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Chapter 1 ... Development of the Computer 

1.1 The Original Digital Computers 

1. Burkes, Alice R. and Arthur W. Burkes. 

The First Electronic Computer . 

Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 

2. Ceruzzi, Paul E. 

Reckoners : The Prehistory of the Digital Computer , 
from Relays to the Stored Program Concept , 

Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983. 

3. Ceruzzi, Paul E. 

A History of Modern Computing. 
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998. 
-- Covers the transition to the microprocessor and 
personal computer. 

4. Goldstine, Herman H. 

The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann. 
Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972. 

5. If rah, Georges. 

The Universal History of Computing: From the 

Abacus to the Quantum Computer . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. 

6. Lavington, Simon S. 

Early British Computers . 

Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 


Bibliography/2 A History of the Personal Computer 

7. Lukoff, Herman. 

From Dits To Bits: A Personal History of the 

Electronic Computer. 
Portland, Oregon: Robotics Press, 1979. 

8. Lundstrom, David E. 

A Few Good Men from Univac 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1987. 

9. Metropolis, N., J. Howlet and Gian-Carlo Rota 

(Editors) . 
A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century. 
New York: Academic Press, 1980. 

10. Mollenhoff, Clark R. 

Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer . 
Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1988. 

11. Moreau, R. 

The Computer Comes of Age: The People, the 

Hardware , and the Software . 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984. 

12. Pylyshyn, Zenon W. (Editor) . 

Perspectives on the Computer Revolution. 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1970. 

13. Randell, Brian. 

The Origins of Digital Computers : Selected Papers. 
New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975. 

14. Redmond, Kent C. and Thomas M. Smith 

Project Whirlwind: The History of a Pioneer 

Computer . 
Bedford, Mass.: Digital Press, 1981. 

15. Ritchie, David. 

The Computer Pioneers : The Making of the Modern 

Computer . 
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. 

16. Shurkin, Joel. 

Engines of the Mind: A History of the Computer. 
New York: Norton & Company, 1984. 

17. Stern, Nancy. 

From Eniac to Univac: An Appraisal of the 

Eckert-Mauchly Computers . 
Bedford, Mass.: Digital Press, 1981. 

Books Bibliography/3 

18. Wildes, Karl L. and Nilo A. Lindgren. 

A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer 

Science at MIT, 1882 - 1982. 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985. 

19. Wilkes, Maurice. 

Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer . 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985. 

20. Williams, Michael R. 

A History of Computing Technology. 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985. 

1.2 IBM 

21. Bashe, Charles J., Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer 

and Emerson W. Pugh. 
IBM's Early Computers . 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986. 

22. Belden, Thomas and Marva Belden. 

The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of 

Thomas J. Watson. 
Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown and Company, 1962. 

23. Pugh, Emerson W. 

Memories That Shaped An Industry: Decisions 

Leading to IBM System/360 . 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984. 

24. Pugh, Emerson W. , Lyle R. Johnson and 

John H. Palmer. 
IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems. 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. 

25. Pugh, Emerson W. 

Building IBM, Shaping an Industry and Its 

Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995. 

26. Rodgers, William. 

Think: A Biography of the Watsons and IBM. 
New York: Stein and Day, 1969. 

27. Watson, Thomas J. Jr. 

A Business and Its Beliefs : The Ideas That Helped 

Build IBM. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963. 

28. Watson, Thomas J. Jr. and Peter Petre. 

Father Son & Co. : My Life at IBM and Beyond. 
New York: Bantam Books, 1990. 

Bibliography/4 A History of the Personal Computer 

1.3 Technology 

29. Braun, Ernest and Stuart Macdonald. 

Revolution in Miniature : The History and Impact of 

Semiconductor Electronics . 
Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 1982 

(2nd Edition) . 

30. Gilder, George. 

Microcosm: The Quantum Revolution in Economics and 

New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989. 
-- "A prescient look inside the expanding universe 

of economic, social and technological 

possibilities within the world of the silicon 

chip . " 

31. Morris, P.R. 

A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. 
London, England: Peter Peregrinus, 1990. 

32. Reid, T.R. 

The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip 

and Launched a Revolution. 
New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984. 

33. Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. 

Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age. 
New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997. 

1.4 Software 

34. Rosen, Saul (Editor). 

Programming Systems and Languages . 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 

35. Sammet, Jean E. 

Programming Languages : History and Fundamentals . 
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1969. 

36. Wexelblat, Richard L. (Editor) . 

History of Programming Languages . 
New York: Academic Press, 1981. 

Books Bibliography/5 

Chapters 2, 4 & 11 ... Personal Computing, Transition, to 
Microcomputers & Competitive Computers. 

37. Bardini, Thierry. 

Bootstrapping : Douglas Engelbart , Coevolution, and 

the Origins of Personal Computing. 
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000. 

38. Clark, W.A. and C.E. Molnar. 

A Description of the LINC. 

In "Computers in Biomedical Research Corporation. " 

Editors: Ralph W. Stacy and Bruce D. Waxman. 

New York: Academic Press, 19 65; Chap. 2. 

39. Evans, Christopher. 

The Making of the Micro: A History of the 
Computer . 

London, England: Victor Gollancz, 1981. 

-- The "Micro" in the title refers to the 
microprocessor. The book does not contain any 
history of the microcomputer. The author died in 
1979 prior to completion of the book, which was 
finished by Tom Stonier. 

40. Freiberger, Paul and Michael Swaine . 

Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal 

Computer . 
Berkeley, Calif.: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1984. 
-- A second edition was published by McGraw-Hill 

in 2000 that has been updated, with expanded 

coverage and numerous photographs . 

41. Goldberg, Adele (Editor). 

A History of Personal Workstations . 
New York: ACM Press, 198 8. 

42 . Kemeny, John G. 

Man and the Computer. 

New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. 
-- Has a chapter describing Dartmouth Time Sharing 

43. McCarthy, John. 

Time-Sharing Computer Systems . 

In: "Management and the Computer of the Future" . 
Greenberger, Martin (Editor) . 
New York: MIT Press and John Wiley, 1962, 
pp. 220-248. 

Bibliography/6 A History of the Personal Computer 

44. Osborne, Adam. 

An Introduction to Microcomputers . 3 Vols. 

Berkeley Calif.: Osborne /McGraw-Hill , 1977. 

45. Veit, Stan. 

Stan Veit' s History of the Persona.! Computer : From 

Altair to IBM, A History of the PC Revolution. 
Asheville, N.C.: WorldComm, 1993. 

Chapters 3 & 8 ... Microprocessors 

46. Byman, Jeremy. 

Andrew Grove and the Intel Corporation. 
Greensboro, NC : Morgan Reynolds, 1999. 

47. Jackson, Tim. 

Inside Intel: Andy Grove and the Rise of the 

World's Most Powerful Chip Company. 
New York: Dutton, 1997. 

48. Kaye, Glynnis Thompson (Editor) . 

A Revolution in Progress : A History of Intel to 

Santa Clara, Calif.: Intel Corporation, 1984. 

49. Malone, Michael S. 

The Microprocessor : A Biography . 
New York: Springer-Verlag, 1995. 

50. Noyce, Robert N. and Marcian E. Hoff. 

A History of Microprocessor Development at Intel. 
Santa Clara, Calif.: Intel Corp., Public AR-173. 

51. YU, Albert. 

Creating the Digital Future: the Secrets of 

Consistent Innovation at Intel. 
New York: Free Press, 1998. 

Chapters 5 & 10 ... Apple Computer 

52. Amelio, Gil and William L. Simon. 

On the Firing Line: My 500 Days at Apple. 
New York: HarperBusiness , 1998. 

53. Butcher, Lee. 

Accidental Millionaire : The Rise and Fall of Steve 

Jobs at Apple Computer . 
New York: Paragon House, 1988. 

Books Bibliography/7 

54. Carlton, Jim. 

Apple: The Inside Story. 

New York: Random House, 1997. 

55. Deutschman, Alan. 

The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. 
New York: Broadway Books, 2000. 

56. Garr, Doug. 

Woz: The Prodigal Son of Silicon Valley. 
New York: Avon Books, 1984. 

57. Gassee, Jean-Louis. 

The Third Apple: Personal Computers and the 

Cultural Revolution. 
Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. 

58. Greenberg, Keith Elliot. 

Steven Jobs & Stephen Woznlak: Creating the Apple 

Computer . 
Woodbridge, Conn.: Blackbirch Press, 1994. 
-- A juvenile book for young readers. 

59. Kawasaki, Guy. 

The Macintosh Way. 

New York: HarperPerennial, 1990. 

60. Kendall, Martha E. 

Steve Woznlak: Inventor of the Apple Computer . 
New York: Walker & Co., 1994. 

61. Kunkel, Paul. 

AppleDeslgn: The Work of the Apple Industrial 

Desl gn Gro up . 
New York: Graphics Inc., 1997. 

62. LeVitus, Bob and Michael Fraase. 

Guide to the Macintosh Underground: Mac Culture 

From the Inside. 
Indianapolis, In.: Hayden Books, 1993. 

63. Levy, Steven. 

Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, 

the Computer That Changed Everything. 
New York: Viking, 1994. 

64. Linzmayer, Owen W. 

The Mac Bathroom Reader. 
Alameda, Calif.: Sybex, 1994. 

Bibliography/8 A History of the Personal Computer 

65. Linzmayer, Owen W. 

Apple Confidential : The Real Story of Apple 

Computer , Inc. 
San Francisco, Calif.: No Starch Press, 1999. 

66. Malone, Michael S. 

Infinite Loop: How Apple, the World's Most 

Insanely Great Computer Company went Insane. 
New York: Doubleday, 1999. 

67. Menuez, Doug, Marcos Kounalakis and Paul Saffo. 

Defying Gravity : The Making of Newton. 
Hillsboro, Oregon: Beyond Words Publishing, 1993, 
-- A photo- j ournalistic depiction of the Newton 
development . 

68. Moritz, Michael. 

The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple 

Computer . 
New York: William Morrow, 1984. 

69. Price, Rob. 

So Far: The First Ten Years of a Vision. 
Cupertino, Calif.: Apple Computer, Inc., 1987. 

