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Full text of "An Introduction to the Ateso Language"

First edition ^956 
Second edition ig^y 




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PRINTED AND BOUND IN ENGLAND BY 

llAZKLL WATSON AND VIHBV tTD 

AYLESBURY AND SLOUGH 



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CONTENTS 

FOREWORD BY T. R. F. COX, C.M.G. ix 

PREFACE BY THE AUTHORS xi 

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION XV 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Alphabet 

2. Pronunciation 

3. Orthography 

4. Word Order 

1- I NOUNS 

5. Gender 

6. Noun prefix 

7. Number 

8. Article 



^'t-/^ r,r.." .^rr. <*r.,^ ,v..,^>> 



II VERB "TO BE' AND TO HAVE 



III VERBS: PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES 



13. Ko and ki classes 

14. Present tense 

15. Continuous verbs 



\ 16. Future tense 



nJ, 17. Infinitive 

^Ci '■ IV VERBS: PAST TENSES 

'^ 18. Past (abu) tense 




XIX 



XXI 



XXI L 



■ • H 



XXllt 



\. 



3 
4 



9. Four forms of verb "to be'* 5 

10. Present tenses 5 

11. Verb '*to have" y 

12. Negative of verb **to be" y 



9 

9 

10 

It 

II 



^3 



^ 19. Continuous verbs — past tense ' j^ 

js^ 20. Narrative past jj 

21. Past (a- or e-) tense ,^^T'""**^ tc 



VI 



CONTHNTS 



V YERB;S; TERFECT TENSE 



t 

22. Perfect (-it) tense I 

23. Uses of perfect (-it) tense 



VI PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE AND 

INTERROGATIVE ADJE.CTIVES 



24. Personal pronouns 



25- 
26. 

27. 

28. 



Personal pronouns as object of the verb 
Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives 
Relative pronoiuis i 
Interrogative pronouns and adjectives 



VU POSSESSIVES 



29. Possessive adjectives 

30. Possessive pronouns 

31. Possessive article 



7 
7 



20 

2T 
21 



22 



23 



26 
26 



VIII verbs: infinitive and subjunctive/ 

IMPERATIVE 

32. Formation of infinitive 

33. Uses of infinitive 
2^. Formation of subjunctive/impci-ative 

35. Uses of subjunctive/imperative 

36. Negative imperative ' 



28 
8 
29 

30 



i 



o 



IX QUALITY VERBS 



37. Definition of quality Verbs 

38. Present tense of quality verbs 

39. Other moods and tenses. 



32 
32 

33 



X' ADJECTIVES 



40. Invariable adjectives 

41. Variable adjectives 

42. Adjectives formed from verbs 

i 

43. Adjectives formed from nouns 

44. Ka and kanuka j 



35 
35 

I 

.1 
36 



CONTENTS 



V 



XI NUMERALS 



45'. ^ Cardinal numbers 

46. Ordinal numbers 

47. Multiplication 

48. Dates and time 



3 
3' 
4' 
4' 



XII CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 



49. Types of conditional sentences 

50. Simple conditional sentences 

51. Unfulfilled conditions 

52. "Should", "ought", etc. 



4 

4 
4 



ti 



. J> 



53 

54 

55 
56 

57 



XIII verbs: HABITUAL AND NOT YET TENS' S 

Use of habitual tense 
Formation of habitual tense 

Not yet" 
Formation of "not yet" tense 

Use of "not yet" tense 



a 



4 

4 ' 



59- 
60. 



XIV verbs: derived verbs 



58. Use of derived verbs 



Formation of derived verbs 
Conjugation of derived verbs 



4' 
4! 



r ) 



XV verbs: reflexive and reciprocal form 

61. Use of the reflexive form 

62. Formation of the reflexive — present tense 

63. Reflexive pronouns 

64. Formation of the reflexive: other moods arid tense 

65. Use of the reciprocal form 






1 



I 



> 



XVI verbs: passive forms 



66. Use of passive form 

67. Formation of passive form 



.' 7 
' 7 



4*1 



vm 



CONTENTS 



XVII verbs: rUEPOSITlONAL SUFFIX 



68. Use of prepositional suffix 

69. Formation of prepositional suffix 

70. Further uses of prepositional suffix 



60 
61 

fi3 



XVIII PRErOSITIONS AND. ADVERBS 



71. Prepositions 

72. Adverbs 



65 
66 



^ XIX verbs: TARTlCirLES AND VERBAL NOUNS 

73. Present participle 

74. Formation of past participle 

75. Use of past participle 

76. Verbal nouns and adjec:tives ending in -n 

77. Verbal nouns and adjectives ending in -t 

78. Irregular verbs 



70 
70 
70 

71 

72 

73 



APPENDIX i: VERB DERIVATION AND CONJUGATION 
APPENDIX II: SAMPLE LOWER STANDARD EXAMINA- 
TION PAPERS 
KEY TO EXERCISES 



7 



6 



81 

84 



-' 



FOREWORD 



It gives me the greatest pleasure, both as Provincial Comrni; nonei 
of the Province in vi^hicli Teso is situated and as Chairman of the 
Languages Board, to write a forev^ord to this book. 

Father Hilders is a priest in the Mill Hill Mission. H is in 
charge of the Teachers' Training College at Madera, near loroti, 
and has been in Teso for many years. Mr. Lawrance was I istrict 
Commissioner, Teso, for over five years and is the first ad ninis- 
trative officer to have passed the lower and intermediate st tidard 
examinations in the Ateso language. He has also made ■' close- 
study of the histoiy and customs of the Iteso and has W! tten a 
book on them, which I hope will soon be published. 

When Mr. Lawrance began to study the language 1k^ 1 id the 
great advantage of being taught by Father Hilders, < 'ut of 
those lessons has come this long-needed book. Encoura ed by 
Mr. Lawrance's example a number of other officers have tartecl 
to study this most difficult language. They, and their suc( 'ssors, 
will remember, with gratitude, Hilders and Lawrance. 



T. R. r. 



JiNjA 



ox 



loth March, 1955 



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PREFACE BY THE AUTHORS 



Ateso is the language of 511,000 Iteso* and is therefore one 
of the major languages of the Uganda Protectorate. The number 
of English-speaking persons who attempt to learn the language 
is at present small, but is increasing^ and some book such as this 
is urgently needed to help them in their studies; for the only 
book of this kind yet published is now in some respects out of 
date and is in any case out of print. | 

This book is intended only as an introduction to the language. 
Its form is designed to enable those who work through it with 
tlie help of i\ teacher and who know its contents to pass the 
Uganda Govermncnt lower standard language examination. 

We have therefore tried to keep the work as short as possible 
and to Include only what is (essential for the lower standard 
examination. It has not proved easy to decide what to omit and 
what to include. We liave decided to introduce only two past 

tenses and one perfect tense, but lest this arbitrary decision be 
resented we have included all t(;nses in the form of an appendix. 
We have also decided, apart from brief references in Chapters 
XIV and XIX, to leave the vast question of word derivation 
untouched; but some idea of the magnitude of this field of study 
is also given by examples in Appendix I. We have made little 
attempt to deal with the oral side of the language beyond the 
brief notes in the introduction. The intricacies of syllable pitch 
or tone, which plays such an important part in the language, 
differences in vowel sounds represented by the same letter and 
the presence of the *' shadow" vowel in nouns are subjects which 
can, in any case, never be learnt satisfactorily from a book. 

We hope that this book will prove useful to all those who start 
to learn Ateso, and for this re:ason we have avoided as far as 
possible the use of such grammatical terms as "voice", **mood", 

♦ See Notes on page xiv. 



* m 



xn 



PREFACE 



I I 



g^iuinaivc duu uic iiKt:, wnicn may noi oe lanuiiar to au users 
and which we do not consider essential in a book of this scople. 
It is, however, clearly impossible to write a grammar witho^it 
using a large number of grammatical terms. We have assumed 
knowledge of the names of the parts of speech and of the con'i- 



moner terms used to defhie the different forms of the verb, sudh 

' j 

infinitive", ''subjunctive" or "person". Other essen- 



as *' tense 



1 



tial terms, which may not be so well known, such as "passive 
"conditional", "reflexive", or "causative" are explained as they 
appear in the text. So too are all new terms such as "qualip^ 
verbs", "continuous verbs" or "prepositional suffix" which have 
been coined to explahi grammatical concepts not found' in 
Nilotic or Bantu languages. We have included an occasional 
passing reference to the Maasai Grammar by Dr. A. N. Tucker 
and Mr. J. Tompo Ole Mpaayci, which is shortly to be published, 
because we believe it important ultimately to find a common 
granunatical terminology for those grammatical concepts peculisir 
to the Nilo-Hamitic languages. ! 

Some terms used by grammarians of the Ateso language w;e 
believe to be not only unfamiliar but also vague, and we havje 
adopted new ones. Thus we have avoided the usual classification 
of verbs into "strong" and "weak" classes and called the tw'o 
classes ki and ko classes after the prefix used in the imperative 
form; for what Bishop ICitclningf and Father A. M. Hendrikseh 
call "strong" verbs, Father F. J. McGough and Father Kiggen 
call "weak" verbs. | Similarly the terms used to describe the 
various past and perfect tenses vary considerably among the 
' difi'erent authorities. Wc have therefore decided to define such 
tenses by adding the prefix or suflix used m the third person 
singular in brackets after the tense. Thus the tense called by 
Bishop Kitching the "present imperfect",! ^y Father Kiggen 
the **past",| by Father McGough the "far perfect" and by 
Father Hcndriksen the "present far perfect" is called by us the 
"perfect (-it)" tense. 

The order in which the chapters are arranged is arbitrary, 






■ -i ■ . 



PKEFACE 



XI n 



designed to introduce as soon as possible the knowledg' which 
will enable students to form simple sentences which t] ey can 
try out in speech. The total number of chapters corr ^ponds 
with the total number of lessons normally given fo lowei 
standard examinations. The exercises which follow each haptei 
are not graded in difficulty through the length of th' book. 
Their purpose is to ensure that the lesson contained mi each 
chapter has been learnt and understood. 

The vocabularies contain only the words necessary or the 
exercises. More extensive word knowledge is, of course, nt :essary 
for the lower standard examination. This must be acquirt .1 from 
a teacher, from reading and from speaking the language. Bishop 
Kitching's bookj contains an excellent vocabulary an a Urt 
of useful phrases, but the spelling does not conform to the 
present orthographical rules. 

There is very litde original reading matter published h Ateso,. 
For the lower standard examination we recommexid the ransla- 
tions of the New Testament or '*Kidar Aijarakon" by Enoch 
Olinga published by the East African Literature Buiea i. The 

*■"■ 

■ first Xhree books of "Bia Kosiom", a school reader based on the 
Luganda series "J^ngu Osome" and published by Lor jmans, 
Green & Co., arc also useful. Father Kiggen's *'Granur tr nak' 
Ateso"! is written in simple Ateso and is also useful as eading 
matter; it is, however, no longer in print. The Uganda ( overn- 
ment news-sheet ''Apupeta" is published monthly by the J depart- 
ment of Information, Kampala, but unfortunately at the tresent 
time is not written in the correct orthography. 

We wish to record our thanks to Mr. W. H. Whitele} of the 
East African Institute of Social Research for his help and advice 
in the early stages of the preparation of this work; to Mis N. C. 

Wiggins of the Church Missionary Society, Ngora, who kindly 
commented on the manuscript and suggested several con actions 
and additions; and to Dr. A. N. Tucker of the School of ( riental 
and African Studies, London University, to whom we ( ve the 
classification of vowel sounds given in the Introduction ; ad the 



^ * 



XIV PREFACE 

useful rule governing the conjugal' i of verbs i;iade possible 
only by this classification. To give this rule practical effect w& 
have indicated in the vocabularies only v^hether the root vowel of 
verbs is * 'close' ' or "open' ' . Lastly, we wish to acknowledge the help 
given by nnany students at the Soroti Teachers' Training College 

in checking many doubtful points. 

Those who wish to acquire a more detailed knowledge of the 
structure of the language must rely largely on unpublished 
material. A full list of all known works appears in "A Linguistic 
Bibliography of East Africa". § Outstanding among these 
works is a comprehensive grammar compiled by Father A. M. 
Hendriksen of the Mill Hill Mission, of which a few cyclostyled 
copies are available in private ownership. This grammar has 
proved most useful to lis in the preparation of this book, and 
many of the examples used to illustrate a point have been taken 

from it. 

Soroti 
August 1954 



* 1948 Census: 511,271 Tteso in E. Africa, of whom 462,664 live 

in Ugtinda, mainly in Leso and Dukedi districts. There are also 108,282 
Karamojong, who speak a closely allied language. 

f Kitching, Rev. A. L. : "A Handhook of the Ateso Language,'* 
London, 1915. 

J Kiggen, Rev. Father J.: "Grammar nak'Ateso," Ngora, 1928. 

§ "A Linguistic Bibliography of East Africa," published by The 
East African Swahili Committee and The East African Institute of 
Social Research, Kampala, 1954. 



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■■ » 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

' w 

It is gratifying that a second edition of An Introduction to the 
Ateso Language should be' required less than twelve months after 
its publication. Nevertheless, the rapidity with which this demand 
has arisen has deprived us, in our task of preparing a second 
edition, of the advantages of published criticism, for none has yet 
appeared. The suggestions made in this Preface are theiefore of 
necessity our own, although once again we wish to thank Miss 
Wiggins for pointing out some failings. 

One of the most serious of these failings is in paragraph 25. 
The explanation given in that paragraph of the special forms 
required wlien personal pronouns are used as objects of the verb 
is incomplete, for it deals only v/ith cases in which the 'subject of 
the verb is in the third person. When the subject of the verb is 
in the first or second persons iand the object of. the verse is a 
personal pronoun of the first or second persons, the personal 
prefix is that of the subject of the verb, but with k- added. Full 

examples of this usage, which is often known as tlie ^'contained 
object'*, are as follows: ' 

(Subject of the verb In the first person): 

kalimokini eoi] ijo — I tell you 
aliniokini eoij nes — I tell liim 
kilimokini isio yes— we tell you 
kilimokini isio^ kes— we tell them 

(Subject of the verb in the second person): 

kilimokini ijo eoq — you tell me 
iliniokini iJQ- nes — you tell him 
kilimolcinete yesi isio^you tell us 
ilimokinete yesi' kes— you tell them 
(Subject of the verb in the third person): 

kalimokini nesi eoq — he tells me 



kilimokini nesi ijo — he tells you 



I.A.L. 



^Vl PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 

kilimokinete kesi isio— they tell us 
kilimokinete kesi yes — ihey tell you 
Although in paragrkph 38 it is noted that the letter t of -(iL 
changed to s in the plural, no indication is given that this 
general rule. The final t of verb roots normally changes 
before i or e. i 



IS 



e.g. 
but 



aiinat^ — to drink 
aniasi — I drink 



IS a 
to s 



.) 



(The word ilet (it(itiak) is, however, a notable exception: 
We have differentiated between "open" and ''close" m^\ 
by printing '*close" vowels in itahcs. It should perhaps be m^^^^^ | 
that the normal procedure, followed in the Maasai Granniia^ Y^ 
Dr. A. N. Tucker and, Mr. J. Tompo Ole Mpaayei and in cer'' -"^ 
other works, is to diflerentiate by printing "open", not "clo ^^!^ 
vowels in phonetic symbols or italics. We should also add th?^^^. ' 
derived verbs the vowels of the sufRxes -un, -ar (-or) and -, , ^ 

^ . 1 " " Kill 

are always 



"open" 



Thus: 



apak nEiiTjarakiuia^wlien he helps 



(suffix in 
whereas i\\t vowels of the same suffixes in the reflexive are ahi 
"close'\ 



-a) 



/avs 



rii 



rhus: 



iqarakhios— they help tliemselves 



y 



-o) 

im- 



(sufllx in 
We referred in the l.^reface to the first edition to certain gn 

matical concepts which occur in Ateso, but which arc not foi t 

in Nilotic or Bantu languages, and we stressed the hnportanc[ r 

finding a common grammatical tern)inolbgy for the Nilo-Ham''^..^ 

languages. We would add that there is some danger in the hurii . , 

i • t ' O IPC 1 

application to Ateso of grammatical tenhs wliich may be ap]] 
priate to other language families, but which are inappropriate 
Nilo-Hamitic languages. 

For instance, the form of the Ateso verb which we have cal, ^ 

"passive" in Chapter XVI is not really a true passive exreoi ^ 

-^ ^ ' ^t in 



II' I ' ^ ' 



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(■;i =.:■-;: 



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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION XVJ 

+ 

the infinitive. As already indicated in paragraph 66, it is inore o 
an impersonal form^ meaning ^'someone does the actio t of th- 
verb to me, to you, to him", etc. The "contained objec ' form 
must therefore be used with the passive. Thus: 

kasubio eoij — I am being created 
and, not, as might be expected; 

asubio eog 

, ■ Similarly; kicorakinitai ijo — you have been ordered. 

