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Organ of the World Federation of 
Islamic Missions 
An International Monthly 
Devoted to Islamic Progress 

VOL. 47 
NO. 4 

APRIL, 2010 

Rs. 25/= (Pak) 


M.H. Habib Butt 


Umer Qassim Mithani 

Dr. Farogh Naseem 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 


Mahmood Shaikh 


Begum Rashida Ikram Siddiqi 


Moulana Abu Faheem Anwarullah Khan / Wajih-ul-Hasan Ansari 


Ashfaq Husain 

Azhar Hasan Siddiqi 


Muhammed Ahmed • Jan Muhammed 
Azhar Hasan Siddiqi • Umer Shakoor • Muhammed Ajaz Saya 

Wajih-ul-Hasan Ansari *Tahir Umer •Mahmood Shaikh 

Amin Ghazi • Noor Ahmed khan • Syed Muhammed Ali Nasir 

Aboo Baker Cassim *Abdus Sattar Usman •Prof. Abdul 

Waheed Qureshi • Mr. Yonus Hashim Bangali 
Abu Faheem Anwarullah Khan «Grp Cap (R) Faheem Baig 



An International Monthly Devoted to Islamic Progress 

Organ of 


-^^^^ O 

Published in Memory of 
Maulana Shah Muhammad Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 

Maulana Dr. Muhammad Fazl-ur-Rahman Al-Ansari Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 




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Editorial Board 

M.A. Khan 

Maulana Allah Yar Qaderi 

Chief Editor: 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 

Advisory Board: 


Fazal Khan 
Guyana (South America) 


Ahmed B. Keeno 

Abdul Rashid Ismail 

M. Abu Fahim Anwarullah 

Siddiq Ahmed Nasir 


Maulana Abid AN 


Dr. Alonto 


Farid Uddin Ahmad 
Editorial Asst.: 

Abdul Aleem Joemman 



Haji Abdul Had! 

Hafiz Munir Ahmed 

Abu Bakr Maidin 

M. Asif Zaheer 


Sri Lanka 

A.R. Siddiqi 

Shahidullah Kausar 

Special Correspondents: 


Suriname (South America) 


Shaikh Ah Mustafa 

Muhammad Alamgir 


Shahid Ansari 

Trinidad and Tobago 


Dr. Waffie Muhammed 

Muhammed Musaddaq 

Shaheen Z. Ansari 

Khalil Hussain 

Cape Town 


Venezuela (South America) 

Rizwan Mathew 

Abdullah Ahmed 

H.R. Azizuddin 
^ J 


LFrom The Editor's Desk 3 

2. Call From The Minaret 5 

3. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (#) 
And Zaid 11 

4. Concept of Religion 14 

5. The Influence of Maulana Dr. F. R. Ansari's 

Thought in the World 17 

6. Teaching of Islam 18 

7.Sufism as a way of Life 25 

8. tijdlatl i^jtai &>']\ J"** AWM fifttite/?. .32 

"The MINARET' may not necessarily agree with the opinions of the writers 

Approved for Schools, Colleges and Educational Institutions vide Circular No. (DE / F. 
Pub / 11- A) (3082-3390) 72, Directorate of Education, Karachi Region, dated 8-5-1972 

Published by the World Federation of Islamic Missions, Abdul Aleem Siddiqui and Islamic Centre Roads, 

Islamic Centre, B-Block, North Nazimabad, Karachi-74700 Pakistan. Phones: 6677943, 6644156 

Fax: (0092-21) 6627021 E-mail: pk 

Printed at M/s. Abrar Sons, Hydri Manzil, Bohra Pir, Karachi. 


Pakistan continues to oscillate from 
an unending streams of crisis after crisis 
since its birth. The nation is passing at 
the moment through a deep socio-conomic 
ecrisis, allegedly ever increasing level of 
corruption, a sordid world of greed, deceit 
and extortion. The structure of the 
Pakistan's society is being characterised 
by mass illitracy, economic imbalances, 
and crisis of identity that are not 
coincidental but instrumental to each other 
and are contemporary phenomena. The 
moral values of Muslims that were 
considerd to be their hall-mark are on a 
steep decline in Pakistan. The society is 
functioning on the premise of "Give and 
Take". In morality versus money, the later 
enjoys higher precedence and the 
procedures are available for use as and 
when desired. 

The feelings of desperation and 
despondency that abound the moral 
decline in the society are more visible 
among the saner section but less in the 
masses. Its impact is slowly eating away 
the very social fabric. 

The tragedy is that no serious thought 
has ever been given to a logical solution 
of the maladies faced by the nation 
resulting in state of deep crisis. The 
continuous negligence of causes and 
factors of this state of despair are eroding 
the roots of existance. The utterances of 
the intelligentsia and saner section is 
conspicously being ignored as drawing 
room coversation. A fundamental question 
of legitimacy of the entire system is 
hovering over the sky. But nobody seems 
to behold the challenge. 


It is an empirical rule that the society 
that can not perceive the causes and 
motives of the factors causing the decline, 
can not bring a change. And in the 
absence of this competency to carry out 
the analysis and meet the challenge in a 
habitual timid way rather on facts and 
realities, survival becomes an open 
question leading to a logical decay. Crisis 
and the causes of crisis form a chain and 
the two things could not be looked in 

The Pakistan's tragedy is that those 
who operate the system can not think 
outside autocrate traditions bequthed by 
the British rulers. As the struggle for an 
independent homeland for the Muslims 
of the subcontinent under the leadership 
of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad All Jinnah 
came nearer to dawn, those who were 
against the very concept of Pakistan and 
averse to a system of government to be 
managed by an elected majority of the 
people under a democratic dispension, 
joined in hordes as self seated front 
benchers because they have the correct 
perception of seeing the end of their 
hegemony and demolishion of an structure 
that suited them. 

The infusion of undemocratic 
traditions, system of biradaries, cast 
culture and ethnic divides in the body 
stream of Pakistan was the sole cause of 
all the misfortunes that have slowly gripped 
the country. The hangers-on of the colonial 
system have a peculiar and entirely 
different life style in which their objective 
remains to fatten themselves at the 

April 2010 

expense of masses and a selfish living 
for themselves only. Organised systems 
and the institutional growth were either 
hindered or subverted in a sinister move 
to keep the reigns of power in selective 
hands, rightly or wrongly. 

The right of governance through 
selected and true representatives 
promised by the great leader and 
enshrined in the constitution of Pakistan 
remained a mirage for the people. To 
manipulate the system the neo- 
entrepreneurs penetrated into the political 
and religious parties to pollute the right of 
vote by correct practices. However their 
failure to honour the commitments to the 
people, to the democratic institutions and 
misuse of opportunities resulted in the 
erosion of rule of law. Breakdown of moral 
values, social norms, cultural traditions, 
open ended corruption and a deterioration 
of law & order are the natural 
consequences of this mis-rule. 

Whatever scenario is visible at the 
national spectrum is the result of these 
wranglings that have brought the Islamic 
Republic of Pakistan to an economic 
bankruptcy with tensions and social 
imbalances in the society, endangering 
the very integrity of the country. When 

such incremental erosion culminates into 
a total anarchy of power intervention takes 
place to avert the catastrophy 

The people's Pakistan, carved under 
the leadership of Muhammad AH Jinnah 
has been badly caved by the self seekers 
which is now drifting amidst hope and 
despair. However the spirit of patriotism 
and fellow feelings are still alive. There is 
no reason to wait till the crunch comes. 
We shall have to pave the way to build a 
nation of respect, dignity and recognition. 
But the primary distortion that lies in the 
society shall have to be corrected at first. 
Unless the unjust structure is demolished 
we will not be able to achieve the goals. 

The country in fact urgently needs the 
emergence of an Islamic movement based 
on Prophet's example, free from sectarian 
groupings. The solution of Pakistan's 
problems lies in not making an unjust 
system more effecient but seeking the 
guidance from the Holy Qur'an and 
Sunnah for running a modern Islamic 
state. Islam is about submission to Allah 
and to His Prophet (&). Pakistan's people 
shall have to understanding these basic 
points and begin to work along the lines 
of Seer ah. Allah's help will surely 
come.... FAR ID 



April 2010 








It has been proved in the foregoing 
that the basis of understanding the Holy 
Quran is the interpretation given by the 
Holy Prophet (#) of Islam. The verses of 
the Qur'an means that which the Holy 
Prophet (#) understood and made us to 
understand, whether through action or 
through saying. Consequently, the 
Companions of the Holy Prophet (#) were 
always extremely attentive to every word 
that he said and tried to remember it to 
the very letter. They were so cautious in 
the matter that if they ever apprehended 
that they had forgotten some actual word 
and had only remembered its synonym, 
they would always point it out while 
narrating a certain Prophetic Tradition (or 
Hadith). Thus not only was the Holy 
Prophet's (#) life-account preserved for 
us, but also the solutions of the various 
problems of religion and law which the 
Holy Prophet (#) gave. 

