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IO                         AKBAR, EMPEROR OF INDIA.
he was then dealing with the punishment of particularly
desperate criminals, and that such severe judgments had
always been considered in the Orient to be righteous and
sensible. Not only in the Orient unfortunately,—even in
Europe 200 years after Akbar's time tortures and the rack
were applied at the behest of courts of law.
Mahum Anaga came too late to save her son. Akbar
sought with tender care to console her for his dreadful
end but the heart-broken woman survived the fearful blow
of fate only about forty days. The Emperor caused her
body to be buried with that of her son in one common grave
at Delhi, and he himself accompanied the funeral proces-
sion. At his command a stately monument was erected
above this grave which still stands to-day. His generosity
and clemency were also shown in the fact that he extended
complete pardon to the accomplices in the murder of the
grand vizier and even permitted them to retain their of-
fices and dignities because he was convinced that they had
been drawn into the crime by the violent Adham Chan.
In other ways too Akbar showed himself to be ready to
grant pardon to an almost incomprehensible'extent. Again
and again when an insubordinate viceroy in the provinces
would surrender after an unsuccessful uprising Akbar
would let him off without any penalty, thus giving him the
opportunity of revolting again after a short time.
It was an eventful time in which Akbar arrived at
manhood in the midst of all sorts of personal dangers.
I will pass over with but few comments his military ex-
peditions which can have no interest for the general public.
When Akbar ascended the throne his realm comprised only
a very small portion of the possessions which had been sub-
ject to his predecessors. With the energy which was a
fundamental characteristic of his nature he once more took
possession of the provinces which had been torn from the
empire, at the same time undertaking the conquest of new