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Full text of "America : being the latest, and most accurate description of the New World : containing the original of the inhabitants, and the remarkable voyages thither : the conquest of the vast empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large provinces and territories, with the several European plantations in those parts : also their cities, fortresses, towns, temples, mountains, and rivers : their habits, customs, manners, and religions : their plants, beasts, birds, and serpents : with an appendix containing, besides several other considerable additions, a brief survey of what hath been discover'd of the unknown south-land and the Arctick region"

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M E R i C A: 

BEI1SG THE LATEST, -AND MOST 

ACCURATE DESCRIPTION 



OF THE 



NEWWORLD- 

'CONTAINING 

The (>igi na l of the Inhabitants, and the Re- 
maikable Voyages thither. 

THE CONQUEST OFTHE VAST 

E M P I R E S 



O F 



Mexico and Peru , 

AND OTHER LARGE 

PROVINCES and TERRITORIES, 

WITH THE SEVERAL EU%0<?EAH 

PLANTATIONS 

.IN THOSE PARTS. 

ALSO 

Their Cities ; Fortreffes D Towns 5 Temples , 

Mountains, and Rivers. 

Their Habits, Cuffcoms, Manners, and Religions. 
Their Plants, Beafts, Birds, and Serpents. 

WITH 

An AT T E 3\£ D I X 7 containing, befides feveral other confiderable 

Additions, a brief Survey of what hath been difcover'd of the 

Vnfoown South-Land and the (tArBicJ^ %jgion. 



Colle&ed from mod Authcntick Authors, Augmented with later Obfervacions, and 
Adorn'd with Maps and Sculptures, by JOHN 0GIL2X Efq ; His 
Majefty's Q>fmgrdfher f Geograpbick Printer, and Mafter of the <%evels 
in the Kingdom of I ^ £ L A ?i T>. 



L o ^ct> o $\r ; 

Printed by the Author, and are to be had ac his Houfe m 
White Fryers, M. <D C, LXXL 




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A Catalogue of the Authors, which are either inention'd, or 
made ufe of in this Volume of America. 



Abraham MeUinus 
Abraham Mylius 
Adriaen Vander Donk 
JElian 

Albert us Magnus 
Aldrete 

JE litis Lampridius 
Alexander Aphrodienfis 
Alexander ab Alexandro 
Alexander Guaginus 
Alonfo Garcia 
Alonfo de Ouagli 
Andreas C<efarienfis 
Angrin Jonas 
Antonio de Herrera 
Apuleius 

Arijlonicus Grammaticus 
Ariftotle 

Athanafius lurcher 
Auguflinus 
Auguftin de Tarcate 
Augujlus Tbuanus 
Ay ton of Armenia 
Balthazar de Amizyuita: 
Barnaba Cabo 
Bartholomto de las Cafas 
Benjamin Tudalenfis 
Cafpar BarUus 
Caftaldus 
Charles ^ocbfort 
ChriHopher Arcijfeuski 
Cicero t 

Claude de Abbeville 
Clemens Alexandrinus 
Conradm Gefner 
Cornelius TS^epos 
Cornelius Witfleet 
Ctefias 
Curtius 
Qrianus 
David Ingran 
David Towel 
Diodorus Siculus 






Dionyfius Halicarnaff<zus 
Dirk Suiters 
Vithmar Blefken 
Duarte Me?ide^ Seraon 
Egydius Fletcher 
Emanuel de Morae^, 
Erafmus Stella 
Erich %oothaer 
Everhard %eid 
Eufebius 

Euthymim Zibagenus 
Feflus Avienus 
Francifc. Burmannus 
Francifc. Delapuente 
Francifc. de Gomara 
Francifc. Lopes de Gomefa 
Francifc. ^aphelingius. 
Francifc. Soare^ 
Francifc. Tirolmonte 
Francifc. XaVerius 
FuUerus 
Galenus 

Garcilajfo de la Vega 
Genebrardus 

Gerardus Joannes Vofiius 
Guido de Bre^ 
Guilielm. Tifo 
Guilielm. foflellus 
Harmannus Moded 
Henrick Haelbos 
Fienrick Fiawks 
Hernando de Leon 
Herodotus 
Hefycbius 
Hieronim* Ben%p 
Hieronim. Cardanus 
Homer 

Hugo Grotius 
Hugo Linfchot 
Jacob Boutins 
Jacob Planenfis 
Jacob %abbi 
Inca Garcilajfo 
A i 



Joannes 



K 



■ 



The Names of the Authors. 


s 


Miles Philips 


' ins 


Mofes 


1 .ttnn 


Nicolaus Zeno 


ifs '\ fius 


Olympiodorus 


»cs Jobnjionus * 


Paulus Vznetus 


at Lc>et 


Pedro de Ancieta 


Joannes de LtJcfma 


Pedro Pi^arro 


Joannes LeonclaVtus 


t Pedro Fernandez de Quir 


Joannes Lery 


Pedro Maria, 


Joannes Mariana, 


Peter Martyr 


Joannes X^teuwbof 


Pedro Ordonnes de CeVallos 


Joan. Van de Sande 


Peter VanGendt 


Jofepb. Acojla 


Pbilo Jud&us 


Jofepb. Ancbieta 


Pbilippus CluVerius 


Jofepb. Scaliger 


Philippus Morntus 


Ijaacus Pontanus 


Pbylarcbus 


Ifaac du Verne 


Piere Moreau 


Iftdorus Mendes Seauera 


Pinedas 


Julius Crffar 


Plato 


Julius Caefar Scaliger 


Pliny 


Latlanttus 


Plutarcb 


Lauren, Ananias 


, Pomponius Mela 


Lauren, Bikker 


Proclus 


Lauren. Guafcus Gerafcius 


Procopius 


Lauren. Kjymis 


Quarterius 


LeVmus Lemmius 


%abbi Simeon 


LieVen Ai%rna 


%obertus Qomt&us 


Lope^Va^ 


Sam. Purcbas 


Lucan 


Sebafliaen Scbroten 


Lucretius 


Simplicius 


Lodowick Leo 


Salufi 


Lyfander 


Sigifmond Saro 


Manethon Per fa 


Strabo 


Marcus Zeno 


Tbeodojio 


Martin del Sarco 


Tbeopompus 


Martin Pere^ 


Tlnvet 


Mattboeus Van den Broeke 


tertullim 


Mattbiolus 


Trigaut 


Melcbior Soiterus 


Vegetius 


Micb. Litbower 


Virgil 


Micboyius 


■ii* 



* 



THE 




* . > . 






THE 

CONTENTS 



of the feveral 
CHAPTERS and SECTIONS. 






The firft Book. 



AMerica unknown to the Ancients Fol. i 
Of the Original of the Americans , whence 
they came, when, fcoTfr, and from what 
People Planted 1 1 

Firjl Vifcoverers of America, with Chri- 
ftopher Colonus his Expedition 43 
Pedro Alphonfo Nigno his Voyage 56 
The Voyage of Vincent Agnes Pinzon 58 
The Expedition of Americus Velputius 60 
The Expedition of Alphonfo Fogeda, Diego 
Nicuefa, Ancifus, an d Roderick Col- 
menares 6} 

Peter Arias his Expedition, and the remark* 
able Tajfages of Vafcus Nunnez 69 
The Expedition of Francifco Fernandez, 
Lupo Caizedo, Chriftophero Mo- 
rantes, Bernardo Igniguez, and Juan 
Grifalva 76 

The Expedition of Ferdinand Magaglian, 
commonly caWd Magellan 79 

Ferdinando Cottez his Voyage. 81 

Diego Gottierfc/ his Expedition 02 



The Expedition of Pedro Alvarado, Fran- 
cifco and Gonzalvo Pizarro, and Diego 
de Almagro 05 

Tin Expeditions of John Stade and Nicho- 
las Durando Villegagnon 1 03 

Tin Expedition of John Ribald, Rcnatus 
Laudonier, and Gurgic 105 

Four Englifh Expeditions, under the Command 
of our famous Sea-Qaptains, Martin For- 
bifher, Sir Francis Drake, Thomas 
Candiflv, and John Smith 108 

A Nethcrland Expedition, by JaquesMahu 
and Simon de Cordes no 

The Expedition of Oliver van Noord n 3 

The s Expedition of George van Spilbcr- 
gen 115 

The Expedition of Cornell fzoon Schouten 
and Jacob Le Maire 117 

The Voyage off/;* Naflavian Fleet, under the 
Command of Jaques le Heremite and 
Hugo Schapenham 120 

Henry Brewer his Voyage 122 



The Second Book. 



o 



F the Sounds of America, and of the 
Divifion of the Mexican, or Nor- 



them part thereof 


Fol. 125 


Eftotiland 


126 


Terra Laboratoris. 


128 


Canada, or New France 


129 


Accadia, or Nova Scotia 


*3? 


Norumbegua 


138 



New England 139 

New Netherland, noH? caWd New York 

168 

A new Defcription of Mary-Land 183 

Virginia 192 

Tin Relation of Qaptain Smiths being taken 

Trifonerby Powhatan, W/nj deliverance 

by.his Daughter Pocahonta. 202 

Carolina 



i 



Carolina 

Florida 

Jucatan 

Guatemala 

Vera Paz 

Honduras 

Nicaragua 



THE CONTENTS. 

205 I Porto Rico, and Monico 



11} 

222 
224 
227 
229 
232 

ibid, 
ibid. 



Coftanca 
Veragua 

Guatimala, properly fo call'd 

The Kingdom 0/ Mexico, or New Spain 

238 
Mechoacan 261 
Tlafcalla 264 
Guaxata z6$ 
Panuco 270 
Tabafco 273 
NewGallicia 281 
Guadalajara 284 
Xalifco 285 
Chiametla ibid. 
Couliacan 286 
Cinoloa 288 
Zacatecas 289 
New Bifcay 290 
New Mexico 291 
Cibola , Tontonteac, and Nova Gra- 
nada 298 
Quivira 301 
Terra Nova, or New-found Land, "frith 
the Ijland of Affumption 3 04 
The Bermudas, or Summer-Iflands 3 1 1 
Hifpaniola 314 



Cuba 

Jamaica 

T7;e IJlands call'd The Lucaies 

The Caribbec-Iflands 

Anegada and Sombrero 

Las Virgincs 

Anguilla 

Saba 

St. Crux 

St. Martin 

St. Bartholomew 

Barboude 

Rotonda 

Nevis 

Euftathius 

Antego 

Montferrat 

Guadalupe 

Defeado 

Marigalante 

Todos San&os 

De Aves 

Dominico 

Martinico 

St. Lucia 

Barbados 

St. Vincent 

Bekia 

Granada 

Tabago 

St. Chriftophers 

California 



# 



i 



The Third Book. 



c 



Aftella Aurea, otherwife call'd Terra 

394 
395 

399 

400 

403 
405 
406 
408 
409 
412 
441 
446 
450 



Hrma 
Panama 
Darien 

New Andaluzia 
St. Martha. 
Rio de la Hacha 
New Granada 
Granada 
Popayana 
Peru 
Quito 
Los Quixos 
Lima 



* 



Cufco 

Los Cbarcas 

Collao 

Chile 

Chile, properly fo call'd 

Magellanica 

Paraguay, or Rio de la Plata 

Rio dela» Plata, properly Jo call'd 

Tucuman 

La Crux de Sierra 

Brafilc 

St. Vincent 

Rio de Janeiro 

De Spirito Santo 



327 

33* 

33^ 

344 

34J 
362 

3*3 

ibid. 

364 

ibid. 

367 
3<S8 

ibid. 

ibid. 
}6 9 
?70 

ibid. 

37* 
ibid. 

373 
ibid. 

375 
I76 

377, 

ibid. 

380 

38i 
ibid. 

381 
383 
38? 



4j6 

466 

47i 
472 

473 

47J 

47<S 

ibid. 

477 
ibid. 

4?? 
45 6 

497 
Porto 



4 



£uro 



THE CONTENTS. 



Porto ScguW 4?8 

Los Iflcos 501 

Bahia de Todos los Sanftos 501 

Pcrnambuco 505 

Parayba 5°8 

Maragnan 51 1 

Tl?e Lordjhips Tamarica, Rio Grande, 
Siara, and Para 517 

A Relation of the Proceedings of the Nether- 
land Weft-India Company in Braille, to 
the Year 1658. 518 

The Journey of Rodulphus Baron, "toith the 
Defcription of the Quftoms and Manners of 
rieTapuyans 595 

Grave Maurice his Account of Brafile, fo 
far as it concern d the WefiMndia Qom» 



pany 600 

The QounceUor Duflen'* Relation of fo much 

of Brafile as concern d the Weft-India 

Company 601 

A Defcription of the Palace Frey burgh, two 

Bridges, and a Banquetting»houfe> all built 

by Grave Maurice 605 

Guiana 607 

A Gelation of the Journey of Francifcp 

Orellana ibid. 

Paria, or New Andalufia 610 

Cumana 621 

Venezuela 614 

The IJlands Margareta , Cubagua, and 

Coche 617 

Of the IJlands of Southern America 618 



In the Appendix. 



Rio de la Plata 
. Chili f 
A View of fSirfehilefian Language 
Magellanica 

The Unknown Southland 
Terra Borealis , or The Article 
gion 



Fol. 6 3 1 1 Several Attempts for the difcoVery of the 



634 

649 

Re- 
661 



North-Weft Paffage 671 

A brief View of what Places are pojfefi'd at 
this day in the Weft-Indies, by the Eng- 
lifli, Spaniards, French, Portuguefe, 
and Dutch 674 




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T O T I IT S 

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Chap. I. 




A N 



ACCURATE DESCRIPTION 



O F 



AMERICA- 



CHAP. L 

America, unknown to the aAntients. 



— TT~ ._iT 




HE Sea, that takes feveral Denominations from the 
Countreys which it wafheth, and furrounding the dry' 
Land , cuts out , and fhapes fo many winding Bays, 
Creeks, and Meandring In-lets, feems no where fo 
much confiivd and penn'd into fo narrow a Channel, 
as the Straights of Magellan : From whence again, 
foon expatiating , it fpreads it felf into two immenfe, 
and airnoft boundlefs Oceans, that which opens to the 
North, gives terminarie^ to the four Regions of the 
Earth ; that to the South, onely to Afia and Jmerica ; both which, indeed, ate 
but one continued Sea, extending it felf round the Univerfal Globe. 

This watry part of the World, that almoft through all Ages lay Fallow, hath 
in theft later times been Furrow'd by feveral Expert and Stout Captains, who 
now by tt^jr Art and InduftTy, have given a good Account of, and made clear 
Difcoveries from Eaft to Weft, where-ever the Sun rifes or fets. 

The Northern BdurvJs under the Artick-Zone , have been hitherto fo ob- 
ftruded with Ice, that the undertakings of fuch as adventur'd either to find 
by the North*Eaft or North- Weft a PaiTage to India, have been utterly 
fruftrate. Of the Southern, no fuch pains hath as yet been taken in the Difco- 
very , fq, that for the moft part it is yet unknown how far the Water, either 
. deep or (hallow, overfpreads the Earth, onely thus much Experience hath made 
out, that the Jntartick needs lefler Line to Fathom, than the Mick-Ocean. 

The antient Greeks, Pbenicians^nd %omans,ot whofoever that were Renoyvn d 
by Antiquity, and Lifted in the number of their famous Navigators , were no 
lefs Timerous than Ignorant concerning Maritim Affairs , and are noc fit to 
ftand in the leaft degree of competition with our later Voyagers. 

B Of 



Defcriptioh of th* Ocean. 



The Ancients had little 
knowledge iu Navigation. 



\ ll 






Navigation is very an- 
cient. 



Qtograph. Jib. i. 



<JL M E%I C A. Chap. I. 

Of old, by an inviolable Law, made by Cuftom, according to TUny, Vwtius 
and others, the Sea was lock'd up, from the eleventh of October , to. the tenth of 
' March, no Ships daring to venture forth, dreading flioit Nights, and foul Wea- 
ther j neither in Summer, did they fo much as once offer , unlefs driven by 
Storms , to attempt the Ojftn, or loofe fight of Land 3 yet there is no cjueilion, 
but that feveral Nations in former Ages, made it their bufineis, fpending their 
whole time, and wearying themfelves in the Practical Art of Navigation.' 

The Sacred Scripture teftifies , That the Kings of Judea, Solomon, Jebofapbat, 
Ozjas, and others , prepaid feveral Fleets that SaiFd through remote Seas, 
freighting themfelves with Gold from Ophir , and other Rarities, which were 
Imported to fupply and enrich the Holy-Land. And Strabo alfo tells us > That 
King Solomon being contemporary with Homer, then difcover'd India. And Tfaiy 
relates/That the ^mans, in the Reign of Auguftus, palling the Straights of Gibraltar, 
&fi.m$M*$#ij and fleighting the Neplus ultra, Coafted Spain, France,2.xic\ 2e/gi«»i,leaving not at 
the Promontory of the Cumbrians (now call'd Sbager-^jj} ) but alfo ventur'd in- 
to the Northern Ocean , which waflies Norwy and Lapland : But long before 
this , as AthenAus relates , (phileas Taurom'tnites , a Grecian Captain , and feveral 
others pafs'd the Herculean-Millars, penetrating the Northern Seas as far as ®Wf. 
t™Ttetifclt*'tfl ta * n > am * adventuring, made the firft Difcovery of Tbule : And to the South- 
er. ^ ward the African Coafts without Gibraltar, and beyond A,.werenow and 
then explored by feveral expert Captains. But more remarkable is the Voyage 
Thevoyageofttw Q f n mm a Carthaginian , who out-fail'd thefe , and infpe&ed the Coafts of 
oi£udoxus, strat.it. Jfrica, as far as the Gorgades : And Eudoxus Cy^icenus, flying from King Latbyrus, 
fet Sail from the Arabian Gulph, and paifing the GreauCape, came to an Anchor 
atlaftinthe Mouth of Gibraltar •, having difcover'd all the Eaftern, Southern, 
and Weftern parts of Africa. 

Moreover, it deferves fpecial obfervation , That an antient S^ediJI? King, as 
Cornelius 2s(epos relates, fent as a Rarity and great Prefent to the %oman Conful 
iJS! BeVoWoffim,c Metellus Celer , fame Indians > who loofing their courfe, hatterM up and down 
with perpetual Storms and ftrefs of Weather, were at laft driven into the Nor- 
thern Ocean, where they fuffer'd Shipwrack 5 yet laving themfelves, Landed 
on his Coaft: Ariftonicus Gramaticus relates, That Menelaus Sailing from the Sack 
of Troy , became fo great a Voyager, that leaving the Straights, he furrounded 
Africa, and difcovering India, after eight years re-meafuring the fame way he 
went, returned with great Riches in fafety to his own Kingdom: Which is 
confentaneous to Homer, who faith, Odyjf. 1. 4. 



Of Menelaus'. 






. -None mufi compare 

Manjions with Jove, his Seats Celeftial are: 
(But with me any may, who eight years toft 
Through Worlds of Miferies from Coaft to Coaft, 
'MongH unknown Seas, of my %eturn fmall hope, 
Cyprus, Phoenicia, i£gypt, w /Ethiope, 
Sidon, Erembos/owzd, and Lybia, ivbere 
Their Lambs are hornd, their Ews teem thrice a year. 



3 ASzIvcctqi yxlp <mvy Sbygi v,&i xJri/j^T ictciiu 
'Av^pwy £' 7\YAV TIS fJQl IgA^tlcu riey y&i *V< 

'Hy&ypfjfyj ep vYiuaii hc/a oyobccTco tret nhSov 

AiSiomls 3>' tyt^fJiluff X& 1 cnSbvlas q&i lpg ( u,£vs 
Kali hiGuu/j, 'ivcc t &pvev <*-¥<*■? vjoqjiq) tsA«G«ot> 
T&s ya,p ii)c7« //wAa- TFAgu^ogpp eis htocvloy. 



(A) The Commentators on Homer have been very inqmfitive to find out Menelam Voyage into Ethiopia. Crates fupposM that he pafs'd out at the Straight/} 
doubled the Southern Cape, and fo arrivd thither. Eratojtbenes conjectures , that in the time o\ Homer the Straights Mouth was an Iithmus , and the JEvyptian 
Iithmus overflow'd by the Sea, wh-ch afforded him a fhorter pafTage, But that is moft probable which Strabo delivers , that he then went to the borders of JEtbiepi*, 
when he pafs'd up Rgypt to the City of J hebes - } the Bolder s of Ethiopia being not far dulant from thence in Strabo* tjme, probably very near it in Hemtr's, 

That 



na 



UK 



Chap. I. <lI M £%I C A. 

That "which the Grecian Geographers relate concerning ftolomy Euergetei, 
King of Egypt , is not to be forgotten, That fending Pilots, Commiffion'd 
to take the Soundings, and fettle the Landmarks in the Arabian Q\\\^\\ > they 
found by chance a forfaken Velfel , onely in it one Man half dead , lyin^ 
among feveral other breathlefs Bodies, of whom, being rcfrcfli'd with conve- 
nient Cordials, they enquired his Fortune, but he being unable to give them 
a,ny prefent fatisfa&ion, neither understanding what the other laid , they fent 
him to the Court, where foon hiving got a fmattering of Greek, he inforrn'd 
Euergetes, that he was a Native Indian , driven from their courfe into the place 
where they found him by ftrefs of Weather,and that his company were famitli'd, 
all their Provifion fpent in their Wandrings from their intended Voyage 5 Thus 
being kindly entertain'd, he alio promis'd the King to open his Paflage(if fo he 
pleas'd) into India. The King flept not upon this Intelligence, but immediately 
prepared a Fleet Freighted with fuch Commodities as were advis'd ; with which 
letting forth by the Conduct of this their Indian Pilot , they Anchored in their 
defir'd Port, and brought the King in return from thence a rich Cargo of Silk, 
Spices, coftly Drugs, and precious Gems. Cleopatra, about fixty years after, 
intending not to lofe the advantages reap'd by the former difcoveries, equipped 
another and greater "Navy • which pafling through the Red*Sca , found the 
Stern of a Ship, on which was Prefented a Horfe, whereby fome of the more 
knowing Sea-men judg'd, that it had been a Gibraltar Veffel, and Sailing about 
Africa, there by fad accident fuffer'd a Wrack. This Stern was afterwards let up, 
and fiVd as a Memorial in the Market-place of Memphis. 

In thefe later times , the firft that endeavored to drive an European Trade 
in Africk , and held Commerce with India , was the State of Venice , who 
Sail'd from thence through the jidriatick , into the Mediterranean*Sea : So 
Steering for Alexandria, where unlading their Goods, from thence they carry'd 
them over Land , and Shipping again in the Arabian Gulph, Sail'd directly 
for India. Thus by Land and Water , were exchanged feveral Commodities, 
and the Indian Growth and rich Products of the Oriental World plentifully 
Tranfported to Venice, and from thence , all Europe had ample Accommo- 
dation, until an Egyptian Sultan fuffcr'd the Way to be infefted by Thieves 
and Murdering Robbers , that fo they were enfore'd to remove thence, 
and Difcharge their feveral Cargoes at Aleppo 5 from whence, on Mules and 
Camels, they carry 'd their Goods to (Babylon, fo to $alfafum, and then to 
Ormus, where they Re-fliip'd thence, directly ftanding for India. 

Thus they enjoy'd the benefit of fo great a Trade and Commerce, until the 
(Portuguefe found a Paflage by Sea, laving the Expence and trouble of carrying 
Goods lb fat by Land to India ; Of which here we will a little inlarge. 

John, the firft King of Portugal, who took from the Moors , by force of 
Arms, Septa, an African City, having five Sons 5 Henry his fourth behav'd himfelf 
fo gallantly in the Leaguer of Septa , that after he became Mafter of the place, 
this Prince made- many bold Excurfions in feveral Parties againft the Ene- 
my, bringing in daily great (lore of Booty ; fo growing rich , he Rigg'd out 
two new VcfTels to make farther Difcoveries along the Coaft of Africa. Yet 
' this his Expedition went on but flowly, being much taken off in Building 
there a new City , then call'd Tfizanabala , and fince Villa InfantU ; but being 
Admonifli'd by a Dream, and Check'd for his laying thus afide his firft De- 
sign of Navigation ; he foon after, Anno 1410. let forth the Ships that he inten- 
ded, which he the more accelerated , being informed by fome of his Prifoners 

B 2 Natives, 



3a lads a ft im o i$7**< 



Otrtotemf intoAuf/4, 



And alfc of Citopaira^ 



The Venetians were the 
fid* that drove a trade 
from Europe to the E*fi+ 
Indies* 



tiow th|y went their 
journeys. 



By what means the Par- 
tugueft came firft to diico- 
rer the Coafts of Africa *xl 
India t j 



Why Aft ua was no fur- 
ther difcovcrd. 



Who firft ventur'd into 
the Offiu. 



Madera's, by whom peo- 
pled. 




By whom Gtnny was dif- 
corcr'd. 



For the Northern Con- 
ftellations the Aflroltibe was 
in ufe long before. 



Remarkable pifljge of 
J*iues Cane. 



a M E%I C A. Chap. t. 

Natives , that Jfrica fpread from the Bails of Mount- Atlas , very far towards 

the South : This Mountain then was the Terminary of Navigation tJiat wav 

becaufe thereabouts a long Ridge or Shelf of Sands thruft its Point under 

Shallow Waters fo far out into the Ocean , that none durft venture to Sail in. 

to the Ojfm> being out of fight of Land to double this concealed Cape. 

The firft that attempted to find Deep Water, and get round about , di£ 
covering feveral unknown Coafts, and Uninhabited Ides belonging to that 
Region, were Joannes Gonfahes, Trifian Varfeus, and JEgidiws Annim \ amonaft 
which were the Madera's > and St. George de Picbo, which Prince Henry firft 
Planted with Portuguese , and others fince with Netherlander s. He alfo obtained 
a Grant from Pope Martin the Fifth, of all the difcover'd Territories Eaft-ward 
from the Canaries, for ever to be the undoubted Right, and belonging to the 
Crown of Portugal. 

After Henrys Dcceafe, Anno 1460. the bufinefs of Navigation and Difcove- 
riesof new Countreys, lay negle&ed , becaufe King Alpbonfo turmoyl'd in a 
Civil War , his Crown being at ftakc , had not leifure to think or look after 
uncertain improvements by Sea . yet at laft having quell'd his Enemies , he 
ventur'd forth fomc Ships, who SaiPd as far as the River Zenaga, and came to 
Anchor before the City of Genny , famous fince for Trade , which gave its de- 
nomination to the Countrey and Coafts of Guiny, where they dealing, Barter'd 
for Ivory, Gold, Slaves, and alfo got fo much footing into the Countrey, that 
they fuddenly rais'd up a Fort, and Man d it with a ftrong Garrifon, Shipping 
their Slaves for Lisbon. 

John the Second fucceeding his Father Alpbonfo , had a great defign upon Ara- 
bia and India, and if poflible , was ambitious to open a Paffage from the Atlan* 
tick, to the Oriental-Seas. But the difficulty lay in Steering fo often from fight 
of Land, venturing into the Main Ocean, obftru&ed by fo many dangerous 
Shoals that lay fo far out into the Ojfm. 

At that time flourifti'd three famous Mathematician Roderick Jofeph,znd Mar* 
tin tBohemus , Pupils bred up by Joannes Monteregim ; with which the King 
confulting, perfwaded, that they would by their Art invent fome Inftrument, 
that by Southern Conftellations,the Pole being deprefs'd,the Navigator might 
know where he was, and in what height . fo gueffing what diftance they were 
from this or that Countrey . they accordingly Club'd Learning, and by their 
great Study, found out what fince hath proved fo ufeful and beneficial to Sea- 
men, the Aftrolabe- which help having obtained, the Sailers encouraged, more 
frequently ventured into remote and unknown Seas. 

After thefe, King John of Portugal fent Jaaues Cano with a Fleet, who Sailing, 
found the River Zaires , where he erected a Pillar with an Infcnption, Latin 
and Portuguefe Signifying by whom,and in what Kings Reign thefe African Coafts 
were difcover'd : Here he alfo met fome of the Natives , who more civilized 
than the reft , told him , That they had a mighty King, who Raigning over 
them , kept his Court fome few days Journey up in the Countrey , to whom 
Cam fending his Agents, detained four Africans as Pledges, which he carry'd 
with their free confent to Portugal, promifing to bring them back in fifteen 
Months, who before that time having got fome fmatterings of their Ton<me, 
informed them, that their Native Soyl was call'd Congo, whither returning by 
the appointed time, they were according to their agreement, exchang'd for the 
Portuguefe, znd Cano addrefs'd himfclf with rich Prefents to their King,whom he 
found fitting in their manner on an Ivory Throne, being from the middle up- 

ward 






Chap. I. . AMERICA. 

ward Naked, his nether parts cover'd with long Silken Skirts, a Golden Arm- 
let on his left Arm, athwart his Shoulders hung a Horfes Tail, their Badr» e c f 
Royal Dignity : Cano humbly laid the Prefents down at the Kings Feet, amcmgft 
which was a Gilded Flag , or Pennon with a Crofs , which Pope Innocent the 
Eighth had Confecrated with great Ceremony. After this , many of that Na- 
tion became Chriftians J and the King himielf received Baptifm. But in fliort 
time, by the Inftigations of their Diabolical Priefts , and others, Cfiriftiani- 
ty loofing ground, grew out of countenance : Mean while, King John the 
Second vigoroufly Profecuted the bufinefs of Difcovery, fending Jews and ChrU 
Jlians by Land from Alexandria and other parts of Egypt to India ,znd from thence 
to explore the Coafts on the Eaftern fide of Africa, to the Great-Cape . if fo a way 
might be found fit for Navigators, having doubled that Point, to Traffick with 
the Oriental parts of the World. 

After this Princes Death the Work lay ftill a while, but in fhort time, King 
Bm&melhis Succeflor frelhly undertook the bufinefs once more, fending Vafykts 
de Gama with four Ships , who paffing through many Dangers with great Diffi* 
cultics,Anchor'd at laft before Calecut^nd was the firft of the Europeans that found 
a way to the Eaft-Indies* 

But Qrijlopher Columbus, five Years before Gamas Expedition to the Eaft, had 
been employed in Weftern Difcoveries , whichprov'd fo very fuccefsful, that 
he found no lefs thari another World ■ which foon after , from Americus Vefyu- 
tim, was called Jmerica : So that the Divifion of the World by the Antients, 
( concerning which they had fo long err'd , and were utterly miftaken ) was 
now made manifeft by Experience, and undifputable Demonstration; for 
formerly the whole World was known by no other names than Afia, Jfrica, 
and Europe, but now, thofe three are found to make but one Part of what in- 
circles the Univerfal Globe . becaufe in the South lies a fecond, known no fur- 
ther than by its Coaftings and Superficial Margents • the third part being the 
New* World, our America. 

Here it will not feem amifs , haviiig prov'd that Africa was more than 
Coafted by the Ancients, to ingage and fearch with fome fcrutiny concern, 
ing this America 5 Firft * Whether at any time 'twas known by the Anci- 
ents ? And next , by what People , and when firft Inhabited ? About the 
former, the Learned of thefe later times Jangle amongft themfelves , for 
fome of them will needs afcribe fo much Honor to Antiquity, declining the 
Worthy Praife of thofe that made fo wonderful a Difcovery, as if they of old, 
and many Ages before, had done the fame, or at leaft, that this NewAVorld to 
them was not unknown, maintaining this their bold Aflertion from the Au- 
thority of what they find , both in Ancient Greek , and Latin Authors : Firft, 
cfpecially in the Learned <Plat* , who, as you know at large, defcribes a New 
Atlantis, lying beyond the Straights of Gibraltar . whofe Coaft is furrounded with 
two vaft Seas that are Sow'd thick with fcatter'd Iflands. By thefe Seas they 
underftand the Atlantick and Southern-Sea, by the many Ifles, Cuba, Hilpaniola, 
Jamaica, California, and others, which lie fprinkled along the Coafts of America. 
But it cannot be made out, that Wato defcribes ought but a Fancy , his own 
Idea, not a Countrey that ever was, is, or fhall be,though he lets it forth fo Ac- 
curately, and with fuch Judgments if he had taken a Survey of the place, and 
found fuch a Land indeed. 

In like manner, Viodorus Siculus undertakes to prove,That America was known 
to the Antients 5 telling a Story , how the fhenicians were driven by a Storm 

from 



* 



Diiccvcry of C6n«it 



John the Secwvl. feelct to 
cUfcover India by water, 



Vafims dt G*mn hh tir> 



Chr'.fttphtr ColttwhMU 



Dividing of the earth, 



A query, if ifromVa was 
known to the Ancients. 



Atlantic*. Phto in Criih 
C? Timao. 






Difd.Sic.kh.G. 



6 AMERICA. Chap, h 

from the Coafts of Africa Weft- ward, falling at laft upon a great and altoge* 
ther unknown Ifland, which our late Expofitors take for America ; Muft it 
therefore be fo ? Surely not, for it is onely a bare Story, without arxy Proof or 
^udttf raftdilinm ' tne * ea ft Teftimony. They endeavor to make Arijiotle bolfter up their opinion 
that he had a knowledge of this New- World, which with no fmall pains they 
pump from thefe Words : a Beyond the Herculean Pillars , certain Carthaginian 
li Merchants penetrated the Atlantick Ocean fo far , that at laft they found a 
" vaft, yet un-inhabitecHfland, producing nothing but Herbage, Plants, and 
" WildsBeafts, yet interlac'd with many Meandring Rivers, abounding with 
" feveral forts of Fifh, lying fome days Sail from the Continent- they Landing, 
found a Soyl fo fertile, and Air fo temperate, that there they fetled, and were 
the firft Planters of that Ifle. But the Carthaginians having intelligence thereof, 
Prohibited all Perfons whatfoever, upon Pain of Death, to go thither, fear* 
11 ing the place being fo much commended , all the People would be ready 
€i to flock thither, and defert their own , and fo utterly unfurnifli and debili- 
" tate their then growing Common-wealth. 

But how could the Carthaginians find America , without the ufe of the Com- 
pafs ? How happen'd it, that they were fo taken with the fertility of this their 
Ncw*found-Land, when the Adjacent Countreys and Fields about Carthage arc 
every where Flourishing, and moft Luxurious ? So that it may better be fup- 
pos'd, that what Arijiotle found fo long fince, may rather be the Canary*ljles, or 
Great»$rittain, than America. The Greeks having then alfo made fome Infpcction 
into the Urittiflj-Jjles. They would alfo make you believe, that Virgil the Prince 
^Heid.\ib.6; of Latin Poets, had known the New- World in thefe Verfes 5 dlncid.lib.6. 



cc 



€( 



a 



Tliere y there's the Trince , oft promts' d us before, 
DiVine Auguftus Caefar, "toho once more 
Shall Golden Days bring to t//Aufonian Land, 
Kingdoms that once old Saturn did command, 
Andjball His power to India extend, 
Beyond the jinnual Circle , and beyond 
Tlie Sun's long Trogrefs ,7bhere great Atlas bears, 
Laden with Golden Stars, the glittering Sphears • 



Hie vir, hie eft, tibi quern promitti faepius audis, 
Auguftus C<ejar, di\um genus, aurea condet 
Saecula,qui rurfus Latio, regnata per arva 
Saturno quondam, fuper 8c Garamantas & Indos 
Proferet impcrium. Jacet extra fidera tellus, 
Extra anni Solifque vias, ubi ccelifer Atlas 
Axem humero torquet ftellis ardentibus aptunu 



America was not known 
to the Ancients. 




if 



taflnnt. i.j.c. 24. 



But what of all this i W r ho finds in any of thefe Writings, any Marks of 
America, or the leaft Defcription thereof? Though we cannot deny that the 
Antient Sages and Wife Philofophers of former times might eafily make out, 
and no queftion did,that the Earth and Sea made the perfect Figure of a Globe ; 
firft from the round Shadow of the Earth that Ecclipfes the Moon 5 the diffe- 
rent Rifings and Settings of the Celeftial Luminaries, and the ftili Variati- 
on of the Pole 5 fo that the Earth and Sea making one Ball , they might 
eafily conjecture, that the South-fide of the Equinoctial might be Inhabited as 
well as the North : But all this was more grounded upon Natural Reafon and 
Right Judgement, than any Experience of theirs , or the leaft certain know- 
ledge thereof, which fince thefe later times had the firft happinefs to obtain - 
fo laying thefe Conjectures afide, there have been none more grofly erroneous, 
and fo utterly miftaken in this Point, than fome of the Ancients , and efpeci- 
ally the Fathers of the Church. 

Latlantius Firmianus, and St. Auftin , who ftrangely jear'd at as ridiculous, 
and not thinking fit for a Serious Anfwer the Foolifh Opinion of Antipodes, or 

another 






Chap. I. 



AMERICA 



Luilwt. error Conceril- 
ing c ut Amipidts. 



another Habitable World beyond trie Equator : At which, Laclantius Drol- 
ling, fays, What, Forjooth y here is a fine Opinion broad? \l indeed ; an Antipodes / 
heigb-day I People Tohofe Feet tread 7&ith ours, and -walk Foot to Foot with us • their Heads 
downwards, and yet drop not into the Sky ! There , yes, yery likely, the Trees loaden with 
Fruit grow downwards, and it ^ains, Hails, and Sno^s upwards 5 the %pofs and Spires of 
Cities, tops of Mountains, point at the Sky beneath them, and the Payers reVers'd topfi-turVy, 
ready to flow into the Air out of their Channels ! 

But thefe Teeming witty Obfervations of laclantius , though they may ferve 
for a Jeft, yet are not grounded on any fcrious Reafons . for the Earth and Sea 
being Globular, making one llniverfal Ball • all Materials whatfoever that 
belong to this great Body, fink by a natural Propenfity towards its Center . 
fo that whenever we Travel , our Feet are downwards, and our Heads up- 
wards, the Sky above, and the Earth beneath ; neither need they fear, that any 
where the Earth mould Moulder and drop into the Clouds : But St. Aufiin .*?!&*£* *| 
Reafons better , admitting that the Earth and Sea make a Univerfal Globe - 
yet it no way follows , that inhabited Countreys mould lye oppofite to our 
Northern, nay, altogether impotfible , feeing that fide which is our Antipodes 
is all nothing but Sea ; and mould we allow, that there were Land and Water 
mixt as ours is, who could prove, that they were Peopled ? or how could any 
get thither, over fuch Vaft and Immenfe Seas? or.portibly pafs the extream 
heat of the Torrid Zone, not to be endur'd by any living Creature ? And 
what then becomes of Sacred Scripture, which fays pofitively,TW all Men -frere 
deriVdfrom Adam, and after the Floud , from Noah and his three So?is ? Therefore 
the Nations of the Antipodes- mud be of another Abftracl:, there being no pofli* 
bility (as they fuppos'd) of paffing from this World to that : But fince the Dif* 
covery of the Eaft and Weft-Indies ; Experience, the beftMiftrefs, hath taught, 
that in the South are mighty Lands and vaft Territories, and that as far as they 
have been Penetrated, are found to be full of People , extending their Domi* 
nions from Eaft to Weft. And though St. Auftin deny'd this now welUknown 
Truth, yet long before his time , Qcero , Pliny , and others amongft the Greeks 
and <%gmans, divided the Earth under five Zones ; which Virgil defer ibes 
thus : 



Five Zones the beaYns infold, hot Sun- beams Uat 
Always on one, and bums with raging heat. 
Tl?e two Extreams to this on each hand lies 
Muffled with Storms, fetter d Spith cruel Ice. 
'Twixt Cold and Heat, two more there are,th'aboads 
Afiigndpoor Mortals by tV Immortal Gods. V 



Quinque tencnt caelum zonae :quarum una corufco 
Semper Sole rubens,&, torrida Temper ab igni : 
Quam circum extreme dextra,l#vaque trahumur 
Catrulea glacie concrete, atque imbribus atris. 
Has inter, mediamque, duae mortalibus xgris 
Munere concefTae divum : via fe&a per ambas, 
Obliquus qua fe fignorum verteret ordo. 



With Virgil, Pliny, and the Prince of Latin Orators agree who faith M <™i'*somnbsc;pio* 

O ' 7 WW. l.i.C.54 

a You fee, that thofe that inhabit the Earth dwell in Countreys fo feparated v^c^mt^og^K 
ex one from another , that it is impoflible they mould have any Commerce • 
" fome of them are our Antipodes, walking with their Heads downwards, fome 
" their Feet againft our fides, others, as we, with their Heads upright. You fee 
" how the fame Earth feems to be SwatrTd about with Rolls, of which, two 
ct feparated by the other three , are at utmoft diftance one from the other, ly- 
" ing equi-diftant under the Vcrtick Points of Heaven , always cover'd with 
u Snow and Ice ; but the middlemoft and greateft is fcorch'd by the violent 

" heats 



8 



ftf*/lib. a. 



Mucrob. inSomm Scip. 
lib**. 



How .beafts came on re- 
mote llLnds, 



And chiefly the wild. 



/f«/?/'« is contradicted. 



How men came to new 



Countrey*. 



Reafons why America was 
fo long unknown. 



Who firft fail'd on the 
Ocean. 



Several opinions of the 
Antients concerning it. 



cc 



ii 



AMERICA Cbap. I. 

<c heats of the Sun : Two Tracts are Habitable, one to the South , our Jnt'tpQ* 
" des, the other North, which we Inhabit. 

And Pliny alfo affirms, though againft the Vulgar Opinion, this truth, 
cc That the Earth is round about inhabited, and that peopk walk Foot to Foot 
u in moft parts thereof- though every one be ready to ask why our Antipodes drop 
<c not into the Sky 5 which queftion, our Antipodes may alfo ask concerning us. 

But although the Ancients upon thefe and the like Demonftrations well Ufl* 
derftood, that there was a Habitable World towards the South under our Ho* 
ri%pn, yet they could not make out or believe, that there was any poffibility to 
pafs thither . And, according as St. Auftin conceived , That the Earth produced 
nothing under either Pole, by reafon of exceflive cold , and that the Equinoxs 
or Middle *Zone, was not to be penetrated, becaufe of the infufferable heat. 

« And Macrobms faith, " That the Equinottial GYc/e,the Jrtkk and AntartkkL'mes, 
ic bind the two Habitable Zones , and make Temperate by the exceffive Neigh- 
boring Heats and Colds ; and thefe Countreys onely give Animation, and 

comfortable Enjoyment to all Living Creatures. 

Moreover/St. Aujlin in fome places feems to clear his own Doubts, faying, 

That People , if they could find a means to Sail thofe Vaft and Undifcover'd 
u Seas, might make Land, railing new Stars under another Sky. 

A Learned Father, fearching after the Original of all forts of Beafts which 
multiply by Generation , concludes , That they muft derive themfelves from 
thofe that werefav'd with Noab in the Ark. But how came they to the Ifles ? 
To thofe adjacent and near the Main Land, they might cafily Swim 5 to the re- 
moter,they were Tranfported. 

But this Doubt is not altogether clear'd, for the Domeftick and other Cxtai 
cures fit for Humane ufe and Suftenance were thus brought thither : Yet how 
comes it to pafs, that Voracious and Wild Creatures are alfo found there, fuch 
as Wolves,Tigers,Lions,and other Beafts of Prey ? This puzzle putting St. Ah- 
pinto a ftand , he had no other means to get off> but by faying, that by God's 
Commands or Permiflion, the Angels convey'd them thither 5 If fo, why might 
not God pleafe to Plant Men there in like manner, and the rather, the Earth be- 
ing created for Humane ufe ? But what needed this , when Men can in Ships 
Tranfport themfelves , either of their own accord for curious Inqueft, to find 
new Countreys, or elfe enfore'd by ftrefs of Weather, to far remoter, and alto- 
gether unknown Lands : Befides , though the Earth is here and there divided 
by large Bays and vaft Seas,, yet neverthelefs, in other places it is all continu'd 
Land, or at leaft parted by fome narrow In-let or Sea 5 fo that there was no 
difficulty for a crouded Plantation to go over, and fo eafe themfelves in an- 
other Countrey, till then not Inhabited 5 therefore none need to queftion, but 
that from Adam, or nearer, from Noab's three Sons, Sent, Ham, zn'djaphet, thofe, 
as well as we, were extracted, that Inhabit this out* other World. 

But one queftion is to be obferVd , How firft after the expiration of fo ma* 
ny Ages in thefe our later times , a New-World was difcover'd, altogether 
unknown to the Antients , when they in the greatnefs of their Parts and Un- 
dertaking, Prowefs and Prudence, were no ways inferior to the Modern, and 
every way as fit for great Defigns and grand Exploits ? We need not fcruple or 
make the leaft doubt, but the Sea hath been Navigated of old j but the firft at- 
tempters fet forth unexperienced, in as pittiful and ill-contriv'd VefTels. The 
Heathens afcribe the Art of Navigation, firft to the Cretans, who under the Con- 
du&ofi\^««<,>, fet forth a Navy to explore Foraign Countries. But Winy 

long 



Chap. I. 



AMERICA. 



Brittains amongft the 
firft Inventors of Naviga- 
tion. 



1 he firft Invenrers of fe- 
veral things belonging to 
Shipping. 



loner before gives the'Invention of this Art to Erythra, King of Egypt, who upon 
Pieces of Timber, conjoynd andbrae'd together, crept along the Shores, and 
ventured to Difcover the Iiles in the %ed-Sea. But others give that honor to the 
Trojans, and Micians, when with a Fleet by Sea, they Invaded Thrace : Others, 
to the 'Brittains, who made little Veflels of Leather, and were the firft that by 
this Invention found how to Float upon the Waters : Some plea^ that the 
Samothracians were firft ; Others, that Dantus before M , found a way by Sea 
from Egypt to Greece. But without all Contradiction, Ityab's Ark was the Pat- 
tern or Sample, that fucceeding Ages imitating, built their Ships by ; and the 
more probable, becaufe his Offspring multiplying fo faft, that they were en- 
forced to inlarge their Colonies, by pafling Seas, and other broad Rivers, to 
fettle their Super-numeraries there. 

So J a/on Invented a Ship, which he call'd Jrgos, which Sefo/lris King of Egypt 
took as his Pattern. Next, the Biremis, a Galley with double Banks of Oars, 
was made by the Erythreans 5 with treble Banks , by the Corinthian Armeies 5 the 
addition of the Quadruple, the Carthaginians boaft 5 of the Quinqueremis 2S[eJichthon } 
Alexander the Great , brought them to twelve Banks ; Qtolomy Sotcr, to fifteen 5 
Demetrius, Antigonus Son, doubled them to thirty • ftolomy Pbiladelpbus, to for- 
ty ; and laft of all, Tbilopater rais'd them to fifty Banks of Oars. Hippus a Ttri- 
an, was the firft that fet Ships upon the Stocks . the <%Jiodians a Ketch, and the 
<BataYians a Boat . the Copes made the firft Oar ; Dedalus the Maft and Boltfpritj 
<Ptfcus the Beak ; - the Tyrrheans the Anchor . Tiphys the Rudder • taking exam- 
ple from the motion of a Kites Stern ; Icarus found Sails, fancy'd by the Poets 
for Wings,though fome afcribe that honor to his Father Dedalus. 

Minos was the firft that Ingag d in a Sea-Fight, whereby we may eafily con- JgS^^g 
jefture, that of old none adventured far into the Offin, or to remote Countreys, 
not daring to truft their fo Height contriv'd Veflels. But thefe later times have 
ilrangely and fuddenly improv'd this growing Art of Navigation, yet pitch'd 
not to that height at firft, as boldly to adventure, and loofe fight of Land. 

The Tynans firft underftood how to Steer their Courfe by the North-Star, 
and when dark and foul Weather had Clouded the Sky , that they could nei- 
ther fee Heaven or Earth i but onely Sea, they directed their Courfe by the 
Wind ; and if they doubted the change thereof, they let fome Birds fiie, whom 
they follow'd , fuppofing that they ftood directly to the neareft Land. But 
thefe are but poor helps, and blind Guides to fhew you Land from the middle 
of the boundlcfs Ocean. It is certain, that the Romans in the time of Julius Cajar 
and Auguftus, ftretch'd the Bounds of that Empire Eaft ward to Euphrates , the 
<%J>yne, and the Danube, and Weftward to the Ocean and Mount Atlas , Sailing up b^own, 
and down the Mediterranean, with great Fleets, which ftoutly endur'd the vio* 
lence both of Waves and Weather • but all this made them not fo hardy, as 
once to think or look after new Worlds. But after the %pman power decreas'd, 
by feveral Eruptions of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, Nornwis, Lumbards, and other 
Northern Countreys, which fwarm'd with People, that overflow'd all places 
like a Deluge, fo that Europe was every where puzzel'd and Imbroyl'd, their 
whole bufinefs confiding in conjoyning Forces to withftand fuch bold Invaders, 
and fo vexatious an Enemy. 

And farther Eaft, AJia was at the fame time little better, ftill trembling 
at the daily Alarms and Incurfions of the Scythians, Verfians, and Saracens - and 
afterwards the Turks growing upon them more than any of the former, expect- 
ed no other than a fad Cataftrophe, fo that the known World had too much 

C work 



covertf. 



The manner of the Anti- 
cnts Sailing. 



Of the Komansl 



Why Amtr'tca was fo late- 






JL 



lm 



Hieron. in c. j . Epbef. 



10 a M E%I C A. Chap. II. 

work cut out for them by thefc Diftra&ions and Alterations of Government, 
then to go in Queft of uncertainties, to find they know not where,another. 

Here alfo is added by St. Jerom, what an antient Writer faith, Great care bath 
been taken in Computing the Jge of this World , and if there be another which Commencd 
not -^o'xth ours, (as Clemens mentions in his Epiftles) inhere are fcituate thofe Seas and 
Lands that make that fecond World ? Or is it a part of that, in Tohicb Adam was Created ? 
Or may it not rather Metapljric ally be taken for Worldly Jffairs, go\ernd by the frince of 
the Air, ruling in the Hearts of the Children of DiJ obedience ? 
The Amicnts opinion of But Tliny , Cicero^ and Virnl, the beft in their kind of Latin Writers concur 

an unknown world. , - 11111 3*~> 

lhat there may be a habitable World under our Horizon, in the temperate 

Southern Zone, beyond the extream heat, and on this fide of the Antartick 

colds. 

But what fignifies all this to the Difcovery of America, which lies not onely 

under the fcorching Heats of the Equinox , but under the Frofts and Snows of 
y V*^?**"™** the Ankk and ^WttVfc-Wtf ? Yet lefs probable is that which Lodowick Leo, an 
M$Jj«k^ &&P* Friei ' takes °« c of Obadiah ; as if that Prophet in the three laft Verfes of 
*&Zf#j&%& his pro ^9 foo^ %eak of the Spaniards, which (hould not onely difcover and 
: f^$SS!iSSt Con q uer America, but alfo Convert the Inhabitants to the Chriftian Faith, becaufe 
^\£LW*MW thofe that arc in Se P harad > ihould Inherit and PolTefs the Cities of the South, 
^a^S^'^** 1 ^ fiM «rife from the Mountains of Zion, to judge the mount and Wealth 

even umt Zarephath, and q£ EfilU, 

the cativhy of Jerufakm, J 

&**<£^jtt But certai nly , Obadiah meant no other than the Reftauration of the Jews from 

&!7tE^^ who after their return, fhould grow more powerful 

7Z7futi?wZ>T s ~ than ever > and thc 7> led b y thei * Mfi<*> obtain the height of all felicity, who 

s4fuT f * lskwwninthcwouldren declare Salvation to the utmoft Bor- 

ders of the Earth. It is true, that the Rabins Expound Sepharad to be Spain, and 

therefore he concludes , that Obadiah Prophefi'd of the Spaniard, and their Con- 

quefts in America ; fo they would prove , that America was long known before 

Chrift. 

And laftly, It fignifies as little what Tineda and LeYmus Umnius drive at, 
^^WsFketraiidnotThat Solomon firft finding the ufe of the Compafs, Rigg'd a Navy at E^ion-De- 
ber, which from the <%ed*Sea had no indirect Courfe to the Straights of Magellan; 
from whence he might Lade his Veifels with the Gold of Tern. In whofe De- 
fcription it fiball be manifefted , that Tern is not Ophir, as fome without any 
fliew of Reafon or Truth would make us believe. 

But as concerning King Solomons finding out the ufe of the Magnet, it is 
foon laid, but not eafily prov'd * for though that Prince exceeded all Man-kind 
in Wifdom and Learning, and was perfect in the Operations , and knew the 
Occulteft Secrets of Nature, underftanding what e're belonged to Plants, from 
the Cedar of Libanus, to Hyfop,and the meaneft Shrub that grows upon the Wall ; 
yet it nothing makes out , that he knew the Myftery of the Navigable ufe of 
the Load'Stone : But fuppofc he^lid know, there is no where any mention of it- 
and if this excellent thing, the Compafs, had been found in Solomons time, how 
came it afterwards fo utterly to be loft ? 

Albertus Magnus miftakes , when he afcribes the knowledge of the Compafs to 
Arifiotle, of which he himfelf makes not the lead mention j neither Galen, Alex- 
ander Aphrofcficnfis , Tliny, Lucretius, nor any of the %oman, Greek, Arabian, or 
vhom other Countrey Writers whatfoever. Some give the honor thereof to an In- 
dian, others to a Shepherd in Mount Ida, whofe Clouted Shooes being-full 
of Hob-Nails, the Iron flicking faft to the Stones on which he flood, ftopc his 

motion. 



Solomon &i$ not Hnd the 

Compah. 



load-ftone 
fomd. 



II 



DefubtiUtattl.', 



Gentbrad. Cbron. 



Chap. II. A M E%I C A. 

motion. And although the Anticnts found out many Secrets of Nature, 
amongft which this of the Load'Stone, Attracting Iron, as being its proper Food; 
and the three forts of the Magnet, of which fome will not draw Steel, found by 
Tbeamedes a Greek Author, and other fince, well known Properties : Yet they 
never attain'd that knowledge, that the Load-Stone would eafe Pain , and flop strange operation* of 
the effufion of Blood, though the edge piercing the Skin, opeh'd the Vein : as thcLc ^ onc - 
Hteronimus Cardanus experienced on himfelf and others, which he had from Lau- 
rentius Guafcus, a great Chyrurgeon. Much lefs, that the Needle of the Comfafs 
being touch'd by the Load-Stone on the Northfide of the Equinox, refpects the 
North j but depre/fing the Artick, and railing the Antartick Pole, it looks as fted- 
faftly towards the South : But far lefs dreamt they of its feveral variations, variance of the com- 
according to the Coafts that are ncareft ; as when you come from the Ifland del pafs ' 
CuerV9 f the Point varies more Weft; but Sailing towards the Equinox, it varies 
Eaftward- by which we may abfolutely conclude, that without this ufeof the 
Loadstone, firft found by Flavius Mefoius a "Neapolitan, in the Year ijoj. it was al- 
together impoffible to reach America. So that Jofep h de Acofla miftakes, who when, and b y whom the 
gives the honor of the finding fo great a benefit to Navigation, to (ome Mahu- ° mp 
metan Sea*men which Vajques de Gama met with near Mo/ambique, who had Sail'd 
thofe Seas by the ufe thereof; whereas Gamas Expedition was above a hun* 
dred years after Melfim , who liv'd in fuch a juncture of time for Mathema* 
tical Learning, that few Ages boafted the like : For then flourifh'd in England, 
and were Contemporaries, befides others abroad, %ichard Wallingjord, TSlicolas de 
Lynna, John Halifax, Walter Britte, John Duns , an'd John de Lignarys , all eminent 
in Aftronomical Arts, belonging to Navigation, and doubtlefs, no fmall helps 
to Melfius in this his happy Invention. 

Laftly, We will relate what hath been held as a feeming Teftimdny, (that 
America was known to the Europeans before the Birth of our Saviour) by an an- 
tique Meddal of the Emperor Augujlus, digg'd out of the Ground in <Peru, and 
fent to his Holinefs at ^ome , which may well be rcckon'd with the like 
Cheat contrived by Hermicus Cajadus, Anno 1505. near Syntra, a Town in Portu- 
gal, where three Marbles Ingraven with antient Characters, concerning a Pro- 
phecy of difcovering the Eajl'hdies by the Tortuguefe, in the Reign of King Ema* 
nuel, were privately bury'd under Ground^ and not long after, by a pretended 
accident digg'd out, which made fuch abuftle amongft the Learned, that fe- 
veral tired themfelves about the explanation of the fuppos'd Sibylline Pre- 
diction. 

CHAP- II. 

Of the Original of the Americans , whence they cdme , when> 
how , and from what Teople Planted. 

A Bout the Original of the Americans , the Learned Difpute fo much, that « M Jmuchdifputed e o»r 
they find nothing more difficult in Story, than to clear that 
Point; for whether inquiry be made after the time, when the Amer'u 
cans firft fettled themfelves where they now inhabit, or after what manner 
they came thither, either by Shipping or by Land; on purpofe, or accidental- 
ly; driven by Storm, or elfe fore'dby a more powerful People, to remove 

G i from 



u 



AMERICA. 



Chip.IL 







Voyage/, i. c. 8. 



The time when America 
Was firft Peopled. 



The condition of the firft 
World after the FloucU 



' * 



from their old Plantations, and feek for new ? or if any one fhould be yet 
more curious, asking the way that directed them out of another Countrey to 
this New World ? or elfe enquire for thofe People, from whom the Americans 
dcriv'd themfelves ? He will find feveral Opinions , and the Learned ftill 
Jangling. 

The firft Doubt is concerning the time : Mr. Turchas, where-ever he had the 
Hint, endeavors to prove-, that America hath been but lately Planted ; for which 
he thus argues, i€ That if Ajia, or Europe furnifh'd America with People in Abra- 
" bams time , or at leaft before the Birth of our Saviour . then it muft upon 
a neceifity, by the Expiration of fo many Ages, have been much more Popu- 
Ci lous, then the Spaniards found when firft they difcover'd it. Befides, the vaft 
" Territories yet unhabited (fays he) are fufficient teftimonies, that this New 
ic World hath been Planted but fcatteringly, and not many Ages fincc, elfe 
H the Countrey would have more abounded with Inhabitants, becauie the fer- 
c< tility of the Soyi was able plentifully to maintain Millions more, then were 
tl there when firft difcover'd : And what Marks are better to know anew Peo- 
€C pie by, in any Countrey , than a rude Life and unfettled Government ? juft 
l€ like a Family removing to another Houfe,which takes no fliort time to fettle 
" their Goods and Houfhold-ftuffin a handfome and convenient Order. 

" When TS^pab went out of the Ark on Mount Ararat ', and not long after, faw 
u his Seed fpread over Armenia and Jjfyria , the new Generation of People con- 
u lifted in Shepherds and Husbandmen , that fetled themfelves neat^ Lakes and 
" Rivers. Villages, Cities (and much lefs) whole Kingdoms,were fcarce found 
<c on the Face of the Earth, and as little of Trade or CommerceiRicheSjDivifiori 
" of Lands,coftly Garments and Furniture for Houfes,were not then in ufe,buc 
"the works of long fettlements in happy Peace. To curb growing- Wickednefs, 
"and the Pride of Libertines, who incroach'd upon their weaker Neighbors, 
<c Laws were invented , by which Bridle, the unbroke or wild World grew 
" tamer : And firft, the Affyrians were brought to endure the Bit,and anfwer the 
<£ Reins of Government ; then £gjipf,ncxt Greece, and after that the Romans, who 
" fpreading their Power by Arms and Martial Difcipline , firft civiliz'd the 
" Gauls, Spain, Urittain, and laftly Germany. 

" But becaufe a Countrey or Paftoral Life,knowing no Commerce,but mean 
a Hovels, and to dwell in Huts, priding in poor and no Habits , defpifing all 
" greatnefs, unlimited by Laws, and all things elfe, (which the People obferv'd 
" prefently after the Flood) is now found among the Americans , who will take 
" them for ought elfe, but new Comers to that Land, as themfelves acknow- 
" ledge > For the Mexicans boaft, that they are the eldeft there , and that from 
" them, <Peru, Chili, Chtka, and other Countreys towards the South, had their 
" Colonies, and yet the oldeft Chronicles of Mexico reckon not above a thou* 
" fand Years. Thus far Mr. Purcbas. 

But certainly , all this Muftcr of appearing Reafons , is not able to van* 

quifli fingle Truth ; For, grant that America was not very Populous when the 

**rf f *wasFeupfcd**: Spaniards firft arrived there ; muft this needs prove , that it was never well in- 

tiy Ages ago. * ' Z 

habited before ? Perhaps the Civil Wars, which have been always deftructive 
to this Nation, have much hindred the increaft of People 3 and the more, be- 
caufe their Salvage Nature is fuch, that in feveral places they account Man's 
Flefti Broil'd a very great Dainty. And fuppofe fuch Prodigal Excels of their 
Humane Bankets were not us'd in America, as indeed they arc, Is it wonder, that 
fuch a great part of the World, not oncly exceeding Europe in bignefs, but Ajia 

alfo- 



Furchas contradicted. 



Chap. II. 



AMERICA. 



*3 



alfo fhould here and there have a Trad of Land uninhabited ? Thefe might, 
by reafon of their Barrennefs, be ufelefs, as many fuch places are found in the 
midft of the moft Populous and fertile Countreys. But above all this, it is cer- 
tain, that America to this day (notwithftanding almoft innumerable thoufands 
of Indians formerly Slain and Maflacred by the Spaniards) is fo well in- 
habited, that it may ftand in Competition with either Jfia or Europe. And 
how could fuch vaft multitudes Plant the far=fpreading Countrey of America, 
without the help of many Ages ? Moreover, This truth is not without iuffici- 
ent Teftimonies • when any one looks on the lllands with which America lies 
incompaiVd , he may fuppofe they did not willingly go from the Main Con- 
tinent to the Ifles , but were driven thither by Wars among thcmfelves, or as 
moft times it happens, becaufe of the vaft increafe of the Natives , the Coun* 
trey muft difcharge its burden. 

Hereto is added , the feveral Languages us'd in America, as in Europe or any 
other part of the known World ; whereby we may eafily guefs, that America 
was Peopled prefently after the Confufion of Tongues at Babel. Furthermore, 
If the Americans live a Rude Life,go meanly Habited,be without {lately Houfcs 5 
fuch Cuftoms are even among us obferv'd by feveral People • as the Tartars, 
Numidians, and others , which made their Antiquity be call'd in queftion. He 
alfo muft needs have no knowledge of the Arts and Mechanick Sciences us'd by 
the Americans, who concludes, that they fetled but lately in America. One Ar- 
gument at prefent will be fufficient to contradict them all ; and in the further 
Defcription, the contrary will be more manifeft. 

Hieronimus $enfo relates, That he flood amaz'd at the Gold and Silver Smiths 
in the Territory of Onto, who without any Iron Tools, made Images, and all 
manner of Veflels : Which work they performed thus, Firft, they made an Oval 
Crucible of a good Lock , round about Parted with Earth , embody'd with 
the Powder of Wood Coals ; which Crucible being Bak'd very hard in the 
Sun, they fill with Pieces of Gold or Silver, and put in the Fire ; about which 
Handing with five/ix^r more Pipes made of Canes,they blow the Fire fo long, 
till the Mettal melts, which others fitting on the ground, run it into Moulds 
of black Stone, and fo with little trouble, Caft into what fhape they pleafc. 
Laftly, Though Mexico can reckon but a thoufand years, muft it therefore fol- 
low , that the Inhabitants are no older ? How many famous places ( even 
among our felves) have no longer Regifters, and if they have,they are common- 
ly Fabulous, few Nations boafting truly their own Original ; which Argu- 
ment, not onely contradi&s (as we fuppofe) Mr. furcbas, but all others afcri- 
bing the Plantation of America to our later times. 



S 



E C 



T. L 



Amtrican GolJ-Smithf. 



After what manner the 
Inhabitants of Amtric* 



$ TN the next place, let us enquire, how the Americans were tranfmitted thi- 
*~ ther, whether by Sea, or Land? Both which are feafible two feveral 
ways . if they made an Expedition thither, as Difcoverers, or were driven on 
thofe Coafts by ftrefs of Weather. 

The firft is moft unlikely, and not feeming poflible, for how could they 
Steer thorow fo vaft an Ocean, to Countreys they never heard of, without the 
Compafs, and other Neceifaries for fuch a Voyage ? for when firft difcover'd, 
their want of experience in Shipping for fo long a Voyage, knowing no fur- 
ther than the ufc of final! Boats or Canons, plainly explode, that they willingly 

Steer'd 



' 



!+ 






Steer'd from a known World, to an unknown , with no better accommodati- 
on ; but fome probable reafons may be made out, to induce us to believe, that 
they were rather driven thither by Stormv 

But fome will fay, How liv'd the little Boats, and how indur'd they in fuch 
a continual Temped, and were not either fwallow'd up amidft the Waves, or 
ftarv'd for want of Provifion, which their hollow Troughs could not con- 
tain ? 

The firft doubt is the leaft, for there are Examples enough by which appear, 
that oftentimes great Ships Bulging,are over.fet or funk in the Sea by foul Wea! 
ther when the Mariners efcape in their Cock=Boat; and if they were but thin- 
ly Viftual'd for fo long a Voyage, queftionlefs, that little which they had, they 
fpun out, and made it lad, while the impetuous Storm fhortned th* paffage, 
which fair Weather would have made much longer. 
pu l* c„. <pi tny te n s us fj nntus flocquius, General of the <l(ed>Sea y That one of his 

J; r si^ voyageofa ^ S, * ves being Enfranchiz'd , Sailing down towards the Arabian Gulf, was car- 
ry 'd by a violent Tempeft from the North, beyond Qaramania , and on the fif- 
teenth day came to an Anchor in Hippuros, a Haven of Taprobane, which Ortelius 
judges to be Sumatra ; but Mercator and CluVerius, on better grounds, Zeylon\ 
which is no lefs than three thoufand Etiglijh Miles. 

In like manner, Jofepb de Acofla tells us, That in fifteen days time, he got 
with a Northerly Wind from the Qanams to America, and his Voyage had been 
fliorter, durfl: he have born more Sails, which may partly clear the former 
doubts. 

Moreover, the Peruvians themfelves give fome fmall Teftimony (in their an- 
tient Records) of a few that Landed of old upon their Coafts, which were (as 
they fay) mighty and cruel Giants, committing much Bloodfhed, Slaughtering 
the Natives every where • and having fubdu'd the whole Countrey,built (lately 
Edifices, of which remain yet the Ruines of fome Foundations, very Artificial 
and Coftly. They alfo (hew near Manta, and Puerto Viejo, many huge Bones (as 

they 



The Peruvians opinion 
concerning anti£nt Sea- 
Voyages. 






:- 



Chap. II. 



AMERICA 



15 



Acofl». Hip or. K*t, 1. 2 



they believe of Giants, thre,e times longer and thicker than an ordinary Mans. 
They alio tell us, that many Ages fince, one lea and Anea Sail'd Wcftward thi- 
ther upon Sea Wolves Skins, blown up like Bladders : But however, without 
contradiction , the Americans never knew, much lefs built any luch Veflels, 
with which they durft venture to the Offm, out of fight of Land : their tBalfas, 
f eriaros find CanoosfiviW not all amount to the Bulk of one of our fmall Barques ; 
wherefore the Inhabitants of Tumbe^ when they defcry'd the Spamjh Fleet, fent 
to difcover <Peru, were amaz'd at the high Marts, fpreading Sails, and bignels 
of the Ships, judcins them firft to be Rocks, cart up out of the Sea 5 but ob- 
ierving them to approach their Coaft, and that they were full or Bearded-Men, AtmicatUm 
thought the Gods were walking in them ; by our Modern Poet, Mr. Dryden in 
his Indian Emperor, thus Elegantly defcrib'd. 

Guyomar to Montezuma. 



I went in order, Sir, to your Command, 

To View the utmoji Limits of the Lartd : 

To. fee that Shore, where no more World is found, 

Sut Foamy Billows, breaking on the ground 5 

Where, for a while, my Eyes no Object met, 

But diflant Skies, that in the Ocean fet : 

And loTb-hung Clouds that dipt themf elves in %ain 

To pake their Fleeces on the Earth again. 

At laft, as far as I could cajl my Eyes 

Upon the Sea, fomewhat, mcthought did rife 

Like Bluifr Mifts , •frkiebftitt appearing more, 

Took dreadful Shapes, and moVd towards the Shore. 

Mont. What Forms did thefe neV Wonders reprefent * 

Guy. Moreftrange than vhatyour Wonder can invent 

the Objecl I could firjl diftinclly View, 

Was tall fir aight Trees, which on the Waters flew 5 



Wmgs on their fides, inftead of Leaves didgro^, 

Which gather 'd all the Breath the Winds could bloV I ' 

Jnd at their <l{oots grew floating Palaces, 

Whofe outMow'n Bellies cut the yielding Seas. 

Mont. What Divine Monflers,0 ye Gods, "Were thefe, 

That float in Air, and fly upon the Seas ! 

Came they alive or dead upon the Shore ? 

Guy. Alas, they liv'd too Jure, Iheard them roar. 

All turnd their fides, and to each other fyokc, 

If aw their Words break out in Fire and $mo 

Sure, 'tis their Voice that Thunders from on high, 

Or thefe, the younger Brothers of the Skie. 

Deaf Yiph the noife, Itook my hajly Flight, 

No Mortal Courage canfupport the Fright. 



SpaniayJ; ear y Oxen, 
and Sheen to the Ameiican 
lflcs. 



But the refolving thefe Doubts, ftarts a harder Queftion, »* Grant that the 

Americans were by Tempeft driven thither, How then came the Bearts thither . 

It is certain, that thofe which are beneficial for humane ufe , as Dogs for to 

Hunt, great Cattel, Sheep, for Food, and other Neceffarics, might eafi y be x«- 

ry'd thither, for fo the Spamards brought Cows, Horfes Swine and other Cat 

tel s and alfo Poukery from Spatn, to the new-d,fcover'd hies, CubaH.^uola, 

Jamaica, Marina, and UDomimea, when at their arrival formerly no tour. 

footed Bearts were found there, whofe fertile Soyl hath fo multiply d their 

increafe, that the Doggs running Wilde, and breeding as aft, ao great hurt 

to the Grazing Herds, which they onely (hoot for their Skins leaving their 

Flefh, the beft of Meats, onely to Manure the Ground on which they he. 

The Tranfportingof tame and profitable Cattel might eafily be allow d of, 
but who would load their Ships wixh Lions, Tygers, Bears, Wolves, Foxes,and 
other Serpents and Voracious Bearts ? it is certain that fome may be tarn a 
before they were Ship'd. . r iwwiu Became- 

LanqnuL relates, That Hel^abalus the***. Emperor took ^great pleafure ------ 

in Domeftick Lions, and Leopards, to frighten his Guefts withal . for with 

the third Coutfc, they were all brought in, and fate betwixt the Invited, a Man 

5 ' and 



\6 



A M E KIT A. 



Lib. 2. cap. 17. 
Strange Hunting. 






Chap. II; 
and a Bcaft. The great Qbam, as <Paulus Venetus an Eye-witnefs attefts, Rides on 
Hunting, attended in couples with tame Leopards. The King oiCamboja in like 
manner is ferv'd with Panthers : Scatter adds alio, That they went not unpro- 
vided of a Lamb or Goat, to give the Panther , left falling into his natural fe, 
tocity, provok'd by hunger, he mould make the Huntfmen his Quarry, if he 
had no other Prey. But notwithftarvding fome wilde Beafts feem to forget 
their Voracious Nature, yet there ought great care to be taken in the Trans- 
porting of them, becaufe they oftentimes grow wild again , which France can 
strange ^nt of two wit nefs, where two Leopards , a Male and a Female being tam'd , prefently 
after the death of King Francis, whether negligently or on purpofe, let loofe, 
ran into the Woods , and near Orleans devour'd a great number of People, and 
Cattel : Gefner faith, That fome Womens bodies were found, who were un- 
touch'd, onely their Breafts eaten by the Leopards, as if they took them for 
the daintieft part; which is not unlike the antient>m, who according to Saint 
Hierom, entertain'd their Guefts as a moft delicious Difli , with Womens 
Breafts, and Mens Buttocks Roafted. Befides, the devouring nature of thefe 
Wilde Beafts, what profit could Tygers, Lions, Wolves, Bears, and the like 
advantage the Tranfporter ? And how came Serpents, Adders, and other Re- 
ptiles, thither over the Ocean, that with no Art whatfoever can be made 
tame ? Were the fmall VefTels juft laden with fuch terrible Creatures, when 
againft their wills, they were by Storm driven on a new Coaft ? By thefe im- 
poffibilities we may cafily judge, ,that the Americans came thither by Land, 
and no other way, but how, and upon what occafion muft be our next 
enquiry. 

Sect. II. 



Adv. Jtvin. !• 2. 



Two reafons wherefore 
the people removi from 
their Countreys. 



\ ^ J-Jlftories generally gives us onely two accounts, Why People remov'd 
from one Countrey to another, either not, or thinly inhabited . whe= 
ther driven by force, or of their own accord, fo to unburthen and give'eafe to 
their too Plethorick Countreys. 

Thus the banifli'd Japanners forfook their Native Countrey, and fetled them, 
felves in a defolate Soyl, fince a flourifhing Empire, mining with Riches, and 
Crown'd with ftately Cities: So the Zatavians took pofleffion of the uninhabi- 
ted Ifle, lying between the <%byne, and the Wael , being driven out of Hef„ by 
Civil-Wars , and preferv'd the memory of the place, from whence they had 
their Original on the utmoft Point of the Ifland , in the Villages of Cattenwyck- 
for the Hejfens formerly went by the name of Cam • others that remov'd did 
not onely fall upon their Neighbors, but made a way by force of Arms, cho- 
iing their Habitations under a temperate Climate , and in a fruitful Soyl. Af- 
ter which manner the Franks enter'd Gaul, and afterwards the Hermans fet upon 
France . fo that the Conquer'd Countreys, have ever fince from the Conque- 
rors been call'd France and Normandy : But although it cannot punctually be 
faid, how the Inhabitants of America remov'd , yet it is without contradiaion 
b y*:2Zl£Z U ^ tha£ the y firft found an <mpty Countrey. The Opinions which they have 
H«.^b« tmytei0% . themfelves concerning it, are full of idle Fancies . Firft, they oueftmn their 
Original from the Floud, which is fo well rooted in the memory of all Nati- 
ons, that the blindeft and moft ignorant know fomething of it, though de- 
formedly alter'd and vary'd , tack'd up with additional fabulous Stories, the 
truth it felf known onely to us, but to all others loft in Oblivion, 

Who 



m 



ProtnttbiM and Xeab are 
the fame, j 



Chap. II. AMERICA. 17 

Who hath not heard of Deucalion's Flood, how his Wife Tyrrba and he only 
efcap'd in a little Boat, and (as 'tis Fabl'd) landing on a Mountain, from 
thence Peopled the World again, by throwing Stones backwards over their 
Heads ? Something of this feems to hint the true Story of Noah, his Wife^ 
and Children, from whom the defolated World was replenifh'd. 

The fame they relate of Trometbeus, concerning whom, thus T>iodorus Sicu* 
Ins : " They fay that the Kyle breaking through his Dams, and over-flowing 
" his Banks, drown'd all Egypt, efpecially that part where Trometbeus Rul'd^ 
" where all the Inhabitants were fwallow'd by the Deluge. None can ima- 
gine but that Diodorus by this makes mention of a particular Flood,andnot the 
general one in Noah's time 5 for as the Greeks afcrib'd all things to their Heroes, 
fo the Egyptians in like manner did the fame to theirs : Therefore they have of 
the general Flood,made a particular one in Egypt ^houoh perhaps it never was : 
So that what is Fabled of Trometbeus, is nothing but a Part of the Univerfal 
Deluge 5 which the Name Trometbeus proves, becaufe it fignifies, Sprung from 
UeaVetiy&nd is the fame with Zvjtefc, whom they hold to be the firft Father of all 
Mankind fincc the Flood, born of, or regenerated from his Wife Jfia 5 and Afia 
fignifies Earth, or T/;e Mother of all things ; and fo eipoufing 2>{oah, being fprung 
from God, to Ararat, from whence defcended the Generations of Mankind, 
and by degrees fpread over the whole furface of the Earth. 

The Cbinefes,EaJl*Indians,Japanners, and other People of Aft a and Africa, have 
alfo fome knowledge of a very ancient Flood ; but hood-wink't under many 
idle Fancies, not unlike that which the Americans relate, from whom feveral 
Learned Perfons find no oblcure Confe/fions of the Deluge, which thus my- a«>,i.i.c x$; 
ftically they have wrapp'd up, That one Viracocha came out of the great Lake 
Titicaca, and fetled his Refidence upon Tiaguanaco, where yet remain the Ruines 
of ancient Walls, built after a wonderful manner : At length removing from 
Ttaguanaco to Cufco, he began to multiply the Generation of Mankind. They 
fliew in the foremention'd Lake a fmall Ifland, under which, the Americans fay •, Strange Opinion of the 
the Sun fav'd himfelf from the Flood j wherefore in ancient Times they fu- HooT* 
perftitioufly obferv'd that place, heightning their Bloody Sacrifices with Hu- 
mane Slaughter. Others relate, That fix Perfons leap'd through a Hole out 
of a Window, from whence all Men were fince Extracted 5 and from that new 
Increafe, the place (after the Inhabitants of the Old World were all drown'd) 
got the Denomination of TacariTampo 5 and therefore they hold the Tampo's to 
be the moft ancient Families : From hence Mangocapam derived, being the Pri- 
mogenitor of the Yttca's or Kings • from whom fprung two Generations >Flanoh 
C«^co,and Urim Cu^co. They tell us alfo,That their T?ica's,wi.en they make W r ar 
upon any People, fay that the occafion, as they pretend, was, becaule all Ter- 
ritories are Tributary to them juftly, from whom they were deriv'd and rc- 
ftor'd, being the firft Planters of the New World • and withal, That the true 
Religion was declar'd to them from Heaven. 

This Relation, though mix'd with Fables, (hews (but very darkly) that 
they have fome knowledge of the Flood : For who are thofe fix elie that *ttuw©ftfc£5turc 
leap'd out of a Window to replenifh the Generations of Mankind, but Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet, with their Wives > 

The Americans can give but a little better Account of their firft Original • 
and indeed it is no wonder, becauie for want of Books they can relate ndthintf 
certain, but only what they have R?giftred in their ufual Quipocamagos, which 
is not above four hundred years old. Acofla asking what Original they judg'd 

D . they 



On'gi ul o( the Ameritan 
Kingi a and their Cuiioat. 



Americans Flood 



i8 



*A M ET^I C J. 



Chap. II. 



cxtra&ed. 



Bmmans Opinion. they were of, and from what Countrey and People derived ? receiv'd no : other 
Anfwer, but that America only was their native Countrey, and that they were 
deriv'd from no other elfewhere. But though the Peruvians are of this Opi* 

Andaiforhc Mexicans, nion, yet the Mexicans are of another mind.giving the Spaniards & far better Ac- 

of th.ir Original. 7 J ? ° *> \ 

count when nrit they came thither, wherein we muft a little deviate, vi^. How 
they were rcmov'd from fome other place, as Robert Comt&us relates , who 
with many Learned and feemingly true Arguments affirms, That the Original 
of the Americans muft be fought for either among the Phenicians >Sydonians Syrians , 
Lb. T .ca t 7. 7 . or Carthaginians, being indeed all one People. Herodotus faith thus of the Phen'u 

dans, " They liv'd formerly, according to their own Relation, along the Shore 
" of thc7(ed*Sea i from whence removing, they planted the Sea-Coaft of the 
*' Syrians- Fejlus Avienus the Latin Poet agrees with this Opinion,wherehe faith, 

On the Phenicians Coajis the Ocean beats, 

Who through the Red-Sea Sailing, changd their Seats. 

They were the firjl that Venturd through the Seas, 

And freighted Ships with richer Merchandise : 

Fair or foul Weather, Tiny without controuk ! 

Sought Foreign Trade , directed by the Pole. 

original and Habitati- Ariftotle from a Greek Word calls them Phenicians. from their being red or 

ons of the Phenictans >°f |f "^ 1 1 1 1 r 

whom, accordingtoftrerai bloody with the. Slaughter of all Strangers that Landed on their Coaft ♦ but 

Learned, the A mericans are 1 1 r • 1 1 1 111 ' 

rather, and fo indeed they are call' a Phenicians, or Erythreans, from Efau, or 
Edom, from whom they are deriv'd; for thefe two Words, or Denominations, 
iignifie in Greek , <%ed • the two laft , the like in Hebrew. Phenix him* 
felf firft planted all the Countrey lying between the River Eleutherus, and 
the Egyptian City Pelujium ; and afterwards Vamiata , wafh'd by the Medi* 
terrane : But fince, thefe Boundaries are altered, on the North, by Judea . Weft- 
ward, by the Mediterrane ; Southerly, by Egypt -, and towards the Eaft, by the 
Dcfart jirabia. 

The chiefeft Cities are Ptolemau, otherwifc call'd Aeon, Sidon, Arad, Great Ca* 
m, Sarepta, 'Biblis, Bothris, Berithus, and their Princefs Tyre, formerly fcituate in 
an Ifle, but fince joyn'd to the Main-Land by Alexander the Great. 

None can difown, but that the Phenicians have every where been Admirals 
of the Sea ; fo that they were formidable to the greateft Princes. When the 
Perfian King Qambyfes came with a vaft Army againft the Carthaginians, he was 
fore'd to give over his Deilgn, becaufe the Phenicians refused to help him with 
their Fleet, being allied to, and the City founded by them : But they not only 
sahftinigtmh*. built Carthage , which ftrove with %ome to be the Emprefs of the World,but alfo 
the famous. Cities Leptis, Utica, Hippo, and Adrumetum in Africa, with Cadt^znd 
Tarteffm in Spain . nay, they fent Plantations of People into the Heart of Iberia 
and Lybia. It will not be amifs to add Q^Curtim his Relation, who tells us, 
p/JSf 1P ° wer9fthe " Wherc-cvcr the Phenicians came with their Fleets, Landing their Men, they 
" fubdu'd whole Countreys, and by that means Jfpread their Colonies over the 
" known World ; Carthage in Africa, Thebes in Boetta, and CWi^near the Weflern 
" Ocean. Ari/lotle relates, " That they made fuch rich Returns of their Mer- 
" chandize, and chiefly of their Oyl, in Spain, that their Anchors, Pins, and 
a all Iron Materials belonging to a Ship, in (lead of that Metal, were Silver. 

But to return to our Difcourfe, and difprovc the former Teftimony, That 
the Phenicians found America. The formention'd Comtek* faith thus ; ff None 



Arafat, lib. 1. 



a 



cm 



Chap. II. 



A M E %^l C A. 



i? 



Is contradicted. 



Lib. 3. Gtofr, 

fUmmiJh IJt*ndf. 



I 



ic can juftly doubt, but that fince the Themctans took the Command of the Sea Teffimonies that the a- 

t, r 1 fT>l /• L 1 • > 1 1 • ^\ 1 mtncam are denv'i from 

" from the [ l\i)Qdians, they more and more increas d their Fleets, and growina x**i**ici»w. 

< l experter in Navigation, parting the Gibraltar Northward, became Matters of 

a Cadi^znd ftill prepar'd new Fleets,which fearching beyond Atlas Southward, 

iC difcovcr'd the Coafts of .Africa, and the adjacent Iflcs, driving a great Trade 

" to the Canaries, and to thole which lay fcatter'd along Capede Verd, formerly 

u call'd the Gorgades. This way of Trade alfo was not unknown to the Greeks, 

"Iberians, and other People- but after the fbenicwis affum'd it wholly to 

" themfelves, without any refpeft or difference of Countreys, they funk all 

" whomfoever they could catch. Curtius further adds, faying, " I believe that Krft Teftimony. 

u the Thcnicians, failing into the Main Ocean, have difcover'd unknown Coun« 

" treys. And which are thofe r Not the Gorgades,ot Canary Jjles . for thofe were 

fufficiently known before^ but a Main Land, far beyond. But though the Tbeni- 

cians were mod expert, yet not skilful enough to make out fuch Difcoveries. 

They indeed were the firft that before any other fail'd out of the Mid-land 

Sea j nay,they ventur'd a good way into the main Ocean, beyond the Straights 

of Gibraltar, or the Herculean Miliars : But how far ? Not to the Gorgades, above 

half way betwixt Spain and America ; but to the Caftitcrides, or Flemifb Iflands, 

which to the number of nine lie in fight of Spain. Strabo affirms this Truth, 

faying, ic The Cajfiterides are ten, lying in order clofe by one another: One 

ci remains uninhabited - y on the reft live a fwarthy People. This way the 

Thenicians fail'd firft, when they were in queft for Trade, from Cadif. And 

though he reckons ten, there are indeed but nine, Yt^. St. Mcbael, St. Mary, St. 

George, Tercera, de fico, or Tenariff, fo call'd from the Mountain which vomits 

Fire, Fayal,Las Flores,Vel Cuerto, and Gratiofa. Moreover,the fame Strabo relates, tf*. 17. 

"That the Carthaginians did not throw overboard the Traders on the remote 

" Gorgades, but thofe efpecially that came from Sardinia or Cadi^. 

Mean while, we cannot deny, but that the Gorgades that lye before Cape de 
Verd were frequented by the Carthaginians, long before the Birth of our Savior-, 
but with fo much admiration , that Hanno their Captain in that Expedition was 
lifted amongftthe number of their Heroes, hapning thus : The Carthaginians 
failing for Cadi^, to aflift the fhenicians againft the Spaniards, made that the Seat 
of War, which foon drew on a greater Defign - for Hamilco and Hanno being 
impowr'd by the Senate at Carthage, manag'd the War in Spain. Both of them 
were ambitious to difcover new Countreys. Hamilco fail'd along the Coaft of 
Spain and Gaule, reaching to Batarvia. Hanno fteer'd Southerly, carrying thirty Very remarkable vo y - 
thoufand Men of all Trades in his Fleet, purpofing to build a new City in &**», *io"°\L c cZa of 
fome place or other, and got beyond the Promontory AmpeluJJum, now call'd 
Cabo Spatil ; the River Ziloa, which waflicth the City Ar^iUa ; and the Stream 
Lix, now hujfo, where the Poets place the Gardens of the Hefperides, in the cu- 
ftody of a waking Dragon : From thence proceeding on his Voyage, he came 
to an Anchor in the Mouth of the River Subur, at this day call'd Subu ; and 
afterwards before the City Sola, now call'd Salle, at that time made very dan- 
gerous by the voracious Beads in the neighboring Woods : At laft the Fleet 
reach'd the Foot of the leffer Atlas, which ends at the Point Chaunaria, by the 
Modern Navigators call'd Cabo Now, becaufe it was judg'd, that none could 
fcape with Life, that durft adventure to fteer beyond Chaunaria ; yet Hanno 
fail'd between Talma, one of the Canary-IJlands, and the Promontory HZojadoris, 
towards the pointed Coaft call'd then Cornu Hefperium, but now Qape Verd, in 
the River Jfama, by Caftaldus call'd Omirabi : Here he found horrible Crocco- 

• D % diles, 



Salt-IJlands how long 
known. 

Joan. Mariana de Rtb. 
Htjpa*. lib. 1 . cap. 10. 



• 



zo 



!i 



Strange \iCiM. 






Baboons to be Men. 




A M E%J C A. Chap. II. 

diles,and Hippopotami or Sea-Horfes. Atfama is held to flow from the fame Foun- 
' tain whence the Nj/e hath its Original. In this Latitude Hanno defcried thofe 
Iflands which he call'd Gorgones (from the three deform'd Sifters Medufa, Stht* 
nio t znAEur } ak, whofe Heads were Periwig'd with curl'd Serpents) becauie 
they found as illfavor'd Women on thefe Ifiands,which at this day the Hollanders 
call the Salt-Jjlands 5 amongft which, the chiefeft is St. Jago, a Colony of The 
Tortuguefe . but the Mountains oppofitc to the Gorgones, on the main Coaft of 
Jfrica, rifmg aloft with fpiring tops near the River Mafitbolus, Hanno call'd the 
Chariots of the Gods, now nam'd Sierra Liona, lying in eight Degrees Northern La- 
titude. When Hanno and his Armado,either provok'd by an undaunted Courage, 
or covetous of Fame, if they proceeded in their fo wonderful Adventure,went 
forward, where they reported, that they faw Rivers of Fire falling into the 
Ocean, the Countrey all about burning, and the tops of the Mountains dazle- 
ing their Eyes with continual Flaflies of Lightning, intermixed with terrible 
Thunder ; adding further, That the Natives all the Summer flielter'd them- 
felvesfrom the exceiTive Heat, in Caves under Ground 5 and coming forth in 
the night, run abroad with lighted Torches over their Ground, fo gathering 
in their Harveft, and Officiating all other Affairs of Husbandry : Yet Hanno no 
ways daunted at fuch ftrange Sights, fail'd from Sierra Liona Southerly to the 
jEquinox, whertht difcover'd an Ifland not far from the^/nc^Coaft,inhabited 
^ And™ beikvd by a rough and hairy People, to take fome of whom,he us'd all poflible means, 
yet could not ; onely two Women, being incompafs'd by Soldiers, were ta- 
ken, and carried aboard . but being Very falvage, and barbaroufly wild, could 
not be tamed, or brought to any Complacency; fo they kill'd them,and carried 
their ftuffd-up Skins to Carthage, where they were a long time gaz'd upon with 
great admiration. 

This Ifland which Hanno then found, can be no other but that which we 
call St. Thomas, and hath a very unhealthy Air for Strangers, but elfe very 
fruitful, and abounding with Sugar=Canes ; and the hairy People which he 
makes mention of, were <Babeons, or Baboons, which Africa in this place breeds 
large, to the amazement of the Beholders, in great abundance 5 becaufe 
thofe deform'd Monfters, more than any other Beaft whatfoever, reprefent 

Humane fliape. 

Here Hanno ftopp'd his Voyage, being hindred from going further for want 
of Provifion. Five years heTpent in this Expedition, before he Anchor'd 
again at Cadi%, from whence not long after he fteer'd to his Native Countrey 
Qarthaoe, where he was receiv'd with no lefs Wonder than State,infomuch that 
none before or after' him ever gain'd greater Honor, feeming to oblige his 
Countrey with the hopes of future Profits from thefe new difcover'd Regi- 
ons : Nay, he receiv'd a Name, and was plac'd amongft their Gods in the 
Temples, which he being ambitious of, promoted after a ftrange manner, 
teaching feveral Birds to cry, The great God Hanno } which when they could 
{peak perfeft, they were let fly in the Air, where to the admiration af all Peo. 
pie, they every where repeated their well-taught LeiTori. 

This the moll remarkable Voyage which hapned in the time of the Anci- 
ents, confidering they wanted feveral Mathematical Inftruments belonging to 
Navigation, and efpecially the itfe of the Compafs 5 and alfo confidering the 
length of the Voyage to Sierra Uona > whither never any durft venture before : 
Nay, in fo many Ages after Hanno, the fartioufeft Navigators which were fct 
out by the King of Tortugat, ftair'd a long time to cut their PaiTage through the 

JJcjuinotlial 



TH; Ifland St. 77>tm.is. 



H*uho\ Return. 



Is for his Voyage plac'd 
amount the G^ds. 



A M E%JL C A. 



21 



Chap. II. 

jEquinoctiaULine • however in long Procefs of time, divers Experiments vvere 
made, which have now Co much improv'd the Arc of Navigation. 

Hanno's Voyage was four hundred years before the Birth of our Savior < Tenimony that Amnic* 
therefore if none have been further than Homo, until the time the Tortuguefe "^^ **; 
fail'd beyond Cape de Bona Efperan^a, how could America be difcover'd by Sea? 
How did they fteer from the Salt-ljlands, or St. Thomas, out of fight of Land, 
through the Main Ocean, to an unknown World ? Hanno himfelf, who was the 
ftouteft of all Ancient Navigators, not only crept along the African Coaft, 
which made him fpend fo much time j but not daring to crofs over thofc wide 
fpreading Bays he found, left not his hold of the Shore, and meafur'd and 
fearch'd every winding Inlet and Creek : And if he found a New World, why 
was it not known ? The more, becaufe his Ambition carry'd him on to get a 
Name and Reputation by fuch Naval Difcoverics. And how true the Relati- 
on of this Expedition is, Pliny tells us, faying, The Journal-Books were then 
to be feen which Hanno writ in that his African Expedition : Though many of 
the Greeks, and alio of our Moderns, following Hanno, have found feveral 
things contrary to his Obfervations, wherein he makes mention of feveral i 
Cities built by him, which none ever fince heard of, or any have fccti, neither 
is there the leaft Marks of their Ruines to be found. 

This large Relation ferves for nothing elfe, but to fliew that they feekin 
vain herein to give the Honor of the Difcovery of America to the Ancients ♦ 
And as little do thofe Teftimonies fignifie that are taken out of Diodorm Sicu* 
Im, Pliny, Pomponius Mela, and JElian. It will be worth our time to hear every 
one of them particularly. 

Firft, Diodorus faith, * Beyond Lybia, in the Ocean, lies a very great ^?; ft 7 ^ ony; ^ 
" Ifland, feveral days failing in Circumference, having a very fruitful Soil,and Zml^pZicZl^ 
" pleafant Meadows, diftinguifh'd by Hills, and moiftned by Navigable Ri* 
" vers, unknown in Ancient Times, becaufe it feems to be feparatcd from the 
"other World, and was thus found: The Pbenicians failing along the Lybian 
" Coaft, were feveral days and nights tofs'd with perpetual Tempefts, and at 
€c laft driven to theforemention'd Ifland, where Anchoring, and obferving the 
" pleafant Sckuation thereof, made it known to their Magiftrates. 

But how comes this namelefs Ifland to be America ? What Man would take i"©ntra<uaej. 
that for an Ifland, which far exceeds the main Continent of Afia ? And have 
the Pbenicians afcrib'd the finding of this New World to any i Whence then 
proceeds fuch great filence amongft all the Ancient Writers of a whole World, 
who otherwife us'd to give Denominations to the leaft remote Village, or 
Mountain, or River ? 

Winy fpeaks after the fame manner, faying, " The Writers make mention, 
tC that Adas rifes out of the middle of the Sands,with a Shrubby and Bufliy top 
<c towards the Sky, on the Shore of the Ocean to which he gives his Denomi- 
"nation . That it is full of Woods, and water'd by feveral Fountains on that 
cc fide towards Africa, by which means it bears all manner bf Fruit. In the 
" Day-time none of the Inhabitants appear, all things being in filence, as in 
<c the middle of a Dcfart . the Approacher is ftruck with fudden amazement. 
<c And befidesits exceffive high Crown, reaching above the Clouds,and neigh- 
u boring, as they fay, the Circle of the Moon^ appears in the Night as if it 
" were all in a Flame, refounding far and near with Pipes,Trumpets,and Cymv 
li bals ; and the Journey up thither, very long and dangerous^ 

I cannot underftand that Pliny can mean America by thisy becaufe himfelf, in 

the 



Iii.f. cap. i. 



" 



U A M E %^I C A. Chap. II. 

the firft Divifion of his Fifth Book, makes his beginning with the Defcripti- 
on of Africa : And as to what further concerns the ftrange Relation and dan- 
ger thereof, is a little before related in Hanno's Voyage ; and it is but a flight 
Argument to prove it America, becaufe it feems to refound with thofe forts of 
Inftruments which the Americans were obferv'd to ufe when difcover'd. 

tihtrtff 4. Pompom m Mela being the third, hath no greater Arguments than the former. 

strange Men. « We hear (fays he) that utmoft People towards the Weft, beiifg the Atlanticans y 

a are rather half Beafts than Men, cloven-footed, without Heads, their Faces 
i€ upon their Breads, and naked, with one great Foot, like Satyrs or Goblins, 
u which range up and down, without any Artificial Shelters or Houfes. 

ub. h ca P . 18. Laftly , /Elian feems to fay fomething, when he fets down the Difcourfe be- 

D.fcourfe between Mi- twee n JMidas and Silenus, out of Tbeopompws, where Silenm relates, " That Eu* 

its and SiUaus concerning n 1 11 n 1 J 1 - 

thc unknown World. << rope,J[ia, and Lybia are Iilands; and that a vaft Countrcy lyes beyond this 
u his tripple-divided World, mighty Populous, and abounding with all other 
" Living Creatures, as big again as ours, and living twice as long : That they 
" are wondrous rich 5 their Religions, Laws, and Cuftoms, founded upon 
" another Morality and Reafon, quite different from ours. They boaft efpe- 
cc daily of two great Cities, Macbimus and Eufebes ; the Inhabitants of the firft 
"maintaining themfelves by driving altogether a Trade of War, muttering 
" up, and filling their numerous Regiments with feveral valiant Nations. The 
"Lifted Citizens amount in their Mufter-Rolls, all bred to Soldiery, to two 
€i Millions, of whom few but fcorn either dying bravely by Wounds received 
" With Flint*edg'd Laths, and Staves, in ftcad of Spears, pointed with Stones, 
" not knowing the ufe of Iron or Steel, but fo ovcr-ftock'd with Gold and 
" Silver, that they account it a Drug of lefs Value than our bafeft Metal. 
" Some Years fince they march'd into our World, a hundred thoufand ftrong, 
" as far as the Hyperborean Mountains, where being informed, that all the Na* 
" tions of our World, compared with them, liv'd in a poor and defpicable 
" condition 5 as not thinking them worth their Conqucft, they return'd. But 

the fecond City Eufebes, deals altogether in Peace, and its Citizens are not ra* 
pacious, but exercife Juftice, fo much affecting Morality and Divine Wor- 
" fhip ? that they conquer Heaven by their Piety and Meeknefs ? and the Gods 
u themfelves are pleas'd to defcend, and advife with them concerning their 
" Celeftial Affairs. 

Who obferves not this to be a Poetical Relation, (hewing how much better 
the Acquirements of Peace are, than thofe of War • the one conquering only 
Men, the other, the Gods } "Nor can more be taken out of JElians Difcourfe, 
but that the Ancients believ'd there was another Habitable World to be our 
Antipodes. 

Thus far hath been difputed concerning the Original of the Americans ,whoCc 

Plantations from Tyre or Carthage by Sea, are found altogether invalid : Yet 

inquiries Aether the we will fearch a little further, to fee whether the People Analogize, either in 

Conftitutions of the hhe- ' l 

nicians agree with the a- their Religion, Policy, Occonomv, or Cuftoms. 

mcricans. & J • 1 

It is certain, that the ancient Tbenicians liv'd in Tents, and fometimes ex* 
chang'd eaten*up Paftures for frelh, which the Americans to this day obferve j 
by which it might appear, that they are of a <Pbenician Extract. But why not 
as well derived from J>{umidia i Tartary y or the ancient Patriarchs, who all liv'd 
fuch an unfettl'd wandering Life I Befides,the'?/;f«/a^/j had a long time given 
over Paftoral Bufinefs, for Maritime Affairs of greater confequence, not only 
Merchandizing through all the World, but fending great Colonies in Ships to 

new 



C( 



€C 



Chap. II. 



A M E%I C A. 



M 



new Plantations : And moreover, the Americans could not fo ftrangely degene* 
rate from their Anceftors, but would have built great Cities like them; of 
which many were found in Tbeniaa, but none of Antiquity in America. 

As to their Religion, if it agreed with the Tbenicians, it was the fame that all Asal{b bu & their kefi. 
the World profefs'd at that time, and therefore may as well be extracted from 8UWU ' 
any other, as them: 'Tis true, we find them inclind to Sorcery, and dealing 
with Evil Spirits, as the Tbenicians, in which they were not only guilty, but all 
other Nations at that time. 

Nav,why not as well tranfported out of .Alia or E«rope,where were formerly The Known woru for- 

i i oh i - * r i A3 merlyfuliuf Witches. 

many the like Tamperers,and thole, that dealt in fuch Diabolical Sciences? And 

why not from Salmantica, where, as Laurent i m Ananias relates, Magick-Arts d< xm. Daman. 1. 3 . 

were publickly taught, and 'they commene'd Doctors, and took their Degrees 

according to their Learning ? The Devil alfo hath publick Worfhip amongft 

the Americans, and fo he had with the Thenicians : yet not only they, but the 

whole World had dedicated Temples to him. Here began Humane and Infer- L*e**.wt>.i. 

nal Sacrifices, fuppofing that Evil Spirits were delighted, and fo feafted with 

the Steam of Humane Offerings, whofe fweetnefs made them milder, and fo 

intoxicating, lull'd them into lefs mifchief. 

How famous is Zoroafter, and the whole School of the Eaftern Magicians ? Devii-whip formerly 

* ' •* O us'd in all the World, and 

In Mofes's time this Wickednefs had already took place: Nor can it be deny'd nowbythe^mwww. 
but that the Tbenicians carry'd their Idols in their Ships, as Herodotus teftifies, - idols in ships. 
faying , u The Image of Vulcan much refembies the (pbenicians Tatacoioi, which 
" they plac'd on the Fore-caftle of their Ships. 

In like manner, the Americans when they go to Sea, carry their Idols with 
them ; and the Ships took Name from the Image, which was either painted 
or carv'd on the Stern, or plac'd elfewhere upon the Deck. 

The fame Cuftom the Cbinefes obferve to this prefent i Francis Xaverius re- 
lates, a That he fail'd in a Cbinefe Veflel from Goa to Japan, which bore an 
<c Idol in its Stern , before which the Matter lighted Candles , perfum'd it 
u with Aloe-wood, and offered Birds and other Food , inquiring of it the 
" Event of his Voyage. Sometimes he judg'd from the Statues immovable 
€i Looks, that it Would fallout fuccefsfully - y and other times, not. 

Laftly, Torpbyrins relates, ic That the Tbenicians upon any great Exigency, as p « **/»'»«*' ftf»«M.*3 
" War, excefllve Heat, or Mortal Diftempers, by order feleeted one of the 
cc mod comely and beautiful of their Children, to be orTer'd up to Saturn. And 
Eujebim faith alfo out of Porphyrin, cc That Saturn, whom the Vbenkians call &&*. *«f%ir: 
u Jfrael, the Learned VoBms and Hugo Grotius read II, or El (one of the ten 
u Names of God in Hebrew) which they alfo give to the Planet Saturn, who 
" when he Reign'd in Pbenicia, having one only Son born by the Nymph Ano* 
" £m, and was in danger to lofe his Kingdom, being worftcd in an unlucky 
" War, he drelVd him in Royal Robes, and placing him on an Altar built for 
u that purpofe, facriftVd him with his own Hands. 

And although fuch like cruel Oblations are us'd in America, mult it therefore Men and children ufed 
follow, that they are derived from the Thenic'tans, when feveral other People are «** and other h^k." 
guilty of. the fame ? Nay, there is fcarce one Countrey, which hath not at 
fome time or other perform'd tuch inhumane A&s, feeming to them Zeal in 
their Religion 5 for the mod: eminent of the Heathens fcrupled not at it, which 
certainly are held to be the fPerfians, Greeks, and <I{pmans . and yet they were not 
abhorr'd, though committing Humane Slaughters. 

This holy Butchery and Religious Slaughter of Mankind began in 0{pme in 

the 



lilt, it S*prft\t. 



Xjr, Per fie. I. \. 



Lib.}.f<tl. 8 Gmzr. 



lit. U.Gey, 



H <JL ME%I C A. Chap. II. 

the Emperor Adrians Reign, fo continuing till the time of Tertullian, Latlanti- 
us, and Eufebius. The Greeta which inhabited the utmoft part of Italy, em- 
ploy'd themfelves daily in Sacrificing Strangers to Saturn, and fometimes one 
a^omt^ the facriH " another. But at laft this formal Cruelty became a ridiculous Cuftom . for the 
%omam by fevere Edicts ftri&ly forbad all fuch Humane Offerings: Yet that they 
might retain fomememory of their former Sacrifices, they order'd thirty Ima- 
ges to be made of Rufhes, which every year on the fifteenth of April, were by 
the %pman Priefts and Veftal Nuns, to be thrown from the Mtlyian Bridge into 
the Tyber. 

Moreover, Manethon relates, « That the Egyptians in Heliopolis us'd to offer 
three Men at once to Juno . which Cuftom was obferv'd till King Amafis or. 
der'd, That in ftead of Men,they fhould ferve her with Wax Candles. 

Amejlris y Queen to the famous Xerxes, caus'd twelve Men to be burn'd alive 
as an Oblation, to pacifie and oblige Tluto to maintain them, in their prefent 
Grandeur. 

Trocopius relates of the People about the Arabian Gulph, « That they often- 
€C times SacrifiYd Men to the Sun. 

u The Indians, faith Vomponius Mela, kill their neareft Relations and Parents, 
" before they decay by Sicknefs or Age, and judg'd it fit and moft Religious to 
" Feaftand Banquet themfelves with the Entrails of the (lain. 

The Albanians, zsStrabo relates, offer yearly one of their Priefts to the 
Moon. 

The fame Mela relates of the Tauri, That they us'd'to cut the Throats of 
Strangers, whenever they came near to the Place of their Sacrifice. 

The Egyptian Idol Typbon, as you may read in Manethon, was daily made red- 
hot, and living People put in, and broyl'd to death. 

But to pafs by feveral other People guilty of fuch bloody Idolatry, How 
did the Altars erected in the Woods in Gaul and Germany, for Taran, He/us, Teu* 
tates, and Woden, continually fmoke with the Blood of Humane Expiations ? 
Of which Cdfar faith thus in his Commentaries ; " The Gauls are a very Devout 
" and Superfluous Nation . and therefore when any were dangeroufly fick 
« or likely to be worfted in Battel, they vow'd to feaft their Gods that fav'cj 
"them with Humane Flefli, and if need were, would make themfelves a 
" thankful Sacrifice to thofe that helped them off in fuch an Exigence. Con- 
deeming thefe bloody Rites, they con fulted and imploy'd the Druydes, by 
" whofe advice they all believ'd that no Victim was fo acceptable to the 2fy- 
"mens, as pour'd-out Humane Blood, but efpecially that of Malefactors- 
" which Dainty if they 'could not procure, their Gods muft be treated with 
u the Lives of the Innocent. 

Laftly ,the Holy Scripture faith thus, When the %ing of Moab fa* that the Battel 
was too fore for lim, be took Tfiitb him feven hundred Men that drew Swords, to break 
through eyen to the Kjng of Edom . but they could not. W>en he took his eldejl Son, that 
Jlmdd have reigned in his Jle a d, and offered him for a Burnt- offering on the Wall. 

Thefe Teftimonies are fufficient WitnefTes, That the Ancient Heathens ex. 
prefs'd the height of their Devotion, and fury of mad Zeal, in fuch execrable 
Rites, as to this day the like is praftifed by the Indians, Chinefes, Japanners, and 
others: Wherefore it can no ways be a fufficient ground to prove, that the 
Americans are deriv'd from the neniaans, becaufe of their Humane Sacrifices 
for that they were ufual Cuftoms in all Places. 



Lit. z.capl' 



Bell. Call Cmm. 



tBji^.v^^y. 



Tfe< 



Chap. II. 



^AMERICA. 



ii 



I 



Is contradi&cd. 



Greek, and Hebrew agree 



Alfo the Helrew and l* 
tin. 



The third Proof they offer us, is borrow'd from the fimilitude and likenefs Third tcftimony. That 
of the (phenician and American Languages : Comtozus fets down forne Words, vi^. from X'p*«««««w! ri be- 
the fhenicians call'd a Mountain, Abila • Blood, £Jow 5 a Mother, ^wec/; . a aulct eirLan6Ua§eagrCM 
Maid, Hellotia ; Water, Hewi, and Jam : With the firft agrees the American Anth- 
/*. with the fecond, Holedonch ^ with the third, Mam ; with the fourth, HeU 
lotie> y with the fifth, Ame, andjW. But thofe that will thus corrupt the 
Words, may as well make the unfeemlieft Comparifons. it is certain, that the 
Thenicians and fome of the Americans call a Cup Afar, and Red Wine, Belafa . 
Bat does it therefore follow by this, that the one is extracted from the other i 
How many Names do fignifie all one, amongft People that never had any 
Converfation together ? This proceeds only from meer accident . Or elle if 
forrie Words of one, found like the fame Words us'd in a remote Countrey, 
and be of one fignification, muft they therefore be derived from one another > 
Then upon neceffity the Greeks , Latins , and Germans had their Original from the 
Hebrews, or the Latins from the Greeks, or the Germans from the Latins, or the 
Perfians from the Germans ; or, on the contrary, the laft owe their Extract to 
the firft; I willasaTeftimony, and to give you a Pattern, pick out a few 
from a greater number. 

How little difference is there in many Words between the Greek and 
Hebrew ? The Hebrews call a Church-Congregation Sanhedrim ,fthe Greeks 
Xwi^eAov ; the Greeks for I adVife y ufe 7r«0s» , the other HJlfi > the Hebrews call 
; Wife-men Zophei, the other xt<poi : And lefs difference there is between Sympho- 
niab and X^<powa, A welUfet Lejfon $ or Tfanterin and *<*£!$ &qv> A Spiritual Hymn: 
And who alfo will not find a near refemblance in the confonating of divers 
Latin and Hebrew Words ? For there is little difference betwixt Mefurah and 
Menfura y a Meafure . Shekar and Saccarus, a fweet Moijiure ; Levya and Le&m y a 
Lionefs, Sabbeca and Sambuca, a Chopping* board ; <Pefa and Tajfus, a Pace. 

Then ftarting over the Greek and Latin, the Teutonicks would likewife pro* 
duce many Words which have the fame found and fignification with the He- 
brew 5 as Chobel,a Qable 5 Ethmol and Etmael, Watching 5 Sothim and Sotten, Fools • the t^™ Nation* 
Hebrew Arets, is in Dutch, Aerde, or as we in Englijh,Eard Lands ; <Pbert and £W, a 
Horfe ; LeVyd/; and Leeulo,a Lion 5 SW and Scbadea, Damages ; i^//e and Kjijfen,m 
our Dialeft the very fame,/Q//e 5 SUf« and Schenken, agiVmg, whence we derive 
ouxEnglifr Sktnker, from ferving of Drink ; Bel and Beeld, an Image . for 2?/ 
properly fignifies Lord, perhaps becaufe the Images of Heroes or Lords were 
worfliipp'd by them, or elfe becaufe ]S[inus firft ere&ed an Image for his Fa- 
ther Belus, or Bel, to be worfliipp'd. 

It would make a large Volume it fclf, to reckon up the Confonancies of 
the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and their fcatterings among all Languages where 
ever their Empire fpread, the one being indeed borrowed from the other, as 
all Languages that deal or have any converge together : For not only the 
Words, with fome fmall Alterations of Letters, fignifie the fame in both Lan- 
guages ; but alfo without the leaft alteration. Both Greeks and Latins exprefs Gree^La ttHTotf&ics 
I do, by Ago - y the Number Eight, by Otlo • an Arm, by Brachium or Brachion, in ^m.mu,,, 
Bnglijh, Branches, and Braces ; 1 eat, by Edo ; a Cup, by <Phiale 3 . a Curtain, by Cor- c ' 5s6>7 ' 11 ' 
Una , or Qortine ; Merry, by Hilans, or Hxlaros ; a ratling TSioife or Sound, by Clango- y 
a Camel, by Camelus y or Camtlos 5 4 Z(wee, by Gmu y or Goww ; a Bowl or C/w//ce, by 
Ci/ix j * Afo«/e, by Af«J ; Deceit y by So/«*, or Dolos 5 a Hb«/*, by Domus y or 2)o- 
woj 5 I wry, by Fero, otfhero ; the Pronoun I, Ego . <* L/m, by Zeo, or A*W . 
F/*x, by Li/iaw, or Linon • <a Mother, by Mirer, or Afettr j now, by mkmc, or www ; 



Likewife the' Teuton, ck* 
the great Language of Ger- 
mnny, Briuin , the low- 



%6 



Phen'tctan and Amtrictt* 
Ttwgues have n*> iumlnudc 



Tn America one Tongue 
is not at all like the other. 






t 



AMERICA. Chap. II. 

theNi-ht, by Ho*, ™Khx. a<Rochfione, by fetra \ a Kichname, by Scomma, or 
Skomma , a 0«tf, by Scapba, or Sfeffe j a Treafure, by 3kfi**», or Tbejauros , 
Faffcr by«W- I t«««e, by r««o ; «. flbw, by Hom ; tk Evm«g, by FeJjf*- 
ra,otHefpera s and an innumerable many Words more, that are of one figmfi. 

cation in both. 

Now if there is not the hundredth part of the refemblance found between 
the Jmerkan and fhenician Tongues, as there is between the Hebrew, Greek, Lata, 
and Dutch, accprdingto the foremention'd Examples, which notwuhftanding 
cannot be obferv'd to bederiv'd from one another, what teftimony can there 
be in five or fix Words, which only have a few Letters that do not differ ? 
^.tJMU But fuppofe that the agreeing of the fhenician and American Tongues could 
•******^ ferve for a teftimony, that thefe laft People had their Original from the firft, 
then there remains another doubt, vi*. To know what Americans acknowledge 
the <Phenicians for their Fathers; becaule their Countrey is fo big, that it may 
almoft ftand in competition with all the other three parts of the Known 
World being divided by fo many Nations, which differ not only in their va. 
rious Cuftoms, but alfo in their feveral Languages, moft of them not having 
the leaft likenefs one with another : Nay, often times the Inhabitants of one 
Province differ fomuch in Dialed, that, according to fetrusde Cieca, the one 
cannot unSerftand the other. 

John de Laet obferves out of 9etpr Martyr, and other Writers concerning the 
Well Indies, That there are feveral Languages and ftrange Words fpoken among 
the divers Inhabitants of America-fox the Hurones call a Head Sionta- the Mexicans, 
T K o„tecontli. the Inhabitants of new-Hetberhnd , Anonfi- thdBraJiliansyAcanga-, 
the Jaos, Boppe : the Figures One, Two, Three, and Four, the Uurones tell thus, 
Efcate, Teni, Hachm, Dae , the Mexicans, Ce, Ome, lei, Hahuy , the Sankikanders, 
Cotte, Ny fTe, 2fccin, WyVe ■ the Brafilians, Oyepe, Mocoy, Mocafir, Oirundi- the jaos, 
TeT»yn, Tage, Terrewaw, Tagyne ■ the Natives of Hew-Netherland, Onfat, Tiggam, 
Affe Cayere. Moreover the Hurones call a Father Ayftan ■ the Mexicans, Tathlt } 
thtCanadenfers^otaovi; mNewNetherland,^™; in <Br a file, Tub a: And fo it 
is generally with all other Words, which agree not in the leaft one with the 
other • fo that every Territory hath not only a feveral Dialed, but m many 
Places' they ufe befides two, three, or more diftind Speeches, not relating ia 
the leaft one to another, in one Province, by which the People inhabiting 
Towns and Villages are diftinguiftYd. The Ifianders difcover'd by the Spain, 
ards and deftroy'd, have left few Words behind them , yet feter Martyr fets 
down fome of them, which were formerly us'd in Hifpaniola : They call'd 
Heaven Tures • a Houfe, <Boa ■ Gold, Cauni ,, a good Man, Tayno. It is worthy 
at****.*.*, of obfervation, that they pronounce no H in their Language but what 1S ipo- 
ken with a Vowel, and then give it a ftrong Afpiration, like thcAvarbling gut- 
tural y Chain of the Hebrews. 

Our laft and chiefeft Teftimony is Mofes, who fays thus in Genefis, Curfedbe 
Canaan, a Servant of Servants fhall he be unto his Brethren. Moreover he Jad, Btejfed 
he the Lord God o/Shem, and Canaan jhall he ha Servant : God fiall mlarge Ja- 
phet and he (hall dwell in the Tents of Shem . and Canaan (hall be his Servant. And 
in the next Chapter, Qanaan begat Sidon. Thefe Scriptures are explain'd as a 
i™™*. of the Teftimony of the Americans Extrad from the fbeniaans , which they ground on 
t^Z^*™** thefe following Reafons : The Vbemcians are Qanaans Succefiors from Sidon, 
who gave name to their chief City. Tubal the Iflueof^W, whole Tents 
God promis'd to enlarge, and that Canaan fhould be his Servant, planted Spam. 



Decad. 3. 



Gtn. v. i<;,x6 i i7. 



Chap, II. A M E %JL C A. 

The fbenicians, defendants from Sydon, (fay they) Peopled America . the Spani- 
ard* fprnng from Tubal, of Japhet, have fubje&ed the Americans, defcended from 
Sydon, of Canaan, wherein is fulfill'd that Prophecy of Mofes, That Canaan 
jbould be Servant to Japhet i but it feems a great miftake, fo to derive the Men- 
tions from Canaan, for they are Extracted from Shem, Heber, Abraham, and Efau, 
iirnam'd Edom, from his faying, Jdom, Adorn, when he ask'd of Jacob, That <l(ed, 
That %ed, becaufe he knew not how to call the prepared Pottage by its proper 
Name- And Edom fetling himfelf on Mount Seir, a part of the Stony Arabia, 
and on the Coaft of the %ed-Sea, gave denomination to it, becaufe that Sea 
was much frequented and Navigated by his Succeffors. . The Greeks call it £7* 
threum, from Erythros , who is the fame with Efau, and likewife fignifies <l(ed. 
Hereto is added , That Tbanix and Erythros have the fame fignification in the 
Greek ; So then, thefe Idumeans taking the name of <Phenicians, from the great <?/;*- 
nix, fpread themfelves far and near under mighty Kings, by Navigation in the 
<%ed-Sea, and from thence Planted feveral Coafts and Iflands, removing at laft 
to Syria. 

The feventh King of Edom, Mofes reckoneth to be $aal-banan, which name* 
by tranfpofing the Syllables, the famous Carthaginian General Hannibal bare. 
Moreover, it may eafily be demonftrated, that the Themcians Extracted from 
Heber, have formerly fpoke Hebrew , and fince Jrabick; for they dwelt before 
their removing, in the Stony.Arabia. St. Jerom faith, the <Punick Tongue agrees 
for the moft part with the Hebrew : And St. Jujlin tells us, that many, nay, moft 
of the Qirthaginian words are Hebrew. Elifa, Dido, the firft Foundrefs of Carthage 
proves this , for Elifa or Eliffah , with the Hebrews, denotes A Lamb of my God • 
and Dido, A Lover. But,who can find the lead likenefs, between the Hebrew or 
Arabick Tongue with the Americans* Laftly, Since the Tbenicians acknowledge 
EJau for a Father, what then concerns the Americans , the curfe of Canaan , fince 
they are no more Extracted from Canaan, than the fhenicians i Thus much con- 
cerning the Tbenicians. 

Some would derive the Americans from the Je^s 5 others , from the ten 
Tribes of i/J^e/, carry'd into captivity. The ground of which Opinions is, 
That the Je^s and Ifraelites were fcatter'd amongft all Nations • therefore they 
conclude, that America was alfo Peopled by them, the rather, becaufe the an- 
tient Jevs and Americans were of one Complexion , and went a like Habited, 
both going without Shooes, onely wearing Sandals, and an upper Coat over 
a (horter Linnen Veft. Both are humble, quick of apprehenfion, and obliging, 
yet Valiant : But it is certain, they cannot be like the Jews, becaufe the Ameru 
cans change their Habit, according as they live in cold or hot Countreys, and 
go not in the leaft like one another. 

Father hnmanuel relates, That he faw a (Brafiltan, not onely ftoutly make his 
party good againft three (Portugal Soldiers, but had it not been by meer chance, 
worfted them. 

Laftly, What Ceremonies of Religious Rites are obferv'd by the Americans, 
which are ufed in Judaifm ! The Jt»s indeed have tranfplanted their Circum- 
cifion amongft divers Eaftern People, and have they onely forgot the firft Ce- 
remony and fignal Badge of their Religion in America, which yet not onely 
they, but thofe Mahumetans and other Se&aries pundually obferve ? 

This makes evident their fcatterings about the Face of the Earth, but will 
not bring them to reach America. The Sacred Text fets forth a two-fold de- 
fcription ofthejW 5 The one before the Birth of our Saviour, when they 

E i liv'd 



*7 



Is contradicted.' 

franc. Burma*, in G«L 
J 5. 30. 



Phnkians dcriv'd from 
EJau. 



Gen. $6. j 9 . 



Com. in Jer. 1. 4. c". » <l 

InN.1s6.V0jrOriz.U9L 
lucj . 
Putiicl^ Tongue. 
Htbrew. 



If the Americans were de- 
riv'd from the Jtvps , or the 
ten Tribes of Ijratl. 



Is contradifod. 



Jem diftr ibutton. 



z8 



A M E K I C.A. 



Chap. II. 



i Pet. t. r: 
S align in Xotts *J Iff. t. 




JoJl 7 . ?y. 



iJe Iiolo.vmitatt, 



I 



■■" 



a Reg. 17. 5. 



44>4f>4*. 



I 









liv'd as ftrangcrs in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia y Ajia, and Bythinia. Jerufalem was 
their Metropolis, although others had their chief refidence in Babylon, and Alex* 
andria>, for there was an Afiatick and a European difperfion ; thole of Jfia had 
Babylon for their chief City, and us'd in their Synagogues the Chaldean Tranfla- 
tion of the Bible. The Europeans kept their Seat at Alexandria, where they had 
a Temple like that of jerufalem ; and whilft they employ'd themfelves in the 
Creek Verfion of the Holy Scripture , by the feventy two Interpreters , under 
<Ptolomeus Philadelphia , they were call'd Wandering Greeks : Therefore, certainly 
the Americans &tt not deriv'd from thefe Jews, and with as little reafon from 
thofe, which by Titus Vefpafian, after the deftruc"rion of Jerufalem were driven in- 
to feveral Countreys, for they were never permitted (that I may borrow the 
words of St. Cyprian) to fet forward one ftep, though but as Pilgrims, towards 
their Native Countrey, but ftrictly forbidden not to aflemble or meet toge- 
ther in any confiderable number, which would have been neccflary, if they in- 
tended to Plant a new World. 

A fmall feeming Tcftimony is added , being taken out of the fourth Book 
of Efdras , that the ten Tribes of Ifrael that were carry 'd away by Salmanaffar 
with their King Hofea to Ifyhalab, Habor, the River Go%an y and the Cities of the 
Medes y might be acknowledged for the firft Planters of America : Concerning 
Efd. Tj.40,'41, 4»,4*> which, Efdras faith thus, Tin ten Tribes brought over into another Countrey y confultei 
that thcyjhould forfake the multitude of the Heathens , and travel to a remoter Countrey, 
Tobere no Generation of Mankind bad ever liv'd before , there they "would maintain their 
Laws, which they had not obferVd in their Countrey : Whereupon they went thither tboroTfr 
the narrow entrances of the %iver Euphrates, for the Almighty flopt the Vains of the 9(i*- 
Ver, till they were pasl over ^ for thorow the Countrey was a ti>ay j)f a year and half s Journey: 
"wherefore that Tracl of Land is call'd Aflareth, then they liv'd there till the lasl time". 

But fince thefe Books of Efdras were not Written by a Prophet, either in the 
Htbrelo Tongue , or allow'd by tht Jews to be the Word of God, or any where 
taken notice of in the New Teflament 5 wherefore then is Jffareth mot t America 
than any other remoter Countrey ? 

St. Hierom (who certainly had a peculiar knowledge of the condition of the 
ten Tribes of Ifrael , becaufe he liv'd in Afia, and held Correfpondence with 
the Jews, that he might perfectly learri the Hebrew Tongue,) relates, " That 
" the ten Tribes (St.Hterome liv'd about the Year four hundred, under the Em- 
" peror Theodofius) underwent great flavery in the Cities of Medes and Terfians, 
fo that this ftrange Voyage to Affareth, which muft have happen'd long before 
St. Hierom's time, may be Recorded amongft the ot^her Legends of the 
Rabbies, concerning their Behemoth and Leviathan, who locked up the Souls of 
& 4 4 E 4 i i.^ 4WO,&,4 '* l! thofe that fleighted their. Laws, in Caves under ground, as Efdras. 
Antient condition of the And how little opportunity the Jfraelites had to remove fince his time, may 
appear by the horrible Deftruftion that was made for feveral Ages together in 
Perfiaznd Media . for although the ferjians became Matters again of the Realm, 
Conquer 'd by Alexander the Great, whilft Alexander's Succeffors invaded one 
another, yet they were continually in War, either againft the Romans y or elfe 
the Indians, and other Eaftern People $ nay, the Saracens wrefted the Scepter 
out of their hand, though but for a fmall time ; for foon after , breaking out 
into Factions amongft themfelves , Muchumet' Subitligenes, Imbrael's Son, efta- 
. blifli'd his Throne on their Ruines, and incourag'd by fuch fuccefs, Arm'd 
himfelf againft the Indians, and made ufe of the Turks affiftance, with which 
he fijbdu'd the Babylonian .Arabians : After which, the Turks, not without great 

Slaughter 



L. ^.inEvk' Of 1. 6~.in 
Jtrom. 



MtUliw Seittrm it Ktl, 
Tint. 



Chap. II. A M E K I C A. 19 

1 

{laughter fee the Verfian Crown on their Head , which immediately totter'd by 
bloudy Commotions ? for Tangrolifix being King of (Pcr/w, clafliing with his 
Brother Qutlumufes , made Terfia fwim in the Blood of a Civil- War , till at laft 
Zengis Qhan brought from Tartary fo great an Army, Anno 1200, that none durft 
ftay to make oppofition ; for the Turks forfook ferfia after a Conqueft of fix 
Ages, and made their own way for new Quarters into Cannama, Phrygia, and 
{Bithynia, whence they made fuch incurfions on the Greek Empire, that at laft 
they became fole Mafters thereof. Who cannot but eafily judge by this, how 
little opportunity the ten Tribes had, to be affemblcd together from remote 
Countreys, and to go long Journeys through untrack'd ways, and full of Ene- 
mies, to travel to America ? 

Immamel de Moraes, who had gotten peculiar knowledge of the Americans by ^"4^^^^ 
his long Converfation with them, judgeth that they are not deriv'd from one 
People, but from the Qtrthaginians and Jews, and that at feveral times, and pla- 
ces, they Landed in this New World 5 for the Carthaginians Sailing thither, 
found the Soyl fo fertile, that many forfook their Native Countrey to dwell 
there : Whereupon, it was" forbidden upon pain of Death, to fend no more 
thither , left if Carthage fliould be invaded by a foraign Enemy, it mould want 
People for a Home-defence-: From this occafion it.happen'd, that thofe that 
were already Trantported, became rude, and of a Salvage Difpofition, and 
fpreading their Families, planted the defolate Countreys in a ranging manner, 
without acknowledging any Supreme Head or Governor. 

Thus being fcatter'd up and down , every one invented to himfelf a new 
Language, which fliould neither agree with the Carthaginians, or any other : 
But this Opinion is before at large contradicted. 
m Moreover, Moraes endeavors to fliew, that the l Brafdians are of a Hebrew Ex- Cuftoms and iConftnuti- 

r i r <t -i x a ons ot the Era/haw nc fez 

tract, becauie that according to the example of the JeH>s, they might not Mar* vcraj. 
ry, but in their own Tribes ; they alfo call their Unkles, Fathers, and their 
Aunts, Mothers ; froth mourn for the Dead a Moneth together, and wear long 
Garments down to. their Ankles. But thefe Arguments feem to us of fmall 
confequence, for indeed the Srafilians differ in their Marriages from the Jews, 
for they not onely Marry in their own Tribes, but frequently commix with 
their Sifters, and Daughters, or other their neareft Relations. Moreover, the 
Je»s caird them Fathers, from whofe Loyns they fprang many Ages before, as 
well as their Unkles, which the Americans do not. 

The Mourning for the Dead hath been an old Cuftom, and is not obferv'd 
by many People, but the time of a Moneth was not fetled amongft them, but 
was obferv'd after a more unufual manner , feventy days, as in the Fields of 
Moab for Mofes , and elfewhere for the Patriarch Jacob. Laftly, all people 
know, that the Romans and Terfians girt themfelves about with long Clothes. 
Befides^ the Jews were ftri&ly bound to obferve Circumcifion, without which 
they were not accounted Je^>s y which the Brafilians ufe not, as neither their 
Language or Letters. How is it poffible , that in America they fliould at once 
have forgotten their Extract, Laws, Circumcifion, Language, and other Ce- 
> remonies, when the reft of tfeem obferv'd nothing more ftri&ly in all parts of 
the Earth ? 

The Learned Hugo Orotius, in his Enquiry after the original of the Jmericans, JXTi^t^o 
brings them witlrmany Circumftanccs to belong to Panama, fituate oppofite to K ™" ; ' 
the Northern Parts of Nortt^becaufe fomething of their Languages agrees,and 
the Way thither eafie and neareft to be fourtd ; for firft they traveled from Kon 




■ " 




Ifaac PoKianus Ac Bjtb. 
D*mcu» 




30 A M E %,l C A. Chap. II. 

way to YJland, over which the Norwegians Rul'd above a thoufand years fince 5 fo 
ftomYJland through Fric^land to Groenland, and from thence to EJlotiland, being 
a part of the Main Continent of Jmerica. 

From Frie^land fome Fifhers went thither (as he fays) two Centuries be- 
This Opinion is largely fore the Spaniards touched that Shore . which John de Laet contradicts. And in- 
deed what Reafons can be given, Why the Americans of the Straights, between 
(Panama and Nombre de ©ioj,lying Northerly, fhould have another original than 
thofe that live to the South, feeing the fame Straights are neither divided by 
Mountains nor Rivers ; and the Spaniards found no alteration in the Cuftoms 
and Languages betwixt them that liv'd above or below thefe Straights. And 
who will believe that Norway, which was but indifferently peopled, could af- 
ford fuch numerous Colonies as could plant the Northern' America, which far 
exceeds the South, and chiefly, when the great Iflands that lie near the Eaft 
and Weft, are added to it ? Moreover it is certain, (if the Yflander Angrim 'Jonas 
is to be credited) that fome Families fled out of Norway from their enraged 
King to YJland in the Year 874. which at that time was but meanly inhabited. 

