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Full text of "A History of the Personal Computer"

Part III 



1980's - The IBM/Macintosh Era. 



8/1 



8/2 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 



1980 


1981 


1982 


1983 


1984 


1985 


1986 


1987 


1988 


1989 


: Microprocessors 


1 Motorola MC68010 \ Motorola MC68020 


1 /Woforota MC 68030 \ 




1 Intel lAPX 432 








Motorola MC68040 


Feb 










1 Si/n SP^lflC 1 1 


1 Intel 8087 


1 Intel 80286 




1 Intel a0386DX 


Jul \lntel 80486DX \ 


Jun Coprocessor Feb 




Oct 1 


\ \ Apr 


Misc. Personal Computers 


\ j ylfa/7 1200XL 




1 Gateway 


1 Sinclair ZX80 


1 Son- 7 workstation 




1 St/n3 workstation 


Sun SPARCstation 1 


Feb 


1 Osborne 1 


1 Osborne Executive 


\ Toshiba T3100 \ 




1 


1 Commodore 


\ Commodore 64 


1 Dell 


\ \ Dell 286 system 




Apr 


Jun VIC-20 Jan | DEC Rainbow 




1 Xerox Viewpoint 








1 Xerox Star 


\ TRS-80 100 1 


Tandy WOO 


1 Packard Bell 








Apr 


1 G/?/D Compass laptop Dec 


1 AST Premium/286 


1 NeXT \ 


1 TRS -80 Model III 


1 /faypro // [ TRS-8D Model 4 




Oct ! 


Compaq 




1 


Portable 


1 Portable 286 


1 Portable 386 LTE \ 




Nov 1 Compaq Plus \ 


Sep 


1 1 








Oct 


j Deslipro 286 
Jun I 


1 Deskpro 386 
Sep i 


System Pro -> | | 
Nov: 


Apple 






I Lisa 


1 Lisa 2 \ 1 Lisa Discontinued 


Macintosh llci \ 






Jan 


1 Macintosh \ 1 Macintosh Plus 


\& Portable \ 


1 Apple III 




Jan 1 Fat Mac Jan | | Macintosh II & SE \ 


May 








Sep I 


Mar 


1 Mac llx Sep 1 








1 Apple lie 1 Apple lie 


1 Apple IIGS 


1 Apple lie Plus \ 






Jan 


Apr 


Sep 




Sep 




IBM 


1 PC Computer 




1 /I r Computer 












Aug 


1 IBM 9000 


Aug I 


1 PORT 


1 Personal System/2 








May 


1 PC/XT Computer \ 


Jan 


Apr 






1 Management 




Mar 1 


PC/Xr370& 3270 PC 


1 PC Convertible 


PS/2 P70 portable 


Aug 


approve 




1 


PC/Jr Computer 


Apr 1 PC/XT Model 286 | 




PC project 




Nov 


1 Portable PC 


Sep May 


Software 


1 DOS 1.0 


1 DOS 2.0 


1 DOS 3.0 


1 DOS 4.0 




Aug 




Mar 


Aug i 


Jun 


1 MS buys 86-DOS 


1 


/WS W/zidoivs- 1 


Wz/Jdows 7.03 \ Windows 2.01 


Oct 




Nov announced Nov 


Oct Quick Pascal 






1 FORTRAN & COBOL for DOS \ \ MS-Net \ 






1 


Microsoft 




Mar 1 MultJplan (PC) j Chart | Excel(Macj 


1 


ExcellPC) 


Mar 

Word for 






Oct 


Aug Sep 


Oct 


1 XENIX 




1 WordlPCI \ 1 Word(Macl 


1 Bookshelf Windows 1 i 


Aug 




1 GWB, 


<\SIC 


Jan 
1 Project 


1 Qu/c* fi/^S/C 
1 Works (Mac) 


Dec; 
1 Works (PC) \ 


Misc. 


