AKBAR, EMPEROR OF INDIA. 11 lands, and accomplished this task with such good fortune that in the fortieth year of his reign the empire of India covered more territory than ever before; that is to say, not only the whole of Hindustan including the peninsula Gu- jerat, the lands of the Indus and Kashmir but also Af- ghanistan and a larger part of the Dekkhan than had ever been subject to any former Padishah of Delhi. At this time while the' Emperor had his residence at Lahore the phrase was current in India, "As lucky as Akban"8 It was apparent often enough in the military expedi- tions that Akbar far surpassed his contemporaries in gen- eralship. 9 But it was not the love of war and conquest which drove him each time anew to battle; a sincere desire inspired by a mystical spirit impelled him to bring to an end the ceaseless strife between the small states of India by joining them to his realm, and thus to found a great united empire.9 More worthy of admiration than the subjugation of such large territories in which of course many others have also been successful, is the fact that. Akbar succeeded in establishing order, peace, and prosperity in the regained and newly subjugated provinces. This he brought about by the introduction of a model administration, an excellent police, a regulated post service, and especially a just divi- sion of taxes.10 Up to Akbar's time corruption had been a matter of course in the entire official service and enormous sums in the treasury were lost by peculation on the part of tax collectors. Akbar first divided the whole realm into twelve and later into fifteen viceregencies, and these into provinces, administrative districts and lesser subdivisions, and gov- erned the revenues of the empire on the basis of a uni- 8J.T. Wheeler, IV, I, 180. 8 Noer, II, 8, 390, 423. 10 For the following compare Noer I, 391 ff.; M. Elphinstone, 529 ff.; G. B. Malleson, 172 ff., 185 ff.