When it was emphasised that the Holy 
Qur'an should be written down, and 
arrangements were made accordingly. 
Some of the Companions thought of 
putting down the Traditions of the Holy 
Prophet (#) also in writing. But, because 
Islam was still in its early stage, the Holy 


Prophet (#) feared that if his Traditions 
were committed to writing side by side 
with the Qur'an, people might get confused 
and might mix up both things. Hence he 
forbade them in the beginning from doing 
so. However, when that danger had 
passed away and people were sufficiently 
trained to distinguish the Quran from the 
Hadith, he allowed them to write down his 
Sayings. In fact, he himself got them 
written as, for instance, when he dictated 
the rules of Zakat, etc., to AN. 

Among the Companions there were 
some who would pass their whole time, 
so to say, at the feet of the Holy Prophet 
(#). Close to the Holy Prophet's (#) 
residential room and the mosque, there 
is a raised platform which is called Suffa. 
A party of companions used to occupy 
this platform permanently There work was 
to learn by heart whatever they heard 
from the Holy Prophet (#). One of those 
people of Suffa was Abu Huraira, who 
was endowed with a powerful memory 
and who remembered a large number of 
the Holy Prophet's (#) Traditions and 
reported them. 

This I have related with a view to 

April 2010 

make you understand that, just as 
arrangements were made to preserve the 
Holy Qur'an by means of writing and 
learning by heart, similarly did the 
Companions of the Holy Prophet (#) exert 
themselves to preserve the Prophet's 
Traditions. Their method consisted in 
learning them by heart and reporting them 
with all the care which the sacredness of 
the task and their devotion to the Holy 
Prophet (#) and Islam demanded. One 
person reported to another, one generation 
reported to the other succeeding it. Thus 
a continuous chain of reporters was built 
- a continuous chain through which 
passed the most valuable treasure of the 
Holy Prophet's (#) Sayings and Actions. 

Now, the way in which this chain of 
reporters was built up and the extremely- 
critical method which gave lustre to it, has 
made this chain one of the glories of 
Islamic history. The fact is, that the experts 
of historical science cannot produced 
another instance in world's history where 
those critical historical standards were 
observed which have gone to make the 
Hadith literature such an authentic record 
as it is. 

If, today, I am asked to narrate a 
Hadith to some scholar of that science, it 
will not be enough for me to recite its text. 
Rather, I will have to report my authority 
and I will have to prove that my chain of 
reporters is faultless and ends at the Holy 
Prophet (#). 

Indeed, those who were responsible 
for the compilation of Hadith literature, 
observed a measure of care beyond which 
human endeavour could not go. In the 
case of each and every Hadith that 


reached them, they examined its 
authenticity thoroughly. They tested the 
chain of reporters through which it was 
transmitted. They enquired whether a 
certain reporter had seen and met the 
other reporter from whom he claimed to 
have received the Hadith. They saw 
whether the reporters were persons of 
good and reliable memory. They 
investigated piety and fear of God in the 
lives of the reporters. In short, they 
employed all conceivable standards for 
assessing the true worth of every Hadith 
reported and accepted it only after they 
had been thoroughly satishfied. 

This brings us to the fact that there 
were, and there are, Traditions (i.e., 
Ahadith), of different grades in accordance 
with their measure of authenticity. This 
grading was done on the basis of different 
factors. Variously, the considerations were 
: (1) the moral condition of the reporters 
and the level of their pety; (2) the powers 
of memory which the reporters were found 
to possess; (3) intelligence and capacity 
to grasp religious truths; (4) consideration 
of the fact whether the report had come 
through one channel only or different 
channels; so on and so forth. When the 
details of the Islamic law were deduced, 
these factors governing the worth of 
different Traditions were always kept in 

In connection with the extreme caution 
which the compilers of Hadith observed, 
I may mention here an incident of the life 
of Imam Muhammad Bin Ismail Al-Bukhari, 
the leader of all compilers. The 
compendium of Hadith which this great 
scholar has given to the world is the result 
of a most thorough sifting of Hadith 

April 2010 

literature. His sense of respect which he 
had for the work he had in hand, and his 
piety and Godliness, can be judged from 
the fact that when he was writing the 
Sahih-al-Bukhari, he made fresh ablution 
and offered two rakaat of prayer before 
writing each individual Hadith. 

This great Imam once heard that at 
a long distance from his place there was 
some person who knew certain Sayings 
of the Holy Prophet (#). The Imam 
undertook the arduous journey on foot in 
order to obtain from him the Sayings in 
question. When he at last arrived in the 
village where the man lived, he enquired 
his where abouts. Some one pointed him 
out nearby. The man was busy calling his 
horse who had fled from him. He had a 
fodder-can in his hand which he was 
showing to the horse from a distance in 
order to attract him. Imam Bukhari went 
towards the man and the first thing he did 
was to cast a glance at the fodder-can, 
which he found to be empty. At once the 
Imam retraced his steps. The man noticed 
it and was bewildered. He left the chase 
of the horse, ran towards the Imam and 
requested him to explain the incident to 
him. The Imam replied : "I had heard that 
you related Traditions of the Holy Prophet, 
(#) and had therefore come after a long 
journey to meet you. But when I saw you 
calling the horse with an empty fodder- 
can in your hand, I concluded that a person 
who can cheat a horse, is also capable 
of cheating men. I cannot accept any 
Hadith reported by such a person". 

With such extreme care, the Traditions 
were collected. This extreme care was 
undertaken not only because of inherent 
necessity, but also because of the 


machinations of the Jews. These old 
friends of the Muslims have never left any 
stone unturned in scheming against Islam, 
although the Muslim governments always 
treated them most magnanimously and 
provided them asylum while the rest of 
the world was persecuting them. In those 
early days, they were hatching all sorts 
of plots to undermine Islam. They tried 
their hands at various schemes, but failed. 
At last they planned to disguise as 
Muslims, to forge Traditions in the name 
of the Holy Prophet (#), and to propagate 
them amongst the Muslims, thereby 
aiming to contaminate the purity of Islamic 
teachings and to corrupt the Muslim 
religious life. A large number of such forged 
Traditions were broadcast among the 
Muslims. The scholars of Islam, who had 
been fore-warned by the Holy Prophet 
(#) about the appearance of such a 
menace, were soon on their guard. They 
built up a whole science of historical 
criticism, and compiled extensive works 
on the biographies of reporters, whereby 
a genuine Tradition could be correctly 
distinguished from a forged one. 

I may here remark in passing that 
certain persons of our own times have 
tried to tamper with the Hadith literature 
in order to suit their own ends, though 
their method has been different. They 
could not forge new Traditions, having 
appeared so late in Islamic History. They 
tried to fall back upon the forged or weak 
Traditions handed down from the past. 
But that, too, could not work in view of the 
smashing criticism from the side of the 
experts of the science of Tradition. So, 
one of them, namely, Mirza Ghulam 
Ahmad of Qadian when he found that his 
claims could not be comfortably lodged 

April 2010 

in genuine Traditions, fell back upon the 
arbitrary assertion that he was the divinely 
appointed Judge and could, therefore, 
accept any Tradition he liked and reject 
any other he did not like, the principles of 
logical and historical criticism 

In connection with our discussion of 
Hadith and Sunnah, there is an important 
point which may well be kept in mind. 

We have already seen that the Holy 
Qur'an was revealed bit by bit. The 
commandments were delivered gradually 
to progressively reclaim and reform a 
people who were diseased, deformed and 
corrupt beyond limit. Had they been 
subjected to the complete discipline of 
Islam from the very first day, they would 
have in all probability found it 
psychologically too heavy to carry and to 
follow. Take, for instance, the case of 
alcoholic drinks. As all students of Arab 
history know, side by side with idolatry 
and polytheism and various spiritual and 
moral evils, the liquor-habit was embedded 
so deeply in the lives of the Arab that any 
other race of the world could hardly claim 
a higher degree of addiction. Had the law 
of Prohibition been imposed on them 
forthwith, their psychological condition 
and diseased nervous state would have 
compelled them to sacrifice Iman and 
Islam to alcohol. They would have 
preferred the later to the former. But 
infidelity and polytheism are root-sins 
which entitle man to nothing less than 
eternal fire, while other sins, whether major 
or minor, stand below in degree. If the 
root of a tree is healthy and safe, whatever 
the calamities which might afflict other 
parts, there is always the hope that the 


tree can survive. But once the root is 
diseased or is removed, the whole tree is 
bound to perish once for all. Hence, in the 
case of wine, the polite commandment 
was revealed first. It laid down :- 

"Approach not prayers while 
intoxicated". (IV : 43). 