This impersonal use accounts for the Ateso rendering of sue' 
phrases of "He can be chosen". English puts the auxili ry veri 
in the active and the main verb in the passive, but in / leso tli 
process is usually reversed: 

epedorio aseun— lie can be cliosen. 
The use of the term "reflexive" for the form of the erb de 
scribed in Chapter XV may also prove to be inapp'opriat( 
Admittedly this form, with or without the pronouns boa ( r elope 
is often used as a true reflexive. I'he same form^ however , is use 
in the conjugation of the group of verbs, which for v mt of 
better term we have called "continuous verbs"; the idea v 
reflexiveness is entirely absent in this group of verbs. 
e.g. eiiiinas ajon — they like beer 

The reflexive in many cases also supplies an intransit ve fori' 

of a transitive verb : 



active: aiyatakin (with sufllxes in -a) — to increase 



'( 



(t) tnsitiv 

reflexive: aiyatakin (with suffixes in -o) — to increa e 

(intr nsitive 

We do not at this stage suggest an alternative term to "n lexive' 

We mention these difficulties merely to emphasise the leed fv 

further study and for care in the application of famifi i grair 

matical terms to Nilo-Hamitic languages. We are, howe er, no- 

I 

convinced that the term "passive" applied to Ateso is nappif 
priate and misleading and that it should be replaced ')y son 
such term as "impersonal". 

Nagongera 

i6th April J 1957 



) 



INTRODUCTION 

■ 

1 . Alphabet: (i) There are twenty-two letters in the Teso alpha- 
bet. F, H, Q, V, X and Z are not used and Q and NY are added. 
The' pronunciation guides which follow are approximate only; 
the correct sounds can only be learned by practice from a teacher, 
(ii) There are five vowels in Ateso: 

A, E, I, O, U. 

These five letters, however, represent more than five sounds, 
for the letters E, I, O and U have two distinct values each, a 
"close'* value and an ''open*' value. 

*'Close" vowels are pronounced approximately as follows: 
E as in beg (Fjench e) aipet (to kick) 

I as in seat aidip (to hit) 

as in the Scottish pronunciation of o in bone (French: 

eau) 

aiinor (to insult) 
U as in fool aikut (to scratch earth) 

*'Open" vowels are pronounced approximately as follows: 
E as in there (French ^:) aipet (to lay out) 

1 as in sit ailid (to fasten) 

O as in gone (or as in glory when long) 

aimer (to share) 

U as in full aikut (to blow) 

A is pronounced as in father (never short as in ram) 

abal (to say) 

It will be seen from paragraphs 15, 1 8 and elsewhere that the 
fact of whether the root vowel of a verb is ''close" or "open" 
aftects the conjugation of the verb. For this reason, as an aid to 
students, "close" vowels of verb roots will be printed in italics 
when they occur in the vocabularies. 

(iii) Where the vowels AI or 01 stand together they represent 
sounds approximating to the i in bite and the oy in alloy respec- 



XX 



INTRODUCTION 



tively. In other vowel combinations both vowels must be given 
their full values. Thus kau (behind) is pronounced *'kah-oo", 
not "ko\v". 

(iv) All words ending in a consonant possess a semi-mute or 
* 'shadow" vowel after the final consonant, which is not pro- 
nounced when the word stands in isolation, but which is pro- 
nounced when the word is followed by another word beginning 
with a consonant: 

e.g. The Ateso translation of "the women go to the house" 

is written: elosete aijor togo 
but is pronounced: elosete aqoro togo 
If the word following is normally written as one with the preced- 
ing word, the "shadow" vowel is not onlypronounced but written: 
e.g. elosete agoroke togo—his women go to the house 
Other examples are given in (vii) below. 

(v) There are sixteen consonants and one semi-yowel in Ateso, 
pronounced approximately as follows: 



B as in bat 

C as in chat (never as in cat) 

D as in dog 

G as in get (never as in geology) 
J 

K 

L as in let 

M as in mat 

N as in nut 



as m jam 
as in kit 



bobo 
yenicici 

edederj 
egogor) 
ejijim 
ekek 
elal 
* mam 
nen 

as in singer (never as in finger) ijopeqol 

NY as in onion ekweny 

P as in put papa 

arerer) 

aisisia 
toto 

yoga 



R as in rend (should be well rolled) 

S as in sit 
T as in tot 
Y as in yet 
Semi-vowel: 

W as in wit 



I I 



awaraga 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

(vi) In words of foreign origin introduced into Ateso the 
missing sound F is replaced by P and the missing sound V by 
B or P. Z is replaced by S. 

Thus nieza (table) (Kiswahili) becomes e-mesa 

okit-fuga (to rule) (Luganda) becomes ai-puga 

(vii) It is an invariable rule that two consonants can never 
stand together in the same word. Both in speech and in writing 
when word construction brings two consonants together, either 
one of the consonants must be dropped or the ''shadow" vowel 
mentioned in sub-paragraph (iv) above must be inserted between 

the consonants. 

E.g. (Omission of one consonant) 

Nen-pe-nen (just here) is written and pronounced nepeneii. 

(Insertion of * 'shadow'* vowel) 
rjol turjanan (every man) is written and pronounced 

ijoliturjanan 

Elacet kon (your key) is written and pronounced elacetekoii 
It IS not the intention in this book to indicate the *'shadow'' 
vowel applicable to each word, and there is no rule by which it 

can be determined; where in the examples in this book the 
*'shadow" vowel occurs, an explanatory note will usually indicate 
that the particular vowel is "inserted for euphony". 

The fact that in some works the two letters NG are found 
together is no exception to the above rule. These two letters are 
merely an alternative representation of the sound Q, in the same 
way as the letters NY represent one sound. The semi-vowel W, 
however, can and frequently does follow a consonant: 

aswam (work) 

! I 

2. Pronunciation: The correct pronunciation of these letters 
when formed into \Yords can only be learned by practice. As a 
general rule all syllables should be given equal stress, though the 

stem or root syllable perhaps carries slightly more stress than 

other syllables. Stress does not, of course, affect the length of the 
vowel stressed or its pitch or tone. Syllable pitch is a difficult 



* ■ 



xxu 



INTRODUCTION 






subject which will not be treated in this book. It must suflHce to 
say that syllable pitch plays a vital part in correct pronunJiation 
and that many words, which are spelt identically, have a different 
meaning according to syllable pitch. Thus; 

— ~^— elipi — I pray 

elipi — I was praying 
elipi — he was praying 

3. Orthography: (i) The spelling used in this book is in 
accordance with the official orthography .greed upon by the 
Teso Orthography Committee in 1947. 

It was then accepted as a general principle that all >vords 
should be Avritten in full even though normally contacted in 
speech. It should be; particularly noted that a short -a or -e at 
the end of a word is dropped in speech when the word is followed 
by a word beginning with a vowel. 

ekitabo loka etelepat— the book of the boy 
is pronounced ekitabo lok' etelepat. 

(ii) There are other ways in which orthographical rules ai'e not 
always m accordance with practised pronunciation. Therc^ is a 
tendency to omit the letter k when it forms part of a prefix. 
TIuis m the above example ekitabo would usually be pro- 
nounced eitabo. It is interesting to note in this respect that 
Bishop Kitching records many verbs as having the prefix aki- 
in the infinitive. This prefix is now written and pronouncecl ai-, 
ahhough the k is still retained in the speech of the Iteso cf «he 
Tororo area.* 

(iii) Foreign words coined into the language are made to 
conform to Ateso sp.jlling by adding appropriate prefixes. 

Thus meza (Kiswahili)— "table"— becomes einesa 

okufuga (Luganda)~"to rule"— becomes aipuga 

There is some divergence regarding the gender of such 
borrowed nouns. Thus the forms abalua (feminine) and ebalua 

* There is some indication that the spoken language is continuing to 
move aM'ay from the written language and that some aspect "f the 
orthograpliy may well need revision soon ^ 



^ r* L 4 . MMf,*-, 1 ^4 « 



■ 



INTRODUCTlOiM xxiii 



(masculine) are found for the word meaning "a letter". 1 oth art 
equal!}' correct. 

(iv) The Teso Orthography Committee was unabl(! t > agree 
upon the spelling of the word nes (he, she, it). Altlio gh tin 
form nes, favoured by the Catholic Mission, is used in th ^ book 
the form i]es is equally correct. 



4. Word Order: Pronunciation and word order can nly b( 
learnt by experience and practice in the language. The h lowing 
rules are for rough guidance only. 

(i) The usual order of words in a simple sentence in / 'eso is: 

verb — subject— object 
ekoto — Petero — ekiijok 

(Peter wants a dog) 

The subject can, however, precede the verb, particular 7 if tb( 
subject is to be emphasised. 

Petero ekoto ekiyok is equally correct, but peih: ps lese 
usual than the first example. 

The order of words with the negative mam sliould b' noted. 
In a negative sentence the subject must precede the vdd : 

mam Petero ekoto ekirjok— Peter docs not \vant a do^ 
It is incorrect to say: main ekoto Petero ekiijok, 

(ii) Adjectives and numerals invariably follow the noi is the3 



qualify: 



amina ekhjok loepol — I love a big dog 
akoto itiaja akais aarei— I want twenty men 



The adjectives listed in paragraph 41 (ii), (iii) and ( v) are, 
however, exceptions to this rule. These adjectives may iu'ecede 
the nouns they qualify, m which case they are written as oik 
w^ord with them: 

konyarau ediotuan — call anyone 

(iii) Adverbs invariably follow the verbs they qualify: 

ebunlt atipet — he is coming quickly 



'/-' 






XXIV 



INTRODUCTION 



J 

Adverbs of time must be placed immediately after the verb: 

ebuuit bian nesi— he came yesterday 
It is incorrect to say ebuuit iiesi bian. 

Interrogative adverbs may, however, precede the verb for 
emphasis, when strengthened with the participle bo: 

Aibo elosit etelepal. ? — Where has the boy gone? 
(iv) There is no rule governing the position of pronouns, but 
sec par^igraph 25 below. 

kinonii ijo nesi— he is beating you ' 

kinonii nesi ijo — he is beating you 
The interrogative pronoun, however, when the subject of a 
sentence, precedes tlie verb: 

Iijai eduHt etogo?— Who built the house? 



. -i 



-* 



CHAPTER I 



NOUNS 



5. Gender: For grammatical purposes all nouns in At( ;o may 

be divided into three classes or genders: (a) masculine, ( ) fem- 
inine and (f) neuter. 

(a) Masculine nouns are: 

(i) Names of male beings: i 

e.g. ekii]ok — dog 

etelepat— boy 

'- (ii) Names of trees, fruits, herbs, and grasses: 

F 

e.g. eloa — mwdc tree 

enimu — lemon 

(iii) Names of insects: 

e.g. esirut — mosquito 

(iv) Names of non-indigenous liquids: 

e.g. ecai — tea 

ekawa — coffee 

(Zi) Feminine nouns are: 

+ 

■ (i) Names of female beings: 

e.g. akiijok — bitch 

apese — girl 

(ii) Names of languages and countries: 

e.g. Ateso— the Teso language or coi itry 

Aniusuguii — the English language 

(iii) Names of indigenous liquids: 

e.g. ajon — beer 

akile — milk 

i (iv) Abstract nouns:- 

e.g. ajokus— goodness 

aojau — height 



r-~ . 



1 



.1 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



(v) Verbs used as nouns: 

e.g. alosit— 

abunere— 



(c) Neuter nouns are: 



going 
coming 



(i) Names of neuter or generic objects: 



e-g- 



iturjanan — person (sex unknown) 



(ii) Names of diminutive objects; 

e.g. ikiijok— puppy 

ipese — baby girl 



Imoru — pebble 



6. Noun prefix: 



(i) Every noun in Ateso has a j^refix which varies accordi 



ng to 



the gender of the noun or according to whether the noyn is 
singular or plural. 

(ii) The noun prefixes are: 



Masculine 



Singular: 

Plural; 



Feminine 



Neuter 



1 



a 



(iii) The only exceptions to this rule are certtiin nouns denot- 
ing relationship: 

e.g. , toto— mother; papa — father 
and the two words kide (east) and too (west), all of which ihave 
no noun prefix. 

(iv) It should, however, be noted that the noun prefix is 
always dropped when the noun comes after the following 'pro 

nouns or adjectives ; , j 

lo^who, which . 

ece — other 

i]ol — every 
edio — any, some 

ediope — one 

and their feminine, neuter or plural forms: 



e.g. etuijanan — a man 

aberu — a woman 
etelepat — a boy 



(i inserted for euphony) 



ecetur)anan— another mah 

' ^ I 

adiopeberu^one woman; 
rjolitelepat — every boy 



I 



NOUNS 3 

i 

7. Number: 

(i) To form the plural the ending of the noun is changed. 
This change may consist of the omission of the last syllable, the 
addition of another syllable or syllables, or the alteration of the 
last syllable or syllables: 

e.g. (omission) ainukat — shoe . aixiuk— shoes 
(addition) ekek — door ikekia — doors 

(alteration) apese — girl apesur— girls 

(ii) In the case of masculine nouns the noun prefix also changes 
as shown in paragraph 6 above from e- to i-. 

(iii) These changes in the endings of nouns are so irregidar 
that it is not worth while trying to formulate rules for the forma- 
tion of plurals. The plural form of each noun will be given in 
brackets after the singular form in the vocabularies. 

(iv) Certain nouns, however, which are derived from verbs, 
form their plurals according to I'ules; 

[a) Nouns denoting an agent (a person >vho does the action of 
the verb) form a singular ending in -an or -on and a 
plural ending in -ak or -pk: 

e.g. ekamejaii — hunter ; ikamejak — hunters 
ekecokon — herdsman; ikecokok — herdsmen 
(See also Chapter XIX below.) 

(b) Nouns denoting something which does or, is done, form a 
singular ending in -et or -etait and a plural ending in 
-eta: 

e.g. elacet— (a thing which loosens) key 

ilaceta — keys 
arapetait — cover 
arajieta^covers 

(v) Some nouns have no singular and exist only in the 

plural: 

e.g. akipi— -water ajon — beer 

ajo — sleep ileic — shame 

Other nouns have no plural and exist only in the singular; 

e.g. ekuron — ashes akoloij— sun 

adam — brain eduan — weeds 



1^ ^ 



M 



4 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



(vi) Abstract nouns and names of diseases, as in English, have 
no plural. 

(vii) Some nouns form their plural from other roots 



e.g. aberu — woman 

ikoku — child 



agor 
idwe 



■women 
■children 



(viii) Some nouns, in addition to the normal plural, form a .\ 
generic plural by adding -sinei to the plural form: 



e.g 



etuqanan — man 



ituqa 



men 



itugasinei — mankind 
akwap — country 
akwapin — countries 
akwapisinei— the world (n dropped for euphony). 



8. Article: There is no definite or indefinite article in Ateso. 

to the 



Aberu means *'a woman" or '*the 
context. 



woman 



according 



Vocabulary : 



t 



etuganan (ituga) — man (human being) 

aberu (agor) — woman 
etelepat (itelepai) — boy 
emir (imirio) — rat 
ekigok (igokwo) — dog 
akipi (pi. only) — water 
amoru (amor) — stone, rock 
emesa (imesan) — table 
akiteg (akituk) — cow 
emog (imogin) — bull 

akinyet (sing, only) — fat, oil, paraffin 
ekiliokit (ikiliok) — man (male being 
ikoku (idwe) — child 
apese (apesur) — girl 



^-^i^rnl^ 



I 



NOUNS 



5 



akokor (akokorei) — hen 
akile (pi. only) — milk 
imoru (imor) — pebble 
ekalamu (ikalamun) — pencil, pen 

ekitabo (ikitabon) — book 
etogo (itogoi) — house 



I 



■■i 



I 



CHAPTER II 



VERB "TO BE" AND "TO HAVE" 

9. Four forms of the verb "to be": In Ateso there are four 

forms of the verb "to be". The first is used to express place 

(ejaas ore-they are at home) or existence (ejaas ikacudak- 

there are sorcerers). The second form expresses quahty (eraas 

Iteso-they are Iteso). The third is used to express numerical 

quantity and can therefore only be used in the plural (imwaas 

itomon-they are ten). The fourth, a rarer form than the other 

three is used to express size or bulk (etiaas ai ?-how hm are 
they?). ^ 

The infinitives of these four forms are : 

(i) ajaus (or ajaut) 

(ii) araus (or araut) 
(iii) amwaus 
(iv) atiaus 

10. Present tense: The present tense of the verb "to be" is: 

ajai— I am (used of place or existence) 



(i) 



• ■ » 

ijai 
ejai 



■you are 
-he IS 



(ii) 



kijai (kijaa)— we are 

ijaas — you are 
ejaas—they are 

arai — I am 



irai 

erai 

kirai 



you are 
he is 
we are 



(used of quality) 



iraas — you are 
eraas— they are 



VERB "to be" and *' TO HAVE " 7 



(iii) 



• * 



• « 



kimwai — v^e are (used of quantity) • 

imwaas — you are 
imwaas — they are 

(iv) atiai — I am (used of size or bulk) 

itiai — you are 
etiai — he is 
kitiai — we are 
itiaas — you are 
etiaas — they are 



11. The verb '*to have": There is no separate verb **to have" 
in Ateso. Possession is expressed by use of the verb **to be" 
(ajaus). Thus the idea *T have a cow" must be expressed by 
turning the words to "there is a cow tobne". Ejai eoq akiter 
I have a cow. Ejaas eoq akituk — I have cows. 



