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Full text of "Annals of the World"

THE ANNALS THE WORLD 

by 

JAMES USSHER, 

Archbishop of Armagh 

Church of Ireland 



LONDON 
Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, and G. Bedell 

1658 

This work is in the Public Domain. Copy Freely 
More Freeware From Bennie Blount Ministries International 

Table of Contents 



Table of Contents 



PARTI 

Title Page and Preface 

Explanatory Notes 
THE FIRST AGE 
la AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC 
THE SECOND AGE 

1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC 

THE THIRD AGE 

2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC 
THE FOURTH AGE 

2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC 

THE FIFTH AGE 

2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC 
THE SIXTH AGE 

3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC 
3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC 
3604b AM, 43 14 JP, 400 BC 
3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC 
3679b AM, 4389 JP, 325 BC 
3704 AM, 4414 JP, 300 BC 
3804 AM, 4514 JP, 200 BC 



PART 2 
Title Page and 
Preface 

3829 AM, 4539 JP, 
175 BC 

3854 AM, 4564 JP, 
150 BC 

3904b AM, 4614 JP, 
100 BC 

3929b AM, 4639 JP, 
75 BC 

3954b AM, 4664 JP, 
50 BC 

3979 AM, 4689 JP, 
25 BC 

THE SEVENTH 
AGE 

4000b AM, 4710 JP, 
4BC 

4028 AM, 4738 JP, 
25 AD 

4053b AM, 4763 JP, 
50 AD 

Biography 



The Annals of The World 

by 
Rev. James Ussher 

LONDON, 

Printed by E. Tyler, for F. Crook, 

and G. Bedell, 1658 



The Epistle to the Reader 

Censorinus, in his little book, the "Explication of Times Intervals", written to Q. Cerellius on his 
birthday, wrote in the preface of it. 

vv If the origin of the world had been known to man, I would have started there." (Consor. in c. 
20.) 

And a little later, speaking of this time: 

vv Whether time had a beginning or whether it always was, the exact number of years cannot be 
known." (Consor. in c. 21.) 

Therefore Ptolemy, from "Astronomical Supputations", concerning the creation and history of 
the world states that it is beyond the knowledge of man. 

vv To find the details of the history of the whole world or such an immense period of times, I 
think it is beyond us that desire to learn and know the truth." (Ptolem. 1. 3.) 

Julius Firmius Maternus in his discourse of history, that "Geniture of the World", received from 
Esculapius and Anubius. 

vv That was not the creation of the world. Nor, indeed, had the world any certain day for its 
beginning. Nor was there anything existing at the time when the world was formed by the 
wisdom of the Divine Understanding and Provident Deity. Nor could man in his human frailty 
so far extend itself, that it could conceive or unfold, easily the world's origin." (Jul. Firm. 
Mattes. 1. 3. c. 2.) 

It is not strange that the heathens who are totally ignorant of the Holy Bible, should despair of 
ever attaining the knowledge of the world's beginnings. Even among Christians, that most 
renowned chronographer Dionysius Petavius when asked his opinion concerning the creation of 



the world and the number of years from creation down to us, made this disclaimer: 

"That the number of years from the beginning of the world to our time, cannot be known nor in 
any way found out without Divine Revelation." (Petav. de Doctrina Temporum, 1. 9. c. 2.) 

Philastrius Brixiensis disagreed with him and called it heresy: 

"to know the number of the years from the creation of the world is uncertain and men do not 
know the time." (Philast. De Heres. ib. c. 6. p. 63.) 

Lactantius Sirmianus, made this bold assertion in his "Divine Institutions": 

"We who are trained by the Holy Scriptures to the knowledge of truth, do know both the 
beginning and end of the world." (Lastant. 1. 7. c. 14.) 

For whatever may have happened in the past, we are taught that: 

"The Father has reserved the knowledge of things future to himself. Nor is there any mortal to 
whom the whole period of time is known, (ib. Nicol. Lyranius.) Even the son of Sirach is 
thought to say. "The sands of the sea, the drops of rain and the days of the world, who can 
number?""/APC Sir 1:28 

When Lyranus is thought to have been speaking of history, (when as others interpret it here and 
in Chap. XVIII. 11. of his "Days of Eternity") draws this erroneous conclusion. He thinks that 
from the beginning of the world, time was never by any man determined "certainly" and 
"precisely". 

The first Christian writer, (that I have known of) who attempted from the Holy Bible to calculate 
the age of the world, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch. Concerning this whole account, he 
states: 

"All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth" (Theoph. ad 
Autolyc. 1. 3.) 

But concerning the exactness of this calculation he later states: 

"And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy 
Scriptures there is no mention of the precise number of months and days" 

For the Scripture normally notes only entire years and not the days and months in each instance. 
Hence summing the years may give an inaccurate total because the partial years were not 
included. 

But granting this one thing, (and this is a most reasonable assumption) that the Holy Writers had 
this purpose in noting the years of the world in their various places with such diligence. They 
sought to reveal to us the history of the world that otherwise, no one could know. This, I say, 



being granted, we affirm that the Holy Spirit has anticipated this doubt. He has started and 
ended each of the periods, on which a series of time depends and added the very month and day. 
For example, the Israelites left Egypt on the 15th day of the first month. Nu 33:3. In the 480th 
year after their exodus, in the second month on the second day, Solomon began to build the 
temple. IKi 6:1. The months and days given for the start and end of the period show that 1 1 
months and 14 days are to be taken away. The period is not 480 whole years, but only 479 years 
and 16 days. 2Ch 3:2 

vv Those who promise to give us an exact astronomical table of time, from the creation to Christ, 
seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise in that they attempt a thing beyond 
human capacity." 

Thus states David Paraeus, who, among the most recent of our writers, calculated the number 
the years to Christ's time from the Holy Scriptures. Therefore he says, abandoning astronomical 
calculations, he used the civil time of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Persians as the only way to do 
this accurately. 

But if I have any understanding in this matter, it does not matter what rule we use to measure the 
passing of time, as long as it starts and ends with a certain number of days. Anyone could with 
D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the time between the foundation of the 
world and Christ's time. Also it would be very easy without the help of any astronomical table, 
to set down how many years happened during that interval. The passing of time in any civil year 
from a season to the same season again is simply a natural astronomical or tropical year. 

Anyone can do this who is well versed in the knowledge of sacred and profane history, of 
astronomical calculations and of the old Hebrew calendar. If he should apply himself to these 
difficult studies, it is not impossible for him to determine not only the number of years but even 
the days from the creation of the world. Using backward calculations, Basil the great, told us we 
may determine the first day of the world. 

vv You may indeed learn the very time when the foundation of the world was laid. If you return 
from this time to former ages, you may endeavour studiously to determine the day of the world's 
origin. Hence you will find when time began." {Basil, in Hexamer. Homil. 1.} 

The nations in various ages used different methods of calculating time and years. It is necessary 
that some common and known standard be used to which these may be reconciled. The Julian 
years and months are most suitable to the common collation of times. These start on midnight, 
January 1, A.D. Using three cycles, every year is uniquely identified. For example, the Roman 
indiction {a} of 15 years, the cycle of the moon {b}, or golden number of 19 and the solar cycle 
{c} (the index of Sunday or Paschal days) containing the period of 28 years. It is known that the 
year 1650 A.D. is identified with the numbers of 3 in the Roman indiction {a}, 17 in the lunar 
cycle and 7 in the solar cycle. (I do not say that of the year of the birth of Christ, which is still 
disputed among the learned.) 

Since our Christian period comes long after the creation of the world, counting years backward 
is difficult and error prone. There is a better way. Modern chronologers have extrapolated these 
three cycles backward to the year when all the cycles would start at 1 on January first. This 
creates an artificial epoch of length 7980 years based on the product of the three cycles 



multiplied together. 

Lunar Cycle 19 Years 

Solar Cycle 28 Years 

Years of Interdiction 15 Years 

Total 19 times 28 times 15 = 7980 Years 



I think this was first noted by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in England. 500 years later 
Joseph Scaliger adapted this to chronological use and called it by the name of the Julian Period, 
because it extended the cycle of Julian years back in time and forward. The cycle starts at noon, 
January 1, 4713 BC. and is a leap year. Here the lunar cycle is 1, the Solar cycle is 1 and the 
Interdiction cycle is also 1. Hence 1 AD is the year 4714 of the Julian period and is identified by 
the Roman Indiction of 4, lunar cycle of 2, solar cycle of 10. 

Moreover we find that the years of our forefathers, the years of the ancient Egyptians and 
Hebrews were the same length as the Julian Year. It consisted of 12 months containing 30 days. 
(It cannot be proved that the Hebrews used lunar months before the Babylonian captivity.) 5 
days were added to the 12th month each year. Every 4 years, 6 days were added to the 12th 
month. I have noted the continual passing of these years, as set forth in the Bible. Hence the end 
of Nebuchadnezzar's reign and the beginning of his son Evilmerodach's reign was in the 3442 
year of the world. (3442 AM) By collation of Chaldean history and the astronomical cannon it 
was in the 85 year of Nabonasar. This was 562 BC. or 4152 JP. (Julian Period) From this I 
deduce that the creation of the world happened in the beginning of the autumn of 710 JP. {d} 
Using astronomical tables, I determined the first Sunday after the autumnal equinox for the year 
710 JP which was October 23 of that year. I ignored the stopping of the sun, in the days of 
Joshua and the going back of it in the days of Hezekiah. (See the notes in my Annals for 2553 
AM and 3291 AM) From thence I concluded, that from the preceding evening of October 23, 
marks the first day of creation and the start of time. 

I ignored the difficulties raised by chronologers who are occupied by the love of contention, as 
Basil notes. Hence I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD. was 
4003 years, 70 days, 6 hours. Also based on the death of Herod I conclude that the birth of our 
Saviour was four full years before January 1, 1 AD. According to our calculations, the building 
of Solomon's temple was finished in the 3000th year of the world. In the 4000th year of the 
world, Mary gave birth to Christ Lu 2:6 (of whom the temple was a type). Joh 2:21 Hence Christ 
was born in 4 BC. not 1 AD. {e} 

But these things, (which I note at the present) God willing, shall be more fully explained in our 
"Sacred Chronology". This I intend to write with a "Treatise of the Primitive Years" and the 
"Calendar of the Ancient Hebrews". In the meantime I thought it best to publish the "Annals of 
the Old Testament". Based on this foundation, I included a chronicle of all foreign affairs that 
happened in Asia and Egypt. These include events before the beginning of the Olympiads and 
matters relating to Greece and Rome and other areas. 

In doing the sacred history, I have followed the translation of Janius and Tremellius, using their 
Hebraism's and the information from their work. In doing the secular history, I have noted the 
writings of their ancient authors or the best translation from the Greek of their works. In 



particular I used James Dalechamp translation in Athenaeus. Although in noting the chapters I 
observed the edition of "Natalis Comes". From these I have written this history using material 
from Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Eberus, Salianus, or any other chronologer, which 
I had. However, I always referred to the original authors and did most of my work directly from 
their writings and not second hand sources. Since my purpose was to create an accurate 
chronology, I may not have followed the exact wording of these writers in every case, but I have 
preserved the intent of their writings. 

Of the many historians, who lived before Julius Caesar, the passing of time leaves only four of 
note: Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon and Polibius. The last one is poor and inaccurate in 
many places. These I esteemed the most authentic for their antiquity. I used them to correct the 
frequent errors in chronology of Diodorus Siculus. However in matters that related to Alexander 
the Great, they are silent. For this period, I also followed not only Diodorus but Curtius and 
Arrian to try to determine the history of that period. 

I used the following abbreviations: 

AD Years from the start of the Christian era. 

AM Year of the World from creation. 

BC Years before the Christian era. 

JP Julian Year starting at January 1, 4713 BC. 

NK Northern Kingdom of Israel. 

SK Southern Kingdom of Israel. 

After the time denoted by AM, one of four letters may be affixed. 

a Autumn 
b Winter 
c Spring 
d Summer 

Other things the prudent reader will figure out for himself. I wish you the enjoyment of these 
endeavours and bid you farewell. 

London, July 13, 1650 AD. 

Rev. James Ussher 

Next 



Explanatory Notes by Editor 

{a} Dictionary Definition of "Roman Indiction." 

In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years instituted by Constantine the Great; originally, a period of 
taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Romans were obliged to serve in the 
army to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of the term, to pay the troops' 
discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this period. But, as it is said, in 
honour of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sept. 24, A.D. 312, by which 
Christianity was more firmly established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years 
should no more be kept by Olymiads, but that the "indiction" should be used as the point from 
which to reckon the date years. This was begun Jan. 1, A.D. 313. "Johnson. Encyc." 

Taken from the definition of "Indiction" in "Noah Webster's First Edition of an American 
Dictionary of the English Language", Published 1989, by "Foundation for American Christian 
Education", California. (Dictionary was first published in 1828.) 

{b} Lunar Cycle 

The lunar cycle consists of 19 years or 235 complete orbits of the moon around the earth. This 
differs from 19 years of 365.25 days each by approximately one and an half hours. On the first 
year of the next cycle of 19 years, the new moon would again be on January 1. 

{c} Solar Cycle 

The solar cycle consists of 28 years. At the start of each new cycle every day and month of the 
year would correspond exactly to the days and months of the first year of the previous cycle. 

{d} Time of Creation 

Since the Jews used to start their year in the autumn, this is not an unreasonable assumption. 
Also the biblical pattern of "evening and morning" seems to apply to year as well as days. First 
the dark months of autumn and winter and then the bright months of spring and summer. This 
also fits the biblical pattern in spiritual matters too. For the saint, his worst lot in life comes first 
followed by an eternal day of happiness in Christ. The best wine comes last. Joh 2: 10 See 
Spurgeon's Sermon No. 225, "Satan's Banquet" and No. 226, "The Feast of the Lord". 

{e} The Christian Era 

The Christian Era should properly began with the year Christ was born; and in devising it, the 
intention was to have it begin with that year. By the "Christian Era" is meant the system upon 
which calendars are constructed and by which historical events are now dated in practically all 
the civilized world. But the originator of the system made a miscalculation as to the year (in the 
calendar then in use) in which Christ was born, as the result of which the year A.D. 1 was fixed 
four years too late. In other words, the Lord Jesus was four years old in the year A.D. 1. 



The mistake came about in this way: The Christian Era (i.e. the scheme of dates beginning A.D. 
1) was not devised until A.D. 532. Its inventor, or contriver, was a monk named Dionysius 
Exiguus. At that time the system of dates in common use began from the era of the emperor 
Diocletian, A.D. 284. Exiguus was not willing to connect his system of dates with the name of 
that infamous tyrant and persecutor. So he conceived the idea of connecting his system with and 
dating all its events from, the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. His reason for wishing to do this was, 
as he wrote to Bishop Petronius, "to the end that the commencement of our hope might be better 
known to us and that the cause of man's restoration, namely, our Redeemer's passion, might 
appear with clearer evidence." 

For the carrying out of this excellent plan, it was necessary to fix the date of the Incarnation in 
the terms of the chronological systems then in vogue. The Romans dated the beginning of their 
history from the supposed date of the founding of the city ("ab urbe condita" or A.U.C as 
usually abbreviated). Dionysius Exiguus calculated that the year of our Lord's birth was A.U.C. 
753. He made his equivalence of dates from Lu 3: 1, "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of 
Tiberius Caesar" etc., at which time Christ was 30 years of age according to Lu 3:23. But it was 
ascertained later that a mistake of four years had been made; for it clearly appears by Mt 2: 1 that 
Christ was born before the death of Herod, who died in 749 A.U.C. Tiberius succeeded 
Augustus, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767. Hence his 15th year would be A.U.C. 779; and from those facts 
Dionysius was right in his calculation. But it was discovered in later years that Tiberius began to 
reign as colleague with Augustus four years before the latter died. Hence the 15th year 
mentioned by Luke was four years earlier than was supposed by Dionysius and consequently the 
birth of Christ was that many years earlier than the date selected by Exiguus, which date has 
been followed ever since. This must be allowed for in any computation of dates which involves 
events happening before Christ. 

"The Wonders of Bible Chronology", Page 84,85, Philip Mauro, first published 1922, Reprinted 
by, Reiner Publications, Swengel, Pennsylvania 

Philip Melanchthon: 
His Narration, Concerning 
Philip Prince Palatine, 
to Rhenus. 

I have often heard Capino relate the following when Dalburgius, the Bishop of the Vangions, 
Rudolphus Agricola and myself were with Philip Prince Palatine Elector. Not only in ordinary 
conversation but also in serious discussions about the affairs of the state, they would often bring 
notable examples from the Persian or Greek or Roman history. The Prince was very zealous to 
know more of history and he noted that the distinction of the times, nations and empires, was 
necessary for this. Therefore he wished them to make a chronology of the kingdoms of ancient 
history based on all available Hebrew, Greek and Latin authors. At that time in 1480 AD, there 
were no books about the ancient empires in the German language. Nor had the Latins anything 
of that nature, save Justin's confused Epitome, which also lacked a detailed chronology. Those 
learned men were delighted to compile this work. Therefore they compiled a chronology from 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin monuments of the various monarchies. To this they added all the 
most important events in proper place and created a chronology of the nations and times. This 
grateful Prince read these works most earnestly and delighted in them. Also he was thankful that 
the times and the memory of the most important events were preserved by Divine Providence. 



For they showed him, how that the history of the world was continued, so that Herodatus begins 
his writings a little before the end of the prophetic history. For even before the end of the 
Persian monarchy, concerning which we have a most clear account of Daniel, Ezra and 
Nehemiah, some of the names of the kings of Assyria and Egypt, are the same in the prophets 
and Herodotus. Jeremiah foretells their destruction to Apries, which also Herodotus describes. 
After Apries kills Jeremiah, Amasis strangles the proud king after he had captured him. The 
Palatine prince said he saw the witness of the Divine presence in the ordering of empires. For 
these empires could neither be attained nor retained by mere human power. Therefore they were 
created that they might be the upholders of human society, unite many nations, restore law, 
justice, peace and indeed, they might teach men concerning God. Therefore, he did often repeat 
those words of Daniel that God changes and confirms empires. He said likewise, that by the 
changes and punishments of tyrants, the just judgment of the Almighty was most conspicuous. 
By these illustrious examples, all mankind was admonished to acknowledge God and were to 
understand that he wills and ordains justice and is truly offended with those who transgress this 
his ordination. Such were the speeches of that Prince, concerning the rise and fall of empires. 

Previous Next Table of Contents 



The Annals of the Old Testament 
from the Beginning of the World 

The First Age of the World 

la AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC 

1 . In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Ge 1 : 1 This beginning of time, 
according to our chronology, happened at the start of the evening preceding the 23rd day of 
October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710. 

2. On the first day Ge 1:1-5 of the world, on Sunday, October 23rd, God created the highest 
heaven and the angels. When he finished, as it were, the roof of this building, he started with the 
foundation of this wonderful fabric of the world. He fashioned this lower most globe, consisting 
of the deep and of the earth. Therefore all the choir of angels sang together and magnified his 
name. Job 38:7 When the earth was without form and void and darkness covered the face of the 
deep, God created light on the very middle of the first day. God divided this from the darkness 
and called the one "day" and the other "night". 

3. On the second day Ge 1:6-8 (Monday, October 24th) after the firmament or heaven was 
finished, the waters above were separated from the waters here below enclosing the earth. 

4. On the third day Ge 1:9-13 (Tuesday, October 25th) when these waters below ran together 
into one place, the dry land appeared. From this collection of the waters God made a sea, 
sending out from here the rivers, which were to return there again. Ec 1:7 He caused the earth to 
bud and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants with seeds and fruits. Most importantly, he 
enriched the garden of Eden with plants, for among them grew the tree of life and the tree of 
knowledge of good and evil. Ge 2:8,9 

5. On the fourth day (Wednesday, October 26th) the sun, the moon and the rest of the stars were 
created. 

6. On the fifth day (Thursday, October 27th) fish and flying birds were created and commanded 
to multiply and fill the sea and the earth. 

7. On the sixth day (Friday, October 28th) the living creatures of the earth were created as well 
as the creeping creatures. Last of all, man was created after the image of God, which consisted 
principally in the divine knowledge of the mind, Col 3: 10 in the natural and proper sanctity of 
his will. Eph 4:24 When all living creatures by the divine power were brought before him, 
Adam gave them their names. Among all of these, he found no one to help him like himself. 
Lest he should be destitute of a suitable companion, God took a rib out of his side while he slept 
and fashioned it into a woman. He gave her to him for a wife, establishing by it the law of 
marriage between them. He blessed them and bade them to be fruitful and multiply. God gave 
them dominion over all living creatures. God provided a large portion of food and sustenance 
for them to live on. To conclude, because sin had not yet entered into the world, God saw every 
thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were 



the sixth day. Ge 1:31 

8. Now on the seventh day, (Saturday, October 29th) when God had finished his work which he 
intended, he then rested from all labour. He blessed the seventh day and ordained and 
consecrated the sabbath Ge 2:2,3 because he rested on it Ex 31:17 and refreshed himself. Nor as 
yet (for ought appears) had sin entered into the world. Nor was there any punishment given by 
God, either upon mankind, or upon angels. Hence is was, that this day was set forth for a sign, 
as well as for our sanctification in this world Ex 31:13 of that eternal sabbath, to be enjoyed in 
the world to come. In it we expect a full deliverance from sin and its dregs and all its 
punishments. Heb 4:4,9,10 

9. After the first week of the world ended, it seems that God brought the newly married couple 
into the garden of Eden. He charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil 
but left them free to eat of everything else. 

10. The Devil envied God's honour and man's obedience. He tempted the woman to sin by the 
serpent. By this he got the name and title of the old serpent. Re 12:9 20:2 The woman was 
beguiled by the serpent and the man seduced by the woman. They broke the command of God 
concerning the forbidden fruit. Accordingly when sought for by God and convicted of this 
crime, each had their punishments imposed on them. This promise was also given that the seed 
of the woman should one day break the serpent's head. Christ, in the fulness of time should undo 
the works of the Devil. 1 Jo 3:8 Ro 16:20 Adam first called her Eve because she was then 
ordained to be the mother, not only of all that should live this natural life, but, of those also who 
should live by faith in her seed. This was the promised Messiah as Sarah also later was called 
the mother of the faithful. IPe 3:6 Ga 4:31. 

11. After this our first parents were clothed by God with raiment of skins. They were expelled 
from Eden and a fiery flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of life so that they 
should never eat of that fruit which they had not yet touched. Ge 3:21,22 It is very probable, that 
Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have 
been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st) On this day also, in remembrance of so 
remarkable an event the day of atonement was appointed Le 23:27, and the yearly fast, spoken 
of by Paul, Ac 27:9 termed more especially by the name of nhsteian. On this feast all, strangers 
as well as native Israelites, were commanded to afflict their souls that every soul which should 
not afflict itself upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, Le 16:29 23:29 

12. After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortal men that was born of a woman. Ge 
4:1 

130d AM, 840 JP, 3874 BC 

13. When Cain, the firstborn of all mankind, murdered Abel, God gave Eve another son called 
Seth. Ge 4:25 Adam had now lived 130 years. Ge 5:3 From whence it is gathered, that between 
the death of Abel and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve. For then, he should 
have been recorded to have been given her instead of him. Since man had been on the earth 128 
years and Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters Ge 5:4 the number of people on the earth 
at the time of this murder could have been as many as 500,000. Cain might justly fear, through 
the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. Ge 4: 14,15 



235d AM, 945 JP, 3769 BC 

14. When Seth was 105 years old, he had his son, Enos. This indicates the lamentable condition 
of all mankind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain. 
Hence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true 
worship of God, were known by the name of the children of God. They who forsook him, were 
termed the children of men. Ge 4:26 6:1,2 

325d AM, 1035 JP, 3679 BC 

15. Cainan, the son of Enos was born when his father was 90 years old. Ge 5:10 
395dAM, 1105 JP, 3609 BC 

16. Mahalaleel was born when Cainan his father was 70 years old. Ge 5:12 
460dAM, 1 170 JP, 3544 BC 

17. Jared was born when his father Mahalaleel was 65 years old. Ge 5:15 
622d AM, 1332 JP, 3382 BC 

18. Enoch was born when his father Jared was 162 years old. Ge 5:18 
687dAM, 1397 JP, 3317 BC 

19. Methuselah was born when Enoch his father was 65 years old. Ge 5:25 
874dAM, 1584 JP, 3130 BC 

20. Lamech was born when his father Methuselah was 187 years old. Ge 5:25 
930d AM, 1640 JP, 3074 BC 

21. Adam, the first father of all mankind, died at the age of 930 years. Ge 5:5 
987dAM, 1697 JP, 3017 BC 

22. Enoch, the 7th from Adam at the age of 365 years, was translated by God in an instant, while 
he was walking with him that he should not see death. Ge 5:23,24 Heb 1 1:5 

1042d AM, 1752 JP, 2962 BC 



23. Seth, the son of Adam died when he was 912 years old. Ge 5:8 
1056d AM, 1766 JP, 2948 BC 

24. Noah, the 10th from Adam, was born when his father Lamech was 182 years old. Ge 5:29 
1140d AM, 1850 JP, 2864 BC 

25. Enos, the 3rd from Adam, died when he was 905 years old. Ge 5: 1 1 
1235d AM, 1945 JP, 2769 BC 

26. Cainan, the 4th from Adam, died when he was 910 years old. Ge 5:14 
1290d AM, 2000 JP, 2714 BC 

27. Mahalaleel, the 5th from Adam, died when he was 892 years old. Ge 5:17 
1422d AM, 2132 JP, 2582 BC 

28. Jared, the 6th from Adam, died when he was 962 years old. Ge 5:20 
1536a AM, 2245 JP, 2469 BC 

29. Before the deluge of waters upon the whole wicked world, God sent Noah, a preacher of 
righteousness to them, giving them 120 years to repent of their evil ways. IPe 3:20 2Pe 2:5 Ge 
6:3 

1556d AM, 2266 JP, 2448 BC 

30. Noah was 500 years old when his 1st son, Japheth was born. Ge 5:32 10:21 
1558d AM, 2268 JP, 2446 BC 

31. Noah's 2nd son, Shem, was born 2 years later because 2 years after the flood, Shem was 100 
years old. Ge 11:10 

1651d AM, 2361 JP, 2353 BC 

32. Lamech, the 9th from Adam, died when he was 777 years old. Ge 5:31 
1656a AM, 2365 JP, 2349 BC 

33. Methuselah, the 8th from Adam, died when he was 969 years old. He lived the longest of all 



men yet died before his father. Ge 5:27,24 

34. Now in the 10th day of the second month of this year (Sunday, November 30th) God 
commanded Noah that in that week he should prepare to enter into the Ark. Meanwhile the 
world, totally devoid of all fear, sat eating and drinking and marrying and giving in marriage. Ge 
7:1,4,10 Mt 24:38 

35. In the 600th year of the life of Noah, on the 17th day of the second month, (Sunday, 
December 7th), he with his children and living creatures of all kinds had entered into the Ark. 
God sent a rain on the earth 40 days and 40 nights. The waters continued upon the earth 150 
days, Ge 7:4,6,11-13,17,24. 

36. The waters abated until the 17th day of the 7th month, (Wednesday, May 6th) when the ark 
came to rest upon one of the mountains of Ararat. Ge 8:3,4 

37. The waters continued receding until on the 1st day of the 10th month (Sunday, July 19th) the 
tops of the mountains were seen. Ge 8:5 

38. After 40 days, that is on the 1 1th day of the 1 1th month (Friday, August 28th) Noah opened 
the window of the ark and sent forth a raven. Ge 8:6,7 

39. 7 days later, on the 18th day of the 1 1th month (Friday, September 4th) as may be deduced 
from the other 7 days mentioned in Ge 8:10, Noah sent out a dove. She returned after 7 days. 
25th day of the 1 1th month, (Friday, September 1 1th) He sent her out again and about the 
evening she returned bringing the leaf of an olive tree in her bill. After waiting 7 days more, 2nd 
day of the 12th month, (Friday, September 18th) he sent the same dove out again, which never 
returned. Ge 8:8,12 

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The Second Age of the World 

1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC 

40. When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 
1st day of the new post- flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the 
covering of the ark. Ge 8:13 

41. On the 27th of the 2nd month, (Thursday, December 18th) the earth was entirely dry. By the 
command of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the ark. Ge 8:14,15,19 

42. When he left the ark, Noah offered to God sacrifices for his blessed preservation. God 
restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood. He permitted men to eat flesh for their food 
and gave the rainbow for a sign of the covenant which he then made with man. Ge 8:15-9:17 

43. Man's lifespan was now half the length it was previously 
1658d AM, 2368 JP, 2346 BC 

44. Arphaxad, was born to Shem when he was 100 years old, 2 years after the flood. Ge 11:10 
1693d AM, 2403 JP, 2311 BC 

45. Salah was born, when his father Arphaxad was 35 years old. Ge 11:12 
1723d AM, 2433 JP, 2281 BC 

46. Eber was born, when Salah his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:14 
1757d AM, 2467 JP, 2247 BC 

47. When Eber was 34 years old, Peleg his son was born. Ge 1 1 : 16 He called him Peleg for in 
his days the earth was divided. Ge 10:25 ICh 1:19 If this happened at the day of his birth, then it 
seems that when Peleg was born, Noah, who formerly knew all the places which were now 
covered with bushes and thorns, divided the land among his grandchildren. When this was done, 
they then went from those eastern parts (where they first went from the mountains of Ararat) 
into the valley of Shinar. Ge 11:2 Here the people impiously conspired as we find in the book of 
Wisdom /APC Wis 10:5 to hinder this dispersion of them as commanded by God and began by 
Noah (as may be gathered from Ge 1 1:4,6,8,9 compared together). They went together to build 
the city and tower of Babylon. God frustrated this project by the confusion of languages he sent 
among them. (Hence it took the name of Babel Ge 1 1:9). The dispersion of nations followed. 
Many companies and colonies settled down in various places according to their languages. The 
13 sons of Joktan, the brothers of Peleg, as recorded in Ge 10:26-30 were among the captains 
and heads of the various companies. These brothers were not yet born when Peleg was born. 
Eber was only 34 years old when Peleg was born to him. Though we should suppose that Joktan 



was born, when Eber was only 20 years of age and that Joktan's oldest son was born to him 
when he was likewise 20 years old, yet still it appears, that the oldest son of Joktan must be 6 
years younger than Peleg. So that at least the youngest of those 13 sons of Joktan, namely, Jobab 
and 3 other brothers of his are mentioned before him must be younger still. These countries rich 
in gold, Sheba, Ps 72:15 Ophir IKi 9:28 and Havilah Ge 2:11 were named after these men. 
These brothers could not be capable of such an expedition of leading colonies because of their 
youth until some years after Reu was born to Peleg. 

48. Man's lifespan was now a quarter of the length it was before the flood. 
1771a AM, 2480 JP, 2234 BC 

49. 1903 years elapsed from this time to the capture of Babylon by Alexander the Great. This 
calculation and number of years was made according to astronomical observations by Porphyry, 
as we find in Simplicius, in his second book "de Coelo". This he affirms to have been 
transmitted into Greece from Babylon by Chalisthenes at Aristotle's request. From these 
writings it appears that the Babylonians devoted themselves to the study of astronomy, even 
from the very days of Nimrod, from whom all that region took the name of the land of Nimrod. 
Mic 5:6 Nimrod built Babylon and was the instigator of the building of the tower of Babel 
according to Josephus (1. 1. Antiq. c. 4.) Moses affirms that the royal seat of that kingdom was 
here. Ge 10:10 Nimrod made Babylon famous in those days. Jer 5:15 (See note on 3674a 
«1898») 

1787d AM, 2497 JP, 2217 BC 

50. Reu or Ragau, was born when Peleg his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:18 
1816d AM, 2526 JP, 2188 BC 

51. Constantinus Manasses states that the Egyptian state lasted 1663 years. Counting backward 
from the time that Cambyses, king of Persia, conquered Egypt, leads us to this period. About 
this time Mizraim, the son of Ham, led his colony into Egypt. Hence Egypt was called 
sometimes the land of Mizraim, sometimes of Ham, Ps 105:23,27 106:21,22 From this it was 
that the Pharisees later boasted that they were the sons of ancient kings. /APC Es 16:11 (See 
note on 3479b AM «988») 

1819d AM, 2529 JP, 2185 BC 

52. Serug or Saruch, was born when Ragau was 32 years old. Ge 1 1:20 
1849dAM, 2559 JP, 2155 BC 

53. Nachor was born when Saruch his father was 30 years old. Ge 1 1:22 
1878d AM, 2588 JP, 2126 BC 



54. Terah or Thara was born when Nachor his father was 29 years old. Ge 1 1:24 
1915c AM, 2625 JP, 2089 BC 

55. At this time Egialeus, king of the Sicyonians, in Peloponesus began his reign, 1313 years 
before the first olympiad. (Euseb. Chron.) 

1920c AM, 2630 JP, 2084 BC 

56. A people from Arabia bordering upon Egypt, called by the Egyptians Hyksos, meaning 
"kingly shepherds", invaded Egypt. They took Memphis and took over all of lower Egypt that 
bordered upon the Mediterranean Sea. Salatis, their 1st king, reigned 19 years, according to 
Josephus in his 1st book "cont. appiencem" as from Manetho. 

1939c AM, 2649 JP, 2065 BC 

57. Bnon, their 2nd king, reigned for 44 years, {*Manetho, 1:83} 
1948d AM, 2658 JP, 2056 BC 

58. When Terah was 70 years old, his oldest of three sons, Haran was born. Ge 1 1:26 Abram 
was not born for another 60 years as we shall see later. Haran was the father-in-law later of the 
3rd brother Nachor. For this man died before his father Terah left Ur of the Chaldeans and left a 
daughter named Milcah, who was married to his uncle Nachor, Ge 1 1:28,29 

1983c AM, 2693 JP, 2021 BC 

59. At this time Apachnan reigned in Egypt for 36 years and 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:83} 
1996d AM, 2706 JP, 2008 BC 

60. Peleg the 6th from Noah, died 209 years after the birth of Ragau. Ge 11:19 
1997d AM, 2707 JP, 2007 BC 

61. Nachor the 9th from Noah, died 1 19 years after the birth of his son Terah. Ge 1 1:25 
2006d AM, 2716 JP, 1998 BC 

62. Noah, died when he had lived 950 years, 350 years after the deluge. Ge 9:28,29 
2008c AM, 2718 JP, 1996 BC 

63. Abram was born. He was 75 years old when Terah his father died at the age of 205 years. Ge 
11:32 12:1,4 Ac 7:4 



2018c AM, 2728 JP, 1986 BC 

64. Sarai, who is also called Iscah the daughter of Haran, Ge 11:29,30, was born and was 10 
years younger than her husband Abraham. Ge 17:17 

2020b AM, 2730 JP, 1984 BC 

65. Apophis reigned in Egypt for 61 years. {*Manetho, 1:83} 
2026d AM, 2736 JP, 1978 BC 

66. Reu or Ragau the 7th from Noah, died 207 years after the birth of Serug. Ge 1 1:21 
2049d AM, 2759 JP, 1955 BC 

67. Serug or Saruch, the 8th from Noah, died 200 years after the death of Nachor. Ge 1 1:23 
2079b AM, 2789 JP, 1925 BC 

68. About this time, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, or Elimais, situated between Persia and 
Babylon, conquered the kings of Pentapolis, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adma, Zeboiim and Bela, or 
Zoar. These served him 12 years. Ge 14:1,2,4 

2081b AM, 2791 JP, 1923 BC 

69. Jannas reigned in Egypt for 50 years and one month. {*Manetho, 1:83} 
2083a AM, 2792 JP, 1922 BC 

70. God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that he would show 
him. Ge 15:7 Jos 24:2,3 Ne 9:7 Ac 7:2-4. Ur was located in Mesopotamia according to Stephen 
the first martyr and Abarbenel. Ge 1 1: 1-32 Ur was the city of the priests and mathematicians, 
who from their art, were called by the name of Chaldeans. By this name also even in Chaldea 
itself, those Genethliaci, or recorders of genealogies were distinguished and known from the rest 
of the Magi or wise men of that country, as we find in Da 2:2,10 4:7 5:11. These taught Terah 
and his sons idolatry. Jos 24:2 Terah therefore took Abram his son and Lot his nephew, the son 
of Haran and Sarai his daughter-in-law, Abram's wife, and started their journey together from Ur 
of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran in the same country of 
Mesopotamia and there they stayed because of the great infirmity and sickness of Terah. Terah 
lived 205 years and died in Haran. Ge 1 1:31,32 

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The Third Age of the World 

2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC 

71. After Terah died who was Abram's father, God again called Abram from his own country, 
kindred and his father's house. A further promise and evangelical covenant of blessing was 
given to him. That is, in his blessed seed, our Lord Jesus Christ, all the nations of the earth 
would be blessed. Ge 12: 1,2 Ac 7:4 From the time of the giving of this promise and Abram's 
immediate departure, we mark as the start of those 430 years which Abram and his posterity 
spent in foreign lands. Ex 12:40,41 Ga 3:17 The first and last day of this pilgrimage was on the 
15th of the month Abib, which in this year was Wednesday, May 4th, according to the Julian 
Calendar, by our calculations. 

72. Therefore, on this day, Abram when he was 75 years old, obeyed the call of God. He took 
Sarai his wife and Lot, his brother Haran's son, with all the substance, which he had gotten and 
souls which God had given him in Haran. He took his journey and at length came into the land 
of Canaan. He passed through it until he came to a place called Sichem, to the oak of Moreh, Ge 
12:4-6 which is mentioned later in: Ge 35:4 Jos 24:25,26 Jud 9:6 Here God promised Abram 
that to his seed he would give that land. He built an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him 
there. After leaving there, he went into the hill country, called Luz, later, known by the name of 
Bethel, toward the east. Ge 28:19 Here he again built an altar and called on the name of the 
Lord. He continued his journey and came into the south part of that country which borders 
Egypt. Ge 12:7-9 

2084a AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC 

73. A famine caused Abram to leave there and go down into Egypt. To avoid danger, Sarah his 
wife said she was his sister. She was taken into Pharaoh's (Apophi) house. She returned 
unharmed, not long after that with many gifts and presents. They were given safe passage and 
allowed to depart from Egypt. Ge 12:10-20 

74. Abram, with Lot returned to Canaan. The country which they chose, was not able to feed 
both their herds of cattle. Therefore they parted and Lot went into the country of Sodom. After 
his departure, the promise both of the possession of that land of Canaan and also of his 
numberless posterity was again renewed to him. He left that place between Bethel and Hai, 
where he had formerly built an altar and dwelt in the plain of Mamre near Hebron. There he 
built an altar to the Lord. Ge 13:4 

2091 AM, 2801 JP, 1913 BC 

75. Bera king of Sodom, with the rest of the petty kings of Pentapolis rebelled and shook off the 
yoke of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, in the 13th year of their subjection to him. Ge 14:4 

2092 AM, 2802 JP, 1912 BC 

76. In the 14th year Chedorlaomer, with other confederate princes, Amraphel of Shinar, Arioch 



of Ellasar and Tidal king of the nations, combined their forces against those petty kings who had 
revolted from him. They first destroyed the Raphaims, the Zuzims, the Emims and the Horites, 
who inhabited all that region, which afterward was possessed by the Amalekites and the 
Ammonites. After that, they routed the kings of Pentapolis in the valley of Siddim and carried 
away Lot prisoner with all the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah. When tidings came to Abram, 
he armed 318 of his own servants. With his confederates Aner, Eshcol and Mamre, they 
overtook Chedorlaomer and his army at Dan with the prey they had gotten. There they defeated 
and slew them and pursued them to Hobah, on the left of Damascus. They rescued Lot and the 
rest of the prisoners from the enemies' hands, and brought them back again with all that they had 
lost. When Abram returned from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the other kings, 
Melchizedek the king of Salem met him and blessed him. He was a priest of the Most High God. 
Abram, in return offered him the tithe of the spoil which he had taken. He kept nothing of the 
spoil for himself, but restored to every man his own possessions again. What was not owned he 
left to his troops for their service. Ge 14:1-24 

77. Abram was grieved because he had no heir. Hence, God promised him a posterity equal to 
the stars of heaven in number. After 400 years sojourning and affliction in a land that was not 
theirs, God said he would bring them into the land promised to Abram and bound his word with 
a covenant to perform it. Ge 15:1-21 

2093 AM, 2803 JP, 1911 BC 

78. Sarai was longing for that blessed seed. Since ten years had passed since they came into the 
land of Canaan, she gave to Abram, Hagar her Egyptian servant, for a wife. Hagar conceived a 
child by her master Abram. She was badly treated by Sarai for her insolence. She fled from 
Sarai but being warned of God by his angel, she returned and submitted herself to Sarai. Ge 
16:13,14 

2094b AM, 2804 JP, 1910 BC 

79. When Abram was 86 years old, Hagar bore him Ishmael. Ge 16:15-17 17:24,25 
2096d AM, 2806 JP, 1908 BC 

80. Arphaxad, the third from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Salem. Ge 11:13 
2107c AM, 2817 JP, 1897 BC 

81. God made a covenant with Abram, when he was now 99 years old concerning the seed of 
Isaac. He was to be born of Sarai about that time twelve months later. God gave him the sign of 
circumcision (changing both their names, Abram into Abraham and Sarai into Sarah) for a sure 
pledge and testimony of his promise. He promised also to favour Ishmael the firstborn, for his 
father's sake. These promises Abraham received and embraced with a true faith. Hence in true 
obedience, caused himself, being now 99 years of age and his son Ishmael then 13 years old and 
all his household, to be circumcised, the same day it was commanded him. Ge 17:21-26 

82. Abraham invited angels, who looked like travelling men, into his house and gave them a 



feast. These angels reiterated the promise of the birth of Isaac for Sarah's sake. They foretold the 
judgment God intended upon the 5 cities, for their utter destruction. Abraham, fearing what 
would become of Lot and his family in Sodom, made intercession to God for the sparing of that 
place. Ge 18:23-33 Therefore Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah and Zeboiim, for their horrible sins, 
perished by fire and brimstone that rained down upon them from heaven. Ge 19:1-29 These 
cities were to be an example to all wicked men in times to come, of the pains of that everlasting 
fire to be inflicted on them in the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death. 2Pe 
2:6,7 Re 19:20 20:10 21:8 The monument of this remains to this day, even the Dead Sea. The 
valley of Siddim, where these five cities stood in former times was full of brimstone and salt 
pits. This has since grown into a vast lake, which from the brimstone still floating in it, is called 
"Laces Asphaltitis", a Lake of Brimstone and from the salt, "Mare Salsum", the Salt Sea. /APC 
Wis 10:6,7 Ge 14:3,10 De 3:17 29:23 Zep 2:9 Of this, Solinus thus writes: 

vv A great way off from Jerusalem, there lies a woeful spectacle, of a country to be seen, which 
was blasted from heaven and appears by the blackness of the earth falling all to cinders. There 
were in that place before this two cities, one called Sodom, the other Gomorrah, where if an 
apple grew, though it seems to have a show of maturity and ripeness, yet it is not eatable at all. 
The outer skin of it, contains nothing within it save a stinking smell, mingled with ashes and 
being never so lightly touched, sends forth a smoke and the rest falls presently into a light dust 
of powder." 

83. Lot was hurried from Sodom by the angels and avoided its destruction, by fleeing to a little 
city, called Bela also called Zoar. His wife was turned into a pillar of salt. Lot feared to continue 
at Zoar and left the plain country. He went into the hills, as he was commanded, taking his two 
daughters with him. Ge 19:30-38 

84. Abraham left the plain of Mamre and went towards the south to dwell in a place which was 
later called Beersheba. He was entertained by Abimelech, king of the Philistines at Gerar. Sarah, 
once again went by the name of his sister and she was taken from him. After the king was 
reproved and punished by God, he restored her untouched to her husband. He presented him 
with large gifts and presents. By Abraham's prayers Abimelech and all his house were healed of 
their infirmities. Ge 20:1-18 

2108c AM, 2818 JP, 1896 BC 

85. When Abraham was now 100 and Sarah 90 years of age, the promised son Isaac was born to 
them. Ge 17:17,21 Ro 4:19 Not long after this, Moab and Amon were born to Lot, who was both 
father and grandfather to them. Ge 19:36-38 

2113c AM, 2823 JP, 1891 BC 

86. After Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a great feast. Sarah saw Ishmael the son of Hagar 
the Egyptian jesting with, or rather "mocking" (as in Ge 39:14 that word is translated) or even 
"persecuting" (as the apostle, Ga 4:29 expounds it) her son Isaac. Ishmael who was the older, 
claimed the right of inheritance in his father's estate. Sarah asked Abraham to cast out Ishmael, 
"for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac." Though he took this very 
grievously at first, yet he did it, for God had said to him, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called". Ge 
21:8,12 Ro 9:7,8 Heb 11:17,18 Hence, we observe that Isaac is called his only begotten son. It 



was 430 years from the time Abraham left Haran Ga 3:17 Ex 12:41 until the exodus. Abraham 
was told his seed would be persecuted for 400 years. Based on Ga 4:29, Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 we 
conclude that this presecution started at this time when Issac was 5 years old when Abraham 
made this feast, 30 years after Abraham left Haran. 

vv Among the Hebrews there is a difference of opinions. Some hold that this was done in the 5th 
year after Isaac's weaning, others in the 12th. We, choosing a shorter time of age, reckon that 
Ishmael was cast out with his mother, when he was 18 years old." 

87. So Jerome says, writing on the traditions of the Jews on Genesis, that from this declaration 
of the elect seed and persecution (as the apostle terms it) of Isaac, by Hagar's son, many of them, 
start the 400 year period which the seed of Abraham was to be a stranger and sojourner and 
afflicted in a foreign land, as God had foretold him. Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 For those 400 years were 
to be completed at the same time as the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, as 
appears from Ge 15:14 Ex 12:35,36,41 when compared with each other. Although the ordinary 
gloss from Augustine, refers to the beginning of the account, to the very birth of Isaac, as if the 
scripture called the number of 405 by the amount of 400 years meaning that the time was a 
rounded off number. 

2126d AM, 2836 JP, 1878 BC 

88. Salah the 4th from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Heber. Ge 1 1 : 15 
2131b AM, 2841 JP, 1873 BC 

89. Assis reigned in Egypt for 49 years, 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:83} 
2133 AM, 2843 JP, 1871 BC 

90. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up his son Isaac. He considered within 
himself, that God was able by his power, to raise him again from the dead, whence also he did 
receive him, in a manner. Heb 11:17,19 

91. Josephus says that at this time Isaac was 25 years old. (Antiq. 1. I.e. 13.) He was at that time 
in his prime of years. This may be deduced from the fact that he was able to carry so much wood 
for the burning and consuming of such a whole burnt offering of himself as Abraham intended 
to make. Ge 22:6 

2145c AM, 2855 JP, 1859 BC 

92. Sarah died in Hebron at age 127. Abraham bought the cave for her burial in the field of 
Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite, for a sum of money. This was the first possession that he 
had in the land of Canaan. Ge 23:1,2,19,20 As Abraham is known to us as the father of the 
faithful, Ro 4:1 1,12 so is Sarah as the mother of the faithful. IPe 3:6 She is the only woman 
whose age at death is mentioned in the scripture. 

2148b AM, 2858 JP, 1856 BC 



93. Abraham was very careful about getting a wife for his son Isaac. He sent his chief servant, 
Eliezer of Damascus Ge 15:2 (taking first an oath of him) to find one for him. Eliezer under the 
guidance of God went into Mesopotamia and there obtained for him Rebecca the daughter of 
Bethuel, sister to Laban the Syrian. Isaac received her for his wife and brought her into the tent 
of his mother Sarah. By the solace and contentment which he took in her, he dispelled the 
sadness and grief which he had after the death of his mother, who died 3 years before. Ge 24: 1- 
67 He was 40 years old when he married Rebecca. Ge 25:20 

94. About this time began the reign of the Argivi in Peloponesus, 1080 years before the first 
olympiad, according to Eusebius in his Chronicle reports, from Castor. 

95. The first that there reigned was Inachus, who reigned 50 years. Of him Erasmus, in the 
proverb, "Inacho Antiquior", refers to. Whom also I refer that of the most learned Varro, in his 
17th book of "Human Affairs", (cited by A. Gellius in his first book, "Noctium Attic" c. 16. and 
of Macrobius: 1. 1 Saturnal.) where he said, to the beginning of Romulus are reckoned more than 
1 100 years. For from the beginning of Inachus' reign, according to the calculations of Castor, 
there mentioned, to the Palilia, or solemn festivals of Pales (the country goddess among the 
Romans) mentioned by Varro, are reckoned 1102 years. 

2158d AM, 2868 JP, 1846 BC 

96. Shem the son of Noah died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad. Ge 1 1 : 1 1 
2167d AM, 2877 JP, 1837 BC 

97. When Rebecca had been barren for 19 years after her marriage, Isaac in great devotion made 
prayer to God on her behalf, and she thereupon conceived twins. Ge 25:21 

2168c AM, 2878 JP, 1836 BC 

98. When the twins strove in the womb, Rebecca asked counsel of God. God said that two 
differing and opposing nations should proceed out of her in that birth, of which the one should 
be stronger than the other, and that the older should serve the younger. But at the time of her 
travail, the first that came forth was ruddy all over and like to a shag garment and his name was 
called Esau. Then came forth the other, holding the former by the heel, whereupon he was called 
by the name of Jacob. Isaac, their father, at the time of their birth, was 60 years old. Ge 25:22 
Ho 12:3 

2179 AM, 2889 JP, 1825 BC 

99. Manetho wrote {*Manetho, 1:101} that Tethmosis king of Thebais, or the upper Egypt, 
besieged the Hyksos or Shepherds, shut up in a place called Auarim (containing 10,000 acres of 
ground) with an army of 480,000 men. When he found no possibility of taking them, he agreed 
with them that they should leave Egypt and go freely wherever they wished. They, with all their 
substance and goods, being in number no less than 440,000, passed through Egypt and went by 
the way of the wilderness into Syria. For fear they had of the Assyrians, who then possessed all 



Asia, they built themselves a city in the land of Judah, as it is now called. This city was big 
enough to hold so large a number of inhabitants, and called it Hierosolyma, i.e. Jerusalem. 
Manetho states this in Josephus 1. 1. contra Appionem Grammaticum, which (Appion in his 4th 
book of "Egyptian Affaires") calls this king, Amosis. He proves out of the Annals of Ptolemy 
Mendesius an Egyptian priest, that he was contemporary to Inachus mentioned previously, king 
of the Argivi, as Tatian the Assyrian (in his Oration against the Greeks) Justin Martyr, (in his 
Paranetion or Exhortatory to the Greeks) Clemens Alexandrinus in his first book of his Stromata 
and others do report. All which following Josephus and Justus Tiberiensis understand is meant 
of the Israelites, because they traded much in sheep, Ge 46:33,34 47:3. Because they went from 
Egypt into Canaan and therefore imagine that Moses was contemporary with Inachus and was 
the man that conducted them in that journey. Whereas those things seem rather to refer to the 
Phoenicians, whom Herodotus (1. 7. c. 89) reports to have come from the Red Sea and settled 
themselves in Palestine. The departure of the Israelites from Egypt happened many years after 
Inachus, as the course of this chronology undoubtedly shows. 

2180c AM, 2890 JP, 1824 BC 

100. When Tethmosis or Amosis drove out these shepherds, he reigned in the lower Egypt for 
25 years, 4 months. {*Manetho, 1:101} 

2183c AM, 2893 JP, 1821 BC 

101. Abraham died when he was 175 years old and 100 years after entering Canaan. He was 
buried by his two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, in his cave at Machpelah, with Sarah his wife. Ge 
25:7,10 He lived 15 years after the birth of Jacob, with whom he is said also to have lived in 
tents. Heb 11:9 

2187d AM, 2897 JP, 1817 BC 

102. Heber, the 5th from Noah, died 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg. Ge 11:17 This 
man lived the longest of any who were born after the flood. He out lived Abraham and from him 
Abraham came first to be surnamed, the Hebrew. Ge 14: 13 In later times, all the posterity of his 
grandchild Jacob, were known by the same name. Ge 40: 15 Canaan was called the land of the 
Hebrews, while the Canaanites were still living there. 

2200 AM, 2910 JP, 1804 BC 

103. About this time, the promises previously made to Abraham, so it seemed, were fulfilled in 
his son Isaac. To wit: 

1) I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of heaven. 

2) To thy seed will I give this land. 

3) In thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Ge 26:4 

2205d AM, 2915 JP, 1799 BC 

104. Chebron reigned in Egypt 13 years. {*Manetho, 1:101} 



2208c AM, 2918 JP, 1796 BC 

105. When Esau was 40 years old, he took two wives from the land of the Hittites. One was 
Judith the daughter of Beeri and the other was Bashemath the daughter of Elon. These two 
wives were very troublesome and a grief to Rebecca. Ge 26:34,35 cf. Ge 27:46 28:8 

106. At this time the Ogygian Deluge occurred in the country of Attica 1020 years before the 
first olympiad. This is reported by Hellanicus, Castor, Thalus, Diodorus Siculus and Alexander 
Polyhistor in his third book of his Chronography, by Julius Africanus, as we find it in Eusebius' 
book, de Prap. Evang. Varro says this flood happend 300 years earlier. 

2218d AM, 2928 JP, 1786 BC 

107. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 20 years, 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:101} 
2231b AM, 2941 JP, 1773 BC 

108. Abraham's son, Ishmael, died at the age of 137 years. Ge 25:17 
2239b AM, 2949 JP, 1765 BC 

109. Amessis the sister of Amenophis, reigned in Egypt 21 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101} 
2242 AM, 2952 JP, 1762 BC 

1 10. Euechous began to reign in Chaldea, 224 years before the Arabians. (Julian Africanus) He 
seems to be the same with Belus of Babylon, or Jupiter Belus, who was worshipped later by the 
Chaldeans as a god. Isa 46:1 Jer 50:2 51:41 

2245a AM, 2954 JP, 1760 BC 

1 1 1. 44 years before his death, Isaac had grown old and blind. He sent his oldest son Esau to 
hunt some venison for him. Isaac purposed to bless him when he returned. However, Jacob his 
younger son, by the subtil counsel of his mother, came disguised in Esau's clothing bringing 
Isaac's favourite meat. Thus he stole away the blessing, unknown to his father. The blessing, 
though forgotten, God confirmed ever after to Jacob. By so doing, Jacob incurred his brother's 
hatred. Jacob journeyed to Mesopotamia to his uncle Laban, to avoid his brother's plan to kill 
him Ge 27:41 and to find a wife of his own kindred. Ge 28: 1 Before he left, he asked for his 
father's blessing on the trip. 

1 12. On his journey, he saw a vision of a ladder. In this vision, God confirmed to him, all the 
blessings formerly given to his father. God assured him of his grace and favour for the future. In 
remembrance of this experience, Jacob set up a pillar. He changed the name of the place from 
Luz to Bethel and made a vow to God there. When he came to Haran, he stayed with Laban for 
a month. He fell in love with Rachel his daughter and agreed to serve Laban 7 years for her. Ge 
27:1 29:20 Ho 12:12 Jacob was 77 years old in 2259 AM. 



113. When Esau knew Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away into Mesopotamia to find a 
wife there and that Jacob did not like the daughters of Canaan, he tried to pacify his father's 
mind. Isaac was offended with him for marrying his first wife from Canaan. Therefore he took a 
second wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, Ge 28:6,9 

1 14. Esau had been now a married man 37 years and was 77 years old. Jacob, who was as old as 
he, had all this while lived a bachelor. Remembering his father's command, he asked Rachel his 
wife to be given to him because he had served the allotted time for her. Ge 29:21 He was now of 
an age suitable for marriage, as Tremellius explains it. Tho. Lidyate understands this to have 
happened after the first month he was with Laban. However Laban intended from the beginning 
to make full use of Jacob's industry and his managerial skills before he would give his daughter 
to Jacob. This no doubt, was mentioned when Jacob first arrived since this was the main purpose 
for his coming. 

115. However, by Laban's fraud, instead of Rachel, Leah, the older daughter, was put into 
Jacob's bed on the marriage night. Nevertheless, at the end of the marriage week, Jud 14:12,17 
Rachel also was espoused to him on the condition that Jacob of would serve seven more years 
for her. Laban gave to Leah, his maid servant Zilpah for a handmaid and to Rachel he gave 
Bilhah. 

1 16. When Leah was not so favoured by Jacob as Rachel was, God made Rachel barren and 
Leah was made a mother of 4 children in 4 successive years. Ge 29:21-30:24 

2246 AM, 2956 JP, 1758 BC 

1 17. Leah bore Reuban, Jacob's firstborn. Ge 29:32 For his incest committed with Bilhah, his 
father's concubine, Reuben later lost his birthright. Ge 35:22 49:3,4 ICh 5:1 

2247 AM, 2957 JP, 1757 BC 

118. Simeon was born. 

2248 AM, 2958 JP, 1756 BC 

1 19. Levi was born Ge 35:34 
2249c AM, 2959 JP, 1755 BC 

120. Judah was born Ge 35:35 from whom the Jews took their name. 
2259c AM, 2969 JP, 1745 BC 

121. God blessed Rachel and she bore Joseph to Jacob at the end of his 14 years of service. 
Jacob asked permission from Laban to return into his own country. He remained there 6 more 
years on a another condition made between him and his father-in-law Laban for a certain part of 



his flock. Ge 30:22,25,31 31:41 Now Jacob was 91 years old when Joseph was born and 
consequently, 77 years old, when he first began to serve Laban. This can be deduced for Jacob 
was 130 years old, when he first stood before Pharaoh, at the time when the 7 years of plenty 
were passed and 2 years of the famine were over. Ge 45:6 47:9 Joseph was then 39 years old. He 
was 30 years old when he first came before Pharaoh, just before the 7 years of plenty. Ge 
41:32,46 

2261a AM, 2970 JP, 1744 BC 

122. Mephres reigned in Egypt, 12 years, 9 months. { *Manetho, 1:101} 
2265c AM, 2975 JP, 1739 BC 

123. As the jealousy and malice grew between Laban and his sons against Jacob, God warned 
him to return to his own country. Jacob told his wives of this. When Laban was shearing his 
sheep, at the latter end of the spring (See note on 2974c AM «439») after 20 years of service, 
Jacob secretly fled from Laban. He took all his goods, wives and family and crossed over the 
river Euphrates. Ge 31:1,3,19,21,38,41 It is said Jacob had 12 sons born to him in Mesopotamia. 
Ge 35:22,26 Benjamin is not to be counted among them because he was born later in the land of 
Canaan near Bethlehem. Ge 16:18,19 In like manner, as the 12 apostles are counted to make up 
that number even though Judas was dead. Joh 20:24 ICo 15:1 Concerning this matter, see 
Augustine in his 117th question upon Genesis. 

124. Three days later, Laban (for he was three days journey from the place where Jacob kept his 
sheep) heard that his son-in-law was gone and took some of his friends and kindred with him. 
After travelling seven days he caught up with him at Mount Gilead. This mount was named 
from this meeting. After many arguments, they finally reconciled. For a testimony and 
monument to their covenant and agreement, Jacob erected a pillar, with a heap of stones. Laban 
the Syrian, called it "Jegar Sahadutha", but Jacob the Hebrew called it "Galeed", i.e. "the heap of 
a testimony", or "witness" between the two. Ge 31:47,48 

125. After Jacob left Laban in peace, he was frightened by the news of his brother Esau's 
coming with a band of men. He divided his company into two groups and called on God. He 
sent ahead of him presents to his brother Esau. After wrestling with the angel, he was given the 
name of Israel by God. Jacob matured spiritually by depending more on the help of God than on 
man. Ge 32:1-32 Ho 12:3,4 

126. Esau entertained his brother courteously. After much entreaty he accepted Jacob's presents 
and offered to escort him on his way. When Jacob refused, Esau left. Then Jacob went on to 
Succoth. He called the place Succoth because he built an house there and cotes for his sheep. 
After passing over Jordan, he came into Canaan and pitched his tent in Shechem, a city of the 
Shechemites. He bought a parcel of ground from the sons of Hamor the Shechemite, for 100 
pieces of silver. There he built an altar, which he called by the name of "El-Elohe-Israel" or 
"The mighty God, the God of Israel." Ge 33:1-20 It was in this same place that Abraham had 
built his first altar before: Ge 12:6,7 and where Jacob's well was, near to Mount Gerizim. When 
the woman of Samaria spoke to our Saviour, she said that her fathers worshipped in this 
mountain. Joh 4:5,6,12,20 This mountain was located in the country of the Shechemites. Jud 9:7 



2273d AM, 2983 JP, 1731 BC 

127. Mephramuthosis reigned in Egypt 25 years, 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:101} 
2276c AM, 2986 JP, 1728 BC 

128. When Joseph was 17 years old, he told his father of his brothers' wickedness and was told 
by God that he would one day be the head of all his father's family. His brothers hated him for 
this so much that they plotted his death. At length they agreed to sell him for a slave into a far 
country. When they drew him from the pit that they had cast him into, they sold him for 20 
pieces of silver to the Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants. Both of these peoples descended 
from their grandfather Abraham. Joseph was carried away by them to Egypt. There they sold 
him to be a slave to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard. Ge 37:2,3,6 Justin also, in his 
Epitome of Troeus Pompeius, 1. 36. c. 2. makes mention of Joseph. He says: 

vv His brothers envied the excellency of his wisdom. After getting him privately into their hands, 
they sold him to foreign merchants who carried him into Egypt." 

2287c AM, 2997 JP, 1717 BC 

129. When Joseph, was thrown into prison, he interpreted the dreams of two officers of 
Pharaoh's court. This was two years before he was brought before Pharaoh. Ge 40:1-41:1 

2288c AM, 2998 JP, 1716 BC 

130. Isaac died at the age of 180 years and was buried by his two sons, Esau and Jacob. Ge 
35:28,29 

2289b AM, 2999 JP, 1715 BC 

131. When Pharaoh could not get his dreams interpreted by his own wise men, and after hearing 
of Joseph's skill in expounding dreams, he sent for Joseph. He was 30 years old when he 
explained the king's dreams. The first dream was that of the 7 years of plenty followed by 7 
years famine. Moreover, he advised Pharaoh how to provide from the abundance of the first 7 
years of plenty, for the famine of the next 7 years of scarcity. Thereupon Pharaoh, by the general 
agreement of all his nobles, made him governor of the whole kingdom. He gave him a wife, 
Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, governor of On or Heliopolis in Egypt. Ge 41:1-46 Justin 
also from Tragus Pompeius says, that he was very important to Pharaoh. For he said: 

vv Joseph was most skilled in explaining dreams or signs and was the first that found out and 
taught the art of the interpretation of dreams. Neither was there any part of divine or human 
intention, which seemed to be unknown to him in that he foretold a famine many years before it 
happened. All Egypt would have perished unless the king, by his advice, had ordered grain to be 
stored many years before the famine came." 

132. From the harvest of this year started the 7 years of plenty. In these years Joseph laid up an 
enormous supply of grain. Asenath, his wife, bore him two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Ge 



41:47,51,53 

2296c AM, 3006 JP, 1708 BC 

133. The 7 years of the famine began from the harvest of this year as predicted. Joseph's wisdom 
in laying up supplies not only sustained Egypt but also helped relieve the famine in the 
neighbouring countries. Ge 41:54,57 

2297d AM, 3007 JP, 1707 BC 

134. Jacob sent 10 of his sons into Egypt to buy grain. Joseph pretended not to know them and 
took them for spies. They were held and not released until Simeon, the oldest and the leader of 
them, who consented to sell Joseph, was cast into prison. He was held to ensure that the rest 
should bring to Joseph, Benjamin, their youngest brother, who was born of Rachel, Joseph's own 
mother. When they were sent away, they carried their grain and the money they had payed for it. 
This money was placed into each of their sacks by the secret orders of Joseph. They told their 
father Jacob, all that had happened to them. Also they told him it was necessary that their 
youngest brother Benjamin return with them to Egypt. They were not able to convince Jacob to 
allow this to happen. Ge 42:1-38 

2298b AM, 3008 JP, 1706 BC 

135. When Jacob was hard pressed by the famine, he sent his sons again and with them 
Benjamin their brother. He sent twice the amount of money needed to buy grain and other gifts 
for Joseph. When they arrived, they were courteously entertained and feasted by Joseph. Simeon 
was released and returned to them. Ge 43:1-34 

136. When they were on their way home, Joseph arrested them for stealing his cup. This he had 
caused secretly to be hidden in Benjamin's sack. When they were confronted with this crime, 
they tried to show their honesty by the fact that they returned the money they found in their 
sacks when they came into Egypt the second time. They offered to die, or to be his slaves, if any 
such thing could be proved against them. But in the end the cup was found with Benjamin. They 
returned to Joseph and yielded themselves to him to be his slaves. When Joseph refused and said 
he would have no one but him with whom the cup was found, Judah then humbly offered 
himself to serve him in Benjamin's stead. Ge 44:1-34 

137. When Joseph heard Judah make this offer, he revealed himself to his brothers. The brothers 
were all terrified at the remembrance of the sin which they had committed against Joseph. He 
comforted them by showing how that deed of theirs was an act of God's providence. From the 
king's supplies, Joseph ordered wagons and provisions for their journey. They were to go and to 
return with all speed, bringing their father and their families with them. When they told their 
father, he did not believe them, until he saw the wagons and other supplies necessary for them to 
move to Egypt. Ge 45:1-28 

138. After Jacob offered sacrifices and was encouraged by God, he and all his family, went 
down into Egypt. This was in the beginning of the third year of the famine when Jacob was 130 
years old. Ge 45:6 46:1,27 47:9 De 26:5 



139. After Joseph had told Pharaoh of the arrival of his family in Egypt, he brought his father 
and 5 of his brothers to Pharaoh. When Pharaoh had communed with them, he assigned them a 
suitable place in the land of Goshen where Joseph took care of all their needs. Ge 47:1-12 

2299d AM, 3009 JP, 1705 BC 

140. Mephramuthosis died and Thmosis reigned in Egypt for 9 years 8 months. { *Manetho, 
1:101} 

2300 AM, 3010 JP, 1704 BC 

141. Joseph took all the money in Egypt and Canaan from the grain that he had sold to them. Ge 
47:14 

2301 AM, 3011 JP, 1703 BC 

142. When all the money of both these countries was spent, the Egyptians sold all their flocks 
and herds of cattle to Joseph for food to live on that year. Ge 47: 15-17 

2302 AM, 3012 JP, 1702 BC 

143. At the end of this year, when their money and stock of cattle was all gone, the Egyptians 
then sold both their lands and freedom to Joseph. He supplied them with grain for food and with 
seed to plant in this seventh and last year of the famine. He was to be repaid in the year 
following, when the famine was over. So that Pharaoh would have a clear title and full 
possession of the lands he purchased, Joseph moved everyone from one side of the country to 
the other. There he assigned to every man land to till and to work. From the profits a law was 
made giving Pharaoh a fifth part of the increase. Only the chief governors' and the priests' lands, 
were not bought by Pharaoh. These individuals had a living by the king's allowance and had no 
need to sell their lands for food as others had. 

2309b AM, 3019 JP, 1695 BC 

144. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 30 years 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} 
2315 AM, 3025 JP, 1689 BC 

145. When Jacob was about to die, he adopted Ephraim and Manasseh the sons of Joseph. He 
blessed them by revelation from God and set the younger ahead of the older. Ge 48: 1-22 Heb 
11:12 When he called his sons together, he blessed them all and foretold what should befall 
them in the coming generations. He told them that memorable prophesy of the Messiah and gave 
orders to them concerning his burial. He died at 147 years of age 17 years of which were in the 
land of Egypt. Ge 49:1-33 47:25 

146. Joseph had the body of Jacob embalmed and kept for 40 days. The Egyptians mourned him 
for 70 days. With Pharaoh's leave, the body was conveyed into the land of Canaan by Joseph 



and his brothers and with a great number of the principal men of Pharaoh's court. Lamentation 
was again made over him 7 days and he was buried with his kindred in the cave at Machpelah 
according to his wishes. Ge 50:15-21 

2340b AM, 3050 JP, 1664 BC 

147. Orus reigned in Egypt for 36 years 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} 
2369c AM, 3079 JP, 1635 BC 

148. By faith, Joseph on his death bed spoke of the departure of the children of Israel from 
Egypt. He asked that his bones might be carried with them. He was 1 10 years old when he died 
and saw his children to the third generation. Ge 50:22-26 Heb 11:22 These were Shuthelah and 
Tahan, the grandsons of Ephraim and Eran or Taran, Nu 26:36 the sons of Manasseh and Gilead 
was Manasseh's grandchild. From here it is, that the Greek expositors, speaking of the families 
of Jacob and Joseph, which were said to consist of 70 souls, Ge 46:27 De 10:22 adding to the 
total these 5 who were born to Joseph in Egypt ICh 7:20-29 for a number of 75 persons in all. It 
appears that Joseph ruled and governed the state of Egypt for 80 years under several Pharaohs. 
Eusebius in his chronicle, has rightly observed and summarised it thus: 

vv Joseph was made governor of Egypt when he was 30 years old and when his father Jacob was 
122 years old. He headed the government for 80 years. After he died, the Hebrews were held in 
bondage by the Egyptians 144 years. Therefore, the whole time which the Hebrews spent in 
Egypt was 215 years, starting from the time that Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt." 

149. The book of Genesis ends with the death of Joseph and contains the history of 2369 years. 
This book was written by Moses. This is the opinion of the Talmudists in their Bababathra 1. 1. 
and so it is generally believed by all the Hebrews. The sum of it is delivered by "Servins 
Sulpicins", in the first book of his "Historia Sacras" thus: 

vv At this time lived Job, a man embracing the law of nature, and the knowledge of the true God 
and very righteous and rich in goods. He was renowned for the fact that neither the enjoyment of 
those riches corrupted him, nor the loss of them depraved him in any way. When he was 
plundered of all his goods by Satan, bereft of his children and at last tormented with grievous 
botches and sores in his body, he did not sin. Having first been commended by God himself, he 
was later restored to his former health, and had double of what he possessed before." 

2376c AM, 3086 JP, 1628 BC 

150. Acencheres the daughter of Orus reigned in Egypt for 12 years 1 month. { *Manetho, 
1:103} 

2385 AM, 3095 JP, 1619 BC 

151. Levi died in Egypt when he was 137 years old. Ex 6:16 He was the grandfather by the 
mother's side to Moses and Aaron and great grandfather by the father's side. Levi had begotten 
Kohath in Canaan, who died at the age of 133 years and a daughter called Jochebed in Egypt. 



Amram the son of Kohath married Jochebed the daughter of Levi, his own aunt. From that 
marriage (expressly forbidden later) Le 18:12 20:19 Moses and Aaron and their sister Miriam 
were born. Amram lived 137 years, just as long as his grandfather and his father-in-law. He died 
shortly before the Israelites left Egypt. Ex 2:1,6,18,20 Nu 26:59 

2388 AM, 3098 JP, 1616 BC 

152. Rathotis, the brother of Acencheres, reigned in Egypt for 9 years. {*Manetho, 1:103} 

2389 AM, 3099 JP, 1615 BC 

153. When the Ethiopians came from as far as the river Indus, they settled on the borders of 
Egypt. (Euseb. Chron.) This is the place, to which Panegyrist refers, where he said: 

vv Let the victories of Egypt give place to this, under which the Ethiopian and Indus both did 
tremble" 

154. J. Potken, in his Ethiopian Psalter printed at Rome in 1513, calls Ethiopia, which is to the 
south of Egypt, the greater India. 

2397 AM, 3107 JP, 1607 BC 

155. Acencheres, the son of Rathotis, reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 5 months. {*Manetho, 
1:103} 

2410a AM, 3120 JP, 1594 BC 

156. Acencheres II reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 3 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} 
2422b AM, 3132 JP, 1582 BC 

157. Harmais reigned in Egypt for 4 years and 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103} 
2426c AM, 3136 JP, 1578 BC 

158. Ramesses reigned in Egypt for 1 year 4 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} 
2427d AM, 3137 JP, 1577 BC 

159. Ramesses Miamun reigned in Egypt for 66 years 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} The latter 
part of the surname seems to have been deduced from the first part of the name Amenophis. His 
son after him and several also of his predecessors were called by this name. The former part of it 
was from the word "Moy" which with the Egyptians signifies "water", as Josephus (a. contra, 
Apion.) and Clemens Alexand. (1.1. Stromat.) and Suidas (in ~wc) affirms. Those writers, who 
relate all by way of fables, called Mythologians, gave him the name of Neptune, the feigned god 



of the waters, as shall be shown upon the year 2533 AM «259». This is that new king, who 
did not know Joseph. He was born after Joseph's death and remembered no more the great 
benefits received from him. By his policy the Egyptians, frightened at the number and strength 
of the Israelites in the land, subjected them to a heavy and cruel bondage. In addition to tilling 
the ground, they laid upon them the building also of the king's magazines and storehouses and 
the whole cities of Raamsis or Ramesis. Ex 1:8,14 Ac 7:18,19 The latter took its name, as 
Mercator thinks, from Ramesses the founder of it and the other perhaps from his queen. 

2430b AM, 3140 JP, 1574 BC 

160. Aaron was born 3 years before his brother Moses, 83 years before the departure of the 
Israelites from Egypt. Ex 7:7 

2431b AM, 3141 JP, 1573 BC 

161. The ungodly king could not prevail with Shiphrah and Pua, the two principal midwives of 
the Hebrew women, to force them to kill all the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore he 
proclaimed a barbarous edict to destroy them all by drowning them in the river. Ex 1:15-22 Ac 
7:19,20 This happened between the birth of Aaron and the birth of Moses. 

2433 AM, 3143 JP, 1571 BC 

162. 41 years after the death of her father Levi, Jochebed bore Moses to Amram, her nephew 
and husband. Moses was 80 years old, when he first spoke to Pharaoh to let the children of 
Israel go. Ex 7:7 40 years later Moses died in the 12th month when he was 120 years old. De 
3:1,2 34:7 

163. Because Moses was an attractive child, as Justin also from Tragus Pompeius mentions him 
to have been, his parents hid him 3 months in their house. They did not regard the king's edict. 
Ex 2:2 Ac 7:20 Heb 11:23 

164. He was discovered by the diligent inquiry made by the king's searchers and their bad 
neighbours the Egyptians. The parents put him in a basket of bulrushes, daubed over with slime 
and pitch and laid it in the flags, by the brim of the river. His sister, Miriam or Mary, Nu 26:59 
ICh 6:3 stood near by to see what would become of him. Pharaoh's daughter whom Josephus 
(Antiq. 1. 2. c. 9.) called Thermutin and so does Epiphanius, in Panario and others) found him 
there. She put him out to be nursed, as it happened, to his own mother Jochebed. Afterward she 
adopted him for her son and had him brought up and instructed in all manner of science and 
learning of the Egyptians. Ex 2:5,10 Ac 7:21,22 

2448 AM, 3158 JP, 1556 BC 

165. Cecrops, an Egyptian, transported a colony of the Saits into Attica (Diod. Sic. 1. 1.) and set 
up there the kingdom of the Athenians. This was 780 years before the 1st Olympiad, according 
to Eusebius in Chron. reports from Castor. From the time of Cecrops, the Chronology of the He 
of Paras, published by that most learned J. Selden, among his Marmora Arundelliana, deduces 
history or antiquities of Greece. After him and Moses, who was contemporary with him, many 



memorable things happened in Greece as follows: 

a) Deucalion's flood 

b) Phaeton's fire 

c) the birth of Ericthonius 

d) the rape of Prosepina 

e) the mysteries of Ceres 

f) the institution of the Elesinian sacrifices, 

g) Triptolemus' art of tilling the ground 

h) the carrying away of Europa, by Jupiter 

i) the birth of Apollo 

j) the building of Thebes, by Cadmus 

k) those of a later time, Bacchus, Minos, Perseus, Esculapius, Castor and Pollux, Hercules. 

