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M.H. Habib Butt 


Umer Qassim Mithani 

Dr. Farogh Naseem 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 


Mahmood Shaikh 


Begum Rashida Ikram Siddiqi 


Moulana Abu Faheem Anwarullah Khan / Wajih-ul-Hasan Ansari 


Ashfaq Husain 


Muhammed Ahmed • Jan Muhammed 
Azhar Hasan Siddiqi • Umer Shakoor • Muhammed Ajaz Saya 

Wajih-ul-Hasan Ansari »Tahir Umer •Mahmood Shaikh 

Amin Ghazi • Noor Ahmed khan • Syed Muhammed Ali Nasir 

Aboo Baker Cassim • Abdus Sattar Usman *Prof. Abdul 

Waheed Qureshi • Mr. Yonus Hashim Bangali 
Abu Faheem Anwarullah Khan *Grp Cap (R) Faheem Baig 

THE s*-$BKL-* 


An International Monthly Devoted to Islamic Progress 

Organ of 


-^^^^ o 

Published in Memory of 
Maulana Shah Muhammad Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 

Maulana Dr. Muhammad Fazl-ur-Rahman Al-Ansari Al-Qaderi (R.A.) 



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Editorial Board 

M.A. Khan 

Maulana Allah Yar Qaderi 

Chief Editor: 

Mustafa Fazil Ansari 

Advisory Board: 


Fazal Khan 
Guyana (South America) 


Ahmed B. Keeno 

Abdul Rashid Ismail 

M. Abu Fahim Anwarullah 

Siddiq Ahmed Nasir 


Maulana Abid AN 


Dr. Alonto 


Farid Uddin Ahmad 
Editorial Asst.: 

Abdul Aleem Joemman 



Haji Abdul Hadi 

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Abu Bakr Maidin 

M. Asif Zaheer 


Sri Lanka 

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Special Correspondents: 


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Trinidad and Tobago 


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Cape Town 


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V J 

Abdullah Ahmed 
^ J 

H.R. Azizuddin 
^ J 


LFrom The Editor's Desk 3 

2. Call From The Minaret 5 

3.AI-Ghazali 10 

4. The beauty of Spirituality 16 

5. Khawaja Uwais-al-Qarni 17 

6. The Inclusion of Organ Donation in 
One's 24 

8. ~->^<3i?L-trb^fc- 32 

"The MINARET' may not necessarily agree with the opinions of the writers 

Approved for Schools, Colleges and Educational Institutions vide Circular No. (DE / F. 
Pub / 1 1 - A) (3082-3390) 72, Directorate of Education, Karachi Region, dated 8-5-1 972 

Published by the World Federation of Islamic Missions, Abdul Aleem Siddiqui and Islamic Centre Roads, 

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Amid the daily gloom of the continuing 
plight of terrorism the news spectrums 
are awash with extremism across the 
country. A feeling of uncertainty is gripping 
the nation, worsened by a fear of unknown. 
Most people are wondering as to what is 
in store for Pakistan. Riots, blasts, 
explosions and batton weilding security 
personnels have come to represent the 
face of the faith. Fanatics are threatening 
law abiding citizens, kidnapping 
government servants and civilians to 
settle various scores. The rulers have no 
defence against those militants and cannot 
protect the citizens anywhere in the 
country. Ordinary people are at risk at all 
times with no protection. It is not just the 
militants but also the ordinary criminals 
against which the government appears 
helpless. Some are of the view that the 
law enforcing agencies are reduced to 
humiliation of appeasing criminals, 
performing service and allegedly making 
deals with them. Deals with criminals and 
sycophants have allegedly become the 
order of the day. 

We are all in a difficult impasse and 
fighting for an unknown future. Every 
compassionate Pakistani must be feeling 
hurt and turning within when extremism 
and Islam, terrorism and Pakistan are 
used side by side. Critics of Islam leave 
no opportunity to raise alarm by labelling 
the faith as an "evil religion" and claiming 
that Islam promotes violence. 

The global image of the Muslims has 
been tarnished by a false perception that 
they support terrorism. We are now at the 


cross-roads of our history as an Ummah. 
Never in the history of Islam, Muslims 
have faced such odds. It is easy to blame 
the West for the slanderous and 
misleading campaigns or distorting the 
image of Islam. But before blaming others 
we must share some of it as we are ourself 
equally responsible for the present 
predicament by providing support to the 
extremist group. Muslim militants are 
sowing seeds of poison and hatred 
between the Muslims and the rest of the 
humanity by committing agregious acts 
of violence in the name of Islam. 

To avoid a meltdown a change in the 
political culture needs to occur. Extremism 
has to be taken out and replaced with 
tolerance. The government can not do 
this alone. The clergy, the academics, the 
literati and the media have to bring this 
about from the grass-root up. 

The extremist elements with ignorance 
and negligence of government and with 
their explicit blessing have been promoting 
their narrow interpretation of the Holy 
Book and Sharia and spreading their 
radical beliefs in the country. Religious 
extremism has become a major threat to 
the continuation of civilized life in Pakistan, 
often putting strain even on foreign 
relations. Abuse of the right to the religious 
freedom is rampant as evisoned by the 
rise in religiously motivated crimes against 
minorities. The extremist element, joining 
hands with Tali bans, have let loose a reign 
of terror, specially in the western border 
areas of Pakistan. Fanning out with their 
brand of insurgency they are posing even 

July 2010 

a serious threat to the country's territorial 

Extremism, both religious and political 
has become a menace and every 
enlightened citizen of the country need to 
make a determined effort to fight this 
menace. They need to create an 
awareness about the true spirit and 
teachings of Islam. Islam does not allow 
one's belief to be forced on others and 
strictly forbids the murder and killing of 
another human being. Individuals can 
voice their views and contribute to 
collective wisdom but have no right to 
enforce their Sharia in any country. Every 
Islamic state has its own institutions and 
systems and nobody else has the right to 
impose their individual perceptions and 
interpret Islam with their limited vision. 
Islam, as a religion, is a code of life, a 
way of life to be understood and practiced 
by each individual member of society and 
establishes relationship between man and 

Man owes account to none other for 
his faith but to God. All mandatory ibadat 
lead to spiritual growth. These are not to 
be enforced coercively but through love. 
All prophets spread the message of Allah 
through preaching and never imposed 
religion by force. Holy Prophet, 
Muhammad (#), too spent all his life in 
Makkah and Madina towards preaching 
the spiritual values of Islam. 

Unfortunately Islam is the most 
misunderstood religion in the world and 

it is the need of time to present the true 
face of Islam which is not only a religion 
of rituals but a complete code of life. Truely 
speaking, Islam was a clarion call for 
action, change and compassion, for the 
creation of a just society. It preached 
equality which was quite shocking to the 
non-Muslims world at the time. The 
Crusaders were struck with amazement 
when they saw Muslim treating even 
menials with respect and compassion. 

Pakistan, our country, was the result 
of a genuine desire of the Muslims of the 
sub-continent to have their homeland 
where their religion, identity and culture 
remain protected. It was not made of 
bullets and guns. It has a glorious 
civilisation to be cherished by the people 
of the country. But if things are allowed to 
be carried out in a chaotic manner as they 
are now, it will not be very long before this 
homeland of 156 million Muslims is 
destroyed piece by piece by a bunch of 
misguided people. Its progress is already 
being threatened by extremist elements 
that may force the country to revert to 

Pakistan is an Islamic country and it 
is the government's responsibility to 
enforce the fundamental principles of 
declared objectives of the state, such as 
peace tranquility, religious harmony. Over 
and above this nobody should be allowed 
to make his own laws and authority and 
compel others to abide by their law and 
authority.... FAR ID 


July 2010 







The island of Trinidad enjoys British 
administration and is governed by British 
Law. Those who wish to enter any such 
Government service here which concerns 
itself with the administration of law are 
bound to qualify themselves in the 
knowledge of the British Law. For instance, 
even he who is desirous of holding the 
job of a Police Sergeant must study the 
sections of Criminal Law before he can 
be hired for the job. Thus every Police 
Sergeant in the colony can claim to 
possess the knowledge of Law. But, can 
you ever conceive, that because of that 
knowledge of Law which a Police Sergeant 
might possess, the Government can ever 
consider him eligible for the post of the 
Judge of the Supreme Court or that of the 
Attorney-General. If a Sergeant could 
equal a Barrister-at-Law or an LL.D., the 
Lincoln's Inn and the Faculties of Law at 
the great Universities would not exist. 

