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Full text of "A History of the Personal Computer"

A History of the Personal Computer 



Index 

Legend: Chap.#/Page# of Chap. 

— Numerals — 

3 E-Z Pieces software, 13/20 
3-Plus-l software. See 

Commodore 
3Com Corporation, 12/15, 

12/27, 16/17, 17/18, 17/20 
3M company, 17/5, 17/22 
3P+S board. See Processor 

Technology 
4K BASIC. See Microsoft/ Prog . 

Languages 
4th Dimension. See ACI 
8/16 magazine, 18/5 
8/16-Central, 18/5 
8K BASIC. See Microsoft/ Prog . 

Languages 
20SC hard drive. See Apple 

Computer/Accessories 
64 computer. See Commodore 
80 Microcomputing magazine, 

18/4 
80-103A modem. See Hayes 
86-DOS. See Seattle Computer 
128EX/2 computer. See Video 

Technology 
386i personal computer. See 

Sun Microsystems 
432 microprocessor. See 

Intel /Microprocessors 
603/4 Electronic Multiplier. 

See IBM/Computer (mainframe) 
660 computer. See Control Data 
700 series printers. See 

Centronics 
820 computer. See Xerox/Compu 
1101, 1102 & 1103 memory 

chips. See Intel/Misc. 
1201 microprocessor. See 

Intel /Microprocessors 
1702 memory chip. See 

Intel/Misc. 
1802 microprocessor. See RCA 
2020 computer. See Dec/Comp. 
2107 and 2117 memory chips. 

See Intel/Misc. 
2650 microprocessor. See 

Signetics 
4004 microprocessor. See 

Intel /Microprocessors 
5100 series of computers. See 

IBM/Computers ( Personal ) 
6085 workstation. See 

Xerox/ Computers 



6100 CPU. See Intersil 

6501 and 6502 microprocessor. 
See MOS 

6502 BASIC. See 
Microsoft/ Prog . Languages 

7000 copier. See Xerox/Misc. 
8000 microprocessors. See 

Intel /Microprocessors 
8010 "Star" Information 

System. See Xerox/Comp. 
8080 and 8086 BASIC. See 

Microsoft/ Prog . Languages 
8514/A standard, 20/6 
9700 laser printing system. 

See Xerox/Misc. 
16032 and 32032 micro/p. See 

National Semiconductor 
65802 and 65816 micro/p. See 

Western Design Center 
68000 series of micro/p. See 

Motorola 
80000 series of micro/p. See 

Intel /Microprocessors 
88000 micro/p. See Motorola 

-A- 

A Programming lang. See APL 

A+ magazine, 18/5 

A.P.P.L.E. (Apple Pugetsound 

Program Library Exchange) 
user group, 18/4, 19/17 
Call -A. P. P.L.E. magazine, 
18/4 
A2-Central newsletter, 18/5 
Abacus magazine, 18/8 
ABC ( At anasoff -Berry 

Computer ) , 1/5 
ABIOS (Advance Basic 

Input/Output System) chip. 

See IBM/Software 
Above Board specification. 

See Intel/Misc. 
Academic American 

Encyclopedia, 2 0/2 
Access database. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Access Portable Computer, 

11/12 
Accounting programs, 9/8, 

13/22 
ACE (Advance Computing 

Environment) , 19/17 
Ace 100 computer. See Franklin 

Computer 
Acer Inc., 11/13, 16/17 

Acer America Corp., 11/13 
ACI (Analyses Conseils 

Informations) company, 13/19 



Index/1 



Index/2 A History of the Personal Computer 



ACIUS company, 13/19 

4th Dimension database, 
13/19 
ACM (Association for Computing 
Machinery), 1/14, 2/10, 
17/23, 19/3 

Communications of the ACM, 
1/14, 13/17 

Journal, 1/14 

SIGPC, 19/3 
Acorn prototype computer. See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
Acorn Computers Ltd., 11/13 

Acorn computer, 11/13 

BBC Models A and B, 11/13 

BBC BASIC, 11/13 
Acorn, Al , 5/8 
Acoustic coupler, 17/19 
Acoustic delay line memory, 

1/8 
ACS and ACS Newsletter. See 

Amateur Computer Society 
Activenture Corporation, 20/2 
Adam computer. See Coleco 

Industries 
Adams, Scott, 7/10 
Adelson, Sheldon, 19/5 
Adobe Systems Inc., 10/6, 
13/23-24, 16/15, 19/18 

PostScript, 10/6, 13/23-24 
Advance Computing Environment. 

See ACE 
Advanced BASIC (BASICA) . See 

Microsoft/ Programming Lang. 
Advanced DOS. See 

Microsoft/Operating Systems 
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 
Inc., 3/15, 8/5, 8/9, 
14/7, 16/7, 16/16 

Am386 microprocessor, 14/7 

Am486 microprocessor, 14/7 

AMD 8080A microprocessor, 
4/20 

K5 microprocessor, 14/7 

K6 microprocessor, 14/7 

K6-2 microprocessor, 14/7 
Advanced Research Projects 

Agency. See ARPA 
Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) 
Ltd., 14/10 

ARM 610 microprocessor, 
14/10 
Advanced Systems Division 

See Xerox/Miscellaneous 
Advantage Professional Word 

Processor. See MultiMate 

International 
Advantage series computers. 



See North Star Compute 
Adventure game . See Game 

Microsoft/Applications 
Adventure International, 

Adventure Land game, 7 

Laser Ball game, 7/11 

Fire Copter game, 7/11 

Pirate Adventure game, 
AFIPS. See American Fede 

of Information Process 

Societies 
Agenda conference, 19/25 
Agents, 15/15 
Agfa company, 19/18 
Agilent Technologies Inc 

16/17 
Agrawal, Anant, 8/8, 11/ 
Ahl, David H. , 4/1, 18/2 
Aiken, Howard H., 1/3-4 
Ainsworth, Dick, 13/29 
AIX (Advanced Interactiv 

Executive). See IBM/So 
Akers, John F., 9/23-24, 

16/5-6 
Alagem, Beny, 11/22-23, 
Albrecht, Robert L., 18/ 

19/1-2 
Alcoff, Larry, 19/11 
Aldhadeff, Victor, 19/22 
Aldus Corporation, 13/24 
16/15 

PageMaker, 10/7, 13/24 
16/15 
Alex. Brown & Sons, 12/8 
ALGOL (Algorithmic Langu 
2/5-6, 5/2, 7/5 

ALGOL 30. See Dartmout 
College 

ALGOL 60, 7/5 

Burroughs ALGOL. See 
Burroughs 
Alien Rain game. See 

Broderbund Software. 
Allchin, James, 16/9 
Allen, Paul G. 

Microsoft, 4/11, 6/1-1 
12/1, 12/4, 12/8, 12 
12/14, 16/12 

Other companies, 4/10, 
10/19 

Paul Allen Group, 19/2 
Allison, Dennis, 7/4 
Alpert, Martin A., 17/19 
Alpha computer proj ect 

(HP 3000). See Hewlett 

Packard 
Alpha microprocessor. Se 

DEC/Miscellaneous 



rs 

s and 

7/10 
/10 



7/11 
ration 
ing 



26 

, 18/9 
1/7 



f tware 



16/16 

1, 



age) 
h 



4, 

/12, 



3 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/3 



Alpha proj ect 

Hewlett-Pac 
AlphaWorks in 

13/22 
Alps Electric 

10/11, 10/1 

17/8 
Alsop, Stewar 
Altair 680b a 

computers . 
Altair BASIC 
Alto computer 

Xerox/Compu 
Am3 8 6 and Am4 

microproces 

Advanced Mi 
Amateur Compu 

Jersey, 19/ 
Amateur Compu 
(ACS), 2/ 
19/1 

ACS Newslet 

18/1, 19/ 

Amateur compu 

Amazon Inc . , 

Ambra compute 

IBM/Compute 
AMD. See Adva 

Devices 
AMD 8 08 0A mic 

Advanced Mi 

Amdek company 

Amelio, Gilbe 

America Onlin 

15/12, 1 

America Onl 
19/15 
American Comp 

The America 
American Fede 

Information 

Societies I 

18/7, 19/5 
American Nati 

Institute . 
American Tele 

Corporation 
Ami Pro word 

Lotus Devel 
Amiga Compute 

11/5 
Amiga compute 

Internation 
An Introducti 

Microcomput 
Analyses Cons 

Information 
Analytical En 



(HP3000) . See 
kard 
tegrated program, 

Company, 5/14, 
5, 10/21, 12/5, 

t, 19/25 

nd 8 8 00 

See MITS 

and Bus. See MITS 

s . See 

ters 

86 

sors . See 

cro Devices 

ter Group of New 

4 

ter Society 

14, 4/3, 18/1, 

ter, 2/14, 4/3, 

1 

ting, 2/14-16 

19/20 

rs . See 

rs ( Personal ) 

need Micro 

roprocessor. See 
cro Devices 

17/12 
rt F., 16/1-2 
e (AOL) , Inc. , 
/17, 19/15 
ine service, 

uter Museum. See 
n Computer Museum 
ration of 

Processing 
nc. , (AFIPS) , 

onal Standards 

See ANSI 

phone & Telegraph 

See AT&T 
processor. See 
opment 
r Corporation, 

r. See Commodore 

al 

on To 

ers, 11/6, 20/1 

eils 

s . See ACI 

gine. See 



Computer History Association 
of California 
Anderson, Harlan E., 1/15-16 
Anderson, John J. 18/9 
Anderson, J. Reid, 17/4, 17/16 
Anderson, Tim, 13/24 
Andreessen, Marc, 15/10-11 
Annals of the History of 

Computing. See IEEE 
Ansa Software company, 13/18 
ANSI (American National 

Standards Institute), 2/12, 

4/19, 6/11, 7/3, 13/7 
ANSI BASIC, 6/10 
G subset of PL/I, 2/12, 13/9 
"Full" BASIC, 7/4, 13/7 
Minimal BASIC, 7/4 
A-0 compiler, 1/12 
AOL. See America Online 
APDA (Apple Programmer's and 
Developer's Association) . 
See Apple Computer 
/Miscellaneous 
APL (A Programming Language), 
4/4, 4/12, 4/19 
Also see Microsoft /Prog. 
Lang . 
Apollo Computer company, 9/17, 

11/21, 11/26 
Apollo II computer, 11/14 
Apple Assembly Line 

newsletter, 18/5 
Apple Computer Company, 5/6, 

5/9 
Apple Computer, Inc. 
1970's, 5/1-17; 
1980's, 10/1-26; 
1990's, 14/10-11, 16/1-3 
IBM, 9/2, 9/23, 16/15 
Markets, 4/21, 11/1, 19/15 
Microsoft, 6/10-11, 12/2-3, 
12/6, 12/10, 12/20-21, 
12/27, 16/8-9, 16/11 
Miscellaneous, 2/11, 
13/5-6, 17/8-9, 17/14, 
17/15 
NeXT, 11/11, 16/16 
Other companies and 
organ's, 3/11, 4/6, 4/17, 
16/13-14, 16/17, 19/2, 
19/9-10, 19/17, 20/2 
PowerPC Alliance, 14/3, 
14/6, 16/5, 16/16, 19/19, 
20/5 
Software, 7/3-5, 7/7-8, 
7/10, 11/13, 13/3-4, 
13/12-13, 13/18-20, 13/24, 
13/27, 15/7-8 



Index/4 A History of the Personal Computer 



Accessories : 

20SC hard drive, 10/12 
Disk II drive, 5/12, 5/14, 
5/17, 7/3, 10/1, 10/5, 
10/12, 10/21, 13/3, 17/8 
DuoDisk, 10/5 
ImageWriter printer, 10/5, 

10/21, 13/20, 17/14 
LaserWriter printer, 10/6, 

13/24, 17/15-16 
LaserWriter II printer, 

17/16 
LaserWriter Plus printer, 

10/7, 10/24, 17/16 
ProFile hard disk, 10/11, 

10/15, 10/17, 17/9 
Scribe printer, 10/13 
Silentype printer, 5/14 
Twiggy floppy disk drive, 

5/14 10/15, 10/17, 10/21 
UniDisk, 10/6 
Computers : 

Apple I Board, 4/10, 
5/4-7, 5/11, 19/4, 
19/9-10 
Apple II, 

Apple corporate, 5/1, 
10/1-2, 10/5, 10/11, 
10/18, 14/11, 16/3 
Clones, 11/13-14, 17/16 
Development of, 5/10-15 
Magazines, 18/5, 18/8 
Markets, 4/1, 4/15, 

5/14, 9/1 
Microsoft, 6/9, 6/14, 

12/1, 12/21, 12/23 
Miscellaneous, 3/14, 
9/13, 10/6, 11/16, 
17/17-19, 19/9 
Software, 7/5, 7/8-9, 
7/10-11, 10/5, 10/9, 
10/11, 10/14, 10/23, 
13/3, 13/7-9, 13/12, 
13/18, 13/24-27 
Apple II clones, 11/13-14, 

17/16 
Apple II Plus, 4/1, 4/16, 

5/14, 10/12, 17/17 
Apple lie, 10/5, 10/7, 

10/12-13, 14/9 
Apple lie Plus, 10/8, 

10/13 
Apple lie, 10/5, 10/6, 
10/11-14, 13/18, 13/20, 
17/18 
Apple IIGS, 8/6, 10/7-8, 
10/12-14, 13/4, 13/21, 
13/30, 18/6 



Apple IIx project, 10/3, 

10/13 
Apple III, 

Development of, 5/14-15, 

10/2, 10/9-11 
Miscellaneous, 10/5, 
10/15, 10/18, 17/9 
Software, 13/3, 13/8, 
13/12, 13/20 
Apple III Plus, 10/5, 

10/11, 17/12 
Apple 32 SuperMicro 

product line, 10/16 
Cortland project (Apple 

IIGS), 10/13 
eMate, 16/2 
Junior Newton project, 

14/10 
Lisa, 

Apple corporate, 10/1-2, 

10/5-6, 10/9-11, 10/17 
Development of, 5/15-16, 

10/14-17 
Miscellaneous, 3/11, 
10/19-21, 10/23, 12/18, 
17/23 
Software, 10/19, 13/5 
Lisa 2, 10/2, 10/5, 10/11, 
10/17 
Lisa 2/5, 10/17 
Lisa 2/10, 10/17-18 
Macintosh, 

Apple corporate, 10/1, 

10/5-6, 16/1-3 
Development of, 5/16, 

10/18-23 
Magazines, 18/6, 18/8 
Microsoft, 12/2-3, 
12/5-7, 12/10, 
12/17-19, 12/23-24, 
12/26-28, 15/4, 
16/8-9, 16/11 
Miscellaneous, 3/11, 
10/8-11, 10/17-18, 
11/11-12, 14/11, 16/3, 
17/8, 17/16, 17/21, 
17/23, 19/9, 19/17, 
19/19 
Software, 10/7, 10/14, 
13/5-6, 13/11, 
13/15-17, 13/19-20, 
13/23-24, 13/30, 15/7, 
15/10-11 
Fat Mac, 10/23 
iBook portable, 14/11, 

16/2 
iMac, 14/11, 16/2 
Mac LC, 14/9 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/5 



Macintosh II, 10/8, 

10/24-25, 13/7 
Macintosh Ilci, 10/8, 

10/25 
Macintosh Ilex, 10/8, 

10/25 
Macintosh IIx, 8/6, 

10/8, 10/25 
Macintosh Plus, 10/7, 

10/24 
Macintosh Portable, 

10/8, 10/26 
Macintosh SE, 10/8, 

10/24 
Macintosh SE/30, 10/25 
Macintosh XL, 10/18 
Power Macintosh, 14/11 
PowerBook 500 Series 

portable, 14/11 
TurboMac, 10/23 
Newton MessagePad (PDA), 

10/8, 14/10, 16/2 
Phoenix project (Apple 

IIGS), 10/13 
Rambo project (Apple 

IIGS), 10/13 
Sara project (Apple III), 
5/14, 10/9 
Miscellaneous : 

Apple II Forever 

conference, 10/12 
Apple Fellow, 10/5, 11/11 
Apple Programmer's and 
Developer's Association 
(APDA) , 19/16-17 
Apple University 

Consortium (AUC), 10/23 
AppleBus, 10/18 
AppleFest, 10/3 
AppleWorld, 10/24 
IWM (Integrated Woz 

Machine), 10/21 
MacWorld Expo, 10/8, 19/5 
Mega II chip, 10/13-14 
NuBus architecture, 10/25, 
17/21 
Software : 
Application Programs: 

Apple Pie (AppleWorks), 

13/19 
Apple Writer, 5/14, 7/7, 

10/5, 13/12 
Apple Writer II, 13/12 
Apple Writer lie, 10/12 
AppleLink, 10/7 
AppleNet, 10/17 
AppleShare, 13/27 
AppleTalk Personal 



Network, 10/6, 13 
AppleWorks, 10/5, 1 

18/6 
AppleWorks GS, 10/8 

13/21 
Boot 13 utility, 7/ 
Breakout game, 5/7, 
FileServer, 10/6 
FST's (File System 

Transactors), 13/ 
GS Works, 13/21 
HyperCard, 10/8 
HyperCard IIGS, 15/ 
HyperTalk, 10/8, 13 
Lisa Office System 

10/16, 10/18 
LisaCalc, 10/16, 13 
LisaDraw, 10/16 
LisaGraph, 10/16 
LisaGuide, 10/16 
LisaList, 10/17 
LisaProject, 10/17 
LisaTerminal, 10/17 
LisaWrite, 10/16 
LocalTalk, 13/27 
Lunar Lander game, 
MacDraw, 10/23 
Macintosh Office, 1 
MacPaint, 10/20. 10 
MacProject, 10/23 
MacSketch, 10/20 
MacTerminal, 10/23 
MacWrite, 10/22, 13 
Penny Arcade game, 
QuickFile, 13/18-19 
QuickFile lie, 10/1 

13/18 
QuickDraw, 10/12, 1 

10/22 
QuickDraw II, 10/14 
Switcher, 10/6 
Toolbox, 10/20, 10/ 
Operating Systems : 
A/UX operating syst 

10/25 
Blue project (Syste 

10/25 
Copland project, 15 
Desktop Manager, 10 
DOS (Disk Operating 

System), 5/12, 7/ 
Finder program, 10/ 

10/22 
GS/OS operating systen 

10/14, 13/4 
MacWorks operating 

system, 10/18 
MultiFinder operating 



121 

3/20, 



3 

7/10 



7 

/30 



/15 



7/10 

0/6 
/22 



/13 

7/10 

2, 

0/16, 



22 



m 7) 

II 

/16 

3 
20, 



Index/6 A History of the Personal Computer 



system, 10/8 
OS 8, 9 and X, 15/8 
Pink project, 10/25, 

19/19 
ProDOS (Professional Disk 
Operating System) , 
10/5, 10/13, 13/3-4, 
13/6 
ProDOS 8, 10/14, 13/4 
ProDOS 16, 10/14, 13/4 
Rhapsody project, 15/7 
Sophisticated Operating 
System (SOS), 10/10, 
13/3 
System 7, 10/25, 15/7 
Window manager, 10/16 
Programming Languages : 
Apple BASIC, 5/5, 5/7, 

5/10 
Apple Business BASIC, 

10/10 
Apple FORTRAN, 10/2 
Apple II Pascal, 5/14, 

7/3 
Applesoft BASIC, 5/12, 
6/10, 10/12, 10/13-14, 
10/23 
Applesoft Extended BASIC, 

5/14 
Assembler/Debugger, 10/23 
Integer BASIC, 5/10, 6/10 
Logo, 10/23, 13/5 
MacBASIC, 10/20, 10/23, 

12/7, 12/21 
Pascal, 10/10, 10/23 
Apple II Review. See Ihe Apple 

II Review 
Apple IIGS Buyer's Guide 

magazine, 18/6 
Apple Programmer's and 

Developer's Association. See 
Apple /Miscellaneous 
Apple Pugetsound Program 

Library Exchange user group. 
See A. P. P.L.E. 
Apple Writer. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
AppleBus, AppleFest and 
AppleWorld. See Apple 
Computer /Miscellaneous 
AppleWorks Forum newsletter. 
See National AppleWorks 
Users Group 
Application programs, 12/22 
Applicon company, 2/10 
Applied Computer Technology, 

4/20 
Applied Engineering, 17/18 



PC Transporter card, 17/18 

Transwarp card, 17/18 
APX (Advance Processor 

Architecture) . See Intel 
Aguarius computer. See Mattel 
ARC (Augmented Research 

Center) . See Stanford 

Research Institute 
ARC (Automatic Relay 

Computer ) , 1/9 
ARC (Average Response 

Computer) . See MIT 
Ariel Publishing, 18/5 
ARITH-MATIC software, 1/12 
ARM. See Advanced RISC 

Machines 
ARPA (Advanced Research 

Projects Agency), 2/3-4, 
2/12-13 

IPTO (Information Processing 
Technigues Office), 2/3-4, 
2/9, 2/13 
ARPANET, 2/4, 2/12-13, 4/6, 

7/10, 19/13 
Arrowhead Computer Co., 19/10 
Artificial intelligence, 13/29 
Artwick, Bruce A., 13/26 
Artzt, Russell M., 13/29 
ASCC (Automatic Seguence 

Control Calculator), 1/4, 

1/6 
ASCII characters, 17/11 
ASCII Corporation, 6/12, 12/9 

ASCII magazine, 18/3 
Ashton, Alan, 13/10-11, 16/15 
Ashton-Tate, Inc., 7/9, 13/12, 
13/15-16, 13/19, 13/21, 
16/14 

dBASE II, 7/9, 13/16, 16/14 

dBASE III, 13/16 

dBASE III PLUS, 13/16 

dBASE III PLUS LAN PACK, 
13/16 

dBASE Mac, 13/16, 13/19 

Framework, 13/20-21 

Framework II, 13/21 

Full Impact spreadsheet, 
13/15 
ASR-33 terminal. See Teletype 

Corporation 
Assembler programming 

language, 4/19, 7/2, 
13/18, 15/8 

Also see Microsoft 
/Prog. Lang. 
Assembler/Debugger. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Assistant series of programs. 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/7 



See IBM and Software 
Publishing Corporation 
Association for Computin 

Machinery See ACM. 
Associations, 1/14, 19/1 
AST Research, Inc., 11/1 
16/15, 17/21, 20/4 
Combo Card, 17/19 
Premium/286 computer, 
Asymetrix Corporation, 1 

19/23 

AT Bus. See IBM/Miscella 

AT&T (American Telephone 

Telegraph Corporat 

Apple Computer, 10/5 

10/25 

C language, 7/5 

Microsoft, 12/1, 12/ 

Miscellaneous, 2/12, 

12/28, 17/19, 18/2 

19/18, 20/6 

Other companies, 8/8 

9/17, 11/26, 16/14 

UNIX operating system, 

C language, 7/5 

IBM, 9/17, 9/21, 12/ 

Microsoft, 12/1, 12/ 

12/17, 16/9 
Miscellaneous, 2/12, 
15/10, 19/14, 19/1 
Other companies, 10/ 
11/12, 11/25-26, 1 
13/27, 15/9, 15/11 
16/13 
UNIX System V operatin 
system, 9/17 
Atanasoff, John V., 1/4- 

1/8-9 
Atari Corporation, 

Apple Computer, 5/3, 

5/6-9, 5/17, 10/5 
Corporate, 11/1, 11/ 

11/14, 16/16 
Early developments, 

4/17-18 
Games, 7/10-11, 19/1 
IBM, 9/4 

Markets, 4/15, 4/21, 
Software, 13/12, 13/ 
Atari 400, 3/14, 4/17 
Atari 800, 3/14, 4/17 
Atari 1200XL, 11/14 
Breakout game, 4/17, 5 

7/8 

Pong tennis game, 4/17 

ATI Technologies Inc., 1 

Atkinson, Bill, 5/15, 7/ 

10/5, 10/8, 10/15, 10/ 





10/22, 19/22 




Atlantic Month 


-g 


1/14 




AuctionWeb Int 


7-19 


19/21 


4, 


AUGMENT. See T 




Augmented Rese 




Stanford Res 


11/14 


Autodesk, Inc. 


2/4, 


AutoCAD, 13/ 




Automatic Sequ 


neous 


Calculator . 


& 


A/UX operating 


ion ) , 


Apple Comput 




Auxiliary stor 




Avant-Garde Cr 




Creative Lif 


15 


series , 3/28 



11 

15, 

13/« 

7-18 

25, 

3/4, 



■:i 



5, 



5/15 
14 



n. 



9/20 

5, 

19-20, 



ernet site, 

ymshare 

arch Center. See 

earch Institute 

, 13/23, 16/15 

23 

ence Control 

See ASCC 

system. See 
er/Sof tware 
age, 1/7 
eations, 13/28 
e Dynamic 



-B- 

Baby Blue card. See 
BackOffice software. 

Microsof t/Applic . 
Backus, John W. , 1/1 
Baer, Ralph, 2/14 
Bailey, David, 17/10 
Baker, Al , 13/29 
Baker, Bill, 7/7, 7/ 
Balakrisman, Jay, 13 
Balleisen, Gary, 13/ 
Ballmer, Steven (Ste 
6/4, 12/1, 12/6, 1 
12/11, 12/19, 12/2 
16/9-12 
Bank Street Writer. 

Broderbund Softwar 
Baran, Paul 2/13 
Bardeen, John, 1/11 
Barksdale, James L., 
Barnaby, Bob, 7/7 
Barnes, Susan, 11/11 
Barnhart, Dennis, 11 
Barrett, Craig R. , 1 
Bartz, Carol, 16/15 
Barzilay, Jason, 11/ 
BASIC (Beginner's Al 
Symbolic Instruc 
Code) , 
Apple Computer, 5/ 
5/10, 5/13, 10/1 
10/13-14, 10/18- 
10/21-22 
Development of, 2/ 
7/3-5, 7/12, 13/ 
IBM, 4/3, 4/12, 9/ 
Microsoft, 6/3, 6/ 

15/5, 17/17-18 
MITS, 4/9-11 



Xedex 

See 
Progs . 
3 



, 13/9-10 
/28 
15 

ve) A., 
2/8, 
2, 15/8, 



See 



15/11 



/30 
6/8 

23 

1-purpc 
tion 

4, 5/6- 

0-11, 

19, 

3, 2/5- 
7 

4, 9/7 
5-11, 



Index/8 A History of the Personal Computer 



Other companies, 4/15, 
4/17-20, 7/8, 11/28, 
11/3-4, 11/7, 11/10, 
11/13, 11/18, 11/20, 
11/24, 13/2, 18/3 

Also see Microsoft/ Progr . 
Languages 
BASIC computer. See Sphere 

Corp 
Basic Input/Output System 
(BIOS), 13/22 

Compag Computer, 11/9 

Digital Research, 7/2 

IBM, 9/5, 9/7, 9/12, 11/19, 
12/14, 13/22-23 

Zenith Data Systems, 11/29 
BASIC interpreters (Altair and 

Macintosh). See Microsoft 

/Progr. Lang. 
BASIC-80. See Microsoft/ Progr . 