(Euseb 1. 10. de Prep. Ev. c. 9.) 

2465 AM, 3175 JP, 1539 BC 

166. In the 18th year of Cecrops, the Chaldeans made war and fought with the Phoenicians. 
(Euseb. Chron.) 

2466 AM, 3176 JP, 1538 BC 

167. In this war the Chaldeans were defeated and the Arabians reigned in the country of 
Babylon 216 years before Belus the Assyrian came there to reign. The 1st king of the Arabians 
was Mardocentes, who reigned there 45 years (Jul. Afric.) and seems to be the man that is called 
Merodach. He was later reputed by the Babylonians to be a god, Jer 50:2. Succeeding kings 
borrowed their names from him as Merodoch, Baladan and Evil-merodach. 

2473b AM, 3183 JP, 1531 BC 

168. When Moses was 40 years old, he visited his brethren, the Israelites. When he saw their sad 
plight and an Egyptian smiting a man of the Hebrews, he killed the Egyptian and buried him in 
the sand. This became known not only to his brethren but also to Pharaoh who sought to kill 
him. Moses fled from there into the land of Midian. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro 
and stayed there 40 years. Ac 23:30 Ex 2:11,12 3:1 18:1,2 Nu 10:29 Jude 4:11 

2474 AM, 3184 JP, 1530 BC 

169. Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was born forty years before he was sent by Moses to spy out 
the land of Canaan. Jos 14:7,10 

2494a AM, 3203 JP, 1511 BC 

170. Ramesses Miamun died in the 67th year of his reign about 1510 BC. The length of his 
tyrannical reign seems to be noted Ex 2:23 in these words. 

vv And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel 



sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried ..." 

171. That is the cruel bondage, which they endured, even after Ramesses was dead for about 19 
and 6 months, under his son Amenophis, who succeeded him. For so long and no longer a time 
of his reign is assigned by Manetho based on his writings. { *Manetho, 1:103} Although filled 
with a multitude of old wives tales, all such are abundantly refuted by Josephus, in his 1st book 
against Apion., yet there are two truths in it. 

1. Under this Amenophis, the father of Sethosis or Ramesses (the 1st king of the following 
Dynasty, or successive principality) which Manetho makes the 19 and not under the other 
Amenophis which was the 3rd of that Dynasty (as Josephus vainly surmises), the Israelites, 
under the conduct of Moses, according to Manetho's relation, left Egypt. 

2. The Egyptians called him Amenophis, the father of Sethosis and Armais. The Greeks called 
him Belus, the father of Egyptus, and Danaus. During Belus' time, according to Thallus the 
Chronographer (as he is alleged by Theophilus Antiochenus and Lactantius) agrees with the age 
of this Amenophis. Although the fable writers confounding this Belus of Egypt, with Belus the 
Assyrian, the father of Ninus. They tell us that certain colonies were transported by this Belus 
(who was drowned in the Red Sea,) into the country of Babylon. 

2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC 

172. God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed with fire, while he was 
keeping his father-in-law Jethro's sheep in the mountain of Horeb. He called him to deliver his 
people Israel from their slavery and bondage in Egypt. Moses sought to avoid doing this with 
many excuses. At length however, he undertook the work being persuaded partly by miracles 
and partly by assurance given him of the help of God and his brother Aaron given him for an 
assistant. Ac 7:30,35 Ex 3-4:1,18 

173. Moses left Jether or Jethro his father-in-law and with his family took his journey for Egypt. 
Because he neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopped by God in the way and not 
allowed to continue until he done this. He sent back his wife Zipporah and his two sons, 
Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro. Now freed from all encumbrance, he returned to 
mount Horeb and met his brother Aaron. He went on and performed his duty, confirmed by 
miracles, in the public sight of the children of Israel. Ex 4:18,31 18:1,6 

174. Moses and Aaron declared to Pharaoh God's message. Pharaoh charged them as being 
leaders in a rebellion and sent them away angrily. He increased the burden of the Israelites more 
than ever before. Their overseers were beaten because they could not do all the work. They 
complained in vain to Pharaoh. They complained to Moses and Aaron and Moses complained to 
God. God graciously heard him and told him to finish the work he had begun. Ex 5:1-22 

175. Moses returned to the Israelites with further instructions from God. Because of their 
oppression, it was to no avail. Hence God commanded him to go again to Pharaoh. Ex 6:1-30 

176. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 years old when they were commanded by God to 
return again to Pharaoh. When the magicians by their sorcery, imitated the miracles of Aaron's 



rod becoming a serpent, Pharaoh was more obstinate than ever. Ex 7:1,13 The leaders of these 
magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres. as named by the apostle, 2Ti 3:8. 
These names are noted, not only by the Jews in their Talmudical treaty of tyhgm i.e. of 
Oblations, c. 9. where they are called by the names of yghfy and admmw i.e. Jochanne and 
Mamre. In the Chaldee Paraphrase, they are attributed to Jonathan. Ex 1:15 7:11 Among some 
heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3rd book, 
wfsituataqhq cited by Euseb. 1. 9. Prepar. Evang. c. 8. relates this history: 

vv Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time 
when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to 
none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to 
oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They 
only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon 
all the Egyptians." 

177. Pliny, (1. 30. c. 1.) in reference to this states 

vv There is also another sect of Magicians, depending upon Moses, and Jannes and Jotape Jews." 

178. Wherein nevertheless he falls into a double error, 

a. In reckoning Moses among the magicians. 

b. In making Jannes and Jotape to be Jews. 

179. But when Pharaoh's magicians could do no more, God through Moses sent his ten plagues 
upon the Egyptians. These are summarised in Ps 78: 1-72 105:1-45. According to the Jews, 
these plagues lasted a year but in fact they were all sent within one month in this order. 

180. About the 18th day of the 6th month, (which in the previous year and thereafter became the 
12th month Ex 12:2) God sent the first plague of the waters turning into blood. After 7 days, Ex 
7:25 about the 25th day, came the second plague of the frogs which were removed the next day. 
About the 27th was brought upon them the third plague of flies and lice. 

181. About the 28th day, Moses threatened them with a fourth plague of flies and other vermin. 
These came on the 29th day and were all taken away on the 30th day. 

182. About the 1st of the 7th month (which shortly after was made the 1st month of the year Ex 
12:2) After Moses warned them of a fifth plague, he brought it upon them the next day. This 
was the plague of murrain in cattle. About the 3rd day, the sixth plague of boils and botches 
came upon man and beast. This plague came on the magicians as well. Ex 9: 1 1 Hence wrote 
Justin, from Trogus Pompeius, 1. 36. 

vv The Egyptians were afflicted with the scab and sores. When they were warned by an Oracle, 
all, that were infected with that disease, expelled Moses out of Egypt lest the plague should 
spread further among the people." 

183. Note here too the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. 1. 40. reported in Phati 



Bibliotheca. p. 620. 

184. About the 4th day, Moses warned them of a seventh plague which came on them on the 5th 
day of the same month. It was a plague of thunders and rain and grievous hail, mixed with fire 
which ruined their flax and barley because the barley was then in the ear and the flax boiled. But 
their wheat and the rye were not harmed, because they were not yet out of the ground. Hence 
Nicolaus Fullerus, 1. 3. of his Miscellanies rightly observes, p. 389. that this plague happened in 
the month of Abib. 

185. About the 7th day Moses threatened them with an eighth plague. The next day the plague 
of locusts came and devoured all green plants. He removed the plague about the 9th day. Ex 
10:4,11,19 

186. The month Abib, which was the 7th month, was from this time on made the first month of 
the year. Ex 12:2 13:4 This was for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt. From 
the beginning of this month we deduce the epochs of the Jewish Calendar. Nu 9: 1,2 Ex 40: 17 

187. On the 10th day of this the month, (which was the Thursday April 30th according the Julian 
Calendar) was instituted the feast of the Passover and unleavened bread. The Pascal lamb was 
chosen and killed four days later. Ex 13:3,6 

188. Moses now brings upon them the ninth plague of 3 days darkness. It was so dark that none 
of the Egyptians during that time, once left the place where they were when the darkness came. 
However, the Israelites had during that time, light in their dwellings. Ex 10:22,23 

189. Upon the 14th day (Monday, May 4th) Moses spoke with Pharaoh for the last time. Moses 
told him of the tenth plague which should come upon him. This was the death of all the firstborn 
of Egypt, which came to pass the next night at midnight. Pharaoh, in a rage ordered Moses to get 
out of his sight and never come back again. Ex 10:24-29 11:1,4-8 The passover was celebrated 
that evening. Ex 12:11,12 

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The Fourth Age of the World 

190. On the 15th day of the 1st month (Tuesday, May 5th) at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt 
were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the 
plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. Ex 12:33,35,36 It was exactly 430 years 
from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free 
from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 
men, besides women and children. Ex 12:29-31,37,41,51 Nu 33:3 From that place the camps are 
recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, 
expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at 
Ramesses. Thus then: 

1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, Ge 47:1 1, they all met who either 
dwelt among the Egyptians Ex 3:2 or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather 
stubble. Ex 5:12 

2. At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of 
the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. Ex 13:1-22 

3. At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day 
and in a pillar of fire by night. Ex 13:20,21 

4. At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host 
overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of 
the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, 
they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were 
completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the 
sea and cast up on the shore. Ex 14:26-30 They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, 
for their deliverance. Ex 15:22 This song Re 15:3 is called the Song of Moses and is the first 
song of deliverance by the Hebrews. 

This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened 
bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth. 

From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 
22nd to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. Ex 15:22 Nu 33:8 

5. At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole 
days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. 
This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, Ex 15:23,26 

6. At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those 
fountains. Ex 15:27 Nu 33:9 

7. This camp was by the Red Sea. Nu 33:10 



191. Now we come to the second month. 

8. Upon the 15th, (Thursday, June 4th) the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in 
the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and 
their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna 
from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. Ex 16:1- 
35 

9. They camped at Dophkah. 

10. They camped at Alush. 

1 1 . At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. (This place was called Meribah 
and Massa.) Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. Ex 17:1,7 This Rock 
followed them throughout the wilderness. Ps 78:16,20 105:41 ICo 10:4 De 8:15 

The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long 
journey in the wilderness. They killed some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent 
out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. Ex 33: 1 1 His proper name 
was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. Nu 13:16 or Jesus. Na 8:17 Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8 

Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. 
The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a 
memorial of this battle they built an altar there. De 25:17-19 Ex 17:8-16 

192. The third month. 

12. In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole 
year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after 
coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12 They came here on the same day of the 3rd 
month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month 
(Monday, June 22nd) according to Fr. Ribera, 1. 5. de Templo. Ex 19:1 

193. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his 
covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour 
and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave 
them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except 
Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the 
mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. Ex 19:1-25 

194. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. Ex 
20:1-26 De 5:1-33 This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years 
before.Ga3:17 

195. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. Ex 20:21-23 De 4:13,14 
These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose 
early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars 



according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn (as the Chaldee 
paraphrases it) whom the Lord had consecrated to himself Ex 24:4 Nu 3:13 8:16,17 to be 
ministers of those holy things. Ex 19:22 This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. 
These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the 
book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in Ex 20: 1-23:33. 
He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and 
hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This 
ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. Ex 24:3-8 Heb 9:19,20 

196. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the 
mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant 
Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he 
continued there 40 days and 40 nights Ex 24:9-18 This time includes those six days which he 
spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. De 9:9 He received 
God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their 
consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in Ex 25:1 -Ex 31:18. 

2513d AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC 

197. The fourth month. 

198. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in 
stone written by God's own finger. Ex 31:18 De 9:10,11 God ordered him to go down quickly, 
for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and 
went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in 
the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a 
solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4th month. This has led some men into the error 
that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the 
giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in 
writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God 
and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. Ex 24:1-18 

199. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. Ex 32:20-29 
De 9:21 33:9 

200. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for 
the people. Ex 32:30-32 

201. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the 
congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. 
The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God 
himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. 
Ex 33 1-23 

202. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the 
mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a 
rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. Ex 34:1-35 



203. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and 
prayed for the people. De 9:18 10:10 God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the 
people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. 
Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. Ex 
34:10-28 

204. The sixth month. 

205. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face 
shone, he covered it with a vail. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the 
observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of 
the tabernacle. Ex 34:1-35:35 

206. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 
years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by 
God, Ex 30:12,13 each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver 
and 1775 shekels Ex 38:25,26. Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted 
to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. Eze 45:12. In addition to this pole tax, from 
the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 
talents and 2400 shekels. Ex 38:24,29 As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there 
came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! Ex 36:5-7 

207. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. Ex 
31:2-6 35:30-35 

2514a AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC 

208. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table 
of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and 
vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought 
to Moses. Ex 36:1-39:43 

209. God commanded Moses to: 

1 . On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all 
things belonging to it.Ex 4:2,8 

2. He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the 
priesthood, Ex 9:15 

210. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he 
erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33 The second command he 
performed later at a time appointed by God. Le 8:1-13 It took seven days for the consecration of 
the priests and altar. Ex 29:35-37 

2514c AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC 



21 1. On the first day of the first month (Wednesday, April 21st) of the second year after they 
left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. Ex 
40:2,17,34 From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the 
first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by 
God, celebrated the passover at the evening of the 14th day. (Tuesday, May 4th) On this day 
some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with 
the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a 
dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of 
the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. Nu 9: 1 , 14 

212. On the first day of the second month (Friday, May 21st) God commanded Moses to take 
the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, 
except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the 
responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. 
Nu 1:1 26:64 

213. The census came to 603,550 Nu 10:1,46 the same number as 7 months earlier, when they 
were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. Ex 38:26 

214. Moses, according to God's command, Ex 29:37 30:22,30 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle 
and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also 
consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary 
for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for 
seven days. Le 8: 1-36 This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. Ex 
29:35-37 Le 8:33 

215. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments Nu 2:1- 
34 

216. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. Nu 
3:15,35 The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of 
Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the 
Levites (their firstborn deducted) by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, 
five shekels for redemption money. Nu 3:39-50 

217. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was 
appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. Nu 8:5-26 

218. 8580 Levites were between 30 and 50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned 
among them according to their families. Nu 4:1-49 

219. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of 
damages and of jealousy were ordained. Nu 5:1-31 

220. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. Nu 6:1-27 

221. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices 



and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire 
that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office 
among them was ordained by God himself. Le 9:1-24 

222. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils 
and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated 
by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for 
expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. Ex 29:36,37 

223. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered 
them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for 
their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging 
to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve 
days. Nu 7:1-11,84,88 

224. On this first day, Naasson, (from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ 
himself) came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his 
tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. Nu 7:1 1-83 

225. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the 
Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. Ex 24:1,9,10 They went into the sanctuary with 
strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, Le 9:24 and which was 
perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times 
to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. Le 10:1,9 Nu 3:2- 
4,26,60,61 The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect 
of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go 
into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by 
the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. Le 10:6-20 

226. Upon this occasion the law was made (about the tenth day of this month, as it seems) that 
only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the 
day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh 
month. Le 16:1-34 

227. On the 14th of this month, (Thursday, June 3rd) at evening, the passover was to be 
celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness Nu 
9:1-24 

228. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. Le 
24:10-13 

229. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this 
month. 

230. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the 
times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. Nu 10:1-28 



231. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, 
Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son-in-law. He congratulated him 
and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word 
and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the 
government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser 
issues. Ex 18:1-27 De 1:9-18 Nu 10:29 

232. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes 
made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the 
tribe of Naphtali. Nu 7:78,88 

233. On the 20th day of the second month (Wednesday, June 9th) God commanded the Israelites 
to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. Nu 10: 1 1,12 De 
1:6,7 Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. Nu 9:29,30 
Ex 18:27 

234. The cloud rose from the tabernacle and they arranged themselves into four squadrons, or 
battalions and marched from Sinai. They had been there almost a year. After 3 days journey they 
came to the wilderness of Paran, Nu 10:12,33 where they stayed and rested for 23 days. 

13. At their 13th camp, at a place called Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 33:16 some who murmured were 
struck with fire from heaven. Hence that place was called Tabor. They were saved by the 
intercession of Moses yet again murmured and provoked God by their loathing of manna and 
desiring of flesh to eat. Nu 11:1-10 Ps 78:19-21 

235. Moses complained to God of the great burden of this government and desired to be relieved 
from it. God chose 70 elders to help him. Two of these, Eldad and Medad, prophesied in the 
camp. Null: 10-17,24-30 

236. God gave the people quails for a whole month, not just for a day as he did the year before. 
Ex 16:12,13 He sent a most grievous plague among them. From the graves of those who lusted, 
that place was called, Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 11:31-34 Ps 78:26-31 Ps 106:15 

14. The fourteenth camp was at Hazeroth. Nu 11:35 33:17 Miriam and Aaron spoke evil of 
Moses their brother because he had married a woman of Ethiopia. Zipporah his wife was from 
Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethiopia, otherwise called Arabia. They made 
themselves equal in all points with him. God honoured Moses more than they and struck Miriam 
with leprosy. She was sent outside of the camp. At the prayer of Moses, she was healed after 
seven days. Nu 12:1-15 De 24:9 

2514d AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC 

237. Miriam was cleansed some time during the 4th month. After she returned to camp, the 
Israelites left that place. 

15. They camped in Hazeroth, in the desert of Paran, Nu 12:6 33:18 near Kadeshbarnea, Nu 
13:26 



238. On the fifth month. 

239. From the wilderness of Paran, Nu 13:3 or Kadeshbarnea, Nu 32:8 De 1:19,22 9:23 Jos 14:7 
at the time of ripened grapes, God commanded Moses to send 12 spies from every tribe Nu 
13:l,2to thoroughly spy out the land. Moses and the people were agreeable to this plan. De 
1:22,23 Among these men was 40 year old Caleb, the son of Jephunneh (of the tribe of Judah) 
Jos 14:7 and Oshea (the son of Nun, whom Moses called Joshua, from the tribe of Ephraim. 
These men entered the land from the south by the desert of Sin, passing through to the very 
northern part to Rehob. Nu 13:21,22 De 1:23 

240. The sixth month. 

241. The spies spent 40 days in searching out the land and returned to Kadesh in the wilderness 
of Paran. They brought one branch of a vine with a cluster of grapes on it gathered from the 
valley of Eshcol. This valley was named for its pomegranates and figs. Nu 13:23-27 De 4:24,25 
This likely happened before the 7th month before the feast of tabernacles. This feast was kept on 
the 15th day of that month when the fruits of the barn and winepress, were always gathered. Ex 
23:16 Le 23:39 De 16:13 Ten of the twelve men spoke ill of the country and its barrenness, 
magnifying the city's strength and the giants living there. This discouraged the people from 
marching any further toward it. However, Caleb did all he could, to persuade the people to go 
on. Nu 13:28-33 32:9 

242. The people were terrified by the report made by the rest and threatened to return again to 
Egypt. They were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua for their conflicting report. When God 
threatened the people with sudden destruction, Moses again prayed and their lives were spared. 
However, God declared that all of them who were over 20 years old would die in the wilderness 
and would never see the promised land but wander in the wilderness for forty years. Nu 14:1-35 
26:64,65 32:10-13 De 1:26-36 9:23 Jos 5:6 Ps 95:8-11 106:24-26 Their children entered the 
promised land in the 39th year. Nu 32:13 De 2:14 

243. God destroyed the 10 rebellious spies by sudden death. Nu 14:36,37 In memory of this 
event, the Jews keep a fast on the seventh day of the sixth month, called Elul. 

244. God commanded them to break camp and return back into the desert near the Red Sea. 
Instead they disobeyed him by going forward into the mountain and were pursued all the way to 
Hormah and defeated by the Amalekites and Canaanites. Therefore they sat down and wept 
before the Lord, but he would not hear them. Nu 14:40-45 De 1:40-45 

245. After this incident, as the Israelites continued to die in the wilderness, Moses composed the 
90th Psalm, Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c. He also showed that the normal age of men was 
reduced to 70 or 80 years. Therefore, 

246. The age of man was shortened to a third of what it was before 
2515a AM, 3224 JP, 1490 BC 



247. The Israelites continued in Kadesh many days. De 1:46 For whether it was for a day, a 
month, or a year, as long as the cloud continued over the tabernacle, the camp did not move. Nu 
9:22 In some places the camp stayed for many years since in the 37 years there were only 17 
camps mentioned. After leaving Kadesh, they returned into the wilderness toward the Red Sea 
and camped around the hill country of Seir many days. De 2:1 Jud 11:16 The 17 camps for this 
time in the wilderness of Seir were mentioned in the 33rd chapter of Numbers in this order: 

16th at Rimmonparez 

17th at Libnah 

18thatRissah 

19th at Kehelathah 

20th at Mount Shapher 

21statHaradah 

22nd at Makheloth 

23rd at Thahash 

24th at Thara 

25th at Mithcah 

26th at Hashmonah 

27th at Moseroth 

28th at Benehaajan, or Beeroth Bene Jaakan of the well of the sons of Jaakan De 10:6 

29th at Horhagidgad, or Gudgodah, De 10:7 

30th at Jotbathah, a place full of springs of water, De 10:7 

31st was Ebronah 

32nd was Eziongaber, which is near to Eloth and by the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of 

Edom IKi 9:26 

2515 AM, 3225 JP, 1489 BC 

248. The only mention of these camps are the laws and historical events as recorded in Nu 15:1- 
19:22. 

1. Nu 15:1-41 A man was stoned by God's command for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. 
Although the sacrifices were omitted in the wilderness, yet the Sabbath was kept. 

2. Nu 16:1-50 Korah, Dathan and Abiram rebelled against Moses and Aaron. They were 
swallowed alive into the earth. When 250 of their associates offered incense, God destroyed 
them by fire. God commanded their censors to be taken and used for a covering for the alter. 
This was for a memorial of them to the children of Israel. The people murmured against Moses 
and Aaron for this calamity and God killed 14700 of them. 

3. Nu 17:1:13 The twelve rods were brought by the twelve princes and laid in the sanctuary. 
Aaron's rod was the only one that budded and brought forth almonds. It was set before the ark, 
for a warning against any future rebellions. 

249. All these events are thought to have happened in the later half of the second year after they 
left the land of Egypt. Moses wrote only what happened in the first two years and the last year 
of their travel in the wilderness. For the intervening events of those 37 years see Abulensis, 
upon Numb, cap 1. Quast. 3. 



250. The scriptures also show that the time, which the Israelites spent in travelling from 
Kadeshbarnea, till they passed the vale, or brook Zedad, was half a year after they moved from 
their 32nd camp. Another half year elapsed before they passed the river Jordan making up the 
full 38 years. During this time, all those ungodly rebels perished. De 2:14-16 

251. For the first 9 years the Israelites spent in the wilderness, Armais governed in Egypt and 
Sethosis invaded the East. Both were brothers and sons of Amenophis who drowned in the Red 
Sea as before noted in the item under 2494 AM. Manetho in his Egyptiaca, mentioned by 
Josephus in his first book against Apion, wrote: 

vv Sethosis was well equipped with cavalry and ships and made his brother Armais ruler over all 
Egypt. He let Armais use all power and authority there except he was not to wear a crown and 
he charged him not to dishonour his wife the Queen and mother of his children. Armais was also 
told to abstain from all other concubines of the king. Sethosis himself however made war in 
Cyprus and Phoenicia and against the Assyrians and the Medes. Some of these he subdued by 
his powerful army and others he overtook merely caused by the terror his reputation. Puffed up 
with this great success near home, he went on with greater confidence to ravage and spoil all the 
kingdoms and countries of the East. A few years after he was gone, Armais whom he left in 
Egypt, having no fear, did everything the king commanded him not to do. First, he misused the 
queen and lay continually with the king's concubines. Later, he followed the advice of his 
friends and wore the crown, plainly rebelling against his brother." 

252. Thus Manetho adds: 

vv Armais, was Danaus; and Sethosis was also called Egyptus," 

253. and that Egypt was named after him. Ramesses, was named after his grandfather showing 
that these similar names and events reveal that Tacitus calls him Rhamses and Herodotus, 
Sesostris. Tacitus says: 

VV A king called Rhamses, conquered all Libya, Ethiopia, the Medes and Persians, Bactria, 
Scythia and all the lands which the Syrians and Armenians and the Cappadocians held along 
with Bithynia and Lycia, by the Mediterranean Sea:" 

254. Tacitus records him under the name of Rhamses. Regarding Sesostris, Herodotus in his 
second book writes that their Egyptian priests say: 

vv He was the first, to bring all nations bordering the Red Sea under his subjection sailing by way 
of the Arabian gulf. He came back the same way and gathered a mighty army. Marching into the 
continent of Asia, he subdued all the nations which stood in his way. Leaving Asia he crossed 
into Europe and conquered the Scythians and Thracians. It seems he went no further because the 
marks and monuments of his name and victories are found in Palestine of Syria. Two 
monuments are in Ionia, one at Ephesus, as you go into Phoencea, another one is on the way 
leading from Sardis to Smyrna." 

255. A similar report comes from Diodorus Siculus, of Sesoosis 1. 2. but he makes him far more 
ancient than this. The age of his brother Danaus proves that he was contemporary with Moses. 



Manetho and Diodorus record the timing of these events nearly the same. They indicate that at 
the time all foreigners were expelled from Egypt, Danaus and Cadmus, with their companies 
came into Greece and Moses with his company went into Judea. This we find in the Selections 
of Phoisus. For the better understanding this 37 year period we include events from Eusebius in 
his "Tables" as follows: 

2520 AM, 3230 JP, 1484 BC 

256. Egypt (which was formerly called Aeria) was named after Egyptus who was there made 
king after the expulsion of his brother, Danaus. Our account varies only two years from that of 
Eusibius for: 

2522 AM, 3232 JP, 1482 BC 

257. Egyptus was also called Ramesses and Sesostris and Sesoosis. After spending 9 years in 
many voyages and foreign wars, (as Diodorus Siculus states in his first book) he returned to 
Pelusium. During this time Armais, who was also called Danaus ruled over Egypt. He first 
attempted to poison his brother Egyptus at a banquet provided for him but failed in the attempt 
as both Herodotus 1. 2. c. 107. and also Diodorus Siculus 1. 1. p. 53. (in the Greek and Latin 
edition of him) testifies. At which time he fled for fear of his brother from the kingdom which 
he had in Egypt and came into Greece, (as Georgius Syncillus states in the Greek Eusebius, 
published by Scanger, page 26,27.) 

2530 AM, 3240 JP, 1474 BC 

258. When Danaus came into Greece, he made himself ruler of Argos and made it abound with 
waters. Danaus by his 50 daughters, destroyed the 50 sons of his brother Egyptus except only 
his son Lynceus who reigned after him at Argos. 

2533 AM, 3243 JP, 1471 BC 

259. Busiris the son of Neptunus and Libya the daughter of Epaphus, were joint tyrants in the 
area next to the Nile river. He barbarously murdered all strangers who passed that way and fell 
into his hands. Ovid. (lib. 3. de Tristi.) asked who was more cruel than Busiris? Virgil, (3. 
Georg.) queried who had not heard of Eurystheus' hard heart? The altars by the unworthy 
Busiris reared were indeed unworthy to be defended. Much more unworthy he was to have been 
commended by any man, which yet was his lot to be, according to Socrates the orator, in his, 
Busiridis Encomium. On this (as after him, also Eusebius did) state that he was the son of Libya, 
the daughter of Epaphus and Neptunus. Note that this Ramesses, surnamed Myamun, (of whom 
I spake, in the year of the world 2427) was by mythological writers, surnamed Neptunus and 
was the man who commanded the new born infants of the Hebrews to be drowned. He had two 
sons, Amenopis, i.e. Belus of Egypt (the father of Egyptus and Danaus). He was that enemy of 
the Almighty God and was drowned in the Red Sea with his army. He had a son Busiris who 
was so infamous for butchering strangers, (a fitting offspring for such a father) that succeeded 
him. On this from A. Gellio, 1. 15. c. 21. that the poets were inclined to call men who were 
barbarous, cruel and devoid of humanity, the sons of Neptune who was born of that merciless 
element, the sea. 



2543 AM, 3253 JP, 1461 BC 

260. According to Eusebius in these times Tat the son of Hermes Trismegistes lived. The 
Egyptians say that Sesostris learned his wisdom from this Hermes. (Elian, 1. 12. Var. Histor. 
c.4.) 

2549 AM, 3259 JP, 1455 BC 

261. Cadmus and Phenix went from Thebez in Egypt into Syria and founded the kingdom in 
Tyre and Sidon. Eusib. Chron. 

2552b AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC 

262. After the Israelites had wandered around the hill country of Seir and Edom for 37 years, 
they went from Kadeshbarnea to Eziongaber in Edom. Travelling from the north to the south to 
the shore of the Red Sea, God then commanded them to turn northward and march straight for 
the land of promise. When the land of Edom lay directly in their way, he ordered them that they 
should not fight with the Edomites because they were brothers. God told them how great was his 
providence and care toward them in preserving them for 40 years in the wilderness. De 2:1-7 He 
used the round number of 40 for the actual time of 39 years. 

2552c AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC 

263. In the first month of the 40th year, after they left Egypt, the Israelites came into the 
wilderness of Zin and camped there. 

33. They camped at Kadesh Nu 20:1 33:36-38 Jud 11:17 of Zin, near the border of Edom, Nu 
20:14,15 towards Eziongaber and the Red Sea. This was not at Kadeshbarnea, where they made 
their 15th camp and which lay near the border of Canaan, toward the south. Nu 34:4 Jos 15:3 

264. Miriam died Nu 21:1 here 4 months before her brother Aaron, and 1 1 months before her 
brother Moses. She was the oldest of the three and lived 130 years as appears, Ex 2:4,7 so that 
she was a pretty mature maiden when Moses was born. This was noted before upon the year of 
the world, 2433. The Jews to this very day keep the memory of her death upon the tenth of the 
first month. 

265. Again the people complained to Moses and Aaron for lack of water. God commanded to 
call water out of the hard rock, only by speaking to it. Through impatience and diffidence to 
God's command, Moses spoke something unadvisedly with his lips and struck the rock twice 
with Aaron's rod. This was the rod that budded and blossomed. He drew water from it as he had 
drawn out of another rock, 37 years earlier. Ex 17:7 For this occasion the place was called 
Meribah, or waters of strife. Nu 20:2-13. For it is most likely, that the former water, which 
Tertullian called, Aquam Comtiem, the water that followed them, (mentioned in the eleventh 
encampment) was swallowed up in the Red Sea. In this second time of want of water, the 
children complained just like their fathers did many years before. 

266. Moses and Aaron for their diffidence and unbelief in executing the commandment of God 



were not allowed to enter into the land of Canaan. Nu 20:23,24 27:14 Ps 106:32,33 

267. The Israelites sent messengers to the Edomites and Moabites asking to pass through their 
land. They refused to let them pass through their countries, Nu 20:14-20 Jud 11:17 but allowed 
them to pass along their borders. De 2:4,6,29 On this occasion, they stayed a while at Kadesh, 
Jud 11:17 then went forward again. 

34. The 34th camp was in mount Hor, on the borders of Edom, Nu 20:22,23 or Mosera, De 10:6. 
To this place the Israelites are said to have come when they left Beeroth Bene Jaakan, or the 
wells of the sons of Jaakan, their 28th camp. They camped in Gudgodah, or Horhagidgad, 
Jotbath and other places. For it is said, De 10:7 that from there they came to Gudgodah and from 
Gudgodah to Jotbathah. These words "from there" are not to be understood of Mosera, but of 
Beeroth, as many learned men have long since noted on this passage. 

268. The Israelites mourned for Aaron 30 days, Nu 20:29 this is the whole month when he died. 

269. On the sixth month, the king of Arad, who dwelt on the southern part of Canaan, after 
hearing of the Israelites approach, went and fought against them taking many of them prisoners. 
For this they vowed, a vow to God and when they defeated them, they destroyed them and their 
cities. Because of this, that place was called Hormah, i.e. the place where that vow was made of 
utterly destroying the Canaanites. Nu 31:1-3 33:40 

270. They left mount Hor, avoiding the plain country that led from Elath, and Eziongaber and 
the Red Sea straight into Edom. They went around Edom and came to the east side of it Nu 21:4 
De 2:40 and there they made another camp. 

35. They camped at Zalmonah, Nu 33:41 named for the brazen serpent set up there. The people 
murmured because of the fierce serpents sent among them by God. (Not a little worm, breeding 
in their flesh, as Fortunius Licentus, in his third book, de spontanco Viventium ortu. c. 51. 
imagines.) These poisoned them with their bite. They were healed by looking upon the image of 
a brazen serpent that God appointed to be set up on a pole. Nu 21:5-9 Jo s 3:14 1 Co 10:9 

36. They camped at Punon. Nu 33:42 

37. They camped at Oboth. Nu 21:10,33,43 

38. They camped at Ijeabarim on the borders of Moab Nu 33:44 in that desert which lies to the 
east of Moab Nu 21:11 and is called the desert of Moab. De 2:8 For, they continued their march 
through that wilderness and came to the east of Moab. Jud 11:18 

271. And when they left there to pass by the valley or brook of Zared, God forbade them to 
make war upon Moab. Nu 21:12 De 2:8,13 

272. They passed over Zared, 38 years after the sending of their spies from Kadeshbarnea. 

273. All those over 20 years old who rebelled against God there, had died. De 2:6 



39. They camped at Dibongad Nu 33:45 

40. They camped at Almondiblathaim, Nu 33:46 also called Bethdiblathaim, in the wilderness of 
Moab. Jer48:22Eze6:14 

2553a AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC 

274. When the Israelites were passing the borders of Moab, at Ar and approaching the country 
of the Ammonites, God forbade them to make any war upon the Ammonites. De 2:18,19,37 He 
commanded them to pass over the river Arnon: which at that time was the boundary between 
Moab and Ammon. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 They camped at Arnon and never entered the territory of 
Moab. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 Jud 11:18 

275. Next they arrived at Beer, where the well was which the princes and nobles of the people, 
with Moses their law-giver, had dug with their staves. They came to Matthan, Nahaliel, Bamoth 
and the valley, which is in the country of the Moabites, at the entrance of the hill which looks 
toward the wilderness Nu 21:16-20 of Kedemoth. De 2:26 Here they camped. 

41. They camped at Abarim opposite Nebo. Nu 33:47 As for Maanah and the other places, these 
were not camps, as Tremellius observes in Nu 2:12, but only places through which they passed 
on their march before Moses sent messengers to the Amorites. The Chaldee paraphrases does 
not take them for proper place names, but only as titles. They interpret them of the waters of the 
well (as the Rock, ICo 10:4) which followed the Israelites to the brooks and from the brooks to 
the mountains and from the mountains to the valley of the Moabites. 

276. From the wilderness of Kedemoth Moses sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite, king of 
Heshbon. He asked permission to pass peacefully through his borders (as the Edomites and 
Moabites had done) because that was a short cut to the fords of Jordan. When he denied them 
passage and made war upon them, the Israelites slew Sihon and possessed all his cities and 
dwelt in them. De 2:24-36 Nu 21:21-31 Jud 1:19-22 

277. Moses sent his spies to Jazer which they conquered with the towns associated with it. They 
expelled the Amorites from there, from the river of Arnon which is the bound of Moab, Nu 
21:13 22:36 to the brook of Jabbok which divides it from Ammon. De 3:16 Jos 12:2 13:10 They 
never meddled with the country lying next to the river Jabbok, neither with any of the lands 
belonging at that time to the children of Ammon of Moab, as God had commanded them. De 2:9 
9:37 Therefore, 264 years later when the Ammonites complained that the Israelites had taken 
their land from Jabbok to Arnon and even to the brooks of the river Jordan, Jephthah correctly 
answered them that this was not true. They had not meddled with the lands, either of the 
Moabites or the Ammonites. When they had slain Sihon, they took all the lands belonging to the 
Amorites, from the river Arnon, to Jabbok, and possessed it as their own inheritance. Jud 

1 1:13,15,22,23 It was also true that Sihon king of the Amorites had formerly taken from Vaheb 
king of the Moabites, Heshbon and all that country of his to Arnon. Nu 21:14 Also he had taken 
from the Ammonites, half their country even to Arnon which lay opposite Rabbah. De 3: 1 1 All 
that land belonged formerly to the Ammonites and later was taken from the Amorites and 
assigned to the tribe of Gad to dwell in. Jos 13:25 



278. When the children of Israel marched on their way to Bashan, Og king of Bashan, one of the 
giants, met and fought with them at Edrei. He and all his people were utterly destroyed. The 
Israelites possessed all his country which included 60 cities and all the land as far as Argob. De 
3:1-11 Nu 21:33-35 Am 2:9 

279. Jair, son of Manasseh seized all the country of Argob, stretching to the borders of the 
Geshurites and Mahacathites and called them Havothjair, after his own name.Nu 32:41 De 3:14 
This Manasseh was the son of Segub, of the tribe of Judah. However, he was counted among the 
Manassites both in respect to the inheritance he had among them and also in reference to his 
grandmother. She was the daughter of Machir of the tribe of Manasseh. He was the father of 
Gilead who bore Segub the father of this Jair, to Hezron when he was 60 years old. ICh 2:21,22 
This passage states that this Jair possessed 23 cities in the land of Gilead. He took Geshur and 
Aram (according to the best expositors) with the villages of Jair and Kenath with its villages, 60 
cities in all. Nobah who was under him took Kenath with its villages and called it Nobah after 
his own name. Nu 32:42 

280. After these victories the Israelites left the mountains of Abarim. They camped in the plain 
of Moab on this side of the ford of Jordan, which led to Jericho from Bethjeshimoth to 
Abelshittim, Nu 22:1 33:48,49 

42. They camped at Shittim, Nu 25:1 or Abelshittim Nu 33:49. Here they stayed until Joshua 
lead them to the bank of Jordan. Jos 3: 1 

281. Balak the son of Zippor was the king of Moab. When he saw what the Israelites had done 
to the Amorites, he was afraid lest under the pretence of passing through his country, they would 
also take his kingdom from him. Therefore, after taking counsel with the princes of the 
Midianites who were his neighbours, he sent for Balaam the son of Beor. Balaam was a 
soothsayer from Mesopotamia. Balak asked him to come and curse the Israelites and promised 
him a large reward for his labour. He intended afterward to make war upon the Israelites. Nu 
21:1-6 De 33:4 Jos 24:9 

282. Balaam was warned of God and at first refused to come. When he was sent for a second 
time, he pleaded with God to let him go and went intending to curse Israel. God was offended 
by his intentions and made the dumb ass on which he was riding to speak in a man's voice to 
reprove his folly. Nu 22:7-35 2Pe 2:15,16 

283. Balaam, offered sacrifices twice and attempted to curse Israel, to gratify Balak but being 
forced by the Spirit of God, he instead ended up blessing them. He foretold what good fortune 
was with them and what calamities should befall their enemies. Nu 23:1-24:25 De 23:5 Jos 
24:10 

284. By Balaam's advice, the women of Moab and Midian were sent to turn the Israelites away 
and to make them commit idolatry with them. Nu 25:1-3 31:16 De 4:3 Ps 106:28 Re 2:14 
Therefore, God commanded Moses, first to hang all the leaders of this rebellion. He then gave 
orders to the judges, to put to death all who had joined themselves to Baalpeor. Finally, God 
sent a plague upon the people, in which 23,000 men died in one day. ICo 10:8 This number plus 
those who were hanged and killed with the sword was 24,000. Nu 25:4,5,9 



285. Phinehas the son of Eleazar killed Zimri, the son of Salu, chief of his father's family of the 
tribe of Simeon. He also slew Cozbi the daughter of Sur a prince of the Midianites. This 
appeased the wrath of God and the plague was ended. Nu 25:1-18 Ps 106:30 Therefore God 
assigned for ever the high priesthood to the house of Phinehas. He commanded them to make 
war against the Midianites. Nu 25:12,13,17,18 

286. God commanded Moses and Eleazar to count the people 20 or more years old. This was 
done in the plain of Moab, near to Jordan, opposite Jericho. The number of men was 601,730 in 
addition to the Levites. 23,000 Levites were counted who were at least a month or more old. 
Moses received God's command for the division of the land of promise among the Israelites. Nu 
26:1-63 

287. The daughters of Zelophehad had their father's land divided among them because there was 
no male heir. Because of this situation, the law of inheritances was made. Nu 11:1-11 

288. God told Moses that he was about to die and Joshua was to be his successor. Moses laid his 
hands upon him and gave him instructions. Nu 27:12-23 De 3:26-28 Various laws were then 
made. De 28:29,30 

289. 12,000 of the Israelites lead by Phinehas, defeated the Midianites and slew all their males 
including their 5 princes and Sur the father of Cozbi. All were under the subjection of Sihon the 
Amorite while he lived. Balaam the wizard was killed when he should have returned into his 
country of Mesopotamia. Nu 24:25 Instead he stayed and died with the Midianites. Nu 31:1-8 
Jos 13:21,22 From the females, only the virgins were spared. Nu 31:9-54 

2553b AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC 

290. The lands which belonged to Sihon and Og, Moses divided and gave to the tribes of 
Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 32:1-42 De 3:12-20 29:8 Jos 13:8-12 22:4 
This was from the river Arnon, to mount Hermon (which is also called Shenir and Sirion, and 
Sion) and joins upon Anti-Lebanon, De 3:8,9 4:48 Jos 12:1 13:9,11 

291. When the Israelites were going into the land of Canaan, God commanded them to drive out 
the Canaanites and destroy their idols. Nu 33:50-56 They were to divide the land west of Jordan 
among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 34: 1-29 Of the 48 
cities of the Levites and the 6 cities of refuge, Nu 35: 1-34, three were assigned by Moses on the 
east of Jordan. De 4:41-43 

292. Moses addressed Israel on the 5th day of the 1 1th month (Saturday, February 20th) in the 
40th year after their departure out of Egypt in the plain of Moab. This is recorded in De 1:1- 
27:26. 

293. Moses, with the elders of Israel, commanded the people that after their passage over Jordan 
they should set up large stones. These were to be plastered and the ten commandments written 
on them. They were to speak the blessings from Mount Gerizim and the curses from Mount 
Ebal. De 27:1-26 He exhorted them to observe the law of God by setting before them the 
benefits of obedience and the miseries that would happen to them for their disobedience. De 



28:1-68 

294. God commanded Moses to renew the covenant between God and them, and their children 
in mount Horeb. Moses again attempted to persuade them to keep that covenant hedged in by all 
the blessings and curses which would accrue to the keepers or breakers of it. De 29:1-29 He 
gave a promise of pardon and deliverance, if at any time, when they broke it, they should repent. 
He stated that God had declared his will to them so that no one who broke the law should plead 
ignorance of the law. De 30:1-20 

295. When Moses wrote this law, he gave it to the priests the sons of Levi and the elders of the 
people to be observed. When he finished the book of the law, he ordered it to be put in the ark. 
De 31:1-30 The same day he wrote his song and taught it to the children of Israel. De 32:1-52 

296. Just before Moses died, he blessed every tribe with a prophecy, except the tribe of Simeon. 
His last will and testament is contained in De 32:1-52 

297. In the 12th month of this year, Moses left the plain of Moab and climbed up Mount Nebo 
which was a part of the country of Abarim. From the top of it facing Jericho, he beheld all the 
land of promise and then died at the age of 120 years. Nu 27:12,13 De 3:23-29, 32:49,50 34:1-5 
31:2-4,7 Of this time he spent 40 years less a month in governing the people of Israel. This is 
confirmed by Josephus, in the end of his 4th book of antiquities. He states that Moses died on 
the first day of the last month of the year. The Macedonians called the month Dystrus but the 
Hebrews called it Adar. This fits better with the account of historians who wrote shortly 
thereafter than with the tradition of the Jews of later times. These historians say that he died 
upon the 7th of Adar, as in Sedar Olam Rabba, c. 10. in his hryjp book of the death of Moses. In 
the preface of Maimonides to the book, called Misnaioth this is mentioned also. In the calendars 
of the Jews of this time this appears. They still celebrate the memorial of his death by a solemn 
fast on this day. 

298. God moved the body of Moses from the place where he died, into a valley of the land of 
Moab, opposite Bethpeor and buried him there. No one knows where the grave of Moses is to 
this day. De 34:6 This valley was in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites which the Israelites 
took from him. De 4:46 Bethpeor was given to the Reubenites. Jos 13:20 Therefore, Moses is 
said to have been buried in the land of Moab. Likewise De 29: 1 the covenant is said to have 
been renewed in the land of Moab. It is to be understood that this land formerly did belong to 
the Moabites but was recently taken from them by Sihon king of the Amorites. Nu 21:26 This 
land was now possessed by the Israelites. 

299. The archangel Michael Jude 1:9 disputed with the devil over the body of Moses. The Devil 
wanted to expose the body that it might become an object of idolatry to the people of Israel. 
Chrysostrome in his 1st Homily on Matthew and Thodores, on Deuteronomy, Quest. 43. and 
Procopius Gazans, on Deuteronomy and others state this. Though no where do we find that the 
Jews ever gave themselves to the worshipping of relics. This dispute between Michael and the 
devil about the body of Moses is found in the apocryphal book called "The Assumption of 
Moses". We read this in Origen peziazcat, lib 3. c. 2., in Gelasius Cyricenu, in the Acts of the 
Council of Nice, part. 1. c. 20. and similar stories are found in xwba of Rabbi Nathan. 

300. The Israelites mourned for Moses in the land of Moab, 30 days for the whole 12th month. 



De 34:8 

301. Here ends the Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses, containing the history of 2552 and a 
half years from the beginning of the world. The book of Joshua begins with the 41st year after 
the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt. 

2553c AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC 

302. The first month. 

303. God confirmed the leadership of Joshua. He sent spies from Shittim to the city of Jericho, 
which were hidden by Rahab in an inn. These were secretly sent away when they were searched 
for. They hid three days in the mountain and then returned to Joshua. Jos 2:1-24 

304. Joshua commanded the people that in addition to the manna which had not yet ceased, they 
should take other provisions with them. In three days they were to pass over Jordan Jos 1:10,11 

305. The next morning, they left Shittim and came to the river Jordan. They camped there that 
night. Jos 3:1 

306. Three days later they were instructed to provide food for the journey. The people were 
commanded to sanctify and prepare themselves to pass over Jordan on the next day. Jos 3:2-5 

307. On the 10th day of the first month, (Friday, April 30th), the same day that the Pascal lamb 
was to be chosen out of the flock, Joshua (a type of Christ) led the Israelites through the river 
Jordan into the promised land of Canaan (a type of that heavenly country.) God divided the 
waters and they passed through the river dryshod. Normally in that season, the waters would 
overflow the banks. For a memorial of this miraculous passage, Joshua set up twelve stones in 
the very channel of Jordan. They took another twelve stones from out of the middle of the river 
and set them up at Gilgal, where they next camped. Jos 3:1-4:24 

308. The next day, Joshua renewed the use of circumcision in Gilgal, which had been neglected 
for 40 years. There the people rested and stayed until they were well again. Jos 5:2-9 

309. On the 14th day of the first month (Tuesday, May 4th) in the evening, the Israelites 
celebrated their first passover in the land of Canaan. Jos 5:10 

310. The next day was passover. (Wednesday, May 5th) They ate of the produce of the land of 
Canaan, unleavened bread and roasted grain. The manna stopped the very day after they began 
to live off of the produce of the land. Never again did the children of Israel see manna. That year 
they lived on the fruits of the land of Canaan. Jos 5: 1 1,12 

311. Our Lord Jesus, the Captain of his Father's Host, appeared to Joshua, (the type of Jesus), 
before Jericho with a drawn sword in his hand. Jesus there promised to defend his people. Jos 
5:13-15 



312. The Ark of God was carried around Jericho for seven days. On the 7th day, the walls of 
Jericho fell down flat when the priests blew their trumpets. The city was taken and utterly 
destroyed. All were killed except for Rahab and her family. Jos 6:1-27 Later she married 
Salmon of the tribe of Judah and they had a son called Boaz. Mt 1:5 

313. For the sacrilege of Achan God abandoned Israel and they were defeated at Ai. Achan's sin 
was determined by the casting of lots and he was found guilty. God was appeased when he and 
his family and cattle were stoned and burnt with fire. Jos 7:1-26 Ai was taken by an ambush and 
utterly destroyed. 12,000 men of Ai were killed in the battle. Jos 8:1-29 

314. According to the law, in Mount Ebal an altar was erected for sacrifices. The ten 
commandments were engraved on it. The blessings and cursings were repeated in Mount Ebal 
and Mount Gerizim. The book of the law was read to all the people. Jos 8:30-35 

315. The kings of Canaan were stirred by this great success of the Israelites. They all united 
against Israel except the Gibeonites. These craftily found a way to save their own lives by 
making a league with Israel. However later they were assigned to do the work associated with 
the house of God. Jos 9:1-27 

316. When Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, with the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and 
Debir heard that Gibeon allied themselves with Israel, they united their forces and besieged 
Gibeon. When Joshua raised the siege, he pursued those five kings slaughtering their troops as 
far as Azekah and Makkedah. At this time the sun stood still over Gibeon and the moon over the 
valley of Ajalon for almost a whole day until the Israelites were fully avenged of their enemies. 
Jos 10:1-14 On this account Laurentius Codomannu observes two things: 

317. First, since Ajalon was less than a mile west of Gibeon, it is very likely that the moon was 
then past the full and close to a new moon. 

318. Second, since both those great lights stopped and started together, the astronomical account 
of this is not invalidated by this event. Even as in music, the harmony is not broken, nor do the 
voices clash if they all rest at the same time and then begin again, each man playing his part 
until the end of the piece. 

319. The five kings hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah and Joshua commanded the entrance 
to be blocked with stones and a guard set up until the enemies were defeated. After the enemies 
fled into fortified cities and when all the army was safely returned to Joshua at Makkedah, the 
stones were removed. The five kings were taken from the cave and each of the captains of the 
host was bidden to put his foot upon their necks. The kings were hung on five trees until evening 
and then their bodies were thrown into the same cave and the mouth of the cave blocked with 
stones. Jos 10:16,17 

320. And thus ended that most busy year of the world, 2553. In the first six months Moses 
conquered all that land east of Jordan. The rest of the year Joshua conquered most of the land 
west of Jordan. In the middle of the year the manna ceased and the people of Israel began to live 
off the food in the land of Canaan. 



2554a AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC 

321. From the autumn of this year after the manna stopped, the Israelites began to till the ground 
and sow it. This year was to be reckoned the first year of their tillage. The sabbatical years are 
reckoned from this year. Ex 23:10,11 Le 25:2-7 De 15:1-9 31:10 

322. When the five kings were defeated, all the rest of the kings united and fought against the 
Israelites. Joshua fought against them for six years. Jos 11:1-18 

2559a AM, 3268 JP, 1446 BC 

323. Joshua was now grown old. He was commanded by God to divide all the land west of 
Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Jos 13:1-7 He first 
divided the land of Gilgal, (where the tabernacle of God then was and the army then stayed) 
among the tribes of Judah and Ephraim and the half tribe of Manasseh. Jos 14:6 15: 16,17 At this 
time Caleb the son of Jephunneh, 45 years after the time that he was sent to spy out the land by 
Moses, desired to have Hebron with the mountain countries of Judah. This was assigned to him 
for his part in undertaking to expel the Anakims from there. Jos 14:5,10,13 

324. Tremellius observed correctly that Joshua did not permit Caleb and his company to take 
Hebron alone but he went with the army to take it. When Hebron was conquered, Joshua gave 
Caleb the adjoining lands and villages. Joshua set apart the city with its common lands for a city 
of refuge and for the priests. Jos 21:11-13 ICh 6:55-57 Neither Hebron or Debir were yet taken 
by the Israelites, though both were within the inheritance assigned to Caleb. The Anakims were 
not expelled from there. Jos 14:1-15:63 Hence the passages in Jos 10:28-11:23 Jud 1:9-15 seem 
to be refer to this place because the subject matter is the same. 

325. When the children of Judah and Joseph were settled in their possessions according to their 
tribes, a large part of the land of Canaan still remained in the hands of the Gentiles. Before 
dividing up more land, Joshua took the army from Gilgal and attacked Makkedah and Libnah 
and utterly destroyed the kings and people of both these cities. Jos 10:28-30 

326. From there he marched with his army to Lachish and took it after a two day battle. All the 
inhabitants were killed. When Horam king of Gezer came to help Lachish, Joshua defeated him 
and killed all his people. Joshua then marched to Eglon and took it the same day and killed its 
inhabitants. Jos 10:31-35 

327. After this Joshua with all Israel went up from Eglon to Hebron and took it. He killed the 
new king of it, for the old one was hanged six years before. The inhabitants of Hebron with all 
its cities were killed. Jos 10:36,37 Caleb also expelled the three giants, the sons of Anak, 
Sheshai, Ahiman and Talmai. Jos 15:14 These giants were among the reasons Israel refused to 
enter the land 45 years earlier. Nu 13:22,23 

328. Joshua with the army marched from the south of Canaan to Debir, Jos 10:38 which 
formerly was called Kirjathsepher. Here Caleb had proclaimed that whoever took it should have 
his daughter for a wife. His first cousin Othniel the son of Kenaz took it and married his 
daughter Achsah. Her dowry was a piece of land with its springs. Jos 15:15,19 Jud 1:11,15 



When Othniel took the city he killed the inhabitants and their new king. The previous king was 
hanged with the rest, six years earlier. Jos 10:39 

329. Joshua destroyed all the hill country, all the south parts, plain and valley and all their kings, 
from Kadeshbarnea, to Gaza and all the country of Goshen, (which was in the lot of the tribe of 
Judah) as far as Gibeon. All these kings and all their lands Joshua took at one time in one 
expedition for God himself fought for Israel. When this was done, he and the host of Israel 
returned to Gilgal. Jos 10:40-43 

330. The rest of the kings united their forces and came to the waters of Merom to fight with 
Israel. Joshua, in a surprise attack, defeated and slew them. He took all their land Jos 11:1-16 
from the mountain which goes to Seir which is the frontier of Edom, to Baalgad in the valley of 
Lebanon beside the hill of Hermon. Jos 11:17 12:7 

331. Then Joshua expelled the giants, the Anakims from their cities, the hill countries, Hebron, 
Debir, Anab and generally from the mountains of Judah and all Israel. Hebron was taken by the 
tribe of Judah. Jud 1:10 

332. When the whole land was conquered, the next year he divided it among the children of 
Israel according to their tribes. The land rested from war. Jos 11:23 14:15 

2560a AM, 3269 JP, 1445 BC 

333. The first Sabbatical year they kept was the seventh year from the first year when they 
began tilling the ground in Canaan. Joshua, a type of Jesus, had brought them into this place of 
rest, which was a type of that Sabbath and rest which the true Jesus was to give to God's people. 
Heb 4:9 From this time is reckoned the years of Jubilee, which was every fifty years. Le 25:8-13 

334. On the 15th day of the month, (Saturday, November 5th) according to the law, the Levites 
kept the feast of tabernacles in booths made from boughs of trees. Le 23:39,40 This was done 
more solemnly than in the later times of the judges and kings Ne 8:17 

335. God was now about to give the Israelites rest from all their enemies around them so that 
they could live there securely. It was necessary that a place should be chosen which God himself 
would select to place his name there. De 12:10,11 After the whole land was subdued, they came 
together at Shiloh and set up the tabernacle of the congregation. Jos 18:1 The tabernacle with the 
ark of the covenant stayed there for 328 years. The meaning of the name and the city called 
Shiloh seems to be the same place as Salem, for, as ~lf signifies Peace or Rest Ge 34:21 Na 1:12 
so also doth hlf Da 4:1. Also the Messiah is thought to have been called Shiloh, Ge 49:10 
because not only was he to be peaceable and quiet but also he was the author of our eternal rest 
and peace. As well, Melchizedek, the king of Salem, the king of peace Heb 7:2 lived here 
according to Jerome in his 126th Epistle to Enagrius. In Jerome's time the city was near the 
place where John baptized. Joh 3:23 Ge 33:18 According to Jerome's account and the Septuagint 
translation, Shiloh was called Sichem because it was located Jos 24:25,26 18:1 Ge 35:4 Jud 9:6 
21:8-19 in the country of the Sichemites. 

336. The remaining land was divided among the other seven tribes for their inheritance and the 



boundaries were recorded in a book. Jos 18:1-19:51 After the seven nations of the Canaanites 
were destroyed, their lands were all distributed among the Israelites. 

337. In the year after God's choosing Isaac until now, was about 450 years. Ac 13:17,19,20 
Since from the birth of the promised seed Isaac, to this time, are 452 years and from the 
rejection of Ishmael, 447. Hence the time was approximately 450 years. 

2560d AM, 3270 JP, 1444 BC 

338. Out of the land from both sides of the Jordan 48 cities were selected for the inheritance of 
the Levites. 6 of these were made cities of refuge. Sanctuaries were made there where those who 
had not committed wilful murder might flee for protection. Jos 20:1-21:45 The Israelites now 
possessed the land promised to their fathers. God gave them rest and peace on every side 
according to all that he had sworn to their fathers. Jos 21:43,44 The companies of the 
Reubenites, Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh that came over the Jordan to help their 
brethren conquer the land, returned to their possessions on the other side of the Jordan. Jos 22:4 
1:12-15 Nu 32:21,22 

339. On their return journey, they came to Gilead at the passage of Jordan, in the borders of the 
land of Canaan. There they built a large altar. The other tribes thought they intended to revolt so 
they resolved to make war against these two tribes. They sent Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the 
high priest, with ten other princes of the people, to find out why the alter was built. When they 
understood that the altar was not built to offer sacrifices but only a memorial and as a token of 
the fellowship which they had with the rest of the tribes of Israel, they changed their minds and 
did not fight with them. Jos 22:1-34 

2561 AM, 3271 JP, 1443 BC 

340. Joshua built the city of Timnathserah in mount Ephraim where he lived for many years 
after God had given rest to Israel. Like Joseph, he lived to the age of 1 10 years Ge 50:26 and 
was buried in Timnathserah. Jos 23:1 24:29,30 

2591dAM, 3301 JP, 1413 BC 

341. After the death of Joshua and the elders who outlived him, the disorders happened that are 
recorded in Jud 17:1-21:25. These were the idolatry of Micah and the children of Dan and the 
war of the Benjamites and its causes. This was a time of anarchy, ever man doing what seemed 
right in his own eyes. The elders who died were less than 20 years old when they came out of 
Egypt. They were eye-witnesses to all that God had done. However the next generation forgot 
God and married the Canaanites and worshipped their idols. God was angry and gave them into 
the hands of Cushan, king of Mesopotamia. This was the first calamity of theirs and lasted eight 
years. Jud 2:7 3:6-8 

2599d AM, 3309 JP, 1405 BC 

342. Othniel, the son of Kenaz and son-in-law to Joshua, Jos 15:17 Jud 1:31 of the tribe of Judah 
was raised up by God to judge and avenge his people. He defeated Cushan and delivered the 



Israelites from their bondage. And the land had rest 40 years, after the first rest which Joshua 
procured for them. Jud 3:9-1 1 

2609a AM, 3318 JP, 1396 BC 

343. The first Jubilee was celebrated in the land of Canaan in the 49th year. 

(Note, a jubliee year fell on the seventh sabbatical year and occurred every 49 years. In Le 25:8- 
10 it says the jubliee was in the 50th year. Also a jubilee and sabbatical year started in the 
autumn. Le 25:9 If a jubilee occurred every 50 years, the text would have to say in the 51st year. 
If a child is one year old, is in his second year. Likewise if a man is 49 years old, he is in his 
50th year. In /APC IMa 6:49 it says that this was a sabbatical year. From the associated text we 
know that year was 163 BC. If the sabbatical and jubliee cycle was 50 years long, 163 BC 
would not be a sabbatical year. Likewise Josephus stated that 37 BC was a sabbatical year when 
Herod captured Jerusalem. This would not have been the case if the cycle was 50 years long and 
not 49. This confirms the accuracy of Ussher's work. See note on 3841d AM «3482». See 
note on 3967b «4959» Editor.) 

2658a AM, 3367 JP, 1347 BC 

344. The second Jubilee. 
2661d AM, 3371 JP, 1343 BC 

345. After Othniel died, the Israelites again sinned against God and were delivered into the 
hands of Eglon, king of Moab. He along with the Ammonites and Amalekites, defeated the 
Israelites and took Jericho. This was their second oppression and it lasted for 18 years. Jud 3:12- 
14 

2679b AM, 3389 JP, 1325 BC 

346. Just before the tribe of Benjamin was almost entirely wiped out, God raised up Ehud, the 
son of Gera a Benjamite, to avenge his people. While feigning a message to Eglon from God, he 
stabbed him in the belly with his dagger and left him dead in his own dining room. After he 
escaped he gathered all Israel together in Mount Ephraim and slew 10,000 valiant men of Moab. 
And the land had rest 40 years; after the former rest and deliverance by Othniel. Jud 3:15,30 

347. Later, Shamgar, the son on Anath, also avenged Israel by killing 600 Philistines with an Ox 
goad. 

2682 AM, 3392 JP, 1322 BC 

348. Belus the Assyrian reigned over the Assyrians in Babylon, for 55 years, saith Jul. 
Africanus. 

2699d AM, 3409 JP, 1305 BC 



349. After the death of Ehud, the Israelites sinned again. God gave them up into the hand of 
Jabin of Canaan who reigned in Hazor. Jabin had 900 chariots of iron and oppressed Israel for 
20 years. Jud 4:1-3 

2707a AM, 3416 JP, 1298 BC 

350. The 3rd Jubilee. 

2719d AM, 3429 JP, 1285 BC 

351. Deborah, the wife of Lapidoth, a prophetess, judged Israel at that time in mount Ephraim. 
Barak of the tribe of Naphtali, son of Abinoam, was made captain of the host of Israel. In a fight 
at Megiddo, they defeated Sisera, who was captain of Jabin's army. Jabin was killed by Jael the 
wife of Heber the Kenite. She did this in her own tent by hammering a nail into the temples of 
Jabin's head. Deborah wrote a song in memorial of that victory, and the land rested 40 years, 
after the former rest restored by Ehud, Jud 4:1-5:31 

2737 AM, 3447 JP, 1267 BC 

352. Ninus, the son of Belus, founded the Assyrian Empire. This empire continued in Asia for 
520 years. Herod in his first book, c. 95. affirms this and Appian Alexander in the beginning of 
his work follows the same account. However, Dionysius Halicarnassus, who is known for 
diligent research into such matters, in his first book of Antiquities, says, that they had a very 
small part of Asia under their command. Diodorus Siculus in his Bibliotheca, reports that Ninus, 
joined with Arieus king of Arabia and possessed all Asia and ruled India and Bactria for 17 
years. Finally, he took in the Bactrians with their king Zoroastres. Justin writes of him, from 
Trogus Pompeius, in book 1. 

vv When Ninus had conquered his adjacent neighbours, he added their forces to his own. By this 
he became stronger still to conquer the next enemy. Every victory was a step to another and by 
this means, he subdued all the people of the east. His last war was with Zoroastoes king of 
Bactria. This king is said to have been the first to find out the art of magic and to have most 
diligently looked into the nature of the world and the motion of the stars. Ninus slew him and 
died later after this." 

353. Julius Africanus and Eusebius say, that he reigned 52 years. 
2752d AM, 3462 JP, 1252 BC 

354. The Israelites sinning again, were delivered into the hands of the Midianites. This fourth 
oppression lasted 7 years. Jud 6:1 

2756a AM, 3465 JP, 1249 BC 

355. The 4th Jubilee. 



2759d AM, 3469 JP, 1245 BC 

356. When the Israelites fell into this fourth bondage, they cried to God for help and were 
reproved by a prophet. Then was Gideon of Manasseh, son of Joash the Abiezrite chosen to 
deliver them by an angel sent from God. By God's command, he overturned the altar of Baal and 
burnt its grove. As a result of the strife between him and the people, he was called Jerubbaal and 
Jerubbesheth. Jud 6:32 2Sa 11:21. From 32,000 volunteers, he selected 300 men according to 
God's criteria. Gideon and these men equipped with their trumpets, pitchers and torches so 
frightened the Midianites, that he put to flight all their host. After this the Ephraimites pursued 
them and slew their princes, Oreb and Zeeb. After this Gideon first pacified the Ephraimites, 
who complained that they were not called to the battle at first. Then he passed the river Jordan 
and defeated the remainder of the Midianitish army. He chastised also the men of Succoth and 
Penuel who had refused him provisions for his journey. He slew the two kings of the Moabites, 
Zebah and Zalmunna. After these great victories, he refused the Israelites offer to make him and 
his posterity king. Using the enemies golden earrings he made an ephod. Later, this led them to 
fall into idolatry. After the Midianites were conquered, the land had rest 40 years, after the 
former rest restored to them by Deborah and Barak Jud 6:1-8:28 

2768d AM, 3478 JP, 1236 BC 

357. As soon as Gideon was dead, the Israelites fell into idolatry and worshipped Baalberith for 
their god. Jud 8:33 Abimelech the son of Gideon, (born by his concubine from Sichem) 
purposed to be king and slew 70 of his brothers all upon one stone. Jud 9:15,18,24,56 

2769d AM, 3479 JP, 1235 BC 

358. When Abimelech was made king with the Sichemites' help, Jotham the youngest son of 
Gideon, having escaped Abimelech's clutches, challenged them from the top of the mount 
Gerizim, about the wrong they had done to his father's house. By way of a parable he prophesied 
their ruin and then fled from there and dwelt quietly in Beeroth. Jud 9:1-57 

2771d AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC 

359. After Abimelech reigned over the Israelites three years, Gaal, a man of Sichem, made a 
conspiracy against him. When Zebul discovered this, the city of Sichem was utterly destroyed 
and sowed with salt. The inhabitants were all killed and the temple of their god Beeroth was 
burnt with fire. From there Abimelech went to besiege Thebez. He was hit on the head with a 
piece of a millstone thrown by a woman and then he was killed by his own armour bearer, Jud 
9:50-54 2Sa 11:21 

2772a AM, 3481 JP, 1233 BC 

360. After Abimelech, Tola, the son of Puah, of the tribe of Issachar, judged Israel 23 years. Jud 
10:1,2 

2781 AM, 3491 JP, 1223 BC 



361. After the Atyadans first reigned in Sardis, Argon, the son of Ninus reigned. His posterity 
held the kingdom of Lydia for 505 years or 22 generations. Each son succeeded his father to the 
throne until Candaules the son of Myrsus. Herod. 1. I.e. 7. 

2789 AM, 3499 JP, 1215 BC 

362. Semiramis, the daughter of Derces, was wife first of Menon and later of Ninus. Diodorus 
Siculus in the second book of his Bibliotheca states that she reigned for 42 years over all Asia 
except India and lived 62 years. From Cresias Cnidius describes at length her noble acts 
especially against Strabrobates king of India. From Megasthenes, who writes expressly of the 
Indian affairs, as we find in Strabo, 1. 15. and from Arrians in his book De Indicus said that she 
died before she ever came into India. Herod. 1. I.e. 184. reports that she cast up huge works 
round about Babylon. Formerly the river (Euphrates) overflowed all the lower parts it. Justin 
also, speaking of Semiramis in 1. 10. out of Trogus Pompeius, says this: 

vv She built Babylon and walled it round with bricks, laying the stones with brimstone, instead of 
sand. This brimstone erupts naturally from the earth everywhere in that area. This queen did 
many other very memorable acts. Not content to keep her husband's conquests, she added 
Ethiopia to her dominions and she also made war on India. She was the first to enter India and 
Alexander the great the next." 

363. All other writers agree with Dionysius also, that Bacchus, is reported to have conquered 
India. It was Diodorus and Troghus, who falsely reported that this queen enclosed Babylon with 
a wall of brick. Stabo also, in his 2nd and 16th books of his Geography is refuted by the sacred 
history of Ge 11:1-32 and Eupolemus. It was Nebuchadnezzar and his daughter-in-law, Nectoris 
who built the wall of Babylon many ages after. Eupolemus states in his book, pri tofdaiwt 
AssisicxA in Eusibius, 1. 9. Preparat. Evangel. 

vv It was first built by those, which escaped the deluge" 

364. Erranius mentiones by Stephanus Bysantinus, in his book, de Vrbibus, in the word of 
Babylon: and Eustatius in Dionys. Perieg. p. 126. noting, that Babylon was built 1002 years 
before Semiramis was born. If he had said 1022 years, this date would nearly agree with the 
Babylonish calendar sent from there by Calisthenes, out of Porphyrie, in the year of the world, 
1770. The same Porphyrie also, 1. 4. cont. Christianos, was cited by Eusebius. 1. 1. Prepar. 
Evangel. Eusebius spoke of Sancuniathon Berution, a most ancient writer, about the beginning 
of the Phoenicians, who said he took his argument from Hierombal or Jerubbaal from the year of 
the world 2759. This Jerubbaal (Gideon) was a priest of Jevo, that is Jehovah, the God of the 
Jews, whose history was dedicated to Abibalus, king of the Berutians. Eusebius states further, 
that this Sancuniathon, lived in the days of Semiranis, Queen of the Assyrians who is said to 
have been before the Trojan wars at that time. This agrees with my account allowing her to have 
lived after the war of Troy by eleven years. 

2790d AM, 3500 JP, 1214 BC 

365. Eli, the priest was born, for he died at the age of 98 years, ISa 14: 15 in the year of the 
world 2888. 



2795a AM, 3504 JP, 1210 BC 

366. After Tola died, he was buried at Shamir, in mount Ephraim. Jair a Gileadite from the tribe 
of Manasseh, succeeded him. Beyond Jordan, Jair judged Israel for 22 years Jud 10:1-3. Jair's 
son took the cities of Argob, naming them Havothjair Nu 32:41 De 3:14 after whose example, 
the thirty sons of this second Jair; (who, to distinguish him from the former, ISa 12:11 ICh 7:17 
seems to have been surnamed Bedan by the 30 cities which they possessed by the name of 
Havothjair. Jud 10:4 

2799a AM, 3508 JP, 1206 BC 

367. Because the Israelites forsook God and worshipped the gods of other nations, God gave 
them up into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites. This was their fifth oppression 
lasting 18 years. Jud 10:8 The bondage ended in victory over the Ammonites when Jephthah 
began his rule over Israel. 

2805a AM, 3514 JP, 1200 BC 

368. The fifth Jubilee. 
2816d AM, 3526 JP, 1 188 BC 

369. During the 8th year of their slavery, the enemies defeated the Israelites, who lived beyond 
Jordan. The Ammonites passed over the river and attacked Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, 
whom the Philistines had already crushed. The Israelites called on God and were grievously 
rebuked by him. However, they showed their repentance by abandoning their idols and obtained 
mercy. Jud 10:8 

2817a AM, 3526 JP, 1188 BC 

370. Jair died and was buried at Camon.Jud 10:5 

37 1 . That same year the Ammonites camped in Gilead. The Israelites camped in Mizpah, which 
is also in Gilead. Jud 10:17 11:11 Jephthah the Gileadite was called to be captain of the host of 
Israel by the men of Gilead. He made war upon the Ammonites and subdued them. He vowed to 
God that if God would give him the victory, he would offer as a burnt offering whatever came 
from his house to meet him. His daughter was unaware of the vow and greeted him first. She 
was offered as a burnt offering to God. Jephthah also killed 42,000 Ephraimites, who behaved 
themselves insolently against him. He judged Israel 6 years. Jud 11:1-12:7 

2820c AM, 3530 JP, 1184 BC 

372. Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiad. 
2823d AM, 3533 JP, 1181 BC 



373. When Jephthah was dead and buried in Gilead, Ibzan, the Bethlehemite, judged Israel 7 
years. Jud 12:7-9 

2830a AM, 3539 JP, 1 175 BC 

374. Ibzan died and was buried at Bethlehem. Elon the Zebulonite succeeded him and judged 
Israel 10 years. Jud 12:10,11 

2831 AM, 3541 JP, 1173 BC 

375. When Semiramis tried to lay carnally with her son, he killed her. She had ruled for 42 years 
after Ninus. Justin 1. I.e. 2. Although it seems incredible that a woman of 62 years of age would 
commit such an act of incest, St. Austin, 1. 18 de Civita. Dei, seemed to believe it. More about 
Semiramis and her death can be read in Diodor. Sicu. 1. 2. Biblio. 

376. Semiramis' son, Ninus or Ninyus was content with the empire which his parents had and 
laid aside all cares of military affairs. Ninus was very effeminate in that he seldom kept 
company with men. He spent most of his years in the company of women and eunuchs. Justin. 1. 
1. c. 2. out of Tragus, Diodor. Sic. 1. 2. and Atheneus 1. 12. out of Cresias; 1. 3. Persicorum. 

2840a AM, 3549 JP, 1165 BC 

377. Elon died and was buried at Ajalon in the tribe of Zebulun. Abdon the Ephraimite, the son 
of Hillel the Pirathonite succeeded him. He judged Israel 8 years. Jud 12:12-14 

2848a AM, 3557 JP, 1 157 BC 

378. When Abdon died he was buried at Pirathon in mount Ephraim. Jud 12:15 After him came 
Eli who judged Israel 40 years. ISa 4: 18 He was also the high priest. This high priesthood was 
transferred from the descendants of Eleazar to Ithamar. When Israel sinned again, God delivered 
them into the hands of the Philistines for the next 40 years. Jud 13:1 This was the Israelites' 
sixth oppression which we think ended seven months after the death of Eli when the Ark was 
brought back again. Hence, it was about the beginning of the third month, called Sivan, when 
Eli began to judge Israel. 

2848dAM, 3558 JP, 1156 BC 

379. An angel appeared to the wife of Manoah of the tribe of Dan at Zorah. He told her that she, 
though barren, would conceive and bear a son. This child would be a Nazarite who would begin 
to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines. Jud 13:5 

2849b AM, 3559 JP, 1155 BC 

380. As foretold by the angel, Samson the Nazarite was born at Zorah. Jud 13:24,25 It seems he 
was conceived after their 40 years oppression had begun by the Philistines. Jud 13:1-5 He 
avenged the Israelites of the Philistines for 20 years.Jud 15:20 Obviously, Samson's birth could 



not have happened later unless he was judging Israel before he was 18 years old which seems 
unlikely. 

2854a AM, 3563 JP, 1151 BC 

381. The sixth Jubilee. 
2867d AM, 3577 JP, 1137 BC 

382. While Eli was executing the office of a judge in civil causes, under the Philistines, Samson 
picked a quarrel against him because he was engaged to marry a woman of Timnah. Samson had 
begun to judge the Israelites at the age of 22. Jud 14:4 On the day of his betrothal, he had killed a 
lion with his bare hands. He made a bet at the wedding feast and propounded a riddle to the 
guests. When he had lost, because his wife had told them what the meaning of the riddle was, in 
a rage he went and slew 30 men of Askelon. He gave these wedding guests the suits of clothing 
which he had stript off their bodies to fulfil the terms of the wager and returned home to his 
father. 

