Skip to main content

Full text of "Ahle sunnat urdu magazines,urdu islamic book,"

See other formats


M.H. Habib Butt 


Umer Qassim Mithani 

Dr. Farogh Naseem 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 

Ashfaq Husain 


Begum Rashida Ikram Siddiqi 


Ashfaq Husain 

Azhar Hasan Siddiqi 


Muhammed Shafi • Muhammed Ahmed • Jan Muhammed 
Azhar Hasan Siddiqi • Umer Shakoor • Muhammed Ajaz Saya 

Wajih-ul-Hasan Ansari «Tahir Umer •Mahmood Shaikh 

Amin Ghazi • Noor Ahmed khan • Syed Muhammed Ali Nasir 

Aboo Baker Cassim • Abdus Sattar Usman 

THE 2*-$M*~* 


An International Monthly Devoted to Islamic Progress 

Organ of 


-^^^^ o 

Published in Memory of 
Maulana Shah Muhammad Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 

Maulana Dr. Muhammad Fazl-ur-Rahman Al-Ansari Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 




1. Per Copy Rs. 25.00 


2. Inland Rs.250.00 


3. By Courier, (For Karachi 
only) Rs. 300.00 


4. Asia, Africa, Europe 

& U.K 15.00 US $ 

5. USA, Canada, New Zealand 
& West Indies 20.00 US $. 




Editorial Board 

M.A. Khan 

Maulana Allah Yar Qaderi 

Chief Editor: 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 


Fazal Khan 


Ahmed B. Keeno 

Advisory Board: 

Guyana (South America) 

Abdul Rashid Ismail 

M. Abu Fahim Anwarullah 

Siddiq Ahmed Nasir 


Maulana Muhammad Aamir Baig 


Dr. Alonto 


Farid Uddin Ahmad 
Editorial Asst.: 

Abdul Aleem Joemman 



Haji Abdul Had! 

Hafiz Munir Ahmed 

Abu Bakr Maidin 

M. Asif Zaheer 


Sri Lanka 

A.R. Siddiqi 

Shahidullah Kausar 

Special Correspondents: 


Suriname (South America) 


Shaikh AN Mustafa 

Muhammad Alamgir 


Shahid Ansari 

Trinidad and Tobago 


Dr. Waffie Muhammed 

Muhammed Musaddaq 

Shaheen Z. Ansari 

Khalil Hussain 

Cape Town 


Venezuela (South America) 

Rizwan Mathew 

Abdullah Ahmed 
^ J 

H.R. Azizuddin 

1 . From The Editor's Desk 

2. Call From The Minaret 

3. A Pioneer World Missionary. 

4. The Imaginal World in the Philosophy 


5. Iqbal's Concept of Shahadat 18 

6. Was Imam Husain's Martyrdom a Necessity... 20 

7. The Bible: Its Versions and Perversions.. .24 

8. ^Ji& O^Ij-jI 32 

of Shah Wall Allah 13 

"The MINARET' may not necessarily agree with the opinions of the writers 

Approved for Schools, Colleges and Educational Institutions vide Circular No. (DE / F. 
Pub/ 11- A) (3082-3390) 72, Directorate of Education, Karachi Region, dated 8-5-1972 

Published by the World Federation of Islamic Missions, Abdul Aleem Siddiqui and Islamic Centre Roads, 

Islamic Centre, B-Block, North Nazimabad, Karachi-74700 Pakistan. Phones: 6677943, 6644156 

Fax: (0092-21)6627021 E-mail: 


Printed at M/s. Abrar Sons, Hydri Manzil, Bohra Pir, Karachi. 


As we look back in retrospect we find 
that the year 2007 felt the pain after the 
orgy of widespread terrorism, religious 
violence and the political chaos. In a sense 
the year was a watershed in the history 
of world after which we are almost living 
on a tickling time bomb — suicide 
bombers, hand grenades, automatic firing 
machines - any moment can lead to 
another orgy of blood and terror. 

The advent of unipolar single military 
power, having tremendous power of 
destruction is a new event in the human 
history. The humanity saw many events 
during the year making us more insecure. 
Earlier wars, however monstrous they 
were, had clearly defined targets, mostly 
the occupation of states or territorial 
advancement. But the new western 
concept of war, i.e. "the war on terror" has 
no accepted definition. Its targets are so 
evasive that winning of such a war, in the 
conventional sense is not possible, except 
keeping the world in peril. 

An erosion of national honour and 
sovereignty has touched us in 2006 and 
2007 as Pakistan's geopolitical location 
has provided the rulers to arrange special 
interest to superpowers. It was in mutual 
interest, with not much effort, to oblige the 
superpowers in their spectre of taunting 
the world and in their unrealistic objectives 
and strategies for international security 
which is no longer against communism 
but it is against the global resurgence of 
religion and its impact on world politics. 
Their agents are directing us to catch 
Pakistanis within their campaign of crack- 
down of Al-Qaeda agents and combing 
western border belt of Pakistan. 

Despite our assertions that these so- 
called men of violence can not be defeated 

by military victory and denying their dignity 
and rights, the lone superpower is 
becoming increasingly frustrated in its 
endeavour to stamp out Al-Qaeda and in 
its inability to bring peace and stability in 
the beleaguered countries. It keeps on 
stroking us with a common rhetoric of "Do 
More" and hot pursuits. This is causing 
the aggravation of security environment 
for Pakistan, both internally and externally 
as the people are growing more resentful. 
Religious rights are strengthening and are 
threatening to polarise our society. 

The wave of anti-Muslim sentiments 
kept on brewing in the West. Pick up the 
paper any day and one will find tiny straws 
in the wind reflecting a whole gamut ot 
prejudice, negative beliefs, blame and feat 
against Islam and Muslims. The western 
view is that Muslims have taken over the 
mantle of terrorism and extremism. The 
frequency of attacks against Muslims has 
increased worldwide in 2007. Airport 
searches of Muslims in Europe ana 
American ports are so humiliating that it 
gives an air of apartheid through loop- 
holes of security. This is contrary to the 
fundamental assumption that a citizen's 
rights and personal freedom are more 
important than the security. This is further 
polarising the Muslim society, solidifying 
the belief that crusade against the Muslims 
have been launched. 

Internal political situation remaineo 
uncertain as people are looking for pristine 
democracy, independent judiciary and a 
corruption free bureaucracy. Increasing 
violence and terrorism at the hands ot 
extremists continue to become evei 
exasperate and central to the lives of alt 
citizens. It is needless to say that situation 
in the country remained tense because oi 
internal developments such as bomb 

January, 2008 

blasts, terrorists striking in surprise, 
indiscriminate murder of innocent persons 
and many other heinous crimes. A handful 
of extremist elements kept on trying to 
make their influence felt with a growing 
ascendency of state within a state. 

Political analyst are of the view that 
deterioration of economic system, political 
chaos, all-pervasive corruption, plunder 
of resources remained quite rampant. 
Rising inflation continues to squeeze the 
people dry and acts of kidnapping for 
ransom added to the public sense of 

One of the significant things that 
happened was the accumulation of 
personal wealth by a select few, lavish 
living that made them extremely unpopular 
hollowing them as human being Honesty, 
courtesy, respect, manners, sincerity the 
basic ingrediants of leadership were found 
lacking by and large. These practices had 
permeated the entire society and we hear 
and read that the country is being dubbed 
to be one of the most corrupt countries of 
the world year after year. It is felt that 
Pakistani society has lost most of its values 

and the will to go forward in the world with 
dignity and honour. 

The end of the year saw a civil war 
like situation in certain areas of North 
western Frontier province where soldiers 
were abducted by local people. The armeo 
forces are sadly faced with strategic, 
operational and rational challenges 

In short we leave behind a year in 
which the cleavages and uncertainties o1 
living have become clear. We do not know 
what 2008 will bring for us. If the most 
powerful decision makers want to reverse 
the slide towards insecurity and conflicts 
they will have to review their strategy on 
war on terrorisim. They will have to 
carefully consider and remove the reasons 
for resentment among Muslims and other 
people. They will have to channelise 
country's wealth to the people in the 
developing world in more transparent 
ways. This requires new kind of thinking. 
Human race has become wiser but stares 
uncertainly in the face. One can only wish 
that 2008 brings peace and tranquility in 
the country. Ameen FARID 

It is with deep regret that we record the passing away of Mr. Vakil-ur- 
Rahman Ansari on 28th November 2007. He was 76. 

The late Mr. Vakil-ur-Rahman was the younger brother of Maulana Dr. 
Fazl-ur-Rahman Ansari Al-Qaderi (RA), the founder of World Federation of 
Islamic Missions. He was one of the Director of WFIM. 

Mr. Vakil-ur-Rahman was a Mechanical & Electrical engineer by 
profession. He was also an associate member of Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, London, an august body of engineers of repute. 

WFIM expresses its deepest condolence to the members of the bereaved 
family. May Allah grant his soul peace and rest in Paradise. 

January, 2008 


Dr. Maulana Muhammad Fazl-ur-Rahman 
Al-Ansari Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 


(iv) Maintenance of goodwill towards 

(a) Absolute justice enjoined, even 
though it means any amount of personal 
suffering for the moral agent, or the 
interests of those nearest and dearest to 
him are sacrificed, and even though the 
other party is his or Islam's worst enemy: 

"Verily, Allah enjoineth justice (to all 
and under all circumstances " (XVI: 90). 