70 . Rose, Frank . 

West of Eden: The End of Innocence at Apple 

Computer . 
New York: Viking, 1989. 

71. Rozakis, Laurie. 

Steven Jobs: Computer Genius. 

Vero Beach, Florida: Rourke Enterprises, 1993. 

-- A juvenile book for young readers. 

72. Schmucker, Kurt J. 

The Complete Book of LISA. 
New York: Harper & Row, 1984. 

73. Sculley, John with John A. Byrne. 

Odyssey : Pepsi to Apple ... A Journey of 

Adventure , Ideas and the Future. 
New York: Harper & Row, 1987 

74. Thygeson, Gordon. 

Apple T-Shirts : A Yearbook of History at Apple 

Computer . 
Scotts Valley, Calif.: Porno Publishing, 1998. 

Books Bibliography/9 

75 . Various . 

Maclopedia : The ultimate reference on everything 

Macintosh ! 
Indianapolis, In.: Hayden Books, 1996. 

76. Weyhrich, Steven. 

Apple II History. 

Self Published, Zonker Software, 1991. 

77. Young, Jeffrey S. 

Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. 
Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman, 1988. 

Chapters 6 & 12 ... Microsoft 

78. Andrews, Paul. 

How the Web Was Won: Microsoft from Windows to the 
Web: The Inside Story of How Bill Gates and His 
Band of Internet Idealists Transformed a Software 
Empire . 

New York: Broadway Books, 1999. 

79. Auletta, Ken. 

World War 3.0: Microsoft and its Enemies. 
New York: Random House, 2001. 

80. Bick, Julie. 

All I really Need to Know in Business I Learned at 

Microsoft . 
New York: Pocket Books, 1997. 
-- A personal guide to business management. 

81. Boyd, Aaron. 

Smart Money: The Story of Bill Gates. 
Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds, 1995. 
-- A juvenile book for young readers. 

82. Brinkley, Joel and Steve Lohr . 

U.S. V. Microsoft: The Inside Story of the 

Landmark Case. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. 

83. Cusumano, Michael A. and Richard W. Selby. 

Microsoft Secrets : How the World's Most Powerful 
Software Company Creates Technology, Shapes 
Markets , and Manages People. 

New York: Free Press, 1995. 

Bibliography/10 A History of the Personal Computer 

84. Dearlove, Des . 

Business the Bill Gates Way: 10 Secrets of the 

World's Richest Business Leader. 
New York: Amacon, American Management Association, 


85. Dickinson, Joan D. 

Bill Gates: Billionaire Computer Genius. 
Springfield, N.J.: Enslow Publishers, 1997. 
-- A juvenile book for young readers. 

86. Edstrom, Jennifer and Marlin Eller. 

Barbarians Led by Bill Gates -- Microsoft from the 
Inside: How the World's Richest Corporation 
Wields its Power. 

New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1998. 

87. Ferry, Steven. 

The Building of Microsoft . 

Mankato, MN. : Smart Apple Media, 1999. 

88. Foreman, Michael. 

Bill Gates, Software Billionaire . 
Parsippany, N J . : Crestwood House, 1999. 

89. Gates, Bill with Nathan Myhrvold and Peter 

Rinearson . 
The Road Ahead. 
New York: Viking, 1995. 

90. Gates, Bill with Collins Hemingway. 

Business @ The Speed of Thought: Using a Digital 

Nervous System. 
New York: Warner books, 1999. 

91. Gatlin, Jonathan, 

Bill Gates: The Path to the Future. 
New York: Avon Books, 1999. 

92. Heilemann, John. 

Pride Before the Fall: The Trials of Bill Gates 

and the End of the Microsoft Era . 
New York: HarperCollins, 2001. 

93. Ichbiah, Daniel and Susan L. Knepper. 

The Making of Microsoft . 

Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing, 1991. 

Books Bibliography/11 

94. Lewis, Ted G. 

Microsoft Rising . . . and other tales of Silicon 

Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 1999. 
-- Mainly a reprint of IEEE Computer periodical 

articles, with minimal Microsoft content. 

95. Liebowitz, Stan J. and Stephen E. Margolis. 

Winners , Losers and Microsoft : Competition and 

Antitrust in High Technology. 
Oakland, Calif.: The Independent Institute, 1999. 

96. Lowe, Janet. 

Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World's 

Greatest Entrepreneur. 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. 

97. Manes, Stephen and Paul Andrews. 

Gates: How Microsoft ' s Mogul Reinvented an 
Industry and Made Himself The Richest Man in 
America . 

New York: Doubleday, 1993. 

98. Marshall, David. 

Bill Gates and Microsoft . 
Watford, England: Exley, 1994. 

99. Microsoft Staff. 

Inside Out! Microsoft - In our own words. 

New York: Warner Books, 2000. 

— 25 th Microsoft Anniversary book, 1975 - 2000. 

100. Moody, Fred. 

I Sing the Body Electronic : A Year with Microsoft 

on the Multimedia Frontier . 
New York: Viking, 1995. 

101. Rivlin, Gary. 

The Plot to Get Bill Gates: An Irreverent 
Investigation of the World's Richest Man... and 
the People Who Hate Him. 

New York: Times Business/Random House, 1999. 

102. Rohm, Wendy Goldman. 

The Microsoft File: The Secret Case Against Bill 

Gates . 
New York: Times Business/Random House, 1998. 

Bibliography/12 A History of the Personal Computer 

103. Stross, Randall E. 

The Microsoft Way: The Real Story of How the 

Company Outsmarts Its Competition. 
Reading, Mass.: Addi son-Wesley, 1996. 

104. Tsang, Cheryl D. 

Microsoft First Generation: The Success Secrets of 
the Visionaries Who Launched a Technological 
Empire . 

New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. 

105. Wallace, James and Jim Erickson. 

Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the 

Microsoft Empire. 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. 

106. Wallace, James. 

Overdrive : Bill Gates and the Race to Control 

Cyberspace . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

107. Woog, Adam. 

Bill Gates. 

San Diego: Lucent Books, 1999. 

108. Zachary, G. Pascal. 

Show-Stopper ! The Breakneck Race to Create Windows 

NT and the Next Generation at Microsoft . 
New York: Free Press, 1994. 

Chapters 7, 13 & 15 ... Other Software 

109. Birnes, William J. (Editor) . 

Personal Computer Programming Encyclopedia . 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. 

110. Brooks, Frederick P. 

The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software 

Reading, Mass.: Addi son-Wesley, 1975. 

111. Gosling, James., David S.H. Rosenthal, and 

Michele J. Arden. 
The NeWS Book: An Introduction to the 

Network/extensible Window System. 
New York: Springer-Verlag, 1989. 
-- Chapter 3 has a history of Windows development 

with an emphasis on the relationship to Sun 

workstations . 

Books Bibliography/13 

112. Grauer, Robert T. and Paul K. Sugrue . 

Microcomputer Applications . 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989. 

113. Hoch, Detlev J., Cyriac R. Roeding, Gert Purkert, 

Sandro K. Linder with Ralph Milller. 
Secrets of Software Success : Management Insights 

from 100 Software Firms Around the World. 
Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 


114. Hsu, Jeffrey. 

Microcomputer Programming Languages . 
Hasbrouck Heights, N.J.: Hayden Book Co, 1986. 

115. Kemeny, John G. and Thomas E. Kurtz. 

Back to BASIC: The History, Competition, and 

Future of the Language . 
Reading, Mass.: Addi son-Wesley, 1985. 

116. Raymond, Eric S. 

The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and 
Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. 

Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly & Associates, 1999. 

--A history of hackers and the development of 
open-source software. 

117. Wayner, Peter. 

Free For All: How Linux and the Free Software 

Movement Undercut the High-Tech Titans. 
New York: HarperBusiness , 2000. 

Chapter 9 ... The IBM Corporation 

118. Carroll, Paul. 

Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM. 
New York: Crown Publishers, 1993. 

119. Chposky, James and Ted Leonis. 

Blue Magic: The People, Power and Politics Behind 

The IBM Personal Computer. 
New York: Facts on File Publications, 1988. 

120. Dell, Deborah A. and F. Gerry Purdy. 

ThinkPad: A Different Shade of Blue: Building A 

Successful IBM Brand. 
Indianapolis : Sams (A Division of Macmillan 

Computer Publishing), 1999. 

Bibliography/14 A History of the Personal Computer 

121. Ferguson, Charles H. and Charles R. Morris. 

Computer Wars: The Fall of IBM and the Future of 

Global Technology. 
New York: Random House, 1993. 

122 . Garr , Doug . 

IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner & the Business Turnaround 

of the Decade. 
New York: HarperBusiness , 1999. 

123. Heller, Robert. 

The Fate of IBM. 

London, England: Little, Brown and Company (UK), 

124. Slater, Robert. 

Saving Big Blue: Leadership Lessons & Turnaround 

Tactics of IBM's Lou Gerstner. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. 

Chapter 17 ... Peripherals 

125. Durbeck, Robert C. and Sol Sherr. 

Output Hardcopy Devices . 

San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1988. 

Chapter 18 ... Magazines and Newsletters 

12 6. Shirinian, George. 

Microcomputing Periodicals : An Annotated 

Toronto, Canada: George Shirinian, 1985. 

Chapter 19 ... Other Companies, Organizations & People 

127. Adamson, Ian and Richard Kennedy. 

Sinclair and the 'Sunrise ' Technology . 

Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 198 6. 
12 8. Brockman, John. 

DIGERATI: Encounters with the Cyber Elite. 

San Francisco, Calif.: Hardwired, 1996. 
129. Bronson, Po. 

The Nudist on the Late Shift: and Other True Tales 
of Silicon Valley. 

New York: Random House, 1999. 

Books Bibliography/15 

130. Brown, Kenneth A. 

Inventors at Work: Interviews with 16 Notable 

American Inventors . 
Redmond, Washington: Tempus Books, 1988. 
-- Includes interviews with Marcian E. "Ted" Hoff 

and Steve Wozniak 

131. Bunnell, David with Adam Brate . 

Making the CISCO Connection: The Story Behind the 

Real Internet Superpower . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. 