2868c AM, 3578 JP, 1136 BC 

383. At harvest time, Samson went to present his wife with a kid, at her father's house, but found 
that she had been given away to another man in marriage. He then sought revenge by catching 
300 foxes and tying fire brands to their tails. He turned them all loose into the Philistines grain 
fields, vineyards and olive gardens, setting them all ablaze. The Philistines were very angry so 
they took Samson's wife and father-in-law and burned them to death. In revenge, Samson killed 
a great multitude of them and sat down upon the rock of Etam. From there 3000 Jews arrested 
him and delivered him to the Philistines. He then killed a 1000 of these Philistine men with the 
jawbone of an ass. When Samson prayed in that place called Lehi, God opened a hole in the 
jawbone and from it came a fountain of water. This fountain was called Enhakkore meaning the 
fountain of him which called upon God. With the water from this fountain, he refreshed himself 
because he was thirsty and ready to faint. Jud 15:1-20 

2887c AM, 3597 JP, 1117 BC 

384. Delilah, Samson's concubine, betrayed him by cutting his hair, the symbol of his Nazarite 
vow and delivered him to the Philistines. They plucked out his eyes and carried him away 
prisoner to Gaza. They put him in prison there binding him with chains of brass. In prison his 
hair grew again and his strength was renewed. He pulled down the temple of Dagon while the 
princes of the Philistines and a great multitude of the people were in it. More men were killed 
when the temple fell, including himself, than he had slain in all his lifetime. He was buried with 
his father, between Zoar and Eshtaol, when he had judged Israel for 20 years. Jud 16:30,31 

2888dAM, 3598 JP, 1116 BC 

385. The Israelites took courage by this great loss of the Philistines and gathered together to 
camp near Ebenezer (named by the prophet Samuel, when twenty years later the Philistines were 
overthrown by him in the very same place). ISa 7:12 There the Israelites lost 4,000 men. When 



they sent for the ark of the covenant from Shiloh to be brought into the camp, the Philistines saw 
all that was at stake. During that battle the Philistines encouraged one another lest they said: 

"we be forced hereafter to live in slavery under the Hebrews as they have been under us." 

386. In that second battle, 30,000 Israelites were killed. The ark of God was taken by the 
Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas, the two priests and the sons of Eli were slain there. When 
Eli heard the news, he fell off his chair backwards and broke his neck (for he was very fat). His 
daughter-in-law also, the wife of his son Phinehas went into labour because she was pregnant 
and she delivered a son, called Ichabod and died. ISa 4:1-22 When the Philistines took the ark 
of God, they carried it to Ashdod and placed it in the temple of their god Dagon. 

387. Twice Dagon was found grovelling before the ark on the ground. Some of the inhabitants 
of the place died of the plague and some were struck with filthy emerods in their secret parts. Ps 
78:66 They moved the ark from there first to the Gittites and later to the Ekronites. However, the 
same plagues occurred wherever it went. After seven months, by the advice of their priests, the 
Philistines sent the ark home again with gifts into the land of the Israelites. About the beginning 
of the third month, during wheat harvest time 50,070 men of Bethshemesh were killed for 
looking inside the ark. ISa 5:1-6:1,13-19 From there the ark was moved and carried to the house 
of Aminadab in Gibeah atthe Hill of the city of Kirjathjearim. ISa 7: 1,2, 2Sa 6:3,4 This place 
was inhabited by the tribe of Judah and was also called Baalah and Kirjathbaal. ICh 13:6 Jos 
15:9,60 However, all this time the tabernacle where God was worshipped, stayed at Shiloh in 
the tribe of Ephraim. Jud 18:31 ISa 14:3 

2894c AM, 3604 JP, 1 1 10 BC 

388. Barzillai the Gileadite was born, for he was 80 years of age, when Absalom rebelled 
against David. 2Sa 19:35 

2903a AM, 3612 JP, 1 102 BC 

389. The seventh Jubilee. 
2908c AM, 3618 JP, 1096 BC 

390. For 20 years after the ark came to Kirjathjearim, ISa 7:2 the Israelites were grievously 
oppressed by the Philistines. Finally being persuaded by Samuel, they returned to the Lord after 
they abandoned all their idols. They came together at Mizpah where they are said to have drawn 
water to have drawn tears from the bottom of their hearts and to have poured them out before 
the Lord. ISa 7:6 This perhaps symbolized some external effusion or pouring forth of water to 
signify their inward repentance and mourning for their sins. 2Sa 14:14 Some would understand 
this of the repentants themselves. Ge 35:2 Ex 19:14 After their repentance, God immediately 
delivered the people of the Israelites from the invasion of the Philistines. ISa 7:10 Jos 10: 10,1 1 
God sent a terrible thunder which terrified the Philistines. They abandoned all the cities of the 
Israelites which they held formerly. ISa 7:14 Several small garrisons were left in only a few 
places. ISa 10:5 No more did they come to invade their borders because they saw that the hand 
of the Lord was against them all the days of Samuel until Saul became king. ISa 7: 12 However 



after Saul became king, they returned again and oppressed Israel. When Samuel was old he 
made his two sons to be judges over Israel at Beersheba. They did not serve the Lord like their 
father but perverted judgment for rewards and bribes. ISa 8:1-3 He did not retire completely for 
from the passage ISa 7:15-17 it appears that he continued judging the people by himself to his 
dying day. 

2909c AM, 3619 JP, 1095 BC 

391. Because Samuel's sons were taking bribes and perverting justice, the Israelites began to 
make light of Samuel's leadership which troubled him and offended God. ISa 8:6-8 The 
Israelites were disgusted by the excessive behaviour of Samuel's sons and requested that they 
should have a king as other nations had. ISa 8:4,5 In additions to this, the Philistines still had 
some garrisons in their land. Nahash, king of the Ammonites had also assembled men in 
preparation for war against them. This caused them great fear so they resolved to no longer rely 
on Samuel's wisdom, or on the power of God, who had up to that time been their king and 
avenger. In spite of the fact that they had expelled the Philistines out of their land, they still 
expressed their desire to have a king. ISa 12:12,17,19 Though God was angered by their request 
he gave them a king Ho 13: 10, 1 1 whose name was Saul, the son of Kish, of the tribe of 
Benjamin. Saul reigned for 40 years. Ac 13:21 Saul's son Ishbosheth was 40 years old when he 
succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Sa 2:10 Ishbosheth is said to have been born when Saul 
was anointed king. Saul was first anointed privately and afterward publicly before all the people 
at Mizpah by Samuel. It was 21 years since the death of Eli ISa 7:2 that Samuel had judged 
Israel. ISa 10:1,24,25 About 1 month later,lSa 12:12,16 (as the Septuagint and Jospehus, lib. 6. 
Antiquis. records) Jabeshgilead was besieged by Nahash king of the Ammonites. This siege was 
lifted by Saul when he defeated the Ammonites. The whole congregation of Israel came together 
at Gilgal and Saul was again proclaimed king there. ISa 11:14,15 Samuel however, questioned 
Saul's sincerity in fulfilling his royal position and complained of the wrong that had been done 
him. Samuel called upon God to send thunder and rain which terrified the people. Then he 
comforted them with the promises of God's mercies. ISa 12:17 This appears to have happened 
during their wheat harvest season, around the time of the feast of Pentecost, in the beginning of 
the third month, 21 years after the ark arrived from the country of the Philistines. 1 Sam 6:13 It 
seems that a full 20 years passed between the bringing back of the ark and the subduing of the 
Philistines. ISa 7:2,13 and that one year passed between the expelling of the Philistines from out 
of Israel and Saul's anointing as king. As ISa 13:1 states in the Hebrew: 

vv Saul was the son of one year when he reigned; and he reigned two years over Israel." 

392. Hence, Saul reigned for two years; free from the subjection of the Philistines. 
2911c AM, 3621 JP, 1093 BC 

393. The Philistines attacked Israel and took them captive. Saul shook off their yoke and 
recovered his kingdom again from their hands. ISa 14:47 War with the Philistines continued 
many years during Saul's reign. Since the war began eight years before David was born, before 
it ended Samuel prophesied of David succeeding the throne after Saul. The Lord hath sought 
him a man according to his own heart, and God hath commanded him to be ruler over his 
people, ISa 13:14 The Philistines took from them all their smiths so they would have no 
weapons to fight with or no one to make them. Hence, when the day of battle came only Saul 



and his son Jonathan had weapons. ISa 13:19-22 
2919c AM, 3629 JP, 1085 BC 

394. David was born to Jesse the Ephrathite in his old age.lSa 17:12 David was the youngest of 
eight sons born to Jesse. Bethlehem was called the City of David ISa 20:6 Lu 2:4 30 years 
before he succeeded Saul in the kingdom. 2Sa 5:4 ISa 16:1 

2941c AM, 3651 JP, 1063 BC 

395. God had rejected Saul and his family from the kingdom. After mourning a long time about 
this, Samuel was sent by God to Bethlehem to anoint David as king. This occurred 40 years 
before the rebellion of Absalom. ISa 16:1 2Sa 15:7 David was a handsome looking lad who was 
called away from shepherding his father's sheep. ISa 16:12 Because David was preferred before 
his older brothers and being anointed in their presence,lSa 16:13 they were envious of him.lSa 
17:28 David's brothers were as envious of him as Joseph's brother's were of him. He was also 
made king over Judah at the same age that Joseph was made ruler over Egypt. Ge 41:46 2Sa 5:4 
From the day of his anointing, the Spirit of God came upon him giving him his courage and 
wisdom. ISa 18:5,13 2Sa 5:2 As a result of this, while Saul lived, he was made general over all 
Israel and became a great warrior to fight the Lord's battles. ISa 25:28 He became known as a 
prophet and the sweet Singer of Israel who by his divine Psalms would teach and instruct the 
people of God. Ac 2:30 2Sa 23: 1,2 

396. Mephibosheth (or Meribbaal) ICh 8:34 9:40 the son of Jonathan was born five years before 
the death of his father 2Sa 4:4 

2944c AM, 3654 JP, 1060 BC 

397. David feared that he might at last fall into Saul's hands, so he fled to king Achish in Gath 
taking 600 men with him. ISa 21:10 Achish gave him the town of Ziklag to dwell in and he 
lived there for one year and four months in the land of the Philistines. 

2948a AM, 3657 JP, 1057 BC 

398. From there he attacked and killed all the Geshurites, Gezrites and the Amalekites, leaving 
no one alive to carry news of the slaughter to king Achish. ISa 27:1-12 

2948c AM, 3658 JP, 1056 BC 

399. While David was at Ziklag, many who were relatives of Saul came to stay with him. Also 
many valiant men of the tribe of Benjamin, the tribe of Gad and various good soldiers came over 
Jordan to him in the first month when it overflowed all its banks. They were accompanied by 
many other captains and commanders of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah. ICh 12:1,15,18 

2949c AM, 3659 JP, 1055 BC 



400. King Achish planned to invade the Israelites with his Philistine army. He took David along 
with him.lSa 28:1,2 While David was on the march with his 600 men, he gathered a number of 
others from the tribe of Manasseh who joined him.lCh 12:19 The Philistines were then 
encamped at Shunem and the Israelites were in Gilboa. ISa 28:4 

401. When Saul saw the army of the Philistines, he became afraid and sought counsel from the 
Lord. Receiving no answer by a dream, or by Urim, or by his prophets, he went to Endor by 
night to consult with a witch. When she conjured up a vision of Samuel, Saul received the 
dreadful message, God shall deliver Israel, together with thyself, into the hands of the 
Philistines; and tomorrow, thou and thy children shall be with me ISa 28:5,6,19 ICh 10:13,14 

402. While David was away on his march, the Amalekites took Ziklag, plundered it and burnt it. 
They carried away David's two wives Ahinoam of Jezreel and Abigail, the widow of Nabal, 
along with the rest of the wives and children of his men.lSa 30:1-31 

403. When Saul returned the same night from the witch, the Israelites moved to the fountain of 
Jezreel and the Philistines went to Aphek. The princes of the Philistines became jealous of 
David so he and his men left their army early the next morning and returned to Ziklag. The 
Philistines in the interim marched up to Jezreel to fight with the Israelites. ISa 29:1,3,10,11 It 
seems that Saul and his sons were not slain the next day after his communication with the 
apparition of Samuel (since all that day David was with the army of the Philistines) but Saul's 
death occurred some while after David's departure from them. 

404. When David was returning to Ziklag, there came to him seven captains of the Manassites. 
ICh 12:20,21 They had arrived three days later, and found the town plundered and consumed 
with fire. The last 200 of his company were tired of marching and rested at the brook Besor. 
With the other 400 David followed after the Amalekites, overtook them. The battle lasted from 
the twilight of the first day to the evening of the next. They recovered all that was lost and 
returned home with joy.lSa 30:1-31 

405. The host of Israel were soundly trounced. The three sons of Saul, Jonathan, Abinadab and 
Melchishua were also killed. Saul and his armourbearer fell on their own swords. The following 
day the Philistines took off the head of Saul and hung up his armour in the temple of their idol 
Ashtaroth. His body and the bodies of his three sons were also left to hang on the walls of 
Bethshemesh. However, the men of Jabeshgilead remembered the deed of valour which Saul 
had done for them at the beginning of his reign. They stole away their bodies from there and 
burnt them. They buried their bones under an oak at Jabesh and fasted for them for seven days. 
ISa 31:1-13 ICh 10:1-14 

406. Mephibosheth, was the son of Jonathan who was now dead. When his nurse heard the news 
of his death she ran away with Mephibosheth. Because she was very afraid and in a great haste, 
he fell out of her arms and became lame in his feet ever since. 2Sa 4:4 

407. When David returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites, three days later he heard of the 
defeat of the army of the Israelites. A boy of the Amalekites who was in the fight told him and 
brought Saul's crown and bracelet which he had removed from Saul's body. 2Sa 1:1-16 From 
this news, though quickly brought to David, it is inferred that the defeat in Gilboa happened a 
number of days after David left the Philistine army. This was not unusual that the battle was so 



delayed. Much later the Syrians camped against the Israelites at the same place at Aphek and 
waited seven days before fighting with them. IKi 21:20,26,29 

408. David executed the Amalekite who claimed to have slain Saul. In a funeral song, he praised 
Saul, Jonathan and God's people 2Sa 1:13-27 Companies of the Israelites' army flocked daily to 
him. ICh 12:22 He asked counsel of God before he went up to Hebron with his men and their 
families. Here he was anointed king by the men of his own tribe at the age of 30. He reigned 
over Judah for 7 years and 6 months. 2Sa 2: 1-4,1 1 5:4,5 

409. Abner, the former captain of Saul's army, took Ishbosheth, Saul's son to Mahanaim and 
there he made him king over the rest of Israel. Ishbostheth was 40 years old and reigned two 
years over Israel 2Sa 2:8-10 He had two years of peace with the house of David, just as his 
father's two year reign ISa 13:1 referred to two years of peace with the Philistines. See note on 
2909c A.M. 

410. David sent messengers to the men of Jabeshgilead and thanked them for the kindness 
which they had showed to King Saul. He informed them that he was now king over Judah. 2Sa 
2:5-7 To strengthen himself, he made an alliance with Talmai, king of Geshur and secured it by 
marrying his daughter, Maacah. She bore him Absalom and Thamar. 2Sa 3:3 13:1 

2951c AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC 

41 1. After the two years of peace with Ishbosheth, there was a long war between his people and 
the people of David. Joab the son of Zeruiah, David's sister's son, headed up David's side and 
Abner the other side. Many battles and skirmishes happened. David's side grew stronger and 
stronger and Ishbosheth's side became weaker. 2Sa 2:26-3:1 

2952a AM, 3661 JP, 1053 BC 

412. The eighth Jubilee. 
2956d AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC 

413. When Abner was disgracefully used by Ishbosheth, he revolted and sided with David. He 
arranged with the chief men and heads of Israel to transfer the whole kingdom to David. ISa 
25:44 2Sa 3:6-21 

414. When David fled from Saul, ISa 19:12 his wife Michal was given by Saul in marriage to 
Phaltiel. David demanded that Ishbosheth send her back. ISa 25:44 2Sa 3:14,15 

415. When Abner came with 20 men to David, he was well received and given a feast. When he 
returned from David in peace, he treacherously slain by Joab. David made a great mourning and 
lamentation over him and he was buried at Hebron. 2Sa 3:17-39 

416. All Israel was troubled by the death of Abner. Baanah and Rechab, of the tribe of Benjamin 
murdered Ishbosheth when he was resting on his bed in the heat of the day. They brought his 
head to David and he had them executed. 2Sa 4:1-12 



417. The captains and elders of all the tribes came to Hebron and anointed David king over 
Israel for the third time. ICh 12:23-40 11:1-3 2Sa 5:1-3 

2957a AM, 3666 JP, 1048 BC 

418. David with all Israel marched to Jerusalem against the Jebusites. By Joab's valiant actions 
they captured the fort of Zion. Henceforth it was called the city of David, just as Bethlehem, his 
birthplace, was called. He made Jerusalem the capital of the kingdom and reigned over all Israel 
for 33 years. 2Sa 5:5-7,9 ICh 11:4-7 

2957c AM, 3667 JP, 1047 BC 

419. When the Philistines heard that David was made king over all Israel by every tribe, they led 
their army twice against him at the valley of Rephaim and were beaten both times. 2Sa 5:22-25 
ICh 14: 1- 17 It was here that David, in the time of harvest, desired a drink of water from the well 
at Bethlehem. To please him, three of the most valiant captains broke through the host of the 
enemy to get it. When they brought it to him, he would not drink it. 2Sa 23: 13 ICh 11:15 

2958b AM, 3668 JP, 1046 BC 

420. David built up the city of Zion and strengthened the fortifications. Joab repaired the rest of 
the city. 2Sa 5:9 ICh 11:8 

421. Hiram sent messengers to David and cedar wood and carpenters and masons. These built 
his house. 2Sa 5:11 ICh 14:1 

2959 AM, 3669 JP, 1045 BC 

422. The ark of the covenant which in the first sabbatical year was brought from Gilgal to 
Shiloh, was brought from Kirjathjearim in this sabbatical year. It was moved from Shiloh 70 
years earlier. From the house of Abinadab, 30,000 choice men from all Israel accompanied the 
move of the ark by David. He composed the 68th Psalm for the occasion as may be deduced 
from Ps 68:1. This verse appears to have been taken from a prayer which was appointed by 
Moses to be used and sung every time the ark was moved. Nu 10:35 The ark was carried first to 
the house of Obededom. After three months, it was moved into the city of David, or the fort of 
Zion. David himself rejoiced before it and sang Ps 132:8. Solomon his son, repeated this verse 
2Ch 6:41 in the next year of jubilee when he brought the ark into the Holy of Holies of the 
temple. 

vv Arise O Lord unto thy resting place, thou and the ark of thy strength" 

423. See also Ps 132:6,7. From the Hebrew: 

vv Behold we (i.e. the men of Bethlehem dwelling there) have heard of it at Ephratah (our own 
country) and found it in the fields of Jair, or the wood; (i.e. in the hill of Kirjathjearim, for that 



signifies a city, bordering upon woods)" 

424. From Ps 132:13,14 

vv The Lord hath chosen Zion, for an habitation for himself; saying, This is my rest for ever here 
will I dwell, for I have a delight therein." 

425. At Zion the ark is There to have rested, ICh 6:31 and was moved into the new tabernacle 
which David had prepared for it at Jerusalem. 2Sa 6:17 ICh 16:1 2Ch 1:4 

426. The tabernacle of the congregation built by Moses, with the brazen altar used for the daily 
sacrifices, remained at Gibeon, in the tribe of Judah until the temple of Solomon was built. It 
was no longer in Shiloh in the tribe of Ephraim. ICh 6:32,48,49 16:39,40 21:29 2Ch 1:3,5,6 IKi 
3:2,4 

427. The ark was moved from house of Joseph, of which the tribe of Ephraim was a part into the 
tribe of Judah. Hereafter Shiloh played no part in their worship. Ps 78:67,68 Jer 7:12,14 26:6 

2960d AM, 3670 JP, 1044 BC 

428. David now dwelt in his house of cedar which he had built and had peace on every side. He 
told Nathan the prophet, that he planned build an house. God replied that this was a work that 
should be done by a man of peace not war. His son Solomon would build the house not David. 
2Sa 7:1,2,11,13 ICh 17:1-27 22:8-10 24:3,6 2Ch 6:8,9 IKi 8:18,19 From now until the birth of 
Solomon was spent in wars. David subdued the Philistines, the Edomites, the Amalekites, the 
Moabites, the Ammonites and the Syrians. 2Sa 8:3 ICh 18:1-17 The borders of Israel stretched 
not only from Shihor in Egypt to Hamath, ICh 13:5 but even from there to the river Euphrates to 
the borders of Syria Zobah. 2Sa 8:3 This was the extreme bound of all that land which had been 
formerly promised to the seed of Abraham. Ge 15:18 De 11:24 Jos 1:3,4 It was never possessed 
by any of them except only by David and his son Solomon. IKi 4:21,24 2Ch 9:28 

429. At this time Hadadezer, also called Hadarezer, the son of Rehob, was king of Syria Zoba. 
He united his forces from Damascus with Rezon the son of Eliadah's forces. They prepared to 
fight against David not far from the river Euphrates. However, after David routed Hadadezer's 
army, he slew 22,000 of the Syrians from Damascus and put garrisons in all that country. When 
Rezon saw that David prevailed, he rebelled from Hadadezer and made himself captain over the 
forces he had recently raised. He marched with them to Damascus and set up there a kingdom 
for himself and his posterity. He was a very bitter enemy to Solomon, as was his kingdom to the 
rest of the king's of Israel. 2Sa 8:5,6 IKi 1 1:23-25 Concerning this battle fought by David near 
to the river Euphrates, Nicolous Damascenus, in Josephus, (lib. 7. Antiq. c. 6. or 5.) mentions 
this battle of David's and calls this Rezon, Adad. He adds that his name was passed on to his 
successors to the tenth generation, as Ptolemy did to his in Egypt. 

2967a AM, 3676 JP, 1038 BC 

430. After Nahash king of the Ammonites died, Hanun his son reigned in his place. He badly 
abused the messengers that David had sent out of kindness to comfort him over the death of his 



father. 

431. Therefore, David sent Joab who defeated a huge army of the Ammonites and Syrian 
mercenaries. David and Joab returned victorious to Jerusalem. 2Sa 10:1-19 ICh 19:1-19 

2968b AM, 3678 JP, 1036 BC 

432. David crossed Jordan with his army and slaughtered a vast number of the Syrians who were 
led by Shophach, general of the army of Hadadezer, king of Syria Zoba. A time of peace 
between David and the petty kings of Syria followed so that they sent no more aid to the 
Ammonites, but served David. 2Sa 10:1-19 ICh 19:1-19 

2969c AM, 3679 JP, 1035 BC 

433. At the end of the year, when kings went to battle, Joab, with his army fought with the 
Ammonites and besieged Rabbah, the capital city of Ammon. In the mean time, David took his 
ease at Jerusalem, 2Sa 11:1 ICh 20:1 and there defiled himself in an adulterous relationship 
with Bathsheba the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Uriah was then in the army. Consequently, David 
arranged to have Uriah slain at the hand of the Ammonites. 2Sa 1 1 : 1-27 

2970b AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC 

434. When David's child by adultery, was born, David was convicted by Nathan the prophet of 
his sin and repented. David composed the psalm Ps 51:1-19, for a memorial of his sin with 
Bathsheba, but the child died.2Sa 12:1-31 

2971a AM, 3680 JP, 1034 BC 

435. Bathsheba who was now David's wife, bore David another son whose name was given to 
him by God called Solomon. This child proved to be a man of peace. ICh 22:9 His name means 
one beloved of God, the name of Jedidiah. 2Sa 12:25 

2972c AM, 3682 JP, 1032 BC 

436. Ammon, David's oldest son, raped his sister Tamar. 2Sa 13:1-39 
2974c AM, 3684 JP, 1030 BC 

437. Two years after he raped his sister, Ammon was slain by his brother Absalom at the time of 
sheep shearing, before grain harvest. 2Sa 13:23 This occurred at the end of the spring, shortly 
after the middle of the first month during the second mowing of the grass. Codomanus notes this 
from Am 7:1 Jos 3:15 4:9 5:10-12. 

438. After Absalom killed Ammon, he fled to Geshur in Syria. He continued 3 years with king 
Talmai his grandfather on his mother's side. 2Sa 13:37,38 15:8 



2977c AM, 3687 JP, 1027 BC 

439. After 3 years of exile, Absalom returned to Jerusalem. His father was pacified towards him 
by the speech of the woman of Tekoa, who was employed by Joab. 2Sa 13:38 14:1-23 

2979 AM, 3689 JP, 1025 BC 

440. Absalom set Joab's barley on fire just before harvest time that year (for the following year 
was a sabbatical year, when there was no harvest in Judah). By this means he was admitted to 
his father's presence, whom he had not seen in the two years since his return from exile. 2Sa 
14:28,30,33 

2980 AM, 3690 JP, 1024 BC 

441. This sabbatical year came between the burning of Joab's corn field, and the rebellion of 
Absalom against his father. In his rebellion, Absalom obtained chariots, horses and a band of 
ruffians around him, and insinuated himself into the favour of the people. He stole away their 
hearts from his father David. 2Sa 15:1-6 

2981c AM, 3691 JP, 1023 BC 

442. 40 years after the anointing of David by Samuel, Absalom followed the advise of his chief 
counsellor Ahithophel and took possession of his father's kingdom. This happened between the 
Passover and the Feast of Pentecost. Codomanus assumes this to be the season from Barzillai 
having provided David (when he fled) with new fruits and roasted grain. 2Sa 17:28 

443. Against the practices of Absalom and Ahithophel, David composed the 3rd and 55th 
Psalms. Also Shimei, of the tribe of Benjamin, railed against David, as he fled. 2Sa 16:5 

444. When Ahithophel saw that his counsel was not followed by Absalom, he went and hanged 
himself. 2Sa 17:23 

445. In the battle with David, Absalom lost 20,000 men and fled. A bough of a thick oak caught 
hold of his long hair so he hung there until Joab came and thrust him through with darts, killing 
him. 2Sa 18:9-14 

446. After this victory, David was brought home again by the men of Judah and one half of the 
people of Israel. The Israelites rebelled, because they had not participated in that work so a new 
rebellion grew among them. This rebellion was soon over when the head of Sheba the son of 
Gera, was thrown over the walls to Joab, by the people of Abel. 2Sa 20: 1-22 

2983c AM, 3693 JP, 1021 BC 

447. The harvest of this year failed and there was a famine, which afflicted the land for three 
years. This famine was sent because the blood of the Gibeonites was shed by Saul and his 
family. 2Sa 21:1,2 



2986c AM, 3696 JP, 1018 BC 

448. The famine still continued so the Gibeonites hung two of Saul's sons and five of his 
grandchildren in the beginning of barley harvest. Rizpah, Saul's concubine, watched their bodies 
and kept them from being devoured by ravenous birds or beasts, until water dropped from 
heaven upon them.2Sa 21:8-10 

449. David took the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son and moved them from Jabeshgilead 
along with the bones of the seven that were hanged. They were buried a Zelah in the sepulchre 
of Kish the father of Saul. 2Sa 21:12-14 

450. Many battles were fought with the Philistines and their giants. In one battle, David who 
was now old, fainted in the fight and would have been slain by the giant, Ishbibenob and barely 
escaped. This was the last fight that David took part in.2Sa 21:16-22 ICh 20:4-8 

2987d AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC 

451. David desired to have a census taken; whether from Satan or his pride, God's wrath was 
kindled against the Israelites. Therefore of all the tribes, (except the tribes of Levi and 
Benjamin), ICh 21:6 27:24 the men older than 20 years were counted. ICh 27:23. This census 
took 9 months and 20 days. 2Sa 24:8 God sent the prophet Gad to David and gave him the 
choice of one of three punishments. He was to chose famine, sword or pestilence. 2Sa 2:48 The 
famine was to last 3 years, that is in addition to the previous famine ICh 21:12 or of 7 years, as 
from 2Sa 24:13. This included the 3 years of the previous famine 2Sa 21:1 and this present 
sabbatical year in which no sowing would take place to compensate for the losses of the 
previous years, for a fourth year of dearth. Three years of famine for the slaughter of the 
Gibeonites were already past and after this there was a poor harvest for lack of seed. This 
harvest would not be able to supply the needs of the next two years which the intervening 
sabbatical year would require. So the famine would still continue in the land, especially among 
the poor. Now to these past years of famine, God proposed to David three more years of famine, 
to choose, if he would. The reason for reconciling these two different passages, has led me in 
these texts ICh 21:12 2Sa 24:13, to refer this history of David's numbering the people to this 
Sabbatical year. 

452. Now of the three choices, David chose the plague. 70,000 men died in one day. When the 
angel was about to destroy Jerusalem, God in his mercy bade him withhold his hand. He 
commanded David to offer whole burnt offerings and peace offerings in the threshing floor of 
Araunah or Oman the Jebusite. 2Sa 24:1-25 ICh 21:1-30 

2988a AM, 3697 JP, 1017 BC 

453. David foresaw that the house of God would be built in the threshing floor of Araunah. ICh 
22:1 2Ch 3:1 He began to prepare the materials necessary for so great a work. He exhorted his 
son Solomon and all the heads of Israel to carry the project through to a successful completion. 
ICh 22:1-19 

2988c AM, 3698 JP, 1016 BC 



454. He took the number of the Levites, first from 30 and then from 20 years old and upwards. 
He divided them into many ranks and appointed to every one of them their offices. He 
established a set form both for ecclesiastical and civil government in the 40th year of his reign. 
ICh 23:1-27:34 That is the beginning of the year, a year and an half before his death. 

455. Rehoboam was born to Solomon by Naaman, an Ammonite woman. He was 41 years old 
when he began to reign. IKi 14:21 ICh 12:13 For though Solomon called himself a little child, 
IKi 3:7 and David his father said, he was a child, young and tender, ICh 22:5 29:1 yet in 
another place, he calls him a man of wisdom. IKi 2:9 This was even before God granted him 
extraordinary knowledge and wisdom. These three things, tender years, a son born and perfect 
wisdom were not unique to Solomon at 18. For the same were attributed to king Josiah when he 
was only 16, 2Ch 34:1-3 2Ch 36:2,5 for Jehoiakim was born when Josiah was only 14 years old 
and Jehoahaz was born when Josiah was 16. 

2989b AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC 

456. David was now seventy years old. Broken with continual cares and wars, he was so weak 
and feeble that wearing extra cloths would hardly keep him warm. So Abishag, a young 
Shunammite maiden was sent for, to keep him warm. 

2989c AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC 

457. When Adonijah saw his father's decline, he took counsel and advise from Joab and 
Abiathar the high priest and made himself king. When Bathsheba and Nathan told David of this, 
he ordered his son Solomon to be anointed king in Gihon by Zadok the priest, Nathan the 
prophet and Benaiah, the son of Jehoiada. As soon as Adonijah heard this, he fled to the 
sanctuary and lay hold on the horns of the altar. He was pardoned by the grace and favour of 
Solomon and set at liberty. IKi 1:1-53 

458. David assembled all the governors, captains and commanders of Israel with his sons and 
servants. He exhorted them all to the fear and worship of God and especially Solomon his son. 
He ordered them to proceed with the building of the temple. He gave them the pattern of the 
temple and consigned into Solomon's hands the gold and silver by weight for making every 
vessel and implement to be used in the temple. ICh 28:1-21 After this, by David's example and 
his exhortation, every man was moved to give gold, silver, brass, iron and stones all in great 
abundance towards the building of God's house. They gave thanks to God. The next day, they 
offered a 1000 young bullocks, 1000 rams and 1000 lambs, with the meat offerings. Solomon 
was anointed as king the second time and Zadok confirmed as the high priest. ICh 29:1-23 

2990a AM, 3699 JP, 1015 BC 

459. After David gave instructions to his son Solomon, he died. IKi 2:1-10. He had reigned in 
Hebron for 7 years 6 months and 33 years in Jerusalem over all Israel. 2Sa 5:5 Concerning the 
forty years which the scripture attributes to his reign, we must take for the term which he 
reigned before he made Solomon king in his place and after that he lived for 6 more months. So 
that the years of Solomon's reign as mentioned in the scriptures, are to be reckoned from the first 



month, a full half year, before David's death. 
2990b AM, 3700 JP, 1014 BC 

460. Adonijah used Bathsheba to ask Solomon to give him Abishag the Shunammite for a wife. 
Therefore, as one still aspiring to be king Solomon had him executed. Abiathar of the family of 
Eli, was put out of the high priesthood and Zadok, a descendent of Phinehas replaced him. This 
was foretold by God in ISa 2:33,35. So the high priesthood reverted from the family of Ithamar 
to the family of Eleazar and there continued. Joab fled to the tabernacle in fear and lay hold on 
the horns of the altar. He was executed by Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, who was made captain 
of the host in his place by the king. Shimei, who had before railed upon David, was confined 
only to his house, yet with this condition, that if at any time he passed over the brook Kidron, he 
would be executed. IKi 2:1-46 

461 . When Hadad the Edomite heard that Joab was dead, he returned out of Egypt to his 
country. When Solomon began to follow after vanities, God used him as an enemy against 
Solomon. IKi 11:14,21 

2991a AM, 3700 JP, 1014 BC 

462. Pharaoh king of Egypt, gave his daughter in marriage to Solomon. He gave her the city of 
Gezer located in the tribe of Ephraim. Jos 21:21 Pharaoh had taken it from the Canaanites and 
killed all its inhabitants. IKi 9:16 Solomon brought her into Zion, the palace of David. 2Ki 3:1,2 
2Ch8:ll 

2991c AM, 3701 JP, 1013 BC 

463. Solomon offered 1000 whole burnt offerings at Gibeon where the tabernacle was situated. 
God appeared to him in his sleep and asked him to choose anything he wanted. Solomon chose 
wisdom to be given him. Therefore, God gave him wisdom from above as well as all other 
blessings over and above this. The first test of his wisdom was the deciding of the controversy 
between the two women about the child. This gave him a reputation and the respect from the 
people. IKi 3:1-28 

2992a AM, 3701 JP, 1013 BC 

464. When Solomon was visited by messengers sent from Hiram, king of Tyre, they wanted to 
help him with timber for the building of the temple. When Solomon met Hiram's terms, Hiram 
co-operated in the venture. Solomon supplied the workmen, over whom he set pay masters and 
other officers to oversee the work. IKi 5:1-18 

Previous Next Table of Contents 



The Fifth Age of the World 

2992c AM, 3702 JP, 1012 BC 

465. The foundation of the temple was laid in the 480th year after Israel's exodus from Egypt. 
This was in king Solomon's 4th year of reign on the second day of the second month (called Zif, 
Monday May 21st). IKi 6:1,37 2Ch 3:2 

2993b AM, 3703 JP, 1011 BC 

466. Three years after he was commanded not to cross the brook Kidron, Shimei returned from 
Gath to bring back two run-away servants. Solomon commanded that he be executed. IKi 2:39- 
46 

3000a AM, 3709 JP, 1005 BC 

467. In the 1 1th year of Solomon's reign, in the eighth month, (called Bui) the temple and its 
furnishings was finished. It took 7 years 6 months to build. IKi 6:38 The dedication of the 
temple was postponed till the next year because it was a Jubilee year. 

3001a AM, 3710 JP, 1004 BC 

468. This was the ninth Jubilee which opened the fourth millennium of the world. King 
Solomon celebrated the dedication of the temple with great pomp and splendour. All Israel was 
assembled together in the 7th month, called Ethanim. The ark was brought from Zion into the 
Holy of Holies. The tabernacle and holy vessels from Gibeon went into the temple treasury. God 
gave a visible and wonderful token of his presence. Solomon was standing on a scaffold made of 
brass, kneeling down he uttered a set prayer to God. After this he blessed the people. He then 
offered 22,000 oxen and 120,000 sheep. They celebrated the feast of the dedication of the altar 
for 7 days and the feast of tabernacles another 7 seven days. On the 15th day the celebrations 
were completed on the 23rd day of the 7th month when the people were dismissed to their 
homes. IKi 8:1,2,65,66 2Ch 5:3-5 6:1 8:1-11 

469. On the eighth day of the seventh month, that is (Friday, October 30th.) it was the first of the 
seven days of the dedication. According to Levitical law the feast of atonement was held on the 
tenth day, (Saturday, November 1st.) Lev 25:9 At the sound of the trumpet the jubilee was 
proclaimed. 

470. The feast of tabernacles was held on the 15th day. (Friday, November 6th.) The last day of 
this feast was always very solemnly kept. This occurred on the 22nd. (Friday, November 13th.) 
2Ch 7:9 Le 23:36 Joh 7:37 The following day, (Saturday, November 14th.) after the sabbath the 
people went home. 

3012c AM, 3722 JP, 992 BC 



471. In the 13th year after the temple was built, Solomon finished building his own house. He 
spent 20 years on both of them: 7 years 5 months on the temple and 13 years on his own house. 
IKi 7:1 9:10 2Ch 8:1 

472. As a reward for Hiram's good will in helping construct these houses, Solomon offered to 
Hiram king of Tyre 20 cities of Galilee, or Cabul which were located within the tribe of Asher. 
Solomon purchased these cities himself. When Hiram refused to take them, Solomon 
reconstructed them all himself, planting colonies of the Israelites in them. IKi 9:10 2Ch 8:1,2 

473. When Solomon had finished both houses and the wall of Jerusalem, he moved his wife, the 
daughter of Pharaoh, out of the city of David, into a house which he had built for her. IKi 3:1 
7:8 2Ch 8:11 He also built Gezer, which Pharaoh his father-in-law took from the Canaanites and 
gave to Solomon. IKi 9:15-17 Gezer was located within the tribe of Ephraim. 

3026c AM, 3736 JP, 978 BC 

474. Shishak, also called Sefonchis (according to Egyptian Chronology) began to reign. 
Jeroboam the son of Nebat fled to him and continued with him till after Solomon died. IKi 
11:40 12:2 

3029c AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC 

475. Solomon forsook his lusts and vanities to which he was addicted in his later days. He 
testified of his deep repentance in his book called The Preacher (Ecclesiastes) and made his 
peace with God. 2Ch 11:17 Solomon died when he had reigned 40 years. IKi 11:42 2Ch 9:30 

476. Rehoboam, Solomon's son, was made king by all Israel in Sichem. By his harsh approach 
to his rule he alienated the hearts of ten tribes from him. These tribes sent for Jeroboam the son 
of Nebat, in Egypt to be their king. Under his leadership, they rebelled from the house of David. 
They killed Adoram, whom Rehoboam had sent to them, and abandoned the true worship of 
God. IKi 12:1-33 In memorial of this sad disaster, the Jews kept a solemn yearly fast on the 
23rd of the third month, called Sivan. 

477. From this sad division made in that kingdom, Rehoboam reigned over Judah and Benjamin 
17 years. IKi 14:21 2Ch 12:1,2 and Jeroboam over Israel i.e. over the other ten tribes, for 22 
years. IKi 14:20 

478. Rehoboam returned to Jerusalem and conscripted 80,100 men to fight against the ten tribes. 
Through the prophet Shemaiah, he was admonished from God to abandon this plan. IKi 12:1-33 
Continual war took place between the kings for the rest of their days. IKi 14:30 

479. In the beginning of his reign, Jeroboam repaired Shechem where he was chosen king by the 
people. This place was destroyed by king Abimelech, 258 years earlier. Jeroboam lived there 
until he went over Jordan, and built Penuel. IKi 12:25 Finally, he built Tirzah and made that the 
capital of his kingdom. IKi 14: 17 He feared that his new subjects would revolt against him if 
they continued to worship at Jerusalem. So he devised a new religion. He set up two golden 
calves, the one at Bethel and the other at Dan, for the people to worship. IKi 12:25-31 



3030a AM, 3739 JP, 975 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK 

480. NK - On the 15th day of the 8th month, (Monday, December 6th.) Jeroboam held a feast of 
his own creation similar to the feast of tabernacles among the Jews. On an idolatrous altar which 
he had built at Bethel, he offered sacrifices to his calf. IKi 12:32,33 At that time, God sent an 
unnamed prophet from Judah who foretold what judgment God would execute by Josiah on the 
altar and the priests that served it. This prophecy was confirmed by signs which appeared on that 
altar and the king himself. IKi 13:1-34 2Ki 23:15-20 From the beginning of this idolatrous 
worship and public demonstration of God's judgment there, we are to reckon the 390 years of 
the iniquity of Israel as spoken of in Eze 4:5 

481. This prophet was deceived by another prophet of Bethel, who lied about a message from 
God. Contrary to the express commandment of God he ate meat at Bethel. Therefore, in his 
return homeward, he was met by a lion which killed him. When the news came to the prophet 
which had deceived him, he took the body and gave it an honourable burial. He assured his sons 
that what had been foretold by that other prophet, would undoubtedly come to pass. IKi 1:3 2Ki 
23:17,18 

3030b AM, 3740 JP, 974 BC, 1 SK, 1 NK 

482. SK - The priests, Levities and other Israelites who feared God did not follow Jeroboam but 
worshipped with Rehoboam in Jerusalem. This helped maintain the kingdom of Judah for three 
years. This was the time they walked in the ways of David and Solomon. 2Ch 11:17 

483. NK - Jeroboam continued in his revolt and excluded the priests that were of the lineage of 
Aaron the Levites from his worship. He made priests for the high places from men of the 
common people. IKi 13:33,34 2Ch 11:14,15 13:9 Hence many of the priests and Levites 
abandoned their possessions in those tribes and settled in Judah. They were followed there by 
those of every tribe who wanted to worship the true God. They came to Jerusalem to worship 
and sacrifice to the God of their forefathers. 2Ch 11:13,14,16. 

3032d AM, 3742 JP, 972 BC, 3 SK, 3 NK 

484. SK - Rehoboam, now settled in his kingdom, forsook the law of the Lord and all Israel and 
Judah with him.2Ch 12:1 The Jews, who should have stirred up their Israelite brothers to 
repentance, provoked the Lord with their own sins. They behaved worse than their forefathers. 
They made high places, images and groves, for themselves on every high hill and under every 
tree. They did all the wicked things the heathen did in their barbarous worship including those 
nations whom God had cast out before them. IKi 14:22-24 

3033c AM, 3743 JP, 971 BC, 5 SK, 5 NK 

485. SK - In Rehoboam's 5th year, Shishak, king of Egypt, invited perhaps by Jeroboam, (who 
had formerly lived with him, noted in the year, 3026 AM) led an army of 120 chariots, 60,000 
horses, with innumerable footmen from Egypt. The men were from the Lubims, Sukkiims, and 
Cushites who entered the land of Judah. They had already captured all the rest of their fortified 
cites and finally came to Jerusalem. The king and his princes were brought to repentance by the 



preaching of Shemaiah the prophet. The king received a gracious promise of their deliverance at 
a high cost. They were to release to the Egyptians all the treasure of the temple and of the king's 
house. All the shields of gold which Solomon had made which Rehoboam remade using brass. 
IKi 14:26,27 2Ch 12:2-12 

3046 AM, 3756 JP, 958 BC, 1 SK, 18 NK 

486. SK - Abijah the son of Rehoboam, succeeded his father who died in the beginning of the 
18th year of Jeroboam's. He reigned 3 years. IKi 15:1,2 2Ch 13:1,2 

3047c AM, 3757 JP, 957 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK 

487. SK - Abijah and his army of 400,000 men, fought with Jeroboam and his army of 800,000 
men. Because Abijah trusted in God, he obtained victory against Jeroboam. He killed 500,000 of 
Jeroboam's soldiers. This was the highest casualty rate of any battle recorded in the Bible. 
Abijah captured Bethel where one of the calves was set up and Jeshanah and Ephrain, with all 
its towns. 2Ch 13:1-22 

3049c AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 1 SK, 21 NK 

488. SK - After Abijam's death, at the very end of the 20th year of Jeroboam's reign, Asa his son 
succeeded him and reigned 41 years. IKi 15:8-10 

3050a AM, 3759 JP, 955 BC, 2 SK, 22 NK 

489. This was the 10th Jubilee. 

3050d AM, 3760 JP, 954 BC, 2 SK, 1 NK 

490. NK - Nadab in the 2nd year of Asa, succeeded his dead father Jeroboam in his kingdom 
and reigned only 2 years. IKi 15:25 

305 Id AM, 3761 JP, 953 BC, 3 SK, 1,2 NK 

491. NK - At the siege of Gibbethon of the Philistines, Nadab was slain by Baasha, a man from 
the tribe of Issachar in the third year of the reign of Asa. In the same year that Baasha made 
himself king over Israel, he utterly destroyed all the family of Jeroboam. He reigned for 24 
years. IKi 15:27-29,33 

3053c AM, 3763 JP, 951 BC, 5 SK, 3 NK 

492. SK - God now gave 10 consecutive years of peace to the land, 2Ch 14:1,6 even to the 15th 
year of king Asa's reign, or to the 35th year from the rebellion of the northern kingdom. 2Ch 
15:10,19 In that year, this godly king Asa put away all public idolatry, reformed his kingdom 
and fortified the cities of Judah against the invasion of enemies. 2Ch 14:6 



3055d AM, 3765 JP, 949 BC, 7 SK, 5 NK 

493. Jehoshaphat was born to Asa by his mother Azubah. Later he at the age of 35 succeeded 
Asa in his kingdom. IKi 22:42 2Ch 20:31 

3063c AM, 3773 JP, 941 BC, 15 SK, 13 NK 

494. In the beginning of Asa's reign, Zerah the Ethiopian mobilised an innumerable army to 
invade the land of Judah. This force had 1,000,000 men from the Cushites, who as it seemed 
came from Arabia Petrea and the desert and the Lubims, besides those who fought aloft from the 
chariots. Asa met this army with 300,000 men from the tribe of Judah and 280,000 from the 
tribe of Benjamin. He called on the name of the Lord and routed and slew that vast army and 
took much spoil from them. After this he was encouraged by Azariah the prophet. He assembled 
all his subjects and also many of the Israelites which were loyal to him. They met at Jerusalem 
in the third month in which the feast of Pentecost fell. They sacrificed to God from the spoil 
which they had taken, 700 oxen and 7000 cattle and solemnly renewed their covenant with God. 
Asa continued reformation of his kingdom and removed Maachah his grandmother, a great 
patroness of idolatry, from the honour of queen mother. He brought into the temple the things 
which he and his father had consecrated to God. 2Ch 14:8,9 15:1,10,11,13,16 16:8 

3064c AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK 

495. NK - Baasha saw Asa actively restoring religion to Judah and that many of his subjects 
defected to Asa so that they might be partakers in God's covenant blessings. 2Ch 15:9 He never 
ceased to make war upon Asa all his days. IKi 15:16,32 In the 36th year since the division of 
the kingdom, in Asa's 16th year, Baasha started to build Ramah to prevent more of his subjects 
from defecting to Asa. 2Ch 16:1 

3064d AM, 3774 JP, 940 BC, 16 SK, 14 NK 

496. SK - Asa hired Benhadad king of Syria to come and hinder the building of Ramah which he 
did. Using the stones and timber from the city of Ramah, Asa built Geba and Mizpah. When 
Hanan the prophet reproved him, for getting help from the king of Syria, he cast him into prison, 
and at the same time, vexed some of his people. 2Ch 16:1-14 

497. NK - At the same time Benhadad king of Syria, marched against the cities of Israel. He 
destroyed Ijon in the tribe of Asher and Dan in Dan, Abelbethmaachah in the tribe of Manasseh 
and all the borders of Chinnereth, with all the land of Naphtali. This forced Baasha to stop 
building Ramah and retire to Tirzah. IKi 15:20,21 2Ch 16:4,5 Isa 9:1 Now this Benhadad was 
son to Tabrimon, the son of Hezion, IKi 15: 18 or of Rezon the first king of Syria of Damascus 
from whom the name of Hadad was passed on to his posterity in the kingdom. This is noted by 
Nicolaus Damascenus as recorded by Josephus 1. 7. of his Antiquities, c. 6 ul. 5. where, Nicolaus 
states: 

vv The third of that name seeking to wipe away the blot of the overthrow, received in his 
grandfather's days, marched into Judah and destroyed Samaria," 



498. Josephus understands it to be the invasion made upon Samaria, by Benhadad, in the time of 
Ahab. See notes on 2960 AM and 3103 AM. 

3074d AM, 3784 JP, 930 BC, 26 SK, 24 NK 

499. NK - When Baasha died and was buried at Terza, his son Elah succeeded him. 
3075d AM, 3785 JP, 929 BC 

500. NK - In the 2nd year of Elah and the 27th of Asa, Zimri destroyed Elah and his entire 
family. He reigned in Tirzah for seven days. But the soldiers at Gibbethon, a town of the 
Philistines made Omri, the general of the army, king. He came to besiege Tirzah and Zimri set 
fire to the king's palace and destroyed it and himself. IKi 16:15-18 

501. The people of Israel split into two factions, one part followed Tibni, the son of Ginath, the 
other followed Omri. Omri's side prevailed and Omri became king. IKi 16:8,21,22 

3077 AM, 3787 JP, 927 BC, 29 SK, 3 NK 

502. NK - Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab the son of Omri, as it seems was born 42 years before 
her son Ahaziah reigned over Judah. IKi 8:26 2Ch 21:20 22:2 See Gill on "2Ch 22:2" 

3079d AM, 3789 JP, 925 BC, 31 SK, 5 NK 

503. NK - Omri began to reign in Tirzah over Israel in the 31st year of king Asa. IKi 16:23 
3080d AM, 3790 JP, 924 BC, 32 SK, 6 NK 

504. SK - Jehoram was born to Jehoshaphat 32 years, before his father took him as viceroy of 
his kingdom. 2Ki 8:17 2Ch 21:20 

505. NK - When Omri had now reigned 6 years in Tirzah, he then moved the capital of his 
kingdom from Tirzah to Samaria. He built Samaria in the hill of Samaria, a place which he had 
purchased from Shemer. IKi 16:23,24 

3086 AM, 3796 JP, 918 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK 

506. Omri died and was buried at Samaria. He was a poor father but Ahab the son who 
succeeded him was much worse. Ahab reigned 22 years. IKi 16:28,29 

3087 AM, 3797 JP, 917 BC, 39 SK, 2 NK 

507. SK - In the 39th year of his reign, Asa was diseased in his feet. He sought for help from the 
physicians and not from God. 2Ch 16:12 



3090c AM, 3800 JP, 914 BC, 1 SK, 5 NK 

508. SK - In the end of the 41st year of his reign, Asa died and was buried in a sepulchre which 
he had prepared in the city of David. The tomb was filled with sweet odours and spices. 2Ch 
16:13,14 He was a good father and an even better son succeeded him called Jehoshaphat. In the 
very latter end of the 4th year of Ahab's reign, he started to reign over Judah and ruled for 25 
years. IKi 22:41,42 2Ch 20:31 

3092c AM, 3802 JP, 912 BC, 3 SK, 7 NK 

509. SK - When Jehoshaphat was established in his kingdom, he began by removing the high 
places and the groves. In the 3rd year of his reign, he sent out the Levites and other chief men 
into all cities to instruct the people. God gave him peace. 2Ch 17:7-10 

3097 AM, 3807 JP, 907 BC, 8 SK, 12 NK 

510. SK - Athaliah the daughter of Ahab, king of Israel, married Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat 
king of Judah. This union resulted from the marriage alliance Jehoshaphat made with Ahab. 2Ch 
18:1 She had a son named Ahaziah, who at the age of 22 succeeded him in the kingdom. 2Ki 
8:18,26,27 2Ch 21:26 22:2 

3099a AM, 3808 JP, 906 BC, 9 SK, 13 NK 

51 1. SK - The eleventh Jubilee. 

3103c AM, 3813 JP, 901 BC, 14 SK, 18 NK 

512. NK - Benhadad, king of Assyria, assembled his army together and with the assistance of 32 
petty kings besieged Samaria. He was defeated by Ahab and fled. IKi 20:1-43 

3104d AM, 3814 JP, 900 BC, 15 SK, 19 NK 

513. NK - About a year later, Benhadad came up a second time as far a Aphek to fight with 
Israel. He was badly defeated and surrendered to Ahab. Ahab received him with all courtesy and 
honour and after a while let him go in peace. Ahab made a league of friendship with him. For 
this act, God pronounced judgment upon him by his prophet. IKi 20:1-43 However as a result of 
this league, there was 3 years of peace between the two nations. IKi 22:1 

3105 AM, 3815 JP, 899 BC, 16 SK, 20 NK 

514. NK - When Ahab could not get Naboth to sell him his vineyard, he was depressed. Jezebel 
his wife, using false witnesses had Naboth condemned to death and stoned. Ahab got possession 
of the vineyard. For this wicked deed, the prophet Elijah told him of the destruction which was 
to befall him, Jezebel and all his posterity. When Ahab trembled at this and by a timely 
repentance, he obtained a respite of this judgment. IKi 21:1-29 



3106d AM, 3816 JP, 898 BC, 17 SK, 21 NK 

515. SK - As Ahab had done, Jehoshaphat made Jehoram his son, viceroy of the kingdom. 
Jehoram the son of Ahab succeeded his brother Ahaziah IKi 1:18 as king over the Israelites in 
the 18th year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 2Ki 3: 1 He is said to have begun his reign, in the 
2nd year of Jehoram, the son of Jehoshaphat. 2Ki 1:17 

516. NK - Ahab in the 17th year of the reign of Jehoshaphat, made his son Ahaziah viceroy in 
the kingdom. IKi 22:51 

3107d AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC, 18 SK, 22,2 NK 

517. SK - Jehoshaphat visited Ahab at the very end of the third year of peace which Ahab had 
made with the Assyrians. He was invited by Ahab to go with him to the siege of Ramothgilead. 
After being entreated he went but barely escaped from there with his life. IKi 22:1-53 2Ch 18:1- 
34 When he returned home, the prophet Jehu, the son of Hanani reproved him for helping such a 
wicked king. 2Ch 19:1,2 

518. NK - After Ahab convinced Jehoshaphat to go with him, he went to besiege Ramothgilead. 
Before he went, he asked what the outcome of the war would be from the 400 false prophets and 
from Micaiah, the true prophet of God. They all told him he would do well but Micaiah foretold 
his defeat. Ahab disguised himself but was slain in the fight. He was buried in Samaria. IKi 
22:1-53 2Ch 18:1-34 

519. After he was dead, Moab revolted from the Israelites. 2Ki 1:1 3:5 They had been in 
subjection to them ever since king David's days. 2Sa 8:2 

3108a AM, 3817 JP, 897 BC 

520. SK - When Jehoshaphat had built a fleet, he send it to Ophir for gold. Ahaziah the wicked 
son of Ahab went into partnership with him on this venture. At first Jehoshaphat refused the 
joint venture IKi 22:49 but later agreed to it. For so doing, God destroyed the fleet and reproved 
him by his prophet Eliezer, the son of Dodavah. 2Ch 20:35-37 

3108b AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC 

521. NK - Ahaziah king of Israel was injured when he fell through a lattice of his dining room in 
Samaria. He asked Baalzebub, the god of the Ekronites, if he would recover. The prophet Elijah 
destroyed with fire from heaven 2 captains and their companies of 50 who were sent to capture 
and bring him to the king. At last, he went voluntarily with the third captain that came for him. 
He told the king plainly that he would die. 2Ki 1:1-18 The king did die. He reigned two years, 
partly with his father, partly by himself. IKi 22:51 

522. When Ahaziah was dead, his brother Jehoram, the son of Ahab succeeded him in the later 
end of the 18th year of Jehoshaphat and reigned 12 years. 2Ki 3:1 

3108c AM, 3818 JP, 896 BC, 19 SK, 1 NK 



523. Elijah was taken up into heaven in a fiery chariot. 2Ki 2:1-25 
3109c AM, 3819 JP, 895 BC, 20 SK, 2 NK 

524. When Edom was still under the control of Judah, the three kings from Israel, Judah and 
Edom united to subdue the rebellious Moabites. In this war Elisha the prophet, miraculously 
furnished the army with water and assured them of the victory over their enemies. Mesha king 
of the Moabites was besieged in Kirhareseth and tried unsuccessfully to break out with the small 
forces he had left. He captured the firstborn son who would have succeeded his father the king 
of Edom and is called king of the Edomites by the prophet Amos. Am 2: 1 He offered him for a 
whole burnt offering upon the wall of the city. 2Ki 3: 1-27 

3112c AM, 3822 JP, 892 BC, 23,1 SK, 5 NK 

525. SK - When Jehoshaphat was old, he desired to settle his estate. He gave the rest of his sons, 
many gifts and fortified cities in Judah. His oldest son Jehoram (whom he had formerly 
employed as his viceregent) was made consort with him in the kingdom. This was in the 5th 
year of Jehoram king of Israel and he reigned for 8 years. 2Ch 21:2,3,5,20 2Ki 8:16,17 

3115c AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC, 4 SK, 8 NK 

526. Jehoshaphat died and was buried in the city of David. IKi 2:50 2Ch 21:5 This good king's 
wicked son, Jehoram ruled alone for 4 years. When he was established in his kingdom, he slew 
all his brothers and many of the other princes in Judah. 2Ch 21:1-20 The Edomites revolted. 
They had been under the control of Judah since king David's time. 2Sa 8:14 Although they had 
been smitten by Jehoram, yet, according to the prophecy of Isaac, Ge 27:40 they shook off 
Judah's yoke for ever. Libnah, a city of the priests in the tribe of Judah, Jos 12:13 also revolted 
at this time. 2Ki 18:20-22 2Ch 21:8-10 

3116a AM, 3825 JP, 889 BC 

527. SK - Jehoram followed the counsel of his wicked wife Athaliah and set up in Judah and 
Jerusalem the idolatrous worship of Baal just as Ahab, his father-in-law had done. He forced his 
subjects to worship Baal and he was reproved by a letter written by the prophet Elijah who 
foretold what calamities and punishments would happen to him. 2Ch 21:11-15 These events 
occurred as predicted. 2Ch 21:16-20 

3116c AM, 3826 JP, 888 BC 

528. SK - First God stirred up against him the Philistines and Arabians. These attacked Judah 
and took away whatever was found in the king's house, together with his sons and wives. Since 
all his other sons were slain, he had only Jehoahaz left. 2Ch 21:1-20 He was also called Ahaziah 
and Azariah and succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ch 22:1,6 

3117c AM, 3827 JP, 887 BC, 6 SK, 10 NK 



529. SK - After this God struck Jehoram with an incurable disease in the bowels, which 
tormented him for 2 whole years. 2Ch 21:15,18,19 

3118dAM, 3828 JP, 886 BC, 7 SK, 11 NK 

530. SK - When Jehoram was afflicted with this sickness, he made his son, Ahaziah, his viceroy, 
in the 1 1th year of Jorum the son of Ahab. 2Ki 9:29 

3119c AM, 3829 JP, 885 BC, 8,1 SK, 12 NK 

531. When Jehoram's bowels fell out, he died a miserable death and was buried in the city of 
David, but without any pomp and not among the kings. 2Ch 25:19,20 After this Ahaziah his son 
succeeded him in the 12th year of Joram the son of Ahab and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. 
He followed in the steps of his wicked mother Athaliah and the house of Ahab. He set up and 
maintained the worship of Baal. 2Ki 8:25,27 2Ch 22:1-4 

532. Ahaziah had a son by Zibia of Beersheba, whose name was Joash or Jehoash. He was 
proclaimed king at the age of 7. 2Ki 1 1 :21 2Ch 24: 1 

3120b AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC 

533. NK - Jehoram king of Israel and Ahaziah king of Judah went out together with their armies 
to Ramothgilead against Hazael. He had recently succeeded Benhadad in the kingdom of Syria, 
as Elisha the prophet had foretold him. In that fight Jehoram was grievously wounded by the 
Syrians and he retired to Jezreel to be healed of his wounds. 2Ki 8: 1-29 Meanwhile a certain son 
of the prophets sent by Elisha came to Ramoth and anointed Jehu the son of Jehoshaphat the son 
the Nimshi, king over Israel. He told him the will of God for the wiping out of the house of 
Ahab. As soon as Jehu was proclaimed king by the captains and officers of the army, he 
marched to Jezreel. There he slew both Jehoram and Jezebel.2Ki 9:1-37 Jehu sent letters to 
Samaria which were responsible for the death of the seventy sons of Ahab as foretold by Elisha. 
He took with him Jehonadab, the son of Rechab and came to Samaria. There he destroyed all the 
family of Ahab with all the priests of Baal. Although he destroyed Baal worship, he still 
maintained the worship of Jeroboam's golden calves and the associated idolatry by the Israelites 
for all of his 28 year reign. 2Ki 10:28,29,39 

3120c AM, 3830 JP, 884 BC 

534. SK - Ahaziah returned from the battle at Ramothgilead against Hazael. Later he went to 
Jezreel to see Jehoram the king of Israel who was recovering from his wounds. When Jehu 
found many of his family attending him there and various princes of Judah, he slew them all. 
Then he searched for Ahaziah himself who had escaped and fled to Megiddo. When he caught 
up with him on the way to Gur which is in Ibleam, in the tribe of Manasseh, he killed him in his 
chariot. Ahaziah was carried from there by his servants and was buried with his fathers in the 
city of David. 2Ki 9:2 2Ch 22: 1-9 When Jehu was on his way back to Samaria, he met 42 men 
of Ahaziah's relatives heading to Jezreel. There they intended to greet the king's children but 
Jehu had them all killed. 2Ki 10:13,14 



535. When Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab, saw that her own son Ahaziah was dead, she killed 
all the royal family of the house of Judah and took control of the kingdom. Jehosheba, the 
daughter of king Joram, and wife to Jehoiada, the high priest, took the infant Joash who was the 
son of her brother Ahaziah. Joash and his nurse were hid for 6 years in the temple while 
Athaliah ruled. Thus she spared him from the slaughter of the rest of the royal family. 2Ki 11:1- 
3 2Ch 22:10-12 

3126c AM, 3836 JP, 878 BC, 1 SK, 7 NK 

536. Jehoiada the high priest, brought out Joash at the age of 7 and anointed him king. After he 
had Athaliah killed, he restored the worship of the true God, destroyed the house of Baal and 
commanded Baal's high priest Mattan to be killed before his altars. 2Ki 1 1:4,21 2Ch 23:4,21 
Joash began his reign in the 7th year of Jehu and reigned 40 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 12:1 2Ch 
24:1 

3140c AM, 3850 JP, 864 BC, 15 SK, 21 NK 

537. Amasiah the son of Joash and Jehoaddan, was born in Jerusalem because he was 25 years 
old when he began to reign. 2Ki 14:2 2Ch 25:1 

3147d AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC, 22 SK, 28 NK 

538. Joash commanded the priests to repair the temple of God using the poll tax that was 
gathered for that purpose. 2Ki 12:4-16 2Ch 24:4-14 

3148a AM, 3857 JP, 857 BC 

539. The twelfth Jubilee. 

3148c AM, 3858 JP, 856 BC, 23 SK, 1 NK 

540. In the 23rd year of his reign, Joash saw that the priests were quite slow in repairing the 
temple. Therefore he assigned the task to Jehoiada the chief priest and to others to complete that 
work. 2Ki 12:6-16 

541. NK - Jehoahaz succeeded his father Jehu as king over Israel in the 23rd year of Joash the 
son of Ahaziah. He reigned 17 years 2Ki 13:1 and Hazael king of Syria cruelly oppressed the 
Israelites for his entire reign. 2Ki 13:3-7,22 as foretold by Elisha. 2Ki 8:12 

3163c AM, 3873 JP, 841 BC 38 SK, 16 NK 

542. Joash the son of Jehoahaz, was made viceroy with his father in the latter end of the 37th 
year of Joash king of Judah. He reigned 16 years. 2Ki 13:10 

3164c AM, 3874 JP, 840 BC, 39 SK, 17,2 NK 



543. After Jehoiada died, his son Zechariah the priest was stoned to death for reproving the 
Israelites for backsliding into idolatry. This was done by the king's command in the court of 
God's house. 2Ch 24:17-22 

3165 AM, 3875 JP, 839 BC, 40,1 SK, 3 NK 

544. SK - The next year some small bands of Hazael, king of Syria attacked Judah and 
Jerusalem and killed all the chief of the people. They took away all their spoil to their king. 
When they were gone, Joash was left very sick. His servants conspired against him and killed 
him in his bed in revenge for Jehoiada's death at the beginning of the 40th year of his reign. 2Ch 
24:1,23-27 2Ki 12:17-21 His successor, Amasiah in the latter end of the 2nd year of Joash king 
of Israel, reigned 29 years. 2Ki 14:1,2 When he was established in his kingdom he killed the 
servants who murdered his father. However he spared their children according to the law of God 
as delivered by Moses. 2Ki 14:5,6 2Ch 25:3,4 

545. NK - When Jehoahaz the son of Jehu had reigned 17 years, he died and was buried in 
Samaria. 2Ki 13:1-9 Shortly after his father's funeral, Joash visited Elisha the prophet who was 
lying on his death bed. Tearfully he asked counsel of him concerning the state of the kingdom. 
Elisha foretold that he should have 3 victories over the Syrians. 2Ki 13:14-20 

3168c AM, 3878 JP, 836 BC, 4 SK, 6 NK 

546. NK - Jeroboam the second, seems to have been made viceroy of the kingdom by his father 
Joash. He went to war and in three battles overthrew Benhadad, who succeeded his father 
Hazael in the kingdom of Syria. He recovered from Benhadad the cities which Jehoahaz his 
father had lost. Hence we may gather, that Azariah king of Judah began his reign in the 27th 
year of this Jeroboam. 2Ki 13:25 15:1 

3178 AM, 3888 JP, 826 BC 14 SK, 16 NK 

547. SK - Uzziah was born to Amasiah by Jecholiah of Jerusalem. He was also called Azariah 
and was 16 years old when he succeeded his father in the kingdom. 2Ki 15:2 2Ch 26:2 

548. Amasiah became proud of his recent victory over the Edomites. In this fourteenth year of 
his reign, as Josephus, lib 9. Antiquit. ca. 10. states, he provoked Joash king of the Israelites to 
battle. In the battle at Bethshemesh he was defeated and taken prisoner. He was released when a 
payment of a large ransom including hostages was made. 2Ki 14:8-14 2Ch 25:17-24 

549. NK - When Joash defeated Amasiah, king of Judah he took him prisoner. Joash broke 
down 400 cubits of the wall of Jerusalem from the gate of Ephraim to the corner gate. When he 
had taken all the treasure from both the temple and the king's house, he returned to Samaria. 2Ki 
14:13,14 2Ch 25:23,24 

3179c AM, 3889 JP, 825 BC, 15 SK, 1 NK 

550. Joash died 15 years before the death of Amaziah. Jeroboam his son succeeded him and 
reigned in Samaria 41 years. 2Ki 14:23 



551. God used Jeroboam to deliver Israel. He recaptured Damascus and Hamath which rightly 
belonged to the tribe of Judah. 2Sa 8:6 2Ch 8:3 He restored the former borders Nu 13:21 from 
the entrance into Hamath to the sea of the plain. This fulfilled the prophecy of the Lord which 
was spoken by Jonah the prophet, the son of Amittai. 2Ki 14:25,27,28 

3194c AM, 3904 JP, 810 BC, 29 SK, 15 NK 

552. SK - When Amaziah discovered a conspiracy against him at Jerusalem, he fled to Lachish 
where he was murdered. From there he was carried to the city of David and buried. 2Ki 
14:19,20 2Ch 25:27,28 Uzziah, or Azariah succeeded him in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of 
Israel as reckoning from the time that he began to reign as co-regent with his father as noted in 
3168 A.M. He reigned 52 years in Jerusalem 2Ki 15:1,2 and under him the kingdom of Judah 
prospered as much as Israel did under Jeroboam the second. As long as he followed the advice 
of the prophet Zechariah, he applied his heart to religious matters. God prospered him and he 
subdued the Philistines and his neighbouring enemies. He became mighty in his kingdom. 2Ch 
26:2-16 

3197a AM, 3906 JP, 808 BC 4, SK, 19 NK 

553. SK - Now was the 13th Jubilee held under two most prosperous kings, under whom also 
lived various great prophets in either kingdom. In Judah, lived that evangelical prophet, Isaiah, 
the son of Amoz, Isa 1 : 1 and Joel, the son of Pethuel. He prophesied before Amos, as 
Codamanus observes because in Joe 1:20 he predicted a coming drought which Amos in Am 4:1- 
13 said had happened. Amos lived in Judah, among the herdsmen of Tekoa and was called to be 
a prophet to the kingdom of Israel two years before the earthquake which happened in the days 
of these two kings Uzziah and Jeroboam the second. Am 1:1 Zee 11:5 

554. NK - At the same time, Jonah the son of Amittai and Hosea the son of Beeri prophesied in 
Israel. 

555. Jonah was from Gathhepher, 2Ki 14:25 a town of the tribe of Zebulunjoh 7:52 in Galilee 
of the Gentiles. Isa 9:1 This is referred to by the Pharisees who spoke with Nicodemus. Joh 7:52 
"Search and know that out of Galilee, never arose any prophet." It seems that at the time the 
Syrians oppressed Israel, and all were vulnerable to their invasion, that they took great spoil, and 
no one was able to deliver them. He foretold that Joash his son Jeroboam, would deliver Israel 
out of their hands and avenge them of the wrong they had endured. 2Ki 14:25,26 Jonah was later 
sent to Nineveh, the capital city of Assyria. By his preaching he brought both the king and 
people to repentance Jon 3:1-10 Mt 12:41 

556. When Jeroboam was successfully ruling Israel, Hosea foretold the ruin and desolation of it. 
He also lived to see its ruin as he continued as a prophet to the time of Hezekiah. Ho 1:1 In the 
6th year of his reign came the desolation of Israel. 2Ki 18: 10 

557. Amos was a third prophet taken from Judah as he kept his flocks. He was sent to prophesy 
to the people of Israel. Am 1:1,7,14,15 He was accused by Amasai the priest at Bethel, before 
Jeroboam, who commanded him to return into Judah. Amos pronounced judgment against 



Amasai saying 

vv Thy wife, shall play the harlot in the city and thy sons, and thy daughters shall fall by the 
sword. Thy land shall by divided by line; and thou shalt die in a polluted land. (viz. of Assyria)" 

558. when Israel shall be carried away out of her own land. Am 7:10,12,13,17 
3207 AM, 3917 JP, 797 BC, 14 SK, 29 NK 

559. In Lydia, Ardysus of the clan of the Heraclidae, reigned 36 years (Euseb. Chron.) 
3210 AM, 3920 JP, 794 BC, 17 SK, 32 NK 

560. The kingdom of Macedonia, was set up by Caranus, a man of the clan of the Heraclidae. 
3213 AM, 3923 JP, 791 BC, 20 SK, 35 NK 

561. SK - There was an eclipse of the sun, of about 10 digits this year on the 24th day of June, 
during the feast of Pentecost. (12 digits indicates a total eclipse, 10 digits would be 10/12 of the 
sun's disk was covered.) Another eclipse occurred of almost 12 digits, 1 1 years later, on 
November 8th 3933 JP, during the Feast of Tabernacles. A third eclipse of over 1 1 digits 
happened the next year on May 5th, 3934 JP during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (3943 and 
3944 in original document) The prophesy of Amos, Am 8:8-10 is referenced as he states: 

vv the sun shall set at noonday and I will bring darkness upon the earth in a clear day. I will turn 
your festivals into mourning and all your solemn songs into lamentations." 

562. Up to this time, the early church fathers took this prophecy to refer to that darkness which 
came during the Feast of the Passover at the passion of our Saviour. In these three dark eclipses 
which came during each of these feasts, in which all the males were in Jerusalem before the 
Lord, that prophesy was thought to have been literally fulfilled. Among the Greeks, Thales the 
astronomer thought Amos was the first to predict eclipses of the sun. 

(June 24, 791 BC, JD=1432685.1171, middle of the eclipse in Jerusalem - 18.89 hours GMT 
(for Babylon - 19.13), maximum - 0.92 

Babylon - 0.63. Data taken from "Solar and Lunar Eclipses of the Ancient Near East from 3000 
B.C. to with Maps" by Manfred Kudlek and Erich Mickler, published in Neukirchen in 1971. 
Unable to confirm data using Canon of Lunar Eclipses", (-2002 - 2526), Jean Meeus, Herman 
Muche, 1979. Editor.) 

3220 AM, 3930 JP, 784 BC, 26 SK, 41 NK 

563. NK - When Jeroboam died, the kingdom seriously declined. Tumults arose which headed 
them toward their ultimate destruction beginning first with Jeroboam's own family and then the 
whole kingdom. This was foretold in Am 7:1-8:14. All was reduced to anarchy among the 
Israelites for eleven and an half years and there was no king during this time. This is deduced 



when the times of these two kingdoms are compared. In Israel we understand that the 6 month 
reign of Zachariah the son of Jeroboam occurred in the last 6 months of the 38th year of Uzziah. 
The one month that Shallum reigned was the first month of the 39th year of Uzziah. 2Ki 15:8-13 

3221c AM, 3931 JP, 783 BC 

564. SK - Uzziah, king of Judah and his wife Jerusha the daughter of Zadok had a son named 
Jotham. When Uzziah was quarantined because of his leprosy, Jotham ruled in the king's house 
and judged the people. When Uzziah died Jotham succeeded him as king when he was 25 years 
old. 2Ki 15:5,33 2Ch 26:21 27:1,8 From this we can deduce that a short time later when 
Menahem, took over the kingdom of Israel, that Uzziah was an old man. It was at this time as he 
aspired to take the office of a priest that he was stricken with leprosy. This is contrary to what 
the Jews and Procopius Gaseus affirm, from Isa 7:1-25 that this overtook him about the 25th 
year of his reign. The earthquake occurred in the days of Uzziah and Jeroboam, Am 1 : 1 Zee 

1 1:5 It is clear that when Jeroboam died, Jotham had not yet been born. 

3224a AM, 3933 JP, 781 BC 

565. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM 
3224c AM, 3934 JP, 780 BC 

566. SK - Eclipse of the sun, see note on 3213 AM 
3228c AM, 3938 JP, 776 BC, 35 SK, 9 NK 

567. In the summer of the year 3228, the first olympiad took place (according to Greek 
chronologers). Choraebus of Elis won the race. The Iphitean account dates it the 28th. As Julius 
Africanus shows out of the writings of Aristodemus Eleus and Polybius (as in the Greek edition 
of Eusebius by Scaliger, p. 13 & p. 216) states: And here ends that interval of time which by the 
learned Varro (as in Censorinus' book, "de die natali", reports is termed mythological because 
many mythological things are said to have happened. From this time on Greek history begins. 

3232a AM, 3941 JP, 773 BC, 38 SK, 1 NK 

568. NK - Zachariah the son of Jeroboam, began his reign in the 38th year of Uzziah king of 
Judah. He was the fourth and last of the family of Jehu as was foretold by God. He reigned for 6 
months. 2Ki 15:8,12,10,30 

569. At the end of those 6 months, he was murdered by Shallum the son of Jabesh, in the sight 
of the people. 2Ki 15: 10 At this time the calamities foretold by Amos the prophet took place. 
Am 7:1-17 9:1-15 

vv The high places of Isaac shall be desolate and the sanctuaries of Israel made a wilderness, 
when I shall arise with a sword against the house of Jeroboam." 



570. Shallum the son of Jabesh, reigned one month in the 39th year of Uzziah king of Judah. 
2Ki 15:13 

571. When Menahem the son of Gad, was going from Tirzah to Samaria, he killed Shallum and 
destroyed Tiphsah with its borders. He also violently slaughtered all the pregnant women. 2Ki 
15:14-16 

572. This Menahem, is by Supitius Severus in his 1st book of "Histo. Sacra", goes by the name 
of Manes. This person is also called Manichaus later known as the heretic, in that his name 
means "a comforter" 

3233c AM, 3943 JP, 771 BC 

573. Boccaris Saites, reigned in Egypt for 40 years. (African.) 

574. NK - While Menahem spent 1 1 months fighting to take over the kingdom, God stirred up 
Pul king of Assyria to invade the land of Israel. ICh 5:26 2Ki 15:19 

575. Pul seems to have been the father of Sardanapalus, from whose name he called himself 
Sardan-pul just as Merodach king of Babylon, from Baladan his father, was called Merodach 
Baladan. Isa 39:1 The following chronologers agree that he is the same person, but call him by 
different names. Jul. African, calls him "Acracarnes". Eusebius, calls him "Oceazapes". 
Stephanus Bysantinus calls him "Cindaraxes". Strabo, Arrian and Suidas, call him 
"Anacyndaraxes". By others, (as we find in Atheneus, 1. 2. Deiphosoph.) he is called 
"Anabaxares". Furthermore, I considered the number of years assigned by Africanus and 
Eusebius, to the reigns of him and his son. I then counted the years backwards from the 
beginning of Nabonassar to the end of Sardanapalus' reign. I believe both lived at the same time. 
This man named Pul seems to have been the same man who was converted and brought to 
repentance by the preaching of the prophet Jonah. This means that the men of Nineveh may 
have risen in judgment against this nation. God here raised up a repentant, heathen man to take 
vengeance on the unrepentent Israel. 

576. Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of silver to help settle and confirm him in his 
kingdom. 2Ki 15:19,20 In reference to this, some refer to Ho 5:13 

vv When Ephraim saw his sickness and Judah saw his wound, then Ephraim went to the Assyrian 
and sent to king Jareb, who should defend or uphold him." 

577. When Menahem was thus confirmed in the kingdom, he was established in the latter end of 
the 39th year of the reign of Uzziah. He held the kingdom for 10 years. 2Ki 15:17 

3237 AM, 3947 JP, 767 BC, 44 SK, 5 NK 

578. Sardanapalus held the kingdom of the Assyrians for 20 years, according to Jul. Africanus. 
and Euseb. In his Epitaph (which is contained in Atheneus 1. 12 out of Clirarchus and in Strabo, 
1. 14 and in Arrian, 1 .3. of the acts of Alexander) he is said to have built two cities in Cilicia in 
one day. These cities were Anchialus and Tarsus. 



3242 AM, 3952 JP, 762 BC, 49 SK, 10 NK 

579. SK - Ahaz the son of Jotham, was born in this year. He was 20 years old, when he started 
to reign 2Ki 16:2 2Ch 28:1 and reigned for 16 years. After his death, his son Hezekiah, is said to 
have been 25 years old, when he began to reign. Otherwise, Ahaz would only be 1 1 years old 
when his son was born. Hence, Tremelius understands that Ahaz was 20 years old not when he 
himself reigned, but when his father Jotham began his reign. 

3243c AM, 3953 JP, 761 BC, 50 SK, 1 NK 

580. NK - Pekahiah succeeded his father Menahem, who died in the 50th year of Uzziah, king 
of Judah and he reigned for 2 years. 2Ki 15:22 

3245c AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC, 51 SK, 2 NK 

581. SK - Habyattes the elder, reigned in Lydia 14 years, (Euseb. Chron.) 

582. NK - Pekah, the son of Remaliah, killed Pekahiah in his own palace in Samaria. He then 
reigned in Pekahiah' s place for 20 years reckoning from the 52 years of Uzziah king of Judah. 
2Ki 15:25,27 

3246a AM, 3955 JP, 759 BC 

583. SK - It was during the 14th Jubilee when Isaiah saw the glory of the Lord sitting on his 
throne. God was surrounded with a guard of angels singing, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of 
Sabaoth." The Jewish people grew more and more obstinate and blind every day lest they should 
understand the words of the prophets sent to them and be converted and healed. Isa 6:1-13 Joh 
12:40,41 

584. Isaiah's vision came in the last year of king Uzziah. Isa 6:1 He was buried in the city of 
David in the burying place of the kings, but apart from the rest because of his leprosy. Jotham 
his son succeeded him in the 20th year of Pekah, king of Israel. He reigned 16 years in 
Jerusalem, 2Ki 15:7,32,33 2Ch 26:23 27:1,8 

585. Jotham fought a battle against the Ammonites and overthrew them. They became his 
tributaries for three years. 2Ch 27:5 He had two successors, Micah the Morasthite and Isaiah. 
Hosea executed the prophetic function. Mic 1:1 In his time also, as Josephus 1. 9. Antiq. c. 11. or 
12. affirms, Nahum the prophet foretold the subversion of the Assyrians and of Nineveh. This 
came to pass 115 years later. By that reckoning, Josephus understands that Nahum prophesied in 
the time of Ahaz, the son of Jotham. 

3252c AM, 3962 JP, 752 BC, 7 SK, 7 NK 

586. In this year Hezekiah the son of Ahaz, was born by his mother Abi, the daughter of 
Zachariah. He was 25 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 18:2 2Ch 29:1 



3254c AM, 3964 JP, 750 BC, 9 SK, 10 NK 

587. Two towns were built in this year. Ardus was one of them. It was constructed on a very 
small island as Mela notes. The whole circumference of this island was taken up with this one 
town. Cyzicum was the second town located in Propontis. 

588. Arbaces the governor of Media, scorned the effeminate ways of Sardinapalus. He conspired 
with Belesus the governor of Babylon by sending a battalion of 400,000 men of Medes, Persia, 
Babylon and Arabia. He was overthrown in three battles, but in the fourth the Bactrian soldiers 
defected over to him. He attacked his enemies by night and unawares and drove them from their 
camp. When Sardanapalus put all the command of the army into the hands of Salaemenus, his 
wife's brother, he was also defeated twice by the conspirators. As a result he was almost killed 
and all his army. When Nineveh was besieged, Sardanapalus sent three of his sons and two 
daughters into Paphlagonia with a great treasure. They gave it to Cotta, governor of that 
province. With this treasure Cotta dispatched messengers and commissioners throughout the 
land to conscript soldiers and provide all the necessities needed to endure a siege. (Diod. Sic. 1. 
2.) 

3256c AM, 3966 JP, 748 BC, 11 SK, 12 NK 

589. SK - Rome was founded by Romulus according to the reckoning of Fabius Pictor, the most 
ancient of all Roman writers. This date is confirmed according to the account of the secular 
games held by the ancient Romans most religiously. This happened shortly before the beginning 
of the 8th Olympiad, on the feast of their goddess Pales, on the 10th day of April. However the 
feast of Pales, according to Varro's account, was a full 5 years earlier than it is according to 
Fabius. The poet Ovid said of this day: 

vv Urbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli credere posses?) Victorem torris impositura pedem." Fal. 4. 

590. That is: 

A city is born, 

(which who then would have thought) 

That since the world 

Has in subjection brought. 

3257 AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC 

591. In the 3rd year of the siege of Nineveh the river overflowed with continual rains. It flooded 
a part of the city and undermined two and one half miles of the wall. When Sardanapalus knew 
this, he made a huge pile of wood in his palace court and set it on fire, which burned himself, his 
concubines, his eunuchs and all his riches. The palace itself was also burned to ashes. 

592. The conspirators entered by the breach in the wall made by the water, and took the city. 
They proclaimed Arbaces as their king. (Diod. 1. 2. and Athena. 1. 12 from Ctesias.) Therefore 
the kingdom of the Assyrians was destroyed. From the beginning of the reign of Ninus, they 
held all of upper Asia for 520 years as Herodus (1. 1. c. 95.) affirms. 



593. After the kingdom fell, it was divided. Arbaces, whom Strabo calls "Orbacus" and Velleius 
Paterculus named "Pharnaces" freed his countrymen the Medes from the Assyrian yoke. Later, 
he enabled them to live according to their own laws. Herodotus, in the book previously 
mentioned, affirms this. Belesis, is called Baladan in the scriptures. Isa 39:1 2Ki 20:12 Agathias 
(1. 2. Histo. from Bion & Alex. Polyhist.) calls him "Belessas" or "Beleussus". Nicol. 
Damascennus, in his Eclogs, set forth by Hen. Valesius, Naminybrus. By Hipparchus, he is 
called "Ptolomaus". Censorinus is called "Nabonassarus." He held the kingdom of Babylon for 
14 years. 

3257b AM, 3967 JP, 747 BC 

594. From twelve o'clock, on the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth, from Wednesday, 
February 26th, in the evening, in the year 747 BC, all astronomers unanimously start the 
calender of Nabonassar. 

595. Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, (Euseb. Chron.) of whom more is to be read about in 
Herodotus. (1. I.e. 84.) 

596. Ninus the younger, held the kingdom of the Assyrians (reduced now to the old boundaries). 
The empire was quite diminished in Sardanapalus' 19 years. Eusebius explained the errors in 
Chronology in many large volumes of his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian. This Ninus, 
for good luck, seemed to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. 
His own original name was Eliam, as 1. 12. Histor. Annal. and Thilgamus tell us. In the 
scriptures he is known as "Tilgathpilneser" ICh 28:20 or "Tiglathpileser". 2Ki 15:29 16:7,10 

3262c AM, 3972 JP, 742 BC, 17 SK, 18 NK 

597. Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham at the very end of the 17th year of Pekah, the son of 
Remaliah and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 16:1,2 2Ch 28:1 

598. Towards the end of the reign of Jotham, God began to stir up Resin the king of Syria and 
Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah. 2Ki 15:37 Judah was terrified at the approach of these 
enemies and expected a quick defeat at their hands. God sent a gracious message to Ahaz by 
Isaiah the prophet with a promise of his deliverance and the destruction of his enemies. For a 
sign of his deliverance (when the incredulous king was asked what sign he wanted, he said 
none), God made him a promise that a virgin would bear Immanuel. He would be both God and 
man, or God with us, or dwelling in our flesh. With regard to his office, he is the only Mediator 
between God and man. ITi 2:5 He would bring to pass that God would "be with us" Isa 8:10 
gracious and propitious to us and a very present help in trouble. Ps 46:1,2,7 Ro 8:31,32 This 
message was most befitting the present situation in that all promises of God in Christ, are "Yea 
and Amen", 2Co 1:20 to be fulfilled generally in him and for him. Besides this the land of Judah 
was to be privileged to be Immanuel's land. Isa 8:8 Pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born not 
only of the Jews but also of the very house of David. According to the prophecy of Jacob. Ge 
49:10 This would happen before the sceptre would depart from Judah. That is, before Judah 
would cease to be a nation ruled by kings. Therefore at that time Judah need not fear the 
destruction of the house of David or the nation of the Jews. However, 65 years later this 
happened to the Northern Kingdom as predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-8:22 



599. For a sign of the destruction of those kings who came against Ahaz, the prophet was 
commanded to bring out Ahaz's son, Shearjashub. He told Ahaz that his son would eat butter 
and honey until he was old enough to know right from wrong. Before this happened both these 
kings would be dead. Isa 7:3,15,16 At the same time Isaiah's wife, a prophetess, bore him 
another son. God named him Mahershalalhashbaz signifying that the Assyrian would hurry and 
take away the spoil. They would plunder both Syrians and Israelites before the child would be 
able plainly to pronounce, "My father", or "My mother." So the sons of the prophets were made 
to serve for signs from God to the Israelites. Isa 8:3,4,18 After these prophecies Rezin and 
Pekah came up together to besiege Jerusalem where Ahaz was. They could not take it as was 
predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1-7 2Ki 16:5 This wicked Ahaz was no sooner delivered out of this 
imminent danger, but he forsook God his deliverer and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. 
He set up the idolatrous worship of Baal and offered incense in the valley of Benhanan. He 
made his own son to pass through the fire. He offered sacrifices in the high places, upon the hills 
and under every green tree. 2Ch 28:2-4 2Ki 16,3,4 

3263c AM, 3973 JP, 741 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK 

600. SK - When Ahaz forsook God, God also forsook him. When Rezin and Pekah divided their 
forces, they overcame him. This they could not do when their forces were united. God gave him 
over into the hands of the Syrians who defeated him and carried away a great multitude of his 
people captive to Damascus. Also the king of Israel defeated him and slaughtered a great 
number of his people. 2Ch 28:5 

601. At the same time, Rezin conquered Elath, which Uzziah had recovered for Judah. Rezin 
rebuilt it and repopulated it with Syrians. 2Ki 14:22 2Ch 26:2 2Ki 16:2 

602. NK - Pekah killed 120,000 valiant men of Judah in one day. Zichri, a mighty man of the 
tribe of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, Azrikam, the steward of the king's house and 
Elkanah who was next to the king in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive from 
Judah and Jerusalem 200,000 women, boys and maids. They plundered their goods and carried 
all away to Samaria. When warned by Hadlai a prophet of God, they released all of the prisoners 
and restored their goods to them in the presence of their princes and the whole congregation of 
Samaria. They treated them kindly and escorted them safely to Jericho. 2Ch 28:6-15 

3264c AM, 3974 JP, 740 BC, 3 SK, 20 NK 

603. SK - The Edomites invaded Judah and carried away many captives. The Philistines whom 
king Uzziah had conquered, 2Ch 26,6,7 now attacked the cities of Judah in the low countries 
and southern parts and dwelt there. God gave Judah over to their enemies because of Ahaz's sin 
and because he had led Judah into sin. 2Ch 28:17-19 

604. Ahaz took all the gold and silver that was found in the Lord's house and in the treasury of 
the king's house. He sent it for a present to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria wishing him to come 
and deliver him from the kings of Syria and Israel. He came and took Damascus, and carried 
away all its inhabitants to Kir and killed Rezin the king of Syria. 2Ki 16:7-9 This fulfilled the 
prophecy of Isaiah, 2Ki 7: 16 8:4 9: 1 1 as well as of Amos who long before had foretold the ruin 
of the king of Damascus, in these words. 



VV I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall consume the palaces of Benhadad and 
I will break in pieces the bars of Damascus and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, 
and him that beareth the sceptre out of the house of Eden and the people of Syria shall be carried 
away into Assyria, saith the Lord," Am 1:4,5 

605. So the kingdom of Damascus, of Hamath came to an end. (Am 6:2 and of Arpad, Jer 49:23 
Isa 10:9 36:19 37:12,13) This kingdom began with a man called Rezon, IKi 11:23,24 and ended 
with one of the same name. It lasted for 10 generations, as Nicol. Damascenes, cited by 
Josephus, 1. 7. Antiquit. c. 6. affirms. See note 2960 A.M. 

606. When Ahaz went to meet Tiglathpileser at Damascus, he congratulated him for his great 
victory. He saw there an altar and he sent the pattern of it to Uriah, the priest, so that he might 
make one like it in Jerusalem. When he returned, he and the people offered their sacrifices on it. 
He moved the brazen altar far from the front of the house so that it would not stand between his 
altar and the house of the Lord. 2Ki 16:1-20 

607. NK - When Ahaz implored the aid of the kings of Assyria, (as it is said in 2Ch 28: 16 
"kings" in the plural, by a usual analogy, or change of the number, Ps 105:30 Jer 19:3 25:22 Isa 
1:52) against Pekah, Tiglathpileser came. He led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the 
Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, to Habor and Hara and the river 
Gozan. When he then passed over Jordan, he occupied Galilee and carried away all the 
inhabitants of Naphtali, who Benhadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria. 
ICh 5:26 2Ki 15:29 IKi 15:20 Isa 9:1 

3265c AM, 3975 JP, 739 BC, 4 SK, 1 NK 

608. SK - When Ahaz had now made himself a servant to the king of Assyria, then he found that 
he had received more harm than help from him. 2Ch 28:20,21 Isaiah had previously intimated to 
him of this using the allegory: 

vv The Lord shall shave off the hair of thy head and feet with an hired razor, from beyond the 
river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard." Isa 7:20 

609. Therefore Ahaz built a secret passage between the king's house to the house of the Lord 
because he feared the king of Assyria. 2Ki 16:18 Tremelius understands this to mean that for 
fear lest the king of Assyria would assault him from that way and break into his palace. In the 
midst of all of his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord. 2Ch 28:22 

610. NK - When Hoshea, the son of Elah, murdered Pekah the son of Remaliah, he took over the 
kingdom 20 years after Jotham started to reign over Judah, 2Ki 15:30-38 or the 4th year of the 
reign of Ahaz. See Gill on "2Ki 15:30" However the kingdom was in civil disorder and anarchy 
for nine years and Hoshea had a troubled reign. 

3269 AM, 3979 JP, 735 BC, 8 SK, 5 NK 

611. Candaules, whom the Greek authors call, as Herodotus said, Myrsylus, the son of Myrsus 
was the last of the family of the Heraclydae. He reigned in Lydia for 17 years. (Euseb. Chron.) 



3271 AM, 3981 JP, 733 BC, 10 SK, 7 NK 

612. Nadius, or Nabius reigned over the Babylonians for 2 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.) 
3273c AM, 3983 JP, 731 BC, 12 SK, 9 NK 

613. Chinzirus and Porus, reigned over the Babylonians, 5 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.) 
3274c AM, 3984 JP, 730 BC, 13 SK, 1 NK 

614. NK - When Hoshea restored order in Israel, he began a peaceful reign in the latter end of 
the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah. 2Ki 17:1 

3276b AM, 3986 JP, 728 BC, 14 SK, 2 NK 

615. NK - Tiglathpileser or Ninus the younger reigned for 19 years according to Castor and 
died. After him came Shalmaneser, called Evemassar as in the Greek copy of Tobias. This man 
seems to be that Shalman, who in the prophesy of Ho 10: 14 is said to have laid waste Betharbel. 
The place was famous later for the defeat of Darius the Persian. This is the country of Arbella, 
in the land of Assyria, beneath Arpad. Against Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser came up. He 
made him to serve and pay him tribute. 2Ki 17:3 

3277c AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC, 1,16 SK, 4 NK 

616. After Sabacon, an Ethiopian, had taken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, he burnt him in the 
fire and reigned in his place 8 years. (Affica.) 

617. SK - In the last year of his reign, Ahaz made his son Hezekiah viceroy with him in the 
kingdom. This was in the latter end of the third year of Hoshea king of Israel. Hezekiah reigned 
29 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 18:1,2 

3278a AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC 

618. Jugaeus or Julaeus, reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, (Ptol. reg. Canon.) 
3278b AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC 

619. SK - Ahaz died in this year. The prophet Isaiah foretold the destruction of the Philistines 
(who at that time, unjustly held a part of Judah, as was shown before, in the 3264th AM.) Isa 
14:28-32 Likewise he predicted a great disaster to happen to the Moabites within three years. Isa 
15:1-16:14 For fulfilment of these prophesies, see 3280 AM and 3284 AM. 

3278c AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC, 1 SK 



620. SK - After Ahaz died, Hezekiah, toward the latter end of the first year of his reign in the 
first month Abib, opened the doors of the Lord's house which his father had shut up. 2Ch 28:24 
He commanded the priests and Levites to sanctify themselves and then to clean up the temple. 
2Ch 29:3,4 

621. They were encouraged by Hezekiah and on the first day of the first month, (Sunday, April 
21st) they sanctified themselves. According to the king's command, came to cleanse the house 
of the Lord. On the 8th day of the some month, (Sunday, April 28th.) they entered into the porch 
of the temple and sanctified the house of the Lord for 8 days. On the 16th day of the first month, 
(Sunday, May 6th.) they finished that work. 2Ch 29:15-17 

622. Early next morning (Monday, May 6th.), king Hezekiah called together all the rulers of the 
city. He went up into the house of the Lord together with the people. With the ministry of the 
priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the altar of the Lord with great joy and 
gladness. 2Ch 29:20-36 

623. According to the law in Nu 9:10,11, the passover was delayed until the second month for 
the following reasons. The passover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and 
the cleansing of the temple was being done. The number of sanctified priests was not enough. 
All the people were not gathered together from all the country to Jerusalem. Notice was sent to 
all the people from Beersheba even to Dan. Not only the Jews, but some also out of the tribes of 
Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun, came together in Jerusalem. The rest of the tribes laughed at the 
notice. 2Ch 30:1-12 The altars for idols and of incense were destroyed first and then thrown into 
the brook Kidron. They killed the Pascal lambs on the 14th day of the second month, (Sunday, 
June 3rd.) They kept the feast of unleavened bread for 7 days. They offered their sacrifices of 
thanksgiving and sang praises to the God of their fathers. 2Ch 30:13-22 As further testimony of 
their thankfulness to God, they continued 7 more days. This time was kept and celebrated with 
great glee and joy of heart. 2Ch 30:23 

624. When they had finished these activities, then all the Israelites, who were present there, 
about the end of the second month, went out into all the cities of Judah. They broke down the 
images and cut down the groves and destroyed the high places and altars throughout Ephraim 
and Manasseh until they had finished the work. When this was done, the Israelites returned 
home. 2Ch 31:1 

625. Hezekiah went further. He broke in pieces the very brazen serpent that Moses had set up 
Nu 21:9 because in those days the Israelites burnt incense to it. In contempt of it, he called it by 
a diminutive term, "Nehushtan", "a little piece of brass." 2Ki 18:4 He appointed the priests and 
Levites to their duties. He provided for them food and maintenance by establishing again the 
law of first fruits and tithes. 2Ch 31:1-21 

626. On the 3rd month, every man brought in their first fruits and tithes and gave them to the 
priests. 2Ch 31:5-7 

3279a AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC 

627. SK - In the 7th month after the harvest of the fruits of the whole year was completed, Ex 
29:16 the collection of the first fruits and tithes was completed. 2Ch 31:7 Hezekiah appointed 



officers for the proper distribution of them. 2Ch 31:1-21 
3279b AM, 3989 JP, 725 BC, 3 SK, 6 NK 

628. NK - Hoshea the king of Israel, consulted beforehand with So king of Egypt and refused to 
pay tribute any longer to Shalmaneser. 2Ki 17:4 

629. This So or Sua, as Jerome calls him, seems to be none other then Sabacon the Ethiopian. 

630. Chrysostome, in his 30th Homile on John, says that this Hoshea made an alliance with the 
Ethiopians. Severus Sulpicius, in his sacred History 1. 1 says 

vv that he allied with the kings of the Ethiopians, who at that time, held the kingdoms of Egypt." 

3280b AM, 3990 JP, 724 BC, 4 SK, 7 NK 

631. NK - When Shalmaneser knew that Hoshea had allied himself with the king of Egypt, he 
first secured all the land of the Moabites. So that he might have no enemy at his rear to annoy 
his army, he razed to the ground their two chief cities, Arnon and Kirhareseth. This fulfilled the 
prophecy of Isaiah foretold three years earlier. Isa 16:7-1 1 See Tremellius on this. Then he went 
through and wasted all the land of Israel and marched toward Samaria in the 4th year of 
Hezekiah. In the 7th year of Hoshea, he besieged Samaria for 3 years, 2Ki 17:4-6 18:9 

3283 AM, 3993 JP, 721 BC, 6 SK, 9 NK 

632. After Nabonasser's 26 year reign, Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon for 12 years 
according to Ptolemy's Reg. Canon. By the prophet Isaiah, Merodach Baladan, is called the son 
of Baladan, Isa 39:1 as being Belesis, or the son, or according to a most usual Hebrewism, 
nephew of Nabonasar. In Mardocempadus' first year the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, 
according to Ptolemy in his 4th book of his great Syntaxis, c. 6. This was in the 27th of 
Nabonasar, 29th of the month Thoth, as the Egyptians call it, (that is toward the end of our 
March 19th) two and an half hours before midnight. 

633. NK - Toward the end of the 3rd year of the siege of Samaria, in the 6th year of the reign of 
Hezekiah and 9th of Hoshea, Shalmaneser took Samaria. He carried away the Israelites into his 
own country and settled them in Halah, Habor and the river Gozan and in the cities of the 
Medes. Tiglathpileser had formerly transported to this place the inhabitants of Perea, or the two 
tribes and a half living on the other side Jordan. ICh 5:26 2Ki 17:6 8:10,11 Anarchy was in 
Media before the kingdom of Media was taken by "Deioces". This gave occasion to the 
Assyrians to invade and take over that whole country. This was the place where Tobit or Tobias 
the elder states that he at this time with Anna his wife and his country men, the Nepthalites, 
were carried away into the land of the Assyrians. There they provided grain and other food for 
Shalmaneser's household. Also he was carried into Media and there placed in a principal city of 
Media called Rages. There he deposited ten talents of silver in the hand and trust of Gabael his 
near kinsman and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place. /APC Tob 1:22 
This was the end of the kingdom of Israel after if revolted from the kingdom of Judah 254 years 
earlier. 



3284b AM, 3994 JP, 720 BC 

634. In the second year of Merodach's reign, there was another eclipse of the moon in Babylon. 
This happened in the 28th year of Nabonasar, on the 18th day of the month of Thoth, at 
midnight. The Julian calendar dates it on Saturday, March 9th. Exactly 176 days and 20 and an 
half hours later, a third eclipse of the moon took place. This occurred on the 15th day of the 
month Phamenoth Sunday, September 1st. three hours and an half before midnight. (Ptolemy 1. 
4. Magn. Syntax, c. 6, and 7.) 

3285 AM, 3995 JP, 719 BC 

635. Seuechus the Ethiopian, Sabacon's son, reigned in Egypt for 14 years. (African,) He seems 
to also be called Sethos, priest to Vulcan who is mentioned by Herodotus in his second book c. 
141. 

3286 AM, 3996 JP, 718 BC 

636. When Candaules indecently exposed his wife to his courtier named Gyges the son of 
Dascylus, his wife ordered Gyges to murder him. As a result he married the wife of the 
murdered king and took over the kingdom of Lydia. This is mentioned in a poem by Archilocus 
from the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time. So the kingdom of Lydia went from the clan 
of the Heraclidae into the clan of Merduades. This clan ruled it for 170 years. Gyges himself 
reigned 18 years. (Herod. 1.1.) Gyges was but a bondslave as appears by that saying of Cresus 
his grandchild in Xenophon, (Justit.Cyri. 1. 7.) 

VV I understand that the first of my ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man 
both at the same time." 

637. Plato in his 2 de Repub. states that he was master of the king's cattle and his name was 
Gyges. In the eastern dialect this seems to have been Gug, or Gog. 

3287 AM, 3997 JP, 717 BC 

638. When Gyges took over the kingdom, he sent various large offerings to Delphi. He made 
war upon Miletus and Smyrna and took the city of Colophos by force. (Herod. 1. I.e. 17.) 

639. When the Gitteans revolted, Eluleus king of Tyre, sailed there and subjected them again. 
Shalmaneser the king of Assyria marched with his army and invaded all Phoenicia and came 
against Tyre. Shortly after he made peace with them and returned home again. Not long after, 
Sidon and Ace (called later Ptolomais) and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with various other cities 
defected from the Tyrians to the Assyrians. When only the Tyrians now stood against him, he 
returned a second time. In this action the Phoenicians furnished him with 60 ships, and 800 
sailors. The Tyrians attacked this fleet with only 12 ships, routed all the navy and took 500 
prisoners. By this the Tyrians obtained a good reputation as a naval force. Shalmaneser returned 
to besiege Tyre. He set guards by the river and conduits which served the city and cut them off. 
This hindered them from getting water. They held out for five years and at last were forced to 



dig wells within their city walls to get water. This is from Menander of Ephesus, in his 
Chronicles, translated into Greek, from the Tyrian Annals, cited by Joseph. 9. Antiq. c. ult. 
Eluleus is called Ayluleus by Rufinus an ancient Latin historian. Hence Scaliger calls him 
Eliseus. I disagree with him in this that he here says that the Cyprians were by Menander called 
Kitteans. However he by the name of Gitteans, understood indeed the inhabitants of Gitta, or 
Gath well known by that name in the Bible. 2Sa 15:18 21:19 ISa 17:4 These were also added to 
Judah by Hezekiah in the very time of this Eluleus or Eliseus, as may be gathered from 
Josephus. He says that Hezekiah made war on the Philistines and defeated them. He added all 
their cities (except one) and country from Gath to Gaza to the kingdom of Judah. (9. Antiq. cap 
ult.) Also from 2Ki 15:18 18:8 Hezekiah smote the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territories. 
Isaiah prophesied against the Tyrians who at this time were grown proud and insolent by reason 
of their wealth and success in wars. Isa 23: 1 

640. When Shalmaneser died, his son Sennacherib reigned in his stead. /APC Tob 1:18 
Herodotus in 1. 2. calls him the king both of Assyria and Arabia too. It could be at that time that 
the Assyrians ruled over Peraea, or the land of Gilead and Hamath, or Ituraea and held also a 
part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivah, or Ava, which Sennacherib boasted 
much of seems to have been conquered by him or his ancestors. 2Ki 18:34 19:13 Isa 37:13 This 
was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Fram. Junius affirms based on 2Ki 17:24. The 
prophet Isaiah foretold the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites by Shalmaneser, (of 
which I spoke in 3278 AM. and 3280 AM.). This is taken from Bersus' History of the Chaldeans 
as cited by Josephus. (lib. 10. c. 1.) He says that Sennacherib reigned in Assyria and also that he 
waged a fierce war on all Asia and Egypt. 

3291c AM, 4001 JP, 713 BC 

641. This war of his upon Egypt lasted 3 whole years and Palestina also joined with him in the 
war. This is deduced from Isa 20: 1-6. Isaiah is told to take off his coat of hairy cloth (belonging 
to his prophetic function, as in Zee 13:4) from his loins and his shoes from his feet. He was 
commanded to walk up and down naked and bare foot for 3 years for a sign to the Egyptians and 
Ethiopians. This intimated that when that time expired, they likewise would be stripped of their 
clothes and go bare foot into captivity and bondage by the king of Assyria. This command the 
prophet is said to have received in the year when Tartan was sent by Sargon king of Assyria and 
besieged Ashdod and took it. Isa 20:1 Sargon is also called Sennacherib. Taran was one of his 
commanders. 2Ki 18:17 By Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Philistines, we 
showed before from Josephus that it was conquered by king Hezekiah. 

642. Hezekiah had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoke (which his father Ahaz had taken) and 
would no longer serve him. 2Ki 17:7 In the 14th year of his reign, toward the end of it, 
Sennacherib, came up against the kingdom of Judah. He besieged their fortified cities and took 
many of them. Isa 36:1 2Ki 18:13 2Ch 32:2 When Hezekiah perceived that he intended also to 
attack Jerusalem, he consulted with his princes. He plugged up all the fountains that were 
around the city and diverted the brook Kidron which ran through the region. Then he built up all 
that part of the wall which Joash the king of Israel had demolished in the time of Amaziah. He 
fortified the house of David, and provided arrows and shields in great abundance and set 
captains and colonels over the people. He called them together and he made a very short speech 
to them. He persuaded them to be of good courage and not to have any fear of the king of 
Assyria nor of his army. 2Ch 32:2-8,30 



643. In those days when Hezekiah was very sick he was told by Isaiah that he would die. He 
poured out his tears and prayers to God and he was healed. Another 15 years were added to his 
life. Isa 38:1,5,21 2Ki 2:1,7 2Ch 32:24 He composed a song. First he showed the seriousness of 
his illness and the anxiety he had. He told of his prayer to God and then acknowledged the great 
benefit of his recovery received from God. Lastly he testified his faith in God, and promised to 
be everlastingly thankful to him. 

644. It is true that in the scripture this is recorded after the story of the slaughter of Sennacherib 
and his army. However not precisely but with a general annotation only of the time, "In those 
days." For this happened before his sickness, these scriptures plainly show. 

VV I will add unto thy days fifteen years and will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the 
king of Assyria and I will defend this city." 

645. Isa 38:5,6 2Ki 20:6 Now if we subtract from the 29 years which Hezekiah reigned, these 15 
years, we shall find that the slaughter of Sennacherib and his army happened in the latter end of 
the 14th year of his reign. 

646. The sign of Hezekiah's recovery which God at his request gave to him, was that miraculous 
going back of the shadow of the sun, upon the dial of Ahaz as recorded in Isa 38:8 

vv Behold I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sundial of 
Ahaz, 10 degrees backward, so the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone 
down." 

647. As Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphraser interprets, "the stone of the hours" and renders it by 
the hours of the clock. Yet in his commentary on this passage he observes that the Hebrew word 
signifies degrees. Also in 2Ki 20:9 he states: 

vv wilt thou that the shadow ascend 10 degrees, or that it return back 10 degrees?" 

648. Nor may we ignore the Greek LXX interpretation of this passage since it is more ancient 
than any of these writings. It states that by these words used here, no other thing is meant in this 
history but the degrees of those scales or stairs which were made by Ahaz. Since it cannot be 
shown that until after their return from the captivity of Babylon, there was any observation or 
use at all of hours among the Jews. Others also attribute the invention of the Gnomon in the dial 
among the Greeks to men of a later date as Anaximadder or Anaximener. This I shall show later 
in the note on 3457 AM. However it seems that they received it originally from the Babylonians 
as noted by Herodotus, when he says, (lib. 2. c. 109.) 

vv The pole and the dial and the dividing of the day into twelve hours, all these the Greeks 
learned from the Babylonians." 

649. As concerning the retrograde motion of the Sun as mentioned in, Isa 38:8 /APC Sir 48:23 it 
is when the sun stood still at the prayer of Joshua the moon also stood still at the same time. Jos 
10:12,13 It is apparent that with the sun the moon also, and all the frame of heaven went 
backward and that there was as much subtracted from the night, as there was added to the day. 



There was a miraculous alteration in the parts of the normal day. By divine providence things 
were so ordered that no harm or hinderance did happen to the constant and ever self-like motion 
and harmony of the heavenly bodies. This is evident by those three solar eclipses, of which I 
spoke earlier, from Ptolemy. The account of these if calculated from our times backward yields 
the same result of the times as was formerly observed by the Chaldeans and in the same manner 
as if no such retrogradation or going back of the sun had ever happened. 

650. Now in the beginning of the 15th year of Hezekiah's reign, Merodach, or Berodach 
Baladan, the son Baladan, the king of Babylon, sent messengers with presents to him. They 
wanted to know the reason for the miraculous retrogradation of the sun which happened in the 
world. Hezekiah from pride and vain ostentation showed them all his treasures and pomp of 
riches. God presently foretold him of the captivity of Babylon which was to happen: 

vv Behold the days come, that all that is in thine house and that which thy fathers have laid up in 
store until this day, shall be carried away into Babylon; nothing shall be left, saith the Lord." 

651. He added further that his sons which were not yet born should also be carried into captivity. 

vv Thy sons also, that shall issue from thee and which thou shalt beget, shall they take away and 
they shall be eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon,"Isa 39: 1-8 2Ki 20: 12-19 

652. Nevertheless when Hezekiah with the inhabitants of Jerusalem, had humbled himself for 
his former pride, the fierce wrath of the Lord fell not upon them in the days of Hezekiah. 2Ch 
32:25,26,31 

653. Micah also the Morasthite, prophesied to the people in Hezekiah's days: 

vv That Zion should be plowed and Jerusalem laid in heaps and the mountain itself of the house 
of the Lord, as the high places in a forest" Mic 3:12 Jer 26:18,19 

(The important thing to note is that the earlier eclipse data was not disturbed by the events in 
Hezekiah's day. Whatever happened, effected at the very least the sun, earth and moon system. 
God made time go backward not just have the earth rotate backward. Otherwise the eclipse data 
would be thrown off for eclipses that occurred before Hezekiah's event happened. An 
undesigned coincidence in the sciptures verifies their authority. Of all the people in the world, it 
is only recorded that the Chaldeans visited Hezekiah. They were very careful in noting 
astronomical events and had noticed something strange as far away as Babylon. They no doubt 
heard that Hezekiah had something to do with it and hence they went to him to learn more of 
this event. In 331 BC they turned over 1903 years of astronomical observations to Callisthenes 
when Alexander the Great was in Babylon. Editor) 

3292 AM, 4002 JP, 712 BC 

654. Memnon writes that Astacum in Bithynia, was built by the Megarenses, in the beginning of 
the 17th Olympiad. (Biblioth Photii. p. 347.) 

655. Herodotus, (lib. 2. c. 141.) tells us, that Sennacherib invaded Egypt, with a vast army and 



made war upon Sethon, the priest of Vulcan. This man was a weak king and famous for nothing 
except for being devoutly or rather superstitiously addicted to the worship of his petty god, 
Vulcan. Herodotus also adds that even in his time, there remained a stone image of Sethon 
holding a mouse in his hand. These words were engraved on the statue. 

vv Let every man that looks on me, Learn godly and devout to be." 

656. For his and their countries and their own priesthood's honour, the priests in that area 
expound it this way. Sethon who was both king and priest, had by virtue of his piety and prayers 
to his god Vulcan prevailed with the god. For when Pelussum, which stands in the very entrance 
of Egypt was besieged by the enemy, their horse bridles, and buckles of their buckler, were so 
gnawn to pieces by mice that the next day they fled with the loss of many of their men. 
However, whatever the matter was at Pelusium, the undoubted word of the prophet assures us, 
that the Assyrians marched far into the very heart of Egypt and led away a great many captives. 

657. Nahum's prophecy against No was likely fulfilled by this expedition of Sennacherib's. No 
was a large and strong city in Egypt. The prophecy was: 

vv yet was she carried away; she went into captivity, her young children also were dashed in 
pieces in the top of every street, and they cast lots for their honourable men and all her great 
men were bound in chains" Na 3:10 

3294c AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC 

658. The prophecy made by Isaiah 3 years earlier concerning the rest of Egypt was fulfilled at 
this time. Isa 24:1-23 

vv The king of Assyria shall carry away a great multitude of the Egyptians captive; and of the 
Ethiopians young and old prisoners, naked and barefoot": 

659. 1 do not see why the next two verses should not refer to the Jews. 

vv And they shall be ashamed of Ethiopia their expectation and of Egypt their glory: and the 
inhabitants of this country shall say in that day: Behold such is our expectation, whither we flee 
for help to be delivered from the king of Assyria and how shall we escape?" Isa 20:5,6 

660. The Assyrian messenger had a good reason to remind them of Egypt when he said: 

vv Now behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised reed Egypt, on which if a man lean, it will go 
into his hand and pierce it; for even so is Pharaoh, to all such as trust upon him," 2Ki 18:27 

661. For we find the same simile used by God of the Egyptians and Israelites, in Eze 29:6,7 and 
in Isa 30:1-31:9. Here many things were spoken against the vain hope which the Jews had of 
help from Egypt. 

vv Therefore, saith he, shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and your trust in the shadow 



of Egypt your confusion, for the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose: therefore have I 
cried concerning this, Their strength is to stay at home." Isa 30:3,7 

662. When Sennacherib returned from Egypt into Palestine, he besieged Lachish with all his 
forces. 2Ch 32:9 Hezekiah sent to him at Lachish to buy his peace and agreed with him for 
peace at a certain price. Therefore he drained all his own treasure of which he had formerly been 
so proud as well as the treasury of the temple. He paid him 300 talents of silver and 30 talents of 
gold. When he took the money, he broke his agreement and sent from Lachish to Jerusalem 
Tartan, who had now taken Azotus and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh with a large army. 2Ki 18:14- 
17 

663. When these came to Jerusalem, they stood at the conduit of the upper pool by the highway 
of the fullers field. After they called out to speak with the king, Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah and 
Shebna the recorder went out to them. When they would not surrender the city, Rabshakeh then 
cried out that Hezekiah did vainly rely on God for help and that he himself was sent by God. 
After he reviled the God of Israel and Hezekiah his servant with many reproachful sayings, he 
tried to make the people rebel and defect to the king of Assyria. This they spoke loudly in the 
Hebrew language so that the people who stood on the wall might hear and understand what they 
said. This they did to frighten and cause them anxiety so that in the resulting tumult they might 
easily assault and take the city. Isa 36:1-22 2Ki 18:17-37 2Ch 32:9-18 

664. When Hezekiah heard of this, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and went into the house 
of the Lord. He sent Eliakim, Shebna and the elders of the priests, clothed likewise in sackcloth, 
to Isaiah the prophet. They asked him to seek counsel of God for this sad situation and to pray to 
God for help. The prophet encouraged them. He said that after the king of Assyria heard a 
rumour, he would lift his siege and return to his country and be murdered. This all came to pass. 
Isa 37:1-7 2Ki 19:1-7 

665. When Rabshakeh could not take Jerusalem, he returned to Sennacherib. He left Lachish 
and besieged Libnah. Isa 37:8 2Ki 19:8 

666. Tirhakah king of Ethiopia did not invade Egypt and Syria as Scaliger groundlessly asserts 
in his notes on Eusibius (p. 72.) and in his Isagogical Canons, page 311. Rather he sent forces to 
assist and help the Egyptians and Jews. For the Scripture is clear, that he came to fight against 
Sennacherib. Isa 37:9 2Ki 19:9 This Tirhakah, Strabo (lib. 1. and 15.) calls, Tearcon the 
Ethiopian and further notes from Megasthenes, a writer of the history of India, that he passed 
over into Europe and went as far as the pillars of Hercules. 

667. When Sennacherib at Libnah heard a report of Tirhakah coming, he sent his commander 
with railing letters to Hezekiah. He spoke of the God of Israel as if he were like one of the gods 
of the nations, mere works of men's hands. Hezekiah took it before the Lord in his temple and 
with many tears sought help and deliverance from God against the Assyrians. God answered 
him by Isaiah the prophet. He said that God would defend that city and that the king of Assyria 
should not so much as come there, but should return by the way he came. Isa 37:9-35 2Ki 19:9- 
34 2Ch 32:17,19,20 

668. The very same night after these things happened at Jerusalem and a few days after his 
victory over the Ethiopians which happened about this time as some gather from, Isa 18:1-19:25 



God sent his angel to their camp. He destroyed every man of valour, every commander, and 
chief man in the Assyrian army. The next morning there were found 185,000 dead men. After 
this Sennacherib shamefully broke camp and returned into his own land to rest at Nineveh. It 
came to pass that as he was worshipping before his god Nisroch, Adrammelech and Sharezer 
slew him with the sword. They fled immediately into the land of Ararat, or Armenia, and 
Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. Isa 37:36-38 2Ki 19:35-37 2Ch 32:21 All this was 
foretold by the prophet. Isa 38:1-22 31:8,9 

669. In the first chapter of the book of Tobit, there are these things found which belong to this 
story. When Sennacherib fled from Judah, he slew many of the Jews for the hatred he had 
toward the Israelites. Tobit, or Tobia the elder, stole away the dead bodies and gave them a 
proper burial. When he was accused of this to the king of Nineveh, he fled into hiding for a 
time. They plundered and spoiled of all his goods leaving him only Anne his wife and Tobias 
his son. After 45 days, or as the Greek copy has it, before 55 days, Sennacherib was murdered 
by his sons. When they fled into the mountains of Ararat, Esarhaddon his son reigned in his 
stead. Some copies incorrectly call him Achirdon or Sarchedon. The new king set Achiacarus, 
the son of Hananeel, Tobit's brother, over all his father's affairs and his own. He was his steward 
and keeper of his accounts and the cupbearer having the privy seal and was the second man after 
the king. 

670. Hezekiah had his son Manasseh, by Hephzibah, 3 years after his life was lengthened and 12 
years before his death. 

671. The Medes had up until now lived without a king. After Dejoces would not judge their 
causes and controversies any longer, civil disorder ensued. The Assyrians used this occasion to 
take possession of many cities and places in Media as I noted before on 3283 AM. The people 
did not like the resulting anarchy and they submitted unanimously to Dejoces. This was 150 
years before Cyrus began his reign as Herodotus in his first book states quoting from Ctesias on 
this point. Both Dionysius, Halicarnasseus and Appianus Alexandrinus, in the beginning of his 
Roman Histories agree. Though Diodorus Siculus, in his second book, whether through faulty 
memory or poor copying puts Cyazaris for Dejoces. He is said to have been elected king over 
the Medes, about the second year of the 17th Olympiad according to Herodotus. For subtracting 
150 years from the beginning of the reign of Cyrus which he supposed happened in the 
beginning of the 55th Olympiad results in the middle of the year 4154 JP or 560 BC. It follows 
that the 1st year of Dejoces the first king of the Medes must be in the 3rd year of the 17th 
Olympiad in the middle of the year 4004 JP. This allowed the latter end of the second year of 
the same Olympiad to have been spent in the transaction of this business and election of the new 
king. This is the first epoch or point of the beginning of this new kingdom of the Medes. 
Herodotus correctly determined and recorded this fact. The precise times of every king's reign 
when compared with the eclipse of the sun, which happened in the reign of Cyaxares described 
later in the 3403 AM. will be shown as we proceed. 

3295a AM, 4004 JP, 710 BC 

672. The 15th Jubilee which was the middle most of all the jubilees, was the most joyful except 
for the one at Solomon's dedication of the temple. The fresh memory of so great a deliverance 
and for the prosperity that happened made this one of the best jubilees ever. Many brought 
offerings and gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem and rich presents for the king. He was magnified 
later among all nations, and prospered in whatever he undertook to do. 2Ch 32:23,27,30 



673. After this great deliverance God prospered Judah greatly. 2Ch 32:22 Isa 37:31,32 That this 
was a jubilee is necessary to understand the sign of God's mercy given the year before to 
Hezekiah: 

vv You shall eat saith God, this year, that which groweth of itself, the second year, that which 
springeth of the same; and in the third year, sow ye and reap ye and plant vineyards and eat of 
the fruit thereof, Isa 37:30 2Ki 19:29 

674. The previous year's harvest was either gathered by the enemy which roved all over the 
country, (according to God's threatening, Le 27:16 De 28:33 Jer 5:17) or spoiled and trodden 
underfoot by them. It would be necessary for the people to live that year upon that which grew 
by itself. Because this year was a Jubilee, it was not lawful either to sow or reap. Otherwise, if 
no Sabbatical year intervened, they might have done this. Since the Assyrian army was 
destroyed by the angel, there was nothing to hinder them from planting a crop. But the following 
year when there was neither enemy to frighten them, nor Sabbatical year to prevent them, they 
might legally resume farming as at other times. 

3295b AM, 4005 JP, 709 BC 

675. After Mardosempadus, or Merodach Baladan had reigned 12 years in Babylon, he was 
succeeded by Arkianus in the 29th year of Nabonaser and reigned 5 years (Ptol. in Reg. Can.) 

676. According to Eusub. Chron., Parion in the coast of Hellespont, near to Lampsacus was built 
or rather re-established by the Milesians and Erythreans who sent a colony there at this time. 

3296 AM, 4006 JP, 708 BC 

677. Dejoces king of the Medes built Ecbatane this year in the first year of the 18th Olympiad 
according to Eusebius' Greek Chronicle. This city in Ezr 6:2 is called Achmetha, but Ctesias in 
his Persica, as Stephanus Byzantinus states, called it Agbatam. A fuller description of the 
construction of it is in /APC Jud 1:1-16 where it is said that it was built by Arphaxad king of 
Medes. Herodotus and other writers attributed it to Dejoces. It appears that the same man was 
called by both names. More will be said on this in the notes on 3448 AM. 

3299 AM, 4009 JP, 705 BC 

678. Taracas or Tirhaka the Ethiopian reigned in Egypt 18 years. See note on 3294 AM. 
(Africanus.) 

3300 AM, 4010 JP, 704 BC 

679. After Arkianus, there was no king for 2 years. 
3302 AM, 4012 JP, 702 BC 



680. Belibus, or Belithus and Belelus, held the kingdom of Babylon for 3 years. (Ptol. Reg. 
Canon.) 

3305 AM, 4015 JP, 699 BC 

681. Apronadius reigned in Babylon for 6 years. (Ptol. Reg. Canon.) 
3306c AM, 4016 JP, 698 BC 

682. Hezekiah was buried in the upper part of the sepulchres of the family of David. All Judah 
and the inhabitants of Jerusalem paid him every honour possible. 2Ch 32:33 After Hezekiah, 
came his son Manasseh who reigned 55 years. 2Ki 21:1 He again set up the high places which 
his father Hezekiah had pulled down. He built altars to all the host of heaven in the two courts of 
the house of the Lord. He made his son pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom. 
He used divinations and sorceries and soothsayings and set up a molten image in the house of 
the Lord. He made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to sin and do worse than all the 
nations, whom God had driven out before the Israelites. 2Ki 21:2,1 1 2Ch 33:2,9 He also shed 
much innocent blood, insomuch that he filled Jerusalem with it. In addition to his own sin, he 
made Judah to sin and to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord. 2Ki 21:16 24:4 
Manasseh is thought to have cut the prophet Isaiah into two pieces with a wooden saw. The 
Babylonian Talmud in their treatise, Justin Martyr in his Coloquie with Tryphon, Jerome upon 
Isa 20:57 and others of our men, explain the passage in Heb 1 1:37 

vv were sawed in pieces", 

683. as referring to Isaiah. For all this God threatened that: 

vv he would stretch out over Jerusalem, the line of Samaria and the plumb of the house of Ahab: 
and that he would wipe Jerusalem, as one useth to do, when he wipes a dish and turneth it upside 
down," 2Ki 21:13 

3311 AM, 4021 JP, 693 BC 

684. Rigibelus reigned over the Babylonians for one year. (Ptol. Reg. Can.) 

3312 AM, 4022 JP, 692 BC 

685. Mesissimordacus reigned over the Babylonians for 4 years. (Ptol. Reg. Can.) 
3316 AM, 4026 JP, 688 BC 

686. There was a vacancy of a king in Babylon for 8 years. (Ptol. Reg. Can.) 

687. According to Herodotus, (lib. 1. c. 130) Dejoces extended the kingdom of the Medes, as far 
as the river Halys, 128 years before the end of the reign of Aastyages. 



688. In the 23rd Olympiad, Herostratus Naucraties a merchant of Egypt, went to Paphos in the 
island of Cyprus. There he bought a little image of Venus about the size of the palm of a man's 
hand and of very ancient workmanship. By its power he was miraculously delivered from a 
storm at sea. He consecrated the image at Naucratis in the temple of Venus, with great 
solemnity. This is according to Atheneus, who was born in the same place, in his 15th book 
Deipnosophist. However, according to Scrabo, 1. 17., there was no such town as Naucratis in 
Egypt at that time nor until later when it was built by the Milesians. This was in the time of 
Cyaxeris king of Medes and of Psamyticus king of Egypt, who both lived at the same time. 

3317 AM, 4027 JP, 687 BC 

689. Civil disorder increased in Egypt for there was no king for 2 years. (Diod. Sic. 1. 1.) 
3319 AM, 4029 JP, 685 BC 

690. After this Egypt was ruled by an aristocracy of 12 men who governed the kingdom by a 
Common Council. This government according by Herod. (1. 2. c. 147) and Diod. Sic. (1. 1.) is 
said to have lasted 15 years. Tremellius is of the opinion, that the burden of Egypt, spoken of by 
the prophet Isa 19:5,6 refers to the drying up of the river Nile as foretold in: 

vv They shall want of their waters, to run into the sea, so that their river shall be dried up and 
turning away their waters, they shall empty and dry up their channels fenced with banks" 

691. Based on Herodotus, Tremellius states: 

vv The 12 petty kings using the labour of this poor people, shall strive to overrule the very works 
of nature and shall turn away the waters of Nile. Even to make its channels dry. They did this so 
that they might finish their pond or lake of Marios with their Pyramides and Labyrinth solely for 
their lust and pleasure's sake." 

692. But Scaliger in his Canon. Isagog. understands it, that there should be there so great a 
drought that their river Nile in the summer season would not rise nor flow nor water Egypt as it 
normally did. He refers this prophesy to the earlier times of Soij or Sabbacon. 

3323c AM, 4033 JP, 681 BC 

693. When the family of the Babylonian kings died out, after 8 years of no kings, Esarhaddon 
the king of Assyria conquered them and held that kingdom for 13 years. (Ptolemy's, Can. Reg.) 
It appears Assaradinus is the same person as Esarhaddon. This is from the similarity in the 
names and by the word of the Holy Scripture. It intimates that he was king both of Assyria and 
Babylon at the same time. 2Ki 17:24 19:37 See note on 3327 AM. 

3324 AM, 4034 JP, 680 BC 

694. Ardys the son of Gyges, reigned in Lydia for 49 years. He captured Pryene and invaded 
Miletus. (Herod. 1. 1. c. 15.) 



3327 AM, 4037 JP, 677 BC 

695. In Sicily, the city Gela was built and in Pamphilia, Phaselis by two brothers, Antiphemus 
and Lacius. (Euseb. Chron.) They consulted the oracle at Delphi concerning a place to live. It 
answered that the one should sail westward and the other eastward, as Stephanus Byzantinus in 
the word "Gela", reports, from Aristenetus on his first commentary of Phaselis. Heropythus in 
his book of the "Borders of the Colophonians", said concerning the building of Phaselis, that 
Lacius who transported a colony there, met Cylabra, a shepherd with his flock. He gave him the 
price of the ground where he built his city from his provisions. Philostephanus in his book 
entitled, "Of the Cities of Asia", gives a more detailed account of Lacius and a man from Argos. 
One of them went with Mopsus (the founder of the city Colophos) and whom some call Lindius, 
brother to Antiphemus the builder of Gela. (Lindius is said to have been of Rhodes by 
Herodotus 1. 7. and by Thucidides 1. 6.) Lacius was sent by Mopsus with another man, by the 
oracle and wish of Mantus and Mopsus, his mother. Because the decks of his ships were 
smashed in a tempest about the Chelidonian Isles, he could not arrive till late at night. There he 
bought the plot of ground where he built his city, as Mantus had foretold. He gave certain salt 
meats for it to Bylabra the owner of it. This is what he desired most from all their ship's 
provisions. (Athens Deipnosoph. 1. 7.) 

696. In this year the prophecy was fulfilled that was spoken by Isaiah Isa 7:1-8:22. In the 
beginning of the reign of Ahaz, within 65 years, Ephraim shall be conquered and never be a 
nation again. For although most of them were carried away by Shalmaneser 44 years earlier and 
the kingdom utterly destroyed, yet among them who were left there was some form of 
government. Now they ceased to be a distinct people because of the many foreigners who came 
to live there. Compared to the total population, the small number of the Ephraimites was not 
significant. A few remained in their country as appears from the story of Josiah. 2Ch 34:6,7,33 
35:18 2Ki 23:19,20 There were every now and then new colonies of people sent from Babel, 
Cush, Halvah and Sepharvaim. These dwelt in Samaria and its cities. 2Ki 17:24 This was done 
by Esarhaddon king of Assyria (who was also called, Asnappar the Great and magnificent). This 
is evident by the confession of the Cushites in Ezr 4:2,10 

697. At the same time as Israel was conquered, the same Assyrian army attacked Judah. They 
captured Manasseh the king, as he was hiding in a thicket. They bound him with chains of brass 
and carried him captive into Babylon. 2Ch 33: 1 1 Some think this calamity was foretold by the 
prophet Isaiah, when he says: 

vv within sixty five years Ephraim shall be so broken in pieces, that it shall be no more a people. 
And the head of Ephraim is Samaria, is the son of Remaliah: And if you will not believe, you 
shall not be established," Isa 7:8,9 

698. Jacobus Capellus has noted in his Chron. that you yourselves also shall be broken in pieces. 
Further, he adds that also the Jews in Seder Olams Rabba and the Talmudists, cited by Rabbi 
Kimchi, on Eze 4:1-17 state this. 

699. In the 22nd year of Manasseh's reign, he was carried away captive into Babylon. After he 
repented of his sin, 33 years before his death, God restored him again to his kingdom. 2Ch 
33:12,13 His captivity likely did not last very long for no notice of it is taken in 2Ki 21:1-18 It is 
recorded that he reigned 55 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 21:1 2Ch 33:1 



700. When the new inhabitants of Samaria did not serve the God of Israel, some were killed by 
lions. When the king of Assyria was told this, he ordered that one of the priests, which were 
brought from there in the captivity, should be sent back. When the priest returned he made his 
residence at Bethel. There he taught them how to worship God but according to Jeroboam's 
religion. They worshipped the calf at Bethel as well as their old idols. They are said to have 
feared God and not to have feared him. There is little difference between worshipping many 
gods and no God at all. 2Ki 17:25,33,41 This was the beginning of the animosity which grew 
later between the Samaritans and the Jews. Ezr 4:1 Ne 4:2 Joh 4:9 

3329 AM, 4039 JP, 675 BC 

701. According to Euseb. Chron., Chalcedon, or Calcedon, (as it is found on some old coins) 
was built by the Megarenses at the mouth of the Euxine Sea among the Thracians. They had 
possession of Bithynia in Asia. (Thucidid. 1. 4. Strabo 1. 12.) 

3334 AM, 4044 JP, 670 BC 

702. Psammiticus Saits, the son of Pharaohnecho, was murdered by Sabbacon the Ethiopian and 
one of those twelve tyrants of Egypt. Sabbacon took over the kingdom and reigned there 54 
years. (Herod. 1. 2. c. 152. and c. 157.) Isaiah seems to allude to this when he says: 

vv And the Egyptians will I give up into the hands of lords, which shall lord it cruelly over them, 
till a fierce king shall come to rule them," Isa 19:4 

703. Psammitichus was sent away and confined in the low country near the sea. He hired 
soldiers out of Arabia and a number of pirates from Ionia and Carions, who roved about that 
shore and assembled the Egyptians who sided with him. In the main battle fought near to 
Memphis, he overthrew the rest of those domineering lords. For their good service, the Ionians 
and Carions had land assigned to them to live in. This land was around the cities of Bubastis and 
Pelusius, which stood upon the mouth of the river Nile. From that time on, the Greeks and other 
foreigners were always welcome in Egypt. (Herod. 1. 2. Diod. Sic. 1. 1.) The same Herodotus 
also reports, that after a 29 year siege, this Psammiticus took by force a large city in Syria called 
Azotus. (ib. c. 157.) That is the city of Ashdod. I showed perviously on the note on 2391 AM 
that it was taken by Tartan the commander of the king of Assyria and his army in one year. It 
was so destroyed by Psammitichus that as the prophet Jeremiah says there was but a remnant of 
its people left in his days. Jer 25:20 

3336 AM, 4046 JP, 668 BC 

704. After Assaridinus or Esarhaddon, Saosduchinus ruled both of the empires of Assyria and 
Babylon for 20 years. (Ptol. Can. Reg.) In the book of Judith that was written in the Chaldee 
language by some Jew living in Babylon, he is called Nabuchodonosor, a name common to all 
kings of Babylon. However he was called the king of Assyria and is said to have reigned in the 
great city of Nineveh. /APC Jud 1:7 The learned Franc. Junius thinks that Saosduchinus is the 
same person as Merodach-Baladan of the Bible, the grandfather of that Nebucadnetzar and great 
grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar. Hence he thinks it was Merodach-Baladan who took king 
Manasseh prisoner to Babylon and released him later. For he states: 



""this man was the first king of Babylon and was later made king of Assyria, succeeding in that 
kingdom after Esarhaddon the Great. When his brothers were found guilty of murdering their 
father, they were deemed unworthy of the kingdom. After this, all Asia was in a tumult from a 
war which lasted a long time after." 

705. The succession of Asar-Adon Merodach, Ben-Merodach and Nebuchadnezzar, first and 
second, is only based on Anianus, that false Metasthenus. According to Junius, Merodach was 
not grandfather of Nebuchadnezzar or rather Nabopolastar of Nebuchadnezzar the great. Neither 
was he at first only a trustee of the king of Assyria and later came to be king both of Assyria and 
Babylon. 2Ki 20:12 Nor did he ever succeed Esarhaddon the great in any kingdom of his, since 
this Mardocempadus or Merodach died 1 1 years before ever Manasseh became king. Also 42 
years after his death, Aassaradinus or Essarchaddon left Saosduchinus to succeed him in both 
the Assyrian and the Babylonian kingdom as we noted from Ptolemy's Canon, Reg. If Junius, a 
man of no less modesty than learning, had seen this, no doubt he would have altered his opinion 
in this point. Therefore I thought it good in this place to have the reader note that from an event 
that never happened he should not seek to interpret the prophecy of Eze 3 1 : 1 1 , 1 8 as Junius 
distinguishes them. This is: 

"Esarhaddon the Assyrian, was put down, or thrust out of his kingdom, by Merodach Baladan. 
Therefore, all defected from him and many of them fled to the king of Babylon," 

706. As in the sentence following: 

"So that now the land of Assyria, was most shamefully trodden under foot and brought into 
contempt of all men" (Ver 20) 

3339c AM, 4049 JP, 665 BC 

707. Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, bore to Manasseh his son Ammon. He was 
22 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 21:19 

3344a AM, 4053 JP, 661 BC 

708. This was the 16th Jubilee. 
3347c AM, 4057 JP, 657 BC 

709. In /APC Jud 1 : 1- 16 we read that Nabuchadonosor, king of Assyria, in the 12th year of his 
reign overcome Arphaxad the king of the Medes, the founder of the city Ecbatan. This battle 
was in the great plain of Ragau near to Euphrates and Tigris and Jadason in the plain of the 
country of Erioch king of the Elicians. (We read this in the first chapter of the book of Judith 
which Jerome at the request of Paula and Eustochiam translated into Latin.) However, whoever 
first published that book in Greek with many alterations and additions of his own, tells us that 
Nabuchodanosor in the 12th year of his reign fought a battle with king Arphaxad. This was in a 
great plain near Ragau. Arphaxad was helped in the battle by all that inhabited the hill countries, 
all that bordered on the river of Euphrates and Tigris, and Hydaspes and that dwelt in the plain 



of Arioch king of the Elymeans. /APC Tob 1:5-6. After reviewing the battles mentioned before, 
he tells us, that he fought this battle against Arphaxad in the 17th year. He conquered all of 
Ecbatan and in the hill country of Ragan, thrust Arphaxad through with his own spear. When he 
had accomplished his aim in the war, he returned to Nineveh to feast and celebrate with his 
army for 120 days. According to Herodotus, Dejoces' death occurred in the 12th year of 
Saosduchinus' reign. One would argue that Saosduchinus and Dejoces are named 
Nabuchadonosor and Arphaxad in the book of Judith. In trying to render a reliable succession of 
kings in Media, to the fables of Cresias, Franc. Junius would need to divide the Median empire 
into two parts. However, Herodotus known as "the father of histories" sees no division of the 
kingdoms at all. Fr. Junius gives one of the kingdoms to Dejoces (also called Arioch) Jer 49:14 / 
APC Jud 1:6-16. The other part of Media he assigns to Artecarmins (whom Ctesias calls 
Articam and who is here called Arphaxed). This king Arphaxed, established his kingdom at 
Ecbatan to the end. He thought this to be a strong place in which he would best withstand the 
assault of Dejoces and all other enemies. Since no division ever was made of Media, both the 
name of Arphaxad and the Ecbatan kingdom should have been given to Dejoces and not to 
Arioch or Atticarmes. The book of Judith states that Arphaxad was the founder of Ecbatan. 
Herodotus and others affirm that Dejoces (also called Arphaxad) was indeed the founder. No 
one ever wrote that Arioch or Artecarmes built it. 

710. After Dejoces died, Phraortes, his son succeeded him and reigned for 22 years. (Herodotus, 
1. I.e. 102.) 

3348c AM, 4058 JP, 656 BC 

711. According to the Chaldee copy of /APC Jud 2:1 Arphaxad (or Dejoces) is said to be the 
13th king of Ecbatan but in the Greek, the 18th). One year after Dejoces was overthrown, on the 
22nd day of the first month, Nabuchadonosor made plans to subdue nations and add countries to 
his dominion. He made Holophernes general of all his armies. Holophernes besieged 
Bethhoglah, also called Bethulia, a city of Judah. While this was happening he was beheaded by 
Judith, a woman of the tribe of Simeon. After the death of her husband Manasseh, who died in 
the time of the barley harvest, she spent 3 years of widowhood in that city. The Greek copy says 
she was a widow for 4 years. /APC Jud 2:8,13 

3349 AM, 4059 JP, 655 BC 

712. In this year, Isthemus and Borysthenes were built in the country of Pontus. Also, 
Lampsacus in Hellespont and Abdera in Thrace, were built according to Euseb. Chron. that is, 
Borysthenes by the Milesians of Ionia, Lampsacus by the Pheonceans and Abdera by the 
citizens of Clazomene. Solinus c. 10 explains that the sister of Diomedes first built Abdera. 
After it fell into ruin it was rebuilt and enlarged by the Clazomenians. This took place in the 51st 
Olympiad which ended a year prior to this date. The leader of the Clazomene colony, was 
Timesius a citizen of Clazomene, (Herodotus, 1.1. c. 168.). Herodotus also adds that Timesius 
was not able to complete the work because he was attacked by the Thracians. 

3355c AM, 4065 JP, 649 BC 

713. Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah had a son in Boscath, called Joash who was 
eight years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 22:1 



3356c AM, 4066 JP, 648 BC 

714. Chyladanus succeeded Saosduchinus both in the Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms. He 
reigned 22 years. (Cano. Reg. Ptolemy). Alexander Polyhistor calls him Saracus (or Saracen), 
which means "robber", or "spoiler". 

715. By the oracle of Delphi, Grinus the son of Esanius, king of the island of Thera, was 
commanded to go build a city in Libya. This city was in ruins because no one knew where Libya 
was. It is said that for 7 years there was no rain in that island. All the trees there died in that 
drought except one. (Herodotus 1. 4. c. 150, 151.) 

3361c AM, 4071 JP, 643 BC 

716. In this year king Manasseh returned from his captivity. He had partly restored the true 
worship of God, which he had formerly discredited. When he died he was buried in the garden 
of his own house. 2Ch 33:1-16 2Ki 21:18 According to his last will or testament, as if he 
repented for his former evil doings, he deemed himself unworthy to lie among his own royal 
ancestors. (Tremelius.) 

3363c AM, 4073 JP, 641 BC 

717. After Manasseh died his son Amon reigned for 2 years. Amon forsook the Lord God and 
offered sacrifices to all the graven images, which his father had set up and he worshipped them. 
He never repented of this as his father did but sinned more than ever his father had. 2Ki 21:19- 

22 2Ch 33:21-23 

718. This wicked Amon was murdered in his house by his own servants. He was buried with 
Manasseh his father, in the garden of Uzzah. The people slew all that conspired against him. 2Ki 
21:23,24,26 2Ch 33:24,25 

719. And to him succeeded his son Josias, a child of 8 years old, and reigned 31 years 2Ki 22:1 
2Ch34:l 

3364 AM, 4074 JP, 640 BC 

720. Those of the isle of Thera, wearied by their seven years of drought, hired Corobius, a 
merchant in scarlet of the city of Itanus in the isle of Crete. He had formerly been driven by a 
tempest into a place called Platea, an isle of Libya. They sent him a second time with some of 
their own countrymen to find that isle. When they found it they left Corobius there with 
provisions for some months. They returned quickly to let their countrymen know what they had 
found. When they did not return to Platea at the appointed time, it happened that a ship of 
Samos, whose captain was Coleus came from Egypt. It put in there and left Corobius and his 
men another year of provisions. It then put out to sea again. It was caught by a strong wind and 
driven beyond Hercules' pillars into the main ocean and finally came to Tarteslus in Spain. 
(Herod. 1.4. c. 151, 152.) 



721. The Thereans chose by lot from their seven towns people to establish a new colony. They 
sent them away to Platea in two ships under the command of one Battus, otherwise called 
Aristoteles, or Aristeus. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 151, 152.) 

722. Thales the son of Examius, was this year also born at Miletus in Ionia. This was the first 
year of the 35th Olympiad according to Laertius notes in Apollodorus' Chronicle. 

723. After the Commerians were driven out of their dwellings by the Scythian Shepherds (called 
Nomads), they left Europe and went into Asia. Following the coast to Sardis, they captured all 
the city except the citadel. This was the time when Ardys, the son of Gyges, reigned there. (Her. 
1. 1. c. 15 and 130 and in his 4th book, c. 1. and 12.) 

724. When the Thereans had lived in Platea for two years, they left one of their company behind 
and all sailed to Delphi. There they enquired of the oracle why things were no better since they 
came into Libya. The oracle answered that they were not yet come to the city of Libya, where 
they were told to go. Therefore they returned again to Platea. They took the one they left there 
and they established a colony in a place in the land of Libya, opposite the isle of Platea, called 
Aziristus. This place was surrounded with most scenic hills and a river running around it on 
either side. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 157.) 

725. In that place next to the gardens of the Hesperides and the greater Syrtus, or quicksand, the 
earth was covered with a shower of rain of pitch, or sulphur. Presently there grew up an herb 
called Sylphius or Laser i.e. Benjamin, as the Cyreneans say. This occurred seven years before 
the building of their city. (Theophrast. in his History of Plants, 1. 6. Pliny in his Nature. Hist. 1. 
19. c. 3.) 

3369 AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC 

726. Phraortes king of the Medes perished in the siege of Nineveh with a large number of his 
army. His son Cyaxares reigned for 40 years after him. In the beginning of his reign, he wished 
to avenge his father's death. He compelled all Asia as far as the river Halys to join with him in 
his war against the Assyrians. (Herod. 1. 1.) 

3370a AM, 4079 JP, 635 BC 

727. When Josiah was 16 years old, he had a son called Jehoiakim by Zebudah the daughter of 
Pedaiah, of Rumah. He was 25 years old when started his reign. 2Ki 23:36 

728. The same year his son was born he began to seek the God of his father David. 2Ch 34:3 
3370c AM, 4080 JP, 634 BC 

729. Cyaxares defeated the Assyrians in battle but as he went to besiege Nineveh, a vast army of 
the Scythians attacked him. These were those Scythians who drove the Cimmerians from 
Europe. Pressing their advantage, they departed from the Lake of Meotis and left the mountain 
Caucasus on their left. They entered Media, under the command of their king Madois the son of 
Ptotothya. (Herd. 1. I.e. 104. 1. 2. c. 1. and 1. 7. c. 20) Mados was also called Indathyrsus the 



Scythian who storming out Scythia, went over the country of all Asia until he came into Egypt. 
Strabo states this in the beginning of his Geography from Megasthenes and Arrian in his book 
"Of the Affairs of Judah". Mados was the same man as Indathirsus, against whom Darius the 
son of Hystaspes later made such an unlucky voyage. (Herod, 1. 4. c. 76. 126, 127) When the 
Medes were defeated by the Scythians, they lost control of Asia. The Scythians held Asia for 28 
years. (Herod. 1. I.e. 104. and 1. 4. c. 1.) Tremellius and Junius refer that prophecy of Na 2:5 

vv He (that is, Cyaxares, besieging Nineveh) shall reckon up his great men; but they shall fall in 
their journey, (that is) in the journey of the Scythians" 

730. Their coming at this time to Asia is better called a journey through Asia rather than an 
established government or kingdom in Asia. In 28 years, they overran, possessed and lost 
Media, Assyria and all Asia. 

vv they shall hasten to his wall, as if they would be his protector, i.e. they shall come hastily to 
Nineveh, as if they had delivered it out of the hand of Cyaxares and would deliver it." 

3371c AM, 4081 JP, 633 BC 

731. In this year, Josiah had a son called Shallum or Jehoahaz by Hamutal the daughter of 
Jeremiah of Libnah. He was made king after his father at the age of 23 years. The people chose 
him for king passing over his older brothers. 2Ki 23:30,31 It seems the name of Shallum was 
changed to Jehoahaz for good luck. The other Shallum, the son of Jabesh, only ruled one month 
before he was murdered by Menahem. 2Ki 15:13,14 Of the four sons which Josiah had that are 
mentioned in ICh 3:15 this Shallum was named last not Johanan the firstborn, as some have 
thought. It is easily deduced that Jehoahaz was not the firstborn. For it is said that he was 
anointed by the people. 2Ki 23:30 However the firstborn of kings were not normally so anointed 
because the kingdom was theirs by common right. Also, Jehoahaz was 23 years old when he 
was anointed king. However, three months earlier his brother, Eliakim was made king at the at 
the age of 25. Hence he was older by two years than Jehoahaz. This is confirmed by Josephus, in 
his tenth book of Antiquities, c. 6. & 7. 

3373 AM, 4083 JP, 631 BC 

732. Sadyattes, the son of Ardyis, reigned in Lydia for 12 years. (Herodot. 1. I.e. 16.) 

733. When the Scythians had subjected all of upper Asia, they went straight into Egypt. When 
they came as far as Syria Palestina, Psamitichus the king of Egypt met them in person. He 
persuaded them by gifts and presents not to go any farther. 

734. On their return, they came to Askelon which is in Syria. The greater part of the army 
passed through the area without doing any damage. However some stragglers at the rear, robbed 
the temple of Venus Urania. For this all their posterity were smitten with the emerods. (Herod. 1. 
1. c. 105.) In this year, which was the second of the 37th Olympiad, the Scythians invaded Syria 
Palestina. (Eusebius Chron.) Also Sinope, was built by the Milesians this year. It was the chief 
city in all the kingdom of Pontus. (Strabo 12th book) Phlegon says, (cited by Stephanus de 
Tribibus,) the Sinope was built by Macritius of the isle of Coos. It is certain that when the 



Cimmerians came to Asia after they fled from the Sythians, they built Chersonesus, in the same 
place where Sinope a city of the Greeks now stands. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 12.) After settling in 
Aziristus for 7 years, the people of Thera were persuaded by the Libyans to leave. They moved 
to a place called Irasa and settled there near a fountain named after Apollos. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 
158.) 

735. In the 2nd year of the 37th Olympiad, Battus built the city of Cyrene there. He reigned for 
40 years and after him his son Arcesilaus for 16 years with those of the first colony only. Later 
in the reign of Battus, Arcesilaus, his son, went there with a great number of other Greeks who 
were stirred up by the oracle of Delphi. The city of Cyrene was built when Apryas reigned 
among the Egyptians. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 159.) This is a better account of events than others have 
given. 

3374c AM, 4084 JP, 630 BC 

736. In the 12th year of Josiah's reign, he began to cleanse Judah and Jerusalem from idolatry. 
He destroyed the high places, groves, and altars of Baal with the images. He burned the bones of 
their priests upon their own altars. He even went as far as to the cites in Manasseh, Ephraim, 
Simeon and Naphtali and destroyed all the altars, groves and carved images he found. 2Ch 34:3- 
7 

3375c AM, 4085 JP, 629 BC 

737. In the 13th year of king Josiah, Jeremiah was called by God to be a prophet. He refused. 
God called him again and encouraged him with promises and signs belonging to the office and 
function of a prophet. He was bid to prophesy to the Jews of the calamity which was to happen 
there by the king of Babylon. Jer 1:2,17 28:3 At the same time, Zephaniah and others warned 
the rebellious people to repent which they did not. Zep 1:1 Jer 25:3-5 

738. Prosias, or Prusa was built in Bithynia. (Euseb. Chron.) 
3378 AM, 4088 JP, 626 BC 

739. Nabopolasur of Babylon, (who was made general of the army by Saraco also called 
Chinaladanus, king of Assyria and Chaldea,) and Astyages, (who was made governor of Media, 
by his father Cyaxares,) made an alliance together. Astyages gave his daughter Amyitis in 
marriage to Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabopolasur. The two men joined their forces and took 
the city of Nineveh with Saraco its king. (We gather this from a fragment of Alexander 
Polyhistors that was misunderstood by Georgius Symelius, who cites it in Grac. Scalig. p. 38. 
39.) We find in the end of the book of the Greek copy of Tobit that Nabuchodonosor is called 
Nabopolasur and Assuerus is Astyages and is also called Ahasuerus. Da 9:1 Nineveh was taken 
while Tobit the younger was still living. When Shalmaneser took Samaria, he carried Tobit and 
his father captive to Assyria. Tobit is said to have lived 127 years. Since only 95 years passed 
from the captivity of Israel to this time, Tobit must still have been alive. When Josiah was 
reigning, (as Jerom in his commentaries upon the prophet Jonah affirms) Nineveh was 
destroyed. Thus the prophecies of both Nahum and Isaiah, concerning the destruction of 
Nineveh were fulfilled. This is also described in Eze 31:1-18 



740. When Saraco was killed, Nabopolasur ruled the kingdom of Chaldea for 21 years. 
(Polyhistor, Berosus in his 3rd book of the Affairs of Chaldea, Ptolemy, in Reg. Can.) 