Later on came the second revelation 
in the same connection and contained the 
exhortation that: 

"In them (that is, wine and gambling) 
is great sin, and some profit, for men; but 
the sin is greater than the profit". (II : 219). 

When thus, people had been 
ultimately taught to hate wine, the final 
commandment came:- 

"O ye who believe! Intoxicants and 
gambling, (dedication of) stones and 
(divination by) arrows, are abomination- 
of Satan's handiwork: Eschew such 
(abomination), that ye may prosper". 
(V : 90). 

The result of adopting the gradual 
procedure was that when total prohibition 
was announced, people immediately broke 
into pieces the vessels of wine, and the 
liquor from the broken jars was flowing in 
the streets of Medina. 

Here you can understand the problem 
of the abrogation of verses also easily, 
which might be explained to you fully on 
some later occasion. In this connection 
we might keep in mind the fact that 
whatever commandments were revealed 
on any occasion they were invariably 
based on wisdom. However, when a 
certain commandment referred to a 

April 2010 

passing situation, it was replaced by 
another at a later stage. Actually, such 
commandments did not mean calling the 
same thing "white" on one occasion and 
"black" on another. They rather 
represented the progressive revelation of 
guidance in connection with the gradual 
reformation of the first Islamic community. 

We have seen in the case of wine, 
that, in the early days of Islam those who 
were addicted to it continued to use it, 
only abstaining from it during prayer-times, 
until the commandment relating to total 
prohibition was revealed. Now, it is quite 
conceivable that those Muslims who lived 
at a long distance from Medina, might 
have continued to act according to the 
first injunction even some time after the 
revelation of the final commandment. The 
means of communication were very 
meagre in those days, especially in a 
backward country like Arabia. The issue 
of prohibition was, however, a very vital 
one. Hence the Islamic community at 
Medina made the utmost effort for making 
God's final commandment known to every 
one and within a short time it reached 
every ear. 

But, think now, in the light of this, 
about the information reaching the people 
concerning the Holy Prophet (#) Sayings 
and Actions. Suppose the Holy Prophet 
(#) acted in some matter in a certain way 
in the light of certain special 
considerations, and suppose some 
Companions from outside Medina were 
present with him on that occasion, and 
they carried with them to their homes the 
memory of that incident and preserved it 
in their minds for guidance. 

However, after some days the Holy 

Prophet (#) acted in some similar matter 
differently, under Divine guidance. And 
this did not reach those who had observed 
his previous action. 

Now, suppose the two different actions 
related to some minor affair which was 
not of such a serious importance as the 
issue of liquor-prohibition referred to and 
was not broadcast in the same manner. 
Therefore, those who knew only the Holy 
Prophet's (#) previous action continued 
to be guided by it. Certainly their motive 
was to follow the Holy Prophet's Way and 
hence their action was right. But those 
who had the opportunity of observing the 
Holy Prophet's (#) later action and made 
it their guiding principle, were right, the 
more so. 

Apparently, the stands of the two 
parties became different in that matter. 
But both were sincere in their motives. 
And it is this to which the Holy Prophet 
(#) referred when he said: 

The differences of my people are 
(based on) mercy. 

Those differences were not grounded 
in selfishness, egotism and stubborness, 
nor were they created by the claims of 
false prophets and so-called reformers, 
as is the case now-a-days, but they always 
rose up in the purest motives and in the 
devotion to the Holy Prophet (#). 

I may explain to you the nature of 
those early differences further. Once the 
Holy Prophet (#) ordered a party of his 
Companions to go to a certain place, offer 
their Asr prayers there, perform certain 
work, and return. The party started for the 
place forthwith. But they were still on the 

i April 2010 

way when they found that the time for Asr 
was about to expire. The party split into 
two groups on the interpretation of the 
Holy Prophet's (#) command. One group 
said that when the Holy Prophet's (#) 
command. One group said that when the 
Holy Prophet (#) gave them that 
command, what he actually meant was 
that the party should proceed with all 
possible haste and not that they should 
forego offering the Asr prayer within time. 
The other group insisted that the Holy 
Prophet (#) was himself the law-giver 
and his command to offer the Asr prayer 
after reaching the place was meant to be 
carried out as it stood. Both the groups 
offered the prayer according to their 
decisions. When the party returned, they 
submitted their difference of opinion to 
the Holy Prophet (#). He smiled and said 
that both of them were right because the 
motive of both was to obey him. The 

difference consisted only in interpretation. 
One group emphasized the letter, while 
the other emphasized the spirit. 

Thus we know that differences of 
opinion arose even among the 
Companions. But those differences related 
only to honest understanding of problems 
and had nothing to do with personal 
jealousies, quarrels and rivalries. 

In a word, differences of opinion 
among the Companions came into 
existence on the basis of either of the two 

(1 ) when a certain Tradition reached 
one group and did not reach another: 

(2) differences of understanding and 

(Continued from Page 17) 

challenge and to correct this distortion. 
He stressed that Islam should be 
presented as a dynamic orthodoxy. The 
success of his outlook on Islam can be 
seen from the esteem in which he was 
held by the intellectual circles in many 
countries. Muslim and non-Muslim, and 
also from the impact he made on the youth 
of the day. 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari was the 
upholder of Dynamic Orthodoxy as 
opposed to the Conservatism and 
Modernism with the slogan: return to the 
Qur'an, and Return to Muhammad 
(p.b.u.h). He was also a great spiritual 
leader for the Ummah, He was every inch 
a Muslim, not only in appearance but also 
in his actions and thoughts. With his 

towering height, his smile and enlightening 
speech he presented to all who beheld 
and heard him a model of what a Muslim 
should be. He was very simple but 
generous in his life. He was the true 
follower of our Noble Prophet (#). 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari returned to 
his Lord on Monday 11th Jamadi-al-Awwal 
1394, corresponding to 3rd June 1974, 
after spending his life working for the 
spiritual and moral uplift of different Muslim 
countries and communities in the Orient 
and Occident. He was buried in Karachi, 
Pakistan, in the compound of the Islamic 

May the Mercy of Allah be on him. 
(Ameen) ! 


April 2010 


Muhammad 'AM Al-Hajj Salmin 
(Editor, The Divine Message) 

The present conflict between Islam 
and Christianity has disclosed the ruthless 
wounds inflicted by the fanaticism of the 
writings of European writers, for the most 
part in the dark, on the fame of Islamic 
culture by their mutilation of Islamic history, 
in a light so amazing that every Muslim 
of our times burns to sweep away all 
Christian influence from the literary world 
which, menaced by the venomous effect 
of such writing, has become reduced to 
a useless, selfish form. Many are the 
heroes of Islam in the sixth and seventh 
centuries A. D. who have been victimized 
by these literary tigers, to the glorification 
of Christianity and to the belittlement of 
Islam. But why mention others when the 
Prophet of Islam himself suffers 
defamation at the hands of these 
personifications of fanaticism and religious 
spite? It is through such influences as 
these that the life of Zaid, a child- 
companion of the Prophet, has been 
painted by these writers in a sinister light; 
and so a short sketch of the life of Zaid is 
given below only for the purpose of 
removing the unjust "imputations" so 
unworthily cash upon his name. 

His mother was the daughter of 
Tha'laba, who was the son of Abd 'Amir. 
She belonged to the tribe of Moon Bin 
Tai. The great savant, Muhammad Abdu'l- 
Baqi Zurqani, writes in the third volume 
of Mawahib that when Zaid was, at the 
age of eight, captured by the tribe of Bani 


Qin, and sold at the 'Ukaz Market, Hakim, 
the son of Hazim, bought him for four 
hundred dirhams for his paternal aunt, 
Khadijatu' l-Kubra, who was generally 
known as Khadija. When the Prophet 
married Khadija he took Zaid from her 
care and straightway set him free from 
the bondage of slavery. 

Ibn Hajr 'Asqalani writes in his third 
volume of Isaba fi Tamyizi 's-Sahaba that 
the mother of Zaid had gone with him to 
visit the members of her tribe. This was 
at a very dark period of history when 
ignorance and ferocity were at their height 
in Arabia; and without warning a body of 
men from the tribe of Qin made a surprise 
raid on houses belonging to the tribe of 
Moon. In the midst of the attack the raiders 
seized Zaid, a mere child of a little more 
than seven, and carried him off. The child 
was very intelligent, and the marks of 
wisdom and deep penetration were 
conspicuous on his face. Thus it was that 
he was sold in the slave-market of 'Ukaz 
to Hakim, who eventually presented him 
to his paternal aunt, Khadija. 

