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The Formation of Jewish Mysticism and Its Impact on 
the Reception of Rabbi Abraham Abulafia in 
Contemporary Kabbalah 1 

Boaz Hitss 


Jewish Mysticism was invented in Europe, in the late 19th and early 20th cen- 
turies. In this period, Western, mostly Jewish, scholars applied the Christian 
theological term »mysticism« to describe Kabbalistic, Hasidic and other Jewish 
cultural formations, and created an academic discipline dedicated to the study of 
» Jewish mysticism*. The formative assumption of this discipline is that various 
Jewish cultural phenomena, first and foremost the Kabbalah, are specific Jewish 
expressions of a universal, mystical phenomenon, which is perceived as a subjec- 
tive experience of a direct encounter with a metaphysical reality, constituting the 
essence, or the climax of religious experience. 

In this paper I will argue that the perception of Kabbalah as »Jewish mysti- 
cism«, which regulated the way Kabbalah is studied and researched in academia, 
in turn had a significant impact on the doctrines, practices and self-perception 
of contemporary Kabbalah practitioners. This paper will demonstrate how the 
modernist perception of Kabbalah as »Jewish mysticism* affected the academic 
study of Rabbi Abraham Abulafia, and contributed, through the agency of the 
scholars of »Jewish mysticism« to his reception by contemporary practitioners 
of Kabbalah. Following a short survey of the history of Kabbalah, and of the 
genealogies of the category »Jewish mysticism*, I will discuss the »discovery« 
of Abulafia by Jewish scholars in the second half of the 19th century, and his 
construction as a central Jewish Mystic in the 20th century academic study of 
Kabbalah, along with the recent publication of his writings, and his canonization 
in several forms of contemporary Kabbalah. 

1 I am grateful to Eliezer Baumgarten, Harvey Hames, Don Karr, Gemma Kwantes, Jonathan 
Meir, Jody Myers and Avi Solomon, for offering me important suggestions, and providing 
me with helpful information. The remaining shortcomings in this article are all mine. The 
research for this study was supported by a grant from the Israeli Science Foundation for the 
project »Major Trends in 20th century Kabbalah«. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 143 

Kabbalah and the Construction of Jewish Mysticism 

During the 13th century, various cultural practices were perceived and con- 
structed as belonging to an ancient, esoteric and sacred Jewish tradition, called 
»Kabbalah« (a Hebrew word that signifies »reception« or »something received«). 
Since then, down to our own day, different theories and rituals, dealing with di- 
verse topics such as the structure of the Divine system, the significance of Jewish 
law, the power of divine names, and the ways to attain prophetic revelations were 
developed and transmitted as belonging to this ancient body of knowledge. Up 
until the 16th century, Kabbalah was studied and practiced mostly within elite 
Jewish circles on the Iberian Peninsula. Following the expulsion of the Jews from 
Spain and Portugal, and the development of print culture, Kabbalistic theories 
and practices were dispersed among Jewish intellectual elites in most Jewish com- 
munities around the world. In this period, Christian scholars also studied Kab- 
balistic texts, and Christian forms of Kabbalah were developed. During the 17th 
and 18th century, Kabbalistic theories and practices were no longer restricted to 
select circles, but transmitted and practiced in different forms in all segments of 
the Jewish population. 

Since the late 18th century, Jewish circles in Western and Eastern Europe 
that adopted the cultural values of the Enlightenment, rejected vehemently the 
Kabbalah and engaged in a cultural struggle against its followers, mostly against 
the East European Hasidic movement. Kabbalah was portrayed by members of 
the Jewish enlightenment movement, the Haskala, as an irrational, immoral and 
Oriental component of Judaism that should be purged in order to enable the 
restoration of an enlightened Judaism and its integration into modern Western 

Under the impact of the Jewish enlightenment movement, Kabbalah was 
rejected from the literary canons and religious practices of Jewish circles that 
adopted modern European values and life forms. Nonetheless, Kabbalah main- 
tained its central place in the cultural practices of Jewish groups that were op- 
posed to, or were less influenced by Western modern values, mostly the Hasidic 
circles in Eastern Europe, and the Jewish communities in Asia and North Africa. 
Kabbalah is still central today among the descendents of these groups, in Israel 
and the United States. Apart from the centrality of Kabbalah in these traditional 
circles, in recent years there is a considerable revival of interest in Kabbalah, in 

2 On the rejection of Kabbalah by the Jewish enlightenment see Boaz Huss, "Admiration and 
Disgust: The Ambivalent Re-Canonization of the Zohar in the Modern Period«, in: Study and 
Knowledge in Jewish Thought, ed. by Howard Kreisel (Beer Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of 
the Negev Press, 2006), pp. 205-207. 

144 BoazHuss 

other sectors of Israeli Jewish society and of Jewish communities outside of Israel, 
as well as in Western culture in general. 

In the second half of the 19th century, some Jewish intellectuals who stem- 
med from the circles of the Haskala movement — and were integrated in Euro- 
pean culture — developed a more positive perception of Kabbalah and Hasidism. 
These scholars accepted the »enlightened« representation of Kabbalah as irra- 
tional and Oriental, but, operating from a romantic and national perspective, 
regarded these characteristics as positive, rather than negative attributes. In this 
context, Jewish scholars borrowed the depiction of Kabbalah as »mystical the- 
ology* from earlier Christian Kabbalists and Theosophists, and identified Kab- 
balah and Hasidism, as well as some other Jewish cultural formations, as mystical 
phenomena. Gradually, the term «Jewish mysticism* became prevalent and was 
accepted as the main category under which Kabbalah was described, discussed, 
and researched in the 20th century. The perception of Kabbalah and Hasidism 
as Jewish expressions of a universal mystical phenomenon still dictates the aca- 
demic study of Kabbalah around the world, and the way Kabbalah is perceived 
in contemporary Western culture. 

The term »mysticism« is derived from the Greek word that was used by 
the Church fathers and medieval Christian theologians to denote Christological 
Bible hermeneutics, the Christological significance of religious rituals and the 
direct knowledge of divine matters. In the Modern period, the term »mysticism« 
is also used with reference to non-Christian cultures and is perceived as referring 
to subjective, private experiences of union or direct encounter with a transcen- 
dental reality. Christian theologians and Western scholars of religious studies 
developed this modern ecumenical perception of mysticism in the late 19th and 
early 20th centuries. The term »mysticism« was adopted by non-Christian and 
non-European intellectuals and national leaders, who described aspects of their 

3 On 20th century and contemporary forms of Kabbalah see: Jonathan Garb, >The Chosen Will 
Become Herds': Studies in Twentieth Century Kabbalah (Jerusalem: Carmel & Shalom Hartman 
Institute, 2005) [Hebrew]; Jonathan Meir, "Wrestling with the Esoteric: Hilelel Zeitlin, Yehuda 
Ashlag and Kabbalah in the Land of Israel«, in: Judaism, Topics, Tragments, Faces, Identities: 
Jubilee Volume in Honor of Rivka Horwitz, ed. by Haviva Pedaya & Ephraim Meir (Beer- 
Sheva: Ben Gurion University Press, 2007), pp. 585—647 [Hebrew]; idem, »The Revealed and 
the Revealed within the Concealed: On the Opposition to the >Followers< of Rabbi Yehuda 
Ashlag and the Dissemination of Esoteric Literature", in: Kabbalah 16 (2007), pp. 151—258 
[Hebrew]; Boaz Huss, »The New Age of Kabbalah: Contemporary Kabbalah, The New Age 
and Postmodern Spirituality", in: Journal of Modern Jewish Studies 6 (2007), pp. 107—125; Jody 
Myers, Kabbalah and the Spiritual Quest: The Kabbalah Center in America (Westport, Conn.: 
Praeger Publishers, 2007). 

4 On the ambivalent »re-canonization« of the Kabbalah in the late 19th and early 20th century, 
see Huss, "Admiration and Disgust«, op.cit. (note 2), pp. 207—237. 