"O ye who believe! Be ye staunch in 
ustice, witnesses for Allah, even though 
t be against yourselves or (your) parents 
or (your) kindred, whether (the case be 
of) a rich man or a poor man, for Allah is 
nearer unto both (than ye are). So follow 
not passion lest ye lapse (from truth); and 
f ye lapse or fall to away, then lo! Allah is 
iver informed as to what ye do." (IV : 135). 

"O ye who belive ! Be steadfast 
witnesses for Allah in equity, and let not 
the hatred of any people seduce you that 
ye deal not justly. Deal justly, that is nearer 
:o your duty. Observe your duty to Allah. 
_o! Allah is informed of what ye do." (V : 8). 

(b) Bearing witness firmly and without 
fear or favour and thereby assisting those 
who are in the right made a basic virtue 
and, hence, duty: 

"And those who stand firm in their 
:estimonies." (LXX : 33). 

(c) Fulfilling all promises, agreements, 

pledges, covenants, contracts, engage 
ments and treaties, enjoined: 

". . . .and fulfil (every) promise (anc 
engagement); for (every) promise (and 
engagement) will be enquired into (on the 
Day of Reckoning)." (XVII : 34; 

"Oh ye who believe! Fulfil (all) 
obligations (or compacts). (v:1). 

(d) Sincerity and straightforwardness 
in general towards Others enjoined 

As we have already seen, a Muslim 
is required to do good to others purely for 
the sake of God, which alone is virture 
according to the Holy Qur'an. But that is 
impossible without cultivating anc 
maintaining absolute sincerity for God, as 
demanded in the Holy Qur'an: 

". . . .and call upon Him, making your 
devotion sincere as in His sight. . . 
(VII : 29). 

But genuine sincerity for God 
impossible to maintain unless one 
possesses sincerity essentially. Hence 
cultivation and maintenance of essentia 
sincerity, one channel of which is sincerity 
towards fellow-beings, is duty. 

Thus the Holy Qur'an commands the 
Muslims to be sincere and straightforwarc 
in all their dealings with everyone 

"And (He commandeth you, saying) 

January, 2008 

This is My straight Way ( — the Way of 
Truth, Justice, Sincerity and Straight- 
forwardness — ): follow it. . . ." (VI : 153). 

(e) Cultivating and maintaining the 
attitude of compassionate kindness 
towards others emphasized as one of the 
basic qualities of a true Muslim's character: 

" — and enjoin on each other practice 
of compassionate kindness (towards all). 

(f) Gracefulness and liberality in 
dealing with Others enjoined: 

". . . .and forget not gracefulness and 
liberality in your mutual dealings. ..." (11:237). 

(g) Positive effort for the creation and 
maintenance of harmony and peace 
among human beings, emphasized as a 
great virtue which should never be avoided: 

"In most of their secret talks there is 
no good; but if one exhorts to a deed of 
iharity or justice or conciliation between 
luman beings, (secrecy is permissible). 
To him who does this, seeking the good 
oleasure of Allah, We shall soon give a 
-eward of the highest (value). (IV : 114). 

"And make not Allah's (name) an 
excuse in your oaths against doing good, 
or acting rightly, or making peace between 
iuman beings; for Allah is He Who heareth 
and knoweth all things." (II : 224). 

". . . .never shall We suffer the reward 
of the reformers to perish." (VII : 170). 

(h) Judging Others' motives in the best 
light, except when a definite reasonable 
cause exists, enjoined: 

As we have already seen, the Holy 

Qur'an forbids guessing about other's 
motives : 

"O ye who believe! Shun as much 
suspicion as possible; for lo! some 
suspicion is a crime. . . ." (XLIX : 12) 

It means that a Muslim should cultivate 
basically the attitude of initially judging 
others' motives in the best light, except 
when a definite reasonable cause exists 
to the contrary. 

(i) Speaking good of Others, while 
paying due regard to truth and justice, 

The Holy Qur'an says : 

"Say to My servants that they shoulc 
(only) say (in general and about others) 
those things that are best; for Satan doth 
sow dissensions among them: lo! Satan 
is to man an avowed enemy." (XVII : 53) 

(j) Speaking to Others with courtesy 
and politeness enjoined: 

". . . .and speak unto mankind witf 
courtesy and politeness (according to bes\ 
standards of human speech). ..." (II : 83). 

(k) Gratefulness to Others for any 
good that one may receive from them, 

In asking the question: 

"Is the reward of goodness aught save 
goodness !" (LV : 60), the Holy Qur'an 
emphasizes the principle that a Muslim 
should always reward goodness with 
goodness, and the least that he can do is 
to sincerely thank him who does him any 
good. And gratefulness brings reward from 
God : 

January, 2008 

'We (i.e., God) shall reward the thankful." 
(Ill : 145). 

(1) The most rational behaviour upheld 
and the highest moral standard enjoined 
in respect of evil emanating from Others: 

(i) The Holy Qur'an permits equal 
redress of wrongs done to a Muslim by 
Others, at the same time commending 

"If you punish (him who has wronged 
/ou) then punish with the like of that 
wherewith ye were afflicted. But if ye show 
Datience, that is indeed the best (course) 
: or those who are patient." (XVI : 126). 

"The recompense for an injury is an 
njury equal (in degree) thereto; (i.e., when 
anyone is wronged and he stands up for 
nis rights, the most he can claim is equal 
■edress): but if a person (prefers the saintly 
character to that of the worldly-wise man, 
and) forgives (the offender) and makes 
'e-conciliation (in the interests of morality), 
nis reward is due from Allah: Lo! He loveth 
not those who do wrong. And whosoever 
^/indicateth himself (without transgressing 
imits of justice) after he hath suffered 
wrong — for such there is no way (of blame) 
against them. The way (of blame) is only 
against those who oppress mankind and 
nsolently transgress beyond bounds 
:hrough the land, defying right and justice, 
-or such there will be a painful doom. And 
eerily whoso showeth patience and 
forgiveth — lo! that (voluntary forbearance 
and clemency) would truly be an exercise 
of courageous will and resolution in the 
conduct of affairs." (XLII : 40-43) 

(ii) Nay, the Holy Qur'an goes further. 
It enjoins repelling evil with goodness as 
the highest moral ideal — as a necessary 
condition of moral perfection: 

"Nor can Goodness and Evil be equal. 
Repel (Evil) with what is better (i.e. 
Goodness): Then will he between whom 
and thee was hatred become as it were 
thy friend and intimate! And no one will be 
granted such goodness except those who 
exercise patience and self-restraint 
none but persons of the greatest good 
fortune. And if (at any time) an incitement 
to discord is made to thee by the Evil One ; 
seek refuge in Allah. He is the One Who 
hears and knows all things." (XLI:34 — 36). 

"And the Hour (of Final Accountability 
and Divine Judgment) is surely coming. 
So overlook (any human faults) with 
gracious forgiveness." (XV : 85) 

". . . .Let them forgive (those who do 
any injury to them) and let them overlook 
(the offenders' faults). Do you not wish 
that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is 
Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful". (XXIV : 22). 

" But forgive (the enemies of Islam) 

and overlook (their hostility) till Allah 
accomplisheth His purpose; for Allah hath 
power over all things." (II: 109) 

(b) Duties of Respect 

(i) Treating with respect all human 
beings in their fundamental rights as fellow- 
beings — irrespective of differences of sex, 
race, colour, etc., enjoined: 

According to the Holy Qur'an every 
human being deserves respect in his 
capacity as a human being : 

"Verily We have honoured the Children 
of Adam...." (XVII : 70). 

This aspect of the Qur'anic mora 
teaching includes : 

(a) Respecting the rights of all humar 


January, 2008 

beings with regard to lite, honour and 

Also:(b) respecting every human being's 
equality of status as a human being; 

and, as a consequence : 

(c) respecting his right to freedom, 

(d) and the right to fraternise with all 
other human beings, 

— except when a just moral cause 

The following verse of the Holy Qur'an 
Drescribes it, in conjunction with other 
numerous relevant and connected verses 
hat have been quoted in different contexts 
n the present dissertation, as a duty of all 
luman beings to protect and promote the 
above human rights: 

"O humankind! fear (in respect of the 
ights of fellow-beings) your Guardian- 
_ord (i.e., Allah) Who created you from a 
single soul, and created, of like nature, his 
mate, and from them twain hath spread 
abroad countless men and women 
(everyone of whom is thus bound up in 
one fraternity — the human family — and 
Dossesses the birth right of basic human 
equality with his fellow-beings to have the 
teedorm of equal opportunity for enjoying 
the blessings of life on earth). Reverence 
Allah, through Whom you claim your 
mutual (rights) (and, therefore, respect 
/our fellow-beings' rights to life, honour, 
and property, as also those relating to 
iberty, equality and fraternity), and 
Yeverence) the wombs (that bore you): 
or Allah ever watches over you". (IV : 1 ). 

Here we may also quote with advant- 
age another important related verse which 
;pecifically repudiates the erroneous notion 

ot inequality ot human beings on physical 
bases — tribal, racial, etc. — and lays down 
the basic and the most just principle on 
the basis of which one human being earns 
more honour than another. God proclaims 
in the Holy Qur'an : 

"O humankind ! We created you from 
a single (pair) of a male and female, and 
made you into nations and tribes, that you 
may know each other (not that ye may 
despise each other). Verily the most 
honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he 
who is) the most righteous of you and Allah 
has full knowledge and is well acquainted 
(with all things)." (XLIX:13). 