132. Caddes, Carolyn. 

Portraits of Success : Impressions of Silicon 

Valley Pioneers . 
Palo Alto, Calif.: Tioga Publishing, 1986. 

133. Carlston, Douglas G. 

Software People: An Insider ' s Look at the Personal 

Computer Software Industry. 
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985. 

134. Clark, Jim with Owen Edwards. 

Netscape Time: The Making of the Billion-Dollar 

Start-Up That Took On Microsoft 
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999. 

135. Cohen, Scott. 

Zap! The Rise and Fall of Atari. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984. 

136. Cringely, Robert X. 

Accidental Empires : How the Boys of Silicon Valley 
Make Their Millions , Battle Foreign Competition, 
and Still Can't Get a Date. 

Reading, Mass.: Addi son-Wesley, 1992. 

137. Cusumano, Michael A. and David B. Yof f ie . 

Competing On Internet Time: Lessons from Netscape 

and Its Battle with Microsoft . 
New York: The Free Press/Simon & Schuster, 1998. 

138. Dale, Rodney. 

The Sinclair Story. 

London, England: Duckworth & Co, 1985. 

139. Datapro Research. 

Who's Who in Microcomputing 1984-85 . 

Delran, N.J.: Datapro Research Corporation, 1984. 

Bibliography/16 A History of the Personal Computer 

140. Dell, Michael with Catherine Fredman. 

Direct from Dell: Strategies That Revolutionized 

an Industry. 
New York: HarperBusiness , 1999. 

141. Editors (Senior) : George Sutton, James R. Talbot 

and Alan Chai . 
Hoover ' s Guide to Computer Companies : 2nd Edition. 
Austin, Texas: Hoover's Business Press, 1996. 

142. Ehrbar, Al . 

The Verbatim Story: The First Twenty-Five Years. 
Lyme, Conn.: Greenwich Publishing Group, 1995. 

143. Hall, Mark and John Barry. 

Sunburst : The Ascent of Sun Microsystems . 
Chicago, Illinois: Contemporary Books, 1990. 

144. Hiltzik, Michael. 

Dealers of Lightning: XEROX PARC and the Dawn of 

the Computer . 
New York: HarperBusiness, 1999. 

145. Jager, Rama D. and Rafael Ortiz. 

In the Company of Giants: Candid Conversations 

with the Visionaries of the Digital World. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. 

146. James, Geoffrey. 

Success Secrets from Silicon Valley: How to make 

your teams more effective . 
Formerly Titled: 

Business Wisdom of the Electronic Elite 
New York: Time Business/Random House, 1998. 
-- A business management guide. 

147. Jessen, Kenneth Christian. 

How it All Began: Hewlett-Packard' s Loveland 

Loveland, CO.: J.V. Publications, 1999. 

148. Kaplan, David A. 

The Silicon Boys: and Their Valley of Dreams. 
New York: William Morrow & Co, 1999. 

149. Kaplan, Jerry. 

Startup : A Silicon Valley Adventure . 
New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1995. 

Books Bibliography/17 

150. Kenney, Charles C. 

Riding The Runaway Horse: The Rise and Decline of 

Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1992. 
-- Has a chapter on "The Personal Computer 
Revolution. " 

151. Kenney, Martin and John Seely Brown (Editors) . 

Understanding Silicon Valley: The Anatomy of an 

Entrepreneurial Region. 
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000. 

152. Lammers, Susan. 

Programmers at Work: Interviews with 19 

Programmers Who Shaped the Computer Industry. 
Redmond, Washington: Tempus Books, 1986. 

153. Laver, Ross. 

Random Excess: The Wild Ride of Michael Cowpland 

and Corel. 
New York: Viking, 1998. 

154. Lee, J.A.N. 

Computer Pioneers . 

IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995. 

155. Levering, Robert., Michael Katz and 

Milton Moskowitz. 
The Computer Entrepreneurs: Who's Making it Big 

and How in America's Upstart Industry. 
New York: Nal Books, 1984. 
15 6. Lewis, Michael. 

The New New Thing: A Silicon Valley Story. 

New York: Norton & Company, 1999. 

-- A biographical story of Jim Clark (Silicon 

Graphics and Netscape) 

157. Levy, Steven. 

Hackers : Heroes of the Computer Revolution. 
New York: Doubleday/Anchor Press, 1984. 

158. Littman, Jonathan. 

Once Upon a Time in ComputerLand: The Amazing, 
Billion Dollar Tale of Bill Millard' s 
ComputerLand Empire. 

Los Angeles, Calif.: Price Stern Sloan, 1987. 

Bibliography/18 A History of the Personal Computer 

15 9. Mahon, Thomas. 

Charged Bodies: People Power and Paradox in 

Silicon Valley. 
New York: Nal Books, 1985. 

160. Malone, Michael S. 

The Big Score: The Billion-Dollar Story of Silicon 

New York: Doubleday, 1985. 

161. Osborne, Adam and John Dvorak. 

Hypergrowth: The Rise and Fall of Osborne Computer 

Berkeley, Calif.: Idthekkethan Publishing, 1984. 

162. Packard, David. 

The HP Way: How Bill Hewlett and I Built Our 

New York: HarperBusiness , 1995. 

163. Pearson, Jamie Parker (Editor) . 

Digital at Work: Snapshots from the first 

thirty- five years. 
Burlington, Mass.: Digital Press, 1992. 

164. Peterson, W.E. Pete. 

Almost Per feet : How a Bunch of Regular Guys Built 

WordPerfect Corporation. 
Rocklin, Calif.: Prima Publishing, 1994. 

165. Quittner, Joshua and Michelle Slatalla. 

Speeding the Net: The Inside Story of Netscape and 

How it Challenged Microsoft . 
New York: Atlantic Press, 1998. 

166. Read, Stuart. 

The Oracle Edge: How Oracle Corporation' s Take-No- 
Prisoners Strategy Has Created an $8 Billion 
Software Powerhouse . 

Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media, 1999. 

-- Mainly a business management text. 

167. Rifkin, Glenn and George Harrar. 

The Ultimate Entrepreneur : The Story of Ken Olsen 

and Digital Equipment Corporation. 
Chicago, Illinois: Contemporary Books, 1988. 

168. Sigismund, Charles G. 

Champions of Silicon Valley: Visionary Thinking 

from Today's Technology Pioneers . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. 

Books Bibliography/19 

169. Slater, Robert. 

Portraits in Silicon. 

Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989. 

170. Smith, Douglas K. and Robert C. Alexander. 

Fumbling The Future: How Xerox Invented , Then 

Ignored, The First Personal Computer . 
New York: William Morrow, 1988. 

171. Southwick, Karen. 

Silicon Gold Rush: The Next Generation of 
High-Tech Stars Rewrites the Rules of Business . 

New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. 

-- A business management book about the high-tech 

172. Southwick, Karen. 

High Noon: The Inside Story of Scott McNealy and 

the Rise of Sun Microsystems . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. 

173. Spector, Robert. Get Big Fast. 

New York: HarperBusiness , 2000. 

174. Spencer, Donald D. 

Great Men and Women of Computing, 2nd Edition. 
Ormond beach, Florida: Camelot, 1999. 

175. Stross, Randall E. 

Steve Jobs & The NeXT Big Thing. 
New York: Atheneum, 1993. 

176. Stross, Randall E. 

eBoys : The First Inside Account of Venture 

Capitalists at Work. 
New York: Crown Business, 2000. 

177. Swisher, Kara. 

aol . com: How Steve Case Beat Bill Gates, Nailed 
the Netheads , and Made Millions in the War for 
the Web. 

New York: Random House/Time Books, 1998. 

178. Texas Instruments. 

50 Years of Innovation: The History of Texas 

Instruments -- A Story of people and their ideas. 
Dallas, Texas: Texas Instruments, 1980. 
-- A company publication. 

Bibliography/20 A History of the Personal Computer 

17 9. Thomas, David. 

Knights of the New Technology : The Inside Story of 

Canada's Computer Elite. 
Toronto, Canada: Key Porter Books, 1983. 

180. Tomczyk, Michael S. 

The Home Computer Wars: An Insider ' s Account of 

Commodore and Jack Tramiel . 
Greensboro, North Carolina: Compute! Publications, 


181. Voyer, Roger and Patti Ryan. 

The New Innovators : How Canadians Are Shaping the 

Knowledge Based Economy. 
Toronto, Canada: James Lorimer, 1994. 

182. Wilson, Mike. 

The Difference Between God and Larry Ellison: 

Inside Oracle Corporation. 
New York: William Morrow, 1997 . 

183. Young, Jeffrey. 

Forbes Greatest Technology Stories : Inspiring 
Tales of the Entrepreneurs and Inventors Who 
Revolutionized Modern Business . 

New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. 

18 4. Young, Robert and Wendy Rohm. 

Under the Radar: How Red Hat Changed the Software 

Business -- and Took Microsoft by Surprise . 
Scottsdale, Arizona: Coriolis Group, 1999. 

Other ... Bits and Bytes 


185. Ahl, David H. (Editor). 

The Best of Creative Computing: Volumes 1 and 2. 
Morristown, New Jersey: Creative Computing Press, 6 

-- Vol. 1 consists of material from the first six 

issues . 

186. Ahl, David H. and Carl T. Helmers, Jr. (Editors) . 

The Best of Byte: Volume 1. 

Morristown, New Jersey: Creative Computing Press, 

-- Includes material from the first twelve issues. 

Books Bibliography/21 

187. Augarten, Stan. 

BIT by BIT: An Illustrated History of Computers . 
New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1984. 

188. Bowker, R.R. 

Microcomputer Market Place 1985: A Comprehensive 

Directory of the Microcomputer Industry. 
New York: R.R. Bowker, 1985. 

189. Campbell-Kelly, Martin and William Aspray. 

Computer : A History of the Information Machine . 
New York: BasicBooks, 1996. 

190. Ditlea, Steve (Editor). 

DIGITAL DELI: The comprehensive , user-lovable menu 

of computer lore, culture , lifestyles and fancy. 
New York: Workman Publishing, 1984. 