Lang . 
BASIC-Plus. See Digital 

Eguipment/ Software 
BASICA (Advanced BASIC) . See 

Microsoft/ Progr . Lang . 
Bastian, Bruce, 13/10-11, 

16/15 
Bates, Roger, 17/23 
Bauer company, 12/11, 12/20 
Baum, Allen J., 5/1-4, 5/7, 

5/10 
Bauman, Joe, 9/4, 9/6, 9/23 
Bawden, David, 20/2 
BBC. See British Broadcasting 

Corporation 
BBC BASIC, BBC Model A and B 

computers. See Acorn 

Computers 
BCPL programming language. See 

Xerox/ Software 
Be Inc., company, 16/14 

BeBox computer, 16/14 
Beagle Bros, company, 13/20, 
18/5 

MacroWorks, 13/20 

TimeOut modules, 13/20 
Bechtolsheim, Andreas , 

11/24-25 
Beckman Instrument Systems, 

5/9 
Bedke, Janelle, 13/18 
Bell, Jay, 11/17 
Bell, Murray, 11/21-22 
Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
1/3, 1/6, 1/11, 2/4, 
2/11, 7/3, 13/7, 20/6 

General Purpose Relay 
Calculator, 1/3 



Models III, IV, V and VI 
computers, 1/3 

Bell System Technical 
Journal, 2 0/6 
Belleville, Robert L . , 10/20 
Bendix Aviation Corporation, 
1/16 

G-15 computer, 1/16 
Benton Harbor BASIC. See Heath 

Company 
Berez, Joel, 13/24-25 
Berkeley campus. See 
University 

of California 
Berkeley Softworks, 13/6 

GEOS (Graphic Environment 

Operating System), 13/6 
Berkeley UNIX operating 

system, 11/25 
Berners-Lee, Tim, 19/14, 20/3 
Bernoulli, Daniel, 17/10 
Bernoulli box and disk drive. 

See Iomega 
Bernstein, Alex, 1/13 
Berry, Clifford E., 1/5 
Bezos, Jeffrey, 19/20 
Bibliographies, 2 0/2 
Big Blue disk magazine. See 

Softdisk 
Bina, Eric, 15/10 
BINAC (Binary Automatic 

Computer) , 1/5, 1/8 
BIOS. See Basic Input/Output 

System 
Bishop, Bob, 7/10 
Bit - term origin, 20/6 
Bit Pad. See Summagraphics 
BitBlt procedure, 4/5 
BIX on-line service, 19/16 
Blank, Marc, 13/24 
Blankenbaker , John V., 4/3 
Bletchley Park, 1/3-4 
Blue Box phone tone generator, 

5/3 
Blue project. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Blumenthal, Jabe, 12/2 4 
Bob operating system. See 

Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
Bobrow, Daniel, 2/12 
Boeing Computer Services, 16/8 
Boggs, David, 19/13 
Boich, Mike, 10/7 
Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., 

(BB&N), 2/4-5, 2/12-13 
Bookshelf. See 

Microsof t /Multimedia 
Boone, Gary W. , 3/12, 14/8 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/9 



Boot 13 utility. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Booth, A. D., 1/9 
Borel, Daniel, 19/22 
Borland International, Inc., 
Beginning of, 13/8-9 
Miscellaneous, 13/19, 

15/5, 16/12, 16/14, 16/17 
Programs, 12/21, 13/7, 
13/15, 13/29 

Paradox database, 13/9, 
13/19, 16/12 

Quattro Pro spreadsheet, 
13/9, 13/15 16/12 

Sidekick, 13/9, 13/29 

Turbo BASIC, 12/21, 13/7 

Turbo C, 12/21, 13/7 

Turbo Pascal, 12/21, 13/8 
Bosack, Leonard, 19/21 
Boston Computer Museum. See 

The Computer Museum 
Boston Computer Society, 19/3 
Both Barrels game. See Sirius 

Software 
Bowles, Kenneth L., 7/5 
Bowman, William, 13/28 
BPC microprocessor. See 

Hewlett-Packard 
BPI accounting software, 13/29 
Bradley, David J., 9/5, 12/13, 

13/22 
Bradley, Terry, 13/25 
Brainerd, Paul, 13/24 
Brattain, Walter, 1/11 
Bravo and BravoX word 

processors. See Xerox/ 

Software 
Breakout game. See Atari 
Bricklin, Daniel S., 5/14, 

7/8, 13/15, 13/29, 19/12 
British Broadcasting 

Corporation (BBC), 11/13 
British Telecom company, 13/27 
Brock, Rod, 12/14, 17/18 
Brockman, Inc., 19/25 
Brockman, John, 19/25 
Broderbund Software, Inc., 
13/12, 13/24-25 

Alien Rain, 13/25 

Bank Street Writer word 
processor, 13/12 

Choplifter, 13/25 

David's Midnight magic, 
13/25 

Galactic Empire, 13/25 

Galactic Saga series, 13/25 

Galactic Trader, 13/25 

Lode Runner, 13/25 



Print Shop, 13/24 

Space Quarks, 13/25 

Where in the World 
Sandiego?, 13/25 
Brodie, Richard, 12/25 
Broedner, Walt, 10/11 
Brookhaven National 

Laboratory, 1/13 
Brother International 

Corporation, 17/16, 
Brown, David, 17/9 
Brown, Dick, 10/4, 12/ 
Brown University, 10/4 
Browsers, 15/10-11 
Bubble jet printing, 1 
Bubble memory, 11/18 
Buchholz, W., 20/6 
Budge, Bill, 7/10, 13/ 
Budgeco company, 13/26 

Raster Blaster game, 
Bug - term origin, 20/ 
Bull company, 11/30 
Bunnell, David, 6/8, 1 

18/6-7, 19/4 
Burroughs Corporation, 
17/12 

ALGOL, 7/6 

Printer, 17/12 
Burtis, Don, 6/14 
Bus systems, 17/20-21, 
Bush, Vannevar, 1/14-1 

20/1 
Bushnell, Nolan K. , 4/ 

7/10 
Busicom company, 3/6-8 
Business Accounting Se 

software. See Peacht 

Software 
Button, Jim, 13/18 
ButtonWare company 

PC File database 
Bybe, Jim, 4/9 
Byte - term origin 
BYTE magazine, 

Beginning of, 18/2-3 

Borland, 13/9 

Microprocessor, 3/17 

Miscellaneous, 4/11- 
17/5, 17/7, 17/23, 
19/16, 20/6-7 

North Star Computers 

VisiCalc, 7/9 
Byte Shop's, 5/6, 5/9, 
Bytec Management Corpo 

11/21, 13/27 
Bytec-Comterm, 11/22 

Hyperion computer, 1 

11/21 



s Carmen 
26 

19/20 

6, 19/11 

7/14 

26 



13/26 

1/2-3, 

7/6, 



20/3 
5, 2/9, 

17, 5/9, 

, 4/7 

ries 

ree 



/18 
/IB 



20/6 



-18 
12, 
19/3, 

, 17/15 

19/10 
ration, 



1/10, 



Index/10 A History of the Personal Computer 



Bytesaver board. See Cromemco. 

-c- 

C & E (Coleman & Eubanks ) 

Company, 13/29 
C programming language, 4/5, 

7/5, 13/7, 13/17, 15/8, 

15/13, 19/26 
C++ programming language, 

13/7, 15/13 
C.Itoh Electronics (CIE), 

Inc., 10/17, 17/14 
Cable-TV, 15/15, 16/10 
Cache, 8/4, 8/6 
CAD (Computer Assisted 

Drafting), 2/10, 9/17, 

11/25, 13/23, 20/4 
CAE (Computer Assisted 

Engineering), 2/10, 11/24 
Cahners Publishing, 18/7 
Cairo project. See Microsoft/ 

Operating Systems 
CalcStar. See MicroPro 

International 
Calculators , 

Busicom company, 3/6, 4/6, 
4/8 

Early computers, 1/3, 1/ 

Miscellaneous, 3/5, 3/12 
4/2, 7/8, 17/9, 19/1 

Other calculator product 
4/3, 4/8, 4/15, 4/19, 
11/23, 11/28 
Calculedger spreadsheet, 7 
Call-A. P. P.L.E. magazine. 

A. P. P.L.E. 
Call Computer company, 5/4 
Calma company, 2/10 
CAM (Computer Assisted 

Manufacturing), 11/24 
Cambridge University, 1/5, 

1/12 

Gordon, 8/ 
Rob, 12/10 
William V. 



7 



/8 

See 



8/7 



Campbell 
Campbell 
Campbell, William V. , 13/30, 

16/2 
Canion, Rod, 11/9, 1 
Cannavino, James A., 

9/24-25, 12/17, 15 
Canon Inc., 3/5, 16/ 
17/14-15 

LPB-CX laser print 

Pocketronic calcul 
Cantin, Howard, 5/10 
Capellas, Michael D. 
Capps, Steve, 10/20, 
Captain Crunch, 5/3 
Carlston, Douglas G., 13/25 



6/3 


9/21-22, 


/8, 16/5- 


15, 17/8, 


er, 17/15 


ator, 3/5 


, 16/4 


14/10 



Carlston, Gary, 13/25 
Carmack, Adrian, 19/22 
Carmack, John, 19/21 
Carnegie-Mellon University, 

13/4 
Carr, Robert, 13/21 
Cartridge BASIC. See 

Microsoft/ Prog . Languages 
Cary, Frank T. , 9/1 
Case, Stephen M., 18/9, 19/15 
Cashmere project (Word for 

Windows) . See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
Cassette BASIC. See 

Microsoft/ Progr . Languages 
Cassette tape, 5/6, 5/10, 

5/12, 11/24, 17/4-5, 17/19 
CAT acoustic coupler. See 

Novation 
Caulkins, Dave, 19/14 
Cayre, Joseph J., 19/22 
C-BASIC, 7/4, 11/7, 11/12 
CBASIC-86. See Digital 

Research 
CBI. See Charles Babbage 

Institute 
CBM-8032 computer. See 

Commodore International 
CBS company, 19/16 
cc:Mail. See Lotus Development 
CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read 

Only Memory) , 12/7, 12/28, 
15/9, 17/9, 20/2, 20/4-5 

CD-I (Compact Disk 

- Interactive), 12/7, 20/4 
CD-R (Compact Disk 

- Recordable) , 20/4 
CD-ROM XA standard, 20/4 

CD-ROM conference, 12/7, 12/10 
CD-ROM division. See 

Microsoft /Multimedia 
CD-Write disk. See Cytation 
CeBIT computer show, 19/5 
Celeron microprocessor. See 

Intel/Microprocessors 
Central Intelligence Agency. 

See CIA 
Central Point software 

company, 16/14 
Centronics Data Computer 
Corporation, 17/12 

700 series printers, 17/12 
779 printer, 17/12 

Micro-1 printer, 17/12 

Model 101 printer, 17/12 
CERES workstation, 13/8 
CERN (European Particle 

Physics Laboratory), 19/14, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/11 



20/3 
CES. See Consumer Electronics 

Show 
CGA (Color Graphics Adapter), 

9/5, 11/18, 14/9, 20/5 
Challenger series of 

computers . See Ohio 

Scientific Instruments 
Chamberlain, Hal, 4/3, 18/3 
Chamberlain, Mark, 4/10-11 
Chambers, John T., 19/21 
Chang, Dean, 19/23 
Chaplin, Charlie characture, 

9/6 
Charles Babbage Institute 
(CBI), 19/6-7 

Newsletter, 19/6 
Charlson, Chester, 17/15 
Charney, Howard, 17/18 
Chart software. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
Cheadle, Edward, 2/11 
Cheiky, Mike and Charity, 4/14 
Chess project. See IBM/ 

Computers ( Personal ) 
Chicago project (Windows 95) . 

See Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
Chieftain computer. See Smoke 

Signal Broadcasting 
Chips and Technologies, Inc., 

8/7, 11/17, 16/7 
Choplifter game. See 

Broderbund Software 
CIA (Central Intelligence 

Agency), 13/17 
Cider Press newsletter, 18/5 
CIE (Community Information 

Exchange) Net, 19/13 
Circus project (PC AT). See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
Cirrus project. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Cisco Systems, Inc., 19/21 
CL-9. See Cloud-9 
Clamshell project (5140 PC 

Convertible.) See IBM/ 

Computers ( Personal ) 
Claris Corporation, 10/8, 

13/20, 13/21 
Clark, James H., 11/23, 

15/11-12 
Clark, Wesley A., 1/15, 2/2, 

2/7 
Clayton, Dubilier & Rice 

company, 16/4 
Clones, 4/13, 9/20, 11/13, 

11/30, 12/3, 13/23 
Cloud-9 (CL-9) company, 10/6 



Clubs (Computer), 19/2-3 
CMC (Corporate Management 
Committee), See 
IBM/Miscellaneous 
CMG@Ventures company, 19/23 
CMOS (Complementary Metal 

Oxide Semiconductor), 3/13 
CMP Media Inc. , 18/2 
COBOL (COmmon Business 
Oriented Language), 
1/12-13, 2/11, 6/2, 6/9 
Also see Microsoft/ 

Programming Languages 
Cochran, Michael, 3/12, 14/8 
Cocke, John, 8/7, 14/8 
CoCo computer. See Tandy/Radio 

Shack 
CODASYL (Committee On Data 
SYstem Languages), 1/13, 
2/11 
Codd, Edgar F., 13/17 
Cole, Ida, 12/6 
Coleco Industries, 11/30 

Adam computer, 11/30 
Coleman, Deborah "Debi" A. , 

10/7 
Coleman, Dennis, 13/29 
Coleman, William T., 13/5 
Collard, Paul, 17/19 
Colligan, John C, 19/23 
Color Graphics Adapter. See 

CGA 
Colvin, Neil, 13/22 
Combo Card. See AST Research 
Comcast Corporation, 16/11 
COMDEX (COMputer Dealers' 
Exposition ) , 
Beginning of, 19/5 
Miscellaneous, 9/21 
Product introductions at, 
9/11, 11/17, 11/21, 
12/17-19, 13/5, 13/7, 
13/10-11, 13/14 
Softbank purchase of, 19/24 
Commodore Business Machines 

Company, 4/15 
Commodore International Inc., 
Apple Computer, 5/8, 5/14 
Beginning of, 4/15-16 
Later products, 11/4-5 
Liguidation of, 16/15 
Market, 4/15, 4/21, 5/17, 

9/1-2, 11/1 
Microsoft, 6/9, 6/11 
Miscellaneous, 3/14, 
11/14, 11/28, 13/20, 
17/20, 19/8, 19/15 
3-Plus-l software, 11/5, 



Index/12 A History of the Personal Computer 



13/20 
64 computer, 11/5, 
Amiga 1000 compute 
CBM 8032, 11/3 
MAX Machine, 11/5 
PET 2001 (Personal 
Electronic Trans 
3/14, 4/15-16, 6 
11/3, 11/28, 13/ 
PET 4000 series, 4 
PLUS/4, 11/5, 13/2 
SuperPET 9000 seri 
SX-64, 11/5 
Ultimax, 11/5 
VIC-20, 11/4, 17/1 
VIC BASIC, 11/4 
VICMODEM program, 
VICTERM program, 1 
Video Interface ch 
Commodore Portable T 

company, 4/15 

Common Business Orie 

Language . See COBO 

Communications, 20/3 

Communications of th 

ACM 
Communicator Profess 
Netscape Communica 
Community Computer C 

19/1 
Community Informatio 

Net. See CIE Net 
Community Memory, 1 
Compact Disk - Read 

Memory. See CD-ROM 
Compag Computer Corp 
1990's, 14/11, 1 
Beginning of, 11 
IBM, 9/16, 9/23, 
Intel, 8/4 
Microsoft, 12/3, 
Miscellaneous, 1 
13/22, 17/21, 
19/25 
Compag LTE noteboo 
Compag Plus, 11/11 
Contura, 14/11 
Deskpro 286, 8/4, 
Deskpro 386, 11/11 
Deskpro/M, 14/11 
Portable, 9/9, 9/1 
11/9-11, 11/20, 
20/8 
Portable 286, 11/1 
Portable 386, 11/1 
ProLinea, 14/11 
ProSignia, 14/11 
Ruby project, 14/1 



18/8 

r, 11/6 



actor ) , 
/9, 9/1, 
14, 19/9 
/16 



es, 11/4 



7 

17/20 

7/20 

ip, 11/4 

ypewriter 

nted 

L 

e ACM. See 

ional . See 

tions 

enter, 

n Exchange 

/l, 20/1 
Only 

oration, 

/3-4 
/9-11 

16/5 

12/21 
1/30, 
19/17, 

k, 11/11 



11/11 



12/21, 

1 
1 



1 



SystemPro, 11/11 
Compass computers. See GRiD 

Systems 
Compiler Systems, Inc., 7/4 
Complementary Metal Oxide 

Semiconductor. See CMOS 
Complex Number Calculator, 1/3 
CompUSA Inc. , 19/10 
CompuServe Corporation, 17/20, 
19/15-17 

CompuServe Information 
Services, Inc., 19/16 

MicroNET services, 19/16 
Compute magazine, 18/8 
Compute Publications, 18/8 
Computer Assisted Drafting, 

Engineering & Manufacturing. 

See CAD, CAE and CAM 
Computer Associates 

International, Inc., 13/10, 

13/15, 13/29 
Computer Center Corporation 

(CCC), 6/2-3 
Computer City stores, 19/10 
Computer Control Corporation 

(3C), 2/9 
Computer Converser company, 

5/4 
Computer History Association 

of California ( CHAC ) , 19/7 

The Analytical Engine 

journal, 19/7 
Computer History Association 

of Delaware, 19/10 
Computer History Association 

of Iowa, 19/10 
Computer Hobbyist newsletter, 

18/3 
Computer Intelligence 

Infocorp, 19/21 
Computer Lib and Dream 

Machines, 20/1 
Computer Mart store, 5/7-8, 

19/10 
Computer Museum and Computer 

Museum History Center. See 

The Computer Museum and The 

Computer Museum History 

Center 
Computer Notes newsletter. See 

MITS. 
Computer Shack, 4/11, 19/11 
Computer Shopper magazine, 

18/7 
Computer Space game. See Games 
Computer Store, 19/11 
Computer Terminal Corporation 

(CTC), 3/7, 3/12, 4/2 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/13 



Computerf est , 19/4 
ComputerLand, 4/3, 4 

9/8, 19/11 
Computers & Electron 
Computervision Corpo 

2/10 
ComputerWorld, newsp 
Computing-Tabulating 

Company, 1/6 
Computist magazine, 
Concentric Data Syst 
Concurrent CP/M-86 a 

Concurrent DOS. Se 

Research 
Condor database, 7/9 
Connelly, Dan, 20/3 
Conner Peripherals , 

17/6, 17/9 
Conner, Finis F., 17 
CONSOL operating sys 

Processor Technolo 
Consumer Electronics 

(CES), 5/12, 11/4- 

19/4 
Consumer Products Di 

See Microsof t/Misc 
Context Management S 
13/19 

Context MBA, 13/19 

Continuum company, 1 

Control Data Corpora 

(CDC), 2/9, 6/3, 

17/6, 17/9 

660 computer, 19/9 

Cyber 6400 compute 
Control Video Corpor 

19/15 
Contura computer. Se 

Computer Corpor at i 
Conventions, 19/4 
Convergent Techno log 

Works late portable 
11/30 
Cook, Scott D. , 13/3 
Cooper, Alan, 7/4 
Copland project. See 

Computer/ Software 
Coprocessors , 8/4-5 
Corbato, Fernando J. 
Corbis Corporation, 
Core memory. See Mag 

memory 
Corel Corporation, 1 

15/9, 15/12, 16/12 
Corel Systems Corpor 
13/24, 13/27, 1 

CorelDRAW, 13/27, 
16/15 



/13, 4/20, 

ics, 18/8 
ration, 

aper, 18/7 
-Recording 

18/8 

ems, 13/13 

nd 

e Digital 



Inc . , 

/7-9 

tern. See 
gy. 

Show 
5, 11/13, 

vision . 
ellaneous 
ystems , 

, 13/21 
2/11 
tion 
13/5, 



r, 6/3 
ation, 

e Compag 
on 

ies, 11/30 
computer, 





Apple 



, 2/4 
12/11 
netic core 

3/17, 
, 16/15 
ation, 
/15 
15/9, 



WordPerfect suite, 15/9 
Cornell University Classic 

Computer Club, 19/10 
Cornet, Jean Claude, 3/9 
Coronado Corporation, 3/12 
Corporate Management Committee 

(CMC) . See IBM/Miscellaneous 
Corrigan, Robert J., 16/5 
Cortland project. See Apple 

Computer/ Computers 
Corvus Concept computer, 11/15 
Couch, John D., 5/15, 10/15 
Courtney, Mike, 12/14, 12/21 
Cowell, Casey G., 17/19 
Cowpland, Michael C. J., 

11/21-22, 13/27 
CP/M operating systems. See 

Digital Research 
CP/NET. See Digital Research 
CP-DOS. See IBM/Software 
Crawford, John, 8/3, 14/6 
Cray, Seymour, 16/14 
Cray Research, Inc., 16/13, 
16/16 

Cray-1 computer, 19/8 
Cream Soda Computer, 5/2, 5/5 
Creative Computing magazine, 

18/1, 18/3, 18/9 
Creative Labs, Inc., 17/16 
Creative Life Dynamic series. 

See Avant-Garde Creations 
Creative Technology Ltd., 
17/16 

Sound Blaster audio card, 
17/16 
Cromemco Inc., 4/10, 4/14-15, 

5/7, 6/14, 17/16-18 

Bytesaver board, 17/16 

Dazzler machine, 5/7 

Kaleidoscope program, 17/17 

System Zero, One, Two and 
Three computers, 4/14 

TV Dazzler board, 17/17 

Z-l computer, 4/14 

Z-2 Computer System, 4/14 

Zilog Z-80 board, 17/17 
Crosby, Kip, 19/7 
Crow, George, 11/11 
Crowther, Will, 7/10 
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense 

Multiple Access with 

Collision Detection), 19/13 
CSOS (Computer System 

Operating System) . See 

IBM/Software 
CT-64 Terminal Kit. See 

Southwest Technical Products 
CT-VM video monitor. See 



Index/14 A History of the Personal Computer 



Southwes 
CTC. See C 

Corporat 
CTSS (Comp 

System) . 
Culbert, M 
Cutler, Da 
CW Communi 

4/3, 18/ 
Cyber 6400 

Control 
Cyber Stri 

Software 
Cyrix comp 
Cytation c 

CD-Write 



t Technical Products 

omputer Terminals 

ion 

atible Time Sharing 

See MIT 
ichael, 14/10 
vid N. , 12/17 
cations company, 
8 

computer. See 
Data 
ke game. See Sirius 

any, 14/7 

ompany, 12/7, 20/2 
disk, 12/7, 20/2 



-D- 

D.C. Hayes Associates Inc., 
17/20 
Also see Hayes Corporation 
D'Arezzo, James, 9/6, 9/23 
Dabney, Ted, 4/17 
Daisy Systems company, 11/24 
Daniels, Bruce, 13/24 
Dartmouth College, 1/3, 2/3-6, 
7/3-4, 13/7 
ALGOL 30, 2/5 
BASIC (Beginner's 

All-purpose Symbolic 
Instruction Code), 2/3, 
2/6, 7/3-4, 13/5 
DARSIMCO (Dartmouth 

Simplified Code), 2/5 
DART (Dartmouth programming 

language ) , 2/5 
DOPE (Dartmouth 

Oversimplified Programming 
Experiment), 2/5 
DTSS (Dartmouth Time sharing 

System), 2/6 
SCALP (Self Contained ALGOL 

Processor ) , 2/5 
Structured BASIC (SBASIC), 

13/7 
True BASIC, 13/7 
Darwin workstation. See Sun 

Microsystems 
Data General, 2/9, 4/5, 5/2, 
6/3, 13/10, 13/13 
Nova 1220, 4/5 

Nova computer, 2/9, 5/2, 6/3 
Data Machines company, 2/9 
Data Processing Management 

Association. See DPMA 
Data routers, 19/21 
Databases, 7/9, 12/22, 12/26, 
13/16-21, 15/5, 16/14 



DataMaster. See IBM/Computers 
Datamation , magazine, 1/14, 

18/6 
Datanet-30 communications 
computer. See General 
Electric Company 
DataPerfect database. See 

WordPerfect 
Datapoint Corporation, 3/7, 
3/12, 4/2, 12/1 
Datapoint 2200 terminal, 
4/2, 19/6 
Dataguest information 

provider, 19/21 
DataStar. See MicroPro 

International 
Datronic company, 11/28 
Davidoff, Monte, 6/6-7 
David's Midnight Magic. See 

Broderbund Software 
Davies, Donald, 2/12 
Davis, Robert, 19/23 
Daytona project (NT) . See 

Microsoft/Operating Systems 
Dazzler machine. See Cromemco 
dBASE software. See 

Ashton-Tate 
DCS (Digital Computer System), 

4/18 
Deadline game. See Infocom 
DEC (Digital Eguipment 
Corporation ) , 

Beginning of, 1/15-16 
Compag purchase of, 16/4 
Early systems, 2/8-9, 4/2, 

4/4, 4/11, 4/19-20 
Later systems (1980's), 

11/15-16 
Microsoft, 6/2-5, 6/9, 

6/13, 12/4, 12/18, 15/2 
Miscellaneous, 3/6, 4/1, 
4/18, 7/8, 8/8, 10/16, 
14/7, 16/14, 18/2, 
19/17-18, 20/7 
Other companies and 

organizations, 2/4, 7/1, 
16/8 
Software, 7/5, 13/8, 13/17 
Computers : 

2020 minicomputer, 6/13 
DECmate II word processing 

system, 11/15 
DECstation (VT78), 

4/19-20, 13/8 
EduSystem, 4/4 
LINC-8 computer, 2/7 
LSI-11 microcomputer 

board, 4/1, 4/11, 4/18, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/15 



7/5 
LSI-11/23 microcomputer 

system, 4/11 
PDP-1 ( Programmed Data 

Processor - One), 1/16, 
2/4, 2/8, 2/14 
PDP-4, 2/8 
PDP-5, 2/8 
PDP-8, 2/8, 2/15, 3/6, 

4/1, 4/4, 4/20, 19/6, 

19/9 
PDP-8/A, 4/4 
PDP-8/E, 4/2 
PDP-8/I, 2/8 
PDP-8/L, 2/8, 6/3 
PDP-8/S, 2/8 
PDP-10, 6/3-4, 6/6, 7/10, 

19/9 
PDP-11, 4/2, 4/11, 4/18, 

7/5, 11/16 
PDP-11/03 microcomputer 

system, 4/11 
Professional 300 Series, 
11/16 

Models 325 & 350, 11/16 
Rainbow 100 series, 
11/15-16 

Rainbow 100, 11/15 

Rainbow 100+, 11/15-16 
VAX (Virtual Address 

Extension) computer, 

8/8, 12/17, 13/17 
Miscellaneous : 
Alpha 21064 

microprocessor, 14/7, 

15/2 
DECUS user group, 6/3 
F-ll CPU, 11/16 
Omnibus backplane, 4/3 
VT52 terminal, 4/20, 10/17 
VT78. See DECstation 
VT100 terminal, 10/17 
Software : 

DEC BASIC, 6/3, 6/5 
DEC BASIC-Plus, 6/6 
DECwindows, 13/6 
Focal language, 6/9 
P/OS operating system, 

11/16 
RT-11 operating system, 

11/16 
VMS (Virtual Memory 

operating System), 12/17 
DECUS user group. See 

DEC/Miscellaneous 
Delbourg-Delphis , Marylene, 

13/19 
Dell Computer Corporation, 



9/25, 11/16-18, 16/4-5 
Dell, Michael S., 11/16-17, 

16/4 
Delphi on-line service. See 

General Videotex 
Denman, Donn, 10/20, 10/23 
Dennis, Jack B., 2/4, 7/2-3 
Department of Defense, 2/3, 

19/13 
Department of Justice (DOJ), 

9/1, 9/23, 15/12, 16/9-11, 

16/14 
Deskpro computers. See Compag 

Computer 
Desktop Management Interface. 