(ii) Humility, forbearance anc 
peacefulness have been mentioned in the 
Holy Qur'an as basic virtues; hence to 
practise them is duty: 

"And the servants of (Allah) Most 
Gracious are those who walk on the earth 
in humility, and when the ignorant address 
them, they say, 'Peace !' " (XXV : 63). 

". . . .for men and women who humble 
themselves, for men and women who give 
in charity, for men and women who fast 
(and deny themselves), for men and 
women who guard their chastity, and for 
men and women who engage much in 
Allah's remembrance — , for them has 
Allah prepared forgivenes and great 
reward." (XXXIII : 35). 

The most important occasion when a 
person's spirit of humility is put to test is 
when he speaks to another person. Hence, 
humility in talk with others has been 
enjoined specifically also: 

". . . .and lower thy voice (in humility); 
for the harshest of sounds without doubt 
is the braying of an ass." (XXXI : 19). 

January, 2008 

His Eminence 
Muhammad Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Qaderi (R.A.) 


His Eminence Muhammad Fazl-ur-Rahman al-Qaderi (R.A.) 
Founder President, World Federation of Islamic Missions 

The world-renowned missionary of 
Islam, His Eminence Muhammed Abbul 
Aleem Siddiqui Al-Qaderi, (R.A.) whose 
noral earnestness and spiritual 
magnetism illumined numerous countries 
n the Orient and the Occident during the 
ast forty years of his travels and whose 
death occurred at Medina Munawwarah 
on August 22, 1954, was a descendant 
of Islam's Caliph Abu Bakr (R.D.A) the 
Truthful (God be pleased with him) and 
was born on the 1 5th of the sacred month 
of Ramadan in 1 31 A.H. (3rd April 1 892), 
at Meerut (U.P.), Bharat, at a time when 
lis great predecessor the famous 
nternationalist, pan-Islamist and Islamic 
-evivalist, the venerable descendant of 
the Holy Prophet Muhammed (#), Saiyyid 
Jamaluddin Afghani was about to return 
to the Abode of Peace leaving his great 
mission of Islamic peace and progress 
to posterity. 


Endowed with unusual intelligence 
and exceptional memory, the child 
Muhammed Abdul Aleem commenced his 
education at the early age of three years 
and some months and devoted himself to 
the acquisition of Islamic learning, 
completing finally his studies in Dars-e- 
Nizami at the Madresah Arabiyah 
Qaumiyah, Meerut, at the age of sixteen. 

The religious and literary education 
thus acquired had been, and still is, the 
end of the road" for most Muslim religious 
leaders of Indo-Pakistan sub-continent. 
But the latent flame of desire to understand 
the modern problems of mankind and to 
reach out the message of Islam to the 
world at large, urged him to acquire 
modern English education, which he 
pursued with diligence and determination, 
after the completion of Dars-e-Nizami, at 
the Islamiyah High School, Etawah, and 
the Divisional College, Meerut, (now 
Meerut University) completing his formal 
studentship in 1917. 

As regards his religious studies, he 
did not discontinue them even while 
acquiring modern education. In fact, he 
pursued them till many years after he had 
entered the field as a religious leader and 
amassed further knowledge in Qur'anic 
exegesis, Hadith, Tasawwuf and the 
different schools of Islamic Laws at Makkah 
Mukarramah and Medina Munawwarah 
through discussions with Islamic scholars 
and studies in Islamic libraries and at the 
feet of such masters as Shaikh Ahmed el- 
Shams of Morocco, Shaikh el-Sennousi 
of Libya, Maulana Abdul Bari of Farangi 
Mahal and Maulana Ahmed Raza Khan 
of Bareilly. 



January, 2008 

With the formal completion of 
education, various professions were open 
to him for earning his livelihood. He chose 
the commercial line and, entered the 
reputed firm of Hajr Mohammed Husain 
Seedhi as manager at Bombay towards 
the close of 1918. Very soon he proved 
himself to be more than a match for the 
ob and rose to the position of a partner. 

But he had been there hardly for a 
year when his restless soul took him to 
Islam's Holy Land on his first pilgrimage. 
From there he returned with the decision 
to devote himself primarily to the moral 
and religious uplift of humanity. Thenceforth 
that decision remained irrevocable. 


The atmosphere in which Maulana 
Siddiqui opened his eyes on entering the 
world was saturated with spirituality side 
oy side with learning. His mother was a 
deeply pious lady, while his father Maulana 
Abdul Hakeem Siddiqui (R.A.), was not 
only a versatile scholar and a high-class 
ooet but also a Sufi of eminence-a 
spiritually illumined man and was 
respected, as such by all and sundry. 

Being the youngest child and being 
endowed with extraordinary potentialities, 
his father held him in great affection and 
<ept him close to himself and transmitted 
to him the blessing of his personality until 
he was nearly twelve. It was thus actually 
after his father's death that he completed 
his spiritual training under his brother-in 
aw, Qazi Intizamuddin, his initial training 
in religious work under his elder brother 
Maulana Ahmed Mukhtar Siddiqi (R.A.) 
receiving finally the Ijazah (authority) in 

several great Sufi Orders, e.g., the 
Qaderiyyah, the Naqshbandiyyah, the 
Chistiyyah and the Suhrawardiyyah. 

That completion of basic training 
while on the one hand, it raised him to the 
level of a Sufi-teacher, also became, on 
the other hand, a prelude to further quest 
for spiritual illumination. This necessitated 
continuous struggle and led to frequent 
journeys on his part to Makkah Mukarramah 
and Medina Munawwarah and to such 
spiritual luminaries as Shaikh Ahmed el- 
Shams of Morocco. 

Spiritually thus became the great 
feature which distinguished Maulana 
Siddiqui's life from the lives of many a 
religious leader, even as the combination 
of Western education with Islamic learning 
was his mark of distinction as compared 
with almost all other Ulema. Indeed, 
spiritual purification and illumination and 
on that sure foundation the moral, social 
and political salvation of humanity 
remained his mission throughout his life. 


It has been said that orators are born 
and not made and it was literally true in 
the case of Maulana Siddiqui because he 
delivered his first public speech at the 
Jama Mosque of Meerut at the age of nine 
and he was still in his teens when he had 
already made his mark as a successful 
public preacher. 

Thereafter he constantly rose high 
in world's esteem as a master orator. In 
his young days he was reputed for keeping 
large audiences of as many as 50,000 
listeners spellbound and in pindrop silence 


January, 2008 

without the help of a microphone and that 
distinction persisted right up to his last 
days with added charm. 

As Professor N.H. Berlas wrote from 
Tokyo "for a fuller appreciation one must 
hear Maulana Siddiqui from the platform. 
One is sure to be charmed like the audience 
here by his magnetic personality and 
oratorical powers his loud and impressive 
out musical voice and splendid delivery." 
(Foreword to "Cultivation of Science by 
the Muslims.)" 

As an engaging conversationalist 
and as a charming orator he was equally 
at home in Urdu (his mother-tongue) 
Arabic, English and Persian and used the 
first three languages during his numerous 
tours in different parts of the world. 

Capacity to express himself 
according to the intellectual stature of his 
isteners was his great asset and he 
employed it with equal mastery in his 
ectures before learned societies as well 
as during his missionary campaigns among 
the primitive people of the African 


With these qualities of head and 
heart, and with these accomplishments, 
Maulana Siddiqui resolved in 1919 to 
devote himself purely to spiritual work as 
an itinerant missionary of Islam. It was not 
a new decision, however, because he had 
nursed it in his breast for years. In fact, 
he wrote a poem while still a boy which 
proved in later years to be prophetic to 
the core. An English rendering of two of 
ts couplets may be given here. 

My heart yearns to show its bledding 

(Wrought by the spiritual perversions 
of man) And to teach everyone on earth 
the Laws. 

That might make blessed life's span. 

This is my yearning and this is my 

This is my intention and this is my 

With this I yearn to scan the globe 
and deliver to humanity the Message of 

The decision once made was 
irrevocable inspite of the hardships which 
it entailed and the travels once commenced 
did not cease until virtually his final journey 
from this world. Even his last remains were 
not buried in his hometown but in the far- 
off city of Medina Munawwarah. 

As a spiritual pilgrim Maulana 
Siddiqui visited Makkah Mukarramah and 
Medina Munawwarah about a dozen times, 
while as the flag-bearer of the spiritual 
rearmament of mankind he travelled to 
different parts of the world almost 
continuously for forty years, returning to 
his family only for short breaks. 


The countries he visited during those 
travels — many of them repeatedly — are: 
Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet- 
Nam, China, Japan, the Philippines, Ceylon, 
Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar, South 


January, 2008 

Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Kenya, 
Tanzania, Uganda, Belgian Congo, the 
Hejaz, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, 
Iraq, France, Britain, West Indies, Guyana, 
Suriname, the United States and Canada. 