5 See Boaz Huss, »The Mystification of the Kabbalah and the Myth of Jewish Mysticism«, in: 
Pe'amim 110 (2007), pp. 9-30 [Hebrew]. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 145 

culture as »mystical« in the framework of the re-formation of their national tra- 
ditions in Western terms. This was also the context of the designation of Kab- 
balah as »mystical« and the formation of »Jewish mysticism« by modern Jewish 

References to Kabbalah as »mystical« appear for the first time in the writings 
of Christian scholars in the 17th and 18th centuries. Yet, it seems that Christian 
Kabbalists in this period used the term »mystical« in its medieval sense, and that 
references to Kabbalah as such were not central prior to the 19th century, when 
the term »Jewish mysticism« appeared for the first time. The category »Jewish 
mysticism« became prominent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries within 
the framework of/zw de siecle Neo-Romantic and Orientalistic discourse and the 
emergence of Jewish nationalism and Zionism in Europe. By identifying Jewish 
cultural phenomena as »mystical«, Jewish intellectuals used the positive symbolic 
value of »mysticism«, and its growing popularity, in order to present Judaism 
in a favorable light and to rebut its portrayals as legalistic and anti-spiritual. 
Jewish national and Zionist thinkers regarded »Jewish mysticism« as the vital 
force of Judaism in the Diaspora, which was distinct from the elite rabbinical 

6 On the history of the term »Mysticism« see: Lois Bouyer, »Mysticism: An Essay on the History 
of the Word«, in: Understanding Mysticism, ed. by Robert Woods (London: Athlone, 1981), 
pp. 42—55; Michel de Certeau, »Mysticism«, in: Diacritics 22 (1992), pp. 11—25; Leigh Eric 
Schmidt, »The Making of Modern Mysticism«, in: Journal of the American Academy of Religion 
71 (2003), pp. 273-302. 

7 The notion of mystical Kabbalah (as one of three forms of Kabbalah) appears in the title of 
Henry More's Conjectura Cabbalistica: Or, A Conjectural Essay of Interpreting the Mind of Moses 
According to a Threefold Cabbalah viz. Literal, Philosophical, Mystical, or Divinely Moral (Lon- 
don: J. Fletcher, 1653). Kabbalah was described in the early 18th century as »Mystical The- 
ology« by Jean Basnage (Jean Basnage, The History of the Jews from Jesus Christ to the Present 
Times [London: J. Beaver & B. Lintot, 1708], p. VII). In Diderot's Encyclopedia Kabbalah is 
described as a Mystical Doctrine. See: Encyclopedic ou dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts 
et des metiers (Paris: Briasson, 1752), vol. 2, p. 476. 

8 See Franz Joseph Molitor, Philosophic der Geschichte oder iiber die Tradition (Frankfurt a. M.: 
Hermann, 1827), pp. 44, p. 135. 

9 The term mysticism, in reference to the Kabbalah, is prevalent in many studies of Jewish schol- 
ars, which were written in the second half of the 19th century. See for instance: Adolph 
Jellinek, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik (Leipzig: Colditz, 1853); Isaak M. Jost, Geschichte des 
Judenthums und seiner Secten (Leipzig: Dorlfling & Franke, 1857—1859), vol. 3, pp. 65— 
81 (a chapter entitled: »The Mystical Direction«); Abraham Geiger, Das fudenthum und seine 
Geschichte (Breslau: Schletter, 1871), pp. 64—78 (a chapter entitled: »Mysticism«). The term 
»Jewish Mysticism« becomes prominent in the early decades of the 20th century. See for in- 
stance: Erich Bischoff, Die Kabbalah, Einfiihrung in die jiidische Mystik und Geheimwissenschaft 
(Leipzig: Grieben, 1903); Martin Buber, »Die Jiidische Mystik« (the introduction to his Die 
Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman [Frankfurt a.M.: Riitten & Loening, 1906], pp. 5— 19); Samuel 
A. Hirsch, »Jewish Mystics: An Appreciation^ in: Jewish Quarterly Review 20 (1 907), pp. 50— 
73; Harry Sperling, »Jewish Mysticism«, in: Aspects of Hebrew Genius, ed. by Leon Simon 
(London: Routledge, 1910), pp. 145— 176; Joshua Abelson, Jewish Mysticism (London: Bell, 

146 Boaz Huss 

and philosophical traditions, and which expressed the authentic national spirit 
of Judaism. 10 

Notwithstanding the positive evaluation of Jewish mysticism, the attitude of 
Jewish westernized scholars to Kabbalah and Hasidism involved typical Orien- 
talistic ambivalence. Jewish mysticism was valorized as a significant component 
of Jewish culture in the past, but its »present-day« expressions were regarded as 
insignificant and degenerated. According to Gershom Scholem, the founder 
of the modern academic study of Jewish mysticism, the true legacy of Jewish 
mysticism was found not amongst Kabbalists, but in the Zionist movement and 
the secular building of a modern Jewish Nation. 

The perception of Kabbalah and Hasidism as mysticism shaped the way these 
cultural phenomena were, and still are, studied in academia. Notwithstanding 
the developments and new perspectives in contemporary Kabbalah research, the 
common assumption that still governs the field is that Kabbalah is the Jewish 
expression of a universal mystical phenomenon. The perception of Kabbalah as 
a form of mysticism has also, as I will demonstrate in this article, a significant 
impact on the way Kabbalah is perceived and practiced in many contemporary 
Kabbalistic circles. 

Kabbalah and Hasidism, and the social circles that practiced them, were 
marginalized in modern Israeli culture as well as in the main Jewish denomina- 
tions in the United States. Yet, in the last few decades there is a growing interest 
in Kabbalah in many circles and a resurgence of Kabbalistic practices. Among 
the various factors that have contributed to the contemporary revival and re- 
construction of Kabbalah, the modernist perception of Kabbalah as »mysticism« 
and its academic field of study play an important and complex role. 

Many Kabbalists in the 20th century have rejected their identification as 
mystics while strongly opposing the academic, secular study of Kabbalah. Such 
opposition still exists in some Kabbalistic groups today. Yet, many other contem- 
porary practitioners of Kabbalah embrace this identification, rely on academic 
studies of Kabbalah, and shape their practices and doctrines according to the 
modern perceptions of the nature and significance of »Jewish mysticism.* The 
reliance on the modernist perception of Jewish mysticism is prominent and ex- 
plicit among neo-Kabbalistic and Neo-Hasidic groups who operate within the 
framework of New Age culture, mostly in the United States, but also in Israel 
(and some other Western countries). Yet, the impact of the categorization of 
Kabbalah as mysticism can be discerned, although, in more subtle and complex 

10 Huss, ^Admiration and Disgust«, op.cit. (note 2), pp. 212—213. 

1 1 Boaz Huss, »>Ask No Questions*: Gershom Scholem and the Study of Contemporary Jewish 
Mysticism«, in: Modern Judaism 25 (2005), pp. 142—143, pp. 146-148. 

12 Ibid., pp. 145-146. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 147 

forms, in groups which operate within Orthodox and ultra-Orthodox Jewish 

Following modern perceptions of religiosity and mysticism, many contem- 
porary Kabbalists accentuate the private, individualistic, and universal nature 
of Kabbalah, rather than its public, ritualistic, and particularly Jewish features. 
Kabbalah is perceived by many of its present day practitioners mostly as a path to 
personal growth, psychological and physical well being, and individual spiritual 
enlightenment. Contemporary consumers of Kabbalah are usually interested 
more in the inward search for the divine self than in the hermeneutic activi- 
ties, theosophical speculations, and strict observation of Jewish ritual that were 
central in earlier forms of Kabbalah. 

Abraham Abulafia and the Academic Study of Jewish Mysticism 

The perception of Kabbalah as »mysticism« and the impact of the scholarship 
of Kabbalah on its present day practice comes to the fore in the renewed in- 
terest in Abraham Abulafia and his »Ecstatic« Kabbalah. Abraham Abulafia, 
a 13th century itinerant Jewish scholar, developed a unique system — which he 
called »Prophetic Kabbalah« — which was based on medieval philosophical no- 
tions (mostly, derived from Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed), practices and 
doctrines of the late medieval Ashkenazi Pietists (Hasidei Ashkenaz), the concepts 
of the enigmatic Sefer Yezirah (the Book of Creation), as well as probably some 
Sufi doctrines and practices. In his prolific writings, Abulafia offered various 
methods that usually involved contemplation and recitation of letter combina- 
tions and were directed at attaining prophecy through union of the human mind 
with the divine intellect. 

Abulafia, who had messianic aspirations (which led him to attempt to meet 
Pope Nicholas III in 1280), was rejected by other 13th-century Kabbalists and 

13 Huss, »The New Age of Kabbalah«, op.cit. (note 3), pp. 114-116. 

14 The revival of interest in Abulafia in contemporary forms of Kabbalah was noted by Garb, The 
Chosen Will Become Herds, op.cit (note 3), pp. 218—219. 