Forty years before, he^o'vs the Juft put the YJlanders under the protection of 
Pope Gregory the fourth, who gave the Government of the YJland Church to 
An/gar Archbifhop of Hamburgh. But how comes it that there is not the leaft 
jfpark of Cbrijlianity found amongft the Northern Americans , if they are derived 
from the YJland Chrijlians ? and why did the YJlanders remove, to colder Coun- 
treys than Groenland and Frie%land y or their own native Soil, and for the moft 
part not inhabited ? 

Concerning Groenland and Frie^land, it is known by our Englijh Navigators, 
that they arc joy n/d together, and both to the Northern America - y but not with- 
out vaft Bays and Inlets, which betwixt Groenland and America are obftru&ed 
with floating Caftles of Ice } fo that the PafTage is very dangerous. And full 
as troublefom, if not altogether impoflible, would the Journey be by Land, 
becaufe the Earth lies fo thick cover'd with Ice and Snow, efpecially the Val- 
leys, that no Traveller is able to get through. 
The voyage of two z- Moreover, that which Grotius fays farther of the Fifhers which firft difco- 
ver'd EJlotiland, is grounded on the Relation of the Venetian Knights, Nicholas 
and Marcus Zeno, two Brothers. Anno 1380. Nicholas Zeno fuffer'd Shipwrack 
on the Friezjand Coaft ; Marcus informed thereof, fteer'd his Courfe thither; 
fourteen years they fpent before they came to EJlotiland : at laft they return'd 
again to Friezjand, where Nicholas died : But Marcus returning home publifh'd 
Math Man. zmmi: his Journal . wherein he relates, That EJlotiland is above a thoufand Leagues 
diftant from Frie^land, and was difcover'd by Fr/e^wt/Fifher-men that were 
driven thither by Storm. But he hath fet down many things that have little 
xefemblance of truth,according to what is fince found by credible Navigators, 
and therefore we cannot depend on Zenos Difcovery. 

John de tact accounts it a great miftake in Grows, that as a teftimony of the 
Americans original out of Norway ^ he compares their Languages. He reckons 
up fome Places to be Northward of Manama, which end their words with the 
fyllable Law in {lead of Land, becaufe the Spaniards have left out the -Letter 2) 
at the end thereof. It is certain, that in the Northern America lie Cimatlan, 
(joatian, Guefcolan, Artlan, Quaxutatlan, Icatlan, Japatlan, Cinacatian, Tenucliitlan, 
{omklan, Met^itlan, Gnatitlan, Necotitlan, Curcatatlan. Befides, that moft of thefe 
Names are not of Countreys, but of Towns and Villages, and therefore no 
ways fitting to have the termination of Land : and it is well known that ma- 



The Jmeritcau Tongue 
is nothing like the Nor- 
wegian. 



ny 



I 



I 



Cl.ap.JI. A M E%JC A. 31 

ny American words end with Lan, which fignifie nothing lefs than Land : for 
the Mexicans fay Tuertatitlan, which fignifies At the Gate below ; Ochachitlant^itlan, 
let lower ; Tehoxtitlan, (this City is alfo call'd from her Founder Mxh, Mexico) 
that is, ^efts on a <I(ock. Moreover, it may not without reafon feem ftrange to 
any, that the Northern Americans have remembred but three Cities out of all 
the Teutonick Tongue, V/^. Lan in ftead Land. 

Concerning Groenland, through which the Norwegians are thought to have yt f™ nUni whcn difco " 
travell'd to America, Lyfander witnefoth, That it was accidentally difcover'd strm. 3. A**!. Da»u: 
by one Eric %auder, Anno 987. and planted thirteen years after. 

Olaus, King of Norway, plac'd two Bifhops over the new Inhabitants, as Sub- 
ftitutes to the Archbifhop ofDrontben. For four Ages they Sail'd frequently to 
Groenland} but fince their King was impoverifli'd by War, they left off that 
Trade. 

We find not in any Author, that the Norwegians which liv'd along the Sea- 
Ihore, ever went to feek a Way over the inacceffible Snowy Mountains of 
Groenland, to this our New World. 

Befides, Grotius (lands for the Norwegians as Planters, upon teftimony of the 
Mexicans themfelves, who told the Spaniards, That their Anceftors which plant- 
ed there came from the ]S[orth, firft fetling themfelves on EJlotiland, where to 
this day there are not improbable proofs by feverai remarks, that they were a 
Norwegian Colony. 

In the Jmerican City Norumbega, live a People that fpeak the fame Language, J^i^g^^J 
and obferve the fame Cuftoms with the Mexicans. Amiricm * 

In this by*Corner are found alfo fome AlaMards, or Longobards, or Lombards, 
as they fay. Now the Spaniards call that New Mexico becaufe laft difcover'd, 
though indeed the old, cramm'd with People eight hundred years fince : for 
the Mexicans of New Mexico do not lie Co far Northerly, as to the North-weft ; 
for this SMexico lies in fight of California, which is believ'd to border on Tartary, 
or at lead feparated from it by a narrow Channel. But Norumbega, ( if ever 
fuch a Place was) muft, according to the Weft-Indian Records, have been fituate 
where a part of New France lies, now planted by the Englijh : between which 
and New Mexico lies an almoft unmeafurable vaft Tract of Land. Mean while 
here is not the leaft fign of this City Norumbega to be found : neither do the In- 
habitants dwell in Cities, but live in Tents, or moveable Villages, which 
change their Names as oft as their Governors. Moreover, the Norwegians could 
riot get to this Norumbega by Land through IJland and Groenland to EJlotiland, 
becaufe of the vaft Bays, and great Midland-Sea, difcover'd by the Englijb in 
their North-weftern Difcoveries ; fo that leaving Fftotilarid, it was altogether 
impoflible for them to come to Norumbega. 

Hereto may be added what the Mexicans fay of themfelves, who acknow- 
ledge, That travelling from the North, they did not find an uninhabited 
Countrey before them, but were fore'd to make their Way by a long and 
bloody War with the Ckichimecen, a falvage People, that knew neither Laws or c ium«4 

Religion. 

The People alfo dwelling oppofite to California, differ from the Cuftoms of 
the Mexicans, being divided into feverai People of contrary Conftitutions, and 
as different Languages. 

Grotius fcrues up his Arguments from the likenefs of the American Speech arid cuftoms and conftiw- 
Cuftoms with the Norwegian : for (fays he) there is little difference between ° 
Tagod and by -God, ox like God ? GuairazriA Waeijer, that hi J Fan- llama arid Lam, 

in 



V 



3* 



a M E % I C A. 



Chap. II. 



A defcription "of the 
Grange Beaft llama in 
ttru. 







itiEnglijb,Lamb . Teko and $ek,e, z!Brook or Qjvulet. Both Cuftoms and Con- 
ftitutions have alfo great refemblance. The Mexicans relate, that their Prede* 
ceflbrs onely follow'd Hunting . that they divided and reckon'd the Time, 
not by Days, but by Nights, and wafh'd their Children as foon as they were 
born in cold Water. 

They are fo much inclin'd to Gaming, that they venture their Liberty at it. 1 
Everyone is fatisfi'd with one Wife, except fome of the "Nobility, which of- 
tentimes have more. They throw up high Banks in feveral places to damm 
out the Sea ; believe the Immortality of the Soul } every one eats at a peculiar 
Table x $ moft of them go naked, onely cover their Pudenda with a Cloth . fome 
Sacrifice and eat Mans.flefli : all which, according toTacitut, Pliny, Lucan, and 
other (Roman Writers, was obferv'd by theantient Germans- from whom t'hofc 
that inhabit between the Norwegian Mountains were extracted. 

Thefe Allegations , to make the Norwegians to be the Parents of the Nor- 
thern Jmericans, John de Laet thus contradicts : " It no ways follows that one 
u People take original from the other, becaufe here and there are feveral words 
€l found, that have the fame fignification and found in divers Countreys . 
u much lefs when they muft either add, change, or diminifli feveral Letters! 
« Moreover, there is no fmall miftake in the compared words : for Pagod is 
? not us'd all over Jmerica . the Eaft-Indians about the River Indus, call their 
: Idol-Temples Pagod,ox Pagode • the word Cuaira is no where us'd in Jmerica, 
" but by the Peruvians, and with them not fignifying a Fan, but a little Oven I 
£C neither is llama a Lamb, (for before the coming of the Spaniards thither, neil 
" ther Sheep nor Lambs were ever feen in Peru) but a Wool-bearing Beaft, 
u thus defcrib'd by Jofepb de Acofla : 

"llama (fays he) a four-footed Creature, furniflies its Mafter with Meat 
c and Clothing, and fupplies the office of a Beaft for Burthens, and at no 
" charge for Hay nor Provender, well fatisfi'd with what he finds in the Ways 
But the. llama's are of two forts, either woolly, or fliort." 

"hair'd: 



« or Mountains. 



A M E KI.C.A. 



Chap. IF. 

I , h3 r ' u ' thC ^;? g ° ^ ^ NamC faC ° S > the **«**rmi#l being not much 
lels chan a Calf, with a long Neck like a Camel,. , but of feveral colours - for 
fome are white, fome black, and others fpeckled, having an odd Look, efpe- 
f daily when they are ty'd, and ftand ftill without any motion, ftarine with 
goggle.eyes on their Owners : Sometimes in a, moody humor, upon a fud. 
den taking a freak, they run up to the top of almoit inaccefllble Mountains, 
where both the frantick Beaft and his Burthen are loft. The Tocos fometimes 
l.kewife takes fudden Pets, and fuftian Fits, often doing the forward Wife, 
tumbling over and over with their Goods, and will not be rais'd, their moo- 
dmefs continuing, with beating, nay though they cut them to pieces : but the 
" belt way is to fit down by them, and wait fome hours till their humor be* 
« ing lpent they rife again of their own accords. Thefe Beafts are much in^ 
clind toa Difeafe calfd Carajhe or the. Mange, of which they generally 
die : and becaufe the Difeafe is very catching, they ftraight bury the infeft. , 
" ed alive, lo the better to preferve the reft. * i 

^ Grotius alfo miftakes, when he compares the Mexican <Peke with the Dutch] 
%eke, for though many Mexican Places, Mountains, and Rivers, terminate ia 
Teke, yet it fignifies not a 'Brook or Rivulet, for that they call Atlaubtli 

Jobnde Laet tells alfo, -That with great diligence he found a Mexican Oi&io* 
nary Printed by the Spaniards in Mexico, to find if there were any words ia it ' 
which agreed with any of thofe European Languages that he underftood, but 
found not one. 

It is the fame cafe with the Cuftoms and Conftitutions between the Nori»e~ 
guns and Northern Americans : for what concerns Hunting, how many People 
have formerly liv'd by it > The antient Germans, and to this day the Tartars 
make it their whole bufinefs, excelling in that Art all other Nations. Befides 
that the more ferious fort of the Mexicans many Ages fince fcorn'd to derive 
themfelves from a Hunting Anceftry , but affirm that they found the Chiclnmecen 
m thole Countreys, who were great Venators. 

The accounting of Time by the Nights, extracted from the Hebrews, is ob* 

L rV J?, I™" Eaftem Pe °P le : * nd althou g h the G ™' ^Pt and wafh/d 
their Children in cold Rivers, or Brooks, fo foon as, they were born, yet the 
Mexicans never did it, but the Mother lays the Child on the fourth day after its 
Birth, in an open place of the Houfe ; in the middle whereof ftands a Pot full 
or Water cover'd with Broom, in which they warn the Infant. Neither arc 
the Americans fo much addiaed to the Vice of Gaming as other Nations , 10 that 
Grotius taxeth them too feverely as to that point : as on the contrary, he too 
much dears them of Polygamy, whereas the Mexicans Marry as many Wives as 
they pleafe, or are able to maintain. Father Martyn Perez, relates the fame of 
the Cmaloans, and other Americans • as alfo Quarterns of the Natives in Nova Fran- 
cia, which lie neareft to Norway. And what need the Americans have the Germans 
their Teachers to make Dams and Banks againft Floods, fince Nature and 
Neceffity it felf inftrudsit ? and where arc any People fo ignorant, as to 
aienbe the fame event to Men and Beafts after death ? 'Tis true their man. 
ner of eating in America is feveral, becaufe the People do not much converfe 
together: but they did not go naked; for the Spaniards found them not onely 
neatly Habited, but had a proper Name for every thing they wore. The 
Jtetfuans us'd long Shirts , the Bondans Skins of wild Beafts , and towards the 
North they cover'd themfelves from Head to Foot in hairy and undrefs'd 
Hydes. The faenficing of Men was in former Ages fpreading far and near 

F over 



i? 



t)t Qrig. GminmAm^ 



Cuftohli of the Amtti* 



AMJ. 



their CSothinj, 



• 



34- 



I 

^ 



cm. 






The Americans are riot 
extia&edfromC#»iM. 






AMERICA. Chap. II. 

over the World, and how far it was praftis'd here, hath been already declar'd 
at laroe. Laftly, all the Jmericans are not guilty of eating of Man's-neQi, but 
that falvaoenefs is confin'd to the Southern America. 

Thus much we have (aid, 'to prove that the Hwwtgans had no hand m 
planting the Northern America, we (hall now proceed to enquire who planted 
the Southern Parts, from the Straights between Panama and Hombre de Vws, to 

the Straights of Magellan. 

The Peruvians, poffeffinga large Traft of Land along the Coaft of the South. 

Sea, Grotius would thus derive from China : 

"The «Wwi«,beingof a fubtile Wit,and quick of Apprehenfion,argue fuf- 
« ficiendy that they are not extracted from the more Northern Americans^ ra- 
« ther from the Chinefes, which the feveral Wrecks of Qhineje Ships found on 
« thefe Coafts fufficiently evidence : and no wonder, if cunofity or accident 
<* brought the Chinefes expert Navigators to this Countrey, feparated onely by 
« one Sea from them. To this we may add their Rites of Religion , for both 
« worfliip the Sun, and call their King the Son of the Sun . they write no Let- 
x*AA*M*~*. «< ters, but make Characters downwards. Mancocapacus was a Chinefe of ftrange 
« Policy • who being inform'd that his Countrey-men inhabited fruitful Coun- 
« treys on the other fide of the Soutb-Sea, but without Laws or Government, 
<' Sail'd over thither, and gather'd the fcatter'd Multitudes in a Body, and 
"eftablifh'd an hereditary Kingdom after the Chinefe manner, to him and his 

" Succeflbrs. 

To which John deLaet anfwers thus : " Though the Peruvians exceed the 
« other Americans in Policy , and at the arrival of the Spaniards liv'd in a 
" handfom Order of Government, yet they can no ways be compar'd to the 
" (harp-witted, and noble-fpirited Chinefes , nay, there are in no Place of Pern 
« found fuch Artificers as thofe of Qhina, that bear the praife of all the World . 
" no where fuch manner of Buildings or Cities, nor the leaft likenefs of the 
« Chinefe Curiofities. As concerning the Wrecks found in Peru, I find no cre- 
" diblc Author that gives an account thereof: for certainly the Chinefes could 
" much eafier, and a nearer way have come through the Atlantick Sea to the 
" Coafts of Amenca, lying to the Eaft of Peru, than fteer along the vaft, and 
"much greater South Set, and endure the horrible Storms and vaft Waves, 
" which the European Ships are fcarce able to endure, much lefs the Chinefe Vef- 
» fels, which are not fo good. The Spaniards which Sail yearly from Acupul- 
« co to the Philippines are fenfible of the great danger which they endure, chiefiy 
" by the great gufts of Wind near California. Befides, the Peruvians before the 
" the arrival of the Spaniards, were utterly ignorant of great Ships, and the ufe 
" of Sails. How could they at once have forgotten that Art, which they 
" brought with them thither, Moreover, it is eafier to Sail from Peru to 
« China, than from China to Peru, becaufe the Winds under the Equinoctial 
" Line commonly blow Eafterly. And it is the greater wonder, that the Chi- 
« nefe Jonks accidentally by Storm (hould be driven to Peru, becaufe they 
" were never ftor'd with Provifionsbut for a (hort Voyage, whereas this ask'd 
« nine Moneths. But if any one willfuppofe,that they purpofely direfted their 
"Coutfe thither, how came the Chmefes toSailjuftto Peru, and not to Ne» 
" Spain , which is much clofer to China ? why were there no Merchan- 
" difes of the Chinefes found in Peru, fince they went thither for Trade ? how 
" came they to nesled that Navigation they had once found * Nor is their 

Sun-worlhip (which was formerly praftis'd in moft Parts of the World) of 
r " any 






\1 



CKap. II AMERICA, 

f* any validity to derive therti from China ? But the contrary is moft apparent, 
« for the Peruvians worfliip for their chief God^racoci^that is, God Almighty, or 
€€ Tl?e Creator of all things. 

u The Chinefes, if Confutius an eye-witriefs. may be credited, are divided into 
'< three Se<5ts of Religion : The firft follow the Learn'd Trigantius, and acknow- 
€C ledge a King of the Heavens, which muft onely be ferv'd as the Chinefes lole 
*< Governor ^ to which purpoCe, two Temples are built in the Royal Cities 
" Nankin and Pekin , one Conf^crate to Heaven, and the other to the Earth. 
" The fecond Se& hath the. name ofSciequia, and ferve the Idol Omyto. The 
€t third nam'd Lan%p, imploy themfelves in Magick and Exorcifms , Conju- 
€i ring up, and laying EviUSpirits,, whofe horrid reprefentatiqns, when they 
H have ftiick upon the Walls , they make an artificial and dreadful noife, as if 
4C Hell were broke loofe, and theHoufe full of Devils ; fometimes alfo force 
*f'the Evil-Spirits to enter into Images , from whence they receive no impcr* 
€C tinent anfwers to their queftions: Therefore, who will compare this Su- 
*i perflation of the Peruvians worfhipping of the Sun ? to the Qrinefe Religion, 
y which do no fuch things ? 

" The Peruvians call'd their King, A tori of the fyalm, and not The Son ofthi 
5f Siw/as in China t Though the Mexicans o^herwife worfhip the Sun, and in their 
ff manner of adulation, ftyl'd Hernando (orte^ their Conqueror, Son of the Sdn i 
€C As to what concerns the manner of writing, it is very well known, that the 
fc Chinefes words are all Monofyllablcs , fo that they have as many Letters a$ 
" Words, which they joyn fo together, that they reckon eighty thoufand, 
*< but with ten thoufand they are able to exprefs themfelves in moft matters. 
"Thefe Chara&ers are contahVd in their Halpien or Dictionary. The antient Embafly to the ciam, 
€i Chinefes us'd feventeen feveral forts of Characters in their writing, fome con* 
" lifting of Serpents, that by feveral Wreathes and contortious Windings, fig- 
k <c nify'd feveral things; others, of all forts of agreftick Tools belonging to 
€i Husbandry >, fome Characters of the Feathers of the Bird Funuhoar^ others of 
cc Oyfter,s and Worms, or of Roots, of Herbs, or Birds Claws, or of Turtles, 
<f or of Herbs and Birds Feathers mingled, or of Planets, and fuch like 5 but 
u what manner of Writing or Hieroglyphick of theirs refembles thole, 
who by their own teftimony know neither Pen, l?aper, Ink, nor any manner 
of Writing , but reckon the antiquity of time by ftrung Beads , whicli 
was obferv'd many ages fincc among feveral Nations, 
Hitherto we have difcover'd the feveral Opinions concerning the Original of v % tl % n ^ lhc *""'""* 
the Americans, or firft Plantation of -America, from all which, having received no 
clear or demonftrative fatisfa&ion, we muft open our way to a further fcrutiny: 
But firft,we muft needs confefs,that contradi&ion is not difficult- but it is fome* 
thing of Work , when we have beaten dovvn a well-fortifi'd Opinion , to fct 
up fomewhat in Head thereof, to ftand a permanent and undeniable truth, 
which will be the harder , in regard the Inhabitants of this neW World have 
no old Chronologies concerning their Antiquities, and firft fettling there ; yet 
if we cannot go fo far abfolutely to aflert, yet fome probabilities,grounded (as 
we fuppofej upon better reafons, may give more fatisfa&ion j for none will ce^Theoi^^ 11 ^" 011 " 
deny, but that the Generations of Mankind being ftrangely multiply'd after 
the Flood , they then living five times our Ages, and Wats not beginning till 
the known part of the Earth was over*ftock'd, juftling for Territories, and 
fome thruft quite out, at laft found America • which fpreading it felf to a vaft 
extent, and now found almoft every where well inhabited, may be guefs'd, 

F z tha; 



€C 



cc 



ic 



m 



\* 



The America** are de- 
rived from feveral people. 






Marian, it Xjb. Hifp, 
1.I.C 18. 






Znglijh famous Sca-mm 



Barat-anac, or, rfttlaud, 
the Phenician name , and 
Brinania the Cree^ name 

viErittaitt. 



Old Voyage olMM to 
America j for which lee Fitf. 
Bifi.Brit. 



W Potttlin Hftoii* 

Camln'i*). 






A M E%JC A. Clmp. II. 

that it was not onely Planted from the firft, but feveral tiroes replenifh'd fince 
by various Nations , Why may not feveral Planters, and at feveral times make 
room for their Colonies, incroaching one upon another, either by force or 
com pad • as the French themfelves upon the Gauls, the Kormms upon them, 
the Goths among the Spaniards, and the Saxons among the 'Brittains, and the Nor- 

mans again upon them ? " «i V 

Several people may eafily Sail over thither, the Azores or the Canary Ifles lye 
fo that they are readyfas if defign d)forTranfportation to^mew^from whence 
Acofta made a Voyage in fifteen days. Alfo Pliny gives us an account, that thefe 
Iflands lay uninhabited in his time; yet is it well known, that after Phn/s 
time, Ruins of Buildings were found there, fignifying, they had been former- 
ly Planted; and why might not thofe ancient Inhabitants Sail thence to the 

neighboring America ? . 

Tercera lying half way between Spain and America, was frequented by Navi. 
eators before theBirthofour Savior; and it fcems as eafie to Sail from thence 
fo America, as from the Main Land of Spain thither : Add this , that necefllty 
fore'd the Spaniards to look about them from other Countreys, for fince they 
loft their Victorious Champion <Baucim Gapetus , they were every where bea- 
ten, being tired out by the Phenician Forces, and that oppreffion over, fuffer'd 
as much under the P^man Yoke : Wherefore it feemsnot ftrange, if a con. 
fiderable number remov'd from thence , that they might live fome where elfe 
in quiet • for which purpofe they wanted no conveniencies to Rig and fet 
forth ftout' and fufficient Veffels, able to live in thofe Seas, having had long 
experience from the Phenician Voyagers, whofe Fleets Sail'd daily to and again 
in feyeral Expeditions, from Cadi*, and Gibraltar towards thefe Weftern Coun- 
treys : Nay, Hanno himfelf their firft Navigator that way, who gives an account 
of the Gorgons, or the Ifles of (aft Verd, a good part of the way to America. 

And though 'Brittain, Ireland, and the ®r<»</fc Orcades lay further from America", 
yet fomething may be faid particularly to prove, That many Ages fince, Ex- 
peditions had been made from thence to the New World ; and that the 
Inhabitants of thefe our Ifles, in former Ages, were peculiarly famous for their: 
skill in Navigation • infomuch, that the Cretans and Phenicians emulous of their 
skill, and jealous of their danger, made feveral Attacques and Invafions upon 
thefe Ifles, which is the more probable , many remarks of the Phenician and 
Greek Language, remaining in the denominations of the Countrey : Of which, 

take firft this account : 

Anno 1170. When Owen Gnyneth, Prince of Wales, having Raign'd long and 
happily in his fetled Dominions, dying, left feveral Sons, who quarrelling, 
their elder Brother, as not contented with their fliares of the Principality, nor 
to be under him, having gotten no mean Interefts and Claims to the whole by 
their ftruglings, fo weakned one another, that they open'd a way to the loo : 

fingofall. 

Amongft thefe Brothers, Madok, a Prince of a milder difpofition, weary of 
fuch unnatural Diflentions, threw up his fliare, better contented to feek new 
Fortunes abroad ; whereupon there were many foon perfwaded to venture 
their lives with him, where ever he would pleafe to Tranfport : So Rigging 
afmallFleet, he Sail'd Weftward , far beyond Ireland , whereat laft he dif- 
cover'd an unknown and uninhabited Countrey, but wondrous pleafant, the 
Air being temperate, and the Soyl moft fertile : Glad of this good fuccefs (as 
the Story fays) he returning, fpreading the Fame of this his Newfoundland, 

which 



37 



Strang* occafion of D* Is 
JUdtf. 



Chap. IL A M E%^1 C A. 

which they might exchange for a barren Soyl, hattcr'd and harafs'd with an 
endlefs Civil- War. 

No fmall number flock'd to thefe Summons, as a moft acceptable Underta- 
king^ that foon after he was able to fend forth ten good Ships,Frcighted only 
with Men, Women, and Children, and all other Materials fit for a new Planta- 
tion 5 which not long after Landed in Acuzamil, a, Countrey in the North of Ame- 
rica, as Francis Lope^de Oomara believes, becaufe there he onely found fome re* 
maining Tracks of Chriftianity, a People that worfhipp'd the Crofs , but 
knew no reafon why or wherefore they ador'd that fign of our Redemption. 
Now,fome will fay,that this Worfhip of the Crofs is no argument to prove,that 
the ftrittijb Chriftians firft Planted in the North of America 5 but what will not 
time and change of place do , where Tranfplanted People keep no Records, 
fo they forget not onely Religion, Laws, and Cuftoms, but who they were,and 
from whence they came, Oblivion firft mutilating, and at laft fwallowing up 
all > y of which, take this one late prefident. 

Anno i?o8. The Duke De La \oche obtained leave of the French King, to tranf? 
port a Colony of Volunteers to Net* France 5 in his way he Landed fifty Men on 
the Ifland De Sable , to reft his Paflengers, and that he might the better, and 
with more eafe explore the Countrey ,and when refolv'd where to fettlc,then to 
fetch them ofFj who accordingly, as defign'd, foon after, returning thither, 
was met with fo violent a Storm , that not being able to Weather the Ille of 
Sable, where he left his People, he loft his whole Expedition, and was driven 
back to a French Harbor, where no fooner arriv'd, he was fo highly charged, 
that he was caft into Prifon,when thofe he had left neglected upon the Ifle,were 
not once fo much as thought of 5 in this interim, they never expecting to hear 
more of their Captain, liv'd in a wild and miferable condition, feeding upon 
Fifh, and fometimes wild Swine, without Bread, Drink, or Salt. 

When the Baron of Leri went with Letters Patents, to be Governor of KoVa 
Francia y and by ftrefs of Weather in his Voyage , was fore'd to put in at Sable, 
where he found the remainder of La Roches People , who being from fifty re- 
duced to twelve , having clad them felves in Sea-Wolves Skins, they had not 
onely loft their former French Civilities, but forgot in a manner their Religi- 
on, much of their Language, and what they were, being as if Mctamorphos'd 
into beftial Salvages, 

And although we have already controverted the improbability of Peopling if fome &<**<* come 
'America , either by accident of Storm , or fet purpofe 5 yet it may be po/fible C1 
that fo it might happen , for as the feveral vertues of Plants, Herbs, Precious- 
Stones, and Minerals, though ftrangely occult , and fo altogether unknown, 
that what could never be found by Art, mecr chance hath brought to light, and 
their wondrous qualities, fome cafual accident hath made apparent ; fo ftrange 
and remote Counueys never to be found in our Charts,or Maps, nor Regiftred 
in any Story, Seamen bound to their intended Harbors, have (tumbled on by 
chance, either Hood*wink'd by blind Mills , or fore'd upon by pertinatious 
Weather- of which America may be her own witnefs, for how was Columbus * 
ftirr'd up, but by incitations of the Journals of a Sea«Captain , dying in his 
Houfe, driven on the American Iflands by foul Weather. 

Although from the foremention'd places, and after the fame manner, jime* 
rica might be furnifli'd with Inhabitants * fo it alfo gives us a more certain af- 
furance, that the Planting of America was not onely foon after the Flood, but 
that they came alfo thither by Land : And how ftrangely would it be againft 

the 



m 



Amtftcn was Vzq->U\ 

prclcatly afrer the Fl.o4. 



\ 



*s 



Giantf in America. 



CtHJurati frxtres , Virg\ 
Georg. 

The Flood acknowledge 
there. 



s 






I * 



■t 



f unary iflands >by whom 
difcover'd. 



Hifp*ri*M Gardens what 

they fignifie. 



JfjU t\o it TmH Aufirali. 

The Defcription of the 
unknown South. 



AMERICA. Chap. II; 

the Majefty and Wifdom of Divine Providence, to leave half the Univerfal 
Globe, a World fully fupply'd with all forts of Creatures, fit for Food and 
Service, Plants, Herbs, and the richeft Minerals, like a Houfe new built, 
and well furnifVd, without a Mafter or any Inhabitant, Vi^ Man, who be- 
ing of Celeftial Extract, fliould be able to acknowledge and glorifie the Crea- 
tor, by admiring the Creature in his great Works : Befides, the confus'd No- 
tions and Fables of Giants, Perpetrators of all manner of Crimes, and wal- 
lowing in all kind of fenfual Debaucheries, are always remembred among the 
Antiquities of the Americans , and that they had fome (lender hints of antienc 
Truth,not onely of the Giants before the Flood,but of thofe that foon after the; 
rank fatnefs of the Earth, produe'd and fed to that pitch of Arrogance, that the 
covenanting Brethren defi'd God, fortifying themfelvcs to fight him by the ad- 
vantage of that their long congeftedPile,SdM,which in a fhort time was tranf- 
verted by the Heathen Poets into their Gigantomachia,\ieaiping Hills on Hills, like 
the ^weWc^Traditions: From which we may conjefture,that they came thither 
in the time o(Noai ; for why may not any believe,when Noah liv'd three hun- 
dred years after he Landed on Mount Ararat , that he took care to People thd 
World ? And who will make him ignorant of this New World, who living 
five hundred years before, might not improbably by his own induftry and 
the help of the former long-liv'd Patriarchs , been well able to make a general 
Survey of the Old 5 and he could better furnifh America, it being nearer Mount 
Ararat, than fupply Italy, Spain, Germany, or any Northern Territories in Europe; 
(o that America might be known to thefirft people after the Flood,nay,inhabit* 
ed by them, though fince that, the knowledge was loft. 

Pliny complaining of the Supine negligence, and ftupendious iloth which 
reign'd then and long before as he had obferv'd, among all people, and in eve- 
ry place, who were fo far from making inquiry after difcoveries of Lands for 
new Plantations, that they loft the old, when they had begun to fettle, though 
under the greateft ferenity of Peace 5 The Sea by that means lying open be- 
yond what any juncture of former times could be proud of. 

Yet the Vortunatept Canary Iflands were in the firft ages after Zfyah, frequented 
with VefTels, which in later times were altogether neglected, till GuiUaum !Betan» 
court, a Gentleman oiPicardye, brought them again to be taken notice of by a 
frefli Trade, The Fable of the Hejperian Gardens, and the Dragon that kept the 
Golden Fruit, with conftarit Vigils, is nothing but anallufion to the Sea, which 
with Serpentine Embraces, not onely fecur'd thefe fcatter'd Ifles, but fwal- 
low'd up feveral Adventurers that too hardy made their unhappy approaches 
for difcovery. 

Another Allegation for the Planting of America by Land, both whofe fides 
are waih'd on the Eaft and Weft, by the South and Atlantick Ocean, may be 
thus probably made out : The Atlantick rowlspver with almoft Fathomlefs 
Waters, three thoufand Leagues of Ground ^ the South-Sea not much lefs, 
which well may be , being indeed but one cortfinu'd Sea , encompaffiog , till 
meeting there, the Univerfal Ball ; whence fprings a more likelyhood, that 
America might be Planted from the Southern parts, from the Straights oi Magel- 
lan, and Le-Mayr, 

Peter Fernandes de Quir relates, That he and a Commander, Lodowick Paes U 
Torres faw a part of the South Countrey, and in it innumerable Inhabitants, 
Whites, Slacks, Sallows, with long, black, curl'd, Woolly, and yellow Hair. 
They know no Walls or Fortrefles for Defence, Laws or Kings, but are divided 

into 



Chap. II. A MB%JLC A. 3? 

into Tribes: They ufe indeed Bows, Arrows, Clubs, and a kind of Spears I 
Their Houfes are cover'd with Palm-Tree-Leaves ; their Houfholdftuffcon- 
fifts onely of a few Earthen Pots, and fuch Trinkets ; yet they have fome lit- 
tle skill in Weaving, and though they gonaked, pride themfelves in Neck-Laces 
and Bracelets, made of Mother of Pearl : But thefe for their Complexions and 
Conftitution of Body,Cuftoms, and manners, are rather deriv'd from the Ame- 
ricans, than they from rhem, and therefore we mull feek for their Original 
from the North ; from which are but two ways , one from YJland and Grotn. 
land, which Grotius endeavors to prove, but contradicted ; the other out of Tar* 
tary, which certainly was the firft Nurfery , from whence the Americans were 

Tranfplanted. • • ,. . . 

Tartary or Tattary, fo call'd from the River Tatter, which runs thorow the "**—"-» 
Countrey Mongul into the Northern Ocean , covers a great part of the Terre- 
ftrial Globe ; the letter tartary makes out a confiderable part of Europe . the 

greater is Afia. 

This great Tartary, which is a thoufand Leagues long, and fix hundred broad, 
reckons five chief Provinces, vi*.. the wild Tartary, inhabited by Herdfmen ; S*> 
gatai, of which the Metropolis is Samarcand , famous for the mighty Tamerlane-, 
next Turkeftan - 7 then IQtai, which the great Cham Commands ; and laftly, Old 
Tartary, according to Andreas Ufarienfts, the habitation of Gog and Magog. 

Now we muft enquire from what Tartars the Americans are Extracted : 

Mornxm, <PofteUus, Genebrardus, <Poterus, and others are of opinion, That the *u.L*» 
Tartars , which about the year rza8. under the Command of Zingis Cham 
overfpread the Earth like a deluge, were the Succeffors of the ten Tribes of//- ^^^ 
rati, which were carry'd into captivity to Ajfyria by Salmanazar. The name Tar- „„, 
tary, or rather Tattaria, feems to be fome teftimony thereof, becaufe it fignifies 
in the Syrian or Hebrew Tongue, (Remnants or (Remainders, as feemingly, becaufe 
thefe Tartarian were remainders of the foremention'd Tribes; nay,the Northern 
Tartary Herdfmen preferve to this day the Names Dan, Zabulon, and Haphthali : 
Wherefore we need not to admire, why fo many Jews are found in <Rufia, Sar- 
matia, and Liefland . nay, the nearer to Tartary, the more Jews there are. 

Circumcifion hath a long time been obferv'd among them , before Mahomet 
brought in his new Law 5 it feems, that Mahomet order'd the Circumcifion and 
other Laws, according to Mofes , to be obferv'd by the Northern people, be- 
caufe that in his time, they began to Rebel, that fo they might the better be 

ke.pt in awe by their new Religion. uni.m.tm**. 

Joannes LeonclaVius relates, That in Liefland near <Rjga, he heard the wilde 
Natives call'd Letti, not without great admiration, go crying along the High- 
Ways and Fields, with a doleful voice Jem, Jem, Mafco lou i It is believ d that 
they mourn torjerufalem and Damajcm , but by their long continuance in the 
vaft Wilderneffes, they have forgot their Religion and Laws, and what elfe 
might enable to tell us who they were. Several learned Authors queftion this 
removal of the Ifraelites out of Affyria to Tartary, though to our Judgement their 
Arguments are too weak, to take from them of the footing they have gotten 
there • yet neverthelefs, the Israelites are not to be taken for the Planters of 
America, for why elfe is not Judatfme as well found in America as in Tartary. But 
it is already fliewn, thzt Atnerica was inhabited long before the difpcrfion olthe 

JjraelllCS* C a ' — ~-« ~^+ /iffcr/faiwarenot deriv'd 

Now to (hut up all, it is evident, that the firft Planters of America were not b.^,,.*^ 
Europeans from the diffimilitude of the People, both in their Complexions, Lan- 
1 g ua S e » 






Tartary is not parted from 
America by the Str* ights of 
Am an. 






4 



4-° AMERICA. Chap. II, 

guagc and Pcrfons 5 nor Africans , hecaufe that in all the far.fpreading Coun> 
trey of America, not one %ro is to be found, except a few near the River Mar- 
tha, in the little Territory Quare^ua, which muft by Storm be drove thither 
vrltv' and chicflyout ^ rom thcVuinny Coaft : So that ^^ the Mother of all People,, onely remains 
to be Implanter of our America, whofe Weftern Coaft, oppofite to Afia, is more 
inhabited than to the Eaft, where it refpects Europe. 

Moreover, Armenia, out of which, by Noah's Progeny, the whole Earth was 
re*peopled , borders on Scythia, now call'd Tartary , and Tartary faces America, 
feparated onely by the Straights of Anian. though fame are of opinion, that 
out of the South into the Frozen Sea, there is no paflage thorow thefe Straights^ 
elfe (as we have already prov d the contrary) how came all thofe Voracious 
and Poyfonous Beafts into America, if it be clearly feparated from Afia by 
Sea ? 

It deferves here to be related, what happened to Henry Corneli/on Schaep, and 
William tByleVeld, Sailing from Batatia to difcover the Tartarick River Tolyfange, 
but were taken and carry'd Prifoners to the Japan Court at Jedo . being Com- 
manded there by Order of the Councel to give an account of & Japan Map or 
Card, which was laid before them, and contained the Provinces of Japan, Am- 
boina, the Molucca Iflands, Manilha, the South-Sea, Borneo, Celebes, Malacca, Tartary, 
Formofa, Corea, and the vaft and Mountainous Countrey or Defart of Jejfo, fepa! 
rated from Japan by the Straights of Sungar h though toward the North,it joyns to 
Japan in the Province of Ochio^ and beginning in forty feven degrees, run 
North-Eafl: towards America, but they could notpoffible find the Straights of 
Mian . but on the contrary, the Promontory of Tartary, *i% the Province %*- 
taya or IQitui lay in the fame parallel with the Northern America. 

Hereto may be added, that Jfia hath no Territory any where, which may- 
more eafily with numerous Colonies fupply America than this part of Tartary, zs 
well for the vaftnefs of the Countrey, to which no other can compare, as for 
the increafing of the Inhabitants : Who doth not admire , that according to 
Urn* 9 .\. 6 ; Muhalon Lithouwer, there is fcarce a City in Tartary that boafted lefs than a thou- 
fand Temples ? and to fee Canguifta firft King of Tartary, about the Year 1200, 
in Arms ; and his Succelfor Hoccata following his Fathers bloody Footfteps, 
whilfthc prepared his Sons with three vaft Armies? The eldeft Son, Jachis, 
March'd Weftward with thirty thoufand Horfe . fBatho drew with as great aa 
Army towards the North 5 Tagladais being the youngeft fell into the Moores 
Countrey above'H^f. Hoccata himfelf March'd viftorioufly into the Nojth 
America, fubdu'd great part of the Terjian Kingdom, and beat the Turks, led by 
the General Goniata with a great Army, Anno 1241. as Jacob Planenfts and <Bene* 
diHm Sarmata, two Monks, fent by Pope Innocent to Hoccata, witnefs : The great 
number of the Tartars or Scythians , may appear by the feveral people, fpread 
far and near over Tartary . Pliny reckons fome of them, -vi^. Auchetes, l^euri, Ge- 
loni, Tlmffagetes, ®udini y Bafilides, Jgathyrfi, pomades', Anthropophagi, Hyperborei, 
Arimphei, Ctmmenj, Cuianthi, Ceorgi, Sacores, and others : What number would 
the Inhabitants make up that live in America, in Teneneuf, Virginia, Florida, New 
Spain, Guadalaiara } Guatemala, Terra firma, Neip Granada, Peru, Chili, $(io de la Plata 
Brajil, Guaiana, New Andalu^ai i 

It will be worth our time, to compare the likenefs between the Scythians and 
Northern Americans ; both of them are difference with fpecial Marks of a more 
than ordinary and natural diftance between the Eyes, which much alters the 
whole Air of the Face, and the plumpnefs and fwelling of their Cheeks fum- 

mits 



Tefa monies-that the Ami' 
titans are Tartars. 




4- 1 



Cooftitutlons of rhc Tar- 
tars and Americans agree. 



Chap. II. AMERICA. 

mits above the Cheek-bone ; moft of thefe are of a middle ftature, having 
downy Hair upon their Chiri, like the Callow Feathers of an unfledg'd Bird? 
Laftly, zs the Tartars, they differ amongft themfelves in their Cuftpms, yet in 
ieveral things they agree one with another , according as they arc governed by 
others, and yet other Princes, fome powerful, and fome weaker, according as 
every ones power be more or lefs. The Inhabitants of Lucaja bear fo great a 
lefpecl:, and (land fo much in awe of their Governor j that if commanded to 
leap from a Rock, and break their Necks, they inftantly obey. * 

The fame is obferv'd by the Tartan \ the firft King Canguifia Commanded 
thefeven Princes of his Realm to Murder their Sons with their own Hands, 
which they all readily perforrh'd. 

In <Popaina they live to this day like Come Tartars , without Laws or Law- 
givers, who change their places by turns, from the great increafe of the T*r- 
tars, the Americans no ways differ. 

Bartholomew de las Cdfas writ to Charles the Fifth, That the Spaniards in few 
years, onely on the Iflands Cuba, Hifyaniola, Naco, Hondures, in Venezuela and 
TSlew Spain, deftroy'd above 1600000. Men, befides the daughter that was made 
in Peru, Brafil, %io de la Plata and other places, which far exceed the foremen- 
tion'd numbers. f 

Polygamy is ft ill in ufe , both among the Tartars and Americans i both ac 
knowledge the Immortality of the Soul, both like Cannibals, Eating and Sacri- 
ficing Mans flefli. How famous amongft the Antients was the Altar of Diana 
in Taurica Qierfonefus , where feveral Men were daily Sacrificed \ How deli- 
cate, according to SabeUicus, did the Tartars account their Diflics , Sauc'd and 
ferv'd with humane Gore ? 

Strabo relates, That the aritient People account it an honourable Death to be 
chop d in pieces, and their flefli ferv'd up in Commons. Thofe that die by 
Age, a natural death, are defpis'd like Malefactors, and as a punifrirricnt ac- 
cording to their Demerits, left in the open Fields, a prey to Birds and Beafts : 
lome delight in that loathfome gorging themfelves with Mens flefli, Others on 
the contrary, not onely deteft humane, but all manner of flefli I And juft fo 
the Americans are diftinguifli'd , for although the Caribes, (Brafilians, the Inhabi- ' 
tants of Mnb Spain, £{ew Granada, St. Martha, and others, Sacrifice and eat Men, 
yet as many abhor and deteft that odious Diet and abominable Cuftom. 

Giles Flejher Queen Elifabeths Agent in MufcW relates, That Anno 1588. IQnacb 
Morfey, Grandfon to the Governor of the Chrim Tartars, made his entrance there 
with a Retinue of three hundred Noblemen, and two Ladies, of which one was 
the^idow of his deccafed Brother. The great Prince informed of their com- 
ing, fent him two ilaughter'd Horfes, whofe fides and Hanches they feaftcd on, , 
as we on Fallow Deer. 

Moft of the Tartars ufe no manner of Letters or Characters ; in the Voyage 
made into <Perfia, they firft learnd to make Letters- juft fo it is in America ; 
their bemoaning of the dead ends in one Moneth, both by the Tartars and Jmt- 
ricans ; with a Perfon of Quality , the Tartars bury a live Servant^ the fame 
Cuftom is obferv'd by fome of the Americans • and fo much do they agree in a. 
ialvage and rude life , that Merchandizing and Mechanicks are little regarded., 
Ayfon the American acknowledges the Tartars for a rude People in their Religion, 
Habits, and Dwellings, and yet in all thefe the Americans dirTer but very little. 
Laftly, How common is it amongft them to worfliip the Devil ? Along the .^a-worftup in dm* 
River .Sag.tdaboc, the Inhabitants are every new Moon miferably tormented by 

G an 



Gtogr.L u.q.7. 






4-z 



Tarttriatt Horfe*. 






kA M E^I C A. Chap. II. 

an Evil Spirit call'd Tanto. In the Temples in Virginia remain yet the horrible 
Images of the Devils Oka and Menetto. Not a Houfe in Mexico, but hath a pe- 
culiar Chappel, let apart for this their fuppos'd holy, but damnable Adoration 
of the Devil. Others in Virginia believe, That there is a great and fupreme De- 
ity, which is Everlafting, and for ever. The Tartars alio are of the like per* 

fwafion. 

But this Opinion Grotius hath kid a ftrong and dangerous Battery againft, 
that America could not be Peopled by the Tartars, becaufe the Americans before 
the Spaniards coming thither,had never fcen any Horfes; whereas the Tartars ufe 
no Beaft more, either in Peace or War, nor can lefs v^ant : For the Tartarian 
Forces do not only confift in Horfc 5 but the Wealth of this Countrey is 
reckem-d up in the numerous Breeds of Horfes, and fcvcral Studs of Mares. 
Some of the Noblefs keep a thoufand Horfe . none, though never fo poor,' 
but keep two or three 5 and Beggars there mounted crave Alms and Charity 
of the People. When they remove their Habitations, their Horfes carry their 
Provifions and Tents : If Provifions grow fhort, they cat Mares Milk, high 
gufted with Garlick, which fatisfies Hunger and Third ; and the red Liquor 
which they tap warm from their Veins, fcrves them to help Digeftion, and 
heighten their Humor, inftead of the Blood of the Grape, our fweet Wine* 
The fwifteft Rivers, though raging and precipitated with Land-floods, they 
dare adventure fwimming their Horfes over, hanging naked by their Manes, 
and guiding them by a flipped Rein whither they pleafe : To their Tails they 
tie their Saddles, and other Neceffaries, bound up in Rufhcs. When a Per- 
fon of Quality prepares to crofs any River, they tie two Horfes Tail to Tail, 
and athwart both their Backs fatten a Mat pleited of Rufties, to fit on. When 
they are ftopp'd at any broad River, or ftanding Lake, they kill and flea their 
worft Horfes 5 then turning the Skins infide out, and well Liquoring, they 
ftretch them open with the Ribs, which ftand like the Bayles of a Tilted Wher-j 
ry, and thus furnifli'd, ferves them for a Boat to carry eight Perfons. When 
they take the Field, going to War, not any but mufters three Horfes ; which 
makes their Armies, when drawn out in Campain, Akw much bigger than 
indeed they are : And though many of them arc kill'd in the Wats, or (lain 
for Food, yet the European Tartars pay yearly forty thoufand Horfes tothe flcj*/- 
ftans^ from whence Grotius thus argues, cc If America joyns to Tartary, then 
" the Horfes which run wild at Grafs might eafily have found America them-' 
a felves, feekingto improve their Pafture, and have gone from one Countrey 
" into the other, as it appears, that fince the Spaniards tranfported Horfes to 
<r America, they are difpers'd over the higheft Mountains, out of one Province 
Cc into the other : Or if the Straights of Man run between both, the Tartars 
" never were "Navigators • and fuppofe they had been, they would not have 
*4 crofs'd without Horfes, without which they knew not how to fubfift. To 
which we only fay thus, That although Tartary now, and in former times, 1 
abounded in Horfe, yet muft we grant, that it hath been always fo ? or that 
the ancient Scythians, who we avouch firft planted America, had fuch frequent 
ufe of them as the Tartars now. This may be controverted, for that thefe 
Scythians planting there in the Non-age of Time, prefcntly after the Flood, 
the ufe of Horfes was unknown, which the Ancient Poets teftifie by their Fi- 
ction of Centaurs, who when firft fcen, the Horfe and Rider were taken for 
one Creature. The like miftakc the Mexicans had, when they law the mount- 
ed Spaniards, a thoufand running away from one Cavalier, 

As 



Chap. IIL AMERICA 

As to their coming thither of themfelves, it may eafily be.confut.ed .; Wh 9 
knows not, that there is no Countrey a continued Pafture, but luxurious Vales 
feparated with inacceflible MoQntains, Lakes, and vaft Wilderneffes. ^ut Da- 
vid Ingram relates, « That he faw fome Horfes in the Norchern Jmcrka^ which 
" the Mexicans, and other Conquefts of the Spaniards never heard of: Where- 
upon we may conclude, and we fuppofe without all peradventure, That the 
Americans have abfoluteiy their Original from Tartary, which bordering J nm . 
via, where j^oal/s Ark firft refted,hath aconvenient way, though beyond the 
Ariick Circle, through a temperate Climate betwixt Heat and Cofd, to Cathay .ia 
the fame Parallel with the neighboring America. 



45 



CHAP.IIL 

Firft Vifcovcrers of America. Cliriftopher Colonus 

his Expedition. 

CHrtftopber Colonus, generally (though by miftake) call'd Qolumbus, was 
born in Jrbi^plo, a.Village in the Dominion of Genoa, near SaMona - his 
Father liv'd by Fifhing in the Midland-Sea : So that Sebaftian Schroter, 
and others befides him, are miftaken^ faying, Colonus was born in the City Cuctt. 
reum, and defcended of the Noble Family <Pilijlrelli : For feter, Belarus, Colonus 
his Countrey.man, gives unqueftionable Proofs of his mean Extras . and 
amongft other things, That the Common- wealth of Genoa refus'd to receive 
the great Legacy which Colonus left them in his Will, becaufe they fondly 
thought it a derogation to their Honor, being fo great,* Republick, to take 
any thing of Bequeft from a Fifhers Son ; Yet his Majqfty of Cajlile thought 
othcrwife, not onely enriching him with Wealth, and a fair Revenue for his 
Difcovery of the WeJIJndies ; but alfo, though of a low derivation, rais'd him 
to great Honor, Ennobling him the firft of his Family with Dignities, Titles, 
and Efcutcheon, which rank'd him in place among his Prime Nobility, 

Colonus, whom we fliall henceforth call Columbus, fpent his Youth near the 
Sea, where he was bufie exploring the Winds, confidering their Natures, and 
the Quarters whence they rofe, efpecially with the fetting of the Current from 
the Atlantkk to the Uedkerrane. The Weftern Winds, which often, as well as the 
Levant, blow feveral days together from the great Ocean, much amufing him, 
hinted at: laft fome Notions, that there might be another World, and new Pla- 
ces to be difcover'd, beyond the fetting of the Sun • and that the 2^> plus ultra 
fliould not be, if he could help it, the commanding Terminary of the Earth 
that way. He alfo fpent much time, being of a folid Judgment, in the Emen- 
dationsbf Charts and Maps, then very much improvable : And the Tortwuefe, 
who at that time had got the ftart in Navigation from all other People, being 
then bufie to find a way by the South of Africa to the Eafidndies, not contented 
to go by hearsay, he went himfelf in Perion a Voyage with them. Soon afc 
ter Qolumbus fettled himfelf in the Ifiand Madera, where an Accident hapned, 
which Francis Lope^ de Gome/a relates thus : l < The Matter of a Ship, whofe *"•" 
« Name and Countrey lies buried in Oblivion (though fome would" have him 
<c to be of Spain, fome an Andalnfwx or 'Bifcayncr, and others a Tortugucfe) Tra- 
" ding to the Canaries and FUmmiJh*Ijles , was furpris'd by a hideous Tempeft 



Pit Eiz*ri Rjts Qtmtn. 
Lb.**. 



Uh. u. Hi/?. Gwx', 



C , ),ij?otb.Ceh>tns\Vmk. 



Hi* Life, 



Strang? Accent, lift. 



a 



from 



+4- 



Genoa. 



To the Portugueft, 



Exglifi, 



cernin 



AMERICA Chap. III. 

« from the Eaft, which hurried him mkm yolcns through dreadful Waves, 
« where at lad he found himfelf ingag'd upon a Weftern Coaft.altogether un- 
« known. The Storm ceafing, without making further Diicover.es he pick d 
"his way homeward, at laft Landing in the Haven of Madera: All h.s Crew 
" but three and himfelf, with hardfliip, want, and the long Voyage having pe- 
« rifli'd himfelf dangeroufly fick, was carried into Columbus his Houie j where 
"lying on his Deathbed, he bequeath'd to Columbus his Maps, Journals, and 
« oth*r Obfervations of this his unfortunate Voyage. Columbus being by theie 
Papers more confirmed than ever in his Opinion of a New World in the Weft, 
»*. » Aaa K6 « declar'd what he verily believ'd, to the States of Genoa , but they looked upon 
him as a vain and idle Fellow ; yet Columbus full of his great Project thus, 
flicked and fcornfully rejected, fate not fo down , but addrefs'd himlelr to 
the King of Vortwal, where they wearied him, fpending long time with dila- 
tory Anfwers, to no effeft • the Opimon of a whole Court of expert Naviga- 
tors having caft his Declaration out, as a Chimera or meet Fancy. Soon after 
Columbus fending his Brother into England, to move the Bufinefs to King Hm? 
the Seventh, he being taken Prifoner by the way, and lying long ere his Re- 
leafe, came too late to the Englifh Court, prevented by the News of Chnjlophers 
return with Succefs from his intended Voyage : For mean while Ferdmmdo 
A „ac^.K^;co»- and jUbelh King of Cajtile, having finilVd his Wars with the Moors, had hir- 
nifh'a him out for the Expedition , which he effected by the favor otjlfonfo 
Mendotio and Jlfonfo QuintaVdia, both great Minifters of State under Ferdmand 
and Ifabel, and obtain'd fo much at laft, that he was fent with a hundred and 
twenty Souldiers, befides Sea-men, in two Ships, and one Pinnace. Thus fup- 
plied, hefetSail from Qdi K "P™ the Kin S s account the fourth of ^«yr, 
Anno H9 z, and firft rcach'd the Canarydflands , and from thence fleering 
South-Weft, the Wind in thirty three days fcarcc varying one Point :: Buc 
though the Weather blew fo conftant, yet the Sea.men chang d their Minds, 
andStorm'd quite contrary, crying, That Columbus was guilty of all their 
Deaths : For (faid they, after they had loft fight of the Canaries fo many days, 
nothing appearing but Sea and Sky) Who can hope for any Succefs or happy conclujim 
of Co def urate a Voyage, fo rafhly undertaken, and found now fo full of ernment danger i 
Yet Columbus bore bravely up, and weather'd all their Exclamations, although 
they threatned no lefs than his Murder : At laft Articling, they came to this 
Agreement, That if after failing forwards thee days more, no Land were difcoVer d, 
they (hould return : But about two a Clock the next Night, Columbus faw a glim- 
mering like Fire in the Sky, and in the Morning found himfelf clofe aboard 
a moft pleafant Coaft, where Landing with twelve Men, he ereded a Crots 
cut out of a Tree. Thence he fail'd over to Cuba, where the Sea was Id rough, 
that he was fore'd to ftand off, fearing Rocks and Shallow Water. Soon after, 
he got to the Northward of the Ifland Haytm, which he call'd Bfpamola : Here 
his beft Ship was bulged upon a Rock, on which they had all penfiVd, had it 
not been flat on the top, fo that the Soldiers and the whole Crew of Sea-men 
were fav'd by the two Veffels. The Inhabitants ftark naked, feeing thefe 
Strangers, fled to the Woods . but the 6>w,Wyovertaking.a Woman,they en- 
tettain'd her with Sweet.mcats and Spamjb Wine, and putting her on a white 
Shirt, fent her again to the reft of the Natives, whete return'd, ftie told what 
good'Entertainment Are had had to her Companions . whereupon divers of 
TridnwiAdie Natives. t j, c [fl aru } e rs came aboard of the Spaniards, in Boats made of one piece of 
Wood, where they barter'd Gold for Beads, pieces of Glafs, Knives, Shells, 

and 



Sails from Citiit to diC 
cover New Cournreys. 



His People rebel; 



DifcoVe: s W(p*nifla. 



Chap. III. 



A M E%\ C A. 



4? 



and other Trifles. The King of Ouaccanarillo gave teftimony of peculiar inclS- } 
nation to the Spaniards), helping them to Fifh up the remaining Goods-of the 
Wreck, and inform'd them, That fome Rivers flowing from the tops of high 
Mountains, wafh'd down the Gold amongft the Sand : notwithstanding a 
ftrange Prophecy had been told to thefe Iflanders, namely, Tl?at Bearded Men 
out of remote Countries jhould dejlroy their Goods ,take their Ldndjmi majfacre their Chd- 
dren. He alfo told them what made them fly, and betake them to their Heels 
at the arrival of the Spaniards , becaufe they were oftentimes furpris'd by the 
Qannibals, who fnatch'd up all they could lay hold on : Their Boys and Strip- 
lings they gelded, cooping and cramming them up, as we our Capons, for 
Feafts : The young and well-grown Men they chopp'd to pieces, falted, and 
Barrel'd up : Young Women they preferv'd for breed, and old ones they made 
Slaves. Thefe Cannibals were fo terrible to the Inhabitants of Haytin, that a 
thoufand of them durft not venture to engage againft ten, but would run eve- 
ry way, diipers'd like Flocks of Sheep before the Wolf. 

Laftly, Their King permitted the Spaniards to build a Lodge or Hovel, 
wherein thirty or forty of them might (helter 5 but indeed fo taking pofleflion 
in right of the King of Spain. 

Mean while Columbus returned in fafety to 'Spain, and was received with great Returns to sp*n. 
joy, King Ferdinand making him Admiral of the Sea, and fending his Brother is highly hawM. 
Bartholomew Governor to Haytin y | now call'd Hifpaniola.* The Gold, Parrots, 
Maftick, Aloes, the ftrange Bread Jucca, whofe extracted Juyce is rank Poyfon, 
but the Body makes good Meal, which kneaded and bak'd, yields a fine Man- 
chet and wholefom Food, they look'd upon with gteat delight and admirati- 
on j but two of the Natives being naked, with Gold Rings through their No- 
fesand Ears, Ornaments with them of high efteem, and fignifying their no 
mean Quality, the People old and young came in Throngs to wonder at, ne- 
ver weary of gazing upon them. But the King, encourag'd by this Succefs, 
took no dilatory Courfe, but fuddenly, and before any could expeft, built 
fourteen ftout Carvels, and three Frigats, and as foon mann'd them with Go«withfcventeenSaii 
twelve hundred Soldiers, befides a great number of Artificers of all forts, with afecon timcXoH, fe amot * 
their Wives and Children, freighting them with Horfes, Swine, Goats, Cattel 
for Breed, all forts of European Corn to fow, Fruit-Trees and Vines to plant, 
and fome Priefts to inftrucl: and convert the Natives to their Religion* 

Thefecond of September, Anno 1493. tnc Y ^ et ^ from Cadi^ } and Anchored 
before Ferreo, the laft and furtheft of the CanaryJflands , where they could get 
no Water, but what dropped from the Dew hanging on Trees into Troughs. 
After that, Columbus came oh the one and twentieth day amongft the Caribby 
1/lands, where he dropp'd Anchor before one, which he call'd Dominico ; but TkeM*J»s t s$.cbh 
finding it defolate, fet fail further, and difcover'd feveral other Coafts, where 
he likewife found nothing but very great Porcupines or Hedg-hogs,and fweet- 
fmelling Trees. Steering forward, he found the Coafts of the Cannibals, which 
inhabited along the Shore in little Huts or Hovels, built round of Wood, The Huts of the a******/,; 
and ftak'd about on the out*fide with long Poles, like Talifado's : They have 
alfo Pofts within, which are fhorter, pleited and faftned together with Cot- 
ton, or long Roots of Trees, plyant like our Ofiars, over which they hang 
Cloths painted with horrible Figures and ftrange Reprefentations : The Roofs 
rife like our Canopy'd Tents, higheft in the middle, cover'd with Palm-Tree 
Leaves to keep off the Rain : At the Entrances hang two Hairy Images on 
Poles, not for Religion fake, but Ornament : Their Bed=fteads being high 

from 




Ifland Guadalupe. 



Strange Women in Ma- 
tanino. 






from the Ground, arc fill'd with a kind of Straw • and in long Hovels fitted 
for that purpofe they ftore their Sugar, 

Columbus landing here, found all the Cannibals fled ; but their Houfes full df 
Stone VefTels, Cruifes, Pans, and Pots, boyling with Mens Flefli, Parrots, antl 
Wild-foul 5 the Hanches and Sides of young Men, on Spits roafting at the 
Fire, with the Splinters of whofe broken Bones they headed their Arrows* 
This Ifland by the Inhabitants call'd (/materia, Columbus changed to Guadalupe 
becaufe the Mountains rife up with their tops not unlike E/lremadura in Spain, 
famous there for the wonderful Reprcfentation of our Lady, as that of the 
Lady of Loretto in Italy. Thirty Women which he had taken from the neigh- 
boring Ifles, he fent with Prefents to the fled Canibals, which the next day re- 
turning, made a great appearance near the Shore $ but when they had gaz'd a 
while upon the Spaniards, looking ftedfaftly on one another, they fuddenly ran 
back again, Iheltring themfelves in the Govert of the Woods. Columbus think- 
ing it not worth his while to expect their return, feeing their barbarous Life, 
burnt and deftroy'd all their Boats, and fpoiling whatever he could, fail'd to 
Matanino. 

The rcleas'd Women in Guadalupe, that came back again, informed the Spani- 
ards, Th&t Matanino was an Ifle onely inhabited by Women,which at accuftom'd 
times row'd over to thefe Cannibals, where a while they drove a Trade and 
Commerce of Love, the Product of which, if Girls, they kept . but the Boys 
they fent over to their Fathers. They live in Caves, the Mouths and Entrances 
of which they maintain and ftoutly make good with their Bowe, fhooting 
Arrows as thick as Hail at the approach of Men, after their impregnating by 
the Cannibals* 

From hence the Fleet pafs'd by feveral other fruitful Iflands, Columbus giving 
them the Names of Uontfzratto,%oiondo, St. Martin, Santa Qru^, formerly by the 
Inhabitants call'd Jyaya. On this laft Ifland he landed thirty Men, who took 
four Women, which held out their Hands before them, as if Petitioners that 
k e gg d Quarter, or praying, and then concealed themfelves in Ambufcade, the 
better to furprize morcj when by chance they fpied'ah Indian Canoo at Sea, 
Remarkable Pafoge of with eight Men, and as many Women- whereupon thofe in Ambufcade 
made a Signal to the next Ship, which immediately fent off fome Boats well 
Mann'd } but before they drew near them, or expected an On-fet, one of the 
Spaniards was kiird,and another wounded with their Arrows 5 amongft whom 
a Woman, to whom all the reft fliew'd greateft Refpecl: and Reverence, aim'd 
very exactly. Their barbed Shafts were poyfon'd . whereupon the Spaniards^ 
enrag'd, fteram'd the. Qmoo, and overfetting,row'd quite over ; which little or 
nothing avail'd . for they all fwam, and though feparated, fhot their Arrows 
at them, as if the Boat had been a But. At laft the Indians got upon a blind 
Rock, cover'd with Shole Water, which gave them frefli Courage ; but the 
Spaniards having more aid fent them from the Fleet, took them all Prifoners \ 
but the Queens Son being wounded in the Scuffle, and dying foon after, was 
jaivageacfscfthe/^ thrown overboard. The Prifoners being brought before Columbus, foam'd at 
the Mouth for raging madnefs ; and being afterwards carried to Cajlile, fo re* 
tain'd their fierce and falvage Nature, that they fcar'd away and frighted the 
fafe Beholders. 

Mean while the Spam/b Fleet proceeded on their Voyage, between feveral 
Iflands, to Hifpaniola, of which fome appear defolate and barren, others green 
and Woody • the fmall Vcflels failing clofe under the Shore, and the great ones 

{landing 



r 



Chap. III. 



A M E%1 C A. 



47 



{landing further off at Sea, which was very turbulent, and beat exceedingly 
aaainft the Shole Rocks. The Ifland ( Buncbcma y Qolumbus call'd St. jobns y to 
which belonged fomc of the Women lent forth in Guadalupe, who informed 
thern, That Buricbema was well inhabited by a kind and hofpitable People, 
who when the Cannibals landed there fought them, and if Conquerors, were 
fo much exafperated with their inhumane Baibarifms, that they ieiz'd on them 
like Maftiffs open=mouth'd, and tore them piece-meal with their Teeth • yec 
themfelves abhorring the Cuftom of eating Mens Flefh. Here the Spaniards 
found oncly a large Houfe, furrounded with twelve letter ones, all deferred ^ 
for the Inhabitants with their King Chiaficbio were then retir'd into the cool 
and more fheltring Woods, from the mid-day Heat. All this the Indians told 
him, which he brought back with him from Spain. Coming to an Anchor ac 
Hifpaniola y he fen t one of the Indians afhore, that he might tell what brave 
things he had feen in the Spanifi Court ; but the remaining three took the ad- 
vantage of the following Night, and leaping over*board, fwam to Shore. But 
this Accident he not much regarded, trufting to have a fufficient Account from 
his eight and thirty Spaniards which he had left in the Fort upon the Ifland j 
and the more, becaufe King GuaccanarMo' s brother, in fign of Friendfhip, had 
prefented him with two Golden Images : But all thefe Conjectures fail'd him, 
fo that hearing nothing, he landed, where he found the Spanijh Garrifon utterly 
deftroy'd, and the Royal Fort burnt down to the Ground, and lying in a heap 
of Aflies. Then they fired feveral Guns, to give notice, that if any of them 
had concealed themfelves, and lay sculking in the Woods, or otherwife, they 
Ihould difcover themfelves, and come to the fuccour of their Friends : But all 
in vain, for none came - y for as they were afterwards informed, the Inhabitants 
had (lain them, becaufe of their infupportable behavior, infolently commit- 
ting Robberies, Rapes, and Murders : Hereupon he fent MelTcngers to the 
King GuaccanarMo, to inquire why they had fired his Fort, and what they had 
done with his Men, who brought him this Return, That over that mighty 
Iiland were many Princes, of which two being provok'd by the reports of the 
Strangers that were cntertain'd in the Ifland, came marching upon them, each 
with their Armies j but that he endeavored what he could, and came with a 
Power to affift the Strangers 5 yet all he got for his Kindnefs, was a Wound in 
his Leg, which had been fo fore and troublefom, that fore'd him to keep his 
Bed, and no lefs than feven Concubines to attend him, and drefs the Wound : 
But he told his Tale fo ill, and feign'd his Lamenefs worfe, that StbiUus y one 
of the Meflengers fent by Columbus , lifting up the Coverlet, faw that he ail'd 
nothing, which foon confirm'd his doubt, that he was confederated with the 
reft, and alike guilty of the Slaughter. At laft GuaccanarMo being defir'd, came 
in Perfon to Columbus, in whofe prefence he held a long Difcourfe with an In- 
dian Woman, which they had brought from the Ifland of Santa Cru%> there 
Chriftned by the Name of Catbarine : At length GuaccanarMo was difmilVd, and 
the Night following this Catbarine y with feven more of the Indian Women, 
leap'd over-board, and fwom almoft a League to Shore, fo going thence di- 
rectly to their King Guaccanartllo. This Accident gave, more fufpicion to Co- 
lumbut, who thereupon fent three hundred Men, commanded by Mtlchior y Hoi* 
eda y and Goryalano y to march through the Ifland three feveral ways, and with 
ipecial Commiflion to fecure as their Prifoner Guaccanartllo. Mekbior difcover'd 
a wide River, full of Reaches and winding Bays, gliding between high Hills 
covered with Woods, refounding with the ecchoing noifes of harmonious 

Birds. 



Citttmb*: conws to £8; 

fpau.vU, 



Finds the Spsuiar&t fliin. 



• His Difcourfe with ike 
King Guaccxuarilk. 




ttlum&m builds a City. 



4,8 AMERICA. CKap.lil; 

Birds, and diCemboguing his Waters, enlarged by two other Rivers, into the 
Sea, fo making a convenient Harbor for Ships. Here a hundred of the Ifland* 
cirs, well Arm'd after their manner, met them, crying aloud, We are no Canni- 
bals, but Taynos, that is, a People more ciYil than they are cruel. The Spaniards ma- 
king Signs of Peace, the Tdjwojapproach'd, and joyn'd their Forces in a friend- 
ly manner. Near the place of this Meeting appear'd a Houfe built in an Ovai 
fafhion, being thirty tw6 Paces in the Circumference, the Roof curioufly 
pleited of divers colour'd Ruflies,round about which flood thirty lefler Dwel* 
lings. Mean while, in his March Hoieda difcover'd a River that defcended 
frfcma high Mountain, where the Inhabitants gather'd much Gold after this 
strange gathering of Gold, manner: They dig a Hole about two Foot deep ; then taking up their left 
Hand full of Sand, with their right Hand they cull out the precious Ingots, 
which little accounting of, as they gather'd, they dealt away to the Spaniards. 
Moft of the Pieces were as big as Peafe, yet fome fo large, that they weighed 
DnMs i.D*orhmv 9 s n i ne Ounces. Peter Martyr, Councellor to the Emperor Charles , tells us, That 
he hath feen of them in the Spanijl? Court, that were brought over thither by 
Columbus. Moreover, Hoieda was inform'd here, That this Gold-River took 
its Original in the Province belonging to Qacicus Caunaboa, fignifying, The^ing 
of the Golden Palace. 

Mean time Columbus feledred a pidce of Ground on a riling Hill, on the 
North part of the Ifle, where he intended to build a City, becaufe clofe by 
the Hill on one fide rifes a Mountain, pregnant with Stone and Chalk 5 on the 
other, a Plain, fo exceeding fruitful and pleafant, that the Sun fcarce fhinei 
upon a more delightful and fertile Soil, which they found afterwards by ex- 
perience. Here Melons are fet and ripe in thirty fix days 5 Corn, in two 
strange fruitfoinefi there. Montns . tw i ce a Year the Trees and Plants bring forth their feveral Pro- 
duels • the Vines come to maturity, and are loaden with Clutters of Grapes, in 
two Years, and Sugar.Canes grow as thick as a Mans Arm in fifteen days. On 
this pleafant Soil, accommodated with a convenient Haven, Columbus after- 
awards built the City Ifabella, fortified with Walls and Trenches againft all In- 
vafions, over which he. made his Brother {Bartholomew Columbus firft Governor. 

Mean while the Admiral Columbus himfclf march'd up into the Countrey 
with three hundred Men, in queft of the Gold Mines. Seventy two Leagues 
- the Valley CibaVa lies diftant from IfabeUa, to which Columbus pafs'd over iwift 
Currents and high Mountains, where he built a Fort, which he call'd St. Tbo* 
mas . and exchang'd with the Inhabitants Toys and Trifles, for Pieces and In- 
gots of Gold, which the Inhabitants, as before-merition'd, found in the Sand 
of their Rivers: And befides, they informed him, That about half a days 
Journey further, greater Quantities of Gold were to be found, in a browner 
colour'd Soil : Whereupon Luxanus, one of his Officers, was fent with a fuf- 
ficient Party thither, who march'd through a delightful way, cool with fhady 
Boughs, and pleafant with the profpecT: of ipacious Meadows, where they 
mow'd Grafs for their Horles, which in four days time grew up again higher 
than our talleft Wheat. 

Mean time Co/«wi^#being return'd with great Riches to his new City IfabeU 
la, went foon after by Sea , with three Vetfels , to difcover new Countreys 
more remote ; which his Defign fell out alfo fuccefsfully ; for he fell firft up- 
on Jamaica, where he found more ftout Oppofition than elfewhere, by the Na« 
tives, at his Landing; but finding themfelves over-power'd , they came to 
Agreement, and accepting an amicable Compofure, prefehtly ftruck up a 

Peace. 



Goes to Sea to difcover 
new Coutttre/s. 



Chap. III. 



A M E%I C J. 



49 




Peace. From thence putting to Sea, he next difcover'd 'Cuba, which failing 
round about, he found alfo to be an Ifland 5 where Landing in a convenient 
Harbor, on each fene'd with a high and jutting Rock, he efpied two little Ho- 
vels, wherein was abundance of Fifh, befides two great Snakes or Serpents, 
each having eight Feet, fpitted, and ready to be laid to the Fire to be roafted - 
but neither Man, Woman, nor Child to be feen, they being gone with part of 
the Fifh they had drefs'd, into the adjacent Woods,, whither the Spaniards 
following, fa w hanging by fmall Strings, on the Branches of Trees, abundance 
of Snakes, fome of which had their Mouths tied together, others their Tongue 
and Teech pull'd out. Hence marching on, a little beyond they faw a Com- 
pany of the Natives,which they judg'd to be about feventy Men,covering the 
top or fummit of a Hill , to whom the Spaniards made Signs , and to entice 
them near, fliew'd feveral of their gawdy Trifles ; but in vain, till at laft one 
adventur'd,defcending from the Hill,to whom one of the Natives (who in the 
firft Voyage that the Admiral made, was taken from the Ifland Guanahaini near 
Cuba, carried to Spain, and there Chriftned) call'd aloud, telling him they need 
not fear, they fliould have no harm done them 5 which faid, they came down 
all together, and inform'd them, That they were fent by their King to catch 
JFifli for another King, which was with him at Dinner h and if they had hot 
eaten the Serpents, they gave them many thanks . for they were provided for 
the fecond Courfe, and very fcarce to be got, being a greater Dainty than any 
Fifh. 

Columbus from hence proceeding on further Weftward, difcover'd a fruit- m^eti not tmw 
ful Coaft, verging the Mouth of a River, whofe Water runs boyling hot into Kc2S5? ^ 
the Sea, Somewhat further he faw very ftrange Fiflies, efpecially the Guaican, 
not unlike an Eel, but with an extraordinary great Head, over which hangs a 
Skin like a Bag. This Fifh is the Natives Fiflier - for having a Line or hand- 
fom Cord faftned about him, fo loon as a Turtel, or any other of his Prey, 
comes above Water, they give him Line ; whereupon the Guaican, like an Ar- 

H row 



5o 



R 










Great difturbaiKS 
HifpanioU, 






zA M E%1 C A. Chap. III. 

row out of a Bowe, (hoots towards the other Fifli, and then gathering the 
Mouth of the Bag on his Head like a Purfe*net holds them fo fait, that he lets 
not loofe till hal'd up out of the Water. 

Here the Spaniards having Din'd on delicate Fifh, went on ftill Weftward, 
and came to an uninhabited Ifle, but well ftor'd with Gecfe, Pelicans, and ugly- 
Dogs that could not bark. Here they came amongft fo many Shoals, that the 
Keels of their Ships raked upon the Ground almoft forty Leagues together, 
the Water thick and white like Milk. Laftly,they came again into deep Water, 
and Landed at the Foot of a high Mountain, on the Ifland Cuba 5 where they 
found two Springs of very fweet Water. A Mufqueteer going into the Woods 
whilft the reft fill'd their VelTels with Water and cut Wood, he fpied a tali 
Man in a Coat like a white Fryer's Frock 5 behind whom came two more, and 
foon after thirty more follow'd, all alike Habited : the Mufqueteer running 
away, they beckned him to ftay, but he march'd off 5 and informing Columbus 
of his Adventure, he fenta Party well Arm'd to fee farther into the Countrey ; 
but they neither faw nor heard any Men, oncly found on the other fide of the 
Wood a great Plain, but fo overgrown with deep Grafs, that it was impoflible 
to get through : The next day he fcnt out twenty five more, which found no- 
thing elfe than the Prints of the Steps of great Beafts and Lyons, and alfo 
abundance of large Grapes, which hung on the Branches of Vines, clafping 
about the Bodies of the great Trees. 

Hence Qolumbm again putting to Sea, and Sailing Wefterly, found a Shore 
overflow'd with Water, and abounding with Pearl-Mufsles, and after that the 
whole Countrey full of Mountains, whofe tops fmoaked. By this time the 
Fleet was much damnified by the Shole-water-, where, as wc mention'd before, 
they often ftruck, and their Keels rak'd upon the Ground 5 fo that having 
fprung feveral Leaks, and their Provisions growing mouldy with the Damp, 
they were fore'd to return . ancTTacking about they ran againft Turtles,which 
lay as thick in the Sea as if they had been fow'n. 

Columbus now on his return home, and Landing once more on Cuba, found 
an ancient Man ftark naked, who fpeaking to him (Didacus interpreted, the 
Language in fomepart agreeing with that of Hifpaniol a) to this effect,: 

You have to all admiration come to fee this Countrey from another World, my advice to 
you is, That you hurt none • for the 'Souls of eyiUdoers go to dark places : fBut on the con* 
trary, they frail enjoy the heighth of all fleafures that are Friends to Teace. 1 

Columbus reply'd, Tloat he came a Scourge for the cruel Cannibals; but a Shield to 
protecl. the quiet and well-meaning Indians. 

After this, returning to Hifyaniola, much contrary td his expectation, he 
found all things which he had fe tied there turn'd topfie-turvy : for firft the 
Governors at Jfabella jangled, and were at private contentions amongft them- 
felves, and the 'BemdiRine Monk Boilus and Peter Margarites were returned to 
Spain, there to make their complaints at Court : and befides, the Spaniards had 
dealt very inhumanely with the Natives,by their frequent Rapes, Thefts, and 
Murders ; wherefore the Indians, not unjuftly incensed, deftroy'd all the Spani* 
ards they found ftragling in any part without the Lines of their Fortification. 
Catmabda alfo lay about the Fort St. ThomaZ, and clofely befieged Ho/W<* . but 
receiving intelligence of Columbus's arrival, he broke up his Siege, and march'd 
from thence, but foon after was taken Priloner by the Spaniards. Mean while 
upon Defign (a Plot none of the wifeft) the Natives of HijpanioLi had neither 
Tilled or Sow'd the Ground, or'us'd Agriculture the vear before, contriving 

by 



Chap. III. 



A M E%^I C A. 



5i 



by want of Provifions (not confidering themfelves) to ftarve out the Spaniards - 
but the mifchief fell upon the Contrivers ; for fo great a Famine hapned, that 
fpreading over the whole Countrey, in a few Moneths fifty thoufand were 
ftarv'd to death • but the Spaniards made a faving, though hard fhift with their 
own ftore, then, though too late, the Iflanders repented of their folly, for they 
faw the Spaniards making an advantage of their mifery, not onely built more 
Houfes in their City IfabeBa, but prepared their Weather-beaten VciTels, with 
which Sailing to the Gold Mountains of Cipangi on the Hill, whence lprung 
feveral Fountains, they rais'd che Caftle of the Conception. Great benefit they 
reap'd by this Fort, to which they carry 'd daily abundance of Amber, Brim- 
ftone, mix'd Ore of Silver and Gold,and ®r4^ife-wood,befides great ftore of 
Gold : and they might have gotten ten times more,had they not been fo much 
inclhvd toflothfulnefs, and minding other vain pleafures : yet notwithftand- 
ing all, the Fleet carry'd that year above one thoufand two hundred pound 
weight of Gold to Spain. 

In the mean while the Natives complained to Columbus of the Spanijb Soldi- j*«r*Atyranufttfcrc;. 
ers, which under pretence to feek for Gold, committed many infufferable Out- 
rages ; therefore they defir'd that they might be retain'd in their Forts, and not 
ftraggle Co much abroad, and they would willingly bring them every three 
Moneths a certain weight of Cotton, Amber, ©r^r/e-wood, and Gold, more 
than equivalent to what they fnatch'd ; but Columbus (whofe Soldiers, not- 
withstanding his feverity, and ufirig Martial Law upon fome of them for 
«their Crimes, and proud with their fuccefs) yet prevail'd at laft, that they 
confented thereto - but the Inhabitants never perform'd their promife, who 
being almoft famifh'd, had much to do to preferve themfelves alive, fpendin^ 
their time in picking Sallads. 

Whilft the Bufinefs remained in this ill pofture, or rather confufion, Cibanus, 
Brother to the imprifon'd Qaunaboa, rais'd an Army of five thoufand Men : 
the Spaniards, divided into five Companies, rrurch'd to meet him ; and their 
Enemies being naked, and having no other Arms than Bowes, Arrows, and 
Clubs, after fome little refiftance, were foon diffipated and put to flight, but 
overtaken by the SpaniJI? Horfe, many of them were taken Prifoners, and others 
fore'd to skulk and hide themfelves on the tops of Mountains. 

Shortly after this Battel hapned a Huricane, mix'd with Thunder-claps, 
renting great pieces from the Rocks, and the Wind blowing out of the Eaft, 
threw down Houfes and Trees, fome of which were carry 'd a vaft heighth in- 
to the Air j three Ships that rode in the Harbor, broke their new Cables, and 
fplikagainft the Rocks. The Spaniards expected nought elfe, but that with this 
exceffive Temped the Day of Judgment was at hand. And on the other fide, 
the Iflanders afcribed this raging of Heavens to the Spaniards wickednefs. This 
Storm paft,and the Air fctUd,Columbusgzvc order for th$ building of two new 
Ships there, with which in March, Anno 1495. nc rcturn'd to Spain ; where in 
^Medina del Campo he gave an account at the Court about the difcover'd Coun- 
treys ; where alfo Sentence was pafs'd on feveral Spaniards, and chiefly con- 
cerning the (BcnediBine Monk Hoilus, who out of meer malice pafs'd by him at 
Mafswith the Hoft, while he gave it to others, without any diftinftion.- 
Then he gave a further account, that his Brother Bartholomew had found, fixty 
Leagues beyond Ifabetta, feveral deep Pits, the uppermost Ground of which 
Sifted, produced abundance pf Gold, Moreover, that he had built the Caftle 
Anna there in three Monethstime with little trouble : but becaufe Provifions 

H i grew 



Their C01 queft. 



Horiblc Tempeft, 



A remarkable psffage 
toiKerning gUrtMwiim 
Co I ami us. 



5* 




A M E%^1 C A. 




|||§t|| 



Chap. III. 



m 



Brave reception of 
King in Htfraniola. 






y§*r 



grew icarce there, he found himfelf neceffitated to remove, but left ten Men in 
the Garrifon, and had fent three hundred of the Iflanders with their Governors* 
to Spain. He alfo built the Caftle Dorni?iko 7 on the South-fide of HifpanioU ; 
from whence he had traveled into the Countrey to the River Naiba : where, 
upon this Shore the King Beuchio Jnacauchoa Encamp'd himfelf againft the Nil- 
bans, to bring them, beiides feveral other People, under his fubjeftion. That 
Bartholomew demanded Tribute of Anacauchoa, which he immediately promised 
to pay, and disbanded his Forces, conducting Bartholomew above thirty Leagues 
on his Way, along a Path on both fides fown with Hemp, and planted with 
Cotton-Trees, to his Palace Xaraqua, in the Weft of Hispaniola y where he was 
received in great ftate : Thirty of the Kings Wives walk'd before, carrying in 
their Hands Boughs of Palm-trees, and both Sung and Danc'd very ftrangely ; 
behind- thefe came a confiderable number of naked Virgins, very handfom ; at 
laft Bartholomew entring the Palace with the King, found a Table furnifh'd with 
all manner of Dainties, and a very courteous Entertainment, The next day 
walking forth to a large Plain,and looking about he faw two Parties that deep- 
ly engag'd in Fight behind a, Hill, with great {laughter on both fides, and had 
not he defiVd that they might be parted,therehad been much more Blood (Tied. 
After he had been feveral days friendly entertained, he returned to the Forts 
Ifabclla, Spcranc'ta, Catharma, St.Jago, Turrita, Conception, itid Dominico j where he 
found above three hundred Spaniards ftarv'd of hunger, befides many- that were 

fick. 

At that time Guarionexius havingbeen opprefs'd by the Spaniards, and a long} 
time watching for an opportunity, now thinking he had found it, rais'd an 
Army of fifteen thouiand Men, with which he was rcfolv'd to try his fortune 
againft Columbus $ who privately receiving -intelligence thereof, fell upon him 
fo on a fudden and unexpe&edly, that he fpoil'd his Defign, and took all Ir 
Commanders Prifoners: But to oblige the Inhabitants, who beggd for their 
King, Columbus fet him at liberty, advifing him to be careful of jaifing a War 

againft 




ird 



i 



*3 



Chap. III. A M E%J.C A. 

againft him any more^ But he not being able to endure the oppre/fions of 
%oldanus Ximene^ a Spanift) Commander, fled to the wild Ciquanos, defcended 
from the Canibals, and living on fteep Mountains : Of thefe he dehYd aid 
againft the Spaniards y and obtained not onely their Promife, butfomeMen. 
with which he robb'd and pillag'd the Countrey round about, and what%! 
maris he met with he kill'd, and with his Men did eat, as if a Venifon Feaft. 
Mean while Xtmene^ made himfelf Leader of feventy Rebels, which like raging 
blood-hounds fell upon the Natives after a terrible manner. 

Whilftall things were thus in diforder at Htfyaniola, the Admiral Chrlfiopher . a '*»*r Sails the third 
Columbus fet Sail a third time with eight Ships from the Haven Barrameda, in ' nct ° H,jp ' imola ' 
the Year 1498. To flbun the French Pyrates, which watched for the Indian 
Treafures, he directed his Courfe to Madera, a fruitful Ifland of Corn, Wine, 
Sugar, Wax, and Cattel, defolate till Anno 1420. Here coming to an Anchor' 
he fent fix Ships away to Hfyaniola, which himfelf afterwards followed with 
the remaining two, fleering by the Fknrjh Iflands, or Aeons, firft fo call'd 
from the Flemings, the firft Planters : Here he dropt Anchor before the City 
Angra on the Me Tercera, which is fixteen Leagaes in circumference, and very Dtfcriptfaai* the city 
Mountainous • the tops whereof are like Spires, and abound with Grapes : the '*"" 
Plain Countrey produces great ftore of Corn,but it will not keep above twelve 
Moneths. The Ground is oftentimes terribly fliaken by Earthquakes, and 
between feveral fulphurous Places, both Flames and Smoak afcend up to the 
Sky. Near the City Angra is a Fountain which turns Wood into Stone. The 
Winds in this^Placeblowfo fierce and ftrong, that they not onely beat down 
Houfes, but wear out Iron, and all manner of Stone-work. In Jngra the chief 
Commander of all the Bemijb Ifles hath his Refidence. The City, furround- 
ed by fteep Rocks, lies towards the Sea like a Crefcent, or Half-Moon • for 
at both ends thereof the Mountains extend with deep Points into . the 
Ocean. The uppermoft part towards the. Weft ftands likewife fortifi'd by 
a high Rock, as alfo by another on the Eaft : . on both are continual Watches 
kept ; whereof thofe on the firft can difcover Ships fifteen Leagues off at 
Sea, coming either from the Eaft or JVeftJndies . and on the other, all thofe that 
come from Europe : When they fee above fifteen Sail, they put out the Kinas 
great Flag upon the top of all the Rock. 

This City of Angra is divided into feveral Streets : the Governor and Arch- 
bifliop live eacr? in a ftately Palace . five handfom Churches are no fmall orna- 
ment to it • the Sea before it abounds with Fifli, but are not to be taken in 
December, by rcafon of th e turbulent Waves. J 

Chriftophto Columbus having refrefh'd at Jngra, Sail'd along the African Coaft I 

between the Helperides : under the Equinoctial he was Co miierably tormented 
by the Heat, that his Veffels feem'd to burn , the Hoops fprung from the 
Casks, fo that the Water run about the Hold 5 and they could expect nothing 
but death from the infufferable Heat, and want of Water .: eight days they 
had endur'd this hardfhip, when they met with a frefli Gale out of the South- 
Eaft, fo that they made great Way towards the Weft. On the laft of July he dif* 
cover'd three high Mountains . anA approaching near the Shore, he fmelt as in 
a Pofie,all the fweet breathings of fragrant Flowers commix'd, and at laft law 
a convenient Haven; where going afliore he found cultivated Grounds, and 
fteps of Beafts, but not a Man appear'd : the next day they fpy'd a Boat with 
twenty young Men come rowing from the Shore into the Ocean. The Admi* 
*al hal'd them in vain to come aboard, for they made the greater haft afliore, 

ftill 



54- 



Abundance of Pearl.' 



lft> 



Ctlumlws is 

«Unga . 



great 



KjAianus Xivunts of- t 
pofes Cttumbus. 



Strange Iniinnsl 



A M E%,ISJ. Chap. III. 

ftill looking about continually with great admiration on the Ships : whereup- 
on he commanded them to beat their Drums, and found their Trumpets, that 
they might by that means entice them aboard • but they rather taking it as a 
fignofWar, made ohemfelves ready for refiftance : mean wjiile the Spaniards 
overtook the Indian Boat, into which they threw a Hat, and other trifles j the 
Iflanders amaz'd thereat, made figns to them to row afhore y but foon after 
they fled. 

Qolmnbus proceeding on his Journey came to Taria, where he found a Fifli* 
crs Pink loaden with Oyftcrs * which opening and taking out the Meat, were 
found full of Pearls, which becaufe of their abundance were not regarded 
there - y for a broken Difh and a rufty Knife, th ^Spaniards had four long Strings 
of Pearl, 

From thence anchoring in the River of Cumana, feveral naked Men came 
aboard, adorn'd with Golden Armlets, and Strings of Pearl, Thefe inform'd 
him, that they gather'd their Gold from the Mountains and Rivers, and caught 
their Pearl-oyfters in the adjacent Seas. Some of the Spaniards were nobly 
entertained by the King and his Son, who leading them into their Palace, pla- 
ced them on Benches of Ebony-wood, curioufly wrought, and on a fudden fe- 
veral Servants came in with variety of Dainties, and well=tafted Wine. But 
becaufe Provifions grew fcarce amongftthe Sea-men, and their Meat tainted, 
Columbus thought it convenient to leave the PearUtrade till fome better opportu* 
nity. Then fetting forward,the farther he went,the fhallower he found the Sea, 
infomuch that his Ship fcarce had Water enough to fwim. This inconveni- 
ence was followed by a fecondjfor the Sea being full of Weeds and Grafs,fcarce 
fufFer'd any Paflage. A River thirty Yards deep, and twenty Leagues broad, 
came rufhing out betwixt two Shores into this Sea with fuch force, that the 
Waves went high like Mountains, which made Columbus judge himfelf in the 
greatefl danger imaginable, and withall Tack about ; fo that he came on the 
eight and twentieth of Augufi Anno 1408. to an Anchor before Hijpaniola, where 
all things were ftill in a lad confufion, as we before related. 

^oldanus Ximenes refused to follow Chrijlopber Columbus's, order and writ Let- 
ters to the King of Spain,in which he exceedingly afperfed both the Admiral Co- 
lumbus and his Br other - y who were not backward in giving an account quite 
contrary by their Letters, of the horrid Villanies perpetrated by this Ximeties, 
and defir'd aid, that fo great an Offender might receive condign punifhment. 
Mean while the Ciauano's came marching down with fixthoufand Men, which 
Bartholomew went to meet with eighty Foot and fome few Horfe : The Indians 
which he was to encounter with, rather feeming like Furies than Men, for all 
of them were daub'd over with black fmuts on their bare Skins from Head to 
Foot, and their hard Hair picked in terrible, not in Lovelocks, hung playing, 
or dangling over their Shoulders. /When the Spaniards in their March draw- 
ing up to a River where it was bed fordable, had no iooner left the Bank, and 
taken the Water, endeavoring to wade over, but the Salvages rufh'd forth out 
of the Woods, and letflye a fliowre of Arrows, that had they not been provi- 
ded with Shields and Targets, to keep ofFiuch a deadly Storm, fo thick they 
flew, and fo well aim'd, moft of them had perifh'd there : but having re- 
cover'd the oppofite Bank, the Enemy play'd all hid, and in a thought fliel- 
ter'd themfelves under the prote&ion of the Woods j where the Conqueror 
purfuing,found the Service very difficult and dangerous, for their Armes,efpeci- 
ally their Shields, flopping and intangling them a»s in a Net, among the (hrub* 

by 




Chap. III. AMERICA. 

by and twining Branches 5 which they pa/fiog, rigled themfclves, and made 
their way, like quefting Spaniels following their Game, and ftill gawling them 
with their Arrows : whereupon they left their vain puriuit, marching another 
way to intercept SWayobantxius , who with eight thoufand Ciquano's were then 
coming down againft them 5 which prov'd a harder task than was expected : 
for e're he could reduce him and his ftubborn Party, he ipent three Moneths in 
the Service. 

Sect. III. 



55 



X3Ut the great and worthy Service of thefetwo excellent Brothers de/erving 
-*"^ rather Statues and Trophies of cverlafting Honor,Monuments never to be 
demolifti'd, in their due praife, who had found out after fo many baffled Ages, 
a new World, richer, and not much lefs than the ojd, by the afperfing calum- 
niations of one malicious Perfon, loft his whole Intereft and Credit in the 
Spanijb Court, quite out of favour with his Prince, who by his infinuations 
had hinted fo much the matter of Gain among the Courtiers, that every one 
Audied no lefs than to get a Commiflion, and fo going a Commander to the 
Indies 7 make up his Mouthy and become fuddenly rich. Firft Francifco Sombadilla 
prevailing-, was fent with full Commiflion to fucceed Columbus in Hijpaniola $ 
where no fooner Landing, but he exercis'd the extremity of his Authority^ and 
feizing the Admiral and his Brother,fetter'd their Hands and Feet,and put them 
aboard on two feveral Ships for Spain : where no fooner arriv'd, but the King, 
not altogether forgetting former Services, commanded them to be unmana- 
cled, and waited on, not as Prifoners, with a civil Retinue to his Court 5 
where they were well entertain'd three years. But they being active Perfon s, 
weary of fo long repwfe, got a fecond Grant to make farther difcoveries, and 
fet forth the ninth of May, Anno 1504. with four Sail well appointed from 
Cadi^ and had a fair PaiTage from thence to Hifianiola, where begun the Storm, 
for Bombadilla, who had by the Kings Commilfion fo evil treated Columbus and 
his Brother, as aforementioned, would not fuffer him, though reconciled to 
the King, fo much as to Land, and there refrelh themfelves and their Men 5 fo 
he was fore'd to fteer on to the Iflands Guamixa and Veragua y where a Huri- 
cane, or fudden ftrefs of Weather funk two of his Veflels 5 the other two (lan- 
ding off to Sea efcap'd bilging, but fo ihatter'd and leaky, having alfo fhipp'd 
abundance of Water, they were refolv'd to put in &i Jamaica • where weary 
with the long Voyage, and hatter'd with the Temped, many of his Sea-men, 
fpent withiicknefs, after their, Landing, died. To thefe his fufferings from 
Wind and Weather, and his Enemies abroad, a greater and inteftine mifchief 
hapned : Francifco Torejio, one of his chief Commanders, abfolutely rebell'd, 
and deferting him, wjth another Party of his Sea-men went into Hifyaniola : 
which the Idanders obfervtng, refolv'd to famiflh him, keeping from him both 
Water and all other Provifipns -which had not Cohmibus ftav'd off by a hand- 
Tom Invention, they had compleated their Defigu, which was this : He told 
them that he was the offspring of the Moon, and if they refus'd to fupply 
his want, the Moon, in vindication of her Son, would famifh them, by fpoil- 
ing what e're they had planted or fow'd . and that this would prove true they 
fhould know by a fign,thaLon fuch.a Night, fhe rifing in her full glory ,fliould 
firft look red, and afterwards by degrees lofc a great part of her light . which 
indeed fo hapned, being Ecclips'd, as he could well pvognofticate ; and after 
that, they being ignorant of the caufe, fupplfd him with all Neceffaries. 

But 



Hath very bad fuccefs in 
his fourth Expedition, 









56 



Fights with Porefim. 



Tilts,] 



*X M EX,! C A: Chap. III. 

But Torefto, not able to endure the Sea with his (mail Boats, refolv'd to fur- 
prize one of the Ships that lay before Jamaica j but Columbus fo much prevented 
him, that meeting him in his return, after a hot difpute made him his Prifoner. 
But thus ended not his misfortunes • for the Veflels which he fought in foon 
after funk., and no fhip to be found in Jamaica to tranfport him thence. Laftly, 
he agreed with fome Indian Fifliermen, to carry T>idac6Mendo%a to St. T>07nmica y 
that there he might hire two VeiTels to carry him back to Spain : which De- 
fign taking effect, he arrived there in fafety : where after he had refrefli'd him* 
fclfat the Spanijb Court, after his fo long and unfortunate a Voyage he fell 
fick, and died on the eighth of May 1506. 

Mean while, the Affairs of Hijpaniola grew more out of order : for Bomba- 
dilla joyning with Ximenes, refolv'd to hoard up a huge Treafure of Gold, 
though with the infinite oppreffion of the Natives : of which King Ferdinand 
having intelligence, fent Nicholas Olanda thither with thirty Sail $ who being 
nominated Vice-Roy, anchored in forty days before Hifpaniola. No fooner 
arriv'd, but Hombadilla and Ximenes fled, leaving their vaft Treafure, amount- 
ing to ten hundred thoufand Ducats ; which' guarded with four hundred Spa- 
niards in twenty four Ships was fent to Spain : but fo it hapned, that they were 
all fwallowed up in the main Ocean, none knowtftg to this day in what La- 
titude they were loft. 



Defcfiptio» of Cwi*tut. 





Sect. VI. 

Pietro Alponfo Nigno his Voyage. 

Yyietro £{igno, encourag'd by fome of thofe that had be£n with Columbus at the 
J - Ifles of Pearl, Rigg'd out a Ship at his own charge, with fpecial order in his 
Commiffion, that he fhould riot touch on any Coaft within fifty Leagues of 
any Place Columbus had formerly difcover'd. But he little obferv'd his Orders,' 
and what he was commanded j for Sailing into the Haven Curiana } he barter 'd 
Shells, Needles, Glafs, and fuchlike Trifles,for abundance of Pearls,which the 
Wanders brought aboard, for he himfelf having but thirty Men, durft not ven* 
ture afiiore. Twenty days this bartering Trade continued, Orient Pearls for 
Toys . but finding at laft, that they were a civil and hofpitable People, he 
Landed, where they entertained him in Hovels built of Wood, and cover'd 
with Palm-Leaves - y before their Doors lay great Hills of Oyfter-fiiells, the 
Fifli being eaten, and the Pearls us'd for an ornament • Conies, Hares, Phea* 
fants, Pigeons, Geefe, Dueks, Deer, and wild Swine, are their ufual Food - 
and their Bread is made of the Roots of Trees.Moreover,CWnu?w abounds with 
thick and fhady Woods, which relbund in the night with the cries and roar- 
ings of wild Beafts : but though they are terrible fierce and voracious, yet the 
Natives ftoutly venture in amongft the thickeft of them , arm'd onely with 
Bowes and Arrows. The Inhabitants are of Complexion tawny, their Hair 
long and curl'd • their Teeth they keep white with an Herb, which they con- 
tinually hold betwixt their Lips. The Women perform their bufinefs of 
Husbandry, Ploughing and Sowing. The Men are Soldiers, following the 
bufinefs of War : but in Peace their Exercifes are Hunting and Dancing. 
They keep annual Fairs, where from all Parts of the Countrcy they bring their 
Commodities to buy and barter. They have their Gold from Caucbieta, fix 
days Sail Weft ward from Curiana. 

Thither 



Chap. Ill- AMERICA 

Thither Kigno next directed his courfe, and came to an Anchor thereon 
the firft of OBober, Atmoij oo. The Inhabitants entred aboard without the leaft 
fhinefs, or fear of danger, and brought with them to barter, Gold, Civet* 
Cats, Parrots, and Cotton. 

Thefe People, though fo civil, are extreamly jealous of their Wives : for 
when a Spaniard made^addrefs to one of them, and coming fomethincr dofe, 
her Husband ftept in fuddenly between, and feem'd to forbid the Bannt But 
coafting onward along the Shore from thence to another Iile, he found Na- 
tives far more wild and falvage: for two thoufand in a Body well Arm'd, 
flood ready to intercept their Landing . wherefore he thought it his fafeft 
courfe to Tack about, and return to Curiana whence he came. 

In his Way not far from thence, he fell amongft eighteen of the Cannibals 
Boats, which according to their cuftom had been a Man-ftealing, and now 
were fo hardy, that fetting upon the Spanifh Ship, they fuddenly clapt him 
aboard with their Canoos on all fides ; but being beaten back by the terror of 
their Guns, they foon retired : yet the Spaniards took one of the Boats with 
two Men, all the reft faving themfelves by fwimming. One of the two Men 
lay bound Hand and Foot, who told them, that he was to have been kill'd the 
next day and eaten, as he faw his Companions, with whofe Flefh they ban- 
quetting kept a jovial Feaft. Nigno unbinding the Prifoner, gave him leave 
to do what he pleas'd with the taken Cannibal,who falling upon him, cudgeled 
and whipped him to death. 

Then I^igno in his Way to Curiana touch'd upon the Coaft of <Paria, where 
he found a ftrange kind of Salt, which the Sea in tempeftuous Weather cafts on 
the Shore, which afterwards hardens by the Sun. This Salt muft be taken up 
before any Rain fall, elfe it melts and fcaks away into the Ground • yet fome- 
times grows fo hard as a Stone, infomuch that they make Pots and other Vef- 
fels of it j which the farians barter for foreign Commodities. 

2{ig?io not making here any ftay, retum'd a fecond time to Curiana, where 
he fpenc twenty days in pleafant Paftimes, being Lodg'd in a Noble-mans^ 
Houfe, at whofe Door was fix'd a Cannibals Head, as a Trophy of his Vi* 
ttory. He faw there alfo the dead Bodies of divers eminent Perfons fet drying 
at a Fire, fo hardned to be fet amongft their Idols. 

At length Nigno fet Sail homewards, and carried with him an invaluable 
Treafure in Pearls to Spain : but by the way fell out with his Sea-men, 
becaufe he kept raoft of the Purchafe to himfelf, and would not give them 
their fhares, nay more than that, kept back the fifth part from the King : 
whereupon being complain'd of by Ferdinando de Vega, Governor of Galhcta, 
he was put in*Prifon, and at laft lent to the Court, where the Pearls were 
declared free Prize, becaufe Nig?io had bartered for them at Curiana, contrary 
to the Kings Orders, not to touch at any Coaft, within fifty Leagues of what 
Columbus had difcover'd. But fince he had no way regarded thofe Commands 
toprefervethat Pearl-Trade, King Ferdinand fent Governors to Qmana, who 
in his Name mould look after, and employ Men for the catching the Pearl, 
Oyfters. Thefe, accompanied with a confiderable number of Soldiers, befides 
fix Monks, forced the Inhabitants tp furnifh them with abundance of Pearl : 
which oppreiTion grew to fucha heighth, that one Morning a great Party of 
them confpiring together, fell fuddenly upon them, moft of diem being maiTa- 
cred :^ after they had a while infukingly triumphed over the dead Bodies, and 
finifh' d, as they thought, their good work (feafting on their Flefli at a joyful 

I Baticjuet) 



57 



IZ'igm Fights with the 

Cannibals. 



Strange Salt. 



Strange Corps. 



■N/ftfsput in Prifon. 



Cruel dealings in fflkri- 
ana. ' 



f 



53 



*jf M E%sl CA 



Chap, III, 










Banquet) thofe few that efcap'd Sail'd to the Ifland Dominic, the Gover- 
nor of which Didactu Columbus, Son to the famous Cbriftopber, being incens'd» 
immediately fent Captain Ocampo with three hundred Men to Curiana $ where 
in his firft fury, without diftinftion of Sex or Age, he flew all he met with.- 
Butbecaufe they themfelves could not follow the rich Oyfter.catching, he 
fpar'd fome for that purpofe, whom he commanded to build twenty five lit- 
tle Houfes, or Hovels,on the Shore, which he call'd *&» Toledo. After this they 
went on afrefli in their Pearl-fiihing. 



T 



Sect. V. 

The Voyage of Vincent Agnes Pinzon. 

i He firft of December, Anno 1499. Vincent Pinion fet Sail with four Veffels 
out of the Haven Pahs': he had been Commander of a Ship under 
Columbus in his firft Expedition, by which means he got great experience in 
Navigation. When he came a little beyond the Hebrides, he was furpris'd by 
a great Storm, which in three days drove him before a plain 'Coaftj where 
Landing, he found nothing but the Footfteps of Men . and in the night he 
faw great Fires, fuchas are generally made in Camps • about day-break twen- 
ty Spaniards march'd thither, whom thirty two Men, arm'd with Bowes and 
Arrows, made ready to encounter ; but as they approached, the Spaniards prof* 
fer'd them Peace, but they refilled all Compofition ; yet having faced one an- 
other a while, they retreated without fighting. 

After this Vinson difcoter'd a wide, but (hallow River . where Landing, on 

a Hill he met a great company of Jmericdnt : He, to invite them to Trade, 

threw them a Shell; in return for which they cafthim a lump of Gold - which 

pVj ^^ when the Spamari went to take up they all fell upon him ■ and indeed he 

could not have defended himfelf long, had not fome of his Company quickly 

come 



i 



Chap. III. 



A M E%lt J. 



19 




come in to his fpeedy refcue,which occafioji'd a bloody Conflift,whercinfeve- 
ral Spaniards were wounded, eight kiird,and one of their fmall Boats funk ; for 
the Americans fought fo valiantly , that they purfu'd the Spanifl? Ships into the Sea. 
Pinion being at laft freed of thefe AfTailants, got into a frefh-rwater Sea, caus'd 
by the confluence of many Rivers falling in there : from hence he got fight of 
the Parian Coaft, and with admiration beheld a Tree which fixteen Men could 
not compafs ; Between thefe Trees he law as ftrange a Monfter, the foremoft 
part refembling a Fox, the hinder a Monkey, the Feet were like a Mans, with 
Ears like an Owl ; under whofe Belly hung a great Bag,in which it carry'd the 
Young, which they drop not, nor forfake till they can feed themfelves. Pinion 
caught one of them with three Young, which died in the Voyage, but the 
Dam he prefented alive in Granada to the King. 

This Captain having Sail'd fix hundred Leagues along the Parian Coaft, 
in a great Tern peft two of his Carvils in his view were overfet, their Keels 
turn'd upward j the third driven from her Anchor, and the fourth fo fliaken, 
and full of Leaks, that ready to fink they ran her'afliqre to fave their lives,, and 
though he efcaped himfelf the danger of drowning, then being afhore, yet he 
was no ways freed from far greater inconveniences, for he faw nothing but 
death either for want of Provifions , or barbaroufnefs of the Inhabitants : 
whereupon they refolv'd to free themfelves of their miferies by felf-flaugJiter, 
killing one another • but fome better advifed to fpend their Lives like Qbrifti- 
ans upon the unbelieving Salvages : Whilft they were in this defperate condi- 
tion, the Storm ceafed, and Providence prefented their fafety, the Ship driving 
in before the Wind • at which every one taking frefti courage, they mended 
the two fhatter'd Ships as well as they could y wherein venturing to Sea, and 
fetting Sail, they came on the laft of September, Amo 1500. into the Spanifh 
Haven Tabs. 



'■ 






A remarkable Bcaft. 1 



Great Storm.' 



.7 



I 1 



S e c rl 



6o 



AMERICA. 



Chap. Ill, 



The manner of^the Inha- 
bitants in Paria, 



Sect. V. 
Tk Expedition of Americus Vefputius. 

AMerkus Vejpufius a Florentine, Commanded four Ships, fitted out at King 
Ferdi?iand's Charge, fct Sail the twentieth of May, Anno \ty7* and refrcfti- 
ing at the Canaries, from thence he ftcer'd to faria>, where he fo much gain'd 
upon the Inhabitants, that for Pins, Bells, Looking*glaiTes, and other Trifles, 
they daily brought aboard in Barter great ftore of Gold, thebeftof Met- 
chandife. 

Thefe People, both Men and Women go ftark naked, not fo much as co- 
vering their (pudenda -, their Complexion fwarthy ; they {have off all their Hair, 
onely fome Women leave a Tuft on their Heads. From their Paces, being 
broad and flat, one may judge them to be deriv'd from Tartar? •, they much ex- 
ceed the Europeans in Running and Swimming, ihfomuch that the Women of* 
. tentimes without any Boats, or floating pieces of Timber, venture two or 
three Leagues into the Sea ; they have fo great skill in Shooting, that they 
exceed almoft all other Nations, having Arrows headed with fharp Fifli- 
bones • they alfo ufe Lances and Clubs. The Women follow the Men in the 
- Wars, andferve in ftead of Horfesto carry Ammunition and other Neceffa- 
ries j to which Labor they are fo us'd, that they will bear on their Shoulders 
forty, nay fifty Leagues together, fuch Luggage, as three Spaniards are fcarcc 
Tb:ir4Uang=Cuftom s . a ble to lift from the Ground. They acknowledge no Commander or Supe- 
rior either in Wars or Government • they keep up old Feuds, fighting with an 
inveterate hatred againft their Neighbors, upon antient fcores and revenges, 
ftill kept in.memory of their Relations {lain in former Battels - and alfo ftill 
creating frefh animofitics upon their Loffes in later Engagements. Their 
Language is fmooth and pleating, being fpoken with a kind of lifpirrg, and 
abfolutely different from the neighboring Nations. When they eat they fit 
upon the Ground, and fleeping lie in Hammocks, each end whereof being faft- 
nedtoaPoft . underneath they kindle a Fire • over them they hang Fifli-nets 
and Hooks, Fifli-baskets and Calabajhes. When they have occafion to eafe Na- 
tuxe by evacuation, they retire into fome private Place ; but the Women think 
it no immodefty to make Water, even in the prcfence of ftrange Men. They 
obferve not fingle Matrimony ; for every Man takes as many Women as he 
plcafes, under bonds of Wedlock fuch and fo Height, that he turns them off ac 
his pleafure : and Women take the fame liberty in cafheering their Husbands 
when not pleating them. They bring forth Children with little or no pain, 
and wafli them in a River fo foon as born . which done they return to their 
ufual work and bufinefs. When they are incensM againft their Husbands, they 
revenge themfelves by poyfoning their Children. Their Houfcs arc built in 
the fafliion of a Houfe-clock, with a Roof rais'd from the Wall upon four Pil- 
lars like the Bell, and cover'd with Palm.Leaves . fome of which are fo big, 
that they afford room for fix hundred Men : every feventh or eighth year they 
remove, becauie (as they fay) the Air is oftentimes infe&ed by Mens Breaths, 
by their long continuance in one place. Their Riches confift in Feathers of 
divers colours, Strings of Fifh-bones inteflningled with green and white 
Beads, with which they adorn their Heads, Arms, Legs, Ears, and Checks : 
Gold and Pearls they make little account of 5 and as to Trade and Commerce 

with 






Chap. III. 



AMERICA 



6\ 



with other People, they know not what belongs to it. Their greateft Friend- 
fliip confifts in proftiruting their Daughters or Wives to one another. Their 
Dead they bury in moift Grounds, and put with thefii both Meat and Drink 
into the Graves : When any Perfon grows very weak by lingring Sickneft, 
they carry the Difeafed into a neighboring Wood, where they lay him in a Silk 
Hammock, tied between two Trees j then dancing the whole day about him, 
at night they fet Bread and Water enough by him to lad four days,and then de- 
parting look no more after him, who thus neglected feldomcfcape : but if Co 
it happen that one recover, all his Relations for the future honour him as a 
god. When any one falls into a Fever, his Friends immediately bathe him in 
cold Water, and afterwards fet him before a great Fire, then drive him before 
them till he falls down almoft breathlcfs, and at laft put him to Bed. They 
neither Let blood in the Arms not Feet, but in their Sides and Calves of their 
Legs. Sometime they fad four days together, which they fuppofe a great 
means to preferve their Health. Their Bread confifts of a fort of Fruit call'd 
Jucba, Cbambi, or Igname. Laftly, no Lyon devours his Prey with more voraci* 
ous cagernefs, than they their taken Enemies. , 

Vefputitts being fully informed concerning the Situation of Taria, weighed 
Anchor, and on thefixth day after entred a convenient Harbor, where going 
afhoreJie found twenty Houfes built in the middle of a Lake on great Ports :* , A V£nr ^ngcVahgc 
every Houfe had a Draw-bridge, over which they pais d from one to the other. 
So foon as the Inhabitants fet eye on the Spaniards, they immediately drew up 
their Bridges : yet fome of them in twelve little Canoos came towards the Spa- 
nijh Ships, but amaz'dto fee their Looms fo big, durft pot, though hal'd with 
figns, to come aboard, but hafted away to a high Mountain ; yet feem'd to fig- 
nifie that they would return, as indeed they did, bringing fixteen Maids along 
with them, of which they put four into a Spa?iifi Boat, themfelvcs in the inte- 
rim rowing between the Ships from one to another, fliewing all tokens of 
friendfhip, when on a fuddeh a Company of old Women came running to the strange Fi°ht. 
Shore, and tearing the Hair from their Heads, made a terrible nojle and excla* 
mation, expreffing the greateft forrow they could poflible : whereupon the 
four Indian Maids fuddenly leap'd overboard, and the Men fhot abundance of 
Arrows out of their Boats at the Ships ; nay, fome of them fwimming under 
Water, endeavor'd to fink the Cock-boats which were made faft behind their 
Ships. Upon this fudden Onfet the Spaniards making life of their Guns, quick- 
ly leiTen'd the number of the AiTailants, infomuch that they fled to the Shore j 
yet five of them being overtaken, were carry'd Prifoners aboard. 

Fefputius obferving thefe their mifdemeaning Carriages , judg'd ic no way 
convenient to ftay any longer among fuch barbarous and deceitful Salvages: 
but having weighed Anchor,* and Sail'd eighty Leagues along the Coaft, he 
ran into another convenient Haven, whofe Shore fwarm'd with People, which 
on a fudden running away, hid themfelvcs in a neighboring Wood. 

Here the Spaniards Landing were amazed, when in their Huts they faw p J^"" 00 ft d rangcIy ^ rc ' 
Snakes and Serpents roafting before a Fire, whereof one had Wings, and ano- 
ther whofe Mouth was tied together with a Rope, ftared with open eyes in a 
frightful manner. 

Here they left feveral Trifles to entice the fled Natives to correfpond with 
them. And this their Defign prov'd fuccefsful- for the next day the Americans 
came aboard without the leaft fear, and offer'd to flicw their hofpitable kind- 
nefsto the Spaniards, if they pleas'd to travel three days Journey with them up 

into 



6V 



The remarkable recepti- 
on of twenty three Spani- 
ards. 



A M E%J C A. Chap. III. 

into the Countrey, telling them, they had onely rais'd thofe few Huts by the 
Seaside for a fmall time whilft they Fifh'd in thofe Pares. 

About twenty of the Spaniards well Arrri'd refolv'd to undertake the Jour- 
ney^ and travelling over Hills, Dales, and Rivers, they came at laft into a 
Village confiding of nine of the foremention'd Houfcs, but mightily peopled ; 
where they were in a wonderful manner received by their glad welcomes, by 
Dancing, Singing, Hunting, and other joyful Acclamations, prefenting their 
Wives and Daughters, as the chiefeft part of their hofpitality, to carefs the 
Strangers at their pleafure. The news was no fooner fpread, but the adjacent 
Villages came in throngs to gaze upon, and falute the Strangers, inviting them 
alio to their Towns. The Spaniards taking it in good part , fpent nine days 
among them, highly treated with all manner of jollities, but cfpecially at their 
choice with the varieties otVenm : from thence then returning to their Fleet, 
accompanied with thoufands of the Natives,every one carrying Prefents to the 
Admiral Vefputius 5 of whom as many as they could at once receive, they enter- 
taining aboard, then difmifs'd them, and admitted others . but the Guns going 
orf, they fuddenly leap'd from the Decks, and div'd like Ducks under Water : 
But afterwards being informed, that fuch thunder-claps were fent them from 
Heaven to deftroy their Enemies, they were fomewhat better fatisfi'd, and 
call'd the Spaniards, Ckarabi, that is, Wife cMen. 

This Ifland lying in the Mexican Bay, in twenty Degrees of Northern Lati- 
tude, Vefputius left on his Starboard, and Sail'd along a Meandring Coaft 
(which he always kept in fight) eight hundred and fixty Leagues, and at laft 
entred a Haven, the like whereof he had not feen before. Here he fpent a 
Moneth in repairing his Ships, to which the Inhabitants freely gave their affi- 
ftancej and among other things complain'd, that afalvagc People came yearly 
thither from an Ifland about a hundred Leagues diftant, who fell upon them 
with horrible rage, and whomfoever they took they eat, but firft inflicted all 
manner of tortures upon them, fparing none, but together murthering aged 
People and fucking Infants 5 wherefore they crav'd afliftance to be reveng'd,' 
which if the Spaniards would grant, they would follow the Fleet with their 
Boats. Vefputius promis'd his aid to deftroy fuch a blood-thirfty People ; and 
to allure them that he would perform his Word, he ordered feven of them to 
go in Qanoos before and fliew them the Way. On the feventh day they came 
to an Anchor before the Ifland By , where the Shore was guarded with naked 
Men, whole Bodies being ftrong and brawny, were painted, and their Arms, 
Legs, and Head, adorn'd with divers colour'd Plumes, having not onely ofFen- 
five Weapons, as Bowes, Arrows, and Launces, but alfo defenfive, huge Tar- 
gets, and fquare Shields. So foon as they judg'd the approaching Spaniards to 
k a cruel right with the be within reach, they (hot a great flight of Arrow* at them j but Fejputius lying 
clofe along the Shore with his Ships, hr d upon them with Chain-ihot, which 
did great execution : yet notwithstanding about forty Spaniards leaping afliore 
out of their Boats, found themfelves in no fmall danger 5 for the Cannibals 
upon the found of Horns flocking together, fo prefs'd upon them that they 
were fore'd to lay afide their Guns, and fall to Blows, and had not timely af- 
fiftance come to them, they had undoubtedly been all (lain : two hours the 
Victory was doubtful on whofe fide it would fall- yet at laft the Cannibals 
quitting the Field, left the Spaniards Victors • who the next day purfu'd their 
gotten Victory with fuch fuccefs, that they drove their Enemies before them, 
burnt their Villages and Boats, and carry'd two hundred and two and twenty 

of 



Cannibals. 



Chap. III. 



A M E%1 C A. 



*i 



of them Prifoners to Spain , where they fafely arriv'd the 15. of November, Anno 

1498. 

This good fuccefs fo encourag'd Vejputius, that having ftay'd fcarce feven 
Moneths afliore , he obtaining the Command over fix Ships, with which he 
fet Sail from Cadi^, and touching upon the Qanaries , Steer'd from thence 
Southerly 5 and having Sail'd five hundred Leagues, he difcover'd a Countrcy 
overflowed and made Mariffiy by great Rivers, and abounding with Trees, but 
faw no fign of any Inhabitants - y yet not long after, coming before an Ifland,he 
took a Boat with two Prifoners , newly guelt , and fetit as a Prefent to feaft 
the Cannibals, which refus'd to Treat on any other account whatfoever ; where- 
fore he Sail'd eighty Leagues forward along the Shore of an unknown Ifland, 
where he Barter'd for fome Gold, and got five hundred Pearls for one fingle 
Shell 5 thefe Pearly the Inhabitants faid were not found there, but taken from 
their Neighboring Enemies , which liv'd Weftward, and had abundance of 
them. 

Nothing worthy of remark happened in this Voyage, onely the ftrange con* 
ftitutions of a wild People, living on a barren Ifle,deferve to be mentioned. 

About their Necks hung two hollow Veflels , the one full of white ftamp'd 
Worts, and Herbs • and the other, full of Grafs, which they greedily cram'd 
into their Mouths, feeding like Cattel • then a Stick wetted with Spittle, they 
put into the bruis'd Herbs , taking upon the end of it, as upon the point of a 
Knife,fomc of the bruis'd to their Mouths,which (as if chawing the Cud) turn- 
ing therein,then taking out again, and ftrowing more of the fame Herbs out of 
the Veflel upon it, fwallow'd it down. No frelh Water was to be had amongft 
them, but what they gather'd from the Dew in great Leaves : Neither had 
they any Houfes, but dwelt under great Trees, and fed on dry'd Fifli. 

The next remark in this Voyage, was the difcovery of an Ifland not far from 
the former, where he found the Footfteps of a Gigantick People, upon which ***&**> 
nine Spaniards went a League to fearch the Countrey, where they faw five 
great Huts, {landing in a fpacious Valley , and in them two old, and three 
young Wpmen , each of them being twice as tall as an ordinary Man : The 
old ones invited the Spaniards to eat , who when they were fat down, confut- 
ing how they might take and carry one of thefe Giantefles to Spam r there to 
fhew her for Money, thirty fix Giants came in to them, ( never did the Sun 
fhine on a more terrible People) which fo amaz'd the Spaniards, that their Hair 
feem'd to ftand an end at the fear thereof: Every Giant was arm'd with a 
Bow and Arrows, and a Club : They wondering at the nine ftrangers, flood 
talking very earneftly one to another , which gave the Spaniards time to think 
of making their efcape . fome judg'd it convenient to difcharge their Guns up* 
on them, and in the Smoke to run away . others thought, that it would be bet- 
ter to take a milder courfe, which they all agreed on ; and taking their leave, 
went out of the Hut, but were followed by the Giants, who kept a Stones caft 
behind them, and went fafter or flower, as the Spaniards flacken'd or mended 
their pace - y who at laft getting to the Shore, and from thence into their Boats, 
they fuddenly put off; but the Giants then purfu'd them with eager fpeed, all 
of them leaping into the Water, and Swimming, (hot abundance of Arrows 
after them ; but frighted by the Thunder of two great Guns that were dif- 
charged from the Ships, return'd afliore , and fled intc the neighboring 
Hills. 



Yeffutim fecond Expedi- 
tion. 



Strange confiitUtion of, ft 
falyage people. 



Strange adve'n'ure of nine 
Spaniards , meeting with 



Oyftcw. 



«I:W 



C. 



<H zA M E %1 C A. Chap: 111. 

VtfyiiuUs at lad began to confider of returning home , his Prbvifions begin- 
ning to grow fcarce , and his Sea.men faint , having continued in the £ quino* 
dial heats a whole year . wherefore he directed his courfc towards Spain, 
in his Voyage, driving along the Coaft an advantagious Trade , by bartering 
biptionofthcPiart- Shells and Glafs for Pearls. The Inhabitants prefented him with Oyfters of 
which fome inclosed one hundred and thirty Pearls- when they attain to their 
full growth, they fall outsof the Shells thcmfelves, but thole that flick, decay. 
So upon the tenth of November, the Fleet came fafe to an Anchor before Qadi^ 
nfi*««, third Expcd, Aftcr ^hich, Vesfutim retired to Shit; with intent to fettle himfclf there, but 
he had not long repos'd , when Emanuel King of (Portugal lent for him to Lisbon, 
and gave him the Command of three Ships, to difcovernew Countreys 5 be- 
tween the Canaries and Africa, they pafs'd thorow Jo many Fifiies (not unlike a 
Bream ) that in an hours time they loaded their Boats with them . this Fifh 
hath a round thin Scale, fliarp Teeth, Stones in their Brains or Forcheacfs, a 
(harp pointed Heart, a gladder full of Wind, red Tail and Fins, feeds on Sea 
Weeds, Gurnets and Oyfters, and is of a delicious Tafte. 

From thence, five degrees Southward of the Equinox, he found a naked 
People on the top of a high Rock, that beckon'd the Spaniards to come towards 
them; upon which, two of them refolv'd to venture thither, having order not 

.^! cdoffomcW/ * t0 ftay at the moft abovc five da y s : The firft encounter they had was of fome 
Women, who offer'd their bodies to proftitution . but a Youth, as if affrighted 
with fome fudden danger, came running amongft them, whom, whilft they 
flood gazing upon, and wondering at, an old Woman with a great Club, run- 
ning down the Hill overtook, and knock 'd him down dead upon the ground; 
which done, the Women that were making Court to the Spaniards , took him 
by the Heels, and dragg'd up the Hill, where foon after they faw him chop'd 
in pieces, Broyl'd, and eaten : They r.lfo made figns to the Spaniards, that they 
would devour them alio in the fame manner. The Shore was crouded with 
Men , which fhowr'd upon them feveral flights of Arrows, therefore they 
thought it beft to Weigh Anchor, fo taking Aboard their two Men, and having 
Sail'd 150. Leagues, they gotfight of the Coaft of (Brafile, along which he Sail'd 
Southerly to fifty two Degrees , where three Sraftlians came Aboard of their 
own accord , and were eafily perfwaded to go with him to Portugal 5 but the 
Weather growing very i^ad, and the Cold intolerable, the StormsVwelling 
the Waves into the bignefs of Mountains , Vc^utim left the Coaft des Tatagones, 
and the Strcights, afterwards call'd Magellan, behind him, burnt one of his Ships 
before Cafe Sierra Leona, and brought two fafe to Lisbon. 

His fourth Expedition happen'd , May 10. Anno 1503. at which time he 
Steer 'd directly with fix Sail to Sierra Leona, and approaching the Coaft, could 
not come to an Anchor, becaufe of the ftrong eddying Currents : Three De- 
grees beyond the Equinox appear 'd a rifing Ifland , two Leagues lona, and 
one broad, deftitute of Inhabitants , his beft Ship being fix hundred Tun, fplk 
here againft a Rock, and nothing of her was faved, but the Sea-men : But Ve- 
sjuum Rowing afhore with a Boat , found a convenient Haven, with abun- 

w ' 8Wn r dance of fweet Water, high Trees, Sea-Spiders, and horrible Dragons, which 
have a fliarp Head, round fiery Eyes, and wide Mouths, Wings'not unlike a 
Bats, a fpeckled Breaft, curl'd Tail, blew Back, and two Bag! like a drawn 
Satchel Triangular, were under their Bellies : No lefs ftrange are the Sea- 
Spiders, by their hard Feet, long upper Teeth, two long Sheers or Pinchers 
and double Belly . between the Head and the Belly lies a black Skin, with 

which 



Vefputius fourth Expedi- 
tion." 



Chap. III. 



A M E%I C A. 



6s 




which they darken the Water ? when any one goes to take them in the night, 
they make a great (hadow ; they feed on Fifh , the Female lays little white 
Eggs, not unlike ordinary Hail-ftones. 

Vefyutim having left this defolate Ifle, three hundred Leagues a Stern, enter'd 
a Haven, to which he gave the name of St. Abdy, where he ftay'd two Months, 
expecting the return of thofe which he had fent into the Countrey ; but feeing 
it in vain to wait any longer, he proceeded on his Journey, and Sailing in be- 
tween the Abrelhos, in the River Curnbabo y he built a ftrong Fort, Garrifon'd it 
with twenty four Men, twelve pieces of Ordnance, and Provifions for fix 
Moneths : Five Moneths Vefyutius had fpent in the building this Caftle; when 
he returned home with one Ship, laden with Brafill Wood, where approaching 
Lisbon , beyond all expectation , the Inhabitants of the City ran to Congratu- 
late his happy return. And from this Americm Vetyutius, the NeTb World is to this 
day call'd America* 

Sect. VII. 

The Expedition of Alphonfo, Fogeda, Diego Nicuefa, Ancifus , and Roderick 
Colmenares. 

A Mericus Vesjutius was fcarce fitted out in Lisbon , when Fogeda fet Sail with 
"*" ^ three hundred Men from fieata , the chiefeft Haven of Hifyaniola , to the 
Ifland Codego, inhabited by Naked People, but of comely Perfonage,and withal 
expert and moft excellent Archers : Here he found a very ftrange Tree, Wonderful Tree «jc%,. 
which bears a Fruit not unpleafing to the Palate , yet deadly Poyfon, and be- 
fides , whoever chances to deep under their fhadow , loofe both their under- 
ftanding and Eye-fight , and never attain to their former Sences , except they 
take fome Opiates, as dangerous, and fo by long ileep, recover. 

Here Fogeda fet upon a poor Village near the Sea=fide, where without mercy ^r^cnieityanddcftru^ 

K f he 






66 



Famine. 



Strange accident. 



Ancifut efirape* great dan- 
ger. 