3379 AM, 4089 JP, 625 BC 

741. Sadyattes king of Lydia, invaded the territory of the Milesians and started a war that lasted 
for 6 years. 

3380d AM, 4090 JP, 624 BC 

742. In the 18th year of Josiah's reign, he charged Hilkiah the high priest to use the money 
which had been collected to repair the house of the Lord. When he was doing this he found the 
original book of the law, which was first laid up in the side of the Ark of the Covenant. De 
31:26 This book seems to have disappeared ever since the beginning of Manasseh's reign. When 
he found it, he sent it by Shaphan the scribe to the king. After Josiah heard the book entirely 
read to him, he asked counsel of Huldah the prophetess. She prophesied to him that that 
kingdom should certainly be destroyed but not in his lifetime. 2Ki 22:3-20 2Ch 34:8-28 The 
king called the elders of Judah and Jerusalem, with the priests and prophets. He had the book of 
the law read to all the people and renewed the covenant between God and the people. Again, he 
cleansed the city from idolatry, and throughly restored the worship of God. 2Ki 33:1-14, 2Ch 
34:29,30 He demolished the altar and high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat had set up. 
He burnt the bones of the dead upon the altar as had been foretold 350 years earlier. 2Ki 13:2 
When he had destroyed the altars which the kings of Israel had built in the cities of Samaria, 
slain all their priests and burnt dead men's bones upon them, he then returned to Jerusalem. 2Ki 
23:15-20 Even with this renewing of the covenant and general reformation of religion, the 
inevitable decree of desolation to follow because of the people's sins still stood. From this time 
of renewing is the beginning both of the 30 years spoken of in the first of the prophecy of 
Ezekiel and also the 40 years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6 

3381c AM, 4091 JP, 623 BC 

743. Josiah kept the passover in the same 18th year of his reign, on the 14th day of the first 
month (Monday, May 4th) in the presence of all Judah and Israel and the inhabitants of 
Jerusalem. He kept this with more solemnity than ever had been done by any of the kings of 
Israel or Judah in olden times. 2Ki 23:21-23 2Ch 35:1-19 He took away all witches and 
soothsayers, all images and gods and all the abominations, which were found in the land of 
Judah and in Jerusalem. He obeyed all the words which were written in the book of the law that 
was found by Hilkiah. 2Ki 33:24 De 18:9-1 1 

3383c AM, 4093 JP, 621 BC 

744. Toward the end of the 5th year of Nabopolassur, (which is the 127th from the Epoch of 
Nabonazar,) on the 27th day of Eygptian month of Athyr, toward the 28th of the month, the 
moon was eclipsed at Babylon, beginning 5 hours after midnight. (Ptol. Syntax, p. 125. Greek 
edition) This was on Saturday, April 22nd or the 27th of Athyr as it drew to a close. This is 
Ptolemy's meaning, when he says, that it was from the 27th to the 28th, lasting in all six hours 
after the midnight of the 27th day to the sun-rising when the 28th day was to begin. 



3384d AM, 4094 JP, 620 BC 

745. Hamutal bare to Josiah, after Shallum, or Jehoahaz, Mattaniah. He was later called 
Zedekiah and was 21 years old when he began to reign. Jer 51:1 2Ki 24:17,18 

746. Xenophanes Colophonius, founder of the sect of the Eleatic discipline in philosophy, was 
born in the 40th Olymiad. (Elius Empiricus, in his first book, contra Mathematicos, c. 12.) 
(More correctly related from Apollodorus, as cited by Clemens Alexandrinus, 1. 1. Strommat.) 

3385 AM, 4095 JP, 619 BC 

747. The son of Sadyattes called Halyattes the younger reigned in Lydia for 57 years. He spent 
the first 5 years fighting the war against the Libyans that his father had started. (Herod. 1. I.e. 
17. 18, 25.) 

3387c AM, 4097 JP, 617 BC 

748. Jehoiakim son of Josiah, had a son, by Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, 
called Jehoiakim or Jeconiah. He was 18 years old when he began to reign. 2Ki 28:8 

3388 AM, 4098 JP, 616 BC 

749. Necho, the son of Psammitichus, reigned in Egypt 16 years. (Herod. 1. 20. c. 159.) The 
Bible calls him Necho or Pharaohnecho. 2Ch 35:24 2Ki 23:29 Jer 46:2 This man began a 
channel from the Nile to the gulf of Arabia, which cost the lives of 120,000 Egyptians. He 
abandoned the work when it was half done. He sent certain Phoenicians to sail round Africa. 
They set sail from the Gulf of Arabia or the Red Sea. They went into the southern sea and sailed 
around the coast. They finally came to the strait of Gibraltar and returned into Egypt, three years 
after they started out. (Herod. 1. I.e. 158. and 1. 4. c. 52) 

3390 AM, 4100 JP, 614 BC 

750. In the 12th year of the war between the Lydians and the Milesians, the Lydian army had 
burnt the harvest of the Milesians, as they normally did each year. It happened, that the wind 
caught the flames and set the temple of Minerva in Assesus on fire and burnt it to the ground. 
After the army returned, Halyattes, became sick for a long time. Finally he sent to consult the 
Oracle at Delphi. The prophetess refused to entertain his request until the temple which his men 
had destroyed was rebuilt. Periander the son of Cyphelus, ruler of Corinth, found out the reply 
and told it to his good friend Thrasibulus, king of the Milesians. He cleverly ordered that when 
Halyattes and his ambassadors came about rebuilding the temple, the Milesians should be 
feasting and revelling using all the remaining grain and supplies in the city. Halyattes expected 
to find that the Milesians would be starving from the long war. However, when he saw they 
appeared to have plenty to eat, he made peace and a league of friendship with the Milesians. 
Halyattes built two temples of Minerva at Assesus to replace the one he destroyed. When he got 
well, he sent rich presents and offerings to Delphi. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 19,20,22,23,24. with 
Polyanus, 1. 6. Stratag.) 



3393a AM, 4102 JP, 612 BC 

751. The 17th Jubilee. 
3393c AM, 4103 JP, 611 BC 

752. Anaximander Milesius, the son of Praxidemus, was born in Ionia. See note on 3457 AM. 
3394c AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC 

753. By God's command, Necho king of Egypt went against the king of Assyria, who at that 
time made war with him and planned to besiege Carchemish on the river Euphrates. 2Ki 23:29 
2Ch 35:20-22 Josephus states that he went to fight against the Medes and Babylonians, who had 
overthrown the empire of the Assyrians, (lib. 10. Antiq. ca. 6.) Carchemish, at the time of 
Sennacherib belonged to and was occupied by the Assyrians. Isa 10:5-19 However when that 
kingdom was destroyed, it returned to the hands of the Babylonians. Just as when king of Persia 
defeated Babylon and Assyria, Ezr 6:22 he was called king of the Assyrians, so when the king of 
Babylon defeated Assyria, was likewise called king of Assyria. In addition the heathen authors 
also tell us, that Babylon was in olden times part of Assyria and the Holy Scriptures state that 
the kingdom of Chaldea was founded by the king of Assyria.Isa 23: 13 Nu 24:22 Isa 52:4 Na 
9:22 

754. When Josiah unadvisedly entered into this war, he was slain. 2Ki 23:29,30 2Ch 32:22,23 
This happened in the valley of Megiddo which belonged to the tribe of Manasseh. Jos 17:11 Jud 
1:17 (Herod. 1. 2.) Herodotus refers to this story saying, Necho attacked the Syrians with an 
army on foot and overthrew them in Magdala. After the fight he took a great city of Syria named 
Cadytis. Scaliger notes that this Cadytis was actually Kadesh which is mentioned in Nu 21:16. 
Scaliger also believes that Magdala and Megiddo, were located near each other. Because 
Magdala was the more noted place of the two, the fight was said to have taken place there. In the 
same way it is commonly understood that the battle between Alexander and Darius at 
Gaugamela, is said to have been fought at Arbela since Gaugamela was an obscure place. It may 
be that Magdala and Megiddo were the same place since that is the place from which that other 
Mary obtained her surname of Magdalene. In Mt 15:39 we see Magdalam is how the name is 
rendered. The Syrian renders it Mageda and the old Latin translates it Magedan, which appears 
to be similar to Megiddo. 

755. Since the good king was killed in this way and the fact that he lived postponed the 
Babylonish captivity from that nation, 2Ki 22:20 the last year's jubilee was turned into a year of 
lamentation. It almost became a common proverb, "The lamentation of Hadadrimmon in the 
valley of Megiddo". Zee 12:11 Not only all the people at that time bewailed the death of Josiah, 
but even later, a public mourning for him was voluntarily kept. The prophet Jeremiah also, 
wrote a song of memorial called "Song of Threnes", or "Lamentations" 2Ch 35:24,25 In this 
song he bewailed the calamities which were shortly to befall that people. Jeremiah wrote: 

vv The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the Lord, is taken in their pits: of whom we said, 
under the shadow of his wings we shall live among the heathen." La 4:20 



756. So that we may very justly question the first verse, or poem of that book which we find in 
the Greek and common Latin translation but disagrees with Jerome. It is prefixed before the 
Threnes or Lamentations of Jeremiah. 

vv And it came to pass after that Israel was carried into captivity, and Jerusalem laid waste, 
Jeremiah the prophet sat down and wept, and made this lamentation in Jerusalem and sighing 
and howling, out of the bitterness of his heart, said:" 

757. Whoever added this should have noted the verse: 

vv Add not to his words, that he blame thee not and thou be found a liar," Pr 30:6 

758. There was also a second Song of Lamentations for the miserable condition of the kingdom 
of the Jews after the death of Josiah. It was composed by the prophet Ezekiel and appointed to 
be sung, Eze 19:1-14 

759. After the death of Josiah the people feared that the king of Egypt would invade when there 
was no king. They anointed as king his youngest son Shallum or Jehoahaz. He soon did that 
which was evil in the sight of the Lord even as his forefathers had done. 2Ki 23:30-32 2Ch 36: 1 
See note in 3371 AM. 

3394d AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC 

760. When Necho returned from Assyria, he disposed Shallum from the throne after he had only 
reigned 3 months. He made Eliakim his older brother king in the place of his father Josiah and 
changed his name into Jehoiakim. 2Ki 23:31,32,34 2Ch 36:2-4 This was a public witness that he 
attributed the victory he had over the Assyrians to the Lord Jehovah only. He formerly 
prophesied that it was God who sent him against the Assyrians. 2Ch 35:21,22 He imposed a 
tribute of one hundred talents of silver and one talent of gold on the land of Judah. He put 
Shallum or Jehoiakim in fetters at Riblah and carried him away prisoner into Egypt where he 
eventually died. 2Ki 23:33-35 2Ch 36:3,4 Eze 19:3,4 

761. The prophet Jeremiah by God's appointment went to Shallum in the new king's palace. He 
earnestly entreated the king, his courtiers and all the people the with promises and threats from 
Almighty God. He foretold that Shallum or Jehoiakim would be carried away captive into 
Egypt. 

vv Weep not for him that is departed (meaning Josiah) nor make lamentation for him; but weep 
for him that is to depart: (that is Shallum) because he shall return no more to see his native soil." 
Jer 22:1,2,10,-12 

3395a AM, 4104 JP, 610 BC 

762. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah was commanded by God to stand in 
the court of the temple. He exhorted the people who assembled from all the cities of Judah to 
bow themselves there before the Lord. It being then the feast of Tabernacles, wherein all the 
males out of the cities were required to appear at Jerusalem. De 15: 16) He told them to repent 



and when they would not, he denounced the judgment of God against them saying: 

vv That that house should become as Shiloh: and that city should be accursed among all the 
nations of the earth:" 

763. This resulted in his arrest by the priests and prophets and all the people that were then in 
the court. They accused him to be a man worthy of death, but he was acquitted and set at liberty 
by the public judgment of the princes and elders. Jer 26:1,2,19 

3395b AM, 4105 JP, 609 BC 

764. Like Jeremiah, Uriah also the son of Shemariah from Kirjathjearim, prophesied against 
Jerusalem and the land of Judah. When Jehoiakim the king sought to put him to death, he fled 
into Egypt. The king sent after him Elnathan the son of Achor and other men who overtook him 
and brought him back to the king. He had him killed and threw his carcass among the vilest 
sepulchres of the common people. However Ahikam, the son of Shaphan who had formerly 
been a man of great authority with king Josiah, 2Ki 22: 12 2Ch 34:20 was a friend of Jeremiah. 
Ahikam prevented Jeremiah from being turned over to people to be killed. Jer 26:20,24 

765. To these I might add the prophet Habakkuk. When he complained of the stubbornness of 
the Jews, God replied: 

vv That he would shortly send the Chaldeans into Judah"; 

766. Further he declared his purpose concerning that matter: 

VV I will do a work in your days, which you will not believe when it shall be old unto you: For 
behold I will stir up the Chaldeans, a fierce nation and a swift: which shall walk through the 
breadth of the land, to possess a land which is none of theirs as their own inheritance. " Hab 
1:5,6 

767. In the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah foretold that Zedekiah should be king 
of Judah and Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon. He would conquer his neighbouring nations. Jer 
27:1,11 

3397a AM, 4106 JP, 608 BC 

768. The governor of Coelosyria and Phoenicia revolted from Nabopolassar king of Babylon. 
When Carchemish was taken, Nabopolassar sent against them his son Nebuchadnezzar (after he 
made him viceroy in the kingdom) with a large army. This was done in the latter end of the third 
and beginning of the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. Da 1:1 Jer 25: 1 . 

3397b AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC 

769. When Nebuchadnezzar was made viceroy in the kingdom, God revealed to Jeremiah these 
things. First was the defeat of the Egyptians at the river Euphrates then later in their own 



country. Nebuchadnezzar would make himself master of Egypt. Jer 46: 1-28 The first came to 
pass almost immediately. Pharaohnecho's forces at Carchemish were cut off by Nebuchadnezzar 
king of Babylon, in the 4th year of Jehoiakim. Jer 46:2 The second happened after the taking of 
Tyre, in the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah. Eze 29: 17-19 

770. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, which was the first of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the 
prophet Jeremiah reproved the Jews for not obeying the word of the Lord. He had proclaimed 
this from the 13th year of king Josiah, even to that present 4th year of Jehoiakim, that is for 23 
years. All that time they were stubborn and disobedient to his admonitions as well as all the 
other prophets whom the Lord had sent. Again he told them of the coming of Nebuchadnezzar 
upon them and of their captivity in Babylon which was to last 70 years. He stated that Judah and 
the other nations were to serve the king of Babylon. 

3397c AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC 

771. Lastly, the kingdom of Babylon itself would be destroyed and the land of Chaldea would 
be desolate. Jer 25:1,3,11,12 Many years earlier, this 70 years was mentioned by Isaiah in more 
obscure terms when he spoke of the destruction of Tyre. Isa 23:15,17 

3398a AM, 4107 JP, 607 BC 

772. In the 4th year of Jehoiakim, Baruch the son of Neriah wrote in a book according to what 
Jeremiah spoke. It had all the words of the Lord concerning Israel and Judah, from the time of 
Josiah until that day. He read them in the house of the Lord, in the audience of the men of 
Jerusalem, and of all the Jews who were assembled there from their cities, in the day of the fast. 
Jer 36: 1-8 That is that solemn fast which was yearly kept on the 10th day of the 7th month, Le 
16:29 23:27 Nu 29:7 five days before the feast of tabernacles. All the males from all the cities of 
Judah, were to appear at Jerusalem. See note on 3395 AM. Baruch was extremely amazed and 
afflicted in his soul, with the horror of these dreadful judgments which he had written. Jeremiah 
comforted him, by the word of the Lord concerning this calamity which was to be brought upon 
all the land by the Babylonians and assured him of his own life, in the midst of all these 
troubles. Jer 45:1-5 In the passage Jer 31:1-32:44 may allude to this also as well as the promises 
made concerning the restoration of the church. 

773. When Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Judah, the Rechabites, of the descendants 
of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, 2Ki 10:15 for fear of the host of the Chaldeans and Syrians, left 
their tents and came into Jerusalem. They had dwelt in tents according to the rule of their 
forefather Jonadab. Jer 35:8-1 1 Since material in this chapter is written in the present tense, we 
gather that the time of the Rechabites refusing to drink wine occurred when the city was 
besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. Da 1 : 1 

774. God gave Jehoiakim the King of Judah into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, 
with part of the furniture of the house of the Lord. Da 1:2 This was in the 9th month called 
Chisleu, as may be gathered from the anniversary of the fast which was kept in remembrance of 
this calamity and was a tradition of the Jews. Zee 7:3,5 8: 19 It was kept in this month. Jer 36:9 

775. Nebuchadnezzar chained Jehoiakim to carry him away to Babylon. 2Ch 36:6 Later upon 
submission and his promises of subjection, he let him stay in his own house where he lived as 



his servant for 3 years. From this time of the carrying of the king and people of the Jews into the 
bondage of Nebuchadnezzar, starts the 70 years of the captivity of Babylon which were foretold 
by the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 25:11 29:10 

776. Nebuchadnezzar ordered Ashpenash, the overseer of the eunuchs, that he should carry from 
there the best of the children of Israel, both of royal blood and of the princes. Da 1:3 This was 
predicted by Isaiah the prophet to Ezekiel. Isa 39:7 They were under his care and to be educated 
for 3 years in the language and sciences of the Chaldeans. The best of them were to be picked to 
stand before the king and serve in his palace. Among those taken from the tribe of Judah, were 
Daniel, who was Belshazzar, Hananiah, who was Shadrach, Mishael, who was Meshach and 
Anani, who was Abednego. Each had his name changed at the discretion of the prince of the 
eunuchs, Da 1:3-7 

777. Now after those Scythians, of whom I spoke before, had taken their pleasure in Asia for 28 
years, Cyaxares and the Medes gave them a great feast. When they were all drunk on a certain 
day, he had most of their throats cut. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 106.) In addition to these certain other 
Scythians of the nomads or shepherds were expelled from their own country by an opposing 
faction. They had been entertained by Cyaxares and by him employed, partly in hunting , partly 
in the education of children. After this massacre, when these were poorly treated by him, they 
killed one of the boys which they had taken to educate. They dressed his flesh like venison and 
set it before Cyaxares and his guests to eat. After this they quickly fled away to Halyartes the 
king at Sardis for protection. When Cyaxares demanded Halyartes surrender them to him, 
Halyattes refused. Hence started a five year war between the Medes and Lydians. (Herod. 1. 1. 
ca. 73,74.) Concerning the Cimmerians, (see note on 3368 AM), Halyattes drove them from all 
Asia. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 16.) 

3399a AM, 4108 JP, 606 BC 

778. In the 9th month of the 5th year of Jehoiakim, there was a solemn fast before the Lord 
proclaimed to all the people at Jerusalem. This was in remembrance, it seemeth, of the taking of 
the city by the Chaldeans the year before in the same month. Baruch stood at the gate of the 
house of the Lord and read all the words of the Lord. These words were spoken by Jeremiah to 
him and written in a book. All the people who were assembled at Jerusalem from all the cities of 
Judah heard Baruch read the book. When the princes were told of this by Micah the son of 
Gemariah, they called Baruch to them. They heard him read the same book and fearing the king, 
advised Jeremiah and him, to hide. When the king heard part of the book read, he first cut the 
book through with a pen-knife and then hurled it into the fire that was in the hearth and burnt it. 
Jer 36:9-25 In memory of this detestable act of the king, the Jews to this day keep a fast, upon 
the 7th day of the 9th month called Chisleu. 

3399b AM, 4109 JP, 605 BC 

779. When Jehoiakim had burnt the book, he ordered Jerahmeel the son of Hammelech, Seraiah 
the son of Azriel and Shelemiah the son of Abdiel, to apprehend Baruch the writer and Jeremiah 
the prophet. God hid them and against that impious king and his kingdom, pronounced this 
sentence. 

v \..Thou hast burned this roll, saying, Why hast thou written therein, saying, The king of 



Babylon shall certainly come and destroy this land and shall cause to cease from thence man and 
beast? Therefore thus saith the LORD of Jehoiakim king of Judah; He shall have none to sit 
upon the throne of David: and his dead body shall be cast out in the day to the heat and in the 
night to the frost. And I will punish him and his seed and his servants for their iniquity; and I 
will bring upon them and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem and upon the men of Judah, all the 
evil that I have pronounced against them; ..." (Jeremiah 36:29-31 AV) 

780. Later by God's appointment, Baruch wrote again the words from Jeremiah, the same words, 
which he had written before and wrote many additional things. Jer 36:26-32 

781. Nebuchadnezzar capitalised on his victory over Necho and took from the Egyptians all the 
lands they possessed between Egypt and Euphrates. From that time on, Necho did not venture 
out of Egypt. 2Ki 24:7 Meanwhile his father Nabopolassar, died in the land of Babylon, when he 
had reigned 21 years. 

782. When Nebuchadnezzar heard this, he ordered the deportation to Babylon of the captives of 
Jews, Syrians, Phoenicians and Egyptians. His army and equipment were sent there also. He 
posted a small company at the nearest way through the desert and returned to Babylon before 
them. He was made king over all his father's large dominions. He distributed the captives when 
they were brought to Babylon, into various colonies as he saw fit. (Berosus 1. 3. of the affairs, of 
Chaldea,) The vessels and other furniture of the temple Nebuchadnezzar took away with him to 
Babylon were put in the temple of his god, Belus. Da 1:2 2Ch 36:7 His son was named after this 
god. According to Abydenus in his "Assyrian History" and Brosus, he did greatly enrich and 
adorn that temple with the spoil which he had taken in that war. 

783. The rest of the Scythians who had escaped the slaughter of the Medes returning home, were 
met by a great army of lusty young men. These had been born of their own wives in their long 
absence by their slaves. With these they fought many a sharp battle but at last, laid aside their 
swords. Each man took a whip in his hand, as is more fitting for the correction of slaves, and 
thereby made them all to flee. (Herod, in the beginning of his 4th book.) 

3401a AM, 41 10 JP, 604 BC 

784. When Jehoiakim had lived 3 years in subjection to the king of Babylon, he rebelled against 
him. 2Ki 24:1 

785. Daniel and his three followers refused the diet provided for them from the king's 
allowance. They dined only on pulse and water. However they were found to look better and of 
a more fair complexion than the rest which did eat of the king's food. After three years, they 
were brought into court to attend the king. They greatly excelled in all matters of knowledge, 
wisdom, and science, which the king was pleased to ask them about, above all the Magi and 
astronomers that were in his kingdom. Da 1:5-20 

786. In the second year of his kingdom, Nebuchadnezzar dreamed of the great image made of 
various metals. When he forgot his dream, he asked his Magi and astronomers what his dream 
was and what it meant. When they could not satisfy him in so unreasonable a demand, he 
commanded them all to be put to death. When Daniel saw the execution being prepared and 
understood the reason for it, he asked the king to delay for a while. Daniel and his companions 



prayed to God. God revealed the dream to Daniel and the interpretation of it. He declared to the 
king what his dream was and also the four monarchies which were to come. This was the 
meaning of the image which he saw in his dream. After this the king enriched him with great 
gifts and made him governor of all the province of Babylon and chief over all its wise men. 
Moreover at his request, he made his three companions, Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, 
principal officers in all that province. Da 2:1-49 

3403d AM, 4113 JP, 601 BC 

787. In the beginning of the 6th year of the war between the Medes and the Lydians, the war 
was stalemated. Thales the philosopher of Miletus had predicted to the Ionians that an eclipse of 
the sun would happen. When both the armies saw the day grow dark like the night, they stopped 
fighting. Later they made a peace between themselves by the mediation of Syennesis of Cilicia 
and of Labynitus the Babylonian (which was Nebuchadnezzar). Halyattes gave his daughter 
Ariena, to Astyages the son of Cyaxeres in marriage. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 74.) This eclipse as 
predicted by Thales, happened exactly when Cyaxeres the father of Astyages and king of the 
Medes and Halyattes Cresus' father and king of the Lydians were fighting together. This is 
confirmed by Endemus, in his "Astronomical History". Also Pliny speaks of it and gave the 
following reason for the eclipse: (1. 1. c. 12.) 

vv Among the Greeks, the first one that found out how to predict the eclipses was Thales the 
Milesian. He foretold the eclipse of the sun, in the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad, which was in 
the reign of Halyattes, " 

788. (For so is the reading in the old copy, not of Astyages, as the common edition has it) 170 
years after the building of Rome. Clemens Alexan. (lib. 1. Strom.) places this fight of Cyaxares 
and eclipse of the sun about the 50th Olympiad. He differs greatly from the opinion of Endemus, 
whom he cites for it. For both the time assigned by Endemus and Pliny does not agree with 
Cyaxares, but with the reign of Astyages. Also from Ptolemy's, sun and moon-tables, which are 
the same with those of Hipparchus, it appears plainly that the sun was eclipsed in the 4th year of 
the 44th olympiad. That is in the 147th of Nabonasar, on the 4th day of the Egyptian month 
Paeon, (or Sunday, September 20th according to the Julian Calendar) 3 hours 25 minutes before 
noon. This eclipse was of 9 digits, (12 digits is 100%) and continued almost two hours. 

3404c AM, 41 14 JP, 600 BC 

789. Plamnis the son of Neco reigned in Egypt for 6 years (Herod. 1. 2. c. 161.) 

790. The Phocenses set sail from Ionia and built Marseilles on the coast of Liguria in Italy 120 
years before the naval battle at Salamis. (According to Marcianus in his Periegesis reports from 
Timeus.) This was in the first year of the 45th olympiad according to both Eusebius in his 
Chronicle and Solinus in Polyhistor. However the latter confounds this first colony of the 
Phocenses made in the days of Tarquinius Priscus with their later one under Servius Tullus. See 
note on 3461 AM. The story of the wedding which was the occasion for the building of this city, 
is described in detail by Atheneus, 1. 3. from Aristotle. He speaks of the commonwealth of the 
Marseilians. Justin has a similar account in his 43rd book out of Tro. Pomp, who relates the 
same thing, though differing in the names of the persons concerned. 



791. Nebuchadnezzar's army of Syrians, Chaldeans, Moabites and Ammonites, attacked 
Jehoiakim and destroyed all of Judah. 2Ki 24:2 They took 3023 prisoners from there in the 7th 
year of Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 52:28 

792. Astyages or Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 who married Ariena the year before had a son called 
Syaxares or Darius, the Mede. He was 62 years old when he succeeded Belshazzar, who was 
slain, in the kingdom of the Chaldeans. Da 5:30,31 Astyages, in the lifetime of his father, gave 
in marriage his daughter, Mandanes, who was born by his former wife, to Cambyses son of 
Achemenes, king of Persia. (This is according to Xenophon, who states this in his first book of 
the education of Cyrus.) He derives his family pedigree from Perseus. From this union Cyrus 
was born the next year. Hence we do not believe Ctesias, who contrary to Herodotus and 
Xenophon and others, states that that Astyages was related to Cyrus in any way. 

3405c AM, 4115 JP, 599 BC 

793. After Jehoiakim was taken prisoner by the Chaldeans, he was thrown out without a proper 
burial, buried like an ass. His body was dragged out of the gate of Jerusalem, according as was 
foretold by the prophet. Jer 22:18,19 36:30 Though in reference to the common course of nature, 
he also may be said to have slept with his fathers. 2Ki 24:6 

794. After him, his son Jehoiachin, who was also called Coniah and Jeconiah, reigned 3 months 
and ten days in Jerusalem. He also did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father 
Jehoiakim had done before him. 2Ki 24:8,9 2Ch 36:8,9 God pronounced this most dreadful 
decree against him: 

vv Write this man childless, a man which shall not prosper in his days; for none of his seed shall 
prosper to sit in the throne of David, nor reign any more in Judah" Jer 22:30 

795. Concerning this matter, refer to Christophorus Helvicus' book of the Genealogy of Christ. 
At this time, the prophecy of Jeremiah contained in Jer 23: 1-40 seems to have been uttered. 

796. In the same year when the former army was sent, the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of 
Babylon came to besiege Jerusalem. When Nebuchadnezzar himself came to the city while his 
servants besieged it. Jehoiachim the king, with his mother Nehushta, a woman of Jerusalem and 
his servants and officers, with all his courtiers, came forth to the king of Babylon. This 
happened in the 8th year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign over Babylon. He took from there all the 
treasure, both of the temple and of the king's house. He broke in pieces all the golden vessels 
and furniture, which Solomon had made for the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord, Isa 39:6 
had foretold. He carried away king Jehoiachim to Babylon with his mother, his wives and his 
courtiers. From all of Jerusalem he took 10,000 men, the magistrates, every man of strength, all 
the carpenters and smiths. He left only at Jerusalem the poorer sort of people. From the other 
parts of the land, he carried away 7000 able bodied men and 1000 of the smiths and carpenters. 
These were all strong men and fit for war. They were carried prisoners into Babylon. 2Ki 24:8- 
16 2Ch 36:10 Jer 24:1 29:1,2 Eze 17:12 Among the captives was Mordecai of the tribe of 
Benjamin, the son of Jair, Es 2:5,6 and Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi. Therefore he in his 
prophecy starts the captivity from this time, Eze 1:2,3 which he also calls his own banishment. 
Eze 40:1 An Epistle, said to be Jeremiah's, is sent to those that were appointed to be carried 
away to Babylon. It warned them to beware of the idolatry which they should see practised in 



Babylon. /APC Bar 6:1-73 

797. While the king of Babylon thus ravaged in Judah, God prepared a worm which in due time 
should eat out this spreading tree. The cry of this poor people came to the Lord. 

vv O daughter of Babylon, wasted with misery, happy shall he be that shall reward thee, as thou 
hast served us, who shall take thy children and dash them against the stones," Ps 137:8 

798. For in this very year, was Cyrus the Media-Persian born whose father was a Persian and his 
mother a Mede, as I showed before. This very Nebuchadnezzar, at the hour of his death, as 
Abydenus has it, uttered this prophecy: 

NV There shall come a Persian Mule, who shall make use of your Devils, as his fellow- soldiers, to 
bring you into bondage:" 

799. This was also foretold by that Oracle given to Croesus: 
vv When a mule king, shall to the Medes be born, &c." 

800. The Pythian Priests interpreted this to refer to Cyrus, who was to be born of a father and a 
mother of two different nations, a Persian and a Mede. (Herod. 1. 2. c. 55. and 91.) But most 
plainly and truly Isaiah foretold, Isa 13:1,2 that the Babylonians also should have a time wherein 
to endure their hell of slavery. Their children would one day be dashed against the stones before 
their eyes. Isa 13:16 These miserably captive Jews would one day be restored to their liberty. He 
called their deliverer many years before by his proper name of Cyrus. Isa 44:28 45:1 God gave 
him the reason for this unusual revelation: 

vv For my servant Jacob and for Israel my chosen's sake, have I called thee by thy name and 
given thee a surname, though thou hast not known me," Isa 45:4 

801. As for the age of this Cyrus, Tully in his 1st book de Divinations, cited it from Dionysius a 
Persian writer, in this manner: 

vv The sun appeared to Cyrus in his sleep, standing at his feet. When Cyrus endeavoured to take 
the sun in his hands three times, the sun turned aside and went away. The Magi, who are 
counted as wise and learned men among the Persians, said that by his three attempts to take hold 
of the sun meant that he should reign 30 years. This came to pass accordingly, for he started to 
reign at the age of 40 and lived to the age of 70." 

802. From which dream perhaps, so expounded by the magicians, Cyrus took his name; for, as 
Ctesias rightly says, 

vv Cyrus in the Persian language, means the sun:" 

803. So also said Plutarch in his work on the life of Artaxerxes as well as Chur or Churshid, in 
the Persian poets, as it is said to this day. From the work of Tully's compared with Da 5:31 it 



appears that Darius the Mede or Cyaxares the son of Astyages that Cyrus' uncle was born before 
him. Therefore Xenophon in his book entitled, "Of the Institution of Cyrus", 1. 6. coined the 
expression: 

vv seeing I am here present and am older than Cyrus, it is fitting that I speak first: " 

804. And in book 4 by the same author, when Cyrus wrote to Darius, he used these words: 
VV I advise you, though I be the younger of the two." 

805. Nebuchadnezzar made Mattaniah the son of Josiah, king in place of Jeconiah his uncle and 
changed his name to Zedekiah, meaning "the justice of the Lord". Jer 37:1 2Ki 24:17 He had 
made a covenant with him and had taken an oath of allegiance from him and Zedekiah, had 
taken an oath by God to perform it. 2Ch 36:13 Eze 17:13,14,18 By giving him this new name, 
he intended to remind Zedekiah of the just judgment of God if he would break the oath. 

806. Zedekiah reigned a full 1 1 years in Jerusalem and did evil in the sight of the Lord his God. 
He did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet who spoke to him in the name the Lord 
but stiffened his neck and hardened his heart that he might not return to the Lord God of Israel. 
Jer 1:3 32:1,2 2Ki 24:18,19 2Ch 36:11-13 Indeed, all the leaders of the priests and the people of 
the whole land transgressed the law and polluted the house of the Lord which God had 
sanctified in Jerusalem. Nor would they listen to the word of the Lord, which he spoke to them 
by the mouth of his prophet Jeremiah and other prophets. Instead, they despised them and 
mocked the messengers which God sent to them until the fire of God's fury burst upon his 
people. Jer 37:2 2Ch 36:14-16. 

807. After Jeconiah was carried away, God revealed to Jeremiah in a vision of two baskets of 
figs, the captivity of the new king Zedekiah and the remainder of the people. Jer 24: 1,2,8,9, 

808. In the beginning of Zedekiah's reign, Jeremiah prophesied the captivity and restoration of 
the Elamites. Jer 49:34-39 For Nebuchadnezzar had taken from Astyages, the whole province of 
Elam, with the city Susa on the river Ulai and annexed it to his kingdom. Jer 25:25 Da 8:1,2 
Later these Elamites combined with the Medes against the Babylonians. Isa 21:2 When 
Belshazzar was overthrown, they recovered their state again, under Cyrus. Their chief city Susa 
was made by Cyrus to be the seat of the Persian kingdom. (Strabo, 1. 15) 

809. When ambassadors came from the various kings of Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon 
to Jerusalem, to visit the new king Zedekiah, God told Jeremiah to give to each of them chains 
and whips to be presented to their masters. He commanded them all to submit to 
Nebuchadnezzar and stop listening to their wizards and stargazers, who advised them not to 
submit. He advised Zedekiah to remain loyal to the king of Babylon and to beware of the false 
prophets. By threats and promises he persuaded many of the people to submit to and obey the 
king of Babylon. Jer 39:1-18 

810. When Jeconiah was carried away with the other captives, Zedekiah sent Elasah, the son of 
Shaphan and Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, to Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon. Jeremiah sent a letter 
by them which he had written to the elders and priests and prophets and the rest of the people, 



who had been carried from there by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In the letter, the prophet 
instructed them how to behave themselves in captivity and comforted them with a gracious 
promise of deliverance at the end of the 70 years. He predicts the great calamities which were to 
fall on those whom they had left behind in Jerusalem. He foretold the miserable end which 
Ahab, the son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah the son of Maaseiah, the two false prophets should come 
to. Jer 29:1-23 

3406 AM, 4116 JP, 598 BC 

811. Seraiah sent letters, as it seems, by Zedekiah's messengers, when they returned from 
Babylon, to Zephaniah, (who was the second chief priest) 2Ki 25:18 and to the rest of the priests 
at Jerusalem. He denounced what the prophet Jeremiah had written to them. When this was read 
to Jeremiah, he pronounced a heavy judgment from God on him. Jer 29:24,32 At this time also it 
seems he made those notable prophecies concerning the kingdom of Christ and restoration of the 
church in Jer 30:1-31:40. 

3407 AM, 4117 JP, 597 BC 

812. Cresus was born. He was the son of Halyattes, king of Lydia and his mother was a woman 
of Caria. It appears that he was 35 years of age, when he began to reign. (Herod. 1. I.e. 26. and 
92.) 

3408dAM,4118JP, 596BC 

813. In the 5th month of the 4th year of Zedekiah, Hananiah a false prophet, made a false 
prophesy. He said that at the end of two years, all the vessels, and furniture of the house of the 
Lord and Jeconiah and all the people, who were carried away to Babylon would return and be 
brought home again. When Jeremiah mocked him, he took a yoke of wood from about 
Jeremiah's neck and broke it. He said: 

vv Thus shall the Lord break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, within two years precisely, from off 
the neck of all the nations:" 

814. Jeremiah replied, 

vv That God, instead of that wooden yoke, would lay an iron one upon the neck of all these 
nations, under which they should bow, and serve the king of Babylon, Jer 28:1-14 

3409a AM, 41 18 JP, 596 BC 

815. Hananiah the false prophet died in the seventh month according to the word of Jeremiah. 
Astyages, after the death of his father Cyaxares, reigned over the Medes 35 years. (Herod. 1. 1. 
c. 130.) He is also called, Ahasuerus, Da 9:1 or Asuerus. /APC Tob 14:15 

3409c AM, 4119 JP, 595 BC 



816. God by his prophet Jeremiah foretold that Babylon and the land of Chaldea should be 
overrun and laid waste by the Medes and Persians. He comforted his people with the sweet 
promises of their deliverance. Jer 50:1-51:64 

817. Zedekiah, in the 4th year of his reign, sent Seraiah, the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah 
to Babylon, to whom Jeremiah delivered the these prophecies of the destruction of Babylon. 
These were written in a book. He read the book to the people and threw it into the river 
Euphrates. Jer 51:59-64 His brother Baruch, son also of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, Jer 32:12 
51:59 Jeremiah's scribe, is thought to have gone to Babylon with Seraiah. 

3409dAM,4119JP, 595BC 

818. Baruch is said to have read all the words of his own book to Jeconiah, the son of Jehoiakim 
and to all the captives that were then dwelling with him at that time in Babylon. This was in the 
5th year, (that is after Jeconiah was carried away to Babylon) in the 7th month, at the time when 
the Chaldeans took Jerusalem and burnt it with fire. /APC Bar 1:2-4 Some think that this was 
the same month when Jeconiah gave himself up to the king of Babylon and Jerusalem was taken 
and perhaps partially set on fire by the Chaldeans. For I cannot agree with Severus Salpicius, 
who perhaps taking it from that text, states in his first book of his Sacred History that at this 
very time: 

vv Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem with his army and laid both city and walls, temple and all, 
even with the ground," 

819. Yet the former guess of Fran. Junius, concerning the quenching of the fire, and the taking 
of the city is somewhat more tolerable than that of our seminary priests of Downay when they 
said: 

vv that the whole time of the taking of Jerusalem, lasted eleven years before it was wholly burnt:" 

820. That is from the time, when it was taken under Jeconiah until the time it was taken under 
Zedekiah. This book was written in the 5th year of that interval of time. Hugo Grotius thinks 
that the first writer of it means here that the fifth year after the carrying away of Jeconiah. The 
phrase "the rest of the burning of Jerusalem", was added later by someone else who was of 
opinion that Baruch never went to Babylon until after the burning of Jerusalem, which happened 
in the reign of Zedekiah. 

821. Ezekiel had his first vision from God in the beginning of the 30th year from restoration of 
the worship of God in the 18th year of Josiah's reign, or the 5th year of the captivity of 
Jehoiakim or Jeconiah, 5th day of the 4th month, (on Saturday, July 24th). He was among the 
rest of the company that were carried away to Babylon, by the river Chebar or Chaborra 
according to Strabo and Ptolemy. Eze 1:1,2,28 From here he was sent to be a prophet among the 
Jews of the captivity. When he came to those who dwelt at Telabib near the river Chebar, he sat 
down as a man distressed for 7 days. After this, God reminded him of his call with promises if 
he obeyed and with threats if he refused. He confirmed him with a new sign and gave him 
courage and boldness by his word. Eze 2:1-3:27 



822. The prophet was commanded to make a drawing of the siege of Jerusalem, and to lie a long 
time on his side for 390 days. This was to be a type of how many days the siege of the city of 
Jerusalem would last and of the number of years of the iniquity of the house of Israel from the 
time of Jeroboam. Eze 4:1-17 

3410 AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC 

823. Shortly after Plammis king of Egypt returned from his journey which he had made into 
Ethiopia, he died. His son, Apryes, succeeded him and reigned for 25 years. (Herod. 1. 2. c. 161) 
The scriptures call him Pharaohhophra. Jer 44:30 He and a well equipped army made an 
incursion into the Isle of Cyprus and upon Phoenicia. He took Sidon by force and the rest of that 
country by the very dread and terror of his name. After a main victory at sea, over both Cyprians 
and Phoenicians, he returned into Egypt with a huge spoil taken from them. (Diod. Sic. 1. 1.) It is 
reported of him, that he said that no God was able to put him out of his kingdom for he thought 
he made his kingdom very secure. (Herod. 2 c. 169) In Eze 39:3 (as Tremelius has noted) is in 
that allegorical Prosopopeia, most elegantly expressed, 

vv The river is mine own, for I have made for it myself." 

3410c AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC 

824. When Ezekiel had lain 390 days upon his left side, he turned to his right and lay there 40 
more days. This was a type of the many years of the iniquity of Judah. Eze 4:6 See also Eze 5:1- 

7:27 

3410d AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC 

825. In the 6th year of Jeconiah's captivity and 5th day of it, (which was Wednesday, September 
22nd) God carried Ezekiel away by the Spirit to Jerusalem. In a vision there, he showed him the 
infinite idolatry practised there and the plagues which were to befall that city for this. Eze 8:1 
9:1-11:25 

826. According to his prediction, Pelatia, the son of Benaiah died. God comforted the godly in 
their captivity in Babylon by the sanctification of his presence and with his evangelical promises 
for the time to come. When the vision was over, the prophet was brought back by the Spirit to 
his people in Chaldea and there declares to them all that God had showed him. Eze 11:13-25 

341 la AM, 4120 JP, 594 BC 

827. God by signs and words predicts Zedekiah's flight by night, the putting out of his eyes, his 
going into captivity and his dying in Babylon. Also he foretells the captivity of the Jews and the 
calamities which they were to endure before this captivity. Eze 12:1-28 In this same year, the 
next 7 chapters of Ezekiel were written. From his writings we understand that Daniel's name 
was at that time very famous for his continual prayers which he made for the people of the 
captivity. Eze 14:14,20 Zedekiah did not regard the covenant and oath which he had sworn and 
rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar. Eze 17:15,17 



3411dAM,4121 JP, 593BC 

828. In the 7th year of Jeconiah's captivity, the 10th day of the 5th month (Sunday, August 
27th), Ezekiel reproved the elders for their gross hypocrisy in coming to ask counsel of God. He 
prophesied of the calamity that was to come on all flesh. He pronounced God's judgment on the 
idolaters and comfort to the godly. Eze 20:1-23:49 

3413 AM, 4123 JP, 591 BC 

829. After Battus founded the kingdom of Cyrene, he was succeeded by his son Arcesilaus who 
reigned 16 years. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 159.) 

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC 

830. This was a sabbatical year in which the men of Jerusalem, set their servants at liberty 
according to the law. Eze 21:2 De 15:1,2,12 Jer 34:8-10 The men of Jerusalem also heard that 
Nebuchadnezzar was approaching with his army. Nebuchadnezzar marched against Zedekiah 
and ravaged all the country. He took their strong holds and came before the very walls of 
Jerusalem. (Joseph, Antiq. 1. 10. c. 10.) He had taken all the cities of Judah, except Lachish, 
Azekah and Jerusalem. All of these cities were besieged by all his forces. Jer. 34:1-7 

3414b AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC 

831. The siege of Jerusalem did not begin until the middle of winter. In the 9th year of the reign 
of Zedekiah on the 10th day, (Thursday, January 30th) Nebuchadnezzar with all his army came 
before Jerusalem. He built forts all around it. 2Ki 25:1 Jer 39:1 52:4 In memorial of this event a 
yearly fast is kept among the Jews beginning from the captivity until this day.Zec 8:19 

832. On the same day of the siege of Jerusalem, God revealed to Ezekiel who was in Chaldea its 
complete destruction. This was represented to him in type to a seething pot. His wife died that 
day in the evening. He was told not to mourn her death. In this way he was to signify the 
grievous calamity of the Jews which was to surpass all expressions of grief by mourning.Eze 

24:1-27 

3414d AM, 4124 JP, 590 BC 

833. God told the prophet Jeremiah to tell Zedekiah of the complete destruction and burning of 
Jerusalem brought on by the king of Babylon. Zedekiah was to be carried away prisoner to 
Babylon. However, he would die in peace and have an honourable burial. Jer 34:1-7 

834. Zedekiah imprisoned Jeremiah for his prophecy in the king's prison house. This happened 
in the 10th year of Zedekiah and the beginning of the 18th year of Nebuchadnezzar. He 
recovered the land of Hanameel, by right of redemption. Jer 32:1-16 All things then came to 
pass which he foretold. These are contained in Jer 32:1-33:26 

835. Pharaohhophra, also called Vaphris, came with his army from Egypt, to help Zedekiah and 
the Chaldeans raised the siege before Jerusalem. Jeremiah was allowed to go free during the 



siege and had not been thrown into the dungeon until later. Zedekiah sent messengers to 
Jeremiah to ask him to make intercession to God for the deliverance of the people. Jeremiah told 
him that the Egyptians would return to their own land and the Chaldeans would return to 
Jerusalem and destroy the city by fire.Jer 37:3-10 

836. When the siege was raised the people took back their Hebrew servants whom they had 
formerly set free, because they no longer feared the enemy. They made them serve them as 
before, which was contrary to the law and covenant. For this barbarous act, Jeremiah reproved 
them, telling them if they released their servants they would escape the sword, famine and 
pestilence of the returning Chaldeans. He told them the Chaldeans would be returning to make 
war again and would take their city and burn it to the ground. Jer 34: 1 1-22 

837. While the Chaldeans were perusing the Egyptian army, Jeremiah planned to escape but he 
was stopped by the princes. He was taken and scourged and cast into the dungeon in Jonathan's 
house for a long time. Jer 37:11-16 While Nebuchadnezzar was perusing the Egyptians in the 
18th year of his reign, he took 832 prisoners from Jerusalem and for safeguard, he sent them all 
back to Babylon. Jer 52:29 

838. Pittacus of Mitylene was one of the 7 wise men. He was sent against Phrynon who was 
surnamed the Pancratiast, which means "a man excellent in all feats of chivalry". Phrynon was 
an olympian who won the bell in the games at Olympus. At that time he was serving as a 
general of the Athenian army. He had taken two towns, Sigeum and Achilleum, from the 
Lacedemonians, with a Navy to Troas. In this battle, the Athenians were victorious. They took 
the shield of Abraeus, since the poet of Mitylene, had thrown it away in his efforts to escape. 
They hung it up in the temple of Minerva in Sigeum. After this, Phrynon challenged any man 
that dared to encounter him to a single combat. Pittacus accepted the challenge and with a little 
net which he had hid under the hollow of his shield, he caught him by the head and killed him 
with his three-forked spear. The Mitylenians offered him a large portion of land for killing 
Phrynon. He only accepted as much land as he could throw his spear across. On this land he 
built a temple and called it Pittacium. This story seems to be mangled and is imperfect in 
Herodotus, (1. 5. c. 95.) However that defects in him is supplied by Plutarch, in his book entitled, 
"De malignitate Herodoti", of the envy, or spitefulness of Herodotus, together with (Strabo, 1. 
13. Polyenus, 1. 1.) Festus, in the word, Retiarius "a fighter with a net." and Diogenes Laetius, 1. 
1.) He tells us, that the Mitylenians for that service made him their sovereign, of their own 
accord, 20 years before he died. He states this was in the third year of the 52nd Olympiad. In 
carefully calculating it, I chose to place it in the 3rd year of the 47th, though Eusebius places it 
on the 2nd year of the 43rd Olympiad. This seems to more closely agree because in the 
Catalogue of the Victorious Runners who won prizes, Phrynon, is said to have gotten the bell in 
the 36th Olympiad. The war did not end with this duel, but their quarrel was referred to by both 
parties to Periander of Corinth, who was also reckoned as another of the seven wise men of the 
world. As an indifferent arbitrator, he ordered that each party should hold what they had in their 
possession. The Mitylenians were to keep the Town of Achilleum and the Athenians Sigeum. 
(Herod. 1. 5. c. 94. 54. Strabo 1. 13.) Periander out of Sosicrates shows that Laertius died 6 years 
after this and before the 49th Olympiad. This reveals Herodotus' error in his account of times, 
where he makes this peace between the Athenians and Mitylenians, toward the latter end of the 
Successors of Pisistratus in Athens' government. 

3415b AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC 



839. In the 10th year of the captivity of Jeconiah and on the 12th day of the 10th month, (on 
Sunday, February 1st.) Ezekiel prophesied against Pharaoh and all Egypt. Ezekiel foretold that 
Pharaoh would prove to be only a staff or reed to the house of Israel. Pharaoh's attempts to 
relieve Israel were all in vain. He predicted that Pharaoh himself would be over thrown in the 
desert of Libya by the Cyreraeans. (see note in the year 3430). Egypt was to be miserably 
wasted by the Babylonians and that desolation would last for 40 years, Eze 29:1-16 

3415c AM, 4125 JP, 589 BC 

840. When Nebuchadnezzar had routed the Egyptian army, he presently returned to the siege of 
Jerusalem about the 15th day of the 3rd month, that is , 30 days before he took it.Eze 4:5,8 
Jeremiah told Zedekiah that he would be given into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar. Zedekiah 
then command him to be removed out of the Dungeon of the prison in Jonathan's house and 
taken into the court of the prison. He was to be given a roll of bread each day as long as there 
was any bread left in the city, Jer 37: 17,21 

3415dAM,4125JP, 589BC 

841. As the siege continued Zedekiah inquired of Jeremiah, but he still sent him the same 
answer, that both king and people must fall into Nebuchadnezzar's hands. He said if any stayed 
in the city they would perish by sword, famine or pestilence. However, if any would go out, and 
submit to the king of Babylon, they would have their lives saved.Jer 21:1-14 

842. The princes cast Jeremiah into Malchiah's dungeon, which was in the court of the prison for 
answering the king in this way. He was delivered by the help of Ebed-Melech, one of the kings 
Eunuchs, and was again consulted by the king. When he still continued in pronouncing 
judgment against the land of Judah, he was still kept in the court of the prison until the city was 
taken. Jer 38: 1-28 He assured Ebedmelech, in the name of the Lord; that he would be free from 
all harm and danger in that calamity. Jer 39:15-18 

3416c AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC 

843. Tyre rejoiced to see the wretched condition Jerusalem experienced by Nebuchadnezzar's 
hand. However, in the 1 1th year of Jeconiah's captivity, in the first day of the first month, 
Ezekiel prophesied that Tyre would also perish in like manner by the same hand and that all who 
saw her former wealth and bravery would be amazed. Tremellius and Pradus places this 
prophecy in the 5th month. This would place it in the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity in 
Babylon. He also foretold the same misery for the Sidonians, Tyre's neighbours. Eze 26:1-18 At 
that time the fame of Daniel's wisdom was so great, even in foreign nations, that used to speak 
in a proverbial way "as wise as Daniel". It was from this man that God upbraided Ithobolus king 
of Tyre, with his pride and arrogancy of his mind. 

vv behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; no secret can be hid from thee," Eze 28:3 

844. In the same year, the 7th day of the 3rd month, (Tuesday, April 26th) God revealed his will 
to Ezekiel, of sending and arming Nebuchadnezzar against Pharaoh, to the ruin of Egypt. Eze 
30:20-26 



845. In the same year also, upon the first day of the 3rd month, (Sunday, June 19th) God 
declared that the Egyptian, could no more avoid this determination, than the Assyrian could. Eze 
31:1-18 

846. Near the end of the 1 1th year of Zedekiah, Jer 1:3 on the 9th day of the 4th month 
(Wednesday, July 27th) the famine grew strong in Jerusalem. The city was broken up and the 
Chaldeans entered it. 2Ki 26:2-4 Jer 39:2,3 52:5-7 

847. When the city was taken Zedekiah and all the men of war fled away by night. 

848. The Chaldeans pursued after them and took Zedekiah. They brought him as a prisoner to 
Riblah where Nebuchadnezzar was. He saw his children slaughtered and he had then his eyes 
put out. He was enchained with steel chains and carried away from there to Babylon. 2Ki 25:4,7 
Jer 39:4,7 52:7,1 1 The prophecies were fulfilled of him, that with his eyes he would see the king 
of Babylon, Jer 32:4 34:3 but he would not see Babylon although he would die there. Eze 12:13 

849. On the 7th day of the 4th month (Wednesday, August 24th) Nebuzaradan, captain of the 
guard was sent by Nebuchadnezzar to enter the city.2Ki 25:8 He spent two days preparing 
provisions. On the 10th day of that month, (Sunday, August 27th) he executed his charge. He set 
fire to the temple and on the king's palace. He also burned to the ground all the noble men's 
houses, with all the rest of the houses in Jerusalem.Jer 52:13 39:8 Our country man Tho. 
Lydiate, thinks that fire was set on it on the 7th day; but not burnt down till the 10th. In 
remembrance of this calamity, the fast of the 5th month was ordained to be kept.Zec 7:3,5 8:19 
This fast is observed by the Jews to this day. However it is kept by them on the 9th day and not 
the 10th of the month Ab. The temple was destroyed toward the end of the 19th year of 
Nebuchadnezzar's reign. Jer 52: 12 2Ki 25:9 This was in the beginning of the first year of the 
48th olympiad, in the 160th year, running of Nebonasar's account, 424 years, 3 months and 8 
days, from the time that Solomon laid the first stone. 

850. On the same 5th month, Jer 1:3 all the walls of Jerusalem were levelled to the ground. 
Nebuchadnezzar carried back to Babylon all the remaining people in the city, all those who had 
formerly fled over to him, all the common people of the city, all the treasure of the king and of 
his nobles and the furniture of the temple. Jer 39: 8,9 52:14,23 2Ki 25:10,17 2Ch 36:18-20 Thus, 
Judah was carried away out of her own land. Jer 52:27 2Ki 25:21 468 years after David began to 
reign over it. These events have been recorded from the dividing of the 10 tribes, from the tribe 
of Judah, 388 years and from the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, 134 years. 

Previous Next Table of Contents 



The Sixth Age of the World 

851. Nebuzaradan left the basest sort of the people in the land of Judah to dress the vineyards 
and to till the ground. The king appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, a man of the same 
country as governor Jer 39:10 42:16 2Ki 25:1,22,23 but without any kingly title. The reason for 
this is, as Severus Supitius, in his sacred History, notes: 

vv To have some preeminence over a few miserable boors or persons, was not reckoned to be any 
dignity at all." 

852. Nebuzaradan took to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the 
second priest and the three keepers of the gate of the temple, and other principal men. They were 
put to death there. Jer 52:24,27 2Ki 25:18,21 Jehozadak, the son of Seraiah and who after him 
came to be the high priest, was carried away captive to Babylon. ICh 6:15 

853. Jeremiah was bound with chains and was carried with the rest as far as Ramah towards 
Babylon. There his irons were removed and he was set free. He was given his choice of either 
going to Babylon and there to be honourably treated or stay in the country with those miserable 
wretches who were left behind. He decided to stay and was sent back with money in his purse to 
Gedaliah the governor at Mizpah in the tribe of Benjamin. Jer 39:1 1-14 40:1-6 

854. The captains and companies, who fled by night when the city was first taken, 2Ki 25:4 Jer 
52:7 were scattered over the country. These with all the Jews who had fled to the Moabites and 
Ammonites and other nearby nations, after a while returned to Gedaliah in their own country. 
They were given a good provision of wine and oil and other summer fruits to live on. Jer 
40:7,12 2Ki 25:23,24 

855. Ishmael, the son of Nethaniah, of the family of the kings of Judah was bribed by Baalis 
king of the Ammonites to kill Gedaliah. He came to him with ten resolute fellows to Mizpah. 
They were graciously entertained by Gedaliah who gave no credit to those who told him of 
Ishmael's treachery and died as a result. Jer 40:13-16 

3417a AM, 4126 JP, 588 BC 

856. In the 7th month, Ishmael with his ten companions murdered Gedaliah as well as any 
Chaldeans and men of arms they found in Mizpah. Jer 41:1-3 2Ki 25:25 In remembrance of this, 
the Jews keep a fast to this day, on the 3rd day of this month Tizri. A day or two later, the same 
Ishmael slew some more men, who clad in mourning apparel, brought offerings and 
frankincense from Sichem, Shiloh and Samaria to the house of the Lord that now lay in ruins. 
These were tricked into going to Mizpah, where they were murdered in the open streets. Their 
bodies were cast into the well of king Asa. Jer 41:4-9 

857. Ishmael returned to the king of Ammon with the king's daughters and the rest of the people 
who were left at Mizpah as his prisoners. Johanan, the son of Kareah, met him with a band of 
men and took away all his prisoners and set them free. Ishmael with only eight men in his 
company fled to the Ammonites. Jer 41:10,15 



858. Johanan and all his captains with the rest of the people remained near Bethlehem. For fear 
of the Chaldeans they intended to flee into Egypt. Jer 41:16-18 Many of them went to Jeremiah 
and desired an answer by him from God about this plan. After 10 days, he told them God's 
message. He exhorted them not to leave their country. He assured them that if they stayed, God 
would protect them there and that no harm should come to them from the Babylonians. If they 
went into Egypt, everyone of them would perish by sword, by famine, by other kinds of death. 
The common people went into Egypt according to their old custom of never obeying good 
counsel nor God's commands. They took Jeremiah and Baruch the son of Neriah with them to 
Tahpanhes. Here Jeremiah declared to them in a type, the destruction of Egypt by 
Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 42:1-43:13 (Severus Sulpicius, Sacred History, 1. 2.) 

3417b AM, 4127 JP, 587 BC 

859. In the 12th year of Jeconiah's captivity, on the 5th day of the 10th month, (Wednesday, 
January 25th) when news came to Ezekiel of the taking of Jerusalem, the prophet foretold of the 
utter destruction of the remaining Israelites. This was after the others had fled to Egypt. Eze 
32:1-16 

860. In the same 12th year, in the first day of the 12th month, (Wednesday, March 22nd) Ezekiel 
prophesied of the grievous plague and affliction which Nebuchadnezzar would bring on the land 
of Egypt. Eze 33:1-16 

861. On the 15th day, the same prophet predicted of Pharaoh and all the people of Egypt that 
they would be brought down as low as hell with the rest of the uncircumcised nations. Eze 32: 17- 

32 

862. Jeremiah prophesied of the destruction which would follow the Israelites at Migdol not far 
from the Red Sea, Ex 14:2 at Tahpanhes, (or Daphne-pelusium), at Noph, at Memphis and in 
Pathros, a country in Egypt. For a certain sign of their own misery, he gave them Pharaoh, or 
Apryes, king of Egypt, whom they should see brought low before their eyes. Jer 44: 1-30 

863. Obadiah the prophet uttered a prophecy against Edom, which shamefully gloated over the 
calamity of the Jews when Jerusalem was destroyed. Likewise Jeremiah did, Jer 49:7 Eze 25:12 
and the authors of the Psalms, Ps 79:1-1-13 137:1-9 who wrote about the same time. 

3418 AM, 4128 JP, 586 BC 

864. When Cyrus had lived 12 years or more with his father in Persia, his grandfather Astyages 
sent for him. He and his mother Mandane went to him in Media. (Xenophon, li. 1. of the 
Unstitu. of Cyrus.) 

3419 AM, 4129 JP, 585 BC 

865. When Ithobalus was reigning in Tyre, it was besieged 13 years by Nebuchadnezzar. 
Josephus reports this from Philostratus and other writers of the affairs of Phoenicia. (Antiq. 1. 
10. c. 11. & 1. 1. cont. Apion.) During these 13 years, it seems that the neighbouring nations, the 



Moabites, the Ammonites and Edomites, were also subdued by Nebuchadnezzar, according to 
the predictions of the prophets. Jer 27:1-22 48:1-49:39 Eze 25:1-17 

3420 AM, 4130 JP, 584 BC 

866. It was the 23rd year of Nebuchadnezzar's reign when he lay siege to Tyre, which borders 
the land of Israel.Jos 19:29 Nebuzaradan, captain of his guard, took away 745 remaining Jews 
and Israelites together to Babylon. Jer 52:30 This extreme depopulation was foretold by Ezekiel 
Eze 4:5,6 in reference to the iniquity of Israel lasting 350 years, which was distinct from Judah's 
iniquity lasting 40 years until it was ended. 

3421 AM, 4131 JP, 583 BC 

867. Cyrus was now almost 16 years of age. Evil-merodach, the king of Assyria's son, was about 
to marry a wife called Nicotris. He made an inroad, with a great army of cavalry and foot 
soldiers on the borders of Media. There he took his pleasure in hunting and harrowing the 
country. Astyages, Cyaxares' son and Cyrus' grandchild had just begun to bear arms. They 
marched out and met him in a battle with the cavalry and overthrew him, driving him out of his 
borders. (Xenophon. 1. 1. of the institution of Cyrus.) 

868. After this Cyrus was called home by his father Cambyses. He had one year left of 
schooling. Xenophon in the same book tells us this. It is also referenced in Athenaeus', 14th 
book Dipnosoph out of Dion that Cyrus who served Astyages as the holder of his battle-axe and 
later as one of his armour bearers returned into Persia. At that same time Angeres who was a 
musician sang a song while Astyages feasted his friends. He said: 

vv That a fierce wild beast, more fierce than any boar; was let go, and sent into a sunny country 
and that he should reign over all these provinces and should with a handful of men, maintain 
war against great armies, &c." 

869. Astyages tried to call back Cyrus again, but could not get him. 

3422 AM, 4132 JP, 582 BC 

870. Cyrus spent 17 years among boys and then he spent ten years more among the youths. 
(Xenophon 1. 1. of the Instit. of Cyrus.) 

3424 AM, 4134 JP, 580 BC 

871. In the 50th Olympiad, Epitelides the Lacedemonian, won the race in running. Certain men 
from Cnidos, not Rhodes, avoided the hostility of the kings of Asia by agreeing to make a 
colony elsewhere. They made Pentathlus a Cnidian, who was of the family of Hippotas, the son 
of Hercules. They moved to Sicily when Egesta and Selinunte were at war with each other. 
Pentathlus was killed while fighting within the ranks of the Selinuntians. The rest of them made 
Gorgus, Thestor and Epethirsis their captains. These men were all from the same family as 
Pentathlus was. They set sail from there and settled in the Isle of Lipara, (Diod. Sic. 1. 5.) 



3429 AM, 4139 JP, 575 BC 

872. Arcesilars reigned 16 years in Cyrenaica and was succeeded by his son Battus who was 
surnamed Eudaemon. A large multitude of Greeks were advised by the Oracle at Delphi to go to 
Battus. They ravaged the lands of the bordering Libyans and divided it among themselves. 
Before this the colony in Cyrene consisted only of those who came from the Isle of Thera whose 
founder was Battus. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 159.) 

3430c AM, 4140 JP, 574 BC 

873. On the 10th day of the first month of the 25th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, 
April 30th) Jonathan the Chaldee Paraphrast states that 14 years after the destruction of 
Jerusalem, Ezekiel had a vision. In this vision the temple, the city and the kingdom of the 
Israelites was restored. This also foretold the restoration of the church by Christ with its 
greatness, honour and excellence. Eze 40:1-48:35 

874. The Libyans were driven out of their lands and country by the inhabitants of Cyrenaica. 
They put themselves under the protection of Apryes king of Egypt. He gathered a great army 
together and sent them against the Cyrenians. The Cyrenians camped at a place called Irasa near 
the fountain called Thestis. They routed the army of the Egyptians so that only a few of them 
were left to return again into Egypt. The Egyptians grew angry with Apryes and revolted from 
him. They thought that he purposely sent them on a suicide mission to be rid of them. They 
reasoned that he did this so that he might more easily dominate the rest that were left. (Herod. 1. 
4. c. 159, 1. 2. 161. Diodor. sic. 1. 1.) 

3431 AM, 4141 JP, 573 BC 

875. Amasis, also called Saits, (who was frequently spoken of by Plato in his Timaeus) was sent 
by his father to stop this rebellion of the people. However, they made him king instead of his 
father. Apryes sent Paterbanes, a noble person, to call Amasis back. When Paterbanes returned, 
they cut off his nose and ears, because he did not bring Amasis back with him. After this 
unworthy act took place, all the people defected from him to Amasis. (Herod. 1. 2. c. 162.) 

3432b AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC 

876. Finally, Tyre surrendered to Nebuchadnezzar. It was not taken by force, and was ransacked 
by the soldiers. Eze 29:18,19 Therefore he replaced king Ithobains with Gaal, a man of the same 
country to be a petty king there. He governed them 10 years, as Josephus affirms from the 
Annals of the Phoenicians, (lib. 1. contra Apion.) 

3432c AM, 4142 JP, 572 BC 

877. In the 1st day of the 1st month of the 27th year of the captivity of Jeconiah, (Tuesday, April 
21st.) God promised to give all Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar for a spoil in recompence for his long 
labour in defeating Tyre. Eze 29:17-20 

878. When Cyrus was 27 years old, he was taken from the rank of striplings, and reckoned 



among the number of men, according to the discipline and use of the Persians. (Xenophon, 1. 1. 
of the institution of Cyrus.) 

879. Taking advantage of the rebellion in Eygpt, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt with his army 
after he was solicited by Amasis to help him against his father Apryes. After he conquored it 
from Syene to the ends of it, he made havock of the Egyptians and of the Jews which lived 
there. Some he killed and he lead away the rest into captivity according to Jeremiah's 
prophecies. Jer 43:1-44:30 46:1-24 Eze 29:1-31:18 

3433 AM, 4143 JP, 571 BC 

880. Pharaohhophra, or Apryes, was forced to retreat into the country of Thebez. It seems 
Nebuchadnezzar made Amasis his viceroy over all Egypt. Though Herodotus did not know of 
this for Scaliger observes in his notes, Ad Fragmenta: 

vv The priests of Egypt told him of such things, as he desired to know. They spoke only of things 
that glorified their nation, but concealed the rest. This showed their cowardice and slavery, and 
made payment of tribute to the Chaldeans." 

3434 AM, 4144 JP, 570 BC 

881. When Nebuchadnezzar finished his conquests, he returned to Babylon. When at ease in his 
own palace, he had that remarkable dream of the great tree whose destiny was to be cut down. 
This tree represented him. The meaning of it was explained by Daniel when he could not learn it 
from his wizards of Chaldea. Da 4: 1-37 

882. Nebuchadnezzar now built up Babylon in wonderful magnificence and beauty. He built a 
whole new city outside the old one and enclosed all of it with a triple wall made of brick. As a 
favour to his Median wife called Amyrtis, (of whom I spoke in 3374 AM) king Astyages' 
daughter, he made that famous and so much renowned garden, born on pillars of which Berosus 
writes: 

vv He built that garden, called the Hanging Garden, because his wife desired the pleasure of the 
hills since she was brought up in Media." 

883. Q. Curtius said: 

vv It is said that a king of Syria, reigning in Babylon, built this great work at the importunity of 
his wife, whom he dearly loved. She desired to enjoy the pleasure of hills and woods, in that low 
country of Babylon and set her husband to the task of imitating the genius or spirit of Nature 
itself, by the amenity and pleasantness of this work." 

884. Those who would know more of the infinite magnificence and sumptuousness of this work 
must read the fragments which are left from Berosus and Abydenus. The former blames the 
Greek writers who attribute this work to Semyramis, where indeed, this and those other vast and 
magnificent structures were the works of this Nebuchadnezzar. So states Josephus, in his first 
Book centra Apion. The latter writer says plainly that those vast walls with their brazen gates 



were reckoned among the wonders of the world and remained to the times of Alexander the 
Great. Eubebius in his ninth book, De Evangelical Preparat. attributes this to Nebuchadnezzar. 
Clitarchus and others, who accompanied Alexander in that journey state that the circumfirence 
of that wall was 365 furlongs, (about 46 miles) according to the number of the days of the year. 
(Diod. Sic. 1. 1.) They also state that every furlong's length of it was built and completed in one 
day. (Q. Curtius, 1. 5. c. 4.) 

885. Twelve whole months were no sooner past, but Nebuchadnezzar, growing proud and 
boastful of the magnificency of his buildings, lost his mind and was put out of his palace. He 
spent seven years in the woods and fields among beasts. Da 4:32,33 

886. Apryes gathered an army of 30,000 mercenaries from Ionia and Caria to help him fight 
with his son Amasis, at Memphis. The army was routed and he was taken prisoner. He was kept 
for a while in the city of Sais. Not long after this, he was strangled, according to the prophecy of 
Jer 44:30. (Herod. 1. 2. 163. and 169 and by Diod. Sic. 1.1.) 

887. After his death Amasis reigned 44 years, (Herod. 1. 31. c. 10.) and paid tribute all that time 
to the king of Babylon. The priests did not make that known to Herodotus. 

3442a AM, 4151 JP, 563 BC 

888. The 18th year of Jubilee. 

889. At the end of 7 years, Nebuchadnezzar humbly acknowledged the power of God. He was 
restored both to his right mind and his kingdom. He publicly proclaimed God's great grace and 
mercy shown toward him and his power over all nations. Da 4:34-37 

3442b AM, 4152 JP, 562 BC 

890. Nebuchadnezzar died after he had foretold that Cyrus would capture Babylon. So states 
Abydenus (quoted by Euseb. 1. 9. Prapar. Evang. c. ult.) based on the account from the 
Chaldeans. He departed this life after he had reigned about 20 months as viceroy in the kingdom 
with his father and 43 years by himself. 

891. After Nebuchadnezzar, his son Evilmerodach reigned. In the 37th year of the captivity of 
Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, about the 25th day of the 12th month (Tuesday, April 15th), 
Evilmerodach ordered Jeconiah to be promoted. Jer 52:31 Two days later he took him from 
prison, changed his prison clothes and sat him ahead of all the princes in his court. He counted 
him among the king's friends and for the rest of his life, Jeconiah ate at the king's table. 2Ki 
25:27-29 

892. In Lydia after Haylyattes died, his son Cresus reigned for 14 years. (Herod. 1. I.e. 86) 

893. After king Baal, the king of Babylon governed Tyre by judges. The first one was Ecnibalus 
the son of Baslacus, whom Scaliger calls. xl[m !b l[bAynk[ He ruled 3 months. Next came 
Chelbes, the son of Abdeus, whom Scaliger also calls ydba !b fbklx . He ruled there 10 months 
according to Josephus who writes this from the Phoenician Annals, { Josephus, Apion 1. 1. 



<1:783>} 

3443 AM, 4153 JP, 561 BC 

894. Abhar the high priest judged Tyre 3 months. After him, Mitgonus and Gerastratus governed 
them for 6 years. { Josephus, Apion 1. 1. <1:783>} 

895. When Croesus was living at Sardis, all the wise and learned men of Greece went to him 
including Solon the law maker. Solon had that famous discussion with Croesus about of the 
uncertainty of man's life and of all human happiness in it. (Herod. 1. I.e. 28-33) There exists at 
Laertius a short epistle of Solon's to Croesus that Solon wrote near the end of his life. He said 
that he was sent for by Croesus at the time Pisistratus governed Athens. At the same time, 
Aesop, a Phrygian who composed those famous fables, was sent for by Croesus to come to him 
at Sardis. Croesus held Aesop in great esteem. Croesus was upset with Solon and was dismissed 
in an uncivil manner because Solon spoke quite candidly to him. He sent him a letter stating that 
kings must have either very few or very pleasing words spoken to them. Solon wrote back that 
kings must have, either very few or very honest things spoken to them. { * Plutarch, Solon, 1. I.e. 
28. 1:483,485} 

896. Aesop went from Sardis to Delphi and was there most unjustly sentenced to die. 
Accordingly he was thrown down the rock there, called Phaedrias, about the 54th olympiad 
according to Trabe. That is near the end of the 4th year of that olympiad, if the times be 
correctly calculated. The revenge of this murder was often threatened by the Oracle there. It was 
later executed by Judmon, grandchild to that Judmon of the Isle of Samos. Aesop sometime had 
been with this slave and with Rhodope of Thracia, that famous strumpet. (Herod. 1. 2. ca. 134.) 

897. After Solon left Croesus, he went into Cilicia and there built a city, and called it Solos after 
himself. He settled certain Athenians there. In process of time, they corrupted the native 
language and were said to commit solecisms in their speech according to Laertius in his life 
reports. This place is more properly said of the Solii in Cyprus than of the Solenses in Cilicia. 
This is shown by Solon in his eulogies written to Philonyprus the king, recorded by Plutarch, in 
the life of Solon. Here Plutarch also tells us that this petty king of Cyprus made use of Solon's 
wit and counsel in some of his own affairs. He moved a little town formerly called Epea, into a 
lower ground more fit and useful for habitation and in honour of Solon, called it Solos. 

898. After Solon departed, Croesus, who deemed himself the happiest man alive, found out by 
sad experience that all Solon had told him, of the instability of man's life and happiness of it was 
true. For shortly thereafter he had a dream in which he saw his son Atys thrust through with a 
spear. This was a portent of the violent death which was soon to happen to him. He sought 
diligently to prevent this and was prepared to marry him. Adrastus of Phrygia of the king's 
family there had slain his own brother. He was banished against his will by his father Midas, the 
son of Gordius, (not that old Midas, the son of Gordias king of Phrygia, whose Epitaph made by 
Homer and set upon his tomb, Herodutus in the life of Homer recounts). He came to Sardis and 
Croesus pardoned him for this accidental death. When Croesus had done this, he committed to 
him the care and safe keeping of his son Atys. At that time, he was requested by the Mysians to 
come and help kill a huge boar which destroyed the grain and other crops growing about the hill 
Olympus. It also often killed many of the farmers. When Adrastus aimed at the boar with the 
point of his spear, he accidentally gored Atys and killed him. When Croesus had pardoned him 



for this, he killed himself on the tomb of Atys. When Croesus lost his son, he spent two whole 
years mourning for him. He broke off his mourning for fear of Cyrus' growing power and by 
whom he was afterward conquered. (Herod. 1. I.e. 34-46.) whereof also you may see, what Hen. 
Valesius states in his collections (Diodo. Sic. p. 238.) and what Val. Max. states (1. 1. c. 7.). 

3444c AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC 

899. Evilmerodach the king of Babylon, was a wicked man. He had many attempts made on his 
life and was murdered by Neriglissoros, his sister's husband, when he had reigned little more 
than two years. (Berosus 1. 3. of the Chaldean Affairs, cited by Josephus 1. 1. contra Apion) We 
read that Jeconiah king of Judah had a daily food allowance made for him for his diet until he 
died. Jer 52:34 2Ki 25:30 Therefore, it is most probable, that Jeconiah himself died about the 
same time Evilmerodach died. 

3444d AM, 4154 JP, 560 BC 

900. After Neriglissoros murdered Evilmerodach, he reigned 4 years. (Berosus 1. 3. Chalean 
Affairs) 

901. In the kingdom of Media when Astyages or Assuerus died, /APC Tob 14:15 he was 
succeeded by his son Cyaxares, Cyrus his mother's brother. (Xenophon 1. 1. of the Institution of 
Cyrus) This was in the beginning of the first year of the 55th Olympiad, 31 years before the 
death of Cyrus. Daniel calls Cyaxares, Darius the Mede, the son of Assuerus. 

3445 AM, 4155 JP, 559 BC 

902. The king of Babylon conscripted troops from his own subjects and help from Croesus the 
king of Lydia with the Cappadocians, the Phrygians, Carians Paphlagonians and Cisicians, on 
the west. On the east he approached the Indians also to join with him in battle against the Medes 
and Persians. He told them that they were two great nations who were now allied together. If 
they were not checked, they would eventually overrun and bring into subjection all countries 
near and far. Cyrus was made general of the Persian army by his father Cambyes and all the 
counsel of the kingdom. He was sent to Media with 30,000 soldiers and 1000 commanders all of 
equal authority under his command. (Xenophon, 1. 1. Institution of Cyrus ) When he came he 
was made general of the Median forces by his uncle Cyaxares who had sent for him and was 
placed solely in charge of the war against the Babylonians. From this time are the 30 years of his 
reign or principality reckoned starting from the end of the 1st year of the 55th Olympiad. (Julius 
Africanus, 1. 3. of his Annals, from Diod. Sic.) Thallus, Castor, Polybius, Phlegon, and other 
chronologers also count this as the beginning of the reign of Cyrus as cited by Eusebius. (1. 10. 
de Prapara. Evangelica.) 