15 Major studies of Abulafia include: Moshe Idel, The Mystical Experience in Abraham Abulafia 
(Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988); idem, Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah (Albany: 
State University of New York Press, 1988); idem, Language, Torah and Hermeneutics (Albany: 
State University of New York Press, 1989); Elliot R. Wolfson, Abraham Abulafia — Kabbalist 
and Prophet: Hermeneutics, Theosophy, and Theurgy (Los Angeles: Cherub Press, 2000). On the 
possible Sufi influence on Abulafia see Idel, Studies in Ecstatic Kabbalah, pp. 103—169; Harvey 
J. Hames, >A Seal within a Seal: The Imprint of Sufism in Abraham Abulafia's Teachings in: 
Medieval Encounters 12 (2006), 2, pp. 153—172. 

148 Boaz Huss 

banned by the prominent Jewish leader Rabbi Solomon ben Aderet (the Rashba) , 
who condemned him in very harsh terms: 

There are many frauds that I have heard and seen. One of them was the scoundrel, may 
the name of the wicked rot, whose name was Abraham. He proclaimed himself a prophet 
and messiah in Sicily, and enticed many people with his lies. If I had not been able to 
slam the door in his face, with God's mercy, both with my own letters and with those 
of many congregations, he would have been able, with his many invented and false ideas 
which resemble high wisdom to the fool, to cause much damage. 1 

Due to the difference between his system and other forms of Kabbalah and his 
rejection of the Kabbalistic theory of the sefirot (divine emanations), and as a 
result of both the Rashba and later the Kabbalists condemning him, Abulafia 
never entered the Kabbalistic canon. Although his writings exercised a consider- 
able influence on later forms of Kabbalah, he is rarely mentioned by his name 

16 Aharon Zelnik (ed.), Rashba Responsa (Jerusalem: Machon Or ha-Mizrah, 1997) [Hebrew], 
no. 548. See Aryeh Kaplan, Meditation and Kabbalah (Boston & York Beach: Weiser Books, 
1989), pp. 59-60. 

17 In the early 16th century, Rabbi Yehuda Hayat sharply criticized Abulafia and cited Rashba's 
responsum in his introduction to his commentary to Ma'arechet ha-Elohut (Mantua: Meir Bein 
Ephraim & Yakov Ben Naftali, 1558), fol. 3a. Rabbi Joseph del Medigo cited Hayat's condem- 
nation of Abulafia, in Mezraf la-Hochma (Basel, 1629), fol. 13b-l4a. Recently, these condem- 
nations were repeated by a prominent contemporary Kabbalist, Rabbi Yakov Moshe Hillel (the 
head of Yeshivat Hevrat Ahavat Shalom), as a response to the publication of Abulafia's writings 
(which will be discussed below). See: Yakov Moshe Hillel, Sefer Ahavat Shalom (Jerusalem: 
Ahavat Shalom, 2002), p. 100, note 46. See: Meir, »The Revealed and the Revealed within the 
Concealed«, op.cit. (note 3), p. 241, note 522. 

18 On Abulafia's influence on the prominent 16th-century Kabbalists Moshe Cordovero and 
Hayim Vital, see Gershom Scholem, Kabbalah (Jerusalem: Keter, 1977), p. 181; idem, Ma- 
jor Trends in ]e wish Mysticism (New York: Schocken, 1988), p. 378, note 14. On Abulafia's 

influence on Hasidism, see Idel, Kabbalah: New Perspectives (New Haven & London: Yale 
University Press, 1988), pp. 62—67; idem, Hasidism: Between Ecstasy and Magic (Albany: State 
University of New York Press, 1995), pp. 55—60. On his influence on Lithuanian Kabbalah, 
see idem, »R. Menahem Mendel of Shklov and R. Abraham Abulafia«, in: The Vilna Gaon 
and his Disciples, ed. by Moshe Halamish, Yoseph Rivlin & Raphael Shuchat (Ramat-Gan: 
Bar-Ilan University Press, 2003), pp. 173—184 [Hebrew]. Abulafian writings were also studied 
by the Kabbalists of the Beth-El school; see Scholem, Major Trends, p. 378, note 12; idem, 
Catalogus Codicum Cabbalisticorum Hebraicorum (Jerusalem: Hebrew University, 1930), p. 33 
[Hebrew]. See also Moshe Idel, »Abraham Abulafia, Gershom Scholem and Rabbi David Co- 
hen (the Nazirite) on Prophecy«, in: The Path of the Spirit: The Eliezer Schweid Jubilee Volume, 
ed. by Yehoyada Amir (Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute, 2005), vol. 2, p. 834, note 59 [Hebrew]. 
Abulafia's writings were also used by Christian Kabbalists of the Renaissance. See Idel, The 
Mystical Experience, op.cit. (note 15), p. 10; Chaim Wirszubski, Between the Lines (Jerusalem: 
Magnes Press, 1990), pp. 34-60 [Hebrew]. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 149 

in Kabbalistic writings, his writings were not printed until recently, and his 
system was not perceived as part of traditional Kabbalah. 

While Abulafia played a peripheral role in traditional Jewish Kabbalistic cir- 
cles, he became very central in the academic tradition of Kabbalah scholarship. 
Abulafia was »discovered« by German Jewish scholars, who were among the first 
to perceive Kabbalah as a form of mysticism in the second half of the 19th 
century. Meyer Heinrich Landauer, who encountered Abulafia's writing in the 
manuscript collection of Munich library, was the first scholar to describe Abu- 
lafia's life, works and doctrines, in an article that was published posthumously 
in 1845." Landauer was enthusiastic about his discovery of Abulafia's writ- 
ing and suggested that he was none other than the author of the most central 
and sacred Kabbalistic text, the Zohar. Although Adolph Jellinek rejected Lan- 
dauer's attribution of the Zohar to Abulafia, he took interest in Abulafia, dedi- 
cated a few short studies to him, and published some of his writings." Jellinek, 
who was one of the first Jewish scholars to perceive Kabbalah as Jewish mysti- 
cism, called Abulafia »an enthusiastic mystic in the full meaning of the word, 
a sort of Jewish Sufi«, and described his system as »letter and number mysti- 
cism« (»Buchstaben-und Zahlenmystik«). Although he referred to Abulafia as 

19 Some of the explicit references and citations from Abulafia's works, such as that of Rabbi 
Hayyim Vital in the fourth chapter of Shaarei Kedusha, were not printed until recently. One 
exception is the positive mention of Abulafia in the 18th century bibliographical work, Shem 
Ha-Gdolim of Rabbi Hayyim Joseph David Azulai (Hida). See Hida, Shem ha-Gdolim (War- 
saw: Isaac Goldman, 1876), part 2, p. 37 [Hebrew]. This source is cited by the contemporary 
orthodox printers of Abulafia's writing, as a justification for their venture. See Abraham Abula- 
fia, Sefer ha-Heshek (Jerusalem: Torah Hacham, 1999), pp. 8f. [Hebrew]; idem, Hayei ha-Olam 
ha-Ba (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 1999), p. 1 1 [Hebrew]. 

20 Meyer Heinrich Landauer, »Vorlaufiger Bericht iiber meine Entdeckung in Ansehung des So- 
har«, Litemturblatt des Orient 6 (1845), pp. 345, 380-384, 417^22, 471^75, 488^92, 
507-510, 525-528, 542-544, 556-558, 570-574, 587-592, 709-713, 748-750. See Eveline 
Goodman-Thau, »Meyer Heinrich Hirsch Landauer — Eine Briicke zwischen Kabbalah und 
aufgeklartem Judentum«, in: Kabbalah und die Literatur der Romantik: Zwischen Magie und 
Trope, ed. by Eveline Goodman-Thau et al. (Tubingen: Max Niemeyer, 1999), pp. 251 — 
255; Ronald Kiener, »The Vicissitudes of Abulafia in Contemporary Scholarships in: Gershom 
Scholem 's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism 50 Years After, ed. by Peter Schafer & Joseph Dan 
(Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1993), pp. 147-149. 

21 Adolph Jellinek, Moses ben Schern-Tob De Leon und sein Verhdltnis zum Sohar (Leipzig 1851), 
pp. 6—8. Idem, Auswahl, op.cit. (note 9), pp. 25—26. 