It is written in the Sirat Ibn Ishaq that 
Hakim, the son of Hazim, brought certain 
slaves from Syria, among whom was Zaid. 
Khadija had come to her nephew's house 
immediately after her marriage to the 
Prophet Muuhammad, and Hakim, as a 
matter of hospitality having exhibited all 
the slaves, asked her which she preferred 

1 April 2010 

for her own self. She singled out Zaid and 
carried him to the Prophet, who, as has 
been said, took him from her and forthwith 
gave him his liberty. 

The view of Ibn Ishaq that the Prophet 
had adopted him soon after he had 
obtained his freedom is not correct, 
because before the adoption occurred the 
Prophet had been married to Khadija, and 
was expecting a child ere long. In the 
circumstances his adoption of Zaid 
becomes meaningless, for according to 
the ancient custom of that day the adoption 
of a child could be effected only when the 
adopter had no hope for one of his own. 
No such reason was present in this case. 
Isaba says that when Zaid became a slave 
in Khadija's household the latter was not 
yet married to the Prophet; which suggests 
that when the Prophet got Zaid for himself 
it was shortly before his marriage to 
Khadija. Then how can it even be possible 
that one who was on the point of being 
married and whose hopes were about to 
attain their fulfilment should, like hopeless 
and despairing persons, adopt another 
man's child? 

The Prophet was extremely kind to 
Zaid, and loved him as most elderly 
persons love those younger than 
themselves. The Prophet loved Zaid so 
much that he often called him "son," and 
this has led many historians to the 
erroneous idea of adoption. Gradually this 
falsity spread and became generally 
accepted, and historians of every age 
have recorded it without any attempt on 
their part to ascertain its truth. Otherwise 
it is quite clear that it was only from the 
natural affection of an elderly man for Zaid 
that the Prophet habitually called him 


"son." This may be corroborated by the 
following circumstance. When his father 
and uncle came to offer a good ransom 
for the release of Zaid the Prophet 
authorized the latter to do just as he 
proposed. Zaid then replied that he would 
never prefer anyone to the Great Prophet, 
who had always regarded him as a son 
more than uncle or father ever had. From 
the above it may readily be gathered that 
if Zaid had been an adopted child he 
would never have said that the Prophet 
acted thus towards him. Rather he would 
have said that he was then adopted by 
the Prophet, and hence his refusal to go 
with his father. It is usual for a child to 
regard a kind and generous benefactor 
in the light of a parent, and this is quite 
sufficient to account for Zaid's reply. And 
a further point is to be considered, which 
is that when Zaid said of the Prophet that 
he acted more like a parent than had his 
father and uncle, by using the word "uncle" 
he made it abundantly clear that he was 
not adopted but only treated and regarded 
by the Prophet as a son, for which Zaid 
felt deeply grateful to so noble and 
sympathetic a master. 

It is no less ridiculous that in speaking 
of the life of Zaid certain prejudiced and 
fanatical Christian priests and others have 
set it down, out of their sheer hatred for 
Islam, that Zaid was a specialist in the 
doctrines of Christianity, and that the 
Prophet used to learn many things about 
the Christian religion from him, for which 
reason the Prophet had adopted him as 
his own son. Sir William Muir and other 
Christian historians state that Zaid was 
one of the slaves of Khadija who used to 
teach the Prophet Christian doctrines in 
his early days; that Muhammad had an 

> April 2010 

affection for him and hence his adoption 
as his son. This is a monstrous invention — 
for propaganda purposes, and for which 
there is no foundation whatever. No Islamic 
history asserts that Zaid and his father 
were Christians, nor is there any 
suggestion from any original source that 
they were really Christians and the 
followers of Christ. Zaid was only eight 
years old when he became one of the 
slaves of Khadija and was subsequently 
handed over to the Prophet. A mere child 
of eight, who was ruthlessly snatched 
away from the company of his parents, 
losing every chance of being decently 
brought up by them, can hardly be 
expected to know the ins and outs of any 
religion. When a child does not even 
comprehend what religion means, how 
can he be expected to be fully acquainted 
with all its divine, spiritual, and material 
principles? It is obvious that since the age 
of eight he received moral and religious 
instruction only at the hands of the 
Prophet. So that his knowledge of such 
subjects was obtained solely from the 
Prophet. Of course, if we are prepared to 
accept impossibilities as facts we might 
take him to be one, like Christ, receiving 
a vast and comprehensive education at 
the hands of God's angels, or in dreams, 
in a very short period of time; or like a 
Hindu recluse, who is sometimes born 
learned, or considered to be an 
educational prodigy at the very early age 
of five or six. If in these days of materialistic 
progress and advanced civilization we are 
not prepared to admit the probability of 
such a situation, how farcical it seems 
that an eight-year-old boy should be 
considered an expert in the knowledge of 
such a religion as Christianity! 

As regards the father of Zaid, whose 

name was Harith, the specialist Zurqani 
has explained, with the help of a narrative 
by Ibn Falah, that he too was converted 
by the founder of Islam. Ibn Hajr 'Asqalani 
has given his biography in Isaba, and has 
mentioned him as one of the Prophet's 
companions. It is therefore little short of 
scandalous that Christian writers should 
call him a Christian in face of these facts. 
Zaid was very dear to the Prophet and 
considered his service the only means of 
salvation, and never did he wish to be 
absent, even for a moment, from so 
beloved and adorable a master. 

Zuhri, Ibn Hajr 'Asqalani, and Waqidi, 
with reference to Sulaiman bin Yasar, say 
that Zaid was among the first to accept 

Zaid participated in the Battle of Badr 
and others following. 

At times he would act as the Prophet's 
lieutenant. 'Ayesha, the dearest wife of 
the Prophet, says that with every 
deputation to the Quraishites, Zaid was 
sent as its head; and in some cases, if he 
was dispatched after the deputation had 
started, it was always as viceroy and chief 
representative of the Prophet. 

His first marriage was with a maid- 
servant of the Prophet whose name was 
Ummi 'Ainain, and who gave birth to Asma. 
He was married a second time to Zainab, 
daughter of Jahsh, who was afterwards 
divorced and succeeded by Ummi 
Kulthum. At the age of fifty-five he was 
killed in the Battle of Mauta, during the 
month of Muharram, the first month of the 
Muslim lunar year, when he himself was 
acting as the head of the army. 

I April 2010 

Concept of Religion 

S. Muzaffar Husain 

Man is essentially a religious being. 
He had religious beliefs long before the 
term religion came to be defined. Man's 
relation with what he regards as 'holy' has 
existed all through human history. Though 
worship is perhaps the most basic form 
of religious expression, man's moral 
conduct, firm belief and participation in 
institutional rituals are its constituent 

During the later part of the 19th 
century, students of world religions were 
beginning to despair of finding universal 
elements of religious life. In 1917 Rudolf 
Otto, a German theologian and 
philosopher introduced the idea of the 
holy portraying in a convincing fashion 
the profound mystery involved in religious 
experience. The strong impact of his work 
was such that soon after its publication 
his book was translated into major 
European languages. 

Max Muller's "The sacred Books of 
the East: in 51 volumes started the 
comparative approach to religon. Muller's 
Essays on Mythology are among the most 
alluring of his writings. 

Wissenchaff, the German equivalent 
of the science of religion, has helped to 
stimulate the comparative study of the 
teachings of various religions about God, 
man, creation, sin, immorality etc. To avoid 
bias or dogmatism regarding superiority 
of one religion over another, history of 
religion has tended to focus on traditional 


cultural areas. Religion could be classified 
as founded religions, prophetic religions, 
mystical and developed religions besides 
agnostic faiths such as Buddhism, Jainism 

Religious experience includes a whole 
range of experiences in which one may 
have a numinous feeling of Divine 
presence. This could occur when, for 
instance, one may have a feeling of mighty 
response to prayers or a miraculous help 
in distress. Willium James in the midst of 
philosophical mist of the 19th century 
wrote the classic "Varieties of Religious 
Experiences," and pointed out the 
existence of reservoirs of consciousness 
like energies with which man makes 
contact with God in times of trouble. 

Where as Sigmund Freud had 
revealed the beast in man, his 
contemporary Carl Jung who parted ways 
from him had written "The Modern Man 
in Search of his Soul. "Having studied a 
number of religions, Jung had called the 
human psyche as the "collective 
unconscious" producing sacred images, 
and archetypes in building the fabric of 

In a culturally uprooted age of 
uncertainty, misbelief, and even denial of 
God, the spiritually impoverished man 
drawn to materialism, agonoticism and 
atheism is today seemingly in search of 
his soul. Belief in God is powerful and 
compelling. Even in Hinduism, which as 

\ April 2010 

Dr. Radha Krishan admits, combines the 
spiritual with the superstitious and ardent 
monotheism and mysticism with immense 
freedom of worship, the idea of what is 
divine persists despite its polytheistic form. 
The fiercely monotheistic Judaism has 
produced spiritually intoxicated man like 
Spinoza, who despite the ordeal of 
excommunication 1656, and hurling of 
curses remained spiritually alive till his 
death. Similarly Mansur al-Hallaj though 
called a heretic in his life was also 
regarded by many as the first martyr of 
Divine Love. 