12. Negative with the verb **to be": Verbs are made nega- 
tive by prefixing the word mam (not). 

Aduki — I build. Mam aduki — I do not build. 

The negative mam is also used with all four forms of the verb 
"to be" ; but when the verb "to be" expresses place or existence 
it is more usual to use the verb amameun (to be absent). 
E.g. Ejai Petero qina ? Emamei — Is Peter there? He is not. 
Emameete isirikalei ikitadan — The soldiers do not have 

beds. 
But when particular emphasis lies on the negative it is possible 
to use mam whh the verb ajaus: e.g. Ejai etelepat qina. 
Mami ejai — The boy is there. He is definitely not. 

Vocabulary : 

ore — at home 



lailo — on this side, here 



I.A.L. — 3 



J. 



] 



'.' 



8 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



kane (often shortened to ne) — here 

gina or kagina — there 

ai ? — where? how? 
ekiror (ikiroria)— name 
ekitada (ikitadan)~bed 
esirikalet (isirikalei)— soldier 
. Etesot (Iteso)— Teso man 



Exercise: 

(i) Where is the bed ? 
(ii) It is at home, 
(iii) We are Teso men. 
(iv) They are not there, 
(v) How many are you ? 
(vi) The boy has no dog. 
(vii) The cows are at home, 
(viii) How many names are there ? 
(ix) We are here, 
(x) The man is an Etesot. 



t 



i 



CHAPTER III 



VERBS: PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES 



13. Classes of verbs: (i) Ateso expresses many parts of speech 
by using verbs: adjectives are constructed from verbs, conjunc- 
tions and prepositions are frequently translated by verbs and 
many nouns are derived from verbs. Many varying forms of 
verbs can be derived from one root, which is the part of the word 
which conveys the basic meaning. Aiduk means *'to build*'; 
eduki means "he builds"; edukete means "they build". The 
root of this verb is duk, which conveys the basic meaning and 
which remains unaltered in all tenses, moods and derived forms 
of the verb. Only a few of the many derived forms and many 
tenses will be dealt with in this book, although other forms and 
tenses will be listed in Appendix 1. 

(ii) All verbs in Ateso fall, for grammatical purposes, into two 
classes, which differ from each other in conjugation. These two 
classes are termed the ko and the ki class from the prefixes used 
in the imperative: 

aiduk (ko class) — to build. Imperative: koduk 
ailip (ki class) — to pray. Imperative: kilip 
There is no rule to assist one in placing any particular verb 
in its appropriate class.* In the vocabularies the class will be 
indicated in brackets after each verb. 



14. Present tense: The verb changes according to person by 
adding prefixes. These personal prefixes are: 

ko class: a-, i-, e-, ki-, i-, e- 

ki class: e-, i-, i-, ki-, i-, i- 

* This is not wholly true. Different pitch or tone patterns indicate 
whether a verb in its basic form belongs to the ko or to the ki class. 

Syllable tone in ko verbs is level (e.g. atnin ), whereas in ki verbs 

the tone goes down on the -i- of the infinitive and up slightly on the 
root (e.g. ailip — — ). 



) 



I 



It 



t 



\ 



10 ATESO LANGUAGE 

The present tense is formed by putting the personal prefixes 
in front of the root and by adding -i after the root in the singular 
and first person plural and -ete in the second and third persons 
plural for both classes of verb. The present tense is therefore as 
follows : 

AIDUK (ko)— to build AILIP (ki)— to pray 

aduki— I build elipi— I pray 

iduki— you build ilipi— you pray 

eduki^he builds ilipi-_he prays 

kiduki— we build kilipi— we pray 

idukete— you (pi.) build ilipete— you (pi.) pray 

edukete— they build ilipete— they pray 

The present tense can be translated by *T build" or *T am 
building" according to context. 

15. Continuous verbs: There are some verbs which express 
an idea of continuing or prolonged action: e.g. "to stare", **to 
want". Such verbs form a group, which differs from ordinary 
verbs by having different suffixes in the various tenses. Verbs in 
this group may belong either to the ko or ki class. These verbs 
have been called '^continuous verbs" by Father Hendriksen and 
other grammarians and we have followed his terminology for 
want of a better word. It should, however, be noted that the idea of 
continuity in some verbs in this group is not always apparent to 
Europeans, e.g. einer (to speak). Moreover, there are some verbs 
which to Europeans may express an idea of continuity but which 
do not fall in this group, e.g. aomit (to think). In the new 
Maasai Grammar this group is termed *Verbs ending in a vowel" 
but this terminology is inapplicable to Ateso. 

Continuous verbs have the same personal prefixes as other 
verbs but the suffixes -o or -a replace the suffix -i and the 
suffixes -OS or -as replace the suffix -ete. The sufiixes -o and 
-OS are used after roots containing "close" vowels and the 
suffixes -a and -as after roots containing "open" vowels or -a-,* 

* A glance at Chapter XV or Part z of Appendix I will show that 
continuous verbs have the same shape and conjugation as reflexives. 



verbs: present and future tenses 



II 



AKOT (ko) 



AMIN (ko) 



■to want 



akoto — I want 
ikoto — you want 
ekoto — he wants 
kikoto — we want 



— to love 

amina — I love 
imina — you love 
etnina — he loves 
kimina — we love 



EINER (ki) 

— to speak 
enera — I speak 
inera — you speak 
inera — he speaks 
kinera — we speak 



ikotos — you want iminas — you love ineras — you speak 
ekotos — they want eminas — they love ineras — they speak 



16. Future tense: There is no separate form of the future 
tense in Ateso. The present tense is often used to indicate future 
action and the context makes the future meaning clear: 

e.g. Eduki moi — He will build tomorrow 
Where the idea of futurity cannot be made clear by the context 
the two verbs alosit (ko) — (to go) and abunere (ko) — (to come) 
are used, followed by an infinitive: 
e.g. Ebuni aanyun — He will see 

Kilosi ailip — We shall pray, we are going to pray. 



17, Infinitive: Uses of the infinitive are explained in full in 
Chapter VHI below. For the present it will suffice to say that it 
is commonly used, as in English, after certain verbs expressing 
ability or wishing: 

e.g. Epedori Petero aanyun emog — Peter is able to see a bull. 

Ekoto nesi aiduk etogo — He wants to build a house. 
The infinitive form of the verb is given in the vocabularies. It 
consists of a prefix ai- or a- (rarely ei-) and the root of the verb. 



Vocabulary : 

aiduk (ko) — to build 
akot (ko) — to want 
amin (ko) — to love 

aipup (ko) — to hear, listen 

atakan (ko)- 
ainom (ki)- 



■to appear 
to beat 



ailip (ki)— to pray 
einer (ki) — to speak 
aanyun (ko) — to see 

alosit (ko)- 
apedor (ko)- 



■to go 

■to be able 



kwana — now 



12 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



■, 



I 



r. 



* 



1! 



K 



■ I 



Exercise : 



(i 

(iii 
(iv 

(v 
(vi 

(vii 

(viii 

(ix 



He will build a house. 

I want to pray. 

We want to hear the names. 

You (plural) see the beds. 

The soldier appears here. 

He wants to beat the table. 

We want to be here. 

They are praying. 

The boy wants to go home. 

The girl can go now. 



!■ 



I 



1 + 



CHAPTER IV 



VERBS: PAST TENSES 



18. Past (abu) tense: (i) There are several past tenses in 
Ateso which express different shades of meaning. Only two of 
these tenses will be dealt with in this book, the remainder being 
listed in Appendix 1. These two are the past (abu) tense with 
its subsidiary form the narrative tense and the past (a- or e-) 
tense.* 

(ii) The past (abu) tense is formed by using the irregular verb 
abunere (ko) — (to come) as an auxiliary. The main verb has the 
personal prefix ka- in the first person singular and plural and 
ko- in all other persons in ko class verbs. In ki class verbs the 
personal prefixes are ke- in the first person singular and plural 
and ki- in all other persons. These personal prefixes are added 
to the root in the singular. In the plural the suffix -oto or -ata 
is added; -oto follows roots containing **close" vowels and -ata 
follows roots containing ''open" vowels or -a. This suffix -oto 
or -ata is frequently abbreviated to -o or -a, particularly when 
the root ends in a -t. 

The past (abu) tense is therefore as follows: 



AIDUK (ko)— to build 
abu kaduk — I built 

ibu koduk — you built 
abu koduk — he built 



AILIP (ki)— to pray 
abu kelip — I prayed 
ibu kilip — you prayed 
abu kilip— he prayed 



apotu kadukoto— we built apotu kelipata — we prayed 
ipotu kodukoto — you built ipotu kilipata — you prayed 
apotu kodukoto— they buih apotu kilipata— they prayed 

* A common alternative way of expressing past action is to use the 
verb adaun (finish) in the perfect (root) tense (see Appendix I, Part 2) 
followed by an infinitive : 

Adau eoq aanyun bian. 

I saw it yesterday. 



H 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



^ 



I 






The older forms of the auxihary verb, kebu (third person 
singular) and kipou (first person plural), are still widely used. 

Note : The main verb in this tense is identical in form with 
the subjunctive/imperative which will be explained in Chapter 
YIII below. The auxiliary verb is irregular. Note that the ist 
person plural, unlike the present tense, takes plural endings. 

(iii) The past (abu) tense is used of a past completed action: 
e.g. Abuetelepatkolotorebian— The boy went home yester- 
day, 
Apotu kodukoto etogo sek— They built the house long ago. 

(iv) Note that the subject of the verb is placed after the 
auxiliary abu and before the main verb. 

19. Continuous verbs: Continuous take the same personal 
prefixes as other verbs in the past tense but retain the same 
endings as in the present tense. Note, however, that the first 
person plural in the past tense must have the plural ending : 

abu kakoto— I wanted abu kener— I said 

ibu kokoto— you wanted ibu kiner— you said 

abu kokoto— he wanted abu kiner— he said 

apotu kakotos— we wanted apotu keneras— we said 

ipotu kokotos— you wanted ipotu kineras— you said 

apotu kokotos— they wanted apotu kineras— they said 

The past (attu) tense is not, however, commonly used with 

continuous verbs, which prefer the past (a- or e-) tense. 

20. Narrative past: In narrative, when several past tense 
verbs having the same subject follow one another, it is usual to 
use the past (abu) tense for the first verb of the series, but to 
omit the auxiliary abu in the remaining verbs: 

e.g. Abu etuqanan kolot Amuria koduk etogo. 

The man went to Amuria and built a house. 

Kanen abu koje idita, kiworiwor nes, ido kibw^aik 
ikoku nen, kidokok hes kuju aladoi. 

She made a basket, plastered it, put the child in it and 
placed it amongst the reeds. 






verbs: past tenses 15 

21. Past (a- or e-) tense: (i) There is one other past tense 
which is so common and useful as to necessitate inclusion. In 
form it is the same as the present tense except that it uses in the 
third person singular and plural, the personal prefix of the first 

person : 

e.g. aduki — he was building, he built 

elipi — he was praying, he prayed 
adukete — they were building, they built 
amina — he loved 
(ii) The difference in meaning between the past (abu) and the 
past (a- or e-) tenses is not easily defined. It appears that the 
latter is preferred whenever the time at which the action took 

place is expressed: 

e.g. Asubi kolo Lokasuban akwap. 

God created the world long ago. 
It also appears that the past (a- or e-) tense is used when the 
past action was a continuing one rather than a definite one: 

e.g. Aminas Iteso noi amej. 

The Iteso were fond of hunting, 
(iii) The Iteso differentiate between this tense and the present 
tense by difference in pitch of the syllables, a subject not covered 

in this work. 

Vocabulary : 

aidar (ki)— to keep, look ebore (iboro)— thing 

after kototna or toma — in 

aibwok (ki)— to carry kanuka— for 

abwnere (ko) — to come atipet — quickly 

ayogan (ki)— to greet mam— not 

ainyam (ko)— to eat bian— yesterday 
akor (ko) — to cultivate 

Exercise : 

(i) The soldier begged for water for the dog. 

(ii) He built a house quickly, 
(iii) The boy greeted the girl in the house. 



'\ 



h-h ^ 



1 



ll ■ 

rlji 



'\ 



'n 



^i 



, J 



1- 



4 



(v) The dogs loved eating rats. 
(vi) The bull did not want to go home, 
(vii) Did you want to carry the things there? 
(viii) He went to Soroti, built a house and looked after the 

property, 
(ix) I could not come here yesterday, 
(x) Did I not ask the boy to carry the books? 






CHAPTER V 



VERBS: PERFECT TENSE 



22. Formation of the perfect (-it) tense: Only one perfect 
tense will be considered in this book. This will be termed the 
perfect (-it) tense. Other perfect tenses will be listed in 
Appendix I. 

The perfect (-it) tense is formed by adding the suffix -it to 
the root of the verb in the singular and first person plural and the 
suffix -ito in the second and third persons plural. 

AIDUK (ko)— to build AILIP (lei)— to pray 

adukit — I have built elipit — I have prayed 

idukit — you have built ilipit — you have prayed 

edukit — he has built ilipit — he has prayed 

kidukit — we have built kilipit — we have prayed 

idukito(s) — you have built ilipito(s) — you have prayed 
edukito(s) — they have built iiipito(s) — they have prayed 
Verbs ending in -kin, -or (or -ar)Vnd -un form the perfect 
(-it) tense regularly, but -kinit is often contracted in speech to 
-kiit and -unit to -uut: 

e.g. aboqun — to come back 

ebogunit or eboquut — he has come back 
or ainakin — to give 

iinakinito or iinakiito — you have given 
The contracted form is colloquial and should not be used in 
writing. 



23. Uses of the perfect (-it) tense: (i) The essential idea 
conveyed by the perfect (-it) tense is one of completion ; the 
action has taken place but the exact time is undefined or of no 
consequence. Thus in the sentence **I have eaten" the implied 
meaning is that 'T am replete and need no more food". The 



i l8 ATESO LANGUAGE 



I 



a 






r 



* 
« 



■* 



1 
I 



'* 



\ 



li 



eating might have taken place a few minutes ago or some hours 
ago; the exact time is immaterial. 
E.g. Iqai edukit esomero lo?— Who built this school? 

(The time when the school was built is immaterial; it 



j is still standing.) 



Iqai eanyunit ekalamuka ?— Who has seen my pen } 
(Time is again immaterial. The pen is still missing.) 
(ii) The perfect (-it) tense can have an apparent present 
meaning when it expresses action which has already started and 
is still going on. 

E.g. Aibo ejai etelepat ? Ebunit— Where is the boy? He*s 

coming. 

(Implying that the boy has already started to come. 
The present tense ebuni would imply that he was about 
to come only.) 

(iii) The perfect (-it) tense can also be used to express cus- 
tomary or habitual action which has started and still continues. 
(There is also a habitual tense ; see Chapter XIII below.) 
E.g. Enapitos Ilok imukulen— The Karamojong wear skins. 
(iv) The perfect (-it) tense is used to express a present idea 
resulting .from a completed action. The sentences "The jar is 
full'* or *Thc man is drunk" convey a present meaning but 
result from a completed action. The jar is full because it has been 
filled. The man is inebriated because he has drunk. 
E.g. aibar — to acquire riches 

ebarit — he is rich (because he has acquired 

riches) 
aidak — to lift 
Edakit aberu ikoku— The woman carries the child. 

(An object must have been lifted up before it can be 
carried.) 

This use results in the formation of a new verb which may have 
its own infinitive. 

E.g. adakit — to carry 

alosit — to go 

anapit — to be dressed 



■ 

1 



verbs: perfect tense 



Vocabulary : 



19 



aicorakin (ki) — to command, to tell 
acamun (ko) — to agree, to consent 
air) ar akin (ki) — to help 
ayaun (ko) — to bring 
emanikor (imanikoria) — plot, garden 
inyamat (plural only) — food 
akirit) (singular only) — meat 



Exercise : 



(i 
(iii 

(iv; 

(V 

(vi: 

(vii 
vui 

(ix 
(x 



The boys carried these stones here. 
He has consented to cultivate the plots. 
Have you (singular) seen the hens? No. 
The women have gone to bring the food. 
Children are accustomed to beg for food. 
I have told the soldier to come quickly. 
Is there any food ? Has the dog eaten ? 
Have you (plural) brought the milk? 
The girl has helped look after the things. 
We have obeyed (have listened). 



! 



Ar 



} 



1 



CHAPTER VI 



PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE AND 

INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES 

24. Personal pronouns: 

(i) eoq— I isio or oni— we 

ijo— you (sing.) yesi— you (plural) 

nesi— he, she, it kesi— they 

(The form iso instead of isio is favoured by the Catholic 
Mission.) 

(ii) These words can be used either as subject or object of a 
sentence. Thus eorj can mean 'T* or "me'\ When, however, 
nesi, yesi or kesi are used as the object, the -i is dropped! 
Thus kesi means **they" but kes means "them". 

Ejai eog ekitabo— I have a book 
(literally: There is a book to me) 
Ikotos nes ?— Do you want him ? 
But when nesi, yesi and kesi, though subject of the verb, 
precede the verb, the final -i is dropped: 

Mam kes epupitos nuenera eog. 

They have not understood what I am saying. 
(iii) The personal pronoun need not be expressed if the 
1 ; meaning is clear without it. 

i Alosi moi eog and Alosi moi both mean "I am 'going 

tomorrow'*. 

