26 AKBAR, EMPEROR OF INDIA. sources of the Ganges.29 That a man of such a wonderful degree of versatility should have recognized the value of general education and have devoted himself to its improve- ment, we would simply take for granted. Akbar caused schools to be erected throughout his whole kingdom for the children of Hindus and Mohammedans, whereas he himself did not know how to read or write.30 This re- markable fact would seem incredible to us after considering* all the above mentioned facts if it was not confirmed by the express testimony of his son, the Emperor Jehangir. At any rate for an illiterate man Akbar certainly accomplished an astonishing amount. The universal character of the endowments of this man could not have been increased by the learning of the schools. I have now come to the point which arouses most strongly the universal human interest in Akbar, namely, to his religious development and his relation to the reli- gions, or better to religion. But first I must protest against the position maintained by a competent scholar31 that Akbar himself was just as indifferent to religious matters as was the house of Timur as a whole. Against this view we have the testimony of the conscientiousness with which he daily performed his morning and evening devotions, the value which he placed upon fasting and prayer as a means of self-discipline, and the regularity with which he made yearly pilgrimages to the graves of Mohammedan saints. A better insight into Akbar's heart than these regular ob- servances of worship which might easily be explained by the force of custom is given by the extraordinary manifesta- tions of a devout disposition. When we learn that Akbar in- variably prayed at the grave of his father in Delhi32 before "J. T. Wheeler, IV, I, 174. 80 J. T* Wheeler, loc. cit., 141; Noer, I, 193; II, 324, 326. 81 A. Muller, II, 418. 22 Noer, I, 262.