his knowledge on Rumi on the 
same author (Zekki Velid Togan) and has claimed "Rumi was presumably" Turkish without writing a 
single article on Rumi himself. It should be noted that the term "Turk" itself was a generic term and did 
not specifically refer to Altaic speakers of today. However other scholars like C.E. Bosworth are erudite 
enough not to reference just any Turkish source and Togan's viewpoint on Biruni shows that he is not 
unbiased when it comes to claiming medieval figures. 

Here we provide examples of actual distortions in texts. 

Example 1) 

Mohammad Hossein Zadeyeh Sadiq (an advocate of pan-Turkist historiography who even claims that 
70% of the Avesta language is Turkish and the ancient Sumerians, Elamites, Urartu, Iranian Medes were 
Turks and etc. and received his degree in Turkey) states in his book: "Torki Saraayaan Maktab Shams o 
Mowlana" (Publisher: Nedaayeh Shams, 1386 (Solar Calendar) (pg 122): 



( _SvjO (jjuJbejO 3 ,Jsb*jO <K> :>§>• &I_>jOj5> <=U Ij 3I L>- Qjo& 9 CjljujL ,JjjJj_}_>9 °j ( _j^b> (_s^3Mx (-SgJgjO 
(-SLpJLuu 1^9^ -1JI3 JjjJ jl -J9 Cjj^o.-> » ! Jj 1 <p.».o 9I OjUji ( _jv^\isl .CjljuuuIjojo igj" Jjz9 \j 9I 9 $jj 

jl 0$$j0j9 sLuuul \J^jJ Ol^.i jJbr tSu 9 oUgJuuo jJbtjO tk-uj 9 JjI>«jO y>SZ />Ioj >-SUL^> Qj jLjuju 

.(122 Qocsua .1386 'jJ>jj hjjuuoouj i_S|jJ 1 1-S9J9JO 9 (jjuuoouj 



Translation of the distortion: 

"Mowlana had a special likeness for his son Sultan Walad and took him to all gatherings and 
places of discourse and considered him his "action". Aflaki says about Sultan Walad: 
"Meanwhile, after his father's death Valad lived on in tranguility for many years and he 
composed three books of mathnaviyyat and one volume of Turkish collected poetry (Divan)" 

We noted that on page 119, the author refers to the Manaqib Aflaki the Yazichi edition. 

We looked at the same book: 

h_jj5cj>j OtHuJ-^ >^*jOj5> °j i1362 JLuj njjSjlsdl v_aSUuo n_jy9jUill ^j>S\lsl JuO^>l qjjJI ^^jjuoouj) 

And it said: 

«±j5 x lj /JLc jl>»-ul <-h*jI>^ 9 i_9jL&>' 9 <-9jLszx> jl O^^jOjS sLiul ulgji 

Thus Mohammad Zadeh Sadiq has taken the liberty to distort the word of Aflaki and add the highlighted 
red word "Torki" (Turkish) to the above phrase!! 

We looked at a recent English translation as well(Shams al-Din Aflaki, "The feats of the knower's of God: 
Manaqeb al-'areffn", translated by John O'Kane, Brill, 2002.) 

[18] "Mowlana had a special likeness for his son Sultan Walad and took him to all 
gatherings and places of discourse and considered him his "action". Aflaki says about 
Sultan Walad: "Meanwhile, after his father's death Valad lived on in tranquility for many 
years and he composed three books of mathnaviyyat and one volume of collected poetry " 
(pg561) 

So Hossein Mohammadzadeyeh Sadiq has brought a distortion to the work of Aflaki. Aflaki does not use 
the term "Turkish Divan" but simply "Divan". Hence the words of Aflaki are distorted and the word 
"Turkish" was added as an adjective to the Divan in the book written by Hossein Mohammadzadeyeh 
Sadiq. Such distortion of primary sources is unacceptable in academia and scholars should be careful 
when looking at Turkish sources (even by scholars as such as Togan who has some good works as well). 

Example 2) 

According to Dr. Firuz Mansuri, another distortion has occurred by Fereydun Nafiz Ozluk. We will just 
list this distortion here (although we are reporting it and have not seen the original text of Nafiz Ozluk 
like the above example of distortion). 

According to Dr. Mansuri: 



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.jjlgJi-.Jjl.iS <_sb> Oj i-a-Lito 

■ 0-i.u-i.u-i OJ>-jj 9 Juol c^jJgS 3j .pgi Sggjujjo o^-^' ^L-C Cil hi id .OLuoSjJ iLljuoJLijj 9 gliloljij i-Xij-V-coejo OjjO jl Jc2j 



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qj\l Ggj=r JJ>C ji <-)gi«j .qjli cbjS ji <*joj& 

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(cited in Firuz Mansuri, "Mot'aleaati Darbaareyeh Tarkh, Zaban o Farhang Azarbaijan", Nashr Hezar, 
Tehran, 1387 (Solar Hejri Calendar), volume 1. Pp 71-72). 

According to Dr. Firuz Mansur, "It should be noted that Fereydun Nafidh 'Ozluk, the translator of the 
Diwan of Sultan Walad, has changed the word "Hameh Torkaan" to "Khawarij" in the poem above". 

Of course the reason for this mistranslation and omission would be because the poem beseeches Sultan 
Masud Seljuqi who defeated the Qaramanlou (we shall described this episode in the Sultan Walad) to 
not let one Turk who had fled into mountains and caves escape alive. Seeing the severity of the poem 
and the justice sought by Sultan Walad from Sultan Masu'd, the Turkish translator Fereydun Nafidh 
'Ozluk changed the word "Hameh Torkaan" (All the Turks) to Khwarij (an Islamic sect that developed 
during the time of Imam AN (AS) which became disdained for its political miscalculations, cursing of the 
caliphate of Ali and political and literalist beliefs). Since this author has not seen the translation of 
Fereydun Nafidh 'Ozluk, we have just quoted Dr. Mansuri. However, we doubt Dr. Mansuri would make 
such a thing up and it is unfortunate that such a mistranslation due to nationalistic reasons can occur. 
The severity of this distortion is the same as the first distortion. Especially since the Qaramanlou 
actually banned Persian from the Divan and employed Turkish and are seen in a positive light by Turkish 
nationalist and of course such a severe condemnation from Sultan Walad would not go well with 
nationalist type translators like Fereydun Nafidh 'Ozluk. 

Example 3) 

We demonstrated two episodes about Mehmet Onder quoted in Franklin. Obviously the site of the 
graveyard of Shams brings prestige and various places have been assumed. However no sufficient 
evidence exists with this regard. 

Let us quote Franklin here: 

"One would not usually pose the question: "who is buried in Gowhartash's tomb?" Yet Mehmet 
Onder, the director of the Mevlana Museum in Konya, has done precisely this (see Chapter 13 



below for example of this Turkish patriot's polemical and uncritical evaluation of evidence.) 
While repairs to the so-called "Shrine of Shams" (torbat-e Shams), a site in Konya, were 
underway, Onder summoned Golpinarli to the shrine. Onder had discovered a small wooden 
door raised up a few steps above the main structure. This trapdoor led to a stone staircase, at 
the bottom of which Onder found a small crypt housing a single plaster-inlaid sarcophagus along 
the edge of the left wall, directly under the decorative wooden sarcophagus/cenotaph on the 
floor above. 

Though there was no inscription on this hidden sarcophagus, Onder won Golpinarli over to the 
opinion that I must be the grave of Shams. Across from this shrine traditionally associated with 
the name of Shams al-Din is a well, supposedly dug in the Seljuk era. Somewhere nearby this 
site, Onder claims to have found a stone inscription from the madrase of Gowhartash. Of 
course, this slab has been used in the rebuilding of a later minaret and therefore might not 
originally have been associated with this site. Far more troubling, however, is the fact that there 
is only one sarcophagus in the crypt of the mausoleum. Golpinarli assumes with Onder that the 
tomb belongs to Shams, leaving Gowhartash with no grave of his own. 

Naturally, we might just as well reach one of several other conclusions: (a) this is the grave of 
Gowhartash and Aflaki is wrong about Shams being buried next to him; (b) this is not the site 
mentioned in Aflaki's anecdote - Shams and Gowhartash are buried side by side at some other 
unknown locations; or (c) the account of Aflaki is entirely baseless from beginning to end. 
Nevertheless, Schimmel has ratified the conclusions of Golpinarli and Onder, triumphantly 
concluding that "the truth of Aflaki's statement has been proved" (ScT 22). She even offers an 
imaginary reenactment of the crime. Professor Mikail Bayram at the Seljuq University in Konya 
shares this opinion, even indicating that the bones of Shams have been found (personal 
interview with the author in Konya, May 15, 1999)."(Franklin, pg 189-190) 



On the Turkish scholar Onder, Professor Franklin also mentions: 

"MevlanaJelaleddin Rumi(Ankara: Ministry of Culture, 1990), a translation by P.M. Butler of a 
Turkish work by Mehmet Onder of the same name (1986), was printed by a typesetter with an 
imperfect knowledge of English, as the many mistakes reflect. 



This rather unsophisticated work has two principal goals - to assist tourists who want to know 
something more about Rumi than can be gleaned from the museum brochures, and to 
aggrandize Turkish culture. 



This book published by the Turkish Ministry of Culture, displays an extremely exuberant 
ignorance, or an ethnocentric agenda. In the introduction, Onder refers to Rumi as "the great 



Turkish mystic" and "a great Turkish intellectual.". He then turns Rumi into a Turkish prophet, 
calling Mevelana "the eternal gift of the Turkish people to all humanity" (210). In fact, there is 
no reference to the minor detail that language spoken by Baha al-Din was Persian or 'Attar 
wrote his Asrar Name in Persian, nor do we learn that Rumi composed the Masnavi in Persian 
until page 138, three pages after learning that the prose preface to each book are in Arabic (but 
then the book [101] even insinuates that the Koran is in Turkish!). Throughout Onder 
deliberately leaves us to assume that Rumi's other works are in Turkish, and indeed when he 
can no longer contain his misplaced patriotism, bursts out with the utterly ludicrous statement 
that "There is no doubt that Mevlana's mother tongue was Turkish, since Balkh, from which he 
migrated with his father, was the cultural centre of Turkestan and Khorasan, both regions of 
predominantly Turkish population" (207). Though Onder begrudgingly allows that Rumi was 
probably taught Arabic and Persian at a very early stage in his education (208), he insists that 
Rumi spoke Turkish throughout his life (whether the Kipchak or Oghuz dialect, Onder cannot 
tell), not only with his family, but also "when addressing people and in his sermons.". Rumi 
chose to write "most of his works in Persian and some in Arabic" only because it was the 
convention of the day (208). Onder's "evidence" for this unsupported and insupportable theory 
consists of the assertion that Rumi uses an Anatolian Persian dialect (whatever that might be, it 
would still be Turkish, which is from an altogether different language family, and that his Divan 
and Masnavi are interspersed with "particularly high percentage" of couplets and passages in 
Turkish. This is a very creative use of statistics, since a couple of dozen at most of the 35,000 
lines of the Divan Shams are in Turkish and almost all of these lines occur in poems that are 
predominantly in Persian"(pg 548-549) 

Note Baha al-Din Walad is Rumi's father whom we have devoted a section to in this article. We note 
that not even 0.1% of all the literary output (prose and poetry) of Rumi are in Greek/Turkish combined. 
Furthermore, all the lectures and sermons of Rumi are in Persian not in Turkish (which negates the 
argument that Rumi composed in Persian because it was the convention) and the 
sermons/lectures/letters (Majales-i Sabe', Maktubat and Fihi Ma Fih) are replete with Persian poetry of 
Attar, Sanai and etc. The sermons and lectures, in an informal yet elegant tone were recorded by Rumi's 
students and again provide a sufficient proof of his everyday language being Persian. We shall examine 
these in another section. Unlike what Onder claims, there is not a single sermon and lecture of Rumi in 
Turkish. Thus "when addressing people and his sermon", Rumi's work is overwhelmingly Persian with 
the exception of two Arabic sermons in the Fihi ma Fihi (among the 69 Persian sermons). This is an 
elegant proof of everyday language of Rumi and a self-evident refutation of Onder. However, as shown 
Mehmet Onder has tried to downplay Rumi's Persian heritage for tourists who visit Konya and has 
falsely claimed that Rumi's sermons and letters are in Turkish (where-as none of them are in Turkish and 
they are overwhelmingly Persian with the exception of few in Arabic ). 

D) 

Another outright falsification is seen in a recent manuscript circulating in the internet called 
"Soroodhaayeh Torki Mowlana" by Mehran Bahari (2005) which was updated in 2008. The author trying 
to downplay Rumi's Persian work claims on page 65: 



j\ <_Sjbl (^joujjls-^jvSLprb cu AJ9 uIIqJLuj (jjjjjjjS 9 U\J9jo jbl jLS _p <\xx$jj\ U 

The Turkish nationalist author tries to give the impression that Fihi Ma Fihi is in Arabic. However out of 
the 71 discourses, only two are in Arabic and both the Persian and Arabic are vernacular everyday 
spoken language rather than formal and literary. The reason this is not mentioned is of course due to 
the fact that it shows Rumi's and the Mowlavi order's everyday language was in Persian and these 
discourses were written down by his students of Rumi while Rumi was lecturing in Persian. There is not 
a single discourse in Turkish. The fact that there is not a single sermon or lecture of Rumi in Turkish has 
made some of these authors to downplay the overwhelming number of lectures, letters and sermons of 
Rumi which are in Persian. Obviously, this provides an elegant proof of Rumi's everyday interaction with 
his followers and also the native language of Rumi. 

Elsewhere the Turkish nationalist author tries to claim that in the 12 th century, the language of Balkh 
was Turkish (page 70) and this is responded to later when we discuss Baha al-Din Walad. We 
demonstrate for example that actual works from Balkh at that time use the term "Zaban-i Balkhi" which 
means the language of Balkh and this "zaban-i bakhli" is shown to be a Persian dialect. There is a 
section in this article that proves this point conclusively. However, the Turkish nationalist author quotes 
a certain website (on page 70) to claim otherwise: 



.(ol^pJ .^'HY .i^lj^J o^-^l J\L> v^ "^ u° '^joL^-*jjjL9) 0_«jjI iljj i_sosJj °^>; 

The Turkish nationalist writer is trying to reference the book Farsnaameyeh Nasseri written in the Qajar 
era between 1821-1898! In order to explain why the author of the Farsnaameyeh Nasseri wrote in 
Persian (the actual author of Farsnaameyeh Nasseri gives no such reason and the Turkish nationalist 
authors tries to put words in mouth and formulate a reason!), tThe Turkish nationalist writer claims that 
the author of Nasseri explains this by." My upbringing is Persian though I am Balkhi". 

But in actuality, no where does the author of Farsnameyeh Nasseri explains why he wrote in Persian. 
Rather the correct reading of the sentence in the context of the book is "My upbringing is from Fars 
province although I am from Balkh". The book is called "Fars-nameh" because it is about Ostan-e-Fars 
(Far province in SW Iran) but the author of Farsnama is referencing that he is originality is from Balkh. 
No where does the author of the Farsnama even explain in this work about why he is writing Persian 
(since it is obvious) and the addition "explanation of why the author wrote in Persian" has nothing to do 
with "Tarbiyat Parsi" (upbringing in Fars as opposed to Balkh). Thus the nationalist writer tries to use 
such a sentence (without correct understanding) and then claim that the language of Balkh is not 
Persian! 

Furthermore, we doubt Farsnaameyeh Nasseri has such a quote since the author of Farsnama claims 
Seyyed ancestry and according to Iranica: 



"The Fars-nama-ye naserT is itself the main source for the biography of Hajj MTrza Hasan HosaynT Fasa'T 
and the history of his ancestors (ed. Rastgar, pp. 924-35, 1035-58). Fasa'T belonged to the thirty-seventh 
generation of a family of sayyeds (claiming descent from the prophet Mohammad). Members of the 
family, named DastakT (q.v.) after the quarter of Shiraz (which later on became part of the quarter Sar-e 
Dezak) where they owned houses, were prominent scholars and civil servants, with branches in Persia 
(Shiraz and Fasa), Mecca, and Hyderabad (Deccan)."(AHMAD ASHRAF and ALI BANUAZIZI, "Fars- 
nameyeh Nasseri" in Encyclopedia Iranica) 

Rather the Turkish nationalist author probably misplaced the Farsnaameh of Ibn Balkhi (written during 
the Seljuq era) with the Farsnaameh of Nasser! And again the Farsnaameh of Ibn Balkhi is clear, because 
Ibn Balkhi himself was from Balkh but the family took residence in Fars province during the time of his 
grandfather. (C. EDMUND BOSWORTH, "Ebn al-Bakhli" in Encyclopedia Iranica). 

The Turkish nationalist author is trying to limit the word "Persian" to the province of Fars in Iran and this 
is a clear distortion. So he is looking for a text that distinguishes Fars province from Balkh in order to 
separate these two Iranian cultural regions of that time. 

It is true that Fars province means Persian/Persia, but the Persian(lranian) people and the Persian 
language is prominent in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and other parts of Central Asia and Caucasus at 
that time. But the nationalistic author tries to limit the Persian language to "Fars province" and anyone 
that has said "I am from Fars not say province X" he tries to portray it as if the person is not Persian! For 
example if the someone said: "My upbringing is from Fars not Khorasan", the nationalistic author would 
claim that means the person is not Persian (for example Ferdowsi or Asadi Tusi among countless 
others)! 

Then the nationalist author quotes Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) that "the city of Balkh was the capital of 
Turkish kingdom" and reaches the conclusion that Persians arrived there after Turks (since there is no 
Turkish Kingdom that had Balkh as its capital unlike the Samanids or Kiyanids but it was a major city 
under Turkish dynasties like Seljuqs and Khwarizmshahids). This is like saying "Qonya was the capital of 
the Turkish Seljuqs", so the Greeks came to Qonya after Turks! 

Also anyone that looks at the book of Ibn Khaldun knows that Ibn Khaldun has counted Sogdians 
(mistakenly) as Turks. 

<_SJlouo j.i ASjjj ^Mj ».JjI-\jjo *Sy i-SJLooo jl Ij ul GgjJb* ,jjl (_syL> '2-J-i (_svi>- 9 is^u (Jjjojj-j-u L c Uajlj ji 

(i-SibLS iCLoAiijo 1 18 qjSLfl^3)«>pjJlslj9Lo 9 oI5_>j 

OJji ol5_>J i^SJLooo ji ci_i_iii9_)_ji-ul 9 JiS-juj ,jjjOj_)_ji-u LsJul ji ^9j i_Sj9b> ,_s\^jl_>S jV> 

(l-SiLLS iOAi> (jjl 3jOAiijO 1 1 18 CL>lSLo) «^9j-OjjO 

And a look at Biruni states that Balkh was the capital of Keyanian Iranian dynasty (which is taken as 
equivalent of Achaemenids). Also modern historians uniformly agree that the language of Balkh early in 
the Sassanid era was the Bacrtian Iranian language. However, during the late Sassanid era and after 
Islam, it was only the capital of the Arabs and Samanids and Balkh is actually called the cradle of the 



Khorasani Parsi-Dari(Persian) language by classical sources. Also many sources indicate Balkh was 
Persian speaking during the time of Rumi (as we shall see in the section of Baha al-Din Walad). There is 
no doubt that the area of Balkh (today its major urban center Mazar-i Sharif is still Tajik speaking) was 
Iranian long before the Turks entered the region of Central Asia and the best proof of this is the Bactrian 
language (before the area switched to Parsi-Dari) 

Strabo (1 st century B.C.) states (Geography, 15.2.1-15.2.8): 

The name of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia, and of Media, as also to the Bactrians 
and Sogdians on the north; for these speak approximately the same language, with but slight 
variations.: 

And even after the Arabs, according C.E. Bosworth, "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under 
the Umayyads and the establishment of Islam", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age 
of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and 
Economic Setting, edited by M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. 1999. Excerpt from page 23: "Central Asia 
in the early seventh century was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various 
Middle Iranian languages. 

C. Edmund Bosworth: "In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of 
Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama of Ferdowsi is 
regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the 
Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind 
them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan"). Turan thus became both an ethnic and a 
geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all 
through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the 
homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians."( C.E. Bosworth, 
"Central Asia: The Islamic period up to the Mongols" in Encyclopedia Iranica). 

We shall discuss more about Balkh later, however as shown, the Turkish national author has presented 
the Farsnama of Ibn Balkhi in a distorted fashion and has ignored many sources in order to claim that 
Balkh was inhabited by Turks before Iranians. Where-as the name Balkh itself has an Iranian etymology 
and its old language was Iranian Bactrian. We should also make clear by the term Turk, what is meant 
today is not necessarily the same as that of some Arabic writings. Today it refers to Altaic speakers but 
in Islamic times especially the Abbasid era, the term was used for variety of Iranian groups as well. 
Referring to the "Turkish" troops in Baghdad, M.A. Shaban states: 

"These new troops were the so-called "Turks". It must be said without hesitation that this is the 

most misleading misnomer which has led some scholars to harp ad nauseam on utterly 
unfounded interpretation of the following era, during which they unreasonably ascribe all events 
to Turkish domination. In fact the great majority of these troops were not Turks. It has been 
frequently pointed out that Arabic sources use the term Turk in a very loose manner. The 
Hephthalites are referred to as Turks, so are the peoples of Gurgan, Khwarizm and Sistan. 
Indeed, with the exception of the Soghdians, Arabic sources refer to all peoples not subjects of 
the Sassanian empire as Turks. In Samarra separate quarters were provided for new recruits 



from every locality. The group from Farghana were called after their district, and the name 
continued in usage because it was easy to pronounce. But such groups as the Ishtakhanjiyya, the 
Isbijabbiya and groups from similar localities who were in small numbers at first, were lumped 
together under the general term Turks, because of the obvious difficulties the Arabs had in 
pronouncing such foreign names. The Khazars who also came from small localities which 
could not even be identified, as they were mostly nomads, were perhaps the only group that 
deserved to be called Turks on the ground of racial affinity. However, other groups from 
Transcaucasia were classed together with the Khazars under the general 
description. "(M. A. Shaban, "Islamic History", Cambridge University Press, v.2 1978. Page 63) 

However, even adding to what M.A. Shaban has stated, some further Arabic sources have mistaken even 
Soghdians with Turks. And Ibn Khaldun's mistake of Sogdians with Turks is exactly of this nature. In 
Islamic sources, such groups as Sogdians, Khwarizmians, Hephtalites, Alans, and even Tibetians, Mongols 
and etc. have been called "Turk", while none of these groups are Turkic speaking(except for the Mongols 
who according to some linguist speak a language that is part of the Altaic languages and can be said to 
be close to Turks according to those linguists). Even the Avesta Turanians are today seen as an Iranian 
people. However, the nationalist author thinks that just because someone lived under a Turkish 
kingdom, then they must be Turkish. Like for example since Anatolian Greeks lived under the Seljuqs, 
then they must be Turks! 

As per the etymology of Balkh, Daniel Coit Gilman, Harry Thurston Peck, Frank Moore Colby, "The New 
international encyclopaedia, Volume 2",Dodd, Mead and Company, 1902. pg 341: "The name of province 
or country appears in Old Persian inscriptions (B.h.i 16; Dar Pers e.16; Nr. a. 23) as Baxtri, i.e. Bakhtri. It 
is written in the Avesta Bax6i. From this latter came the intermediate form Baxli, Sanskrit BahlTka, 
Balhika 'Bactrian,', Armenian Bahl, and by transposition, the modern Persian Balx, i.e. Balkh" 



Shams Tabrizi and his background 
Tabriz in the pre-Mongol and Ilkhanid era 



Although today the inhabitants of Tabriz speak Azeri-Turkish and follow twelve Imami Shi'ism, this was 
not the case during the time of Shams Tabrizi (as shown below by many direct evidences). In the time of 
Shams Tabrizi, the language was a Persian based language and the people were primarily Shafi'l Muslims 
(the sect followed today by Western Iranians such as the Sunni Kurds and Talysh). Despite this wide 
difference of language and religion, some sources are not aware of this historical fact and have 
misplaced time/space in order to retroactively Turkify the background of Shams Tabrizi. It is a shame 
that some scholars who write about literature do not take the time to research the area they are writing 
about during that era ! 

The process of Turkification of Azerbaijan as mentioned was long and complex and there are still 
remnants of Tati and other Iranian languages in Caucasia and NW Iran. The language of Azerbaijan at 



the time of Shams Tabrizi was what scholars called "Fahlavi-Azari" ("Azerbaijanian Pahlavi"), which is an 
Iranian language. 

Ebn al-Moqaffa'(d. 142/759) is quoted by Ibn Al-Nadim in his famous Al-Fihrist that the language of 
Azerbaijan is Fahlavi and Azerbaijan is part of the region of Fahlah (alongside Esfahan, Rayy, Hamadan 
and Maah-Nahavand): 

iJ^JuOJ^J^JsjO 0_JkJJj^_&JI j^> yOvjJJ ^Jjl 

Obejjjilg JJgLgJ 0L09 uljuo^g i-S^JIg OlgjL^I ,_s^9 CiIjJj cLuujoj> ,^1c gsy /xjujI 0-LjS ,_?JI v , 9 Jja - iu o3 cbglgjJI Lois 
Osd 1 jjo Ljj-Lg i-JLiJIg vUJI <>j*o\s* i_yJ| 3j9jjuuuo i_^j3>9 dJJLoJI vUj O /'J^J "-"IS Lgjg jjjIjuoJI GJuo ciiil9 ^bjjJI L0I9 

,jjjjls J^l cisJ ,_s*j5>9 /xpjaLji'19 5L0J2JI9 6ajI9jcJI Lpj /xiSLiiS ^jjjjLfiJI L0I9 q-L <_Lil <XsD\ g JjjjjuuoJIg oLujI_>>- <_Lil 

OlSxS cujLjjuuJI L0I9 cl^jJjLsJI gx>9 6JJUI9 ^lSjJJI g^slgjog 69JJSJI ,_^9 ^Ij-niMlg dJgloJI /xKju dlS LgjS cbJ9i«JI L0I9 

^jvjjjjls ^^LjjjuJIj cujJJI l j j0 £gj ,_^9 cujLSuoJIg ilgjuaJI <_Lil Lgj /sJiu 

9 JJgLgJ £>Lo 9 uljutxd) 9 <_Sj 9 OLp 6.^1 !>£-juj 2-i,! >J 0_«jjI £>J_ni OiLpJ /sb <^S llpS Qj 0_«jjI vS^^J-"" i-Sgl^S Lol=) 

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9 uIaj9jo o£ 0_<jjI ,_s^jo\IS ^^^jjjjls Lol .0_<jjI i_JLc CiLj Ol jj Q-L fi^>j^> Oil 9 i3jjuuuo 9 oLujl_p>- Jjil Oil 9 jbji 
ji ijlj-jjjl 9 dlgLo °S> 0_jujI i_yjbj <-Sj9^> Lol .-J-jjjLi u-^jLs J-&I jo^y <->Lij dl 9 AJJ9S jjjauuj CiIaj OLuuyl JJjLo 9 LoJLc 
jjjajjj CiIaj il9_mj /sijjo 1$ 0_<jjI Cil l _jJIj_>jjj Lol .AJJiS 9590^ igj- Oj_niL>- 9 oLojJJ L OjJ 9 i_jjd g-islgjo 9 Ogli* 

Source: 

1346 iLj-mJ jjjl oljLuULiul .iA^CJ Lsj <_S^jO>J-_>J .«0_juJ_>£S» I^LauujI t>J JuOJXjO ■/3J- J ^ G-^ 



Ibn Nadeem, "Fihrist", Translated by Reza Tajaddod, Ibn Sina publishers, 1967. 

A very similar explanation is given by the medieval historian Hamzeh Isfahani when talking about 
Sassanid Iran. Hamzeh Isfahani writes in the book Al-Tanbih 'ala Hoduth al-Tashif that five "tongues"or 
dialects, were common in Sassanian Iran: Fahlavi, Dari, Farsi (Persian), Khuzi and Soryani. Hamzeh (893- 
961 A.D.) explains these dialects in the following way: 

Fahlavi was a dialect which kings spoke in their assemblies and it is related to Fahleh. This name is used 
to designate five cities of Iran, Esfahan, Rey, Hamadan, Maah Nahavand, and Azerbaijan. Farsi (Persian) 
is a dialect which was spoken by the clergy (Zoroastrian) and those who associated with them and is the 
language of the cities of Fars. Dari is the dialect of the cities of Ctesiphon and was spoken in the 
kings'/darbariyan/ 'courts'. The root of its name is related to its use; /darbar/ 'court* is implied in /dar/. 
The vocabulary of the natives of Balkh was dominant in this language, which includes the dialects of the 
eastern peoples. Khuzi is associated with the cities of Khuzistan where kings and dignitaries used it in 
private conversation and during leisure time, in the bath houses for instance. 

(Mehdi Marashi, Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of 
Mohammad Ali Jazayery, Ibex Publishers, Inc, 1994. pg 255) 



Ibn Hawqal, another 10 th century Muslim traveller states: 

"the language of the people of Azerbaijan and most of the people of Armenia (sic; he probably means 
the Iranian Armenia) is Iranian (al-faressya), which binds them together, while Arabic is also used among 
them; among those who speak al-faressya (here he seemingly means Persian, spoken by the elite of the 
urban population), there are few who do not understand Arabic; and some merchants and landowners 
are even adept in it". 

(E. Yarshater, "Azeri: Iranian language of Azerbaijan"in Encyclopedia Iranica) 

It should be noted that Ibn Hawqal mentions that some areas of Armenia are controlled by Muslims and 
others by Christians. Of course the land denoted as Armenia was much bigger than present Armenia. 

Reference: Ibn Hawqal, Surat al-Ardh. Translation and comments by: J. Shoar, Amir Kabir Publishers, 
Iran. 1981. 

Al-Muqaddasi (d. late 4th/10th cent.) considers Azerbaijan and Arran as part of the 8th division of lands. 
He states: 

"The language of the 8th division is Iranian (al-'ajamyya). It is partly Dari and partly convoluted 
(monqaleq) and all of them are named Persian" 



Al-Moqaddasi, Shams ad-Din Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Ahmad, Ahsan al-Taqasi fi Ma'rifa al-Aqalim, 
Translated by Ali Naqi Vaziri, Volume One, First Edition, Mu'alifan and Mutarjiman Publishers, Iran, 
1981, pg 377 



.<_S_>jj9 L _yJiLi_Lc jJiSi Qj*s>jj ./xJlsYII <*S_>ao i_$3 /Xj-ujlajJI { j-i*us>\ .JuOJ-l tjjJu&^jO "UIIa+C^jI t jjjJl 1 j.i.LO.'jj <( _y.ujjLftjJI 

.377 ijo .1361 .ol_>jl oLoj-jJuo 9 olaJ^ oljLuuuul .J9I v^ ■! -^-^ 



Al-Muqaddasi also writes on the general region of Armenia, Arran and Azerbaijan and states: 

"They have big beards, their speech is not attractive. In Arminya they speak Armenian, in al-Ran, Ranian 
(Aranian); Their Persian is understandable, and is close to Khurasanian (Dari Persian) in sound" 

(Al-Muqaddasi, 'The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions', a translation of his Ahsan al-Taqasim 
fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim by B.A. Collins, Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, Garnet Publishing 
Limited,1994. pg 334). 

Al-Mas'udi the Arab Historian States: 



"The Persians are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and 
Arran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and 
Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, and Sejistan 
and Kerman and Fars and Ahvaz...AII these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign and one 
language. ..although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its letters are 
written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different languages such 
as Pahlavi, Dari, Azari, as well as other Persian languages." 

Source: 

Al -Mas'udi, Kitab al-Tanbih wa-l-lshraf, De Goeje, M.J. (ed.), Leiden, Brill, 1894, pp. 77-8. 

Thus Al-Masu'di testifies to the Iranian presence in the Caucasus and Azerbaijan during the 10 th century 
and even names a local Iranian dialect called Azari. This Azari was an Iranian language and should not 
be confused with the Turkish language which is called Azeri or Azerbaijani Turkish. Both names are 
derived from the geographical location Azerbaijan, however Azeri Turkish came in much later into the 
area and most likely became the predominant language of Azerbaijan in the Safavid era. 

Original Arabic of al-Masudi from www.alwaraq.net : 



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.H-C 9 9^° 9 oljji* 9 'j9jL*jjl<J ^_s^ 9 .j^_hjj_>jI 9 oL>_pr 9 CiI_>jLjuuJI 9 ho »nnll 9 t jjjjjjjJo 9 <_S_>JI 9 vl9J^l9 vUJI 9-^> 

<JS 9 CAS9JI \l£> i_s^9 /x?-Lc\ll ,ji)jl l >o dJJjj i_L^iil Lo 9 .jlg^YII 9 u-'-'jLs 9 OLojS 9 GLjuulx-juj 9 OLujIj3- i\L jj^o dJJi 
9 0I2JJI 1 jjo j+jjj~> 5i_s^jjj i_s^9 OgjuLju I9JIS /xpjl \l| .A^-lg LgjLuuJ 9 Jj>lg dilo LpSuLo OA^-lg "^SuLouo OulS i\LJI 6A£> 

dJJi Asj OJilii»l ul 9 .A^-lg i-fi-JU l$3$js> >-fi-JLi 9 OA^-lg i-jJiSLi ,_soJI [#3$jS> Ogii Ob OA^-lg O9SL) Lojl c^zLII ul dJJi 

. l jjj_>iJI olaJ jjjo Ld>_>jX 9 cbjiMI 9 ^j-jJI 9 cbglgjJlS j3-\ll sL_>Jj\II jjLa-u ^jvS 



Ahmad ibn Yaqubi mentions that the 

People of Azerbaijan are a mixture of 'Ajam-i Azari (Ajam is a term that developed to mean Iranian) of 
Azaris and old Javedanis (followers of Javidan the son of Shahrak who was the leader of Khurramites and 
succeeded by Babak Khorramdin). 

Source: 

Yaqubi, Ahmad ibn Abi, Tarikh-i Yaqubi tarjamah-i Muhammad Ibrahim Ayati, Intisharat Bungah-i 
Tarjomah o Nashr-i Kitab, 1969. 

Finally a source on Tabriz itself: 

"Zakarrya b. Mohammad Qazvini's report in Athar al-Bilad, composed in 674/1275, that "no town has 
escaped being taken over by the Turks except Tabriz"(Beirut ed., 1960, p. 339) one may infer that at 
least Tabriz had remained aloof from the influence of Turkish until the time". 



("Azari: The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan"in Encyclopedia Iranica by E. Yarshater 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f3/v3f2a88b.html1 ) 

The linguistic Turkification of Iranian Azerbaijan was a complex multi-state process: 

From the time of the Mongol invasion, most of whose armies were composed of Turkic tribes, 
the influence of Turkish increased in the region. On the other hand, the old Iranian dialects 
remained prevalent in major cities. 

"Hamdallah Mostowafi writing in the 1340s calls the language ofMaraga as "modified Pahlavi"(Pahlavi- 
ye Mughayyar). Mostowafi calls the language ofZanjan (Pahlavi-ye Raast). The language of Gushtaspi 
covering the Caspian border region between Gilan to Shirvan is called a Pahlavi language close to the 
language of Gilan". 

Source: 

("Azari: The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan"in Encyclopedia Iranica by E. Yarshater 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f3/v3f2a88b.htmll ) 



Professor. John Perry states: 

"We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language 
map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and 
Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion 
of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered 
areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking 
populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas 
of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), progressively Turkicized local speakers of Persian, 
Kurdish and other Iranian languages. Although it is mainly the results of this latter process which will be 
illustrated here, it should be remembered that these developments were contemporaneous and 
complementary. 

2. General Effects of the Safavid Accession 

Both these processes peaked with the accession of the Safavid Shah Esma'il in 1501 CE He and his 
successors were Turkish-speakers, probably descended from turkicized Iranian inhabitants of the 
northwest marches. While they accepted and promoted written Persian as the established language of 
bureaucracy and literature, the fact that they and their tribal supporters habitually spoke Turkish in 
court and camp lent this vernacular an unprecedented prestige."(John Perry. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, 
(2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN) 



According to Xavier Planhol, a well known scholar of historical geography (a branch that studies both 
history and geography and their interaction) and specialist on cultural history of Islam as well 
nomadicization of Iran, Central Asia and Turkey:"This unique aspect of Azerbaijan, the only area to have 
been almost entirely "Turkicized" within Iranian territory, is the result of a complex, progressive cultural 
and historical process, in which factors accumulated successively (Stimer; Planhol, 1995, pp. 510 -- 12) 
The process merits deeper analysis of the extent to which it illustrates the great resilience of the land of 
Iran. The first phase was the amassing of nomads, initially at the time of the Turkish invasions, following 
the route of penetration along the piedmont south of the Alborz, facing the Byzantine borders, then 
those of the Greek empire of Trebizond and Christian Georgia. The Mongol invasion in the 13th century 
led to an extensive renewal of tribal stock, and the Turkic groups of the region during this period had not 
yet become stable. In the 15th century, the assimilation of the indigenous Iranian population was far 
from being completed. The decisive episode, at the beginning of the 16th century, was the adoption of 
Shi ' ite Islam as the religion of the state by the Iran of the Safavids, whereas the Ottoman empire 
remained faithful to Sunnite orthodoxy. Shi ' ite propaganda spread among the nomadic Turkoman 
tribes of Anatolia, far from urban centers of orthodoxy. These Shi ' ite nomads returned en masse along 
their migratory route back to Safavid Iran. This movement was to extend up to southwest Anatolia, from 
where the Tekelu, originally from the Lycian peninsula, returned to Iran with 15,000 camels. These 
nomads returning from Ottoman territory naturally settled en masse in regions near the border, and it 
was from this period that the definitive "Turkicization" of Azerbaijan dates, along with the establishment 
of the present-day Azeri-Persian linguistic border-not far from Qazvin, only some 150 kilometers from 
Tehran, (in the 15 st century assimilation was still far from complete, has been the adoption of a decisive 
Shiism in the 16 st Century)" http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/vl3f2/vl3f 2024i.html 

The famous Sunni Shafi'l Muslims of the area like Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, Shams Tabrizi, Shaykh 
Mahmud Shabistari and etc. lived in a time when Azerbaijan was far from Turkicized. Indeed Shafism 
today is followed by the Sunni Iranian speaking Kurds and Talysh (remnants of the once wider 
Iranian/Persian speakers) of the area where-as the new incoming Turks were uniformly Hanafite 
Muslims until the region became Shi'ite. As shown below, direct evidence clearly demonstrates Tabriz 
still had an Iranian language during the time of the llkhanids and words from the Old Fahlavi-Azari 
Iranian dialect are recorded by Rumi through the mouth of Shams. The reader can learn more about the 
complex processes of Turkicization of the historical area of Arran, Sherwan and Azerbaijan in the article 
below: 

Ali Doostzadeh, "Politicization of the background of Nizami Ganjavi: Attempted de-Iranization 
of a historical Iranian figure by the USSR", June 2008 (Updated 2009). 
http://sites.google.com/site/rakhshesh/articles-related-to-iranian-history or here: 

http://www.archive.org/details/PoliticizationOfTheBackgroundOfNizamiGaniaviAttemptedDe- 
iranizationOf accessed October 2009. 



The Tabrizi Iranian language as a special case 

As noted, even after the Mongol invasion (the bulk of its troop being Turkish), 



"Zakarrya b. Mohammad Qazvini's report in Athar al-Bilad, composed in 674/1275, that "no 
town has escaped being taken over by the Turks except Tabriz"(Beirut ed., 1960, p. 339) one 
may infer that at least Tabriz had remained aloof from the influence of Turkish until the 
time".("Azari: The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan"in Encyclopedia Iranica by E. Yarshater 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f3/v3f2a88b.html1 ) 

The language of Tabriz, being an Iranian language, was not the standard Khurasani Dari. Qatran Tabrizi 
has an interesting verse mentioning this in a couplet: 



J^ j\j9 J-Jjj v>Jao uLuj 3j J-Jj 

Translation: 

The nightingale is on top of the flower like a minstrel who has lost it heart 

It bemoans sometimes in Parsi (Persian) and sometimes in Dari (Khurasani Persian) 



Source: 



, iS^LzuSl - { _^uuuL-»ju CjLc\UsI !«ObejL)jil q^S Obj i-SOjLji ,_svjUa^-\Lo» njjjol-Juo^tx) h_sv<^> (_S^Uj 

181-182 lSOjLoo^ 



(Riyahi Khoi, Mohammad Amin. "Molehezati darbaareyeh Zabaan-i Kohan Azerbaijan"(Some comments 
on the ancient language of Azerbaijan), 'Itilia'at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182) 

This comprehensive article is also available below: 

http://web.archive.Org/web/Vhttp://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/Azari/26.pdf 

There are extant words, phrases and sentences attested in the old Iranic dialect of Tabriz in a variety of 
books and manuscripts. Here are some examples: 

1) 

Hamdullah Mostowafi mentions a sentence in the language of Tabriz: 



tjjjjjl d^juu j^ ij± c ls> j_jy L yS^L> j$SLil 



Aj-juj ji Cj_«-uI (<_>9^>° <3j()SjI),_sv99JL> j<pLil (_S^iSJ ^^JjAjl 0§_>jj ji i ji 3.^ ,_sv ( _sv99l> j^SjI" Ajj<p 'AjjU 

pg 98" ojuji 



Translation: 

"The Tabrizians if they see a fortunate man in an uncouth clothes say: He is hke a fresh grape in a ripped 
fruit basket." 



Source: 

1336 ii-Sj^pJo oljLiuul i,_sv9L_i-u_>jj.i juo^*^o uijUkii^S <\j i«^j^iAi\<^yj» iqJJl-Loj^ i^sS^ujja 

Mostowafi, Hamdallah. Nozhat al-Qolub. Edit by Muhammad Dabir Sayyaqi. Tahuri Publishing, 1957. 

2) 

A mulama'poem (meaning 'colourful', which is popular in Persian poetry where some verses are in one 
language and others in another language) from Homam Tabrizi where some verses are in Khorasani 
(Dari) Persian and others are in the dialect of Tabriz: 

Cjuuj^ jl /xJi9j CjuLjuOjo /X-iJa^y ^ojjjj 
CjljlUjO i_SW U<P usJ-^ J-^l 9 >°ljP 

i_Sj9j <\S /jjli l _s\jo 9 <-j3j $£> >ol J.i 

i_h_uJ3 jl /ijLS ^JjJ^> (_S^jiiu /X& O_>£j0 CU 

Cjj-oj uLS 9 Jji (jjo^r ig\J CjulgJ 

CjljuJlS (_s0 9 CjljulO i_Sjj9j^jO _>_»-U <-S_p 

jj|_>j oL> jl /jLo^ _p ol^gjiLC ij 



Source: 

1377 ij9j _>^9 oljLiuul i"ub*jljjil oLj 9 jLj (jjjli" !Loj>o\Lc ij9j<JLajl 



Gholam Reza Ensafpur, "Tarikh o Tabar Zaban-i Azarbaijan"(The history and roots of the language of 
Azarbaijan), Fekr-I Rooz Publishers, 1998 (1377). 

3) 

Another ghazal from Homam Tabrizi where all the couplets except the last couplet is in Persian, the last 
couplet reads: 



«oljl&9 <U> ,_sv Jg <U> oljU <_Sgl // ,_s\j <J±>£> jb /xp 9 J9 9 jl&9» 
Transliteration: 

Wahar o wol o Dim yaar khwash Bi 
Awi Yaaraan, mah wul Bi, Mah Wahaaraan 

Translation: 

The Spring and Flowers and the face of the friend are all pleaseant 

But without the friend, there are no flowers or any spring. 

Source: 

1333 i>j»j i«ob*jUjil uLlh-uL) Gbj jl c L>ipJ 9-i n_sOj>& 9 t_sulj»: (_jOLsaJ I Ju-C ioLijl$ 



Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati, Harzani, two dialects from the ancient language of Azerbaijan", Tabriz, 1333. 
1952. 



4) 

Another recent discovery by the name of Safina-yi Tabriz has given sentences from native of Tabriz in 
their peculiar Iranic dialect. A sample expression of from the mystic Baba Faraj Tabrizi in the Safina: 



dgA^ 1-0+; 1J Ljl>jul»5 filS \Jlu <\j (jijuooiiib? bljlggl OjAjI pMs& G<)jiL>_>9 <_S0-X9 <_SLilil 



Standard Persian (translated by the author of Safina himself): 



CJgA^- _>j <U Cj-iajI 0^li3\ />19 y aj gl p^jdij* Ajlo^jgl pMc p lj £_>9 <Sj\ajj* 



Modern English: 

They brought Faraj in this world in such a way that his eye is neither towards pre-eternity nor upon 
createdness. 



Source: 

.1384 ijL-o9l yiS± ol9^9^o ^L-iJ iOb*jLj.il o^>p Obj i iS<)./'V> -> jo _^p^^Juo 



Mortazavi, Manuchehr. Zaban-e-Dirin Azerbaijan (On the Old language of Azerbaijan). Bonyad Moqufaat 
Dr. Afshar. 2005(1384). 



Indeed the Safina is a bible of the culture of Tabriz which was compiled in the ll-khanid era and clearly 
shows the region at its height. It is also a clear proof that the language of the people was Iranian at the 
time and had not transformed Turkic. 

A sample poem in which the author of the Safina writes "Zaban Tabrizi"(Language of Tabriz): 

b$j _>jjj ijl^9 J9J9 OugSLjJu £>ijL$ i ,Jjj$s> 
JJuOjjl^ C19J j9,) ^> Ggi _>jjo £>jl j#su i-S>; 



£>9jjAS Ogjiil Giu 9^=r ,_s^juuuuo j9Jj 

i_S^9^ 9j9 9j9j "^ i_S^9-s i «UjjjI £>?r °J 

Ogjj L _y^j9j 9^- />ooj £>9j-U3- 0^9 9-¥ .P_9J 

Sadeqi, Ali Ashraf. "Chand She'r beh Zaban-e Karaji, Tabrizi wa Ghayreh"(Some poems in the language of 
Karaji and Tabrizi and others), Majalla-ye Zabanshenasi, 9, 1379./2000, pp. 14-17. 

http://www.archive.org/details/LocalPoemslnlranicDialectsOfTabrizHamadanMazandaranQazvinlnThe 

6) 

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz (the author calls Zaban-I Tabriz (dialect/language of Tabriz) recorded 
and also translated by Ibn Bazzaz Ardabili in the Safvat al-Safa: 



,_s\Jl2j culj >flj>^- <p <-S_>j_)jj oL_>j tj^Aj >JoL> cjJiS 9 <-&£> jL5 ji lj (jj-"J jl$ ^Lljujl^ jjoI ^ <p* oL-ajJLc» 

Jj J-UJ V_>_)JlC lj Qj-Jkil ij £U-Jkil '-JjLuO l_ftiS _>J CjLJJlO (jJLflS ^1 j.i .l_Jl_Ujl OAj-J-Uj V^JU_>>' ()Sj <J3_>^lJ (_P>Ul-U 



The sentence "Gu Harif(a/e)r Zhaatah"is mentioned in Tabrizi dialect. 



Source: 

Rezazadeh, Rahim Malak. "The Azari Dialect"(Guyesh-l Azari), Anjuman Farhang Iran Bastan publishers, 
1352(1973). 



7) 

A sentence in the dialect of Tabriz by Pir Hassan Zehtab Tabrizi addressing the Qara-Qoyunlu ruler 
Eskandar: 



0^9j i^sJ^jJiS fi^Sj !jAi5L«-ul» igJLigjgSljS jAi5L«-ul <\j <— >l Vr> «i_S_>jjjj i_>^-^j G-^- ^ >"tf* j' c *-Lo^=r ^> 

(31(>3 i^svs^ <_s^Ijj) C-*-"^ Ij cjju jjS Ijl> .^svijiiL^ I j ^oaj jjS !jAi5Li-ul =) «!iLkii5 



"Eskandar! Roodam Koshti, Roodat Koshaad" 
(Eskandar! You killed my son, may your son perish") 



Source: 



, iS^LzuSl - { _^uuuL-»ju CjLc\UsI !«ObejL)jil Q^S uLj i-SOjUji ,_svjUa^-\Lo» njjjoljuo^tx) n_SV^> (_S^Uj 

181-182 lSOjLoo^ 



Riyahi, Mohammad Amin. "Molahezati darbaareyeh Zabaan-I Kohan Azerbaijan"(Some comments on 
the ancient language of Azerbaijan), 'Itilia'at Siyasi Magazine, volume 181-182. 



Also Available at: 

http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/Azari/26.pdf 

The word Rood for son is still used in some Iranian dialects, specially the Larestani dialect and other 
dialects around Fars. 



8) 

Four quatrains titled Fahlaviyat from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani (d. 677/1278-79); born in Kojjan or 
Korjan, a village near Tabriz, recorded by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi 



(Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Dr. Ahmad Taffazoli, 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v9f2/v9f232.html ) 

(Dr. A. A. Sadeqi, "Ash'ar-e mahalli-e Jame'al-Alhaann,"Majalla-ye zaban-shenasi 9, 1371./1992, pp. 54- 
64) 

The actual quatrains are available here: 

http://www.archive.org/details/LocalPoemslnlranicDialectsOfTabrizHamadanMazandaranQazvinlnThe 

A sample of one of the four quatrains from Khwaja Muhammad Kojjani 



l _5\JijiLi*j (_sUjiL> JuugJ <-S>p cLo^ 

O^jJg <-S>r^ Cj_i-Ui <^$ <p* gl Lj 



9) 

Two qet'as (poems) quoted by Abd-al-Qader Maraghi in the dialect of Tabriz (d. 838 A.H./1434-35 C.E.; 
II, p. 142) 

(Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Ahmad Taffazoli, 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v9f2/v9f232.html ) 

(A. A. Sadeqi, "Ash'ar-e mahalli-e Jame'al-Alhaann,"Majalla-ye zaban-shenasi 9, 1371./1992, pp. 54-64. 

http://www.archive.orq/details/LocalPoemsInIranicDialectsOfTabrizHamadanMazandaranQazvinInThe ) 



,- fi fi 



G\J<ptJ <-S^ />jSj 



# ^ ,- # 



o^jlj9 o-<V <£ §j 



1 jjjuoI-\j /jjJ_ikii Jj> 1-S9 



Oijlj9 99I I>j-^ 



10) 



A ghazal and fourteen quatrains under the title of Fahlaviyat by the poet Maghrebi Tabrizi (d. 809/1406- 

(Fahlaviyat in Encyclopedia Iranica by Dr. Ahmad Taffazoli, 
http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v9f2/v9f232.html ) 

(M.-A. AdibTusi "Fahlavyat-e MagrebiTabrizi/'NDA Tabriz 8, 1335/1956 

Also available at: 

http://web.archive.Org/web/20070927210648/http://www.azareoshnasp.net/languages/Azari/fahlavivaatmaehrebitabrizi.pdf 



11) 

A text probably by Mama Esmat Tabrizi, a mystical woman-poet of Tabriz (d. 9th/15th cent.), which 
occurs in a manuscript, preserved in Turkey, concerning the shrines of saints in Tabriz. 

M.- A. Adib Tusi, "Fahlawiyat-e- Mama Esmat wa Kashfi be-zaban Azari estelaah-e raayi yaa shahri", 
NDA, Tabriz 8/3, 1335/1957, pp 242-57. 

Also availale at: 

http://web.archive.Org/web/20070927210648/http://www.azarBOshnasp.net/languages/Azari/fahlaviyaatmamaesmat.pdf 



Example of Shams Tabrizi speaking the North West Iranic dialect of Tabriz 

12) 

An interesting phrase "Buri Buri"(which in Persian means "Biya Biya"or in English "Come! Come!") is 
mentioned by Rumi from the mouth of Shams Tabrizi in this poem: 

tSj^JLu-ui CU _>>■ /jjLj ji /x<eJJ StP^ 1^9^ 

>£j$J I_)jO JjLo^SJ <-S_>J_)jJ (j^-^-H (J-i.LO.-iIi <*S 

i-Sj^jjj 9J /xcLi o^ ^ *^J& 'W -^.sS l>° 

«<_Sj<)j i^ji cjuo^jo b i5 i^jS J-j>-ijlc cjJ^>- Li i$ 

The word "Buri"is mentioned by Hussain Tabrizi Karbalai with regards to the Shaykh Khwajah Abdul- 
Rahim Azh-Abaadi: 

CU lyg^mJUuO Ajl <-S_>J_)jJ tJ>9...C_i_uul yJjSLO 9 (j(0> ijin l_>L>_>j-U ji. . . I-S^U I jl /Xi>-_)J I Aj-C c ^\^>'. . . j\ jjO 9 -X9jjO» 

<\S CiLsl £,LoJL»-ul OrH^ 9I j\ 9...(_sJ-cl vj^ (_sJI&>- j-i >J>V .p <— lj-uI ,>Lk2xi ^>9^ <\S (iUjIjilib*! h^gZ 
i_5\J9_>J 9 l _s\JLAfixx> jl (_sJL> 9 Ajl 0^9joj ,_s\jo i_Sj9Sjiuo /xjiiu_>jl ^svSjjSLi CjigLza cu Jjlgl ji c L>l9^- Oj.irv 



«.JljJjIj (_sOL)j oLoLpJI jl 9J ^o\l$ uS^-i^j 3jl> jl lj 9J 9 Cj_hajI jljL) jl oU lj 

.1970-1965 1349-1344 < v ^ >^i 9 <=u^>y ollju ,«oL^JI oU 9j » «-Sjj>j ^s^>J> o^^ k&k> 

Karbalai Tabrizi, Hussein. "Rawdat al-Jinan va Jannat al-Janan", Bungah-I Tarjumah o Nashr-i Kitab, 1344- 
49 (1965-1970), 2 volumes. 



In the Harzandi Iranic dialect of Harzand in Azerbaijan as well as the Iranic Karingani dialect of 
Azerbaijan, both recorded in the 20 th century, the two words "Biri"and "Burah"means to "come"and are 
of the same root. 

Source: 

1333 i^fl_nii (-S-cuLsyb^ijjjjj i«ob<jljji>l oLl»-uIj oLj jl c L>ipJ 9^ i^sOjj^ 9 ,_svjIj»: ^sJLsJIajx loLijlS 



Karang, Abdul Ali. "Tati o Harzani, Do lahjeh azzabaan-i baastaan-i Azerbaijan", Shafaq publishers, 
1333(1955) (pg 91 and pg 112) 

We note already that this phrase been used Baba Taher in his Fahlavi dialect poem and Baba Taher lived 
two centuries before Rumi and Shams: 

pjjLuoj ( _5\j9jl^kjo 9 i_sujJ (>j$J 
Oljuj3 jl i_svJi9j ^o_>j_>C OgJj j9 
pjjLiuaj l _s>J9Jjj9 9J jS Oj$J 



J9_»-U j-uJ jl /xjJLj J-Jj &J&J 

j9joL>J 9jO jl _y>LjuJ Ol Oj^J 

ejJb j9j Oi ,_sdS _>£j jl 9J 

j9j 9 l_>_nil /Jooljl <J.i >£J jl 9jO 



On the importance of Safinaye Tabriz 



SafTna-yi Tabriz (The Vessel of Tabriz or The Treasury of Tabriz, Persian: jjjfi 4 -^ ) is an important 
encyclopedic manuscript from 14th century llkhanid Iran compiled by Abu'l Majd Muhammad b. Mas'ud 
Tabrizi between 1321 and 1323. Based on the manuscript, the book has been published in facsimile by 
Tehran University Press. As it constitutes a rare Islamic manuscript that has recently been discovered, it 
has generated a great deal of interest among Islamic, Western, Iranian and Middle Eastern scholars. It is 
almost perfectly preserved, and contains 209 works on a wide range of subjects, in Persian and Arabic as 
well as some poetry denoted by Fahlaviyat and the Iranian language of Tabriz. According to Professors A. 
A. Seyed-Gohrab and S. McGlinn: "The Safineh: is indeed a whole treasure-house, compressed between 
two covers. One of the important features of the Safinah is that it contains works of a number of 
philosophers who were not known until the discovery of the manuscript." 