See DMI 
Desktop Management Task Force. 

See DMTF 
Desktop Manager. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Desktop publishing, 13/23-24, 

13/27, 16/15 
Desktop Software Division. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
DESQ and DESQview software. 

See Quarterdeck Office 
Develop-65, 68 and 80 

software. See Microsoft 

/Miscellaneous 
Dhuey, Mike, 10/24 
DIF format, 13/14 
Digerati : Encounters with the 

Cyber Elite, 19/25 
Digital Computer Newsletter, 

1/14 
Digital Computer System. See 

Digital Group 
Digital Deli book, 17/23, 

18/9 
Digital Eguipment Corporation. 

See DEC 
Digital Group Inc., 4/20, 7/4 

Digital Computer System, 

4/20 
Digital Logic Microlab. See 

Southwest Technical Products 
Digital Research, Inc. ( DRI ) , 
Beginning of, 7/1-2 
IBM, 9/6, 9/8, 12/13 
Later developments at, 
13/2-3, 13/5, 13/7, 
13/9, 13/27, 15/9 
Microsoft, 6/10, 6/14, 

12/12, 12/14, 17/17 
Miscellaneous, 7/4, 13/24, 

13/29, 20/2 
Other companies, 11/6, 
13/1 



Index/16 A History of the Personal Computer 



3 



/14, 



12, 
3/27, 



16, 



Purchase by Novell, 15/9, 
15/12, 16/12 
CBASIC-86, 13/7 
CD-ROM disk, 20/1 
Concurrent CP/M-86, 13/ 
Concurrent DOS, 13/3 
CP/M (Control Program f 
Microprocessors ) , 
Development of, 7/1-2 
IBM, 9/6, 12,12 
Microsoft, 6/10-11, 
12/1, 12/12, 12/14, 
17/17 
Miscellaneous, 4/17, 
7/3-4, 7/7, 7/9, 7/ 
13/1-2, 13/15-16, 1 
19/12 
Other companies, 11/6 
11/8, 11/12, 11/15- 
11/18, 17/19 
CP/M-80 operating system, 

11/18 
CP/M-86 operating system, 
9/8, 11/28, 12/13-14, 
13/1-2 
CP/M Plus, 11/7 
CP/NET, 13/27 
DR-DOS, 13/3, 15/9, 15/12 
GEM (Graphics Environment 

Manager) , 13/5 
MP/M (Multi-Programming 

Monitor), 7/2, 13/27 
PL/I compiler, 13/9 
PL/M. See PL/M 
Digital signal processor 
(DSP) . See Texas 
Instruments/Misc . 
Digital Video Interactive 

( DVI ) . See RCA company 
Digitizer, 17/22 
Dilks, John, 19/4 
Direct marketing, 9/25, 11/1£ 

11/19 
Disbrow, Steven, 18/6 
DISK BASIC. See 

Microsoft/ Progr Lang, and 
PolyMorphic Systems 
Disk drives, 1/9, 17/5-10 
Disk II drive. See Apple 

Computer /Accessories 
Disks. See Floppy disks 
Diskworld for the Macintosh. 

See Softdisk 
Displays, 17/11-12 
Displaywrite word processor 
and DisplayWriter 
workstation. See IBM 
Distributors of software, 



19/10-12 
DLL (Dynamic Link Libraries), 

15/3 
DMI (Desktop Management 

Interface), 19/17 
DMTF (Desktop Management Task 

force), 19/17 
Document Type Definition. See 

DTD 
Dompier, Steve, 4/13, 19/2 
DOPE (Dartmouth Oversimplified 

Programming Experiment) . See 

Dartmouth College 
Dorado processor. See Xerox/ 

Miscellaneous 
DOS (Disk Operating System). 

See Apple Computer/Software 

and Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
DoubleSpace utility. See Stac 

Electronics 
Dow Jones and Company, Inc., 
19/16 

Dow Jones News/Retrieval 

Service, 9/8, 17/20, 19/16 
DPMA (Data Processing 

Management Association), 

1/13 
DR-DOS. See Digital Research 
Dr. Dobb' s Journal, 4/11, 5/8, 

7/4, 18/2-3, 19/4 
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access 

Memory), 3/6, 4/7, 8/6, 

17/3-4 
Draper, John, 5/3, 7/7, 13/9 
DrawPerfect presentation 

graphics program. See 

WordPerfect Corporation 
DRI . See Digital Research 
DriveSpace. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
DTD (Document Type 

Definition), 20/3 
DTSS (Dartmouth Time Sharing 

System) , See Dartmouth 

College 
Dubinsky, Donna, 14/12 
DuoDisk. See Apple Computer/ 

Accessories 
DVI (Digital Video 

Interactive) . See RCA 

company 
Dynabook concept, 4/5, 7/6, 

20/1 
Dynalogic Corporation, 11/21 
Dynamic Random Access Memory. 

See DRAM 
Dynamical Systems Research, 
Inc., 12/9, 12/16 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/17 



Mondrian software, 12/16, 
13/6 
Dysan Corporation, 17/9, 17/22 
Dyson, Esther, 19/25 

-E- 

Eagle Computer company, 11/30 
EARS laser printer. See Xerox/ 

Miscellaneous 
Eastern Joint Computer 

Conference, 1/16 
Eastman Kodak. See Kodak 
EasyWriter word processor. See 

Information Unlimited 

Software 
E-BASIC, 7/4 
eBay Inc. , 19/21 
Ebrahimi, Farhad Fred, 13/12 
ECHO IV (Electronic Computing 

Home Operator IV), 2/15 
Eckert-Mauchly Computer 

Corporation, 1/12 
Eckert, J. Presper, 1/5, 1/8, 

1/11 
E- commerce (Electronic- 
commerce), 15/15 
ECS Magazine, 18/2 
Edit-80 text editor. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
EDLIN text editor. See 

Microsof t/Applic . programs 
EDS (Electronic Data Systems) 

company, 6/14 
EDSAC (Electronic Delay 

Storage Automatic 

Calculator), 1/5, 1/8, 1/12 
Edu System 20 terminal, 19/1 
EduSystem computer. See 

DEC/Computers 
EDVAC (Electronic Discrete 

Variable Automatic 

Computer) , 1/5, 1/8 
EdWord word processor, 11/15 
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable 

Programmable Read Only 

Memory) , 17/4 
EGA (Enhanced Graphics 

Adapter) , 14/9, 20/5 
Eggebrecht, Lewis, 9/4 
Egghead Discount Software, 

19/22 
Egghead, Inc. , 19/22 
EGO Systems company, 18/6 
EIA (Electronic Industries 

Association) , 19/18 
EISA (Extended Industry 

Standard Architecture) , 

11/11, 17/21 



Eklund, Jon, 19/9 
Electric Pencil. See Mich 

Shrayer Software 
Electrically Erasable 

Programmable Read Only 

Memory. See EEPROM 
Electronic Arts Inc., 13/ 

Music Construction Set, 
13/26 

Pinball Construction Se 
13/26 
Electronic Data Systems 

company. See EDS 
Electronic-mail. See E-ma 
Electronic Design, 17/11 
Electronic Industries 

Association. See EIA 
Electronic News, 3/7, 20/ 
Electronic Paper spreadsh 

See Microsof t/Applic 

Programs 
Electronics magazine, 3/5 

3/12 
Electrophotographic print 

17/15 
Electrostatic cathode ray 

memory, 1/5, 1/7-9 
Elephant company, 17/22 
Ellenby, John, 4/14-15, 1 
Eller, Marlin, 12/18 
Ellison, Lawrence J., 13/ 

16/2 
Elly, Carol, 17/19 
E-mail (Electronic-mail) , 

2/11, 12/27, 15/3, 15/1 
eMate (PDA). See Apple 

Computer/ Computers 
EMS (Expanded Memory 

Specification) , 12/20, 
Enable integrated program 

13/22 
Encarta. See Microsoft/ 

Multimedia 
Encoder Kit. See Southwes 

Technical Products 
Encyclopedia of Computer 

History, 20/3 
Encyclopedia of 

Microcomputers, 3/18, 2 
Engelbart, Douglas C, 2/ 

4/5, 17/23, 20/1 
Engineering Research 

Associates (ERA), 1/9 
English, William K. , 2/10 

4/6, 17/23 
Enhanced BASIC interprete 

See Hewlett-Packard /Mi 
Enhanced Graphics Adapter 



ael 



2i 



t. 



il 



mg, 
tube 

1/19 
17, 

1, 

20/4 

t 



0/2-3 
9-10, 



Index/18 A History of the Personal Computer 



EGA 
ENIAC (Electronic Numeric 

Integrator and Calculator), 

1/5, 1/8-9, 1/12, 19/9 
Enquire program, 19/14 
Entry Level Systems (ELS) . See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
Entry Systems Division (ESD). 

See IBM/Miscellaneous 
EP-101 printing device. See 

Epson America 
EPD company, 4/4 

System One computer kit, 4/4 
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel 

Instruction Computing). See 

Intel /Miscellaneous 
EPROM (Erasable Programmable 

Read Only Memory), 17/4 
Epson America, Inc., 

Computers, 11/18-19, 12/21 
Miscellaneous, 17/21 
Printers, 9/8, 11/12, 
17/13 

EP-101 printing device, 
17/13 

Equity Series, Equity I, II 
& III, 11/19 

Geneva computer, 11/18 

HX-20 computer, 11/18, 12/21 

HX-40 computer, 11/18 

MX-80 printer, 9/8, 11/12 

MX printers, 17/13 

QX computers, QX-10, QX-11 & 
QX-16, 11/18 

TX-80 printer, 17/13 
Epstein, Robert S., 13/18 
Equity Series. See Epson 

America 
Erasable Programmable Read 

Only Memory. See EPROM 
ESP-1 (Extended Software 

Package 1) , 7/6 
Espinosa, Christopher, 5/4, 

5/10 
Esquire magazine, 5/3 
Estridge, Philip D. (Don), 

9/3, 9/5, 9/9, 9/13, 

9/23-24, 10/3, 12/16 
ETH ( Eidgenossische Technische 

Hochschule) , 7/5, 13/8 
Ethernet network. See Xerox/ 

Miscellaneous 
Eubanks, Gordon E., 7/4, 13/29 
European Laboratory for 

Particle Physics. See CERN 
Evans, Kent, 6/3 
Ewing, Marc, 15/10 
Excaliber Technologies, 11/30 



Powerstation computer, 11/30 
Excel spreadsheet. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Executer word processor, 7/6 
Executive computers. See 

Osborne Computer 
Executive Word Processor. See 

MultiMate International 
Executive WordPerfect. See 

WordPerfect 
Expanded Memory Specification. 

See EMS 
Experimenters' Computer System 

(ECS) magazine, 18/3 
Explicitly Parallel 

Instruction Computing 

(EPIC) . See Intel/Misc. 
Extended BASIC. See Microsoft/ 

Programming Languages 
Extended Benton Harbor BASIC. 

See Heath company 
Extended Graphics Array. See 

XGA 
Extended Industry Standard 

Architecture. See EISA 
Extended Memory Manager. See 

XMM 
Extended Memory Specification. 

See XMS 
Extended Software Package 1. 

See ESP-1 
Exxon corporation, 3/14, 8/8 
E-Z Draw utilities. See Sirius 

Software 



-F~ 

Faber, Edward, 
Faggin, Federic 

3/17 
Fairchild Camer 

Instrument Co 
Fairchild Semic 

Corporation, 

3/15-16, 5/2, 

16/7 
Fairs, 19/4 
Falcon Technolo 
Fano, Robert M 
FAT (File Alloc 

6/11, 12/12 
Fat Mac compute 

Computer /Comp 
Federal Trade C 

(FTC), 16/8-9 
Feeney, Hal, 3/ 
Felsenstein, Le 

17/12, 17/18, 
Fernandez, Will 



19/11 

3/6-8, 3/14, 



1/11 



and 
rporation, 
onductor 
1/11, 3/5-( 
5/9, 8/7, 



gy, 12/3, 12/= 

2/4 

ation Table) , 
13/2 

r. See Apple 
uters 
ommission 



7 

4/13, 11/6, 
19/1-2 
iam, 5/2, 5/7 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/19 



Ferranti Ltd., 1/5 

MARK I computer, 1/6 
Feurzeig, Wallace, 2/12 
File Allocation Table. See FAT 
File program. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
File server software, 13/28 

Also see Apple Computer/ 

Software 
File System Translators ( FST ) . 

See Apple Computer/Software 
Filo, David, 15/14-15 
Finder program. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Findley, Robert, 4/7 
Fiorina, Carleton S., 16/17 
Fire Copter game. See 

Adventure International 
First Choice software. See 

Software Publishing 

Corporation 
First West Coast Computer 

Faire. See West Coast 

Community Faire 
Flash memory, 17/4 
FLEX computer, 2/11, 4/5 
Flight Simulator game. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Floppy disk drives, 7/1, 

17/6-8, 17/19, 17/21 
Floppy disks, 17/22, 19/12 
Florence, Philip, 12/24 
FLOW-MATIC software, 1/12 
FMS 80 database, 7/9 
Focal. See DEC/Software and 

Microsoft/ Progr . Languages 
Folsom, Barry James, 11/15 
Forbes magazine, 16/8, 16/12, 

19/20 
Forefront Corporation, 13/21 
Forethought, Inc. , 12/10, 

12/27 
Forrestor, Jay W. , 1/9 
FORTH programming language, 

2/12, 13/11 
FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation ) , 

1/13, 2/6, 2/8, 5/1-2, 6/3, 

7/5, 10/3, 11/15 

Also see Microsof t/ Progr . 

Languages 
FORTRAN-80. See Microsoft 

/Progr. Languages 
Fortune magazine, 10/5, 12/6, 

19/25 
Fox Software, 15/5 

FoxPro database, 15/5 
FPB, Model A floating point 

board. See North Star 



Computers 
Framework software. See 

Ashton-Tate 
Frank, Richard, 13/15 
Frankenberg, Bob, 16/12 
Franklin Computer Corporation, 
9/13, 10/3, 10/5, 11/13 

Ace 100 computer, 11/13 
Frankston, Robert (Bob), 5/14, 

7/8, 13/14, 13/29, 19/12 
Frassanito, Jack, 4/2 
French, Donald H., 4/15 
French, Gordon, 19/2 
French, Melinda, 16/9 
Frenzel, Louis E., 4/3 
Friedl, Paul, 4/4 
Frohman, Dov, 17/4 
FrontPage program. See Vermeer 

Technologies 
FST's (File System 

Translators) . See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
FTC. See Federal Trade 

Commission 
Fudge, Don, 13/28 
Fujitsu Limited, 17/3 
Full BASIC. See American 

National Standards Institute 

(ANSI) 
Full Impact spreadsheet. See 

Ashton-Tate 
Fulmer, Howard, 17/19 
Funk and Wagnalls 

En cycl opedi a, 12/28 
Furukawa, Susumu, 12/9 
Fylstra, Daniel, 7/8-9, 7/11, 

19/12 

-G- 

G Subset of PL/I. See ANSI 

G&G Systems, 4/20 

G-15 computer. See Bendix 

Aviation 
Galactic games. See Broderbund 

Software 
Galvin Manufacturing 

Corporation, 3/10 
Galvin, Paul V. , 3/10 
Gamer's Edge disk magazine. 

See Softdisk 
Games, 1/13, 2/10, 2/13, 3/9, 
4/16, 5/4, 7/10-11, 
13/24-26 
Adventure, 6/14, 7/10, 9/7, 

13/25 
Adventure Land, 7/10 
Alien Rain. See Broderbund 
Software 



Index/20 A History of the Personal Computer 



Both Barrels. See Sirius 

Software 
Breakout. See Atari Corp. 

and Apple Computer 
Choplifter. See Broderbund 

Software 
Computer Space, 7/10 
Cyber Strike. See Sirius 

Software 
David's Midnight Magic. See 

Broderbund Software 
Deadline. See Infocom 
Fire Copter. See Adventure 

International 
Flight Simulator. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Galactic Empire, Saga & 

Trader. See Broderbund 

Software 
King's Quest. See Sirius 

Software 
Laser Ball. See Adventure 

International 
Lode Runner. See Broderbund 

Software 
Lunar Lander. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Merlin tennis, 1/13 
Microchess, 7/11, 19/12 
Music Construction Set. See 

Electronic Arts 
Mystery House. See Sierra 

On-Line 
Odyssey 100. See Magnavox 
Pac-Man. See Namco 
Penny Arcade. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Pinball Construction Set. 

See Electronic Arts 
Pirate Adventure. See 

Adventure International 
Pong tennis. See Atari 

Corporation 
Princess. See Sierra On-Line 
Raster Blaster. See Budgeco 

company 
SARGON, 7/11 
Space Quarks. See Broderbund 

Software 
Space Wars, 2/14, 7/10 
Star Cruiser. See Sirius 

Software 
Wizard. See Sierra On-Line 
Zork. See Infocom 
Gandalf project (Encarta). See 

Microsof t /Multimedia 
Garland, Harry, 4/14, 17/16 
Garner, Robert, 8/8 



Gartner Group Inc., 19/21 
Gassee, Jean-Louis, 10/7, 

16/14 
Gates, William H., 

1960's and 1970's, 6/1-15; 

1980's, 12/1-28; 

1990's, 15/15, 16/9-12 

Apple Computer, 10/19, 10/23 

History of BASIC, 7/3 

IBM, 9/21, 9/25, 15/8 

Miscellaneous, 4/11, 7/8, 
11/2, 18/9, 19/26, 20/1 

MITS, 4/10 
Gateway 2000, Inc., 9/25, 

11/19 
Gaudette, Francis (Frank) J., 

12/7, 16/9 
GBASIC. See Microsof t/ Progr . 

Languages 
Gebelli, Nasir, 13/25 
GEM (Graphics Environment 

Manager) . See Digital 

Research 
General Electric ( GE ) Company, 
2/4-6, 6/1, 6/10, 10/5, 
10/7, 19/16 

Datanet-30 communications 
computer, 2/5 

GE-225 computer, 2/5-6 

GE-235 computer, 2/6 

GE-64 5 computer, 2/4 

GE-BASIC, 2/6 

GEnie on-line service, 19/16 

Mark II time sharing system, 
6/1 
General Ledger program. See 

Tandy/ Radio Shack/ Software 
General Magic company, 19/22 

Magic Cap operating system, 

19/22 
General Motors Corporation, 

2/10, 10/5 
General Purpose Relay 

Calculator. See Bell 

Telephone Laboratories 
General Systems Division. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
General Videotex Corporation, 
19/16 

Delphi on-line service, 
19/16 
Geneva computer. See Epson 

America 
GEnie on-line service. See 

General Electric Company 
Geometry Engine integrated 

chip. See Silicon Graphics 
Geophysical Service, Inc., 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/21 



(GSI), 3/12 
GEOS (Graphic Environment 

Operating System) . See 

Berkeley Softworks 
GeoSafari. See Microsoft 

/Applic Programs 
German Aeronautical Research 

Institute, 1/4 
Gernelle, Francois, 4/7 
Gerstner, Louis V., 16/6 
Geschke, Charles M., 13/23 
Gibbons, Fred M., 13/18 
Gilbert, Paul, 6/4, 20/7 
Gill, Timothy E., 13/12 
Gimix Ghost computer, 17/21 
Glaser, Rob, 12/10 
Go Corporation, 14/9 
Gold, Tony, 18/6, 19/11 
Goldhaber, Nathaniel, 19/19 
Golding, Val J., 18/4 
Goldman Sachs & Company, 

11/17, 12/8 
Good Housekeeping magazine, 

12/6 
Goodhew, Bill, 13/22 
Gosling, James, 15/13 
Graetz, J. M., 2/14 
Grant, Charles, 4/20 
Grant, Richard, 2/12 
Graphics, 1/12, 2/9-11, 5/15, 

10/7, 11/29, 12/17, 12/20, 

12/22, 13/21, 13/23, 

13/26-27, 20/4 
Gray, Stephen B., 2/14, 18/1, 

19/1 
Grayson, George D., 13/26 
Grayson, Paul J., 13/26 
Greelish, David A., 19/8 
Greelish, Tamara, 19/8 
Great Records and Tapes . See 

GRT 
Green Book specification, 20/4 
Green, Cecil H., 3/12 
Green, Wayne, 18/2-5, 18 
Greenberg, Bob, 6/11, 6/ 
Greenberg, Mark, 4/20 
Greenia, Mark, 20/3 
GRiD Systems Corporation 
11/19, 13/27 

Compass I computer, 11 
20/8 

Compass II computer, 1 

GRiD Server software, 

GRiDCase computer, 11/ 

GRiDCase Plus computer 
11/20 

GRiDPad tablet compute 
11/20, 20/8 



/8 

13 



/19, 

1/19 
13/27 

20 



Grolier company, 
Groupware, 15/6, 
Grove, Andrew S., 

8/6, 16/8, 18/9 
GRT (Great Record 

6/12, 6/14 
GS Works software 

Computer/ So f twa 
GS+ magazine, 18/ 
GS/OS operating s 

Apple Computer/ 
GT Interactive So 

Corporation, 19 
GTE Sylvania, 5/1 
Guglielmi, Joseph 

15/8, 19/19 
GUIDE (Guidance o 

Integrated Data 

Eguipment ) , 1/1 
Gunji, Akio, 18/3 
Gun j i , Hiromi, 19 
Gunter, Tom, 3/11 
Gutknecht, Jurg, 
GWBASIC. See Micr 

Languages 
Gypsy text editor 

Xerox/ Software 



-H- 

H & R Block Inc. , 1 
H7 to H89 accessori 

computers . See He 
Haba Systems compan 
HAL-4096 computer, 
Hall, Tom, 19/22 
Hallman, Michael R. 
Halpin, James F., 1 
Haloid Corporation, 
Haltek surplus reta 
Hammond, Mike, 11/1 
Hanson, Rowland, 12 
Harbers, Jeff, 12/2 
Hard disk drives, 7 

17/8-9, 20/8 
Hardcore Computing 

18/8 
Hardcore Computist 

18/8 
Hardware, 20/4 
Harp, Bob, 17/19 
Harp, Lore, 17/19 
Harrigan, Sid, 19/1 
Harris, James, 11/9 
Harvard Graphics pr 

Software Publishi 

Harvard University, 

Bricklin, Danie 

Early computers 



20/2 
15/10 
3/3, 3/6, 

s and Tapes ) 

See Apple 



ystem. See 
Software 
f tware 
/22 

M., 9/22, 

f Users of 

-processing 

4 

/20 

13/8 

osoft/ Progr . 



9/16 

es and 

ath Company 

y, 13/20 

4/3 

, 16/9 
9/10 

17/15 
iler, 5/2 
9 

/5 
4 
/l, 17/5, 

magazine, 

magazine, 



1 

ogram. See 
ng 

1, 7/8 
1/4, 1/7, 



Index/22 A History of the Personal Computer 



1/12, 19/9, 20/6 
Gates, Bill, 6/4-7, 6/9-10 

Harvard Business School, 7/7 

Mark I computer, 1/4, 1/12, 
19/9 

Mark II, III & IV computers, 
1/4, 20/6 
Harvey, Mike, 18/4 
Harvey, Will, 13/26 
Hassett, Christopher R., 19/24 
Haughton, Kenneth E., 17/6 
Hawkins, Jeff, 14/12 
Hawkins, William "Trip", 

10/14, 13/26 
Hawley, Jack, 17/23 
Hayden Publishing, 18/3 
Hayes Corporation and Hayes 
Microcomputer Products, 
Inc., 16/15, 16/17, 17/20 

80-103A Data Communications 
Adapter modem, 17/20 

Micromodem 100, 17/20 

Smartmodem 300, 17/20 
Hayes, Dennis C, 17/20 
HDOS operating system. See 

Heath Company 
Heath Company, 4/18-19, 6/11 

Benton Harbor BASIC, 4/18 

Extended Benton Harbor 
BASIC, 4/19 

H89 computer, 4/18 

H7 floppy disk drive, 4/18 

H8 computer, 4/18 

H9 video terminal, 4/18 

H10 paper tape reader/punch, 
4/18 

Hll computer, 4/11, 4/18 

HDOS operating system, 
4/18-19 

Heath/Zenith-89, 4/18 
Heath-Robinson cryptoanalysis 

machine, 1/4 
Heatherington, Dale, 17/20 
Heckel, Paul, 12/22 
Hector, Hans-Werner, 19/24 
Heiser, Dick, 19/10 
Helios disk drive. See 

Processor Technology 
Heller, Andy, 14/8 
Helmers, Carl T., 18/2-3 
Helsinki University, 15/9 
Hendrix, Gary, 13/29 
Hennessy, John L., 8/8 
Henochowicz, Mike, 19/10 
Henry, G. Glenn, 9/17 
Herbold, Robert J., 16/10 
Hercules Computer Technology, 
17/18 



Hercules Card, 17/18 
Hertzfeld, Andy, 10/6, 

10/19-20, 19/22 
Hewlett, William, 2/8, 5/2 
Hewlett-Packard (HP) Company, 
Apple Computer, 5/2-6, 

5/9-10, 10/8 
Beginning of, 2/8-9 
Early calculators and 

computers, 4/3, 4/18 
Microprocessors, 3/15, 

14/4, 14/6, 16/7 
Microsoft, 12/4, 12/10 
Miscellaneous, 4/1, 4/19, 
11/23, 13/18, 16/12, 
16/17, 17/8, 17/21, 
19/17-18 
Personal computers 

(1980's), 11/20-21 
Printers, 17/14-15 
Software, 2/6, 13/6 
Calculators and Computers: 
Alpha project (HP 3000), 

4/3 
HP 35 calculator, 5/3 
HP 70 series of computers, 
11/20 
HP-75 Portable computer, 
11/20 
HP 80 series of computers, 
11/20 
HP-85, 3/15, 11/20 
HP 100 series of 

computers, 11/20 
HP-150 computer, 11/21, 
17/8 
HP 200 series of 

computers, 11/20-21 
Models 216, 226 and 236, 
11/21 
HP-2114A minicomputer, 2/9 
HP 2116 controller, 2/8 
HP 3000 minicomputer, 4/3 
HP 9100 series of 

calculators, 2/9 
HP 9100A calculator, 2/9 
HP 9800 series of 

calculators /computers , 
4/3, 4/19 
HP 9830A calculator, 4/3 
HP 9831A computer, 4/19 
HP Vectra computer, 11/21 
Miscellaneous : 

BPC microprocessor, 4/19 
Enhanced BASIC 

Interpreter, 11/20 
LaserJet printer, 17/15 
NewWave interface program, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/23 



10/8, 12/10, 13/6 
ThinkJet printer, 17/14 
UNIX operating system, 
14/6 
Higgins, Frank M. (Pete), 

12/6, 16/10 
High Sierra Proposal, 12/7, 

20/4-5 
Higinbotham, William, 1/13 
Hillman, Dan, 10/3, 10/13 
Hinckley, Norton, 4/16 
Hinckley-Tandy Leather 

Company, 4/16 
Historical Computer Society, 
19/8 

Historically Brewed 
magazine, 19/8 
Historical organizations, 

19/6-9 
Hitachi company, 12/4, 17/8 
HITS (Hobbyists' Interchange 

Tape System) , 17/5 
Ho, Kwok Yuen. , 19/20 
Hobbiest computer. See Sphere 
Hobby computing, 2/14 
Hoeffler, Don, 20/9 
Hoerni, Jean, 1/11 
Hoff, Marcian E. "Ted", 3/3, 

3/6-7, 3/17, 20/7 
Hoffman, Mark B., 13/18 
Holt, Frederick Rodney "Rod", 

5/8-10, 10/1-3, 10/19 
Home Computer Systems, 12/11 
Homebrew Computer Club, 4/11, 
5/3-7, 6/7, 17/18, 18/2, 
19/2-3 

Newsletter, 18/2 
Homestead High School, 5/1 
Homeword word processor. See 

Sierra On-Line 
Honeywell company, 2/9, 6/4, 

6/6-7, 8/8 
Hoo, Sim Wong, 17/16 
Hopp, Dietmar, 19/24 
Hopper, Grace M., 1/12, 20/6 
Horizon computers. See North 

Star Computers 
Horn, Bruce, 10/19-20 
Howard, Brian, 5/16, 10/18 
Howard, Robert, 17/12 
HP company and products . See 

Hewlett- Packard Company 
HTML (HyperText Markup 

Language), 15/12, 19/14, 

20/3 
HTTP (HyperText Transfer 

Protocol), 19/14 
Huang, Minsiu, 19/23 



Huck, Jerry, 14/6 

Human Engineered Software 

(HES), 13/28 
Hungarian notation, 12/22 
HX-20 and HX-40 computers. See 

Epson America 
Hyatt, Gilbert, 3/16-17, 14/8, 

20/7 
HyperCard. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Hyperion computer. See Bytec- 

Comterm 
HyperStudio. See Roger Wagner 

Publishing 
HyperTalk programming 

language. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Hypertext markup language. See 

HTML 
Hypertext transfer protocol. 