AMERICA. Chap. III. 

he put them all to the Sword, except a few Youths which were onely faved, 
that they might inform Fogeda, what was become of the (lain and taken Spani- 
ards - ^Ko -told him, that according to their Cuftom, they had Roafled the 
dead, and alfo their living Prifoners, and feafted on their Flefli. Here having 
burnt the Houfes , and fifting the Allies, Nicutfa found fome Gold. But now 
they began to be diftrefs'd. for Provifions ; for prevention of which, T^kuefa 
had given order to Jncifus y Marflial in Hifianiola, that he fhould follow with 
a Ship of Victual, for the Army to Qodega. But he being kept back by incon- 
veniencies, moft of the Spaniards were famifh'd, fo that the three hundred Men 
which Codega brought from Hifyariwla , were reduced to fixty. And he was al- 
ready under-Sail to Hifyaniola, when Jncifus Anchored in the Haven of Codegoos, 
and lent fome Men afliore to mend his Boat , and fetch frefh Water, which 
whilft they were doing, the Natives came flocking about them : Three days 
they fae'd one another, ufing no Hoftility , when at laft a Spaniard that under- 
ftood the Qodegan Tongue , adventuring to fetch Water, he was immediately 
encompaiTed ; when fpcaking to them, and informing them in their own Lan- 
guage, That he was none of Fogedas or TSQcuefas People, which not long fince 
had committed fo great (laughter, they left him, and the rather, becaufc he 
told them, that Jncifus would take revenge on them, if they did any wrong to 
him. Thus quieted, they brought all forts of Provifions Aboard. Mean while, 
Ancifm Sail'd to the Main Continent Uraba, where in the Mouth of a Haven he 
ran his VelTel a-ground,which was bilg'dj tke Sea-men taking fome Arms along 
with them, fav'd their lives by fwimming afliore • where, their firft fuftenance 
they found was ftore of Peaches and Cherries, which was a great refreshment 
in thofe hot Countreys,but yet had undoubtedly been ftarv'd, but that in fcarch- 
ing the Wood for Fruits, they found WikUSwine, which preferv'd their livesj 
yet they were not free from apparent danger, having to deal with a Salvage 
People, into whofe hands they were fo unfortunately caft by Shipwrackj how- 
ever Jncifus fet a good face on the bufinefs, marching with a hundred Men up 
into the Countrey, where fome of the Urabanners from an ambufcade unawares, 
with their Arrows wounded feveral of his Men, hereupon they retreated to 
the Shore of the River Daria, whitfier alfo they had brought the fmall Boats, 
fav'd from the Wreck • where whilft they were in confutation how to return 
to HiJpa?iiola y the Inhabitants having mufter'd themfelves, and making a Body 
of five hundred Men, fet upon them , who after a fliarp Conflict, made them 
retreat, and at laft to flie, whom Jncifus purfuing, found in a Thicket of Canes 
or Reeds a great Treafure of Gold. Mean while , 'Hjcuefa Sail'd to the plen- 
tiful Golden Countrey Veragua with three Ships , of which he loft two, the 
one Commanded by Lupus de Olana, and the other by <Peter Umbria Olana, which 
was ftranded in the River Veragua, which gives name to the whole ttland, but 
he built a new CarYd, whereas that of Lupus Olana was bilg'd among the Rocks. 
Little better fuccefs had ISficuefa, whofe Ship over-turning with a Tempeft, he 
with a few of his Men made land upon Vnagua, where he rang'd up and down 
in amiferable condition, on a barren, and in a manner defolate Shore feventy 
days : All that time, finding no other Food than Wild Roots, who wandring 
up and down, at laft met with Olana, a little before caft away on the fame Ifle, 
whom he fecur'd, becaufc he prefum'd to ufurp the Title, and be prime Com- 
mander of that Countrey. Upon which, the Spaniards being divided, fome 
for Jncifus, fome for Olana, the difference more and more encreafing, would not 
be reconcile, till the Famine overpowering, mafter'd both, fo that not being 

able 



Chap. Ill; A M E%IC A. 6j 

able to handle their Arms , the Salvages flew them at their pleafure , by this 
means in a fhort time , of feven hundred eighty five, remained fcarce ninety; 
yet did not all this mifery work any thing upon the ambitious humor of Vaf* 
ques Nunnery who rebelling againft Jncifus, fplit that frnall remainder of Men, 
and with the help of thofe he had drawn over to his Party , made himfelf Go- 
vernor of Uraba y not poflible to be long enjoy'd without fpecdy fupply, which 
foon after they received ; for Colmenares Sailing from Hijpaniola with Provisions, '•'«««"« E*pedmo«. 
arriv'd there the 15. of Oclober, Jnno 1510. having been tofs'd twenty three days 
at Sea ; then making into the River Gaira , to furnifii himfelf with frefli Wa- 
ter, he loft forty feven Men ; for whilft they were filling their Casks, feven 
hundred of the Salvages came down upon them, and with their Poyfon'd 
Arrows wounded and kill'd moft of them. Colmenares came in a good time to H»*««v"aptiw 
the remainder under Ancifus Command , being in danger of death for want of 
Provifions, and finding the fa&iotis that were among them about Superiority, 
he thought it fit, confulting with fome of the chiefeft of them, to find out Ni- 
cue/a, who was indeed the Governor that had the Grant from the King : This 
agreed, Colmenares went to fearch, and at laft lighted upon him, building a For- 
trefs againft the aflaults of the Enemies on the Promontory. Mormor, he was 
glad to find him, but griev'd to fee the mifery and hardfhip they endur'd,moft 
of his Men being kill'd, partly by the exceffive Heats, partly by Famine, and 
partly by the cruelty of the Natives, fo that he had onely fixty remaining, and 
thofe many of them alfo fick and weak. 

Colmenares having delivered his Meflage, 7s[icuefa broke up his Quarters, and 
fleighting the Fort, went with him, but both himfelf and his Men were op- 
pos'd from Landing by ISLunne^ wherefore £{tcuefa was neccflitated to Steer 
for Hijpaniola ; whom, or what became of him was never known. 

Nunne^ having thus quitted himfelf of Nicucfa, and now, more than ever, 
Wanting Provifion, he refolv'd to take out his own Commiffion at large, and 
fettingup for himfelf, make no difcrimination of Perfons, Spaniards, orNa* 
tives, but to make out his Fortune. 

And firft, he fell upon Careta King of Qoita, whom he took Prifoner, Plunder- 
ing him of all his Treafurc and Provifions ; yet this fufficed not long, for foon 
after, King Concha invading Careta, N(umie% took hold of that opportunity, and 
pretending to affift Careta , being well recruited with his Forces, fet upon Con- 
cha, who immediately fled, and left all to the fpoil of his Enemies. 

This News foamaz'd Co7Mogr«5,another King, that he proffer 'd Peace ; where- K *™^ rka r b k Palla( * of 
upon Nunne^ going thither, was nobly entertain'd in his Palace, being one hun- 
dred and fifty Paces long, and eighty broad, the Floors Pav'd with Stone, and 
the Roofs Vaulted, his Cellars were ftor'd with Wine, made of the Root Jucca, 
Ages j and Mais- y the Privy-Chamber was hung round with dead bodies, 
Mummy'd artificially with Lent Fires, and were the Corpfes of Qomogrus Ance- 
stors , and others of the Royal Blood, and near eft Relations, of whom fome 
dy'd at leaft four hundred years before • each of thefe faften d by Cordage 
made of Reeds, were Habited in Cotton, richly adorn'd with Pearls and Gold. 
Mean while, a Hurricanehappening , terrible with Thunder and Lightning, 
and hideous Gufts , fwell'd and fo enrag'd the Sea , that breaking its bounds, 
overrunning, drown'd the whole Champain ; thusthe hopes of a fruitful Har- 
yeft being utterly loft, they fuffer'd under a great Famine. 

The Spaniards which Encamp'd near the River Daria, on Uraba y perceiving 
this, and knowing they had no manner of fupply from Hifyaniola, and having 

K % already 






,; 



<S8 



•Xunmz Jixphitt. 



A Arange Pallace built on 
Trees. 



into 



AMERICA Chap, III. 

already Pillag'd the Neighboring Kings , that they had nothing left. Kunne^ 
marching thirty Leagues up the River, Plundered the Village , of which Dai- 
baiba was King, where he found an unvaluable quantity of Gold, but little or 
no Provifion. Here were many Flitter Mice, or Bats, bigger than Turtle 
Doves, whofe biting was mortal , unlefs immediately wafh'd with Salt Wa- 
ter, according to the information of the Prifoners. 

Now as NtmneziUraba Pilhgd towards the South, fo did Qolmwares, fetting 
up alfo for himfelf, n\ake prize of all , to the Eafl with fixty Men , Rowing 
againft the Stream up the River Varia, above twelve Leagues, where he found 
in feveral Villages and Hamlets, and at KingTiovi's Palace, abundance, both 
of ProVifion and Gold • from thence he March'd to the mighty Province Abe- 
namebei, which though making fome refiftance, at laft they fubdu'd. 

And the neighboring King Abibeiba narrowly efcap'd the like fortune, whofe 
Pallace was built on the tops of Trees, Plafh'd, and Pleited together, Timber 
Beams lying athwart 5 neceffity forcing them to choofe fuch high Habitations, 
partly^to avoid the Inundations of River s,fwoln above their bounds by Hidden 
Turmns the low Land an j a l m oft afiiduous Showres from the Mountains; and partly, to be free 
from the excursions of fculking Robbers ; alfo being better able to defend 
themfelves in thefe Caftles in the Air, and alfo fecur'd by their heighth from 
their Shot , being above the reach of their Indian Arrows : The bodies of the 
Trees downwards, upon which the Houfes are built,are generally twenty four 
Fathom thick , fo that they cannot eafily be cut down , nor fired ; but Cohne- 
nans againft thefe, as they fuppos'd, impregnable Forts, having made a Galle- 
ry with feveral great Hurdles, fet his Men to work under that fafeguard, with 
Axes on the Tree whereon Abibeiba's Houfe flood , who feeing his imminent 
danger, wondring at this new manner of Storming, came down, promifing 
tofurnifh him with Gold out of the neighboring Mountains, notwithstand- 
ing it would be with the danger of his Life j becaufe the Qannibds generally 
kill thofe that adventur'd to dig in the Mines : To this promife , Colmtnarts 
kvutm&tsptHhrds, hearken'd, and having fet him at liberty, for the performance,he in ftead there* 

ftrangcly difcover d. 7 & ' 1 > i - i 1 1 i 

of, on the contrary, ltirr d up, and joyn d with all the Conquered Kings, to 
deftroy him and his Men : Nor were they flack to have executed their defign, 
five thoufand of them being already drawn together at the Village Ttrichi, the 
appointed place of Rendezvous, and fo privately carry'd, that undoubtedly it 
had been effected, if not happily difcover'd by this accident. 

Ttynne^, amongft his other Slavefles, had one exceeding beautiful , on 
which he was much Enamoured , and fhe likewife feem'd to bear as great 
an affection towards him, which flie manifefted , by declaring the fecrct to 
Nunnez^ which her Brother had imparted to her , being an intended gene- 
ral Maifacre the night following, that fo flie might the better make her ef- 
cape the day before • yet fo much fhe prefer'd the fafety of her Lover, before 
the liberty of her Native Countrey , that fhe difcover'd the Plot. 1S(iinne^ not 
llceping on this advice, on a fudden fet fo fiercely upon the Confpirators, that 
he utterly broke their defign . yet the Feuds and Concerts for Superiority ftill 
continued amongft them , which look'd .with fo bad a Face to the ruine of all 
that news thereof arriving in Spain, it was judg'd fit to fend for Colmenares, and 
John Quicedo to the Court, there to render an account of all their Tranfa&ions, 
Both going Aboard a fmall Veffel, were by Storm driven on the Coaft of Cubd, 
where they were inform'd from a Prifoner, that ValdiYta and Zamudio, driven 
afliore by Shipwrack, and not able to defend themfelves, were furpriz'd by 

the 









Chap; HI. 



A M E K I C A. 



6 9 



the Natives, kill'd and eaten • that Fogeda driven up and down along the 
Coaft, had loft moft of his People by hunger, and other hardfliip, and him- 
felf with much ado getting to Hifyaniola, dy'd as loon as Landed of the Wound 
which he received by a Poyfonous Arrow, near the River 'J)aria. 

But much happier was Jncifus> who foon after Fogeda coming to Cuba, found Jmi f" s Vo ^- 
a King, who fuffer'd himfelf to be Chriften'd, and call'd Commendatory and 
building a Church, Confecrated it tovdie Virgin SMary-, in it he ere&ed an ^^J^£ 
Image of Clay, refembling a Woman, which he clothed in a Cotton Gar- ifcnuc**,. 
ment - round about were placed Pots with Meat and Water, according to their 
old Idolatrous fafhion, otherwife, they belicv'd their Idols would devour the 
Souls of the Dead, and this, though Chri'ftians, they did not forget. 

Nay further, when he went to War, he carry'd the Image of the Virgin Mary 
with him in the Front of his Army, often laying, Ave Maria ; and this was the 
end of that Voyage : But afterwards Anc'ifus complained againft Vajcws Nunns^ 
in the Spanljh Court, where he receiv'd a Sentence very prejudicial to him. Cc/- 
menares and Ouicedo had alio Audience there, whereupon matters being iettled 3 
a firm Government was eftabliflf d in llraba. 




NicMffa differs hunger. 



Sect. VIII. 
Peter Arias his Expedition, and remarkable Tajfages of Vafcus Nunnez. 

PEter Arias Knight, accompany'd with his Wife, Elizabeth (Boadilla, fet Sail 
Anno 1514. but furpriz'd by a violent Storm, loft two Ships, and return'd 
to Spain , yet not long after began his Voyage afrcfii , notwithftanding he had 
lately had fuch bad fuccefs, and heard of the great hardfliip which Ntcuefa fuf- 
fer'd, having not onely kept himfelf alive a confiderable time by feeding on 
flefli of Dogs, and other fuch like Creatures . a great Frog being fold in Vera- 
gua for a lump of Gold. 

But Vafchts N»»«e^ informed of Arias arrival , the chief Governor of llraba, 
afterwards call'd NeTb Andalusia, minding to inrich himfelf before he fliouldde- 
pofehim , and hearing that feverai Gold Mines lay Southward from Uraba, 
march'o 1 thither with a hundred and ninety Men, thorow great Rivers, Thick- 
ets, and Woods full of Wild Beafts, deep Vallies, and broad Rivers, not with- 
out many hazards and difficulties. In the Mountainous Territory Quarecjuan, 
the Inhabitants ingag'd him valiantly, with Bows, Arrows, Clubs, Woodden 
Swords, Pikes and Launces, but frighted with the meer report of their Mul- 
quets, like flocks of wild Fowl , diffipated and fled , but not fo faft, but that 
fix hundred of them fell by the hands of the Spaniards, or were worry'd by their 
Dogs,tramd up on purpoie for the Jmerican Wars. Soon after,coming into the D^dimhc wars. 
Palace, there fate his Brother drefs'd up in Womens Apparel, whom the King 
kept to abufe, as if a Concubine 5 whereof Nunne^ being informed, in detefta- 
tion of Sodomy, fet the Dogs upon him, who fuddenly tore him in pieces, t^hmfytmgtd. 
Amongft the flain were found feverai Kegrocs, which fuffering Shipwrack had 
been caft on the Jmerican Shore, and maintained a continual War with the &ua- 
raquanen, fo that it ieem'd the 'Blacks which were found dead amongft them 
were their Slaves : Yet TS(unne^ was fore'd to leave a confiderable number of 
his Men here, who being half ftarv'd, and quite tired out, were not able to 
follow him -, but with the remaining party he march'd on, and at lift came to ^^JSJSaJ .. Jlfct 
the high Mountains, from whence he faw the great South»Sea, and going thi- 
ther 



7° 



A M E%1 C J. 



Chap. III. 




South-: 



ther, was met by King Chiapes, leading an Army of thirty thoufand Men, 
which great Body flood not long to make refiftance , being terrifi'd .with the 
Vollyes of Shot, whofe Report the ecchoing Valleys prefentcd to their Ears, 
double and trebble : And that which moft amazd and difanimated them in 
the rout, were the Dogs, who fiercely purfu'd and feiz'd the flyers, tearing 
away great morfels of Flefli. After the Battel, the Conqueror profFcr'd £eace, 
which was agreed on, upon the delivery of feveral great Prefents of Gold. Af- 
ter that, Chiapes the King, accompany'd with Uunne^ the Spanifh Commander, 
and March'd with him over a broad River to Qoquera, where at firft fome For- 
ces made refiftance, but were routed 5 whereupon, they alfo fuddenly ftruck 
up a Peace, upon conditions, that the Prince, nam'd alfo Coquera, fhould return 
is in great danger on the him a great quantity of Gold. Here he found a handfbme Bay running up in 
crooked Reaches, above fixty Leagues, which Nwwwe^call'd St. Michael, being 
iprinkled with Iflands, and treacherous with hidden Rocks, There Nunne^ 
(though diflwaded by (hiapes, becaufe he knew the South-Sea at that time be- 
ing the three laft Moneths of the Year, was exceeding turbulent, that no Veflel 
could hardly live in it, yet) ventur'd with nine Indian Boats, and eighty Men 
from the Shore into the Of fin . where, notwithftanding the high rolling of the 
Waves, he got to an uninhabited Ifland, on which, being neceffitated to ftay a 
night, the Tide flow'd Co much , according to the property of the South-Sea, 
that the higheft Ground thereon, lay almoft cover'd with Water, every one of 
the Spaniards having enough to do to fave thewffelvcs from being wafh'd away. 
Day approaching, difcover'd a fecond inconveniency , for the Indian Canoos ei- 
ther were extremely Leaky, or elfcfofliatter'd, that they were unfit for fervice ; 
yet notwithftanding all this, they ventur'd to return, rather choofing to be dc- 
vour'd in the Waves , than die of that hunger, whofe mifery they had fuffici- 
ently tailed, during the fmall time they had been out. Not long after, Nunne^ 
Conquered the King Tamaccut in a Field Battel, who thereupon purchas'd his 
Peace with great Prefents of Gold and Pearl. He alfo fliew'd the Spaniards an 

Ifland 






Manner of fciflung for 
Pearl*. 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 71 

. Iiland, whofe lpiring tops were feen from the Main Land, which fo abounded 
in Pearb, that in no place were either more or fairer to be found : But the 
King who liv'd on it was exceeding powerful. 

Nunne^ immediately refolv'd to Sail thither, notwichftanding it was the 
middle of Oclober, when the SoutlvEaft Winds make fueh a turbulent and hol- 
low Sea, as many times wafli'd away Trees and pieces of Rocks : Befides, the 
Weather was more terrible, by continual Lightning and great Thunder-Claps; 
the Nights very cold, the Days exceeding hot ; yet all thefe difficulties could 
not prevail, for Kunne^ would not ftay to expect fairer Weather, but went on, 
and coming thither, he faw how the Indians Fifii for Pearls, which was Diving 
for Oyfters ; but the Weather being rough and foul, they durft not venture for 
the beft which lay far from the Shore. 

But lS(tmne^ leaving his lick and weary'd Men with Chiapes , March'd quite #«««« returns, 
another way back than he came 5 and eroding a great River, was reccivM by 
Prince Teaocba, who furnifli'd him with Gold, Pearls, Provifions, and Guides, 
which carry'd his Luggage and Goods. 

Pacra, a great Oppreflbr of all his Neighbors, hearing of the approach of 
TSfjinne^y fled, but terrifi'd with threats, return'd with three other Princes, 
which were all fo Deform'd , that more horrible Monfters were never feen, 
fcarce any part about them refembling thofe of a Man : The Guides which p™* a tyrannous King, 
Teaocha had provided for the Spaniard defir'd that he might be put to Death , for 
the Cruelties which he had long committed 5 whofe Requeft being granted, he 
with the other three Princes, were given as a Breakfaft to the Spanijh Doggs. 
Mean while, the Spaniards were in danger to have perifli'd for want of Water y 
yetatlaft, in a Thicket of Brambles, they found a fmall Brook, but none of the 
Indians durft venture to go to it, for fear of Tygers, and other Wild Beafts 5 
relating, That the Tygers took many people in the nights out of their Huts, if 
they were not careful in making faft their Doors. 

John Ledefma had himfelf eaten part of a Tyger, which for fix Moneths togc* J*»n 3 e relation ofa7> 
ther,had every night feafted on Mans flefli, or Beafts, which they caught in this 
manner : In the Path along which he pafs'd, coming out ofjiis Den to feek for 
Prey, a deep Pit was digg'd, and covered very fleightly on the top, into which 
the Tyger fell . yet though taken, fo fiercely withftood the Pikes, Darts, and 
Stones thrown at him , that every one was amaz'd to fee the fury of the Beaft. 
After that they fought for the Female , but found oncly two young ones with- 
out a Dam, which taking along with them, they put Iron Collars about their 
Necks, intending to carry them to Spain ; but feeing no likelyhood of breed- 
ing them up , they brought them back again , purpofing to fetch them away 
when grown iomewhat older, and accordingly coming afterwards to look for 
them , they found the Den empty , fo that it was fuppofed they had been de- 
vour'd by their Dam. 

In the Province of 'Bononiama, the Spaniards inrich'd thcmfelves with Chains, ttmnnu&t&njtmmey 
and Breaft-Plates of Gold, which in great plenty hung on the Walls in every tZuteT*^' w K ~ 
Houfe : At the River Comogw } they difcharg'd Jeaocba's Guides, and made ufe 
of Cotog and (jurist, two Governors of a barren Tract of Land, full of Hills 
and Mountains, which they left on their right Hand, and wandred three days 
over a Morajfe, in which they often ftmk to their Knees. 

In all thefe Travels, Victual was fo fcarce that they were much weakened 
by their wants • and though they took frefh courage when they got footing on 
King Huchebuas Jurifdiaion, yet they found noihing but empty Huts i and the 

like, 



^ 






7> 



Ptt$r Audi his Voyage, 
and Fight in the Haven 
St. Martha. 



Strange Houfcs 
Houfhold-ftuff. 



and 



What ufe the Amtricans 
make of the Root Manii- 
bok*. 



a M E ^ 1 C A. Chap. III. 

like in the Countrey of Cbiorifus, both having a little before been pillag'd by 
their more powerful neighboring Enemies, But although they could not fur- 
nifli Nu?me% with Provifions, they prefented him with weighty Ingots of Gold : 
but this rich Metal not able to purchafe the lead morfel of Bread, drove them 
into a great ftrait 5 and indeed they had without doubt been all famifhed, 
had not Toccborofa, another King, fed them forty days together with ftamp'd 
Roots. Thusrefrefri'd, and inftigated by Toccborofa, they broke by ni^ht in 
Tubunamas Palace , and' took him Prifoner with eighty Concubines, who 
fearing to be put to death, gave an incredible Treafure of Gold to purchafe 
his Ranfom. 

Nunne^ thus enriched came at laft to his People which he had left on the 
River 7)aria, where two Ships fent from HiJpaniolarodc at an Anchor. 

Whilft things were thus carry'd in America, Peter Arias Sail'd with fifteen 
Ships, Mann'd with fifteen hundred Men, to New Andalufni, by the Iflands 
Martinina, Guadalupe, and Galanta, all in America : a confiderable time he SaiFd 
through the Sea overgrown with Weeds. Afterwards anchoring in the" Haven 
St. Martba, hereceiv'd a great repulfe from the Natives, who no ways daunted 
at the bignefsofthe Ships, waded up to their Breads in the Sea, and (hot many 
great flights of poifonous Arrows at the Spaniards, or whom two being wound- 
ed immediately died. Arias fending fomcof his Men afhore, they found ma- 
ny Boats lying full of Nets, made of tough Weeds, and Ropes pleited of 
Ru(hes. 

In the Haven St. JMartba, being three Leagues wide, arc abundance of Fifh, 
which may be Ccen under Water twenty Fathom deep. 

But now the Spaniards that were afhore breaking into the Houfcs, and taking 
Women and Children Prifoners , the Americans prepared for another Fight, 
which at the beginning was very fierce 5 but at laft they were fore'd to quit the 
Field. 

Their Houfcs and Furniture in them are worthy of obfervation : their Cie- 
lings being covcr'd with Shells ftrung on fmall Thrcd, which make a pleafing 
noife, when mov'd by the lcaft breath of Wind. The Walls are hung with fine 
Stuffs, woven full of Imagery, as Cranes, Lyons, Tygers, and fomc Figures of 
Men • the Floors are cover 'd with parti-colour'd Mats, made of Sea-Reeds, 
and feveral tough Roots - y and their Carpets befct with Pearl add alfo a great 
beauty to their Rooms. 

In the Valleys the Spaniards found feveral precious Jems, as Saphires, Jaf- 
per, Emeralds, and great pieces of Amber, and in fome Huts, Baskets, and 
Chefts full of dry'dLocufts, and Crabs. 

Here alfo grows the Root Tuca,a.s alfo on feveral other Weft-Indian Coafts, of 
which they make their beft Bread, and is call'd in Hifpaniola and Angola, Tuca ; 
by the -Brafihans, Mandiba and Mandiboka ; by the Mexicans, QuauhcamoiU : it 
grows with a thick or midling Body, according to the fruitfulnefs or barren- 
nefs of the Soil 5 the Leaves are like thofe of a Tulip, and have fmall Flowers 
and Seed, but no ways ufeful • the Root, not unlike Horfe*Raddifh, hatha 
milky Juice, which fwclls it exceedingly . the Sprigs, which in the eighth and 
tenth Moneth fhoot out of the Root, ferve for new Plants 5 and if at any time 
it happen, that either by a moift Seafon, or by Worms, or Pifmires, the Plant 
is fpoii'd, then it occafions fuch an inconvenience amongft the Inhabitants 
that half of them in that year die of Famine. 

The Leaves of the Mandiboka fcrve them for Sallads. Out of the Root, 

which 



Qup. HI. 



A M E 5^1 C A. 



75 




• vtfhichthey lay foaking five days in Water, they make Meal, which the fortu* 
guefe call Farina frefca, but the Americans, Vipeba. Moreover, Mandihoka fcrves 
them to make Bread, which they bake over the Fire ; arid mix d with Water, 
Pepper, and the Flour Nhambi, makes an excellent Pudding, by them call'd 
JMingaude Carima, no lefs pleafing to the tafte than wholfom Food : and with 
Orange.Flour, Water, and Sugar, it makes that excellent Julep Ttpioca. The 
Powder of Mandthoha put into a Wound, cures very fpeedily. It is very plea- 
fant to fee the Jmericans eat this Bread ; for they tofs it by handfuls at a pretty 
diftance from their Mouthes without letting fall the leaft Crum. Laftly, it 
requires great art and trouble to make the Mandihoka fit for Bread : firft they 
muft peel off the Shell, then put into a Mill turn'd by two Indians it falls, 
being Ground, into a fquare Trough. The Juice proceeding from it is mortal, 
if eaten when raw, but wholforri if boil'd : the Meal they put in a Prefs, and 
when all the moifture is drawn from it, they ftrow it in an Oven to dry. But 
the wild Mandihoka, by thofe that live on the Sea-flhore call'd Cuacu Mandttba, 
and up in the Countvey, Ctquacuct4rerma, differs both in flbape and goodnefs 
from the firft. 

But to return to our matter : Arias coming to an Anchor in the River Daria, 
was cheerfully received by Nunne^ his firft Bufinefs which he undertook was 
the building of three Forts, to fecure the Paffages to the South Sea - to which 
purpofe Joannes Aiora received the Command over four hundred Workmen. 
Moreover, Arias took great diilike in the Place call'd Maria 4ntiqua> which the 
Spaniards were forc'd by ncccffity firft to Plant in : it lay in a deep Valley be- 
tween hiah Mountains, to that it not oncly wanted the benefit oftherifing and 
letting of the Sun, but when in or near the Meridian, it fhin'd down upon 
them, and fcorch'd all their Plants, and the tepifi'd Morally Grounds about 
the fame infected the Air, and the Water which they took up to wafti their 
Houfes, immediately bred Frogs, the River Dana overflowed the Grounds 
with his muddy Water three Leagues diftance from the Sea . the P.affage thither 

L alfo 









Atias\ Exploits in Htw 
Andalujia, 



7+ 



aJ M B%I C A. Chap. III. 

alio was very troublefom, becaufe of the uneven Ways 5 and befides, the Ty- 
gers and Lyons devour'dmany People and Cattel. 
A^onge Accident. The firft Night that Jrias lay in Maria Antiaua y the Houfe wherein his Chi- 

rurgion Lodg'd was fir'd with Lightning, who running out with his Wife, be- 
ing both fcorched by the Flames, faw a very great Crocodile, which fnatch- 
ing up his Dog ran away with him towards the River. 
Remarkable Trees. T ne neighboring Territory Coiba produced Trees, whofe Timber us'd for 

Shipping never breeds Worms, becaufe of its acerbity; whereas on the con- 
trary, all other Veflels in that Countrey are very fubjed to that inconvenience. 
Here alfo grow thofe famous Plague*Trees > whofe very Leaves, if but falling 
upon one, are like Gods Arrows, mortal,and immediately kill,unlefs the Place 
whereon they light be ftraightway anointed with fafting Spittle : and the Coi- 
benfers fay, that they know another poyfonous Wood, which they ufe to de- 
> ftroy their Enemies withall. 

Whilft Arias was confulting about the beforemention'd Affairs, he fent feve-. 
ral Comanders to divers Places, to take a furvey, and give him an account of 

M*2*Mhl e slZl!* l ^ cn Return °f a H their Difcoveries. Amongft others Cajper Moralis was ordered 
to march towards the South Sea, to confirm the Peace which Nun?te^ had begun 
with the Kings Cbiapes and Tumaccus ; and chiefly to go to the Pearl-Ifland with 
fixty Men, which Nunne^ was fore'd to leave, being ftrefs'd by tempeftuous 
Weather. Cbiapes and Tumaccus were according to their promife, to prepare an 
Army ready for his affiftance againft his coming * which indeed they per- 
formed, fo that they wanted nothing but VefTels, for the biggeft of theirs could 
not carry above three or four Men ; yet they undertaking their Enterprife, 
Landed feventy Men on the Ifland ; upon which the Inhabitants under their 
Kings Condud: ran to meet the new Landed Forces, and crying out aloud 
Guazgavara, Gua^ayara, they ran in amongft the Mufqueteers with their wood- 
den Swords ; but the report of the Guns, mix'd with Fire, Smoak, and Bullets,' 
foon amaz'd them : the King flying, thought by alarm to raife all the Iflan- 
ders ; but they being informM, that no People whatfoever could withftand the 
fire-fpitting People, made Articles of agreement with Moralis, and Condition'd 
to deliver a hundred pound weight of the choiceft Pearls to the ufe of the King 
ofCaJlile ; and as a teftimony of his Friendflup he was Chriften'd Teter Arias, 
from the Governors Name of New Jndalufia. 
strange ggrfl How great the Treafure was which ^oralis brought from the Pearl Ifland 

may appear by one of the Pearls, for which Pope Leo the tenth gave forty- 
four thoufand Ducats to a Venetian Merchant. 

Amongft the Commanders which were fent out by Arias, was alfo Johan* 
nes Solifim, who Sailing fix hundred Leagues Southerly, along the Coaft of the 
Canbbies, beyond Qape St. Augufiine, he found the Inhabitants of fernambuck to 
be no lefs cruel than fubtile . for being invited afhore, he with fbme of 

J! nfm bis miferabIe his Men Row'd thither, where no fooner Landing, but were all kill'd and 
eaten in the fight of the other Sea-men aboard . at which being amaz'd they 
weighed Anchor, and Sail'd away, Freighted onely with !Brafile Wood, to 
Cadi%s 

Afo in an unhappy hour did Johannes <Pont<eus putfome of his Laundrefles 
afhore on the Ifland Guadalupa, to wafh fome Linnen for him ; for the Iflan- 
ders coming on a fudden out of the Woods furpriz'd them, and forthwith kil- 
ling without mercy, cut them in pieces, and carbonadoing, eat their broil'd 
Flefli hot from the Coals, while Gonfalus 'BaJajocins Sail'd with eighty Men 

Vefterly, 



Chap. III. AMEBIC A T> 

Wefterly,and having gone fixty Leagues he went a(horc,and ipent fome days in 

vain,to CoUrtthe Americans to a friendly correfpondency - which whi 1ft he was 

doing, he was recruited with fifty Men from Varia, Commanded by UdowicK 

Mercado : fo both agreed together to travel over the Mountains to the South Sea. 

The Governor J nana, whofe Jurifdi&ions abound in Gold, flying with mod 

part of his Treafure, was never heard of, onely they took fome of his Slaves, **»# s »"«- 

whofe Faces were ftrangely Carv'd with (harp Fiflubones, the Wounds 

fill'd with red and black Powder, which fo difcolour'd the Flefli that it could 

never be got out* After that they traveled through the Wildernefs five days 

together, being onely met by Come Indians carrying Mai^ who (ignirVd to them, 

that King feriguete liv'd along the Sea-(hore, and up into the Countrey the 

blind Totonoga . of both which they got an unvaluablc Treafure of Gold. Great Boot*. 

Amongft other Pieces of that rich Metal was one which weighed two pound. 

Taracura rais'd in this Expedition eighteen thoufand weight of Gold : and ^ 

little lefs did they takeout of the Territories belonging to the Princes Pana* 
nome, Tabor, Cheru, and Scoria : The Prifoners fcrv'd them in ftead of Horfes, 
they not being able to carry all the Gold themfclvcs, the meancft Soldier having 
above three thoufand Pounds Sterling for his (hare. 

They were now got to Panda's Kingdom, not without leaving fad remarks JSg***** the s ** 
of their avarice and cruelties. When Parity furrounding this Party thus loader! 
with Gold, Charged fo fiercely, that at the firft Affault feventy of them were 
(lain * thofe few that cfcap'd brought the tidings of their fad misfortune to 
Peter ' Arias. Amongft thofe that efcaping returned, was Francifcus Velapuente, 
whofe obfervations concerning catching Parrots and wild Fowl, we will 
briefly relate, the digreflion being but fliort. 

The Indian where the Parrots are moft frequent climbs into a Tree, and j£**¥ *f*M* 
chattering like them, with his Voice imitating their Notes, allures his fellow- 
prater to draw near, and fufFer him to take them in his Hands. But more 
belongs to the taking of wild Fowl, as Geefe, Ducks, Swans, and the like : 
From the bottom of their (landing Pools and Lakes in that Countrey grow 
Weeds, which fpreading upon the Water ripen, and rotting breed Water- 
flies, Spiders, and Frogs, upon which the Fowls feed. Near thefe Pools in 
the Gardens grow Cabbages as high as Trees, which often dropping into the 
Water ferve the Birds both for Nefts and Food : but the skilful Fowler finds 
it his bed way to take one of thefe Cabbages, and making it hollow in the 
middle, claps it on his Head like a Helmet, then going into the Water up to 
his Chin, and paffing foftly along irt fuch manner, that nothing is fcen but the 
floating Cabbage, and coming near the Birds, he takes them one after another 
by the Legs, and puts them into a Bag ty'd about his middle for that purpofc. 
But What is more worthy obfervation is the American Bird Toucan Xocbitena- 
chate, having a flefhy Bill, like a Mouth full of Teeth, which continually opens 
and (huts to draw Breath, having no Noftrils . the Back, Neck, and Wings, 
arc black the Breaft yellow like Gold, the Belly and end of the Tail of a 

Vermillion colour. 

This Bird Toucan feeds for the moft part on Pepper, which tarries not long Evacuate* Pepper. 
with them, but muted almoft as foon as fwallowed : which Pepper thus eva- 
cuated the Natives value above their common, becaufe the unpleafmg (harp 
acidity, or biting quality is thereby much mitigated. 

But to return : Whilft the Expeditions under the Command of Peter Aria* 
had fuch bad fuecefs, ^ri* himfclf and Vafcbus Kunne^ hapned to clafh : Huh- 

t ^ **< 



Strange Bird Ttncaiu 






^6 AMERICA. Chap. III. 

ne^ who fince his difcovery of the South Sea was held in fome repute at the 
Spanifb Court, had built four Ships on the Shore of the fame Ocean, to make 
farther infpections along the Coafts thereof : but being commanded to come 
to Arias the Governor, he was committed to Prifon, and accufed of highTrea- 
fon, as if he had intentions to fettle him felf in Peru, and abfolutely to have left 
Daria : all which though he difown'd, and utterly deni'd with great protefta- 
tions when brought to a Trial, and no witnefs to affirm the contrary, yet was 
by Jrioj's fpeciai Order Beheaded. 

Not long after which Lupus Sofa, Governor of the Canary Iflands, was fent to 
fucceed Aria* in Ts.ew Jndalujia. 

S E C T. IX. 

The Expeditions of Francifco Fernandez, Lupus Gaizedus, Chriftophero 
Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, and Juan Grifalva. 

v C Ernande^ Cai^edns y and Morantes, antient Planters in Cuba, obtain'da Licence 

•*■ from the Governor Diego Velafques, to Rig out three Ships with a hundred 
and ten Men to difcovcr new Lands. : Velafques thought fit to add one more 
to their number upon the Kings account- which Truft he committed to Igni* 
gue^ : all of them confulted with the experienced Navigator Antonio Alamimsl 
Six days the Fleet had been at Sea, when they difcover'd Land, which by a 
?«?3 al ° f the Namc miftake was call'd Jucatan, becaufe the Inhabitants being ask'd what was the 
Name of the Coaft, anfwer'd jucatan • which, as the Spaniards were afterwards 
informed, fignifi'd, We under ftand you not* 

Upon the Shore they found a City, whofe Stone Buildings, with ftately 
Fronts and high Turrets, fliew'd moft magnificently. Fernandez call'd this 
City for its wonderful bignefs, Cairo, from the Egyptian Metropolis, famous 
through the World. 

The Spaniards coming to Land were courteoufly received, and conducted in- 
to the City ; the neatnefs of whofe Marketplaces , and exa&nefs of their 
Streets, they beheld with admiration,- as alfo the coftly Stuff Garments both 
of Men and Women : but their wonder increased when they beheld very arti- 
ficial CrofTes^ concerning which upon inquiry they related, That a Man more 
glorious than the Sun, being bufie in erecting the Croifes, died. But thefe 
People, though fo courteous and civil at firil, feem'd in few days to be weary 
of their company ; which the Spaniards obferving founded a Retreat and Sail- 
ing Wefterly, proceeded on their intended Defign, and foon after anchored 
before Campechum - y the King of which conducted Fernandez and Morantes, with 
fome others, into the City, confiding of three thoufand Houfes. In his Palace 
they were entertain'd with all manner of Fowl roafted : After which refrefli- 
ment they furvey'd the City ; in which, amongft pther curious Buildings, was 
*£$^ 1b ** mM a hi S h > but fc l uare Theatre of Marble, on which flood the Image of a Man, on 
all corners aflaulted by four wild Beads, which were of a no lefs ftrange than 
horrible fliape. Not far from this Image they faw a Serpent fifliion'd up of 
Chalk and little Stones, whofe coyl'd up Tail was forty feven Foot long, and 
of a proportionable thicknefs. This Serpent, fprinkled with Mens Blood ycc 
warm, feem'd to prey upon a Marble Lyon : both thefe were inclos'd with a 
. Stone Rail, within which Malefactors were daily executed. BloodyBows and 
Arrows broke in fmall pieces lay between the Bones and dead Bodies. Igniguc^ 

%aird 



Stately City. 



CtmfuhiMtn a City. 



Chap. III. 



A M E%,1 C A. 



77 







Mtfcph a Citjrr 



Spaniards flaisi. 



call'd the King Lazarus, becaufe he difcover'd his Counttey on St. La%amfs 
Day. 

Making no long ftay here> they return'd to their Ship, and weighing An- 
chor Sail'd fifty Leagues more Weflerly, the Fleet got fight of Mofcobo, in the 
Territory Aguanil ? whofe King aflaulted the Spaniards with Co much fury, that 
two and twenty of them were flairi, and fcarce one efcap'd which was not 
wounded : wherefore they retufn'd with bad fuccefs to Cuba. Yet Vdafauzs 
no ways difcourag'd thereat, not long after fitted out four VefTels, Manning 
them with three hundred Men under the Command of Juan Grifalva and Ala* 
mines-, who having Sail'd feventy Leagues ,difcover'd the fruitful Iiland Cofumella^ Mi s ht y in^ac*/"™*** 
along whofe Shore flood fair Stone Edifices, intermix'd with Temples, whofe 
Steeples appear'd above the Houfes. Grifaha being led up into one of thefe 
Steeples by a Prieft, faw at a diftance off at Sea the Territory Jucatan : and in 
the Place where they were,there were fpacious Halls, full of Marble and Stone 
Images of deformed Men and Beafts, which with a murmuring noife, and 
burning of incenfe they religioufly worfhip. The Spaniards call'd this Ifland 
Santta Cruz^ 

Sailing from hence they dire&ed their Courfe to Campechium , where the 
year before they had been Co civilly treated 5 where arriving, and without any 
fear coming alhore, they found the Campecbiums quite of another humor than 
they were the former year, telling them, They would not fuffer any Strangers 
to beamongft them; and placing a burning Torch between theirs and the Spa- 
nif} Forces, thrcatned,That if they did not depart in quiet, they would force 
them: which accordingly they endeavor'd, making a fierce Onfetupon the 
Spaniards-, who being now come under their Battlements, when they faw their 
advantage, pour'd what they had kept as a refcrve, whole Volleys of fmall 
Shot amongft them ; which ftruck fo much terror, that they all ran away, 
fliifting for themfelves, and crowding into the City. 

The Spaniards found afterwards Jucatan to be but a fmnfula, and came be* 

L 3 fore 






Spaniards fight with the 
CimfechUns. 



78 



A M E%^I C A. 



Chap. III. 





Strange paffages on 3fa- 



Stterifict-ljluni. 



Exceeding horrible Sa- 
crifices. 



Matdcn-Ijlttthi. 



Fmewhianum a City. 



forea-River which fell with fo ftrong a Current into the Mexican Sea, tlut.jt 
retained itsfweetnefs for the fpace of two Leagues. 

This River, flowing out of the Province Tabafco, was call'd Grifalva : upon 
whofe Banks flood above fix thoufand Americans ; and in the Water appear'd a 
hundred Boats with Armed Men, which Row'd aboard the Sfanijb Ships. 
The Interpreters oiCuba y whofe Language agrees for the moft part with the 
Tabafcers, prevail'd fo much, that the King himfelf came to the chief Com- 
mander Grifaha, and bartering with him, gave him as much Gold as his Iron 
Helmet, Breaftplate, and other Armor weighed. 

Soon after they Landed on the I/land of Sacrifice, fo call'd from the horrid 
Sacrifices which the Inhabitants made daily. ■ 

Amongft other ftrange Images, there flood a great Lyon of Marble, feem- 
ing almoft decollated with a great gafli ; into which Wound they pour'd hu- 
mane Blood warm, which wasreceiv'd into a Stone Trough fet for thatpur- 
pofe underneath ; then the Figure of a Man Carv'd in Alabafter, bowing for* 
ward, as if looking into the Trough upon the Blood. Thofe which were 
facrificed were Prifoners takqji on the neighboring Coafts, whom bringing 
before their Idols, they ripping open make no farther infpe&ion, but onely 
to whip out the Heart j with which having fmear'd the Lips of their Idols, they 
throw it into the Fire : the Heads and Corps they let lie unburi'd ; whofe flefliy 
parts, efpecially their Cheeks, they feaft upon. 

The next Ifland is inhabited by Women y to which Annually their Neigh- 
bors go, pretending merry kindnefs, but upon amorous inclinations: and 
Plough and Till their Ground, and Weed their Gardens. 

The chief City ofTabafco is Vontcnchianum, and contains above fifteen hun- 
dred Houfes, all built of Stone hardned with baking after their manner • 
which in fome Places, befides their Turrets and Temples, yield a pleafantPro* 
fpe<a at a great diftance. Fourteen eminent Towns more did the Spaniards alfo 
fee in Tabafco* 

When 



Chap. ILL 



A M E%1 C A. 



19 



When in converfing with them they obferv'd their ftrange manner of Seal- Strang**^ of Ob£ 
ing their Bargains and Contracts one with another, they were amaz'd, for not Ilsatlom 
iifing Wax,they ufually Seal'd their Compacts with their own Blood,common- 
ly drawn with a Stone Knife, either from their Tongue, Hand, or Arms. 

Their Priefts live fingle,and if found to bellnchaft, are puniflit with Death. 
An Adulterefs is fold for a Slave : Unmarry'd People may not frequently con- 
verfe with Marry'd : Thirty five days in the year makes their Lent, in which 
they abftain not onely from Flefh, but Fifli alfo, feeding onely upon Roots 
and Herbs. In this place the Spaniards were receiv'd in great ftate, Canopy 'd 
with green Palm-Tree-Branches, and in like manner conducted aboard again, 
not without many Prefents, yfe the Effigies of a Man curioufly wrought in 
Gold, wherewith they returned to Cuba. 1 

Sect. IX. 

Tl?e Expedition of Ferdinand Magaglian, commonly caWd Magcllane. 

THe Bifiiop (Bartholomew de Colts, living a considerable time in Hilbaniola, **** {«/;&«{ ««£««• 
L . r i ccrrang the Pearl catching. 

in the City Dominico, being informed of the abundance of Pearls which 

were caught before Cubagua , and the unfupportable cruelty of the Spaniards 
there under Qcawpus, us'd againft the Inhabitants, went to Spain, with a defign 
to obtain of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, the Government over Cumana and 
Cubagua, under pretence, to draw the ignorant Natives from their Idolatry, to 
Chriflianity ; which his requeft was efpecially promoted by William of Njffaw, 
the Emperors prime Favorite ; fo that having his Letters Patents granted to 
that purpofe, he took Ship, and arrived with three hundred Spanijb Gentlemen 
of Quality in Qumana : And that they might have the greater rcfpecl fhown to 
them there, ^they had each a Red Crofs given them , fuch as the Knights of 
Calatrava generally wear. Yet little did Ocampus, the old Governor of Cumana, 
regard either them or their Authority - for in ftead of receiving and fubmit- 
ting, he kept the Bifliop de Qafis out by force of Arms ; who then made com- 
plaint to the Viceroy of the \VeJ}Jndies in Hifyaniola, and in the mean time, put 
his Cargo into a new Store*houfe. 

But whilft he made his Addrefles, Ocamprn having fufficiently inrich'd him- 
felf departed, which incourag'd the Cumaners, who already were incens'd, and 
weary of their former fufferings, to venture on a defign, whereby they might 
revenge themfelves of the Spaniards, which their undertaking prov'd fo fuccefs-* 
ful, that very few cfcap'd the MalTacre : Of which, de Qafis being inform'd, 
and much difcontented thereat , betook himfelf to a Dominican Cloyfter in Hi* 
fpaniola. 

Yet not long after, the Cumahers paid dear for that (laughter, for one Caftellio, Cmdtyof caflw inc«- 
though not without fevcral Engagements, with various fuccefs, lading forty ' 
days together, having at laft utterly vanquifli'd them , put to an ignominious 
Death, Hanging up feventy of their Princes, and to them of meaner quality, 
fhewing as little mercy. 

As little fuccefs had Lodowick Lampagnano, ferit out by fome Spanijh Merchants, 
with Letters Patents from the Emperor to Fifh for Pearl, before the fame Cuba- 
gua ; to which purpofe he carryM peculiar Nets and other neceflaries with him. 
But thtCubaguan Spaniards unanimoufly withftood him • fo that not being able L <"»p<i»*»»M<>*w*- 
to effecl; his defign, over=power'd with a Melancbolly Diftemper that broke his 
Heart, he dy'd. In 






8o 

MMgtt*Hus Expedition; 
how it happm'd. 






Strange t Gurt» 



Stnijkts of MugtlUn^ 
kow found. 



t< 



A M E %^I C A. Chap.lIL 

In the ititcrim, while thefe fcarce confiderable Voyages turn'd to fo fmall 
account, Ferdinand JMagaglianus (for fo Peter Martyr calls him, and not Magella- 
nus, which herein deferves to be credited, becaufe they were intimately ac- 
quainted, and aceat friend fhip between them,) undertook to Sail round about 
the World • the occafion of which we will here relate at large : 

This Magaglianm, or Magellanus, a Gentleman of Portugal, having perform'd 
things of great importance for his King, in Africa, although with no lefs trou- 
ble than Charge, defir'd an addition of half a Ducket a Moneth added to his 
Annual Penfion 5 an inconfiderable Sum to make a Requeft for, yet though fo 
little, Was as niggardly deny 'd : Whereupon, highly incenfed, he ftudy'd no 
little revenge 5 to which effect , foon after an opportunity was prefented, by 
means of Francifcus Serranus , who writ from Ternata to him, that he fliould 
fpeedily come thither, which he foon after did upon this account : 

Pope Alexander the Sixth, having fixt Terminaries between the Kings of Ca- 
ftile and Portugal, both bufie at that time in difcovering new Countreys , Or* 
dcr'd, That Caftile ftiould poiTefs all the Coafts lying to the Weft of the chief 
Meridian, and Portugal to the Eaft : By vertue of this partition, the rich Spicy 
Molucca Iflands fell abfolutely to the Portuguese : Now Magellanus perfwaded 
Charles the Fifth, that they might be Sail'd to with a Wefterly Courfe,and there- 
fore belonged to Caftile • Which advice, Charles the Fifth confidering, and ap- 
proving, Rigg'd out five Ships, with which Magellanus fet Sail from Sevil, the 
tenth of Auguft, Anno 1519. five Moneths he ply 'd up and down the Coaft in- 
habited by the Patagones , where he found none but one fingle Perfon , or ra- 
ther a Monfter, a Giant ten Foot high, who coming Aboard his Ship, devour'd 
a great Hamper full of Biskets, and at one Draught drunk up nine Pottels of 
Water. He alfoiaw feveral Trees which had been Hew'n with Axes, and Crof- 
ks made on the tops of them. Whilft he lay in that Harbor, which was call'd 
St. Julian, he Cafhier'd his Vice-Admiral, John Carthagena, with his Father Con- 
feflbr, and fparing their lives, fet them afhore , and there left them to feek 
their Fortunes, though they had Confpir'd to Murther him. 

Magellanus from thence Sailing afterwards Southerly along Jmerica, to forty- 
two Degrees Southern Latitude, was engaged with the eddyings of a very 
ftrong Current, which driving one of the Ships into a Bay, fplit againft a 
. blind Rock, but the Men being fav'd in their Boat, were driven farther and 
farther into a- Channel , between high and Snowy Mountains ; whereupon he 
immediately judg'd (as the famous Negromancer Roderick Takrus had often 
told him) that there was the Paflage, through which the Northern Ocean 
flow'd into the Southern 5 wherefore he refolutely adventur'd to Sail into 
thofe Sraights, which in fome places narrow, and in others broad, is an hun- 
dred and twenty Leagues long, and full of fmall Ifles and dangerous Rocks. 
Whilft he ftill Sail'd on, the Ship call'd Antonio, Tacking about, return'd to 
Cadi%. 

But Magellanus enter'd the great South-Sea with three Sail, on the 25. of Oclo* 
her, where the Sea-men fuffer'd extremely by exceflive Heat, Drought, and Fa- 
mine, three Moneths and twenty Days, without fight of Land : And now, 
their Shooes, and the Leather which covered their Shields,. began alfo to grow 
fcarce (which before had been counted a Dainty ) when they difcover'd two 
Iflands lying two hundred Leagues diftanceone from another, yet both Defo- 
late and Barren , wherefore they were call'd the Unfortunate Ifles : After that, 
they came amongft a great number* of Iflands, whofe Inhabitants were much 

' inclined 



Chap. III. 



A M E R I C A. 



Si 



AtagtUtnut flaia 



An end of the Voyage 
about the world. 



inclin'd to Thievery , for which caufe they Denominated them Ladrones, the 
chiefeft Ifland call'd Borneo, hath two hundred fifty four Leagues in Circum- 
ference, whereon a Tree grows, whofe Leaves when fain off, feem to be alive 
and creep like Worms. The King of this Illand entertain'd the Spaniards very 
courteoufly, two Elephants bringing'his Prefcnts to them on the Shore, out of 
a City confiding of twenty thoufand Houfes. 

Near Borneo are two leffer Iflands,call'd,i^o an d MatanfThc King ofZuh free. 
ly fubmitted himfelf to the Spaniards, and MageUanm leaving his Fleet at Anchor 
in the Haven,went with his own and other Indian Boats,and attended with fome 
of the Zubenfers to Matan, where fetting a Village on Fire,he carry 'd great Riches 
from thence : This not fatisfying , he refolv'd within eight days to fet upon 
the Royal Head-City . but the King in his own Defence, Encountering with 
Magellan**, flew him, and feven Spaniards more, befides twenty two dangeroufly 
wounded ; thole which efcap'd by flight, $ otto2ubo, where being invited to «»**.**« 
Dinner by the King, they were all of them (in ftead of a fecond Courfe) Mur- 
ther'd at Table. The occafion of this was out of Revenge, becaufe the Spaniards 
had fall'n too foul upon their Women and Maids, Devirginating, and forcing 
them to their Pleafure, than which rudenefs nothing was among them more 
Deteftable. The Sea-men weakned by thefe Misfortunes , were neceflitated to 
burn their third Ship, call'd, St. Jago. but Sailing to the Molucco Iflands with 
the other two.they Freighted them both with Cloves, with which the Ship tri- 
>utas Sail'd to ls(ew.Spain through the South.Sea, and the Viclona, Commanded 
by John Sebafiian de Lano went the fame way which the fortuguefe us'd, and Co to 
St. Lucar de Barrameddf near Sivile, where he came to Anchor with his Ship and 
eighteen Men. 

Sect. X. 
Ferdinando Cortez bis Voyage. 

A Lthough feveral Expeditions of the Spaniards to America prov'd very un- 
fuccefsful at the firft, yet they ftill undertook them afrefi,, and with re- 
newing Courage : Ferdinando Sottus, though he Landed five hundred Men in 
Florida, yet brought no Treafure from thence , onely he cut off the Hands of 
fifteen Princes, becaufe they would not difcover their Mines of Gold. 

Yet far worfe fuccefs had Vampbtlus ]S[aryae^, who loft both his Fleet and *<««*«*<* «,„,,«. 
Men, faving onely ten out of fix hundred, in the River Talma, and they alfo af- 
terwards dy'd there,oreat one another to fatisfie their raging Hunger. ' 

But much better was the fortune of Ferdinando Corte^, Sailing from Spain to c "" zhis Vo W 
America, in the Year 1519. w ho having the Command given him over ten ftout 
Ships, and three Frigats with five hundred Foot , and an additional Force of 
fixteen Horfe^ iais'd by the new Spanijh Inhabitants on Cuba . with which For- 
ces Landing on the Ifland Columella , he prohibited Humane Sacrifice to their 
Idols, and Er.e&ed a Crofs with the Image of the Virgin Mary, in one of their 
Temples, and releas'd Hieronimus Aqutlam, after a fevert years Slavery, having Wubic delivery, 
fuffer'd Shipwrack with Valdivia-, at which time fome that lav'd themfelves in 
the Boat, were by the Current in thirty days driven to Jucatan, in which time 
feven dy'd of Hunger • the reft going afliore, were no fooner Landed, but Sa. 
enfie'd by the Natives to their Gods or Zemes. Among the fix that remain'd,yet 
left alive, and to be offer'd after the fame manner the next day, was this Aauu 
lark, who with his Companions, breaking Prifon, in the following night fled 

to 



Sottm cri(clry. 






f 



Strange Battel. 



r«t*utha*Hm % a City. 



pic*. 



A M E %,I C A. Chap. III. 

to a Neighboring Prince their Enemy ,and one that maintain'd a continual War 

acainft thefe Cannibals, 

Here Cortex fent Articles of Peace to Taxmarus the King of the Countrey, but 
he fleiehtinghis proffer came down upon him into the Field with forty thou- 
fand Men, drawn from the City Potancbapum , which contain'd above twenty 
thoufand Houfes,all built of Stone : And indeed the Spaniards had here feen their 
laft day, had not Corte*. drawn by a feeming advantage the Enemies under his 
Canon ,' and fent his fmall Party of Horfe to attend the motion of the Rear^ 
when fo foon as they had fir'd their Canon, making great Execution, the 
Front routed, and the Rear terrifVd with the noife and fmoke of the Guns, they 
alfo broke, being at the fame inftant Charg'd with the Horfe , which were fo 
terrible to them that never faw Horfes, nor fuch Service on Horfeback before, 
that in a fliort time the whole Body of fo great an Army was utterly diffipated, 
and the triumphing Conquerors took pofTeffion of the empty City <Potanchanum, 
where Solacing, they ftaid a whole Moneth. Then from hence they Sail'd to 
Colvaca, where, upon the requeft of the Natives, they fettled a Colony. Amongft 
the Prefents which Were there given to the Spaniards , were fome of their 
CM—B.M of^t own Volumes , Books , whofe Leaves were made of the innermoft Rind of a 
" Tree, and a kind of Pafte , made of their Meal , glew'd together; the Cha- 
rafter's ftood at fome diftance one after another, rang d like our Chrift-Crofs <Hpu>, 

otJ,$,C. ' '■ .'; 

Here Corte*. was amaz'd to behold their (lately Temples, the Floors whereof 

were cover'd with Embroyder'd Tapeftry, befet with Precious Stones, to 

which great multitudes flock'd, being very zealous to perform their Dcvou- 

When their Seed is put into the Ground, or come to its full growth, they of- 
fer young Children to their Zeme K , richly Cloth'd, having been fatten'd fome 
Weeks before : When they want Children they kill their Slaves, and in de- 
fault of them, they pacifie them with Dogs. 

The ViBims that go to be Sacrific'd, they Worfhip with all Adoration, Bow- 
ing and Congying before them. 

Their Zeal in this their Idol- Worfliip may appear from a ftrange Cuftom, 
obferv'd by them when they enter their Temple, w£ they either draw Blood 
out of their Tongues, Lips, Ears, Bread, Knees, or Palm of their Hands,which 
they throw into the Air, fuppofing thereby to be pardon'd by their indulgent 

Gods. 

In the City Zempoal, Corte^ found five Slaves, who being kept clofe Prifon. 
crs, were to be Sacrific'd the next day ; but he releafing them , did upon the 
importunate requeft of the Quines, or Priefts, and promi.fes of great ranfoms, 
and their telling of him that the Zeme^ would fpoil all their Seed and Plants 
that year, if they did not go on with thefe Offerings, reftor'd the Prifoners 
again . who, though the enjoyments of all happineffes in the other World were 
promis'd them by their Prieft, and great aflurance given thereof; yet they 
were not forward, but return d, unwilling to fuffer, though by fo gainful a Sa- 
crifice. 

At the Zeme*. Feet hung abundance of Mens Bones bundled up together, and 
under them were Written the Names of their Enemies , whofe Flefh had been 
either Sacrific'd or eaten. 

Twelve Leagues beyond Zempoal, Cortex built a new City near the River 
Grifaha, and call'd itFera Crux, which Z>»fgo Vdafaues refented fo ill, it being 



Strange Sacrifeji.' 



Strtiije Idol-Worlhif . 



jr«ifM/,aCir)r. 



SfflWmndtttiilUoIi: 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 

done without his knowledge,that he petition'*! the Council of Quba to give Sen- 
tence of Death againft the Founder : But vvhilft Corte^ expected an anfvver 
from the EmbaiTadors (which were lent to the Spanijh Court to give account 
of the neceflity of building a City there) he travell'd eighty Leagues Wefterly. 
The Zcmpoalenfers accompanied him in great Troops, hoping by that means 
to fliake off the yoke of the mighty King Wlontezttma, againft whom they were 
then defign'd. Qorte^ coming into the Territory of Sincucbimalar , was in the 
Name of Montezuma, by one of his Princes, courteoufly entertain'd in a great 
Village, fcituate on a fteep Mountain, without any Path or Way leading to it, 
but by two high Ladders. Sincucbimalar lies furrounded with Hills, whole 
tops feem to touch the Clouds. Coming down from the Village, they tra- 
vell'd through a barren and cold Valley, where they fuffer'd fuch great Incon- 
veniences by want of Provifions and Water, and exceeding coldnefs of the 
Weather, that many of them periiVd. After that, they afcended a pleafant 
Hill, on whofe fummit flood a Chappel, with a handfom Steeple, and hedg'd 
about with great heaps of Wood, brought thither by the Inhabitants for the 
ufe of their Sacrifices. At the foot of this Mountain was a fruitful Valley 
water'd by a pleafant River, on whofe Banks a certain Prince nam'd Cacatamf 
nus had a Palace, built of Stone, and containing many Rooms, and convenient 
Lodgings. Somewhat higher to the Land, appear'd more of the like Stru- 
ctures, which were all under Montezuma's Jurifdiction • but the neighboring 
Countrey Tlaxcalla , whofe Inhabitants were famous for their Valor, would 
never receive any Laws from Montezuma. 

Corte^ no focmer fet footing in this Countrey, but he was fet upon by a thou* 
fand of the Inhabitants,who at the firft AlTault kill'd two of the Spanijh Horfe, 
yet after this bold Charge, the Aflailants fled, and on the next day defiYd 
Peace; whereupon the Spaniards march'd quietly into the Countrey, when a 
confus'd Company, or Forlorn*Hope, making a horrible No ife, fet upon them ; 
but after a flight Skirmifh, they v fled to their Main Body, which immediately 
drawing up, being at leaft a hundred thoufand, hemm'd in the handful of Spa* 
niardsy and fo were ready to fwallow them, leaving them no Angle to efcape at. 
Thus invironed, they were aflailed on every fide, fighting till Sun-fet, and 
had undoubtedly been utterly deftroy'd, had not Corte^ ply'd his fix Pieces of 
Cannon, difcharging continually Volley after Volley upon them.; and though 
the Execution was very much, yet the Sound and report of their Ordinance 
was more terrible to them that were out of the reach of the Bullet, and made 
more to the gaining fo great a Victory, E ear conquering more than Slaughter - 
fo that by the Evening, defpairing either of their Safety or better Fortune, the 
whole Army disbanding fled : But the purfuing Conquerors firing five of 
their Villages, remain'd Matters of the Field ; yet they, though thus totally 
routed, taking frefli Courage (a wonderful thing !) reinfore'd them, and fet 
upon the Spanijh Camp, with no lefs than 150000 Fighting Men : Yet not* 
withftanding fo vaft an Army, Corte^ fo well ordered his fmall parcel of Men, 
an4 fo valiantly led on upon all Advantages, that he in like manner defeated 
, this, as they thought, Invincible Preparation. Thus flefli'd with fo much Blood 
of the Natives , he raged every where, giving no Quarter where-ever he 
went. 

Mean while Quefitangal, a neighboring Prince, having alio raifed an Army 
with which he defign'd, being aflifted by darknefs, craftily to fall into the Spa* 
nisb Quarters by Night, fubtilly diflembling , fent Embafladors the day be- 
fore, 



S3 



Orchis Exploit** 



tlaxcalla. 



RV. 



I 

Ml) 






84. *A M E%,I C A. Chap. III. 

fort, with fcvcral Prefents, and Overtures of Peace, which indeed were onely 
Spies, to take notice where they might beft break in upon them 5 which Cor- 
fe^miftrufting, and foon being informed of the whole Defign, he cut off the 
Spies Hands, fo lending them back to Quefitangal with Defiance : Hereupon the 
Indians immediately fetting forward, took advantage of the enluing Night, 
and with great fury fell upon the Spaniards, who preaccjuainted with the De- 
fign, were in fo good a pofture to receive them, that not able to endure fuch 
hot Service, they quickly retreated, and utterly gave over the Enterprize : But 
Corte^ as much encouraged by thefe Victories, purfu'd them, and the fame 
Night Storm'd Tlaxcalla, a City containing above twenty thoufand Houfes, 
which in few Hours he carried. This City was curioufly built, of bak'd 
Stones, and a place of great Trade • infomuch that the Market-places fwarm'd 
with Buyers and Sellers, bartering one with another all manner ofProviil- 
ons, as Fifh, Flefh, and Bread, alio Plumes of Feathers, Pearls, imbroyder'd 
Tapeftry, Chalk, Stones, Timber, arid Herbs. ill 

Twenty days Corte^ ftaid here to refrefh his Army, and then march'd to the 
neighboring City Lhiurutical > with the Auxiliary Forces of the Tlaxcallans, to 
the number of above a hundred thoufand - y they told him, That the People of 
Cbiurutical had barricado'd up their Streets, laid upon the tops of their Houfes 
great heaps of Stones, chat their upper Rooms were cfamm'd with Archers, 
and all things made ready both for Offence and Defence 5 which Advertifenrcnt 
he not much hearkned to,becaufehe was conducted into the City with all their 
State-Formalities of Singing and Tabering upon their Tamboes, and every where 
courteoufly entertahVd. 

Mean while Montezuma had rais'd a great Army, which were in their ad- 
vance, not onely to the defence of his Border, but to furprize them them while 
they ftaid in that City, the Townfmen having invited him thither to their re- 
fcue and his own defence, had not the Plot been accidentally difcover'd by a 
Cbirutecan Woman, who giving advice to one of her Friends thatfollow'd Cor^ 
te%, that he mould immediately make his efcape, becaufe that all the Strangers 
would bedeftroy'd within few Hours, who came and inform'd Corte^ there- 
of- whereupon he defir'd all the Magiftrates of the City to come and fpeajc/ 
Strange Martial Affain. with him, who no fooner entred the Hall where he was, but his Men by 
Command immediately (hot them to death, which terrible Rumor fpreading, 
and alarm'd with the report of the Executing Mufquets, the City was fuddenly 
in an Uproar, gathering thither Arm/d from all Places, and began a ffiarp 
Conflict, which lafted five Hours ; but then wearied out, and defpairing of 
Succefs, loofing their Courage, they defir'd aCeffation, and atlaft concluded 
Peace with the Spaniards. 

This News of his difcover'd Intention, fo ftartled Montezuma, that he fup- 
pos'd it better to defift, and procure the Favor of Corte^ by Prefents . where- 
fore he fent him 15000 Cotton Habits, trim'd up very richly, ten great Char- 
gers of Gold, and fome Veffels of Wine, defiring him for a while to forbear 
his Intentions of marching to Tenujtitan his Chief City, and that he would in 
the mean while treat with him for an Accommodation. But Corte^ though 
he accepted of the Prefents, yet neverthelcfs held his Reiolution of marching 



A Plot flrangely «Ufc<H 
rcr'd. 



Now Mtx'tci. 



on. 



Wonderful Mountain Po~ 
j-jcatefifut. 



Eight Leagues horn Tenujiitan hefaw the double-fpired Mountain (popocate- 
peque, fo call'd from the Smoke which continually afcends from its top. for 
Popoca fignifies A Smoke, and Tepeque, A Mountain. The Smoke riles upright,and 

with 



Chap. III. 



AMERICA. 



h 




with fo much ftrength, that by the greateft Wind it deviates not one jot front 
mounting upwards in a direft Line, to whofe forked Head ten Spaniards re- 
folv'd to climb ; but having got fcarce half way up, they were forc'd to re- 
turn, the Aflies lying knee-deep 5 yet at lafttwo more refolute conquer'd all .^foiution ©f two s?* 
thofc Difficulties, and got to the top, where the mouth of the Cave, as they 
gueffed, meafur'd four Miles in Circumference : The fhaking of the Moun- 
tain, and roaring of the Flames, frequently burning forth, fo much terrified 
them, that they ftaid not long there > for, as we faid, the Ground not oneiy 
trembled under them, but the Fiery Gulpheje&ed great Stones, which falling 
down on all fides of the Mountain, rolled to the bottom ; and without doubt 
they had there perifli'd, had they not fpecdily run to a hollow neighboring 
Hill, from whence they came at length to the reft of their Company, where 
they were admir'd by the Indians for their undaunted Refolution, and prefent- 
ed with feveral rich Gifts. Thefe Indians had a Tradition, That for wicked 
Princes, and fuch as had not govern'd the People well, this was the Topbet ap- 
pointed for their Torments. > 

Corte^ being got through the poor Territory of the Guazaztngcrs, and having Str ckiczinAmm- 
fufFer'd gteat Cold upon the Mountains, difcover'd Jmaquameca, the chief City ca - 
of the Province Cbialco, feated in a great Lake, to which he rdw'd in a kind of 
Boats, by the Inhabitants call'd Jcales. Paffing from thence, he was courte- 
oufly receiv'd in I^tapalapa, another City, which boafts above eight thoufand 
Stone Buildings, befides admirable Palaces, with fpacious Rooms, delightful 
Gardens, and Ponds full of Fifh,and almoft cover'd with Fowl • from whenec 
a Wall or Cawfe-way of a great breadth, that crolVd over both Land and Wa- 
ter, led from I^tapalapa to Tennftitan. This Cawfe*way hath many Bridges, 
which are drawn up in time of War, under which the Water runs out of a 
Salt Lake into a Frefh, that ebbs and flows, although lying between high 
Mountains, and feventy Leagues from the Sea. 

On both fidrs this Wall, being ten Leagues in length, appears three great 

M Towns, 



A very flnngc Cawf,* 
way. 



86 



A M E%1 C J. 



Chap. Ill; 



Towns, Vi*? Mefiqualiftnzo, Colncana, and Vukhilalu(co, all Populous, and well. 



built. 



Lak< 



s 



obacana is fupplied by the Salt Lake, to its no fmall benefit and tnnehmgj 
for the Water being by Pipes convey d into the City, in all the Places and Ci- 
fterns for its reception makes a Scum, which being coagulated by the Sun, and 
after boyl'd, becomes Salt, with which they drive a great Trade ; for no Salt 
being to be had in any place but here, all Foreign Merchants come thither for 

C t 

Cortex being in his March within a League and a half of Tenujlitan, Monte^u* 
ma 9 preceded with a thoufand of his Nobler! , came to meet and falute him, 
all'of them rather like Pilgrims, barefooted, and congying, kiffing their right 
Hands, with which they firft kifs'd the Ground : After them appeared Monte* 
^wa himfelf, who put a Chain of Gold, imbofs'd with Pearls, about Corte^ 
his Neck, and immediately conduced him to the City, where having entred, 
ftmrUfak Mage of an d being come into the Palace, Montezuma plac'd Corte^ on a Golden Throne, 
K*j^m ^ d furrcndred up his Right to his Catholick Majefty of Spain, in the prefcnee 

of all his Peers, to their no fmall amazement. 

But whilft all things had a good face, and went on thus fairly beyond their 
expectations, Concerns inform'd, That King Coalcopoca had a Defign on the 
new City Vera Crux, and had treacheroufly murder'd two of the Garrifon, 
and wounded two more : Whereupon Corte^ having fuch fair beginnings, who 
had fwallow'd already in his.Hopes the whole Empire and Wealth belonging 
to Montezuma, laid hold of this Occafion, pretending Treafon, and breach of 
Contract j wherefore he put Montezuma under Cuftody, notwithftanding he 
had clear'd himfelf of the Confpiracy, by bringing Coalcopoca, with his Sons, 
and fifteen of his Peers, Priloners to Tenuftitan, who by the command of Cor- 
tex fuffer'd a lingering death, being all burnt with Green Wood. But in vain 
did Montezuma think to reconcile himfelf with Corte^ fince all he did could 
render no manner of fatisfaftibn ; however he continued to oblige him by 
frefh Favors, whofe Relation we will be more particular in, as meriting the 

fame. 

Montezuma's Grandees feem'd to be much difontented, becaufe he had with- 
out the leaft refiftance or confideration fetled a handful of Strangers to domi- 
neer over his whole Dominions, by which his weaknefs and pufillanimity,he 
was now a Prifoncr, like a common Malefa&or, who had formerly governed 
fo mighty Territories. Amongft feveral Princes which fecnVd thus to be 
concern'd, was Catumazjn Governor of the Province Hacohacan, who had he 
not been furpriz'd and attaqu'd the Night before by the information and dif- 
covery of Montezuma himfelf, he would have hazarded the ruine of all 
Qorte^ his SuccefTes : But now Fortune dill daily more fmil'd, giving won- 
derful Advantages to the Spaniards ; Silver and Gold continually flow- 
ing like Rivers from all Quarters , that their onely trouble and puzzle 
was where and how to cjifpofe it : but yet for all this, they were not free 
from jealoufie, that Montezuma's Forces might fwallow theirs, though he 
was fecur'd ; of which you may judge by the vaftnefs of his Imperial City 
Tenuftitan) feated in the Province of Mexico, where a Salt Lake mixes its Wa- 
ters with a frefh River, both which in circumference contain, as we faid, fe- 
venty Leagues, and diftant from the Main Land five or fix Miles ; the Water 
about it continually cover'd with fmall Boats rowing up and down. It hath 
four Stone , befides Draw-Bridges in feveral Places, and ftrengthned with 

Gates 



Defer iption of the Roy- 
al City Ttnufiiwn. 






n 







life 




*7 



Cacatt ; vrhat manner of 



Frwt. 



Stately Tcmpte 



Chap* III. AMERICA. 

Gates no lefs artificial than coftly,which lead from the City to the Main Land.' 
• The Frefli Water is convey'd through the Sale in a Wall'd Channel, out of 
which none may take up Water, except they pay Excife to the Kings Farmers. 
This City boafts above fixty thoufand Houfes, all divided into Iflands, but 
joyn'd with great Wooden Bridges : The Market-place iurrounded with Gal- 
leries, drives a quick and conftant Trade, being always full of Buyers and Sel- 
lers. In every Street they have a publick Inn, in each of which they keep Or- 
dinaries, wherein the Tables are ftor'd with well-drelVd Flefli and Fifli, not 
wanting plenty of Wine. Their Trades are divided into feveral Companies, 
and they have their peculiar Places to dwell in. They deal very much in £*- 
caos, a Fruit not unlike an Almond, which beaten to Powder, and prepared 
with feveral other Ingredients, gives name to that excellent Drink now in ufe 
with us, caird Chocolate : They grow onely on moift and warm Grounds, and 
are us'd fo currently in Trade, that they go in ftead of Money. Amongft ma- 
ny beautiful Edifices, their Guild is very magnificent, wherein twelve Judges, 
attended by a confiderable number of , Officers and Servants, fit daily, hearing' 
and determining all manner of Caufes. The next is their Chief Temple or 
Minder, built quadrangular, all of Free-Stone, having four Portals, opening 
into the four principal Streets or Triumphs, that end at the four Stone Bridges. 
On the Walls, being of an exceeding height, ftand feveral Turrets, fo high, 
that they feem to hide their Spires in the Clouds, and have Apartments' 
wherein the Priefts Diet, Lodge, and Study, which are afcended by Marble 
Steps. Thefc Religious Perfons are generally of Noble Extract, which at fe- 
ven years old are carried thither, where leading a very ftria Life, they never 
come forth to fee the World, till they enter the State of Matrimony. The fa. 
Pious Coloffut, that flood over the tyhodian Haven, between Whofe Legs all Ships 
did Sail, that came in or went out of the Harbor, cannot ftand in competition 
with the ftupendious Idol Vutchilabuchkhi y whofe Head touches the Arch'd Cei* 
ling of the high Temple. Near his ftand feveral lefler Images, made of Meal 
and all forts of Herbs bak'd together, and kneaded with Mens Blood. Along 
the Walls are exceeding dark Vaults, in which the Priefts onely walk 5 over 
them are large Halls, full of Prefentations of their Gods, which ferve for the 
Burying-places of their Kings. 

Whilft Qorte^ and Montezuma were viewing the Temple, two Spaniards rufli'd 
fuddenly into one of the Cells, where they found abundance of Lamps and 
Torches burning, and the Walls bedaub'd two Inches thick with Humane 
Gore : Over-head hung vaft numbers of their Sacrificing Knives ; and the 
ftench of the place was intollerable. 

But Corte^ going on, Montezyma and his Attendants refented it very hainouf- 
ly, that he pull'd down fome of their Idols, and durft prefume to look in the 
Kings Face . for thofc People bear fo great Reverence to their Kings, that Grardeur of thc Ki 
none dares fo much as once lookup in their prefence : His Council ftand bare- ****** 
footed, ftooping with their Faces bow'd almoft to the Ground before him : 
Four times a day they change their Apparel . and a Suit which they have once 
worn, is put to no other ufe, but prefented to fuch Soldiers as have done fome 
eminent Service. Whatever manner of Chargers, Diflies, Pots, Cups, and 
other Veflels the Emperor is ferv'd in at his Table, are every Meal new. The 
King hath in Tenujiitan three great Structures, whofe Magnificence,for Coft and 
rare Architecture, can hardly be paralleled. Thc firft is the Refidence for all 
deform/d People : The fecond, an JVtary for all manner of Birds and Fowl, 

Ml being 



Horrible Image* 



Strange Garden- houfes. 



88 



AMERICA, 



Chap. III. 



I 




being a fpacious open place, Roof'd with Nets, and furrounded with Marble 
Galleries. The third, being a Den for Wild Beads, was divided into feveral 
Rooms, wherein were kept Lions, Tygers, Wolves, Foxes, and all manner of 
Four-footed Animals. k 

But whilft Cortex having ftaid waiting eight Months in T*enujlitan y for the 
return of the Meflengers fent to the Spanifh Court, receiv'd Tidings,That Pam- 
philolfyrvaecyj by order of FelafquesjWas come with eighteen Sail, Manned with 
eight hundred Foot, and eighty Horfe, from Quba, and now riding before the 
Mexican Coaft ; from whence foon after he receiv'd unexpected Command, to 
come prefently aboard unarmed, and refign up his Authority : But he in ftead 
of fubmiffion, compell'd Naryaecy in a fliort time to relinquish his Title, and 
own him for Superior. Mean while the Spaniards which remained inpofTeffi- 
on of Tenu/iitan y ran the hazard of a general Maffacre • for the Citizens much 
ftomacking the Oppreffions of the Spaniards, who grew very infolent, inflaving 
their King, bringing their inveterate Enemies the Tlaxcallans and Gua^u^ingans 
into their City, exa&ing them to pay Tributes, pulling down their Gods, and 
demolifliing their ancient Idols, they brake out from all Parts in a tumultuous 
manner, ran to Arms, and befieg'd them Day and Night in their Fort, al- 
though Montezuma endeavored to perfwade the contrary. Corte^ hearing of it, 
came to their relief with the New Forces Landed from Cuba$ but he fighting 
his way ere he could get in, was fo roughly entertained by the Mexicans, that 
they kill'd him forty Men, wounding as many more 5 and notwithstanding 
fifteen Field-pieces with continual Shot made foul Breaches, leiTeningthe 
number of the AiTailants, yet they fuddenly fill'd up their Vacancies again 
with frefli Men, which clambcr'd over the Heaps of thofe that lay flain. 
Three Days the Battel had continu'd very fierce, when Montezuma being with 
the Spaniards in the Caftle, went to a low Window, to fee if he could com- 
mand his Subje&sto retreat . but a continual Cry fo deafned their F-ars, and 
fhowres of Arrows and Stones fo took away their fight, that he did nothing: 

Then 






Chap. III. %m >rf M E R I C J. 

Then Montezyma, thinking to be more cafily either heard or fcen, went to a, 
higher Window, where. looking our, he was unfortunately hit with a Stone, 
of which he died three days after. Befides their Enemies, the Spaniards fuffer'd 
extremely by Famine • and though they had beaten down a Tower, which 
.had done the Caftle great mifchief, and fet five hundred Houfes on fire, yec 
they could difcern no likely ifliie thereof, but judg'd it beft to make their 
efcape by Night over the neareft Bridge : Corte^ therefore dividing his gotten 
Treafures, which amounted to above feven hundred thoufand Duckets, 
amongft his Soldiers, carried Montezuma's Son, and two Daughters, Prrfoners 
with him, though not without infinite danger and lofs ; for the Tenuftitans af- 
fail'd him on both fides, and falling in alio upon his Rear, fpar'd not to kill 
Montezuma's own Children. In this laft Fight the Service was fo hot, that CV- 
te^ loft forty two Horfe, a hundred and fifty Spaniards, and two thoufand Auxi- 
liaries • and although gotten over the Lake, they were ftill purhYd by the 
Mexicans, who. would then undoubtedly have made a general Slaughter, had 
not Cortex amufed the Enemies, by leaving in the Night great Fires in feveral 
Places, his fuppos'd Camps, whilft he filently ftole away : Yet the Tenujlitans 
would have purhYd the Spaniards, had they not wanted Provifions : But Corte^ 
fending his Treafure before him, through the Counrrey Coha, to Vera Crux, 
with a Convoy of five Horfe, and forty four Foot, were all cut off by the CoU 
Vdans, and feafted upon in a Thankfgiving Sacrifice. The fame misfortune be- 
fel twelve Spaniards in Tepeacu, which great City furrendred it felf up to Cor- 
te^ being affifted by a mighty Army of Tlaxcallans and others. But after all Cm ' K ' 
thefe Loffes, he took Guaccachiulla, and Izguca, both fortified with ftrong Walls 
and Gates ; in which laft he burnt above a hundred Temples, built for Hu- 
mane Sacrifices. All the Countrey through which he thus ran fack'd, he call'd 
Ney»Spain. From the City Ta^uco, which he had newly taken, intending to 
befiege Tenuftitan, he digg'd through the Lakes a broad Trench, of above three 
Leagues in length, to bring up thirteen new Ships to Tenuftitan ; and the 
neighboring People envying, that that City mould not be conquered, as well 
as theirs, rais'd an Army of above a hundred and fifty thoufand Men, making 
Corte^ their General ; Himfelf incamped on one corner of the City, appoint- 
ing the other two fides to be invefted by Gonfales SandoValo, and fedro Jlyarado- 
but the Befieg'd refolutely broke out, and made a fierce Sally with five thou- 
fand Boats, fetting upon the thirteen Ships • but the great Guns made fuch ex- 
ecution and havock amongft them, that they retreated with great damage. 
iWhoever were taken Prifoners in this Fight by the Spaniards, the Tlaxcallans, 
being Commijlion'd by Cortezj feafted upon. On the feventh day the City 
was taken, but not without great Slaughter, and the new King imprifon'd. 

After this mighty Conqueft, Corte^ refolv'd to difcover thofe Territories 
that lay Southward • and whilft he was making all things ready for the Voy- 
age, he fent two Ships with an invaluable Treafure to Spain, who fearing 
to be taken by the French Pyrats, ran in at Tercera, where a miferable Accident 
hapned to the Seamen of the biggeft Ship, wherein were carried two Tygcrs, 
which though taken young, and bred up amongft men, yet had not fo quite 
forgotten their natural ferocity, but that one breaking loofe in the Night, tore 
feven of them in pieefs, hurting a far greater number, of which fome had the 
Brawns of their Arms, the Calves of their Legs, and flefhy parts of their 
Thighs bit out. 

Several Places in America breed Tygers, that far exceed Lyons in fiercenefi ; 

M j fo 



8? 



Sfaniards beaten afreflj. 



Remarkable Exploits of 



tenti/litan ", or Mum. 
taken. 



Sid acci&nt occafion'J 
by a Tyger, 



9° 



boons. 



^ 






A M E\,I C A. Chap, in: 

fo that where any confiderable number of them frequents, though the Soil be 
never fo fruitful, ye< it is left defolate and forfaken. But the Baboons that 
s _B Mt a,.B, frequent the Woods are more pleafant and left dangerous • ^«* '^ 
That his whole Army incountred with thefe Beads, which climb d from one 
Tree to the other, fhrieking, and making very ftvange Geft.culations to too e 
that were gone before, and gathering their Mouths and Hands full of Stones, 
ZlTLy threw as exa* and ftrongly as a Man. When one of the e 
Baboons, Lt by a Mufquet, fell to the Ground, the reft gave fuch a horrible 
flrriek, that the Woods refounding with the noile, ftrook a terror into the ** 
M ard>. Amongft feveral things that hapned in this Counter-fcuffle, take this 
one: A S^rf taking aim with his Mufquet at an old Baboon which fee 
pearch'd up in a Tree, and being now juft ready to give Fire, the Baboo. iSo 1* 
dier, at the very inftant, to break the Shot, taking a Stone out of his Mouth 
threw it exaaly into the Mans Mouth, with fuch force as beat out fome of his 
Teetl . with which fudden blow furpris'd, he loft his Mark ; and the proud 
Foe, fhewing figns of Triumph, went his way. 

Burwl.il! Cortex ftaid in the Countrey of Tenufittan (now calld JIAevco) 
Francifcus Garajus fail'd out of the Haven of Jamaica with eleven Ships, to the 
KvJfanucus there, according to the Command of the .Emperor Charles to 
plant a Colony : Whereupon he went aihore, ordering his Fleet to fail ^along 
in fioht of Land : So wading through the River Montaltus, which glides be- 
tween high Mountains, he came to a Moraffy Ground, in which he and they 
often funk almoft up to the Middle, and loft his way in a Thicket of young 
Trees, yet at laft being come to the River Tanucus he found feveral high 
Walls,' being the Ruines of Fortreffes, Temples, and Towers deftroy d by 
<W '. fo that the City lay quite defolate. Twenty Leagues further upon 
the Banks of the fame River, Cm*, had in like manner fack d and deftroy d 
Cfckjw, a Town which before its burning reckon d above twenty thoufand 
Houfes, befides many fair Palaces,Walls, Towers, and Temples : Which Cru- 
elties and Spoil had bred fo great an Odium in the Inhabitants againft the Spam. 
2 ^— eU ards, that they immediately fent an Army againft Garajus, who had only a few 
**«»*•** half.ftarv'd Men with him $ yet he receiv'd the Enemy twice in his Retreat 

to the new Colony St. Steven, rais'd out of Cbiglia's Ruines . but finding no 
Provifions whenever he came, he judg'd it fitteft to fend his Horfe into the 
Countrey to Forage j which Corte^ meeting, took Prifoners, under pretence 
that G arajus came to take Poffeffion.where he had neither Authority nor R.ght. 
Cortex alfo made himfelf Mafter of Garajus Ship and Fleet, commanding him 
withal to appear in Tenuftitan , which not knowing how to avoid, he obey'd : 
His People mean time ranging up and down without a Head or Commander, 
either died by Famine, or were murther'd and eaten by the Natives , for at one 
time the Americans made a general Feaft with two hundred and fifty rotted o>- 
niards : But their days of Triumph lafted not long ; for SandoValus one of Cor. 
te^his Prime Officers, fet with fo much fury upon thofe Canmbals, thit he kill'd 
feveral thoufands of them, and burnt fixty Perfons of Prime Quality ,all Com. 
manders, in the fight of their Ftiends and Relations. But Garajus, whofe Son 
was married to Corte^ his Daughter, liv'd not long after the Wedding, which 
occafion'd a murmur as if Cortex had poyfon'd him, to fld himfelf of a Partner 
in his Government ; for it had been generally obferv'd, that his Ambition fuf- 
fer'd no Equal. The Americans fell all down before him • all were Servants 
alike : The Court which he kept fwarm'd with Attendance, on which he fpent 

vaft 



Great iefiruclion. 1 



Sfmniardi rofted. 



OrWihis Ambition/ 



9* 



His Misfortunes 



Chap. III. A M E T^l C A 

vaftSums of Money ; yet his Incomes were able to bear fuch cxccffivc Dif- 
burfements. He kept in conftant Pay five thoufand Soldiers, and feveral Ships 
ready rigg'd and prepared on all occafions, to hold in awe the enflav'd People, 
or elfc for the Difcovery of New Countreys: Yet after all thefe extraordina- 
ry Charges defrayed, to (hew his Wealth and Greatnefs, he caus'd a Piece of 
Cannon to be cafe, all of maffie Gold : for the Kings which formerly acknow- 
ledge Montezuma for their Sovereign, gave him a yearly Revenue, moil of 
which were valu'd to be worth twenty three Tun of Gold ; for fo much the 
King of Tefcufcus, a ftately City, paid, whofe Houfcs Plaiftcr'd with White- 
Lime, feeind afar off to be rather a Chalky Hill or Mountain, covered with 
Snow: Full as much did the King pay which reigned in Otumba, notwith- 
ftanding he had received with his Chriftianity the Name of Ferdinand Qrrte£\ yet 
others gave lefs : The King Guacinalgo, with his Mother, and fome Slaves, 
bringing Gold, came to prefent it to Corte^^ and cntring the Palace, through 
a Guard of five hundred Horfe and four Hundred Foot, which were always 
ready Arm' d for fear of Infurreftions, he fell down proftrate on the Ground, 
Thus all things even outwent whatever he could defire, hope for, or imagine, 
And Aharedo, one of his Commanders, being fent Eaftwardly, brought great 
Treafures back with him, which the conquer'd Kings were fore'd to raife. 

But Fortune, who feldom continues her Favors long,at laft began to frown- 
for Cortex having fent an unvaluable Treafure of Gold and Pearls to the Em! 
peror Charles the Fifth, Floryn the French Pyrate met with and took k, which 
went fo much to his Heart , that for a confiderable time he fent no Advice to 
the Spanijh Court, which made them grow jealous of him, doubting that he 
intended to make himfelf King over J^e^-Spain - 7 and this Sufpicion was not a 
little augmented by his Enemies. 

In the Neck of thefe, folio w'd another Misfortune \ for Chriftopher Olitus, 
fent out by Corre^to difcover new Countreys, rebelling, took up Arms againft 
him, being then in the Haven Figueras, five hundred Leagues beyond. Not- 
withftanding the Spaniards, although amongft a new-conquer'd People, which 
without doubt long'd for Revenge, were not to take notice of their danger, 
but to go on with undaunted Refolution ; whereupon Corte^ drawing out a 
ftrong Party, march 'd a long andtroublefom way to meet Olitus, making great 
Slaughters where.ever he came. Francifco de las Cafas was commanded to go 
upon the fame Account by Sea, and arriving firft, found him fetling his new 
Colony, which he nam'd Triumph de Santla'Crux ; and notwithstanding the 
Water with a Northerly Wind was very rough and boyfterous in the Haven 
Viguera* (which the Spaniards call'd fo, becaufe they found Trees there, which 
growing at the Foot of the Mountains, bore a Fruit not unlike a Fig) yet they 
came to a prefent Engagement, wherein Cafa* wording Olitus, having funk one 
of his Ships, flood out again to Sea- but furpriz'd by a violent Storm, and 
driven on the Shore, fell into Olitus s Hands,who had a little before alfo taken 
Egidius or Giles Gonfales. Thefe two Prifoners confulted together how they A £ Plot 9 f two su- 
nlight poyfon or murder Olitus, which fell out according to their defires, be- 
caufe the Servants of the Houfe where they lodg'd fided with them 5 fo taking 
hold of the firft opportunity , as they were at Supper together, they ftabb'd 
him with their Knives in feveral places ; yet the Wounds were not fo great or 
mortal, but that he retain'd ftrength to efcape in the dark to a neighboring 
Hut 5 but the Afla/finates immediately fent out Meffcngers,publifhing,Thathe 
who did not,knowing where Olitus was immediately bring him to them,fhould 

receive 



Officers, 



9 z 



sA M B%I C A. 



Chap. III. 




^ ^ 

S 



I 






Mtmans Apparel} 





receive condign punifhment ; which terrifying Olitus, he difcover'd himfelf, 
and was immediately beheaded. 

During the time that the Spanijb Officers had thefe Civil Broyls one againft 
another, Lodovick <Ponuus y * Man well cxpcricnc'd in the Law, came from Spain 
to America, there in the Emperors Name to fettle all things in good order ; ha- 
ving alfo particular Inftru&ions, to fhew great kindnefs to Corte^ and to make 
him a Knight of the Order of St. James y thzt by that means the Emperor might 
be the more eftcem'd for his Noble Subje&s and Servants, amongft the Mexi- 
cans, who arc themfelves of a proud and ambitious fpirit, and chiefly the No- 
bility, which doth manifeftly appear by their Apparel, more gorgeous than 
the meaner fort of Americans • and though the Slaves go ftark naked (having 
onely a Cloth tied about their Privities ) and with a Bowe and Arrows walk 
before their Lords, yet the Better Sort go very coftly Habited ; for about 
their Necks they wear Strings of Pearl ; on their Heads, a Cap, from whence 
hang down two Scarfs, one longer than the other • then a party-coldur'd 
Cotton Coat covers their whole Bodies to their Knees, under which they weac 
a Veft girt about their Middle. 

But at laft, after all thefe Services, Corte^ difagreeing with the Vice*Roy 
Don Jntonio Mendo%a, being about that time fent over, went male-contented 
into Spain. 

Sect. XI. 
Diego Gottiercz his E^fdition. 

A^lno i^o.Gottiere^ being chofen Governor of 'Hew Caytkage,vicivWd Anchor 
from Qtdi%j and failing to Upmbre de 2)ioj,upon his Landing clafh'd with 
Gottmtz comefts with Roderick Qontrerat, in whofe Place he was fent to fucceed. Two Years he fpent 
without effecting any thing ; but at laft coming to Agreement with Contreras, 
he took the Governorfliip upon him, having firft forewarn'd him not to de- 
pend 



Contmat. 



n 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 

pendtoo much upon his Authority; for the Countrey being full of Woods 
and Mountains, might hide many of his Enemies : But he not regarding the 
Advice, went a Journey from 2\(<n> Granada, and having march'd fifty Leagues 
Eafterly, he crolVd into the River Sucre, with fixty Spaniards, and was prefent* 
ed by the Princes of the Countrey with as much Gold as amounted to feven 
thoufand Duckets. Here he fpent fome Weeks, effecting little , but now all 
things growing fcarce, though he was very earneft with the Natives for Provi* 
lions, yet he could get little , which kind of Life the Soldiers difiiking, and 
growing weary of, went away in the Night to Nicaragua. Gotticre K thus left fcforia^alE 
alone, got into a Boat, with intent to follow them, and being juft put off 
from the Shore, was met by Captain Zarjanto, who brought new Forces and 
frefh Provifions with him : This wrought upon him to ftay there. Not long 
after Jlphonfo de ftfa went with twenty feven Men from lS[pmbre de Dios to the 
fame River Suere j but it being then very rough at the Entrance, he was necef- 
fitated to pafs on to a fmall uninhabited Ifle, where whilft he lay at an Anchor, 
the Weather began to grow worfe and worfe i the Gufts of Wind, mix d with Great Te» pc A; 
Showres of Rain, Thunder, and Lightning, feem'd to threaten a general De- 
finition . for in the Ship two Spaniards and one Moor were kill'd by the 
Lightning : In feventy two Days, the Sun did not fhine four Hours : At laft 
weighing Anchor, he fail'd over to the Main Land, where he faw nothing but 
vaft Mountains and WildernefTcs. Here for a time they liv'd upon Cockles 
found on the Shore, and wild Fruits in the Woods : At length coming to Got. 
tiered he fent him with Ms People in five Boats to fetch new Forces from Noro- 
Ire de Dios. In his way thither he faw a Houfe built of Canes, cover'd with 
Palm-leaves, forty five Paces long, and built after an Oval fafhion : Round 
about it flood feveral leffer Hovels, all which making up a Village, the Spani- 
ards nam'd Francifco, becaufe they came thither on St. Francis Day. About half village*™,/*, 
way they met with the Lords of Suere and Cbiuppa, going to attend Gottiere^ , 
to whom being admitted, and fitting with him at Table, he gave them, as a 
Dainty, rofted Chickens and frelh Pork . but they gave it to their Servants,not ^j^^m 
delighting in the tafte of fuch Victuals. Gottiere^, by means of an Interpre- 
ter, told them concerning the Qhrifltan Religion, at which they bow'd their 
Heads, without making any Anfwer : But how little mind they had to em- 
brace it, quickly appeared ; for not long after, they fet their Villages on fire, 
and all the Provifions which they could not carry with them,they fpoird,and 
fo retiring, hid themfelves upon inacceiTible Mountains. Another Incentive 
leading them to this Fight, was, becaufe the Governor Qamach'trm, and his De- 
puty (notwithstanding he had given Gottiere^ as much Gold, when he came 
nrft into the Countrey, as amounted to feven thoufand Duckets, as we mentis 
on'd before) yet was put in Prifon by his Order, contrary to all Promifes : 
Nay, Gottiere^ threatned to burn him (not regarding, that he had befides re- 
ceiv'd of him feveral Pieces of Gold, refembling all manner of Beads, as Ty- 
gers, and others 5 and alio Fifhesand Fowls curioufly wrought, which were 
valu'd at two Tun of Gold ; yet this Prefent feemed too little for him, 
whereupon bringing thePrifoner to a Cheft, he fworc that he would roft him unified CovctouM 
by degrees, if in four days time he did not furnifli him with four times as ° Go """ z ' 
much more Gold as that Cheft would hold : Whereupon Cbamachirens Servants 
Went away to get the requir'd Gold i but he,through carelefnefs of the Watch, 
made his efcape in the Night, fo that Gottiere^ loft his Booty. But the other 
Prifoners, though threatned to be torn afunder with Dogs, remained firm, 

difowning 



9A- 



Dangerous Mountains, 
Strange Huts. 






Valiant fifi«t. 



a M E^l C A. Chap. III. 

difowning that they had any Gold , and among the reft, one fpeaking boldly 
to the Sfanilh Officer faid , That he flood ama^d at his treacherous dealings, T»hy did he 
keep him Chain d againft Law and fromife, and often threaten' d him Vtth death, but yet 
vould not Ml him , for he , fold he , had rather choofe to die, than lm Jo miferabU 

" 'cottiere^s Confciencc troubling him , he would willingly have releas'd the 
Indian, and the rather, becaufe he promis'd to procure a great ran fome or 
Gold • but the inferior Commanders would not confent to it. After this they 
march'd fix days through great Wilderneffes, and over high Mountains, find- 
ing no Footfteps of any People. Laftly, They came down a very dangerous 
and fteep Mountain, where had not the Shrubs and jutting Stones ferv d them 
to hold by, they had all broken their Necks. 

Fifteen Leagues, the hanging of this Mountain fpread it felf along a fweet 
River, on whofe oppofite Shore ftood ftrange Huts full of dead Tygers, Deers 
Heads', and Legs ; here they ftaid two days to reft themfelves, where the Trees 
Mitmei and the Cazabi Plants yielded them good Food. 

Travelling forward, Gottiere^ ask'd an Indian which was the neareft way to a 
Village, but he pretending not to know any near hand , had his Head imme- 
diately 'cut off. In like manner, and for the fame reafon the Indtan Prince 
fliould alfo have been Executed, had not Gottiere^ given order to the contrary; 
feeing his refolution , that with no lefs Patience than undaunted Courage, 
ftretch'd forth his Neck to the Executioners. Mean while, their Provifions dc- 
creafing, they fuffer'd extreme hunger ; infomuch, that fome fainted quite 
away. The Souldiers alfo rebelling againft Gottiere^ior Food, he commanded 
them to kill their Dogs , and ftamp the Barks of Trees j two days they tra- 
velled much difcontented in this manner , and at laft came to the entrance of 
a Wood, where they efpy'd in Indian ftanding behind a Tree, which on a fud- 
den ran away with incredible fwiftnefs : early the next morning , above four 
thoufand Indians c«me Marching againft the faint Spaniards, making a terrible 
noife with Horns and Drums 8 they were all except their Princes Painted black 
and red 5 fome wore Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Collars of the 
fame about their Necks j the fight began very fiercely , by cafting abundance 
of Stones, and (hooting of Arrows, wherein, though Gottiere^ was at firft 
Wounded, yet after half an hour the Aflailants fled, but recruited with frefli 
Forces rencw'd the fight , breaking into their Ranks, and making fo great 
(laughter amongft them with Woodden Swords, and Palm-Tree Clubs, 
knocking down, and dealing fuch deadly Wounds, that of the Spaniards, three 
onely efcap'd , faving themfelves by flight , who two hours after , much 
amaz'd and terrify 'd, came to their referve, confifting onely of twenty four 
Men , which Alphonfo dt <fyfa Commanded ; the infulting Enemy at their 
Heels, waving over their Heads the Swords, Shields, and Crofs.Bows 
which they had gotten from the (lain Spaniards ■ and fome withal crying in the 
Spanifi Tongue, Come Christians, come, and take Gold. But de %tfa, for all their pride, 
fet them going with fome Volleys of Shot ; after this , efcaping innumerable 
other dangers, he came to Sombre de Dhs, without having cffefted any thing of 
Note. 



S e c T- 



Chap. Ill; 



A M E%_1 C A. 



5>? 



Sect. XI. 

The Expeditions of Peter Alvarado, Francifco and Gonzalvo Pizarro, 

and Diego de Almagro. 

.♦ 

TN the City o{ Panama, ki 2vVfl> Spain, liv'd three eminent Spaniards, calVd Fran- *«•** *<* ****** 
A cifco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, and Ferdinand de Lu que a Prieft, which joy nt- miurkabJecxplous - 
ly defign'd to difcover farther Southerly along the rich Gold and Pearl Coaft, 
and infpedr, the Southern Ocean. De Luque was to look to home-affairs - and 
Pizarro fet Sail firft with a Ship Man'd with one hundred and fourteen Men 
which Almagro followed with feventy more , yet both were valiantly repuls'd 
by the Peruvians 5 but although they returned the firft time with bad fuccefs 
yet they undertook their bufinefs once more , but with no better fortune . 
whereupon difcouraged, the undertaking feem'd to be totally laid afide , and 
the American Vice-Roy, Peter de <%ios forbad any to attempt a farther Difcovery 
concerning Peru. 

The former difficulties with this Edict eafily wrought upon Pi^arro's men, 
all but twelve, to leave him, for the reft went over with the Ship fitted out by 
Q{ios with fuccors to the Ifland Gallo , where Pizarro refided, having alfo fail'd 
in his fecond Expedition. But although he had made two bad Voyages, yet 
having an inclination to a third attempt, he went to Spain, defiring of the Em- 
peror to be Governor of Peru , which he had difcover'd j for befides his Plea 
of Merits he had taken poffeffion of the Country twice by Landing there, in- 
tended for the ufe of his Imperial Majefty - one of his Sea«men to that purpofe 
flourifhing his two-handed Sword over his Head , the gliftering of which 
Sword fo frighted the Natives, that none of them durft come near him. 

His rccjueft being confulted upon, was at laft granted, the Government of 
Peru being conferred upon him • but Almagro took it very ill, that Pizarro went 
to the Emperor on fuch a defign for himfelf. yet by the mediation of his 
Friends the difference was reconciled , then Pizarro fetting Sail with one hun- 
dred and fifty Foot befides Horfe, and Landing at the Ifland Puna, at firft was p^^sfi.htonP/,^ 
courteoufly entertain'd ; but the Spaniards by extravagant hunting and fearch- 
ing every where their Houfes for Gold, and committing feveral other outrages, 
incenfing, changed the humor of the Inhabitants fo much , chat they fell upon 
them. In ftcad of Enfigns, Standards, and Warlike Trophies, they ufed long 
Canes, at the end whereof were ty'd the Bones of their antient Hero's, honor'd 
by them after their death : But thefe Reliques fav'd not the Indians from 
flaughter, fo well as the coverts of a neighboring Wood. 

From this Ifle, lying three degrees Southward of the Equ'moclial, Pizarro paf- 
fed over to the Main Continent , where they were all in a great confufion, upon 
the report of the Spaniards cruelties committed in Puna 5 yet all the prepara- Comestop™., 
tions of the Indians to withftand, ftop'd not Pizarro from his intended courfe • 
for firft, having the fuccefs to matter Tamper thence he made nothing to march 
his Forces over the River Ambato , there burning a Temple Dedicated to the 
Sun. The Portico flood towards the Eaft, the rifing of their God, before which ****** r em? k. 
hung a Curtain of their fine Cotton Stuff, within ftood the prefentations of 
two Golden Rims, fliaded with Black, and as many Dragons, before which 
the Fire never went out, continually fupply'd with Offerings of burnt Incenfe- 



9 6 






JLlvar ado's Exploits. 













AMERICA Chap. III. 

on the Pillars hung feveral Men flead, their Flefh kept firm, and free from all 
Putrifaction , with the infufion of a (harp Juyce. 

Here Jlmagro coming to Pi^arro with frefh Forces, they made no little pene- 
tration into Peru, fatisfying every where their thirft of Gold, and flaughtering 
the Toothlcfs Tombe^es, a people who having offended their King, had by his 
order the upper Teeth of the whole Nation beaten out. 

Peter Jharado informed concerning the Riches of Peru , and well knowing 
how to infinuate With the Emperor in his fawning Letters, at laft by his 
Friends fo prevail'd, that he alfo got leave to go thither ♦ in purfuance of 
which, Anno 1534. he Weighed Anchor with feven Ships from Guatimala , a Ci- 
ty built by him between two Mountains. But Landing at Puerto Viejo , and 
Marching Eafterly over Snowy Mountains , he was met by Jlmagro, between 
whom a bloody incounter was like to have happened , but after iome time, a 
Treaty being let a Foot, they came to a Compofition on thefe Articles : That 
Jharado upon the receipt of a hundred thoufand Duckets, fhould leave his 
Men with Jlmagro, and depart from Peru ; with which futo, being inrich'd, 
he foon after fitted out fourteen Sail to difcover new Countreys to the Weft 5 
but being bufiein his preparations , was fent for to Mexico by Don JntonioMen- 
do^a the Vice-Roy , to undertake a Voyage with him to the new-difcover'd 
Countrey oiSibolla, abounding in Gold and Saffron, according to the report 
of four Dominican Monks ^ and having already rais'd ieven hundred Men, news 
came to Mexico, that Peter Zunica had received an overthrow by the Indians of 54- 
lifco 5 to whofe afliftance Jharado March'd with all fpced, and found the Indi- 
ans incamp'd on a high Mountain , fortifi'd with conjoyn'd Trees, and great 
Stones ty'd together with Rufhes , behind which they were fecure from Shot. 
The Spaniards climbing up the Mountain, approach'd their Works, when on a 
fudden the Defendants giving a great Shout, cut the Cords which held their 
Notable stratagem of Fortification together , whereupon the Stones and Trees tumbled down with 
fuch force, that they kill'd both Men and Horfe, few efcaping alive : In this 
L wickcdnc6ofa woman, conflict Jlyarado himfelf Was loft. His Wife Beatrix Cuova made a ftately Fune- 
, ral for her Husband, and caus'd her Houfe to be Painted black, refufmg either 

to Eat or Drink for a fet time, yet notwithftanding, all her pretence of for- 
row, fhe fo minded her bufinefs , that flie took the Government of Guatimala 
into her own hands j but her Dominion laftcd not long, for on the eighteenth 
of September, Anno 1541. happened a hideous Tempeft of Wind and Rain, mixt 
with continual Lightning, and horrible claps of Thunder, and what was 
Gmtm»u deflroyM b y more terrible, was anfwer'd with roars and horrid bellowings from the ca« 

aflood. 7 n 1 • • ' 

verns of the Mountain, at whofe foot Guatimala flood. About midnight the 
Mountain was delivered, whofe Birth was the irruption of an Inundating Ri- 
ver, a precipitate torrent tumbling down full of Rocks and Stones, which 
carry'd all before it, fo that in few minutes Guatimala was utterly fwept away, 
not the lead mark remaining, nor any left alive except Jharado's Baftard 
Daughter by an Indian • and in the adjacent Fields, fomefew, and they mainVd, 
with broken Arms or Legs . after this utter deftru&ion, they re-built another 
Guatimala, three Leagues more Eafterly. But though Jharado was loft in this 
Enterprize, yet the Voyage to Si bolla was not laid afide, for Francifco Velafques 
March'd thicher with eight hundred Men , of which moft were Horfe, but 
found nought elfe but Snowy Mountains and barren Plains , infomuch, that 
his Mentend Horfcs were ftarv'd for want ofProvifion j wherefore he return'd 
without fuccefs to Mexico, having onely burn: fome Villages, and had feveral 
Rencounters with the Natives. Buc 



Yelafaues Journey.' 



Chap. III. 



AMERICA 



91 



i 



His ditcoorfc witlva Sfa* 
M>/b ]}j.lhop,arid h« apparel. 



But Attabaliba a Tertian fcrince , inform'd of <Pi-%arro and Ahmgro's coming, 
commanded them both to depart out of his Kingdom ; but they not regarding 
it, march'd directly toVaxamalca, where Attabaliba kept his Court, who again 
fent other Meflengers to them with command to leave his Dominions. Via&fro jv^jj*' m ^^ td 
made anfwer, that he could not obey any Commands but thofe of his Maftcr 
the Emperor, who had order'd him to fpeak with the King himfelf at his own 
Palace. 

Attabaliba hearing that Pi^arro refolv'd to come forward, fent him a pair of 
Painted Shooes and Armlets, that he might put them on when he appeared be- 
fore his Throne : Captain Ferdinand Sotto march'd before with twenty Horfe,paf- 
fing clofe on, the Flank of Attabaliba s Army : The Indians amaz'd at the praun- 
cing of their Horfes, retreated into their Fortifications, but were for their 
cowardize immediately flain by the King's Order. 

Sotto fent a MelTagc to Attabaliba, That the Spa?iiards defir'd peaceably to Treat 
with him, to which he received anfwer, That no Peace could be made, unlefs 
they reftor'd the Gold and Silver to the Owners , which they had Plunder'd 
from them, and forfook his Territories ; which fo doing, they fliould have 
Audience the next day : Hereupon the Bifhop Vincent de Villa Vtridi was con* 
du<Sted into the Royal Palace, in the City of Qaxamalca, and brought before At* 
tabaliba y who came thither in great State , with a Guard of twenty five thou- 
fand Men ; he was carry'd on the Shoulders of his prime Nobles in a Sedan, 
about which hung Garlands of Gold, and divers coloured Feathers ; himfelf 
was cloth'd in a white loofe Veft, without Sleeves 5 his Temples were bound 
witk a red Ribbon , with a long Taffel on his left Cheek . on his Fore-head 
ftuck three curious Feathers 5 before him March'd three hundred of his Life* 
Guard, all in one Livery, who cleared the way through which the King was 
topafs. The before-mention'd Bifliop carry'd in one Hand a Crofs, in the 
other a Book, difcourfing with the King to this effect ; That God is the Trinity , 
Adam the fir/l SMan • Chritt Bom of a Virgin , dyd on the Crofs • the Pope God's 
Vicegerent, y>bo according to the Tower he had from Heaven, had given Peru to the Em* 
peror Charles, as alfo all other (ountreys in America ; and if he fhould prove obflinate, 
and refifl, he muft expeB nothing lefs than utter mine. Jttabaliba reply'd, That heferVi 
Pachamaca, being the Creator of all things j and next to him the Sun and Moon : How 
glorious do they appear (faid he) in comparifon of a Crucifi'd God ? To make Peace and 
jilliance with mighty Princes, was the true Foundation of loife Government : But the Pope 
muft needs be fenfelefs , devoyd of all reafon, and withal highly unjutt, to give away v>hat 
-was none of his own y viz. other mens Kingdoms, in Tt>hich he never had the leafi orfmalleji 
concern. Moreover , he would not defert that Religion 'which he and his Mceflors had 
maintain dfo many Ages, and the rather, becaufe there are no apparent or Juffcient Tejti- 
mony of the truth of Cbrijlianity. The latter claufe was thus anfwer'd, faying, 
Tins Book, IQng, "which J hold in my hand, proves and declares all that you que/Hon. 
Attabaliba looking upon it, turned it over Leaf by Leaf, then look'd more in- 
tcntively upon the Print, which done he clap'd it to either Ear , and at laft as 
altogether unfatisfi'd, in difdainful manner threw it away. 

But Ti^arro gaining time while the King and Bifliop thus difcours'd, had. 
drawn his Men in Battel-Array , his fixty Horfe he divided into three Wings, 
Commanded by jhis three Brothers, Ferdinand, 'John, and Gon^alvo Ti^arro, left 
the Captains Sotto and SaValca^ar in an Ambufcade 5 Peter de Qanada march'd in 
the Van, and he himfelf in the main Body, leaving Sotto in the Rear. 

So foon as the Bifhop could acquaint them in what fcornful manner Atta* 

N haliba 




>8 



<a M E%_1 C A. 



Chap. Ill, 



X 





Ubaliba. 




,ts with At- baltba had thrown his Holy Book, The Word of God, upon the ground • both Ar- 
mies were Engaged, whilft their Trumpets founded, their Drums beat, their 
Canons roar'd, the Horfes neigh'd, and the Dogs bark'd, they made a fpeedy 
march up againft the Walls ofTaxamalca, which dreadful mixture of terrible 
noifes fti uck fuch a Pannick fear into the hearts of the Indians, that they all pre- 
fently broke, in their flight crowding one another to death at the Gates of the 
City, which being too narrow to receive them, they themfelves made breaches 
in their own Walls to enter • which opportunity the Spaniards no ways neglecT> 
N ed, but entering with them , fiiot and kill'd all they could reach ; their Dogs 
alfo having no little (hare in the flaughter ■ whole companies of Indians were 
trode under the Horfes feet , yet near Jttabaliba's Chair was the greateft refill* 
ance, for no fooner fell one of the Bearers, but immediately another fupply'd 
the place 5 fo that the King was furrounded with heaps of his own flain Sub- 
jects, to whom Vizarro himfelf Charg'd up fo clofe, that having feiz'd him by 
his long Hair, he pull'd him out of his Throne, and having gotten him under 
Amum taken prifohcr. kirn, fecur'd immediately in Fetters . whereupon all his Life-Guard fprfook 
him, and fled : But the lofs of the Battel, which was Jttabaliba's utter mine, 
Was laid upon %U7inina»ui, a Captain appointed to lie in Ambufh, fo to fall in 
the Rear of the Spaniards with five thoufand men- but was fo far from per- 
forming his Orders, that terrifi'd at the uncouth noife of the Guns, and the 
reft, that he fled one hundred and fifty Leagues Southerly, before he ftopt, or 
fcarce ever look'd behind him in fo long a flight. Mean while, Attabaliba com- 
pounded with Ti^arro for his Ranfom , vi%. to pay him as much Gold as that 
Hall in his Court ( where they made the Agreement) could hold to the top j 
they firft meafur'd the heighth , then the length , which was found to be fifty 
four Foot, and the breadth nine : In purfuance of this corhpofition, Gold was 
brought thither from all places , according to Jttabaliba's order . y yet he could 
not raife fo much as would perform his bargain, which made the Spa?iiards to 
grumble : But Attabaliba defiring fome longer time to perform it, telling (Pi- 

K$rro } 



Bids for ha nnlom an un 
valuable treafurt. 






Chap. III. AMERICA. 

z\ino, that moft of the Gold was brought on Slaves Shoulders , a long and 
troublefome way, of two hundred Leagues long, from the City Cufco, and if 
this would not fatisfie, Ti^arro might fend fome of his own people thither, td 
inform him, that he need not fear the }eaft danger, as long as he was Prifoner 
with his Wife and Children. 

The two Captains, Sotto, and Teter del Baro being fent away to that purpofc, 
met after fome days Journey with one of Jttabaltba's Leaders, who was bring- 
ing the thing's Brother Guafcar with a Party, Prifoner to Caxamalca. 

Guafcar had now a fair opportunity to crave afliftance of the Spaniards , tel- 
ling them, that he and Jttabaliba were the Sons of GuaynacaVa, fo that the King- 
dom was to be divided becwixt both. But Jttabaliba had by force made himfelf 
Mafter of all , whereas he being the youngeft 7 ought to be fatisfi'd with that 
fhare which Guafcar , being the eldeft, would aflign him 5 for the right of Inhe- 
ritance bclong'd juftly to him, and yet he was carry'd away bound to (laugh- 
ter : But if Ti^arro would do justice in delivering him out of his Brothers 
bloody Hands, he would raile him thrice as much Gold as Jttabaliba had pro- 
mis'd : To which purpofe he denYd Sotto and $aro to put off their Journey to 
Cufco 5 which they not daring to do, went on their way, and Guafcar defend- 
ing the Valley Sucfuhua7ia, was burnt alive by Jttabaliba's Soldiers. 

Mean while, Jlmagro came with frefh Forces to Taxamalca, which decafion'd 
no fmall trouble in Ti^arro, who was onely thirfty after Gold : On the other 
fide, Ahnagro as greedy, grew jealous that fi^arro flhould keep the promis'd 
Hall full of Gold for himfelf, and he fhould have no fliare, becaufe Jttabaliba 
was his Prifoner • therefore he earneftly denYd that Jttabaliba might privately 
be made away, and that the Booty might be divided to one as well as the 
other. 

Ti^arro to prevent all inconveniencies that might happen from his diflent- 
ing, gave in the prefence of the King to every private Soldier a thoufand 
Duckets in Gold , and fix thoufand five hundred twenty five Silver Crowns j 
the inferior Officers received four and thirty thoufand Crowns, and the others 
fixty thoufand • the fifth part of the Booty he referv'd for the Emperor : And 
notwithstanding Jttabaliba perform'd his promife in filling the Hall full of 
Gold, yet he had the fentence of Death pronoune'd againft him 5 neither 
would his excufe of Innocency ferve, or his Requefts to be fent to Spain, there 
to clear himfelf before the Emperor ; but fighing, and lamenting his misfor- 
tunes, was ty'd to a Poft, and Strangled in the prefence oi^i^arro. For whofe 
Death, though a Heathen, Divine Vengeance purfiYd thefe cruel and unjuft Ar- 
bitrators that thus made their Will a Law, none of them dying a natural 
Death. 

Moreover it was obferv'd , that a few days before this Execution a blazing 
Star appcar'd, which Jttabaliba feeing, prefaging fadly of himfelf faid, That a 
great Prince would die in a jhort time ; but Ti^arro's chief pretences for the Kings 
juft fuffering was, that he had cruelly murder'd his Brother Guafcar : But this 
was a meer blitod, for that that incens'd them againft Jttabaliba, was, that he 
knowing where the unvaluable treafure lay, which Guafcar had bury'd, would 
not difcover it to them. 

Jttabaliba, before his death, defir'd that he might be bury'd in the Territory 
Quito, by his Father GuaynacaVa , whom the Peruvians for his great Juftice and 
Prudence in Government, believed that he would arife, and fettle the World fo' 
troubled and full of diforder in peace and quiet : The Corps was accordingly 

N % carry'd 



99 



Burns hi* Brothe/ Cusfz 
s*r alive. 



An incredible fum ot Mo- 
rxy given to the Soldiers. 



Atutbalik* ftranglcd. 






ICO 

Cruelty of Kuminagtti 



A M E %,I C A. 



Chap. Illi 



And tikciCufo. 



taken. 




carry'd thither in great State after their manner, attended by his Brother, 
whom lllcfcas <^um\nagui which ran from Jttabaliba in the Battel, where he lay 
in ambufli when he might have done them good fervice . in the way to his en- 
tertainment, received with all mews of forrow ; but when they were feafted 
to excefs, bury'd in fleep and Wine, he Maffacred and flea'd lUefcas the Kings 
Brother alive, and made a Taber of his Skin. Whilft Jttabaliba s Funeral 

Hint* puts &izi«i Z was thus bloodily folemniz'd , his General Qutzjjui^ ra k' d a § reat Army, 
which fi^arro encountring after a valiant refiftance , totally routed; then 
marching vidorioufly to Cufco, he faw great Fires in the City, and the Citizens 
fighting with, the Spaniards , fent before ; but the Horfe breaking in upon 
them, moftofthem fled the next morning to the Mountains : Thus the Spa- 
niards became Matters of the City, where they inflicted the moft cruel tortures 
on all Sexes, by that means to force them to difcover, if they knew of any hid- 
den Treafures, being not fatisfi'd with what they found there, although they 

uuvaiuabk Tr^ures had gotten a greater Treafure in Cufco than that that they had extorted from 
Jttabaliba before : Nay, they gave thofe that were murther/d for Food to their 
Dogs : Among the vcA^Didacips Sala^ar having a very tierce Dog calPd Be^eml, 
had alio an old Indian Woman his Prifoner, to whom he gave a Letter to deli- 
ver to the General fi^arro 5 the Woman had not gone many Paces before me 
was fet upon by Bezxrril, whom Sala^ar let loofe, that he might delight himfelf 
in feeing the Dog tear the poor old Woman ; but fhe obferving him come run- 
ing at her with fo great fiercenefs, fell down upon her Knees,and holding forth 

Remarkable paffage of a the Letter, cry'd, Good my Lord, good my Lord Dog , Imufi carry this Letter to Gene- 
r^/Pizarro, whereupon the furious Curr having more compaffion than the 
Spaniard, flood ftill a little , and at laft lifted up his Leg in a fcornful manner, 
llrin d upon her, and returned fatisfi'd ; at which fportive behavior of the Cur 
and the Chrone, Salazar laughing, was fo well pleas'd, that he gave the Woman 

her life. 

After Cufco had been fufficiently Plunder'd, (pi^irro made Jhnagro Governor 
thereof, with the Territories belonging to it, and built near the River Lima a 
Town, which' they call'd Los <]{eyes. Mean while, Jhnagro received Letters 
Patent from the Emperor , in which he was nominated Marjhal of Teru 5 en- 
courag'd by that honor , he took a great defign in hand , for the Teruvians had 
reported, that the Golden Chili lay to the South • and Jhnagro being encouraged, 
and affifted by Ti^arro, March'd inqueft thereof with two Troops of Horfe, and 
five hundred Foot : But mean while there happened fo great Rains , and fuch 
foul Weather , that the Ways were almoft unpaflable , fo that the Expedition 
grew very troublefome $ yet however he went on, in which hard March he loft 
both Horfe and Men. 

Whilft Jhnagro was upon this undertaking, Francifco fi^arro received Letters 
Patent from the Emperor, in which he was Intitul'd 'Duke of<Peru , but with a 
Sabo for the honor before given to jhnagro • yet thefe balanc'd honors bred 
great diflention between the Duke and Marfhal, which Mango iw^ another 
of Jttabaliba s Brothers obferving , laid hold of the opportunity , and fetting 
M*ng9inga takes c«fa. U p on the Spanip Garrifon in Cufco, took the City. Whereupon Ti^arro imme- 
diately fent his Horfe thither, under the Command of Jlphonfo Jbarado, and 
Gomes de Todoya , againft whom the Indians fought very valiantly, infomuch, 
that the Battel was a long time' doubtful ; yet at laft the Spaniards got a bloody 
Victory, and regained Cufco ; hither after fome time, Jhnagro returning with ill 
fuccefs, having effected nothing, was kept out by Ferdinand "P/^no, under pre- 
tence 



Jlmagrcfs unhappy Jour- 
»v-y. 



King's Town- 



thap. III. A M E%J.C A. tbI 

tence that he could riot open the Gate without Order from his Brother the Conwft ivtween Ainti< 
Duke. Almagro much offended thereat , yet faying little , was fo privately lee 
into the City, that he furpriz'd the Governor Ferdinand Ti^arro, arid his Brother 
OonfalvOy with Mphonfo Abarado Priloners, fwearing that he would not reft be- 
fore he had rooted all the Tt^arro's out of Teru. But whilft he was paifing the 
intended Sentence of Death upon them, Gonfaho and jiharado broke Prifon; 
and got away to the Duke, who troubled for his Brother Ferdinand there in cu- 
ftody, and in danger of his life,- came to Compofition ; whereupon Ferdinand 
was alfo released : But this was no fooner done, and he had got his Brother fafc 
there , but the Duke regarding nothing lefs than the keeping of the new-made 
Peace, fent to Almagro , that the Emperor having given him the prime Com- 
mand over Tertiy he required him to leave Cufco , or elfe he would force him. 
Almagro fent anfwer, That if he could fee the Emperor's Hand, he would im- 
mediately obey, otherwife not 5 whereupon both Parties prepared for War, 
wherein they had many (harp bickerings in a fhort time : But Almagro being ^/ww^ftrangtei 
too weak fell into the Dukes hands.* who ordered him to be ftrangled in the 
Gaol, and his body afterwards to be drawn to the Market-place, and there 
publickly Beheaded. 

Ferdinand fi^arro being not long after fent to Spain , with the fifths of the 
gotten Treafure for the Emperor, was Imprifon'd in the Caftle Motto, for Al- 
magro's Death : But what further happened to him there , or became of him, 
hath never been Recorded by any Pen. 

But young .Almagro, inftigated by his Guardian John ^ada , refolving , to 
be reveng'd for his Fathers Death 5 to that purpofe he went to Los%eyes y 
where by the help of fome hir'd Male-contents, he defign'd to Murder the Duke 
upon St. Johns day, in the Church at high Service t But this bufinefs was not 
fo clofely carry'd, but the Duke had fome inkling thereof, who therefore 
flay'd at home, and went not to Mafs that day. The Conlpirators doubt- 
ing the event, hearing that their Plot was difcover'd, though defeated in their 
purpofe, yet not faii'd in their Courage , ran at noon day to the Palace, cry- 
ing, I\tll the Tyrant , hill the Traytpr. But Ti^arro being fo much forewarn'd, had 
locked up the Gates, and arm'd himfelf, which when they could not enter, yet 
they went back through the City, and waving a bloody Sword, cry'd, Ti^arro 
isjlain- this being believ'd, above two hundred private Friends to Almagro ap* 
pear'd, who all ran to the Palace, crouding about the Gates : And Ftancifco de 
Chares coming out at a private Door, hoping to pacifie the Mutineers, was 
immediately Stab'd ; but they rutTiing in the way he came , found fome ftout 
oppofition , for feven Halberdiers of his Guard fought till they were all kili'd 
in the Dukes prefence ; but Ti^arro was taken alive, and being brought before 
Almagro, he Savagely Butcher'd him with his own hands ; which done, they 
ran crying along the Streets, Long Uve the Emperor, and Didacus Almagro. 

But after all this, (Pi^arro's Party joyning together, valiantly withftood the **'• 
Conlpirators , fo that a confiderable number Were flain on both fides, yet Al- 
magro at laft getting the better, confiicated the Goods of all thofe that were 
againft him • and now every one fHew'd him the refped of Chief Governor^ 
till the Emperor fliould either fettle him, or fend another. 
. From hence Marching to Cujco, he had like to have paid for all, but preven- 
ted by private intelligence thereof; which happened thus, 

Garcia* Aharado and Chrijlopher Sotello were Joynt- Governors of Cufco ; but 
quarrelling, and coming to Blows in like manner , Sotello was flain : This 

N 3 Almagro 



Terdin»nd Pizzurro never 
obtains his liberty. 



Young Almag ro (Ubs the 
Duke. 



Great Haughter in Us 



Strange Tranfaftiom '•>:- 
twcen Jharado j Sottllo , 
and Almagro. 



S 



Fight between C*ftro and 
Almagro. 



£fyfr#'s Cruelty.' 



Vela Vice-Roy of ftru. 



^{urders Xuartz. 



V. 




Is taken and put in P.i- 
fon. 



Is Beheaded. 1 



a M E%IC A. Chap.IlL 

Almagro took very hainoufly, as being his intimate Friend, giving forth threat- 
ning Speeches of Revenge ; which Aharado informed of, and intending fome 
way or other to prevent all Dangers, and lave himlelf, he invited Almagro to a 
Feaft, but privately refolving to make it a Bloody Banquet, by his Death at 
the Table. Of this he being informed, as we mention'd before, ftaid at home, 
and privately fent for fome Soldiers that had v belonged to* Sotello , lending 
word that he was indifpos'd : Aharado, under a fhew of Kindnefs, goes to 
Almagro, hoping to perfwade him to come to his prcpar'd Treat ; bur fo foon 
as he was entered the Hall, they clapp'd to the Gate, and the Soldiers falling 
upon Afoarado, flew him : But foon after Almagro was call'd in queftion, and 
not long enjoy 'd this his ufurp'd Authority . for the Emperor Charles fending 
the Learned Vacca de Caftro with full Authority to Tern, to fettle that difturb'd 
Kingdom, Almagro now us'd to Govern, had no Ears to become a Subject ; 
therefore he march'd with an Army to meet Caftro, by whom, after a bloody 
Fight, being beaten and put to flight, having four thouiand Men, he fell into 
the 4 Victors Hands near Cufco, where he was treated very feverely ; for fhortly 
after he was condemned to be Beheaded ; others were ftrangled, and fome 
torn in pieces with Horfes. 

Not long after this great Execution, (Blafco Nunne^Vela came to ( Peru ? and 
being appointed Vice-Roy, had four Councellors aflign'd him, with whom 
he was to confult in all Affairs ; and efpecially to fet the Indians at liberty, 
which till then had fuffer'd much mifery under the Spanijb Tyranny : To 
perform which, the Emperor had given an Order under his Great Seal, which 
was to be publifli'd and proclaimed in all Places. Vela at his arrival faithfully 
performed all his Commands, feiz'd upon Vacca de Caftro ? becaufe he had Exe- 
cuted Almagro without any Examination or Tryal ; yet by this means he got 
the hatred of all, fo that moil of the Spaniards chofe Gonfaho <Pi^arro for their 
Chief, whereby Affairs grew daily more and more out of Order. Ts(unne^ 
Vela laid all the blame thereof upon William Xuare^ Governor of Lima, whom 
he fent for in the Night, and corre&ing over-feverely,gave him alfo two rnor* 
tal Wounds, of which he prefently died : The Body was in the Morning 
drawn along the Streets, which caus'd fo great a murmuring amongft the In- 
habitants, that foon after they feem'd to make a general Infurre&ion : Where- 
fore Nunne^ Vela fearing the worft, refolv'd to convey himfelf from thence in* 
cognito, and pafs to Truxillo : But his four Councellors advis'd him to the con- 
trary ; yet he took his own way, caufing all his Treafure to be fent aboard • 
and having made ready his Horfes to depart, the Common People in a tumul- 
tuous manner fet upon the Palace, catching, fnatching up, and carrying away 
all the Silver they could find, and meeting the Vice-Roy, feiz'd,and thruft him 
into a Dungeon 5 which done, they fell at variance amongft themfelves } for 
fome would have him executed, but others inlifted to have him fent Prifoner 
to Spain ; which laft being the more moderate ; gctting the upper Hand,^/^ was 
put aboard, and committed to the cuftodyof ©/^c^W^,who Anchoring in 
the Mouth of the River Tombe^ (kindnefs growing betwixt them) releas'd the 
Vice*Roy his Prifoner, and fet him aihore, who not long after got fome For* 
ces together. 

Meanwhile BH&tro was every where acknowledged for Supreme Governor 
who having Intelligence of the Vite.Roys Defign, fent Franctfco CarVayales thi- 
ther, between whom and Vela was a fliarp Encounter . but at laft beina worft- 
ed, and retaken by CarVayaks, he was foon after executed, and his Head plac/d 
on a Pole near the Gallows. ^ 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 

The Emperor Qharles turmoil'd with Wars at home, favv no likelyhood to 
fettle the confus'd Affairs of Peru > y yet at laft he thought it convenient to fend 
one Peter Gafca thither, an Ecclefiaftick, of a fubtile and ingenious Wit, who 
landing Anno 1546. in Lima, jtvith no other Title than Chief Councellor to the Em* 
peror, took quite another courfe than Vela, perfwading them all, that Affairs 
fliould be fetled in order, according to their own defires, and former Mifcar- 
riages never be remembred, being utterly deleted by an Act of Oblivion. 