No one can be given the right of 
interpreting the man-made laws, which 
continue to change and to be amended 
from day-to-day, unless he is a fully 
qualified Barrister-at-Law, nay, unless he 
has mastered the higher History of Law, 
Social Psychology and Sociology, etc., 
and can stand up in the true sense a 
Doctor of Law. But, what a pity, that people 
can afford to believe that the work of 

Ijtihad, i.e., of interpreting the revealed 
Law of God and of deducing new laws 
from it, can be done by X,Y,Z. Such a 
monstrous suggestion simply staggers 
the imagination and it can possibly come 
only from those who have but a scant 
regard for God and His Law! 

The word Ijtihad has been derived 
from the root JAHAD, and literally means 
striving with full exertion. In Islamic 
legal terminology, it denotes the endeavour 
of choosing, in the light of the Qur'an and 
the Sunnah, between two or more differing 
legal interpretations and of deducing from 
the Qur'an and the Sunnah, any new 
rulings for meeting new legal situations. 
One who performs Ijtihad is called 

The learned men of Islam have laid 
down certain qualifications in the light of 
the Qur'an and the Sunnah, which a 
person must possess for acting and for 
being accepted as a Mujtahid. Allama 
Shah Waliullah of Delhi (on whom be 
God's Mercy!) has mentioned those 
qualifications in detail in his celebrated 
book : Hujjatullahil-Baligha. I may 
summarise them here in their minimum 
form especially for the benefit of those 
simple-minded brothers and sisters of 
mine who have been misled into the beleif 


July 2010 

that they can act as Mujtahids in their 
independent capacities. Let those whom 
the promptings of personal fancies lead 
them into posing as Mujtahids without 
right, and who condemn the great services 
rendered by the Imams simply because 
their hearts are gripped by un-lslamic 
things and they cannot bear the Islamic 
discipline systematised and codified by 
the latter; pause for a while in an attitude 
of just consideration and think. The 
following are the minimum reasonable 
qualifications, on the Islamic side, which 
a Mujtahid should possess :- 

(1) He should be an expert in Arabic 
language, literature and philology, so that 
he may be able to decide properly 
between the different connotations of the 
same word. 

(2) He should be a high-class scholar 
of the Qur'an, and his study of it should 
be so extensive and intensive that 
whenever he has to consider a given 
problem, he should be capable of keeping 
before his mind's eye the whole sweep of 
Quranic thought and all the relevant 

(3) He should have the Traditions of 
the Holy Prophet (#) in his memory, so 
that whenever he has to focus his mind 
on any problem, he may have all the 
connected Traditions, even those 
connected indirectly, before him clearly 
and vividly, to guide his thought process 
rightly and comprehensively. 

(4) He should further be an expert of 
the sciences of historical criticism 
(Riwayat) and logical criticism (Dirayat), 
so that he may able to view the worth and 
connotations of various Traditions under 
study at the time, in their proper 



(5) Above all, he should possess piety 
and true Islamic character and his heart 
should be imbued with what te Qur'an 
calls fear of God. 

Now, my friends ! if there is a person 
who claims to be a Mujtahid, but who does 
not possess even one-tenth of these 
qualifications, what else can you say about 
him but that he is groping in the dark and 
what else can be the result of his stumbling 
but misguidance. 

Allama Shah Waliullah of Delhi, the 
celebrated philosopher, theologian, legist, 
traditionist and commentator, before 
whose learning and peity bowed the Arab 
and non-Arab Ulema, found all the 
qualities of a Mujtahid in his person. Yet 
his sense of responsibility and fear of God 
withheld him from declaring his Imamat 
and Ijtihad and in all humility, he continued 
to regard himself as a follower (Muqallid) 
of Imam Abu Hanifa's shool of Law and 
continued to stress before the Muslims of 
India that they should stick to the Hanafi 
school, which had guided the Muslim 
governments for centuries and had been 
developed into a perfect system. 

Qalaadah and Taqleed are two related 
Arabic words. The word Qalaadah means 
a rope or a chain which is bound to 
the neck of someone to make him 
follow behind. Taqleed connotes the act 
of following. As a religious term, it has 
reference to the fact that the servants of 
God, who are linked together by 
obedience to God, receive the 
Commandments of God through such 
a chain. 

That is, when someone says that he 

July 2010 

is the Muqallid of Imam-e-Azam, it means 
that the chain through which he is receiving 
the Commands of God is that which 
passes through Imam-e-Azam to the Holy 
Prophet Muhammad (#). It never means 
that he is following the commands of Abu 
Hanifa. Nay, the Command is that given 
by God, the manner of grasp is that taught 
by the Holy Prophet (#), the interpretation 
is that given by the Companions, the 
arrangement is that fixed by the Hanafi 
school. The work of the Aalim and the 
Mufti is to follow this chain, to acquire his 
knowledge of the Islamic Law in conformity 
with it and to guide the people in their 
legal affairs. 

Suppose, today, someone enquires 
from me concerning some point of Islamic 
law. What shall I do? I have no right to 
give him some commandment on my own 
behalf or tell him something in the light of 
my own common sense. My function is 
merely to deliver the law which God has 
given and to guide the people on the basis 
of that revealed Guidance. This function 
is also based on certain authority and 
certain qualifications. For instance: 

(1) If I am questioned about any 
problem relating to the Quranic text, I can 
answer authoritatively, because I possess 
a continuous authority reaching up to the 
Holy Prophet Muhammad (#). 

(2) If I am questioned about any 
problem relating to the Quranic exegesis 
or the sciences relating to the Hadith 
literature, I can answer authoritatively, 
because I possess a continuous link of 
authority reaching up to the Holy Prophet 

(3) Similarly, if I am questioned about 
any problems relating to Islamic Law, in 

accordance with the Hanafi or Maliki or 
Shafei or Hanbali schools, I can answer 
authoritatively, because I possess 
continuous chains of authority passing 
through the four Imams and reaching up 
to the Holy Prophet (*). 

I am here before you. My mode of life 
and my character is before you. The 
evidence of history about the authoritative 
learning and piety of my teachers is before 
you. The commands which I am delivering 
to you today and the teaching which I am 
explaining to you is not, in reality, from 
me. It is the command and the teaching 
sent to humanity by God through the Holy 
Prophet Muhammad (#). In the field of 
Law, I know that every section of law 
which is found in Hedaya, or Fath-ul- 
Qadeer, or Durr-e-Mukhtar, or Shami, or 
any other similar book has been inserted 
there after utmost investigation and I am 
ready at all times to prove it. 

After all, what these books of Islamic 
law (Fiqh) are? They are the hand-books 
detailing the Law which the Holy Prophet 
(#) brought to humanity. They are the 
compendiums where each and every one 
of us can find a ready-made and clear- 
cut reply to his legal problem. 

Even though it may prolong the 
discussion let me reiterate the argument 
I have been expounding so far. Let me 
state that:- 

(1 ) The Holy Qur'an is the basic book, 
the ground work of Islamic Law. The 
explanation and exposition of its teachings, 
in the light of the Holy Prophet's (*) 
Traditions, is called llm-ul-Tafsir (or, the 
Science of Commentary). There exist 
numerous books on that subject, among 
which the better known classics are : Tafsir 

July 2010 

Tabari, Tafsir Baidawi, Tafsir Kashshaf 
and Tafsir Ma'alim-ut-Tanzeel. 

(2) The explanation and detailed 
exposition of the Quranic teachings by 
the Holy Prophet (#), in his Sayings and 
Actions, forms the second basic source 
of Islamic knowledge. Now that science 
which deals with the collection of those 
Sayings and Actions of the Holy Prophet 
(#) is called the Science of Hadith. There 
are numerous books on that subject, the 
most well-known classical works being : 
The Sahih-al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, 
Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Muatta of Imam Malik, 
Musnad of Imam Azam, Musnad of Imam 
Ahmad, etc., etc. There are several 
compendiums where the Traditions have 
been arranged alphabetically, e.g. Kanz- 
ul-Ummal and Bihar-ul-Anwar. There are 
some compilations arranged in a third 
way, e.g., Ma'ani-ul-Athar. 

(3) The science which deals with the 
biographies of the reporters of Traditions 
for the assessment of their worth, is known 
as the Science of Asma-ur-Rijal, and there 
are many classical books relating to it. 