903. In the spring of that year, at the close of the same year of the same Olympiad, Solon, left 
Philocyprus the king and the Solii. He thought to return to Athens as we find in his eulogies as 
mentioned before in Plutarch. However, he suddenly became sick and died in Cyprus at the age 
of 80 years. Laertius says this happened in the year when Hegestrates was archon or president of 
Athens and in the second year of Pisistratus ruling there. (Plutarch from Phanias the Ephesian) 



3446b AM, 4156 JP, 558 BC 

904. In the 30th year after the desolation of Jerusalem, the unknown author of 2nd Esdras claims 
to have had that conference with the angel Uriel. This is recorded in /APC 2Es 3:1-4:52 at what 
time Salathiel was captain of the people, /APC 2Es 5:16 because Jeconiah was dead. 

905. When Croesus was preparing to fight with Cyrus, he sent great presents to Delphi and 
consulted the oracle there concerning the matter of this war. This was 3 years before Sardis was 
taken. (Herod. 1. 1. c. 53-55, 91.) 

3447 AM, 4157 JP, 557 BC 

906. When the king of Armenia saw that the Babylonians were making preparations against 
Cyraxeres, he would neither send him aid nor pay him tribute any longer in spite of the 
agreement he had made when Astyages or Cyaxares had overcome and subjected him. 
Therefore, Cyaxares, under the pretence of a hunting trip, attacked Armenia and defeated both 
him and his son Tigranes in a battle. He put them under his control again. He also conquered the 
mountains which lie between Armenia and Chaldea and there built a strong fort. He made peace 
on certain conditions between the two nations. (Xenoph. 1. 3. de Instit. Cyri.) 

3448 AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC 

907. Cyaxares and Cyrus marched against the Babylonian king, Croesus and the rest of the 
confederates and gained a major victory over them. The king of Babylon fell in the battle and 
Croesus with those which were left, broke his camp by night and fled. Cyrus who had made a 
league with the Hircanians who had defected to him from the Babylonians, used their help and 
guidance in the way to pursue the fleeing enemy. He overtook them and after another battle he 
defeated them. After Croesus sent away his women by night because the days were so hot, he 
left his camp with all his horses. The Hyrcanins fell upon the companies of the Cappadocians 
and Arabians and slew both their kings. Cyrus spared the lives of such as either were taken by 
force or had yielded to mercy. He divided the spoil of the battle among his soldiers. (Herod. 1. 3, 
4.) 

3448c AM, 4158 JP, 556 BC 

908. Laborosoarchodus, son of Neriglissorus, was much more wicked than his father. He 
reigned after his father for 9 months in Babylon. (Berosus.) 

909. Balatorus reigned in Tyre for one year among other judges. (Phoenici. Annal.) 

910. Gobrias, had an only son who was killed by that new king of Babylon in a hunting match. 
He and his friends defected to Cyrus. (Xen. 1. 4.) 

911. Cyrus came to invade the country of Babylon. He stood outside the walls of the city and 
challenged the new king to a duel. Gadatas, was a noble man of whom this new king was jealous 
because the king's wife admired him, so he defected to Cyrus. The Babylonians sought revenge 
for this and spoiled Gadatas' lands. Cyrus pursued them and routed their forces. Unknown to 



Cyrus, the Cadusii, whom he had appointed as the rear guards of his army, had laid siege to a 
country near the city. They were cut off by the king of Babylon. When Cyrus first revenged the 
death of these men, he came to an agreement with the king to allow only the soldiers to fight 
allowing the peasants on both sides to hold a truce. He passed beyond the city and captured 
three of their forts. He returned to the confines of Assyria and Media from where he started. He 
invited his uncle Cyaxares to come him. When he came there, Cyrus honourably received and 
entertained him in the pavilion of the king of Assyria, Neriglostorus. Since winter was 
approaching, they consulted together about the things necessary to maintain the siege, should it 
carry on that long. (Xenophon 1. 5. & 6.) 

3449b AM, 4159 JP, 555 BC 

912. After Laborosoarchadus, who was disposed of by his subjects for his acts of villany, 
Nebuchadnezzar's grandchild by his daughter succeeded him. He was his son by Evilmerodach 
and called by Berosus, Nabonidus, but by Herodotus, Labynitus, by Abydenus, Mabannidochus 
and by Daniel, Belshazzar, also Baltazar. He reigned 17 years, according to Berosus in his third 
book of his Chaldee History and Ptolemy in Can. Reg. 

913. In the first year of this king's reign, Daniel had a vision of 4 beasts which signified the 4 
empires of the world. He also saw God overcoming all earthly powers and the sovereignty of the 
Son of Man in all things. Da 7: 1-28 

914. When Balatorus, the petty king of Tyre died, Merbalus was sent from Babylon to replace 
him and reigned for 4 years. (Phoenis. Annal.) 

3451 AM, 4161 JP, 553 BC 

915. In the 3rd year of Belshazzar, Daniel had a vision of a ram and a goat, foreshadowed the 
destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander and the great misery which Antiochus would 
bring upon the people of God. Daniel was living at Susa in the province of Elam, upon the bank 
of the river Ulai. Da 8: 1,2 This river surrounds the citadel of Susa and parts the provinces of 
Susa and Elimais. That is the Susachaeans from the Elamites, as the inhabitants of those two 
provinces are distinguished by Ezr 4:9 and as Pliny 1. 6. c. 27. From this we know that at this 
time the province of Susa was not in the hands of the Medes or Persians. It was controlled by the 
Babylonians, under whom Daniel then lived, as I noted before in 3405 AM. 

916. Berosus tells us (in his third book of his Chaldee History, quoted by Josephus, 1. 1. cont, 
Apion.) that those walls about the river of the city of Babylon, (which were started by 
Nebuchadnezzar) were fully lined with brick laid with a kind of slime, or liquid brimstone. For 
his mother Nicotris, an astute woman, saw the gathering storm about to break upon Babylon. 
She had turned the river Euphrates, which normally ran swiftly in a straight course. After 
drawing it through many winding channels, which she had cut for that purpose, she made it to 
run more slowly than it did formerly. Then she raised a huge dam on each side of the river. 
Upstream from the city she constructed a huge lake into which she diverted the river. Thus, she 
left the channel of the river dry. When this was done, she lined the banks of the river inside the 
city brick walls. She installed watergates in the walls around the city. She also built a stone 
bridge in the middle of the city. When this was done, she diverted the river from the lake to its 
original channel. (Herod. 1. I.e. 185, 186, 188.) The magnificence of this stone bridge which 



joined the king's houses, that stood on each side of the river, is described by Philostratus, in the 
life of Apollonius. (lib. I.e. 18) He said that it was built by a queen that came out of Media. 
Hence we gather that as Nebuchadnezzar married Amyitis, so likewise his son, Evilmerodach 
married this Nicotris from Media. 

3453 AM, 4163 JP, 551 BC 

917. When Merbalus died, the king of Babylon sent Hirom, his brother in his place. He reigned 
in Tyre for 20 years. (Phoenic. Annal.) 

3455 AM, 4165 JP, 549 BC 

918. Darius the son of Hystaspis, was born. He was almost 20 years old shortly before Cyrus 
died. (Herod. 1. 1, c. 209) 

3456c AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC 

919. When Croesus was made general of the army of the Babylonians and others, he crossed 
over the river Halys which divided the lands of Media and Lydia. Using the skill of Thales the 
Median philosopher, he crossed the river without a bridge and came into Cappadocia. There he 
took the city of Pteria and all the surrounding cities. He utterly destroyed the Syrians who had 
done him no wrong. Herodotus in (lib. 1. c. 72.) states that Cappadocians were called Syrians by 
the Greeks. 

3456d AM, 4166 JP, 548 BC 

920. After Cyrus had sent to the Ionians to see if they would join him or remain loyal to 
Croesus, he fought an indecisive battle with Croesus. The next day Croesus returned to Sardis 
because Cyrus did not attack him again. He intended not to fight that winter but wait for the next 
spring, to march against the Persians. In the meantime, he sent all his auxiliaries to their homes 
and sent ambassadors to those who were loyal to him, as were the Lacedemonians. He ordered 
them all to come to meet at Sardis in five months. When Croesus had disbanded his army, Cyrus 
attacked him with all his forces. When this surprise attack was made, Croesus, though greatly 
troubled, still went forth to fight with him with such of his Lydians as he had. He trusted mainly 
in his cavalry. Cyrus thwarted his design by placing his camels in front of his troops, knowing 
that horses cannot tolerate the smell of camels. Therefore all the horses of Croesus turned tail 
and carried their riders away with them. However, the Lydians left their horses and set 
themselves in battle array. Yet at last, after many were killed on each side they fled. The 
Persians followed up on this victory and attacked Sardis which they took in 14 days. Croesus 
was condemned to be burned. When he came to the place of execution, he cried out, "O Solon, 
Solon", whose wise counsel, concerning the instability of human affairs he had formerly so 
much despised. When Cyrus heard this he not only spared his life but took him also into his 
privy counsel. Cyrus arranged the funerals of Abradatos the king of Susa (who defected from 
the king of Babylon to him and was slain in the battle). Also he arranged the funeral of Panthea 
his queen who killed herself when she saw her dead husband. He made a huge and magnificent 
monument for them. (Herod. 1. I.e. 75-90 with Xeno. instruc. 1. 7. The collections out of Diod. 
Sic. by Hen. Vales, p. 241. Plut. in the life of Solon. Ployan. in his stratag. 1. 7. in Cyrus and 
Croesus and Solinus in Polyhist. 1. 1.) Eusebus in his Chronicles states that Cyrus attacked 



Sardis, in the 28th Olympiad that is in its 1st year. 

921. When Croesus sent his shackles as a present to Delphi, he complained in vain that he had 
been misled by the Oracle. (Herod. 1. I.e. 90, 91) When the men of Ionia and Eolia, wanted to 
submit to Cyrus under the same conditions that they had formerly lived by under Croesus, Cyrus 
declined. He granted those terms only to the Milesians, who feared what might happen to them 
and had previously made peace with him. (Herod. 1. 1. c. 141, 143, 169) The rest of the Greek 
city states were fortified. They sent Pithermon of Phocca, with other ambassadors to the 
Lacedemonians to seek help from them which they refused to do. Yet they sent their ambassador 
Lachrines to Cyrus to warn him not to touch any of the Greeks in Asia. He sent them word 
again, that he would shortly make them stop caring for the Ionians and the rest of the Greeks in 
Asia and attend to their own affairs at home. (Herod. 1. I.e. 141, 152, 153) 

3457 AM, 4167 JP, 547 BC 

922. Thales the Milesian advised them to hold a counsel at Treos, which was a city in the centre 
of Ionia. (Herod. 1. I.e. 170.) Cyrus remained at Sardis and built battering rams and other 
equipment purposing to raze the walls of all that stood against him. The Carions sent and asked 
his help to settle their civil war. He sent Adusius, a Persian with an army. The Cilicians and 
Cyprians willingly joined this force. Adusius put an end to their difference, however he left 
sufficient garrisons of his own in the cities of either party. (Xenoph. 1. 7. Instit.) 

923. At the end of the first year of the 58th Olympiad, Thales the Milesian philosopher died, (as 
Laertius states from of Sosicrates). Anaximander, his countrymen first observed the loxodromy, 
or motions of the stars in the Zodiac, as Pliny, from other authors states, (lib. 1. c. 8.) However 
Plutarch in his 2nd book, "de Placitis Philosophorum", has more correctly told us that that point 
of astronomy was known to Thales the Milesian, Anaximander's teacher. He died at the age of 
64 in the 2nd year of this Olympiad according to Laertius in his "Chronicle of Appolodorus the 
Athenian", Further from Phavorinus' "Varia Historia", he tells of his scientific inventions. He 
was the first to invent the sun dial which he installed in Sparta. He also invented the horoscopes 
for the finding out the equinoxes and solstices for the dial to determine the hour of the day. The 
horoscope or instrument is used to observe the equinoxes and the tropics, or the summer and 
winter solstice is different from this. Pliny attributes the invention of the dial and clock to 
Anaximenes, his scholar, and fellowcitizen: (lib. 2. ca. 76.) 

vv This rule and reason of shadows, which was also called Gnomonical, or Dial work, was first 
discovered by Anaximenes, Anaximander's student. He was the first that set up a Sciathericum, 
which is a dial to show what is the time in Sparta. (See note on 3291 AM)" 

924. Anaximenes the son of Eurystratus succeeded Anaximander in his school at Meletus 
according to Clemens. (Alexandri. in his 1st book of his Aronsat.) Following the advise of 
Thales, Pythagoras went into Egypt when both his teachers Anaximander and Anaximenes were 
dead. Polyerates of Samos sent with him a letter of commendation to Amasis king of Egypt 
according to Laertius in his life of Pythagoras. It seems this Amasis was surnamed by the 
Egyptians Somnesartcus. Pliny (in his 36th book, c. 9.) shows that in his reign Pythagoras came 
into Egypt. He stayed there 22 years and conversed with the priests. From them he learned his 
knowledge in astronomy and geometry. He was initiated into all their rites and ceremonies, 
according to Jamblichus, (in the life of Pythagoras, c. 3. & 4.) Therefore he was circumcised by 



them and after he was admitted into the secrets of their religion so that he might more freely 
partake of the mystical philosophy of the Egyptians. In attaining this, he was mainly indebted to 
Sonchedes, the chief prophet among them. (Clem. Alexan. 1. 1. Strom.) I think this Sonchedes 
was from Sais. He talked much with Solon according to Plutarch in his life. They taught 
Pythagoras about Metempsuchosis, or transmigration of souls out of one body into another, 
according to Diodr. Sic. He was quite familiar with their books and writings about history. 
(Valer. Max. 1. 8. c. 7.) 

3458 AM, 4168 JP, 546 BC 

925. Hystaspes and Adusius united forces and conquered all Phrygia bordering on the 
Hellespont. They captured their king and brought him prisoner to Cyrus. (Xenoph. Instit. 1. 7. ) 

926. Cyrus committed Sardis to the keeping of Tabulus a Persian. He committed the treasure of 
Croesus and the rest of the Lydians to Pactyas of Lydia. He returned towards Ecbatan and took 
Croesus along with him. He paid little attention to the affairs of Ionia. No sooner had Cyrus left 
Sardis, but Pactyas immediately persuaded the Lydians to revolt from Cyrus and his governor, 
Tabulus. Using the king's treasure he hired soldiers from other parts and drove Tabulus into the 
citadel and besieged him there. When Cyrus was told this on his way he took the advice of 
Croesus. He sent back Mazares a Median, with a part of his army. He defeated the Lydians and 
made them agreeable to the rule of Cyrus. (Herod. 1. I.e. 153-157) So the nation that was 
famous for hard work, power and chivalry, grew soft from luxury and lost their courage and 
virtue. (Justin, from Tragus, 1. 1. ca. 7.) 

3459 AM, 4169 JP, 545 BC 

927. Mazares demanded Pactyas from Cumaeans where he had sought refuge. The Cumaeans 
consulted the Oracle at Branchis who said that they should deliver him up. Aristodicus the son 
of Heraclides persuaded them not to give him up to be slain by the Persians. Since they did not 
want him to stay lest Cyrus come and destroy their city, they sent him away safely to Mitylene. 
When the Mitylenians were ready to surrender him, the Cumaeans sent a ship to Lesbos and 
there took him to Chios. There the Chii drew him by force from the temple of Minerva and 
delivered him to Mazares. The Lesbos were rewarded by having Atarneum a place in Mysia 
opposite Lesbos given to them. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 157-160.) Plutarch seeks to justify both the 
Mitylenians and the Chii in this matter in his book, of "The malignity of Herodotus", using the 
more ancient historian, Caron of Lampsacus. He states the matter thus: 

vv Pactyas hearing of the approach of the Persian's army, fled first to Mitylene. and then to Chios 
and there Cyrus took him. 

928. When Mazares had captured Pactyas, he marched against those who with Pactyas had 
attacked Tabulus. He conquered the inhabitants of Priene, partly ravaged the country lying on 
the Maeander River. He gave both it and the city of Magnesia for a reward to his soldiers. 
(Herod. 1. 1. ca. 161.) 

3461 AM, 4171 JP, 543 BC 



929. Harpagus, who was a chief general under Cyrus, went with his army against Ionia. He 
fought with them (as Eusebius in his Chron. upon the 2nd year of the 59th Olympiad notes) for 
Mazares was dying of a disease. Harpagus (whom some erroneously call Harpalus) was made 
general in the place of Mazares. When Harpagus came into Ionia, he immediately besieged 
whatever city he came to. He took Phocaea, the capital city of all Ionia. (Herod. 1. 1. ca. 162) 

930. The Phoeneans abandoned the city when they saw they could not hold it. They escaped by 
ship with their wives and children to Chios. Seeking revenge for the loss of Phocaea, they killed 
all the garrison which Harpagus had left there to hold it. From there they sailed to the isles of 
Oenusae and then to the isle of Cyrnus or Corsica. Here, 20 years before they had made a colony 
and built a city called Alatia. When they had stayed five years and made all the neighbouring 
countries weary of them by their robbing and plundering, the Italians and Carthaginians sent a 
navy of 60 ships. After several naval battles, the Phocaeans won but at the cost of many lives 
and lost 40 ships. They moved to Rhegium in Italy and there built the city Hyela, later called 
Velia in the territory of Oenotria. (Herod. 1. I.e. 164-167) Also Thucides (lib. 7. of his history) 
confirms that the Phocaeans, which built Marseillus, defeated the Carthaginians at sea. One 
group built Velia and another Marseilles, in the time of Servins Tullus king of the Romans. This 
was more than 600 years after the coming of Aeneas into Italy as is testified by Hyginus who is 
quoted by A. Gellius. (lib. 10. Noct. Attica, c. 6.) Concerning this colony of the Marseillius, 
Isocrates mentions in his Archidamus. See note on 3404 AM. 

93 1 . When Harpagus besieged the city of the Teians, they abandoned the city and sailed into 
Thrace. There they built a city called Abdera. This city was begun earlier and unsuccessfully by 
Timesius, a man of Clazomenae. See note on 3349 AM. The rest of the Ionians, all except the 
Milesians who had before hand made a league with Cyrus, were conquered one by one by 
Harpagus. He allowed them to stay in their own country. They paid what was imposed upon 
them. (Herod. 1. I.e. 168, 169.) When they were afflicted in this manner, they assembled in their 
old common council of Ionia, called Panionium. Bias of Priene, chief of all the wise men of 
Greece, counselled that they should build a common navy and sail to Sardinia. There they 
should make a common city for all Ionians to live in and be free from this slavery and live 
happily. (Herod. 1. I.e. 170) 

3464c AM, 4174 JP, 540 BC 

932. When Cyrus had subdued Asia Minor, he immediately made war on the Assyrians. He 
marched with his army against Labynitus or Nabonidus their king. (Herod. 1. I.e. 178, 188.) The 
news of this came to Babylon two full years before the city was besieged. Jer 51:46 When Cyrus 
was marching toward Babylon, he was delayed at the river Gnides which runs into the Tigris. 
For want of boats, he could not cross over it. While he stayed there, one of the white horses 
which were consecrated to the sun, went into the river and drowned in its swift current. Cyrus 
was furious about this event and stopped his march to Babylon. That summer he had the river 
divided into 360 channels. He intended to make it so that a woman may pass through it and not 
get her knees wet. (Herod. 1. 1. c. 189, 190, 202. 1. 5. c. 52.) 

3465b AM, 4175 JP, 539 BC 

933. The next year Cyrus marched to Babylon. Here Cyrus defeated, Belshazzar, or Nabonidus. 
The Chaldeans retreated into the city and resolved to endure a siege (Herod. 1. I.e. 190.) Jer 51: 



27,28,30 which they took lightly for two reasons. First, they had more than 20 years of 
provisions in Babylon. Secondly, they thought there were many in Cyrus' army who favoured 
the Chaldeans more than the Persians. (Herod, ib. Xenophon. Instru. 1. 7.) 

934. Cyrus made a vast trench around the wall of the city. He cast up the earth towards his own 
army and made bulwarks along it. He placed guards on these and divided his whole army into 
12 parts. He ordered that each part would in turn stand watch for a month. (Xenophon. ib.) 

3466b AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC 

935. When Cyrus had spent much time in this work with little to show for it, at last he made a 
ditch from the river to that vast lake which was 300 or 400 furlongs wide (40 to 50 miles wide). 
Belshazzar's mother, Nicotris, had dug this lake. Then he opened the mouths of this and that 
other ditch which he had newly built about the city and let the river flow into them. Hence he 
made the channel which was not more than two furlongs wide (1/4 mile) passable for his men. 
(Herod. 1. 1. c. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. 1. 7.) Jer 51:32,36 

936. Cyrus with his army went through the water gates in the wall and got into the city on a 
festival day while all the men were at banquets. (Herod. 1. I.e. 190, 191. Xenophon Institut. 1. 
7.) Jer 51:39,57 So vast was that city that as the inhabitants reported, when the outskirts of it 
were surprised and taken by the enemy, they who dwelt in the heart of the city, never heard of it. 
(Herod. 1. I.e. 191) Jer 51:31 alludes to this when it says: 

vv that post upon post and messenger upon messenger shall run to tell the king of Babylon, that 
all the outskirts of the city were possessed by the enemies." 

937. When Belshazzar and all his nobles were feasting, he ordered his servants to bring all the 
vessels of the house of the Lord, which Nebuchadnezzar his father, or grandfather (for he was 
his son's son Jer 27:7) had brought away from Jerusalem. As they glorified his idols and 
reproached the true God, God sent a hand to write on the wall of the room, where Belshazzar sat 
drinking. It wrote the number of years which the Babylonian Empire was to last and that it had 
been now weighed in the balance and was found wanting. Therefore it was to be transferred to 
the Medes. It also declared what was to happen to Belshazzar. When his wizards of Chaldea, 
could not read the writing, his queen advised him to send for Daniel. When he came, he read the 
writing and interpreted it for him. For his efforts, he was publicly proclaimed the third man in 
the kingdom.Da 5:1-31 Since the king's wives are said to have been present at the banquet, Da 
5:2,3 and the queen to have come in afterward, Da 5: 10 this is to be understood of the queen 
mother, Nicotris. She was the mother of this last king of Babylon, as we have already shown out 
of Herodotus. 

938. In the same night of this banquet, Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans was slain Da 5:30 
by the soldiers of Gobryas and Gadneas. (Xen. 1. 7. Instr.) So the Babylonian kingdom came to 
an end, as had been predicted, Isa 13:1-14:32 21:1-17 34:1-17 46:1-13 Hab 2:1-20 Jer 25:1-38 
50:1-51:64 and the empire transferred to the Medes and Persians. Da 5:21 6:8,12,15 

939. Darius the Mede, son of Assuccus or Cyaxares, the son of Astyages, took over the kingdom 
as given to him by Cyrus the conqueror. Da 5:31 9:1 Cyrus had set apart the king's house and all 
his palaces in Babylon so that if he should come to Babylon, he would have a palace of his own 



to stay in. (Xenophon, Instit. 1. 8.) The angel, in this first year of his reign, is said to have 
confirmed and strengthened him in his kingdom. Da 11:1 After this he is said to have reigned 
for 2 years. 

940. When Cyrus had set all things in order at Babylon, he returned through Media into Persia, 
to his father Cambyses and Mandana his mother who were yet living. From there he returned 
again into Media and married the only daughter and heir of Cyaxares. For a dowry he had the 
whole kingdom of Media given to him. After the marriage, he left for Babylon taking her with 
him. At Babylon he sent governors into all his dominions. Megabyxos went into Arabia. 
Artacaman went into Phtygia the Greater. Chrysantas went into Lydia and Ionia. Adusius went 
into Carin. Pharmichas went into Phrygia Hellespontiaca, or the Less. In Cilicia and Cyprus and 
Paphlagonia he sent no Persian governors because they submitted to him and of their own 
accord helped him against the king of Babylon. However, he made them pay tribute. (Xen. 
Instis. 1. 8) 

941. All the countries which Cyrus subdued as general of the forces of Media, he added to the 
dominions of Cyaxares. (Xen. 1. 5.) Therefore it is most likely that at the former meeting in 
council, he made that distribution of the governments by Cyaxares' advise. Xenophon (lib. 8.) 
states about Cyrus, 

vv It seemed good unto him, to set governors over all the nations which he had subdued:" 

942. Daniel, who, as it seems went at this time with Cyrus from Babylon to Media, said of 
Cyaxares: 

vv It seems good to Darius, to set over the kingdoms, 120 governors, that they should be over all 
the kingdoms." Da 6:1 

943. Over all the governors he made three overseers, the principal one was Daniel. As a result 
the rest were envious of him and had the king make a decree that: 

vv for 30 days time, no petition should be made to any god or man, but to himself only" 

944. When Daniel had broken this decree by praying to God, he was cast into the lion's den. He 
was delivered from the den with no harm done to him. Then Darius cast those plotters against 
Daniel into the same lion's den and published that famous decree through all his dominions, that 
every man should reverence and fear Daniel's God. Da 6:1-28 

3467a AM, 4176 JP, 538 BC 

945. From the year of the Babylonian captivity of the Jews that started when Jehoiakim was 
defeated in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, until the end of the first year of the reign of Darius 
the Mede, was almost 70 years. According to Jer 29:10 the captivity was almost over: 

vv Thus saith the Lord, when the 70 years shall begin to be finished with Babylon, then will I 
visit you and perform my good word unto you and will bring you again to this place and when 
you shall call upon me to depart from thence and when you shall pray unto me, then will I hear 



you." 

946. Knowing the time of the captivity was almost up, Daniel prayed fervently for the remission 
of his own sins and of his people's and for the release from captivity. The angel Gabriel brought 
him an answer not only for this but also concerning the spiritual deliverance of the church to be 
effected at last by the death of the Messiah. He gave that famous prophecy of the 70 weeks. Da 
9:12-27 

947. When Cyrus had spent one whole year with his wife in Babylon, he assembled his whole 
army. It is said to have 120,000 calvary, 2,000 iron chariots, and 600,000 foot soldiers. When he 
outfitted his troops he undertook that campaign whereby he is said to have subdued all nations 
from Syria to the Red Sea. (Xenophon, Instit. 1. 8.) 

3468a AM, 4177 JP, 537 BC 

948. After Cyrus' father Cambyses died in Persia, Cyaxares in Media held all the empire of the 
east. From this year, both Xenophon, (8. Inst.) reckons the 7 years of his reign, but the Holy 
Scripture from the records of the Medes and Persians, reckons this the first year. It states that in 
this year came that famous edict of his. Thus said Cyrus king of Persia: 

vv Into my hand hath God given all the kingdoms of the earth." 

949. In this year, the 70 years of the Babylonian captivity ended as foretold by Jeremiah and 
according to the prophecy of Isaiah who mentioned Cyrus by name. Isa 44:28 45:1-3 He gave 
permission to all the Jews dwelling anywhere in his empire to return into their own country. 
Those who returned he ordered to rebuild the temple of God. They could build it as large as they 
wished. Hag 2:3 They could use the resources from the king's treasury. Cyrus restored all the 
vessels of the house of God which Nebuchadnezzar had brought from there. 2Ch 36:22,23 Ezr 
1:1,2,7 5:13,14 6:2,5 

950. Cyrus made Sheshbazzar the captain of the Jews who returned to Jerusalem. According to 
Cyrus' orders, Sheshbazzar received from Methridates the treasurer all the vessels belonging to 
the temple. These were to be returned to Jerusalem. Ezr 1:7,11 5:14,15 Sheshbazzar was his 
Chaldean name but his Hebrew name was Zerubbabel. Ezr 3:8,10 5:16 

3468c AM, 4178 JP, 536 BC 

951. The Jews prepared to return to their country. The poor were given an allowance to help 
with the costs. Ezr 1:5,6 There were 42,360 of the children of the province or poor people of the 
Hebrews born in Chaldea who returned. Their captain was Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel or 
Salathiel and their high priest, Jehu, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak. In addition there were 7,337 
proselytes, man servants and maid servants who also returned. Ezr 7:1 Ne 7:67 12:1-9 However 
the total sum given in Ezra is only 29,818. In Nehemiah, the sum is 31,031. Neither of these 
tally to 42,360 but at the end of each list the total of 42,360 was said to be the number of the 
whole congregation. Ezr 2:64 Ne 7:66 To tally to 42,360 the Hebrews in their great Chronicle 
(cap. 29) tell us that we must include in this number, those of the other tribes of Israel, who 
came up out of the captivity with the Jews. For even at the end of the Jewish state, there was a 



remnant of the other ten tribes, Ac 26:7 not only of the dispersion, Jas 1:1 and at Jerusalem, 2Ch 
9:3 Lu 2:36 and other cities of Judah 2Ch 1 1:16 31:6 but also of those who still lived on their 
lands. Shalmaneser did not take everyone away from the tribes, (see note on 3227 AM 
concerning the history of Josiah) but he left a remnant of them, in their own country, who were 
later, together with the Jews and Benjamites and Levites, carried away by Nebuchadnezzar to 
Babylon and were now set at liberty and sent back again by Cyrus. After this first year of Cyrus, 
all the Israelites, are said to have dwelt in their own cities. Ezr 2:70 In the 6th year of Darius, 
they are said to have been present at the dedication of the Temple and to have offered there 12 
he goats for the sin of all Israel. Ezr 6:16,17 When Christ preached the gospel in Galilee, Mt 
14:14 he fulfilled the prophesy of Isaiah that the people of Zabulon and Naphtali would see a 
great light. Isa 9: 1,2 The chief men of their father's families came to Jerusalem and offered 
according to their ability toward the rebuilding of the temple, 61,000 drachmas of gold, 5,000 
pounds of silver and 100 priests robes. Both the priests and Levites and the rest of the people, 
lived in their own cities. Ezr 2:68-70 

3469a AM, 4178 JP, 536 BC 

952. On the first day of the seventh month in the feast of trumpets, the Israelites all came from 
their cities to Jerusalem and there built the altar. Every morning and every evening they offered 
the daily sacrifice to God and on the 15th day of the same month, they kept the feast of 
tabernacles. In addition, they provided materials and workmen for the building of the temple, as 
Cyrus had given them permission to do. Ezr 3:1-7 

3469c AM, 4179 JP, 535 BC 

953. In the second year, the second month, Jair, after their return from Babylon, they appointed 
Levites to oversee the work of the house of God. When they laid the foundation of the temple, 
the old men cried who 53 years earlier had seen the old temple standing. The young men greatly 
rejoiced to see the new temple going up. Ezr 3:8-13 

954. The Cuthaeans, the old enemies of the Jews, who had previously been settled in Samaria by 
Esarhaddon, cunningly offered to join them in building the temple. When the Jews refused their 
help, they hindered the Jews all they could in the work and discouraged the people from 
completing the task. Ezr 4:1-4 

3470a AM, 4179 JP, 535 BC 

955. This was the first sabbatical year kept by the Jews, after their return from the captivity of 
Babylon. 

956. The Samaritans by bribing certain courtiers of Cyrus, disrupted the Jews in their work of 
building the temple. Ezr 4:5 From this was the reason for the 3 weeks of mourning by the 
prophet Daniel. He continued his fast which was begun about the 3rd day of the 1st month in the 
3rd year of Cyrus through all the time of the feast of Passover. Da 10: 1,4 After this on the 24th 
day of the 1st month, while he stood upon the bank of Hiddekel, or the River Tigris, he had the 
vision of the kings of Persia, of Alexander the great and his successors and their kingdoms. This 
is recorded in Da 10:1-12:13 and was the last vision that he had shortly before his death. 



3473 AM, 4183 JP, 531 BC 

957. Amasis, as it seems, defected from Cyrus. The people of Egypt who were carried away 
formerly by Nebuchadnezzar, after 40 years in exile they were now sent back again by Cyrus 
into their own country. They returned to their old kingdom toward the end of the life of Amasis. 
Egypt was again a kingdom, very old and ancient indeed, but the basest of all others and of no 
longer much use to any other country. Eze 29:11-16 Jer 46:26 Xenophon, (8. Instit. Cyr.) and 
also in the prologue to his whole work, states that Cyrus had Egypt in his possession. All authors 
agree that it was later subdued by his son Cambyses. Hence, we gather, that in the intermediate 
time, they enjoyed their freedom. 

958. It may be that when Amasis revolted from Cyrus, that when Hirom had been king of Tyrus 
for a full 20 years, (who was the last king mentioned by Josephus, in his catalogue of them) he 
was overthrown. In his place, they had governors set over them by other nations instead of being 
governed by men of their own country. For the very Punic names of those kings, show that they 
were all of the same country as Tyre. This situation was like the Egyptians who had been ruled 
by Amasis. 

3475b AM, 4185 JP, 529 BC 

959. Cyrus died at the age of 70 years. He was first made general of the Median and Persian 
armies a full 30 years earlier. He took Babylon 9 years before his death and reigned for 7 years 
and a month or so. 

960. Authors differ as to how he died. Herodotus (lib. 1. c. 214), Justin from Trogus (lib. 1. c. 8) 
and Valer. Max. (lib. 9. c. 10.) say that he was slain in a fight against the Maslagetae or 
Scythians. He was decapitated by Tomyris their Queen and she threw him into a tub full of 
blood. She told him to satiate himself with blood with which he had so much thirsted after in his 
lifetime. Diod. Sic. (lib. 2.) states that when she had taken him prisoner, she crucified him. 
Ctesias (lib. 1 1) states that in a battle against the Derbicans, the nation bordering on Hyrcania, 
after he was wounded in the thigh by a certain Indian, he slew Amorraeus their king and his two 
sons. Three days later, he died. Johannes Malela of Antioch, from a forged book, attributed to 
Pythagoras of Samos, states that he was slain in a sea battle against the Samiaens. Xeno. (instit. 
1. 8.) reports that he died a natural death in his own country of Persia. He ordered his sons that 
they should wrap his body neither in gold nor silver, but in plain cloth, and bury him in an out of 
the way place. They were to call all his friends, Persians and others to his grave and having there 
presented them with whatever was fit to be given them at the funeral of a fortunate man, they 
should be dismissed. His tomb was made at Pasarges. This is stated by those who wrote the 
nobel acts of Alexander the Great, as Curtius, Plutarch, Arrian. According to Strabo (lib. 5 of his 
Geography), Aristobulus was sent by Alexander to see the tomb. He recites also this inscription 
found on his tomb. 

vv O man, I am Cyrus, who founded the Persian monarchy and was king of Asia; and therefore 
envy me not that I have a monument." 

961. Strabo, from Onesicritus cites a Greek epitaph written for him, (if any man will believe it), 
in Persian letters. It was: 



vv Here Cyras I do lie, who king of kings was high" 

962. It is of the same character with that one cited by Lucian, from the same Onesicritus in his 
discourse "De Longavis", of long lived men, that Cyras missing at last those friends of his 
which his son Cambyse had taken away, he died for grief at the age of 100. 

963. Cyras left his kingdom to his eldest son Cambyses and to his younger son, Tanaoxaras, or 
Tanyoxareas, whom Herodotus calls Smerdis. Justin from Tragus calls him Mergis. Ctesias 
states he left the seigneuries or commanders, of Bactria, Choromnea, Parthia and Caramania. 
However, Xenophon, (Instit. 1. 8.) states it was of the Medes, Armenians and Cadusians. 

964. In the start of the kingdom of Ahasuerus (for by that name is Cambyses known in the 
language of the Scriptures) the Samaritans, who had before fought secretly to undermine the 
Israelites, now openly sent a letter to the king against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem. 
Ezr 4:6 They knew very well, what difference there was between the father and the son's nature 
and disposition. Cyrus was naturally kind and loving to those who were under him and the other 
furious by nature and sudden in his resolutions. This is noted of him in Diod. Sic. in his 
Excerptu, published by Henr. Valesius, (p. 238, 249) with Herodotus (1. 3. c. 89.) 

3477a AM, 4186 JP, 528 BC 

965. This was the 2nd Sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon. 
3478 AM, 4188 JP, 526 BC 

966. As Cambapheus an eunuch controlled the king of Egypt, likewise his first cousin, Isabat an 
Eunuch controlled Cambyses king of Persia. Cambapheus betrayed the bridges, passages and 
other things to the Persians when they promised him the government of Egypt for his trouble. 
(Ctes. Persicor 1. 3.) 

967. Following up on this information, Cambyses gathered an army and a navy. His army 
consisted of various other nations in his empire and of Greeks from Ionia and Eolia in Asia. His 
naval forces came mainly from the Sidonians and Cyprians. Polycrates, the king or tyrant of 
Samos, furnished him with 40 warships and he used as sailors all such as he suspected for 
enemies at home. He hoped they would die in Cambyses' service and never return home to 
bother him again. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 1, 19, 44.) 

968. Phanes of Halicarnaslus was a chief man among the aides of Egypt and well versed in their 
affairs. He hated Amasis and when he saw that Cambyses was preparing to fight against Egypt, 
he defected to him. He told Cambyses many secrets of the land of Egypt. When Cambyses was 
greatly perplexed as to how to cross the desert without proper water supplies, he advised him to 
send to the king of Arabia, to obtain permission to pass through his country for (Herod, lib 3. c. 
4,7.) without his consent, no one could get to Egypt. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 88) 

3479b AM, 4189 JP, 525 BC 

969. The king of Arabia made a league with Cambyses through the messengers that were sent to 



him. He sent all his camels laden with leather bags full of water to the places where Cambyses 
with his army was to pass. (Herod, lib 3. c. 9.) 

970. When Cambyses came with his army into Egypt, he found Amasis had died recently after 
he had reigned 44 years. (Herod, lib 3. c. 9. & 10.) Diod. Sic. (1. 1. Biblioth.) states that he died 
when Cambyses began his war in Egypt in the later end of the 3rd year of the 63rd Olympiad. 
His son Psammenitus, (whom Ctesias calls Amyrteus) reigned 6 months. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 14.) In 
this time it rained at Thebes, in the upper Egypt. This is taken for a good luck., (Herod. 1. 3. c. 
10.) 

971. When the Persians passed those sandy dry deserts of Arabia, they came to the edge of 
Egypt, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 11.) 

972. When Cambyses came to besiege Pelusium, he placed cats and dogs and sheep, and birds 
called Ibides and all kinds of living creatures, which the Egyptians worship for gods, in front of 
his army. The Egyptians did not shoot at the enemy lest they hurt their own gods. Hence 
Cambyses took Pelusium, got an toe hold on Egypt, (Polyenus in the 7th book of Stratag.) 

973. The Greeks and Carians mercenaries who came to help the Egyptians hated Phanes who 
was instrumental in bringing this foreign army to Egypt. They slew his sons before his eyes and 
after drinking their blood started fighting with him. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 11.) 

974. After a sharp encounter, many were slain on both sides and the Egyptians were routed. 
(Herod. 1. 3. c. 11) 

975. Cambyses sent a Persian herald up the river in a ship of Mitylene to Memphis, where the 
Egyptians had fled in great disorder and confusion. 

976. The herald exhorted them to surrender but the men of the city sallied out against the ship, 
captured and destroyed it. They tore everyone on board limb from limb. They retired into the 
city and later endured the siege for a short time, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 13.) 

977. Arcesilaus, son of Battus the lame and of Pheretima his wife, surrendered Cyrene to 
Cambyses and agreed to pay him tribute. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 165.) The inhabitants of Cyrene, the 
Barcei and the Libyans who bordered on Egypt were terrified with his success against their 
Egyptian neighbours. They submitted to him and sent their presents to Cambyses. Cambyses 
took what came from the Libyans graciously. The Cyrenians were so small and sent him only 
500 minae of silver. He took it and threw it among the soldiers. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 13. & 91.) 

978. Ten days after Cambyses had taken Memphis, he tried to humiliate Psammenites. He had 
imprisoned him with other Egyptians in the suburbs of the city. In contempt of Psammenites, he 
sent his daughter with other maidens of the Egyptian nobility with pitchers to fetch him water 
from the river. He sent the young son of Psammenties with 2,000 more of the same age and all 
principal noble men's sons with ropes about their necks and bridles in their mouths to be 
shamefully put to death. He did this in revenge of those men of Memphis who destroyed the 
ship and murdered the Mitylenians he had sent to them. He ordered that for every Mitylenian 
who was killed, ten of the chief of the Egyptians should be put to death. The first to die was the 



son of Psammenites. Cambyses would have spared him but acted too late to do so. However, 
Psammenites lived peacefully later with Cambyses. At last when Psammenites was convicted of 
stirring up the people to a new rebellion, he drank bull's blood and died. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 14,15.) 
Cresias states however that he was sent away prisoner to live in Susa. 

979. Cambyses marched from Memphis and came with his army to the city Sais. When he came 
to the palace of Amasis, against whom he undertook this war, he had his body to be hauled from 
its vault and to be brought before him. He had its carcase whipped with scourges and all kind of 
reproach,and contumely done to it. Then he had it consumed with fire. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 16 . and 
Diod. Sic, in his Excerpta; published by Hen. Valesius, p. 249.) 

980. Cambyses conquered Egypt, in the 5th year of his reign. He ruled there for 3 years. (Jul. 
African, and Euseb. in Chronic. Grec. p. 17.) He killed 50,000 Egyptians in battle and sent away 
7,000 as prisoners to Susa. (Ctesias) 

981. Jamblicus reports that Pythagoras was among the rest taken to Babylon where he conversed 
with their wisemen. (Jambli. in his Life) Another writer of his life, namely Malchus, or 
Paphyrius, says, that at Babylon, he not only conversed with the other Chaldeans, but applied 
himself also to Zabratus who purified and cleansed him from the sins of his former life. This 
Zabratus is thought by some, to have been that Nazaratus of Assyria, whom Alexander, 
(Polyhistor I think) in his book of Pythagorical Opinions, infers that he was the teacher of 
Pythagoras. Some others mistaking the matter, judge him to have been the prophet Ezekiel, as 
Clement of Alexandra, (1. 1. Strom.) states. All this shows is that he did converse with the wise 
men of the Jews in Babylon. He later made use of many of their opinions in the writing of his 
Philosophy. These writers are of that opinion, Hermippus, in his first book of Pythagoras, 
quoted by Josephus (1. 1. cont. Apion.) and in his first book, of Law Makers, cited by Origen, (1. 
1. cont. Celsum.) Aristobulus the Jew, a Peripatetic Phylosopher, in his first book to 
Phylometor, Clemens of (Alex. 1. 1. Strom.). Eusebius (1. 13. Prepar. Evangel.) believes that the 
books of Moses were translated into Greek, before the Persian empire began. However it is far 
more likely that he got that part of his learning by talking with the Jews in Babylon. Pythagoras 
was familiar with Jewish writings according to Pyrphier in his Life, from Diogenes, "of the 
incredible relation made of Thule". 

3480 AM, 4190 JP, 524 BC 

982. Cambyses wanted to prepare a navy to go against the Carthaginians but gave it up. The 
Sidonians, upon whom he relied for naval service, refused to go against their own colony and 
kindred. Meanwhile, he sent for some of the Itchthyophgaies, from the city Elephantina. These 
were well versed in the Ethiopian language. He sent them as spies to the Ethiopians called 
Macrogis. These are generally a very long lived people and live in the parts of Africa south of 
Egypt, bordering the India Ocean and Red Sea. The spies went under the pretense of bearing 
gifts for their king and wishing to see The Table of the Sun. The king of Ethiopia in the presence 
of them, took his bow, and bent it and then unbent it again. He gave it them to carry to 
Cambyses, and asked them tell him that when his Persians should be able to easily bend such 
bows as those he should, then and not before, gather a huge army and fight with the long lived 
Ethiopians. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 17.-25.) 

983. Cambyses' full brother, Smerdis, or Tanyoxarces tried to bend this bow and came within 



two fingers breadth of the notch. None of the other Persians came that close. Out of envy 
Cambyses dismissed him and sent him to Persia. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 30.) 

984. In a rage, Cambyses ordered an expedition against Ethiopia without any provisions made 
for grain or food. Like a mad man, as soon as he had heard what his Ichthyophagites had said, 
he immediately marched away with all his own foot soldiers and ordered the Greeks to stay 
behind. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 24.) 

985. When he came as far as Thebez in Egypt, he culled out about 50,000 of his army and sent 
them first to rob the land, then to burn the Temple of Jupiter Ammon and to make slaves of all 
the inhabitants of the place. He marched on towards Ethiopia, (Id. ib. Diodor. Sic. in his 
Excerpta, published by Hen. Vales, p. 249.) 

986. On that journey Cambyses subdued the Ethiopians who bordered on the lower parts of 
Egypt and lived in the city of Nisa. They kept the holy days to Bacchus. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 97.) To 
Saba the chief house or palace of the king of the Ethiopians and the island where it stood, he 
called "Meroes" in memory of Meroe, who was his wife and his sister. (Strabo. 1. 17. of his 
Geogr. Josephus. 1. 2. Antiq. c. 10.) She had accompanied him into Egypt and died there. No 
other king of Persia before him had married their sister. Shortly after this, he married his older 
sister Atossa. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 31.) After his death, she married Magus and after him, she married 
Darius Hystasphis. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 68, 88.) 

987. The army which went from Thebez against the Ammonians, travelled seven days over the 
sands and came to the city, Oasis. (This city was inhabited by those Samians, which were of the 
Eserionian tribe.) From there they came to a country called "the isle of the happy ones". 

988. As they marched from there over the sandy plains and midway between Oasis, and 
Ammonia, it is said, that there arose a mighty strong wind out of the South while they were 
eating. It brought those shifting sands upon them and overwhelmed them all. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 26. 
Just. 1. I.e. 9.) Plutarch in the Life of Alexander, says, that there were 50,000 men lost in that 
land being buried by the sand storm. 

989. The army which with him against the Ethiopians, ran out of provisions after five days. 
When they had lost hope of any food, they cast lots and started to eat one another. When 
Cambyses saw this, he returned to Thebez, having lost much of his army. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 25. 
Seneca, 1. 2. c. 30.) Lucan in his "Of His Natural Questions", says, 

And mad Cambyses, marching toward the east, 
Came to the long-liv'd Ethiopians: 
And wanting food, his own men up did eat; 
And yet the head of Nile never found. 

990. Cambyses returned to Memphis discharged his Greeks and shipped them home. (Herod. 1. 
3. c. 25.) He saw the Egyptians keeping an holy day because their god Apis had appeared to 
them. He thought they had done it for joy of his disastrous journey. He sent for Apis and killed it 
with his sword. He commanded all his priests to be scourged with whips and the rest of the 
Egyptians who were found keeping the holy day, were to be slain by his soldiers. Apis was 
wounded by him and died in the temple. The priests took the body of the beast and secretly 



buried it. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 27-29.) Apis was a sacred bull worshipped in the temple of Ptah in 
Memphis. 

991. The Egyptians say that Cambyses who was mentally unstable, now went stark mad. This 
first manifested itself when he killed his own brother. After he sent him to Persia, (as was said 
before) Cambyses dreamed that a messenger came to him from there who told him that Smerdis, 
his brother was sitting on the regal throne and touched the heavens with his head. He was 
astonished by this dream and immediately sent Prexaspes, his most trusted friend, to kill his 
brother Smerdis. When he came to Susa he had him murdered. Some say he took him on a 
hunting match; others report that he lured him along as far as the Red Sea and drowned him in 
it. (Herod, c. 23. c. 30, 36.) Justin based on Tragus, (1. 1. c. 9.) states that this charge was 
committed to Cometes, one of the Magi and that he did not murder Smerdes or Merges until 
after Cambyses was dead. Ctesias, disagrees with Herodotus. He says that Spendahates, one of 
the Magi, was scourged by Tanyaxares, that is, by this Smerdis' commander. He accused him to 
Cambyses of seeking to make himself king. By the advise of Spendahates, he was sent for from 
Bactria to Egypt. He was forced to drink bull's blood and died from it. Spendahates was sent 
back into Bactria. Because he looked like Tanyoxarces or Smerdis he ruled there in his place. 

3481 AM, 4191 JP, 523 BC 

992. After Harpagus, Oroetes, a Persian, was made governor of Sardis and of all the provinces 
of Lydia, Ionia and Phrygia by Cyrus. He is said to have sent a messenger to Polycrates of 
Samos to ask him about a certain matter. When the messenger came, Polycrates was lying on his 
bed in his chamber with Anacreon the Teian sitting by him. He was that excellent lyrical poet of 
Ionia and who, as Clem. Alexand. says, was the first inventor of love songs. Polycrates totally 
ignored the messenger. Oroetes resolved revenge for this insult. He sent Myrtus, a Lydian the 
son of Gyges, with another message to Polycrates that for fear of Cambyses, he would defect to 
him with all his treasure. Polycrates heeded the message and quickly went to Oroetes in person 
with Democedes, a noted physician of Crotona in Italy. When he came as far as Magnesia, 
Oroetes took him and crucified him. He let the Samians who came with him go free. The rest of 
them including Democedes were made his slaves. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 120-127.) Valer. Max.. (lib. 6. 
c. ult.) relates that he was crucified by Orontes (for so he calls him, with Tully, 1. 3. de Finibius) 
who was governor under king Darius on the top of the mount Mycale. That is in that foreland of 
Ionia, which looks toward Samos. Darius at that time was one of the bodyguards to Cambyses 
and held no high office in the Persian empire. Herodotus states (Herod. 1. 3. c. 139, 140.) that in 
Cambyses' expedition into Egypt, Syloson the brother of Polycrates, presented him with a most 
rich robe publicly at Memphis. Hence the saying: "Syloson's robe". He also says, that Polycrates 
came to a foul end. This happened when Cambyses was in Egypt, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 120.) and Pliny 
assents also (Pliny 1. 33. c. 1.) where he says that this happened in the 230th year after the 
building of Rome, which according to Varro was on the 64th Olympiad. 

993. When Cambyses saw his wife Meroe grieving for her brother Smerdis, he killed her too. 
(Herod. 1.3. c. 31.32.) 

994. In the 7th year of Cambyses, the 225th year of Nabonasser's calendar, upon the 17th day of 
the Egyptian month Phamenoth, (July 16th.) one hour before midnight, the moon was eclipsed at 
Babylon. (Ptol. in his, Mag. Syntax. 1. 5. c. 14.) 



995. Cambyses shot Prexaspes' son, who was his cup bearer with an arrow. The next day he had 
12 principal men of the Persians who had done him no harm, buried alive with their heads 
downward. He ordered that Croesus, who had been for some time king of Lydia to be executed 
because had in a fair and friendly manner admonished him not to do such things. He changed his 
mind before the execution but killed those whom he appointed to kill Croesus. Many similar 
mad pranks he played on Persians and his friends while he stayed at Memphis. He opened many 
of their sepulchres to see the bodies of those who lay buried there. He went into the temple of 
Vulcan where he laughed exceedingly and mocked his image. Another time he went into the 
temple of the Cabirie, where only the priests were to go. After jeering their images, he had them 
all burned. (Herod. 1. 3. from c. 34-38.) The rest of their temples, he either burnt down, pulled 
down, defaced, or destroyed. He did the same to their obelisks. (Strabo. 1. 17.) 

3482 AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC 

996. Patizithes one of the magi, who Cambyses had left to oversee his private estate at home, 
found out about the death of Smerdis. This was a closely guarded secret known only to a few 
Persians. He set on the throne his own brother, who was also called Smerdis and very similar in 
features to the dead man. He immediately sent messengers to all parts of the empire and to the 
rest of the army in Egypt, that from now on they should obey only Smerdes the son of Cyrus and 
not Cambyses. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 61.) Justin (Trogus, 1. I.e. 9.) states that Cometes one of the magi 
who killed Merges or Smerdes, (to whom the kingdom rightfully belonged after Cambyses) set 
up his own brother Oropastes who also closely resembled Smerdes. However, Ctesias writes, 
that Bagabates the eunuch and Artasyras an Hyrcanian, who were with Cambyses in Egypt and 
of great authority under him took counsel while Cambyses was still living. They planned to set 
up as king Spendadates, one of the magi who also looked very much like Smerdes, when 
Cambyses died. 

997. Cambyses sent to the Oracle of Butis. It answered that he should die at Ecbatane. 
Cambyses took this to be the Ecbatane in Media where all his treasure was. 

998. As he stayed at Ecbatane in Syria, a messenger brought him word what the commandment 
of Patizithes was. When he heard of the conspiracy against him, he leaped on his horse, 
intending to march quickly with his army to Susa against the conspirators. As he was leaping, 
his sword fell out of its scabbard and ran into his thigh. On the 20th day after the accident, he 
sent for the nobles of Persia to come to him. He told them of the death of his brother and the 
treason of the magi against himself. He charged them that by no means were to allow the 
kingdom to return to the Medes for Magus was a Median. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 73, 126.) Soon after 
this, his wound festered and he died when he had reigned only 7 years and 5 months. (Herod. 1. 
3. c. 62-66.) Josephus tells us that on his return from Egypt, he died at Damascus, (Antiq. 1. 11. 
c. 3.) thus putting Damascus for Ecbatane in Syria as Herodotus had. Ctesias states that he came 
as far as Babylon and that there he was wounded and died. He wrote of his death and the signs 
leading up to it: 

vv When Cambyses was offering sacrifices, the beasts throats were cut and no blood came out. 
He was much amazed. Roxane bore to him a boy without a head and that amazed him more. The 
Magi told him that this portended that he should leave no successor of his own. His mother also 
appeared to him in a dream and seemed to threaten him with destruction, for his brother's death. 
This troubled him yet more than all the other signs. When he came to Babylon, he sat there 
whittling a little stick with a knife to pass the time. By chance he hurt a muscle in his thigh and 



died 1 1 days later. (Ctesias.) When he left Egypt, he left Aryander to govern it in his place." 

999. After Cambyses died, the Persians did not know that they had Magus for their king. They 
thought Cambyses' brother had indeed succeeded him in the kingdom. Perxaspes vouched for 
this and said that he never killed him nor was it in truth safe for him now to confess that he had 
killed a son of Cyrus. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 66.) The ruse was easy to conceal for among the Persians it 
was proper that the king be rarely seen in public. (Justin. 1. I.e. 9.) So it came to pass, that this 
Magus or Smerdes, who impersonated Smerdes the son Cyrus, peacefully held the kingdom for 
7 whole months, thus making up the 8th year of Cambyses' reign. During that time he spared no 
cost, to show all kinds of bounty and good will toward the subjects in all the empire. After he 
died Asia and all other nations except the Persians, mourned for him. He sent couriers 
throughout the empire and proclaimed three year's freedom from paying taxes and military 
service. He did this as soon as he took the title of king. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 67.) He also took Atossa 
the daughter of Cyrus and all the rest of the wives of Cambyses. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 68. 88.) 

1000. Ammianus Marcellinus, (1. 23.) out of ancient books reports that after Cambyses' death, 7 
Magi took over the management of the kingdom of Persia. Valer. Max. in his (9th book, c. 2. ) 
agrees with this also. Of them two were chief, named by Herodotus, (1. 3. c. 61. 78.) Patizithes, 
whom Tragus calls Cometes and his brother. He was king in name only by impersonating the 
son of Cyrus. He was called by Herodotus, Smerdis, by Eschylus, Mardus, by Ctesias, 
Spendahates, by Trous, Oropastes and in the scripture, Artaxerxes. 

1001. The Samaritans sent letters to this Artaxerxes asking him to forbid the further building of 
Jerusalem. They said it was a rebellious and wicked place and if it was rebuilt, it would never 
pay tribute to the kings of Persia. Eze 4:7-16 

3483a AM, 4192 JP, 522 BC 

1002. Artaxerxes sent a letter forbidding the rebuilding of Jerusalem until he should so order. 
The Samaritans encouraged by this reply, came swiftly to Jerusalem and forced the Jews to stop 
building both the city and the temple, although Cyrus expressly ordered them to finish the 
temple. They stopped all work until the 2nd year of the reign of Darius. Eze 4: 17-24 

1003. While Artaxerxes held the kingdom, Oroetes the Persian, ruled at Sardis. He reproached 
Mitrobates, governor of Dascylium, in the continent of Asia for not having taken the Isle of 
Samos and annexing it to his government. In the lifetime of Polycrates, he took Mitrobates and 
his son Cranapes, both men of good esteem among the Persians and slew them. He committed 
other outrages also. He murdered a messenger sent from Darius because he told him something 
displeasing. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 126.) 

3483b AM, 4193 JP, 521 BC 

1004. Ctesias tells us that Isabates the eunuch, who had the charge of carrying the body of 
Cambyses into Persia told the plot of the Magi to the army. When he was pursued by them, he 
fled for safety into a temple. There they decapitated him. However, Herodotus says, that 8 
months after Cambyses' death, the matter was brought first to light by the cunning of Otanes the 
son of Pharnaspes and later more fully explained by Prexaspes. When Prexaspes was in a certain 
tower, he called the people to him and from there declared to them that Cambyses ordered him 



to murder his brother Smerdes, the son of Cyrus and that they were being ruled by the Magi. 
When he had said this, he threw himself down headlong among them. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 68, 75.) 
Justin from Herodotus and Trogus Pompeius, records Otanes discovery and the distraction of 
the Magi as follows: 

vv Ostanes (who is that Otanes) sent a messenger to his daughter, who was one of the concubines 
of the king and inquired whether it was a son of Cyras who was king. She replied that she did 
not know nor could she ask the other concubines because they were kept in seclusion from each 
other. Then he advised her that when her turn came to lie with him, she was to feel his head as 
he lay asleep. For Cambyses, or (as Herodotus has it) Cyrus had Magus' ears cut off. Later she 
assured him that the king had no ears. He told the princes of Persia and swearing an oath with 
them, they conspired against the imposter king. There were seven of them involved in this. Lest 
the matter be discovered, they hid a dagger in their coats and immediately went to the place 
where the king was. They killed those who stood in their way. At last they came where the Magi 
were assembled. The Magi slew two of the conspirators. Herodotus states they were only 
wounded. They were all laid hold of by the Magi who outnumbered them. Gobryas held one of 
them about the middle. His fellows could not get near to Magus to kill him for fear of hurting 
Gobryas. He bade them kill the Magus through his body. Fortunately, they killed the Magus, and 
did not harm Gobryas. (Justin. 1. I.e. 9.)" 

1005. According to Ctesias, the names of these 7 Persians (whom Jerome on Da 11:2 calls the 
Magi) were these, Onophas, Iderues, Naradobates, Mardonisu, Barises, Artaphernes and Darius, 
the son of Bystaspes. Herodotus, calls them, Otanes, Hydarves, Megabyzus, Gobryas, 
Aspathines, Intaphernes and Darius. Darius had recently arrived there from Susa, where his 
father Hystaspes, was governor. Ctesias and Herodotus tell us that the Persians always kept a 
yearly festival upon the day when the Magi were overthrown. 

1006. Six days after the Magi were overthrown, those 7 Persians met to decide what form of 
government suited Persia best. Otanes advised an aristocracy, Megabyzus, an oligarchy but 
Darius persuaded them to adopt a monarchy. Darius' opinion prevailed and was carried by 
majority vote. Otanes resigned all his rights to the other six on the condition that neither himself, 
nor any of his descendants should ever be subject to any of them or their posterity. Only his 
family among the Persians were left free and not subject to the king's command provided that 
they broke no law of the Persians. Since he was the first to act and organised the conspiracy, 
they thought it fit to heap all kinds of magnificence and honour upon him and his posterity. Each 
year he was presented with a Median Robe. For the election of a new king, they came to this 
agreement. Every one of them should get on horseback a little before sunrise and whoever's 
horse happened to neigh first after the sun was up would be king in Cambyses' place. The horse 
of Darius the son of Hystaspes, by the craft and subtilty of Oebaris, neighed first. All the rest 
leaped off their horses and adored Darius, crying, "God save the king." (Herod. 1. 3. c. 80-88.) 

1007. Each of the seven had the following privileges. First, they should come to court whenever 
they pleased and have free access to the king, (unless he was in bed with the queen) without any 
notice. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 84, 118.) Secondly, that they might each wear his turban differently from 
all other men. The king only and his heir wore their turbans upright. (Seneca 1. 6. de Beneficiis 
c. 31., Plutarch in the lives of Theistocles and Artaxerxes) and the rest of the nobility wore them 
hanging backward. It was granted to them and their posterity that they should wear them 
pointing forward because when they went to kill the Magi, they used this as a sign between 
themselves. (Plutarch in his Precepts of Government.) For Darius had given this as a sign for 



each to know one another by in the dark. They were to turn the buckle that fastened their turbans 
at the back and wear it on the front. (Polya. 1. Stratag. 7. ) 

1008. The greatest privilege granted them was that although the king had a perpetual 
dictatorship over them, yet each man in turn would have a kind of tribunal power with him. I 
deduce this from the following. First, these conspirators foresaw that they would prove 
burdensome (and how I ask more than in this way?) to Darius, so they bond him with an oath 
which was most religiously observed among the Persians. Darius swore that he would never put 
any of them to death, either by poison, or sword, or by any violent way, or by starving them. 
(Valer. Max. 1. 9. c. 2.) Secondly, for that Eschylus, who was in the fight against the Persians at 
Marathon names two kings successively between the slaughter of the Magi and the reign of 
Darius, Maraphis and Artaphrenes. The first seems to be the one who Ctesias calls Mardonius 
and the other Artapherne. Lastly, for that in Ezra, in the edict of Darius, in the second year of his 
reign, for the rebuilding of the temple, we find Artaxerxes, also called by the name of "king of 
Persia", Ezr 6: 14 to have given his consent to it in his 2nd year of his reign for the rebuilding of 
the temple. It is hard to understand this to mean any other than Artaphernes. 

1009. In the beginning of his reign, Darius took Atossa the daughter of Cyrus, who had formerly 
been married to his own brother Cambyses and afterward to the Magus and made her his wife. 
He purposed to better establish his kingdom by marrying into royalty so that the kingdom might 
not seem to move to another family but rather remain in the family of Cyrus. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 88. 
1. 7. c. 2. & Justin from Trogus 1. I.e. 10.) And he was first called Ochus, (Valer. Max. 1. 9. c. 
2.) yet later when he took over the kingdom of Cambyses, he took his surname also. So I 
conceive, that both he was that Achash-veroth, or Ahasuerus, which in the story of Esther, is 
said to have reigned from India to Ethiopia, over 127 provinces. His chief wife Atossa, was none 
other than Vashti as mentioned in the book of Esther. 

1010. Ochus still continued governor at Sardis and kept a thousand Persians for guards about 
him. When Darius sent his royal letters by Bagaeus the son of Arton to the soldiers there, they 
killed him. His goods were confiscated and brought to Susa. Democedes, whom he had made his 
slave, a physician of Crotona, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 127-129.) was also taken to Susa. 

101 1. It happened later that when Darius was hunting he fell from his horse and wrenched his 
foot badly. The Egyptian surgeons sought to straighten it. Their methods were so violent that he 
could not sleep for seven days. On the 8th day, Democedes was brought in shackles to him, in a 
poor and ragged condition. He used such Greek somentations, that the king quickly went to 
sleep again and in a short time recovered. He was rewarded with rich gifts by the king and his 
wives, dwelt in a good house in Susa and sat at the table with the king. He had everything that 
his heart could wish except he was forbidden to go to Greece again. When Darius would have 
hung his Egyptian physicians because a Greek could do more in his cure than they all, 
Democedes obtained their pardon from the king. There was a certain fortune teller of Elis, who 
came in the company with him and had followed Polycrates to Magnesia and was brought to 
Susa among the rest of Oroetes' slaves. Democedes obtained his freedom. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 129, 
130, 132.) 

1012. It happened later that Atossa, the daughter to Cyrus and wife of Darius had an ulcer in her 
breast. After it was lanced, it spread further and further. When Democedes had cured her of that 
sore, he prevailed upon her, to have the king to make war on Greece. Darius presently called 15 
choice men, all Persians. He commanded them to follow Democedes and by his directions to spy 



out all the maritime places of Greece and bring him back again with them to him. They went 
into Phoenicia and from there to Sidon. There they outfitted themselves with ships and other 
provisions and sailed to Greece. They viewed all the seacoasts of Greece and drew maps of it. 
They were the first Persian spies that ever came to Greece. When they had viewed the most 
famous cities and places in the heart of Greece, they passed from there to Tarentum in Italy. 
From here Democedes stole away to Crotona where his own home was and there marrying the 
daughter of Milo Crotoniates, that famous wrestler. He did not return any more to Darius. 
(Herod. 1. 3. c. 133-138., Athanaus, 1. 12. Deipnosoph. and Aelian. Var. Histor. 1. 8. c. 17.) 

3484a AM, 4193 JP, 521 BC 

1013. This was the third sabbatical year held by the Jews after their return from Babylon. 
3484c AM, 4194 JP, 520 BC 

1014. Mordecai the Jew, is said to have had a dream in the Greek additions of /APC Est 11:1-12 
on the 1st day of the month Nisan, in the 2nd year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great (for 
Ahasuerus or Darius the son of Hystaspes) concerning a river signifying Esther and two dragons 
portending himself and Haman, /APC Est 10:4-13 

1015. In the second year of king Darius, which was in the 65th Olympiad, Haggai the prophet 
reproved the idleness of the Jews for not rebuilding of the temple. For not doing this was the 
cause of crop failures and other plagues which continually happened to them between the first 
and third Sabbatical years. He earnestly persuaded them to change there ways. Then, 
Zerubbabel, the governor of the Jews and Joshua the high priest and all the people earnestly 
started to rebuild the temple on the 24th day of the same month. Hag 1:1-15 

3485a AM, 4194 JP, 520 BC 

1016. On the 21st day of the 7th month in the same year Haggai encouraged the Jews to go on 
with the work with a promise of God's presence and blessing on them in it. Although the 
beginnings of this present structure did not compare with its glory 69 years earlier, he told them 
the Messiah, who was born 516 years later, would be first shown in the temple and of the peace 
which would flow to all nations. If they consider that fact, then they must acknowledge that the 
glory of this temple will excel the beauty of the former. Hag 2:1-9 

1017. In the 8th month of the 2nd year of Darius, Zechariah the son of Barachiah exhorted the 
people to repentance. Zee 1:1-6 

1018. On the 24th day of the 9th month of the same 2nd year, about halfway between seedtime, 
(which immediately followed the end of the sabbatical year,) and the harvest, the temple began 
to be built on its old foundation by Zerubbabel and Joshua the high priest, with the assistance of 
Haggai and Zechariah the prophets. Ezr 5:1,2 Hag 2:10,18,19 

1019. On the same 24th day, the two last prophecies of Haggai, were revealed to him. One 
vision concerned the end of those plagues. The other was about the overthrow of various 
kingdoms and the exaltation of Zerubbabel. Hag 2:10-23 



3485b AM, 4195 JP, 519 BC 

1020. Tatnai, governor of the countries of this side the river, Shetharboznai, and the 
Apharsachites their associates came to Jerusalem to hinder the work of the temple. They asked 
the chief of the Jews by whose command they did it. They answered that they did it by the 
authority of the edict of Cyrus, and went on with their work. Ezr 5:3-5,13,16 The laws of the 
Medes and Persians were perpetual and unalterable. Da 6:8,12 Es 1:19 8:8 Therefore it was 
lawful for the Jews to proceed in the work without expecting any new order about it. 

1021. Their enemies sent a letter containing the Jew's answer to Darius and desired that search 
might be made in the records at Babylon. They wanted to see if there were any such grant made 
by Cyrus or not and desired to know the king's further pleasure concerning this. Ezr 5:5-17 

1022. The work was thus interrupted and the famine continued in Judah because the grain was 
not yet ripe. On the 24th day of the 1 1th month Sebat, in the 2nd year of Darius, the prophet 
Zechariah had a vision of horsemen galloping up and down over the face of the whole earth 
which was at rest and quiet. When the prophet asked what it meant, God made a gracious 
answer with many comforting words to the angel who entreated God to cease his anger and fury 
against the Jews, Jerusalem and cities of Judah. These 70 years are to be reckoned, from the 
coming of the Assyrians and the last siege laid to Jerusalem. (See note on 3415 AM) Jer 34:1 
Eze 5:12,13 Zee 1:1-3:10 This exhortation which is read in, Zee 2:6,7 was sent to the Jews still 
remaining in Babylon. They were told to get out as fast as possible to avoid that calamity, which 
a while later Darius brought upon Babylon when he took it. 

1023. The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple was found at Achmetha, or Ecbatan, in 
the province of the Medes. Darius sent this and a second command in favour of the Jews to 
Tatnai and his fellows. They were ordered not to hinder the work of the Lord's house but help it 
along. The costs of the project were to be taken from the king's tribute. They were to pay the 
costs for the daily sacrifices that were to be offered by the priests at Jerusalem. With this new 
command and the encouragement of Haggai and Zechariah, they enthusiastically completed the 
work. Ezr 6:1-14 

1024. 1 think that at this time, Artaxerxes, who Ezr 6:14 signed with Darius in this edict and 
shared power with him in ruling the kingdom was one of the 7 princes of Persia who slew 
Magus. That is he who Eschilus, (in Persis) calls Artaphrenes Hellanicus, (as his Scholiast terms 
him), Daphernes. According to Ctesias, Artaphernes and Herodotus, he is Intaphernes. 
Therefore, according to the privilege granted by Darius of seeing him without notice, he was 
detained by the doorkeepers of the bedchamber who told him that the king was asleep with the 
queen. He thought they lied to him and drew his scimitar and cut off both their ears and noses, 
tied the reigns of a horse about both their necks and sent them running. When they came to the 
king they showed him what they had suffered and why. The king sent for the rest of the seven 
princes individually, fearing that this might have been done by the common consent of them all. 
When he found this not to be the case, he executed Intaphernes and all his sons except the eldest 
whom he spared at his mother's petition. Herodotus relates this matter (Herod. 1. 3. c. 118, 119.) 
as a thing that happened shortly after the execution of the Magi. However, Valer. Max. 
following other authors, (1. 9. c. 2.) tells us, that finding himself checked by these princes, put 
them all to death by a newly devised kind of punishment. He says that he made a lower room 
and filled it with cinders and supported the room over it with only one post. When he had 



feasted and filled them with food and drink, he put them all into that upper room. When they 
were all fast asleep, he had the post that supported the room removed and they all fell into the 
cinders in the lower room and died. 

1025. Now though it be not very likely that they perished in this manner, yet is it very credible 
that he put them out of the government of the kingdom, and hence eased himself of their heavy 
yoke. 

3485c AM, 4195 JP, 519 BC 

1026. And from that time on, Darius was an absolute monarch. He is called Ahsuerus in the 
Scriptures. Therefore Ahsuerus, made a feast in the 3rd year, reckoned from the beginning of his 
reign in his palace at Susa. He wanted to show the glory of his kingdom and magnificence of his 
state. He invited all the governors and great men of his dominions. The feast lasted 180 days. Es 
1:2-4 Pliny (1. 6. c. 27.) states that Susa was built by this Darius. This is also called Elian, (Pliny 
1. 13. de Anima 1. c. 59.) and was embellished with magnificent palaces by him. Herodotus. (1. 5. 
c. 49.) tells us, that he made this his home and kept all his treasure there. 

3486 AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC 

1027. After this half year banquet was over, there followed another one lasting seven days. 
Everyone in Susa was invited. The men were sitting with the king in the court of the garden of 
the king's house and the women were within the palace itself with Vashti the queen, (who is 
Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus.) Es 1:5-9 

1028. On the last day of this feast, the king being somewhat drunk, wanted to show off the 
beauty of his queen to the men and sent for her to come to him. She refused and by the advise of 
Memucan had her divorced. He was one of the seven wise men of the Medes and Persians who 
knew the laws and statutes of those countries. For these were the king's judges, which judged in 
all causes arising among the Persians and revealed all cases in point of law. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 14, 
31. Plutarch in the "Life of Artaxerxes") They made a law that every man after this should be 
master in his own house. Es 1:10-22 

1029. After this a search was made for all the fair damsels that were to be found in the empire to 
find a new queen for the king to replace Vashti. Among the ones selected, was Hadassah, a 
damsel of the Jews, who was also called Esther; the daughter of Abichajile, a woman of 
Benjamin. Es 2:1-8 

3487a AM, 4196 JP, 518 BC 

1030. In the 4th year of Darius, the 4th day of the 9th month, called Chisleu, the Jews through 
Sharezer and Regemmelech consulted with the priests and prophets concerning the appointed 
fast to be held on the day of the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem. God answered 
them that those fasts of the 5th and 7th months which they had observed for 70 years displeased 
him and reminded him of their obstancy and sins which caused that terrible desolation in the 
first place. Zee 7:1-14 From the destruction and the death of Gedaliah two months later (which 
was the reason for the fast in the 7th month), to the very time of this prophecy, we, in our 



Chronology, count 70 years. 

1031. In Zee 8:1-23, God tells them that he would restore Jerusalem and put an end to all their 
former miseries and that he would change their fasts into mirth and gladness. These fasts were: 

1. 4th month, 9th day when the city was taken 

2. 5th month, 10th day when the temple was burnt 

3. 7th month when Gedaliah was murdered and they were scattered among the nations 

4. 10th month, 10th day when Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city under Zedekiah. 

3489 AM, 4199 JP, 515 BC 

1032. Toward the latter end of the 6th year of Darius on the 3rd day of the 12th month, called 
Adar, the temple was finished. At the dedication, the Israelites who returned from the captivity, 
celebrated with great joy and many sacrifices. The priests and Levites performed their offices 
and duties in the temple. Ezr 6:15-18 

1033. On the 14th day of the 1st month, they joyfully celebrated the first passover in the second 
temple and kept the feast of unleavened bread for seven days. For God had turned the heart of 
Darius, king of Assyria toward them. Ezr 6:19,22 After a 20 month seige, he took Babylon, by 
the help of Zopyrus. He could now rightly be called king of the Assyrians as well as the 
Persians. (Herod. 1. 3. in fin. & Justin at the end of his book.) 

3490b AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC 

1034. When Esther's turn came to be brought to the king Ahasuerus, she was brought from the 
Seraiglia to the king's chamber by Hegai the eunuch. Es 2:12-15 

vv The women in Persia, come round in their turns, to their husband's beds." (Herod. 1. 3. c. 69) 

1035. In the 7th year of Ahasuerus' reign, in the 10th month called Tebeth, when Esther came to 
the king, she found grace and favour in his eyes above all the other damsels. He put the crown of 
the kingdom upon her head and made her queen in the place of Vashti. Es 2: 16,17 From this I 
gather that as Vashti was Atossa, so Esther was the one Herodotus called the virgin Artystone. 
He said that Darius loved with her more than all his wives and he made a solid gold statue of. 
(Herod. 1. 3. c. 88. 1. 7. c. 69.) Hadassah, which was another name given to Esther sounds much 
like Atossa. Herodotus makes Artystone to have been Cyrus' daughter and Atossa's sister. We do 
not know whether Herodotus was not so well skilled in the Persian genealogies or that the 
Persians themselves for very envy concealed the name of Esther. 

1036. In honour of his new marriage, Ahasuerus made a most sumptuous feast for all his princes 
and servants and called it Esther's feast. He eased the provinces of many taxes and gave gifts 
according to the wealth of so great a king. Es 2:18 

1037. The 19th Jubilee. 
3491a AM, 4200 JP, 514 BC 



1038. Haman, the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, of the tribe of the Amalekites, hated the Jew 
Mordecai because he would not fall down and adore him as others did. He resolved for his sake 
to be revenged of all the Jewish nation (which was always at odds with his De 25:19) and to 
destroy it. To find a good time to do this, he cast pur, that is, lots before him on the first month 
Nisan, in the 12th year of king Ahasuerus. The lot fell on the 12th month Adar. Es 3:1-7 

1039. For vacuous reasons he offered Ahasuerus 10,000 talents of silver, (which the king would 
not accept) and obtained a grant from him to destroy the Jews. Es 3:7-1 1 

1040. On the 13th day of the first month, the king's edict was proclaimed in Susa and copies of 
it were dispatched by carriers into all the provinces of the empire. All Jews without respect to 
sex or age on the 13th day of the 12th month Adar were to be killed. Es 3:12-15 When this 
happened, Mordecai, Esther and all the Jews, humbled themselves before the Lord, by fasting 
and prayer. Es 4: 1- 17 In memory of this their posterity to this day observe a solemn fast, upon 
the 13th day of the month Adar, which they call Esther's fast. 