The News of this General Pardon fpreading it felf far and near, wrought 
a great change ; for Pi^arro's Intimates, and thofe neareft of Concern, fhrunk 
daily from him -, which Gafca obferving, march'd againft him ■ and that they 
might make the more hafte, they loaded feveral Peruvians, chained, with their 
Arms, whom when they lagg'd, they fwitch'd and whipp'd before them. And 
now both Armies being met, and difcharging their Cannons at one another, 
with confiderable lofs to each fide, whole Regiments came running over to 
Gafca j fo that Pi^arro being quite forfaken, yielded himfelf to the mercy of 
the Conqueror, who accused him of High Treafon, and caused him to be 
ftrangled in a Dungeon, and fix'd his Head on a Marble Pillar in Lima, envi- 
roned with Iron Rails, and infcrib'd with a brief Account of all his Offences. 
But Gafca not thus fatisfied, hang'd up feveral Commanders,and whipping and 
ftigmatizing others , condemn'd them after to the Gallies : But his greateft 
fpight was againft the Field-Marflial CarVayales, a Perfon of the Age of four- 
fcore years, whom tying to a Horfes Tail, he caus'd a whole Hour to" be 
drawn up and down the Market-place, fcorn'd and derided of all People 5 
which done, he was quartered alive. 

Not long after Gafca furrendred the Command of Peru to the Learned (jan* 
ca, and carried an unvaluablc Treafure to Germany, for the Emperor Charles, 
who gave him in requital for his faithful Service, the Bifliopriek of Valentia. 



103 



Gxfc*i murderous Ex- 
ploits. 



Gottfalves Piwrro Aran- 
Sled. 



Cruelty ut'd on Carvaj* 
alts. 



Sect. XII. 



The Expeditions of John Stade, and Nicholas Durando Villegagnon. 



A Bout the fame time that Gafca arriv'd in Spain John Stade had the Command 
* •*" over afmall Fort rais'd of Stone and. Earth, on the Ifland Maro, adjacent 
to Brafile, becaufe the Salvage People of Tupin Imha fail'd twice a year from 
the Countrey of Brikioka, to Maro, at the time when the Plant Ahbati was ripe, 
of which they made the Liquor that they generally drink at their Humane 
Banquets : They alfo landed on Maro about the Bratti-Fittiiag. This Bratti 
is a Fifli of a very delicious tafte, either caught in Nets, or fhot by the Tupin 
Imha, and carried to their feveral Habitations. Againft thefe People Stade kept 
a continual Guard, when Heliodorm Heffc, Son to Eohanus Heffe, the famous 
Latin Poet in Germany, came to vifit him. Stade to entertain his Gueft the bet- 
ter, went into the Woods to hunt for Venifon, where he was taken by the Tupin ni *>* d$ &*« tythccw 
Imha, of which the King march'd in the ^ear with a great Palm -Tree Club, 
and carried him towards the Sea fide, that he, with others that waited on the 
Shore, might make up a I(aivewipepicke (that is, A Feaft of %ofied Men) But be- 
caufe Stade being a German of a large Body, well-skinn'd, young, plump and 
fat, they all concluded to fpare this Dainty, and carry him alive to Brikioka, 
that with fucha Banquet they might highly carefs their Wives : But the Jour- 
ney being long, and a juft melancholy polfefling him with fear, and the terror 

of 



His ftrange Entertain- 
ment amongtt thtra. 



104. 



pkranit\ Expedition. 



^3 



A M EX^I CA. Chap. Ill 

of certain death, and to be Food for fuch ravenous Cannibals, fo macerated and 
confum'd him, that he was almoft dwindled away to Skin and Bone . where- 
upon thinking him thus lean to make but few favory Morfcls, they chang'd 
their t'refolutionS; am * growing better acquainted , he having learn'd their 
Tongue, and being able to difcourfe with them, they lik'd his company fo 
well, that they let him live amongft them. Nine years Stade had been a Slave 
amongft thefe Man-eaters, when the French coming thither, bought him for a 
few Trifles, and carried him to T^prmandy, where landing Anno 1555. he went 
from thence to Hamburgh , being his Native Countrey. 

Nicholas Durande a Frenchman fet Sail from Havre de Grace, at the fame timfc 
when Stade came thither. ThisDurande having loft a Caftle in Brittain, to the 
great prejudice of the French, out of a pretence of advancing their Affairs,and 
to fill up their almoft exhaufted Treafury, reported, That the Spanijb and Tor- 
tuguefe Forces were driven out of India , where they had gather'd fo much 
Wealth • and it would certainly redound to the Honor and Profit of France y 
if they could become Matters of the Gold and Silver Mines. King Henry the 
Second approving of the Propofal, and the more becaufe the Admiral Gafyer 
Qoligni was alfo very earneft, looking upon it as a fafe Retreat for the Prote- 
ftants, at that time cruelly perfecuted : and Durande, fenfible of the Admirals 
thoughts, privately inform'dhim, That in his American Dcfign he chiefly aim'd 
to plant a True Church of God in Jmerica, where the ProfefTors might enjoy 
thefnfelves peaceably. This Report being fpread amongft thofe that call'd 
themfelves Trotejlants, (fled from Switzerland in great numbers to France) made 
many of them venture upon the Defign ; who having fitted themfelves, and 
fetting fail with three Ships, after fome time arriv'd on the Coaft of Srafile, 
and landed on the ^pck-I/land, in the Haven Januario : Here Durande built feve- 
ral Watch-houfes, and the Fort Coligni, which he fortified with a confiderable 
number of Guns : Not long after he writ to John Calvin, That he would pleafc 
to furnifh this new Plantation in Srafile with good and able Teachers of the 
Cofpcl ; which Requeft being immediately taken into ferious confideration by 
the Clafles, one fhilip Corguileray, a Gentleman near Geneva, fet Sail out of the 
Haven Honfleurs, with three Ships, freighted with fome Provifions, feveral Per- 
fons of divers Trades, and two Minifters, Peter Richer, and William Chartier : 

Diffemionintbcnewco. But he had fcarce made Africa, when they began to have a fcarcity of Victuals; 
wherefore they turn'd their Defign of fetling theGofpel in America, toPyracy,' 
where they made fmall fcruple or difference, whether Friends or Foes, but 
ixjadc Prize of all they could light upon, though indeed their Minifters both 
•prcach'dand perfwaded the contrary, amongft whom a Controverfie happen- 
ing, put other Bufinefs into their Heads • for one John Cointak, formerly a <Pd- 
rifian Sorbomfl, was alfo amonaft thofe that removed from Geneva, who pretend- 
ed that Coligni had promis'd him a Minifters place, fo foon as he landed at !Bra* 
ftle 5 but Quicker and Chartier, not fatisfied that there was any fuch Promife, and 
confequently thinking themfelves not obliged by his bare AfTertion, told him, 
That themfelves being able, under Qod, to perform the Work, they needed no 
fuch Coadjutor : This bred fo great a Rancor between them, that Cointak ac - 

WkkcdncTsofciiiif^a- cus'd them for teaching falfe Doctrine, and chiefly that they did not mix the 
Wine at their Sacraments with Water, which Father Clemens had ftri&ly com- 
manded. Durande, being prcvail'd on by the Cardinal of Loretn, joyn'd with 
Cointak, and thereupon fo fharply perfecuted the Trotejlants, that he ftarv'd fe- 
veral of them, which others to elcape fled to the Brajilians : Nay, he took John 

Du 



(.•ny- 



fcainft the Minifters. 






Chap. III. 



A M E%1 C A. 



105 



Du Bordell, Matthias Vermeil, and Peter Bourdon, out of their Sick-Beds, and ty- Durmde drowns three 
ing their Hands and Feet, threw them headlong from a Rock into the Sea : ° 
Soon after which, the bloody Perfecutor returned with ill fuccefs to France , 
where he wrote a Book againft the Reform'd Religion-but all the Honor which 
he gain'd was,that all Parties on both fides accounted him a diftracted Perfon. 

Sect. XIII. 
The Expeditions of John Ribald, Renatus Laudonier, and Gurgic* 

\^Lorida being upon the Continent of America, and fo called by JohnPontoeusl v*v* unhappily difco- 
•*- who landed there upon <Palm*Sund ay, though Sebaflian Oaboto a Venetian, inv 
ploy'd by Henry the Seventh King of England, landed there before, may well be 
termed the Europeans Bloody Stage, PonUus being flain here : But Ferdinand Sotto 
©xercis'd againft the Inhabitants inhumane Cruelty five years together • yet at 
laft died of a deep difcontent, becaufe fee could not reach his Aims, having 
condemn'd fo many Floridans fruitlefly to dig for Gold in the Mines. However, 
fince that, Julian Sumanus and Peter Ahumada undertook the Work anew , but 
with the like bad Succefs. Anno 1545. one Lodowick Cancello, a Dominic an, thought 
to effect great things with four of his AfTociatcs 5 but landing on Florida, was 
deftroy'd by the Natives. But Gafper Coligni the Marllial, neither difcourag'd 
rby thefe miferable Proceedings, nor the former Treachery of Durande, pre- 
paid for a new Expedition thither 5 and accordingly John Ribald was fitted jw««s voyage: 
with two Ships from Diep , at the Charge of Qharles the Ninth King of 
France , wherewith having fail'd thirty Degrees Northern Latitude , he 
came before the Promontory of Francifco, where he ran up into the Mouth of 
a wide River, to which he gave the denomination of Dolphin, upon whofe 
Banks were whole Mulberry-Woods, which nouriflh'd Silk- Worms in ftrange 
abundance. From hence he fail'd by the Wolves Head (a Point fo call'd, becaufe 
great numbers of Wolves breed there) and leaving the Qedar*Ifland, landed on 
Florida , where he built a Triangular Fort, and having furnifh'd it with Men, 
Guns, and Provifions, fail'd back for more Supplies to France • but coming thi* 
ther, found all things in diforder, occafion'd by a War amongft themfelves • 
fo that the French which guarded and dwelt in the Fort, waited in vain for Re* . rhe Garr**%**»»fc 

o 'in great want. 

lief, and their Provifions growing fcant, thought it fitteft and their bed way 
to build a VefTel, and fail from thence s which having effected, and being 
gone about the third part of their Voyage there hapned fuch a Calm for twen- 
ty Days, that they made not the leaft way, which drove them to fo great extre- 
mity, their Provifions being fpent, that they drank their own Urine, and fed 
upon their old Shoes, which alfo in a fhort time failing, they agreed amongft 
themfelves to kill and eat one of their Sea-men, call'd Henry Lacher, on whofe 
Flefh they liv'd fome days . but being again driven to the greateft want ima- 
ginable, in this extremity of Defparation, their Condition being altogether 
hopelefs, an Englifh Frigat difcovering them, and obferving by their manner of 
Sailing that they were in fome great want, drawing near,fent their Long-boat 
aboard, and found them fo weak , that they were not able to handle their 
Tack j whereupon generoufly taking pity of them, they relieved them, and 
conducted them to the Coaft of England, and then brought them to Queen Eli- 
z&heth, who had formerly defign d to rig a Fleet for Florida. 

Mean while, no News having been heard of the foremention'd French Plan- 
tation 



Unheard-of Hunger.' 



I^H 



106 



AMERICA. 



I a» down's Voyage. 







the 



Chap, III. 

tation in Brafde, and Coligni's Difference with the King being decided, he prc- 
vail'd fo much,that %enatm Laud onier flbould with three Ships fail to relieve the 
Garrifon in the lace deferred Fort. Laudonier landing in Nova Francia, found a 
Stone with a French lnfcription,plac*d on the Shore by ^ibald^nd hung full of 
Laurel Garlands: Then he vifited the King Saturiona, whofc Son Atorcus had fc» 
veral Children by his own Mother, according to a Salvage Cuftom obferv'd in 
that Countrey . Whilft they ftay'd hcre,a Fiery Meteor appear'd in the Sky^with 
fuch fervor,that fomc Rivers boy I'd with the heat of it,and the Fifli parboyl'd, 
died • nay more, it fcorch'd all the Plants far and near : The Natives afcrib'd 
this Plague to the French Cannons, by which means they flood in great fear 
of the French , who might have done great things had not they differed 
Remarkable difference in amongft themfelves j For a Sea-man nam'd fyibel <Patracon, pretending to 
have skill in ]S[ecromancy, would undertake to fhew the Places where the Gold 
and Silver Mines were, which the reft of the Sea-men believing, rebell'd 
againft Laudonier, and though fick, imprifon'd him, forcing him to ilga a Wri- 
ting to this effect, That the two Ships, of which the Rebels made Vaffar and 
Trincant Commanders, fliould with his leave and permittance fail to New Spain 
for Provisions. Whilft they were preparing for their Voyage, Qupiferrir ha- 
ving been fent to the King Utina,camc back with many rich Prefents,and with- 
al brought Information of the Gold and Silver Mynes Jpalatica-, hutVaffar and 
*Trincant taking no notice thereof, fet forth, and took a Spanijh Carvel, richly 
laden before Havana, whofe Commander they agreed to releafe on the pay- 
ment of a great Ranfon ; but the Matters Son being fent afliore to fetch the 
Money which they had agreed for,in ftead thereof,made his Fathers Mifchancc 
known ; whereupon two great Frigats and a Galley were the next Morning 
very early fent to attaque the French, between whom was a fliarp Ericountcr ; 
but in a fhort time the two Pyrats were funk, and the Prifoners fold for Slaves, 
excepting a few that efcap'd in their Long-boat. 

• In this interim Laudonier receiving no Supply from France, was brought to 
great extremity 5 for the Rebels had carried great part of his Store with them. 
In thefe ftraights he was forced by thofe that ftaid with him, contrary to the 
Articles of Peace lately made with King Utina, to take him Prifoner, in hopes 
that for his Liberty he would procure them fome Provifions • but the Inhabi- 
tants incens'd at the bafenefs of fo unexpected an Action , could not be 
wrought upon by any means to give them Relief -, but grown more perverfe 
than beforc,appointed a general Meeting to elect another King • fo that out of 
all hopes, they utterly gave themfelves over for loft. In this delperate conditi- 
on ,John Haukins,z great Sea-Captain, came thither with four Englij]? Ships, vj\\o 
pitying their mifery, ftirnifh'd them with Neceffaries, and having onely four 
Veffels, lent them one, becaufe Laudonier was at that time too weak to endure 
the Sea ; but not long after recovering ftrength, and all things ready to fet Sail, 
(Ribald came to an Anchor before Charles-Fort, w T ith feven Ships from Diep : 
Within few days after, the SpaniJJ? Admiral feter Melande^ a rriv'd with eight 
Frigats, whereof the French having Intelligence, cut their Cables, and flood 
out to Sea, whom the Spaniards chae'd, but could not reach ; whereupon lea- 
ving them, they landed in the Mouth of the River 'Dolphin, where by help of 
the Moorif? Slaves they began to intrench themfelves ; of which Ribald having 
notice , immediately fail'd thither , at lead to difturb , if not abfolutely 
drive them from their Work ; but furpriz'd in the way by a great Storm, 
loft moft of his Fleet, ingag'd among the Rocks * yet the Men were moft of 

them 



*t 



Gurgie's valiant Exploit! 
agamii the Spaniard*, 



Chap. 11!. A M E<KI C A. io 7 

them fav'd. In this Storm the Spaniards alio iuffer'd great damage, yet made 
an Advantage of the Frenchnens Misfortune, marching with all fpeed to Charles* 
Fort, in which were onely two hundred weak Men, ^bald having taken the 
primeft Soldiers along with him. In the Morning before Sun=rife the Spaniards 
made a fierce AiTault, and in a fhort time became Maftcrs of the Place, which 
Laudonier feeing, fled in a Boat • others leaping from the Walls into the Moat, 
fav'd themfelves by fwimming : Whoever fell into the Victors Hands, was w ^^^ f ^5^ 
without mercy flairi 5 nay , fuch was the Spaniards inveterate malice to the 
French, that wanting living Bodies, they exercis'd their Cruelty upon the dead, 
pullincr out their Eyes, and cutting off their Members, carrying them in Tri- 
umph on the Points of their Swords. In the interim, the Storm ceafing, (!((- 
bald approached Charles *Fort, with his fhatter'd Fleet, but was fo amaz'd when 
he faw the Spanifi Flag let upon the Walls, and Valkmond marching towards 
him with a Squadron of Spaniards, that although a River lay between them, 
yet he prefently came to a Treaty, and delivered up all his Men, being above 
four hundred, upon promife of good Quarter 5 but the Spaniards in ftead of 
keeping their Agreement, bound them, leading them all to the Caftle, wherd, 
both againft their Articles, and the Law of Arms, they malTacred them, and 
burnt their Bodies; but ^jbald being quartered, they nVd his Limbs upon 
Poles about the Walls, fending his Head to SeVd. When Charles the Ninth, 
King of France, received notice hereof, he Was not in the leaft concern'd at the 
Spanijl? Cruelty us'd to his Subjects, out of a particular hatred to Coligni, the 
firft Promoter of the Voyage. But though the French Crown fo little regard- 
ed the inhumane Ufage committed by the Spaniards in Charleston, yet Vomi- 
nicus Gurgie fhew'd himfelf fo highly concerned thereat, that turning all his 
Goods into Money, he levied two hundred Soldiers, and fourfcore Sea-men, 
which he put aboard three fmall Ships, pretending that he would onely touch 
at (Brafele ; but failing beyond Cuba, he flood directly for Florida, where aftet 
his Landing he was kindly receiv'd by Saturiona the King, who complaining 
much againft the Spaniards Oppretfions, fent to joyn with him his Kinfman 
Olotocara, having the Command of a great Army. 

The Spaniardsby this time had not onely ftrengthned Charles-Fort, but alfo 
rais'dtwc^ others on each fide of the River Mayo, in which three Holds lay 
Garrifon'd above four hundred choice Soldiers. Thofe in the new Forts made 
little refiftance ; but quitting the fatfie, and flying into a neighboring Wood, 
fell into an Ambufcade of Indians, who flew thirty of them, and preferv'd 
ninety for a Publick Execution. Thus they march'd on viftorioufly to Charles- 
'fort, where by the way fixty Spaniards fallying out, were every one cut off, 
which much facilitated the Frenchnens Work. The Governor Mclande^, feeing 
a certain ruine attend him, fled into the Woods ; but met there by the Flori* 
dans, return'd to the French, of whom he begg'd Life for himfelf, and fome of 
his People : Yet Gurgie deaf to all increacies, would hear nothing, but pref« 
fing on, took them all Prifoners, and as a juft Reward of their Cruelty to his 
Countrey-men, hang d them on the next Trees: After which Execution, it 
can fcarce be exprefs'd how kindly the Natives entertained the French, becaufe 
they had freed the Countrey from the Spanijh Oppjeffions. Thus having ac- 
complifli'dhisDefign, and returning home, he was nobly receiv'd at %ochel, 
but had not the leaft Countenance for all his trouble frbm the King ; the Car- 
dinal of Lorein telling him, That for his good Service he ought to fuffer death, becauft 

he had fitted out three Ships upon h'vs oim Account, without Author^. 

Sect. 



Is ungrat;fuUjr rewarded, 



io8 



a ME%IC A. 



Chap. III. 



Jerbijitri Expedition: 



k/^3 

S 



!. 






* 




Sect. XIV. 

Four Englifli Expeditions, under the Condutl of our Famous Sea*Captains Martin 
Forbiflicr, Sir Francis Drake, Thdmas Candifh, and John Smith. 

/"^Aptain Forbijher failing to the Northern Parts of America, J?mo 1)76. chufing 
^ a bad time, the Year being too much fpent, and the Ocean fo full of Ice, 
that it fore'd him to return to England : Not many Months after, he renewed 
his Voyage, Queen Elizabeth having rigg'd out, and fent under his Command 
one Frigat and two Ketches, Mann'd with a hundred and forty Men: The 
twenty fixth of May he weigh'd Anchor, and fail'd to the Orkenies, lying to the 
North of Scotland, where landing, he found the poor Iflanders fled out of their 
Huts, into Caves and Dens among the Rocks. From thence he fteer'd North- 
North-Weft, through abundance of floating Pieces of Timber, which, often- 
times gave him great flops. The fourth of July he made Friezjand, where he 
met with a great Storm of Hail, mix'd with Snow : Before the Shore lay a 
great Ridge of Ice, which hindred for a while their Landing : Here he law 
feveral Wild People, but could not come to fpeak with them 5 for upon the 
lead approach they fled ; yet when they faw any advantage, made refiftance : 
At laft, three of them came anarm'd to the Shore, beckoning Forbi^er to come 
to them j which he had done, tod not great numbers of the Natives appear'd 
too foon from an Ambufcadc in a Wood, and behind a Hill, who feeing them, 
fclves difcover'd, fnarch'd up into the Countrey, three onely flaying on the 
Shore, of whom the middlemoft feigning to be lame, at laft fell down, whom 
his Companions took up, and carried a little way, but then forfook, by which 
the Englijh obferving their Defign, fhot that the Sand flew all about him; 
whereupon forgetting his Lamenefs, he ran as fwift as a Deer up a Hill. 

Forbijher s Men had by this timefill'd two Barrels with a Mineral not unlike 
Gold, but was afterwards found to be of little value. Nothing elfe of Re- 
mark did he find here, except great long-hair'd Men, who being exceeding 
falvage, fubtilly plot nothing elfe but to murder, lurking for Men, like Wild 
Bcafts for their Prey, whom, when caught, they tear in pieces. Clofe fitted 
to their Bodies, they wore the Skins of feveral Wild Beafts, priding in the 
Tails which hung down betwixt their Legs. Their Tents are of conjoyn'd 
Whalebones, covered over with the like Skins, the Entrance always facing the 
South. They ufc Bowes, Arrows, Slings, and two forts of Boats ; In the big- 
geft they can carry feventeen Men, which are made of feveral Wooden'Planks 
clinch'd together, and cafed on both fides with Leather : The fmalleft ones 
are covcr'd juft in the fame manner, much refembling a Weavers Shuttle, ha- 
ving in the middle a Hole, wherein a Man fits, who drawing the Cover of the 
Boat about his Wafteby Strings, with one Oar makes fwift Paffage. 

The Countrey it felf is barren, yet feeds abundance of Deer,Hares,Wolves f 
Bears, and Dogs like Wolves, whofe Flefli ferves the Inhabitants for Food. 

This Countrey feems to be exceedingly troubled with great Earthquakes, 
becaufe feveral pieces of Rocks, and whole Mountains rent afunder, maybe 
feen in divers places. 

The fourth of Juguji, Forbijher having elevated the Pole to fixty eight De- 
grees, beyond what Sebajlwi Gabot, the firft Difcoverer of thofe Parts, and fee 
out by Henry the Seventh, had done (for Jmertca Northward never before had 

been 



Cliap.IIL 



A M E <RJi CJ. 



**>9 




been fo far penetrated) and laden with a fort of fliining Sand, which he be- 
liev'd might contain much of a Golden Oar, having with him three of the Na- 
tives, vkb a Man, a Woman, and a Child, fet Sail for England, and the feventh 
of September came to iW/W.Haven, and not long after arriv'd in London, where 
in fliort time the Salvages died. 

At the fame time when Forbijher fail'd Northerly, Sir Francis Drake alio, fitted 
out by Queen Elizabeth, fteer'd another Courfe, failing by Cafe Blanko and Cape 
FWe ? along the African Coaft,to S™///e,where he caught feveral Sea- Wolves,and 
Anchoring in the River La Plata , furnifli'd himfelf with Frefh Water : Then 
proceeding on his Voyage through the crooked Straights of Magellan, he came 
to an Anchor before Moucha, wafli'd by the South Sea. The Iflanders receiv'd 
him very courteoufly, becaufe they were inform'd that the Englt/h were at great 
Wars with the Spaniards, to avoid whofe Cruelties, they had deferred the main 
Continent, and fetled on Moucha. One of thefe Mouchaners going aboard, ferv'd 
them for a Pilot to the Haven Valpari^o, where Drake burnt the St.Jago, a fmall 
Village, and plundring all the Countrey about it, got together a great Trea- 
fure of Gold and Silver. Before Jrica he took three Spanijh Ships, richly la- 
den ; and before Lima, four more, having an unvaluabic Trcafure of Pearls 
and Gold aboard them. Thus inrich'd , he lteer'd his Courfe Northerly to 
forty two Degrees; but the Cold forcing him to fall four Degrees to the South- 
ward, he difcover'd a very pleafant and inhabited Coaft, the People whereof 
fliew'd him great kindnefs : The King himfelf coming aboard with a great 
Train, fet a Crown of Gold upon Drakes Head, and gave him a Golden Scep- 
ter, and an Ivory Chain. After this he mfpeftcd the Illands Ttdor, Ternata, 
Java, Zeilon, and Cape de Bona EJpcran^a, from whence, after a three Years Voy- 
age, having encompafs'd the World, he came fafe to London, where he refted 
not long 5 for failing Anno 1585. to America, he took great Prizes from the Ci- 
ties St.Jago, St. Domingo, St.JuguJlin, and Carthagena, fetting them all on Fire. 
Thus again returning home vittorioufly, and after the famous defeat of the 

O Spanijh 



Sir Trancit Dral^\ V.\- 
pedicion. 



\l o 



*A M E%_I C A. 



CKap. III. 



Spanifh Armdoj he rigg d out a new Fleet, having for his Vice*Admiral Cap- 
tain Hawkins : Their Defign was to have fail'd to Panama h but both dying, 
and io the CommiiSon ceafing, the expeded great and golden Projeft alio 

died with them. 

ctndijh his Expedition. A Year after the death of thefe famous Navigators, Captain Thomas Candtsb 
Mann'd with a hundred and twenty Men, and Provisions for two Years, fet- 
. tina fail in a lucky Hour, a fecond time encompafs'd the World, pafling the 
Straights of Magellan ; in which Voyage having got above ten times the value 
of his Charge, by taking the Spanish Carrack Sir. Anna, valued at twenty Tun of 
Gold • and at laft freighted with a Mafs of Treafure, he came fafe into the 
River of Thames. 

smitn voyage. But much worfe fuccefs had Captain John Smith, who weigh'd Anchor Anno 

1614. with two Ships, fitted out by feveral Merchants in London, for New-Eng- 
land, and on the Ifland Monachigga to load Copper, Gold, and other Minerals 
that were to be had there, and alfo to fifh for Whales : But there were no fuch 
Minerals to be found there, nor any Whales to be taken on the Coaft, becaufe 
the time of the Year was paft • fo that he return'd home without Succefs. 
However, not long after, they undertook the fame Expedition a fecond time, 
but with worfe Fortune 5 for being gotten in fight of Virginia, he was treache- 
roufly fet upon, and taken by the French, who accus'd him, that he had de- 
ftroy'd the Plantations in Nova Vrancia, and unlefs he would make fatisfadion 
for the Damage, they threatned him with death. He was carried Prifoner to 
%ochel, in a French Ship ; but not far from thence furpris'd by a mighty Storm, 
Smith finding an opportunity, leap'd into the Boat, and driving betwixt the 
Waves, at laft, half dead, was thrown upon the Ifland of Oleron, whom after- 
wards, having loft all, an Engl'tjh Ship took in, and brought to his Native 
Countrey. 

Sect. XV. 
Nctherland Expedition by Jaques Mahu, and Simon de Cordes. 

M»h*\ Voyage: C Ivc Sni P s bein § fitted out at % otter{iam y tne Command of them was given 
•* to Jaques SMahti and Simon de Cordes, who on the twenty feventh of June, 
Anno 1508. weighed Anchor from the Goree, and fail'd on an immenfe Voyage 5 
at laft landing at the Ifland St.Jago, they won a ftrong Caftle there, and took 
two Barques ; but at laft Articled with the fortuguefe, that they might undi- 
fturb'd fupply themfelves with Frefh Water, yet they, as if they minded no 
Agreements, whilft the Dutch were filling their Casks, came down upon them 
with two hundred Horfe, each having a Foot-Soldier behind him •, but the 
Hollanders made fo (tout refiftance, that they put them all to flight. 

The City of St. J ago, which gives Denomination to the whole Ifland,is built 
long-wife, having a convenient Haven, like a Crefcent : Through the City 
glides a River, on both fides of which, beyond the Town, arife feveral high 
Mountains : That part which faces the Sea, hath Fortifications', defended with 
ftrong Bulwarks. The 9ortuguefe had brought all their Guns to bear towards 
the Sea, to fink the Holland Ships, which they invited thither under pretence of 
kindnefs • but a great Storm hindred the Fleet, that they could not Anchor 
at the appointed place • onely two of the Ships fail'd pretty near , but not 
within Shot. 

From 



Chap. HI. 



A M E^l C A 



in 











an I 






"^^^ 



From hence fleering to the Defolate Ifland SraVa, they faw nothing but five 
ruin'd Houfes, the Door of one ftopp'd up with great Stones, which being 
taken away, was found full of Turkifl? Wheat, which prov'd a great kindnefs 
to the Sea»men. 

Mean while the Admiral Mabu died, and his Body put into a Cheft fill'd up ma*®*. 
with Stones, was thrown over-board - fo that Simon des (ordes carrying the c^«hisv oy a^: 
Flag, fteer'd his Courfe to Guinee, there to refrefli himfclf ; for moft of his 
Men were fo weakned by the Scurvey, that they were fcarce able to hand the 
Sails. 

Arriving at their intended Port, the Sick were carried afliore 5 and the 
Vice*Admiral Beuningen, being conduced by a French Guide, went to the Vice* 
Roy of that Countrey, who fat on a low Bench, with a Sheeps-skin under his strange Kingm $*««. 
Feet, in a Violet«colour'd Cloth Suit, without any Linnen, Shirt, Shoes, or 
Stockins ; on his Head a Cap made of yellow, red, and blue Eaftcrn Cloth ; 
his Face whitened with Allies, ftiew'd in feveral places its natural blacknefs,ap- 
pearing through the Colours ; about his Neck a Collar or Chain of Glafs 
Beads : Behind him fat his Nobles, with Cocks Feathers on their Heads, and 
their Skins painted Red. 

Bemingen plac'd by the King on a Mat, complained to him, That the Guim* 
ms fled from him where*ever he came, though in Friendfliip, to barter Europe- 
an Commodities with them, againft Fruits, Poultrcy, Sheep, and other Provi- 
fions : Whereupon the King promised to furnifli him therewith, and invited 
Seumngen to Dinner. After fome ftay, the Kings Wives entred the Palace, a 
very mean and ill-favour'd Building, more like a great Barn than a Kings 
Houle, and plac'd a kind of nafty Trough on the Ground, in which lay ncu 
thing but fome wild Herbs, and a piece of a fmoak'd Sea-Calf 5 and though 
he was a Perfon of the largeft fize, and corpulent, yet he eat fparingly. !Beu* 
mngen, though exceeding hungry, found little rellifli in fuch kind of Meats ; 
wherefore fpreading a Napkin, his Attendants brought hit* fome Biskec and 

O i Spanijl? 



I 



iBi 




I 



1 



§■ 



irt a M E%1 C A. Chap. III. 

Spanijh Wine, whereof after the King had called , he likM fo well the rellifh, 
that it rock'd him afleep, whilft Beun'mgen walk'd to the Sea-fide to refrefh him- 
felf- but the Guineans coming about him, he was fore'd to return to the 
King, who waking at the noife, appeared highly incens'd at his People, and 
took Heuningen into his Houfe : However the Subjects , notwithftanding 
the Kings Commands, when Beuningen was fent into a neighboring Hut, kept 
Watch about it all Night : The next Morning early an old Woman entred, 
muttering to her felf, and went out and in to (Beunihgen three times one after 
another, knocking on a Box not unlike a Pair of Bellows, out of which flew 
abundance of Duft about Seuningen, which caus'd a great Laughter amongft 
the Guineans. The King alfo coming to him, prefented him with two Goats, 
and four Hens, and fo conduced him back to the Ships. 

'Beuningen feeing that there was no good to be done, fet fail from thence,and 

pioody sea; my ftrange coming before the River La Plata in America, it appeared Blood-red. Out of 
the Water which was taken up in Buckets, ftarted a fort of Infe&s like 
Fleas, which caus'd a ftrange and fad Diftemper amongft the Sea*men, that 
when any Meat was offcr'd to them, fo foon as ever they put it to their 
Mouths, they would fall down backwards in a fwoon, foaming and frothing 
at the Mouth, and turning up the White of their Eyes, die diftra&ed. Suffering 
under this Difafter, they halted from thence with all fpeed, and failing into the 
Straights of Magellan they kill'd above fourteen hundred Tenguyins, which is a 
Bird that preys on Fifli, and lives in Holes under Ground - they fomewhat re- 
femble a Goofe, onely they ftand more upright, and are double- crefted, with, 
two plumy Combs. Coming to an Anchor in the Green-*Bay, there arofe a great 
Storm, which continued feveral days, fo that they were fore'd to moor their 
Veffels with four Anchors, extremely afflitted both with Hunger and Cold, 
preferving themfelves alive by eating young Grout, at that time not above a 
fpan high from the Ground • but this courfe Food bred an incurable Dropfie, 
that ported them on to a fudden death. Afterwards, when the Weather grew 

Salvages in itestrngks more pleafant, the Inhabitants being Gyants, moft of them eleven Foot high,! 
grew more troublefom, oftentimes affailing them, and throwing Darts point- 
ed like Harping-Irons, at which they were very expert. Their Salvage Natures 
may appear by their Dealings with the dead Hollanders, cutting off their Heads, 
and bruifing them to pieces, fticking Darts through their Hearts, and cutting 
off their Privities. 

At laft the Fleet getting into the South Sea y were by ftrefs of Weather fepa- 
xated one from another: Two Ships, being the Faith, and the Good Tydings, 
were driven back into the Straights of Magellan, where they fuffer'd the utter- 
moft extremity of Hunger : Here they took a wild Woman, and two Chil- 
dren, who being of a fallow Complexion, had a great hanging Belly, a wide 
Mouth, crooked Legs, long Heels, and Breafts like Cows Udders . about her 
Keck a String of Snail- (hells, and upon her Back a Beafts Skin, faftned about 
her Neck with the Sinews of it ; her Food nought elfe but live Fowls : The 
fame Diet the Children fed upon : The youngeft being but fix Months old, 
had his Mouth full of Teeth, and ran without any help : The eldeft they car* 
ried to Amjlerdam ; but having kept the Woman aboard two Nights, they gave 
her feveral Trifles, and fet her afhore. Here they found old Ice in the middle 
of Summer, four Foot thick, 

fBeuningen lingred in the Straights of Magellan , and being tired out with 
Hunger, Cold, and Storms, return'd home 5 and had they not by accident 

taken 



tf Magellan* 



A vrild Woman. 



Chap* III. AMERICA. 

taken abundance of Coneys, they had all perifli'd. Above ttvo Years had this 
unhappy Voyage lafted, when they arriv'd at thejr Native Countrey, with fix 
and thirty Men, being all that remain'd alive of a hundred and five. 



"* 



T 



Sect. XVI. 
The Expedition of Oliver van Noord. 

Wo Months after Mahu, Oliver Van IS^oord fet fail with four Ships, and two 
hundred forty eight Men, from the Maes. Having reach'd the Princes 



Ifland, he loft feven of his Men by the Treachery 

choring before the City Javeiro, he was no better entertained by the fame Nati» 

on : Here having a Rencounter , and both Sides receiving confiderable 

Lofs, he ftecr'd for St. Sebaftian, a fruitful Ifland, producing an Herb very 

wholefom againft the Scurvey : Here the Sea-men found great ftore of Sea- 

Mews, and Parrots, befides feveral forts of delicious Fifli. The approaching 

Winter advis'd them from entring the Straights of Magellan Co late$ wherefore 

they judg'd it beft to feek a convenient Harbor, to put their Sick afliore to re- 

frcfli themfelves. The Ifland St, Hellen, for its fruitfulnefs, feem'd to be the 

moft convenient for this purpofe ; but a great Storm preventing them, they 

came to St. Clara, where taking in Frefh Water, they call Anchor in Porto Ve- *«*•*>$«. 

fre. In this Haven they faw a kind of Sea-Dogs, whofe fore-parts being over- s«-Dogs. 

grown with long Hair, feem'd like a Lyon, and the Feet like Mens Hands ., 

over their Eyes and Upper-lips grew black and white Hair, which in Stormy 

Weather ftands flaring upright, but in Calm, lies flat and fmooth ; they Urine 

backwards, fleep very foundly, and caft their Young every Month : Their 

Flefh welLboyl'd prov'd a favory Difh. 

Van Noord going afliore here, faw not a Man ; but only Burying»places on Strang* TomW 
high Rocks, built of red Stones, and adorn'd both within and without with 
Bowes, Arrows, and other ftrange things : Under the Heads of the Dead lay 
four-fejuare Shells, and other things artificially carv'd. Curiofity made them 
defirous to make a further fearch into the Countrey • wherefore he rowed du- 
ring a whole Tide up a River 5 and when their Boat ran aground at the 
time of Ebb, he walk'd feveral Leagues up into the Countrey, where he faw 
nothing but Deer, Buffles, and Oftriches : and becaufe he faw no People, he 
judg'd the Coaft to be uninhabited 5 but returning again, he found it other- 
wife 5 for the Sea-men, though commanded to flay in the Boat, which lay in 
the middle of the River, went afliore, where they were fo fiercely fet uponby 
thirty of the Natives, that three of them were kill'd, and another wounded 
in the Leg. Thefe People are very ftrong and Salvage, with painted Faces,and 
long Hair 5 but after this Encounter, they faw no more of them. 

But Van Noord having fp en t fourteen Months in fearch, and loft a hundred 
Men, fet fail again with three Ships- for one of them, being the Unity, he 
burnt at the Ifland Qara, where he Winter'd, becaufe of a great Leak which 
could not be ftopp'd. Here they brought five thoufand Fowls aboard, which 
much increafed their Stock of Provisions. 

From hence pafling the Wide Ocean, into the Straights of Magellan, four times 
the Fleet attempted to go into the South-Sea, and was as often driven back by 
crofs Weather into the Straights • but the fifth time prov'd more fuccefsful - 
fox having got through, and left the Straights a handfom way aftern, they 

O y difcover'd 



l 






"4- 



t 



philip-Stadt 
through famine, 



forfakcn 



5 



s 



Ifland. 






A M EXJ- C A. Chap. III. 

difcover'd two Iflands, from one of which the Sea-men going aland, brought 
four Boys and two Girls • who afterward inftru&ed in their Tongue, in- 
formed them concerning the fcituation of the Countreys thereabout. 

After that, the Fleet Sail'd into Hungers HaVen, where they found the ruines 
of the deferred Philip-Stadt , wkich Captain Thomas Candijh had feen fourteen 
years before, fortifi'd with four Bulwarks . but now onely fome Houfes, * 
Church, and a Gibbet were Handing : Four hundred Spaniards built that City, 
as a Key to the Straights of Magellan. But all their Provifions being fpent in 
three years time, and no relief coming from Spain , and what they Sow'd ex- 
pecting the hopes of a Harveft, the Salvages coming down by night de- 
ftroy'd- which caus'd fo great a Famine to rage amongft them, that many 
dy'd, not fo much as putting off their Clothes , who lying in the Houfes un- 
bury'd, occafion'd fuch a ftench in the City, that the remainder fled into the 
Field ; where they liv'd a whole year by the Fruits of the Trees, Herbs, and 
Roots : At laft, three and twenty of them, amongft which were two Women 
remaining yet alive, refolv'd to travel to the River La <Plata, and accordingly 
fet forward, but what became of them could never yet be heard, only on* 
Fcrdinando that was of that company, accidentally wandring from the reft, 
happen'd to light upon Candifh's Fleet. 

Here Van £{oord fet on Shore the Vice- Admiral Jacob Claefepon Ilpendam, for 
fome crimes which he had committed • and leaving him behind, Sail'd from 
a**,*, W h« kind of thence thorow the South-Sea along the Coaft of Chili and Mocha ; which Ifland, 
of a confiderablc bignefs, rifes in the middle with a forked Mountain , from 
which a convenient River comes flowing down into the Countrey. 

The Inhabitants conduced the Hollanders to their Village, confifting of 
about fifty Houfes built of Straw, but were forbid to go into their Huts : Up- 
on the Mens call the Women appeared, which being divided into three par- 
ties , humbly kneel'd down before them ; and foon after an old Woman 
(MaftranjeDrink. brought an Earthen Can full of Cica, a Liquor made of Mays , whofe extra- 
cted Juycc, boyl'd and put into Tubs, ferments like our Beer or Ale, with a 
cap of Barm, with which they treated the Hollanders, who drinking moderate- 
ly, were well rcfrefli'd ; but the Natives will ply this Liquor, till thfy make 
thcmfelves Diftracted, and are mad Drunk. 

From hence Van Noord fteer'd his courfe to Santla SMaria, where in his way 
he took a Spanifh Ship, call'd 'Buonjefus, that is, Good JeJ W, and received intelli- 
gence from the Prifoners, that the Admiral Simon de Cordes, with twenty three 
Men was kill'd by the Americans on the Promontory LaVapia, being the head 
Land or Point oppofite to St. Maries 5 that a year fince, tydings were brought to 
Lima of 'his Fleet ; fo that they had made all things ready to withftand him. 
But Van Koord hinder'd by ftrong contrary Winds, not able to reach Santla Ma- 
ria, flood directly for St. Jago, in whofe Haven lay a great Spanifi) Ship full of 
Indians, and two other going in, which two he fet on Fire , and the third he 
Tow'd towards his Fleet . repenting extremely that he had given liberty, and 
fet Fraticifco de harro Commander of the !Buon Jeftts afhore - becaufe he after- 
wards underftood from the Spanift Pilot , that harra threw ten thoufand two 
hundred pound weight of Gold, pack'd in fifty two Cafes, over-board, when 
lie obferv'd that he was like to loofe his Ship. 

The Fleet Sailing forward came to an Anchor before the TbieVes-ljIand,whoCc 
Inhabitants are very light Finger'd, go ftark naked, and are of great ftrength j 
they found the Women much Disfigured, their Nofes, Lips, and Cheek-bones 
eaten by the French Pox. In 



Van Xitrd tikes a Sp*' 
M'Jh Ship. 



Chap* III; 



A ME %JCA. 



"? 




J 



In the Bay La $aya, the Dutch Admiral, with a Spanijh Flag on his top-Maft, p<rfermsreattbi»gs. 
fent one of his Sea*men in a Fryers garb afhore, if poffible under that diiguife, 
to get Provifions - y which falling out according to their Dcfign, they wercfup- 
ply'd with all manner of Vi&uals : After that, the Hollanders burnt five Vil- 
lages on the Ifland Capull . took a Qhinefy Veflcl,one Spanish Barque, and a Carvel 
Laden with Brandy from Cocos ; and after a great and bloody Fight funk the 
Admiral of the Manilla's, and fo at laft with various fortunes arriv'd at (Rotter- 
dam, having in three years encompafs'd the World. 



Sect, XVI. 
The Expedition of George Van Spilbergen. 

A 2fyo 1614. the eighth of Augujl y the EaJMndia Company of the United Nethef- 
*- * lands fet out feven Ships tinder the Command of George Spilbergen , who 
coming to Cape St. Vincent , and engaging with the Tortuguefe, took one of their 
Ships, and fo proceeded 6n his Voyage to the Straights of Magellan, but by a 
huge Storm, the Fleet was feparatcd. Amdngft thofe that were fcatter'd was 
the good Ship call'd Meruw , in which forrie of the crew had'confpir'd to have 
kill'd the Maftet, 2nd feiz'd the Veffcl ; but he having fome inkling thereof, 
fet fo ftoutly upon two of the chief Contrivers with his drawn Hanger, that he 
fore'd therrt to leap overboard, arid as ftbutly ordering the reft, fet all to 
rights. 

But Spilbergen Landing on one of the Venguyn Iflands, found two Dead Bo- suangeCori*. 
dies juft covcr'd with Earth, about their Necks was a Chain of glittering Snail 
Shells neatly ftrung ; the Grave ftuck full of Bowes and Arrows, was pleafant 
to look upon, between fevcral high Mountains, whofc tops lay bury'd in Snow: 
The Fleet came out of the Straights of Magellan, but riot without great danger, 
for the South-Sea much difturb'd by tempeftuoris Weather , feem'd to raife its 

Waves 



n6 



Sftlbtrgenxw great dan- 



ger- 



Strange dice?. 




5 



AMERICA. Chap. ID. 

Waves up to the Sky, fo that they had enough to do, from being ingagd 
among the Rocks : But at lad with great difficulty , wonderfully efcaping all 
danger, they Anchored before La Mocha, an Ifland which on the Noith fide lies 
low, and on the South defended by Rocks. 

Spilbergen feeing abundance of Men ilanding on the Shore, Rovv'd thither to"^ 
Barter for Merchandize, among!! them was a Sheep with a long Neck, bunch- 
Back'd like a Camel, a little Mouth, and long Legs . which Beaft ferves them 
inftead of Horfes, to carry their burthens, and perform their Tillage. The 
Americans breed up thefe Sheep every where, by reafon of the extraordinary be* 
nefit they receive from them, fome of them keeping no lefs than eighteen hun- 
dred. Their Shepherds ride upon a Beaft almoft like an Ox, and carry in their 
hands Copper-Plates , hung round about with Bells , which they make, ma- 
kin? a different noife when their Sheep fhall go in or out 5 and on their Heads 
wear Feathers like Coronets, (landing upright. 

From thence, Spilbergeon departing, Landed at lad on the Ifland of St. Mary, 
where he burnt all the Spanish Villages ; as he did alfo in Val Taryfa. 

After going afliore, in the Haven Quintcro, he faw abundance of Wild Horfes 
drinking out of a Rivulet, fupply'd with frefli Water from an adjoyning fteep 
Mountain ; fo foon as they efpy'd Men , they inftancly running away, were 
feen no more. 

Having left Quintcro , and fpent a Moneth in Sailing farther, they dif- 

cry ? d eight great Ships 5 .whereupon the Prifoners inform'd them, that it was 

the Spanish Fleet, of which ^oderigo de Mendoza was Admiral, fitted out on pur- ; 

pole to fight Spilbergen , whofe coming (as we faidj was known a year before. 

Bioodv fight between the fa midnight Mendoza Boarded Spilbenen , but was fo roughly receiv'd, that he 

sllandtrs and Spawjh t> >• ^, L, . , ■ » -^ i .1 ■ 



St. Merits burnt. 
And alfo ValFarjf*. 



Hollanders 

Meet. 




was forced to Retreat with the lofs of the Ship St. Francifco. At Day-break, the 
Holland Admiral fir'd at Mendoza, who anfwering with equal courage, occa* 
Jion'd a fmart Engagement , wherein the Spaniards were fo hard befet , that 
they put forth a White Flag- but it was immediately taken in again by the 
Commanders aboard, choofing rather to die, than furrender, becaufe they 
had mock'd at Mendoza, when he hinted the difficulty of the Enterprize in the 
Grand Peruvian Councel, faying, They Trent out, onely to take a few difabled Hol- 
landers, and tying them hand and feet, carry them to Execution. Yet their high and 
proud Stomachs prov'd very fatal to them, for afterwards totally routed and 
put to flight, mod of them funk by the way. 
m,m ^ nm*. This done, the Hollanders vi&orioufly Sail'd to Caljofb de JJima, having a con* 

venient Haven : The City adorn'd with curious Houfes and Temples , is 
ftrengthen'd by a Platform, Planted with great Guns towards the Sea, and the 
Shore was guarded by eight Troops of Horfe, and four thoufand Foot; where- 
upon Spilbergen , who was yet to go fo great a Voyage, judg'd it no way con- 
venient to adventure the lofs of all on the good or bad event of a Battel, efpc- 
cially being fo much over-power'd by the number of the Enemy : Wherefore 
feeing no hopes of Victory, fetting forward to Guarma, he got fome frefli Pro- 
vifions. 
icyuxnw. Againft the City Peyta,\\z play'd his Cannon with fuch fury, that the Towns- 

men deferred the place, which he obferving, fet it on fire, and Sail'd to AquapuU 
que, where from the Fort at firft the Spaniards fired fome Guns at them ; but 
foon after changing humor, they came to an Accommodation, furnifhing the 
Hollanders with convenient Provifions. Parting on, and coming to Selaques, both 
Natives and Spaniards having fuffer'd fome of the Hollanders to Land y after 

fct 



M.thafomm*,v?hit mint 
nttot'llle. 



Chap. III. AMERICA U j 

fet upon them treacheroufly in a Thicket, but to their little.advantage, fox 
they made fo good a Defence, that the Aflailants not able to bear the brunt, 
fled witn great lofs. 

Spilbergen Sailing from hence to the Ma?iilla's, waited there for the Spanifl? Ad- 
miral jW* de Sifoa, who had made (as was reported) great preparations for him 
long fincc • but feeing it was in vain, at laft he return'd to Zealand , where he 
came to an Anchor, loaden with Riches, in the middle of Summer, Jnm 
1617. 

Sect. XVI h 

The Expedition of William Cornelifzon Schouten, and Jacob Le Mai re. 

SOme Merchants thai were call'd the Aujlrian Company , fitted out one 
Ship with fixty five, and a Ketch with two and twenty Sea-men , giving 
the Command thereof to the Captains Schouten and Le Main z Anno icuj they 
Weigh'd' Anchor from the T*exel- y the firft took a view of one of the three 
Iflands, call'd Mabrabomma, lying before Cape Sierra Leona. This Ifland appear- 
ing a great height out of the Sea, was not inhabited, they feeing onely three 
Wild Buffles, many Wild Cats, Birds which bark'd like Dogs, Wild Palm- 
Trees, Lemon-Trees, Turtles, Crocodiles, Partridges, and Storks: From 
hence, paffing by the dangerous Shelf Jbrolhos, they ran into Porto Defire, where 
on the Rocks they found abundance of Eggs,and Spierings,or Smelts,and Spire* 
grafs fixten Inches long, wherefore they call'd that Inlet Spierings-Bay. Their 
Sloop alfo brought two Sea-Lions , and one hundred and fifty (penguins from 
the Penguin Ifles, having Sail'd two Leagues up the River 5 in the interim, the 
ground being meer Stone , and their Anchors coming home, the great Ship somHtinp&t danger j 
drove againft a Rock , and at Ebbing Water , broke off the outcrmoft Planks 
and Iron-Work , and the Ketch alfo (hiking on a high Shelf , was at low Ebb 
two Fathom with her Keel above the Water, and had without peradventure 
been overfct, and bilg'd, but a frefh North-Weft Wind kept her upright, yet 
at laft,the Weather growing calm,flie lean d,but the Tide coming in very faft, 
fet her afloat, fo that (he was miraculoufly fav'd • then fetting Sail again to 
IQngS'IJland, they found fo many Eggs of black Mews, that one without ftir- 
ing from his place, might reach above fifty Nefts, and in. each of them at lead 
three Eggs, which they carry'd aboard by thoufands. Their Boat Rowing 
Southerly down the River, found fome Oftriches, and Beafts not unlike Stags, 
but with exceeding long Necks. On the Hills lay Stones heap'd one upon ano- 
ther, which removing, they found Dead Bodies of eleven Foot long; here Otott^ 
theyfpent their time in cleanfing their Ships, and new Sheathing the Ketch, 
but as they were Tallowing, the Flame accidentally got between the Crevifles R, tch buni, 
which immediately taking Fire , in a Ihort time confurn d it to Aflies : The 
great Ship had gotten a Horn in her Bow, feven Foot under Water ; this Horn strange H«£ 
being firm without any hollownefs, and not unlike a great Elephants Tooth, 
ftruckthorow two Allien and one Oaken Plank, flicking in a Rib of the like 
Wood, and yet above half a Foot remain'd out to be feen. 

At length Schouten Weighing Anchor from Porto Vefire , and Sailing to four 
and fifty Degrees Southern Latitude, met whole Shoals of Whales, infomuch, 
that he was fain to Tacque to and again to fliun them. Sea*Pies, bigger than 
Swans, came flying in great numbers aboard , fu fife-ring themfelves to betaken 

with 



1 






Incredible many Egg«, 



Great Mews} 



n8 



Straights Lt Maire. 
Tflcs in the South-Sea. 



A M E%_1 C A. Chap. III. 

with the hand. On the North-fide they fpy'd a high and fcraggy Coaft fpread- 
ing it felf to the Eaft South : Eaft, which they call'd, Tk States Qountm, that 
which lay to the Weftward of it , Maurice of Hiajfau , the Iflands in f&y feven 
Degrees Qarnevield's iflcs, and the fharp Point in which lay the Snowy Moun- 
tains , Southward of the Magellan Straights end, the Cape oiHoorn. 

Schouten had now gotten the height of fifty nine Degrees , when he entcr'd 
the South-Sea, through the new paffage between Mauritius and the States*Coun- 
trek which was call'd from his Partner, The Straights of he Maire. 

Near the two Ifles Juan Fernando, they found great (lore of Fifli, after that 
they view'd thefe Iflands, that lay fcatter'd up and down the South-Sea, each 
of them they nam'd according to their feveral occafions, calling the firft , The 
IJle of Dogs , becaufe they have abundance of Dogs there that could not bark : 
Another, The iBottomlefs Ifland , becaufe the Sea was fo deep about it, that they 
could not come to an Anchor. The Inhabitants who go naked, with their 
Skins pounced full of ftrange Oiapes, of blue Snakes, Dragons, and fuch like 
Creatures, Salli'd out of the Woods upon the Hollanders with great Clubs, to 
which was faften'd the Sword or Snout of a Sword.Fifli , and alfo with 

Slings. 

Somewhat further they came to Water -Land 9 and Flyes-lfland , the firft fo 
nam'd, becaufe the Shore round about was planted with Trees , but in the 
middle all lay cover'4 with Salt- Water ; the other from the Byes, which with 
incredible numbers troubled the Sea*men four days together. 
strange entertainment at MoreoVer, the Reception or Entertainment which Schouten was welcom'd 
withal, at the Hoorn-ljlands, being very remarkable, we will in brief relate : 

Anchoring in nine Fathom Water, Shelly ground, before a frefli Rivulet, 
three Hollanders fent to the King were by him courteoufly entertained, who 
with ftrange humility, not bow'd, but kiffing their Feet fell flat on the ground, 
and put the Hollanders Feet upon his Neck ; and after this manner of Salutati- 
on, waited upon them aboard : Yet although this King fawn'd fo much, and 
feem'd fo humble, yet he was very fevere over his Subjects, for finding one 
that had filch'd a Sword, he not onely brought and reftor'd it, but immediate- 
ly Executed the Thief before their Faces. 

he Main and Jrlas Claefeon were much honored here, for the old and young 
King put their Crowns on their Heads, curioully Wrought of fine White Fea- 
thers, and the end adorn'd with fmall Red and Green Feathers ; they gave alfo 
to each of them a Pigeon, White to their Wings, the hinder part Black, and 
under their Bellies Red. 

In the interim, the King of Water Jjland vifited the other, by whom Le Main 
was treated : When they met, they made ftrange {hews of Honor to each other, 
but at laft fhew'd their Salvagenefs by eating raw Fifli , and rudely Dancing 
before the Hollanders. Le Maire going into the Countrey , and climbing up a 
high Mountain, faw nothing but Morafs Wilds, and Vallies, lying under 
Water : The King and his Retinue here kept him company, during his ftay 
there, when weary with walking, they fate down together under Coco-Nut- 
Trees ; the young King tying a String about his Leg^ climb'd with exceeding 
dexterity up a high Tree, bringing feveral Coco-Nuts down with him, which 
he open'd very expeditiously. 

Arias Claefzoon, Rowing aflhore one night, found the King fitting under a 
Roof, refting on four Pillars , where feveral Naked Women Danc'd before 
him according to their Mufick, which was Taboring upon a hollow Piece of 

Wood, 



Chap. HI. 



J M E XI L 






y 










V 

Wood, which yielded a murmuring found without any diftinct Tune. 

But the two Kings meeting again, the next day Complemented one and* 
ther with more antick and ridiculous Poftures , fitting fide by fide under the 
Roof, imploring their God, with their Hands folded, and their Heads bow'd 
to the ground : At this interview , four Holland Trumpeters and Drummers 
flood playing before the King, to the great admiration and amazement of the 
Iflanders, which were near ten thoufand gathered together upon the News of 
the ftrangers to attend the two Kings. Soon after a great company of Rufticks 
came running thither, which had a green Herb called Cava, ty'd about their c.n« a ftran^Lquor. 
middle ; on a fudden they began all to chaw this Cava, throwing that which 
they had chaw'd into a large Woodden Trough, then putting Water to it, they 
Kneaded it together ; which done, brought the Liquor on their Heads to the 
two Kings, before whom they kneel'd when they gave them any : Yet not- 
withstanding they receiv'd fuch honor from their Subjects, they fhew'd fervile 
refpe&s to the Hollanders, for every King prefented them with a Pig, which 
they firft laid on their Heads, then kneeling, put it down at he Mains Feet, 
and bowing their Heads to the ground, rofe again. They wear their Hair 
long, which Brayded, hung on the left fide of their Heads down to their Hips, 
ty'd at the end with two Knots ; but the Nobility had two fuch Locks: All 
of them went naked, their Privities onely cover'd. The fmalleft of the Men 
exceeded the biggeft of the Hollanders in tallnefs. The Women had longBreafls impugn w ome „; 
hanging like Satchels down to their Bellies,and fo unfhamefac'd,thatthey pro- 
ftituted themfelves to any , in fight of all Men ; and ftill at low Water, their 
bufinefs was to catch Fifh, which they greedily eat raw. 

After all this Entertainment, Weighing from hence, Schouten Sail'd along strange *i a m^., 
the Coaft of IS^e^Guiny, where three Boats full of Negro's came Rowing to- 
wards them , Slinging very fiercely Stones at them, and hovering about, 
attended their motion all night. Next morning, feven Boats more coming to 
their affiftance, they fet upon the Hollanders , but loon fled from their Bullets « 

ycc 



^^H 



■1 



U6 



Deform'd people. 



I 



A M E^I C A. 



Chap; III. 



I 



yet two of the Negro's were taken, that in each Noftril wore a Ring. Sailing 
further, feveral Boats came aboard of them, whereof thofe that Row'd, break- 
ing their Affagays or Launccs over their Heads, enter'd the Ship - the Hair of 
their Heads and Beards bedawb'd with Lime, flew about, whiift they Danc'd 
on the Decks, after they had eaten a good Meal : But they endeavor'd to re* 
ward this their kind Entertainment with Treachery , for going afhore, they 
foon after return'd in greater numbers, and fat upon the Anchors which lay 
over the Bows of the Ship, and there being a great calm, endeavor'd to Towe 
the Ship towards the Shore, whiift others threw Stones and Arrows. But fo 
foon as the Hollanders firing their Guns Wounded feveral of them, they all 
fled , except fome which they took Prifoners, whereof one whom they after- 
wards called Uofes, did them great fcrvice. 

But he 3iaire was amaz'd at nothing more, than when on the next Coaft he 
faw feveral little Houfes built about nine Foot high , out of which many Peo* 
pie Iffu'd, which were all deform'd, either having Wry Nofes, Bow Legs, 
Squint Eyes, or crooked Backs, and all in one part or another mif-fhapen. 

At laft, Anchoring before Jacatra, the Ship was ftopt there by order of the 
Eaft'India Company , and the Men divided and put aboard thofe Ships that 
Sailed from India to Holland P znd arriv'd in fafety at Flujhing, after they had Sail'd 
about the World, in two years and eighteen days. 



Sect. XVIII. 

Voyage of the Naflavian Fleet, under the Command of Jaques L' Heremite, 
and Geen Huigo Schapenham. 

Remarkable Exploit* of ' I '*He United Netherlands, to abate the Spanijh Greatnefs, fet out a confidera* 
H ble Fleet, which they fent to try their fortune, in making Prize of what 
ever they could light upon in any of their Havens wafti'd by the South- 
Sea. 

Jaques U Hermite had ten Ships under his Command, Mann'd with fixteen 
hundred thirty feven Men, and two hundred ninety four Brafs and Iron Guns, 
with which he fet Sail from Goree, jinno 1623. and coming before Cape Vincent, 
he difcover'd eleven Turkjjh Pirates, whom fighting, he beat, and re*took the 
Holland Ships they had made Prize of. 

At %oxents Head, V Hermite gave chafe to fifteen Spanifh Ships, and coming 
up with them, funk eleven, and took four laden with Sugar. Afterwards An- 
choring at Safia, he fent the Ship Over-yjfel, and a Frigat call'd the Gray-Hound, 
to Convoy home the Prizes; afterward being informed, that thirty Spanifh 
Ships were making to them, Sailing into the Haven St. Vincent, the Spring Wa- 
ter that hefupply'd his empty Cask with being brakkifh, caus'd an excoriation 
of the Guts, which brought the Bloody-Flux, whereby he loft many of his 
Sea-men- being well entertain'd by the Salvages of Antonio, they went on to 
Sierra Leona, a Mountainous Point full of Lime-Trees, here they found the 
Names of Sr. Francis Drake, and other Englijh cut in a Rock. 

After that he put in at the fruitful Ifland Anndkon , where he caus'd his Chi- 
rurgeon to be Beheaded. 

^rawkkw; This wicked Man being brought to the Torture , would confefs nothing 

concerning the Crimes objected againft him, but being ftrip'd for Execution, 
they found a fmall Bag hanging on his Bread, in which lay a Serpents Skin 

and 



Chap. III. 



<tA M E^I C A 



m 



and Tongue, with which he had Poyfon'd feveral Men, but he confefs'd no- 
thing. 

The firft of February, the Fleet came to Cape de Pernio* , which they know at a 
great diftance, by its high Mountains covered with Snow. 

In fliort time after, Sailing by the Mouth of the Straights of La Main, they 
met with very tempeftuous Weather, and feventeen of their Men going afhore, 
were devour'd by the Cannibals of Terra del Fuogo. Thefe People being all Whites, 
and of a large Stature, Paint themfelves Red, and go ftark naked, except fome 
of highcft quality who tie a Deer Skin about their Necks, and trip Women co- 
ver their Nakednefs with a piece of Leather : They live in Bowers made of 
the Branches of Trees, Stak'd three Foot deep, in a round at bottom, and above 
like our Tents, Canopy'd, the top of which open, to carry out the Smoke like 
a Chimney . and have no other Houfliold-ftufF than fome Baskets, in which 
they lay their few Fifhing Implements. They go continuallyArm'd with Clubs, 
Arrows, Slings, and Stone-Knives : Their Boats being only the Trunk of a 
Tree made hollow, rife up before and behind like a Half-Moon, and are four- 
teen, and fome fixteen Foot long, and two broad, and Row fwifter than a 
Pinnace with many Oars. Laftly, they are fo Salvage, that they feem rather 
to beBeafts than Men, knowing no Religion, ill Natur'd, cruel and Trea- 
cherous. 

From hence, pafling on, V Hermite refrefh'd at the defolate Iflc Fernando, and 
foSteer'd his Courfe to Calla de Lima, on whofe Coaft, taking a Spanijh Veffel, 
the Prifoners told him , that their Plate-Fleet had Weigh'd Anchor, and were 
gone to Panama . only the Admiral which carry'd forty Brafs Guns, with fifty 
Merchant-Men, lay clofe under the Shore, Guarded by three Stone Bulwarks, 
Fortifi'd with fifty Guns. 

V Hermite having a defign upon thefe, took three Spanijh VelTels that were 
going thither, and at midnight, fent Captain Adrian To/, Peter Slobbe, and Mew- 
dert Egbcrtfzpn, with twelve well Mann'd Boats, furnifli'd with Brafs Drakes, 
and Hand-Granado's, to Attaque the Spanijh Fleet that lay hard by ; and whilft 
fome gave a falfe Alarm on the North of Callao, the Boats Rowing from Ship 
to Ship, in fliort time nYd forty of them ; although the Spaniards from the 
Shore endeavor'd by their Shot to drive back the Enemy , neither the Fort or 
Admiral fparing Powder nor Ball. 

In this valiant Exploit the Hollanders had onely feven Men kill'd, and fifteen 
Wounded : About break of day, feven of the Spanijh Ships floated, burning to- 
wards the Dutch Fleet, which were as terrible as now Fire-fliips, which fore'd 
them to Weigh Anchor to fhun them. 

After that, V Hermite took two Ships laden with Wine, a third full of Wood, 
and a fourth with Wheat : One of thefe Prizes he fitted and prepaid for a 
Fire-fhip, and fending her to Board the Spanijh Admiral, it ran aground with- 
in fliot of him ; whereupon being batter'd by the Admirals Guns, and thofe 
from the Bulwarks, and at laft taking Fire gave but a fmali blow, becaufe 
mofl part of the Powder had taken Wet. 

In this interim, while thus their defign went profperoufly on, their Admiral 
V Heremite dy'd, whom they Bury'd on the Ifland Lima, and Schapenham, in de- 
fiance of the Vice<Roy in Callao, caus'd one and twenty Spaniards to be hang'd 
at the Yard.Arm, becaufe he had fent him a fcornful Anfwer on the Propofals 
concerning the delivery of the Prifoners. 

Cwnelm Jacob foon Sailing to Pijco with four Sail from the Fleet, could do 

P no 






u^ 




^^1^ 

s 



I 




A M E %l C A. Chap. III. 

no good there, for he not onely found the City to be furrounded with a Wall 
of fifteen Foot high, but having alio many Earthen Redoubts, behind which 
lay above two thoufand arm' d Men, wherefore he deferred the fame after fome 
viffim'* E*pi it. Rancounters: But the Rear-Admiral, JohnWilliamJ\oonVirjhor, who was fen t 
to Gamquil, had much better luck . for he not onely took that Metropolis, but 
alfo burnt a new Royal Gattion, and two letter Veflels j carry'd a concper'd 
VeiTcl to Lima ; flew above a hundred Spaniards, and threw feventeen over- 
board, becaufe they had (hot Poyfon'd Bullets againft the Law of Arms .- of 
which Conqueft Captain Engelhert Shutte had the greateft honor : But the Sea- 
men grew weaker and weaker by the Scurvy, and all of them would have pe- 
rilVd, had they not found a foveraign Herb on the higheft Mountains of Lima, 
sch^nhams remarkable Schapenham being chofe Admiral in V Heremites place, Weigh'd Anchor from CaU 
1 fa, and ran into the Inlet <Pifc adore *,where on the fhore he rais'd a Sconce ; yet 

not long after departed from thence without any effe& , but loft twenty eight 
Men, through the bad Conduct of their Commanders - the like number he 
loft alio at Jquapulque, on the fide of which City ftands a Caftle with four 
ftrong Bulwarks - the Holland Fire-fliip lay juft without the reach of the fliot, 
the reft lay along'the fhore in a row, there to feize upon the VeiTels expeded 
thither from the Manillaes : But becaufe the Scurvy raged amongft the Sea-men, 
and difabled them , they waited in vain, Schapenham Sail'd through the South- 
Sea to the Ladrones, where he found ftore of Provifions. Jnno i 625. in March, 
he drop d Anchor before Maleye, and from thence went with Herman Spiult.thc 
Governor for the Eajl-lndia Company in Amboina, to Qetam, where they Con- 
cjuer'd the Fort Lochot, and foon after Qambella^ then the Fleet being divided, 
Schapenham carry'd home two Ships from BataVta, and the remainder return'd 
at feveral times, they being hir'd to ferve the Eaftdndia Company to Surratta, 
Malacca, Coromandel, and the Molucca Illes : Schapenham Deceafing near Bantum, 
and being Bury'd on Tula Boftok, the Ships arrived at the Texel in July, Jnno 

Henry Brewer his Voyage. 

Afyio 1 643. Brewer fee Sail with four Ships from $ecifo, and ran dole along 
the States-ljle, fo dangerous and Rocky, that he durft not put in to the 
Land • from which flew great abundance of Party-colour'd Ducks, withfharp 
Bills, about the Ships, and under the Keels (warn alfo Whales, 

On the Weft fide of the Straights Le Maire, Brown ran into Valentine's Inlet, 
where he was much troubled by the Winds which came whittling through the 
hollow Mountains with great and fudden gufts : The fhore afforded red and 
black Strawberries, CarVtlle and Mufcles, to the great re/refliment of the Sea. 
men, who daily law Seasons, but could not come to (hoot one of them, for 
no fooner they perceiv'd any body, but they Diving under Water, fwam a way ; 
and though they faw Mens Foot-fteps of eighteen Inches long, yet they never 
found any Men. Thence Sailing into the South-Sea, along the Coaft of Chdi, 
theyenter'd a Bay which they nam'd Brewer 9 s-HaVen- where Landing, they 
walk'd towards a great Smoke which they faw afar off, but coming near it, 
found only two Houfes within a large Plain, full of Sheep, Oxen, and Hoc- 
fes ; before the Houfes flood Woodden Crofles. 

The Dolphin Pink and a great Boat being fent to the Inlet, lay the following 
Night at an Anchor near a high Mountain • from whence, in the Night, two 
great Guns were fir'd, whereupon, Lieutenant William Ter Bergen Landed with 

fixteen 



SLt&aftufim die* 



Sea Lions. 



Brtwr's Haven. 
Remarkable Exploits. 



I 



"3 



C*Jfr92Ciiy. 



Stream chili. 



Chap- Iir. *A M E%^IC A. 

fixteen Mufqueteet, and climbing up the Mountain, found a Village behind 

the fame, where all things were in Alarm, Drums beating, Trumpets found- ***** 

m g> Bells ringing, the Villagers fuddenly firing their Gt/ns on r.S^ who 

being fupply d with thirty four Men, Encountered the Enemy fo Valiamlv 

that he fled into the Woods, not without the lofs of Men and^orfes The 

Guns with which they had fhot in the Night lay onely on a Redoubt : Ter Ber- 

TandlTf J 7' M r rCh ' d ^ thC W °° ds > and ft « thc *•* Com. , 

sunder Andrew Munes Iferrerairo m his Horfe, got great ftore of Treafure which 

fi're an^kUl-d ;iUh Ce H b£ r ng ^ ^ ^^ ^ h Vill^IeS 
Zl} Tur l l ° rfCS ' and Wei S h ' d Anchor wit " the Admiral Brewer 

to McW/^ Csjn* where not being able to Land, becaufe of the many ob- 
fcore Rocks and Shoals, they fet Sail to CaftrV, which they conquered and burnt 
without the leaft refiftancc : This City fituate on a Mountain is (lately buTl 
among Flowry Meadows, delightful Orchards, and brave Fountains . the Sea 
before it flows daily fourteen Foot. Brewer alfo burnt a Sfanijh Ship, and fet 
fome Houfes afire, took three Spaniards Prifoners on Las Babias, whoinform'd 
him, that the Winter Seafon was almoft over, but that it was never known 

Houfif T P OV !; T^V ? WCather § Cnerall y ufin S "> bI ™ dowa 

a nT?;7 rees ' ?i?a ^t afunder5 that therc was much G ° id «» <y— 

and fi^ ; which laftthey^ad fome years fince deferred for hunger, but it 
was fince Garnfon'd by three hundred CaJi.Hans, that none could get ft the Fort 
Concern (which lay a League Wefterly from thence) but in a fmall Boat, that 
there were on the , near wo ^^ ^^^ Morcoy aa 

Matron call dLy.^, f rom Qutnuan, one of the Illes in the &« In. 
J-and-Sea being fetch d from thence, gave information, that forty years fince, 
before the 7„</ M „, took up Arms, the Spaniard, were quietly fetled in Oforno, and 
in io good a condition, that an ordinary Planter had at leaft three hundred 
Slaves, or which, every one was to procure a certain quantity of Gold . that the 
Ifles Cbdoves were divided into above a hundred Colonies or Plantations, the 
Qbthfes ferving the Caftdians as their true Governors , thofe that do good Service 
the King of the Colony makes them Commanders; and that the<W«had 
Rebell d ,n feveral places. Brewer on the <?&/„ requeft took fome of them, 
with their Wives and Children into his Ship, furnifh'd with Arms, he digg'd 
a Cheft of Silver and a Brafs Gun out of the Earth , and foon after being fick 

rl o-i r , UCCClT0r ^ Herhnms F ofecutin g thofe Publick Affairs, fenc 
he P,lot of the Unity out of Brewer's Have,,, and fome Sea-men, with two Chi. 
lean Lafyues with a Boat to Carelmappa • but being furpriz'd by a violent Storm, 
ttood in tor Horfcl/land, where he and the Cafiaues Landing, he order'd feven 
Sea-men to carry the Boat to a fafer Harbor . but being driven from the fliorc 
by ttrong Winds, it took in fo much Water as fill'd and funk it, fo that all of 
them were drown'd. Horfe-Ifland being deftitute of Provifions and Lodgings, 
thofe that were Landed expected nothing but Death, till they found out a fmall 
Hut, and m the fame fix brave Sheep, and a good quantity of Potatoe Roots, 
winch ferv'd for Bread : But when this their new-found Store was almoft fpent, 
they happily were fetch'd off by the Boat belonging to the Ship Amfterdam, and 
with the whole Fleet came to an Anchor before Baldivia. This City built by ,.,, , „ n 
the Cajlduns, confifted formerly of five hundred and fifty fair Houfes" and was "^"^"'^ 
divided into Streets and crofs Ways, with two large Markets, and as many 
coftly Churches. ' 

The Cbdefes unfufferably opprefs'd, Hew all the Sfanijh Garrifon, and into 

P * the 



I 



I 



I 



> 






Mrrwtr diet* 



Strange accident. 






u^r 







' * A M E%.l C A.. Chap. III. 

the Governor's Mouth and Ears pour'd nuked Cold , of his Skull they made a 
Drmking-cup, and of his Shin-bones, Trumpets ; a fo. this, the Cry fell A, 
„oft to decay, onely a great part of the Wall remamdyet'ftand.ng: The G, 
leans hereupon flock'd hither by thoufands, fome on Hoifes other, on Foot, all 
Arm'd with Lances of a Foot long • Herkman hereupon informmg .them by an 
Interpreter, that they being mortal Enemies of the Shards, would joyji with 
he dileans againft that common Foe ; and defifd, that they might build a tort 
on the Marked" in &Uiw, for a defence againft all Invasions, and that 
thev mieht be fupply'd with Provifions which the Fleet wanted , all which the 
CbLs granted, and accordingly brought in (tore of Sheep Hogs and Cartel: 
But fo foon as Herhnan began to make the leaft mention of Gold, they were 
all abafh'd, and faid, that they knew of no Gold Mines, nay their Hair flood 
an end when they heard the name of Gold , fo horribly the Spamards had dealt 
w* * m, P ew iA d eir Parents : After this, the Chileans growing more and more ftrange, 
«-*•*,«-* W. d not .V [hc lcaft countenance thc bu ilding of rhe Fort, and the longer the 

Fleet ftaid the lefs Provifions they brought aboard . upon which, the Ships 
were neceifitated, without any remarkable Exploits, to let Sail and return to 
(Heciffo. 




The 




u>- 




The Second Book, 



CONTAINING 






I 



A DESCRIPTION 



O F 



NORTHERN AMERICA 





IffllliHliiiiL^S 


t=\f3s WP 






l^^^^^s 


^^ 



CHAP. I. 

0/" r£* "Bounds of America, W ^ f/tf Qivijion of the Mexican 

or 3\(jrthem part thereof. 

/Wing in the firft part of this Volume difcours'd at large The Bounds 

l • • 1 r i . ^ i i l and Divi(Soa 

concerning the original or the Americans, and whether that ofK«*m A 

part of the World call'd India Occidentalism or America, were 
known to the Ancients, or own its Difcovery wholly to 
the Moderns, asalfo of all the Difcoveries that have been 
made of the fevcral parts thereof, and by whom, we fliall 
now pafs on to the Topographical part, defcribing every 
particular Province or Region, by giving, an account of 
their Situation, Temperature, Productions, Nature of r;he"Soil, and Quality of the 
Inhabitants. America, lying Weftward of the Azores, and the Worlds Meridian, is 
byTome fuppos'd to confift of one vaft Ifland,and fevcral lefler ones,fcatter'd about 
it: Nor can this fuppofition be thought vain, if, as many think, it be inviron'd 
on the North-fide, as toward the Eaft, South, and Weft it is known to be $ Eaft 
and South, by the Atlantick Ocean - y and Weft, by Mar del Zur : But becaufe the 
North. Weft Paflage, though attempted by many, as Kelfon, VaVis, Forhifber, Sutton, 
Smith, Hudfon, and others, hath not yet by any been fully difcoYCr'd • fo that it is 
not certainhpknown whether America be joyn'd to Greenland, and the Artlick Region, 
by a continu'd Tract of Land, or fever'dby the Ocean : We fliall follow the me- 
thod of thofe Geographers, who, reputed fufficiently Authentick,have divided this 
new WorlcPinto Iflands, and two grand Teninfula's joyn'd together by zwlfthmus, or 
Neck of Land, call'd The SraightofDarien, by fome The Straight of Panama, lying al. 
moft under the Equinoctial Line, and extending in length from Nombre de t>ios 
Southward above a hundred Miles, and from Eaft to Weft feventeen Miles over in x 



U^H 






iz6 



*A M E % I C A. 



Chap. I« 



the narrowed place. Of thefe two grand fjninfuk's the Northern is generally call'd 
America Mexicana, from Mexico the chief City of the Province, properly call'd cMexi* 
carta- which was heretofore without doubt the moil potent, rich, and flourishing 
of all the Kingdoms of the Indians, at leaft on the North*fide of the Ifthmm. In the 
divifion of the feveral Provinces of America, as wellrhofe of the Northern as of the 
Southern Continent, we find fo various an account among the feveral Geographers 
that have written of them (not any two of them agreeing in one and the fame or- 
der) that to reconcile the differing methods of fo many difagreeing Authors 
would be an endlefs work : wherefore we (hall pitch upon the fureft courfe, and 
not omittincr the mention of any of the Provinces taken notice of by the faid Au- 
thors, hereby endeavor to take in whatfoever material hath been obferv'd by all 
of them, and by the way take occafion to (hew how one differs from another in the 
diftribution of them. Thofe therefore of the Northern America (that as near as 
can be we may bring the defign of many into one) feem moft fitly defcrib'd in this 
following order: i. EJtotiland -, z. Terra Labor atoris, ox NoVa Britannia 5 $. Canada, 
or Nfrva Francia ; 4. Nova Scotia • 5. New England . 6. Nflt> Netherlands, now call'd 
New York, as being in the poiTeflion of the EngliJJ? . 7. NfTp Holland 5 8. New Sn>ede- 
land ; o. Apalchen, now call'd Virginia - y 10. Florida 5 u.Jucatan^ 12. Honduras ; 
13. Nicaragua 5 14. Veragua 5 15. Costarica -, \6. Amen > t 17. 2S[oV4 Hifpania ; 18. Gua* 
catimala ; 19. NoVa Gallicia • 20. NoVa fBifcaia 5 it. NoVa Mexico ; 22. Cibola ; 
23 . Nova Granata j 24. Tontonteac ; 25. Quivira • 16. Nova Albion ; to which by moft 
Authors is added California 5 which being anlfland we thought fit to refervc to be 
fpoken of amongft the Iflands, as alfo Terra NoVa., or New- found Land j which laft 
lies utmoft Weft, as the other Eaft of Northern America. Some there are alfo (and 
particularly Monfieur de JMartini) who among the above-mention'd Provinces have 
inferted Greenland, though doubtlefs with little realbn, fince though it be granted 
that it is not divided by any Sea, yet it is evident, if any credit may be given to all 
modern Maps and Globes, that the greatcft part of Greenland lies in the Hemifphere 
of the known World ; and therefore we have judg'd it moft (convenient to refer the 
particular mention thereof to the Defcription of the Artlick kegion. 

The Iflands of Northern America are 1. Terra Nova, or New-found Land- 2. The 
Ifland of Ajfumption . 3. The Bermudas, or Summer -IJland $ 4. Hifpaniola • 5. St. John 
<Porto ^ico ; 6. Quba^ 7. Jamaica*, 8. The Luc ayes I 0. The Caribes, or Antiflx ; 
10. Margarita > y 11 Qubagua - y 12. La Trinidad • 13. Tabago 5 14. California, the biggeft 
of all the American Iflands. 

The length of the Weft-Indies is generally computed to be from the utmoft South 
of Terra Magellanica, to the fartheft North of EJtotiland, about fix thoufand Englifh 
Miles, reaching from fix Degrees of Northern, to fifty three of Southern Latitude ; 
the breadth from St. Michael or <Piura Weftward, to farabaya, a Town on the Coaft 
of (Brafil Eaftward, three thoufand nine hundred Miles, and the whole compafs 
thirty thoufand. 

Sect. II. 

Eftotiland. 

THat the Englifh have been very great Undertakers of Voyages and Difcove- 
ries toward the North-Weft, appears by the denomination of divers pla- 
ces, both from the Perfons which have Sail'd thitherward, and alfo from 
fuchof our own Countrey Names as were thought fit to be there fix'd, as beyond 
the JrEiick Circle are Sir James Lancafter's Sound, Sir Dudley Viggs'% Cape, Queens Amies 

Foreland, 



Chap. I. 



*A M E %_l C A. 



127 



Foreland, Cumberla?id Ijles, DjW/s Straight, &c. on this fide toward the Artlick Circle, 
{Button's and Brigg's (Bay, HudjonsSea, ochcrwife term'd Mare Chrijlianum, out of 
which more Wefterly runs a narrow Sea call'd Hudfons Straight : beyond Hudfons 
Sea towards the Arclick Circle is a place call'd Ney> North-Walts ; and on this fide an- 
fwcrablc to it, between (Button's Bay and the Chrifiian Sea, lies I^ew South-Wales j all 
which places we find generally let down in the American Hemifphere, but in the 
Geographical Difcourfes thereof little is faid of them, if fo much as nam'd. The 
fartheft part of Land Northward, between Hudfons Gtdph and Hudfons Straight, 
betwixt fifty feven and fixty Degrees of Northern Latitude, goes generally by the 
Name of Fflotiland, I mean that properly fo call'd (for EJlotiland is by fome as 
largely taken as Qanada, by CluVerius, Golmt^ins, Peter du Val, and others, namely for 
all that Tract of Land extending from that fuppo fed Straight of Jnfan, which di- 
vides America from Jfiatick Tartary, as far as the utmoft point of Land that {hoots 
toward the Jtlantick Ocean) which Southerly towards Terra Laboratom is bounded 
with a River vulgarly call'd <l{io T^evado, or Tl?e Snowy <l{iver. EJlotiland feems to 
have dcriv'd its Name from its lying more Eafterly than the reft of the Provinces, 
and, according as Nova (Britannia is plac'd in fome Charts, might very well be taken 
for the fame, though it hath not been fo term'd by any Author, but rather Terra 
Laboratory, Cortereatis, and Nova (Britannia are generally receiv'd to be all one. 

This Province is affirmed by Matthias Quadus y and J. Antoniu* Maginus, to have ^^fe? 
been the firft difcover'd Countrey of the new World, and that by Antomus Zeno, a iMi - 
Patrician of Venice, in the Year of our Lord 1390. which was long before the Ex- 
pedition of Columbus, through the encouragement oiZichmus, King of the Ifle of 
Friezland . but by whomfoever found out, or at whatfocver time, it is commonly 
affirm'd to be not ill furnifli'd with Provifions of all forts, as Beafts, Birds, Fifh, 
Fowl, and Fruits, having a Soil indifferent fertile, in refpect of thecoldnefs of the 
Climate. The People in general (for fome there are that live wild and falvage up The Nature 
and down the Woods, and go naked, whereas the Clothing of the Countrey is the 
Skins of Beafts and of Sea*Calves, call'd Morfes) are reported not onely tolerably 
civil, but alfo ingenious and expert both in mechanick Arts, and other neceffary 
Faculties, infomuch that the firft Voyagers to this place are faid to have obferv'd of 
them upon this firft Difcovery, That they fow'd Corn, brew'd Beer and Ale, and 
Traded by Sea to Greenland, Frie^land, and other places, to the diftance of fifteen 
hundred Miles ; and that they were not altogether void of the ufe of Letters, but 
that their Character was onely proper to themfelves and not intelligible by any 
other Nation : Mof eover,there is a certain Tradition,that there was here and there 
fome little knowledge of the Latine Tongue amongft them, and that there were 
found divers Latine Books in a Library of one of their Kings - the teafon of which, 
if true, is conjectur'd to be from certain Europeans who underftood that Language, 
having in Ages paft fufFer'd (hip wrack upon thofc Coafts, where chancing to abide 
either through conftraint or choice, they might haply at their Deceafe leave behind 
them fome Books and other Monuments of the Latine Tongue. They were ob- 
ferv'd to ufe fucha kind of Javelin or fhort Dart, as was known to be us'd by the 
People of Java, and fome other Wands of the EaJlAndies ; whereupon it feems not 
wholly improbable, that they might for a long time have entertain'd Traffick and 
Correspondence with them. 

The Morfes, or Sea-Calves before mention'd, are about the bignefs of a young fcefoiptf*. 
Heifer, the Hunting of which by the Natives, who take them in great numbers, is 
to them in the ftead of Whale-fifliing, which is not there fo good, for they draw a 
great quantity of TrahvOyl out of them. On each fide of the Jaw of this amphi- 
bious 






4» 



I 



itt 



of the Morfts 




n8 AMERICA. Chap. I. 

bious Creature (for it is (aid to live very much on the Land,as well as in the Water) 
there (licks out a crooked Tusk, winding downward like an Elephants <Probofcis, 
above a Cubit in length, and as white and hard as Ivory : It is efteem'd of great 
vertue, at lead it palTes for fuch among thofe who take it for other than what it is, 
for it is frequently vended for Unicorns.horn j of which impofturc Dr. Brown takes 
notice, and gives a Caution againft in his Vulgar Errors. 

This Countrey is fuppos'd, and that probably enough, to have (lore of Brafs and 
Iron Mines- but for the Mines of Gold andSilver,which fomehave imagined therc > 
the Northerly Situation of the Countrey, and by confequence the coldnefs of the 
Climate, give fufficient caufe to queftion the truth of any fuch affertion. What 
chief Towns, Cities, Rivers and Mountains there are in this Province, is not yet 
deliver'd by any, onely Maginus and Quadut make mention of four principal Rivers, 
which difperfe themfelves through the Countrey, and take their fource out of a 
great Mountain in the midft thereof. 

Sect. III. 

Terra Laboratoris. 

situation, f B "^Erra Laboratoris, by fome call'd 2fyv* Britannia, by others Qorterealis, (though 
there arc fome who make Laboratoris and Corterealis two diftinft Countreys, 
■ t comprehended, according to <Peter du Val, under NoVa Britannia, as the more 
general Province j or, according to Guver'tut, under Canada) lies from about fifty 
four to fifty feven Degrees of "Northern Latitude, between EJiotiland and the River 
Canada, which Maginus and fome others, though fof what reafon is not exprefs'd, 
name Fretum trium Fratrum, The Bay of the three Brethren ; others, The GJjver of 
St. Laurence, and is, according to the (aid Author, of fo vaft a bignefs, that the 
Mouth of it extends it felf thirty five Italian Miles wide ; likewifc of fuch a length, 
as to have been navigated a continu'd Voyage of eight hundred Miles. The deno- 
mination of Terra de Laborador, or Laboratoris, feems probably enough conjectur'd 
to be from the cultivability (if one may fo term it) of the Soil, or its aptnefs for 
Cultivation or Tillage ; that is, becaufe by the painful Hand of the Labourer or 
Husband-man it may be rendred fo fertile, as to yield all forts of Grain and Fruits ; 
haply in allufion to that fruitful Countrey of Qampania in Italy, vulgarly known by 
the Name of Terradi Lavoro. As for the Appellation of Terra Qorterealis, it need not 
be queftion'd, but that it derives it felf from Galpar Corterealis, a Vortuguefe Gentle* 
man, who about the Year of our Lord i joo. is thought by fome to have made the 
firft difcovery of thefe Parts 5 though Sir Sebaftian Cabot a Venetian, is more generally 
believ'd to have been the Man that (under the favour and countenance of Henry 
the Seventh, King of England) firft difcover'd them, at lead the adjoyning Ifland 
Terra NoVa, or Tsfj^found Land ; but juft onely difcover'd, being hinder'd the far- 
ther profecution of that Defign, by the important Affairs in which the faid King 
was about that time involv'd . neither did Corterealis, whether he was the firft, or 
came after, do any more, for returning within a year after his firft fctting out, he 
was never heard of j nor, as Oforius a Tortuguefe Hiftorian writes, any of his Com- 
pany, being all fuppos'd to have been drown'd by Shipwrack; and in like man- 
ner Michael Qorterealis, who the year following fet forth with two Ships in queft of 
his Brother Gafyar. Upon which feries of Misfortunes the Tortuguefe being wholly 
jHfcourag'd, and giving over this Defign, the French of Jrmorica or Bretany fucceed 
them in it with fome what better fuccefs about the Year 1504-whereupon it came to 

be 



Chap. I. AMERICA. * \i 9 

be term'd JS[pva Britannia, or New Britain. The ancient Inhabitants of this place 
were formerly of a Nature, like the generality of the American People, fomewhat 
bruitifh and falvage, but by long converfation with the French, arc faid to have 
caft off their original wildnefs, and become more civilly manner'd : they are very 
jealous of their Wives, by report much addi&ed to Soothfaying, though otherwise 
having little of Religion, or of any other kind of Learning ; they dwell for the moft 
part in Caves under Ground, feed chiefly upon Fifli, and are accounted moft ex- 
pert Archers. Whatever places the French have built here befides, thofe of chiefeft 
note are St. Maries, Cabo SMarzp, and firefl. 

Sect. IV. 

Canada, or New France. 

4 

Cnada, as it is taken for one and the fame Province with fyst France, con- 
tains New France, properly fo call'd, 1>{ova Scotia, Norumbega, and fome ad- 
joyning Iflands, as the Canada of CluVerim, lying more North- Wefterly, 
comprehends (as we have already intimated) Eftotiland, Laboratoris, and QorteredU, 
and, according to the moft modern Divifion (for that of CluVerius neither con- 
fents with the lateft Authors, nor agrees with exaft Survey, it being nam'd Canada, 
in refpeft the River Canada runs through it) hath on the North Terra Corterealis, on 
the South New England, and on the Eaft the Ocean, and hath between forty five 
and fifty two or fifty three Degrees of Northern Latitude. The River Qanada is situation. 
judg'd to be the krgeft of all the Rivers of America, as thofe Rivers generally the 
largeft of all in the World befides ; itrifesin the Weftern parts of this Province 
which remain yet undifcover'd, and in fome places fpreads itfelf into huge Lakes, 
fome of them a hundred Miles in compafs, with many little Iflands difperfti 
up and down in them, and fo running from the Weft about a hundred Leagues,falls 
at laft into the North part of St. Lawrence <Bay , being that wide Emboucbeure of thirty 
five Miles breadth already mention'd. This River is extraordinary full of Fifli, 
among which there is one fort more remarkable than the reft, call'd by the Inha- 
bitants Qadbotbms, having Heads refembling the Heads of Hares, and Bodies as 
white as Snow ; they are taken for the moft part before the Ifle de LieVres. The 
Countrey on both fides of the River is pleaiant and indifferently fertile, efpccially 
towards the South- Weft, where upwards from the River the Ground rifes into 
many little Hills, inverted moft of them with Vines, with which and feveral other 
forts of Trees this Countrey abounds, being well watered with a great many lelTer 
Streams, all of them falling into the River Canada. 

That this Countrey is term'd New France, from having been difcover'd by the m <*&<* 
French, at leaft more fully than before, there needs no queftion to be made ; but 
whether Joannes Verra\anus, under Francis the Firft of France, or Sebajlian Cabot before 
fpokenof, were the firft in this Difcovery, may admit of fomething of difpute : 
the Cabots indeed, {lot John the Father is by fome mentioned to have accompanied 
his Son) who by all are own'd the firft Difcoverers of New-found- Land and Terra de 
fBaccalaos, are alio commonly reputed to have firft found out the Province of £{ew 
France, together with fome parts adjacent, though perhaps it might be upon this 
Ground that Terra de NpVa, or New-found- Land, not being known at firft to be art 
Ifland, New France and that might be taken for one continued Province • and it ap- 
pears fo much the more probable, becaufe Canada,ov Nova Francia, is by fome call' d 
Terra Nova • however it be, or whoever were the firft Adventurers, Quarteri and 



I 






1 



Cbampl 



am 



130 



A M E^I C A. 



Chapi I. 



Champlain arc the two French- men that have gain'd fomuch fame by making a more 
ample and particular fearch into thefe parts, that this Province may feem from 
thence to have fufficiem claim to the Title of New France, whereof that part more 
cfpecially fo call'd, lies on the North.fide of the River Canada, and Southward to 
Terra Corterealis. The Winter is here very long, and fo much the more feverc by 
reafon of a cold North. Weft Wind which blows mod part of the Winter Seafon, 
and brings with it fo thick a Snow, that it continues upon the Ground raoft com- 
monly till after May. The Countrey is for the molt part wooddy, but in the 
Champain parts thereof very fruitful of Corn, and all forts of Grain, eipecially 
Pulfe: It hath alfo Fifli, Fowl, wild Deer, Bears, Marterns, and Foxes in abun- 
dance, and of Hares fuch plenty, that one of the little Iflands belonging to this Pro- 
vince, is by the French nam'd V 1/le des LieVres, or The IJland of Hares : But the mod 
peculiar Commodity belonging to this Countrey is the Efurgnuy, a kind of Shell- 
Fifli, extraordinary white, and approv'd of lingular vertue for the ftanching of 
Blood ; to which purpofe they make Bracelets of them, not onely for their own 
ufe, but alfo to vend them to others 5 but John de Laet and others have obferv'd no 
other than a fuperftitious ufe of them amongft the Salvages, in their Funeral Rites 
for the Dead : the manner of their taking it is very remarkable 5 for when any one 
is condemned to die, or taken Prifoner, they cut offall his flefhy parts in long dices, 
and then throw him into the River, where they let him lie twelve hours, and ac 
laft pulling him out again find his Wounds full of Efurgnui. Quadus and Maginus 
make mention of three ancient Towns, namely Canada (denominated as the Pro- 
vince, from the River) Hochelai and Hochcbelaga, giving Name to a Territory about 
it, which Gjeographers either take no notice of, or make fome queftion of the be- 
ing of fuch Towns 5 however, a late Defcriber of the Wefl~lndies y not mentioning 
the other two, gives this defcription of the laft, Vi^. Hocbchelaga : 
. iC ThisCity(Taithhe)faidto be the Seat and Refidence of a King of this Country 
" whom the Natives, at leaft fome of them, acknowledge and reverence, carrying 
te him fometimes in great pomp upon their Shoulders fitting upon a Carpet of 
u Beads Skins, is fituate far within Land, at a diftance of fix or feven Leagues from 
rc the River Canada, and is a kind of fortifi'd place,encompafs'd about with a three- 
<c fold Range of Timber Ramparts one within another, of about two Rods high 
" from the Ground, with crofs Planks, or .pieces of Timber jutting out, on purpofe 
tf to hinder an Enemy's Scaling or getting up 5 towards the top there is as it were a 
<c Scaffold or Gallery fram'd, from whence they may throw down Stones (of which 
" there is always good ftore ready, or what clfe to annoy the Aflailants : It hath 
one onely Gate for Entrance, and thatlikewife well fortifi'd after their manner : 
There are guefs'd to be in it fifty or fixty great Houfes, built (as the mancr of the 
" Americans that live in Houfes ufually is) in afquare Figure, each fide being about 
<j fifty Foot long, or more, and fixteen or twenty broad, but not many Stories 
" high 5 and inthemidft of the Court or void ipace, a place to make their Fire, 
</ and do other neceffary work about it. Moreover the Territory round about 
" this Town is both rich in Soil, and pleafant in ProfpecT:. 

Befides thefe three above-mention'd Towns there are feveral others, which arc 
not untaken notice of in the moft modern Defcriptions and Maps, vi^. 1. Stadac, 
or Stadacone, fomewhat Weft ward of a fmall Ifle call'd The Ijh d 1 Orleance . 2. Que- 
beque, which being made a Colony of the French, and the Natives expell'd, came to 
be Entituled St. Croix ; 3. Tadoujfac, which lies in that part of the Countrey denomi- 
- nated from the River Saguenay, and by fome call'd at this day Nowvelle Hifcaye, a de- 
lightful place, and full of (lately Trees, and hath likewife a good and fafe Haven, 

capable 



i€ 



<< 



Chap. I 



AMERICA. 



! 5 I 



capable of receiving twenty Ships . 4. Trots <l{ivieris, or three Rivers- 5. Mont 
real ; 6, Stllery - 7. <I{tcbelieu; befides two ftrong Caftles or Forts, Franceroy and 
St, £ei*w ; the Firft built by Monfieur <I(pkVal at his Landing here, about the 
Year 1540. the other defign'd for a Colony, in the Year 1611. by Monfieur 
Champlany, but hinder'd by the Invafion of the Iroquois. The fmaller Rivers that 
runout of the Gulph of St. Lamence , and the grand River Canada towards the 
North, on which fide chiefly lies this Province, are, 1. Cbicbefedec, 2. St. Margarite, 
3. Lefquemin, 4. Saquenay, before-mencion'd, j, Montotfne • and on the South fide, the 
River Mary. The principal Tribes of the ancient Natives of this Cotintrey were ; 
on the North fide of Canada the Canadans, the 'Betijlamites, the Hurons, the Algoriiquins 
the Quenongeb'ms, the Jlgoinge quins } the Jttagopantatis, the Jtticameques, the Ntpijiriniens- 
and on the South fide, the Etecbemins, and the chief Heads or Princes of thefe Tribes 
were called Sagamores. 

Jaques Quartier Complementing their King Jgoutbanna, took up his Quarters a 
whole Winter at St. Croix t 2. Sandy Promontory, overflow'd by the River Canada 
into which falls the Lake de Cbampla'm > grown round about with Cheftnut Trees - 
in it breeds the ftrange Fifh call'd Chaoufarou, generally ten Foot long, with Heads 
like Sharks, and two rows of Teeth in their Mouths , their Skins full of ftrong 
Scales, which are fufficient Shields againft Swords and Lances, are great devourers 
of other FifTi and Fowls, which they take after this manner, <vi^ they fwim a- 
mongft Reeds or Canes, and lie ftill with their Mouths open 5 whereat the Birds 
fitting down upon them, are immediately fwallow'd. 

The Natives of NoVa Francia anoint their bodies with Oil 5 in the Summer they 
go naked, and in the Winter mantle themfelves in Furs. Their Warlike Accoutre- 
ments are Darts and Clubs, but chiefly great Shklds. They are revengeful, cruel, 
and fraudulent 5 their Women common to all Men, from fifteen to twenty, after 
which, Marrying, they become very Chafte. Their Diet is Indian Corn, frefli and 
fait Fifli, Vcniion, 'Buffalo's and Beavers flefii j wiping their Fingers (when grealie) 
on their Heads, or their Dogs backs, which wait for the Scraps. 

At that feafon when the Corn covers the ground,to any heighth,they eat Cockles 
Dogs, dead Caryon, and the Skins wherewith they Clothe themfelves. When they 
have eaten their fill, they tabering on their Bellies, cty 9 Tapoue Mtkifyoun, that is, Ve- 
rily I am fatisfi'd. They give their Sick a fpcedy Cure, either immediately killing 
them, or inhumanely expoiing them to the Woods, to be devour'd by ravenous 
Beafts, but if they die fuddenly, they in howling tone pronounce Ove, Ove, thereby 
to chafe the Souls of the Deceased out of their Huts- they ftick the bodies on Wood* 
den Prongs, cover them with Bark, and lay their Clothes and Arms by them ; 
all what remains of the Funeral Feafts is burnt, whereas at other times, what e're 
is brought on their Table they eat, though ready to burft. They make the firft 
Proofs of their Valour by undergoing a moft prodigious Torment, in this man- 
ner 5 Two by confent tie their naked Arms together, on which they fuffer burning 
Sulphur to be pour'd, till the flefh ftarts from the bone, if either of them fhrink 
or pull back his Arm, he is accounted by them ever after as an ignominious and 
bale Coward. They call God Jtabocan, andbelieve that one cMeffou firft drowning 
the world by a general Deluge, reftor'd ic again after a wonderful manner , yi K < 
Meffou hunting with Wolves, they fcented a Deer which being clofely purfu'd, 
leap'd into a neighboring Pool, the Wolves following it, were drown'd . Meffou 
coming thither, flood amaz'd a-r a Bird, which informed him, that the Wolves 
were pluck'd down, and held faft in the bottom by horrible Monfters, where- 

e Pool immed 



Strange Fifh 
nam'd Chaeu- 
JaroH, 



Strange 
proof cf Va>' 
lor. 



1 



Wonderful \ 
opinion of 
God. 

Flood. 



I 



LI 



pon 



*o> 



tly began to fwell, and at laft the whole fur- 



i3i 



Sorcerers. 



They boaft 
their Extra &. 
from Heaven. 
Th;ir ft range 
Relation con- 
cerning it. 



As alfo of 
the Creation, 
and Souls of 
theDccesfed. 






Strange 
Rock. 



Thunder.' 



Tltkahtt k. an 
Idol. 



Xuncral'Fcaft 






A M E%^I C A. Chap. I. 

face of the Earth to be overfiow'd. Mefiou afterwards let a Raven flie to fetch a 
Clod of Earth, but in vain, for all the Land lay drown'd in Water • at laft a Rat 
diving to the bottom, brought a lump of Earth , out of which Mejfou reftor'd the 
World • (hot Arrows into Trees, which became fruitful Branches. Here alfo re- 
fide an innumerable many Sorcerers, caWdPtllotoas, which fometimes being pof- 
fefs'd with a Frenzy, fcourge themfelves in a terrible manner, infomuch that the 
Blood runs down by their fides : Thefe People are held in great efteem, for they 
boaft themfelves to have their Original from Heaven upon this occafion, a>/<. 
Jtaenfic, a certain great Queen or Goddefs, refiding above the Stars, had a fick Huf- 
band, who Dreamt that he fliould be reftor'd to his former health fo foon as he 
could but tafte of the Fruits which grew on a Tree , whereby the Family of Hea- 
ven were kept alive, but that the Tree muft needs be cut down, which Ataenfic 
obeying, gave onely two blows, when the Tree, to her great amazement, fell out 
of Heaven down to the Earth 5 there being by this means nothing more left to eat 
in Heaven : Ataenfic foilow'd the fallen Tree, and being big with Child, bare a 
Daughter, which growing up to years, was Deliver'd of two Daughters, vi^ 
Taovifcaron and Jouskeba, the eldeft of which flew the youngeft : By thefe Fables wc 
may difcern their obfeure knowledge of 2fy*fc's Flood, Eve's Fall, and Cains Mur- 
der. No lefs ridiculous is that which they believe concerning the Creation, Wag 
That the Waters were inclos'd within a Frog, which Jouskeha caufing to be cut open, 
all Streams and Rivers ilTuingout, had their Original from thence : This done, 
Joushha open'd a Pit, out of which came all forts of Bcafts . they afcribe a Bodily 
ftiape to the Soul, as alfo Immortality, but that they live together in a great 
Village towards the Weft 5 from which removing fometimes, they knock at the 
Doors of their former Friends in the Night, and fow deferted Grounds : That the 
Journey towards the Village in which the Souls refide is very ftrange . the High, 
way thither beginning at a Rock nam'd Ecaregniendi , where they firft Paint their 
Faces, which done, they go to a Hut inhabited by an old Man, nam'd Ofotrach, 
who takes the Brains out of the Souls Head ; after which they walk to a broad Ri- 
ver, which they crofson a narrow Plank or Bridge, on which a Dog encountring, 
forces them to leap into the Water, which carries them down to the foremention'd. 
Village. They acknowledge one Oki for the Governor of the Sea, and feafons of 
the Year : They alfo Rcligioufly Worfhip the Rock Tfankcbi Arafla, which they 
believe fome ages ago was once a Man, but afterward Transformed into a Rock, 
in which a Damon refides, who can make their Journics either fuccefsful or dan- 
gerous, wherefore they offer him Tobacco. Their opinion of Thunder is like- 
wife very ridiculous, for they fay that the Devil endeavoring to vomit a horrible 
Serpent, by draining to evacuate the fame, rents the Clouds, and occafions Thun- 
der. Laftly,They relate of a Dwarf call'd Tbakabech, who climb'd on the top of a 
Tree, which by his blowing thereon grew fo high, that it touch'd the Clouds, 
and Tbakabech eafily ftept into them, where he found all forts of delight and plea- 
furc ; but having a Sifter on Earth, defcended again along the Tree, and fetching 
his Sifter, conduded her above the Stars 5 mean while, Tbakabech going in the 
Night to fee if he had taken any thing in his Net which he had pitch'd , found 
it full of Fire, and obferving the fame very narrowly, faw that he had taken 
the Sun, but durft not approach the fame, by reafon of its great heat ; but making 
a Moufe, fent her to gnaw the Net in pieces, and fet the Sun at liberty. Every 
twelfth year they keep an extraordinary great Funeral-Feaft •, for on the Set.time 
they fiock from all parts to the appointed place, every one carrying thither the Bo- 
dies or Bones of their Deceas'd Friends, wrapt up in Clothes, and hang them over 

their 



Chap. I. 



<iA M E %^l C A. 



; 33 



their Meat, which they eat finging ; fuch fond and Superftitious Conceits make up 
the Religion of thefe poor deluded People. 

Sect. V. 

Accadia, or Nova Scotia. 

NOva Scotia, or 2{f» Scotland, formerly call'd Accadia, is commonly accounted 
a part of New France, (yi%. that part which lying on the South fide of the 
River Canada, and (hooting South-Eafterly into a bofom of the Sea, forms 
it felfinto zfeninfula, between the Gulph of St. Lawrence, and the Bay Francoife) 
neverthelefs, becaufe of the different concernments of this part of the Countrey, in 
regard the right of claim to feveral places in this diftrift, mod efpecially of all No- 
Va Francia befides, hath been long in difpute between Us and the French, it will be 
moft convenient to Treat of it apart . and becaufe the Series of Affairs, from its 
firft difcovcry, till of late years, appears faithfully reprefented on the Englift part, 
in a Remonftrance AddrefsM to the King and Council by Sir LeVts %irk, and his 
Brother John I\irk Efquire 5 it will not be amifs (onely adding fome few things up- 
on occafion) to follow exactly the Narration of Affairs, delivered in the faid Re- 
monftrance to this effect. 



€1 



CC 



" i . I- 1 "^He whole Traft or Space of Land in America, lying on either fide of the 
" JL River Canada, which a long time fince were known by the Names of 
u NoVa Francia, and Nova Scotia, were at firft difcover'd and found out by the Engm 
" lift, in the time of | Henry the Seventh , King of England . which Expedition 
" was firft undertaken at the Command and Charges of that King; afterwards 
€i further'd and carry 'd on by the favorable Afpeft of Queen Elizabeth-, fo that in 
" procefs of time, for many years together, the faid Trad: of Ground, with abfo- 
" lute Priyiledge of free Commerce, fell under the Jurifdi&ion and Power of the 
Crown of England : Neither was it unto any other Chilian Princes, or their Sub- 
jects more clearly known or difcover'd, untill about the year 1600. fome of the 
<c French underftanding the benefit arifing byTraffique in the River of St. Laurence, 
" having formerly feiz'd upon that Traft of Land, fituate on the North fide of 
"the faid Floud or River Canada, did afterwards, in Anno 1604. {under the Q>n* 
duel o/Peter de Gua, Lord o/Monts, who in the year 1 606. "too* follo^'d by Monfieur. 
de Pourtrincourt) Poffefs themfelves of V Accaiie , lying on the South fide of 
u the faid River, naming the whole Njva Francia, challenging to themfelves for 
" many years, at leaft de faclo, the Poffeffion thereof, with fble liberty of Com- 
" merce there. 

" 2. In Anno 1611. King James of England looking upon the Poffeffion gotten 
" there by the French, as upon an Invafion, did by his Letters Patents Grant un- 
" to Sir William Alexander a Scotchman ( Created afterwards Earl of Sterling , by I\ing 
" Charles the Firft) V Jccaiie, by the Name of £{oVa Scotia - who in the year 1 622, 
€i and 1 6 2 3 . after Sir Samuel Argal had driven out Biard and Maffe, and demolxfting their 
u Fort , carry d them frifoners to Virginia ; having obtained the Poffeffion thereof, 
cc they Planted a Colony therein, and kept Poffeffion for about two years after, 
until fuch time, as upon the Marriage of his Majefty King Charles the Firft, with 
the Lady Henrietta Maria, the faid V Accadie, or NoVa Scotia, was by Order of the 
li King of England returned into the Poffeffion of the French. 

" 3. Afterwards a War arifing between his Majefty King Qharles the Firft, and 

Q^ 4 "Lwis 



a 



u 



ic 



cc 



■34- 



AMERICA 



Chap. L 








<c Lelois the XIII. Anno 1617, and 1618. Sir David IQrk and his Brethren and Rela- 
" tions of England, did by vertue of his Majeftie's Commiffion, fend to Sea ("at their 
u great charge) firft three, afterwards nine Ships, with Warlike Preparations for 
" recovering of the PoiTeffion of the faid Lands, lying on either fide of the faid 
< c River Canada^nd to expel and eject all the French Trading in thofc Parts, wherein 
<c they had good Succefs ; and in Jnno 1 627. did there feize upon about eighteen 
"of the French Ships, wherein were found a hundred thirty five Pieces of Ord- 
<c nance, defign'd for relief of the G(oyal Fort in V Accadie, and Quebeck in £{py>a 
iC Francia, under the Command of Monjieur de Q{ocmand, and Monfieur de la Tour, Fa- 
" ther of de la Tour, Governor of the faid ^oyal Fort, whom, together with the faid 
€C Ships and Guns, they brought into England 5 and in the year 1628. they Poffefs'd 
" themfelves of the whole Region of Canada or ]S(pv a Francia, fituate on the North 
" fide of the River, together 'with the Fort or Caftle of Quebeck, Sir LeVts Kjrk be- 
" ing then conftituted Governor of the place, the French being then either expell'd 
€e or conveyed into England, and the Arms of the King of England being publickly 
" there erected, and every where plac'd ; and before the year 1628. it was brought 
" to pafs by the faid Sir William Alexander, (affifted both by the advice and charge 
" of the faid £irk) that in the parts of V Accadie, or Nova Scotia, on the South fide 
" of the River Canada, the whole place, with the Forts thereon built, being by him 
cl fubdu'd, prefently came under the Power of the King of England 5 that Region 
" on the South fide falling into the PolTeflion of the faid Sir William Alexander, and 
" that on the North fide, into the PoiTeffion of the I\irks. 

€l 4. On March 19. 1632. a Peace being concluded between King Charles the 
H Firft, and Lewis the XIII. it was amongft other things on the part of the King of 
*• England agreed, That all the Forts, as well in V Jccadie as in Nova Francia, fhould 
« be reftor'd into the Poffeffion of the Subjects of the French King , which was ex- 
u actly perform'd on the part of the Englijh, though to the great damage of the 
(e JQrks j but on the part of the French, although it was agreed, as in the fourth and 
iC fifth Articles of Peace is fet down, (to which reference is had) yet nothing was 
€l ever perform'd of their parts ; fo that the fQrks did thereupon fufFer lofs, to the 
u value of five thoufand Pounds Sterl. which were to be paid them by Monfieur dc 
€C Cane & Frenchman, but remain unpaid to this day. 

a 5. Jnno 1 63 3. the King of England taking notice, that although the Forts and 
"Caftles, according to the League, were delivered up into the Poffeffion of the 
P French, (efpecially fuch as had been erected during their Poffeffion thereof) yet 
€C that his Englijh Subjects were not to be excluded from Trade or free Commerce, 
" in thofe Regions that were firft Difcover'd and PoiTefs'd by his Subjects, did, 
ei with the advice of his Council, by his Letters Patents, Dated May n. 1633. upon 
" consideration had of the Expences, which the faid Kjrks had laid out upon the re- 
<c ducing of that Countrey with the Fort of Quebeck, to the value of 50000^ 5 and 
" alfo of their ready obeiiance in refigning up the fame on his Royal Command, 
" Grant unto Sir Len>is l\irk, and his Brother JohnlQrk and his AlTociates, for the 
tc term of thirty one years (not yet expir'd) full PriYiledge, not only of Trade and 
u Commerce in the River Canada, and places on either fide adjacent, but alfo to 
€i Plant Colonies, and build Forts and Bulwarks where they fhould think fit. 

" 6. By vertue of which Commiffion, Sir Lew %jrk and his Brother John 
i€ IQrk, and his AlTociates, in the Moneth of February next following, v*\. in 1633. 
u fet forth a Ship call'd TheMerry Fortune, Laden with Goods of a confiderable va- 
" lue, confign'd to thofe parts, where during her Trading there, without any juft 

offence given 5 and in time of Peace, flic was by the French forceably feiz'd on, 

and 



tc 



Chap. II. 



A M E%^1 C A. 



tc 



ic 



it 



" and carry 'd into France, and her Lading, as if flic had been lawful Prize, Confi* 
" fcated; whereupon thci^ir^fiirTcr'd lofs, to the value of twelve thoufand Pounds. 
ic And although the Lord Scudamore, Ambaflador in France, by the King of England* 
" fpecial Command, and the faid John JQrk being there in Perfon, by the King's 
'• Command, did often earneftly urge, that the Moneys due to the faid %irks, and 
" the faid Ship, with her Lading, might be reftor'd, which for no other caufe had 
u been feiz'd upon and fold, but only for that by the King's Commiffion (he was 
"found Trading at Canada • yet he could obtain nothing, but after fome years 
" fruitlefs endeavors return'd into England without accomplifhing his defires. 

7. In the year 1654. Cromwcl, although an unjuft Ufurper of the Government, 
c yet upon confideration of the Premifes, taking a juft occafion for requiring the 
" Poffcffion of V Accadie, fends forth feveral Ships under the Command of one 
* Sedgwick, who by vcrtue of the Authority granted him by Cromwcl, aflaulted and 
" fubdu'd the aforefaid Forts in Nova Scotia, and reftor'd them into the Pofleffion 
cc of the Englijl? : And although in the year itfjy. a League of firm Peace and Amity 
u being concluded between Cromwel and the French King, the French Ambaflador 
" did often urge the Reftitution to the Pofleffion of the French- yet for the fame cau- 
" fes aforefaid, which had mov'd Qromwel to feize upon them, it was thought fit ftill 
* to retain the Pofleffion of them . and although according to the purport of the 
twenty fifth Article of the Peace, Commiflioners on both fides were to be ap- 
pointed for the deciding and determining that Controverfie 5 yet nothing was 
te done therein, neither did the Commiflioners ever meet within three Moneths, as 
" in the twenty fourth Article of the Treaty was provided and agreed : So that 
" now the cafe is very clear,that the Pofleffion to the Englijh remains firm and juft, 
c and that the Forts and Bulwarks before fpecifi'd, are without all peradventure 
" under the Power and Jurifdi&ion of the King of England. 

Since the Reftauration of his prefent Majefty, tht French Ambaflador reprefent- 
ing unto the King the Pretenfions of the French unto the feveral Forts and other 
places in Jccadie , and urging the non-performance of the Articles of Agreement 
between Oliver Cromwel and the French King, rnov'd the King of England, Js a pro* 
fefl'd Enemy to all Violence, for a Reftitution of all the Forts and other places which 
were then in the pofleffion of the Englijh : Not long after which, whether upon the 
Ambafladors requeft, or upon other important Affairs intervening, or upon what 
other ground foever it were, the French were fuffer'd to reenter on the forefaid 
places, and do yet keep Pofleffion of them, till fuch time as the Englifl? claim under 
the juft Title of the Kjrks, fhall meet with fome fit occafion of being reviv'd. 

That which we fuppofe gives the French fo much the more confidence in their 
claim of this Country, is their preemption upon the Expedition of James Quartier, 
whom they will have to be the firft Difcoverer, if not Pofleflbr , not onely of the 
Ifle of A ffumption, but alfo of this Coaft of Nova Francia, not taking notice it feems 
of Sehajlian Cabot, under Henry the Seventh. 

The chief places of Note in this Countrey, are, 1. <Port<I(oyal, a Colony of French, 
faid to have been Planted there by Monfieur de Mont^ in 1604, by report, capable of 
leceiving a thoufand Ships . and in 1613. (the French being driven out by Sir 6V 
ntuel Argal, Governor of Virginia, who took Prifoners %ard and Majfe, and demo- 
lifli'd the Fort at fort fyyal) given by Patent, as aforerjiention'd, to Sir William Alex- 
ander • afterwards by him fold again to the French • then in the time of Oliver Crom- 
ml re-taken by Major Sedgwick ; laftly, re-poflefs'd by the French. 2. St. Lukes %, 
or fortua Mouton. 3. Gafpe, or Gachepe. 4. The Haven offajfepay. 5 Tl?e Say de Toutes 

Q^2 IJles. 



l V 



i 3 <5 



J M E%J C A. 



Chap. !■ 



Remarkable 
manner of li- 
ving. 



Quttrtitr's 
Expedition. 



Scurvy J 
whenkncwn. 



Exploit 'of 
it la Xjoque. 



OidiMontt. 



M„ 6.1h,fmi,UBm. j.TU Off™"- WKhm the South,™ Point fW,„, 

i„ g „oft Sou,h. W c»iy ttpon the So Co.ft, «h. tfl to dnr. . g- Tnd. . 
Beavers and other Commodities. cvinrvirds 

Wefterly before the River O«v«ort lies fi«cct« I>, full of Vineyards. 

The hab tants thereof differ very mnch from other Salvages for they (have 
allThe Ha r f r0 m the Crown of their Head, wear long Locks behind, pleited to- 
cet , " d ftuck full of Feathers, Paint their Faces black and red go arm d with 
Clubs Bows, Pikes, and Arrows pointed with Fift-bone, : They Till their 
Ground very handfomly, and divide their Fields with Hedges , they Plant To- 
bacco Vin7s, Cabbages^, and divers Colour'd Beans 5 the (talks of the** 
ferve in ftead of Poles for their Beans to run up upon. ,.,.. ,. , „ 

Beyond Cafe de dfccfcr lies the brave Harbor Veauport, which is fecur d from a I 
Wind! by an Ifie which lies in the midft of it. The Countrey Manur d in moft pla- 
ces and Fruitful, feeds (lore of Men and Cartel. 

The Haven of Malabar is furrounded in a manner with little Huts, cover d with 
Mats, which in the Middle of the Room have a hole for the Smoke to go oat at. 
The Southern Chore is Sandy, and very dangerous. 

For the more full exemplification of what concerns this part of Vto* < Franca, we 
fhall conclude with an account of all Material PafTages relating to the French, from 
their own Narrations as followeth. 

THe firft difcoverer of this Coaft was Jaaues Quarter, Cent out Anno 1 554. by the 
French King, Francis the Firft, in which Expedition he (pent five Months, and 
going from thence to StJfifr, difcovei'd the Inlet Laurence, Terreneuf, and Natjfcotec. 
The following year profecuting his Voyage, he Sail'd into the great River C-^, 
and Wintered near St Cmx, where he loft divers of his Men by the Scurvy a Diftem- 
per till that time altogether unknown , and fuch was his condition, that none of 
his Men had efcap'd with life, had not the Inhabitants taught him to cure the fame 
with the Bark and Leaves of the Tree Jnnedda j with which many recovering, 
Quarter Weigh'd Anchor, and treacheroufly carry'd the King Vomalona with many 
of his Nobles, Prifoners to France ■ but moft of them dying, Quarter brought only 
a few of them back with him in his third Voyage, fix years after the fir ft, when ar- 
riving in the Haven St. £«*, he caft up a ftrong Fort which he nam d Charles. 
bourz\oyaL where he ftaid a whole Winter. Joan de la \oaue, whom the French 
King had made Governor of Quarter's new-difcover'd Countries, Sailing thither 
with three Ships, met with Quarter's Fleet near Temneuf , from whence he was 
then going home, becaufe he law no hopes of fubduing the Salvages with fofmall 
a Force as he had brought with him from France. But de la % H ut endeavoring to 
make a further difcovery of Canada, Sail'd up the River Saguenay, where (pending 
both time and Money, he was Commanded home by the French King, and the fruit, 
lefs Expeditions lay dead till about 1604. 

When Peter de Monts obtaining Letters Patents to Trade for Furs in the fore- 
mention'd Countries, Sail'd with two Ships beyond Accadie, up St. Laurence <Bay, 
where he Landed on the Me St. Croix, where of ninety feven Men, with which he 
ftaid there a whole Winter,*he loft thirty five • but having frefh Supplies fent him 
from France , he remov'd to Port (Royal, where leaving forty Men, he return'd 
home 5 thefe forty being reduc'd to twenty three, and in great want, walking a- 
long the Sea.fhore in a defpairing condition, efpy'd a Ship coming up with full 
9 Sail, 



Chap. I. *A M E %^I C A. JT7 

Sail, which upon nearer approach, prov'd a French Vcffcl, of which Toutrincourt of*™*- 
was Commander, who receiving his wretched Councrey.men with great joy, took "**" 
them with him to Tort %pyal, being fent thither on purpofe to fettle a Plantation 
in Accadie : Meanwhile the Letters Patent granted to Monts, being call'd in, the firft 
Planters in Tort %oyal were fore'd to defert the fame, and return home > and alfo 
Toutrincourt returning, came back again three years after to Tort T{oyal, where find- 
ing the Houfes {landing as he had left them, he Manur'd the Countrcy all about, 
and endeavoring to Plant Cbriftianity among the Natives, Chriften'd among others 
an Jccadian Lord, who was above a hundred years old - all which Toutrincourt Sail- 
ing back to France, related at the Court. 

The Jefuits being alfo inform'd thereof, obtain'd leave of the Queen to fend ^^gfi? 
Peter Biard and Euemond Majfe thither, on pretence, that Henry the Fourth had him* &£/™* 
felf promis'd them the fame Priviledge in his Life time. But the Merchants at Viep, V 
which were concern'd in the, new Plantations with Toutrincourt, oppofing the go- 
ing over of the foremention'd Jefuits, exprefs'd themfelves very violent againft 
them, and laid to their charge the Blood of the late King, which they faid was 
yet reaking in Paris : What ajfurance (allcadg'd they) bad their Goods "which Vere in the 
Cujlody of Men inclind to the Spaniards ? Muft the Chriftian Religion he promulgated ? 
There are fo many Orders of Monks -which may eafily produce Wo Men . but if the Queen y>as 
refolVd to fend Jefuits thither, they defr'd reparation of the Monies -which they had dif- 
hurs'd : To which Biard and Majfe harkening , gathered up the demanded Mo- 
nies, under pretence of being requir'd towards the Preaching of the Chriftian flfc/i. 
gion amongft thefe remote Heathens ; by this means getting great Sums, they bought 
out the foremention'd Merchants, fo that the new Plantations fell half to the>- 
fuits, who fetting Sail, and arriving at Tort %oyal, turn'd all things topfiturvy, 
and fo thwarted Toutrincourt in his defigns, that he was fore'd to complain to the 
French Court of the Jefuits oppre/fion, whofe aim it was to get all things into their 
own Poffeffion ; whereupon they Excommunicated Toutrincourt' s Son (who ferv'd 
in his Father's place at Court, and gain'd the Duke GuereheVille in France to be of 
their Party, by promifing him, that he (hould (hare in the new Plantations for a 
contracted Sum of Money : After this they receiv'd all forts of Arms and Ammu- 
nition, with fcveral Brafs Guns, of the rhen King Lewis the XIII. and other gifts 
Collected and gather'd out of their feveral Societies, for two new Jccadian App* 
files. Gilbert du Tint, a fubtile man of the fame Order, tranfported their Necef- 
faries. 

At this time all things going favorably with the Jefuits, they made 1 themfelves 
Mafters of Tort Tjyal, and began to raife a Fort on the River Temtagovet ) but there 
their happy Proceedings were ftop'd, far Captain Argal beforcmention'd, Sailing 
thither in vindication of the Englijh , was encounter'd by du Thet, (who firing the 
firft Gun on Argal, was by him taken off with Chain-fhot) and taking Biard and 
Majfe, carry'd them Prifoners to Virginia, and difmantled the Fort built at TortT(oy* 
al, after which it was by King James given by Patent to Sir William Alexander, as 
hath been already related, together with what of mod remarkable hath happen'd 
fincc. 












Q.j 



Sect. 



138 



AMERICA. 



Chap. L 



Whew* oe- 

aoouiutrd. 



Towhj and 
Cities not 
certainly 
known. 




Sect. VI* 

Norumbegua. 

■JOrumbefrua, lying between No>* Scon* Northward, and Ne* England South- 
warcf is' fo utterly not taken notice of by many as a diftindt Province, 
that it might feem to be fwallow'd up and loft in the two Countxeys be- 
tween which it lies, or at leaft to be thought a part of Virginia or New England (for 
Virginia largely taken is faid to contain Nev England, Noyum Belgium, and Virginia, 
efpecially fo call'd) and that fo much the rather, becaufe the Bcfjabees, accounted by 
Sanfon d' Abbeville an ancient People of I{t» England, are written to have Hv'd near 
the River Tenobfcot, which is reckoned to be the fame with VemtegoVct, or (as lome 
will have it) Norumbegua, from which, or from a certain great City of that.Name, 
the Country for fancy's fake muft needs be denominated . but flnce moft com- 
monly we find it narn'd and treated of apart, it will not be improper to-fpllow 
that method, carrying the Bounds of 'New England no farther Northward than the 
River Qutmebequi or Sagadahoc, and fo determining the main pact of this Countrcy 
to that ipace between the aforefaid River and femtegovct, excepting a frinali Sou- 
therly portion upon the Banks of the River ChoVacoM - fo that it appears chiefly 
fituate under the forty third Degree of Northern Latitude. 

As for the Towns or Cities of this Province, there is but a very uncertain ac- 
count to be given, forafmuch as the pretended great City Norunibegua, from whence 
the Province (hould take its Appellation, is not acknowledged by any of the moft 
authentick modern Writers, nor in any late Voyage or Difcovcry any mention 
made either of that or any other considerable Town or City. Dr. Beylm hippo- 
feth it to be no other than Agguncia, a poor litde Village, that leems composed of a 
company of Hutts or Sheaves, covered with the Skins of Beafts, or the Barks of 
Trees. But the moft favourable conjecture is, that it might haply be the Ruincs 
of an ancient Town, which the Natives call'd Arambcck, and had probably deferred 
it long before the arrival of the Europeans in thole parts • however, it is not very 
probable that the Name of the Countrey fliould be deriv'd from this City, if ever 
there were any fuch, or from the River, which appears to have been term'd No- 
rumbegua on purpofe to make way for this derivation, whereas PomtegoVet is the an- 
cient Appellation that properly belongs to it . nor hath any modern one been ap- 
ply'd to it but that of ^io Grande, by Buno in his Comment upon Thilij> Chver'w, upon 
what ground is hard to tell, fince it is obferv'd by Heylin and others, to be neither 
large, nor otherwife much to be commended, being Navigable not above twenty 
or thirty Miles, in refpeel: of its many great Cataracts and Falls of Water, an In- 
convenience with which many other Rivers otjmericazxt prejudiced, and rendred 
impafTable. 

Before and about the Mouth of this River, which is judg'd to be about eight or 
nine Miles broad, lie many fmall Iflands, or rather Hills, inviron'd with Water, 
the chiefeft of which is by the French call'd la Haute IJle> from the high and Moun- 
tainous appearance of it to thofe that fee it from afar off at Sea. 

The^foremention'd Buno, though he names, as belonging to Norumbega, thefe 
feveral places, T?j$ Porto del Refugio, Porto %eale, <Paradifo t Flora, and Angolema, from 
fome obfeure French teftimonies, without particularifing any Author, yet he after- 
wards con feffc, that the Names given by the French, and thofe apply'd by?the Spa- 
niards, are fo various and difagreeing, and bteed fuch a confufion, that no Charts 
or Defcriptions had concluded upon either. As 



Cha P- II. AMERICA. , 3 p 

As for thofe who will have Kommbtga deriv'd from NorVegia, in refpecT: of a Co. 
lony brought thither from Jtyrwt,, if the Etymologie be not a little too much 
fore'd, the. Invention may pafs well enough till a better be found out. 

In this Countrey the temperature of the Air is not bad, nor the Soil unfruitful, *££ 
if it were well cultivated, chiefly towards the Rivers, and where it is not either Br** 
overgrown with Woods, or craggy; with Hills and mountainous Rocks : neither 
are the Woods unprofitable, for they afford good Timber, and all kind of necelTary 
and ufeful Wood, efpecially Beeches, Fir-trees, Wallnut-trees, and other Nuts : 
The Plains are very pleafant, and yield good Pafturage, onely the Maritime Coafts 
are io {hallow and full of Sands, that the Sailing near them is accounted fome- 
what dangerous , and this may be imagined to be the reafon that no Authors have 
yet met with any Ports or Havens belonging to this Countrey, which they have 
thought worthy their notice. 



^/•^ Jk\ J^^^^t £r^£ ^*i*^"^ ^** 



^Mmmm$tmm$$iMm^ 



w tMMMM 



CHAP. IL 






New England. 

AS Canada is by fome accounted a general Province/ containing ^tw France, 
V Jccadtc, Njrumbega, and other places, fo under Vtrgima largely taken, are' 
comprehended JS[ew England, NeT» Netherlands, and Virginia properly fo 
call'd . however, fince that part which vulgarly goes under the Name of Virginia 
and M?Tb England 'were poffcfs'd,if not difcover'd, at feveral times, and their Plan, 
rations promoted and propagated upon feveral occafions, and by diftinfl: Interefts, 
and fince 2fy* England hath been look'd uppn as a place considerable enough for 
Perfonsof very eminent quality to concern themfelves in it, we rather are indue'd 
to confider this Countrey as a principal part, than as any way depending on, or 
being any Branch or Portion of Virginia. 