(iv) The personal pronoun usually follows the verb; the 
pronoun used as subject of the verb precedes the noun used as 
object of the verb: 

e.g. "you beg the woman" must be ilipi ijo aberu; it can 
never be ilipi aberu ijo. 

(v) There are two words to translate "we". Isio is used when 
! the speaker excludes his hearers : 



I 






. PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 

e;g. A European speaking to a Teso audience might say: 

Isio Imusugun mam kimina ajon. 

We Europeans do not like native beer. 
But in delivering a sermon he might say: 

Kirai oni kere idwe luka Lokasuban, 

We are all children of God, 
because oni includes his hearers. 



21 



25, Personal pronouns as object of the verb*: 

(i) When the object of a verb is a personal pronoun of the 
first or second persons, the personal prefix of the verb is not 
that of the subject but of the object of the verb and is preceded 
by k-. Thus the sentences 'Teter tells me" or *'The boy tells you" 
would be rendered by: 

Kalimokini Petero eog. 
Kilimokini etelepat yes. 

and not, as would be expected, by: 

Elimokini Petero eog. 
Elimokini etelepat yes. 

(ii) When the past (abu) tense is used, this rule applies only 
to the I St person singular. 

E.g. Abu Petero kegit eoq— Peter asked me 
but: Abu Petero kigit isio— Peter asked us. 

26. Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives: 

(i) The demonstrative pronouns and adjectives vary according 
to gender and number. They are: 



Singular : 
Plural : 
Singular : 
Plural ; 
Singular: 
Plural : 



Masculine 


Feminine 


Neu 


lo 


na 


yen 


lu 


nu 


lu 


qol 


gin 


gin 


qui 


gun 


gul 


je 


ya 


• • 

11 


kw^i 


kwa 


kwi 



this 

these 

that (of near objects) 

-those 

that (of far objects) 
-those 



See remarks in Preface to the Second Edition. 






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I 



22 ATESO LANGUAGE 

(ii) The demonstrative adjectives always follow the noun with 
which they agree and are written separately: 

e.g. etelepat lo — this boy 



etogo je — that house 



But in the sentences: 



erai lo etelepat — this is a boy 
erai je etogo — that is the house 

the words lo and je are used as demonstrative pronouns and 
stand in place of a noun. 

(iii) RedupHcation of the demonstrative pronouns and adjec- 
tives for emphasis is common and is achieved by inserting the 
syllable -pe- between the reduplicated demonstratives: 

e.g. lopelo 

qopegol (first 1 dropped' for euphony) 

napena 



27. Relative pronouns : 

(i) The relative pronoun varies according to gender and 
number: 



Masculine Feminine Netiter 



Singular: lo na yen — who, which, whom 

Plural: lu nu lu 

It will be^noted that the relative pronoun is identical in form 
with the demonstrative adjective meaning "this'*. 
\ ; It is written as part of the verb which follows it: 



I e.g. etutjanan loebuni — the man who comes 

agor nuejaas kane — the women who are here 
ikoku yenekoto akile — the child which wants milk 
(ii) The same form is used regardless of case. Thus lo can 
mean "who'', "whom", "to whom" or "whose": 

e.g. etur)anan loemina nesi — the man whom he loves 

eturjanan loaduki eog eketogo — the man whose house 
. I am building 

(literally: the man for whom I build his house) 






PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES 23 

abu kojai etuganan loajaas idweke iarei — there was 
' a man who had two children 

(Hterally: there was a man to whom there were his two 
children) 

28. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives: 

Inyo ? (what ?) is invariable : 

Inyo bo yen ? — What is this? 
Ikoto inyo ? — What do you want ? 
Iqai ? (who?) has plural forms lukaqai ? (masculine) and 
nukatjai ? (feminine): 

Iqai ejeni ? — Who knows? 
Lukaqai bo lu ? — Who are these ? 
The interrogative adjective **whose"? is formed from Iqai: 



Ekitabo lokagai ? — Whose book? 



The forms: 



Masculine Feminine Neuter 

o- , t • • • • r which? 

Smgular: lonyoin nanyoin yeninyoin 



Plural : lunyoika nunyoika lunyoika 



kind? 



may be used either as pronouns or as adjectives : 
e.g. Eraas kesi ituqa lunyoika ? — What sort of people are 

they? (adjective) 

Lonyoin itelekarit apolou ? — Which is the bigger ? 



Vocabulary : 



aitnony (ko) — to cry 
ailoq (ki) — to bathe 
aitnat (ko) — to drink 
elap (ilapio) — month, moon 

noi — very, a great deal 
moi — tomorrow 



Exercise : 



(i) He can beg him to come, 
(ii) That woman has a child which cries a lot 

I.A.L. — 4 



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1 



24 ATESO LANGUAGE 

(iii) These people want to eat in that house, 
(iv) That boy who loves rats went home yesterday, 
(v) I have seen the moon. 

r 

(vi) He wanted to bathe in the water, 
(vii) This man has beaten you severely. 
[ (viii) The soldiers whose belongings are in the house will see 



us tomorrow. 



(ix) That is the man I saw. 

(x) He does not want you (plui-al) this month. 



t 



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1 



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.■' 



CHAPTER VII 



POSSESSIVES 



29. Possessive adjectives ; 

(i) ka — my kosi or wok — our 

kon — your (singular) kus — your (plural) 

ke — his, her, its kec — their 

(ii) kosi is the possessive form of isio (see paragraph 24 (v)). 
Wok is the possessive form of oni. 

e.g. A native will say to a stranger: 

Akoto alosit obukosi — I want to go to our home (which 

is not your home). 
But to his brother he will say: 
Akoto alosit obuw^ok — I want to go to our home (which 

is your home too). 

(iii) The possessive adjectives do not change with gender of the 

possession or possessor. 

(iv) The possessive adjective is put either: 

{a) immediately after the noun and joined to it, or 
(J) immediately after the noun prefix and before the noun 

itself. 

e.g. akan (akanin)— hand 

akanika — my hand (**shadow" vowel -i- inserted 

for euphony) 
akaninika — my hands ("shadow" vowel -i- inserted 

for euphony) 
akakan — my hand 
akakanin — my hands 
Both forms are equally common but wok usually follows 
the noun. 



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26 ATESO LANGUAGE 

(v) Note the use of the possessive adjective with the pre- 
position kanuka (for, on behalf of) : 

e.g. kanuke — on his behalf 
kanuwok — for us 
In speech the last syllable is slightly stressed. 



30. Possessive pronouns are formed by adding the possessive 

adjective forms to the relative pronoun: 

e.g. loka — mine (masculine) 
nukec — theirs (feminine 

plural) 
Mam erai etogokosi, erai lokec— It is not our house, 

it is theirs. 
In speech the last syllable is slightly stressed. 



31. Possessive article : 

(i) This is formed by the relative pronoun with the ending 



j! • -ka meaning "with": 



Masculine Feminine Neuter 
Singular: loka naka yenika ('^shadow" vowel 

"i- inserted for 



Plural : luka nuka luka 



euphony) 



e.g. etogo loka aberu — the w^oman*s house 

akituk nuka Paulo — Paul's cows 
ikoku yenika aberu— the woman's child 

This word must always agree in gender with the thing 
possessed. 

(ii) The word ka by itself can be used instead of the full form 
but the full form is better. Ka means *Vith" and ambiguity can 
result when it is used as a possessive. ■ ■■ 

Thus: ikoku ka toto properly means **child and mother" 
and not **child of mother". 



r 



POSSESSIVES 



27 



.i 



Vocabulary : 



akimait (akima) — stalk of millet (used collectively 



eropit (iropito) 
ebarasit (ibaren) 



in the plural — millet) 
wage 
head of cattle 



aujo (aujoi) — cattle kraal 
apak (apakio) — time, space 



bobo 

kere 



agam 
all 



Exercise : 

(i) He cannot carry their food this time, 
(ii) That dog has eaten my hens again, 
(iii) Whose are those cows which ate our millet? Theirs, 
(iv) How many beds have the soldiers ? 
(v) This is the child of the woman who beat her husband 

badly. 
" (vi) We all want our pay now. 
(vii) Peter's cattle were in our kraal, 
(viii) Whose books did he keep ? Mine, 
(ix) Where is the boy? He went to your home yesterday and 

has not appeared today, 
(x) Our beds are in the woman's house. 



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I 






CHAPTER VIII 

VERBS: INFINITIVE AND 
SUBJUNCTIVE/IMPERATIVE 

32. Formation of the infinitive: The infinitive is formed by 
adding the prefix ai- or a- (occasionally ei-) to the root of the 
verb. As a general rule simple roots of one syllable take ai-: 

e.g. ailip — to pray aiduk — to build 

Verbs of more than one syllable in the root take a- as infinitive 
prefix in the ko class and ai- in the ki class: 
e.g. amoun — to look for adukokin — to build for someone 
aimurokin — to forget aidareun — to w^ait for 
There are, however, a number of simple one syllable roots 
which take the prefix a- : 

e.g. amin — to love amej — to hunt 

Some verbs add the prefix to the perfect (-it) tense instead of 
to the root: 

e.g. alosit — to go akerit — to run, to fear 

The infinitive form of all verbs is given in the vocabularies. 

33. Uses of the infinitive: 

;; '■ (i) As in Eiiglish the infinitive is used after certain verbs, 

particularly verbs expressing ability or desire, to explain or to 
amplify the meaning of the verb : 

e.g. Akoto ainyam — I want to eat 
' Elosi ainyam — He is going to eat 

(ii) It may be used after another verb to indicate purpose: 



e.g. Alosi eoq oduka agwel amunyu 

I am going to the shop to buy salt 
(iii) The infinitive form of a verb may be used after the same 

verb for emphasis : 

e.g. Kolot alosit — Just go 

(iv) The infinitive may be used as a noun: 

e.g. Ejok ainyam — Eating is good 



J I 



K 



:\ 



verbs: infinitive and subjunctive/imperative 29 

(v) The infinitive may be used to express an action just com- 
pleted now or in the past : 

e.g. Aanyun napena— (He) has just seen it 
Aanyun qipeqin— (He) had just seen it 
This use is not confined to one person. The above example 
could mean "you have just seen it" or "we have just seen it , 
according to the context. 

34 Formation of the subjunctive/imperative: The sub- 
junctive/imperative personal prefixes are: ka, in the first person 
singular and plural and ko in all other persons in ko class 
verbs. In ki class verbs they are ke in the first person singular 
and plural and ki in all other persons. 

The tense is formed by prefixing the above prefixes to the 
root of the verb in the singular persons and to the root with 
the suffix -oto or -ata in the plural persons. -Oto follows roots 
with "close" vowels, and -ata follows roots with open vowels 
and -a-- -oto and -ata are frequently abbreviated to o and a. 
Note that the first person plural, unlike most indicative tenses 

in Ateso, has the plural suffixes. 

The subjunctive/imperative is therefore as follows : 

AIDUK (ko)— to build 

kaduk— that I may build 

koduk— that you may build 

koduk— that he may build 
kadukoto— that we may build 
kodukoto— that you may build 
kodukoto— that they may build 

AILIP (ki)— to pray 

kelip— that I may pray 

kilip— that you may pray 

kilip— that he may pray 
kelipata— that we may pray 
kilipata— that you may pray 
kilipata— that they may pray 



■? 



30 ATESO LANGUAGE 

35. Uses of the subjunctive/imperative: 

(i) As already noted in paragraph i8 above, the tense provides 
f the form used in the past (abu) tense. 

E.g. Abu nesi koduk etogo — He buiU a house 
(ii) It provides the imperative forms: 

Kolot nesi! — Let him go! (He must go!) 
Kilipata! — Pray! 

Kopup ! — Listen ! 
(iii) It expresses purpose: 

Alosi eog oduka kagw^el amunyu 

I am going to the shop to buy sah 
It will be seen from the example in paragraph 33 above that the 
same idea of purpose can be expressed by the infinitive, 
(iv) It expresses a wish when used with the verb akot : 

Akoto nes kobu — I want him to come. 
The same sense can be suppHed by using the infinitive: 

Akoto nes abunere. 



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36. Negative imperativ-e: Prohibition (i.e. a negative im- 
perative) can be expressed in two ways: 

(i) By adding the prefix siriki- in front of the root of the 
verb; in the plural the subjunctive/imperative suffix is also 
added: . 

e.g. Kolot !— Go ! Sirikilot !— Do not go ! 

Kodukoto— Build ! Sirikidukoto !— Do not build ! 
(ii) By using the verb ainyekin (ki) — to stop: 

e.g. Kinyek alosit! — Do not go! 



Kinyekis aiduk! — Do not build! 



Vocabulary: 



aidareun (ki) — to wait for 
aibok (ko) — to dig 
aipany (aipanya) — hole 

m 

eebo — yes 
napena — just now 



■i 



verbs: infinitive and subjunctive/imperative 31 



Exercise : 

(i) Do not wait for him. He is not coming, 
(ii) Is he here? Yes, he has just come. 
■ (iii) I want him to dig a hole quickly, 
(iv) He must come, 
(v) I must go now. 
(vi) You (plural) can help me. Carry these beds for the 

soldiers, 
(vii) The woman wants you to look after the things, 
(viii) They must not eat meat this month, 
(ix) I cannot ask him because he has just gone, 
(x) Do not drink milk. 



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CHAPTER IX 



QUALITY VERBS 



37. Definition of quality verbs : Some verbs express a quality 
and not an action: e.g. "to be wide*', "to be strong". In English 
this idea of quality is expressed by means of an adjective and the 
verb "to be", but in Ateso there are separate verbs to express it- 
These verbs are termed quality verbs. Like the continuous verbs 
(paragraph 15) the quality verbs are conjugated differently from 
ordinary verbs; personal prefixes are the same but the endings 
vary.* 

38. Three classes of quality verbs — present tense: There 
are three classes of quality verbs which differ from each other in 
the formation of their plural suffixes. 

Class I: no suffixes in the plural persons. This class mainly 
contains verbs formed by reduplication of the root : e.g. 
t egogoq (egoggoq), ededeg (edegdeq). 

Class II: the sufhx -ak (or -ok) or -iak (-iok) is added in 
I ■'■ all three plural persons. (In the example quoted below the 

t of the stepi is also changed to s.) 
Class III: all verbs ending in -na (or -no) are in this class. 
The -na (or -no) is changed to -ka (or -ko) in all three 
plural persons. Many of the verbs in this class are derived 
from other verbs or occasionally from nouns : 
e.g. einer — to say inerana — he is talkative 

'' akoko — to steal ekokolana — he is thievish 

^ asuliany — luck isulianyana — he is lucky 

It should be noted that in class II and III the first person 
plural, unlike other verbs in the present indicative tense, has the 
;. same suffixes as the second and third persons plural. 

* This group of verbs is tenned "verbs of state'* in the Maasai 
Grammar, 



t 
I 



QUALITY VERBS 



33 



-J 

There is no convenient rule to enable any one quality verb to 
be placed in its appropriate class. The plural form will therefore 
be shown in brackets in the vocabularies. 
Examples of the three classes are: 

I. adedeg — I am fierce 
idedeq— you are fierce 
ededeg — he is fierce 
kidedeq — we are fierce 



11. 



idedeq — you are fierce 
ededeg — they are fierce 

adit — I am small 
idit — you are small 

edit — etc. 
kidisiak — 
idisiak — 
edisiak — 

III. eriono — I am black 

iriono — you are black 



iriono 

kirioko 

irioko 

irioko 



etc. 



It will be seen from the above examples that quality verbs may 
belong to the ko or to the ki class. 

39, Other moods and tenses: 

(i) Since quality verbs express a continuing quality the past 
tense used is the a- or e- tense. 

(ii) The subjunctive/imperative is formed by prefixing the 
usual personal prefixes of the subjunctive/imperative to the root : 

e.g. kojok nesi — it must be good 
(It is, however, usual in some cases to use the derived forms 

of quality verbs in the subjunctive/imperative. These forms will 

be explained in Chapter XIV.) 

e.g. kojokunar — be good 






34 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



(iii) The infinitive of quality verbs very often does not exist 
and for that reason the third person singular will be the form 
given in the vocabularies. The third person plural will be shown 
in brackets. The personal prefixes, e- and i-, will indicate 
whether the verb belongs to the ko or to the ki class. 



Vocabulary : 



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ejok (ejokak 

edit (edisiak 

ededeg (ededeq 

egogog (egogog 

itet (itetiak 

ebaqaana (ebagaaka 

erono (eroko 

epatana (epataka 

etiono (etioko 

adwinun (ko 

aisisia (ki 

epakasit (ipakasin 



-be good 
-be small 
-be severe 
-be strong 
-be new 
-be stupid 
-be bad 
-be easy 
-be difficult 
to get 
■to learn 
■porter, labourer 



emojog* — be old 



Exej 



rise : 



cannot carry the 



(i) Ateso is easy to learn, 
(ii) The porters are old and foolish and 

things. 

(iii) You are a good man; please help me. 
(iv) It is wicked to drink beer now. 
(v) His is a permanent (strong) house, 
(vi) You are stupid; I shall beat you (plural), 
(vii) The books he wanted to get were new ones, 
(viii) They have not understood what I am saying; they are 

very naughty. 