1041. Esther went to the king in gorgeous apparel and was graciously received by him. She 
invited the king to a banquet. Meanwhile, Haman was busy having a gallows made for 
Mordecai. Es 5:1-14 

1042. One night when Ahasuerus could not sleep, he had the records read to him. It was found 
that two of his servants, Bigthan and Teresh his doorkeepers, had plotted his death and that 
Mordecai had revealed this conspiracy to him. Thereupon he ordered that Mordecai should be 
highly honoured publicly by none other than Haman himself. Es 6:1-14 

1043. Shortly after this, Haman was hung on the gallows he made for Mordecai. Es 7:1-10 
Haman's house was given to the queen. Mordecai, her uncle who had raised her, had daily 
honours bestowed upon him. Es 8:1,2,15-17 

1044. On the 23rd day of the month Sivan, there was an edict proclaimed at Susa and copies of 
it sent away speedily by carriers into the 127 provinces. It stated that the Jews on the 13th day of 
the month Adar, which was the day appointed for their massacre, could defend themselves and 
to kill any who attacked them. They could keep the spoil of any man killed. In Susa and in all 
the provinces there was great rejoicing among the Jews. People in various countries became 
Jews. Es 8:9-17 

3494d AM, 4204 JP, 510 BC 

1045. Happias (twenty years before the fight at Marathon, in which he served on the Persian 
side) was now an old man. He was expelled from Athens by the Lacedemonians and the faction 
of the Alemaeonidae. He left the Athenians, and went first to Sigeum and from there sailed to 
Lampsucus, to his son-in-law Aeanpias' father and from there went to Darius. (Thucid. 1. 6.) 
Now Pisistratus, the son of Hippias, had committed Segeum in Troas to Hegesistratus' base son. 
This was a place for Hippias and later for others of the family of Pisistratus to escape to when in 
trouble. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 65, 91, 94) 

3495b AM, 4205 JP, 509 BC 



1046. Upon the 13th day of the 12th month Adar, the Jews killed all those who intended to kill 
them by Haman's decree. In Susa and the palace, they killed 500 men together with Haman's ten 
sons. In the rest of the provinces, they killed 75,000 men but touched not one penny of their 
goods. Es 9:1-16 

1047. On the 14th of the same month, the Jews in the provinces stopped killing their enemies 
and had a feast. They at Susa were granted one more day of vengeance by the king. They slew 
300 more of their enemies; and hung the carcasses of Haman's ten sons on the gallows. Es 9:13- 
19 

1048. On the 15th day, Jews who lived in Susa made merry and feasted. Es 9:18 

1049. Mordecai began the custom of keeping a holiday in remembrance of Purim on the 14th 
and 15th days of the month Adar. This was established by Esther. Es 9:23-30 This is the Jew's 
Shrovetide, when they read the history of Esther. As often as the name of Haman is read, they 
rap and make a noise with their hands or mallets upon the desk in their synagogues. 

3500 AM, 4210 JP, 504 BC 

1050. In the isle of Naxos, some of the rich were expelled by the poor. They resorted to 
Aristagoras, son of Molpagoras and son-in-law and first cousin by the mother's side, to 
Histiaeus, Tyrant of Meletus. Histiaeus had left Aristagoras governor there in his place when 
Darius had honoured him by taking him to Susa. Aristagoras told the matter to Artaphernes, son 
of Hystaspes and brother to Darius, governor of Ionia, who lived at Sardis. He persuaded him to 
take over for the king, Naxos, Paros and Andros and the rest of the Cyclades, all dependents of 
Naxos. Darius at Susa liked the idea and next spring he furnished 200 ships for that war. (Herod. 
1. 5. c. 30-32.) 

3501c AM, 4211 JP, 503 BC 

1051. Artaphernes, made Megabates a Persian and a close cousin to him and Darius, 
commander-in-chief of the Persian army. He ordered him to go to Miletus with his fleet of 200 
ships. He was to join forces with Aristagoras and the Ionian army, which he did. They sailed 
from there to Chios. A disagreement occurred between Aristagoras and Artaphernes, when they 
had spent four months in the siege of Naxos. Nothing came of the seige and each returned home 
again, accomplishing nothing. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 32-34.) 

3502b AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC 

1052. The 70 years had elapsed from the taking of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. This was the 
number of years of the bondage of that city as stated in. Isa 23: 15,17 After this time, it seems 
they lived in freedom from any foreign subjection, until the time it was again taken by 
Alexander the Great. 

1053. Aristagoras feared what might happen to him because he had not been able to take Naxos. 
He had no money to pay his army. He began to think of revolting from the Persians. It happened 



that exactly at that time, a messenger came from Histiaeus in Babylon. His message was written 
in letters made with hot irons upon the flesh of his head and now overgrown with hair. He 
advised Aristagoras to defect from Darius and cause all Ionia to revolt, if he could. (Herod. 1. 5. 
c. 35. Polya. Stratag. 1. 1.) 

1054. Aristagoras told this to his friends and persuaded them to side with him. Hecataeus the 
historian tried in vain to prevent them from rebelling against the king of Persia. The conspirators 
sent Iarrogaras to Myletus to the army, which upon their return from Naxos, remained there and 
by a stratagem, won over all the principal commanders of their fleet. 

1055. Aristagoras, now publicly revolted from Darius. He made a fair show of a kind of liberty 
to the Milesians. He took away the rulers that were in some cities of Ionia. He then went to the 
Lacedemonians to ask for their help but they flatly refused. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 36-38, 49-51.) 

3503a AM, 4212 JP, 502 BC 

1056. In the 20th year of the reign of Darius, 245 of Nabonassar's era, on the 28th day of the 
month Epiphus, according to the Egyptian calendar, (November, 29) there was an eclipse of the 
moon at Babylon ending about midnight. (Ptol. Mag. Syntax. 1. 4. c. 9.) 

1057. The Lacedemonians sent to Sigeum for Hippias the son of Pisistratus. He went to Athens 
on the hope they gave to him that he may be restored to power. This was all in vain and returned 
to Asia. He accused the Athenians of many things to Artaphernes, hoping to bring Athens under 
the subjection of Darius, (Herod. 1. 5. c. 91, 96.) 

1058. When the Athenians understood that Hippias had defamed them to Artaphernes, they sent 
their messengers to Sardis to persuade the Persians not to give credit to those outlaws of the 
Athenians. However, Artaphernes advised them that if they loved themselves and their own 
safety, they should call home again and receive Hippias. They refused any such conditions. It 
happened that Aristagoras the Melesian returned empty handed from Sparta he came to Athens 
and there obtained 20 ships to aid the Ionians in their war against the Persians. They made 
Melantho an eminent man in Athens commander. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 96, 97.) This fleet, as 
Herodotus (Herod. 1. 3. c. 98. ib.) has well noted, was the beginning of all the trouble between 
the Greeks and Persians. This was the beginning of all the wars which occurred between the 
Greeks and the Persians and which ended in the ruin of the Persian Empire. 

1059. When Aristagoras returned to Miletus, he persuaded the Paeones to return to their own 
country. Megabuzus the governor of Thracia had carried them away from their own country on 
the banks of the River Strymon into Phrygia and by the authority of Darius settled them there. 
They took with them their wives and children and went away to the seaside. Some settled there 
for fear of going any farther. The rest went to Chios, from there sailed to Lesbos and to 
Doriscus. From there, they went by land into their own country. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 98.) 

Previous Next Table of Contents 



3504 AM, 4214 JP, 500 BC 

1060. The Athenian fleet arrived at Meletus. Five triremes of the Eretrians came with them to 
help the Athenians. There Aristagoras remained. He sent his own brother Charopinus 
commander over the Milesians and Helmophantus commander over the rest of the Ionians to 
fight against Sardis. The Ionians with the Athenians and Eretrians sailed to Ephesus. They left 
their ships at Coresus, a port of the Ephesians and marched to Sardis. They took and burnt it all 
except for the citadel which Artaphernes himself kept. They even destroyed the temple of 
Cybele. When the Lydians and Persians united forces they defended and held the market place 
through which ran the River Pactolus. The fearful Ionians retired to the hill Timolus next to the 
market and fled to their ships by night. The Persians who dwelt on that side the river Halys, 
gathered their forces and pursued them. They overtook them near Ephesus, fought and routed 
them. Many were killed including Enalcidas captain of the Eretrians. He won many garlands in 
many of their games and was highly commended in the poetry of Simonides. They who escaped 
from the battle, scattered into their various cities. The Athenians abandoned the Ionian cause 
from that time on, although they were earnestly entreated to help the Ionians by Aristagoras. 
(Herod. 1.5. c. 99-103.) 

1061. Onesilus disposed of his older brother Gorgus, king of the Salaminians, and forced him to 
flee over to the Medes for help. Onesilus caused the whole island of Cyprus to defect from the 
Medes except for the people of Amathusa. When he was besieging that city, Darius received 
news of the burning of Sardis by the Athenians. He was very angry with the Athenians and 
ordered one of his attendants that as often as ever he sat eating, he should remind him three 
times of it by saying, "Sir, Remember the Athenians." Heedlessly, he sent away Histiaeus, the 
brother of that Aristagoras from Susa to Meletus who later became the ringleader of the Ionian 
rebellion against him. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 104-106.) 

1062. The Ionians sailed into the Hellespont and took Byantium with other cities in those parts. 
When they sailed from there, they caused many of the cities of Caria to join with them in this 
war against the Persians. When the city Caunus heard of the burning of Sardis, they joined them 
when before this had refused to. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 103.) 

1063. At Clazomenae, which was an island but now joined to the continent of Ionia, by a neck 
of land, (Strabo. 1. 1.) Anaxagoras the philosopher, son of Hegesibulus was born (Olym. 70.) 
according to Diogenes Laertius in his life, from Apollodorus' Chronicle. 

1064. While Onesilus and his army beseiged Amathusa, He received news that Artybius, a 
captain of the Persians, was heading to Cyprus with a very large army. Onesilus sent to the 
Ionians for help and they immediately sailed to Cyprus with a large fleet. The Persians left 
Cilicia and landed in Cyprus. They marched to the city of Salamis and sent the Phoenicians with 
their ships to take the point of a promontory in the island called, Claves Cyprus, i.e. the keys of 
Cyprus. A naval and land battle ensued. At sea that day, the Ionians behaved valiantly, 
especially the Samians and defeated the Phoenicians. On land while the rest were busy fighting, 
first Stesenor, tyrant of the Curii, betrayed his companions and then presently the men of 
Salamis who fought in chariots, did likewise. The whole army of the Cypriots were routed and 
many were killed. Among the dead was Onesilus, the author of this war and Aristocypius, king 
of the Solians, son of that Philocyphrus. When Solon was at Cyprus, he greatly extolled him in 



his poetry more than all the other tyrants. When the Ioninas heard that Onesilus was slain, and 
the rest of the cities of Cyprus were besieged and that Salamis welcomed back Gorgus their old 
king, they quickly returned to Ionia. Of all the cities of Cyrpus, Soli held out the longest. After 
four months, the Persians undermined the wall around the city and took it. Hence the Cypriots 
paid dearly for their one year of liberty and were reduced again to slavery. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 108- 
116.) 

3505 AM, 4215 JP, 499 BC 

1065. The Persian leaders, Daurises, Hymaees and Otanes at Sardis who had married the 
daughters of Darius pursued the Ionians who had helped in the attack against Sardis. After they 
had routed them near Ephesus and driven them aboard their ships, they divided the rest of the 
cities among themselves so they could conquer them. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 116.) Daurises subdued the 
lands adjoining to the Hellespont and took in five days the five cities, Dardanus, Abydus, 
Percote, Lampsacus and Paesus. He was on his way from there to the city Parios when he 
received news that all Caria had revolted from the king and joined with the Ionians. He 
abandoned his plan to take Parios and marched with all his army to Caria. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 1 17.) 
Hymaees subdued the lands about Propontis and took the city of Cios in Mysia. When he heard 
that Daurises marched from Hellespont to Caria, he left Propontis and marched into Hellespont. 
(Herod. 1. 5. c. 122.) Artaphernes, the governor of Sardis and Otanes the third commander 
attacked Ionia and part of Aeolia. In Ionia, they took the city of Clazomenae and in Aeolia, the 
city Cuma. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 123.) After this, Anaxagoras with his men met together to decide on a 
place to flee to. In this meeting, Hecataeus the historian advised them to move to the isle of 
Leros and fortify it. They should stay there until it was safe to return to Miletus. Aristagoras 
advised them to sail rather to a place called Myrcinus, a city of the Edons. These people dwelt 
on the bank of the river Strimon which his own brother Histiaeus had formerly built. Aristagoras 
committed the government of Miletus to Pythagoras and with a group of volunteers he sailed 
from there into Trace and took control of the area he had planned to. (Herod. 1. 5 c. 124-126.) 

1066. When Histiaeus, the Tyrant of Miletus, was sent away from Susa by Darius, he came to 
Sardis. Artaphernes charged him with being the author of all the unrest and rebellion in Ionia. 
He escaped by night to the sea coast and sailed over into Chios. The people thought that he had 
been sent there by Darius to enlist their support against the Greeks and they put him in irons. 
When they understood that he came to help the Greeks, they quickly set him free. He 
immediately sent a message to Sardis, by Herminppus of Atarne, to persuade some Persians to 
revolt. When Artaphernes got wind of this when he captured the messenger, he killed those 
Persians. When this plot failed, Histiaens had the Chios escort him back to Miletus. The 
Milesians were glad to be rid of Aristagoras and did not want another tyrant in his place. When 
Histiaeus tried to secretly get into the city by night, the Mileasians wounded him in the thigh. 
When he was expelled from there, he returned again to Chios, (Herod. 1. 6. c. 1-5.) 

3506 AM, 4216 JP, 498 BC 

1067. Daurises the Persian led his army against the Carians. They met at a place called 
Columnae Albae or the White Pillars, near the river Marsyas. Pixodorus the son of Mausolus, a 
man of Cyndya, who had married the daughter of Sienoses the king of Cilicia, advised then to 
cross the river Maeander. They should have the river behind them and await the enemy there 
and fight from this good position. The opposite opinion prevailed that the Persians should fight 
with the river at their backs. This would cut off all retreat and force the Persians to fight harder. 



When the Carians and Persians fought near the river Marsyas, the battle was fierce and long. 
The Persians lost 2,000 men and the Carians 10,000. The Carians fled to Labranda to the temple 
of Jupiter and there decided what to do. Should they submit to the Persians or abandon Asia? At 
this time, the Milesians with their allies came to help them. Thus encouraged, they fought again 
with the Persians who invaded them. After a longer battle than the previous one, they fled again. 
They and the Milesians lost very many men. After these great losses, the Carians received more 
help and fought with the Persians a third time. When they heard that the Persians were sacking 
their cities, they lay in ambush for them as they were marching to Mylasa. This was planned by 
Heraclides of Mylasa the son of Ibanollis. They attacked the Persians at night and slaughtered 
them. The Persian commander, Daurisces and Amorges, Sismaces and Myrsus the son of Gyges, 
were killed. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 118-121.) 

1068. Hymees the Persian who led his army into the country of Hellespont, defeated all the 
Aeolians, who lived in the region of old Troy. He also subdued the Gergithes, the rest of those 
ancient Teucrians. After this he became sick and died at Troas. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 122.) 

1069. When Histiaeus the Milesian could not get ships from Chios, he went to Mitilene. Here 
the Lesbians let him have eight triremes and they sailed with him to Byzantium. Here they 
intercepted certain ships of the Ionians, who came out of Pontus. These submitted to the 
leadership of Histiaeus. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 5,26.) 

1070. Aristagoras, Histiaeus' brother, was with his army at the siege of Mircinus, a city of the 
Edones. He and his men were slain by the Thracians who lied to him about granting him safe 
passage from the place. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 126.) Thucidides, (1. 4.) reckons from this time that it 
was 61 years, to the starting of a colony of the Athenians by Agnon the son of Nicias, at 
Amphipolis. Diod. Sic. in his 12th book, says, was done in the 85th Olympiad. That period of 
time, we have here followed our relation of the six years (ending the year following) of the 
rebellion of the Ionians against the Persians. 

3507 AM, 4217 JP, 497 BC 

1071. All the Persian commanders united in one huge naval and land force to take the city of 
Miletus. Among the navy the Phoenicians were the best sailors. They were helped by the 
Cypriots (who were recently subdued by the Persians,) the Cilicians and the Egyptians. (Herod. 
1. 6. c. 6.) This threat seems to be mentioned by Diogenes Laertius in his life, in those letters 
which are attributed to Anaximines the Melesian, written to Pythagoras who was living at 
Crotona. He lived there for 20 years and then went to Metapontus and there lived the rest of his 
days. (Justin from Trogus 1. 20. c. 4.) This was the fourth year of the 78th Olympiad, (as Euseb. 
has it in his Chron.) which takes up part of this and part of the next year. 

1072. The Ionian fleet had 363 ships and the Persians had 600. Aeaces the son of Solyson, the 
tyrant of Samos and other tyrants of Ionia, who had been expelled by Aristagoras, were now in 
the Persian army. They tried to draw as many of the countrymen as they could from the Ionian 
to the Persian side. The naval battle between the Phoenicians and the Ionians happened at Lada, 
a little island lying opposite Miletus. Of the 60 ships that came from the isle of Samos, 50 
cowardly fled home from the battle. Likewise 70 more of the Lesbian ships and others of the 
Ionians fled. There were 100 ships of the Isle of Chios which fought valiantly until at length 
having taken many of the enemy's ships and lost many of their own, they returned home with 



what they had left. Some were closely pursued by the enemy and ran aground at the promontory 
of Mycale. They escaped to the shore and after travelling all night on foot, they came safely to 
Ephesus. Here, the women were celebrating their feast and sacrifices called Thesmophoria, in 
honour of their goddess Ceres. The men of the city thought that the Chians were thieves who 
came to spoil them at that time. They attacked them suddenly and slew them. Dionysius, captain 
of three ships of the Phoenicians, captured three ships of the enemies. He did not sail to 
Phocaea, which he knew was about to fall to the enemy with the rest of the Ionian territories but 
sailed directly to Phoenicia. Here he sank a number of cargo ships, and robbed them of their 
valuable cargo. He then set sail for Sicily. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 7-17.) 

1073. When the Persians had defeated the Ionians at sea, they attacked the beleagued city of 
Miletus, both by sea and land. They undermined its walls with all kinds of engines of war and 
they utterly overthrew and razed it to the ground in the 6th year after Aristagoras began his 
rebellion against the king of Persia. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 18.) Some of the Mileseans who escaped 
with certain of the Samians, started a colony in Sicily. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 22.) The rest were carried 
away to Susa. Darius inflicted no more punishment on them and settled them in the city of 
Ampa on the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Tigris River. The Persians took the plain and 
low grounds lying near the city of Miletus and gave the mountainous parts to the Carians of 
Pedasus to possess. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 20.) 

1074. After the taking of Miletus, the Carians were all quickly captured. Some surrendered 
willingly and others by compulsion. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 25.) When Histiaeus the Milesian heard 
what happened to his city Miletus, he sailed with the Lesbians who were with him to Chios. He 
easily subdued them because they were greatly weakened by their heavy losses at Lada. He went 
from there with a strong party of Ionians and Eolians to Thasos. While he was besieging Thasos, 
he heard that the Persians were attacking the rest of Ionia. He lifted his siege from Thasos and 
he immediately sailed to Lesbos with all his forces. When he saw that his men were short of 
food, he sailed to the province of Atarnis and intended to forage for food there and in the 
country lying by the river Caicus in the province of Mysia. Harpagus the Persian was in those 
parts with a very large army. He attacked Histiaeus as he came from his ships at a place called 
Malena and took him alive and killed most of his men. After Histiaeus was brought prisoner to 
Sardis, Artaphernes crucified him and sent his head to Darius at Susa. Darius criticised them for 
not bringing him alive to him. He ordered that his head should be interred, as a man respected 
by him and the Persian nation. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 27-29.) 

3508 AM, 4218 JP, 496 BC 

1075. The Persian navy wintered near Miletus. They captured the islands bordering on the 
continent and in less than two years captured Chios, Lesbos, Tenedos, and the rest. (Herod. 1. 6. 
c. 31.) 

1076. After the islands were taken, the Persian captains captured the cities of Ionia. When they 
were subdued, they selected the most beautiful boys and girls from among them and sent them 
to Darius. They burned the cities and their temples. Hence the Ionians were three times brought 
into bondage, once by the Lydians and now twice by the Persians. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 31, 32.) 

1077. Before the Phoenician fleet came, the inhabitants of Byzantium and of Chalcedon, which 
is opposite it, abandoned their cities and fled to the remotest parts of the Euxin Sea. Here they 



built a city called Mesembria. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 33.) 
3509 AM, 4219 JP, 495 BC 

1078. The Phoenician fleet sailed from Ionia and subdued all that lay on their left hand as you 
go into the Hellespont. What lay on the right hand in Asia was already subdued by the Persians. 
The fleet took Chersonesus and its cities except the city Cardia where until then Miltiades the 
son of Cimon, had been tyrant. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 33, 34.) When Miltiades sailed from Cardia with 
five triremes for Athens, the Phoenicians pursued him and took one of his ships containing his 
son Metiochus. He was sent prisoner to Darius who honourably received him. Darius gave him 
both house and lands and a Persian woman for a wife. She bore him many children. (Herod. 1. 6. 
c. 41.) 

1079. When Artaphernes the governor of Sardis, found the Ionians fighting among themselves, 
he sent for some of each side to come to him. He made peace with them on certain conditions. 
He made them to settle their differences by arbitration rather than by killing each other and thus 
ruining their nation. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 42.) 

1080. When Artaphernes made peace, he surveyed their country by parasangs, as the Persians 
called every division and it contained 30 furlongs or 3.75 miles. He assigned a tribute on every 
such division which was paid yearly to the king. The rate was similar to what they paid formerly 
to Darius. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 42.) That rate was first levied when Darius became king and he 
imposed it on all his empire (Herod. 1. 3. c. 89, 90.) and before he was master of the islands. 
(Herod. 1. 6. c. 96.) According to Herodotus, we observe that to facilitate taxing, the 127 
provinces mentioned in Esther, were now by Darius reduced to 20, yet the bounds of that empire 
were still the same stretching from India to Ethiopia. One side was conquered by Cambyses and 
the other by Darius. Concerning the revenue from India, Herodotus states: 

vv Since the Indians were the most populous nation, more than all other men living that we know, 
they pay far more tribute than any other nation does, that is 360 talents of gold dust and this is 
the twentieth part or a Satrapie." 

1081. Since we find that when Darius was made king, he did not control India, as is evident 
even by Herodotus himself, (Herod. 1. 4. c. 44.), therefore it is likely that when the tax rate was 
set by Artaphernes in Ionia, a similar tax was done all over the kingdom by the governors of 
each of the provinces. 

1082. It would be considered then, whether that which is said in Es 10:1-3 

vv After this the king Ahasuerus imposed a tribute upon the land and isles of the sea;" 

1083. That King Ahasuerus made all the earth and all the islands of the sea pay tribute refers to 
this very time. For as Thucidides, (1. 1.) tells us, (and Plato in his Menexenus confirms) that 
Darius, by the means of his Phoenician fleet, subdued all the islands lying in the Aegean Sea. 
Diodorus Siculus, (1. 12.) states that they were all lost again by his son Xerxes immediately after 
his defeat in Greece. It was after the 12th year of his reign that the scripture states that 
Ahasuerus imposed this tribute upon the isles. For in the war of Xerxes against Greece, all the 



islands which lay between the Cyanean Isles and the two forelands, that of Triopium in Cnidia 
and that other of Sumium in Attica, sent him ships. Diodorus Siculus (1. 12.) states that his 
successors held none of them all except for Clazomene, which was at that time a poor small 
island (Thucidides, 1. 8.) and Cyprus. This is demonstrated by the tenor of Antalcidas' peace as 
recorded by Xenophon (1. 5. Hellenic.) This seems to me to be a good argument, that the 
Ahasuerus mentioned in Esther is none other than this Darius. For this and other such like 
impositions laid upon the people, the Persians used to call him "a crafty merchant" or 
"huckster", as Herodotus notes of him. Under Cyrus and Cambyses, his two predecessors, there 
was no mention of any tribute charged upon the subject but that they only brought the king 
presents, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 89.) Also, we read in the 15th book of the Epitome of Strabo: 

vv The first that ever brought up paying of tribute, was Darius Lonimanus:" 

1084. (mistaking the surname of Artaxerxes the grandchild and giving it to the grandfather) 
vv for before him, men paid their kings, from what every country yielded, as grain, horses, &c." 

1085. And Polyuenus, (Stratagem. 1. 7.) states that 

vv Darius, was the first that ever imposed a tribute upon the people. Nevertheless, to make it more 
palatable to them, he had his officers set the rate first. When they imposed a very heavy tax, he 
took off one half of it which they willingly paid and took it for a great favour too from the king's 
hand" 

1086. This story is mentioned also, by Plutarch in his Apothegmes of Kings and Emperors. 

3510 AM, 4220 JP, 494 BC 

1087. In the beginning of this spring, the king relieved all the commanders and sent away the 
young gentleman Mardonius, the son of Gobryas and who recently married to the king's 
daughter Arotozostra. He came to the seaside in Cilicia with a vast well equipped army and 
navy. He sent his army overland to Hellespont while he took the navy into the parts of Ionia. He 
put down the Tyrants in each of the cities restored their elected governments. Shortly after this, 
he subdued the Thasy by his fleet and the Macedonians by his army. His navy sailing from 
Thasus to Acanthus. While they tried to round the cape of the mount Athos, a mighty tempest 
destroyed 300 of his ships and over 20,000 men. While Mardonius with his army stayed in 
Macedonia, the Thracians, called the Brygi, attacked his camp at night. They killed many of his 
men and wounded Mardonius. When he had subdued Macedonia, he left and returned into Asia. 

3511 AM, 4221 JP, 493 BC 

1088. The next year, Darius ordered the inhabitants of Thasus, who had been accused of 
intending a rebel against him, to demolish the walls of their city and to send away all their 
shipping to Abdera. He then determined to see whether the Greeks would fight or submit to him. 
He sent ambassadors into Greece with the order to demand earth and water from them. He 
ordered his towns on the sea coast, to send fighting ships and others to send horses to him. 
Therefore, many in Greece and in the adjacent isles gave him earth and water. The inhabitants of 



the Island of Egina were the first to do this. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 46. 48. 49.) 

3512 AM, 4222 JP, 492 BC 

1089. The Eginetae who were traitors to Greece, were presently attacked by Cleomenes, king of 
the Spartans. Demaratus, the other Spartan king, was expelled when a disagreement arose 
between him and Cloemenes. He fled to into Asia to Darius who entertained him magnificently 
and gave him cities and lands to rule. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 49, 50. 61, 67, 70.) 

3513 AM, 4223 JP, 491 BC 

1090. There was an eclipse of the moon at Babylon in the 31st year of Darius, 257th of 
Nobonasar, the 3rd day of the month Tybi (April 25th) half an hour before midnight (Ptol. mag. 
Syntas, 1. 4. c. 9.) Darius removed Mardonius from his command because of the poor handling 
of the navy. He sent others to take charge of the war against the Eretrians and Athenians. These 
were Datys, a Median and Artaphernes, (whom the Scholiast of Aristophanes calls Artabaxus) 
commander of the horses, the son of his brother Artaphernes. As they were encamped in a plain 
of Cilicia near the sea, they repaired all the naval forces and prepared their ships to transport the 
horses which the tributary cities had provided. With the army and horse on board, they sailed for 
Ionia (Herod. 1. 6. c. 94, 95.) with a fleet of 600 ships. Yet Plato in his Menexenus, counts only 
300 ships and 500,000 soldiers. Lysias also confirms this number, in the Epitaph which he 
made, upon the Corinthian Auxiliaries. However, Emilius Probus, in the life of Miltiades, says, 
there were in that fleet, 500 ships; 200,000 soldiers and 10,000 horses. 

3514c AM, 4224 JP, 490 BC 

1091. The Persians sailed from Samos to Naxos and burned all its houses and temples. They 
spared Delos and went to other the islands. From there they took captive both men to serve them 
and their children for hostages. When the Casrystii refused to do this, they were besieged until at 
last they also were forced to surrender their city and themselves to the enemy. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 95, 
96, 99.) 

1092. The Persians took Eretria after seven days siege. After spending a few days in settling 
things there, they sailed to the land of Attica and destroyed a great part of it. At last by the 
guidance of Hippias the son of Pisistratus they came to the plain of Marathon. They were 
defeated by the men of Athens and of Platea, under the command of Miltiades. He had taken 
command of the Chersonesus in Thracia. The Greeks lost 192 men, the Persians, 6400. (Herod. 
1. 6. c. 101, 102. 112. 117.) 

3514d AM, 4224 JP, 490 BC 

1093. The Persians fled to their ships many of which were sunk or captured. In both the fights, 
the Persians lost 200,000 men. Hippias, a former the Tyrant of Athens, died there, who had been 
the author of this war. (Justin out of Trogus, 1. 2. c. 9.) The whole army of the Persians at this 
battle consisted of 300,000. (Valer. Mas. 1. 5. c. 3.) Plutarch thinks it was less as he states in the 
beginning of his Parallels. Justin and Orosius following him and say, they were in all 600,000 
men: Aemilius Probus in his Militiades, states there were 100,000 solders and 20,000 calvary. 



On the Athenian side there were 10,000 and of their auxiliaries out of Platea; 1,000, states Justin 
with Orosus. Probus assures us, that the Athenians, with the men of Platea totalled but 10,000. 
This significant victory happened on the 6th day of Boedromion, the 3rd month in the Attio 
calendar after the summer solstice according to Plutarch in the life of Camillus. When 
Phanippus was in charge of Athens. Plutarch has it in the Life of Aristides that in the 3rd year of 
the 72nd Olympiad, 4 years before the death of Darius. Likewise Severns Sulpitius, in his 2nd 
book of his Sacra Hisoria states the same thing. This was in the 10th year before Xerxes entered 
into Greece, (as Thuscidides in his 1st book of his history states and Lysias in his Epitaph of the 
Corinthian Auxiliaries confirms) and 10 full years before the sea fight at Salamis in the same 
month of Boedromion. (Plato 1. 3. de Legibus.) 

1094. Datis and Artiphernes returned into Asia taking with them their captives of Eretria to 
Susa. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 1 19.) According to Ctesias, Datis was slain in the fight at Marathon and the 
Athenians refused to give the Persians his body. 

3515 AM, 4225 JP, 489 BC 

1095. When the Eretrian captives were brought to Darius, he had them settled in a part of the 
Cissian country called Anderica, 210 furlongs (26 miles) from Susa. (Herod. 1. 6. c. 119.) This is 
described in more detail in Philostratus, in the life of Apollonius, (1. 1. c. 17.) 

3517d AM, 4227 JP, 487 BC 

1096. After Darius had spent 3 years in making greater preparations against Greece than before, 
in the fourth year the Egyptians revolted. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 1.) 

3519 AM, 4229 JP, 485 BC 

1097. When Darius was now ready to begin his war against the Egyptians, and Athenians, he 
was required by the laws of the Persians to name his successor in the kingdom. 

1098. Artobazanes, whom others call Artemenes, or Ariamenes was his son by Gobryas his 
daughter. He was born to him before he came to be king and claimed the succession by right of 
Primogeniture or as the firstborn. Xerxes, who was born after Darius became king by Atossa the 
daughter of Cyrus who founded the Persian Monarchy, was named to be the next king. (Herod. 
1. 7. c. 2, 3.) There was friendly rivalry between the two brothers. For more on this, see Justin, 
from Tragus, (1. 2. c. 10.) and in Plutarch, in the Life of Artaxerxes and in his Apothigmes and 
in his treatise on brotherly love. 

3519c AM, 4229 JP, 485 BC 

1099. When Darius had declared Xerxes to be the next king, when he was now ready to take his 
journey. According to Diod. Sic. (1. 1 1) he was on his way into Greece in the year after the 
revolt of the Egyptians. Toward the later end of that year he died after he had reigned for a full 
36 years. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 4.) 

1 100. After him came Xerxes, the 4th king of Persia after Cyrus. He trusted in his riches, (as 



they were indeed exceeding great) and stirred up his own subjects together with all his allies and 
friends to make war on the Greeks according to the prophecy of Da 1 1:2. In was not his original 
intention but was put up to it by Mardonius, his first cousin from Alevada, the kings of Thessaly 
of the family of Pisistratus and by Onomacritus, a Sorcerer of Athens. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 5, 6.) 

3520 AM, 4230 JP, 484 BC 

1 101. At the beginning of the second year of his reign after the death of Darius, Xerxes made an 
expedition against the rebellious Egyptians. After he had subdued them, he brought them into a 
harder state of bondage than they had ever felt under his predecessors. He made his brother 
Achaemenes, the son of Darius, ruler over them. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 7.) 

1 102. In this year Herodotus, the historian, the son of Lyxus and Eryone was born at 
Halicarnassius in the province of Caria. He was 53 years old when the Peloponesian war began. 
(A. Gellius 1. 15. c. 23.) affirms from Pamphyla. At that time, Artemelia, the daughter of 
Lygdamis of Halycarnassus, after the death of her husband, obtained the tyranny which her 
husband held. This occurred during the schooling of her young son, whose name was Psindelis, 
as may be gathered from Suidas, in Herodotus. She ruled over the Halicarnassians, the Coi, the 
Nisirians and Calydonians. After a while she came into Greece with five good fighting ships to 
help Xerxes in his war. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 99.) 

3523 AM, 4233 JP, 481 BC 

1103. Xerxes gathered together from all of his empire, Egypt, Phoenicia, Cyprus, Cilicia, 
Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycia, Caria, Mysia, Troas, Hellespont, Bithynia and Pontus, 1200 ships to 
meet him at Cuma and Phocaea in Ionia. He set out from Susa with all the troops and cavalry he 
could muster in the beginning of the 4th year of the 74th Olympiad. However (Diod. Sic. in the 
beginning of his 1 1th book,) merges the events of these 2 years into one and states this was done 
in the first year of the Olympiad. Herodotus, (Herod. 1. 7. c. 21.) affirms that this preparation 
took place 3 whole years before this year but with a note on the previous chapter which cannot 
be consistent with the exact passing of the time. He says: 

vv from the subduing of Egypt, he took 4 years in gathering an army and in making his 
preparations. In the beginning of the 5th year, he began to march with a huge army:" 

1 104. He left Susa in the beginning of his 5th year, not from the subduing of Egypt but from his 
becoming king. Hence both Justin from Trogas, (1. 2. c. 10.) and Orosius follow Herodotus 
incorrectly and assign these five years. Julianus in his first Oration of the praises of Constantius, 
incorrectly says, that Xeres spent ten years preparing. More ingenuous than all these, (though he 
is not overly exquisite in his account) is Labianus. He says that between Darius and Xerxes there 
was ten years spent in the preparation against Greece. Since we have formerly showed from 
Plato that from the fight at Marathon to the fight at Salamis which was fought in the first year of 
the 75th Olympiad, (almost a full year after Xerxes left Susa), only ten years elapsed. 

1 105. At Critalis in Cappadocia, all Xerxes' forces met. From there he passed over the river 
Halys and came to Celaena, a city in Phrygia. Here Pythius, a Lydian, (Pliny 1. 33. c. 10. says he 
was a Bithynian) the son of Atyis entertained him and his whole army in a most magnificent and 
sumptuous manner. From here, they passed by Anava, a city of Phrygia and Lough where salt 



was made and he came to Colossae in Phrygia. Here the river Lycus disappears underground. 
From there he came to a town called Cyndra in Phrygia, then to Lydia and then passed by the 
river Maeander. He passed the city called Callatebus and he finally arrived at Sardis. From here 
he dispatched his messengers into Greece to demand of them earth and water. That is he 
required them to surrender to him. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 26-32.) 

1 106. In the mean time, the navy was at Eleus in Chersonesus. From here part of the army dug 
through the neck of the mount Athos for 12 furlongs (1.5 miles). They and the Bastinadoes were 
compelled to do this work. The neighbouring inhabitants were compelled to help. Bubares the 
son of Megabysus and Artachaeus the son of Artaeus, both Persians were appointed to oversee 
the work. When that neck of land was cut through and the sea let in, the channel was wide 
enough so that two large ships with their oars extended might pass each other without touching. 
(Herod. 1. 7. c. 22-24.) Another part of the army built a bridge of ships over the Hellespont, 
where the sea from Abydus to the shore, on the other side, is 7 furlongs (a mile) wide. When the 
bridge was completed, there arose a fierce storm and destroyed it. Xerxes in a rage caused 300 
stripes to be given to the Hellespont and a pair of shackles to be thrown into the sea to bind and 
fetter it with. He decapitated those who made the bridge and then employed others to work to 
make the bridge stronger. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 33-36.) 

3524b AM, 4234 JP, 480 BC 

1 107. In the beginning of the spring, Xerxes with his whole army left Sardis where they spent 
the winter and marched toward Abydus. As he was starting his journey, the sun stopped shining. 
There were no clouds and the air was clear. The day was turned into night. At this incredible 
sign, Pythius the Lyidan was terrified, (for it was no natural eclipse as the astronomical tables 
easily show) and besought the king that of his five sons who were in his army, he would leave 
his oldest out to be a comfort to him in his old age. In a rage, Xerxes had his oldest son cut in 
two and his whole army marched between the parts of his body. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 37-39) 

1 108. Hermotimus, who was an Halicarnaslaean, was the most influential of all the other 
eunuchs with Xerxes. When he came into the country of Atarne, in the province of Mysia, he 
sent for Panionius of the Isle of Chios. He was a slave trader and a eunuch also. His wife and 
children came with him. He made the father castrate his sons and then had them do the same to 
their father. Thus Hermotimus was avenged of the wrong done to him. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 105,106.) 

1 109. Xerxes and his army went from Lydia to the River Caiicus and the country of Mysia. 
From there they came into the country where old Hium or Troy stood. As he slept that night at 
the foot of the hill Ida, there arose a terrible thunder storm which killed many in his army. After 
this they came to the River Scamander which they drained dry. It was not able to satisfy the men 
and animals with water. When Xerxes was there, he went up to see the old habitation of king 
Priame. There he sacrificed to Minerva of Troy, 1000 oxen. The Magi that attended him offered 
cakes to the nobles. After this a panic fell on his army at night and he left there in the morning 
as soon as it was light and came to Abydus. (Heriod. 1. 7. c. 42,43.) 

1 1 10. Here Xerxes took a fancy to see all his army at once. Therefore he had a luxurious hall 
built of fair white stone and he sat in the hall. From there he could see his navy at sea and all his 
army. He wanted to see a sea battle too. After that battle was done, the Phoenicians won the 
prize. The king took great pleasure in the battle and in the number of his men. He looked at all 



the sea of Hellespont covered with his ships and all the shores and plains about Abydus with his 
soldiers. When he considered the shortness of man's life and that none of all these men would be 
alive after 100 years, he wept. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 44,45.) (Valer. Max. 1. 9. c. 13.) 

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1111. Xerxes sent his Uncle Arcabanus to be viceroy at Susa and there to take care of his house 
and the kingdom. He prepared to enter Europe. As soon as the sun was up, he held a golden vial 
in his hand over the sea. He prayed to the sun that nothing might hinder him in the conquest of 
Europe, till he had gone to its utmost bounds. When he had said this, he flung both the vial and a 
golden goblet and a Persian cimitre into the sea. When this was done, he sent his cavalry and 
foot soldiers to pass over the bridge on the right hand which was toward Pontus. On the left 
hand which was toward the Aegean Sea, he made all the bag and baggage, servants and 
carriages to pass over. It took a whole week to cross over. When all this was done, the navy 
sailed from the Hellspont west to a place called Sarpedon's cape. His army passed through 
Chersonesus to Agora and turned aside to a place called the Black Bay the mouth of the Black 
River. It was not able to supply enough water for all his army to drink. When they passed this 
river, the army marched west to Doriscus. This is the name of a sea coast and of a spacious field 
in the country of Thracia through which the large river Hebrus flows. Here they camped. 
(Herod. 1. 7. c. 52-59) 

1112. When the Navy came to this place, they were haled ashore. Xerxes wanted to count all his 
navy and army. According to Herodotus, his foot soldiers numbered 170 myriads, or 1,700,000 
men. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 60) His horses, besides camels and chariots, 8 myriads, or 800,000 horses. 
(Herod. 1. 7. c. 87.) Among the commanders of his army, he mentions two of Darius' sons born 
by his queen Artistone. (I conceive to have been Esther.) The one he calls Arsames was 
commander of the Ethiopians from the south of Egypt. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 69.) The other he calls 
Gobryas who was leader of the Maryandent and Ligyes and Syrians. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 72.) 
Diodorus Siculus tallies his foot soldiers at 80 myriads or 800,000 men, less than half of what 
Herodotus says. Yet the number which Diodorus attributes to the foot soldiers, Cresias assigns 
to the whole army of all types, viz. 80 myriads besides the chariots. Isocrates in his 
Paenathenaica says that in his army of foot soldiers was 70 myriads or 700,000 men. Elian (1. 
13. c. 3.) of his Various History assigns this to the whole army. Pliny counts them at 788,000 
men (1. 33. c. 10) and calls Xerxes, Darius. Justin, from Tragus and Orosius, follow him, (1. 1. c. 
10.) and state that Xerxes had of his own subjects, 700,000 men and 300,000 auxiliaries from 
his friends. Emilius Probus, in the life of Themistocles, says, that his foot soldiers were 700,000 
men and his cavalry 400,000. 

1 1 13. His naval force had 1207 ships of which the Phoenicians supplied him with 300 including 
the ones sent by the Syrians in Palestine. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 89.) By Palestine he meant all the sea 
coast of Syria as far as Egypt. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 91.) In another place he states it had in old times 
been Syria Palestine (Herod. 1. 3. c. 91.) and that its inhabitants were all circumcised. (Herod. 1. 
2. c. 104.) The Jews were also part of the Persian Empire. Josephus states that some of his 
countrymen were in this army against the Greeks. To prove this, he cites those verses of the 
poet, (Choerilus, 1. 1. cont. Apion.) 

His camp a nation strange to see, did follow, Who spoke the language of Phoenicia; 

And did the hills of Solymi inhabit, 

Near to a broad lake which on them doth border: 



Whose heads were rounded and on their bald crowns, 
Of a horse head the dried skin did wear. 

1 1 14. By this, the learned Salmasius also thinks that the Jews were meant in his Linguae 
Hellenistacae Ossilegio. Although Scaliger, (In notes suis ad fragmenta) and Cunaeus, (1. 2. De 
Rep. Hebra. c. 18.) and that most learned Bochartus (in Geogra. Sacra Par. 2. 1. 1. c. 6.) takes 
them to be the Soylmi in Pisidia. 

1 1 15. Besides these fighting ships, Herodotus tells us that he had 1207 cargo ships, some of 30 
oars, others of 50 oars a piece, besides smaller vessels and ships to carry horses for a total of 
3000. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 97.) Diodor. Sic. says, there were more than 1207 fighting ships, for 
carrying horses, 850 and 3000 cargo ships of 30 oars a piece. The Poet Eschyius in Persia brings 
in a messenger reporting the number of those ships in this manner. 

I know that Xerxes ships a thousand were; 
But full two hundred and seven ships he had, 
Exceeding swift ones. So the fame doth go. 

1 1 16. Whether he means that the total sum of them was a 1000 and so the 207 swift ships was 
part of the total or whether both sums added together to give 1207. If so this agrees best with the 
particular catalogue of the ships which every nation contributed to this expedition as mentioned 
by Herodotus. It is not clear from the poetry what the exact total should be. Ctesias seems to 
favour the former opinion and so does Tully in the first of his Orations against Verres. Iscocrates 
in his Panegyric and Panathenaic Orations, agrees with the latter. Lysius in his Epitaph, says 
there were about 1200 ships, plus 3000 cargo ships. Justin must be wrong when he says there 
were 1,000,000 ships. Herodotus determines that about 241,000 troops were in the 1207 ships 
which came from Asia in this way. He has 200 men in every hold plus 30 passengers from the 
Persians, Medes and Sacaeans for a total of 36,210 passengers. In the 3000 cargo ships he places 
240,000 men and average of about 80 per ship. So the whole navy consisted of 517,610 men. 
The number of the army was 1,700,000 foot soldiers and 800,000 cavalry. The Arabians who 
had charge of the camels and the Libyans who tended the wagons totalled about 20,000. The 
total number in Xerxes' forces would be 2,317,610 plus horses, boys and other servants and 
besides those who supplied the camp with food. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 184.) 

1 1 17. Xerxes marched from Doriscus into Greece. As he came to any country, he conscripted all 
who were fit for fighting. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 118.) He added 120 ships to his navy and added 200 
more troops per ship for a total increase of the naval forces by 24,000 men. Herodotus thinks 
that his army increased 30 myriads, or 300,000. Diod. Sic. thinks the increase was less than 
200,000. So the total of Xerxes' army in European and Asiatic soldiers amounted to 2,641,610 
men. He thinks that the number of boys keeping the horses, servants and sailors in the cargo 
ships and others, was greater than the number of soldiers. So that if that former sum should be 
but doubled, the number of those which Xerxes carried by sea to Sepias and by land to 
Thermopylae would come to 5,283,220 men. This does not include the women cooks and 
eunuchs for no man can tell the exact number of them. Neither could he exactly number the 
horses and other beasts of burden and the Indian dogs with their keepers that followed the 
nobles in the camp for their pleasure. Hence it is no wonder that so many rivers were exhausted 
from the thirst of so many people. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 185-187.) Juneval states in Statyr. 10. 



We now believe that many rivers deep, 
Did fail the Persian army, at a dinner. 

1118. Therefore the less of a wonder that both Isocrates in his Panothenaic oration and Plutarch 
in his Parallels report that Xerxes took over 5,000,000 men into Greece. 

1 1 19. Yet in this huge host, there was not a man as handsome as Xerxes or one that might seem 
more worthy of that great empire than he. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 187.) Like Saul among the children of 
Israel, ISa 10:23,24 so Xerxes might well seem to have been worthy of a crown. Yet, if you 
speak as a king, says Justin from Tragus, you will find cause to commend his wealth, mentioned 
before in Da 11:2 rather than by his character, of which he states: 

vv there was such infinite abundance in his kingdom, that when whole rivers failed the multitude 
of his army, yet his wealth could never be exhausted. As for himself, he was always seen last in 
the fight and first in the flight. He was fearful when any danger was but puffed up with pride 
when there was none." 

1 120. Leonidus king of Sparta with an army of 4000 Greeks, interposed himself against him and 
his whole army of 300,000 troops at the pass of Thermopylae in Theslaly. It was called that 
from the hot springs which were there. In this epitaph by Herodotus we read: (Herod. 1. 7. c. 

228.) 

Here against three hundred thousand Persians, 
Four thousand Spartans fought it out and died. 

1 121. For thirty myriads is 300,000 which are the number stated by Theodoret (1. 10.) was the 
size the whole army (Diod. Sic. 1. 11.) in this very epitaph, p. 26. in the Greek and Latin edition. 
For, the 30 myriads have 20 myriads, which make 200,000. Yet (p. 5.) he says, that the whole 
army consisted of a little less, than 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. When referring to this fight 
at Thermopylae, (p. 9.) he says that 500 men held off 100 myriads or 1,000,000 troops. Justin 
relating the same story from Tragus, (1. 2. c. 11.) states that 600 men, broke into the camp of 
500,000, or as in Orosius, 600,000 men. Isocrates in his Archidamus says, that 1000 of them 
went against 700,000 Persians. Instead of the 1000 mentioned by Isocrates, Justin and Orosius 
say it was 600 and Diodorus, 500. These are those who were left when the rest of the Greeks 
were sent away. They held out against the Persians to the last man including their Spartan king 
Leonidas. Of this number, 300 were Spartans, the rest, Thespians and Thebans. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 
222, 224.) They slew 20,000 of the enemy. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 24.) 

1 122. While these things happened at Thermopylae, various naval battles occurred about 
Artemisium, a cape of Eubaea. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 15.) Eurybiades, a Lacedemonian, was admiral of 
the fleet of 271 ships, besides 9 others of 50 oars a piece. 127 were sent by the Athenians and 
Plataeans. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 1.) Yet, Isocrates, in his Areopagitical Oration, says that the Athenians 
supplied only 60 ships. Emelius Probus states that the whole Greek fleet had 300 ships and that 
200 of them were from the Athenians. Themistocles, Herodotus, Diodorus and Probus all say 
this battle was a draw, neither side winning. Isocrates in his Panegyrical Oration and Elian, (1. 2. 
c. 25. Varia Histor.) say the Persians were decisively defeated. The day when this battle was 
fought, is said by Elian, to have been upon the 6th of Thargelion, which was the second month 
of the spring with the Athenians. This does not agree with Herodotus, who (Herod. 1. 8. c. 12.) 



says, that this was done in the middle of summer after the end of the spring when the Olympiad 
games were held in spite of all the trouble in Greece. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 26.) This was the 75th 
Olympiad. Others like Dionysius, Halicarnaslaeus, in his Roman Antiquities, (1. 9.) states that it 
was at that time that Xerxes made war upon the Greeks. 

1 123. Four months after crossing the Hellespont with his army, Xerxes came to Athens. He 
found it abandoned by all its inhabitants. Callias was the ruler of Athens at this time. (Herod. 1. 
8. c. 51.) In this year, Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, a scholar of Anaximenes the Milesian, at the 
age of 20 was made public reader of philosophy in Athens according to Laertius from Demerrius 
Phalercus in his Catalogue of the 50 Rulers of Athens. At this time philosophy was first brought 
from Ionia to Athens, according to Clemens Alexan. (1. 1. strom.) who states: 

vv when Xerxes had taken Athens, he took also a multitude of books, which Pisistratus and the 
Athenians had there stored. He sent them to Persia. The the rest of the city, except the Acropolis, 
he burned according to A. Gellius." (1. 17. Noct. Attica) 

1 124. 1 do not agree with him for Herodotus states plainly that all the Acropolis was burn. 
(Herod. 1. 8. c. 53.) Likewise states Ctesias. Diod. Sic. further affirms that the temple of Minerva 
which was undoubtedly in the Acropolis, was destroyed. 

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1 125. The further Xerxes marched into Greece the more nations joined him. The Meleinses, the 
Dorienses, the Locri, the Baeothians, Caristians, Andrians, Teniaus and various others sent 
troops. Hence his army and navy were no less at Salamis and Athens than when he first landed 
at Sepias and came to Thermopylae. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 66.) The verses of Eschilus mentioned 
earlier seem also to imply this where he tells us that at the fight at Salamis there were 1000 or 
1207 ships of his. Ctesias says that in that fight the Persians had 1000 ships. Plutarch in his 
discourse, De glor. Athen. i.e. of the glory of the Athenians, where he says that the victory of 
Themistocles at Salamis, was gotten with the loss of a 1000 enemy ships. At the naval battle 
before Salamis, the Greek fleet was far greater than when they fought at Artemisium. They had 
380 tall ships of war, of which Sparta sent 16. The Athenians had there 180 (Herod. 1. 8. c. 42- 
44,48,62.) Plutarch agrees with Herodotus about the number of the Athenian ships. (Plutarch, in 
the Life of Themistocles) (Herod. 1. 8. c. 61.) Diod. Sic. (1. 15.) says of the Athenians that they 
had 200 ships in the battle. Ischylus says, that the whole number of the Greek ships in the fight 
before Salamis was but 300 besides ten others of an extraordinary size. However Ctesias writes 
that there were 700 in the Greek fleet. There they lost 40 ships and the Persian's lost 200 besides 
those which were taken with the men in them. (Diodor, Sic. 1. 11.) Ctesias reports that the 
Persians lots 500 ships during that battle. Artemisia, the queen of Halicarnassus, who came to 
aid Xerxes, was praised by him for her heroic courage. (Justin. 1. 2. c. 12.) Xerxes on this 
occasion was heard to say: 

vv That his men had played the women and the women the men, in that service". (Herod. 1. 8. c. 
88.) 

1 126. Under the leadership of Eurybiades, the Lacedemonian and the sage and prudent counsel 
and great prowess of Themistocles the Athenian, the Greeks won as big a victory at Salamis as 
they did at Marathon. Plutarch contradicts himself as to the time when the battle at Salamis was 



fought. For in the Life of Lysander and in his discourse on the glory of the Athenians, he says it 
was the 16th day of the month Munichon, (which is the first of the months of spring with the 
Athenians). However, in the Life of Camylus, he says it was on the 20th day of Boedromian, 
which was their third month in summer. It is true that in the Bay of Saron, also called the Bay of 
Salamis (Strabo 1. 8.) between the two islands of Salamis and Igina, there was a night battle at 
sea between 10 Lacedemonian ships commanded by Gorgopas and 13 Athenian ships 
commanded by Eunomus. This was near Zoster a cape of the isthmus of Attica. In the days of 
Artarxerxes' Memoir, king of Persia, of which Xenophon, in his fifth book of his history of the 
Greeks, mentions this: 

vv In a sea battle made by moon light, Gorgopas took 4 tall ships of war and drawing them after 
him carried them away to Egina. The rest of the Athenian fleet fled home to their port of 
Piraum," 

1 127. It was the 16th day of that lunar month among the Athenians, when Gorgopas attacked 
that small fleet of the Athenians. It happened to be a full moon, which helped the Athenian fleet 
sail to safety with the loss only of 4 ships. Therefore the Athenians consecrated that day to 
Diana and kept it as a holy day to her honour. Hence Plutarch confounded this later sea battle 
fought at Salamis with that other one fought in the same place against Xerxes in his discourse, 
"Of the Glory of the Athenians". Through error he wrote of it in this manner: 

vv They consecrated the 16th day of the month Muichlon to Diana, because upon that day after 
the victory won by the Greeks, the Goddess appeared full that night." 

1 128. For that the victory of the Greeks against Xerxes happened about the 20th day of 
Boedromion, Plutarch says in a treatise of his, "Of days..", quoted by himself in the life of 
Camillus. It plainly appears in Herodotus that (Herod. 1. 8. c. 65.) the main day of that holy day 
was the 20th of the month Boedromion. On this day the mysterious Pomp of Jacchus was openly 
shown to the people, according to Plutarch in the Life of Camillus. Themistocles prevented his 
countrymen from pursuing the enemies after their defeat at Salamis when they fled. He said this: 

vv Now, let us stay in Greece and take care of ourselves and our families and look to the tillage 
and sowing of our land, since the enemy is expelled from it. When the spring comes, then will 
we take time to sail into Hellespont and Ionia." 

1 129. Hence concludes the argument that the Persians were vanquished at Salamis not in the 
beginning of the spring but in the latter end of summer. 

1 130. After the sea battle Xerxes executed certain Phoenicians who were the first that fled and 
threatened the rest with punishments answerable to their conduct. For fear of this, the 
Phoenicians returned that day to Atrica. The night after, they sailed to Asia, (Diod. Sic. 1. 11. in 
the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad.) Many other ships, fearing more the rage of the king than the 
fury of the enemy, slunk away to their homes. (Justin 1. 2.c. 12.) Xerxes was terrified by this 
disaster at sea and committed his sons to Artemesia the queen. She transported them to Ephesus 
to be with Hermotimus their governor. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 103,107.) 

1131. Cleombrotus of Sparta, the brother of Leonidas who died at Thermopylae, built a wall 
across the neck of land which is called Isthmus Corinthiacus. This was to stop Xerxes from 



coming by land into Peloponsus. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 71.) While he was offering a sacrifice against 
the Persians, the sun was eclipsed. When this happened, he withdrew his army which was 
building this fortification and he died shortly after this. He was succeeded by his son Pausanias, 
as first cousin and tutor of Plistarchus, a child, the son of the dead Leonidas. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 10.) 
The Prutenian account tells us of an eclipse of the sun of 8 digits (2/3 of total) at 1:39 pm that 
lasted 32 minutes on the 2nd day of October. 

1 132. To speed Xerxes on his way out of Greece, Themistocles sent a phoney message to him 
from Salamis that the Greeks planned to send a fleet of ships to Hellespont to destroy his bridge. 
When he heard this, he made all speed to get out of Europe into Asia. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 1 10. Diod. 
Sic. 1. 11. in the 1st year of the 75th Olympiad and Plut. in the Life of Themistosles.) 

1 133. Xerxes resolved to leave. He sent his fleet from Phalerus to Hellespont to guard the 
bridge. He and Mardomius and his army marched speedily towards Thessalie. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 
107,113,115.) 

1 134. When Mardonius came with Xerxes into Thessalie, he chose from all his army, 300,000 
men. These he kept with him to continue the conquest of Greece. Because the year was far 
spent, he wintered in Thessalia. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 113,114.) Justin from Tragus, (1. 2. c. 13.) and 
Plutarch in the Life of Aristides agree with Herododus. However, Diod. Sic. states that there 
remained with him at least 400,000 troops. 

1 135. In the meantime, the Lacedemonians by the command of the Oracle at Delphi, sent a 
herald to Xerxes to require reparation from him for the death of their king Leonidas. He 
answered that Mardonius should pay them their due. After this, he left Mardonius in Thessalie 
and hurried to the Hellespont. He took a large number of troops for his guard. The rest he left to 
be brought after him by Hydarnes. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 1 14,1 15,1 18.) 

1 136. The army which he left behind with Mardonius was first hit by famine then a pestilence. 
So many died that the highways lay strewn with the dead carcases of them. Both birds and 
beasts of prey followed the army by the smell whereever they went. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 1 15. Justin 1. 
2. c. 13.) 

1 137. In Asia, the Archaeanactidae held the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 40 years 
(Diod. Sic. 1. 12.) in the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad. These had their beginning from 
Archaeanacres of Mitylene whom are said to have built Sigaeum with the stones dug from the 
ruins of Troy. (Strabo. 1. 13.) 

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1138. After 45 days, Xerxes came to the Hellespont. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 115.) Emil. Probus states it 
was less time than that in his "Life of Themistocles". He says: 

vv that upon the way that he took six months in going into Europe, on the same way out, he spent 
less than 30 days returning to Asia." 

1 139. When Xerxes found his bridge smashed by the winter storms, out of fear he crossed in a 



small fishing boat. 

vv And truly it was a thing worth the sight and a rare example of human frailty and change of 
things in this world to see him lie sulking in a small boat. A little before the whole sea seemed 
too little to contain him. He was destitute of a page to wait upon him whose army the very earth 
seemed to groan for the burden of it." (Justin 1. 2. c. 13.) 

1 140. When the army which followed him under the command of Hydarves found the bridge 
smashed, they crossed over in boats to Abydus. On the other side they found much more food 
than they had on their way. They gorged themselves with food and with change of water, they 
died by the score. The rest accompanied Xerxes to Sardis. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 117.) 

1 141. While Xerxes was on the way to Sardis, he sent Megabyzus to destroy the temple of 
Delphi. When he desired to be excused, Mattacus an eunuch did the task and returned to Xerxes. 
(Ctesius.) 

1 142. When the news came to Susa by the couriers who were sent that Xerxes had taken Athens, 
the Persians were so happy that they strewed all the streets with myrtle boughs and burnt 
frankincense in them. They set themselves wholly to sacrificing and feasting. When the news of 
his defeat at Salamis came, their attitude changed so that every man rent his garments and filled 
all places with howlings and lamentations. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 99.) Ischylus described this turn of 
affairs in his "Life in Persia." 

1 143. When the remaining fleet and sailors had ferried the army from Chersonesus to Abydus, 
they wintered at Cuma in Eolia, (Herod. 1. 8. c. 130.) 

1144. Artabazus the son of Pharnabazus accompanied Xerxes with 60,000 soldiers to 
Hellespont. When he saw that he was safely landed in Asia, he returned and stayed near Pallene 
after Mardonius had wintered in Macedonia and Thessalia and had not looked after the rest of 
the army. While Artabazus stayed there, he found that the city of Pntidea with Pallene revolted 
from Persia and Olynthus was planning to. He besieged Potidea and Olynthus. When he 
captured Olynthus and killed all its Pottiean inhabitants, he put Critobulus of Torona, a 
Chalcedonian, in charge of the place. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 126,127.) 

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1 145. When the Persians besieged Potidea for 3 months, a huge tide of the sea broke in upon 
them over their trenches forcing them to lift the seige. Many perished in that flood. When others 
fought to swim to safety, the Potideans went in boats and knocked them on the head. Those that 
escaped, Artabazus took with him into Thessalia to Mardonius. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 129.) 

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1 146. In the beginning of spring, the rest of the Persian fleet which had wintered at Cuma, sailed 
to the Isle of Samos where others of their navy had wintered. The largest part of this navy were 
Persian and Median sailors. They were joined shortly after by certain commanders, Mardoutes 
Fitz Bargeus and Attanites Fitz Artacheus. They staying there with 300 ships to keep all of Ionia 



from revolting. This number includes the Ionians that were with them under their command. 
(Herod. 1. 8. c. 130.) However, Diodorus says that there were no less than 400 ships at Samos 
which awaited any Ionian revolt in this a year of the 75th Olympiad. 

1 147. The Greek fleet consisted of 1 10 ships under two commanders, Leotychides king of the 
Spartans and Xanthippus an Athenian. They sailed to Egina where messengers came to them 
from Ionia begging them to immediately come and relieve them in Ionia. After a while they 
sailed as far as to Delos. (Herod. 1. 8. c. 131,132.) However, Diodorus tells us, that after thay 
stayed some days at Egina, they sailed to Delos with 250 ships. 

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1 148. Xerxes is said to have built both a palace and a citadel at Celene in Phrygia. (Xen, in his 
Expedition of Cyrus, 1. 1.) 

1 149. Mardonius with his army came to Athens which was not yet reinhabited ten months after 
it was first taken by Xerxes. Whatever Xerxes left standing, he destroyed and burnt down. From 
there he marched into the country of Megare, which was the farthest place west that the Persians 
went in Greece. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 3,13,14.) 

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1 150. While the Greek fleet stayed at Delos, messengers came to them from Samos, asking their 
help for themselves and the rest of the Greeks who lived in Asia, against the Persians. At a 
council of war, Leotychides the king of Sparta resolved to liberate all the Greek cities from the 
Persians. They entered into a league with the Samians who came with their whole fleet to Samos 
and stayed near the Temple of Juno. They prepared for a naval battle against the Persians. 
(Herod. 1. 8. c. 89,91,95. Diod. Sic. 1. 11.) 

1151. When the commanders of the Persian navy stayed at Samos, they heard that the Greeks 
were coming against them. Knowing they were no match for them in a naval battle, they 
allowed the Phoenician ships to sail off. The rest sailed to Micale, which is a cape in Ionia 
where the army was. It was left there by Xerxes to keep Ionia under submission. 60000 men 
were under the command of Tigranes who was the tallest and most handsome man of all the 
Persians. Near to the temple of Ceres of Eleusis, they drew up their ships and enclosed them 
with a rampart which they fortified with stones and stakes and anything else they could find 
there. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 95,96.) They sent to Sardis and the other neighbouring places for more 
soldiers. With these reinforcements, they had 100,000 troops. They prepared for a battle. (Diod. 
1.11.) 

1 152. In an engagement of cavalry between the Greeks and Persians near Erythrae in Beotia, the 
Persian commander Masistius was killed by the Greeks. The Greeks called him Macisias. Great 
lamentations were made by the Persians when he died. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 20,22,24. and Plutarch, in 
the Life of Aristide.) 

1 153. The Greeks under the command of Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus, routed the Persian 
army of 120,000 at Platea according to Ctesias. Emil. Probus, in his Pausanias, says there were 



200,000 soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Plutarch in the life of Aristides affirms, that there were no 
fewer than 300,000 men. To this 300,000 Herodotus adds also, about 50,000 Greek mercenaries 
hired by Mardonius. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 31.) Diodorus Siculus, "to the 75th Olympiad", says, that 
Mardonius had besides the troops left by Xerxes, also from Thracia and Macedonia and other 
allies over 200,000 soldiers. In total he had over 500,000 in his army. Herodotus and Plutarch 
affirm that the Athenians had at least 8000 men. The entire Greek army numbered 100,000 men 
according to Diodorus Siculus, Trogus, Pompelus and Orosius or 110,000 according to 
Herodotus. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 29.) Plutarch says the Greeks lost 1360 men in the battle. (Plutarch, in 
the Life of Aristides) Diod. Sic. says they lost 10,000 men. 

1154. The Persian general of the entire army, Mardonius the son-in-law, (not of Xerxes, as Imil. 
Probus, in the life of Pausanias) of Darius who was father to Xerxes, (as I showed before in the 
note on 3510 AM) was slain in this battle. He was hit by a stone flung at him by Aimnestus or 
Arimnestus, a man of Sparta. (Herod. 1. I.e. 63.) (Plutarch in the life of Aristides) (Pausanias, 1. 
1.) Ctesias was incorrect when he said that he was only hurt and so escaped for a time. Later he 
was killed in a hail storm when he was destroying the temple of Apollo. However, Justin from 
Trogus and from Justin Orosius states that Mardonius, accompanied with a very small company 
escaped from there as from a shipwreck. 

1 155. When the Persian army lost their general, they fled to a fortress of theirs made of wood. 
The Greeks overcame it and killed over 100,000 of them. (Diodorus Siculus,) So that of the 
300,000 of them, there were not left 3000 men in addition to the 40000 who fled with 
Artabazus. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 69.) 

1 156. Leotychides, who commanded the Greek navy came to Mycale to liberate the Ionians 
from the Persians. With his own army and their help, he obtained there a most memorable 
victory. He slew over 30,000 Persians besides Mardontes the Persian naval commander and 
Tigranes the general of the army. The two other commanders of their fleet, Artayntes and 
Ithramitres fled. The rest that escaped fled to the tops of the cape of Mycale. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 97- 
104.) (Diod. Sic. 1.11.) 

1 157. Both these fights happened near to the two temples of Ceres of Elensis on the same day of 
the same month. The one battle was at Platea in Europe, early in the morning and the other at 
Mycale in Asia later in the afternoon. The news spread swiftly far and wide that in a few hours 
the news of the victory at Platea came to Mycale the same day before the battle. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 
99, 130.) (Justin 1. 2. c. 14.) However, Diod. Sic. thinks (and that more probably) that 
Leotychides heard nothing at all of what was done at Platea but cunningly spread such a rumour 
among his soldiers to encourage them. The day of these two battles (Elim. Var. Hist. 1. 2. c. 25.) 
says, was the 6th of the month Thargeleon, the 2nd month in the spring with the Athenians. 
Plutarch with more wisdom says it was in the month Boedromion which was the 3rd month in 
summer. It was either on the 3rd day of it (in the life of Camillius and in his discourse of the 
glory of the Athenians,) or on the 4th. (the Life of Aristides) This battle at Micale happened in 
the second year after Xerxes' first entering into Greece. (Herod. 1. 7. c.80.) 

1 158. At this time all Ionia revolted from the Persians, (Herod. 1. 9. c. 103.) together with the 
Eolians and their bordering Islands. (Diod. Sic. 1.11.) 

1 159. The Greeks completely burned the Persian ships and camps. They returned to the Isle of 



Samos and consulted together on how to move the Ionian nation out of Asia. Diod. says they 
planned to move the Eolians to Greece too since they were exposed to the danger of the Persian 
cruelty. The Athenians feared that the Ionians, who were now an independent colony would 
intermix with the rest of Greece. They opposed this plan since the Ionians were also Greeks, 
they could count on Greece for help against the Persians. They desired that the Ionians remain in 
Asia. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 105. Diod. 1. 11. in 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.) 

1 160. They of Greece entered into a league with those of Samos, Chios, Lesobs and the other 
islands who had joined in this war against the Persians. They confirmed this with a solemn oath 
to last for ever. They sailed in a group towards Hellespont and on their way came to anchor first 
at a cape called Lectium. When an opposing wind changed to a favourable one, they passed on 
to Abydus. When they found the bridges there already broken down which they intended to 
destroy, Leotychides with his men of Peloponesus returned home. The Athenians under 
Xanthippus and (as Thucidides says) with their allies from Ionia and Hellespont who had 
revolted against the Persians, journeyed from Abydus to Chersonesus and there besieged Sestos. 
Artayctes, a Persian, was a wicked man whom Xerxes had made governor of that province. The 
town was surrounded by the strongest wall of any other towns in the area. Ocbasus a Persian, 
who had stored the cables used in the construction of the bridges at Cardia, left that place and 
came to Sestos also. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 105, 113-115.) 

1161. Artabuzus the son of Pharnaces, with 40000 men who fled from the battle at Plataea, 
travelled quickly through the countries of Phocis, Thessalie, and Macedonia, to Thracia. They 
took the shortest overland route to Byzantium. Many men were left behind in his march. Some 
were killed by the Thracians, some of hunger and some from the journey. When he arrived at 
Byzantium, he crossed over to Asia by ship. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 65. 69, 76, 88.) 

1 162. Those who had saved thmselves in the top of the rock at the cape of Micale, retreated to 
Sardis where Xerxes still was. On that journey Masystes, one of the sons of Darius Hystaspes, 
had charged Artayntes one of the chief commanders of the fleet at Mycale with cowardess. 
When Artayntes attacked him with his sword, Xenagoras of Halicarnassus stepped in and 
stopped the fight and saved Masystes from that attack. For so saving Xerxes' brother's life, he 
was made governor of Cilicia. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 107.) 

1 163. While Xerxes spent his time at Sardis, he there fell in love with his brother Masystes' 
wife. When he could not seduce her, he married her daughter Artaynta to his own son Darius 
hoping to get his will of her the more easily by this act. When the wedding was over, he returned 
to Susa, (Herod. 1. 9. c. 108.) leaving part of his army at Sardis to continue the war against the 
Greeks. (Diod. Sic. In 2nd year of 75th Olympiad.) 

3526 AM, 4236 JP, 478 BC 

1 164. In his flight, Xerxes burnt the Oracle of Apollo Didymeus, in Branchis, as he did all the 
other temples in Asia except at Ephesus. After those of Branchis handed over the treasury of 
their god, they all went along with him, fearing that if they stayed behind, they would have been 
punished for sacrilege and treason. (Strabo. 1. 14. with Solinus c. 40.) Herodotus says that 
Xerxes left Sardis and went to Susa but Diodorus says he went to Ecbatane. Ctesias writes that 
he went from Babylon to Persia. Arrian in his book of Alexanders' Acts, affirms that after he 
came to Babylon, he demolished the temple of Belus and all other consecrated places including 



the Sepulchre of Belus. Strabo (1. 16.) says that he took away the statue of Belus made of solid 
gold twelve cubits high. When the priests opposed it and would not allow it to be removed, he 
slew them. (Herod. 1. I.e. 183.) 

1 165. While the Athenians besieged Sestos, the autumn was approaching and they had still not 
taken it and planned to abandon the seige. However, the people within were so driven with 
famine that they were boiling their bedcords for food. Artayctes and Oebasus with many of the 
Persians climbed over the walls by night and fled. When the inhabitants knew this early the next 
morning, they surrendered to the Athenians. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 116, 117.) 

1 166. A great number of prisoners were taken at Sestos and Byzantium by the Athenians and 
their confederates in the army. The confederates of their own accord, offered to refer the 
division of the prey to Cimon, a young Athenian gentleman. He set all the persons on the one 
hand and all the clothes and ornaments which they wore on the other. He gave them first choice 
saying the Athenians would take what was left. Herophytus of Samos persuded them to take the 
clothes and ornaments instead of the people. Later, the friends and kinsmen of the prisoners, 
came from Phrygia and Lydia and redeemed those prisoners at a high price. With the money, 
Cimon maintained the fleet four whole months and brought much silver and gold into the 
treasury at Athens. This act gave him a reputation of wisdom with the Athenians. They received 
so much money by the bargain, they laughed at their fellows who had formerly laughed at them. 
(Plutarch in the Life of Cimon and Polyanus, 1. 1. Straug.) 

1 167. When Oebasus had escaped into Thracia, the Thracians, called Absynthii, captured him 
and sacrificed him to their god Plestorus. His companions were killed by various ways. 
Artayntes and his followers were captured at Egos Potamus and carried prisoner to Sestos. By 
the sea side, where Xerxes had made his bridge, or as others say, on a hill near the city Madytus, 
there they set up gibbets and hung them there after they stoned his own son to death before his 
eyes. When this was done, the Athenians returned into Greece. In addition to the money, they 
took the cables and ornaments of the bridges, which were made over the Hellespont. They 
planned to hang them as trophies in their temples. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 1 18-120.) Xanthippus left a 
garrison in Sestos and dismissed all strangers. He with his own companies returned to Athens. 
So the war of the Medes, as they call it, came to an end after it had lasted a full two years. 
(Diod. Sic. 1. 11. in the 75th Olympiad.) 

3526 AM, 4236 JP, 478 BC 

1 168. Bagapates the eunuch died after he had sat by the tomb of Darius for 7 years. (Ctesias) 

1 169. Megabysus accused his wife Amyris, Xerxes' daughter, of adultery. She very sharply 
blamed his daughter for it. (Ctesias) All the while, he committed both adultery and incest. 
Xerxes turned his lewd affection from his brother Masystes' wife, to their daughter Artaynta, 
whom he had now made his own daughter-in-law. He lay with her continually at Susa. (Herod. 1. 
9. c. 107,108.) 

3527 AM, 4237 JP, 477 BC 

1 170. Pausanias the son of Cleombrotus was sent as general of the Greeks from Lacedemonia to 
free the Greek cities that were still held by the the Persians. He had 20 ships from Peloponesus 



and 30 more from Athens (Diodor. says 50 ships) commanded by Aristides. They sailed to 
Cyprus and liberated many cities held by Persians. (Thucid. 1. 1. Diodor, Sic. in the 4th year of 
the 75th Olympiad.) 

1171. When Xerxes was celebrating his coronation day, he gave his queen Ametris any wish she 
wanted. She asked for Masystes' wife, Xerxes brother. She had her breasts, nose, ears, lips and 
tongue cut off and so sent her home again. Masystes conspired with his own children to steal 
away to the province of Bactria. He wanted to make himself governor and incite Bactria and the 
Saca to rebel against the king. He was intercepted on the way by Xerxes' soldiers and he, his 
children and all that were in his company were killed. (Herod. 1. 9. c. 108-112.) The governmant 
of Bactria was given to Hystaspes, the son of Xerxes. (Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 78th 
Olympiad.) 

3528 AM, 4238 JP, 476 BC 

1 172. When Pausanias returned from Cyprus, he captured Byzantium. On his own authority, he 
sent the Persians whom he had captured (some were close friends and kinsmen of Xerxes) home 
safely to Xerxes. He let on that they had escaped. All this business was negotiated by Gongylus 
an Eretrian. He also used him to carry letters to Xerxes that expressed his desire to marry 
Xerxes' daughter. In return he promised to bring Sparta and all Greece, under his subjection. 
Xerxes was glad for this news. He replied to him by Artabazus the son of Pharnaces. He said it 
would be easier to communicate his counsels with Pausanias when they were closer. Therefore 
he gave him the government of the province of Daseylis and recalled Magabates who was 
governor there before. With these hopes, Pausanias grew more insolent than before and began to 
live like a Persian and behaved imperiosly towards those who were in league with that state. 
Most of them, especially the Ionians and others who had been recenty liberated from their 
slavery under the Persians, defected to the Athenians and desired to serve under them. (Thucid. 
1. 1.) 