It lies between Njrumbega, which it hath Northward, and New Netherlands South- Ration of 
ward, from forty one to forty five Degrees of Northern Latitude, in the midft of S**" 
the temperate Zone, and paralell to France and fome part of Italy in the Weftern 
Hemifphere, fo that one would think it mould enjoy the fame temperature of 
Air . but the contrary is found, for that part which borders upon the Sea is colder, 
partly by reafon that the Sea-waves break the reflexion of the Sun-beams, partly 
by reafon of the abundance of Vapors, which mounting upward, abate the ardor 
of them 5 but the more Inland parts of the Countrey are indifferently warm: 
Moreover it hath been found by certain experience, that thofe Countreys which 
look towards the Eaft, or Sun-rifing, are colder than thofe which lie towards the 
Weft, or Sun-fetting, and thofe that have the Evening Winds on them, warmer 
than thofe which have the Morning Winds , which being fo, it fhould follow, 
that the temperature of the Air in thofe Regions is peculiar to the Bodies of thofe 
of our Nation, who being accuftom'd to a Climate fomewhat temperate, arc nei- 
ther able to endure extremity of Cold, nor immoderate Heat : Yet there are who 
affirm, that Ney» England, though fituate in the midft of the temperate Zone, never, 
thelefs feels both extremities of the two oppofite Zones, in the Summer the heat 
of the Ttorrid, and in the Winter the cold of the Friaid. 

As for the firft difcovery of this Countrey, it is not to be cxpefted otherwife £; ft 

than 



I 



<!&•» 



l ¥ 



Remarkable 

Voyage 

Vcrrazanus. 



The fetling of 
Plantations. 



zJ M E *K I C J. Chap. II. 

than that of the difcovery of thofc other Countreys hitherto difcours'd of, that is 
to fay very uncertain ; but becaufe the French boaft of Joannes Verra^anm (who though 
an Italian, was employ'd by the French King Francis the Firft) as the firft Difcoverer, 
not onely of Nova Francia y as hath been already intimated, but alfo of this Coun- 
trey and the adjoyning Coaft and Regions, we (hall not think it impertinent to 
give from their own Relations, a brief view of his Voyage, and afterwards a parti- 
cular Defcription of the Englifb Plantations there, and of their Tranfa&ions, both 
one with another, and between them and the Nations. The Narration of Verra- 
^anus's Voyage is as followeth : 

bie « /~YN command of the French King Francis the Firft, JohnVertazamu, Jnno 1524. 

°Js. « ^* letting Sail Weft ward from the Canary Ifles,difcover'd a low American Coaft, 
" in thirty four Degrees North Latitude, inhabited by naked People, which be- 
" hind the fandy Hills facing the Sea, Manur'd many fruitful Plains. Then Sail- 
" ing a hundred Leagues along the Shore Northerly, he view'd a Countrey full of 
lc Vines, which grew up amongft the Boughs of high Trees ; and Sailing up a 
" pleafant River, Landed on the Ifland Clandia, full of woody Mountains : thence 
" he flood for the main Continent y where after having vifited a King, Clad in 
" wrought Deer- skin, he Sail'd by a Bay, at whofe Mouth appear'd a Rock in an 
<c Inlet, twenty Leagues 5 where appear'd five fmall Ifles, all of them exceeding 
" fruitful. After this (being got a hundred and fifty Leagues to the Northward) 
" he found very falvage People, whofe Heads appear'd through Bear-skins and 
" Sea-Calves. By this time having Terreneuf on his Starboard, he rcturn'd back to 

" Diepe. 

Thus far Verra^anus made fome difcovery of the Coaft, which hath fince not 
onely been farther infpe<5ted by the Englijh , but alfo by them Planted and call'd 

Neit England* 

This Countrey, whether firft difcover'd by the faid Verra^anm, or together 
with the reft of largely-taken Virginia, by Sir Walter Raleigh, or, as fome fay, by 
Captain Gofnald, in the Year 1601. was fo well known to the Englifh in the be- 
ginning of King James's Reign here, that the fetling and carrying on of Plantations 
in this part of America, was vigoroufly promoted by many of the moft eminent Per- 
fons in England : whereupon it was about the Year \6o6. being the fourth Year of 
the faid King, granted by Patent to' feveral Lords, Knights, Gentlemen and Mer» 
chants, under the denomination of The Plymouth Company, both in favour of thofe 
generous Spirits, who ftudied and endeavor'd the good of the Publick by foreign 
Plantations, and indulgence to thofe, who not well fatisfi'd with the Government 
of Church and State, and willingly tranfporting themfelves and Families thither, 
as to their Afylum, could more conveniently be fpar'd than the^better affe&ed part 
of the People : And although the Colonies at firft fent over fucceeded not accord- 
ing to expectation, yet in a (hort time there Plantations were brought to very great 
perfection. Captain Weimouth, who had been employ'd there by the Lord Arundel 
of Warder, for the difcovery of the North-Weft PalTage, falling (hort of his Courfe, 
hapned into a River on the Coaft of America, call'd Temmaquid . from whence he 
brought five of the Natives for England, three of whofe Names were Mannida, 
SkettTt>arroes,&ndTafquantum, and Landing at Plymouth, prefented them to Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, whom hemadeufc of as Instruments for the farther advancement of 
thefe Plantations : they were all of one Nation, but of feveral parts, and feveral 
Families 5 he kept them with him three years, and obferving in them an inclination 
to vertuous Defigns, and Spirits above the Vulgar, he gain'd information from 

them 



Chap: II. 



A M ET^I C A. 



them what grt'at Rivers ran up into the Land, what Men of note were feated on 
them, what Power they were of, how Ally'd, what Enemies they had, and the 
like; and taking fome light from thence, lent away a Ship, furniflTd with Men, 
and all kind of Neceffaries convenient for the Service intended, under the Com- 
mand of Captain Henry Chaloung, a Gentleman of a good Family, and very capable 
for Undertakings of this nature; and giving him fufficient Inflations what to 
do, fent along with him two of the faid Natives for his better Conduct and Di- 
rection, ordering him by all means to keep the Northerly Gage as high as Cape 
Briton, till they had difcover'd the Main, and then to beat it up to the Southward 
as the Coaft tended, till they found by the Natives they were near the place to 
which they were affignU By that time they were about a hundred Leagues off the 
Ifland of Canara, the Captain fell fick of a Feaver, and the Winds being Wefterly, 
his Company ftiap d their Courfe for the Indies, and coming to St. John de Pom 
%f, the Captain went aOiore for the recovery of his Health, whilft the Company 
took in Water, and fuch other Provifions as they had prefent need of, and fpent 
fome time in Hunting, and other Recreations - after which fteering their intended 
Courfe, they were met with by the SpanijhfUtt that came from the Havana, taken 
Prifoners and carried into Spain, the Ship and Goods being confifcated, the Voyage 
overthrown, and the Natives loft. 

Not long after the letting' out of Chaloung, Thomas Human was fent by Sir John 
<Popham, Lord Chief Juftice of England, towards the River of Sagadehoc, to the fuc- 
cour of Chaloung, if need were 5 but not finding him, after he had fcowr'd the Coaft 
all about, he returned back into England. 

Captain Vrinne was likewife fent from Wiftol, who arriving happily in thofe 
Parts, brought back with him at his return the moft exaft Difcovery of that Coaft 
that ever had been gain'd till then. 

A while after, at the Charge of the faid Sir John Topham, a hundred Men were 
fent to fettle a Colony at Sagadehoc, under the Command of George <Popham, Raleigh 
Gilbert, Mafter of the Ship, who feated themfelves in zfeninfula, at the Mouth of 
this River . which attempting to difcover, they met with a Wood near to an Ifland, 
diftant from the Line about forty five Degrees, and fome odd Seconds, where they 
cafily went on Shore. In the Year 1608. the Commander of the Colony deceafing, 
and not long after him the Lord Chief Juftice, who had been the chief that had 
furnifli'd them with frefli Supplies, they returned (ox England in thofe Ships that 
had been fent them with Succours : At which unexpected return, the Patrons of 
the Defign were fo offended, that for a certain timetheydefifted from their Enter- 
prizes* In the mean while the French making ufe of this occafion, Planted Colo- 
nies in divers places, when Sir Samueljrgal from Virginia difturb'd their Defigns, 
and brought away Prifoners all he could lay hold on. 

Suddenly after Captain Hobfon and divers others were fet out with very great 
Preparations, and with them two of the Natives which had been detain'd for 
fome time in England, whom they thought to have made ufe of, the better toJraw 
the reft of the Natives to their Commerce • but becaufe a little before twenty four 
of them had been treacheroufly dealt with by one Hmt y they contracted from 
thence fo great an animofity towards the Englijb, that Captain Hob/on was con- 
ftrain'd to return without effecting any thing. 

In the Year 1614. Captain John Smith being fent to Fifli for Whales, and leek af- 
ter Mines of Gold and Silver, Landed upon the Ifland of Monahiggan, where he 
found fome ftore of Whales, but not fuch as thofe by whofe Oyl they ufe to make 
fo much profit. 

About 



■+* 



M- 



AMERICA. 



Chap. II. 



About the fame time (two of the Natives being recover'd, Erpenow of Capawtck, 
that had efcap'd from Captain Hobfon, and Jjfacumet of <Pemma q u,d, one of thofe 
that had been taken Prifoners with Qhahmg) Captain Harly, with NecefTanes con- 
venient for Inch a Voyage, was difpatch'd away by Sir Ferdinand* Gorges,the Earl of 
Southampton favouring the Defign, and furnilhing him with fome Land-Sold.ers 
under the Command of Captain Hobfon, who not difcourag'd with his former ill 
Succefs, refolv'd upon a fecond Adventure. 

In the Year 1615. Sir (Richard Hakings undertook a Voyage into thofe Parts by 
authority of the Council of the fecond Colony, but by reafon of the great Wars 
among the Natives, his Obfervations could not be fuch as might give any farther 
light than what had been already receiv'd. 

Soon after which Captain Dormer coming for England from Not -found. Land, and 
Landing at Plymouth, apply *d himfelf to the Governor, by whom he was difpatch'd 
away, with Direction to meet Captain Rocroft, fent away a little before . but %o- 
croft being dead by that time Dormer could come after him to Virginia, where he 
heard he was, he returning to Qapawick, was there fet upon by Erpeno-», the fore- 
mention'd Salvage, and other Indians that were Confpirators with him ; and withiit 
a fliort while after at Virginia, whither he went to be cur'd of the Wounds he re. 
ceiv'd in that Aflaffination, he fell fick and died. 

About the Year 16x3. Captain Robert Gorges, newly come out of- the Venetian 
War, was employ *d by the Council of New Englands Affairs as the Lieutenant- 
General, to regulate the Abufes of divers Fiflier.men and other Interlopers, who 
withoutLicenfc frequented thofe Coafts : for which Service he had affign'd to him 
all that part of the main Land fituate upon the North-Eaft fide of the Bay of the 
Meffachafets. 

By thefe feveral Colonies fent fo thick one after another, both a full Difcovery 
of the Countrey came to be made, and a large gap open'd to the free poffeflion 
thereof ; yet in regard of the many difappointments and misfortunes the feveral 
Companies fent over met with, and counting the vaft Charges their fetting forth 
coft the Undertakers, which would have been (till increas'd by the need of conti- 
nu'd Supplies, in all probability Ne» England would have been but thinly peopled 
to this day, had not a great Tide of People, poffefs'd with an averfion to the 
Church- Government of England, and fled into Holland for Liberty of ' Confcience, ea- 
gerly taken hold of this opportunity to make themfelves Mailers of their own 
Opinions, and of a Place where they might ered a Government fuitable there- 
unto : and though at firft there were fome Exceptions taken, as if this Countrey 
was to be made a Receptacle of Sectaries, and fuch as condemn'd the Ecclefiaftical 
Government of the Nation, infomuch that Sir Ferdinando Gorges, to whom they ap» 
ply'd themfelves, defiring him to mediate for them to the Council of ^w Englands 
Affairs, when they perceiv'd the Authority they had from the Virginia Company, 
could not warrant their abode there, had enough to do (notwithftanding his 
Apology, That thefe things hapned contrary to his expectation) to wipe away the jea- 
loufie which was entertain'd of him, it being Order'd, that no more mould be fuf. 
fer'd to pafs into Hew England,b\it fuch as mould take the Oaths of Allegiance and 
Supremacy : yet at laft there was little notice taken who went, perhaps upon con- 
sideration, that the vaft refort of People thither would be of greater advantage to 
the Plantations, than their different Opinions, at fo remote a diftance, could be pre. 
judicial, fo long as they acknowledg'd Obedience to the King and Civil Power : 
However, Sir Ferdinando, to clear himfelf the better, mov'd thofe Lords that were 
the chief A&ors in the Bufinefs, to refign their Grand Patent to the King, and pafs 

particul ar 



Chap. II. <iA M E%^1 C A. 

particular Patents to themfelves of fuch part of the Countrey along the Sea-Coaft 
as might befufficientfor them : To this Motion there being a general AlTent ,iven 
by the Lords, and a Day appointed for the eonclnfion thereof, an Aft was Lde 
for the Refignation of the Patent, alloting to each Man their feveral Bounds. Prom 
theuttermoft parts began the Limits of the Lord JMougrave, and ended at Hudfon's 

* t -a !,! /i Whkh RiVCr ' f ° r thc f P ace of fixt 7 Miles in length 
was plac d the Duke of Richmond's Affignment : Next to him was fetled the Ll' 
oiCarUle: Next him the Lord Edward Gorges : Next the Marquefs oC Hamilton : 
Then Captain John Ma/on: And laftly his own, which extended to the great River 
Sagadehoc being fixty Miles, and foup into the Main. Land a hundred and twenty 
Miles which he was pleas'd to call by the Name of The <ProVmce of Main 

The landing of the En £ l,Jh in Plymouth Plantation was very much facilitated bv 
the great Mortality that hapned amongft the Indians about that time, amongft the 
1 i* ™ arr T lf ! tS > NiMticks > To™*™, Wppanaps, and thofe of Abargmt, jJaVanr 
zndJPockanehe their Vov, mm> or Doctors, feeing with amazement their morns' 
or Streets ie ful of dead Bodies, and in vain expeaing help from Sauantam their 
good otAbbamcb their bad God. Not long before, that blazing Comet, fo much 
talk d of m Europe apppear'd after Sun-fetting in their Horizon South- Weft for the 
fpace of thirty Sleeps, (for fo they reckon their Days). They Landed at firft 
with little or no refiftance, a handful of Men onely being fent before to keep 
pofleffion for their Companions, who arriv'd eight days after . when the Natives 
appearing with their Bowes and Arrows, let flie their long Shafts amoneft them - 
whereupon one Captain Miles Standtjh with his Fowling-piece fliot the ftouteft 
Sachem .amongft the Indians, as he was reaching an Arrow from his Quiver - which 
the reft feeing, fled into the Woods and Thickets. ' 

The fame Year the Merchant- Advenurers in England fent forth ftore of Servants to 
provide againftthe Wants of that place; amongft whom came over a mix'd Mul. 
titude, who fetled themfelves in the Bofom of the Cape now call'd Gloucefier 

About the Year 16 3 i. there fled to the Engltfl, at Watentown thc Indians that dwelt 
thereabouts, for protection againft the Tarratmes, a fort of cruel and falvage Canni- 
bals, by whom near the Town of Saugujl, in the very dead'time of the Night, one 
Lieutenant Walker being on a fudden alarm'd, was fliot through his Coat and Buflf 
Jacket with two Indian Arrows. That Night the Engltfi ftood upon their Guard 
and the next Morning fent word to other parts . who gather'd together and 
taking counfel:how to quit themfelves of thefe Indians, agreed to difcharge their 
great Guns; whofe redoubled noife.ratling in the Rocks,ftruck terror into the Indi- 
ans and caus'd them to betake themfelves to flight. The Autumn following, others 
of the Indians, who till then had held a good correfpondence with the Planters be- 
gan to quarrel about the Bounds of their Land , but a great Mortality, by the ra- 
ging of the Small-Pox, breaking out amongft them, put an end to that Contro- 
verfic : There died amongft the reft one of the chief of the Sagamores of the Matta- 
chufets, call'd Sagamore John, who before his Death had been inftrufted in the Cbri- 
fiian Faith, and took care that his two Sons fliould be nurtur'd therein. 

In the Year 1035. there arrived feveral Ships with great plenty of'provifioiu, 
and many Perfons of good Quality, and amongft the reft Sir Henry Vane. 

The fame Year the People of Cambridge, otherwife call'd He^town, hearing of a 
fertile place upon the River Caneclico,tcmoy'd thither,and erected a new Corporati- 
on by the Name of Suffice, being encourag'd thereunto by the Lord Say and the 
Lord Smk, and planting a Forreft at the mouth of the River.call'd it Say brook Forrejl. 
About thc Year 1638. the Peauods, a^ftout and Warlike Nation, lying to the 

South- 



'4-3 



*44 







e/ M E *KI C A. Chap, II. 

South-Weft of the Mattacbufets, were difcover'd upon their March within fome few 
Miles of Hartford : Their coming very much terrifi'd all that inhabited therea- 
bouts . but they took onely three Women and return'd . one of whom making u 
violent rcfiftance, bad her Brains beaten out . the other two they carried away with 
them, without abufing their Perfons, as it was fuppos'd they would, for they 
efteem'd their own ShaVs, being black, beyond our Women. Their chief Defign 
was to learn to make Gunpowder . which feeing they could not effect, they look'd 
upon their Prize as nothing fo precious as they imagined. 

A little after another Indian War threatningthe Englifl?, they refolv'd together to 
fend an AmbaiTador to Cannonkus, chief Sachem of the Karaganfits, endeavoring to 
prevent him from confederating with the Tequods, who (as they had Intelligence) 
were about fending to him to joyn with them : Cannonicus being grown old, had re- 
fign'd the Government to his Nephew Mantinemo, a ftern Man, and of a cruel Na- 
ture. The Ambaffadors arriving at his Court, which was about eighty Miles from 
<BoJlon } the Indian Prince aifembled his chief Counsellors, and having Entertained 
the Ambaffadors Magnificently, and Feafted them Royally, gave them Audience in 
his State-houfe ; where the Sachem, to manifeft his greater State, lay along upon 
the Ground, with all his Nobility fitting about him, with their Legs doubled up, 
and their Knees touching their Chin; The Englifh Interpreter having made. his 
Speech in the Name of the reft, both Cannonicm and the young King gave difcrcet 
Anfwers, fi^nifying their Refolutions to keep a fair Correfpondence with the fiig- 
lijb, and yet not to fall out with the <Pequods : Who a little after making alfo their 
AddrefTes to the fame King, he diffwaded them by many Reafons from making War 
with the Englifh y and to deliver into their hands thofe Perfons that had murther'd 
any of them. The Pequods ncverthelefs, though they feem'd inclinable to his Coun- 
fel, yet they acted as Enemies- for when the Englifh fent a Company of Soldiers 
into their Countrey to treat with them about delivering up the Murthercrs, they 
made (hew of willingnefs, but fpying their advantage, betook themfelves to 
their Heels 5 and whomfoever they took ftragling by furprife, they revil'd and in- 
fulted over in a moft cruel manner, vilifying the Qhriflian Religion, and uttering all 
the Blafphemies they could invent. Whereupon they rais'd frefh Souldiers for the 
War, to the number of fourfcore, out of the feveral Towns in the Mattachufets , and 
with fome Indian Guides came to their Fort, within which they had pitch'd their 
Wigwams, the Entrance being on two fides, with intricate Meanders to enter - at 
which were plac'd Indian Bowe-men, who (hot the foremoft of the Englifh . yet they 
had little to boaft of in the end, for the Englifh rufhing in through the winding 
Ways, and placing themfelves round the Wtg-frams, made a very profperous Shot, 
by directing the Muzzles of their Mufquets againft the Indians which lay fleeping 
on the Ground : In the midft of which rouzing terror and confufion they were 
defeated with little ado, moft of them being either wounded, killed, or taken. 
The Englifh thus animated with the firft Victory, fend their Prifoners to the Pinna* 
ces, and profecute the War in Hand, marching againft the next Body of the Indians 7 
which lay Encamp'd on a Hill about two Miles diftant, where they gave them a 
fecond OverthroWjflaying many more than in the firft Engagement 5 the reft flying 
to a very thick inacceflible Swamp or Bog, were there befieg'd by the Englifli ^ and 
skulking up and down, as they faw their opportunity they would Shoot at them 
with their Arrows, and then fuddenly fall flat along in the Water ; at laft the Eng* 
lift) finding out a Paflage into the Swamp, utterly defeated them, and put an end 
to the War with the lofs of few Mens Lives, and not many wounded. 

In the Year 1640. there came over a frefh Supply of People into New England, and 

finding 



Chap. 1L A M E^I C A. 

finding no place to fettle in within any of the former erefted Colonies, they re. 
pair'd to a place call'd Long I/land, fever'd from the Continent of Ne^HaVen, about 
fixty Miles oifthe Sea. 

The Year following the four Colonies, namely the Majfacbufets, Plymouth, (> 
neBico^nd 2ie*»HaVen, taking into confideration the many Nations that were on all 
fides of them, as the French, Dutch, Jews, and native Indians % asalfo how the three 
firft went to lay claim to Lands they never had any right to, and the laft to be con- 
tinually quarrelling and contending, where they faw any hopes of prevailing, by 
Commiffioners chofen from the refpeftive Colonies, concluded a firm Confede- 
ration to aflift each other in all juft and lawful Wars . upon which there came in 
certain Indian Sachems, as fomham, Miantonemo, Soccanocoh,mdUncos, who not onely 
fubmitted to the English Government, but alfo, if occafion were, in matters of 
Controverfie fubmitted to their Arbitration : But the Conteft between JMianto. 
nemo and Uncos was too hot to be appeas'd, (though the English were not wanting to 
interpofc) unlefs by the Blood of one of them, as will appear by the Confequence : 
Uncos was a Prince of For, whofe Life Miantonemo, though a much more potent 
Prince, fought to take away by treachery, hiring a young Man of the Veauod Na* 
tion tomurther him, as the following Story renders fufpefted; for one dark 
Evening this Sachem paffing from one Wigtoam to another, was Shot through tfhe 
Arm with an Arrow } but recovering the Palace, had the Arrow pull'd out, and 
his Arm cur'd : the young Man that was fufpeded being examin'd, how he came 
by that great ftore of IVampompeage which was found about him, and being able to 
give no good account, it increas'd thefufpicion, and indue'd Uncos to complain to 
the English at a General Court held at Boftn : Whereupon the young Man was 
Examin'd in the prefence of Miantonemo, who came thither with his Attendants ; 
but the young Man tutor'd, as fuppos'd, by Miantonemo, pretended that Uncos had 
enjoyn'd him to feign that he was hir'd by Miantonemo to kill him : To which Talc 
ofhis little belief being given, it was concluded upon farther Examination of him 
in private that he had done the Fad : neverthelefs they let him depart with Mianto- 
nemo, advifing him to fend him home to Uncos j but he in ftead of returning him cut 
off his Head, and forthwith gather'd an Army of a thoufand Men to fight with 
Uncos - who met him with half the Men : the Battel being joyn'd, the Karraganfets, 
though the far greater multitude, were beaten by the Wawhiggins, through the Va- 
lour of Uncos their Prince 5 who perfected his Victory by poife/fing himfelf of the 
Perfon of Miantonemo, whom, having put his Life-guard to flight, he carried away 
With him in triumph to the Town of Hartford, defiring to have the advice of the 
United Colonies what to do with his Prifoner : Whereupon the Commiffioners 
having had fufficient proof of Mtantonemo's treachery cowards this Prince, advis'd 
Uncos to put him to death, but not to exercife that barbarous kind of cruelty which 
is ufual amongft them in thefe Cafes. The Sachem, upon this advice, not long after 
pretended to remove him to a fafcr place, but by the Way caus'd him to be Execu- 
ted : His Subjects and Kindred were troubled at his Death, but the little Princes 
his Neighbors, over whom he had tyranniz'd, rather rejoye'd. 

In the Year 1645. the Sons of old Canonakm, their Father being dead, began to 
fall into hot Contentions with their Neighbors, and being forbidden by the United 
Colonies, they did not (lick to threaten Wars to the EngHJh alfo. Whereupon the 
Commiffioners rais'd an Army of Horfe and Foot , and made Major General 
Edward Gibbons Commander in Chief over them. But the Indians hearing of this 
Preparation, fent fome of their chief Nobility to the Commiffioners of the United 
Colonies, who were afTemblcd at <Bojlon, to Treat about Peace > to which the 

R Commif- 



H5 




\^6 



A M E %1 C.A. 



Chap. II. 

Commiflioners agreed, upon condition d,cy mould pay a part of the Charges of 
the War- and that they Luld fend four of their Sons for Hoftages till the Sum 
was paid'- and the Hoftages being fent back before the Wqm was all paid the two 
Princes, 4></««ud Mexmmo, upon the fending a Company of Armed Men to de. 
mandit, fent the remainder of the Money. . 

In the Year 1647. divers Perfons of Quality ventur'd their Eftatesupon an Iron 
Mill which they began at Vraintree, but it profited the Owners little rather wafting 
their Stock, the price of Labor in matters of that nature, being double or treble to 

what it is in England. ,.,,,. ,,, 1 • 1 

Thefe are the moft material Tranfacttons we find deliver d by any one wh.ch 
hapned from the firft difcovery till the Year before mention'd : what hath hapned 
from that time to this, chiefly relates to the feveral Revolutions that have been in 
England, and fliall be therefore taken notice of when we come to fpeak or the Go- 
vernment of thefe Plantations. 
The o»= Thoueh there are, who having remain'd fome time, and been concern d m thole 
SSk Parts, affirm the Soil of W> England to be nothing fo fruitful as it is believ d and 
dL commonly delivered to be, yet we think it not improper to give a brief account of 
&£"* the Trees and other Plants ; alfo the Beafts, Birds, Fidies, and other Commodities 
which moft Writers will have to be the production of this Countrey, efpecially 
fince we find them company fumm'd up by an unknown Writer in the Language 
of the Mufes. The recital of the Plants and Trees, which (excepting the Cedar, 
Saffafras, and Dyers Sumach) are allof.the fame kind with thofe that grow ,n^ Eu- 
ro/i/onely differing in nature, according as the Epithets of many of them declare, 
is as follows : 



Trees both in Hills and Plains in plenty be ; 
The long-UVd Oak, and mournful Cypref? Tree ; 
Skie-to^ring fines, and Chefnuts coated rough • 
The lajling Cedar, Vith the Walnut tough • 
The^o^m-dropping Fir, for Maftinufe^ (Sprcwfe., 
The (Boat-men feek for. Oars light, neat grown 
Tin brittle Afh, the, eVeutrembXmg Afys } 
The broad-fpread Elm, whofe Concave harbors 
The Water >fpungy Alder, good for nought-, (Wafps 5 
Small Eldern by the Indian Fletchers fought v 



The Knotty Maple, pallid Birch, Hawthorns • 
The Horn-bound Tree, that to be cloven f corns I 
Which from the tender Vine oft takes his Spoufe, 
Who twines embracing Arms about his ^Boughs. 
Within this Indian Orchard Fruits be fome 5 
The ruddy [berry, and the jetty Plumb ; 
Snake*niurthering Ha*le, withfweet Saxafrage, 
Whofe Leaves in Beer allay hot FeaVers rage ; 
The Dyers Shumach, Tfiitb more Trees there be, 
That are both good to ufe, and rare to fee. 



Beafc: 



The Beafts peculiar to this Countrey are the Moofe, the Pjckoon, and the Muf. 
quajh . the two firft Land- Animals, the laft Amphibious, which with others com- 
mon to them with us, are thus verfifi'd by the abovefaid Author ; 



The Kmgly Ly 0J h an ^ the ftrong*arm d Bear • 
The large limb'd Moofes,with the tripping Veer ; 
^uxlUdarting Porcupines, that <%ackoons be 
Qaftledith' hollolp of an aged Tree ; 
The skipping Squirrel, (Rabbet, purblind Hare, 
Immured in the f elf -fame Caflle are, 



Left red-eyd Ferrets, T»ily Foxes fhould, 
"them undermine, if pamper d but with SMold ; 
Tliegrim-fac'd Ounce, and raVnous bowlmgWolf, 
Whofe meagre Paunch fucks like afwalloving Gulph- 
Black glittering Otters, and rich Qoated Beaver - 
The Civet'fcented Mufauasb fmelling ever. 



Of fuch of thefe as are altogether unknown to us, take theft brief Defcriptions. 
t The^ The Beaft call'd a Moofe, is not much unlike red Deer, and is as big as an Ox, 
flow of Foot, Headed like a Buck, with a broad Beam, fome being two Yards 

wide 



*A M E ^1 C A. 



The AUf- 



Chap. II. 

, — ->• " " "' 14.7 

wide in the Head, their flefli is as good as Beef, their Hides good for Clothing. 
.f chefe were kept tame and accuftom'd to the Yoke, they would be a great Com! 
moduy : Fitft becaufc they are fo fruitful, bringing forth three at a time be "a 

Foale'r ThT ' ^fl' ^ ** W ^ h *"* ^4 

Fodder 1 here are not many of thefe in the Majfachufets Bay, but forty Miles to the 

North-Eaft there are great ftore of them. • 

The H« « tu .deep Furr'd Beaft, not much unlike a Badger, having a Tail „.„ 

Tree's in 'aT ^ " ' ^ = ^^ ^^ in the ^ ««" ««P » "olTow " 

Trees m a Moon-fh,ne night they go to feed on Clams at a low Tide by the 

Sea fide, where the Englifh hunt them with their Dogs. ' Y 

The Mufauajh is much like a Beaver for fhape, but nothing near fo bin . the 
Male hath two Stones which fmell as fweet as Musk, and being kill'd in Winter 
never lofe the.r fwe et fmell : Thefe Skins are no bigger than a Coney.skTn ya 
are fold for five Shulings apiece : being fent for Tokens into England J one go'od 
Skin will perfume a whole houfe full of Clothes, if it be right and good. 
The Birds both common and peculiar are thus recited. 

The Trincely Etgle, and the (oaring HaTi>k, 
Whom in their unknown ways there's none can chawk : 
The Humbird for fame Queens rich Qage more fit) 
Than in the Vacant Wtldernefs to fit. 
The fwift-feingd Swallow /weeping to and fro, 
Asfwift as ArtoTvfrom Tartarian <Bowe. 
When as Aurora's Infant day new if rings, 
Time th" morning mounting Lark her facet lays ftngs. 
The harmonious Thrufi?,fwift Pigeon, Turtledove, 
Who to her Mate doth ever confiant prove : 
TheTmhf-fheafant, Heath-cock^ 'artridge rare, 
The Harriot- tearing CroTf, and hurtful Stare, 
The long-h'd %a\>en, th'ominous Screecb-0ivl } 
Mo tells, as old Wives fay, difaflers foul. 



Birds.' 



The drowfie Madge that leases her dayloYd Keft, 
Jnd loves to rove, when Day-birds be at reft : ' 
Tb'EeLmurthering Hearn, and greedy Cormorant, 
That near the Creeks in morijh Marfres haunt. 
Vie bellowing (Bittern, with the long-leg d Crane, 
Pre/aging Winters hard, and dearth of Grain. 
The Silver Swan that tunes her mournful breath. 
To fmg the Dirge of her approaching death. 
The tattering OldwiVes, and the cackling Geefe, 
The fearful Gull that fhuns the murthering <Peece. 
The ftrong.wingd Mallard, with the nimble Teal, 
Jnd ULjhape't Loon^who his harjl? Notes dothfcjueal. 
There Widgins, Sheldrakes and Humilitees, 
Snites,Voppers,Sea-Larks,in whole million flees. 



Of riefe the Humbird, Loon, and Humility arc not to be pafs'd by without parti. 
cular oofervation, r 

Th( Humbird is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no bigger than a *?•** 
Home, yet hath all the Dimenfions of a Bird, as Bill, and Wings with Quills, Spi. 
der.ltfe Legs, imall Claws : for Colour, flic is as glorious as the Rain.bow . as (he 
flies, flic makes a little humming noife like a Humble-bee, wherefore fhe is call'd 
the humbird. 

The Loon is an ill.fiiap'd thing like a Cormorant, but that he can neither go nor T 
flie.he maketh a noife fometimes like Sowgelders Horn. The Humilities or Sim- J 
fitches (as we may rather call them) are of two forts, the biggeft being as large as a ''' ' 
gteii Plover . the other as big as Birds we call %nots in England. Such is the fim- 
pluty of the fmailer forts of thefe Birds , that one may drive them on a heap like 
lonany Sheep, and ieeing a fit time (hoot them . the living feeing the dead, fettle 
thmfelves on the fame place again, amongft which the Fowler difcharges again : 
Tiefe Birds are to.be had upon Sandy Brakes, at the la.tt.er end of Summer before 
tie Geefe come in. v _ 

No left Poeticalaf ill of Fare is brought of the Fifh on the Sea-Coafts, and in the 
livers of New England in thefe fubfequent Verfes. 

R I The 



ThtlD... 

Tie Humi. 
or Sim- 
Itchy. 



Fi*:«. 






14-3 



A M E<Kl C A. 



Chap. IL 



The %in$ of Waters, the Sea fluttering Whale, 
Thefnuffing Grampus, with the Oily Seale, 
Tbe.ftortn pref aging for pus, Herring-Hog, 
line-paring Shark, the Cttfijh, and SeaVog, 
The Scale-fencd Sturgeon, n>ry -mouth' d Hollibut, 
Theflounfing Salmon, Co dfifh, Greedigut : 
Cole, Haddock,Hage, the Thrnback,and the Scale, 
Wbofe (limy out fide makes him /eld in date, 
Theftately <BaJ? 9 old Neptune's fleeting Tojl, 
That Tides it out and in from Sea to Coafl. 
Conforming Herrings, and the bonny Shad, 
frig-belly d AlewiVes, Mackrills richly clad 



With QUainboT* colours, Froftfijh and the Smelt, 
Js good as ever Lady Guftus felt. 
The fyotted Lamprons, Eels, the Lamperies, 
That feekfrejh Water-Brooks with Argus Eyes, 
Thefe watery Villagers, with thoufands more, 
T>o pafs and repafs near the Verdant Shore. 

Kinds of Shell-fifli. 
T?;e lufcious Lobfler, with the (rah fish raw, 
The brinish Oyfter, Mufcle, Teriwigge, 
AndTortoife fought for by the Indian Sqaw, 
Which to the Flats dance many a Winters Jigge, 
To dive for Codes, and to dig for CLams, 
Whereby her lazje Husbands guts she crams. 



t The S<*t. 



the Shirk.. 



llclMlitm. 



The Btfli, 



Ant'tvy. 



€l*mms ot 
Cfomps, 



To fpeak of the moft unufual of thefe forts of Fifli ; Firft the Seal, which is 
call'd the Sea-Calf, his Skin is good for divers ufes, his Body being between Fleffi 
and Fifli, it is not very delegable to the Palate, or congruent with the Stomack . 
his Oil is' very good to burn in Lamps, of which he affords a great deal. 

The Shark is a kind of Fifli as big as a Man , fome as big as a Horfe, with three 
rows of Teeth within his Mouth, with which he fnaps afunder the Fifliermans 
Lines if he be not very circumfped : This Fifli will leap at a Mans hand if it be 
over board, and with his Teeth fnap off a Mans Leg or Hand if he be Swimming-, 
thele are often taken, being good for nothing but Manuring of Land. 

The Hollibut isnot much unlike a Pleaceor Turbut, fome being two yards long, 
and one wide, a Foot thick ; the plenty of better Fifli makes thefe of little efteem, 
except the Head and Finns, which Stcw'd or Bak'd is very good j thefe Hollibuts be 
little fet by while Baffe is in feafon. 

The <Baffe is one of the belt Fiflies in theCountrey , and though Men are foon 
weary'd with other Fifli, yet are they never with Baffe ■, it is a delicate, fine, fat, fall 
Fifli, having a Eone in hij Head which contains a Sawcerful of Marrow, fweet 
and good, pleafant to the Palate, and wholfom to the Stomack : When there be 
great ftore of tVm, we only eat the Heads , and Salt up the Bodies for Winter, 
which exceeds Ling or Haberdine : Of thefe Fiflies fome are three, and fane four 
Foot long, fome bigger, fome leffer ; at fome Tides a Man may catch a dozen or 
twenty of'thefe in three hours; the way to catch them is with Hook anc Line : 
The Fiflierman taking a great Cod-line, to which he fafteneth a piece of Iobfter, 
throws it into the Sea, the Fifli biting at it , he pulls her to him, and knotks her 

on the head with a Stick. 

Jlewi-ves are a kind of Fifli which is much like a Herring, which in the lat.r end 
oMpril come up to the frefli Rivers to Spawn, in fuch multitudes as is aimed in. 
credible, prefling up in fuch fliallow Waters as will fcarce permit them to Svim, 
having likewife fuch longing defire after the frefli Water Ponds, that no beaings 
with Poles, or forcive agitations by other devices, will caufe them to return u tha^ 
Sea, till they have caft their Spawn. 

Clamtns or Clamps, are a ShelUfifli not much unlike a Cockle, they lie under the 
Sand and have every one of them a round hole to take Air, and receive Va- 
ter at. When the Tide ebbs and flows, a Man running over thzCe Clamm banks will 
prefently be made all wet, by their fpouting of Water out of thofe fmall hole: 
Thefe Fiflies are in great plenty in moft places of the Countrey, which is a gre t 
Commodity for the feeding of Swine, both in Winter and Summer - for bcin', 

one 



Chap. II. AMERICA. 

once us'd to thofe places, they will repair to them as duly every Ebb, as if they 
were driven to them by Keepers : In fome places of the Countrey there be Clamms 
as big as a Peny white Loaf, which are great Dainties amongft the Natives, and 
would be in great efteem amongft the English, were it not for better Fifh. 

Other Commodities which this Countrey is faid to yield, are, in down-right 
Profe,Furrs, Flax, Linnen, Iron, Pitch, Marts, Cables, and fome a^iantity of Am- 
ber ; fo that if what many Authors have confented to affert concerning t{ew Eng- 
land be not a meer Fiftion, what e're hath been affirm'd of the unfruitfulnefs of the 
Country will demonftrably be found invalid. 

There are alfo to be found here fome hurtful Creatures , of which , that 
which is moft injurious to the Perfon and Life of a Man is the <I{attle- Snake, 
which is generally a yard and a half long, as thick in the middle as the fmall of a 
Mans Leg; flie hath a yellow Belly, her Back being fpotted with black, ruffet, 
yellow, and green colours, plac'd like Scales 5 at her Tail is a Rattle, with which 
flie makes a noife when (he is molefted, or when (he feeth any approach near her ; 
her Neck feems to be no thicker than a Mans Thumb, yet flie can fwallow a 
Squirril, having a great wide Mouth, with Teeth as fharp as Needles, wherewith 
flie biteth fuch as tread upon her, her Poyfon lyeth in her Teeth, for flie hath no 
Sting. When any Man is bitten by any of thefe Creatures, the Poyfon fpreads fo 
fuddenly through the Veins, and fo runs to the Heart, that in one hour it caufeth 
Death, unlefs he hath the Antidote to expel the Poyfon, which is a Root call'd 
Snake-weed, which muft be champ'd, the Spittle fwallow'd, and the Root apply'd 
to the Sore 5 this is prefent Cure againft that which would be prefent death with- 
out it : This Weed is rank Poyfon, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten • 
whofoever is bitten by thefe Snakes, his flefh becomes as fpotted as a Leopard, un- 
til he be perfectly cur'd. It is reported, that if the Party live that is bitten, the Snake 
will die, and if the Party die, the Snake will live. This is a moft Poyfbnous and 
dangerous Animal, yet nothing fo bad as the report goes of it in England 5 for 
whereas it is faid to kill a Man with its breath, and that it can flie, there is no fuch 
matter, for it is naturally the moft fleepy and unnimble Creature that lives, never 
offering to leap or bite any Man, if it be not trodden on fir ft ; and it is their defire 
in hot weather to lie in Paths, where the Sun may fliine on them, where they will 
fleep fo foundly, that I have known four Men ftride over one of them, and never 
awake it j five or fix Men have been bitten by them, which by ufing of Snakeweed 
were all cur'd, never any yet lofing his life by them. Cows have been bitten, but 
being cut in divers places,and this Weed thruft into their flefh,were cur'd j A fmall 
Switch will eafily kill one of thefe Snakes. In many places of the Country there be 
none of them, as at Plymouth , ty'to-to'ton, Igowamme, Nahant, arc. In fome places they 
Will live on one fide of the River, and fvvimming but over the Water, as foon as 
they are come into the Woods, they turn up their yellow Bellies and die. Up into 
the Countrey, Weft ward from the Plantations, is a high Hill,which is call'd (Z^tt/** 
Snake-HiU, where there are great ftore of thefe Poyfonous Creatures. 

There are likewife troublefome Flies. 

Firft there is a wild Bee or Wafp, which commonly guards the Grape, building 
by Cobweb habitation amongft the Leaves : Secondly a great green Flie, not 
much unlike our Horfe-Flies in England ; they will nipp fo fore, that they will 
fetch Blood either of Man or Beaft , and are moft troublefome where moft Cattel 
are, which brings them from out of the Woods to the Houfes . this Flic continues 
but for the Moneth of June. The third is Gumipper, which is a fmall black Flie, no 
bigger than a Flea • her biting caufeth an itching upon the Hands or Face, which 

R j provoketh 



F49 



i 



150 



The nature 
of the ancient 
Inhabitants* 



The nature 
ct the Mqw- 




the nature 

of the Indians 
inhabiting 

Eaftward. 



A M E *K1 C A. Chap. II. 

provoketh fcratching, which is troublesome to fern* ; this Flie is bufie but in clofe 
Mornings or Evening,, and continues not above three Weeks , the lead Wind or 
heat expels them. The fourth is a Uusketor, wh.ch is not unlike to our Gnats in 
England, in places where there is no thick Woods or Swamps, there are none or ve- 
ry few. In the new Plantations they are troublelome for the : firft year, but the 
Wood decaying they vanifh : Thefe Flies cannot endure Wind heat or cold, fo 
that thefe are only troublefome in clofe thick Weathered aga.nft Ram many that 
are bitten will fall a fcratching, whereupon their Faces and Hands (well. 

As touching the Nature of the ancient Inhabitants, they are to be confider d ac- 
cording to their feveral Shires or Divifions , thofe that inhabit to the Eaft and 
North Eaft bore the name of Cburcbers and Tanenteens j thele in the Southern parts 
were call'd feauods, woKtrraganfets , thofe Weftward, Conneclacuts and Mowbacks $ 
to the North. Weft, of whom were the Abergimans. 

The MoUacks were ever accounted a cruel bloudy People, wh.ch were wont to 
comedown upon their poor Neighbors, with more thanbru.tifh Savagenefs, fpoil- 
ing their Corn, burning their Houfes, flaying Men, ravifhing Women yea very 
Canibah they were, fometimes eating on a Man one part after another before his 
Face, and while yet living., infomuch, that the very Name of a MoUack would 
ftrike the Heart of a poor Aberginian dead, till they had the En&hjh on their fides to 
fuccor them • for thefe inhumane Homicides confefs that they dare not meddle 
with a white Fac'd Man, accompany'd with his hot-mouth'd Weapon. 

Thefe Indians are a People of tall Stature , long grim Vifages (lender Wafted 
and having exceeding great Arms and Thighs, wherein they fay their ftrength 
lieth • which is fuch, that one of them hath been known to kill a Dog with a fil- 
lip of his Finger, and afterwards to have flead and fod him, and eat him to his Din. 
ner. They are fo hardy, that they can eat fuch things as would make other Indians 
fick to look upon ■ being deftitute of Fifh and Flefh, they fuffice Hunger and mam. 
tain Nature with the ufe of Vegetatives; but that which they moft hunt after, is 
the flefh of Man : Their cuftom is,if they get a ftranger near their Habitations,not 
to Butcher him immediately, but keep him in as good plight as they can, feeding 
him with the beft Visuals they have. 

Thefe Indians are more defperate in Wars than the other Indians, which proceeds 
not only from the fiercenefs of their Natures, but alfo in that they know themfelves 
to be better Arm'd and Weapon'd 5 all of them wearing Sea Horfe Skins and Barks 
of Trees, made by their Art as impenetrable, it is thought, as Steel, wearing Head. 
Pieces of the fame, under which they March fecurely and undantedly, running, 
and fiercely crying out, Hadree Hadree fuccomee fuccomee, We come we come to fuck your 
SW.not fearing the feather'd fhafts of the ftrong-arm'd Bow.men,but like unruly 
headftrong Stallions, beat them down with their right-hand Tamabawks, and left, 
hand Javelins, being all the Weapons which they ufe, counting Bowes a cowardly 
fight. Tamabawks are Staves of two Foot and a half long, with knobs at one end as 
round and big as a Foot ball ; a Javelin is a fhort Spear, headed with fharp Sea- 
Horfe Teeth ; one blow or thruft with thefe fharp Weapons, will not need a fecond 
to haften death from a MoTehach arm. 

The Tanenteens faving that they eat not Mans flefh , are little lefs Salvage and 
cruel than thefe Cannibals ; our Indians do fear them as their deadly Enemies, for Co 
many of them as they meet,they kill.Take thefe Indians in their own proper and na. 
tural difpofition, and they are reported to be wife , lofty.fpirited, conftant in 
friendfhip to one another, true in their promife, and more induftrious than many 

others. 

The 



Chap. II. 



AMERICA. 



J51 

The Tenants are a ftately Warlike People, juft and equal in their dealings . not J£f™$ 
treacherous either to their Country-men, or Englijh y to whom ( except in time of *** KM,a ' 
War) they were not any ways uncivil. Their next Neighbors the Narraganfcts, are *™ 
the moft numerous People in thofe Parts, the moft rich alio, and the moft induftri- 
ous 5 being the Store.houfe of all fuch kind of wild Merchandize as is amongft 
them. Thefe Men are the moft curious Minters of their Wampompeage and Mm- 
bakes, which they form out of the inmoft Wreaths of Peri winkle-fli ells. The Nor- 
thern, Eaftern, and Weftern Indians fetch all their Coyn from thefe Southern Mint- 
Mafters. From hence they have moft of their curious Pendants and Bracelets,from 
hence they have their great Stone Pipes, which will hold a quarter of an Ounce 
of Tobacco, which they make with Steel Drills and other Inftruments . fuch is 
their Ingenuity and dexterity, that they can imkate the Englijh Mo\d fo accurately, 
that were it not for matter and colour, it were hard to diftinguiOi them \ they 
make them of green, and fometimes of black Stone . they are much dehYd of our 
Englijh Tobacconifts, for their rarity, ftrength, handfomnefs, and coolnefs. Hence 
likewife our Indians had their Pots, wherein they us'd to feeth their Victuals before 
they knew the ufe of Brafs. Since the Englijh came, they have employ 'd moft of 
their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and Muf quashes, which they bring down 
into the Bay, returning back loaden with English Commodities, of which they 
make double profit, by felling them to more remote Indians, who are ignorant 
at what cheap rates they obtain them, in comparifon of what they make them pay, 
fo making their Neighbors ignorance their enrichment : They were never known 
to be defirous to take in hand any Martial Enterprize, or expofe themfelves to the 
uncertain events of War j wherefore the fequants call them WomenMke Men, refting 
fecure under the conceit of their popularity, and feeking rather to grow rich by in- 
dustry, than famous by deeds of Chivalry. 

Moft of thefe Northward Indians are between five and fix Foot high,ftraight Bo- «»■« 
dy'd, ftrongly compos'd, fmooth $kin'd, merry Countenanc'd, of Complexion fffj** 
more fwarthy than die-Spaniards, black Hair'd, high Foreheaded, black Ey'd, out- '"*'""*'' 
Nos'd, broad Shoulder'd, brawny Arm'd, long and (lender Handed, outBreaftcd, 
fmall Wafted, lank Belly'd, wellThigh'd, flat Kneed, with handfome grown Legs, 
and fmall Feet : In a word, take them when the Blood skips in their Veins,when the 
Flefli is on their Backs, and Marrow in their Bones, when they frolick in their an- 
tique Deportments and Indian Poftures, they are more amiable to behold (though 
onely in Mam's Livery) than many a trim Gallant in the neweft Mode . and 
though their Houfes are but mean, their Lodging as homely, Commons fcant, their 
Drink Water, and Nature their beft Clothing, yet they ftill are healthful and lufty. 
Their fmooth Skins proceed from the often anointing of their Bodies with the Oyi 
of Fillies, and the fat of Eagles, with the greafe of %ackoons, which they hold in 
Summer the beft Antidote to keep their Skin from bliftering with the fcorching 
Sun 5 it is their beft Armor againft the Musketoes , and the fureft abrafour of the 
hairy Excrement , and flops the Pores of their Bodies againft the nipping Winters 
cold. Their black Hair is natural, yet is brought to a more Jetty colour by Oyl- 
ing, Dying, and daily drefling ; fometimes they wear it very long, hanging down 
in a loofe diflieverd Womanifli manner, otherwife ty'd up hard and fliort like a 
Horfe Tail, bound clofe with a Fillet, which they fay makes it grow the fafter ; 
they are not a little Phantaftical in this particular . their Boys being not permit- 
ted to wear their Hair long till fixteen years of Age, and then they muft come to it 
by degrees . fome being cut with a long forctop, a long lock on the Crown, one 
of each fide of his Head , the reft of his Hair being cut even with the Scalp } the 

young 



1 












15* 



AMERICA. 



Chap. II. 



ing«,an 1 other 
artiHciil 
Deckings of 
the Indians. 



s 



young Men and Soldiers wear their Hair long on the one fide , the other being 
cut (liort like a Screw . other cuts they have as their Fancy leads them, which 
would torture the Wits of the moft exacT: Barber to imitate. But though they are 
thus proud of the Hair of their Head, you cannot wooe them to wear it on their 
Chins, where it no fooner grows, but it is ftubb'd up by the roots, for they count 
it as an unufeful, cumberfome, and opprobrious excrement, infomuch as they call 
him an English Mans Baftard that hath but the appearance of a Beard. 
Tte A P p,- The cfoathing of the Indians is only a pair of Indian Breeches to cover their fe. 
&$& cret Parts, which is but a piece of Cloth a yard and a half long, but between their 
Groins, ty'd with a Snakes Skin about their middles, one end hanging down with 
a flap before, the other like a tail behind. In the Winter time , the more Aged of 
them wear Leather Drawers, in form like Imfc Troufes,faften'd under their Girdle 
with Buttons t They wear Shooes likewife of their own making, cut out of zMoofes 
Hide- many of them wear Skins about them, in form of an Irish Mantle, and of 
thefe fome are Bears Skins, Moo/es Skins,and Beaver Skins few'd together.others Ot. 
ter Skins,and %achon Skins • moft of them in the Winter having his deep Furr'd Cat 
Skin, like a large Muff, which he fliifts to that Arm which lieth moft expos'd to 
the Wind. Although they are poor, yet is there in them the fparks of natural 
Pride, which appears in their longing defire after many kind of Ornaments, wear- 
ing Pendants in their Ears, in form of Birds, Beafts, and Fiflies, Carv'd out of 
Bone, Shells, and Stone, with long Bracelets of their curious wrought Wampompeage 
and Mowhackees, which they put about their Necks and Loins ; thefe they count a 
rare kind of Decking; many of the better fort bearing upon their Cheeks certain 
Pourtraitures of Beafts, as Bears, Deers, Moo/es, Wolves, arc. fome of Fowls, as of 
Eagles, Hawks, Ore. which is not a fuperficial Painting, but a certain Incifion, or 
elfe a raifing of their Skin by a fmall fliarp Inftrument, under which they convey 
a certain kind of black unchangeable Ink, which makes the defir'd form apparent 
and permanent. Others have certain round Impreffions down the outfide of their 
Arms and Breafts, in form of Mullets or Spur-rowels, which they imprint by fear- 
ing Irons : Whether thefe be Foils to illuftrate their unparallel'd Beauty ( as they 
deem it) or Arms to blazon their antique Gentility, cannot eafily be determin'd : 
But a Segamore with a fiumbird in his Ear for a Pendant, a black Hawk on his Head 
for his Plume, MoUackees for his Gold Chain , good ftore of Wampompeage begirt- 
ing his Loins, his Bowe in his Hand, his Quiver at his Back, with fix naked Indian 
Lacquies at his Heels for his Guard, thinks himfelf little Inferior to the great 

Q>anu 

In Winter time they have all manner of Fowls and Beafts of the Land and Wa- 
ter, Pond-fifh, with Cathaires and other Roots, Indian Beans and Clamms ; in the Sum- 
Si« y H «5ifir mer they have all manner of Sea-fifh, with all forts of Berries. For the ordering 
of their Viauals, they Boil or Roaft them, having large Kettles which they Traded 
for with the French long fince, and do ftill buy of the Englijh as their need requires, 
before they had fubftantial Earthen Pots of their own making. Their Spits are no 
other than cloven Sticks, fliarpen'd at one end to thruft into the ground } into 
thefe cloven Sticks they thruft the Flefli or Fifli they would have Roafted, behem. 
ming a round fire with a dozen of Spits at a time, turning them as they fee occafi* 
on. They feldom or never make Bread of their Indian Corn, but feethe it whole 
like Beans, eating three or four Corns with a mouthful of Fifh or Flefh, fome- 
times eating Meat firft,and Corns after.fillingthe Chinks with their Broth. In Sum< 
mer, when their Corn is ffeaz^qouterfquashes is their beft Bread, a Fruit like a young 
Pumpion : But as all arc fellows at Foot-ball, fo they all meet Friends at the Ket- 

tie, 



Their Diet^ 

Cookery, 
Meal-times, 



Kettles. 



*n 



Of their 
hardincl's. 



Cha^ II. <z4 M E^I C J. 

tie, faving their Wives., that Dance a SpanieMike attendance at their Backs for 
their Fragments. If their occafions caufc them to Travel, the bed of their Victuals 
for their Journey is Nocafo, (as they call it) which is nothing but Indian Corn 
parch'd in the hot Aflies . the Afhes being fifced from it, it is afterwards beaten to 
Powder, and put into a long Leathern Bag, trufs'd at their Back like a Knapfack, 
out of which they take thrice three Spoonfuls a day, dividing it into three Meals. 
If it be Winter,and Snow be on the ground, they can eat when they ple^fe, making 
ufe of Snow for their Drink ; in Summer, they muft ftay till they meet with a 
Spring or Brook ; with this ftrange viaticum they will travel four or five days to- 
gether. They keep no Set.Meals, their Store being fpent, they champ on the Bit, 
till they meet with frefh Supplies, either from their own endeavors, or their Wives 
induftry, who trudge to the Clanuhanks when all other means fail. Though they 
are fometimes fcanted, yet are they as free as Emperors, both to their Countrey- 
men and English, be he ftranger, or near acquaintance ; counting it a great difcour- 
tefie, not to eat of their high-conceited Delicates. 

Their hardinefs is much to be admir'd, no ordinary pains making them fo much 
as alter their countenance ; beat them, whip them, punch them, if they put on a 
refolution, they will not winch for it 5 whether it be their benumm'd infenfible* 
nefs of fmart, or their hardy refolutions, is hard to refolve ; It might be a ferillus 
his Bull, or the Rack might force an out-cry from them , but a Turkish drubbing 
would not move them , the unexpe&ed approach of a mortal Wound by a Bul- 
let, Arrow, or Sword, ftriking no more terror, nor caufing no more exclamation 
in them,than if it had been a (hot into the body of a Trce 5 fuch Wounds as would 
be fudden death to an English Man , would be nothing to them ; whether it be, 
that by their rare skill in the ufe of Vegetatives,or by Diabolical Charms,they cure 
them ; neverthelefs, the very name and thoughts of death is fo hideous to them, or 
any thing that prefents it fo terrible, that a hundred of them will run from two or 
three arm'd with Guns. In the Night they need not to be feared, for they will not 
budge from their own Dwellings, for fear of their Jbamacho (the Devil) whom 
they much fear, fpecially in evil enterprizes, they will rather lie by an English fire 
than go a quarter of a Mile in the dark to their own Dwellings ; but they are well 
freed from this Scare*crow fince the coming of the English^ and lefs care for his de- 
lufions. 

Now for the matter of Government amongft them- it is the cuftomof their oftkeir 
Kings to inherit, the Son always taking the Kingdom after his Fathers death. If JSE^,*" 
there be no Son, then the Queen rules- if no Queen, the next to the Blood-Royal 5 AtSt * 
who comes in otherwife, is but counted an ufurping Intruder, if his fair carriage 
bear him not out the better, they will foon Unfcepter him. Some fay the chief 
Powahe is next ia Dignity and Authority to the King,and when he dies, Marries the 
SquafacheniyOt Queen. 

The Kings have no Laws to Command by, nor have they any annual Revenues; 
yet commonly are they fo either fear'd or belov'd, that half their Subjefts eftate is 
at their Service^ and their Perfons at his Command, by which Command he is 
better known than by any thing elfe ; for though he hath no Kingly Robes to make 
him glorious in the view of his Subje&s, nor daily Guards to fuccor his Perfon,nor 
Court-like attendance, nor fumptuous Palaces- yet do they yield all fubmiffive 
fiibje&ion to him, accounting him their Soveraign • going at his Command, and 
coming at his Beck, notfo much as expoftulating the caufe, though it be in mat- 
ters thwarting their wills ; he being accounted a difloyal Subject that will not ef- 
fe& what his Prince Commands. Whofoever is known to Plot Treafon, or to lay- 
violent 



»H 



OftheirMar- 
riages. 



Of their 
Worftup 3 In- 
vocations,:^ 
Conjurati- 
ons. 



<a M E %I C A. Chap. II. 

violent hands on his lawful King, is prcfcntly Executed. Once a Year he takes his 
Progrefs, accompanied with a dozen of his bcft Subjects, to view his Countrey, to 
recreate himfelf, and eftablifh good Orders. When he enters into any of their 
Houfes, without any more Complement, he is defir'd to fit down on the Ground, 
(for they ufe neither Stools nor Cufhions) and after a little refpite all that are pre- 
lent come in, and fit down by him, one of his. Seniors pronouncing an Oration 
gratulatory to his Majefty for love, and the many good things they enjoy under 
his peaceful Government. A King of large Dominions hath his Vice-Roys, or in- 
ferior Kings under him, to agitate his State Affairs, and keep his Subjects in good 
Decorum. Other Officers there are, but how to diftinguifh them by Name is fome- 
thingdifficult. For their Laws, as their Vices come fhort of many other Nations, 
fo they have not fo many Laws, though they are not without fome, which they in» 
flict upon notorious Malefactors, as Traitors to their Prince, inhumane Murthe- 
rers, and, fome fay,Adulterer* : for Theft, as they have nothing to fteal worth the 
Life of a Man, therefore they have no Law to Execute for Trivials, a Subject being 
more precious in the Eye of his Prince, than, where Men are fo fcarce, to be caft 
away upon fo Height a matter. A Malefactor having deferv'd Death, and being 
apprehended, is brought before the King, and fome other of the wifeft Men, where 
they enquire out the original of the thing, after proceeding by aggravation of Cir- 
cumftances he is found Guilty, and Caft by the Jury of their ftrict Inquifition, he 
is Condemned and Executed in the following manner : The Executioner comes 
in, who blindfolds the Party, fets him in the publick view, and Brains him with a 
Tamahauke, or Club; which done, his Friends bury him. 

Now to fpeak fomething of their Marriages, the Kings and the <PoTblbo^j, or great 
Doctors, may have two or three Wives 2 but feldom ufe it, Men of ordinary Rank 
having but one . which difproves the report, that they had eight or ten Wives 
apiece. When a Man hatha defire to Marry, he firft gets the good will of the 
Maid or Widow, after, the confent of her Friends for her part - and for himfelf, if 
he beat his own difpofing,and if the King will, the Match is made, her Dowry of 
Wampompeage paid, the Sagamore or King (who for every Marriage hath a Fathom of 
Wampompeage, which is about the value of feven or eight (hillings) joyns their Hands, 
never to part till Death, unlefs (he prove a Whore, for which they may put away 
their Wives. 

As it is natural to all Mortals to worfliip fomething, fo do thefe People, but ex- 
actly to defcribe to whom their Worfliip is chiefly bent, is very difficult : They 
acknowledge efpecially two, %jtan y fome fay Tantum, their good God, and Hoba* 
wocco, fome fay Squantum, their evil God 5 to fytan they Sacrifice (as the ancienc 
Heathens did to Ceres) after their Garners be full with a good Crop. They like- 
wife Invocate this God for fair Weather, for Rain in time of Drought, and for the 
recovery of their Sick - but if they do not hear them, then they verrifie the old 
Verfe, FleEhere ft ?iequeo Superos Jcberonta moVebo, their <PoWon>s betaking themfelves 
to their Exorcifmes and Necromantfck Charms, by which they bring to pafs 
ftrange things, if we may believe the Indians, who report of one <PiJfacannaTt>, that he 
could make the Water burn, the Rocks move, the Trees dance, and metamorphofe 
himfelf into a flaming Man. In Winter, when there is no green Leaves to be got, 
he would out of the Afhes of an old Leaf, calcin'd and put into the Water, pro- 
duce a new green Leaf : And of a dead Snakes Skin, a living Snake, both to be 
feen, felt and heard. The manner of their action in their Conjuration is thus : 
The Parties that are fick or lame being brought before them, the <Po»+ow fitting 
down, the reft of the Indians giving attentive audience to his Imprecations and In- 



vocations. 



Chap. IL AMERICA. ]51 

Vocations, and after the violent expreffion of many a hideous bellowing and groan'# 
ing he makes a flop, and then all the Auditors with one voice utter a fhort Canto \ 
which done, the Po^Tbo^ ftill proceeds in his Invocations, fomctimcs roaring like 
a Bear, other times groaning like a dying Horfe, foaming at the Mouth like a cha- 
fed Boar, fmiting on his naked Breft'and Thighs with fuch violence, as if he were 
mad : Thus will he continue fometimes half a day, fpendinghis Lungs, fweating 
out his Fat, and tormenting his Body in this diabolical Worfhip. Sometimes the 
Devil, for reqmcai of their Worfhip, recovers the Party, to nuzzle them up in 
their devillifh Religion. But fince the Englifh (upon whom, and in whofe prcfencc 
it is faid the Powwows could never work their Witchcrafts) frequented thofe Parts, 
they daily fall from his Colours, relinquishing their former Fopperies, and ac- 
knowledge the Power of the Englifh-mzvis God,as they call him. And it is reported 
of them, that at the very firft they were fo tradable to the Qbrtftian Religion, that 
they would fay King James was good, and his God good, but theiT Tanto nought, 
though of their two Gods he was accounted the good one. 

They ufe no other Weapons in War than Bowes and Arrows, faving that their ° t ( thci * 
Captains have long Spears, on which, if they return Conquerors, they carry the 
Heads of their chief Enemies that they flay in the Wars, it being the Cuftom to 
cut off their Heads, Hands and Feet, to bear home to their Wives and Children, as 
true tokens of their renowned Vi&ory. When they go to their Wars, it is their 
Cuftom to paint their Faces with diverfity of Colours, fome being all black as Jet, 
fome red, fome half red and half black, fome black and white, others fpotted with 
divers kinds of Colours, being alldifguis'd to their Enemies, to make them more 
terrible to their Foes, putting on likewife their rich Jewels, Pendents, and Wampom* 
peage, to put them in mind that they Fight not onely for their Children, Wives and 
Lives, but likewife for their Goods, Lands and Liberties. Being thus Arm'd with 
this Warlike Paint, the antique Warriors make towards their Enemies in a difor- 
der'd manner, without any Soldier-like Marching, or Warlike Poftures, being deaf 
to any word of Command, ignorant of falling off or on, of doubling Ranks or 
Files, but let flie their winged Shaftfmen without either fear or wit : Their Artil- 
lery being fpent, he that hath no Arms to Fight, finds Legs to run away. 

They have two forts of Games, one call'd fuim, the other Hubbub, not much un- J n h d ei s r £j™J 
like Cards and Dice, being no other than Lottery. Tuim is fifty or fixty fmall Bents * aivity ' 
of a Foot long, which they divide to the number of their Gamefters, fhuffling them 
firft between the Palms of their Hands • he that hath more than his Fellow, is fo 
much the forwarder in his Game : Many other Whimfies be in this Game, which 
would be too long to commit to Paper. He that is a noted Gamefter hath a Hole 
in his Ear, wherein he carries his Puims in defiance of his Antagonists. Hubbub is 
five fmall Bones in a fmall fmooth Tray ; the Bones be like a Die, but fomething 
flatter, black on the one fide and white on the other, which they place on the 
Ground, againft which violently thumping the Platter, the Bones mount,changing 
colours with the windy vvhisking of their Hands to and fro ; which a&ion in that 
fport they much ufe, fmiting themfclves on the Breaft and Thighs, crying out 
Hub, Hub, Hul > ; they may be heard play at this Game a quarter of a Mile off: 
The Bones being all black or white make a double Game . if three of one colour, 
and two of another, then they afford but a fingleGame ; four of a colour, and one 
differing, is nothing ; fo long as the Man wins he keeps the Tray, but if he loofe 
the next Man takes it. They are fo bewitcb/d with theft two Games, that they 
will lofe fometimes all they havc ; Beaver, Afoo/e»skins, Kettles, Wampompeage, Mo- 
whacks, Hatchets, Knives, all is confifcate by thefe two Games. For their Sports of 

action 



i 5 6 



AMERICA. 



Chap. II- 




Of their 







action they have commonly but three or four, as Football, Shooting, Running, and 
Swimming 5 when they play Countrey againft Countrey, there are rich Goals, all 
behung with Wampompeage, MoVbacks, Beaver Skins, and black Otter Skins : Their 
Goals are a Mile long plac'd on the Sands, which 2re as even as a Board • their Ball 
is no bigger than a Hand-ball, which fometimes they mount in the Air with their 
naked Feet, fometimes it is fway'd by the multitude, fomecime alfo it is two days 
before they get a Goal, then they mark the Ground they win v and begin there the 
next day. Before they come to this Sport they paint themfelves, even as when 
t hey go to War, in policy to prevent future mifchief, becaufc no man (hould know 
him that mov'd his patience, or accidentally hurt his Pcrfon, taking away the oc 
cafion of ftudying revenge. Before they begin, their Arms arc put off, and hung 
upon fome neighboring Tree, after which they make a long fcrowl on the Sand, 
over which they fhake Hands, and with loving Hearts fcuffle for Viftory. While 
the Men Play, the Boys Pipe, and the Women Dance and Sing Trophies of their 
Husbands Conquefts 5 all being done, a Fcaft fummons their departure. 

Such is their dexterity in Shooting, that they can hit a running Hind, or flying 
Pigeon, without a (landing paufe or left-ey'd blinking . they draw their Arrows 
between their Fingers and the Thumb, their Bowes are quick, but not very ftrong, 
not killing at above fix or feven fcore diftance : Shooting at one another,they have 
a trick with fwift conveyance to fliun the Arrow . this they do to make them 
expert againft time of War. They are train'd up to their Bowes even from their 
Childhood, for little Boys with Bowes made of little Sticks, and Arrows made 
of great Bents; will hit down a piece of Tobacco-pipe every time a good way 
off. As thefc Indians are good Marks-men, fo are they well experienced where the 
very Life of every Creature lieth, and know where to fmite him to make him die 
prefently. Their Swimming is not after our Englifh fafhion, of -fpread Arms and 
Legs, which they hold too tirefom, but like Dogs, their Arms before them, cut* 
ting through the Liquids with their right Shoulder : In this manner they will 
Swim very fwift and far, either in rough or fmooth Waters, fometimes for their 
eafe lying as ftill as a Log ; fometimes they will play the Dive*doppers, and come 
up in unexpected places. 

For their Hunting, it is to be noted, that they have no fwift-footed Greyhounds 
to let flip at the fight of the Deer, no deep-mouth'd Hounds, or fcenting Beagles, 
to find out their defired Prey j themfelves are all this, who in that time of the year 
when the Deer comes down, having certain Hunting-houfes in fuch places where 
they know the Deer doth ufually frequent, in which they keep their Rendezvouz, 
their Snares, and all their Accoutrements for that Employment : when they get 
fight of a Deer, Moofe, or Bear, they ftudy how to get the Wind of him, and ap. 
proaching within {hot, ftab their Mark quite through, if the Bones hinder 
not. The chief thing they Hunt after is Deer, Moofes and Bears : It grieves them 
more to fee an Big/i/kman take one Deer, than a thoufand Acres of Land. They 
Hunt likewife after Wolves, wild Cats, %acfaons, Otters, Beavers, and Muf quashes, 
Trading both their Skins and Flelh to the English. Befide this Artillery they have 
other devices to kill their Game, as fometimes Hedges, a Mile or two Miles long, 
being a Mile wide at one end, and made narrower and narrower by degrees, lea- 
ving onely a Gap of fix Foot long 5 over againft which in the day*time they lie 
lurking, to (hoot the Deer which come through that narrow paiTage ; fo many as 
come within the circumference of that Hedge, feldom return back to leap over, 
unlefs they be fore'd by the chafing of fome ravenous Wolf, or fight of fome acci- 
dental Paffenger : In the Night, at the Gap of this Hedge, they fet Deer-traps, 

which 



Chap. II, 

which arc Spi 



<tA m E%^1 c a. 



ideofy< 



Trees, 



i?7 



'o» 



Of their 
hilhinge. 



id fmooth wrought Cords, fo fl 
that it will tofs a Horfe if he be caught in it. 

In the Trade of FiOiing they are very expert, being experiene'd in the know- 

ledge of all Baits for leveral Fiflies, and divers Seafons; being not ignorant like. 

wife of the removal of Fifties, knowing when toFilh in Rivers, and when at Rocks 

when in Bays, and when at Seas : Since the English came they are furnifiYd with 

Enghsh Hooks and Lines, for before they made them of Hemp, being more curi- 

oully wrought,of ftronger Materials than ours, and hook'd with Bone-Hooks - but 

lazinefsdrivesthemtobuy, more than profit or commendations wins them to 

make of their own. They make likewife very ftrong Sturgeon-nets, with which 

they catch Sturgeons of twelve, fourteen, and fixteen, and fome eighteen Foot loner 

in the day-time, and in the nighttime they betake themfclves to their Birchen 

Canoos, in which they carry a forty-fathom Line, with a marp-bearded Dart faftned 

at the end thereof . then lighting a Torch made of Birchen Rinds, they wave it 

to and again by their Canoo fide, which the Sturgeon much delighted with, comes to 

them tumbling and playing, turning up his white Belly, into which they thruft their 

Lance, his Back being impenetrable • which done, they hale to the Shore their 

ftrugling Prize. They have often recourfe into the Rocks whereupon the Sea beats 

in warm Weather, to look out for fleepy Seals, whofe Oyl they much cfteem, ufing 

it for divers things. In Summer they Fifli any where, but in Winter in the frefli 

Water onely, and Ponds . in frofty Weather they cut round Holes in the Ice, about 

which they will fit like fo many Apes with their naked Breeches upon the cold Ice, 

catching of Pikes, Pearches, Breams, and other forts of frefh-WaterFifh. 

Their Arts and Manufactures are divers, as firft their dreffing of all manner OftWrA* 
of Sk.ns, which they do by fcraping and rubbing, afterwards painting them aLH****' 
with antique Embroiderings in unchangeable Colours . fometimes they take 
offtheHair, efpeciallyif it be not kill'd in feafon. Their Bowes they make of a 
handfom flupe, ftrung commonly with the Sinews of Moofes , their Arrows of 
young Elder, feather'd with Feathers of Eagles Wings and Tails, headed with 
Brafs in fliape of a Heart or Triangle, faftned in a (lender piece of Wood fix or 
eight Inches long, which is fram'd to put loofe in the pithy Elder , aftewards 
bound faft for riving : Their Arrows are made in this manner, becaufe it might 
fhake from his Head, and be left behind for their finding, and the Pile onely re- 
main to gaul the wounded Beaft. Their Cordage is fo evert, foft, and fmooth, that, 
it looks more like Silk than Hemp. Their Sturgeon Nets are not deep, nor above 
thirty or forty Foot long, which in ebbing low Waters they ftakc faft to the 
Ground where they are fure the Sturgeon will come, never looking more at it till 
the next low Water. Their Canoos are made either of Pine-trees, which before they 
were acquainted with English Tools, they burn'd hollow, fcraping them fmooth 
with Clam-fliells and Oyfter-ffiells, cutting their out.fides with Stone Hatchets. 
Thefe Boats are not above a Foot and a half, or two Foot wide, and twenty Foot 
long. Their other Canoos be made of thin Birch Rinds, clofe Ribb'd, and on the 
in-fide with broad thin Hoops, like the Hoops of a Tub • thefe are made very 
light, a Man may carry one of them a Mile, being made purpofely to carry from 
River to River, and from Bay to Bay, to fliorten Land-paffages. In thefe cockling 
Fly.boats, wherein an English-tmn can fcarce fit without a fearful tottering, they 
will venture to Sea, when an English Shallop dare not bear a Knot of Sail, fcudding 
over the over-grown Waves as faft as a wind-driven Ship, being driven by their 
Paddles, being much like Battle.doors ; if a crofs Wave (which is feldom) turn her 
Keel up-fide down, they by fwimming free her, and fcramble into her again. 

S Their 



l 



■ 
■ 



I 



i 5 3 



Of their Lan- 
guage. 








Of their 
Deaths, Bu- 
rials and 
Mourning. 




AMERICA. Chap. II. 

'Tjieir Language, is oncly peculiar co themfelves, not inclining to any of the 
more refined Tongues. Some have thought they might be of the difperfed Je*s t 
becaufefome of their words are near unto the Hebrew . but by the fame rule they 
may conclude them tobefome of the gleanings of all Nations, becaufe they have 
words which found after the Greek, Latine, French, and other Tongues. Their Lan- 
guage is hard to learn, few of the English being able to fpeak any of it, or capable 
of the right pronunciation, which is the chief grace of their Tongue : They pro- 
nounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding L and ^ which in our English 
Tongue they pronounce with as much difficulty, as moft of the Dutch do Tand H, 
calling a Lobfter a T^objlamu Every Countrey doth fomething differ in their Speech, 
even as our Northern People do from the Southern, and Weftern from them ; efpe- 
daily the Tamntine, whofe Tongue runs fo much upon ^ that they wharle much 
in pronunciation. When any Ships come near the Shore, they demand whether 
they are King Charles's Torries, with fuch a rumbling found, as if one were beating on 
an unbrae'd Drum. In ferious Difcourfe our Southern Indians ufe feldom any fhort 
Colloquies, but fpe*k their minds at large, without any interjefted Difcourfes 
from any, the reft giving diligent audience to his utterance . which done, fome or 
other returns him as long an Anfwec : They love not to fpeak multa, fed multum-, 
feldom are their words and their deeds ftrangers. According to the matter of their 
difcourfe, fo are their a&ing Gefturcs in their Expreffions. 

The Indians are of lufty and healthful Bodies, not experimentally knowing thofc 
Difeafes which are incident to other Countreys, as Feavers, Pleurifies, Calentures, 
Agues, Confumptions, Convulfions, Apoplexies, Dropfies, Gouts, Pox, Meaflcs, 
or the like, but fpin out the thred of their Days to a fair length, numbering fixty, 
eighty, fome a hundred years : But when any one lies a dying, the doleful cries, 
And throbbing fighs of the Friends and Relations, exprefs unfpeakable forrow . 
and when the Party is dead and laid in the Ground, they not onely weep and howl 
for a good fpace over the Grave, but alfo keep Annual Solemnities of Mourning, 
rubbingtheir Faces with black Lead all about the Eyebrows, and part of their 
Cheeks . yet do they hold the Immortality of the Soul, in which their Indian Faith 
jumps much with the Turkish Alchoran, dreaming of a certain Paradife, or South- 
Weft Eljfium, wherein they fliall everlaftingly abide, folacing themfelves in odori- 
ferous Gardens,fruitful Corn-fields, green Meadows, bathing their tawny Hides in 
# the cool Streams of pleafant Rivers, and meltering themfelves from Heat and Cold 
*in the fumptuous Palaces fram'd by Nature, concluding, that neither care nor pain 
fhall moleft them, but that Natures bounty will adminifter all things with a vo- 
luntary contribution from the Store*houfe of their Elyfium 5 at the Portal whereof, 
they fay, lies a great Dog, whofe churlifli fnarlings deny admiffion to unworthy 
Intruders : wherefore it is their cuftom to bury with them their Bowes and Arrows, 
and good (lore of their Wampompeage and Mo^hacks, the one to affright that affront- 
ing Cerberus, the other to purchafe more immenfe Prerogatives in their Paradife. 
For their Enemies and loofe Livers, whom they account unworthy of this imagi- 
nary Happinefs, they fay that they pafs to the infernal Dwellings of Jbamocho, to 
be tortur'd according to the Fictions of the ancient Heathen. 

The drudgery of all laborious forts of Work, and the management of all dome- 
ftick Affairs, lies wholly upon the Indian Women, who are made meer Slaves by 
bythelr Hus- i eir Husbands - they build the Houfes, fowe and reap the Corn, provide Lobfter* 
dliW N thc" for their Husbands to bait their Hooks when they go a Filhing ror IBaJJe or Cod ; 
and for thefe Lobfters they arc many times fore'd to dive in the extreameft Wea- 
ther, then lug home a great weight of them upon their Backs, as alfo all the Fith 

which 



Difpofitioris, 
Employ- 
ments, llfage 



Wome;i. 



If? 



Chap, II. p AMERICA. 

which their Husbands catch forpleafure, from the places where they were caught i 
They drefsall the Meat, ferve it up to their Husbands, and waiting till they have 
fill'd their Bellies, are glad of their leavings. In Summer they gather Flags, of 
which they make Mats for Houfes, and Hemp and Ruflies, with Dying Stuff; of 
which chey make curious Baskets, with intermixed Colours and Pourtraidures of 
antique Imagery. Thefe Baskets are of all fizes from a Quart to a Quarter, in 
which they carry their Luggage. In Winter they are their Husbands Caterers, 
trudging to the Clam*banks for their Belly-timber, and their Porters to lug it 
home. They likewife few their Husbands Shoes, and weave Coats of Turky Fea- 
thers, befides all their ordinary Houfliold drudgery which daily lies upon them, 
infomuch that a greatBelly hinders no bufinefs, nor doth a Child-birth take much 
time, but the young Infant being greas'd and footed, wrapp'd in a Beavers Skin, 
bound with his Feet up to his Bum,upon a Board two Foot long and one Foot broad' 
and his Face expos'd to all nipping Weather,this little fappou/e travels about with his 
barefooted Mother to paddle in the Icy Clam.banks, after three or four days of 
Age have confirm'd her recovery. For their Carriage, it is very civil, Smiles being 
the greateft grace of their Mirth. Their Mufick is Lullabies in Rocking their Chil- 
dren, who generally are as quiet as if they had neither Spleen or Lungs. Their 
Voices are generally both fweet and well order'd, fo far as pure Nature teacheth 
them. Their Modcfty drives them to wear more Clothes than the Men, having al- 
ways a Coat of Cloth or Skins, wrapp'd like a Blanket about their Loyns, reaching 
down to their Hams, which they never put off in Company. 

There are to be reckon'd up forty five chief Towns, befides what others there Towns J u 
may be of lefs note, built or made habitable by the Englijl? fince their firft arrival 
inNew England, till about the Year 1650. 

Firft, St. Georges Fort, where the firft Plantation was fetled, at the Mouth of the 
River Sagadehock, in a kind of Peninfula, or half Ifland. 

The fecond, New Plymouth, feated no lefs commodioufly upon a large Bay, call'd x<„ &,: 
by the Natives Vautuxed . where they firft fetled that went over out of diffatisfa- m "" h ' 
ction to the Church-Government of England. 

The third, Salem, call'd by the Indians, SMahumbeak*., which ftands on the middle *m 
ofa Neck of Land very pleafantly, having a South River on the one fide, and a 
North River on the other fide. This Town feems to have been built in the Year 
1628. by a part of that Company, who,being fent over by the Merchant* Adventurers, 
fetled themfelves in this Cape. 

The fourth Mafrawmnt, or Charles- torn, fituate on a Neck of Land on the North- cm,.^ 
fide of the River Charles. The form of this Town, in the Frontifpiecc of it, re- 
fembleththe Head, Neck, and Shoulders of a Man . through the right Shoulder 
whereof runs the Navigable River Mftick, which by its near approach to Charles 
-River in one place, makes the chief part of the Town a Pen'mfula : It confifts of 
a hundred and fifty Dwelling-houfes, many of them beautifi'd with pleafant Gar- 
dens and Orchards : Near the Waterside is a large Market-place, forth of which 
ifluc two fair Streets ; and in it ftandsa large and well built Church. 

The fifth, Matapdn, or Dorchejler, a Fronteer Town, ftanding over againft the Dord< ^ 
Ifland near the Sea-fide : It is water'd with two fmall Rivers, and is built in the 
form of a Serpent turning its Head Northward - it hath Orchards and Gardens 
full of Fruit-trees. 

The fixth is Bojton, anciently Accomonticm, the Center and Metropolis of the reft, */*. 
built in the form of a Heart, and fortifi'd with two Hills on the Front-part 
thereof, the one having great ftore of Artillery mounted thereon, the other having 

S 2 a 



I 



by the EnglijU 
in New Enp- 
Uttd. 



St. Gtorgts 
Fort. 



ldo 



Kjtxbury. 



Ijnnt, 




tVaur-tovn. 



&W*tiW». 



Harvtrd Co/ 
l$dgt. 



tffitich: 



/ 



MtTtbury. 
Bmferd. 



Cwnttrd, 



A U E %} C A. Chap. \h 

a ftrong Battery, built of whole Timber, and fill'd with Earth : At the Defcent 
of the Hill lies a Urge Cave or Bay, on which the chief part of this Town is bu.lt, 
over-topp'd with a third HU1, all three like over-topping Towers keeping a con. 
ftant W P atch to forefee the approach of foreign Dangers The chiefeft part of this 
City-like Town is crowdtd upon the Sea Banks, and wharf d out with great Indu. 
ftryand Coft, the Edifices large and beautiful, whofe continual enlargement pre- 

^thtZX^^cd between Vojlon and Vorch^r, watered with cool 
and pleafant Sp ings iffuing from the Rocky Hills, and with fmall Freftets water, 
".the Valleyf ofthis fertile Town , Theform of it refemblech a Wedge double 
pointed, entring between the two above.mention'd Towns? and in the room of 
Stole Swamps, or tearing Buftes which were there before, they have now goodly 
Fruit-trees, fruitful Fields and Gardens. 

The eighth is Lynne, or (according to the Indian Name, Saugus) fituated b twen 
Sale, and Cbarles-tL, near a River, whofe ftrong Freftet at the end of Winter fill. 
all her Banks, and with a violent Torrent vents it felf into the Sea. . Thu Town s 
almoft fquare, confifting many years ago of above ahundred D^Uing-honfa, ba. 
vina alfo an Iron Mill in conftant ufe i The Church being on a level Land unde. 
fended from the North-Weft Wind, is made with Steps defending into the Earth. 
The ninth is call'd Water-town, anciently fi&ujfrt, fituated upon one of the 
Branches of (>r/«*River, water'd with many pleafant Springs and fmall Rivulets, 
running like Veins throughout her Body. This Town began by occafion of ' S« 
<KicbardSaltingJlall, who arriving with ftore of Cartel and*Servants, Winter d in 

tH In fhe'vear i6n. there was erefted between Cbarles-to^n and WateMn a Place 
call'd New^n, and by the Indians, Jmongcangen, fince nam'd Cambridge, being the 
tenth in order : It is in form like a Lift of Broadcloth, reaching to the moft Sou. 
therly part of Merrimeck River , it hath comely and well order'd Streets, and two 
• fair Colledges , the firft call'd HarVerd ColUdge, from Mr. John HarVerd, who at his 
Death gave a thoufand Pounds to it , to the other Mr. J An Harms was the chief Be- 
nefactor. This Town was appointed to be the Seat of the Government, but it 

continu'd not long. . c . , 

The eleventh call'd Itfwich, or Sawacatucby the Indians, is fituated on a lair and 
delightful River, iffuing forth from a very pleafant Pond, and afterwards breaking 
its Courfe through a hideous Swamp of large extent , it lies in the Sagamore^, or 
Earldom of Jggawan, now by the Englijh call'd Ejfex. 

Twelve Miles from Ipfwicb, near upon the Streams of Memmeck River, is iitua. 
ted the twelfth, call'd Nfbburj. . f 

The People of Newtown, or Cambridge, upon their removal of the Plantation • ot 
CaneBico, paffingup the River, built a Town, which they call'd Hartford, the thir- 
teenth in number, divers others coming in the room of thofe that departed from 

The fourteenth,feated upon a fair freft River(whofe Rivulets are fill'd witb-freft 
Mar ft, and her Streams with Fift, it being a Branch of that large River of Mem- 
meck Attwhes) is built in the Inland Countrey, and call'd Concord: It confided at 
firft of above fifty Families: Their Buildings are for the moft part conveniently 
plac'd on one ftreight Stream under a Sunny Bank, in alow Level. The People 
that firft fet forth to build this Town, fuftain*d.great hardftip and mifery, by reaj 
fonofthe uncouth Ways, and extremity of the Weather, it being the firft Inland 

Town that was built. . 

South- 



Chap. II. <tl MEX^ICJ. 

South-Eaft of CharlessKivcr, Upon the Sea-Coaft, is ficuated the fifteenth Town 
Hingbam ; the form whereof is fomewhat intricate to deicribe, by reafon of the Sea- 
wafting Crooks, where ic beats upon a moultring Shore . yet in fome places the 
Streets are compleat : It confifted at firft of about fixty Families. 

The fixtecnth is in Tlymoutb Government, fituate upon the Sea.Coaft, firft nam'd 
Dukes'bury, afterwards Sandwich, 

About the year 1617. anew Supply coming over into thefe Parts, and not find- 
ing in the Mattacbufets Government any commodious place to fettle in, they after 
much fcarch took up a place fomewhat more Southerly, near the Sballes of Qapecod, 
where they found a commodious Harbor for Shipping, and a fit place to ere& a 
Town in, which they built in a fliort time, with very fair Houfcs and compleat 
Streets . and fliortly after feveral others : Amongft which they erefted a new 
Government, which from their firft Fronteer Town, being the feventeenth, was 
call'd ]>{ewbaVen. 

The eighteenth is m the Government of the Mattacbufets, and call'd Vedbam, being 
an Inland Town, fituate about ten Miles from Softon in the County of Suffolk, well 
watered with many pleafant Streams, and abounding with Gardens and Fruit- 
Trees : It confifted at firft of about a hundred Families, being generally given to 
Husbandry. 

The nineteenth being alfo in this Government is call'd Utynoutb, battcr'd on the 
Eaft with the Sea Waves . on the South-Weft Rocks and Swamps make it delight- 
ful to the Deer, as the ploughable Meadow-Lands to the Inhabitants, 

About the Year 1 638. Printing was brought over into TS(eTi> England. 

About fix Miles from Ipfwicb, North.Eaftward, was erefted another Town 
call'd ti^pyly, being the twentieth. 

^ About the Year 1639. began the one and twentieth Town Hampton, in the 
County of Norfolk, to b* built : It is fituate near the Sea-Coaft, not far from the 
River of Merrimeck: The great ftoreof fait Marfli did entice the People to fet 
down their Habitations there. 

Not far from this Town of Hampton, was erefted the two and twentieth, call'd 
Salisbury, feated upon the broad fwift Torrent of MerrimechKiwer : It lieth on the 
Northern fide, over againft the Town of Newbury, the River between them being 
about half a Mile broad, but hath an Ifland in the midft thereof, which makes it 
the more eafily pafTable. The fituation of this Town is very pleafant, the Skirts 
thereof abounding in fair and goodly Meadows, with good ftore of ftately Tim- 
ber in many places upon the Uplands. 

About the Year 1640. by afrefli Supply of People that fetlcd in Long-lfland, was 
there ere&ed the twenty third Town, call'd Southampton^ by the Indians, JgaTtonu 

The fame Year alfo the Town of Sudbury y being the twenty fourth, began to be 
built in the Inland Countrey : It is furnifli'd with great ftore of ftefli Marfh, but 
lying very low, it is much endammag'd with Land.floods. 

About this time there was built at Mount Wolhjlone, by fome old Planters and 
certain Farmers of the great Town of So/ton, a Town nam'd Braintree, being the 
twenty fifth, within the Mattacbufets Government: It is well peopled, and hath 
great ftore of Land in Tillage. 

In the Year 1641. Mr. Richard Blindman coming from Green Harbour, a Place in 
Tlymoutb Patent, with fome few People of his acquaintance, fetled in CapeJnne, 
where they built the twenty fixth Town, and nam'd it Gloucejler. 

There is alfo fituate upon Tufcataque River, to the North-Eaft ofBofton, a Town 
call'd DoMer, being the twenty feventh, the People by voluntary refignation being 
under the Mattacbufets Government* S 3 In 



t6l 



D*\isbury,<x 

Sandvpiib, 



Kavhavt*. 



Dtdhm: 



Wtjmwthl 



Xjtvt;. 

fUmfttn. 



\ 





1 




1 















SaMnrj. 



Lottg-lfiand. 
Southampton. 



S*dl>mtj, 



Mraittlrtti 



Ghtut/ftrl 



Pmr. 



tog. 



*Um. 



Spring-* 



Havtrbill. 



M*Utn. 




The prefcnt 
ftate of the 
NatiTcs. 



Church- 
Government 
among tht 
tngi'fr. 



AMERICA. Chap. II. 

In the Year 1642. was erefted the eight and twentieth Town, call'd Woobum. 

In the Year 16 44. Grading the nine and twentieth Town was built, being in the 
Government of the Mattacbufets $ it is well water'd and fituated about a great 
Pond, having two Mills, a Saw-Mill, and a Corn-Mill, which ftand upon two 
feveral Streams, 

A little after was built the thirtieth Town in this Colony, call'd Wenham, fituate 
between Salem and Ipfwicb ; it is very well water'd, as moft Inland Towns arc, and 
the People live altogether on Husbandry, 

About the Year 1645- one Mr. Tincbin, having out of defire to improve his 
Eftate by Trading with the Indians, fetled himfelf in a place very remote from any 
of the Towns of the Mattachufets Colony, yet under their Government, and great 
ftore of People ftill reforting to him, they at laft erected a Town upon the River 
Canetlico, calling it Spring-field, being the one and thirtieth Town ; it is very fitly 
feated for a Beaver Trade with the Indians , in regard it is fituate upon this large 
Navigable River, and upon fome Rivulets of the fame. 

In the Year 1648. was founded the Town of Haverhill, being the two and thir- 
tieth,about a Mile or two from, the place where the River of Merrimeck receives in- 
to it felf the River Shawshin, which is one of her three chief Heads. 

Not long after, the Town of Maiden, being the three and thirtieth Town, was 
built by certain People that came out of Charles^To^n ,• thefe two Towns being fe- 
ver'd the ome from the other by the large River of Miftick* 

The reft we fhall onely name, as 34. Berwick, alias Cbaftun. 3 5 Oxford, alias Sago- 
qua*. Falmouth, alias Totam. 36. Brijtol. 37. Hull, alias Vajfataauack. 38. Dartmouth, 
alias <Bohanna. 30. Norwich, alias Segocket* 40. Taunton, alias Qohannet. 41. Greens* 
Harbour. 42. Yarmouth. 43. Northam, alias Tafcataqua. 44. Exeter. 45. Weymouth. 

The chief Rivers of New England zrc, ( Pafcataway, Sagadahoc, Termnaquid, Agamentko, 
Merrimeck, Tachobacco , Mtftick, Narraganfet , Mijhuwin , Conns tlacut , NewichwaVocb, 
l\jnebequy. 

The Indian Natives are now become fo weak in number, and in fome meafure 
redue'd to a dread of the growth of the Englifo, that of late years they have not 
pra&is'd any thing againft them, or at leaft, not juftifi'd them by numbers in 
open Hoftility, willing rather to purchafe their Peace and buy off Injuries com- 
mitted by them at the Price of their Lands and PofTeffions. 

And although care and expence hath been many years apply'd to the Converfi- 
on of Indians to the Faith, however inclinable they feem'd at firft to the imbracing 
thereof, not then fo well difcerning the infincerity of its ProfefTbrs. yet there are 
fo few of late who do imbrace it or perfeverc in it (wanting a good Foundation for 
inftru&ion in Moral Honefty,and perhaps the example of it in thofe that undertake 
to inftru6t them in Religion . ) that Chriflianity to them feems a Chimera, Religion a 
defign to draw them from the libidinous Plcafures of a lazy Life ; however, fome 
there are who make Profeflion of Chrtftianity, and fome who are educated in the 
Schools of New Cambridge, to entitle them to Preach the Gofpcl in their own Lan* 
guage. 

One great hindrance to the Propagation of the Faith amongft thofe Heathens, is 
the diverfity of their Languages . for it is commonly known, that the Natives 
themfelves do not underftand one another, if their Habitations are but at forty 
Miles diftancc. 

Their Church-Government and Difcipline is Congregational and Independent, 
yet in fome places more rigid than others, for in many Towns there yet remains 
fome leaven of fresbytery, from which Se&s our Independency had its Original • info- 
much 



idj 



and Laws. 



Chap. II. <U M E%^1 C J. 

much that one of the moft remarkable Oppofers of Epfcopal 'Government, Doctor 
tBaJlmck (.who, ipoil'd fo much Paper in railing at the Church Government of 
England and crymg up Liberty of Confciencc) finding the Apoftacy of his own Bre- 
thren of <BoJbn from their firft Principles, and his,generally prevail over them, even 
to the denying that liberty to others, which they feem'd only to aim at, did write 
a large and vehement Dehortatory Epijtle to them from their N<?» lights or Paths fay. 
ing, That according to their prefent Tenents, they could not pretend to be better, or other than a 
Cbrifiian Synagogue. 

Their Laws and Methods of Government are wholly of their own framing, G £^ 
each Colony for themlelves, makes an Annual choice of Governor, Deputy Go! 
vernor and la certain number of Affiftants, by the plurality of Suffrages collected 
frorn their feveral Towns, the Electors are only Free-men and Church-Members- 
for he that is not a Member of their Church, can neither chafe, nor be chofen a 
Mag.ftrate, nor have his Children Baptiz'd . befides the lofs of many otherPri. 
viledges.and liable moreover to frequent,if not conftant Mulcts for abfentino them- 
felves from Divine IVor/hy (fo call'd) in their Meeting- houfes. 

Since the tranfmitting of the Patent in Tfa» England, the Election is not by Voi- 
ces, nor erection of Hands as formerly, but by Papers, thus : 

The general Court-eleftory fitting, where arc prefent in the Church, or Meet- 
wg-houfe uSoJhm, the old Governor, Deputy, and all the Magiflrates, and two 
Deputies or Burgeffes for every Town , or at leaft one . all the Freemen are bid 
to come m at one Door, and bring their Votes in Paper for the new Governor, 
and deliver them down upon the Table, before the Court, and fo pafs forth at 
another Door . thofe that are abfent, fend their Votes by Proxies. All being de- 
liver'd in, the Votes are counted, and according to the major part, the old Gover- 
nor pronounceth, That Jitcb an one is chofen Governor for the year enfuing. Then the 
Freemen, in like manner, bring their Votes for the Deputy Governor, who bein<r 
alfo chofen, the Governor propounded the Affiftants one after another. New 
Affiftants are, of late, put in nomination, by an Order of general Court, before- 
hand to be confider'd of: If a Freeman give in a Blank, that rejects the Man 
nam'd ; if the Freeman makes any mark with a Pen upon the Paper which he 
brings, that elects the Man nam'd : Then the Blanks and mark'd Papers are num. 
ber'd, and according to the major part of either, the Man in Nomination ftands 
elected or rejected ; and fo for all the Affiftants. And after every new Election, 
which is, by their Patent, to be upon the laft Wednefday in Eafttr Term, the new 
Governor and Officers are all new Sworn. The Governor and Affiftants chufe the 
Secretary. And all the Court confifting of Governor, Deputy, Affiftants, and De- 
puties of Towns, give their Votes as welt as the reft; and the Miniftcrs and El- 
ders, and all Church -Officers, have their Votes alfo in all thefe Elections of chief 
Magiflrates : Conftables, and all other inferior Officers, are fworn in the general, 
quarter, or other Courts, or before any Affiftant. 

Every Freeman when he is admitted, takes a ftrict Oath, to be true to the So- 
ciety or Jurifdiction. 

There are two general Courts, one every half year, wherein they make Laws or 
Ordinances : The Minifters advifc in making of Laws, efpecially Ecclefiaftical.and 
are prefent in Courts, and advife in fome fpecial Caufes Criminal, and in framing 
of Fundamental Laws. - 

There are befides four Qyarter-Courts for the whole Jurifdiction, befides other 
petty Courts, one every quarter at 'Boflon, Salem, and Ipfoicb, with their feveral Ju- 
rifdiftions; befides every Town, almoft, hatha petty Court for fmall Debts and 
Trelpaffes, under twenty Shillings. la 



i6q. 

ani Caultrs. 



vf M.E %I C J. 



Chap. II. 



Grand- 
Juries. 



Trial*. 




In the general Court, or great quarter Courts, before the Civil Magiilrates, are 
try'd all Aclions and Caufcs Civil and Criminal, and alfo Ecclefiaftical, efpecially 
touching Non-members : And they themfelves fay, that in the general and quarter 
Courts, they have the Power of Parliament, Kings-Bench, Common-Pleas, Chan, 
eery, High-Commiflion, and Star-Chamber, and all other Courts of England, and 
in divers Cafes have exercis'd that Power upon the Kings Subjects there, as is not 
difficult to prove. They have put to death, banifh'd, fin'd Men, cut off Mens 
Ears, whip'd, imprifon'd Men, and all thefc for Ecclefiaftical and Civil Offences, 
and without fufficient Record. In the letter quarter Courts are try'd, in fome, A&i* 
ons under ten Pounds, in Lofton, under twenty, and all Criminal Caufes not touch- 
ing-Life or Member. From the petty quarter Courts, or other Courcs,the parties 
may appeal to the great quarter Courts, from thence to the general Court, from 
which there is no Repeal. 

Twice a year, in the faid quarter Courts held before the general Courts, are two 
Grand-Juries fworn for the Jurifdiction, one for one Court, and the other for the 
other . and they are charg'd to enquire and Prefent Offences redue'd by theGover- 
aor who gives the Charge. 

Matters of Debt, Treipafs, and upon the Cafe, and Equicy, yea and of Hcrefie 
alfo, are try'd by a Jury. 

The Parties are warn'd to challenge any Jwry-man before he be fworn ; but be- 
caufe there is but one Jury in a Court for trial of Caufes ; and all Parties not pre- 
fent at their Swearing, the liberty of challenge is much hinder'd, and fome incon- 
veniences do happen thereby. Jurors are return d by the Marfhal, he was at firft 
called T7;e Beadle of the Society. 

The Parties in all Caufes, fpeak themfelves for the moft part, and fome of the 
Magiftrates where they think caufe requireth, do the part of Advocates without 
Fee or Reward. 

Though among the feveral Colonies which were founded here by the conflu- 
ence of diflcntirig Zealots, this Government is exercis'd, differing from that of the 
Church and State of England : yet in thofe Provinces which are. granted by parti- 
cular Perfons, the Government is much more conformable to that of England ; but 
as the Mattachufets or Sojloners were from the beginning the moft Potent and Predo- 
minant of all the reft of the Colonies, (infomuch, that Boflon may well be accoun- 
ted the Metropolis of all T^ew England ^ fo of late years they have ft ill ufurp'd more 
and more Power and Authority over the reft 5 and efpecially have not ftuck to give 
Laws to the forefaid Provinces allotted to particular Perfons, and have gone about 
wholly to fubjugate thofe places to thenffetocs, intrenching upon the rights of the 
true Proprietors 5 and that, even contrary to the Kings exprefs Commands by his 
Officers, there, and as it were in open defiance of his Majefty and Government, as 
is evident from this following Narration, of their behavior upon a bufinefs of this 
nature. 



£ TN the Year of our Lord 1665. n i s Majcfties Commiffioners for the Affairs of 
"ft * JS^ew England, being in the Province of Mayne, the People being much unfetled 




Proceedings 
of the Matt a- 
thujets againft 
hisMajefties . _ ; f ' . ~ *•> 

Commiflio- in Point or Government , by reafon the Mattachufets Colony, or Bojlon Govern. 
ment, did ufurp compulfively a Power over them contrary to their wills- and the 
right of Sir Ferdinando Gorges Heir, who had his Coramiffion then in the place, did 
unanimoufly Petition to his Majefties Commiflioners to fettle the Government; 
upon which the faid Commi/Tioncrs examin'd the Bounds and Right of Mr. Gorges 
Patent, with all the Allegations and Pretenfions on both fides, and fo according 

to 



Chap. II. AMERICA. 

to their Inftru&ion from his Majefty, did fettle a temporary Government under his 
Majefty's immediate Authority, until fuch time as his Majefty fhould give his final 
determination thereof ; and for that end did Inftitute Juftices of the Peace to Go- 
vern the Province according to the true Laws of England. Alfo his Majefty was 
pleas'd by his- Mandamus in April 1666 , to the Governors ofBoJlo?i, to fignifie that it 
was his will and pleafure, That the Province of Main fiiould ftand good as his 
Commiflioners had fctled it, until he had more leifure to determine it . yet not- 
withftanding, after three years quiet pofleffion, and exercifing of Government by 
the Kings Juftices, according to their Commiflion granted by his Majefty's Com- 
mitfioners, the Sojloners, without any Conference with the laid Juftices, did in a 
hoftile manner oppofe the King's Power, July 1668. which was as followeth: 

The General Court of <BoJton fent their Warrants to keep Court at York under 
their Authority, and for that purpofe Commiflionated Magiftrates by their own 
Authority, namely Major General ?o/w Leveret, Mr. Edward Ting, Captain Orchard 
Walden, and Captain Robert 'Me : Whereupon the King's Juftices did oppofe their 
Warrants, and fent Poft to New York, with an Addrefs to General Nicholas, for Ad- 
vice what to do therein 5 who forthwith difpatch'd away to the Governors of 
(Bo/ton, informing them of the danger of their Proceeding, it being an open breach 
of Duty, to fubvert the Government eftablifh'd by his Majefty's Power . alfo fent 
the King's Mandamus, April 1666. that Will'd to the contrary. Notwithftanding 
the Bojlon Magiftrates in July 1668. in order to their So/oh Commiflion, came to 
York Town in the faid Province, with feveral Armed Men, Horfe and Foot, to keep 
Court under their Authority ; Oppofition was made by the King's Juftices, and 
his Majefty's Power wasurg'd, but little regard thereunto fliewn ; his Majefties 
Mandamus -was like wife much infilled upon, and produced by the Juftices, who ask'd 
the Bojloners what they thought of it ? and how they durft ad fo contrary to the 
King's Will and Pleafure? Major General Leveret told them, That he believ'd it 
might be the King's Hand, but he had a Commiflion from the general Court at 
Bojion, which he would follow and obferve by the help of God. The fame day 
in the Afternoon the faid Major General Leveret, with the reft of the Bojlon Magi- 
ftrates, feiz'd and imprifon'd the Province Marfhal in doing hi! Office, and then 
forthwith went in warlike pofture to the Court-houfe, where the King's Juftices 
fat in Judicature, and putting them from their Seats, fat down themfelves in their 
Places, and Executed their Bojlon Commiflion. The King's Juftices drew a Protejl 
againft their Proceedings, and fo left the Decifion to God's Providence, and his 
Majefty's good Pleafure. Then they turn'd out all Officers, both Military and Ci- 
vil, and Swore others in their Places under their Authority 5 they fore'd the whole 
Record of the Province out of the Recorders Houfe contrary to his Will, by 
vertue of a Special Warrant from that Court. *They imprifon'd the Mayor of the 
faid Province about three weeks, forcing him to give in five hundred Pound Bonds, 
not to aft according to his Commiflion 5 which with fome Refervations he was 
fore'd to deny for the fecurity of his Eftate. 

Thefe riotous Proceedings thus acted with fuch a precipitate fury, fo incens'd 
his Majefty,that fpeedy care had been taken to reduce them to reafon, had they not 
upon mature consideration bethought themfelves afterwards to yield Obedience to 
his Majefties Orders. 

Having treated at Urge of all that concerns IStew England in general, both ill re- 
ference to the Natives and the Englifl? Planters, we fhall conclude with a brief view 
of the Provinces of Laconia and Main, as they are truly Defcrib'd (among other in- 
genuous Collections and Obfervations of the Affairs of America, and efpecially 

thefe 



Itfj 






I 



I 






MB 



id 6 



A M ET^I C J. 



Chap. II. 



A brief De- 

fcriptton of 
Laconia, a 
Province in 
New Eng- 
land. 





thefc Parts) by Ferdinando Gorges Efcj; Heir to the above»mention'd Sir Ferdinando, 
and thereby fole Lord of the faid Provinces, onely contracting what hath been by 
him delivered more at large. 

Among divers Plantations of the Englifh happily Founded in New England , is a 
Province to the Landward, nam'd Laconia, Co call'd by reafon of the great Lakes 
therein, but by the ancient Inhabitants thereof it is call'd The Countrey of the Troquois: 
It lies between the Latitude of forty four and forty five Degrees, having the Ri- 
vers of Sagadebock and Merrimeck on the Sea-Coaft of New England, Southerly from 
it; into each of which Rivers there is a fliort Paflage, frequented by the Salvages 
inhabiting near the Lakes. Alfo it hath the great Lakes which tend towards Cali- 
fornia in the South Sea. on the Weft thereof: On the North thereof is the great 
River of Canada, into which the faid River difgorgeth it felf by a fair large River, 
well rcplenifli'd with many fruitful Iflands : The Air thereof is pure and wholefom, 
the Countrey pleafant, having fome high Hills, full of goodly Forrefts, and fair 
Valleys and Plains, fruitful in Corn, Vines, Chefhuts, Wallnuts, and infinite forts 
of other Fruits, large Rivers well ftor'd with Fifli, and inviron'd with goodly Mea- 
dows full of Timber-trees. 

One of the great Lakes is call'd The Lake of Iroquois, which together with a Ri- 
ver of the lame Name, running into the River of Qanada, is fixty or feventy Leagues 
in length. 

In the Lake are four fair Iflands, which are low and full of goodly Woods and 
Meadows^ having ftore of Game for Hunting, as Stags, Fallow*Deer, Elks, Roe- 
Bucks, Beavers, and other forts of Beafts which come from the Main Land to the 
faid Iflands. 

The Rivers which fall into the Lakes have in them good (lore of Beavers 5 of 
which Beafts, as alfo of the Elks, the Salvages make their chiefeft Traffick. 

The faid Iflands have been inhabited heretofore by the Salvages, but are now 
abandon'd by reafon of their late Wars one with another : They contain twelve 
or fifteen Leagues in length, and are feated commodioufly for Habitation in the 
midft of the Lake, which abounds with divers kinds of wholefom Fifli. 

From this Lake run two Rivers Southward, which fall into the Eaftern and 
Southern Sea-Coaft of New England. 

Into this Lake there went many years fince certain French of Quebeck, who fided 
with the MgoYtnquins, with the help of their Ca?ioos, which they carried the fpace of 
five Miles over the Impoftible Falls, to Fight a Battel in revenge of fome former In- 
juries done by the Troquois to the JlgoVmquins , who had the Victory 5 for which caufe 
the French have been fo hated ever fince by the Nation of the Troquois, that none of 
themdurft everappear in any part of that Lake. But their Trade, faid tobe fixteen 
thoufand Beavers yearly , is partly fcld to the .Dutch , who Trade with the Weft- 
end of the faid Lake over Land by Horfes, from their Plantation upon Hudfons 
(RjVer : and another part is conceived to be purchas'd by the Hiroons, who being 
Newters, a,re Friends both to the one and the other ; and thefe Hiroons bring down 
the greateft part of all by the River of Canada. 

The Way over Land to this great Lake, from the Plantation of <Pafcatalt>ay, hath 
been attempted by Captain Walter Neale, once Governor, at the Charges of Sir Fer» 
dinando Gorges, Captain Mafon, and fome Merchants of London, and the Difcovery 
wanted but one days Journey of finiflhing, becaufe their Victuals was fpent, which, 
for want of Horfes, they were enfore'd to carry with their Arms, and their Clothes, 
upon their Backs : They intended to have made a fettlement for Trade by Pinnaces 
upon the faid Lake, which they reckon to be about ninety or a hundred Miles from 
the Plantation over Land. The 



Chap. II. a M EX^IC A. 167 

The People of the Countrey are given to Hunting of wild Beafts, which is their 
chiefeft Food. 

Their Arms are Bowes and Arrows. Their Armor is made partly of Wood, 
and partly of a kind of twifted Stuff like Cotton^Wool. 

Thdj^Meat is Flour of Indian Corn, of that Countreys growth, fodden to Pap, 
whicnThcy preferve for times of Neceflity when they cannot Hunt. 

This Province of Laconia, however known by a diftinct Name, is included within- 
the Province of Main, which offers it felf next to our confideration. 

All that part of the Continent of New England, which was allotted by Patent to of the Pro- 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges and to his Heirs, he thought fit to call by the Name of The Tro- ^%. of 
YmceofMain* It takes it beginning at the entrance of Tafcatoway Harbor, and Co 
pafleth up the fame into the River of Ne'\Ytchv>a'Vocb j and through the fame unto the 
fartheft Head thereof ; and from thence North-Weft wards for the fpace of a hun- 
dred and twenty Miles . and from the Mouth of PafcatoTtay Harbor aforefaid, 
North-Eaftward along the Sea*Coaft, to Sagadehock ; and up the River thereof to 
JQnibequy River, even as far as the Head thereof; and into the Land North- Weft* 
wards, for the fpace of a hundred and twenty Miles. 

To thefe Territories are alfo adjoyn'd the North half of the Ifles of Sboles, toge- 
ther with the Ifles ofCapawkk and Is^auticanj as alfo all the little Iflands lying within 
five Leagues of the Main, all along the Sea«Coaft, between the aforefaid Rivers of 
PafcatoTbay and Sagadehock* 

He no fooncr had this Province fetled upon him, but he gave publick notice, 
That if anyone would undertake by himfelf and his Affociates, toTranfporta 
competent number of Inhabitants, to Plant in any part of his Limits, he would 
affign unto him or them fuch a proportion of Land, as fhould in reafon fatisfie them, 
referving onely to himfelf fome fmall High-Rent, as is. ox is. 6 d. for a hundred 
Aores per Annum : and if they went about to build any Town or City, he would 
Endow them with fuch Liberties and Immunities, as fliould make them capable to 
Govern themfelvcs within their own Limits, according to the Liberties granted to 
any Town or Corporation within this Realm of England. And as for others of the 
meaner fort who went as Tenants, that they fhould have fuch quantities of Land 
aflign'd them as they were able to manage, at the Rate of 4 d. or 6 d. an Acre, ac- 
cording to the nature or fituation of the Place they fettle in. 

And for the Divifion of the Province, and the Form of Government which he 
intended to EftablHh, he firft divided the Province into feveral Parts ; and thofc 
again he fubdivided into diftinA Regiments, as Eaft, Weft, North, and South ; 
thofe again into feveral Hundreds, Parifhesand Tythings, and thefe to have their 
feveral Officers to Govern, according to fuch Laws as fliould be agreed upon by 
publick Affent of the Free-holders, with the approbation of himfelf or Deputy ^and 
the principal Officers of the publick State. 

The fetled Government for the general State, to whom all Appeals were to be 
made, and from whom all Instructions for the welfare of the Publick weretoiffue, 
were to confift of himfelf or his Deputy, who was to be chofen every three year 
by himfelf, with the advice of his Council : Next a Chancellor for the determina* 
tion of all Caufes ; ATreafurer, to whom the care of the publick Revenue was 
to be committed • A Marfhal, whofc Office was to overfee the Regiments, and to 
provide Men for publick Service ; An Admiral, to take care of all Maritime Af* 
fairs, to whom a Judge of the Admiralty was to be joyn'd to determine all Mari- 
time Caufes ; A Matter of the Ordnance, to look to the publick Atms and Am- 
munition • A Secretary, to receive Intelligence, and to acquaint himlelf or Deputy 

there- 














i<58 A M E^I C A. Chap. II. 

therewith. To thefe belong all their feveral Officers and Minifters for the Execu- 
tion of all Matters proper to their feveral Places. 

The chief Town of this Province is call'd Gorgiana, which is Govern'd by a 
Mayor, the reft are onely inconfiderable Villages or fcatter'd Houfes . but through 
Encouragement given to Adventurers and Planters, it may prove in time a very 
flouriftiing Place, and be replenish 'd with many fair Towns and Cities, it being a 
Province both fruitful and pleafant. 

Sect. II. 

New Netherlands now call'd New York. 

THat Trad of Land formerly call'd The 2{ey> Ts[etherland, doth contain all 
that Land which lieth in the North parts of America, betwixt TS[ew England 
and Mary-Land 5 the length of which Northward into the Countrey, as it 
hath not been fully difcover'd, fo it is not certainly known : The breadth of it is 
about two hundred Miles. The principal Rivers within this Traft, are Hudfons~ 
River, <I{aritan-K\xev, Delay>are-!Bay*RiYCT. The chief Iflands are the Manhatans- 
Ifland, Long Jfland, and Statoi-Ifland. 

The firft which difcover'd this Countrey was Henry Hud/on, who being hir'd by 
the Eajldndia Company to feek a PaiTage in the Northern Jmerica to China, fct Sail 
Anno 1 600. in the Half -Moon Frigat ; coming before Terre-neuff, he flood about to- 
wards the South-Weft, where Sailing up a great River, he found two Men Clad in 
in %uffe\os Skins ; and from thence arriv'd fafe at Amflerdam. 

2^ew T*{etherland thus difcover'd, invited many Merchants to fettle a firm Plan- 
tation there ; to which purpofc they obtain'd Letters Patents fh 1614. granted 
them by the States in the Hague, That they might onely Traffick to 2>{ew Nethv 
land- whereupon they earneftly profecuting the Defign, fent out Adrian Slock and 
Godyn, who difcover'd feveral Coafts, Ifles, Havens, and Rivers. 

The Countrey, as they faid, being then void, was therefore free for any body 
that would take poffeflion of it : Notwithstanding which pretence, they were 
fcarcc warm in their Quarters, when Sir Samuel jirgal, Governor of Virginia, having 
firft fpoil'd the French in Accadie, as we faid, difputed the Poffeflion with thefe alfo. 
And although they pleaded Hudfons Right (who by Coramiflion from King James, 
and upon an English Account, had lately difcover'd thofe Parts) and pretended they 
had not onely bought all his Cards and Maps of the Countrey, but all his Intereft 
and Right alfo, and had fully contented him for all his Pains and Charges in the 
Difcovery . yet the faid Hud/on being an Englishman, and acfting all that he did 
by Commiilion from the King of England, upon Debate it was concluded, That the 
Land could not be alienated after Difcovery without the King o{ England's confent, 
efpecially it being but a part of the Province of Virginia, already poffefs'd by the 
Subjects of England : So that they were fore'd to wave that Title, and the Dutch Go- 
vernor fubmitted his Plantation to His Majefty of England, and to the Governor of 
Virginia, for and under him : Upon which Terms for a good while they held it. 
Afterwards, upon confidence,it feems, of a new Governor fent from Amflerdam } thcy 
not onely fail'd to pay the promis'd Contribution and Tribute, but fell to fortifie 
themfelves, and to entitle the Merchants of Amflerdam to an abfolute Propriety and 
Dominion of the Country, independent of any other ; buildingTowns, as NeTt>Am» 
fierdam^ raifing Forts, zsOrange Fort, near the Branch of the Nordt ^er, which they 
call Hell- Gate. Complaint whereof being made to King Charles, and by his Am* 
< baflador 






* f 



5 




Chap. II. <tA M ET^I C A. ^ 

baffador reprefented to the States, they difown the bufinefs, and declare by Publick 
Inftfument, that it was onely a private Undertaking, W*j« of the Weft-India Com- 
pany oiAmfterdam. Whereupon a Commiflion was granted to Sir George Calvert, 
made Lord Baltimore in Ireland, to Poflefs and Plant the Southern parts thereof, lyin* 
towards Ftrginia, by the name of Mary-land . and to Sir Edmund Loyden, to Plant the 
Northern parts towards New England, by the name of NoVa Albion : Which makes 
the Dutch the fecond time feem willing to compound . and for the Sum of two 
thoufand and five hundred Pounds, they offer to be gone, and leave all they had 
there. But taking advantage of the troubles in England, which then began to appear, 
and foon after follow'd , they not only go back from their firft Propofitions, and' 
make higher Demands, but alfo moft mifchievoufly (as fome report ) furnifii 
the Natives with Arms, and teach them the ufc of them, as it may be thought, ex- 
pecting to ufe their help upon occafion, againft the E?jglifb. 

After His Majefties Reftauration , His Majefty being truly inform'd of his juft 
Pretences to all that Ufurp'd Territory call'd New Netherland, ( the lame having 
been formerly part of New England) and of how great prejudice to the Acl: of Na- 
vigation, and how dangerous Intruders the Dutchmen are generally upon other 
Princes Dominions, what mifchief might enfue to all our Engltfi Plantations in 
time of War , if the Dutch were permitted to ftrengthen themfelves in the very 
heart of His Majefties Dominions, being Matters of one of the moft commodious 
Ports and Rivers in America : His Majefty refolv'd to feize upon the fame, as his 
undoubted Right, and in May 1664. having defign'd four Commiflioners to the 
perfecting of Affairs in New England, Collonel Richard Nichols, Sir Robert Can, 
George Qartwright, and Samuel MaVrick Efquires, with three Ships of War to convey 
them to Bofton : The matter was fo order'd, that the fame Ships ferv'd for the re* 
ducing of the Town and Toxt of N^eTf Jmfterd am, upon conditions, advantageous 
to His Majefty, and eafie to the Dutch. 

Now begins New Netherland to lofe the Name, for His Majefty having conferr'd 
by Patent upon his Royal Highnefs the Duke of York and Albany, all the Acquifiti. 
ons made upon Foraigners , together with Long-lfland , the Weft end whereof 
was wholly fetled and Peopled by Dutch-men ; his Royal Highnefs impower'd, by 
Commiflion as his Deputy-Governor, Colonel Nichols, Groom of his Bed-cham- 
ber, to take the Charge and Diredion of Reducing an-d Governing all thofe Terri- 
tories-it was by him thpught fit,to change fome principal denominations of Places, 
yi% New Netherland into Tork-jhire-, New Amfterdam into New York-, Fort-Amfcel into Fort* 
James*, Fort-Orange into Fort*Albany ; and withal, to change Burgomafters, Schepen, and 
Schout, into Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, with Juftices of the Pface ; fo that all 
the Civil Policy is conformable to the Methods and Praftifc of England, whereas 
2{ew England retains only the name of Qonftabk in their whole Rolls of Civil Offi- 
cers. 

It is plac'd upon the neck of the Ifland Manhatans, looking towards the Sea • en- 
compafs'd with Hudjons River, which is fix Miles broad ; the Town is compact 
and oval, with very fair Streets and feveral good Houfes ; the reft are built much 
after the manner of Holland, to the number of about four hundred Houfes, which 
in thofe parts are held confiderable : Upon one fide of the Town is James*Fort, 
capable to lodge three hundred Souldiers and Officers . it hath four Baftions, forty 
Pieces of Cannon mounted . the Walls of Stone , lm d with a thick Rampart of 
Earth ; well accommodated with a Spring of frefh Water, always furnifli'd with 
Arms and Ammunition, againft Accidents : Diftant from the Sea feven Leagues, 
it affords a fafe Enhance, even to unskilful Pilots ; under the Town fide, Ships of 

T any 



170 









Manhattans 
River. 





Wkolefom 1 
JVaters. 



Jrecfej 



A M E %^J C A. Cliap. II. 

any Burthen may Ride fecure againft any Storms, the Current of the River being 
broken by the interpofition of a fmall Ifland, which lies a Mile diftant from the 

Town. 

About ten Miles from Ne» York is a Place call'd Hell-Gate, which being a nar- 
row Paffage, there runneth a violent Stream both upon Flood and Ebb 5 and in the 
middle lie fo me Rocky Iflands, which the Current fets fo violently upon, that 
it threatens prefent Shipwrack ; and upon the Flood is a large Whirlwind, which 
continually fends forth a hideous roaring, enough to affright any Stranger from 
pafling farther, and to wait for fome Charon to conduct him through 5 yet to thofc 
that are well acquainted,little or no danger : It is a place of great Defence againft 
any Enemy coming in that way, which a fmall Forticfiation would abfolutely 
prevent, and neceflitate them to come in at the Weft end of Long-Iflan d by Sandy 
Hoofc, where T^utten Ifland forces them within the Command of the Fort at New York, 
which is one of the bed Pieces ofjDefence in the North parts of America. It is built 
moft of Brick and Stone, and cover'd with red and black Tyle, and the Land being 
high, it gives at a diftance a pleafing profpeft to the Spectators, The Inhabitants 
confiftmoft of English and Dutch, and have a confiderable Trade with Indians for 
Beaver, Otter, and <]{ackoon*Sk\ns, with other Furrs . as alfo for Bear, Deer and 
Elke-Skins . and are fupply'd with Venifon and Fowl in the Winter, and Fifli in 
the Summer by the Indians, which they buy at an eafie Rate • and having the Coun- 
trey round about them, they are continually furnifh'd with all fuch Provifionsas 
is needful for the Life of Man, not onely by the Engltfh and Dutch within their own, 
but likewife by the adjacent Colonies. 

The Manhattans, or Great (^iver,being the chiefeft, having with two wide Mouths 
wafli'd the mighty Ifland IVatowtoaks, falls into the Ocean. The Southern Mouth 
is call'd fort May, or Godyns Bay. In the middle thereof lies an Ifland call'd The 
States Ifland ; and a little higher the Manhattans, fo call'd from the Natives, which 
on the Eaft fide of the River dwell on the Main Continent- They are a cruel Peo- 
ple, and Enemies to the Hollanders, as alfo of the Sanhikans, which refidc on the 
Weftern Shore. Farther up arc the Makwaes and Mahikans, which continually War 
one againft another. In like manner all the Inhabitants on the Weft fide of the Ri* 
ver Manhattan are commonly at Enmity with thofe that poflefs the Eaftcrn Shore; 
who alfo us'd to be at variance with the Hollanders, when as the other People 
Weftward kept good Correfpondency with them. 

On a fmall Ifland near the Shore of the MakVaes, lay formerly a Fort, provided 
with two Drakes and eleven Stone Guns, yet was at l^ft deferted. 

This Countrey hath many removable Water-falls, defcending from fteep Rocks, 
large Creeks and Harbors j frefli Lakes and Rivulets, pleafant Fountains and 
Springs, fome of which boyl in the Winter, and are cold and delightful to drink in 
Summer. The Inhabitants never receive any damage by Deluges ; neither from 
the Sea, becaufe the Water rifes not above a Foot 5 nor by the fwelling Rivers, 
which Sometimes, for a few days covering the Plains, at their deferting them, 
leave them fat and fruitful. The Sea-Coaft is Hilly, and of a fiindy and clayie 
Soil which produces abundance of Herbs and Trees. 

The Oak grows there generally fixty or feventy Foot high,and for the moft part 
free from Knots, which makes it the better fit for Shipping. 

The Nut-trees afford good Fuel, and a ftrange ProfpccT: when the Wood is fet 
on fire, either to hunt out a Deer, or to clear the Ground fit to be Till'd. 

Some Plants brought hither, grow better than in Holland it fclf, as Apples, Pears, 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricocks, Strawberries, and the like. » 

Their 



Chap. II. 



A M E %, I C A. 



171 




Vinci: 



Water Lefli; 
moos. 



Wheat." 



Pcafr: 



Their Vines grow wild in moft places, and bear abundance of blue, white, and 
Muskadine Grapes : Sometime fince the Inhabitants made a confiderable advan* 
tage by the Wine of them, which is not inferior to either ^henijhot French* 

All manner of Plants known in Europe grow in their Gardens : The Water- 
Lemmons, no lefs pleafing to the Palate than healthful when grown ripe 5 they are 
about the bignefs of an indifferent Cabbage : the Englifl) prefs a Juice out of them, 
which if it did not turn fowre in a fhort time, might well be compar'd with Spa* 
nip? Wine. 

The Calabajhes which grow there, ir^le hollow, ferve for Water.cups. 
Pumpions are alfo there in great abundance. 

Their Wheat though Set fix Foot deep, grows very fpeedily : Kidney-Beans 
b^ing planted amongft it, they will wind about the Stalks thereof. 
Gray Peafe grow hereto faft, that they gather them twice a year. 
In one Field Phyfical Herbs and Indigo grow wild in great abundance } and Bar- 
ley fprings above a Mans heighth* 

Moreover, there are divers forts of fweet-fmelling Flowers. 

The Hills are moft of a fat and clayie Soil, fit to make Pots, Tobacco-pipes, or W^c 
any other fort of Earthen Ware. 

In fome places alfo is (lore of Mountain Cryftal, and that fort of Mineral which 
we call MufcoYta Glafs : Others afford Marble, Serpentine Stone, and other forts 
of hard Stone. And though the Natives did not think it worth their while, or were 
not in a capacity to dig for Minerals themfelves, yet it remains without contradi- 
ction, that the Mountains inclofe both Gold and Silver. 

When Captain William Qiejf, Anno 1645. us'd the Indian Interpreter Jgberoenfe 
(to decide the Differences which arofe between the Wejl-lndia Company and the wild 
People call'd Makwaes,) heobferv'd him to paint his Face with a yellow glittering 
colour, which he judg'd to be of fome rich Mineral : whereupon buying fomc of 
the faid Jgberoenfe y he put it into a Crufible, and gain'd two fmall pieces of Gold 
outof the fame, valu'd at fix Shillings- bin keeping it private, and purchafing a- 

T i great 



Gold and Sii- 
ver-Mine*. 






i 7 a 



Paint after a 
ft range man- 
ner. 



! 



Horfcs. 



Hogs. 



Sheep,' 



Lyons. 



Black Bears. 



Strange 
Beafts. 



UMEXICJ. ■ Chap. II. 

great quantity of thefaid Mineral from Aghenenfe (who had fhow'd him the Moun- 
tain which produced the fame) extracted good ftore of Gold out of it ; which pof. 
fefling Chef with a belief of having found out a bufinefs of great confluence, he 
fent Arent Qorfen of Neu>-hal>en with the fore-mention'd Mineral to Holland . but the 
Ship being never heard of afterwards, and the Princefs Pink, in which Captain 
Chef was himfelf, with ftore of the new.found Mineral, being call away, the Bu. 
finefs came to nothing. 

The Inhabitants, though divided into feveral Nations, yet agree in many things 
as in painting their Bodies, Shields, Clubs, and other Utenfils in their Houfes! 
The Colours wherewith they paint themfelves they prefs out of Plants, or 
make them of certain Stones grownd into very fine Powder. The chiefeft Plant is 
not unlike the Myrtle, onelyithath more Boughs, and bears red Berries . the Juice 
of which being dry'd in the Sun, is afterwards preferv'd in little Bags.' The Na- 
tives temper their Colours with Water, and paint their Bodies with the fame : It 
is as good a Purple as can be found. They alfo draw Ships, Trees, and Beafts after 
a very rough manner: In ftead of Feathers they wear pleited Hair, which being 
colour'd red, hath an excellent glofs, which never fades though it Rain on the 
fame. 

The Horfes bred in this Countrey, being either brought thither from Ent. 
land or Utrecht, far exceed thofe of Biglijh breed ; but are both of them fubjeft to a 
ftrangcDifeafc, of which many die in few hours. The fame Diftempcr alfo feizes 
on Cattel if they go into Forreft Pafturc : But the onely thine to cure the fame is 
Hay from fait Marfhy Grounds. 

The Oaken Woods have ftore of Hogs, which if taken and fatned with Turkiih 
Wheat, are moft delicious Meat. 

The Sheep, though they breed well there, yet are very fcarce, becaufe the Plan, 
ters not being able to fpare Men to watch them, they are often devour'd by 
Wolves. 7 

There are alfo abundance of Deer, all forts of Fowls, Turkies, Geefe, Ducks 1 
Pigeons, and the like. * 

The Lyons, whofe Skins the Indians bring to Market, are taken on a hioh Moun. 
tain fifteen days Journey South.Wcft from thence. 

There are likewife many black Bears, fearful of humane kind, but if Hunted' 
they run dire<5t on thofe that purfue them : they fleep all the Winter, lying fix 
Weeks on one fid?, and fix on the other, and fucking their Feet all the time : They 
generally lurk among Brambles, or in the Concavities of fome hollow Mountain. 

On the Borders of Canada there is feen fometimes a kind of Beaft which hath 
fome refemblance with a Horfe, having cloven Feet, fliaggy Mayn, one Horn juft 
on their Forehead, a Tail like that of a wild Hog, black Eyes, and a Deers Neck • 
it feeds in the neareft Wildcrneffes : the Males never come amongft the Femalei 
except at the time when they Couple, after which they grow fo ravenous, that they 
not onely devour other Beafts, but alfo one another. 