(4) The science which deals with the 
gradation of Traditions is known as the 
science of Usool-e-Hadith. 

(5) The science which deals with the 
Principles of Qur'an and the Hadith is 
known as the Usool-e-Fiqh, and there are 
several classical works and numerous 
explanatory books on that subject. 

(6) When the laws are framed and 
deduced from the Qur'an and the Hadith 
according to the rules of Usool-e-Fiqh, 
and they are arranged and systematised 
in the form of a Law-code, the science is 
called llm-ul-Fiqh. There are a number of 


classics and numerous hand-books on 
that subject. 

(6) When the laws are framed and 
deduced from the Qur'an and the Hadith 
according to the rules of Usool-e-Fiqh, 
and they are arranged and systematised 
in the form of a Law-code, the science is 
called llm-ul-Fiqh. There are a number of 
classics and numerous hand-books on 
that subject. 

In mentioning this classification of 
Islamic sciences, my purpose is to give 
just an idea to my simple-minded brothers 
and sisters who are being thrown into 
confusion concerning the Islamic legal 
schools by certain unconscientious people, 
who wish to establish their own hegemony 
and leadership and hence they propagate 
all sorts of confusion. Some of them have 
their ulterior sectarian ends to gain. Most 
of them are ignorant of Islamic sciences 
and the safest way they can adopt for 
their leadership is that of the denial of the 
validity or the necessity of those sciences. 
Many of them are so unconscientious that 
they impute absolutely false motives to 
the Imams, to call them as gods besides 
Allah, and to criminally impute Shirk 
(polytheism) to the overwhelming majority 
of the Islamic world which accepts the 
guidance of the Imams in the matter of 
understanding the Islamic Law. Even a 
blind man can see how far they are right. 
Even the least intelligent person can grasp 
the element of blasphemy in their stand. 
Even the ordinary Muslim can understand 

(1) When the Commentator of the 
Qur'an ponders over the verses of that 
Sacred Book, in accordance with the 
principles of language and grammar and 
in the light of the Traditions of the Holy 

July 2010 

Prophet (#), he is doing nothing else than 
obeying the following command of the 
Qur'an itself: 

"Do they not then earnestly seek to 
understand the Qur'an". (XLVII : 24). 

(2) The scholar of Hadis (Muhaddis), 
when he applied himself to the 
understanding of the Holy Prophet's (#) 
Sayings and Actions, does so only in 
obedience to the Quranic teachings: 

"He who obeys the Apostle, obeys 
God." (IV : 80). 

(3) The scholar of Asma-ur-Rijal, when 
he carried out the work of examining the 
veracity of the reporters of the Traditions, 
does so in conformity with the Quranic 
principle of not accepting any report 
without exhaustive investigation. 

"O ye who believe ! if an evil-liver 
bring you tidings verify it. . . . (XLIX : 6) 

(4) The scholar who applies the 
science of Usool-e-Hadith for grading the 
Traditions which are extant and for fixing 
up the categories of Fard, Sunnat, 
Mustahab, Permissible, non-Permissible, 
partially-Permissible, etc., in the domain 
of practical injunctions, is only elaborating 
on the Quranic command: 

"And whatsoever the Apostle giveth 
you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, 
abstain (from it)". (LIX : 7). 

(5) The scholar of Usool-e-Fiqh fixes 
up the Principles of Islamic Law to 
elaborate the practical teachings of Islam 
for the faithful, in obedience to the 
following Quranic injunction: 

"If a party from every group remained 


behind, (they could devote themselves to 
the task of) gaining sound knowledge in 
religion". (IX: 122). 

(6) The Imams of Fiqh, when they 
systematise the legal injuctions of Islam, 
in the light of the Usool-e-Fiqh, do so 
merely to carry out the Quranic injunction, 
which forms the remaining part of the 
verse just quoted, namely: 

"and they may warn their folk when 
they return to them, so that they may 
beware". (IX: 122). 

Those Imams only further the mission 
of the Holy Prophet (h) referred to in the 
following verse: 

"O Messenger! Make known that 
which hath been revealed unto thee from 
thy Lord". (V : 67)". 

When they teach Islamic guidance to 
the people, they do so in obedience to 
the Holy Prophet's (#) command: 

Lo! Verily, let him who is present 
deliver the Message to him who is 

When the Imams systematise the 
Islamic laws to save men from falling into 
errors and to make the path of their 
understanding smooth, they only act in 
accordance with the following Quranic 

"Call unto the way of thy Lord with 
wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason 
with them in the better way. Lo! thy Lord 
is Best Aware of him who strayeth from 
his way, and He is Best Aware of those 
who go aright". (XVI : 125). 

) July 2010 



That noble son of Iran — Hujjat-ul-lslam 
Imam Abu Hamid Muhammad Al-Ghazzali 
— known to the western world as 
Algazal — is the greatest theologian of 
Islam and its most original thinker. An 
author of no less than 69 works of 
importance on theology, mysticism, 
orthodoxy and dogmatism in Islam, he 
helped give root to Islamic culture in the 
territories that fell under Muslim power. 

His contribution to Islamic thought 
helped, on the one hand, to defend Islam 
from the inroads of irrelevant free thinking 
indulged in by the philosophers of 
Averroes' school and, on the other, to 
rescue it from intellectual stagnation to 
which it had been consigned by the fanatic 
dogmatism of the conservative priesthood 
of the age. And he succeeded in his duel 
mission only too well. 

Al-Ghazzali was born at Tabran, a 
suburb of Tus, in the year 1 058. His father 
was a spinner by profession (Arabic : 
Ghazzal) and from that association he 
assumed the surname Al-Ghazzali. It may 
be remembered that in the heyday of 
Islam the dignity of labour was so 
respected that scholars, divines and 
leading Imams took pride in adopting one 
profession or another for a living. 

For instance, the great Imam Abu 
Hanifa was a cloth-merchant and Allama 
Qaffal Mervazi was a locksmith. After the 
day's labour these philanthropic 
enthusiasts presided over their study 
circles and imparted knowledge to all and 


sundry without remuneration. 

AL - GHAZZALI had his earliest 
education in his native town at the feet of 
a noted teacher, Ahmad bin Mohammad 
Razkani. But the urge for knowledge soon 
took him to Jurpan, where he joined the 
study circle of the famous Imam Abu Nasr 
Ismaili. Here he devoted himself to his 
studies, taking extensive notes from the 
lectures of the Imam for future reference. 

Sometime later, on his way back to 
his native town of Tus, he was waylaid by 
robbers, who despoiled him of everything 
he had, including the precious notes. He 
beseeched the chief of the robbers to 
return that collection of papers, which he 
priced above everthing in the world. The 
robber chief laughed him to scorn and 
returned the papers with the remark that 
if a bundle of perishable papers was the 
sole repository of his knowledge then, in 
truth, he had learnt nothing. 

Stung to the quick by the remarks Al- 
Ghazzali devoted full three years to 
assimilating every details of his studies 
and to further broadening his cultural 
horizons. Later, he went to Nishapur, then 
an important seat of learning and a famous 
cultural centre. Here luck placed him at 
the feet of the greatest scholar of the day, 
Imam Zia-ud-Din Abdul Malik Juwaini, 
known through-out the Islamic world as 
Imam-ul-Haramain (Leader of the Two 
Sanctuaries) for the recognition he 
commanded at Makkah and Madina as a 
great religious leader and an authority on 

July 2010 

Muslim theology and jurisprudence. 

This astute master did not take long 
to notice the worth and talents of the 
student. He assigned him a place of 
honour as his "Muayyid" or Assistant 
Lecturer. Al-Ghazzali remained with the 
saintly Imam till the latter's death in 1089. 
The death of Imam-ul-Haramain left him 
without a rival in learning and his fame 
spread far and wide. He soon attracted 
notice of the great Saljukian Vizier Nizam- 
ul-Mulk, who took him in his service and 
placed him at the head of the famous 
Nizamia Academy of Baghdad. Here he 
taught for six years and won great renown. 

The period in which Al-Ghazzali 
flourished was a great epoch in Islamic 
history. The Saljukian Empire was then 
at its zenith, its boundaries stretching from 
Kashghar and the confines of China in 
the East to Hellespont and the 
Mediterranean in the West. Under the 
enlightened rule of Malik Shah and his 
illustrious Vizier. Nizam-ul-Mulk, it attained 
the heights of prosperity and grandeur 
hardly reached during the best periods of 
Arab history. 