See HTTP 
Hypertext, 1/15, 19/14, 20/1, 

20/3, 20/7 



..J.. 

IA-64 micr 

Intel/Mi 

IAS comput 

for Adva 

IBM (Inter 

Mach 

1970's 
4/20 

1980's 

1990's 
16/4 

Apple 
10/2 
10/2 

Beginn 
comp 
1/15 
2/15 

Digita 

Market 

Microp 
14/3 

Micros 
12/6 
12/2 
16/8 

Miscel 
17/5 
17/1 
18/8 
20/5 

Other 
11/7 



oprocessor 

croprocesso 
er. See Ins 
nee Studies 
national Bu 
ines ) Corpo 
, 4/2, 4/4 

, 9/1-25; 
, 14/8-10, 
-7 

Computer, 5 
-3, 10/18, 
4-25, 16/15 
ing of and 
uters, 1/4, 
-16, 2/3-4, 
, 4/2 

1 Research, 
, 4/1, 4/21 
rocessors , 

oft, 12/1, 

7, 12/9-18 
4, 13/3, 15 
-9 
laneous, 1/ 

, 17/11-1 
17/21-22 

19/8, 19/ 

, 20/9 
companies , 
, 11/9-11, 



See 

rs 
titute 

siness 

ration, 

4/11, 



15/8-10, 

/l, 5/12, 
10/20, 

early 
1/6-8, 
2/8-9, 

13/2-3 
, 8/3-7 
3/10, 

12/3-4, 
, 12/21, 
/1-2, 

14, 

4, 17/16, 

, 17/24, 

16-18, 

11/3, 
11/16, 



Index/24 A History of the Personal Computer 



13/4, 15/14 
PowerPC Alliance, 14/6, 

15/7, 16/1, 16/16, 19/19 

20/4 
Software, 1/12-13, 

2/11-12, 7/4, 7/6, 13/5, 

13/9, 13/17, 13/22-23, 

13/28 
Accessories : 

23FD floppy disk drive, 

17/5 
33FD floppy disk drive, 

17/6 
43FD floppy disk drive, 

17/6 
53FD floppy disk drive, 

17/6 
305 RAMAC (Random Access 

Method of Accounting and 

Control) system, 1/10 
350 Disk Storage System, 

1/10 
3270 display terminal, 

9/15, 17/12 
3277 display terminal, 

9/15 
3340 Disk storage Unit 

(Winchester), 17/5 
Hard disk drives, 17/5 
Igar project (33FD), 17/6 
Minnow project (23FD), 

17/6 
Model 2213 printer, 17/12 
Model 6640 printer, 17/14 
ProPrinter, 17/13 
Type 26 keypunch, 17/12 
Computers (Mainframe & 

Mini ) : 
DataMaster. See IBM System 

23 
IBM 405 Accounting 

Machine, 1/9 
IBM 603/4 Electronic 

Multiplier, 1/7 
IBM 608 calculator, 1/7 
IBM 610 Auto-Point 

Computer, 1/15 
IBM 700 series, 1/7 

IBM 701, 1/7, 1/9 

IBM 704, 1/13, 2/3 

IBM 705 Model III, 1/7 

IBM 709, 2/4 
IBM 801 minicomputer, 8/7 
IBM 1130, 2/8, 5/1 
IBM 1620, 2/8, 2/15, 19/6 
IBM 7090 Data Processing 

System, 1/7, 2/4 
IBM Defense Calculator, 



1/7 
IBM Electronic Data 

Processing Machine, 1/7 
IBM SSEC (Selective 

Seguence Electronic 

Calculator), 1/7 
IBM Stretch system, 1/7, 

20/6 
IBM System/3 Model 6, 4/2 
IBM System/360, 2/11, 5/1, 

7/1, 19/6 
IBM System/370, 9/15 
Personal Automatic 

Calculator ( PAC ) , 1/15 
Computers ( Personal ) : 
3270 PC, 9/15 
5100 Portable Computer, 

4/4, 4/11, 9/1, 20/8 
5110 Portable Computer, 

4/12 
5120 desktop computer, 

9/2, 9/4 
5140 PC Convertible, 9/17 
5160 Model 588 (PC/XT 

370), 9/15 
5371 Models 12, 14 & 16, 

9/15 
9000 Instrument System 

Computer, 9/11 
Acorn prototype (IBM PC), 

9/5, 12/12-13 
Ambra series, 14/10, 16/5 
Chess project (IBM PC), 

7/7, 9/5-6, 12/12 
Circus project (PC AT), 

9/11 
Clamshell project (5140 PC 

Convertible), 9/17 
DataMaster. See IBM System 

23 
DisplayWriter workstation, 

9/22 
IBM System/23 DataMaster, 

9/4-5 
Olympiad project (PC RT ) , 

9/17 
PC (Personal Computer), 

Apple Computer, 10/2, 
10/9, 10/20 

Development of, 9/3-9, 
9/23 

Intel, 3/10, 8/5 

Market, 11/1, 13/1 

Microsoft, 10/24, 12/1, 
12/5, 12/11-12, 
12/15-16, 12/19-21, 
12/23-25, 12/27, 13/3, 
17/23 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/25 



Miscellaneous, 9/ 
9/18, 17/13, 17 
17/21, 17/24, 1 
19/9, 19/12, 1 
20/4 
Other computers 
compatible with 
11/10-11, 11/16 
11/19, 11/21, 1 
Software, 13/2, 1 
13/8-13, 13/16, 
13/20, 13/22-23 
PC AT (Advanced 
Technology) , 
Development of, 9 

9/16-17 

Microsoft, 12/15, 

Miscellaneous, 8/ 

11/19, 17/21, 2 

PC Convertible. See 

PC Convertible 
PC Junior (PCjr) , 

9/13-14 10/12, 1 
PC RT workstation, 

9/17 
PC/XT, 

Development of, 9 

Microsoft, 12/18, 

Miscellaneous, 9/ 

9/17, 11/19 

PC/XT 370, 9/15 

PC/XT Model 286, 9/ 

Peanut proj ect ( PCj 

9/13 
Portable PC, 9/16 
POWERstation & 

POWERserver, 14/8 
PS/1 (Personal Syst 

14/8 
PS/2 (Personal Syst 
Development of, 
Microsoft, 12/17 
Miscellaneous, 9/ 
10/24, 17/21, 2 
PS/2 Model 25, 9/18 
PS/2 Model 30, 9/18 
PS/2 Model 50, 9/18 
PS/2 Model 60, 9/18 
PS/2 Model 80, 9/18 
PS/2 Model L40 SX 1 

14/9 
PS/2 Model P70 port 

9/19 
PS/2 Model P75 port 

14/8 
RIOS project (RISC 

System/6000), 9/1 
RISC System/6000 



13- 
/19 
8/7 
/24 



1/3 
3/4 

13 

, 1 




-6, 

/18, 
5/10 



12 
3, 

0/5 
51 

m, 
n 

8/8, 



/10 

12 

15, 



/19 
8/7, 

40 



14, workstation, 9/17, 13/8, 

14/3, 14/8 
, SCAMP (Special Computer 

, APL Machine Portable), 

4/4, 4/12 
ThinkPad notebook, 14/9-10 
ValuePoint series, 14/10, 
16/5 
Miscellaneous : 

Almaden Research 

Laboratory, 14/9 
AT Bus, 17/21 
Corporate Management 

Committee (CMC), 9/4-6, 
/10-11, 9/11, 12/12, 15/8, 16/5 

Data Processing Division, 

9/8 
Desktop Software division, 

9/22 
Entry Level Systems (ELS), 

9/1 
Entry Systems Division 
(ESD), 9/21, 9/23-24, 
12/17 
General Systems Division, 
4/4 
12 IBM Archives, 19/8 
/21 IBM Instruments Inc., 9/11 
IBM Personal Computer 
Company (IBM PC 
Company), 16/5-6 
IBM Product Centers, 9/8 
IBM Research Division, 

14/9 
IBM Scientific Center, 4/3 
IBM Technical Newsletter, 
1/14 
1), Independent Business Units 

(IBU's), 9/1, 9/5 
2 ) , Individual Computer 

-20 Products International 

(ICPI), 16/5 
Information Systems 

Division, 9/6, 9/15 
MCA (Micro Channel 

Architecture), 9/18-19, 
9/24, 12/16, 14/8-9, 
17/21 
Memory Management Unit 
op, (MMU), 9/15 

Palm microcontroller, 4/4 

PC Bus, 17/21 

Personal Computer Group, 

9/23-25, 16/6 
Personal Systems Group, 
16/5 
7, 14/7 POWER architecture, 14/8, 
19/19 



IE 



em/1 

em/ 2 
/18- 

24, 

0/5 
-19 



1 
apt 

able 

able 



Index/26 A History of the Personal Computer 



PowerPC microprocessor, 

14/5, 15/7, 20/4 
PowerPC 601 

microprocessor, 14/3, 
14/6 
PowerPC 603 

microprocessor, 14/3 
Research Division, 14/9 
Research Laboratory (San 

Jose, California), 13/17 
RISC central processing 

unit (CPU), 14/3 
ROMP (Research Office 

products Micro 

Processor), 8/7-8, 9/17 
System R (Relational) 

group, 13/17 
Systems Products Division, 

9/9 
Tabulating machine, 19/6 
Technical Reference manual 

(IBM PC) , 9/9 
TrackPoint pointing 

device, 14/9 
Yamato Laboratory (Japan), 

14/9 
Software : 

3270 PC Control Program, 

9/15 
ABIOS (Advance Basic 

Input/Output System) , 

9/20, 12/16 
AIX (Advanced Interactive 

Executive) operating 

system, 9/17, 14/8, 

19/19 
Assistant series of 

programs, 13/18 
BIOS (Basic Input/Output 

System), 9/5, 9/11, 

11/10, 11/21, 11/30, 

12/13, 13/22-23 
Cassette BASIC. See 

Microsoft Corporation/ 

Programming Languages 
Computer System Operating 

System. See CSOS 
CP-DOS, 9/19 
CSOS (Computer System 

Operating System), 9/11 
Disk BASIC. See Microsoft 

Corporation/ Programming 

Languages 
Displaywrite word 

processor, 9/22, 13/13 
Extended BASIC. See 

Microsoft Corporation/ 

Programming Languages 



ICPL (Initial Control 
Program Load), 17/6 
NPL (New Programming 

Language), 2/11 
OfficeVision, 9/20, 9/2 

19/19 
OS/2 (Operating System/ 
Development of, 9/18- 

9/24-25, 15/8-9 
Microsoft, 12/9, 
12/15-17, 12/20, 
12/24, 12/27, 13/3, 
15/1, 15/4, 16/9 
Miscellaneous, 13/12, 
13/14, 15/14, 19/19 
OS/2 Extended Edition, 
9/20-21, 12/16, 15/6 
OS/2 Warp, 15/9 
PC Network, 9/22, 13/28 
PC-DOS, 9/8, 9/12-16, 
9/21-22, 12/14-15, 
12/21, 13/3 
PL/I (Programming Langu 
One), 2/11-12, 7/6, 1 
Presentation Manager, 
9/20-21, 12/10, 
12/16-17, 12/20, 12/2 
13/6, 15/9 
SAA (Systems Applicatio 
Architecture), 9/20, 
12/16 
System R (Relational 
Database specificatio 
13/17 
TopView user interface, 
9/22, 12/9, 12/16, 
12/18-19, 13/6 
VM/PC (Virtual 

Machine/ Personal 
Computer), 9/15 
IBM Instruments Inc. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
IBM Personal Computer Compa 
(IBM PC Company). See 
IBM/Miscellaneous 
iBook portable computer. Se 

Apple Computer/Computers 
ICC (International Color 

Consortium), 19/18 
iCOM Microperipherals compa 
17/7 
Frugal Floppy disk drive, 

17/7 
Microfloppy disk drive, 1 
Icons, 2/10-11, 4/5, 10/7, 

10/15, 11/29, 12/20, 12/2 

ICPL (Initial Control Progr 

Load) . See IBM/Software 



2, 

2), 
22, 



age 
3/9 



ny 



ny, 



7/7 

4 
am 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/27 



id Software, Inc., 19/22 
IEEE (Institute of Electrical 

& Electronic Engineers), 
2/10, 3/7, 8/5, 17/20-21, 
17/23 

IEEE - Annals of the History 
of Computing, 18/7 

IEEE 696 bus, 17/21 

IEEE Computer periodical, 
20/7 

IEEE Micro periodical, 3/10, 
3/18 
Igar project. See IBM/ 

Accessories 
IGES (Initial Graphics 

Exchange Standard), 20/4 
XX Computing magazine, 18/6 
iMac computer. See Apple 

Computer /Computers 
ImageWriter printer. See Apple 

Computer /Accessories 
IMP (Interface message 

processor), 2/13 
IMP-8 and IMP-16 

microprocessor systems. See 

National Semiconductor 
IMS Associates, Inc. ( IMSAI ) , 

4/13, 4/19, 19/11 
IMSAI Manufacturing 

Corporation, 4/13, 4/15, 
4/20, 7/4, 7/7 

IMSAI 8080, 4/13, 7/9, 19/11 

VDP-40 computer, 4/20 

VDP-80 computer, 4/20 
In-A-Vision graphics software. 

See Micrografx 
inCider magazine, 18/5 
inCider/A+ magazine, 18/5 
Independent Business Units 

(IBU's). See IBM/Misc. 
Indigo workstation. See 

Silicon Graphics 
Individual Computer Products 

International (ICPI) 

company. See IBM/Misc. 
Industry Standard Architecture 

bus. See ISA 
Infocom Inc., 13/25 

Deadline game, 13/25 

Zork I game, 13/24-25 

Zork II game, 13/25 
Information Appliance Inc., 
17/19 

SwyftCard, 17/19 
Information highway, 15/15 
Information Processing 

Technigues Office (IPTO). 

See ARPA 



Information Sciences In 

(ISI), 6/3-4 
Information Systems Div 
See IBM/Miscellaneous 
Information Terminals 
Corporation (ITC), 17 
17/22 
Information Unlimited S 
(IUS), Inc., 7/7, 7 
9/8, 13/9-10 
EasyWriter word proce 
7/7, 9/8, 13/9, 13/ 
WHATSIT? database, 7/ 
Informix Software Inc., 
13/18 
WingZ spreadsheet, 13 
InfoStar word processor 
MicroPro Internationa 
InfoWorld periodical, 1 

2 0/9 
Ingalls, Dan, 4/5 
Ingram, Gary, 4/13, 17/ 
Initial Graphics Exchan 

Standard. See IGES 
Ink j et printers . See P 
Inprise Corporation, 16 
Input/Output devices, 1 
Institute for Advance S 
(IAS), 1/5, 1/8 
IAS computer, 1/5, 1/ 
Institute of Electrical 
Electronic Engineers. 
IEEE 
Integer BASIC. See Appl 

Computer /Software 
Integrated circuit, 1/3 
1/10-11, 2/8, 2/15-16 
3/5-7, 3/11-12, 3/16- 
4/2-3, 11/23 
Integrated programs, 12 

13/19-22 
Integrated Services Dig 

Network. See ISDN 
Intel Corporation, 

1970's, 3/3-10, 4/7 

4/11, 4/20; 
1980's, 8/3-6, 8/9; 
1990's, 14/3-7, 16/ 
IBM, 9/23-24 
Memory, 3/5-6, 4/7, 

17/3-4, 20/4 

Microsoft, 6/11, 12 

12/16, 15/2, 17/1 

Miscellaneous, 3/11 

4/1-2, 5/2, 13/8, 

16/13, 16/16, 19/ 

19/17, 20/7, 20/9 

Other companies, 3/ 



4-5, 
f tware 



13/15, 

15 
See 



inters 
17 

/10-11 
udies 



See 



26, 

tal 



7- 



10, 

3/18, 
15/9, 



12-15, 



Index/28 A History of the Personal Computer 



4/9-10, 5/4, 5/9, 7/1, 
7/6, 11/6 
Patent controversy, 
3/16-17 
Microprocessors : 

432. See APX 432 
1201, 3/7-8 
4004, 3/4, 3/6-8, 3/17, 

4/7, 7/1 
8008, 

Development of, 3/8 
Miscellaneous, 4/7-8, 
6/4, 7/1, 18/3 
8080, 

Development of, 3/8-9 
Microcomputer applic's, 
4/9-10, 4/13, 4/17, 
4/19, 5/5 
Miscellaneous, 3/14, 
6/5-6, 6/8, 6/15, 7/5 
8085, 3/9, 3/15, 4/11 
8086, 

Development of, 3/9 
Personal computers, 9/6, 
9/12, 9/18-19 
Miscellaneous, 3/10, 
6/12, 6/14-15, 8/3-4, 
12/13-14, 17/18 
8087 coprocessor, 8/4-5, 

9/5 
8088, 3/10, 4/20, 8/3-5, 
9/5, 9/7-8 
80186, 8/3, 9/7 
80188, 8/3 
80286, 8/3, 8/5, 9/6, 

9/8-10 
80386DX, 8/3-6, 8/9, 14/7, 

16/5 
80386SL, 14/3 
80386SX, 8/4 
80486DX, 8/4, 14/3 
80486DX2, 14/4 
80486DX4, 14/4 
80486SLC, 14/7 
80486SX, 14/3 
82786 graphics 

coprocessor, 8/5 
Celeron, 14/6 
IA-64, 14/5-6 
iAPX 432 (Advance 

Processor Architecture), 
3/9, 8/3 
Itanium, 14/6 
MCS-4 (Micro Computer 

System 4-bit), 3/4, 3/6 
MCS-8 (Micro Computer 

System 8-Bit) , 3/8 
Merced project (IA-64), 



14/6, 16/13 
OverDrive processors, 14/4 
P6 (Pentium Pro), 14/5 
P54C, 14/4 
Pentium, 14/4-5, 14/7, 

16/7 
Pentium II, 14/5-6 
Pentium II Xeon, 14/6 
Pentium III, 14/6 
Pentium Pro, 14/5 
Miscellaneous : 

1101 memory chip, 3/6 
1103 IK memory chip, 3/6, 

17/3 
1702 EPROM chip, 17/4 
2107 4K memory chip, 17/3 
2117 16K memory chip, 17/3 
"intel inside" logo, 16/7 
Above Board specification, 

20/4 
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel 
Instruction Computing), 
14/6 
Intellec 4 & 8 Development 

Systems, 4/7 
MMX technology, 14/5 
Museum, 19/8 
Operation Crush, 8/5 
PCI ( Peripheral Component 

Interface), 16/7 
SIM4 simulator board, 4/7 
SIM8 simulator board, 4/7 
Intelligent agents, 15/15 
Intelligent computer. See 

Sphere 
Intelligent Systems company, 

13/22 
Intellimouse . See 

Microsoft/Miscellaneous 
Interactive computing, 1/13, 

15/15 
Interactive Home Systems, 

12/11 
Interactive Media Division. 

See Microsoft/Miscellaneous 
Interface Age magazine, 5/8, 

8/2 
Interface Group. See The 

Interface Group 
Interface Manager (Windows). 

See Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
Interface message processor. 

See IMP 
Intergalactic Computer 

Network, 2/13 
Intergalactic Digital 

Research, 7/1 
International Business 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/29 



Machines Corporation 

IBM 
International Color 

Consortium. See ICC 
International Federati 

Information Processi 
(IFIP), 1/14 
International Standard 

Organization. See IS 
International 

Telecommunications U 

See ITU 
Internet, 2/13, 15/3, 

15/11-13, 16/10-11, 

19/13-14, 19/20-22, 
Internet Explorer. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Pr 
Intersil company, 4/20 

6100 CPU, 4/20 
Intuit, Inc., 13/29-30 
16/10, 16/15 

Quicken finance prog 
13/29, 16/10 

QuickBooks, 16/15 
Invention & Technology 

magazine, 4/2 
Inventory Control Syst 

Tandy/Radio Shack/So 
Iomega Corporation, 17 

Bernoulli Box, 17/10 

Bernoulli disk drive 

Jaz disk drive, 17/1 

Zip disk drive, 17/1 
Iowa State College, 1/ 
IPTO (Information Proc 

Technigues Office) . 
IRE Transactions on El 

Computers, 20/6 
Iris Associates Inc., 

Notes communications 

program, 15/10 
IRIS terminal, worksta 

and IRIS Graphics Li 

See Silicon Graphics 
ISA (Industry Standard 

Architecture) bus, 1 
Isaacson, Portia, 19/3 
ISDN (Integrated Servi 

Digital Network), 1 
ISO (International Sta 

Organization) , 20/4 
Itanium. See Intel/Mic 
ITC. See Information T 

Corporation 
ITU (International 

Telecommunications 
20/3 

V.32 standard, 20/3 



See 



on for 
ng 



O 



15/8-9, 

16/13, 

19/24 

ograms 
16/2, 



V.34 standard, 20/3 
Iwatani, Toru, 7/11 
IWM (Integrated Woz Machine) 

See Apple Computer/Misc . 



em. See 
f tware 
/10 

, 17/10 





4 

essing 

See ARPA 

ectronic 

15/10 



tions 
brary . 



7/21 

ces 
/14 
ndard 

ro' s 
erminals 



Union ) , 



-j- 

Jacobson, Erro 
JaM language 

Xerox/Sof twa 
Janus proj ect 

See Xerox/Co 
Java programmi 

Sun Microsys 

Javelin Softwa 

13/15 

Javelin spre 
Jaz disk drive 
Jazz software. 

Development 
Jennings, Pete 

19/12 
Jewell, Jerry, 
Jini software. 

Microsystems 
Jobs, Steven P 

Apple Comput 



1, 19/10 
See 
re 

(Xerox Star ) . 
mputers 

ng language. See 
terns 
re company, 

adsheet, 13/15 
See Iomega 
See Lotus 

r R. , 7/11, 



5/ 

10 
10 



If 



1970's, 

1980's, 

10/9, 

10/24 

1990's, 

Early years, 

Microsoft, 1 

Miscellaneou 

19/23, 20/ 

NeXT, 11/11, 

16/17 

Other compan 

7/10, 13/2 

Johnson, Reyno 

Jonsson, J. Er 

Joy, William N 

11/24-25, 15 

Jurassic Park 



13/25 
See Sun 

aul , 

er , 

9-15. , 

/1-4, 10/6-8, 

/15, 10/17-20, 

/3 

5/1-9, 19/10 
2/2-3, 16/11 
s, 18/9, 19/2, 
2 

16/2, 16/15, 

ies, 4/17, 7/8, 

4 

Id B. , 17/12 

ik, 3/12 

, 8/8, 
/13 
movie, 11/23 



-K- 

K5 and K6 microprocessors. See 
Advanced Micro Devices 

K56flex technology, 20/3 

Kahn, Philippe, 13/8 

Kahn, Robert, 2/13 

Kaiman, Art, 12/7 

Kaleida company, 15/7-8, 16/5, 
19/19 

Kaleidoscope program. See 
Cromemco 

Kamradt, Alex, 5/4 



Index/30 A History of the Personal Computer 



Kansas City Standard, 17/5 
Kaplan, Jerry, 14/10 
Kapor, Mitchell D., 7/11, 

13/13-14, 13/28-29 
Karcher, J. Clarence, 3/12 
Kassar, Raymond, 4/17, 11/14 
Kawasaki, Guy, 10/7, 13/19 
Kay, Alan C, 2/11, 4/5, 7/6, 

10/5, 20/1, 20/8 
Kay, Andrew, 11/8 
Kay, Gary, 4/12 
Kaypro Corporation, 11/8 

Kaycomp II portable 
computer, 11/8 

Kaypro 4, 11/8 

Kaypro 10, 11/8 

Kaypro II portable computer, 
11/8 
KBD-2 Keyboard. See Southwest 

Technical Products 
Kemeny, John G., 2/5-6, 7/3 
Kenbak Corporation, 4/3 

Kenbak-1 computer, 4/3 
Kentucky Fried Computers, 4/20 
Kenyon, Larry, 10/20 
Keremedjiev, Barbara and 

George, 19/6 
Keyboards, 17/23 
Khalsa, Sat Tara Singh, 13/29 
Khosla, Vinod, 11/24-25 
Kilburn, T., 1/6 
Kilby, Jack St. Claire, 1/11, 

3/12 
Kildall, Gary A., 6/14, 7/1-2, 

7/4, 7/6, 12/12, 16/12, 20/2 
Killer application, 7/9 
Killian, Joseph, 4/13 
kilobaud magazine, 18/3 
KIM-1 microcomputer. See MOS 

Technology 
Kimsey, James V., 19/15 
King, Olin B. , 19/24 
King's Quest game. See Sierra 

On-Line 
Kingston Technology 

Corporation, 19/22 
Klunder, Doug, 12/23-24 
Knowledge manipulator, 4/5 
Knowledge Navigators, 14/10, 

20/1 
KnowledgeSet Corporation, 20/2 
Knuth, Donald E., 19/26 
Kodak company, 17/22, 19/18 
Konzen, Neil, 6/14, 12/19, 

12/23 
Koogle, Timothy, 15/14-15 
Krauskopf, Tim, 15/11 
Kriya Systems company, 13/29 



Typing Tutor, 13/29 
Kuehler, Jack D., 9/25, 16/5-6 
Kurtz, Thomas E., 2/5, 7/3 
Kyoto Ceramics (Kyocera) 

company, 11/2, 12/2 

-L- 

Lakeside Programmers Group, 

6/3, 6/8 
Lakeside School, 6/1-3, 6/7, 

12/9 
Lampson, Butler, 4/5, 7/6, 

17/15 
LAN. See Local Area Network 
LAN Manager. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Lancaster, Don, 4/12, 17/11 
Lane, Jim, 6/12-13 
Languages. See Programming 

Languages 
Lanier company, 13/9 
Laptop computers, 

IBM, 9/17, 14/9 

Other companies, 11/19-20, 
12/2, 12/21 

Term description, 20/8 

Toshiba, 11/27 
Large Scale Integration. See 

LSI 
Larson, Chris, 6/7, 12/9 
Laser 128 computer. See Video 

Technology 
Laser Ball game. See Adventure 

International 
Laser printers. See Printers 
LaserJet printer. See Hewlett- 
Packard 
LaserWriter printers. See 

Apple Computer/Accessories 
Lashlee, Hal, 13/16, 19/12 
Lattin, William W. , 3/9, 8/3 
Lau, Benny, 19/20 
Lau, Lee, 19/20 
Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory, 19/8 

Computer Museum, 19/9 
Lawten, Bob, 9/25, 14/9 
LCD (Liguid Crystal Display), 

11/16-19, 11/21, 11/26, 14/9 
Lear Siegler Inc. (LSI), 17/12 

LSI ADM-1 terminal, 17/12 
Learning Research Group. See 

Xerox/ Miscellaneous 
Lebling, Dave, 13/24 
Leeds, Richard, 12/14 
Left, Robert S., 19/12 
Lehtman, Harvey, 10/13 
Leininger, Steven, 4/16-17, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/31 



7/4 
Leng, John, 20/7 
Lentz, John L . , 
Lerner, Sandra, 
LetterPerf ect wo 

See WordPerfec 
Letwin, Gordon, 

12/9, 12/16 
Level-I, II and 

Tandy/Radio Sh 
Level II and III 

Microsoft/ Prog 
Levin, Michael, 
Levy, Bill, 7/3 
Lewin, Dean, 11/ 
Lewis, Andrea 
Lexikon Services 
Lexmark Internat 

Inc., 16/4 
LGP-30 computer. 

