36 AKBAR,, EMPEROR OF INDIA. stood nearer to God than other people. This is already apparent in the title 'The Shadow of God" which he had assumed. The reversed, or rather the double, meaning of the sentence Allahu akbar, "Akbar is God," was not displeasing to the Emperor as we know. And when the Hindus declared him to be an incarnation of a divinity he did not disclaim this homage. Such a conception was noth- ing unusual with the Hindus and did not signify a com- plete apotheosis. Although Akbar took great pains he was not able to permanently prevent the people from considering him a healer and a worker of miracles. But Akbar had too clear a head not to know that lie was a man,—a man subject to mistakes and frailties; for when he permitted himself to be led into a deed of violence he had always experienced the bitterest remorse. Not the slightest symptom of Qaesaxomamajcan be discovered in Akbar. Akbar felt that he was a mediator between God and man and believed "that the deity revealed itself to him in the mystical illumination of his soul."41 This conviction Akbar held in common with many rulers of the Occident who were much smaller than he. Idolatrous marks of ven- eration he permitted only to a very limited degree. He was not always quite consistent in this respect however, and we must realize how infinitely hard it was to be con- sistent in this matter at an Oriental court when the cus- tomary servility, combined with sincere admiration and^ reverence, longed to actively manifest itself. Akbar, as we have already seen, suffered the Hindu custom of prostration, but on the other hand we have the express testimony to the contrary from the author Faizi, the trusted friend of the Emperor, who on the occasion of an exaggerated homage literally says: "The commands of His Majesty expressly forbid such devout reverence and as often as the courtiers offer homage of this kind because of "Noer, II, 314, 355.