Man's relationship with God is not 
merely a technically relationship of being 
the manipulator of natural phenomena, 
but as the ever-present, and ever-loving 
Benefactor who never fails to listen to our 
prayers. When C. J. Jung was once asked 
if he believed in God he had reportedly 
replied "Idon't believe I know," but on the 
lintel over the door of his home, he had 
these words inscribed in Latin, meaning 
"called or not called, God will be present." 

Religion is not a mere segment of life, 
but life as a whole, providing anchorage 
in a happy and meaningful life in this world 
and the Hereafter, it teaches love, 
sympathy and universal brotherhood, 
helping man to get nearer to the Creator, 
and to become a true servant of humanity. 
In this sense Christianity was a vast 
improvement over Judaism, which has 
deteriorated into a religion of hair-spliting 
legal piety instead of love and compassion. 

Islam provides a grand synthesis of 
the earlier religions. Besides its ethical 
values, its psychological approach to 
human nature is unique. It liberates man 


from racial, ethnic, class, and cast 
oppression, as well as the intellectual 
bondage of the priest. It stands for constant 
renewal by a Mujaddid (Revivalist at the 
end of every century). 

The Islamic ideology is the ideology 
of freedom and not of political or spiritual 
enslavement, of cosmopolitan outlook, 
and not of obscurantism, of a movement 
towards perfection and righteousness 
rather than a petrified or dogmatic faith. 
Its picture of the universe is not a rundown, 
pessimistic degenerate universe but one 
in which future holds undreamt 

A religion which is atonce a faith, a 
way of life, a social and economic order, 
a doctrine, a movement, and a charter of 
moral values and principles is far from the 
grossly misunderstood and misinterpreted 
version in the West. Through the ages, 
Islam has been a humanizing and civilizing 
force responsible for broadening the 
intellectual horizon of mankind. 
Evangelical in spirit, inspirational in its 
invocation, heroic in its deeds, and 
perhaps the most dynamic and triumphant 
of world religions, Islam has been an 
invaluable deterrent and corrective to 
fascism, racism and 20th century 

A great many ills of today such as the 
conflict between the secular and the 
sacred, between the state and the Church, 
between knowledge (science) and the 
religious practice, stand abolished in Islam. 
It also abolishes the political and religious 
despotism. Islam's theory of knowledge, 
the concept of God as ultimate reality, 

> April 2010 

Islamic law, and the possibility of man's 
adjustment in the modern world with its 
simple faith and theology, its far-reaching 
and original law (Shariah), and its pursuit 
of righteousness as the sole criterion to 
judge man, had continued to exercise a 
deep humanizing and civilizing impact, 
besides bringing spiritual strength to bear 
upon the development of mankind. 

In a world of soulless materialism, 

propelled by Satanic ambitions to "murder 
mankind in good conscience" as Nietzsche 
wrote, Islam is adequately equipped to 
ward off such a danger. Islam, the oldest 
as well as the youngest of faiths, can, not 
only fill the spiritual vacuum of the modern 
age, it can also rescue mankind from 
greed, exploitation, tensions and war. 
(Courtesy: Al-Farooq International) 








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April 2010 

The Influence of Maulana Dr. F. R. Ansari's 
Thought in the World. 

N.E. Abdul Hadi, Jakarta, Indonesia. 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari was born in 
Muzaffar Nagar UP India on 14th Sha'ban 
1 333, corresponding to 1 4th August 1914. 
He started his study by learning the Holy 
Qur'an, the scripture of Islam. 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari was a 
genious, a great intellectual and thinker, 
a man of action, truly a dynamic 
personality. He was a far-sighted saint 
and he could not only foresee the trend 
and necessity of Islam spreading over 
every nook and corner of the world but 
he could also analyse the ailments to 
provide cure to the ailing Muslim societies. 
He made Islamic Missionary world tours 
and covered dozens of countries including 
Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, 
Hong Kong, Japan, Canada, United States 
of America, Trinidad and Tabago. Guyana, 
Suriname, England, Holland, Turkey, Syria, 
Iraq etc. Wherever he went he was hailed 
as a great preacher of Islam. People 
listened to him and were moved to ecstasy. 
They all requested him to provide 
successful and competent preachers in 
different countries where the Muslims 
were in minority and needed regular 
religious guidance for themselves and for 
their children. He grasped the situation 
and decided immediately to set up an 
organisation for the purpose. He founded 
the World Federation of Islamic Missions 
in 1958 with a very grand and ambitious 
programme and with no other income or 
support except the trust in Allah. 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari realised that 
it was essential that Muslim leaders and 

scholars should not be out of step with 
the progress of knowledge and this is why, 
first of all, he embodied in himself a multi- 
faceted education acquired through the 
dint of hard labour. He also felt that every 
person being educated in the Islamic 
sciences should have a grounding in 
modern fields of knowledge — notably 
philosophy, sociology and political science. 
It is here he decided to act as a poineer 
in the field- he set up the Aleemiyah 
Institute of Islamic Studies in 1 964 to meet 
the need for creating a new breed of 
Islamic sholars. 

Islamic Research and Publications 
Bureau is another marvel of his far- 
sightedness. In spite of his being so busy 
with multifarious preaching activities, he 
wrote his own monumental book-The 
Quranic Foundations and Structure of 
Muslim Society. 

Maulana Dr. F.R. Ansari analysed that 
at present the Muslim world is permeated 
with a conservative outlook, any deviation 
from which, it is felt, automatically qualifies 
the deviater as being outside the fold of 
Islam. However, for some time now 
thinkers have been trying to re-interpret 
Islam in the light of the age in which they 
find themselves. Undoubtedly this is a 
difficult task and many of them found it 
necessary to discard some of the tenets 
of Islam during the process or to interpret 
them away, as can be clearly seen from 
some of the unorthodox re-interpretations 
of the last century of so. Maulana Dr. F.R. 
Ansari stepped forward to meet this 
(Continued on Page 10) 
17 April 2010 

Teachings of Islam 
Some Salient Features 

Maulana Muhammed Fazl-ur-Rahman Al-Ansari Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 
Religion of "Submission to the Divine Will" 

The word "Islam" means 
"submission" and, as a religious term, it 
connotes "Submission to the Divine 
Will and Commands". As such, "Islam" 
is co-extensive with "Nature". 

Religion of peace and goodwill: 

The word "salam" which means 
"peace", has close root-affinity with the 
word "Islam". One of the goals of the 
Islamic religion, therefore, is to promote 
and establish Peace and Goodwill. God, 
according to Islam, is As-Salam, i.e., 
"the Author of Peace"; the abode of the 
righteous after death is Dar-us-Salam, 
i.e., "the Abode of Peace"; and a 
Muslim's salutation is Assalam-o- 
Alaikum, i.e., "Peace be unto you." 

Religion of Pious Progress: 

Islamic life is life of the attainment 
of "Falah", which means "the furrowing 
out of latent faculties." A Muslim, 

therefore, has to continuously strive for 
progress, — a progress controlled by 
righteousness and illumined by Divine 


(1) Unity of God: 

Islam teaches the purest form of 
Monotheism and regards polytheism as 
the deadliest sin. A Muslim addresses 
GOD by His personal Name: ALLAH 
— the word "god" and its equivalents in 
other languages being unstable in the 
matter of connotation. Allah, according 
to Islam, is the One God, Who is 
indivisible in person and Who has no 
partner: wife, son, daughter. He is the 
Matchless and "naught is as His 
likeness". "He begetteth not, nor was 
He begotten." He is the First, the Last, 
the Eternal, the Infinite, the Almighty, 
the Omniscient, the Omnipresent. He 
is the Creator, the Nourishcr, the 
Cherisher of all things. I Ic is the All- 


April 2010 

Just, the Avenger of the wrongs done to 
the weak and the oppressed, the 
Compassionate; the Merciful, the 
Loving, the Guide, the Friend, the 
Magnificent, the Glorious, the 
Beautiful, the Truth. In short, He is the 
possessor of All Excellence. 

(2) Unity of the Universe: 

From the Unity of the Creator, 
according to Islam, proceeds the Unity 
of die Universe, i.e., Unity of Creation 
and Unity of Purpose. In other words, 
the Cosmos is a Moral Order. 