The texts of the Safina-yi Tabrizi contain separate chapters covering Hadith (Prophetic(PBUH&HP) 
tradition), lexicography, ethics, mysticism, jurisprudence, theology, exegesis, history, grammar, 
linguistics, literature, literary criticism, philosophy, astronomy astrology, geomancy, mineralogy, 
mathematics, medicine, music, physiognomy, cosmography and geography. According to Professors A.A. 
Seyed-Gohrab and S. McGlinn, some of the best available texts of important works of Islamic culture and 
learning are contained in this work. 

A sample poem in which the author of the Safina writes "Zaban Tabrizi"(Language of Tabriz): 

(JjjjSi jjjo ^^-ujLSij jj] $jo Oj^Sj £>?:y>: ub»i 

0§j _>juj ijbs J^Js QjgSLiuJ fcijl^ i ,Jjj^y 

JJuo _>*_£> U3j j9^ y> 0$$ _>jjo Ojl >£-&j >-S^ 

( _jou9jo_p ld> Z.j^r. (_S^ 3>°Ij3 '^-^ >*^' 

Ogjjjjj C<)j£il CjJsj y> i_Ss-jaxjjo jsj'j' 

<-&9$ 9j3 9j9j °^ eS^&V °U_ajjI ^^> Qj 

Sadeqi, Ali Ashraf. "Chand She'r beh Zaban-e Karaji, Tabrizi wa Ghayreh"(Some poems in the language of 
Karaji and Tabrizi and others), Majalla-ye Zabanshenasi, 9, 1379./2000, pp. 14-17. 

Available at: 

http://www.archive.org/details/OnTheKaraiiAndTabrizilranicDialectsFoundlnTheSafinayeTabriz 



We should also mention that an unfortunate error occurred in a recent overview of the book: A.A. 
Seyed-Gohrab & S. McGlinn, The Treasury of Tabriz The Great ll-Khanid Compendium, Iranian Studies 
Series, Rozenberg Publishers, 2007. And it is understandable that the authors were not linguists, the 
mention a Turkish dialect (Turki and Gurji). However the actual poem is here: 

http://www.archive.org/details/OnTheKarajiAndTabrizilranicDialectsFoundlnTheSafinayeTabriz 

Here are the exchanges given by two Iranian authors with regards to this mistake (taken from another 
article): 

Dear. Dr. Ghoraab, 

I have the book you edited Safina Tabrizi and also your book on Nizami Ganjavi: Love, Madness and 
Mystic longing. Both are excellent books. 



I just wanted to make a correction on your article on Safina. Pages 678-679 of the Safina are not about a 
Turkish dialect (Tabrizi and Gurji)(page 18 of your book), but they are both Iranian dialects that predate 
the Turkification of Tabriz. For more information, please check these two articles by Dr. Ashraf Saadeghi 



http://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/Azari/zabankarajitabrizi.pdf 
http://www.azargoshnasp.net/languages/Azari/AshrafSadeqiasharmahalimaraqi.pdf 

There are Karaji and Tabrizi languages. Both are studied in detail by Dr. Sadeghi 
Tashakkor, 

Here was the response with this regard. 
From: "Seyed, Gohrab A.A. 



I would like to thank you very much for your kind email and your friendly words about my books. I 
deeply appreciate your constructive critical note and will surely correct this in a second edition of the 
book. 



With kind regards and best wishes, 



Asghar Seyed-Ghorab 

Dr. A.A. Seyed-Gohrab 

Chairman of the Department of Persian Studies 

Fellow of the Young Academy of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) 

Leiden University 

Faculty of Arts 

Thus the original Tabrizi language as mentioned in the Safinaye Tabriz is an Iranian dialect and here we 
quote again Baba Faraj Tabrizi in this dialect. 

CigA^- <-ftjj <\j [j^jjJuS filS ^juj <\j (jijuooiiib? Lljl$3l OjAjI /JI29 G()jii->_>9 <_S0-i9 i^Lilil 

Standard Persian (translated by the author of Safina himself): 

C>9A^- y Oj Cj_»-uI 0^li3\ fiSB y <\j 9I />-^i--> ajIo^I /JLc ji lj g_>9 <_SjIajc> 

Modern English: 

They brought Faraj in this world in such a way that his eye is neither towards pre-eternity nor upon 
createdness. 

Source: 

.1384 ijLiisI yiS?> oIs^s^jo ^L->j 'uLsj Lj.il i>j>p obj i<s$.ri>y> j^^^juo 



Mortazavi, Manuchehr. Zaban-e-Dirin Azerbaijan (On the Old language of Azerbaijan). Bonyad Moqufaat 
Dr. Afshar. 2005(1384). 

We should note that based on Safinaye Tabrizi, Professor. Mortazavi also states that the language of 
Shams Tabrizi was the old Fahlavi dialect of Azerbaijan. Thus the Safinaye Tabriz as well as other sources 
mentioned clearly reflects the fact that Tabriz was an ethnic Iranic speaking cultural town at that era. 
This remarkable text (the actual manuscript) should be in the library of any serious Rumi scholar since it 
gives a complete mirror of the culture of Tabriz at that time and also helps explaining the figure of 
Shams Tabrizi. 

On the name of Tabriz and its districts 



The name of Tabriz in Armenian which has borrowed heavily from Middle Persian and Parthian is 
TavRezh. In modern Persian this is Tabriz. 

According to Britannica 2009: 

"The name Tabriz is said to derive from tap-rlz ("causing heat to flow"), from the many thermal 
springs in the area." ("Tabriz." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
Oct. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/579865/Tabriz>.) 



However, Britannica not always being the most reliable source, further confirmation is needed. The 
Dehkhoda dictionary has explained this name well: 

/jjljp* Oj3 ji) 1 _s^jujuI_>jj «Cjj-ugl9» .jj>«j uS^j^J AJuO 1 _s\j0 -Jjju Ij J9I Qj3 Qj noli _>jJ l _5\JuOjl i-SuSiClJLjkii^j 

«j j9 J» (jo /xa^jIj Oj9 j^) «i£j£juj~\» .cjlaajI cu_^^j (Thavresh) «,jjj^i» 9 (Thavrezh) «jj9J» Ij ol (./> 
^i (Davrezh) «jj9^» 9 (Thavrezh) «jj9J» (./> p^>^\^> Oj9 j^) «oLjl9» .cj^I cu^jj^ (Thavrezh) 

«jj9J» lS^MjjO (/>jlg-^ c lSjj) p^tjj 0_>9 ji j-g-J-U >oL) l5 JuiS,_S\jO -Xjjb (_SUjOjI !-SLd>gjJuO .O-uul 0i_>$ 

(taw cu tap) «9J = <~ r jj» a&s^jka oLiu Ij l^JLoouu iS^j. zqjz^J oLii)/i> l^juojI Ja^ .^9j (Thavrezh) 
jLjiaju Ijjooiaju ^1 ^suj-ojL) i5 jljujj^su) _>Jaj 3j 9 [o- i; *jj = ] (rec) *gj* j\ Jaj (rezh) << jj» u^g,^^ <\j 9 

J_ikiilj (^ISLniil jl Jj3 -XjLh-u 9 ^sOLn-uLn-u sOjgi j\ JjS (_5\jl2j i_sujjJi9 



In the Kurdish language "rizh" is the same as Persian "riz" and "tav" is the same as Persian "tab". Thus 
both forms Tabriz/Tavrezh indeed means "heat flow" and could be related to the volcanic mountains of 
the area. The name seems to be from the Parthian/Sassanid era as it is attested in the Armenian form. 
The Parthian/Sassanids also had influence and control (through Marzabans) in the Caucasus and it is 
possible the name "Tiblis" in Georgia is of the same form, given that the Iranian origin Bagtariads (who 
were Christianized and possibly Armenicized in some areas but Armenian keeping a large number of 
Middle Persian) controlled for a long time. According to some authors, the name Tafrish/Tabres in 
Central Iran could also be related. 

As it is well known, this name had existed well before the linguistic Turkification of Azerbaijan. As the 
name Azerbaijan itself had existed well before its Turkification and goes back all the way to the Persian 
Atropat. 

An important fact is that the two districts of Tabriz mentioned by Shams Tabrizi. They are called 
Surkhab and Charandaab. Both names are Iranian of course. Surkhab means the red water. As per 
Charandaab, the "aab" part is obvious but the "Charaan" part needs further examination. Two possible 
theories are related to the Persian word "Charaan" which means to graze in greenery, and thus as an 
analogue to Surkhab, Charaandaab could mean Green water. Another possibility is that the word is 
related to the Parthian chr which in Middle Persian is chrx (wheel, circle) and the name could mean 
"water circle". Be that it may, the etymology of both words Sorkhab and Charandaab are clearly 



Iranian. It is significant that these two districts are also the oldest district of modern Tabriz and they 
both have Persian names. The fact of the matter is that these two districts are the ones that mentioned 
in the old classical sources and provide another proof of the Iranian linguistic character of the area 
during the time of Shams Tabrizi. 



Shams Tabrizi's work Maqalaat 

The Maqalaat is the main written legacy that we have from Shams Tabrizi. It is a book of Shams oral 
teaching which was written down by Rumi's students, probably his son Sultan Walad. 

According to Lewis: 

"Rumi repeatedly refers to the asrar, or "secrets," of Shams, which may of course refer to his 
oral teachings, but may also designate a written text. If the latter, it represents the name which 
Rumi gave to the collection of Shams' writings. Some manuscripts of these discourses of Shams 
are entitled the Kalemat ("Sayings") or Ma'aref ("Gnostic Wisdom") of Shams. By scholarly 
convention, however, these notes are now generally referred to as the Maqalat, or 
"Discourses", of Shams. This is the title given to them in one partial manuscript of the work, a 
copy in all likelihood written out in the hand of Rumi's son, Sultan Valad; if so, the copy may 
date to the lifetime of Shams. 



A critical edition of Shams' lectures with copious annotation and indices running to slightly over 
1,000 pages was published by Mohammad-'Ali Movahhed in 1990 as Maqalat-e Shams Tabrizi 
(Tehran: Khwarizmi). 



A reading of the Maqalat of Shams will go much further to dispel the myths about the man. 
Shams' writing reveal him to have been a man well versed in the philosophical and theological 
discourse of his day, though something of an iconoclast. The Maqalat reveals Shams as an 
engaging speaker who expressed himself in a Persian both simple and profoundly moving. 
Foruzanfar considered shams' Maqalat one of the true treasures of Persian literature, with a 
depth that required several contemplative rereading. In addition to its own intrinsic value, 
Shams' Maqalat constitutes the single most important primary source (aide from Rumi's own 
writings, of course) for understanding Rumi's spiritual transformation and his teaching"(Franklin 
Lewis,Rumi Past and Present: pp 136-137). 

The Maqalaat shows the everyday language of Shams Tabrizi was Persian and the work itself is in 
informal Persian. Indeed, these lectures were noted and written down by Shams' students: 



"Fortunately, Shams did leave behind a bod of writings or, more precisely, notes taken down by 
his own or Rumi's disciples from lectures of Shams."(Franklin, pg 135) 

The Maqalaat is the main written legacy that we have from Shams Tabrizi. It is a book of Shams oral 
teaching which was written down by Rumi's students, probably his son Sultan Walad. Indeed Shams 
Tabrizi really loved the Persian language as he himself states: 

.Ouuul OJLoLJ iSjU ji J Ouuul OJLol (^juJjU 



Shams Tabrizi of Ismaili origin? Conclusion 

It is well known that Dowlatshah Samarqand (d. 1487) and then Nur Allah Shushtari (d. 1610) and 
several others have claimed that Shams Tabrizi was a descendant of the Persian Ismaili Imams of 
Alamut. This point of view however is rejected by most modern scholars. Early orientalist scholars 
including E.G. Browne have adopted this viewpoint. It may have been possible for Ismailis to do 
Taqqiya after the capture of Alamut and pass themselves as Shafi'ites, but there is currently no 
conclusive proof with this regard. 

Another theory is that Shams ad-din Muhammad was the son of 'AN who was the son of Malikdad 
(Persian word meaning given by the King were Malik is an Arabic loanword and Dad is Persian for given). 
This theory is based on Aflaki (the author of Manaqib al'Arifin which will say more of later) who is also 
always not accepted by scholars in every genealogical detail. 

With regards to Shams Tabrizi we examined the two aspects: cultural and ethnic. From the point of view 
of cultural contribution, the everyday language of Shams Tabrizi was Persian and his oral teaching is 
recorded in Persian. With regards to his ethnic background, he was a speaker Fahlavi Persian dialect as 
mentioned by the word "Buri" in one poem and also the general picture given by the language of Tabriz 
at that time. 

As mentioned during the time of Shams Tabrizi, the people of Tabriz were Shafi'ite Sunnites and spoke 
the Tabrizi Persian dialect. Turks as well as Khorasani and Eastern Iranians (like Pashtuns and Persians 
(Tajiks) of Afghanistan and Tajikistan today) were generally Hanafis. That is while it is very rare for Turks 
to be Shafi'ites in history, Shafi'ism is the common rite in Western Iran and still all Iranian Sunni speakers 
of Western Iran such as Kurds and the Sunni Talysh follow this rite. This however was not the case in say 
Khorasan and Balkh and Central Asia were Hanafism (founded by an Iranian Muslim) was the prevalent 
rite for Iranian and Turkish Muslims of that area. 

The Iranian culture of Tabriz is also fully reflected in the grand manuscript of Safinaye Tabriz. Also the 
fact that Shams Tabrizi is linked to the Ismaili Hassan Sabah or Malikdad shows that he was of Iranian 
background. His pir has also been mentioned as "Seleh-Baaf" which again shows the usage of Persian in 
that area at that time. Unfortunately, some modern scholars do not have enough information on Tabriz 



at that time, but the manuscript of Safinaye Tabriz provides a complete picture of the cultural activity 
and the Sufic mystism and Shafi'l Islam prevalent there. So there is no more execuses (although 
unfortunately some of these scholars have written about the manuscripts without looking at its 
finepoints and confirming it with facts in the manuscript). 

In passing, we would like to mention an interesting point with regards to Rumi and Shams Tabrizi. 
Shams Tabrizi considered the Persian language even sweeter than Arabic: 

,(liuil sAaLu ,_£ jU jj j dull sAaI ( — -ijb^jUj jJ AS '"■»tkt j jjbui jjl AS t/«Jji J °j^^ Oi-V ft^"") BAui ^ lj ifjjlj uW j 

Where-as Rumi considered Arabic sweeter than Persian: 

Hesam al-Din Chelebi and other Rumi companions 

Hesam al-Din Chelebi was Rumi's favorite student and Rumi designated him as his successor. His 
background is clearly Kurdish as mentioned by several sources. 

According to Franklin: "Rumi traces Hosam al-Din's descent through a famous but uneducated mystic, 
Abu al-Vafa Kordi (d. 1107). This would mean Hosam al-Din had some Kurdish blood, which makes 
perfect sense, since Rumi describes his family as hailing from Urmia in Northwestern lran"(pg 215-216). 

His full name is also given as Hosam al-Din Hasan the son of Muhammad the son of Hassan(Badi' al- 
Zaman Foruzanfar, Sharh-e ahval va naqd va tahlil-e asar-e Shaykh Farid al-Din Mohammad-e 'Attar-e 
Nayshaburi, Tehran, Tehran University Press, 1139-40, reprinted by Zavvar publisher, 1382. (FB)) 

Thus we note that Shaykh Abu al-Vafa Kordi was born even prior to the Seljuq takeover of Urmia from 
local Kurdish and Daylamite dynasties. 

This is also mentioned by Turkish authors: 

"Husam al-Din Chelebi's grandfather was a great saint, Shaykh Taj al-Din Abu al-Wafa, who was Kurdish 
and died in Baghdad in 1107. Although this great saint was illiterate, he was a Gnostic. Some members 
of the community who only valued education levels, high positions, wealth, and physical appearances 
asked him to preach to them in order to embarrass this great saint. Shaykh Abu al-Wafa al-Kurdi 
replied: "God willing, I shall preach tomorrow. Be present." The night he supplicated sincerely to God, 
performed the ritual prayer, and went to bed. In his dream he saw the Prophet of Islam. The Prophet 
gave good news to this illiterate Kurdish saint: "God manifested Himself to him through his name 'Alim 
(All knowing) and Hakim (All-Wise).". The next day when he sat on the Kursi, or chair, to begin his 
sermon in the mosque, his first sentence was: "/ slept as a Kurd at night and got up as an Arab in the 
morning"{ Sefik Can, M. Fethullah Gulen, Zeki Saritoprak, "Fundamental of Rumi's Thought: A Mevlevi 
Sufi Perspective", Tughra; Second edition edition (December 1, 2005). Pp 78) 



This is mentioned by Aflaki as well: 

"The feats of the Bayazid of the age, the Jonayd of the era, key to the treasuries of the Celestial Throne 
('arsh), custodian of the treasure of the earth's surface (farsh), Friend of God on earth (ard), performer 
of customary practices and religious duty (fard), intercessor for the supporters on the Day of Review 
('ard), Hosam al-Haqq va'l Din b. Hasan b. Mohammad b. al-Hasan b. Akhi Tork, who associated himself 
with the revered Shaykh [Mowlana], saying: "I went to bed a Kurd and I woke up an Arab". God be 
pleased with him and his ancestors and how excellent his descendants!(Shams al-Din Aflaki, "The feats 
of the knowers of God: Manaqeb al-'areffn", translated by John O'Kane, Brill, 2002.) (hence forth 
referred to as Aflaki) 

Note, the translator (John O'Kane) has put [Mowlana] in brackets, where-as the revered Shaykh is 
probably Shaykh Abu al-Vafa Kordi and not Mowlana. 

And Rumi also calls him from Urmia and of Kurdish descent in the introduction of the Masnavi: 

lo>c i »>.(ol 9 Ij^>$ 

Some might point to the curious title "Akhi Tork" (mentioned by several scholar), for Mohammad, the 
actual name of Hosam al-Din's father. However, in Persian script, like in Arabic, the short vowels are 
not written and diacritic signs are used to clarify when required. 

We should first mention that this is a title and not the actual name of Mohammad. Nevertheless going 
with the opinion of scholars of Rumi, why was he given such a title? 

According to Sefik Can, M. Fethullah Gulen, Zeki Saritoprak, "Since Husam al-Din's father was the head 
of Akhi group living in and around Konya, he was called "Akhi Turk", (pg 78) 

The Akhi groups were fraternal brotherhoods and it seems Hosam al-Din's father was the head of one of 
these guilds in Konya. Ibn Battuta (13 th century) connects the word with Arabic "my brother" while 
other sources have connected the word with the Uighyur "generous". In our opinion, since the guilds 
were a sort of brotherhood, and since the members of these groups addressed their leader as "Akhi" 
(my brotherhood), probably the Arabic term makes more sense. Such guilds are not seen at the time in 
Cenral Asia but they are in Iran and Anatolia. Be that it may, accoring to Franklin: "These brotherhoods, 
with their code of civic virtue and mercantile morality, but which also exhibited features of a militia or a 
mafia-like gang, constituted a king of alternative to the Sufi orders and their focus on ascetic and Gnostic 
spirituality". (pg 216). 

Thus it is likely given the location of Konya, the title "Akhi Turk" (my brother Turk) was adopted by 
Mohammad (Hosam al-Din's father) and thus Hosam al-Din was also given the title Ibn Akhi-Tork (the 
son of Akhi-Tork). However as mentioned, a title cannot be used to resolve this matter. A clear 



indicator of Hosam al-Din's Kurdish background can be ascertained by the fact that Hosam al-Din was 
also a Shafi'ite Sunni. 

According to Franklin: "Aflaki reports that Hosam al-Din, like Shams of Tabriz, followed the rites of the 
Shafe'l school of Islamic law. One day Hosam al-Din said that he wished to convert to the Hanafi creed, 
"because our mster of the Hanafi creed". Rumi told him that it would better to keep his own creed and 
simply to follow the mystical teachins of Rumi and guide the people to his creed of love" (pg 226) 

Overall, most of the Iranians from Central Asia and Khorasan were Hanafis however the majority of 
Iranians from Western Iran (like Shams Tabrizi, the city of Tabriz before Safavids, Suhrawardi, Shaykh 
Mahmud Shabistari, , Kurds, Sunni Talysh and Hosam al-Din) were Shafi'ites. However, when it comes to 
Turkic Sunni Muslims, they were uniformly and overwhelmingly (not just majority but overwhelmingly 
and uniformly) were Hanafis (an exception is in the Caucasus were in the Northern Caucasus some tribes 
were converted to Shafi'ism in a much later period than that of Rumi). Here are some statements with 
this regard. 

"The Turkmens who entered Anatolia no doubt brought with them vestiges of the pre-lslamic inner 
Asian shamanistic past but eventually became in considerable measure firm adherents of the near- 
universal Islamic madhab for the Turks, the Hanafi one"(Mohamed Taher, "Encyclopedic Survey of 
Islamic Culture", Anmol Publication PVT, 1998. Turkey: Pg 983). 

Another testament to this is from traveler Ibn Batuttah who lived in the 14 th century. On Turks, he 
provides some description of their religion: "..After eating their food, they drink the yogurt/milk of mare 
called Qumiz. The Turks are followers of Hanafism and consider eating Nabidh (Alcoholic beverage) as 
Halal (lawful in Islam). "(Ibn Batuttah, translated by Dr. AN Muvahid, Tehran, Bongaah Publishers, 1969). 



"There have sometimes been forcible and wholesale removals from one "rite" to another, generally for 
political reasons; as when the Ottoman Turks, having gained power in Iraq and the Hijaz in the sixteenth 
century, compelled the Shafi'ite Qadis either to change to the Hanafi "rite" to which they (the Turks) 
belonged, or to relinquish office."(Reuben Levy, "Social Structure of Islam", Taylor and Francis, 2000. Pg 
183). 

"Hanafism was founded by a Persian, Imam Abu Hanifa, who was a student of Imam Ja'far Al-Sadeq, ... 
His school held great attraction from the beginning for Turks as well as Muslims of the Indian 
subcontinent. Today the Hanafi school has the largest number of follows in the Sunni world, including 
most Sunni Turks, the Turkic people of Caucasus, and Central Asia, European Muslims, and the Muslims 
of Indian subcontinent "(Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity". 
HarperColins, 2004. Pg 68). 



"On the other hand, because the Turkish rulers were so devoted to Islamic beliefs, they had accepted 
Hanafism with a great vigor and conviction"(Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's , Early Mystics in Turkish 
Literature, Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 8). 

This is still the case today in modern Turkey: 

"Unlike the Sunni Turks, who follow the Hanafi school of Islamic law, the Sunni Kurds follow the Shafi'i 
school"(Federal Research Div Staff, Turkey: A Country Study, Kessinger Publishers, 2004. pg 141). 

Thus we believe both the Shafi'ism whom all Sunni Kurds follow (where-as all Sunni Turks follow 
Hanafism like all Sunni Tajiks (Iranians) of Central Asia and Afghanistan) as well as the various 
testaments to the Kurdish ancestry of Hosam al-Din (whose ancestry goes back before the Seljuq era in 
the area) are sufficient that Hosam al-Din was also Kurdish (and hence Iranian in the ethno-linguistic 
sense). 

On two other Rumi companions,for example Fereydun Sepahsalar and Salah al-Din Zarkub, there is not 
enough information although we believe these were also among the Iranian refugees that fled to Konya. 
Fereydun Sepahsalar is a pure Persian name and Sahal al-Din Zarkub has the title "Zarkub" as a trade. 
However there is not sufficient detail with this regard. Based on examination of Aflaki though, it is our 
opinion that for example Salah al-Din Zarkub was Persian (or possibly Kurdish). This is illustrated by this 
anectode: 

[23] Likewise, it is a well-known story that one day Shaykh Salah al-Din happened to 
hire Turkish laborers to do building work in his garden. Mowlana said: 'Effendi' — that 
is to say lord — ' Salah al-Din, when it is time for building, one must engage Greek 
laborers and when it is time for destroying something, Turkish hirelings. Indeed, the 
building of the world is assigned to the Greeks, whereas the world's destruction is 
reserved for the Turks. When God — He is sublime and exalted — ordered the creation of 
the world of sovereignty ('alam-e molk'), first He created unaware-infidels, and He 
conferred on them long life and great strength so they would strive like hired laborers in 
building the terrestrial world. And they built up many cities and fortresses on mountain 
peaks and places on top of a hill such that after generations had passed these 
constructions were a model for those who came later. Then divine predestination saw to 
it that little by little these constructions would become completely destroyed and 
desolate, and be eradicated. God created the group of Turks so that they would destroy 
every building they saw, mercilessly and ruthlessly, and cause it to be demolished. And 
they are still doing so, and day by day until the Resurrection they will continue to destroy 
in this manner. In the end, the destruction of the city of Konya will also be at the hands 
of wicked Turks devoid of mercy.' And this being the case, it turned out just as Mowlana 
said, (pg 503) 



Now this anectode from Aflaki makes it fairly clear that neither Rumi nor Salah al-Din were Turks and 
felt any Turkishness. Such disparaging remarks would be unthinkable even assuming its hagiographic 
nature if any of these two characters were Turkish. We shall examine Aflaki in this own section. 

Baha al-Din Walad and Rumi's parents 

Genealogy of Rumi's parents 

Rumi's father Baha al-Din Mohammad Walad was an important mystic and scholar in his own right. The 
most widely acknowledged study on him is that of Fritz Meier. 

According to Franklin: 

"Among German scholars who have devoted their attention to Sufism, the systematic and 
exacting standards of Hellmut Ritter, Fritz Meier, Richard Gamlich and J.C. Burgel are truly 
admirable. Consider, for example, the Swiss scholar Fritz Meier's (1912-9) work on Baha al-Din 
Valad, Baha-I Walad: Gundzuge seins Lebens und seiner Mystic (Leiden: Brill, 1989), running to 
over 450 pages. Meier has done more than any other single Person in the West to clarify the 
biographical details and theology of Rumi's father and thereby, Rumi himself. Meier's thorough 
and precise study provides an amazing mine of carefully research and carefully considered 
information, as well as a wealth of insightful analysis about Rumi's family and their area of 
operation" (Rumi: Past Present, east and West, pp 540-541). 



According to Schimmel: 

"In recent years, the most important publication concerning Rumi's background is the 
voluminous book by the indefatigable Swiss scholar Fritz Meier, Bahad-I Walad (Leiden, 1989). 
This book, the result of painstaking analysis of the life and work of Maulana's father, finally 
offers reliable about Maulana's early days. Meier's finding requires changes of the first pages of 
our book. To sum up: Baha-I Walad did not live in Balkh itself but in a small place north of the 
Oxus (present-day Tajikistan) by the name of Wakhsh, which was the under the administration 
of Balkh. (That his son stated to have come from Balkh would correspond to modern American's 
claim to hail from New York while he might have been born and raised in a small town in upstate 
Ney York or in Long Island." (Schimmel, Annemarie. "The Triumphal Sun. A Study of the 
Works of Jalaloddin Rumi". Albany: SUNY Press, 1993. xiv) 



According to Lewis: 

"Baha al-Din's father, Hosayn, had been a religious scholar with a bent for asceticism, occupied 
like his own father before him, Ahmad, with the family profession of preacher (khatib). Of the 
four canonical schools of Sunni Islam, the family adhered to the relatively liberal Hanafi rite. 
Hosayn-e Khatibi enjoyed such renown in his youth - so says Aflaki with characteristic 
exaggeration - that Razi al-Din Nayshapuri and other famous scholars came to study with him 
(Af 9; for the legend about Baha al-Din, see below, "The Mythical Baha al-Din"). Another report 



indicates that Baha al-Din's grandfather, Ahmad al-Khatibi, was born to Ferdows Khatun, a 
daughter of the reputed Hanafite jurist and author Shams al-A'emma Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, who 
died circa 1088 (Af 75; FB 6 n.4; Mei 74 n. 17). This is far from implausible and , if true, would 
tend to suggest that Ahmad al-Khatabi had studied under Shams al-A'emma. Prior to that the 
family could supposedly trace its roots back to Isfahan. We do not learn the name of Baha al- 
Din's mother in the sources, only that he referred to her as "Mama" (Mami), and that she 
lived to the 1200s."(pg 44) 

Finally according to Fritz Meyer himself (we did not have access to the German and have used the 
professional Persian translation by Maryam Musharraf): 

ji o£ CaS_>jjo jLoouj 3j O Lg 6 ..o I Og.ii.ilry jl -XjLjuj — (jlLkSilgjli* ^-jjA — ,_y. ij lr> <Sj 0I9JLC Qj 9 igj i_?jijs* Lpj 
(50 Oa^s) .JJuLiujb ,_s^jcx£jo /3^P-<jj 12/6 9 11/5 OjS ji l^iSSLdi 9 <_SAjjjlo iSl^+sUs* CiLjo oLcjLuo 



i9J- i^ljuoJ Lpj 0il9jL> .Cj_hjjI oLgo.^1 J^l ^_^JLis> uLoJLc jl i-Sl&ilgjli* p\j jglib ^ 0_njjli fi\j "i_^ ;.; It>" Lpj Oilgjli* 
,j-yxd> u lj gl j^jJ L _yoij9JaJLuj ^jjJljuj u (jjjjiLo l_>jj igj Lpj i_»JLl jjuuy ^_sJsu> Qj jjg .JJJjl_uu_>jja jSj9jI 3jLi-L> 3j lj 

(448 a^xSL*£>) .O-ujI OJjI^iejja t _s^joLo u ,_svjolo Ij^i* jiLo ^jj Lpj .-LoOUjjO /)U 

Thus Fritz Meier suggests that the family's genealogy goes back to Isfahan and more specifically to the 
Khatibi scholars of the Hanafi rite. At the same time, he states that the family claimed descent from Abu 
Bakr (although he does not specify in our Persian translation when such a claim was made?). However 
the Encyclopedia Iranica article by H. Algar as well as the Encyclopedia of Islam on Rumi discounts this 
claim. 

According to the Encyclopedia of Islam 

DJalal al- Din Rum! b. Baha al-DIn Sultan al- ulama' Walad b. Husayn b. Ahmad KhatTbT , 
known by the sobriquet Mawlana (Mevlana), Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order 
of dervishes, which was named after him, was born on Rabl' I 604/30 September 1207 in Balkh, 
and died on 5 Djumada II 672/1273 in Konya. The reasons put forward against the above- 
mentioned date of birth (Abdulbaki Gblpmarh, Mevlana CelaleddTn 3, 44; idem, Mevlana Sams-i 
Tabriz? ile altmis iki yasmda bulustu, in Sarkiyat Mecmuasi, iii, 153-61; and Bir yazi iizerine, in 
Tarih Cografya Dtinyasi, ii/12, 1959, 468) are not valid. His father, whose sermons have been 
preserved and printed ( Ma'arif . Madjmu'a-i mawa'iz wa sukhanan-i Sultan al-'ulama' Baha' 
Din Muhammad b. Husayn-i KhatTbT-i BalkhT mashhur ba-Baha'-i Walad , ed. Badl' al-Zaman 
Furuzanfarr, Tehran 1333), was a preacher in BalkhLThe assertions that his family tree goes 
back to Abu Bakr, and that his mother was a daughter of the Khwarizmshah Ala al-DIn 
Muhammad (AflakT, i, 8-9) do not hold on closer examination (B. Furuzanfarr, Mawlana Djalal 
Din , Tehran 1315, 7; AITnakTSharTatmadarT, Nakd-i matn-i mathnawT, in Yaghrna , xii (1338), 
164; Ahmad AflakT, Ariflerin menkibeleri, trans. Tahsin Yazici, Ankara 1953, i, Onsbz, 44). 

(Ritter, H.; Bausani, A. "DJalal al- Din Rum! b. Baha' al-DIn Sultan al-'ulama' Walad b. Husayn b. Ahmad 
KhatTbT ." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel 



and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online. Excerpt: "known by the sobriquet Mawlana (Mevlana), 
Persian poet and founder of the Mawlawiyya order of dervishes") 

According to the Encyclopedia Iranica: 

BAHA -AL-DIN MOHAMMAD WALAD B. HOSAYN B. AHMAD KATIB BALKI 

(546-628/1151-1231), father of Mawlana Jalal-al-DTn Rum! (q.v.), the great Sufi poet and 
eponym of the Mevlevi order, with reference to whom he became posthumously known 
as Mawldnd-ye bozorg (the elder Mawlana). In his lifetime he was generally known as 
Baha-e Walad, and often referred to in addition by the title soltan al- 'olama ' (king of 
the scholars). According to his grandson, Soltan Walad (d. 632/1235), the title originated 
with a dream seen on the same night by all the muftis of Balk in which the Prophet 
himself designated Baha-al-DTn as soltan al- olama ; when they awoke, they hastened to 
pay homage to him (Walad-ndma, ed. J. Homa'T, Tehran, 1315 S./1936, p. 188; see also 
FerTdun Sepahsalar, Resdla-ye Sepahsdldr, Kanpur, 1319/1910, p. 7 and Sams-al-Dln 
Ahmad Afiakl, Mandqeb al-'arefin, ed. T. Yazici, Ankara, 1959, 1, p. 7). Baha-e Walad 
himself records that the title soltan al- 'olama ' was given him in a dream by an old man 
of luminous visage, and thereafter he insisted on using the title when signing the fatwds 
he issued (Ma'aref, ed. B. Foruzanfar, Tehran, 1333 S./1954, 1, pp. 188-89). 

Baha'-e Walad says that he was approaching the age of 55 on 1 Ramazan 600/3 March 
1203 (Ma drefl, p. 354); he must therefore have been born in 546/1 151-52. His father 
was a scholar and ascetic of great eminence in Balk, the offspring of a family that had 
been settled in Khorasan for many generations. According to many writers, they were 
descended from the caliph Abu Bakr (Resdla-ye Sepahsdldr, p. 6; Mandqeb al- drefin I, 
p. 7; J ami, Nafahdt, p. 457). Sepahsalar does not provide a complete genealogy and the 
six, seven, or eight generations mentioned by other authors are clearly too few to bridge 
the six centuries that elapsed between Abu Bakr and Baha'-e Walad (see B. Foruzanfar, 
Resdla dor tahqiq-e ahwdl wa zendagdril-e Mawlana Jaldl-al-Din Mohammad, Tehran, 
1315 S./1936, p. 4). The two lines found in some copies of the Walad-ndma that attribute 
Bakri descent to Baha'-e Walad were probably inserted in the text by a copyist (see A. 
Golpinarh's footnote to his translation of Walad-ndma under the title Ibtida-name, 
Ankara, 1976, p. 237). There is no reference to such descent in the works of Baha'-e 
Walad and Mawlana Jalal-al-DTn or in the inscriptions on their sarcophagi. The 
attribution may have arisen from confusion between the caliph and another Abu 
Bakr, Sams-al-A emma Abu Bakr SaraksT (d. 483/1090), the well-known Hanafite 
jurist, whose daughter, Ferdows Katun, was the mother of Ahmad Katlb, Baha'-e 
Walad's grandfather (see Foruzanfar, Resdla, p. 6). 

Tradition also links Baha'-e Walad's lineage to the K v arazmsah dynasty. His mother 
is said to have been the daughter of Ala'-al-Dln Mohammad K v arazmsah (d. 
596/1200), but this appears to be excluded for chronological reasons (Foruzanfar, 
Resala, p. 7). (H. Algar, "BAHA'-AL-DIN MOHAMMAD WALAD " , Encyclopedia Iranica) 

Franklin touches upon this point in the section "The Mythical Baha al-Din" (pp 90-91) of his book: 



"The persistence of a community of individuals residing physically in the shrine of a saint and the 
schools and hospices that sometimes grew up around them, as well as the spread of an order 
promulgating esoteric teachings and a reverential attitude towards its founding fathers, 
naturally tend to create a legendary even miraculous vita for them. Sultan Valad himself already 
contributed to this super naturalizing tendency in his "Book of Beginnings" (Ebdeta Nama), in 
which he compares Baha al-Din to the famous Sufis of the past. This naturally leads him to 
describe his grandfather's life according to the expectations of the hagiographical genre. 

Because his pupil, Borhan al-Din, and his son, Jalal al-Din Rumi, provide precious little 
information about Baha al-Din, the brief account by Sultan Valad (SVE 187-93) offers the earliest 
coherent portrait of him. The halo of holiness which already obscures Baha al-Din the man in his 
grandson's account shines even more blindingly in the chronicle of Sepahsalar (Sep 10-21) and 
in the "Acts of the Gnostics" by Ahmad Aflakii (Af 7-55). Later writes, such as Jami, Dowlatshah 
and Amin Ahmad Razi, whether committed or not to the perpetuation of a mythic image of Baha 
al-Din and Jalal al-Din, effectively reinforced or enhanced the popular and miraculous reputation 
of their subjects by repeating the tale of the earlier "biographers." For decades scholars, relying 
rather too credulously on these accounts, have likewise repeated these legends, lending them 
an air of respectability. 

The outstanding feature in the hagiographer's mythical portrait of Baha al-Din in his fame as a 
theologian and scholar of religious law. Though Baha al-Din may indeed have achieved some 
reputation in Vakhsh or even Balkh or Samarqand, he did not enjoy wider renown as a religious 
scholar or public figure, as I have been at pains to show. No mention of Baha al-Din Valad has 
turned up in the sources contemporary to him, such a biographical dictionaries or the works of 
other religious scholars such as Fakhr al-Din Razi. Much later sources describe him only in 
relation to his famous son, not as an independent figure. Baha al-Din's own writing, Ma'rif, 
were never disseminated to a wider audience in the medieval period and he could not, 
therefore have been famous as an author. 

Baha al-Din's disciples also traced his family lineage to the first caliph, Abu Bakr (Sep 9; Af 7; JNO 
457; Dow 213). This probably stems from willful confusion over his paternal great grandmother, 
who was the daughter of Abu Bakr of Sarakhs, a noted jurist (d. 1090). The most complete 
genealogy offered for family only stretches back six or seven generations and cannot possibly 
reach to Abu Bakr, the companion and first caliph of the Prophet, who died two years after the 
Prophet, in A.D. 634 (FB 5-6 n.3). One would furthermore expect descent from Abu Bakr, were 
it part of the family lore during the lifetime of Baha al-Din, to be a source of pride and 
professional authority, yet there is no mention of this in the writings of Baha al-Din or Jalal al- 
Din Rumi, nor do the inscriptions on their sarcophagi mention it. Mention of this supposed 
lineage does turn up in some manuscripts of our earliest biographical source, Sultan Valad's 
Ebteda Name (SVE 187), but Golpinarli speculated that a later copyist interpolated these 
remarks on the basis of Aflaki (AF 8) or Sepahsalar (Sep 9). Whether or not this is so, we have 
seen how Sultan Valad errs or ignores a great many facts about his grandfather. 



Ahmad Aflaki (Af 7-9) makes the claim that Baha al-Din's mother was the daughter of 'Ala al-Din 
Mohammad Khwarazmshah (r. 1200 - 1220), described as "the paternal uncle" of Jalal al-Din 
Khwarazmshah. Jami repeats this (JNO 458), but the chronology is impossible (FB 7), and in any 
case , the portrait of her that emerges from Baha al-Din's comments does not square with a 
royal lineage (Mei 45). Furthermore, the association of religious figures with royalty in the 
Iranian hagiographical tradition (e.g., the intermarriage of the last Sassanian princess with the 
'Alid family) is typological and must therefore be viewed with extreme skepticism. 

The hagiographers likewise assert spiritual descent from famous Sufis for Baha al-Din. Aflaki 
(998) and Sepahsalar (9) link him, through his grandfather, with Ahmad Ghazzali (d. 1126), 
younger brother of the more famous Abu Hamed Ghazzali, and Jami (JNO 457) relays the 
suggestion that Baha al-Din may have been a disciple of the great Najm al-Din Kobra (d. 1220). 
Neither attribution is corroborated, explicitly or implicitly, in the writings of Baha al-Din, Rumi 
or Sultan Valad; this fact, in itself, almost certainly negates the possibility. The meeting with 
'Attar has been dealt with above, along with the miraculous dream about the title "Sultan al- 
ulama". Through the main contours of this legendary image of Baha al-Din disoolve like a 
mirage under close scrutiny, the picture which emerges from the Ma'aref, of a visionary, God- 
intoxicated mystic who achieved wider recognition only in his seventies, is no less remarkable." 
(Lewis, 90-92) 

So what do we know from all these data? We only know with certainty that Rumi's great Grandfather 
was Ahmad Khatibi. The claim descent from Abu Bakr the companion of the Prophet Muhammad 
(SAW) is dismissed by modern scholars and is seen as a later development in the history of the sect. The 
claim descent of Rumi's mother or Baha al-Din's mother to the Khwarzmshah is also dismissed by 
scholars due to impossibility and chronological reasons. Obviously to claim descent from royalty or the 
companion of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) by later followers of the sect would be a cause of 
prestige. Then also there is the claim of Baha al-Din Walad's family going back to the Khatibun Hanafi 
scholars of Isfahan. 

Thus we do not have the most exact account and are left clueless on Rumi's father-line beyond Ahmad 
Khatibi. However the native language of Baha al-Din Walad is sufficient to show that the family's native 
language was Persian and hence they were Persian. We did not expect in the beginning to be able to 
trace Baha al-Din Walad's ancestry to Darius the Great. However the native sedentary populations of 
towns such as Sarakhs, Isfahan, Balkh, Vakhsh and etc. were Persians and the incoming Turkish nomads 
were either Iranicized or had tribal associations, none of it seen in Rumi or Baha al-Din's work. Thus we 
must concentrate on culture again and in this case we examine the language of Balkh, Vakhsh and also 
the work of Baha al-Din Walad. 

On Vakhsh and Balkh and the languages of these areas 

Annemarie Schimmel, "I Am Wind, You Are Fire," p. 11. She refers to an (1989) article by the German 
scholar, Fritz Meier: "Afghan and Persian admirers still prefer to call Jalaluddin 'Balkhi' because his 
family lived in Balkh before migrating westward. However, their home was not in the actual city of 
Balkh, since the mid-eighth century a center of Muslim culture in Khorasan (now Afghanistan). Rather, 



as the Swiss scholar Fritz Meier has shown, it was in the small town of Wakhsh north of the Oxus that 
Baha'uddin Walad, Jalaluddin's father, lived and worked as a jurist and preacher with mystical 
inclinations." 

Franklin Lewis, "Rumi-Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jalal al-Din 
Rumi," 2000, paperback 2003, pp. 47-49. Professor Lewis has devoted two full pages of his book to the 
topic of Wakhsh, which he states has been identified with the medieval town of Lewkand (or Lavakand) 
or Sangtude, which is about 65 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe, the capital of present-day Tajikistan. 
He says it is on the east bank of the Vakhshab River, a major tributary that joins the Amu Darya River 
(also called Jayhun, and named the Oxus by the Greeks). He further states: 

"Baha al-Din may have been born in Balkh, but at least between June 1204 and 1210 (Shavval 600 and 
607), during which time Rumi was born, Baha al-Din resided in a house in Vaksh (Bah 2:143 [= Baha' 
uddTn Walad's book, "Ma'arif." See translation below-note inserted here by Ibrahim Gamard]). Vakhsh, 
rather than Balkh, was the permanent base of Baha al-Din and his family until Rumi was around five 
years old (mei 16-35) [= from a book in German by the scholar Fritz Meier-note inserted here]. At that 
time, in about the year 1212 (A.H. 608-9), the Valads moved to Samarqand (Fih 333; Mei 29-30, 36) [= 
reference to Rumi's "Discourses" and to Fritz Meier's book-note inserted here], leaving behind Baa al- 
Din's mother, who must have been at least seventy-five years old." 

Thus modern scholarship is unsure of the birth place of Baha al-Din, but has very much agreed that the 
birth of Rumi in Vakhsh (Tajikistan). Traditional hagiography had indicated Balkh near Mazar-i Sharif in 
modern Afghanistan as the birth place of Rumi. Two explanations that are given is that: 1) Balkh was 
province rather than a city and Wakhsh was under Balkh's administration; 2) Baha al-Din was born in 
Balkh or was from Balkh, but he has moved to Vakhsh to be the local religious preacher of the area. 

In general the two areas are close and the language of the urban centers was Persian and could not have 
been different. And Vakhsh itself was considered as part of Balkh province at that time. Before the 
advent of Islam, Eastern Iranian languages were dominant in Central Asia. 

According C.E. Bosworth, "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia under the Umayyads and the 
establishment of Islam", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 
750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by 
M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1998. Excerpt from 
page 23: "Central Asia in the early seventh century was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose 
people used various Middle Iranian languages. 

C. Edmund Bosworth: "In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of 
Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama of Ferdowsi is 
regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the 
Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind 
them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan"). Turan thus became both an ethnic and a 
geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all 
through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus and along its lower reaches were the 
homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians."( C.E. Bosworth, 
"Central Asia: The Islamic period up to the Mongols" in Encyclopedia Iranica). 



In addition to Sogdians and Khwarezmians, we may also add Hephtalites whom modern science 
considers Eastern Iranian (50-60 years ago various theories were floated around about Hephtalites) but 
modern has shown based on detailed etymological analysis that they were also Eastern Iranians. 

Xavier Tremblay Pour une histore de la Serinde. Le manicheisme parmi les peoples et religions d'Asie 
Centrale d'apres les sources primaire, Vienna, 2001, Appendix D «Notes Sur L'Origine Des Hephtalites" 

http://web.archive.org/web/20070226024844/www.azargoshnasp.net/historv/Hephtalites/hephtalitetremblay.pdf 

or 

B.A. Livinsky, "The Hephthalites" in History of Civilizations of Central Asia - Vol. 3. South Asia Books; 1 
edition (March 1999). pg 135 

We should note that Muslim writers have confused Altaic speaking Turks with some Iranian peoples like 
Sogdians, Hephtalites, Alans and also even Tibetians, Chinese and Mongols. 

After the Arab invasion of Persia, large numbers of Persian speakers were brought to Central Asia and 
surprisingly, the Arab invasion strengthened Persian in Central Asia at the cost of other East Iranian 
languages. According to FOUCHECOUR: 

"Another factor in the evolution of Middle Persian to Persian was the geographical spread of this 
language in the wake of the Arab conquest. Following the path of the Arab invasion, Persian spread from 
its own heartlands to Central Asia (Transoxania). For their conquests, the Arabs enlisted indigenous 
peoples in their armies. These local populations did not speak a standardized Persian and in many cases 
did not even use Persian among themselves. Nevertheless, the Persian of the time served as a lingua 
franca for these enlisted men. They were to spread this new version in the conquered provinces, from 
Azerbaijan to Central Asia, to the detriment of other Iranian languages or other dialects of Persian. Such 
was the case of Sogdian, a language belonging to an age-old culture that was largely engulfed by 
Persian. Thus Persian became, in due course, the court language of the first semi-independent Muslim 
principalities, most notably those founded in the Greater Khorasan."(CHARLES-HENRI DE FOUCHECOUR, 
"Iran: Classical Persian literature" in Encyclopedia Iranica) 

Thus, after Islam took hold, the new Persian language which was a continuation of Khorasani dialect of 
Middle Persian with admixture of Sogdian, Bactrian and other East Iranian languages and influenced by 
Arabic vocabulary became predominant in the region. Especially after the rise of the Samanid dynasty, 
Persian slowly absorbed Soghdian and Chorasmian language regions. 

During Baha al-Din's time, Balkh was still a Persian speaking region. For a clear example of this, we refer 
to the book Zhakhira Khwarizmshahi. The Zakhira Khwarizmshahi ("Treasures dedicated to the king of 
Khwarazm") is a Persian medical Encyclopedia written by the Persian scholar Sayyid Zayn al-Din Isma'il 
al-Husayni al-Jurjani (Gorgani) (1040-1136 A.D.). 

The Dehkhoda dictionary under Balkh makes a reference to the Zakhira Khwarizmshahi and states: 



^9juj v^q> Lji.uo j j ly>- o>c>-i ji {jpSXfjS cIjuum 9 <j^s*Jj u**rO 'V £9^J -JLil co>£ ^jo 

Looking in the actual manuscript of Zakhira Khwarizmi(available in Tehran University library and 
University of Chicago among other major universities of the world), this was found: 

,_s\jo jL) o-^- 1 9 ^SjJ 9>5 j9^ Cj-nii^S q lo mi jl l_sv$ i$j L>jiuj (_s^i«Jj o-^j ■ *^l £^Lc 9 ij o eJb \j**Jj jl* 

jAjl {Jjjli.j i>j' 9 ^!W s^ i_sv (_S^ Jukiilj 9 ^>9j sjj u ,_so -\_jkiiu 9 ijl 1 _s^jujlc ,_sv5 -\_ni1L1 9 ^9j oULa> u 9 :>9_»ii 

ul guj J.&I 9 ^>9j jLj-oj jjj ul » >iin>3 JoLij cu 9 Jjjcp 1 _s\jsJj u-^J *-»■»-"< G J -'' J Lyl 9 -i-«'l-' >j-«->.»-jj £M-i i_S v ^'l9 J 

Thus the book provides everyday usage of the Balkhi-Persian dialect in the region. 

Other historical attestations clearly state that Balkh was a Persian speaking region and had the best form 
of Dari-Persian. In the Darab Nama of Tartusi, it mentions that the language of Balkh Dari: 

:o_mjl 6Juol ( ■ 1 6 si cUJi Q-iji ojj-j-*j9^j) ..s^-njjgJojJo ^joU <->U^ vL*^ ji JjLttjo ji 

ci5 ^ 9 gjj uLo^jjo _pLo -\_ijl9iu o^rt-^ '-^fH <-Sji hoi U JuL&lg^- GLp-> 3jo^ 9 «,"» ,»>)l^ <_Sj.i hoi i_>jo ul g» 

«^j9joLj gJj J^l oL)j 

Translation: "And that man had the Dari language, and the entire world wants to know have the Dari 
language, however they cannot do this except the people of Balkh and whoever learns the language of 
the people of Balkh". 

Ibn Nadeem (d. 995 or 998 A.D.) also in his al-Fihrist mentions 

JjgLpJ 0L09 oIjjxd>9 <-S>Jl9 olg-sLol ,_s\^9 uIaJj q_..»j.oJ> ,_svJLc gib /xj-uI al$3 ^jJJ i_>9 J - u - iu0 ^ ^j^JL^fiJI LoL9 

vUl 6>-oL> ,_sJJ ^j9j-oJuO ,_?Ji>$ dLLoJI vU? i>° P^^f u ^ L^9 O^l-^l UJu0 *^9 cLijjJI L0I9 ubejjjilg 

sloJLdlg OJjIgjoJI L^j /xKi9 ^j-h-ujLoJI L0I9 gJj J-fiil OzJUl 9 Jjj^iuoJIg uL-ul^ Jj3>I <iaJ 0^0 L^JLc v-JlaJIg 

<_isJJI gJolgjog OgJbJI ,_sv9 iJlj_»ii\Jl9 dlgJLoJI /xiiiJ ul5 IgjS ^jjgiJI L0I9 u-ujL9 J-^' '^ <_S^9 /J^-^Ujiilg 

ljOLjj-oJL) ^aJUl o^ £.9J i_S^ 'UjlSuoJIg ilgj-oJI J^l L^j /xlio OLl9 'UjIj > ji-uJI L0I9 ^j-iiibJI gjog 6JJUI9 

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Lol .O-ujI i_JLc Ouj ul y guu p^>y> CjlzJ 9 i_9>j>-iAjO 9 GLujI_)3- J^il CjlsJ 9 jLiji />^_yO Qj C1*_ujI y-ig-mJUuO 

. -\_1i1L1 i>uj^ J^l fi^>° uhj u\ 9 AJU9S (j-^ 1 ^ uljj oLiul AJjLo 9 LoJLc 9 uIaj9jo l5 CjljujI lJvjoM^ ,_s^juJjL9 

9090^0$ ^9>- c_>j_niiL> 9 OLojaJ Ij oaJ 9 v-iaJ g^l^jo 9 09l> ji ijl_)_niil 9 dlgJLo l5 Cj_«-uI i_sOLij <-Sj9^> Lol 

.(AaJIj y_f^e-iuJ Oljj .^9-uJ >0^_>jO CO Cj_ujI ul l _sOLl_)_iuJ Lol .AJuO 

Translation: And Dari language is the language of Khorasan and the people of the East and the 
vocabulary of the natives of Balkh was dominant in this language, which includes the dialects of the 
eastern peoples. 



Professor. Gilbert Lazard notes : 

The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period (early Islamic times) 
by the name of Dari or Parsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle 
Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old 
Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and 
modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc., 
Old Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. 
It had its origin in Fars (the true Persian country from the historical point of view) and is 
differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north- 
western and eastern Iran in (Lazard, Gilbert 1975, "The Rise of the New Persian Language" in 
Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, pp. 595-632, Cambridge: Cambridge University 
Press.) 

Dari or Modern Persian is really the Khorasani dialect of the Middle Persian language. 

Al-Masudi (d. 956 A.D.) also mentions Dari and states: 

£d>9 JJuji ,_sJI Glo-LJIg Oljlg cUijjOjl i\b ,_sJj Lo ,_sJI Obejjjilg bi^iCg old>loJI ,J-o <JLj=cJI Ld>i\L Is* CU>I ^jjjjAilS 

i\b tjja dJJi x-^9 9>o9 oljjig .jgjLuajJ i_jj5>9 .^g-ni^lg uL>_pr9 Ol^LiJIg ho mnJIg jjJLmjjjJog <-SjJlg vl&J^9 yUl 

OulS i\bJI oAj5> JSg 0J9JI Iaj3> i_s3 /x^-lcMI ^jl { jj3 dJJjj J-^ul log .jlgjiMlg ( jjj J lSg Glo_>Sg G l*juuc*->jjg gLujI_)3- 

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.ijjjjjJI olal tjjo ld>_>jXg cbjiYUg cbjjJIg cbglgjJlS _p»\l| 

U oLo_Lu 9 Oljl 9 c Ui j0 jl j9b*jo b CiL=cjLi_>i>l 9 6_>jX 9 obito jl igj Jbj> jbi GLujgj/sJs 1$ AJigj ,_s*j09S uLjujjb =) 

9 9_>a 9 ol_)j5> 9 0_mjl j9jLiuJ <*$ _^p_iuJ_>jl 9 OlS_>S 9 Ol_>jLuJ 9 ho nlfl 9 GL-juJjjJo 9 l_Sj 9 0_mjl uljjl 9 vb °S Ajjji 

l jj| «0 _>-ioL> OSg ji ^S OLoqtC l jjj5jj_iuj .pji b jlg^l 9 o-^J^ 9 ulo^ 9 OLiljujl<_hjj 9 OLujl_p>- <-Sld>Ou\Jg jSji 
i_S- .nv 1 ji hoQ .igj ,_svSj (^lubj 9 igj <_s\SLj (jjjIoLujib '^9J '-^-LojO dL ld>Ou\lg ^1 i-ScUxcb .i^_jujI Qj-iujgji,) la><^u\Jg 
i_Sld)_^ij?r ji "^ .Pg 0_mjl ^_sSj Obj .J_njjb ,_s^j JJLjuoj9J t _svjo Oljj Ij ubj a£ i_S^9j^" <_^-*S9 l_>Jj ■ Ajjijjj I :> OgloJ obxlS 

.(,_S^-Jujjb i-SbiObj .pji 9 i-Sjil 9 i-Sji 9 i-Sglp,; Og^r i-^jujb 3Ji_iujli OgloJ .pui 



"The Persians are a people whose borders are the Mahat Mountains and Azarbaijan up to Armenia and 
Arran, and Bayleqan and Darband, and Ray and Tabaristan and Masqat and Shabaran and Jorjan and 
Abarshahr, and that is Nishabur, and Herat and Marv and other places in land of Khorasan, and 
Sejistan and Kerman and Fars and Ahvaz...AII these lands were once one kingdom with one sovereign 
and one language.. .although the language differed slightly. The language, however, is one, in that its 
letters are written the same way and used the same way in composition. There are, then, different 
languages such as Pahlavi, Dari, Azari, as well as other Persian languages." 