Commerce and industry, arts and 
sciences, language and literature and, in 
fact, everything which made for civilisation 
and culture received impetus from the 
fostering care and patronage of the 
Government. The centre of all these 
cultural activities was Nizam-ul-Mulk, the 
Vizier, himself and author and a great 
patron of theologians, scholars and men 
of learning. He spread a network of 
schools, colleges and other institutions of 
learning. According to the author of 
"Rauzatain Akhbar-ud-Daulatain" there 

was not a city in the Empire where an 
institute was not set up. 

But to the restless mind of Al-Ghazzali 
this grand empire with a grandiose system 
of education was but a plethora of the 
body politic if it was not firmly founded on 
Islamic ideology and ethics. Al - Ghazzali, 
therefore, felt bound to give full attention 
to the complete re-orientation of education. 

It was not an easy task that he had 
set himself. The world of Islamic thought 
was a cockpit of rival sects. To Al-Ghazzali 
the panacea of these ills of conflicting 
notions and subjective loose thinking lay 
in a return to orthodoxy and the application 
of reason to dogmas on a dialectical basis. 
Some spade work in this direction had 
been done by Abdul Hasan AN Al-Ash'ari, 
who, in the beginning of the 10th century, 
had espoused the cause of orthodoxy and 
undertaken to transform it dialectically 
with a view to providing it with a scientific 

This work was carried forward and 
perfected by Al-Ghazzali, who made a 
return to the Qur'an and the Sunnah as 
the foundations of his theology and ethical 
system. It was on these that he proposed 
to build the whole superstructure of 
education within the Saljukian dominions. 

He was diverted from the task by the 
death of Nizam-ul-Mulk at the hands of a 
Batinite fanatic. His revulsion against Batini 
methods made him write a number of 
polemics against their Ismaili doctrine and 
thus enter the confines of controversial 
thought. Intellectual integrity, however, 
asserted itself. Having thus discovererd 
himself a prey to feeling and unconsoled 


July 2010 

in his mental attitude by his further studies, 
he drifted into doubt and scepticism. 

Dissatisfied with traditional authority, 
he turned to all doctrinal systems, but 
found satisfaction in none. In mental 
despair he studies in turn rationalism, 
esotericism, Batini philosophy, dialectical 
theology and even atheism, Zindiqism 
and all manners of belief and disbelief, 
but found solace in none. Adrift in the seas 
of thought, Al-Ghazzali, who had earned 
notoriety for pride and impatience against 
men of lower intellectual calibre along with 
this reputation for learning, wandered 
humble and intolerant of his own 

THEN, inexplicably, he discovered 
satisfaction in mysticism. It had been a 
wearying strife lasting over 12 years. He 
had relinquished his post at Baghdad and 
had adopted the free life of a homeless 
wanderer. He visited all important centres 
of learning, both secular and divine, 
including those at Damascus, Jerusalem, 
Hebron and Alexandria. At Damascus he 
delivered some lectures to scholars in the 
great cathedral mosque. The cloister, 
which he occupied in this mosque during 
his sojourn in Damascus, is still called 
"Zavia of Imam Ghazzali." 

After a pligrimage to Makkah and a 
visit to the holy shrine at Madina he 
thought of putting an end to his wanderings 
by returning to peaceful life at home. On 
his way back he visited the tomb of 
Abraham al-Khalil and made a triple vow 
never to pay a visit to a royal court; never 
to accept any money from kings by way 
of gift or remuneration; and lastly never 
to indulge in a Munazira or religious 


disputation with anyone; and he kept these 
vows, except for one occasion on which 
he was forced by royal command, to the 
very last. 

In the year 499 A. H. (1106 A.D.) he 
returned to Nishapur and was placed at 
the head of the Maimunieh-Nizamia 
College of that city by the Grand Vizier 
Fakhr-ul-Mulk, the son of his old patron, 
Nizam-ul-Mulk. This work he relinquished 
the very next year following the 
assasination of Fakhr-ul-Mulk by another 
Batini fanatic. 

He returned to his home town in 1 1 07, 
and founded there a school and a 
monastery (Khanqah). But his desire to 
live with his learning was not to bear ful- 
filment. A party of jealous religious divines 
presented a complaint against him to 
Sultan Sanjar bin Malik Shah to the effect 
that Al-Ghazzali had in his writings used 
disrespectful language against Imam Abu 
Hanifa. Al-Ghazzali was accordingly 
summoned to the Royal Court to answer 
the charges. 

He was loath to attend the court 
because of the vows he had taken at the 
tomb of Abraham, but he had to yield to 
the royal decree. He proceeded to the 
court and defended himself so well that 
he was not only exonerated but it was 
ordered that the religious divines of the 
realm should visit him at least once a year 
to benefit by his erudition. 

Al-Ghazzali passed away in peace at 
his native place in 1111 A.D. He had 
continued writing and his mind was active 
to the very last. 

2 July 2010 

THE ten rules of life's conduct laid 
down by Al-Ghazzali throw a light on his 
way of thinking. These rules briefly 
summarised are: 

1. Insistence on the appraisal of 
conduct from intentions — "Good in so far 
as it concludes what it sets out to do, and 
leaves the rest to God..." 

2. Unity of purpose — "Let him who 
would serve the Lord aviod things of this 
world and rest his hopes and aspirations 
in God." 

3. Conforming to truth at all costs. 

4. Return to the Qur'an and the 
Sunnah and urging orthodoxy on Muslims. 

5. Procrastination must be avoided 
and replaced by steadfast zeal and 

6. Ajz or duty to acknowledge 
inability to do anything without the help of 

7. Salvation by Faith — "One should 
not feel secure" he says, "in the superiority 
of well-doing but should rest one's hope 
in God." It is the rule that lays down that 
the mind must have true fear and hope". 

8. Adoption of a life of devotion and 

9. Muraqabah or continual 
observation and watchfulness — "One who 
persists in watching and observing his 
own heart for God will find God and his 


10. Consecration to a knowledge 
where one would see God. Living should 
be inward diligence and outward 
preservance in doing good work. 

It was Al-Ghazzali who brilliantly co- 
ordinated and reconciled orthodoxy with 
mysticism in Islam and, thus set at rest 
an endless controversy. He assigns a 
place of honour to Sufis in Islam as people 
of insight and vision, but at the same time 
contends that the revelations of saints 
supplement (and not supplant) the 
revelations of prophets which are the 
source and basis of all real knowledge. 

Thus he subordinated sainthood to 
prophet-hood and upheld the supreme 
authority of the Prophet Muhammad (#) 
whose law he wrote, must be obeyed in 
letter and spirit. 

Another service rendered to Islamic 
thought was the check Al-Ghazzali was 
able to impose on irrelevant free thinking 
on the part of Muslim philosophers who 
under inspiration from Greek philosophy 
dabbled in problems theological and 
applied the yardstick of Aristotelian 
analysis to matters spiritual. 

He argued order out of the chaos and 
helped save the Muslim mind from the 
enervating influence of verbiage sorted 
into so-called rationality. To that end he 
wrote such books as "Taha-fut-ul-Filasfa" 
(Destructio Philosophorum) and "Maqasid- 
ul-Filasfa" (Aims of Philosophers), tearing 
the arguments of the philosophers into a 
thousand shreds. 

Cudgels were taken up on behalf of 
philosophers by no less a personality than 

3 July 2010 

Ibn Rushd (Averroes) who wrote a 
rejoinder under the title "Tahafat-ul- 
Tahafut" (Destructio Destructionis), but he 
did not succeed so well. Thereafter 
Orthodoxy emerged triumphant and 
philosophers were never able to retrieve 
their position. 

Among the Muslim philosophers 
whose ideas were incorporated in the 
body of Christian thought Al-Ghazzali 
holds a very high position. His 
philosophical works were translated by 
Avendeath in collaboration with 
Archdeacon Gunlissalvi and had wide 
circulation in Europe. His theology 
profoundly influenced the works of the 
great Christian theologian. St. Thomas 

His treatise on the place of reason as 
applied to revelation and other theological 
problems has, in the main, been followed 
by St. Thomas in his "Summa Theologica." 
Some of the most important questions on 
which the saint seems to agree with the 
Imam are: 

1 . The value of reason in explaning 
the truth about things divine. 