191. Dvorak, John C. 

Dvorak Predicts : An Insider ' s Look at the Computer 

Industry . 
Berkeley, California: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1994. 
-- The book is now somewhat dated and parts of the 

book appeared in various periodicals. 

192 . Dyson, Esther 

Release 2.0: A design for living in the digital 

age . 
New York: Broadway Books, 1997. 

193. Glass, Robert L. 

Computing Calamities : Lessons Learned from 
Products , Projects , and Companies that Failed. 

Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall PTR, 1999. 

-- Contains information on problems at companies 
such as Atari, Commodore, Novell and Wang. 

194. Goody, Roy W. 

The Intelligent Microcomputer . 

Chicago, Illinois: Science Research Associates, 

195. Greelish, David. 

Historically Brewed: Our First Year. 
Jacksonville, Florida: HCS Press, 1994. 

196. Gupta, Mar. and Hoo-min D. Toong (Editors) . 

Insights into Personal Computers . 
New York: IEEE Press, 1985. 

Bibliography/22 A History of the Personal Computer 

197. Haddock, Dr. Thomas F. 

A Collector' s Guide To Personal Computers and 

Pocket Calculators . 
Florence, Alabama: Books Americana, 1993. 

198. Hanson, Dirk. 

The New Alchemists : Silicon Valley and the 
Microelectronics Revolution. 
Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown and Company, 1982. 

199. Hyman, Michael. 

PC Roadklll. 

Foster City, Calif.: IDG Books, 1995. 

200. Kidder, Tracy. 

The Soul of a New Machine . 
New York: Avon Books, 1981. 

201. Kidwell, Peggy A. and Paul E. Ceruzzi. 

Landmarks In Digital Computing: A Smithsonian 

Pictorial History. 
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 


202. Mims, Forrest M. III. 

Slllconnectlons : Coming of Age In the Electronic 

New York: McGraw-Hill, 198 6. 

203. Negroponte, Nicholas. 

being digital . 

New York: Knopf, Inc., 1995. 

204. Nelson, Theodor H. 

Computer Lib and Dream Machines . 

South Bend, In.: Self Published in 1974. 

205. Nyce, James M. and Paul Kahn (Editors) . 

From Memex to Hypertext : Vannevar Bush and the 
Mind's Machine. 

San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1991. 
20 6. Osborne, Adam. 

Running Wild: The Next Industrial Revolution. 

Berkeley, Calif.: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1979 
207. Palf reman, Jon and Doron Swade . 

The Dream Machine : Exploring the Computer Age. 

London, England: BBC Books, 1991. 

-- The book is derived from a television 
mini-series . 

Books Bibliography/23 

208. Ranade, Jay and Alan Nash (Editors) . 

The Best of BYTE: Two decades on the Leading Edge. 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. 

209. Rogers, Everett M. and Judith K. Larsen. 

Silicon Valley Fever: Growth of High Technology 

Culture . 
New York: Basic Books, 1984. 

210. Smolan, Rick and Jennifer Erwitt . 

One Digital Day: How the Microchip is Changing Our 

New York: Times Books /Random House, 1998. 
-- The book was sponsored by the Intel 

Corporation. It is a photographic documentation 

of the microprocessor's vast influence 

world-wide . 

211. Stork, David G. (Editor) . 

HAL' s Legacy: 2001' s Computer as Dream and 

Reality . 
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997. 

212. Stumpf, Kevin. 

A Guide to Collecting Computers and Computer 

Collectibles : History Practice and Techniques . 
Kitchener, Ontario, Canada: Self published, 1998. 

Internet and the World Wide Web 

213. Abbate, Janet. 

Inventing the Internet . 
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999. 

214. Berners-Lee, Tim with Mark Fischetti 

Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate 

Destiny of the WORLD WIDE WEB by its Inventor. 
New York: Harper SanFrancisco, 1999. 

215. Ferguson, Charles H. 

High Stakes, No Prisoners : A Winner ' s Tale of 

Greed and Glory in the Internet Wars. 
New York: Time Books, 1999. 

216. Hafner, Katie and John Markoff . 

Cyberpunk : Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer 

Frontier . 
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. 
-- Stories of three hackers who create havoc on 

computer networks . 

Bibliography/24 A History of the Personal Computer 

217. Hafner, Katie and Lyon, Mathew. 

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the 

Internet . 
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996. 

218. Jefferis, David. 

Cyber Space: Virtual Reality and the World Wide 

New York: Crabtree Pub., 1999. 

219. Naught on, John. 

A Brief History of the Future: The Origins and 

Destiny of the Internet . 
London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1999. 

220. Randall, Neil. 

the soul of the Internet : Net Gods, Netizens and 

The Wiring of the World. 
London, United Kingdom: International Thomson 

Computer Press, 1997. 

221. Reid, Robert H. 

Architects of the Web: 1000 Days that Built the 

Future of Business . 
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997. 

222. Salus, Peter H. 

Casting the Net: From ARPANET to Internet and 

Reading, Mass.: Addi son-Wesley, 1995. 

223. Segaller, Stephen. 

NERDS 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet 
New York: TV Books, 1998. 

-- A companion book to the PBS television series 
of the same title. 

224. Stauffer, David. 

Business the AOL Way: Secrets of the World's Most 

Successful Web Company. 
Oxford: Capstone, 2000. 

225. Stoll, Clifford. 

Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts on the 

Information Highway. 
New York: Doubleday, 1995. 
22 6. Wolinsky, Art. 

The History of the Internet and the World Wide 

Springfield, New Jersey: Enslow Publishers, 1999. 

Books Bibliography/25 


227. Bowker, R.R. 

Bowker' s Complete Sourcebook of Personal Computing 

New York: R.R. Bowker, 1984. 

228. Cortada, James W. 

Historical Dictionary of Data Processing : 

Biographies . 
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987. 

229. Cortada, James W. 

Historical Dictionary of Data Processing : 

Organiza tions . 
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987. 

230. Cortada, James W. 

Historical Dictionary of Data Processing: 

Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1987. 

231. Cortada, James W. 

A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing , 
Computers , and the Information Processing 

Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1990. 

232. Cortada, James W. 

A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computer 

Applications , 1950-1990. 
Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. 

233. Editors of The Red Herring periodical. 

The Red Herring Guide to the Digital Universe : The 
inside look at the technology business -- from 
Silicon Valley to Hollywood. 

New York: Warner Books, 1996. 

234. Glossbrenner , Alfred and Emily. 

Computer Sourcebook. 

New York: Random House, 1977. 

235. Juliussen, Egil, Portia Isaacson and Luanne Kruse 

(Editors) . 
Computer Industry Almanac . 
Dallas, Texas: Computer Industry Almanac, 1987. 

Bibliography/26 A History of the Personal Computer 

23 6. Kent, Allen and James G. Williams (Executive 
Editors ) . 
Encyclopedia of Microcomputers (Volumes 1 to 15) 
New York: Marcel Dekker, 1988/95. 

237. Petska- Juliussen, Karen and Dr. Egil Juliussen. 

The 8th Annual Computer Industry Almanac . 
Austin, Texas: The Reference Press, 1996. 

238 . Sayre Van. 

MicroSource : Where to Find Answers to Questions 

About Microcomputers . 
Littleton, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1986. 


This section is a historical reference source of 
periodical articles. The articles provide additional 
detailed information on personal computer developments. 
The product articles are generally an initial review of 
the product shortly after its introduction. 

Chapter 1 ... Development of the Computer. 

239. Randell, Brian. 

"The Origins of Computer Programming." 
IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 
(Vol. 16, No. 4, 1994), pp. 6-14. 

240. Reid-Green, Keith S. 

"A Short History of Computing." 
Byte (July 1978), pp. 84-94. 

241. Ridenour, Louis N. 

"Computer Memories . " 

Scientific American (Vol. 192, No . 6 , June 1955) 
-- An overview of computer memory technology in 

the mid 1950' s. 

242. Stern, Nancy. 

"Who Invented the First Electronic Digital 

Abacus (Vol. 1, No. 1, 1983), pp. 7-15. 

Chapters 2, 4 & 11 ... Personal Computing, Transition to 
Microcomputers & Competitive Computers. 


243. Dickerman, Harold. 

"The Commodore 8032 Business System." 
BYTE (August 1982), pp. 366-376. 

244. Fylstra, Dan. 

"User's Report: The PET 2001." 
BYTE (March 1978), pp. 114-127. 

245. Perry, Tekla S. and Paul Wallich. 

"Design case history: the Commodore 64." 
IEEE Spectrum (March 1985), pp. 48-58. 


Bibliography/28 A History of the Personal Computer 

246. Williams, Gregg. 

"The Commodore VIC 20 Microcomputer: A Low-Cost, 

High-Perf ormance Consumer Computer." 
BYTE (January 1981), pp. 94-102. 


247. Dahmke, Mark. 

"The Compag Computer: A portable and affordable 

alternative to the IBM Personal Computer." 
BYTE (January 1983), pp. 30-36. 


248. Ramsey, David. 

"Epson's HX-20 and Texas Instruments' CC-40." 
BYTE (September 1983), pp. 193-206. 

249. Williams, Gregg. 

"The Epson HX-20: The First Byte-sized Computer." 
BYTE (April 1982), pp. 104-106. 
25 0. Williams, Greg. 

"The Epson QX-10/Valdocs System." 
BYTE (September 1982), pp. 54-57. 

Graphics Software 

251. Bissell, Don. 

"The Father of Computer Graphics : Today' s graphics 
systems owe their existence to an innovative 
graduate school project called Sketchpad." 

Byte (June 1990), pp. 380-381. 

252. Editor. 

"The CAD Revolution: A 20-Year Saga." 
Compressed Air Magazine (October/November 1993), 
pp. 40-44. 

253. Sutherland, Ivan E. 

Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication 

System. " 
AFIPS Conference Proceedings (Vol. 23) , 
1963 Spring Joint Computer Conference , 

pp. 329-346. 

254. Sutherland, Ivan E. 

"Computer Graphics . " 

Datamation (May 1966), pp. 22-27. 