To travel for forty years is in itself a 
mighty feat of endurance. And when we 
consider that they were not pleasure trips 
olanned by a wealthy man of the world 
out strenuous journeys undertaken by a 
spiritual pilgrim whose path was strewn 
with thorns at every step and who gave 
to his spiritual labours sixteen to eighteen 
hours a day, when we probe into his 
activities spread over those forty years 
and over far-flung regions of the earth, 
and when we look at the many societies 
and institutions with diverse functions 
which he founded or inspired, the hundreds 
of converts who received the light of Islam 
through him, the hundreds of thousnds of 
Muslims belonging to different races who 
were elevated through his preachings, we 
get an inkling into the greatness of the 

The regions which Maulana Siddiqui 
chose for his work in the very beginning 
were comparatively more backward as 
regards religious conditions than his own 
native country. Consequently, wherever 
he went he had to encounter dissensions, 
religious backwardness, ignorance of 
higher Islamic values, indifference to 
collective obligations, lack of vision, 
absence of planning and spiritual inertia 
existing on a large scale among Muslims, 
and misunderstanding of Islam among 
non- Muslims and the consequent friction. 
Every where he had to carve out his path 
in stony rocks. Everywhere he had to raise 
the edific of his great message almost on 

virgin foundations. But everywhere he out- 
matched the obstacles and handicaps with 
the obstacles and handicaps with the 
profound force of his spiritual energy the 
abundant treasure of his moral 
earnestness, his indubitable sincerity his 
deep piety, his versatile knowledge his 
practical commonsense and his never- 
failing smile. 


His thundering but musical voice 
proved itself to possess a magical influence 
in awakeing sompolent humanity while his 
polite persuasions and sweet advices 
healed many a scar wrought by intellectual 
or moral perversions. His clarion call for 
the establishment of righteousness and 
the effacement of sin for the adoption of 
good and the adjuration of evil for the 
enthronement of harmony and the 
dethronement of strife echoed over 
mountains and plains, across green valleys 
and sandy deserts in the Orient as well 
as in the Occident among the whites as 
well as among the coloured. 

His message of God-realisation, of 
moral resuscitation and of spiritual revival 
penetrated millions of ears and hearts. His 
visits everywhere gave new impetus to 
the religious fervour of the people. His 
work transformed sandy deserts of spiritual 
inertia into green orchards of moral 
dynamism. His spiritual magnetism purified 
the social conscience of the people and 
in the wake of his visits sprang up 
orphanages for the helpless youth, 
infirmaries for the destitutes, hospitals for 
suffering humanity, educational institutions 
for the propagation of knowledge, spiritual 
assemblies for the dissemination of 

(Continued on Page 17/ 
January, 2008 


The Imaginal World ('Alam al-Mithal) in the 
Philosophy of Shah Wali Allah al-Dihlawi 


Whenever a thorough and systematic 
history of Islamic philosophy as well of the 
ntellectual sciences (al-ulum al-aqliyyah) 
in the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent will be 
written, Qutb al-Din Ahmed Ibn Abdul 
Rahim better known as Shah Wali Allah 
al-Dihlawi (1703 - 1762) will undoubtedly 
stand as the best known intellectual figure 
from the Indian heritage of Islamic 
philosophy. He is also perhaps the only 
Indian Muslim intellectual fiqure, along 
with Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (D. 1624), 
well known in the West. Even then, he is 
<nown in the West and among modernized 
Muslims primarily as a religious "reformer" 
and socio-political figure and not as a 
hakim, philosopher and Sufi, which he 
orincipally was. It is difficult to describe in 
a few words the great significance of Shah 
Wali Allah for the South Asian Islamic 
tradition in all its facets in the transmitted 
religious sciences as well as theology, 
ohilosophy and sufism. It might suffice to 
say that almost every important religious 
and intellectual school or figure of the indo- 
Pakistani Subcontinent that came after 
him was significantly influenced by him. 
he was also one of the very few Indian 
Muslims whose influence spread to the 
rest of the Muslim world, including the 
Arab world and the ottoman world. 

The fact that Shah Wali Allah was 
orimarily a metaphysician and mystic is 
oorn out amply by his written output. 
Among his more metaphysical and 
ohilosophical works, most of which also 
treat the subject of this study, the imaginal 

world, are: 

1. Al-Khayr al-Kathir (Abundant 
Blessings) : a metaphysical treatise in 
Arabic of ten chapters dealing with such 
questions as the nature and reality of 
Being, the Names of God, the relationship 
between man and God, knowledge of God, 
the nature and characteristics of prophecy 
and sanctity. 

2. Sata'at (Radiance) : a short but very 
important treatise in Persian which outlines 
the gradation of Being in Shah Wali Allah's 

3. Lamahat (Lightining Flashes) : A small 
treatise in Arabic which is Shah Wali Allah's 
best known work on philosophy. It 
extensively deals with the question of 
Being (wujud). It also addresses various 
other philosophical and cosmological 
questions such as the creation of the world, 
the nature of the cosmos, the angels, and 
the prophets. 

4. Tafhimat-i-llahiyyah (Divine 
Instructions) : one of Shah Wali Allah's 
most important metaphysical and 
philosophical work. It consists of articles 
and letters written in both Arabic and Persian 
at differents times dealing with many 
important metaphysical and philosophical 
questions. It contains Shah Wali Allah's 
celebrated reconciliation of an issue that 
had created great controversy in the Indian 
Subcontinent, that of opposition between 
wahdat al-wajud (Unity of Being) of the 



January, 2008 

school of Ibn al-Arabi and wahdat al- 
shuhud (Unity of Consciousness) of 
Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi. 

5. Hujjat Allah al-Balighah (The 
Conclusive Argument from God) : this is 
often called the magnum opus of Shah 
Wali Allah and certainly deserves the title 
as far as the integration of the transmitted 
(naqli) sciences with the intellectual (aqli) 
sciences is concerned. 

Many of the above mentioned works 
as well as a few other exist in English 
translation. Unfortunately these translations 
mostly made in the Indo-Pakistani 
Subcontinent, are not always up to 
scholarly standards and even if the 
Dhilosophical understanding of the 
translator is sound, as in the case of G.N. 
Jalbani, the main translator of Wali Allah's 
works into English, the precise rendering 
of a philosophical work of the calibre of 
Shah' Wali Allah's work requires deep 
understanding of both Islamic and Western 
Dhilosophy as deep knowledge of 
Dhilosophical terminology in both the original 
anguage, Arabic or Persian and English. 

Shah Wali Allah's many works bear 
the mark of his wide knowledge and 
depending on the capacity from which he 
was speaking and the nature of the 
audience, he elaborates his philosophical 
and doctrinal ideas differently. In certain 
of his works, he writes as a metaphysician 
n the line of Mulla Sadra and the school 
of Ibn al-Arabi ; at other times he writes 
as a Sufi or a theologian or a muhaddith 
(scholar of Hadith). Hence, his treatment 
of the Alam al-mithal is also undertaken 
from different angles and points of view in 
different works. In addition, he treats almost 

every aspect of the Islamic tradition, both 
of the transmitted sciences (al-ulum al- 
naqliyyah) and the intellectual sciences 
(al-ulum al-aqliyyah) and within the latter 
he deals extensively with everything from 
ontology to cosmology to angelology to 

The idea of the alam al-mithal has a 
long and rich history in Islam before Shah 
Wali Allah whose treatment of this world 
is the object of this study. Its origin lies in 
the Qur'an and especially in the Hadith, 
as Shah Wali Allah demonstrates, but it 
was alluded to in its developed form by 
Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (d.llll) and fully 
elaborated for the first time and given the 
title of Alam al-mithal by Shaykh al-lshraq 
Shihab al-Din Yahya ibn Habash al- 
Suharwardi (d. 587/1191). Suharwardi 
discussed the imaginal world only in terms 
of the microcosm. Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-' 
Arabi (d. 1240) fully expanded and 
elaborated on the doctrine of the imaginal 
world, speaking of both a microcosmic 
and macrocosmic imaginal world. Sadr al- 
Din al-Shirazi better known as Mulla Sadra 
(d.1 050/1 640) further developed this theme 
and also fully applied the doctrine of the 
imaginal world to Islamic eschatology. 
Shah Wali Allah was the inheritor both of 
Ibn al-Arabi and Mulla Sadra and 
integrated the philosophy of the latter into 
Sunni context. Shah Wali Allah's exposition 
of the Alam al-mithal is, therefore, indebted 
especially to both these figures. 


Shah Wali Allah's teachings on the 
doctrine of the imaginal world (Alam al- 
mithal) are scattered throughout his works. 


January, 2008 

As mentioned, it plays a significant role in 
many branches of Shah Wali Allah's 
teachings, especially his metaphysics. In 
all these domains it serves as the faculty 
and realm through which the corporeal 
and incorporeal, the material and the 
spiritual are joined and in contact with one 
another. For these pairs are opposite and 
without an intermediary, remain opposed 
to one another. In lieu of this, the alam al- 
mithal serves as an isthmus (barzakh) 
aetween the two. As Shah Wali Allah 
writes: "The Alam al-mithal is an 
intermediate space (barzakh) between the 
empirical and divine world. "Shah Wali 
Allah's whole vision of the nature of 
existence is permeated with the idea of 
the imaginal world, for the two topics that 
all his writings are based upon are God 
and man, and therefore, the relation 
Detween the two. In both God's movement 
towards man and man's return to God, 
the Alam al-mithal has an important role 
to play as both a means of manifestation 
and a means for the final becoming of 

The alam al-mithal, then, is a world, 
where spiritual realities assume bodily 
form before they are manifested on, or 
descend to earth. The Alam al-mithal, has 
an eminent role to play in the cycle of 
manifestation. It is the very power by which 
the spiritual and incorporeal is able to be 
determined and manifested as the material 
and the corporeal. And it is the link between 
the supraformal worlds and the worlds of 
form. In Shah Wali Allah's cosmology 
following peripatetic lines, the macrocosm 
s called the Universal soul (al-nafs al- 

Furthermore, complementing this 

vision of the creative imagination of the 
Universal soul (nafs kulliyah) is its direct 
connection with the Divine Throne. It is 
the Divine Throne where all that will be 
manifested in the phenomenal world is 
first determined and after that, descends 
to the nafs kulliyah and is shaped in an 
imaginal form, and then is manifested 
phenomenally in the world. In this way, 
Shah Wali Allah, being a religious scholar 
and theologian as well, preserves the 
fundamental Islamic vision of everything 
proceeding from and depending upon God 
at all times as well as the hierarchy of 
Being that accompanies this vision. He 
also says, "the Alam-al-mithal is an 
extensive plane in which all the Attributes 
of God, mentioned in the Holy Books, 
assume an exemplary representation 
(tamaththul)". This elagantly summarizes 
all about the function of the Alam al-mithal. 
The Names and Attributes of God, being 
relations between the world and God, are 
what bring the world into being. 