2. The idea of contingency and 
necessity as demonstrating the existence 
of God. 

3. The unity of God implied in His 

4. Resurrection of the dead. 

5. Belief in miracles as a testimony 
to the truth of peoples' utterances. 

6. Mushahidah or the possibility of 

a beautific vision. 

Another Christian thinker of great 
eminence who came under the influence 
of Al-Ghazzali's writings was Raymond 
Martin. He made good use of the 
arguments advanced by Al-Ghazzali 
against the philosophers and scholastics 
in Islam in his "Destruction Philosophorum" 
and incorporated the lot of them in his 
work entitled "Pugio Fidei." 

Henceforth Al-Ghazzali's views on 
resurrection of the dead, creatio ex-nihilo 
and other questions of theological 
importance gained wide currency among 
Christians and were freely used by them 
in many a scholastic treatise. 

AL-GHAZZALI was a prolific writer and 
as already stated his genius found 
expression in 69 works of great merit. Out 
of these the following are some of the 
more important: 

1 . "Al-Munqiz minad-Dalal" (Deliverer 
from Darkness), described the changes 
in his philosophy. It was edited by 
Schmolders and published with his "Essai 
sur les ecoles philosophiques chez les 
Arabes" (Paris 1842). It was translated 
into French by Meynard in 1 877. An edition 
of it was also issued in Germany with a 
German translation by H. Malter (Frankfort, 
1 896). An English translation of this work 
was issued by Claude Field under the title 
"The Confessions of Al-Ghazzali" (London, 

2. "Mizan-ul-Amal": A compendium 
on Ethics. It had a profound influence on 
mediaeval Judaism. It was translated into 
Hebrew and clothed into Jewish garb by 
substituting biblical and Tulmudic 
quotations for Quranic and Hadis citations. 

4 July 2010 

(Edited by J. Goldenthal and published in 
Paris in 1839). 

3. "Kimiya-i-Sa'adat" was a treatise 
on Ethics. Several editions of this work 
were published in Europe. 

4. "Maqasid-ul-Filasfa" (Aims of 
Philosophers) — A Latin translation of it 
was made by Gundissalvi and published 
at Venice in 1506. It profoundly influenced 
Christian religious thought and Jewish 
thinking. The Jewish Philosopher, Musa 
bin Maimum (Mommonides) drew his peri- 
patetic theories mainly from this work of 

5. The "Ihya Ulum al-Din" (Revival of 
the Sciences of Religion) is Ghazzali's 
masterpiece. According to Ibn-ul-Asir, It 
was written during his wandering and was 
read by thousands of people during Al- 
Ghazzali's sojourn at Damascus. The 
verdict of Imam Nawawi, the commentator 
of Sahih Muslim, is that this book is second 

only to the Qur'an and approaches very 
nearly to it; while Shaikh Abu Ahmed 
Zarkani claimed that if records of all 
sciences were to disappear from the Earth, 
he would still revive and reconstruct them 
by means of the "Ihya." It was written in 
40 books by the author and was published 
in Cairo in four volumes in 1889. 

Standing high in philosophical works 
of merit are two other works,the "Ad-Durra- 
ul-Fakhirah": a treatise on Eschatology, 
and "Tahafat-ul-Filasfa" (Destructio 

The constructive work done by Al- 
Ghazzali in some of these works ("Ihya- 
ul-Ulum" in particular) has earned for him 
the title of Mujaddid or reformer of his 
century and it is believed in certain 
quarters that he amply fulfils the provisions 
of a saying of the Prophet to the effect 
that God sends a Mujaddid at the 
beginning of each century to revive religion 
and rescue it from stagnation. 

U nique Repute 

Al-Hasan-Al-Basri was stated to have known personally 70 of the 
Prophet's companions who took part in the battle of Badr. When 
he died the whole of Basra turned out in a body to follow his funeral 
on Friday, and there was none to attend or conduct the Friday prayer 
in the mosques of Basra that day — "an unprecedented happening 
in the history of Islam". 

July 2010 

The Beauty of Spirituality 

Dr. Waffie Muhammad 

When Adam and Eve, (may Allah be 
pleased with them), committed their 
mistake in Paradise, Allah (swt) closed off 
the passage back to the Garden from that 
day. This meant that no evil can go beyond 
the lower levels of the first sky. Then where 
are the deeds of man recorded? 

Suppose all of our deeds are recorded in 
the skies and a couple of those deeds are 
evil in nature, will they also go up? No evil 
cannot go up, therefore the evil deeds of 
man are not recorded in the skies and it 
is kept separate from the good deeds. 

There are two recording angels appointed 
to record all the deeds of man and it is 
possible to assume that one of them 
records the good deeds and the other 
records the evil deeds. The deeds of man 
are therefore recorded in separate places. 
Allah (swt) says in Surah Mutaffifin; 

Surely the record of the wicked is 

(preserved) in Sijjin. 

And what will explain to thee what 

Sijjin is? 

(There is) a Register (fully) inscribed. 

(Chapter 83, verse 7-9) 

Evil goes down in a dungeon. The good 
is recorded in the heights, which is 
translated as heaven or the skies. If evil 
is recorded in a dungeon it is therefore 
possible to take out or remove them, and 
the best way of achieving this is by the 
performance good deeds as Allah (swt) 
says in Surah Hud; 

For those things, that are good remove 

those that are evil: 

(Chapter 11, verse 114) 

If you want to experience spirituality, you 

first have to purify yourself. If you are pure 
spiritually you can ascend and go up, pass 
the skies. Whenever you meditate you 
will begin to feel yourself becoming light 
and you will be able to ascend and you 
will pass the skies and the lot tree and 
you will continue ascending. Prophet 
Muhammad (#) was pure and he is our 
teacher and exemplar. He came with a 
mission to invite us to Allah (swt). Allah 
(swt) says of His beloved in Surah Ahzab; 

O Prophet! Truly We have sent thee as a 

Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, 

and Warner,- 

And as one who invites to Allah's (grace) 

by His leave, and as a lamp 

spreading light 
(Chapter 33, verse 45 - 46) 

Spirituality is an experience which scientific 
reason and logic cannot explain. In the 
beginning you will get a good feeling, then 
there will be signs, then you will have true 
dreams and after you will be able to 
ascend. When you ascend you will lose 
consciousness of your body. There is a 
verse in Surah Fatir which can help you 
ascend when you reach this stage: 

To Him mount up (all) Words of Purity: 
(Chapter 35, verse 10) 

Spirituality is indeed a beautiful thing, 
and if you can achieve the green light, 
insha Allah you will have access to Prophet 
Muhammad (#). The Mashaaiks can have 
actual communication with him. How can 
you explain this logically? This is why you 
must at all times be cautious and humble. 
Spirituality is completely different and it 
allows you to cultivate your personality 
and gain closeness to Allah (swt). 

July 2010 

Khawaja U wais-e-Qarani (RDA) 


How can I write about a man who was 
praised by the Prophet (#) who said: the 
ifragrance of the Divine comes from the 
side of Yemen, where Uwais lived; and 
on the Day of Resurrection, Divine will 
create seventy thousand angels looking 
like Uwais to bring Uwais to the celestial 
sphere. They will bring him to Paradise 
and no one would know which one is the 
(real) Uwais, as Uwais prayed for God in 
his solitude, far away and hidden from the 
eyes of people, so shall he go to Paradise, 
and no one will know him; only the ones 
loved by Allah. God said, "My friends are 
under My Dome where no stranger can 
see them." 

Uwais-ibn-Amir Moradi-al-Qarani (also 
spelled Uways and Uwais) was born in 
Yemen. The date of birth is not known. 
He took the name of Qaran for one of two 
reasons: after Qaran, a place or a 
mountain near Yemen, where he was 
born, or after Qaran, his group from the 
Bani Amir Tribe. 

Uwais was a devotee and a follower 

of the Prophet Muhammad (#) and was 

martyred at the battle of Saffein, a battle 

between Amir-al-Momenin AN (RDA) and 

Moavieh ibn Aby Sofiyan (RDA). 

Uwais was a slim man of medium 
height who had a white spot on the palm 
of his hand, He ate very little, eating only 
to break his fasts and giving the remainder 
to the needy. He wore an old robe, which 
he knitted himself, to keep warm. He was 
a shepherd, and supported his elderly 
mother, whom he cared for. (ref : Tazkerat- 


al-awlia by Sheikh Farid-uddin Attar; 
Safinat-ul-Awlia; Majales-al-Momenin) 

Uwaiys was a pious man and was 
also been referred to as one of the Zuhad- 
somanieh, the eight pious ones. He was 
so well respected that the Prophet 
Muhammad (#) asked that, after his 
passing, his robe be given to Uwais. 