Periodicals Bibliography/29 
Heath kit 

255. BYTE Staff. 

"The New Heathkit Computer Line." 

BYTE (August 1977), pp. 86-88. 
25 6. Dahmke, Mark. 

"The Heath H-8 9 Computer." 

BYTE (August 1980), pp. 46-56. 

257. Poduska, Paul R. 

"Building the Heath H8 Computer." 

BYTE (March 1979), pp. 12-13 & 124-140. 


258. Archer, Rowland. 

"The HP-75 Portable Computer." 
BYTE (September 1983), pp. 178-186. 

259. Morgan, Christopher P. (Editor-in-Chief). 

"Hewlett-Packard's New Personal Computer: 

The HP- 8 5." 
BYTE (March 1980), pp. 60-66. 


260. Ahl, David H. 

"The First Decade of Personal Computing." 
Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 30-45. 

261. Allan, Roy A. 

"What Was The First Personal Computer?" 
The Analytical Engine (Volume 3.3, May 1996), 
pp. 42-46. 

262. Buchholz, Werner (Editor) . 

"Was the First Microcomputer Built in France?" 
Annals of the History of Computing (Vol.10, No . 2 , 

1988) , page 142 . 
-- Editor discusses Micral R2E microcomputer. 

263. Ceruzzi, Paul. 

"From Scientific Instrument to Everyday Appliance: 
The Emergence of Personal Computers, 1970 -1977." 

History and Technology (Vol. 13, No. 1, 1996), 
pp. 1-31. 

Bibliography/30 A History of the Personal Computer 

264. Editor. 

"Early Small Computers . " 

Annals of the History of Computing (11, No. 1, 

1989) , pp. 53-54. 
-- The editor discusses Kenbak computer. 

265. Garland, Harry. 

"design innovations in personal computers." 
Computer (March 1977), pp. 24-27. 

266. Gray, Stephen B. 

"The Early Days of Personal Computers." 
Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 6-14. 

267. Isaacson, Portia. 

"Personal Computing: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. 

Byte (February 1977), pp. 4 & 140-143. 

-- Describes evolution of new trend in computing. 

268. Layer, Harold A. 

"Microcomputer History and Prehistory: 
An Archaeological Beginning." 
Annals of the History of Computing, 
(Vol. 11, No 2, 1989), pp. 127-130. 

269. Libes, Sol. 

"The First Ten Years of Amateur Computing." 
BYTE (July 1978), pp. 64-71. 

270. Miller, Michael J. 

"Looking Back: A history of the Technology that 

changed our world." 
PC Magazine (March 25, 1997), pp. 108-136. 
-- Part of PC Magazine Fifteen Years anniversary 

issue . 

271. Pf af f enberger , Bryan. 

"The Social Meaning of the Personal Computer: 
Or, Why the Personal Computer Revolution was no 
Revolution. " 

Anthropological Quarterly (January 1988), 
pp. 39-47. 

272. Press, Larry. 

"Personal Computing: Where Did it Come From ?" 
Abacus (Vol.1, No. 1, 1983), pp. 56-60. 

Periodicals Bibliography/31 

273. Press, Larry. 

"Before the Altair: The History of Personal 

Computing . " 
Communications of the ACM (Vol. 3 6, No. 9, 

September 1993), pp. 27-33. 

274. Sheldon, Kenneth M. 

"Micro Edsels: A look back at 15 years of the 
good, the bad, and marketing bombs of the 
microcomputer revolution." 

Byte (February 1990), pp. 245-248. 

275. Warren, Jim. 

"personal and hobby computing: an overview." 
IEEE Computer (March 1977), pp. 10-22. 
27 6. Wood, Lamont . 

"The Man Who Invented the PC." 
Invention & Technology (Vol. 10, No. 2, 
Fall 1994) , page 64 . 


277 . Editors Bytes/Bits column (Byte, December 1975) . 

"Welcome IBM, to personal computing." 
Reprint in BYTE (November 1983), page 137. 
-- Reviews IBM 5100 portable computer. 

278. Littman, Jonathan. 

"The First Portable Computer." 

PC World (October 1983), pp. 294-300. 

-- Describes IBM SCAMP computer. 


279. Baker, Robert. 

"Product Description: OSI." 
Byte (January 1977), pp. 94-95. 

-- Describes Ohio Scientific (OSI ) models 300 & 400 
microcomputer boards 

280. Ciarcia, Steve. 

"Try This Computer on for Size." 

BYTE (March 1977), pp. 114-129 

-- Describes Digital Group microcomputer. 

281. Crosby, Kip. 

"Dawn of the Micro: Intel's Intellecs." 
The Analytical Engine (Jan. - Mar. 1994) , 
pp. 11-14. 

Bibliography/32 A History of the Personal Computer 

282. Editors. 

"Computer! Build this microcomputer yourself. Add 
it to the TV Typewriter for a complete computer 
system of your own." 

Radio-Electronics (July 1974), pp. 29-33. 

-- Describes construction details of Mark-8 
computer . 

283. Fager, Roger and John Bohr. 

"The Kaypro II." 

BYTE (September 1983), pp. 212-224. 

284. Fiegel, Curtis. 

"What a Concept: A View of the Corvus Computer." 
BYTE (May 1983), pp. 134-150. 

285. Gray, Stephen B. 

"Building Your Own Computer." 
Computers and Automation (December 1971) , 
pp . 25-31 . 
28 6. Harmon, Tom. 

"The SwTPC 6809 Microcomputer System." 
BYTE (January 1981), pp. 216-222. 

287. Hudson, Richard L. 

"French Entrepreneur Labors in Obscurity Despite 
His Big Feat: Truong' s Company Invented The First 
Microcomputer ..." 

Wall Street Journal (September 18, 1985), 
pp. 1 & 27. 

288. Hauck, Lane T. 

"System Description: The Noval 760." 
Byte (September 1977), pp. 102-108. 

289. Infield, Glenn. 

"A Computer in the Basement?" 

Popular Mechanics (April 1968), pp. 77-229. 

-- Author describes a home-built ECHO- IV computer. 

Periodicals Bibliography/33 

290. Jones, Douglas W. 

"The DEC PDP-8 Story: The First Line of Truly 

Small Computers." 
Historically Brewed (Issues #7 to #9, 1994-1996) . 
Part I: The Beginning, (Issue #7, 1994), 

pp. 7-9. 
Part II: The Minicomputer Revolution 

(Issue #8, 1995), pp. 7-10. 
Part III: The Concluding Years, 
(Issue #9, 1996), pp. 11-14. 

291. Krause, Llaus. 

"Exidy Sorcerer." 

The Analytical Engine (April - June 1994), 
pp . 2 2-23 . 

292. Lemmons, Phil. 

"Victor Victorious: The Victor 9000 Computer." 
BYTE (November 1982), pp. 216-254. 

293. Nadeau, Michael E. 

"The Littlest Zenith." 

Byte (August 1989), pp. 94-96. 

294. Scharf, Steve. 


The Analytical Engine (April - June 1994), 
page 22 . 

295. Tomayko, James E. (Editor) . 

"Electronic Computer for Home Operation (ECHO) : 

The First Home Computer." 

IEEE Annals of the History of Computing (Vol. 16, 
No. 3, 1994) , pp. 59-61. 

296. Toong, Hoo-min D. and Mar Gupta. 

"Personal Computers." 

Scientific American (December 1982), pp. 87-107. 

297. Uttal, Bro. 

"Sudden Shake-up in Home Computers." 
Fortune (July 11, 1983), pp. 105-106. 

298. Van Name, Mark L. and Bill Catchings . 

"The Painlessly Portable PC." 

Byte (August 1989), pp. 161-164. 

-- Describes NEC UltraLite portable computer. 

Bibliography/34 A History of the Personal Computer 


299. Greelish, David A. 

"A Talk With the Creator?! 

-- An Interview with Ed Roberts." 

Historically Brewed (Issue #9, 1996), pp. 5-10. 

300. Mims, Forest M. 

"The Altair Story." 

Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 17-27. 

301. Roberts, H. Edward and William Yates. 

"Altair 8800: The Most Powerful Minicomputer." 
Popular Electronics (January 1975), pp. 33-38. 


302. Thompson, Tom and Nick Baran. 

"The NeXT Computer." 

BYTE (November 1988), pp. 158-175. 

303. Thompson, Tom and Ben Smith. 

"Sizing Up the Cube: The long-awaited NeXT cube 
offers advanced features but only fair 
performance . " 

Byte (January 1990), pp. 169-176. 


30 4. Dahmke, Mark. 

"The Osborne 1." 

BYTE (June 1982), pp. 348-362. 

305. Pournelle, Jerry. 

"The Osborne Executive and Executive II: Adam 

Osborne's Improved Portable Computers." 
BYTE (May 1983), pp. 38-44. 

306. Uttal, Bro. 

"A Computer Gadfly's Triumph," 
Fortune (March 8, 1982), pp. 74-76. 
-- Describes Adam Osborne' s introduction of the 
Osborne 1 portable computer. 

Processor Technology 

307. Barbour, Dennis E. 

"Users Report: The SOL-2 0." 
BYTE (April 1978), pp. 126-130. 

Periodicals Bibliography/35 

30 8. Bumpous, Robert. 

"A User's Reaction to the SOL-10 Computer." 
BYTE (January 1978), pp. 86-93. 

Radio Shack 

309. Fylstra, Dan. 

"The Radio Shack TRS-8 0: An Owner's Report." 
BYTE (April 1978), pp. 49-60. 

310. Kelly, Mahlon G. 

"The Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100." 
BYTE (September 1983), pp. 139-162. 

311. Malloy, Rich. 

"Little Big Computer: The TRS-80 Model 100 

Portable Computer." 
BYTE (May 1983), pp. 14-34. 

312. Miastkowski, Stan (Editor) . 

"Three New Computers from Radio Shack." 
BYTE (October 1980), pp. 172-180. 

313. Worthy, Ford S. 

"Here Come the Go Anywhere Computers." 
Fortune (October 17, 1983), pp. 97-98. 
-- Describes TRS-80 Model 100 and other portable 
computers . 


314. Garrett, Billy. 

"The Timex/Sinclair 1000." 