Thus the Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi and the exact phrase "Zaban-i Balkhi" (The Balkhi language) and 
also the fact that Dari language was associated with Balkh (even the time of Darabnama and al-Fihrist) 
are sufficient proof that the language of everyday people of Balkh was Persian. Today also, the majority 
of the city of Mazar-i Sharif speaks Persian and are Tajiks(Persians). The Turkic minority in the area are 
the Turkmens who were nomadic until recently and the Uzbeks who were not in the area until the Mongol 
invasion and both of these live mainly in the villages around Mazar Sharif (the actual city being mainly 



Tajik). But during the time of Baha al-Din, books like Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi provide sufficient 
proof of the language prevalent language in Balkh and the phrase "Zaban-i Balkhi" in the Dhakhireyeh 
Khwarizmshahi clearly points to the Balkhi languages. 

However as noted, modern scholarship states Rumi was born in Vakhsh, but Vakhsh itself was considered 
part of Balkh at the time. Vakhsh was just part of the regional administration of Balkh and thus when the 
Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi is speaking of "Zaban-i Balkhi", we can state that it is the dialect of the 
region of Balkh in the wider sense (which also includes Vakhsh). Today the inhabitants of Vakhsh are 
also Tajik people and pre-Islamic time, they were likely Sogdians and Hephtalites. The Turkic speakers 
in Tajikistan who make up 10-15% of the population (in 2009) are Uzbeks who were not formed as a 
group in the area until after the Mongol invasion. During the time of Baha al-Din, Vakhsh had 
transitioned from Ghurid rule to that of the Khwarizmdshahi dynasty. The name Vakhsh probably has a 
Sogdian etymology and is related to the word Oxus. Minorsky and other scholars have connected the 
Greek word Oxus (which is pre-Christian) to the word Vakhsh (Hudud al-Alam). At the pre-Christian 
time, the area of Central Asia was Iranian speaking (Eastern Iranian languages) and the fact the name 
Vakhsh and Vakhsab was kept during the time of Rumi shows that a linguistic shift in the area to Turkic 
had not occurred, since the Turkic name for the river is Qizil-Su. The Hodud al-'Alam states about 
Vakhsh (Dehkhoda): 

Cj_«-ul cjj^-Li ,jjI jl _>jJ Ai^9jJ 9 cjj-uI .ij9\L& ol q..^9 9 cilgj i_>Ljjl>9 culj^^ 9 ol^U 

That is its major cities were Halaward and Levkand (or Lawkand). Both names are Soghdian/Fahlavi. 

Although linguistic Turkification of Central Asia, parts of Caucasus and Azerbaijan were always 
favorable to Turks (due to political dominance), it is notable that both Vakhsh and Mazar-i Sharif are still 
predominantly Iranian Tajik speaking even today. 

We will examine Baha al-Din's work (Ma'arif) and show that some rare words of probable East Iranian 
origin are prevalent in the everyday language. 

Thus from this analysis of historical sources (especially Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi and al-Fihrist), we 
can see that the language of Balkh was Persian. The language of Vakhsh in Tajikistan was also Persian as 
shown by the colloquial everyday language of Ma'arif . 

Contribution to Persian culture and Baha al-Din Walad's native language 

We note some very interesting colloquial Persian terms that are rarely used today and possibly have 
Soghdian origin are found in the Ma'rif. The most outstanding of these (in our opinion) from the Ma'ari 
are bolded below: 

ojljj-4Jl£l^Jj -(oJjJja a*jJ) oJjc. jIjj — a lia «j" 'UjIi — <j3j£ 4_Liitj _ (i_£jj) i-£Jj — (jiuSU — 4Jxil — (jbl — oJjS (jj| — jjJjJ 

jj ac) oA) jia. jj — L^ jAi. — (.iijlAi) SJJjLi/ JjjLi — (-iJJJ J Al^J £)! jj plj^ 4-£ (J^J^) e JJ P'j? -(Ajauilj J <LaU-jl jJj) 

A " *? *) T&^J** — (l)^" 1 j""*) CAXSJ — (•^"'J L)' - ^ <j'jJ J t - ja ' ^ lS J£^) oJ j "-^JsP ~ (^** a '*t J &•>& ftni^) £)AlLajJ — (4j3j£ Jj 

- (<^aJ J ^jV) ^JJJ* - (D-VJ^) 0-*4j£- (»-^-» J-i J f^=^ Sr 1 ^" 1 ) -Ujij^i - ( j^jS ^Jaiio) JAiKjj - ( jlj j ,jSjJ jj^iA 

(i_£jla j *Luil£) J^li — (^-?-j£ (j,"' "'^) ^J^ — (i-tmU.nU) gtijS — (^-S-ia. ja.) lJoUjS 



These words show the colloquial style of the text in many aspects and are example of rare Iranian words 
(some of them seem Soghdian) that have been encountered much less in standard Persian. They require 
meticulous linguistic analysis from Iranian linguists. For example "Balg" for Barg or Roozhidan clearly 
shows the influence of the native Persian or the Balkhi language. 

To ascertain Baha al-Din's everyday language, some people might argue that this colloquial and informal 
jargon language of his is not sufficient. However we believe there is a definitive proof that Baha al-Din's 
native language was Persian and if he were not, he would write in a more formal language. Another 
proof beyond the everyday colloquial term and formal language has to do with the way Baha al-Din 
addresses his biological mother. Obviously, a person from a specific ethnic background would call their 
mother a term that they have used since they were infants. The Arabic word for mother is Umm, the 
Turkish word is aanaa and the Persian term is Maam. 

For example, the Khorasani Iranian poets Ferdowsi and Naser Khusraw: 

vIj 3 fi^o j\ 3 >£-juj jl 3 ul_>jl jl 
(v_?ouJ3i>9) 

{J^^&jJ {J^.9^- P^ j 3 vlj J3 
(JjOjoLo 3 <^j\j ^9j>j 3j u 

What is clear is that Baha al-Din Walad calls his mother "Maami" in his informal everyday jargon (a non- 
native Persian speaker who learns formal Persian would not use such an informal term). "Maam" is the 
Persian for mother (see Ferdowsi/Naser Khusraw above) and an Indo-European cognate with the similar 
English word. The "i" is also similar and expresses deeper affection and everyday family language usage. 
Baha al-Din Walad in his writing does not use his mother's formal name but constantly refers to her as 
"Maami". 

Thus closer examination of the colloquial language of the Ma'arif and its informal language reveals that 
the Persian used in that book is the everyday language of Baha al-Din Walad. This Persian has been 
influenced by Soghdian and other Eastern Iranian languages and that is why rare terms like "Roozhidan" 
(interestingly modern Persian uses Rooz but Kurdish uses Roozh) are used. It of course had Arabic loan 
words and even some Turkish and Greek loan words, since Persian civilization was bordered by Arabic 
and Turkic civilization and has been influenced by Greek civilization as well. But the overall colloquial 
Persian language of Balkh contains many words that have now disappeared in modern Persian but some 
of these words can be glanced at the Ma'arif (as shown above). 

"Maami" in itself indicates again that Baha al-Din Walad speaks Persian as his native language with his 
mother and the term is something that he has used since he was a child. Obviously had his language 



been Turkish or Arabic, then one would expect terms that are composed of "AAnaa" or "umm" rather 
than "Maami". 

Thus from an ethnic point of view, Baha al-Din Walad was a native Persian speaker. We cannot trace his 
genealogy or virtually many other people (say Shakespeare) more than three generations back to 
Ahmad Khatibi (who was a preacher himself in native Persian speaking lands) and obviously culture and 
native language is the key matter that defined ethnicity. From the viewpoint of culture, Baha al-Din 
Walad has also made a significant contribution to the Persian language and culture. 

According to Franklin: 

"For Baha al-Din, the ideal situation would undoubtedly have included a ruler predisposed to 
heed and foster his teachings, to abstain from wine and other impieties, and to uphold and 
spread poetry and religious learning, preferably of the Hanafi School and preferably in a Persian- 
speaking area. He would have had few if any qualms of conscience in accepting princely 
patronage or cultivating influence for pious purposes under such ideal circumstances"(page 76) 

And according to Bosworth, Baha al-Din brought Persian culture with him to Anatolia. 

C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, 
titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Rutledge, p. 391: 

"While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, 
the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely 
Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuq Rulers (Qubad, 
Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been 
essentially a vehicle for every days speech at this time). The process of Persianization 
accelerated in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most 
distinguished refugees fleeing before the Mongols, Baha al-din Walad and his son Mawlana Jalal 
al-din Rumi, whose Mathnawi, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of 
classical Persian literature." 

Again, we like to go back to emphasizing culture. Since although we demonstrated that Baha al-Din's 
native language was Persian, what matters from a modern viewpoint is his impact on Persian language 
and culture. That is we may never know that Baha al-Din's ancestry goes back to say Darius the Great, 
Abraham, or Alexander the Great or etc. Eventually it goes back to Adam. Thus we assign to a 
civilization (in this case Persian civilization) based on his native language, and also his cultural 
contribution which are all in Persian. 

Baha al-Din's Ma'arif is a religious, moral and spiritual text written in a colloquial Persian which has 
many deep spiritual insights. The Masnavi indeed has also many of these insights and they go back to 
the traditional Persian Sufism of Khorasan. Although, from the extant texts available, one has to admit 
that Baha al-Din Walad from a scholarly and exoteric point of view cannot be compared to Fakhr ad-din 
Razi and we believe that he fled due to the Mongol invasion rather than any rivalry with Fakhr ad-din 



Razi or other people. The comparison of him with Fakhr ad-din Razi was possibly done to bring him to 
same scholarly status as that of Razi. Obvously, from a spiritual status, we cannot judge who had a 
higher rank (only God can) but from a purely scholarly status and output, Fakhr ad-din Razi is an 
unparalleled scholar of his own time. 

Nevertheless, the spiritual insights of Baha al-Din Walad are deeply rooted in traditional Khorasanian 
Islamic Sufism. Here are some examples (taken from the translation of Franklin) among the many: 

The kernel of worship is melting away the self and the rest of worship is merely the husk. 

Until you pass away from this plane of being, you will not receive being from His being. 

Die before death and bury yourself in the grave of desirelessness and rejoice. 

Conclusion on Baha al-Din Walad 

What do we know about Baha al-Din's genealogy? The claimed maternal royal descent from the 
Khawrizmshahs for Rumi or Baha al-Din Walad is dismissed by scholars and as seen as a later fabrication. 
Indeed Baha al-Din Walad's mother seems like a simple Woman. The claim of descent from Abu Bakr is 
also not in his writing or that of Rumi's. Even if such a claim was true (since many sources have stated it 
after Rumi), we should note that Baha al-Din's native language was Persian, his work is in Persian and he 
was thoroughly Persianized. However, as mentioned, modern scholars have dismissed the lineage from 
Abu Bakr. The claim might have been made according to one source because Bahal al-Din's mother was 
related to a certain Abu Bakr Sarkhasi (a Hanafi scholar from Sarkhas). Then there is the paternal claim 
descent from the Khatibun families of Isfahan put forward by Fritz . The only firm knowledge we have of 
Baha al-Din's genealogy is that he is a descendant of a certain Ahmad Khatibi who preached again in 
Persian speaking towns. It seems that being a Islamic preacher ran through many generations of Rumi's 
family, because Sultan Walad and Rumi themselves gave sermons and lectures to their followers (we 
shall say more about these later in the article). 

Given this information, we next examined the Ma'arif and the languages of Vakhsh/Balkh. The 
colloquial style of the Ma'arif with some very terms (many of them possibly Soghdian) show that the 
language of Vakhsh was Persian at that time. We brought the Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi where the 
Balkh Persian is again shown to be the language of Balkh. Indeed, Balkh according to classical sources 
(Ibn Nadeem) and even the Darab-Nama (written around the time of Rumi) is the center for the Dari- 
Persian. Also the informal and family vernacular reference to his mother as "Maami" rather than a 
phrase containing the Arabic "Umm" or Turkish "Anaa" is another indicator that Baha al-Din Walad was 
a native Persian speaker. Indeed the only writing we have from him are in Persian in a colloquial/formal 
Persian (not informal Persian learned in non-Persian lands) and thus his contribution is directly to the 
Persian language and culture. As shown later, among the notable figures mentioned for the order by 
Sultan Walad, all of them are either from Khorasanian Persian background (Attar, Sanai, Bayazid) or Iraqi 
Persian background (Junayd Baghdadi, Abu Bakr Shibli, Maru'f Karkhi) or Farsi (province) Persian 
background like Hallaj. From a linguistic point of view, some of the rare Iranian terms used in the 



Ma'arif are also indicators of his native Iranian language. These terms deserve more careful study. 
Overall we can clearly state Persian was the native and everyday language of Baha al-Din Walad based 
on the informal and everyday style of the Ma'arif and also the native term of endearment used for his 
own mother "Maami". 



Rumi 

We already discussed the background of Baha al-Din Walad and his native Persian language. 

Obviously, Rumi's native language was also Persian based on his father As noted by Annemarie 
Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY Press, 1993, p. 193: 
"Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, enough Turkish and 
Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse" 

According to Franklin also: 

"At some point Sultan 'Ezz al-Din invited Rumi as his guest to Antalya, but Rumi hid from the 
messengers the Sultan had sent to escort him (Af 1020-21). It seems the story is based on some 
real historical circumstance, as Rumi himself alludes to his reasons for not going to Antalya in 
Discourse 23 of his Fihimafih (Fih 97): 

"One should go to Tokat, for it is a warm place. Antalya is warm, too, but the people are mostly 
Greek (Rumian) there. They do not understand our language, though there some even among 
the Greeks who understand us!"(Franklin, 126) 

Obviously, given that all of Rumi's work, speeches, letters and writings except a couple of dozen or so 
couplets attributed to him (mainly in mixed verses) are in Persian, and all of his sermons and discourses 
recorded by his students are in Persian, then this points to the fact that Rumi stayed in Konya at that 
time because Persian was an important language there and widely spread then. A large number of 
Iranian refugees had taken refuge there. For example in the Walad-nama (see the section on Sultan 
Walad), after several verses in Arabic, Rumi's Son, Sultan Walad states: 

AJl)I^>P 9 Ajj9lc QJj °c>^> 

Translation: 

Tell the tale in Persian so that all may understand it, 

Even though they lack insight and are (spiritually) sleep 

And Rumi after couple: 

And he mentions this again after writing some Arabic in another Ghazal: 






And Rumi states the same thing with regards to Persian after some Arabic verses: 

/xj<p ,_5\_juJjL; Ouj uliLoJLjdLO OuLoJLujuo 

Oh Muslims, Oh Muslims, Let me say it in Persian 

Because is it not polite to eat all the sweets by myself in a gathering and not share it 



This article is not intended to give a full biography of Rumi and scholars like Foruzanfar and Franklin 
have already done the latest research on this imatter. Rather we just want to point to some points that 
have not been looked at detail by those who try to disclaim Rumi from Persian civilization and assign 
him to other civilizations. 

Thus from the above examples, it is sufficient to state that when Rumi states "Greek (Rumian) there. 
They do not understand out language," he is explicitly stating that they do not understand Persian 
because as shown below, the everyday language of Rumi (his language) was Persian as well. This is not 
surprising since his father's native language was also Persian. 

The Persian lectures, letters and sermons of Rumi and his everyday language 

Three major works of prose have come down from Rumi. Two of them were recorded by his students 
and disciples while the other one contains his letters. All three works are in Persian except two 
discourses in Arabic out of 71 total discourses and three letters out of 150 letters. 

The first Prose work of Rumi is called Fihi Ma Fih ("What in it is in it") 

"The discourses of Rumi or Fihi ma Fih, provides a record of seventy-one talks and lectures given 
by Rumi on various occasions, some of them formal and some of them rather informal. 
Probably compiled from the notes made by various disciples, they were put together in an effort 
to preserve his teaching quite likely after his death. As such, Rumi did not "author" the work 
and probably did not intend for it to be widely distributed (compare the genesis of de Saussure's 
Course in General Linguistics.). As Safa points out (Saf 2:1206) the Discourse reflect the 
stylistics of oral speech and lack the sophisticated word plays, Arabic vocabulary and sound 
patterning that we would except from a consciously literary text of this period. Once again, the 
style of Rumi as lecturer or orator in these discourses does not reflect an audience of great 
intellectual pretensions, but rather middle-class men and women, along with number of 
statesmen and rulers. 



The notes probably reflect only a portion what was said on any given occasion. Prayers, formal 
sermons and so forth have been left out and only the meaty instructions and elucidations that 
the disciples felt distinctive and worth noting were preserved."(Franklin, pg 292) 

The second prose work of Rumi is called the Majales-e Sabe' (literally, "seven sermons or seven 
sessions"). These sermons according to Franklin are: 

""The Seven Sermons," is, as its name suggests, a small compilation of seven sermons or formal 
lectures of a didactic nature (technically, "sittings" or majles) formal lectures of didactic nature 
(technically, "sitting" or majles) attributed to Rumi. Unlike the Discourses, Rumi delivered these 
homilies on questions of ethnics and faith on ceremonial occasions, probably in a mosque, 
perhaps after Friday prayers. 



We cannot fix the date of the most of these sermons, though one of them may have been 
delivered when Rumi's parents were still alive. ...Some of these sermons could date from much 
later in life. Rumi's sermons typically began with an exordium in Arabic, followed by a prayer in 
Persian. The sermon itself gives a commentary on the deeper meaning of a Koran verse or a 
hadith. The style of the Persian is rather simple, but the quotation of Arabic and the knowledge 
of history and the Hadith display the preacher's firm grounding in the Islamic sciences. The 
sermons include quotations from poems of Sana'i, Attar, and other poets, including many lines 
from Rumi himself. "(Franklin, pg 293). 

The best edition of the Majales was produced Towfiq Sobhani (1986), based on the oldest manuscript (in 
Konya, Turkey, dated 1352). In actuality, we should mention that is I not surprising that Rumi gave 
Friday prayer sermons because his father and ancestors (Khatibi) were also preachers. 

Finally, the Maktubat is the collected letters of Rumi. There was an earlier edition by Fereydun Nafiz 
Uzluk (whom we mentioned also with regards to some unsound theories and possible distortions in the 
introduction). 

According to Franklin with regards to the edition of Uzluk: 

"Unfortunately, the use of an inferior manuscript, faulty editorial decisions and printing 
mistakes virtually nullify the usefulness of this edition. The seventeen pages of errata do include 
some manuscript variations, but primarily correct typographical errors; even so, Sharaf al-Din 
Yalet Qaya added an additional five pages of mistake to this" (pg 294). 

The best edition has been produced again the Iranian scholar Towfiq Sobhani (1992). According to 
Franklin: "Towfiq Sobhani has thankfully made these editions obsolete and readers should henceforth 
refer to his edition of Maktubat-e Mowlana Jalal al-Din Rumi (Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e Daneshgahi, 
1371/1992)" (pg 294) 



According to Franklin: "Rumi's letters reveal that an extended community of disciples and family 
members looked to Rumi as an intercessor, not only with God, but also with men of state and influence. 
He sought to help them in their economic and communal affairs, and wrote recommendation letters, 
introducing individuals to potential patrons and asking for assistance. The letters testify that Rumi kept 
very busy helping family members and administering a community of disciples that had grown up 
around him. It should dispel the notion foisted on us by Sultan Valad that he lived a reclusive life 
withdrawn from the affairs of the world after the disappearance of Shams. In contrast with the prose of 
his Discourses and Sermons, the style of the letters is consciously sophisticated and epistolary, in 
conformity with the expectations of correspondence directed to nobles, statement and kings". (pg 294- 
295) 

Thus we have three prose works from Rumi with the major one being Fihi ma Fih. All these works are in 
Persian except for: 1) The discourse 22 and 34 in Fihi Ma fih which are in Arabic, and the rest of the 
discourses are in Persian for a total of 71 discourses 2) The introductory short prayer in the seven 
sermons are Arabic before he switches to Persian 3) Out of the 150 letters of the Maktubat, about three 
are in Arabic, and four which consist of Arabic poems. All the rest of these prose are in Persian. 

What does this tell us about Rumi's everyday language? The informal and common folk prose of the Fihi 
ma Fih, and the seven sermons as opposed to the more informal and literary Maktubat clearly shows 
that Rumi used Persian language as his native language as well as his literary language. If his literary 
language was separated from his native language, then one would expect that in formal and common 
folk gatherings where he is guiding his disciples or in the public sermons that he is giving, he would do it 
so in the more widely spoken languages of Anatolia (say Greek or Turkish) or in a language used more 
often for religious instructions (Arabic). However, the fact that the common folk idiom of Fihi ma Fih are 
discourses in oral speech proves beyond any doubt that Rumi's everyday language for himself and his 
followers was Persian, which was also his native language. 

Response to couple of nationalistic statements with regards to Rumi's prose and 
Rumi's everyday language (not just literary language) 

When confronted with the immense Persian poetry of Rumi, some nationalists who try to disclaim Rumi 
from his Persian heritage usually repeat the same argument. 

Professor Talat S. Halman states: 

"In Turkey, where language is the primary ethnic detriment and carries a forceful national 
mystique, the language question has been an emotional one. In the introduction to his verse 
translation of Mesnevi, Abdullah Oztemiz Hacitahiroglu writes: "The fact that the Mesnevi was 
composed in Persian and consequently remained alien to the Turkish people has been a source 
of sorrow for all Turks in all eras." As a result, many Turkish authors and scholars offered 
various explanations and excuses. Former senator Feyzi Halici of Konya, a well-known poet who 
has translated several hundred poems by Rumi and published many poems on him, has stated in 
the English postscript to his book entitled Dinle Neyden (Listen to the Reed): 



It is wrongly believed in Europe that Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi was of Persian origin. This was 
caused by the fact that the master wrote in Persian. But we must bear in mind that in [the] 
Middle Ages in. ..most European countries the literary works were written in Latin, though each 
country had her own language. So it was in the Middle Eastern countries... "Farsi" being the 
common language for. ..literary works, Mevlana had written his masterpieces in Persian. 

Samiha Ayveri, a Turkish Specialist of Ottoman and Islamic culture summarily states: 

"There are those who think of Rumi as the representative of Persian culture because he wrote his 
works in Persian. But in that era the scholarly language was customarily Arabic and the literary 
language was Persian. ..As is known, Rumi was Turkish" (Halman, pg 267-268) 

That Rumi belongs to the Persian cultural world is clear. We shall discuss his relationship to the Persian 
cultural world briefly in a later section. But for example, virtually all the Sufis that come up in Masnavi 
are Persians (Attar, Sanai, Kherqani, Shibli, Junayd, Hallaj, Bayazid, Abu Said..) except a few who are 
Arabic (Dhul-nun mesri). From a cultural myth point of view, Rumi has referenced Persian heroes like 
Rustam, Esfandiyar and etc. and has nothing with regards to Turkish mythology. These issues will be 
discussed later. 

However, the best response to such nationalist nonsense that Rumi wrote in Persian because it was the 
literary language are these: 

First of all Rumi did not like writing poetry as he has stated several times. So naturally if he did not like 
writing poetry, he would not use the common literally language. But if he wrote poetry, then he must 
have wrote it also for people that understood him. That is his inner circles besides Rumi himself were 
native Persian speakers. 

Second, the lectures of Rumi are informal, vernacular and colloquial discussions which he gave in front 
of his students. These are not literary Persians (like the official letters of his in the Maktubat), but 
provide the best proof of the everyday spoken language of Rumi. These lectures (Fihi ma Fih) and 
Sermons (Majales Sabe') establish clearly that Rumi's everyday language was Persian and he was not 
just using Persian for literary value. 

For example, in Konya, he gives sermons in Persian not Turkish. In the Fihi ma Fih (which were written 
down by his students), his lectures to his students are in Persian not Turkish or Greek, which would 
have reached a wider audience. As noted by Franklin and Safa: "As Safa points out (Saf 2:1206) the 
Discourse reflect the stylistics of oral speech and lack the sophisticated word plays, Arabic vocabulary 
and sound patterning that we would except from a consciously literary text of this period. Once again, 
the style of Rumi as lecturer or orator in these discourses does not reflect an audience of great 
intellectual pretensions, but rather middle-class men and women, along with number of statesmen and 
rulers"" (Franklin,292). Where as we note when it comes to literary Persian, we can also see it in Rumi's 
official letters. As noted again by Franklin: "In contrast with the prose of his Discourses and sermons, 
the style of the letters is consciously sophisticated and epistolary, in conformity with the expectations of 
correspondence directed to nobles, statement and kings" . Thus the fact that Rumi users oral Persian 



(and not just written language) in a common folk fashion in the Fihi ma Fih and the Seven Sermons while 
using literally sophisticated Persian in the Maktubat totally negates any sort of the nationalist arguments 
that are quoted in Halman's book. Indeed Rumi used Persian everyday not just as his literary language, 
but as a language to correspond with officials, as a language to guide his disciples and as a language of 
his Friday sermons. Indeed Aflaki also always mentions him speaking in Persian and few times in Arabic. 
We shall also show based on the book of Aflaki that Rumi's everyday language was Persian as Rumi even 
curses in Persian and a person curses in his native language. His dialogues in that book are also 
recorded in Persian. 

Third, Turkish nationalist writer Fereydun Nafiz Uzluk has come up with the baseless argument that the 
Seven Sermons were originally in Turkish but then translated in Persian. However this argument falls 
flatly in its face, because the seven sermons are replete with poetry of Attar, Sanai and other Persian 
poets in their context, as well their style of Persian (although not literally) are highly poetic spiritual 
discussions. For example let us just quote the introduction of the first sermon and let the average 
Persian reader be the judge: 



<~j\j-uJ lj Cll9ljLJuUUO ul> .uLuUUJ (JjUU£> CjuOJ>j <^-j\ Qj j$ Lo \jG>> (-SL^juUu'I !L£iLuJil^ 3 lS»JLo 

lo JjjoI i-Slgjob .jli { j-uj$j 3 j^juo iO.L>3 jI>jujI 3 <^jSuo j\$j\ °j lj lo J^ij^jOuJo .uLuojaej OJ^>3 

3 \3j-uXO Cjuolj^ iSL&jlSLjuJ 3 Cols-uJ ulCjjO ^J /Djld^LuJL} jU 9J CjuOJ>j CjlS-ajJ (_S|j2«j^3 ji <^S lj 

\j u\Jjaj Ji ^3^ 1( j^ £loJL»jjl Ca-bLc 3 J9+9 &xxjuj °^ lj olj uISj3-9_*jj &ISjJ%_*jj ol iubj5 joj^jo 

jJns>.o JL^3 jJac °j iJjLjo^j <SAs ( _j^jb%jb' jj ^3^ ul />$ jj5> 'C'sj' S^^ ^1 v_9l>S jS-">> jl ^ 

^joo '■Sj.S^r. i^s-uJ~S- CjuJqJLuj jz\j jj uUL_»jjL< Oy?. <*S> \j lo igjLjuj 3 C*iiS 3 lj lo JjS 3 Jl9 ,uli_p 

Jl> ^ss4j^\L> lj Lo JL9 .\joj9 ^jjuuuulsj />ljuO *—t+j£u «<^jLujs> #su p&j§>\ p^j3^j» <_Sl_)j>l jl JJjj 

<^j5cjl .jIj^ISj ul£_> 3^ j£> t>jolSjuo_*ii jl lj Lo .ulji^p JL9 ol9j_*i jl lj Lo JL> .ub^S 

3 >lJLc lj Lo iJJjjjjo ulo^ 3 JJdSilgiiujo uLv_»jJ3i °s%j\ .jli j3^ Lo jl 1L0 jj JJLdilgiejjo ulaxjuui 

■ ul^SLu 9J' />j^ U (-SLl^! U (-Sbji (_Sl 3 uULuj 3J' v.gJaJ t_ss_p_i l_>3- >-Sl .ub^S ul jl jjl^j 



j3>C (_Slj_*jJ ji CjuuULlS CjJLjuO 

<Jjulu co fcilpj >-SLsii ul j9joJ ji 
ijjO 3 (_Jo°>J j OJljuJ uljljo gu 



$j-uj /Jib 3 <-5bji Jib 

JjjlujO iSLjuJ I 3 Cj-flS ^_S^O^ (Jjl 

Jj_>j%j (jjo5 3 JjloJ uLo i_jouJu <^ 

(^SvjUljuj) 



This is highly sweet style of Persian and its clear it is given from the pulpit and then a piece of poetry 
from Sanai is embedded within the sermon. Many times Rumi quotes Sanai, Attar and other Persian 
poets in these sermons and thus clearly establishes his Persian cultural heritage and orientation. Also 
Fereydun Nafiz Ozluk and his like were not experts in the Persian language as exemplified by the faulty 
edition of the Maktubat they produced. Thus Fereydun Nafiz Ozluk's claim is also refuted by the fact 
that he must now claim that: Sanai and Attar also wrote in Turkish! and they were also translated to 
Persian ! 

Furthermore, as mentioned the Fihi ma Fih provides an example again of everyday colloquial but 
eloquent Persian. Both texts are not in a literary form of Persian but rather in a colloquial form and also 
the most important fact is their context. The sermons from pulpit and the lectures given to his students 
were given by Rumi but not written by him. They were written by his students and Rumi had no 
intention to produce literary work here. Thus this clearly establishes the everyday language of Rumi, 
and the everyday language of the followers of Rumi and his father was Persian. Why else would 
someone in Konya give sermons in Persian or instruct his students in Persian, both in a colloquial 
common language but eloquent and oratory fashion. So again, the arguments of the proponents of the 
claim "Rumi wrote in Persian because it was the literary language" are totally negated by the fact that 
Rumi's everyday spoken language as shown in the Fihi ma Fih and the Seven Sermons was in Persian and 
nothing else. And from a cultural point of view, the sermons are replete with quotes from Persian poets 
like Attar, Sanai and etc. but nothing from any Turkic cultural item. We will describe this cultural 
heritage of Rumi in another section. 

Rumi's Persian poetry 

The two well known books of poetry by Rumi are the Mathnawi and the Diwan (also called Diwan-i 
Kabir). These works are very different by the fact that the Mathnawi is a didactic poetical work full of 
wisdom and advices where-as the Diwan-i Shams is a mystical book of longing and passion. Although 
hard to compare, the Mathnawi which was written after the Diwan is the seminal work of Rumi and 
responsible for his fame. Both books have come down to us in different manuscripts. 

According to Franklin: 

"The manuscripts versions differ greatly in the size of the text and orthography. Nicholson's text 
has 25,577 lines though the average medieval and early modern manuscripts contained around 



27,000 lines, meaning the scribes added two thousand lines or about eight percent more to the 
poem composed by Rumi. Some manuscripts give as many as 32000!"(Franklin, pg 306) 

The Mathnawi is an immense contribution to Persian literature and culture and one of its crowning 
achievements. The book is in Persian except for the occasional Quranic verses and Hadeeth sayings that 
are embedded in the poetry. Franklin and other scholars have clearly shown that many of the stories 
are well rooted in the Perso-lslamic civilization, especially that of Khorasan. Some themes have come 
from the Kalila-o Demna which came to Iran via India during the Sassanid era and was popularized in 
the Perso-Arabic Islamic world through the Sassanid medium. Overall, sources such as Attar, Kaila va 
Demna, Tha'labi, the four discourses of Nezami 'Aruzi, Ghazzali, Sanai and other major themes, stories 
and figures of the Persian-Arabic Islamic world are mentioned. Besides these, the Qur'an and Hadeeth 
also occupy the foremost place alongside Attar and Sanai for the sources of many of the stories and 
insights. 

The other major work of Rumi is of course the Diwan (or Diwan-i Shams) 

According to Franklin: 

"The Foruzanfar's edition of the Divan-e Shams compromises 3229 ghazals and qasidas making 
a total of almost 35000 lines, not including several hundred lines of stanzaic poems and nearly 
two thousand quatrains attributed to him" (pg 314). 

A large part of the Roba'is attributed to Rumi are not his, however the overwhelming majority of 
Ghazals and Qasidas are not in doubt. 

"With respect to the roba'is, or quatrains, it is highly likely that many of the quatrains the 
manuscript tradition attributes to Rumi are not his. We have already seen how Rumi quotes a 
quatrain of Najm al-Din Daye in his Discourses without mentioning the author's name. The 
Roba'i as a genre was early on associated with Sufi gatherings and music"(Franklin, 302) 

"The number of Roba'is attributed to Rumi varies widely, even wildly, from manuscript to 
another. Many of the larger collections contain quatrains attributed to earlier poets and can be 
discounted as false attributions to Rumi, but the short, pithy and essentially oral nature of the 
Roba'is have appeared separate from the Divan in several publications" (Franklin, 303) 

Overall, according to Franklin: 

"The printing press was only introduced to the Muslim world two hundred years ago, and did 
not become the predominate mode of publication until the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century. In a pre-print culture, book must, of course, be copied out by hand, and this provides 
ample opportunity for scribal and editorial errors - misreading of difficult words, deliberate 
"improvements" or interpolations added by scribes, erroneous or intentional misattribution of 
poems to other authors, etc. In some cases, the manuscript tradition has amplified the corpus 
of various authors' work by ten percent or more over the centuries. Ferdowsi's Shah name, for 
example, probably consisted of about 50,000 lines originally, but before modern text editors 



began working from the oldest manuscripts and sifting out the lines which can be with relative 
certainty be discarded as later accretions, the received text of Ferdowsi's poem contained about 
60,000 lines. Like, the Masnavi of Rumi contains 25,577 lines in Nicholson's critical edition (not 
27,000 as Rypka says), but late pre-modern manuscripts and nineteenth-century printings 
contain anywhere from 27,700 to as many as 32,000 lines, an accretion of between two and 
seven thousand lines that do not come from the pen of Rumi. 

Foruzanfar's critical edition of the Divan-e Shams contains over 35,000 lines, and though some 
scholars have questioned the attribution of a large part of the Divan-e Shams to Rumi (especially 
the roba'is, many of which have been proven to be by other poets), radical skepticism seems 
unwarranted. "Franklin, pg 296). 

The Divan is not a didactic text, but rather a book of poetry on mystical love. The Dar al- 
Masnavi website has described it succinctly but very well: 

"The "Divan" is the inspiration of Rumi's middle-aged years. It began with his meeting 
Shams-i Tabriz, becoming his disciple and spiritual friend, the stress of Shams' first 
disappearance, and the crisis of Shams' final disappearance. It is believed that he 
continued to compose poems for the Divan long after this final crisis— during the 
composition of the Masnavi. The Divan is filled with ecstatic verses in which Rumi 
expresses his mystical love for Shams as a symbol of his love for God. It is characteristic 
of Persian Sufi poetry for it to be ambiguous as to whether the human beloved or the 
Divine Beloved (= God) is being addressed. It is also an essential feature of the particular 
kind of Sufism Rumi practiced that mystical "annihilation in the spiritual master" [fana fi 
'sh-shaykh] is considered a necessary first stage before mystical "annihilation in God" 
[fana fi Tlah] can be attained. The Divan is filled with poems expressing this first stage in 
which Rumi sees Shams everywhere and in everything. Rumi's "annihilation" of his 
separate self was so intense that, instead of following the tradition of including his own 
name in the last line of odes/ghazals, he often uses the name of his beloved spiritual 
master and friend instead. Or he appeals to (mystical) Silence [khamosh] which 
transcends the mind and its concepts." (Dar al-Masnavi Website) 

All the poetry of Rumi in the Mathnawi are in Persian (except for a small number of Arabic Quranic and 
hadith phrases) and the Diwan Shams is 99% Persian, with the exception of some Arabic, and very small 
number of Turkish (about some couple of Dozen verses or so) and Greek. 

As noted by Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY 
Press, 1993, p. 193: "Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, 
enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse" 

And as noted by Franklin:"Living among Turks, Rumi also picked up some colloquial Turkish. "(pg 315) 

The number of Greek verses according to http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudiis/Play/rumiwalad.html 

are 14 macaronic verses. Since one does not know how long a website may last, we have included in the 
appendix the Greek verses of Rumi and his son Sultan Walad based on this website: 



http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudjis/Play/rumiwalad.html (accessed 2009) 

The number of Turkish verses due to manuscript differences is unknown exactly. But they are very small 
and do not make even half a percent of his output. 

According to Mehmed Foud Kopurlu, the, "Turkish work consists of about eight or ten lines of 
poetry"( Mehmed Fuad Koprulu, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, trans., ed., and with an introduction 
by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff (London: Routledge, 2006). Pg 208) 

According to Mecdut MensurOghlu: "The Divan of Jalal al-Din Rumi contains 35 couplets in Turkish and 
Turkish-Persian which have recently been published me" (Celal al-Din Rumi's turkische Verse: UJb. XXIV 
(1952), pp 106-1 15) 

According to Halman: 

"The Iranian claim on the ground of language is incontrovertible, although some Turkish writers 
have tried to create the impression that Rumi composed a substantial body of verse in Turkish in 
addition to Persian. The statistical record is clear: The Mesnevi (Persian: Mathnawi) consists of 
nearly 26,000 couplets: the Divan-I Kebir (Persian: Divan-e Kabir) probably has about 40,000 
couplets, although the figure varies greatly. Of this vast output, everything is in Persian except 
for a handful of poems, couplets, lines, and words in Turkish, Arabic, Greek and Hebrew. 
Mecdut Mansuroglu, a mteticulous Turkish scholar, found only ten Turkish poems in all of 
Mevlana's work. Sherefdin Yaltkaya, in an earlier study, compiled a total of 103 words of Turkic 
origin in Mevlana's Persian poetry. This is infinitesimal compared with hous output in Persian. 
Rumi is patently Persian on the basis of jus et normal /o<7uend/."(Halman, pg 267) 

However as noted, the 1952 work of MensurOghlu mentions 35 couplets in Turkish and as far as we 
know, Rumi does not have any verses in Hebrew. As per the number of Turkic words in Rumi's words 
(assuming their etymology has been done correctly which is very hard to say since the noted scholar 
might not be aware that many words of Sogdian origin have entered Turkish like Khatun or some words 
like Tegin and etc. are not of Turkish origin but possibly Eastern Saka), we will say something about that 
in the next section. 

According to Franklin: 

"a couple of dozen at most of the 35,000 lines of the Divan-I Shams are in Turkish, and almost 
all of these lines occur in poems that are predominantly in Persian"(Franklin, pg, 549) 

Be that it may, due to different manuscript edition, one can upper bound the number of Turkish verses 
at no more than 100 (this is an upper bound but probably couple of dozen or so is more correct). If we 
assume this upper bound, then the number of Turkish verses are about 1/3 of one percent of the Diwan 
(not counting the quatrains which are all in Persian) and if we assume the number of MensurOghlu, it is 
about one tenth of one percent. Clearly an insignificant number. We will have something to say about 
the reliability of these verses in the next section. 



The number of Greek verses are also insignificant. The number of Arabic verses are slightly more 
although again insignificant compare to the number of Persian verses. According to the Dar al-Masnavi 
website: "In Foruzanfar's edition of Rumi's Divan, there are 90 ghazals (Vol. 1, 29;Vol. 2, 1; Vol. 3, 6; Vol. 
4, 8; Vol. 5, 19, Vol. 6, 0; Vol. 7, 27) and 19 quatrains entirely in Arabic. In addition, there are ghazals 
which are all Arabic except for the final line; many have one or two lines in Arabic within the body of the 
poem; some have as many as 9-13 consecutive lines in Arabic, with Persian verses preceding and 
following; some have alternating lines in Persian, then Arabic; some have the first half of the verse in 
Persian, the second half in Arabic." 

All together, these should not make more 1000 lines and thus an upper bound for the number of Arabic 
verses is 3%. So overall, we can say at least 96.5% of the output of the Divan-i Kabir is in Persian. 

Golpinarli and Vladimir Mir Mirughli make an important point about the Diwan: "Three poems have bits 
of demotic Greek; these have been identified and translated into French, along with some Greek verses 
of Sultan Valad. Golpinarli (GM 416-417) indicates according to Vladimir Mir Mirughli, the Greek used in 
some of Rumi's macaronic poems reflects the demotic Greek of the inhabitants of Anatolia. Golpinarli 
then argues that Rumi knew classical Persian and Arabic with precision, but typically composes poems in 
a more popular or colloquial Persian and Arabic."(Franklin, 316) 

Both the Mathnawi and Diwan are crowning pieces of Persian literature and an immense contribution to 
Persian culture. They are universal works, however one needs to know the Persian language and be 
familiar with the Sufic-lslamic culture to fully appreciate them. Thus although universal, one can say 
there would be no Rumi in its current form without the Persian language and the Persian language 
would not have been rich without Rumi. 

Thus we have three major prose works in Persian and two major books of poetry in Persian. These are 
Rumi's contribution to the Persian culture and language. His contributions to Arabic is minor and his 
contribution to Greek and Turkish is negligible (assuming that these are not later attributions). 



Response to an invalid arguments with regards to the Diwan 

In Turkish nationalistic writings, the author has encountered several different arguments in order to 
claim a Turkish cultural background for Rumi. We examine these arguments here. 

Invalid Argument: "Rumi was a Turk because he has some verses in Turkish" 

The first argument can be summarized as follows: "Rumi was a Turk because he has some verses in 
Turkish," 

As already pointed out: 

A) 



As noted by Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddin Rumi, SUNY 
Press, 1993, p. 193: "Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned during his stay in Konya, 
enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then, in his verse" 

And as noted by Franklin:"Living among Turks, Rumi also picked up some colloquial Turkish. "(Franklin, 
Pg315) 

B) 

Rumi's Turkish verses are miniscule. As noted, if we combine the literally output of Rumi's Persian 
poetry (both Mathnawi and the Diwan) and take an upper bound, we do not even get one third of one 
percent of Turkish poetry from Rumi's total output (35 verses are said out of 60,0000 verses of Diwan 
and Masnavi). 

Also Rumi has some Greek verses and even more Arabic verses. Just because he has verses in Greek 
does not make him of Greek background. These Greek verses are appended to the appendix of this 
article. Even his chosen pen-name was "Rumi" (Greek) and the word "Rumi" in Rumi's poetry is used for 
Greek rather than Anatolian Muslim (for example the famous story of the Persian, Greek, Arab and Turk 
arguing over the same grape). 

http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudiis/Play/rumiwalad.html 



C) 

Assuming that the Greek and Turkish verses are reliable (in terms of manuscripts), what can we say 
about them? Rumi himself had students from many backgrounds as well as his poetry in the Divan-i 
Shams were recorded by his students. He might be walking the Bazar, town square, talking to his 
students and etc. and then all of the sudden in an impulsive nature compose poetry. Given the 
colloquial language that he uses, and given the fact that Greek and Turkish were widely spoken in the 
region, this fact that he has some verses in Greek and Turkish is not surprising (assuming again that the 
manuscripts are valid and authentically verified). However what is surprising is that despite coming to 
Anatolia at a very young age, these Greek and Turkish verses are miniscule and do not even make one 
tenth of all of Rumi's literally output (prose and poems combined). Also as shown, even Sultan Walad 
who had slightly more Greek and Turkish admits that his knowledge of these languages (Greek and 
Turkish) is relatively poor. This is discussed in a later section but it provides a sufficient proof that the 
native language of Rumi's son Sultan Walad was also Persian and not the more widespread Greek and 
Turkish. 

D) 

All of the prose of Rumi and his ordinary demotic lectures in the Fihi ma Fih and Seven sermons are in 
Persian. Hence the Persian language was Rumi's native and everyday language. It is the language he 



used to guide his followers and the language he used when conversing with Shams. It was the native 
language of his father and Rumi's everyday language. 

E) 

According to Halman: "A refutation of the Turkish claim may be found in historical fact evinced by 
Turkish sources. No Ottoman Tezklre' tush-shuara (poet's live; Who's Who in Poetry) lists biographical 
data on Rumi, thus indicating that he was not considered a Turkish poet by the Ottoman Turks 
themselves. Also significant is the statement of Mehmed Fuad Kopruli, generally recognized as the 
greatest scholar of Turkish literary history in the twentiweth century: "Although one encounters several 
pieces of Greek and Turkish verse in the Divan-I Kebir, these could not be considered, on the basis of 
their nature and numbers, sufficient to presume that he was a Turkish poet". Golpinarli corrobates this 
view: "With Mevlana's arrival from Balkh to Anatolia, a branch of Iranian literature was transported into 
Anatolia. The Turkish couplets and the few Turkish words he used in Mulemmas [ compound verses in 
two or more languages] could never confer on him the status of a Turkish poet" (Halman, pg 268-269) 

This is clear by itself and does not need additional commentary. 

F) 

Finally, there have been Persians that have actually produced Turkish works in the courts of the Timurids 
and also in the Ottoman lands. And their works are significant unlike the negligible (assuming the 
manuscripts are authentic) verses of Greek and Turkish poetry. Two examples suffice 

Or the Iranian author Mirza Habib Esfahani has written in Persian and Ottoman Turkish 

("Habib Esfahani Mirza", Tahsin Yazici, "Encyclopedia 
Iranica" http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/vllf4/vllf4056.html ). 

Excerpt: ""HABIBESFAHANI, Mirza, Iranian poet, grammarian and translator, who spent much of his life 
in exile in Ottoman Turkey (1835-93). A prolific and versatile writer and translator in both Persian and 
Turkish, Mirza Habib is celebrated in particular for his Persian grammar, Dastur-e Sokan. Mirza Habib's 
most important work in Turkish is his Katt va kattatan (Istanbul, 1305/1888), a biographical dictionary of 
Persian and Turkish calligraphers. He also published a Turkish translation of Gil Bias as well as his Divan 
in Turkish and a versified history of the Ottomans." 

Another is the Iranian author Sad al-Din Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani. 

Elias John Wilkinson Gibb, History of Ottoman Poetry, Volume 1, London, 1900. excerpt from pg 202: 
"..the next work in Turkish poetry is versified translation of Sa'adi's Bustan or 'Orchard' made in 755 by 
the great and famous Persian schoolmen Sa'd-ud-Din Me'sud-i-Teftazani." 

Gerhard Endress, An Introduction to Islam, translated by Carole Hillenbrand, Columbia University Press, 
1998. excerpt from pg 192: "Death of Sa'ad al-Din al-Taftazani, Persian historian and philosopher at the 
court of Timur" 



And many other Iranian peoples, especially Kurds and also Persian immigrants to Anatolia who have 
written in Turkish languages. 

Invalid Argument: Rumi uses some Turkish words in his poetry 



The second argument is: "Rumi uses some Turkish words in his Persian poetry" 

One wonders if this needs a response even. Rumi also uses Greek, and Arabic words in his poetry. For 
example the following words (and many more) are of Greek origin and had entered Persian: 

cLO-nuS , i _svJL-aaj^o ,^/l-iujS I , G^JlCjI, jAJuixj-u, pJ3f aJj, ^yji >^^i CjlsJ, /xJsl , fy+QjS 

And there are more Greek verses. Also we should note that the Khorasani Persian used by Rumi (and 
later the Persian that was spoken by Iranians of Konya and Anatolia who had fled the Mongol invasion) 
was an area that was controlled and neighbored by Turks for a long time. According to the Professor 
Xavier Planhol, an expert in Historical-Geography (an extensive field which requires expertise in both of 
these subjects) as well an expert on nomadism in the Middle East: 

"The Turks, on the other hand, posed a formidable threat: their penetration into Iranian lands was 
considerable, to such an extent that vast regions adapted their language. This process was all the more 
remarkable since, in spite of their almost uninterrupted political domination for nearly 1,000 years, the 
cultural influence of these rough nomads on Iran's refined civilization remained extremely tenuous. This 
is demonstrated by the mediocre linguistic contribution, for which exhaustive statistical studies have 
been made (Doerfer). The number of Turkish or Mongol words that entered Persian, though not 
negligible, remained limited to 2,135, i.e., 3 percent of the vocabulary at the most. These new words are 
confined on the one hand to the military and political sector (titles, administration, etc.) and, on the 
other hand, to technical pastoral terms. The contrast with Arab influence is striking. While cultural 
pressure of the Arabs on Iran had been intense, they in no way infringed upon the entire Iranian territory, 
whereas with the Turks, whose contributions to Iranian civilization were modest, vast regions of Iranian 
lands were assimilated, notwithstanding the fact that resistance by the latter was ultimately victorious. 
Several reasons may be offered." 

(Xavier Planhol, Land of Iran, Encyclopedia Iranica) 

We should note that Halman mentions 103 Turkish words in Rumi's poetry based on the Turkish scholar 
Yaltkaya (1934), but no reliable etymology has been offered of these (and the manuscripts are not 
clear). For example many people are not aware that the word Khatun (see Encyclopedia of Islam) is 
considered Soghdian or many Turkic titles are actually from the Xiongnu language. 

Either way, due to centuries of Turkish rule, starting from the Ghaznavids, Turkish words had penetrated 
the Persian language, but their number as pointed out by Professor Planhol are no more than 3% of the 
total historical Persian vocabulary (many of them not used anymore in modern Persian but they reached 
their peak during the Safavid era). This author has just picked the first 100 verses from the Mathnawi 



and the first 100 verses from the Ghazals. Multiplying by 10, this is about 2000 words. Not a single 
word among these was in Turkish. Thus the frequency of these words is also very small. 

Also, the argument is also invalid because Ottoman Turkish had at least 20% Persian vocabulary, but this 
does not make all the native writers of that language as Persians. Overall modern Persian contains a 
considerable number of Arabic words, and to a lesser extent some Turkish and Greek words. Also 
increasingly words of Indo-European European origin (French and English) have entered the language. 

Invalid argument: Rumi has traces of Central Asia Turkish in his poetry 



The third argument is: "Rumi's verses show some traces of Eastern Khorasani Turkish. The linguist 
Doerfer claims some words are close to the Khorasani Turkic in his work (Turkische Folklore-Texte aus 
Chorasan) and that language of Balkh was Khorasan Turkic. For example Rumi uses the feature -GAy 
instead of jek to indicate future tense" 

This argument is invalid also as Gerhard Doefer is a linguist but not a Rumi scholar nor has he written 
any article on Rumi. However , this author had to search to find what Doerfer said exactly. In his book 
Doerfer, Gerhard, "Turkische Folklore-Texte aus Chorasan" , Wolfram Hesche. Wiesbaden : 
Harrassowitz, 1998. Doerfer does not mention Rumi at all except in an incoheent footnote where he 
states on page 15 (footnote 30):"The language of Mowlana Jalal al-Din Rumi has in some important 
matters some similarities with the people of Langar (in Iranian Khorasan). One should note that Rumi 
was from Balkh and the people of Langar were the same turban. Does Marbili here mean Marvi?" 

We already see that Doerfer does not make such a claim that the language of Balkh was Khorasan 
Turkic. If indeed Doerfer made such a claim, he has relied on Togan to hypothesize about Rumi's 
ancestry but has not stated anything firm (as mentioned in the introduction, Zekki Velid Togan was a 
major pan-Turkist and although some of his writings have been deemed scholarly, others have been 
criticized severely and we noted an example of severe criticism by Bosworth on Togan's invalid claim of 
Abu Rayhan Biruni the Iranian Chorasmian). We already note the Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi were 
"Zaban-i Balkhi" is explicitly mentioned and it is Persian dialect and provides a direct proof on the 
language of Balkh. Also Doerfer had not kept up to date with the most recent scholarship on Rumi and 
Rumi is from Wakhsh Tajikistan. Furthermore, what does a similar turban (which is available in 
Khorasan) from modern day have to do with the 13 th century? 

As per the word -gAy instead of jek, or other similar features, according to the same linguist (and not 
Rumi scholar): "In three places in Southeast Khoran Turkic we find Uzbek or Oghuz Uzbek dative in -GA 
after vowels. ...The Un-Oghuz Uzbek feature suffix in -GAy has entered some areas, as has the southern 
Uzbek personal suffix of the first-person plural -biz instead of-mlz, both occurring in Northeast 
Khorasan Turkic and Langar"( G. Doerfer, "The Turkic Languages of Iran" in Lars Johanson, Eva Csato, 
"The Turkic languages", Taylor & Francis, 1998. pg 279.) 



However, let us note that a linguist who has not studied Rumi's work is working with hypothesis that are 
not provable and imaginative. For example we just saw that Doerfer did not know that Rumi was born 
in Wakhsh. Furthermore, we need to mention why such a methodology is invalid. 

A) There is not a single verse of Western Turkish from Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan before 
the Mongol era. As mentioned the language of Balkh was zaban-i Balkhi which was the Persian 
dialect mentioned in Dakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi (see the section of Baha al-Din Walad in this 
article). The language of Wakhsh is also the same colloquial and informal language that one 
sees in the Ma'arif and as demonstrated by careful examination, this was the native language of 
Baha al-Din Walad. 

B) So there is no really valid basis for comparison. There was numerous Turkic dialects in Anatolia 
, undoubtedly many which showed more Central Asian features in their every day speech 
relative to others. After all, many Turkish groups and tribes were pushed to Anatolia from 
Central Asia. They brought various Turkic dialects, many of them whom were merged or have 
died out. However Rumi was neither of tribal nor Turkish as demonstrated by his father's work 
and his own work and came from a Persian cultural background. But he did come into contact 
with Turks of various dialects and backgrounds in Anatolia . 

C) There is not enough of information on all of these dialects, many of them which have 
transformed, merged, evolved or disappeared. Rumi was in touch with speakers of some of 
these dialects through the cities he lived. The Seljuqs themselves where from Khorasan or 
Central Asia and brought with them numerous Turkic tribes who were part of their army. 
Indeed all the Turks that migrated to Anatolia came from Central Asia either came through the 
Caucasus or Iran. So naturally in their variety of dialects, some areas kept their Central Asian 
features longer than others. That is their evolution occurred at various rates depending on the 
area and these dialects were present in Anatolia. For example one would not expect the same 
Turkish dialect in Laranda (where Sultan Walad was born) be like that of Konya (where Rumi 
was productive for most of his life). Just like there was different dialects of Greek in Anatolia at 
the the time also. 

D) So we could not expect that in the 13 th century, there was a unifying Turkish dialect. Just like 
today there is not a unified Persian or Turkic dialect. Indeed there was not a unified and 
standard Turkish language in the Turkey of the 20 th century (we are not counting the Ottoman 
language and are concerned with widely a languages). Typically, the migrant tribes showed 
more Central Asiatic features. Even today for example, two villages 30 miles away can speak a 
great variety of Kurdish. Or in Iran there is a variation between various Persian dialects spoken 
in different cities and also various Azeri-Turkish dialects (Tabriz and Urmia..) 