Sheikh Farid Uddin Attar writes in his 

Data Ganj Bakhsh AN ibn Usman al- 
Hujwiri, a Persian Sufi and author of the 
famous book, Kashf-ul-Mahjub described 

Uwaiys is like the sun to Ummat, and 
the candle of religion. Uwaiys Qarani is 
one of the great teacher who lived during 
the time of Prophet (#), but did not 
physically see the Prophet (#) for two 
reasons, First, he was in the state of Divine 
ecstasy and rapture, and second, he was 
caring for his aged mother. The Prophet 
(#) said to his devotees, "There is a man 
in Qaran whose name is Uwais. At the 
day of Resurrection he shall intercede for 
my people to as many as the number of 
sheep of the Rabia and Muzzer tribes". 
(These two tribes had the largest herd of 
sheep during that time). Then the Prophet 
(#) turned to Omar and AN and said," You 
will see him and recognize him; he is a 
firm, thin man, of medium height and there 
is a white scar the size of a coin on the 
palm of his hand but it is not leprosy. 
When you see him, give him my greetings 

7 July 2010 

and ask him to pray for my Ummah, my 

Sheikh Najm-ed-din-Kubra known as 
Tamat-ul-Kura, one of the great Uwaiysi 
masters write: 

If the generosity of the Generous is 
close, the apparent distance does not 
matter; and if the tenderness of the Tender 
is far, what is the benefit of apparent 
closeness? Uwaiys Qarani brought his 
life to the fire of his heart, and the Master 
of existence (referring to the Prophet) felt 
this fragrance and said: I feel the fragrance 
of God from the side of Yemen. People 
are blind in the covers of darkness, and 
in the limited world of you and I light cannot 
be seen, unless, to the eyes of those for 
whom by the will of the Lovers of God the 
curtain of unawareness will be torn off 
and hence, by this blessing whatever was 
invisible shall be seen. 

Shaykh Muhammad Sa'id al-Jamal 
ar-Rifa'i, described in his book, The 
Children Around the Table of Allah that: 

In a Hadith Qudsi recorded by the 
Companion Abu Hurayra, (RDA), the 
Prophet Muhammad (#) said speaking 
from his Lord: 

"Allah, Exalted and Mighty is He, loves 
of His creation the God-fearing, the pure 
in the heart, those who are hidden, and 
those who are innocent, whose face is 
dusty, whose hair is unkempt, whose 
stomach is empty, and who, if he asks 
permission to enter to the rulers, is not 
granted it, and if he were to ask for a 
gentle lady in marriage, he would be 
refused, and when he leaves the world it 

does not miss him, and if he goes out, his 
going out is not noticed, and if he falls 
sick, he is not attended to, and if he dies, 
he is not accompanied to his grave." 

Companions asked the Holy Prophet 
(#) "O Messenger of Allah, how can we 
find someone like that?" He said," Uwais- 
al-Qarani is such a one." They asked him, 
"and who is Uwais-al-Qarani?" He 
answered, "He is dark skinned, wide 
shoulder, and of average height. His 
complexion is close to the colour of earth. 
His beard touches his chest. His eyes are 
always looking downwards to the place 
of prostration, and his right hand is on his 
left hand. He weeps about himself with 
such a flow of tears that his lips are 
swollen. He wears a woolen garment and 
is known to the people of the heavens. If 
he makes a promise in the Name of Allah, 
he keeps it. Under his left shoulder there 
is a white spot. When the Day of 
Resurrection comes and it is annouced 
to the slaves, "Enter the Garden," it will 
be said to Uwais, Stop and intercede. 
'Allah Mighty and Exalted is He, will then 
forgive them to the same number as are 
the people of Rabi'a and Mudhar. (These 
are the two tribes that Uwais (RDA) 
belongs to). So, O Umar and O AN, if you 
can find him, ask him to intercede for you. 
Then Allah will forgive you." 

Ten years passed by which they 
inquired about him, but without being able 
to find him. In the year 21 H/644CE, the 
same year that Umar ibn al-Khattab 
(RDA), the second Righteous Caliph after 
the Prophet's death, Umar (RDA) went to 
the mountains of Abu Qubays (Mountain 
overlooking the Makkah) and called in his 
loudest voice, "O people of the Yemen, is 


July 2010 

there any one up there called Uwais?" 

An old shaykh with a long beard stood 
up and replied. "We do not know who this 
Uwais is about whom you ask, but my 
brother's son is called Uwais. But he is 
too unimportant to be asked about, and 
too poor and submissive that he should 
not be raised up to your level. He is our 
camel herder, and he has no standing 
amongst our people." But Umar again 
asked him if he knew Uwais. The man 
answered, "Why do you ask about him, 
O Commander of the Faithful, for by Allah 
there is not one of us who is more foolish 
and more needy than he." 

Umar, (RDA), then wept and said to 
him, "you are so, but not he. For I heard 
the Messenger of Allah, say, "Those who 
enter the Garden through Uwais, asking 
for forgiveness for them, are the people 
of the tribe of Rabi'a and Mudhar." Umar, 
(RDA), asked him where he could find 
him, and was told, "On the Mount of 

Umar and AN (RDA) then went quickly 
to Arafat where they found Uwais praying 
under a tree with camels grazing around 
him. They approached him and greeted 
him, saying, "As-Salaamu Alaikum wa 
Rahmat-ul-Allah wa Barakatuh Uwais cut 
his prayer short, and when he had finished 
it, returned their greeting. They asked him, 
"Who are you?" He replied, "A herdsman 
of camels and a hired workman for a tribe." 
They said, "we do not ask you about your 
tending of animals, nor about your being 
a hired worker, but what is your name?" 
He answered, "Abdullah. "They said, "All 
the people of the heavens and the earth 
are the slaves of Allah, but what is the 
name in which your mother named you?" 


He said, "O you two, what do you want 
from me?" They said, "The Messenger of 
Allah once spoke to us about Uwais al- 
Qarani. He gave us a description of the 
bluish-black colour of his eyes, and he 
too told us that he has a white mark under 
his left shoulder. So please show us if you 
have this mark, for then it is you for whom 
we are searching." 

Uwais then bared his left shoulder, 
and they saw a white mark. They then 
embraced him and kissed him and said, 
"We declare that you are Uwais al-Qarani, 
so ask for forgiveness for us and may 
Allah forgive you." 

He answered, "I cannot even forgive 
myself, nor one of Adam's children. But 
there are on land and in the seas believing 
men and women, Muslim men and 
women, whose invocations to Allah are 
answered." They replied, "Surely this is 
so." Then he said, "O you two, you know 
about me and I know about my state, but 
who are you?" 

AN (RDA) answered, "This is the 
commander of the Faithful (al-amir al- 
muminin), Umar ibn al-Khattab, and I am 
AN ibn Abu Talib." 

Uwais stood up straight and said, "As- 
salaamu alaikum ya amir al-muminin. And 
you, O AN, may Allah repay you with 
goodness for this community (Ummah)." 
They said, "May Allah repay you for 
yourself and your goodness." 

Then Umar, (RDA) said to Uwais." 
Your place is here until I return to Madina 
and may Allah have mercy upon you. 
Then I will bring you help from my 

9 July 2010 

provision and some of my clothes. This 
has been the meeting place between you 
and me." 

But Uwais (RDA) answered him, "O 
Commander of the Faithful, there will be 
no other meeting place, in the knowledge 
of Allah, between you and me but this 
one. So tell me what should I do with your 
provision and what should I do with your 
clothes? Do you not see that I am wearing 
a woolen gown and a woolen wrapper, so 
when do you see me tearing them? Or 
do you see that my sandals are worn out 
and torn? When do you see me out 
wearing them? Between your hand and 
mine there is a higher barrier which cannot 
be crossed by a weighty person. So leave 
these things and Allah will have mercy 
upon you." 

When Umar (RDA) heard these 
words, he struck the ground with his stick 
and shouted out at the top of his voice, 
"O would that Umar had not been born 
by his mother, and that she had been 

Then Umar (RDA) returned to 
Madinah, and Uwais (RDA) herded his 
camels back to his tribe. 