1 VisiPlot & 


1 /WSX 




Apr VisiTrend 
1 >:lppte IVr/te/- // 


Jun 


May \\nie IMaci 


Sep 




Mar 


â– fZortis "7-2-3 1 "Qu/citen 


1 C+ + 


1 IBM/MS OS/2 Operating 








Jan 


\ 1 PostScript 


Apr System announced 




1 dBase II 


\ 


Visi On 


1 dBase III | \/enfura | OS/2 7.0 


IBM 


Jan 


1 


WordPerfect 


Jun 1 IBM TopView Publisher Nov 


OfficeVision \ 






Nov 


1 Symphony \ Jazz 


\ QuarkXPress 


1 1 






1 CP/M-86 


Feb 1 Gem 


1 


NewWave 


Jun 






Apr 


1 


AppleWorks PageMaker 


Nov INeXTSTEP 


Magazines 




1 PC Magazine 


1 PC Week 






1 PC Computing 




Mar 


1 PC World 


1 Nibble 






1 in Cider 










Jan 1 So 


fa/A 




Jan 


1 Macworld 













Figure 8.1: A graphical history of personal computers 
(1980' s) - The IBM/Macintosh era. 



Chapter 8 Microprocessors in the 1980' s 

8.1... Intel 

Microprocessors 

The iAPX 432 (Intel Advanced Processor 
Architecture) which was now a 32-bit microprocessor, was 
introduced in February 1981. Principals in the 
development were William Lattin and Justin Rattner. The 
chip was an advanced design with an innovative 
architecture. It supported data store using multiple 
pointer levels, fault tolerance, memory error 
correction, multiprocessing and object-oriented 
software. The microprocessor was described as a 
micromainframe computer in the May 3, 1982 issue of 
Fortune magazine. However, due to performance 
deficiencies the product was discontinued. 

Intel announced the 80186 and 80188 high 
integration 16-bit internal data path microprocessors in 
1982 . Both processors were designed for embedded 
applications in computer peripherals and other 
electronic products. 

The 8028 6 microprocessor was introduced in 
February 1982 and was four times more powerful than the 
8088. The chip has 134,000 transistors, a 16-bit 
internal data path and at a clock speed of 8 MHz it has 
a rating of 1.2 MIPS (million instructions per second) . 
The microprocessor featured on-chip memory management to 
support multitasking. It also had an on-chip security 
system for data protection. The memory addressability is 
16 megabytes and the microprocessor is available at 
clock freguencies of 8 , 10 and 12.5 MHz. The price at 
introduction was $360. This microprocessor was selected 
by IBM for the PC AT computer released in August 198 4. 

A group of engineers led by John Crawford 
developed Intel's 80386DX microprocessor. It had full 
32-bit capability and preserved software compatibility 
with the previous 8086 and 80286 architectures. The 
8038 6DX was introduced in October 1985 and was 
approximately fifteen times more powerful than the 8 088. 



8/3 



8/4 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

The chip has 275,000 transistors, a 32-bit internal data 
path and at a clock speed of 16 MHz a rating of 6 MIPS. 
The memory addressability is 4 gigabytes and the 
microprocessor became available at clock freguencies of 
16, 20, 25 and 33 MHz. The price at introduction was 
$299. 

The 8038 6DX was selected by Compag for the Deskpro 
computer released in September 198 6. This was the first 
product application of the microprocessor. Intel had 
tried to get IBM to incorporate the new microprocessor 
in their product line. However, IBM had concerns 
regarding the processors power affecting their 
microcomputer sales and were therefore slow in adopting 
the 80386. Initially the 80386 microprocessor was not 
second sourced by Intel to other competitors, other than 
IBM for a portion of its internal use. The 80386 became 
a very successful product and started to contribute 
significantly to the company profits . 

The 8038 6SX microprocessor was introduced in June 

1988. The chip has 275,000 transistors, a 32-bit 
internal bus with a 16-bit external bus and at a clock 
speed of 16 MHz a rating of 2.5 MIPS. The memory 
addressability is 16 megabytes and the microprocessor is 
available at clock freguencies of 16, 20, 25 and 33 MHz. 

The 8048 6DX microprocessor was introduced in April 

1989. The chip has 1.2 million transistors, 1.0 micron 
minimum feature size and a 32-bit bus. This was the 
first Intel processor to incorporate a Level 1 (LI) 
cache of 8 KB for faster data access. At a clock speed 
of 25 MHz it has a rating of 20 MIPS. The microprocessor 
included an integrated floating-point unit. The memory 
addressability is 4 gigabytes and the microprocessor 
became available at clock freguencies of 25, 33, 50, 60, 
75, and 100 MHz. The price at introduction was $950. 

