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Alternative 3 





copyleft 2010 
Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 - 33 rd Anniversary Edition 

To the extent possible under law, all copyright and related or 
neighboring rights to the aforementioned text have been waived. 


Members of Parliament Bruce Kinslade and Michael Harrington- 
Brice are works of the author's imagination, and any similarity to 
persons living or dead is coincidental. John Hendry, Dr. James E. 
McDonald, Sir William Ballantine, Hank McDermott, Dr. Ann 
Clark, Robert Patterson and Brian Pendlebury are hkewise works of 
the author's imagination. Similarly, "Trojan" and the A3 Policy 
Committee are fabrications. In short, if not untrue, everything is 


The editor has made the digital version of this work available under 
a Creative Commons License. You are welcome to share it with your 
friends until served with an injunction. The digital version may be 
reproduced, copied and distributed for noncommercial purposes. 


Major Aubrey Leland Oakes, 

Baron Buxton of Alsa 

15 July1918 - 1 September 2009 


George John Patrick Dominic Townshend, 

7 th Marquess Townshend 

13 May 1916 - 23 April 2010 


LIKE Milton William Cooper's Behold a Pale 
Horse, Leslie Watkins' 1 Alternative 3, inspired 
by the Anglia Television hoax of the same name, 
is a repository for memetic cues designed to disinform 
and confuse. Like Cooper's cult-classic, Watkins' novella 
is printed and reprinted without editing. All typos and 
factual inaccuracies are preserved. It is not meant to 
emulate a work of serious scholarship and it would be 
difficult to argue that it aims to entertain, as it fails 
spectacularly as an engaging work of fiction. 
Nevertheless, it found publishers, first with Sphere 
Books (1978) 2 and subsequently with Avon Pubhshers 

1 'Leslie Watkins' is a pseudonym employed by British novelist and screenwriter 
David Ambrose. 

2 Sphere Books was sold to Pearson PLC in 1985. The current Sphere is an imprint 
of Little, Brown. 

Archimedes Press 

2 • Anonymous 

(1979) in the United States, now an imprint of 
HarperCollins. Miracles do happen, or concerted 
disinformation campaigns are sanctioned regularly by 
establishment stalwarts. 

Grave structural flaws aside, Alternative 3 is not 
entirely without merits. Firstly, it employs intuition in 
the service of inquiry, and so is of immediate appeal to 
the gullible, which is not to condemn the gullible in the 
form of a would-be reader. The gullible are typically 
neither jaded nor militantly skeptical; they are receptive 
to that which is at once incredible and improbable, both 
conditions which do not necessarily make a piece of data 
or a collection of data-pieces untrue. Nevertheless, there 
is much contained within this so-called work of "fiction 
based on fact" that is flagrantly untrue, unnecessarily 
defamatory and reliably misleading (that many dates 
attributed by Watkins to events-of-note are shifted 
backward or forward by a handful of years is 
confounding). Furthermore, Watkins' "facts" possess a 
peculiar speculative quality unique to disinformation 
projects; that data which can be verified is sandwiched 
between and undermined by episodes that are contrived 
and information that is artlessly fabricated. Secondly, it 
is not entirely implausible that Watkins', like popular 
disinformers by whom he was succeeded, stumbled upon, 
inadvertently or surreptitiously, information that 
possessed real-world gravity, in which case, no amount 
of bad writing is entirely in vain. So the reader is 
presented with a question: away from WHAT is he being 
misdirected? And if misdirection is employed 
purposefully, are there not clues with which salient 
information may be filtered from erroneous information? 
The answer is an unqualified 'yes.' 

A little due -diligence enables one to systematically 
strip from the text most information that is blatantly 
fanciful and without substance, with one caveat: it is the 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Foreword • 3 

nature of misdirection to steer one away from 
information on which one's attention might better be 
trained. The reader is forced to exercise his own 
judgment in such a situation; to ask questions of a text — 
to shake the tree... all in an effort to determine not the 
veracity of the text-as-edifice, but as an amalgam of 
distinct component parts, each to be analyzed 
individually. It is important to emphasize that the 
author stresses that he "is not in the business of 
speculation," which doesn't rule out his function as an 
amateur agency of speculation. One does not have to be 
in "the business" to mount a successful 
disinformation/misdirection campaign; it is an art that 
by its nature lends itself to the innately curious and 
appeals to that same sense in the reader, hence the aura 
that surrounds Alternative 3 — the book and the Anglia 
Television investigative report from which it was 

Speculation thrives on a substrate furnished by the 

...and it is the nature of speculation to anticipate; to 
make assumptions based solely upon intuition. It is also 
the nature of speculation to issue suppositions and to 
pass into realms from which travelers under the yoke of 
facts are barred. Knowledge does not always treat 
supposition kindly, but there are instances when so 
uncannily pointed is an assumption leveled by 
speculation that knowledge is surrendered by force 
majeure. It is this editor's belief that Watkins was 
employed in an effort to at once simulate the appearance 
of a classic disinformant while affecting naivete in the 
service of misdirection. In the process, the hand of the 
knowledge-keeper may have been overplayed and 
speculation-as-exercise may have been revealed as 
speculation-as-device, which is to concede that Watkins 
did not reveal a tightly-orchestrated conspiracy 

Archimedes Press 

4 • Anonymous 

explicitly, but revealed what amounts to the shadow cast 
by a conspiracy that can only be delineated by the 
practice of controlled-omission. 

Watkins' Alternative 3 is a bona-fide diversion, as is 
the original Anglia Television hoax. Its aims are suspect 
as it has been permitted a life that better books have 
been denied; it has assumed an undeserved aura, 
especially as so many calculated deceptions lurk in the 
details. So how is one to read Alternative 3ft Carefully! 
The heavy employment of misinformation should be 
dealt with expeditiously. Herein you will find a unique 
edition of Alternative 3 that has been edited of overt 
misinformation, while a large percentage of 
disinformation has been preserved, albeit in a form that 
aims to reconstitute the little truths that had previously 
been undermined by contrivance. 

We cannot ascertain that the Moon or Mars have 
been covertly colonized by human assets; there is too 
little data in the public domain with which to 
substantiate such an assumption, but that does not 
make it untrue. On another level, we can ascertain that 
fear and distrust may be sewn into a population 
efficiently, cheaply and in a sustained way with 
constructed threats (global warming, the hole in the 
ozone layer, acid rain, the zebra mussel, etc.) which in 
and of themselves possess no substance beyond that 
afforded by faith. A threat must be nebulous, extant and 
it must always loom on the horizon and in Leslie 
Watkins' Alternative 3, it does. Threats thrive on a 
substrate furnished by the imagination, and like 
speculation, many modern-day threats require a stay-of- 
logic. Moreover, critical-thinking must be suspended, if 
only temporarily, but herein lies the danger: if data is 
not considered, always, in a critical light, knowledge 
undergoes degradation as by slow erosion and history 
grows increasingly malleable... 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Foreword • 5 

And by history, I imply the sum-total of knowledge on 
which informed decisions, opinions and policymaking 
depend. The recreational distortion of facts should be 
taken into account when considering information and 
should likewise be taken into account when reading this 
book. Watkins refers to not a few compromises on which 
the publication of Alternative 3 depended. If the truth 
was Watkins' objective, as opposed to obfuscation or 
mere entertainment, he might have self-published, but 
that he honored these so-called compromises suggests 
that Alternative 3 is but one more scantily-clad exercise 
in disinformation, or perhaps was written with no little 
contempt for the would-be reader's gullibility. 

This still does not answer the most glaring question 
of all: Why was Alternative 3 written? Why does it 
remain a staple text among conspiracy buffs? Why, 
when it seems to revel in the disembowelment of the 
English language, does it have "staying-power?" This 
humble editor concedes that Alternative 3 survives 
chiefly as it cursorily addresses the overarching mystery 
in which we all participate: SPACE. An exclusive club 
has reserved the right to hold dominion over that 
mystery which belongs to all men and beasts — equally. 
Watkins imphes a conspiracy to misdirect the human 
population away from the spectacular prospect of space 
exploration which is his natural inheritance. 
Alternative 3 may have contempt for its readers, but it 
also has contempt (maybe mock-contempt) for 
officialdom and therein lays its saving-grace. 
Nevertheless, I venture that Alternative 3 was a 
haphazardly-contrived and opportunistic disinformation 
exercise with one primary objective: misdirection. 

Only those perceived threats over which the 
individual has no control are able to short-circuit man's 
ability to think critically. Consequently, Watkins 
employed the time-tested threat of environmental 

Archimedes Press 

6 • Anonymous 

catastrophe. The threat of environmental catastrophe 
reliably galvanizes the public and appeals to its sense of 
institutionalized boredom and repressed desire for 
sudden and violent change. This alone softens man to 
the concessions he regularly makes to an elite that 
would have the public believe that it had its welfare at 
heart. No elite should have exclusive dominion over the 
mysteries from which all creatures are descended, but 
Watkins would have you accept after an oblique fashion 
the notion that the species does, indeed, require 
husbandry from on -high. In effect, Alternative 3 induces 
cognitive dissonance: it would have the reader at once 
decry the establishment and embrace those movements 
from which the establishment derives its power... 

There is nothing admirable about "state-secrets." 
They are kept in an effort to conceal professional failures 
and more often in an effort to armor the impotent. 
Witting or not, disinformers are the tools of those that 
would keep and reinforce secrets; that would divide by 
virtue of confusion. Leslie Watkins is one such tool. 

—Anonymous, 29.7° N 4.0° W, 2010 

Archimedes Press 

Section One: preamble 

"It is intriguing to note the subsequently altered 
characters of former Moon-walkers occupationally 
exposed to some of the surprises presented by 
Alternative 3. A number, undermined by the strain of 
such a secret, suffered nervous breakdowns. A high 
percentage sought sanctuary in alcoholism and in extra- 
marital affairs. These were chosen mem' their training 
and experience, intelligence and physical fitness, all 
were prime considerations in their selection, but the 
supremely important quality was their equanimity. 
Only something unprecedented could so alter the 
natural dispositions of these men. That something was 
Alternative 3. " 

-Leslie Watkins 

Archimedes Press 

8 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

No newspaper has secured the truth behind the 
initiative known as Alternative 3. Investigations by 
journalists have been blocked. America, Russia, Britain 
and Japan obsessively guard their shared secret and this 
obsession, as we will illustrate, has made them partners 
in murder. 

However, despite this state-level secrecy, fragments 
of information have been made public! fragments 
released inadvertently or surreptitiously — sometimes by 
experts who do not appreciate their significance and 
sometimes by witting disinformants — and these 
fragments, when assembled, form a pattern; a pattern 
which emphasizes the enormity of the conspiracy in 
question. On MAY 3, 1977, The Daily Mirror published 
the following: 

President Jimmy Carter has joined the ranks of UFO 
spotters. He sent in two written reports stating he had 
seen a flying saucer when he was the Governor of 
Georgia. The President has shrugged off the incident 
since then, perhaps fearing that electors might be wary 
of a flying saucer freak. But he was reported as saying 
after the sighting: "I don't laugh at people anymore 
when they say they've seen UFOs because I've seen one 
myself." Carter described his UFO like this: "Luminous, 
not solid, at first bluish, then reddish; it seemed to move 
towards us from a distance, stopped, and then moved 
partially away. " 

Carter filed two reports on the sighting in 1973: one 
to the International UFO Bureau (2932 NW 36th Street, 
Oklahoma City, OK 73112) and the other to the National 
Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. 
Hayden Hewes, who directs the International UFO 
Bureau from his home in Oklahoma City, has praised 
the President's "open-mindedness." But during his 
presidential campaign last year, Carter was cautious. 
He admitted he had seen a hght in the sky but declined 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section One • 9 

to call it a UFO. He joked: "I think it was a light 
beckoning me to run in the California primary election." 

Why this change in Carter's attitude? Had he been 
briefed on Alternative 3? A 1966 Gallup Poll showed 
that five milhon Americans — including several highly- 
experienced airline pilots — claimed to have seen flying 
saucers. Air National Guard pilot Thomas Mantell had 
already died while chasing one over Kentucky on 
January 7, 1948 — his P-51 Mustang disintegrated in the 
wash of his quarry's engines. On AUGUST 31, 1966, 
Colonel Ivan C. Atkinson, Deputy Executive Director of 
the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, commissioned 
Dr. Edward U. Condon, Professor of Physics and Fellow 
of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, to 
head an investigation team at Colorado University. 
Condon's budget was $500,000. Shortly before his report 
appeared in 1968, this story appeared in the London 
Evening Standard: 

The Condon study is making headlines — but for the 
wrong reasons. It is losing some of its outstanding 
members under circumstances which are mysterious. 
Rumors are circulating. At least four key people have 
vanished from the Condon team without offering a 
satisfactory reason for their departure. 

The complete story behind the events in Colorado is 
hard to decipher, but a clue may be found in recent 
statements by Dr. James E. McDonald, senior physicist 
at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics at the University 
of Arizona. In a telephone conversation this week, Dr. 
McDonald told this author that he is "most distressed." 

Condon's 1,485-page report denied the existence of 
flying saucers and a panel of the American National 
Academy of Sciences endorsed the conclusion that 
"further extensive study cannot be justified." Curiously, 
Condon's joint principal investigator, Dr. Stuart Cook, 
Professor and Chairman of the Department of 

Archimedes Press 

10 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Psychology, had not contributed a word to that report. 
And on January 11, 1969, The Daily Telegraph quoted 
Dr. Cook: "It is inconceivable that it can be anything but 
a cold stew. No matter how long it is, what it includes, 
how it is said, or what it recommends, it will lack the 
essential element of credibility." Already there were 
wide-spread suspicions that the Condon investigation 
had been part of an official cover-up; that the 
government knew the truth but was determined to keep 
it from the public. We now know that those suspicions 
were accurate, and that the secrecy involved Alternative 
3. A few months after Dr. Cook made his "cold stew" 
statement, a journalist with the Columbus, Ohio 
Dispatch embarrassed NASA by photographing a 
strange craft at the White Sands Missile Range in New 

No one at NASA would talk about the mysterious 
circular craft, 15 -feet in diameter, discovered in the 
"missile graveyard," a section of the range where 
experimental vehicles were left to rot. But the Martin 
Marietta Company of Denver, where it was allegedly 
built, acknowledged designing several models, some with 
ten and twelve engines. According to gravimetry expert 
Dr. Garry C. Henderson 3 of the Applied Research Group, 
General Dynamics, "all of our astronauts have seen 
these objects and all of our astronauts have been ordered 
to remain tight-lipped." 

Maurice Chatelain* has stated that NASA "killed" 
significant segments of conversation between Mission 

3 Garry C. Henderson was born in Brownwood, Texas, on October 23, 1935. He 
received the B.S. degree in mathematics from Sul Ross State College, Alpine, Texas 
in 1960, the M.S. degree from Texas A&M University, College Station, in geophysical 
oceanography in 1962, and the Ph.D. degree in geophysics from Texas A&M 
University in 1965. 

4 Apollo communication and data-processing system designer with North American 
Aviation, now part of Boeing. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section One • 11 

Control and Apollo 11 and that those segments were 
deleted from the official record: "Sources with their own 
VHF receivers that bypassed NASA broadcast outlets 
claim there was a portion of Earth-Moon dialogue that 
was censored by the NASA monitoring staff." Chatelain 
added that "it was presumably when Aldrin and 
Armstrong were making the rounds some distance from 
the LEM (Lunar Excursion Module) that Armstrong 
clutched Aldrin's arm excitedly and exclaimed: "What 
was it? What the hell was it? That's all I want to 

MISSION CONTROL: What's there? Malfunction 
(garble). . . Mission Control calling Apollo 11. . . 

APOLLO 11: Theses babies were huge, sir — 
enormous. Oh, God, you wouldn't believe it! I'm telhng 
you, there are other space-craft out there lined up on the 
far side of the crater-edge', they're on the Moon watching 

Two years after his historic Moon mission, Colonel 
Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr. was admitted to Wilford Hall 
Medical Center, Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, 
Texas. According to award-winning journalist for The 
New York Times, John Noble Wilford, "Mr. Aldrin's 
problems began almost immediately as he struggled to 
adjust to life in the limehght. This made him 
increasingly uncomfortable, which led to erratic behavior 
and eventually depression and alcohohsm. In any event, 
he was hospitalized for severe depression." 

All men who have traveled to the Moon have 
indicated knowledge about Alternative 3. In MAY 1972, 
James Irwin — officially the sixth man to walk on the 
Moon — resigned to become a Baptist missionary. He 
said: "The flight made me a deeply religious person and 
more keenly aware of the fragile nature of our planet." 
Edgar Mitchell, who landed on the Moon with the Apollo 
14 mission in FEBRUARY 1971, also resigned in MAY 

Archimedes Press 

12 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

1972 to devote himself to parapsychology. Later, at the 
headquarters of his Institute for Noetic Sciences near 
San Francisco, he described looking at this world from 
the Moon: "I went into a very deep pathos, a kind of 
anguish. That incredibly beautiful planet that was 
Earth, a place no bigger than my thumb, a blue and 
white jewel against a velvet black sky, was being killed 
off." And on MARCH 23, 1974, he was quoted in The 
Daily Express as saying that society had only three 
alternatives and that the third was "the most viable but 
most difficult alternative." Another Apollo Moon-walker, 
Hank McDermott, was equally specific when interviewed 
by Anglia Television on JUNE 20, 1977: "Nothing's the 
way you think it is. We were a dog and pony show — a 
PR stunt. A sideshowl As early as Gemini III, every 
launch was accompanied by synchronized launches of 
Agena or Soyuz rockets — at Baikonur, Plesetsk and 
Kapustin Yar; at Jiuquan, Kagoshima and Woomera; at 
Kourou and Alcantara. One small, badly-designed tin- 
can was publicized, driven by a band of broken men. We 
were a diversion!" On JULY 11, 1977, the Los Angeles 
Times came close to the heart of the matter when it 
published a remarkable interview with Dr. Gerard K. 
O'Neill. Dr. O'Neill, professor of physics at Princeton 
University and author of The High Frontier: Human 
Colonies in Space (William Morrow and Company, 1977) 
is quoted: 

The United Nations has conservatively estimated 
that the world's population, now more than 4 billion 
people, will grow to 6. 5 billion by the year 2000. Today 
about 30% of the world's population is in developed 
nations. But, because most of the projected population 
growth will be in underdeveloped countries, that will 
drop to 22% by the end of the century. The world of 
2000 will be poorer and hungrier than the world today, 
he says. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section One • 13 

Dr. O'Neill described a space habitat design called 
Island Three, or "The O'Neill Cylinder": "There is really 
no debate about the technology involved; it has been 
confirmed by NASA's top people." (APPENDIX C) 
Confirmed, proven, deployed and in an unlikely 
partnership with America's publicallysworn enemy: The 
Soviet Union. Andrew Shonfield, director of the Royal 
Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House — 
Director of Studies, Ian Smart, 1975) in London 
emphasized that fact on JUNE 20, 1977: "On the broader 
issue of US-Soviet relations, I must admit that there is 
an element of mystery which troubles many people in 
my field; and what we are suggesting is that — at the 
very highest levels of East-West diplomacy — there could 
be operating a factor of which we know nothing: a 
massive but covert operation in space. However, we are 
not in the business of speculation..." 

Washington's acute discomfort over O'Neill's 
revelations through The Los Angeles Times can be 
assessed by the urgency with which SLAPP suits were 
leveled against journalists. We subsequently discovered 
that Anglia executive Aubrey Buxton (15 JULY 1918 - 1 
September 2009) was familiar with the O'Neill piece 
and later expressed regret that similar SLAPP suits 
were not regularly leveled against British journalists. 
He reflected wistfully that "chilling effects" 5 would have 
no uncertain impact upon the networks; that when it 
came to Alternative 3, he would be spared the 
repercussions of a meddlesome free press. Buxton, it is 
of value to note, interfered directly with the publication 
of this book; a book that has suffered a host of structural 
indignities and professional compromises. 

"Chilling effects" refers to the suppression of conduct by the fear of penalization. 

Archimedes Press 

Section Two: Background 

IN order to avoid executive culpability, the day-to- 
day activities associated with Alternative 3 fall 
under the purview of appointed professionals. 
These professionals, we have established, classify 
Alternative 3 candidates into two categories: 
"individuals" and "batch consignment components." 
There have been several "batch consignments" and it is 
the treatment meted out to so-called "components" which 
engenders outrage. No matter how desperate the 
circumstances may be — and we reluctantly recognize 
that they may indeed be desperate — no humane society 
should tolerate the practices that will be herein outlined. 

That opinion, fortunately, was also assumed by one 
man who was recruited into Alternative 3 three years 
ago. Initially an enthusiastic participant, he was soon 
revolted by the atrocities of which he was a witness. He 
did not consider, even in light of the circumstances, that 
they could be justified. Three days after the 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Two • 15 

transmission of Alternative 3 on Anglia Television's 
Science Report he contacted television reporter Colin 
Weston and offered to provide him with evidence of an 
astounding nature. They met two days later. 

The man explained to Weston that copies of most 
orders and memoranda, together with transcripts 
prepared from tapes of A3 Policy Committee meetings, 
were filed in triplicate in Washington, Moscow and 
Geneva, Switzerland (alleged Alternative 3 
Headquarters). The contact had access to some of that 
material and he was willing to furnish what he could to 
Weston. He wanted no money. Weston, in light of this 
new development, thought Anglia should mount a 
followup program — one which would describe 
Alternative 3 in greater depth. He argued bitterly with 
his superiors but they would not relent; the company 
was already in trouble with the Independent 
Broadcasting Authority. They refused to consider the 
possibility of another program; the Alternative 3 
documentary had been officially condemned as a hoax. 

Weston is a stubborn man. Friends confirm that 
although obstinate, he is a first-class investigative 
journalist. So, angry about Anglia's attempt to suppress 
the truth, he agreed to cooperate in the preparation of 
this book. That cooperation has been invaluable. 
Through Weston we met his Alternative 3 insider, 
hereinafter referred to as "Trojan." The meeting with 
Trojan resulted in the acquisition of sensitive documents 
and transcripts. For obvious reasons, neither can we 
reveal the identity of Trojan, nor reveal hints about his 
function or status within the A3 initiative. We are 
completely satisfied, however, that his credentials are 
authentic and that, in breaking his oath of silence, he is 
prompted by the most honorable of motives '■ disclosure. 
From Trojan we learned about the aforementioned 

Archimedes Press 

16 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"batch consignments^" mass disappearances herein 
alluded to in the news... 

OCTOBER 6, 1975, The Daily Telegraph- 

The disappearance in bizarre circumstances in the 
past two weeks of 20 people from small coastal 
communities in Oregon (Eugene, Waldport and 
Tillamook) was being intensively investigated over the 
weekend amid reports of an imaginative fraud scheme 
involving a flying saucer and hints of mass murder. 
Sheriffs officers at Newport, Oregon, said that the 20 
individuals had vanished without a trace after being told 
to give away all their possessions, including their 
children, so that they could be transported in a flying 
saucer to a better life. " 

Deputies under Mr. Ron Sutton, chief criminal 
investigator in surrounding Lincoln County, have traced 
the story back to a meeting on SEPTEMBER 14 in a resort 
hotel, the Bayshore fnn at Waldport, Oregon. 

Local police have received conflicting reports as to 
what occurred. But while it is clear that the speaker did 
not pretend to be from outer space, he told the audience 
how their souls could be "saved through a UFO." The 
hall had been reserved for a fee of $50 by a man and a 
woman who gave false names (Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
Simon). Mr. Sutton said witnesses had described them 
as "fortyish, well-groomed, straight types. " 

The Telegraph said that "selected people would be 
prepared at a special camp in Colorado for life on 
another planet" and quoted fnvestigator Sutton as 

"They were told they would have to give away 
everything, even their children, f'm checking a report of 
one family who supposedly gave away a 150-acre farm 
and three children. We don't know if it's a fraud or 
whether these people might be killed. There are all sorts 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Two • 17 

of rumors, including some about human sacrifice and 
that this is sponsored by the Manson family. " 

Most of the missing 20 were described as being 
"hippy types" although there were some older people 
among them. People of this caliber, we have now 
discovered, have been "scientifically adjusted" for a new 
role in Alternative 3. There have been reports of 
animals — particularly farm animals — disappearing in 
large numbers, although failures associated with "batch 
consignments" appear to have occurred... 

JULY 15, 1977, The Daily Mail- 
Men in face masks, using metal detectors and a 
Geiger counter, yesterday scoured a remote Dartmoor 
valley in a bid to solve a macabre mystery. All appeared 
to have died at about the same time, and many of the 
bones have been inexplicably shattered. To add to the 
riddle, their bodies decomposed within 48 hours. Animal 
experts confess they are baffled by the deaths at Cherry 
Brook Valley near Postbridge. Yesterday's search was 
carried out by members of the Devon Unidentified 
Flying Objects center at Torquay who are trying to prove 
a link with outer space. They believe that flying saucers 
may have flown low over the area and created a vortex 
which hurled the ponies to their death. 

Mr. John Wyse, head of the four-man team, said- "If 
a spacecraft has been in the vicinity, there may still be 
detectable evidence. We wanted to see if there was any 
sign that the ponies had been shot but we have found 
nothing. " 

The Daily Mail report concluded with a statement 
from an official representing The Dartmoor Livestock 
Protection Society: "Whatever happened was violent. 
We are keeping an open mind. I am fascinated by the 
UFO theory. There is no reason to reject that possibility 
as there is no other rational explanation." These were 

Archimedes Press 

18 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

typical of the threads which inspired the original 
television investigation. It needed one person, however, 
to show how they could be embroidered into a coherent 
whole. Without the guidance of that person, the Anglia 
television documentary could not have been produced 
and Trojan would not have contacted Colin Weston. 
That person was Sir Bernard Lovell, Director of Jodrell 
Bank Observatory. 

Archimedes Press 

Section Three 

"In order to misdirect, you must do one of two things: 
omit or embellish. " 


IT is not called murder. It is an Act of Expediency. 
Many Acts of Expediency have been sanctioned by 
the A3 Policy Committee, a cabal of sixteen 
representatives dispatched from the Pentagon and the 
Kremlin. An unknown number of people — including 
distinguished radio astronomer Sir William Ballantine — 
have fallen victim to Acts of Expediency, revealed here, 
in print, for the first time. Consequently, prominent 
political plants with connections to A3, including two in 
Britain, numbered among those that attempted to 
prevent the publication of this book. They argued that 
the events of the future are inevitable; that there is 

Archimedes Press 

20 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

nothing to be gained by the dissemination of facts. 
Attempts were also made to neuter the televised 
investigative report of the same name. Those attempts 
were partially successful; information vital to the story 
was withheld. The censored information is now in our 
possession, and as we have indicated, there was a great 
deal that Weston's team did not discover. They did not 
know, for example, that Sir William Ballantine's death 
was soon followed by that of Emeritus Professor of 
Aeronautics and Aerospace at Stanford University, 
Howard Stanley Seifert (Appendix A). Nor did they 
know about the A3 Policy Committee meetings. 

Alternative 3 appears preposterous until one 
analyzes the history of the so-called space-race. From 
the start, the public have been slow-dripped information, 
much of which is erroneous. Many advanced research 
initiatives have been kept classified. In 1949, four 
monkeys — Alberts I, II, III & IV — participated in 
experimental V2 rocket tests. They all died either in- 
flight, from heat-exhaustion or upon impact following 
parachute failure. In 1951, two more monkeys, Alberts 
V & VI, perished in Aerobee rocket tests. When news of 
the tests leaked, it was explained that Monkeys in Space 
had been kept secret for one reason: to avert protest. 
Most people accepted the official story — that the Alberts 
had been the first flesh-and-blood space -travelers. Was 
it the truth? By 1951, the V2 rocket, a World War II 
relic, had been superseded by far more sophisticated 
rockets. Were "Monkeys in Space" a carefully-crafted 
experiment in misdirection? There is evidence that 
suggests that by 1951, the superpowers were in 
possession of far more advanced space technology than 
was publically admitted. Much of that evidence has 
been supplied by experienced pilots. 

At 8:30 PM on January 20, 1951, Captain Lawrence 
W. Vinther — then with Mid-Continent Airlines — was 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 21 

ordered by the controller at Sioux City Airport to 
investigate a "very bright light" above the field. He and 
his co-pilot, James F. Bachmeier, took off in a DC3 in 
order to intercept the "bogey." 

The light dove towards them, passed 200 feet above 
them, then reversed direction. Soon it was flying 
parallel to the DC3. Light emanated from a cigar- 
shaped object bigger than a B-29. The craft lost altitude, 
passed under the DC3 and disappeared. Two months 
later, on March 15, thousands of people in New Delhi 
were startled by a strange object, high in the sky, which 
appeared to be circling the city. One witness was George 
Franklin Floate, chief engineer with the Delhi Flying 
Club, who described "a bullet-nosed, cigar-shaped object 
about 100 feet long with a ring of flames at the end." 
Two Indian Air Force jets were scrambled, but the object 
surged upward and vanished. If the witnessed craft are 
of human provenance, then despite official denials, it is 
evident that sufficient advances had been made by 1951 
to provide the basis for Alternative 3. 

By the mid-Seventies there were so many rumors 
about covert information-swapping between the East 
and West that the alleged "rivals" promulgated a 
masterpiece of deception: The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project 
(ASTP), July 1975. Leonid Brezhnev sent this message 
to the astronauts^ "Your successful docking confirms the 
correctness of technical solutions that were worked out 
and realized in cooperation by Soviet and American 
scientists, designers and cosmonauts. One can say that 
Apollo-Soyuz is a prototype of future international 
orbital stations." Gerald Ford expressed the hope that 
this "tremendous demonstration of cooperation" would 
set the pattern for "what we have to do in the future to 
make it a better world. " 

Archimedes Press 

22 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Policy Committee 

Chairman: a-Eight 

transcript furnished by "trojan" 

Thursday, February 3, 1977 


The Players: 

Eight Russians: r-one through R-Eight 

Eight Americans: a-One through A-Eight 


A-FlVE: You're crazy — 

A-Two: No, he's right — Lovell is a liability. 

R-Six: It was agreed that expediencies would be kept 
to a minimum. 

A-Two: The way he talks— 

R-One: Who listens to him? Nobody; he knows 
nothing. Theories, that's all... 

R-FOUR: The theories are still valid — 

A-FlVE: He's senile! 

A-ElGHT: He's not senile. I heard him lecture at 
Cambridge. What has he been saying? 

A-TWO: Oxygen extraction, cap-melt analysis. 
People are hstening. . . 

A-FlVE : He said the same thing at Huntsville. 

R-FOUR: What was said at Huntsville was supposed 
to stay at Huntsville. 

A-FlVE: No one took him seriously. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 23 

R-FOUR: It's still a breach; Lovell is an unknown 

A-FIVE: Then kill him. 

A-EIGHT: Anything else? 

A-TWO: He has mentioned the breach in the 
magnetosphere — prospective remedial action, etc., but 
nothing concrete — not yet, at least. (APPENDIX G) 

R-Six: How could he know? The technology required 
for remedial action is at least three decades away. 

A-Two: Maybe he doesn't know, not for sure, but has 
made some startling insights — 

A-ElGHT: Enough, let's vote. Those for expediency... 
Those against expediency... Fine, he hves. What about 
Ballantine and Rosa? 

R-SEVEN: Rosa has an Ampex? 

A-ElGHT: There is no question... 

R-SEVEN: Okay, both go. 

A-EIGHT: All agreed? Good. What about Seifert? 

R-SEVEN^ He's exhibiting paranoia — 

R-FOUR: About scientific adjustments? 

A-ElGHT^ Yeah, adjustments; he is reconsidering 
things in an ethical light... He has also mentioned 
prestidigitators in a recent paper on jet propulsion. 

A-Two: That wasn't unexpected — a few get away... 

A-EIGHT: He could be committed — 

A-TWO: Too risky. 

A-EIGHT: That settles that. 

End Transcript 


Archimedes Press 

24 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Scientific Adjustments (Appendix B) 

AUGUST 3, 1977: The London Evening News... 

Human "guinea pigs" have been used by the CIA in 
experiments to control behavior and sexual activity. The 
American intelligence agency also considered hiring a 
magician (Sidney Gottlieb) for another secret program 
on min d con trol Th e experim en ts o ver the past 20 years 
are revealed in documents which were thought to have 
been destroyed, but which have now been released after 
pressure from United States senate and congressional 
committees. The attempts to change sex patterns and 
other behavior involved using drugs on schizophrenics as 
well as on "normal" people. 

AUGUST 4, 1977: Ann Morrow, former Royal 
Correspondent, wrote in The Daily Telegraph- 
Some of the more chilling details of the way the 
Central Intelligence Agency tried to control individual 
behavior by using drugs on willing and unwilling human 
"guinea pigs" were disclosed yesterday by its director, 
Stansfield Turner. In a large wood-paneled room, Mr. 
Turner, who likes to be known by his rank of Admiral, 
told the Senate's Intelligence Committee and Human 
Resources Sub-committee on Health that such tests were 
abhorrent to him. He admitted that the tests were 
carried out in "safe houses" in San Francisco and New 
York where unwitting sexual psychopaths were 
subjected to experiments and attempts were made to 
change sexual conduct and other forms of human 
beha vior At least 185 private scientists and 80 research 
institutions, including universities, were involved. 

Senator Edward Kennedy asked some incisive 
questions, but like other members of the Senate 
Committee, found it difficult to keep a straight face 
when asking about the CIA's "Operation Midnight 
Climax. " Questioning two former CIA employees about 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 25 

the experiments which began in the 1950s and ended in 
1973, Senator Kennedy read out a bizarre list of 
accessories for the "safe houses" in San Francisco and 
New York where prostitutes organized. In his flat 
Bostonian accent he reeled off, straight-faced: "Rather 
elaborate dressing table, black velveteen skirt, one 
French Can-Can dancer's picture, three Toulouse 
Lautrec etchings, two-way mirrors and recording 
equipment. " Then he admitted that this was the lighter 
side of the operation. John Gittinger, who was with the 
CIA for 26 years, trembled and put a handkerchief to his 
eyes', he nodded in agreement. 

It is no coincidence that the aforementioned 
experiments also started — as is now openly admitted — in 
the Fifties — concomitant with Alternative 3. Objective: 
reserves of compliant laborers devoted to the 
construction of off world facilities. 


Dr. Ann Clark is a research scientist specializing in solar 
energy. An attractive woman nudging thirty, Clark 
made her decision towards the end of 1975. She would 
never have made it had her fiance not broken their 
engagement. Her future had seemed determined; she 
intended to soldier on at the research laboratory in 
Norwich until they were married. Conditions and pay at 
the laboratory were poor but they weren't intolerable. 
Then Malcolm shattered her with his news. He said 
their engagement was a mistake and that he had met 
someone else. Suddenly the laboratory seemed a squalid 
place. Although important, her research attracted little 
funding. Aging and obsolete equipment unnecessarily 
lengthened experimental projects, while other projects 
could not be started: "Maybe in the next fiscal year but 
at the moment there is no budget." Dr. Clark grew 
frustrated. She wanted to immerse herself in pure 

Archimedes Press 

26 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

research but there were too few resources at her 
disposal. It was time to start a new life. 

Plenty of others were following suit; they left Britain 
and defected to generous offers in Greater Europe, the 
Middle East and America. They both doubled their 
salaries and were offered superior conditions in which to 
work: the "brain drain" was underway. (APPENDIX D) 
Since 1965, roughly 4 million professionals had fled the 
UK. A department-head at Clark's Norwich laboratory 
had left for a post in America at the beginning of that 
year. Ann Clark wrote to him. Upon receipt of the letter 
he telephoned from California. His people were looking 
for someone with her credentials. A company recruiter 
was in London and he could arrange an interview. 

"I'll get in touch with him today," she said. 

"Let me call him first," he interrupted. "I'll put in a 
good word." 

"Thank you," Clark replied. 

She met the recruiter the following day and was 
hired on the spot. She drafted her resignation on the 
train back to Norwich. That was the week, as we will 
explain later, that she was first contacted by Anglia 
Television, and at first she was eager to talk to them 
about her plans. She felt it was important that people 
be told why scientists were leaving the UK. We are now 
confronted with a mystery for which we do not have a 
well-formed answer. 

Shortly after the Anglia Television unit arrived at the 
laboratory in JANUARY 1976 for the first of a series of 
interviews, Clark was visited by an American with 
whom she had a long talk. He left and she was visibly 
disturbed. That same American, we have now 
established, visited her flat that evening. He stayed for 
three hours. Thereafter, Anglia Television was no longer 
regarded with her former warmth. Her work at the 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 27 

Norwich laboratory continued but she withdrew. "It was 
very odd; she seemed to regard us with pity," said a 

Dr. Ann Clark left Norwich in a rental car on 
February 22, 1976. 


In July 1974, thirty-three year old Brian Pendlebury, a 
Special Projects Officer with the Royal Air Force, left 
Manchester for sunnier climes and a cushy post with 
Lenoxx Australia. An only child, Pendlebury would be 
missed by his parents, although he promised to write 

He kept that promise. He kept it for five months. 
Each week, his parents received a letter posted from 
Melbourne. They also received photographs^ Brian 
surfing; Brian with friends at a nightclub; Brian in front 
of Victoria Harbour. That harbour picture was a 
particularly good one. They had it framed and they put 
it on the mantelpiece. Everything was fine, save for one 
disconcerting fact: Brian Pendlebury did not hve in 
Melbourne, Australia. What is more, Lenoxx had no 
record of a Brian Pendlebury. 


Robert Patterson hated taxation and he had formulas 
with which he could prove the sinister nature of that 
practice. Friends at the University of St. Andrews, 
where Patterson was a senior lecturer, had grown 
accustomed, albeit wary, of his fiery monologues about 
fiscal policy. Many at the university were relieved when 
he announced his resignation; he and his family were 
leaving for the States: "I've been asked to participate in 
an interesting endeavor. . . " 

Patterson announced his resignation in FEBRUARY 
1976 and a paragraph appeared in the Guardian. 

Archimedes Press 

28 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Arthur Garrett read the paragraph and contacted 
Patterson. He offered Patterson a platform on which to 
air his views on taxation. 

"Thank you for the invitation," said Patterson, "but 
we leave within the week; there's no time." 

"A very brief interview," persisted Garrett. "We'll 
send a unit. You can speak from home." Buxton would 
squeal about the cost of sending a unit from Norwich — 
just for one interview — but let him bloody squeal. 
Anyway, John Benson could deal with Buxton. "It won't 
take long, Mr. Patterson," he promised. 

Patterson hesitated, "Tuesday morning?" 

"Absolutely; what time?" 

"Eleven o'clock." 

"And where?" 

"Right here at the house." 

Colin Weston, with whom we are now collaborating, 
made the trip to Patterson's. The house had been 
abandoned. According to neighbors, the Pattersons had 
left on Saturday. The family car was later found 
abandoned in London. 