E) From a linguistic aspect Iranica (once again Doerfer) mention: 

Azeri belongs to the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. In the eleventh century the 
"Turan defeated Eran" and a broad wave of Oghuz Turks flooded first Khorasan, then all the rest 
of Iran, and finally Anatolia, which they made a base for vast conguests. But it is very difficult to 
draw a clear line between the East Anatolian dialects of Turkish and Azeri, on the one hand, and 
between Azeri and "Afsharoid" dialects or even Khorasan Turkic, on the other hand. There is a 
plethora of transitional phenomena among all Oghuz idioms. (G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish" in 



Encyclopedia Iranica). Undoubtedly, this was even more true when there was a variety of Turkic 
tribes, without a lack of mass communications and divergences, evolutions, transformations of 
their dialects could have occurred even in a few generations. Also more importantly, the 
Khorasan Turkic dialects are not present in Balkh nor Wakhsh. In actuality, many theories are 
put forth on how this dialect came about, but given its close similarity to Azerbaijani Turkish, it is 
likely that the Turkoman tribes (Ghezelbash) of Eastern Anatolia who migrated to Iran during the 
Safavid era brought these dialects to both Azerbaijan and Khorasan. Later these dialects had 
mutual correspondences with more archaic forms of Oghuz and Uzbek Turkic. Indeed the 
Safavids moved these tribes to Khorasan (along with Kurds) to protect the frontier against 
Uzbeks. 

So overall finding various Central Asian Turkish features in different dialects of Turkish that were present 
in Anatolia is not surprising and Rumi himself had contact with different Greeks and Turks who spoke 
different dialects of Greek and Turkish. After all this is the 13 th century, were these dialects were 
transplanted into Anatolia recently and there was of course divergence among these dialects and 
languages, say even in places like Laranda and Konya. Just like there is divergence among the Tehrani 
Persian, Mashhadi Persian and Isfhanai Persian and this is true specially before the era of mass 
communication where just a short distance created divergence in dialects. 

Again we would like to emphasize that there is not a single verse of Western Turkish (Oghuz Turkish) 
before the Mongol invasion from Balkh or Wakhsh. Neither does Rumi's father have a single verse of 
Turkish but his colloquial and informal everyday Persian provides a sufficient proof of his native 
language (as well as other factors covered in the previous section). Furthermore, the Ma'arif of Baha al- 
Din Walad clearly demonstrates the colloquial and informal language that was present in Wakhsh as he 
himself preaches there and lived there before coming to Anatolia. To conclude, the usage of unsound 
methodology (trying to say find words that might exist in the 20 th century Turkish dialects of Central Asia 
but have almost disappeared in the 20 th century Turkish dialects of Turkey due to evolution of the 
language and dialects) in order to study the culture and 

background of Rumi only yields full of contradictions and hypothesis that cannot be proven. Specially if 
one does not study the prose and poetic works of Rumi, Sultan Walad and Baha al-Din Walad nor studies 
the history of the region (for example not knowing about Dhakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi or Rumi was born 
in Wakhsh) and ignores all of his works and concentrates on a word that could have been used by some 
Turks in Anatolia at that time which is not present today. 

Invalid argument: Rumi's usage of the word Turk shows he was a Turk 

The fourth argument has to do with the usage of Turk in the Mathnawi and Diwan-i Shams. 

The argument given is the following verses (listed by Halman): 



/xjgS (_SJJi£> <^>r jSI CjljujI <Sjj />JLol 
"I too belong to this place, don't think I'm a freak; 
I settled in these parts, a hearth is what I seek. 
To you I might seem like a foe, but I am not. 
I am Turkish though Hindi is what I speak"(Halman, 293) 
And this verse: 

JOj\$ ulgj <j\SjJ °C>. JOj\$ 0\Sj4S* (_?vjOSj °^>. 
/Sjli ( _JvjOJ /Sjli ( _JoOJ \j $C)\XJ£> j\ CjljujI Ubi£ qj> 

ijS o\jjs> <j\Sjj ul j\ jdA (Jjj>*j lj 3s\1j5> 

/sjli ^jooj />jli (_jooJ lj 3! \bs> ^Jx-> <jl j$ 

$_>£■ { _$joJb (JJ ulcx5 ij^ ( _juO _>jj uy> />Jj 

/Xjli (_JoOJ /Sjli (_JoOJ lj 3jU 3 O-julO ul jSI 

lj (_jJlS2X> G£ jJ (JjjJ lj 3-Xjl& ^-Sj^* o^ ^J 

/Sjli (_JoOJ /Sjli (_JoOJ lj 3JJL& <^S />SjJ ul ,JjO 

(JjO U ( _jJi (JjSjljuJ (JJuO (-SjJjjJ (JjUUXjuJ (_Sl Lj 

/Sjli (_JoOJ /Xjli (_JvjOJ lj 9J9J 3 OJljuJ 9J' u ^5 

l/l//)of Roman face I have, what inner Turks I have 

Why does it matter, that I do know Hulaku? 

Ask Hulaku in the end, to not set forth those Turks 

Because from that bewilderness, I do not know Hulaku 

My heart like an arrow flies, the bow of my body roars 

Even though I do not know, that hand and arm, I do not know 

Let go of the Hindu words, look at the Turks of meaning 

I am that Turk who does not know Hindu, who does not know. 



If taken literally, then we must note Rumi says he knows Hindi one place and he does not know in 
another place. However these verses are chosen selectively by those who try to detach Rumi from 
Persian civilization. 

Since in the Diwan there are also these verses by Rumi 



9-juj vl 'Cj_ujI i_S^S>i ^J ^S jAS jjjl jjjO /sjli 

"You are a Turkish moon, and I, although I am not a Turk, know that much, 
that much, that in Turkish the word for water is su"(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 
And 

"Everyone in whose heart is the love for Tabriz 

Becomes - even though he be a Hindu - a rose-cheeked inhabitant of Taraz (i.e. a Turk)" 
(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 
And 

i_SoLij oS 9 i_^j09j oS gJuLd> oS g pSy oS 
/jjLSLil 9 ,/OjljJJl u\s> <_Sl O-ujI 9J (jjoiij jl 

"I am sometimes Turk and sometimes Hindu, sometimes Rumi and sometimes Negro" 

soul, from your image in my approval and my denial" (Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 



Indeed not only these, but Rumi claims to be Rustam, Shah (King), or ask others to be like Jamshid and 
Kayghobad... 



jojiuoszj] jib pszj\ ^IcUlj-u^p jib Cj§3 



^jjjLjO l jja5u0 /Xfii 9J 1-Xjl^J (JjoSjO ja^\ 

^l.o.^ 9 ulhl in 9 9_)jjijl>- 9 ,JJjIj -Xj-j 



Furthermore, Rumi in his Diwan points to the Ghuzz Turks as bringing misery: 

OjLc 9 _>c 9 i-S.i jl j9^«uo /xc 

Do nof be miserable because of yesterday, plunders and Oghuz 
And look through my door for miracles 



This is mentioned in the Mathnawi as well: 



Those blood-shedding Ghuzz Turks came 
They entered a village for plunder 
They saw two of the rich men of the village 
They went swiftly to kill one of them 



JuJuol _>jj o<^> <Sy ol_>c ol 

Aj^j ClSU (_S^ii 9_>J lo2J >£J 

Aii9U Oi uLc jl t>ji-aS 9^ 

AJLi9Ljkiij lSvIj ol <S\l£> ji 

(i_S9iijo) 



So where does this take us? 

According to Halman: "Reading Rumi's ethnic and national references with an eye to finding clues about 
his identity or allegiance is both confusing and frustrating"(pg 292). 

However, as should be noted the Divan-i Shams is a mystical text and the metaphor of Turk, Hindu, 
Rumi, Abyssian are part of this language without taking any national or ethnic meaning. That is why in 
this article we have taken a comprehensive approach and we shall examine the Masnavi as well as 
Manaqib of Aflaki to show clearly that Rumi was not a Turk. The language of the Divan-i Shams is not 



confusing for those who are aware of its metaphorical nature. We need to explain this in an 
independent section (see the next section) so that confusion with this regard does not arise. 



Persian poetry images and symbols: Turk, Hindu, Rum, Zang/Habash 






The words "Turks"(Turks), "Hindus"(Hindus),"Rums"(Greeks, Romans), "Zang/Habash"(Blacks, 
Ethiopians) are favorite symbols of the earliest Persian poets in forming poetic images. As we shall 
show, in the context of compare and contrast, as well as in other contexts, these words did not have an 
ethnic meaning but rather were used to contrast various moods, colors and feelings. It is very important 
to cross-reference the verses of various poets using such symbolic imagery for a better understanding of 
their usage in Persian poetry. In other words, just like one cannot study Rumi in depth without studying 
Sanai,Attar, Nezami and of course Ferdowsi, one cannot understand Persian poetry without proper 
understanding of its symbols and imagery. We study the usage of these symbols in thePersian 
literature among Attar, Hafez, Khaqani, Nizami, Rumi, Amir Khusraw and Sanai. Poetic symbols in 
Persian poetry have been studied by various scholars who had a deep understanding of the Persian 
language. 

According to Franklin: 

The raids that conquered India in the name of Muslim rulers were carried out mostly by the 
Turkish dynasty of the Ghaznavids. Turks earned reputation as brave fighters, first as slaves, in 
which capacity they formed the royal guard of the caliph; then as the rulers of eastern Iran, 
under the Ghaznavids and Seljuqs. The beloved is not infrequently compared to a young Turkish 
warrior-prince who slays suitors right and left with haughty charms. ((Franklin D. Lewis, "Rumi: 
swallowing the sun : poems translated from the Persian", Publisher Oneworld, 2008. , pp 175- 
176) 



Here is a poem also translated by Franklin which uses some of these imageries: 
THAT REDCLOACK 
who rose over us last year 



like the new moon 

has appeared this year 

in a rust-colored dervish coat 

The Turk you saw that year 

busy with plunder 

is the same who came this year 

like an Arab 
It's the very same love, 

though in different garb: 

He changed clothes and appeared again 
It's the same wine, though the glass has changed 

See how happy he comes in his tipsiness! 
The night's gone — 
Where are my morning partners in drunken revel 

now that the torch lights up the window of mysteries? 
When the Abyssinian age began, the fair Greek disappeare 
Today it emerges with great hosts of battle 
Proclaim: 

the Sun ofTruth ofTabriz has arrived! 

for this moon of many lights 

has climbed the wheeling skies o/pur/fy/(Franklin D. Lewis, "Rumi: swallowing the sun : poems 
translated from the Persian", Publisher Oneworld, 2008. Pg 94) 

Among Western scholars who has studied this subject in detail, the later Professor Annemarie Schimmel 
is noteworthy. We will quote two of her articles here before giving more examples from Persian poetry 
as well as various Persian poets. 

We quote her paper here: 



Schimmel, Annemarie. "A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry", the imagery of Persian 
poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, (pg 137-144). 



Turk and Hindu 

"0 Venus, from your Hindu-eyes notch the arrow on the bow like a Turk!" 

Over the preceding chapters we have observed that Persian poetry is imbued to a certain extent with 
images that evoke the external interplay of Beauty and Love, or the tension between legalism and love, 
between intellect and inspired madness. As with Mahmud and Ayaz, we may also discern this tendency 
in another favorite combination that arose in historical and social reality but served mostly as a poetical 
image whose original context was soon forgotten: the contrast between Turk and Hindu/Turks enjoyed 
an important role as soldiers in the Abbasid Empire beginning in the mid-ninth century, and former 
military slaves soon rose to become rulers (sultans) in their own right, especially on the eastern fringes 
of Iran and in their homeland, Transoxania. 

Indeed the idea of the Turk as the beloved first emerged, it seems, in the days of Mahmud of Ghazna, 
whose love for Ayaz of the Oymaq tribe was a model for the delight one could take in one's love for a 
Turk. The Turk was considered as beautiful as the moon, even though he might be cruel. Soon the 
Turkish type of beauty became prominent both in pictures and in poetical descriptions: a round face 
with narrow eyes and a minute mouth. The most famous expression of an Indo-Persian writer's 
infatuation with a "Turk"is Amir Khusrau's verse: 

His tongue is Turkish, and I don't know Turkish— how nice it would be if his tongue were in my mouth! 

Turkish cities in Central Asia, such as Chigil and Taraz, became ciphers for the dwelling place of the 
beloved, where the lover directs his thoughts. Thus Hafiz asks, using a fitting tajnis: 

That Turk with a fairy's countenance went away from me yesterday — what mistake (khata) did he see, 
that he took the road to Khata [Cathay]? 

As for the Hindu, he is the perfect contrast to the Turk. Like the Greeks, the peoples of Western and 
Central Asia regarded the Indians as black, and the Arabs were in contact with the dark-skinned 
inhabitants of southern India well before the advent of Islam. Thus the black Hindus came to be 
compared to devils, both in travelogues and in mystical visions— where the angles of course resembled 
Turks. Moreover, India was for the Muslims a country benighted in blackest heathendom: 

Light up the candle of monotheism, 

Set forth into infidel Hindustan: 

says Sana'i. The term Hindu, then, meant in the first place "black,"but also "lowly slave"- a slave who 
had to serve and obey the ruling Turkish princes, as the first Muslim dynasties in northern India were 
indeed Turks. 

The beloved's beauty mark, the black mole, the tresses, the eyes, could all be called "Hindu"because of 
their blackness, but the term also implied treacherous and faithless behavior. The "infidel tresses of 



Hindu origirTlurk like highway robbers, or else they stretch across the pale ear like a naked Hindu on a 
white bed. The Hindu tresses may even open a shop: "Give a life for every hair!"And the small mole may 
be a Hindu child that plucks roses from the cheek. 

Images of this kind show that the apparently negative connotation of the "black"Hindu could be 
transformed into something quite lovable, and in somewhat later times Katibi Isfahani would give a 
delightful description of the beloved's face, ridiculing the narrow-minded theologian who would rather 
not admit that a Hindu infidel can reach Paradise: 

ascetic, if you deny that a Hindu finds the way toward Kauthar 

And an infidel comes to the eternal garden, 

Then look how those tresses and the mole came on his face and his 

Ruby mouth: an infidel in the garden of Paradise, a Hindu at the well of 

Kauthar! 

Hindustan is, then, logically, the country of blackness (and for some poets it was even the veritable Hell, 
as Khushhal Khan, the Pathan warrior, states). 

A late poet, longing for his home in Iran, sighed during his stay in India: 

Like a black hair that finally turns white 

Draw myself from India to Iran. 

And Hazin, in a comparable situation, saw his stay in Hindustan as proof of sad fact that the day of his 
life had ended in black night. 

More famous, however, is Talib-i Amuli's remark, on his emigration from Iran to India, that now perhaps 
his bad luck (called in both Persian and Turkish "black fortune") would finally leave him alone: 

Nobody has ever brought a Hindu as gift to Hindustan— therefore leave your "black fortune"in Iran! 

The darkness could, however, also gain a positive meaning— was not the Water of Life hidden in 
darkness? Therefore Molla Shakibi praised the Mughal Khankhanan 'Abdur Rahim, the greatest 
benefactor of poets around 1600, with the verse: 

Come, cupbearer, give the Water of Life! 

Draw it from the Khankhanan' s fountain! 

Alexander sought it but found it not, 

For it was in India and he hastened into the darkness. 

In astrology, Saturn, connected with black, is called "the Hindu of the sky"or else the Hindu doorkeeper, 
as it was the last planet known to medieval observers. Hence the chapter in Nizami's Haft Paykar about 
Saturday, which is ruled, as its name says, by Saturn, takes its comparisons, images, and stories entirely 
from this sphere of blackness. The Indian princess whom Bahram Gor visits is a gazelle with Turkish— 



that is, dangerous— eyes, eyes of the kind that are often called "drunken Turks,"and the black tresses on 
her rosy cheeks resemble fire-worshiping Hindus. 

The Muslims had a certain knowledge of the rites of cremation as practiced by the Hindus, and Amir 
Khusrau in particular, who lived in India, sometimes alludes to the custom of satti, the burning of 
widows. 

Learn from the Hindu how to die of love- 
It is not easy to enter the fire while alive. 
He also describes sunrise with a related image: 
The Hindu Night has died, and the sun 
Has kindled the fire to burn that Hindu. 

The custom of satti formed on one occasion the topic of a Persian epic, Nau'i's Suz u gudaz (Burning and 
Melting), which was composed for Akbar's son Daniyal and was several times illustrated. 

Cross-relations with the fire worship of the Zoroastrians occur now and then (see also chapter 6 above). 
A typical example, from the late sixteenth century, is by Yolquli Anisi, who tells his beloved: 

My heart is a fire temple when I think of you, 

And on it is your brand, like a black Hindu who tends the fire. 

Such mixture of images is found as early as Nizami's Haft Paykar. 

The Hindu was the slave of the Turkish rulers, and for this reason poets liked the idea that they would 
lovingly become Hindu slaves if only their Turkish beloved would be kind to them— an idea paradoxically 
elaborated in Hafiz's often-quoted Ghazal about the "Turk of Shiraz"(see below). 

The word Turk came to designate, in India as in parts of Europe, the Muslim in general, and the positive 
picture of the moonlike Turkish beloved often also has a tinge of cruelty to it. Poets developed a large 
stock of metaphors about the pillaging, drunken "Turk"who gallops through the countryside, shooting 
arrows with his eyelashes to wound his admirers: perhaps he plays polo with the severed head of a 
victim who enjoys being treated like that, and he plunders (yaghma) every place. Such negative 
images— without the positive aspect— can be found, for instance, in satires by 'Ubayd-i Zakani. But when 
reading these descriptions one must always keep in mind that the beloved in traditional Persian poetry 
is indeed cruel and does not care for his lover, and that the lover, in turn, seems to relish all the wounds 
inflicted on him— for the beloved's cruelty is better than outright indifference. 

The mystics too made use of the Turk-Hindu contrast. Rumi saw the whole world as a dark Hindustan 
that must be destroyed "in Turkish style"so that the soul may finally be freed from material fetters. And 
Turk and Hindu appear in "the Hindustan of clay and water and the Turkestan that is the spiritual 
world". 

As Saturn is the "Hindu of the sky,"Mars, the martial planet, is rightly called the "Turk of the sky."But in 
the service of the beloved both are lowly slaves, as Bayram Khan, a Turcoman general in Mughal service, 
sings: 



For your castle, old Saturn is the doorkeeper; 

For your Hindu curls the Turk of the sky is a Circassian slave! 

Much later another poet from India would complain: 

From grieving for you I have black fortune and wet eyes— 

I own [the whole area of] black [fertile) soil from India to the Oxus! 

The contrast of Turk and Hindu was certainly strengthened by the realities of Muslim history at the turn 
of the first millenium, but the many possible interpretations of both terms made them a favorite for 
poets throughout the centuries. With these possibilities in mind one gets closer to 

the secret of Hafiz's famous (and often misinterpreted) verse: 

If that Turk of Shiraz would take my heart in his hand, 

I would give for his Hindu mole Bukhara and Samarqand. 

The Shirazi Turk has a black— Hindu— mole, and for this mole, which is traditionally seen as a black slave, 
the poet is willing to sacrifice the most of beautiful cities of the Turkish empire. Besides this grand 
exaggeration in which all values seem to be reversed, the verse contains three names of cities (Shiraz, 
Bukhara, Samarqand), as well as three parts of the body (hand, mole, heart), and furthermore plays on 
the contrast of giving and taking, so that a whole chain of rhetorical figures is incorporated into these 
seemingly simple lines which express the poet's hope for some kindness from his beloved. But the whole 
beauty of the verse is inevitably lost in translation, especially in translations by those unaware of the 
delightful wordplay which the poet— effortlessly, as it seems— puts before his readers. 

The Turk also appears, though rarely, in other connections. On a few occasions the aggressive riders 
from the steppes are contrasted with the complacent, urban Tajiks, and sometimes a poet collects a 
veritable "league of nations"around his friend's face: 

"The Turk of your eye carries away the heart from the Arab and the 

Soul from the Persian; the Abyssinian mole on your face makes the Hindu a slave!" 

In the eighteenth century Qani'the historian of Sind, considered that Byzantines, Europeans, and Indians 
were all variously destroyed by his beloved's face, his down, and his lip— each of which corresponds to a 
color: white, black, and red. 

Besides the Turk and the Hindu one finds the juxtaposition of Rum and Habash-Byzantium and 
Ethiopia— to allude to white and black, but in this connection the meaningful symbolism that lies behind 
Turk and Hindu is lacking. The Ethiopian or Negro, Zangi, is usually remembered for his curly hair, as 
Sa'di says in the Gulistan: 

The world is more confused than a Negro's hair. 

A similar combination of the Daylamites— mountain-dwellers near the Caspian Sea— with curly, 
"broken"hair occurs in early Persian poetry. 



From the late sixteenth century onward the role of the Turk as dangerous beloved was taken over at 
least in part by the Firangs— the "Franks"— that is, the Europeans and in particular the Portuguese, who 
from 1498 had begun to settle on the southern and western coast of India and had plundered affluent 
ports, like Thatta in the Indus Delta, most cruelly. They thus could replace the pillaging Turk, and the 
"European prison"became a new image in Indo-Persian poetry. This prison sometimes seems rather 
colorful, and the Europeans are generally connected with colors and pictures, for European paintings 
were brought to Mughal India beginning in the days of emperor Akbar and were copied by indigenous 
artists with amazing skill: hence the new combinations in color imagery in later poetry. But the Turk and 
the Hindu still survive in folk poetry, even in lullabies. 



Another article by Professor Schimmel also gives remarkable examples of these symbolic images in 
Persian poetry in addition to supplying the original Persian alongside the English translation. 

Annemarie Schimme Turk And Hindu A Literary Symbol 

(Schimmel, Annemarie. "Turk and Hindu; a literary symbol". Acta Iranica, 1, III, 1974, pp. 243-248) 

A field which is still to be elaborated is the study of Persian symbolic language. Though scholars like 
Ruckert and Hammer-Purgstall, like Ritter and Rypka and, recently, Bausani in his Storia della letteratura 
Persiana (Motivi e Forme della poesia Persiana, cf. also his Persia Religiosa) have dealt with several 
symbols and fopo/ which are preferably used in Persian poetry — and therefore later on also in Turkish 
and Urdu poetry — there is still a large field for further investigation into the development of certain 
symbolic expressions. 

We need not mention here the symbols taken from the Quran, starting with the ruz-i alast (o^uJI jsj) 
which is alluded to in poetry so frequently with dush / J^$^ «yesterday»; or the use of Quran 
personalities; or the old Iranian tradition which is interwoven in the fabric of lyrical poetry, the most 
famous example being the Jam-i Jam [p^> >oL>). Others, like the Rose and the Nightingale, gul u bulbul 
(J-Jj 9 J%) can, in their elementary meaning, be traced very far back in the history of religions, the 
complaining nightingale being only the poetical transformation of the primitive concept of the soul-bird. 

Of special interest are, however, those symbols which stem from a certain historical person or a specific 
act in history — the classical example is the figure of Mansur — al-Husain ibn Mansur al-Hallaj (d. 922), 
the martyr mystic who has become, at least since 'Attar's time, a central symbol of mystical love, 
suffering, and, though by wrong interpretation of his cry ana'l-haqq (.^^Jllil), a representative of the 
essential unity of being not only in Persian poetry but as well in Turkish literature and even more in 
Muslim India where his name is well known to the Urdu, Sindhi and Punjabi poets, so that even the 
simple villagers of the Indus valley remember him in their songs. 

Persian poetry has always liked the use of pairs of contrasting symbols, and the literatures under its 
influence share this predilection. A famous example of this style is Hafiz's oft-quoted couplet: 



Ij Ijiskj g JuSjJ^juj /x^uskj ^/lu^Jjid) (JL> 4j 

«lfthis Turk from Shiraz would take my heart in his hand, 

I would give for his Hindu-mole Samarqand and Bukhara" 

with the confrontation of Turk and Hindu. It is interesting to follow the development of this contrast- 
pair in early Persian poetry. 

Hammer-Purgstall has given, in the introduction of his Geschichte der schonen Redekunste Persiens 
(1818) some explanations of common Persian symbols; here we find f.i. that the eyelashes are the two 
battle arrays of the Indians; the eye, too, can be called a Hindu since it is black, whereas the beautiful 
white face isTurkistan; the down (khatt/Ja^) and the mole (Khal/ Jl>) are likewise compared to India 
and Hindus — that means, Hindu has, in later time, become synonymous with black; Turk, Turkish is 
everything white and lovable, (cf. Steingass'dictionary s.v. $a±£>) 

Turks are already mentioned in the poetry of the early Abbasid period — Abu Nuwas compares the 
bubbles of wine to Turks who shoot their arrows, and this connection of the word Turk with the young, 
dangerous but attractive hero is common in early Persian poetry too — thus, when Farrukhi addresses 
his friend 

«Throw the quiver aside, oh Turk, and the dress of war...» The Hindus, on the other hand — mentioned 
in prophetic traditions as well as the Turks — have been mostly described in Arabic sources of old as 
blackish, and Hindustan was, at least from the time of Mahmud of Ghazna, the typical battlefield (cf. 
Asadi, in Shafaq, Tarikh 136 who, however, compares the night still to a negro, Zang, not to a Hindu) for 
the Muslims who were, in the Ghaznawid period, mostly of Turkish origin. Thus Sanai says in the Hadiqa: 

yjS j9-«jo Ij -X^>5J &ooiii 

<j$ ^915 oL_»-u9AJLi3> \./i9 

Make the candle of tauhid shining, 

Turn toward infidel Hindustan. 

Sometimes the famous Indian swords are mentioned, and the Muslim knew about the strange customs 
of Hindu ascetics, who might even burn themselves (thus Naubakhti in the la^di-ll <J)j9) — Biruni's book 
on India then enlarged the knowledge of his coreligionists about Indian customs. 

The slaves which were brought from India were considered ugly, mean, and blackish — in contrast to 
the Turkish slaves — , and in a poem by Mukhtar-i Gaznawi (quoted by Fritz Meier in Die schone 
Mahsati, p. 8) the poet says that he kept well an ugly Hindu slave until he became good so that one 
could kiss him. 

It may be that the famous love story of Sultan Mahmud and Ayaz which has become a symbol in itself 
may have contributed to the development of the symbol Turk'for the beloved which is very common, it 
seems, in the Seljukid period. In Mahsati's poetry (i.e. first quarter of the 12th century) the Turk-i Tir 



andaz (jIjjI >j <Sjj) or the Turk who uses his club for beating people are common symbols for the 
friend (cf. Meier No. 5, No. 149, p. 362). At that time the theories of mystical love developed in Iran, 
theories which are reflected in the work of Ahmad Ghazzall and 'Ain-ul-qudzat Hamadani. 

The fact that here the beloved is not only beautiful but also extremely cruel — so that the lover finds his 
highest happiness in being wounded or even killed through him — seems to have made the Turk, who 
was already connected with the qualities of both beauty and cruelty, a fitting symbol of the Divine 
Beloved — a fact that is expressed verbally by Ruzbihan Baqli (d. 1209) who told that he had seen his 
Divine Beloved in the shape of a Turk wearing his silken headgear awry (i.e. the kajkuldh / oMS g& of 
later Persian poetry). Ritter has drawn the attention of the reader to the fact that Abu Hamid Ghazzall 
has mentioned in his Mishkat ul-Anwar that Turks at the end of the earth are fond of perfect beauty that 
they prostrate before things of overwhelming beauty. (Ritter, Meer der Seele 454, Gairdner, mishkdt 
92). 

By the end of the 12th century, the symbol Hindu for black is used commonly by Nizami: — The Indian 
princess — described with the famous contrast-pair as 

«Gazelle with Turkish (i.e. killing) eyes, from Hindu origin» 

ilj gJudi> fi.-nltj> 0_>J i_Sjj3>I 

is that of Saturday which is ruled by Saturn which is poetically called the { _ h j vijU iS$a±£> or >S$a±£> 
jV+juj and has, according to astrological tradition, black colour. But Nizami has also compared the crow 
to the Indian: 

JljujLj '.-j-k.o.i i_Sg_)uL& _>>■ jjj 

j_ni)LiJ <— «->ic 0I9-U-& jl <_s.ij.i 

« The crow is surely of Hindu origin, 

and to steal is not astonishing in Hindus » (HP 112) 

And how beautifully has he, as Ritter has pointed out, used this symbolism in his description of the fire 
in winter: 

l _S\jl<^>jLij ji OJuol Cj_»ii.ijj <p* 

«A magician from Hindustan, like Zardusht starting with murmuring the zand». (Khosrow o Shirin) or, 

i§£ 9 Jaju>o j 3JL>g_>9l uijul 

.icpmuju 0I9AJL& 09^ ,jii.i_>S ^9^ 

(( The fire lit from sandal and aloe-wood, 

the smoke around it is like Hindus in prostration. » 

U^JU-juJU OLj09j J-juJU jl i_SvS_>J 



« A Turk from Byzantine origin, 

whose surname is «the object of pleasure to the Hindus»», (cf. Ritter, Bildersprache 12 f.) 

In 'Attars work (d. 1220) we find again a number of allusions to Indian and Turkish subjects — the self- 
sacrifice of the Hindu ascetic is mentioned in the llahiname (6/9), the Hindu is several times shown as a 
seeker of religious truth (cf. Mantiq ut-tair 31/2, Musibatname 19/4 where he asks «What shall I do with 
the house without the Lord», i.e. the Kaeba, cf. Meer der Seele 262, 522, 533). Even Mahmud of Ghazna 
whose destruction of the temple of Somnath has become one of the famous symbols of the victory of 
faith over infidelity (MT 36/6) is said to have put a little Hindu boy besides him on the throne (A pious 
Hindu slave is also mentioned IN 176/13). The Hindu in the llahiname (79/9) is contrasted with the 
beautiful princess of China, not with a Turk. The Turk is depicted in 'Attar's epic in the usual way — 
cruel, but also an object of love (Mus. 32/1, 33/8, IN 10/7). The picture is, however, different when we 
turn to 'Attar's divan (ed. by Said Nafisi). Here the term Hindu is almost exclusively used for the meant 
and obedient slave: the poet often calls himself a Hindu, and tells his beloved that he would like to 
become «the Hindu of the Hindu of his curling locks (467). Though once he claims to be «not a Hindu-yi 
badkhu, of bad character, in the service of his beloved but an Abessinian who bears his mark» 

>Ojl.i 9I £,li <0 l _S^JiiLp>- JOJ-iujJ2> 

He mostly declares himself to be the Hindu slave of the Turkish beloved (465): 

Ji 9 uL> y bj (j^ <Sj\jSjj 

9J <s$jjji> >°9_»ii J-i 9 oL> j b 
The classical locus is perhaps in 371: 

,JjO <SjJ ili 9^* CLjiaJ9J 

ob*j fiXjJj 9I <^9-)ul& 
«Since my Turk gave me a kiss I became from the bottom of my heart his Hindu. ..» 

The cruelty of the Turkish beloved is alluded to in the lines: 

9I iJ>9_Uji> ub*j ( jjo 9 0>i <-j-ujJi> 
Cjlj-uJuoI j15 j.i gjj b >o_pr\J 

«He is a Turk and I from the bottom of my heart his Hindu, necessarily he has come to work with his 
sword. » (129) 

Attar uses astrological symbolism in the words (466) 

2>^ ob>_>j t -».dJ gI>9-\Jl& Cj^jJjS 

9J i-SgAiA -\_nii l5 b 09^_>S <-Sjj 

« Hindukhan became the surname of the Lord of the Heaven 



since the Turk of the Heaven (i.e. Mars) became your Hindu(slave)», 
A verse which has probably influenced Maulana Rumi's verse (Div.V2130) 

.^ui' jSL> iSJs iSjJ 

«The Turk of the Heaven (i.e. Mars) becomes the servant of Him, 

who became His (i.e. the beloved's) Hindu. » 

Though Rumi has sometimes compared black and white, good and bad to Rumis and Abessinians (Div. Y 
2428), the contrast-pair Hindu-Turk is completely developed in his poetry — thus when the Prophet says 
in the Mathnawi (I 2370) 

CJuuojS iS Julij Ol (JjO ji 9-VJui> 9 <SjJ 

«l am the polished mirror, Turk and Hindu see in me that what exists. » 
The day is compared to the beautiful Turk with fair face (Div. II 524): 

olgJ i_j_«ii jAjl o_ujl i-Sj9j 
0I3AJL& uLjo ^s^>> 
«The day is hidden in the night, a Turk in the midst of Hindus," 
and just as the infidels shout when the Muslim Turks fight them 

Olij 0_>&i i_j_juj 1S3 \»ft> 

«the Hindu night is uttering loud cries since the Turk entered the tent (Div. II 252)» 

Maulavi Rumi compares, as most profane poets, the curls of the beloved to Hindustan (Div. V 2363) but 
gives the whole symbolism of Turk and Hindu a more metaphysical sense, since for him this world is the 
Hindustan of polluted earthly life, and thus he can say in a description of spring that (Div. II 570): 

9jLjj Ol5_>J s<3Ju Lii Ol oLljujl$_>j j 

juol jljj^_«ii jjoI qj ,JS 9 i_il oL-n-ugjuLdi cu 

«The baggage of the nice-looking Turks from the Turkistan of the other world 

came to the Hindustan of clay and water by the order of that prince. » 

And the comparison of Sanai — the Hindustani Kafir — is carried on further when Rumi says (Div. IV 
1876): 

«Like a Turk (or in the Turkish way) pillage the little Hindu of existence.. .» 



i.e. kill the natural worldly existence and reach the Turkistan-i 'adam. It may be interesting to throw a 
look at the symbolism of a Persian-writing poet who lived in Hindu environment, Amir Khosrau. In his 
Divan (ed. M. Darwesh, introduction Said Nafisi) the symbol of the turk-i tir andaz is used very often 
(1416, 1081, 1104, 350, 243), the intoxicated Turk appears likewise (347, 848), the rose-cheeked (308) 
and coquettish (289), or white faced (1096) Turk are frequently mentioned. The Hindus are mentioned 
comparatively rarely (cf. 449 the .contrast Turk-Hindu); perhaps the most interesting example of the use 
of this symbol is the last verse of a Ghazal (186) 

j^j-OjO CijjO (Jj-Jl^ (Jjl AJj5_i-U OAJj Ij OI9AJL& 
CjL-mJU 1S9 \»(ft 9 jj»l CjljuuI 0_>J <0 Ij <)jjjJL> 0-VJj 

«They burn the Hindus alive; do not burn such a dead, (namely) the slave Khusrow who is a Turk, and yet 
your Hindu». 

These few notes which should be elaborated by careful exegesis and collection of material from early 
Persian poetry show that the couplet in Hafiz'famous ghazal stands in a long literary tradition which 
reflects also some political and social features of the Islamic Empire in its contact with its neighbours — 
and the contrast pair Turk-Hindu has always remained popular, be it in the poetry of Sir Muhammad 
Iqbal, or even in a lullaby from Shiraz, which Zhukovsky noted down in 1886: 

There came two Turks from Turkestan 

and carried me to Hindustan... 



Before summarizing the relevant information provided by Professor Schimmel, we will provide more 
examples of the usage of the term, Turk, Rum, Hindu, Habash/Zang. 

One of the earliest poets who considered Turks to be the ideal type of beauty is actually the Persian 
poet Ferdowsi: 



Jul £>_>£J5ej_>j. UJui 3j ulSjj a£ 



Thus Ferdowsi says that Turks in the view are as beautiful as fairies. 
Even before Ferdowsi, one of the first Persian poets (Rudaki) states: 



CiLuoSji OJiiji gi jj £>lo ^=r ^J >& 



And we also noted Qatran Tabrizi, who is one if not the first Persian poet from Azerbaijan who 
composed in Eastern Khorasanian Persian: 



u- u 9.>9- > *^>J ^' 9 -P^ ^jJ jS^" ^' 
jjjs- j9jj /xd> 9 ^jOLjuuLgj OJuj /xd> 

L 

Ci^9>! J^ &Ld (j.i.o-C 9J=r ''Jlj G j01 -? J^ 3Ji.uj-ijLu 

Instead of listing about thousands of uses of Hindu, Turk, Rum, Zang and Habash amongst in Persian 
poetry, we take examples from the recent excellent book of Professor Rahim Afifi. The author of each of 
these couplets is given. We note that many times these imageries come together in the sense that all 
four (Turk, Hindu, Rum, Zang) can be used in a single verse. 

Some examples of the symbolic meaning of Hindu as allusion and imagery: 

Hindu=From India, Slave, Overseer, Watcher, the blackness of the hair of the beloved. 

tjji OjLujI 9 jjOj Ojuaj^=r °^> Ajli 9J gjJ 
Olo^-jJ i_so>C jl ,_svJ9JJLd> igj ^SjJo 

(JjOjoLS 0_juU£J pS^> j$ jj Li 

jjjjjoU 9J 1S9 \ irfr <_SgJJji) Jljuj 



/5I9J 1S9 V iffi O-gS /xil^J i_so 

/5I9J iS$$ oLjuj ^bi- i-SgJuLd* 

9J ujjgjjbo lj £li u i-SgJJji) 

9J <JJJ$S ji lj £>JJu j>$ i-SlgJiJb* 

CUac) 

j_iJ5r 9J 1S9 1 irfr viaJj jjjo <Ji jj Jljuj 
_>Ji CjlSj liS _>jj ji 9 iJJJ^ JJ 

O^JS U ^Sj Cj_mJ9^ <_S| CjuOJ^SjjO 

_>jj ji >oJ lj iji i-SgAJji) U 
(J*clouuil JlnS) 



We note Kamal Ismail uses the word Hinduyeh-Dozd or the Hindu Thief. Something used by other 
Persian poets including Nizami. 



C^-juJ j9L> oLujjJ OAjlj CjU9Ajl& 
_>JiJuJ> O-S-? >-■ ^^j9l ^ J ^ J J ^p-'JUU 

(9^-19^-) 



Hindu beh Azar Sookhtan (Burning the Hindu in the fire=symbolically getting rid of darkness and become 
day/light): 



Old>i jjjl CjSjS C)9i_>5 CiLuoS ulul s-a^&jS 09^? 



(,_sJlaJLj _>jj*jo) 
olgi jl 0jLS=jlj9JJLd> 






Hinduvash (Hinu-face=like a slave, servant): 



Ci_uuLd> Qs> .pi AjoI jjjo /s\Lc jjjauuj l&Luj 



Hinduyeh Atash-neshin (The Hindu sitting in fire=A symbol for the hair of the beloved): 






Hinduyeh Aiinehdaar Cheshm (The Hindu holding the mirror for the eye=a symbol for the blackness of 
the eye): 



i-Sjq-ijq."> i_Sx>i_>x> jl IjLo — <xjuuc=r jl-V-gjuuul i-SgJoui) 



6_>jO jl C^jLjuJ JJkS 1 5-».'i'_>-uJ jl ^-jujLjuJj 

/ pouuc> jl_X^juul t-SgJoui) ^j u^J-s! 



(J*clouull JloS) 

iSj-iIlo 9 jS\S jl ^jLS ._p.pJL-"> i_S9JJLd> 



Here the unbeneficial Hindu is compared to a trickster and an unbeliever: 






Hinduyeh-Basar (The Hindu of the eye=the blackness of the eye): 

OjujI gjji vL*sl '-^>' _>^ 9^ '-SSj 

Aji /xd)lgi«j jSI ^_>J <_Sl Ou9j 
^JuLjuULj <*£ _>^u uSgAJji) OuOJ-j 

CUac) 

Hinduyeh Bakr SalKhurdeh (The old pure Hindu=the black rock of Mecca): 

il9-juj\l|jj=e^ jl OjLS -dij^sJLuj _&j iS$JJ£> 



V>C iSl.^Ql U iJJj-juj A^* j C*2jJ i^9AJLd> 



jLo_>3 Ojxj ji OISjLjjJ c '-*i' o$s> 



(^>l^>) 



Hinduyeh Charkh (literally the Hindu Wheel=used as an image for Jupiter) 

iL jj^l A2-JUJ u^Ls- V-jJjJ 

( JIjjJIa+c Jlo^-) 



(^^joliii) 



Hinduyeh Choobak zan - (The Hindu with the wooden weapon=symbolically means the head servant) 

OL-jujI,) >i£jo jl ^jUS — Oj *Sj$s> iS$±iJi> 



((^-»jUL>Jo (JjOjOouOJ 



Hinduyeh Chahaar Paareh Zan-(A symbol of a dancing slave, dancer...) 



Oj OjUjb? <S$±Jji> 






i-aJj i^9AJLd> 

Oi u^^li* OjJj i3gJuLd> JJu j lj Ji 
i_>5 Jl.^ry vi\Lo _>jjo £Ajo "-Slj l -'9 ; ¥ 

((^-»jUL>Jo (JjOjOouJJ 

O9S jig (jjoiJj i3gJuLd> jl jOj\£ 

C)QjS> jg_j /XA_kjj (JljuU t-_A_kJu ^JjO jg_j 

Hinduyeh-Shab (The Hindu of Night=symbol of the darkness of night) 



OLjujU CO <-S>iS C(J> iji gJo J^Jo <-Sl 

(,_sJlaJLj _>jj*jo) 

ilj £>lo 0$s> ^-j-ili iS$±jJi> jl jL 
iU9 i-Sj9J <_s^J9j j-*jJ ji 



Hindu-Guy (Literally one that talks Hindu) 



0_jujl^ (JJUU jSZLJUJ Li ^Jsj-juJ yOouUC> ^0^>0 

(g^-lgji-) 



JJ9S o- : * JJJ <-S-l-i£> 3j 1$ ol 

9I <_SgS 9JJLd> ^j i_S^°9j j 
gl <_S9-)uLd> 3ji^uaS uLuosj 3_«jj 



oLjuj i_aJj jl ^jLS 



LoouU (JJU9^ >J U- 1 -'^ -^ol yOoujg^ ^JsJljuUUO Clj _p 



Hinduyeh-Noh-Chashm (The Hindu with nine eyes=a black reed music instrument with nine holes) 



I £|j9_«jj °j <-Sljli ^j (^Ls-*^ <_^-0 i-S^tH^Sjo jl »_s>jJI. 






Hinduyeh-Haft-Chashm (the Hindu with seven eyes=another black reed that has 7 holes) 

.0_kjjl £|j9-juj ' ' °^ <-Sljli lb (oL_<jj i_so) ,_sJLi_<j-'9jo jl i_sOjl 

/xjuo3» 9 ijAjj ib_>3 ^j9l>J 
(^j^jjjgJo <_S-X_«jjI) 

Hindu Haftom Pardeh=One of the stars or planets, Jupiter or Saturn 

3Ji->Jjb Olj9i jLcl jl /XjuJj 3j <-Sl 
U^^! £>-? >° ' ° ^ <-S9-l-i^ lj 9J j-i5 .PjLb 

(^ j9 jl) 



l^_kjj pJJL& 1-S9 1 irfr 
9J Olgjl j_fjJ_jL> Ij_jjJ /> V 1^1 1S3 1 iffr 

i3_>j_)j oJjjuo ^j^jiSu Lx5 co^ 



Hindi (a symbol of sword, dagger)/Hindish 



a > r i_JuUUOouU jl QjuS~<-SjuL& 

.8 

(,_sJlaJLj _>jJXjo) 



Hindi Dragon (symbol of sword, dagger) 



J_»j o_xjj j-uj y. pjj < -S-Xj-& 9-> 

(<_S9^*jS ,_s^jollii) 



l&ijl <_SJjLd> 

<-S V ■ ff> gjj 9 jjuuUUCXjuJ jl fljLo 



Hindi Parand (Indian Silk=another symbol of sword, dagger) 



(jjjjj^ lS\iI^ Cl -VJL»jUU (JjOJLjuU^ 3 



.-Xj^S ^jjauuu 0_juJj^U 9 3JLJUUU 



9 qjL.joS-.il a£ i-sl&jju 9 /s\Lc jl °JjS 

OjUULujI t5-.,i,l qjjl /JwkjjU j\ ^JjO 



Hindu-Vash (used as in slave) 



i— i_.jj-ii> <Zs> _pl Juol 1 jjo /s\Lc jjjauuj l&Luj 



Hinduyeh Atash Neshin (used for the hair of beloved) 






Some examples of the symbolic meaning of Turks as allusion and imagery: Tork (symbol of the beloved, 
loved one, and the Sun) 



JulSajO (JjO-juJ j^ ^^J OLoJLjuJ OS IjU ^JjO <^S>J 

(^jorgLuj OloJLuj) 

j9_>jol CjlSj 09_>J CjuuUUO ^JjO (JjoS ,Jj_JujlC <^S>J 

igj a£>|93» olgj OJui jl <*S C>93» _pi U 

(Jd>9b>) 

Jouj olSji* ji ^_>j OlS Olij QjSti v_j_hjj i3gJuLd> 

139J9J0) 

Torkkaar/Torkaar (Turkish work-symbol of aggressiveness) 



oLuaSli 9 CiLuoS obr oLujj LpJi <-Sj9j <_sl 



jlgjOjiiU 9 jlgjoji) CiLuuu jXu 9 <_SjlSjj 

(tSgJg^.) 

Tork-i-Aseman (The Turk of Sky=symbolically the Sun): 

Torkan-i Charkh (The Turk of the Wheel = symbol for the moon, sun and the 5 classical planets: mercury, 
Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) 

.J^»j 9 jjjjjo '<-S>ijuuuo ,i_iU9l .oLo .pj^j.^jl hr. jl jjJjLc oS ijLSii^ oI_,Ljuj jl ^jLS 

jjjiS g9^ £js> olSjJ 1$ i^_ni) 
0_mjl jAJ"jj oL> OlgjlS 

CiUjua5_>j £>Lujil 7 )-9JJ3- OlSjJ 

9J^ jULflS JlaJljuUU *^j_juul?-jl 9^> 

9jJ> CilSjJ £>IS jl Juol ig^S 



jii 9 jIajI 1 jJ«jjj jl 'oLS- l jjajjj olS_>j 

j^S CLijjX Oj JJiS q^jX Olj 

ijjj^lj^jL> jjuLSjJ ^jjI 
uliiUs vjJLI jl ^jjlsbi" 



Torkan-i-Falak (The Turks of heaven=reference to the classical seven rotating bodies) 

jjjl jl ^jj^f. Ij iSJs OL$_>J £Uxd> 

JJjjOouU OLuUul ^Js-^-LoJU ,JjJj> 

Tork Ahu Cheshm (The Turk with the eye like that of Gazzelle- symbol of the beloved) 

i_>9-P«> jl <^jlo-/xjuuc=r J^>l Ujj 

jjSjlj &9jJ i/XjuUC=r 9-fi>l '-JjJ <— Si iOlS-juJ 1 JjO 

J_iuj jb=r /suo^uuc? 9J '-SSj O-Xj^ <-SIjJ j^ 

(csJ\L5>) 



Tork-e-Aflak (The Turk of Heaven=a symbol of Mars) 



.plj-gj L ju>o sOjLliuj jl ^jLS — <^S\isl iSjj 
(^jorsLuj oLoJLuj) 



l3gj Ljj i_>9jC5iO jl IjLS - 6_>£J5eJj 7 J O^J 
OjuULgjLJUJjS JuuLo 1$ 6j£J5eJj,J l^jj ul) 

( t— jL_kU-Ji-kJu j-uj >^j_pjj <3j> j JjoSu ^JS uju 

(lSJ^I) 



Torktaaz (Attacker, someone that attacks like Turks) 



oij Lia> o\j jl oS jui lio> q^ LI 

(J*>L>) 



^J_»_»J jUSjJ jjljuULOouU j_Xjl (JjOjljuU^ 3j 

A 9 (jjojI »jo^ i-Sb>- iSj Qj 9J jl i-SJjJJ 

(._Sj2o) 

9j jL AJLd> <_S9_«jj oLjujSj &Jo <_Sl 
^jS JJ^- (39-juu j- 6 -».i,' juSjj ^9-kojLT- t-Sg 



i9J OAilS CL^jl ^>iS9 O-iSlc 
jli_>j ul 9J /xC jLiSjj 

(^jJULLj jjJXjo) 



Torktaaz Kardan, Torktaazi Kardan (To attack in a Turkish manner=literally pillage and plunder) 

OijS i_SjLSjj .OijS jUSjj 
OijS gljb jl ojLS 



-LiS juiS jj 29j K -r^^ a 
(lSJ^I) 



OuoJj ^joLu ^-juu^j 9 >oj5 <-SjUSjJ 

/5jL ijb oS 9J j9 Ojjo oS AJ9S 1$ b 

9-«Jj .Jjli* vS-^l i-SLpjLjuaSLjuj <*]£ ^jJo 

.olSli 9 vL*-*i Ij Oijgl 03-U jl Qj\j£ — iSj\j£y 

9I i-SgJuLd* _pr ^OjuuliJ? i_SjLiS_>j jjjl L £>Lo 

JjJ^ Juol Ols^jS jl OgSjjS 09^ 9^ "^b* 

(,_sJlaJLj jjJXjo) 

(JljuUU jU (JJ-LU 9 OU9S ^J_»J_JUjl ^Js-gjoL?- (*^SJjj) <w>9^2%jO jl COLS — (JJJ9,*SJjj <^SjJ 

(jju9,*SJjj ^j^ljuj j5-».'i'.'J (jj-lS j^zjj> ^Sjj 
(jju9J <-S^j^ ^jo 9 (jjJ95Lu _Xj_jujj9j> Ou 

VJiJas jl <*jliS — 9JS-JJJ <SjJ 
9J-AJJ i-$jj Ol A-ii^ o-si^ j^S 



i-i5 uI^XjljujI jl 1$ JjLuJj uli^ ^_?SUJ 

(^Ls29LLi) 



Tork-Chihreh (Turkish face=symbol of the beloved) 



/>Loju jl QjLo 9 IjLay /sou i-j—kigS ~,Jjj$sxSjJ 

JljuJjajO ^09_i_juU gj->_>j i^JUg Juol (jjU9-> <^S>J ^>jl 
/>LoJ 9JLJUJU ^S^j^C /5olS_> jl 



'-2-b 9 U^j jl 'olj-i'&^g-^.p 

/sjjLo /5i9J ,_s^jJuOjI 1$ _>J "^SjJo jjjg 
(,_sJlaJLj _>jJXjo) 






Aj_iuJj9_> jl toLS-i-SjI.^Ty >S_>j 



Tork Del Siyah (The Turk with the black heart=symbolically means the eye of the beloved) 

JjgjJoao /xjuuc> jl ^li^ 

Ob> 3j O-mjIgjaJ CiLol ^j^Luj (jjoSjJ j />Ji 

Ojuojli Jj^uai ^_>J ul b^j-ni <*$ l>?r 

(Jd>S>b>) 

,pl>gj L £u>o jl ^jLS-GgijS i_Sljl fijj ^y 

Jbejo AjLjI ii>> ^i,^ '-Sljl .Pjj ^>i 
jLij-l _^pj j jSb=r lj 09 v iffi jjjjJucxS 

Tork-e-Zard-rooy (The Turk with the yellow face=Symbol for the Sun) 

vlisl jl ijUS-^j ijj iSy 

Aj$5 j^jO Qj /5i _>fb 9J OUlC l_Sj_kjJ /5j£ 

i_>li9l jl 'oLS-j^.iuj vijj 
_ > ^ Ju j i_$ _p oS>ji> ji i9-«jj i3j9j9J «0 U 



Tork-e-Sobh (The morning Tork=the Sun) 



(v^9l jl <^^) O^SLjJj CiliaLuj v^^j 

O^SLjuj Ol hi id i-$jj ^>jI^ J9j .M^ 
69S ij _>j 69S o^-? I -Sljj i j 

(v9-!^«jo jl c *jL^)o^ s I jl » "' ^y 
(csJ\L5>) 

(<w>9_»J*jO jl CUuSjjJj jJljuJ OjJ 
^O^JjjJljuJ OjJ Ol CUljuOJ 9 _Xj^_juJ 

(,_sols9LL) 



(_L»_jJjj9J> jl 3jLS) 



^9-g-kJu (JjulLL>I _LiS ^oLuu <-_jlj-uI lSu ji 



L^> _H_i_C _LgJ Q-»-^ ^^ 



y 



GUac) 



Tork-e-Sahraayeh Aval (The first Tork of the Sahara-a symbol of the moon) 

Olo jl OjLS - J9I <_Slj^<3 <J> jj 

j9J i-SlgJbr^b? L J9I i_Sl jsx^> jjjl i-$_>j 

(i_SoLljjj) 



TorkTab'(Turkish natured=symbol of cruelty and harshness) 



3Ji3_>S oU_iuj9j ^jogj-nigi* 
(,_sJlaJLj _>jJXjo) 

V&+^*jo jl 'oUS-jLJo vi_>J 

jLJo vijj /xjuuc> £>j-*j £>li <*-> 
jL jjoS jgi ciJuiS ,j5 ,_s^jexd> 

jLb t5_>J lj IgjuULSJ ul JjAj 
jUSul jj^ U {J-/S> OLuU OLSU 3 

(,_sJLjijl >JjLc) 



"^Juljuj iJ^KjLauuj 0L0 ul jl J_iuj jj-njjgj Qjb* 



(^-^9 1) 



Tork-e-Falak (The Tork of heaven=symbolizing the planet Mars or the Sun) 



<_>Lsl jjJ 9 jo\j$j L 3-i jjs bjLi_iuj jl "^jLS-i^is <Sjj 

O-juuLoouu l-Sg \ ■ Ch jJjJQ^ OJJj 
iJJu jjoS gl o^ 1 *! *SlS <SjJ <*j jSI 

(^jorgLuj GloJLuj) 

Ij9j jjo oSJs iSjj o_iujI /s\Lc 

(csJLol vJUo) 

JoLj psscj^f. Qj o3-l_>9l /sJLc 09J=r 

JoLuuu cJLj^j 3j c^Sj vils <Sjj 



Tork-e-Kafar Kish (The Kaffar (unbeliever) Turk-symbol of the beloved) 



Ij (jll-lS jSlS iSjj 0\ jjjO 0$^* I.iOQ C-.jULj--> 

Ij (jjoj^?- OuS /xil-UjoJ OuLoJLuuuo <_sl 
(<_S^->9) 

V9+^*jo jl OjLS-£>\IS £l$ v^jJ 

i-Sigj jjjljuuu^- ol^xSuu /so^ay <*$ i-Sigj ul jS 

0_juuI ^jJljuoj^- 0\1S Q^ *^jJ ( -Sb j^ > juU 

(^Lsz9 Lb) 

i_sJg J-i-aS-yo u-ijaS Qj /xjuuo uLaS <-b jj 
GlgJLijoJ jjJiS jS ^juul£ <_Slgji> <-b jj 



I jjjO J I.O-i, i.i 1£_Pf <*J O-ijUUO 



oLSLpJLoc >Sy O^scjcxd) — jig ^_>J 
/5jjU (jjojI ji Ij 0I9JJL& 



u\l^r 9 OjLc 9 gljb jl ^jLS — jb 9 iSjj 
j9>C jl i-jjLi3 £,lj^=r jb 9 <Sjj jl /xislc 

Lo pjj\$S> j± jLQJjjJ (Jj-JUU ( -Sb (JJJ^J 

(v-jJLo) 