Librascope 
Libes, Sol, 19/4 
Libras cope/ Gene r 
1/13 

LGP-30 compute 
Licklider, J.C.R 

2/13 
Liddle, David, 9 

13/6 
Life magazine, 1 
Lifeboat Associa 
18/6, 19/11- 

Software Bus-8 

12/15, 19/12 

Lifetree Softwar 

Volkswriter wo 
13/12 
Light pen, 2/10, 
LIM (Lotus, Inte 

Microsoft) spe 

20/4 
LINC (Laboratory 

Computer) . See 
LINC-8 computer. 

DEC/Computers 
Lincoln Laborato 
Linnett, Barry, 
Linux operating 

15/9-10 
Liguid crystal d 

LCD 
Lisa computers a 

See Apple Comp 
Lissner, Rupert, 
Loadstar magazin 

Softdisk 
Lobo Internation 

Max-80 compute 



1/15 

19/21 

rd processor. 

t 

4/18, 6/12-14, 

III BASIC. See 
ack/Sof tware 

BASIC. See 
. Languages 
2/12 

11 
/13 

company, 20/3 
ional Group, 

See 



al Precision, 

r, 1/16, 2/5 
2/4, 2/9, 

/22, 11/29, 

0/2 

tes, 12/15, 

12 

6 (SB-86), 

e Inc. , 13/12 
rd processor, 

2/14 
1 and 
cif ication, 

Instrument 

MIT 

See 

ry. See MIT 

12/27 

system, 

isplay. See 

nd software, 
uter 

13/18, 13/20 
e . See 

al, 11/22 
r, 11/22 



Local-area network (LAN), 

9/10, 9/22, 13/27 
LocalTalk. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Lockwood, Russ, 7/3 
Lode Runner game. See 

Broderbund Software 
Logitech International SA, 

19/22 
Logo language, 2/12, 13/7 

Also see Apple Computer 

/Software 
Long Island Computer 

Association of New York, 

19/3 
Lopez, Tom, 12/7, 12/10, 20/2 
Lord, Geller, Federico and 

Einstein advertising agency, 

9/6 
Lorenzen, Lee, 13/5 
Lotus Development Corporation, 
Beginning of, 13/13-14 
IBM acguisition of, 16/6 
Microsoft, 12/4, 12/23 
Miscellaneous, 13/15, 
13/20, 13/28, 15/10, 
19/25, 20/4 

Ami Pro word processor, 
13/13 

ocMail, 13/28 

Jazz, 12/24, 13/20-21 

Lotus 1-2-3, 12/23-24, 
13/13-15, 13/19, 13/21 

Lotus 1-2-3/3, 13/14 

Lotus Notes, 15/6, 15/10 

Symphony, 13/20 

TRIO project (Lotus 1-2-3), 
13/13 

Word Pro wordprocessor , 
13/13 
Lougheed, Kirk, 19/21 
Lowe, William C, 9/1-3, 

9/4-6, 9/24, 12/12, 12/16-17 
LPB-CX printer. See Canon 

company 
LSI (Large Scale Integration), 

2/14, 3/5-6, 4/7, 4/20, 

17/3, 20/7 
LSI-11 microcomputer systems. 

See DEC/Computers 
LTE notebook. See Compag 

Computer 
Lucasfilm company, 19/23 
Lucent Technologies, 20/3 
Luggable portable computer, 

9/16, 9/19, 11/11, 20/8 
Lunar Lander game. See Games 
Lutus, Paul, 7/7, 13/12 



Index/32 A History of the Personal Computer 



Lycos Inc., 19/23 

~M~ 

M6800 series of 

microprocessors . See 

Motorola 
M-10 computer. See Olivetti 
MAA. See Microcomputer 

Applications Associates 
MACazine magazine, 18/6 
MacBusiness Journal , 18/6 
MACC. See Midwest Affiliation 

of Computer Clubs 
MacGraph. See Microsoft 

/Applic. Programs 
MacGregor, Scott, 12/18-19 
Mach operating system, 12/17, 

13/4, 16/9 
Macintosh computers and 

software. See Apple Computer 
Macintosh Today magazine, 18/6 
Macintosh Word. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
MacMail. See Microsof t/Applic . 

Programs 
MaCom company, 4/21 
MacPaint and MacProject. See 

Apple Computer/ Software 
Macro Assembler. See 

Microsoft/ Prog . Languages 
Macromedia, Inc., 19/23 
MacroWorks. See Beagle Bros. 
MacSketch and MacTerminal. See 

Apple Computer/ Software 
MacUser magazine, 18/6 
MacWeek magazine, 18/6 
MacWorld Expo. See Apple 

Computer/Miscellaneous 
Macworld magazine, 18/6 
MacWrite. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Magazines, 1/14, 18/1-9 
Magic Cap operating system. 

See General Magic 
Magic Paintbrush. See Penguin 

Software 
Magic Wand word processor. See 

Small Business Applications 
Magnavox company, 2/14 

Odyssey 100 game, 2/14 
Magnetic card reader, 11/20 
Magnetic core memory, 1/9, 

1/15, 2/7-8, 2/14-15, 3/5, 

4/1, 17/3 
Magnetic disk storage, 1/10 
Magnetic drum storage, 1/7-8, 

1/9, 1/13 
Magnetic tape, 1/7-8, 1/9, 



4/9, 17/4-5, 17/11 
Mail program. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
MailMerge software. See 

MicroPro International 
Main, James, 19/4 
Major, Drew, 13/28 
Malloy, Tom, 10/16 
Management Information Format. 

See MIF 
Management Science America 

Inc., 13/22 
Mangham, Jim, 18/5 
Mann, Marvin L., 16/4 
Manock, Jerrold "Jerry" C, 

5/10, 10/19 
Manzi, Jim P., 13/14, 16/6 
Maples, Michael (Mike) J. , 

12/10, 16/9-10 
Maritz, Paul A., 12/9, 16/10 
Mark I, II, III and IV 

computers. See Harvard 

University 
MARK 1 computer. See Ferranti 
Mark II time sharing system. 

See General Electric 
Mark-8 computer, 3/8, 4/8-9, 

18/1 
Mark-8 Group, 18/1 
Markell, Bob, 9/19 
Markkula, A. C. "Mike", 5/1, 

5/9-11, 5/13, 7/8, 10/1-3, 

10/8, 10/15, 16/2 
Marguardt, David F., 12/1 
Marsh, Robert, 4/13, 17/17, 

19/2 
Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology. See MIT 
Massaro, Donald J., 11/27-28, 

13/6, 17/7 
MATH-MATIC software, 1/12 
Mathews, Bob, 12/23 
Mathews, Mark, 12/22 
MathPlan spreadsheet. See 

WordPerfect 
Mat son, Katinka, 19/26 
Mattel company, 11/30 

Aguarius computer, 11/30 
Mauchly, John W. , 1/5, 1/8, 

1/11 
Mauldin, Michael, 19/23 
Max Machine. See Commodore 

International 
Max-80 computer. See Lobo 

International 
Maxell company, 17/22 
Maxtor company, 17/7 
Mazner, Marty, 13/21 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/33 



Mazor, Stan, 3/6-7 

MBASIC. See Microsoft/ Progr . 

Languages 
MC6809 and MC68000 series of 

microprocessors. See 

Motorola 
MCA (Micro Channel 

Architecture). See IBM/Misc. 
McCabe, Dan, 12/18 
McCarthy, John S., 2/3-4 
McCracken, Edward R., 11/23 
McCracken, William E., 16/6 
McDermott, Eugene, 3/12 
McDonald, Marc, 6/9, 6/11, 

6/13 
McDonnell Douglas Corporation, 

2/10 
McEwen, Dorothy, 7/1 
MCGA (Multi-Color Graphics 

Array), 20/5 
McGraw-Hill, Inc., 11/6, 18/2 
Mcintosh Laboratories, 5/16, 

10/21 
McKenna, Regis, 5/9 
McNealy, Scott G., 11/24-25, 

16/13-14 
MCS (Micro Computer System) . 

See Intel/ Microprocessors 
MDA (Monochrome Display 

Adapter), 9/7, 20/5 
MDL language. See MIT 
Measday, Tom, 13/28 
Media Laboratory. See MIT 
Medium Scale Integration. See 

MSI 
Mega II chip. See Apple 

Computer /Mi sc . 
Melear, Charles, 3/10 
Melen, Roger, 4/14, 17/16 
Memex device, 1/14-15, 2/9, 

20/1 
Memorex company, 17/7, 17/22 
Memory, 

Early technology, 1/5, 
1/8-10, 1/15, 2/14-15 

Intel, 3/5-6, 4/6, 17/3-4 

Miscellaneous, 4/1, 17/3-4, 
20/4 
Memory Management Unit (MMU) . 

See IBM/Miscellaneous 
Memory Test Computer (MTC) . 

See MIT 
Memphis project (Windows 98) . 

See Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
Mensch, Bill, 8/7 
Menu bar and Menus : 

Early development, 2/10 

Apple Computer, 10/15, 10/22 



Microsoft, 12/23 

Xerox, 4/5, 11/29 
Merced project. See 

Intel/Microprocessors 
Merisel, Inc., 19/11-12 
Merlin project (Encarta) . See 

Microsof t /Multimedia 
Merlin video tennis game. See 

Games 
MESA programming language. See 

Xerox/ Software 
MessagePad (PDA). See Apple 

Computer /Computers 
Metal Oxide Semiconductor. See 

MOS 
Metaphor Computer Systems 

Inc., 13/6 
Metaprocessor , 7/11 
Metcalfe, Robert, 4/5, 12/15, 

17/18, 19/13 
Meyer, Dan, 4/12 
MGA (Hercules Monochrome 

Graphics Adapter), 20/5 
MIC (Microfloppy Industry 

Committee), 17/8, 19/18 
Michael Shrayer Software 
company, 7/7 

The Electric Pencil, 7/6-7 

The Electric Pencil II, 7/7 
Michels, Douglas L., 13/4 
Michels, Larry, 13/3 
Micral computer. See REE 
(Recherches et Etude 

Electronigues ) 
Micro Channel Architecture 

(MCA) . See IBM/Miscellaneous 
Micro Computer Inc., 3/16-17, 

4/15 
Micro magazine, 18/4 
Micro-1 printer. See 

Centronics 
Micro-8 Computer Users Group, 

18/1 
Micro-8 Newsletter, 18/1 
Micro-Altair computer. See 

PolyMorphic Systems 
Micro-Disk system. See North 

Star Computers 
Microamerica company, 19/12 
Microchess game. See Games 
Microcomputer - term origin, 

3/15, 20/7 
Microcomputer Applications 

Associates (MAA) , 7/1-2 
Microcomputer Industry Trade 

Association, 19/18 
Microcomputer Periodicals, 

18/9 



Index/34 A History of the Personal Computer 



Microcomputing magazine, 18/3 
Microfloppy disk drive. See 

iCOM Microperipherals 
Microfloppy Industry 
Committee. See MIC 
Micrografx Inc., 13/26 
In-A-Vision graphics 
software, 13/26 
Micromainframe computer, 8/3 
Micromodem 100. See Hayes 

Microcomputer Products 
Micron Electronics, Inc., 

16/16 
Micron Technology, Inc., 16/16 
MicroNET. See CompuServe 
Micronics Computers, Inc., 

19/23 
Micropolis Corporation, 17/7 
MicroPro International 

Corporation, 7/7, 11/6, 
13/9-10, 16/15 
CalcStar, 13/10 
DataStar, 13/10 
InfoStar, 13/10 
MailMerge, 13/10 
SpellStar, 13/10 
Super-Sort, 7/7 
Word-Master, 7/7, 9/2 
Word-Star, 7/7, 11/6-7, 

13/9-10, 13/29 
Word-Star 2000, 13/10 
Microprocessor, 
IBM, 14/3 

Intel, 3/6-10, 8/3-6, 14/3-6 
Miscellaneous, 2/14, 2/16, 

17/2, 20/2 
Motorola, 3/10-11, 8/6-7, 

14/6-7 
Other companies, 3/13-15, 

3/18, 8/8-9, 14/7 
Patent controversy, 3/16-17 
RISC, 8/7-8 
Term origin, 20/7 
Texas Instruments, 3/11-13 
Microprocessors and 

Microsystems magazine, 18/3 
Micro-Soft partnership, 6/7-8 
Microsoft, Inc., 12/1 
Microsoft Corporation, 
1960-1970's, 4/11, 

6/1-15; 
1980's, 12/1-28, 13/3-5, 
13/7-9, 13/11-13, 13/15, 
13/17, 13/21, 13/26-29; 
1990's, 15/1-6, 16/8-14 
Apple Computer, 5/11, 
10/8, 10/19-20, 
10/22-23, 16/1-2 



Commodore, 4/15, 11/4 
Compag, 11/10-11 
IBM, 9/4-8, 9/10, 9/12, 
9/16, 9/18-22, 9/25, 
13/3, 15/8 
Miscellaneous, 4/11, 4/17, 
7/3, 7/5, 7/8, 7/10, 
17/17-18, 17/23-24, 
18/8, 19/12, 19/16-18, 
19/23, 20/2-4, 20/9 
Netscape, 15/12 
Other companies, 11/7, 
11/12, 11/18, 13/2, 
13/6, 15/14, 16/14 
Tandy/Radio Shack, 4/16, 

7/5, 11/2-3 
User interface, 2/11, 4/6, 
13/6 
Application Programs: 
Databases : 

Access, 15/5 

Cirrus project, 12/26 

Omega project, 12/10, 

12/26 
Miscellaneous : 

Adventure game, 6/14, 

7/8, 9/8, 12/14 
BackOffice, 15/4-5, 15/5 
Chart, 12/6, 12/18, 

12/27 
DriveSpace, 16/10 
Exchange, 15/5 
File, 12/6 

Flight Simulator, 13/26 
GeoSafari, 15/3 
Internet Explorer, 15/4, 

15/6, 16/2, 16/11 
LAN Manager, 12/27 
MacGraph, 10/20 
MacMail, 12/27 
Mail, 12/27, 15/6 
Microsoft at Work, 15/5 
Money, 15/5 
Mouseworks, 12/26 
MS-NET, 12/27 
Office, 15/4, 15/6, 

16/2, 16/11, 16/14 
Office 95, 97 and 2000, 

15/4 
Olympic Decathlon game, 

12/14 
PCMail, 12/27 
PowerPoint graphics, 

12/10, 12/27, 15/1, 

15/4-5 
Professional Office, 

15/3 
Project, 12/27 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/35 



2/14, 



V22, 



= el) , 



3rd 
LO, 



L2/13 
-3, 



Publisher, 12/27 
Schedule +, 15/5 
Time Manager, 12/14 
Typing Tutor, 6/14, 

12/14, 13/28 
Works for Macintosh, 

12/26 
Works for PC, 12/27 
Spreadsheets : 

Electronic Paper, 12/ 

12/22, 13/15 
Excel, 10/24, 12/20, 
12/23-25, 13/15, 
13/21, 15/1, 15/4 
Multiplan, 10/20, 10/ 
12/6, 12/18, 12/23, 
13/15 
Odyssey project (Exce 
12/24 
Word Processors: 

Cashmere project (Woi 
for Windows) , 12/1C 
12/26 
Edit-80 text editor, 

6/15 
EDLIN text editor, 12 
Macintosh Word, 10/23 

12/6, 12/26 
Multi-Tool Word, 12/5 

12/25, 13/13 
Opus project (Word fc 

Windows), 12/26 
Word, 12/6-7, 12/18, 
12/25-26, 13/9, 
13/12-13, 15/5 
Word for Windows, 12/ 
12/26, 13/13, 15/5 
Miscellaneous : 

Applications Division, 

12/6, 16/10 
ASCII Microsoft, 6/12 
Consumer Products 

Division, 6/14, 12/14 
15/3, 16/11 
Develop-65, 68 and 80, 6/9 
Headquarters, 12/8 
Interactive Media 
Division, 16/11 
Microsoft International 

12/3 
Microsoft Network (MSN) 

15/3, 16/10-11 
Microsoft Press, 12/5 
Microsoft Quarterly, IE 
Microsoft System Journa 

18/8 
Mouse, 12/5, 17/24 
Intellimouse, 17/24 



2/11, 



L4, 



il, 



3/E 

lal , 



Natural 
Office 

16/9, 
RamCard 
Systems 
Tiger s 
Z-80 So 
17/17 
Multimedi 
Bookshe 
CD-ROM 

12/10 
Encarta 
Gandalf 

15/6 
Merlin 
15/6 
MS-CD f 
Multime 
stand 
Multime 
divis 
Operating 
Syste 
Advance 
Bob, 15 
Cairo p 

16/9 
Chicago 

95) , 

Daytona 

Interf a 

12/18 

Memphis 

98) , 

MIDAS p 

MS-DOS 

Sys 

Compu 

11/ 

11/ 

11/ 

Devel 

12/ 

Later 

12/ 

15/ 

Misce 

12/ 

19/ 

Other 

12/ 

13/ 

Seatt 

Pro 

12/ 

MSX sys 

MSX-DOS 



Keyboard, 17/23 
of the President, 

16/11 
17/17 

Division, 12/6 
ystem project, 15/6 
ftCard, 6/14, 12/1, 



If, 12/7, 12/28 
division, 12/7, 
, 12/28, 15/6 
15/6 
project (Encarta), 

project (Encarta), 

ormat, 12/7 
dia PC (MPC) 
ard, 12/28 
dia Systems 
ion, 12/10 

& Interface 
ms : 

d DOS, 12/16 
/3 
roject, 15/1, 15/3, 

project (Windows 
15/3, 16/10 

project (NT), 15/3 
ce Manager, 12/6, 



proj ect 
15/4 
roj ect, 
(Disk Op 
tern) , 
ter use 
10-11, 1 

18, 11/2 
28, 12/4 
opment o 
13-15, 1 

release 
18-19, 1 
5, 16/10 
llaneous 
15, 13/3 
12, 20/3 

sof twar 

19, 12/2 
28, 15/3 
le Compu 
ducts, 1 
14, 17/1 
tem, 12/ 

12/6, 



(Windows 

6/11 
erating 

of, 11/7, 

1/16, 

0-21, 

f, 
3/2 
s , 

5/1-2, 

, 12/6-7, 
, 17/24, 

e, 11/26, 
1, 12/27, 

4, 15/9 
ter 
2/10, 



12/15 



Index/36 A History of the Personal Computer 



Multi-To 

12/22 
NT (New 

12/17, 

15/4 
OS/2. Se 
PC-DOS. 
Psycho p 
SB-86 (S 

See L 
Win32, 1 
Windows , 

Apple 
10/2 
16/1 

Develo 
12/6 

IBM 
15/1 

Later 

Miscel 
13/5 

Other 
12/2 
13/1 
15/1 
Windows 

15/12, 
Windows 
Windows 
Windows 
Windows 
Windows 

15/2 
Windows 

Techno 

16/9 
Windows 
Windows 

15/4 
WINPAD, 
XENIX, 1 

12/15, 
XENIX 28 
ZDOS (Ze 
Programmin 
4K BASIC 
8K BASIC 
6502 BAS 
68 00 BAS 
8 08 BAS 

17/13 
8 08 6 BAS 

13/2, 
Advanced 

9/8, 1 
APL, 6/9 
Assemble 



ol Interface, 

Technology) , 
13/4, 15/1-2, 

IBM/Software 
See IBM/Software 
roject (NT), 12/17 
oftware Bus-86) . 
ifeboat Associates 
5/2-3 



Comput 
3, 12/ 
, 16/8 
pment 

12/1 
/22, 1 
, 15/8 
releas 
laneou 
, 20/3 
sof twa 
7, 13/ 
7, 13/ 
4 

95, 13 
16/10 
98, 15 
286, 1 
386, 1 
CE, 15 
for Wo 



er, 10/8, 
7, 12/10, 
-9 

of, 12/3, 
7-20 
2/16-17, 
-9, 16/9 
es, 15/1- 
s, 11/26, 
, 20/9 
re, 12/2 
6, 13/11 
27, 15/5 

/26, 15/ 

11 
/4, 16/1 
2/20 
2/20 
/4 
rkgroups 



NT (New 
logy), 15/2-4, 

NT Server, 15/4 
NT Workstation, 



15/4 
1/2, 
13/ 
6, 9 
nith 
g La 
6/ 
6/ 
IC, 
IC, 
IC, 



15/6 
12/10, 12/12, 



3 

/16, 12/15 

), 12/14-15 

nguages : 

6, 7/3 

6 

6/9-10 

6/8-9 

6/10, 6/12, 



5/14, 



IC, 6/12, 
17/18 

BASIC (BASICA) 
2/14 
, 12/14 
r, 12/13 



BASIC Compiler, 6/13, 6/15 
BASIC interpreter 

(Altair), 6/5-8 
BASIC interpreter 
(Macintosh), 10/20, 
10/22-23, 12/6, 12/21 
BASIC, 

Apple Computer, 5/12, 

12/6, 12/22 
Early developments of, 

6/5-13 
IBM, 9/8, 9/12, 

12/12-14, 12/21 
Other companies, 4/16, 
11/10, 11/18, 12/3-4, 
12/21 
BASIC-80, 17/17 
BASICA. See Advanced BASIC 
C, 12/21 

Cartridge BASIC, 9/14 
Cassette BASIC, 9/7-8, 

9/14 
COBOL, 6/10-11, 6/14, 

12/12-13, 12/14, 12/21 
COBOL-80, 6/13-14 
DISK BASIC, 6/9, 9/8, 

12/14 
Extended BASIC, 
Focal, 6/9 
FORTRAN, 6/9-10, 
6/14, 12/12-13 
FORTRAN-80, 6/10 

7/5 
GBASIC, 17/17 
GWBASIC (Gee Whiz BAS 

9/13, 12/21 
Level II BASIC (TRS-8 

4/17, 6/12, 7/4 
Level III BASIC (TRS- 

6/14, 7/5 
Macro Assembler, 6/15 
MBASIC, 11/7-8, 11/12 

17/17 
Pascal, 6/10, 6/13, 9 
12/12-13, 12/21, 13 
13/12 
PC BASIC, 12/21 
Quick C, 12/21 
Quick Pascal, 12/22 
QuickBASIC, 12/21, 13 
Stand-alone Disk BASI 

6/9, 6/11 
Visual BASIC, 15/5 
MicroTeck magazine, 18/3 
MIDAS project. See 

Microsof t/Oper . Systems 
Midwest Affiliation of 

Computer Clubs (MACC), 19/4 



5/8 

6/12 
, 12/ 
, 6/1 



21 
3-14, 



IC), 
0), 

80) , 



/8, 
/8, 



13/E 

n 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/37 



7 



7 

n 



■11 



MIF (Management Information 

Format), 19/17 
Mikbug operating system. See 

Motorola 
Millard, William H., 4/12, 

4/20, 19/11 
Mims, Forrest M., 4/8 
Miner, Robert N., 13/17 
Minicomputer, 2/4, 2/8-9, 4/8, 
4/10, 4/18, 11/16 
Term origin, 20/7 
Minimal BASIC. See ANSI 
MiniScribe company, 17/7 
MinisPort portable computer. 

See Zenith Data Systems 
Minnow project. See 

IBM/Accessories 
MIPS Computer Systems, 8/8, 
14/7, 15/2, 16/15, 19/1 
R2000 RISC microprocessor 

8/8 
R8000 microprocessor, 14/ 
R10000 microprocessor, 14 
Workstation, 15/2 
MIT (Massachusetts Institut 
of Technology) , 
Computer graphics, 2/10 
Early computers, 1/12, 

1/15, 2/2 
Games and other software, 
2/13-14, 13/6, 13/24, 
15/10 
Magnetic core memory, 1/9 
Miscellaneous, 4/1, 7/8, 
7/11, 10/25, 13/13, 
17/21, 19/26 
Other companies, 1/7, 1/9, 

1/16 
Time sharing, 2/3-5 
ARC (Average Response 

Computer), 1/15 
CTSS (Compatible Time 

Sharing System), 2/4 
LINC (Laboratory Instrument 
Computer), 1/15, 2/2, 2/7 
Lincoln Laboratory, 1/16, 

2/7 
MDL language, 13/24 
Media Laboratory, 19/26 
Memory Test Computer (MTC), 

1/15 
NuBus, 11/12, 17/21 
Project MAC (Multiple Access 

Computer) , 2/4 
TX-0 computer, 1/15, 2/4, 

2/13 
TX-1 and TX-2 computers, 
1/15 



Whirlwind computer, 1/ 

1/9, 1/12, 1/15-16 
X Window System, 13/6 
Mitel Corporation, 13/27 
MITS, Inc., 

Beginning and end of 

4/8-11 
Microsoft, 6/5-11 
Miscellaneous, 3/8, 
4/14-15, 18/2, 19/ 
19/4, 19/10, 20/2 
Other companies, 4/1 
5/1, 7/7, 17/17-18 
Altair 680, 4/10 
Altair 680b, 3/11, 4/1 
Altair 8800, 

Development of, 4/8- 
Expansion boards, 4/ 

17/17-19 
Microsoft, 6/5-7, 7/ 
Miscellaneous, 3/8, 
5/1, 7/7, 9/1, 17/ 
17/20, 18/2, 18/8, 
19/9-11, 20/2 
Altair 8800b, 4/10 
Altair BASIC, 4/10, 6/ 

7/2 
Altair Bus, 4/10, 17/2 
Computer Notes newslet 

4/10, 6/7-8, 18/2-3 
Memory boards/cards, 4 

6/6 
MITS 816 calculator, 4 
PE-8 computer, 4/9 
World Altair Computer 
Convention (WACC), 6 
19/4 
Mitsubishi Chemical Comp 

17/22 
Mitsubishi Kasei, 17/22 
MMX technology. See 

Intel/Miscellaneous 
Model 100 computer. See 

Tandy/Radio Shack/Comp 
Model 101 printer. See 

Centronics 
Models 33 and 35 teletyp 
See Teletype Corporati 
Modem, 9/14, 17/19-20, 1 

20/4 
Modula programming langu 

13/7 
Modula-2 programming Ian 

13/8 
Molnar, Charles E., 1/15 
Mondrian software, See 

Dynamical Systems Rese 
Money magazine, 12/6 



11, 
14, 

n 



0, 6 



14, 

13, 
9/2, 



5-7, 



ter , 

/10, 
/8 

/8, 

any, 



17, 

e, 

age, 

2/7 

ch 



Index/38 A History of the Personal Computer 



Monochrome Display Adapter. 