(3) Unity of Mankind: 

ii, Islam regards the whole of mankind 
as an "organic unity" —as single family 
and emphatically denies that the 
distinctions on the mundane plane, the 
distinctions, namely ot race, language or 
territory or colour can form the ground 
for claims of superiority of one group or 
individual over the other. The only 
distinction that has "value" is that 
which arises at the moral and spiritual 
planes, — namely, the distinction of 
"taqu/a" or, "piety and righteousness", 
which in its turn, does not deprive the 
non-possessors of their basic human 

(4) Unity of Religion: 

According to Islam, the human 
intellect, though a great and powerful 
asset, has its natural limits, and, 
therefore, neither the normative nor 
the empirical sciences are capable of 
leading humanity to a sure knowledge 

of ultimate truths and the code of life 
based upon them. The only source of 
sure knowledge open to humanity is, 
consequently, Divine Guidance, and 
diat source has been actually open ever 
since the beginning of human life on 
the earth. Allah raised His "Prophets" 
and "Messengers" and revealed His 
Guidance to them for transmission to 
humanity. Coming from the same 
Source, all revealed religions have, 
therefore, been one and, the same, i.e., 

Allah's Prophets and Messengers 
continued to come to every country and 
community to work in their respective 
limited fields. Time after time, the 
revealed Guidance was either lost or 
corrupted through h u m a n 
interpolation, and new Prophets with 
fresh Dispensations were sent, and 
humanity continued to advance from 
infancy to maturity. At last, when the 
stage of maturity was reached, — when 
humanity was practically to become one 
family — , instead of sectional Guidance, 
a perfect, final and abiding Revelation, 
addressed to entire mankind and for all 
times, was granted in the seventh 
century of the Christian era. That 
Revelation, which recapitulates all 
former revelations and thus sets a seal 
on the Unity of religion is ISLAM; the 
Scripture which enshrines it is the 
HOLY QURAN; and the Prophet who 
brought it is the Leader of Humanity, 
MUHAMMED (May Allah bless him). 


April 2010 

Thus all the Prophets of God, from 
Adam down to Noahs and Abraham, 
Moses and Jesus (Peace he upon them 
all), were the Prophets who pteached 
Islam; the Holy Prophet Muhammed 
(Peace be upon him) being the Last and 
Final one, and all the Divine Scriptures 
were the Scriptures of the same divine 
religion though a Muslim follows only 
the Holy Qur'an because it is the final 
scripture existing in its original purity. 
It alone contains the religion of Islam 
which has been followed by all rightly 
guided people since the day the first 
human being came into existence. 

(5) Unity of Sexes: 

Differentiation of functions has 
misled certain cultures of the world to 
regard woman as a being who belongs, 
so to say, to a different and inferior 
species; and to meet out to her 
inhuman treatment accordingly. Islam 
emphatically repudiates that notion and 
teaches that both man and woman have 
spning from the same essence and the 
same source and consequently possess 
the same human status. Their functions 
and interests instead of being 
antagonistic, are meant to be 
complementary. The natural relation 
between the sexes, in all its aspects is, 
therefore, that of love and harmony, 
without which no true human progress 
can be possible. 

(6) Unity of Classes: 

Islam aims at the creation of a 
classless society by eliminating all 


possible social conflicts (through re- 
solution of different clashing interests.) 

In the sphere of economics, Islam 
lays down the principle that wealth 
should not be allowed to accumulate 
among the wealthy only, and envisages, 
through its laws and institutions, a "Co- 
operative Commonwealth of Talents." 

In the political sphere, Islam stands 
for the "Co-operative Commonwealth 
of the Pursuers of Righteousness." 

Taken as a whole, the Islamic state 
is a "Welfare State" where sovereignty 
belongs to Allah alone and no human 
being has a right to govern other 
human beings except in the name of 
Allah and according to His Will, and 
where nobody, not even the Head of 
State, is above law. Absolute Justice is 
the watch-word and the Establishment 
of Righteousness is the goal. 

(7) Unity of Human Activity: 

Islam conceives the human 
personality as a "unity" and 
consequently regards the distinction of 
"secular" and "religious" as unscientific, 
irrational and absurd. The life of a 
Muslim, both in its individual and 
social manifestations, is a life lived for 
God and God alone. 

The Holy Qur'an: 

A Code Co-extensive with Nature: 

This conception necessitates a 
comprehensive Code, — a Code Co- 
April 2010 

extensive with nature, a code which 
should be capable of transforming every 
human act, however mundane, into a 
religious act; and this Islam has given to 
humanity in the Holy Qur'an and 


The Pinnacle of Human Perfection: 

A code alone cannot by its 
existence as such, inspire mankind to 
action. Hence to love the Holy Prophet 
Muhammed (May Allah bless him) 
above all human beings and things of 
the world, to believe in him as the Most 
Perfect Manifestation of Human 
Perfection and as the Absolute Leader 
and the Final Prophet (after whom no 
Prophet of any category, zilli, tashriee, 
buruzi, ghair-tashriee, — shadowy or 
real — is to come), and to follow him as 
the "Best Example" is the pre-requisite 
of Islamic belief. 

Love of God: 

Cultivation of and absorption in 
the love of Allah and the permeation of 
the heart with the sweet ecstasy of that 
love until a person becomes virtually 
incapable of acting against the Divine 
Commands, is the final goal, which 
bestows upon a Muslim "Abiding Life" 
— a life of Perfection, Peace and 

Scientific Quest: 

A Religious Obligation: 

While other religions may feel shy 
of Science, Islam has made scientific 
quest a religious obligation. The aims of 


that quest, however, are not the 
unbalanced indulgence in physical 
pleasures and tyrannization over fellow 
beings, but advancement in the love of 
God through progress in the knowledge 
of His Works and service to humanity 
through the acquisition of control over 
the "forces of nature." 

First Fundaments of Faith and 

The Islamic creed is as simple as the 
Islamic ideology is profound. First 
fundaments are as follows:- 

( 1 ) Seven Articles of Faith 

They are: Belief in: 

(1) Allah; 

(2) Angles; 

(3) Divine Scriptures; 

(4) Messengers of Allah; 

(5) The Hereafter; 

(6) The Pre-measurement of Good and 

(7) Resurrection after death. 

(2) The "Five Pillars:" 

They are 

(1) Declaration of faith in the Oneness 
of God and in the Divine 
Messenger-ship of Muhammed: La 
ilaha Illallah; Muhammed-ur-Rasul- 

(2) Obligatory Prayers; 

(3) Obligatory Fasts; 

(4) Zakat, or Poor- tax; 

(5) Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba at Makkah 
by those who possess the means. 

21 April 2010 

Ruler's Conduct in Islam 

Dr. Abdul Karim 

Allah ordains obedience to those who 
are in authority, "O ye who believe; obey 
Allah and His Messenger and those who 
are in authority among you." (4:60) The 
obedience is qualified, "Say, Swear not, 
what is required is actual obedience in 
what is right. Surely, Allah is all-aware of 
that you do." (24:54) This was also 
explained by the Holy Prophet (#). "A 
Muslim is obligated to hear and obey 
whether he likes it or not, except when he 
is required to do something that is sinful 
in which case there is no obligation to 
hear and obey." 

Thus the obedience is to be only to 
the extent that it does not in any way 
involve disobedience of Allah. In that case, 
even parents, who have been given the 
pride of place in Islam, are not to be 
obeyed. Thus obedience to Allah takes 
precedence over human beings however 
mighty they may be. For the sycophant, 
who often spoils the ruler, there is a 
warning from the Holy Prophet. 

"Beware, after me there will be such 
rulers that if a person declares their lies 
as truth and support them in wrongs doing, 
he will have nothing to do with me and, 
on the Day of Judgment, he will not come 
to my pond. On the other hand, if a person 
would not declare their lies as truths and 
would not support them in wrong doings, 
he is mine and I am his and he will come 
to my pond." 

None enjoys absolute power except 

Allah and human beings only have 
obligations for the discharge of which they 
may be delegated certain powers within 
the parameters set by Allah. According to 
a tradition: "Leaders are like a shield 
behind which people seek safety and fight. 
If a leader orders, fearing Allah, and is 
just, he will have his reward. If he acts to 
the contrary, then he will face its 
consequence." Fear of Allah and justice 
are thus the basic factors governing the 
conduct of the ruler. 

