AKBAR, EMPEROR OF INDIA.* THE student of India who would at the same time be an historian, discovers to his sorrow that the land of his researches is lamentably poor in historical sources. And if within the realm of historical investigation, a more se- ductive charm lies for him in the analysis of great per- sonalities than in ascertaining the course of historical de- velopment, then verily may he look about in vain for such personalities in the antiquity and middle ages of India. Not that the princely thrones were wanting in great men in ancient India, for we find abundant traces of them in Hindu folk-lore and poetry, but these sources do not extend to establishing the realistic element in details and furnishing life-like portraits of the men themselves. That the Hindu has ever been but little interested in historical matters is a generally recognized fact. Religious and philosophical speculations, dreams of other worlds, of previous and fu- ture existences, have claimed the attention of thoughtful minds to a much greater degree than has historical reality. The misty myth-woven veil which hangs over persons and events of earlier times, vanishes at the beginning of the modern era which in India starts with the Moham- medan conquest, for henceforth the history of India is written by foreigners. Now we meet with men who take a decisive part in the fate of India, and they appear as * This essay is an enlarged form of an address delivered on the occasion of the birthday of King Wilhelm II of Wtirttemberg, on February 25, 1909.