FEBRUARY 6, 1977: Sir William Ballantine stared at the 
clock on the wall. Why hadn't Rosa called? He should 
have telephoned by now. From his study window 
Ballantine observed the 76-meter Lovell Telescope. 
Something had gone dreadfully wrong. It had been a 
mistake to keep the tape a secret. He should have 
disclosed its contents to the public. Men had achieved 
the impossible and the public must know. But who 
would believe him? So extraordinary were the facts that 
in spite of his credentials, he would be met with 
skepticism. Moreover, NASA would deny the evidence 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 29 

emphatically. He and Rosa had seen something that 
would alter man's perception about his place in the solar 
system. "Don't yap about this — not to anybody. You'll 
end up in the Thames," so said Harry Rosa. Of a 
paranoid disposition, Ballantine taped his calls and 
Lady Ballantine has permitted the inclusion of the 
following transcript. 

January 26, 1977 

ROSA: Did you destroy the tape? 

BALLANTINE: No, it's safe. I haven't said a word. 

ROSA: Thank Christ! Then we can burst the whole 
bloody thing. 

BALLANTINE: What are you talking about? 

ROSA: Batch consignments, that's what I'm talking 
about. You wouldn't believe — 

Ballantine: r m not following you. 

ROSA: I can't talk, not over the phone. I'm coming to 

BALLANTINE: To Cheshire? 

ROSA: You bloody bet and by the first damned flight 
I can. I quit, Ballantine, and I've stolen a baby jukebox. 

Ballantine: a jukebox— 

ROSA: Yeah, a jukebox — a miniaturized Ampex FR- 
900 — a decoder like we used last year. I've got one and 
I'm bringing it to England. 

BALLANTINE: What is going on, Harry? 

ROSA : Wait till we meet; it'll blow your mind. Jesus, 
I knew these bastards were evil but I never imagined. 
I'll ring you when I get to Liverpool. 

BALLANTINE: Tomorrow? 

Archimedes Press 

30 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

ROSA: We'll see; they know I have the jukebox. 
They're looking for me. I have to play it smart. Maybe 
through Canada, maybe not, we'll see — a week Sunday, 
probably before then. 

BALLANTINE: Are we in danger? 

ROSA: Yeah, Ballantine, me mostly, but I gotta go. A 
week Sunday at the outside — 

BALLANTINE: February 6 th . 

ROSA: Maybe earlier; maybe not — maybe not at all. 

BALLANTINE: What does that mean? 

ROSA: That I'm dead, that's what it means. 

BALLANTINE: Good Lord! Then what? 

ROSA: You'll move on the tape. 

February 6, 4:45 in the afternoon, and still no call 
from Rosa. Maybe he was dead. 5:30 — still nothing. 
They knew about the tape. They knew he intended to go 
public. He removed the tape from the safe. Maybe John 
Hendry could help. He was a well-connected newspaper 
executive. Hendry would tell him how to break the 
news. Ballantine checked his watch: 6:00 PM. He dialed 
John Hendry. Hendry answered on the second ring: 

BALLANTINE: John, this is Bill Ballantine. 

HENDRY: What a surprise! How are things at 

BALLANTINE: I've got a problem, John — a serious 
problem and I need your help. 

HENDRY: Certainly, anything. What sort of 

BALLANTINE: Can we meet? 

HENDRY: You in London? 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 31 

BALLANTINE: I'm calling from home; I could be there 
this evening. 

HENDRY^ I W as wrapping up for the night. 

BALLANTINE: It's important, John. I promise it will 
be worth your while. 

HENDRY^ How can I say 'no?' Come to the office. 

BALLANTINE: John, I'm putting a package in the post 
to you, but I'll explain that when I see you. 

HENDRY: Why not bring it? 

BALLANTINE: Not a good idea. 

HENDRY: Bill, what is this about? 

BALLANTINE : Don't worry, I'll tell you everything. 

The sequence of events which immediately followed 
the conversation has been described by Lady Ballantine. 
We met her on JULY 27, 1977. 

/ entered the study as Bill was replacing the receiver. 
He was agitated — this extremely self-possessed man. He 
was never flustered. He had been beha ving strangely for 
about a week. He wouldn't discuss it with me — which 
was also unusual. I'd never seen him look as frightened 
as he did then. He said he was lea ving for London. 

Bill had a package addressed to John Hendry; he 
asked me to take it to the post box. He said it was 
urgent and, although I pointed out that there was no 
collection that evening, he was adamant that I take it 
then. Bill left and I never saw him again. 

Ballantine's death made all the papers: Freak Skid 
Kills Science Chief. Only one photograph of the crash 
was made available to the press. A series were taken by 
photographer George Green but only one was released. 
It documented the wreckage and a blanket-covered 
mound on a stretcher. 

Archimedes Press 

32 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"Why were the photos confiscated?" we asked Green. 

"I've been ordered to keep my trap shut," he said, 
"but I'll tell you this: ask Hibbert why he lied at the 
inquest." John Hibbert, Her Majesty's Cheshire coroner, 
reported that the body had been "extensively burned." 
That was puzzling as there had been no fire. Hibbert, 
however, had not elaborated. We wondered why. 

"Ballantine's dead. Case closed." said Hibbert. Had 
Hibbert been gagged? We pressed him, mentioned the 
burning and then to our surprise... 

"It was ghastly," he said. And then he did for us what 
he failed to do at the inquest: he elaborated. 


Rosa heard about Ballantine over the radio, but it didn't 
register; he was stoned and slumming it in Earls Court. 
He lay dressed on an unmade bed, his unseeing pale 
blue eyes fixed on the ceiling. Wendy was out getting a 
paper. He tried to hght a cigarette! it hung, unht, from 
his dry lip. Ballantine... Harry rolled off the bed, 
fumbled through his wallet. Wendy returned and 
handed him the paper; he scanned the headlines. 
Ballantine had been murdered. 

"Pack, Wendy!" Harry shouted. "We have to leave 
right now/' 


"I need to think, Wendy, and I can't do it here. It isn't 

They hailed a cab from Earl's Court. Harry related to 
Wendy an abbreviated version of events. "I should go to 
the papers." 

"They won't believe you. I'm not sure /believe you!" 

"I'll make them believe me!" 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Three • 33 

The cab driver called over his shoulder: "You should 
try Anglia Television. They have a science thing that 
would love your story!" 

"Anglia — " Wendy began. 

"Right, Anglia. The show is called Science Report." 

"God, damn, you're right! Pull over. I have to make 
a call!" 

Archimedes Press 

Section Four 

SCIENCE Report had a successful thirteen-week 
trial on Anglia Television in 1975. Ratings were 
good and Anglia Television had httle difficulty 
persuading the network to sign a twenty-six week run in 
1976. Producer John Benson considered it a 
compliment, as Science Report was his baby. By the 
middle of December 1975, seven episodes were in the 
can — they were ahead of schedule and the production 
team was brainstorming topics for the final five. There 
were seven of them that day in Benson's office which 
was nestled behind Studio B. He'd often protest that the 
office was too small to hold proper meetings and also 
that he disliked the cooking smells which drifted up from 
the canteen. His protests were answered by growls from 
Aubrey Buxton, pointing out that space was at a 
premium; that Science Report didn't qualify for its own 
production office. Buxton, of course, had a handsome 
office — one with a view and air-conditioning. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Four • 35 

So there they were — the seven of them in the too- 
small office. Production assistant Jean Baker took 
notes. Benson paced back and forth. Also present were 
anchor-man Tim Brinton, reporters Katie Glass and 
Colin Weston; scientific advisers, David Cowie and Dr. 
Patrick Snow, and finally researcher Arthur Garrett. 
"Wave-power," suggested Weston. 

"Been flogged to death, love," said Benson. Benson, 
despite his habit of calhng everybody "love," was tough. 
When he said no he meant no. 

"Newsweek has an intriguing piece on robot 
servants — ' mechanical maids,'" said Cowie. 

"I like that!" exclaimed Benson. "Mechanical maids, 
yes, we could have fun with that. Jean love, put that 
down. We'll revisit it." 

"I think it's time we took a look at the brain drain," 
said Brinton. 

Benson stopped pacing, looked at him doubtfully. "I 
don't know, Tim. It seems a bit heavy." He rubbed his 
pointy chin. "Is it us?" 

"If it isn't, it ought to be," said Brinton. 

"We are allegedly a science program and the brain 
drain has special relevance for scientists..." conceded 
Benson. "If we dressed it up somehow — " He looked at 
Garrett. "Art? Reckon you could dig up some case- 

Garrett could see his work-load swelling: "It would 
take time," he said guardedly. 

"Of course it would, love. Getting the right people, I 
can see that. But it doesn't have to be a top priority. 
Say... five programs from now." It was that simple. 
None had the slightest inkling that they were about to 
embark upon the most astonishing television 
documentary ever produced. 

Archimedes Press 

36 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Garrett knew there was only one way to tackle this task: 
scores of phone calls. He would call head-hunting firms, 
universities and research facilities. He would brace 
himself for rejections. But if he worked hard enough — 
and had a bit of luck — he'd secure a collection of case- 
studies willing to talk. As it happened, Garrett got very 
lucky; one of his first telephone calls was to a research 
laboratory. Human resources informed him that one of 
their solar-energy experts was leaving for America. Her 
name was Dr. Ann Clark and she agreed to an interview. 

Colin Weston disembarked to Norwich with a small 
unit. According to Weston, "Clark was not only 
articulate but she had also done homework on 
emigration. She was a good subject and I'm glad we 
managed to get a few frames in the can." His delight 
died after the film was processed; most of it — audio and 
video — was blank. Benson fumed. He would have to 
send another unit. Buxton would be unhappy. He 
quizzed Weston: 

"You're sure she is that good — that it's worth going 

"It was a good interview," insisted Weston. 

Weston telephoned Ann Clark, explained the 
situation, and arranged a new appointment: 

She was sympathetic and agreed to see us again. But 
when we got to Norwich, she wasn't at her Hat. We 
found her elsewhere, back at the lab. She was flustered 
and appeared frightened. For some reason, she tried to 
give us the slip. She didn't want to talk. She asked lab 
security to waylay us. It didn't make sense. Morning 
the next, outside the lab, I managed to detain her; she 
said: "I can 't finish the film; I'm going away. " That was 
the last we saw of her. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Four • 37 


They were driving toward Norwich when Arthur Garret 
read the Guardian piece on Robert Patterson. Back at 
the office, Garrett phoned Patterson. 

"You better meet with more luck than in Norwich," 
said Benson sourly. "That was a disaster." We already 
know that Weston discovered an abandoned house. As a 
resource of last-resort, Weston met with the Chancellor 
of the University of St. Andrews, Bernard Edward 
Fergusson. According to Fergusson, Patterson had left 
earlier than he had intended: "He was summoned by his 
new employer; the appointment must have escaped him. 
I apologize on his behalf." 

"Who were his new employers?" 

The Vice Chancellor apologized, said, "Patterson was 
mum about his next incarnation, but apparently the 
Yanks presented him with an enticing opportunity." 
Patterson's whereabouts remain unknown, as do the 
whereabouts of Dr. Ann Clark. According to the 
American company for which Clark was leaving the UK, 
she declined the appointment "for personal reasons." 
Clark's rental car was discovered in the parking lot of 
Number Three Terminal at Heathrow. In the 
documentary, anchor Tim Brinton elaborated: 

Friends say Dr. Ann Clark flew to New York, but 
flight manifests say otherwise', Ann Clark did not leave 
Heathrow on a plane. Here, where she parked her 
rental car, Clark's trail goes cold. 

By April 1976, the brain drain project was deemed 
lost. Witnesses on which the episode hinged were 
missing. Audio and video equipment had failed on 
several occasions. Buxton roared about the "reckless 
waste of resources." Had it not been for producer John 
Benson, the fate of the Science Report episode would 
surely have been sealed. Benson, in a Hammersmith 

Archimedes Press 

38 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

pub on April 11, overheard a disturbing story. A man 
called Pendlebury, an engineer, had left the UK for 
Melbourne and vanished. Odder still, his parents had 
received letters regularly from an address at which 
Pendlebury had never lived. "Brian was a selfish sod," 
one of the pub patrons said. "But daft, isn't it?" 

It didn't make sense to Benson, but in light of the so- 
called brain drain and the confounding disappearances 
of Patterson and Clark, he was intrigued. He mentioned 
the episode the next day to Colin Weston. "Disappearing 
boffins," Colin said matter-of-factly. 

"Maybe a prank..." 

"And if it isn't?" asked Weston. 

"Well what else could it be?" 

"Maybe there's a pattern: Perhaps Clark, Patterson 
and Pendlebury are connected," replied Weston. 


"Let me poke around in Manchester — visit his 

"Look, love, please. We're a week behind schedule 
and we can't afford tickets to Manchester." 

"John, I've got a feeling; I've got a feeling we're on the 
edge of something big." 

Benson shook his head. "We've got a show to do. I 
know you're still sore over the Clark and Patterson cock- 
ups, but relax." 

"Buxton blames me." 

"Buxton blames everybody for everything. That's the 
way Buxton's made. Anyway, I got the ass-kicking, not 
you. He's going to pull the plug." 

"I'll go on my day off," said Weston. "I'll pay my own 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Four • 39 

"You're persistent, Weston. Okay, see what you can 
dig up but don't bill anything to the station" 

Weston had thrown down the gauntlet and 
Manchester would prove the turning-point for the 
foredoomed Science Report episode, Alternative 3. 

Dennis Pendlebury is a retired milkman. He and his 
wife Alice live in an Openshaw duplex. They are an 
ordinary couple. A couple of modest means, the 
Pendleburys made many sacrifices to send son Brian to 
university. Mrs. Pendlebury worked as a charwoman. 
Weston sat at the kitchen table, flipped through 
photographs of their son dispatched from Melbourne. 
The Pendleburys sat facing Weston, Dennis' arm 
wrapped around Alice's shoulders. They drank tea. 

"So we were disappointed when he stopped writing, 
but not surprised; he wasn't a natural letter-writer." 

"When did you learn of his..." started Weston. "When 
did his letters stop?" 

"Five years ago now — " Mr. Pendlebury began. 

"Six years," corrected Mrs. Pendlebury, "seven in 

"Our neighbor's daughter, Beryl — an old friend of 
Brian's — migrated to Melbourne, found a job. We asked 
her to look up Brian, that way she'd have a friendly face, 
see? So she visited his address — the address from the 
letters — but the landlord had never heard of Brian 

"That's the address to which we'd been writing!" 
exclaimed Mrs. Pendlebury. "We know he received our 
letters." Mrs. Pendlebury's hands shook — her teacup 
rattled on its saucer. 

Mrs. Pendlebury said to her husband: "Show Mr. 
Weston the letter." 

Archimedes Press 

40 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"We wrote to his firm, inquired about Brian; here's 
their reply." 

Weston took the letter embossed with the Lenoxx 
Electronics Corporation logo. It read: 

Thank you for your letter which has been passed to 
me by the Managing Director. I am afraid that you ha ve 
been misinformed for I have checked our personnel 
records for the past five years and I have established 
that at no time has the company employed, nor offered 
employment to, anyone by the name of Brian D. 
Pendlebury. I regret that I cannot be of additional 

Weston frowned, "This is the correct firm?" 

"Pass me that wallet, mother." From the wallet he 
took a shp of paper. "There it is — Brian's own 

Mrs. Prescott, the Pendlebury's neighbor, a widow 
with a shrewd and agile mind, confirmed their story but 
had little to add. Weston borrowed the letter and 
photographs and left Openshaw on foot for the station. 
On the train he studied the photographs, particularly 
those on Victoria Harbour. There was something 
unusual about the photographs. At the studio he enlisted 
the help of cinematographer Ian Craig. Craig created 
copy-negatives from the original photographs and 
produced several enlargements. When the enlargements 
were complete, Weston could see clearly the anomaly 
that he had noted on the train: In the background of 
every shot were three identical birds flying in a 
triangular formation. The photographs were mock- 
ups — frauds. He hurried to Benson's office: "We've had 
a breakthrough, John. This is no mere 'brain drain' 

Archimedes Press 

Section Five 

"Twentyone others," said Tim Brinton on television, 
"chiefly scientists and academics, have vanished under 
unusual circumstances." They were among four- 
hundred researched — ostensibly for an extended version 
of the brain drain program — by Science Report staff. 
Some, Brinton explained, had disappeared alone and 
others, like Patterson, disappeared with their families; 
all told friends, relatives, neighbors and colleagues that 
they were going abroad. However, as we have already 
indicated, only part of the story was presented on 
television. Many facts were still not known when the 
show was taped and a portion of the material was 
censored by executive producer Aubrey Buxton, a 
principal personage also devoted to the suppression of 
this book. 

AUGUST 9, 1977: Letter from Aubrey Buxton to 
Messrs. Ambrose and Watkins... 

Archimedes Press 

42 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

I have been given to understand that you propose a 
book based on one of the Science Report programs 
produced by this company and that you plan to publish 
confidential memoranda in which I was a participant. I 
am not prepared to sanction such publication as I would 
consider it a gross invasion of my privacy. As you are 
undoubtedly aware, my company has now formally 
denied the authenticity of the material presented in that 
program. It is to be hoped that you do not proceed with 
this project but, in any event, I look forward to receiving 
a written undertaking that no reference will be made to 
me or the memoranda. 

August 12, 1977: Letter from Solicitor Edwin Greer 
to Aubrey Buxton... 

/ have been instructed by Mr. David Ambrose and 
Mr. Leslie Watkins and I refer to your letter of the 9 th . 
My clients are cognizant of the statement made by your 
company following the transmission of the Alternative 3 
program and, in conducting their own inquiries, they are 
mindful of the background to that statement. They 
point out that any copies of memoranda now in their 
possession were supplied willingly by the persons who 
either received them or sent them and that they 
therefore feel under no obligation to refrain from their 
publication, although they will consider your request for 
anonymity under advisement. 

One of the first batches of memoranda we received 
related to a curious discovery made by researcher Arthur 
Garrett in May 1976. By that time, despite objections 
from Buxton, the Science Report team had been enlarged 
and allocated its own production office. 

MAY 17, 1976 : Memo from Arthur Garrett to John 
Benson — C.C. to Marquis Townshend, Chairman... 

We have now established that relatives of two of our 
missing people, Dr. Penelope Mortimer and Professor 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Five • 43 

Michael Parsons, received letters which appeared to 
have originated in Australia. In both cases, the letters 
bore the address used in the Pendlebury case. 
Photographs of Dr. Mortimer and Professor Parsons 
include the bird-formation artifacts present in the 
Pendlebury shots. A Melbourne PI has verified the 
address and he reports that it is a two-bedroom ground- 
floor flat near the harbour. It has been empty for a year. 

MAY 13, 1976: Memo from Aubrey Buxton to Mr. 
John Benson... 

/ have been notified of Garrett's unauthorized 
inquiries in Australia. I have already issued specific 
instructions that I am to be kept fully informed on all 
aspects of this project. Please repeat those instructions 
to Garrett and all other members of the Science Report 
team and ensure that they are understood. I am 
surprised to learn that, despite my warnings, you are 
still determined to waste company time and money. Let 
me remind you that Science Report is regarded by the 
Network as a serious program and that its credibility 
can only be damaged by this wild-goose chase with 
which you are obsessed. The more I learn of this affair, 
the more obvious it becomes that you are losing your 
objectivity as an editor and producer. Many people 
disappear deliberately, sometimes for personal reasons. 
I will not tolerate this station turning that sort of 
situation into an excuse for sensationalism. I assumed 
that you were experienced enough to recognize that the 
photographic evidence is fraudulent. Have you 
considered that some of your so-called mysteries might 
have been caused by incompetence on the part of your 
staff? Did Dr. Ann Clark, for example, refuse to grant 
Weston a second interview because she found his 
manner offensive during the first one? Did Garrett 
confuse the date and send an expensive unit on a fool's 
errand to Scotland? These are the questions which 

Archimedes Press 

44 ■ Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

should occupy your attention, not unsubstantiated 
nonsense. I am not prepared to sanction any further 
expenditure in Australia and I recommend, once again, 
that you resume the duties prescribed in your contract. 

May 19, 1976 : Memo from John Benson to Arthur 

CONFIDENTIAL: / attach a copy of a rollicking I 
received from Aubrey Buxton. It's self-explanatory and, 
for the moment, I'd like you to keep it to yourself. In the 
future, don't send carbons to anyone before checking 
with me. We'd better soft-pedal for the moment on 
Australia. Will you line up Mortimer and Parson's 
parents to be interviewed by Tim or Colin? 

Six days later, on MAY 25, Arthur Garrett gave 
Benson bad news: "No interviews with Mortimer or 
Parsons," he said. "They changed their minds." 

"But why?" demanded Benson. "Did they give you an 

"None at all," said Garrett. "They say they'd sooner 

"You think they've been got at?" 

Garrett nodded in assent. "That's the impression I 
got but proving it, that's another matter." 

"They're important, love. Have another go at them." 

Garrett did, but Mortimer and Parsons, despite their 
former agreement, would have nothing further to do 
with Science Report. We tried to contact them in 
September 1977, but we were too late. They had gone 


This question of the staged photographs and letters was 
deliberately omitted from the television program. At the 
time, it was a question of relevance. Benson admits 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Five • 45 

regret^ "I thought Buxton was nit-picking, but he was 
adamant. Their value didn't appear worth the 
aggravation. If I'd known then what I know now..." On 
January 3, 1978, we received an envelope from Trojan 
containing sensitive documents which shed unexpected 
insight onto something called "The Smoother Plan." The 
Smoother Plan was an early directive addressed to A3 
National Chief Executive Officers. 

November 24, 1971: 

The recent publicity which followed the movement of 
Professor William Braishfield was unfortunate and 
potentially damaging: In order to avert any repetition, it 
has been agreed to adopt a new procedure in all cases 
where families or others are likely to provoke questions. 
The procedure, to be known as "The Smoother Plan, " is 
designed to allay fears or suspicions in the immediate 
post -movement period. Department Seven will arrange 
for letters, photographs and mementos to be dispatched 
to concerned parties. Cover addresses will be circulated 
to National Chief Executive Officers. Officers will then 
issue addresses to individual movers. At least four 
addresses will be provided in each "country of 
destination." There is, however, no limit to the number 
of movers allocated to a given addresses. The Smoother 
Plan will operate for a maximum of six months in 
respect to each individual, unless circumstances are 

It is emphasized that, because of the overhead 
involved, The Smoother Plan is to be activated in 
selected cases only, subject to review. Only PR risks will 
be considered. Most movers, (i.e., families), will not 
merit this treatment. Batch consignment components 
will not be considered. 

It was chnical and cruel, but it made sense. 

Archimedes Press 

46 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Policy Committee 

Chairman: r-eight 

transcript furnished by "trojan" 

Thursday, March 3, 1977 



A-Two: Nobody's bitching about Ballantine, but 
what about Rosa? 

A-ElGHT: We'll find him; he's on the loose in London. 

R-THREE: Do we know where the tape is? 

A-ElGHT: No; we've turned Ballantine's place over 
but nothing. 

R-ElGHT: It wasn't in the car? 

A-ElGHT: No. 

A-Two: We don't know where Rosa is and we don't 
know where the tape is. Maybe they're together? 

A-ElGHT: He'd have blown it — the story. 

R-One: You're positive he's in London? 

A-ElGHT: He was in Earls Court — with a girl in her 
twenties. We missed him by an hour. 

R-ElGHT: Have you seen the expediency report on 

R-TWO: Entirely satisfactory. 

A-FlVE: I'm not sure he deserved a hot job. 

R-FOUR: Sure he did. 

A-One: He didn't suffer; it was instantaneous. 

R-ElGHT: Is Lovell under surveillance? 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Five • 47 

A-ElGHT He's laid up with bronchitis. He might as 
well be in isolation. 

R-ElGHT: Then everything's under control. Maintain 
surveillance on Lovell. 

End Transcript 


The "Hot Job" 

Spontaneous Combustion: a phenomenon 
confirmed by John Hibbert who gave evidence at the 
Ballantine inquest. Hibbert, when pressed about the 
"extensive" burns on Ballantine's body, made this 

It was technically accurate to describe Ballantine's 
body as extensively burned although those words 
embrace only part of the truth — an understatement. I 
was requested to make that understatement in order to 
allay public alarm. I was conscious that there had been 
some degree of public hysteria following reports of 
spontaneous combustion and I agreed that full- 
disclosure would be of little value at the hearing. 

I regret that decision and I welcome this opportunity 
to atone for my failure. Ballantine's body was not 
merely burned', it was reduced to cinders and scorched 
bones. His skull had shrunken due to intense heat, but 
his clothing sustained little damage. There were small 
scorch-marks on the steering wheel, but the rest of the 
vehicle showed no evidence of fire- damage. Extensive 
damage was suffered by the vehicle, but not by fire, as 
the police stated at the inquest. This is the first occasion 
on which I have personally encountered spontaneous 
combustion in a human being but I have studied papers 
relating to twenty-three similar occurrences. There is 
still no known explanation for this phenomenon. 


Archimedes Press 

48 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

On Wednesday, February 10, 1977, three days after 
Ballantine's death, Harry Rosa telephoned the Science 
Report office. Colin Weston took the call. Rosa was 
guarded and refused to give his name, and until he 
mentioned missing scientists, Weston doubted his 


WESTON^ Would you repeat that, what you said 
about scientists? 

ROSA: I know why they're vanishing. 

Weston: Tell me. 

ROSA: Not on the phone. 

WESTON: Well, really, this is a bit— 

ROSA: I'm not shitting you! Ballantine was killed. 

WESTON: Ballantine? 

ROSA: Ballantine, the astronomer. 

WESTON: The car crash. 

ROSA: I me t him at NASA, in Houston — that's why 
he's dead. 

WESTON: You aren't making sense. 

ROSA: Can we meet? 

WESTON: Was Ballantine murdered? 

ROSA: Either we meet or I go someplace else. 

WESTON: From where are you calling? 

ROSA: Public box, north of the studio. 

WESTON: Then come in! 

ROSA: Too risky. 

Weston: Mr.— 

ROSA: Just Harry... 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Five • 49 

WESTON^ Harry, you having me on? Were you really 
with NASA? 

ROSA: A busy street, maybe... 

WESTON^ All right, we'll do it your way. I'll meet you 
around the corner on Market Ave. I'll be in front of the 
Boer War Memorial, wearing a blue suit, holding a... red 

Weston and Rosa were to meet in one hour. A hidden 
camera was positioned adjacent to Norwich Castle and 
Weston's "red book" was equipped with a miniaturized 
transmitter in order to record the conversation. 


WESTON: I think you're looking for me. 

ROSA: How far are you willing to go with this? 

WESTON: As far as it takes. Can you help? 

ROSA: Yes and Bernard Lovell can confirm what I 

WESTON: Lovell? 

ROSA: Lovell, yes, at Jodrell Bank. Ask him about 
Alternative 3. 

WESTON: Riddles, Harry. What's "Alternative 3?" 

ROSA: Later; right now we do this my way. 

Weston: Fine. 

ROSA: Let's walk. 

Viewers will recall that the sound quahty was poor 
during the reenactment interview, particularly during 
the section when they were discussing Bernard Lovell 
and Alternative 3. There was a great deal of static 
interference and Weston's radio microphone picked up 
passersby and traffic. In actuality, there was no such 

Archimedes Press 

50 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 
ROSA: I'm nervous. 

Weston: why? 

ROSA: I'm afraid of heart attacks and embolisms and 
spontaneous combustion... 

WESTON: It was an accident — a freak accident. 

ROSA: Not an accident; it was called an expediency. 
I know what happened. I have to get on record. Meet 
me at this address, tomorrow morning, ten-thirty. Bring 
everything you've got — camera, witnesses. I'll tell you 

Rosa dashed across the road and disappeared down 
Castle Meadow. Weston was disappointed. The 
elaborate set-up, it seemed, had been a ridiculous waste 
of time. He looked at the scrap of paper which Rosa had 
pushed into his hand. On it was scrawled an address in 


"Well, what do you think?" he asked Benson. 
"Follow through, love. I'll arrange a unit." 
"What about Bernard Lovell?" 
"I'll talk to Tim; see if he fancies a trip to Cheshire." 

Archimedes Press 

Section Six 

WESTON arrived at the Lambeth address with 
a camera crew shortly before 10:30 AM on 
February 11. It was a derehct three-story 
with rubbish moldering in the front garden. Most of its 
windows, hke those of its neighbors, had been boarded 
up, but in one on the second floor a dirty sheet billowed. 
The garden gate had been ripped away and there were 
broken roof-tiles on the path leading to the front door. 
Weston hurried up the steps, followed by the 
technicians, and rapped on the door. No reply. He tried 
again, harder. He shouted and pummeled the door with 
both fists. A girl called from inside^ "Who is it?" 

"Colin Weston." On the other side of the shabby door, 
in the darkness of the hall, Wendy stood shaking. She 
didn't know who they were or what they wanted but she 
did know that they could arrive at any time, and that 
they would hurt Harry. She bit her bottom lip, "Who?" 

Archimedes Press 

52 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Weston shook his head in frustration. There was no 
number on the house. He stepped back along the path to 
double-check the numbers on either side, returned to the 
door. "This is 33, isn't it?" 

"Who did you say you were?" Wendy's American 
accent, now obvious, was the confirmation Weston 

"Colin Weston," he repeated. "I'm here with a film 

Wendy was still suspicious. Maybe it was a trick. 
Harry had said they used all sorts of tricks. "How can I 
be sure?" she called. "What program are you with?" 

"Science Report — Harry invited us." 

A short silence, then the sound of heavy bolts being 
drawn back. The door was opened inches. Wendy, her 
hair unkempt and her eyes wide with anxiety, stared at 
Weston then at the camera, sound equipment and tangle 
of wires. "You're really with Science Report?" she said. 

"Can we come in?" Weston said. "Harry did invite 
us." He showed her Harry's hand-written note. 

She pulled the door open. "You won't get much out of 
him," she said, "not this morning." 

They followed her down a hallway and up a flight of 
stairs. Ancient flower-print paper peeled away from the 
walls. Wendy stopped and she shouted down to the 
soundman who was the last in: "Bolt the door after you; 
we've got to keep it bolted!" She waited, watching, 
while he did so. "You know, this is a waste of time," she 
said quietly to Weston. Maybe it would be better if you 
turned around and left." 

"He asked me to be here, so I'm here." 

She shrugged again. "Fine," she said haughtily. 
There were three doors leading off the landing. She 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Six • 53 

opened the one at the front of the house, and there, in 
the room with the sheet-covered window, Weston saw 
Harry Rosa. He didn't recognize Rosa, not at first, for 
what he saw was a haggard and vacant-eyed creature. 
It was shivering convulsively and its teeth were 
chattering; it was clutching a matted blanket to its 
naked shoulders! it was hunched defensively with its 
knees up to his chest on an old sofa — the only bit of 
furniture in the room. Weston stepped forward 

"Harry?" Rosa pressed further into the rotting sofa 
cushions, his eyes wild. 

"Who are you?" Harry growled. 

"It's Colin Weston, Harry. Do you remember me?" 

Wendy tried to help, "It's all right, Harry. He's with 
Science Report." 

Rosa gave a howl of despair. "It's them^ he yelled, 
"They've bloody tricked you and now they've found me!" 

"What's he talking about?" demanded Weston. 
"What's the matter with him?" 

Wendy ignored him. She knelt by the sofa and 
cradled Rosa. "Now, Harry," she said, "it's alright. 
There's nothing to be frightened of." She glanced up at 
Weston, jerked her head towards the door. "You'd better 

"Is he high?" 

"Get out of here!" 

"Maybe we should get a doctor." That was when 
Rosa, hysterical, flung Wendy aside and leapt from the 

"Come on, you bastards!" he yelled. "Come and kill 
me!" He waved his arms wildly and the blanket shpped 
to the floor. Save for socks, he was naked. He sprang at 

Archimedes Press 

54 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Weston. Weston tried to dodge, but Rosa's nails raked 
down his face — narrowly missing his eyes — leaving 
ragged furrows in the flesh of both cheeks. The film 
technicians, wedged behind Weston in the doorway, were 
unable to help. Weston drove his elbow into Rosa's nose. 
The fight was over. Rosa clutched his face with both 
hands and collapsed to the floor. His heroin-ravaged 
body was racked by sobs. 

"I'm sorry," Weston said to Wendy. "I didn't 

"I told you to go!" She wiped Harry's face with her 
sweater. "Now for God's sake, leave!" 


At the studio, Benson listened to Weston recount the 
altercation with Harry. Meanwhile, Katie Glass dabbed 
at Weston's raw face with cotton swabs wetted with 

"We can't leave him there like that," Benson said. 
"We have to call the police." 

When the police arrived, Wendy and Rosa were gone. 
According to Wendy, she went out to buy antiseptic and 
bandages. When she returned, Harry was gone. He has 
not been seen since. 


Benson, Weston, Garrett and Glass clustered around a 
Steenbeck flatbed editing suite and re-watched the short 
film shot on Market Ave. 

"That's the spot!" said Benson. "Go back!" Garrett 
rewound the 16 -mm film. 

"Right, love, stop — right therel" The Boer War 
Memorial clung to the edge of the frame. The camera 
tracked Weston and Rosa as they proceeded down 
Market Ave. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Six • 55 

WESTON^ It was an accident — a freak accident. 

ROSA: Not an accident; it was called an expediency. 
I know what happened. I have to get on record. Meet 
me at this address, tomorrow morning, ten-thirty. Bring 
everything you've got — camera, witnesses. I'll tell you 

"Okay, kill it," said Benson. Garrett froze the reel, 
brought up the lights. "Well," asked Benson, "what do 
you think?" 

Glass shook her head doubtfully. "An addict," she 
said. "Maybe it's an elaborate fantasy." 

"I'm inchned to agree," said Benson. "I'm not sure we 
should waste any more time on him. Colin?" 

Weston rubbed his bandaged face. "Remember what 
he said about vanishing scientists? Maybe you're right: 
maybe he is an addict, but it's a hell of a coincidence, the 
way his fantasies reinforce our work. Did Ballantine 
really go to Houston?" 

"Yes, as a visiting lecturer," said Glass. "But it was 
on the wire; it wasn't a secret." 

Benson stood, glanced at his watch. "What do you 
want to do, Colin?" 

"I want to talk to Lady Ballantine." 

"You can't. Today is the funeral." 

"Tomorrow, then; I'll be discreet," said Weston. 


Friday, February 12, 1977 

Lady Ballantine was cordial when Weston arrived by 
appointment at 3:30 PM. She told him what she would 
tell us on JULY 27. 

The package: Did she know what it contained? 

"I can't imagine," she said. 

Archimedes Press 

56 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Did she know why he posted it to London, and to 
whom it was posted? 

"That's what puzzled me," said Lady Ballantine. "It 
was posted to the man he intended to meet." 

"I'm sorry," said Weston. "I don't follow." 

"The envelope — it was addressed to his old friend 
John Hendry. John called on Friday, late. He was 
waiting for Bill." 

"Have you spoken to Hendry or asked him about the 

"He rang on Sunday, but I was too upset to think 
about packages." 


At 8:00 PM, Weston met Hendry at his Fleet Street 
Office. "A "premonition" — that's the word he used," said 
Hendry. "Extraordinary, isn't it?" 

"The package," persisted Weston. "What was in the 

Hendry crossed the room to a table by the window, 
took a loose spool of magnetic tape from a drawer. 
"This," he said. 

"What's on it?" 

"Not a thing as far as we can tell." 

"You've played it?" 

"Sure, we tried everything but there's nothing there. 
You know what I think? I think he sent the wrong one." 

"That's not likely, is it?" said Weston. "Someone so 

Hendry went back to his desk and lit a cigar. 
"Normally, yes, but he wasn't himself on Friday. His 
voice on the telephone, it was manic, almost 
unrecognizable. He must have been under an incredible 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Six • 57 

amount of stress — trouble at home perhaps, or at work. 
I don't know." 

Weston picked up the tape. "Could I borrow this?" 

"Why do you want the tape?" 

"We have pretty sophisticated equipment at the 
studios. Maybe we can learn something." 

"Why not," said Hendry, "but keep me in the loop." 


On JUNE 20 1977, during the original broadcast of 
Alternative 3, there was nothing on the encoded tape. 
Tim Brinton pointed out that it held only "the cold 
crackle of the vacuum of space." But had Harry Rosa 
not been stoned on that chilly FEBRUARY Lambeth 
morning, that "cold crackle" would have told a very 
different tale, for Rosa had the Ampex decoder — the so- 
called "jukebox." Nevertheless, progress was being 


Lovell's housekeeper was protective of her ward. She 
bullied him about his pipe-smoking: It was a filthy habit, 
she argued. When he developed a vicious case of 
bronchitis, she had felt vindicated; Lovell would relent. 
But Lovell would sooner murder than abandon his pipe! 
it was part of him. She regulated Lovell's visitors as 
well. The housekeeper had watched Brinton on 
independent television and she had a soft spot for him, 
but it wasn't soft enough: "Not this month," she said. 
"It's out of the question." 

Had Brinton known that Lovell was under 
surveillance, he would not have persisted. "It really is 
very important; I wouldn't dream of troubling him if it 

Archimedes Press 

58 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

She relented, disappeared upstairs and consulted 
with the sickly Lovell. "I can make a provisional 
arrangement, Mr. Brinton," she said, "but it will depend 
on his health." 

"What date?" 

"MARCH 4, 2:00 PM. Is that suitable?" 

Brinton checked his calendar. "Thank you," he said. 
"I'll be there." 

Archimedes Press 

Section Seven 


HE Lovell interview took place as planned on 
March 4, 1977. 

"This Harry," he said, "I don't think I can 
place him." 

"He said it was important that we talk to you," said 
Brinton. "He told us to ask you about 'Alternative 3.'" 
Lovell packed his pipe with fresh tobacco, lit it. 

"He did?" Lovell said between puffs. 

"Are familiar with Alternative 3?" 

"Let me show you something," said Lovell. He 
unlocked a desk drawer, withdrew a folder. "Read that; 
it is — was," Lovell winked, "a confidential report issued 
by a consortium of intelligence agencies! a report on 
which I did consulting." Brinton flipped through the 
jargon-laden report; scanned over heavily-footnoted 

Archimedes Press 

60 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"What is this?" asked Brinton. 

"That is the future, Tim. You are holding a report 
that prescribes remedial action." 

"For what is remedial action being taken?" 

"A number of things, Tim; call it a cascade of 
failures." The 64-year-old Lovell removed his tweed 
jacket and rolled up his shirt-sleeves. "We screwed up," 
Lovell said matter-of-factly. His pipe had gone out. He 
did not relight it. "In fact, we screwed up collectively, for 
once. In what year was the last atmospheric test of a 
nuclear weapon conducted?" 

"I'm afraid I can't say." 

"Well, we think it was in June of '74. There is a 
secret moratorium on nuclear weapon testing in the 
upper atmosphere and for the most part, it has been 
successfully enforced." 

"I don't see what this has to do with anything," 
Brinton said, tapping the report's manila cover with his 
pointer finger. 

"I'm getting to it. Are you familiar with the process 
of ionization?" 