BYTE (January 1983), pp. 364-370 

315. McCallum, John C. 

"The Sinclair Research ZX80." 
BYTE (January 1981), pp. 94-102. 

Texas Instruments 

316. Haas Mark. 

"The Texas Instruments Professional Computer." 
Byte (December 1983), pp. 286-324. 

317. Uttal, Bro. 

"TI's Home Computer Can't Get in the Door." 
Fortune (June 16, 1980), pp. 139-140. 
-- Describes marketing problems of the TI-99/4 
computer . 

Bibliography/36 A History of the Personal Computer 

Time Sharing 

318. Fano, R.M. and F.J. Corbato. 


Scientific American (September 1966), pp. 128-312. 


319. Johnson, Jeff., Teresa L. Roberts, William 

Verplank, David C. Smith, Charles H. Irby, 
Marian Beard and Kevin Mackey. 
"The Xerox Star: A Retrospective." 
Computer (September 1989), pp. 11-29. 
32 0. Kay, Alan and Adele Goldberg. 
"Personal Dynamic Media." 
Computer (March 1977), pp. 31-41. 
-- Authors describe Dynabook, Alto and Smalltalk. 

321. Ryan, Bob. 

"Dynabook Revisited with Alan Kay. " 
BYTE (February 1991), pp. 203-208. 

322. Smith, David Canfield, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball, 

Bill Verplank and Eric Harslem. 
"Designing the Star User Interface." 
BYTE (April 1982), pp. 242-282. 

323. Wadlow, Thomas A. 

"The Xerox Alto Computer." 

BYTE (September 1981), pp. 58-68. 

Chapters 3, 8 & 14.1 ... Microprocessors 

324. Antonoff, Michael. 

"Gilbert Who?: An obscure inventor's patent may 

rewrite microprocessor history." 
Popular Science (February 1991), pp. 70-73. 

325. Baskett, Forest and John L. Hennessy. 

"Microprocessors: From Desktops to 

Supercomputers . " 
Science (Vol. 261: 13 August 1993), pp. 864-871. 
32 6. Bylinsky, Gene. 

"The Second Computer Revolution." 
Fortune (February 11, 1980), pp. 230-236. 
-- Details impact of microprocessor. 

Periodicals Bibliography/37 

327. Bylinsky, Gene. 

"Intel's Biggest Shrinking Job Yet." 

Fortune (May 3, 1982), pp. 250-256. 

-- Describes development of 432 microprocessor. 

32 8 . BYTE Staff. 

"Micro, Micro: Who Made The Micro ?" 
BYTE (January 1991), pp. 305-312. 

329. Diefendorff, Keith. 

"History of the PowerPC Architecture ." 
Communications of the ACM (June 1994), pp. 28-33. 

330. Editors. 

"The Microprocessor at 25: Milestones of a 

Quarter Century." 
PC Magazine (December 17, 1996), pp. 147-149. 

331. Faggin, Federico. 

"The Birth of the Microprocessor." 
BYTE (March 1992), pp. 145-150. 

332. Frenzel, Lou 

"How to Choose a Microprocessor." 
Byte (July 1978), pp. 124-139. 
-- Reviews microprocessors and applicable 
microcomputers . 

333. Garetz, Mark. 

"Evolution of the Microprocessor." 
BYTE (September 1985), pp. 209-215. 

334. Gwennap, Linley. 

"Birth of a Chip: In only 25 Years, the 
microprocessor has become the life-support system 
of the modern world." 

Byte (December 1996), pp. 77-82. 

33 5. Halsema, A.I. 

"A Preview of the Motorola 6800." 
BYTE (April 1979), pp. 170-174. 

336. Mazor, Stanley. 

"Microprocessor and Microcomputer: Invention and 

Evolution . " 
The Analytical Engine (Vol. 3.4, Fall 1996), 

pp. 6-13. 

337. Moore, Charles R. and Russell C. Stanphill. 

"The PowerPC Alliance." 

Communications of the ACM (June 1994), pp. 25-27. 

Bibliography/38 A History of the Personal Computer 

338. Moore, Gordon E. 

"Cramming More Components Onto Integrated 

Circuits . " 
Electronics (Vol. 38, no . 8 ) , April 19, 1965, 

pp. 114-117. 

339. Moore, Gordon E. 

"Intel: Memories and the Microprocessor." 
Daedalus (Vol. 125: No 2, 1996), pp. 55-80. 

340. Morse, Stephen P., William B. Pohlman, 

& Bruce W. Ravenel. 
"The Intel 8086 Microprocessor: A 16-bit Evolution 

of the 8080." 
IEEE Computer (June 1978), pp. 18-27. 

341. Morse, Stephen P., Bruce W. Ravenel, Stanley Mazor 

and William B. Pohlman. 
"Intel Microprocessors: 8008 to 8086." 
IEEE Computer (October 1980), pp. 42-60. 

342. Noyce, Robert N. and Marcian E. Hoff. 

"A History of Microprocessor Development at 

IEEE Micro (February 1981), pp. 8-21. 
3 4 3. Ramp i 1 , Ira. 

"Preview of the Z-8000." 
BYTE (March 1979), pp. 80-91. 

344. Ritter, Terry and Joel Boney. 

"A Microprocessor for the Revolution: The 6809." 
BYTE (January 1979), pp. 14-42. 

345. Schlender, Brent. 

"Killer chip." 

Fortune (November 10, 1997), pp. 70-80. 

-- Previews the Intel Merced microprocessor. 

Chapters 5 & 10 ... Apple Corporation in the 1970's & 1980's 

Apple II and III: 

34 6. Duprau, Jeanne and Molly Tyson. 

"The Making of the Apple IIGS." 

A+ Magazine (November 1986), pp. 57-74. 
34 7. Edwards, John. 

"Apple lie." 

Popular Computing (March 1983), pp. 108-190. 

Periodicals Bibliography/39 

348. Helmers, Carl. 

"A Nybble on the Apple." 

Byte (April 1977), page 10. 

-- Editor of Byte previews Apple II computer. 

349. Helmers, Carl. 

"An Apple to BYTE. " 

BYTE (March 1978), pp. 18-46. 

-- An early review of the Apple II computer. 

350. Little, Gary B. 

"A Close Look At Recent lie Enhancements." 
A+ Magazine (August 1985), pp. 45-54. 

351. Little, Gary, B. 

"A Technical Overview of the Apple IIGS." 
A+ Magazine (November 1986), pp. 45-52. 

352. Markoff, John. 

"The Apple lie Personal Computer." 
BYTE (May 1984) pp. 276-284. 

353. Moore, Robin. 

"The Apple III and Its New Profile." 
BYTE (September 1982), pp. 92-132. 

354. Moore, Robin. 

"Apple's Enhanced Computer, the Apple lie." 
BYTE (February 1983), pp. 68-86. 

355. Morgan, Christopher. 

"The Apple III . " 
BYTE (July 1980), pp. 50-54. 
35 6. Williams, Greg. 

"C is for Crunch, " 

BYTE (December 1984), pp. A75-A121. 
-- Author interviews Peter Quinn, who was design 
manager for the Apple lie and lie computers. 

357. Williams, Greg and Richard Grehan. 

"The Apple IIGS. " 

BYTE, (October 1986), pp. 84-98. 

358. Wozniak, Stephen. 

"System Description: The Apple II." 
BYTE (May 1977), pp. 34-43. 

-- A technical description of the initial Apple II 
computer by the designer. 

Bibliography/40 A History of the Personal Computer 

Lisa and Macintosh: 

359. Craig, David T. 

"The Apple Lisa Computer: A Retrospective." 
The Analytical Engine (Vol. 2.1, July-September 
1994) , pp. 18-31. 

-- Contains an extensive list of references. 

360. Lemmons, Phil. 

"An Interview: The Macintosh Design Team." 
BYTE (February 1984), pp. 58-80. 

361. Markoff, John and Ezra Shapiro. 

"Macintosh's Other Designers." 

BYTE (August 1984), pp. 347-356. 

-- Includes interview with Jef Raskin. 

362. Morgan, Chris, Greg Williams and Phil Lemmons. 

"An Interview with Wayne Rosing, Bruce Daniels and 
Larry Tesler: A behind-the-scenes look at the 
development of Apple's Lisa." 

BYTE (February 1983), pp. 90-114. 

363. Nace, Ted. 

"The Macintosh Family Tree." 

Macworld (November 1984), pp. 134-141. 

364. Nulty, Peter. 

"Apple's Bid to Stay in the Big Time," 
Fortune (February 7, 1983), pp. 36-41. 
-- Description of the technical and marketing 
strategies for Lisa computer. 

365. Press, Larry. 

"Apple Announces the Mac II and the Mac I 1/6." 
Abacus (Vol. 4, No. 4, Summer 1987), pp. 58-62. 

366. Raskin, Jef. 

"The MAC and Me: 15 Years of Life with the 

Macintosh. " 

The Analytical Engine 
Part 1: (Vol. 2.4, August 1995), pp. 9-22. 
Part 2: (Vol. 3.3, May 1996), pp. 21-33. 

367. Schlender, Brent. 

"Steve Jobs Apple Gets Way Cooler." 
Fortune (January 24, 2000), pp. 66-76. 

368. Tesler, Larry. 

"The Legacy of the Lisa." 

Macworld (September 1985), pp. 17-22. 

Periodicals Bibliography/41 

3 69. Van Nouhuys , Dirk. 

"Apple 32 Past, Present, and Future." 
A+ (July 1984), pp. 76-84. 

370. Webster, Bruce F. 

"The Macintosh. " 

BYTE (August 1984), pp. 238-251. 
-- A system review of the Apple Macintosh 
computer . 

371. Williams, Greg. 

"The Lisa Computer System. " 
BYTE (February 1983), pp. 33-50. 

372. Williams, Greg. 

"The Apple Macintosh Computer." 
BYTE (February 1984), pp. 30-54. 

373. Williams, Greg. 

"Apple Announces the Lisa 2." 
BYTE (February 1984), pp. 84-85. 

374. Webster, Bruce F. 

"The Macintosh. " 

BYTE (August 1984), pp. 238-251. 