Towards the South of New York arc many Buffles, Beafts which (according to 
Erafmui Stella) are betwixt a Horfe and a Stag : though they are of a ftrong Conrti. 
tution, yet they die of the fmalleft Wound, and are fubjeft to the Falling.fick- 
nefs : they have broad branchy Horns like a Stag, fhort Tail, rough Neck, Hair 
colour'd according to the feveral Seafons of the Year, broad and long Ears/ hang- 
ing Lips, little Teeth, and Skin fo thick, as not cafie to be pierced : The Females 
differ from the Males, for they have no Horns . both may eafily be made tame : 
when Hunted, they vomit out a fort of fcalding Liquor on the Dogs: they have 



Chap. II. 



A M E^I C if. 



m 




Ham: 



great force in their Claws, for they can kill a Wolf with the fame at one blow : 
their Flcfh, either frefli orfalted, is a good Diet : their Claws alfo cure the Falling- 
ficknefs. 

But no Beafts are more plentiful here than Harts and Stags, which feed up and 
down in great Herds : when they arc Hunted by Wolves or Men, they immedi- 
ately take the next River, where they are caught feveral together, by being crofs'd T 
in their Swimming, and affrighted by the Eccho which comes from the Mountains, 
made by the Hunters hollowing on the other Shore, which makes them fearful of 
Landing : whilft the Huntfmen joyning feveral pieces of Wood together get up- 
on them, and Rowing towards thefe Deer, intercept them, being tir'd and out of 
breath. 

Moreover, this Countrey breeds many Musk Cats, efpecially in Marfhy Musk*** 
Grounds. Thefe Beafts are beautiful to the Eye, having black fpeckled Skins, 
their Mouths, full of {harp Teeth, and their Tails being long trail after them. 

Many of the Learned maintain a Difpute concerning Civet, Whether it be the 
Seed of the Civet-Cat ? the Affirmative, which Cardanus maintain'd, is contradicted 
by Julius Scaliger. Matthiolus, an Author of no little credit, fupppfes that Civet is 
the Sweat of the Cat, becaufe it is moft chiefly taken when thefe Beafts arc exceed- 
inglyvexd and wearied : But fince the Sweat runs from all parts of the Body, 
which neverthelcfs do not all produce Civet, it is impoflible that Sweat fliould be 
Civet. Others account Civet to be the Dung of the Cats; which laft feems to 
come neareft to truth : for certainly it is nothing elie but an Excrement in the 
flefiiy parts about their Pizzle, or near the Fundament. The Cats being in pain 
to be difcharg'dof this Civet, free themfelves from it by rubbing a Tree . and alfo 
fawn on thofe which take it from them with a Spoon. 

Befides all other wild Creatures, the Countrey according to Adrian Vander 
Donk, produces yearly eighty thoufand Beavers. Winy relates, that thefe Beafts bite f a ' irt - JM* 
otftheir Pizzles and throw them to the Hunter, which are an exceeding good'Me- 
dicine to help Abortion, flop the Monethly Flowers, Giddinefs in the Head, 

T 3 . Go l{ t t 



7+ 



1 






Fowls in 
Xtw Tor*, 



of M E <KI C A. Chap. II. 

Gout, Lamcnefs, Belly and Tooth«ach, Rhumes, Poyfon, and the Evil. But <PUny 
makes a great miftake Jicrein, for the Beavers have a fmall PiiTel faften'd to their 
Back-bone, in fuch a manner, that they cannot loofc them but with hazard of their 
lives : They live in the Water, and on the Shore, in great companies together, in 
"Nefts built of Wood, which deferve no fmall admiration, being made after this 
manner : The Beavers firft gather all the loofe Wood, which they find along the 
Banks of the Rivers, of which, if there be not enough, they bite the Bark off from 
the Trees in the neighboring Woods, then with their Tusks, of which two grow 
above, and two below in their Mouths, they gnaw the main body of the Tree fo 
long, till it drops afunder : Their Nefts very artificial, arc fix Stories high, cover'd 
on the top with Clay to keep out Rain-; in the middle is a paffage which goes to 
the River, into which they run fo foon as they perceive a Man ; to which purpofe 
one of them ftands Sentinel, and in the Winter keeps open the Water from freez- 
ing, by continual moving of his Tail, which is flat without Hair, and the moft 
delicious Meat that can be had. The Beavers go big fixteen Weeks, and once a 
year bring forth four young, which fuck and cry like young Children , for the 
Dam of them rifes on her hinder Feet, and gives her Teats, which grow between 
the fore-legs to two of her young, each of them one ; the foremoft legs of a Beaver 
rcfemblc thofeofaDog, the hindermoft thpfe of aGoofe - on each fide of the vent 
are two fwellings within two thin Skins • out of their vent runs generally an Oily 
moyfture, with which they anoint all the parts of their body which they can reach, 
to keep them from bein£ wet; within they are like a cut-up Hog; they live on the 
Leaves and Barks of Trees ; they love their young ones exceedingly ; the long 
Hairs, which mining, (tick out on the back, fall off in Summer, and grow again 
againft Harveft; they have fliort Necks, ftrong Sinews and Legs, and move very 
fwiftly in the Water, and on the Land ; if incompafs'd by Men or Dogs, they bite 
moft feverely • the right Casloreumfo highly efteem'd by Phyficians, is a long Vefica, 
not unlike a Pear,within the body of the female Beaver, the Indians mince the Cods 
of the Male Beavers amongft their Tobacco, becaufe they produce ho Caftoreunu 

This Country abounds alfo with Fowls . for befides Hawks, Kites, and other 
Birds of Prey, there are abundance of Cranes, of feveral forts, fomc grey, feme 
brown,others quite white ; all of them have firm Bodies, and Bones withoutMar- 
row, Claws of a finger long, ftrong and crooked Bills, their Brains dry, their Eyes 
little and hollow, hard Features, the left Foot lefler than the right, both deform'd, 
their Blood thick, and the Excrements of a horrid fmcll ; they breed moft in old 
Woods, whofe ground is without Brambles, and alfo near the Water, for they 
feed on Fiflh, and devour all forts of Fowls, nay, fnatch up Hares, Rabbets, Tor- 
tels, and feveral other forts of Animals, which they carry away with them in the 
Air ; nay, when hungry, they feize on one anorher ; fome of them fly abroad for 
their prey about noon, others at Sun-rifing ; they fall like Lightning on what e're 
they purfue ; they drink little, except the Blood of thofe Creatures whkh they de- 
vour; they are very libidinous, coupling above thirty times a day!, not only with 
their like, but alfo with the Hens of Hawks, and other Birds . they lay their bicr- 
geft Eggs in thirty days, and the lefler in twenty days ; they generally bring forth 
three young; thofe of them that cannot endure to look full againft the Sun, are 
thrown out of their Nefts ; the young ones when they begin to be fledg'd, are by 
the old carry'd into the Air, and let flic, but fupported by them ; their fight is 
wonderful quick ; for though they flie as high as ever they are able to be difcern'd, 
yet they can fee the leaft Fifti that is in the Water, and a Hare lying in the Bufhes: 
their Breath ftinks horribly , wherefore their Carcafes fuddenly rot; though they 

are 



Chap. II. a M E%^1C A. 

are libidinous, yet they live long •, moft of them die of hunger, becaufe their Bills 
when they grow old, grow fo crooked, that they cannot open the fame, where- 
fore they flie up into the Air againft the Sun , and falling into the coldeft Rivers, 
loofe their Feathers and die. 

Befides the foremention'd Birds of prey, there are abundance of Storks, Ravens, 
Crows, Owls, Swallows, Gold-finches, Ice-birds, Kites, Quails, Phcafants, and 
Winter -%jngs y and which are moft remarkable for their rich Feathers, the Spechtes, 
they pick great holes in Trees, and make a noife as if a Man were cutting down a 
Tree. The Pigeons flie in fuch flocks, that the Indians remove with them to the 
place where they make their Nefts,where the young ones being taken by hundreds, 
ferve them for a Moneths Provifion. 

Moreover, TS^ew York breeds.a ftrange Bird about a Thumb long, full of gli- 
ttering Feathers $ it lives by fucking of Flowers like a Bee , and is fo tender , that 
it immediately dies if water be fpirted upon it 5 the Carcafe being dry'd, is kept 
for a Rarity. 

But this Countrey abounds chiefly inTurkies, whofe plenty deferves no lefs 
admiration than their bulk, and the delicious tafte of their Fle(h,for they go feeding 
forty or fifty in a flock, and weigh fometime forty or fifty pound apiece ; the Na- 
tives either flioot them, or take them with a Bait ftuck on an Angle : In March and 
Harveft the Waters fwarm with Geefe, Teal, Suites, Ducks, and Pelicans, befides 
many ftrange forts of Fowls not known in Europe. 

The Rivers and Lakes produce Sturgeon, Salmon, Carps, Pearch, Barbils,aU 
forts of Eels, and many other Fifli which are taken near Watcr.falls : The Sea af- 
fords Crabs with and without Shells, Sea-cocks, and Horfes, Cod, Whiting,Ling, 
Herrings, Mackrel, Flounders, Tar-buts, Tortels, and Oyfters, of which fome are 
a Foot long, and have Pearl, but are % little brownifh. 

Amongft the Poyfonous Creatures which infeft New Tork, the chicfeft and moft 
dangerous is the G(attle -Snake , whofe defcription we have already had at large in 
Ne1>> England. 

The Inhabitants have their Hair black as Jet , harfh like Horfe-hair ; they are 
broad Shouldered, fmall Wafted, brown Ey'd, their Teeth exceeding white j with 
Water they chiefly quench their Thirft : Their general Food is Flefli,Fifli,and Indian 
Wheat, which ftamp'd, is boyl'd to a Pap, by them call'd Satfaen : They obferve 
no fet time to Eat, but when they have an Appetite their Meals begin. Beavers 
Tails are amongft them accounted a great Dainty : When they go to Hunt, they 
live fevcral days on parch' d Corn, which they carry in little Bags ty'd about their 
middle j a little of that faid Corn thrown into Water fwells exceedingly. 

Henry Hud/on relates, That Sailing in the River Montains, in forty Degrees, he 
faw the Indians make ftrange Geftures in their Dancing and Singing, he obferv'd 
farther, that they carry'd Darts pointed with fliarp Stones, Sodder'd to the Wood; 
that they flept under the Sky on Mats or Leaves 5 took much Tobacco, and very 
ftrong . and that though courteous and friendly, they were very Thieves. He 
Sailing thirty Leagues further, went in his Boat to an old Indian Commander of 
forty Men and feventeen Women, who conducted him to the Shore, where they all 
dwelt in one Houfe, artificially built of the Barks of Oak-trees ; round about it 
lay above three Ships load of Corn, and Indian Beans to dry, befides the Plants 
which grew in the Fields. Mo fooner had Hudfon enter'd the Houfe , but he was 
receiv'd on two Mats fpread on the ground ; and two Men immediately were fent 
out to flioot Venifon or Fowls ; and inftantly returning, brought two Pigeons ; a 
fat Dog, whom they nimbly flea'd with fliells, was alfo laid down to the fire.: 



W 



Pigeons.' 



Pretty Birds.' 



Turlries. 



Filh. 



Rjmh Sn*kf' 



Conftituti- 
on of the In- 
habitants. 

Their Diet: 



HuAfon\ 
adventures 
remarkable. 



17 6 



A M E %I C J. 



Chap. 1L 






thtrlandm 
Apparel. 






Their bouici. 



They alfo made other Preparations for Hudfons Entertainment, but not willing to 
venture himfelf amongft them, that Night,tafted not of it, notwithftandingthe In* 
dians breaking their Darts, threw them into the fire, that thereby they might drive 
away all fears and jealouiies from him. 

The Habits of the Natives,efpecially of the Men, are few 5 the Women go more 
neat than the Men ; and though the Winter pinches them with exceflive cold, yet 
they go naked till their thirteenth year : Both Men and Women wear a Girdle of 
Whale-fins and Seafiells . the Men put a piece of Cloth, half an Ell long, and 
three quarters broad, between their Legs, fo that a fquare piece hangs behind be- 
low his Back, and another before over his Belly. The Women wear a Coat which 
comes half way down their Legs,fo curioufly wrought with Sea-pells ,that one Coac 
fometimes cofts thirty Pounds. Moreover, their Bodies arc cover 'd with Deer- 
, skins, the lappets or ends of which hang full of Points ; a large Skin button'd on 
the right Shoulder, and ty'd about the middle, ferves for an upper Garment, and 
in the Night for a Blanket : Both Men and Women go for the mod part bare- 
headed i the Women tie their Hair behind in a tuft, over which they wear a fquare 
Cap wrought with Seaftells, with which they adorn their Foreheads, and alfo wear 
the fame about their Neck and Hands, and fome alfo about their middle. Before 
the Hollanders were Planted here, they wore Shoes and Stockings of Bujfelo* s-skins j 
fome likewife made Shoes of Wheaten.ftraw , but of late they come nearer to our 
Fafliions : The Men Paint their Faces with feveral Colours, the Women only 
put here and there a black Spot . both of them are very referv'd. 

Their Houfes are mod of them built of one fafhion, oncly differing in length ; 
all of them agree in breadth of twenty Foot : They build after this manner , they 
fet Peel'd Boughs of Nut/Trees in the ground, according to the bignefs of the 
place which they intend to build , then joyning the rops of the Boughs together, 
they cover the Walls and top with the Bark of Cyprefs, Allien, and Cheft-nut- 
Trees , which are laid one upon another , the fmalleft fide being turn'd inwards : 
according to the bignefs of the Houfes, feveral Families, to the number of fifteen 

dwell 



Chap. II. 



*J M E%^IC A. 



l J7 



dwell together every one having his Apartment. Their Fortifications are moft of 
them bu.lt on deep Hrff, , near Rivers , the accefs to them is onely ar one place, 

4 y 7Z e urf S ma r nnCr : ThCy f " « reat P ° lcs in thc Ground > *** 0*« 

fetyJAri ron each fide, crofs-ways one amongft another } between the crofles they 

fet other Trees, to ftrcngthen the Work : Within this inclos'd they generally build 
twenty or t irty Houles of which f„ me are a hundred and eighty Foot long, and 
fiomelefs all of them full of People : In the Summer they pitch Tents along by 
the Wfide.oF.ft, againft Winter they remove into the Woods, to be near M 
their Game of Hunting, and alfo Fuel. 

To take many Women is not cuftomary here, only amongft Military Officers, ■*!»« 
who Marry three or four Wives, which fo well agree, that there is never any difl 
fcra.ee betwm them , thofe that are not of Age, never Marry but with the confenc 
and ady.ee of the.r Parents : Widows and unmarry'd Men follow their own opini- 
on and .chop ■ . only they take Cognizance of their Eftates and Extraction : The 
Bridegroom always prefents the Bride , for the leaft offence, the Man after having 
foundly beater ihis Wife, turns her out of Doors, and Marries another, infomucb, **,„,, 
that lome of them have every year a new Wife : On breach of Marriage, the Chil- 
dren follow the Mother, from whom they account their Generation: They ac- 
count Adultery, if committed under the bare Canopy of Heaven, a great Sin: 
Whoring ,s Licenced to fingle Women, if they receive Money for it, and no Man ^T^ 
fcruples to Marry them . nay, thofe that are Marry'd, boaft how many they have 
enjoy d before their Marriage : She that is inclin'd to Marry, covers her whole s, "" scM ^ 
body, and lets her felf wrapt up in the middle of the way , where a Batchelor ""* 
paffing by fees her, and makes up the Match blindfold : When impregnated they 
take great care that their Fruit receives no hindrance nor prejudice : When the c^a, 
time or their De .very approaches, (which they know exactly) they go to a Melan- £Z°E" 
cholly place in the Woods, though in the coldeft Weather, where They raife up a - 
Hut of Mats, and bring the Child into the World without any help or Company 
wafli the Child in cold Water, and wrap it up in Mats , then a few days after go- 
ing home they bring up the Infant with great care, none putting them out to 
Nurle : So long as a Woman gives fuck, or is quick with Child, flic will not ad. 
nut or Copulation j one who hath the Flowers, never comes abroad : In time of 
ficknefs they faithfully aflift one another: When any die , the neareft Relations ^M 
Ihut the.r Eyes j and after having watch'd them fome days, they are Interr'd after 
this manner : The Corps is plac'd fitting with a Stone under its Head, near it they 
let a Pot, Kettle, Dift, Spoons, Money, and Provifions to ufe in the other World;* 
then they p.le Wood round about it, and cover it over with Planks, on which 
throwing Earth and Stones, they fet Vall.faJoa, and make the Grave like a Houfe, 
to Which they ftew Veneration, wherefore they account it a great piece of villany 
to deface any thing of it : The Men make no fliew of forrow over the Dead, but 
the Women mourn exceedingly, and carry themfelves very ftrangely, beating their 
Breads, fcratching their Faces, and calling night and day on the name of the De- 
ceas'd : The Mothers make great Lamentation at the Death of their Children ef- 
pecally Sons , for they (have off the Hair of their Heads, which at the Funeral is 
burnt in the prefence of all their Relations; which is alfo perform'd by the Wo. 
men when their Husbands die , befides, they black all their Faces, and putting on 
a Hart-skm Shirt, mourn a whole year, notwithftandine they liv'd very conten- 
tioully together. 

On fome occafions they go a Worfhipping of the Devil, to a certain place where c^ 
the Sorcerers (hew ftrange Feats of Activity, tumbling over and over, beating 

them. 



Mourning 
over the tleaj 
remarkable. 



i 7 8 



Language of 

tke Kew Ne- 
therlander*. 



Money. 



Vices and 
Vermes. 



Strange 
Stoves. 







Arm?. 



Remarkable 
aftions of 
fome Prifon- 
ext. 



Laws.' 



AMERICA. Chap, II. 

themfelves and not without great noife leaping in and about a great Fire : at laft 
they makel great Cry all together J upon which (as they lay) the Devil appears to 
them in the fhape either of a tame or wild Bcaft : the firft fignifics bad ,and the other 
good fortune j both inform them of future Events, though darkly , and if the bu- 
finefs fall out contrary, they affirm that they have not rightly underftood the De- 
vil's meaning. Moreover they bewitch fome in fuclva manner, that they foam at 
the Mouth, throw themfelves into the Fire, and beat themfelves fevercly . and fo 
foon as they whifper in the Ear of thofe whom they have bewitch'd, they immedi- 
ately recover their former health. 

The Language of this Countrey is very various, yet it is divided into onely four 
principal Tongues, as the Manhattans, Wappanoo, SiaVanoo, and Minquas, which are 
very difficult for Strangers to learn, becaufe they are fpoken without any Grounds 

or Rules. 

Their Money is made of the innermoft Shells of a certain Shell-fifh, caft up 
twice a year by the Sea : Thefe Shells they grind fmobth, and make a Hole in 
the middle, cutting them of an exaft bignefs, and fo put them on Strings, which 
then fcrve in ftead of Gold, Silver, and Copper Coin. 

Now ro fay fomething of the Vices and Venues of the Inhabitants. They are 
in the firft place very flovenly and nafty,ftubborn, covetous, revengeful,and much 
addicted to filching and dealing. Some appear referv'd, ufing few words, which 
they utter after ferious confideration, and remember a long time. Their Under- 
ftandings being improv'd by the Hollanders, they are quick of apprehenfion, to di- 
ftinguifli good from bad : they will not endure any Oppreffion,but are very patient 
of Heat,Cold,Hunger and Third. They have a ftrange way of ufing Stoves, which 
are fet in the Ground and cover'd with Earth, into which they go through a little 
Door. A fick Perfon coming into the fame, fets himfelf down, and places hot 
Stones round about him 5 which done, and having fweat a confiderable time, he 
leaps into cold Water, by which he finds eafe of all his Diftcmpers. 

Though thefe People know no great diftin&ion between Man and Man, as 
other Nations, yet they have noble and ignoble Families amongft them ; fuperior 
and inferior Offices, which they enjoy by inheritance • but fometimes the Martial 
Offices are beftowed according to the Valour of the Perfons : Their Generals fel- 
dom give their Enemies a Field-Battel, by drawing or dividing their Men into Re- 
giments or Companies, but make it their whole Defign to defeat their Enemies by 
fudden Sallies from Ambufcado's ; for they never ftand out a clofe Fight, unlefs 
compelled to it, but if encompafs'd round, they fight to the laft Man. When any 
danger threatens, the Women and Children are convey'd to a fecure place. Their 
Arms formerly were Bowes and Arrows, and.Battel-axes, but now they ufe Muf- 
quets, which they have learn'd to handle with great dexterity. Their fcjuare 
Shields cover all their Bodies and Shoulders. About their Heads they tie a Snakes 
Skin, in the middle of which flicks either a Fox's or Bear's Tail. They cannot be 
known by their Faces, they are all over fo befmear'd with Paint of divers colours. 
They feldom give Quarter to their Enemies, except Women and Children, which 
the Conquerors ufe as their own, that by that means they may increafe and 
ftrengthen themfelves : and if any Prifoner is not kill'd prefently after the Battel, 
but falls into the Hands of one whofe Relations have formerly been (lain by his 
Party, he is Roafted three days by degrees before he gives up the Ghoft. It de- 
ferves no fmall admiration, that the Sufferer during the whole time of his Torture, 
Sings till he breathes his laft. They have few or no Puniflimcnts for any Offence, 
committing few Crimes which arc by them accounted Capital. If any one fteal, 

and 



J 



Chap. II. AMERICA. 

and the Goods be found in his cudody, the Governor of the place where he refides 
commands him onely to reftore the fame to the Owner. If any one murther or kill 
the other, the Relations of the (lain, if they can take the Malefactor in twenty four 
hours, may without Examination or delay put him to death alfo ; but that time 
being once expir'd, the Revenger is liable to be kill'd in the fame time by his Rela- 
tions whom he flew. All Obligations have their power and vertue from certain 
Prefents deliver'd upon the making of a Contract, which is done thus : They dry 
as many Sticks as they have Articles, which if they agree upon, every Man on the 
concluding of the Difcourfe lays a Prefent before the others Feet. Sometimes they 
hang up the Prefents, becaufe they are ofteitthree days in Confutation before they 
refolve 5 after which if the Prefents be taken down, it is a certain fign of their 
Agreement 5 but if not, they proceed no farther, unlefs the Articles and-Prefents 
are alter'd. On Bufineffes of confequence the Commonalty repair to their Gover- 
nor's Houfe, there to hear and enquire what the Nobility there alfembled have 
concluded or refolv'd on 5 at which the bed Orator (landing up, tells them their 
Intentions, It happens fometimes that a turbulent Perfon making a Mutiny, and 
refilling to hearken to reafon, is immediately beheaded by one of the Nobility 5 
in contradiction of which none dare prefumeto fpeakthe leaft word. 

There are fcarce any fteps of Religion found amongftthefe People, onely they 
fuppofe the Moon to have great influence on Plants. The Sun, which over-looks 
all things, is call'd to witnefs whene're they Swear. They bear great refpect, and 
(land much in fear of Satan, becaufe they are often plagued by him when they go a 
Hunting or Fifliing : wherefore the firft of what they take is burnt in honor of 
him, that he to whom they afcribe all wickednefs might not hurt them. When 
they feel pain in any part of their Body, they fay that the Devil fits in the fame. 
They acknowledge that there refides a God above the Stars, but troubles not him- 
felf with what the Devil doth on Earth, becaufe he continually recreates himfclf 
with a mod beautiful Goddefs, whofe original is unknown.: She on a certain time 
(fay they) defcended from Heaven into the Water, (for before the Creation all 
things were Water) into which (he had inftantly funk, had not the Earth arofe un» 
der her Feet, which grew immediately to fuch a bignefs, that there appear'd a 
World of Earth, which produced all forts of Herbs and Trees ; whilft the Goddefs 
taking to her felf a Hart,Bear,and Wolf, and Conceiving by them, (he was not lor^g 
after delver'd of feveral Beads at one time : and from thence proceeded not onely 
the diverfity of Beads, but alfo Men, of which fomeare black, white, or fallow; 
in nature fearful like a Hart, or cruel and valiant like a Bear, or deceitful like 
Wolves: after this the Mother of all things afcended up to Heaven again, and 
fported there with the Supream Lord, whom they fay they know not, becaufe they 
never faw him : wherefore they fhall have lefs to anfwer for than Qmfi\ans y which 
pretend to know him to be the Puniflier of things both good and bad, which are 
daily committed by them : and for this ridiculous Opinion they can hardly be 
brought to embrace the Qjriflian Faith. 

Concerning the Souls of the Deceafed, they believe, that thofe which have been 
good in their life-time, live Southward in a temperate Countrey,where they enjoy 
all manner of pleafure and delight -, when as the Wicked wander up and down in a 
miferable Condition. The Eccho which refounds from the Cries of wild Beads in 
the Night, they fuppofe to be the Spirits of Souls tranfmigrated into wicked 
Bodies. 

At their Cantica's y or Dancing-Matches, where all Perfons that come are freely 
Entertained, it being a Fedival time, Their Cudom is when they Dance, for the 

Spectator 



i7# 



i 



■ 



Council- a' 
fembly. 



Rcligioiij 



Diabolical 
Worfliip. 



Their.ridicu- 
lous Opinion 
of God. 



As alfo of the 
Creation; 



Of the Im- 
mortality of 
the Soul, j 



Their CdniL 
cas.,- or D'aa- 
cing. 



Their fitting 
ia Ccuucil* 




180 A M E^I C A. Chap. II. 

Spectators to havefhort Sticks in their Hands, and to knock the Ground and Sing 
altogether, whilft they that Dance fometimes a6t Warlike poftures, and then they 
come in painted for War with their Faces black and red, or fome all black, fome all 
red, with fome ftreaks of white under their Eyes, and fo jump and leap up and 
down without any order, uttering many Expreffions of their intended Valour, 
For other Dances they onely fhew what antick Tricks their ignorance will lead 
them to, wringing of their Bodies and Faces after a ftrange manner, fometimes 
jumping into the Fire, fometimes catching up a Firebrand, and biting off a live 
Coal, with many fuch tricks, that will affright rather than pleafe an £wg/i/fc.man 
to look upon them, refembling rather* company of infernal Furies than Men. 

When their King or Sachem fits in Council, he hath a Company of Arm'd Men to 
guard his Perfon, great refpeft being (hewn him by the People, which is princi- 
pally manifefted by their filence. After he hath declared the caufe of their Con- 
vention, he demands their Opinion, ordering who fliall begin : The Perfon or- 
der'd to fpeak, after he hath declar'd his mind, tells them he hath done : no Man 
ever interrupting any Perfon in his Speech, nor offering to fpeak, though he make 
never fo many long flops, till he fays he hath no more to fay. The Council having 
all declar'd their Opinions, the King after fome paufe gives the definitive Sentence, 
which is commonly feconded with a fhout from the People, every one feeming to 
, applaud and manifeft their AlTent to what is determin'd. 

If any Perfon be condemn'd to die, which is feldom, unlefs for Murther or In- 
ceft, the King himfelf goes out in Perfon (for you muft underftand they have no 
Prifons, and the guilty Perfon flies into the Woods) where they go in queft of him, 
and having found him, the King (hoots firft, though at never fuch a diftance, 
and then happy is the Man that can (hoot him down ♦ for he that hath the fox* 
tune to be Executioner, is for his pains made fome Captain, or other Military 
Officer. 

They greafe their Bodies and Hair very often, and paint their Faces with feve- 
ral Colours, as black, white, red, yellow, blue, O-c. which they take great pride in, 
every one being painted in a feveral manner. 

Within two Leagues of New York lieth Staten*IJland , it bears from 2^V»? York Weft 
fomething Southerly : It is about twenty Miles long, and four or five broad, moft 
jjgri it very good Land, full of Timber, and producing all fuch Commodities as 
Long'IJland doth, befides Tin and ftore of Iron Oar 5 and the Qdamine Stone is faid 
likewife to be found there : There is but one Town upon it, confiftingof Englifb 
and French, but it is capable of entertaining more Inhabitants. 

Betwixt this and Long-lfland is a large Bay, which is the coming in for all Ships 
and Veflels out of the Sea. 

On the "North-fide of this Ifland After-skull River puts into the J^jain Land, on 
the Weikfide whereof there are two or three Towns, buton the Eaft-fide but one. 
There are very great Marfliesor Meadows on both fides of it, excellent good Land, 
and good convenience for the fetling of feveral T^wns. There grows black Wal- 
nut and Locuft, as there doth in Virginia, with mighty ,tall,ftreight Timber, as good 
as any in the North of America : Itproduceth any Commodity .which Long-Ijland 
doth. ^ * 

Hudfons River runs by ]>{eTt>York Northward into the Countrey, towards rhc 
Head of which is feated Nef» Many, a Place of great Trade with the Indians, be- 
twixt which and Ne^York, being above a hundred Miles, jsas good Corn- Land as 
the World affords, enough to entertain hundreds of Families, which in the time of 
the Dutch Government of thefe Parts could not be fetled by rcafon of the Indians, ex- 
cepting 



Chap, II. AMERICA. 181 

ceptingone Place, call'd Tlie Sofers, which was kept by a Garrifon, but fince the Re- 
duccmenc of thefe Parts under His Majefties Obedience, and a Patent granted to 
his Royal Highnefs the Duke of Tork, which is about fix years, by the care and dili- 
gence of the Honorable Collonel NjcWj, fent thither as Deputy to his Highnefs, 
fuch a League of Peace was made, and Friendfliip concluded betwixt that Colony 
and the Indians, that they have not refilled or difturb'd any Qmflians there, in the 
fetling or peaceable polTeffing of any Lands within that Government, but every 
Man hath fat under his own Vine,and hath peaceably reap'd and enjoy 'd the Fruits 
of their own Labors, which God continue. 

Weflward of Jfter-skull River before mention'd, about eighteen or twenty Miles, *™««-*/- 
runs in ^aritan River Northward into the Countrey fomc fcores of Miles j both 
fides of which River are adorn'd with fpacious MeadowSjenough to feed thoufands 
of Cattel : The Wood*Land is very good for Corn, and ftor'd with wild Beafts, 
as Deer, Elks, and an innumerable multitude of Fowl, as in other parts of the 
Countrey. This River is thought very capable for the erecting of feveral Towns 
and Villages on each fide of it, no place in the North of America having better con- 
venience for the maintaining of all forts of Cattel for Winter and Summer Food. 

Upon this River is no Town fetled, onely one at the Mouth of it j but next to it, 
Weftward, is a Place call'd Nevafons 5 where are two or three Towns and Tillages 
fetled upon the Sea-fide, but none betwixt that and Delaware Say, which is about 
fixty Miles, all which is a rich Champain Countrey, free from Stones, and indiffe- 
rent level, having (lore of excellent good Timber, and very well water'd, having 
Brooks or Rivers ordinarily, one or more in every Miles travel. This Countrey 
is peopled onely with wild Beafts, as Deer, Elks, Bears, and other Creatures, fo 
that in a whole days Journey you fliall meet vrith no Inhabitants except a few 
Indians. It is alfo full of ftately Oaks, whofe broad-branch'd tops ferve for no other 
ufe, but to keep off the Suns heat from the wild Beafts of the Wildernefs, where is 
Grafs as high as a Man's Middle, which ferves for no other end, except to main- 
tain the Elks and Deer, who never devour a hundredth part of it, than to be burnt 
every Spring to make way for new. How many poor People in the World would 
think themfelves happy, had they an Acre or two of Land,whilft here is hundreds, 
nay thoufands of Acres that would invite Inhabitants. 

Delaware Say, the Mouth of the River, lieth about the mid way betwixt New *>'/«»*»- 
Tork and the Capes of Virginia. V 

The beft Commodities for any to carry with them to this Countrey is Clothing, 
the Countrey being full of all forts of Cattel, which they may furnifli themfelves 
withal at an eafie Rate, for any fort of Englijh Goods, as likewife Inftruments for 
Husbandry and Building, with Nails, Hinges, Glafs, and the like. They get a Live- 
lihood principally by Corn and Cattcl,which will there fetch them any Commodu 
ties : Likewife they Sowe ftore of Flax, which they make every one Cloth of for 
their own wearing ; as alfo Woollen Cloth, and Linfey-woolfey 5 and had they 
more Tradefmen amongft them, they would in a little time live without the help 
of any other Countrey for their Clothing ; for Tradefmen there are none but live 
happily there, as Carpenters, Blackfmiths, Mafons,Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers, 
Tanners, Brickmakers, and fo any other Trade : Them that have no Trade be- 
take themfelves to Husbandry, get Land of their own, and live exceeding well. 

We {lull conclude our Difcourfe of this Countrey with a notable Character gi- 
ven thereof by a late Writer, as to the great advantage of happy living in all rc- 
fpe&s, for whofoever fliall be pleis'd to betake himfelf thither to live. 



tf 






i8& 



A M E%I C A. 



Chap. II. 



The 
fter 
py Countrey 






cha^ra. ( cT F there be any terredriai happinefs (faith he) to be had by any People, efpeci. 
:°omurcy: »1 a ll y f an inferior rank, it muft certainly be here. Here any one may furnifli 
"himfclf with Land, and live Rent-free, yea, with fuch a quantity of Land, that 
«he may weary himfelf with walking over his Fields of Corn, and all forts of 
« Grain, and let his Stock amount co fome hundreds . he needs not fear there want 
« of Pafture in the Summer, or Fodder in the Winter, the Woods affording fuffici- 
« ent fupply, where you have Grafs as high as a Man's Knees, nay, as high as his 
« Wafte, interlac'd with Pea-Vines, and other Weeds that Cattel much delight in, 
« as much as a Man can pafs through : And thefe Woods alfo every Mile or half- 
" Mile are furnifli'd with frcfli Ponds, Brooks, or Rivers, where all forts of Cattel, 
" during the heat of the day, do quench their third, and cool themfelves. Thefe 
" Brooks and Rivers being inviron'd of each fide with feveral forts of Trees and 
« Grape-Vines, Arbor-like interchanging places, and croffing thefe Rivers, do ftiadc 
* and flielter them from the fcorching beams of the Sun. Such as by their utmoft 
« Labors can fcarcely get a Living, may here procure Inheritances of Lands and 
" PofTeffions, ftock themfelves with all forts of Cattel, enjoy the benefit of them 
« whild they live, and leave them to their Children when they die. Here you need 
ct not trouble the Shambles for Meat, nor Bakers and Brewers for Beer and Bread, 
« nor run to a Linnen-Draper for a fupply, every one making their own Linnen, 
" and a great part of their woollen Cloth for their ordinary wearing. And how 
"prodigal (if I may fo fay) hath Nature been to furnifli this Countrey with all 
" forts of wild Beads and Fowl, which every one hath an intereft in, and may Hunt 
" at his pleafure \ where, befides the pleafure in Hunting, he may furnifli his Houfe 
« with excellent fat Venifon,Turkies, Geefe, Heath-hens, Cranes, Swans, Ducks, 
" Pigeons, and the like . and wearied with that, he may go a Fifliing, where the 
« Rivers are fo furnifli'd, that he may fupply himfelf with Fifli before he can leave 
« off the Recreation. Here one may travel by Land upon the fame Continent 
< < hundreds of Miles, and pafs through Towns and Villages, and never hear the 
" lead complaint for want, nor hear any ask him for a Farthing. Here one may 
" lodge in the Fields and Woods, travel from one end of the Countrey to another, 
" with as much fecurity as if he were lock'd within his own Chamber : And if 
" one chance to meet with an hdian Town, they (hall give him the bed Entertain- 
" ment they have, and upon his defire direct him on his Way. But that which 
" adds happinefs to all the red, is the healthfulnefs of the Place, where many Peo- 
lc pie in twenty years time never know what Sicknefs is h where they look upon it 
a as a great Mortality, if two or three die out of a Town in a years time. Befides 
" thcfweetnefsoftheAir, the Countrey it felf fends forth fuch a fragrant fmell, 
" that it may be perceiv'd at Sea before they can make the Land : No evil Fog or 
« Vapor doth any fooner appear, but a North*Wed or Wederly Wind immediately 
" diffolves it, and drives it away. Moreover,youfliallfcarce fee a Houfe, but the 
" South-fide is begirt with Hives of Bees, which increafc after an incredible man- 
" ner : So that if there be any tcrrcdrial Canaan, 'tis furely here, where the Land 
11 floweth with Milk and Honey. 



A NE W 



, 







Chap. II. 



AMERICA. 



i8j 




NEW DESCRIPTION 



O F 



M A RY-L AND 



1 



.1 
I 



• fl 



SECT. III. 







EforeWe proceed to the Defcription of this Countrey, it 
will be firft requifite to relate the true occafion and means, 
whereby this part of America came to be erected into a Pro- 
vince, and call'd Maryland. 

In tjie Year of our Lord 1631. George Lord Baltemore ob# 
tain'd of King Charles the Firft,of Great $rittain,{<rc. a Grant 
of that part of America, (firft difcover'd by the Englijh) 
which lies between the Degrees of thirty feven and fifty 
Minutes, or thereabouts, and forty of Northerly Latitude; which is bounded on 
the South by Virginia 5 on the North, by New England, and New Jerfey, part of New ttefimatiaa; 
York, lying on the Eaft fide of Delaware Bay > y on the Eaft, by the Ocean, and on 
the Weft, by that part of the Continent which lies in the Longitude of the fitrft 
Fountains of the River call'd Tatomeck. 

In pursuance of this Grant to his faid Lordfliip, a Bill was prepar'd, and brought 
to His Majefty to Sign, who firft ask'd his Lordfhip, what hefliould call it, there 
being a Blank in the Bill defignedly left for the Name, which his Lordfliip inten* 
ded fhould have been Crefcentia . but his Lordfhip leaving it to His Majefty to give 
it a Name, the King propos'd to have it call'd Terra»MarU y in English, Mary-land, in 
honor of bis Queen, whofe Name was Mary-, which was concluded on, and infer* 
ted into the Bill, which the King then Sign'd 5 and thereby the faid Traft of Land 
was eredled into a Province by that Name. 

His Lordfliip fomewhat delaying the fpeedy pafling of it under the Great Seal 
of England, dy'd in the interim, before the faid Patent was perfected j whereupon a 

V i Patent 



184- 



A M E ^1 C A. 



Chap. II. 



The Bounds. 



Title. 




The firft 
Seating. 



t 



Patent of the faid Province was fliortly afterwards pafs'd to his Son and Heir, 
(who was Chriften'd by the Name of Can/, but afterwards confirm'd by the Name 
of Qzcilim,) the now Lord fBaltemore, under the Great Seal oi England, bearing Date 
June 20. 163 2. in the eighth Year of His laid Majefties Reign, with all Royal Ju. 
rifdictions and Prerogatives, both Military and Civil in the faid Province, as Pow- 
er to Enact Laws, Power of pardoning all manner of Offences, Power to confer 
Honors, err. to be held of His laid Majefty, His Heirs and SuccelTors, Kings of Eng- 
land in common Soccage, as of His Majefties Honor of Windfor in the County of 
'Berks in England $ yielding and paying yearly for the fame to His Majefty and to His 
Heirs and SuccefTors for ever, two Indian Arrows of thofe parts, at the Caftle of 
Wind/or aforefaid, on Tuefday in Eajier Week, and the fifth part of all Gold and Sil- 
ver Oar, which (hall happen to be found in the faid Province. 

" By the faid Patent is Granted to his Lordfhip, his Heirs and Affigns, al\ that 
" part of a Termi/ida, lying in the parts of America, between the Ocean on the Eaft, 
" and the Bay of Qyefnf each on the Weft ; and divided from the other part thereof 
€i by a right Line drawn from the Promontory, or Cafe of Land call'd Watkinsm 
€l Point } fituate in the aforefaid Bay, near the River of Wigcbo on the Weft, unto the 
<c main Ocean on the Eaft, and between that bound on the South, unto that pare 
<c ot Delaware Say on the North, which lies under the fortieth Degree of Northerly 
u Latitude from the Equindttial , where Ne"V> England ends ; and all that Trad of 
"Land between the bounds aforefaid, that is to fay, paffing from the aforefaid 
a Bay call'd Delaware Bay, in a right Line by the Degree aforefaid, unto the true 
cc Meridian of the firft Fountains of the River of fatomeck 5 and from thence ftretch- 
u ing towards the South, unto the furtheft Bank of the faid River, and following 
€t the Weft and South fide thereof, unto a certain place call'd Cinquack, near the 
u Mouth of the faid River, where it falls into the Bay of Cbefapeack, and from thence 
" by a ftreight Line unto the aforefaid Promontory, or place call'd lfatkins-Toint, 
" which lies in thirty feven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern 
"Latitude. 

By this Patent his Lordfhip and his Heirs and Affigns are Created the true and 
abfolute Lords and Proprietaries of the faid Province, favirig the Allegiance and 
Soveraign Dominion due to His Majefty ,HisHeirs,and Succeifors. fo that he hath 
thereby a Severaignty Granted to him and his Heirs, dependant upon the Sovc» 
raignty of the Crown of England. 

His Lordfhip/in the Year 1633. fent his fecond Brother Mr. Leonard Calvert, znd 
His third Brother Mr. George Qahert, with divers other Gentlemen of Quality, and 
Servants to the number of two hundred Perfons at leaft, to fettle a Plantation 
there 5 who fet Sail from the Coites in the IJle of VAgbt in England , on l^oVemb. 22. 
in the fame Year- having made fome ftay by the way, at thcBarbadoes and St. Cbri* 
Jhvhers in America , they arriv'd at Tomt Comfort in Virginia, on Februarys* following; 
from whence fliortly after they Sail'd up the Bay of Cbefapeack, and Tatomeck Ri- 
ver : And having reviewed the Country, and given Names to fcveral places, they 
pitch'd upon a Town of 4 the Indians for their firft Seat, call'd Yoacomaco, (now Saint 
Maries) which the then Governor Mr. Leonard Calvert, freely Purchas'd of the Na- 
tives there, for the Lord Proprietaries ufc , with Commodities brought from 
England. 

That which facilitated the Treaty and Purchafe of the faid place from the In* 
dians, was a refolution which thofe Indians had then before taken, to remove higher 
into the Countrey where it was more Populous, for fear of the Sanfaueha?wcks f 
(another, and more Warlike People of the Indians, who were their too near Neigh- 
bors, 



Chap, II. AMERICA. 

bors, and inhabit between the Bays of Qxfapeack and Delaware) there being then 
a&ual Wars between them, infomuch, that many of them were gone thither before 
the English arriv'd : And it hath been the general practice of his Lordfhip, and 
thofe who were employ'd by him in the Planting of the faid Province, rather to 
purchafe the Natives Intereft, (who will agree for the fame at eafie rates) than to 
take from them by force,that which they feem to call their Right and Inheritance^ 
to the end all Difputes might be remov'd touching the forcible Incroachment upon 
others, againft the Laws of Nature or Nations. 

Thus this Province at the vaft Charges, and by the unweary'd Induftry and en- 
deavor oftheprefent Lord Baltemore, the now abfolute Lord and Proprietary of 
the fame was at firft Planted , and hath fince been fupply'd with People and other 
Ncceflaries , fo effectually , that in this prefent Year i6>i. the number of English 
there amounts to fifteen or twenty thoufand Inhabitants, for whofe Encourage- 
ment there is a Fundamental Law eftablifh'd there by his Lordfhip, whereby Li- 
berty ofConfcience is allow'd to all that Profefs to believe in JeJ us Chrijl j fo that no 
Man who is a Chrifiian is in danger of being difturb'd for his Religion ; and all 
Perfons being fatisfi'd touching his Lordfhips Right, as Granted by his Superior So* 
veraign, the King of Great fBrittain, and poffefs'd by the confent and agreement of 
the firft Indian Owners, every Perfon who repaireth thither, intending to become 
an Inhabitant, finds himfelf fecure, as well in the quiet enjoyment of his Property, 
as of his Confcience. 

Mr. Charles Cahert, his Lordfhips onely Son and Heir, was in the Year io'o'i. 
fent thither by his Lordfhip to Govern this Province and People, who hath hi- 
therto continu'd that Charge of his Lordfhips Lieutenant there, to the general fa- 
tisfaction and encouragement of all Perfons under his Government, or otherwifc 
concern'd in the Province* 

The precedent Difcourfe having given you a fliort Dcfcription of this Province 
from its Infancy to this day, together with an account of his Lordfhips Patent and 
Right, by which he holds the fame; we will here fpeak fomething of the Nature of 
the Countrcy in general, and of the Commodities that are either naturally afforded 
there, or may be procured by Induftry. 

The Climate is very healthful, and agreeable with English Conftitutions $ but 
New-comers have moft of them heretofore had the firft year of their Planting there 
in July and Augujl, a Sickncfs, which is call'd there A Seafoning, but is indeed no 
other than an Ague, with cold and hot Fits, whereof many heretofore us'd to die 
for Want of good Medicines , and accommodations of Diet and Lodging , and by 
drinking too much Wine and Strong-waters • though many, even in thofe times, 
who were more temperate, and that were better accommodated , never had any 
Seafoni?igs at all ^ but of late years, fince the Countrey hath been more open'd by 
the cutting down of the Woods, and that there is more plenty of English Diet, 
there are very few die of thofe Agues, and many have no Seafonings at all, efpecially 
thofe that live in the higher parts of the Country, and not near to the Marfhcs and 
Salt-water. 

In Summer, the heats are equal to thofe o( Spain, but qualified daily about Noon, 
at that time of the Year, either with fome gentle Breezes, or fmall Showrcsof 
Rain : In Winter there is Froft and Snow, and fometimes it is extremely cold, 
infomuch, that the Rivers and the Northerly part of the Bay of Chefapeack are Fro- 
zen, but it feldom lafts long ; and fome Winters are fo warm, that People have 
gone in half Shirts and Drawers only at Chrijlmas : But in the Spring and Autumn, 
(Vi^.) in March, April, and May, September, October, and November, there is generally 

V } moft 



*3£ 



I 



The number 
of Inhabi- 
tants. 







\ 



iStf 



A M E %I C A. 



Chap. II. 






mod pleasant temperate Weather : The Winds there are variable, from the South 
comes Heat, Gufts, and Thunder , from the North or North.Weft.cold Weather , 
and in Winter, Froft and Snow 8 from the Eaft and South-Eaft, Rain. 

The Soyl is very fertile, and furniflVd with many pleafant and commodious 
Rivers, Creeks, and Harbors. 

The Country is generally plain and even, and yet diftinguilh'd with lome pret- 
ty fmall Hills and Rifings, with variety of Springs and Rivulet* : The Woods are 
for the moft part free from Underwood, fo that a Man may Travel or Hunt for his 

Recreation. 

The ordinary entrance by Sea into this Country is between two {apes , diitant 
each from the other about feven or eight Leagues , the South Cape is call'd Cape 
Henry ■ the North, Cape Charles ; within the Capes you enter into a fair <Bay, Navi- 
gable for at leaft two hundred Miles, and is call'd Cbefapeack <Bay , ftretching it felf 
Northerly through the heart of the Countrey, which adds much to its Fame and 
Value : Into this Bay fall many (lately Rivers, the chief whereof is fatomeck, which 
is Navigable for at leaft a hundred and forty Miles: The next Northward, is <Pa- 
tuxent, at its entrance diftant from the other about twenty Miles, a River yielding 
great Profit as well as Pleafure to the Inhabitants . and by reafon of the Iflands and 
other places of advantage tkat may Command it , both fit for Habitation and De« 
fence : Pafling hence to the Head of the Bay, you meet with feveral pleafant and 
commodious Rivers, which for brevity we here omit to give any particular ao 
count of : On the Eaftern Shore are feveral commodious Rivers, Harbors, Creeks, 
and Iflands ; to the Northward whereof you enter into another fair Bay, call'd 
Delaware <Bay -, wide at its entrance about eight Leagues, and into which falls a very 
fair Navigable River. 

This Countrey yields the Inhabitants many excellent things for Phyfick and 
SThTcom" Chyrurgery; they have feveral Herbs and Roots which are great Prefcrvatives 
againft Poyfon, as SnAe-Root, which prefently cures the bitings of the Rattle-Snake, 
which are very Venomous, and are bred in the Countrey } others that cure all 
manner of Wounds; they have Saxafras , SarfapariUa, Gums and Balfoms, which 
Experience (the Mother of Art) hath taught them the perfect ufe of. 

An Indian feeing one of the English much troubled with the Tooth-ach, fetch'd a 
Root out of aTree,which apply'd to the Tooth, gave eafe immediately to the Par- 
ty 5 other Roots they have fit for Dyers, wherewith the Indians Paint themfelves as 

facoone (a deep red,) o-c. 

The Timber of thefe parts is good and ufeful for Building of Houfes and Ships, 
the white Oak for Pipe-ftaves, the red for Wainfcot; there is likewife black Wall- 
Nut, Cedar, Pine, and Cyprefs, Cheft-nut, Elme, Alh, and Popelar, all which are 
for Building and Husbandry : Fruit-trees, as Mulberries, <Perfimons, with feveral 
kind of Plumbs, and Vines in great abundance. 

Of Strawberries there is plenty, which are ripe in Jpril, Mulberries in May, Raf- 
berries in June, and the Maracok, which is fomething like a Lemon, is ripe in Augufi. 
In Spring time there are feveral forts of Herbs, as Corn-fallet, Violets, Sorrel, Pur. 
flane, and others which are of great ufe to the English there. 

In the upper parts of the Countrey are Butfeloes, Elks, Tygers, Sears, Wolves, and 
great ftore of Deer s as alfo Beavers, Foxes, Otters, Flying-Squirils, Racoons, and 
many other forts of Beafts. 

Of Birds, there is the Eagle, Gofhawk, Falcon, Lanner, Sparrow-hawk, and Mar- 
lin ; alfo wi'ld Turkies in great abundance, whereof many weigh fifty Pounds in 
weight and upwards, and of Partridge great plenty : There are likewife fundry 

lorts 



The natural 
Commodities 
oft 

trey 



Chap. II. 



A M E%^IC A 



forts of finging Birds, whereof 



call'd a Mock* 



*7 



lcreoi ullc i. tan u a mocK-'Oird, became it imitates . 
other Birds; fomeare red, which fing like Nightingales, but much louder • others 
black and yellow, which laft fort excels more in Beauty than tune, and is by the 
English there call'd the $altemore-Bird, becaufe the Colours of his Lordfhips Coat of 
Arms are black and yellow : Others there are that referable moft of the Birds in 
England, but not of the fame kind, for which we have no names : In Winter there 
are great plenty of Swans, Cranes, Geefe, Herons, Duck, Teal, Widgeons, Brants, 
and Pidgeons, with other forts, whereof there are none in England. 

The Sea, the Bays of Cbefafeack and Delaware, and generalfy all the Rivers, do 
abound with Fifh of feveral forts j as Whales, Sturgeon, Thorn-back, Grampufes, 
Porpufes, Mullets, Trouts, Soules, Plaice, Mackrel, Perch, Eels, Roach, Shadd 
Herrings,Crabs,Oyfters,Cockles,Mufl-els, <^c but above all thefe, the Fifh where-' 
of there are none in England, as Drums, Sbeeps.bead, Cat-fish, <yc. are beft, except Stur- 
geon, which are there found in great abundance, not inferior to any in Europe for 
iargenefs and goodnefs. 

The Minerals may in time prove of very great conference, though no rich 
Mines are yet difcover'd there • but there is Oar of feveral forts, Vi*. of Tin, Iron, 
and Copper, whereof feveral trials have been made by curious Perfons there with 
good fuccefs. 

The Soyl is generally very rich, the Mould in many places black and rank, in- 
fomuch, that it is neceflary to Plant it firft with Indian Corn, Tobacco, or Hemp, 
before it is fit for English Grain } under that is found good Loam, whereof has been 
made _as good Brick as any in Europe : There are ftoreof Marfh-groundsfor Mea- 
dows , great plenty of Marie , both blue and white . excellent Clay for Pots and 
Tiles : To conclude, there is nothing that can be reafonably expefted, in a place 
lying in the fame Latitude with this , but what is either there found naturally, or 
may be procur'd by Induftry, as Oranges, Lemons, and Olives,^c. 

Wene«d not here mention Indian Corn, (call'd May?) Peafe and Beans of feveral 
forts, being the peculiar products Planted by the Indians of that part of Jmerica. 

All forts of English Grain are now common there, and yield a great encreafe- as 
Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peafe, Beans, Crc. good Beer of Wheat or Barley Malt, 
after the English Mode, is made, even in the meaneft Families there ; Some drink 
Beer of Indian Corn, others of the Stalks thereof, or of the Chipps of the Tockykerry- 
Tree, all which make a-fort of frefh and pleafant Drink , but the general Diet of 
the Country is now English, as moft agreeable to their Conftitutions. 

There are few able Planters there at prefent, but what are plentifully fupply'd 
with all forts of Summer and Winter Fruits ; as alfo of Roots and Herbs, of all 
forts out of their Gardens and Orchards, which they have Planted for their Profit as 
well as Pleafure : They have Pears, Apples, Plumbs, Peaches, &c. in great abun. 
dance, and as good as thofe of Italy . Co are their Mellons, Pumpions, Apricocks, 
Cherries, Figgs, Pomegranates, wc. In fine, there is fcarcc any Fruit or Root that 
grows in England, France, Spain, or Italy, but hath been try'd there, and profpers 
well. 

You may have there alfo Hemp, Flax, Pitch, and Tar, with little labor 5 the 
Soyl is apt for Hops, Rape-feed, Annice-feed, Woad, Madder, Saffron, arc. there 
may be had Silk-worms, the Country being ftor'd with Mulbcrry.trees, and the fu. 
perfluity of the Wood will produce Pot.afhes. 

There is a great quantity of Syder made there at prefent, and as good as in any 
other Countrey; good Perry and Quinccdrink is there likewife made in great 
plenty t The Ground doth naturally bring forth Vines in great quantities, the quali- 
ty 



I 



Commodities 
which are, pr. 
may be pro- 
cur'd by in, 
dttftry. 



'58 



s 



I 



The Govern: 

went. 



A M E%^1 C A. Chap. II 

ty whereof being fomething corrected by Induftry, (as there have been feveral trials 
thereof already made there) may no doubt produce good Wine, to the great en- 
couragement and advantage of the Undertakers. 

Brave Ships may be built there with little charge, Clab-board, Wainfcot, Pipe- 
ftaves, and Mafts for Ships, the Woods will afford plentifully; fome fm all Vef- 
ftls have been already built there : In fine, Beef, Furrs, Hides, Butter, Cheefe, 
Pork, and Bacon, to Tranfport to other Countrcys, are no fmall Commodities, 
which by Induftry, are, and may be had there in great plenty, the English being al- 
ready plentifully ftock'd with all forts of Cattel and Horfes- and were there no 
other Staple-Commodities to be hop'd for, but Silk and Linnen (the materials of 
which apparently will grow there) it were fufficient to enrich the Inhabitants. 

But the general Trade of Mary-land at prcfent depends chiefly upon Tobacco, ic 
being the Planters greateft concern and ftudy to ftore himfelf betimes with that 
Commodity, wherewith he buys and fells, and after which Standard all other 
Commodities receive their Price there • they have of late vented fuch quantities of 
that and other Commodities, that a hundred Sail of Ships from England, fiarbadoes, 
and other English Plantations, have been ufually known to Trade thither in one 
Year- infomuch, that by Cuftom and Excize paid in England for Tobacco and 
other Commodities Imported from thence, Mary-land alone at this prefent, hath by 
his Lordfliips vaft Expence, Induftry, and Hazard for many years, without any 
charge to the Crown, improv'd His Majefties,the King of England* Revenues,to the 
value of Forty thoufand Pounds Sterl.per annum at leaft. 

The general way of Traffick and Commerce there is chiefly by Barter, or Ex- 
change of one Commodity for another; yet there wants not , befides English and 
other foraign Coyns, fome of his Lordfliips own Coyn, as Groats, Sixpences, and 
Shillings, which his Lordfhip at his own Charge caus'd to be Coyn'd and difpers'd 
throughout that Province ; 'tis equal in finenefs of Silver to English Sterling, being 
of the fame Standard, but of fomewhat lefs weight, and hath on the one fide his 
Lordfliips Coat of Arms ftampd , with this Motto circumfcrib'd, Crefcite Cr Mul- 
tiplicamini, and on the other fide his Lordfliips Effigies , circumfcrib'd thus, Uciluu 
Vommus Terra-Maria, &c. 

The Order of Government and fettled Laws of this Province,is by the Prudence 
and endeavor of the prefent Lord Proprietary, brought to great Perfection ; and as 
his Dominion there is abfolute (as may appear by the Charter aforemention'd) fo 
all Patents, Warrants, Writs, Liccnfes, Actions Criminal, <?c. Iflue forth there in 
his Name : Wars, Peace, Courts, Offices, pc all in his Name made, held, and ap- 
pointed. 

Laws are there Enacted by him, with the advice and confent of the General Af- 
fembly, which confifts of two Eftates, namely, the firft is made up by the Chan- 
ccllor, Secretary, and others of his Lordfliips Privy.Council, and fuch Lords of 
Mannors, and others as fhall be call'd by particular Writs for that purpofe, to be 
Iflu'd by his Lordfliip : The fecond Eftate confifts of the Deputies and Delegates 
of the refpettive Counties of the laid Province, elected and chofen by the free voice 
and approbation of the Free-men of the faid refpe&ive Counties. 

The Names of the Governor and Council in this prefent Year i 671 . are as fol- 
loweth, Mr. Charles Calvert, his Lordfliips Son and Heir, Governor , Mr. Tbilip CaU 
vert, his Lordfliips Brother, Chancellor 5 Sir William Talbot Baronet, his Lordfliips 
Nephew, Secretary; Mr. William Cahert, his Lordfliips Nephew, Mufter-Mafter- 
General • Mr. Jerome White, Surveyor-General; Mr* Baker (Brooke,hxs Lordfliips Ne- 
phew ; Mr. Edward Lloyd } Mr. Henry Courfey, Mr. 7 7; wo* Truman, Major Edward 
Fits Ikrbert,6amtielCbewF f '> • 



Chap. II. 



<d M E%^IC A. 



His Lordflnp, or his Lieutenant there for the time being, upon due occafion, 
Convenes Prorogues and Diffolves this Affembly . but whatever is by his 
Lordfii.ps Lieutenant there, with the confent of both the laid Eftates Enaded, is 
there of the fame Force and Nature as an Aft of Parliament is in-figW, until his 
Lordflnp declares his dii-affent 5 but fuch Laws as his Lordfhip doth affent unto 
are not afterward, .to be Alter'd or Repealed but by his Lordflnp, with the confent' 
of both the laid Eftates. 

Their chief Court of Judicature is held at St. Manes Quarterly every Year, to 
which all Perfons concern'd reforc for Juftice, and is call'd The Provincial Court 
whereof the Governor and Counc.lare Judges : To the Court there doth belonafe- 
veralfworn Attorneys, who conftantly are prefent there, and art both asBarrifters 
and Attorneys } there are likewife chief Clerks, Bayliffs, and other Officers, which 
duly attend the Court in their refpecrive places. 

The Province is divided at prefent, fo far as it is inhabited by English into 
Counties, whereof there be ten, ft* St.Mur.es, Charles, Qabert, Jnne Arandel, and 
Valtemore Counties, which firft five lie on the Weft fide of the Bay of Cbtf attack ■ on 
the Eaftern fide whereof, commonly call'd The EaJlcm.Shore, lies Sommerfet, Vorche. 
fir, Talbot, Ual, and %ent Counties, which laft is an Ifiand lying near the Eaftern. 
fliore of the faid Bay. 

Befides the Provincial Court aforenam'd, there are other inferior Courts ap- 
pointed to be held in every one of the Counties fix times in the year, for the dif. 
patch or all Caufes, not relating to Life or Member, and not exceeding the value 
of three thoufand weight of Tobacco . the decifion of all other Caufes being re- 
lerv'd to the Provincial or higher Court before-mention'd, and there lies Appeals 
from the County-Courts, to the Provincial Court. 

There are Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, and other Officers appointed by the 
Lord and Proprietary, or his Lordfhips Lieutenant for the time being, in the faid 
refpeftive Counties; and without four Juftices, of which one to be of the Ouorum, 
none of the faid refpeftive County-Courts can be held; any of his LordfhipTprivy 
Council may fit as Judge, in any of the faid County=Courts , by vertue of his 
place. 

Thefe Courts are appointed to be held at convenient Houfes in the faid Coun- 
ties, which commonly are not far diftant from fome Inn, or other Houfe of Enter- 
tainment, for accommodation of Strangers j one of the faid fix County Courts in 
each County is held for fettling of Widows and Orphans Eftates. 

There are Foundations laid of Towns, more or lefs in each County, according 
to his Lordfhips Proclamation, to that effecT: Iffu'd forth in the year 1608. In Cat 
vert County, about the River oWatuxem, and the adjacent Cliffs, are the Bounds of 
three Towns laid out, one over againft Point Patience, call'd HarVy ToTPn, another in 
SatteUreek, call'd Caherton, and a third upon the Cliffs, call'd Hmington, and Hou- 
fes already built in them, all uniform, and pleafant with Streets, and Keys on the 
Water fide. In the County of St. Maries, on the Eaft fide of St. Georges River, is the 
principal and original Seat of this Province, where the general Affembly, and Pro- 
vincial Courts are held, and is call'd St. Maries, being erected into a City by that 
Name, where divers Houfes are already built : The Governor hath a Houfe there 
call'd St. John's ; the Chancellor Mr. Philip Qahcrt, bis Lordfhips Brother, hath an- 
other, and in this place is built and kept the Secretaries Office, where all the Re- 
cords are kept, all Procefs, Grants, for Lands, Probates of Will's, Letters of Adrai- 
niftration are iffu'd out : the Plat of a Fort and Prifon is lately laid there, upon a 
point of Land, term'd Wvnlmil-Point, from a Windmil which formerly flood there, 

the 



i8p 






l^o 



Of Ac Trutiz 

ans in Mary- 
land. 






AMERICA. Chap. II. 

the Puliation is proper, for that it commands the breadth of the faid River of Saint 
Gcorves • fo that when it is finifli'd, all Shipping may lafely Ride before the Town,, 
withou't the lead fear of any fudden AlTault, or Attempt of Pirats or other Enemy 
whatfoever. This City has formerly been the ufual place of abode for his Lord- 
{hips Lieutenants, and their Retinue . but of late years the prefent Governor 
Mr. Charles Calvert, hath built himfelf a fair Houfe of Brick and Timber, with all 
Out.houfes, and other Offices thereto belonging, at a place call'd Mattapany,nczt the 
River of <Patuxent beforcmention'd, where he and his Family refide,bcing a pleafant, 
healthful,and commodious Seat,about eight Miles by Land diftant from St.Maries. 

The Indians in Maryland are a People generally of ftreight, able, and well pro- 
portion'd Bodies,fomething exceeding the ordinary pitch of the English,thcir Com. 
plexion Swarthy, their Hair naturally long and black, without Curie, which ge. 
nerally they cut after fome ftrange Fantaftical Mode . nay, fometimes they Dye 
it with red and other prepofterous Colours : They Liquor their Skins with Bears 
Greafe, and other Oyls, which renders them more tawny, and lefs apt to receive 
injury 'from the Weather : They are fubtile from their Infancy, and prone to learn 
any thing their Fancy inclines them to, in other things flothful. 

There are as many diftincl: Nations among them as there are Indian Towns, 
(which are like Countrey-Villages in England, but not fo good Houfes) difpers'd 
throughout the Province : Each Town hath its King (by them term'd WeroVance) 
and every forty or fifty Miles diftance differs much from its Neighbors in Speech 
and Difpofuion: The Safquahanocks, though but few in number, yet much exceed 
the reft in Valor , and Fidelity to the English \ the reft being generally of a more 
Treacherous Spirit, and not fo ftout, and the number of the English do already ex- 
ceed all the Indians in the Province. 

The Wero^ance is a/lifted by Councellors, call'd Wifoes, who are commonly of 
the fame Family, and are chofen at the pleafureof the Werowance: They have Cap- 
tains in time of War which they term Cochoroofes. 

Moft of their Governments are Monarchical, (except the Safauahanocks, which is 
aRe-publick) but for fucceffion they have a peculiar Cuftom, that the IlTue of the 
Males never fuccecd, but the IffucMale of the Female fucceed in Government, as 
the furer fide : They all fubmit to, and are protected by the Lord Proprietaries 
Government ; and in cafe of any Affault or Murder, committed on any Englijh, the 
Party offending is try'd by the Laws of the Province . and in cafe of any new Ele- 
ction of King or Emperor among them, they prefent the Perfon fo Ele&ed to the 
Governor for the time being, who as he fees caufe, cither alters or confirms their 

Choice. 

In the Year 166]. at the Indians Requeft, the prefent Governor Mr. (harks Calvert, 
and fome others of his Lordfliips Privy-Council there, went to fafcatoway, in this 
Province, to be prefent at the Election of a new Emperor for that Nation : They 
prefented a Youth nam'd fyttawajfo, and humbly Requefted to have him confirm'd 
Emperor oWafcatoway, by the Name of IVahocajfo . which after fome charge given 
them in general, to be good and faithful Subjects to him, the Governor according- 
ly did, and receiv'd him into his Prote&ion. 

They pay great Refpe& and Obedience to their Kings and Superiors, whofe 
Commands they immediately Execute,, though with an apparent hazard of their 

Lives. 

The Mens chief employment is Hunting, and the Wars, in both which they 
commonly ufe Bowes and Arrows . fome of late have Guns and other Weapons, 
by a private Trade with fome Englijh Neighboring Plantations : They are excel- 
lent 






Chap. 1L 



AMERICA 



191 



lent Marks-men, it being the onely thing they breed their Youch to : The Women 
Plant and look after the Corn, make their Bread, and drefs what Ptovifions their 
Husbands bring home. Their way of Marriage is by agreement with the Womens 
Parents or Friends, who for a certain Sum of their Money, or other Goods, deliver 
her to the Man at a day appointed, which is commonly fpent in jollity. 

There are two lorts of Indian Money, V/ampompeage and %oanoack, thcfeferve rt*Mbaty 
among them as Gold and Silver do in Europe, both are made of Fifli-fliells, which 
they firing like Beads . Wampompeage is the largeft Bead, fixty whereof countervails 
an Arms length of <%oanoack, which is valued at fix Pence Sterling, with this they 
purchafe Commodities of the Englifr, as Trading-Cloth, <&c. of which they make 
themfelves Mantles, which is fomething fliaggy, and is call'd Dutch Duffels* this 
is their Winter Habit . in Summer they onely wear a narrow flip of the fame to 
cover thofe parts , which natural modefty teaches them to conceal - the better 
fort have Stockings made thereof, and pieces of Deer-Skin, ftitch'd together about 
their Feet in ftead of Shooes : The Womens Apparel is the fame, but thofe of the 
beft Quality among them bedeck themfelves with Wampompeage or %oanoack, or fome 
other toy. 

Their Houfes are rais'd about the height of a large Arbor , and covcr'd with Manner of 
Barks of Trees very tite, in the middle whereof is the Fire-place, they lie generally ^ 
upon Mats of their own making, plac'd round the Fire, a Woodden-bowl or two, 
an Earthen Pot, and a Mortar and Peftle, is their chiefeft Hou (hold* fluff; he that 
hath his Bowe and Arrows, or Gun, a Hatchet, and a Canoo, (a term they ufe for 
Boats) is in their minds rarely well provided for ; each Houfe contains a diftincl: 
Family, each Family hath its peculiar Field about the Town, where they Plant their 
Corn, and other forts of Grain afore*mention'd. ■ 

They arc courteous to the E?jglift? y if they chance to fecapy of them coming to- Cwiftr* 

11'ttT t • i-i 1 i«r & the Ettglijh. 

wards their Houles, they immediately meet him half-way, conduit him in, and 
bid him welcome with the bed Cates they have : The Englifh giving them in like 
manner civil Entertainment, according to their Quality. 

The WeroWance of Tatuxent having been Treated for fome days at St. Maries, by 
the then Governor, Mr. Leonard Cahert, his Lordfliips Brother, at his firft coming 
thither to fettle that Colony, took his leave of him with this Expreflion, 1 love the 
Englifh /0 well, that if they fhould go about to Kill me, if I had fo much breath m to ffeak, I 
would Command my People not to revenge my death 5 for I know they would not dofuch a thing, 
except it were through my own default. 

In Affairs of concern, they are very confiderate, and ufe few words in declaring 
their intentions \ for at Mr. Leonard Qaherts firft arrival there, the WeroWance ofTaf* 
catoway being ask'd by him, Wlmher he Would be content, that the Englifh fhould Jit doWn 
in his Qountrey ? rcturn'd this anfwer, Tliat he Would not bid him go, neither Would he bid 
him flay, but that he might ufe his own difcretion. Thcfe were their expreffions to the 
Governor at his firft entrance into Mary-land, whom then they were jealous of, 
whether he might prove a Friend or a Neighbor, but by his difcrcet Demeanor to- 
wards them at firft,and friendly ufage of them afterwards,they are now become,not 
only civil, but ferviceable to the Englifh there upon all occafions. 

The Indians of the Eaftern fliore are moft numerous, and were formerly very re- 
fractory, whom Mr. Leonard Calvert fome few years after his firft fettling the Colo- 
ny, was fore'd to reduce, and of late the Emperor of Nanticoke , and his Men were 
defervedly defeated by the prefent Governor, Mr. Charles Cahert, who redue'd him 
about the year 1668. which has fince tam'd the ruder fort of the neighboring Indi- 
um, who now by experience, find it better to fubmit and be protected by the Lord 

Proprietaries 



\$% 



A M E%^I C A 



Chap. II. 




1 Situation of 

Virginia. 







TirftDifcove. 



Proprietaries Government, than to make any vain attempt againft his Power. 

Thefe People live under no Law, but that of Nature and Reafon, which not* 
withftanding leads them to the acknowledgement of a Deity, whom they own to 
be the Giver of all good things, wherewith their Life is maintained, and to him 
they Sacrifice the firft Fruits of the Earth, and of that which they acquire by Hunt- 
ingandFifliing: The Sacrifice is perform'd by their Priefts, who are commonly 
ancient Men, and profefs themfelves Conjurers ; they firft make a Speech to their 
God, then burn part, and eat and diftribute the reft among them that are prefent; 
until this Ceremony be ended, they will not touch one bit thereof; they hold the 
Immortality of the Soul, and that there is a place of Joy, and another of Torment 
after Death, prepared for every one according to their Merits. 

They bury their Dead with ftrange expreflions of Sorrow (the better fort upon 
a Scaffold, ere&ed for that end) whom they leave cover'd with Mats, and return 
when his flefli is confum'd to Interr his Bones -, the common fort are committed to 
the Earth without that Ceremony ; but they never omit to bury fome part of their 
Wealth, Arms, and Houfliold.ftuffwith the Corps. 

Sect. IV. 

V 

Virginia. 

THe moft Southerly part of Virginia (for all that Traft of Land, reaching 
from Norumbega to Florida, and containing New-England, New -York, Mary* 
land, and this part we are now about to Treat of, was by Sir Walter %aw- 
high term'd Virginia, in Honor of our Virgin-Queen Elizabeth) lies between Mary 
land, which it hath on the North, and Carolina, which it hath on the South, from 
thirty fix, to near thirty eight Degrees of Northern Latitude 5 and with the reft of 
thofe Countries which were comprehended under the fame Denomination, was by 
the Encouragement, and at the Expence of the faid Sir Walter <%awleigb y firft Difco- 
ver'd (as fome fay) by Captain Francis Drake, for his many notable and bold Ex- 
ploits, afterwards Knighted by the Queen : But upon examination we find little 
reafon to afcribe the firft Difcovery thereof to Sir Francis Drake, whofe chief per- 
formances, from the time he firft made himfelf Eminent at Sea, were againft the 
Spaniards, and for the moft part in the Sf>an\fh*lndies^ as his taking ofNombre de Dios, 
and Vinta Cru%, with an infinite mafs of Treafure ; his taking of Santo Domingo in 
Hifpaniola, and of Cartbagena in Caslella Anna , and that which feems to have given 
occafion of attributing to him the firft Difcovery of thefe parts , was his touching 
upon the North part of the Ifle of California, where being nobly Entertain'd by 
Hiob, a King of that Countrey, and having a Surrcndry thereof made to him, 
in behalf of the Queen of England, he upon a Pillar erected,. Infcrib'd the Arms of 
England, with the Queens Name and his own, and call'd the place Nova Jlbion : 
Certain indeed it is, that Sir Walter %cfoleigh was the firft Promoter of this Difco* 
very 5 for, after Mr. Martin Forbijber had been fent by Queen Elizabeth to fearch for 
the North- Weft Paflage, which was in the year 1576. and for which he alfo was 
by the Queen advane'd to Knight hood, and nobly rewarded ; and Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert obtaining the Queens Letters Patents, for attempting a Plantation, had 
reach'd Newfoundland (though perifhing in his return) he upon thefe Relations and 
Inducements undertook by others (for his employments would not permit him to 
go in Perfon) to gain Difcoverics to the Southward ; and accordingly in the year 
of our Lord 1584. obtain'd a Commifllon from the Queen, to difcovcr and Plant 

new 




V 



■OWHH 














Chap. II. ' iA M E%^I C A. 

new Lands in Jmcnca, notarially poifefs'd by any Chnjlims, who, with the affi- 
Ranee of Sir Pj.chird GreenYd and others, provided two fmall Barques, under the 
Command of Captain Philip Amidas, and Captain Arthur Harlow, who fetting Sail 
the 27. of April, fell the i d oijuly following with the Coaft of Florida, and made 
Difcovery of the Ifle of Wokokon, ^oanoack, and the Continent of ' Wingandacoa, which 
they left ; and arriving in England about the midft of September following, Her Ma- 
jefty upon the relation of their Difcoveries, was pleas'd to call this Countrey 
Vtf<*mia. 

April 9, 1585. Sir Orchard GreenYil, with feven Sail, and feveral Gentlemen, left 
(Plymouth ; and on May 16. Anchor'd at Wokokon., but made their firft Seat at fyanoack 
on Auguft 17. following, which lies in thirty fix Degrees of Northerly Latitude, or 
thereabouts, where they continued till June 1586. during which time they made 
feveral Difcoveries in the Continent and adjacent Iflands. ; and being endanger'd 
by the treachery of the Salvages, returned for England, and Landed at Port/mouth on 
July-ij. following. 

* Sir Walter %awlelgh and his Aflociates, in the year 158^. fent a Ship to relieve that 
Colony, which had deferted the Countrey fome while before, and were all re- 
turned for England as is before*mention'd. 

Some few days after they were gone, Sir Richard GreenVd, with three Ships, ar- 
rived at the Plantation at %oanoack % which he found deferted, and leaving fifty Men 
thereto keep Pofleflion of that Countrey, return'd for England. 

The year following, Mr. John White, with three Ships, came to fcarch for the 
fifty Englijh at %oanoack, but found them not, they having been fet upon by the Na- 
tives, and difpers'd lb, as no News could be heard of them, and in their room left 
a hundred and fifty more to continue that Plantation. 

In Auguft 1580. Mr. John White went thither again, to fearch for the laft Colony 
which he had left there • but not finding them, return'd for England in Septemb. 6. 
1590. 

This ill Succefs made all further Difcoveries to be laid afide, till Captain Gofnol 
on March 26. 1601. fet Sail from Dartmouth, and on May 11. following, made Land 
at a place, where fome Bifcaners, as he guefs'd by the Natives information, had 
formerly fifli'd, being about the Latitude of forty eight Degrees Northerly Lati- 
tude; from hence putting to Sea,he made Difcovery of an Ifland which he call'd Mar- 
thas Vineyard, and fiiortly abet of Elizabeth's Ifle, and fo return'd for England, June 18. 
following. 

In the Year 16*03. the City of Brijlol rais'd a Stock, and furnifh'd out two 
Barques for Difcovery, under the Command of Captain Martin Pring, who about 
June 7. fell with the North of Virginia in the three and fortieth Degree, found plenty 
of good Fifli, nam'd a place Whitfon-<Bay, and fo return'd. 

In the Year 1605. the Right Honorable Thomas Arundel the firft, Baron of Warder, 
and Count of the (p^oman Empire, fet out Captain George Way mouth, with twenty 
nine Sea-men, and necelTary Provifions, to make what Difcoveries he could; who 
by contrary Winds, fell Northward about one and forty Degrees and twenty Mi- 
nutes of Northerly Latitude, where they found plenty of good Fifli < and Sailing 
further, difcover'd an Ifland, where they nam'd a Harbor, Pentecojl-Harbor ; and on 
July 18. following, came back for England* 

In the Year 1606. by the follicitation of Captain Gofnol, and feveral Gentlemen, 
a Commi/fion was granted by King James of Great Brittain, t<rc. for eftablifhing a 
Council, to direct thofe new Difcoveries . Captain T^e^port (a well pra&ic'd Mar- 
riner) was intruded with the Tranfportation of the Adventurers in two Ships, 

X and 



m 









1C4. 







AMERICA. Chap. II. 

andaPinacc, who on Decemb. \ 9 . x6o6. fet Sail from £lack^all, and were by 
Storm, contrary to expectation, caft upon the firft Land, which they call'd Cape 
Henry, \t the Mouth of the Bay of Qxfapeack, lying in thirty ieven Degrees , or 
thereabouts, of Northerly Latitude : Here their Orders were open'd and read, and 
eight declar'd of the Council, and impower'd to chofe a Prefident for a year, who 
with the Council Oiould Govern that Colony : Till May 13. they fought a place 
to Plant in, Mr. Winkfeld was chofe the firft Prefident , who caus'd a Fort to be 
rais'd at Powhatan, now ca\YdJames-To»n : In June following, Captain Newport re- 
turned for England, leaving a hundred Men behind him . fince which time they have 
been fufficiently fupply'd from England, and by the indefatigable Induftry and Cou- 
rage of Captain John Smith, (one of the Council at that time, and afterward Prefi- 
dent of the Colony) they made fcveral Difcovcries on the Eaftern fliore, and up to 
the Head -of the Bay of Chefapeack, and of the principal Rivers which fall into the 

faid Bay. 

Virginia being thus Difcover'd and Planted, King James by his Letters Patent 
bearing Date April 10. in the fourth year of his Reign, 1607. Granted Licence to 
Sir Thorns Gates, Sir George Summers, and others, to divide themfelves into two fe* 
veral Colonies, for the more fpeedy Planting of that Countrey, then call'd Virgi- 
nia, between the Degrees of thirty four and forty five of North Latitude, that is to 
fay', taken in that large extent, mention'd in the beginning : The firft Colony to 
be undertaken by certain Knights, Gentlemen, and Merchants, in, and about the 
City of London: The fecond to be undertaken, and advane'd by certain Knights, 
Gentlemen, and Merchants, and their Affociatcs, in, or about the City of Brijlol, 
Exon, Plymouth, and other parts. 

At the firft Colonies Requeft, in the feventh year of the fame King, a fecond 
Patent was Granted to feveral Noblemen arid Gentlemen, (including Sir Thomas 
Gates, and fome of his former Fellow-Patentees) bearing Date May 13. 1610. where- 
by they were made a Corporation, and Body Politique, and ftil'd, The Treafurer, 
and Company of Adventurers and Planters of the City of London, for the firji Colony of Vir- 
ginia : And by this Patent, there was Granted to them, their SucccfTors and Af- 
figns, two hundred Miles to the Southward, from a Cape of Land in Virginia, call'd 
Point Comfort 5 and two hundred Miles to the Northward of the faid C^e,alongthe 
Sea«fliore, and into the Land from Sea to Sea. 

And on March 12. 1612. the faid King, in the ninth year of his Reign, Grants 
them a third Patent, of all Iflands lying in the Sea, within two hundred Miles of 
the Shore of that Trad of Land on the Continent, granted to them by the faid for. 

mer Patent, Jac. 7* 

In the Year 161 5. Captain Smith procur'd by his Intereft at Court, and the 
King's Favor, a Recommendation from His Majefty, and divers of the Nobility, 
to all Cities and Corporations, to Adventure in a Handing Lottery, which was 
ercded for the benefit of this Plantation, which was contriv'd in fuch a manner, 
that of 100000. Pounds which was to be put in, 50000. onely, or one half was to 
return to the Adventurers, according as the Prizes fell out j and the other half to 
be difpos'd of for the Promotion of the Affairs of Virginia, in which, thpugh it were 
three years before it was fully accompftfli'd, he had in the end no bad Succefs. 

In the eighteenth Year of the faid King's Reign , at the Requeft of the fecond 
Colony, a Patent was Granted to feveral Noblemen and Gentlemen, of all that 
Traftof Land lying in the parts of America, between the Degrees of forty and for- 
ty eight of Northerly Latitude, and into the Land from Sea to Sea , which was 
call'd by the Patent ^e^ England in America : For the better Government whereof, 

* one 



r< 



Ipj 



to 



Chap. II. <iA M E %,I C A. 

one Body-Politick and Corporate was thereby appointed and ordain'd in Plymouth, 
confifting of thefaid Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, to the number of forty 
Perfons, by the Name of The Council e/lablifi'd at Plymouth in the County of Devon, for 
the Planting, Piling, Ordering, and Governing of New England im America. 

The Mifcarriages and Mifdemeanors of the aforefaid Corporation for the firft "» *-** 
Colony of Firginta, were fo many and fo great, that His laid Majefty was forc'd, £&E 
in or about October 1623. to direct a Quo Warranto, for the calling in of that former 
Patent, which in Trinity Term following was legally Evinc'd, Condemn'd, and 
made Void, by Judgment in the Court of the then IQngs-'Bench , as alfo all other 
Patents, by which the faid Corporation claim'd any Intereft in Virginia. Thus this 
Corporation of the firft Colony of Virginia was diflolv'd, and that Plantation 
hath been fince Govern 'd and Difpos'd of by Perfons Conftituted and Impower'd 
for that purpofe from time to time, by immediate Commiffions from the Kin<*s of 
England. 

In the Year of our Lord 1031. the Right Honorable George Lord <Baltemore ob. n=P*,„« 
tain'd a Grant of King Charles the Firft of Great Britain, <rc. of part of that Land to £5' f 
the Northward, which is now call'd Maryland . but this Patent of Mary-land was £*££ 
not perfected till 1632. as you may underftand more fully by the precedent Dif- 
courfe of Mary-land, which byexprcfs words in the faid Patent is feparated from, 
and thereby declar'd not to be reputed for the future, any part of Virginia. 

And in the fifteenth Year of the Reign of King Charles the Second of Great Sri. t* Pa**, 
tain, <rc. on March 24. 16^3. Edward Earl of Clarendon, then High-Chancellor of £&*» 
England, George Duke of Albemarle, Wtttiam, now Earl of Craven, John Lord Berkley, Sft*£ 
Anthony Lord Jfhley, Sir George Carterett Knight and Baronet, Sir Wtlliam Berkley 
Knight, and Sit John Colleton Knight and Baronet, obtain'd a Patent from His Ma- 
jefty, of the Province of Carolina, which lies to the Southward of Virginia, in which 
is included fome part of that Land which formerly belong'd to the faid diflolv'd 
Company of Virginia. So that Virginia at prefent extendeth it felf onely , and is fitu. 
ated between thirty fix and thirty feven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, 
of Northern Latitude, and is bounded on the North, by Maryland; on the South, 
by Qarolina., on the Eaft, by the Ocean ; and on the Weft, by the South-Seas. 

The Entrance by Sea into this Countrey is the fame with that of Mary. land, be. 
tween Cape Henry and Cafe Charles, plac'd on each fide of the Mouth of the Bay of 
Chef apeak ; on the Weft fide whereof you firft meet with a pleafant and commodi- Ri«r, «f 
ous River call'd James-<t(iver, about three Miles wide at its Entrance, and Naviga- '"'""* 
ble a hundred and fifty. 

Fourteen Miles from this River Northward lies York-G^ver, which is Navigable 
fixty or feventy Miles, but with Ketches and fmall Barques thirty or forty Miles 
farther. 

Pafling hence to the North you difcover a third ftately River, call'd <3{appahanock, 
which is Navigable about a hundred and thirty Miles - from whence following 
the Shore to the North you enter into <Patomeck-<i\iver, which is already defcrib'd in 
the precedent Difcourfe of Maryland, to which Province this River belongs, whofe 
Southerly Bank gives Bounds to that part of Virginia and Maryiand. 

To thefe Rivers many other Inland Branches and Rivulets are redue'd, the chief 
of which are hereafter fpecifi'd. 

The Countrey is generally even, the Soil fruitful, the Climate healthful, and Na. u « u f 
agreeable with English Conftitutions, efpecially fince the increafe of Inhabitants, * ""^ 
and accommodation of good Diet and Lodging, which the firft Planters found 
great want of heretofore. For nyany years, till of late, moil Newcomers had the 

X2 firft 



I 



J.. 



lptf 




Trees. 



^Ik-Grafs. 



gtnim. 






A M E%1 CMT Chap. II. 

fitft Year in July and Jugujt, a Difcafc which is call'd A Seafoning, whereof many 
died, like to what is mention'd before in the Defcription of Maryland, though 
more mortal and common than in Mary-land, becaufe Virginia is a lower Countrey, 
and fomewhat hotter, infomuch that formerly divers ill of that Diftemper have 
come purpofely from Virginia to Maryland, to recover their Health • but now, fince 
the Countrey is more open and clear from Wood, few die of it, and many have no 

Seafonings at all. 

This Countrey affordeth generally all fuch Roots, Herbs, Gums, andBalioms, 

as are exprefs'd before in the Relation of Mary-land. 

All forts of Trees for Building and Husbandry, Fruit-Trees, Vines, ore. are 
found in both Countreys, equal in goodnefs and quantity, ohely in fuch things as 
require more Sun, and that may be produe'd by Induftry) there may be fome little 
difference, becaufe Virginia is fomewhat more to the Southward of Maryland, as in 
Vines, Oranges, Lemmons, Olives, Silk, Ore. 

There is a^Plant grows naturally in this Countrey, and in Maryland, call'd Silk* 
Grafs, which will make a fine Stuff with a filky Glofs, and better Cordage than 
Hemp or Flax, both for ftrcngth and durance. 

The wild Beafts, Birds, and Fifli, are much the fame alfo in this Countrey as arc 
before defcrib'd in the precedent Defcription of Mary-land : Ncverthelefs we fhall 
think it proper not to omit fome Fruits, Plants, Beafts, <&e. mention'd by the mod 
w P cu- authentick Defcnbers of New England, as peculiar to that Countrey. The Fruits 
are, their futdamines, which are a kind of Damfons ; Mejfamines, a kind of Grapes ; 
Cbecbinquamins, a fort of Fruit refembling a Chefnut ; <%awcomens, a Fruit refembling 
a Goofc-berry ; Macoquer,* kind of Apple 5 Mettaquefunttauks, a fort of Fruit refem- 
bling Inkian Figs 5 Morococks, refembling a Stxaw-berry, befides a Berry which they 
call Ocougbtanamnis, fomewhat like to Capers. 

Their peculiar Roots are 7ockai»augb, good to cat ; Wicbfacan, of great vcrtue in 
healing of Wounds 5 focones, good to affwage Swellings and Aches ; Mufquafpen, 
wherewith they Paint their Targets and Mats. Alfo they have in great requeft a 
Pulfe call'd Ajfeyitamen, and the Plant Mattouna, of which they make Bread. 

Their peculiar Beafts are, the Aroughena, refembling a Badger ; the Ajfapanick or 
Flying-Squerril 5 Opajfum, a certain Beaft having a Bag under her Belly, wherein flic 
carrieth and fuckleth her Young; Mujfafcm, which fmelling ftrong of Musk, re- 
fcmbleth a Water-Rat • Utcbunquois, a kind of wild Cat. 
Their peculiar Fifh arc Stingrais. 

On the Weft fide of the Bay oiCbefapeak, between Cape Henry and the Southerly 
Bank ofthe River of Crowed, are three fair Navigable Rivers, as is before men- 
tion'd, into which the other lmall Rivulets fall, which here we will give fome ac- 
count of, as alfo of the Indian, or antient Names by which thefe three principal Ri- 
vers were formerly known. Thefirft whereof is <PoT»batan (now czWdJames-^yer) 
according to the Name of a large and confiderable Territory that lieth upon it. 
The Rivers that fall into this Southward, are Jpamatuck ; Eaftward, Quiyonycobanuc , 
Nanfamund, and Cbefopcak ; and Northward, Cbickamabania. 

The fecond Navigable River is Tamaunkee, by the Englijh now term'd York^er. 
The Rivulet that falls into this is Toyankatanck. 

The uhird (which is before defcrib'd, and ufually known by the Name of ^f- 
pabanoc) was formerly term'd Toppahanoc. 

This we thought fit here to infert, to the end no colour of miftakomight remain 
to after Ages concerning the derivation or original change of fuch proper Names, 
cfpecially being Places of great advantage to the Colony. 



"Roots. 



Beafts. 



Rirulcw. 



Chap. II. A M E %^I C A. l9J 

Tbr chiefeft of thofe Tribes or Divifions of People among the InJL ****** 
ans, that were by Name known to the Englijh at their firft arrival,were ££& 
upon the River Touhatan the Kccougbtans, the 'Tdfrabcges, ( on whofc ofr,r * inia ' 
Land is feared fames-Tomi) the Weanoc\s y Arrohatocks, the Appame- 
tqcfa th? 3^MfammJs, the Cbefapeac{s,&c. On the River Tamaunfoe, 
ifethcYoungtanunds, thcMattapaments, &c. On the River Toppabal 
noc, the Manahoacfa the Moraghtacunds, and the Cuttatammens. On 
the River Tatamme^ thzlVigbcocomocam, ihtOnartmaniems , and the 
Moyanances. On the River Tamuxunt, the Acquintacfuacs, the7\rti» 
tuxwts, and the Matapunients. On the River c £o/w, the Stfquefnhanoes: 
Southward from the Bay, the Cbawonocly, the Mangoacl\s y the Afo/w- 
aww, the Mamiahockj, the Mafatt>ome{s y the Atquanabucfa, and the ^>/"i * 
caranaocfy, befides a number not material to be nam'd , as having had 
little of Tranfadtion that we hear of with the Planters. 

The number of Englijh inhabitants in this Country are in this pre- Nimbcrof 
fent Year 1671- about thirty or forty thoufand, who are plentifully Lte,iuitt$ - 
ftock'd with all forts of tame Cattel, as Cows, Sheep, Horfes, Swine, 
&c. and all forts of Englijh Grain ; great ftore of brave Orchards for 
Fruit, whereof they make great quantities of Cyder and Perry. 

They have been much oblig d by that worthy Gentleman Mr. Ed~ 
ward Digger, Son of Sir Dudley Digges, who was Mafter of the Rolls, 
and a Privy Councellor to King Charles the Firft,of Cjreat Britain, &c. 
For the faid Mr. Digges at his great Charge and Induftry, hath very 
much advanced the making of Silk in this Countrey , for which pur- 
pofe he hath fent for feveral Perfons out of Armenia to teach them that 
Art , and how to wind it off the Cods of the Silk-worms ; and hath 
made at his own Plantation in this Colony for fome years laftpaft, 
confiderable quantities of Silk, which is found to be as good Silk as a- 
ny is in the World, which hath encourag'd divers others to profecute 
that Work. 

Though this Countrey be capable of producing many other good The Com 

el* • 1 r>i I 11 11/ /- 1 ° ^ modittes o 

ommoduies, yet the Planters have hitherto imploy'd themfelves for r*&*. 

the moft part in Planting of Tobacco , as they do in Ma^y-Land^ 
whereof here are two f :, ts, one which is call'd Swet-fcented, and the 
other call'd Oranoacf^, or "Bright and Large , which is much more in 
quantity, but of lefler price than the former ; and the Plantations up- 
on York^%iyer are efteem'd to produce the beft of that fort of Sweet- 
fcented: T here is fo much of this Commodity Planted in Firginia^nd 
Imported from thence into England, that the Cuftom and Excife paid 
in England Tor it , yields the King about fifty or threescore thoufand 
Pounds Sterlings per annum: With this Commodity the Planters buy 
of the Ships that come thither for it (which are above a hundred Sail 
yearly from England, and other Fngli/h Plantations) all Necetfaries of 
Clothing,and other Utenfils of Hou (hold-fluff,^, which they want, 
though they make fome Shoes, and Linnen and Woollen Cloth in 
fome Parts of Virginia, of the growth and Manufacture of the Coun- 
trey • and if they would Plant lefs Tobacco (as it is probable they will 
e're long find it convenient for them to do, it being now grown a Drug 

X ? of 



■I 



' 



■ 






i P 8 A M E <B^I C A. Chap. II. 

of very low value, by reafon of the vaft quantities planted of it) they 
might in time provide themfelves all NeceiTaries of Livelyhood, ami, 
produce richer and more Staple-Commodities for their Advantage. 

Their ufual way of Trafique in buying and felling is by exchange of 
one Commodity for another; and Tobacco is the general Standardly 
which all other Commodities receive their value; but they have fom.e, 
Ewlifh an d foreign Coyns, which ferve them upon man yuKcafions. 

The Government is by a Governor and Council, Appointed and 
Authorized from time to time by immediate Commiffion from the 
King of (jreatHrittain : And Laws are made by the Governor, with 
the content of a General AtTembly, which coniifts of two Houfes, an 
Upper and a Lower • the firft confifts of the Council, and the latter of 
theBurgdTeschofen by the Freemen of theCountrey 5 and Laws fo 
made are in Force till His Majeily thinks fit to alter them. 

.The chief Court of Judicature is call'd The QuarterXourt, becanfe 
it is held every quarter of a Year, where all Caufes Criminal and Ci- 
vil are heard and determind, and the judges of this Court are the Go^ 
vernor and Council: The prcfent Governor in this Year \6y\. is Sir 
Militant Berkley, who was made Governor by King Charles the Firft,6f 
Great'Brittain, &c. in the Year 164 o. And thofe of the Council are 
Sir Henry Ckichefly, who is one of the greateft andmoft confiderable 
Planters there, and Mr. kdypardDiggs before-mentiond,. Mr. 'Thomas 
huhpel Secretary, Major-General TZ^bert Smith, and divers other wor- 
thy Gentlemen. 

That Part of the Country where the Engli/b are Planted, is divided 
into nineteen Counties, vifc J^onbampton^Ccunty in Acomacl^, on the 
Eaftern fhore ; and on the Weftern fhore, Corotucl^ Lower-^^orfol^ 
3\(jtnfemundjfle oflVtght^SurryJVarmcl^Henerico, fames, Charles, ¥or/^ 
Cs^to'Kjmt, (jlocejler, \Jiddltfex,Lancajier y S^wthumberlandJVeftmore* 
land, Tiappabanoc^y and Harford-iounties. 

In every one of thefe Counties there are inferior County-Courts 
kept every Month- thefe take no Cognizance of Caufes relating to 
Life or Member, or exceeding a certain limited Value,fuch being re- 
fer'd to the Quarter-Courts only, to which like-wife there lie Appeals 
from their Inferior Courts. 

There are Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, and other Officers in every 
refpedive County, appointed by the Governor, for the Adminiftrati- 
on of Juftice, who fit there according to his Order, and whereof thefe 
County-Courts are chiefly compos'd. 

There are few Towns as yet eredled in this Colony; the Principal 
Seat of the £wg///7:> thefe, is at a Place call'd JamesXtty , in Honor of 
King James of Great ^rtttain, &c. This isfituated in a Teninfula, on 
the North-fide of JamesT^jver, and has in it many fair Brick and o- 
ther good Houfes : In this place arc held theQuarter-Courts,General 
Affemblies, the Secretaries Office, and all other Affairs and greateft 
Concerns of the Colony are here difpatch'd. On the fame fide, nearer 
the Mouth ofthisRiver,ftands Elizabeth-City , containing alfo feveral 
good Houfes of Brick and Timber. 

Sir 



and the Na- 
tives. 



Chap. II. A M E 2^ I C A. ipp 

£ iv IViUiamTSerQey, the prefent Governor refides at a place fomewhat 
diftant from famesXity, call'd (jrcen-fpring, a fair Brick Houfe, which 
he himfelf caus'd to be Built. 

The other Towns of Note belonging to the Englijh ,are only Henri* 
copolis, or Henry VTbw7-(fo nam'd from Prince Henry then living,built 
in a very convenient place, more within Land,about eighty Miles di- 
ftant from JamesXity) and T>ales-(jift,[o nam'd from Sir ThomasVaU 
Deputy-Governor of the Countrey, about the Year r<5to. 

The Indians of Virginiafav exceed tliofe o£ Maryland, in Treachery 
and Cruelty to the Englifh there, as will appear by this following Re- 
lation of their Proceedings towards them, fince the firft Seating of that 
Colony, wherein neverthdefs.the Civility of fome particular Perfons 
at their firft Landing is not to be omitted. 

Upon the firftarrival of Captain /Jmidas and Captain < Barlorp in Win- Tranra ^«- 
aandacoa, now Virginia, they were accofted by Granganimeo (the King's the e*m 
Brother of that Countrey) who, attended with a Train of forty or fif- ai 
ty Men, came in a very civil manner to Treat about a Commerce of 
Trade and Traffique, which immediatly began between them,and fe- 
deral Barters were made : (jranganimeo, who was very juft of his word, 
and always kept his promis'd Day of meeting , fancying moft a Pew- 
ter Difti, gave twenty Deer-skins for it, and boring a Hole therein, 
hung it about his Neck for a Breaft^plate ; afterwards he, with his 
whole Company, and his Wife and Children, frequently and famili- 
arly did eat and drink aboard the Englifh Ships,the King himfelf call'd 
Jfingina, lying fitk at his chief Town, fix days Journy off, of a dange- 
rous Wound which %e had receiv'd from a neighboring King his 
mortal Enemy.- Some of the Englifh going to Land upon the I fle of 
Tfyanoacf^ were rtiet by Granganimeo sWik, who, her Husband being 
abfent,commanded her Servants fome to draw their Boat afhore,fonie 
to carry them on their Backs to Land , others to carry their Oars into 
the Houfe for fear of ftealing; and having caus'd a great Fire to be 
made to warm them, and to dry thofe that had been wet in their Voi- 
age, (he afterwards entertain'd them with a plentiful Feaft or Banquet 
after that Country fafhion • and when they took alarm at the coming 
of two or three of her Men with Bows and Arrows, (he caus'd the 
Bows to be broken,and the Men to be beaten out of the Houfe,befides 
feveral other demonftrations of extraordinary civility \ and when not 
withftanding all this they could not be perfwaded to Lodg any where 
but in their Boat , (he us'd all means imaginable to make them quit 
their Jealoufy, and accept of a Lodging in the Houfe. 

In the Year 158 *. a Company that went over with Sir TZjchard (jreen- 
vil, burnt the Town of Aquafcogoc, for a Silver Cup that was ftoln by 
fome of the Indians^ took Prifoner Menatonon, King of Chaitoonoc, who 
gave Relation of a King about three days Journy off, who poffefs'd an 
lfland rich in Pearl, which was taken in a deep Water that inviron'd 
it. Going towards the Countrey of the Mangoac\s (among whom in 

the Province of Chaunis Temaotan , they heard of a Mine of ftrange 
Copper call'd J^affador 7 with Styo, the King of Chawonocf(s Son , and 

Manteo 







200 A M E 3^1 C A. Chap. II. 

Manteo, a faithful Salvage, for their Guide) they were treacheroufly 
dealt with by IVingina, alias Temijfapan (for fo, his Brother (jrangani- 
meo being lately dead, he had aher'd his Name) who endeavor'd to 
ftirup a Confederacy of the Cba%vonockj y Moratockj, &ndJllangoac\s a- 
gainft them ; yet by the urgent perfwafions of bnfetrore his Father, 
the trueft Friend the Engl tjb had, after the death of Cjranganimea, and 
feeing them fafe return'dfi om their Journey,wherein he thought they 
had all perifh'd, and efrecially upon Menatonoris fending MelTengers 
to them with Pcari, and 0\ifco King of Weopomeocfy to yield himfelf 
Vaflal to the Q^een of England, his Hatred was fomewhat coo! d,- but 
Enfenore deceaimg foon after, he return'dto his old treacherous* Pra- 
difes again, and m .he end, while he was contriving Mifchief againft 
the P!a 'iters, he himfelf was (hot, taken Prifoner, and beheaded. 

After the Company left upon Virginia by Sir Richard (freenvil, (for 
he himfelf was return d),ttVd out with hunger, hardfhip, and the ma- 
ny extremines they were at laft reduc'd to, had defertsd the Place, and 
obtain d palfa^e for England, through the civility of Sir Francis T)ra\e, 
pitying their dift;'.; is, fifty Men more were Landed upon Tfyanoack^Ifle, 
by the fame Pcrfon,who how they were furpris'd and deftroy'd by the 
Natives, was difcover'd at large to the Supply that was fent over in the 
Year 1587. by Mr. White. 

A fmill Party under Captain Smith going down the River to 
K^conghean , were very fiercely affaulted by fixty orfeventy Indians, 
but their Mufquet-fhot did fuch Execution amongft them, that they 
fled into the Vv oods and left behind them the Image of their God, 
which had been carry'd before them as their Standard, and not long 
after fent one of t^eir QMeiongcafocly to offer Peace,and to redeem their 
0{ee ; which Smith gaming, on condition fix onely of them would 
come unarm' d and load his Boat with Provifions; and promifing more 
over to become their Friend, and furnifh them with Beads, Copper, 
and Hatchets : They accepted the Condition, and brought him Ve- 
nifon, Turkies, wild Fowl, Bread, and what elfe they had, Singing 
and Dancing in fign of Friendftiip till they departed. 

J n his next Voyage for the difcovery of the Head of Chic{amahama 
River, he was, through then eglecfl of his Sea-men who were fent to 
watch the Booty, taken Prifoner ; in which condition he was kept a 
whole.Month: then being releas'd , he got Provifions for the People 
in fames-! (mn • which had they not timely receiv'd , they had all a- 
bandond the Place, and return'd to' England. 

While Affairs ftood thus in a mean condition, Captain Viewport 
ariving there with a Ship and fixty Men to ftrengthen the Plantations, 
King ?^- ^ went to IVerornocomoro , where King Powhatan ke ' his Court, and 
found him fitting on a Bed of Mats,and an Embroider'd Leather Cu> 
fhion, Cloth d in Deerskins ; at Irs Feet fat a yonng Maiden, and on 
each fide of the Houfe twenty Concubines ; his Head and Shoulders 
painted red,and a Chain of white Beads about his Neck. J^ewpori'to 
oblige him, gave him an Englijh Youth ; for which he receiv'd Tmvba^ 
tans Friend Mamontaf^ with whom returning,he found afad accident, 

for 



hatu . 



remark- 



Chap. 1L *A M E%^I C A. Z oi 

for the Fire had not otiely burnt the Houfes of the new Planters, but alfo the Pal- 
lifado's about James.Tovn, made for a Defence againft the Enemies AlTaults, and J****** 
mod of their Store j which was lo much the worfe, becaufe it hapned in the ^ 
Winter, and indeed had prov d very fatal, had not a Ship, which was fuppos'd to 
be loft, happily arriv'd there with a confiderable quantity of Provifions. 

Whilft the Town was rebuilding^/; fee Sail in an open Barque with fourteen «»ftv* 
Men, and difcover'd two Ifles before Point Charles, to which he gave his Name ,. ^ 
then ran into the Inlet Qhefapeack, in the midft of which lay feveral Iflands, by the His rem* 
Sea-men cali'd <$jijfels. Before the River Wighcomoco they found a difturbed Sea, and JS*"" 
more Northerly a Bay with frefli and hot Water, and at lafl he met with two Virgi- 
mans, which conducted the Englifi along a Creek to Onawmoment, where fome hun- 
dreds of them lay in Ambufcade, according to Powhatan's appointment, to cutoff 
Smith ; who leaping forth on a fudden appear'd like Devils, all painted . but the 
Bullets flying about made them all run away. $//«>/>, whofe Defign was onely to difi. 
cover the Countrey, and the Silver Mine of Patawomeck, ten Leagues up into the 
Countrey, found the Metal to be of little value, fo that he returned with little Sue 
cefs, being newly cur'd of a poyfonous Wound in the Arm, which was given him 
by a Fifh not unlike a Shark, whilft he lay aground near Toppahanock. 

A while after being inform'd of Powhatan's Defign to deftroy the Englifr, (though 
he had been lately Prefented by Newport with a Silver Bafin, a rich Chair, Bed, and 
Furniture belonging to it, with other things of value) he, to prevent him, chofe 
forty eight out of two hundred Men which were Garrifon'd in James*Twn, then 
going to Wcro^ocomoco, Landed with much trouble, the River being frozen above 
half a Mile from the Shore. 

A German Soldier amongft Smith's Company giving private notice to Powhatan 
of the Defign of the Englijh, made his Efcape by flight : But Smith going on td 
Pamaunhe, found King Opechancangough with feven hundred Men in Arms, threat- 
ning a fierce Battel ; but Smith making directly up to him, fet his Piftol on his 
Breaft, and fore'd him to lay down his Arms. Powhatan by this time provided 
with Swords and Mufquets by two Dutch-men, alio began to beftir himfelf afreflh • 
but his Intentions being too foon known, he was again quieted, and fore'd a fecond 
time to fend Smith a String of Pearl ; after which a Peace was concluded between 
all the Natives and the Englijh 

Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the Planta- 
tion between the Indians and the English, wherein it would be endlefs to recount all 
the Treacheries and Ambufcades of the Salvages, fome of which had prov'd very 
pernicious to the Planters, had they not been betray 'd to Captain Smith by Poca- 
honta, King Powhatan s Daughter, who upon all occafions fhew'd her felf a great 
Friend to the Englifr, having fav'd the Captain's Life,when, being her Father's Pri- 
foner, he was juft brought to Execution. 

This Lady was afterwards brought into England, Chriftncd by the Name of 
3(eMtffc, and Married to one Mr. %olf, and died at Gravejend in an intended Voy- 
age back to her own Countrey, 

Nor did their Cruelties and Treacheries end when th« Plantation came to be 
morefetled, ior on the two and twentieth of March about the Year 1611. in the 
time of Sir Francis Wyat's Government, they generally combin'd to deftroy all the 
Englifl) there 5 and carried on this devilifli Defign with fuch diflimulation and dex- 
terity, that in one day they cut off feven hundred Men, Women, and Children, 
there being at that time not above fifteen hundred in the Countrey. 

Since which time, in the Year of our Lord 1643. there hapned another bloody 

Maffacre, 



ioz A M Elt^I C J. C! ap. II. 

Maffacrc, wherein near five hundred Englijh were in one Night miferably butcher'd 
bythofc barbarous and perfidious Salvages : whofc Blood the prefent Governor, 
Sir William Berkley, nobly and juftly reveng'd the Year following, utterly deftroying 
moft of them, and taking Prifoner their chief Emperor, Opichancono y who died not 
long after in Prifon. 

Having given but a fmall hint, in its proper place, of the Story of Captain 
Smith's Imprifonment by Tovhatan, and his deliverance from Death by Tocahonta-^ 
we have thought not improper to referve the Story of it, being very remarkable 
for a particular Relation, before we conclude our Defcription of Virginia, fince 
otherwife we fhouldhave interrupted the Series of our former Difcourfe. 

Tbe^elation of Captain Smith's being taken Trifoner by Powhatan, and 
of his being deliver d from Death by his Daughter Pocahonta. 

THe Salvages having drawn from one George Cajfen , whither Captain 
Smith was gone, profecuting that opportunity, they follow'd him with 
three hundred Bowe-Men , conducted by the King of Tamaunkee , who 
in divifions, fearching the turnings of the River, found two of his Men by 
the fire fide , whom they (hot full of Arrows , and flew. Then finding the 
Captain, who, as is faid , us'd the Salvage that was his Guide as his Shield, 
(three of them being (lain , and others fore gall'd) the reft would not come 
neat him : Thinking thus to have returned to his Boat, regarding them as 
hemarch'd, more than his way, he flipp'd up to the middle in an Ofier.Creek, 
and his Salvage with him, yet durft they not come to him, till being near dead 
with cold, he threw away his Arms : Then according to their compofition, they 
idrew him forth, and led him to the Fire, where his Men were (lain ; diligent- 
ly they chaf'd his benumm'd Limbs, he demanding for their Captain, they fticw'd 
him Opechankanough, King of Tamaunkeey to whom he gave a round Ivory double 
compafs Dyal. Much they marvel'd at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which 
they could fee fo plainly, and yet not touch it, becaufe of the Glafs that cover'd 
them ; but when he demonftrated by that Globe-like Jewel, the roundnefs of the 
Earth, and Skies ; the'Sphere of the Sun, Moon, and Stars, and how the Sun did 
chafe the Night round about the World continually - the greatnefs of the Land 
and Sea ; the diverfity of Nations, variety of Complexions, and how we were to 
them Jntif odes 9 and many other fuch like matters, they all flood as amaz'd with 
admiration : Notwithftanding, within an hour after they ty'd him to a Tree, and 
as many as could (land about him prepar'd to flioot him ; but the King holding up 
the Compafs in his Hand, they all laid down their Bowes and Arrows, and in a 
triumphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he was after their manner kindly 
Feafted, and well us'd. 

Their order in conducing him was thus . Drawing themfelvcs all in Fylc, the 
King in the midft had all their Bowes and Swords borne before him. Captain 
Smith was led after him by three great Salvages, holding him fa ft by each Arm . 
and on each fide fix went in Fyle with their Arrows nocked. But arriving at the 
Town (which was but onely thirty or forty Hunting Houfes made o; Mats, which 
they remove as they pleafc, as we our Tents) all the Women and Children flaring 
and gazing at him, the Souldiers firft all in Fylcwhccl'd off to the Rear in good 
Order, on «-ach Flank were Officers, like Serjeants to fee them keep their Poftures : 
A good time they continu'd this Exercife, and then call themfelves in a Ring, 
Dancing in fuch feveral Poftures, and finging and yelling out fuch hellifh Notes 

and 









Chap. II. AMERICA. 203 

and Screeches ; being ftrangely Painted, every one his Quiver of ArroWs, and ac 
his Back a Club . on his Arm a Fox or an Ckters«skin, or ibme fuch matter for his 
vambrace ■ their Heads and Shoulders Painted red, with Oyl and <Pocones mingled 
together, which Scarlet.like colour, made an exceeding handlbme fhow ; hisBowc 
in his Hand, and the Skin of a Bird with her Wings abroad dry'd, ty'd on his Head, 
a piece of Copper, a white Shell, a long Feather, with a (mall Rattle growing at 
the Tails of their Snaks ty'd fo it, or fome fuch like Toy. All this while Smith and 
the King flood in the midft, guarded, as before is faid, and after three Dances they 
all departed. Smith they conduced to a long Houfe, where thirty or forty tall Fel* 
lows did guard him , and e're long , more Bread and Venifon was brought him 
than would have ferv'd twenty Men, I think his Stomack at that time was not ve- 
ry good - what he left, they put in Baskets and ty'd over his Head. About mid- 
night they fee the Meat again before him j all this time none of them would eat a 
bit with him, till the next Morning they brought him as much more, and then 
did they cat all the old, and referv'd the new as they had done the other, which 
made him think they would feed him for (laughter : Yet in this defperate eftate to 
fend him from the cold, one Maocajfater brought him his Gown, in requital of fomc 
Beads and Toys Smith had given him at his firft arrival in Vtrgtnia. 

Two days after a man would have (lain him (but that the Guard prevented it) 
for the death of his Son, to whom they condu&ed him to recover the poor man 
then breathing his laft. Smith told them, that at ]ames*Town he had a Water would 
do it, if they would let him fetch it, but they would not permit that ; but made all 
the preparations they could to aflault Jamcs-To^n , craving his advice, and for re«. 
compence he fliould have Life, Liberty, Land, and Women. In part of a Table* 
book he writ his mind to them at the Fort, what was intended, how they fliould 
follow that direction to affright the melTengcrs, and without fail fend him fuch 
things as he writ for, and an Inventory with them. The difficulty and danger, he 
tola the Salvages, of the Mines, great Guns, and other Engines, exceedingly af- 
frighted them, yet according to his Requeft they went to Jamcs'To^n^ in as bitter 
weather as could be of Frofl; and Snow, and within three days return'd with an An* 
Iwer. 

But when they came to James -Town, fteing Men fally out as he had told thfcni 
they would, they fled; yet in the night they came again to the. fame place where 
he had told them they fliould receive anfwer, and fuch things as he had promised 
them, which they found accordingly, and with which they return'd with no fmall 
expedition, to the wonder of them all, fuppofing that he could either Divine,or 
the Paper could fpeak : then they led him to the Youthtanunds, the Matt ap anient /, the 
<Pajankatanks, the Nantaughtacunds, and OnaTtmanients upon the Rivers of ^apahanock^ 
and (pataibomek, through intricate ways, and back again by divers other feveralNa» 
tions, to the Kings Habitation at Tamaunkee, where they entertain'd him with mod 
ftrangc and fearful Conjurations. Not long after,early in the Morning, a great fire 
was made in along Houfe , and a Mat fpread on each fide thereof; on the one 
they caus'd him^»fit, and all the Guard went out of the Houfe, and prefently 
there came skippmg in a great grim Fellow, all Painted over with Coal, mingled 
with Oyl 5 and many Snakes and Wefelsskins (luff 'd with Mofs , and all their 
Tails ty'd together, fo as they met on the Crown of his Head in a TafTel j and 
round about the Taflel was a Coronet of Feathers , the Skins hanging round 
about his Head, Back, and Shoulders, and in a manner cover'd his Face ; with a 
helli^i voice, and a Rattle in his Hand. With moft ftrange geftures and paffions 
"he began his Invocation, and environ'd the fire with a Circle of Meal* which 

done, 



2o* A M E %I C A. Chap. II. 

done, three more fuch like Devils came rufhing in with the like antique Tricks, 
Painted half black, half red ■ but all their Eyes were Painted white, and fome red 
itrokes like Mtitcbato's, along their Cheeks : round about him thofe Fiends Danc'd 
a pretty while, and then came in three more as ugly as the reft, with red Eyes, and 
white ftrokes over their black Faces- at lad they all fate down right againft him, 
three of them on the one hand of the chief Prieft, and three on the other ; then all 
with their Rattles began a Song, which ended, the chief Prieft laid down five 
Wheat Corns, then ftretching bis Arms and Hands with fuch violence, that he 
* fweat, and his Veins fwell'd, he began a fhort Oration : at the conclufion, they 
all gave a fhort groan, and then laid down three Grains more ; after that, began 
their Song again, and then another Oration, ever laying down fo many Corns as 
before, till they had twice incircled the Fire ; that done, they took a bunch of lit- 
tle Sticks, prepared for that purpofe, continuing (till their Devotion, and at the 
end of every Song and Oration , they laid down a Stick between the Divifions of 
Corn: till night, neither he nor they did either eat or drink, and then they fea- 
fted merrily, with the beft Provifions they could make : Three days they us'd this 
Ceremony, the meaning whereof they told him, was to know if he intended them 
well, or no. The Circle of Meal fignifi'd their Countrcy, the Circles of Corn the 
bounds of the Sea, and the Sticks his Countrey. They imagined the World to be 
flat and round, like a Trencher, and they in the midft. After this they brought him 
a Bag of Gun- powder, which they carefully preferv'd till the next Spring, to Mant 
as they did their Corn, becaufe they would be acquainted with the nature of that " 
Seed. Opitcbapam, the King's Brother, invited him to his Houfc, where, with as ma- 
ny Platters of Bread, Fowl, and wild Beafts, as did environ him, he bid him well- 
come, but not any of them would eat a bit with him, but put up all the remainder 
in Baskets. At his return to Opecbancanougbs, all the Kings Women, and their Chil- 
dren, flock'd about him for their Parts, as a due by Cuftom, to be merry with fuch 
Fragments. 

At laft, they brought him to Meronocoinoco, where was Powhatan their Emperor. 
Here morcv than two hundred of thofe grim Courtiers flood Wondering at him, as 
kc had been a Monfter ; till Powhatan and his Train had put themfelves in their 
greateft Braveries. Before a Fire, upon a feat like a Bedfted, he fit cover'd with a 
great Robe, made of d^trcwew//- Skins, and all the Tails hanging by. On either 
hand did fit a young Maid, of fixtcen or eighteen years of Age, and along on each 
fide the Houfe, two rows of Men, and behind them as many Women, with all 
their Heads and Shoulders Painted red • many of their Heads bedeck'd with the 
white Doun of Birds , but every one with fomething, and a great Chain of white 
Beads about their Necks. At his entrance before the Emperor, all the People gave a 
great fliout. The Queen of Jppamatuck was appointed to bring him Water to wafii 
his Hands, and another brought him a bunch of Feathers, in ftead of a Towel to 
dry them : Having Feafted him after their barbarous manner as well as they could, 
a long confultation was held, but in conclufion, two great Stones being brought 
before Powhatan, as many as cfould, laid Hands on him, dragg'd him to them, and 
thereon laid his Head, when being ready with their Clubs, to beat out his Brains, 
Pocahontas, the Emperors deareft Daughter, feeing no intreaty could prevail, got his 
Head in her Arms, and laid her own upon his to fave him from death ; whereat, 
the Emperor was contented he fhould live to make him Hatchets, and her Bells, 
Beads, and Copper • for they thought him a Man of all Occupations like them* 
felves; for the King himfelf will make his own Robes, Shoes, Bowes, Arrows, 
Pots, Plant, Hunt, or do any thing as well as the reft. 

Two 




4 



Chap. II. sA ME%_IC A. 20? 

Two days after, Powhatan having difguis'd himfelf in the moft fearful manner 
he could, caus'd Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great Houfc in the Woods, 
and there upon a Mat by the Fire to be left alone. Not long after, from behind a 
Mat that divided the Houfc, was made the moft doleful noife he ever heard ; then 
fowhatan, more like a Devil than a Man, with about two hundred more as black as 
himfelf, came unto him, and told him, That now they were Friends, and prefently 
heftiould go to James-Town, to fend him two great Guns and a Grindftone, for 
which he would give him the Countrey oiCafaho^ofick y and for ever efteem him as 
his Son Nantaquoud. So to James-Town with twelve Guides Powhatan fent him. 
That Night they Quarter'd in the Woods, he (till expecting (as he had done all 
this long time of his Imprifonment) every hour to be put to one Death or other, 
for all their Fcafting : but Almighty God (by his Divine Providence) had molli- 
fi'd the Hearts of thofe ftern barbarians with companion. The next Morning be- 
times they came to the Fort, where Smith having us'd the Salvages with what kind- 
nefs he could, he fliew'd %awhunt y Powhatan's trufty Servant, two Demi-Culverins 
and a Milftone, to carry to Powhatan : they found them fomewhat too heavy . but 
when they faw him Difcharge them, they being loaded with Stones, amongft the 
Boughs of a great Tree loaded with Ifickles,the Ice and Branches came fo tumbling 
down, that the poor Salvages ran away half dead with Fear. But at laft we re- 
gain dVomc Conference with them, and gave them fomc Toys, and fent to Powha- 
tan's Women and Children fuch Prefents, as gave them in general, full content. 

Sect, V. 

Carolina. . 

^ 

CArolina is that part of Florida which lies between twenty nine and thirty fix « 
Degrees and thirty Minutes of Northern Latitude : It is wafh'd on thcofew.-.. 
Eaft and South, with the Jtlantick Ocean ; on the Weft with Mare Pacifi- 
sm, or the South Sea ; and on the North, bounds on Virginia. A Countrey wherein 
Nature fhews how bountiful the can be without the affiftance of Art, the Inhabi- 
tants (excepting a little Afti*which their old Men and Women Plant) depending 
meerly on the natural and fpontaneous Growth of the Soil for their Provifions, 
the Woods furnifliing them with ftore of Fruit and Venifon, and the Rivers with 
plenty of fevetal forts of wholfom and favory Fifli. 

This Maintenance, which without forecaft or toil they receive from the natural 
fruitfulnefs of the Countrey, will, if we confider either the largenefs of their 
Growch, or the duration of their Lives, be thought neither fcanty nor unhealthy, 
their Stature being of a larger fize than that of Englijh.men, their Make ftrong and 
well proportion'd, a crooked or mif-fhapen Perfon being not to be found in the 
whole Countrey } and (where the chance of War, which they are almoft continu- 
ally engag'd in one againft another in their little Governments, fpares any of 
th«m) they live to an incredible old age 5 fo that when the Englijb came there, they 
found fome of their Kings, who faw defcend from them the fixth Generation. 

The Soil is very rich and fertile, producing naturally Walnuts, Grapes (of**** 
which the EngUjh who are there Planted have made very good Wine) Apricocks 
Bullys, with a multitude of others , befides the Woods alfo are full of very good 
Peaches, and all the Seafon of the Year ftrew'd all over with Strawberries. Mul- 
berry .Trees are the common growth of the Woods 5 and to affure you they are the 
natural Offspringof the Place, and grow to an incredible bigneIs,one whereof the 
• y Unglijh 








10 6 AMERICA. Chap! II. 

Englift (who arc new Planted at Albemarle Toint on Jjlley River) made ufe to fallen the 
Gate of their Pallifado to, was fo large, that all who came from thence fay, they 
never faw any Oak in England bigger, which is but the ordinary fize of the Mul- 
berry-Trees of this Countrey, which is fo fure an Argument of the richnefs of the 
Soil, that the Inhabitants of Virginia enquiring of the Seamen who* came from 
thence concerning the Quality and Product of the Countrey, when they werein- 
form'd of the large Mulberry-Trees it produced, were fo well fatisfi'd with it, that 
they made no farther Enquiry. There are alfo other Trees, as Afti, Poplar, and 
Bay, with feveral forts unknown to us of Europe ; but thofe which make it almoft 
all one general Forrcft of large Timber-Trees, are Oak, both red and white, and 
Cedar. There are alfo here and there large Groves of Pine-Trees, fomc a hundred 
Foot high, which afford a better fort of Maft than arc to be had cither in Marj- 
Land or Norway. Thefe larger Trees weaving their luxuriant Branches into a clofc 
Shade, fuffer no Under-wood to grow between them, cither by their Droppings, 
or elfe the Heads of Deer which loofening all the tender Shoots, quite deftroy it-fo 
that a great part of the Countrey is as it were a vaft Forreft of fine Walks, free from 
the heat of the Sun,or the incumbrance of Shrubs and Bufhes,and fo clear and. open, 
that a Man may eafily ride a Hunting amongft the Trees, yielding a Profpect very 
pleafant and furpafling. On the Skirts of thefe Woods grow lefler Trees and Shrubs 
of feveral forts . amongft them arc fundry Dying Materials, which how well the 
Inhabitants know how to make ufe of, appears in the Deer-Skins that the chief of 
them wear, which are Painted, or rather Dy'd, with feveral lively Colours. Buc 
amongft their Shrubs, one of moft note and ufe is that whofe Leaves make their 
Qaftni, a Drink they frequently ufe, and affirm to be very advantageous for the pre- 
fervation of Health ; which, by the defcription our Englijh give of the fize, colour, 
,and fliapeof the Leaf, the fort of Tree it grows on,and the tafte, colour, and effects 
of the Drink, which is nothingbutthc Decoction of the Leaf, feemstobe thevery 
fame with the Eaft-lndia TEE, and by thofe who have feen and tafted both, af- 
firmed to be no other, and may very probably be a fpontaneous and native Plant 
of this Place, fince thofe who give us an account of it, tell us, that this fo much 
valu'd Leaf grows moft plentifully in Nanking, a Province in China under the very 
fame Latitude jand very much agreeing in Soil and Situation with this of Carolina.. 

What Herbs clfc the Countrey produces, the Englijh Enquirers (who by minding 
their Plantations and Settlement there, have been taken off from fuch unprofitable 
Actions) give us but little account, onely they fay, that thofe Plats of Ground 
which have been formerly clear'd off by the Indians for the Planting their Corn, 
they found thick covcr'd with three-leav'd Grafs and Dazies, which the fertility of 
the Soil thrufts forth, whenever the Natives remove their Tillage to fome othet 
place, and leave the Earth to its own production 5 and in other parts they found 
plenty of Garden Herbs growing wild. The low and Moorifh Grounds arc for 
the moft part overgrown with Sedge and Reeds, and fuch other Trafh, which ufu- 
ally incumbers rich and uncultivated Lands ; thofe they call Svatnfas, which with 
a little Husbandry would prove very good Meadows. There arc alfo fome large 
and pleafant Sayanas, or graffy Plains. 

Thefe are a part of the Trees and Plants beft known to us, that Nature of her 
fclf produces, in a Soil which contrives and nourifhes any thing. The English who 
arc now Planted in the moft Northern parts of it, at Albemarle, bordering on Virgi- 
nia, have Apples, Pears, Cherries, Apricocks, Plumbs, and Watcr-Melons, equal- 
ling, and if you will believe the Inhabitants, both in largencfs of fize and goodnefs 
of taftc, exceeding any in Europe. And they who are Setled farther South on Aflhy 

River, 



Chap. II; e/ M E %^l C A. 10 y 

River, have found that the Oranges, Lemmons, Pomegranates, Limes, Pome- 
citrons, o-c. which they Planted there, have thriven beyond expe&ation - and 
there is nothing which they have put into the Earth, that through any defedt in the 
Soil, hath fail'd to profper. 

Befides thofe things which do ferve to fatisfie Hunger, or provoke it % the Land Commodi- 

11-1 ' 1 T 1 "" °^ thC 

doth with great return produce Indigo, Ginger, Tobacco, Cotton, and other Com- county. 
modities fit to fend abroad and furnifh foreign Markets-, and when a little time 
fhall have brought thofe kind of Plants to maturity, and given the Inhabitants 
leifure to furnifh themfelves with Conveniences for ordering thofe things aright, 
the Trials that they have already made of the Soil and its fitnefs for fuch Plan- 
tations, affurc you, that befides Silk, enough to (tore Europe, and a great many 
other confiderable Commodities, they fhall have as great plenty of good Wine 
and Oyl,asany part of the World. 

The Mould is generally black,' mellow, and upon handling feels fofr, and (to 
ufe their Expreffion who have been there) foapy, and is generally all over the 
Countrey jufl: like the fine Mould of our well order'd Gardens. Under this black 
Earth, which is of a good thicknefs in moft places that they have try'd, there lies a 
Bed of Marie, and in fome parts Clay. 

The Rivers areftor'd with plenty of excellent Fifh of feveral forts, which are ta* Vi fo and 
ken with great eafe in abundance, and are one great part of the Natives Provifion, Watcr " FowI * 
who are never like to want this Recruit, in a Countrey fo abounding in large Ri- 
vers, there being in that one fmallTraft between Tort^afal and Cape Carteret, 
which are not one Degree diftant, five or fix great Navigable Rivers, that empty 
themfelves into the Sea. Thefe Rivers are alfo cover'd with Flocks of Ducks and 
Mallard, whereof millions are feen together, befides Cranes, Herons, GccCc } Cur- 
lews, and other Water-Fowl, who are fo eafie to be kill'd, that onely rifing at the 
difcharge and noifc of a Gun, they inftantly light again in the fame place, and pre- 
fently offer a frefli Mark to the Fowler. At the Mouths of the Rivers, and along 
the Sea-Coaft, are Beds of Oyfters, which are of a longer Make than thofe in Europe, 
but very well tafted, wherein are often found good large Pearls, which though the 
unskilful Indians by wafliing the Oyfters do commonly difcolour, and fpoil their 
luftre, yet 'tis not to be doubted, but if rightly order'd, there will be found many 
of value, and the Fifhing for them turn to fome account. 

Befides the eafie Provifions which the Rivers and Sea afford, their Woods are 
well ftock'd with Deer, Rabbets, Hares, Turtle-Doves, Phefants, Partridges, and 
an infinite number of Wood»Pigcons and wild Turkies, which arc the ordinary 
Diflies of the Indians, whofe Houfe-keeping depends on their Fifhing and Hunting, 
and who have found it no ill way of Living in fo fertile a Countrey, to truft them- 
felves without any labor or forecaft, to the Supplies which are there provided to 
their hands, without the continual trouble of Tillage and Husbandry. Befides, 
thefe Woods are fill'd with innumerable variety of fmaller Birds, as different in 
their Notes as Kinds. 

The Temperature of this Province is agreeable to a Countrey, whofe Pofition Tcmpffa 
is on the warmer fide of the temperate Zone, but yet the Heat is not fo fultry nor 
offenfive, as in Places under the fame Latitude in the Old World . to which modera- 
tion of Heat, as well as the healthinefs of it, the vaft Jtlantick Ocean, lying to the 
Eaft and South of it, may perhaps not a little contribute, an inftance whereof 
fome think China to be ; to which defervedly admir'd Countrey Carolina exa&ly an- 
fwersin its Pofition and Latitude, the trending from North-Eaft to Sout^-Wcft 
ofitsCoaft, and the lownefs of its Shore, and wants nothing but Inhabitants, to 

Y % make 



of the Qi- 

nucc. 



lo8 



A M E<Kl C A. 