Coprocessors 

The concept for a coprocessor evolved at Intel 
from the 8086 microprocessor in 1976. This resulted in a 
floating-point extension to the 8086 instruction set and 
a systems interface architecture. In 1987 the 
development of the coprocessor was assigned to the Intel 
design center in Haifa, Israel. 



Microprocessors in the 1980' s 8/5 

The 8087 math coprocessor added a set of floating- 
point instructions to the 8086/88. It was the first 
implementation of the IEEE standard for floating-point 
mathematics. Use of the coprocessor resulted in a 
significant increase in the speed of mathematical 
computations. The 8087 coprocessor was released in June 
1980. Intel announced the 82786 graphics coprocessor in 
May 1986. 

Corporate & Other Activities 

Competitive pressures in the microprocessor market 
from companies such as Motorola and Zilog, resulted in 
the implementation of a sales campaign called "Operation 
Crush" in early 1980. Intel had been loosing market 
share, mainly to Motorola whose microprocessor products 
were perceived as being superior. Numerous activities 
were initiated to communicate the overall advantages 
offered by the company, and the sales personnel were 
assigned goals to increase the number of design wins for 
the use of Intel chips in customer products. By the end 
of 198 0, the campaign became very successful. One major 
design win with far reaching conseguences for Intel, was 
in Boca Raton, Florida for the IBM Personal Computer. 

Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) negotiated 
a ten year technological exchange agreement, and AMD 
became a second source for the 8088 microprocessor in 
February 1982. This was largely the effect of a desire 
by IBM to have an alternate source for the 
microprocessor in its new personal computer. 

IBM purchased 12 percent of Intel Corporation for 
$250 million in December 1982. Intel was having 
financial problems due to intense competition from 
Japanese manufacturers of memory chips. Then in 1983-8 4, 
IBM increased its investment in Intel to 20 percent. 

In 1984 Intel approved a project for a line of 
parallel processing supercomputers. The company also 
licensed AMD as a second source for the 80286 in 1984. 

The semiconductor industry had been enjoying a 
boom market until mid-1984, when demand slowed 
dramatically. This resulted in excess capacity across 
the industry and prices collapsed between 1985 and 198 6. 
At Intel, a reduced demand for microprocessors and 



8/6 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

termination of the company's DRAM chip business resulted 
in significant losses in 1986. This resulted in plant 
closings and the termination of over 8,000 employees. 
However, in 1987 conditions improved. Intel started to 
report profitable income and Andrew Grove became the 
chief executive officer. 

During 198 6, Intel concluded a technological 
exchange agreement with IBM. IBM received rights to 
manufacture up to half of its own requirements for the 
Intel 8038 6 microprocessor and to develop an enhanced 
design for its own use and external sales. Intel 
received a number of IBM technologies, such as advance 
chip packaging. IBM started reducing its investment in 
Intel Corporation in 198 6, and completed its divestiture 
of Intel shares due to its own financial problems in 
December 1987. 

Robert Noyce, who had been moving towards semi- 
retirement, accepted a position as chief executive 
officer of SEMATECH, Inc., in mid-198 8. SEMATECH is an 
acronym for SEmiconductor MAnuf acturing TECHnology. The 
company was founded by the U.S. Government and a group 
of leading U.S. semiconductor manufacturers to conduct 
research that would help combat competition from Japan. 

8.2... Motorola 

Motorola introduced 10 and 12 MHz versions of the 
MC68000 microprocessor by the end of 1981. The company 
then introduced the MC68010 in 1982 and the 32-bit 
MC68020 in 1984. The MC68020 used 2.5 micron technology, 
had 200,000 transistors, a 256 byte cache and executed 
instructions at 2.5 MIPS. Clock speeds are 16-33 MHz. 

The MC68030 32-bit unit has all the features of 
the MC68020 plus a paged memory management unit, 
separate 256 byte caches for data and instructions and 
additional enhancements . It executes instructions at 12 
MIPS and clock speeds are 16-50 MHz. The MC68030 was 
introduced in 198 7 and was used on the Apple Macintosh 
IIx computer. 