See MDA 
Monochrome Graphics Adapter. 

See MGA 
Moore School of Electrical 

Engineering, 1/5 
Moore, Charles H., 2/12 
Moore, Dave, 12/23 
Moore, Fred, 18/2, 19/2 
Moore, Gordon E., 3/3, 3/5-6, 

16/8 
Moore's Law, 3/5 
Moore, Rob, 10/13 
Morgan, Charles R., 2/12 
Morgan, James J., 11/14 
Morgridge, John P., 19/21 
Morill, Lyall, 7/9 
Morrow's Micro Decisions, 

11/30 
Morse, Stephen P., 3/9 
MOS (Metal Oxide 

Semiconductor), 17/3 
MOS Technology, Inc., 

Apple Computer, 5/4, 5/14 
Beginning of, 3/13-14 
Commodore purchase of, 

4/15, 5/8 
Miscellaneous, 3/18, 4/12, 
6/9, 7/11, 11/28 
KIM-1 (Keyboard Input 

Monitor-1), 4/12, 7/11 
MOS 6501, 3/13, 4/13 
MOS 6502, 3/13-14, 3/18, 
4/12, 4/14-16, 5/4, 
10/12-13, 11/25 
MOS 65C02, 10/11 
Mosaic browser, 15/10-12 
Mosaic Communications 
Corporation, 15/11 
Mosaic Navigator, 15/11 
Mostek company, 3/15, 4/18, 

8/8 
Motherboards, 16/7, 19/17 
Motif software. See OSF 
Motorola, Inc., 

1970's, 3/9-11, 4/8, 4/10, 

4/20, 5/4; 
1980's, 8/6-7; 
1990's, 14/6-7 
Microprocessor 

application, 4/8-9, 
4/13, 5/15-16, 9/11, 
11/2, 11/12, 11/14, 
16/13, 17/21 
Miscellaneous, 3/13, 
3/15-16, 6/12, 7/1, 
10/8, 11/28, 19/9 
PowerPC Alliance, 14/3, 



14/10, 15/7, 16/1, 16/5, 
19/19, 20/4 
68008 microprocessor, 3/11 
68882 math coprocessor, 10/8 
88000 RISC microprocessor, 

8/6 
M6809E microprocessor, 5/15 
MC6800 MPU (Micro Processor 

Unit), 3/9, 3/10, 3/13, 

4/7, 4/10, 4/12, 4/14, 

5/4, 11/25, 17/21 
MC6801 microprocessor, 3/11 
MC6809 microprocessor, 3/11, 

10/18, 11/22 
MC68000 microprocessor, 

3/11, 4/20, 5/15, 6/12, 

8/6, 9/6, 10/15, 17/11 
MC68010 microprocessor, 8/6 
MC68020 microprocessor, 8/6, 

17/16 
MC68030 microprocessor, 8/6, 

10/8 
MC68040 microprocessor, 8/7 
MC68060 microprocessor, 14/6 
Mikbug operating system, 

4/12, 7/1 
MPC601 microprocessor, 

14/6-7 
MPU (Micro Processor Unit), 

3/9 
Museum of Electronics, 19/9 
PowerPC 601 microprocessor, 

14/6 
PowerPC 603 microprocessor, 

14/7 
PowerPC 604 microprocessor, 

14/7 
PowerPC 620 microprocessor, 

14/7 
PowerPC 750 G3 

microprocessor, 14/9, 

14/11 
PowerPC microprocessor, 

14/5, 15/8, 16/1, 20/5 
Versabus bus standard, 9/11 
Mott, Tim, 7/6 
Mouse, 

Also see. Trackball 
Apple Computer, 10/12, 

10/14-15, 10/21-22 
Development of, 2/10, 

17/23-24 
Microsoft, 12/5, 12/17, 

12/19, 12/22, 12/25-26 
Miscellaneous, 2/3, 2/13, 

11/19, 13/5, 19/22 
Xerox, 4/5, 5/15, 11/29 
Mouse Systems company, 17/24 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/39 



Mouseworks. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
Moussouris, John, 8/8 
MP/M (Multi-Programming 

Monitor) . See Digital 

Research 
MPC601 microprocessor. See 

Motorola 
MPU (Micro Processor Unit). 

See Motorola 
MS-CD format. See 

Mi croso ft /Multimedia 
MS-DOS. See Microsoft/ 

Operating Systems 
MS-NET. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
MSI (Medium Scale 

Integration), 3/5, 4/3, 

11/20, 11/29 
MSX hardware, 12/16 
MSX-DOS. See Microsoft/ 

Operating Systems 
MTC (Memory Test Computer) . 

See MIT 
Muka, Steve, 17/19 
Multi-Color Graphics Array. 

See MCGA 
Multi-Tool Interface. See 

Microsoft/Operating Systems 
Multi-Tool Word. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Multics (Multiplexed 

Information and Computing 

Service) , 2/4 
MultiFinder operating system. 

See Apple Computer/Software 
MultiMate International 
Corporation, 13/12 

Advantage Professional Word 
Processor, 13/12 

Executive Word Processor, 
13/12 

Professional Word Processor, 
13/12 
Multimedia, 

Microsoft, 12/7, 12/10, 
12/28, 15/6 

Miscellaneous, 15/9, 15/15, 
19/23, 20/2 

PowerPC Alliance, 15/7-8, 
16/5, 19/19 
Multimedia PC (MPC) . See 

Microsof t /Multimedia 
Multimedia Systems division. 

See Microsof t /Multimedia 
Multiplan spreadsheet. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
MultiSpeed portable computer. 



8/3, 9/16, 9/19, 

12/19 

ernational 

11/13 

16/9 

11/9 

ration/Misc . 
seum of 
cs 

seum of American 
Smithsonian ) 
n Computer Museum 
r Museum (Boston) 
ction Set game, 
nic Arts 

See Epson America 
han P. , 12/9, 
16/10 
game. See Sierra 



See NEC 
Multitasking, 

9/22, 10/25 
Multitech Int 

Corporation 
Mundie, Craig 
Murto, Willia 
Museums See: 

Intel Corpo 

Motorola Mu 
Electroni 

National Mu 
History ( 

The America 

The Compute 
Music Constru 

See Electro 
MX printers 
Myhrvold, Nat 

12/17, 16/8 
Mystery House 

On-Line 

-N- 

N M Electronics, 3/5 
N.V. Philips. See Philips 
Namco Limited, 7/11 

Pac-Man game, 7/11 
National AppleWorks Users 

Group (NAUG), 13/20, 18/5 
AppleWorks Forum newsletter, 
18/5 
National Bureau of Standards 

(NBS), 1/10 
National Cash Register 

Company, 1/6, 1/13, 6/9, 
6/11, 17/4 
8200 Terminal, 6/11 
National Center for 

Supercomputing Applications 
(NCSA), 15/10-11 
National Computer Conference 
(NCC), 4/16, 6/14, 7/9, 
10/10, 11/3, 11/29, 12/5, 
13/14, 17/18, 19/5 
National Museum of American 
History. See Smithsonian 
Institution 
National Physical Laboratory 

(NPL), 2/13 
National Radio Institute 
(NRI), 4/3 
NRI 832 computer kit, 4/3 
National Science Foundation 
(NSF), 19/13 
NSFnet, 19/13 
National Semiconductor 

Corporation, 3/9, 3/15, 



Index/40 A History of the Personal Computer 



5/9, 6/11, 8/7, 10/14 
16/1 
16032 microprocessor, 8 
32032 microprocessor, 8 
IMP-8 microprocessor 

systems, 3/15 
IMP-16 microprocessor 

systems, 3/15 
Pace microprocessor, 3/ 

3/15 
SC/MP microprocessor, 3 
Super-Pace microprocess 
3/15 
Natural Keyboard. See 

Microsoft/Miscellaneous 
Naval Postgraduate School 

7/1, 7/4 
Navigator browser. See 

Netscape Communications 
NBC television network, 1 
NCC. See National Compute 

Conference 
N-channel Metal Oxide 

Semiconductor. See NMOS 

NCSA. See National Center 

Supercomputing Applicat 

Near Letter Quality (NLQ) 

17/13 
NEC (Nippon Electric Comp 
6/13, 11/19, 11/22, 1 
12/28, 16/16, 17/14, 
PC-100 computer, 11/22 
PC-8200 Portable Comput 

12/2 
MutiSpeed portable comp 

11/22 
UltraLite portable comp 

11/22, 20/8 
V-30 microprocessor, 11 
11/22 
NED (New Editor) , 7/7 
Negroponte, Nicholas, 18/ 

19/26 
Nelson, Theodor H., 20/1, 

20/7 
Netscape Communications 

Corporation, 15/11-13 
16/17, 19/15 
Communicator Profession 

15/12 
Netscape Navigator, 15/ 
NetWare. See Novell 
Network computers, 11/25 
Networks, 11/25, 12/27, 1 
15/15, 16/10, 16/13, 
19/13-14, 19/21 
Newell, Martin, 13/23 
Newman, M. H. A., 1/4, 2/ 



II 

II 



9, 

/15 
or. 



i/11 



for 
ions 



any) , 

2/2, 

17/21 

er , 

uter , 
uter , 
/19, 



al, 
11-12 

3/27, 



2/9-10 
Newton MessagePad (PDA). See 

Apple Computer/Computers 
NewWave interface program. See 

Hewlett-Packard Company 
NexGen company, 14/7, 16/16 
NeXT Computer, Inc., 9/21, 
10/7, 11/11-12, 15/7, 
16/15-16 

NeXT computer, 11/12, 13/4, 
17/10, 19/14 

NeXT laser printer, 11/12 

NeXTSTEP operating system, 
9/21, 11/12, 12/11, 13/4, 
15/7 
NeXT Software, Inc., 15/7, 

16/2, 16/17 
Nibble - term origin, 20/8 
Nibble Mac magazine, 18/4 
Nibble magazine, 18/4, 20/6 
Nippon Electric Company. See 

NEC 
Nishi, Kazuhiko (Kay), 

6/12-13, 11/2, 12/2, 12/6, 

12/9, 18/3 
NLQ. See Near Letter Quality 
NLS (On-line system) . See 

Stanford Research Institute 
NMOS (N-channel Metal Oxide 

Semiconductor), 3/7 
Noble, David L. , 17/6 
Non-Linear Systems company, 

11/8 
Noorda, Raymond, 13/27, 16/12 
North Star Computers, Inc., 
4/20, 5/12, 11/21, 17/7, 
17/19, 19/12 

FPB, Model A floating point 
board, 17/19 

Horizon-I, 4/20 

Horizon-II, 4/20 

Micro-Disk system, 17/7 

Peripheral boards, 17/19 
Northrop Aircraft, Inc., 1/8 
Norton, David, 17/10 
Notebook computer, 

Apple Computer, 14/11 

Compag, 11/11 

Epson, 11/18 

IBM, 14/9 

Miscellaneous, 4/5, 14/7, 
16/17 

NEC, 11/22 

Tandy/Radio Shack, 11/2 

Term description, 20/8 
Notes. See Iris Associates and 

Lotus Development 

Corporation 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/41 



Nova 
Ge 

Nova 
No 

Nova 
CA' 

Nove 

Nove 



Ne 

No 

Pe 
Noyc 

3/ 
NPL 

La 
NRI 

Na 
NSFn 

Fo 
NT 

Mi 
NuBu 

Co 
N.V. 

Ph 



compute 
neral 

I Inc., 
val 760 
tion, In 
T acoust 

II Data 
11, Inc. 
15/12, 1 
19/17 
tWare, 1 
veil DOS 
rfectOf f 
e, Rober 
5, 8/ 
(New Pro 
nguage 
8 32 comp 
tional R 
et . See 
undation 
New Tech 
crosoft/ 
s archit 
mputer/M 

Philips 
ilips 



rs . See Data 

4/19 

computer, 4/19 

c, 17/20 

ic coupler, 17/20 

Systems, 13/27 

, 13/27, 15/9, 

6/8, 16/12-13, 

3/27 

, 15/9, 15/12 

ice, 16/12 

t N. , 1/11, 3/3, 

16/7, 19/8, 20/7 

gramming 

See IBM/Software 
uter kit. See 
adio Institute 
National Science 

nology) . See 
Operating Systems 
ecture. See Apple 
isc. and MIT 
company. See 



-O- 

02 workstation. 

Graphics 
Oak project ( Jav 

Microsystems 
Oates, Edward, 1 
Oberon programmi 

13/8 
Object Linking a 

See OLE 
O'Connor, Dave, 
Odyssey 100 game 
Odyssey book, 14 
Odyssey project 

Microsof t/Appl 
Office Products 

Xerox /Mi seel la 
Office program. 

Microsof t/Appl 
OfficeVision pro 

IBM/Software 
Ogdin, Jerry, 17 
Ohio Scientific 
(OSI), 4/14- 

Challenger ser 
computers, 4 

OS 65 operatin 

OSI 300 comput 
board, 4/14 

OSI 400 Superb 



See Silicon 

See Sun 

3/17 

ng language, 

nd Embedding. 

9/13 

. See Magnavox 

/10, 20/1 

(Excel ) . See 

ic. Programs 

Division. See 

neous 

See 

ic. Programs 

gram. See 

/5 

Instruments 

15, 4/21 

ies of 

/21 

g system, 4/21 

er training 

oard computer, 



4/14 
Oki, Scott D. , 12/3 
Okidata company, 17/14 
OLE (Object Linking and 

Embedding), 10/25, 13/8, 

15/1-2, 15/4 
Olivetti company, 12/2, 12/28, 
17/21 

M-10 computer, 12/2 
Olsen, Kenneth H., 1/15-16, 

11/15, 16/14 
Olympiad project (PC RT ) . See 

IBM/Computers ( Personal ) 
Olympic Decathlon. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Omega database project. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Omidyar, Pierre, 19/21 
Omnibus backplane. See 

DEC/Miscellaneous 
On Disk Monthly magazine. See 

Softdisk 
On-line services, 19/15-17 
On-Line Systems company, 13/25 
Onyx Computer company, 11/25 
Opel, John R., 9/4, 9/23, 10/2 
Open bus architecture, 4/8, 

9/3, 10/20 
Open Look software. See UNIX 

International 
Open Software Foundation. See 

OSF 
Open -Apple newsletter, 18/5 
Open-source software, 15/9 
Operating systems, 7/1-3, 

9/19-21, 12/15-20, 13/1-6, 

13/18, 15/7, 15/11-13, 16/9 
Operation Crush. See Intel 

Corporation/Miscellaneous 
Optical disk drives, 11/12, 

17/10 
Opus project (Word for 

Windows) . See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
Oracle Corporation, 13/17, 
15/13, 16/2 

Oracle relational database, 
13/17 
Orange Book specification, 

20/4 
Orange Computer, 11/14 
O'Rear, Bob, 6/11-14, 12/13 
OS 8 and 9 operating systems. 

See Apple Computer/Software 
OS-65 operating system. See 

Ohio Scientific Instruments 
OS/2 (Operating System/2). See 

IBM/Software 



Index/42 A History of the Personal Computer 



Osborne Computer Corporation, 
11/1, 11/6-7 
Executive portable computer, 

11/7 
Executive II portable 

computer, 11/7 
Osborne 1 portable computer, 
11/6-7, 12/23, 19/2, 19/9, 
20/8 
Osborne, Adam, 11/6, 12/18, 

19/2, 20/1 
OSF (Open Software 

Foundation), 9/21, 11/26, 
12/11, 13/6, 19/18 
Motif software, 13/6, 14/8 
OSI computers . See Ohio 

Scientific Instruments 
Ovation integrated program, 

13/22 
OverDrive processors. See 
Intel Corporation 
/Microprocessors 
Owens, Don, 13/10-11 
Oyama, Terry, 10/19 
Ozzie, Raymond, 13/20, 15/10 



..p.. 

P6 and P54 microp 

See Intel/Micro 
PAC (Personal Aut 

Calculator) , 1/ 
Pac-Man game. See 
Pace microprocess 

National Semico 
Packard Bell Elec 

Inc., 11/22-23 
Packard Bell NEC 

16/16-17 
Packard, David, 2 
Packet communicat 
Page Description 

PDL 
Page, John D., 13 
Page, Rich, 10/5 
PageMaker softwar 
Palladin Software 

13/15 
Palm microcontrol 

IBM/Miscellaneo 
Palmer, Robert, B 
PalmPilot PDA. Se 

Robotics 
Palo Alto Researc 

(PARC) . See Xer 
Palo Alto Scienti 

See IBM/Miscell 
Paper tape, 1/15 

17/11 



rocessors . 
processors 
omatic 
13 

Namco 
or. See 
nductor 
tronics , 

16/16 

Inc . , 

/8 

ions, 2/13 

Language. See 

/18 

10/14, 11/11 
e . See Aldus 

company, 

ler. See 

us 

., 16/14 

e U.S. 

h Center 
ox/Misc . 
fie Center, 
aneous 
4/18, 17/4, 



Paperback Software 

International, 11/7, 13/15 

VP-Planner, 13/15 
Papert, Seymour, 2/12 
Paradox database. See Borland 

International 
Parasitic Engineering, 17/19 

Peripheral boards, 17/19 
PARC (Palo Alto Research 

Center). See Xerox/Misc. 
Parkinson, Joseph, 16/16 
Parkinson, Ward, 16/16 
Parsons, Keith, 7/4 
Pascal programming language, 

Also see Microsoft/ Prog . 
Languages and Apple 
Computer/ Software 

Apple Computer, 5/12, 7/3, 
10/10, 10/21 

Development of, 7/5 

Miscellaneous, 4/5, 11/15, 
13/8, 13/18 
Patch, Glenn E. , 18/7 
Pater son, Tim, 6/11, 6/14, 

12/3, 12/6, 12/9, 12/12-13, 

12/15, 13/1-2, 17/17-18 
Patterson, David, 8/8 
Patterson, James, 17/9 
Paul Allen Group, 19/23 
PC BASIC. See Microsoft 

/ Programming Languages 
PC Bus. See IBM/Miscellaneous 
PC computers. See 

IBM/Computers ( Personal ) 
PC Computing magazine, 18/7 
PC File database. See 

ButtonWare 
PC Forum conference, 19/26 
PC Magazine, 18/6 
PC Network. See IBM/Software 
PC Transporter card. See 

Applied Engineering 
PC Week magazine, 18/7 
PC World Communications Inc., 
18/7 

PC World magazine, 12/25, 
18/6-7 
PCs Limited company, 11/16, 
11/18 

Also see Dell Computer 
PC-8200 computer. See NEC 
PC-DOS. See IBM/Software 
PCC Newsletter . See People's 

Computer Company 
PCI (Peripheral Component 

Interconnect). See Intel/ 

Miscellaneous 
PCjr magazine, 18/7 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/43 



PCMail. See Microsof t/Applic . 

Programs 
PCNET (Personal Computer 

NETwork), 19/14 
PDA (Personal Digital 

Assistant), 14/10, 14/12, 

19/22 
PDL (Page Description 

Language), 10/6, 13/17 
PDP computers . See 

DEC/Computers 
PE-8 computer. See MITS 
Peachtree Software, Inc., 9/8, 
13/22 

Business Accounting Series, 
13/22 

Peachtree Complete, 13/22 
Peacock, H. B., 3/12 
Peanut project (PCjr) . See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
Peddle, Charles H. "Chuck", 

3/10, 3/13, 4/12, 4/15, 

5/14, 11/28 
P-Edit editor. See WordPerfect 
Peelings II magazine, 18/5 
Pelczarski, Mark, 13/26, 18/3 
Pen computing, 10/8, 14/9-10 
Penguin Software company, 
13/26 

Magic Paintbrush graphics 

utility, 13/26 
Penny Arcade game. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Pennywhistle modem, 17/19 
Pentium microprocessors. See 

Intel/Microprocessors 
People's Computer Company, 
18/1, 19/2, 20/1 

PCC Newsletter, 7/4, 18/1, 
19/1 

People' s Computers magazine, 
18/1 
People magazine, 12/6 
PepsiCola company, 10/3 
PerfectCalc, 11/8, 11/13 
PerfectFiler, 11/8, 11/13 
PerfectOffice. See Novell 
PerfectSpeller, 11/8, 11/13 
PerfectWriter, 11/8, 11/12 
Peripheral cards, 11/14, 

17/16-19 
Perot, Ross H., 6/15, 11/12 
Personal Automatic Calculator 

(PAC). See IBM/Computers 
Personal computer, 

- term origin, 20/7 

- the "first," 1/16, 2/2, 

2/7, 4/2, 4/7 



Personal Computer Fair and 

Exposition, 19/5 
Personal Computer Group. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
Personal computing, 

Hobby and amateur computing, 
2/14-16 

Miscellaneous, 1/3, 1/16, 
2/3, 4/1, 4/6, 4/10, 4/21, 
17/4, 18/1 

MITS Altair, 4/8 

Time sharing, 2/5 

Xerox, 4/20 
Personal Computing magazine, 

18/3 
Personal Computing 76 show, 

4/13, 5/7, 19/4 
Personal Computing Show!, 19/4 
Personal Digital Assistant. 

See PDA 
Personal Filing System. See 

Software Publishing Corp. 
Personal Pearl database, 11/7 
Personal Software, Inc., 

Also see VisiCorp 

Apple Computer, 5/14 

Founding of, 19/12 

IBM, 9/6, 9/8 

Other software, 7/11, 13/25, 
13/28-29 

VisiCalc development, 7/8-9 

VisiCorp, 13/5, 13/14 
Personal Systems Group. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
Personality Module. See 

Processor Technology 
PERT ( Program Evaluation and 

Review Technigue), 10/17 
Pertec Computer Corporation, 

4/11, 6/10-11, 17/7 
PET computers . See Commodore 
Peter Norton Computing, 16/14 
Peters, Chris, 12/2 
Peterson, Rich, 4/14 
Peterson, W.E. Pete, 13/11, 

16/15 
Pfeiffer, Eckhard, 16/3-4 
pfs software. See Software 

Publishing 
PGA (Professional Graphics 

Array), 20/5 
Philips N.V. company, 12/7, 

12/28, 17/9, 20/4 
Phoenix project (Apple IIGS) . 

See Apple Computer 
Phoenix Technologies Ltd., 

13/22 
Pico magazine, 18/8 



Index/44 A History of the Personal Computer 



Pinball Construction Set game. 

See Electronic Arts 
Pineapple computer, 11/14 
Pink project. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Pinpoint Publishing, 13/20 

Pinpoint Desk Accessories, 

13/20 
PIP (Programmable Integrated 

Processor). See Signetics 
Pirate Adventure game. See 

Adventure International 
Pitman, Doug, 16/16 
Pittman, Tom, 7/4 
Pixar Animation Studios, 19/23 

Toy Story film, 19/23 
PL/I (Programming 

Language/One) . See 
IBM/Software 

PL/I "G" subset. See ANSI 

PL/I compiler. See Digital 
Research 
PL/M (Programming Language for 

Microcomputers), 7/1-2, 7/6, 

13/9 
Planar process, 1/11 
PlanPerfect spreadsheet. See 

WordPerfect Corporation 
Piatt, Lew, 16/17 
Plattner, Hasso, 19/24 
PLUS/ 4 computer. See Commodore 
Pocketronic calculator. See 

Canon 
Pohlman, William B., 3/9 
PointCast Inc., 19/24 

PointCast Network, 19/24 
PolyMorphic Systems, 4/14-15, 
7/4 

Disk BASIC, 4/14 

Micro-Altair computer, 4/14 

POLY 88 computer, 4/14 

System 8813, 4/14 
Pong tennis game. See Atari 

Corporation 
Poor, Vic, 4/2 
Popular Computing magazine, 

18/3 
Popular Electronics magazine, 

4/8, 4/13, 6/5, 17/5, 17/11, 

17/19, 18/1, 18/8 
Popular Mechanics magazine, 

2/15 
Popular Science magazine, 3/18 
Porat, Marc, 19/22 
Portal, 15/13, 19/22 
Portable computers , 

Apple Computer, 10/12, 
10/26, 14/11 



Compag, 11/9-11, 12/3, 
12/21, 13/22 

IBM, 4/4, 4/10, 9/1, 9/25, 
14/8 

Other companies, 11/6, 11/8, 
11/12, 11/19-22, 11/30, 
13/11, 17/8, 

Tandy/Radio Shack, 11/2, 
12/2 

Term definition, 20/8 

Texas Instruments, 11/26 
P/OS operating system. See 

DEC/Software 
POSIX operating system, 15/2 
PostScript. See Adobe Systems 
Potter, Dave, 1/13 
Power architecture. See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
PowerOpen environment, 19/19 
PowerPC Alliance, 14/3, 14/6, 

14/9, 15/7-8, 16/1, 16/5, 

19/19 
PowerPC microprocessor. See 

IBM/Misc. and Motorola 
PowerPoint graphics. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Powerstation computer. See 

Exca liber Technologies 
POWERstation and POWERserver. 

See IBM/Computers (Personal) 
PPS microprocessors. See 

Rockwell 
Premium/286 computer. See AST 

Research 
Prentice-Hall Inc., 19/5 
Presentation Manager. See 

IBM/Software 
Princess game. See On-Line 

Systems 
Princeton University, 1/8 
Print Shop software. See 

Broderbund Software 
Printers, 17/12-16 

Ink jet, 17/14 

Laser, 11/11, 12/25, 13/27, 
17/15-16 

Thermal, 11/20, 17/16 

Wire matrix, 17/12-14 
Processor Technology 

Corporation, 4/10, 4/13-15, 
5/7, 6/12, 7/3-4, 
17/17-18, 19/2, 19/10 

3P+S (Parallel + Serial) 
board, 17/18 

C0NS0L operating system, 
4/13 

Helios disk drive, 4/14 

Memory expansion boards, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/45 



17/17-18 

Personality Module, 4/13 

PT-DOS operating system, 
4/14, 7/3 

Sol-10 Terminal Computer, 
4/13, 5/8, 6/10, 19/2, 
19/4, 19/10 

Sol-20, 4/13 

SOLOS operating system, 4/14 

VDM-1 (Video Display Module) 
board, 17/7, 17/18 
PRODAC IV computer. See 

Westinghouse 
Prodigy Services Company, 

19/16 
ProDOS (Professional Disk 

Operating System) . See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Professional Graphics Array. 