Brinton shook his head, and exasperation crept into 
the corners of his eyes. "I'm an anchor, not a science- 

"In short, it's the process whereby which an atom is 
converted into an ion. An ion is an atom with an 
unequal number of electrons and protons. If an electron 
absorbs enough energy and exceeds the so-called 
"ionization potential" by which it is confined, it will 
break free, thus creating a positively-charged ion. 
Conversely, if an electron is captured by an atom — if it 
crashes through the atom's electric potential barrier — a 
negatively-charged ion is created. When atoms are 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 61 

bombarded with radiation, ions are formed — simple, 

Brinton humored him and nodded. 

"I'm getting to the point: An untold number of 
atmospheric weapon tests resulted in an enormous 
amount of ionization in the upper-atmosphere. The tests 
were conducted before the physics and risks were 
understood. Plasmas — " Lovell produced a piece of paper 
and a pencil and began to sketch. "Okay, like this — 
plasmas are an electrically-conductive gas, and there's a 
lot of it in the so-called "vacuum of space," or at least we 
think there is. But plasmas are not native to our own 
upper-atmosphere, not in quantity! Not until nuclear 
weapon testing. Plasmas aren't like typical sohds, 
liquids and gases; they have very distinct properties and 
most importantly, they interact with magnetic fields in 
acute and dynamic ways. Well, Mr. Brinton, the fact of 
the matter is, these plasma-byproducts began to interact 
with the Earth's magnetic field in unpredictable ways 
and several layered tunnels were burrowed through the 
mesosphere and into the thermosphere." 

"Again, not a science -guy... So you are saying there 
are holes — that the atmosphere is escaping?" 

"No, things don't escape into the vacuum of space — 
Earth has sufficient mass to preserve its atmosphere." 

"Then I'm not sure what you're getting at..." 

Lovell tapped the paper on which he was drawing 
with his pencil. It was clear that he was unaccustomed 
to abridging his thoughts for a layman. "Okay, think of 
the magnetosphere as a shield. The magnetosphere is 
generated when Earth's magnetic field is charged by 
particles from the Sun. Well, Earth's magnetic field has 
been irreversibly altered by plasmas generated by 
atmospheric weapon tests. Consequently, the 

magnetosphere is failing and the magnetosphere is the 

Archimedes Press 

62 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

only thing that stands between you and solar radiation. 
There is a word for the phenomenon but we aren't using 
it in public^ "clefting." 

"Like a palate?" 

"Sure! Earth's magnetic field has a harelip, or in this 
case, several harelips. I'm not going to mince my words: 
life on Earth is in dire jeopardy. We anticipate a total 
collapse of Earth's magnetic field." Lovell considered his 
pipe, left it where it lay, sat back in his chair. 

"We can't go public with this," said Brinton. Beads of 
sweat stood out on his forehead. 

" You can't go public with this." 

"And Alternative 3..." 

"You're a smart man, Tim; you can probably guess: 
small colonies on Mars, bases on the moon, orbiting way- 
stations. There is nothing practical about the 
colonization of Mars, but its magnetic field is somewhat 
intact and that's our chief consideration. We considered 
going underground and there is a large element that has 
done so or is in the process of doing so, but that presents 
its own set of problems." 

"Why are you telling me this, Bernard?" 

"Think about it, Tim; what will you do? You can't go 
public — you don't have any facts with which to 
substantiate your claims. Even if you managed to 
present your case, you would be laughed off the stage. 
Who would believe it? And yet, ironically, from man's 
most grave error, the knowledge with which to reach the 
stars in a laughably simple way was discovered!" 

"Wait, wait, but firstly, can't these clefts be 

"Alternative 1 is devoted to the repair of our 
magnetic field. It has not met with success. Projects 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 63 

have been abandoned in the Soviet Union already. 
Essentially, Alternative 1 requires the construction of a 
handful of very large and very powerful particle 
accelerators. Alternative 1 will proceed in concert with 
Alternatives 2 and 3, but we can't bet on its success. 
The accelerators may even exacerbate the problem." 

"I see." 

"Do you? Would I really share this with you if I 
didn't think people should know? Do I really expect you 
to compromise your professional and personal ethics? 
Tell this story, Tim. An exclusive club shouldn't be 
responsible for the fate of Mankind." Lovell unrolled his 
sleeves, buttoned his cuffs and put on his jacket. "We 
have men on Mars. From outposts on the moon, they are 
able to reach Mars in 33 days using quantum propulsion 
craft." (Appendix H) 

"Quantum propulsion!" Brinton was no longer taking 
notes. He did not look well. 

"In the presence of a radioactive isotope, quantum 
leaps are observed in atoms — instantaneous changes in 
quantum state. Electromagnetic radiation is released 
which reciprocally fuels an ionic propulsion engine. It is 
very efficient and relatively easy to maintain. Anyway, 
that's the sunny side of the street." 

"And..." Brinton hesitated, "the dark side?" 

"Pretty much everything else! a certain amount of 
regularity must be perpetuated on Earth — the wheels 
have to keep turning, things have to be manufactured; 
institutionahzed complacency has to be guaranteed. So 
Alternative 3 is also in the business of entertainment, or 
misdirection by another name. Threats will have to be 
presented to the public but they must be threats for 
which solutions may be devised; we can't sell futility — " 

"I'm sorry, Bernard, I've made a terrible mistake 
coming here. This is..." Brinton stood, wiped his sweaty 

Archimedes Press 

64 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

palms on his pants, and unfastened the top button of his 
oxford. "Listen, I don't think we had this talk. I'm not 
your man, uh, not for this. This isn't my scoop, uh, 
something — something terrible is happening to me, to 
my head, listening to this. I've made a terrible mistake!" 
Brinton ejected a cassette from the recorder with which 
he taped the conversation and handed it to Lovell. "Do 
what you want with it. Science Report — " Brinton balled 
his fists and stomped his foot, "/can't handle this!" He 
left and in so doing, rather than tell the truth, became a 
proponent of misdirection; and unwittingly, so did 
Science Report... 


"Lovell recommended consulting someone at NASA, or 
maybe an ex- astronaut," Brinton lied. 

"Good idea," Benson said. He paced with his hands 
folded behind his back. 

Garrett ran his hands through his hair. "And how do 
I do that?" he demanded. "By the way, Tim, you look 

"Thank you, Garrett." 

"Okay, Art, an ex- astronaut is a priority. Get on it!" 

"It'll cost," persisted Garrett. "I'll have to hire 
someone in America and that could cost real money. 
Buxton's not going to like it." 

"Never mind about Buxton," Benson said. "You do 
your job and leave Buxton to me." He grinned: 
"Anyway, he's a busy man and I don't think we ought to 
trouble him with such a small matter." 


Three former astronauts refused to cooperate. A fourth 
agreed, but grudgingly: Hank McDermott. In 
preparation for the interview, Garrett reviewed relevant 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 65 

transcripts from McDermott's Apollo missions. Here is a 
poignant excerpt: 

MCDERMOTT: Hey, Houston, do you hear this 
constant bleep we have here now? 

MISSION CONTROL: Affirmative. We have it. 

MCDERMOTT: What is it? Do you have some 
explanation for that? 

MISSION CONTROL: We have none. Can you see 
anything? Can you tell us what you see? 

MCDERMOTT: Oh boy, it's really, really something 
super-fantastic here. You couldn't imagine this. 

Mission Control: O.K., could you take a look out 
over that flat area there? Do you see anything beyond? 

MCDERMOTT: There's a ridge with a pretty 
spectacular... Oh, my God! What is that there? That's 
all I want to know! What the hell is that? 

MISSION CONTROL: Roger, interesting. Go Tango — 
immediately — go Tango. 

MCDERMOTT: There's a hght now... 

MISSION CONTROL: Roger, we got it, we've marked it. 
Lose a little communication, huh? Bravo-Tango, Bravo- 
Tango, select Jezebel. 

No more speech could be heard; McDermott had 
switched to another frequency: Jezebel! On the tape 
there was only static. Tim Brinton, you may recall, 
underlined that point when the television documentary 
was transmitted. He said: " Jezebel — a form of 
code? Almost certainly, but what did it mean? 
Absolutely nothing to the estimated six hundred million 
people listening in on earth." Remember the allegations 
made by former NASA-man Maurice Chatelain? 

"Certain sources with their own VHF receivers that 
bypassed NASA broadcast outlets claim there was a 

Archimedes Press 

66 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

portion of Earth-Moon dialogue that was quickly 
censored by the NASA monitoring staff." 

That censored portion, according to Chatelain, 
included these words from Apollo 11: 

"These babies were huge, sir — enormous. Oh, God 
you wouldn't believe it! I'm telling you, there are other 
spacecraft out there, lined up on the far side of the crater 
edge. " 

Could that have a direct link with the exchange 
heard on the McDermott tape? Had McDermott, like the 
men of the Apollo 11 mission, seen something too 
startling to be revealed? Or were these astronauts 
mistaken? The idea of unknown and unidentified 
spacecraft "lined up" on the Moon — to the astonishment 
of human astronauts — was ridiculous. And yet, 
McDermott agreed to be interviewed via satellite from a 
studio in Boston, Massachusetts. The plan was to tape 
the interview and edit it later. In fact, as viewers will 
remember, the interview ended abruptly and in the 
oddest possible way and it places a bigger question mark 
on the subject of Alternative 3. There was, right from 
the start, something slightly manic in McDermott's 
expression and he showed a tendency to laugh nervously 
for no apparent reason. Nevertheless, he spoke lucidly 
and displayed no reluctance about discussing the 
breakdown he had suffered after his final return from 
space. Nothing remarkable happened, or seemed likely 
to happen, until Tim Brinton asked a question which we 
present verbatim: 

Now it has been suggested that all of you in the 
Apollo program saw more than you have been allowed to 
admit publicly. Would you comment? 

The effect on McDermott was immediate: He 
shouted: "What are you trying to do, man? Just tell me 
that! What are you trying to do?" 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 67 

Brinton apologized: "I was only — " 

"You trying to screw me?" demanded McDermott. He 
leaned forward in his chair, glowering into the Boston 
camera. "That what you want? You want to screw me?" 

"Of course not," said Brinton quickly. "And I'm sorry 

"Like Ballantine? Is that what you want?" He got no 
further; his voice was muted in midsentence, his picture 
on the monitor vanished and was replaced by static. 

"Hell's teeth!" Brinton exclaimed. 

He was interrupted by Benson's voice. "We don't 
know where he's gone." 

Like Ballantine? 

That's the line which grabbed their attention. It had 
to fit in, somehow, with the mystery of the tape received 
by Hendry — and with the strange circumstances 
preceding Ballantine's death. 

"We have to talk to him face-to-face. Arthur, see 
what you can arrange." He turned to Colin Weston. 
"You're our man, Weston," he said. 

Weston beamed. "Great! But isn't Buxton going to 
raise a stink?" 

"Probably," said Benson. "But leave that to me." 

Buxton did "raise a stink;" he raised it more 
vehemently than Benson anticipated. We have the 
memoranda which reveal the strength of Buxton's 
feelings; a strength bordering on fanaticism. 

Archimedes Press 

68 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Policy Committee 

Chairman: a-Eight 

transcript furnished by "trojan" 

Wednesday, July 13, 1977 


AUTHOR'S NOTE: This meeting, held later in the 
month than was customary, was two days after The Los 
Angeles Times published the controversial interview — 
detailed in SECTION ONE of this book — in which Dr. 
O'Neill outlined the solution he called "Island 3." 

"There is really no debate about the technology 
involved; it has been confirmed by NASA s top people. " 


R-Two: This Princeton man, Gerard O'Neill — not 

A-FOUR: Sure, but no harm done — it sounds like 
science fiction — highly theoretical. 

A-ElGHT: It is just theoretical as far as he is 
concerned. He knows nothing. 

R-FlVE: He is respected. People listen. 

A-ElGHT: Let's keep this in perspective. Washington 
doesn't want to underscore the O'Neill thing. We ignore 

R-SEVEN: Nevertheless, Moscow is worried. Rosa, for 
instance — 

A-ElGHT: Not Rosa, again! 

R-SEVEN: And Lovell... 


Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 69 

Batch Consignments: 

how to wrangle a "component" without really 




William Lowther 

The Daily Mail 

AUGUST 27, 1977 

Morgan Hall (a.k.a. George H White) was a spy. He 
always kept a jug of martinis in the refrigerator. He had 
a two-way mirror in the bathroom. But Morgan's life 
was full of woe. His masters were slow in sending 
money. His assignment was sleazy. The codename for 
his project was "Operation Midnight Climax. " It was 
meant to be a perpetual secret and no wonder. For two 
full years Morgan spent his days sitting on a portable 
toilet watching through his mirror drinking his martinis 
while a prostitute entertained men in the adjoining 
bedroom. Her job was to persuade clients to drink 
cocktails. What they didn't know was that the drinks 
had been mixed by the mysterious Morgan Hall. They 
were more chemical than alcohol. Morgan had to record 
the results. We still don't know just what they were or 
how they worked. But some of the drinks gave instant 
headaches, others made you silly or drunk or forgetful or 
just plain frantic. The effects were only temporary and 
nobody was harmed, much. Morgan was employed by 
the Central Intelligence Agency and it was America's top 
spy bosses who sent him out from headquarters near 
Washington to set up the "laboratory" in a luxury 
apartment overlooking San Francisco Bay. Now, 1,647 
pages of financial records dealing with the operation 

Archimedes Press 

70 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

have been made public as part of a Congressional 

It was all part of the agency's TkfiT-ULTRA mind 
control experimental program. It was reasoned that a 
prostitute's clients wouldn't complain. The financial 
records released yesterday show that Morgan was 
always writing to headquarters. Says a typical letter — 
"Money urgently needed to pay September rent. " His 
bills for the flat include Toulouse Lautrec posters, a 
picture of a can-can dancer and one marked, "Portable 
toilet for observation post." Says the CIA: "Morgan 
Hall died two years ago. We have no idea where he is 
buried. " 

Lowther's story was followed by two more reports 
which lent credence to Trojan's allegations regarding 
secret behavior-modification experiments. 

SEPTEMBER 2, 1977, The Times- 

The general assembly of the World Psychiatric 
Association, meeting behind closed doors, has adopted a 
resolution condemning the Soviet Union for abusing 
psychiatry for "political purposes. " The international 
code of ethics, called the "Declaration of Hawaii," follows 
years of criticism against the WPA for its failure to 
respond to "ethically ambiguous" incidents. 

AUGUST 28, 1977, The Sunday Telegraph: 

Hospitals for the mentally ill and mentally 
handicapped have been instructed by the Health 
Department to collect statistics on operations being 
carried out to alter personality. For the first time, 
ministers have acknowledged that there is growing 
concern. The operations, known as psychosurgery, are 
carried out to remove or destroy portions of brain tissue 
to alter the behavior of severely depressed or 
exceptionally aggressive patients who do not respond to 
drugs or electric shock treatment. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Seven • 71 

Neither article pointed out that these operations can 
also be performed to control the behavior pattern of men 
and women who are completely sane, or that they are 
performed regularly. . . 

Dr. Randolph Crep son -White spoke to us about these 
operations when we met him in the Somerset village to 
which he retired in 1975. He spoke frankly: "I 
performed five of these operations — four young men and 
one young woman. All subjects were perfectly sane. 
There were two objectives: The patients had to be 
completely de-sexed — to have their natural biological 
urges taken away — and they had to have their sense of 
self blunted. They would, upon discharge, obey any 
order without question. I recognized that what I was 
doing was unethical, but I was told that the operations 
were vital to "national security." I was ordered to sign 
an "Official Secrets" form. Soon it became apparent that 
I would be required to perform many more operations. I 
quit. I pled grave illness, which is true, and retired." 
Dr. Crepson-White died on OCTOBER 19, 1977 of 

Archimedes Press 

Section Eight 


UGUST 15, 1977: Aubrey Buxton responds to 
Solicitor Edwin Greer... 

/ am surprised by the contents of your letter 
and I must insist on receiving undertaking from Messrs. 
Ambrose and Watkins to the effect that I will not be 
mentioned in their projected book. I note that your 
clients are aware that Anglia Television has admitted 
that the Alternative 3 program was an unfortunate hoax 
and I am puzzled by the apparent evasiveness of your 
second paragraph. You state that your clients are 
'mindful of the background to that statement. ' What, if 
anything does that mean? I repeat that it would be 
wrong to perpetuate in book-form what has already 
become a public misconception. There is absolutely no 
truth in the suggestion of any East-West covert action 
such as that described in the program and your clients 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 73 

apparently intend to compound what has already been 
admitted as a serious error of judgment. If your clients 
persist in their attitude, particularly in respect to my 
privacy, I will ha ve to seek legal advice and/or redress. 

AUGUST 13, 1977: Solicitor Edwin Greer responds to 
Aubrey Buxton... 

There was no evasiveness in my letter of the 12 th . I 
pointed out that my clients have conducted their own 
investigations in Britain and America into the subject of 
their projected book. Indeed, that investigation is still 
continuing; any decisions taken by Mr. Ambrose and Mr. 
Watkins, in consultation with their publishers, will 
depend on their eventual findings and I am instructed to 
inform you that it is not possible for them to give you 
any undertaking. 

Six days later, Greer received a letter from a well- 
known MP that had been lobbied by Buxton. Because of 
Britain's restrictive libel laws, the name of the MP has 
been omitted: 

In common with a number of my colleagues in the 
House of Commons, I have already deplored the 
misguided motives which resulted in the television 
program about the so-called Alternative 3. Letters from 
many of my constituents demonstrate the alarm which 
was engendered and which, despite the subsequent 
statement by the television company, still lingers. The 
fact that your clients should apparently be determined to 
capitalize on that alarm is, to my mind, quite 
scandalous. I intend to seek an injunction to prevent the 
publication of this book. 

No such injunction was served but this author was 
forced to make many unseemly compromises. 

APRIL 12, 1977: Memo from Aubrey Buxton to 
Marquis Townshend, Chairman... 


Archimedes Press 

74 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

The note from Benson, bearing today's date and 
relating to his interest in America, is clear confirmation 
of what I have already indicated to you and the 
Executive Producer. Benson has become 

unprofessionally obsessed with this ridiculous 
investigation with which he is persisting and I 
recommend that he be replaced immediately as producer 
of Science Report. I have studied his contract and we 
would be within our rights to transfer him. I have on 
several occasions warned him about squandering 
company time, money and resources. He has defiantly 
persisted in doing so. I was told nothing of the inquiries 
which have been commissioned on our behalf in America 
although, as I mentioned again at the Senior Executives' 
Meeting on Friday, it is company policy for matters of 
that nature to be channeled through me. It would be 
wrong to sanction Weston 's fact-finding mission', nothing 
can possibly be gained by talking to McDermott. We 
should, I suggest, instruct Benson to abandon this fool- 
hardy exercise. 

APRIL 13, 1977: Memo from Marquis Townshend to 
Aubrey Buxton... 


Let us not forget that Science Report is a network 
success due in part to Benson's ingenuity. However, I 
note your objections and I too am concerned about the 
monies channeled into said project. Weston 's proposed 
trip to the States is not justified. If the situation should 
change as a result of any further information you may 
receive, I will be prepared to discuss the matter. Until 
then, the episode is frozen. 

Benson read the note, pushed it across his desk to 
Garrett. "That bloody Buxton!" he shouted. 

"Now what?" asked Garrett. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 75 

"We're going to do it, Art. We are definitely going to 
do it. What we need is more information." 

"Like what?" 

"I don't know, love. You're the researcher — the sort 
of information that'll swing it with George." He got up 
and started pacing the room. "What was it Lovell said 
about cooperation between the superpowers?" 

"He seemed to have the idea that they were working 
together on Alternative 3." 

"That could be it!" said Benson excitedly. 

"Do we know anyone who might develop that thought 
for us? It has to be somebody with real prestige." 

"Andrew Shonfield." 

"Who's Shonfield?" 

"He's the director of the RIIA." 

"There's no harm in trying. Is Colin around?" 

Garrett shook his head, "His day off." 

"It's always his day off when I need him," said 
Benson. "Ask Katie to pop in and see me, will you? She 
can start sounding out Shonfield." 


At 5:15 PM, Katherine Glass commenced her interview 
with Shonfield, parts of which, as you may recall, were 
eventually used in the transmitted program. Shonfield 
was cautious, suspicious of Glass' motives; he did not 
want to be a party to sensationahsm. 

SHONFIELD: On the broader issue of US -Soviet 
relations, I must admit that there is an element of 
mystery which troubles many people in my field. To put 
it simply, none of us can understand how it is that the 
peace has been kept over these past twenty-five years. 

GLASS: The experts are baffled? 

Archimedes Press 

76 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

SHONFIELD: Baffled and, for once, in agreement. The 
popular myth of mutual assured destruction does not 
stand up. 

GLASS: What is your explanation? 

SHONFIELD: What we are suggesting is that — at the 
very highest levels of East-West diplomacy — there could 
be operating a factor of which we know nothing: a 
massive but covert operation in space. However, we are 
not in the business of speculation... 


Benson barged into the Chairman's office: "You read the 
Shonfield transcript?" 

Townshend, busy at his desk, sat back and smiled 
resignedly. "Yes." 


"Well, what?" 

Benson groaned, exasperated. "Surely that clinches 

Townshend shook his head. "No, John, not as far as 
I'm concerned. It's either speculation or 

disinformation — maybe both." 

"But George, it all fits! Lovell and Shonfield, each a 
top man in his field, both suggesting cooperation in 
space between the superpowers. Rosa, his links to 
NASA and Ballantine, the disappearing scientists and 
McDermottl He saw something incredible on the Moon! 
For Pete's sake, we can't drop it, not now!" 

"Stop pacing and sit down." Townshend gestured to 
a chair. "Go on, sit down." He waited. Benson sat. 
"Now, for the last time, let's get this clear. I realize that 
something odd may be going on but I don't think it's our 
business. You've done a tremendous job with Science 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 77 

Report, John. Everybody thinks so and the ratings 
reflect that. It's time to buckle down." 

"That means you're still saying "no" to America?" 

"That's exactly what it means." 

"If it's a matter of money, can I point out how much 
profit this company made last year?" 

"The company does make profits and good ones but it 
does not do so by sending teams gallivanting around the 
world on fool's errands. Let it rest, John." 

Benson got up, prepared to leave. "I'll arrange a 
junket! Weston could do a piece for the holiday series 
while he's there. I've spoken to Tim Shaw who's taken 
over the holiday programs and he's quite keen, and I 
know an airline that'll play ball." 

"God, you don't give up, do you?" Townshend grinned. 
"All right, give Weston the green light." 


"Why did you disappear that night?" asked Weston. 
"The night of the interview — why did you run out like 

"Have another beer," said McDermott. He pushed a 
fresh can across the low table and opened one for 

"The bastard was trying to screw me. Did I see more 
than I've been allowed to admit publicly! Jesus, what 
sort of fool question was that?" Weston forced a grin, 
tried to relieve the tension. He felt hke an angler 
stalking a clever fish — gently, gently. He took a long 
drink, sighed, put down the empty glass. 

"I needed that beer," he said. 

McDermott was glowering, "You aiming to screw me, 
too?" He was frightened. Weston felt a twinge of pity. 
Would anything be gained by pushing McDermott any 

Archimedes Press 

78 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

further? It would be easy to tell Benson that McDermott 
had refused to talk; that he couldn't be persuaded. 
Benson wouldn't like it. In fact, he'd be bloody furious, 
but he'd have to accept it. Then he considered Harry at 
Lambeth, stoned, naked and terrified: "Camera, 
witnesses. I'll tell you everything. " Perhaps McDermott 
had the key to a piece of the puzzle. Weston needed 

"Well?" persisted McDermott. They were in canvas 
chairs behind the ranch-style bungalow which 
McDermott was renting in a lonely corner of New 
England. It was peaceful. No neighbors. Far in the 
distance, beyond the vast spread of scrub, they could see 
the towlike sprawl of the smoke-blue mountains. There 
were no noises from the bungalow behind them but 
Weston knew that the girl called Annie was busy in the 
kitchen. McDermott introduced him to her and then she 
scuttled out of sight. Annie, he felt, wasn't at all happy 
about this intrusion. She looked young, had straight 
hair, no makeup and gold-rimmed glasses. On the far 
side of the bungalow, at the top of the winding drive, 
Jack Dale sat in the rental car babysitting his video 

McDermott drained his glass. "Owned a place like 
this once," he said. "Thought I was putting down roots, 
you know? Used to go up there in the summer with the 
family — ah, it was all different then; we had a few 
horses and — " He stopped, smiled ironically, continued, 
"Guess you can say I'm not much into planning for the 
future anymore." He studied his empty glass. "Annie, 
we're out of beer! Bring a couple more, will you?" He 
glanced at Weston. "Or you want a real drink?" 

"Beer's fine," said Weston. 

McDermott grunted and shrugged. "Annie! There are 
two men out here dying of thirst!" She appeared with 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 79 

two sweating cans of beer. McDermott squeezed her 
hand. "Thanks, baby." 

"How about getting something on the record?" 
suggested Weston. 

"Like what?" 

"Like what you know about Ballantine." 

The guarded expression was back on McDermott's 
face. "I never knew the guy." 

"You didn't go to Houston and you didn't meet 

"Drop it, will you! I never knew him. I never met 

"But you know what happened to him." 

McDermott stood up. "Time to eat," he said. "Let's 
give your pal a shout." 

During dinner, McDermott converted to bourbon on 
the rocks. Their table-talk was casual, but several 
drinks later, McDermott agreed to a taped interview. 


MCDERMOTT^ Ballantine and a young radar-guy — 
Rosa — got their hands on a roll of magnetic tape. Rosa 
had access to the equipment with which it could be 
played — NASA techs called it a "jukebox." 

Weston: Jukebox... 

MCDERMOTT: Ampex recording equipment — the data 
could only be deciphered by the device for which it was 
designed, like an FR-900, or something similar. 

WESTON: Is this Rosa? Weston showed McDermott a 
photograph of Rosa. McDermott frowned, nodded. 

MCDERMOTT: Are you sure you don't want a real 

Archimedes Press 

80 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

WESTON: I' m sure, thanks. 

McDERMOTT: Bourbon's better for you... 

WESTON: You're saying the tape got Ballantine 

MCDERMOTT: I saw the way those guys looked at 
him. I knew those looks... 


There was a break in the interview. McDermott emptied 
his glass and shambled to the living room bar. On JUNE 
20, 1977, viewers did not see Annie return from the 
kitchen, nor did they hear her argument with 
McDermott. She thought McDermott was being 
indiscreet. But he was drunk, restless and resented 
Annie's remonstrations. He yelled at her, said she didn't 
have "nagging rights": "You aren't my goddamn wife!" 
She continued to argue — tried to persuade him; he grew 
madder still. He threw a tumbler of bourbon at the wall 
and the glass exploded. Annie left in tears. For the next 
hour he drank heavily. Weston worried that McDermott 
would lose consciousness but McDermott remained 
lucid — the mark of an inveterate drinker. He's drinking- 
himself sober, Weston thought. The interview 

WESTON: Hank, what happened out there — on the 

MCDERMOTT: I don't know how to put this, but it was 
a disappointment; we were late to the party. 

WESTON: 'Late to the party?' 

MCDERMOTT: The later Apollo Missions were smoke- 
screens — to cover up what was really going on out there, 
and the bastards didn't tell us — not a damned thing! 

Here, as viewers will recall, there was another break. 
It lasted only a split second on the screen but, in fact, 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 81 

filming stopped for more than an hour. When they 
resumed, McDermott was sweating heavily. He was 
sweating because of the alcohol and because of his 
excitement over what he was saying. They'd said he 
wasn't to talk about it. That's what the bastards had 
said. Well, he'd show them Hank McDermott wasn't a 
guy to be scared into silence. They didn't own him. He 
was out of the service now and maybe it was time for 
someone to talk. He was holding yet another drink as he 
waited for Weston's first question. 

WESTON^ Hank, you've got to tell me, what did you 

MCDERMOTT^ We touched down several kilometers 
east of our target and it was... it was crawling with 

WESTON^ Are you talking about men from Earth? 

MCDERMOTT: Nothing's the way you think it is. We 
were a dog and pony show — a PR stunt. A sideshow\ As 
early as Gemini III, every launch was accompanied by 
synchronized launches of Agena or Soyuz Rockets — at 
Baikonur, Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar; at Jiuquan, 
Kagoshima and Woomera; at Kourou and Alcantara. 
One small, badly-designed tin-can was publicized, driven 
by a band of broken men. We were a diversion! 

End Interview 

McDermott finished his drink and fell face-down on 
the carpet. Weston and Doyle left. The interview had 
been a success. 

Archimedes Press 

82 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Apollo 17 


20°11'26.88"N 30°46'18.05"E 

December 11, 1972 19:54:57 utc 

MISSION CONTROL: More detail, please. Can you give 
more detail of what you are seeing? 

HARRISON SCHMITT: It's something flashing. That's 
all so far. Just a hght going on and off by the edge of the 

MISSION CONTROL: Can you give the coordinates? 

HARRISON SCHMITT: There's something down there, 
maybe a httle further down. 

Mission Control: it couldn't be a Vostok, could it? 
HARRISON SCHMITT: I can't be sure. It's possible. 


batch Consignments 

The Chairman - A3 Policy Committee 


January 10, 1978 


August 27, 1958: 

Each designated mover will, it is estimated, require 
back-up labor support of five bodies. These bodies, 
which will be transported in cargo batch consignments, 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eight • 83 

will be programmed to obey orders without question and 
their principal duties will be construction and priority 
will be given to the construction of accommodations for 
the designated movers. 

However, in the interests of good husbandry, 
accommodations will also be provided for the human 
components of batch consignments, as well as for "food 
stuffs" — as a matter of urgency. The completion of these 
accommodations, which will be of a basic and utilitarian 
nature, will in normal circumstances take precedence 
over the creation of laboratories, offices, and recreational 
centers. All exceptions to this rule will require written 
authorization from the Chairman of the Committee in 
Residence. It is estimated that the average working life- 
span of human batch consignment components will be 
fifteen years and, in view of high transportation costs, 
every effort will be made to prolong that period of 
usefulness. At the end of that lifespan they are to be 
considered disposable. Preliminary work is now 
progressing to adapt batch consignment components, 
mentally and physically, to their projected roles and the 
scope of this experimental work is to be widened. 
Further details will be provided, when appropriate, by 
Department Seven. Pre-transportation collection of 
batch consignment components will be organized by 
National Chief Executive Officers who will be supplied 
with details of categories and quantities required. No 
collection is to be arranged without specific instructions 
from Department Seven. 

October l, 1971: 

Experimental processing of batch consignment 
components is now producing a 96% success rate. This 
is considered not unsatisfactory. The Policy Committee 
briefing circulated on SEPTEMBER 7, 1965, explained the 
necessity for all components to be desexed. On another 
note, the permanent elimination of self will and self- 

Archimedes Press 

84 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

interest has presented great difficulties. Long-term 
laboratory tests have revealed that an unaccountably 
high percentage of components eventually regress into 
pre-processing attitudes. Advanced work, conducted 
principally at Dnepropetrovsk has now resulted in a 
substantial reduction of the "component- personality" 
failure ratio. Finally, in the future, no desexing will be 
performed until after the personality adjustment of the 
projected component, male or female, has been assessed 
and approved. This will ensure that those which 
eventually return to their homes as "rejects" will betray 
no evidence of laboratory work. 

Archimedes Press 

Section Nine 

MONDAY, MAY 2, 1977: Benson was spending as 
little time as possible in his own office. He 
could no longer tolerate the smells from the 
canteen. He operated from a desk in the open-plan office 
which had been allocated to Science Report. At times, 
however, it tended to be too noisy, with too many 
telephones and too many people, and occasionally he was 
forced to retreat to his own tiny room behind Studio B. 
Benson and Weston were closeted there together, 
studying a transcript of the McDermott interview. 
Benson marked a section with a red pencil. 

"There, love," he said. "That's the bit that really 
intrigues me. What did he mean?" 

Weston read aloud: "One small, badly-designed tin- 
can was publicized, driven by a band of broken men. We 
were a diversion/" 

"I don't know," he said. "McDermott passed out." 

Archimedes Press 

86 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"That still leaves us with questions, doesn't it?" said 
Benson. "And I need answers." 

"Yes, but— " 

"No 'buts,' love! I'm getting enough 'buts' from 
Buxton. He's put in a complaint about you to 
Townshend; he says it was unethical of you to 
interrogate a drunken man. He wants to kill the 

"All right, so he was smashed, particularly towards 
the end. I'm prepared to admit that, but I'm certain he 
was coherent and telhng the truth." 

"I know, and then he fell flat on his face." Benson 
chuckled. "You stick with your version, love, because the 
Chairman wants to see both of us." 

"You're serious, then: Buxton is trying to kill it?" 

"Yes, indeed. And you didn't do the holiday piece I 
promised him." 

"What holiday piece?" 

Benson grinned, "Yeah, for the hohday series — 
something for Tim Shaw. He's pissed and so is the 
airline; they don't like to throw away junkets." 

"Oh, come on — " 

Benson stopped him: "Don't' worry; he's got his Isle 
of Man project." 

"Then we should locate Harry; he's got answers," said 

Benson frowned, got up to close the window. "So 
where do we start?" 

"Could try the police again," said Weston. 

"Be back by mid- afternoon," said Benson. 


Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 87 

The desk sergeant was polite but unhelpful. "You any 
idea how many people get reported missing in Britain 
every year?" he asked. "275,000 and those are the 
reported disappearances. God only knows how many 
don 't get reported." 

Weston handed him a photograph of Rosa. "He was 
last seen on February 11 th in Lambeth." 

The sergeant snorted, "Gives us plenty to go on, 
doesn't it? What makes you think he's missing? Maybe 
he doesn't want to see you anymore." 

"He was frightened, very frightened, and he got me 
confused with somebody else," said Weston. "He seemed 
to think that somebody was planning to kill him." 

"You think that he's been killed — that he's been 
murdered — is that what you're trying to say?" 

"I don't know," said Weston miserably. "I don't think 
so but I don't know." 

"Why should he confuse you with somebody else?" 

"Because he wasn't normal that morning; he was 
bombed out of his mind." 

"He was stoned?" 

"That's right." They were short-handed at the police 
station and it was a busy morning. The sergeant 
decided he had already wasted too much time. He 
pressed the photograph back into Weston's hand. 

"So what have we got? Male, 30s, squatter, a junkie, 
paranoid... Anything else you want to add?" 

Weston shuffled his feet, said sheepishly, "Sounds a 
bit daft, doesn't it?" 

"I've got your information," said the sergeant. "If 
Rosa turns up, we'll ring you." 


Archimedes Press 

88 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

The afternoon meeting with Townshend was a rough 
one. The Chairman was in a foul mood. Maybe Buxton 
was right. Maybe Benson was becoming 

"unprofessionally obsessed." Townshend had doubts 
about the transmission of an interview with a drunken 
subject. There could be repercussions. 

"But George, it could prove to be an invaluable part 
of the program," argued Benson. "There are just a 
handful of missing links." 

"Come back when you find those links." Townshend 
brushed imaginary crumbs from his hound's-tooth 
jacket, glowered at the pair of them. "Until then, your 
pet-project is dead." 

They returned to the small office behind Studio B. 
Benson sat at his desk, sniffed. "No fish on Mondays," 
he said. "Fish-days are the worst." 

"Lovell — he's all we've got left. If only we could get 
him to open up. You want me to try him?" 

Benson shook his head, picked up the grey internal 
telephone, and dialed the Science Report office. "Is 
Brinton there?" 


MAY 1971 : the authoritative pubhcation Computers and 
Automation carried an article by Edward Yourdon: 

...tremendous improvement in various precincts of 
Government, if one has faith — faith that the computers 
will work properly. Men have lost faith in their human 
leaders, and now things will be better if they have faith 
in a cold computing machine... 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 89 

national Security Cited by police as 

reason for maintaining Silence on use 

of records 

Stewart Tendler 
the times 

SEPTEMBER 9, 1977 

The names and personal details of tens of thousands of 
people scrutinized by the Special Branch for reasons of 
national security are to be fed into a new criminal 
intelligence computer purchased by Scotland Yard and 
which remains shrouded in mystery. 

When plans for the computer were drawn up two 
years ago it was understood that by 1985 the Special 
Branch would allocate space on it for up to 600,000 
names out of the system's total capacity ofl, 300, 000. 

Census projections have indicated that Britain's 
population will not increase in the next decade. So that 
figure of 600,000 means that the Special Branch was 
preparing to feed details of one person out of every 
ninety-five in the entire population into that computer. 
But that is merely the start. Discount from the total 
population all geriatrics, young children, and those who 
have been judged incurably insane and the ratio under 
surveillance comes down to about one person in fifty. 
Take that one step further and the implications are 
startling. If the average household comprises two 
adults, the ratio is reduced to one household in twenty- 
five. That means there can hardly be a street in Britain 
where at least one household does not merit computer- 
monitoring by the Special Branch. Can you now be 

Archimedes Press 

90 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

confident that you or your immediate neighbors are not 
being studied by the Special Branch? You can be 
absolutely certain that people you know, probably people 
very close to you, are getting this particular treatment. 
And the figures we have given, astonishing as they may 
seem, do not allow for those people programmed into 
other Special Branch computers — computers which so 
far have remained hidden on the classified list. 

Is this typical Special Branch work or does it indicate 
an operation on a scale required by Alternative 3? 

Yesterday a police source said that the Special 
Branch had yet to decide how many names would be 
placed on the computer and denied that 600,000 would 
eventually be filed. Scotland Yard said last night: "The 
question of the involvement of the Special Branch in the 
project to computerize sections of the records of C 
Department (the department covering CID and 
specialist detective squads) is not one we are prepared to 
discuss, since most of the work of the Special Branch is 
in the field of national security. The publication of any 
figures purporting to indicate the total number of 
records in any part of the project would amount to 

Special Branch is still surrounded by a certain 
amount of mystique and the same is true of the new 
computer. The Metropolitan Police and the Home Office 
have made few public statements about the nature of its 

Tendler also stated that the activities of the Special 
Branch were "a closely-guarded secret" and he added: 
"It is not known whose names and details have been 
gathered by the officers." We cannot prove that this 
particular computer has been used to sift "designated 
movers" and "batch consignment components" for 
Alternative 3 from the general population. However, 
because of information furnished by Trojan, we are able 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 91 

to state categorically that similar computers are used for 
this purpose. 


Fort George G. Meade, MD, USA 

PINE GAP, Alice Springs, Australia 

GCHQ, Cheltenham, United Kingdom 


Naicho, Japan 

Little trouble is taken over the selection of 
"components" for batch consignments. They need to be 
strong. That is the prime criterion. Their backgrounds 
and mental capacities are of secondary importance; all 
"components" undergo behavioral modification. But how 
is the value of a "designated mover" determined? 