This brings out two important elements 
of the imaginal realm in Shah Wali Allah. 
One, it describes the nature of the alam 
al-mithal which is not material yet shapes 
and colours exist in it. Two, it is the place 
from where destiny is figured before it 
arrives at the level of the macrocosm and 
microcosm. Shah Wali Allah further clarifies 
the nature of the Alam al-mithal in a 
passage from Hujjat Allahal-Balighah 
where he attempts to give a broad 
definition of the imaginal world that would 
be intelligible even to the theologians and 
religious scholars:" Be informed that many 
traditions of the Prophet indicates that a 
non-elemental world exists in which 
abstract meanings are represented by 
quasi-bodily forms corresponding to them 

January, 2008 

n quality." He also states of its nature that 
'the World of Prefiguration (Alam al-mithal) 
s made of a material of extreme 

As far as the role of the alam al-mithal 
n the Divine decreeing of the destiny is 
concerned, it has been alluded to in the 
dea that all that is made manifest in the 
corporeal world first manifests itself in the 
maginal world. Shah Wali Allah has a very 
elaborate and complex doctrine concerning 
[he Decrees of God and human destiny 
which is closely tied to his extensive 
angelology, for it is the angel who are 
directly involved in the manifesting of the 
destinies of human individuals and 
communities. There is a mutual interplay 
Detween God and man passing through 
the angels and the imaginal realm in the 
sense that prayer, good intentions and 
actions, rise up to God from man, while 
grace (tawfiq), blessings, help, or wrath, 
Dunishment, and affliction descends from 
God to man. In this constant interaction 
the traffic is not one-way, so to speak, and 
Shah Wali Allah greatly elaborate this 
mystery of Divine grace and human 
endeavour, which combine to shape the 
destiny of man. 

Much more can be said about the role 
that the imaginal world plays in the 
metaphysics of Shah Wali Allah and 
especially in the relation between God and 
man, including the role it plays in the lives 
of prophets, in Divine theophanies 
(tajalliyat) on earth, in visions, dreams, 
and miracles, in the world of the angels 
and its relations with that of man. 


The eschatology of Shah Wali Allah 

is one of the crowning achievements of 
his work. In it, he is able to completely 
synthesize the Qur'anic doctrines of the 
life after death and the final becoming of 
man with the traditional philosophy and 
theosophy (hikmah). His eschatological 
teachings are some of the richest and 
most elaborate on the subject in the annals 
of Islamic literature. Their richness comes 
from the fact that they incorporate the 
whole of the Qur'anic and Prophetic 
teachings on the life hereafter with the 
doctrines developed in the long Islamic 
intellectual tradition, which includes 
theoretical Sufism (irfan), philosophy, 
theosophy (hikmah), and kalam. 

The alam al-mithal has a very 
important role to play in Wali Allah's 
eschatology. As the barzakh between the 
Divine and the human, between the earthly 
and the celestial, the imaginal world has 
a prominent place, as mentioned, in both 
the descent of man from God to the world 
and his ascent from the world to God. 
If the metaphysical doctrine of Shah Wali 
Allah mainly concerned the descent, his 
eschatological writings are mainly 
concerned with the ascent and return of 
man to his Origin. 

Shah Wali Allah beautifully summarise 
the cyclical doctrine of man. Man is in his 
origin a pure intellect and then descends 
to the imaginal world, from whence he 
comes to this lower world. After a short 
stay here, he ascends again to the imaginal 
world and then ascends further to the 
intelligible world and is once again who 
he was in the beginning, a pure intellect. 
In both his descent and his ascent, man 
passes through the imaginal realm. It is 
to the second of these -- the return of man 
to his Origin - that Shah Wali Allah turns 


January, 2008 


Shah Wali Allah states that there are 
three stages after man's death: one, the 
stage of the grave; two, the Day of 
Gathering (Hashr); three, Paradise. Shah 
Wali Allah expounds in detail the first two 
stages, but refuse to say anything 
substantial about the third stage, stating 
that it is better to remain silent about its 
mysteries. So his doctrines mainly concern 
the first two stages, both of which are 
found in the descriptions of the afterlife in 
the Qur'an and Hadith, and both are 
situated in the Alam al-mithal according 
to Shah Wali Allah. It might be asked why 
the third stage does not mention Hell, 
usually thought of as the counterpart of 
Paradise. The answer to this, Shah Wali 
Allah gives, by saying that, contrary to 
oopular belief, Hell as well as the Gates 
of Paradise, are located on the level of 
Hashr, and he also states that there will 
come a time when every last person will 
oe taken out of Hell and brought into 


No discussion of Shah Wali Allah's 
exposition of the imaginal world in his 
writings would be complete without 
mentioning his integration of theosophical, 
Sufi, and philosophical terms, including 
the idea of the imaginal world, into the 
corpus of the religious sciences. Shah 
Wali Allah was a renowned Muhaddis, as 
well as trained in Tafsir, Fiqh, and other 
religious sciences. He was also very well- 
versed in Kalam. In almost every topic he 
discusses, the notion of Alam al-mithal is 
present in the discussion. The reason for 
this is that this intermediary world is what 
connects the Divine to the human and 
therefore, religion, which descends from 
Divine to the human, and through man 
ascends to the Divine, cannot be explained 
without recourse to the intermediary world 
Whenever the Divine descends or man 
ascends, the Alam al-mithal must be 

(Continued from Page 12) 

spiritual discipline, mosques for the worship 
of God, missionary societies for the 
oropagation of the Divine Message, inter- 
religious organisations for the consolidation 
of religious forces against the onslaught 
of materialism and atheism, Muslim Unity 
Boards for the creation of harmony among 
Muslims, organisations for the Ulema for 
the coordination of Islamic religious forces, 
Muslim Youth Brigades, Muslim Volunteer 
Corps, Muslim Scout CI Corps for the 
physical and moral discipline of the youth. 
His great work received wreaths of 
admiration and meads of praise from kings 
and statesmen, from judges and barristers, 
from professors and doctors, from the 
Ulema and the general masses. His 
enemies called him "a magician" while his 

friends-regarded him as an "angel' 

There are three noteworthy factors 
which stand out prominently in connection 
with Maulana Siddiqui's demise: (a) He 
died while in harness, remaining active in 
the cause of his mission, (b) He died and 
was buried at Madina Munawwarah. (c) 
His death occurred at such time of the 
year when Muslims from all over the world 
assemble at Madina after the Hajj 

Glorious was the mission of Maulana 
Abdul Aleem Siddiqui, glorious was his life 
and glorious was his death. May Allah 
shower his choicest blessings on his soul 
and may He cause his great work for Islam 
to prosper. 


January, 2008 


Prof. A.M. Muhammad Ibrahim 

Iqbal's conception of Shahadat is 
Dased on the Islamic conception of life 
and death. In Islam, life means a force or 
an energy. It stands for movement and the 
absence of this movement is called death. 
Love is the moving-power and the secret 
of "Ego". A continuous endeavour for the 
self-expression of Ego is named as love. 
An Ego with this power of self-expression 
s called "Momin" and an Ego without this 
Dower cannot be called a Momin. 

o«*J JjJbu OJfiJ! !j3l4fys> 

Islam does not believe in thoughs with- 
out deeds. "One who has got no power of 
creation, is nothing but an infidel to us." 
The Qur'an is a book which emphasises 
deed rather than idea." It is a synthesis of 
the two important aspects of Ego. 

Knowledge without actions is like a 
loud without rain. 

oL> ( ji j0biw sJ^Si J" ^" 5 

"The whole subject of life is hidden in 
the course of activity. The laws of life are 
the delight of creation." Iman is not a mere 
relief in God. It is not only ( ok*>i> &*** ) 
admitting God in mind, but also 
(^jwi^oUJtjjfjS!) - its outward expressions 
both in languages and actions accordingly. 
Iman is wrongly supposed to be a mere 
relief though its actual significance lies in 

actions which are the perpetual attempt 
of an Ego in its upwards march in life. This 
attempt is love for actions. A Momin cannot 
be conceived without this love as it is said 
by Iqbal: 

^3*)! Jj£c3 c*J J^cj! yap* 

"Momin comes from love in the sense 
as mentioned above and love comes from 
Momin." This power of self-expression of 
an Ego reveals itself in two opposite 
directions, of which one is called 'Shabbiri- 
Power' (lSj***^) and the other is called 
"Yazidi-Power" (is^jj^) one is the life of 
goodness, truth and reality, and the other 
in opposition to it is the life of falsehood 
and unreality. Truth is always alive inspired 
by this Shabbiri-Power and it disappears 
from the scene of life at the advent of 
Yazidi-Power. One is the positive power 
of Ego which admits of all goodness and 
truth, while the other is the negative power 
of Ego which totally overlooks the truth 
and reality. 

o-*»l i^j-^-i) 03.-2 j! J$—> oJuJj 

"Truth or reality is always alive by this 
Shabbiri-Power of Ego and the unreal is 
always disappearing in disappointment as 
it is declared by the Holy Qur'an: 

,j! JbUf JJ&J3 JjseJI £ b-jJ 

_L_§3_&j l_r J_bl_^Jf 

"Unreal has disappeared when the 



January, 2008 

truth has appeared and verily the unreal 
always disappears in the long run. 