^jsjuljujI^ o_juu9^ 9 9 Luj jl ^LS 9 ^Sjj JuuLo~ ( jjJ95 - >j 

<_S_>SjuLu jjjjoIaS _>jjo ujj95_>j Olg^- <_Sl 

i_Sj9juoS i-jij'La 9J L*jL$ i3j9jjo5 CiI Luigjs- <_Sl 

.Oi_>5 i^aSjljuj-jjJiS^ Ojjcjjj jl OjLS-Oijgl i_s^_>J 
^jl uS^h^ 9 yoouuc> Ouox jLu _>5I 

/xd)lS_>i> 9^=r '^J^juuu jjOo x-^> 9 ^9jjLlC Qj 

i>b vbi-*i b jl toLS — Oi_>5 jb ,_s^ 



i_>S jl9>; uLj> £>ijjo ^^JogJo 

^_5sjOljuj_X^_C 9 ^_5sjL99jj j\ QjLS "^ > o^o (_S^S>J 

CjLjuuLfcJ Lo <-S|j_juj ^jjauuu ^jLS^ 



Jl 

ji_>S i-Sjj9 ^j~f~> <ui_p ,_sJi o.icjjj .Oi_>S /xiLmj 9 j$s> jl ajL5-Oi_>S i_s^jj 

ju 9 i_Sjj CiLuojI J9S OlSjJ i_Sjj /xjuuc> 9^cjcxd> 

(i_SoLljjj) 



9^JLuo Olju h>Sjo i_so_)J .j9ito 09^* 

9J iSQ-ljJ ^JjO JjjO <-Sl i^SjJ G"^ 
9J i3gJjLd> iSJj /3I9J i-$jJ oS 



Some examples of the symbolic usage of Rum(Greek) in Persian allusion and imagery: Rum o Zang 
(Greek and Black=Day and Night) 



(^JOJjU 9 ^_5sjljuJ9j (J9j 9 l-muj j\ 3jLS~OLlj 9 >09j 



"-^jj 9 />9j ^jL* ij9l>J 
(<_S9<cJiS i_^joI hi) 



Rumi (Greek=Sun, brightness) 



(JJJ^JuO JljuJj ^JsjO^ ^jjLoj j& 

OLij 9 jo$j j <^-juj 9 j9j ^-juj 9^ 



i_>Lsl . ^_jvj L_iuj9 j jl 1jL5-,_s^j09j 

1-i_»JOJ y&JJ j\ i^°9j i^&5 -XjIjOJ 
(^J^jjjgJo <_S-X_«jjl) 



ij (jjo_»j> G|j9^ 9^> v1i_»jo5 OL^Ju i^s^ogj 



Rumiyaaneh Roo Daashtan (Having the face of a Greek=bright face, light face, beautiful face) 

C09J 1-S9J Ljj .£>_>£j=r -^sljuj jl ^jLS-jjJjjjIi 9j IjLjogj. 
Jli* 9 i-aJj IjloLij <ijb i^9j qjLjogj 

Ci-*^9j J9j j' "^^"u^rH 1 ! <_^-°9j 



^jjLuLu JJjI^ 9J t-S^jO 9 9J <-S9j jl 
^9_juuI ^JsjoLuJ Ol jS± u^s^l <-S sj0 9j O^l 



Rumi Bachegan (Greek Kids=tear drops of the eye) 



Rumiyeh Talkh (The bitter Greek=a bitter wine) 






gJLi (^S^JOgj CO UJljuU ^JJj_»_Juj 9 ^JsjoL^- 01aJ_XJ> 

JjjSjjO />\s> ^jj jl IS 0_kjjl ,_sOuol_p 

.gljjoJI G9JLL0 9 oLij gi jl '0LS-1393' i_^j09j 

J_hjj Otd>LSjU ^9i> jl 9 <_SU ^bs- 09^ 1^ 
^jJLljuuu t-Sgi* i^s^ogj <-S9j i^^joS j_dO jl ^ljJ> 

.i-Sgj Ljj jl OjLS -£j ,_^jo9j 

A£j> 9J i-aJj _>j gj=r iL 9 i_so»j i_s^09j 

.-LiS l _5^jxii) Uj-W J5.ui O^Lkjj O_ijuuo jl 

(_>jLi3 ^JiJil) 
.Oi9J lg.^L 9 JaSj 9 vSjjSu 9 9jSj jl ^jUS "Oigj /59j _i_^jo9j 



ijljJ <_Sj_;^>r ,Jp» iL jl cJi 
0_iujI Ob 3-ij^=r Ij cJi _Jjj° ^jo^ 

(jlgjl /xjujIs) 

uLiL>ji 9 jj-njjgj jl c*jLS-6iljjj09j .iljjjogj 

139S lj Aj_jujj93- bilj i_s^jogj oLki 

(JJOJU^I OLjO jl gLu (JjoSuO^J 

ilj ,_^j09j dl_>i3"l b^pj^r 

vL*Sl jl ^Li^ ~~ liCj Gj i_^j09j 
Jj_>5Li lj vj-C Ogjli* JJul ulj 3^=r_>S 

JuulU LlCj Oj (_S^09j CUul (J-OJ j^ 

{JJJ$J. (-SjJLjuUUuJ CjljujI ^jOLtt^ (^S^^ 
yOX U OljJ CjljujI ^JOjJo ^JoJj 

. ^_5^ L-juj 9 _\-»jljuj j9j 9 <«_jljuJ (jl5j9j jl cuLiS — ^joJj 9 (_s^09j 



■J9J 



OLij 9^ JljuuLj ^joJj 9 (^5^09 j 9^> 
^_s0i5 jLicI jS ,_soLij 9 i_s^o9j 9^ ch-V 

Ju LuulSj jLoJj j^ u ^09^ j 

Ijljuuu /si jU ji CiLlC i_soLij 9 i_^j09j OjS gi 
u\l9^r jl JJuL ,_^jcxd> Jjjjl ^-kS i>^ 3j 



I ^JOjj 9^ l-muj U J9j Li \JI 



i_SoLij i_s^S AjLoJ i_s^9j i_s^S 
. l j_<jj9j 9 vjl^> jl 'oLo 9 i_^j09j JuuLo — (jjjgjjogj 

O-ujI (JjJ9_»j09j <0 ^JsjO Ol ^J^LjuJ Lu 

O-iujI (jij3- i_soLij Og^r (AS+Js <*$ &i i>° 'W 



Some examples of the symbolic usage of Zang/Habash (Blacks/Ethiopians) in Persian poetic allusions 
and imageries: Habashi (Abyssenian/Black=symbol of blackness, symbol of darkness of the beloved's 
hair) 



iJUj £>L_<jj-_>£^=r gLhu- 1 "i-Sjj oL_kjj jl ^juS 
JJulu IjJqj> (_s^09j iJjju (jiiujLSjj Qj> ciS 



Zangi (Black/ symbol of the darkness and darkness of night) 



OJij-U ,_SoLij Ol Jul i_S^^$ 

(^j^jjjgJo <_S.X_jujI) 

oLc <_S>>S <JL_juj Ol 9 <~i\£j <_S>>S Olj5 |_fjl 

£>Ljjj jl 'OUS — OLSLij 9^t<xd>-1jLSjj 



>_aJj OjIsJuLd* Ol >S$±L£> O-jujI ^jjlsbi- 

Oilj Gilo j OlSLsej i_SvSjj 

j9jaS ^JJLd) <^i>ljjl 

£ IS bjJo j i_s^^j i-SLd>_>_iuj 
^Ljuj bjJo Qj /xfi> QJLaysl 

oL_hjj j9ajI <_slg^jli jl ^jLS-jj olSL^ej i_svSjj 

t— a_uJ£jJ j9^*jjO jj uLSj^J ^JOlJj V9- 5 * 

^jojjU jl QjuS~3l5Jj ^ ^joJj 









jb i_soLij o^^ yoJuuj Ob^S ul jl 
jU i_SOlJ ^Jj.>-lDJ ^9^ <_S^uj 9^? 

jjjI > "■ mffr Lo jJLiujI Lo 'Oglj 

^J_yJ> ^JOlJj OJuU _i_juj l^*S (J-OJ 

Vjhn 9 CUJjIgj jl ^jLS-Oj OjUjb? <_Sv$Jj 

J-Jj 0$S> CjuuULfcj OS tJ-O-'.i.'.O jLuU 

jljiS Gj Ci9JlCjI ^^j09j 

_X_U CULjuJjJ jl -XjLjuU ,Oj^-\l 
jLuJ JljuU Oj 6jUjlj> ^(^JoJj 



£loi ^j 2-!-o ^j ^ q ..ihr. gi <j£j iL jl 

jU Cj-JUJUuiJU qS jjCO 3j U lidi* _i_SvSJj 
( L _gsjiS->-»jUL '> l >ul) 

Zangi Del/Zangi Deli (Zangi heart, Zangi heartedness, =merciless, black hearted) 

CjljujI Ja^Ljjj 9 p^>j+> <*$ ol jl qjLS — JA r iSjj 
.^jJjuLauuj .ogliLiuj 9 i-SjgjLg-uS jl qjliS — 1 _sJA r iSjj 

vj-c o\li i_svSjj i-sLcjc j 
juol Ji £jls oLij gl 9J> 

l-A^uj ^JOJjU jl qjuS — O-jujj i^jOjj 

jj ^joJj Q-^ <-SLoj_juj j 0$s> 

CjljuulSj I 9 (JJJjl j-Xjl J^>JO^ /O 

i_Jj3- ij ,_s^jexd> C19 _>j /jjjai^ 



i39_ijqg/> ^^H"- 1 1-S9JO jl qjLi5-qjLjua5j_iuj i_soJj 

i^LgjLiuil vj_iJj ijS Ojo j qS ol i^l 



^JOlJjU jl QjLS ~*^j_juJ ^JOlJj 



jl>- 9 QJu j^ QJ 9 ^>_>J O_>j0^C G3-j 1_jljuJ ^joJj 
^JjJ (_S^09j OjijS t j_^JUkJU <w»_>2j0 ^joJj 



Thus as we can see: 

"The Hindu in Persian poetry is used a symbol for ugliness, black, of evil omen, mean servant of Turkish 
emperors, the nafs, the base soul which on other occasions is to compared to an unclean black dog. Yet, 
even the nafs if successfully educated - can become useful, comparable to the little Hindu-slave whose 
perfect loyalty will be recognized by any Shah. Turk is from Ghaznavid times onwards equivalent with 
the beloved; the word conveys the idea of strength, radiance, victory, sometimes cruelty, but always 
beauty; ..These stories in which the Turkish warrior-not endowed with too much intelligence-is slightly 



ridiculed, are by far outweighed by those allusions (not stories) in which the Turk is contrasted to the 
Hindu as the representative of the luminous world of spirit and love, against the dark world of the body 
and matter" 

(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun). 



Also as Professor Annmarrie Schimmel alluded to: 

"Besides the Turk and the Hindu one finds the juxtaposition of Rum and Habash-Byzantium and 
Ethiopia— to allude to white and black". 

Thus the multitude of examples given from Persian literature from the above books and articles does 
not denote ethnicity, especially when comparing and contrasting. 



We note some examples that show multiple of contradiction if we are to take them literary. 



Attar: 



Attar is a well known Persian poet and philosopher and has had tremendous influence on Sufism and 
mysticism. So much so that Rumi considers himself to be in the niche of a street while he considered 
Attar to have travelled through the Seven Cities of Love. 



Attar says: 

^ol§j iS$AJJi> l5 CjLfiS /JjI^J !_sS 
/>\ 5J <S$5 oL«-u i^L> <_Sg-)uLfi> 



If we are to take this literally, then Attar is actually an Indian (Hindu) and he was not Iranian. And here 
will quote again from Schimmel who quotes: 



The classical locus is perhaps in 371: 



,JjO <SjJ ili ^> tj-U^J 

ub*j ^oJ_nii 9I i-SgAJLdi 
«Since my Turk gave me a kiss I became from the bottom of my heart his Hindu.. .» 



Thus if we are to take this literally, then Attar was a Turk or had a Turk who gave him a kiss and his heart 
became a Hindu. 



Here again: 

«not a Hindu-yi badkhu, of bad character, in the service of his beloved but an Abessinian who bears his 
mark» 



9>--\j yOjgJuui) CU u^jLpJjj ji 

Thus now Attar is a Ethiopian (Abessinian). 

±$->ju jSL> iSls iSjJ 

gl iSy-LaD _>p_ci> cfS Ijjl 

«The Turk of the Heaven (i.e. Mars) becomes the servant of Him, 
who became His (i.e. the beloved's) Hindu. » 

Now heaven is a Turk, for who is a servant to those that became his Hindu. 

9I <-S9-\jl& Ob*j 1 jjo 9 <-j_>j *"■ »»»ft> 

9I 1-S9AJL& ob*j 1 jjo 9 OjJ r» niffi 



« He is a Turk and I from the bottom of my heart his Hindu, necessarily he has come to work with his 
sword. » (129) 



Thus as we can see if we are to take Attar's imagery and symbolism literally, then there would be 
arguments between Ethiopians and Indian nationalists about the ethnicity of Attar. 



Abu Esmai'l Abdallah Al-Ansari Al-Heravi (Khwaja Abdullah Ansari of Herat): 



He was born in Herat and is considered one of the outstanding Persian writers and mystics. Khwaja 
Abdullah Ansari was a descendant of the companion of the Prophet of Islam, Abi Ayub Ansari. This 
companion of the Prophet or one of his early descendants migrated to Herat and eventually the family 
became Persianized. 



The Pir of Herat, Khwajah Ansari writes: 

.(_SU>9j jJ.oi-u.il jlSj9j CjlSJ jJ (JjO 9 eS^SJ U<p» <-^rljU i *S\q%~ > \>> >>. §J '- T J~^J <-Sl 

(Dastgerdi, Wahid. "Resa'il Jaami' 'Aref Qarn Chaharom Hejri: Khwaja Abdullah Ansari", Forooghi 
Publishers, 1349/1970, 2 nd edition, p 60) 

Translation: 

Oh Night, What are? A black Zangi, and I am of Khotanese descent (look like) a moon (beautiful). 

Oh Night, you are upon the dark ruins like an owl and I am on the throne of the age of Eskandar-e-Rumi 
(Alexander the Greek). 

Thus if we take this literally, then the well known Ansari, a descendant of the compantion of the Prophet 
of Islam, would be of Khotanese descent. Of course the contrast between Dark/Af rican/Zang and 
Khotanese is a well known contrast used by many Persian poets. In another poem, he compares love to 
the Turk because both of them plunder. 



<w»jLuuu ^jjI y uL^ej 9J <-o t-Sl 
i^sOl^ Ih 3^JulC O-juuI V-jl-TE^ 1^50^ 



Amir Khusraw: 



Amir Khusraw, according to Annmarrie Schimmel, was born to a Turkish father and an Indian mother 
and is one of the most important Persian poets of India. Athough ethnically, he was not Iranian, but 
rather Indian/Turkic, nevertheless, culturally he was Iranian. 



Schimmel quotes this verse from Amir Khusraw and then further explains: 

"The tongue of my friend is Turkish 
And I know no Turkish - 



Amir Khusrau's own father was of Turkish extraction and the great mystic guru in Delhi Nizamuddin 
Auliya affectionately called the poet Turki Allah 'God's Turk'. However the word Turk was traditionally 
used to also mean a beautiful, fair-complexioned, lively, sometimes also cruel beloved, compared to 
which the miserable lover felt himself to be but a lowly, humble, swarthy Hindu slave. The literary 
counterpart turk-hindu, which can also mean 'black-white', was in use for centuries in Persian literature, 
and had has its counterpart in reality on the subcontinent since the days of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna. 
Mahmud was of Turkic lineage, and he invaded India no fewer than seventeen times between 999 and 
1030. As a result the Turks were established as a military force, and they also formed the ruling class, 
under whose auspices the theologians and lawyers henceforth had to work" 

(Schimmel, Annemarie. "The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture; translated by 
Corinne Atwood ; edited by Burzine K. Waghmar; with a foreword by Francis Robinson. London: 
Reaktion Books, 2004. Excerpt from pg 233) 



Thus if one was to take this verse out of context, Amir Khusraw who knew Turkish (note his praise of 
India) did not know any Turkish, although he said: 



"And there are the numerous languages of India which, when imported, develop more beautifully than it 
was possible in their native country - is not the Persian of India much superior to that of Khurasan and 
Sistan? Do not people learn the finest Turkish here?" 

(Annemarie Schimmel, Turk and Hindu: A Poetical Image and Its Application to Historical Fact in Speros 
Vryonis, Jr., ed., Islam and Cultural Change in the Middle Ages (Undena Publications, 1975), 
posthumously honoring G.E. von Grunebaum) 



We should note something here about the cultural identity of person like Amir Khusraw, Blban (one of 
his patrons) and the Turco-Mongols that settled in India. Schimmel points out:"ln fact as much as early 
rulers felt themselves to be Turks, they conntected their Turkish origin not with Turkish tribal history but 
rather with the Turan of Shahnameh: in the second generation their children bear the name of Firdosi's 
heroes, and their Turkish lineage is ivariably traced back to Afrasiyab— weather we read Barani in the 
fourteenth century or the Urdu master poet Ghalib in the nineteenth century. The poets, and through 
them probably most of the educated class, felt themselves to be the last outpost tied to the civilized 
world by the threat of Iranianism. The imagery of poetry remained exclusively Persian."( Annemarie 
Schimmel, Turk and Hindu: A Poetical Image and Its Application to Historical Fact) 



As Canfield also notes:"The Mughals, Persianized Turks who had invaded from Central Asiaand claimed 
descent from both Timur and Genghis strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim lndia."(Robert L. 
Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991) 

Khaqani: 



Afzal a-din Badil Ibrahim who received the penname from the Shirvanshah Khaqan 'Azam AbuI'Mufazzar 
Khaqan-i Akbar Manuchehr b. Faridun and was also known as Hessan al-Ajam Khaqani (the Persian 
Hassan) may be regarded as the second most important literary figure of the Islamic Caucasia after 
Nezami Ganjavi. In actually, when it comes to certain forms like the Qasida, he would be the greatest 
poet of the area. He was born to a Christian mother(possibly Iranian, Armenian, Georgian) and an 
Iranian (Iranic) father. He writes about his mother: 

fjjj^\jj i_SJj^o 9 ' Sj9 la ■ ■ ■ ■ 



"Nesturi o Mobedi Nejaadesh" (Of Nestorian and Zoroastrian(Mobed being the title of Zoroastrian 
priets). That is his mother's family might have been originally Zoroastrians who converted to Nesrotrian 
Christianity, like many Iranians did in the late Sassanid era. 



Here are some verses that Khaqani Shirvani literally claims to be a Hindu (that is if we read it literally): 

0_ujl v_sOL9li> gl 1S9 1 lff\ jjjjJucxS 
i-aJj OjIgJJLd* ul >S$±L£> 0_iujI ^jjlsbi- 

Thus at least twice Khaqani is claiming to be a Hindu here. But these verses are obviously not taken 
literally. Or for example, in his famous "Aivaan Mada'en", Khaqani remarks: 

OL*juaS_>j 3_«jj gJuLd> . JjL vilo /sJji 

This is that same kingly court, which had from its great Kings 

(relative to it) a Daylamite was a king of Babylon, A Hindu the King of Turkistan 

Nizami: 



We also discuss some imagery by the Persian poet Nezami who also had an influence on Rumi (although 
not as much as Attar and Sanai). 

As Schimmel has already noted: 



By the end of the 12th century, the symbol Hindu for black is used commonly by Nizami: — The Indian 
princess — described with the famous contrast-pair as 

« gazelle with Turkish (i.e. killing) eyes, 

from Hindu origin» 

is that of Saturday which is ruled by Saturn which is poetically called 

the { _ h j <-$jjL) i_S9AJl£> or^jju <Ssa±£> and has, according to astrological tradition, black colour. But 
Nizami has also compared the crow to the Indian: 

-\_jkiil>j >-jLJudu i-Sjajlo} y> £Jj 

-\_niiLj <— «->iC 0I9AJL& jl i-Siji 

« The crow is surely of Hindu origin, 

and to steal is not astonishing in Hindus » (HP 112) 

U^ju-juju OLjogj J-juJu jl i_svS_>j 

« A Turk from Byzantine origin, 
whose surname is «the object of pleasure to the Hindus» 

Here are some other examples. 

In praise of one of the rulers: 



( jii9-)uL& AjiU o^-? ul^^J Q-0& 



Translation: 

May all the Turks of China be his Hindu (slave), 
May no frown come upon his brows from the Chinese 



We note that Chin in Persian poetry (Shahnameh and Panj Ganj) is actually Western China and parts of 
Central Asia that were ruled by Khaqan. That is why the Khaqan of Gok Turks in the Shahnameh is called 
the Khaqan of Chin. 



Here is another example from Nizami: 

(_S\-ij-^ OlS_>J ( j- a + > ' uldil 

Author's translation: 

Siyaahaan Habash (The blacks of Ethiopia), Torkaan Chini (the Turks of China), 

Cho Shab (like the night) baa maah (with the moon) kardeh hamneshi (have gathered together): The 
blacks of Ethiopia, the Turks of China, like the night with the moon have gathered together. 



Note here that the Siyaahaan Habash (blacks of Ehtiopia) are the color of the night while the Torkan 
Chini are the moon (and the stars). 



Another example: Here is one where the Kurd's daughter is of Hindu Mole, Indian nature/created and 
Turkish eye and face. 



CjuuULgJ lj CLikil Oili GL-UJ9AJL& j 



The Kurd had a daughter with beautiful face 

A lovely beauty with Turkish eyes and Indian mole 

A bride of Hindu components and Turkish face 

From Hindustan has given the king a paradise 

When the King of India offers his daughter to Alexander the Great, Nezami Ganjavi writes this 
description of her in his Eskandarnama: 

^oLoJ gJuA 0<p* Ji OJjiji co 

gl i_S<p 1-S3AJL& gj ^s^Sj j 
gl i-SgAJLdi cUj-aS uLjogj 3_»ii 

/A geof beauty of Hindu origin with Turkish face 

It has made Hindustan (India) a Paradise for the King 

Not a Hindu, but a Khatai Turk in name 

But when it comes to stealing hearts, as adept as a Hindu 

From her Roman face and Hindu (sweet) talks 

The King of Rome (Alexander) has became her Hindu (Slave) 



Another example: A verse from Shirin in Khusraw o Shirin: 



Author's translation: 

// my eye because of Turkishness has narrowed, 

Came apologizing the chivalrous Hindu 

(Here in my opinion Nizami is describing the blackness of the eye beautifully) 



Here the whiteness of the eye is the Turk and the blackness of the eye is the Hindu, furthermore, Turks 
in Persian poetry are known for Tang-Cheshmi (narrow eyedness) due to the fact that the Turks 
described in Persian poetry are the original Asiatic Turks and not the linguistically Turkified people of 
later Azerbaijan, Caucasia and Anatolia. We shall discuss this in the next section. 



We now quote some verses from the translation of Haft Paykar with regards to Persian imagery. Original 
Persian of some of these verses is brought here: 



"The Slav king's daughter, Nasrin-Nush 

A Chinese Turk in Grecian Dress" 
(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 51-52) 



Thus we can see that if we take the verse literally, Slavic king had a daughter who was a Chinese Turk in 
Grecian Dress. But the verse makes perfect sense given the brief overview that was given on Persian 
poetic symbols, imagery and allusion. 



"A fair Turk from Greek stock it seemed 
The Joy of Hindus was its name" 



(Julia Meysami, Haft Pakyar, pg 99) 



Thus we can see the symbols Rum, Hindu and Turk all at play in a two verses. 



We note that when the Persian Sassanid King Bahram enters the black dome which is identified with the 
kingdom of India: 



"When Bahram please sought, he set 

His eyes on those seven portraits 

On Saturday from Shammasi temple went 

In Abbassid black to pitch his tent; 

Entered the musk-hued dome and gave 

His greetings to the Indian maid" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Pakyar, pg 105) 



"See what a Turkish raid heaven made, 

What game with such a prince it played 

It banished me from I ram's green 

Made my black lot a legend seem" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 108) 



"A gueen came forth from her palace dome 

Greek troops before Ethiops behind 
Her Greeks and Blacks, like two-hued dawn. 



Set Ethiops troops against those of Rum (in reality Greece=Rum)" 
(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 108) 



While still in the black dome (associated with the kingdom of India) he meets a lady by the name Turk- 
taz (Turkish attack, Turkish raid). This is reminiscent of this verse of Khwaja Abdullah Ansari of Herat: 



OjLc .i^Su <J.i 9 Juol ,JjjiLC 
OjLiu qjI y uL> <K> 9J Ji <_Sl 
(_5\j|.i i^gjiLC 0_ujl v_jlSiC i_SvS_>j 



Here is another use of this in the Haft Paykar. 



"My love", said I, "What will you? Fame 

You surely have; what is your name?" 

She said: "A lissome Turk I am, 

Turktaz the beautiful my name 

In harmony and accord, I said 

Our names are to each other wed 

How strange that Turktaz your name 

For mine-Turktaazi-is the same 

Rise; let us make a Turkish raid 

Cast Hindus aloes on the flame; 

Take life from the Magian cup 

With it, on lovers sweetmeas sup" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, 119-120) 



"I'll favor you, at life's own cost 

If You're a Turk, I am your black" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 128) 



(Here Hindu or Ehtiop was probably translated as Black) 

"Without the light's radiance, like a shade, 

A Turk, far from that Turkish raid" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 131) 

"The Chinese-adorned bride of Rum 

Said 'Lord of Rum, Taraz, Chin" 
(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 133) 

In the tale of the Greek's daughter in the Yellow dome we read: 

"Each newly purchased maid she'd hail 

As 'Rumi'gueen and Turkish belle" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 134) 

"Although her Turkish wiles enflamed, 

He kept his passion tightly reined" 
(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 137) 



In the Turquoise Dome 

"In Egypt dwelt a man, Maahaan 
More beautiful than the full moon. 

Like Egypt's Joseph, fair of face; 

A thousand Turks his Hindu Slave" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 1 75) 

"Till the nights Ethiop rushed day's Turks, 
The king ceased not his joyful Sport" 
(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 216) 

Chinese King apologizing to Bahram: 

"I'm still his humble slave; of Chin 

At home, but Ehtiop to him" 

(Julia Meysami, Haft Paykar, pg 257) 



Rumi: 

Since we already brought some examples from Rumi (see the introduction of this section), we bring few 
more examples here. 

According to Annemarrie Schimmel: "Rumi's mother tongue was Persian, but he had learned, during his 
stay in Konya, enough Turkish and Greek to use it, now and then in his verses." 

Here are two contradicting verses from Rumi: 

»~ - ~ 

!9jj J_$ \a£ i-SV9j 9 O ^bjzx^ Oj v_j^j| 

,fiJuuJuJ OjJ jS\ ijJD 9 *^SjJ oLd £j 



9-JUJ VM <0_kjjl v_S^JjJ 3j OS jAS jjjl jJjO /jjli 
(JljuU QjjJ OJuU ^Jjl jl jS 9J ^oLl?- ^<wM 



£ 2 $ 2 



Translation: 

"Vou ore o Turkish moon and I, although I am not a Turk, 
I know this little that in Turkish the word for water is su" 

i_SoLij oS 9 i_s^j09j oS 9JJL& oS g pSy qS 
/jjLSLil 9 /3jl>sl u\s> <_sl o_mjl 9J (jjoiij jl 

Translation: 

"I am sometimes Turk, sometimes Hindu, sometimes Rumi and sometimes Negro, 

Soul, from your image is my approval and denial" 

"Everyone in whose heart is the love for Tabriz, becomes - even though he be a Hindu - he becomes a 
rose cheeked inhabitant of Taraz (i.e. Turk)" (Schimmel, Triumphal Sun) 

Note Taraz is a city in central Asia known for its beauties. All these contradictory verses have symbolic 
meaning and should not be taken out of their context. 

Here are some more: 

Aj_»jJj /xC i-SgJuLd) 9 i_SiLjj <Sy 1$ 9_mj Ol j 

When the Turk of Happiness and the Hindu of Sadness arrived 



jjSr qjexd> i9_jjj Jjj ^jJLlC ji 
\j ^JsJuOjl JJjLuJ i^JO^p 

In love everything changes 

From an Armenian they make a Turk (that is something impossible can happen) 






Hundreds of thousands of Roman-Faced Spirits 
He has thrown in the midst of the Zangis (Blacks) 






Vour magic bewildered me 

O who has made a Turk appear as a Hindu 



Juoljj j\$ y_>£ JLuuuol oS C^juuuI 



That Turk that you saw plundering the year before 
Has now come this year like an Arab 

Here are more examples which we do not provide translation: 



i_>S £,la3 £>J9^ ji Ij .J}!^ (jluoj- 1-S9J 
jas> <_S9-Li£> 9 OJJj i_^j09j 9 '-SjJ Oljlj^) J_oJ 



,_soLij 9I ijb oLo\Lc i_^jo9j 9I ijb oLo\Lc 

<_SjlS_>J <3j 9 gJJLd) 3j JjLoJu 1-S9J Cv9J 'V 






JJug i3gJJLd> ^jcxd> OlSjJ 1$ 0_mjl i-Sgj ^ Ol 
Ci-ijli iS Aji^r jl 1-S9 i-Sli9-<jj /xC jU i-Sjj 






dig V iffl uLuO i_5^S>i ulgj *_i_oj jjul l_»_ujlj 



'J9J 



-X_nii £>lS_p>- ji ^>y OlS tj^-! Ld> <_Sjb ^_>i i-jljuj 



oLS l j_iuJ9j Ji ^ Ij i-j_juj oLljujsj o-bL <-sL& ob> 

J_iuj dlSjji- ji ^_>J OlS Olij QjSti ^-j-ili i3gJuLd> 









_Xj_XjU '"i » i< ■ l^lj 9 /yl^ CjuulAjJljuJ Juol 

Jji (jjojl?- uljgi 9^=r i-j-juoS uLgj^ i_^j09j 

JuoljJ jlj-^f _>ijuuJ jjjl ji J9jjoI 
^jJSU^p 1^*5 U (jjO_»J> OLkJu OL_uJ <w>j u 

Aj_hjJj l<eS jl p$j j.iO.iQ £>Ujjj <ob 

vSjj 0Lj_mJ 1iS_>S <_>_>£ Qj U ij_)_iuj l^uiu 



U9J 1S9 1 irfr 9 i_soJj igj 1-S9J 'Iijuu jS 
^9j 9J ul jl vii9J=r ..s^^j-kJ- 1 jl Cj-jujucxC Qj=r 

uLSjj Lo ,_s^ jAjI 9 ulgi 9 uljj_>S i-j-iuj Lo 

j_iuj oLSI oLjujU b jj pj^^i Lo 1$ I_>jj 

Juol oLfijb> Qj 9JJL& £u-^ 
^jIloL jl jjASlji i_sOjj 9J ,_sJ 



Oj9-^ jl>^ b Oj9-^ ^_JsJ 

OLij 9 i^s^jogj 9 <^S>j o^ Oj9-^ 



-LiS ^JOlj^-U V^iJ^fU JJlS i_SO_>J CUxfi) i_SOjJ 
^09_JUU ^JOlj^-U CUO^J *^SlJ ^09_juU (^JO^jJ ^JsjLCLjuJ ^JjO 



/sj- <_S9_l_i£> 9 OAjj i_^j09j 9 i-S>i Ciljlj^ J_oJ 



_Xjl jj-juULOouU ^JsJljuoS <Jjl CjuudUO C>9J> 



ij^ <^oL> <_sl o^l 9 iji cu>L> <_sl uiiL iLii 

UiaJI i_s^>i '^gJI ,_s^jOoujld> 
1 >3-)JI i_^j09j jS2-iSjj\ ,_^joJui 

oLJ oLjuj 09^=r 9I 3Jjoj> ji £>Aj G|jj_>jJ c Uxd> 
gJuLd) lj 9I <_soLjj £>J_iuj OL$_>J cUxd> 



lig_Mj J-mjlS ^jjLoj jjjj JljujIs i_S|^9_mj i_s^S 

i_Solo <^3ji*jexd> _>SI gi j^> jjjl jl 9-<Jj /5>S i_s^^j 

lj gJuLd> Obgj 'LsjjJ _>Ji_J9l <-$jJ <-$jj <3j 

,_So\l\l 0_mjlj gAJLd> 9 <_SjLjL> 0_mjlj OL$_>J <^S 

qjo G9^cjtxd> vijj ,o\lc tUJljua^j i-SjL /sJuo 

i_SoLjj Ajjb 9I jl ,_sJ9ijS Obgj fljo ciS 

,_Soli gl 9 ,/OjjU Lo 1$ Lo ji JuOi ,_^jO 9I jjjl ^93" 



<_Sj9lS jl OJ_hjj Ogjjj iJjj^ CiLiLoJjuuuo 9J Ci9J=r 



i_i_uaS->jj lj uLSjSjj U9J0 |_^J09j J.^lQ 
9J Ci|jJd> cJgi ib Ojj^=r AjI 3j b 



We note all these symbolic allusions and imagery are part of Persian poetry and have been used by 
many Persian poets including Hafez, Sa'adi, Sanai, Attar, Khaqani and Nizami Ganjavi. Nezami Ganjavi, 
Attar, Rumi, Hafez, Khaqani, Sanai and several other Persian poets used them extensively. 
Unfortunately due to lack of knowledge of Persian language and literature, some people have tried to 
read these in ethnic-literal sense through the prism of modern nationalism and thus when faced with 
the literally contradictory readings, have tried to play around with Rumi's Persian heritage. If taken 
literally, then Rumi was a Roman, Black, Hindu, Turk, Tajik or anything as he has made comparisons to 



these. Virtually in all these verses, Hindu and Turk, or Rumi and Black have come together showing the 
clear symbolism and contrast. In the above examples we have shown how Turk, Hindu, Zangi/Habash, 
Rum is used for description and symbols of slavery, rulership, slave (Hindu), ruler (Turk),Soldier/Warrior 
(Turk), cruelty, moon faced, beauty, ugliness, trees, birds, flowers, stars, climes, complexions, colors 
(yellow, white, black), animals (the eye, face), planets, day (Rum, Turk) and night (Hindu, Habash/Zang), 
languages, tears, hair, face, various moods and feelings without taking any ethnic meaning. An 
interesting example was given by Khwajah Abdullah Ansari who compares "love" and "turk" due to both 
being plunderers (note Rumi also mentions this in an anectode in Aflaki). 

OjLc i_p <Ji 9 Juol l _gjJuLC 
i_S\j|^ ,J^juul£ O-juuI V-jl-TE^ 1^50^ 



Which Turks are described in Persian Poetry? 

Today there are two groups of Turkic speakers in term of physical characteristics (phenotypes) and the 
genotype also show a greater variety. The Turcophones of Anatolia, Azerbaijan and the Caucasia as 
opposed to the Turks of Central Asia, China and Siberia are overwhelmingly Caucasian looking. It is easily 
shown that Persian poets (Attar, Hafez, Sanai, Rumi, Khaqani, Nezami, Salman SavejL.) use the term 
Turk metaphorically and non-methaporically, the term is rooted in the the Mongloid types of Central 
Asia and not the Caucasoid type of the Caucasia, Azerbaijan and Turkey. This is important since the 
association of Turks in classical Persian poetry at least up to the time of Hafez has to do with the Central 
Asian types. Of course, the Caucasoid types (who are mainly linguistically Turkified due to the elite 
dominance of Turks) are not physically different than Persians, Kurds, Armenians, Greeks, Arabs and etc 
(of Caucasian Mediterranean) where-as the Mongoloid types are radically different. It is clear that the 
primary heritage left by the Turkic nomads and invaders of the region was that of language (heavily 
influenced by Persian and Persianized Arabic) rather than culture. Thus it was their distinctive facial and 
physical features which made the Turks of Central Asia as the ideal type of beauty in Persian literature. 

We quote Professor Peter Golden who has written one of the most comprehensive book on Turkic 
people in English up to this time: 

"The original Turkish physical type, if we can really posit such, for it should be borne in mind that this 
mobile population was intermixing with its neighbors at a very stage, was probably of the Mongloid type 
(in all likelihood in its South Siberian variant). With may deduce this from the fact that populations in 
previously Europoid areas of Iranian speech begin to show Mongloid influences coincidental with the 
appearances of Turkic people. " 



We have also quoted Prof. Schimmel who has said: 

"Soon the Turkish type of beauty became prominent both in pictures and in poetical descriptions: a 
round face with narrow eyes and a minute mouth." 

Iraj Anvar, the translator of forty eight ghazals from Rumi also mentions this: 

"It indicates people from the North, with high cheek bones and almond shaped eyes, considered to be the 
most beautiful people". 

(Anvar, Iraj. "Divan Shams Tabrizi, Fourthy Eight Ghazals, Translated by Iraj Anvar", Semar Publishers Sri, 
2002. Pg 131) 



We now quote many Persian poets including Rumi, as well as Muslim historians account. One attribute 
of Turks identified in Persian poetry isTang-Cheshm (literally: narrow-eyes) which is part of the 
Mongloid features. 

Nizami Ganjavi mentions this fact at least four times with respect to Turks: 



"I brought so much light into this world, that I cast away narrow-eyedness from Turks" 
Nizami Ganjavi describing the anger of Alexander at the Khaqan: 

oIaJ fi±y> uLo^j AJjIaj 
ClUiit wWI JuuiaS C_«_jujIj l j3s_uU 



Jul DJUJULuUU ONjO^juU^ 1 c Suii Q O & 

i£J (JjS LxXjuU >(JjO OS l _J\J jjj» 

^ £ £ ^ .a » 



And in another description: 



An allusion to the beauty of the eyes: 









According to Ibn Athir, When the Mongols reached the Alans (Iranian tribe) and Qipchaq (Turkic Tribe) 
tribes, the Mongols told the Qipchaq: 

"We and you are of the same race, but the Alans are not from you, so that you should help us. Your 
religion is also not like theirs/'Thus the Qipchaq turned away from the Alans, but later on the Mongols 
attacked the Qipchaq). 

(Al-Kamil Ibn Athir). 

In Persian literature, when Turks are described, they are described with the physical feature of the Turks 
of Central Asia and Yakuts. For example this statue of an ancient Turkish King of the Gok-Turks Kul Tegin 
exemplifies this http://www.ulkuocaklari.orq.tr/kulturedebivat/qrafik/kultiqin.lpq 




Rumi also describes this physical characteristics of Turks at least four times: 



ii-S^J^o 



uLljujL jl CjSjS OJjAJl> <Sy 

OLoj Ol CUjjJU CjljuoS l Jjj5uJ /X^uiiS> 

Translation: 

The Turk started laughing from the story 

His narrow eyed became closed at the time 

,_SvSjj jl <-SjJ <^> lj lh"> *Sy p^JiiS> gi 
<-Sj£C ,jjI jl Olg-> £Laaj ijli jLc a^> 

The two eye of the Turk of Khita, what shame from narrowness? 
Why should the world traveler complain about this nakedeness? 

l-SjUU /XjlaJL^ fSuJ <_SLS CjJlS 

Y<-SjU,_s\jo p->ltj> <\j lj Lo \».<o 



He said o narrow-eyed Tatar 

Are youn not hunting us with your eyes? 



^pMj-uJIg (_sv<P Cj_«-uI ul$_>j Jb> 






The Turks, they are narrow-eyed but can see far 
They are good looking but follow their own desires 

And other examples from Hafez, Sanai, and Naj al-Din Daya. 



/>ju iSj^-iuixi 0_>J ul l _s\jixjkijL^ iSuu cu 



Ajl 0.i_p i_svS_>J <o l _s\jL^fl_«-u ul AjjjJ l _s\jo 



!<_S<yj£ (_s>jL_»-u 



IjL <\j ^S^jSlo i5jlj o^- 4 -" A^ <->ljJab>- 

gl .o_ujI O-ijj OAJj 653 JL«-u U <o o_ujI ySjSj {j->) C ^>Q. \j^->SJ >^ 9 ""^S^ Z 5 ^ , -'l>s^j jl <-s^ S?g 

OJ.P /J^jo. Cj_«-uI OJ_«ii 3JLj-u5 <-Sjl> uIjluo ji fijj\%> <\j 0\)$sid lloj^ ji <\5 Cj_«-uI iSjaS o^-*-^ A-*^ -i_>jL»ii 

.0_ujI Oili £>«-u sSji >_s^j-UjU oLj Ij Ij ^.jvjlSj^ i-^gJL-u 1$ Cj_«-uI 3L2JI ^Lo_>jo ^3$.n'> ±j\jS i<_Sg _>jl 

i/xjlg^ >_s\jo Ij i>oitj ^1 /xd> u .0_ujI CijS OjLjIiI i<^> jJjS 9 J9SX) 9 <-jjJ c Uj(x> CU 1 >Lo <_Sl jl ^s^J^Jj^ 

ol 9 1 jLs ol jj <~^sb \LlljuuI jLii jLaS J$jdzx> jSmld (617) qjIojljuu <) j-JLlc <) s+juj iljuj j££-*jj (jyjii j±» 

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iSbi) cUXS jl jo\LujJI 9 69JL3JI C L-Lc (jjjaS r u) c L>l^> c Lsul \ll dJuobu Qujb &?-d> jl 9 CJ-tujl dj/ju OLjuu ,jjj£ 

uiJj i>$j>()JI jjoj> 1 jjlC\JI ' jbz^> iSjjJI Igl/lsLi i_su^>- <LcLujJl jogJu V 'dSpxtjS 9 iSj-ajjI <3_>/.> jb jju> ObojJI jj>l 

b ijjjxJjj <-Jx>bJ> 1 <lS £>^9jOjS 9 iZjljuuI £>1jS ch-C \Lo jLqS l _ / ul ( < 6*0 1 QSjhcJI uLzjoJI p^d>9^>9 OlS <J)9j\II 

1S9J 9 _>£/ (>£/ uLUuLd) i^Jljj 9 J-JjL 1jJ> uLdul lSLd /i-UtJ? ciS \_svo99 tJufjSj JbS CilSjJ b bxjdu <& dlSJI 

'. L J r fS igj^JI jJiSu 9 '.iZjuuuI 0^9jOjS ul jl JlSZj 9 .dJu-iiuS j^ <Zj-*jU9j jjuuu 09^hxxjD g/jS 9 Jpy <f>- 4 - l/ oLdul \sbs> 

iS iZjljuuI 0/1^/9 (>// tCJJLJL* 1i .±9-*Ju jLjuuli JsS lS ±$jdj9 .JsjsJI / JjJlII :Jls ^gj&JI bo Iklll J9^uuj b 

c Li9%j> jJ-Julu t^jjjl \JjS .59J <3-LO jb JLuj Jul 9 A*£uJjuuj jl QIlu CjQju jQj ^U jo\L*jjJI 9 SpjLull c LjLc Qj^Iq^ 

j/jjD -X^ub (Jlu-i boS 1 Jul d^jS (jjubj Ol t-^ullg 9 i2<_ci// uLlSZ^p ,jul L-JulLo 9 jJgjo ciS lSj j^-iJu <Su jl *lS 19/ 

«"< h// C/lbj Ol jl ObjoLuul 9 joLuul \_sSJjOV> jj ,j+c\bo Ol ±Luj3 9 CUXS 9 .cULtliS jj-iujI 9 £>Juol Jjs cU t^>-0->/ 

Ij IjIS 9 Ju-uJj Ob> CU jlS 9 <-JuLpJ CU CUjL^X} 9 Ju-^Jj <-^ubi <l/ \L O9J? iSjulSU: \JZjS CjjLc jj^> jl <=lS 

j^ Oljjj£i9 oLdu9j^ jl i_&szoj> b Juol O9JJU c_j_ti> cu 59J t^fSmuUua *lS O/juxd) j^-*±> jl (_4.<-g^> <_>//. . . 0I9J2LLJUUI 

Obj> jjJ> jjJi9 (Jul ( ,0C jj 9 lJjUjI i>lj If c UbojLjjU 9 juijdLC OboJ c LLjjU j9^jjU jl i jj joLoJ gj~d) lSjJ2J> u ^}jJ2£> 

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Ij CjIj9C 9 Ij ulohl i_&-uuu 9 JlLjJuS jbuuju ^L> 9 JJuLmuj j-g->Ju 9 Jj-^b CJ-iu/J jLaS - Jubou 1ZJUO9UL0 iZjSUO 

.Jj^jS Jj^juU jJ-iJLU iJU^QI J-g->JU If 1b Ij Ui.f.<Zjn )jul iSbj^l 9 JU-bjS jobou i_SuljJ> 9 JJ^jJ JJ-iuul 

i^jii bo £b Of Jujb 
«i_?5jj Jubou bo o-fJS J9 



Note this part: 

gljS 9 59J £j-*jj oLdul tSbS) lS9j 9 _>£/ ,j^u ObUubi) i^Lu 9 J-Jjb ^jj> oLdul iSbS) /^jJLu> 'iS i_suo99» 

«dJj-AjiiS j J c-j-ci/jl/ jj-uu O^j^jxd) 



Views on ethnicity in the Mathnawi 

The Mathanwi as opposed to the Diwan-i Shams does not contain the metaphors of Turk, Hindu, 
Abbysian and Rumi and is a didactic text. 

But the stories about Turks usually show a person that is cruel and/or lacks intelligence. The story of the 
Turkish amir who gets easily cheated by a tricky tailor, the drunk Turk who disliked music played by 
mystical singers, the story of the Turk in Balaghasun who lost one of his two bows, or the story of the 
Oghuz tribesmens who come to village and plunder, and etc. 

According to E.H. Whinfield: "The Turk, who typifies the careless pleasure-seeker, was so intent on 
listening to the jokes and amusing stories of the tailor, typifying the seductive world, that he allowed 
himself to be robbed of the silk which was to furnish him with a vesture for eternity." 

The story of the Turk and the Tailor is a one of those which is very humorous. 



(jjl $ ol b 9I SjS CjuIS^- 1 _s\jo 

CjipJ jAjl oUjji ul JJjS o£ 
I he ul *J>-iJiS j -J_»i Ojj-b v1a.>_>.».i 
iji 9 /XjuJL> 9 lj 0_>J Juol v-fij^- 
VLci 9 jSuO (Jjl ji _>jLLi-uI CjljuO-P 



<-Sjj.i 9 <Sjj iSQ.n') 

i-jj Ju3 jj ul <*5 tSjuuLjkiljJ 9J 

q_fljlb ol sS^ji ji lj ^JL> 

O^ J^ SrSvbj&jb sS c 1.<o9 

iSlcLoUiSiji AjI9>-i^jo yy-juj j.i 

llo-> jl <s&y cLoKjlA Ol jAjl 
i>£ _>S"i lj OUjji jA£ £l5 u-oj 
LtX_«i) >P-»-U J^> u^l.i09 iSl C_UttS 



Oi>j -\jl9ij iSjj^* (jjo jl sSjji l5 9I t^-"^ 9.M 9 '-^ OijS iS^CS 



0-UO^_C>JL> l_Siji 9 I^S^JJAJL^ (JJjAjl 

i—iuCLijkiij /jokiuj ^_>j ijLu 9I 

_>^jo iS9£i ji Juu^aS gl obo 

(^uLa_)J9_>j j^ 9J 09L) i_S9_»-u ciS 

9J l _j\J cUl^S >_sO i_>j -ijljj ^S 

^CpuJO jj lj Ol&j 9 CjljiaJU 9jS 9I 

OS qj 9I p^di\jo3 iiji jl /x^-Xj 

I-JuujO (>Aj >£J /xjbi-jujlg 

i_>l>^ 9I ■ij^i^ ^j^ ^U^ Ij 

J-Ci Ol OlSi 9 jljL) Qj JljJj 
JsLuuo ^j-ujui^-jj CU v^J L> jl v_>jjjl> 
(jijugi* j^jo 9I uS jAjl Ai5^9 U 
i^sJLuu-iyU I u-uJUol AjtSSl Q.»j-i.iIjlj 



<— iljh.^1 Jl^> b l5 1 jjoLo (jjo CjlsS 

jjv^^jkAjL^ 9J jl <o QIiJ.i.i.oS.1 u-aj 

uiibyo Oji o^-? ^9^ J-^ *V 9j 

9jS b*Jl CjLjyuu 9 <-SjJ j_ikii jJ^PjS 

^>9j AJ^jS jJ>OjS uiAjulgahfi 

(jjo iSjb i-jOjjo (jjl 9jS <o 

Lo_uj jl 1 _sy_«-ul ijj AJI9JJ j9 

ijlc^i- q,oc jl ijjj v_j_»ii ol lj i-^jJ 

J^j ji ij l _j^j-albl oLIjuob 

3LLJUU9I 9 py> 2>jS u^juoiLuj ijja). 

U^juu O jj A^- j (j-uAj_»-u jj >OjS 

^.jJjJj 15I9J iSg jl -XjJj 09^ 



lj <_SU ^jjjj Li &-»^lg >0 

jLiji j^ lj <_J :>L~aSj ol jl -xsj 

_>flj ol glloc 9 lgjo_>S j9 

uLiu gl ili pJi> OAJl> iSljj jl 

Ogj-o9 g cuLi-a9l jj i-jJ g Jjjj>_s\jo 



<-Sjl> j9j iSLs lj ^1 _>jj l5 

lj lSljl/XjkAjL> _^pj \Ju oijj 

ilig gi <_Sl /xJo" CjuoJl> A^5 CjlsS 

jIS iSgj gl -Xj-Xj g igjo^*j u-oy 

jSi uIjjjo iSlgJulS^* jl 

uLiuljjjiL>J j g uMjLSij jg 

Ogjj (_svJoljiijo $j$ ijj^j\ g^/xA 



iSjji o-^Li Cju^>j9 g gl oLiJ /xji-u-^ gi 0-X_»ii lij-aj OJul> Og9 jl lj *Sy g sSjji l >ifl^ «^l>Lojo 



OLoj Ol CUj-OJ CjuulO (j^JlSjj /XjiiL^ 

OlpJ L>-l 3jo^ jl (jj^ _pr jl 
^jiilljLiLo i5g£.i Ji jl CjSj 

^^•1 £\J ji C^AjO^AjUOj-^ l^jj 

\jjsiD j_»ii Ijjo 1$ gS>_s\jo £\J 

Us i jj gl <tyJSL$B jl :>L9 £l5 

ijjo>_s\jo i-Sl^Lion O^S^" J9l-C ^j-" 



OL_»-uL jl CjSjS OJjAJl> i^jj 

olj jjj uii^j^ g -Xj-ij-i sSlojU 
^IijLajlsI oaJ jl lj <Sy 

Ijl> _^pj jS" i-^jJ (jii^jS 1j\J 

lei Ol ^^v^jjO-XJl^ v_J\^\J CjlsS" 
ij c LfijJ >? <-3Lilj<jJ u-aJLbl iSlOjU 



Ijl> _^pj jl iSgS v_jv^\J CjlsS 

jl5L«ii >_sU$ lj <-^jj v>j' 9' ^j^ 

cLpJL^S jl >_svi;juo OjJ Cjuuulo 

^Ij9 Oljujo CaS-Ii (jijOAJji- j iS" 

Lai9l ijS^.jvjo^ LaajI Ol jl £\J 

lj ^Iajj g ijS k^^j j^ ^j$ 

( jjj-C g Cj_n-ujLkAjL> CL^ (j^M .H-^s^V 

gS 3jL-a9l Ijl> j^j l >oj <*5 



lh"> O jJ fi^-yjJ ju (JjJl^/xA 

jL gi Olj jJ l jjjO-)uL> ^_s\-c\J CjlsS 

cLpJgjo cUj-u-> JjLc cUjaju /xjiii^ 

gl-jijj -Xj^ji L9 jl ju >og_»-u u-ijlp 

I Vr> <Sjj ol jL ^pjLp^ Og^j 

lj ^LlujI ol i5g jj JjoI /x>-j 

^ji ug.i.o.0 ,jjI >— >-«jl>S gJgjo t_i.o5 

gl ^LlujI jj ijS oL-a9|cL»-ugj 



jjl oLiJ 0L9 /xjgS jSi i-SL>Lax> jSI >_so o^'S u0 '-*' v-s^ lj ^j* s^jj-^ o^^ 



! jS^ i-^-c^ >oj^ >S gj y. sSlg 

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j90_nii u^bljJijo CU OjjixC u-aJLbl 
^ol-Juo jjl>I <o iS_>ji^jo Luoj 9J 



Overall, there developed a literature based on Persian writers view of Turks in Ottoman times were the 
term Turk to some extent became identified with lack of intelligence. 



Another story is about the cruetly of Oghuz tribes and starts with: 

aJj olSjl 9 oL^Ljij <_sl cjlsS 

JjJuo U9>- tScUjiu j>\ <K2r. jl 

/jJJOu_>C 9 /xjiiu9j.i o^-? ^9-? 

Ajo Ijlo jj 9 9I -\_j-ujJu U 

Cj_«-ujj lj 9I Cj_«-uI CijS -X^lfj < .0^ 

/xiSLnii ji 9 JLoJl>I ^Uijo ji 

OLiiu lj jj /XQ>:> (JjO /Xj-UjJu U 

LpJul ji oLoj j^>-l /JJ-Juol 

O^JLiLvjoJI U9_)>-l Cjj-aJUA>- ji 

^9joj Lo ub*j Cjuo^-j u^bjLc 

9J i-Slg i_Si_>$ o ^-*- >! O^' ^9^ j9 
The first verse starts with: 



jJ-VjoI _>jjU9>- <Sy ol_>c ol 
-Ui9L Oi Ol uLcl jl lj-oS 9^ 

AJuO u^JUUj9 <0 (jCuAJuLiyLlJ Cj_»jj3 

-\j_ii9l,_s\jo Ij^j /x^jjo CL^- ji 

Jjj v_ IjU (JJjJ l uuJS L) l -i.ftS 

CjljuJjJ (J_OljuJU0 (JjO j 9I ^>\ CjjjS 

/X>AJ 93 _>ji> Lo CjuuJUX&9 G<p>" Cjl05 

oLp_«ii i_sl J9I -\-»->.li^j Ij9 ^9>- 

Lo CO (JjJ eS^-P-ll <-SL[SjO_>S \^y±i 

°9>9 jl O^ L^>9 OJJ^T 
^9^i ^099 9 £9J ^599 <-$\bi b 

9jl puL-mJ^J Lo CLS lj OLiiul tlJ-iiO 



"Those blood-spilling Oghuz Turks came 

And set to immediately plunder a town" 

The adjective blood-spilling for Oghuz Turks is firmly negative here. 

There is a major difference in the Mathnawi were the term Turk is not an allusion or metaphor and the 
Diwan-I Shams were Hindu vs Turk, or Zang/Abbysian vs Rum/Turk, or Tajik (softness, settled) vs Turk 
(warrior, soldier, rapid, movement, migratory, plunderer (which metaphorically means of the heart as 
well). .etc.) are used as metaphors. The Diwan-i Shams metaphors required a more detailed treatment 
and that detailed treatment was provided in the previous section. 



Ethnicity in Aflaki 



Professor Speros Vryonis Jr has done a detailed and recent study on the division and distinguishing of 
ethnic groups in the text of Aflaki. 



Source: 

(Speros Vryonis, Jr., "The Economic and Social Worlds of Anatolia in the Writings of the Mawlawi 
(Mevlevi) Dervish Eflaki" in "Jaye L. Warner (2001), "Cultural Horizons A Festschrift in Honor of Talat S. 
Halman", Syracuse Universty Press, pp 188-197.) 