The Chairman - A3 Policy Committee 



Standing instructions relating to the recruitment of 
designated movers have already been circulated by this 
Committee. However, recent reports from the Chairman 
of the Committee in Residence indicate that there have 
been failures in the execution of those instructions. 
These failures have produced unanticipated problems in 
the new territory and have resulted in an unacceptably 
high number of post -transportation asset-losses. This 
situation cannot be tolerated and I am once again 

Archimedes Press 

92 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

compelled by the Policy Committee to highlight the 
overarching aims of the Committee -in -Residence •■' Every 
effort must be made to eliminate dissension in the new 
territory Affiliative dispositions must be routed and re- 
entrained. National Chief Executive Officers will give 
priority -attention to re-enculturation initiatives 
undertaken by their scientific officers. Suggestibility- 
thresholds in all candidates must be determined prior to 
inculcation. Due to the scope of the initiative, the onus 
falls upon regional case officers. 

Candidate -quotas which remain unfulfilled include 
general practitioners, neurologists, chemists and 
bacteriologist. A satisfactory complement of computer 
scientists, mining technicians, and agriculturalists has 
been achieved. Future personnel requirements will be 
circulated to National Chief Executive Officers. 




Richard Tuffley, 27, endocrinologist — living and working 
in Swansea, South Wales... 

Orphaned when young and brought up his by 
mother's sister, now deceased. . . 

Unmarried and with no known relatives... 

Lived alone in a small rented flat near the 

Disappeared MONDAY, JANUARY 5, 1976... 

Last seen driving a light-blue mini-van in the 
direction of Cardiff. . . 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 93 

The van has still not been located. . . 

Statement from his department chief: "He was a 
first-class and highly-conscientious colleague — certainly 
not the sort one would expect to wander off. He was 
introverted and made few friends but I had no indication 
that he was in any way unhappy here." 

Gordon Balcombe, 36, senior administrator with a 
multinational manufacturing conglomerate... 

Living in Bromley, Kent, and working in central 

Divorced in 1969... 

Father of three children, from whom he is 

Lived alone in former family home! reported to have 
many women visitors. Some, according to neighbors, 
often stayed overnight... 

Disappeared on Thursday, February 5, 1976... 

Last seen leaving his office in a taxi... 

Taxi-driver was never traced... 

Statement from his managing director: "We were 
completely bewildered by his disappearance for he was a 
man with a future. Plans were being made for him to 
move to a senior position at our base in Chicago and he 
seemed excited by the prospect. We regard his 
disappearance as a great loss." 

Statement from Mrs. Marjorie Balcombe: 
"Gordon, for all I know, could be anywhere. I suspect 
that he is probably in America. He is the sort of man 
that executive head-hunters try to entice to new posts 
and it is quite possible that he would not bother to tell 
his old firm if he decided to accept a better offer. He 
would just go if it suited his purpose. That's the sort of 
person Gordon is: self-centered. And I shouldn't be 

Archimedes Press 

94 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

surprised to learn that he has some woman in tow. 
Women are his great weakness. The only thing that 
really puzzles me is the way he left so many of his 
clothes and other personal possessions in the house. 
That does strike me as being out-of-character." 

Sidney Dilworth, 32, meteorologist... 

Living and working in Reading, Berkshire... 


Wife died in a car crash in October, 1975... 

No Children... 

Lived alone in a mortgaged duplex... 

Disappeared Friday, April 16, 1976... 

Last seen driving a hired car in the direction of 

Vehicle later found in a car-park at Number Three 
Terminal, Heathrow Airport... 

Statement from his father, Wilfred Dilworth: "i 
keep telling the police that something really bad has 
happened to our Sidney but, although they're very 
sympathetic, they don't seem to be doing much about it. 
I've got a nasty feeling he's been murdered. He was 
always a very considerate lad and he'd never want me 
and his mum to have this sort of worry hanging over us. 
He was very upset after his wife was killed and he 
talked about trying to start a new life in Canada. In 
fact, the January before he disappeared he said he 
thought he had a job lined up there but, as far as I could 
gather, that fizzled out. At the research station they say 
he never mentioned anything about leaving but I 
suppose he wouldn't want to tell them until it was all 
settled. Now we've reached the stage where I dread 
opening the newspaper in the morning for I'm sure that 
one day I'll be reading that they've found his body." 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 95 

Also missing. . . 

Andrew Nisbett, 39, aerospace technician, born 
Tulsa, Oklahoma, disappeared on Tuesday, October 5, 
1976, from Houston, Texas, together with his wife, Rita, 
and their only son. 

Pavel Garmanas, 42, physicist, born in Usachevka, 
USSR, disappeared on Thursday, July 14, 1977, from 
his new home in Jerusalem, Israel. 

Marcel Rouffanche, 35, nutrition specialist, born in 
the suburb of Saint-Rugg near Avignon, disappeared on 
Wednesday, November 16, 1977, from his apartment in 

Eric Hillier, 27, constructional engineer, born 
Melbourne, Australia, disappeared on Thursday, 
December 29, 1977. Intensive investigation has shown 
that the figures given by Brinton in that television 
program represented only a fraction of the true total. 
And that total is still mounting. 


Alternative 3 


Storm Over TV Spoof 


Thousands of viewers all over the country protested in 
shock and anger over a science fiction "documentary" 
broadcast by ITV last night. From the moment that 
Alternative 3 ended at 10 PM, irate watchers jammed 

Archimedes Press 

96 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

the switchboards of The Daily Express and ITV 
companies to complain. 

This story made no mention of the evidence which 
had been given on-screen by Bernard Lovell or by other 
respected authorities such as Andrew Shonfield. 
McDermott's important contribution was also ignored. 
However, the story did indicate that... 

... the hour-long spoof purported to show a version of 
the scientific brain drain. The program was introduced 
by anchor Tim Brinton as a serious investigation into a 
disturbing trend. American and Russian spacemen were 
seen collaborating to set up a "new colony" while viewers 
were left to infer that the reason for the exploration was 
the projected end of life on Earth. The documentary had 
a disclaimer- What this program shows may be 
considered unethical. 

Viewers protested their shock immediately. Others 
complained of ITV s "irresponsibility." Early today, a 
spokesman for the Independent Broadcasting Authority 
said it had thought long and hard before allowing the 
documentary to be aired. But Mrs. Denise Ball of 
Camberley Surrey said- "I was scared out of my wits. 
It was all so real. " 

Mrs. Mary Whitehouse, the renowned Clean -JJp-TV 
campaigner, was another who believed the "Buxton 
denial. " She was quoted in another newspaper as 
saying- "I had hundreds of calls. The film was an expert 
piece of deception. " 

That was the immediate reaction and it was 
understandable. The facts assembled by Benson and his 
team were so alarming that people were eager to believe 
that they were untrue. Buxton's denial, which drew a 
comforting veil over the affair, was readily accepted. All 
this put men like Arthur Garrett in an invidious 
position. Over Robert Patterson, for example: Had 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 97 

Patterson really existed? That question was implied by 
the attitude of most newspapers, and for some 
unfathomable reason, officials at the University of St. 
Andrews refused to make any comment. Chancellor 
Bernard Edward Fergusson was on a "scholar's quest" 
abroad. Was Patterson a figment of Garrett's 
imagination? Was that why Weston had been unable to 
interview him? The questions were piling up. Days 
later, once Alternative 3 had been properly digested, 
Fleet Street considered the investigative report in a 
different light. 

Arthur Garrett told us that relief arrived on JUNE 26 
when he opened the Sunday Telegraph. Esteemed 
columnist Phihp Purser wrote: "a number of mysteries 
within the mystery posed by Alternative 3 remain 
unsolved." Philip Purser made it abundantly clear that 
he was too shrewd to be fooled by the Buxton denial. He 
concluded his Sunday Telegraph article with these 

It would be a mistake to Hie Alternative 3 a way too 
cozily with Panorama's spaghetti harvest and other 
hoaxes. Suppose it was fiendish double-bluff inspired by 
the very agencies identified in the program and that the 
superpowers really are setting up an extraterrestrial 
colony of outstanding human beings to safeguard the 

Many sensed the underlying truth. Tim Brinton 
received the following note from ESA Director General 
Roy Gibson: "I must congratulate you and Colin Weston 
on your assiduous research." 

Yet mainstream newspapers still exhibited a 
reluctance to pursue the subject of Alternative 3. Why 
didn't they question Marjorie Balcombe? Why didn't 
they contact Dennis Pendlebury in Manchester or 
Richard TuffLey's former colleagues in Swansea? The 
authors have already revealed that pubhcation of this 

Archimedes Press 

98 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

book was subject to rigorous and demoralizing 
censorship, as well as structural compromise. Likewise, 
is it possible that newspapers have too been subjected to 
similar pressures, and that they have yielded to those 
pressures? A key to this presumption was provided by 
Kenneth Hughes in the Daily Mirror on JUNE 20, 1977, 
the day of the broadcast. He had secured advance -access 
to material gathered by Benson and his team and his 
article was headlined: What on Earth is going- on? He 

A science program is likely to keep millions of Britons 
glued to their armchairs. Alternative 3 is an 
investigation into the disappearance of several 
scientists. They seem simply to have vanished from the 
face of the Earth. Chilling news is read by former ITV 
newscaster Tim Brinton who gives a gloomy report on 
the future. 

The program will be screened in several other 
countries, but not America. Network bosses there want 
to assess its effect on British viewers. 

The truth was, however, that network bosses in 
America, as well as in Russia, were permitted no 
discretion: Screening of Alternative 3 was forbidden. 
And in the UK, the backlash which followed the 
transmission resulted in a media-blackout. Andrew 
Shonfield, already introduced, was reluctant to become 
deeply involved. On JULY 9, Watkins visited Shonfield 
at the Royal Institute for International Affairs: 

WATKINS: Alternative 3 has been called a hoax. 
What is your reaction? 

SHONFIELD: It would be wrong, in the present 
political climate, for me to make any comment. 

WATKINS: You suggested, on record, that cooperation 
between East and West could involve some "massive but 
covert operation in space." Would you elaborate? 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 99 

SHONFIELD: I emphasized that this could be the 
situation but I did not state categorically that it was. In 
fact, as I recall, I explained that I was not in the 
business of speculation. 

SHONFIELD : You took part in that program as an 
expert commentator. How do you feel about its 
dismissal as a hoax? 

SHONFIELD: The program was of a more sensational 
nature than I had anticipated. I was surprised by some 
of its discoveries. 

WATKINS: Do you think there is validity in those 

SHONFIELD: I'm sorry. I'd prefer to say no more. 

The interview was unsatisfactory. However, only a 
few weeks later, we received information which provided 
deeper insight into Alternative 3. 


Policy Committee 

Chairman: a-Eight 

transcript furnished by "trojan" 

Thursday, August 4, 1977 



A-Two: But losing a whole batch consignment like 

A-EIGHT: We had bum luck, that's all there is to it. 

A-Two: Three hundred bodies smashed to bits — a 
complete write-off and that's all you can say? "We had 
bum luck..." Look, I'm not a technical man and I tend to 

Archimedes Press 

100 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

get lost with some of this technical talk, so will someone 
please explain just how a thing hke this can happen, 
because, I tell you, I've got a gut-feeling there's been 

R-FlVE: You can't prevent the occasional mishap — it's 
unrealistic and in this case, perfectly random. 

A-TWO: Yes, but— 

R-FlVE: Meteorites are very common; roughly 19,000 
weighing over 3.5 ounces enter the Martian atmosphere 
every day. 

A-Two: Don't our pilots take avoiding action? 

A-ElGHT There isn't a crack fighter-pilot alive able to 
dodge an incoming meteorite. 

R-ElGHT This discussion, in my humble opinion, is 
over. Our scientific people at Archimedes Base have 
assured us that this disaster — our first, I must 
emphasize — could not have been avoided, and that has 
been confirmed by the Committee in Residence. 

Other matters... 

The ITV broadcast was a success and as a 
disinformation piece, it exceeded all expectations. I 
think we have learned — and are learning — many 
invaluable lessons. This is a red-letter day for 
asymmetric psychological warfare. 

A-FlVE: And it's the first campaign of its type that 
has been successfully sub -contracted, and no one's the 

R-ElGHT: Well, it's cannon-fodder, as you say — a new 
myth. With a little luck, it will assume a life of its own, 
run on auto-pilot, adequately misdirect... 

A-TWO: AndLovell? 

A-ElGHT He has demonstrated that people sooner 
embrace the safety of the lie than seek the danger that 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Nine • 101 

accompanies the truth — Brinton will take Lovell's 
revelations to the grave. 

R-Two: No sleep -job? 

A-EIGHT: No sleep-job. 

End Transcript 

Archimedes Press 

Section Ten 

JOSEPH Banks Rhine, founder of the Foundation 
for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM) and 
frequent lecturer, was interviewed on our behalf 
by Colin Weston in Brussels on SEPTEMBER 23, 1977. 
That interview, which Weston taped, provided insight 
into the meaning of the phrase "sleep-job." In the early 
1960s, he explained, significant advances were made in 
the study of parapsychology at the universities of 
Kharkov and Leningrad. The advances involved 
telepathy and, more specifically, the long-distance 
invasion and manipulation of minds. The potential 
military advantages were obvious: Enemies could be 
suborned remotely — virtual marionettes. "Experiments 
have demonstrated that children, like birds and beasts, 
are more receptive to telepathic messages than are 
adults," said Dr. Rhine. "The fully -developed mind 
erects barriers; barriers that may be penetrated when 
one's defenses are compromised, either by fatigue or 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Ten • 103 

emotional distress. The barriers that the mind would 
erect in the waking world are diminished during REM 
sleep. This is the window during which the mind may 
easily be invaded. . . and controlled." 

Weston frowned, said incredulously, "Controlled, eh?" 

"Instructions can be administered and if 
circumstances are propitious he will obey those 
instructions, even an order to self-destruct." 

"Good God!" said Weston. 

"It's a delicate business. There are many variables to 
which attention must be paid: biorhythms, overall 
impressionabihty, and psi-sensitivity — " 

"The instinct for self-preservation would 
countermand any instructions calculated to result in 
suicide!" interrupted a disbelieving Weston. 

"Did you read that somewhere? It isn't true. The 
mind, regardless of its perceived waking resolve, is 
highly malleable." 

"And this is a common practice?" 

"Common? I'm not saying that; I'm telling you what 
is possible." Maybe Dr. Rhine was right: 

Monday, February 2, 1976: James Riggerford, 42, 
happily married with three children, walked from his 
beachside home south-west of Houston, Texas, sometime 
shortly after 3:00 AM, two days after resigning as the 
Operations Administrator with NASA. His body, found 
clad in pajamas, was later recovered from the Gulf of 

Tuesday, September 7, 1976: Roger Marshall- 
Smith, a 31 year-old physicist who had recently returned 
from temporary attachment to NASA in America, was 
living with his parents in Winchester, Hampshire. They 
found him just after 1:00 AM, two hours after they had 

Archimedes Press 

104 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

all gone to sleep, in flames at the bottom of the stairs. 
He had apparently, while still asleep, doused his 
clothing with turpentine and set fire to himself. The 
agony of burning had awakened him but by then, it was 
too late. 

Saturday, January 15, 1977: James Arthur 
Carmichael, 35, aerospace technician, fell to his death at 
4:35 AM from a sixteenth -floor hotel bedroom window in 
Washington. Friends said that he had seemed happy 
and in normal spirits the previous evening and had gone 
to bed alone at midnight. He, too, was wearing pajamas. 

Were these men "sleep-jobs?" We don't claim to 
know but we consider it a possibility. 


Tim Brinton joined Benson in the room behind Studio B. 
"How were things with George?" he asked. 

"Not good," said Benson miserably. "He wants to 
junk Colin's interview with McDermott. Quite frankly, 
Tim, it looks bad unless you can squeeze more out of 

"More!" responded Brinton, clearly exasperated. 
"What more could you want!" 

"Relax, Tim. It seems to hinge on Lovell," Benson 
nodded. "Lovell has pertinent knowledge." 

"There's a big difference between knowing and 
talking." Brinton visualized the growing clefts in the 
magnetosphere. He began to sweat. "He wasn't 
forthcoming, John. I don't think we should press him." 

"Try him again," urged Benson. "Tell him everything 
you know! what we've got from McDermott and 


Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Ten • 105 

Two days later, Brinton was back in Lovell's book-lined 
study at Jodrell Bank. Lovell and Brinton sat opposite 
one another, saying nothing. Lovell shattered the 
silence, which had grown icy: "We can make up any old 
thing, Tim. It doesn't have to be the truth. I'll talk 
about environmental collapse, the hole in the ozone 
layer, pesticides — anything. You aren't culpable. It will 
be our little secret." For once, Lovell was without his 
signature tweed jacket and his sleeves were already 
rolled up above the elbows, as if he was prepared for a 

"This is awkward. I regret our last meeting — 
everything about it — " 

"Here is my proposal, Tim. In a minute, you'll turn 
on your tape-recorder. I will start talking. 50% of what 
I will say will be relatively true. You'll get a scoop in 
which John Benson will have some faith. Sound good?" 

Brinton rested the tape-recorder on his lap, pressed 
the "record" button. 

The Lovell Transcript, Part Deux: 

LOVELL: You know about Alternatives 1 and 2 and 
why they were rejected. Alternative 3 offered a more 
limited option — an attempt to ensure the survival of a 
small cross-section of the species... in theory. We were 
academics, after all, not technicians; we were under the 
impression that the technology that the theories 
demanded were beyond man's grasp. We were wrong. 

BRINTON: Uh, right — um, so this third option was, 
uh, interplanetary? 

LOVELL: Right, off-world: Mars, ultimately, with 
intermediate staging on the Moon. 

BRINTON: What about candidacy? 

LOVELL: For Alternative 3? It's not a lottery, if that's 
what you're asking. 

Archimedes Press 

106 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

BRINTON: Mars was always the primary destination? 

LOVELL: Not at first: 100,000 million + stars in the 
Milky Way and as long ago as 1950 Fred Hoyle 
estimated that more than a million of those stars had 
planets amicable to life. 

BRINTON: It was that vague? 

LOVELL: In '57, at Huntsville, but the situation soon 
changed, and by "soon" I mean twelve months. 
Preparations were well underway by FEBRUARY of '58. 
Turn the tape off. 

Brinton complied. 

"You are under the impression that Earth is a unique 
water-rich blob of mud teeming with hfe, alone in an 
otherwise desolate and lifeless solar system. This notion 
has been marketed very aggressively and for obvious 
reasons. It isn't true. Our definition of "life" has been 
reevaluated. We have learned that sentience isn't 
something that develops exclusively in a greenhouse like 
Earth; the kind of sentience exhibited by creatures on 
Earth is but one variety. That we found a great deal of 
life on Mars shouldn't come as a surprise, and although 
it was spectacular news, our imperatives precluded 

"When you say "sentience," you mean other conscious 
life-forms, like you and me." 

"No, not like you and me — not exactly, although at 
first..." Lovell paused, withdrew his pipe from his pants 
pocket, reached for a nearby bag of tobacco, continued: 
"Your people will portray Alternative 3 in a negative 
light and that is understandable. But I'm not sure any 
of us has the choices he or she thinks he has. I can only 
say — and I know our astronauts, if they were able, would 
confirm this — the rules on Earth do not apply in Space." 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Ten • 107 

"I don't understand — the pictures relayed from 
Viking revealed an endless expanse of red rock — terrain 
that seemed to offer little prospect for colonization — the 
telemetry, everything. . . ." 

"Uh, right," started Lovell, "Viking was equipped 
with several instruments, one of which was developed by 
a sewage engineer named Gilbert Levin. It was 
designed to detect microbial life. It worked; microbial 
life was detected in abundance... but it wasn't 

"I don't understand." 

"The Viking missions were designed to fail, not 
unlike the Gemini missions. Viking's carbon- detector 
was disabled in order to discredit Levin's results! NASA 
knew that Levin's device would detect life in abundance. 
They did with the Viking Missions what they will do 
with your Alternative 3 broadcast: seed a handful of 
truths and then discredit them; truths that once 
undermined, will have a hell of a time finding a credible 
audience. This is the method whereby which secrecy is 
maintained, and you, Mr. Brinton, are an unwitting 
agent. I know you'll do the right thing." 


Brinton telephoned Benson from a payphone on 
Nantwich Street in Cheshire. He told him the Lovell 
interview was a success, and then walked to The Black 
Lion on Welsh Row. He ordered a whisky. And then 


George H. Leonard, interviewed by Colin Weston, agreed 
that there was an obvious conflict between the 
description of Mars offered by Lovell and the pictures 
which had been released by NASA: "Many people have 
also wondered why NASA was so stingy with its 

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108 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

photographic budget," he said, "particularly when you 
consider how important the pictures are supposed to be." 
Leonard pointed to a blow-up photograph of "familiar" 
Martian terrain which was mounted on a board in the 
studio. "That picture says it for me," he said. "We're 
told that they spent all that money putting that probe on 
Mars and then what do they do? They equip it with a 
camera which can focus only up to one hundred meters. 
And that, as somebody observed, is about the size of a 
large film studio; it doesn't add up. If they really wanted 
high -resolution imagery of Mars, they would equip the 
craft with a vastly superior camera system — better 
cameras are available — make no mistake about that — 
but the one they used, well, it was as if they'd 
deliberately fitted it with blinders and a broken lens." 

"They determined that we should see only what they 
wanted us to see?" 

"That could be. Everything we see is filtered through 
NASA — it is second-hand. So if they tell us it's Mars, 
such a pronouncement must be accepted on faith. Audio 
is no different; we don't hear everything that's said 
between Mission Control and the spacecraft. There's 
another channel — the biological channel." 

"We learned about that from Maurice Chatelain," 
said Weston. 

"Sure, Chatelain; he was well-acquainted with the 
Apollo Unified S-Band System. 

Archimedes Press 

Section Eleven 

"It was my job to ensure that the extraterrestrial 
question was considered and promoted by the type of 
people that would, by association, undermine the 
question's salience. " 


WENDY had not gone back to Lambeth — not 
since Harry disappeared. He didn't get out on 
his own, not while stoned; someone must have 
taken him. She knew she would never see him again. 
She had to get away, or they might kill her, too. She 
went to Birmingham; they would not find her there. 
Had she let Harry down? She remembered the small 
box which he had considered so important; he had 
hidden it beneath a floorboard at the Lambeth house. 
"It held the key," he'd told her, "to something important; 

Archimedes Press 

110 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

to a tape made by the dead man — Ballantine." She 
ought to get that box to Weston at Anglia TV. She owed 
Harry that much. 

On Thursday, JUNE 9, Wendy took a train to London 
and traveled by bus across the city and by 3:30 PM she 
was at number 33 — the formerly derelict house. It had 
been renovated and through the ground-floor windows 
she could see a group of young people sitting in a circle 
with their eyes closed. Wendy hesitated. She was 
anxious and disappointed. She had expected the house 
to be empty. She had anticipated walking in, marching 
to the second-floor, peeling away the floorboard and of 
hurrying away with the box. Now it couldn't be like that 
at all. She tapped with her knuckles on the door — 
tentatively, at first, and then harder. Footsteps 
approached and the door was opened by a tall and 
scrawny man with long hair and an unkempt beard. His 
feet were bare and he was wearing tattered blue jeans 
patched with bits of floral curtaining. His eyes — dark 
and deeply-set — were disconcerting. He was in his mid- 
thirties, maybe, or even nudging forty. "Good afternoon, 
sister," he said. "Jesus loves you." His voice was deep 
and his accent was East London. 

"Who are you?" asked Wendy. 

"Eliphaz," he replied. "Eliphaz the Temanite." 

"I used to hve here. I left something important 

"The only thing that is important is Jesus. Has He 
entered your heart? He is waiting — waiting for you to 
invite Him in." 

"Could I pop in and collect it?" 

The man stepped back, gestured for her to follow, 
"Here in the Temple, everyone is welcome," he said. 
"Come on in. Jesus is here," said the man 
encouragingly. "And you need Jesus." 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eleven • ill 

Wendy pointed to the youngsters who were still 
kneeling in their silent circle. "What are they doing in 
there?" she asked. 

"We are the Children of Heavenly Love," said the 
man. "We were sinners and we lived in the bondage of 
the flesh but Jesus Christ, the greatest revolutionary of 
them all, has entered our hearts and saved us from sin." 
He closed his eyes, screwed up his face in apparent 
anguish. "Thank you, oh thank you, Lord Jesus," he 
said. He opened his eyes, smiled, and extended a hand 
in invitation. 

"Eliphaz," said Wendy, "Is that your real name?" 

"It became my name when I entered into the love of 
Christ," he said. "Before I found the Lord I was called 
Jack. Now I am saved and Jack has exited stage-left." 

"That thing I mentioned," she said. "I left it upstairs, 
under the floorboards." 

"You are more than welcome to come in," said the 
man. "Here in the Temple we do not wish to keep things 
which are the possessions of others." She followed him 
through the hall and up the stairs. The place had been 
cleaned and the walls had been painted. All three doors 
on the landing were open. 

Wendy indicated the front room. "In there," she said. 

The man stopped, put a hand on her arm. "I forgot to 
ask your name." 


He smiled, "There is fear in you, sister. You should 
accept the Lord and let Him help you." 

"Why is my name important?" 

"So that I can introduce you to my brothers," he said. 
Wendy noticed two young men in the room. Both were 
about eighteen and dressed in the style of the man called 

Archimedes Press 

112 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Eliphaz. There was no furniture, not even the old sofa. 
The young men were seated on the bare boards, studying 
a shared Bible, whispering. 

"My name is Wendy." 

Both youngsters immediately looked up and 
scrambled to their feet. "This is Wendy," said Ehphaz. 
He took Wendy's elbow, eased her into the room. 

"This is Lazarus, one of our brothers from America," 
he said. "And our friend over here used to be called 
Arthur, but now he's filled with the Spirit and he's 
become Canaan. Canaan the Rechabite." 

"Jesus loves you, Wendy," said Lazarus politely. 
"Praise the Lord!" He spoke with the warm and homely 
drawl of the Deep South. On the knuckles of his right 
hand was tattooed the word "love." A tattoo on his left 
said "hate." 

"Yes, Jesus loves you," said Canaan. 

"Thank you," she said. It sounded ridiculously 
inadequate and there was an awkward silence. She 
indicated the section of the floor where the sofa had been 
and turned to Eliphaz the Temanite. "It should be 
there," she said, "under the loose boards." 

He nodded. "You need help?" 

"No, thank you. I can manage." They watched as 
she attempted to pry up one of the boards. 

"Wendy, do you know Jesus?" Lazarus put the 
question casually. 

"Sure." She was preoccupied with her work and she 
did not look up. "Sure I know Him." The board was 
fixed more firmly than she'd expected. 

"I mean really know Him," said Lazarus, vehemence 
in his voice. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eleven • 113 

The board was now rising from the floor. Wendy 
wormed her fingers under it and started to tug. 

"I tell you," continued Lazarus, "He was an unwashed 
hairy hippy from the slums of Galilee, but, you gotta 
believe me, that cat was for real." 

Loud creaks as bits of wood bent and finally burst 
away from the retaining nails. Wendy peered down into 
the darkness ■ nothing: She must have picked the wrong 
board. "Yes, He's here with us today. He's right here in 
this room, and I tell you, He's a mind-blower." 

Maybe it was nearer the window. Yes, the board had 
been just behind the sofa. 

"He's the ultimate trip, Wendy, and you want to get 
with Him because there ain't much time left." 

This board was looser. She jiggled it a little to get a 
better grip and lifted. 

"It's all right here in the Bible, how the seven vials of 
the wrath of God will be poured over the nations." 

There! She snatched the box, got to her feet. "Thank 
you," she said. "I'm sorry to have interrupted you." 
Eliphaz, she now realized, had placed himself squarely 
between her and the door. His face was coldly resolute 
and his arms were folded across his chest. "That box is 
yours and whatever is in it is yours, but I have to ask 
you one question," he said. "Does it contain drugs?" 
Suddenly he seemed bigger than before — bigger and 
more powerful. She had been a fool to return to this 
house. Lazarus and Canaan the Rechabite seemed to be 
closing in on her, one on either side; her stomach was 
churning with panic. 

"I've got to go now." She was struggling to control 
her voice, "please let me go." 

"It's all here in the Book of Revelation." Lazarus 
appeared to be unaware of what was happening in the 

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114 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

room. He was preoccupied entirely with his convictions 
about the imminent End of Days. "Listen to this, the 
Bible gives facts and details: '...and the fourth angel 
poured out his vial upon the sun and power was given 
unto him to scorch men with fire. . . '" 

Eliphaz held out his hand. "Give me the box." 

"No!" she shouted. "It's nothing hke that!" He stood 
aside to let her pass. 

"Please forgive me for being suspicious," Ehphaz 
apologized. "We would have taken them if they had been 
drugs. We would have taken them and destroyed them. 
You have to realize that many of our brothers and 
sisters here were damaged by drugs in their days of 
fleshly bondage." 

"You're letting me go?" 

"Of course, but please come back to see us," said 
Eliphaz. "All God's children are welcome in the Temple." 

"Let Jesus into your heart, Wendy," said Lazarus as 
she walked to the landing. 

"Hallelujah!" added Canaan the Birmingham 

Eliphaz escorted her to the front door. "Don't forget, 
sister, that you do need Jesus," he said. "God be with 

At a nearby phone box, she dialed the number for 
Anglia Television. "May I speak with Cohn Weston?" 

"One moment," said the operator. "I'll put you 


Arthur Garrett had prepared a background-information 
sheet about Mars for Benson so that some of the details 
could be fed into the program's links. Here is a relevant 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eleven • 115 

One question which has not been satisfactorily 
resolved concerns the atmosphere of Mars. Does it have 
air which we could breathe? The answer, quite frankly, 
is that no one seems to know. I've spoken to a number of 
scientists who are confident that quantities of free 
oxygen did exist there at one time. It may well be that, 
as Lovell has suggested, life supporting atmosphere has 
been locked in the surface-soil but I have been unable to 
find any other expert who is prepared to publicly 
endorse that suggestion. Obviously the question of Mars 
colonization depends on an Earth like atmosphere. 
Lovell has been publically denounced by his peers; I 
wouldn 't stick my neck out professionally on his sayso. 
In short, John, it's a fascinating theory but it doesn't add 

Benson read the last few lines for the second time 
and snorted. "Well, Arthur love, it's my neck that'll be 
sticking out, not yours," he said. "Lovell's got me 
convinced and I'm prepared to gamble on him." But he 
didn't need to gamble, not as it turned out. For, at that 
moment, Wendy was waiting to talk to Colin Weston. 


JUNE 13, 1977: Memo from Aubrey Buxton to Marquis 
Townshend, Chairman... 

I have returned to the studios today after a week's 
sick leave and I am astonished to learn that it is your 
intention to permit the McDermott interview. We have 
already discussed the unethical circumstances under 
which the interview was conducted as well as 
McDermott's extravagant views. We agreed, I thought, 
that his statements could not possibly be substantiated 
and that, if dignified by inclusion in a program 
purporting to be serious, could do considerable harm. 
This particular Science Report program, as I have told 
you on numerous occasions, is an example of 

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116 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

irresponsible sensationalism which will reflect adversely 
upon the company's image. Once again, I urge you to 
withdraw this program from the schedule. 

JUNE 14, 1977 : Memo from Marquis Townshend to 
Aubrey Buxton... 

/ can no longer agree with you over the remarkable 
brain drain investigation which has been mounted by 
Benson and his team. I grant that it is controversial and 
even frightening. It will also cause embarrassment in 
high places. However, I have assessed the evidence 
which is now in the program — the product, I might add, 
of diligent research and impressive dedication — and I 
feel it would be a professional failure were we to 
suppress what appears to be the unpalatable truth. 
Since we last spoke I have had the opportunity to study 
Brinton's interview with Dr. Lovell Lovell is a man for 
whom I have the greatest respect and no one of his 
stature would lend his name to anything which, in your 
words, reeked of "irresponsible sensationalism. " There 
have been times, as you know, when I have been 
perturbed by the unexpected directions in which this 
investigation has moved. I have rescinded my 
reservations and Benson has my unqualified support. 

JUNE 15, 1977: Memo from Aubrey Buxton to Mr. 
John Woolf, Executive Producer... 

You are already aware of my misgivings in relation to 
the Science Report program, scheduled for network 
transmission on JUNE 20, in which it is suggested that 
there is an international conspiracy to transport 
intellectuals and others to another planet. I have made 
my opinions known on many occasions and I commend 
your attention, in particular, to the minutes of the 
Senior Executives' Meeting held on APRIL 8. I warned 
then against what I recognized now as a policy of 
expensive folly. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eleven • 117 

/ am taking the unusual step of enclosing herewith 
copies of all correspondence between the Chairman and 
myself on the subject for I feel that, in view of the 
damage this production could do to the reputation of the 
company, this is a matter in which you might see fit to 
intervene. I cannot urge too strongly that under no 
circumstances should this program be screened. 

JUNE 15, 1977: Memo from John Woolf to Marquis 
Townshend. . . 

See the attached note which reached me by hand 
today from Mr. Buxton. It is not my practice to become 
entangled in differences of opinion between my 
Chairman and any of his subordinates, particularly 
when I am approached in what I consider to be an 
underhanded manner, with no copy of the note having 
apparently been sent to you. Nor did I intend to 
intervene on this aspect of program -policy which I 
consider to be entirely your territory. 

Townshend reread the memos. "Cheeky bastard!" he 
said. He dialed Buxton. "Buxton, be in my office in two 


Katie Glass took the call in the Science Report office. 
"No, Cohn's popped out for a coffee. Who's this calling, 

"I must speak to him," said Wendy. "It's urgent." 

"Can I take a message?" Wendy wanted to get rid of 
the box. Every wasted minute, she felt, put her in 
greater danger. "Could you find him? It is desperately 

"I'll see if I can catch him in the canteen. Can I give 
him a name?" 

"Tell him it's the girl who was with Harry," said 
Wendy. "Tell him I've got Harry's package." 

Archimedes Press 

118 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

"Hold on." 

"I'm in a paybox and I'm out of change." 

"Give me the number of the box and hang up," said 

Wendy waited with her back to the door of the booth. 
She was unaware of the man until he jerked the door 

"You plan on spending the day in here?" 

"I won't be more than a minute! I'm waiting for a 

He grabbed her arm, started to pull her. "Well, I'm 
waiting to make one, so come on out." 

"This won't take long, really." 

"Lady, this is a public box and I'm not hanging 
around all day while — " The phone rang. 

Wendy snatched the receiver, heard Weston's voice. 
"Yes, it's Wendy. I was the girl with Harry," she said. "I 
must meet you. Harry had something he wanted to give 
you and now I've got it, but I've got to be careful." 

They met an hour later at the spot where Weston had 
first seen Harry Rosa — at the Boer War Memorial. 
"They might be looking for you?" asked Weston. "Who 
are theyT 

Wendy shrugged, "Who knows?" She handed Weston 
the box. "That's what Harry wanted you to have; he said 
it was related to the Ballantine tape. Does that make 

"No," said Weston. "Wait here. I'll have a look inside 
the box." He hurried to the Norwich Castle Visitor's 
Center, locked himself in a bathroom cubicle and opened 
the box. It contained a square printed circuit. He 
rejoined Wendy. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Eleven • 119 

"I have to go," said Weston. "See what sort of tune 
we can get out of this." 

"You don't need me anymore?" 

"Where will you be?" 

"Not sure. Not in the UK." 

Weston tapped the box. "Do you want to know how 
this ends up?" 

"I'll contact you," she said. She hurried across the 
street, and like Rosa, disappeared down Castle Meadow. 

A few hours later, in the darkness of the Anglia 
Television preview theater, Benson and Weston watched 
in amazement as pictures from the decoded Ballantine 
tape spilled across the screen. "I don't believe it!" 
exclaimed Benson. "Good God, I simply don't believe it!" 
(Appendix G) 

Archimedes Press 

Section Twelve 

EVERY seat in the preview theater was filled. All 
members of the Science Report team had been 
summoned to see what Benson and Weston had 
been watching. Marquis Townshend was also there, 
sitting next to Benson, and so were many other 
executives. Benson's eyes were sparkling with 
excitement when the houselights came up. "Well, 
George?" he asked. "What do you think?" 

Townshend frowned and nibbled at his bottom lip, 
baffled and reluctant to commit himself. "What can I 
think?" he countered. "If what we've seen is authentic — 
if it isn't an elaborate hoax — then the human race has 
been conned and we've got the most incredible television 
scoop ever. But it can't possibly be true!" 

"But it fits, doesn't it?" persisted Benson. "It fits with 
everything else we've got..." 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Twelve • 121 

"Have you checked with Jodrell Bank — with people 
who worked with Ballantine?" 

"Yes; we've spoken extensively with Lovell." 

"And put the thing to NASA. If we used it in the 
program and it turned out to be a fraud, there would be 
blow-back. I give you fair warning, John, I'm not 
prepared to carry the can." 

"But NASA is certain to deny it," protested Benson. 

"Let me know when you've spoken to them." 
Townshend got up, left the theater. 


The NASA official, who refused to give his name, took a 
very different attitude. "I've heard some freaky notions 
in my time but this one caps the lot. You better face it, 
son, someone's pulling your leg." 

"Then you are stating categorically that the tape is 

"How could it be anything else? That must be the 
most stupid question I've heard this year." 

"The information on it is inaccurate?" 

"Why don't you do me a favor: quit while you're 

"I'm taping this conversation. Will you go on record 
and state, categorically, that the information conveyed 
on the tape is fraudulent?" 

"I'm sorry. I've wasted enough time on this! there's 
absolutely nothing more to say." 

Weston was left with a dial-tone. "Blast!" said 
Weston. He was tempted to dial again. All the official 
spokesmen had been briefed, asked to stay mum — to 
laugh the idea off the stage. It was a charade. Weston 
felt, more strongly than ever, that the tape was genuine, 

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122 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

but proving it — that was another matter. No sooner did 
he return the phone to its cradle than it rang; it was 

"Ballantine did meet a 'Harry Rosa' at NASA. I've 
wrestled his diary from Lady Ballantine. He made a 
couple of hurried scratches regarding the 'Harry' in 

Harry promised help but is frightened. . . 

Destroy tape. . . 

"What are we to make of that?" asked Lovell. 

"Was there anything else?" 

"Nothing relevant," replied Lovell. 

"The tapes you use at Jodrell Bank — is there 
anything distinctive about them?" 

"In what sense?" 

"Could you, by studying this tape, establish if it 
belonged to Jodrell Bank?" 

"No, but I might be able to ascertain that it didn't 
belong to us." 

"And that would support the tape's authenticity." 

"Sure it would, to a degree." 

"Would you be wilhng to come to Norwich?" 

"I'll leave immediately," he said. "I'm anxious to see 
what is on the tape." 

Weston met Lovell at reception and took him to the 
preview theater where Benson was waiting. They sat in 
silence, watching and listening. "Incredible!" exclaimed 

"You think that originated at Jodrell Bank?" asked 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Twelve • 123 

"Let me examine the tape," said Lovell. Benson led 
the way to the projection box and Lovell produced an 
eye-glass through which he minutely studied the tape. 
They waited while he inspected each frame. Then he 
closely scrutinized the header and leader sections. 