(ix) It is not difficult to get rats for our dogs, 
(x) The girls were good yesterday. 

* No plural: use perfect (-it) tense: emojogitos. 



>j 



.> 



CHAPTER X 



ADJECTIVES 

40. Invariable adjectives: There are few true adjectives, that 
is, words existing solely as adjectives, in Ateso. Those which do 
exist usually agree with the noun they qualify in gender and 
number by appropriate changes in prefix or suffix. The adjective 
kere (whole, all) is, however, invariable and can be used with 
masculine, feminine or neuter nouns, both singular and plural: 

ituga kere — all men 

etogo kere — the whole house 
Some other true adjectives are occasionally used in an invari- 
able form; see paragraph 41 (v). 



41. Variable adjectives: Some adjectives vary according to 

number and gender. The commonest are; 

(i) idis— adis— idis (few) ; e.g. akiro adis 

(ii) qol—rjin —gin (every); e.g. golituan (-i- inserted 

for euphony) 
(The latter are the same forms as those of the demonstrative 
adjectives but always precede the noun when used in this sense. 
The noun prefix of the noun is always dropped and adjective and 
noun are written as one word.) 

e.g. aberu gin— that woman; qiniberu — every woman 

(-i- inserted for euphony) 
(iii) ece— ace— ice (other, some) ; e.g. Icetuga— some men. 
(This adjective is written as part of the noun and usually, but 
not always, precedes it. The noun prefix is dropped when the 
adjective precedes.) 

(iv) edio— adio— idio (some, other, any); e.g. emamei 
ediotuan ? — is there not anyone ? 

(This adjective also is written as part of the noun and always 



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36 ATESO LANGUAGE 

precedes it. The noun prefix is dropped. It is used in the singular 
only.) 

(v) bon — bonik (alone); e.g. isio bonik— only we. 

(Note that this adjective changes according to the noun's 
number but not according to its gender, although there is a 
modern tendency for this adjective to become invariable.) 

e.g. aqor bonik — ^women only; ikiliok bonik — men only. 

(vi) elope, alope, ilope (singular) 

ikulepek, akulepek, ikulepek (plural) (self, entire); 
i e.g. ituga ikulepek — the men themselves; 



■ 



tl 


















ibore ilope — the entire thing. 



{ (Like the equivalent Swahih mzvenye the word can denote 
i t •_ ^1 4.^^^ ^i_ _ 1 \ 



ownership, e.g. elope etogo — the house owner.) 



42. Adjectives formed from verbs: The lack of true adjec- 
tives is overcome by using quality verbs : 

e.g. epol emog — the ox is big 

I \ akoto emoq loepol— I want a big ox (an ox which 



is big) 



;i 51 koyau akipi nuikidioko — bring a little water 



43. Adjectives formed from nouns: Where a quality verb 

f- does not exist, the gap is filled by using a relative pronoun and 

.1^ 



11 a noun : 

■.1 ,nl 



e.g. ekitoi loberu — female tree (tree which is a woman) 
( . ' idwe lukiliok — male children (children who are males) 

or by using a possessive particle and a noun: 
;, e.g. etuganan loka acoa — a wise man (a man of wisdom) 



44, Ka and kanuka: When a noun which is quahfied by an 
adjective is preceded by the particle ka (and, with) or by the 
preposition kanuka (on behalf of), the ka must be repeated with 
the adjective: 

e.g. Kanuka etuganan kaloejok — on behalf of a good man. 



i 



- 1 



ADJECTIVES 



37 



Vocabulary : 



elal (elalak 
ekalanyana (ekalanyaka 

aswam (ki 

aiswama (ki 

aswam (aswamisinei 

esamai (isama 

emaido (singular only 

ajon (plural only 

imiot (imioi 



be wide 
•be idle 
■to work 
to work 
work 
-swamp 
-groundnuts 
■beer 
chicken 



nepepe ka — with 



Exercise : 

(i) Bring (singular) plenty of water for my large dog. There 

is only a little, 
(ii) It is only a few people who can drink a lot of beer, 
(iii) The women themselves wanted to cultivate only ground- 
nuts. 

(iv) He has some very beautiful female chickens, 
(v) The swamp is very wide. All the soldiers cannot go to 

Scroti. 
(vi) The old man told the lazy boys to work in the plots. 
(vii) Who knows all the names ? That wicked man, 
(viii) I have seen that wise woman with that fierce man. 
(ix) Let us build a new house; this one is too small, 
(x) I did all this work by myself. 



-r I 



CHAPTER XI 



NUMERALS 



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45. Cardinal numbers : 

(i) The numbers from one to five are the basis of the whole 
numerical system in Ateso. Six is *'five and one'', seven is "five 

and two", etc. 

(ii) Numerals agree in gender with the noun they define: 



e.g. imogin iuni 
akituk auni 



-three bulls 
-three cows 



(iii) Numerals always follow the noun. Ediope (one) may, 
however, precede, in which case the noun prefix is dropped. 



e.g. adiopeberu — one woman 
agor aarei — two women 



(iv) 



adiope — i 

aarei — z 
auni — 3 

acq on — 4 



akany 
akany kape 



■5 
■6 



atomon kanadiope — 11 

atomon kanuarei — 12 

atomon kanuuni — 13 

atomon kanuoqon — 14 

-15 
-16 



atomon kanukanj^ 
atomon kanukany kape 
atomon kanukany kaarei 
atomon kanukany kauni 



17 
18 



akany Tcaarei — 7 
akany kauni — 8 
akany kaogon — 9 atomon kanukany kaogon— 19 

atomon — 10 

The feminine form is given above. In the case of masculine 
nouns nu will become lu and atomon, itomon, etc. 

e.g. imogin itomon kalukany kape — sixteen bulls 

itelepai itomon kalodiope — eleven boys 
(v) Numerals above 19 are formed by use of the words akais 
(literally — houses); akwatat (hundred) and arita (thousand): 

akais aarei — 20 
akais aarei kanadiope — 21 






NUMERALS 39 

akais aarei kanuarei — 22 

akais aarei kanuuni — 23 

akais aarei kanukany kape — 26 

akais auni — 30 

akais akany kape — 60 

akais akany kaogon — 90 

akais akany kaoqon kanukany kaoqon — 99 

akwatat — 100 
akwat aarei — 200 
arita akany — 5,000 

The Luganda word elukumit is often used for 1,000: 

e.g. elukumit ediope — 1,000 
ilukumin ikany — 5,000 

(vi) Akais, akwatat and arita are feminine nouns and 
elukumit is masculine. The numerals defining them must agree 
with them regardless of the gender of the noun which the 
numeral qualifies: 

e.g. ituga akwat auni — 300 men 

akituk ilukumin iarei — 2,000 cows 

But in compound numbers any unit of five or under is made 
to agree with the noun: 

e.g. ituga akwat auni ka akais aarei kalukany — 325 men 



46. Ordinal numbers : 

(i) Ordinal numbers are formed from cardinal numbers by 
prefixing the relative forms lok-, nak- or yenik-, as appropriate, 
to the masculine form of the numeral and by adding -et after 
the numeral: 

e.g. akany — five nakikanyet — fifth (feminine) 

singular 

auni — three lokiuniet — third (masculine) 

singular 

The majority of Iteso do not pronounce the k in speech 



e.g. lokiuniet is pronounced loiuniet 



I.A.L. 5 



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40 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



(ii) In the case of numbers over five, only the first numeral 
takes the relative and suffix -et: 

e.g. lokikanyet kauni — the eighth (masculine) 
nakitomonet kaarei — the twelfth (feminine) 
Masculine singular forms are given: 

losodit — first 

F 

lokiareit — second 
lokiuniet — third 
lokiogonet or lokiwogpnet — fourth 

lokikanyet — fifth 
lokikanyet kape — sixth 
lokikanyet kaarei — seventh 
lokikanyet kauni — eighth 
lokitonionet — tenth 
lokitomonet kalodiope — eleventh 
lokitomonet kalukany — fifteenth 
lokitonionet kalukany kaoqon — ^nineteenth 
(iii) To form ordinal numbers above twenty the relative is 
prefixed but no -et is added: 



i 



e-g 



lokakais aarei— twentieth 
lokakais auni kaluuni — thirty-third 
lokakv^at aoqon kakais akany — four hundred and 



fiftieth 



I 



47. Multiplication: Multiphcation is expressed by use of the 

word irwan (times) with numerals in the feminine form: 

irwan akany — five times . 

aarei irwan akany imwaas atomon — two times five 



e.g 



are ten 



ife 



irwan atipet — once 



t 



I! 



48. Dates and time: Days of the week are reckoned from 
Monday which is the first day. Thus Wednesday is the third 
day — aparan nakiuniet and Friday is nakikanyet. Sunday is 
translated by the word Sabiti — aparan naka Sabiti. Dates are 



1 



I 



NUMERALS 4I 

usually rendered by the phrase eraas aparasia . . . followed 
by the numeral in its cardinal form. Eraas aparasia atomon 
kanukany — on the fifteenth. 

Time is reckoned, as in Swahili, from sunrise to sunset (6 a.m. 

to 6 p.m.). Thus ten o'clock is the fourth hour — isawan iogon, 

e.g. Isawan iogon ka adakikan akais auni kanukany 

Twenty-five minutes to eleven. (Literally: Four hours 
and thirty-five minutes.) 



Vocabulary : 



esavv^a (isawan) — hour, clock 
adakika (adakikan) — minute 



aparit or aparan (aparasia) — day 

papa (singular only) — father 

konye — but 



Exercise : 



(i) What is the total number of soldiers? 126. 
(ii) What time is it now? Ten minutes past nine. 
(iii) He went home on the eighth of September (ninth 

month). 

(iv) You may go now, but we want to see you again at twenty 

to seven. 

(v) The first dog is quiet (easy), but the second is very 

savage, 
(vi) There are 400,393 people in Teso. 
(vii) Five sevens are thirty-five, 
(viii) The 24th boy's name is Peter, 
(ix) My father has 832 bulls. 

(x) Come on the first day of next (coming) month at a 

quarter past nine. 



F 

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CHAPTER XII 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 



49. Types of conditional sentences: In the sentence "If you 
go, I shall accompany you" there are two parts; the first part 
IS the conditional or **if" clause, posing the condition, and the 

I! second is the consequent clause, resulting from the condition. 

I V The condition in this example is simple and capable of fulfilment. 

[• There is a second type of conditional sentence in which the 

condition is incapable of fulfilment or unlikely to be fulfilled. 



**If you were to go, I would accompany you" implies that you 
are unlikely to go and that it is therefore unlikely or impossible 
that I shall accompany you. 



50. Simple conditional sentences: Ateso, like English, uses 
indicative tenses for simple conditional sentences: 



I I e.g. Aral ilosi ijo, abuni aupar ka ijo 

I If you go, I shall accompany you 



Aral kibwaiki amunyu toma akipi, esubi bala 
i? emamWn 

]i If we put salt in water, it looks as though it vanishes 



51, Unfulfilled conditions: A special form of the verb is used 
in this type of sentence. The personal prefixes in both the 
conditional and the consequent clauses are those of the indicative 
with the addition of k: ka-, ki-, ke-, ki-, ki-, and ke- in 
ko class verbs and ke-, ki-, ki-, ki-, ki- and ki- in ki class 
verbs, 

The verb in the conditional clause, though it has these condi- 
j, tional personal prefixes, may have the endings of the present, 

past or perfect tenses. The verb in the consequent clause is, 

-4 

": 



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 



43 



J* 

however, invariable in form. It is formed by prefixing the 
conditional personal prefixes to the root of the verb in the singular 
persons and first person plural, and to the root plus the suffix 
"Oto or -ata in the remaining two persons. The particle ti is 
used with the verb in the consequent clause. 

The full form of the conditional verb in the consequent 
clause is therefore as follows : 



AIDUK (ko)— to build 
ti . . . kaduk — I would have ti 

built 
kiduk — you would have 

built, etc. 



AILIP (ki)— to pray 
. kelip — I would have 

prayed 
kilip — you would have 

prayed, etc. 



kilip 
kilip 



kilipa(ta) 
kilipa(ta) 



keduk — 

kiduk — 
kiduko(to) — 
keduko(to) — 

e.g. Arai kalot eoq moi, ti kadum apesan 

If I were to go tomorrow, I would get the money 
Arai kebunit, ti kiduk 

If he had come, we would have built 

Arai kigirit ijo, ti eog keregia ijo 

If you had refused, I would have dismissed you 

Arai kelosit nesi otaun, ti ijo kiregia nes 

If he had gone to town, you would have dismissed him 

Note the position of the subject of the verb In the consequent 
clause. It follows the particle ti and precedes the verb. 



52. *'Should", *'ought", etc: The particle ti can be used 

^ 

with indicative tenses and without an antecedent clause to express 
the idea of "should" or "ought": 

e.g. Ti ijo ikonit kwagin — You should have acted thus 
Ti mam ekonit kwagin — I ought not to have acted thus 

Ti mam abutiit — I should not have come 






, ■ 



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44 
Vocabulary: 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



adaun (ko) — to finish, to suffice 



atamakin (ko) 

allot (kl) 



•to try- 
to wash 



toto (singular only) — mother 
ecupa (icupal) — bottle 
e^oye (igoyen) — article of clothing 
asabunl (singular only) — soap 

lolo — today 



tupuruc — in the morning, early 



Exercise : 



(i) If I had gone yesterday, I would have been able to help 

my mother. 
(ii) I would have brought the oil today, if I had had a bottle, 
(iii) If you drink a lot of beer, you will not be able to go 

home today. 

(iv) I would have washed my clothes, if I had had some soap, 
(v) If you were to help me today, we could finish my house, 
(vi) On Saturday you should all have gone to drink beer, 
(vii) You would have been able to work, if you had tried to 

learn, 
(viii) If they fvere here early, they did not wait, 
(ix) We should have come yesterday to greet you. 
(x) The soldiers would have carried the things if I had told 

them to. 



4.-^ I -f 



J* 



CHAPTER XIII 



VERBS: HABITUAL AND "NOT YET" 

TENSES 



53. Use of habitual tense: In English the words '*The Iteso 
wear clothes'* may mean /'They are wearing clothes" or '*They 
habitually wear clothes". This difference in meaning can in 
Ateso be expressed by a different tense, the habitual tense. This 
tense is used to denote the habit or custom of a person or people. 



54. Formation of the habitual tense: The habitual tense is 
formed by adding the ending -oi to the perfect (-it) tense in the 
singular and ist person plural and the ending -s in the 2nd 
and 3rd persons plural: 

e.g. AILIP (ki) — to pray, to beg 

elipitoi — I am in the habit of begging 
ilipitoi — you are in the habit of begging 
ilipitoi^he is in the habit of begging 
kilipitoi — we are in the habit of begging 
ilipitos — you are in the habit of begging 
ilipitos — they are in the habit of begging 

This tense is commonly used only with repetitive verbs (see 
Appendix I) in both ko and ki classes; its use with simple verbs 
is extremely limited. Verbs in the habitual tense rarely take an 
object. 



55. '*Not yet": The Ateso words eriqa and eroko mean 
"not yet" or '"still". When used to mean "still" they are followed 
by the indicative tenses : 

eroko edou etepi — it is still raining 
eriga ejai ne — he is still here 



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46 ATESO LANGUAGE 

When used to mean "not yet" they are followed by a special 
tense. 



56. Formation of '*not yet" tense: The "not yet" tense is 

formed by adding the prefix ke- in ko class verbs and ki- in ki 
class verbs to the root, and by adding the suffix -o after roots in 



' close vowels and -a after roots in open vowels or a. 

AIDUK (ko)-to build AILIP (ki)— to pray 

keduko — not yet built kilipa — not yet prayed 

( ii (The initial k is often dropped.) 



eroko kebuno — he has not yet come 
eriga isio keloto — we have not yet gone 

p Mam is occasionally used with the "not yet" tense: 

e.g. mam ebuno — he has not yet come 
h But if the particle ber is used with mam the indicative tenses 



must be used: 



N- e.g. mam ber ebunit — he has not yet come 



57. Use of the ''not yet" tense: The "not yet" tense is used 
to translate "before" in such phrases as "he died before he had 



I finished his book": 



e.g. Eriqa nesi keduko etogo . . . 

li^ 'Before he built the house . . . 



Eroko nesi kebuno . . . 

Before coming he ... ' 

The time expressed by the "not yet" tense depends on the 
main clause: 

e.g. Abu eog kadau ainyam eroko Petero kebuno 

I had finished eating before Peter came 
Adauni eog ainyam eriga Petero kebuno 

I will have finished eating before Peter comes 

Note: In Appendix I, Part 2, the uses of the "dependent per- 
fect" or "when" tense are described. The "when" tense is used 
to translate "after" in the same way as the "not yet" tense is used 



verbs: habitual and "not yet*' tenses 47 

to translate *'before". As with the *^not yet" tense the time ex- 
pressed by the *'when'' tense depends on the main clause: 
e.g. Alosi Solot kabot]U komanikor 

I shall go to Scroti after I come back from the garden 

Abu kalot Solot kabogu komanikor 

I went to Soroti after I came back from the garden 



V ocdbidary : 



aiqit (ki) — to ask 
anyaraun (ko) — to call 
alitnokin (ko) — to tell 
aiirar (ki) — to hear 
ainap (ko) — to wear, to cover 
awaragan (awaragasia) — story 
emukule (imukulen) — hide, skin 

naarai — because 



Exercise : 



(i) I had finished washing my clothes before you called me. 