See PGA 
Professional Office. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Professional Word Processor. 

See MultiMate International 
ProFile hard disk. See Apple 

Computer/Accessories 
Profit Plan, 11/8 
Program Evaluation and Review 

Technigue. See PERT 
Programming languages , 

1/12-13, 2/11, 7/3-6, 12/21, 

13/7-9, 15/12 
Project MAC (Multiple Access 

Computer) . See MIT 
Project program. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
ProLinea and ProSignia 

computers. See Compag 

Computer 
ProPrinter. See IBM 

/Accessories 
PS/1 & 2 computers. See 

IBM/Computers ( Personal ) 
Psycho project (NT) . See 

Microsoft/Operating Systems 
p-System. See SofTech 

Microsystems 
PT-DOS operating system. See 

Processor Technology 
Publish It! See Timeworks 
Publisher program. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
PUP (PARC Universal Packet). 

See Xerox/Miscellaneous 

-Q- 

Q & A integrated program. See 
Symantec 



QDOS (Quick and Dirty 

Operating System) . See 

Seattle Computer Products 
QL (Quantum Leap) computer. 

See Sinclair Research 
Q-Link on-line service. See 

Quantum Computer Services 
QST magazine, 4/7, 18/1 
Quadram company, 17/19 

Quadboard, 17/19 
Quantum Corporation, 17/7, 

17/9 
Quantum Computer Services 
Inc., 19/15 

Q-Link on-line service, 
19/15 
Quark, Inc., 13/12, 13/24 

QuarkXPress desktop 

publishing program, 13/24 

Word Juggler, 13/12 
Quarterdeck Office Systems, 
12/18, 13/5 

DESQ windowing system, 
12/18, 13/5 

DESQview, 13/5 
Quasar project (Visi On) . See 

VisiCorp 
Quattro Pro spreadsheet. See 

Borland 
Quick Pascal. See Microsoft/ 

Programming Languages 
QuickBASIC and Quick C. See 

Microsoft/ Programming 

Languages 
QuickBooks. See Intuit 
QuickDraw. See Apple 

Computer/ Software 
Quicken. See Intuit 
QuickFile database, See 

Apple Computer/ Software 
Quinn, Peter, 10/11-12 
Qume company, 9/14 

Qume disk drive, 9/13 

Qume printer, 10/17 
Qureshey, Safi, 11/14 
QX computers. See Epson 

America 

-R- 

R/l, R/2 and R/3 software. See 

SAP 
R2000, R8000 and R10000 RISC 

microprocessors. See MIPS 
R2E. See REE (Realisations 

Etudes Electroniques ) 
Rabinow, Jacob, 1/10 
Raburn, Vern, 6/12, 6/14, 

12/1, 12/4, 19/23 



Index/46 A History of the Personal Computer 



Radio Shack. See Tandy/Radio 

Shack 
Radio-Electronics magazine, 

4/8-9, 17/11, 18/1 
Raikes, Jeffrey (Jeff) S., 

10/11, 12/2, 16/11 
Rainbow 100 computer. See 

DEC/Computers 
RAM (Random Access Memory), 

17/3 
Rambo project (Apple IIGS) . 

See Apple Computer/Computers 
RamCard. See Microsof t/Misc . 
RAND Corporation, 2/13 
Random Access Memory. See RAM 
Rashid, Richard (Rick), 13/4, 

16/9 
Raskin, Jef, 5/15-16, 

10/18-19, 10/21, 10/24, 

17/19 
Raster Blaster game. See 

Budgeco 
Ratliff, Wayne C, 7/9, 13/16 
Rattner, Justin, 8/3 
Ray, Phil, 4/2, 4/13, 13/12 
RCA company, 3/15, 12/7 

1802 microprocessor, 3/15 

1804 microprocessor, 3/15 

DVI (Digital Video 

Interactive), 12/7, 12/10 
Read Only Memory. See ROM 
Reader' s Digest organization, 

19/16 
Real Estate program. See 

Tandy/Radio Shack/Software 
Recherches et Etudes 

Electronigues. See REE 
Red Book specification, 20/ 4 
Red Hat Software Inc., 15/10 
Reduced Instruction Set 

Computing. See RISC 
REE (Realisations Etudes 
Electronigues), 4/7 

Micral computer, 3/8, 4/7 

R2E, 4/6 
Reed College, 5/3 
Reference sources, 20/3 
Regis McKenna agency, 5/9-10 
Relational database, 13/17-18 
Relational Software Inc. 

(RSI), 13/17 
Relay technology, 1/3-4 
.Release 1.0 newsletter, 19/25 
Remala, Rao, 12/18, 12/20 
Research and Engineering (The 

Magazine of Datamation) , 

1/1A 
Resource One, 19/1 



3 
6/14 



Set 

/5 

/7-8 

4/8 



Retailers, 19/10-12 
Reuters news service, 15/15 
Rhapsody project. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
Ribardiere, Laurent, 13/19 
Rickard, Jay, 10/13 
Ricoh Company, Ltd., 6/14 
Riddle, Michael, 13/23 
Rider, Ronald, 17/15, 17/2 
Ringewald, Erich, 10/25, 1 
RIOS project (RISC 

System/6000). See IBM/ 

Computers ( Personal ) 
RISC (Reduced Instruction 
Computing ) , 

Apple Computer, 16/1, 16 

Development of by IBM, 8 

IBM, 9/17, 13/8, 14/3, 1 

Microsoft, 12/17 

Miscellaneous, 8/8, 14/6, 
19/17 

Sun, 8/8, 11/26 
RISC-I microprocessor, 8/8 
Ritchie, Dennis M., 2/12, 7/5 
RJR Nabisco Inc., 16/6 
Roark, Raleigh, 12/5, 
Roberts, H. Edward, 4 

4/14, 6/5-6, 6/8, 2 
Roberts, Lawrence G., 
Robitaille, Roger, 18 
Robwin company, 19/12 
Roche, Gus, 4/2 
Rock, Arthur, 3/6, 5/ 

9/13 
Rockwell Internationa 
3/18, 20/3 

PPS-4 microprocesso 

PPS-8 microprocesso 
Roger Wagner Publishi: 
company, 13/30 

HyperStudio, 13/30 
Roizen, Heidi and Pet 
Rollins, Kevin B., 16 
Rolm Systems, 16/5 
ROM (Read Only Memory 
ROM magazine, 18/3 
Romeo, John, 19/22 
ROMP (Research Office products 

Microprocessor) . See 

IBM/Miscellaneous 
Rosen Electronics Letter, 

19/25 
Rosen, Benjamin M., 11/9, 

13/13, 16/4, 19/25 
Rosenfeld, Eric, 7/11 
Rosing, Wayne, 10/15 
Rotenberg, Jonathan, 19/3 
Rothmueller, Ken, 5/15, 10/15 



12 


77 


/8- 


-11, 


0/2 




2/13 


/3 




14, 


7/8, 


1, 


3/16, 


r , 


3/16 


r , 


3/16 


ng 




er , 


13/15 


/4 




), 


17/3 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/47 



Routers . See Data routers 
Rowley, John, 13/2 
RS-232C standard, 9/7, 19/18 
RSBASIC. See Tandy/Radio 

Shack/ Software 
RT-11 operating system. See 

DEC/Software 
Rubinstein, Seymour, 7/7 
Ruby project. See Compaq 

Computer 
Russell, Stephen, 2/14 

-S- 

S-100 Bus, 4/10, 4/20, 6/14, 

13/1, 17/18, 17/20-21, 19/9 
SA-400 and SA-900 diskette 

drives . See Shugart & 

Associates 
SAA (Systems Application 

Architecture). See IBM/ 

Software 
Sachs, Jonathan M., 13/13 
Sackman, Robert, 11/25 
Safeguard Scientifics company, 

13/27 
SAGE (Semi Automatic Ground 

Environment), 1/7, 1/9, 

1/12, 1/16 
Sakoman, Steve, 10/8, 14/10 
Salsberg, Arthur P., 18/8 
Samna company, 13/13 
Sams, Jack, 9/4, 12/11-12 
Samson, Peter, 2/14 
Samuel, Arthur L., 1/13 
Sandberg-Diment , Erik, 18/3 
Sandel, Alex, 11/23 
Sander-Cederlof , Bob, 18/5 
Sander, Wendell, 10/9 
Sanders Associates, 2/14 
Sanders, Walter Jeremiah 

( Jerry) , 3/15 
Santa Cruz Operation (SCO), 

Inc., 12/10, 12/15, 13/4, 
13/15, 19/17 

SCO Professional 

spreadsheet, 13/15 
SAP AG (Systems Applications 
Products), 19/24 

R/l and R/2 accounting 
systems software, 19/24 

R/3 system software, 19/24 
Sara project (Apple III) . See 

Apple Computer/Computers 
Sargent, Murray, 12/20 
SARGON chess program. See 

Games 
Sarubbi, Joseph, 9/6, 9/12, 

9/23-24 



Satellite Software 

International (SSI), 
13/10-11 

Also see WordPerfect 
Corporation 
Satz, Greg, 19/21 
SB-86 (Software Bus-86). See 

Lifeboat Associates 
SBASIC (Dartmouth Structured 

BASIC) . See Dartmouth 

College 
SBASIC (Kaypro), 11/8 
SC/MP microprocessor. See 

National Semiconductor 
Scalable Processor 

Architecture (SPARC). See 

Sun Microsystems 
SCALP (Self Contained ALGOL 

Processor) . See Dartmouth 

College 
SCAMP (Special Computer APL 

Machine Portable) . See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
SCCS Interface newsletter. See 

Southern California Computer 

Society 
SCDP. See Software 

Consultation Design and 

Production 
Scelbi Computer Consulting, 
Inc., 4/7-8 

Scelbi-8B, 4/8 

Scelbi-8H, 3/8, 4/7 
Schedule + program. See 

Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Schlumberger Ltd., 4/18 
Schmidt, Eric, 16/12 
Schriber, Gene, 3/11 
SCI Systems, Inc., 19/24 
Scientific American magazine, 

4/3, 18/8 
Scientific Control Systems 

(SCS), 2/9 
Scientific Data Systems (SDS), 

2/9, 4/4 
SCO Professional spreadsheet. 

See Santa Cruz Operation 
Scott, Bruce, 13/17 
Scott, Michael M., 5/9, 5/11, 

7/7, 10/2, 10/6, 10/15, 

10/19, 11/16, 12/3, 12/14-15 
Scribe printer. See Apple 

Computer /Accessories 
SCSI (Small Computer System 

Interface), 17/21 
Sculley, John C, 10/3-8, 

10/9, 10/23, 12/7, 14/10, 

16/1, 16/5, 20/1 



Index/48 A History of the Personal Computer 



Seagate Technology, Inc 
9/12, 17/7-9 

ST-506 hard drive, 17 
Sears Roebuck and Compa 

9/8, 19/16 
Seattle Computer Produc 
Inc., 6/11, 6/14, 1 
12/9, 12/12-14, 13/ 
17/17-18 

8086 microprocessor c 
6/12, 12/13, 13/1 

86-DOS operating syst 
12/13-14, 13/2 

Memory cards, 17/18 

QDOS (Quick and Dirty 
Operating System) , 
12/12, 13/1-2, 17/1 
Seiko company, 17/13 
Selective Seguence Elec 

Calculator (SSEC). Se 

IBM/Computers 
Selector database, 7/9 
Selker, Ted, 14/9 
SEMATECH, Inc., 8/6 
Seguoia Capital, 5/9, 

15/14, 19/21 
Series 70, 80, 100 and 

computers. See Hewlet 

Packard 
Servers, 9/25, 11/11, 1 

13/27, 14/6, 15/5, 15 

16/13-14, 19/21 
Set-top terminals, 15/6 
Seuss, C. David, 13/28 
Sevin-Rosen Partners, 1 

13/13 
Sevin, L.J., 3/15, 13/1 
SGML (Standard Generali 

Markup Language), 20/ 
Shannon, Claude E., 1/1 
Shapiro, Fred R., 20/6 
SHARE user group, 1/14, 
Shareware, 13/16, 19/22 
Shaw, Greg, 17/18 
Shih, Stan, 11/13 
Shima, Masatoshi, 3/8, 
Shirley, Jon A., 12/5-6 

12/11, 16/8 
Shockley, William B., 1 
Shows, 19/4-5 
Shrayer, Michael, 7/6-7 
Shugart Associates, 5/1 

7/1-2, 11/28, 17/7-8, 

5.25-inch floppy disk 
17/6 

SA-400 diskette drive 

SA-900 diskette drive 
Shugart Technology, 17/ 



/9 
ny, 

ts, 

2/3, 

1-2, 

ard, 



i/11, 



/14, 

200 

t- 

3/18, 
/12, 

, 16/11 

1/9, 

3 

zed 

3 

3, 20/6 

2/11 



3/14 
, 12/9, 

/ll 



2, 
17/22 
drive, 

17/7 
17/7 



Shugart, Alan F., 17/7-8 
Sidekick program, See Borland 
Sideways program, 13/16 
Siemans AG company, 3/15 
Sierra On-Line Inc., 13/13, 
13/25 
Homeword word processor, 

13/13 
King's Quest game, 13/25 
Mystery House game, 13/25 
Princess and Wizard games, 
13/25 
Sigma V time computer. See 

Xerox/ Computers 
Signetics Corporation, 3/16, 
5/2 
2650 processor, 3/16 
Programmable Integrated 
Processor (PIP), 3/16 
SIGPC. See Association for 
Computing Machinery (ACM) 
Silentype printer. See Apple 

Computer /Accessories 
Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI), 
11/23, 14/7, 14/11, 15/11, 
16/13, 16/15-16, 19/18 
Geometry Engine integrated 

chip, 11/23 
Indigo workstation, 14/11 
IRIS 1000 3-D terminal, 

11/23 
IRIS 1400 3-D workstation, 

11/23 
IRIS Graphics Library, 11/23 
02 workstation, 14/11 
Silicon Valley -term origin, 

20/9 
Silver, David, 13/28 
Silverberg, Brad A., 16/8 
SIM4 and 8 simulator boards. 

See Intel/ Miscellaneous 
Simonyi, Charles, 4/5, 7/6, 

12/9, 12/18, 12/22-23, 12/25 
Sinclair Radionics company, 

11/23 
Sinclair Research Ltd., 
11/23-24, 11/27 
QL (Quantum Leap) computer, 

11/24 
ZX80 computer, 11/24 
ZX81 computer, 11/24, 11/27 
Sinclair, Clive M., 11/23 
Singer, Hal, 18/1 
Singleton, Henry E., 5/14, 

9/13 
Sippl, Roger, 13/18 
Sirius Software, 13/25 

Both Barrels game, 13/25-26 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/49 



Cyber Strike game, 13/2 

E-Z Draw utilities, 13/ 

Star Cruiser game, 13/2 
Sirius Systems Technology 
11/28 

Sirius 1 computer, 11/2 
Sketchpad, 2/10 
Skiwriter word processor, 

11/18 
Skoll, Jeff, 19/21 
SLOT (Scanned Laser Outpu 

Terminal) printer. See 

Xerox/Miscellaneous 
Small Business Applicatio 
Inc., 7/7 

Magic Wand word process 
7/7 
Small Computer System 

Interface. See SCSI 
Small Scale Integration. 

SSI 
Smalltalk language. See 

Xerox/ Software 
Smart integrated program, 

13/22 
Smartmodem 300. See Hayes 

Microcomputer Products 
Smith, Burrell C, 5/16, 

10/18-19, 17/16 
Smith, Marshall, 11/5 
Smith, Mary Carol, 13/28 
Smith, Steve, 6/13 
Smithsonian Institution, 
19/9 

National Museum of Amer 
History, 19/9 
Smoke Signal Broadcasting 
company, 17/21 

Chieftain computer, 17/ 
Soft Warehouse Inc., 19/1 
Softalk Publishing, Inc., 

Softalk , magazine, 18/4 
Softbank COMDEX Inc., 19/ 
Softbank Corporation, 15/ 

19/5, 19/24 
SoftCard. See Microsoft/M 
Softdisk Inc., 18/5, 18/7 

Big Blue Disk magazine, 

Diskworld for the Macin 
magazine, 18/5 

Gamer's Edge magazine, 

Loadstar magazine, 18/5 
18/8 

On Disk Monthly magazin 
18/5 

Softdisk GS magazine, 1 

Softdisk magazine, 18/5 
SofTech Microsystems, Inc 



25 



t 



See 



19/6, 



21 


18/4 
-5 
5 
15, 



18/7 
tosh 

18/7 



8/5 



9/8, 13/4 13/8 

UCSD p-System, 9/8, 11/7, 
13/4, 13/19 
Softimage, Inc., 16/10 
Softkey International, Inc., 

16/15 
Softkey Software Products, 

16/15 
Softsel Computer Products, 

19/12 
SoftSide, magazine, 18/3 
Software, 1/12-14, 2/11-13, 

7/1-11, 13/1-29 
Software & Information 

Industry Association, 19/19 
Software Arts, Inc., 7/8-9, 
13/14-15, 13/29, 19/12 

TK! Solver program, 13/29 
Software Bus-86. See Lifeboat 

Associates 
Software Consultation Design 
and Production (SCDP) 
company, 7/9 

Vulcan data base, 7/9, 9/2, 
13/16 
Software Development 

Laboratories, 13/17 
Software Garden, Inc., 13/15 
Software Package One (SP-1), 

7/6 
Software Plus company, 13/16, 

19/12 
Software Publishers 

Association (SPA), 19/19 
Software Publishing and 

Research Co. ( S . P . A. R. C . ) , 

18/4 
Software Publishing 

Corporation (SPC), 13/13, 
13/15, 13/18, 13/21 

Assistant series of programs 
(IBM), 13/17 

First Choice, 13/21 

Personal Filing System, 
13/18 

pfs:File, 13/18 

pfs:Graph, 13/15, 13/18 

pfs:Plan, 13/18 

pfs:Report, 13/18 

pfs:Word, 13/18 

pfs:Write, 13/13 
Software Publishing, Inc., 
13/27 

Harvard Graphics, 13/27 
Sol computers. See Processor 

Technology 
Solid State Software command 

module. See Texas 



Index/50 A History of the Personal Computer 



Instruments 
Solid State Speech 

synthesizer. See Texas 

Instruments 
Solomon, Leslie (Les) , 4/9, 

4/13, 18/8 
SOLOS operating system. See 

Processor Technology 
Son, Masayoshi, 15/15, 19/24 
Sony Corporation, 10/17, 

10/21, 17/8, 17/9, 17/22, 

20/4 
Soon, Chay Kwong, 17/16 
Sophisticated Operating System 

(SOS). See Apple Computer/ 

Software 
Sorcim, 11/6, 13/15 

SuperCalc spreadsheet, 
11/6-7, 13/15, 13/29 

SuperCalc3 spreadsheet, 
13/15 

SuperCalc5 spreadsheet, 
13/15 
Sound Blaster audio card. See 

Creative Technology 
Source. See Telecomputing 

Corporation of America 
Southern California Computer 

Society ( SCCS ) , 7/6, 18/2, 
19/3 

SCCS Interface newsletter, 
18/2 
Southwest Technical Products 
Corporation (SwTPC) , 
4/12, 4/15, 6/12, 7/4, 
11/24, 17/21, 19/10 

Digital Logic Microlab, 4/12 

KBD-2 Keyboard and Encoder 
Kit, 4/12 

SS-50 bus, 4/12, 17/21 

SwTPC 6800 Computer System, 
3/11, 4/12, 7/4, 17/21 

SwTPC 6809, 11/24 

SwTPC BASIC, 7/4 
SPA. See Software Publishers 

Association 
Space Craft, Inc., 19/24 
Space Quarks game. See 

Br0derbund Software 
Space Wars game. See Games 
SPARC (Scalable Processor 

Architecture ) microprocessor 

and workstation. See Sun 

Microsystems 
Sparks, H. L., 9/6, 9/23, 11/9 
Spatial navigation, 20/1 
Specifications, 2 0/4 
Spectrum Information 



Technologies , 16/1 
SpellStar. See MicroPro 

International 
Sphere Corporation, 3/1 

BASIC computer, 4/12 

Hobbiest computer, 4/ 

Intelligent computer, 

System 340 computer, 
Spindler, Michael "Mike 

10/7, 16/1 
Spinnaker Software 

Corporation, 13/28, 1 
Sporck, Charles E., 3/1 
Spracklen, Dan and Kath 
Spreadsheets, 7/8-9, 11 

12/22-24, 12/26, 13/1 

13/20-21 
Springer-Verlag company 
Sprite graphics, 11/5 
Spyglass, Inc., 15/11, 
SQL (Structured Query 

Language), 13/17 
SR-60A personal 

computer/ calculator . 

Texas Instruments 
SRAM (Static Random Ace 

Memory) , 17/3 
SRI. See Stanford Resea 

Institute 
SS-50 bus. See Southwes 

Technical Products 

Corporation 
SSEC (Selective Seguenc 

Electronic Calculator 

IBM/Computers 
SSI (Small Scale Integr 

3/5 
SSI Software company, 1 

Also see WordPerfect 

Corporation 
SSI* software. See Word 

Corporation 
ST-506 hard drive. See 

Technology 
Stac Electronics, 16/10 

DoubleSpace utility 
Stand-alone Disk BASIC. 

Microsoft/ Programming 

Languages 
Standard Generalized Ma 

Language. See SGML 
Standards, 20/4 
Stanford Linear Acceler 

Center (SLAC) , 5/1, 1 
Stanford Research Insti 
(SRI), 2/3, 2/9, 2/ 
17/23 

ARC (Augmented Resear 



1, 4/12 

12 

4/12 
4/12 
H. , 



6/15 



e, 


, 7/11 


/30, 


3- 


-15, 




18/8 


1! 


3/12 



ess 

rch 
t 

See 
ation ) , 
3/11 

Perfect 
Seagate 



16/10 
See 



rkup 



ator 
9/2 

tute 
11, 

ch 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/51 



Center), 2/10-11 
NLS (On-line System) 
2/10-11 
Stanford University, 

Apple Computer his 
collection, 19/9 
Association with, 4/ 
11/23, 11/25, 13/2 
15/14, 17/16, 19/2 
Miscellaneous, 20/9 
RISC microprocessor, 
Software, 7/4, 7/6 
Stanley, Robert C, 20 
Star computer. See 

Xerox/ Computers 
Star Craft company, 13 
Star Cruiser game. See 

Software 

Star Division, 16/13 

StarOffice, 16/13 

StarPortal, 16/14 

Starkweather, Gary, 17 

Static Random Access M 

See SRAM 
Statistical Analysis p 
See Tandy/Radio Shac 
Software 
Stephensen, John, 4/14 
Stephenson, Robert, M. 
Stibitz, George, 1/3 
Stiskin, Nahum, 12/5 
Storage devices, 1/9-1 

17/4-10 
Strachey, Christopher, 
Stritter, Skip, 8/8 
Strom, Terence, M., 1 
Strong, David, 12/5 
Stroustrup, Bjarne, 13 
Structured BASIC. See 

Dartmouth College 
Structured programming 
Structured Query Langu 

SQL 
Styleware company, 13/ 
subLogic company, 13/2 
Subnotebook computer, 
Suding, Robert, 4/20 
Sugiura, Go, 17/12 
Summagraphics Corporat 
17/22 
Bit pad, 17/22 
Sun, David, 19/22 
Sun Microsystems 
Beginning of 
Java, 15/13 
Miscellaneous, 9/1 
16/13-15, 16/17, 
19/18 



torical 

14, 

1, 

1-22 

8/8 

/2 



/25 
Sirius 



/15 
emory . 

rogram. 

k/ 



, 16/6 

0, 

2/3 
/22 

n 

, 13/6 
age . See 

21 

6 

20/8 



Inc . 
11/2 



4-26 

7, 13/8, 
19/15, 



RISC microprocessor, 8/ 
14/7 
386i personal computer, 

11/26, 16/13 
Darwin workstation, 16/13 
Java programming language 

15/13, 16/17 
Jini software, 15/13 
Oak project (Java), 15/13 
Solaris operating system, 

11/26, 16/13 
SPARC (Scalable Processor 
Architecture ) 
microprocessor, 8/8, 
11/26, 16/13 
SPARCstation 1, 8/8, 11/2 

13/8 
Sun-1 workstation, 11/25 
Sun-2 workstation, 11/25, 

19/9 
Sun-3 workstation, 11/25 
SunOS operating system, 

11/25 
Sun UNIX, 11/26 
SuperSPARC microprocessor 

14/7, 16/13 
The Network is the Comput 

slogan, 11/25 
UltraSPARC microprocessor 
14/7, 16/13 
SunSoft company, 19/17 
Super VGA, 20/5 
Super-Pace. See National 

Semiconductor 
Super-Sort. See MicroPro 

International 
SuperCalc spreadsheets. See 

Sorcim 
SuperPET 9000 series. See 

Commodore 
Superscalar processor, 14/3 

4/7 
SuperSPARC microprocessor 

Sun Microsystems 
Sutherland, Ivan E., 2/10 
Sutherland, James F., 2/15 
SWEET16, software, 7/11 
Swingle, Richard, 14/11 
Switcher program. See Apple 

Computer /Software 
SwTPC. See Southwest Techni 

Products Corporation 
SwyftCard. See Information 

Appliance 
SX-64 computer. See Commodo 
Sybase, Inc., 13/18 
Sydnes, Bill, 9/4, 9/13 
Symantec Corporation, 13/29 



2( 



4, 
See 
4/5 



cal 



Index/52 A History of the Personal Computer 



16/14 

Q&A integrated 
13/22 
Symphony program. 

Development 
Synertek, Inc., 3 

10/10 
SynOptics Communi 

19/17 
System/3 computer 

IBM/Computers 
System 7 operatin 

Apple Computer/ 
System 340 comput 

Sphere 
System/360 and 37 

See IBM/Compute 
System 8813 compu 

PolyMorphic 
System One comput 

EPD company 
System R (Relatio 

specification) . 

Software 
System Zero to Th 

computers. See 
SystemPro compute 

Computer 
Systems Developme 

(SDD) . See Xero 
Systems Engineeri 

Laboratories, 2 
Systems Product D 

IBM/Miscellaneo 



program, 

See Lotus 

/18, 8/8, 

cations , 

See 

g system. See 
Software 
er. See 

computers . 

rs 

ter. See 

er kit. See 

nal database 
See IBM/ 

ree 

Cromemco 

r. See Compag 

nt Division 

x/Misc. 

ng 

/9 

ivision. See 

us 



T3100 lapto 

Toshiba 
Tablet comp 
Taligent In 
16/16, 19 
Tandem Comp 
Tandon Corp 

17/8-9 

Tandy Corpo 

Tandy/Radio 

Beginni 

Discont 

compu 

Later r 

Microso 

12/5, 

Miscell 

5/17, 

18/4, 

Softwar 

13/18 

Computers 



p computer. See 



uter, 11/ 
c, 15/7- 
/18-19 
uter Inc. 
oration, 

ration, 4 

Shack, 
ng of, 4/ 
inue pers 
ters, 16/ 
eleases , 
ft, 6/11- 

12/28 
aneous, 4 

9/1-2, 1 

19/10-11 
e, 7/3-4, 



20 20/8 
8, 16/6, 

, 16/3 
9/8, 9/24, 

/lb, 11/1? 

