A WASTE OF. MANPOWER By William E. Sturf^es Janusry 8, 1943 ' Today, manpower cannot afford to be wasted. We need every bit of it to supply our rapidly moving war industries. Any shortaBQ of manpower Just slows up the war program. The greatest loss of manpower is throuf;h Industrial accidents,' More men have been killed in industry in the United States since its founding than in all the vmrs in v/hich the United States has been engaged. Due to such large losses through accidents, a more intensive program is needed in an effort to eliminate them. A WASTE OF MANPOWER ■Today, with the United States engaged in the largest war that it has ever fought, many of the problems that arise on the home front are cast aside and neglected. Most of the minds of America are focused on the fighting men in various parts of the world. Every day the nevirspapers contain articles which tell of their heroic deeds and actions; hut where are the press clip- Ings and medals for the men on the home front who are producing the guns, tanks, planes, ships, and the other essentials of war? Their job is just as important to the winning of the war as that of fighting in the front lines. In their work they face an un- seen enemy, that of industrial accidents. These industrial accidents are greater than most people realize and are helping the Axis Powers in their war against the United Nations. In the last World V/ar, "there were actually more workers killed and injured in the United States through industrial accidents than there were casulties in the Jtaerican Expeditionary Force. ... When the Lu si tenia was sunk, it shocked the nation. Yet, year in and year out, as many die in industry, every fourteen days, 1 as lost their lives on the Lusitania. The bad part about these accidents is that they are not being decreased in number. In fact, the frequency rate' in 1941 2 was 14^ higher than it was in 1940. 1 Stein and Davis, Labo r Prpb lg as in America , Pg. 50 2 Kossoris, Max D, » Industrial Injuries in the United States During 1941, Pg. 1 -2- ■This increase is accounted for by the influx of large numbers of inexperienced workers into the grovdng defense industries. The increase also indicates that safety progrsans and activities are falling behind the rapidly moving war program. Today, manpower is very scarce, and, hence, this loss through acci- dents becomes an increasingly important problan. The welfare and safety programs of the government should not be set aside for the duration of the war, but should be expanded as much as possible since they contribute indirectly so much to the v.'ar effort. The accidents in industry can be attributed to three major causes: the unvdllingness or negligence of the employer to provide adequate safety equipment; neglif-.ence or careless- ness on the part of the worker; and the natural hazards that are common to any one industiy. Accidents due to either of the first two causes mentioned above can be eliminated. How- ever, those due to the third cause cannot be eliminated entire- ly. For example, no matter how many safety measures are pro- vided, in the mining industiy there is alvmys the possibility, of a cave- in or an explosion due to gases. However, the majority of the causes are personal ftnd can be eliminated. Ttie employer is required by law to maintain certain safety standards, but the laws are too lax which is proved by the large number of accidents. The workers are very often the victims of an aaployer who has a thirst for profits and no -5- regard for their welfare. Accidents due to ignorance, fatigue, 8Jid carelessness are due to both the employer and the worker. The worker should he carefully taught the safest methods of doing his work and should be willlne to learn them without being resentful. Unnecessary fatigue can be prevented by shorter working hours, recreational actiYities, good lighting facilities, and other similar thlng.s. The Jack and Heinz Company of Bedford, Ohio, is a good example of the perfect employer. All employees are given a special pair of shoes to prevent undue fatigue; free coffee, soup, end sandwiches are served during working hours; free dental and medical cf-re is provided; and music is played in the plant vjhlle the men work. Vtorking for such a company is a pleasure. Industrial accidents prove to be very costly every year. Not only are so many working days lost each year, but deaths and permanent disabilities result is a loss of man- pov7er in the years that follow. "All types of injuries taken together cause an annual loss of time of more than 280,000,000 4 working days. Contrary to the belief of Biost people, it is the workers in the lower age group who receive the majority of 5 injuries. 3 March of Time Radio Program, Dec. 24, 1942. 4 Bowers and Rowntree, Economics for Engineers , Pg. 502 5 " Ko s so ri s , Max D, , Relation of Af^e to Industrial Injuries -4- Such a killing and maiming of young Ameilcens cannot be allowed to go on. Most of the steps taken so far are concerned with easing the hardships that result from the accidents. A few examples are Workmen* s Compensotion Laws, Child Labor Laws, Accident Insurance, and Health Insurance. Safety lews, laws requiring certain sanitary conditions, end the National Safety Committee are a few of the steps that have been taken in an attempt to eliminate the accidents. The real solution for the elimination of these acci- dents lies in stronger and more forceful safety laws and in a nation wide program of safety. Such a program should educate not only the anployers and workers, but also the general pub- lic as to the seriousness of the problem. BIBLIOGRAPHY STECN and DAVIS, Labor Probletas in Anierioa , Farrar end. Rinehert, Inc., New York, 1940. KOSSORIS, MAX D. , In dust rial Injuries in the United States Durlnp 1941 . Bureau of Labor Statistics, GoTemment Printing Office, Washington, D. C. , 194S. B0W2RS and K3WNTREE, Economics for gngineers. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938. KOSSORIS, MAX D. , Relation of Afre to Industrial Injuries , Bureau of Labor Statistics, Government Printinp, Office, Washington, D. C., 1941.