(ii) Had you told him before he asked you? 

(iii) That woman who brings our milk has not yet appeared, 

(iv) The boy who went to Soroti has not yet brought the food. 

(v) I have not yet heard the story your father told you. 

(vi) The boy you called is still digging a hole, 

(vii) The Karamojong (Ilok) still wear skins, 

(viii) I do not like this man because he is begging every day. 

(ix) Bring the millet here. We have not eaten yet. 

(x) The soldier has not yet told us to go. 



1[ I)! 



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CHAPTER XIV 

VERBS: DERIVED VERBS 

58. Use of derived verbs: In English the idea of action to, 

for, away from, etc. is expressed by means of prepositions: 

"We go to school." *Tut it on the table." 

"Do it /or me." *'Take it away:' 

Ateso expresses these ideas by altering the form of the verb 

itself. This book deals only with four types of derived verbs: 

other types will be listed in Appendix 1. 



}'■ 59. Formation of derived verbs: This alteration consists of 

'^[ adding one of three suffixes, -un, -ar (-or) and -akin (-okin), 

to the root, thereby forming a new verb which can be conjugated 
throughout. These three forms will be termed "motion towards", 
'{ "motion away" and "action for": 

e.g. aicak (ko) — to throw 



I acakun (ko) — to throw (towards the speaker) 

j; acakar (ko) — to throw (out or away from the speaker) 

i - acakakin (ko)— to throw (for the speaker) 

i I^' Note that although the infinitive in the root verb has the prefix 



,;i ai-, the infinitive prefix in the derived verbs is a- in accordance 

^' with the rule given in paragraph 32. 



!;:'[, (i) ' 'Motion towards" verbs : (a) The suffix -un shows that 

the action of the verb is directed towards the speaker: 

e.g. alomuti (to come in) when the speaker himself is in the 



room. 



{h) -un occasionally indicates the acquisition of a quality of 
benefit to the speaker: 

e.g. atjale — to be healthy 

aqaleun — to become healthy 
ejok — he is good 
ejokun — he becomes good (to our benefit) 



I 

^■1 



verbs: derived verbs 49 



^t 



(ii) "Motion aw^ay" verbs: (a) The suffix -ar (or -or after 

"close" vov^el roots) shows that the action is directed away from 

the speaker: 

e.g. alomar — to go out, when the speaker is in the room. 

abukor — to pour away 
{b) -ar also indicates the acquisition of a quality of no direct 

benefit to the speaker: 
e.g. ejok — he is good. 

ejokiar — he becomes good (but no benefit to us). 

(iii) **Actionfor" verbs: {a) The suffix -akin (or -okin after 
*'cIose" vowel roots) shows that the action is done for someone: 
e.g. aiv^^adikakin — to write for someone, or to someone 

adukokin — to build for someone (hence: to marry) 
When a vowel precedes, the prepositional ending -akin or 
-okin usually becomes -ikin: 

e.g. ajaikin — to be at 
(b) This form also expresses place on something, or movement 

on to something: 

e.g. acakakin — throw down (on the ground) 

(iv) Causative verbs : There is a fourth type of derived verb 
known as **causatlve*'. This derived verb expresses the idea of 
causing the action of the verb. E.g. **to heal'* gives a causative 
form "to cause to heal" and hence "to cure". Causative verbs 
are formed by adding a syllable immediately in front of the root. 

The syllable so added is ta, te, ti, to or tu, the vowel corres- 
ponding to the vowel of the root of the verb. 
E.g. aiduk (ko) — to build aituduk (ki) — to cause to build 

ailel (ko) — to be glad aitelel (ki) — to gladden 

ainyam (ko)— to eat aitanyam (ki) — to feed 

It should be noted that causative verbs formed in this way 
always belong to the ki class, whatever the class of the root verb. 

Roots beginning with k and some other verbs have si instead 

of ta, te, ti, etc. 

aikam (ki) — to catch aisikam (ki) — to observe 

(to cause to catch) 

aimik (ki) — to refuse aisimik (ki)— to prohibit 



50 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



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In roots containing w, the w is moved to a position inside the 
causative syllable: 
e.g. aswam (ki) — to work aitwasam (ki) — to cause to 

work, use 
aitwegel (ki) — to cause to 

buy, sell 
Derived verbs as well as simple verbs can have causative forms : 



agwel (ko) — to buy 



e.g. aikam (ki) — to catch 



aisikam (ki) — to cause to catch 



aikamun (ki) — to catch aisikamun (ki) — to cause to catch 



(for oneself) 



(for oneself) 



60. Conjugation of derived verbs: With the exception of the 
subjunctive/imperative form, which supplies the past (abu) 
tense, the conjugation of derived verbs is regular. Many derived 
verbs have already been introduced in the vocabularies and used 
in the exercises. 

The subjunctive/imperative is formed as follows: 

(a) **Action towards'* verbs in -un drop the final -n in the 
singular; in the plural -n is also dropped but -tu added. 

{b) "Action away'* verbs in -or or -ar drop the final -r in the 
singular; in the plural the -r is also dropped but -s is added. 

(c) ''Action for'* verbs in -akin or -okin drop the final -in 
in the singular; in the plural the -in is also dropped but -is 



is added. 



I 



The full subjunctive/imperative is therefore as follows: 



ABOgUN 

kaboqu 

koboqu 

kobogu 

kaboqutu 

kobogutu 

koboqutu 



ABOr)OR 

kaboqo 

koboqo 

koboqo 

kaboqos 

koboqos 

koboqos 



ABOqOKIN 

kaboqok 

koboqok 

koboqok 

kaboqokis 

koboqokis 

koboqokis 



p. 






i 



Vocabulary : 



aibuk (ko) — to pour 
aiwadik (ki) — to write 



/ 



i 



verbs: derived verbs 



51 



aijen (ko) — to know 
aqale (ko) — to be healthy 
agwel (ko) — to buy 
aitep (ko) — to rain 
adisiar (ko) — to grow less 
-Km (ko)*— tell 
-lorn (ko)* — go 
-tod (ki)* — show 
-bor) (ko)* — return 
akirir) (singular only) — meat 

edou (idouon) — rain cloud, rain 



ebe — that (as in the sentence: "We 

know that it will rain") 



Exercise : 

(i) To pour away; to return here; to go out; to become 
healthy; to return there; to tell someone; to come in; 
to become big. 
(ii) To heal; to use (to cause to do); to dress; to sell; to 
lessen; to increase, 
(iii) Bring (plural) some milk quickly, 
(iv) He wants this girl to get him some meat, 
(v) You liked all the stories which my father told you. 
(vi) Do not (plural) go out. It is still raining, 
(vii) Come here and let me tell you a story. 
■ (viii) He knew his father was getting better, 
(ix) We showed them our house and they showed us theirs, 
(x) If you work for me for three days, you can use my things. 

* Rarely used in simple root form. 



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if' 



CHAPTER XV 



VERBS: REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL 

FORMS* 



61. Use of the reflexive form: (i) The term reflexive means 
that the action of the verb is reflected back to its subject. E.g. 
'*He killed himself.'* "We love ourselves." English uses reflexive 
pronouns to convey this meaning. Ateso also uses reflexive pro- 
nouns, though not always; but in Ateso the form of the verb 
must also be changed. 

(ii) The reflexive form is often preferred to the passive form 
where possible: 

e.g. agaaros akonyekec — their eyes were opened 

(literally: their eyes opened themselves) 
aleniaros apapulai — the papers were loosened 
(literally: the papers have taken themselves away) 
edaunos inyaniat — the food is (almost) finished 

(literally: the food is finishing itself) 



:r 



*.' 



5E. 



62. Formation of the reflexive — present tense: (i) Verbs 
consisting of simple roots add the suffix -o or -a in the singular 
and first person plural and -os or -as in the second and third 
person plural according to the usual rule. Personal prefixes are 
regular: 



AISUB (ko)— to make 
asuba — I make myself 
isuba — you make yourself 
esuba — he makes himself 
kisuba — we make ourselves 



AINOM (ki)— to beat 
enema — I beat myself 
inoma — you beat yourself 
inoma — we beat ourselves 
kinoma — ^we beat ourselves 



isubas — you make yourselves inomas — you beat yourselves 
esubas — they make themselves inomas — they beat themselves 

* See remarks in Preface to the Second Edition. 



w 



verbs: reflexive and reciprocal forms 53 

' Note: Although these forms exist, they are very rarely found 
except in the third persons. 

(ii) Derived verbs ending v^ith the suffixes -un, -ar (-or), 
-akin (-okin) have no additional suffix in the singular and first 
person plural but add -os or -as in the second and third person 
plural : 

ALEMAR (ko) — to take out 
alemar — I take myself out 
ilemar — you take yourself out 
elemar — he takes himself out 
kilemar — we take ourselves out 
ilemaros — you take yourselves out 
elemaros — they take themselves out 



AITEMOKIN (ki)— to prepare 

etemokin — I prepare myself 

itemokin — you prepare yourself 

itemokin — he prepares himself 
kitemokin — we prepare ourselves 
itemokinos — you prepare yourselves 
itetnokinos — they prepare themselves 

In all reflexive forms the pitch of the final syllable is raised 



63. Reflexive pronouns: There are two reflexive pronouns: 
bon (plural bonik) and elope (plural ikulepek). Either one 
or both can be used; but they are often omitted because the 
special form of the reflexive indicates the reflexive meaning: 

e.g. Petero earakin elope bon — Peter will kill himself 
earakinos ituqa lu bonik — these people will kill 

themselves 

(In these examples the form of the verbs would indicate the 
reflexive nature without the use of the reflexive pronouns.) 



m M1 ' 



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t 

i 



Mi W 

t 
I 

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LiL 



km 



Vr 









54 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



64. Formation of reflexive — other moods and tenses: 

(i) Subjunctive/imperative: Prefixes are the same as in the act- 
ive. Endings are the same as in the present reflexive except that, 
as in the active, the first person plural takes the plural ending: 

AISUB (ko)— to make 
kasuba — that I may make myself 
kosuba — that you may make yourself 
kosuba — that he may make himself 
kasubas — that we may make ourselves 
kosubas — that you may make yourselves 



r ;: kosubas — that they may make themselves 

fi AIBOIKIN (ki)— to sit down 



keboikin — that I may sit down 



h kiboikin — that you may sit down 

kiboikin — that he may sit down 
keboikinos — that we may sit down 
kiboikinos — that you may sit down 
kiboikinos — that they may sit down 



Note that in the case of derived verbs the full suffix is retained 
ir and not curtaile(4 as in the active (paragraph 6o). 

1,1 (ii) Past tense: The past (abu) tense is formed regularly by 

ij, use of the subjunctive/imperative, e.g. abu nesi kiboikin — 

he sat down. 



^ The past (a- or e-) tense Is also used : 

\ , e.g. eboikin nesi — he was sitting down 

I 



(ill) Quality verbs (Chapter IX) make their reflexive forms 
by adding -iar or -ior to the active: 

■ 

ekvs^aq — it is white 
ekw^agiar — it is getting white 
(literally: it is making itself white) 

(iv) Infinitive: The infinitive is formed by adding the suffix 



t-:ft 



verbs: reflexive and reciprocal forms 55 



j5 



-a or -o to the root. The prefix is a- for ko class verbs and ai- 
for ki class verbs. 

aiduk — to build aduko — to build oneself 

ainom — to beat ainoma — to beat oneself 



65. Reciprocal form: The term "reciprocal" means that the 
subject of the verb and other persons receive the action of the 
verb: 

kominaros — love (plural) one another 
iriamakinos ogudo — they meet each other on the road 

inerakinos — they are talking to each other 
In form the reflexive and reciprocal verbs are the same; the 
sense will be made clear by the context. 

It is, however, common to indicate the reciprocal sense by 
inserting the syllable -na-, -no-, -nu- or -ne- between the 
root with its "shadow" vowel and the ending. Thus the above 
example would commonly read: 

kominanaros 

iriamanakinos 

ineranakinos 
This infix -na- , -no- , -nu- or -ne- gives a continuous or repeti- 
tive meaning and Is used to make a derived form of the verb 
known as the "repetitive" (see Appendix I), 



Vocabulary : 



airiamakin (ki) — to meet 
atwkokin (ko) — to gather together 
akirot (akiro) — word, matter 
edini (idinin) — religion 



Exercise : 



(i) A father usually helps those who help themselves. 

(ii) May what you wish be done immediately, 
(iii) The demands (akiro) of religion become hard, 
(iv) If you help each other, you will be able to build your 

house quickly. 

I.A.L, — 6 



PT :'■ 






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56 ATESO LANGUAGE 

(v) If children love their fathers, they will love each other 
(vi) Peter and I are meeting each other today, 
(vii) The meat is getting bad. 



|i i ! (viii) Some men became bad. 



(ix) They are all related to each other, 
(x) All the people met together yesterday. 



.<^ 



I 



CHAPTER XVI 



/ 



VERBS: PASSIVE FORMS* 



66. Use of the passive form: The passive form is used, as in 
English, to indicate that the action of the verb is done to, not 
done by, the subject. But it is impossible to express agency (i.e. 
*'by whom") with this form; thus such sentences as **the house 
has been built by us" cannot be translated literally into Ateso. 
Ateso prefers to turn the sentence round and use the active 
voice, "we have built the house." In other instances the reflexive 
form is preferred (see Chapter XV). 

The nearest translation of the passive voice in Ateso is ren- 
dered by the French on or the German man: 
^•g- on fait — it is done; man spracht — it is said. 

67. Formation of passive form.: (i) The same personal pre- 
fixes are used as in the active form. It is, however, but rarely that 
persons other than the 3rd person are used. 

(ii) All present tenses are formed by adding -io to the root in 
all persons, singular or plural. 

(infinitive) aiduk — to build adukio — to be built 

(present) inomi — he beats inomio — he is being beaten 

inom^ete — they beat inomio — they are being 

beaten 

(iii) Subjunctive/imperative: It should be noted that the per- 
sonal prefix of the first person plural is ko- in ko class verbs 
and ki- in ki class verbs. Otlier personal prefixes are the same 
as for the active. The subjunctive /imperative is formed by adding 
the suffix -i to the root in the first and second persons and the 
suffix -ai or -oi, according to the usual rule, in the third person: 

kinom nesi — let him beat kinomai nesi — let him be beaten 

* See remarks in Preface to the Second Edition. 



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58 ATESO LANGUAGE 

In derived verbs the suffix -i is not added in the first and 
second persons. 

(iv) Past (aponi) tense : Aponi is used instead of the auxiliary 
abu in all persons with the subjunctive/imperative forms. 

abu kenom — I beat 
aponi kenomi — I was beaten 
apotu kinomata — they beat 
aponi kinomai — they were beaten 
aponi eog kacakakin — I was thrown down 
aponi nesi kocakakinai — it was thrown down 

(v) Past (a- or e-) tense: is formed regularly. 

enomio — he was being beaten 

(vi) The perfect (-it) tense is formed by adding -itai to the 
root for all persons, singular and plural. 

inomit — he has beaten inomitai — he has been beaten 

inomitos — they have beaten inomitai — they have been beaten 

(vii) Continuous verbs: add -oi or -ai to the root for all 
persons, singular and plural, in the present tense : 

akoto — I want kakotoi* — I am wanted 

inera— he says inerai — it is said 



Vocabulary : 



\ 



ft 
I , Exercise: 



aijukar (ki) — to send to 
ebela (ibelai) — stick 
epege (ipegei)— pig 
abalua (abaluan) — letter 



1 1' •]' (i) This is the letter which is being written. 



(ii) I have not been sent to Soroti; I was told to wash the 

clothes here, 
(iii) The stick which was seen at your house is mine. 

(iv) All these clothes will be washed tomorrow, if there is 

sufficient soap for us. 

* "Contained object" prefix k- is necessary. See Preface to the Second 
Edition. 



'(M 



verbs: passive forms 59 

(v) Among all the children Peter was the favourite (was 

loved). 
(vi) My father's bulls were seen yesterday. 
(vii) All these pigs were killed in our plots, 
(viii) This matter is not wanted, 
(ix) The girl was sent at half past four. 
(x) It has been commanded that the house be built. 



P 



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M 



CHAPTER XVII 



iu VERBS: PREPOSITIONAL SUFFIX 



68. Use of the prepositional suffix: Prepositions are not so 
J I freely used in Ateso as in English. Ateso often prefers to convey 

the prepositional idea by changing the form of the verb. 
[' Thus in the example 'Teter eats with a spoon'*, enyami 

l Petero ka ekijiko would be a correct translation, but Iteso 



would always prefer to say enyamia Petero ekijiko. 



i' ' In this example the use of the prepositional suffix would be 

[; .; optional, but when the prepositional idea occurs in a relative 

sentence the prepositional suffix must be used. 

It is therefore impossible to translate "That is the spoon with 
jj which Peter eats" by nes ekijiko kalo enyami Petero. The 

)"' prepositional idea conveyed by ka (with) must in this sentence 

i be rendered by altering the verb itself by adding the prepositional 

; suffix : 

^ Nes ekijiko loenyamia Petero 

The prepositional suffix may be added to any verb in order to 



I' . convey a prepositional idea, and must be added to any verb which 

I appears in a relative sentence which is governed by a preposition. 