Chap. II, 



» 




make it equal, if not excell, in all conveniences of Life, as it doth in richnefs of 
Soil, that flourifliing Empire. The heakhir^efs of the Air is fuch, that it is not 
onely benign and favorable to the home-bred Indians, and Conftitutions accuftom'd 
to it, but the Englijli-mtn who firft Planted on Jfiley.Rivev, though for fome other 
Conveniences they Planted on the fide, or almoft middle of aMorafs, and were eri- 
compafs'd with a fait Marfh, where the Air, pent up With Woods that furrounded 
them, had not that freedom it hath in open and cultivated Countrcys, yet loft not 
in a whole years time, of a confiderable number, any onePerfon, of any Difeafeto 
be imputed to the Countrey, thofefew thatdy'din that time finking under lin- 
gring Diftempers which they brought with them, and had almoft worn them out 
before they came thither. The !Bermudians (who being accuftom'd to the pttrc Air 
of their own Ifland, cannot without hazard of their Lives put themfelves into any- 
other Place) aflur'dofthe healthinefs of this Place, which is the next Land to 
them, and under the fame Latitude, venture hither. And generally all the Englifh 
Planting in the WeJl*Indies, are fo taken with the Conveniences of this Countrey, 
which, as fome of the mod confiderable of the Engltjb in thofc Parts fay of it, pr<S 
mifes all that the Heart of Man can wifli, that they fend the overplus of their Peo- 
ple hither ; to which the Inhabitants of Barbados, a skilful and wary fort of Plan- 
ters, well knowing in all the parts of the Weft-Indies, have been found to remove the 
Hands they could fpare. As the Summer is not intolerably nor offenfively hot, fo 
the Winter is not troublefom nor pinching, but enough to correct the Humors of 
Mens Bodies, the better to ftrengthen them, and prefcrve their Healths, and fo far 
to check the growth of Plants, that by this flop they may put out more regularly,' 
and the Corn and other Fruits the better ripen together, and be ready feafonably at 
the Harveft, the want whereof in fome Countreys hinders the beneficial Growth 
of feveral valuable Commodities,the continual Spring all the year long making that 
their Crops are never ready, their Trees being laden with green and ripe Fruit at 
the fame time, which is to be fecn in the Vines growing between the Tropicks, 
where, though they bear excellent Grapes, yet they cannot make any Wine, whilcft 
the mixture of ripe and fowre Grapes upon the fame Branch,renders them unfit foe 
the Prefs, which from Grapes fo blended, though of a good kind, would fqueeze 
out a very crude and ufelefs Liquor. This alfo is the rcafon why many Parts 
where our Wheat will grow very well, do yet lofc the benefit of it, whileft the fe* 
veral Ears ripening unequally, never make the Crop fit for the Sickle. But this 
Countrey hath Winter enough to remove that Inconvenience, and to put fuch a ftop 
to the Rife of the Sap, and the Budding of Plants, as to make the feveral kinds of 
Fruits Bud and Bloflbm in their diftinct Seafons, and keep even pace till they arc 
fit to be gather'd. 
Nature,con- To this happy Climate the native Inhabitants arc very well fuited, a ftrong, 
m%9 £ lufty, and well fliap'd People, who to their well knit and aftive Bodies, want not 
ftout and vigorous Minds ; they arc a People of a good Undcrftanding, well Hu- 
moc'd, and generally fo juft and Honeft, that they may feem to have no ncTtice of, 
as their Language hath no word for, Diflionefty and Cheating 5 and the worft 
Name they have for ill Men is, that they are not good. They are a ftout and va- 
liant People, which appears in the conftant Wars they arc engaged in, not out of 
covetoufnefs, and a defire of ufurping others Pofleflions, or to enrich themfelves by 
the Spoils of their Neighbors, but upon a pitch of Honor, and for the glory of Vi- 
ctory, which is their greateft joy, there being no parts of their Lives wherein they 
enjoy Co much fatisfaction, and give themfelves (b wholly to Jollity, as in their 
Triumphs after Victory. Valor therefore is the Vertuc they mod efteem and 

reward, 



Manners 
the Inhabi- 
tants. 



I 






■H 






Chap. II. *A M E 2^ I C A. 109 

reward, and he which hath behav'd himfelf well in che Wars, is fuffer'd ro wear 
the Badges of Honor, and is adyane'd beyond others with fome Marks of his 
Courage > which araongft fome is blacking the Skin below his Eyes with black 
Lead, in fafliion fomcthing of an Half-Moon ; which Mark of Courage is not fuf- 
fer'd to be worn by any, but thofe who by fome brave Action, as killing the Ene- 
my's Leader, &c. hath fignaliz'd himfelf in their Encounters. They are faithful to 
their Promifes, fair and candid in their Dealings, and fofar from Diflionefty, that 
they want even the Seeds of it, V/<. Forecaft and Covetoufncfs. and he will be 
very little apt to deceive you to Day, who troubles not himfelf much about to 
Morrow,, and trufts for the Provifions of the Day to the Day it fclf. which pro- 
ceeds not in them for want of Wit, but defire of Content and Quiet, or by the help 
of their natural Reafon they enjoy that Happinefs which the Philofophers could 
not by their Study and Reading attain to, whileft thefe Men cut off thofe Dcfires 
which Learning could never help the other to Govern, and which if once permit- 
ted to run out beyond the prefent, are capable of no Reft nor Bounds. In their 
Converfation they are courteous and civil, and in their Vifits make Prefcnts to one 
another; when they meet, their way of Salutation is ftroaking on the Shoulders, 
and fucking in their Breath . and if he be a great Man whom they Salute, they 
ftroak his Thighs too ; as civil an Addrefs, as thofe Patterns of good Breeding, the 
Hero's, us'd to their Princes, who in their grcatcft Courtfhips, we are told, em- 
brae'd their Knees : After their Salutation they fit down ; and it is ufual with 
them to fit ftillalmoft a quarter of an hour before they fpeak, which is not an effect 
of ftupidity or fullenncfs, but the accuftom'd Gravity of their Countrey 5 for they 
are in their Tempers a merry, frollick, gay People, and fo given to Jollity, that 
they will Dance whole Nights together, the Women fitting by and Singing, whileft 
the Men Dance to their Ayrs, which though not like ours, are not harfh or unplca- 
ilng, but are fomething like the Tunes of the Irifh : So that if we will not let our 
felves too fondly admire onely the Cuftoms we have been bred up in, nor think 
Men are to be valu'd for making Legs after our Mode, or the Clothes they wear, 
which,the finer and gayer they are, always the more to befufpe&ed of Luxury and 
Effcminatenefs ; if we will allow but thefe Men to follow the Garbs of their own 
Countrey, and think them fine enough in a fliape onely to hide their Nakednefs 
before, or a Deer-skin hanging loofely on their Shoulders, and their Women not 
ill Drefs'd in Garments of Mofs, and Necklaces of Beads, whileft the Fafliion of 
their Courts require no other Ornaments . if, I fay, along and pleafant Life, 
without Diftemper or Care, be to be valu'd, without the incumbrance of unne- 
ccflary Trinkets 5 if Men are to be efteem'd for Valor, Honefty, Friendfliip, Hu- 
manity and good Nature, though Strangers to the ceremonious Troubles we are 
accuftom'd to, the Natives of Carolina will as little, or perhaps lefs, deferve the 
Name oiMiferable, or Salvage , as thofe that give it them. 'Tis true, the French and 
Spaniards who have Planted amongft them, or with little Armies travell'd their 
Countrey, have been ill handled by them ; but yet the Indians never did them any 
harm, or treated them othcrwife than Friends, tili thofe Europeans by their breach of 
Faith and feveral Outrages, hadprovok'd their juft Revenge • and they did nothing 
but what moft vertuousand generous fort of Men arc apt to do, to revenge thofe 
Affronts, which did not agree with their Tempers tamely to endure. That 
this did not proceed from treachery and inconftancy in their Natures, is apparent 
in the contrary Correfpondence they have had with the Englifr Setled amongft 
them, to whom they have been all along very kind, as they were at firft very cove- 
tous of their Company $ for after that fome of their King's Relation had been at 

Barbados 







2I0 *AME%ICA. Chap. II. 

Barbados, and had Teen and admir'd the Temper, Famions and Strength of che 
EnglS there, and had been very civilly Treated in that Ifland, they were io well 
factfi'd with them, that at the coming of the EnghjUo Sett lethere, the feveral lutle 
Kingdoms (hove with all the Arcs and Arguments they could ulc, each of them to 
draw the En'lilh to Plant in their Dominions, by commendmg the richne is of the.r 
Soil, convenlency of their Rivers, the healtlunefs of then Countrey, th= d.lparage- 
ment of their Neighbors, and whatever elfe they judg d might allure the i^ to 
their Neighborhood. Nor was this onely the firft heat or Men fond of Noyelt.es 
and as foon weary of them again, but ever fince the Englf firft Planted at Albemarle 
Point on Jlhley River, they have continu'd to do them all manner of friendly Of- 
fices ' ready on all occafions to fupply them with any thing they have obierv'd 
them to want, not making ufe of our Mens Neceffities, as an opportunity to en- 
hance the Price of their Commodities, a fort of fair Dealing we could fcarce have 
promis'd them amongft civiliz'd, well bred, and religious Inhabitants of any part 
of Europe ■ and though they are much frighted with our Guns, both fmalt and great, 
yet like innocent and welbmeaning People, they do not at all diftruft our Power, 
out freely without fufpicion.truft themfelves, both Men and Women, even their 
Kings themfelves, in our Town, Lodging and Dancing there frequently whole 
Nights together, upon no other Pledges but the bare confidence of our mutual 
Friendfliip • nor do our Men ufe any greater caution in Converfing with them, 
' ftragling up and down, and travelling fingly and unarm'd through their Woods 
for many Miles about, and are fo far from receiving any injury or .11 treatment 
from them, chat on the contrary they are kindly us'd and Entercain' d, and gu.ded 
by chem in their Way whenever they defirc it . and when any of our Men meet 
chem in cheir Walks, the Indians all ftand ftill till chey are gone by, civilly Salu- 
ting them as chey pafs. Nor doch chis AiTurance of cheirs bound ic felf wichin 
cheir own Homes )t hey of cheir own accords venturing themfelves aboard our Ships, 
have gone voluntarily with our Men co Virginia and Barbados. Nor have che Englijb 
been warning on their parts in any thing that may preferve this Amity be.ng ve- 
ry cautious of doing them any injury, bartering with them-for thofe things they 
receive of them, and buying of them even the wafte Land they make no ufe of. 

Befides the fimplicity of the Indians Diet, it is very remarkable, that they have a 
general averfion to thofe two things which are moft acceptable to our Palates, and 
withouc which few of us eicher eat or drink with any delight ; for in cheir Meats 
chey cannoc endure che lead mixture or rejlifh of Sale • and for cheir Drink, chey 
utterly abominate all manner of ftrong Liquor , to the laccer whereof, cheir large 
Growch and conftant Healch, is perhaps noc a little owing. 
TKdrn*™ Every litdc Town isadiftincT: Principalicy, Govern'd by an Hered.cary King, 
tZT* w ho in fomc places is not Son, but Sifters Son to the precedenc King, che Succef- 
fion of che Blood.Royal being concinu'd by che fafer fide. The great Bufinels of 
thofe Princes is to lead their Men out againft their Enemies in War, oragainft 
che Beafts in Hunting , for unlefs it be co appoinc chem where co Hunc, or elie to 
Confult abouc making fomc Actempc upon cheir Enemy, he hach but fmall crouble 
in che Governmcnc of his Subjects, who eicher through their own Honefty, or the 
few occafions they have for Controverfies in their extempore way of Living, need 
few Laws, andliccle Severicy co keep chem in order , buc yet they Govern their 
People withouc Contract, and fail not of a ready Obedience co their Commands ; 
fo that when fome of them have bought things of fuch of the English, who by the 
Orders made amongft our felvcs were not co Traffick wich the Indians, chey have, 
upon Complaint made to their Qaftaues, been reftor'd again, though in ftritt Rules 

of 






Chap. IL 



AMERICA. 



in 



of Law they were nekher bound by, nor oblig'd to take notice of the Rules which 
were made oncly to Govern our own People, and had at juft Prices bought what 
they car ry'd away; fuchisthe Honefty of Men, whole Principles not being cor- 
rupted with Learning and Diftinftion, are contented to follow the Dictates of 
right Reafon, which Nature has fufficicntly taught all Men for the well ordering 
of their.A&ions, and enjoyment and prcfervation of humane Society, who do not 
give themfelves up to be amus'd and deceiv'd by infignificant Terms, and minding 
what is juft and right, feeknot Evafions in the Niceties and Fallacies of Words. 

The fame is to be faidof the firft Difcovery of this Countrey, as hath been for- CA „ lina 
merly faid of Virginia and Florida, of both which it partakes . but as to the prcfent 5S£?5 
Intercft and Propriety, the Englifh, befides all Virginia intirely, have alfo fo much S^ 
of Florida as makes up thisconfiderable Province of Carolina, which foon after the ^^ 
happy Reftauration of His prefent Majefty King Charles II. from whom it receives ' 
Denomination, was granted by Patent to Edward Earl of Clarendon, L. Chancellor 
of England, George Duke oi Albemarle, William Earl of Craven ,John Lord Berkley , Anthony 
Lord Afhley, Sir George Carteret, Vice-Chamberlain of His Majefty 's Houfhold, Sir 
William (Berkley, Knight and Baronet, and Sir John Colleton, Knight and Baronet. ' 

The Lords-Proprietors of this Countrey, for the better Settlement of it accord- 
ing to their Patent granted unto them by His Majefty, and for the enlargement of 
the King s Dominions in thofe parts of America, have been at great Charge to fecurc 
this fo rich and advantageous a Countrey to the Crown of England, to whom of an- 
cient Right, by the Difcovery of Sir Sebaftian Cabottm the time of Henry the Seventh, 
it doth belong,and for its Situation, Fertility, Neighborhood to our other Plantati- 
ons and feveral other Conveniences, of too valuable confideration to be negligently 
loft : By the Care therefore and Endeavors of thofe Great Men, it hath now two Their « r e 
confiderable Colonies Planted in it, the one of Albemarle, on the North fide, border. ^S. 
ing on Virginia, where are fomc hundreds of Englifh Families remov'd thither &&£ 
from New England, and fomeof our other Plantations in the Weft-Indies 5 and ano- 
ther towards the middle of the Countrey, at Charles-Town, ot'Ajhley^iver, a Settle- 
ment fo hopeful, for the healthinefs of the Land, and convenience of accefs by a 
large deep Navigable River, and fo promifing in its'very Infancy, that many of 
the rich Inhabitants of Barbados and Bermudas, who are now crowded up in thofe 
flouriftiing Iflands, and many in our other American Plantations, are turning their 
Eyes and Thoughts this way, and have already remov'd part of their Stock and 
Servants thither. Nor is it to be doubted, but that many, following the Example 
of thofe who went to Albemarle, will be drawn to this better Plantation at Ajhley* 
<$jyer, from TS(ew.England, where the heat of their Zeal, and the coldnefs of the Air, 
doth not agree with every Man's Conftitution 5 and therefore it is to be thought, 
that many well tempcr'd Men, who are not much at eafe under fuch Extreams, will 
be forward to remove hither. 

The Lords*Proprietors, for the comfortable fubfiftence, and future enrichment ** ifcmi 
of all thofe who (hall this Year 1671. Tranfport themfelves and Servants thither, S&& 
allow every Man a hundred Acres per Head, for himfelf, his Wife, Children and^l™^ 
Servants, he carries thither, to him and his Heirs for ever, paying onely one Penv 
an Acre, as a Chief. Rent • which Pcny an Acre is not to be paid thefe nineteen years ; 
and thofe Servants who go along thither with their Matters, fliall each alfo have 
a hundred Acres upon the fame Terms, when he is out of his Time. But though 
thefe Conditions are very advantageous, and the Countrey promifes to the Planter 
Health, Plenty and Riches at a cheap Rate, yet there is one thing that makes this 
Plantation more-valuable than all thefe, and that is the fecure pofleffion of all thefe 

things, 



I 



UM E *KI C J. 



Chap. II. 



thincs wuh as great certainty as the ftate of humane Affair?, and the tranfient things of this Life are 
c pabiror.n a well contin u ? d Form ofCovernment, wffere n it is made every Man's Intend to pre- 
f«v 'he R. ghts of his Neighbor with his own , and ehofe who have the greateft Power have It hm.- 
ed to the Service of the Countrey, the Good and Welfare whereof wh.left they preferve and pro- 
mote they cannot mifs of their own, the Lords Proprietors hav.ng no other aim, than to be the 
Seft Vkn in fc^unuey where every one may be happy if it be not his own fault, it being almoft 
Is uncomtmble^nd mTch more unfafe, to be Lord over, than Companion of a m.feraolc, un- 

^J^feX^^ whoareatgreatCharge forcarmngonthis Plantation, 

have P ut the framing of a Government into the Hands of one, whofe Parts and Experience .„ Affair, 
of^tafeare univerfally agreed on, and who is by all Men alloWd to know what isconvenient for the 
richt ordering Men in Society, and fetling a Government upon fuch Foundations, as may be equa 
f fe and la ing ; and to this hath a Soul large enough to wi(h well to Mankind and to defire that all 
the People where he hath to do might be happy. My Lord Afito therefore,by the cenfent of his Bre- 
thren, the reft of the Lords Proprietors, hathdrawnup, to their general fatisfaction, lometunda- 
mental Confutations, which are fince, by their joynt approbatwn, confirm d to be the Model and 
Form of Government in the Province of .Cirrf«i the main Defign and Ballance thereof (accord- 
ing to the beft of my memory, having had I Copy thereof) in fhort is as followeth : 

Verv County is to confift of forty fquare Plots, each containing twelve tlioufand Acres. Of 

dram ■» oy -J thefe fquare Plots each of the Proprietors is to hav<h>ne, which is to be call da Stgeicrj. 

,h, t*iM. r« *^ f [hefe fquare Plots are to be divided amongft the three Noble-men of that County,* ;z. 

%Z%* a Lrtfe«4 who is to have four of them 5 and two c^c-r, who are to have each of them two 

,„:,.„ f an d ,htfe fquare Plots belonging to the Nobility, are to be call d Baronies. The other twenty 

apiece , ana t neie iqu*i r *$ .. p„n,.<fioo of ,h„ Peoole : And this Merhod s to be eb- 



The Model 
orawn Uj> liy 



of Cattlttt*. 



four fquare Plots, ca!l'ciq<>/W, are to be the Pofleffion of the People: And this Method is to be eb- 
ferv'dm the planting and Setting out oi the whole Countrey* fo that one Fifth o* the Land is to be 
in the Proprietors, one Fifth in the Nobility, and three Fifths in the People, g 

2 The Sittnoriel and Baronies, thatis,the hereditary Lands belonging to the Proprietors and Nobi- 
lhv 'are all entirely to defcend to their Heirs, with the Dignity, without power of alienation, more 
than for three Lives, or one and twenty years, or two Thirds of their Signiories and Baronies, and the 

rt adhere wll be alfo fome Mannors in the Colonies, but none lefs than three thoufand A«res in a 
Piece^vliicl^likethereltotthe Colony Lands, will be alienable, onely with this difference, thatic 
cannot be pa reel I'd out, but if fold, it muft be altogether. • 

4. There i$ to be a Biennial Parliament, confiding of the eight Proprietors, the Landgraves and 
Catiqua, and one out of every Precinc*, that is the fix neighboring Colonies for the Peoole, 
choien by the Freeholders \ thefe are to fit and Vote altogether for the making of Laws, which (hall 
be in fo: ce no longer than fixty years after their Enacting, the great mifchief of moft Governments, 
bv which not onely the People are mightily entangled by multiplicity of Rules and Penalties, and 
thereby laid open to the Malice and Dengns oftroublefom Men and cunning Projectors * but, which 
is far worfe, the whole frame of the.Government in trad of time comes to be remov'd from its origi- 
nal Foundation, and thereby becomes more weak and tottering. 

k. There are eight fupream Courts for the difpatch of allpubhck Affairs 5 thehrlrconliits or the 
TMiine, who is theeldeft of the Proprietors, and hath power to call Parliaments, and difpofe ot 
publick Offices. The other feven fupream Courts ate, 1. The chief Juftices for the determining of 
Controverts oiMeum and 'Umm, and judging or Criminals. 2. The Chancellors, for palling of Char- 
ten, and managing the State Matters of the Province. a.TheHigh-Conftables, for Military Affairs. 
4. The Admirals, for Maritime Affairs. 5. The High-Ste wards, for Trade. 6.TheTreafurers,forthe 
publick Stock 5 and 7. The Chamberlains, for Ceremonies, FalYionsJVlarriages, Burials^ c. Thefe 
ire t:ie feven fupream Courts, to whom lies the ultimate Appeal in all Caufes belonging to them. 
Each of thefe Courts coniifh of one Proprietor, and fix other Councilors, whereof two are cbofen 
by the Nobility, and two by the People. All the number of thefe eight Courts joyn'd together make 
the Grand Council, which are in the nature of a Council of State, and are entrufted with the ma- 
nasementof Affairs of greateft concernment. There is alfo in every Countya Couit, andinevery 
Pllcjntf another \ from the Precincf Court there lies an Appeal to the County Court, and from the 
County Cowrt to the Proprietors Court, to which the Matter in queftion belongs, and there is the 
lalt decifion and determination thereof, without any farther Appeal. And to keep the People from 
the Charges and vexation of long Suits, to the enriching of Men cunning in Words, care is taken, 
that no Caufe fiiallbe TryM more than once in anyone Court, and that profefs'd Pleaders for 
Money (hail not be allow'd. 

Liberty of Conscience is here alfo allow'd in the greateft latitude, but yet fo, that neither Atheifts, 
or Men of iio Religion, are permitted 5 Atheifm, Irreligion, and vicious" Lives being condemn'd, 
as difagreeable to humane Nature, inconilftent with Government and Societies, and deftruchve to all 
thatisufeful to, or becoming of Mankind 5 as on the other hand, rigorous Impofing of, and hot 
Contentions about the Ceremonies and Circumftances of Religion, is an occafion of perpetual Strife, 
Faction and Divifion, keeps Men from fedate and temperate Enquiries after Truth, eats out the great 
Cement of humane Converfation, charity, and cannot be found in any one, who bath butmodefry 
enough to think himfelf lefs than a rope, and lhort of Infallibility- 

There is alfo to be a Regifter of all Grants and Conveyances of Land, to prevent even the occali- 
ons of Controversies and Law-Suits. 

There are feveral other lefs confiderable Particulars in this Government, all contriv'd andde- 
fign'd for the good and welfare of the People^ all which are fo well put together, and in fuch equal 
proportion ballance each other, that fome judicious Men who have feen it,fay , it is the beft and faireft 
Frame, for the well-being of thofe who (hall live under it, of any they have feen or read of. 

w C H A "• 



Chap. IIL 



*J M E %_I C A. 



**i 



CHAP. IIL 
Florida. 

SOuth-Weft of Virginia lieth the fpacious Countrcy of Florida, remarkable hi- situ ^°^ 
therto rather by the great pains which the Spaniards have taken, and the ill *"**'' 
SucceiTes they have met with in the difcovery and fearch of this Province 
than by anything elfe they have difcover'd in it anfwerableto their defires. On the 
Eaft it hath the Atlantick Ocean, or Man del Tfyrdt ; on the South, and South- Weft 
theGulph of Mexico and Mare Vrrginium . and full Weft, part of New GaUicia, and 
fome other Countreys, not yet perfectly known. 

This Countrey is alfo one of thofe, faid to have been firft of all difcover'd by 
Sir Sebaftian Cabot, at the Charges of the King of England, about the Year 1 407. but 
afterwards more throughly fearch'd into by John <Ponce de Leon, a Spaniard, who in ***>*& 
the Year 1512. fct Sail with three Ships out of the Haven St. German in Tom <%jico, ^^ 
North. Weft to the Ifles ©*^ Manegua, and Guanabani, 

firft difcover'd by Qhnjlopber Coloms,znd call'd St. Salvador : After that Steer'd North- 
Weft by a Coaft, which (becaufe of its plealant profpe&) was catfd Florida, or (ac- 
cording to the more common Opinion) becaufe it was on Talm^Sunday, which the 
Spaniards call Tafcha de Flores, or fafcba Florida) that he Landed here : And to 
find out a Haven he kept fight of the Shore, which appear'd South-Weft from 
him. Here the Ships met with fo ftrong a Tide, that notwithstanding they had a 
frefli Gale of Wind, yet could they not Item it 5 one of the Ships was driven to Sea 
out of fight ; the other two calling Anchor, which raking, drove toward the Shore . 
whither, being beckned by the Indians, they immediately went i when no fooner 
he Landed, but they ran in great Companies to make themfelves Mafters of the 
VeiTels, kill'd one Spaniard^nd wounded two more : the Night approaching put an 
end to the Fight. From hence Sailing to the River La Crutx for Wood and Water, 
they were refifted by fixty Natives, which they put to flight with their Guns, and 
took One Prifoner ; after which they erected a Stone Crols. The Promontory, by 
which glides the ftrong Current, lies in twenty Degrees North-Latitude, and call'd 
CalodeQorrientes, as the Row of Ifles, before the Main Land Los Martyres, becaufe 
the Cliffs at a diftance appear like Men ftanding on Poles. Laftly, after fome fmail 
Encounters with the Flondans, Tonce return'd home, being onely inform'd falfly by 
the Indians, that in Florida was a River, and on the Ifle Simini a Fountain, whofe ^"oia 
Waters made old People young. y ^. cIook 

But after this Florida remained not unvifited . for eight years after the foremen- 
tion'd Voyage, Lucas Vafaue^de Aylom weighed Anchor with two Ships from Hxjpa* SB? 
niola, to fetch Slaves from the adjacent Ifles for the Goldmines, which Labor the 
Natives were not able to perform : therefore fleering his Courfe Northwardly, he 
Sail'd along the Coaft of Cbicoa and Gualdape, by them call'd Cabo de St. Helena, and 
fyo Jordan, where the Natives look'd upon the Ships as Sea-Monfters, and feeing 
Bearded Men in them, fled : the Spaniards purfuingthem, overtook one Man and a 
Woman . who being well Entertained, and Clad in Spanifi? Habits, made the Stran* 
gers fo acceptable to their Countrey-men, that their King fent fifty Men Aboard of 
them with Provifions, and to invite the Sea-men to his Dominions. The King fat 

Z with 



pedmon 10 



V 



zi4- 



a M E%1 C A. 



Chap. III. 






Habit of a 

Florida* 

King. 




Treachwy of 



indium mif- 
ufcd. 



VtfamtZ de- 
feated by the 
Ihridant. 



Xarvatz his 
^xpctutiun. 



with a ereat Cloth about him, made faft on his Shoulders, covering his Belly 
Breaft and Back with the Lappet thereof, and being long, was held up by one of 
his Servants , over one of his Shoulders hung a String of Pearl that came three 
times about, and reach'd down to his Thighs ; on his Head he wore a Cap full of 
Ribbonds • his Arms and Legs werealfofurrounded with a double Chain of Pearl I . 
in his rieht Hand he held a very rich Staff : But the Queen went almoft naked, 
onelv a piece of a wild Beafts Skin hung ddwn before her from her left Shoulder 
to her mid-Leg, and a double String of Pearl about her Neck hung down between 
her Breads, and her Hair Comb'd behind reach'd down to the Calves of her Legs ; 
about her Wrifts and Ancles hung alfo Strings of Pearl. 

On the King's Command, the Spaniards were permitted to make infpeftion into 
the Countrey, in which they were every where courteoufiy Entertain'd, and not 
without Gold and Silver Prefcnts. Returning Aboard, Vafaue^ invited the Indtans 
to eo with him, under pretence of returning them thanks for the Favours which 
they had bellowed upon him 5 but no fooner had he gotten a confiderable number 
in his Ships, but he fet Sail, andlofingone Ship, arriv'd with the other fafe at 
Hifpamola with afewfoto, for moft of them with grief and hunger died at Sea, 
and thofe that remain'd alive, liv'd on dead Carrion. , 

Some few years after, Vafquc^ receiving Letters Patent from the Court or Spam 
for the Government of Florida, fitted out a Ship thither in 1610. which brought a 
good Return of Gold, Silver, and Pearls . whereupon he himfelf went not long al- 
ter and coming into the River Jordan, loft one of his Ships, winch prov'd not the 
wo'rft Accident • for Landing two hundred Men, they were all of them either flam 
or wounded by the Inhabitants s fo that Vajaue^ was fore'd to found a Retreat ; 
And after that the Spaniards were lefs willingly drawn to that Coaft, and the rather, 
becaufe the Inhabitants feem'd poor, and had little Gold but what they procur'd 
from the Otapales and Olugatonos, fixty Leagues Northward up in the Countrey. 

Notwithftandingthefeunfuccefsful Expeditions, <Pamp him 2v>v^ retain d lo 
much Courage, that obtaining Letters Patents from the Emperor Cbarles the Fifth, 



Chap. III. A M ETi^I C A. ' %i $ 

he fitted out four Sail and a Brigantine,,weigh'd Anchor from Cuba with fix hun. 
dred Men and eighty Horfe, in the Year 1528. On Florida he Landed three hun- 
dred Foot and forty two Horfe ; they found many empty Huts.but in a great Houfe ^ 
a golden Bell hid amongft the Nets,Chefts full of Merchandife, and in each a dead 
Body cover'd with Beaft Skins,and painted; Pieces of LinnenCloth,and Wedges of 
Gold, which they had from the remote Countrey Jpalache. TiarVae^ though againft 
the Opinion of Nunne^Cabeca, march'd up into the Countrey, whilft the Fleet was 
to ftand along the Shore, and travelling fifteen days faw neither Houfe nor Man,^ 
onely here and there fome Valmito -Trees : Crofling a River on Floats, they were 
Encountred by two hundred of the Natives J of which the Spaniards, having routed 
them, took fix Prifoners, whofurnifli'd them plentifully with Indian Wheat. Af- 
ter this they march'd fifteen days farther, without difcerning the leaft foooftep of a 
Man ; . but at laft they met an Indian Lord with a confiderable Train, before whom 
march'd feveral Pipers : being told by NarVae^ that his Journey was fot Jpalache, 
he conducted the Spaniards with a Canoo over a River, and Landing again, walk'd 
with them to his Village, where he Entertain'd them with great civility. ^NarVae^ 
after a long and troublefom Journey, came at laft in fight of Apalacktfi Village 
which contained two hundred and forty Straw Houfes, built between the Moun. 
tains on a Moorifh Soyl, full of Nut, Pine, and Savine-Trees, Oaks, Laurel, and 
fliort falmito's, befides the Trees, which blown down in feveral places by a ftron<r 
Wind from between the Hills, and lying crofs, cumber'the High-ways : There are 
many deep Pools, and alfo Bears, Lyons, and other ravenous Creatures, which 
make the Ways very dangerous. 2Y>v^ falling fuddenly on the Village, took the 
Caftaue Prifoner, as alfo ftore of Wheat, Mortars to pound it, Hides, and Thred- 
fpun Cloaks. Here he refted twenty five days, during which time fome of his 
Men Journey'd farther into the Countrey, yet found none but poor People, 
troublefom Ways, and an unfruitful Soyl : twice they were fet upon by the Na- 
tivcs^ who kill'd fome of the Horfes and Men : They being a very ftrong People 
run ftark naked, and as fwift as a Deer, Diving under Water from the Spaniards 
Bullets ; which not a little amazing KarMae^, he thought it convenient to fet upon 
the Village Ante, lying on the Shore : Nine days he was in a miferablc condition h< i, (* 
before he got any Wheat, Peafe, or other Provifions from this Village , the getting S£ ""* : 
whereof coft him very dear, for the Villagers behav'd themfelves fo valiantly, 
that they kill'd many Spaniards, and fome of their Horfes, which fincc they left the 
Haven of St. Cruce had travell'd two hundred and eighty Leagues ; fo that being 
tir'd and out of heart, they could not carry the Sick and Wounded,' who not able 
to go, fell down dead in the Way : whereupon it was judg'd convenient to make 
five Barques, in which they made their Shirts fervefor Sails, the Horfes Tails and 
Mayns for Ropes, their Skins to hold frefh Water , with which putting out to Sea, 
they law no Land in feven days ; and running through the Straights of St. Miguell, 
Steer'd along the Coaft of ^10 del Palmes ■ where they fuffer'd great Drought, info- 
much that fome drinking fait Water, died thereof : at laft Landing, they were in 
the Night fet upon by a Cafique, who having given 2^anae^ a great Wound in the 
Eacc > fl . e <*, leaving behind him a Sable Cloak, fcentcd with Amber ; three days they 
rang'd again along the Sea-lhore, when the Barque of Nunne^ Cabeca being behind,,, 
was by Storm driven on the Shore, where a hundred Indians waited to cut them off",: f*"J j? 
but were pacifi'd with fome Trifles : Thus being bereav'd of Arms, Provifion, 
and all manner of Neceffaries, they found themfelves on an Ifle, by the Inhabitants 
call'd Malbado , where they were lodg'd and maintain'd Co long as they had Jf» £ «™s< 
any thing left ; but Famine grew at laft to fuch a heighth, that they devour'd JJ"** 

Z 2 One 






xi6 




Sottuf's Ex- 
pedition veiy 
remarkable. 



Strange deal- 
ing of the Co- 
facbiguiaas. 



A Maid Go- 
verns the 
Countrey. 



Great Trea 
futc of 
Pearls. 



Great Tem- 
peft. 



Sonus\ far J 
ther Journey 
very remark- 
able. 



The City 
jfyvWa. 



A M E%^I C A. 

one another, and in a thort time of eighty Men there remain'd onely four alive, vi*. 
Kunne^Cabeca,Caftiao,Orantes y and EfieVanico, who at laft by Land reach'd to Kern 
Galluia, and foon after to Mexico, having efcap'd a thoufand Dangers. Of <Pamfhtlus 
NarVae^.ne\et any tydings being heard, it is fuppos'd he wasdrown'd. 

After this miferable Adventure, the Bufinefs of Florida lay dead for eleven years, 
till Ferdinandus Sottus, choicn Governor of Cuba, obtain'd fo much of the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth, that he ventur'd one Expedition more for Florida : Befides Sea- 
men he carried five hundred Foot, and three hundred and fity Horfe . with which 
Landing in the Bay DelEfpirito Santo,hc march'd againft the Cafique rttacucho, vt horn 
be took Prifoner, with a thoufand of the Natives, whom he either put to the 
Sword, or caus'd them to be torn in pieces by Dogs ; and ftaying all the Winter in 
^wkck.fortin'd that place, and furnifli'd himfelf with Provifions • he was inform'd, 
that thirteen days Journey from thence lay the Kingdom of Cofachiqui, abounding 
with Gold, Silver, and Pearls, which made every one of the Spaniards very defi- 
rous to go thither, not withftanding the Way was very dangerous; for the vali- 
ant Floridans lying in Ambufcade in the Corn.Fields, wounded and kill'd many of 
them by Shooting from thence. Sottus, fo foon as March approached, fet forward on 
his Way. In the poor Province of Achalaqui he found a few young People, and the 
old mod of them blind. From Cofachiqui he was followed by four thoufand Natives, 
who carried the Spaniards Luggage, and ferv'd them as Guides through Woods 
and WilderneiTes. The feventhday they ftopp'd at a great River, whither Sottus 
fent four Companies to feek out a Paflage over, whereof three return'd without 
any effect, but the fourth, Commanded by Captain Annafto, and a Colonel of a 
thoufand Cofachiquians, came to a Village built along the River ; in which they made a 
a miferable Rout, killing all they lighted on, and hanging the Sculls of the Dead by 
their fides I this done, they march'd back. Sottus at laft efpying a Village on the 
other fide of the River, beckned to the Natives to come over to him . whereupon 
fix came immediately ; who undemanding that hedefir'd their friendly Affiftance 
and Trade, promis'd to acquaint their Governefs, being a youngMaiden : who 
foon after came over to Sottus, and prefented him with a String of Pearl : he com- 
plain'd to her for Provifions, which fhe promis'd in part to ftore him with. Crof. 
fing the River he found a brave Countrey, where were Pearls as big as gray Peafe, 
Copper of a golden colour, but no Gold. Out of the Tombs of their Princes the 
Spanijh Officers, with the leave of the fore=mention'd Maid their Govcrnefs, got an 
incredible Treafure in Pearls. In the Village Tolomeco they did the like. But here 
their Provifions growing fcarce, the Army was divided into two Bodies, Qahbafar 
de Gattegos leading one, and Sottm thc-other j yet the Defign of them both was on 
the Province of Cbalaque \ whither marching, they were furpris'd by fuch a violent 
Storm, that few would have been left to relate their Adventures, had not the Trees 
bore it off from them . for it not onely Thundred and Lightned as if Heaven and 
Earth would have met, but alfo Hail-ftones fell down as big as Eggs, which beat 
down the Boughs of Trees. In the pleafant Valley Xmlu, belonging to the King- 
dom of Cofachiqui, they rcfted fifteen days, and then march'd through Countreysof 
Guaxale,Acops, and (v&, where above a thoufand Indians, adorn'd with Plumes of 
Feathers and rich Furr Cloaks, came to meet and welcom them,and to defire them 
from the Qafiqut to ftay there all the Winter ; but Sottus revolving to go t6 the Haven 
Achufi, refus'd the fame. After this he view'd Talijfe, fortifi'd with woodden-and 
earthen Bulwarks ■ where the Cafique Tafcalufa, a Man as big again as an ordinary 
Spaniard, receiv'd Sottus with great civility, and conducted him to MaVtlla, lying in 
a pleafant place. The City, furroundtd with double Pallifado's, fill'd up with 
* * Earth 



217 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 

Earth bccvvcen, (where alfcr at eighty Paces diftant from one another, Hands a 
Tower to contain eighty Soldiers) hath two Gates, eighty Houfes, in every one of 
which dwell a thoufand Men, and a large Market-place in the middle; where * 

whilit the Spaniards were in the midft of their Mirth, they on a Hidden heard a 
great cry of Arms; the firft Aflault was made by feven thoufand, which ftill in- 
creafed by frefh Supplies ; but the Spaniards at laft fetting the City on fire, broke c™i n^ 
through them, and left above elevenfhoufand Hain, either by the Smoak and 
Flame, or by their Bullets, Swords, Horfes Heels and Dogs ; the Spaniards alfoloft 
eighty three Men and forty three Horfes. Thence going to Chicora they were ftopt 
by the Natives before a deep River with high Banks, which at laft croffing, not 
without great trouBle and blood-fhedding, they Winter'd in the Village Chicora, 
where the Inhabitants let them reft very quietly for two Moneths , at 'the end of 
which, joyning together in the Night, they fliot Fire into the Straw Roofs, and 
maintain'd a Fight of two hours long, in which the Spaniards loft forty Men, fifty 
Horfes, and all their Hogs, which were burnt in the Houfes. From thence going to 
Chicacolla they were refilled in moft places, and. in the FottAhbamo Engag'd by four 
thoufand Floridans, who waited for their coming; but thofe were foflirewdly hand-' 
led, that half of them were flain, and Sottus became Mailer of the Fort, as alio of 
Cbifca, which he Storm'd and took unawares. With no lefs trouble and danger did 
he get over the River El Grande, where he difcover'd a Village that contain'd above 
four hundred Houfes,and many delightful Fruit.Trees. The Cafique Cafquin, main- 
tain'd the SpaniJJ? Army fix days in this place, and taking five thoufand of his Sub- 
jects, march'd with them to Qapaba, which hath a deep and broad Moat on three 
fides thereof: the fourth was fortifi'd with ftrong F.llifado's, through which the 
Spaniards breaking, made way for Cafouin, who put all to the Sword, the Governor 
onely efcaping in a Canoo to a neighboring Ifle. The Entrance being thus taken by 
the Spaniards, Cafquin return'd home. After which Sottus concluded a Peace with 
Capabaes the Governor, and took up his Quarters in the Village Vitangue, where he 
receiv'd continual Sallies ; but taking fifteen 0/ty«* Prifoners, thrcatned to burn 
them alive, unlefs they would procure them fome Gold ; yet not being able to get 
any,they had only their Hands cut off and were fent away. Moreovcr,So««* help'd 
the Guachacoyas, to ruine thofe of Jniko>., which Defign prov'd fuccefsful, yet not ac« 
cording to Sottw's defire, for he found not the Gold-Mines which he expected, buc 
fpent in this five years Progrefs the great Treafure which he took out oUtibaUa's 
Palace ; and the Pearls which he got in Florida, for the Oy fters being open'd againft 
the Fire, and the Pearls drill'd through with a hot Iron, loft much of their luftre, 
neither would his People confent to build a City in the Haven Achufi. In the midft sm„&* 
of thefe Tranfaclions Sottus died of the Bloody.flux, and his Body was Interr'd in 
the River El Grande. After which his Succeflbr LuioVtcus de Aharado had worfe fuc ; 
cefs, for half of the Army being wafted by the cxce/Svc heat, the reft refolv'd 
to defert Florida, utterly defpairing to be ever able to refill the valiant Natives. In 
the Province of Auche they procur'd a Guide,whom,becaufe he mis-led them in their 
Way, they caus'd to be torn in pieces by their Dogs : after, which they march'd 
Without a Guide through fuch bad Ways, that they loft a hundred of their Men and 
eighty Horfes, befides many Floridans that carried their Luggage : At laft coming 
to the River ElGr ande they conquer'd two Villages; which fortifying, they took 
up their Winter Quarters in them. But this being the fourteenth year, in which 
the River us'd generally to overflow and drown all the adjacent Countreys, on a - 
iudden, to their great amazement, the Wood which they had gather'd for the build, 
mg of Barques to carry them home, was wafh'd away, their Provifions fpoil'd, 



I 



and 



218 



A M ET^l C A 



Chap. III. 







Strange 
tight. 



Expedition of 
Jhuinada and 
S>nnau». 



The Expedi- 
tion cf Me- 
nendez, 



Voyage of; 

Ribald and 

" Lwdonitre, 



The Enpedi- 
tion of Domi- 
nic us Gur- 
gtus. 



Valiant Ex« 
ploitof Gur- 



City Atigtt- 
ftine. 



ConfHtution 
of the finl 



and their Habitations drown'd : and to this Inconvenience was added another yet 
greater . for the Goveyiors round about raii/d all the Forces they could poffibly, 
to revenge themfelves on the Span tar Us for their great oppreiTion. But Jharado 
beincr inlorm'd of this Defign by the Cafique Amlco, caus'd thirty of the Abet- 
tors of the Plot to have their Hands cut off. Mot long after this the Spaniards fet 
Sail, when a thoufand Canoos that came to Engage them lay fixteen days amongft 
them, killing and wounding feveral of thejf eamen, and funk a Barque with forty 
eight Men/and alio kiirdmany Horfes which were yet on the Shone ; the Prifoners 
they took were ftrappado'd to death, and the Horfes {hot : yet fome of them got 
lafe from fanuco to Mexico. 

Thefe above-mention'd Expeditions to Florida, notwithftanding they fell out 
unfortunately, neverthelefsby the permiflion of fbilip the Second, King of Spain, 
Teter Jhumada and Julius Samano, with five Dominican Monks, made another Attempt, 
and Landed with feveral great Crofles, that thereby they might reduce the. Flori- 
d<a>25, whofe Language they underftootii not, to their Faith: But they fearing trea* 
chery, refifted them, and kill'd the Monks with Clubs, flay 'd them, and hung their 
Skins in their Temples. 

Notwithftanding thefe and many worfe Accidents thathapned, yet the Spamf? 
King ventur'd once more, and fent (Peter Me?iendc^ to. Florida ; whither he was fol- 
lowed by three Jefuits from ^ome, viz. Teter Martinis, Joan G(oger, and FranckViUare- 
gins : The Matter of the Ship in which they went being ignorant where he was, 
judg'd it convenient to Land 5 whereupon nine "Netherlander s and four Spaniards, 
amongft which was Maruniut, went afhorc on Florida, whilft a Storm arifing drove 
the Ship to Cuba - by which means thofe that were Landed were left in a miferable 
condition, having no Food but wild Herbs, on which they fed twelve days : fo that 
this Expedition alio came to nothing. 

At laft the Frenih following the foot.fteps of the Spaniards, John <j\ibald and <%ene 
Laudoniere having Sail'd feveral times to Florida, difcover'd feveral Coafts s but their 
Men were often fet upon by the Spaniards, and cut off. 

Anno 1567. Vominicus Gurgius fet Sail thither with three Ships, which carried two 
hundred Soldiers and eighty Sea-men j with which entring the -River Tacatucouru he 
Landed, and found a Youth call'd Teter dn $re, who efcap'd when the Spaniards cru^ 
elly maflacrcd the French in the Garrifon Qarolina ; after which du <Bre ranging up 
and down, at laft ferv'd Saturiona, Governor of Florida 5 whomdeferting, and now 
meeting with the French his Countrey.men, he brought feveral Cafiques to joyn with 
them againft the Spaniards, whom they drove out of three Forts, which were all by 
the Command of Gurgius difmantcled. 

Florida is call'd by the Natives, Irquafa. The Spaniards have built two Forts on 
the fame, the one erefted on the Promontory Helena, is Confecrated to the Apoftle 
Matthew. The City and the Fort Angujline lies near the River May. Both City and 
Fort ftand on a Hill, which is pleafant and well let with Trees. Between the Fore- 
land is a deep and wide Channel,which waflies the City and Fort - it is eight-fquarc, 
at each corner there ftands a round Tower, in which the Soldiers keep Guard . the 
Countrey is water'd by two Rivers, which gliding between the Main and the Fore* 
land, are great Safeguards to the Fort. The City is almoft fquare, oncly againft the 
Fort it is much cloler built than in any other place, and divided into four Streets. 
The Church ftands without of the City, and before it the Augujtine Cloyfter. 

The Inhabitants of Florida are an Olive colour, tall, and without any defor- 
mity ; their Skins generally painted, and their Bodies naked, onely a Deer's Skm 

about their middle, their Hair long and black, hanging down to their Hams, but 

mod 



1 . . 



Chap. III. 



AMERICA. 



219 




moft of them tie it in a Knot on the top of their Heads ; two fmall Boards co- 
ver their Breads, and fix letter hang on their Arms, two Bells at each Ear, and a 
Cap on their Head, with a Feather : Their Quivers, which are always full of Ar- 
rows, fliarpned with Fifli Bones, hang by their Sides . In their left-Hand they hold 
a great Bowe, with which they go to War, the King walking before with a Club. 
They Confult daily about warlike Affairs in the Kings Palace, where he himfelf ipfLfc 
fits on a high Seat . the Grandees falute him firft with their Hands lifted over their SSf** 5 ° 
Head, crying Ha, He, Ya, at which the reft cry Ha, Ha . then every one fits down 
on a Stool round about the Room. If they have any Bufinefs of Conference to 
debate, then the King fends for the ancienteftPerfons and Priefts, call'd Jonas • 
this done, they give a Cup of Qajiine (which is a hot Drink made of Herbs) to the 
King ; after which every one drinks in order out of the fame Cup. This Liquor 
occafions Sweat, quenches Thirft,and fatisfies the Appetite for twenty four hours. 
When they March againft their Enemies they live on Indian Wheat , Honey, Their Food 
fmoak'd Filh, and divers forts of wild Roots, amongft which they mix Sand and &«."* * 
Cinders, to preferve them the longer. No fooner are the two Armies come within 
fight one of another, but the Kings of both Parties roll their Eyes about in their 
Heads, mutter fomething to themfelves, and makeftrange Geftures and Exclamati- 
ons ; which is anfwer'd by a general Cry of the whole Army : then each King turn, 
ing himfelf with great Reverence to the Sun, takes a woodden Platter with Water 
which he throws over his Army fo far as he is able, and begs of the Sun to grant 
him, that he may fpiil his Enemies Blood in like manner \ then throws another 
Diflbfull into the Fire, wifhingthat his Soldiers may thus Offer the Bodies of their 
^ Foes to the Flames • then ftep forth the Priefts, who are always skill'd in the Art Their m* 
of Necromancy, and fearing themfelves on a Shield in the midft of the Army, are Sorc£rer5 ' 
draw a Circle, in which they make many ftrange Geftures, not without muttering 
to themfelves, and feemingly fay a Prayer of a quarter of an hour long . during 
which they deport themfelves fo ftransely, that they rather feem to be Devils them- Stran s c »**- 

/* I I on. 

ielves, than Charmers of the Devil : They turn their Eyes quite round, and their 

Bodies 




lio 



CruekjP on 

i he conquer \i 



Remark able 
Mourning 
for the Dead, 



Ilmimns dif- 
fer amongft 
tkemlelve*. 



Hcrruophro- 
ditcs. 



Their manner 
of taking 
Crocodiles. 



As alfo their 
Peer. . 



AMERICA. Chap. ill. 

Bodies as if without Joynts . at length being wearied they leap out of the Circle, 
and inform the King of the number and condition of the Enemies Army. Thofc 
whom they take Prifoners they flay alive,and drying their Skins at the Krc,tic them 
to long Poles, and carry them home as Trophies of their Victory, and afterwards 
fet them up in fome Field or fpacious place, putting both Men and Women to 
watch them \ then comes the Pried with a woodden Image, and utters Execrations 
againft the flain Enemies \ at a corner of the Fields kneel three Men, one of which 
ftriking with great force on a Stone, gives as many Blows as the Prieft pronounces 
Curfes, whilflTthc other two (hake their Calabajhes fill'd with Stones,and Sing many 
ftrange' Songs : No fooner is this ended, but the Women whole Husbands are (lain 
in the Battel, walking to the King, cover their Faces with their Hands, make many 
ftrange Geftures,and defire liberty to take what revenge they can,and licence alfo to 
Marry at the limited time . all which the King permitting, they return thus com- 
forted home crying. Not long after they go to the place where their Husbands lie 
buried, where they crop their Hair up to their Ears, and throw it on the Grave, as 
alfo the Arms and Drinking-Cups which the Deceafed us'din their lifetime ; after 
which they may not Marry before their Hair be grown again to their Shoulders. 
The fame Cuftom is alfo obferv'd when their King is buried • but then alfo all his 
Subjects Faft and Howl three days together, ftick his Grave full of Arrows, and 
burn his Houfe and all his Goods. 

The Floridans differ amongft themfelves very much, for thofe that inhabit the 
Province Tanuca, which borders upon New Spain, are valiant and cruel People, 
Offering their Prifoners to their Idols,and eating them. The Men pluck up the Hair 
of their Beards by the Root, make holes through their Nofc and Ears, and Marry 
not till their fortieth Year. 

Next to thefc follow the Realms of Aranaris and Albardaofamhabitcd by a Peo- 
ple, which exceed all others in fubtihy. 

The Natives ofjaquaqa run fafter than a Deer, and tire not though thfcy travel 

a whole day. 

The beft Swimmers are found in Jlpachia, Autbia, and Sotneria, where the Wo- 
men Swim through deep and great Rivers with their Children in their Arms. Here 
alfo are many Hermophrodites, which carry all the Luggage when an Army is 

upon a March. 

We find mention'd alfo two other Provinces of note, vi*,. Colas (which lies near 
the Point call'd Cape Florida) and Tegifta,ot Florida properly fo call'd, being that long 
<Peninfula, which pointing upon the Me Cuba, by the Cape Los Martyres, ftretcheth it 
fclf North and South about a hundred Leagues in length, but not above thirty in 
breadth where it is largeft. In this Province is the flrjo it lo Spirito Santo. The Soyl, 
though it produces Indian Wheat twice a year, yet it is never Dung'd, but when 
the Corn (which is planted in March and June) is in, they burn the Weeds . the 
Allies of which fcrves them in ftead of Soil. The King divides the Corn accor. 
ding to every Mans Family. In the Winter they dwell four Moneths in the 
Woods, where they build fmall Huts of Palm-boughs, feed on Venifon, fmoak'd 
Fiffi, and Crocodiles, which have pure white Flefh, and are caught after this man- 
ner : On the Shore of the Rivers they build little Houfes full of round Holes, in 
which they place a Watch, who is to give notice to ten or twelve Affociates, co- 
vered all over with Boughs full of little {harp Prickles, which they thruft into the 
Crocodiles Throat, who with open Mouth comes running at them, and fo throw- 
ing him on his Back, ftick his Belly full of Arrows, and kill him with Clubs. But 

with more fubtilty and art they take their Deer, *ifr They hide themfelves under 

,._..■.■•— — i% 



Chap. III. AMERICA. 21 , 

a Stags Skin, fo cunningly, that it feems as if living, which they place near the 
Rivers where the Deer generally come to drink, when on a fudden they fliooc 



them. 



Bag 



Their Priefts ferve in ftead of Chirurgeons, wherefore they always carry a *Md«u; 

g full of Herbs about with them, which are chiefly good againft venereal Di- SJt!j" 
(tempers . for thefe People are exceeding libidinous \ nay, Sodomy and defiling of hve lon * 
young Children is accounted no fin : Yet though they are much inclined to Wo- 
men, they attain to a great Age. 

<%ene Laudoniere Landing not far from the City Augufline, fituate on the Banks of 
the River May, met with the Floridan Governor Saturiona, who conducted him to the 
French King's Court of Arms, erected two years before, which Saturiona, as a tefti- 
mony of his zeal to the French, had Crown'd with Laurel and Flowers. Saturiona 
had with him alfo his Son Moreus, who had begotten divers Children on his Mo- 
ther ; whom his Father after that time no more acknowledging, refign'd her up 
wholly to him : At which time alfo his great Grandfather being then living, was 
above a hundred and fifty years old, and faw his <?hildrens Children to the fifth 
Generation. 

The Religion in Florida is abominable, wicked, and cruel ; When they return TMfcnil 
Conquerors from a Battel , the old Women rake oflf the dry'd Hair from the * d ** 11 ' ■ 
fore-mention'd Poles, hold it aloft, and thank the Sun for their Victory. But the 
Offerings of their firft-born Sons are terrible, for they knock out their Brains with 
a Club in the prefence of the King. Their annual worfliipping of the Sun is alfo 
very ridiculous . for filling the Skin of a Stag full of fweet.fmelling Herbs, they 
hang the Horns and Neck with Garlands, and carry it with the noife of their kincl 
of Vocal and Inftrumental Mufick, to a high Trunk or hollow Body of a Tree, on 
which they place the ftufPdStag, with his Head towards the §un ; which done, they 
falling down, defire that he would pleafe to afford them plenty of all ftfch Fruit as 
they Offer^to him -, after which taking their leave, they let the fore-mention'd Skin 
remain there till the following Year. 

The Spaniards fince their Defeat in the Fort Carolina, and their Engagement with 
Sir Francis Drake, Anno 1585. have had little difturbanceon Florida. 

Drake having burnt and plundered Domingo and Carthagena, fteer'd along the Coaft i>r«fc's Ex- 
of Florida, and difcover'd a Beacon on the fame 5 whereupon he fent out Spies, who ™/#. 
fail'd a League up a River, on whofe Banks they faw a Fort, and fomewhat higher 
the Town Augujline, built full of woodden Houfes • all which being related to 
him, he fteer'd thicher, fiYd his Guns twice againft the Fort St. John-, which the 
Spaniards anfwering onely with one Volley, fled, with their Commander Teter JMe- 
nende^ ; when the Englijh prepar'd to Storm, a Prifoncr, being a Fmic/p-man, came in 
a Boat from them to Drake, and inform'd him that the Spaniards had left the City 
Augufline and Fort St. John ; to which Drake going, found there Pallifado's of picked 
Boughs, cover* d with Earth, and a Cheft with two thoufand Pound, for the pay- 
ment of the Soldiers, and fourteen Brafs Guns, with which he fet Sail from thence. 

The Mountains of this Countrey are onely the Apalatei, fuppos'd by the Na- 
tives to have rich Mines of Gold in them, and which the Spaniards faw, but had 
not time, nor other accommodation to flay and fearch them, by reafon they were 
lb much wearied and wafted with a long March before they gat thither, and found 
the People fo flout and obftinate thereabouts, that in ftead of entertaining them 
with their Hens and Fowl, as other places had done, they were welcom'd with 
Blows,and made to return, leaving not a few of their beft Soldiers behind. 

Rivers there are many, and thole very large and commodious, as ft <I(io Setco, 

or 



1ZZ 



AMERICA 



Chap. III. 



or The Dry %iver, fo call'dby the Spaniards (as feme think) becaufe they could find 
no Gold in it. x.^o Grande, ox The Great ^ver. y Ugeri*. 4- Garunna. 5. Sequana, 
tyc. Thcfe laft, fo nam'd by the French, who, after the Spaniards, for fomc time had, 
but never held any long poffeflion of the Countrey. There are alfo flfco de Bores, 
<%iode Nieces, wd<I(iodeSpirito Santo, leffcr Streams, yet all of them, with the reft, 
falling at feveral places into the great Lake of Mexico . and fome of them not a little 
haunted by the Caymans or Weft-Indian Crocodiles, a Creature, as hath been faid be- 
fore, dangerous both at Sea and Land. 

The Natives, who as yet hold Poffeflion and Command of it for the moft part, 
are themfelves generally forted into certain Tribes or great Families ; all which are 
Govern'd fcverally by Chiefs of their own, whom they call Taracoufti, and by rea- 
fon thereof are almoft continually in Feud and War one with another. 

Th^Towns and Places moft known in this Province, are t. St. Helens, feated on 
or near unto a Promontory of the fame Name, where this Countrey bordereth on 
Virginia, z. Fort Charles, or Jrx Carolina, built and fo nam'd by the French King, but 
afterwards ruin'd by the Spaniards. y<Port<%oyal, a well frequented Haven, at the 
Mouth of a River which beareth the fame Name. More within Land there is, 
1. JpaUhe, an old Town of the Natives, formerly a Place of great rcfort, but now 
a poor thing of about forty or fifty Cottages ; and yet as poor as it is, Vamphilius 
2^arVae^, as before related, when he fearch'd the Countrey, found the Natives 
not willing to part with it : for though he took it from them, it was not without 
fome refiftance, and they quickly recover'd it again : and at the 2. nam'd Jute, an- 
other old Town of theirs, nine days March from the other, they overtook him, and 
fell fo refolutely upon him, that he left not a few of his beft Soldiers dead upon the 
place, and was content himfelf to march quietly away with the reft. 3. Ochal'vs, a 
Town confifting of about five or fix hundred Sheds and Cottages likewifc of the 
Natives. 4. Vittacuche, a Burrough of two hundred Houfes. 

There is alfo on the the Eaftern Shore of this feninfula, St. Matthews, a Place pof- 
fefs'd and well fortifi'd by the Spaniards . and St. Auguft'mes on the fame Shore, but 
lying fomewhat more Southerly than the other, at the Mouth of a River of the 
fame Name, taken and fack'd by Sir Francis Drake in the Year 1585. 

Sect. II. 

Jucatan. 

JUcatan is a Tenin/ula, or half-Ifland, being encompafs'd with the Sea on all fides, 
fave oncly to the South- Weft, where it is joyn'd to Guaxata, its farther and 
more Eafterly Point looking towards Cuba. The knowledge of, when, and 
by whom this Province was difcover'd, is included in that of New Spain, of which 
fome will have it to be a part. The whole Province contains in compafs nine hun- 
dred Miles or more, and lies between eighteen and twenty two Degrees of Nor- 
thern Latitude, or thereabouts, the Air fomewhat hot, and the Soil not altogether 
fo fertile as fome other parts of New Spain are ; but in recompence thereof the 
People are fo much the more induftrious, living for the moft part by Handicraft 
Trades. Neither is it altogether unftor'd with Corn and divers forts of Fruks,be- 
fides what it hath of Fowl and Beafts, as Geefe, Hens, Deer, <&c. particularly it 
yieldeth plenty of Wax and Honey, by reafon of its frequent Swarms of Bees. 
They report fome fpecial things of this Province, as namely, tjhat the People of the 
Countrey us'd generally, and long before thc-Spaniards came thither, a certain Ce- 
remony 



/ 



Chap- III. sA M ETt^I C A. 

remony of Religion, not much unlike to our Baptifm, and.which they call'd by 
a Name that in their Language fignifi'd %™aar/o,/, or A SecondSirth . that they 
obfery'd it Co diligently, that few or none amongft them omitted to initiate them- 
selves by it, believing, that thereby the Seeds and Ground- work of all Goodnefs 
was laid in them, and that they were fortifi'd by it againft the aiTauhs and tempta- 
tions of evil Spirits . that after they were three or four years old, till they came to 
twelve, they ufually thus Wafh'd and Baptiz'd themfelves ; and that none were 
permitted amongft them to Marry, that were not firft initiated after this manner . 
that they chofe likewife a folemn Day upon which to do this • and that the Friends 
and Relations (efpecially the Father and Mother) of the Parties to be initiated, as 
well as the Parties themfelves, always Faded three days before the faid Initiation ; 
and that a great many of the Natives had a Tradition, or general Report amongft 
them, that of ancient time this Province of Jucatan was poffefs'd and cultivated by 
a certain People which came thither from the Eaft, after a tedious long wander- 
ring, and many hardfliips endur'd at Sea, having efcap'd the Hands of their Ene- 
mies onely through the power of the Deity they worfhipp'd. who help'd them, 
and made them topafs fecurely, even through the Waves of the Sea. All which, if 
true, feems not a little to confirm the Report which goeth for currant in the WelJI? 
Chronicles, of one Madoc ap Oven, the Son of Guineth, a Prince of that Countrey, 
who is faid to have fall'n upon a far Countrey this way in his Travels . which he 
lik'dfo well, that having fecur'd to his Companions their fafe abode there during 
his abfence, he returned himfelf into Wales for more Men j and that he tranfported 
thither as many as he could carry in ten Barques full fraught.This he is faid to have 
done about the Year of our Lord 1170. but neither he nor any of his Men were 
ever heard of fince ; and the fuccefs of the Expedition, it feems, little enquired after 
by the Weljh. However, the Relation feems not altogether incredible. 

The chief Towns of the Province are, 1. SMerida, in the Navel of the Countrey, 
and the Seat of the Governor, twelve Leagues diftant from the Sea on either fide. 
2. Valladolidt, thirty Leagues diftant from Nerida. 3. Campeche, a great Town, con- 
firming of about three thoufand Houfes or more, when firft conquer'd by the Spani- 
ards j who found fuch Monuments of Art and Induftry in it, as did clearly argue, 
that the Place had been once poffefs'd by fome People that were not barbarous. It 
is now call'd St. Francifco, and was furpriz'd in the Year 1596. by Captain Parker , 
an EngliJh-aiAn, who took the Governor himfelf and fome other Perfons of Quality 
with him, together with a Ship richly laden with Gold and Silver, befides other 
Commodities of good value. 4. Tabafco, by the Spaniard now call'd Villa de Kueftra 
Sennora de Vifloria, and commonly Victoria onely, in memory, as 'tis thought, of the 
firft great Victory which Corte^ obtained over thefe People at the Battel of Totoncban, 
as hath been faid. 5. Cintla. 6. Totoncban. 7. Salamanca. 

All along the Coaft of this Countrey there lie certain Illands, fome within the 
Bay or Gulph call'd Honduras, pertaining to the next Province, as 1. La Zar^a. 
i. LaDefconefcida. 3. Fermeia. 4. Los Negrillos . and fome without it, as i.Zaratan. 
2. Tantoia. 3. De Mngeres, or The Ijland of Women - fo nam'd by the Spaniards, who at 
their firft Difcovery of thefe Parts, for a long time together could meet with none 
but Women. The chief of them is call'd Jcufamtl, commonly Co^amul, and is fifteen 
Leagues in length, and about five in brtadth, and was as it were the Thoro-wfare, 
or Common Road of the Spaniards, when they firft difcover'd the Countreys of 
Nelb Spain : For firft here Landed Ferdinajido de Corduba ; after him John de Grialva, 
and others ; and laft of all the fortunate Corte^. It is now call'd St. Crux. 



22J 



CHAP. 






*H 



<t>f M E <KI C A. 



Chap. IV. 



CHAP. IV. 



Its^ Situation 
and Bouuds. 






Trees and 
Plants. 



Bird*;: 



G 



Guatimala. 

Uatimala ftretcheth to the IHbmus, or Neck of Land, wfyich, as we laid, join- 
eth the Northern and Southern parts of the New World together. 

This Countrey is bounded Northward with the Veninfula of Jucatan 
abovefaid, and part of theGulph or Bay of Honduras • on the South, with Afore del 
Zur ; on the Eaft and South-Eaft,it hath Cajlella Aurea 5 and on the Weft, New Spain. 
The length of it liethuponjthe Coaft of Mare del Zur, and is faid to belittle lefsthan 
three hundred Leagues . but the breadth not half fo much, and in fome places very 
narrow. It is generally a fertile and good Countrey in all refpe&s, but efpecially 
abounding in Gattel and good Paftures ; it is fubdivided into feven inferior Pro- 
vinces' or Countreys, which are i.Cbiapa. z.Verapa^. j. Honduras. 4. Nicaragua. 
*).Veragua. 6. Qofia <l{ica ; and 7. Guatimala, fpecially fo call'd : all differing in 
Language and Cuftoms one from another. 

The Biflhoprick (as it is now call'd) of Qbiapa is border'd on the Weft with Neifr 
Spain 5 on the Eaft with Vera <P^ 5 and on the South with Mare del Zur. It is a 
Countrey much fliaded with Woods, and thofe replenifh'd with many fair and 
goodly Trees,of divers forts, and of the largeft fize,as Oaks, Pines, Cedar, Myrtle, 
and Cyprefs*Trees, befides others which yield them a good kind of Rozen, precious 
Gums, crc. alfofeveral forts of Balfom, as white, red, green, and black, not onely 
pleafant to the Scent, but an excellent Remedy for all manner of green Wounds : 
the bed of it drops out of the cut Bodies of the Trees ; and the worft is prefs'd out 
of the Wood and Leaves, 

There are alfo proper to this Countrey feveral other kinds of Trees and Plants 
as that whofe Fruit taftes like Pepper and Cloves, being of a great heighth . a 
Tree whofe Leaves cure all ulcerated Sores, or the bitings of any poyfonous 
Beaft. 

There is a fort of Cabbage called llantas, which grows to the heighth of a Tree, 
fo that Birds make their Nefts in them ; they arc eaten likewife like other com- 
mon Cabbages. 

There is alfo an Herb with narrow Leaves, which is no fooner touch'd, but it 
(hrinks up to nothing 5 but at the going away of thofe which touch it, it obtains 
its former vigour. 

Here are likewife Quails, Ducks, Geefe, Pheafants, Parrots, Turtle-Dovcs, Pi- 
geons, and the like, in great abundance. 

Amongftthe feveral forts of Falcons which breed in this Countrey, there is one 
fort which hath one Foot proper to its kind, the other like that of a Goofe i it feeds 
on Fifli along the Rivers. 

The Bird loto-Que^tall y which is fomewhat fmaller than a Pigeon, with green 
Feathers and a long Tail, is taken onely for its Tail, which when the Indians have 
pull'd out, they let the Bird fly again, there being a Law amongrVthem, that who- 
foever kills one of them, is to fuffer death. 

The Cranes here are of a dark Gray ; the biggeft of them have a tuft of Fea- 
thers like a Crown upon their Heads. 

The 



Chap. IV. 



<U M E%^1 C A, 



22jf 




M 



The Birds Guacamayes f which arc red and blue, are like a PeruanGoofa Bw ' 2 

Moreover, the Countrcy yields brave Horfes, Goats, Sheep, Rabbets, and Foxes ; *««*: 
alfo wild Dogs, Leopards, Lyons, and Tygers. 

The wild Hogs which breed here have their Navels on their Backs, and have 
no Tails, they fmell exceeding ftrong, and feed together in great Companies. 

The Taquatrin, a certain Beaft proper to thofe Parts, hath a Bag under its Belly, 
in which it generally carries feven or more young ones, a"nd hath alfo a bald Tail - 
it creeps into Houfes in the Night to ileal Hens. 

Here is alfo a certain Beaft (whofe Name we find not) abou* thebignefs of a 
Rabbet, and like a Rat, and carries its young dhes on its back whenfoe're iccomes 
abroad. 

The Serpents, which are very numerous here, trouble the Inhabitants excee- 
dingly, efpecially near the Village Ecatepeque, where there are fuch an abundance 
on two little Hills, that none dares approach them 5 fome of them arc very poy* 
fon6us, for if touched with a Stick, the Poyfon runs up the fame : and whoever are 
anointed with the Blood of a dead Serpent, die a lingring Death. John de Laet re- 
lates, that the Indians took one which carried thirty young ones, which being a 
Finger long, crep up and down immediately -and the old one, being above twenty 
Foot long, ferv'd the Natives for Venifon. 

Amongft other Beafts is alfo the Teut)?lacokaubqui 9 "Of Fortrefs of the Serpents • 
it hath a Head like an Adder, thick Belly, flittering Scales, a black Back, fprinkicd 
with white CrolTes ; at its Tail* the**growff yearly a Bone, 'with which it makes a 
noifc when it ftirs ; its poyfonbus Teeth deftroy thoft Which are bit therewith in 
twenty four Hours, unlefs the part which is wounded be held in the Earth fo long 
till the pain be over. Notwithftandingche noife, terrible afpe&,and geftures of this 
Animal, the Indian Hunters make nothing to take the fame by the Tail, ahd wrap 
it up in Linnen, and carrying it home make it tame. It is able to live a whole Year 
without either Meat or Drink * its Head when 'cut off grows to the bignefs bf a 
Man's Thigfoin ten dayi time. 

A a No 



i 



zz6 



AMERICA. 



Chap. IV. 



The Serpent 
l^ttanua. 



Baboons. 



Towns and 

Villages of 
Note. 



No lcfsrcfolute arc the Indians in taking the Ibitobaca, which is an Eil long, of a 
crirhfotifeoJt^ the Bones whereof they wear 

about^tjieir N$£j*S- in/ftcad of Chains. 

The lquan Jerpent which doth no manner of hurt, though terrible to look 

upon to thofe vfrJft'cA know it not, having a Bag under its Chin, a glittering Comb 
on its Head, and oil its Back fliarp Bones, which ftand like a Saw, arid a long Tail : 
It lays fifty Eggs at a time as big as Acorns, of a very good tafte, and fitto eat when 
boyl'd : Italfo lives both in the Water and on the Land. 

Here are alio many Baboons, which are big and heavy, with ugly Heads, fhort 
Legs like a Man, *and Tails ftanding upwards 5 they eat all forts of Fruit, but 
chiefly covet after Wine and Bread -and are To lafcivious, that they often fct 
upon Women : The Fernales generally bring forth two, one Male, and the other 
Female. There is alfo another fort, whofe Skins, being red, are full 'of little 
Spots. 

The ancient Inhabitants of Chiapa (divided into the Chiapanecas, the deques, the 
Zeltates, and the Quelenes) are very Civil and Witty ,alfo skilful in Painting, Singing, 
Breaking of Horfes, and many other Trades. 

The Places of more principal note in this Countrey, inhabited by the Spaniards^ 
are n Qudad <%eal, pleafantly feated in the midft of a round Vale or Plain, and al- 
moft encompafs'd with Hills reprcfenting the form of an Amphitheatre • alfo at 
the Foot of one which ftands in the midft of the reft, the City is built. It is a City, 
fpecially Priviledg'dby the KingofS/74/Vi, having a Court of Juftice, Cathedral,' 
and Dominican Cloyfter 5 of a pure and temperate Air, and the Countrey rojjnd 
about plentifully abounding both in Corn and Fruit, onely fomewhat too; cold ta 
produce Lemmons and Oranges ; but for Pears, Apples, Peaches, Quinces, Cher- 
ries, and the like, they grow here in great abundance. 

2. Q)iapa 9 which giveth Name to the Valley aforefaid ; It is a Biflbop's See, and 
famous, if but for one of its Prelates, <vi^ 'Bartholomeodelas Cafas, of the Order of 
Predicants, who was Bifliop of this City, and his Memory juftly precious amongft 
the poor Americans, at this day, for his Charity towards them, and for the ftout and 
zealous oppofition which he made againft the Spaniards cruel and inhumane deal- 
ings with the Natives at the beginning of their Conquefts : by which at laft, not- 
withstanding much difficulty and refiftance made by interested Perfons of the other 
Side, he procur'd them liberty, and an EdicT: from the Emperor in favor of them ; 
whereby they Were declar'd to be a Free People, and not Slaves, and the Spaniards 
forbidden to ufc them any longer as fuch, or to force them to any kind of Labour 
againft their wills, or otherwife than by agreement, with them, which Liberty they 
enjoy tp this day ♦ and though the Spaniards arefaid to give them very frnall Wages 
in fome places, and for their Work in their Sugar-Mills (which is no fmall Labor) 
not above five ^jyals f djr Two fhillingi fix pence a Week, for the Maintenance of 
themfelves, their Wives ami Children yet by reafon it is with Confcnt, and in a 
Countrey where all things are plentiful and cheap, their Condition is much better 
than it was,and the favor which that good Bifhop did them, never to be forgotten. 
It isatprefentagrcat and populous City, and lieth almoftinthc mid-way betwixt 
the Cities of Mexico and Guatimala. 

j. St. Bartholomews, in the Countrey of the Quelenes - 

4. Tecpatlan, the chief of twenty five Villages, faid to belong to the Zoqw* 
Here the Dominicans have another Cloyfter. 

The Zeltates poflefs a fruitful Countrey, liave thirteen Villages planted with 
Trees that yield Cocbtnile, being under a Common-wealth Government. 

The 



Chap. IV. sA M E %^I C J. 

The chief Place of the Quelenes is QopanaVatzJa, where there is good Cheefe, and 
ftore of brave Cartel : The River Qnepa gliding through the midft thereof,lofeth ic 
felfin the Northern Ocean. In this part of the Country are Beafts not unlike Apes, 
with long Tails, which they wind about the Legs of thole whom they find fwim- > 
ming and fo pull them under Water < wherefore they that go to Swim take Axes 
along with them, to cut off their Tails. 

The Water of the River Blanco is clear and wholfom, running for the moft part 
through Rocky Grounds, which neverthelefs are overfpread with Trees. 

In the higheft Ground of Chiapa, a League anda half from the City fyoU, fpring 
clear Fountains, whofe Water ebbs and flows every fix hours. 

Near the Village call'd Afixa is one which runs three years together, though in 
the drieft Seafon, and is dry three years, though it Rain never fo much. 

Not far from the Village Cinacatan is another Spring, whofe Water cures fevc- 
ral SicknelTes, but kills all Birds and Beafts which drink of the fame. 

Here are likewife divers Baths. 

The Rivers which run out of the Valley Cbiapa, fall into two great Pits. 

Near the Village Bartholomew, in the Province Quelenes, is a ftrange Cavern, out 
of which by the throwing of a ftone into the fame, are heard mighty noifes'like 
claps of Thunder. 

Not far from the Village Chicomucolo, appears a Cavern, in which is a great Plain 
on one fide, and a ftanding Lake, whofe Water is like Sand, on the other. 

The Spaniards, if they wanted not Slaves, might dig good ftore of Gold, Silver, 
Copper, Lead, Tin, and Quickfilver, out of the Mynes on the Mountain Ecatepeck] 
which is in nine Leagues compafs : The Wind blows fo ftrong after Smwifing, 
that no Man is able to travel for it, but in the Night. 



227 





Sect. II. 

Vera Paz. 

m Bra To*, or The Country of True Teace, wasfo nam'dby the Spaniards, as they si tuat i onana 
fay, becaufe it was never conquered by the Sword, but redue'd to ObedU Bounds ' 
ence onely by the Preaching of the Dominican Fryers. It is bounded on the 
Weft and South-Weft with Cbiapa . on the Eaft with fome part of Guatimala and 
Honduras * and on the North with. Jucatan. It contains about thirty Leagues in 
length, and almoft as much in breadth, being a woody and mountainous Countrey 
for the moft part, yet well diftinguifh'd with Valleys and lower Ground. It is 
much fubject to Rain, which 'tis faid to have for nine Moneths of the Year almoft 
continually; by reafon whereof the Countrey, being otherwife hot, is much an- 
noy'd with a kind o[Mofquit, or great fort of Gnats, which fpoil the Fruit very 
much, and are otherwife not a little trouble to the People. Moreover,there happen 
oftentimes terrible Earthquakes and Storms, with Thunder and Lightning. 

The chief Commodities of this Countrey, are a kind of Amber, which fome call commoii- 
Ltquid Amber, which drops from divers of their Trees, and is faid to be a Commo- &8£ 
dity very precious, and of much ufe . Maftick, Sanguis Draconic, Gum Anime, Sarfapa- 
rtlla, C^M-Wood, and divers other Medicinal Drugs, which it affordeth in great 
plenty. The Woods afford a fweet fmell, and the Trees in the fame grow a won. 
derful heighth. 

The Canes which grow here, being a hundred Foot long, and proportionably 
thick, ferve for Timber. 

A a % There 



Z28 



a M E%1 C A. 



Chap. IV. 



B.afc. 



Medicinal 
Flanti. 



Placet of 
pott. 



There is alio a hard Wood call'd I,o». ^either fiom its hardnefs or colour, or 

both, which never rots. 

The abundance of Flowers which grow here afford nutriment to innumerable 
fwarms of Bees, which are about the bignefs of fmall Flies. Their Honey which 
is fomewhat tart, they hide in the Roots of Trees, or in the Earth. Another fort, 
which is made by the Wafps, bereaves thofe that tafte of their Senfes. 

The noted'ft Beaft in this Countrey is the Danta r which refembles a Mule, hath 
no Horns, but Afh>colour'd long Hair, fhort Neck, hanging Ears, thin Legs, with 
three Claws before and two behind, long Head, narrow Forehead, little Eyes, a 
Nofc hanging over its Mouth, little Tail, fharp Teeth, and a Skin which is fix 
Fingers thick, and fcarce penetrable by any Weapon. This Beaft is taken in Traps, 
Holes, or elfc with Dogs, which he often kills when hunted towards the Water, 
They fay that this Beaft taught Men firft to Let-blood . for if it be too full, of 
Blood, it pricks it felf againft a fharp Cane, and ftops up the Orifice again very 
carefully. The Flefh thereof is good Meat, as alfo that of the fl^/.Lyonsr, which 
in the day-time deep on a high Tree, where they are (hot by the Indians. 

The Tygers are much more dangerous to be taken . yet the Indians Hunting 
them, eat them in ftead of Beef • 'and alfo through all ty* Spain. 

The Bears, which make the Ways very dangerous to travel, have black frizled 
Hair, broad Tails, Feet like Mens Hands : but fince the Indians have made ufe of 
Guns', which they learn'd from the Spaniards, they have much lcflen'd the number 
both of Bears and Tygers. 

There are likewife many Leopards, Apes,and wild Goats (whofc Skins fervc the 

Natives for Drums) Hogs, and JrmadtUos. 

Amongft their Fowls, are Eagles and Parrots. 

The Countrey is fo well ftor'd with Water, that in thr&e Leagues fpace are 
above thirty Rivulets, and as many Fountains. 

On the Mountains grow great quantities oiSarfapai'illa, Mechoacan, and the Chin*. 
•IJoor, which being yellowifh hath feveral Saffron- colour'd Knobs on the top. The 
SarfafariUa grows with many Stalks, creeping along over the Ground ; the Body 
thereof is tough and full of Prickles, the Leaves broad and fharp at the ends, and 
are of a bluifh colour on one fide, and green on the other, and bear Clufters of 
Flowers, which clofe like Buds, and are firft green, next vermilion-red, and laftly 
blackifh : within are two hard Stones, which inclofc a white Kernel, by the Indi- 
ans call'd Juapecanga. 

The Bay Golfo Duke, which pours its muddy Water into the Sea, feeds the great 

Fifli Monati y and a great number of Crocodiles. 

Several Rivers abounding with Fifh fail alfo into the fame, having their Banks 
fet all along with Trees, in whofe Boughs, joyn'd together on the top, thofe fort 
of Birds make their Nefts which prey on Fifh. 

The Women in this place are much ftiorter Liv'd than the Men, fo that there are 
often thirty Widowers to one Widow. Women with Child arc Delivcr'd by 
themfelves in the Highway 5 and from thence they go to the next River to wafii 

themfelves and the Child. 

As for any Towns or Places of much Traffick or Note, inhabited by the Spani- 
ards, we find not any nam'd, fave onely St. Auguftines ; near unto which there is 
faid to be a Cave and Fountain within Ground, which converts the Water that fal- 
lethintoit out of feveral lefTer Springs, into a kind of Alabafter or Stone, per- 
'fe&ly white, and fafhions it likewife into Pillars, Statues, and other artificial Forms 

of very curious Workmanfliip, as Laet reporteth. 

Sect. 



Chan. "IV. 



AMERICA. 



2Z? 



Sect. III. 

Honduras. 

HOniuras hath on the South, Guatemala abovefaid ; on the Weft, a certain Bay, sirttation *°* 
or Arm of the Sea, which they call Golf o Duke, from the abundance of * 
frefli Waters which run into it from all Parts . on the North and North- 
Eaft, the Atlantick Ocean . and fomewhat to the South-Eaft, ISljcaragua. It contains 
in length, Yt%. from Eaft to Weft, Coafting along upon the Sea, about a hundred 
and fifty Leagues, and in breadth eighty. The Countrcy is rich both in Corn and 
Pafturage, being faid to be very much advantag d that way by the conftant over- 
flowings of the Rivers, which are very many, about bnchaelmafrtimc, and which 
the People order fo well, that they water their Gardens, and exceedingly fertilize 
the whole Champain, or lower part of the Grounds by them. 

The fruitful Valleys of this Countrcy Were anciently very well inhabited, till 
vaft multitudes of the Natives were deftroy'd by the Spaniards Cruelties, of which 
the Bifliop Sartbolomeo de las Cafas, in his Letter to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, 
gives this Relation : 

" The young Children (faith he) they murder'd, beating out their Brains againft Cr UC i« cs *f 
" the Stones , the Kings and Princes of the Countrey they either fcorch'd to death, &* 1 "* 
€C or threw them to the Dogs to be torn in pieces ,. the poor People they drove in- 
" to their Houfes, and then fet them on fire - thofe that rcmain'd were condemn d 

< to the greatcft flavery imaginable, being us'd in ftead of Mules and Horfes, and 
: < having greater Burdens laid upon them than they were able to carry, infomuch 
c£ that thoufands of them fell down dead under them ; fome out of defpair run- 
" ning into the Woods were famiOi'd, after they had kill'd and eat their Wives and 
" Children for Hunger. In this one Province onely they maflacred above twenty 
" hundred thoufand Men, and amongft others, Perfons of Quality, which had ci- 
" villy Entertain'd them : nay, they tortur'd the poor innocent Natives all the 
ic ways they could paffibly invent, onely to know of them where their Gold lay ; 

1 particularly Diego de Valafco fpar'd none that ever fell into his hands . infomuch 

c that in a Monethstime above ten thoufand were (lain by him : He hang'd thir. 
lc teen Noble*men, to twelve of whom he gave the Denomination of The twelve 
ic Affiles ; and the chiefeft of them he call'd in a derifion, Jefus Chrift. Some they 

1 fuffer'd to ftarve to death , with their Heads comprefs'd between the cloven Barks 
cf of wild Vines - fome alfo they buried alive, and leaving onely their Heads to 
c< appear above Ground, bbwl'd Iron Bullets at them, and fore'd them to eat one 
"another; befides infinite other hellifli Cruelties, too horrid and dreadful to be 
" recounted. 

This Countrey produces much Mai^, Wheat, Honey, and great Calabaftes, from CtimmotHtiel 
whence the firft Difcovercrs call'd that Sea Golfo de las 1bu%w, becaufe they met with 
abundance of Calabafhes, floating on the Water, which at Santo Domingo bear the 
Name of Ibuera*. 

This Countrey is watered by three Rivers, the firft Cbamalucom, which glides by 
the City San Tedro • the fecond Uha, inhabited on both Shores . the third Ha- 
guaro, the Grounds adjacent to which would prove very fruitful, were the Inhabi- 
tants not too lazy. In ftead of a Plough they ufe a long Pole, with two crooked 
Staves at the end, one bent downwards and the other upwards, with which they 
cut and turn the Earth. The Natives feed on feveral Roots, f left, and Vermine; 

A a j Ac 



of the Cdut- 
trc/. 



*3< 






Xrm Ta!U- 
Mi. 






St. Fttf. 



trtiitfrvl- 



A M El^I C A. Chap! IV. 

Ac their Fcaft they nuke themfelves Drunk with a Drink made of Honey, 
Noble-men heretofore onely drinking the Liquor of Qacao } but of late it is com. 
mon, and made by all People, though never fo mean. They fpeak feverai Langua- 
ges, the chiefeft whereof is that of thcCkontales, a falvage People. They divide their' 
Year, call'd Joalar, that is, faffing, into eighteen Moneths, and each Moneth into 
twenty Days. They formerly mcafur'd the Year by the Nights, and began the Year 
forty days fooner than the Europeans. 

The Towns in this Province arc i. New VaUodolid , by the Indians n&m'd Comayagua, 
lying in a pleafanc Valley under a temperate Climate. The Cattel brought hither 
from Spain increafe exceedingly. The Silver«Mynes are alfo fo well (lor'd, that they 
keep the Melting-houfe in the Town always employ 'd. 

The Governor of this Place hath his Residence next to the Treafury-Chamber. 

Anno 1588. the Bifliop's See was tranflated hither from Truxillo : Nineteen years 
before which Francifcode Monteio fent his Lieutenant siphon/ode Cacenes thither, to 
build a Village half way between the Southern and Northern Ocean 5 who accor- 
dingly erected the Town Santa Maria de Camoyagm, near a River Navigable for £4- 
noos, which difembogues in fuerto de Cayallot. The remaining part of the Way to 
the Haven Fon/eca being paflable for Carrs (which was a means to prevent many 
Inconveniences which us'd to happen to Travellers on the Way between fanama and 
Nombre de Vios) the Spanifr King was fo much conccrn'd at the firft propofal hereof, 
that he fent the famous Surveyor HBaptijla Antonello thither, and the rather, becaufc 
he received information, that the new Way, along which they carried theMer- 
chandife from feru t Mexico, and other Countreys along the South Sea,lay very plca- 
fantly, by reafon of the brave Vineyards, Corn.Fields, Fruit-Trees, Pafturcs, 
Streams abounding with Fifli, Herds of Deer, and Cony- Warrens ; yet Antonello 
meeting with many troubles, would not undertake the Bufinefs. 

New ValladolU is adorn'd with a great Church, a Cloyflcr, belonging to the 
Monks T>e la Merced, and handfom Streets. 

1. Thirty Leagues Weftward from this City lies another call'd Gratia* a Dios, be- 
gun by Captain Gabriel de ^oyas,Anno 1530. that fohc might be near the Gold-Mines : 
But becaufe the Natives kept the new Inhabitants in continual alarm, and daily 
Storm' d theunfinifli'd Fortifications, %pyas was neceffitated to leave off building 
any farther, the rather, becaufc none came to his afliftance from the neighboring 
Garrifon. 

Six years after Gonzales de Alvarado undertook this Work, and built the City on a 
Rocky Mountain; which, though otherwife barren, produe'd lufty Horfcs and 
ftrong Mules. 

3. Sanfedro y thovg\\ lying under a hot and unwholfom Climate,us'd formerly to 
be a brave City of Trade 5 but it is gone much to decay fince Golfo Dolce hath been 
difcover'd, becaufe from that Bay the Commodities are carried in Barques up into 
the Countrey. 

4. The Village Juan de fuerto deCatallos, inhabited by Factors and Moors : It re- 
ceiv'd that Denomination, becaufe not far from it feverai Horfes were fore'd to bt 
thrown over-board in a Storm. Though it be but ill fortifi'd, yet it hath an ex- 
ceeding large Haven. Captain Chriflo f her N^ew port arriving here Anno 1 591. found 
two hundred Houfes, and in them a confiderable Booty left, notwithftanding four 
Ships richly laden had lately fetSail from thence. 

Six years after Newport, Capt.^/tf. Sherly re-took the Place,and leaving the Haven 
open for Pyrats, Alphonfus Qoriado judg'd it convenient to remove the Trading Place 
to Amatiaue . he built the Village Thomas de Qajlilla, and fortifi'd the fame againft all 
manner of Aflaults. Behind 







i\ 






H..JKnmrj- ik f*a fib-is py^i** 



■'.-////' . 









^m 



ijl 



tiuxiiit. 



Chap, IV. AMERICA. 

Behind CaValhs lies the Valley Naco, which is exceeding fruitful, being fituate 
between high Mountains, where formerly was found plenty of Silver. 

5. Eaftward from CaVallos appears the famous Cicy Truxillo, near a large Bay. fe- 
cur'd from all Storms by two Cliffs, full of Trees -the Mouth of the Haven call'd 
Joan Oil, is above two Leagues broad, and receives two Rivers, one from each fide 
of the Cicy : The Stream Quaimarotte flows Eaftward, and the River Antonio Weft* 
ward, both abounding in Fifli. The Countrey round about produces abundance 
of all forts of Provifions, and chiefly abounds in Grapes, which are gather'd 
twice a year : Eight days after Augujt they cut their Vines, which afford chern ripe 
Grapes again in OBober . they have two Harvefts of Corn 5 alfo Lemons and 
Oranges are very plentiful : The Cattcl brought hither from Spain arc exceeding- 
ly increased to an incredible number. 

Truxillo it fclf lying on a fteep Mountain, is defended on that fide which re- 
fpe&s the Sea, with a thick Wall of fix Foot high - between which and the Haven 
are many brambly Bufhes, which prevent the accefs to the Wall, onely a narrow 
and fteep way leading up to the City, which hath a ftrong Gate, guarded with two 
Brafs Guns , and fufficicntly Fortifi'd to oppofe an Enemy. The Eaftcrn Cliff, 
which bends before the Haven is call'd funtala tffye, on which ftands a Houfe with 
a high Beacon : Beyond the Wall Eaftward, near the Haven, is a Ship-yard, before 
which ftands a large Woodden Crofs : The Caftle in which the City Store is 
kept, joyns to the Wall, near unto which, within the Town appears St. Francis 
Church • but the Cathedral call'd Eglefia Major, is feen above all other Buildings : 
The Houfes cover'd with Palmito -Leaves, have Walls of Pleitcd Bullies, Plaifter'd 
over within and without : Behind the City, where it lies open, are exceeding high 
Mountains. 

Jnno 1 576. the Englijh falling on this ftrong Place, carry'd a rich Booty from *"h* ptsup " 
thence ; after which, Capt. Jnth. Sberly and Capt. mil. Tarker ventur'd once more on £|£f£ 4 ' 
the fame, but being difcover'd by the Centinel, were fore'd to Retreat, not without 
a confiderable lofs : When not long after, Captain John Van Hoorn a Hollander, at- 
tempting the fame, had much better fuccefs j for he Weighing Anchor for Ternam- 
huc , with four Frigats , three Ketches , and a Sloop , fet Sail to Truxillo, where 
arriving, lay clofe before the City with his four Frigats, which fired very fiercely 
on the Town ; the Inhabitants of which not being idle, kill'd three Men in one 
Ship, fore'd her to fall farther off from the Caftle : Whilft the Ketches and Sloop 
went about a Gun (hot Weftward beyond the City, towards the River Jntonio, 
where they Landed two hundred and fifty Soldiers, which march'd with al^ced* 
up the Hill , where the Caftle lay which they Scal'd at Noon-day . the Beficgcd 
being provided with Ccvcn Guns, (hot, and threw Stones continually amongft 
them, yet were fore'd to Retreat from the Dutch Hand*granado's : During the 
ftorm, the Admiral himfclf Landed, but before he came out of the Boat, the fore- 
mention'd Soldiers had made thcmfelves Mafters of the Fort, with the lofs of one- 
ly eight Men, and were bufie Pillaging all places they came at, and carrying their 
gotten Booty to a Watch-houfe near the Caftle on the Shore- when on a fudden 
a Firehappen'd in the Eaft part of Truxillo, which increased in fuch a manner, that 
in few hours two third parts of the City lay in Allies . every one then had enough 
to do to fave themfelves, yet for all the hafte they made, feveral Hollanders were 
kill'd at the blowing up of the Magazine, and moft of the Booty loft by the 
Fire y infomuch that they carry'd but two hundred thirty nine Skins, fix Bales of 
Indigo, eight hundred and twenty Pounds of SarfapariUa, feven Brafs, and three 
Iron Guns, four Clocks, and fome few trifles with them j having before made an m 

agree- 



z\z 



AMERICA. 



Chap. IV 



agreement for twenty Pound of Silver, with the Governor Joan de Miranda, [who 
inform'd them, that they had not the leaft knowledge of the HolLunkrs Fleet, till 
the Evening, when the Beacon on funta La%y.e was fir'd : Moreover, that the Ci- 
ty was inhabited by two hundred Spaniards, and as many more Mulatoes and Moors* 
and that the Trade thereof was much gone to decay, becaufe there had been no 
Gallies there in two years before. 

Twenty feven Leagues from this City lies the Village Jorgo. de Olancbo, where 
four thoufand Spaniards force Tribute from fixteen thoufand Indians , who polTcls 

much Gold. 

Sect. IV. 



Situation and 
bounds. 



Nature of the 
Inhabitants. 



Citl «. 



N 



Nicaragua. 

Icaragua is a County of this Province, border'd Northward with Honduras $ 
on the Eaft, with the Mlantick Ocean, and part of Veragua 5 on the South, 
with Mare del Zur ; and on the Weft, with Guatimala,bcln^ call'd by Diego 
Lope^de Sal^ado, The New kingdom of Leon, and comprizing feveral little Territo- 
ries, as Nicoya, Nequecberi, Mabyth, Deria, Mafaya, Mandigua, Qacokaque, Cepeoco, Los 
Micos, Madira, and the Contales. It hath few Rivers in it, the want whereof is fup- 
ply'd by the benefit of a great Lake , in the midft of the Countrey, call'd by the 
Spaniards, Laguna de Nicaragua , containing , as is fiippos'd , above one hundred 
Leagues in compafs. It empties it felf by the Port of St. Juan into the Atlantick or 
North-Sea, but reacheth as far as the South or Mare del Zur, at leaft within a very- 
few Leagues; and from whence fome Spanijh Captains are faid to have made a pal- 
fage, though with much difficulty, into the Lake, and from thence to the Norths 
Sea. It is abundantly well ftor'd with good Fiflh, but withal much haunted with 
Crocodiles,- and the Countrey about it lb plentiful in all things, efpecially Cattel, 
Cotten-Wool, Sugars, and all kind of Fruits : Amongft which, the chiefeft is the 
Zeiba, which is of fo great a thicknefs, that fifteen Men holding Hand in Hand, can 
fcarce encompafs the fame. The Callabafies ripen here in fourteen days time : The 
Sea along the Coaft, breeds Whales and other Sea*Monfters, which are often feen 
above Water. 

The Inhabitants of this Countrey, (except the Cbontales, which live on the 
Mountains, and maintain their old Salvage Cuftoms) have for the moft part 
learnt the Spanif? Tongue and Manners, and exercife themfelves in all forts of 
Arts and Siences, efpecially in Working of Silver, making of Clothes, Wax- Work, 
and the like: From the Mountains they gather Balfom, Licjuid*Amber, Turpen. 
tine : They alfo drive a great Trade in Cotton, Skins, and feveral forts of Provi- 
sions, to Panama^ and Nombre de Dios. 

The Lake Laguna de Nicaragua , which hath a hundred and feventeen Leagues in 
Circumference, and round about inhabited, is by three Leagues of Land fepara- 
ted from the South-Sea ; and difcharges its Waters into the River Defaguadero, 
which falls into the Northern Ocean. Alpbonjm Qalera , and Diego Mackuca de Zuafo 9 
were the firft that Sail'd out of the foremention'd Lake into the Sea , not without 
many dangers, by reafon of the great Water-falls, caird Q{c?idales, which fall into 
the River Defaguadero, and fore'd them often times to draw their Barques over the 
Land. 

The chief City is, t. Leon, which is furrounded with Woods , and lies dole by 
the Lake ; hath a great Church, five Cloyfters belonging to the Monks, de la Merccde, 
feveral Houfes for the King's Officers, and a hundred and twenty thoufand F&tril* 

lies 



Chap. IV. 



<U M E % I C A. 



■11 



lies o£ Indians which pay Tribute. Three Leagues beyond Leon appears a high jTpirjr 
Mountain, from whole top, both Morning and Evening, rifes a mighty fmoke, 
,and fometimes cafts out great fulphurous Stones over the neighboring Fields, and 
on a fudden mighty Flames, h Dominic an Monk, in hopes to get fome melted Gold 
out of its burning Mouth, went up the fame with four of his Fraternity, and 
carry'd an Iron Chain and a Kettle, which were no fooner let down into the hole, 
but they were immediately melted; yet not fo difcourag'd, they relblv'd to venture 
a fecond time with ftronger Materials, which neverthelefs had the fame, or rather 
worfc event ; for the Fire flew out in fuch a manner, that the Dominicans fadly 
fcorch'd, had enough to do to efcape with Life, fince which none durft prefilme to 
approach the fame. 

But befides the Epifcopal City Leon, Erected by Francifcus Fernandez, 2. Granada 
acknowledges the fame Builder, and lying alfo on the fliore of Laguna de Nicaragua, 
is adorn'd with a Caftle, Church, and fevcral Sugar-Mills : Not far from it lit 
the fmall Lakes Mafaya and Lindiri 5 the firft which is inclos'd between exceeding 
high Mountains, covers the Foot of the burning Mountain Mafaya ; the other falls 
into Laguna de Nicaragua, near which is the fmoky Mountain Munbacho, furrounded 
with Fruit-Trees* 

3. <& 4. The Towns Jean, and Neuya Segovia, which arc not far from thence, arc 
of little confequence. 

5. fyaleio, this is, as it were, the Cbattam of America, being a place on the South- 
Sea, where the King of Spain hath all his Ships built that are made of American Tim- 
ber, and inhabited by few or none but Shipwrights, Mariners, and Men of that 
kind of Profeflion. 

6*. {? 7. I^jcoya, Avarines. 

8. Cartago, forty Leagues diftant from Nicoya, and lying almoft in the midft of 

Ithe IJlbmus, or Streight oiDarien, equally diftant both from the North and South 
Sea 5 on both which it is faid likewife to have a convenient Port or Haven for 
Shipping. 

The Spaniards, when firft they Landed here , call'd this Countrey Mabomets fa* 
radife, becaufe of its exceeding Fruitfulnefs. The Cacao which they ufe here in ftcad 
of Money, is not unlike the Stone of an Almond. The Inhabitants, in Head of 
ufing a Steel and Flint to ftrike Fire withal, rub two pieces of Wood together fo 
long, till one of them is kindled ; and burn the Boughs of Pine-Trees in ftead of 
Candles. Amongft the feveral Languages which they fpeak, the Mexican is the chief- 
eft : Amongft their Recreations, Dancing is principal, which is pcrform'd af- ^fj^jj* 
ter a very ftrange manner, for they meet fometimes two or three thoufand toge- dn s- 
. ther, according to the bignefs of the Province, in a fpacious Field, which is made 
clean before for that purpofe : He that leads the Dance goes backward, and with 
many ftrange Geftures, turns himfelf about, which the reft, following four and four 
together in a row, imitate, whilft their Tambores beat on hollow Instruments, and 
fing Songs , which are firft ahfwer'd by the Ring-leader of the Dance , and then 
feconded by the whole Company , each of them waving a Fan or a Callabajh, 
and being all adorn'd with Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Strings vfrith 
Shells about their Arms and Legs ; they alfo act feveral antick Tricks , the one, 
the blind Man, the other, the Cripple, one feigns himfelf to be deaf, the other 
makes a wry Mouth, one cries, and another laughs, whileft others drink healths 
in Chocolate, which continues till Midnight. 

A King of this Countrey in former times us'd to feed the Fifh Manati with Bread, 
in the Lake Guainabo, where it would appear at its being call'd Matto, Matto, which 

fignifics 



The Fidi 



■v± 



U M E %I C A. 



Chap. IV. 



s 



H 



fignifics TS{pble -minded, and oftentimes carry eight or ten Boys on its Back from one 
fide of the Lake to the other . but being fhot by a Spaniard with an Arrow, never 
appeared again. 

There is likewife a black Beaft in this Countrey call'd Cafcu, refemblina in fomc 
things a Hog . it hath a hard Skin, little Eyes, open Ears, cloven Feet, fhort Nofe, 
and makes fuch a terrible noife, that it affrights thofe which hear it. 

No lefs ftrange and wonderful is the Fox-Ape, which hath two Bellies one under 
another . in the lowermoft of which it carries its Young, which are never brought 
into the World till they are able to fhifc for their own Food. It hath the Body of a 
Fox, Feet like a Man's Hands, and Ears like a Batt. 

It will not be amifs before we conclude with this Province, to give you a Rela- 
tion of the Difcourfe which hapned Anno 1527. between the Spantfl? Commander 
Francifco de Monteio and the Nicaraguan Cafique Jlquinotex, who being a hundred and 
ten years old, told him, "That before the Spaniards arrival there, great numbers 
u of his Soldiers perifh'd after a ftrange manner . for after having vomited abun- 
" dance pf Worms, they fell down dead on a fudden : thofe that efcap'd the Con. 
" tagion differing amongft themfelves, made two Parties, which twice Engaging 
« with one another, each of them loft above a hundred and fifty thoufand Men- 
? Yet both thefe Plagues were no ways to be compar'd to the Slaughter which the 
" Spaniards had made amongft them. 

About the fame time an Italian, call'd HieronymoBonzp, Lodging with a ISJicara* 
guan Noble. man that undcrftood the Spamfh Tongue, was thus fct upon by him: 
What do not (Oh Chrift) the Chriftians do ! they no fooner get their Foot into an Indian'* 
Hut, hut they commandingly call for Mai^ Honey , Winter -Clothe s , Gold, Silver, and a Woman 
to cool their luftful deftres : Certainly there is nothing more Vicious on Earth. To which 
(Bon^o gave him this Anfwcr : The wicked Spaniards commit oftentimes unfeemly things. 
The Indian again fuddenly retorted, faying, Where are any fuch Men to he found a* gtod 
Spaniards I 1 have never known any hut wicked Villains. To which Bon*? faid, Why 
have you made place for them on Nicaragua ? Which was thus reply'd to by the Noble- 
man 2 " All People round about took Oath on the firft News of the Q?rijiians ar- 
" rival, to hazard all, and fight to the laft Man, before they would be under the 
" infupportablc Yoke, with which they had heard other Countreys were opprefs'd 
" with by them. To which purpofe they made ready Bowes, "Arrows, Lances, 
" Stones, Clubs, and other Weapons of War : But when it came to the trial, the 
( < Spanijb Horfe, of which they had never feen the like, (truck fuch a terror into the 
'' Indians, that they fled, and fent two Agents to Monteio to defire Peace . but their 
u Defign was onely to gain time, that they might gather new Forces, to venture 
ic a fecond Encounter . which prov'd as fatal to them as the firft. Then defiring 
" Peace once more, they gathered all that were able to bear Arms, and fworeone 
" to another not to ftir a Foot; and withal made a Law, That whofoever did 
" fhrink fhould be kill'd immediately : But the Women being inform'd hereof, 
" be gg'd that they might rather fuffer under the Spanifh Yoke, than be torn in pieces 
«b'y their Dogs, or kill'd by their Bullets and Swords, alledging, that they were 
" not able to refill: the Spaniards s and entreated them, that if they were refoiv'd 
" to go on with their firft Defign , they would firft fend their Wives and Chil- 
" dren to the other World, that fo they might not fall into the hands of the merci- 
"lefs and bloody Chrifiians : Whereupon moft Voices judg'd it convenient to 
" make ufe of the Opportunity, and to fubmit to Monteio. But his cruel deal- 
" ings made fome to contradift that Determination , for which they paid 
" dearly ; for not onely they, but their little Infants, were put to the moft cruel 

" Deaths 



Chap. IV. AMERICA t jj 

Deaths imaginable y which made many of them alfo to lay violent hands on 



i( themfelves. 



Sect. V. 

Coftarica. 



Cprica borders on the Eaft with Veragua , on the South and Eaft, With the a**** 
Sea j and on the North, with Nicaragua. The Countrey it felf is barren cSw** 
and mountainous , whofe Inhabitants were valiant enough to Encounter 
with the Spanifh Forces, being unwilling to lofe their former Priviledges. 

This Coaft was difcover'd firft by Cbriftopher Columbus, who Anno ijqi. Sailing 
up the Rivers Belen and Veragua with Barques, took much Gold out of the Mynes 
Urira, but chiefly from between the Roots of Trees which were grown together* 

Sect. VI. 

Veragua. 

VEragua is bounded on the Weft with Coftarica - on the Eaft it hath the Diftrift, ****** ** 
or Countrey of fanama, being otherwife walVd on all fides by the Sea. It *?fis«*y* 
hath its Name from a River of great note in thisTraft, by which it was firft 
difcover'd. The Countrey is for the moft part mountainous, and the Soil out* 
wardly barren,but recompencing all defects with the abundance of its more inward 
Wealth, that is to fay, in the richnefs ©fits Mynes, of which it is faid to Afford 
many, and fo inexhauftibly rich and good, that the Spaniards here know no end of 
their Wealth • although by the ftoutnefs and untameablenefs of the Natives, it 
was a long time, and they met with many difficulties,beforc they could make them* 
felves Matters of the Treafurc. 

The chief Towns they have here are i. La Conception, lying at the Mouth of a Ri. Jj^ 
vcr fo nam'd, and the Scat of the Governor. 

2. La Trinidad, upon the Banks of the fame River likewife, but down towards 
fort HBeleno, and about fix Leagues Eaftward of Conception. 

3. St. Foy y twelve Leagues more to the South, where the Spaniards melt their 
Gold, and eaft it into Bars or Ingots. 

4. Carlos, a Town they have upon the Coaft of Mare del Zur. 

5. Tbilippina, another on the Weft of Carlos , both of thefe featcd upon a large 
capacious Bay y before which there lie certain little Ifiand^, to the number of 
thirty or more,which the Spaniards are faid to have wholly dilpeopled long fince,by 
forcing the Natives over into the Continent to work in the Mynes, as ufually they 
did before the Emperor's Prohibition : but now they ufc Slaves or Negro's, which 
they buy for that purpofe from Guinee and other Parts. 

Sect. VII. > 



G 



del Zur. 



Guatimala, properly fo called. 

Uatimala, fpecially fo call'd, hath on the Weft the River Xicalapa, which di- *°t»* of 
vides it from Ferafa^ } on the Eaft it is bounded with the Countrey of *' CQU, * ^T, 
Nicaragua; on the North, with Honduras , and on the South, with Marc 

This 



itf 



Towni of 
note. 



S 









*A M E %I C A. Chap. IV. 

This Countrey was conquer'd by feter de Aharado, Anno 1525. It is,by rcafon of its 
neighborhood with Vera Patriot altogether clear of Mountains,but otherwife well 
water'd with Rivers, and enrich'd with fair and fruitful Valleys, which afford not 
onely good Pafturage, and many great Herds of Cattel, but like wife good ftorc of 
Wheat,Afa^, and other Fruits of the Earth. Great plenty of Cotton- Wool is general. 
ly both here and in the other Provinces, Vt^. Vera Ta^, Chiapa, &c. fome Medicinal 
Woods likewife, and Liquors, and abfolutely the bed Sulphur in America. The Pea. 
pie are generally tradable and well difpos'd, both in point of Religion and civil 
Government. 

The Towns of chief note are 1. Guatimala,now call'd St. J ago de Guatimala fince the 
re-building thereof t for about the Year 1586. it was almoft buried in Afiies,which 
one of the neighboring Mountains, for the fpace of fix Moneths together, conti- 
nually belch'd out in fuch fearful quantities, that many People were (lain, 
the old City defertcd, and a new one built in another place. The day before this 
fad Accident hapned, the neighboring Mountains were obferv'd to fliiver, and a 
great noife was heard from under Ground . which amazing the Indians, the news 
thereof was carried to the Bifliop, Franci/cus Moroquin, who narrowly enquiring 
into the Caufes of thefe Accidents, and what they might portend, found that 
a fad Event would fuddenly follow, as accordingly it did . for about mid* 
night on the eighth of Auguji, Anno 1 541. fm:h a mighty ftore of Rain fell, as if 
the Clouds had been all diflblv'd into Water, which came rbwling from the 
Rocky Mountains with fuch violence; that it Xarafli'd down great Stones, which 
carried on by the-ftrength of the Water againft the Houfes, beat them down . and 
none could have feen how they were ruin'd, had not the mighty flaflies of Light* 
ning, follow'd by terrible claps of Thunder, lighted the Night. Some inftantly 
deferring this mifcrable place, fled up into the Countrey, and there built a new 
Guatimala (as above-mention'd) fur-nam'd St. Jago, three Leagues farther towards 
the Eaft, in a Valley through which flow two Rivers, between two Vulcans, or 
fmoaking Mountains; which fometimes vomit forth terrible Flames, mix'd with 
dreadful Thunder-claps, Aflies, and great Stones, inforhuch that the Ground all 
about it, which is exceeding fruitful, feemsto move. There are many of thefe 
Vulcans in feveral parts of America, as namely at Areampa in the Kingdom of Peru, 
at Tuebla delos Angeks, in the Province olTla/calla abovefaid, a Mountain of fo great 
heighth, that they are fain to go little lefsthan thirty Leagues turning and wind- 
before they can reach the top of it, and others in feveral other places. .They are ge- 
nerally Mountains of great heighth, and running (harp upwards, but at the top 
containing fome quantity of plain and level Ground ; in themidft whereof is a Pit 
or Hole, out of which abundance of Smoak and fiery Sparkles are vomited almoft 
continually, and fo deep, that they are fuppos'd for the mod part to reach to the 
very bottom of the Mountain. Some of thefe Vulcans caft forth neither Fire nor 
Smoak, yet are clearly feen to burn^t the bottom with a quick Fire, and which is 
fo extreamly hot, that it inftantly melteth Iron, or any other Metal that is caft into 
it, as by experience hath been found : for fome conceiving that the Matter which 
maintains thefe Fires within the Bowels of the Earth fo long together, can be no- 
thing elfe but melted- Gold, have endeavor'd feveral times to extract and draw it 
forth in certain VefTels of Iron and Brafs, which they have caus'd to be let down 
into the bottom of the Vulcan or Pit, by long Iron Chains made on purpofe : but, 
as we faid, the extream heat and force of the Fire below always melted them before 
they could be drawn up again, and by that means hath rendred all fuch Attempts 
fruftrate. In this Town, now call'd St. Jago, refide above fix hundred Sfanijh Com- 
manders, 



Chap. IV. <tA M E %_l C A. 

manders, and more than twenty five thoufand Indians which pay Tribute. They 
have fllfo a brave Church and two Cloyfters, one belonging to the Dominicans, and 
another to the Order La Merced, and likewife a noble Hoipital. Not far from 
thence is a place call'd Y^aleos, where there are Orchards of Coco* two Leagues in 
fquare , each of them producing yearly as much as fifty thoufand Men are able 
to carry. They reckon the Cacao by Cancels, which is the number of four hundred 
by Xequipiles, of eight thoufand . and by Carp's, of twenty four thoufand. In this 
County is a Mountain, whofetop fmoaking continually confumes by dearecs, and 
oftentimes covers the neighboring Countrey with Allies. The Water which flows 
from the lame differs very much, for fome of it is wholfomand fit to drink i fome 
foul and {linking, and fome turns Wood, if laid in the fame, to Stone. Here is 
alfotheBeaftwhofe Head is highly efteem'd for the fBequr.Stone, which it car- 
ries in the fame. Here is likewife a little Bear, which in ftead of a Mouth, hath a 
.long Nofe with a round Hole in it, and a hollow Tongue, with which 'it fucks 
Honey, and difturbs the Nefts of Pifmires. The Women in this Place make curi- 
ous Earthen Ware, colour'd either red or black with the Mud of two feveral 
Brooks. The Indians call'd the boy ling Fountains in this County Hell, becaufe they 
bubble up a Bowes.fhot high, and make the River Caliente, which, notwithftand- 
ing it hath pafs'd half a League through a wide Channel, retains its exceeding 
heat. Not far from it lies a Stone , which having a Crack in the middle, fends 
forth a thick Damp, and againft bad Weather a thundering noife. On the Moun. 
tains grow exceeding large Trees, efpecially Oak. Here Pifmires which are of an 
extraordinary bignefs, are brought to Market.amongft other Provifions. 

2. St. Salvador, forty Leagues diftant from Guatimala Eaftward, and feated upon 
the River Guacapa, and having about it a fmall Territory, which by fome is ac- 
counted a diftinct Countrey or Province. 

3. Acaputla, a Town of the Natives, fituated at the Mouth of the River, and be- 
ing as it were, the Port-Town to St. Salvador. 

4. Trmidad, a Town of great refort, being the greateft Empory and Place of 
Traffick for all forts of Commodities, betwixt the People of New Spain and thofe" 
ofTeru. 

5. St. Michaels, two or three Leagues diftant from the Bay Fonfeca, upon the 
South Sea. ' J f 

6. XeresdelaFrontera, on the Confines of this Province, towards the Borders of 
Nicaragua, befides feveral Villages which we mail have occafion to mention. 

In the middle of a Lake within this Territory is an Ifland, on which the Indians 
had a Tradition, That a Man no fooner fet his Foot but he died immediately: 
Which Opinion of theirs was chang'd when the Spaniards went thither in Boat.fulls 
andreturn'd fafe again, with Relation that they had feen a large Stone Image, re- 
fembling a Woman - before which lay the Allies and Bones of flain People. 

Round about the Village Guaymoco grow great Balfom-Trees, which afford 
Timber of fifty five Foot long. From this Village leads a Way to the City Salva- 
dor, near which the fore- mention'd River Guachapa runs with' fo many windings, 
that the Traveller is fore'd to crofs the fame feveral times before he can come to' 
the Foot of a Mountain which formerly call out terrible Flames . but now the 
cornbuftible Matter being confum'd, there appears onely a great Hole on the top, 
With Allies in a large compafs round about it. At the Foot of the fame are two Pics, 
one of which fmoaks continually in fuch a manner, that it ilifles all thole that ap- 
proach it ; yet the Mountain is well overfpread with Cedars and Pine-Trees. 

Three Leagues farther lies the Village Nixapa . and not far from thence the 

B b Hill 



m 



/ 






Z]Z 



Havens. 




A Af E %^I C A. Chap. V. 

Hilt Elmal <Pai*, which confifts of great Stones and Aflies, wonderfully mixt toge- 
ther : No lefs wonderful is a Brook which flows in the Night till Morning and 
then finks into the Ground : And in the Countrey Choluteca is another, which hides 
k lelf at Noon, and appears again towards Night. The Cavern which formerly 
produe'd Fire and Smoke, now affords good Water to the Village Curcatan, and 
City Salvador : Near the Village I^tepegve are five Springs, which call up Allom 
and Sulphur. The Natives Chontales which fpeak feveral Languages, flock to the 
Village Mmilla, to make Offerings, not far from hence are two Pits, one of 
which is full of boyling Water, and the other as cold as Ice : Moreover, Cocori lies 
near a high Mountain, on the top of which is a very turbulent Lake. 

The chiefeft Haven of this Countrey, which lies along the South-Sea, is <Babia 
de Fonfeca, Difcover'd by Oonfahes VaVila, Jnno 1 522. and fo nam'd from>w» %o. 
drigas de Fonfeca, Bifhop of Burgos ■ In the middle thereof appears the Ifland <P*tro- 
nelU, with nine others, of which four are inhabited by Indians. 

The good conveniency of the Haven Fonfeca, indued fome of the Spaniards to 
make a new Paffage from the fide of the Southern Ocean, to the Northern, «*$ 
from Panama to Sombre de Dios, defigning it to reach from the faid Haven Fonfeca, 
unto fueno de Carellos, which are diftant one from the other forty five Leagues ; 
moft of it good way, except fome over-grown Mountains, which might be made 
paffable with little trouble ; to which purpofe they built the Town Buena Esjeran- 
ia, yet neverthelefs the Work remain'd unprofecuted. 

There are moreover reckon'd as appertaining to Guatimala, the fmall Provinces 
Soconufco, Suclutepec, and Chtlulteca, the chief of them being Soconufco, to which be- 
longs the Town of Oevetlan, where the Spanijh Governor hath his Refidence ; the 
reft feem to be onely fmall Territories about Towns of the fame Name, in like 
manner as St. Salvador, and St. Miguel beforcmention'd. 






Bounds of 
Km- Spat*. 



m^mmMmmkmmAmMmmmmmm^mumM^ 



CHAP. V. 
The Kingdom of Mexico , or New-Spain. 



N 



r E*> Spain, the chiefeft part of the Northern America, reckons in length from 
the Eaft-Point of Yucatan, to the place where JMechoacon juts againft Gua- 
dalajara three hundred and fixty Leagues ; and in breadth from the 
Northern parts oifanucos, to the Southern Ocean, a hundred and eighty Leagues; 
befides a great part which lies to the Northward , behind inacceflable Mountains 
and WildernelTes ; inhabited by the Tepecuaenes, Guachucuks, Cacatequas, Tecaxquines, 
and others-, and was, before the Spaniards Conquer'd and Difmember'd it, much, 
larger than now it is . for as much as it comprehended the whole Province of 
NeV'Galltcia, and reach'd from the furtheft Point of the Teninfula of Jucatan South- 
ward as far as TStjwMfcay , and the Confines of California Northward ; containing 
in length feven hundred Leagues and more, and about half as much in breadth : 
But fince the Conqueft by Hernando Corte^ and his Followers, the whole Countrey 
ofTSlew-Gatlicia is taken from it, and made a diftinft Government or Judkncia , -as 

the Spaniards call it, ofitfelf. 

The 









s 





I 





J ' * 









Chap. V. AMERICA. 239 

The Natives of the Countrcy are of the Race of the Cbichfcc<e, a Salvage and ThcO:.. 
Wilde iort of People, of the Province of TS^e^'Gdlicia, efpecilly in the Parts of 
Tiew&ifcay, living in Forefts and in deep Caves under Ground whofe Pofterity do 
ftill at this day much trouble and annoy the Countrey thereabuts ; notwithstand- 
ing all the endeavors of the Spaniards, and the Garrifons whic they keep in thofe 
parts on purpofe todeftroy them. About five hundred years ag^or more,according 
to the account of the Mexican .Annals, &\y ex s Hoards,as they areall'd, of thefe Chichi* 
meet, weary, it feems, of their Woods and fubterraneous dwelings, iffu'd out into 
the more open Air, and fell down in huge multitudes into uefc Southerly parts 
of America, which are now call'd Mexico and JS^ew- Spain 5 not A at once, but at fc- 
veral times, and under feveral names, 1//;^. of the Suchimilci, Cblc#,Tepanec*t, TlafcaU 
tec<e, and others, who fubduing or driving out the People they ound in thofe parts, 
Seated themfelves in their room : And though at firft every Nation or Company 
of them, as they came, feiz'd upon fome Province apart by nemfelves, and held 
it, as it were, in Soveraignty to themfelves, without acknowrdgement of any de* 
pendance or fubje&ion to their Neighbors, or thofe that wee there before them } 
yet in Tract of time, and by fortune of the Wars, which the made one upon an* 
other, they fell under the Government of one King, vi^,. ;he King of Mexico, 
which was the chief City of the Province. 

This Kingdom, at the time that the Spaniards firft Difcoverd the Countrey, was ™/j^£ 
Govern'd by a Prince, nam'd Mote^uma ; one, who by his Vahr and good fuccefs in {■^"Jjfc 
the Wars, had in a few years of his Reign, before the Spaniarls came thither, fub- ™ is ■**" 
du'd the better part of a hundred Cities and great Towns tohis Dominion • and 
held in actual fubmiffion to his Government, and Tributaryto him, no lefs than 
thirty feveral Cajiques or petty Princes ^ every one of which piid him Tribute, and . 
were able upon occafion to bring into the Field an hundred tioufand Men : He is 
faid to have been, for his Perfon, a wife and good Prince, jttft affable, and tender 
of his Subjects aood : but by reafon of fome heavy exac1:ions,which his own pow- 
^r,and the Pra&ife of his Anceftors before him,gave him the :onfidencc to Impofe 
upon the Conquer'd People, a great part of his Subjects liv'c but unwillingly un- 
der his Obedience, and rather by conftraint than otherwife : being alfo further ex* 
afperated againft him by one barbarous Cuftom, which tie Mexicans frequently 
us'd, V/^. the Sacrificing of Men. Their manner was, wheifoever they had any 
folemn occafion of doing Honor to their Devil*god Vit%ilopichtli , as they call him, 
to fend out an Army of Men from Mexico, into fome of thefubdu'd Provinces, (in 
cafe they had no Enemies nearer Hand) and to fetch in as many Men as they 
thought good, to be Sacrific'd . whofe flefli likewifc afterwards they did eat in a 
folemn Banquet. This being a bufinefs of their Satanical Religion, and Mote%uma 
a Prince extremely Superftitious and Devoted to the Service of his gods, it is faid, 
that he Sacrific'd commonly, one year with another, twenty thoufand Men, and 
fome years, upon extraordinary occafions, not lefs than fifty thoufand : So great 
and grievous a Tyranny, by the juft Judgement and Permiffton of Almighty God, 
for their great and unnatural fins, did the Enemy of Mankind exercife upon them. 
He was likewife much given to Women, but it was onely to fuch as were counted 
his Wives ; of which he is faid to have had no lefs than a hundred and fifty with 
Child by him at one time. 

The Bounds of this Kingdom at prcfent are thus . on the Eaft it hath a large JVhe^i- 
Arm of the Sea, which they call The Bay of Ne*- Spain, or The Gulf of Mexico } On "•«»■**' 
the Weft, it hath fome parts of NemGallicia, and Mare del Znr ; on the North, the 
reft ofNew-Gallicia, and part of Florida 5 and on the South, Mare del Zur again, and 

B b x part 



III 



M 



24-0 



J M E%I C A 



Chap. V. 






Richei of 
Mixico. 









part o c Guatimala. Iixtendeth it fclf in length from Jucatan South*Eaft, to the Bor. 
dcrs of 2N(n* Galiicia Northward, above eight hundred Italian Miles, and in breadth 
from <Pa}iuco to the Suth Sea, about half fo much. It lieth wholly under the Tor- 
rid Zone : nor is it aDountrey generally fo mountainous or high feated, as fome 
others of- America are but for the moft part level or low . yet is it fo fann'd, (for 
three parts at leaft o four, by the cooling Blafts of the Sea, and the Heats other- 
wife fo moderated v th frequent Rains, which it hath conftantly three Moneths in 
the Year, vi^. June,] ly, and Mguft) that the Air is rendred thereby exceeding tem- 
perate, and the Clin, te not unhealthful,efpecially to temperate Bodies, and fuch as 
are never fo little li I to it* A goodly Countre^ it is, of inexhauftible Wealth and 
Riches, whether welegard the Mynes of Gold, Silver, Brafs, Iron, eye. of all 
which it hath man , and very good ; or the Fruits of the Earth, abundance of 
Cattel, plenty of Co 1 and Grain, of which they have two Harvefts ; or any other 
Commodities and Eiiowmentsof Nature, which fervc for the enriching of the 
World, Amongft ot er things, it affords Caftia, the Fruit whereof is a thing well 
knowc,and much co imended by the Apothecaries for its ufc in Phyfick, efpecially 
in Pnrgations, and t moving of all Obstructions of Phlegm, Choler, (src. Such 
ftore of Balm, Amb •, all forts of Gums and precious Liquors, as no Countrey in 
the World is better fjrnim'd with excellent Perfumes and Phyfick, than the King- 
dom of 2S(m? Spain. 
iWTrec. Amon^the many Ither forts of Trees which this Countrey produces, the moft 
remarkable is their Twos, of which, there being five kinds, one is call'd Qwibeba, 
from whence proceed that admirable Tinfture, commonly known by the Name 
of Cocbinele, which is t us made : On the top of this Tree is found a Worm, which 
hath the bignefsandf ape of a great Loufe, which fo increafes, that in one years 
time a hundred Treesjhallbe ftock'd from the feed of one of thefc Animals. The 



Worm it felf being w 



and^that in fo 



great 



ite, after the Skin is carefully pull'd off, put in cold Water 



or Aflies, and fo dry'c, becomes Cocbinele. The beft fort of it is to be had in Tlafcala, 



Pine-Apples.' 



¥rwt CmcmI 



mantity, that no lefs than five or fix hundred Arrobes of Spa- 
?iijh Meafure (each Jiktbe is as much as five Englifl) Bufhels) is yearly Tranfported 
thence. The other foil which grows on the Mountains, and that which is not lb 
carefully gather'd, caljd Cbicbimecas, Dyes not fo well as the right Cocbinele. The 
Tunas alio bears a Fruit long and whitifli, w4th a fmooth Shell, and full of lit- 
tle Seeds like Figs : Tfe red, which are inferior in tafte to the white, colours the 
Urine red. 

The Pine*Apples wiich grow here differ from the Spaniflt, for the Pulp is not 
inclos'd in a Shell : Tiey have a pleafant fmell, and a Pulp, which if eaten much 
of, caufes an Appetitejt being of a tartilh tafte 5 they keep good a long time when 
Salted. 

But much more beneficial is the Cacao, with which Fruit New Spain drives a great 
Trade ; nay, ferves far Coin'd Money. When they deliver a Parcel of Cacao, they 
tell them by five, thirty and a hundred. Their Charity to the Poor never exceeds 
above one Cacao^ut. The chief reafon for which this Fruit is fo highly eftcem'd, 
is for the Cbocolate, whiih is made of the fame, without which the Inhabitants (be- 
ing fo us'd to it) are not able to live, notwithstanding it caufes Phlegm and Vo- 
miting to thofe that are ftrangers thereto. When the EngltfJ? Commander Thomas 
Candijh coming into the Haven Guatulco, burnt two hundred thoufand Tun of Cacao y 
it prov'd no fmall lofs to all !<{as> Spain, the Provinces Guatimala and Nicaragua not 
producing fo much in a whole year. The Trees on which this Fruit grows are di- 
vided into four forts, differing in bignefs and fliape : all of them are very tender, 

for 



Chap. V. 



sA M ET^I C A. 



24.1 




for they will not onely grow in no place but on their ufual Ground, but cannot en- 
dure the cold Nights Storms, or exceiTes of Heat 5 wherefore the Cacao-Trees which 
grow out of the Fruit that falls off, come to no perfection, except in fhady and 
warm Valleys ; which is aifo the reafon why the Planters of TSJjw Spain plant the 
great Leafy Tree Qacaoquantbly (that is, The Mother of the Cacao's) near the Cacao-Tvcc, 
that it iriay the better grow under the Shadow thereof y in which manner whole 
Woods are planted : In the fecond year it bears Fruit, which is firft ripe in January, 
and again in the midft of Summer. Amongft the four forts the chiefeft is Quathmtl, 
of an indiffent heighth, and full of fliarp-pointed Leaves, which are faft to the 
Boughs without Stalks, and bears a great Flower of a yellowifli colour, which fal- 
ling off, leaves long, tough, and hairy Threds behind them, out of which grows the 
CacaVently, 2. Fruit which is oval, he»uy like a Melon, of a Saffron-colour, of a fat 
and thick Juice, a bitterifli, yet pleafant tafte, and very cooling ; being dry'd in 
the Sun it is thereby made fit to keep • it is like wife highly efteem'd,becaufe the Cbo- 
Icolate is made of the fame. Before the Spaniards made themfelves Matters of Mexico, 
(no other Drink was efteem'd but .that of the Cacao j none caring for Wine, not- 
/ withftanding the Soil produces Vines every where in great abundance of it felf. 
/ But befides the Quathuil, Ne~to Spain hath three other forts of Gcdo-Trees, vi%. Meca- 
I nal y pleafant to behold for its heighth, large Leaves and Fruit ; the next is the Xo* 
I chucaual, which is lefs than the former ; and laftly the leaft fort, which is call'd 
HalcacahuaL The Fruit of thefe four forts of Trees, though differing in fliape, yet 
is all one in power and operation. 

The Spaniards to make Qhocolau mix Mai% (by the Mexicans call'd Tlaolli) either 
whole or Ground, or boyl'd before with Chalk. * Moreover, they put the red Ker- 
nels alfo in the Drink, which grow in the Fruit of the Achiote-Tvcc. Of the Kernels, 
Phich are dry and cooling, boyl'd in Water, and ftirr'd till it comes to a Pap, they 
ake Cakes, which mix'd with the Qwolate, gives it a cleanfing power, and takes 
pay all taftes that caufe vomiting. 
The Pepper Mecaxochite, which grows creeping along the Earth, with long and 

B b j fragrant 



$z 



Nature of the 
P.oplc. 



Lakes of 
Km- S fain. 



The feveral 
Provinces. 



A M E %I C A. Chap. V. 

• 

fragrant Leaves, round Stalks, hairy Roots, and three long Cods which fhoot up- 
wards. This Pepper tempers the over-cooling property of the Chocolate. Laftly, 
it cdnfifts alio of Xucbinacatlis, Tlilxocbitle, and the Rozenifh Gum,Ho//i. The Xoc'tna- 
catli is a Tree with fmall Leaves, and great Flowers hanging on long Stalks that 
bend downwards, within of a purple, and without of a dark-green colour, of a 
fweet fmell,and refembling an Ear ; and this Flower alfo gives a pleafant tafteand 
wholfom operation to the Chocolate. The Tltlxocbitle runs up to the tops of Trees 
like Ivy j the Flowers,, of a darkifli brown colour, cleanfe the Nerves, ftrengthen 
the Brain, and takeaway the rawnefs of the Stomach. The Holl't drops out of the 
Holquabuytle, afmoothbarky Tree full of Moifture, which at firft appearance is 
white, then yellowifli, and laftly black, which kneaded into round Balls and 
Roafted, is a remedy againft a Loofnefs and forenefs of the Bowels. 