Motorola announced the 88000 family of Reduced 
Instruction Set Computing (RISC) microprocessors in 



Microprocessors in the 1980' s 8/7 

1988. They were designed for applications such as 
multiprocessing and high performance graphics. 

The MC68040 is a 32-bit microprocessor that 
executes instructions at 20 MIPS. It contains 1.2 
million transistors, has a 4K byte instruction cache, 4k 
byte data cache and a floating-point unit. Clock speeds 
are 25-40 MHz. The MC68040 was announced in April 1989. 



8.3... Other Microprocessors 



The National Semiconductor 16032 was a 
microprocessor with a 16-bit external data bus and a 32- 
bit internal bus. It was announced in 1981. The 32032 
was the first full 32-bit microprocessor. In 1987, 
National Semiconductor acguired Fairchild Semiconductor 
that had been having problems. 

The Western Design Center 65802 and 65816 
microprocessors were designed by Bill Mensch and 
announced in 1984. The W65C816 is a 16-bit 
microprocessor that is used in the Apple IIGS computer. 

Gordon Campbell who had previously been with Intel 
Corporation founded Chips and Technologies, Inc. The 
company started by producing low cost chip sets for the 
IBM PC AT computer. 

The Zilog Z-80000 is a 32-bit microprocessor and 
the Z280 is a 16-bit version of the Z-80 that was 
announced in 198 7. 

RISC Microprocessors 

John Cocke developed the primary concepts for the 
Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) technology at 
IBM starting in the 1960's. It evolved from his research 
on optimizing the interaction between hardware and 
software. Cocke determined that the overall speed of 
execution could be increased by reducing the number of 
complicated instructions to a relatively small set of 
simple optimized instructions. 

The RISC architecture was first implemented on two 
experimental computers and on the IBM 8 01 minicomputer 
in 1978. Then in 1980, IBM's Austin laboratory developed 
the ROMP (Research Office products Microprocessor) RISC 



8/8 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 

microprocessor for the office products division. The 
original intent was to use the microprocessor in a 
networked office workstation. The first IBM personal 
computer to use the ROMP microprocessor was the PC RT 
workstation introduced in January 198 6. IBM's mainframe 
and personal computer divisions did not support the 
application of RISC technology on their products. This 
allowed other companies to exploit the technology during 
the last half of the 1980' s. 

David Patterson from the University of California 
at Berkeley, who after evaluating the complexity of the 
DEC VAX computer instruction set, developed the RISC-I 
microprocessor in 1980. John L. Hennessy also did 
research on RISC microprocessors at Stanford University, 
and with Skip Stritter, also from Stanford and John 
Moussouris of IBM, they founded MIPS Computer Systems in 
1984. MIPS released the 32-bit R2000 RISC 
microprocessor, that had 185,000 transistors in 1986. 

The SPARC RISC microprocessor was developed at Sun 
Microsystems by Anant Agrawal with assistance from 
Robert Garner, William Joy and David Patterson from the 
University of California at Berkeley. SPARC is an 
acronym for Scalable Processor Architecture. It was 
introduced by Sun in July 1987 and used on their 
SPARCstation 1 in 1989. 



8.4 ... Other Corporate Developments 

The Exxon corporation acguired Zilog Inc., in 1981 
then sold it to Zilog executives in 1989. 

Texas Instruments introduced its first single-chip 
digital signal processor (DSP), the TMS320 in 1982. This 
subsequently became a major product line for the 
company. 

In April 1985, AT&T purchased the assets of 
Synertek, Inc., a subsidiary of Honeywell for an 
estimated $25 million. Then in November a French 
company, Thomson-CSF purchased Mostek, a subsidiary of 
United Technologies for $70 million. 



Microprocessors in the 1980' s 8/9 

AMD started litigation to obtain a license as a 
second source for the 80386 microprocessor in 1987. 
Intel wanted to restrict the second sourcing of the 
microprocessor. However, the technological exchange 
agreement that Intel had agreed to with AMD in 1982 
would become a problem for Intel. During the litigation 
arbitration in 1989, AMD decided to make an independent 
clone design of the 80386. 



8/10 Part III 1980's- The IBM/Macintosh era 



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