Islam does not believe in 
individualism, as is the modern concept, 
but treats man as an essential part of the 
society and assigns him responsibility not 
only on his own behalf, but also for others. 
The Holy Prophet (#) said: "Every one of 
you is a shepherd and will be asked about 
his flock. The ruler is a shepherd for his 
subjects." A ruler's flock is every living 
being in his domain and he is accountable 
to Allah for their material and spiritual 
welfare. This is indeed an onerous 
obligation and that is why the Holy Prophet 
(#) often advised people not to seek 

Hazrat Abu Bakr (RDA) had this to 
say to Yazid bin Abu Sufyan: "O Yazid, 
you have relatives and it is possible that 
you might give them preference in 
assigning responsibilities. This is really 
what I am afraid about you. The Holy 
Prophet (#) had said:" Any one who is 
put in charge of collective affairs of 
Muslims, if he gives office for mere 

April 2010 

relationship or friendship then he will be 
accursed. Allah will not accept any 
compensation from him and he will be 
consigned to hell." 

The rulers have a special 
responsibility, and as a famous Arabic 
saying goes the common man follows the 
faith of the ruler. It is in the Qur'an: "And 
they will say, Our Lord, we obeyed our 
chiefs and our great ones an they led us 
astray from the way. Our Lord, give them 
double punishment and curse them with 
great curse." (33:68, 69) Hazrat Umar 
(RDA) said:" People would remain on the 
right path so long as their leaders do not 
deviate from it." The ruler must stop 
wrongdoing, as he enjoys all the power 
to do so. The Holy Prophet (#) said: 
"When the people see a wrongdoer 
committing a wrong and do not seize his 
hand to restrain him, it is like that Allah 
would afflict them with His chastisement." 

There is a strong warning to those 
rulers who might resort to tricks and 
chicanery. There are several admonitions 
from the Holy Prophet (#) for such rulers. 
"Every deceitful will have a flag which will 
be raised on the day of JUDGMENT 
according to the degree of his deceit. The 
most deceitful is he who cheats as a ruler 
over the creation of Allah. Of the three 
persons with whom Allah will not speak 
on the Day of Judgment, nor purify him, 
nor look at him, would be a ruler who lies. 
There is no governor who rules Muslims 
and dies, having played false with them, 
but Allah will forbid him Paradise." 

The Holy Prophet (#) appointed 
Mu'adh bin Jabal (RDA) in Yemen and 
one of his parting instructions to him was: 


"Make it easy and not difficult for the 
people. Beware of he plaint of the 
wronged, as there is no barrier between 
the plaint of the wronged and Allah." 

The Holy Prophet (#) said: "A leader 
of a people is their servant." As such, the 
ruler is not allowed to arrogate to himself 
some privileges which may put him in a 
class of his own. The Holy Prophet (#) 
demonstrated this with his personal 
example. He shared all the travails of 
Muslims. He personally carried the bricks 
and mortar, like any other ordinary Muslim, 
when the first mosque was built in 
Madinah. For the battle of Badr, there 
were not enough camels to carry all 
Muslims, so a ride on one camel had to 
be shared by two to three persons by turn. 
The Holy Prophet (#) shared with Hazrat 
AN (RDA) and another Companion. When 
the Holy Prophet's Companion offered his 
turn to him, he refused, saying, "You are 
not stronger then me, neither am I less 
desirous of the reward." During the 
preparations of the battle of Ditch, when 
a tough rock was encountered, it was 
none else than the Holy Pophet (#) whose 
help was sought. He did the job and it 
was during this process when the glad 
tiding of wealth of the Roman and Persian 
Empires were conveyed to him by Allah. 

The first sermon by Hazrat Abu Bakr 
(RDA) on assuming the Khilafat was: "I 
rquest you to help me, if I discharge my 
duties in a satisfactory manner. In case I 
deviate from the right course, you should 
set me right. Truth is a trust and a lie is a 
breach of trust. The weak among you will 
be strong for me till I get him his due, Allah 
willing. The strong among you will be weak 
for me till I make him discharge his 

i April 2010 


Hazrat Umar's (RDA) instructions to 
his officials "Remember you have not been 
appointed to be harsh rulers but to be 
leaders whome public should follow. You 
must discharge your obligations to 
Muslims. Do not beat them and do not 
humiliate them. Do not praise in 
exaggerated terms lest this should 
mislead. Do not close your doors on them 
and do not let powerful usurp the right of 
the weak ones. Do not give yourself 
precedence over others in any way as 
this amounts to injustice with them. 

How Hazrat Umar acquitted himself, 
when he assumed office, is a glorious 
chapter of history, the envy of even the 
arch enemies of Islam, and a role model 
for later rulers. It is worth remembering 
that he was the head of state of the only 
super power at that time, the Romans and 
Persians having been vanquished by 
Islam. A few aspects of his character may 
be mentioned here. He never allowed any 
luxury to himself and strictly forbade it to 
state functionaries. He saw to it that the 
instructions were complied with in letter 
and spirit. Many ranking officials had to 
suffer for the slightest violation. 

His austerity was proverbial. His dress 
used to have patches upon patches in 
layers and that is what he was wearing 
when he entered Jerusalem as a 

conqueror, despite the suggestion of 
Muslim generals already there to be more 
presentable. During the famine of 
Ramada, he fully shared the hardship of 
ordinary Muslims so much so that his skin 
lost its colour due to poor diet. Hazrat 
Umar (RDA) did not allow his family to 
make use of facilities available to ordinary 
Muslims. Lest this should be misconstrued 
as a special treatment for them. There 
was the famous case of his son, Abdullah 
(RDA), who wanted to accept the price of 
a lean camel which he had put to the 
public pasture. Hazrat Umar warned his 
family that, being close to him, they were 
keenly watched by others like a hawk and, 
in case of any lapse, he would give them 
double punishment. This was no empty 
threat. He made an example of one of his 
sons by punishing him twice for drinking. 

He disapproved any kind of business 
by state functionaries. This problem of 
conflict of interest' is recognized these 
days and in many advanced countries the 
rulers are required to dissociate 
themselves from their business, if any, 
and put it in trust so long as they held 
office. His view about his own 
renumeration was: "I am the guardian of 
your wealth like the ward of an orphan. I 
will refrain from it if I am self-sufficient. If 
not and hard pressed, I will take according 
to the custom. 

April 2010 

Suf ism As A Way Of Life 


"Whithersoever ye turn, Allah faces 
you" (The Qur'an). "In the name of One 
Who has no name. Call him with any name 
you will' He will answer". (Sa'di). 

Religion cannot be considered in 
isolation from the mystical experience that 
makes it possible. On the basis of this 
authentic experience it grows and, 
blending in the course of history with 
experiences of beauty and the moral good, 
it absorbs in its life heterogeneous 
moments. Hence no wonder that religion 
is sometimes reduced into a contemplation 
akin to that of art or into a consciousness 
of obligations and imperatives which is 
characteristic of morality. It is even 
asserted that religion is knowledge; for 
some, the knowledge of the highest order, 
a super-conceptual knowledge; for others, 
an incipient knowledge which is pre-logical 
and pre-conceptual. But it is forgotten that 
religion has its own field of experience. It 
is unique and autonomous. No doubt, 
experiences of values in our everyday life 
do not stand isolated. The experience of 
beauty may have a religious accent and 
the experience of holiness may have an 
aesthetic note. But religion has a colouring 
or a nuance which is all its own. And the 
peculiar nuance which makes religion 
what it is may be called mystical and by 
mysticism we mean not so much a 
doctrine but the peculiarity of an 
experience. But when this mystical 
element which is an a priory foundations 

and the sine qua non of all religious 
consciousness asserts in history, dictates 
the pattern of social life and moulds 
political ideology, it is apt to lose itself in 
the humdrum of everyday routine and is 
prone to transform itself into formal code 
of moral conduct leading ultimately to 
wholesale regimentation of life. But the 
experience which made possible the great 
religions of history has not yet exhausted 
itself. It lives in the saints and seers who 
have inherited the experience of the 
source, who hold aloft the light and 
communicate it to others who follow them 
in the wake of history. Now we can 
understand Sufism as a movement that 
has sustained a contact with the original 
experiences of the Prophet and has 
prevented religion from becoming only a 
secular culture without any relation to the 
metaphysical basis of its life. Islam was 
not possible without the experiences of 
the Prophet and these experiences, like 
all true religious experiences, were not 
foreseen but came with a shock and a 
surprise. It took time for the Prophet to 
recover from the initial shock and 
understand fully the implications of what 
he was passing through. The Qur'anic 
revelation is just the outward manifestation 
of the Prophet's experience of an 
'encounter' with God, of the spirit of God 
coming upon him and inspiring him with 
a message. If we study the Qur'anic 
situations with their shifting accents and 
varying notes we will find them strikingly 


April 2010 

rich in mystical moments. The original 
pledge of the soul in God's presence, the 
vision of God as the 'light' of the heavens 
and the earth, the experience of a 
'Journey' through sensible and extra- 
sensible realms of being, the apprehension 
of Man as One in whom God has breathed 
of His own breath are some of the mystic 
strains in the Qur'an that have gone to 
the making of Sufism. It has been hotly 
debated how far Sufism is Islamic in 
character and how far an alien content 
has been imported from without into an 
Islamic context. But a little reflection shows 
unmistakably that Islam has been subject 
to the working of the same forces as other 
great religions of history. When a religion 
gains in worldly culture it is in danger of 
losing it as a religion. Materialism, which 
is supposed to be the antithesis of religion, 
establishes itself within the hallowed 
precincts of religion, forces it to shift its 
accents, from the perennial values to the 
vagaries of day-to-day existence and 
becomes a centre of political intrigues and 
an outlet for suppressed passions. It is 
here that Sufism raises its voice and 
reminds religion of what it is as the loving 
consciousness of God's abiding presence. 