Before we provide more details with regards to Aflaki, it is worth reading what Professor Speros Vryonis 
Jr. has to state: 

Closely related to the religious groups are the divisions according to ethnic groups. Interestingly, 
Eflaki is often more sensitive to ethnic and linguistic differentiations than to shades of religious 
difference. Eflaki and his social world were attuned to linguistic differences since Persians, 
Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Jews, and Mongols lived juxtaposed in many Anatolian cities. 
Baha al-Din Walad, Rumi, Sultan Walad, and Amir Arif were all Persian speakers by birth and 
Arabophone by education and training. For this circle, at least, Persian was both the spoken and 
written language. It was certainly the language of cultural prestige and of much of the 
administrative bureaucracy. In the text of the Menakib, Rumi is made to quote Arabic within his 
Persian discourse, and having studied in Syria he often spoke to Arabic visitors in their language. 
He almost certainly spoke and understood Turkish and some Greek, as is certainly the case of 
Sultan Walad who, alongside his Persian writings, has left mystical poetry in the dialect of 
spoken Turkish and demotic Greek. 

A few examples of this sensitivity to and familiarity with the polyglot environment of Konya and 
Seljuk-Beylik Anatolia are recorded in our author. In one episode a Turk appeared in the Konya 
bazaar holding a fox skin and selling it at auction, calling out in Turkish "delki, delki" (tilki) or, 
"fox, fox". Rumi, who happened to be in the bazaar heard the Turk, and the regularity of the 
cadenced cry sent him into his ceremonial dance, crying out at the same time, "Where is the 
heart, where is the heart." Obviously Rumi understood Turkish and took the opportunity to pun 
in the two languages. In the celebrated incident or anecdote of the hostile water spirit that lurked 
in the river near Ab-i Garm, Eflaki refers to him in Persian as Lord of the Water. Eflaki then adds, 
"the Turks call him Su Isa (Lord of the Water)." Once more Eflaki is aware of both Persian and 
Turkish nomenclature and language. Finally, for our last example, Eflaki records the Greek 
sobriquet of certain members of Rumi's family. The author informs us that Meleke Hatun, the 
daughter of Rumi, was better known as Efendopoulo (daughter of the master); Amir Arif s 
daughter, also Meleke Hatun, was known as Despina. In both cases, these daughters were better 
known by their Greek sobriquets than by their Islamic names. 

The most prominent of the Anatolian ethnic groups, in Eflaki, was the Persians. This is so not be- 
cause they were the most numerous; certainly they were not. For at that time the most numerous 
groups were the Turks, Greeks, and Armenians. The Persians appear as the most prominent in 
Eflaki because they dominated much of the Seljuk administration as well as the literary domain, 
and because Eflaki himself was Persian. There was a steady immigration of Persian 



administrators, merchants, craftsmen, and religious men into Anatolia where their talents found 
ready employment and where there also must have been a Persian ethnic network. The most 
capable of these Iranian administrators, and the most powerful local politician is the famous 
pervane, Mu'in al-Din Sulayman. Persian statesmen administered and managed the finances, the 
foreign relations, and the internal conflicts of the declining Seljuk state. Even court chronicles 
were written in Persian. But the most brilliant contribution to this hybrid culture of Seljuk 
Anatolia was the mystical poetry, in Persian, of Rumi and his son Sultan Walad; the work of 
Eflaki is itself another monument. 

Although the Turkish element (both sedentary and nomadic) was very large, for it represented the 
military and governing classes as well as large numbers of nomads, this group nowhere receives 
the same attention in Eflaki as does the Persian. Indeed if Eflaki were taken as the sole source, one' 
would derive a very incomplete picture of this new ethnic group which, in the end, would 
predominate in the period of the rise and history of the Beyliks. 

The mere fact that Eflaki differentiates ethnically by employing the epithet "Turk" indicates that to 
him religious lines were not the only marks of sociocultural distinction. Ethnic demarcations 
were also important to him, and this further implies that Eflaki was writing in a social, cultural, and 
literary milieu where ethnic differences were important and had some resonance. 

I have already referred to the individual, whom Eflaki describes as a Turk, who was auctioning off a 
fox skin in the Konya bazaar. We must assume that the people of the marketplace understood his 
advertisement in the Turkish language. In addition, our author refers to an individual who 
occupies a privileged place within Islamic legal ana religious institutions: a kadi (judge) who 
challenged Rumi as to whether the rebab and the setar were permissible in Islam. Although the 
kadi remains nameless, Eflaki nevertheless qualifies him ethnically as a Turk. In other words, to 
Eflaki, the ethnic affiliation of the kadi was more important than his name. In the upheavals 
between the Seljuk administration of Konya and the Turcoman Karamanid dynasty, the latter are 
said to have placed a garrison of one hundred Turkish horsemen on the city's citadel. Finally, it 
should be noted that the epithet appears occasionally as part of the extended name of prominent 
Akhis. 

In Eflaki's work there is another use of ethnic nomenclature to denote values of a different kind. 
In one particular verse, Rumi (in Eflaki) states that he has men (followers) "who have a Greek 
face and a Turkish soul." The contrast made here in terms of ethnic moral attributions, is that 
between corporeal and spiritual-emotional-mystical. In the previously discussed examples the 
differentiating ethnic epithets are morally neutral as applied to the kadis-, soldiers, and petty 
merchants. In the case of Rumi's verse quoted above, the epithet Turk, applied to the soul, is very 
strongly positive in regard to the mystical and emotional virtues of the Turks; this concurs with 
the analysis by Annemarie Schimmel of the contrast between Hindu and Turk in the writings of 
Rumi. Another example of the ethnic epithets preserved in Eflaki as denoting ethical virtues or 
their lack is: "I went to bed a Kurd and awakened an Arab". 



At the same time, and paradoxically, the image of the Turks in Eflaki, in contrast to the works of 
Rumi, is often a negative one, and coincides with the remarks of the Persian Seljuk chronicler 
Karim al-Din Aksarayi. The following paraphrased anecdote from Eflaki, is an example: 

A Turk came to town [Konya] and upon catching sight of the madrasa of Rumi entered 
its portals. Therein he saw that the grounds were swept and watered, and the jurists were 
seated about, with their great turbans and sumptuous clothing, receiving the daily ration 
of bread and meat as the porter distributed them. This sight was a great revelation for the 
Turk, opening as it did a bright new world, and he contemplated it with great pleasure. He 
departed, clothed himself appropriately and reentered the madrasa. The mudarris quickly 
perceived, by the Turk's demeanor, that he was not a member of the ulama [ ulama, 
doctors of Islamic theology] and that his goals were other than spiritual. Then he pointedly 
explained to the visitor that hard work and long years were the necessary prerequisites for 
the enjoyment of the status, privileges, and benefits of a member of the ulama. 

The contrast in this case is obviously between a person of nomadic ("Turk") background and an 
urban dweller. 

The story of the Germiyanid amir is even more pointed. Amir Arif went to visit the son of 
Alishir, prince of Germiyan, who was resident in the city of Ladik. The amir had encamped, 
together with his large army, in the plains of Alam al-Din Bazari and there he formally received 
the Mawlawi "caliph" and his retinue. When the customary prayers and recitations commenced, 
Alishir became restless and was generally bored. He thus began to preoccupy himself with his 
ghulams (gulam, page), for, says Eflaki, "he was a Turk without manners and ignorant of the 
nature of the saints." Here the author has broached the negative aspect of the ethnic epithet, 
which along with the more positive ones became attached to the ethnicon in Persian literary and 
cultural circles. 

In the same negative vein is the famous story of Salah al-Din Zarkub who hired Turkish laborers 
to build the wall around his garden. On visiting Zarkub, Rumi addressed the following remarks 
to him: 

Efendi, or Khodaband, Salah al-Din, for this construction one must hire Greek workmen 
and at the time of destruction Turkish workers are necessary. For the construction of the 
world is special to the Greeks and the destruction of this same world is reserved for the 
Turks. 

Of other Muslim ethnic groups resident in Asia Minor, the Kurds, who must have been numerous 
in southeastern Anatolia, are mentioned only in the Arabic proverb quoted above, "He went to 
bed a Kurd and awoke an Arab " This is, as pointed out, an ethical application of the ethnicon. 

Of the dhimmis in Seljuk society, those most frequendy mentioned in our text are the Greeks. It 
should be noted that the dhimmis are always, and without exception, at least in Eflaki, 



distinguished by their ethnic affiliation. The word kafir (unbeliever) is also in use. The Greek is 
referred to as Rum or Rumi, the Armenian as Ermeni, and the Jew as Yahudi. The matter of the 
ethnic appellation of the Greek speaker as Rumi or Rumiyan has been obscured in much of the 
scholarly literature by the fact that the geographical term used to denote Anatolia is also Rum, as 
in bilad ar-Rum. Thus a person who comes from or resides in Anatolia would also be called a 
Rumi,as in the case of Djalal al-Din Rumi. In Eflaki, however, almost the only example of the 
use of the epithet Rumi in the geographical sense is for Djalal al-Din Rumi himself. In most other 
cases the context makes it clear that Eflaki has employed the term in an ethnic sense denoting 
Christians who are at the same time Greek. It is important to investigate the term Rumi, as the 
specific determination of its use and meaning has a direct and essential bearing on the 
appearance, or not, of a Greek ethnic group in Eflaki's social world. 

The specific examples of the term Rumi or Rumiyan break down into several categories. The first 
deals with individuals or groups that use this identifying epithet and are converted to Islam. At 
the funeral ceremony of the famous flutist Hamza, Djalal al-Din Rumi is said to have converted 
one hundred infidel Greeks. In regard to the obstinate and narrow-minded Safi al-Din Hind, 
Rumi declared that "it is easier to convert to Islam seventy infidel Greeks than to lead Safi al-Din 
to the right path." A Greek architect who constructed a chimney in Rumi's house was eventually 
converted to Islam. Now if the epithet Rumi/Rumiyan were to denote only geographical 
provenance, the above texts would make little sense, for all inhabitants of Asia Minor, Muslim 
and Christian alike, would have been Rumi/Rumiyan and so the distinction would have had no 
meaning. 

This is confirmed by the conversion of the famous Thyrianos Ala al-Din. Before his conversion, 
Eflaki says he was a kafir and a Rumi. What is decisive in this instance is that his pre-Muslim 
name, Thyrianos, which is Greek, has been preserved. In another episode Eflaki speaks of two 
painters who moved about in the circle of Rumi. Eflaki says of them: "Both painters were Rumis 
[i.e., Greeks] " They are described as having been proficient, indeed incomparable, in their art of 
the icon. Their arti-sanal status alone strongly suggests that they were Greeks, since Anatolian 
Arabs, Turks, and Persians did not command this skill. Once again Eflaki preserves the names of 
the two painters: Kaloyan and Ayn al-Dawlat. The first name is obviously Greek and means Good 
John. The second painter was converted to Islam by Rumi and only his Muslim name is given. It is 
clear that Rumi as used here by Eflaki means Greek, not Anatolian. 

A second domain in which the use of Rumi would tend to suggest an ethnic rather than a geo- 
graphical use is the domestic or household realm. Eflaki relates that one Baha al-Din Bahri had a 
servant-cook in his home who was a Rumi and who hustled up some fried rice from the day's 
leftovers to feed Djalal al-Din Rumi during his visit to Baha al-Din. More specific is the case of 
Khwadje Majd al-Din of Maraga, who in his house in Konya had a large number of female slaves, 
all of whom, much to his amazement, had mystical visions. One of them, a certain Siddiqa, saw 
frequent visions of colors, angels, and prophets. Eflaki states that she was of Greek race. Her name 
is Muslim and undoubtedly indicates her conversion, whereas her slave status probably precludes 



that she was Muslim, Turkish, or Persian in origin. Obviously, in speaking of a slave of Greek origin, 
Eflaki means exactly what he says. 

There are three anecdotes in which the apposition of Rumi with one or more other ethnic groups 
shows clearly that Eflaki more often employs Rumi as an ethnic rather than a geographical 
designation. The first of these episodes has to do with the spectacular funeral ceremony and 
procession for Rumi in 1273. The procession was heavily attended and included people from every 
religious community and ethnic group in Konya-. The text reads: 

And all the nations with the religious leaders and the leaders of the state were present, Christians 
and Jews, Rumiyan [Greeks] and Arabs and Turks and others. 

Here the juxtaposition of Rumiyan, Arab, and Atrak, that is, Greeks, Arabs, and Turks, allows us 
only one interpretation: Rumiyan is clearly used as an ethnic epithet denoting Greeks. 

In the second story Salah al-Din Zarkub, as we saw above, is given Rumi's explanation of the differ- 
ence between Rumiyan workers and Turkish workers. The understanding and explanation of the 
opposition of Rumiyan and Turkish clearly shows that we are dealing with Greeks. In a third and 
last episode we have once more the appearance of builders. Sultan Walad hired Greek workers to 
plaster the terrace of Rumi's madrasa, after which he paid them in cash and prepared a meal for 
them. 

In summation, Rumi or Rumiyan in all these specific examples refers to the ethnic Greek and not to 
Anatolians. Thus the Greeks in Eflaki's social world appear as a fairly frequent presence. They 
emerge as converts, builders, plasterers, painters, monks, priests, and domestic slaves. There are 
frequent mentions of conversions of Greeks to Islam within the circle of Rumi and the Mawlawis; 
they are to be seen en masse at the funeral of Rumi; and Amir Arif is a frequent visitor to the 
neighboring Greek monastery of Aflatun where he came for the company of the monks and their 
fine wine cellar. 

The remaining two ethnic groups, the Armenians and the Jews, are mentioned less often than the 
Greeks and again only where their activities touch upon Rumi and the Mawlawis. After a grand 
sema sponsored by the Seljuk official Alam al-Din Qaisar and attended by the amirs, the grandees 
of Konya, the ulama, and the poor, Rumi exited onto the streets of Konya. The strains of the rebab 
issuing from a nearby wine tavern fell upon his ears and once more he was inspired to dance. He 
danced until dawn and all the runud came out of the tavern and fell at the feet of Rumi. It turns out 
that these runud, who on the following day came again to Rumi and converted to Islam, were 
Armenians. 

In a second incident, which I have examined elsewhere, the runud of Erzurum and Erzincan 
acknowledged as their mystical superior an Armenian-speaking dervish. This indicates that here 
also, in cities with very significant Armenian populations, the local Armenian Christians, as in 
Konya, were important constituent elements of the runud commanded by the Akhis. The sole 



Armenian mentioned by name, Tenil, is also a member of Seljuk urban society. He was, by 
vocation, a butcher. 

As for the Jews, they too are present but even more vaguely. We learn that when Shams al-Din 
Tabrizi requested wine from Rumi, the latter went to the Jewish quarter of Konya to secure it. 
The Jews and their rabbis appear at Rumi's funeral and there is also an incident of the conversion 
of a rabbi to Islam.(192-197) 



As Speros Vryonis states: "The mere fact that Eflaki differentiates ethnically by employing the 
epithet "Turk" indicates that to him religious lines were not the only marks of sociocultural 
distinction. Ethnic demarcations were also important to him, and this further implies that Eflaki 
was writing in a social, cultural, and literary milieu where ethnic differences were important and 
had some resonance." 

Obviously, Rumi was not a Turk because if he was, Rumi, Sultan Waland and Aflaki would not 
constantly distinguish Turks as unusual and foreign in the Manaqib and constantly identify the 
ethnicity of Turks, Rumis, Armenians and etc. We do not see this with regards to Persians since 
Rumi, Sultan Walad, Aflaki and etc. were all Persians. 

For example, we look at some of these anecdotes. All of these were taken from the recent 
translation: 

Shams al-Din Aflaki, "The feats of the knowers of God: Manaqeb al-'arefin", translated by John O'Kane, 
Brill, 2002. 



[257] Report: It is transmitted that Amir Mohammad-e Sokurji, who was the intimate disciple of 
Soltan Valad, related the following: "When the imperial self (Shahzada) of the world Keyghatu 
Khan, arrived in Aqsara after the death of Mowlana, he sent a reputable ambassador to invite the 
commanders and the Turks of Konya to declare their obedience and come forth to welcome him. 
It happened that some of the rogues (ronud) out of impudence and quarrelsomeness put his 
ambassador to death. When news of this reached the king's ear, he was greatly angered and a 
yarligh was issued, to the effect that all the soldiers go to Konya and, having laid siege to the 
city, kill the inhabitants and engage in plundering and looting. On this occasion none of the 
officers and commanders was able to ward off his wrath. All the people of Konya were very 
upset because of this news. They saw no other remedy for their salvation than to seek refuge at 
the sanctified sepulchral shine [of Mowlana] . Absolutely everyone went to the tomb and wept 
and uttered supplications. 

When Keyghatu arrive in the vicinity with a huge army, one night in a dream he beheld 
Mowlana come forth from his cupola with frightening appearance. Undoing his blessed turban, 



Mowlana made a circle with it around the city's battlements. After that in extreme anger he 
came to Keyghatu' s room, placed his fingers on the ruler's throat and began to strangle him. 
Keyghatu cried out asking for quarter. Mowlana said: "Oh ignorant Turk! Give up (tark) this 
idea and undertaking. Take back your Turks (torkan) to your lady (tarkan) as quickly as 
possible. Otherwise, you will not escape with your life." Keyghatu immediately woke up and 
called his commanders and courtiers. 

When we went before him, we found him extremely frightened and shaking and weeping. 
Without our asking, he told what he had seen in the dream. All the noyans and the courtiers with 
one accord lowered their head and said: "We were worried about this matter. This city and this 
clime belong to Mowlana, and whoever sets out to attack this region (Diyar), no member 
(deyyar) of his lineage remains and he is destroyed. But out of fear of the king it was impossible 
to speak." Again a yarligh was issued, to the effect that the army retreat. 

When it was morning, Keyghatu in person, along with all the commanders honored himself by 
visiting the sanctified sepulchral shrine. I myself had also not yet seen the sepulchral shrine. 
Summoning Soltan Valad, the king became his disciple. He performed sacrifices and gave out 
alms to those living by the sepulchral shrine and to the leaders of religion. Having forgiven the 
sin of the city's inhabitants, he departed with a happy heart. The inhabitants of the city were 
overcome with joy and they sent the king an honorific present made of sumptuous preparations 
of every kind. 

For my part, my old former affection and love increased a thousand fold, and I became a 
disciple of Soltan Valad. As a thanks offering for this mercy, I had the vaulted arch of the 
sepulchral shrine renovated', (pg 229-231) 



[221] (Sultan) Valad also said: "One day two jurists who were Turks came to visit my father. 
They brought a small amount of lentils as a gift and felt ashamed because of the paltriness of it. 
Mowlana recounted: "One day God Most High sent a divine inspiration to Mostafa -peace be 
upon him - to the fact that: 'Let those endowed with intelligence donate wealth and goods to 
me.' . Mostafa instructed everyone to bring wealth according to his ability and the extent of his 
capacity. Some brought half their wealth, others brought a third, and our Abu Bakr brought all 
his wealth - so that a limitless amount of wealth results. Some brought camels, others gold, and 
other weapons of war." (pg 210) 



[331] Report: It is also transmitted that one day Mowlana had grown passionate uttering higher 
meanings, and a crowd of every kind of group was present. He recounted a story: "It happened 
that a Turk came to the city. Suddenly he arrived before the door of a madrasa. He saw that the 
madrasa has been swept and sprinkled with water, and the jurists were seated wearing big 



turbans and precious clothes. After a while he saw the doorkeeper of the madrasa come and 
bring for each of them items like bread, meat and other things which were their rations, and give 
each person his share. The Turk liked this situation very much. The next day the unfortunate 
Turk left his family and his village, made himself a turban and robe (jobba), and entered the 
madrasa. After greeting the teacher with "salaam", he sat down alongside him. 

It happened that the jurist teacher was a man of poverty (faqir) (note: Faqir means spiritualist 
in the popular sense of the word). He knew through clairvoyance (feraasat) that the Turk was not 
a religious scholar and that he come because of some other motive. The teacher said: "Oh dear 
friend, by means of external adornment and a robe and a turban a person does not become a 
religious scholar and a jurist. And without ascetic struggle a person does not attain direct 
witnessing. For years one must drink the liver's blood and repeat the experience over and over 
again. And one must become soiled with the smoke of the lamp. Then perhaps, through success 
from God and His favor, a nobody may become somebody (kas-i) and from his existence 
somebodies and nobodies may be able to learn what it is to be somebody (kasi)" 

Now the group who are worshippers of appearance and have remained with the beauty of 
appearance and find external education sufficient and have donned the faraji for appearance's 
sake and are never knows of meaning, seers of meaning and extractors of meaning — they are like 
that Turk who has been mentioned. It is necessary to undergo hardship for years so that an 
ephemeral (yak-dama) human being may perhaps become someone of "that momen" (an-dami). 
And he recited: 

'It takes years of sitting in the sun 

For the ruby to acquire color, brilliance and glow. 

For dung to turn into musk, oh disciple, 

It must graze within that garden for years 

Heart and soul became like a thread in witnessing 

So that the tip of the string appeared to me 

In asceticism the body becomes like a specter (khiyal-i), 

To chase away fantasies (khiyalat) from the interior, (pg 274-275) 



[315] ..Majd al-Din related the following: 'Early on I had brought with me from Qishahr to 
Konya a Turkish boy who was pursuing religious learning. He waited upon me in Mowlana's 
Madrasa. It happened that one night at midnight Mowlana was walking in the madrasa 's 
courtyard like the moon on the night of the full moon. All the disciples were asleep. The Turkish 



student of religious learning was quietly repeating his lesson and was observing Khodavandgar's 
(Rumi's) states. I had also succumbed to sleep. The Turkish jurist saw that Mowlana mounted 
the green light and little by little began to ascent to the wind [in the roof] . As soon as he reached 
the window, the jurist woke me. 

When I perceived what was happening, I was unable to bear the burden and to keep control 
over myself. Like someone utterly bewildered, I let out a shout and lost consciousness. The 
companions who had been asleep all woke up together. When I regained my senses, Mowlana 
said: "Majd al-Din, why did you let out a shout and release your quarry from your gullet? A 
Turk who is a recent disciple is able to bear the burden, but you divulge the matter. Many things 
like this occur to abdals to God. Acquire the state of close intimacy (Mahrammiyat) so you do 
not become deprived (mahrurri). After all: ' Wltoever conceals his secret is a master over his 
affair ' is a saying of the manly men, isn't it?" 

If man were a keeper of secrets, 

Good and had would not he revealed 

Wltatever belonged to the unseen realm 

Would all become visible for him (pg 266) 



[347] There is also a true report that one day Mowlana said: "They will rebuild our tomb seven 
times. The final time a rich Turk will come forth and build my tomb with alternating bricks of 
gold and pure silver, and around my tomb a very big city will grow up and our tomb will remain 
in the middle of the city. At that time, our Mathnavi will take on the role of a shaykh. (pg 281) 



[22] Report: Likewise, the most perfect of the disciples, Mowlana Salah al-Din-e Adib (the 
Man of Letters)— God have mercy on him— related the following: 'Accompanying Chalabi 
'Aref, I went to the province of the son of Mantesha' Mas'ud-Beg , and he was from among the 
supporters [Mowlana' s] family. One night he arranged a gathering, brought together the 
religious scholars and shaykhs of this province, and held a sama' -session for Chalabi. Moreover, 
they had their own shaykh —a man who was a Turk but of enlightened heart and pure simplicity. 
Indeed many times things he said would actually take place, and the Tarkan of the Turks 
(Tarkan-e Torkan) believed in him deeply. He was also called to the gathering. The moment he 
entered through the door, he passed by Chalabi with complete indifference, without greeting him 
with "salaam" or paying him any attention, and sat down in the seat of honor while mumbling 
and muttering something under his breath. After Chalabi began performing the sama ', he 
dragged the shaykh by his collar, brought him into the midst of the dance, and recited this 
quatrain: 



"When lovers set foot on the road of non-being, 

They escape all existence other than the beloved 
They died unto this deceptive, impermanent life 

They take flight the way lovers flee from it" 

And then he let go of him and the shaykh immediately fell down and began to foam at the mouth. 
After the second day the Turkish (Tork) shaykh quit (tark) the world and died. At that a great 
tumult broke out among the commanders, and Mas'ud-Beg was very afraid. Meanwhile the 
people of this province, in droves, became disciples and rendered many services. The next 
morning, Mas'ud Beg rose and going to Chalabi in complete supplication, presented his 
apologies. He bestowed on him five male and female slaves, ten handsome horses, ten fine 
cloaks of saqerlat cloth and twenty sufe-e morabba '. And he sent him sums of feluris [gold 
coins: florins] and silver in cash, and he became Chalabi' s disciple. Having been distinguished 
by divine favor, he made his lovely son, Shoja' al-Din Orkhan, a disciple — God Most High have 
mercy on them! (pg 595) 

[36] Report: The religious scholars among the companions related that one day Sultan Valad 
said: 'The king of those have lost their wits, our Faqih Ahmad - God have mercy on him — was 
engaged in studying jurisprudence with Baha-e Valad. He was a Turk, a simple-hearted man, 
and he was also his disciple. Due to one glance (nazar) from my grandfather he became 
incomparable (bi-nazar) in the world and such a state came over him that he threw the book from 
his hand. He became filled with passion and set out on the road to the mountains. Engulfed in 
the ocean of bewilderment and divine omnipotence, he wandered about for many years in the 
mountains practicing ascetic austerities. In the end the secret of Oveys-e Qarani — God be 
pleased with him — was manifested to the famous jurist, and he became completely drawn to God 
(majdhub) and deprived of reason. A group of people asked Baha-e Valad about the man's state 
and his madness. Baha-e Valad replied: "From those brimming cups of ours which Sayyed-e 
Serr-e-Dan [Borhan al-Din] quaffed, a single drop reached this man." 

Likewise, my father also said one day: "The intoxication of Faqih Ahmad is but a single whiff 
from the ocean of intoxication of Mowlana Shams al-Din-e Tabrizi, and no more." 

You 're drunk on wine, while I'm drunk on a whiff 

At Keyqobad's banquet, the whiff as well is no trifle, (pg 30-3 1) 

[71] Likewise in the of Qaramanids the city of Konya was in Qaramanid hands. Because 
Chalabi favored the army of the Mongols, this party was annoyed and would frequently raise 
objections, saying: 'You do not want us who ar your neighbors and supporters (mohebban) but 
you definitely favor the foreign Mongols.' Chalabi replied: 'We are dervishes. Our glance is 



turned toward the will of God. Whomever God wishes and whomever He entrusts with his 
Sovereignty, we are on that person's side and we want him.' 

When the bondsman is content with God's predestination 

He becomes a willing bondsman under Command 

'This being the case, God Most High does not want you but He favors the army of the 
Mongols. He has taken sovereignty away from the Saljuqs and given it to the family of Chengiz 
Khan, in accordance with: God gives His kingship to whom He will (2/248). We want the same 
as God wants.' Thus the sons of Qaraman, despite being devoted supporters and disciples, were 
angry and were on guard against Chalabi. Meanwhile, they had entrusted the citadel of Konya to 
a person by the name of One Eyed Qelechi Bahador, and his gallows' thief (dozd-e daar), having 
been made commander of the fortress (dezdar), was guarding the citadel with one hundred Turks 
devoid of shame. 

It so happened that one day Chalabi, along with a group of disciples, entered the citadel 
through the Sultan Gate. Bahador descendent from a cur, arrived and ordered them to beat the 
companions, and they even struck the rump of Chalabi' s horse with a whip. He returned to the 
blessed madrasa and became so upset and morose that it is impossible to describe. After a 
while, Bahador was afflicted with colic of the navel. He rolled upon the ground and let out 
screams. As much electuary and opium as they gave him, the pain would not subside. After the 
third day of his being in the heat and burning, a tumor appeared in his infidel interior and his 
whole impure, shameless body began to swell up. Crying and shouting out profusely, he sought 
the assistance and clemency from Chalabi. But it was of no avail. Thus they placed this lowly, 
worn-out brute on a wagon and were carrying him to Laranda. Half-way along the route he let 
out a sigh and burst. He consigned his infidel soul to Hell, and no one from that company 
remained, (pg 647-648) 

[23] Likewise, it is a well-known story that one day Shaykh Salah al-Din happened to hire 
Turkish laborers to do building work in his garden. Mowlana said: 'Effendi' — that is to say 
lord — 'Salah al-Din, when it is time for building, one must engage Greek laborers and when it is 
time for destroying something, Turkish hirelings. Indeed, the building of the world is assigned to 
the Greeks, whereas the world's destruction is reserved for the Turks. When God — He is 
sublime and exalted — ordered the creation of the world of sovereignty ('alam-e molk'), first He 
created unaware-infidels, and He conferred on them long life and great strength so they would 
strive like hired laborers in building the terrestrial world. And they built up many cities and 
fortresses on mountain peaks and places on top of a hill such that after generations had passed 
these constructions were a model for those who came later. Then divine predestination saw to it 
that little by little these constructions would become completely destroyed and desolate, and be 
eradicated. God created the group of Turks so that they would destroy every building they saw, 
mercilessly and ruthlessly, and cause it to be demolished. And they are still doing so, and day by 



day until the Resurrection they will continue to destroy in this manner. In the end, the 
destruction of the city of Konya will also be at the hands of wicked Turks devoid of mercy. 
And this being the case, it turned out just as Mowlana said, (pg 503) 



From the above samples, it is clear that Rumi in Aflaki had an Iranian identity and not a Turkish one and 
Turks are clearly distinguished as separate from the order itself. Obviously, someone who says: 

"Oh ignorant Turk! Give up (tark) this idea and undertaking. Take back your Turks (torkan) to 
your lady (tarkan) as quickly as possible. Otherwise, you will not escape with your life." 

"Majd al-Din, why did you let out a shout and release your quarry from your gullet? A Turk 
who is a recent disciple is able to bear the burden, but you divulge the matter. Many things like 
this occur to abdals to God." 

" Indeed, the building of the world is assigned to the Greeks, whereas the world's destruction is 
reserved for the Turks. " 

"when it is time for building, one must engage Greek laborers and when it is time for destroying 
something, Turkish hirelings." 

"God created the group of Turks so that they would destroy every building they saw, mercilessly 
and ruthlessly, and cause it to be demolished." 

Furthermore all the conversations of Rumi in Aflaki are recorded in Persian (despite Persians being a 
minority in the area) and sometimes in Arabic. For example, usually when someone curses, they do so 
in their native language. 

According to Franklin: "Rumi also swore, as we learn in the Discourse (Fih 88) and Aflaki (Af 151-2), 
saying gharrkhwahar, roughly "slut of a sister," a curse which would, addressed to a male, impugn his 
honor. Sana'i had also used this curse, as did Shams (Maq 83)."(pg 317) 

Thus the complete picture provided by Aflaki shows ethnicity was not only distinguished by 
language/background and even having the same religion did not mean ethnicity was not distinguished 
back then. From Afkali's anecdotes, it is clear that neither Rumi or Sultan Walad were Turks and had any 
sort of Turkish identity, the comments above again shows that Rumi's native language was Persian and 
naturally, even when swearing, it was again in his native language. The conclusion of this Section will be 
part of the overall conclusion of the article. 



Sultan Walad, Rumi's son 



Sultan Walad was Rumi's son and thus knew Rumi personally. He had spent his life with Rumi, had daily 
interactions with him and probably knew the physical Rumi better than anyone else. He was given the 
name of his grandfather Sultan al-Ulama Baha al-Din Walad. Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi sent Sultan 
Walad and his brother Ala al-Din Muhammad to Aleppo and Damascus for the study of religious 
sciences. Sultan Walad was deeply trusted by Rumi, and it was him that Rumi sent to seek Shams Tabrizi 
after the disappearance of Shams. Sultana Walad married the Daughter of Salah al-Din Zarkub, Fatima 
Khatun. He had two daughters by her and one son (Jalal Ali-Din Arif). Sultan Walad at the insistence of 
his entourage, took up the succession which, at his father's death, he had declined in favor of Husam Al- 
Din. 

Sultan Walad's work 

Sultan Walad's work has been surveyed by Lewis (237-240) and statistically speaking, more 99% of the 
Work is in Persian, with the rest being in Arabic, Turkish and Greek. Based on the direct information 
provided by the books, and its overview by the Encyclopedia of Islam and Franklin Lewis, we will give a 
brief overview here(with some direct quotes from these two sources). 

1) 

The Diwan 

The Diwan of Sultan Walad, in Persian contains 925 Ghazals and Qasida, and 455 quatrains. 
Approximately there are 12500 lines. Sultan Walad used twenty-nine different meters and composed 
nine poems in Arabic, fifteen in Turkish, 22 verses in Greek and the rest in Persian. That is overall 
12300+ lines of Persian poetry, 129 in Turkish, 22 in Greek and 70 lines in Arabic. The Greek verses 
occur in four different Ghazals and we have included them as an attachment.: 

2) 

Ibtida -nama, also called Walad-nama or MathnawT-yi Walad!. 

This Persian poetic verse book of Sultan Walad, in the style Mathnawi (a type of Persian verse) is the 
Ibtida-nama (The book of the beginning), also called Walad-nama (The book of Walad) or M athn awT-yi 
WaladT. Composed around 1 291 , it is written in the meter of the Hadiqa of Sanai. It constitutes an 
important source for the biographies of Baha al-din (Rumi's father) and Mawlana (Rumi) as well as for the 
early history of the order. It chronicles the history of the Mawlawwiya order, as well focusing primarily on 
Rumi. It also describes the predecessors and successors of Rumi. One of the students of Rumi, Salah 
al-Din Zarkub who had a close spiritual relationship with Sultan Walad is also mentioned. This work 
provides a firsthand account by Rumi's son who was very close to the many of the events described in 
the book. Overall, it is a hagiographical book, and promotes an image of Rumi as a miracle-working 
saint. It also provides a firsthand account of the Mawlawwiya order and the major personages associated 
with its history, including Baha al-Din, Borhan al-Din, Shams, Rumi, Salah al-Din Zarkub, Hosam al-din 
and finally Sultan Walad. The work contains over 9000 lines of poetry in Persian and 76 lines of Turkish. 



3) 

Rabab-nama, a Persian Mathnawi, composed, at the behest of a notable, within five months of the year 
700/1301 in the meter ramal of his father's Mathnawi. /t contains 7745 lines in Persian, 35 in Arabic, 22 in 
Greek and 1 57 in Turkish. A critical edition was prepared by Ali Soltani Gordfaramazi in 1 980 and 
published in Montreal as a collaborative effort between McGill University's Institute of Islamic Studies and 
the University of Tehran under the title: "Rabab-nama az Sultan Walad, Farzand-e Mowlana Jalal al-Din 
Mowlavi". Sultan Walad composed the Rabab-nama between April and August of 1 301 at the request of 
certain saint whom Sultan Walad repeatedly praises in the text. This "man of God" approached Sultan 
Walad with the suggestion that since had already produced a Mathnawi in the meter of Sanai's Hadiqa, 
he should now set to work on a mathnawi in the same meter as the Mathnawi of his father, Rumi. 

Sultan Walad begins this work in an imitation the song of the reed flute (Persian: Nay) at the beginning of 
the Mathnawi, but instead has the Rabab start the opening tale: 

"Hear in the cry and wail of the Rabab 

A hundred chapters on the depth of love" 

At one point Sultan Walads references his father's work as being "sent-down", suggesting he regarded 
Rumi's writing as quasi-divinely inspired. 

4) 

The Intiha-nama is another Persian Mathnawi. It was composed for the purposes, and is a kind of 
summary of the first two Mathnawi (Ibtida Nama and Rabab Nama). It contains about 8300 lines of 
Persian poetry (Lewis). 

5) 

The Ma'arif Waladi also called al-Asrar al-djalaliyya. It is a prose work in a style approaching the spoken 
language and containing accounts of Sultan Walad's thoughts and words. The title is an evocation of his 
grandfather's work by the same title. An uncritical edition appeared as an appendix to an undated Tehran 
print of Mawlana's FThi ma fih; a scholarly edition was prepared by Najib-Mayil-I Hirawi, Ma'arif , Tehran 
1 367/1 988. This work is in Persian and contains 56 of the sermons and lectures from the pulpit by Sultan 
Walad and recorded by others. It also again shows that the everyday language of preaching and 
guidance of Sultan Walad was in Persian and is replete with quotes from Rumi, Attar and Sana'i. 

Indeed like Rumi, Sultan Walad "speaks of Sana'i and Attar as the eyes of the heart and the spirit 
respectively, which he set before himself as an example". 



Sultan Walad's admits he does not know Turkish and Greek well 



Overall we possess close to 50 verses in Greek and 370 in Turkish by Sultan Walad. By all means, this is 
negligible relative to the 37000+ lines of verses in Persian and the 56+ sermons in Persian. Thus the 



Greek and Turkish output of Sultan Walad are less than 1 % of his total output where-as the Persian 
output is about 99% of his literary output. 

This makes one wonder why such is the case. If some want to argue that Persian was the literary 
language, they have no argument again because the Ma'arif Waladi is recorded lecture notes and 
sermons of Sultan Walad in everyday colloquial Persian by the followers of the order. So had he just 
used Persian for literary purpose, then one would expect that the sermons from the pulpit where he is 
guiding his everyday followers should be in Arabic or Turkish or Greek or in another language. However, 
it was in Persian which shows that the everyday language of the order was Persian and it was also the 
native language of Sultan Walad. 

Despite the approximately 50 verses in Greek and 370 in Turkish, Sultan Walad admits his knowledge of 
Greek and Turkish is rudimentary. That is while he knew these languages, he did not feel complete 
mastery over them. 



According to Franklin: 

"Sultan Valad elsewhere admits that he has little knowledge of Turkish"(pg 239) 

"Sultan Valad did not feel confident about his command of Turkish"(pg 240) 

Sultan Walad actually admits the fact that his knowledge of Turkish and Greek is rudimentary four times. 

1) 

In the Ibtedanama, Sultan Walad states: 

(_Svj09j g l _svS_)J O.ftS jl j-Xuj 

iSjli jl g (_5\_»-UjL; jl i_S<p 

i_SjLl>j(x& (jCug^-gi _>& (jjl ji oS> 

Translation: 

Abandon the speech of Turkish and Greek 

Since you are deprived of these expressions 

Instead speak Persian and Arabic 

Because you are well versed in these two 

Sultan Walad, Masnaviyeh Waladi, Ensha' Baha al-Din b. Mowlana Jalal al-Din Mohammad b. Hosayn-e 
Balkhi, Mashur beh Mowalana, ed. Jalal al-Din Homa'l (Tehran:Eqbal, 1316) (pp 393-4) 

2) 



In another poem in the Rababnama, he states: 

Turkche bilseyd «m ben eyed Urn size (If I had known Turkish, I would have told you) 

Sirlarin kim tanridan de gd\ (The secrets that God has imparted on me) 

Bild iireyd tint s ozile bildiigumi (I would have informed you in words of what I know) 

Bulduraydum ben size buldugumi (And let you find what I have found) 

Dilerem kim g oreler kamu am (I wish that all could see that (truth) ) 

Ctimle yoksullar ola benden gani (And that all the poor would be rich because of me;) 

Bildiirem diikeline bildiigumi (That I would inform all of what I know) 

Bulalar ulu kiqi buldugumi (And let great and small find what I have found) 

See: 

(Sultan Walad, Rabab Nameh az Sultan Valad, Farzand-e Mowlana Jalal al-Din Mowlavi. Ali Soltani 
Gordfaramarzi, McGill University's Intitute of Islamic Studies and the University of Tehran, 1 980). Pp 451 

Also quoted in: 

Mehmed Fuad Koprulu, Early Mystics in Turkish Literature, trans., ed., and with an introduction by Gary 
Leiser and Robert Dankoff (London: Routledge, 2006). 

Again this is clear example of Sultan Walad admitting that his Turkish was not on par with his Persian. 

3) 

In the Turkish lines of Ibtidanama he also states: 

Turk dilin bilurmiseydum ben - soz ile bellu gostereydiim ben 
If I had known Turkish, I would have made it clear with words 

4) And again in the Diwan he states: 

^sJgl jl>«-ul >o>J<p J9-«-^ >JU^ _>SI ci^ejb 

If I had known Turkish, I would have made one word into a thousand 



But when you listen to Persian, I tell the secrets much better 

Source: 

Sultan Walad, Mowlavi-ye Digar: Shaamel-e Ghazliyaat, Qasaayed, Qet'at, Tarkibat, Ash'are Torki, 
Ash'ar-e 'Arabi, mosammat, roba lyat (Tehran, Sanai, 1984) Pp 556 

One wonders how many times Sultan Walad has to admit that he does not know Turkish and Greek well. 
So why did Sultan Walad make this miniscule contribution to Turkish and Greek which is less than 1 % of 
his total literally output? Despite his rudimentary knowledge of these languages (and he could have 
sought the help of a Greek or a Turk for understanding some of these words). According to Mehmed 
Foud Kopurulu: "The fact that he occasionally resorted to Turkish derives from his fear that a large 
majority, who did not understand Persian, would be deprived of these teachings"(Mehmed Fuad KoprGIG,, 
209) 

At the same time Mehmed Fuad KoprGIG, states(Mehmed Fuad KoprGIG,, 209): 

"I will not go into a lengthy description here of these poems, which were written in a very crude 
and primitive language and with a very defective and rudimentary versification replete with 
Zihaf{ pronouncing a long vowel short} and Imala {pronouncing a short vowel long}." 

Thus Sultan Walad admits that he is not proficient in Turkish and Greek as he is in Persian. But he did 
have Greek and Turkish followers and thus he could have asked their help in understanding some of 
those words and trying to make the message of Rumi clear for non-Persians. He prefers Persian to state 
the secrets and mystical wisdoms that were imparted to him by his father. At the same time, he wanted to 
provide guidance to the non-Persian followers of the order. Given the fact that the Ma'arif Waladi is also 
his sermons, and in an everyday colloquial language, this provides a conclusive proof that the family of 
Rumi was Persian speaking and Sultan Walad himself grew up in a native Persian speaking environment. 
Hence this is another proof that the native language of Rumi was Persian. Also the fact that his sermons 
from the pulpit are in Persian also shows that he was a native speaker of the Persian language. 



Sultan Valad's view on the Turks 



During the time of Sultan Walad there was a intense rivalry between the Turkish Qaramanlu and the 
Persianized Seljuqs of Anatolia. At one poin the Qaramanlu attacked Konya and pillaged the town. 

According to the Encyclopedia of Islam: "Following this, they were headed by Giineri Beg, 
who seems to have been a member of the Karamanid dynasty. The defeat of the Mongol army by 
the Mamluks at Hims in 680/1281, and the death of Abaka following this, led to disturbances in 
Turkey. Karaman Oghlu Giineri Beg carried out frequent acts of plunder in the Konya region," 

And 

"As Sultan Masud lived in Kayseri and there was no competent governor in Konya, the 
Karamanids were emboldened to carry out frequent raids and acts of plunder in and around the 
city. On one occasion, under the command of Khalil Bahadur, they raided and plundered the city 



for three days in succession. Sultan Masud thereupon requested help from Gaykhatu, who had 
recently succeeded to the Ilkhanid throne, Gaykhatu came to Anatolia with a large army, which 
also included Georgian soldiers. Laranda and Eregli and the villages around these cities were 
destroyed with particular savagery. The number of captives taken from the lands of the 
Karamanids and Ashraf Oghullari alone (690/1292) was 7,000. 

(F. Sumer, "Karaman-Oghullari", Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. 
Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2009. Brill Online.) 



(Note F. Sumer displays a Turkish nationalist viewpoint on the Karamanids and would support the 
Karamanids. Anyhow we wanted to demonstrate the conflict between the Seljuqs and Karamanids) 

The disdain for the Qaramanlou is shown by Aflaki, Sultan Walad, the Maktubat of Mowlana and etc. 
and requires its own detail study. 

What is interesting is that during the takeover of Konya, the Qaramanlou made Turkish the official 
language of the court and administration. However, Sultan Masud of the Seljuqs (whom we described 
as a Persianized dynasty who had left the Turkic origin) defeats them and retakes Konya. This episode is 
recalled by Sultan Walad where he praises Sultan Masud: 



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Ash'ar-e 'Arabi, mosammat, roba lyat (Tehran, Sanai, 1984) Pp 536 

Here Sultan Walad calls the Turks as "World-Destroyers" and praises Sultan Masud for bringing them 
under God's control even if they were hiding in the plains, caves and mountain. After the defeat of the 
Qaramanlou Turks, Sultan Walad beseeches Sultan Masud to not let a single one of these Turks alive. 

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(cited in Firuz Mansuri, "Mot'aleaati Darbaareyeh Tarkh, Zaban o Farhang Azarbaijan", Nashr Hezar, 
Tehran, 1387 (Solar Hejri Calendar), volume 1. Pp 71). 

This is in our opinion one of the more colorful poems of Sultan Walad and ties the concept of Qisas with 
political justice. Sultan Walad first praises Sultan Masud for making "all the Turks" (Hameh Torkaan) flee 
into the mountains and caves. Then he asks Sultan Masud not leave a single one of them alive and 
finally the last line Sultan Walad beseeches God: "O God, from these evil Dogs, take away both their life 
and faith". As noted, in modern Turkish nationalism, the Karamanids are looked upon in a positive light. 
This is because of their anti-Persian stance and attempt at removing Persians and the Persian language 
from the courts and administrations. We could already see some tension as mentioned in the work of 
Aflaki between the two groups. 

According to Dr. Firuz Mansur, "It should be noted that Fereydun Nafidh 'Ozluk has changed the word 
"Hameh Torkaan" to Khawarij in his Turkish translation of the Diwan of Sultan Walad". 

This is what Dr. Firuz Mansuri states: 

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Firuz Mansuri, "Mot'aleaati Darbaareyeh Tarkh, Zaban o Farhang Azarbaijan", Nashr Hezar, Tehran, 
1387 (Solar Hejri Calendar), volume 1. Pages: 71-72. 

This poem is reminiscence of the poem of Sanai Ghaznavi who complains about cruetly of various rulers 
in his own era and uses the metaphor "Torki Kardan" as equivalent to cruetly. 



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Conclusion about Sultan Walad 



Rumi's son Sultan Walad was born in Anatolia. In an environment where Persians were a minority, but 
culturally they predominated and even ran the Seljuq administration. The everyday language of Sultan 
Walad as demonstrated by his sermons was Persian. Furthermore, despite the fact that he lived in 
Anatolia where Greek and Turkish were important languages, he himself claims at least four times that his 
knowledge of Greek and Turkish are very rudimentary. He states also that he does not preach in Arabic 
and uses Persian, so that everyone may understand. 

By everyone, he of course means the followers of the order and with this, we can ascertain that the 
majority of the followers of Rumi at that time were Persians and Persian speaking. Also we brought 
examples were Sultan Walad has some of the harshest comments for Turks and specially the Qaramani 
Turks who tried to make Turkish the official language. He calls the Turks as "world burners" and asks the 
Persianized Seljuqs to not even let one of the Turks alive. At the same time, he had Greek and Turkish 
followers, but these were to adopt Persian cultural traditions. So Sultan Walad like his father was a 
universal figure, but the above mentioned points clearly demonstrates his Persian background and 



culture. We have more to say on the order's spiritual lineage based on a poem by Sultan Walad which is 

discussed in the end of this article. 



The Origin of Sama and a response to a false claim 

According to Halman: 

"Turkish scholars have advanced the argument that the Sema, one of the salient and 
dramatically effective aspects of the Melevi ritual, has its origin the ritual dances of the Turkic 
shamans in Central Asia. This viewpoint apparently does not conflict with the theory which B. 
Carra de Vaux summarizes in the following words: "The dance of the whirling derwishes, which 
goes back to Djalal al-Din, seems to be an attempt to express the Neo-Platonic idea of perfection 
and the harmony of the movement of heavenly bodies" (pg 272) 

Furthermore Halman or another Turkish scholar claims without any proof or sources (ignoring even 
Sama' among Shams Tabrizi and Attar and Sanai and Ghazzali who were all Persians like Rumi and major 
influences on Rumi ): 

"Persian communities of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries vehemently denounced the use of 
music and dance in any religious, including Sufi, observances" (pg 273) 

We shall show both of these statements to be utterly false and are written for nationalistic 
consumptions. Indeed Sanai, Attar, Al-Ghazzali and many other famous Persian Sufis have discussed 
Sama and music. We will first bring the relevant scholarly passages to discount the above two claims 
before offering more commentary. 

According to Franklin: 

"Sama is a difficult word to translate. It has usually been rendered as "audition," but this sounds 
like a musical try-out. "Spiritual concert" has also been tried, but in the usage of Rumi it is much 
more than listening. Sama ideally involves the use of poems and music to focus the listener's 
concentration on God and perhaps even induce a trance-like state of contemplative ecstasy 
(vajd, hal). When this happens, it often moves the listener to shake his arms or dance. It is 
therefore a kind of motile meditation or deliberative dancing, a mode of worship and 
contemplation. According to Mohammad b. al-Monavvar's Asrar al-Towhid, the sama' of 
Shaykh Abu Sa'id would include waving the hands (dast afshani) as well as circling about and 
stamping the feet. Abu Sa'id had learned this practice as a child(MAS 218), which had been 
well known in eastern Iran for over two centuries before the birth of Rumi. Sama' was not, 
therefore, an incidental or chance hearing of music, but a liturgical and ritual use of music. 

The manuals of Sufism had thoroughly covered the subject of sama' by the time of Rumi, 
giving it a theoretical justification. In the mid-eleventh century, Hojviri devotes the last 



chapter of his Kashf al-mahjub to it, first proving that the Prophet had encouraged the 
chanting of the Koran, and then proving that the Prophet had also listened to poetry. Hojviri 
goes on to show that the Prophet did allow singing and the playing of melodies. Of course, 
music can provoke a person's base passions or it can send him into transports of spiritual bliss. 
The act of listening to music was not, therefore, in itself wrong or evil, but it could become sinful 
if the listener responded improperly. Dancing was not approved by Hojviri, though he did not 
forbid it, explaining that the movements of the dervishes in Sarma' are not dancing but 
responding to mystical ecstasy. Hojviri gives rules for proper behavior in Soma', and these rule 
out looking upon beautiful boys (see below, "Rumi's Sexuality"). 

Sari Saqati had compared the Sama' to rain on fertile ground. But it was a dangerous thing 
which needed a shaykh to guide and control it. As the Owrad al-Ahbab describes Sama, it is a 
grace from God that attracts the hearts of His servants to him. ..whoever listens with truth will 
reach the truth. Whoever listens with passion will become a heretic (Saf 3/1:200-201). Most of 
the Sufi orders practiced Sama', though not all; the Naqshbandis of Naqshband's own circle, for 
example did not (Saf 3/1:203). 

The theologians, however, were divided about whether or not poems should even be recited in 
the mosque. Mo'ad b. Jabal, a companion of the Prophet, had said not, but later jurisprudents 
tended to be less strict on the matter, with even the Hanbalis making some allowances. Ibn 
al_Jowzi held the recitation of ascetic-oriented verse in the mosque permissible; however, Ibn 
Jobayr even heard al-Jowzi recite love poetry (ash'ar min al-nasib) in 1184 in the caliphal place 
at Baghdad, where he preaches twice a week (MAS 226). Abu Hafs 'Omar Sohravardi, the 
caliphal envoy, also moved his hearers with poetry in the mosque once (MAS 227)). Ibn Taymiya 
allowed preachers to recite verses of a religious/didactic nature in the mosque, if based upon 
the Koran, the Hadith, or exhortations to penance. The Hanafi legal handbooks held all of these 
permissible and eventually would add love poems for the Prophet as licit genre for recitations in 
mosque (MAS 226). The Shiites also allowed love poems for the Imams. However, the Shaf'i 
Zarkashi (d. 1392) held that reciting anything but religio-ethical verses in the mosque was 
forbidden (MAS 227). The preacher of Molla Hosayn Va'ez-e Kashefi (d. 1505) considered the 
signing of poems in the mosque impermissible, but he would allow them to be recited without 
music (MAS 228). 

Abu Najib 'Abd al-Qaher Sohravardi (1097-1168) in his "Manners for Disciples" {Adab al-moridin, 
written c. 1155) explains that all the authorities agree on the permissibility of listening to a 
beautiful and melodious voice reciting the Koran, as long as the chanting does not obscure the 
meaning of scripture. Having established that the act of chanting is not objectionable, he takes 
up the question of whether or not it is licit to chant poetry. One can only judge, Sohravardi says, 
by the content of the verse in question, even then, poems which might be inappropriate for one 
person at a given level of development would not be objectionable for another person. 
Sohravardi explains that some people, as they listen to chanting and music, may weep out of 
sorrow, yearning or fear; others might clap or dance out of a sense of hope, joy or delight. Such 



movements and cries arise from the human spirit and are not in and of themselves, forbidden, 
though those who have truly attained do not need act in this manner. 

Among Rumi's contemporaries in Konya, Akhi Evren was opposed to Sama', an attitude probably 
not atypical among the/offoi/af orders. But Ahmad-e Faqih wrote a "whirling" poem, and 'Eraqi 
praised the state of ecstasy brought about by listening to singers (qavval) tell of the beloved. 

One account which Aflaki (Af 680-681) attributes to Sultan Valad tells us that it was the 
grandmother of Sultan Valad (the mother of Gowhar Khatun) who first encouraged Rumi to 
practice Sama. He did so, but at first simply shook his arm about. Only after Shams arrived in 
Konya did Rumi begin to practice the whirling dance. 

On the other hand, Sepahsalar (Sep 64-5) says: 

His holiness, our lord - may God increase the light he shines upon us - from the 
beginning of his career followed the practice and procedure of his father - his holiness 
our lord, Baha al-Din Valad, may paradise be his - including teaching, preaching, 
renunciation and ascetic exercises. He [Rumi] followed whatever forms of worship and 
renunciation were attributed to his holiness the Messenger - God's peace and blessing 
upon him. In his prayers and fasting and exercises of self-renunciation, he [Rumi] would 
see epiphanies and spiritual stations to which no perfect man had ever attained, but he 
had never performed sama'. When his holiness, our lord and monarch of the beloved, 
looked upon our lord Shams of Tabriz, the Sun of Truth and Religion - God Magnify his 
mention - with the eye of insight, recognize him as the beloved and king of the saints 
who held a rank among the highest stations of the beloved ones, he fell in love with him 
and honored whatever he instructed. Shams then instructed him: 

Enter into Sama', for you will find increase of that which you seek in it. Sama' 
was forbidden to the people because they are preoccupied with base passions. 
When they perform Sama', their reprehensible and hateful characteristics 
increase and they are moved by pride and pleasure. Of course Sama' is 
forbidden to such people. On the other hand, those people who quest for and 
love truth, their characteristics intensify in Sama' and none but God enter their 
field of vision at such times. So, Sama' is permissible to such people 

Rumi Obeyed this instruction and attended Sama' and observed with his own eyes in 
the state of Sama' that which Shams had indicated, and he continued to practice and 
follow this custom until the end of life. 

Indeed, Rumi became quite enamored with the ritual of turning and singing verse. Sama' became 
Rumi's flood of divine love, and he played it on and on. (Franklin, 309-11) 



The Encyclopedia of Islam article on Sama also elaborates: 



SAM A', verbal noun from the root s-m-' (like som'-and sim'), signifying "hearing"; by extension, 
it often denotes "that which is heard", such as music, for example. The same applies to istimd'- 
"listening" (Lane, Lexicon, 1427b, 1429b; LCA, s.v.) 