22 Ibid, pp. 16—26 (German section), 13—28 (Hebrew section); idem, Philosophic und Kabbalah 
(Leipzig: Heinrich Linger, 1853), pp. V-XIV, 1-25, 32^18; idem, »Sefer ha-Ot, Apokalypse 
des Pseudo-Propheten und Pseudo-Messias Abraham Abulafia«, in: Jubelschrift zum siebzigsten 
Geburtstag des Prof. Dr. H. Graetz (Breslau: Schottlaender, 1887), pp. 67—85. 

23 Jellinek, Auswahl, op.cit. (note 9), pp. 3^1. See Huss, »The Mystification«, op.cit. (note 5), p. 

24 ». . . ein mystischer Schwarmer im wahren Sinne des Wortes, eine art jiidischer Sufi«, idem, 
Philosophic und Kabbalah, p. V. 

25 Idem, Auswahl, op.cit. (note 9), pp. 19, 20, 21. 

150 Boaz Huss 

an »eccentric-fanatic«, he asserted that »notwithstanding his ecstasy, one finds 
in his writings also very penetrating observations, elevated ideas, and ingenious 
comparisons; like a lightning, bright and clear views often penetrate the abstruse- 
ness of his writings* . While Jellinek showed an ambivalent stance towards 
Abulafia, the great Jewish historian of the late 19th century, Heinrich Graetz, 
described Abulafia in harsh negative terms, calling him (similar to Jellinek), a 
pseudo-messiah and »an eccentric brain«" . In the late 19th and early 20th cen- 
turies, a much more positive, even enthusiastic, portrayal of Abulafia appeared in 
the writings of two East European Jewish scholars, Shimon Bernfeld and Azreil 
Giinzig. Giinzig described Abulafia as »a person of great talents, with a mind 
full of lofty ideas and high sentiments, secrets, and endless imagination« ; and 
Bernfeld, who accepted (partially) Landauer's theory and assumed that parts of 
the Zohar were written by Abulafia, described him as »a thoughtful person, 
who contemplated eternal truths and had an enthusiastic moral and poetical 

Gershom Scholem expanded the research into Abulafia and his school, estab- 
lished his image as a Jewish mystic, and proliferated the perception of his system 
as representing »Ecstatic Kabbalah«. Scholem already took interest in Abulafia's 
writing in the early stages of his career. In his autobiography, he related that 
he read Abulafia's writing when he wrote his dissertation (1920—1921), tried to 
perform some of the methods Abulafia prescribed in his writings, »and found 
out that they stimulated alterations in states of consciousness«. 

One of Scholem's first articles, written after his immigration to Palestine in 

26 Ibid., p. 18. 

27 »Und trotz seiner Extase nndet man in seinen Schriften auch sehr scharfsinnige Bemerkungen, 
erhabene Ideen und geistreiche Vergleiche: wie ein Blitz dringen oft durch das Dunkel seiner 
Schriften helle und klare Anschauungen durch«; Idem, Philosophic und Kabbalah, op.cit. (note 
22), p. VI. 

28 »ein excentrischer kopf«; Heinrich Graetz, Geschichte der Juden (Leipzig: Oskar Leiner, 1863), 
pp. 222—228; idem, »Abraham Abulafia, der Pseudomessias«, in: Monatsschrift fur die 
Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums 36 (1887), pp. 557—558. 

29 Kiener, »The Vicissitudes«, op.cit. (note 20), pp. 15 If. 

30 Azriel Giinzig, »Rabbi Abraham Abulafia«, in: Ha-Eshkol 5 (1905), p. 87 [Hebrew]. 

31 Shimon Bernfeld, Da'at Elohirn (Warsaw: Ahiasaf, 1899), pp. 398-399 [Hebrew]. 

32 Shim'on Bernfeld, Bnei Aliyah (Tel Aviv: Dvir 1930), p. 74 [Hebrew]. 

33 Moshe Idel, »The Contribution of Abraham Abulafia's Kabbalah to the Understanding of Jew- 
ish Mysticism«, in: Gershom Scholem's Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism 50 Years After, ed. by 
Peter Schafer & Joseph Dan (Tubingen: Mohr, 1993), pp. 118-119. 

34 Gershom Scholem, From Berlin to Jerusalem (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1982), p. 161 [Hebrew]. 
This story does not appear in the English and German versions of the book. Scholem's wife, 
Fania, related in an interview that: »while we were in Munich, he [Scholem] experimented 
according to Abulafia's instructions. He held his head between his knees, breathed according 
to a certain order, recited words and letter combinations, etc. He said later that indeed an 
alteration of consciousness occurred«; Yoram Harpaz, »Casting a Large Shadow (2)«, in: Kol 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 151 

1922, was dedicated to the book Sharei Zedek {Gates of Righteousness), which 
was written by a disciple of Abulafia. Later, Scholem published Sulam ha- 
Aliya (Ladder of Ascension) , written by a 16th century Kabbalist, Rabbi Yehuda 
Albotini, who adopted Abulafia's methods. 

The most comprehensive, and influential discussion of Abulafia in Scholem's 
work appeared in his »Abraham Abulafia and the Doctrine of Prophetic Kabbal- 
ism,« the fourth chapter of Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, which was first 
published in 1941. Scholem depicted Abulafia favourably, as having a »re- 
markable combination of logical power, pellucid style, deep insight and highly 
colored abstruseness which characterizes his writing*. He described Abulafia 
as »the outstanding representative of ecstatic Kabbalah«, calling his doctrine a 
»mystical theory* and his method for attaining prophecy, »technique of med- 
itation*. Following the psychological perception of »mysticism «in the late 
19th and early 20th centuries, Scholem described Abulafia's system as an in- 
ward journey: »Abulafia . . . casts his eyes round for higher forms of perception 
which, instead of blocking the way to the soul's own deeper regions, facilitate 
access to them and throw them into relief.« Scholem adopted the notion of 
mystical experience as an altered state of consciousness, and asserted that the 
purpose of Abulafia's discipline »is to stimulate, with the aid of methodological 

ha-Ir, 19 January 1990, p. 50 [Hebrew]. I am grateful to Jonathan Meir and Doron Cohen for 
these references. 

35 Gershom Scholem, »Sharei Zedek: A Kabbalistic Treatise from the School of R. Abraham 
Abulafia, attributed to R. Shem Tov (Ibn Gaon?)«, in: Qiryat Sefer 1 (1923), pp. 127-139. 
Parts of the text were printed in the article, pp. 132—139. The book was attributed to Rabbi 
Shem Tov of Leon, but probably written by Rabbi Nathan ben Saadiah Harar. See: Moshe 
Idel, »R. Nathan Ben Saadiah Harar, the Author of Sharei Zedek«, in: Shalem 7 (2002), pp. 
47-58 [Hebrew]. 

36 Gershom Scholem, Catalogus, op.cit. (note 18), pp. 225—230; idem, »Chapters from Sefer 
Sulam ha-Aliyh of R. Yehuda Albotini«, in: Qiryat Sefer 22 (1945/6), pp. 161-171 [Hebrew]. 

37 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18), pp. 1 19—155. In this chapter, Scholem included two 
excerpts from Abulafia's school translated into English, one from Abulafia's Hayei ha-Olam 
ha-Ba (ibid., pp. 136—137) and one from Sharei Zedek (ibid., pp. 147—155). Later summaries 
or Scholem's 1965 lectures on Abulafia were published, with several excerpts from Abulafia's 
writing. See: Gershom Scholem, The Kabbalah of Sefer ha-Temuna and of Abraham Abulafia 
(Jerusalem: Akademon, 1966) [Hebrew]. 

38 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18), p. 124. 

39 Abulafia was described as an »ecstatic« already in Gershom Scholem's »Eine kabbalistische Erk- 
larung der Prophetie als Selbstbegegnung« in: Monatsschrift fitr die Geschichte und Wissenschaft 
des Judentums 74 (1930), pp. 285-290, p. 286. 

40 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18) p. 130. 

41 Ibid., p. 125. 

42 William B. Parson, »Psychologia Perennis and the Academic Study of Mysticism«, in: Mourning 
Religion, ed. by William B. Parsons, Diane Jonte-Pace & Susan Henking (Charlottesville: 
University of Virginia Press, 2008) [forthcoming]. 

43 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18), p. 132. 