16-17 

onal 

15 

11/1-3 

12, 12/2, 

/lb, A/21, 
7/21, 
, 19/15 
7/11, 



and Accessories: 



Expansion un 
Model 100, 1 
Tandy 1000, 
TRS-80 and T 
Developmen 
Microsoft 
Miscellane 
9/1, 18/ 
Software, 
13/14, 1 
TRS-80 Color 
(CoCo), 11 
TRS-80 Mini 
4/17, 7/3 
TRS-80 Model 

computer, 
TRS-80 Model 
TRS-80 Model 
TRS-80 Model 

11/1 
TRS-80 Model 
TRS-80 Pocke 
11/2 
Software : 

General Ledg 
Inventory Co 

7/11 
Level-1 BASI 

7/4 
Level II and 
See Micros 
Languages 
Real Estate, 
RSBASIC, 13/ 
Statistical 
TRSDOS opera 
4/17, 7/3 
Tandy, Charles, 
11/3, 12/2, 12 
18/3 
Tandy, Dave, 4/1 
Tape drives, 1/7 
Tate, George, 13 

16/4, 19/12 
Taylor, Bob, 2/1 
Tchao, Michael, 
TCP/IP (Transpor 
Protocol/Inter 
19/13 
Teager, Herbert 
TEC company, 17/ 
TechAlliance, 18 
Technology Ventu 

12/1, 12/8 

Tecmar , Inc . , 17 

Tektronix compan 

TELCOMU communi c 

program, 11/13 



it, 4/17 

1/2, 12/2 

11/3 

RS-80 Model I, 

t of, 4/16-17 

/11-12, 6/14 
ous, 3/14, 
4, 19/9 
7/4, 7/11, 
3/25 

Computer 
/2 
Disk System, 

100 Portable 
11/2 
16, 11/2 
4, 11/3 

II, 4/17, 

III, 11/1 
t Computer, 



er, 7/11 
ntrol System, 

C, 4/16-17, 

III BASIC, 
oft/ Progr . 

7/11 
7 

Analysis, 7/11 
ting system, 

4/16, 11/1, 
/44, 17/15, 



, 2/7, 17/4-5 
II, 13/16, 

3, 4/5 

14/10 

t Control 

face Program) , 

M., 2/3 

14 

/4 

re Investors, 

/19 

y, 12/2, 19/1 

ations 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/53 



Tele-Communications, Inc., 

16/10 
Telecomputing Corporation of 
America, 19/16 
The Source, 9/8, 17/20, 
19/16-17 
Teledyne Inc., 5/14, 9/13, 

11/22-23 
Teleprinter, 2/9, 17/10 
Teletype Corporation, 10/17, 
17/11 
ASR-33 terminal, 6/1, 10/17, 

17/11 
Models 33 and 35, 17/11 
Teletype terminal, 2/7, 
2/10, 2/15, 5/4, 5/10, 
6/1, 10/14, 17/4, 
17/10-11, 19/1 
Teletypewriter, 2/4 
Terminology origins, 20/6-9 
Terrell, Paul, 5/6, 5/9, 19/10 
Tesler, Lawrence G. "Larry", 
4/6, 5/15, 7/6, 10/14-15, 
14/10 
Tevanian, Avidis, 13/4, 15/7 
Texas Instruments, Inc., 

Integrated circuit, 1/11 
Microprocessor, 3/7, 

3/11-13, 3/16-17, 8/8, 
14/8 
Miscellaneous, 3/5, 4/2, 
5/17, 6/10, 11/1, 11/9 
Personal computers, 

4/18-19, 11/27, 16/17 
Computers : 

SR-60A personal computer 

/calculator, 4/19 
TI CC40 computer, 11/27 
TI-99/4 computer, 3/13, 

4/19, 11/27 
TI-99/4A computer, 11/27, 

13/7 
TIPC (Texas Instruments 
Professional Computer), 
11/27 
Miscellaneous : 

Solid State Software 

command module, 4/19 
Solid State Speech 

synthesizer, 4/19 
TI 9980 microprocessor, 

3/13 
TI BASIC, 11/27 
TMS320 Digital signal 

processor (DSP) , 8/8 
TMS1000 microprocessor, 

3/12 
TMS9000 series of 



microprocessors, 3/13 
TMS9900 microprocessor, 
3/13, 4/19, 6/11 
Text editor, 4/19 
Thacker, Charles P. "Chuck", 

4/5 
The American Computer Museum 

Ltd., 19/6 
The Apple II Review magazine, 

18/6 
The Computer Hobbyist 

newsletter, 18/1 
The Computer Museum, 2/15, 

4/3, 19/7 
The Computer Museum History 

Center, 19/7-8 
The Electric Pencil. See 

Michael Shrayer Software 

company 
The Interface Group Inc., 19/5 
The Network is the Computer 

slogan. See Sun Microsystems 
The Reactive Engine thesis, 

4/5 
The Road Ahead book, 15/15, 

20/1 
The Source. See Telecomputing 

Corporation of America 
Thermal printers . See Printers 
Thi, Truong Trong, 4/7 
ThinkJet printer. See Hewlett- 
Packard 
ThinkPad computer. See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
Thoman, G. Richard, 16/6 
Thompson, Kenneth L., 2/12 
Thomson-CSF company, 8/8 
TI-99/4 and TI-99/4A 

computers . See Texas 

Instruments 
Tiger system project. See 

Microsoft/Miscellaneous 
Time magazine, 10/2, 12/6, 

18/9, 19/20 
Time Manager. See Microsoft/ 

Application Programs 
Time sharing, 

1960's, 2/3-6, 2/9, 2/12, 
2/16 

Miscellaneous, 4/1, 6/1-2, 
19/1, 19/15 
TimeOut modules. See Beagle 

Bros . 
Timeworks company, 13/24 

Publish It! , 13/24 
Timex Corporation, 11/24, 
11/27 

Timex/Sinclair 1000 



Index/54 A History of the Personal Computer 



computer, 11/24, 11/27 
Tiny BASIC, 4/17, 7/4, 18/2 
Tiny Troll program, 7/11, 

13/13, 13/28 
TIPC computer. See Texas 

Instruments 
Titus, Jonathan A., 4/8 
TK! Solver program. See 

Software Arts 
T/Maker spreadsheet, 13/15 
TMS processors. See Texas 

Instruments /Miscellaneous 
Tokyo Shibaura Electric 

Company. See Toshiba 
Tom Swift Terminal, 19/2 
Tomash, Erwin, 19/6 
Tommervik, Al , 18/4-5 
Tommervik, Margot, 18/5 
Toolbox. See Apple Computer/ 

Software 
Topfer, Morton L., 16/4 
TopView user interface. See 

IBM/Software 
Torode, John, 7/1 
Torvalds, Linus, 15/9 
Toshiba Corporation, 11/27, 
17/3-4, 17/16 

T3100 laptop computer, 11/27 
Towne, James C, 12/2-3, 12/5 
Toy Story film. See Pixar 
TRIO project (Lotus 1-2-3). 

See Lotus Development 

Corporation 
Trackball pointing device, 

10/26 
TRACKPOINT pointing device. 

See IBM/Miscellaneous 
TRADIC (TRAnsistor Digital 

Computer ) , 1/6 
Traf-O-Data company, 6/4-5 
Tramel Technology Limited 

(TTL), 11/5, 11/14 
Tramiel, Jack, 4/15, 11/5, 

11/14 
Transistor, 1/5, 1/10-11, 

2/14-15, 3/5, 3/9-10, 3/12 
Transport Control Protocol/ 

Interface Program. See 

TCP/IP 
Transportable computer, 20/8 
Transwarp card. See Applied 

Engineering 
Trenton Computer Festival, 

19/4 
Tribble, Guy "Bud" L., 

10/18-20, 11/12 
Tripp, Dr. Robert, 18/4 
TRS computers. See Tandy/Radio 



Shack/ Computers 
TRSDOS operating system. See 

Tandy/ Radio Shack/ Software 
True BASIC. See Dartmouth 

College 
Truelmage fonts, 12/11, 12/20 
TrueType fonts, 12/20, 15/2 
TRW company, 6/4 
Tschira, Klaus, 19/24 
TSR (Terminate and Stay 

Resident) , 13/29 
Tu, John, 19/22 
Tuckey, John W. , 20/6 
Turbo BASIC, Turbo C and Turbo 

Pascal. See Borland 

International 
TurboMac computer. See Apple 

Computer/ Computers 
TV Dazzler board. See Cromemco 
TV Typewriter, 17/11, 19/2 

TVT-1 prototype, 17/11 
Twiggy floppy disk drive. 

See Apple Computer/ 

Accessories 
TX-0, TX-1 and TX-2 computers. 

See MIT 
TX-80 printer. See Epson 

America 
Tymshare, Inc., 2/11 

AUGMENT system, 2/11 
Typing Tutor. See Kriya 

Systems and Microsoft 
/Application Programs 

-u- 

U.S. Army Ordnance Department, 

1/5 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 

19/13 
U.S. Government, 15/2, 17/4, 

19/13 
U.S. Patent and Trademark 

Office, 3/16-17, 14/8, 15/3 
U.S. Robotics Corporation, 
14/12, 16/17, 17/18-20, 
20/3 

PalmPilot PDA, 14/12 

X2 technology, 20/3 
U.S. Venture Partners, 11/25 
UCSD p-System. See SofTech 

Microsystems 
UCSD Pascal, 7/5, 9/8, 13/4, 

13/8 
Uiterwyk, Robert, 7/4 
Ultimax computer. See 

Commodore 
UltraLite portable computer. 

See NEC 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/55 



Ultraportable computer, 20/8 
UltraSPARC microprocessor. See 

Sun Microsystems 
Ungermann, Ralph, 3/14 
UniDisk. See Apple Computer/ 

Accessories 
United Technologies, 3/15, 8/8 
UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic 

Computer), 1/5, 1/8, 1/12, 

19/9 
Universal Resource Locator. 

See URL 
University of California, 5/3, 

7/5, 8/8, 10/3, 10/7, 11/25, 

12/21, 12/23, 13/8 
University of Arizona, 12/20 
University of Colorado, 5/3, 

12/3 
University of Delaware, 11/6 
University of Illinois, 

15/10-11 
University of Manchester, 1/6, 

1/9 
University of Minnesota, 19/6 
University of Pennsylvania, 

1/5, 10/4 
University of Texas, 11/16 
University of Utah, 2/11, 

7/10, 13/10, 13/23 
University of Washington, 

6/3-5, 7/1 
UNIX International, 13/6 

Open Look software, 13/6 
UNIX operating system. See 

AT&T 
Ural II computer, 12/22 
URL (Universal Resource 

Locator), 19/14 
UseNet (Users NETwork), 19/14 
User interface: 

Early developments, 2/3, 
2/9-11 

Apple Computer, 5/14, 10/15, 
10/18, 10/22, 12/18, 13/5, 
13/21 

IBM, 9/17, 9/20-22, 12/10, 
12/16, 15/4, 15/8 

Microsoft, 12/3, 12/5, 12/7, 
12/17-18, 12/20-22, 15/1, 
15/3 

Other developments, 2/10-11, 
13/5-6, 13/11, 13/13, 
15/10 

Xerox, 4/4-5, 10/2, 11/29 
USI International company, 

13/28 

-v~ 



V.32 and V.34 standards. See 

ITU 
V-30 microprocessor. See NEC 
Valentine, Donald T., 5/9, 

5/14, 15/14, 19/21 
ValuePoint computers. See 

IBM/Computers (Personal) 
Van Natta, Bruce, 4/13 
Vaporware - term origin, 

12/19, 20/9 
Varian Associates, 5/2 
VAX computer. See 

DEC/Computers 
VDM-1 (Video Display Module) 

board. See Processor 

Technology 
VDM-1 Video Display Terminal, 

17/12 
VDP computers. See IMS 

Associates 
Vector Graphic, 17/19 

Peripheral boards, 17/19 
Veit, Stanley, 5/7-8 18/7, 

18/9, 19/10 
Venrock Associates, 5/14, 7/8 
Ventura Software Inc., 13/24 

Ventura Publisher program, 
13/24 
Verbatim Corporation, 17/5, 

17/22 
Vermeer Technologies Inc., 
16/11 

FrontPage program, 16/11 
Versabus bus standard. See 

Motorola 
VESA (Video Electronics 

Standards Association), 
17/21, 19/20 

VL bus, 17/21 
Vezza, Albert, 13/24 
VGA (Video Graphics Array) , 

9/18, 14/9, 20/5 
VIC BASIC, VIC-20, VICMODEM 

and VICTERM. See Commodore 
Victor Business Products, 

11/28 
Victor Technologies Inc., 
11/27, 12/4 

Victor 9000 computer, 11/28 
Video standards, 20/5 
Video Electronics Standards 

Association. See VESA 
Video games, 1/11, 2/14, 4/16, 

7/8, 11/14 
Video Graphics Array. See VGA 
Video Interface Chip. See 

Commodore 
Video Technology, 11/14 



Index/56 A History of the Personal Computer 



128EX/2 computer, 11/14 
Laser 128 computer, 11/13 
Vieth, Kathy, 14/9 
Viewpoint system. See 

Xerox/ Computers 
Viruses, 20/2 
VisiCorp, 12/3, 12/17-18, 
13/5, 13/14-15, 13/28, 
19/12 
Quasar project (Vision), 

13/5 
VisiCalc (Visible 
Calculator ) , 
Apple Computer, 5/14, 

5/17, 10/1 
Development of, 7/8-9 
IBM Personal Computer, 

9/2, 9/6, 9/8 
Microsoft, 12/22-23 
Miscellaneous, 7/12, 13/5, 

13/28, 19/12 
VisiCorp, 13/14-15 
VisiCalc Advanced Version, 

13/14 
VisiCalc III, 10/11 
VisiGraph, 13/5 
Vision graphic interface, 
12/3, 12/17-18, 13/5, 
13/15 
VisiPlot program, 7/11, 

13/13, 13/28-29 
VisiTrend program, 7/11, 

13/13, 13/28 
VisiWord word processor, 
13/5 
Visio Corporation, 16/12 
Visual BASIC. See Microsoft/ 

Programming Languages 
VL bus. See VESA 
VLSI (Very Large Scale 

Integration), 11/12 
VM/PC (Virtual 

Machine/ Personal Computer). 
See IBM/Software 
VMS operating systems . See 

DEC/Software 
Volition Systems company, 13/8 
Volkswriter word processor. 

See Lifetree Software 
von Meister, William, 19/16 
von Neumann, John, 1/12 
VP-Planner spreadsheet. See 
Paperback Software 
International 
VT52, VT78 and VT100 computers 
and terminals. See DEC 
/Miscellaneous 
Vulcan data base. See Software 



Consultation Design and 
Production 



-w- 

W65C816. See Weste 

Center 
Wa, Ng Kai, 17/16 
Wadsworth, Nat, 4/ 
Wagman, David, 19/ 
Waitt, Norm, 11/19 
Waitt, Theodore W. 
Walker, John, 13/2 
Wallace, Bob, 6/13 
Wang Laboratories, 

12/24, 13/9, 19/ 
Wang, An, 19/25 
Wang, Charles B., 
Wang, Li-Chen, 7/4 
Warner Communicati 

4/17, 11/5, 11/1 
Warnock, John E., 
Warren, Jim, 5/10, 
Watson Jr., Thomas 
Watson Sr., Thomas 
Wayne, Ron, 5/6-7, 

13/10, 18/2-4 
Web. See WWW 
WebTV Networks, In 
Weiland, Richard, 

6/11, 12/27 
Weise, Dave, 12/10 
Weishaar, Tom, 18/ 
Weiss, Eric A., 18 
Weiss, Larry, 13/9 
Wellenreuther , Cla 
WESCON show, 3/14, 
West Coast Compute 

Apple Computer, 
20/2 

Founding of, 19/ 

Miscellaneous, 7 

Other product in 
7/9, 11/6, 12/ 
13/25 
Western Design Cen 
10/3, 10/14 

65802 microproce 

65816 microproce 
10/3 

W65C816 micropro 

10/14 

Western Digital Co 

17/7, 17/9 
Western Joint Comp 

Conference, 1/10 
Westfield, Bill, 1 
Westinghouse compa 
17/4 



rn Design 



7 

12 



, 11/ 
3, 16 



19 

/15 



Inc., 4/13, 
25 

13/29 



ons I 

4 

13/23 

18/2 

J. , 

J. , 

7/6 



, 19/4 
9/1 
1/6 
10/13, 



c. , 1 
6/3, 

, 12/ 

5 

/8 

us , 1 

5/5 
r Fai 
5/10- 

4-5 
H, 1 
trodu 
1, 13 



6/11 
6/8-9, 

20 



9/24 

re, 

11, 



9/13-14 
ctions , 
/12, 



ter, 8/7, 



ssor , 
ssor , 



8/7 

8/7, 



cessor , 



8/7, 



rporation, 
uter 



9/21 

ny, 2 



/15, 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/57 



PRODAC IV comput 
What-You-See-Is-Wh 

See WYSIWYG 
WHATSIT? database. 

Information Unli 

Software 
Where in the World 

Sandiego? game. 

Broderbund 
Whirlwind computer 
White, Phillip E. , 
Whitman, Meg, 19/2 
Wigginton, Randy, 

5/10-12, 6/10, 1 

10/22, 13/15 
Wilber, Mike, 19/1 
Wilcox, Brian, 4/1 
Wilkes, Maurice V. 
Wilkie, Dan, 9/6, 
Wilkins, Jeffrey, 
Williams, Don, 12/ 
Williams, F. C. , 1 
Williams, Ken, 13/ 
Williams , Roberta, 
Williams, S. B., 1 
Wilson, Camila, 13 
Win32. See Microso 

Systems 
Winblad, Ann, 19/2 
Winchester hard di 
9/12-13, 10/14 
17/8-9, 20/9 

term origin, 20/ 
Window Manager. Se 

Computer/ So f twar 
Windows : 

Early developmen 

Apple Computer, 
10/22, 15/8 

IBM, 9/15, 9/22 

Microsoft, 9/21, 
10/21-22, 12/1 
12/23-27, 15/1 
15/12, 20/3, 2 

Xerox, 4/5, 11/2 

Also see Microso 
Systems 
Windows World Expo 

Conference, 15/1 
WingZ spreadsheet. 
Informix 

Winkless, Nelson, 
WINPAD. See Micros 

/Operating Syste 
Wintel term, 20/9 
Wire matrix printe 

Printers 
Wired magazine, 18 



3/13, 



5, 
21, 



er, 2/15 Wirth, Niklaus, 7/5, 13/8 
at-You-Get. Wise, Mike, 4/12 

Wizard game. See Sierra 
See On-Line 

mited Wong, Albert, 11/14 

Wong, Harvey, 19/23 
is Carmen Wood, Maria, 6/13 
See Wood, Steve (Microsoft 

manager), 6/9, 6/11, 
See MIT 12/1 

13/18 Wood, Steve (Microsoft 

1 programmer), 12/18 

5/4, Woods, Don, 7/10 

0/19-20, Word Juggler word processor. 
See Quark 

3 Word Plus word processor 11/E 

4 Word Pro. See Lotus 
, 1/5 Development 
9/23-24 Word processors, 7/6-7 
19/15 11/15, 11/18, 12/7, 
26 12/25-27, 13/9-13, 1 
/5, 1/9 13/29, 19/24 
25 Word, word processing 

13/25 See Microsof t/Applic 

/3 Programs 

/12 Word-Master and Word-S 

ft/Operating MicroPro Internation 
WordPerfect Corporatio 
6 13/9-12, 15/14, 1 

sk drive, 16/15 

, 17/5, DataPerfect database 

DrawPerf ect pre sent a 
9 graphics program, 

e Apple Executive WordPerfec 

LetterPerfect word 
processor, 15/14 
ts, 2/10-11 MathPlan spreadsheet, 13/ 
10/7, 10/15, P-Edit editor, 13/10-11 
PlanPerfect spreadsheet, 
13/11 
10/8, SSI^Data database, 13/11 

7-20, SSI^Forth programming 

-6, 15/8, language, 13/11 

0/9 SSI*Legal, 13/11 

9 SSI^WP word processor, 

ft/Operating 13/10-11 

WordPerfect for Windows, 
sition 15/14 

WordPerfect Office, 13/11, 
See 16/12-13 

WordPerfect word processor, 
18/3 12/26, 13/9-12, 15/12, 

oft 15/14 

ms WordStar International, 13/10, 

16/15 
rs . See Also see MicroPro 

International 
/9, 19/26 Works programs. See 



, 11/ 
12/22 

3/20- 

progre 
ation 

tar. t 
al 
n, 
6/12, 

, 13/ 
tion 
15/14 
t, 13 



11 



/ll 



11 



Index/58 A History of the Personal Computer 



Microsof t/Applic . Programs 
Workslate portable computer. 

See Convergent Technologies 
Workstation, 8/6, 9/11, 11/21, 

11/24-26, 11/29, 14/6-8, 

14/10, 16/13-14 
World Altair Computer 

Convention. See MITS 
World Wide Web. See WWW 
WorldCom company, 19/16 
Wozniak, Stephen G. "Woz", 

Apple Computer 1970' s, 

5/1-13., 1980's, 10/1-4, 
10/8, 10/13, 10/21 

Homebrew Computer Club, 19/2 

Miscellaneous, 7/11, 20/2 

Other companies, 4/1, 4/17, 
6/10 
WWW (World Wide Web), 15/11, 

15/14, 16/14, 19/14, 19/23, 

20/3 
Wynn-Williams, C. E., 1/4 
Wyse company, 17/21 
WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What- 

You-Get), 4/5, 7/6, 10/15, 

10/21, 11/29, 12/25, 13/23 

-X- 

X Window System. See MIT 
X2 technology. See U.S. 

Robotics 
Xanadu data management system, 

20/1, 20/7 
Xedex Corporation, 17/19 

Baby Blue card, 17/19 
XENIX. See Microsoft/Operating 

Systems 
Xerox Corporation, 

1970's, 4/4-6, 4/14-15, 

4/20; 
1980's, 11/28-30 
Apple Computer, 5/15-16, 
10/1, 10/5, 10/8, 
10/14-16, 16/1 
IBM, 9/22, 9/24 
Laser printer, 17/15 
Microsoft, 12/18, 12/22, 

12/25 
Miscellaneous, 2/11, 4/1, 
6/3, 11/19, 17/7, 17/18, 
19/13 
Software, 7/6, 13/21, 

13/23-24 
Star computer, 4/20, 17/23 
Computers : 

820 personal computer, 

11/29 
6085 "Viewpoint" 



workstation, 11/29 
8010 "Star" Information 
System, 4/20, 11/29, 
17/22 
Alto computer, 

Development of, 4/4-6, 

4/14-15, 4/20-21 
Miscellaneous, 4/1, 
10/14, 11/29-30, 
17/15, 17/23, 19/9, 
19/13 
Software, 7/6, 12/22 
Alto II computer, 4/13, 

11/19 
Alto III computer, 4/15 
Janus project (Xerox 

Star), 4/20 
Sigma V, 6/3 
Star system. See 8010 
"Star" Information 
System 
Viewpoint system. See 6085 
workstation 
Miscellaneous : 

7000 copier, 17/15 
9700 laser printing 

system, 17/15 
Advanced Systems Division 

(ASD), 4/20 
Dorado processor, 11/30 
EARS laser printer, 17/15 
Ethernet network, 4/5, 
11/29, 17/18, 19/13 
Learning Research Group 

( LRG ) , 7 / 6 
MESA processor, 11/29 
Office Products Division, 

11/27 
PARC (Palo Alto Research 
Center ) , 
Apple Computer, 5/15-16, 
10/1, 10/5-6, 10/9, 
10/15-16, 16/1 
Beginning of, 4/4-6, 

4/14 
Microsoft, 12/18, 12/22, 

12/25 
Miscellaneous, 2/11, 
4/20, 7/6, 11/30, 
17/15, 17/23, 19/13 
Other companies, 9/22, 
11/19, 13/21, 13/23, 
17/18 
Star Computer, 4/20, 
11/29 
SLOT (Scanned Laser Output 
Terminal) printer, 17/15 
Systems Development 



A History of the Personal Computer Index/59 



Division (SDD), 4/20, 
11/28 
Xerox Data Systems, 6/3 

Software : 

BCPL programming language, 

4/5, 7/6 
Bravo word processor, 4/5, 

7/6, 12/22, 12/25 
BravoX word processor, 1/i 
Gypsy text editor, 7/6 
JaM language, 13/23 
MESA programming language, 

4/5, 7/6 
PUP (PARC Universal 

Packet), 4/6 
Smalltalk language, 4/5, 
7/6 
XGA (Extended Graphics Array), 

14/9, 20/5 
Xidex company, 17/22 
XMM (extended Memory Manager), 

20/5 
XMS (extended Memory 

Specification), 20/4 
XPL language, 7/6 
XYZ Corporation, 19/11 

-Y~ 

Yahoo! Inc., 15/14-15 

Yahoo! search engine, 15/14 
Yale University, 13/13 
Yang, Jerry, 15/14-15 
Yates, John E. , 2/4 
Yates, William, 4/9, 6/5 
Yee, Min S. , 12/5 
Yellow Book specification, 

20/4 
Yocam, Delbert "Del" W. , 10/7 
Young, Bob, 15/10 
Yuen, Thomas C, 11/14 



Zenith Radio Corporation, 

4/18, 11/30, 12/16, 12/28, 
17/21 
Z-89 computer, 4/18 
ZDOS. See Microsoft 
/Operating Systems 
Zeos company, 16/16 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, 

18/2, 18/5-7, 19/21, 19/24 
Zilog Inc . , 

Beginning of, 3/14 
Intel, 3/15, 8/5 
Miscellaneous, 3/8-9, 

6/12, 7/2, 8/7 
Products using 

microprocessor, 4/14, 
4/16, 4/18-19, 11/8, 
11/23, 11/28, 17/17 
Z-80, 3/8, 3/14-15, 4/14, 

4/15, 4/17, 6/13, 7/2, 8/7 
Z-80A, 3/14, 4/16, 11/7, 

11/14, 11/23, 11/28 
Z-280, 8/7 

Z-8000, 3/14-15, 6/12, 8/6 
Z-80000, 8/7 
Zip disk drive. See Iomega 
Zork games . See Inf ocom 
Zuse, Konrad, 1/3-4 
ZX80 and ZX81 computers. See 
Sinclair Research 



-Z- 

Z-l, Z-2 and Z-3 computers, 
1/4 
Also see Cromemco 
Z-80 SoftCard. See 

Microsoft /Miscellaneous 
Zaltair microcomputer, 20/2 
Zander, Ed, 11/26, 16/13 
Zappacosta, Pierluigi, 19/22 
ZDOS (Zenith). See Microsoft/ 

Operating Systems 
Zenith Data Systems (ZDS), 
11/30, 16/16 
MinisPort portable computer, 
11/30 



Index/60 A History of the Personal Computer 



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