1. In music and mysticism. 

The term is not found in the Kuran, but it exists in ancient Arabic, even in the sense of song or of 
musical performance (Lane, 1617b, s.v. mushar). In lexicology and in grammar, it signifies "that 
which is founded on authority", as opposed to kiyasi "founded on analogy" (de Sacy, 
Grammaire, i, 347, and Lane,1429b). In theology, it is opposed to 'akl, "reason"(Goldziher, 
Richtungen, 136-7, 166). But it presents a specific sense in Sufism, where it generally denote the 
hearing of music, the concert, and in its particular sense, the Sufi tradition of spiritual concert, in 
a more or less ritualised form. Sama'- is then considered to be the "nourishment of the soul", in 
other words, a devotional practice which, according to Sufi authors, can induce intense 
emotional transports (tawddjud), states of grace (ahwal), of trance or of ecstasy (wadj, wudjud) 
and even revelations. These manifestations are often accompanied by movements, physical 
agitation or dance which are of set form or otherwise, individual or collective, of which Persian 
miniatures have left numerous testimonies and of which certain forms are still in use. The very 
sense of the term sama', which has been widely discussed, suggests that it is actually listening 
which is spiritual, since music or poetry do not necessarily have a sacred nature. "Hearing", on 
the other hand, can be applied to any sound, natural, artificial or artistic, as well as to the 
"subtle" sounds of the hidden world or of the cosmos. In its predominant sense, hearing is a 
synonym of "understanding", in other words, comprehension, acceptance and application of the 
Revelation, and the practice of sama', beyond ecstasy or rapture, can be an unveiling of 
mysteries, a means of attaining higher knowledge (Ruzbihan, Gisu Deraz). 



Sama'- does not seem to appear until the mid-3rd/9 th century among the Sufis of Baghdad, but 
while the association of music with ecstatic rites or practices is attested prior to Islam in the 
Religions of the Book(Mole), no solution has been found to the question of continuity between 
the latter and the Sufi practice of sama'-, in spite of numerous similarities. It could take the form 
of an extension of the hearing of the Kuraan to that of religious ghazals and kasidas, or 
furthermore, of sacralisation of the secular concert and a sublimation of tarab, that new custom 
which spread very quickly to Isfahan, Shiraz and in Khurasan (Purdjawadi,18). Sama' is thus 
initially an "oriental" phenomenon, promulgated in particular by the Persian disciples of Nuri 
and of Djunayd. By the same token, all of the early authors dealing with sama' were Persians, 
with the exception of Abu Talib Muhammad al-Makki (d. 386/996 [g.v.]). Subsequently, sama'- 
spread to all areas, but found most favour in Persian, Turkish and Indian Islam. The first writings, 
composed a century after the inauguration of the custom of sama', coincided with the first 
attacks on the part of traditionalists who sought to condemn music (such as Ibn Abi '1-Dunya 



(208-81/823-94 [q.v.]), the author of the Dhamm al-maldhi, cf. Robson), and constituted a reply 
to them. According to Purdjavadif/'b/d., 22), these writings may be arranged in three groups and 
periods: 



(1) 4th/10th century. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami(d. 412/941 [q.v.]), whose K. al-Sama' is the first 
monograph devoted specifically to sama'; al-Makki; al-Sarradj (d. 378/988 [q.v.]); al-Kalabadhl 
(d. 380/990 [q.v.])', and Abu Mansur. They base their arguments on hadiths and on the logia of 
the ancient mystics (Dhu '1-Nun al-Misri), being concerned above all to defend sama'- from its 
detractors. 



(2) 5 th /ll th century: al-Bukhari; Abu '1-Kasim al- Kushayri (d. 466/1074 [q.v.]); al-Ghazall (d. 
505/1111 [q.v.]). In these authors, too, the defensive aspect is featured, but the Sufis seem to 
rely on them more on account of their social and even political status. 



(3) 7th-8thl 13th-14th centuries: Nadjm al-DIn Kubra [q.v.], Ruzbihan Bakli Shirazi (d. 606/1209); 
Ahmadi Djam; Nadjm al-Di Baghdadi; 'Abd al-Razzak Kashani; Ahmad Tusi (8th/14th century); 
etc. They take into account the social and ritual aspect and argue more rationally. After this 
period, sama' was included in its entirety among the customs of the mystics and was no longer 
the object of judicial debates. Writers confined themselves to extolling its qualities and its 
symbolic meanings, some going so far as to consider it an obligation for adepts (Ahmad Tusi, 
whose Bawarik has been erroneously attributed to Ahmad al-Ghazali (cf. Mojahed, 1980). After 
the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries, the question of sama' seems to have been filed away or 
exhausted, and setting aside the orders which retained its practice and its theory (Mawlawis, 
Cishtis), did not give rise to any more original literature (Gisuh Deraz). 

The function of sama'-, as well as its conditions of performance, have evolved in a sense which 
al-Hudjwiri was the first to deplore, and which the aphorisms of the earliest Sufis (al-Halladj, 
Dhu '1-Nun) had anticipated in their warnings. It became for some a form of delectation or a 
sensual pleasure, all the more so in that the rite now included dancing and was concluded with a 
meal. Furthermore, the proletariat indulged in profane sama', in other words concerts with a 
religious pretext (Pouzet), not to mention rites of trance inherited from paganism and 
superficially Islamised (berated by Ibn Taymiyya). In order to restrain the adepts and counter the 
criticisms of the jurists, the majority of authors established conditions (al-Ghazali) and rules of 
propriety (al-Nasafi), and distinguished between the types of concert (sama') in terms of the 
nature of the hearing: some listen according to their ego (sama'*- al-nafs, or their nature, tab'), 
others according to the heart, others through the spirit. While for the first category, music (or 
sama') is not to be permitted, as for the adepts, not all the shaykhs were unanimous as to the 
advantages which could be drawn from sama'. The contention was that sama'- is dangerous for 



beginners and useless for the more advanced. Some maintained that it should be limited to the 
hearing of Kuranic psalmody (Ibn 'Arabi), others did not approve of it, but none explicitly 
discouraged it, with the exception of Ahmad Sirhindi . 

It is remarkable that the conditions of admissibility of soma' have had practically no effect on 
the musical form itself, except that instruments with profane or dubious connotations are 
proscribed (al-Ghazali). This is why certain instruments, such as the tambourine (daff, bendir, 
mazhar) and the nay were more widespread, while certain orders were content with song. 
Similarly, romantic poems were adopted at a very early stage in Persia, on condition that they 
were to be interpreted by the adepts in a metaphorical sense— sometimes very subtle— relating 
to a spiritual object or to the person of the Prophet. Faced with the diversity of attitudes, 
sama'- has taken on extremely varied forms, especially in combining with or associating with 
collective dhikr, the ritualisation of an ecstatic technique, which probably appeared a few 
centuries later. At the present day, it is most often in the context of a ceremony of dhikr that 
sama' is performed, in the form of chant sometimes accompanied by instruments, whether in 
the course of one of the phases of the ritual, or in association with the metrical shape of the 
dhikr. Thus the distinction drawn by anthropologists between sama' and dhikr., on the basis of 
the participation of subjects, "set to music" in one case and "making music" in the other, is not 
applicable, all the more so in that even silent listening is generally accompanied by interior dhikr 
(khafi), as among the Mawlawis, often being transformed into audible dhikr (djahri, djali). In its 
primary definition, sama' as hearing without acoustic participation of the adepts hardly survives 
except among the Mawlawis, the Bektashi-Alawis, the Indo- Pakistani Kawwalis, and in the rites 
of marginal groups such as the Yazidis, the Ismailis, the mated shamans of Balucistan (types 
damali, kalandari). On the other hand, in many rituals (hadra, hizb, dhikr), it survives as the 
introductory part (Kadiris of Kurdistan) or concluding part (Sufi brotherhoods of the Maghrib). In 
all these cases, the hymns or the instrumental pieces constitute specific repertoires generally 
distinguished from the music of the secular environment by means of their rhythms, their 
structures and their texts. Faced with the diversity of musical techniques put into practice, it is 
difficult to identify in purely formal terms a notion of "music of sama'", except at the level of the 
force of expression, drawn from the dhikr as a form and as a mode of concentration. The 
difficulty in identifying a global specificity is due perhaps to the paradoxes underlined by certain 
shaykhs (al-Suhrawardi), according to which it is not sama- and dance which induce ecstasy, but 
ecstasy which arouses the dance, or furthermore, that sama' is only a revealing instrument and 
that it only supplies that which is brought to it by the hearer.(J. During, "Sama"' , Edited by: P. 
Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill 
Online.) 



Thus as shown in the above two excerpts on Sama' that Sama' was an Iranian-Khorasanian Sufi 
phenomenon. Virtually all the names associated with it including Abu Said Abul Khayr, Hujwiri, Junayd 
Baghdadi (of Iranian origin), Abu al Hassan Nuri (Sufi in Baghdad of Iranian origin), Sari Saqati (Iranian 
origin), were early promulgators of Sama'. That is why the Encyclopedia of Islam states: "Sama' is thus 



initially an "oriental" phenomenon, promulgated in particular by the Persian disciples of Nuri and of 
Djunayd" 

During Rumi's own time, it was the Iranian Shams Tabrizi who encouraged Sama' and we have other 
Iranian Sufis. Also other Iranian Sufis of that time including Najm al-Din Kubra, Ruzbihan Baqli Shirazi, 
Ahmad Djam and etc. practiced Sama'. Franklin clearly also sates: "The manuals of Sufism had 
thoroughly covered the subject of sama' by the time of Rumi, giving it a theoretical justification. " and 
virtually all these manuals were written by Iranians Sufis. Indeed Fakhr ad-Din 'Araqi who also visited 
Konya practiced Sama' as well. Ghazzali a prominent Iranian theologian and Sufi (who emphasized the 
importance of Shari'ia) has also stated: 



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Ol^j-I 9 CiLSuo oLoj 

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«.0_jujI v-Js ^gJoLi jLao 9 i_9iL^> vito ^Lo^-hjj JjlijSjjo ^j ijjgj 



Finally an example from the poetry of Attar relating the concept of "bikhodi" (losing oneself) and Sama': 

:jlkc 

jAj Juol ^o\JL5 Ol 09^: <->J>^> jl 
_>Si i3^9b 6ji> iii iij i". .{1^ 



Thus unlike what was erroneously claimed, Sama' was practiced by the Persian poet Rumi's 
contemporaries including Shams, Fakhr al-Din Araqi, Najm al-Din Kobra, Ruzbihan Baqli and etc. The 
origin of Sama' also dates back to at least the earliest days of Iranian Sufism and the Encyclopedia of 
Islam has mentioned that virtually all the prominent names in relation to the practical and theoretical 
developments of Sama' are Iranians. Thus the nationalistic claims to locate Sama' in Turkic shamanistic 
rituals or try to deny the Iranian-Sufic origin of this phenomenon has no scholarly value and is a forgery 
that has been coined to disclaim Rumi from his Khorasanian-Persian Sufi heritage. 

On Rumi's cultural predecessor and The Mawlawiya's Spiritual lineage 

In this section, we emphasize some aspects of Rumi's Persian culture, in particular the spiritual saints 

mentioned by Rumi and Sultan Walad. 

Thus repeating for emphasis what the Turkish professor Talat Halman has stated: "Baha ad-din (Rumi's 
Father) and his family eventually settled in Konya, ancient Iconium, in central Anatolia. They brought 
with them their traditional Persian cultural and linguistic background and found in Konya a firmly 
entrenched penchant for Persian culture. In terms of Rumi's cultural orientation - including language, 
literary heritage, mythology, philosophy, and Sufi legacy -the Iranians have indeed a strongly justifiable 
claim. All of these are more than sufficient to characterize Rumi as a prominent figure of Persian cultural 
/)/sfory"(Rapture and Revolution, page 266) 

In one Poem in the Diwan Sultan Walad explains the spiritual lineage of the Mowlavi and the major saints 
in it. After praising the ancient Prophets, then the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and then the four caliphs, 
he names Bayazid Bistami (Persian whose grandparents were Zoroastrians) after Ali (AS), and then 
Junayd Baghdadi (a Persian from Baghdad), Ma'ruf Karkhi (Another Persian), Abu Sa'id Abu'l Khair 
(Another Persian), Shibli Baghdadi (born to a family originally from Samarkand and likely of Sogdian 
origin.), Mansur Hallaj (another Persian), Sanai (Persian poet), Attar (another Persian poet) and then 
Baha al-Din Walad (and then to Rumi and important personalities of the order). 

Let us quote that section of the Diwan(Divan Walad, pp 522-523): 

oLsLJjLc i_sl oLsLJjLc <_sl \Lc oLi oloj ji j^Jj 

Ol_p J-bj *Sj 1+j1i$j uL> ,ob> jl A-ii^r <^SJ^=r 

Ola-niilc i_Sl oLsLniLc i_Sl IgjiLo oJbjJo ji JljJu 

9S 9 CjlJSlaj i-S^Jljuojo J_ojc>Sj £jj *jl jl ,_sv3-_p 

oLsLJjLc i_sl oUlJjLc i_sl Lgj ,_syji c^sLb 

XjjOJ ^jJS -i_iuJ _>ji jl A+C9 <^J jl AjJ2jjJ9J 0$s> 

oULujLc <_Sl oLqjJjLc i_Sl Lcub ^jlijg-juj 9 -Li£ Xjii 



U^J-Jlc -X_JUJ Ij3- J-ijO ujO+JUo ,_sJL_juJ ^— i_--o5 o$s> 

OliLJjlc i_Sl OljLJjlc i_Sl IS 9 jL$ A-o gi ,jliib 

oUljjLc i_sl oUljjLc i_sl Ij b jl jui jljJi 

Laj >OJ- Ol jl i^>- 0^> LljuJ jj ^JOUljuJ A-juJ /X& 

oULjJjLc i_sl oUljjLc i_sl LjJjI o_*JoS aj cuISLj 

jj3- ,_so AjJj igj i_>j 0^=r jSLjuj 9 i^C Ol jl jl hr. 

oUlJjLc i_sl oUlJjLc i_sl Ig-gJLio jjjl uiul ij 

A>-l OjuUL0j_uJ OjuoS O9J? -jJg Or!-^' 5 ^ Ol lo I id 

oUlJjLc i_sl oLsLJjLc i_sl Ihr. \.r> oLaJLaj 9I ib 

Thus besides the early Caliphs, all the Sufi saints that are quoted in the above poem are Persians. 
Furthermore, virtually all the Sufi saints quoted in the Mathnawi are Persian and the rest of them are of 
Arabic descent (like Buhlul and Dhul Nun Misri). This shows that Khorasanian Sufi order of Rumi was in 
reality a Persian-cultural order. 

In this regard, two figures clearly stand out and those are the Persian poets and Sufis Attar and Sanai. 

Rumi states: 

d-iJoS jl hr. Ij ^9-iJulT- >£-juu i"i Qrh 
pj\ <*s>;$5 i^j ps* jjjl J9-iLd> Lo 

The seven cities of love were travelled by Attar 
But we are still in the corner of the first lane 

With regards to Sanai, the late Professor Arberry states: 

"Rumi, a far greater thinker and poet, freely acknowledges his indebtness to Sanai, not only 

quoting from the Hadiqa in his own Mathnawi, but also in a direct confession: 

Attar was the spirit, Sanai his twain 

And in time thereafter, Came we in their train" 

The original Persian of that famous couplet is: 



/xjiic=r 9^ ^jJLljuj 9 igj £9j jliaC 
/xjJuol j\ hr. 9 ,_sJLljuj ^_^f jl /xd> Lo 

Rumi quotes Attar and Sanai many times in his everyday sermons as shown in his works the Seven 
Sermons and Fihi Ma Fihi. He praises Sanai numerous times for example: 



^>°^ uS^^ LjuU 3-2?'l9^> i^s^juoS o_aS 
i^^jjjlg tils to ^j^szjjJo 29 j 

vLiSl Jjuo OL?- ,_sOuexd> J_iuj 



Besides Attar and Sanai, Rumi was influenced by the Shahnameh and its characters are recounted in 
different poems. 



Siyavash: 

V9^9j9 ulgj i_ji_ii i-SJLb q^ 



Key-Qobad: 

/siLiS^jvS <i£ Ij3- qj ^o^lj v L9l j gj> 
^OjgS vl-^Lo j ^J ^ojL 1 ^ 69J-b Sj-jJu <*J CU 



Key Khusraw: 



iSjlSLjii! 9 ^Ii.iQ cuxfi) ^Job» cuxfi) vuUi cuxfi) 



Jamshid, Fereydun and Keyqubad: 



^l.o.^ 9 ulhl hi 9 $juujj> 9 ,JJjIj Aj-j 



_\j_jujj 6jL-juj ul gj> _pjsijuo tUjo^ /xj_i_*Ju 



And finally the heroes most mentioned by Rumi is Rustam. In two poems, he puts the bravery of 
Rustam and Esfandyar in the same line as that of the first Shi'i Imam Ali (AS) who was given the title 
Haydar (lion) due to his bravery and chivalry. 

For example in this famous line: 

<J3£ /sJi _>^>Lx Cj-jujuuj Oui)_>jOji) jjjj 

Here Rumi is stating: 

My heart is grieved by these companions of feeble nature 

I seek and wish to have (as companions) the lion of God (a reference to Ali (AS) ) and Rustam Dastan 



This mixture of pre-lslamic and post-Islamic Iranian symbols of bravery speaks directly to the heart of 
some modern "intellectuals" who are trying to polarize Iran's heritage. 



In another poem, Rumi mentions the Hero Esfandyar with that of Imam Ali(AS): 



i_Solo Oljl ij£>13» 9J <*£ .,_soIaS }£> Qj _pJuo 



,_sOi39 jL)AJLa_iuj o£ .LpJu <_sl jjjl k 6 .^ i 

^JvjUoJ^ (^jJLC OS (^J^^ O-juuI _^u> j^ 

/.ef go o/f/)e beggars (show offs), thou who are ours are of special guality 

Do not sell yourself short, you are very valuable 

Come as a one man army, because you are the Esfandyar of time 

Throw away the gate of Khaybar from its roots, Because thou are Morteza AH (AS) 

Here is another place Rustam is mentioned: 

puuO^tjl _>£> pS*j\ />\Q\ iil_p _>£> 093 

/ om the luster of mirrors, I am the Rustam of Battles 
I am the power of hungry, I am the star of gatherings 

Finally other heroes like Saam, Narimaan and etc. are mentioned: 



j 0I99J0 Jjj-jkijp?- v"i mi iVii ,_s\JLiiA£ co £gj 



j OLojjJ 5 joLuJ JluujlS j A > J> pJi-tJJj 



0-"0 9 l«oo AJi^r ,j3 j LsOlSgib* 



Thus the Shahnameh provides many of the symbols Rumi uses in his poetry. In reality, without 
Shahnameh, Sanai, Attar, Khorasani Persian Sufism there would be no Rumi. 

Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi has taken a very symbolic and spiritual reading of the Shahnameh in his 
Alwah-i Imadi. Attar also in his Elahi Nama has taken a spiritual reading of the Shahnameh. The 
following poem has also been attributed to Rumi and has been retold by several different authors as a 
poem from Rumi (For example the Atashkadeh of Azar): 

ilj vb-iujl.>3l ulkSLi_>9 £ JJ1J9S 

ili 9 pic 9 i_SiLjj OjjJ 9 ^gl> d\$s>\ 

i^9j .ilao Jjic ^jligLji Ob> CiI_>jI j 

ilgj jjJ OIj9j Qj Q^zjJJ o^' >Q-> jl 

^9j ^jlilao JJLc a£ <*->^>~H jSjs ul^ 

^LljuOJU (JJLUuULU 9 t-_A_T>L> yOouJjJ Juol 
(JJLLftj t— »b_ujl_>9l _>J Ij 9jjO ^_>jl 

^I_Xj Ojj tj'JLiaJo >j^>^ 9 ^>S ^s^sz-a-u (j-uj 
9jjl 9 p\£ o- 1 ^ J^ oliJui^r ^ 

^Lua3 9 Qju& ^_5\J j JljuUO J9J-JUJJS 

ibiS j9joU >P-<jj 9^ Ol CiLjo Juol 

0_>Jjj i_SLp^_>-ujJjl 9 J-bb <-Sui_)jjJJ 

iljj Oljl ^jligLjjJ >-$\bi> U AJi_>S 

Ujjj^gS CiJuLjuuci-ji <3.l.6-',i,i Jl.g-i.i.i _>jj 

iljj c^-iujgi p^j j 0_njjli 1$ JouLu Olpjj. 

OJJ-2J 9 JjLc 2u9jJ j ^9^-9 gj-ujcay^ 

^LuaS ^_5sjO^ i^S^J>! '-'b 9 ^^-'J^J-S ^9^-9jO 

Ca3jS_>J Oilj^_njj 9 Juobj v_JJo 9^ 

ib 9^=r Ob>- dl_>jl 3j ijjj jjJ 9J jl 

/sJLc ObLjuoLlj Qj i_>j jb (jjjb*jl j 



ib-mugl i^j 9I °S file Jlj Oj ^ili 

file Jlj 0_mji jl ijlLijAS «-9lS £,jj&j_j"J 
^LuoSjJ (JjlU-U uL^J> yOouUC> 9 ^ohl j JuljuOJ 



Be that it may, Simorgh and Rustam are specially mentioned by Rumi many times and deserve their own 
study. 

During Rumi's time, we saw that the Seljuqs were a Persianate dynasty and Persian culture 
predominated. Even the verses of the Shahnameh were inscribed into the walls of Konya. However 
there were Armenians, Turks, Greeks (Rums) and other people besides Iranians (Kurdish/ Persian/Zaza 
speakers) living in their domain. However when it comes to Mowlavi order itself, we saw that Rumi's 
everyday language was Persian and he preached in Persian (all of his prose works that are recorded by 
his students) as did Sultan Walad. 

This is specially the case with regards to the Mowlavi order as its founders were Iranians culturally and 
ethnically. In the Walad-nama (see the section on Sultan Walad), after several verses in Arabic, Rumi's 
son, Sultan Walad states: 

Translation: 

Tell the tale in Persian so that all may understand it, 

Even though they lack insight and are (spiritually) sleep 



And Rumi after couple: 

And he mentions this again after writing some Arabic in another Ghazal: 



id 



.gjj Aj (j^j^. j^-^i tAli^. ^p -* a ^) J ^ ^f^ ^ 



And Rumi states the same thing with regards to Persian after some Arabic verses: 
Oh Muslims, Oh Muslims, Let me say it in Persian 



Because is it not polite to eat all the sweets by myself in a gathering and not share it 

So the cultural environment of the order was also Persian and this leaves no doubt that the order 
started as predominantly Persian speaking order. That is why the everyday vernacular and informal 
language of Rumi and Shams are in Persian and Rumi's informal sermons are in Persian which contrasts 
with his formal writing in the Maktubat. All of this is not surprising as the founder of the order came 
from the Persian environment of Khorasan and the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum was dominate by Persian 
culture and literature. Thus the emphasis on culture, language, mythology and Sufi orientation 
(Khorasanian-Persian Sufism) is the most important component that makes Rumi and all of these are 
sufficient to put Rumi in the realm of the Perso-lslamic civilization while not neglecting the fact that 
through this civilization, he brings out a universal message (the Mathnawi). As per genealogy, we note 
simply that Rumi's ancestors (and his sons) were preachers and native Persian speakers. Also a study on 
the vast influence of Attar and Sanai (as well as Hallaj, Bayazid Bistami, Kherqani, Abul Khair, Junayd 
Baghdadi) on Rumi is beyond the scope of this article and we hope a separate study is undertaken by 
scholars on this issue. 



Conclusion of this article 



As mentioned in the introduction, there has been a rise of ethno-nationalistic historiography through 
due to the political-ideology of pan-Turkism. This nationalist historiography has not just stepped upon 
Rumi's heritage but has claimed a host of Iranian scientists and poets such as Avicenna, Biruni, Nizami 
Ganjavi, Al-Ghazzali, Suhrawardi, Khwarizmi (the mathematician) and etc. 

In this article, we examined the cultural, linguistic, heritage and genealogical background of Rumi and 
some of his closest companions. We also examine the background of close friends of Rumi, mainly 
Shams Tabrizi and Hesam al-Din Chelebi. It was shown that at that time, Tabrizian people spoke an 
Iranian language, followed Shafi'ism and even Rumi has quoted words from this unique Iranian 
language (i.e. "Buri"). Today Shafi'ism is also the Madhab of the Western Iranian Sunni people such as 
the Kurds and the Talysh, where-as Sunni Turks of the regions are uniformly Hanafi. 

Another issue was discussed was the Seljuq empire. The Seljuqs had ancestors who were Altaic however 
by the time of Rumi, they were completely Persianized in language and culture. 

Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge 
University Press, 1991. pg 123: 

"For the Seljuks and ll-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were 
"Persianized and Islamicized". 

C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, 
titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, 2000. p. 391: 



"While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, 
the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely 
Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubad, 
Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been 
essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time). The process of Persianization accelerated 
in the thirteenth century with the presence in Konya of two of the most distinguished refugees 
fleeing before the Mongols, Baha' al-DTn Walad and his son Mawlana Jalal al-DTn RumT, whose 
MathnawT, composed in Konya, constitutes one of the crowning glories of classical Persian 
literature." 

In the section "Some Distortions due to Nationalistic Reasons" we discussed was distortions and 
misrepresentations of primary text. A clear example was given by one author who has inserted the 
word "Turkish" in the quote of Aflaki below while it does not exist. That author misrepresented the 
quote of Aflaki : 

"Mowlana had a special likeness for his son Sultan Walad and took him to all gatherings and 
places of discourse and considered him his "action". Aflaki says about Sultan Walad: 
"Meanwhile, after his father's death Valad lived on in tranguility for many years and he 

composed three books ofmathnaviyyat and one volume of Turkish collected poetry (Divan)" 

Where-as Aflaki does not use the highlighted red word "Turkish" at all in that anecdote and this was 
added in by the nationalist Turkish author. 

Another distortion was mistranslation by Fereydun Nafidh Ozluk on the poem of Sultan Walad. Another 
distortion for example was Mehmet Onder who claimed that: "when addressing people and in his 
sermons, Rumi used Turkish". Where-as all the sermons, lectures and letters of Rumi are in Persian 
except a handful which are in Arabic and not a single one of them is in Turkish. Indeed the sermons and 
lectures are replete with Persian poetry which also invalidates another false claim that "these sermons 
were originally in Turkish" as if the works of Attar and Sanai were also "originally in Turkish" ! 

In the section on "Shams Tabrizi and his Background" we looked closely at the culture and language of 
Tabriz at that time. Direct evidence from Safinayeh Tabrizi leads to the "Zaban-i Tabriz" and the "Zaban- 
i Tabrizi" leaves absolutely no doubt that Tabriz at that time had a Iranian speaking population and 
spoke a Persian dialect. Furthermore, the districts of Tabriz mentioned by Shams are also "Sorkhaab" 
and "Charandaab" with clear Persian names. Also some words like "Buri Buri" (Biyaa Biyaa) were 
recorded by Rumi from the mouth of Shams demonstrating the western Iranian dialect of Shams Tabrizi 
and this word exists in Fahlaviyat of Baba Taher, in the Iranic Laki, Harzandi and Karigani (the last two 
are remnants of a more widespread Iranian language in Azerbaijan at one time) tongues. 

We mentioned the importance of the Safinayeh Tabriz for understanding the intellectual and Sufic 
culture of Tabriz and hence Shams Tabrizi himself. The book Safinayeh Tabriz is thus indispensable for 
future Rumi and Shams Tabrizi studies. Interestingly enough, the statements and sentences in the 



Persian dialect of Tabriz (zaban-i Tabrizi) from this book have mystical Sufi orientations. Like this one 
from Baba Faraj Tabrizi: 

dgA^ i-fijj <\j LumjuukS />J3 ulo qj (jijuooiiib? Nj^l OjAjI />Jls9 G()jiL>_>9 <_S0-X9 <_SLilil 

Standard Persian (translated by the author of Safina himself): 

C>9A^- y <\j Cj_»ajI 0^li3\ />19 y <\j 9I /a,-^i--> Ajlo^l /Jlc ji lj £_>9 <_Slil-U^ 

And here: 

Sadeqi, Ali Ashraf. "Chand She'r beh Zaban-e Karaji, Tabrizi wa Ghayreh"(Some poems in the language of 
Karaji and Tabrizi and others), Majalla-ye Zabanshenasi, 9, 1379./2000, pp. 14-17. 

http://www.archive.org/details/LocalPoemslnlranicDialectsOfTabrizHamadanMazandaranQazvinlnThe 

From the viewpoint of cultural contribution, we have lecture notes taken by the students of Shams in 
the form of Maqaalaat and this work is in informal everyday Persian. The lectures are in Persian as this 
was again the everyday language of Shams Tabriz. Furthermore, the conversational style of Shams itself 
has been considered a masterpiece by Persian scholars and thus it makes an important contribution to 
the Persian literary heritage. 

As Shams notes himself: 

,Ciuil 8A4UJ j jUi jJ j dull »±a) ^— ujbjjbj jJ AS '*■»'!- 1 j t^*-* o' ^ i LfiJ^ J °^^ Oi^i ^-^"-"l •■*" ^ I J /y^jW (jW j 

In the Section on Baha al-Din Walad (Rumi's father), we showed that Baha al-Din walad was a native 
Persian speaker. Indeed traces of Eastern Iranian language are found in the Ma'arif of Baha al-Din 
Walad. We also mentioned the Zaban-i Balkhi, which was the language of the large area of Balkh 
(which is now in modern Afghanistan and Tajikistan). As noted by the Dekhoda dictionary: 

The Dakhireyeh Khwarizmshahi provides direct evidence of the Balkhi language. From the point of 
native language, we noted the vernacular form "maami" used by Baha al-Din Walad to address his 
mother. Obviously, if Baha al-Din Walad was a non-native Persian speaker, he would not use such 
colloquial terms as seen in the Ma'arif. 

We note some very interesting colloquial Persian terms that are rarely used today and possibly have 
Soghdian origin. The most outstanding of these (in our opinion) from the Ma'ari are bolded below: 

0jljj-<JlSl^Jj -(oJjiia A*J^) oAjc. jluii — oAiaJjj— 4Jjjj — AjSjS 4_iiSU — (i_£jj) t-SJj — (jiualj — 4JxJl — jbl — oJjS qA — JjJjJ 

jJ a£) »Al jia. jJ — L^ jAi. — (jjjlji) SJJjLi/ JJjLi — (JJjJ J -li~- £)l jJ plj^ 4£ /jSj^a) «JJ plj^ -(4-kxoll j J <LaU-j! jjj) 

^ * *? *) fl^J*" — (l)^" 1 j""*) L^iJJJ — 0^0 (j' - ^ ij'j^ J t - ja ' ^ lS J£^) 0j j '-^JsP — (42a*i! j (jj^ a. Vi-%^ £)JJLajJ — (AjSjS Jj 

- (£aJ j (jV) ^JJJ* - ((^Jjji) ^Ajjjfr- (sAjjjjIj j j»U.lJ t_u*ji) Ajjijjjj _ ( jjj£ gJaaio) JJj&jj - ( jUj (jijj juiiS 



Thus from an ethnic point of view, Baha al-Din Walad was a native Persian speaker. 

What do we know about Baha al-Din and Rumi's genealogy? The claimed maternal royal descent (by 
later followers ) from the Khawrizmshahs for Rumi or Baha al-Din Walad is dismissed by scholars and as 
seen as a later fabrication in order to tie the family to royalty. Indeed Baha al-Din Walad's mother is 
seen as a woman of non-royal background in his Ma'arif. The claim of paternal descent from Abu Bakr 
is also not in his writing or that of Rumi's. Even if such a claim was true (since many sources have stated 
it after Rumi), we should note that Baha al-Din's native language was Persian, his works are in Persian 
and he was culturally Persian. However, as mentioned, modern scholars have dismissed the lineage 
from Abu Bakr. The claim might have been made according to one source because Bahal al-Din's 
mother was related to a certain Abu Bakr Sarkhasi (a Hanafi scholar from Sarkhas). Then there was the 
paternal claim descent from the Khatibun families of Isfahan put forward by Fritz . The only firm 
knowledge we have of Baha al-Din's genealogy is that he is a descendant of a certain Ahmad Khatibi who 
preached again in Persian speaking towns and lived in a Persian cultural environment. It seems that 
being a Islamic preacher ran through many generations of Rumi's family, because Sultan Walad and 
Rumi themselves gave sermons and lectures to their followers (we shall say more about these later in 
the article). From the viewpoint of culture, the Ma'arif is again an important contribution to Persian 
literature and its style of Persian is very pleasant. It also shows the solid basis of Khorasanian Sufism in 
the foundation of Masnavi. 

In the Section on Rumi, we noted that Rumi has five important works. These are the Mathnawi, Diwan, 
Fihi Ma Fih, Majalis-i Sabe' and the Maktubat. Unlike what Turkish nationalist scholars like Mehmet 
Onder and Fereydun Nafidh Ozluk claimed, Rumi's everyday language was Persian. The best proof is 
that the lectures in Fihi Ma Fih and the sermons in Majalis Sabe' were recorded by his students and 
these works are in highly informal and vernacular Persian which constrasts with the literarlly and formal 
style of the Maktubat (which were official letters). The fact that Rumi gave lectures in Persian clearly 
shows that the Mawlawiya order started as a Persian phenomenon. Either way, the Mathnawi, Diwan-i 
Shams , the Seven Sermons and Fihi Ma Fih are major contributions to Persian literature with the 
Mathnawi being Rumi's most important work. 

We also responded to some invalid claims in that section on Rumi. For example Fereydun Nafidh Ozluk 
has tried to claim (without any proof but mere conjecture) the seven sermons were originally in Turkish! 
yet we showed that the seven sermon is in a sweet style of Persian and is replete with the poetry of 
Sanai, Attar and other Persian poets intertwined with the sermons. This invalidates the claim of 
Fereydun Nafidh Ozluk since these Persian poets also wrote in Persian. Overall the lectures of Rumi 
noted down by his students (in private settings as well as in public settings like the Friday prayers) leaves 
no doubt that the everyday spoken language of Rumi was Persian and it was is native language. 

We also showed another invalid argument claiming that Rumi uses Turkish word. However the number 
of Turkish words are very small and these Turkish words much like Arabic and Greek words had entered 
the Persian language. Another invalid argument was that some of these Turkish words are not found 
today in the Anatolian Turkish dialect, however as noted, at that time in the 13 th century, the Turkish 
dialects of the region were much varied and many places had not yet lost their Central Asian features. 



The Seljuqs themselves and many tribesmen had only recently arrived in Anatolia and thus this invalid 
argument has no basis. There is absolutely not a single verse in the Oghuz dialect from the region of 
Balkh and the Zaban-i Balkhi as noted was Persians. So one cannot look at 13 th century were more 
archaic forms of Persian was used (with archaic vocabulary from other languages it had borrowed) and 
then try to juxtaposition it into the 20 th century. 

Furthermore, another invalid argument has risen because of couple of dozen or so of Turkish couplets 
(mainly in mixed verses) among the more than 350000 couplets of Persian poetry in the Divan. The 
proponents of Turkish identity want to claim this as a proof that Rumi was Turkish. However as noted, 
Rumi also has about a dozen Greek couplets and much more Arabic couplets. Rumi's mother tongue 
was Persian as scholars state but he learned some Greek and Turkish in Anatolia. Any migrant to a new 
place who grows up in that place will pick up the prevalent local languages. So just like Rumi is not a 
Greek because of the number of miniscule verses in Greek, he is not Turkish because of the number of 
miniscule verses in Turkish. Together the Greek and Turkish verses make up less than one third of a 
percent of the Divan of Shams. Also as noted in the section of Sultan Walad, the family was native 
Persian speaking and Sultan Walad complains four times about his incomplete knowledge of Greek and 
Turkish. Also as noted many Iranians have also written in Ottoman Turkish, but Rumi basically has left 
nothing in Greek or Turkish although these languages were more widespread than Persian. His everyday 
sermons and lecture notes recorded by his students was Persian and it is clear from this that he lived in 
a Persian environment in the sense that his daily interaction with his followers was also in this language 
and this was his native language. 

We provide an overview of the usage of the term "Turk" in three majors: Diwan Shams Tabrizi (where 
misinterpretations have taken place), the Mathnawi and finally the Manaqib al-'Arifin. It was noted 
that the Mathnawi is a didactic poetical work full of wisdom and advices where-as the Diwan-i Shams is 
a mystical book of longing and passion. In the Mathnawi, the stories about Turks usually show a person 
that is cruel and/or lacks intelligence. The story of the not too smart Turkish amir who gets easily 
cheated by a tricky tailor, the drunk Turk who disliked music played by mystical singers, the story of the 
Turk in Balaghasun who lost one of his two bows, or the story of the Oghuz tribesmens who come to 
village and plunder, and etc. 

However in the Divan-i Shams, the word Turk, Hindu, Rum and Habash are used in a metaphoric and 
symbolic sense. The same should be said of the Shahnameh characters. Rumi at various times has 
called himself a Hindu, Turk, Rumi, Habash, Tajik and etc., while at other times he has disclaimed these. 



Note these examples: 



9-JUJ VM <0_kjjl v_S^JjJ 3j OS jAS jjjl jJjO /jjli 

"You are a Turkish moon, and I, although I am not a Turk, know that much, 

that much, that in Turkish the word for water is su"(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 

"Everyone in whose heart is the love for Tabriz 
Becomes - even though he be a Hindu - a rose-cheeked inhabitant of Taraz (i.e. a Turk)" 

(Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 
And 

/jjLSLil 9 /sjl^sl u\s> <_Sl 0_hjjI 9J (jjoiij jl 

"I am sometimes Turk and sometimes Hindu, sometimes Rumi and sometimes Negro" 

soul, from your image in my approval and my denial" (Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, 196) 

Overall, we note all these symbolic allusions and imagery are part of Persian poetry and have been used 
by many Persian poets including Hafez, Sa'adi, Sanai, Attar, Khaqani and Nizami Ganjavi, etc. in their 
mystical works. Nezami Ganjavi, Attar, Rumi, Hafez, Khaqani, Sanai and many other Persian poets used 
them extensively. Unfortunately due to lack of knowledge of Persian language and literature, some 
people have tried to read these in ethnic-literal sense through the prism of modern nationalism and thus 
when faced with the literally contradictory readings, have tried to play around with Rumi's Persian 
heritage. If taken literally, then Rumi was a Roman, Black, Hindu, Turk, Tajik or anything as he has made 
comparisons to these to himself. Virtually in all these verses, Hindu and Turk, or Rumi and Black have 
come together showing the clear symbolism and contrast. We have shown how Turk, Hindu, 
Zangi/Habash, Rum is used for description and symbols of slavery, rulership, slave (Hindu), ruler 
(Turk),Soldier/Warrior (Turk), cruelty, moon faced, beauty, ugliness, trees, birds, flowers, stars, climes, 
complexions, colors (yellow, white, black), animals (the eye, face), planets, day (Rum, Turk) and night 
(Hindu, Habash/Zang), languages, tears, hair, face, various moods and feelings without taking any ethnic 
meaning. An interesting example was given by Khwajah Abdullah Ansari who compares "love" and 
"turk" due to both being plunderers (note Rumi also mentions this in an anecdote in Aflaki). 

OjLc i_p <Ji 9 Juol ^juulC 
i_sOl^ l j5_Ju_C 0_juuI v-jl-Tk^ i^so^p 

In the section on "Which Turks are described in Persian poetry?" we noted that the Turks that are 
mentioned are the narrow-eyed and round-faced ideal type of beauty which resemble the Turkic faces 



of Kazakhs, Kyrghiz, Turkomens, Uighyurs, Yakuts and other Turkic people. This is an important note, 
since it was the wide difference of look from the Mediterranean Caucasoid looks of Iranians that made 
these the ideal type of beauty in Persian poetry. 

Finally, in the Section of Rum, we looked at the work of Aflaki. As noted by noted by Professor Speros 
Vyronis: 

"Eflaki and his social world were attuned to linguistic differences since Persians, Turks, Arabs, 
Greeks, Armenians, Jews, and Mongols lived juxtaposed in many Anatolian cities. Baha al-Din 
Walad, Rumi, Sultan Walad, and Amir Arif were all Persian speakers by birth and Arabophone 
by education and training. For this circle, at least, Persian was both the spoken and written 
language." 

Also noted by Speros Vyronis: 

The mere fact that Eflaki differentiates ethnically by employing the epithet "Turk" indicates that to 
him religious lines were not the only marks of sociocultural distinction. Ethnic demarcations 
were also important to him, and this further implies that Eflaki was writing in a social, cultural, and 
literary milieu where ethnic differences were important and had some resonance. 

We brought some of these anecdotes from Aflaki which clearly shows Rumi and his followers 
distinguished themselves from Turks. 

Obviously,Rumi has everywhere distinguished himself from Turks in these: 

"Oh ignorant Turk! Give up (tark) this idea and undertaking. Take back your Turks (torkan) to 
your lady (tarkan) as quickly as possible. Otherwise, you will not escape with your life." 

"Majd al-Din, why did you let out a shout and release your quarry from your gullet? A Turk 
who is a recent disciple is able to bear the burden, but you divulge the matter. Many things like 
this occur to abdals to God." 

"Likewise, it is a well-known story that one day Shaykh Salah al-Din happened to hire Turkish 
laborers to do building work in his garden. Mowlana said: 'Effendi' — that is to say lord — 
'Salah al-Din, when it is time for building, one must engage Greek laborers and when it is time 
for destroying something, Turkish hirelings. Indeed, the building of the world is assigned to the 
Greeks, whereas the world's destruction is reserved for the Turks. When God — He is sublime 
and exalted — ordered the creation of the world of sovereignty ('alam-e molk'), first He created 
unaware-infidels, and He conferred on them long life and great strength so they would strive like 
hired laborers in building the terrestrial world. And they built up many cities and fortresses on 
mountain peaks and places on top of a hill such that after generations had passed these 
constructions were a model for those who came later. Then divine predestination saw to it that 
little by little these constructions would become completely destroyed and desolate, and be 
eradicated. God created the group of Turks so that they would destroy every building they saw, 



mercilessly and ruthlessly, and cause it to be demolished. And they are still doing so, and day by 
day until the Resurrection they will continue to destroy in this manner. In the end, the 
destruction of the city of Konya will also be at the hands of wicked Turks devoid of mercy.' 
And this being the case, it turned out just as Mowlana said, (pg 503)" 

In the work of Aflaki it is clear that the Turks are differentiated from Rumi and his inner circles. Even if 
all these anecdotes were not true, the fact is that Rumi is constantly differentiated from Turks and they 
are seen as foreigners relative to Rumi. At the same time, it should be noted that Rumi had both Greek 
and Turkish followers. It is very interesting though that ethnic identifies are used more than religious 
identifiers in the work of Aflaki and it shows that a perception of ethnic identity was also present. This 
identity was in both a cultural sense and native language sense. 

Overall, from the Section of Rumi, we showed that from the perspective of modern historiography what 
is the most important is the cultural contribution of Rumi. As noted several times, even Turkish scholars 
note that:" Baha ad-din (Rumi's Father) and his family eventually settled in Konya, ancient Iconium, in 
central Anatolia. They brought with them their traditional Persian cultural and linguistic background and 
found in Konya a firmly entrenched penchant for Persian culture. In terms of Rumi's cultural orientation 
-including language, literary heritage, mythology, philosophy, and Sufi legacy -the Iranians have 
indeed a strongly justifiable claim. All of these are more than sufficient to characterize Rumi as a 
prominent figure of Persian cultural history" . 

We also overview Rumi 's father (Baha al-Din Walad) and Sultan Walad's (Rumi's son) literally output. 
The study shows that Rumi's everyday language (not just poetic language) was Persian and thus his 
native language was Persian. His cultural heritage was Persian. His genealogy is also discussed and 
based on the work of his father, we also show that his father's native language was Persian and hence 
Rumi's genealogy is also Persian. 

In the Section on Sultan, Rumi's son who was born in Anatolia, we showed once again decisive proof of 
the family Iranian culture and background. The everyday language of Sultan Walad as demonstrated by 
his sermons was Persian. Furthermore, despite the fact that he lived in Anatolia where Greek and 
Turkish were important languages, he himself claims at least four times that his knowledge of Greek and 
Turkish are very rudimentary. Of course Sultan Walad spent his whole time in Anatolia, but usually a 
person is much more versatile in their everyday language and mother-tongue rather than other 
languages. All the prose work of Sultan Walad are in Persian and 99%+ of his poetic work is also n 
Persian. His lectures were also in Persian. 

For example in the Ibtedanama, Sultan Walad states: 



(_5\j09j 9 ^ySy <— i-fiS jl j-xHj 

<_Sp9jjaix> g\l h./ol ,jjl jl Q& 
iSju jl 9 (_s*-«jJjL; jl <-S<p 



Translation: 

Abandon the speech of Turkish and Greek 
Since you are deprived of these expressions 
Instead speak Persian and Arabic 
Because you are well versed in these two 



He states also that he does not preach in Arabic (the more significant language for religious preaching) 
and uses Persian, so that everyone may understand. 

By everyone, he of course means the followers of the order and with this, we can ascertain that the 
majority of the followers of Rumi at that time were Persians and Persian speaking. Also we brought 
examples were Sultan Walad has some of the harshest comments for Turks and specially the Qaramani 
Turks who tried to make Turkish the official language. We can already see some tension between the 
two linguistic groups at that time, although the Islamic religion survived as a great binder. 

Sultan Walad calls the Turks as "world burners" and asks the Persianized Seljuq Sultan Masud to not 
even let one of the Turks alive. 

Jljuj icprgja />jS 9 JjX iJ_oj ^gjb ,/oJ-juj 9 pJJo 
Jouj 5$S-ujja lo oLuj Ogj> iJ_oJ i9jxr*x> O-iSlc /xd> 



I <Uw $ o^S 5 jLc j\ Aj j$-uj jaJle OlSjj 
JUuJ aytJuuuB Lo oLmj 0$?r <Ijo- OkCLb ji Oi_>$i 

OuOJ-j OLuJ9J l&LuJ l jSuO OuOJ>j jjjIaj- jl 0_mjJ>5 

OL_>9 lj llos> u\ /xSj t _s^l9i>- _pl ^gJji- oL> 



uLojI /y£> 9 Ols> /xd> jjj Aj OLS_hjj jjjj vjL( °& 

At the same time, he had Greek and Turkish followers, but these were to adopt Persian cultural traditions. 
So Sultan Walad like his father was a universal figure, but the above mentioned points clearly 
demonstrates his Persian background and culture. He wanted to spread Rumi's universal message to 
the Greek and Turkish followers of the order and thus despite his rudimentary knowledge of this 
language, there are a miniscule number of Greek and Turkish verses in his work (possibly with the help of 
his students). 

In the Section of the origin of Sama', we responded to a Turkish nationalist argument claiming that 
Sama' had its origin in the nomadic (and by the way mongloid) Turkic peoples of Siberia and Central 
Asia. Indeed as shown, Sama' was an early Khorasanian and Baghdadi Persian Sufi phenomenon and has 
been mentioned very positively by many important figures like Sanai, Attar, Shaykh Abu Sai'd, Fakhr al- 
Din 'Araqi, Suhrawardi, and theologians like Ghazali. Thus unlike what was erroneously claimed, Sama' 
was practiced by the Persian poet Rumi's contemporaries including Shams, Fakhr al-Din Araqi, Najm al- 
Din Kobra, Ruzbihan Baqli and etc. The Encyclopedia of Islam mentions its origin: "Sama' is thus 
initially an "oriental" phenomenon, promulgated in particular by the Persian disciples of Nuri and of 
Djunayd. By the same token, all of the early authors dealing with sama' were Persians, with the 
exception of Abu Talib Muhammad al-Makki (d. 386/996 [q.v.]). Subsequently, sama'- spread to all 
areas, but found most favour in Persian, Turkish and Indian Islam." 

Thus the nationalistic claims to locate Sama' in Turkic shamanistic rituals or try to deny the Iranian-Sufic 
origin of this phenomenon has no scholarly value and is a forgery that has been coined to disclaim Rumi 
from his Khorasanian-Persian Sufi heritage. 

In the end, we want to point out cultural contribution and cultural roots. 

In one Poem in the Diwan Sultan Walad explains the spiritual lineage of the Mowlavi order and the 
major saints of this order. After praising the ancient Prophets, then the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) 
and then the four caliphs, he names Bayazid Bistami (a Persian whose grandparents were Zoroastrians) 
after AN (AS), and then Junayd Baghdadi (a Persian from Baghdad), Ma'ruf Karkhi (Another Persian), Abu 
Sa'id Abu'l Khair (Another Persian), Shibli Baghdadi (born to a family originally from Samarkand and 
likely of Sogdian origin.), Mansur Hallaj (another Persian), Sanai (Persian poet), Attar (another Persian 
poet) and then Baha al-Din Walad (and then to Rumi and important personalities of the order during his 
time). 

In this regard, two figures clearly stand out and those are the Persian poets and Sufis Attar and Sanai. 

Rumi states: 

/yj\ 3^9^ iSj fid> jjjl j9-iLd> Lo 

The seven cities of love were travelled by Attar 
But we are still in the corner of the first lane 



Besides Attar and Sanai, Rumi was influenced by the Shahnameh and its characters are recounted in 
different poems. The hero most mentioned by Rumi is Rustam. In two poems, he puts the bravery of 
Rustam and Esfandyar in the same line as that of the first Shi'i Imam Ali (AS) who was given the title 
Haydar (lion) due to his bravery and chivalry. 

For example in this famous line: 

<Zj3£ /sJi jySAjS. Cj-juJUuJ GI&jjCX& jjjj 

Here Rumi is stating: 

My heart is grieved by these companions of feeble nature 

I seek and wish to have (as companions) the lion of God (a reference to Ali (AS) ) and Rustam Dastan 

This mixture of pre-lslamic and post-Islamic Iranian symbols of bravery speaks directly to the heart of 
some modern "intellectuals" who are trying to polarize Iran's heritage by setting these two epochs 
against each other. 

Thus the teaching of Rumi were firmly grounded in the Persian Sufism which traces back to Junayd and 
Ma'ruf Karkhi, Bayazid Bistami and through them to the Prophet of Islam. The influence from Iranian 
traditions like Shahnameh are seen as well as texts that had been absorbed into Iranian civilization 
(including the Kalila o Demna which was versified by Rudaki and possibly Rumi had position of that 
copy). 

Finally, we like to emphasize what we have left today. As Rumi said: 

i-SL^jiuAjl <\jaJi> 9J j^I>j <-Sl 
l-SLpjiuj 9 Gl<pti_ujl ±£> ,_sJi>\j3 

Oh Brother! You are essentially nothing but thoughts (Andisheh) 

All of the rest of you is bone and Sinew 

So it is thoughts through the medium of the Persian language that we have left, and indeed the bones 
and skins of these people are long gone and departed. What do we have elft? 

The outstanding contribution to Persian culture and literature by Baha al-Din Walad (the Ma'arif), Shams 
al-Din Tabrizi (the Maqaalaat which was recorded by students of Shams while Shams was giving his 
lectures), Rumi (Masnavi, Diwan, Fihi ma Fih, Maktubat and the Seven Sermons) and Sultan 
Walad(Diwan, Rabab Nama, Ebetedaa Nama, Entehaa Nama, Ma'arif Waladi) firmly place these great 
mystics as part of the Perso-lslamic Sufi heritage. They build upon the previous generations of Persian 
mystics including Attar, Sanai, Hallaj, Suhrawardi, Kherqani, Abu Sa'id Abul Khayr, Aba Yazid Bistami and 



etc and contributed to the Persian language and culture. These excellent works of inner wisdom are 
accessible to those who know the Persian language and any translation is at most an interpretation 
filtered through the spritirual capacity window of the translator. So these are enormous monuments of 
Persian civilization. 

These are sufficient to show these men came from the Iranian civilization and at the same time, brought 
a universal message that resonates with human souls from the four corners, seven lands and all 
generations. Their message is universal because anything that truly has the imprint of the divine will be 
everlasting. Anything that does not have this imprint will fade away through the passage of time. Thus 
this article does not attempt to take away anything from the universality of these figures. Rumi was a 
man of God foremost and above all else. An American with spiritual intuition will speak and understand 
Rumi thana person of a Muslim background with no such intuition ("Zaban-i bi Zabani"). 

He belongs to any Iranian who understands his message as much any other people who can understand 
his message. In order to demonstrate our commitment to the universal message of Rumi, we have 
appended a scholarly on the Greek verses of Rumi and Sultan Walad. 

They why write such a lengthy article some might ask? I believe it was important to elucidate the 
Persian culture, native language and Khorasani Sufism (which can be interpreted as a Khorasani and 
Iraqi Persian reading of the Qur'an and Islam) that gave rise to these universal figures and make sure for 
the sake of the truth that these are not distorted due to modern nationalistic reasons. These figures do 
not fall out of thin air and there was an underyling Persiani Sufi civilization that produced Attar, Sanai, 
Rumi, Shams, Abdullah Ansari, Kherqani, Bayazid, Junayd, Hallaj in such a rapid manner. To downplay 
this civilization and culture is a distortion of history. To some extent, those who can respond to 
distortions of history should do so. The amount of distortion on Rumi's heritage was piling up (due to 
certain governments) and it was important that for someone that is capable to provide a response to 
these distortions. If anyone else is more capable, then they should proceed as well. 

Another reason was that the article provided mention of some neglected materials in history. It is 
important to know these underyling basis (for example what gave rise to a Sanai, Attar , Rumi and if it is 
possible to have such a figures in the modern era? And if they do exist do they assume a much different 
form?). Thus this article was a response to those who try to reject the underlying basis for nationalistic 
reasons and deprive important figures of the Persian cultural heritage from the civilization they were 
attached to at the time. It is important for the modern Iranian (in the wider sense meaning Persian 
speakers and Iranian peoples) who possess the Persian language and hence are the direct inheritors of 
these important works to understand these works better. 



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• Tahsin Yazici, Habib Esfahani, Miza in Encyclopedia Iranica 

• Talat. S. Halman, Rapture and Revolution, Syracuse University Press, November, 2007. 

• Xavier Tremblay Pour une histore de la Serinde. Le manicheisme parmi les peoples et religions 
d'Asie Centrale d'apres les sources primaire, Vienna, 2001, Appendix D « Notes Sur L'Origine Des 
Hephtalites" 

Appendix A: Nick Nicholas: Greek Verses of Rumi & Sultan Walad 

The following has been taken from: http://www.tlg.uci.edu/~opoudiis/Play/rumiwalad.html 

All rights are owned to this section by Nick Nicholas and it is being used here only for 
academic purposes. 

Accessed 2009 

Nick Nicholas: Greek Verses of Rumi & Sultan Walad 

The following are Greek verses in the poetry of Mawlana Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207-1273), and 
his son, Sultan Walad (1226-1312). The works have been difficult to edit, because of the 
absence of vowel pointing in most of the verses, and the confusion of scribes unfamiliar with 



Greek; different editions of the verses vary greatly. I give the latest edition of the verses (Dedes'), 
with translations; I then compare the various editions of the verses since the 1820s. The editions 
cited are: 

• Dedes, D. 1993. notrmaxa tod MarAavd Pouufi [Poems by Mevlana Rumi]. Ta Istorika 

10.18-19: 3-22. 

• Mertzios, CD. 1958. Quelques vers grecs du XHIe siecle en caracteres arabes. 

Byzantinische Zeitschrift 51: 15-16. 

• Burguiere, P. & Mantran, R. 1952. Quelques vers grecs du XHIe siecle en caracteres 

arabes. Byzantion 22: 63-80. 

• Meyer, G. 1895. Die griechischen Verse in Rababnama. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 4: 401- 

411. 