152 Boaz Huss 

meditation, a new state of consciousness; this state can best be defined as an 
harmonious movement of pure thought, which has severed all relation to the 
senses«. As we have seen above, Scholem described the result of his own prac- 
tice of Abulafia methods as an alteration of the state of consciousness. Follow- 
ing the perception of mysticism as a universal religious phenomenon, Scholem 
describes Abulafia's teachings as »but a Judaized version of that ancient spiritual 
technique which had found its classical expression in the practice of the Indian 
mystics who follow the system known as Yoga«. 

Although Scholem presented Abulafia's »Ecstatic Kabbalah* as one of the 
nine major trends of »Jewish Mysticism«, Abulafia did not play a central role 
in his research, and he dedicated few studies to the doctrines and writings of 
his school. Scholem, whose historiography of the Kabbalah was shaped in a 
nationalist/Zionist discursive framework, found much more interest in what he 
perceived of as the mythical and Gnostic trends of Jewish mysticism, which he 
saw as expressing the vital national force of the Jewish nation in the Diaspora, 
than in the ecstatic, universalistic and psychological approach he found in Abu- 
lafia's writings. Moshe Idel, who observed the decline of interest in Abulafia's 
Kabbalah in the later work of Scholem, and the total disinterest in Ecstatic Kab- 
balah among Scholem's disciples , wrote: 

Kabbalah in general was described, at least implicitly, as a mythical, symbolic, theosophic 
kind of thought, influenced historically by Gnosticism or, in some other formulations, 
phenomenologically similar to it, and devoid of extreme unitive experience and locutions. 
None of these characteristics, which were deemed to describe Kabbalah in its entirety, fit 
the nature of ecstatic Kabbalah. 

Since the late 1970s, Abulafia became much more central in the academic field of 
Kabbalah studies, especially through the work of Moshe Idel, the leading scholar 
of Jewish mysticism today. Idel criticized Scholem, and especially his disciples, 

AA Ibid., p. 133. 

45 See note 34. 

46 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18), p. 139. In his 1965 lectures, Scholem wrote that 
»objectively, there is no doubt there is a phenomenological proximity between the Kabbalistic- 
meditative type and the meditative type amongst the Sufis and their Hindu sources. « (Scholem, 
The Kabbalah ofSeferha-Temuna, op.cit [note 37], p. 164). Scholem raises the possibility that 
Abulafia adopted some of his techniques from Sufis he met during his travels in the East, but 
says there is no evidence for that. Abulafia was described as a »Jewish Sufi« already by Jellinek, 
see note 24 above. 

47 Idel, »The Contributions op.cit. (note 33), p. 121. 

48 Ibid. See also, p. 123: »The main move of Scholem's school can be characterized as a mytho- 
centric approach which marginalized the presence of the ecstatic elements, had tended to di- 
minish the importance of the impact of the philosophical concepts and was inclined to reduce 
the role of the experiential, mystical and magical elements in the Kabbalistic materials«. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 153 

for neglecting and marginalizing Abulafia's Kabbalah. Idel allotted Abulafia 
and the Ecstatic Kabbalah a central place in his perspective of Jewish Mysticism. 
Idel, who wrote his PhD dissertation on Abraham Abulafia's Kabbalah in the 
late 1970s and since then published numerous monographs on Abulafia, has 
produced studies and articles on Abulafia and the school of Ecstatic Kabbalah 
which have contributed much to the perception of Abulafia as a central Jewish 
mystic and to the diffusion of his writings, doctrines, and techniques. In his pro- 
lific studies, Idel expanded the research of Abulafia's life and writings, studied ex- 
tensively other Kabbalists who followed Abulafia's doctrines, and demonstrated 
the impact of Abulafia's Kabbalah on later Jewish mystical trends. Idel accepted 
and developed the perception of Abulafia's Kabbalah as »Ecstatic Kabbalah«, ac- 
centuated its practical and experiential aspects, and argued for the centrality of 
mystical union in this school. While Scholem regarded Abulafia's ecstatic form 
of Kabbalah as one of the nine major trends of Jewish mysticism, and perceived it 
as one of two opposing schools of thought in 13th-century Sephardic Kabbalah 
(the other being the theosophical school, represented by the Zohar), Idel ar- 
gued »that there are two major trends in Kabbalah, the theosophical-theurgical 
and the ecstatic«, and presented Abulafia as »a main representative of ecstatic 
Kabbalah« 52 . 

Thus, Abulafia, who was rejected from the canons of traditional Kabbalah 
and discovered by 19th-century Jewish German scholars, was constructed in the 
20th century as a Jewish mystic and an ecstatic Kabbalist, thus coming to be 
considered as the representative of one of the two major trends of Jewish mysti- 

Rabbi David Cohen's Interest in Abraham Abulafia's Writings 

As I mentioned previously, Abulafia was placed under a ban by the leading Kab- 
balist of his time, the Rashba, and although he exercised a considerable influence 
on later forms of Kabbalah, he did not, at least until the late 20th century, enter 
the Kabbalistic canons. It was only through the agency of the above-mentioned 
scholars that Abulafia's doctrines and especially his techniques became familiar 
among modern Kabbalists and Jewish mystics. 

49 Ibid., pp. 120-124. 

50 Kiener, »The Vicissitudes«, op.cit. (note 20), pp. 157—159. 

51 Scholem, Major Trends, op.cit. (note 18), p. 124. 

52 Idel, Kabbalah: New Perspectives, op.cit. (note 18), pp. xi-xii. See also idem, »The Contribu- 
tion^ op.cit. (note 33), pp. 127—130. 

154 BoazHuss 

One of the first instances of a 20th-century Jewish mystic who became ac- 
quainted with Abulafia's writing through scholars of Jewish mysticism — and was 
highly impressed by them — was Rabbi David Cohen, who was known on ac- 
count of his ascetic practices as ha-Nazir (the Nazarite). Cohen, who studied 
in traditional Yeshivas in Lithuania, and later in Academic institutes in Russia, 
Germany and Switzerland, became a disciple of Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, the 
most prominent thinker of Religious Zionism, and immigrated to Jerusalem, in 
1922. An entry in his diary from 1925, which was only recently published, en- 
thusiastically relates his introduction to manuscripts of Abraham Abulafia and 
his disciples through Gershom Scholem (both lived on the same street at the 
time): 53 

I became familiar with the manuscripts of Rabbi Abraham Abulafia of blessed memory 
and of his disciples, through a researcher of Mysticism (Prof. Scholem who visited me 
with Ram in our house, on Saturday). And when I took them in my hands, they became 
for me a strong, firm and steadfast stimulant. My spirit rumbled, and became sanctified, 
purified and elevated, as I found my logic and the ways of my understanding in the audi- 
tory prophetic logic, the prophetic Kabbalah (of Abraham Abulafia) ... I was changed 
and I became a new person. All day long, I must not keep quiet: I must strive and be 
strong again; I must expect the benevolence of the uppermost Divine revelation through 
chanting during the night. I can see that prophetic revelation from the mouth of Holi- 
ness, the God of Israel, which is necessary and expected in this generation of revival and 
redemption, is not far from us. Through preparation by way of chanting the grace of holy 
names, by combing the melody of their letters, courage, courage, courage and creation 
will be created, and the word of God will be revealed. 

It is not surprising that Cohen, for whom the quest for prophecy was central 
and whose Jewish theological ideology was influenced by a modern perception of 
mysticism, was so enthusiastic to find Abulafian manuscripts. As Dov Schwartz 
observed, Cohen described his encounter with Abulafia as a revelation, or illumi- 
nation, which was followed by a sense of transformation into a »new person. « 

53 Gershom Scholem also tells of his meeting with David Cohen in his autobiography: "Opposite 
us, lived Rabbi David Cohen, a noble person, a disciple of Rabbi Kook, who was known 
amongst the Ashkenazi population of Jerusalem as >The Nazarite*. He studied Kabbalah, one 
may say, in the exact opposite way than I did . . . All my efforts to understand his way of 
thinking were in vain. But the common ground between us was that the writings of Abraham 
Abulafia, from the 13th century, made a great impression on us«. Scholem, From Berlin to 
Jerusalem, op.cit. (note 34), pp. 203—204. 

54 Harel Cohen & Yedidyah Cohen (eds.), Mishnat Ha-Nazir (Jerusalem: Nezer David, 2005), 
p. 75. (I am grateful to Eliezer Baumgarten, who turned my attention to this publication). 
This passage from Cohen's diary was first published and discussed by Dov Schwarz, Religious 
Zionism between Logic and Messianism (Tel Aviv: Am Oved, 1999), p. 178; this passage was 
also discussed by Idel, »On Prophecy«, op.cit. (note 18), p. 824—825. 