;|| ■ Note: This construction whereby a suffix, differing according 

iSi to voice, mood, tense and person, is added to the verb to express 

a prepositional idea, is a grammatical concept not found in Bantu 
and Nilotic languages. In the new Maasai Grammar it is 
termed the **applied or instrumentar* form and is treated as a 
derived verb; both **causative" and "applied and instrumental** 
forms may be attached to other derived verbs, thereby forming 
"compound derived verbs'*. We do not treat the prepositional 
suffix as a derived verb. 

We have kept the term "derived verb" for a verb which, by 
means of one particular suffix or infix, takes on a different shade 



verbs: prepositional suffix 



6i 



of meaning from that of the root verb from which it is derived. 
Once the root verb has been altered by the addition of the 
appropriate suffix or infix, the new derived verb so formed can 
be conjugated throughout in exactly the same manner as the 

original root verb. ' 

The "prepositional suffix", however, does not consist of one 
particular suffix but of a number of suffixes varying according to 
voice, mood, tense and person in any one verb. The addition of 
the prepositional suffix does not alter the meaning of the verb to 
which it is attached. Thus in the sentence: 

Akoto ainakin ijo akito kodukio etogo 

(I want to give you poles with which to build a house) 
the basic meaning of the verb aiduk is unchanged by the 
addition of the prepositional suffix, whereas the derived forms 
(adukor, adukun, adukuduk, aituduk, etc.) convey distinct 
and different shades of meaning. The arrangement of Appen- 
dix I will help to clarify this point. Derived verbs are contained in 
Part I. Each one has a separate shade of meaning and can be con- 
jugated throughout. The prepositional suffixes are contained 
in Part 2. They do not introduce a new shade of meaning nor 
does their addition to a verb form a new verb which can be 
conjugated throughout. 



69. Formation of prepositional suffix: (i) Present tense: 
Add the suffix -io or -ia, according to the usual rule, to the root 
of the verb in the singular persons and first person plural, and 
-ioto or -lata in the remaining persons: 

AIDUK (ko)— to build AILIP (ki)— to pray 

adukio kidukio elipia kilipia 

idukio idukioto ilipia ilipiata 

edukio edukioto ilipia ilipiata 

(ii) Past (abu) tense: The suffbc is the same as in the present 
tense except that the first person plural as usual takes the plural 

ending : 



I! '^; 'T V 

( I 



ii 11 



jll-'i 



■I 



I'll 



; <i 



i: J 



62 ATESO LANGUAGE 

abu kadukio apotu kadukioto 

II ibu kodukio ipotu kodukioto 

abu kodukio apotu kodukioto 



:^ h 



i 



^ 



abu kelipia apotu kelipiata 

ibu kilipia ipotu kilipiata 

abu kilipia apotu kilipiata 

ijj. (iii) Past (a- or e-) tense is formed regularly: 

e.g. adukio — he was building 






i 



I 



Ft 



I 



r , 

I 

H I 

f 



If 









P\ 



(iv) Perfect (-it) tense: Add the suffix -itor to the root in the 
singular persons and first person plural, and -itotor in the 
remaining persons : 

adukitor kidukitor elipitor kilipitor 

idukitor idukitotor ilipitor ilipitotor 

edukitor edukitotor ilipitor ilipitotor 

(v) Continuous verbs: Add the suffix -or or -ar to the root 
^' f; in the singular persons and first person plural, and -otor or 

-atar in the remaining persons: 

akotor kikotor aminar kiminar 

ikotor ikototor iminar iminatar 

ekotor ekototor eminar eminatar 

(vi) Passive: The suffix is -ere for all persons, all tenses 

and all moods, personal prefixes are those used in the active 

form. The present tense is: 

adukere* kidukere elipere kilipere 






p 

1 

4 



S^ 



it; . 






f 



W idukere idukere ilipere ilipere 

edukere edukere ilipere ilipere 



H., 



4 



t I 

I 



■rrM 



(vn) Verb to be": The prepositional suffix resembles that 
of the continuous verbs. The present tense is: 

ajaar kijaar 

ijaar ijaatar 

ejaar ejaatar 

* But note that the "contained object" prefix k- is required in the first 
and second persons singular and second person plural. See Preface to 
the Second Edition. 



i 



verbs: prepositional suffix 



63 



>T 



70. Further uses of the prepositional suffix: The Ateso 



words for "when 



n 



n 



where", **how*', etc. used in their relative 



sense to describe the time at which, the route over which, the 
manner in which, the purpose for which or the instrument with 
which the action of the verb is done, must be followed by a verb 
with a prepositional suffix. Certain interrogatives also, which 
ask the time, manner, purpose or instrument with which the 
action of a verb is done, must be followed by a verb with the 
prepositional suffix. 

As a very general rule the words below must, therefore, be 
followed by a verb with the prepositional suffix: 



kwape — how, as 
(apak) na — when 

ne — where 
nes — therefore 
kanu(ka) — because 
inyobo ? — why? how? (manner in which) 



(manner in which) 
(time at which) 
(route over which) 
(purpose for which) 
(purpose for which) 



biaibo ? — how? 
Vi^oribo ? — when? 
kanuka inyo — why 

aibo ? — where? 



(manner in which) 
(time at which) 
(purpose for which) 
(route over which) 



But the word ne-, when it means the place to or at which the 
action of the verb is done, is not followed by a verb with the 
prepositional suffix: 

e.g. Mam ajeni neelosi nesi 

I do not know where he is going 
(I know he is going somewhere but I have no idea what his 
destination is.) 

Mam ajeni neelosio nesi 

I do not know where he is going 
(I know he is going and I know where he is going, but I do 

not know the route over which he is going.) 

The same distinction applies to the word aibo ? 

The two words nes and kanu(ka), meaning "therefore" and 

"because", are used in the following manner: 






J : 



I k 



I 



III 64 ATESO LANGUAGE 



I 1 



I 



1 

T ^ 

■1.1 

r 



f'i M 



■1 



? 



I 



I 

I 

I 



r 



f 1 



>. O' ■■ 



I 



? 



1 






I 



I' 
If 



i 



ii 






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1 r 



I 






I 



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n» i 



it 






I 



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.J' 

■■;! 



Mam akoto kes, nes alosio ore 

I do not like them and am therefore going home 

Mam apedori aikany etege ka akure, nes aboqoria 



11 f I cannot stand hunger and thirst so I returned 

jilljj Ejaas inyamat luipudai kanuka aiyasia aokot 



Certain foods are needed to strengthen the blood supply 



Vocabulary : 



aisisianakin (ki) — to teach 
aisiom (ko) — to read 
adeka (ko) — to be ill 
akitoi (akitoi) — pole 
esirigi (isirigin)— shilHng 



f; I asanit (asanin) — plate 



Exercise : 



K (i) I do not know when they are coming. 

p (ii) How is he going? 

(iii) Where shall we buy some plates to eat off? 

(iv) I am going to give you some poles for you to build a 

house with, 

(v) I am ill and therefore cannot come. 
I . (vi) Get me a stick to beat this boy with. 

I : (vii) Where are you (plural) being taught to read and write? 

: (viii) There are poles that the house may be built with. 

i| (ix) What do you want to eat meat with? 

(x) You ought (it is good) to give me two shillings to go to 



buy foodwith. 



1- 



CHAPTER XVIII 



PREPOSITIONS AND ADVERBS 



71. Prepositions: Prepositions in Ateso are not numerous. 
Where in English a preposition is used, Ateso usually employs 
either a derived verb (see Chapter XIV) or the prepositional 
suffix (see Chapter XVII). Prepositions must, however, always be 
used whenever a noun is used to indicate place. 

(i) Movement to a place can be expressed by altering the 
noun prefix to o- in masculine and neuter nouns, both singular 
and plural. The noun prefix in feminine nouns is not changed, 
but when movement to a place is implied the prefix a- is given 
a different tone value in speech: 

e.g. Elosi ore — He goes to the homestead 

Sirikilot akolorj — Do not go out into the sun 
This same form is also used to express position in, at or on 

a place. 

E.g. Ejai osamai— He is at the swamp 

Ejaasi imirio omesan — There are rats on the tables 
(ii) Ko- for masculine and neuter nouns, and ka- for feminine 
nouns, both singular and plural, may be used instead of the form 
described above to express movement to or position at a place. 
The ko- or ka- is written as part of the noun and replaces the 
noun prefix. These forms imply that on going to a place you 
have found or will find an object or person already there. 
E.g. Adutnunit eoq Petero kore — I found Peter at home 
But: Ajai Petero ore — Peter was at home 

Ituqa lukore kiyogaete ijo^The people (whom I found) 

at home greet you 
These forms are also used to express movement from a place: 

Abuni eoq koitela je — I have come from that place 
Ayaunio akipi nu katan — This water came from a well 



I 

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s^. 



66 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



(iii) The prepositional noun prefixes, o, a and ko, ka, may 
be used in accordance with the above rules with proper names. 
E.g. Ebuni Petero ka Atira— Peter comes from Tira 

Elosi Petero o Kapel— Peter goes to Kapiri 
Adumunit Petero ko Solot— I found Peter at Soroti 
(iv) Position in or on or among is also expressed by the 



:'a\. preposition toma or kotoma: 



Kotoma ka yes— Among you 
Toma togo— In the house 
The noun it governs takes the prepositional noun prefix; 
Ejai ekitabo toma omesa— The book is on the table 
Aanyunit nes kotoma ore— I have seen him at home 



f F i (^) Movement from a person, thing or place may also be 



expressed by the preposition kaneka : 

Abunit eog kaneka Petero— I come from Peter 
Movement to or from a person may also be expressed by the 
phrase mama ejai or mama ejaas: 

Kolot mama ejai Petero— Go to Peter 

Kijuka abalua mama ejaas isirikalei— Send the letter to the 

soldiers 

f J: Kama sometimes replaces mama though it would appear to 

^; have the idea of movement *Trom" rather than '*to". 

(vi) Other prepositions are for the most part identical in form 
with the adverbs of place listed in paragraph 72 below; many of 
them are derived from nouns by dropping the noun prefix. ■ 
E.g. Amuk ejaas kwap kemesa— The shoes are under the table 

Usuku ejai juwai kecor— Usuku is on the far side of 

the lake 
The noun governed by the preposition has k- prefixed. 



72. Adverbs: (i) Interrogative adverbs usually follow the verb 
they qualify: 

, ^-g- Elosit ai ?— Where has he gone ? 



i 



jJHi^ii 



PREPOSITIONS AND ADVERBS 67 

But when the interrogative adverb is strengthened by the 
particle bo it must precede: 

Aibo ejaas itelepai ? — Where are the boys? 
All other adverbs follow the verb they qualify. 

(ii) The following list contains the common adverbs of place : 

ne — here (often reduplicated to nepene) 
nen — here (often reduplicated to nepenen) 
kane — here, hence (ne with prepositional noun prefix) 
laije — that side 

lailo — this side 
juw^ai — on the other side, beyond 
lowai — this side 
okekwa — on the other side 
qina — there 
kujq — above 
kwap — below 
iqaren — in front 
kau — behind 
kit) a — outside 
(ko)toma — inside 

agule — at the back of 

It will be noted that some of these adverbs are derived from 
nouns by dropping the noun prefix or by adding a demonstrative 
adjective. 

(iii) The following list contains the common adverbs of time: 
kwana — now (often strengthened to kwapekwana) 

nat — soon, now 
napena — now (used adverbially but really an adjective 

quahfying apak understood) 
lolo — today 
moi — tomorrow 



'I 



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68 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



moi kace — the day after tomorrow 
bian — yesterday 
tupuruc — in the morning, early 

sek — long ago (also in the form kolosek) 



paran 
kware 



■by day 
by night 



(iv) The following list contains the common adverbs of 



manner : 



kwagin — thus 
noi — very 
cut — completely 
atipet — quickly 
bobo — again 

Other adverbial meanings may be translated by nouns with 
the particle ka (with): 

e.g. kisw^ama ka agogog— work vigorously 
or by quality verbs: e.g. kisw^ama ejok — work well 



Vocabulary : 



akolog (singular only) — sun 
ekileq (ikileqa)— knife 
acoa (lingular only) — wisdom 

anyait (anya)— blade of grass (pi. grass) 
atari (atanin) — well, spring 
ayagaar (ko)— take away 
aitub (ko) — cut 



r , 



■■I 



I 

i. 

i: 



Exercise : 



(i) Bring the meat here out of the sun. 

(ii) He has taken away the knife from the little table 

(iii) We found the soldiers at Tira. 

(iv) My father has come from there. 

(v) They always work wisely. 



Tr 



A 



A 



PREPOSITIONS AND ADVERBS 69 

(vi) The women are cutting the grass with a knife, 

(vii) I do not know where the girls are now. 

(viii) I want one from among the chickens which are here. 

(ix) The cattle are at the well. 

+ 

(x) Bring (plural) the beer to me. 



1! 1 . 



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■I . 






CHAPTER XIX 



VERBS: PARTICIPLES AND VERBAL 

NOUNS 

73. Present participle: In the sentence "I saw him coming" 

the word '"coming" is a present participle; it depends on another 

I 'I,., verb. In EngHsh the present participle differs in form from the 

ordinary indicative tenses, but in Ateso there is no separate form. 
^ I The sense is supplied by use of the present indicative tense : 

i\ Aanyunit nes ebuni— I saw him coming 

f'- 74. Formation of past participle: In the sentence "They 

ate cooked food" the word "cooked" is a past participle. It 



r describes something done to the food in the past. It is always 

passive. The past participle in Ateso is formed according to the 



following rules: 



ll (i) Verbs ending in a consonant duplicate the last consonant 

and preceding vowel. Past participles begin with e- in ko class 
If' verbs and i- in ki class verbs: 



t S' aiduk (ko)— to build edukuk— built 

f/ i aswam ^ki)— to do isw^amam— done 



(ii) Verbs with roots ending in a vowel duplicate the vowel 
I i| : only and add the usual prefix: < 

ll' aida (ko)— to beat edaa— beaten 

(iii) Derived verbs ending in -un, -or (-ar), -okin (-akin) 
add -o or -a to the last syllable and the usual prefix: 

adukun (ko)— build edukuno— built 

aiswapakin (ki)— thatch iswapakina— thatched 

75. Use of the past participle: There are two ways of using 
the past participle : 

(a) As a verb indicating the time an action took place. 
I (b) As an ordinary adjective. 



verbs: participles and verbal nouns 71 

In the sentence "I saw the men chosen" the past participle 
"chosen" is used as a verb fixing the time at which the men were 
chosen. But in the sentence "I saw the chosen men" the participle 
"chosen" is merely an adjective describing the men. EngHsh 
conveys this difference in meaning by altering the order of words 
Ateso marks the difference by adding the usual relative pronoun 
as a prefix when the past participle is used as an adjective: 

Abu eog kaanyu ituqa eseuna— I saw the men chosen 
Abu eoq kaanyu ituqa lueseuna— I saw the chosen men 

Aanyunit aberu earar— I have seen a woman 

murdered 
Aanyunit aberu naearar— I have seen a murdered 



woman 



76. Verbal nouns and adjectives ending in -n: (i) Nouns 

can be formed from most active and quality verbs to describe the 
doer of an action or the possessor of a quality. Such nouns may 
be formed in three ways : 

(a) By prefixing eka- to the root of ko class verbs and eke- 

to ki class verbs and by adding the suffix -an or -on : 
e.g. amej (ko)— to hunt ekamejan— hunter 

aibwok (ki)— to carry ekebwokan— carrier 

ekwag (ko)— he is white ekakwagan— white man 

The plural is formed by changing the final -n to -k and by 
changing the singular to the appropriate plural prefix: 

e.g. ikamejak— hunters 

akakoriok— women cultivators (see Chapter I, para- 
graph 7 (iv)) 

(b) By prefixing loka- to ko class roots and loke- to ki class 

roots and by adding the suffix -an or -on : 
e.g. amej (ko)— to hunt lokamejan— hunter 

aibwok (ki)— to carry lokebwokan— carrier 
ekwai3 (ko)— he is white lokakwag an— white man 
Feminine and neuter prefixes may also be used. 

I.A.L.- 



B^ I 



I'll I 72 ATESO LANGUAGE 



r 



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(c) By prefixing aa- to ko class roots and ee- to ki class roots 

and by adding the suffix -an or -on: 
e.g. amej (ko) — to hunt aamejan — hunter 

The plural is properly formed by changing the final -n to -k, 
'Hi leaving the prefixes unaltered. The modern tendency is to use 

the plural of form (a), 

(ii) The form in (a) is purely a noun; the verbal nature is lost. 

It is impossible to say ekamejan igatunyo to translate "hunter 
? ; :' of lions*'. These words must be translated by ekamejan loka 

igatunyo. The noun prefix must agree in gender M^ith any noun 

to which the form refers. 

E.g. Ikoku yen nes ikajokan — This child is a good one 
The form in (b) is adjectival; it retains its verbal nature and 

so can take an object. It is used where, in English, two nouns 

stand together: 

e.g. Petero lokamejan — Peter the hunter, 
or to translate a relative clause: 

Petero lokamejan — Peter, who is a hunter. 