"Well?" asked Benson. "What do you think?" 

"There are no Jodrell Signatures," said Lovell. "This 
is the genuine article." 

They hurried him to Townshend's office where he 
repeated his belief and the reasons for it. "Give me just 
one minute," said Townshend. "I'd like to have the 
Executive Producer in on this one." He dialed Woolf s 
internal number, explained the situation, and replaced 
the receiver. "He's joining us," he said. 

Woolf listened while Lovell spoke. "Fascinating," he 
said. "And this diary — may we see it?" 

Lovell nodded. "It's in my car." 

"Well, George," said Woolf. "You're Chairman." 

"Yes, but this is different," protested Townshend. "I 
want your help. If we make a misstep there's going to be 
a stink." 

"You want me to share the blame." 


"George, are you keen on using the tape?" 

"In light of Dr. Lovell's testimony, I'm all for it." 

"Fine," said Woolf. "I'm with you all the way." 


The Ballantine tape was the most astounding feature of 
the now notorious investigative report known as 
Alternative 3. It was authentic, but as Townshend had 
feared, it did inspire blowback. Tim Brinton introduced 
it and all that could be seen at first was a haze of colors 

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124 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

and uncertain shapes. There was a whirling blur of 
confusion — multi-colored dust dervishes glimpsed crazily 
through a tumbling kaleidoscope... Then the picture 
resolved and the camera skimmed low over a barren 
landscape. No vegetation, no suggestion of life — mile 
after mile of red desolation. One could hear static, then 
men cheering, and finally American voices from the 
Mission Control: 

FIRST VOICE: Okay, try to scan. 

SECOND VOICE: Scanning now. 

FIRST VOICE: The readings... Where are the 

At that moment, superimposed over the image of the 
alien landscape, beneath a timestamp which read 
13:59:59 UTC, viewers saw the computer-printed word 
"TEMPERATURE." And, almost instantaneously, that 
word was duplicated in Russian: "TEMllEPATyPA." Then 
there was an outburst of Russian voices — excited, 
jubilant. And then, once again, the second American 
voice came through with great clarity: "Wait for it. Wait 
for it. Come on, baby, don't fail us now, not after all this 
way!" Computer data appeared alongside the words on 
the screen. The temperature, they showed, was four 
degrees Centigrade. More printed words: "WIND 
VELOCITY," in English and then in Russian: "CKOPOCTb." 
And the first American voice was shouting 
triumphantly: "It's okay! It's good, it's good." A Russian 
voice, equally ecstatic, carried the same message. Then 
the computer readout delivered the most vital 
information of all — in English and Russian — about the 
atmosphere of the "new territory." The words and 
letters were appearing with agonizing slowness. There 
was silence, and then there arrived whoops of joy. The 
first American voice could be heard shouting over the 
din: "On the nose! Hallelujah! We got air, boys. We're 
home! Jesus, we've done it. We got air! His yells of 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Twelve • 125 

excitement, and similar ones from his Russian 
counterpart, were drowned by the crescendo of cheering, 
and during a lull in that cheering the second American 
voice could be heard saying: "That's it! We got it. We 
got it! Boy, if they ever take the wraps off this thing, it's 
going to be the biggest date in history: FRIDAY, MAY 13, 
1960. We're on the planet Mars — and we have air!' 

That was it — the end of the Ballantine tape. Millions 
of viewers wondered if they had misheard: Man on Mars 
in 1960! No, that was not possible. Tim Brinton, his 
face somber, assured them that it was more than 
possible. Here, from a transcript of the program, are his 
actual words: 

We believe that to be an authentic record of the 
first — and secret — landing on Mars by an unmanned 
space probe from Earth. We also believe the date 
given— FRIDAY, MAY 13, 1960— to be accurate. Clearly, 
the blanket of security by which this information has 
been covered could have been maintained only through 
the active participation of governments at a very high 
level. Clearly, there must have been some powerful 
reason why the true conditions on Mars, suitable as they 
appear to be for human habitation, have been kept 
secret. Indeed, the effort which has gone into 
persuading the world- at -large that the opposite is true 
argues that some operation of supreme importance has 
been going on beneath this veil of security. We believe 
that operation to be Alternative 3. Whether a human 
survival colony has been established on Mars, or 
whether preparations are still in hand for its 
transportation from the Moon to Mars, we do not know. 
But we offer this program tonight as a challenge to those 
who do know the truth. 

He paused after spelling out that challenge, one hand 
resting on a model of the Earth and one shaking hand on 
a model of Mars. Benson watched, proud. He knew that 

Archimedes Press 

126 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

the company had taken a calculated risk with this 
program; that what had been revealed would be 
emphatically denied; that there could be ugly 
repercussions for Buxton and Townshend — and 
especially Brinton, the episode's personality. He was the 
anchorman, the man who — as far as the public was 
concerned — was at the center of the entire investigation. 
He was well-known and well-respected and that, from 
the official viewpoint, made him doubly vulnerable. It 
would be remarkable if attempts were not made to 
discredit him; to prove that, far from being a responsible 
commentator, he had been party to an ill-conceived hoax. 
At no time, however, had he considered opting out. He 
believed in the truth, he presented it professionally, and 
this particular truth was far too important to be 
suppressed. He concluded with these words: 

We regret if the implications of what you have seen 
are Jess than optimistic for the future of life on this 
planet. It has been our task, however, merely to bring 
you the facts as we understand them, and to await the 

The response started before he finished speaking: 
Switchboards at newspaper offices and regional 
television stations were flooded with calls from 
frightened people; from people desperate for 
reassurance. Those people got their reassurance: 
Buxton issued a denial. But that denial was a lie. 

Archimedes Press 

Section Thirteen 

THERE is nothing new, of course, in the concept of 
men using the moon as a launch -pad for new life 
on Mars. H.G. Wells, who correctly anticipated 
many technical triumphs perceived as ludicrous by his 
peers, in his classic The First Men in the Moon, wrote 
the following: 

"It isn't as though we were confined to the Moon." 

"You mean?" 

"There's Mars — clear atmosphere, novel 

surroundings, exhilarating sense of lightness. It might 
be pleasant to go there." 

"Is there air on Mars?" 

"Oh, yes!" 

"Seems as though you might run it as a 

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128 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Wells, once again, has been proved right. A number 
of leading journalists, honoring Wells' prophecies, did 
not embrace the Buxton denial. They were puzzled by it, 
for it had the ring of in authenticity. Alan Coren, in The 
Times of JUNE 21, throws doubts on the validity of the 
Buxton statement^ 

The seeming preposterousness of the story, on the 
other hand, was totally acceptable. The 

preposterousness of the times has seen to that. Why 
should the madness of the NASA program not be linked 
to the madness of Watergate, to create a NASA-gate in 
which life is discovered on Mars, but the information is 
suppressed for governmental ends? 

James Murray of The Daily Express is another level- 
headed and highly-experienced writer who does not 
readily accept the obvious. And so on the front page of 
his own newspaper, he courageously stuck to his 
assessment of Brinton, Weston and the others^ 

They plausibly linked natural phenomena and real 
events in space to come to the inevitable conclusion that 
there was a monumental international conspiracy to 
save the best human minds by establishing a new colony 
on Mars — so all these scientists and intellectuals 
slipping abroad were really being shipped to Mars on 
rockets via the dark side of the moon. 

Murray, in other words, recognized the truth even 
though he did not have the facts to substantiate that 
truth. Men like Coren and Murray worried Buxton. 
They perpetuated the doubts and suspicions he had tried 
to smother, and he was frightened that they might start 
digging deeper; that they might be able to present the 
full truth, which is the chief objective of the 33 ld 
Anniversary Edition of Alternative 3. Other men, for 
other reasons, were disturbed by the reahzation that the 
Alternative 3 sensation was not swiftly buried. They 
were particularly unhappy about Phihp Purser's Sunday 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Thirteen • 129 

Telegraph suggestion that the investigation might have 
been a "fiendish double-bluff inspired by the very 
agencies identified in the program," which, we concede, 
is partly true. 

Many Members of Parliament, not privy to the facts 
about Alternative 3, have since claimed that they 
suspected the truth. Nevertheless, they had the task of 
coping with much of the terror which spread so swiftly 
after the broadcast. Most people, as we have said, were 
eager to believe Buxton's denial, but an appreciable 
minority intuited the full significance of what had been 
revealed. These were people, in the main, who had 
already been cognizant of the sort of people behind the 
1968 Condon Report (Scientific Study of Unidentified 
Flying Objects). There were those who remembered 
what the Evening Standard had said about the $500,000 

It is losing some of its outstanding members under 
circumstances which are mysterious. Rumors are 
circulating — at least four key people have vanished from 
the Condon team without offering a satisfactory reason 
for their departure. The complete story behind the 
strange events in Colorado is hard to decipher. 

The validity of the suspicions in that Evening 
Standard article suddenly seemed to be confirmed by 
other statements later made public — quite apart from 
President Carter's remarkable about-face on the subject 
of flying saucers. Andrew Shonfield: "At the very 
highest levels of East-West diplomacy there has been 
operating a factor of which we know nothing... " Would 
a man of Shonfield's caliber make a statement of that 
nature? Apollo veteran Hank McDermott: "The later 
Apollo Missions were smokescreens — to cover up what's 
really going on out there, and the bastards didn't tell 
us — not a damned thing!" Why, if there was nothing to 
hide, did he make such a statement? 

Archimedes Press 

130 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 


Apollo 17 

Hadley Rille 


JULY 30, 1971 22:16:29 UTC 


SCOTT: Arrowhead really runs east to west. 
Mission Control: Roger, we copy. 

IRWIN: Right, we're (garble) we know that's a 

fairly good run. We're bearing 320; hitting range for 
413. I can't get over those lineation(s) — that layering on 
Mount Hadley. 

SCOTT: I can't either. That's really spectacular. 

IRWIN: They sure look beautiful. 

SCOTT: Talk about organization! 

IRWIN: That's the most organized structure I've ever 

SCOTT: It's (garble) so uniform in width. 

IRWIN: Nothing we've seen before has shown such 
uniform thickness from the top of the tracks to the 



Michael Harrington-Brice: 

"I was put in an impossible position. For weeks after 
that program went out I was getting depositions at the 
House, demanding that the government author a formal 
denial. I supported that demand; it would have helped 
alleviate the anxieties of my constituents. However, it 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Thirteen • 131 

was not possible to pin down anyone in authority. I tried 
to put down questions about Alternative 3 but they were 
invariably blocked — and odder still, the House record of 
my inquiries has been struck. I tried to raise the matter 
privately with Ministers but was invariably told that 
Alternative 3 was a subject that they were not at liberty 
to discuss. 

"I soon formed the impression that something 
unusual was happening behind the scenes; that we in 
Britain were on the periphery of some secret venture 
choreographed by an unseen hand. Nothing specific was 
said, you understand, but hints were dropped. It was 
hinted that I had overstepped my bounds. " 

According to his secretary, MP Bruce Kinslade was 
also making inquiries into the facts presented in the 
Alternative 3 investigative report of JUNE 20. On 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 6, Mr. Kinslade was struck by a lorry 
near his home in Kensington. VERDICT: "Accidental 


JULY 26, 1977, The Times- 

A frightening picture of the accelerating world 
population is given in the 1977 World Population Report, 
published this week by Population Concern. The report 
points out that half the fuel ever used by man has been 
consumed in the past 50 years. The world's population 
is now more than 4,000 million and increasing by 
200, 000 every day (07-01 -2010: 6, 830, 586, 985). 

Thursday, September 29, 1977: Dr. Gerard K. 
O'Neill was interviewed by British Aerospace 
Correspondent Angus Macpherson. Macpherson, 

respected as one of the world's most authoritative 
science -fact specialists, wrote: 

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132 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Flying to London today is another scientist who is 
perfectly serious about his prediction of what faces the 
human race as we approach the start of the 21 st century, 
but American physicist Dr. Gerard O'Neill holds out the 
promise of a totally different future — a brave new world 
in space. The choice, as he sees it, is between George 
Orwell's 1984 and Arthur Clarke's 2001. "Tell humanity 
there's no hope and everyone applauds you. But tell 
them there is a way out and they get furious, " say Dr. 
O'Neill, who has worked for seven years on a mind- 
stretching scheme for the emigration of most of us into 
artificial colonies in outer space. He has been brusquely 
dismissed as a peddler of nonsense by Jacques Cousteau, 
whom he admires, and there was hurt as well as humor 
on the lean face under its trendy Roman fringe as he told 
me- "Jacques is terribly worried about the pollution of 
the ocean and the destruction of its life. He thinks we 
ought to be doing more about it', so do I. 
Environmentalists are really very negative', they're so 
obsessed with Earth's problems they don't want to hear 
about answers. " O'Neill's own answers are that we not 
only can colonize the solar system, but must, if human 
life a few generations from now is to remain civilized. 

O'Neill is coming to London to present his prediction 
of space colonization to the British Interplanetary 
Society. The BIS is a legendary forum for glimpses into 
the future. Its members have seen a Moonlanding ship 
unveiled, looking eerily like the Apollo LEM, but some 
thirty years before it. And they were the first to hear 
Arthur Clarke outline a visionary scheme for a global 
chain of communication satellites. This could be a 
similar bit of history-making. For most of the 
generation that gaped at the first Moon landings it has 
become a madly expensive confidence trick — a game of 
golf on a useless rock pile that only two could play and 
that cost 500 pounds a second. All this is desperately 
myopic, declares O'Neill, for the denizens of a planet 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Section Thirteen • 133 

whose 4 billion inhabitants face the prospect of being 
two to three times as crowded by the early years of the 
next century. 

"In fact, we found in space precisely the things we are 
most in need of— unlimited solar energy, rocks 
containing high concentrations of metals and, above all, 
room for man to continue his growth and expansion. A 
static society, which is what Earth would have to 
become, would need to regulate not only the bodies but 
the minds of its people. I refuse to believe that man has 
come to the end of change and experiment and I want to 
preserve his freedom to live in different ways. I see no 
hope of saving it if we remain imprisoned on the Earth. " 

Macpherson pointed out that O'Neill is "consulted 
respectfully — if a shade warily — by Government 
Officials, Senate Committees and State Governors." 
The article indicated that O'Neill was not aware — and 
possibly is still not aware — that the future envisioned by 
Alternative 5 had already arrived. Macpherson wrote: 

His colonies are planned as vast cylindrical metal 
islands drifting in orbit, holding inside a natural 
atmosphere, trees, grass, rivers and animals — a capsule 
of a warm Earthlike environment. He sees them 
reaching half the size of Switzerland and housing 20 to 
30 million people, sustained by the inexhaustible energy 
of space sunshine. Yet their construction, he insists, 
would require only off theshelf materials. 

The article finished with these thoughts : 

For most people of the prespace generation, the 
moment when the magic finally went out of the 
adventure came a year ago when the dream of life on 
Mars was dispelled by the Viking spacecraft, but for 
O'Neill, that was another plus for space: "The best thing 
we could have found was nobody there. The colonization 
of the new frontier can take place without repeating the 

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134 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

shaming history of the Indian nation — or even the bison. 
Perhaps nobody's there, anywhere, after all. Perhaps 
there isn't a Daddy to show us how to do things. It's a 
bit frightening, but it gives us a lot of scope. " 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix A 

Memorial Resolution 

Howard Stanley Seifert 


HOWARD Stanley Seifert, Emeritus Professor of 
Aeronautics and Astronautics, died of cancer on 
AUGUST 24, 1977, at his home on the campus. 
He was 66 years old and had served on the Stanford 
faculty for a period of 16 years before retiring in 1976. 
Professor Seifert was internationally known as a leader 
in the relatively new field of rocket propulsion, and his 
special contribution at Stanford was to develop a strong 
curriculum in this field, along with special research 
programs in related areas of space studies and 

Professor Seifert was born in Reynoldsville, 
Pennsylvania, and pursued studies leading to Bachelor's 
and Master's degrees in the physics department at 
Carnegie Institute of Technology. He transferred to the 
California Institute of Technology to complete his Ph.D. 
in physics. His early postdoctoral experience included a 
position as Associate Professor of Physics at Kalamazoo 
College in Michigan for a period of two years, from which 
he went to the Westinghouse Corporation as a research 
physicist for another two years. During that period of 
time his major research interests included infrared and 
x-ray spectroscopy and development problems of gaseous 
discharge tubes. To supplement a relatively low salary 
at Westinghouse, he periodically brought forth patent 

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136 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

disclosures each of which rewarded him with an extra 
$25 — an indication of his creative mind. 

In 1942, Professor Seifert joined the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology and 
entered the field of rocket propulsion that was to become 
his specialty. During his 12 years at JPL, he rose to 
Chief of the Applied Physics Division and made 
important contributions to the basic science and 
technology of liquid-rocket propulsion. During World 
War II Seifert was a member of a small group working 
with Professor Theodore von Karman, that was chiefly 
responsible for the early advances in the field of rocketry 
in this country. This group provided the technical 
expertise for the earliest application of jet propulsion to 
American aircraft systems, namely the use of JATO (Jet 
Assisted Take Off) for launching aircraft. In 1954Seifert 
left JPL to join the Ramo-Wooldridge Corporation (now 
Space Technology Laboratories) and spent five years 
there working on advanced propulsion and space 
systems. He came to Stanford in 1960 to accept a 
position as Professor in the Department of Aeronautics 
and Astronautics, alone, with a management consulting 
position at the then newly-formed Sunnyvale Research 
Laboratory of the United Technology Center. His active 
and imaginative service as the mainspring of the 
department's teaching and research program in 
propulsion and related space science is a matter of 
record. In particular, he introduced into the Stanford 
curriculum the concepts of advanced propulsion, 
including electric propulsion in its several forms. He 
always enjoyed working with students, and they 
invariably appreciated his interest in their progress and 
in themselves as individuals and as friends. 

Professor Seifert published over 40 papers on rocket 
propulsion, heat transfer, and applied physics. He edited 
the important reference work Space Technology (Wiley); 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix A • 137 

and was a consulting editor for the McGraw-Hill series 
in Missile and Space Technology. In 1965 he was elected 
to the International Academy of Astronautics and he 
served also as President of the American Rocket Society 
and Vice-President of the International Astronautics 
Federation. He received the Rocket Society's Pendray 
Award for his contributions to the astronautical 
literature, and in 1976 received the Wyld Propulsion 
Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics "for your leadership in the field of rocket 
propulsion over the past three decades, and your 
extensive contributions to the technical literature in 
propulsion and space systems." Seifert was also a Fellow 
of the American Institute of Aeronautics and 

Professor Seifert's more recent interests included the 
fields of robotics and energy. He served as principal 
investigator on a program called "Lunar Pogo 
Transporter Project," a highly original proposal for 
energy-efficient transport on the lunar surface by 
hopping instead of rolhng. He was also an organizer of 
the first national conference on remotely manned 
systems held inl972, as well as an editor of a survey film 
on "Remotely Operated Teleoperator Robot Systems."His 
interests in solar energy led to his course entitled 
Conversion of the Sun's Radiation for Man's Use. More 
recently he had been a consultant to the government of 
Saudi Arabia on the development of a solar and wind 
energy research laboratory. Communicating scientific 
information to the non-specialist was always a special 
interest of Howard's. While still at Westinghouse he and 
his wife Mary wrote radio scripts for a program called 
"Adventures in Research." They also collaborated on 
over 80 articles on popular science for young people. 
More recently they coauthored a widely distributed book 
called Orbital Space Flight (Holt Library of Science), 
dealing with the physics of satellite motion. Mary and 

Archimedes Press 

138 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Howard were a working team, and their relationship 
prospered because of it. 

Music played an important role in Howard Seifert's 
life. He was an accomplished cellist and played regularly 
with local friends in string quartets and other chamber 
music groups. Among them was a group which included 
Professors Daniel Bershader and Milton Van Dyke, and 
which served as the resident chamber-music group of the 
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. He 
combined his musical interests with an interest in the 
life of the Lutheran Community on the Stanford campus 
by his special efforts in helping to acquire and install an 
organ for the University Lutheran Church. 

Howard and Mary had two daughters and one son, all 
of whom are married and pursuing their own busy lives. 
Howard himself was active in both curricular and 
extracurricular pursuits until his final illness. We shall 
miss him as a stimulating colleague, fellow music lover, 
and as a human being who helped enrich our lives. 

— Daniel Bershader, I-Dee Chang & Walter Vincenti 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix B 

The Sphinx and The Spy 

The Clandestine World of John Mulholland 

michael edwards 

Copyright © 2001 Genii Corporation 
All Rights Reserved 

Reproduced Without Permission 

AT mid-century The Sphinx stood as America's 
oldest and most prestigious magic magazine. 
Over its five-decade history, it had become part 
of the lifeblood of the conjuring world. Then, on June 29, 
1953, John Mulholland wrote a letter to journal's 
subscribers. "This is to inform you that as of June 1, 
1953, the publication of The Sphinxhas been suspended. 
The immediate cause is that my health does not permit 
me to do the necessary work. My Doctor orders me to 
confine my efforts at this time to the shows by which I 
earn my living." [l] 

It was true that Mulholland's health was not good. 
An inveterate smoker, he suffered from ulcers, stomach 
disorders and arthritis. Editing The Sphinx for twenty- 
three years had taken a physical and financial toll. But 
rather than limiting his activities to his live 
performances, Mulholland had actually embarked on a 
new endeavor... an endeavor far more secretive than 
anything in the realm of conjuring. He had entered a 
world of covert operations, espionage, mind control, 

Archimedes Press 

140 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

drugs, and even death. John Mulholland had gone to 
work for the CIA. 


At the time, John Mulholland was one of America's most 
highly regarded magicians. An outstanding stage as 
well as close-up performer, he had become a noted 
author, lecturer, historian, collector, editor, and world 
traveler. In many ways, he had helped make magic 
intellectually respectable. 

Mulholland was born in Chicago, Illinois, on June 9, 
1898. As a five-year old, he sat enthralled by a 
performance of Harry Kellar's. It would begin a lifelong 
love of conjuring. His family moved to New York when 
he was quite young and it was there that he began to 
learn the techniques of the craft. At age 13 Mulholland 
began taking magic lessons from John Wilham Sargent 
at $5 an hour. Known as "The Merry Wizard," the gray- 
haired, goateed Sargent had been President of the 
Society of American Magicians in 1905-6 and would later 
serve as Harry Houdini's secretary from 1918 until 1920. 
He was a true mentor to young Mulholland and instilled 
in him not only an appreciation of the art of magic but of 
its theory, history, and literature. 

Mulholland learned his lessons well. He made his 
debut as a performer when he was 15. While he would be 
later regarded as one of magic's great scholars, his 
academic achievements were somewhat hmited. He took 
a number of courses at both Columbia University and at 
New York's City College, but did not attain a degree. 
From 1918 to 1924, he taught industrial arts at the 
Horace Mann School in New York. He sold books for a 
while and then taught at Columbia University before 
embarking on a career as a full time professional 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 141 

Over the years, Mulholland developed an enormous 
range of presentations. He was equally at home 
performing close-up magic, entertaining a society dinner, 
or working the mammoth stage at Radio City Music 
Hall. In 1927 Mulholland gave a lecture in Boston about 
the magicians of the world, illustrating each vignette 
with a trick from that nation. It added a new genre for 
him and for the profession: the magician as lecturer. 

After the death of Dr. A. M. Wilson in April of 1930, 
he took over editorship of The Sphinx. For the next 23 
years he would oversee magic's most influential 
periodical. He was a prolific writer. Aside from the vast 
number of articles he penned, he authored such books as 
Magic in the Making (with Milton M. Smith in 
1925), Quicker than the Eye (1932), The Magic and 
Magicians of the World '(1932), The Story of Magidl935), 
Beware Familiar Spirits (1938), The Art of Elusion, 
(1944) reprinted as Magic for Entertaining, The Early 
Magic Shows (1945), John Mulholland's Book of Magic 
(1963), Magic of the World (1965) and The Magical Mind 
-- Key to Successful Communication (with George 
Gordon in 1967). He had also co-wrote a 1939 magic- 
detective novel, The Girl in the Cage, with Cortland 

Over the years, he amassed one of the world's finest 
collections of magic books and memorabiha. His library 
housed some 4,000 volumes related to conjuring. 

His knowledge of tricks seemed inexhaustible, as was 
his familiarity with the performance, theory, psychology, 
history, and literature of magic. He served as the 
consultant on conjuring to the Encyclopedia Britannica 
and the Merriam -Webster dictionary and at one time 
was the only magician listed in Who's Who in America. 


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142 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

As America entered the 1950's, the world around 
John Mulholland was changing. The Cold War was at its 
height. US foreign policy had gone from trust to terror. 
In June of 1950, over one hundred thousand soldiers 
from Communist North Korea crossed the thirty-eighth 
parallel, invading the republic to the South. The 
previous year, Soviet Union had detonated its first 
atomic bomb. The stakes had become enormous. The 
consequences of military confrontation could well be 
global thermonuclear war. 

American policymakers decided that other means - 
covert means — would have to be instituted to stop the 
expansion of communism. As a secret study commission 
under former President Hoover put it: 

"It is now clear we are facing an implacable enemy 
whose avowed objective is world domination by whatever 
means and at whatever cost. There are no rules in such 
a game. Hitherto acceptable longstanding concepts of 
'fair play' must be reconsidered. We must develop 
effective espionage and counterespionage services and 
must learn to subvert, sabotage, and destroy our 
enemies by more clever, sophisticated, and effective 
methods than those used against us." 

The vehicle for this effort was the Central 
Intelligence Agency. 

Within the Agency, there was a concern - almost a 
panic - that the Russians had developed a frightening 
new weapon: a drug or technology for controlling men's 
minds. A new term had entered the lexicon: 
"brainwashing." At show trials in Eastern Europe, 
dazed defendants had admitted to crimes they hadn't 
committed. American prisoners of war, paraded before 
the press by their North Korean captors, "confessed" in 
Zombiedike fashion that the US was using chemical and 
biological warfare against them. When George Kennan, 
the US Ambassador to the Soviet Union, made some 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 143 

inexplicably undiplomatic remarks at a press conference 
and was declared persona non grata by the Kremlin, 
American intelligence officials wondered if he had been 
hypnotized or drugged. 

The CIA leadership feared a "mind control gap." 

The Search for a Manchurian Candidate 

In early April of 1953, Director of Central 
Intelligence Allen Dulles outhned to a Princeton 
audience the urgency of the situation. Describing "how 
sinister the battle for men's minds has become in Soviet 
hands," Dulles revealed that the Russians had developed 
"brain perversion techniques" which must be countered 
at any price. 

The CIA had already begun crafting this counter. On 
April 3, 1953 Richard Helms, the Agency's Acting 
Deputy Director, had proposed an "ULTRA- sensitive" 
program of research and development in clandestine 
chemical and biological warfare. 

The goal, Helms wrote, was "to develop a capabihty 
in the covert use of biological and chemical materials. 
This area includes the production of various 
physiological conditions which could support present or 
future clandestine operations. Aside from the offensive 
potential, the development of a comprehensive capability 
in this field of covert chemical and biological warfare 
gives us a thorough knowledge of the enemies theoretical 
potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a 
foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these 
techniques as we are. For example: we intend to 
investigate the development of a chemical material 
which causes a reversible non-toxic aberrant mental 
state, the specific nature of which can be reasonably well 
predicted for each individual. This material could 
potentially aid in discrediting individuals, eliciting 

Archimedes Press 

144 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

information, implanting suggestion and other forms of 
mental control." [2] 

The "offensive potential" was unstated, but the aim 
was clear: to create what later would be known as a 
"Manchurian Candidate." The term would come from the 
title of Richard Condon's 1959 best seller about a plot to 
take an American soldier captured in Korea, condition 
him at a special brainwashing center in Manchuria, and 
create a remote-controlled assassin programmed to kill 
the President of the United States. Condon's book was 
fiction; the Helm's plan was not. 

In fact, the CIA had already begun exploring the use 
of chemicals to influence thought and action as well as to 
incapacitate and even kill. Of particular interest to the 
Agency was the potential the hallucinogen LSD had in 
this arena. 

Discovered by Dr. Albert Hoffman on April 16, 1943, 
d-lysergic acid diethylamide -- or LSD as it would 
become known -- seemed to be a drug custom-made for 
the intelhgence community. Its intense potency in even 
miniscule amounts would make it easy to administer 
covertly. The sense of euphoria and hallucinations that 
accompanied it might well lead those under 
interrogation to drop their guard and inhibitions, 
enabling a free flow of information. Some beheved the 
chemical might even be used to alter the state of a 
persons being -- to convert an enemy agent, to 
dishearten idealistic adversaries, to reprogram a 
person's memory or thoughts, to get an individual to do 
something he or she otherwise would never do. 

The proposed CIA work on drugs and mind 
manipulation was to remain one of the Agency's deepest 
secrets. "Even internally in the CIA, as few individuals 
as possible should be aware of our interest in these fields 
and of the identity of those who are working for us." [3] 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 145 

On April 13, 1953 Allen Dulles approved the project. 
The program was to be known as "Project MKULTRA. [4] 
The "ULTRA" hearkened back to the most closely guarded 
American -British secret of the Second World War: the 
breaking of Germany's military codes. The "M-K" 
identified the initiative as a CIA Technical Services Staff 
(TSS) project. This was the division within the Agency 
responsible for such things as weapons, forgeries, 
disguises, surveillance equipment and the kindred tools 
of the espionage trade. Within the TSS, MKULTRA was 
assigned to the Chemical Division (TSS/CD), a 
component with functions few others - even within the 
Technical Services Staff - knew about. This unit was 
headed by Sidney Gottlieb, then a 34-year old Bronx 
native with a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California 
Institute of Technology. A brilhant biochemist, Gottlieb 
was a remarkable, albeit eccentric, man. A socialist in 
his youth and a Buddhist as an adult, he was on a 
constant search for meaning in his life. He found some of 
it in an unrelenting passion for his clandestine labors. 
He did not appear to be the least bit troubled by the 
moral ambiguities of intelhgence work. He would do 
virtually anything if he believed it to be in the American 
interest. Overcoming a pronounced stutter and a 
clubfoot to rise through the ranks of the CIA, he would 
later describe himself as the Agency's "Dr. Strangelove." 
Others were less kind. Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey 
St. Clair termed him America's "official poisoner." [5] 

The very same day that Allen Dulles approved 
Project MKULTRA, Sidney Gottlieb went to see John 

Gottlieb knew how to mix the potions. The question 
was how to deliver them secretly. 

Mulholland agreed to help. 

A Magician Among the Spies 

Archimedes Press 

146 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Gottlieb wanted Mulholland to teach intelligence 
operatives how to use the tools of the magician's trade - 
sleight of hand and misdirection - to covertly administer 
drugs, chemicals and biological agents to unsuspecting 

Why Mulholland decided to do this is a matter of 
some conjecture. The world was a far different and more 
dangerous place in the early months of 1953 than it is 
today. The war raged in Korea. The bloody battles of 
Pork Chop Hill, Eerie and Old Baldy were headline 
news. Some 50,000 American servicemen had already 
lost their lives in the conflict and more than 7,000 were 
prisoners of war. Stalin's death in March raised 
tremendous concern about stability in the Kremlin. In 
the United States, Senator Joseph McCarthy's anti- 
Communist crusade was raging. The prevailing mood 
was one fear, perhaps even paranoia. 

"John did not have a political agenda," says George 
Gordon, a close friend with whom Mulholland would 
later write The Magical Mind. "He said 'yes' because his 
government asked him to." 

Mulholland had an enormous sense of public duty. 
He took great pride in his contributions, however small. 
That a special edition of his book The Art of Illusion had 
been printed in a format so that its 160 page text could 
fit into the shirtpockets of World War II servicemen gave 
him great satisfaction. 

He was very aware of the role other magicians had 
played in aiding their countries in times of trouble. He 
had written and lectured about Robert-Houdin's 1856 
mission on behalf of Napoleon III to help quell the 
Miraboutded uprising in Algeria. And he was very 
famihar with the camouflage work Jasper Maskelyne 
had done for the British government during the Second 
World War. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 147 

Furthermore, the leaders of America's intelligence 
community were the kind of men Mulholland could 
easily hke and admire. General William "Wild Bill" 
Donovan, the founder of the Office of Strategic Services, 
America's World war II spy agency liked to hire Wall 
Street lawyers and Ivy League academics to commit 
espionage. He filled the secret service with confident, 
intelhgent, often daring young men from leading eastern 
colleges. By the time the CIA was established in 1947, 
these were the people who ran America's covert 
operations. Within the inner circles of American 
government, they were regarded as the best and the 
brightest. They planned and acted to keep the country 
out of war by their stealth and cunning - two qualities 
Mulholland long admired. 

They were also America's elite. Steward Alsop noted 
they were called "the Ivy Leaguers, the Socialites, the 
Establishmentarians." He himself coined an alternative 
epithet: "the Bold Easterners." The CIA, he said, was 
"positively riddled with Old Grotonians." [6] 

The men heading the CIA effort that Mulholland had 
been asked to join certainly fit this picture. The 
Princeton-educated Allen Dulles had been associated 
with the prestigious Wall Street law firm of Sullivan and 
Cromwell. His grandfather John W. Foster had been 
Secretary of State as had been his uncle-by-marriage 
Robert Lansing. A secret agent in both world wars, 
Dulles looked like an avuncular professor with his white 
brush moustache, his tweed suits, and his ever-present 
pipe. But behind the jovial exterior was a hard and 
determined leader. His brother John Foster Dulles 
became Secretary of State on January 31, 1953. Allen 
took up the CIA post twenty-six days later. 

His deputy, Richard Helms, had a different 
personality but similar roots. His education had 
included a year at an exclusive Swiss boarding school 

Archimedes Press 

148 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

and another year in Germany. A Williams graduate, he 
tried his hand at journalism before joining the OSS. He 
served with Dulles in Germany and stayed within the 
intelhgence community after the war. This prudent, 
professional spy - the chief of operations of the 
clandestine services -- could be seen playing tennis at 
the Chevy Chase Club on Sunday mornings clad in long 
white flannel trousers. 

It may not be surprising that John Mulholland, who 
spent much of his career among in New York's 
fashionable society, would find such men fascinating. As 
Jean Hugard wrote to Orville Meyer, "I believe in reality 
Mulholland has an inferiority complex; he doesn't mix 
with us poor mortals." [7] 

If "The Very Best Men" who made up the CIA were to 
the magician's liking, the converse was also true. John 
Mulholland was precisely kind of person the Agency 
wanted and needed. Here was a man with a remarkable 
knowledge of the art of deception - its tools, its 
techniques, its psychology. And he knew how to keep a 
secret. Not only had Mulholland made a living from the 
execution of these skills, he had gained a reputation as 
conjuring's most accomplished teacher. By look and 
demeanor, the magician fit the Agency mold. While his 
roots were not really Eastern estabhshment, the tall, 
slender Mulholland with his prominent nose and thatch 
of gray hair certainly looked the part. He had entree to a 
wide circle of business, governmental, social, academic, 
and entertainment leaders. A world traveler, he was 
equally at home on the New York City subway system or 
entertaining the Sultan of Sulu or the King of Romania. 

How and when Mulholland came in first contact with 
the CIA remains unknown. Evidence suggests that it 
was in 1952, perhaps earlier. By March of 1953, he was 
certainly consulting for the Agency and being paid for 
these "professional services." Inasmuch as he was 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 149 

billing the government on a biweekly basis, it seems 
apparent that this was ongoing work with at least some 
of it related to development of Project MKULTRA. [8] 

During their April 13 conversation, Sidney Gottheb 
asked Mulholland to put together a proposal for an 
operations manual applying the magician's art to 
clandestine activities. Mulholland summed up his 
suggestions as to what this covert guide would have to 
contain in a letter that he sent to Gottlieb the following 

"I have given the subjects we discussed considerable 
thought," Mulholland wrote. "Below is outlined what I 
believe is necessary adequately to cover instructions for 
the workers. 

"1.) Supplying... background facts in order that a 
complete novice in the subject can appreciate the 
underlying reasons for the procedures suggested. Part of 
this background would clarify the erroneous opinions 
commonly held by those who are famihar with 
(magician's techniques). In this section would be given 
alternative procedures, or modifications, needed by 
different types of operators (differences in fact or 
assumed), as well as changes in procedure needed as 
situations and circumstances vary. The material is 
necessary in order for the operator to be able to learn 
how to do those things which are required. . . 

"2.) Detailed descriptions of covert techniques in all 
those operations outlined to me and variations of 
techniques according to whether material is in a solid, 
liquid or gaseous form. Included would be explanations 
of (the skills) required and how quickly to master such 
skills. It is understood that no manipulation will be 
suggested which requires (actions) not normally used, 
nor any necessitating long practice. To state this 
positively: all (covert techniques) described would be 
adaptations of acts usually performed for other 

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150 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

purposes. Descriptions also would be given of simple 
mechanical aids, how to make them, and how to carry 
them about. Where needed, application of the data 
given in section 1 would be supplied. The time 
consuming part of writing this section will be in 
developing the adaptations and modifications of the best 
existing (methods) to fit new requirements. 

"3.) A variety of examples to show in detail how to 
make use of the (techniques) previously described. 
These examples would be given with varying situations 
and the ways to accommodate procedure to meet 

"If desired, I am prepared to start work on this 
project immediately. I believe I can complete the 
proposed writing in eighteen to twenty weeks. I 
understand, if I am given this assignment, that you, or 
your representative, would be willing to check my work 
at a conference approximately every two weeks." 

Mulholland estimated that the cost for him to do 
write the manual would be $3,000. [9] 

The Secret Book of Secrets 

Gottlieb was very enthusiastic about Mulholland's 
approach and wanted to move ahead quickly. On May 4, 
he drafted a Memorandum for the Record spelling out 
what Mulholland was to do: 

1.) The scope of this subproject is the collection, in 
the form of a concise manual, of as much pertinent 
information as possible in the fields of (magic as it 
relates to covert activities). The information collected 
will be pertinent to the problem of (surreptitiously 
administering) liquid, solid, or gaseous substances to 
(unknowing) subjects. 

2.) The information will be collected principally from 
the previous studies made by Mr. Mulholland in 
connection with various problems he has considered. Mr. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 151 

Mulholland seems well qualified to execute this study. 
He has been a successful (performer) of all forms of 
prestidigitation. He has made a careful and exhaustive 
study of the history of prestidigitation and is the 
possessor of an extensive hbrary of old volumes in this 
field. He has further seriously studied the psychology of 
deception and has instructed graduate students... 

3.) The period of time covered by this request covers 
six months from the date of commencement of work by 
Mr. Mulholland and the costs will not exceed $3,000." 