55 Schwarz, Religious Zionism, op.cit. (note 54), p. 179. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 155 

In his major work, The Voice of Prophecy — The Hebrew Auditory Logic, which was 
only published in 1970, Cohen includes Abulafia in his description of the history 
of Kabbalah: »Abraham Abulafia . . . published the verbal, auditory, prophetic 
Kabbalah, which the upper prophetic wisdom elevates into an inner speech, that 
cleaves to the divine speech, as the divine voice never ceases. « It is clear from 
this passage, as Dov Schwartz asserted, that Cohen regards Abulafia as the pre- 
cursor of his own mystical system, whose essence he described as »the Hebrew 
auditory prophetic logic«. 

Moshe Idel has recently argued that Cohen probably knew about Abulafia 
previous to his meeting with Scholem through the writing of David Neumark 
and Adolph Jellinek. Be this as it may, it is still clear that a prominent prac- 
ticing Jewish mystic of the 20th century became acquainted with Abulafia's writ- 
ings and that they had a significant affect on his religious ideology and practice 
through the agency of the academic scholarship of Kabbalah. Nonetheless, the 
case of Cohen's reception of Abulafia is a unique case among early 20th-century 
Kabbalists. It was only in the last decades of the century that Abulafia's writing 
became more influential and entered the canons of contemporary Kabbalah. 

Abulafia's Kabbalah in the Jewish Renewal and New Age 

The central place allotted to Abulafia and the ecstatic Kabbalah in Idel's research, 
is part of the new perspectives and directions of study that were offered in the 
field of Kabbalah research in the 1980s as part of a struggle of a new generation 
of scholars (who included Moshe Idel, Yehuda Liebes, Elliot Wolfson, Charles 
Mopsik, and others) to gain a central position in the field of the academic study 
of Kabbalah. The repositioning of Abulafian Kabbalah at the center of Jewish 
mysticism was related to the decline of Scholem's grand narrative of the history 

56 David Cohen, The Voice of Prophecy — The Hebrew Auditory Logic (Jerusalem: Mossad Harav 
Kook, 1970), p. 158. In his discussion of Abulafia, ibid, pp. 158—160, Cohen cites only 
Jellinek' s editions of Abulafia's writings. 

57 Schwarz, Religious Zionism, op.cit. (note 54), p. 176. 

58 Idel, »On Prophecy«, op.cit. (note 18), p. 820, note 6; pp. 823f., pp. 828f. See also Schwarz, 
Religion Zionism, op.cit. (note 54), p. 179, note 35. 

59 Abulafia is not mentioned in Cohen's first publication, in German, from 1920. See Idel, »On 
Prophecy«, op.cit. (note 18), p. 825. 

60 Schwarz, Religious Zionism, op.cit. (note 54), pp. 304—305; Idel, »On Prophecy«, op.cit. (note 
18), pp. 828—831. While Schwarz describes Cohen's doctrine as a modern transformation of 
Abulafia's prophetic Kabbalah, Idel claims that Abulafia's influence on Cohen is significant, 
but limited. 

156 Boaz Huss 

of Jewish mysticism, in which Abulafia did not play an important role, and the 
diminishing of the power of the nationalist-Zionist discourse that shaped Scho- 
lem's historiography. The emphasis of contemporary Kabbalah scholars on 
the more psychological, ecstatic, experiential and practical aspects of Kabbalah 
in general, and in Abulafia in particular, is related also to the emergence of new 
forms of Western spirituality, New Age culture and Jewish Renewal movements 
in the last decades of the 20th century, that promoted psychological, ecstatic and 
experiential forms of spirituality. 

In the same period in which Idel dedicated his academic research to Abulafia 
and his school, a growing interest in Abulafia can be discerned among Jewish 
circles, mostly in the United States, that were part of the new spiritual culture 
of the 1970s and the emerging Jewish Renewal movement. These circles, which 
became familiar with Abulafia's mainly through the work of Scholem, regarded 
Abulafia as a central representative of Jewish mysticism, and practiced his tech- 
niques, which they perceived as Jewish forms of meditation and yoga. In a 1980 
review of »The Return of Jewish Mysticism« it is observed, 

All across the United States, as well as in Western Europe and Israel people in groups, or 
studying alone, have begun to search the Torah as well as the mystical texts for insight 
into meditation, breathing, chanting, and even Yoga-style exercise. »Abraham Abolafia, a 
medieval Spanish kabbalist, did yoga«, a chiropractor tells me excitedly. 2 

Already in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a group of Jewish poets and artists in 
California (Among them David Meltzer, Jack Hirschman, Jerome Rothenberg 
and Bruria Finkel), who learned of Abulafia from Scholem's Major Trends, be- 
came fascinated by his teaching, translated some of his writings (from Scholem 
and Jellinek's editions), practiced his methods, and integrated them into their 
poetry and art. 

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, a liberal Jewish 
Orthodox theologian, who was a prolific writer and translator, and died prema- 
turely in 1984, published three books on Jewish meditation. In his Meditation 

61 See: Amos Funkenstein, »Israel between the Thoms«, in: Zion 60 (1995), pp. 335—347 [He- 
brew]; Boaz Huss, »A New Age of Kabbalah Research: Book Review of Ron Margolin, The 
Human Temple; Melila Hellner-Eshed, A River Issues Forth from Eden; Jonathan Garb, Man- 
ifestations of Power in Jewish Mysticism, in: Theory and Criticism 27 (2005), pp. 246—253 
[Hebrew] . 

62 C. Ascher, »The Return of Jewish Mysticism: Try it, You'll Like It«, Present Tense 17 (1980), 3, 
p. 37. Cited in: Christine A. Meilicke, >Abulafianism among the Counterculture Kabbalists«, 
in: Jewish Studies Quarterly 9 (2002), p. 82. 

63 Christine A. Meilicke, »California Kabbalists«, in Judaism Today (Winter 1999—2000), pp. 
24—31; idem »Abulananism«, op.cit. (note 62), pp. 71—101. For Bruria Finkel's work, see her 

64 Aryeh Kaplan, Meditation and the Bible (York Beach, Maine: S. Weiser, 1 978); idem, Medita- 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 157 

and Kabbalah, published in 1982, which became the most influential source 
for the reception of Abulafia in Jewish renewal and related movements in the 
English-speaking world, Kaplan dedicated a long chapter to Abulafia and his 
school. Kaplan described Abulafia's life, writings, and teachings, and translated 
many excerpts from his works based on the texts published by Jellinek and Scho- 
lem as well as texts found in manuscripts. Kaplan, who in his discussion of 
Abulafia relied mostly on Scholem's research, downplayed Abulafia's messianic 
aspirations, emphasized his influence of later mainstream Kabbalists, and cited 
Rabbi Hayim Yoseph David Azulai's (Hida) praise of Abulafia's Hayei ha-Olam 
ha-Ba, concluding that: 

In view of this opinion, the general trend among knowledgeable Kabbalists has been 
to accept the teachings of Abulafia, even though his methods are considered to be very 
advanced and dangerous. His manuscripts have been copied and circulated among many 
Kabbalists, and they form an important part of the curriculum in some secret schools. 
While Abulafia's personality may be questioned, it is generally recognized that he was in 
possession of authentic traditions and that he recorded them faithfully and accurately. 

Kaplan asserted that he wrote his books on Jewish meditation as a response to 
the growing interest of American Jews, who were ignorant of the Jewish system 
of meditation, in Eastern religion. Following Scholem, he described Abulafia's 
methods for attaining prophecy as meditation techniques that alter the normal 
state of consciousness and lead to a mystical experience. 1 Interestingly, Abu- 
lafia's methods are not central in Kaplan's 1985 Jewish Mysticism: A Practical 
Guide. Nonetheless, the Abulafian methods that were translated in his Medita- 
tion and Kabbalah became the source for many contemporary practical guides 
for Jewish meditation. Prescriptions for how to use Abulafia's techniques that 
are based on Kaplan's translations are found in numerous books and websites. 
Thus, for instance, Jay Michaelson prescribes on his website, 

One of Abulafia's simplest practices, popularized by Aryeh Kaplan, involves a series of 
head movements and breath, combined with pronouncing the Divine name. The short- 
est version works by sounding out different Hebrew vowels together with the tetragram- 
maton (Y-H-V-H). When you do the practice, you'll want to sit comfortably in a place 
where you will not be disturbed, and allow the eyes to close. One begins with the first 
letter of the Divine name, Yood, and pronounces with the yood the vowels Oh, Ah, Ay, 

tion and Kabbalah (York Beach, Maine: S. Weiser, 1982); idem, Jewish Meditation —A Practical 
Guide (New York: Schocken Books, 1985). 