When a Momin with his Shabbiri- 
Power embraces death in fighting in the 
way of Allah, his death is known as 
Shahadat" and such a Momin is called 
Shahid. Islam ascribes the highest position 
to Shahid and emphasises Shahadat as 
the Holy Qur'an asserts: 

4111 J^-j ^$i& ^JO! ^j^ssj V3 

,L>! Jj * (3(301 

"Do not take those who were killed in 
their fighting in the way of Allah as dead 
out they are alive." Holy Prophet (#) 
affirms, "one who embraces death in the 
oath of God, has become really alive." 
There is no death for a Momin. He enjoys 
an eternal life and death is prohibited for 
him. He knows no death which is generally 
known to be an inevitable end of life. So 
Iqbal says: 

"I have learned the secret of Qur'an 
from Hazrat Hussain and gathered flames 
from his fire." Rumi opens this secret in 
the following words: 

"In its outward appearance it seems 
to be death but in its inward appearance 
it is the real life and existence. In support 
of this view Rumi describes the story of 
the end of Hazrat Bilal's life. Hazrat Bilal 
was asked by his wife at the last moment 
of his life: "How do you like to leave your 

sweet home and your beloved ones on 
this earth? 

Bilal replied, "No, no, you are wrong. 
I am not leaving my sweet home. To-day 
I am reaching my sweet home with a happy 
heart from my long journey on the earth. 
Real existence lies behind the screen of 
death. "There is no asceticism in Islam, 
means, according to Iqbal, that Islam does 
not accept any escape from the struggles 
of life. This struggle for life is a struggle 
for truth. When this struggle for truth ends 
in death in the ordinary sense of the term, 
then it is called Shahadat which is not the 
discontinuation of life but an elevating 
stage in the eternal flow of life. The 
asceticism in Islam is replaced by 
Shahadat or martyrdom. Shahids are the 
real Muslim ascites who embraced death 
for the sake of truth and for the love of 
God. So Iqbal says: 

oi^p'^sl Lj JJ3-6 i»ij-» OCil 

O-ftj'l ^-*)! ^JjL-A&J f J L-C— > 

lj 4k$i jjjl J0J6 ^j~f ^jjvgj) y> 
fj 4JswJ ,jjl Joy> &$>■ Q^^-i^S 

"JEHAD", says the holy Prophet (% 
"is the asceticism of Islam. I know no other 
asceticism than JEHAD and none but the 
martyres could realise the secret which 
was bought by them at the cost of their 
life and blood." There is a world of 
difference between the fighting of Shahids 
and death of other warriors: 

15 jf o j Ic o l«?" O k I* *-&?■ 

"The fighting of kings aims at the 
destruction of the world as they fight with 

(Continued un Page 23, 
January, 2008 



The question has been asked: "Was 
Husain's Martyrdom a necessity?" The 
answer is: "Yes". 

There is a beautiful Chinese legend 
about a young girl of 16, Ko-Ai, the only 
daughter of a Mandarin. The Emperor, 
Yung Lo, had ordered the building of the 
new Capital of Peking, including the Bell 
Tower for sounding the alarm. The 
Mandarin's job was to cast the bell. He 
made two attempts, both of which failed, 
and the Emperor ordered that he should 
oe beheaded, if he failed again. The 
beautiful Ko-Ai was distressed at her 
father's plight, and went to consult an 
astrologer. To her horror she learn that a 
oerfect casting could never be achieved, 
unless the blood of a maiden were mingled 
with the molten metal. Ko-Ai said nothing 
to her father, but, on the day of the public 
ceremony for casting the bell, she quietly 
slipped out, and winding her way through 
the crowd, threw herself headlong into the 
ooiling fluid. It is related that 'on uncovering 
the bell after it had cooled, it was found to 
oe perfect, but not a vestige of Ko-Ai was 
to be seen'. 

This necessary act of self-immolation 
is enshrined in Chinese tradition, and Ko- 
Ai's name is handed down with reverence 
in every household to this day. 

Great souls have appeared at critical 
times in the world's history to arrest the 
suicidal march to disintegrating societies, 
and to rehabilitate man on the road to 

higher achievements. They did not hesitate 
to lay down their own lives, if the necessity 

A galaxy of these immortals flashes 
past the mind's eye — Socrates, Jesus ; 
Joan of Arc, Crammer. Other names could 
be added. Of these, the martyrdom of 
Husain was one of the most remarkable 
in the history of mankind. Was it necessary 
or worthwhile? 

The middle of the first millennium 
after Christ presents a depressing picture 
of Man's failure on earth, which was littered 
with bits and pieces of dead or dying 
civilizations. In the extreme east, the 
Chinese body social had been rent by 
fratricidal warfare between parochial states. 
Coming West, we find the old India socie- 
ties broken down completely, after a time 
of troubles, which had been full of destruc- 
tive wars. Thoughtful people were turning 
away from this world, and seeking to find 
the road to another through asceticism. 
The masses were penalised by racial dis- 
crimination, sanctioned by religion in the 
form of a caste system, which banned 
social intercourse between a multiplicity 
of castes and sub-castes. This was the 
negation of human liberty, and led to the 
unparalleled social abuse of 'untouch 

In the extreme West, the Roman 
Empire, which had spread the light of 
civilization to Europe, North-Africa and 
part of Asia, had crumbled into dust, and 



January, 2008 

the Hellenic civilization, of which it was 
the Universal State, had entered on a long 
Deriod of petrifcation. In the words of 

"...the Greeks admired only 
themselves, and the Romans admired only 
themselves and the Greeks. Their minds 
Dred in and in, and were accordingly 
cursed with barren-ness and degeneracy. 
At the close of the third century after Christ, 
the prospects of mankind were fearfully 
dreary. That great community was in 
clanger of experiencing a calamity far more 
terrible than any of the quick, inflammatory, 
destroying maladies to which nations are 
iable — a tottering, driveling, paralytic, 
ongevity — where, during many centuries, 
nothing has been learned or unlearned". 

With the break down of the Hellenic 
civilization, Europe had entered upon its 
Dark Age. 

Coming now to the heart and core 
of the ancient world, the so-called Middle 
East, conditions were in no better shape. 
FHe Syriac civilization was on its last legs. 
According to Toynbee, it had three great 
feats to its credit. It invented the Alphabet. 
Its seafearers discovered the Atlantic, but 
the physical discovery of this was sur- 
Dassed, as a feat of human prowess, by 
the spiritual discovery of Monotheism. It 
gave mankind the largest number of 
Prophets and its best-known religions, 
Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and, 
astly, Islam. But it was at a low ebb, when 
our Prophet appeared on the scene. 
Fratricidal wars had sapped its life blood, 
and conditions of complete insecurity pre- 
vailed everywhere. The Romano-Persian 
war, which raged incessantly for 25 years 

(603-628 A.D), had left it perfectly limb. 

It was in this welter and confusion 
of dead and dying cultures and civilizations, 
that our Prophet (#) brought a message 
of hope, not only of the renewed possibility 
of the highest achievements in the material 
world, sur-passing those of the ancient 
Egyptians, Greeks, Babylonians, Indians 
and Chinese, but, what was of far greater 
consequence, the hope, which amounted 
to a certainty, of which each individual soul 
entering an After Life of unalloyed bliss. 
"We belong to God, and to Him shall we 
return". It robbed death of its terror. This 
was examplified by the martyrdom of 
Husain, who gave up his life and those of 
his nearest and dearest, with perfect 
serenity, although in circumstances of the 
utmost privation, in order that Islam may 

To the true Muslim, death is like 
entering from the stress and the strain of 
the stormy night into the peace and the 
brightness of the home, and, just as we 
shed our coat in the hall, the soul casts 
off its physical raiment at death's doorway, 
before entering its eternal home, there to 
reap the reward or punishment, promised 
by the Best of Judges (Khair-ul-Hakimin), 
of our conduct (A'mal) in this World. "That 
day not a soul shall be wronged one bit". 
The Muslim, however, must play his 
appointment role according to the rules 
(the Qur'an, the Prophet's life, the hadith); 
God — the Much Forgiving (Al-Ghafoor), 
the Loving (Al-Wadood) — will lock after 
the rest. That is the driving-force of Islam— 
"Willing Acceptance of God's Guidance 
and Gifts" — the result of two components, 
one passive-Faith (Iman), the other 
active-Works (A'mal). 


January, 2008 

The Prophet (#) practised this in his 
own life, which imparted such titanic 
driving-force to the all-embracing institu- 
tions of Islam, that, within a few decades 
of his death, it had burst the bounds of 
Arabia, and captivated the entire Syriac 
world from the shores of the Atlantic to the 
coasts of the Eurasian Steppe. The Arab 
Khaliphate provided it with its second 
Universal State, after a thousand years of 
anarchy. This vast Arab empire was bigger 
than any earlier one, in which perfect law 
and order prevailed, and in which there 
was no racial discrimination or religious 
in tolerance. 