Mulhollands proposal was approved that same day 
and $3,000 was set aside to cover its cost. It would 
become Project MKULTRA, Subproject 4. [10] 

MKULTRA — and its component parts — had already 
become one of the Agency's most secret operations. 
Mulhollands work, along with that of others working on 
the project, was considered "ULTRA sensitive." 
Consequently, there would be no formal documents that 
would associate CIA or the Government with the work in 
question. Instead, the Technical Services Staff was to 
reach "an understanding with the individuals who will 
perform the work as to the conditions under which the 
work will be performed and reimbursement arranged. 
No standard contract will be signed." [ll] 

On May 5, Gottlieb, in accordance with this 
procedure, wrote the magician that "The project outlined 
in your letter of April 20 has been approved by us, and 
you are hereby authorized to spend up to $3,000 in the 
next six months in the execution of this work." No 
contract or formal agreement was enclosed or ever 
signed per CIA policy. However, the letter did include a 
check for $150 to cover Mulholland's latest work for the 
agency (March 18 th - April 13 th ). In terms of when 
Gottlieb and Mulholland could next meet, the chemist 
noted "A very crowded schedule of travel makes it 
necessary for us to delay until June 8 th our next visit 

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152 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

with you. An effective alternative to this would be for 
you to come on May, 13, 14, or 15 to discuss the current 
status of the work. Is this possible?" [12] 

Mulholland wrote Gottlieb back on May 11. "Thank 
you for the notification that my project has been 
approved. I understand the stipulations. I am resuming 
work today." Enclosed was a signed receipt for the check 
and a notation that Gottlieb's missive had taken longer 
than expected to reach him. "Due to the fact that your 
letter was addressed to (a former address), it was 
delayed in reaching me. That was an apartment from 
which I moved... years ago. The fact that the letter did 
reach me shows the cordial relationship I have with my 
local Post Office. My present address is above." [13] He 
made no comment on how such an error could occur on 
such a confidential issue. 

Mulholland was keenly aware of the project's 
sensitivity. Among the stipulations was a commitment to 
total secrecy. Even the manuscript itself would have to 
be written in a manner that protected the Agency should 
it fall into the wrong hands. There would be no 
references to "agents" or "operatives." Instead, covert 
workers would be called "performers;" covert actions 
would simply be labeled "tricks." 

Mulholland immediately set about the task of 
researching and writing the manual. While he 
continued his performance schedule, he cleared his 
calendar of other commitments. He stopped giving 
magic lessons, put off work on other writing 
assignments, and suspended publication of The Sphinx. 

Ending The Sphinx was a major step for Mulholland 
and for the magi community. Begun in Chicago in 
March of 1902 and subsequently housed in Kansas City 
and finally New York, this staid yet controversial 
periodical had become the most influential of magic 
journals. Mulholland had taken over the publication 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 153 

with Volume 29 Number 3 in May of 1930. [14] It was a 
source of great joy for him. It was also a tremendous 
burden. "For 23 years, I have edited The Sphinx as a 
labor of love and without financial reward. Each of 
these years I have spent a great amount of time, and 
considerable money, to produce a magazine of service to 
the professional magician and to the serious student of 
magic. The magazine has been a professional 
publication and never has catered to those who look on 
magic as a sort of game. I realized I could not go on 
forever and for the past several years I have been 
searching for some individual, or group, qualified to take 
over the editing and publication of The Sphinx and 
maintain its standards. I found no such person, or 
persons, and until such is, or are, found the publication 
of the magazine will be suspended. 

"I wish to express my appreciation to the many loyal 
readers, and above all to the contributors who made my 
editorship such a rewarding endeavor. It has been a 
source of deep personal gratification to know how well 
The Sphinx has been received during the years." [15] 
The final issue, the 597 th , was Volume 52, #1, dated 
March 1953. 

For the next several months, he worked continuously 
on the MKULTRA project. [16] He soon found, however, 
that if it were to meet the CIA's expectations, his 
manual would have to be far more than a hypothetical 
extension of existing magic tricks, principles and 
methods to covert activities. He was going to have to 
create real world solutions to real world problems. He 
and Gottlieb discussed the challenge. 

On August 3, Gottlieb set up a new subproject 
(Subproject 15) in order "to expand the original 
provisions of subproject 4 to include an allowance for 
travel for Mr. Mulholland and for operational supplies 
used in the course of this project." Mulholland and the 

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154 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Agency, Gottlieb wrote, needed to meet more frequently 
in order to consult on the details of the manual and the 
travel allowance would facilitate Mulholland's coming to 
Washington for some of these discussions. Furthermore, 
he noted, "Certain portions of subproject 4 require 
experimental verification by Mr. Mulholland. The item 
for operational supplies is intended to provide for the 
purchase of supplies used to test or verify ideas. The 
cost estimate for subproject 15 is $700.00 for a period of 
six months." [17] 

Even with these additional resources, Mulholland 
found the project a greater challenge than he expected. 
Getting it right was imperative. The consequences of a 
magic trick going wrong might be embarrassment or a 
decline in bookings; a covert operation going bad could 
cost an agent his or her life. He met with Gottlieb in late 
summer to discuss the matter. Gottlieb agreed to 
consider extending the time to meet this need. 

On September 18, Gottlieb filed an amendment to the 
MKULTRA Project Records that noted "The time period 
for the original proposal by Mr. Mulholland was six 
months, which would expire about 11 October 1953. The 
unusual nature of this manual demands that it be a 
creative project... rather than a mere compilation of 
already existing knowledge. For this reason the time 
estimates are difficult to make in advance and it is 
apparent at this time that the estimate was too short for 
the adequate preparation of this manual. It is in the 
best interests of the Agency to extend this time hmit and 
obtain the best possible manual rather than hold Mr. 
Mulholland to the six-month period. It is requested that 
the original six month time period be extended an 
additional six months. There is no change in the 
original cost estimate or the original agenda." [18] 

That same day, Gottlieb wrote to Mulholland: "This is 
at least a partial answer to the questions you asked the 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 155 

last time I saw you. According to my records, your 
initial estimate was six months, which would expire 
about October 11; I am initiating a six month extension 
of the original estimate, which should more than take 
care of the time factor. The original cost was $3,000.00, 
of which $1,500.00 is remaining as of now. [19] 

Mulholland devoted his energies to the project and by 
November his first draft was complete. But neither the 
magician nor the Agency were completely satisfied with 
the product. As Mulholland wrote Gottheb on November 

"The manual as it consists of the following five 

"1. Underlying bases for the successful performance 
of tricks and the background of the psychological 
principles by which they operate. 

"2.) Tricks with pills... 

"3.) Tricks with loose solids... 

"4.) Tricks with liquids... 

"5.) Tricks by which small objects may be obtained 
secretly. This section was not considered in my original 
outline and was suggested subsequently to me. I was, 
however, able to add it without necessitating extension 
of the number of weeks requested for the writing. 
Another completed task not noted in the outline was 
making models of such equipment as has been described 
in the manual." 

"As sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 were written solely for use 
by men working alone the manual needs two further 
sections. One section would give modified, or different, 
tricks and techniques of performance so that the tricks 
could be performed by women. The other section would 
describe tricks suitable for two or more people working 
in collaboration. In both these proposed sections the 

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156 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

tricks would differ considerably from those which have 
been described. 

"I believe that properly to devise the required 
techniques and devices and to describe them in writing 
would require 12 working weeks to complete the two 
sections. However, I cannot now work on this project 
every week and would hesitate to promise completion 
prior to the first of May, 1954." [20] 

Mulholland estimated that it would cost $1800 to 
finish the project. [21] 

Gottlieb, whose goal was an operational guide that 
would be of use to agents in the real world, shared 
Mulholland's view that broadening its scope to include 
collaborative efforts by teams of operatives or by female 
agents was well worth the delay. On November 17, he 
authorized Mulholland to draft the two additional 
chapters and extended the timeline for completion of the 
book until May. This new work became MKULTRA 
Subproject 19. [22] 

Impressed with Mulholland's range of knowledge and 
analysis, the CIA was beginning to extend its 
relationship with the magician beyond just the 
preparation of the covert operations manual. By now, 
the Agency was utihzing more and more of his expert 
advice. His ongoing meetings with the TSS staff 
accelerated. In December 9, Gottlieb expanded 
MKULTRA's Subproject 19 to increase the travel and 
operational supplies available to Mulholland and to 
provide for even more consultation between the conjuror 
and CD/TSS. At the same time, he was asked to take on 
yet another assignment ■ to work with the Agency "in 
connection with an investigation of claims in the general 
field of parapsychology..." [23] 

The CIA was fascinated by the idea of mind reading 
and thought transmittal. If possible, such extrasensory 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 157 

abilities would be among the most potent weapons in 
their arsenal. It would revolutionize both the obtaining 
and the delivery of secret information. At one point, the 
Agency had been approached by a man claiming to be a 
"genuine mystic" who had developed a system for 
sending and receiving telepathic messages anywhere in 
the world. Mulhollands task was to evaluate this and 
other claims of telepathy and clairvoyance. 

Mulholland, a hard-nosed skeptic, was right at home 
investigating the paranormal. He had been lecturing on 
the topic since 1930, when he began exposing the means 
and methods of fortunetellers. He soon broadened this 
to debunk and denounce other forms of occultism. By 
1938, he had written a book on the subject, Beware 
Familiar Spirits, which traced the history of modern 
spiritualism and described its techniques. He had no 
interest in letting the assertions of "mystics," 
clairvoyants and mind readers go unchallenged. 

With increasing frequency, someone inside the 
Agency would want an explanation for something they 
had seen or heard and Mulholland was asked to explain 
it. In virtually every case it would turn to have been 
accomplished through the stagecraft of magic. This 
would not stop the CIA - or other branches of the United 
States Government - from spending enormous resources 
over the next three decades to explore the possibilities of 
parapsychology and remote viewing. 

With this additional work at hand, it was soon 
evident that Mulholland would not be able to have the 
manual finished as anticipated. "An extension of time 
is needed to give Mr. Mulholland more time to complete 
this task," Gottlieb wrote. "The original estimated 
completion date was May 1, 1954. It is noted that the 
completion date estimate is now extended to November 
1, 1954."[24] 

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158 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

In the spring of 1954, Mulholland found himself 
facing an unforeseen problem. Much of his income for 
the previous year had come from the CIA for work that 
he knew was to be kept absolutely secret... even from 
other branches of the United States Government. But 
now it was time for him to prepare his taxes. Mulholland 
requested instructions from the Agency on how he was 
to report this income to the Internal Revenue Service 
and what he should do if he were audited or questioned 
by the IRS. 

An internal CIA memo spelled out the problem: "Mr. 
Mulholland is a self employed magician whose normal 
income is derived from payment by various individuals 
and organizations for individual performances. Although 
not applying to calendar year 1953, other characteristic 
sources of income are from publishers of books, etc., and 
from individuals to whom he has given instructions in 
magic. When preparing his Federal Income Tax form, 
income is customarily listed by individual performances, 
etc., with the person or organization paying for the 
performance, the location of the performance, the 
amount received, and the deductions itemized for each 
performance or each source of funds, rather than for a 
standard deduction to be taken. As may or may not be 
characteristic with professional performers, these 
deductions are often questioned by the Internal Revenue 
people, and Mr. Mulholland is frequently called on to 
justify some of his deductions. For this reason, a 
detailed record book is kept of his income, with a 
separate page for each performance or source of income." 

While acknowledgement of the magician receiving 
payments from the Agency was not felt to be a breach of 
security in itself, the CIA believed that it was absolutely 
imperative that the nature of Mulholland's work be kept 
from IRS scrutiny. "After several conferences with the 
Assistant General Counsel of the Agency, and the 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 159 

Security Officer for TSS, the following was 
recommended^ Mr. Mulholland should report all funds 
received from CD/TSS except for funds for travel 
expenses, but no attempt should be made to itemize 
deductions based on these funds. Income tax should be 
paid on the entire amount reported. Mr. Mulholland 
should determine a conservative value for the amount of 
tax paid in excess of what would have been paid if 
reasonable deductions were made. The reason for this 
was the feeling that any questions by the Internal 
Revenue people concerning funds paid by CD/TSS would 
be prompted by questions on deductions made. It was 
recommended that the excess tax paid by Mr. 
Mulholland be refunded by the CD/TSS." [25] This 
recommendation was immediately accepted "to protect 
the security of the Agency." [26] 

Mulholland followed the Agency's instructions and 
was reimbursed by the CIA for the excess taxes that 
resulted from this approach [27] Subproject 15 was 
expanded to include this financial arrangement [28] and 
similar agreements were instituted for subsequent years 
in which he received remuneration from the Agency. [29] 

Operational Applications of the Art of 

Mulholland continued work on the operational guide 
throughout the spring and summer. The text was 
completed by early fall. But the magician had one more 
task to do - to help prepare drawings, diagrams and 
photographs to illustrate the book's proposed 
techniques. [30] By winter, the manuscript was finally 
complete. It was titled Some Operational Applications of 
the Art of Deception. 

"The purpose of this paper," Mulholland wrote in the 
introduction, "is to instruct the reader so he may learn to 
perform a variety of acts secretly and undetectably. In 
short, here are instructions in deception." [31] 

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160 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

The following eight chapters - illustrated with 
diagrams hand-drawn by Mulholland - ran over 100 
pages and outlined how to apply the magician's art to 
the needs of espionage and covert activity. It covered 
how to administer pills, liquids, gasses and loose solids 
surreptitiously. It discussed means of obtaining small 
objects secretly. It proposed strategies and tactics to fit 
the needs of female agents. And it put forth techniques 
that could be used by teams of men working in tandem. 
All this was set forth in language that adhered to the 
original stipulations put to Mulholland in April of 1953. 
The language of the manual had to sound like a simple 
magic text without any words or examples that would 
connect it to its true clandestine use. 

But this was not some primer for amateur magicians 
to learn a few tricks. No matter how gentle the 
language, this was to be a guide for agents in the field to 
perform dangerous, provocative and even lethal acts. 
The solids, gases and liquids were not harmless 
substances. What Mulholland was teaching CIA 
operatives to do was surreptitiously administer mind- 
altering chemicals, biological agents, dangerous drugs, 
and lethal poisons in order to disorient, discredit, injure, 
and even kill people. 

Today - five decades after it was written - the tricks 
and approaches set forth in this manual are still 
classified "top secret." 

Mulholland's name appears nowhere on the 
document, but - consciously or not -- he did leave a 
subtle trace: the illustrations he sketched detailing facial 
expressions look very much like self-portraits. This 
notwithstanding, Some Operational Applications of the 
Art of Deception, remains John Mulholland's most secret 
book of secrets. 

A Member of the Team 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 161 

While the operational manual was now complete, 
John Mulholland's work for the CIA was far from over. 
He had become part of the MKULTRA team and the 
Agency was already employing his knowledge and skills 
in a wide range of ways. 

In October of 1954, Mulholland's agreement with the 
CIA was extended to include his assistance in the 
"design of devices for the covert delivery of materials" as 
well as provide for "such other travel and services as 
may be desired from Mr. Mulholland at various times." 

The following summer, the Agency asked the 
magician to undertake another assignment. The success 
of intelligence operations almost always rests on the 
ability to transmit information clandestinely. Theirs, 
after all, is a world of secrets. Mulholland's manual had 
spelled out how to administer materials - notably pills, 
liquids, and loose solids - to unsuspecting victims 
through the tricks of the magician's trade. He was also 
helping the Technical Services Staff design devices to 
carry this out. Now he was to show the intelligence 
community how to use the methods of magic to exchange 
information covertly with one another. Furthermore, he 
was to use his knowledge and creativity to fashion new 
methods that were unknown even to the conjuring 

On August 25, Gottlieb outlined this new project "on 
the application of the magician's art to the covert 
communication of information" in a confidential CIA 
memo. According to Gottlieb, "this would involve the 
application of techniques and principles employed by 
'magicians, 'mind readers' etc, to communicate 
information, and the development of new techniques. It 
is contemplated the above would provide a contribution 
to the general efforts in the area of non-electrical means 
of communication. Mr. Mulholland has agreed to 

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162 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

undertake this task." Mulholland's compensation for 
this was raised from $150.00 per week to $200.00 per 
week. [33] 

The Agency continued to enlarge the scope of John 
Mulholland's work. On June 20, 1956, the magician's 
arrangement was again expanded. "Objective: Make Mr. 
Mulholland available as a consultant on various 
problems — TSS and otherwise — as they evolve. These 
problems concern the application of the magician's 
technique to clandestine operations, such techniques to 
include surreptitious delivery of materials, deceptive 
movements and actions to cover normally prohibited 
activities, influencing choices and perceptions of other 
persons, various forms of disguise! covert signaling 
systems, etc." [34] 

That August the Agency extended its financial 
arrangement with the magician for another year. [35] 
And in November of 1957 Mulholland's projects were 
authorized for yet another 12 months. [36] CIA financial 
records show that he continued to submit vouchers and 
be paid through February 5, 1958 [37] 

It is not clear whether John Mulholland continued to 
consult for the CIA after that. By then, his health had 
deteriorated considerably. He still smoked constantly. 
His arthritis had become very severe, but ulcers and 
other stomach problems prevented him from taking even 
aspirin to relieve it. He severely limited many — if not 
most — of his projects and activities. 

While Mulholland's work for the CIA may have 
ended, the Agency continued its interest in the 
connection between the techniques of conjuring and 
espionage. Indeed, in the spring of 1959, the Agency 
extended another MKULTRA Subproject (subproject 83) 
to revise and adapt some of material that Mulholland 
had developed on "deception techniques (magic, sleight 
of hand, signals) and on psychic phenomena." [38] 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 163 

MKULTRA was not merely some academic research 
experiment. Nor was Sidney Gottlieb, the man who 
oversaw Mulhollands work, just an American version of 
"Q," the scientific wizard who supplied James Bond with 
his dazzling gizmos and gadgets. Certainly Gottheb's 
Technical Services Staff came up with more than their 
share of wristwatch radios and disappearing inks. At his 
core, Gottlieb was a dedicated and determined 
"operations" leader. His chemical division laboratory 
stored a vast array of poison pills and potions. And 
Gottlieb knew how - and was willing -- to use them. 

While a clubfoot kept him from military service in 
World War II, it didn't stop him from engaging in some 
of the CIAs most covert and deadly missions. He 
traveled to Leopoldville (Kimshasa) with an Agency- 
developed bio-toxin in his diplomatic bag. Designed to 
mimic a disease endemic to the Congo, the virus was 
cultured specifically for its lethal effect. Its intended 
victim: Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba. Once in the 
Congo, the scientist carefully instructed CIA operatives 
in how to apply the toxin to Lumumba's toothbrush and 
food. [39] Gottlieb mailed a monogrammed 

handkerchief — doctored with brucellosis — to Iraqi 
colonel Abd a-Karim Qasim [40] and he developed 
poisoned cigarettes intended for Jamal abd an-Nasir of 

Egypt. [41] Fidel Castro was an ongoing focus of 

Gottlieb's chemists — from the LSD the Agency hoped to 
spray in the Cuban leader's radio booth to the botulinum 
pill-laden pencil they crafted to assassinate him. [42] 

Foreign leaders were not the only objects of Gottlieb's 
interest. Gottheb was constantly experimenting to see 
the real world impact of his drugs. Such experimentation 
was at the heart of the MKULTRA project. The Agency 
conducted 149 separate projects involving drug testing, 
behavior modification, and secret administration of 
mind- altering chemicals at 80 US and Canadian 

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164 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

universities, hospitals, research foundations, and 
prisons. Over the years, hundreds of individuals were 
guinea pigs in this research. Some were government 
employees, mihtary personnel, and students who had 
varying degrees of knowledge about the tests. But many 
were unwitting subjects, particularly drug addicts, 
prostitutes, mental patients, and prisoners — people who 
were unlikely to complain and even less likely to be 
believed if they did. One group of men was kept on LSD 
for 77 days. A mental patient in Kentucky was dosed 
with LSD for 174 days. The CIA even set up its own 
brothel to monitor the effects of the hallucinogen on 
prostitutes and their unsuspecting clients. 

Gottlieb's MKULTRA projects weren't limited to mind- 
altering chemicals. He explored a host of biological 
agents, toxins, and other drugs as well as such areas as 
crop and material sabotage, harassment techniques for 
offensive use, gas propelled spays and aerosols, 
hypnosis, sensory deprivation, and electroshock. [43] 

But the darkest episode may well have been one in 
which John Mulholland found himself personally 
involved during the very first year of his MKULTRA 
work: the death of Dr. Frank Olson. [44] 

Death and the Magician 

Recruited by the US Army from graduate school at 
the University of Wisconsin in 1943, Frank Olson was 
one of the pioneering scientists in America's biological 
warfare program. He served his active duty in the Army 
Chemical Corps at Camp Detrick in Frederick, 
Maryland, and later traded his Army job for a civilian 
position within the same branch. He was soon working 
in a new and highly secretive subgroup: the Special 
Operations Division (SOD). The Division had three 
primary functions: assessing the vulnerability of 
American installations to biological attack; developing 
techniques for offensive use of biological weapons; and 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 165 

biological research for the CIA. This CIA research 
included an MKULTRA subproject (code name MKNAOMl) 
in which SOD was to produce and maintain vicious 
mutant germ strains capable of killing or incapacitating 
would-be victims. An expert in biochemistry and 
aerobiology, Olson's specialty was delivering such deadly 
diseases in sprays and aerosol emulsions. 

Twice each year, the MKNAOMl team from SOD held 
a working retreat where the Army scientists could plan 
and discuss future projects with their CIA counterparts. 
On Wednesday, November 18, 1953, Olson and five of 
his SOD colleagues traveled to a remote stone cabin 
located at Deep Creek Lake in western Maryland for 
such a meeting. 

Sidney Gottlieb was always looking for ways to test 
the effects of his chemicals. This session presented just 
such an opportunity. His goal, he would later say, was 
to "ascertain the effect clandestine application of LSD 
would have on a meeting or conference." After dinner on 
the second night of the retreat, he had his assistant, Dr. 
Robert Lashbrook place a "very small dose" of LSD in a 
bottle of Cointreau. All but two of the SOD team was 
served the LSD -laced liqueur. As part of this 
"experiment," Olson unwittingly received some 70 
micrograms of the hallucinogen. 

Until then, Gottlieb saw nothing unusual in Olson's 
behavior. However the introduction of the drug had a 
definite effect on the entire group. Increasingly 
boisterous, they soon could not engage in sensible 
conversation. The meeting continued until about LOO 
a.m., when the participants retired for the evening. 
Gottlieb later recalled that Olson, among others, 
complained of "wakefulness" during the night. But aside 
from some evidence of fatigue, Gottlieb observed nothing 
unusual in Olson's actions, conversation, or general 
behavior the next morning. 

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166 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

By the time Olson returned home Friday evening, 
things had changed radically. The 43 -year old 
biochemist was, as his wife Alice would later recount, "a 
totally different person" — severely depressed, anxious, 
highly agitated. Lapsing into silence, Olson wouldn't tell 
his wife anything that had occurred. All he would say 
was "I'm going to have to resign; I've made a terrible 

The following Monday, November 23, Olson was 
already waiting for his boss, Lt. Col. Vincent Ruwet, 
when he arrived at work at 7^30 a.m. Olson told him that 
he wanted to quit or be fired. Ruwet reassured him that 
everything would be all right. Olson phoned his wife "I 
talked to Vin, he said I didn't make a mistake, 
everything is fine and I'm not going to resign." But 
Tuesday morning saw a return of his anxiety and 
depression. Olson again went to Ruwet and, after an 
hour-long conversation the two decided that Olson would 
benefit from medical assistance. 

Col. Ruwet - keenly aware of the sensitivity of 
Olson's circumstances - immediately turned to the CIA 
for help. He telephoned Robert Lashbrook and advised 
him that "Dr. Olson was in serious trouble and needed 
immediate professional attention." Agreeing to make the 
appropriate arrangements, Lashbrook then phoned 

Ruwet was instructed to bring Olson to Washington, 
D.C. to meet with Lashbrook. A few hours later all three 
men were on their way to New York to see the physician 
that Gottlieb and Lashbrook had agreed upon: Dr. 
Harold Abramson. 

Abramson was an unlikely doctor from whom to seek 
psychiatric assistance. An allergist and immunologist 
practicing medicine in New York City, he had no formal 
training or degree in psychiatry, nor did he hold himself 
out to be an expert in the field. He was, however, closely 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 167 

associated with research projects supported indirectly by 
the CIA and had substantial experience with LSD. Fully 
vetted by the Agency, he had a "top secret" security 
clearance, and while the CIAs Security and Medical 
offices maintained a long list of other doctors, including 
psychiatrists, with such "top secret" approval, 
Abramson's work and interest placed him well inside the 
Technical Services Staffs "family." Gottlieb was 
determined that his secret activities remained secret - 
even within the wider reaches of the CIA. 

Abramson saw Olson twice that day -- first at his 
East 58 th Street office and then later that night at 
Olson's hotel. On the latter visit, the doctor gave the 
biochemist two bottles: one of bourbon and one of the 
sedative Nembutal - an unorthodox prescription for 
someone in Olson's condition. 

Frank Olson was slated to see Abramson again the 
following day. Before doing so, the three men made 
another stop. "We accompanied Dr. Lashbrook, at Dr. 
Lashbrook's suggestion, on an official visit he had to 
make," Ruwet would later disclose in a confidential CIA 
affidavit. That visit was to John Mulholland. 

The three men arrived at Mulholland's office around 
3:00pm on November 25. Things did not go well. "During 
this visit, Dr. Olson became highly suspicious and mixed 
up. When this became apparent we tactfully cut the 
visit short." [45] 

Lashbrook then took Olson for another session with 
Abramson. The next morning, Thursday, November 26, 
Lashbrook, Olson and Ruwet returned to Washington so 
that Olson could spend Thanksgiving with his family. An 
SOD driver met Olson and Ruwet at National Airport. 
But as they were driving up Wisconsin Avenue, Olson 
had the car pull into a hotel parking lot. Olson told 
Ruwet that he was too ashamed to face his family and 
afraid that he might become violent with his children. 

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168 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

After a lengthy discussion, it was decided that Olson and 
Lashbrook would return to New York, and that Ruwet 
would go to Olson's home in Frederick, Maryland, to 
explain the situation to Olson's wife. 

Lashbrook and Olson flew back to New York that 
same day for further consultations with Abramson. They 
spent Thursday night at a Long Island hotel not far from 
Abramson's Long Island clinic. The next morning the 
two men returned to Manhattan with Abramson. By now 
the biochemist was acting more and more "psychotic" 
with what Abramson would later say were "delusions of 
persecution." Olson thought the CIA was out to get him. 
After further discussions with Abramson, it was agreed 
that Olson should be placed under regular psychiatric 
care at Chestnut Lodge, an institution closer to his home 
and which had CIA-cleared psychiatrists on its 
Rockville, Maryland, staff. 

Arrangements were made for Frank Olson's 
immediate admission to the hospital. In what was 
undoubtedly a remarkable coincidence, the doctor who 
served as the admitting physician for was Dr. Robert W. 
Gibson - the 25-year old son of Walter Gibson. [46] 
Walter Gibson was one of magic's most prolific writers 
and editors, though the general public would know him 
best as the author of "The Shadow." He was also a close 
friend and colleague to John Mulholland. 

Unable to obtain air transportation for a return trip 
on Friday night, Lashbrook and Olson made plane 
reservations for Saturday morning and checked into 
room 1018A in the Statler Hotel. Between the time they 
checked in and KKOO p.m. they watched television, 
visited the cocktail lounge, and then had dinner. 
According to Lashbrook, Olson "was cheerful and 
appeared to enjoy the entertainment." He "appeared no 
longer particularly depressed, and almost the Dr. Olson 
I knew prior to the experiment." 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 169 

After dinner, Lashbrook and Olson watched 
television for about another hour, and at lLOOp.m. 
Olson suggested that they go to bed, saying that "he felt 
more relaxed and contented than he had since [they] 
came to New York." Olson then left a call with the hotel 
operator to wake them in the morning. 

At approximately 2:30 a.m. Saturday, November 28, 
Frank Olson crashed through the closed window blinds 
and the closed window of his hotel room and fell to his 
death on the Seventh Avenue sidewalk 10 floors below. 

Lashbrook would later claim that he was awakened 
by the crash of glass as Olson hurtled through the closed 
window. But his first reaction was not to run downstairs 
or call the police or the hotel operator. Instead, he 
telephoned Gottlieb at his home and informed him that 
Olson was now dead. It was only then that Lashbrook 
dialed the front desk and reported the incident to the 

By that time a cover-up had already begun. The 
question is a cover-up of what? 

Within minutes, uniformed New York City police 
officers and hotel employees came to Lashbrook's room. 
The CIA staffer was still in his underwear, on the 
telephone in the bathroom. He told the police that he 
worked for the Defense Department and he didn't know 
why Olson had jumped from the window, but he did 
know that Olson "suffered from ulcers" and might have 
been suffering from job-related stress. The police 
suspected foul play. 

Two officers of the 14 th Detective Squad then 
interviewed Lashbrook at the local police station. 
Getting information out of him, they noted, "was like 
pulling teeth." They asked to see what was in his 
pockets and billfold. Among the contents of his wallet 
was a scrap of paper with the initials "JM" on it, an 

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170 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

address, and a telephone number [47] . When asked by 
the officers who this "JM" was, "Lashbrook indicated he 
preferred not to identify him because of security reasons 
and the matter was pressed no further by the 
detectives." [48] 

The police had little reason to see any connection 
between paper and the incident. Their suspicions were 
in another direction. At one point, the two officers 
speculated to each other that the case might be a simple 
homicide with homosexual overtones and noted this in 
their written report. 

In the meantime, Sidney Gottlieb had already 
reported up the chain of command. CIA Director Allen 
Dulles immediately dispatched agents of the Security 
Branch -- what some have termed the "CIAs fixit men"- 
to contain the situation. The Security Branch agents 
quickly closed the NYPD investigation. They took every 
necessary step to prevent Frank Olson's death from 
being connected with the CIA in any way. They supplied 
complete cover for Lashbrook so that his association 
with the Agency would remain a complete secret. 

With the external front under control, the Agency 
then turned to its own internal investigation. Lashbrook 
was again interviewed, but this time by an experienced 
agent from the CIA. Now when asked who "JM" was, 
Lashbrook identified him "as John Mulholland." 
Interestingly he referred to him not as "John 
Mulholland, the magician" or "John Mulholland, a writer 
and lecture." He identified him solely as "John 
Mulholland, an Agency employee." [49] Moreover, among 
the papers in Lashbrook's room was "a receipt on plain 
white paper for $115.00 dated November 25 1953 and 
signed by John Mulholland. The receipt indicated 
Advance for Travel to Chicago.'" [50] 

However forthcoming Lashbrook was, the Technical 
Services Staff still tried to keep the details of its 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 171 

operations from the scrutiny of others even within the 
Agency itself. It downplayed the connection between 
TSS and Olson's death and minimized any link to LSD. 
Internal memoranda written after the biochemist's 
passing questioned his emotional stability - a direct 
contradiction to statements evaluating his mental state 
prior to the Deep Creek incident. In the end, however, 
the full details of MKULTRA and the experiment 
involving Olson reached others within the CIA. 

The CIA officially took the position that Olson's death 
was indeed a suicide, triggered by the LSD given to him 
by Gottheb and Lashbrook. But of course it hid even that 
from the public, including the Olsons. The family had 
only been told that the stress of his job had led to a 
nervous breakdown and that Frank Olson had killed 
himself. What little else they knew came from a small 
article in their local paper: "Army Bacteriologist Dies in 
Plunge from NY Hotel." In order to assure his family of 
Civil Service benefits, the CIA had his death officially 
recorded as a "classified illness." 

And so it remained for twenty-two years. Then in 
June 1975 a special commission chaired by Vice 
President Nelson Rockefeller released the findings of its 
investigation into illegal CIA domestic operations. 
The Washington Post's coverage of the Rockefeller Report 
noted that in the early 1950's an unnamed civihan 
employee of the Department of the Army had leaped to 
his death from a New York hotel window after the CIA 
had given him LSD without his knowledge. On reading 
the article, Alice Olson instantly reahzed the man 
described in the morning paper was her husband. 

Vincent Ruwet confirmed her suspicion that the 
individual was indeed Frank Olson, but because of the 
still top-secret status of the project was unable to 
divulge any further details. On July 11, 1975, the Olson 
family held a press conference expressing their outrage 

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172 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

and anguish, called for a full accounting of the incident, 
and filed a wrongful death suit against the United 
States Government. The story made national headlines. 

Mind Control Murder? 

Official Washington moved quickly to end the furor. 
President Ford invited Alice Olson and her son, Eric, to 
the White House where he personally apologized on 
behalf of the government. Congress enacted legislation 
providing $750,000 in compensation to the Olson family. 
And CIA Director Wilham Colby met the Olsons for 
lunch, where he gave them what he said was the 
complete CIA-file on the Olson case. [51] 

While the CIA was now "admitting" that Frank 
Olson's death was a suicide brought on by the after- 
effects of CIA- administered LSD, Eric Olson was never 
fully convinced. This was, he felt, a classic example of 
sophisticated misdirection, using a skill from the 
magician's toolkit to protect a clandestine operation. "I 
believe the key to all this," he would later write, "lies in 
the connection between the heart of covert operations, 
which consists in creating adequate cover stories, and 
the heart of the magician's art, which consists in being 
able to direct attention precisely to the place where the 
thing is not happening... All curiosity was riveted on the 
startling disclosure that the CIA had unwittingly 
drugged a top scientist, but left no curiosity available for 
the question of, 'Oh yes, what about his death; you 
haven't told us how he could have gotten out the 
window." [52] 

After his mother died in 1993, Eric and the family 
decided to move Frank Olson's remains from another 
cemetery so that he could be reburied beside his wife. At 
the same time, the son got a court order to have an 
autopsy performed. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 173 

Frank Olson had been buried in a sealed casket. This 
was supposedly to spare his family from seeing how 
badly mutilated his face and body were from crashing 
through a plate glass window and falling ten stories to 
the concrete below. But when the casket was opened, 
Olson had none of the cuts or abrasions on his face as 
had been expected. Instead, the forensic pathologist, Dr. 
James Starrs, a Professor of Law and Forensic Science 
at the National Law Center at The George Washington 
University, found a deep bruise on Olson's forehead. 
The bruise was severe enough to have rendered Olson 
unconscious, Starrs thought, but probably did not result 
from the fall. His conclusion was that the evidence was 
starkly "suggestive of homicide." 

That was Eric Olson's conclusion as well. He simply 
couldn't imagine how his father could have run across 
the small, dark hotel room, gained enough velocity to 
vault over a radiator and crash with enough force to go 
through the closed blinds and the heavy glass pane of a 
shut hotel window... all with a CIA agent asleep in the 
next bed whose entire responsibility was to keep track of 
his father. 

Despite this new evidence, federal prosecutors 
refused to pursue the inquiry. The terms of the $750,000 
Congressional financial settlement precluded a civil suit. 
But Eric Olson was able to persuade New York public 
prosecutor Stephen Saracco to look into the case. 
Saracco decided there was indeed enough evidence to 
convene a grand jury for an investigation into the death. 
That investigation is continuing. 

If Olson was murdered, the question is why? Did the 
Technical Services Staff find itself with a man who knew 
so much and yet was so ill that he was a threat the 
MKULTRA's secrecy? Was the Olson case an experiment 
in mind and behavior control that went so terribly wrong 
it had to be terminated? Had Frank Olson said or done 

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174 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

something that was — as he himself feared — a breach of 
security? Had he seen something so repugnant in the 
MKULTRA work that he couldn't be part of it? Did the 
biochemist intend to resign from an agency that could 
then neither let him continue nor permit him to quit? 
These remain questions for the grand jury to ponder. 

Another unanswered question is raised by the small 
scrap of paper that Robert Lashbrook had in his wallet 
the night Frank Olson died. That was the paper with the 
initials "JM" on it along with John Mulholland's address 
and telephone number. Why was Olson in John 
Mulholland's office on November 25? And what made 
him so upset that the meeting had to be abandoned? 

That Lashbrook would be meeting with Mulholland 
should not be surprising. Part of the original agreement 
between Mulholland and the CIA was that Gottlieb — or 
his representative — would review the work the magician 
was doing for the Agency at a biweekly conference. [53] 
As the project progressed, it was clear that "frequent 
consultations between Mr. Mulholland and CD/TSS" 
were indeed essential. In order to facihtate these 
conferences, Mulholland was provided an additional 
travel allowance. [54] Even so, meetings were not 
always easy to schedule and Lashbrook's being in New 
York on other business would certainly have made 
getting together simpler. 

Moreover, Mulholland's work on the manual was at a 
critical point. His manuscript encompassing the original 
outline of the guide had just been completed. The 
magician was now turning his attention to the two new 
sections to be added to the first draft: one on covert 
activities by women and the other on applications 
suitable for teams of two or more people working in 
collaboration with each other. In fact, it had only been a 
week since Gottheb authorized Mulholland to proceed on 
these two additional chapters. [55] Conferring with 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 175 

Lashbrook on the scope and substance of this material 
would be only natural. 

At the same, the Agency had begun to rely 
increasingly on Mulholland for his advice and expertise. 
Lashbrook carried with him a check for $115.00 — a 
travel advance for an upcoming trip that Mulholland 
was making to Chicago on behalf of the CIA. Why 
Mulholland was going to Chicago for the Agency remains 
uncertain, although there is some evidence that he was 
going to take part in secretly assessing the claims of 
Andrija Puharich — claims that related to electronic 
systems and telepathy. His subsequent handwritten 
travel voucher for the December 3 journey only lists 
meeting with a "contact." [56] Perhaps the Lashbrook 
visit was scheduled for the two men to discuss this 
activity. In any event, Lashbrook did deliver the check 
during the November 25 session and received a 
handwritten receipt in return. [57] 

With only an hour between the time Lashbrook was 
slated to meet with Mulholland and Frank Olson's next 
appointment with Dr. Abramson, it might have been 
simply out of convenience that Lashbrook suggested that 
Olson and Col. Ruwet accompany him on this visit. 
Mulholland was always a gracious host and an engaging 
conversationalist. It may well be, as John Marks 
suggests, that "Lashbrook thought that the magician 
might amuse Olson." [58] In fact, just the opposite 
occurred. Olson got so suspicious and upset that the 
meeting was quickly ended. 

There are others who suggest that the motive behind 
the Mulholland visit was far less benign. "One of the 
things Mulholland may have been helping them do was 
to create a cover story for what... they were doing in New 
York in the first place," notes Eric Olson. Beyond that, 
he says, "it fits with what they were trying to do in New 
York: to assess, from any direction possible, how 

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176 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

deep... they were in with my father, and to try, again by 
any means possible, to fix it and save their own butts." 

Frank Olson's son is not the only one to suggest that 
Mulhollands conjuring-related knowledge and skills 
were being put to use to interrogate and influence the 
biochemist. This is clearly the implication of the film 
documentary Mind Control Murder produced by 
Principal Films and presented as part of Arts & 
Entertainment Network's Investigative Reports series in 
September of 1999. [60] 

The documentary puts forward its "strong evidence" 
that Olson was eliminated by the CIA because he 
wanted to leave the government after witnessing the 
real world use of MKULTRA interrogation techniques, 
including drugs and hypnosis... techniques that have 
been "terminal" in nature. The activities at Deep Creek, 
it suggests, were designed to find out what Olson knew, 
what he had done, and what he was hkely to do. It cites 
independent writer and investigator Hank Albarelli: "I 
think there was an experiment of some sort at Deep 
Creek Lodge. I think that it might have involved 
hypnosis and that hypnosis experiment may have been 
continued in New York in John Mulhollands office and 
possibly in Dr. Harold Abramson's office." 