Not long after this, Uwais left his work 
as a herdsman and went to Kufah where 
he continued in his bonds-manship untill 
Allah, glory be to Him took him back to 

When Umar ibn al-Khattab (RDA) 
heard that Uwais wanted to go back to 
Kufah, he said to him, "Where do you 
want to go to?" Uwais said, "To Kufah." 
Umar (RDA) then said, "Shall I write a 
letter for you to its Governor? Uwais 


replied, "I would rather be with the people 
who are near to my heart." 

Haram ibn Hayyan (a taba-ee) said," 
A number of people had spoken to me 
about Uwais al-Qarani, so hearing that 
he was then living in Kufah, I went there 
to find him, for I had no other desire except 
to see him. I found him sitting by the shore 
of the Tigris, and I recognized him by the 
description that I had been given of him. 
A thin man looked at me, and I stretched 
out my hand to greet him, but he did not 
returned my greeting. I felt discouraged 
but I asked him, "Are you Uwais." His 
clothes were poor, and he seemed to be 
in a state of unwrapped isolation, for it 
was this state of his which led the ignorant 
people to say about him that he was mad 
and deranged. But I knew that his ascetic 
and surrendered state was that of the true 
faqir, who does not listen to those who 
say that such a state is contrary to the 
Sunnah. Such people are ignorant of the 
true Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, 
which is to leave the material world and 
the business of creation, and to draw near 
to one's Lord; to leave all bonds which 
are other than to Allah, Exalted and Mighty 
is He." 

Haram ibn Hayyan continued his 
accout of this meeting by saying," Then 
I addressed him saying, "May Allah have 
mercy upon you, O Uwais, and forgive 
you. How are you? "Then my voice halted. 
For I could not speak my heart which was 
moved with deep gentleness towards him 
when I saw his state and that he had 
started weeping. I found myself also 
weeping. "Then Uwais said to me, 'May 
Allah greet you. How are you my brother, 
ibn Hayyan, and who showed you the way 

!0 July 2010 

to me? "I answered him,' It was Allah." 
"He said, There is no God but Allah, praise 
be to our Lord. If it is the Wish of Allah, a 
thing is done. So this is Allah's Wish." I 
said, 'How did you know my name and 
my father's name? For my name was 
Haram ibn Hayyan.' Uwais said, The 
Knower told me, for my soul knows your 
soul when my self talks to your self.' For 
the believers know each other in their love 
for Allah, even if they never met; and when 
they come to our resting place, they know 
each other even if they come from 
somewhere far distant. "I said, Tell me 
about the Messenger of Allah, "Uwais 
said, 'I have never seen the Messenger 
of Allah face to face and I have never 
been in his presence, but I would give my 
life for him. 

"A little while later he said to me, O 
son of Hayyan your father has died and 
soon you will die, going either to the 
Garden or the Fire. My brother and friend 
Umar ibn al-Khattab has died,' I said to 
him, 'May Allah forgive you, but Umar has 
not died." "Uwais said,' Yes and the people 
have announced his death, and so has 
Allah, Mighty and Exalted is He, and He 
has announced my own death. For you 
and I are both of the dead." "Then he 
prayed upon the Prophet (#) and 
murmered some short invocations. "Then 
he said, This is what I leave you, the Book 
of Allah and the Sunnah of the Prophet 
(#) and you should always remember 
death, and this should never ever leave 
your heart for a moment. Haram ibn 
Hayyan said, "I deeply wanted to walk 
with him for an hour, but after that he did 
not allow me anymore, so I left him and 
I started to weep and he also wept. 


Some said that when night come, 
Uwais (RDA) would say, "This night is for 
prostrating." Then he would prostrate until 
morning. And also when night come he 
would distribute the food in his house to 
the poor and he would say, "O Lord, If 
someone dies this night out of hunger, 
excuse me, and if so someone dies naked, 
excuse me." 

Shaikh Abdullah Ad-Daghistani's 
vision of Uwais al-Qarani:- 

"After Shaikh Sharafuddin passed, 
and I was awaiting an opening to emigrate 
from Turkey, I was in a seclusion in the 
mosque next to the tomb of my shaikh, 
praying one night before Fajr. It was a 
cold and snowy night. I could feel the 
coldness in my bones. I could hear the 
quiet falling of the snow on the trees and 
the howling of wolves in the woods. I 
heard a voice calling my name, 'Abdullah 
Effendi.' I looked around but saw no one. 
Then I heard the voice again calling out 
'Abdullah' I looked again, but again could 
not see anyone. I knew it was the voice 
of my shaikh. The warmth of that voice 
energized me and I ran outside without 
even putting on my shoes or my woolen 
cloak. I saw my shaikh in a brilliant vision 
standing on the hill. He called to me and 
said, 'Abdullah Effendi, come.' I did not 
even think to put shoes on. I walked on 
the snow and could feel warmth from the 
Divine Love emanating from his spirit. As 
I reached him he said, "My son tonight I 
have been ordered to take you to the 
presence of Sayyidina Uwais al-Qarani 
(RDA) by the order of the Prophet (#). 

"Then he said, 'My son, take my hand. 
I was very happy to take the hand of my 

1 July 2010 

Shaikh and as soon as I took his hand I 
found myself in the association of saints, 
in the presence of the Prophet (#) and 
Sayyidina Uwais al-Qarani (RDA) sitting 
there. We entered and found there were 
two places left for us to sit. We gave our 
respect and took our places," 

the significance of that robe we brought 
to you?' He said, O Umar that is one of 
the biggest secrets which will not be 
revealed to people until the Last Days of 
his Ummat. While the Prophet (#) was 
passing away, he was asking for 
intercession for his Ummat." 

Then Sayyidina AN (RDA) stood up 
and said, 'For the first time we are 
revealing this secret to the association of 
saints. Only now have we received the 
permission from the Prophet (#) for the 
secret to appear. "I saw present in the 
gathering the 7007 Naqshbandi saints. 

Sayyidina AN said addressing the 
association, and specially me, 'When the 
Prophet (#) was passing away he called 
Sayyidina Umar and me to his presence 
and said, After I die, you takes the clothes 
I am wearing when I pass away, as a trust 
from me to Uwais al-Qarani (RDA). You 
will find Uwais in such and such a place. 

We went as the Prophet (#) had 
directed us and looked for Uwais al- 
Qarani. We went to that place and we 
saw in the distance a man sitting with his 
back to us. We approached. When we 
came near without turning around he said, 
O AN, O Umar, give me my trust. 
Immediately we handed him the robe of 
the Prophet (#). He stood up, kissed the 
robe, put it on his head then put it to his 
heart and said, I accept, I accept, I accept. 
"We wondered why he was kissing the 
robe and saying these words, because 
he had never seen the Prophet (#) in all 
his life. But we were hesistant to ask." 

In this state of wonderment, Sayyidina 
Umar asked Sayyidina Uwais, 'What is 

Then he said, His Ummat includes all 
human beings. And that is why Allah said, 
'Say(0 Prophet) O mankind, I am a 
Messenger to you all from Allah, to Whom 
belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and 
the earth. (7:158). The Prophet (#) asked 
for intercession and Allah gave permission. 
He was interceding for every individual 
that Allah created. As he was asking he 
was sweating and each drop of sweat 
represented one human being. He took 
on the burdens of each person. Until he 
was satisfied that Allah had forgiven every 
one, then he left this world. And the 
symbols of that forgiveness are the drops 
of sweet which are soaked in this robe. 

"This robe was given to me because 
the Prophet (#) wanted to tell me, O 
Uwais, I am passing to you the Divine 
Knowledge to clean the Ummah after they 
make sin you must pass that power to 
your successors from me to you and from 
you to them." 

And Sayyidinah Ali said that Sayyidina 
Uwais al-Qarani said, 'I didnot see the 
Prophet (#) physically, but in every 
moment of every day I was with him during 
his life. I received from him every matter 
of importance for his Ummat. I am going 
to transmit that secret to the many 
successors and inheritors among Allah's 
saints. Without a physical connection but 

July 2010 

through a spiritual connection they will 
receive the secret of the cleansing power 
and revive it in every century until the Day 
of Judgment. 

Then Sayyidina AN said to the 
association of saints but directing his 
speech to me, what is passed to you and 
to many saints before you is from that 
Uwaisi power. This is the first time that 
secret has been revealed by permission 
of the Prophet (#). 