• Salemann, C. 1891. Noch einmal die seldschukischen Verse. Bulletin de I'Academie 

Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg . NS II: 293-365. 

• von Hammer, J. 1829. Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur. 48: 108-119. 

Of the editions, the three first dealt only with the first poem of Sultan Walad. Burguiere & 
Mantran collated manuscripts of Rumi and Walad anew in Turkey, so they present a new edition 
of the Arabic script poems in question. The journal editor H. Gregoire, and later on C.D. 
Mertzios, suggested corrections to their Greek reading. Dedes uses the Burguiere & Mantran 
Arabic script edition, and did not inspect the manuscripts himself; but his readings appear more 
comprehensive, and are treated here as the base edition (filling in some of the Persian from 
Burguiere & Mantran). Switches to Persian are indicated in (italics). 

As I am not familiar with Sufiism (or Persian), I ask any readers familiar with Rumi and Walad 
to help out by (a) providing text input for the Arabic script; (b) providing the translations that 
have appeared in Persian or Turkish editions of the texts; (c) providing explanations and 
commentary, or correcting commentary and translations. 

Sultan Walad, Rababname: 

University of Istanbul ms. F 1375 (Riza Pasha 3027) f. 220 

General Note: Sultan Walad refers to the body (in constrast with the soul) as oKnvcoua, "tent" — 
the tent or tabernacle in which the soul temporarily dwells. This sense was used in Christian 
Greek (starting with 2 Peter 1:13), and Dedes believes it is evidence of Mevlana's discussions 
with the monks of St Chariton monastery, near Konya. "Slender", Xuyepog, is an adjective used 
to praise women in mediaeval vernacular Greek ballads; this presumably explains why Mertzios 
seeks to emend one instance of the masculine adjective to a feminine. 




U^. 4 \l U a is '^ Up ^ ^ .« 






7 JW'/yjW^i «J W3^» 



^ V^V erf. 1 , <#* ^f > ol?-; ■'• 






Dedes (1993) 



Me xoucj dyioucj mhq Soucdoai XaXr\ae- 

[iava%6q un, xpoocj, tovc, dXXoucj 

Kansas. 

Oavspd tov 9s6v Gcopouv xa udxia 

cov, 

Ssv xoopdcj a X TT 1 V X a pd cxa ipdxia 

GOD. 

Ms xo cpax; xov 9s6v Gcopsicj oxo 

7tp6oamo, 

Gsxvcd 'ya> sic; xr| Gupa god xo psxamo. 

Tic; KscpdXiv sGsksv oyiov 8oi3Xou 

va 7taxfior| gxo KscpdXi xou ayys^orr 

yoiov xoucj dyioucj rcdvxa va 'vai 

t/ovxavocj. 

Toiov xoucj aXkovq un. xou spxu. 

Gdvaxocj. 

Oyiocj sScb va KoAArior| psxd osv, 

v' ayopdar) va 7iouXfiGri psxd osv 

oyiocj s%si oxnv \|A)xn ayduri oou 

va Gcopf) 6,xi Gcopouv xa udxia oou, 

8i7i8v : Eicj xo oKnvcoua yoiov xr|v 

xacpfp 

sXa 7is<v>Ga k' r\ \j/uxn uacj xnv xacpfj. 

Eitiscj: Eud s5(b 7160a XaXslc;, 

xi yupsusicj arc' suae; 7tou uacj KaXsicj; 

Eicj xr) ynv xo OKnvcoua Kdxco rcaxsi, 

r) \|/uxn a7idvco pspid 7iop7taxsi- 

sic; xr) yr) xo oKnvcoud uacj va %aQi\, 

Kai r) \j/t)%ri uacj ps tovc, dyioucj va 

'(ppaGf). 

H \j/uxn a% Trrv %apd (puxpcbGnKsv 

acpcbv fjpxsv an' sksi 7UKp(b6r|Ksv. 

Haki xou imdsi r| \|/i)%ri axov xorcov 

Tou 

va xapri uavxa sksi oxov tcoGov Tod. 

Ocdcj fixov sksi, s5cb uaupcbGnKsv 

naki arcs xo cpcocj xou Gsou 

S7TUp(b9r|KSV. 

KduTtooov Kdxco oxn, yr) S7ndoxr|Ksv, 
7idXi ufiysv oxa \|/nXd 7tou 7iMoxr|Ksv. 
ExdXapua 7tou 'xov s8cb oxr) %copiaid 
naki souixxnv, syivsv GdXaooa- 
naki xo '7iisv sksi, AmpcoGnKsv 
ki an' sksivo xo 'GsXsv yopcoGnKsv. 



Tell how you govern yourself with the saints. 

Don't eat alone, invite the others. 

Your eyes clearly see God, 

you're so joyful, your clothes cannot contain you. 

In the light you see God in the face; 

I put my forehead at your door. 

Who placed his head like a slave's 

will tread on the head of the angel. 

Like the saints, he will always be alive. 

Death will not come to him like to others. 

Whoever here will stick with you, 

will sell and buy with you, 

whoever has your love in his soul 

to see what your eyes see. 

has said: "In the 'tent', (it is) like a burial. 

Come our soul, you too mourn over the burial." 

You said: "How much are you saying up here! 

What do you want from us, calling us? 

On Earth the 'tent' treads, down below; 

the soul walks on the Upper Side. 

On Earth our 'tent' will perish, 

and our soul will rejoice with the saints. 

The soul has taken root out of joy; 

since it has come from there, it is embittered. 

Again his soul goes back to His place, 

to be forever happy there in His desire. 

It was light there; here it is blackened. 

Once again it has become fiery with the light of God. 

It has been caught for a while down on Earth; 

once again it has gone up above where it was created. 

Having been a drop here, in separateness, 

it has merged in again, it has become the sea. 

It has drunk it up again [it has gone up again?], it has 

been saved, 

and filled with what it desired." 

His soul speaks there like me, 

"Who could there be in the whole world like me?" 

"I found who I was looking for, 

and from him I have learned what I speak. 

I kiss him forever there without lips, 

and there are a thousand servants like me there. 

The beauty of God does not fit on the tongue: 

come burn, my slender one, in His desire. 

Who has given away his soul has lived; 



H \|A)xn tod Xaksi sksi oav susv, who was broken here, has defeated all." 

Tk; va 'vai gtov Kocpov 6Xov yoiav (Non-existence is eternal existence; 

spsv existence on this earth is perishable.) 

nupa ksivov xov eyupsuya syro 

Kai an! sksivov xa 'uaGa 6,ti A,aMr 

cpi^d) xov 7idvxa 8i%ot> %et\r| sksi 

Koa sivai SouXoi yoiav epev %ikioi sksi. 

Asv %<±>psi gttiv yhbcca xa K&XAr| xou 

08O1J- 

ska K&you, Auyepe, gxov 7i69ov Tou. 
Tk; 8800K8V xr)v \j/D%riv xod, e£ncev 
tk; s5(b TGaKcbGriv, oXotx; viktigsv. 

Paraphrase (Dedes) 

[The poet Sultan Walad clearly is addressing his father Mevlana, who is probably already dead, 
and invokes him] 

How you behave with the saints, tell us. 

Don't enjoy the divine by yourself, let us share your divine life experience. 

For now your eyes clearly see God 

and you are so joyful your clothes cannot contain you. 

With divine light you see God face to face 

and in a show of piety I touch my forehead at the porch of your door. 

Whoever has bowed his head like a slave 

will tread on an angel's head. 

Like the saints he will always be alive, 

and he will not die like other human beings. 

Whoever happens to have been reconciled with you here on Earth 

and has given and taken with you; 

whoever has your love in his soul, 

so that he can see whatever your eyes see, 

that person says: the soul in the body is like it is buried, 

let our soul also mourn for that burial. 

[Here dead Mevlana starts to speak of the relation of the soul to the body, and his experiences in 
Heaven] 

And then you (Mevlana) said: How much are you saying here on Earth? 

What do you want from us the departed, that you are calling? 

The body of Man treads on Earth 

while his soul walks above in Heaven. 

Our human bodies will perish on Earth 

while our soul will rejoice with the saints in Heaven. 

The soul has grown roots in the joy of God, 

but since it has departed there and come to Earth, it is embittered. 



Yet people's soul will go back to the place of God 

to be glad there always in His desire. 

The soul was light there in Heaven, but when it came to Earth it became dark. 

Yet here too, with the light of God, it has become bright. 

For a little while it was attached to Earth 

but it has gone back to Heaven where it was created. 

And while it like was a drop here on Earth, a place of Separation of the Mortal from the Divine, 

it has reunited with the Divine and become a sea. 

The human soul has gone back there to Heaven and been saved 

and it has been filled with what it desired, namely the Divine. 

[Walad speaks again of his father Mevlana] 

His soul (Mevlana's) speaks there in Heaven like I do now: 
Who might there be in the whole world like me? 

[Walad now apparently alludes to the meeting in Heaven of Mevlana with his friend and teacher 
Shams Tabrizi, who was secretly murdered in Konya. Mevlana thought that Tabrizi has 
permanently left Konya and kept looking for him, believing he was alive. For that reason he had 
travelled to Damascus twice. Walad had hidden the horrifying news from him to shield him. 
Mevlana resumes speaking.] 

I found whom I was looking for [Tabrizi], and from him I have learned whatever I say. 

I kiss him forever, without lips, there in Heaven 

and there are servants of God like me there in the thousands. 

The tongue cannot express the beauty of God. 

Come burn, slender one, in His desire. 

Whoever has given (God) his soul, has lived. 

Whoever was crushed here on Earth, has defeated all. 

Other editions 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios 
(1958) 



Ms xoix; dyioix; tubq SiKaisoai Me xovq dyioix; Tunc, Suascai 

Xakr\GE, }xtXr\cE, 

Mavaxo<; pu. xpax;, zovq dXXotx; 

Kd^eoe. 

Oavepd xov 9s6v Gcopouv xa As /copsi— a/! -- m\ /apd oxn. 

pdxia god, paxid god. 

Aivsi %opou<; — a%! xi %apd! — 

Gxn. paxid god. Oskvco 'yco oxr) Gcopid oou xo 

Ms xo (pax; xou 9sou 9a)psi<; xo usxawio. 

7tp6oamo. 

0sxv(b (?) y(o oxr| 9a)pid god xo Na 7taxfior| oxo KS(pdXi con 



Meyer (1895) 

[ie xotx; dyiorjc;, luhq 8oK&ar|, 

Xakr\GE, 

pava%6<; pe rcpoc; xotx; dXXotx; 

KdXeoe. 

(pavspd xov 9s6v 9(opouv xa 

pdxia god, 

8ev %oopsi<; a% xr)v %apd ae 

pdxia god. 

ps xo (pax; xou 9sou 9o)psi<; xo 

7ip6aa)7io, 

... xo psxamo. 



(J.8TCD710. 

Tig KS(pa^f)v sGsksv oysiov 

8ouXou, 

Na 7taxf|cr| gto KscpdXi tod 

ayysXou. 

Oiov xoug dyioug, rcdvxa va 'vai 

(/ovxavog, 

Oiov xoug dAXoug, [j,r| xou spxu, 

Gdvaxog. 

Oysiog sScb va koMo|gt| (?) 

(j,exd GSV, 

N' ayopdcu,, va TCOuXfiori [j,sxa 

GSV 

Oysiog s%si gxu, \|/uxn ayd7tr| 

GOD, 

Na Gcopf| 6 xi Gcopouv xa [laxia 

GOD. 

'E[a,7iaiv' sig xo cKr\v(i)[ia oiov 

xr)v xa9f) 

'Eka, rcsGavis \|/uxn nag gxu,v 

xacpf)! 

Etcsi god siua (?) s8(b uoca 

Xa^sig 

Ti yupsusig and [iaq, nov [iaq 

KaXsig; 

Eig xri yr) xo GKf|V(D[j,d [iaq va 

XaGf), 

Ki ri \|/t>xn (J.ag [j,s xoug dyioug 

va PpsGfi ! 

H \j/Dxn — a%! ti X a P a ! " - 

(pxepd>xr|Kev, 

acp' oi3 fjpxsv an' sksi 

7iiKpcbxriKsv. 

IIdX,i xou urcdysi r\ \|/uxn ctov 

X0710V xou, 

Na %apf| udvxa sksi gxov tcoGov 

xou. 

Orog fixov SKSI, s8(b 

(j,aupd)GriK8v, 

IldXi 87ii xo (pcog xou Gsou 

TiupcbGriKsv. 

KdfJJIOGOV KaXOD GXT| yr| 
S7UdGXT|KSV, 

IldXi 7tf|yev Gxa \\ir\ka nov 

7iMgXT|KSV. 

Ex' dXXa(y)[a,a rcou rcsxouv s5d) 



dyysXoi;. 

Oiov xoug ayysXotx;, [j,r| xou 
epxr) Gdvaxog. 



EXa, rcsGavis \j/uxn |J.ag gxt|v 

Gavi]! 

EiTTsg, sura s5cb ttcix; 

(a)XaXsi<; 



Ex' aXXa(y)[ia nov jraxouv sScb 
gxt) xropcid, 

IldXl TTOt) 7lfiy8V, SKSI 

AuxpcbGr|Ksv, 

Ki an' sksivo xo Qr\ki\ 

yu^ivwGtiKsv. 



xig KscpdXiv sGt|ksv oyiov 

dovkov, 

va 7taxf|cr| gxo KscpdXiv xou 

dyysXou; 

oyiog av xo va KaXsGU, 

[0,SX(D7lOV: 
... (J.8XC071OV. 

nov 'v xig dAlog udvxa va 'vai 

(^covxavog; 

nov 'v xig akkoq [j.ri xov spxu, 

Gdvaxog; 

oyiog exsi gxt)v \|/u%r|V aya7rr| 

GOU, 

va Gcopf), 6xi Gcopouv xa [laxia 

GOU. 

OyiOV Sig XO GKflVCD[J,a? 

...viruxntia?.... 

... xo GKf|vcfl[j,a Kaxcbvsxai, 

r) \j/uxn a7tdvoo ^upia 

xsprcsxai. 

... xo GKr\v<x>[ia [iaq va %a6f|, 

Kai \j/uxn [iaq [is xoug dyioug 

va PpeGf). 

ri \j/uxn a% xrjv %apd 

(puxpcb6r|Ksv, 

... SK81 7llKpd)GriKSV. 

7idX,i uudsi r\ \j/uxn gxov xouov 

xou, 

va %api\ navxa sksi gxov 

7i6Gov xou. 

cpocx; audvco sksi s8d> 

(j,aKpd)GriKsv, 

naki eni xo cpoc; xou Gsou 

7iupd)GriKsv. 

Kai [isca cxa cuwscpa 

smdGxriKsv, 

naki sufiysv cxa \\ir\ka nov 

7iMgxt|ksv. 

gx' dX,X' auo Gsov s86c6r| 

XCopiGid, 

naki s8(dks xodv ayicov 

7isX,aGid. 

naki xcov uaGrov sksi 

Auxpd)6r|Ksv, 

Kai an' sksivo xo 7iai8iv (?) 

yo[j,cbGriKsv. 



avr\ %oopoia, 

Haki eiq u6%tcdv suTtaivouv 

9d)axooa. 

IldXi tod ufiysv, SKSl 

AmpcbGnKsv, 

Ki arc' sksivo to Qr\kvv (?) 

youxbGnKsv. 

H \|A)xf| tod Xa^si sksi oav 

sjisv: 

Tit; va 'vai otov koouov o^ov 

oidv spxv; 

Hljpa KSIVOV <7tofj?> TOV 

yupsuya sycb, 

Ki an' sksivov Ta 'uaGa 6 xi 

Oild) tov rcdvxa 5ixoo<; %siAx| 

SKSl, 

Ki sivai 8oi3Xoi oidv sp,sv xi^ioi 

SKSl. 

Aev %copsi oxnv yMiooa Ta 

KdXXr) tou Gsorr 

'EX,a Kaycb XupiocD tov tcoGov 

XOl). 

Ti<; 88cdksv xnv \|/u%riv tod, 

stj|osv 

Ti<; s5(b T(^aK(b9ri[v], o^otx; 

VlKT|OSV. 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 

Speak with the saints as you are 

entitled to, 

don't eat alone, invite the others. 

Clearly your eyes see God, 

He dances — ah! such joy! — in 

your glance. 

With the light of God you see 

the face. 

I lower my forehead before 

your sight. 

Who holds his head like a 

slave's, 

let him tread on an angel's head! 

Like the saints, may he always 

stay alive, 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios 
(1958) 

Tell us how you deal with 

the saints, 



You cannot contain-- ah! 
your joy in your glance. 

I place my forehead before 
your sight. 

so an angel can tread on 
your head 

Like the angels, let death 
not come to him. 



r\ \\fvxf\ tod taxXsi sksi aav 

SU£V, 

xiq va 'vai otov koouov 

dAXov, oiSapxv. 

nupa sksivov tod X... scpaya 

sycb, 

Kai arc' sksivov Ta 'uaGa 6xi 

... cpiAxb tov rcavxa Si%ax; %eiki' 

SKSl 

Kai sivai SouXoi oav susv 
%i)aoi sksi. 

Ssv xcopsi oxnv yMiooa Ta 
KaXd tod Gsou, 

... OTOV 7l690V TOD. 

IK, S8C0KSV TT|V \|/UXnV TOD, 

stj|osv 

tic, s5cb xoaKcbGnv, oAouq 

VIKTIOSV. 



Meyer (1895) 

Speak how you wait with the 

saints, 

invite me on your own to the 

others. 

Clearly your eyes see God, 

you can't fit him, out of joy, in 

your eyes. 

With the light of God you see 

the face, 

... the forehead. 

Who has placed their head like 

a slave's, 

to tread on the head of an 

angel? 

Whoever, if to invite a 



Like the other (saints), let death 

not come to him. 

Whoever attaches themselves to 

you (as a disciple), 

Let him buy and sell with you. 

Whoever has love in their soul 

for you, 

let them see what your eyes see. 

Enter this hut [i.e. the body] like 

entering the tomb: 

Come, die, our soul, in this 

tomb! 

Since I have told you 

everything you are saying here, 

what do you want from us, 

calling us? 

The hut [body] treads below, on 

Earth, 

the soul walks up above. 

May our hut [body] be lost on 

Earth 

and may our soul be found with 

the saints! 

The soul — ah, joy! — has taken 

wing: 

since it had come from up there, 

it had been embittered. 

Again the soul rises to Him, in 

His residence, 

to rejoice forever in its desire 

for Him. 

It was light there, here it is 

blackened, 

(but) it is inflamed again with 

the light of God. 

It was detained for a while 

down here on Earth, 

it has ascended into the heights 

where it was created. 

In the change (?) where souls 

fall, here, in exile, 

they enter back into a sea of 

struggle. 

Since the soul has returned to 

Him, there it is saved, 

and it is filled with the feminine 



Come die our soul in death! 
You've spoken, I've 
spoken here, how you 
speak 



In the change of clothing 

[i.e. the body] 

in which [the souls] tread 

here in exile, ... 

Who has gone back, is 

saved there, 

And is stripped of that 

noose. 



who was crushed here, has 
defeated all. 



forehead: 

... forehead. 

Where else is there one who is a 

saint, to be alive forever? 

Where is there someone else, 

death should not come to? 

Whoever has your love in their 

soul, 

will see what your eyes see. 

Like in the hut [= body] (?) 

... our soul.... 



... let the hut [body] be laid low, 

the soul above enjoys a myriad 

things. 

... our hut [body] will be lost, 

and our soul will be found with 

the saints. 

The soul, out of joy, has taken 

root, 

... there it has been embittered. 

Again the soul goes to its place, 

to rejoice there forever in its 

desire. 

The light up there has been 

lengthened here, 

again it is fiery in the light of 

God. 

And it is caught in the clouds, 

it has gone back to the heights 

where it was created. 

Separation has been imposed on 

the other by God, 

yet he has made an approach to 

the saints. 

Again it is saved from suffering 

there, 

and it is filled with that child 

(?)• 

His soul speaks there like me, 

we know who there might be in 

the [other] world still. 

I found that one, his X... I have 

eaten, 

and from him I have learned 



principle (?). 

His soul speaks there like me: 

Who might there be in the 

whole world (as lucky) as me? 

I've found who I was looking 

for, 

and from him I have learned 

what I speak. 

I kiss him forever there without 

lips, 

and there are a thousand 

servants like me there. 

The tongue cannot expres the 

beauties of God: 

come, let me too sing of desire 

for Him. 

Who has given away his soul 

has lived; 

who was seized here, has 

defeated all. 

{Non-existence is eternal 

existence; 

existence on this earth is 

perishable.) 



Meyer (1895) 

ps toxic, dyioug, rcrog 8oKdor|, 

Xakr\GE, 

pava%6g pe rcpog Toug 

aXXoug KdXeoe. 



cpavspd tov 9s6v Gcopouv xa 
udxia god, 

8ev x^P 8 ^ a X Tr l v %apd ce 

pdna gou. 

pe to cpax; tod 9soi3 9ropeig 

TO 7ipOG(D7lO, 
... TO P8T0071O. 

Tig KscpdA,iv sGuksv oyiov 

SouXou, 

va 7iaTfiGri gto KscpdA.iv tod 

dyyeXou; 

oyiog av to va KaXeon, 

PSTC071OV: 



Salemann (1891) 



pr| Tig dyiog rcrog 8oKdor| 

XaXf] on. 

pova%6g pr| rcpog Toug d^Xoug 

KaXson. 

(ps Toug ayioug ... 8oKdoai 

XaXfiaai 

... ps ... KaXsoai). 

9avepd tov 9s6v 9scopofjv Ta 

pdTia god 

8ev %ropeig a% rr|v %apd ...id 

GOD. 

ps to (prog tod 9sofj 9sropdg to 
7ip6aro7io, 

... TO peTGCOTO. 

Tig KscpaXfjv s9t)ksv ... SouXou, 

va uaTfiGri gto KscpdXi tod 

ayyeXou; 

ouoiog e8ro va KaXeor| pfivuciv 

v' ayopdar) va ... pfivuoiv. 



whatever I speak. 

... I kiss him forever without 

lips there 

and there are a thousand 

servants like me there. 

The good things of God do not 

fit on the tongue, 

... in his desire. 

Who has given his soul, has 

lived; 

who is crushed here, has 

defeated all. 



von Hammer (1829) 

ps Toug ayioug rcrog ... XaAr|or| 
pnrpog Toug aAXoug KaXr|or|. 



(pavripaTOV 9eiov (9eov?) ... Ta 

paTia aov 

ouvxropr|oai a%9nv (a%! Tnv?) 

%apa eig Ta pana. 

pr) to 9rog tod ... 9eiorj tod 

7iproao7ioi) 

Sant Augustin ... pn, to 7tro 

(smro?). 

Tnv KecpaXrrv x9ikt)v ... 8odXod 

va 7taTT|oei eig to K89aXi tod. 



... (J.STC071OV. 

rcot> 'v xiq dAXoq rcdvxa va 

'vai (^covxavoq; 

rcot> 'v xiq dAXoq (j,r) xov spxr| 

Gdvaxoq; 

oyioq s%si gxt|v \|/uxn v aydrcr| 

GOD, 

va 6copfi, 6xi Gcopow xa 

(j,dxia god. 

oyiov siq xo GKfivco^a? 



... xo GKiivcD[j,a Kaxcovsxai, 

r\ \|A)xn arcdvco p3pia 

xsprcsxai. 

... xo cKi\v(i)[ia [iaq va xaGf), 

Kai \|/uxn |J.aq (j,s xouq dyiouq 

va PpsGf). 

ri \j/uxn a% xr|v %apd 

(puxpcbGriKsv, 

... SK8i 7UKpd)Gr|Kev. 

rcd?a urcdsi r\ \j/uxn otov 

X0710V xou, 

va xapf) rcdvxa SKsi gxov 

rcoGov XOD. 

(pcoq arcdvco sksi sScb 

(j,aKpd)GriK8v, 

7ldXl S711 xo cpcoq xou 6sot> 

7iupd)Gr|Ksv. 

Kai [isca Gxa cwvscpa 

srcidGxr|Ksv, 

rcdXi srcfiyEV axa \\ir\ka rcou 

rc)uxGxr|Ksv. 

ax' dAX' arco Gsov s86cGri 

Xcopicid, 

rcdXi s8coks xcov ayicov 

rcs^acid. 

rcdXi xcov rcaGcbv sksi 

)a>xpcbGr|Ksv, 

Kai arc' sksivo xo rcaiSiv (?) 

yo[j,cbGr|Ksv. 

r) \j/Dxn tou ^aXsi sksi oav 

S[J,£V, 

xiq va 'vai oxov kog[j,ov 
dAXov, oi8a[j,sv. 



rcou v xiq ayioq rcavxa va vai 

(/ovxavoq; 

rcou 'v xiq dAXoq [arj xov spxr| 

Gdvaxoq; 

orcoioq sioai ... aydrcr| god 

va xrjpfi 6x1 xripouv xa [j,dxia 

GOl). 

8[J,Paiv' Eiq XO OKTlVCQ[J,a ... 

sXa ai[j,d Kai \|/uxn (Jxxq ... 

... s8cb rcooa^a^siq 

xi ...q dyis \xaq rcooaq KaXsiq. 

... xo GKfivco[j,a Kdxco rcaxsi 

r\ \j/uxn srcdvco pjpia xsprcsxai. 

... xo cKi\v(i)[ia [iaq va %aGfi 

Kai \j/uxn l^aq (j.8 xouq ayiouq va 

PpsGr). 

r|\|A)xnaxxr|vxapd...v 

dcpiv' ... sksi ...v. 

rcdXi rcsxd r\ \j/uxn 'q xorcov xou, 

va xapf) rcdvxa sksi 'q xov 

rcoGov xou. 

cpcoq fixov sksi s8cb ...v 

rcd?a dysi xo cpcoq xou Gsou ...v. 

Kai ioa 'q xa ... srcidoGr|K£v, 

rcdXi srcfiysv 'q xa \|/r|)ux rcou 

7iMoGr|Ksv. 

'q xa ... s8coos xcopioid, 

iiaki ... 

rcdXi ... sksi Auxpcoxuxov 

Kai arcoKivcb (arc' SKsivou?) xo 

...coxikov. 

r\ \j/i)xn tou ^aXsi sksi aav 

s^isv, 

xiq va 'vai (rcaxsi?) 'q xov 

kog[j,ov dAXov ... s[j,sv. 

r|upa sksivov ... sycb 

Kai arc' sksivov xa [iaQa 6x1 

hxhh. 

cpiXcb xov rcdvxa 5ixco[q] %eih! 

SKSI 

Kai sivai 8oi3Xoi aav s[j,sv 

Xi^ioi sksi. 

8sv xcopsi 'q xr)v yhbcca xa 

KaXd xou Gsoij, 

s^a ... 'q xov rcoGov xod. 

xiq sScoksv xr)v \|/uxn v tou siq 



ayioq sirca sSo rccooa Xdkeiq 
... rcoaaqKaXsiq. 



axGrjv (ax! xr)v?) xaGapoxiKr|v 

acprjv apsxrjv sksi rciKpoxiKT)v. 

beli ... 

va x^pa rcavxa sksi siq xov 

rcovr|aov. 

cproq sksi ... sSo (j,aKpoxiKr)v 

beli xo (pcoq xo GsorcpoxiKr)v. 

... urcaaxiKriv 

... Ps>a sircsv siq xa rcai^a ... 

rcsXaoxiKr|v. 

siq xa . . s8o 

... XuxpoxiKriv 

... sksivo yvco[j,oxoKr|v. 

... XsX,si sX,si aav a[ir\v 

xr)q vavr) siq xov kog[j,o akXov 

a[ir\v. 

ki sksivov xa [iaQr\ o xi XaXco. 
(pikti xov rcavxa ... sksi 

... SKSI. 

Guvxcopr) siq xr|v KaXoauvr) 

KaXXa xorcov god 

... siqxovrcoGov god. 

xriq... 

xriq... 



r|i3pa sksivov xou X... scpaya 

syd), 

Kai an' sksivov xa 'ua9a 6xi 

XaM). 

... qnM) xov uavxa 8i%cG<; 

Xeih! sksi 

Koa sivai SouXoi aav susv 

ypaoi EKsi. 

8sv xcopsi cxnv yhbcca xa 

Ka^d xou 9sou, 

... cxov 7t69ov xou. 

xiq sScqksv xnv \j/uxn v xai) , 

e^noev 

xig s8(b xoaK(b9r|v, 6Xou<; 

VlKr)GSV. 

Meyer (1895) 

Speak how you wait with the 

saints, 

invite me on your own to the 

others. 



Clearly your eyes see God, 

you can't fit him, out of joy, in 

your eyes. 

With the light of God you see 

the face, 

... the forehead. 

Who has placed their head like 

a slave's, 

to tread on the head of an 

angel? 

Whoever, if to invite a 

forehead: 

... forehead. 

Where else is there one who is 

a saint, to be alive forever? 

Where is there someone else, 

death should not come to? 

Whoever has your love in their 

soul, 

will see what your eyes see. 

Like in the hut [= body] (?) 

... our soul.... 



sgsv; 

tic; s8(b TCpx&)Qr\v, oXouc; 

viktigsv; 



Salemann (1891) 

Unless one who is a saint waits 

speaking 

Unless alone he invites to the 

others 

(Or: with the saints ... to wait to 

speak 

... me ... to invite). 

Clearly your eyes see God 

You don't fit, out of joy, your 

...id. 

With the light of God you see 

the face, 

... the forehead. 

Who has placed the head ... of a 

slave, 

to tread on the head of an angel? 

Whoever is here will invite a 

message 

to buy to ... a message. 

Where is there one who is a 

saint, to be alive forever? 

Where is there someone else, 

death should not come to? 

Whoever you are ... your love 

to observe whatever your eyes 

observe. 

Enter the hut ... 

Come close by, and our soul ... 



von Hammer (1829) 

with the saints how... to 

speak, 

of the mother, to invite the 

others. 



made apparent divine 

(god?) ... your eyes 

to forgive ax9r|v (ah! the?) 

joy in the eyes. 

Lest the light of ... his 

divine face 

Saint Augustin ... that I 

won't say it. 

the head x6ikt|v ... of a slave 

to tread on his head. 



A saint, I said here, how 

much you say 

... how many you invite. 



... let the hut [body] be laid 

low, 

the soul above enjoys a myriad 

things. 

... our hut [body] will be lost, 

and our soul will be found with 

the saints. 

The soul, out of joy, has taken 

root, 

... there it has been embittered. 

Again the soul goes to its place, 

to rejoice there forever in its 

desire. 

The light up there has been 

lengthened here, 

again it is fiery in the light of 

God. 

And it is caught in the clouds, 

it has gone back to the heights 

where it was created. 

Separation has been imposed 

on the other by God, 

yet he has made an approach to 

the saints. 

Again it is saved from suffering 

there, 

and it is filled with that child 

(?)• 

His soul speaks there like me, 

we know who there might be in 

the [other] world still. 

I found that one, his X... I have 

eaten, 

and from him I have learned 

whatever I speak. 

... I kiss him forever without 

lips there 

and there are a thousand 

servants like me there. 

The good things of God do not 

fit on the tongue, 

... in his desire. 

Who has given his soul, has 

lived; 



... here how much you say 

what ...q, oh our saint, how many 

you invite. 

... the hut treads below 

the soul above enjoys a myriad 

things. 

... our hut will be lost 

and our soul will be found with 

the saints. 

the soul, out of joy, ...v 

leave ... there ...v. 

Again the soul flies to its place, 

to rejoice there forever in its 

desire. 

It was light there, here ...v 

Again it leads the light of God 

...v. 

and straight to the ... it was 

caught, 

it has gone back to the heights 

where it was created. 

In the ... he gave separate shares, 

again ... 

again ... there of salvation 

and I put away (Or: From it?) 

the ...CGTIKOV. 

His soul speaks there like me, 

who might there be (who 

treads?) in the world, another ... 

me. 

I found him ... I 

and from him I have learned 

whatever I speak. 

I kiss him forever without lips 

there 

and there are a thousand servants 

like me there. 

The good things of God do not 

fit on the tongue, 

come ... in his desire. 

Who has given his soul to you? 

Who is crushed here, has 

defeated all? 



axQrjv (ah! the?) 

XaQapoxiKnv 

from virtue there 

embittering. 

Indeed ... 

lo! joy forever there in the 

you take pains. 

Light there ... here 

lenghtening 

indeed the light God- 

7tpOTlKT|V. 

... U7taoTiKr|v 
... indeed he said in the 
heights ... approaching. 
In the .. here 

... of salvation 
... that, opinionating. 
... 'kekei ekei like amen 
hers to be in the world any 
more, amen. 

and him to learn those 

things, whatever I speak. 

I always kiss him ... there 

... there. 

He forgives in kindness 

well your place 

... in his desire. 

her ... 

her ... 



who is crushed here, has 
defeated all. 



Gazal 81 






Dedes (1993) 

Na sutcb sScb pcopaiiKa, f|Kouosc; I'll speak here in Greek: you've heard, my fair rosy girl, 

Kakf\ poSivr) what you have seen in my hearth. Come if it seems right 

t' ei8e<; eiq on. eoxia pou, va sXGr|<; av to you. 

as cpaivr). How you speak like a little child: "I'm hungry, I want 

nooa hxksiq yoiov 7iai5iT^i, Ilsivaaa food!" 

sycb, Ge^co 90171. How you speak like an old man: "I'm trembling [from 

nooa hxksiq yoiov to yiopov, Piycooa cold], I want [to sit in the] corner!" 

sycb, GsXco yawn.. How you speak, "my 'thin one' is horny, I want pussy!" 

nooa Xaksiq, H \\iAr\ pou My soul is blackened; I have found water to bathe. 

KarAd)9r|K£v, GeXco pouvi. 

H \j/uxfl pou paupcbGnKev, nupa vepo 

va ^ouvr). 

Other editions 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 

N' siuco s5cb pcopaiKa, v' aKou<; sou, N' emm s5cb profaned, yi' oik'os, Ka)a| pa8ivf|. 

KaXf| paSivf). Ai8si<; sou, aoxsia pou, v' akr\Q(hq... cpavf). / 

Ai8si<; sou, aoxeia pou, va MGot;... Eig tx\ ysia fiov, va Xu8ii<; av 001 (pavq. 

(pavf). H(bq (a)XaXsig, oiov 7rai5i m\q Mniayaq/MnviGaq 

syw GsXco (pavq. 

nooa A,a^si<;, oiov 7iai5iT^i... eyeb GsXco H(hq (a)XaXsi<;, oiov yiappotJv (n\q) p-qyiooai;, sycb 

(pcovf). QeXxd yovf). 

nooa Xaksiq oiov to... pi^a sycb- GsXco nooa A,aXei<; r\ \j/uxn pou Kco(pd)0tiK£v, GsX,co povf|./ 

yovf). Ildx; (a)XaXsi<;, t] i|/coXii jiou KautaoGtiKsv, GsXco 

nooa hxksiq r\ \|/i)xn pou (?) ...Grpcsv, jiouvi. 



QeXxd [iovr\. 



H \j/uxn l^ou uauproGnKev: nupo vepo va nl,vvr\. 



H \|A)xf| uou uaupcbGnKev: nupo vepo 
va Xx>vr\ (?). 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



I'll speak here in Greek, do listen, fair and 
I'll speak here in Greek, so you can listen, fair and slender (girl). 

slender (girl). You agree, my delight, to truly... appear. / 

You agree, my delight, to the rock to appear... . For my health, be unbound if it seems 

right to you. 
However much you say, like a little child... I want How you say, like a child of [Bisna = 
a voice. Bithynia?], I will reveal. 

However much you say, like a... I have thrown How you say, like the queen's child: I 

away (?): I want a parentage. want a parentage. 

However much you say, my soul (?) ..., I want a 
convent. 



My soul is darkened: I've found water to clear it 
up(?). 



However much you say, my soul is deaf, I 

want a convent./ 

How you say: my dick is horny, I want 

pussy. 

My soul is darkened: I've found water to 
wash. 



Gazal 504 



> i 




(r'-M. 



trA 



I 1 

(j- ^ 5- ' (_T^ Cf^i jr*' J*i) 






Dedes (1993) 



Ta udxia xa si8a psxa osv tiq si8sv; 
yOlO GSV, Ka^OUXGlKTl, si<; xov koouov ziq 



The eyes I have seen with you, who has seen 
them? 



si8sv; 

[vx] r\ Gsa god SKa\|/s ps Kai csv rcdXi 

yupsuyco 

sxdGnKa yia asv Kai Kavsig va nxo va ps 

ppnv. 

Ei<; tov 7i69o god srcd KXaiyco Kai kovcovcg xa 

SdKpua- 

cpcDvd^co Kai Xahb as ps 'rcaxov 7idXi va 

spGnv. 

AKouye Kai Gcbpsi Eycb yia keixuv xi 'rcaGa, 

acppi^ei Kai Xakei xouxo xo Gidpa va pou 

'pxnv. 

Ba^svx %dvsi asv, yia asv ouSs xpcbysi, oi)5s 

Koipdxav 

sycb xo GsXco syivsv, Kavsig va pu. xo eiTrnv. 



Who in the world, my pretty one, has seen 

someone like you? 

Your sight has burned me, and I seek you again. 

I am lost for you, and would that noone would 

find me. 

For your desire I cry here, and I void tears. 

I shout and cry out for you, to come back to me 

myself. 

Listen and look at what I have suffered for her [?] 

This marvel froths and speaks to come to me. 

Walad is losing you; for you he neither eats nor 

sleeps. 

Let no man say, that what I wanted has happened. 



Other editions 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 
Ta pdxia xa si5a, psxd psvav (?) ziq si5sv; 



Ta pdxia xa ... psxd psvav (?) xi<; siSsv; 

Togov KaXouxGiKr) si<; xov koouo va (?) 

xoix; (?) siSouv. 

[vx] r\ Gsa god SKa\|/s ps, k' sosv naki 

yupsuyco- 

ExdGnKa yia asv k' sKavs<; ... va ps Ppouv. 

Eic; xov 7i69ov oou iK^aiyco Kai KcocpcbvcG xa (?)/K£vd)vco xa 8dKpua 

8dKpua- 

Oa)vd(^CD Kai A,aM) as psvav 7tdA,i va 

spxouv. 

AKouye Kai Gcbpsi sycb yia ksivtiv xi 7td6a. 

YPpi^si Kai Xaksi xouxo xo Gsapa va pou 

pcoxouv. 

BsXsvx %dvsi asv(a)- ou8s xpcbysi, ou5s 

Koipdxav 

Eycb 6xi GsXco syivsv Kdvsg va pn. xo ebiovv 



ExdGnKa yia asv Kai lcavsii; [5sv r\kQs] ui^ts va 

ps Ppouv. 

Ei<; xov 7i6Gov god iK^aiyco Kai okotwvco 



AKouys Kai Gcbpsi sycb yia ksivuv xi 'yiava. 
Eycb ti GsXco yivsiv, Kavsiq va pn. xo sursiv. 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 

The eyes... after me (?) who has seen them? 

So beautiful in the (to seen them?). 

[vx] Your appearance has burned me, and I still seek 

you; 

I am lost for you, and you have made it so they will 

find me (dead?). 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 

The eyes I have seen , after me who 
has seen them? 



I am lost for you, and noone [has 
come] even to find me. 



I cry for desire of you, and make my tears silent; I cry for desire of you and kill (?)/void 

then I should and command (?) that they come back to my tears; 
me. 

Listen and look at what I have suffered for her sake . Listen and look at what has become of 

She curses and bids others ask me about this vision. me for her sake. 
Walad is losing you; he neither eats nor sleeps. 
What I want has happened; you have managed it so that 

they don't say anything (?). What I want to happen, let noone 

say. 

Gazal 582 



Vcr>-^^ C5 ^jj\^ 



VV*?&j*$*\ 



^ 






A 






Dedes (1993) 

(If you want me to be full of life) 
EA,a oot6\|/8 Kovxd uou, %puof| Come near me tonight, golden lady. 
Kupd. (Day and night the blessedness emanating from you comes from 

your beauty) 
EXa '5&> va i8d> k' eycb Kap8id, Come here so I too can see a heart, (my) joy. 
Xapd. 

Other editions 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 

EXa oot6\|/8 Kovxd uou, %puof| Kupd. 

EXa 'd&> yia va Sd)K(a)) sycb Kap8id %apd. EAxx '5cb va i5d) k' eycb Kap8id %apd. 

„ „ ,_ 4 ,,„.„ Gregoire (1952), Mertzios 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) & v , _ " 



{If you want me to be full of life) 

Come near me tonight, golden lady. 

{Day and night the blessedness emanating from you comes 

from your beauty) Come here so I too can see 

Come here, so I can give joy to (your?) heart. heart, joy. 

Gazal 885 





It V •! 



u 



jW J*aj L,,, ^il ,;- ■ C i\ 












Dedes (1993) 



Acpsvrri, goto Kap8id uavTa GsXco 
tod Gupou oou to xcbua vav to cpiMr 
ti 5svTpi 'uai sycb, va '^supa touto, 
07ioi) Tpspco yia osvav yoiov to cpuAXo. 
Ecu (piksiq spsva yia tt| ^con. <toi3>tti • 
sycb sosva acpsvrri 8sv as cpiM). 
Eksivov tcod [iiceiq sou va uiocb- 
sksivov nov to GsXsig va un. cpiMi. 
Xi)ad8s<; oi\|/u%s<;, %cbpa syivav 
oi %i)aoi 7c<p>6(pTaaav gto gov to %siXo. 
Eto psivrdvi oTacpuXia 7tavTOU cpayid 
arcs Ta xspia god 7tscpTOU Kai kuXou. 
Ayd7iri cot) 7rr|yaivsi yoiov 7tOTdpi 
k' sycb yupi^co psoa yoiov to udXo. 
O koouo<; GsXsi ps k' sycb scpsuycQ- 
Kai cu cpsuysic; k' sycb sosva GsXco. 
To 7UDpiKo to 7iiKp6 Scbo' to dXXou<;- 
spsva 8(dgs gu sy)a>Ku pfiAo. 
KaKo<; ayKdGi 'vai Kai K^aisi 7tdvTa- 
spsva 7ioiG8 ps dGi va ysAxb. 
BaXsvT A,a<Xd> otou Mau^avd Ta Gupia- 
sycb Gcopcb GdXaooa ki dXAoi izr(k6. 



Master, from my heart I always want 

to kiss the ground at your door. 

What kind of a tree am I, I'd like to know, 

to tremble for you like a leaf. 

You kiss me for [throughout] this life; 

I do not kiss you, master. 

Whom you hate, I will hate. 

Whom you desire, I will not kiss. 

There are thousands of souls, they have become dust. 

The thousand managed to get to your lips. 

In the square, grapes, food everywhere 

fall and flow from your hands. 

Your love goes forth like a river, 

and I turn in it like a mill. 

The world wants me, and I am leaving. 

You are leaving too, and I want you. 

Give the bitter fruit to others, 

to me, give a sweet apple. 

A bad man is a thorn, and always cries. 

Make me a flower, so I can laugh. 

Walad speaks at Mevlana's doors: 

I see the sea, and others see mud. 



Other editions 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



Acpsvrri, and Kap5id rcavTa GsXco 

Na Gcopcb god to %cbpa, va to cpiXcb. 

Ti 8svrp(o) sipai sycb — va ^supa touto — 

O710U Tpspco yia Gsva oiov to cpuXXo; 

Eou cpiXd<; spsva yia tt| ^con, 

Eycb sosva, acpsvrri, Ssv ce cpv\cb. 

Eksivov tcou piod<; ecu, va piocb. 

Eksivov tcou to GsXsic;, va un. cpiM). 

Xikiadeq 01 \|/u%s<; xcbpa syivav, 

Oi %i)aoi 7iou qxuaoav ....(?) Oi %ikioi nov cpTaoav to gov to /siXo 

Sto psivudv' siv' oTacpuXia 7iavTo8a7id (?) Sto psivudv' siv' oTacpuXia Tiavrot) (payid 

Etci Ta %spia oou 7tscpTCG Kai kuAxb (?) 

Ayd7iri god 7ir|yaivsi oiov rcoTdpi 

K' sycb yupi^co psoa oiov to puXo. 

O koouo<; GsXsi ps k' sycb <tov?> cpsuyco- 

K' sou cpsuysig, k' sycb sasva Gs^co. 



To 7i;ovtik6 to 7iiKp6 8oq to aXkovq- 
Epxva 5o<; sou sy^uicu [ir\Xo. 
KaKog ayKdGi 'voa, kou, K^aisi rcdvTa- 
Epxva mdae px d6r| va yeXco. 
BsXsvt hxksi gto MsP^dva rr| Gcopid (?) 
Eycb Gcopcb GdXaooa (?) 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



To 'TicopiKo to rnKpo So<; to aXkovq- 



BsXsvt XaXsi gto MepXdva tv\ Gvpa 
Eycb Gcopcb GaXaaaa k' dXloi yiaXo. 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



Master, with all my heart I constantly want 

to gaze on your earth [tomb], to kiss it. 

What kind of a tree am I, I'd like to know, 

to tremble for you like a leaf? 

You kiss me for [throughout] life; 

I do not kiss you, master. 

Who you hate, I must hate. 

Who you desire, I must not kiss. 

(Or: Who you hate, I want to hate, 

Him who you do not want me to kiss.) 

Thousands of souls have become dust, 

those thousands who have reached .... (?) 

In the square there are grapes of all sorts (?) 

I fall at your hands and roll (?) 

Your love goes like a river 

and I turn in it like a mill. 

The world claims me and I flee (it?); 

you flee, though I claim you. 

Give the bitter nut to others, 

give me the sweet apple. 

A bad man is (like) a thorn, and cries without 

stop; 

gather flowers for me, so I can laugh. 

Walad speaks to Mevlana (about) his vision (?) 

I see a sea (?) 



The thousand who have reached your lip 
In the square there are grapes, food 
everywhere 



Give the bitter fruit to others; 



Walad speaks at Mevlana' s door 

I see the sea and others see the beach 



Rumi: Museum of Konya ms 67 (+ University of Istanbul ms 

F 334) ff 45v-46r 



Rumi's verses are macaronic with (Persian) and Arabic (which Rumi calls "Saracen" in Greek). 
Dedes says the Arabic verse is in imitation of the Koran. 













■* ^ J' f J (i 1 o->.l; , o^' 









^>Soi^aH^.>:.? 



Dedes (1993) 

IIou sioou gu, acpevxr) uou (djiioia svspysnxs ki 
dfjoia (psyyaponpoocons) 
Na 8i7ico oapaKnvixa (ncbg ei/jai sycb xai Ttcbg 
siaai av). 

(Q AA'E, 'HP0AME IE SAS ME THN nFOOESH NA 
0YHAETOYME EIA THN AEATIH SAS) 
(AITO TOTE nOY SAS EIAAME OI Eni@YMIES MAS 
EEINAN OANEFES). 

(Av jitov Scbosiq sva xpaai, sycb 6a.xo.pcb ki av sob 

nail /us Ppioeiq, sycb izaki Oaxoipcb.) 

Acpevxr) 6,xi Qeksiq ou, Gs^co Kai 7tapaKa)ab. 

(av sjusOvasv o Soblog cikov sob rcbpa Xoyia 

KOjUjuaviaajusva . ) 

Bofi9r|o' (J.8 Kavcba [iov, afj^epa 7tapaKa)ab. 

Ilorj sioou xosXsu7if|, nox> sioai, sr| 7tou 'oou; 
ayoOTcb oe. 

(Dvrag x^Pk VTtdXrjy/rj, x m PK vnsprjcpavsia, xr\v 
Ttvorj rcbpa trjg xapdiag /jov aval^rjTa.) 



Where are you, my Master {in the same way 

beneficial and moon-faced) 

Let me say in Saracen {what I am like and 

what you are like) 

(o people, we came to you meaning to be 

sacrificed for your love) 

(Since we have seen you our desires have 

become apparent) 

{If you give me a cup of wine, I will rejoice, 

and if you curse at me, I will still rejoice.) 

Master, whatever you want, I want and beg 

for. 

{If your servant is drunk, now hear broken 

words) 

Help me my lovely, today I beg you. 

[2 Persian verses omitted] 

Where are you, sir, where are you, hey where 

are you? I love you. 

{Being of no repute, with no pride, now seek 

the breath of my heart') 



Other editions 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



%ov eioou sou, o^evxri uou ... 

va sirai) oapaKnviKa (?) ... 

acpsvTT), 6 ti Qekeiq, QeXa> kou 7tapaKaM> 

PoriGeig ps, Kav&Ki porr ofipepa 7tapa)ax)ab. 

7ioi3 eioou, xoeXepTtf), 7ioi3 eioou, ei, 7ioi3 'oav ayd, 7ioi3 'oou. 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 

Where are you, my Master? {Who are who does 

good and at the same time has a face [beautiful] 

like the moon') 

Let me say in Saracen (?) {how you are and how I 

am). 

(o people, we came to you meaning to be 

sacrificed for your love) 

(Since we have seen you our desires have 

become clear) 

{If you give me a glass of wine, I will be happy; if 

you insult me, I will be happy.) 

Master, whatever you want, I want and beg for. 

{Since this servant is drunk, do listen to futile and 

scattered words.) 

You're helping me, my lovely; today I am babbling. 

Where are you, sir, where are you, hey where are 

you? My lord, where are you? 

{Now that we have abandoned all pride and repute, 

seek out our heart.) 



Golpinarli (1951) 



Where are you my master? the dispenser 

of benevolence and the moon-faced 

charmer? 

I will say in Sarrazin who I am and who 

you are. 

I came to you, friend to be sacrificed for 

love, 

and when I saw you my desires were 

magnified. 

If you give me a glass of wine, I'll be 

happy, and if you abuse me, I'll be happy. 

My lord, what you desire I desire and I 

seek. 

When I am drunk, listen to my babbling. 

Lord, help me in my chattering! 
Where are you Chelabi Where are you? 
Where are you, dear? Where? 

1 have abandoned pride and principles, 
console my heart! 



Rumi: Museum of Konya ms 67 (+ University of Istanbul ms 

F 334) ff 273v 



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Dedes (1993) 

A(pevxr|<; pa<; sv ki ayoOTofjpev xov 
ki an' sksivov ev KaX,fi r\ Cfi)r\ pa<;. 
riaxi yfjpioe<;, yiaxi Ppcbpiosg; 

718 pe XI 87ia68(;, 718 p£ XI £%aO£g! 

(^z xapSia /jov, ai yvxV M 00 - 

ai to stovto /jov, ai to skeivo /jov, 



ax otziti juov, ax oTsyrj juov 



Ax Orjoavpe /iov, ax xpvoonrjyf}!) 
'EA,a KaXe pou, sA,a od%r| [iov 
Xapd 8s Si8si<;, 8oq pa<; dvspo! 
Ilot) 5i\|/d 7iivsi, Tcou 7covsi hxksi- 
[ir\8ev xodKcooeg, KaA,s, xo joaXi; 

Other editions 



He is our Master and we love him 

and because of Him our life is good. 

Why have you come back, why did you get dirty? 

Tell me what happened to you, tell me what you have lost! 

(Oh my heart, oh my soul, 

oh my this, oh my that, 

ah, my house, ah my shelter! 

Ah, my treasure, ah golden spring!) 

Come my darling, come my shah, 

you give no joy: give us the wind! 

Who thirsts, drinks; who hurts, cries out; 

darling, have you smashed the glass? 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 

a(p£vxr|<; pa<; siv', koii ayarcropev xov, 
ki cot' sksivo 'vai Kakr\ r\ Cp)i\ [iaq. 
yiaxi yupiost;, yiaxi '(poppr|os<;; 
'Tie pe xi 7ra9e<;, 'rce pe xi %a.aeq\ 
eXa, Ka^e pou, sA,a, cid%i pou! 



%apd 8s SiSei<;; 5oq [iaq dveuo. 

710D 8l\j/d JttVEl, 7I0U 710V81 Xoksi. 

[ir\8ev T^dKcoaeg, Koks, to yvaki (?). 

Burguiere & Mantran (1952) Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 

He is our Master and we love him, 

and because of Him our life is good. 

Why are you back, why have you rushed? 

Tell me what happened to you, tell me what you have lost! 



Come my darling, come my shah. 
You give no joy? Give us the wind! 
Who thirsts, drinks; who hurts, cries out; 
darling, have you smashed the glass (?) 

Rumi: Museum of Konya ms 67 (+ University of Istanbul ms 

F 334) ff 290v 



...,-.. T': i. '.'■■••» ■ . . . ■ -" > ^^V 

££-". l j^**3 <S~JJ jJi ; , ; | Li ^V-- ■■:■ -Ml/ .- ■■ i i ,r/ 



Dedes (1993) 

KaXi\ Ti3%r| audvco god, en. acpevxri xaEkE\ntr\, Good luck be with you, oh Sir and Master 

(jueaavvxTa or' ovojud juag xr\v jueycdoavvn (at midnight in our name you seek greatness) 

ava^nrat;.) (With black clothes and a walking stick I 



(Me /javpa pobxo. Km pafidi yvpi^co oav) 

KaXoyepog 

(Km /js Tovp/jnavi Km Kovrapi ^svog yivo/jm 

apafiag.) 

(Eiam to k&Os ti nov si/urn, e/jipn sav, s/jsdvasg 

oKXrjps hovrapoTziaorrj.) 

(Unoia ylcbaaa Oslsig /jiXa, Xoapot], yXvKoxsiXn .) 

Hpxs \xe r\ ajcmr\ god, KdnKa 7iapdxaipa- 

(Eiam tov dsov to (pcog r\ jurj-jtcog siam av dsog, 

dyyslog r\ npofrjnjg.) 

KaAf| [ispa Xiyeps, n&>q <ei>oT£v, \caka 'oxev; 

'Ac, Ktefieic,, Tceks[ntr\, surca sow, sX,a '5d>. 

(Eex&aov jiiia ariy/jrfv sav tzov £/£/? ykvKsia ttjv 

Xdpfj.) 



wander like) a monk. 

(And with a turban and a pole, I became a 
stranger, an Arab.) 

(You are everything I am, my lord; you're 
drunk, tough lion-tamer.) 
(Speak whatever language you want, sweet- 
lipped Khusrow.) 

Your love has come to me, I am strangely 
burned. 

(Are you God's light, or might you be a god, 
an angel, or a prophet?) 
Good day, my slender one, how are you, are 
you well? 

You can keep stealing, sir, get inside, come 
here. 

(Forget yourself for a moment, you with such 
sweet grace.) 



Other editions 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



Kakr\ Tt>xn OOTdvoo god, si, acpsvrri xoeXsujrri ! 

... KaXoyepog. 

ipis us ayd7iT| god Kai KdnKa uapdcpopa (?). 

KaXf| [a,spa, Xiyups! 7tcb<; (si)oxs; KaXd 'gts; Kakr\ uspa, Xiynp-q, nov 'oTqv, Kakihq m\\. 

ecu Kskeveiq, ToeXeuTtf) ! eurca 7Ugcq, ska '86>. ecu xaXsusig, TosXeuTtf) ! eurca macD, ska '86>. 



Burguiere & Mantran (1952) 



Gregoire (1952), Mertzios (1958) 



Good luck be with you, oh Sir and Master! 

... monk. 

Your love has come to me, and I am 

insufferably burned (?). Good day, slender girl, where had you 

Good day, my slender one, how are you, are you been? Welcome. 

well? You are searching, sir! Get back inside, come 

You command, sir! Get back inside, come here. here.