I '.I 
I : 



'* n 



'■«,'; 



■ ■! 

:?■■ 



^ : 



i 



f[ or simpl}^ as an adjective: 



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I 



i 



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iit. 



I; ' ■ 



t^ 






■If 
I I 



1 



Petero lokaronon — wicked Peter 



^ |: The form in {c) also retains its verbal nature and may therefore 

, Ii have an object: 

I |. ; e.g. aadukon isomeroi — a builder of schools 



77. Verbal nouns and adjectives ending in -t: (i) Verbal 

;|| ■ nouns and adjectives ending in -t may also be formed in the 

three ways described in paragraph 76 above, except that the suffix 



final 



I 

;■ !:^.'! changed to -k. 



I '. E.g. aisab (ko) (to lie) gives the three forms: 

I w ekasabat, lokasabat, aasabat — liar, lying person 



The form ending in -t indicates that the person or thing in 
question has a habit of doing the action of the verb. 
I j (ii) There is also a passive verbal adjective which ends in -t. 

5 This form indicates that the person or thing described is destined 



verbs: participles and verbal nouns 



73 



to undergo the action of the verb. The verbal adjective is formed 
by prefixing the appropriate relative pronouns to the root of the 
verb and by adding the sufBx -at in the singular and -an in the 



plural ; 



aiar (ko) — to kill 

akituk nuaran — beef cov^s (cows which are to be 

killed). 

ainyam (ko) — to eat 

iboro lunyaman— victuals (things which are to be 

eaten). 



i 

78. Irregular verbs: (i) There are two classes of irregular 
verbs in Ateso : 

{a) Those which add -ie to the root before the final -i or -ete 

of the present tense. 

Common verbs in this class are : 

akor — to cultivate 
acok — to herd 
aur — to bring forth 

e.g. akoriei eog— I cultivate 
ekoriete kesi — they cultivate 



(In the last example the double -ee is contracted to -e.) 
(b) Those which add -a or -o to the root before the final 

-ete of the present tense. 

Common verbs in this class are : 

aswam — to work 

aiwadik — to write 

airiad — to keep 



-1 or 



e-g 



aomoom — to think over 

eswamai eog — I work 
iswamaete yesi — you work 
:itive verbs with the suffix -ene 



suffix 



I.A.L. — 7 



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74 



ATESO LANGUAGE 



Appendix I, Part i) add -e to these suffixes before the final -i 

in the singular and first person plural of the present tense : 

e.g. adukenen — to build repeatedly 

adukenenei eoq — I build repeatedly 

adumunun — ^to get repeatedly 

kidumununei — we get repeatedly 

(iii) The verb aiboi (to stay at) adds -e to the root in the 

singular and first person plural of the present tense instead of 

the usual -i: 

e.g. eboie eoq — I stay at 

iboiete yesi — you stay at 

(iv) As has been seen in paragraph i8 the verb abunere (to 

come) is irregular inasmuch as the plural forms are provided by 

a different verb, aponere; in conjugation the infinitive suffix 

-ere is dropped. This rule applies to all verbs the infinitive of 

which ends in -ere, -are or -ore. 



Present tense 

abuni 
ibuni 
ebuni 



Subjunctive / Imperative 

kabu 
kobu 
kobu 



kiponi (kibuni is nowadays kapotu 



commoner) 



ipote 
epAte 



kopotu 
kopotu 



r 

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Vocabulary : 



•'i 



h 11 ■ 



agwelar (ko)^to sell 
aiar (ko) — to kill 
aiswap (ki) — to thatch 
ekuriana (ekuriaka) — be afraid 

ekia (ikee) — medicine, charm 
etome (itomei) — elephant 



!}•■ 



*= If ' * 1i ' 



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Vil' '■ 



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< 






Exercise : 



(i) We saw him kill the child, 
(ii) We know that there was a thatched house here. 



verbs: participles and verbal nouns 75 

(iii) Peter, the drudge, has come today, 

(iv) I am ill today. Bring me the medicine to drink, 

(v) I have seen the boy beaten. 

(vi) My brother, a hunter of elephants, is not afraid, 

(vii) These are strong ones, 

(viii) There were many people gathered in the swamp, 

(ix) I want to see the house built of poles, 

(x) We want to sell the meat which was cut yesterday. 



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APPENDIX I 



I. Simple: 



Part i 
VERB DERIVATION 

Root -duk- (build) 

^ 

aiduk (ko) — to build 



2. Motion towards : 



adukun (ko) — to build (for me here) 



3. Motion away: 



4. Action for : 



adukor (ko) — to build (there) 



adukokin (ko) — to build (for or in) 



5. Causative: 



aituduk (ki) — to cause to build 



6. Repetitive: 



(i) 
(ii) 



adukenen (ko) — to build continually 
adukuduk (ko) — to build continually 



7. Derived causative: 

(i) Motioji towards : 



aitudukuti (ki) — to cause to build (for me here) 



(ii) Motion away: 



aitudukor (ki) — to cause to build (there) 



(iii) Action for : 



aitudukokin (ki) — to cause to build (for someone) 



8. Derived repetitive: 

(i) Motion towards : 



adukunun (ko) — to build continually (for me here) 



(ii) Motion away : 

adukonor (ko) — to build continually (there) 

(iii) Action for: 

adukonokin (ko) — to build continually (for someone) 



iii i'l,; 



.J 



APPENDIX I 77 



1 



9. Repetitive causative: 

(i) aitudukenen (ki) — to cause to build continually 
(ii) aitadukuduk (ki) — to cause to build continually 

10. Quantity: (derived from numerals) 

aiareikin (ki) — to do twice 
aiunikin (ki)— to do three times ■ 

11. Causative quantity: (derived from numerals) 



12. Quality: 



aisiareikin (ki) — to cause to do twice 
aisiunikin (ki) — to cause to do three times 



edukono (edukoko) — he is a building type 



13. Stative: 



eduk (edukos) — it is buildable 



All the above Forms can be conjugated throughout in 
THE Manner shown in Part 2 of this Appendix. . 

(The stative form, however, appears only in the third person 
and in the present and past (a- or e-) tense.) 

14. Verbal nouns; 

(i) ekadukon (ikadukok) — builder 

(ii) aadukon (aadukok) — builder 
(iii) ekadukot (ikadukok) — continual builder 
(iv) aadukot (aadukok) — continual builder 

(v) eduke (no plural) — style of building 

15. Verbal adjectives: (masculine singular form given) 

(i) lokadukon — building (man) 
(ii) lokadukot — continually building (man) 
(iii) edukuk — built 
(iv) lodukot — to be built 
The Nouns and Adjectives in 14 and 15 are formed from 
the Simple Form aiduk. In many Cases it is also possible 
TO form Similar Nouns and Adjectives from the Derived 
Verbs in 2 to g. 

E.g. edukuno — built (here) from adukun in 2. 

edukokina — built (in a place) from adukokin in 4. 



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Part 2 



;.li;, VERB CONJUGATION 



I, The following table presents the full conjugation of the root 



^^Uf' verb -sub (create). 



2. The verb -sub belongs to the ko class. Ki class verbs are 

conjugated identically except that the personal prefix: 

a- is replaced by e- 
ka- is replaced by ke- 

e- is replaced by i- 
ke- is replaced by ki- 
ko- is replaced by ki- 

3. The root vowel of the verb -sub is *'open'*. Verbs having 

"close" root vowels are conjugated identically except that 



the suffix: 



-a is replaced by -o 

-as is replaced by -os 

-ata is replaced by -oto 

-ai is replaced by -oi 

(but not in the suffix -itai) 

4. Conjugation'^f the simple root verb only is presented. De- 
rived verbs are conjugated identically with the exceptions 
i ;:i; mentioned in paragraphs 60, 62 (ii), 64 (i) and (ii), 67 (iii) 

^' and (iv). 



4 



J ; ' ' Note: The two tenses termed "contemporary present and 

I ': , past" and "dependent perfect" require some explanation. 

j^.. The "contemporary present and past" tense is so termed 

^ fci because the action of the verb in this tense takes place at the 

same time as the action of another verb, which must be expressed ; 
this other verb may be present or past. The "contemporary" 
tense may thus be used to translate the English "while" and, on 



■ 

1 



APPENDIX I 79 

the analogy of the "not yet" tense, might aUernatively be called 
the "while" tense: 

e.g. Aboki eoq aipany kaduki etogo. 

I am digging a hole while building the house, (present) 

Aboki nesi aipany kadukete isio etogo. 

He was digging a hole while we were building the house. 

(past) 
The "dependent perfect" tense is so termed because the verb 
in this tense expresses a perfect action, which has or will have 
taken place. The use of this tense is dependent on another verb, 
which may be expressed or merely understood; this other verb 
may be in the present, perfect or past tense. The "dependent 
perfect" tense may be used to translate the relative "when" and, 
on the analogy of the "not yet" tense, might alternatively be 
called the "when" tense: 

e.g. Apedori alosit ore ? Kelot Petero. 

Can I go home? When Peter has gone. 

(The "dependent perfect" kelot is dependent on the present 
tense verb ipedori alosit (you can go) understood.) 

Abu nesi kolot kenyam. 

He went when he had eaten. 
(The "dependent perfect" kenyam is dependent on the past 
tense abu kolot.) 

The perfect (root) tense expresses finality; the action is 
definitely and completely finished. Used without an object the 
tense implies that the action was completed a short while ago. 
Used with an object no specific time is implied: 

e.g. Alot nesi — He has just gone (and is not 

coming back). 
Alot nesi r)ora — He went to Ngora. (The time 

he went is unspecified ; he is 
not coming back.) 
Adum nesi — He has just found it. (No fur- 
ther search for the thing lost 
is necessary.) 

Adum bian nesi ekalacet — He found my key yesterday. 



ACTIVE 


INFINITIVE 


subjunctive/imperative 


conditional 


aisub 


kasub 

kosub 

kosub 

kasubata 

kosubata 

kosubata 


ti. . . .kasub 
ti. . . -kisub 
ti . . . . kesub 
ti. . . .kisub 
ti. . . .kisubata 
ti, . . .kesubata 


INDICATIVE 


PRESENT TENSE 


past (a- or E-) TENSE 


asubi 

isubi 

esubi 

kisubi 

isubete 

esubete 


asubi 

isubi 

asubi 

kisubi 

isubete 

asubete 




PERFECT 


(-it) tense 

ibit 

[bit 

jbit 

ubit 

ibito 

jbito 


PAST perfect (-it) TENSE 




as I 

isu 

esi 
kis 
isu 
esi 


asubit 

isubit 

asubit 

kisubit 

isubito 

asubito 


PAST (abu) tense 


far past (abu) tense 


abu kasub 
ibu kosub 
abu kosub 
apotu kasubata 
ipotu kosubata 
apotu kosubata 


abu kasubite 

ibu kosubite 
abu kosubite 
apotu kasubite 
ipotu kosubite 
apotu kosubito 


HABITUAL tense* 


"not yet" tense 


(asubitoi) 

(Isubitoi) 

(esubitoi) 

(kisubitoi) 

(isubitos) ' 

(esubitos) 


(k)esuba 
(k)esuba 
(k)esuba 
(k)esuba 

(k)esuba 
(k)esuba 




PERFECT (root) TENSE 


dependent perfect (k-) tense 


asub 

isub ; 

asub 

kisub 

isubata 

asubata 


kasub 

kisub 

kesub 

kisub 

kisubata 

kesubata 


contemporary present and past (ko-) tense 


kasubi kasubete 
kosubi kosubete 
kosubi kosubete 



* See paragraph 54. This tense is rarely used except with repetitive verbs. 
The forms asubitoi, etc., are probably never used: only the repetitive 
forms asubusubutoi, isubusubutoi, etc. 

I.A.L. — 80] 




ACTIVE PREPOSITIONAL SUFFIX 




INFINITIVE 


subjunctive/imperative 


CONDITIONAL 


INF 


i 
1 

asubia 

1 


kasubia 

kosubia 

kosubia 

kasubiata 

kosubiata 

kosubiata 


ti. . . .kasubia 
ti . . . . kisubia 
ti . . . . kasubia 
ti. . . .kisubia 
ti . . . . kisubiata 
ti. . . .kasubiata 


a 


INDICATIVE 




PRESENT TENSE 


PAST (a- or E-) lENSE 




asubia 

isubia 

esubia 

kisubia 

isubiata 

esubiata 


a 

' i: 

a 

I^ 

; i: 

a 

PAST PERFI 


subia 

subia 

subia 

:isubia 

subiata 

subiata 




PERFECT (-ITOR) TENSE 


iCT (-itor) tense 


» ^ J Mm^ 


asubitor 

isubitor 

esubitor 

kisubitor 

isubitotor 

esubitotor 


asubitor 

isubitor 

asubitor 

kisubitor 

isubitotor 

asubitotor 




PAST (abu) TENSE 


FAR PAST (abu) TENSE 




abu kasubia 
ibu kosubia 
abu kosubia 
apotu kasubiata 
ipotu kosubiata 
apotu kosubiata 


abu kasubitor 

ibu kosubitor 

i abu kosubitor 

apotu kasubitotor 
ipotu kosubitotor 
apotu kosubitotor 




HABITUAL TENSE 


1 

"not yet" tense 




Not found 


The eriqa i 

preposition 
eriqj 

erok 
dependent : 


or eroko is made 

lal: 

ir (k)esuba 

or 

or (k)asuba 




PERFECT (root) TENSE 


PERFECT (K-) tense 




b ■ 

Not found 


kasubia 

kisubia 

kasubia 

kisubia 

kisubiata 

kesubiata 




CONTEMPORARY PRESENT AND PAST (kO-) TENSE 




kasubia kasubiata 
kosubia kosubiata 
kosubia kosubiata 





t TI 
to reve: 



PASSIVE 



IVE 



subjunctive/imperative 



CONDITIONAL 




kasubi 

kosubi 

kosubai 

kosubi 

kosubi 

kosubai 



. kasuba 
.kisuba 
• kesuba 
. kisuba 
.kisuba 
.kesuba 



PASSIVE— PREPOSITIONAL SUFFIX 



INFINITIVE 



INDICATIVE 




asubio 

isubio 

esubio 

kisubio 

isubio 

esubio 



PAST (a- or E-) TENSEJ 






RFECT (-ITAI) TENSEJ 

asubitai 

isubitai 

esubitai 

kisubitai 

isubitai 

esubitai 



asubio 

isubio 

asubio 

kisubio 

isubio 

asubio 



asubere 



subjunctu'e/imperative 



CONDITIONAL 



kasubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 



U. 
ti. 
ti. 
ti. 

ti. 
ti. 



. kasubere 
. kisubere 
.kesubere 
. kisubere 
. kisubere 
-kesubere 



INFINITI 



asuba 



INDICATIVE 




PAST PERFECT (-ITAl) TENSEJ 

asubitai 

isubitai 

asubitai 

kisubitai 

isubitai 

asubitai 

FAR PAST (aPONI) TENSE 



PRESENT TENSE t 

-¥- J-ri ■ ^ "^ ^^^ ■ III 

asubere 

isubere 

esubere 

kisubere 

isubere 

esubere 



aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 



kasubi 

kosubi 

kosubai 

kosubi 

kosubi 

kosubai 



aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 



kasubitcte 
kosubitete 
kosubitete 
kosubitete 
kosubitete 
kosubitete 



PERFECT (-ITERE) TENSEJ 

asubitere 

isubitere 

esubitere 

kisubitere 

isubitere 

esubitere 

PAST (aponi) tense 



past (a- or E-) tense| 

asubere 

isubere 

asubere 

kisubere 

isubere 

asubere 



past perfect (-itere) tense| 

asubitere 
isubitere 

asubitere 
kisubitere 
isubitere 
asubitere 






PEl 



** ■ 



habitual tense 



"not yet" tense 



Not found 



RFECT (root) tense 



Not found 



Not found 



DEPENDENT PERFECT (K-) TENSE 



Not found 



CONTEMPORARY PRESENT AND PAST (kO-) TENSEf 



(kasubio) 
(kosubio) 
(kosubio) 



(kasubio) 
(kosubio) 
(kosubio) 



aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 



kasubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 
kosubere 



FAR PAST (aponi) TENSE 

kasubitere 
kosubitere 
kosubitere 
kosubitere 
kosubitere 
kosubitere 



aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 
aponi 



HABITUAL TENSE 



Not found 



PERFECT (root) TENSE 



Not found 



ti 



Jl 



NOT YET TENSE 



Not found 



DEPENDENT PERFECT (K-) TENSE 



Not found 



CONTEMPORARY PRESENT AND PAST (KO-) TENSEf 



- 1 + 4 



(kasubere) 
(kosubere) 
(kosubere) 



(kasubere) 
(kosubere) 
(kosubere) 




|forms are rarely, if ever, found, for it is normal in passive sentences 
the active in the "contemporary" clause: 
.g. Ebokio aipany kodukete etogo 

The hole is being dug while the house is being built 



k^V 



1 



H 



PERI 



J Note that the "contained object* 
required in the first and second person; 
second person plural. See Preface to the S 



U^,-'.-!-, 



-*-J-» i -T" 






t-J— •-*-* ■* -*