"If Albarelli is right," the film's narrator Bill Kurtis 
concludes, "the... method of special interrogation was 
both the secret Olson was worried about and the 
technique that two of its leading practitioners — John 
Mulholland and Harold Abramson — then used on him." 

The problem with this theory is that there is no 
evidence that Mulholland was skilled as a hypnotist. To 
the contrary, he appears to have been extremely 
skeptical of its practicality, dismissing many exhibitions 
of hypnosis as merely "magic shows." [61] Moreover, the 
Agency had access to a wide range of individuals with 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 177 

true expertise in the area. There were at least eight 
separate MKULTRA subprojects devoted to hypnosis, 
including two involving hypnosis and drugs in 
combination. [62] Five major CIA-sponsored hypnosis 
experiments had already been undertaken by that 
November. Indeed, Gottlieb had observed some of this 
work firsthand and was well acquainted with the 
hypnotists involved. [63] 

"Even if Mulholland were not a skilled 
hypnotist they still might have gone to see him, even if 
hypnosis were the purpose," counters Eric Olson. "He 
might have been the best they had available at the 
moment and also the only guy with an adequate security 
clearance to handle what they wanted. But they might 
have found other ways of using Mulhollands skills, in 
addition to or beyond hypnosis. ..I think the overall 
purpose is clear: they were exploring whether and to 
what extent they might distract my father (certainly the 
essence of the magician's art) for the purpose of taking 
his eye off the ball, making him forget, creating amnesia. 
In trying to distract my father... they were taking a risk: 
the same techniques that ultimately might quiet him 
could also, if he detected what was going on, increase his 
anxiety and fear." [64] 

Whatever happened in Mulholland's office that 
November afternoon, it did not curtail his work with the 
Central Intelligence Agency. He continued his 
relationship with the CIA for at least another five years. 
His ability to keep this part of his hfe secret for so long 
may well have been his greatest magic trick. 

In Search of Secrets 

That any evidence of John Mulhollands involvement 
with the CIA still exists is remarkable in itself - 
although it would take decades for it to come to light. 
The CIAs practice was to maintain no records relating 
to the planning and approval of MKULTRA programs. 

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178 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

[65] Few other files ever existed. Then, in January 1973, 
acting on Sidney Gottlieb's verbal directions, the 
Agency's Technical Services personnel sought out and 
destroyed every single MKULTRA record they could find. 
Gottlieb later testified -- and Richard Helms -- confirmed 
that in ordering the destruction of the papers, Gottlieb 
was carrying out then-CIA Director Helms' verbal 
orders. [66] 

At some point, John Mulholland's personal files were 
also apparently vetted to remove any connection 
between him and the Agency. While Mulholland was 
meticulous in his personal record keeping, not a single 
reference to his clandestine work remains in his 
personal archives. Noted writer and intelligence expert 
Jim Hougan combed through the magician's files which 
are now housed in David Copperfield's secret warehouse 
in Nevada. "I went through each and every document 
page by page. Not a single line related or referred to the 
Agency. They were spic-and-span. It was apparent that 
John Mulholland's files had been gone through and 
sanitized by someone who knew the Agency and knew 
how to eradicate any hint of its presence." [67] 

Despite these efforts and unbeknownst to Gottlieb 
and his staff, some MKULTRA documents still remained. 
These files — presumably routine records from the TSS's 
Budget and Fiscal Section — had been sent to the CIAs 
Retired Records Center outside of Washington in 1970. 
They should not have contained any MKULTRA material. 
The financial paper associated with sensitive projects 
such as this were normally kept by the branch itself 
under the project title, not in the files of the branch's 
Budget and Fiscal Section. Why these records were 
stored in this manner is not known, but it accounts for 
why the material escaped retrieval and destruction in 
1973. It also explains why the Agency was unable to find 
these MKULTRA documents in response to a subsequent 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 179 

US Senate Select Committee investigation of CIA abuses 
in 1975. The Agency examined both the active and the 
retired files of all the branches of the CIA considered 
likely to have had an association with the project, but 
never looked into the Budget and Fiscal Section retired 
records. [68] 

Then, in 1977, two exceptionally diligent Agency 
researchers processing a Freedom of Information Act 
request for former State Department officer John Marks 
decided to double-check the Budget and Fiscal Section's 
historical archives. They uncovered seven cartons of 
MKULTRA material. In August, the Carter White House 
made the existence of these papers public, though it 
downplayed the significance of their contents. In 
accordance with the requirements of federal statute, 
some 16,000 pages of evidence had to be released to 

All 16,000 pages were, in the CIAs own words, 
"heavily sanitized." Few documents had escaped 
redacting. Hundreds of names, places and dates were 
blacked out. Entire pages were blank. Working with 
four researchers, Marks painstakingly went through the 
papers, cross-referencing the material, finding clues 
wherever he could. In some instances, the blacked out 
text could be deciphered simply by holding the page to 
the light; others were identified by their context. His 
resulting 1977 book, The Search for the Manchurian 
Candidate, did what two United States Senate 
Committees could not do: it assembled a detailed 
account of the CIA and its foray into drugs and mind 

Marks' book ran 264 pages. Only four sentences 
related to John Mulholland. Those four sentences 
stimulated the author's own Freedom of Information Act 
request calling for the Central Intelligence Agency to 
release of any information or records relating to 

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180 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Mulholland's work with the CIA, including any written 
agreements between him and the Agency, copies of the 
documents he produced, or other related materials. 

On June 26, 2000, the Agency responded with explicit 
written confirmation that John Mulholland indeed had a 
contractual arrangement with the CIA relating to the 
operational uses of the magician's skills. [69] It included 
over 200 pages of material directly hnked to Mulholland 
and his involvement with the intelhgence community. 
Like the documents released to John Marks in 1977, 
these files were heavily — though inconsistently — 
redacted. A request for a re-review of these files is still 

Despite the CIAs editing of the material, the 
documents provided a remarkably comprehensive 
account of John Mulholland's work for the CIA. At times, 
however, unveiling this information was like assembling 
a giant jigsaw puzzle. Each and every document had to 
be carefully scrutinized and then crosschecked against 
all of the other released papers. All of the material 
supplied to John Marks in 1977 as well as all of the 
material released to the Olson family by the CIA in 1975 
was reviewed in light of this new evidence. Finally, all of 
this information was reassembled to form a 
chronological narrative. This article is a summary of 
those findings. 

These files may be the last link we have to the 
clandestine world of John Mulholland. Sidney Gottlieb 
retired from the CIA in 1973, receiving the Agency's 
Distinguished Intelligence Medal for his 22 years of 
service. After retiring, Gottheb and his wife worked in a 
leprosy hospital in India for 18 months, then moved to a 
farm in Rappahannock, Virginia. Gottlieb's health, 
however, was not good and he suffered from a long 
history of heart ailments. After a month-long bout with 
pneumonia, Sidney Gottlieb died at his home on March 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 181 

7, 1999. He was 80 years old. Allen Dulles, the man who 
approved MKULTRA, died three decades earlier. Vincent 
Ruwet passed on in 1996. 

John Mulholland died at age 71 on February 25, 1970 
after a long illness in University Hospital, New York. 
His life had been dedicated to magic and the keeping of 
secrets. His clandestine work for the CIA was one secret 
he was able to maintain until the very end. 


[l] Mulholland letter to subscribers of The Sphinx, 
June 29, 1953, George Daily Collection 

[2] Memorandum for Director, Central Intelligence, 
Two Extremely Sensitive Research Programs, Central 
Intelligence Agency, April 3, 1953, author's files 

[3] Ibid. 

[4] Memorandum for Deputy Director 
(Administration^ Project MKULTRA - Extremely 
Sensitive Research and Development Program, Central 
Intelligence Agency, April 13, 1953, author's files 

[5] Alexander Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair, "US 
Official Poisoner Dies," CounterPunch, Institute for the 
Advancement of Journalistic Clarity, March 1999 

[6] Stewart Alsop, The Center- The Anatomy of 
Power in Washington, London, Hodder & Stroughton, 

[7] John Northern Hilhard, Greater Magic, Kaufman 
and Greenburg, 1994, page 1095 

[8] Mulholland invoice, Central Intelligence Agency, 
MKULTRA document 4-30, April 13, 1953, author's files 

[9] Mulholland letter to Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 4-29, April 20, 
1953, author's files 

Archimedes Press 

182 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

[10] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 4, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 4-28, May 4, 1953, author's files 

[11] Ibid. 

[12] Letter to John Mulholland, Central Intelligence 
Agency, MKULTRA document 4-28, May 5, 1953, author's 

[13] Mulholland letter to Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 4-2, May 11, 
1953, author's files 

[14] James B. Alfredson and George L. Daily, Jr., A 
Bibliography of Conjuring Periodicals in English: 1791- 
1983, Magicana for Collectors, York, PA, 1986 

[15] Mulholland letter to subscribers of The Sphinx, 
June 29, 1953, op. cit. 

[16] Expense Record, MKULTRA, Subproject 4, 
Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 4-1, 
author's files 

[17] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 15, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 15-2, August 3, 1953, author's files 

[18] Memorandum for the Record, Amendment to 
Project MKULTRA, Subproject 4, Central Intelligence 
Agency, MKULTRA document 4-17, September 18, 1953, 
author's files 

[19] Letter to John Mulholland from Sidney Gottlieb, 
Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 4-17, 
September 18, 1953, author's files 

[20] Mulholland letter to Sidney Gottlieb, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 19-2, 
November 11, 1953, author's files 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 183 

[21] Cost Estimate, Central Intelligence Agency, 
MKULTRA document 19-3, November 17, 1953, author's 

[22] Memorandum for the Record, MKULTRA, 
Subproject 19, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 19-5, November 17, 1953, author's files 

[23] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Amendment to Subproject 15, Central Intelligence 
Agency, MKULTRA document 15-13, December 9, 1953, 
author's files 

[24] Memorandum for the Record, Extension of Time 
for MKULTRA, Subproject 19, Central Intelligence 
Agency, MKULTRA document 19-9, April 19, 1954, 
author's files 

[25] Memorandum for the Record, Summary of 
Events Related to Reimbursement of Taxes to John 
Mulholland, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 15-18, July 9, 1954, author's files 

[26] Memorandum for the Record, MKULTRA, 
Subproject 15, Expansion of Scope, Central Intelligence 
Agency, MKULTRA document 15-19, July 9, 1954, 
author's files 

[27] Mulholland Receipt for Bank Check No. 
M 142064, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 15-23, July 31, 1954, author's files 

[28] Memorandum for the Record, MKX5UYRA, 
Subproject 15, Expansion of Scope, op. cit . 

[29] Memorandum for the Record, Reimbursement of 
Excess Federal Income Taxes to Mr. John Mulholland, 
Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 15-24, 
February 24, 1955, author's files; Memorandum, 
Reimbursement for Excess Income Taxes, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 15-33, 
January 16, 1956, author's files 

Archimedes Press 

184 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

[30] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 34, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 34-46, October 1, 1954, author's files 

[31] Some Operational Applications of the Art of 
Deception, Central Intelligence Agency, undated, p. 2, 
author's files 

[32] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 34, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 34-46, October 1, 1954, author's files 

[33] Memorandum for the Record, Definition of a 
Task under MiTULTRA Subproject 34, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 34-39, August 

25, 1955, author's files 

[34] Memorandum for the Record, MKULTRA, 
Subproject 34, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 34-29, June 20, 1956, author's files 

[35] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 34A, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 34-26, August 31, 1956, author's files 

[36] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Extension of Subproject 34, Central Intelligence Agency, 
MKULTRA document 34-7, November 15, 1957, author's 

[37] Invoice Check List, Central Intelligence Agency, 
MKULTRA document 34-48, author's files 

[38] Memorandum for the Record, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 83-12, March 

26, 1959, author's files 

[39] US Senate Select Committee to Study 
Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence 
Activities (Church Committee) Alleged Assassination 
Plots Involving Foreign Leaders ••' An Interim Report, 
Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 20-21 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 185 

[40] Ibid. p. 181 

[41] Ibid. 

[42] Central Intelligence Agency, Office of the 
Inspector General, Report on Plots to Assassinate Fidel 
Castro, CIA-IG, May 23, 1967 

[43] Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner, Select 
Committee on Intelligence & the Subcommittee on 
Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on 
Human Resources, US Senate, 1977, pp. 10-14 

[44] A detailed and documented chronology of the 
events surrounding the Frank Olson case can be found 
in Appendix A, Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of 
Research in Behavioral Modification, Joint hearing of 
the Select Committee on Intelligence & the 
Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the 
Committee on Human Resources, Washington, DC 1977; 
the primary source documents can be found in CIA 
Documents Concerning the Death of Dr. Frank Olson, 
Center for National Security Studies documents 
collection, Box 8, Number C-35, National Security 
Archives, Washington, DC. The author's account is 
based on the documents contained in these two sets of 

[45] Affidavit of Lt. Col. Vincent L. Rewet, CIA 
Documents Concerning the Death of Dr. Frank Olson, 
CNSS, Box 8, C-35, Document 15, undated, National 
Security Archive, Washington, DC 

[46] Robert Gibson interview with Eric Olson, 
December 20, 1999, Olson notes in author's files 

[47] Joseph Treaster, "CIA Hired Magician in 
Behavior Project" New York Times, August 3, 1977 

[48] Agent's Report, Case record #73317, December 3, 
1953, CIA Documents Concerning the Death of Frank 

Archimedes Press 

186 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Olson, CNSS, Box 8, 035, National Security Archive, 
Washington, DC 

[49] Ibid. Document 60 

[50] Ibid. 

[5 1] These tiles were released by the Olson family in 
1976 and can be found in the Kennedy subcommittee 
hearings on Biomedical and Behavioral Research, pp. 
1005-1132; see also CIA Documents Concerning the 
Death of Dr. Frank Olson above 

[52] Eric Olsen email to author, January 26, 2001 

[53] Mulholland letter to Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 4-29, April 20, 
1953, author's files 

[54] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 15, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 15-2, August 3, 1953, author's files 

[55] Memorandum for the Record, Project MKULTRA, 
Subproject 19, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 19-5, November 17, 1953, author's files 

[56] Mulholland invoice for Dec. 3-4, 1953 trip to 
Chicago, Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 15-6, author's files 

[57] Mulholland receipt for travel advance, Central 
Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA document 15-6, author's 

[58] John Marks The Search for the Manchurian 
Candidate, W.W. Norton and Company, New York, 1979, 

p. 87 

[59] Eric Olson e-mail to author, January 25, 2001, 
author's files 

[60] A&E Investigative Reports: Mind Control 
Murder, Principal Films (London) and Arts & 
Entertainment Network, 1999, Videotape AE- 17604 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix B • 187 

[61] John Mulholland and George Gordon The 
Magical Mind, Hastings House, 1967, p. 77 

[62] Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner, op. cit. 
page 10 

[63] Memorandum for the Record, Visit to Project 
(deleted), Central Intelligence Agency, MKULTRA 
document 5-11, May 11, 1953 

[64] Eric Olson email to author, January 25, 2001, 
author's files 

[65] Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner, op. cit., 
page 9 

[66] Joint hearings! Select Committee on Intelligence 
& the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research 
of the Committee on Human Resources, US Senate, 
Appendix A, page 69 August 3, 1977 

[67] Jim Hougan interview with author, January 25, 

[68] Testimony of Admiral Stansfield Turner 
andAppendix B- Documents Referring to Discovery of 
Additional MKULTRA Material, Select Committee on 
Intelligence & the Subcommittee on Health and 
Scientific Research of the Committee on Human 
Resources, US Senate, 1977 

[69] Letter to Michael Edwards from Kathryn Dyer, 
Information and Privacy Coordinator, Central 
Intelligence Agency, June 26, 2000 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix C 

Dear Mrs. Brussell (Mae Brussell, "World Watchers 

Recently, while reading through an old copy of 
Critique, and then again in the Journal of Borderland 
Sciences, I came across your name in a reference to an 
"Update" you offer on the Alternative Three mystery. As 
such, I would certainly like to obtain this for my files, 
since I have been collecting related materials since the 
early 60s when my father worked as a designer for 
NASA. He was part of a team that designed the LEM 
module, and he told me some pretty hair-raising stories 
of the astronauts' "close encounters" on the Moon. 

Then, in the Feb/Mar 1983 issue of Mother Jones (pg. 
10) I came across a very strange article entitled 
"Refugees on Mars: FDR's Secret Plan," outlining 
something called the "M Project." This got me to 
recalhng an event that had occurred to me several years 
earlier, something I think you might be interested in. 

Back during 1978 or thereabouts I happened on a 
copy of a paperback book, Alternative 3, which detailed 
some of the things my father had told me years earlier in 
New York, specifically that the government had cracked 
the secret of anti-gravity and that the military had disc- 
shaped aircraft. 

He had also told me that NASA had evidence of lights 
having been seen on the Moon for centuries and that 
they had been recovering coded signals from Mars and 
other planets, as well, at Arecibo. 

Anyway, a month or so later I happened to be talking 
with an old Pan Am Captain friend of mine when he 
mentioned seeing a fantastic program on British TV. He 
had a home there in London at the time and he said that 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix C • 189 

both he and his son had watched this NASA expose 
called the Alternative 3 Project. He said many Brits 
believed the subject matter since it was so 
authoritatively presented. 

A short time after that, I found myself up in Twin 
Falls, Idaho, on a business trip and I was introduced to a 
gal — about 40 — who worked as a sometime DJ at a 
nearby radio station. After several drinks, and 
discussion about this and that, I thought I would 
impress her by mentioning that I had worked once as a 
Congressional liaison to the Pentagon for Nixon's 
Congressman during the early years of the Watergate 
fiasco, and that my then-wife had worked as secretary to 
Donald Segretti, head of CREEP, in the Naval Annex. 
She was completely nonplussed at this. 

Then, after another drink or two, she told me — 
somewhat hesitantly — that she too had worked at the 
Pentagon — behind the "Green Door" — as a 
cryptanalyst for Military Intelligence, and as personal 
secretary to an Admiral. This, she said, was during the 
late '50s. And she said that after having helped uncover 
a Soviet "mole" within her Top Secret Department, she 
was promoted and later offered a very interesting 
assignment — in Cahfornia. 

By this time I was so intrigued that I found and set 
up my tape recorder and flipped it on — covertly, of 
course. By now she was really getting interesting, and 
we had become a little more cozy. And since I had once 
also worked as an Investigative Reporter for four years 
(in Boston), covering political subversion in high places, 
assassinations, espionage, etc, I felt that I had here the 
genesis of a hell of a story. And subsequently I was able 
to get her story on tape. 

To get back to her story, she told me that she moved 
out to Southern California to accept her new 
assignment, sometime during 1962 I believe, and started 

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190 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

working for the Jet Propulsion Labs there in Pasadena. 
She was assigned to a highly classified section of the 
plant as a photo interpreter and eventually became head 
of that department, where she met her future husband. 
She said that while her function was to scan and 
interpret all incoming photographs taken of the Moon 
and Mars, with "high-resolution" photography 
techniques and equipment aboard satellites (orbiting the 
Moon and Mars) — her husband worked in another 
department as a designer. His function was to design 
domed, modular living facilities for "Colonies" of earth 
scientists to be stationed on the Moon, and then Mars! 
She said that the secret name of this amazing project 
was: "Project Adam & Eve." Needless to say, I about fell 
off the couch. 

She told me that her husband, who had many 
degrees, was designing these domed structures (and all 
the life-support systems inside and out) because no other 
type of housing would suffice. It seems that one of their 
rocket probes had found that due to the gale force 
velocity of the winds of Mars, no other structures would 
hold up, and underground structures were ruled out. In 
her photo-interpretation work she said she had 
enhanced the pix to such a fine degree that evidence of 
ancient civihzations of some kind was readily discernible 
on both the Moon and Mars, that there was a green 
vegetation belt on Mars (with "life forms"), that both 
pyramids and a human face carved into a huge 
mountain chain were observed!! She said that there was 
evidence of water, an atmosphere, and almost normal 
gravity on both the Moon and Mars, from the Pix and 
other data she was privy to, amazing as all that sounds. 

She told me that throughout the plant where she 
worked there were numerous high-ranking officers, 
Generals and Admirals, and that each department was 
color-coded — so that a specific colored badge had to be 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix C • 191 

worn at all times. I believe the badges were magnetic, 
too, and had a current photo of each worker — with his 
or her code number. 

Sometime later on, she said, her husband and several 
other key assistants were chosen for an even more secret 
project (within this Top Secret Project) — and off he 
went to parts unknown. And she never saw him again. 
When she kept asking where he was she was 
consistently told that his whereabouts were on a need to 
know basis. For the next year or so she received letters 
from him of a general nature but no hint of where he 
was. One day, she was informed that he had been killed 
and that they were very sorry. But they refused to give 
her any more information than that, or even to [let her] 
see the body or have normal funeral arrangements. 

Finally, due to her constant questioning, they yanked 
her Q clearance and she was fired. She had had to sign 
an oath that she would not reveal what her job had been. 
Sometime later, after making a lot of phone calls trying 
to track down some answers, there were several 
attempts on her life — including a near-fatal car 
accident. As she told me then, she ended up leaving 
Pasadena in the middle of the night — with her children 
in tow — and headed for Idaho, where her parents lived. 
When I asked, jokingly, if she thought maybe her 
husband and the others had been drafter to go to 
Vietnam, she stared at me for a blank moment and 
replied^ "No, I think he was drafted to Mars!" And she 
was deadly serious. 

Sometime shortly after this midnight "interview," 
after returning to Salt Lake City, I simply had to share 
this incredible tale with someone — so I loaned the tape 
to an old friend of mine, an ex-FBI Special Agent who 
lived in California. And I asked him to check out the 
story through his connections. It was a very stupid thing 

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192 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

to do, for (you guessed it) he then promptly "lost" the 
tape! There went my story. 

Mae, should you wish to follow up on this, I would be 
happy to give you both their names. For reasons I can't 
disclose, I am in no position to follow up on anything at 
the moment. The gal's name was Jolly S. [full name 
withheld], and the last I heard, she was still working in 
Twin Falls selling advertising. The other's name was 
Neil M. [full name withheld], and the last I heard, he 
was at [address withheld], West Covina, California. Neil, 
upon retirement, had gone to work in Las Vegas as a 
bodyguard for Howard Hughes. 

Please, do not publish or mention their names for 
obvious reasons. That is, unless you get their 
permission. My real name is not really important. As a 
reporter, I had some 50 exposes published over a 4 year 
period, and I thought I had heard it all. Since then, I 
have run somewhat afoul of the powers that be and I am 
now writing a book, entitled The Dark Side of the Force, 
about my experiences over the years. Keep up the good 
work, and carry on the fight for a non-Soviet America. 
Sorry to say, I have been completely knocked out of the 
box after one too many exposes. 


Mr. MJ. 

El Paso, Texas 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix D 


Compiled by Steve Quayle 

November 15, 2010: Chitra Chauhan, 33. 

EXPERTISE: Chauhan, a molecular biologist, was a 
post-doctoral researcher in the Global Health 
department in the College of Public Health. She earned 
her doctorate from the Institute of Genomics and 
Integrative Biology in New Delhi, India, in 2005, then 
studied mosquitoes and disease transmission at the 
University of Notre Dame. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Chauhan was found dead in an 
apparent suicide by cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel. 

July 12, 2010: Franco Cerrina, 62. 

EXPERTISE: Cerrina was a leading scholar in optics, 
lithography, and nanotechnology. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Cerrina was found dead in a lab 
at BU's Photonics Center. The cause of death is not yet 
known, but have ruled out homicide 

APRIL 26, 2010: Vajinder Toor, 34 

EXPERTISE: Toor worked at Kingsbrook Jewish 
Medical Center in New York before joining the faculty at 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Shot and killed outside his home in 
Branford, Connecticut. 

Archimedes Press 

194 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

APRIL 6, 2010: Joseph Morrissey, 46 

EXPERTISE: Morrissey joined NSU in May 2009 as an 
associate professor and taught one elective class on 
immunopharmacology in the College of Pharmacy. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Victim of a home invasion. Although 
the cause of death was first identified as a gunshot 
wound, the autopsy revealed that the professor died 
from a stab wound. 

FEBRUARY 13, 2010: Maria Ragland Davis, 52 

EXPERTISE: Her background was in chemical 
engineering and biochemistry, and she specialized in 
plant pathology and biotechnology applications. She had 
a doctorate in biochemistry and had worked as a 
postdoctoral research fellow at the Monsanto Company 
in St. Louis. She was hired at the University of Alabama 
after a seven-year stint as a senior scientist in the plant- 
science department at Research Genetics Inc. (later 
Invitrogen), also in Huntsville. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Murdered by Amy Bishop. 

FEBRUARY 13, 2010: Gopi K. Podila, 54 

EXPERTISE: Indian American biologist, noted 
academician, and faculty member at the University of 
Alabama in Huntsville. He listed his research interests 
as engineering tree biomass for bioenergy, functional 
genomics of plant-microbe interactions, plant molecular 
biology and biotechnology. In particular, Podila studied 
genes that regulate growth in fast growing trees, 
especially poplar and aspen. He has advocated 
prospective use of fast growing trees and grasses as an 
alternative to corn sources for producing ethanol. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 195 
CIRCUMSTANCE: Murdered by Amy Bishop. 

FEBRUAEY 13, 2010: Adriel D. Johnson Sr. 52 

EXPERTISE: His research involved aspects of 
gastrointestinal physiology specifically pancreatic 
function in vertebrates. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Murdered by Amy Bishop. 

NOVEMBER 11, 2009: Keith Fagnou, 38 

EXPERTISE: His research focused on improving the 
preparation of complex molecules for petrochemical, 
pharmaceutical or industrial uses. Keith's advanced and 
out-of-the-box thinking overturned prior ideas of what is 
possible in the chemistry field. 

Circumstance: hini 

OCTOBER 12, 2009: Stephen Lagakos, 63 

EXPERTISE: Lagakos centered his efforts on several 
fronts in the fight against AIDS particularly how and 
when HIV-infected women transmitted the virus to their 
children. In addition, he developed sophisticated 
methods to improve the accuracy of estimated HIV 
incidence rates. He also contributed to broadening access 
to antiretroviral drugs to people in developing countries. 

Circumstance: Car Crash. 

SEPTEMBER 13, 2009: Malcolm Casadaban, 60 

EXPERTISE: Molecular geneticist with a passion for 
new research, Casadaban had been developing a 
stronger vaccine for the plague. 

Archimedes Press 

196 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Plague; the medical center says the 
plague bacteria he worked with was a weakened strain 
that isn't known to cause illness in healthy adults. The 
strain was approved by the Centers for Disease Control 
and Prevention for laboratory studies. 

AUGUST 6, 2009: Wallace L. Pannier, 81 

EXPERTISE: Pannier was a germ warfare scientist 
whose top-secret projects included a mock attack on the 
New York subway with powdered bacteria in 1966. Mr. 
Pannier worked at Fort Detrick, a US Army installation 
in Frederick, MD that tested biological weapons during 
the Cold War and is now a center for biodefense 
research. He worked in the Special Operations Division, 
a secretive unit operating there from 1949 to 1969, 
according to family members and published reports. The 
unit developed and tested delivery systems for deadly 
agents such as anthrax and smallpox. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Natural Causes. 

JUNE 9, 2009: August "Gus" Watanabe, 67 

EXPERTISE: Watanabe was one of the five highest- 
paid officers of Indianapolis pharmaceutical giant Eh 
Lilly and Co. when he retired in 2003. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Friends discovered the body, a .38- 
caliber handgun and a three-page note at the scene. 
They said he had been depressed following the death last 
month of his daughter Nan Reiko Watanabe Lewis. She 
died at age 44 while recovering from elective surgery. 

JUNE 3, 2009: Caroline Coffey, 28 


Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 197 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Hikers found the body of the Cornell 
University post-doctoral bio-medicine researcher along a 
wooded trail in Taughannock Falls State Park, about 
400 yards from the home she shared with Blazej Kot, her 
husband and alleged killer, in Ithaca, N.Y., where the 
Ivy League school is located. 

FEBRUAEY 14, 2009: Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi, 

EXPERTISE: Dr. Noah is described in his American 
biography as a pioneer of Mind-Body-Quantum medicine 
who lectured in five countries and ran a successful 
health care center, General Medical Clinics Inc., in King 
County, Washington for 15 years after suffering a heart 
attack in 1989. Among his notable accomphshments was 
discovering an antitoxin treatment for bioweapons. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Natural Causes. 

JULY 28, 2008: Bruce Edwards Ivins, 62 

EXPERTISE: Ivins was a coinventor on two US patents 
for anthrax vaccine technology. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: He committed suicide prior to formal 
charges being filed by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation for an alleged criminal connection to the 
2001 anthrax attacks. 

JULY 3, 2008: Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, 23 


CIRCUMSTANCE: Laurent, a student in the proteins 
that cause infectious disease, had been stabbed 196, half 
of which were administered after death. Gabriel, who 
hoped to become an expert in eco-friendly fuels, suffered 
47 separate injuries. 

Archimedes Press 

198 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

MARCH 10, 2008: Yongsheng Li, 29 

EXPERTISE: Li was a doctoral student from China 
who studied receptor cells in Regents Professor David 
Puett's biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Cause of death unknown. He was 
found in a pond between the Women's Sports Complex 
and State Botanical Gardens on South Milledge Avenue 
Sunday and had been missing 16 days. 

OCTOBER, 2007: Dr. Mario Alberto Vargas Olvera, 52 

EXPERTISE: He was a nationally and internationally 
recognized biologist. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Blunt-force trauma. 

MAY 31, 2006: Yoram Kaufman, 57 

EXPERTISE: Dr. Kaufman began working at the space 
flight center in 1979 and spent his entire career there as 
a research scientist. His primary fields were meteorology 
and climate change, with a specialty in analyzing 
aerosols — airborne solid and liquid particles in the 
atmosphere. In recent years, he was senior atmospheric 
scientist in the Earth-Sun Exploration Division and 
played a key role in the development of NASA's Terra 
Satelhte, which collects data about the atmosphere. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Struck by an automobile while 
riding his bicycle near the Goddard Spaceflight Center, 
Greenbelt, MD. 

MAY 22, 2006: Lee Jong-woo, 61 

EXPERTISE: Lee was spearheading the WHO's fight 
against global threats from bird flu, AIDS and other 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 199 

infectious diseases. WHO director- general since 2003, 
Lee was his country's top international official. The 
affable South Korean, who liked to lighten his press 
conferences with jokes, was a keen sportsman with no 
history of ill-health, according to officials. 

Circumstance: Embolism. 

JUNE 8, 2005: Leonid Strachunsky 

EXPERTISE: Strachunsky specialized in creating 
microbes resistant to biological weapons. Strachunsky 
was found dead in his hotel room in Moscow, where he'd 
come from Smolensk en route to the United States 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Struck on the head with a 
champagne bottle. 

MAY 19, 2005: Robert J. Lull, 66 

EXPERTISE: Despite his missing car and apparent 
credit card theft, homicide Inspector Holly Pera said 
investigators aren't convinced that robbery was the sole 
motive for Lull's kilhng. She said a robber would 
typically have taken more valuables from Lull's home 
than what the killer left with. Lull had been chief of 
nuclear medicine at San Francisco General Hospital 
since 1990 and served as a radiology professor at UCSF. 
He was past president of the American College of 
Nuclear Physicians and the San Francisco Medical 
Society and served as editor of the medical society's 
journal, San Francisco Medicine, from 1997 to 1999. Lee 
Lull said her former husband was a proponent of nuclear 
power and loved to debate his political positions with 

Circumstance: Multiple stab wounds. 

Archimedes Press 

200 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

MAY 8, 2005: Todd Kauppila, 41 

EXPERTISE: His death came two days after Kauppila 
publicly rejoiced over news that the lab's director was 
leaving. Kauppila was fired by director Pete Nanos on 
Sept. 23, 2004 following a security scandal. Kauppila 
said he was fired because he did not immediately return 
from a family vacation during a lab investigation into 
two classified computer disks that were thought to be 
missing. The apparent security breach forced Nanos to 
shut down the lab for several weeks. Kauppila claimed 
he was made a scapegoat over the disks, which 
investigators concluded never existed. The mistake was 
blamed on a clerical error. After he was fired, Kauppila 
accepted a job as a contractor at Bechtel Nevada Corp., a 
research company that works with Los Alamos and other 
national laboratories. He was also working on a new 
Scatter Reduction Grids in Megavolt Radiography 
focused on metal plates or crossed grids to act to stop the 
scattered radiation while allowing the un-scattered or 
direct rays to pass through with other scientists: Scott 
Watson (LANL, DX-3), Chuck Lebeda (LANL, XTA), 
Alan Tubb (LANL, DX-8), and Mike Appleby (Tecomet 
Thermo Electron Corp.) 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died of hemorrhagic pancreatitis at 
the Los Alamos hospital, according to the state medical 
examiner's office. 

MAY 8, 2005: David Banks, 55 

EXPERTISE: He was known as an Agro Genius 
inventing the mosquito trap used for cattle. Banks was 
the principal scientist with quarantine authority, 
Biosecurity Australia, and heavily involved in protecting 
Australians from unwanted diseases and pests. Most of 
Dr Banks' work involved preventing potentially 
devastating diseases making their way into Australia. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 201 

He had been through Indonesia looking at the potential 
for foot and mouth disease to spread through the 
archipelago and into Australia. Other diseases he had 
fought to keep out of Australian livestock herds and fruit 
orchards include classical swine fever, Nip ah virus and 
Japanese encephalitis. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Banks, based in North Queensland, 
died in an airplane crash, along with 14 others. 

APRIL 18, 2005: Dr. Douglas James Passaro, 43 

EXPERTISE: Dr. Passaro was an epidemiologist who 
wanted to unlock the secrets of a spiral-shaped 
bacterium that causes stomach disease. He was a 
professor who challenged his students with real-life 
exercises in bioterrorism 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

FEBRUARY 8, 2005: Geetha Angara, 43 

EXPERTISE: Angara was a senior chemist with a 
doctorate from New York University. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: This formerly missing chemist was 
found in a Totowa, New Jersey water treatment plant's 
tank. Angara was last seen on the night of February 8 
doing water quality tests at the Passaic Valley Water 
Commission plant in Totowa, where she worked for 12 
years. Divers found her body in a 35-foot-deep sump 
opening at the bottom of one of the emptied tanks. 
Investigators are treating Angara's death as a possible 

JANUARY 7, 2005: Jeong H. Im, 72 

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202 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

EXPERTISE: A retired research assistant professor at 
the University of Missouri, Columbia and a protein 

CIRCUMSTANCE: l m died of multiple stab wounds to 
the chest before firefighters found in his body in the 
trunk of a burning car on the third level of the Maryland 
Avenue Garage. 

APRIL 22, 2004: Darwin Kenneth Vest 

EXPERTISE: Vest was an internationally renowned 
entomologist, expert on hobo spiders and other 
poisonous spiders and snakes. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Darwin disappeared in the early 
morning hours of June 3, 1999 while walking in 
downtown Idaho Falls, Idaho. 

DECEMBER 29, 2004: Tom Thorne, 64; Beth 
Wilhams, 53 

EXPERTISE: Experts on chronic wasting disease and 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Husband and wife were killed in a 
snowyweather crash on US 287 in northern Colorado. 

DECEMBER 21, 2004: Taleb Ibrahim al-Daher 


CIRCUMSTANCE: The Iraqi nuclear scientist was shot 
dead north of Baghdad by unknown gunmen. He was on 
his way to work at Diyala University when armed men 
opened fire on his car as it was crossing a bridge in 
Baqouba, 57 km northeast of Baghdad. The vehicle 
swerved off the bridge and fell into the Khrisan River. 
Al-Daher, who was a professor at the local university, 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 203 

was removed from the submerged car and rushed to 
Baqouba hospital where he was pronounced dead. 

NOVEMBER 2, 2004: John R. La Montagne, 61 

EXPERTISE: Head of US Infectious Diseases unit 
under Tommie Thompson; was NIAID Deputy Director; 
expert in AIDS Program, Microbiology and Infectious 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Pulmonary embolism. 

OCTOBER 13, 2004: Matthew Allison, 32 

EXPERTISE: Allison had a college degree in molecular 
biology and biotechnology. 

Circumstance: Fatal explosion. 

SEPTEMBER 5, 2004: Mohammed Toki Hussein al- 
Talakani, 40 

EXPERTISE: He was a practicing nuclear physicist 
since 1984. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Shot dead in Mahmudiya, south of 

AUGUST 12, 2004: Professor John Clark, 52 

EXPERTISE: An expert in animal science and 
biotechnology Clark developed techniques for the genetic 
modification of livestock. He played a crucial role in 
creating the transgenic sheep, Dolly, which earned the 
Roslin Institute worldwide fame. He was put in charge of 
a project to produce human proteins (which could be 
used in the treatment of human diseases) in sheep's 
milk. Clark and his team focused their study on the 
production of the alphaT-antitryps in protein, which is 
used for treatment of cystic fibrosis. Clark also founded 

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three spinoffs ■ PPL Therapeutics, Rosgen and Roslin 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found hanged in his holiday home. 

JULY 21, 2004: Dr. John Badwey, 54 

EXPERTISE: Biochemist at Harvard Medical School 
specializing in infectious diseases. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Developed pneumonia-like 

symptoms; died two weeks later. 

JULY 21, 2004: Dr. Bassem al-Mu dares 

EXPERTISE: He was a Ph.D. chemist. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Mutilated body was found in the city 
of Samarra, Iraq; he was tortured prior to death. 

JULY 6, 2004: Professor Stephen Tabet, 42 

EXPERTISE: He was an associate professor and 
epidemiologist at the University of Washington, and a 
world-renowned HIV doctor and researcher who worked 
with HIV patients in a vaccine chnical trial for the HIV 
Vaccine Trials Network. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

JULY 2, 2004: Dr. Larry Bustard, 53 

EXPERTISE: He was a Sandia National Laboratories 
scientist in the Department of Energy who helped 
develop a foam spray to clean up congressional buildings 
and media sites during the anthrax scare in 2001. As an 
expert in bioterrorism, he co-developed technologies used 
against biological and chemical agents. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

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JULY 1, 2004: Edward Hoffman, 62 

EXPERTISE: He worked to develop the first human 
PET scanner in 1973 at Washington University in St. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

JUNE 29, 2004: John Mullen, 67 

EXPERTISE: A nuclear research scientist with 
McDonnell Douglas. At the time of his death he was 
doing contract work for Boeing. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Poisoned with a large dose of 
arsenic. Investigators will not divulge how Mullen was 
exposed to the arsenic or where it came from. 