Islam provided two other Universal 
States, viz, the Moghal Raj to the derelict 
Hindu world, and the Ottoman Empire to 
the dying Orthodox Christian Society. The 
ast-named had the longest span of life of 
any empire in the world. 

In the field of the arts, the sciences, 
and the philosophies, the Muslims were 
the torch-bearers for a thousand years in 
a world stricken with the plight of ignorance. 
They gave the West the Arabic numerals 
and the decimal system. Their numerous 
Madrasses (Madaris) from Spain to India, 
with their endowments and scholarships, 
were the prototypes of the modern resi- 
dential university, whose academic robes 
are a reminder of their Arab origin. Even 
today, the oldest University is the Al-Azhar 
in Cairo, built in 972 A.D. History wad the 
Muslim's special forte, and the greatest 
historian of our times, Arnold Toynbee, 
has characterised the work of the Arab 
Philosopher-historian Ibn Khaldun as "The 
greatest of its kind that has ever yet been 
created by any mind in any time or place". 
According to Toynbee, "The works of the 

Greek Philosopher Aristotle first reached 
the western world through Arabic 
Translations", and "the scholars of Muslim 
Spain contributed unintentionally to the 
philosophical edifice errected by the 
medieval Christian schoolmen". This is 
not the place to recount the achievements 
of the Muslims in Chemistry, Mathematics, 
Medicine, Philosophy, Architecture, Poetry, 
Mysticism. The point is, that, during the 
thousand years of Muslim ascendency in 
the world, the spirit of man soared to higher 
heights than ever before, and handed on 
the torch of progress to their apt western 

But the great glory of Islam lies in 
the spiritual sphere — the gospel of the 
Unity of Law — (Tauheed) — in a Universe 
created and ruled over by the One True 
God, to Whom alone, directly or without 
the intercession of any intermediary, the 
500 million Muslims of the world owe allegi- 
ence and pray, whose help alone they 
seek in time of woe, and in whose loving 
care and justice they have perfect trust. 
At the same time, Islam profoundly affected 
the thinking of the non-Muslim world. For 
the first time in history, it publicly pro- 
claimed the brotherhood of man, and 
denounced unequalities created by colour, 
class and capital. 

All this was, however, in the womb 
of futurity at the time of the Prophet's birth. 
His life and mission inaugurated this 
triumphant march out of the envelopping 
darkness into the light of day. But Satan, 
typifying the forces of evil, was not sitting 
idle. Within a few years of the Prophet's 
death, his most implaceable enemies, the 
Banu-Umayyah, had usurped political 
power, which had nothing Muslim about 


January, 2008 

it. They were Loadicians-heathens, be- 
sotted, Godless. Their reign was the 
negation of everything for which Muham- 
mad (#) had toiled. The fate of the world 
over which they had ruled hung in the 
oalance. Was it to lapse into the anarchy 
and degredation, out of which he had 
rescued it, or to go forward from strength 
to strength.? The worst of these worthless 
rules was Yazid, and it was him who 
Husain defied. The last scene of this 
historic defiance was enacted, at the height 
of mid-summer, on the desert sands of 
Karbala, where he and his whole 
entourage of 72 laid down their lives, 
fighting bravely to the last boy. The event 
touched the conscience of mankind, and 
roused the Muslim world from its easy 

complacency into hard work. The 
Umayyads were swept off the seats of the 
mighty, and Islam started with renewed 
vigour on its grant mission to reclaim the 
world from the forces of heathenism 

It was necessary that somebody 
should enact, in real life, the Islamic ideal 
of 'Life in Death', for the edification of the 
generations to come, and it was in God's 
good providence, that the grandson of the 
Prophet (#) who had preached Islam 
should do so, and, in doing so, route the 
forces of evil, that had once more started 
gaining ascendency not long after the 
Prophet's death ! May their souls rest in 
peace in the highest Heaven ! 

(Continued from F 

; 19) 

the motive of worldly gains for kingdoms 
and thrones but the fighting of the Muslim 
Shahids differs from it as it aims at the 
tradition of the Prophet(#) and at the love 
of God." War in Islam is strictly prohibited 
except for God. 

"One who draws his sword for other 
than God, puts it on his own breast." Islam 
does not allow to us sword even for the 
spread of religion as the Holy Qur'an says: 
There is no compulsion in religion, "So 
Iqbal holds. 

j*c o~j' j ^v ua o^3 ^tT 1 ^-^ 

jA> O-jl <"-&?■ \Jp£ kX&U I J_>jJ* 

"If the motive of war be other than 
God, then evil takes the place of peace, 
on the other hand, war is all good when 
the motive behind is God." A Momin who 
dedicates his life for God any says, "Verily 
my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my 
death are all for God" cannot be supposed 
to do anything except for God. He is a 
lover of God and lover of the Holy Prophet 
(#). "A person cannot, says the Holy 
Prophet (#)" become a Momin unless he 
becomes such a lover of mine that 
become the dearest of all his parents 
children and wealth. "This is the lesson 
taught by Shahadat and this is the secret 
of the Holy Qur'an. 


January, 2008 

The Bible: 
Its Versions and Perversions 

Abdul Rahim Abdul Azeez 

The name 'Bible' came from the 
Greek word Biblia' which means 
books'. It is the sacred scripture of the 
Christianity comprising the Old and 
Mew Testaments and Aprocrypha, 
means 'doubtful', referring to more than 
14 non-canonical books of the Old and 
New Testaments of the Bible, which 
having been found doubtful, were not 
canonized in the Bible by the Biblical 

Many books of the Bible were written 
oy different hands at different periods: e.g. 
there are two contradictory accounts of 
the Creation in Genesis and Isaiah, which 
show that this was at least the work of two 
or three persons probably of the 8th, 6th 
or 5th centuries BC respectively. (The new 
llustrated Encyclopaedia of Knowledge, 
Dublished by Spring Books, London, in 
1966, page 68). 

This is what has been said in the 
Glorious Qur'an on the question of writing 
the books with the hands without any 
Dermission from God. "And woe to those 
who write the book with their own hands 
and then say... this is from Allah, to traffic 
with it for a miserable price, so woe to 
them for what their hands do write, and 
woe to them for what they earn thereby..." 
(Qur'an, 2:79) 

Roughly three quarters of the Bible is 
:ommonly known as the Hebrew 
Scriptures and the Bible itself can be 

divided into three groups: the first group 
comprises of the 17 historical books from 
Genesis to Esther; the second group is 
made up of five poetic books from Job to 
the Song of Solomon, and the third group 
is the 17 Prophetic books that range from 
Isaiah to Malachi. 

For about 1 ,500 years after the advent 
of Jesus Christ, there was not an English 
Bible in the world. The first translation of 
the Bible into English was done in 1525 
CE, by Tyndale, the second English 
translation was done by Coverdale in 1 535 
CE, the third translation was known as 
The Great Bible', was published when the 
fourth translation was published in 1560 
CE, and the fifth English translation, which 
was commonly known as the Bishop's 
Bible, was published around 1575 CE by 
Bishop Parker. 

When King James of England came 
to power in 1603 CE, the authenticity of 
the Bible was questioned and many 
scholars doubted its originality. Hence the 
king appointed 1 scholars to correct errors 
contained in the Bishop's Bible, and so in 
1611 CE, they published a new Bible, 
which was named as 'The Authorised King 
James Version'. 

According to the Jehovah Witnesses, 
the same 'Authorised King James Version,' 
which has been checked by 40 scholars 
on the order of King James, has about 
50,000 errors and, according to some 


January, 2008 

hristian sources, 'Authorised King James 
Version' has about 20000 errors. Although 
t contains all of these errors, this very 
3ible was viewed and considered 

uthentic' for about 259 years. 

In 1870 the Church appointed a 
special group of Christian Biblical scholars 
of the highest eminence to remove those 
mistakes and errors, which had remained 
n the Authorised King James Version of 
the Bible. These scholars did their job and 
as usually they claimed that they had 
managed to remove all of those errors, 
which were in the Bible. 

In 1884, when the Europeans held 
their historical meeting that aimed to divide 
Africa and Asia among themselves as new 
colonies, which would give them the raw 
materials to develop Europe, the Christian 
scholars were also busy publishing a new 
version of the Bible, which would be 
suitable to be sent and propagated in these 
new European colonies, especially those 
n Africa. This new version, which was 
Dublished in the year 1884, was known 
as the Revised Standard Version of the 

The New Testament: 

The remaining 27 books of the New 
Testament are known as the Christian 
Greek Scriptures for they were originally 
written in Greek and not in Aramaic, the 
language spoken by Jesus Christ. These 
27 books are arranged basically according 
to their subject matters, and because of 
this, they are also divided into three portions: 

a) Five historical books, which are 
four Gospels as well as the book of Acts. 

b) 21 letters and Epistles addressed 
to various nations and communities. 

c) One Book of Revelation. 

The new Testament was first written 
in Greek. It begins with the three synoptic 
Gospels, which record acts and sayings 
of Jesus Christ; the earliest of these 
Gospels was written by Mark at the 
dictation of St. Peter in year 60 CE. The 
Gospels, according to Matthew and Luke ; 
were written a little later and were based 
partly on Mark. The fourth Gospel is that 
of John. Then comes the Acts of the 
Apostles, which recount the mission and 
expansion of the Church through the work 
of Peter, Barnabas, Paul, Stephen, etc. 