Sufism may be assessed in its dual 
aspect, as a doctrine and as a way of life. 
As a doctrine it is only a variety of Kalam. 
But Sufism is essentially a way of life and 
has felt more at home in the realm of art 
and poetry than in scholastic disputations 
about the immanence and the 
transcendence of God or about the 
freedom and determinism of man. Even 
its disputes about Wahdat al-wujud and 
Wahdat al-shuhud are intelligible only 
when they are referred back to genuine 
experience and without any access to 


them it is difficult to see what it is all about. 
Imam Al-Ghazzali (R.A.) was sober 
enough to eschew all forms of Jejune 
speculation and to assert unmistakably 
that Sufi experience is one thing and its 
interpretation in language of reason is 
another. The interpretation is of course 
determined by historical factors, by the 
milieu of the mystic and by the spirit of 
the times. His experience has not only 
that tone of intimacy and ultimacy which 
Webb thought characteristic of religious 
experience but also that feeling of uncanny 
otherness which is called by R. Otto the 
numinous element par excellence. 

Sufism is then more a way of life 
based on authentic and genuine 
experience than a doctrine about the 
nature of reality or an eschatology which 
appeals more to imagination than to 
reason or a kind of meta-theology which 
argues out about the relation of the one 
and the many and essays to solve the 
enigma of creation. It attempts to sustain 
a rapport with the prophetic experience 
and borrows its light from the prophetic 
illumination for, as al-Ghazzali categorically 
asserts, beside the light of the prophetic 
revelation there is no other light on earth 
which can impart illumination. 

Modern existentialists, especially 
Martin Heidegger, complain of the fact 
that in our days man has become 'One' 
(Man), an impersonal someone and has 
lost the authenticity of his being. This 
socialisation and depersonalisation of man 
at the expense of his 'truth' is really the 
bane of modern times. But unfortunately 
for the existentialist, Man is a captive of 
time. Being for him means being in time, 
being here and now, anxious and care- 

> April 2010 

worn. He cannot see beyond now, beyond 
the moment. But it is characteristic of the 
Sufi consciousness that it cannot only go 
beyond time to the supreme Oneness 
(ahdiyat) that brooks no duality but sees 
also time in all its fulness. The Sufi 
experience is dialectical in its swing from 
one extreme to the other, from the elation 
which comes of fulfilment in love to the 
anguish which is born of frustration. This 
dialectical moment is at work in the mystic 
poetry of Jalaluddin Rumi or of Hafiz of 
Shiraz. The great Mathnavioi Rumi begins 
with a tale of woe. But Rumi, as Hegel 
observes in his Encyclopedia of 
Philosophic Sciences, aims at higher, at 
the unity of the Soul with the External 
One. This unity which is characterised as 
love stands above the externality and the 
transitoriness of the empirical and the 
natural. Likewise, Hafiz is carried by the 
vision of all-embracing unity and he sees 
in the wine-cup the reflection of the cup- 
bearer. But this feeling of intimacy and 
Oneness soon gives way to a 
consciousness of distance and the anguish 
of separation. But through all the stations 
of its life Sufism retains a constant 
reference to a divine presence that steals 
through our life and the wayfarer on the 
Sufi path is moved by a transcendental 
'elan'. Says the Qur'an: "When the two 
seek counsels in secret I am the third, 

when they are three, I am the fourth, when 
they are four, I am the fifth." And again: 
"He is with you, wherever ye may be." 
When the Sufi thus consciously lives in 
God's presence he curses not God's 
creation, bears ill-will against none, 
grumbles not at the course of events in 
Time and allows the Divine Providence 
to work in him with goodwill. The great 
saint Shaikh Abd al-Qader Jilani (R.A) 
instructs us to pray God for aught else 
but to reconcile us with His providential 
decrees. They, who are thus reconciled 
and tuned-in with His will are, to quote 
Shaikh Abd al-Qader, (R.A) like the People 
of the Cave whom God moves now in 
one direction, now in another, and who 
once they have attained to such close 
proximity now see with His eyes and hear 
with His ears. When man in thus lost in 
God and moves in Him, he is unaffected 
by the march of years and death passes 
him by. 

Sufism then awakens religion to its 
own essentials and by establishing a 
rapport with the experience that has made 
Islam possible it purifies from within, 
reminds us of the unbroken continuity of 
religious experience down the ages and 
works for a view that sees the life of every 
moment quickened with life divine. 

April 2010 

News From Aleemivah 

The birthday of the Holy Prophet <$& was celebrated in the Islamic 
Centre with religious zeal and favour. All the functions connected with the 
celebration of this auspicious occasion were organized and managed by the 
students and staff of Aleemiyah Institute of Islamic Studies (AIIS), the centre 
of missionary movement at Karachi. The functions as arranged by AIIS were 
spread over 3 days culminating on the annual convocation of passing out 
graduates from AIIS and a respectable assembly of religious scholars, students 
and guest on the evening of 20th March 2010. Speeches were made by notable 
Ulama and scholars highlighting the various aspects of the life and Seerah of 
the Holy Prophet Muhammad $& specially to enlighten the upcoming and 
young generation. Prizes were also distributed to the winners of different 
events of last 2 days. 

The weeklong celebrations were spread over the recitation from the 
Holy Qur'an, Na'at competition, elocution contest in Arabic, English & Urdu 
languages, Seerat Quiz and essay competition. 

The winners of the different events were: — 

Oirat Competition; 


H. Muhammad Siraj 

Jamiah Hanfiah Ghousia 



Sajjad Husain 

Jamiah Ma 'ariful Qur 'an 



M. Faiyaz Siddiqui 

Jamiah Nudratul Uloom 


Na'at Competition: 


M. Ammar AH Khan 

Madrasa Bazm-e-Thanakhan 



Iftekhar Husain 

Jamiah Aleemiyah Islamiyah 



Muhammad Shoaib 

Jamiah Hanfiah Ghousia 


Seerat Quiz: 


Zuhaib, Tanveer Gull, Saadullah Siddiqui 

A team ofJamiah Aleemiyah Islamiyah 



Muhammad Ramzan, Muhammad Akhtar, M. Zubair 

A team ofJamiah Faizan-e-Aulia 



Muhammad Sajjad, Rashid Ahmad, M Jamshed 

A team ofJamiah Nudratul Uloom 


April 2010 

Speech Competition (Urdu): 


Waqar Ahsan 

Darul Uloom Naeemiyah 



Muhammd Akram 

Madrasa Rabbaniyah Ghousia 



Abdul Hameed 

Jamiah Ma 'ariful Qur 'an 


Speech Competition (Arabic); 


Muhammad Shoaib 

Jamiah Nudratul Uloom 



Umair Nasir 

Jamiah Aleemiyah Islamiyah 



Muhammad Shaban 

Jamiah Faizan-e-Aulia 


Speech Competition (English): 


AH Hasnain 

Jamiah Aleemiyah Islamiyah 



Syed Bilal Aziz 

Govt. Commerce College 



M. Waqar Rahmani 

Darul Uloom Barkatiah 


Essay Writing Competition: 


Ghulam Yaseen 

Jamiah Faizan-e-Aulia 



Muneebur Rahman 

Jam iah A leem iyah Islam iyah 



Fazlur Rahman Hamdard 

Jamiah Naeemiyah 


The two functions grouped together i.e. the prize distribution to the 
winning students and the annual convocation of the students graduating from 
Aleemiyah Institute of Islamic Studies (AIIS) on 20th March was largely 
attended. Mufti Muhammad Ibrahim Qadri, member Council of Islamic 
Ideology, was^the Chief Guest of this gathering. 

It was a gathering of many luminaries, member Board of Directors of 
World Federation of Islamic Missions (WFIM), teachers, students of AIIS and 
guests. The Hon. General Secretary of WFIM, Al-Haj Mustafa F. Ansan 
attended the function despite of illness and presided over it. 

The function was rounded up by a heart warming Dua by Maulana 
Yunus Shakir Qadri. 

April 2010 

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