375. A+ Magazine. 

"Back In Time: Apple's ten-year history has been 

an eventful one. here are some highlights." 
A+ Magazine (February 1987), pp. 48-49. 
37 6. Hogan, Thorn. 

"APPLE: The First Ten Years: History, Part I." 

A+ Magazine (January 1987), pp. 43-46. 
"APPLE: The First Ten Years: History, Part II." 
A+ Magazine (February 1987), pp. 45-46. 
37 7. Raleigh, Lisa. 

"Woz on the Last 10 Years." 
A+ Magazine (January 1987), pp. 39-41. 
378. Schnatmeier, Vanessa. 

"In Search of Early Apples." 

A+ Magazine (August 1986), pp. A67-A70. 

Bibliography/42 A History of the Personal Computer 

379. Williams, Greg, and Rob Moore. 

"The Apple Story Part I: Early History." 

BYTE (December 1984), pp. 67-71. 
"The Apple Story Part II: More History and the 
Apple III." BYTE (January 1985), pp. 167-174 
-- Informative interviews with Stephen Wozniak. 

Chapters 6 & 12 ... Microsoft in the 1970's & 1980's 

380. Isaacson, Walter. 

"In Search of the Real Bill Gates." 
Time (13 January, 1997), pp. 30-42. 

381. Paterson, Tim. 

"An Inside Look at MS-DOS: The design decisions 

behind the popular operating system. " 
BYTE (June 1983), pp. 230-252. 

382. Schlender, Brent. 

"Bill Gates & Paul Allen Talk." 
Fortune (October 2, 1995), pp. 68-86. 

383. Simonyi, Charles and Martin Heller. 

"The Hungarian Revolution." 
BYTE (August 1991), pp. 131-138. 

384. Stein, Joel. 

"Image is Everything: Bill Gates bid for a digital 
empire may pay off someday, but for now the King 
of Content can only scheme." 

Time (11 November 1996), pp. TD32-TD38 . 

-- Describes Corbis company founded by Bill Gates. 

385. Udell, Jon. 

"Three's the One: Windows 3.0 carries DOS into the 

1990' s." 
Byte (June 1990), pp. 122-128. 

386. Udell, Jon. 

"Windows 3.1 Is Ready to Roll." 
Byte (April 1992), pp. 34-36. 

387. Uttal, Bro. 

"Inside the Deal that made Bill Gates 

$350, 000, 000, " 
Fortune (July 21, 1986), pp. 23-33. 

Periodicals Bibliography/43 

Chapters 7 & 13 ... Software in the 1970's & 1980's 

Application programs 

388. Cmar, Karen A. 

"AppleWorks: An Integrated Office Product." 
BYTE (December 1984), pp. A18-A22. 

38 9. Lemmons, Phil. 

"A Guided Tour of Visi On." 
BYTE (June 1983), pp. 256-278. 

390. Licklider, Tracy Robnett . 

"Ten Years of Rows and Columns: From a 16K-byte 
VisiCalc to multimegabyte packages, spreadsheets 
have come a long way in a decade." 

Byte (December 1989), pp. 324-331. 

391. Rams dell, Robert E. 

"The Flexibility of VisiPlot." 
BYTE (February 1982), pp. 32-36. 


392. Bowles, Kenneth. 

"UCSD PASCAL: A Nearly Machine Independent 

Software System." 
BYTE (May 1978), pp. 46 & 170-173. 

393. Editor 

"Design of Tiny BASIC." 

Dr. Dobb's Journal (Vol. 1, No. 1, January 1976) . 

394. Gates, Bill. 

"The 25th Birthday of BASIC." 
Byte (October 1989), pp. 268-276. 

395. Kay, Alan C. 

"The Early History of Smalltalk." 

ACM SIGPLAN Notices (March 1993), page 87. 

39 6. Lehman, John A. 

"PL/I for Microcomputers." 
BYTE (May 1982), pp. 246-250. 

397. Lockwood, Russ . 

"The Genealogy of BASIC." 

Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 86-87. 

398. Moore, Charles H. 

"The Evolution of FORTH, an Unusual Language." 
Byte (August 1980), pp. 76-90 

Bibliography/44 A History of the Personal Computer 

399. Rosner, Richard. 

"A Review of Tom Pitman's Tiny BASIC." 
Byte (April 1977), pp. 34-38. 

400. Tesler, Larry. 

"The Smalltalk Environment." 
BYTE (August 1981), pp. 90-147. 

401. Woteki, Thomas H. and Paul A. Sand. 

"Four Implementations of Pascal." 
BYTE (March 1982), pp. 316-353. 

402. Wozniak, Stephen. 

"SWEET16: The 6502 Dream Machine . " 
BYTE (November 1977), pp. 150-159. 

Operating Systems and User Interfaces 

403. Hayes, Frank and Nick Baran. 

"A Guide to GUI's: Graphical user interfaces make 
computers easy to use; keeping them all straight 
is the hard part." 

Byte (July 1989), pp. 250-257. 

404. Hayes, Frank. 

"From TTY to VUI : As computers become more 
complex, using them becomes easier and easier." 

Byte (April 1990), pp. 205-211. 

-- Describes development of graphic user 
interfaces . 

405. Kildall, Gary. 

"CP/M: A Family of 8 and 16-Bit Operating 

Systems . " 
BYTE (June 1981), pp. 216-232. 

406. Perry, Tekla S. and John Voelcker. 

"Of mice and menus: designing the user-friendly 

interface . " 
IEEE Spectrum (September 1989), pp. 46-51. 

Chapter 9 ... The IBM Corporation 

407. Archer, Rowland. 

"The IBM PC XT and DOS 2.0 0." 
BYTE (November 1983), pp. 294-304. 

408. Bond, George. 

"The IBM PC Network." 

BYTE (October 1984), page 111. 

Periodicals Bibliography/45 

409. Bradley, David J. 

"The Creation of the IBM PC." 

BYTE (September 1990), pp. 414-420. 

410. Curran, Lawrence J. and Richard S. Shuford. 

"IBM's Estridge: The President of IBM's Entry 
Systems Division talks about Standards, the PC's 
simplicity, and a desire not to be different." 

BYTE (November 1983), pp. 88-97. 

411. Editors. 

"Introduction: The Array of IBM Personal 

Computers . " 
BYTE (Fall 1984), pp. 9-26. 

412. Fisher, Anne B. 

"Winners (and Losers) from IBM's PC JR." 
Fortune (November 28, 1983), pp. 44-48. 

413. Gens, Frank and Chris Christiansen. 

"Could 1,000,000 IBM Users Be Wrong?" 
BYTE (November 1983), pp. 135-141. 

414. Henry, G.G. 

"IBM small-system architecture and design: Past, 

present and future." 
IBM Systems Journal (Vol. 25, Nos . 3/4, 1986), 

pp . 321-333 . 
-- Provides details of the PC RT computer system. 

415. Killen, Michael. 

"IBM Forecast: Market Dominance." 
BYTE (Fall 1984), pp. 31-38. 

— Reviews mainly the IBM 32 70 PC and PC/XT 
Model 3270. 

416. Lemmons, Phil. 

"The IBM Personal Computer: First Impressions." 
BYTE (October 1981), pp. 27-34. 

417. Malloy, Rich. 

"Two New Office Products from IBM." 
BYTE (December 1983), page 594. 

— Reviews IBM 3270 PC and PC/XT 370. 

418. Malloy, Rich. 

"IBM Announces the PCjr," 

BYTE (December 1983), page 358. 

419. Malloy, Rich., G. Michael Vose and Tom Cluwe . 

"The IBM PC AT. " 

BYTE (October 1984), pp. 108-111. 

Bibliography/46 A History of the Personal Computer 

420. Mitchell, Robert. 

"IBM and AT&T Enter the Fray of 38 6SX Notebook 

Computers . " 
BYTE (August 1991), pp. 252-254. 
-- Describes IBM's first battery operated laptop 

computer and competing product from AT&T. 

421. Morgan, Chris. 

"IBM's "Secret" Computer: The 9000." 
BYTE (January 1983), pp. 100-106. 

422. Sandler, Corey. 

" IBM: Colossus of Armonk." 

Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 298-302. 

423. Williams, Gregg. 

"A Closer Look at the IBM Personal Computer." 
BYTE (January 1982), pp. 3 6-68. 

424. Vose, Michael G. and Richard S. Shuford. 

"A Closer Look at the IBM PCjr." 
BYTE (March 1984), pp. 320-332. 

Chapters 14 ... Hardware in the 1990's 

425. Alford, Roger C. 

"The Fastest Portable: IBM's P75 Road Warrier." 
BYTE (April 1991), pp. 265-268. 

-- Reviews IBM PS/2 Model P75 portable computer. 
42 6. Reinhardt, Andy and Ben Smith. 

"Sizzling RISC Systems from IBM." 

BYTE (April 1990), pp. 124-128. 

-- Describes RISC System/6000 workstations. 

Chapters 15, Software in the 1990's 

42 7. McHugh, Josh. 

"For the love of hacking." 
Forbes (August 10, 1998), pp. 94-100. 
-- Describes free-software and Linux operating 

Periodicals Bibliography/47 
Chapters 16 ... Corporate Activities in the 1990's 

428. Brant, Richard with Julia Flynn and Amy Cortese. 

"Microsoft Hits the Gas: 

Its Bidding to Lead the Info Highway Pack." 
Business Week (March 21, 1994), pp. 34-35. 

429. Hof, Robert D. 

"The Sad Saga of Silicon Graphics: What went wrong 
at the company that once made everybody say: "Gee 
Whi z . " 

Business Week (August 4, 1997) , pp. 66-72. 

Chapter 17 ... Hardware and Peripherals 

430. Christensen, Clayton M. 

"The Rigid Disk Drive Industry: A History of 
Commercial and Technological Turbulence." 

Business History Review (Winter 1993), 
pp. 531-588. 

431. Gaskin, Robert R. 

"Paper, Magnets and Light: The long history of 
data storage devices is intertwined with the more 
recent, meteoric rise of personal computers." 

Byte (November 1989), pp. 391-399. 