January, 2008 



Answered by 
His Eminence Maulana Mohammed Abdul Aleem Siddiqui (R.A.) 

1 .Q: Is it absolutely necessary to say the 
Drayer in Arabic? 

A: Prayer as directed in Islam is a form 
of worship and should be performed in the 
manner prescribed. The recitations therein 
should be in the prescribed form in the 
Arabic language. The "Fatihah," the first 
:hapter of the Holy Qur'an is an essential 
and compulsory part of the prescribed 
Drayer. It is preferable that the worshipper 
should understand the meaning of the 
-ecitations or at least the sense of what 
ie recites. 

A Muslim, whether an old Muslim or 
a convert, who cannot recite the prescribed 
recitations in Arabic should remain silent 
or recite some prayer in his own language, 
Dreferably a prayer based on and 
:ontaining the meaning of the Fatihah. He 
should of course observe the conditions 
required for prayer such as ablution and 
:leanliness, adopt the different postures 
and say the prayers at the appointed time. 
Moreover he should continue his attempts 
to learn the prescribed recitations in Arabic 
until he is able to recite them. 

.Q: Why and for what purpose are 
uman beings created in this world? 

A: Every human being in this world has 
got a natural instinct that he desires to 
make a demonstration of any good 
attribute that he realises within his own 
self. A singer, expert in music, desires to 
show his art of singing, an orator his 

oratory, an artist his art. An architect well 
qualified in planning, desires to see the 
plan of the beautiful building in his brain 
take shape on paper and when it is built 
he wants people to come and see it, admire 
it and make use of it and thus appreciate 
the qualification and attribute of a good 
architect which he possesses. 

This instinct of making a demonstra- 
tion of one's attribute is really a reflection 
of the attribute of the Almighty Allah, the 
Creator of the whole universe. Allah has 
unlimited attributes in Him. He wished to 
demonstrate His attributes - so He created 
the universe. The whole universe and 
every object in it are therefore dem- 
onstrations of His attributes. His Beauty, 
His Art and His Qualities are reflected in 
them and every object denotes His Ex- 
istence, His Power, His Intelligence and 
His Qualification. 

In the Hadith al Qudsi it is reported 
that Allah says "I was just like a hidden 
treasure. I wished Myself and My attributes 
to be known and understood, so I created 
the Universe." 

The human being is the best model 
of His Creation. As is stated in the Holy 
Qur'an "We have indeed created the 
human being in the best form of creation" 
(45: 4). The attributes of the Almighty Allah 
are reflected in man to such an extent that 
Allah calls him His Khalifa - the one in 
whom the attributes of the Originator are 
reflected. The function of this Khalifa, the 


January, 2008 

manifestation of the Attributes of the 
Almighty, is to realise the attributes of the 
Creator in his own self and His Creation. 
As is stated in the Holy Qur'an "The Signs 
of the Almighty are in the whole universe 
and also in your own selves. Will you not 
realise them." (51: 20-21). And again: 
'Allah has created for you all things that 
are on the earth. (2: 29). 

The function of mankind is to know 
the use of the various objects of creation 
and to utilise them according to the method 
Drescribed by the Creator, Allah, and to 
achieve the knowledge of the attributes of 
Allah through his Creation. As Allah says 
n the Holy Qur'an "Behold! In the Creation 
of the Heavens and Earth and the 
alternation of the Day and Night - These 
are indeed signs for men of understanding 
— men who celebrate the praises of Allah 
standing, sitting and lying down on their 
sides and contemplate the (wonders of) 
creation in the heavens and earth with the 
thought: Our Lord: you have not created 
all this in vain." (3: 190- 192). 

The object of the creation of the 
human being is further described in the 
Holy Qur'an in the verse "We have not 
created the jinns and the human beings 
DUt to worship us" (51 : 56). The word used 
n this verse is "Yabudun." This word 
"Yabudun" or worship does not only mean 
the performance of certain prescribed 
orayers with certain prescribed postures 
DUt conveys the meaning that each and 
every action is done in accordance with 
the Commands of the Creator and for Him. 
As Allah says in the Holy Qur'an "Say, 
Truly my prayers, my service of sacrifice, 
my life and my death All are for Allah the 
Lord of the Universe." (6: 162). 

The answer to the question is thus 
clear that the human being is created to 
make use of his own self and the Universe 
according to the Commands of Allah, and 
thus admire the beauties of the attributes 
of Allah to such an extent that he may 
become His lover and thus drowned in the 
ocean of His love, come to know Him. This 
is why the word Yabudun is explained by 
some commentators as conveying the 
meaning "To know Allah." 

3. Q: Why is it that Muslims do not eat 

A: The pig is created not to be eaten 
but to eat the dirt that comes out of our 
body and to clear the earth of the germs 
found therein. The pig is an animal that 
eats dirty things and thus absorbs invisible 
germs into its body. 

These germs get into the flesh of 
the pig and if the flesh is taken, those 
germs will be taken inside our bodies. 

It is well-known that the pig may 
have its flesh diseased through certain 
stages of parasites (cystic) and in eating 
this diseased pork the germs are liberated 
which develop into adult ones in the human 
body. Dr. R. Tanner Hewlet in his treatise 
on Pathology deals with the disease 
"Trichinosis" which is caused by a parasite 
(trichinia spiralis) contained in pork. The 
parasite, when its gets into the human 
body grows and multiplies in the intestines 
and in the muscles and its development 
is accompanied by fever, intestinal catarrh, 
diarrhoea, and oedema. The affection is 
frequently fatal. 

Nowadays the scientific authorities 


January, 2008 

as a safeguard have a daily inspection of 
meat made for those who like to eat pork 
out it is admitted that "no method of 
nspection has been devised by which the 
oresence or absence of trichinia in pork 
can be determined with certainty and the 
Government meat inspection does not 
nclude inspection for this parasite." (Pre- 
ventive Medicine by Milton J. Rosenau). 

It is a well-known fact that whatever 
we eat will tend to produce its effect on 
our body. Thus if we go on eating the flesh 
of beasts, our nature will be like beasts. 
Among all the animals, the pig is known 
to be the one which has no modesty. The 
male pig has no objection to the female 
oig having intercourse with other male 
oigs. By eating the flesh of pig, this nature 
of the pig might eventually come to us. 

4. Q: Can a new convert in Islam continue 
to observe the customary festivals of his 

A: He can if the festival has no relation 
to idol worshipping and if the custom has 
no connection with the religious teaching 
of a religion that teaches idol worship. 
Thus if a festival is seasonal or historical 
one and has no connection with idol 
worshipping a Muslim can observe it. 

5.Q: Is it absolutely necessary that a 
Muslim name be adopted by a new 

A: Not at all though it is preferable. Is- 
lam enjoins us to have good names with 
good meanings. 

6. Q: Must a new convert adopt a god- 
father or god-mother before his con- 

A: No. Rather this practice is against 
the teachings of Islam. 

7. Q: Is the cap absolutely necessary for 
a Muslim when walking in the streets or 
even in prayer? 

A. No, it is not absolutely necessary. 
The wearing of a cap is a sign of respect 
and dignity according to Muslim culture 
At the time of worship if a man has no cap 
he can offer prayers with his head 

8. Q: Is circumcision absolutely neces- 
sary for a new convert? 

A: Circumcision is a Sunnat (practice] 
of the Prophet Ibrahim (6WW*) adopted by 
Prophet Mohammed (#) as a Sunnatu 
Muakkadah (Essential Practice) on parents 
who are made responsible to have their 
children circumcised before they attain the 
age of puberty. 

A non-Muslim adult who adopts 
Islam is not expected to get himself circum- 
cised because when a man has reached 
the age of puberty he is not allowed to 
open the parts of the body from the navel 
to the knees except on medical advice 

According to the Shafi'i School of 
thought circumcision is a wajib (essen 
tial) but those who find this difficult can 
follow the Hanafi version. 

9. Q: If a fowl is slaughtered and cooked 
by a non-Muslim who does not intend to 
use it as an offering to an idol or in the 
name of any god but as food only, can it 


January, 2008 

De eaten by Muslims? 

A: No, but only if it is slaughered in the 
name of Allah. At the time of slaughtering, 
t is essential that the name of Allah should 
De recited. As the Holy Qur'an says: "Eat 
not of meats on which the name of Allah 
nas not been pronounced." (6:121). 

We human beings are permitted to 

utilise the things that are in the earth. In 
slaughtering an animal we are taking life 
from one of Allah's creations. So when we 
slaughter it we should let it know that we 
are not slaughtering it for pleasure but 
only with the permission of Allah. The 
name of Allah is pronounced so that we 
may not take the life of anything but for 
Allah and for feeding ourselves. 
Courtesy: (Muslim World) 







1st Floor, Ocean Centre, 40-Talpur Road, P.O. Box No. 4411, Karachi-74000. 

Phone : 2414778 - 2414779 - 2413271 - 2414087. Grams : AMINFAB 

Fax: (92-21) 2411686, E-Mail : aminfb@khi. pk 


January, 2008 

January, 2008 

January, 2008 

\X.)K t) j cfr)> &tf<£> Jytj^jt \j\js\j\ c~ J*-^ t/'X tiiL-sjS/fU &>[f>£s\}f'{ 

.*- >? tuft jiS ^> i # (j^t/uv #cJ J &£*-#&(/&&?> y^ wJJi 
J^i/Wc# 6U>Z1 ji j! i//^. few Uy if> - jl£</c>j£itfut*^'«£ 

MINARET 30 January, 2008