65 Kaplan, Meditation and Kabbalah, op.cit. (note 64), pp. 55—111. 

66 Ibid., p. 59. See p. 8, and idem, Jewish Meditation, p. 47. 

67 Idem, Jewish Meditation, op.cit. (note 64), p. v-vi. 

68 Idem, Meditation and Kabbalah, op.cit. (note 64), p. 81. 

69 See for instance: David Cooper, Ecstatic Kabbalah (Boulder: Sounds true, 2005) and Leonora 
Leet, Renewing the Covenant (Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 1999), pp. 40—94. 

158 Boaz Huss 

Ee, and Oo. Each vowel has a corresponding head movement, which resembles the way 
the vowel mark is written in Hebrew: with Oh the head moves up and back to center, 
Ah to the left and back to center, Ay to the right and back to center, Ee down and back 
to center, and then Oo forward, backward, and back to center. Move your head with the 
breath: on each inhale you move away from center, then on the exhale, pronouncing the 
sound, you move back. 

The perception of Abulafia as an ecstatic mystic and of his methods to achieve 
prophecy as meditation techniques, his description as a Jewish Yogi and Sufi, 
and, to a certain degree, the fact that he was rejected by the Jewish religious 
establishment, all contributed to the reception of Abulafia and his »meditation 
techniques* in the late 20th and early 21st centuries in Jewish American circles 
that are related to the Jewish Renewal and New Age culture. A literary expres- 
sion of the fascination of American Jews with Abulafia comes to the fore in Myla 
Goldberg's best selling novel Bee Season, which depicts a Jewish American Rabbi 
who is obsessed by Abulafia and teaches his techniques to his eleven years old 

In recent years, interest in Abulafia is found also among non-Jewish spiritual 
and New Age movements, and his works are being translated into English, by 
the Ever Burning Light organization (related to the Universal Life Church). 
An expression of the contemporary construction of Abulafia as a universal, New 
Age-style mystic, comes to the fore in the website of Reverend Chava Aima, who 
describes herself as »ordained minister of the esoteric mysteries, practitioner of 
shamanic arts, initiate of Kabbalah, Alchemy, Kundalini and Tantra Yoga«: 

For nearly 20 years I have studied and practiced the divine philosophies of Kabbalah, 


71 Interestingly, Abulafia's Kabbalah is not central in the doctrines and practices of the Kabbalah 
center, and their leader, Rabbi Philip Berg. Yet, Abulafia is mentioned in Berg's writings. See 
for instance: Philip Berg, Kabbalah for the Layman (New York: Research Center of Kabbalah, 
1982), vol. 1, p. 147; idem, The Power ofAleph Beth fNew York &C Jerusalem: Research Center 
of Kabbalah, 1988), vol. 1, p. 265, vol. 2, p. 83 (I am grateful to Jody Myers and Gemma 
Kwantes for this information). 

72 Myla Goldberg, The Bee Season (London: Flamingo, 2001). See especially pp. 171—173; 179— 
181, 187-191, 194-195). The book was adapted into a film starring Richard Gere and Juliette 
Binoche. See: 

73 This organization is described as »A ULC (Universal Life Church), non-denominational, schol- 
arly associations. The texts, published in 2007, 
translated by various translators, include: Get Ha-Shemot {Divorce of the Names], Ner Elo- 
him {Candle of God), Sefer ha-Ot {The Book of the Sign), Sheva Netivot Ha-Torah {The Seven 
Paths ofTorah), and Or ha-Sechel {Light of the Intellect), as well as Yehuda Albotini's Sulam 
Aliyah {Ladder of Ascent) and Natan ben Saadayh Harar's Shaarei Zedek {Gates of Righteousness) . 
See: In their prefaces and 
comments to the texts, the publishers depend on academic studies of Abulafia, especially on 
the work of Moshe Idel. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 159 

Hermetic Arts and Sciences, Alchemy, and Rosicrucianism from the West, and Advaita, 
Kundalini and Tantra yoga from the East. . . The Kabbalistic tradition which I have found 
most useful in moving toward divine consciousness is Ecstatic Kabbalah, founded by 
Rabbi Abraham Abulafia. The core methods found in Ecstatic Kabbalah are similar in 
many ways to visual meditative techniques used by saints, sages, and mystics through- 
out the world. Rabbi Abulafia (1240—1291) was a holy man and prophet who lived in 
Spain and Italy, and traveled widely. He taught the sacred science of divine realization to 
students of all religions. The Rabbi attained union with the Divine Self through specific 
ecstatic practices, and proclaimed, »/ am the messiah" , indicating his loss of identity with 
the personality and his absorption into fully divine consciousness. 

The Canonization of Abulafia in Contemporary Kabbalah 

In the last decades of the 20th century, at the same period in which Abulafia be- 
came central in the academic study of Kabbalah, as well as among New Age and 
Jewish Revival Neo-Kabbalists, several Kabbalists who operate within Jewish Or- 
thodox and Ultra-Orthodox society integrated Abulafian doctrines and methods 
in their teaching, and started publishing, for the first time, complete editions of 
the writings of Abulafia and his school. 

R. Isaac Ginsburgh, a Chabad Hasid, and one of the prominent contempo- 
rary Kabbalists in Israel, combines in his teachings Hasidic and Kabbalistic ideas 
with an ultra-nationalistic ideology and New Age terminology. He cites Abula- 
fia in his books, homilies, and website and refers to him as none of the greatest 
medieval Kabbalists«. Ginsburgh's interest in Abulafia is related to his inten- 
sive use of gematria (numerical value of Hebrew letters, which is a central feature 
in Abulafia's writing) as well as to his interest in meditation techniques. Al- 
though he does not specify how he became acquainted with Abulafia's writing, it 
is probable that Ginsburgh (who was born in the United States) became familiar 
with them through Kaplan's writing. Abulafia is also mentioned in the writings 
of other contemporary orthodox Kabbalists, such as Ariel Bar Zadok, the head 
of the Yeshivas Benei Neviim, who teaches Kabbalah according to the Lurianic 

brew : 


75 See Huss, »The New Age of Kabbalah«, op.cit. (note 3), p. 113. 

76 See for instance, Isaac Ginsburgh, Esa Einai (Rehovot: Gal Eiani, 1998), pp. 78—79 [Hebr< 
idem, » The Abulafia Cycle« in: See: Garb, The 
Chosen Will Become Herds, op.cit. (note 3), p. 218, note 139; Yehiel Harari, Mysticism as 
a Messianic Rhetoric in the Works of Rabbi Yitzhak Ginsburgh, PhD. Dissertation (Tel Aviv 
University, 2006), pp. 119, 141, 156 [Hebrew]. 


160 Boaz Huss 

system of Rabbi Shalom Sharaabi and his school ; and Avraham Greenbaum, a 
Breslov Hasid and director of Azamra Institute, who lists Kaplan's Meditation and 
the Bible and Meditation and Kabbalah among the ten best books on Jewish Mys- 
ticism and Kabbalah. A combination of Abulafian motifs and the Kabbalah of 
Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag (a prominent 20th century Kabbalist, who never men- 
tioned Abulafia in his writing) is found in the art work and lectures of Avrham 
Lowenthal from Safed, who relates that he encountered Abulafia through Ka- 
plan's work, an encounter that he says changed his life. 

The most remarkable expression of the contemporary reception of Abulafia 
and his school is the publication of Abulafian writings by Kabbalists who operate 
in Israeli Haredi (ultra-orthodox) frameworks. In 1989, two writings of Abu- 
lafia's school, Sulam ha-Aliyah and Shaarei Zedek, (the two Abulafian texts that 
were published, in academic publications by Gershom Scholem in the first half 
of the 20th century) were published by Yeshivat Shaar ha-Shamayim (the Gates 
of Heaven Yeshiva), one of the most prominent and conservative Kabbalistic 
academies in Jerusalem. It is interesting to note that the first Abulafian texts to be 
published in a Haredi publication were not written by Abulafia himself. Proba- 
bly it was easier to break the unofficial ban on Abulafia by publishing texts of his 
school — not his own writings. Yet, the editor, Yoseph Elazar Elimelech Porush, 
refers explicitly to the relation of these texts to Abulafia, and in his introduction 
he relies on the words of the Hida as well as on the citations from Abulafia by R. 
Hayyim Vital in order to justify their printing. 