Then my Shaikh said to me, O my 
son, now you can go back to your 
seclusion. As soon as he said that, I found 
myself entering the mosque and feeling 
the cold again. 

Khawaja Uwaiys Qarani (RDA) was 
martyred in the year 37 AH in the battle 

of Saffein while accompanying Amir ul 
Momenin Hazrat Ali. Ibn Battotah mentions 
that his tomb is in Damascus and is a 
place of Pilgrimage for people of all 
classes. Hazrat Ali Hujwiri writes in his 
Kashf-ul-Mahjub: In the battle of Saffein 
in agreement with Hazrat Ali (RDA) he 
faught with enemies until he was martyred 
in that battle. He lived a praisworthy life 
and died in prosper. 

Uwaiysi Sufis live around the world 
from the borders of Bangladesh to South 
Russia, Europe and the U.S.A. Among 
the well known practices for the Uwaiysi 
Sufis is being watchful over the heart as 
it was said by the Uwaiys himself: your 
heart will return to you. 

(Courtesy: Mujallah Ma'arif-e-Auliya, Auqaf 
Dept, Punjab) 

I* * cr\o miAi 







1st Floor, Ocean Centre, 40-Talpur Road, P.O. Box No. 4411, Karachi-74000. 

Phone : 2414778 - 2414779 - 2413271 - 2414087. Grams : AMINFAB 

Fax: (92-21) 2411686, E-Mail : aminfb@khi. pk 



July 2010 


Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim 

Al Wasiyyah is the Arabic equivalent 
of what is termed today as the will. The 
drafting of a Will during one's lifetime is 
divinely ordained. The Qur'anic imperative 
in this regard is as follows: 

"O you who believe! When death 
approaches any of You, (take) witnesses 
among yourselves when making bequests, 
- two just men of your own (brotherhood) 
or others from outside if you are journeying 

Likewise, the Prophet Muhammad 
(#) has also emphasized the need to 
write down one's Will. He is reported to 
have said: 

"It is not right for any Muslim person, 
who has anything to bequeath, that he 
may pass even two nights without having 
his last will and testament written and kept 
ready with him." (Sahih-al-Bukhari) 

However, it ought to be noted here 
that according to Islamic Law, the 
proportionate respective shares that the 
legal heirs receive from the deceased's 
estate are neither dependent on a Will 
nor on any other direction of the deceased. 
Rather, these shares are governed by 
certain rules that have been laid down in 
the Islamic Law of Succession. Thus, what 
can be included in a Will are certain 
specific stipulations, for example that 
which relate to the affairs of the testator's 
young children, facilitating the marriage 
of the testator's daughters, and the 


devolution of one third of the testator's 
estate, in favour of particular person or 
a charitable institution. 

Today the modern science has made 
it possible to harvest the organ of the 
deceased and to transplant it into the living 
for the purpose of improving the quality 
of life. The question that arises here is 
whether it is permissible for the Muslim 
testator to include organ donation in his/her 

In view of the fact that any explicit 
nass (text) exists neither in the Qur'an nor 
in the Sunnah regarding this question, 
differences of opinion prevail among 
Muslim scholars. 

Negative Resolution 

The Islamic Fiqh Academy of India, 
during its Second Fiqh Seminar held 
between 8-11 December 1989 at the 
Hamdard Convention Centre. New Delhi, 
India, resolved that if a person has directed 
that after one's death one's organ should 
be used for the purpose of transplantation 
(testamentary disposition, as is commonly 
known), it would not be considered as 
wasiyyah (Will) according to Shari'ah. 

The plausible factors/considerations 
that may have influenced the adoption of 
this negative resolution pertain firstly to 
the concept of human organs as amanah 
(trust endowed to humans by their Creator) 
and secondly to the stance that human 

4 July 2010 

organ is invaluable. 

i. Human Organ: An Amanah 

There are Muslim jurists who regard 
the human body (including its parts) as 
an amanah (trust). Therefore, since a 
human being does not own his body, he 
cannot make a gift in respect of any part 
of his body either during his lifetime or 
after death. Thus to include organ donation 
in one's will would not be in order since 
one cannot give away that which one does 
not legally own. 

ii. Human Organ: Invaluable 

The testator's estate is termed in 
Arabic as mal mutaqawwam (asset upon 
which a price can be set for it). Muslim 
jurists are of the opinion that a human 
being's person (organs included) is mal 
ghayr mutaqawwam (invaluable i.e., no 
price can be set for it). Thus it logically 
follows that since no price can be set for 
human organ, the inclusion of its donation 
in one's Will would be regarded as null 
and void. 

Positive Resolutions 

The Council of the Islamic Fiqh 
Academy of the Muslim World League; 
Makkah, Saudi Arabia, at its eighth working 
session (28 Rabi al Akhir 7- Jumada al 
Ula 1405 Hijri / 1 9-28 January 1985), 
resolved that it is permissible in Shariah 
to remove an organ from a dead person 
and transplant it into a living recipient on 
the condition that the donor was sane 
(mukallaf) and had wished it so. 

The Council of the Islamic Fiqh 

Academy of the Organisation of Islamic 
Conference (OIC), during its Fourth 
Session held in Jeddah, the Kingdom of 
Saudi Arabia, from 6-11 February 1988, 
resolved that it is permissible from the 
Shariah point of view to transplant an 
organ from the body of a dead person if 
it is essential to keep the beneficiary alive, 
or if it will assist in restoring a basic function 
of the body, provided it has been 
authorized by the deceased or by his heirs 
after his death or with the permission of 
concerned authorities if the deceased has 
not been identified or has no heirs. 

The above (positive) resolutions, we 
may safely assume, provide a valid 
theoretical basis for the inclusion of organ 
donation in one's Will. 

The considerations that have played 
a major role in influencing the adoption of 
the positive resolution relate to what is 
termed as al Ithar (altruism - generosity 
towards humankind) and al darurah (the 
rule of necessity). 

i. Al-lthar (Altruism) 

There are Muslim scholars who hold 
that a living person's gesture in willing to 
donate his/her cornea, for example, after 
death has taken place should be viewed 
as an act of altruism. After all, through 
corneal transplant the donor would in 
effect have made a noble contribution in 
restoring the sight of another fellow human 
being suffering from corneal blindness. 

;';'. Al-Darurah (The Rule of Necessity) 

Dr. Tanzil-ur-Rahman, a former Chief 
Justice of Islamic Shariah Court of 

July 2010 

Pakistan, is of the opinion that the inclusion 
of corneal donation, for example, into 
one's Will may be held permissible on the 
basis of the rule of necessity. He explains 
that the rule of necessity is based upon 
the juridical principle of al-lstihsan (juristic 
preference), that the needs of the living 
are given preference over that of the dead. 
Thus, the inclusion of organ donation in 
a Muslim Will could to be a positive step 
in resolving organ donation shortages 

and in the nature of extreme and dire 
necessity, having no alternative treatment, 
duly certified by two Muslim medical 
practitioners of integrity. 

(iii) The legator (donor) leaves behind no 
heir. In case there is an heir, obtaining his 
consent, after death, shall be necessary. 
If any one of the heirs, there being more 
than one heir, does not consent to it, the 
Will shall not be executed. 

The enforceable nature of such a Will 

The Islamic Fiqh Academy of India, 
as pointed out above, resolved that any 
direction cited in the Will pertaining to the 
donation of one's organ for transplantation 
would be invalid and should not be 

Dr. Tanzil-ur-Rahman is of the view 
that once a person has included organ 
donation in his/her Will, it will be valid and 
enforceable in Shariah, subject to the 
following conditions: 

(i) The donation (by Will) is motivated 
purely for human good and be without 
any remuneration, consideration or 
compensation whatsoever. 

(ii) The legatee's (donee's) be genuine 

(iv) In case the Will is in respect of eyes 
of the dead body, the said eyes be taken 
out or separated from the body, after 
certification of death by two Muslim 
medical practitioners of integrity, to the 
extent of the need as per Will, only before 
burial of the dead body and no insult not 
unnecessary disfiguration should be done 
to the dead body. 

Insofar as who would have the 
jurisdiction to assent to the donation of 
the dead person's organ in the event that 
no such clause has been stipulated in the 
deceased's Will, the Council of the Islamic 
Fiqh Academy of the Organisation of 
Islamic Conference and Dr. Tanzil-ur- 
Rahman concur that the legal heirs have 
the right to assent to that. 

July 2010 

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