JUNE 27, 2004: Dr. Paul Norman, 52 

EXPERTISE: An expert in chemical and biological 

weapons, Norman traveled the world lecturing on 

defending against the scourge of weapons of mass 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Killed when the single-engine 
Cessna 206 he was piloting crashed in Devon. 

JUNE 24, 2004: Dr. Assefa Tulu, 45 

EXPERTISE: Tulu designed a system for detecting a 
bioterrorism attack involving viruses or weaponized 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found face down, dead in his office. 
The Dallas County Epidemiologist died of a hemorrhagic 

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JUNE 22, 2004: Thomas Gold, 84 

EXPERTISE: Author of "The Deep Hot Biosphere," 
which challenges the accepted wisdom of how oil and 
natural gas are formed and, along the way, proposes a 
new theory of the beginnings of hfe on Earth and 
potentially on other planets. Gold's theory of the deep 
hot biosphere holds important ramifications for the 
possibility of life on other planets, including seemingly 
inhospitable planets within our own solar system. He 
was Professor Emeritus of Astronomy at Cornell 
University and was the founder (and for 20 years 
director) of Cornell Center for Radiophysics and Space 
Research. He was also involved in air accident 

Circumstance: Heart failure. 

MAY 25, 2004: Antonina Presnyakova, 46 


CIRCUMSTANCE: A Russian scientist at a former 
Soviet biological weapons laboratory in Siberia died after 
an accident with a needle laced with Ebola. Scientists 
and officials said the accident had raised concerns about 
safety and secrecy at the State Research Center of 
Virology and Biotechnology, known as Vector, which in 
Soviet times specialized in turning deadly viruses into 
biological weapons. Vector has been a leading recipient 
of aid in an American program. 

MAY 14, 2004: Dr. Hank Mallove, 56 

EXPERTISE: Cold Fusion; "New Energy Research." 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Blunt-force trauma to the head and 

MAY 5, 2004: William T. McGuire, 39 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 207 

EXPERTISE: He was a NJ University Professor and 
senior programmer, analyst and adjunct professor at the 
New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark. He 
emerged as one of the world's leading microbiologists 
who developed and oversaw multiple -level of bio- 
containment facilities. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Body found in three suitcases 
floating in Chesapeake Bay. 

APRIL 12, 2004: Ilsley Ingram, 84 

EXPERTISE: Ingram was Director of the 
Supraregional Haemophilia Reference Centre and the 
Supraregional Centre for the Diagnosis of Bleeding 
Disorders at the St. Thomas Hospital in London. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

APRIL 2004: Mohammed Munim alTzmerly 
EXPERTISE: Iraqi chemistry professor. 
CIRCUMSTANCE: Blunt-force trauma to the head. 

MARCH 13, 204: Vadake Srinivasan 

EXPERTISE: He was originally from India, was one of 
the most- accomplished and respected industrial 
microbiologists in academia, and held two doctorate 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Car crash due t stroke. 

JANUARY 24, 2004: Dr. Michael Patrick Kiley, 62 

EXPERTISE: Ebola and Mad Cow expert. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Massive heart attack. Dr. Robert 
Shope and Dr. Kiley were working on a lab upgrade to 

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208 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Biosafety Level 4 installation at the UTMB Galveston 
Laboratory (Homeland Security Contract). 

JANUARY 23, 2004: Robert Shope, 74 

Expertise: virus expert. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Purportedly died as a result of 
complications incurred during a lung transplant, but 
was later purported to have died of Idiopathic 
Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), often caused by an 
environmental stimulus or a virus. 

JANUARY 6, 2004: Dr. Richard Stevens, 54 
EXPERTISE: Hematology. 
Circumstance: Suicide. 

DECEMBER 18, 2003: Robert Aranosia, 61 

EXPERTISE: Oakland County deputy medical 

CIRCUMSTANCE: While driving south on 1-75 his 
pickup truck went off the freeway near a bridge over the 
Kawkawlin River. 

NOVEMBER 20, 2003: Robert Leslie Burghoff, 45 

EXPERTISE: He was studying the virus plaguing 
cruise ships. 

Circumstance: Hit-and-run. 

OCTOBER 11, 2003: Michael Perich, 46 
EXPERTISE: Vector-borne diseases. 
CIRCUMSTANCE: Car accident; drowning. 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 209 

JULY 18, 2003: David Kelly, 59 

EXPERTISE: Kelly was the Ministry of Defense's chief 
scientific officer and senior adviser to the proliferation 
and arms control secretariat, and to the Foreign Office's 
non-proliferation department, as well as senior adviser 
on biological weapons to the UN biological weapons 
inspections teams from 1994 to 1999. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Slashed his own wrists while 
walking near his home. 

JUNE 24, 2003: Dr. Leland Rickman, 47 

EXPERTISE: Rickman, the incoming president of the 
Infectious Disease Association of California, was a 
multidisciplinary professor and practitioner with 
expertise in infectious diseases, internal medicine, 
epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic utihzation. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Unknown cause. 

SUMMER 2003: Dr. Roger 
EXPERTISE: China Lake geneticist. 
Circumstance: Execution. 

APRIL 2003: Bernardo Urbani, 46 
EXPERTISE: Epidemiology. 
Circumstance: SARS. 

MARCH 25, 2002: Steven Mostow, 63 

EXPERTISE: Mostow was one of the country's leading 
infectious disease experts. 

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210 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

CIRCUMSTANCE: He died in a plane crash near 
Centennial Airport. 

MARCH 24, 2002: Dr. David Wynn- Williams, 55 

EXPERTISE: He was an astrobiologist with the 
Antarctic Astrobiology Project and the NASA Ames 
Research Center. He was studying the capability of 
microbes to adapt to environmental extremes, including 
the bombardment of ULTRAviolet rays and global 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Hit by a car while jogging near his 
home in Cambridge, England. 

FEBRUARY 28, 2002: Tanya Holzmayer, 46; Guyang 
"Mathew" Huang, 38 

Expertise: Microbiolgy. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Tanya Holzmayer was shot and 
killed by a colleague, Guyang "Mathew" Huang, who 
later shot himself. 

FEBRUARY 12, 2002: Dr. Ian Langford, 40 

EXPERTISE: Infectious diseases. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead at his blood-spattered 

FEBRUARY 9, 2002: Dr. Vladamir "Victor" 
Korshunov, 56 

EXPERTISE: Korshunov, inventor of a multi-purpose 
vaccine to combat weaponized biologicals, was head of 
the microbiology sub -facility at the Russian State 
Medical University. 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 211 
CIRCUMSTANCE: Blunt-force trauma to the head. 

JANUARY 2002: Dr. Ivan Glebov 
EXPERTISE: Microbiology. 
Circumstance: "Bandit attack." 

JANUARY 2002: Dr. Alexi Brushlinski 
EXPERTISE: Microbiology. 
Circumstance: "Bandit attack." 

DECEMBER 6, 2001: Dr. Benito Que, 52 
EXPERTISE: Hematology. 
CIRCUMSTANCE: Cardiac arrest. 

November 21 or December 23, 2001: Dr. Vladimer 

Pasechnik, 64 

EXPERTISE: Pasechnik was involved in the 
exhumation of 10 London victims of the 1919 Type "A" 
flu epidemic. He was also heavily involved in DNA 
sequencing research. Pasechnik was the boss of William 
C. Patrick III who holds 5 patents on the mihtarized 
anthrax used by the United States and is now a private 
biowarfare consultant to the military and CIA. Patrick 
developed the process by which anthrax spores could be 
concentrated at the level of one trillion spores per gram. 
The anthrax utilized in the mail-borne attacks in the 
United States was concentrated at one trillion spores per 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead in Wiltshire, England, a 
village near his home. Two different dates have been 

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212 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

reported^ November 21 and December 23. Cause of 
death: stroke. 

DECEMBER 16, 2001: Dr. Don Wiley, 57 

EXPERTISE: Molecular Biologist with Howard Hughes 
Medical Institute, Harvard University; top Deadly 
Contagious Virus expert. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Abandoned rental car was found on 
the Hernando de Soto Bridge outside Memphis, TN. He 
was involved in research on DNA sequencing, and was 
last seen around midnight on November 16, leaving the 
St. Jude's Children's Research Advisory Dinner at The 
Peabody Hotel in Memphis, TN. Associates attending 
the dinner said he showed no signs of intoxication. 
Workers at a hydroelectric plant in Louisiana found the 
body of Don Wiley on Thursday, about 300 miles south of 
where the molecular biologist was last seen. On 
January 14, 2002, Shelby County Medical Examiner 
O.C. Smith announced that his department had ruled 
Dr. Wiley's death to be "accidental;" the result of 
massive injuries suffered in a fall from the Hernando de 
Soto Bridge. Smith said there were paint marks on 
Wiley's rental car similar to the paint used on 
construction signs on the bridge, and that the car's right 
front hubcap was missing. There has been no report as 
to which construction signs Dr. Wiley hit. 

DECEMBER 14, 2001: Dr. Set Van Nguyen, 44 

EXPERTISE: Working on a vaccine to protect against 
biological weapons, or perhaps on a weapon. In 
January, 2001, the magazine Nature published 
information that two scientists, Dr. Ron Jackson and Dr. 
Ian Ramshaw, using genetic manipulation and DNA 
sequencing, had created an incredibly virulent form of 
mouse pox, a cousin of smallpox and Dr. Nguyen had 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 213 

worked for 15 years at the same Australian facility. On 
Friday, November 2, The Washington Post reported: 

Officials are now scrambling to determine how a 
quiet, 61 -year-old Vietnamese immigrant, riding the 
subway each day to and from her job in a hospital 
stockroom, was exposed to the deadly anthrax spores 
that killed her this week. They worry because there is no 
obvious connection to the factors common to earlier 
anthrax exposures and deaths: no clear link to the mail 
or to the media. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead in the airlock of a walk- 
in refrigerator in a laboratory in Victoria State, 
Australia. The room was full of deadly gas which had 
leaked from a liquid nitrogen cooling system. The room 
was vented. 

DECEMBER 10, 2001: Dr. David Schwartz, 57 

EXPERTISE: He was well-respected in biophysics, and 
regarded as an authority on DNA sequencing. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Murdered by stabbing with what 
appeared to be a sword in rural home Loudon County, 
Virginia. His daughter, who identifies herself as a pagan 
high priestess, and three of her fellow pagans have been 
charged. Three teens that were into the occult were 
charged with murder in the slashing death. 

NOVEMBER 24, 2001: Avishai Berkman, 50; Amiramp 
Eldor, 59; Yaacov Matzner, 54 

EXPERTISE: Five microbiologists in this list of the 
first eight people that died mysteriously in airplane 
crashes worked on cutting edge microbiology research; 
and, four of the five were doing virtually identical 
research; research that has global political and financial 

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214 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Another airplane crash kills 3 
scientists. At about the time of the Black Sea crash, 
Israeli journalists had been sounding the alarm that two 
Israeli microbiologists had been murdered, allegedly by 
terrorists; including the head of the Hematology 
department at Israel's Ichilov Hospital, and directors of 
the Tel Aviv Pubhc Health Department and Hebrew 
University School of Medicine. 

NOVEMBER 6, 200 1: Jeffrey Paris Wall, 41 

EXPERTISE: Mr. Wall had studied at the University of 
California, Los Angeles. He was a biomedical expert who 
held a medical degree, and he also specialized in patent 
and intellectual property. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Body was found sprawled next to a 
three-story parking structure near his office. 

OCTOBER 4, 2001: Five Unnamed Microbiologists 

EXPERTISE: Three scientists were experts in medical 
research or public health. The plane is believed by many 
in Israel to have had as many as four or five passengers 
who were microbiologists. Both Israel and Novosibirsk 
are homes for cutting-edge microbiological research. 
Novosibirsk is known as the scientific capital of Siberia. 
There are over 50 research facilities there, and 13 full 
universities for a population of only 2.5 million people. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Five unnamed microbiologists on a 
plane that was brought down by a missile near the Black 
Sea. Traveling from Israel to Russia; business not 

MAY 7, 2001: Professor Janusz Jeljaszewicz 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 215 

EXPERTISE: He was an expert in Staphylococci and 
Staphylococcal infections. His scientific interests and 
achievements were in the mechanism of action and 
biological properties of staphylococcal toxins, and 
included the immunomodulatory properties and 
experimental treatment of tumors by Propionibacterium. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Cause of death not disclosed. 

DECEMBER 25, 2000: Linda Reese, 52 

EXPERTISE: Dr. Reese was a Microbiologist working 
with victims of meningitis. 

Circumstance: Died three days after she studied a 
sample from Tricia Zailo, 19, a Fairfield, N.J., resident 
and sophomore at Michigan State University. Zailo died 
December 18. 

JULY 16, 2000: Mike Thomas, 35 

EXPERTISE: He was a microbiologist at the Crestwood 
Medical Center in Huntsville. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died a few days after examining a 
sample taken from a 12 -year-old girl who was diagnosed 
with meningitis and survived. 

APRIL 15, 2000: Walter W. Shervington, M.D., 62 

EXPERTISE: He was an extensive writer, lecturer and 
researcher about mental health and AIDS in the 
African-American community. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died of cancer at Tulane Medical 

SEPTEMBER 1998: Jonathan Mann, 51 

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216 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

EXPERTISE: He was founding director of the World 
Health Organization's global Aids program and founded 
Project SIDA in Zaire, the most comprehensive Aids 
research effort in Africa at the time, and in 1986 he 
joined the WHO to lead the global response against Aids. 
He became director of WHO's global program on Aids 
which later became the UN Aids program. He then 
became director of the Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center 
for Health and Human Rights, which was set up at 
Harvard School of Public Health in 1993. He caused 
controversy earlier in 1998 in the media when he 
accused the US National Institutes of Health of violating 
human rights by failing to act quickly on developing 
Aids vaccines. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Swissair Flight 111 over Canada. 

JULY 10, 1998: Ehzabeth A. Rich, M.D., 46 

EXPERTISE: She was an associate professor with 
tenure in the pulmonary division of the Department of 
Medicine at CWRU and University Hospitals of 
Cleveland. She was also a member of the executive 
committee for the Center for AIDS Research and 
directed the Bio-safety Level 3 facility, a specialized 
laboratory for the handling of HIV, virulent TB bacteria, 
and other infectious agents. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Traffic accident while visiting family 
in Tennessee. 

DECEMBER 25, 1997: Sidney Harshman, 67 

EXPERTISE: He was a professor of microbiology and 
immunology. He was the world's leading expert on 
staphylococcal alpha toxins. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Complications associated with 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix D • 217 

Mark Purdey, his Lawyer, and Veterinarian working 
with Purdey Die : 

EXPERTISE: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) doctor 
Mark Purdey was familiar with the expression 
"abnormal brain protein." Before Dr. Purdey's death, he 
speculated that Dr. C. Bruton might have known more 
than what was revealed in his paper before he was 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Purdey's house was burned down, 
his lawyer on mad cow issues was driven off the road 
and died and the veterinarian in the UK BSE inquiry 
also died in a mysterious car crash. CJD specialist Dr C. 
Bruton was killed in a car crash just before he went 
public with a new research paper. The veterinarian on 
the case also died in a car crash. Purdey's new lawyer, 
too, had a car accident, but not fatal. 

MAY 7, 1996: Dr. Tsunao Saitoh, 46 

EXPERTISE: Abnormal proteins in Alzheimer's 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Shot and killed, along with his 
young daughter, in LaJolla, California. He was dead 
behind the wheel of the car, the side window had been 
shot out, and the door was open. His daughter appeared 
to have tried to run away and she was shot dead, also. 
Yakuza-style hit. 

1995: Dr. Jawad Al Aubaidi 

EXPERTISE: A graduate doctor from Cornell, he was 
hired to head the mycoplasma bio-warfare research 
project. One of Dr. Aubaidi's projects was filling 
payloads of scud missies with mycoplasma strains. 

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218 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

CIRCUMSTANCE: He was hit by a truck in his native 
Iraq while changing a flat tire. 

1994: Dr. C. Bruton 

EXPERTISE: A CJD specialist who had recently 
produced a paper on a new strain of CJD. 

Circumstance: Car crash. 

MAY 19, 1994: Jose Trias 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Trias and his wife were murdered in 
their Chevy Chase, Maryland home. They met with a 
friend, a journalist, the day before their murder and told 
him of their plan to expose Howard Hughes Medical 
Institute (HHMI) funding of "special ops" research. 
Grant money that goes to HHMI is allegedly diverted to 
black ops research projects. 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix E 


Compiled by Raymond A. Robinson 

ACCORDING to Raymond A. Robinson, author of 
The Alien Intent, "over two-dozen science 
graduates and experts working for Marconi or 
Plessey Defense Systems died in mysterious 
circumstances, most appearing to be 'suicides.' The 
Ministry of Defense (MOD) denied these scientists had 
been involved in classified Star Wars Projects and that 
the deaths were in any way connected." 

MAECH 1982: Professor Keith Bowden, 46 

EXPERTISE: computer programmer and scientist at 
Essex University engaged in work for Marconi, who was 
hailed as an expert on super computers and computer- 
controlled aircraft. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Fatal car crash when his vehicle 
went out of control across a dual carriageway and 
plunged onto a disused railway line. Police maintained 
he had been drinking but family and friends all denied 
the allegation. 

Coroner's Verdict: accident 

APRIL 1983: Lt-Colonel Anthony Godley, 49 

EXPERTISE: Head of the Work Study Unit at the 
Royal College of Military Science. 

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220 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Disappeared mysteriously in April 
1983 without explanation. 

CORONER'S VERDICT: Presumed dead. 

MARCH 1985: Roger Hill, 49 

EXPERTISE: Radar designer and draughtsman with 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died by a shotgun blast at home. 

Coroners Verdict: Suicide. 

NOVEMBER 19, 1985: Jonathan Wash, 29 

EXPERTISE: Digital communications expert who had 
worked at GEC and at British Telecom's secret research 
centre at Martlesham Heath, Suffolk. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died as a result of falling from a 
hotel room in Abidjan, West Africa, while working for 
British Telecom. He had expressed fears that his life was 
in danger. 

Coroners Verdict: Open. 

AUGUST 4, 1986: Vimal Dajibhai, 24 

EXPERTISE: Computer software engineer with 
Marconi, responsible for testing computer control 
systems of Tigerfish and Stingray torpedoes at Marconi 
Underwater Systems at Croxley Green, Hertfordshire. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Death-by-fall from Clifton 
Suspension Bridge (74m - 240ft.), Bristol. Police report 
on the body mentioned a needle-sized puncture wound 
on the left buttock, but this was later dismissed as being 
a result of the fall. Dajibhai had been looking forward to 
starting a new job in the City of London and friends had 
confirmed that there was no reason for him to commit 

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Alternative 3 • Appendix E • 221 

suicide. At the time of his death he was in the last week 
of his work with Marconi. 

Coroner's Verdict: Open. 

OCTOBER 1986: Arshad Sharif, 26 

EXPERTISE: Reported to have been working on 
systems for the detection of submarines by satellite. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died as a result of placing a ligature 
around his neck, tying the other end to a tree and then 
driving off in his car with the accelerator pedal jammed 
down. His unusual death was complicated by several 
issues: Sharif lived near Vimal Dajibhai in Stanmore, 
Middlesex, he committed suicide in Bristol and, 
inexphcably, had spent the last night of his life in a 
rooming house. He had paid for his accommodation in 
cash and was seen to have a bundle of high- 
denomination banknotes in his possession. While the 
police were told of the banknotes, no mention was made 
of them at the inquest and they were never found. In 
addition, most of the other guests at the rooming house 
worked at British Aerospace prior to working for 
Marconi, Sharif had also worked at British Aerospace on 
guided weapons technology. 

Coroners Verdict: Suicide. 

JANUARY 1987: Richard Pugh, 37 

EXPERTISE: MOD computer consultant and digital 
communications expert. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead in his flat in with his 
feet bound and a plastic bag over his head. Rope was tied 
around his body, coiling four times around his neck. 

Coroners Verdict: Accident. 

Archimedes Press 

222 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

JANUARY 12, 1987: Dr. John Brittan, 52 

EXPERTISE: Scientist formerly engaged in top secret 
work at the Royal College of Military Science at 
Shrivenham, Oxfordshire, and later deployed in a 
research department at the MOD. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Death by carbon monoxide poisoning 
in his own garage, shortly after returning from a trip to 
the US in connection with his work. 


FEBRUARY 1987: David Skeels, 43 

EXPERTISE: Engineer with Marconi. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead in his car with a 
hosepipe connected to the exhaust. 

Coroners Verdict: Open. 

FEBRUARY 1987: Victor Moore, 46 

EXPERTISE: Design Engineer with Marconi Space and 
Defense Systems. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died from an overdose. 

Coroners Verdict: Suicide. 

FEBRUARY 22, 1987: Peter Peapell, 46 

EXPERTISE: Scientist at the Royal College of Military 
Science. He had been working on testing titanium for its 
resistance to explosives and the use of computer analysis 
of signals from metals. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead allegedly from carbon 
monoxide poisoning, in his Oxfordshire garage. The 
circumstances of his death raised some elements of 
doubt. His wife had found him on his back with his head 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix E • 223 

parallel to the rear car bumper and his mouth in line 
with the exhaust pipe, with the car engine running. 
Police were apparently baffled as to how he could have 
maneuvered into the position in which he was found. 

Coroner's Verdict: Open. 

APRIL 1987 : George Kountis age unknown. 

EXPERTISE: Systems Analyst at Bristol Polytechnic. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Drowned the same day as Shani 
Warren (see below) - as the result of a car accident, his 
upturned car being found in the River Mersey, Liverpool. 

CORONER'S VERDICT: Misadventure. (Kountis' sister 
called for a fresh inquest as she thought 'things didn't 
add up.') 

APRILlO, 1987: Shani Warren, 26 

EXPERTISE: Personal assistant in a company called 
Micro Scope, which was taken over by GEC Marconi less 
than four weeks after her death. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found drowned in 45cm. (I8in) of 
water, not far from the site of David Greenhalgh's death 
fall. Warren died exactly one week after the death of 
Stuart Gooding and serious injury to Greenhalgh. She 
was found gagged with a noose around her neck. Her 
feet were also bound and her hands tied behind her 

CORONER'S VERDICT: Open. (It was said that Warren 
had gagged herself, tied her feet with rope, then tied her 
hands behind her back and hobbled to the lake on 
stiletto heels to drown herself.) 

APRIL 10, 1987: Stuart Gooding, 23 

Archimedes Press 

224 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

EXPERTISE: Postgraduate research student at the 
Royal College of Military Science. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Fatal car crash while on holiday in 
Cyprus. The death occurred at the same time as college 
personnel were carrying out exercises on Cyprus. 


APRIL 24, 1987: Mark Wisner, 24 

EXPERTISE: Software engineer at the MOD. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead on in a house shared 
with two colleagues. He was found with a plastic sack 
around his head and several feet of cling film around his 
face. The method of death was almost identical to that of 
Richard Pugh some three months earlier. 


MARCH 30, 1987: David Sands, 37 

EXPERTISE: Senior scientist working for Easams of 
Camberley, Surrey, a sister company to Marconi. Dr. 
John Brittan had also worked at Camberley. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Fatal car crash when he allegedly 
made a sudden U-turn on a dual carriageway while on 
his way to work, crashing at high speed into a disused 
cafeteria. He was found still wearing his seat belt and it 
was discovered that the car had been carrying additional 
petrol cans. None of the 'normal' reasons for a possible 
suicide could be found. 

Coroner's Verdict: Open. 

MAY 3, 1987: Michael Baker, 22 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix E • 225 

EXPERTISE: Digital communications expert working 
on a defense project at Plessey; part-time member of 
Signals Corps SAS. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Fatal accident when his car crashed 
through a barrier near Poole in Dorset. 

CORONER'S VERDICT: Misadventure. 

JUNE 1987: Jennings, Frank, 60. 

EXPERTISE: Electronic Weapons Engineer with 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead from a heart attack. 


JANUARY 1988: Russell Smith, 23 

EXPERTISE: Laboratory technician with the Atomic 
Energy Research Estabhshment at Harwell, Essex. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Died as a result of a cliff fall at 
Boscastle in Cornwall. 

Coroner's Verdict: Suicide. 

MARCH 25, 1988: Trevor Knight, 52 

EXPERTISE: Computer engineer with Marconi Space 
and Defense Systems in Stanmore, Middlesex. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead at his home in 
Harpenden, Hertfordshire at the wheel of his car with a 
hosepipe connected to the exhaust. A St. Alban's coroner 
said that Knight's woman friend, Miss Narmada Thanki 
(who also worked with him at Marconi) had found three 
suicide notes left by him which made clear his 
intentions. Miss Thanki had mentioned that Knight 

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226 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

disliked his work but she did not detect any depression 
that would have driven him to suicide. 


AUGUST 1988: Alistair Beckham, 50 

EXPERTISE: Software engineer with Plessey Defense 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found dead after being electrocuted 
in his garden shed with wires connected to his body. 

Coroners Verdict: Open. 

AUGUST 22, 1988: Peter Ferry, 60 

EXPERTISE: Retired Army Brigadier and an Assistant 
Marketing Director with Marconi. 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Found on 22nd or 23rd August 1988 
electrocuted in his company flat with electrical leads in 
his mouth. 

Coroners Verdict: Open 

SEPTEMBER 1988: Andrew Hall, 33 

EXPERTISE: Engineering Manager with British 

CIRCUMSTANCE: Carbon monoxide poisoning in a car 
with a hosepipe connected to the exhaust. 


Archimedes Press 

Appendix F 

Giant breach in earth's magentic 
field discovered 


Dr. Tony Phillips 

DECEMBER 16, 2008 

NASA's five THEMIS spacecraft have discovered 
a breach in Earth's magnetic field ten times 
larger than anything previously thought to 
exist. Solar wind can flow in through the opening to 
"load up" the magnetosphere for powerful geomagnetic 
storms. But the breach itself is not the biggest surprise. 
Researchers are even more amazed at the strange and 
unexpected way it forms, overturning long-held ideas of 
space physics. 

"At first I didn't believe it," says THEMIS project 
scientist David Sibeck of the Goddard Space Flight 
Center. "This finding fundamentally alters our 
understanding of the solar wind-magnetosphere 

The magnetosphere is a bubble of magnetism that 
surrounds Earth and protects us from solar wind. 
Exploring the bubble is a key goal of the THEMIS 
mission, launched in February 2007. The big discovery 
came on June 3, 2007, when the five probes 
serendipitously flew through the breach just as it was 
opening. Onboard sensors recorded a torrent of solar 
wind particles streaming into the magnetosphere, 
signaling an event of unexpected size and importance. 

"The opening was huge — four times wider than Earth 
itself," says Wenhui Li, a space physicist at the 

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228 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

University of New Hampshire who has been analyzing 
the data. Li's colleague Jimmy Raeder, also of New 
Hampshire, says "10 27 particles per second were flowing 
into the magnetosphere — that's a 1 followed by 27 zeros. 
This kind of influx is an order of magnitude greater than 
what we thought was possible." 

The event began with little warning when a gentle 
gust of solar wind delivered a bundle of magnetic fields 
from the Sun to Earth. Like an octopus wrapping its 
tentacles around a big clam, solar magnetic fields draped 
themselves around the magnetosphere and cracked it 
open. The cracking was accomplished by means of a 
process called "magnetic reconnection." High above 
Earth's poles, solar and terrestrial magnetic fields linked 
up (reconnected) to form conduits for solar wind. 
Conduits over the Arctic and Antarctic quickly 
expanded; within minutes they overlapped over Earth's 
equator to create the biggest magnetic breach ever 
recorded by Earth -orbiting spacecraft. 

The size of the breach took researchers by surprise. 
"We've seen things like this before," says Raeder, "but 
never on such a large scale. The entire day-side of the 
magnetosphere was open to the solar wind." 

The circumstances were even more surprising. Space 
physicists have long believed that holes in Earth's 
magnetosphere open only in response to solar magnetic 
fields that point south. The great breach of June 2007, 
however, opened in response to a solar magnetic field 
that pointed north. 

"To the lay person, this may sound like a quibble, but 
to a space physicist, it is almost seismic," says Sibeck. 
"When I tell my colleagues, most react with skepticism, 
as if I'm trying to convince them that the sun rises in the 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix F • 229 

Here is why they can't believe their ears: The solar 
wind presses against Earth's magnetosphere almost 
directly above the equator where our planet's magnetic 
field points north. Suppose a bundle of solar magnetism 
comes along, and it points north, too. The two fields 
should reinforce one another, strengthening Earth's 
magnetic defenses and slamming the door shut on the 
solar wind. In the language of space physics, a north- 
pointing solar magnetic field is called a "northern IMF" 
and it is synonymous with shields up! 

"So, you can imagine our surprise when a northern 
IMF came along and shields went down instead," says 
Sibeck. "This completely overturns our understanding of 

Northern IMF events don't actually trigger 
geomagnetic storms, notes Raeder, but they do set the 
stage for storms by loading the magnetosphere with 
plasma. A loaded magnetosphere is primed for auroras, 
power outages, and other disturbances that can result 
when, say, a CME (coronal mass ejection) hits. 

The years ahead could be especially lively. Raeder 
explains^ "We're entering Solar Cycle 24. For reasons not 
fully understood, CMEs in even-numbered solar cycles 
(like 24) tend to hit Earth with a leading edge that is 
magnetized north. Such a CME should open a breach 
and load the magnetosphere with plasma just before the 
storm gets underway. It's the perfect sequence for a 
really big event." 

Sibeck agrees. "This could result in stronger 
geomagnetic storms than we have seen in many years." 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix G 



The Daily Mail 

FEBRUAEY 7, 2010 

ALIENS are back in fashion. Even the Royal 
Society, the most level-headed of scientific 
estabhshments, is getting in on the action. Last 
month it hosted a meeting about the prospects of finding 
or making contact with extraterrestrials. 

But everyone seems to have forgotten something. 
Reputable scientists say we have already found aliens — 
and heard from them, too. Did no one tell you? 

Gilbert Levin, the man who found life on Mars, is 
now in his 80s but his eyes still sparkle whenever he 
talks about the day NASA's Viking probe touched down 
on the Martian Plains of Gold. It was July 20, 1976. 

"Oh, it was very exciting," he told me when I visited 
his offices in Beltsville, Maryland, a few years ago. A 
grin broke out across his face. "Everything went just 

That includes the experiment he designed to look for 
the signs of life. Levin is a sewage engineer by training, 
and it was this that led him to invent a novel way to 
detect microbes. 

His trick was to put out radioactive food and watch 
for wisps of radioactive gas belching out as a by-product 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix G • 231 

of microbe digestion. NASA saw it as an ideal way to test 
for life in Martian soil. 

Levin's experiment worked perfectly. Before launch, 
the apparatus successfully detected the scarce life in soil 
samples taken from the Californian desert. Two hundred 
million miles from Earth, it worked again: Levin's 
instrument got another positive result from Martian soil 

Levin went out to buy champagne and cigars. A party 
was in full swing when renowned astronomer Carl 
Sagan phoned Levin to offer his congratulations. Levin 
remembers it as the happiest day of his life. 

His unhappiest came just two days later when the 
Viking mission leader announced they had failed to find 
life on Mars. 

A colleague dug Levin in the ribs. "He said, "God 
damn it, Gil, will you get up and tell them you detected 
life?"" But Levin, cowed by his relatively junior status, 
did not dare. 

The problem was straightforward. Another of the 
instruments on the Viking mission had searched for 
traces of carbon in Martian soil and found none. With no 
carbon, the mission chiefs reasoned, there could be no 
life. The result of Levin's experiment must have been a 
mistake, they said. Carl Sagan called again — to 
withdraw his congratulations. 

The trouble is, the mission chiefs had been misled. 

Ten years after the Viking probe landed on Mars, a 
scientist called John Milan Lavoie Junior contacted 
Levin and told him he had worked on the instrument 
that was supposed to look for carbon. No one had 
admitted it at the time, but the instrument had never 
worked properly, he said. Levin told a few people but no 
one seemed to care. 

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232 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

A further 15 years passed and another of the 
instrument's engineers, Arthur LafLeur, came forward 
and told the same story. On Earth, before the mission 
had blasted off for Mars, the instrument had been given 
relatively large quantities of carbon to detect. It had 
failed but the scientists had kept quiet about it. 

The final nail in the instrument's coffin came in 2006 
when the prestigious US National Academy of Sciences 
published a devastating critique of it. Their report said it 
had not been sensitive enough to rule out the existence 
of carbon -based molecules in Martian soil. 

You would think that, given all this, Levin would 
have been vindicated by now. In fact, he has been 
labeled a troublemaker. At the party to celebrate the 
20th anniversary of the Viking mission, he caused a bit 
of a scene by suggesting that NASA revisit his results. 
When the 30th anniversary party came around, he 
simply wasn't invited. 

A growing minority of scientists are now taking 
Levin's claims seriously, saying that Viking may well 
have discovered life. But most shrug their shoulders and 
say it was all too long ago to be sure. 

Which brings us on to that alien signal — if that is 
what it was. It came on AUGUST 15, 1977, the night 
before Elvis Presley died. 

The Ohio radio telescope that picked up the signal 
was called the Big Ear. At 11.16pm, it recorded a single 
pulse of radiation that seemed to come from somewhere 
in the constellation of Sagittarius. 

It is now known as the "Wow! Signal." That's what 
Jerry Ehman, the man who spotted it in the computer 
printout, scrawled in the margin. He had good reason to 
do so: the characteristics of the signal were exactly what 
alien-hunters had been told to look out for. 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix G • 233 

Eighteen years previously, researchers had put 
themselves in ET"s shoes and tried to work out the best 
way to attract our attention. They decided that the most 
noteworthy signal would be a radio signal at exactly 
1,420 MHz. This is the vibration frequency of hydrogen, 
the most common molecule in the universe. 

Everyone agreed that it would be the most widely 
intelligible way of saying, "We're here — are you?" When 
the Wow! Signal came in; its frequency was 1,420 MHz... 

I have never met Jerry Ehman but we have 
exchanged emails and talked on the phone. He got in 
touch with me — he had heard that I was looking for the 
latest thinking on what the signal meant. 

His first email told me everything I needed to know. 
"I am still waiting for a definitive explanation that 
makes sense," it said. 

Ehman and his colleagues have explored every 
possibility^ military transmissions, reflections of Earth 
signals off asteroids or satellites, natural emissions from 
stars, but nothing fits. 

The strangest thing of all is that it came from a blank 
patch of sky. When Ehman and his colleagues looked at 
the exact location of the source, it turned out to be 
devoid of stars. Ehman's only thought is that it could 
have been beamed from a spaceship travelling through 
the universe in search of some sign of hfe. 

Not that he is totally convinced it really was aliens 
but he has never come up with a better explanation. 

"It had all the earmarks of being a signal from an 
intelhgent civilization," Ehman told me on the phone. 
"There it was, hke it was saying, "Here I am — can you 
see me?" But, he concedes, we may never have proof one 
way or the other. 

Archimedes Press 

234 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Ehman was inspired to become an astronomer after 
coming across a Reader's Digest article by Frank Drake, 
one of the first scientists to calculate our chances of 
finding extraterrestrial life. I was there when Drake 
spoke at the Royal Society meeting last month. 

He told the audience that, given the sheer vastness of 
the universe and the relative weakness of our 
technology, the chances of finding life or making contact 
with an ahen civihzation are unbelievably shm. In other 
words, it might happen just once in a lifetime. 

Which made me wonder: have we been both 
extraordinarily lucky and extraordinarily careless? It 
seems we have had two chances, and missed them both. 

Archimedes Press 

Appendix H 


Technology Review 
Published by MIT 

DECEMBER 9, 2009 

PUSH on the electromagnetic fields in the 
quantum vacuum and you should get an equal 
and opposite force. 

The quantum vacuum has fascinated physicists ever 
since Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder suggested in 
1948 that it would exert a force on a pair of narrowly 
separated conducting plates. Their idea was eventually 
confirmed when the force was measured in 1997. 

In recent years, a new way of thinking about the 
quantum vacuum has emerged which has vastly more 
potential. And today, one physicist describes how it 
could be used to create propulsion. 

Before we discuss that, let's track back a little. 
According to quantum mechanics, any vacuum will be 
filled with electromagnetic waves leaping in and out of 
existence. It turns out that these waves can have various 
measurable effects, such as the Casimir-Polder force. 

The new approach focuses on the momentum 
associated with these electromagnetic fields rather than 
the force they exert. The question is whether it is 
possible to modify this momentum because, if you can, 
you should receive an equal and opposite kick. That's 
what rocket scientists call propulsion. 

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236 • Leslie Watkins & Anonymous 

Today, Alex Feigel at the Soreq Nuclear Research 
Center, a government lab in Yavne Israel, suggests an 
entirely new way to modify the momentum of the 
quantum vacuum and how this can be exploited to 
generate propulsion. 

Feigel's approach combines two well-established 
ideas. The first is the Lorentz force experienced by a 
charged particle in electric and magnetic fields that are 
crossed. The second is the magneto-electric effect- -the 
phenomenon in which an external magnetic field induces 
a polarized internal electric field in certain materials 
and vice versa. 

The question that Feigel asks is in what 
circumstances the electromagnetic fields in a quantum 
vacuum can exert a Lorentz force. The answer is that 
the quantum vacuum constantly interacts with magneto- 
electric materials generating Lorentz forces! most of the 
time, however, these forces sum to zero. 

However, Feigel says there are four cases in which 
the forces do not sum to zero. Two of these are already 
known, for example confining the quantum field between 
two plates, which excludes longer wavelength waves. 

But Feigel says the two others offer entirely new 
ways to exploit the quantum vacuum using magneto- 
electric nanop articles to interact with the 
electromagnetic fields it contains. 

The first method is to rapidly aggregate a number of 
magneto-electric nanop articles, a process which 
influences the boundary conditions for higher frequency 
electromagnetic waves, generating a force. 

The second is simply to rotate a group of magneto- 
electric nanop articles, which also generates a Lorentz 

Either way, the result is a change in velocity. Feigel 
says that the "mechanical action of a quantum vacuum 

Archimedes Press 

Alternative 3 • Appendix H • 237 

on magneto-electric objects may be observable and have 
a significant value. 

The beauty of Feigel's idea is that it can be easily 
tested. He suggests building an addressable array of 
magneto-electric nanop articles, perhaps made of a 
material such as FeGa03 which has a magneto-electric 
constant of 10 A -4 in a weak magnetic field. 

These nanop articles simply have to be rotated in the 
required way to generate a force. Feigel calls it a 
magneto-electric quantum wheel. 

Of course, nobody is getting a free lunch here. 
"Although the proposed engine will consume energy for 
manipulation of the particles, the propulsion will occur 
without any loss of mass," says Feigel. He even suggests, 
with masterful understatement, that this might have 
practical imphcations. 

So here is a high-risk idea with a huge potential 
payoff. The question is: who has the balls to try it? 

Archimedes Press