432. Jarrett, Thomas. 

"The New Microfloppy Standards." 
BYTE (September 1983), pp. 166-176. 

433. Lancaster, Don. 

"TV Typewriter. " 

Radio-Electronics (September 1973), pp. 43-50. 

434. Lebow, Max. 

"Tele-Vic: Commodore Breaks the $100 Price Barrier 

for Modems . " 
BYTE (March 1982), pp. 240-246. 

435. Lemmons, Phil. 

"A Short History of the Keyboard." 
BYTE (November 1982), pp. 386-387. 

436. Levy, Steven. 

"Of Mice and Men: The Mouse is but a small part of 

Doug Engelbart' s larger guest." 
Popular Computing (May 1984), pp. 70, 75-78. 

Bibliography/48 A History of the Personal Computer 

437. Mayadas, A.F., R.C. Durbeck, W.D. Hinsberg and 

J.M. McCrossin. 
"The evolution of printers and displays." 
IBM Systems Journal (Vol. 25, Nos . 3/4,1986), 

pp. 399-416. 

438. Mendelson, Edward. 

"Microsoft Does a Wheelie: With a wheel between 
its buttons, the IntelliMouse goes where no other 
mouse has gone before." 

PC Magazine (17 December 1996), page 65. 

439. Morgan, Chris. 

"A Look at Shugart's New Fixed Disk Drive." 
BYTE (June 1978), pp. 174-176. 

440. Nulty, Peter. 

"Big Memories for Little Computers." 
Fortune (February 8, 1982), pp. 50-56. 
-- Describes development of hard disk drives by 
Seagate and Shugart . 

441. Pelczarski, Mark. 

"Microsoft SoftCard." 

BYTE (November 1981), pp. 152-162. 

442. Peters, Chris. 

"The Microsoft Mouse." 

BYTE (July 1983), pp. 130-138. 

443. Schnatmeier, Vanessa. 

"A Modern Mouse Story." 
A+ (July 1984), pp. 32-35. 

444. Scientific American. 

"The Solid-state Century: the past present and 

future of the transistor." 
Scientific American (Special issue, January 1998) . 
-- Includes articles on integrated circuit and 
microprocessor technology. 

445. Whang, Min-Hur and Joe Kua . 

"Join the EISA Evolution: The EISA bus is breaking 

up that old "Gang of Nine"." 
Byte (May 1990), pp. 241-247. 

Periodicals Bibliography/49 

446. Wieselman, Irving L. and Erwin Tomash. 

"Marks on Paper: Part 1 and Part 2. A Historical 

Survey of Computer Output Printing." 
Annals of the History of Computing, 

— Part 1: Volume 13, Number 1, 1991. 

— Part 2: Volume 13, Number 2, 1991, pp. 203-222. 

Chapter 18 ... Magazines and Newsletters 

447. Anderson, John L. 

"Dave Tells Ahl : The History of Creative 

Computing . " 
Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 66-77. 

448. The Staff of inCider/A+. 

"100 issues of inCider: A Look Back." 
inCider/A+ (April 1991), pp. 36-39. 

Chapter 19 ... Other Organizations, Companies & People 

449. Davidson, Clive. 

"The Man who made Computers Personal." 
New Scientist (June 19, 1993), pp. 32-35. 
-- A biographical article on Alan Kay. 

450. Fraker, Susan. 

"How DEC Got Decked." 

Fortune (December 12, 1983), pp. 83-92. 
-- Describes DEC bureaucratic and marketing 
problems with its early personal computers. 

451. Grover, Mary Beth. 

"The Seagate Saga." 

Forbes (May 4, 1998), pp. 158-159. 

452. Halfhill, Tom R. 

"R.I. P. Commodore 1954 - 1994." 
BYTE (August 1994), page 252. 

453. Jacob, Rahul. 

"The Resurrection of Michael Dell." 
Fortune (September 18, 1995), pp. 117-128. 

454. Kirkpatrick, David. 

"Over the Horizon with Paul Allen." 
Fortune (July 11, 1994), pp. 68-75. 

Bibliography/50 A History of the Personal Computer 

455. Kraar, Louis. 

"Acer's Edge: PCs To Go." 

Fortune (October 30, 1995), pp. 186-204. 

456. Lesser, Hartley. 

"Exec Avant-Garde : The Dynamic Zone." 
Softalk (November 1983), pp. 66-70. 

457. Petre, Peter D. 

"Mass-Marketing the Computer." 
Fortune (October 31, 1983), pp. 60-67. 

458. Petre, Peter. 

"The Man Who Keeps the Bloom on Lotus: Mitch 
Kapor, a child of the Sixties, has nurtured Lotus 
Development Corp into the world' s largest 
independent software company." 

Fortune (June 10, 1985), pp. 136-146. 
45 9. Ramo, Joshua Cooper. 

"How AOL Lost the Battles but Won the War." 

Time (September 22, 1997), pp. 42-48. 

460. Ramo, Joshua Cooper. 

"Andrew S. Grove: A Survivor's Tale." 

Time (December 29, 1997 - January 5, 1998) , 

pp. 30-46. 
-- This was a special "Man of the Year" issue 

featuring Andrew Grove. 

461. Schlender, Brent. 

"The Adventures of Scott McNealy: Javaman Pow! " 
Fortune (October 13, 1997), pp. 70-78. 

462. Serwer, Andy. 

"Michael Dell Rocks." 

Fortune (May 11, 1998), pp. 58-70. 

463. Tazelaar, Jane Morrill (Editor). 

"BYTE, 15th. anniversary SUMMIT: 63 of the world's 
Most Influential People in Personal Computing 
Predict the Future, Analyze the Present." 

BYTE (September 1990), pp. 218-366. 

-- Provides a short biographical background of the 
participants . 

464. Uston, Ken. 

"Behind The Scenes At Br0derbund: A Family 

Affair. " 
Creative Computing (September 1984), pp. 157-162. 

Periodicals Bibliography/51 

465. Uttal, Bro. 

"Xerox Xooms Toward the Office of the Future." 
Fortune (May 18, 1981), pp. 44-52. 

466. Uttal, Bro. 

"The Man Who Markets Silicon Valley." 
Fortune (December 13, 1982), pp. 133-144. 
-- Describes success of Regis McKenna and his 

467. Uttal, Bro. 

"Sudden Shake-up in Home Computers." 
Fortune (July 11, 1983), pp. 105-106. 

468. Uttal, Bro. 

"The Lab That Ran away From Xerox." 

Fortune (September 5, 1983), pp. 97-102. 

-- Describes Xerox's failure to market the results 

of research at its Palo Alto Research Center 

(PARC) . 

469. Weiss, Eric A. 

"The Computer Museum." 

Abacus (Vol. 2, No. 4, Summer 1985), pp. 60-65. 

470. Whitmore, Sam. 

"Electronic Arts." 

Cider (May 1984), pp. 35-37. 

471. Wolfe, Tom. 

"The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the sun rose 

on the Silicon Valley." 
Esquire (December 1983), pp. 346-374. 
-- An informative biographical article on Robert 


472. Wright, Robert. 

"The Man Who Invented the Web: Tim Berners-Lee 
started a revolution, but it didn't go exactly as 
planned . " 

Time (May 19, 1997), pp. 44-48. 

-- describes development of the World Wide Web 

473. Yuln, Matt. 

"Exec Electronic Arts: Software Construction 

Company. " 
Softalk (August 1984), pp. 36-40. 

Bibliography/52 A History of the Personal Computer 
Chapter 20 ... Miscellaneous Items 

474. Ahl, David H. (Editor, In-Chief) 

"Tenth Anniversary Issue of Creative Computing." 
Creative Computing (November 1984), Vol. 10, 
No 11. 

475. Buchholz, W. 

"The Word "Byte" comes of Age..." 
BYTE, (February 1977), page 144. 

476. Bouchard, Judith W. (Editor-in-Chief). 

Micro Computer Abstracts (Formerly Micro Computer 

Index) . 
-- A guarterly journal of microcomputing 

abstracts . 

477. Caulkins, David. 

"A Computer Hobbyist Club Survey." 
Byte (January 1977), pp. 116-118. 

478. Editors. 

"Clubs and Newsletters Directory." 
Byte (October 1979), page 210. 

479. Friedrich, Otto. 

"Machine of the Year." 

Time (January 3, 1983), pp. 12-24. 

480. Helmers, Carl. 

"The Era of Of f -the-Shelve Personal Computers Has 

Arrived. " 

BYTE (January 1980), pp. 6-98. 

481. Nelson, Ted. 

"On the Xanadu Project." 

BYTE (September 1990), pp. 298-299. 

482. Press, Larry. 

"Is There Such a Thing as a Personal Computer." 
Abacus (Vol. 1, No. 2, Winter 1984), pp. 69-71. 

483. Press, Larry. 

"The ACM Conference on the History of Personal 

Workstations . " 

Abacus (Vol. 4, No. 1, Fall 1986), pp. 65-70. 

484. Shapiro, Fred R. 

"The First Bug." 

BYTE (April 1994), page 308. 

Periodicals Bibliography/53 

485. Tomayko, James E. (Editor). 

"Origin of the Term Bit." 

"Origin of Word Byte and The First Bug." 
Annals of the History of Computing, 
(Volume 10, Number 4, 1989), pp. 336-340. 

Historical Timelines 

486. Ahl, David H. 

"Ascent of the Personal Computer." 

Creative Computing (November 1984), pp. 80-82. 

487. BYTE Staff. 

"10 Years of BYTE: Special anniversary 

Supplement . " 
BYTE (September 1985), pp. 198-208. 

488. Halfhill, Tom R. 

"Apple's Technology Milestones." 

BYTE (December 1994), pp. 52-60. 
48 9. Smarte, Gene and Andrew Reinhardt. 

"1975-1990: 15 Years of Bits, Bytes and Other 
Great Moments." 

BYTE (September 1990), pp. 369-400. 
490. Williams, Gregg and Mark Welch. 

"A Microcomputer Timeline." 

BYTE (September 1985), pp. 197-208. 

Bibliography/54 A History of the Personal Computer 

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