The Natives of the Countrey are very ingenious in divers mechanical Arts, 
efpecially in making of Feather-Pictures, a piece of Curiofity wherein they are held 
to be incomparably ,or rather inimitably excellent; andfo induftrious at it, thatal* 
though the Americans generally are not a People over-much addicted to any kind of 
Labor or Study, yet at this they will fit a whole day together, without either 
Meat or Drink, onely put of a natural affection they have to the Work, and adefirc 
to be excellent in it ; The Countrey indeed affords them great variety of Birds 
and other Fowl, of moft rare and exquifite Colours, which is a great advantage to 
their Skill, and helps much to the accomplishment of their Work. They Pain* 
likewiie very ciirioufly upon their Cottons ; and are held to be generally the beft 
Goldfmiths in the World, of moft perfect skill in the purging and refining of all 
forts of Metals^ but efpecially of Gold and Silver: And yet in other things fo 
ftrangely ftupid and ignorant,that when the Spaniards firft appeared amongft them, 
not a few of them (as 'tis reported) took the Horfe and Man both for one Crea- 
ture^ and when the Horfe Neighed, they would enquire very ferioufly what he 
laid. 

There arehkewife many fair Lakes in this Province, but the principal arethofe 
of Chapala and Mexico : the former of which is in the more Northern parts of the 
Kingdom, towards the Borders of Nev> Galltcia, and is chiefly famous for the abun- 
dance of good Salt that is yearly made and Tranfported thence. The other of 
Mexico is one of the targeft and goodlieft in the World, of circular form (as 
iome fay) little lefs than nine hundred Miles in compafs, environed with the main 
Land, the (peninfula, or Cape of Florida^ jucatan, and the Ifland Quba, having two 
onely Parages in and out, and both of them well fortifi'd : the one betwixt the 
Point of Jucatan and the Mc-Cuba, where the Tyde violently enters > and the other 
betwixt the laid Ifland and the Cape of Florida, where it goeth as violently out : up. i 
on which Gulf the King of Spain hath always fome good Ships in readinefs for all 
occafions . and by them, 'tis fuppos'd, he doth more aflurehis Eftates in thofc parts 
of America, than by all the Garriions befides. 

The whole Kingdom of Mexico, or Nefi> Spain, is fubdivided into thefe Inferior 
Provinces : 

i. The Arch-bifhoprick of Mexico. 2. The Bifhoprick , Mechoacon. 3. Los 
Anglos, or Tlafcalc. 4. Guaxaca/j. The Lordfhip fanuco : And 6. the Province 
Tabafco. 

Mexico, the chief Province of ISIjmSpain, fo denominated from Mexico the'ehief 
City, not only of the Province, but of all America ♦ lying between Tlafcale and Me- 
choacan, extends in length from North to South, a hundred and feventeen Leagues-, 
and in breadth along the Southern Ocean, feventeen, but up in the Countrey, fifty' 

four 



& 




H5 



Nature of tbo 
Countrey. 



Chief Towni 
of MtxicdH*. 



Chap. V. <JL Ni E%^IC A. 

four Leagues : In which circumference lie to the North~Eaft, LateotUpa, Mexti. 
tlati, Xilotepeque, and fanuco - Weft ward, Matal^ingo, and Cultepeque 5 Eaft ward, Tu.^ 
coco- y South*Eaft, Qhalco ; Southward, Suchimilco, Tlaluc, Coyxca, and Acapulco. 

It is bounded on the Eaft, with the Gulf of Mexico ; on the Weft, with Mechoa- 32Sjf 
can ; on the North, with fanuco, and fome parts of TS^ew-Gallicia • and on the South, 
with Jlafcalla. 

This Countrey is both large and rich, containing not much lefs than one hun- 
dred and thirty Leagues, both in length and breadth • and if it yields any thing to 
<peru in the plenty of Gold and Silver, 'tis certain it much excels ic in many other 
Commodities ; as namely, in all forts of Fruits, abundance of Cartel, plenty of 
Corn and Grain ; in all which, the advantage this Countrey hath, not only of Te- 
ru y but of all the other Provinces of America befide, is well known : Not to (peak 
any thing of the great plenty and variety of good Fiflh, which both the Rivers and 
Lakesof this Countrey afford, which is very great; infomuch, that the very Tri- 
bute of the one Lake of Mexico is faid to yield an Income of above twenty thoufand 
Crowns yearly, one with another. 

The People of the Countrey arc generally Induftrious and Active, efpecially 
fince the Spaniards came among them ; rich Merchants, if they apply themfelves to 
it; and they fay likewifegood Soldiers, when they are train'd and imploy'd that 
way. 

The chief Towns and places of the Province are, i. Mexico, both anciently and 
at prefent, the Metropolis and Capital City 3 being the Seat of an Archbifhop, and 
the ordinary Relldence of the Vice-Roy, and chief Governors of 2s(ey>' Spain. 

This City, by the Indians was formerly call'd Te?mflatan, lies in nineteen Degrees £\ f £g°* 
and a half to the Northward of the Equinofiial-Li?ie , rais'd out of a brackifh Lake, Mtxic§ - 
full of muddy Water; whofe circumference along the Mountains is feventy 
Leagues: This Lake fwarms continually with Boats, which carry the People to 
and again from one inhabited Ifland to another ; four Stone-bridges, no lefs coft- 
ly than artificial, with Arches and Gates in feveral places, lead from the City to 
the Main Continent. 

The frefh Water which they have in the City Mexico, is led into the fame through 
Pipes that lie in the bottom of the Lake 5 but none are to enjoy the benefit thereof, 
before they have paid a certain Sum of Money to the King's Collectors. 

Moreover, the City divided into Ifiands, contains above fixty thoufand Houfes, 
which being built on feveral Iflcs,have large Bridges, which reach from one to ano- 
ther ; fome tha.t lie in the middle of the Lake, they approach in little Boats s round 
about the Lake, efpecially where the way leads from the Continent into the City, 
lie feveral Suburbs, all inclos'd with Walls . between which ftandftrongToWers, 
cover'd on the top : To keep off the force of the Water, the Tenujlatans have with 
great labor and chargc,made a Bank through the Lake,half way along the City. But 
the Lake Laguna, from whofe bottom Mexico is rais'd, is divided in two parts , the 
Sweet Lake, which is higher than the Salt, falls in to the fame through Siuces, with 
Bridges built on the Bank that leads from the City to the main Land : The Salt- 
Lake, which hath brackifh and bitter W r ater, ebbs and flows according as the Wind 
blows ; no Fiflh is able to live in the fame, becaufe the Water which in the fight 
of Mexico falls into the fame out of the Mountains, hath a fulphury Ground : All 
along the fhore, much Salt is made, with which the Citizens drive a great Trade : 
There are continually above a hundred thoufand Boats (by the Indians call'd Acales, 
and by the Spaniards, Canoos) going off and on from one fhore to another : The frefh 
Water Lake, which is bigger than the fair, and feeds fmall Fifhes , hath above fi£ 



H4- 



<d M E%I C A. 



Chap. V. 



The Tempe- 
rature of the 
Air. 



Bdruah Cafa 
his Dcfcrx- 
ption of 

Mtx'uo. 



ty Suburbs about the fame, of which, fome boafl five thoufand, and others ten 
thoufand Houfes : Nay, the Suburb Tefcuco, in former times was no way inferior 
to Mexico in bignefs , fince the Spaniards have been Mafters of this City, t hey ftopt 
up many Moats, to inlarge their narrow Streets. 

Befides three publick Markets, every open place affords all forts of ^Provifions 
daily • the Indians call the Markets Tunguyftly, and the Spaniards, Tiangue^. the firft 
and chiefeft ftands in Tatelulco, adorn'd with Galleries on three fides . in the mid- 
dle of this Square, which is accounted the biggeft in the World, ftands next to the 
place of Execution, a ftately Fountain . the Tents which are every Week pitch'd 
up here for Trade, amount to above thirty thoufand. The fecond Market call'd 
St. John's, is in Mexico, and fwarms continually with People. The third is call'd 
Hipolito, from the Guardian-Saint of the City, whither every Wednefday and Thurf- 
day comes fuch a multitude of People , that this fpacious Market is too little for 
them j for the fale of every Commodity , a peculiar corner is allotted } but great 
Packs'are left to be difpos'd of in Boats, which lie near the fhore. 

At the four corners of the City, at prefcnt call'd St. John, St.Maria la %otonda, 
St. fablo, and St. Sebajlian, are above four thoufand Spanijh Families, and thirty 
thoufand Indians, befides what inhabit Tatelulco, now St. Jago. 

The Air in this place is very ftrange ; in the day time, the Sky is generally Se. 
rene ; the North Wind againft the Evening brings Rain, of which the Mountain 
Tepeaquilla lying a little League beyond the City, gives certain Teftimonies; for 
when a black Cloud appears on the top thereof, it is certain to be blown from 
thence over Mexico with Rain : After a moift Evening follows a Star-light Night, 
and a pleafant Morning : From September till May, it is generally dry Weather here, 
but if it chances to Rain, the Rain is attended with a Storm, which occafions 
a fulphurous Fogg , very unwholfom, and fo dark , that one Man cannot di- 
fcern another, and caufes a pain through all the Limbs, nay fometimes Death it 
felf ; wherefore, whenfoe're it approaches, every one keeps clofe in his Houfe, or 

goes into the Countrey. 

Moreover, it is worthy of obfervation, how ftrangely this City is alter'd fince 
its being Conquer'd by the Spaniards, and efpecially when Anno i6i 9 . it was over- 
flow'd by a mighty Deluge ; which alteration by !Sarnabe Cabo, in a Letter to the 
Jefuite Hernande Leon, is thus fet forth: 

Mexico, fays he, lying in a Valley between high Mountains, hath feventy 
Leagues in circumference : The Valley being Oval, is for the moft part inter- 
fpers'd with Lakes, which the Indians, and after them the Spaniards have digg'd,only 
the Lake which waflies Mexico is natural , and to ftop the Water-falls, there arc 
Banks and Sluces every where : The Flood before Mexicalcingo flows a Fathom and 
a half higher than before Mexico. The four other Lakes to the Northward have 
much more Water than the Mexicalcingo , of which, fome have fcarce four, others 
but three Leagues in circumference ; when as Mexicalcingo s Lake reckons fifteen, 
and Mexico's fixteen. On the breaking of the Banks, Mexico hath often fuffer'd great 
damage, wherefore the Vice-Roy de Valefco took fpecial care to make a vent for 
the Water through the loweft Mountains; whereupon the Countrey being Sur- 
vey'd, the Northern Coaft nea'r the Village Guegucnoca , was found to be the moft 
convenient. But about the manner of letting the Water out, the Surveyors could 
no ways agree; moft of them were of opinion to dig Channels, into which the 
Lakes might difcharge their Waters . others, thought beft to make a Gutter under 
Ground, which laft Velafca put in hand with unhappy fuccefs, becaufe the Labo- 
rers who under-min'd the Ground, were choak'd w ith the falling in of the Sand, 

or 



Chap- V. *A M E%^IC A. H5 

or ftifled vvich the fulphurous Vapors rifing out of the Earth : Neverthelefs, they 
gave not over the Work,though they began it quite another way,for a French*Man, 
caliM Henry Martin, advis'd to deepen the River Quaiotitlan, which falls into the 
Lagnm, and by that means make it a Bay, into which the Laguna might pour her; 
over-charg'd Waters : Which deiign,though contradicted by the Jefuit/ofew Sancbe^, 
was put in praftice 5 by which means the Water fell in a (hort time fo much, that 
they could walk dry to the CMS El fonnel, lying a League from the City j where- 
fore they continually labour'd on this Work, till fuch time zsConde de Getues came 
over for Vice-Roy , who judg'd the Charge to be unneceflary , nay Commanded 
the Ditches to be broken down, which ftopt the Water along the Silver Mines of 
Tacbuca, that he might fee exactly how much it would over-flow Mexico : After *&****** 
which the Flood rofe yearly higher and higher - till at laft, Anno 1629. a mighty 
Rain falling, iwole the Laguna in fuch a manner, that it over-whelm'd all Mexico 
waffi'd down the Houfes, all Merchandizes which could not endure the Water 
were fpoil'd, and had not they had innumerable Boats to help them, thoufands of 
People might have perifh'd in this Deluge: But at laft, Henry Martin reftor'd 
again the fore-mention'd Channel to its former Perfection, and brought the Flood 
which fell down out of the Mountains within the Banks of the River. 

Quantitlan digg'd alio a Channel of eight thoufand Fathom long, and made an 
Arch'd Sewer under Ground of the fame length , which Sewer hath at every two 
hundred Fathoms diftance, Vcnt-holes,and a hole of fixty Fathom deep, and by this 
means, diverting abundance of Water, they dry'd Mexico in a fliort time : When the 
Banks and Streets began no fooner to appear, but they fell to work to raife the 
Ground, and to lay Bridges, and alfp to build more Boats. The Citizens like- 
wife found it convenient to make another deep Sewer for the carrying away of 
more Water, notwithstanding it requir'd twenty years labor. The River, which in 
a manner runs through the middle of the City, is curb'd by a Wall- a crooked 
Bridge, with many Arches, and of a long extent, leads to the City, in which ftand ■"■***• 
many brave Palaces, with pleafant Walks of Trees about them ; the Cloyfters of 
feveral Orders of Fryers, appear wit;h high Spires and Turrets, above all other 
Buildings. 

The Franci/cans have here four very fumptuous Buildings : The firft,Confecrated And m$ 
to St. Francis, ftands in the uppermoft part of Mexico, within a large fquare Court, 
and on each a pleafant Walk of Trees : The Cloyfter it felf is very high, and treb- 

Vble Wall'd , with Towers and Galleries about it : In the middle of the City 
ftands another Tower'd-Cloyfter, call'd St. Jago. The third lies a little diftancc 
from it, which being built long, hath a ftatcly Turret, and is call'd Maria de <J{odon- 
da± The fourth, not far from the firft, but much fmaller, is nam'd San Diego . thefe 
belong to the Franci/cans. The Auguftin Monks are alio no way inferior to the Fran- 
cifcans, for magnificent Structures, with fpacious Halls, high Towers, and rich 
Balconies : The firft is denominated from St, Augujline, juft behind which appears 
San <Pabla, lefs ftately than the reft. St. Sebaftian, near the Laguna, is built in manner 
like a Church, whofe Tower ends like a Pyramid. The Cloyfter San Cru^, belong* 
ing alfo to the Augujiines, built fquare, ftands near the Market, in the middle of 
which ftands a ftately Fountain : The Court within inviron'd with thick Walls, 
amazes the beholders by the pleafantnefs of its fituation. 

Moreover, the Dominicans inhabit two brave Cloyfters ; the chiefeft Dedicated to 
St. Dominic, is eight fquare ; to which is adjoyning a pretty large Church, with a 
Steeple: The fecond, which ftands on one fide of Sf. Jago, and confifts of three fe- 
veral Structures, is call'd Colkgio de forta Cvli. Oppofice to St. Jago, near the great 

Market, 



2^6 



Cloyfiers be- 
longing to the 

Mtrsti. 



Womens 
Cloyfters. 



S 



The Vice- 

Jtoy's Palace 
and Arch- 
bilhop'i Scat. 



The gallantry 
cf Mtxico at 
this day. 



AMERICA. Chap. Y. 

Market the Jefuits have a (lately Collcdgc , or High-School, where many are 
brought up in the Latin and Greek Tongues, whence it is call'd, Cafa Trofejfa Les 

•Efludios. 

There is alio another Habitation of Religious Men, call'd IllefonfeSannaNoVtciad, 

which for State, may vie with any Royal Palace. 

The JMonks of La Merced dwell in two Cloyfters , both Confecrated to the Vir- 
gin Mary, yet Sirnam'd Montferatte, and Cantiel : The firft lying not far from the 
River is a mean Structure, in comparifon to the laft ; the uppermoft Tower of 
whofe Temple appears above all other Buildings, in the upper part of Mexico near 
the Cloyfter of St. Francis. 

The Women have alfo fourteen Cloyfters here, the chiefeft whereof is Dedica- 
ted to Catharine of Siena 5 but much more fplendid is that of Santa Terefa, built like 
an Imperial Palace 5 famous for its ftately Gardens, and round Fountain, which 
continually fpouts Water. The reft, which we fiiall onely name, are La Encar- 
nacio , Santa Ines , Jefuf*Maria, Laurenfo , Las Des-calcas, Santa Clara, Juan de la <Pe- 
nitentia, fygina Cali, Santa Monica, las ^cogidas , Jeroriymo, and Conception ; befides the 
Almfhoufes, <Rfal de los Indios, and TSioflra Senora del Amor : There are likewife eight 
Hofpitals, vi%. de Dios, del Spiritu Santo, Juan de Doys, ds la Mtfericordia, dej'an Hippoli- 
to, and defan La^aro. The three chief Churches bear the Name of Catharine, Mar* 
tin, and Vera Cru^-, and the Clergy.men thereto belonging, enjoy many ftately Pa- 
laces, amongft which Site Juan de Lateran, de Chrijlo, and las NiVas. 

The Refidence of the Vice-Roy which lies near the Dominican Cloyfter, Torto Ccc. 
li, isfo fumptuous a Structure, that it may ftand in competition with any of thofe 
Edifices which were fo much cry'd up by the Ancients 5 neverthelefs, it is not to be 
compar'd to the Arch-bifliop's Seat, built round like a Theatre, whofe Lufter ex- 
preflcs the Quality of him that inhabits the fame, he being Governor of the Bi- 
fliopricks of Fafcala, Guaxaca, Mechaocan, New Galicta, Chiapa, Yucatan, Guatimala, Ve- 
rapa^, and the fhilippinas. This marvellous Structure was begun by Ferdinand Qorte* 
fim, but was finifh'd by Sebajlian %amires de Fuenleal 5 and not much inferior there- 
unto is the Cafa de Cabildo Alameda. 

At prefent, Mexico is thought to be one of the richeft Cities of the World, 
abounding (if reports be true) in all kind of voluptuous gallantry and bravery, 
even to excefs : It is fuppos'd to contain about fix or feven Miles in compafs, and 
to confift of above an hundred thoufand Houfes or Families, whereof not the tenth 
part Spaniards, but thofe that are, all Gentlemen, at leaft as to their garb and 
manner of living; for they live moft fplendidly in all refpects, both for Diet and 
Apparel. 

For the firft, we have fpoken fo much already of the general plenty of all things 
in the Kingdom of TS[fV>-Spain, that pertain to this part of pleafure, that it is not 
to be doubted : And for the fecond this may be fome inftance, vi^. that it is no ex- 
traordinary matter to fee an Hat-band or Role all of Diamonds, in fome ordinary 
Gentlemans Hat ; and of Pearl among the common Citizens and Tradefmen. 
The Coaches (which moft Gentlemen keep) almoft covered with Gold and Silver, 
richly befet with Precious Stones, and within ordinarily lin'd with Cloth of Gold, 
or the beft China Silk that can be gotten ; . of which Coaches, in time of year, at the 
Alameda, as they call it, which is, as it were, Tl?e Hide^Varh of Mexico, and a place 
made of purpofe for recreation and delight, a Man fhall obferve not feldom, above 
a thoufand or two thoufand Coaches, full of Ladies and Gallants coming thither 
onely to take the Air, and their Pleafure, both the one and the other attended with 
a numerous Train of Servants and Mulattoes of both Sexes. In la flateria, which is 

but 



' 9 



Chap. V. AMERICA. t ±y 

but onely one Street in Mexico, nigh to the Vice-Roy's Palace, in Jefs than half aft 
hours fpace : with the turn of an Eye, you may fee Millions of Wealth in Gold, 
Silver, and Precious Stones, in the Goldfmiths and Jewellers Shops thereabouts. * 
In a word, there is nothing hinders Mexico .from being the moft abfolute City in 
the World for delight and bravery, but onely two Inconveniences to which it is 
fubjecT: : The one is the danger of the Lake, with the Infalls whereof it may feem 
to be almoft continually threatned, and in the Year 1620. did actually fuffer a very 
great calamity, the Waters breaking through the Banks, and drowning a great 
part of the City, with the deftru&ion of much People, and the lofs of all their 
Goods intirely, through the avarice (as isfuppos'd) of the Vice-Roy that then was, 
and fome other of the King's Officers, who diverted the Money that fliould have 
been employ 'd for the fortifying and repairing of the Banks, to their own proper 
ufes : The other is from the nature of the Soil and Ground it felf on which it 
itandeth; which is found to have a tincture of Sal Nitre ink, fomewhat ftrong • 
and the Winds partly from the Lake it felf, and partly from the Hills about it, raw 
ling the Duft of this Earth conftantly every Evening, for many Moneths of the 
Year together, fo violently, that the Air is even darkned therewith for fome time : 
The Inhabitants are much annoy 'd by it, and made fubjectto divers Hypocondria* 
cal Pains and Infirmities, and fometimes kill'd with it, efpecially fuch as either 
cannot,or care not much to avoid it. 

The City lieth about fixty Leagues, or a hundred and fifty Miles diftant from 
the Jtlantick or North S^a, from whence by the Port of St. John d' Uttua, or Vera 
Crux, (which are the ufual Landing-places^ there is a fair and eafie March to Mexico, 
by the Cities of Xalabar y Terotta, Tuebla de los Jngelos, and Ttafcalla, all of them open 
and unfortifi'd Places, (as likewife Mexico it felf) and the Countrey round about 
very rich and well accommodated with all things. 

The next City of note in ancient times was Qhulula, which being built in a fruit- city <*«/*/.*. 
ful Plain, had above twenty thoufand Dwelling-houfes, and as many more Ban- 
quetting-houfes. The number of the Temples and Turrets were equal with that 
of the days in the Year : The Government thereof belong'd to a Mayor and fix 
Aldermen, and one chief Prieftj for they never went upon the lead Dcfign before 
they had been at their Devotion 5 in which the PrieiVs Office was onely to 
perfume the Idols four times in twenty four hours, W^. in the Morning, at Noon, 
after Sun*fet, and at Midnight ; at which times none durft be abfent, but they us'd 
alio a cruel Exercife on themfeives, and one much more cruel on others, for on 
ufual Feaft-daysthcy abftain'd from Meat, Drink, and Sleep, fcourg'd their Bodies 
with knotted Cords after a miferable manner, evacuated their Seed, that fo they 
might curb all fleflily Defires, and met every Night in a fpacious place, where fit- 
ting down they wounded themfeives with Lances in their Legs and Arms, fo long 
till the Blood guftfd out of the fame • which gathering in a Cup, they anointed 
their Temples therewith, and dipt the Lances in the fame, and then hung them up 
before the Temple in Bundles of Straw. Of thefc were a great number, and the 
more, becaufe they never us'd their Lances but once. But onthefe Days, which 
were Confecrated to the Idol Te%catlij>uca, every one befides the Priefts wore a new 
Rope made of the Hemp Mangey y of a Fathom long, and a thick Knot at the end, 
with which they beat themfeives fo mifcrably on their Back.s> as if they intended to 
have broken them : After which the Priefts ftay'd five days in the Temple, in 
which they us'd the like cruelty, eating fcarce once in twenty four hours. 

Their Prifoners they us'd after a moft horrid manner, vi^,. in their Temples 
ftood a round Stage of Stone • to the top of which they afcended by a Square Scaf- 
fold, 



H8 *A M E %I C A. Chap. V. 

fold, fupporccd by twenty eight Pillars . behind which appear'd thoufandsofMens 
Heads, and amongft them the Prifoners that were to be Offer'd fat ftark naked 
and guarded by feveral Armed Men • three Foot from the Steps which led up to 
the top of the Scaffold , flood a pyramidical Stone, ( by the Indians call'd Quauxi. 
callt) and behind it two round Chappels, cover'd on the top like MitTrcs, each had 
four Holes in a large Gate, in which fat a horrid Reprefentation, worfhipp'd by 
fix Priefts call'd Chackalmua, whereof one call'd Papas, or loptl^in, whofe Office was 
to pluck out the Hearts of the Prifoners, being in greateft efteem, wore a red Man- 
tle about his Body, not unlike a long Coat, with broad Fringe, which trail'd af. 
ter him upon the Ground, and alfo a Crown of green and yellow Plumes on his 
Head; his Ears and under Lip were likewife adorn'd with Precious Stones: The 
other five appear'd in like manner with their Hands and Faces painted red, but ha- 
ving Leathern Fafcias about their Heads , and white Coats ftitch'd with Black on 
their Bodies, they might eafily be diftinguifli'd from the Topifyn- who on a fudden 
ran down the Stairs to the Prifoners, and fliew'd each of them an Image, (faying, 
This is your God) made of Sledo Pafte, Mai^ and Honey, green Beads for Eyes, and 
Grains of Mai% for Teeth: whereupon the Prifoners were led up, and laid with 
their Backs on the fharp Stone Quauxicalli l then the five Priefts took hold of their 
Lc gg s > Arms and Head, put woodden Collars about the Sufferer's Necks, whilft 
the Topil^in fliew'd Reverence to the Idol : which done, with a fliarp Stone he cut 
open the Breads of the Prifoners, who in a deplorable condition lay on the pyra- 
midical Stone, and pulling their Hearts out of their Bodies, fliew'd the fame reek- 
ing to the Sun, and at laft threw them toward the Idol, and the dead Bodies down 
the Stairs, where fome appointed for that purpofe carried the fame away 5 but eve- 
ry one taking his own Prifoner, and roafting and boyling him, ferv'd himup to his 
Friends as a great Dainty. 

This kind of Murdering was not onely us'd amongft the Mexicans, but alfo by all 
the other neighboring Indians, and efpecially in the City Chulula, which (as we have 
faid before) fignifics The SanElity of all the Gods : for in this Town fix thoufand 
Children were yearly OfFer'd. 

The Citizens hereof us'd to drive a great Trade, efpecially in Cocbimle. 

Their Habits were feveral j for Perfons of Note wore Cotton Coats, about the 
Edges of which hung Feathers and pieces of Cony-skins : the meaner fort went in 
Nequons, or a fort of Linnen Coats made of the hairy Leaves of the Tree Maguey. 

J. The City Te^uco, full of handfom Streets and fair Houfes, is built near the 
fait Mexican Lake, yet hath no want of frefli Water, with which it is fupply'd by 
Gutters from the Mountains under Ground, according to Mthony Herrera, it twice 
exceedcth in bignefs the famous City SiVtll in Spain. 

4. Quitlavaca, by the Spaniards call'd Venezuela, (becau/e it is, 1 ikt Femce, fur- 
rounded with Water, and divided into feveral Iiles, j boafted formerly above two 
thoufand Families : From the Town a Cawfey of twenty Foot broad, and half a 
League long, leads through the Lake to the Main Continent. 

5. r^acpalapa, a very populous Place, and lying part of it in the fait Lake, and 
partly on the Main Land . where feveral frefh-water Pools afford ftorc of Fifli, 
two Leagues diftant from Mexico, to which leads a broad, Way , in the middle of 
which ftands a Fountain, furrounded with high Trees, which produces excellent 
Water. 

6. Mexicalt^ngo, fituate upon the Lake 'Lapma, a Town confifting of four thou- 
fand ftately Houfes. 

7. C a J° c *»> in ^fruitful Plain, containing fix thoufand, being but a League and 



Chap. V. <JL M EX; 1 € A H? 

a half from Tztacpalap* : to which the neighboring Village Houcilopucho was no.t 
much inferior. 

Thefe three Places, before they were fubdu'd by the Spaniards, boafted many 
brave Temples and high Towers, whofe luftre appear'd at a great diftance, but 
now being turn'd into Cloyfters, they are inhabited by Monks and Nuns. 

The Salt made here of Earth, though not white, and onely fit to make Pickle of, 
is Tranfported to many Places. 

About Mexico there are alio feveral Villages, the chiefeft of which are i. Ma* Towns ana 
ftitlan, a Town plealantly feated upon the top of an huge Mountain, in the midft of ll s es abo ^ 
mod delicate Groves and fliady Woods, and reckoned to contain no lcfs than thirty 
thoufand Inhabitants in all, dwelling either in the City, or upon the fides of the 
Mountain. 

Antepecaue ; this is a Town belonging to the Marquefs deFalle, who is of 



2. 



the Pofterity of Corte^ and faid to be feated in the moft delicious place of all New 
Spain. 

j. Acapu\co } a Town feated upon the South-Sea, or Mare del Zur, yet belong- 
ing to this Province. It is a haven-Town, and one of the moft frequented upon 
the South-Sea, fituate upon a large and capacious Bay of about a League broad at 
the Entrance, and affording many convenient Stations and Docks for Shipping. 
At the bottom of the Bay Weftward lieth the Town, with a ftrong CaftU very op- 
portunely built, both for the command and fecurity of the Port, well wall'd and 
fortifVd with Bulwarks, and having a conftant Garrifon of four hundred Soldiers 
in it, or thereabouts. The reafon whereof, I fuppofe, may be chiefly this, v^. that 
from this Pore there is the greateft Traffick and Entercourfe held betwixt the Eajl 
and WeU-Indies, together with the Philippine Iflands. 

The Countrey hath many rich Mynes of Silver in it, and fome of Gold • the siivqpMjroej. 
chief of which are by Herera reported to be thefe, vi^. i. Thofe of 'Tuchuca, four- 
teen Leagues diftanc from Mexico, z.OfTafco. yTalpuiana. 4. Cultepeaue. 5. Zaw* 
alpa. 6. Zupanguo, and divers others. 

The reft of the Villages are Guatitlan, Tenpuca, pfcapufalco } Tacuba, and Su- 
cbimilco* 

The neighboring Province Xilotepeck, which is exceeding fruitful, is alfo famous &»*» ' 
for two Fountains, whereof one near the Village Queretaro produces boyling Water, 
which when cool'd, is a wholfom Drink forCattel : The other for four years is 
full of Water, and for four years after it is empty 5 in great rainy Seafons it is 
quite dry, and in droughty Weather it overflows. 

Between the Villages Queretaro and San Juan, is a Plain which extends it felf fcveQ 
Leagues in breadth , and feven in length , befides two Leagues farther beyond Quar- 
teroj where a hundred thoufand Head of Cattel, andten thoufand Horfes, find 
plentiful Pafture. 

The Mountain Nevada, near the City De tos Jngelos , deferves no fmall admira- ^Jgjgi; 
tion • for it begins at thirty Leagues end to rife exceeding high, and being flat on 
the top, hath a wide gaping Mouth, whofe bottom is fathomlefs • from which at 
Sun-rifing and fetting rifes a Smoak up directly towards the Skie, but immediately- 
after fprcading like a Plume of Feathers, it is difpers'd by the Wind, and no 
more feen till it appears in a dusky Cloud. With the Smoak are alfo Allies vomited 
up 5 yet the Mountain is very plealantly planted with lofty Cyprefs, Cedar, Oak, 
andPine-Trees. The neighboring Fields abound likewife with Wheat, Cotton, 
and Mai%.. There feldom appears any Rain here. 

At the Foot of this Mountain lies the Village Tepecco, famous for the Cryftal 

C c and 






Nevada, 









ajo 



s 






The firft 
Foundation of 
the City of 
Mtxito. 



*A M E%I C A. Chap. V. 

and Allom gotten there. The Village Ocotlan is alfo maintain'd by the fame : But 
TuculaU by Gold-Mines, and fruitful Lands, which are twice a year fhaken by 
Earthquakes . wherefore the Inhabitants live not in Stone Houfes, but in little 

Straw Huts. 

South.Eaftward from Neradais excellent Sugar to be had, and on the Mountain 
it felf the famous Gum Amine, which drops out of a Tree call'd Jetaiba, which is al- 
ways green, with hard white Wood, a pale yellow fpeckled Bark, three long fofc 
Leaves hanging one over another on one Stalk, and the Fruit on the middle of the 
Body. After the rainy Seafon is paft in Otlober, then they cut a Hole in the Body 
of the Tree, out of which the Gum drops : it hath a plcafant fmell, and is exceed- 
ing good againft the Head-ache occafion'd by Colds, 

Not far from hence appears the Valleys Matalzjngo and At%pmpam, which have 
excellent Paftures, in which Diego Njmnez^de Camargo bred forty thoufand Sheep out 
of two in ten years time. 

And thefe are the chiefeft Towns, Villages, and Countreys, which furroundthc 
famous City Mexico. 

Concerning the erecting of this City, the Indians relate thus : That the feventh 
Family of the Navatlacas, Extracted out of the Countrey Aztlan, rang'd up and 
down not without thoufands of Inconveniences, from one Countrey to another, 
according to the Information which their Sages had given their Spirit Vi^tliputU y 
till at laft fomeofthe Priefts (haying from the Army, or rather Multitude,got into 
a Wildemefs, full of Brambles and Thorns, and came at length to a Place where 
was a Spring of clear Water, in which the Fifties glitter'd like Silver- where ta- 
king up their repofe that Night, their Spirit informed the oldeft of them in a 
Dream, that they fhould find thereabouts a Tunal Tree (whofe Leaves grow out of 
one another) under which, on a Stone, lay the Heart of the famous Sorcerer Qofil : 
This Tunal Tree fhould be difcover'd by a Crane on the top of it, which in one 
Foot fhould hold a Bird, and in the other a Bough of the Tree, near which they 
were to build a City : The old Prieft waking, and relating his Dream, every one 
endeavor'd to find out the fore-mention'd Tree \ at laft they found it, by difcover- 
ingonthe top a Crane, with fpread-out Wings looking up towards the Sun, and 
holding in his Claws a fmall Bird, invefted with curious Feathers: Whereupon 
they with all fpeed built a Chappel of Turf and Clods of Earth, and cover'd the 
fame with Canes, to keep their Idol from the Weather, refolving, fo foon as they 
could, to build him a better Temple. 

The Lake on whofe Ifles they fetled, abounded with Fifli and Fowls, which they 
exchang'd with the neighboring People for Stone and Mortar for the building of a 
Temple for Vi^tliput^li ,and a new City j to which they made a Cawfey in the Lake 
Laguna, and divided it into four great Wards or Divifions, and fubdivided them 
again into lefler - over which they plac'd peculiar Idols, and ordcr'd a Crane like 
that which they had feen on the Tunal Tree to be their City Arms. The dividing 
of the Wards occafion'd great diflikc amongft the Grandees, judging thofe to whofe 
lot they fell, not to be worthy of them ; wherefore deferting the fame, and tra- 
velling along the Lake Laguna, they fetled themfelves at laft in a fandy Soil, which 
they call'd Tlattellulco, and entertained a bitter hatred againft their Countrey*men 
who kept the four Wards of the new Tenujlitan, doing them all the mifchief they 
could ; wherefore the Affaulted wcreneceffitated to chufe a King, that they might 
be the better able to oppofe their Enemies : But that they might not raife a Dif- 
content amongft themfelves about electing a Governor, they judg'd it fitteft to take 
a Foreigner 5 amongft whom they found none fo capable of fo great an Office as 

Acamapixtly, 



w (*»*. 



Chap. V. AMERICA. i*i 

Acanupixtli , Grand.fon to the King of Culbuacan , whereupon fending AmbafTador$ 
thither, they obtain'd their defires. 

The new King was no fooner Crown'd, but he fettled all things in order .with, 
areat Prudence, infomuch, that Mexico grew daily to be more famous and fear'd : 
But this fudden growth rais'd a jealoufic amongft the Neighbors, who dreaded 
their growing Power and Valor. 

The Tapunecans who were alfo a valiant People, being the ncareft to them , and JJ^^Jg 
having A%capu%alco for their chief City, made it their main defign, utterly to root r '£™f x l 
out the Mexicans, before they grew to be more Populous and Potent; notwith- 
standing they had hitherto receiv'd Tribute from them, for delivering the Lake 
Laguna to them, which was a quantity of Timber and Plants } yet they demanded 
not only more Tribute than formerly, but alfo in fuch a manner, as was thought 
impojfible to have been performed, which was, that thofc Plants which were for- 
merly brought to them, as growing on the Land, fhould be fet in the Water, foas 
to come floating to them, as they grew, to Afcapu^alco, which if they did not pay, 
they fhould expect to be all put to the Sword. The Mexicans much amaz'd hereat, 
and not knowing how to produce the demanded Plants , Vtzjliputzji inform'd the 
oldeft Prieft, that the demands might be fatisfi'd,* and commanded him to throw 
Earth on the Water, and to Sow Seed on the fame, which at the ufual time produe'd 
Mai%j Azi, Chias, Tomates, and the like, with which the Tapunecans being fatisfi'd, de- 
mand next a Goofe, and a Hen which laid Eggs, out of which the young ones 
flhould appear, when on the floating Clods of Earth, the Nefts came oppofite to 
Azcapu^alco, which by the advice of Vt%tliputz]i, they performed fifty years one after 
another. Mean while, Acamapixtli (who had inlarg'd Mexico with Streets, Palaces* 
Temples, and Markets) dying, would pot name any one to fucceed him, but left 
the choice of the Election to the Commonalty, who Crown'd his Son Vit^iloVitli, 
and Marry'd him to the King of Tapunecans Daughter, that by that means they 
might gain his friendfliip, and be cas'd of their Grange Annual Tribute : Where- 
upon Jyauchigual, the King of Tapunecans Daughter being Marry'd to Fit^jlovitU,W3LS 
within twelve Moneths deliver'd of a Son, which the Grand-father call'd C/;i- 
malpopoca, which fignifies A Gun Tx>hich gives Smoke, and afterwards was fatisfi'd with 
two Geefe, and fome Fifh yearly from the Mexicans, onely as an Acknowledgment 
that they inhabited his Countrey. Cbimalpopoca loofing his Parents, in his tenth 
year was Crown'd King, with a Bowe and Arrows in his left Hand, and a Wood- 
den Sword in the right : Soon after he oblig'd his Mothers Father to be kind to the 
Mexicans, for they being in great want for frefh Water, he had leave by Channels 
to bring the fame out of the Mountain Chapultepec, a League diftant from Mexico • 
to which purpofe they made a Pipe of Planks, and hollow Trees joyn'd toge- 
ther with Clay, quite through the Lake ; but this Pipe not being teight and dura- 
ble, and the frefh Water by that means mixing with the Salt,thcy lent Agents to A?$ 
capu^alco, to requeft Stones, Mortar, and Work-men to make a fubftantial Sewer : 
This meflage was illrefented by the Council of A^capu^alco j Wliat, (faid they) do 
the Mexicans think, pall a rambling company of Teople, which on Charity live in another s 
Countrey, Command thofe that Govern them to be their Servants ? This grudge went fo far, 
that at laft they took a Refolution without the King's knowledge* (for he was fuf- 
pefted, becaufe of his Grand-chil'd (limalpopoca) to forbid all manner of Trade 
with the Mexicans 5 nay, to endeavor utterly to root them out 5 yet fome judg'd, 
that they ought to fpare Cbimalpopoca, while others on the contrary faid , Hut he 
ought to be dejlroyd, becaufe his Father being a Mexican, he would to the utmojl of his/ftower 
defend his Teople ; which laft being approved of, fo troubled the King of the Tapwie* 

Cc 2 cansy. 



ZJZ 



IZ(9<tlti AlC- 

cefk agaioit 
thi Tapanecar. 






S 



A 

\ 



The Cuyo*- 
sans utterly 
fubdu'd by 
Tttsatlhl. 



A M E^I C A. Chap. V. 

cans, that he dy'd of grief- for the Defign being foon after put into execution, and 
the Tapunecans breaking in the Night into Chimalpopoca's Palace, Murder'd him - 
which Murder made the Mexicans thirft for revenge - whereupon,, fetting them- 
felves wholly againft the Tapunecans, they enter'd into a League with Vezcuco, and 
Culhuacan, and chofe Izxoalt, for his great Valor , for their Kingj notwithftanding 
Acamapixtli had begotten him on a Slave. 

I^coalt was no fooner Crbwn'd,but he made great preparation for a War,though 
againft every ones Opinion, becaufe of the Populoufnefs of the Tapunecans . yet it 
was concluded on, that they fhould requeft Peace, and a place to inhabit on the 
main Continent, that fo they might remove from the Ides: This Requeft they 
thought could not be deny'd them in A^capu^alco, provided the Mexicans brought 
their Gods thither , and wholly conform'd themfelves to the manners of the Tapu- 
necans, for otherwife they could expect nothing but utter Ruine : Yet though eve- 
ry one elfe imbrae'd the Propofal, TlacaeUel, the King's Nephew, ftiffly oppos'd it, 
alleging, that it did not agree with the Mexicans quality, to make fo mean and fla. 
vifh a Proffer; and that they had beft confider , firft if there were no other means 
to be found : and that he would willingly venture his Life in going to A^capu^alco, 
as a Spie, to pry into their whole Defigns and Intentions, which was performed ac- 
cordingly . and foon after returning, he brought information, that the Tapunecans 
were making great preparations for War, and made no mention at all of Peace ; 
which news (truck a general fear into all Peoples Hearts ; many defiring that they 
might fave themfelves by flight . but I^coalt putting frefli courage into them, made 
an agreement with the People, that if he was beaten by the Tapunecans, they fhould 
eat him up . but if heprov'd Conqueror, they fhould all be at his Command 5 to 
which all confenting, they boldly .march'd with their King to the City A^capu^alco. 
The Front of the Army confifting of the prime Nobility, was led by TlacaeUel, and 
the Rear I^coalt brought up, who was alio to give the fign on a Drum, when they 
fhould fall upon the Enemies ; who having ten Men to the Mexicans one, fuddenly 
Sally'd out of the Gates, where they were fo briskly entertained by TlacaeUel, that 
in a confus'd manner they foon ran back into the City, whither the Conqueror 
purfuing them, got within the Gates, where he put all to the Sword which he 
could meet with . fome fled to a fteep neighboring Mountain , whither being alfo 
followed, they threw down their Arms, and begg'd Quarter, to ferve the Mexicans 
as Slaves, which was granted them, whilft I^coalt found an unvaluable Mafs of 
Treafure in Jzcapu^alco, and diftributed the Conquered Countrey amongft thofe 
who had behav'd themfelves beft. 

This Conqueft made the neighboring People jealous of the Mexicans, whofe Sue- 
cefs and growing Power they dreaded. 

The Towns Tacuba and Quyoacan, though they had Governors of their own, yet 
were fubjecl: to the Tapunecans, who »fe General advifing thofeof Azcapu^alco to try an- 
other Encounter, they took up Arms again, but before it came to a Battel, the 
Quyoacans play'd a fubtile trick with the Mexicans ,for inviting them to an Idolatrous 
Feaft, after they had Eat, Drunk, and Danc'd, they fore'd them to put on Wo- 
mens Apparel, to their no fmall difgrace and ignomy ; which remained not unre- 
veng'd, for the Mexicans nude a Poyfonous Fume in the Gates of Cuyoacan, which 
made Women with Child to Mifcarry, and many to fall dangeroufly fick ; yetlaft- 
ly, both Parties march'd into the Fields, where whilft I^coak was elfewhere in- 
gag'd, TlacaeUel marching about, came upon the backs of the Quyoacans with fuch 
eagernefs, that they fled to a ftrong Temple, which. foon after was fet on fire by 
TlacaeUel, who purfu'd the Enemy ten Leagues. 

This 



Chap. V. 



*A M E %^ I C A. 



255 



This Coiiqiieft ftir'd up the Sucbimilcos, the firft Family of the Ka'Vatlacas, to ftop 
the proceedings of the Mexicans, that they might not, as they had already done to 
others, fall upon them 5 to which purpofe they thought to furprize the Conquer- 
ing Army ; but Tlacaellel who led the Van, march 'd in good Order to meet the S«- 
chimilcos, fell refolutely upon their whole Army, and after a fliort conflict, put them 
to flight, and took the City Suchimilco for I%co alt, who being Crown'd King there, 
Commanded the Conquer' d to make a direct Road betwixt Suchimilco and Mexico, 
of four Leagues long, both, that a Trade might the eafier be drove between thefe 
two Cities , and to keep them the better in awe : Notwithftanding thefe exam- 
ples, CuytlaVaca?ij& City built at the Lake Lagum, trufting to the abundance of Boats, 
which the Citizens knew how to ufe with great dexterity , daily molefted Mexi* 
co with them by Water, whereupon I^coalt refolv'd to fend his Victorious Army thi* 
ther, but T/dcaeZW op poll ng the lame, promis'd to fubdue the Rebelling City with 
a confiderable number of Boys, which had skill in the managing of a Canoo, which 
being permitted him, he accordingly made himfelf Mafter of CuytlaVacan , from 
whence the Boys brought a great Booty,' and divers Prifoners, whom they fent as 
an Offering to Fit%lipult?]i. 

Thefe unheard of Victories being fpread far and near, mov'd Te^cuco after feve- 
ral Skirmifhes and Conflicts with Tlacaellel, to fubmit to the Mexican King, who 
chofe the Governor thereof for his Prime Councellor. I^coalt Deceafing, after 
having Reign'd twelve years, his Son Mutec^uma was chofen his SuccelTor. the Ele- 
ction and Coronation being performed after the following manner. 

The new King mantled in Tygers Skins, was led into the chief Temple before a 
Hearth, on which burnt Fire both Night and Day ; not far from which ftood the 
Throne, where fitting down, he Offered Blood, which was taken from his Cheeks, 
Ears, and Legs ; after which, an Orator Congratulated him, in the name of the 
Nobility ; which done, they ended the Solemnity in a great Dinner, Eire- Works, 
and Dancing: At the fame time it was eftablifh'd, that all Future Coronations 
fliould be kept with an Offering of Provifions, fetch'd by the King out of the Ene- 
mies Countrey : wherefore Mutec^uma going to the Countrey Chalco, took feveral 
of the Natives, whofe reaking Hearts he Offered to Vi^tltpu^tli 2 Which done, the 
Coronation follow'd, to which an innumerable company of People came flocking 
from all the neighboring Provinces : Thofe which were Tributaries , brought 
Prefents with them, before which the Heralds carry'd the Coats of Arms belong* 
ing to the Nobility of Mexico, in a good order. 

Soon after the King's Coronation, he march'd and fell upon Chalco, the Inhabi- 
tants of which defended themfelves very Valiantly , took Mutec^umas Brother, 
among feveral other Prifoners • to whom the Conquerors proffer'd the Govern- 
ment; which at firft he refused, but at laft accepted of on this condition, that a 
high Maft fhould be erected with a Scaffold on the top, which made every one 
fuppofe, that Mutec^iimas Brother did in that manner aim at a high Election, but 
he at the appointed time, getting on the top of the Maft, call'd with a loud voice, 
and fpake to the taken Mexicans which were there prefent to this effect : Chalco 
feeks tofet me on the Throne, the Heavens 'bill not permit it . y learn by me rather to die, than 
tolhe and be guilty ofTreafon to your Countrey : which he had no fooncr faid, but with 
fome Flowers which he held in his Hand, threw himfelf down from the Scaffold, 
which fo inrag'd the Cbalcoans, that they immediately flew all the other Mexicans 
that were there prefent . which not long after was reveng'd by Mutec^uma , who 
not onely fubdu d Chalco, but feveral other Provinces, leaving onely Tlafcalaun* 
attempted, that the Mexicans might have a neighboring Enemy to fetch Prifoners 

C c j from 



I 



Ytzcuc* fub- 
mus to the 
Mtxic**$2 



Coronation 



m*. 



Muttzuma't 

Brother*taken 
Prifoner by 
thofe of CW* 



< 



An tximpW 
of great Fide- 
lity 



154- 



A M E <Kl C A. 



Chap. V. 



Defer prion 

of the Tem- 
ple Gw. 




.-.*- 



from for their Offerings, and alfo by Skirmifliing with them, train up their Youth 
in Martial Discipline. 

Thus his Predeceflors and he, having Conqucr'd divers Provinces, infomuch 
that he was now become abfolute Emperor over a vaft Tract of Land, he refolv'd 
to fettle the fame in good order ; to which purpofc he erected Courts of Judica- 
ture, with good Laws . built a ftately Palace and Temple ; ordain'd fevcral Cu- 
ftoms to be obferv'd in Religion • which done, and having Reign'd twenty eight 
years, he Deceafing, left Ticocic for his Succeflbr. 

The foremention'd Temple was call'd Cu , being built of Stone, in form like a 
Serpent, of an exceeding bignefs, in the middle thereof there was a fpacious open 
place, and round about.it Habitations, two Stories high, the lowcrmoft for the 
Inferior Priefts,and the uppermoft for the High Priefts ; in this place alfo above ten 
thoufand People Danc'd in a Circle, on all high Feafts- four great Gates fae'd the 
like number of broad Streets, each two Leagues long : On the outmoft Gate flood 
large Images, the Front of black Stones, Painted between each Lay with red and 
yellow Colours, no lefs Beautiful than Artificial: On each corner of the Tem- 
ple were plac'd two Marble Statues of Indians , fitting with their Arms ftmch'd 
out, and holding a Candle, and on their Heads Plumes of Feathers : Thirty high 
fteps led up to a round place, fet about with Deaths-Heads, which was a Stage ap- 
pointed for the flaughter of thole, whole Hearts were to be Offered to the Diabolical 
gods, and whofe Heads, their Bodies being eaten, were brought back to the Priefts, 
who hung them under the Stage, where every Head hanging till it dropp'd off, the 
vacant place was immediately fupply'd with a frefh Head. At the end of the 
Stage flood two Chappels, cover'd like a Cardinal' s.Czy, in one of which fate the 
Image of Tiztlputzji y and in the other Tlaloc, to which led a hundred and twenty 
Stone fleps. 

But befides this ftately Temple Cu, Mexico boafted nine more, {landing not far 
afunder in a large Plain, all adorn'd with curious Imagery, and fet out with large 
Pillars, each being Dedicated to a peculiar Idol, and built with magnificent Apart- 
ments, 



Chap. V. *A M ET^IC A. 

merits, for the Priefts to lodge in 5 the chiefeft of them Dedicated to an Idol 
caird Te^catlipuca, or Lord of the Humble. This Temple was afcended to by eighty 
fteps, and had before it a fpacious Court ; within a low and broad Gate appear'd 
a high Vail, which open'd into a fpacious fquare Hall, hung with Tapeftry, at 
the end whereof flood large Images, and beyond which were feveral Rooms, 
in which Aflemblies- met', Scholars were taught, Judges fate, and Priefts Re- 
fided. 

But to return again to Mutec^uma, his Funeral was no fooner finiflh'd, but the 
four Prime Councellors were attended by the Commiflioners of Te^cuco and Tacu- 
ha, in order to the Elc&ion of a new Kiftg : Tlacaellel being the chief amongft the 
Dukes, was by a general Vote Saluted King, as being mod worthy thereof, for 
his fpecial Services fhown in behalf of the Empire of Mexico : But he humbly re- 
fufing the fame, was defiYd to Nominate another, whereupon he making choice 
of Ttcocic, Mutec^umas eldeft Son ; the Council immediately bor'd a hole through 
his Nofe, and hung an Emrauld in the fame. But before he received the Crown, 
he was fore'd, according to the Cuftom, to fetch in Jome of his Enemies for an Of- 
fering, which though he perform'd, yet he loft more Mexicans than he took Prifo- 
ners, not without fufficient teftimony of Cowardife 5 which being ill refented by 
the People, he was Poy fon'd in the fourth year of his Reign, and fucceeded by his 
Brother Axayaca, by the appointment of Tlacaellel - y who having attain'd to a great 
Age, and left the Charge of his Children to the new King, departed this Life, to 
the great forrow and grief of the whole Empire } by the States whereof he was Bu- 
ry *d with great Solemnity. 

In the mean time, Axayaca went with a confiderable Army to the remote Pro- 
vince Teguantepek, fo fetch Prifoners to be Offer'd at his Coronation y and march* 
ing before alone, Challenged his Antagonift, the King, to afingle Combat, which 
he refused, and chofe rather to fall upon Axayaca with all his Forces ; whereupon, 
the Mexicans cunningly feign'd flight, ambufcaded themfclvcs till the Enemies pur- 
fuing them, gave them their defir'd advantage, for rufliing out of their Ambufcade, 
they fet upon the Teguantepecks, fo diforder'd, that they eafily put them to flight, 
and had the purfuit of them as far as Guatulco, a noted Haven upon the South-Sea ; 
from whence Axayaca returning Victor , receivM a Crown for a Reward 5 yet 
notwithstanding thefc Proofs of his Valor, the Lord oiTlatellulco Challeng'd him ; 
whereupon he fent Agents thither, with proffers , that fince the Citizens of T\a* 
tellulco were of one Blood with the Mexicans, whom they deferted upon the divi- 
ding of the Wards and Towns, juft before the Ele&ion of the firft King Acamapixtli, 
they Oiould, if they pleas'd, be received anew into fellowship and alliance with the 
Mexicans, acknowledging one and the fame King for their Supreme Head and Go- 
vernor : But the AmbalTadors being fcorn'd and laugh'd at for their proffers, re- 
turning, related the fame to Axayaca, who immediately marching thither to take 
revenge, fent part of his Army to fall on the Enemy by Water -, whilft himfelf 
falling upon them by Land, put the Lord oiTlatellulco, with his whole Army, to 
flight, which was fo clofely purfu'd, that they fore'd their way into the City with 
them, put the Governor to Death, and laid the Town in Afhes- thofe which 
went by Water, having had no lefs fuccefs. 

Axayaca, after eleven years Reign, Deceafing, bequeathe his Crown to Aut%ol, 
who fought to promote his Election by ingaging with the mighty Province Qua* 
xutatlan, whofc Inhabitants, though but a little before, they had been fo bold as to 
demand Tribute of the Mexicans, yet terrirVd at the approach of Aut^pl's Army, 
fled over an Arm of the Sea, where they had been fecure, had not Aut^ol invented a 

floating 



*57 



tUcaelltl re- 
fijps the 

Kingdoms to 
Ttcictc. 



Axayaca* 
chofen King; 



Hit Vi&ory 
againft the; 
Ttguantt" 



Juttol Cue* 
ceeds hint. 



I? 6 



a M E%1 c A. 



Chap. V. 



A»tzol\ Gt- 
ncrolny and 
Mrgnificcnce. 



The Lord of 

T*f(UCQ kit 

Speech to 



Boating Ifle of Planks, by which he got over his whole Army ; upon which the 
zmzzd Quaxututlans immediately fubmitted themfelves to the Mexicans, who pur- 
ging their Victory, extended their Dominions to Ouatimala, over a Traft of three 

hundred Leagues. 

The new King havingnow fubdu'd all his Enemies, and made himiclr glorious 
by his Victories, was aifo ambitious to be as much extoll'd for his Generofity 
and Magnificence 5 to which purpofe he diftributed all the Wealth which was 
brought unto him from the neighboring Countreys, amongft the Poor and the No- 
bilky*- to the firft he gave Clothes and Provifions . to the laft, Plumes of Feathers 
and Arms. Moreover he caus'd all mean Houfes to te pull'd down and new ones 
to be built in their places. Laftly, he confultcd how to # bring frefh Water into 
Mexico, which was plac'd in a brackifli Soil : Upon this Defign he was fo bent, 
that when one of his Sages dilTwaded him from it, alledging, That the Water vould 
drown the City, he, in (lead of following his Advice, banifh'd him his Prefence, and 
upon his flying to Quyaocm, caus'd him to be fetch 'd from thence and Executed. 
Then profecuting his Defign, he cut the Ditch before Quyaocun, by which means 
great (tore of frefli Water came flowing into the Lake Laguna, which the Priefts 
welcom'd with ftrange Ceremonies ; for fomeperfum'd the Water, others Offer'd 
Quails Blood, whilft others play'd on feveral Mufical Inftruments, with many 
other Ceremonies, which are at large defcrib'd in the ancient Mexican Chronicles, 
kept in the Vatican Library at %ome. But the Prophecy of the Executed Sorcerer 
was in a manner fulfill'd j for the Water overwhelm'd a great part of Mexico, and 
divided the City into lfles : But to prevent farther Mifchief , Aut^oll caus'd Banks 
to be rais'd, and Channels digg'd ; and not iong after, in the eleventh Year of his 
Reign, he deceas'd : After which the Mexican Kingdom tended towards its period, 
as the enfuing Story will declare. 

Amongft the Mexican Nobility, Mutexuma, a melancholy Man, yet very prudent, 
who refided in a ftately Apartment near the great Temple Qu, that there he might 
the better converfe with Vt^tlipu^tli, was elected King • which he no fooner heard, 
but fled from hence : but being found out, he wasagainft his will led to the Grand 
Alterably, and from thence to the holy Hearth,where for an Offering he drew Blood 
out of his Cheeks, Ears, and Legs . and, according to an ancient Cuftom, the Qowu 
til of State boring a Hole in his Nofe, hung an Emerauld in the fame . after which 
the Lord of Tefcuco faluted him with a Speech - which (fince it is mention'd by 
Jofephf Acofta, together with feveral other Speeches of Congratulation to their 
Kings, which were taught to Schollars, to make them expert in their Language) 
it will not be amifs to be annexed here, that of many this one may ferve for a pat- 
tern of the Mexicans Eloquence, which is as folio weth : 

THe great happinefs, mod noble Mutec^uma, which is bcfalln this Realm by 
your Election, may eafily be conje&ur'd from the general joy, none be- 
fides your felf being able to undergo an Office, in the management whereof fo 
« much Prudence is requir'd : It is a moft certain teftimony that God loves Mexico, 
« that he hath given its Inhabitants underftanding to make fuch a Choice. Who 
« can doubt, but that you who have expatiated through the Heavens, and con- 
" vers'd with Viztlipuztli, may eafily Govern us Mortals on Earth ? Who can de- 
" fpair, but that the Vertue inclos'd within your Breaft, will extend to the Widows 
"and Orphans? Therefore rejoyce , O Mexico j the Heavens have granted us a 
"Prince without Vice . Merciful, and not a Violator of the Laws ; Affable, 
" not defpifing common Converfation. And you, O King, let not this great Pre* 

" ferment 



a 



li 



iC 



Chap. V- AMERICA. 257 

« ferment occafion any alteration in your fo long known Vermes : The Crown 
i < breeds care for the publick good ; the troubles thereof muft extend over the 
4< whole Realm, and every one in the Realm. . 



Muteczuma having heard out the Speech, would willingly have anfwer'd the 
fame, but could not utter a word for Tears, which gufh'd from his Eyes. Before 
he went out to fetch Prifoners for Offerings at his Coronation, he firft fecled his 
Houfhold Affairs. And whereas till this time the Kings "had been ferv'd in their 
Palaces by ordinary Citizens, he. took Knights, and the chiefeft of the Nobility, 
intending thereby to make a diftinftion between the Nobility and the common 
People , and add more Majefty to the Royal Dignity. This done, Mutec^uma 
marching againft a certain rebellious Province, fetch'd a confiderable number of 
People to be Offer'd to Vt^tupu^tlu At his Return the Coronation- Day was ap- 
pointed, againft which thoufandsof People came to Mexico ; even their very Ene- 
mies of Tlafcala, Mechoacan, and Tepeaca, which were never conquer'd by the Mexi* 
cans, flock'd thither in great numbers. All thofe Countreys which were under 
Tribute bringing unvaluableTreafures,camc in vaft Multitudes,which fo throngd 
the City, that the very tops of the Houfes were fill'd with Spectators, no King in 
JMexico ever going to the Throne in fuch fplendor ; nor was ever any King fp 
much fear'd by his Subjc&s, none of the common People daring to look in his 
Face • neither did he ever fet Foot on the Ground, but was always carried in a 
Chair on the Shoulders of his prime Nobility ; he never wore a Suit of Clothes 
but once, nor ever us'd a Cup or Difli after it was once foul'd j he ftri&ly main* 
tain'd the Laws which he had made, and often went himfelf in aDifguifc, to make 
a ftricl: enquiry after all Affairs whatfoever . by which means the Mexican Power 
was now arriv'dto the higheft top : but, as other Realms, grown top-heavy with 
good Fortune, turn at laft topficturvy, juftfuch a Misfortune befell Mexico ; but 
not without feveral fore-running figns of its deftruftion : for in the City Cholola 
their God Que^alcoalt informed them, that a ftrange People were coming to take 
poiTeflion of the Mexican Dominions; and their Soothfayers prognosticated the fame, 
for which Mutec^uma committed them all to Prifon, and doubtlefs had put them all 
to death, had not they efcap'd with the help of the Mafter of their diabolical Art ; 
and though they efcap'd themfelves, yet their Wives and Children were all put to 
death upon the King's Command : Soon after which appeared a mighty Comet, 
or blazing Starfor a whole year together > the great Temple Cu was fet on Fire, 
and burnt to the Ground none knew how ; the Water which was thrown on the 
fame to quench it, burnt like Brimftone . in the Skie appear'd three fiery Heads at 
noon.day , and out of a long Tail (hot Sparks on the Earth ; the Lagma, between 
Mexico and Texcuco, began to fwell into a Tide, which turn'd fome Houfes topfie. 
turvy 5 a fhrill Voice was heard in the Night crying on the Water, Children, your 
mine is at hand ; whither frail I carry you that you may not be loft { 

No lefs ftrange is what d' Acofta relates of a Bird prefented to Muteczyma, not 
unlike a Crane, which the Fifliermen had taken on the Laguna ; on the fhining 
Forehead of which there appear'd the refemblanceof two Armies Engag'd, and one 
defeated by the other, and that whilftthe Sages, call'd to interpret the meaning 
hereof, fat in Confultation, the Bird vanifli'd. 

Moreover, there goes a Tradition, That a Countrey.man being at his Labor, 
was taken up by an Eagle, and carried through the Air into a gloomy Cave, where 
a Man lay faft afleep fnoaring, when on a fudden he heard a Voice afar off, faying, 
2)o you Know that Mm ? whereupon the Countrey-man taking fpecial notice of the 

dormant 



Preparation! 
for the I 
nation of 

Muttctvtni. 



His Gran- 
deur. 



The mine of 
the Mexitau 
Empire prog- 
nolUcatcd. 



A miraculous 
Story of a 
Bird, 



Another of a 
Country- 
man, 



258 



AMERICA. 









News of th« 
arrival cf the 
the Sfamjh 
Fleet. 






s 






committed to 
Prifon by 
Corttftus. 



eorttfwf 
marches a- 
gainft Vthf* 
$ttez$ Party. 



Chap A 

dormant Man, knew him, by the Royal Apparel, to be Mutexuma , after which 
the Voice was heard again, faying, Hou, found ly doth he Jleep : the time ts coming 
Vbicb Provides funifmients for many Qrims % bum the Snoarer with the Torch Tohch he holds 
in his Hands, he Villfeel no pain : Not long after he being informed hereof, and look, 
ine on his Thigh, found the fame burnt, to his no fmall amazement, 

Havina now poiTefs'd the Throne fourteen years, he receiv'd news of a 
Fleet, and therewith a Draught of the Men and VeiTels painted on Cloth. This 
ftartling him, he immediately advis'd with his Council, who judg'd it convenient 
to fecure the Coaft along the Southern Ocean with ftrong Watches t yet nevcrthc. 
left Ferdinand Cortefm Landed with five hundred Foot and fixty Horfc, took the 
City <Potanchanum, march'd through the Countrey Sicuchimalar to TafcaUeca, where 
they had a flia-rp Conflict, in which the Spaniards were in great danger . and had 
not they had fix Field-Pieces with them, which did as much affright as hurt the 
Indians, they had without doubt been cut off there. In Chiurutecal they were in as 
much danger , for certainly the Spanifh Army had been fet upon in the Night, had 
not a Woman inform'd them of it. 

Mean while Mutec^uma confulted with his Sorcerers todeftroy Qortefiuthy Charms, 
who then was marching through Chalco, whereupon a confiderable number of Sorce- 
rers went thither to the top of a high Mountain,where,as they were beginning their 
Incantations and Charms, their Idol Te^calipuca appear'd to them : and in an angry 
manner told them, That Montezuma fhould lofehis Crown and Life . and to con- 
firm his words, he Ihew'd them a dreadful fpc&acle . for looking about, they faw 
the City in a light flarrie. This being told to Mutcc^uma, he rcfolv'd to make him- 
felf as fecure as he could, and went to meet Corujius with coftly Prefents, delivering 
him the Crown in the prefence of all his Council ; to which purpofe he took one 
Marina, experienced in the Caflilian Tongue, with him for his Interpreter . all things 
then feeming to end in Friendfliip. But they continu'd not long in that ftatc . 
for CortefiM, whole whole Defign was to bring Mexico under the Spaniards Sub- 
je&ion, not long after accus'd Mutec^uma, that Coalcopoca had on his Commands 
ftorm'd the new Spanifl? City Vera Qrux, which he could no way excufe 5 and not- 
withftanding Mutec^uma deliver'd him Qoalcopoca, with fifteen of his Nobles Prifo- 
ners, who were all burnt with green Wood • yet he was committed Prifoner, to 
the great difcontent of the Mexicans, who faid, << That they were now come to a 
" finepafs, to be thus fool'd by a few Strangers, who had imprifon'd their King, 
" trampled upon their ancient Images, endeavor'd to murther them all, and in de* 
"fpite of them brought their mortal Enemies, the Tafcaltecans and Gua^mgans, in- 

" to Mexico. 

About this time there were certain Ships come to Vera Crux, which was a new 
Port-Town of this Countrey, that the Spaniards had built fince their coming thi- 
ther, and had Landed near upon a thoufand Men ; which was an Accident that had 
like to have fpoil'd the Defign of Cortefxm and all his Company at Mexico, thefe 
Men being fent by James Velafque^, Governor of Cuba, cxprefsly againft Qorteftus and 
his Men, upon pretence that they had a&ed not conformably to the Commiffion 
which they had receiv'd from him, and gave him no account of their proceedings; 
which in a great meafure was true : for it muft be confefs'd, that Cortefim and his 
Men finding themfelves to have fall'n upon an Adventure that was certainly rich 
and good, "and having got fuch footing and intereft in the Countrey already, by 
their Succefs and Victories, and chiefly by their Confederacy with fo many of the 
Natives and People of the Countrey, revolted to them, did almoft at fitft, by a ge- 
neral confent, renounce their Commiffion, and dependency upon Vtlafijuez., and 

profefs'd 



Chap. V. 



iA M E%^1 C A. 



profefVd to acl: immediately from and for the King of Spain. What pretences they 
hadforfuchaReiolution, feeminglyat leaft irregularis notfo well known. What, 
ever they were, they proceed in it, and the whole Company (excepting onely fomq 
few, who yet went along with the reft) chuk Cortcfius anew for their Commander 
in chief, and appoint likewife by common content, all other' Officers of Juftice, 
both Civil and Military, among themfelves : and to give the better colour at Court 
to their Proceedings, they fend Tortocorrero and Monteio, two of their Principals, in- 
to Spain, with a rich and noble Prefent to the Emperor, both to make report of the 
State oftheCountrey, and to procure immediate Commiffion from his Majefty, to 
proceed ; after which they advance towards Mexico, as hath been faid. Velafquez, 
being at Cuba, and underftanding their Proceedings, labor'd to intercept both their 
MefTengers and Prefent, but could not • and therefore fent Tamphilius T^ary^e^ with, 
eleven Ships, and about nine hundred or a thoufand Men to apprehend Cottefw, 
and oppofe his Proceedings. This hapned about the time that the Differences were 
but newly calm'd betwixt the Spaniards and the People of Mexico ; and though it ob«? 
lig'd Cortefitu to leave the City in a wavering and unfetled condition, yet he took 
fuch order, that Mutec^uma ftill remain'd under the Guard of the Spaniards as before, 
aflifted with thoufands of their Friends olTlajcalla, and he himfelf taking the reft, 
and fome few Spaniards along with him, with undaunted courage and rcfolution 
marches againft TSLarVae^ : and fuch was his good fortune, that not onely l^arvae^ be- 
came his Prifoner without much blood.fried, but likewife all his Men joyn'd with 
him in his Defign, through the favour of the Chancery or fupream Court of St. Do- 
mingo, and by the procurement of the Licentiat Fafque^de Jyllon, a Judge of it, who 
was fent with NarVae^ to accommodate the Differences. With this Recruit Corte- 
fius marches back again to Mexico ; but at his coming finds things in a very bad con- 
dition j for the Citizens, gather'd together under the Command of one Quicuxte- 
moc, had recourfe to Arms, and for three days and three Nights vex'd the Spaniards 
with continual Stormings, notwithstanding what-evcr Commands they had to the 
contrary from their imprifon'd King, who at laft, looking out of a Window, 
endeavoring to appeafe them, was hurt with a Stone, of which he foon after died, 
as they fay, who would not have the Spaniards thought to havemurder'4 him, as the 
Mexicans fay they did, with divers other Noble-men, and fome of his Children, the ■ 
very Night they fled. However it were, not long after his Death, out of extrearr* 
neceflity, a*nd chiefly for want of Victuals, the Spaniards were fore'd to leave the Ci- 
ty in the night-time, and with the lofs of four hundred and fifty of their Men, who 
were either (lain or taken Prifoners at the pafling of a Draw-bridge, the reft ma- 
king a heavy Retreat to their Friends at Tlafcalla. There is ftandjngat this day in 
Mexico, upon the place where fo many of them were kill'd, a certain Hermitage, 
which they call Los Martyres, or The Hermitage of the Martyrs, though but improperly, 
if upon that occafion, as one of their own Writers confefTes, though he alledges no 
other reafon. 

This Retreat of the Spaniards out of Mexico hapned to be upon the tenth of July 
after mid-night, in the Year 1520. which the Spaniards at Mexico call The Doleful 
Njght. Neverthclefs the undaunted Cortefms being got, though with much diflfj^ 
culty and trouble, by reafon of the purfuit of the Mexicans for a good part of the 
Way, to his fure Friends ofTlafcalla, neither loft his Courage, nor gave over his Re- 
folution of yet gaining Mexico, efpecially the way being now laid open, and fuf- 
ficient occafion given by the Death of Mutec^uma, and the provocations of the 
Mexicans themfelves, to make himfelf abfolute and fole Lord of the Place : where- 
fore having fent for, and nrocur'd a competent Supply pffrefh Soldiers from 

§0tq 



*l? 






z6o 



zA M E %I C J. 



Cliap. V. 




s 






Santo Domingo, or Htfyaniola, Almeria, Cuba, and other places, being in all nine hun- 
dred Foot, eight hundred Horfe, and feventecn Pieces of Ordnance^ he joyns him* 
felf with the Auxiliary Forces of TlafcaUa, which were no lefs than a hundred thou- 
fand Men, Arm'd with Bowes and Arrows : and with this Army marches again 
♦towards Mexico, and Befieges it both by Land and Water, vi^. with the help of 
thirteen Briganttnes or Galliots, which he had built upon the Lake, and fix thoufand 
Canoos, or little Boats, which his Friends and Confederates had procur'd him. By 
which means, and by his Army on Land, in a fhort time he cut off all Provifion 
from the City,and after a Siege of full three Months or more, and a mod flout and 
obftinatc refiftaoce made by the People within, in which they are fa id to have loft 
above a hundred thoufand Men, befide thofe which perifli'd by Famine , Sicknefs, 
A&xicot&cn or otherwife, he took it by Storm upon Tuefday the thirteenth of Auvnft 1*21. Sackt 

bv the fys»f« . r e\ i l i • 1 ^ i r t. <S J f 

**i*. it hrit, and then burnt it to the Ground ; yet afterwards he caus'd it to be Rc-builc 

again, far more Beautiful than at firft it was . as in due place we mall further fee. 
They fpeak not of above fifty Spaniards fiain during the whole Siege, fix Horfes 
and not many Tlafcaltecans. , 

In this manner , and with fo little Charges to the Conqueror , there fell to the 
Crown of Spain the richeft and goodlieft Kingdom (one of them) of the whole 
World, Vi% the Kingdom of Mexico, which the Conquerors prefently nam'd Nev 
Spain, and in reference to which name, the Catholic ktsjnghzth ever fince ftil'd him- 
felf in the plural number Hijpaniartwi^x, or fyngofboth Spains. } and all by the Va- 
^ lo^Prudencejadmirable Refolution,and happy Conduct of Corte^ who was at firft 

rpdtoH* but a private Adventurer in the American Plantations and Difcoveries, though other* 
Wife a Gentleman of a good Family in Spain, born at Medellin in the Country of 
EJlramedura. The Emperor Charles the Fifth, who was alfo then King of Spain, for 
his great Services, endow'd him defervedly with many great and rich Territories 
in the Provinces of Tlafcalla, Mechoacan, and other parts thereabouts, made him 
Marquefs of the Valley, vi%. of Guaxata, (which is his chief Title) a rich and flou- 
rifliing Province of that Countrey, Captain General, or Commander in Chief, of 
all the Military Forces of NeV-Spain, and General Difcovei er of all the Maritime 
parts and Coafts of America towards the South-Sea, afligning him in propriety the 
twelfth part of whatfoever fliould bedifcover'd,to him and his Heirs for ever, hue 
deny'd him the Government of Mexico out of reafon of State, though 'tis faid', he 
much defir'd it. 

Among the famous Havens which lie along the South Sea, and Northern Ocean 

The rand l ^ C C ^ 1C ^ is ^capulco beforc-mention'd, whither all Merchandize is fen t to be 

*% mAt *' tranfported to (hina, which is above two thoufand Leagues diftant from thence • in 
which Voyage they generally fpend fourteen Months- four Sail, each of eight hun- 
dred Tun,appointed for this Tradc^generally two of them fzt Sail to China in March, 
and returning in Summer, have no fooner drop'd their Anchors, but the other two 
fet out from Acapulco , from whence the way by Land to Mexico , is feventy two 
Leagues over fteep Mountains, dangerous Rocks , and feveral Rivers 5 the chiefeft 
whereof are, firft, Del Papagayo, or De las <Balfa4, which runs exceeding ftrong,which 
the Indians crofs on bundles of Canes ty'd upon Qallabajhes : Next San Francifco, 
which though the biggeft, yet hach many fliailow places to wade over. The Mi<- 
ftichoes are no fmall Plagues to thofe that travel this way, for their Poyfonous Stings 
arc the occafions of many Ulcerated Wounds, and oft-times Death it felf. 

In this way lies alio the Countrey del Valle , from which Ferdinand Cortefm re- 
ceiv'd the Title of Earl. 

The 



Sw 



V 










Chap. V. *A M E %^I C A. %6i 

The Mouth of the Haven Jcapulco gapes a full League North and South, and 
within exceeding large, hath a nook call'd Boca Grande , where the Ships Ride fafe 
at an Anchor : More Eafterly appears a Land Inlet, (by the Spaniards call'd Puerto 
del Marques) fecur'd againft all Winds . near which is the City of San Diego, to 
which belongs a Fort, with fix Bulwarks , lying on a Promontory . the main of 
the City is one large Street , confiding of fair and ftately Houfes, and leading di- 
rectly to the Haven $ the Church which is of an oblong fquare, hath a high Steeple 
in the middle. 

A Dutch Admiral, one Joris Spilbergen, after he had done the Spaniards all the mif- spmngmU 
chief he could along the South Sea , ran with five Sail under the Fort Acapulco, 
which fir'd ten Guns at him 5 whereupon, the Dutch Admiral Manning a Boat, 
with a white Flag, they agreed upon a Ceflation , and the Spaniards went aboard 
of t the Admiral , to whom Pedro Ahares , and Francifco Menendus , having been a 
confiderable time in Holland, and fpeaking the Language of that Countrey very 
perfe£t, promis'd that all his Demands fliould be fatisfi'd 5 yet Spilbergen was fuf- 
picious that the Spaniards had a defign upon him, wherefore he came and lay clofe 
under the Caftle with his five Sail, and made ready his Guns : But this fulpicion 
was foon clear'd, when jihares and Menendus proffer'd to ftay as Hoftages, till the 
Governor of the Town fent the Admiral thirty Oxen, fifty Sheep, fome hundreds 
of Poultry, Coals, Oranges, Cittrons, and the like frefli Provifions . as alfo Wood 
and Water ; during which time, the Prifoners being fet at liberty, feveral Perfons 
of Quality came to vifit the Admiral , amongft whom was Captain Cajlilio, one 
that had ferv'd twenty years in the LtiK-Qountrey Wars 5 and Melchior Hernando, Ne* 
phew to the Vice-Roy o£ ]S(ew -Spain , who defirous to fee the Ships that durft fet 
twice upon 0{odrigo de Mendofe, Admiral of the King of Spain 1 s mighty Fleet, flood 
amaz'd that fuch little Frigats durft Ingage with fo many great Spanijh Ships j and 
carry'd the Admiral's Son to the Governor of the City,call'd Georgia Terr o, who ci- 
villy entertain'd him : Eight days Spilbergen fpent here at Acapulco, admiring the 
courteous Entertainment of the Spaniards, and the more, becaufe that having News 
but eight Moneths before of the Dutch Fleet fetting out, they had in that fhort time 
made all things ready for refiftance , the Fort having feventeen Brafs Guns, and 
four hundred Soldiers, befides many Noblemen and Reformades, whereas at other 
times there us'd not to be above forty Men, and four Guns in the fame. 









Sect. II. 



Mechoacan. 

THe next Province of New Spain is the Biflioprick of Mechoacan. which hath S2? , > 4 , 
on the North-Eaft, Tanuco . on the Eaft, Mexicana y properly fo call'd ; on <***<*"*• 
the South part, TlafcaUa ; on the Weft, the Main Ocean, or Mare del Zur ; 
and laft of all, more dire&ly Northward, Xalifco, which is a Province of J^ew GaU 
Hcia : The Name fignifieth in the American Language, as much as J Fif? Countrey .' 
and fo it is, having many fair Lakes and Rivers in it, abundantly well ftor'd with 
Fifli. The Countrey fo exceedingly pleafant and healthful, that 'tis ufual for fick 
Perfons of other Provinces to come hither to recover their health, only by the be- 
nefit of a good Air. The Soil fo abundantly fertile of all forts of Grain, that of 
four mcafures of Seed , it hath been often obferv'd, they have reap'd the next Har- 
veft, more than fo many hundred meafures of the fame Grain. Very well Wooded; 
and by reafon of its many Rivers and frefli Springs, equally rich in good Pafturc : 

D d and « 






t 



















i€z A M E 3^ I C A. Chap. V. 

and bcfides great plenty of Medicinal Herbs and Plants, it affordeth good (lore of 
Amber nigh the Sea Coafts, Mulberry-trees, and confequently Silks . much Ho- 
ney, Wax, and divers other Commodities, both for neceiSty and pleafure. The 
People of the Countrey are generally tall, of a ftrong aftive Body, and a good 
Wit, efpecially in comparifon of other Natives- not unskilful in divers curious 
Manufactures, the mod excellent Feather-Pi&ures, afore-mention'd, being faid to 
be found in this Province. They feem more generally inclined to the Humors and 
Cuftoms of the Spaniards , than any other Americans ; and receiv'd the Preaching 
of Cbriftian <I(eligion, when time was, with much willingnefs • fo that the Countrey 
is now entirely Cbriftian, and divided into feveral Parifhes. 
languages The Languages which are fpoken in Meckoacan are feveral, as the Otomian, Cbihci- 

5£T523J2 mi**, anc l c ^ e Mexicans, which is common through all 2s[ew Spain, and the Tarafcan, a 
cans - neat and brief Language, which properly belongs to this Countrey. 

Tygen. The Lions and Wilde Dogs of this Countrey devour great numbers of Cattel 

yearly, yet the greated mifchiefs happen from the Tygers, which often fetch Peo. 
pie out of their Houfcs, notwithftanding the Doors are lock'd, for they break in 
thorow the Walls and Roofs, with much eagernefs and drength : Of the great- 
nefs whereof, 'Jacob Boutin* tells us this dory, That the Governor Peter Carpentier fet 
a Trap without the Walls of BataYta, of great Timber, Pleited with Iron, Baiting 
it with a Goat • which taking effc&, the Tyger that was caught therein , impatient 
of fuch clofe Imprifonment, rent the Timber, and getting out, left the Goat un- 
touched. 

Hugo Linfcbot relates, That the Tygers in the Weft-Indies hurt no Spaniards, exer- 
cifing their cruelty onely on Indians $ and that finding a Black and a White Man llcep- 
ing together, they devour the Black and not the White : How far theft aflertions 
deferve to be credited, may appear by an evident contradi&ion of the firft, for it 
is well known, many Spaniards in the Weft-Indies have been eaten by the Tygcr$# 

General Fedreman marching in this Countrey at the Head of his Army, was af- 
faultcd by a Tyger, which in defpight of them all killing a Spaniard, and three In* 
diawjjcfcap'd from them s no Trees ferve for a refuge againft their fury, for they 
climb up to the top thereof,and fetch down their Prey ; their Claws are fo exceeding 
Venomous, that whoever is fcratch'd with the fame, is never to be cur'd; there is no 
Beaft but they will venture upon, wherefore they lie in the Bullies, from whence 
they rum out upon them j but this difadvantage they have , thai mod other Beads 
are too nimble Footed for them, for they are a very heavy Creature,whatevcr hath 
been deliver'dby the Ancients concerning theTygers fwiftnefs. 

As to the difference which they make in Humane Flefli,it is thus far true : That 
they find more fweetnefs in Womens Breads than other parts, and chofe a Black 
Man before a White : Concerning the fird, France gives a fufficient tedimony, 
when two Tygers , in the time of King Lewis the Twelfth , breaking loofe , 
left a great number of Women lying Breadlefs in the Road. The fecond is con* 
firm'd by John Johnftons Relation of a drange accident that happen'd in Bengale, 
yi%. A Moor dreaming that a Tyger fetch'd him out of the Ship , hid himfelf the 
next Night between Decks, of which the Mader asking the rcafon , was in* 
form'd concerning his Dream , which prov'd prophetick, for about Mid-night 
a Tyger leapt into the Ship, and devouring the Moor, went away without touch* 
ing any one of the Hollanders , of which there were thirty : But a Sea-man walking 
on the fliore efcap'd more wonderfully, for a Tyger fetting upon him behind, and 
a Crocrodile before, he leaping from betwixt them , difcover'd to the Tyger the 
Crocodile, to whom the Tyger directly running, and ingaging with the Crocodile, 

fpar'd 



OS} 



Squerrils,' 



The Bird 
Anrtu, 



Chap. V. AMERICA. 

fpar'd the Sea-mans life : Notwithftanding the cruelty and mifchieFof thefe Ty« 
gers, the Indians are led by their fottifh Superftition to worfhip them } becaufe, as 
they fay, the Devil often appears to them in that fhape. 

Befides the Tygers, the Inhabitants ofMechaocan are exceedingly rriolefted with 
Squerrils, which not only carry much Fruit into their Holes, but alfo tinder-mine 
the Houfes,fo that they often fink or fall on one fide, the mifchief being the worfe, 
becaufe they increafc daily. Moft of them bear four young at a time, which on the 
third day run about for Prey , and can fcarce be taken, becaufe of their exceeding 
fwiftnefs, leaping a great diftance from one Tree to another . their Tails ferve 
them on divers occafions; for leaping they ufe it like a Wing, and at their crofling 
over a River, for a Sail$ in tempeftuous Weather, they flop their holes therewith, 
to keep out the Wind. 

There are fixfevcral forts of thefe Squerrils ; the firft call'd Tlilic, cover them- fcwaikindi 
fclvcs with their Tails- the fecond Quapatchli, is as big again, and can never be 
made tame 5 the third Tecballotl, with a bald Tail and great Eyes ; the fourth Tal- 
mototly, hath a thick Head, and a Tail full of black and white ftreaks ; the fifth Qui* 
mitchpatlan , hath a little Head and long Legs , and leaping from one Tree to an* 
other, feems to flie ; the laft fort call'd I^tafiecbalotl, is whitifli. 

The Foxes do alfo great mifchief here, their Urine fmells fo horribly, that forty **•* 
days after , none are able to abide near the place where they have urin'd , and on 
whatfoever Stuff or Cloth a drop thereof chanceth to light, the (link can never be 
wafli'd away. 

Here breeds alfo a fort of Birds, call'd Juras , which are not unlike Moore- 
Hens ; they flie exceeding high in the Air, feed on nought but ftinking Carrion, 
which they fcent at a great diftance ; they have a hairy Head and Neck, and ugly 
Face : Some of the Fowls of this Countrey ftay here all the year long , others go 
away, and return at certain times. 

The Natives, fince the Spaniards coming thither, have gotten their Habits and S?nSw 
Language, learn'd all forts of Trades . their Tables, Chefts, and Cupboards made 
of Sr^/j/e-Wood, are no way inferior to the bed that are made in Europe. Painting 
is alfo in great eftecm amongft them : They make handfom Clothes, Shooes, and 
ftrange Copper Locks. They have a peculiar Art in Tilling their Ground : They 
teach the Spanijh Dogs feveral tricks , but not feeding them well, they caufe them 
to run from them, and turn wilde , whence they are call'd Cimarrones, becaufe they 
do much hurt to the Cattel. 

The Inhabitants, when a Feaver or Ague is upon them at the higheft, leap into 
cold Water : againft other SicknefTes they ufe Heibs,whofe foveraign Power Expe- 
rience hath long fince taught them. 

Since the Spaniards made Mechoacan a Biflioprick, they have built ninety four 
Schools, fifty Churches , feveral Hofpitals and Cloyfters, inhabited by Francif can 
and Augujiin Monks. 

There are faid to be in this Biflioprick a hundred and fifty Towns or Burroughs 
(befides many fcatter'd Villages) moft of which have Frce-Schools created in 
them, for the Training up of Youth in the Chriftian Religion, good Literature and 
Arts 5 and few of them without an Hofpital for the Sick : of which Towns the 
principal are as followeth : 

i. Zinzputm, the Seat of the ancient Kings of Mechoacan. 2. fafcuar, a City r&a>aj 
forty feven Leagues diftant from Mexico, once a Bifliop's See. 3. Vailadolid^ the Me- 
tropolis or chief City of theProvince, fince the Epifcopal Chair was removed from 
Vafcuar thither. It lieth upon a great Lake, equal amoft for bignefs to that of 

D d 2 Mexico, 









Towns. 






* 






26+ zA M E %I C A. Chap. V. 

Mexico, and is about feven Leagues diflant from Pafcuar, towards the Eaft. 4. St. Mi- 
chaels, a good Town, forty Leagues Weftward of Mexico, and in the Way to the 
Zacatecas, but lying in a Road that is fomewhat dangerous, being not a littlein- 
fefted with Salvages on both fides of it. 5. St. Philips. 6. La Conception de Salaya, 
feventeen Leagues diftant from Valladolid, and a convenient Stage for Travellers, 
being indeed, with the twolaft mentioned, built chiefly for the defence and fecu- 
ring of the Countrey againft the Salvages. 7. Guaxanata, a Town on the Bor- 
ders of Tanuco, where there are very rich Mynes of Silver. 8. Leon, another Town 
likewifc of very rich Mynes,twcnty four Leagues diftant from Valladolid, and three- 
score from Mexico. o. Zamorra. 10. Villa de los Lagos, and others. 

Towards the Sea there is 1. Acatlan, but two Miles diftant from the Sea-Coaft, 
and afmall Town, yet by reafon of a fafe and very good Harbor which it hath for 
Shipping, a Place of no little Trading. 2. Nativtdad, another well known and 
convenient Haven upon Mare del Zur, pertaining to this Provincc,and from whence 
they ufually let Sail for the Philippine Iflands. 3. St. Jago de buena Speran^a, fo call'd 
by the Spaniards, perhaps from the abundance of good Pearls they found upon this 
Coaft. 4. Colyma. 5. Zacatula, and fome others. 

This Province, as we faid, was at firft a diftincT: Kingdom of it felf, yet fubordi* 
natc and Tributary to that of Mexico j the King whereof nam'd Tamgaiy>a,ot Simbicha, 
(as Laet reporteth) at the firft coming of the Spaniards thither, after the Conqucft of 
Mexico, voluntarily fubmitted himfelf to them, and was Baptiz'd. Nevcrthelefs af- 
terwards, upon a pretence of I know not what Treafon intended by him againft 
them, and which the Spanifl) Writers themfelves profeiTedly think to have been 
feigned, by command of Nttnne^de Gufman, Prcfident of the (Jbancery of Mexico, he 
was moft inhumanely burnt alive, and his Kingdom fciz'd upon by the Spaniards. 

Sect. III. 

Tlafcalla. 






Situation and 
Befcriptian 
of Tlajcalla. 



T 



The ancient 
State of the 
7lafc*llans s 



He Biflioprick of Tlafcalla, formerly call'd Tla/Calteca, Tlaxcala, and TUfca* 
Ian, is a Province of New Spain, which extendeth it (elf entirely from one 
Sea to another, vi^. from the Atlantic A to Mare del Zur, with which it is 
bounded on the Eaft and Weft Parts, lying otherwife, and for the moft part be- 
twixt the Provinces of Mexicana,\z(k fpoken of,and that of Guaxata, which follow* 
eth, containing in length from one Sea to the other, not much lefs than an hun- 
dred Leagues, and in fome places fourfcore in breadth ; but towards the South 
Sea growing much narrower. It is a Countrey exceedingly plentiful both in Corn 
and Cattel, full of rich Pafturage, and fo plentifully ftor'd with Mai^, Wheat, and 
other Grain, that it is accounted as it were the Granary of America ; befides Deer, 
all manner of Venifon, and great ftore of Fowl. There is likewife Coppcrefs, Al- 
lom, Silver.Myncs, Manna, Anime, and Liquid Amber, with a fweet fmelling Gum 
which drops out of a Tree. The Rivers feed no Fiflh, becayfe they fall with ex- 
ceeding force from the Mountains ; onely near Topoyanco, is a deep Lake of frefh 
Water, inhabited round about by Indians, enjoying the pleafure and profit of the 
many Cumbeba-Ttecs, which yield Cochinele, producing yearly above two hundred 
thoufand Duckets worth of that Commodity. In this Lake fwim black Hedge- 
hogs, whofe Flcfh is good and wholfom to eat.. 

The People of this Countrey, when the Spaniards came firft amongft them, liv'd 
in the form of a Common- wealth, or Free-State,refufing to be fubject to the King of 

Mexico, 



Chap. V. 



*A M E%^IC A. 



% 6s 



Mexico, with whom they had almoit continual War- and upon that account, as. 
hath been faid,a(Tifted Cortejitis in the Conqtieft of the Kingdom, without whofehelp 
'cis mod certain he had never been able todo any thing. They enjoy thereforema* 
ny fpecial Priviledges and Immunities mote than other Amentum do, They pay 
no Tribute, but onely a handful of Wheat yearly for every Perfon, by way of ac- 
knowledgment, other wife living, under the Protection of the Spaniards, wholly irji 
the Form of their ancient Government. In former times they were great Marl- 
eaters, and not onely eat the Flefli of their Enemies, but alfo of one anotther, info* 
much that Man's*flefh hung in publick to be fold. 

The River Zabuatl, which ru flies out of the Mountain Xtcoleucalt, oftentimes River *«- 
overflows all the Countrey near it, and waflies away divers Houfes. Zabuatl figni- 
fies Scabby Water, becaufe all thofe, efpecially Children, that wafli in the fame, are 
lure to be Scabby. On its Banks the Spaniards have built many Houfes, thefafliion 
whereof is now alfo imitated by the Indians of this Province, who formerly built 
quite after another manner - for they made low Houfes of Earth, Wood and Stone, 
with larae and ft range Chambers j fome a Stoncs-caft one from another, others 
clofe together, had narrow crooked Streets that ran betwixt them. 

In this Province are two forts of Languages fpoken, yfa the Mexican, and that rimfe*** 
of the Ottomons, who formerly deferting ^Mexico., chofe the Tlafcallans for their 
Protectors : They are a toilfom and painful People. 

To the Northward of Tlafcalla are Mountains, which all the year long, except 
three Moneths,are cover'd with Mift j and the Woods on the tops of them are a 
great flielter to Lyons, T.ygers, Wolves, and wild Dogs, call'd Aims, and other 
wild Beafts, which do much hurt to the fmall Cattcl. Here are ajfo many Serpents 
and Adders, 

The whole Province is faid to contain two hundred good Towns and Bur- 
roughs, and more than one thoufand Villages, all of them exceedingly populous, 
and fuppos'd to contain in the whole above a Million and half of Natives, befides 
Spaniards, who have fome few Colonies in the Countrey for fecuring of it. 

The chief Towns of the Province are i . Tlafcalla it felf, which denominates the T<jj»*d 
whole Countrey as the Metropolis, and where the Bifliop's See was at firft, till in 
the Year 155 c?. it was remov'd to <Puebla de los Angelas. It is afairTown,and com- 
modiouily feated in the midft of a large and fertile Champainof threefcore Miles in 
compafs. It confifteth of four large and beautiful Streets or Quarters, and in the 
midft of them where they all meet, hath a Ttaz&a, or Marketplace, equal to that 
of Mexico, and able to receive twenty or thirty thoufand Perfons conveniently, to 
Buy and Sell in it ; and whofe Shambles feldom fhew lefs than fifteen thoufand 
Sheep, four thoufand Oxen, and two thoufand Hogs. 

2. <PuebU de los Angelas, or The Qty of Angels, a Town built by Sebaflian %amire^ 
a Church-man, and he that was the firft Prefident, or chief Governor of Mexico, un. 
der the Crown of Caftile. It was built in the Year 1 531. almoft in the Road-way 
from Vera Crux to Mexico, and feated in a very delicate and fertile Countrey, and of 
a good Air. It is a Bifliop's See, and valu'd at twenty thoufand Ducats of yearly 
Rent, the City it felf fuppos'd to contain about fifteen hundred Families • where 
there is abundance of excellent Cloth made, and for finenefs not yielding to the 
beft of Spain. Its chief Edifices are, the Cathedral and four (lately Cloyfters, be- 
longing to the Dominicans, Francifcans, Auguftines, and Capucbhis 5 as alfo a Free-School 
for five hundred Indian Children, endow'd by %amire^ with a yearly Revenue. 

3. Zempoallan, feated upon a River of the fame Name. 

4. T>{apalaca, in the Valley Ocumba } ows its original to an Indian call'd Juan, who 

Dd 3 at 









z66 A M E <R^I C J. Chap, V. 

at firft had onclyonc Houfe, and a Herd of Hogs there , till upon his invitation, 
all the neighboring People came from the tops of the Hills . inibmuch, that in a 
fliort time, the place was Peopled by thoufands of Families. 

5. Guaxacingo, all hitherto great and ancient Towns of the Natives. 

6. Stgura de la Frontera, a Spanijh Town, built by Corte^ prefently upon the Con- 
queft of Mexico, for the fecuring of the Confines, as the Name importcth. 

7. Vera Crux, a Town built by Corte^ and his Companions, at their firft Land- 
ing , and where afterwards, by a Stratagem, and out of a refolution either to Con- 
quer or Die in the Countrey , he caus'd all his Ships to be burnt, that his Soldi- 
ers might not fo much as think of returning back from whence they came. The 
Town was at firft built five or fix Leagues up within Land * but the place being 
found not to be fo healthful, the Inhabitants in a fhort time deierted it, and feated 
themfelves upon a Bay of the Sea, right over againft St. John X>' UUua. 

8. Medellin, another Spanijh Town, built likewife by Corte^ in memory of his 
own Birth-place, which was Medellin y a fmall Town of EJlramadura, a Province of 
Spain, but was afterwards deftroy'd by fome Spanijh Commanders, out of malice to 
Corte%. 

Laftly, St. John D' UUua, a noted, and the moft ufual Port to all this Province, 
and likewife to the City of Mexico it felf, from the North Sea : but of difficult en- 
trance, efpecially to fuch as are not well acquainted with the PaiTage , or want 
Guides, by reafon of certain Rocks and Quickfands, wherewith the Mouth of the 
Haven is faid to be bar'd. but within, the ftation is more fafe. It hath likewife two 
ftrong Bulwarks or Forts rais'd , on either fide of the Entrance one, to defend the 
PaflagCj befides a ftrong Caftle, built fince Captain John Hawkins furpris'd twelve 
Ships richly Laden within the Haven, and thirteen others that arriv'd with a new 
Vice-Roy from Spain, valu'd at near fixty Tun of Gold , of which he might eafily 
have made Prize, had he not trufted to the Vice-Roys Promife, to give him all fa- 
tisfaftion he ftiould require, by which being deceiv'd , he loft all his Fleet but two 
Ships. 

Between Tlafcala and Los Jngelos are the Fountains, out of which the River hath 
its Original, which gliding by Machaocan and Zacatula, falls into the South Sea : 
This River is fo exceeding full of Crocodiles , that they have made feveral places 
which formerly were Inhabited on its Banks, utterly defolate ; for the Females lay- 
ing generally Eggs as big as thofe of a Gooft, increafe prodigioufly 5 and were it 
not that the Indian Mice, call'd Ichneumones, deftroy'd them, they would grow ftill 
to greater numbers : But this Animal creeping in at the Crocodiles Mouth, eats 
his way out of the Belly again • Water-Serpents, Hawks, <Bujfeloes 3 and efpecially 
Tygers, are alfo their mortal Enemies , for they throwing the Crocodiles. on their 
Backs, rend open their Bellies : They are more defirous of Mansflefli here than in 
any other place,, becaufe the River of Tlafcala hath but fmall ftore of Fifh ; in the 
day time they lie cover'd in the Mud, from whence they rufh forth, and fet upon 
thofe that happen to pafs by them • they purfue the Canoos in the Water, and ftrikc 
down the Rowers with their Tails. 

Eight Leagues beyond Tlafcalp, appears the Mountain Topatepeck, which for ten 
years ceas'd fmoaking, till^zwo 1540. it broke forth in fuch a manner , that the 
Countrey all about was terrifi'd therewith • for it vomited not onely a black 
Smoak, but alfo horrible Flames, which fometimes being blow'd downward, 
burnt the Corn in the Fields, and the Afbes thereof flying as far as Guaxocingo and 
Qhulula, burnt a great deal of the Town to the Ground 5 every one endeavored by 
flight to fecure themfelves, with intention never to return thither again j but the 

Flame 



Great in* 

creafc ©f 
Ct«cediles. 



Burning 
Mountain Fo- 
fMlfttk. 



%6j 



Rivers of 
Mtxhmh, 



Chap. V. AMERICA. 

] Lime and Smoak abating, Captain Diego de Ordas went up to view the place 
whence the Fire was caft forth . which curiofity and preemption of his, had like 
to have coft him his Life, for the fulphury Smoak breaking forth on a fudden, had 
almoft ftifled him. 

Moreover, the Biflioprick of Tlafcala, is on the North Coaft wafh'd by the River 
PapotoaVa, fince cali'd AlVarado, from a Spam/h Commander, who firft Steer'd his 
Courfe thither ; The next Stream nam'd Banderas, is fo cali'd, becaufe the Natives 
held white Clothes on Poles, to invite the Spaniards afliore. The third is Aimer U, on 
which, CortepHS, a year after the taking of Mexico, built the Town Mcdeltm, as aforc- 
mencion'd. 

Along the Tlafcallan Chore, waflTd by the Northern Ocean, lie the Ifles Stoned, 
Verde, and Sacrificios : The firft received its denomination fxomlVhite Land, the other 
from Green Trees 5 and the third, becaufe Joan de Greyalve, who firft Difcover'd Hew 
Spain, Landing on this Ifland, found a Bloody Altar there, with Sacrific'd People 
with open'd Brefts, chopt off Arms and' Legs. 

The River Almeria falling into the Ocean oppofite to the Sacrificios, the Spanifl) 
Ships came often to an Anchor there . but in thefe latter times, they have forfaken 
ttie fame, becaufe the Northern Winds us'd to blow very hard againft the (hore, 
and fpoil'd many VelTels : But Henry Hawks gives this reafon, That a dreadful ap- 
parition of Spirits frighted the Spaniards from thence. 

In the Biflioprick Tlafcala, is alfo compriz'd the Province Tepeaca, whofe Metro- TheProvin » 
polis was built by Qorte^, when with great Lofs he was fent from Jlmeria. The 
Soil thereabouts is barren and ftony ; the Water which they have in the City, is 
brought in Pipes from a River which flows out of the Mountains into the Market 
place. The plain Countrey hath many good Paftures. The Inhabitants thereof 
fpeakfour forts of Languages; of which, the commoneft is the Mexican, others 
ufe the Topolucan or Otoman Tongues, 

The Village Alyoxucan appears afar off on a high Mountain, on whofe top is a ***** 
Lake of a hundred and fifty Fathom in circumference; the Water whereof is very 
cold, and of a bluifli Colour , and neither Ebbs nor Flows, to which the Villagers 
climb along a narrow Path. 

Not far from thence, in the Plain, are two other very deep Lakes : The firft 
call'd Tlacae, is a League in circumference, and breeds delicate white Fifh, not 
above a Fingers length : The fecond nam'd Jlcbicbican, about the fame bignefs, 
which in ftormy Weather is very turbulent. 

Amongft the Fowls of this Countrey , the moft noted is a little Summer Bird, J^Jd toti 
with a long crooked Tail, fpeckled Feathers . feeds on nothing but Flowers and 
the Dew . about Harveft time, when the Rain ceafes, it hangs faft with its Bill on 
a Tree, and as foon as the firft Rain falls, it revives again. 

In this Countrey tcpeacaarc five Villages, in each of which is a Francifcan Cloy- 
fter and convenient Hofpital. 

In this Countrey they gather the Water in the time of the Rainy Moneths* iri a 
digg'd Pool, which every Morning produces little Toads with long Tails, which 
in few days fall off; but thefe little ones growing to be grcat,make a moft dreadful 
noife in the Night : From Oftober till March, not one drop of Rain falls in this 
Countrey; during which time, the Northern Winds make a dry and wholfome 
Air, yet oftentimes a tempeftuous Sea, to the lofs of many Ships. 

Farther up into the Countrey, between Vera Crux and Los Jngelos, lies the Vil* 
lage %inconanda . and alfo Xalapa and fcrota built of Straw Houfes in the middle of 
a Wood of Cedar and Pine-Trees, inhabited by the Spaniards, for the accommoda. 







A M E%1 C A. 



V. 



%6% A M h Kl C A. Chap 

ting of Travellers : To which purpofe there are likevvife Inns built near the 
Spring Fuente it Otzuhib*, which gutties out of a high Rock. 

"Not far from hence is the Populous Village Chetula, where a fmall number of 
Spaniards dwell amongft thoufands of Indians, who chiefly make ufe of Mules to car- 
ry their Loads. 

Sect. IV. 

Guaxata. 



Situation and 

U.icrntiou 

viGuaxata. 



s 



Divifion." 



languages. 1 



Poifonous 
Herb. 



BEtween Los Jngelos and Guatemala, lies the Biflioprick of Antiauera or Guaxata 
largely taken ; it hath on the North, the Bay of ^Mexico-, on the Souther* 
del °Zur ; on the Eaft , Jucatan and Cbiapa which is one of the Provinces of 
Guathnala . on the Weft, Tlafcalla. 

The Countrey extendeth it felf upon the South Sea about an hundred Leagues 
in length, but from tr>e Sea to the Borders of Tlafcalla, one hundred and twenty ; 
Eaftward not above half fo much ; having a good Air, and a Soil no lefs fruitful, 
efpecially in Mulberry.Trees , and abundance of Silks, which the Countrey 
affordeth, more than any other Province of America befides ; nor is it lefs rich 
in Mines of Gold and Silver , there being fcarce a River in the whole Countrey, 
but the Sands of it are faid to be Tinftur'd more or lefs with that yellow Metal- 
alio Cryftal and Coppercfs. It y ieldeth like wife great plenty of Cafiia and Cocbinele, 
two rich Commodities . and the People generally, if they would take pains, might 
be the wealthieft, 'tis thought, of any other in America : But whether it be through 
any voluntary contempt of Riches, or through any natural floathfulnefs, as yet 
they feem to Pine in the midft of plenty, living, for the moft part of them, little 
better than from Hand to Mouth - neverthelefs, exceeding liberal of what they 
have, efpecially to fuch as bear the Habit of Religion, and attend the fqrvice of 
their Souls i maintaining in a plentiful and good manner, as 'tis faid, no lefs than 
one hundred and twenty Convents of Religious Men, of feveral Orders, in this 
onely Province-, befides Hofpitals, Schools for the training up of Youth, and o- 
ther places of publick Charity ; it is faid alfo to have three hundred and fifty Vil- 
lages,and near as many brave Countrey Houfes. It is fub-divided into many parti- 
cular Provinces ; which, becaufe they are many and but fmall, in comparifon of 
fome other, we may call Wapentakes, or Hundreds, rather than Provinces : The 
principal whereof are thefe that follow, i»fe i . Mifleca. 2. Tutepecque. ^.Zapoteca. 
4. Gua^acoalco. 5. Gue^taxatla : and 6. the Valley of Guaxata, from whence Corte^zf- 
ter the Conqueft of Mbc/Vo, had his Title given him by the Emperor, Marauefs of 
the Valley. It is the richeft and moft pleafant part of the whole Province, extended 
in a continued Trad together, full fixteen Leagues or more, lying about fourfcofe 
Southward of Mexico, znd wanting neither Mines of Gold and Silver, nor any other 
of the prime and beft Commodities of the Ne^World. 

In this Countrey they fpeak thirteen forts of Languages, of which the Mexican is 
moft us'd. 

Amongft the Plants which grow here, is an exceeding Poyfonous Herb, which 
kills thofe whofoe're pluck it, though a long time after, that is to fay, if it be of a 
Years growth, it kills not before the Years end . if a Moneth old, at the Moneths 
end • if a Day, on the fame. 

This Countrey formerly fuffer'd alfo many inconveniencies by Earthquakes, 
but of late they are fomewhat abated, which the Spaniards afcribe to Martialis, Pro- 
tector of the Cathedral at Jntequera, 

Mifiea 









<tA M E^I C J. 



Chap. V. 

M,Jleca is divided into Jlta and Baxa, both of which have Rivers and Brooks 
that afford Gold, whither the Indian Women taking Provifions, go for feveral days 
and gather Gold in Troughs, which they exchange at the Spanifb Markets for 
Provifions. 

Not far from the Village Cuertlavaca, lies a high Mountain, remarkable for a 
ftrange Cave, whofe Entrance is very narrow, at the end whereof appears a fquare 
Place of fifty Foot; upon one fide whereof ftand Pits with Steps , near which be- 
gins a crooked Way of a League long ; at the end of which is 'a fpacious Place 
with a Fountain of good Water , from the Foot of which flows a fmall Brook : 
But becaufe none have made any farther difcovery of this Cave, the other parts of 
it remain yet unknown. 

On the top of St. Antonio, the Indians live with their Families in Caves between 
the Rocks. 

Not far from hence appear two Mountains, whofe tops, though they lie at a 

great diftancc from one another, at the bottom they are fo near, that a Man may 
ftep from one to the other. 

The fix Rocks fennoles, formerly Garrifon'd by the Kings of Mexico, have Gold, 
Lead-Mynes, and a Root which is us'd in (lead of Soap. 

In the Village Totomachiapo, is a Cave of half a Mile long, at the end whereof the 
Water prevents a farther difcovery. 

The Rocky Countrey Zapotecai formerly bred very falvage Inhabitants, Mantled 
in Furrs, but now Civiliz'd, clad after the common manner. 

The People fpreadover Guaxacuako, Tluta, and Cue^txatla, obferve Circumcifion, 
according to an ancient Cuftom • from whence fome have in vain fought for a ce> 
ftimony, that thefe Americans fliould be originally extracted from the fcatter'd 
Tribes of Ifrael \ but the Tartars more immediately, who at laft crofting the Straits 
of Mian, furnilh'd the defolate Countrey of America with Inhabitants: But this 
Opinion is without any probability of truth \ for it will never follow from their 
Circumcifion, that the Tartars, the greateft People on Earth, muft owe their origi- 
nal to a few Ifraelites, Prifoners, fince that Ceremony was never thought on by 
them till they embrae'd the Mabumetan Religion. And though they had been Cir- 
cumcis'd before Mahomet's time, this would be no teftimony that they were ex- 
trafted from the Ifraelites : f Q r how many People embrae'd Circumcifion, which 
were never extradred from Abraham's Seed ? It is affirm'd by Viodom* Siculus, that 
the Cholchians ■ by fhilo Judxus, the Egyptians ■ by Herodotus, the Moors ; by Strata, 
the Troglodytes ■, by Cyprian, the fhmmcians and Arabians Circumcis'd themfelves from 
all Antiquity, which is to this day obferv'd by fome of them. It alfo plainly ap. 
pears by the Prophet Jeremiah, that the Egyptians, Edomites, Ammonites, Moabttcs, and 
ljhmaelites, had the fame Cuftom anciently amongft them. 

The Towns of principal note inhabited by the Spaniards in this Province, are 
I. Mteauera, in the Valley aforefaid, a (lately City, and beautifi'd with a fair Ca. 
thedral Church, built with Pillars of the fineft Marble, of great heighth and 
bignefs. The River which glides by the Walls, fpringing out of the Ground, runs 
to the Mountain Coatlan. Not far from thence lies the Village Herrera, which boafts 
four hundred Spanifh Families, though fome fay that the greateft part of them are 
Indians, who pay the Spaniards Cotton Cloaks and Nuts for Tribute. 

2. Illephonfo delos Zapotecas, lies on a Mountain belonging to the Mixes, anciently 
a falvage, ftrong, and long.bearded People, who fpeak a grofs Language, and in 
former times went naked, onely a white Deer-skin, Tann'd in Man's Brains, about 
their Middle. They maintain'd continual War againft the Zapotecas, and could 

never 



%6t) 



Strang«Civ« 



i. 1 



Ammtaui\ 
whether Ex- 
tracted from 
the ten 
Tribes of (f- 
r*tL 






• 



Towns and 
chief Village! 
of Gnaxaf*. 



zjo 



AMERICA. Chap. V. 

never have been fubdu'd by the Spaniards, had it not been for their Dogs, which 
kept them in fuch awe, that thirty Spanifli Soldiers ventured to live in lllepbonfo 
amongft thirty thoufand Mixes, who now drive a Trade in Cotton, liaise, and 

Gold. 

3 . Sanjago de Nexapa appears at a great diftance on a high Mountain, where al- 
io twepty Soldiers with their Dogs were wont to awe the cruel Natives. 

4. The laft Place, built by Gonzales de SandoVall, Anno 1521. is Villa del Elpiritu 
Santo, Commands fifty Indian Villages, which with great difficulty were brought 
to fubmit to the Spaniards. 

The River AquiVtcolco affords a convenient Harbor, the Mouth thereof being a 
hundred and ninety Paces broad. 

Upon the Southern Ocean is the Haven Guatulco, where the Ships that Sail to 
Honduras and fern take in their Lading. The Cuftom-houfe belonging to this Place 
was firft plunder'd by Sir Francis Drake, and nine years after burnt by Qandijh. 

The River Ometipu, which fpringing out of the Mountain Cacatepec, falls intoT*. 
poanteque, abounds with divers forts of good Fifii,efpecially Cra-Fifli. There areal- 
fo reckon'd of the Natives of this Province, no lefs than fifteen thoufand Perfons 
that pay Tribute to the Spaniards, befides Women and Children, and alfoagreat 
number of Spaniards. 

Sect. V. 



Baunds and 
Dafcri prion 
of Fanttct. 






Conqueft of 
it difficult. 




Barbarous 
Cuftoms of 
the People. 






ra-nuco. 

PAnuco is the moft Northerly Province of IS^ew Spain, by fomc call'd Guajleca, 
bounded on the Eaft with the Gulf of Mexico 5 on the Weft with Uxitipa, a 
Countrey of Nev> Gallicia . on the North with fome undifcover'd Count reys 
of Florida, from which it is divided by the <%iver off alms-, on the South with Mp. 
choacan and Mexican*. It is call'd Tanuco, from a River of that Name, which turn- 
ing from the Mountains Tepecfuan in 2^ Gallicia, and dividing NeTt> tBifcay from 
the Province ofZacatecas, pafleth through the midft of this Countrey alfo, and at 
laft empties itfelfinto the Gulf. 

This Countrey is reckon'd to be about fifty Leagues in length, and not much 
lefs in breadth 5 of a fruitful Soil, having fome Mynes of Gold in it, and once very 
populous till the Spaniards, about the Year 1511. difpeopled it by their infatiable 

cruelty. 

Before Ferdinand Cortefius, Francis de Garay attempted to Conquer this Province, 
but after much pains to no purpofe, he return'd with but a fmall remnant of thofe 
he carried with him . and though Cortefius fubdu'd the Countreys Ayotetextetlatan 
and Chila, yet it was not without many confidcrable LofTes . for the Inhabitants 
being valiant and cruel, not fearing the Spanifl? Bullets, ran in amongft them, and 
made great Daughter, and (according to an old Cuftom in New Spain) drank their 

Blood. 

Thefe People, on their Feftival Days call'd %aeaxipo Veli^tli, which fignifies A 
Flaying of Slaves, us d to pull offthe Skins of a certain number of Slaves, with which 
they walkt about begging Alms from Hut to Hut, and whofoever deny'd them, 
was fure of a Blow in the Face with the bloody Skin - of which fo long as there 
was but one Lappet remaining, they went a Begging -, and whatfoever they got, 
was employ'd in Ufes and Neceflaries belonging to their Idolatry. On the fore- 
mention'd Days they alfo us'd other barbarous Cuftoms, amongft which this was 

one : 



Chap* V. 



AMERICA. 



271 




I 



one : The Prieft challenging the Slave which was to be OfFer'd, to Fight for his 
Life, he had one of his Feet ty'd to a great round Stone, and having a Sword to 
offend, and a Shield to defend himfclf, Encountred with the Prieft, who was Arm' d 
after the fame manner, whom if he conquer'd, he not onely preferv'd his Life, buc 
gain'd the Name of a valiant Man. 

They alfo dealt ftrangely with Perfons that were yearly to be Offer'd to their Sragei&ge 
Idols : for after having wafh'd them, they put on them the Clothes of the Idol, and * ™"* t% 
gave them the fame Name, every one honouring them as a God ; were permit- 
ted to walk up and down, but guarded by twelve Men, that they might not 
efcape ; for then the chiefeft of the Guard was to fupply the others place : More- 
over, they refided in the chiefeft Apartments of the Temple, eat of the beft, 
were ferv'd like Princes, and attended through the Towns by Perfons of the 
greateft Quality, who led them through the Streets . where they no fooner play'd 
on a little Pipe, but all People came running to them, fell at their Feet and wor- 
fliip'd them ; In the Night they lock'd them up in a Cage, fecur'd with Iron Bars, 
and at the appointed time flay'd them alive. 

The chief Towns now remaining, and inhabited by the Spaniards ,zte 1. St. Lewis Towns and 
de Tampice, a Colony of Spaniards fituate on the Northern Bank of the River ( Panuco l 
at the very Mouth of it . where it hath a very large Haven, but fo barr'd with 
Sands, that no Ship of any great Burden can enter or abide in it with fafety ; and 
yet the River otherwife fo deep, that Veflels of five hundred Tun, might Sail up 
threefcore Leagues at lead within Land, and thereby vifit the rich Mynes of 2ata- 
tecas on the one fide of it, and of ]S(eu> Bifcaj on the other, at pleafure, and without 
fear of much oppofition. 

*• St. SteVan del Puerto, on the South fide of the fame River, eight Leagues diftant 
from the Sea, or Gulf of Mexico, at prefent the Metropolis or chief Town of the 
Province, built by Cortefius in the place where flood old Tanuco, which was likewife 
the Metropolis, or Head Town of the Natives, before the Spaniards burnt and de- 
ftroy'd it. 

ySt. 



Villages, 




z 7 % 



<d M E XI C J. 



Chap. V. 



Milts Philips 
his Voyage. 



Chilton's 
Journal 



« 




5. St.Jago de las Valles, which is a Fronteer Place, and enjoyech certain fpecial 
Immunities, and fome fair PofTeffions alfo for defenc^ of the Countrey againft the 
Salvages. It is twenty five Leagues diftant from St. SteVan del Puerto, lying in an 
open or Champain Countrey, and is fene'd about with a Wall of Earth. 

Miles Philips, an Englifliman, put afhore by Captain John Hawkins, in the Bay of 
New Spain, Anno 1568. fufFer'd great hardfhip before he came to Panuco, from whence 
returning, he made mention of a City lying along a River of the fame denomina- 
tion, (which is there not above two Bowc fhoots-broad,) in a pleafant Countrey, 
containing two hundred ty4wy&Families,befidetheantient Inhabitants and ^JfgroV, 
which all drive a great Trade in Salt, which is made in Pans Weftward from the 
River : Philips travelling from Panuco to Mexico, faw by the way the Villages 2S^o- 
hete, by the Spaniards call'd Santa Maria, and a Cloyfter of white Monks : Next he 
view'd Mejlitlan, where fome grey Monks had a Houfe, and the Town Puchuen. 

Another account of this Province is taken from a Journal kept by John Chilton, 
four years after Pbilips's Voyage ; he having & Spaniard for his Convoy, left Mexico to 
find out Panuco - y in three days time they reach'd the City Mefiitlan , where he ob- 
ferv'd, that twelve Spanijh Families liv'd amongft thirty thoufand Indians. The Ci- 
ty built on a high Mountain, full of Woods, is furrounded with Villages, through 
which run many brave Springs - and the Air about them is no lefs wholfom than 
the Ground fruitful 5 the Highways are {haded with all forts of Fruit-Trees. 

The Village Clanchinoltepec, four times more Populous than Mejlitlan, belongs to 
a Spanifl) Nobleman, who built a Cloyfter there for nine Augujlin Monks, of which 
Order there alfo refide twelve in the City Guaxutla. 

Moreover, they travel'd over the plain Countrey Guajlecan, to the Village Tan* 
cuylabo, inhabited by a tall People, with blue Painted Bodies, and Pleited Hair, 
hanging down to their Knees , going ftark naked, but never without a Bowe and 
Arrow. They cfteem nothing more than Salt , as being the onely Cure againft 
certain Worms that grow between their Lips. From hence they travel'd to Tarn- 
pice, in which Journey they fpent nine days ; and coming thither, were inform'd, 
that of forty Chriflians which dwelt in the fame, the Indians had (lain twelve, whilft 
they were gathering of Salt. From hence they came to P^»«co,then in a manner de- 
fcrted, becaufeofthe Mww oppreffing the Spaniards, of which, at that time, there 
were but ten, and one Pricft. Chilton falling fick here, refolv'd neverthelefs to 
change that unwholfom Air and barren place for a better ; to which purpofe, get- 
ting a Horfe, he took an Indian behind him for his Guide, but loofing his way in a 
thick Wood, happened amongft a Company of wild People, which dwelt in Straw 
Huts, twenty of them immediately furrounding him, brought him fome clear 
fweet Water to drink, out of a Gilt Venice GhCs, which having drunk, two naked 
Men led him into the high.way $ which ended at the Gate of the Wall'd City Santo 
Jago de las Valles, inhabited by twenty five SpaniJ]) Families, who inform'd Chilton of 
the great danger which he had been in , for the People which gave him the Water 
were Man.eaters, who not long lince, had burnt an Augujline Cloyfter, built on a 
Mountain, had taken away, and eat the People,of which they had in all likelyhood 
gotten the Venice Glafs * and had they not obferv'd Chilton to be fickly, he had with- 
out doubt been eaten by them, and his Skin, with fomeof his Hair, (that beinga 
great Ornament amongft them) been hung about their middle. 

During Chilton s ftay in St. Jago, Fra?ts de Page came thither with forty Soldiers 
from the Vice-Roy Henry Manriques, and took five hundred Indians, good Bowe Men 
out of the Neighboring Villages, Tanehipa and Tameclipa, with which he defign'd to 
go to the Silver Mines at Zacatecas : Chilton joyning with this Company, came to the 

great, 



Chap. V. <d M EX^IC A. %j) 

great River Ve las Talma*, which feparates Ni?T8? Spain from Florida, where they fpent 
three days in vain, feeking to find a paflage over ; wherefore they at- laid took pie- . 
ces of Timber, which joyning togcther,and (landing upon, they were Tow'd over 
by Swimming Indians > y being gotten on the other fide, they March'd over fteep 
Mountains, and thick Wildernefles, and came at laft to Zacatecas, on whofe Silver 
Mines, the richeft in all America, work'd above three hundred Spaniards daily. 

S e c t. VI. 

Tabafco. 

THe laft Countrey belonging to T>{eT» Spain is Tabafco, bounded on the North ^f s t ^ 
by the Northern Ocean, and on the Eaft with Jucatan 5 and however «C**3K 
fome account it a diftinct Province, yet others make no mention of it, let- 
ting it pafs for that part of Jucatan Which lies about the City Tabafco, from which 
it feems to be denominated : The Ground level, and without Mountains, hath 
many great Woods of Cedar-Trees, Srajtle, and others. Here arc alfo many good 
Indian F ruit s,as the Manmeyes, Zapotes, Aguacates, and Guajabos. For three Moneths 
they have continually dry Weather, the reft of the year being for the moft part 
rainy ; which viciffitude of Moifture and Heat makes the Countrey exceeding 
fruitful, infomuch that they have three or four Harvefts oiMai^ in a year. 

Vines, Figs, Lemmons, Oranges, Rice, Barley, and all forts of Garden-Herbs 
grow here alfo in great plenty. 

. The Pools, Brooks and Lakes, abound likewife with all manner of Fifli : and 
for Sea-Fi(li,befides the Tortugas, and Yguanras, the Manae,ot Sea-Cow, is of principal 
note. 

This Fifli is terrible to behold, having a Head like an Ox, little Eyes, two Thch,,, 
Feet near the Head in ftead of Fins, two round Holes in ftead of Ears, round 
bones like Balls in its Brains, a Ihort Tail, and briftly Skin : The Females have 
two Dugs, with which they fucklc their Young. 

Peacocks, Pheafants, Parrots, Quales, Hens, Pigeons, withfeveral forts of Birds Birdi; 
altogether unknown to the Europeans, are here in great abundance. 

The Woods alfo abound with Tygers and Lyons, which do no little hurt to the *eaft»; 
Inhabitants, Wild Hogs, Deer, and Rabbets, are likewife here in great plenty } 
and Turtles of an exceeding bignefs : Likewife Apes, Polecats, and Squcrrils, 
which do very much hurt to the Fruit-Trees, efpecially the Cacao. The Mufticbo's 
are a great annoyance to the People, and difturb their reft at Night. 

Since the Spaniards have conquer'd Tabafco, they have fore'd the Inhabitants to kmguage* 
obferve their Laws and Cuftoms. They fpeak three forts of Languages, amongft m»i 
which that moft us'd, call'd Q?ontal, is copious of Words. The fecond, Zaques y is 
fpoken on the Mountains which divide Cbiapa and Tabafco. The Mexican Tongue 
was firft brought thither by the Garrifons which Mutec^uma plac'd there in the 
Forts Zimatlan and Xicalango, and is the moft fpoken, in regard it hath not onely its 
Accents, but is alfo of great ufc, partly becaufe it is underftood in moft places of 
America, and partly becaufe the Priefts have made Songs in that Tongue, with 
which the Tabafcans are much delighted. 

The chief City Noftra Sennora de la Vittoria, already mention'd in Jucatan, was fo 
call'd by Ferdinand Cortefius, from the great Victory which he obtain'd over the 
Indians when he march'd firft towards Mexico. 

Thus far of the Defcription of the feveral Parts and Divifions of Jfyy> Spain, dif 



E« 



V 



fering 



274- 



a M E%1 C A . 



Chap. V. 















' 



fering in Cufloms and Languages, though raoft of them have fomc affinity with 
the Mexicans, who by force of Arms had made a way to the fupream Empire. All 
of them acknowledge a Creator, but have no Name to exprefs the Word Cod. But 
befidcs the Creator of the World they have made to themfelves Gods of many other 
Creatures ; amongft which are the Sun, Moon, Stars, and the Manes of the De- 
ceafed, the'earc of whofe Burial they committed to the Priefls, which was fome- 
tirnes in the Fields, fometimes in their Houfes . others carried their dead Bodies 
to the Mountains, fome buried them in Temples ; and as they either burnt or bu- 
ried the Body, fo they buried or burnt their Clothes and Riches with them, espe- 
cially of Perfons of Quality, whilft thofe that accompanied the Corps fung a 
mournful Song; after which they Feafted. The Heirs of Noble-men that had been at 
the Funeral put themfelves all into Mourning. A Perfon,after he isdej*d,is ftrctch'd 
out upon the Floor, where he lies till all his Friends come to Prefent and Com* 
plement him, as if living : But at the death of an eminent Perfon they not onely 
bring him Prefents, but proffer him his Slaves, Steward, Butlers, Dwarfs, and 
Houfliold Prieft, (all which a Lord muft keep) that they may ferve him in the other 
World. The Priefts which performed the Funeral Ceremonies, walk'd before the 
Corps with the Image of the Idol which the Deceafed had appropriated to him- 
felf, (for every Lord, according to the greatnefs of his Quality, bore the Name 
and Apparel of fome Idol or another;) other Pricfts beat on Drums, play'd on Pipes 
and finging Dirges, perfum'd the Way with Myrrh, whileft the Servants and Re- 
lations made a doleful cry. a Herauld alfo carried the Coat of Arms and Tro- 
phies of the Deceafed,artificially painted on Cloth • at laft they pyl'd fwect Wood 
about the Corps, which being lighted, and the Body burnt to Allies, a Prieft in a 
frightful Drefs, Vizarded with a gaping Mouth, long Teeth, and fiery Eyes, came 
ona'fudden, and with a long Stick ftirr'd the Aflies about, and gathering it in an 
Urn, buried the fame with the fore-mention'd things. 

The Idols in ]$ch> Spain are reprefented in terrible figures, to which they Offer 

humane Sacrifices. 

The 



Chap. V. A M ERIC A. 

The Priefts, divided into higher or lower Orders, acknowledge a fuprcam 
Head, which chey call Tapa*. Each Idol had a peculiar forr of Priefts : Thole chat 
[crv'dFi.sflipuzji y obtain'd their Places by Inheritance; but others were, chofe by 
the Commonalty, unlefs they had been bred Priefh from their Infancy. 

The Mexican Cloyfters in the time of Heath emfm were generally built in the 
chiefeft Temples, in % a great Pia^a, or fcjuare Court, where for the raoft part 
two Monaftical Houles ftood one againft another, the one inhabited by a Fra- 
ternity of Reclufes, and the other by a Sifterhood ; which laft being Maids of 
twelve or thirteen years of age, call'd The .Penitential Daughters, fwept the Temple, 
prepaid Meat for the Idols and Priefts, which was plentifully fupply'd from the 
Alms and Offerings that were daily brought in to the Priefts, confiding of little 
Cakes made like Hands and Feet, befides other ftrange Meats, which being fet be* 
fore the Idols, was loon after taken away again,and eaten tip by the Priefts : They 
were under a Governefs, who employed them in making Embroideries to adorn 
the Temple ; and fometimes xofe up with the Priefts at Mid-night, and play'd on 
Pipes, perfum'd the Temple, and fcourg'd themfclves till the Blood ran down 
their Backs, befmearing their Faces therewith, and leaving it on a whole year ; 
then going into a large Chamber, where a Ciftem ftood for that purpoie, they 
wafh'd it oifagain ; after which, if they committed the lead uncleannefs, they were 
put to a moft miferable Death; which was judgd upon feeing a Rat run through 
the Nuns Chamber, or a Batt flying by it, or finding any piece of Cloth gnaw'n 
by a Moufe or Rat ; for they fuppofe that the fore=mcntion'd Creatures dare not 
come into a hallow'd place, unlefs defiTd. In this reclufe manner they were onely 
confin'd to live a year, which being expired, they had free leave to Marry. 

The Houfe oppofitc to the Nuns in the fame fquare place of the Temple, was 
inhabited by Youths of eighteen and twenty years of age, whofe Heads were 
fhaven like Monks, and pleited Tufts hung from the Crown down to their 
Backs ; they liv'd alio mean and chafte, kept the Priefts Clothes and Perfuming- 
VelTels, carried Wood for Offerings, and kept always burning Lamps before Viz{li- 
pu^tWs Altar. Amongft them were alfo Boys of a lefs Age, whofe Office was to 
gather Flowers and Herbs to ftrow the Temple with, to fharpen the Priefts Lan- 
ces, which they Let themfelves Blood wich every Night in the Legs, and carry 
them -Water. Thefe Youths, Cloth'd in Nets, fell on their Faces on the Ground 
when they met with a Woman, and went four and four, or fix and C\z together to 
beg Alms, and by turns watch'd the fore-mention'd Fire ; in the Morning they 
drew Blood out of their Thighs, with which they anointed their Temples down 
to their Ears, and when the Bloo'd looked black, wafh'd it offagain in a confccratcd 
Bath, which their ftricl: and fevere Life endur'd a whole Year, 

The particular Religion of the Mexicans, compos'd of cruel daughters and 
butcheries of Men, reign'd a long time againft the minds of the other Indians that 
were u»der their Dominion, everyone beginning more to abhor the cruel flaying 
of living People, and tearing out the Hearts of Men for Offerings; and the rather, 
becaufe they were fore'd to fetch them out of their Enemies Countrey with the ha- 
zard of their own Lives, infomuch that they were ready long before to hare em- 
braced another Doctrine, if any other Teacher had but appear'd amongft them ; 
which was the chief reafon why they fo eafily receiv'd the ^oman Religion ; for 
when Qortefius had coricjuer'd the City Mexico, the Mechoacan Agents entreated him 
to fend them Teachers to prefcribe them Laws, according to which they might 
live, becaufe their Idolatry, which had long opprefs'd them, was not to be furTer'd 
any longer, becaufe of the Cruelties which were required of them in the perfor- 
mance thereof. E e z Their 



*7* 



Cloyfters de- 
dicated to the 
ancient M* 
xi$an Reli- 
gion. 



Mixietn Re- 
ligion ab- 
horr'd by the 
neighboring 
People, 



2 J 6 



AMERICA. 



Cha