Another publication that anteceded and facilitated the publication of Abula- 
fia's writings was the printing of the fourth chapter of R. Hayyim Vital's Shaarei 
Kdusha, which was omitted from its previous printings and was based to a large 
extent on Abulafia's writings. In this work, published in 1 988 in a collection of 

78 See for instance his »Lessons in Prayer and Meditation« at: 
/lessons-in-prayer.pdf. See: Grab, The Chosen Will Become Herds, op.cit. (note 3), p. 219, 
note 139. 

79 Interestingly, the Ever Burning Light organi- 
zation, mentioned above (note 73), includes Azamra Institute in their list of special thanks. 

80 See his lecture at .php. See also his web- 

81 A prominent contemporary Kabbalist, R. Yakov Moshe Hillel, the head of Yeshivat Hevrat 
Ahavat Shalom, condemned the printing of Abulafia's writing. See note 1 7 above. Interestingly, 
in 1988, Hillel sponsored the printing of Rabbi Natenel Safrin's edition of the fourth chapter 
of Hayyim Vital's Shaarei Kdusha, which includes citations of Abulafia's writing. See: New 
Writings by Rabbi Hayyim Vital (Jerusalem: Ahavat Shalom), 1988. 

82 Yoseph Elazar Elimelech Porush (ed.), Sefer Sulam ha-Aliyah and Shaarei Zedek (Jerusalem: 
Shaarei Ziv, 1989). 

83 Ibid., p. 15. 

84 See note 81 above. 

The Formation of Jewish Mysticism 161 

writings of Vital, the editor, Rabbi Natanel Safrin (a descendant of the Hasidic 
dynasty of Kumarno), discussed in his introduction the inclusion of Abulafia's 
writings in Vital's work, and justified its publication by quoting Hida's defense 
of Abulafia. 

In 1999, Rabbi Matityahu Safrin, the son of the above mentioned R. Natanel, 
published two writings of Abraham Abulafia himself, Or ha-Sechel and Sefer 
ha-Heshek. In the introduction to Sefer ha-Heshek, the editor's father, Rabbi 
Natanel, described Abulafia as an »ancient authority*: »Rabbi Abraham Abula- 
fia, may the memory of the righteous ones be blessed, was one of the ancient 
authorities, who lived 700 years ago. The time arrived now for his writings to 
be revealed in print«. The editor, Rabbi Matityahu, cited the Kabbalists and 
Hasidic masters who referred to Abulafia and quoted his writing, including the 
above-mentioned citation of Hida. 

During exactly the same years, at the turn of the millennium, Amnon Gross, 
a Breslov Hasid, brought to print most of Abulafia's writings, in 13 volumes. In 
the introduction to Hayei ha-Olam ha-Ba, Gross justifies his venture by relying 
on Hida as well as the other kabbalists who cited Abulafia, especially R. Hayyim 
Vital. At the end of Sefer ba-Ziruf Gross also published his own Abulafian 
treatise, Mahsevet Hoshev (Clever Reckoning), in which he tries to clarify Abu- 
lafia's system to contemporary readers. Gross, who refers to his own practice 
of Abulafia's methods, addresses his publication to potential practitioners of 
Abulafia's methods who are seeking after prophetic revelations: »For those who 
study the art of letter combination, and who yearn for the path, this book is 
the staircase that leads up to the ascension to the altars of prophecy.« In the 

85 Abraham Abulafia, Or ha-Sechel (Jerusalem: Torat Hacham, 1999); idem, Sefer Ha-Heshek 
(Jerusalem: Torat Hacham, 1999). 

86 Ibid., p. 4. 

87 Ibid., pp. 8—10. R. Matityahu Safrin refers also to the discussion of his father concerning 
Abulafia, in his introduction to Vital's Shaarei Kdusha. 

88 Abraham Abulafia, Hayei ha-Olam ha-Ba, Ve-Zot le-Yehudah (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 1999); 
idem, Inirei Shefer (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 1999); idem, Gan Na'ul, Sheva Netivot ha- 
Torah (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 1999); idem, Otzar Eden Ganuz (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 
2000); idem, Mafteah ha-Hochmot, Mafteah ha-Shemot (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); 
Idem, Mafteah ha-Sefrot, Mafieah ha-Tochehot (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); idem, Hayei 
ha-Nefesh, Metmref la-Kesef ve-Kur la-Zahav (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); idem, Or ha- 
Sechel, Shomer Mitzvah (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); idem, Metzaref ha-Sechel, Sefer ha-Ot 
(Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); Idem, Sitrei Torah (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2001); idem, 
Ner Elohim, Get ha-Shemot (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2002); idem, Sefer ha-Heshek, Mafieah 
ha-Ra'ayon, ha-Melamed (Jerusalem: Amnon Gross, 2002); idem, Sefer ha-Ziruf (Jerusalem: 
Amnon Gross, 2003) [Amnon Gross's Mahshevet Hoshev is also included in this volume]. 

89 Idem, Hayei ha-Olam ha-Ba, op.cit. (note 88), pp. 11—18. 

90 Idem, Sefer ha-Zeruf, op.cit. (note 88) pp. 155—177. 

91 Idem, Mafieah ha-Hochmot, Mafieah ha-Shemot, op.cit. (note 88), pp. 2f. 

92 Idem, Metzaref ha-Sechel, Sefer ha-Ot, op.cit. (note 88), p. 2. 

162 Boaz Huss 

introduction to Sefer ha-Heshek he presents his printing of Abulafia's works as 
annulment of a decree (bitul gzeira) , which has messianic significance: 

Hereby we give a blessing over a completed task. May the name of the king of kings the 
holy one blessed be he, be praised, as he had pity and compassion over us, and annulled 
the decree over this house, the house of our Rabbi, Abraham Abulafia, and turned it into 
an altar for the unification of the holy one blessed be he, his divine presence, and the 
whole of the people of Israel. Soon we shall ascend the walls with songs and dances, and 
offer sacrifices, »for Torah shall come forth from Zion and the word of the Lord from 
Jerusalem* (Isaiah 2.3) 

Porush, Safrin, and Gross do not mention in their publications of Abulafian 
writings modern scholars of Kabbalah or the work of Aryeh Kaplan. Nonethe- 
less, their decision to publish the same texts that were previously published by 
Gershom Scholem, the references to historical data that was discussed in the 
scholarly research of Abulafia (such as the name of the Pope whom Abulafia 
tried to meet: Nicholas III) as well as the criticism of pseudo-Kabbalists who 
study Abulafia, indicate that the Haredi printers of the Abulafian corpus were 
aware and responded to the scholarly research on Abulafia as well as to the con- 
temporary interest in his Kabbalah in the Jewish renewal movement. 

The recent comprehensive printing of the Abulafian writings, the practice 
of his methods in various Jewish and non-Jewish circles, and the references to 
Abulafia in contemporary literature, art and cinema, indicate the central place 
Abulafia has gained in the present day perception, and practice, of Kabbalah. 
The canonization of Abulafia in contemporary culture is dependent, to a large 
degree, on the modern perception of Kabbalah as mysticism, on the discovery of 
Abulafia's writing by 19th-century Jewish scholars, and on the centrality of his 
Kabbalah in the 20th century academic construction of Jewish mysticism. 

93 Idem, Sefer ha-Heshek, Mafteah ha-Ra'ayon, ha-Melamed, op.cic. (note 88), p. 1. 

94 Abulafia, Sefer Hayei ha-Olam ha-Ba, op.cit. (note 88), p. 8. 

95 Abulafia, Sefer ha-Zirufi op.cit. (note 88), p. 155. 

96 Apart from the integration of Abulafian motifs by the writers and artists mentioned above (the 
Californian Kabbalists, Myla Goldberg, and Avraham Lowenthal), a famous reference to Abu- 
lafia (as the name of Belbo's computer) is Umberto Eco, Foucault's Pendulum (London: Seeker 
& Warburg, 1989). An earlier poetic depiction of Abulafia's life is found in: Moshe Feinstein, 
Avraham Abulafia: Po'emah Historit (Jerusalem: Mosad Bialik, 1956) [Hebrew]. Moshe Idel 
has lectured on "Abraham Abulafia and Modern Literature« at the conference »Kabbalah and 
Modernity«, held in Amsterdam, July 2007.