3529 AM, 4239 JP, 475 BC 

1 173. When Pausanias was accused by the Spartans, he was recalled from Byzantium. He was 
found guilty and condemned for some small misdemeanours but acquitted of treason against the 
state. Nevertheless, he was removed from the government of Hellespont. On his own without 
asking permission he hired a ship under the pretence of aiding in the war effort for the Greeks in 
those parts. He wanted to advance his own interests with Xerxes. When the Athenians would not 
allow him to stay in Byzantium, he returned not to Sparta but stayed at Colonae in Troas. He 
was again accused at Sparta that he consorted with the Persians and that he was up to no good 
while he was in those parts. When he was accused at Sparta, he was sent for again by the 
Ephori. When he arrived, they threw him into prison but after a hearing he was acquitted again. 
(Thucid. 1. 1.) 

3530 AM, 4240 JP, 474 BC 

1 174. In Greece because of the hatred to Pausanias, the common dislike of the Lacedemonians 
was transferred to the Athenians. Under a pretence of revenging the wrong done to the various 
countries by the common enemy, the Athenians made a tax of money and ships that each city 
should contribute against the Persians. The cities in Greece and the Greek cites in Asia readily 



agreed to this for the common safety of all. The first tax amounted to 460 (not as Diodorus has 
it, 560) talents. It was stored in the Isle of Delos which was the common treasury of all Greece. 
(Thucid, 1. 1. Diod. 1. 11. Justin 1. 16. c. 3. Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in the life of Aristides.) 

1 175. When Pausanias was exposed by Argilius, his homosexual lover, to whom he had 
committed his last letters to be sent to Artabazus, the Ephori starved him to death. (Thusic. 1. 1. 
Diod. 1. 11. Emil. Prob. in the Life of Pausanias.) 

3531 AM, 4241 JP, 473 BC 

1 176. Artabazus, an Hyrcanian, was captain of the guard and was most trusted and had more 
authority with Xerxes, as his father Artasyras had previously with Darius. He conspired with 
Mithridares an eunuch, chamberlain to the king, (Cresias calls him Spamitres of Aspamiters) 
who was his close friend and kinsman. He was let into the bedchamber with his seven young 
robust sons at night and they slew Xerxes as he lay in his bed. In the middle of the night they 
went speedily to Artaxerxes and told him that Darius, (who was the eldest of the three sons of 
Xerxes) had killed his father so he would be king sooner. (Elian. 1. 13. c. 3. relates this as if it 
were indeed the truth) By this lie, he persuaded Artaxerxes to have the king's guard kill his 
brother Darius. (Ctesias, Diod. Justin 1. 3. c. 1.) 

1 177. By Artabanus' plot, Artaxerxes was the next king. (Ctesias) He was a man of a mild 
disposition and full of magnanimity to all. He was surnamed Longimanus because his right hand 
was longer than his left. (Plutarch in the beginning of the life of Artaxerxes.) The 7 first months 
of his reign are attributed to Artabanus. (Euseb. in his Chron.) It seems for that period of time, 
he ruled all things in Artaxerxes' name. Diodorus intimates that Artabanus was presently 
executed for his murder of Xerxes and Darius. Yet there was some time elapsed before this 
happened as appears by the more complete accounts of this by Ctesias and Justin. 

3531 AM, 4241 JP, 473 BC 

1178. Themistocles of Athens was suspected of the conspiracy with Pausanias for the betraying 
of Greece into the hands of the Persians. They searched for him and had they found him they 
would have killed him. Therefore he fled from Greece and came to Pydna, a town beside the 
Thermaic Bay of Macedonia. There he found a merchant ship going into Ionia and went aboard. 
A tempest carried the ship into the middle of the Athenian forces which besieged Naxos. The 
captain of the ship who was well paid by Themistocles, lay a whole night and a day at anchor 
beyond the Athenian fleet. When the tempest was over, he came safely to Ephesus. (Thucid. 1. 1. 
Emil. Prob. in the life of Themistocles. Polyan. 1. 1. Stratag.) Plutarch reports that he came to 
Cuma and found many sea captains wanting to capture him, especially Ergoteles and Theodoras. 
Xerxes had promised 200 talents to whoever would bring him his head. Therefore, he quietly 
left the area and came to a little town called Etas in Eolia. He hid for a few days in the house of 
one Nicogenes, a very wealthy man in those parts who was very familiar with several of the 
king's most trusted attendants. Diodorus calls him Lysitheis and says further, that he was a man 
of so very great wealth that when Xerxes passed that way he feasted both him and all his army 
in a very magnificent manner. By this good host's means, he was put into a covered wagon, such 
as the kings and other great men's harlots used among the Persians. He came safely into Persia 
according to both Plutarch and Thucidides. However, Thucidides only says, that he went the 
way from the sea side into Persia in the company of a certain Persian. Herodotus tells us that 



from Ephesus to Sardis is a 3 day's journey and from there to Susa, 3 months. (Herod. 1. 5. c. 
50,53,54.) 

1 179. Artabanus planned to kill Artaxerxes, as he had done to his father and brother. He told his 
plan to Megabyzus, whom he knew to be unhappy for the jealousy of his wife's supposed 
unfaithfulness. She was Amytis the sister to Artaxerxes. They swore secrecy to each other, but 
Megabysus presently went and disclosed the matter to the king who put Artabanus to death. 
Then also came to light, his hand in the death of Xerxes and his son Darius. Aspamitres, or 
Spamitres the eunuch, who was involved with him in this, was cruelly executed by certain racks 
and other engines in a boat. (This is described more fully by Plutarch, in the life of Artaxerxes) 
(Ctesias.) For Megabysus, Justin puts Becabasus, as consort with Artabanus in this plot and sets 
out the manner of Artabanus' death thusly: 

vv Artaxerxes, fearing the number of Artabanus' children, commanded all the army to be ready in 
the field the next day. He planned to review his troops, the number of them and also how every 
man could stand to his arms. When Artbanus was there present in his armour, Artaxerxes said, 
that his own armour was a little short for him and that he would change with Artabanus. When 
Artabanus at the command of the king, had taken off his armour, Artaxerxes ran his naked body 
through with his sword," 

1 180. From the size of his armour, we may learn that Artaxerxes, was not at this time a child as 
Justin claims, but that he was a man and old enough that the Scripture tells us, that in the 7th 
year of his kingdom, he was a father of several sons. Ezr 7:23 

1181. After Artabanus' death, there was a battle fought between his friends and the other 
Persians in which three of his sons were slain. Megabysus on the Persian side was seriously 
wounded. This grieved Artaxerxes, his sisters, Amytis the wife of Megabysus' wife and 
Rhodogyne and his mother Amestris. Megabyzus recovered due to the great skill of Apollonis, a 
doctor from the Isle of Coos. After this Bactria revolted from Artaxerxes and a different 
Artabanus was made governor there. Between Artabanus and them a field was selected where 
they parted on even terms. (Ctesias) Yet those words in the Greek are ambiguous. For either it 
may be meant, as I have here expressed it, according to the interpretation of it made by Hen. 
Stephanus. He says that there was another Artabanus made governor of Bactria instead of the 
former, or that there was at this time another Artabanus who was governor of that province not 
the same person whom the king killed. If we take the latter sense, then this revolt of the 
Bactrians must refer to a later time but if the first, then to the present time. For at this time, 
Hystaspes, Xerxes' son, was governor of Bactria according to Diodor. Sic. He was the middle 
brother between Darius and Artaxerxes according to Ctesias. It seems reasonable that when 
Hystaspes saw his younger brother Artaxerxes preferred before him in the kingdom, he would 
incite not only the Bactrians whom he governed but also all his other friends, to recover his right 
of the kingdom. 

1 182. Eusebius in his Chron. notes, that in the 4th year of this 76th Olympiad, (upon which we 
now are) Themistocles fled to the Persians. This agrees with the account of Thucidides. He 
places the coming of Themistocles to Artaxerxes, between the siege of Naxos and that famous 
victory over the Persians at the mouth of the river Eurymedon by Cimon the Athenian. He 
makes the beginning of the reign of Artaxerxes to happen at the same time for he says that 
Themistocles sent letters to Artaxerxes when he was recently crowned king. He desired his 
favour and offered him his service against the Greeks. From this we may fully discern that the 



true beginning of Artaxerxes' reign was almost a full nine years earlier than it is commonly said 
to have been. 

(Since this was written in 1650 new evidence has been found confirming Ussher's date. 

vv The date commonly given for this is B.C. 445; but Ussher gave 454, and Hengstenberg and 
others contend that this is the true date. Hengstenberg shows in his "Christiology" how the 
mistake arose. Vitringa rectified the date, and Kriiger, by independent enquiry, also proved the 
old date was wrong. Some hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egypt have shown that Artaxerxes was 
associated with his father in the twelfth year of the reign of Xerxes, and this information 
confirms the date given by Ussher and others." (article Seventy Weeks, p. 708, Concise Bible 
Dictionary, Bible Truth Publishers, 59 Industrial Road, Addison, Illinois, 60101) 

Ussher correctly identifies the starting date for Artaxerxes reign at 473 BC. From this we can 
correctly calculate the start of Daniels 70 weeks of years. Those who use the date of 464 BC are 
forced to bend the Bible to fit with this incorrect date. One of the most common methods is to 
fudge the date of the death of Christ and to assume the that a prophetic year was only 360 days 
long. Nowhere does the Bible state this and at no time in recorded history did any people use a 
year of exactly 360 days. This is merely another attempt to bend the Bible to fit the opinions of 
men. The start of Artaxerxes reign is confirmed by three authorities, the Bible, Eusebius in his 
Chronicles and by Thucidides who was born about 4 years after this time. A threefold cord is 
not easily broken. Editor.) 

1 183. Plutarch from Phanias reports that Themistocles was brought into Artaxerxes favour by 
Artabanus, a colonel. According to Eratosthenes, he obtained this favour from the colonel by the 
means of his harlot who was from Eretria. He does not explain which Artabanus this was, 
whether he was the one slain by Artaxerxes or that Artabanus that Xerxes entrusted government 
of his kingdom 7 years earlier when he went to Greece. For if he meant the first, then 
Themistocles must have come to Artaxerxes within the first 7 months of being crowned king 
according to Euseb. If someone else then the time he came to the king might have happened in 
any other month of that year. This would agree well with Thucidides, where he says: 



"he was brought to Artaxerxes, when he was newly crowned king." 



1 184. If was the right of the office of the colonel or chiliarch, being the second officer in the 
kingdom, to bring those who were to be admitted into the presence of the king. (Emilius Probus, 
in the life of Conon) (Elian, 1. 1.) (Vartius Histor. c. 21.) 

1 185. When Themistocles was thus graciously received by the king, a new danger presented 
itself. Mandane a daughter of Darius Hystaspes, lost all her children in the naval battle before 
Salamis. She sought revenge upon Themistocles for this. When she could not prevail with the 
king, or her friends and great men in the court, she stirred up the common people. When they all 
rushed into the court, Artaxerxes told them fairly, that he would refer the whole matter to the 
judgment of his lords. So by appointing a time for a hearing, he saved Themistocles from the 
people's hands. (Diod. Sic. 1. 11.) 

3532 AM, 4242 JP, 472 BC 



1 186. In the second battle, a strong wind in their favour helped the Persians defeat and again 
subject the Bactrians to Artaxerxes. (Ctesias.) 

1 187. Themistocles spent a whole year in learning the Persian language, laws and customs of the 
country. When he came to trial, he cleared himself of all the charges and endeared himself to the 
king as no other Greek had done before him. Artaxerxes took him on hunting trips and had him 
attend his private delights and recreations at home. He was admitted to the presence of Amestris 
the king's mother and conversed familiarly with her. He bestowed on him also, a Persian wife of 
noble parentage, excellent for beauty, and goodness of disposition. He had servants to wait on 
him and cupboards of dishes of all sorts and all other things. These were for his needs and 
entertainment. (Thucidides, 1. 1. Diodorus Siculus, 1. 11. Plutarch in the Life of Themistocles.) 

1188. When Demaratus the Lacedemonian, who returned from Greece with Xerxes, displeased 
the king greatly when he rode into Sardis in his chariot wearing his turban upright on his head in 
a way reserved only for kings. Themistocles interceded for him and Artaxerxes wrath was 
pacified so that they became friends again. (Plutarch in Them, with Seneca 1. 6. de Benesi c. 31.) 

1 189. When Themistocles was made governor of the province of Magnesia, he returned into 
Asia. (Thucid. 1. 1.) 

1 190. On his return, he escaped an ambush planned by Epyxius, a Persian governor of the Upper 
Phrygia and the Pisidians. He was warned in a dream of it by Dinaymena, the mother of the 
gods when he was resting at noon. As a memorial, he built her a temple at Magnesia and made 
his own daughter Muesiptolema to be a consecrated priestess to her. (Plutarch in Themistocles) 
Some say it was his wife. (Strabo, 1. 14.) 

1191. So that Themistocles might appear in Asia with the greater honour, the king gave him 
besides the government of the province of Magnesia, the very city of Magnesia on the Meander 
River. This city paid the king yearly fifty talents. This paid the food for his table. Lampsacus in 
Hellespont supplied him with money to buy him wine for his meal. Myus, at the mouth of 
Meander paid for his second course. Neanthes Cyzioenus and Phanias and Atheneus, (1. 1. c. 
27.) listed two more cities in the country of Troas, that is Percotes and Palescepsis to supply him 
with clothes and carpets. (Thucid. 1. Diod. 1. 11. Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of 
Themistocles.) 

3533 AM, 4243 JP, 471 BC 

1 192. Cimon the son of Miltiades, who was general in the battle at Marathon, was now made 
general by the Athenians against the Persians. He set out from the Pyreum at Athens with 200 
fighting ships bound for Caria. Ships from Ionia and other parts joined him to increase the size 
of the fleet to 300 ships. The coastal towns which were founded by the Greeks revolted from the 
Persians to him. The rest which were inhabited by the natives of the country and held by the 
Persian garrisons, he attacked and conquered. When he finished his work in Caria, he sailed into 
Lycia and did in like manner there. When they submitted to the Athenian government, he 
demanded ships of them and greatly increased his navy. (Diod. 1. 11.) 

1 193. The Persians conscripted into the army what men they could from the other dominions of 
the kings. For naval forces, they sent to the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilians. The chief 



commander of all the Persian fleet was Tithraustes, a bastard son of Xerxes. (Diod. 1. 1 1) 
Ephorus says that he was admiral of the fleet and Pherendates commander by land. Callisthenes 
says that Ariomandes the son of Gobryas commanded the army. (Plut. in Cimone.) 

3534 AM, 4244 JP, 470 BC 

1194. After the Athenians had subdued Naxos, (Thucidides, 1. 1.) they and their confederates 
under the conduct of their general Cimon, in only one day, defeated the Persians both in a naval 
battle sea-fight not far from the Isle of Cyprus and also in a battle on land at the mouth of the 
river Eurymedon in Pamphylia. This was in the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad. (Diod. Sic. 1. 

1 1.) He was of the opinion, (and so was Justin, 1. 2. in sine,) that Xerxes was yet living contrary 
to what Thucidides states, who of these lived closest to that time. Therefore Eusebius is right 
when he says this great victory was in the 4th year of Artaxerxes. He also notes: 

vv Cimon obtained this victory by sea and land against the Persians, near the River Eurymedon 
and so the war with the Medes ended." 

1 195. For from the beginning of Artaxerxes' reign (as we have put it according to Thucidedes' 
account) his 4th year was the same as the 3rd year of the 77th Olympiad mentioned here by 
Diodorus. Eusebius puts the first year of his reign with the first year of the 79th Olympiad. 
Hence he must of necessity have placed his 4th year with the 4th year of the same Olympiad. 
The best way is to set down this whole matter in the same order as we find it in Diodor and 
Plutarch, thusly. 

1 196. When Cimon had heard that the king's captains had taken up their station with a great 
army by land and a fleet by sea in the coast of Pamphylia, he stayed at sea so that they might not 
come within the Chelidonian Islands. He went with 200 ships from Cnidus and Triopium to the 
Greek city of Phaselites. When they would not allow his navy into their port nor defect from the 
Persians, he burned their country and assaulted their city. Nevertheless, at the intercession of 
those of Chios, who were in the fleet, peace was made on the condition that they should pay ten 
talents and follow Cimon in the war against the Persians. (Plut. in the life of Cimon.) 

1 197. When Cimon understood that the Persian fleet sailed about the coast of Cyprus, he 
presently set sail towards them with 250 ships against 340 of theirs. (Diod. Sic.) Though 
Ephorus says that the Persians were 350 and Phanodemus 600 strong. Yet these did nothing 
worthy of so great a navy. They that were next to the land abandoned their ships and fled to land 
to the army that was arranged in battle array there. The rest were attacked by Cimon, taken and 
killed. (Plutarch) Thucidides says that they took all 200 of the Phoenician ships and sank them. 
Emil. Probus (in the life of Cimon) says that he overcame and took all the fleet of the Cyprians 
and Phoenicians to the number of 200 ships. Diodorus states that the Athenians sank many of 
their ships and took 100 ships with their crew as prisoners. When the soldiers were fled from the 
ships into Cyprus, they took those ships without any prisoners. These verses recall this victory 
which the Athenians made and offered to their god. They are found both in Diodorus and also in 
Aristides' Platonic Oration. 

For these when soldiers all were killed at land, 
An hundred ships of the Phoenicians took, 
All full of men. 



1 198. Plutarch in his little discourse of the Athenian glory, says that Cimon brought from 
Eurymedon about 100 Phoenician ships of war. Diodorus affirms that he took not only more 
than 100 but also 340 ships, that is, the whole Persian navy and 20,000 men. 

1 199. Cimon was not satisfied with this victory at sea. He attacked the land army of the Persians 
in Asia which he saw ranged on the shore near the mouth of the river Eurymedon. To better 
achieve victory, he dressed all his soldiers in the Persian clothes which he had taken. The 
Persians thought these were their navy and welcomed them. Therefore, Cimon, as soon as it was 
night, (and it was very dark without the moon shining) landed his men. They attacked the 
enemies camp and killed all they met. Pherendates, one of the two chief commanders and the 
king's brother's son was killed as he lay in his pavilion. The enemy was soon put to flight. 
(Diodorus) Commenting on this stratagem, Polyenus, (1. 1.) mentions but mistakenly says that 
Cimon landed his men in Cyprus and not in Pamphilia. Likewise does Julius Frontinus, in the 
end of his 4th book, where Conon is found written instead of Cimon. 

1200. Cimon captured 80 Phoenician ships near Hydus which were not in the battle nor had 
even heard of it. 

3535 AM, 4245 JP, 469 BC 

1201. Cimon sailed from Athens with 4 ships and captured 13 Persian ships in the Chersonese of 
Thracia. He expelled the Persians and Thracians and took possession of the place for the 
Athenians. In all Asia from Ionia to Pamphylia, the Persian army was driven out. (Plut. in the 
Life of Cimon.) Pericles assumed the leadership of Athens. He set out with 50 ships and 
Ephialtes with 30 more. They sailed beyond the Chelidonian Islands in the sea of Pamphylia, 
never saw a Persian ship all the way, according to Plutarch from Calisthenes. Isocrates, in his 
Panathenaic, says, that neither a Persian war ship went closer to Greece than the port Phaselis 
nor any company of them by land crossed over the river Halys. However, Diod. writes that when 
the Persians saw the increase of the Athenian power, they started building ships faster than ever. 

3537b AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC 

1202. Ezra the priest, a scribe or a lawyer skilled in the law of Moses, obtained permission from 
Artaxerxes the king and his seven counsellors to resettle the Jewish state and to reform the 
religion at Jerusalem. By this grant, it was again made lawful for all the willing Jews to return. 
They could send or carry with them any gold or silver that either the king and his nobles or the 
Jews would offer to their God. There were also thereby given all sorts of furnishings for the 
Lord's house. The treasurers beyond the river were ordered to supply them with all other needs 
from the king's treasury. All who worked in the temple would be free from tribute. All the 
people were allowed to live according to their own laws. Ezr 7: 1 1-26 

3537c AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC 

1203. In the 7th year of Artaxerxes, the first day of the first month, Ezra, with a great number of 
Jews, left Babylon for Israel. Ezr 7:6,7,9 8:1-14,30 

3537d AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC 



1204. On the 12th day of the 1st month, they left from the river Ahava and on the 10th day of 
the 5th month, in the 7th year of Artaxerxes' reign, they arrived at Jerusalem. They rested there 
for 3 days. Ezr 7:8,9 8:30,32 

1205. On the 4th day of the 5th month, the gold and silver which they had brought was weighed 
and with the other furnishings, were put in the house of the Lord. Those who returned offered 
their sacrifices to God. When this was done, the king's edicts were given to the governors and 
rulers beyond the river who showed much favour to the people and the house of the Lord. Ezr 
8:33-36 

3538a AM, 4247 JP, 467 BC 

1206. When Ezra knew that the Israelites had intermarried with the heathen he mourned and 
fasted. He publicly made intersession to God, to avert his wrath on them. Ezr 9:1-15 When 
many of the people sorrowed for this, Shecaniah advised Ezra to direct the people that they 
would vow to God to put away their heathen wives and the children whom they had by them. 
This was done. Ezr 10:1-17 

1207. Those who returned from captivity, were ordered to appear at Jerusalem within 3 days. 
Those that did not would be punished. Therefore all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered in 
the court of the temple, on the 20th day of the 9th month. They trembled over the seriousness of 
the matter and because of the inclement weather. Ezra commanded every male to separate 
himself from his heathen wife. This they agreed to and desired that judges might be appointed to 
see that the orders were followed. Two priests and two Levites were appointed to help carry this 
out. Ezr 10:7-15 

3538b AM, 4248 JP, 466 BC 

1208. This examination was held from the 1st day of the 10th month to the 1st of the 1st month. 
In two months the matter of the heathen wives was settled. Ezr 10:16,17 

3538d AM, 4248 JP, 466 BC 

1209. Themistocles died a natural death at Magnesia. Others say he poisoned himself voluntarily 
when he saw that he could not subdue Greece as he had promised the king. (Thuc. 1. 1.) Cicero 
says in his Laelius, that he killed himself 20 years after the death of Coriolan. According to 
Dionysius Halicarnassaeus, that would be in the 3rd year of the 78th Olympiad. That year has 
this note by Eusebius in his Chron. 

vv Themistocles, whom his own worth had made the conqueror, his own country's wrong made 
him the general of the Persians. However, so that he might keep himself from attacking it, he 
appointed a sacrifice at which he drank a bowl full of the bull's blood. Hence he fell as a noble 
sacrifice of piety, dead before the altar. So memorable was his departure from this life that it had 
this effect that Greece would never need another Themistocles after him." 

1210. Concerning his death, Tully in his Burtus, makes Pompo Atticus to state it this way: 



vv For as you now tell us a tale of Coriolan, so Clitarchus and Stratocles do the same of 
Themistocles. Thucidides, who was an Athenian of noble rank and an excellent man, lived not 
long after him. He says only that he died and that he was buried privately in some place in 
Attica and that there was some suspicion that he poisoned himself. Concerning him these men 
write that when he had sacrificed a bull, he drank the blood of it in a basin and died in that 
place:" 

1211. Though indeed before the writing of this History by Thucidides, the Athenians themselves 
had heard it from Aristophanes, in Equitibus. He wrote this in Athens the 7th year of the 
Peloponesian war, when Stratocles was ruler of Athens. He states that Themistocles died from 
the drinking of bull's blood. 

3540a AM, 4249 JP, 465 BC 

1212. The 20th Jubilee. 

3544 AM, 4254 JP, 460 BC 

1213. Inaros, the son of Psammericus king of Libya (not a Lydian as Ctesias has it) journeyed 
from Marca a city bordering on Pharus caused much of Egypt to defect from Artaxerxes. He was 
proclaimed king by them and sent for the Athenians at Cyprus. These were engaged in a war 
with 200 ships, some of their own and the rest from their allies. (Thusid. 1. 1.) 

1214. When Artaxerxes heard of the Egyptian revolt, he gathered an army and a navy from all 
his dominions. He spared no pains nor cost in doing this. (Diodorus Siculus, 2nd year, 79th 
Olympiad) This is 2 years earlier than the more precise account given by Thucidides. 

1215. Artaxerxes planned to head this army into Egypt but his friends persuaded him otherwise. 
He sent his brother Achemenes to head that expedition with 400,000 soldiers and 80 ships. 
(Ctesius) Diodorus agrees with him that he sent Achemenes as general in this Egyptian war but 
he says that he was the son of Darius and Artxerxes was his great uncle and he had only 300,000 
troops. He means by this that it was Achemenes the son of Darius Hystaspis and Atossa, to 
whom Xerxes had given the government of Egypt after Xerxes had conquered it. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 
7,97.) 

3545 AM, 4255 JP, 459 BC 

1216. When Achemenes (also called Achemenides) came into Egypt, he refreshed his army at 
the Nile River after the long march and prepared for battle. Those on the other side gathered 
what forces they could from Egypt and Libya and waited for the Athenians to arrive. (Diod. 
Sic.) 

1217. The Athenians came from sea and entering the mouth of the Nile. They quickly made 
themselves masters of the river. (Thucid.) Inaros, together with Charamitis, who was admiral of 
a fleet of 40 Athenian ships defeated the Persians. Of the 50 Persian ships, they took 20 with all 
their men and sank the other 30. (Ctesias) But Diodorus Siculus tells us, that the entire Athenian 



fleet of 200 ships at Cyprus came to Egypt, not 40 ships only, as Ctesias said. 

1218. Inaros with his own Egyptian troops and Athenian reinforcements, fought a battle with the 
Persians on land. By their sheer numbers, the Persians were winning. When the Athenians came 
and forced their one wing of troops to retire, many Persians were killed. The rest of the Persian 
army fled and many were slaughtered. (Diodor.) Of the 400,000 men who Achemenes brought 
into the battle, he and 100,000 of his troops were killed. He died of a wound which he received 
from Inaros' own hand and his body was sent to Artaxerxes. (Ctesias) Herodotus mentions 
(Herod. 1. 3. c. 12. 1. 7. c. 7.) that Achamenes a son of Darius and of other Persians were slain by 
Inaros a Libyan, son of Psammitichus at Papremes. 

1219. The Athenians routed the Persians and took two thirds of Memphis. They attacked the 
other part called the White Wall, where the Persians and Medes had fled. (Thucid. and Diod.) 

3546 AM, 4256 JP, 458 BC 

1220. When Artaxerxes heard of this great defeat, he sent Megabasus a Persian to Sparta with 
money to pay the Peloponesians to attack the Athenians. He thought that this would draw the 
Athenians from Egypt. The Lacedemonians would not take his money nor yield to any of his 
plans. When the king realised this, he called Megabazus home again with the money that was 
left. He commanded Megabyzus, the son of Zopyrus to make provisions to go to Egypt. (Thucid. 
and Diod.) Megabysus was formerly a general in Xerxes' army. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 82.) He married 
Xerxes' daughter, Amytis. (Ctesias) He was the son of Zopyrus who recovered Babylon for 
Darius, the son of Hystaspes, according to Herodotus at the very end of his third book. 

3547 AM, 4257 JP, 457 BC 

1221. Artabazus and Megabyzus were made commanders for the war in Egypt. They had an 
army of 300,000 troops. (Diod.) Ctesias says they only had 200,000. 

1222. When they came into Cilicia and Phoenicia, the commanders stayed for a time to allow 
the army a rest after so long a march. Meanwhile, they ordered the Cilicians, Cyprians and 
Phoenicians to provide the navy. They of Thrice provided 300 ships, fully manned and equipped 
for war. (Diod.) Oriscus was the admiral of the fleet. (Ctesias.) 

1223. They spent almost a whole year in training the troops for war. The Athenians continued to 
besiege the fort of the White Wall in Memphis. The Persians manfully defended it and the 
Athenians saw no possibility of taking it by a direct attack. However, they besieged it for all this 
year. (Diod.) 

3548 AM, 4258 JP, 456 BC 

1224. When the Persian commanders in Asia had trained their troops, they marched from there 
through Syria and Phoenicia. Their navy of 300 ships sailed along the coast as they went. When 
they came to Memphis, (Diod.) their army of 200,000 was joined by 300,000 troops left by 
Achemenes in Egypt. They fought a fierce battle with the Egyptians and many died on each 
side. More Egyptians were killed than Persians. Megabyzus wounded Inaros in the thigh who 



fled into the stronghold, called Byblus, on the Isle of Prosopitis in the river of Nile. He was 
joined by the surviving Greeks but the Greek general Charamites was killed in this battle. All 
Egypt except that fort of Byblus defected to Megabysus.(Ctesias.) 

1225. When Megabysus had driven both Egyptians and Greeks from the field of battle and out 
of Memphis, he besieged them in the little Isle of Prosopitis for 18 months. (Thucid. 1. 1.) 

3550a AM, 4259 JP, 455 BC 

1226. In the 20th year of the reign of Artaxerxes, in the 9th month called Chisleu, Nehemiah 
was at Susa, the winter quarters of the Persian kings. (Athenaus, Despnosoph. 12.) When he 
received news how the wall of Jerusalem was still broken down and the gates burnt with fire, he 
mourned, fasted and prayed to God. He asked that God would forgive the people's sins and give 
him grace in the eyes of the king. Neh 1:1-11 

3550c AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC 

1227. In the same 20th year of the king, in the month Nisan, Nehemiah's turn came to serve as 
cupbearer to the king. Both the king and queen, (whom I suppose to be her whom Ctesias calls 
Damaspia) noticed his sorrowful appearance. He presented his request to them and obtained 
permission from the king to be the governor of Judah and to rebuild Jerusalem. Neh 2:1-6 This 
event marks the start of Daniel's 70 weeks. Da 9:24,25 (For starting date of Artaxeres reign, see 
note on 3531 AM «1190». Editor.) 

1228. Nehemiah with a commission and supplies from the king came to Jerusalem in spite of the 
opposition from the governors Sanballat the Horonite of Moab and of Tobiah the Ammonite. He 
began the work and replied to them who laughed at him for undertaking so foolish an 
undertaking. Neh 2:7-20 

1229. The Persian commanders in Egypt made the river dry which flowed around the Isle of 
Prosopitis by diverting the water into another course. This left the Athenian ships aground and 
joined the Isle of Prosopitis to the mainland. As soon as the Egyptians saw the Athenian ships 
aground, they surrendered and made peace with the Persians. When the Athenians were deserted 
by the Egyptians, they burned their ships so they would not fall into the hands of the enemy. The 
Persians crossed the dry channel and took the island. When they saw the valour of the Athenians 
and remembering the losses they had received by them previously, they allowed the 6000 of 
them to return home with their possessions. (Thucid. Diod. Ctesias.) 

1230. The fortunes of the Athenians in Egypt, where they had spent 6 years in war came to 
naught. Egypt returned under the control of Artaxerxes except for Amyrtaeus, who was king of 
those who lived in the low countries of Egypt. They could not take him because of the vastness 
of the low country and its inhabitants were most warlike. (Thucid. 1.1.) 

3550d AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC 

1231. Eliashib, the son of Joiakim, the son of Jehu (or Jehoshua) the high priest and the rest of 
the Jews, started to build the wall of Jerusalem, Neh 3: 1-32 on the 4th day of the 5th month Ab. 



Neh6:15 

1232. Sanballat and Tobiah with the Samaritans and other enemies of the Jews, first laughed at 
this new work. When they saw the wall half up, they stopped mocking and consulted how to 
destroy the builders. When Nehemiah knew this, he first prayed to God and then ordered his 
men to be ready for a battle. Thus he thwarted the plans of their enemies.Neh 4: 1-23 

1233. When Nehemiah heard the outcries of the people, he ordered them to be freed, the slaves 
from their bondage and the debtor from their debt. Those who had mortgaged their lands or 
goods were to be freed from their debt. He set a good example by releasing his debts and all 
engagements of lands or goods made to him and freed the poor of public taxes. He gave liberally 
to those in need. Neh 5:1-19 

1234. Nehemiah was not only in danger from Sanballat and other enemies abroad but also from 
false prophets and false brethren at home. They tried to hinder the work as much as the others 
did. In spite of these difficulties, the wall was finished in 52 days, on the 25th day of the 6th 
month called EM. Neh 6:1-19 

1235. The dedication of the wall was performed with much celebration and great joy. Neh 12:27- 
43 

1236. Nehemiah took care of the various offices belonging to the house of the Lord. He 
appointed governors over the city and ordered its guards. He called the congregation together 
and numbered those who had returned from the captivity. He selected a number of people to live 
in the city with the rest of its inhabitants. Everyone according to his ability, made their various 
offerings to God, Neh 7:1-73 

1237. When 50 Greek ships were sent to Egypt to relieve those who were there for so long, they 
knew nothing of what had happened to their country men. They anchored at Mendesium which 
is a mouth of Nile. They were attacked by the Persians from the land and the Phoenicians by 
sea. Most of them were killed. A few escaped to carry news to Greece. Of that great army which 
was there before, only a few returned into Greece again. Most were lost as they passed through 
the deserts of Libya to get to Cyrene. This was the sad end which came to that great expedition 
of the Athenians in Egypt. (Thucid. 1. 1.) 

3551a AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC 

1238. In the feast of trumpets, in the 1st day of the 7th month, all the Jews came together at 
Jerusalem. The law of God was read by Ezra and expounded to them. When they heard it, they 
were all greatly grieved and wept. They were encouraged by Nehemiah, Ezra and the Levites to 
keep that feast with joy. Neh 8:1-12 

1239. On the 2nd day of the same month, the elders of the families, the priests and Levites 
consulted with Ezra concerning questions arising from the reading of the law. They were 
encouraged to keep the feast of tabernacles Neh 8:13-15 outside in the fields in booths made of 
boughs as stated in the law. Le 23:40 



1240. On the 15th to the 21st day, the feast of Tabernacles was celebrated with great care and 
devotion. For 7 days together, the law of God was read and the 8th day also was kept very 
solemnly according to the law. Le 23:36 

vv Neither was there the like feast of Tabernacles kept from the days of Joshua, the son of Nun, to 
that time and there was great joy made." Neh 8:17,18 

1241. Of this the Jews in their Greater Chronicle, (c. 30) speak in this manner: 

vv It may be said that he compares this the return of the children of Israel into the land in the days 
of Joshua. For as in the days of Joshua they were bound to tithes, to the year of Shemite, or 
Remission and to Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled towns. So now in their return in 
the time of Ezra, they were in like manner obliged to keep the law of tithes of the years of 
Shemite or Releasings, of Jubilees and to the hallowing of their walled cities. They rejoiced 
greatly before the Lord." 

1242. On the 24th of this month, the Israelites who returned, separated themselves from all 
strangers, made public profession of their repentance. Neh 9:1-38 They renewed their covenant 
with God and bound themselves to observe the law of God, his worship, Neh 10:1-39 and the 
law, Le 25:4 De 15:1 of the sabbath and the sabbatical year. Neh 10:31 

1243. The chief heads of the people feasted at Jerusalem. The rest cast lots, according to which 
every tenth man would live in Jerusalem. Neh 11:1-36 ICh 9:1-44 

3551a AM, 4260 JP, 454 BC 

1244. Megabyzus left Sartamah as governor of Egypt and returned to Artaxerxes with Inaros 
and some other Greeks. He gave them his word that they would not be harmed. Artaxerxes 
carefully observed this though he was incensed against Inaros for having slain his brother 
Achemenes. When his mother Amestris (called Amytis by Ctesias) desired vengeance on Inaros, 
the Greeks and Megabyzus, the king refused her request. (Ctesias) 

3554 AM, 4264 JP, 450 BC 

1245. The Athenians sent Cimon their general with a fleet of 200 ships of their own and their 
confederates into Cyprus. 60 went to Egypt to Amyrtaeus who was still in Egypt. The rest 
besieged Citium, a city in Cyprus. (Thucid. 1. 1.) At this time Artabazus and Megabyzus 
commanded the Persian forces. Artabazus had his fleet of 300 ships around Cyprus. Megabyzus 
with the army of 300,000 troops stayed in Cilicia. (Diod. Sic. 1. 12. in the 3rd year of 82nd 
Olympiad) 

1246. Cimon sent messengers to the oracle at the temple of Ammon to ask about some secret 
matter. (Plutarch in the Life of Cimon) 

3555 AM, 4265 JP, 449 BC 

1247. In the siege of Citium in Cyprus, (as Thucidides says) Cimon died either of a natural 



disease, (as Emil. Probus has it) or, as others say, of a wound which he received in battle. When 
he was about to die, he advised those that were about him to conceal his death and to return 
home as fast as they could. It happened that this secret was well kept and all the Greek army 
returned home safely under the conduct (as Phanedemus speaks) of Cimon who had been dead a 
whole month. Those who were sent to consult the oracle, received the answer that Cimon was 
already with him. When they returned to Egypt and they understood that Cimon died at that very 
time when the oracle answered them. (Plutarch in the Life of Cimon.) 

1248. When the Greek army returned from Egypt, they who besieged Citium in Cyprus, were 
short of supplies. They lifted their siege and sailed to Salamis in the same island. Here they 
fought with the Phoenicians, Cyprians and Cilicians, by sea and land. In the naval battle, they 
sunk many enemy ships and captured a 100 with all the soldiers and sailors still in them. The 
rest they pursued as far as Phoenicia. The Persians with the remaining ships, fled into Cilicia 
where Megabyzus was with the army. The Athenians sailed there as fast as possible and landed 
their men on the open shore and attacked the enemy. In this fight, Anaxicrates who commanded 
the fleet, behaved himself most courageously and died a most noble and heroic death. They 
defeated the Persians and slew many of the enemy. They returned to their ships and sailed home 
with those returning from Egypt. (Diod. Sic. in the 3rd and 4th year of the 82nd Olympiad,) as 
he stands corrected from Thucidides. Elian writes that the Athenians lost in Egypt 200 ships and 
in Cyprus 150 with all their equipment. (Elian. Variar. Histor. 1. 5. c. 10.) 

1249. When Artaxerxes heard of the loss of his men in Cyprus, he sought advice from his 
council concerning this war. It was resolved that it was for the good of the kingdom that peace 
should be made with the Greeks. Therefore the king wrote letters to the captains and 
commanders in Cyprus that they make peace with the Greeks on any terms. Hereupon Artabazus 
and Megabyzus sent messengers to Athens to seek peace. When the Athenians had consented to 
their conditions, they sent commissioners to represent them having full power and authority. The 
leader of the group was Callias, the son of Hipponicus. (Diod. in the 4th year of the 82nd 
Olympiad.) At this time, the men of Argos sent their messengers to Susa to know if Artaxerxes 
would honour the league they had made with his father Xerxes, or if he considered them 
enemies. Artaxerxes answered that the league continued and that he considered no city more 
friendly to him than Argos. (Herodotus, 1. 7. c. 152.) 

1250. The peace between the Athenians and their confederates on the one side and the Persians 
on the other was concluded with these conditions: 

vv That no Persian governor would at any time come within three days journey of the sea and that 
there would be no warship from either side be found between Phaselis and the Cyantan Isles:" 

1251. Or as Plutarch expresses it, 

vv That the king would not have any warships in all the sea between the Cyancan and the 
Cheldonian Islands." 

1252. When the king and his council of war had subscribed to these articles, then the Athenians 
took an oath that they would not invade any of the king's provinces. (Diod. in the 4th year of the 
82nd Olympiad) 



1253. Plutarch (in the life of Cimon) says that they built an altar in memory of this peace and 
that they gave many honours on Callias who had been the architect of it. 

3556 AM, 4266 JP, 448 BC 

1254. Artaxerxes wearied for 5 years with his mother's nagging, gave Inaros the Egyptian king 
and the Greeks that came with him into her hand. The queen had the body of Inaros to be so 
racked and stretched out and wrenched several ways. He hung on three different crosses at one 
time. She had the 50 Greeks (for she could catch no more) decapitated. (Ctesius) Thucidides 
says that Inaros king of Libya was taken by treachery and crucified. Herodotus tells us, that his 
son Thammyras by the favour of the Persians, held the government of Egypt which his father 
had held before him. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 5.) 

1255. Megabyzus was greatly grieved by the death of Inaros and those Greeks. He asked 
permission to go to his own government in Syria. He had secretly sent the rest of the Greeks 
there. He following them there and as soon as he came to Syria he revolted from the king and 
gathered an army of 150,000 men. (Ctesias) 

3557 AM, 4267 JP, 447 BC 

1256. Osiris was sent against Megabyzus with an army of 200,000 men. In the battle, Osiris 
wounded Megabyzus with a dart in the thigh two inches deep. Likewise, he wounded Osiris with 
a dart first in the thigh and then in the shoulder. As Osiris fell from his horse, Megabyzus caught 
him about by the middle and saved him. Many of the Persians fell and the two sons of 
Megabyzus, Zopyrus and Artipsyus fought valiantly that day. Megabyzus won and carefully 
returned Osiris to Artaxerxes who demanded his return. (Ctesias.) 

3558 AM, 4268 JP, 446 BC 

1257. Another army was sent against Megabyzus. The general was Menostanes, or Menostates, 
son to Artarius, governor of Babylon and brother to king Artaxerxes. In the battle, Megabyzus 
wounded Menostanes in the shoulder and in the head. Neither of those wounds were mortal, but 
when it happened, he and all his army fled and Megabyzus had a most glorious victory. 
(Ctesias) 

1258. Artarius, Artoxares the eunuch, a Paphlagonian and Amestris, the queen mother, 
persuaded Megabyzus to come to terms with the king. After much effort, Artarius, Amytis' wife 
and Artoxares, who was now 20 years of age and Petisas, the son of Osiris, prevailed with him 
to come to the king. When he came, the king sent him word that he freely pardoned him all his 
past offences. A little later when the king was hunting, a lion set upon him. When Megabyzus 
saw the lion raised upon his hind feet, slew him with his spear. The king was angry with him 
because he had done it before the king could. He commanded that Megabyzus be decapitated. 
The intercession of Amestris, Amyris and others, spared his life and he was sent away and 
confined to the island of Cirta in the Read Sea (sic). Artoxares the eunuch for having spoken too 
freely with the king on the behalf of Megabyzus, was banished into Armenia. (Ctesias.) 

3559 AM, 4269 JP, 445 BC 



1259. When Herodotus read his books at Athens before the council there, he was much 
honoured for them, according to Euseb. in his Chron. There Scaliger notes that Herodotus wrote 
his books before his going into Great Greece (Southern Italy) not in Great Greece itself as some 
think following Pliny on this. We shall see more in the next year. But I observe that in these 
books mention is made often of the Peloponesian war, both in (the 7th book c. 137. and in the 
9th book c. 72.) In the former reference, a thing is related that was done in the 2nd year of that 
war. In the later, a thing that happened in the 19th year of it at Decelaea. This is 22 years after 
the time consigned by Euseb. to the reading of his book at Athens. See more on this in the year 
3596 and 3597. 

3560 AM, 4270 JP, 444 BC 

1260. In the first year of the 84th Olympiad, when Praxiteles was the governor of Athens, 12 
years before the Peloponesian war began, the Athenians sent a colony into Great Greece 
(Southern Italy) to rebuild the decayed city of Thurii. Lysias, a youth of 15 years of age was one 
of the leaders in this group (Plutarch and Dionysus Halicarnassaeus in the life of Lysians the 
Orator) along with Herodotus who was 41 years old. Although he was born at Halicarnassus in 
Caria, he obtained the surname of Thurius after this because of his part in reestablishing Thurii. 
(Strabo, 1. 14) The 84th Olympiad happened on the 310th year from the founding of Rome, 
according to Varro's account. In this year Pliny says that Herodotus compiled his History in 
Thurii in Italy, (Pliny 1. 12. c. 4.) as mentioned in the previous year. 

3562 AM, 4272 JP, 442 BC 

1261. In this year all wars ceased throughout Asia, Greece, Sicily, Italy, Gaul, Spain and almost 
the entire world. (Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 84th Olympiad.) 

1262. After Nehemiah had governed Judah for 12 years, that is from the 20th year of the reign 
of Artaxerxes to the 32nd of the same, he returned to the king. (Ne 5:14, 13:6) 

1263. In his absence Eliashib the priest, who was over the chamber of the house of God and had 
made an alliance with Tobiah, prepared a room for him in the court of the temple. In this place 
the gifts and tithes were formerly kept. The son of Joiada, the son of Eliashib the high priest, 
(who was a different man from Eliashib of whom I just mentioned) became son-in-law to 
Sanballat the Horonite after he married his daughter. When Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem 
with a new commission, he quickly redressed and severely punished these and other wrong 
doings. (Ne 13:1-31) 

3563 AM, 4273 JP, 441 BC 

1264. After Megabyzus had lived 5 years in exile, he fled from the Island where he was 
confined and feigning himself to be a "pisagas", (i.e. leper in the Persian language and one to 
whom no man might approach) he came home to his wife Amytis. By her and Amestris, the 
king's mother, he was at last reconciled to the king. He sat at the king's table as before and died 
at age 76. The king grieved very much for him. (Ctesias.) 

3564 AM, 4274 JP, 440 BC 



1265. In this year, the Samians and Milesians went to war over the ownership of the city of 
Priene. This was the beginning of the 6th year, (according to Thucidides) of the 30 years of 
peace and the league between the Athenians and Lacedemonians. It was in the middle of the 4th 
year of the 84th Olympiad according to Diodorus. Priene was a city in Caria, which the Samians 
and Milesians each claimed. The Milesians were too weak to defeat the Samians. They drew to 
their side some Samians who were unhappy with things in their country. They went to Athens 
and complained of the behaviour of the citizens of Samos. The Athenians sent for them to lay 
down their arms and negotiate the matter at Athens. When the Samians refused to do this, 
Pericles prevailed to have war declared against them. He did this as a favour to his prostitute 
Aspasia, that famous courtesan whom he doted on not so much for her beauty as for her wit. She 
was the daughter of Axiochus of Milesia. The Athenians sent a fleet of 40 ships under the 
command of Pericles and easily took the city of Samos. He changed the government from an 
aristocracy to a democratic one. 

1266. After Pericles returned from Samos, there arose in Samos a terrible sedition. Some wanted 
a democratic government and others wanted the old aristocracy. Those who disliked the 
democratic form, conspired with the chief men of the city and sent to Asia to Pissuthnes, the son 
of Hystalpes the governor of Sardis. When they had made a league with him, he gave them a 
band of 700 soldiers. They returned in the still of the night to the Samos and were joined by 
others of their consorts. They surprised and captured the town. They declared themselves 
enemies to the Athenians and took the whole garrison of them with the captain and officers. 
They sent them to Pissuthnes as a gift. They immediately marched against Miletus. The 
inhabitants of Byzantium were also allies with them against the Athenians. 

1267. When the Athenians heard of the revolt of Samos, they sent 60 ships. 16 went towards 
Caria to attack the Phoenician fleet in those parts and into Chios and Lesbos to take on allies 
from there. The other 44 vessels continued with Pericles as the admiral and his 9 colleagues. 
The Samians recalled their 20 ships which they had sent full of soldiers to assault Miletus. They 
were joined by 50 more ships. They fought with the 44 ships of the Athenians near an island 
called Tragia and were defeated. From there the Athenians with 40 more ships from home and 
25 more from Chios and Lesbos, went and landed with their forces on the Isle of Samos. They 
captured the island and made a triple ditch about the city by land. They besieged the city with 
their ships. 

1268. A few days later Pericles learned by letters from Caria and Caunus, that the Phoenician 
fleet was coming towards him to relieve Samos. He left part of his army to maintain the siege 
and took 60 ships from the navy. He went as fast as he could to meet the Phoenician navy. 
Stesagoras went with him with 5 ships from Samos. 

1269. The Samians took advantage of the absence of Pericles. Under the command of Melislus, 
the son of Ithogenes an outstanding philosopher, they attacked the Athenian camp which was 
neither fenced nor manned as it ought to have been. When they sunk the ships which kept the 
island and defeated and routed the army, they freely traded and brought in supplies for 14 days. 

1270. When Pericles heard what had happened to his men at Samos, he hurried back as fast as 
he could with a larger fleet. Thucidides, Agnon and Phormio joined him with 40 ships. 
Tlepolemus and Anticles brought 20 more ships from Athens. Chios and Mitylene sent him 30 
ships. With these great forces, he attacked and defeated Melislus. He besieged the town by land 



and sea as before and harassed them with frequent assaults on every side. Some say that those 
engines of battery, as Rams and Vines and Galleries were first invented here by one Artemon of 
Clazomena. Ephorus the historian confuses him with Artemon Periphresus of whom Anacreon 
the poet in his poetry mentions, (recited by Athenaeus 1. 12.) (Thucid. 1. 1.) (Diod. Sic. in the 4th 
year of 84th Olympiad) (Plutarch in the life of Pericles,) 

1271. After a 9 month siege, the Samians surrendered. The town was immediately destroyed and 
they gave hostages for their fidelity in time to come. They gave up all their ships. They paid for 
the expense of the war and made an instalment payment then. Those of Byzantium submitted to 
the Athenian government as before. (Thucid. 1. 1.) 

3566 AM, 4276 JP, 438 BC 

1272. Spartacus succeeded Archaeanactides in the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius. (Diod. 
the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad.) 

3571 AM, 4281 JP, 433 BC 

1273. Spartacus died after reigning 17 years. (Diod. Sic. in the 4th year of the 86th Olympiad) In 
the 3rd year of the 85th Olympiad, he states that he reigned 17 years. The interval between these 
two Olympic years assigned by him the one to the beginning, the other to the end of his reign 
only make up 5 or at most both parts being included only 6 years of his reign. After him came 
Seleucus. 

3572 AM, 4282 JP, 432 BC 

1274. At Athens in the year when Apseudes was over the government and in the last year almost 
ended in the 86th Olympiad, Metone observed the summer solstice to be upon the 21st day of 
the Egyptian month, Phamenoth (or the 27th day of June, according to the Julian calendar) in the 
morning. (Ptolemy, in his Mag. Syntax 1. 3. c. 2.) From this he formulated the Cyclus Punaris, or 
the circle of the moon which we call the Golden Number of 19 years. (Diod. Sic. the 4th year of 
the 85th Olympiad) He deduced the beginning of this cycle from the next new moon following 
that solstice on the 15th day of July, according to the Julian calendar. 

3573 AM, 4283 JP, 431 BC 

1275. Arcesilaus was killed by his subjects the Cyrenians. He was the 8th king in that state and 
the man who in the 3rd year of the 73rd Olympiad, won the 31st Pythian race with his chariot. 
He was made famous for that by Pindarus, in his 4th and 5th Ode. When his son would have 
succeeded, he was disallowed by the Cyrenians. Thereupon he sailed into the Hesperides or 
western islands and there died. So that kingdom of Cyrenia which had stood for 200 years came 
to an end. It had four kings of the name of Battus and four of the name of Archelaus. These 
interchangeably succeeded each other in the kingdom according to the oracle at Delphi as 
reported by Herod. (Herod. 1. 4. c. 163.) (Scholiast. Pind. in Od. 4. Pythion.) 

1276. Toward the end of the 1st year of the 87th Olympiad, when there were only two months 
remaining in the rule of Pythodorus of Athens in the beginning of the spring, the Peloponesian 



war started between the Lacedemonians and the Athenians. The nations living along the coast of 
Asia, sided with the Athenians, All the Carians, the Dores, the Ionians, those of Hellespont, and 
all the adjoining islanders supported Athens except for the two islands of Melos and Thera. Both 
sides sent their embassies to Artaxerxes asking for help. (Thucid. 1. 2.) 

1277. At the beginning of this war lived 3 famous historians, Hellanicus of the age of 65, 
Herodotus at 53 and Thucidides at 40. (A. Gellius, in his 15th book. c. 23. states this from 
Pamphylia, 1. 11.) Thucidides wrote the entire history of this war to its 21st year. He carefully 
wrote what happened by the winters and summers. He began every summer from the first of the 
spring and every winter from the first of autumn. 

1278. In the first summer of this war, there was a total eclipse of the sun that was so dark, the 
stars appeared in the sky. (Thucid. 1. 2.) This caused great fear among all men as a sad and great 
omen in the world. When Pericles saw the captain of the ship he was on, troubled by the eclipse, 
he put his cloak over his eyes. He asked him whether he was afraid at that or whether he thought 
it portended any great event or not. When he said no, then Pericles replied what was the 
difference between this covering of the sun and that except that the eclipsed area was much 
larger than my cloak? (Plutarch in the life of Pericles) He discussed with him the causes of the 
eclipses of the sun and moon and their motions by which they moved, according as he had 
learned from his teacher Anaxagoras. He persuaded his fellow citizens not to trouble themselves 
with a vain and needless fear. (Valer. Max. 1. 8. c. 11.) This eclipse happened on August 3rd at 5 
o'clock in the afternoon at Athens. About 80% or 10 digits of the sun was covered. 

3574 AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC 

1279. A dreadful plague started first in Ethiopia and spread from there into Libya and Egypt and 
especially into the regions of the Persian dominion. It raged unchecked in the city of Athens in 
the 2nd year of this war. (Thucid. 1. 2.) From a historical perspective, he documents the nature of 
this plague. He was sick with it and often in company with those who were sick. Hippocrates as 
a physician who lived in Athens and was used in the curing of various persons afflicted with the 
plague. He describes the plague from a medical view point. (1. 3. Epidem. Sect. 3.) Lucretius, 
who lived many years after, describes this in his poetry. 

1280. A sedition happened in a town of the Colophonians, called Notium. When Itamenes and 
his Median soldiers were called in by one of the sides, they came and possessed the strongest 
part of the town. (Thucid. 1. 3.) 

1281. In the later end of this summer, Aristeas, the son of Adimantus a Corinthian and the 
ambassadors of the Lacedemonians, Aneristus and Nicolaus, and Patrodemus and Timagoras of 
Tegrea and Polis of Argos, journeyed into Asia toward Artaxerxes to ask of him aid of men and 
money for the war. They went by Thrace and came to its king, Sitalces, the son of Tereas. They 
planned to pass over the Hellespont and to go to Pharnaces, the son of Pharnatacus, hoping to 
have him convoy them to safely to Artaxerxes. They were betrayed by Saducus, the son of 
Sitalces the king and Nymphodorus of Abdera, the son of Pytheus. They were all taken to 
Athens. The Athenians without any hearing killed them the same day they arrived and threw 
their bodies into a ditch. (Thucid. 1. 2. with Herod. 1. 7, c. 137.) 

3575a AM, 4284 JP, 430 BC 



1282. The following winter the Athenians sent 6 ships to Caria under the command of 
Melesandrus. They intended to gather money from those parts and to rid the seas of pirates. 
These were from Peloponesus and preyed on poor merchants ships with their cargo which they 
traded along the coast of Phaselis, Phenice and other ports of the continent. Melesandrus with 
his Athenians and other confederates did not stay at sea. They went ashore in Licia and were 
defeated by the enemy. He and most of his army were killed. (Thucid. 1. 2.) 

1283. Seleucus, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died after ruling for 4 years. (Diod. 4th of the 
86th Olympiad.) After him Spartacus the 2nd reigned for 22 years. 

3576 AM, 4286 JP, 428 BC 

1284. Pericles died in the 4th year of 87th Olympiad, (Diod. 1. 12.) 2 years and 6 months after 
the beginning of the Peloponesian war which he was the main cause of. (Thucid. 1. 2.) He was 
senior statesman had continued as a prince of the Athenian state for 40 years. (Cic. 1. 3. de 
oratore and Plutarch in the life of Pericles.) 

1285. In the year Anaxagoras of Clazomenae died. He was Pericles' teacher and was born in the 
70th Olympiad and died in the 1st year of the 88th Olympiad, according to Laetius in his life 
from Apollodorus' Chron. However, there it is incorrectly stated as Olympiad 78. He adds that 
the men of Lampsacus bestowed on him an honourable burial with this epitaph, as recorded also 
by Elian, (1. 8. Var. Histor. c. ult.) on his tomb. 

Great Anaxagoras lies here in mould, 
Who did all secrets of the heavens unfold. 

3577 AM, 4287 JP, 427 BC 

1286. In the winter season of the 4th year of the Peloponesian war, the Athenians sent 12 ships 
commanded by Lysicles with four commissioners to collect their tribute from their confederate 
cities. Lysicles went from place to place to gather money. When he was leaving Myus through 
Caria, the Carians and Anaeitae ambushed and killed him and most of his army. (Thucid. 1. 3.) 

1287. When Alcides, the commander of the Lacedemonian fleet, came to the cape of Myonesus 
in the country of the Teii, he killed most of the Greeks whom he had taken prisoners from Asia. 
When he came to Ephesus, some messengers from the Samians who were of the Anaeitae, 
rebuked him. They said he was wrong to deliver the Greek nation from servitude if he purposed 
to destroy people who never bare arms against him nor were his enemies. Their only crime was 
being forced to pay tribute to the Athenians. He then spared the rest and let them go. 

1288. A new broil arose between the old citizens which dwelt in the lower town of Notium and 
those which had recently fled there. When these saw the power of the Arcadians and other 
barbarians as Pissuthnes which the governor of Lydia had sent. They made a wall around the 
upper town for a fortification against the lower town. They made a league with the 
Colophonians who lived in the upper town and sided with the Medes making one accord with 
them. The other side sent for Pachetes, a captain of the Athenians to come and help them. When 
he came, he defeated Hippias. Pissuthnes the captain of the Arcadians in the fort was asked to 



leave the fort for a talk. They promised him that if they could not agree, he could return safely to 
the fort again. When he came, Pachetes took and committed him to safe custody without 
manacles or fetters. He attacked and captured the fort. Everyone in the fort was killed, both 
Arcadians and Barbarians. Lastly, to keep his word with Hippias he let him return safely to the 
fort. As soon as he came to the fort, they laid hold on him again and shot him to death with 
arrows. So Pachetes restored Botium to the Colophonians, except to those who had sided with 
the Medes. Afterward the Athenians sent a colony there and governed the place according to 
their own laws. They gathered as many of the Colophonians from all parts as they could find to 
live there. (Thucid. 1. 3. Polya. Stratag. 1. 3.) 

3579c AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC 

1289. Artaxerxes sent Artaphernes, a Persian ambassador, with a letter written in the Assyrian 
language to Lacedemon. Among other things he said that he did not know what they wanted 
from him for they had sent so many ambassadors to him. None of them agreed with each other. 
Therefore if they would have him understand what they wanted, they should send some men of 
their own to him. (Thucid. 1. 4.) 

3579c AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC 

1290. In the interim, Artaxerxes died and his son Xerxes succeeded him for only one year. 
(Diod. Sic. the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad) His mother Damaspia died the same day that her 
husband Artaxerxes (as the sequel shows) did. Bagorazus the eunuch carried the bodies of both 
the father and mother into Persia. (Ctesias.) 

3580a AM, 4289 JP, 425 BC 

1291. In the winter of the 7th year of the Peloponesian war, Aristides, the son of Archippus, one 
of the captains who were sent from Athens to gather the tribute of their confederates captured 
Artaphernes the Persian ambassador as he was going to Lacedemon. This was at a place called 
Etone on the river Strimon. He brought him as a prisoner to Athens whom the Athenians 
presently sent back to Ephesus accompanied with an ambassador. When they came there and 
heard that Artaxerxes had recently died, they returned home again. (Thucid. 1. 4.) 

3580b AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC 

1292. In the beginning of the next summer (the beginning of spring), Thucidedes says there was 
a partial eclipse of the sun, beginning on the first day of spring, on the 21st day of March, 
according to the Julian Calendar. This was toward the end of the 4th year of the 88th Olympiad, 
in the morning. The sun was more than half eclipsed, according to the Prutenian account. 

1293. The exiles from Mitylene after their city was taken by the Athenians joined with the exiles 
from Lesbos. They hired some others from Peloponesus and went and took Rhaetium. After they 
received money from them, they spared the city. From there they went to Antandrus and it was 
betrayed into their hands. Their initial purpose was to liberate Mitylenian cities in Actea now 
controlled by Athens and in particular, Antandrus. They fortified it. Using timber from the hill 
Ida, they planned to build ships. They hoped to take over the city of Lesbos and other cities in 



Eolia. (Thucid. 1. 4.) 

3580c AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC 

1294. At the same time, Aristides and Demodocus also called Symmachus, the captains of the 
Athenian Navy were in the Hellespont gathering their tribute. Lamachus, their third captain, was 
gone with 10 ships into Pontus. When they heard that the Mitylenians purposed to fortify 
Antandrus, they gathered an army of their confederates and set sail for Mitylene. When the 
enemy sallied out from there, they defeated them in the field and captured the town. When 
Lamachus who was gone into Pontus, came to the mouth of the river Caleces, (Diodorus calls it 
Cachetes) in Heracleotis, he left his ships at anchor and spoiled all the country about Heraclea. 
These cities favoured Persia and had refused to pay tribute to Athens. After a heavy rain, the 
swollen river current drove their ships on the rocky shore. He lost his whole fleet and a large 
part of his army besides. He could not return home by sea and dared not return by land with so 
small a company through so many fierce and warlike nations. The Heraclea, used this occasion 
to befriend these nations rather than to be revenged of them. They used the tribute for Athens to 
influence friends and buy provisions for their return trip home. Lamachus, with the company 
which he had left went overland through the country of the Thracians, who dwelt on the Asian 
side and came safely to Chalcedon. (Thucid. 1. 4. Diodor. 1. 12. Justin 1. 16. c. 3.) 

3580d AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC 

1295. When Xerxes was roaring drunk on a festival day, he was killed in his chamber when he 
was sleeping. His brother Secundianus, born of Aloguna, a Babylonish woman and Pharnacyas 
an eunuch, murdered him. (Ctesias.) 

1296. Secundianus had for a long time borne a grudge to Bagoras the eunuch. He picked a 
quarrel with him for burying his father's body without his advise and ordered that he be stoned 
to death. His army took offence at this even though he gave them much money. From that time 
on the army hated him for murdering his brother. (Ctesias.) 

3581a AM, 4290 JP, 424 BC 

1297. Secundianus sent for his brother Ochus whom his father Artaxerxes had made governor of 
Hyrcania. He refused to come. He sent word he would come but he did not. This he did often. 
Finally he gathered a mighty army and intended to take over the kingdom. Arbarius who was 
general of the cavalry to Secundianus, defected to Ochus. Arxanes, the governor of Egypt, also 
defected. Artoxares came in person from Armenia and asked if he planned to make himself king. 
(Ctesias.) 

3581b AM, 4291 JP, 423 BC 

1298. Ochus was made king and called himself after that time Darius. By the advice of both 
Parysatis, his wife and his sister, he first tried to win over his brother Secundianus. 
Menosthanes, who was the greatest man with him among all his eunuchs, urged Secundianus not 
to believe his words nor have any treaty with faithless men. However, Secundianus came to a 
treaty and was captured there and died when thrown into a heap of ashes. (Ctesias) Concerning 



this type of punishment, see note on 3485b AM and /APC 2Ma 13:5,6. 

1299. When Secundianus, or Sogdianus, was dead, then Ochus reigned alone and was known by 
the name of Darius Nothus. This happened toward the end of the first year of the 89th 
Olympiad. (Thucid. 1. 8.) (Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad) 

3582 AM, 4292 JP, 422 BC 

1300. When the men of Delos were driven out of their country by the Athenians, Pharnaces gave 
them Adramyttium in Asia to live in. (Thucid. 1. 5. Diod. Sic. 3rd year 89th Olympiad.) 

3583 AM, 4293 JP, 421 BC 

1301. The Athenians, by command of the oracle at Delphi, restored those of Delos to their island 
again. (Thucid. 1. 5.) 

3588 AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC 

1302. Those of Byzantium and Chalcedon were joined by the Thracians and passed with a great 
army into Bithynia. When they had wasted the country and forced many of the smaller towns, 
they used unmeasurable cruelties toward them. When they had gathered an huge multitude of 
men, women and children, they butchered everyone of them. (Diod. 1st year of 91st. Olympiad.) 

3589a AM, 4298 JP, 416 BC 

1303. Jubilee 21 was the last one seen by the prophets of the Old Testament. For in Ne 12:22 is 
not to be understood of Darius but of this Darius Nothus in whose time Ne 12:22 signifies, that 
Johananes, called also Johannes and Jonathan, obtained the high priesthood after his father 
Joiada, (whom Josephus calls Judas). Jadduas' son, who succeeded his father in the priesthood, 
was born then also. These things Nehemiah mentions only in passing. His book ends with the 
time of Artaxerxes Longimanus, the father of this Darius, of whom Josephus (1. 1. cont. Aplons) 
says: 

vv From the death of Moses to Artaxerxes, king of Persia who succeeded Xerxes, the prophets 
wrote 13 books. From Artaxerxes to our time, all things indeed have been likewise committed to 
writing but not held in the same esteem as the former because the succession of the prophets one 
after another has been uncertain." 

1304. Euseb. in Chron. in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes, with whom the continued history of 
Nehemiah ended, states: 

vv Hitherto, the divine Scriptures of the Hebrews contain the annals of the times. Those things 
which were done among them after this time, we must derive from the books of the Maccabees 
and from the writings of Josephus and Africanus. He wrote a general history of things done 
among them down to the Roman times." 



1305. Malachi, the last of the prophets, was contemporary with Nehemiah. This we gather from 
the following. He nowhere exhorts the people to build the temple as Haggai and Zechariah did. 
Since the Temple was now built, he reproved those disorders among the Jews which Nehemiah 
at his second return with a new commission did also. These are, the marriage with foreign 
women, Mai 2:11 withholding of tithes, Mai 3:8 and abuses in the worship of God. Mai 1:13 2:8 
Now they were no longer to expect a continual succession of prophets as before. Therefore 
Malachi in the last words of his prophecy exhorts them that they should hold fast to the law of 
Moses until Christ that great prophet of the church should appear whose with his forerunner 
John the Baptist. 

vv in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to their children and the rebels 
to the wisdom of the just,Mal 4:5 Lu 1:17 Mt 11:14 17:12 to which has reference to Jerome (1. 
13. of his comment upon Isaiah chapter 49.) After Haggai and Zechariah and Malachi, I see no 
other prophet till John the Baptist. See /APC IMa 4:46 9:27 and (August, de Cicit. Dei 1. 17. c. 

24.) 

1306. We read in the book of Pirke Abbeth, that the men of the Great Synagogue succeeded the 
prophets. However, the Jews in later times count even Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, among 
them and make Ezra the president of this Great Synagogue. 

3590 AM, 4300 JP, 414 BC 

1307. Pissuthnes the governor of Lydia, revolted from Darius. Therefore Tissaphernes, 
Spitladares and Pharmises were sent against him. Pissuthnes went to meet them. He had with 
him Lycon an Athenian with the Greeks under his command. The king's commanders bribed 
Lycon and his Greeks to abandon Pissuthnes. Then they drew in Pissuthnes with the promise of 
safely an brought him to the king, which they did. The king ordered, 'Away with him to the ash 
heap" and gave his government to Tislaphernes. Lycon had cities and countries given to him for 
a reward for his treachery. (Ctesias.) 

1308. Eusebius in his Chron. notes that Egypt rebelled from the Persians and that Amyrtaius 
Saites reigned there for 6 years. This seems to be the same Amirtaeus who Herodotus writes of, 
(Herod. 1. I.e. 140. 1. 3. c. 15.) where he shows that he did the Persians much damage. 

3591 AM, 4301 JP, 413 BC 

1309. In the 19th summer of the Peloponesian war, when Nicias would have withdrawn his 
army at night from before the walls of Syracuse in Sicily, there appeared an eclipse of the Moon 
about ten o'clock at night in the month Metagiton. This was on the 27th of August, according to 
the Julian Calender. At the sight of this, he was so terrified that he did not withdraw at that time. 
By delaying he and his whole army perished. (Thucid. 1. 7. Polyb. 1. 9. Diod. Sic. year 4. of 91. 
Olympiad, Plin. 1. 2. c. 12. Plutarch in the life of Nicias and in his book, De Superstition.) 

1310. The next winter, Tissaphernes of Lydia and Pharnabazus of Hellespont, two governors of 
Darius whose countries bordered the sea coast in the lesser Asia, sought to recover the old 
tribute from the Greek cities lying within their control. Recently the Athenians had forbidden 
them to pay tribute to the king. They dealt with them underhandedly to make them defect from 
the Athenians. They solicited the Peloponesians in general to make a new war on Athens and 



had the Lacedemonians in particular become allies of the Persian king. When the Athenians 
power was thus weakened in Asia on whom Pissuthnes had founded all his hopes, Tissaphernes 
sought by all means how to capture Amorges a bastard son of Pissuthnes who had taken up arms 
in Casia. He was commanded to send him alive or dead to the king. When he found that the 
citizens of Chios and Erythrae were ready to revolt from the Athenians, he sent his messenger 
with theirs to Lacedemon to negotiate the matter by the common agreement. (Thucid. 1. 9.) 

131 1. At the same time Calligetus of Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum who were both 
banished from their country, came to Lacedemon. They were sent by Pharnabazus who had 
entertained them during the time of their exile. They went in the name of the inhabitants of 
Cyzicum, to got ships to carry them into the Hellespont. When the messengers of Pharnabazus 
and Tislaphernes each made their request separately, the Lacedemonians were divided as to 
what to do. Some advised that Ionia and Chios should be helped first, others the Hellespont. 
Alcibiades helped decide the matter. He was a condemned man at Athens who lived in Sparta, in 
a house with Endius, one of the Ephore who was a friend of his father. Therefore they made an 
agreement with the Chii and Erythraeans and ordered 40 ships to be sent to help them. 
Calligetus and Timagoras, who were there on the behalf of Pharnabazus and the men of 
Cyzicum, contributed nothing toward this fleet for Chios. They withheld the 25 talents which 
they had brought with them to hire ships for themselves because they planned to prepare a fleet 
of their own. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

3592 AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC 

1312. In the 20th summer of the Peloponesian war, Alcibiades an Athenian, and Chalcideus a 
Lacedemonian were sent by Endius and the rest of the Ephori with 5 ships into Ionia. They 
planned to try to make the Greek cities defect from the Athenian side. The Clazomenae went to 
the mainland and built a strong fort there so they would have a safe place to go if their island 
was attacked. Similarly, did the other islands that revolted from the Athenians. They built forts 
and prepared for war. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1313. Strombichides, the commander of the Athenians came with 8 ships to Samos. Another 
ship joined him here and they sailed to Teus. They persuaded them not to defect from the 
Athenians. Chalcideus came there also with 23 ships and some foot soldiers from the 
Clazomenians and Erythreans. The Teians at first refused to receive the soldiers but when they 
saw the Athenians had fled, they took them in. These waited for the return of the Chalcideus 
from pursuing the Athenians. When they did not return, they threw down the wall which the 
Athenians had made on the land side with the help of those who were under the command of 
Tages Tissaphernes. When Chalcideus and Alcibiades had pursued Strombichides as far as 
Samos, more ships from Chios joined them and they sailed to Miletus. By the means of 
Alcibiades, who had an important acquaintance with the noble men there, they persuaded them 
also to defect from the Athenians. When the Athenians followed them there, they were kept out 
by the Milesians. They retreated to an island called Lada opposite Miletus. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1314. Therefore, the Chii sailed with 10 ships to the city, Anaea in Caria to learn the status of 
Miletus and to induce other cities to defect from the Athenians. They were called back by 
Chalcideus because Amorges the son of Pissuthnes was approaching with his army. They came 
to a small town Diosbierou in Ionia. When they saw a fleet of 16 Athenian ships that were sent 
from there under the command of Diomedon to join with Thrasicles, they dispersed themselves. 
One ship went to Ephesus, the rest to Teus. Four were captured by the Athenians but all the men 



on them had escaped to shore. The rest of the ships came safely to Teus. After this when the 
Athenians were gone to Samos, the Chii pursued their purpose with the remainder of their fleet 
and forces and drew over to their side cities of Lebedus and Eras in Ionia. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1315. After the foot soldiers of the Chii departed from Teus, Tissaphernes came there with his 
army and pulled down what was left of the walls of Teus and went away. No sooner was he 
gone then Diomedon, with 10 Athenian ships came there and was received by the Teians also. 
He went to Eras and when he was unable to capture it, he went his way. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1316. When the Athenians had taken the fort which the Clazomenians had built on the continent, 
they forced them to return to their island. The leaders of the revolt were sent to Daphnus. The 
Clazomenians again submitted to the Athenians. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

3592c AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC 

1317. That same summer, the Athenians with 20 ships, which were at Lada opposite Miletus, 
landed at Panormus. They attacked Chalcideus, the Lacedemonian and killed him and all that 
were with him. They returned from there 3 days later and erected a monument in memory of 
what they had done. Because this was done by those who did not control the country, the 
Milesians demolished it. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1318. In the end of the summer, the Athenians with 1500 soldiers and 1000 men from Argos and 
many of their other confederates sailed to Samos with 48 ships commanded by Phrynichus and 
Onomacles and Saronidas. From there they sailed for Miletus and positioned their army before 
the city. 800 Milesian soldiers attacked them, Alcibiades, with those whom Chalcideus had 
brought from Peloponesus and certain soldiers. These came from a foreign nation which 
followed Tissaphernes and were commanded by Tissaphernes. The Argivi which led the van in 
the wing where they were, trusting too much in their valour and were routed by the Milesians. 
The Ionians were held in contempt by the Argivi. They lost 300 men but eventually the 
Athenians won the battle. They set up a monument in the field and besieged the city on that 
peninsula. When news came that a fleet from Sicily and Peloponesus was heading that way, they 
followed the advice of Phrynicus and withdrew to Samos. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1319. When the fleet came with the ships of Chios which had formerly been beaten by 
Chalcideus, they were asked by Tissaphernes to attack Jasos. Here lived Amorges the bastard 
son of Pisluthnes, (who had revolted form the king). The Peloponesians under the command of 
Astyochus the admiral to whom Theramenes a Lacedemonian had brought that fleet and the 
Syracusans (who were very courageous under their general Hermocrates) suddenly attacked the 
Jasians and took the city. The Jasians incorrectly thought that these were friends. The 
Peloponesians took Amorges alive and gave him to Tissaphernes to be sent to Darius, if he 
pleased. They sacked the city of Jasos, which through a long peace was quite prosperous and 
took much spoil. The mercenaries hired by Amorges were spared because most of them were 
Peloponesians. They enlisted them for their own service. The town was handed over to 
Tissaphernes with all its people. Everyone was redeemed by paying half a crown. They returned 
to Miletus and they accompanied overland Paedaritus, who was sent by the Lacedemonians as 
governor for Chios and the mercenaries of Amorges. They went as far as Erythrae and left 
Philippus, governor of Miletus. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 



3592d AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC 

1320. The next winter after Tissaphernes had put a garrison in Jasos, he came to Miletus and 
there according to a promise made at Lacedemon paid them and their mercenaries their wages. 
This was an Athenian drachma for each one. He bargained with them for the same wage for 
future service. 

1321. Astyochus the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet with 10 ships of Lacedemon and as 
many of Chios sailed to Clazomenae when the seige of the city Pteleum failed. There he ordered 
all who favoured the Athenians to leave and live at Daphnus. Tamos the governor of Ionia gave 
similar orders. When they refused, he attacked the unwalled town. He was unsuccessful and left. 
He encountered a violent storm at sea. He came safely to Phocaea and Cuma but the rest of his 
ships were driven ashore on the isles lying opposite Clazomenae, Marathusa, Pela and 
Drymissa. They stayed here for 8 days because of the storm. They spoiled the goods which the 
Clazomenians had transported there for fear of the war. The rest of the goods they put on board 
their ships and carried them to Astyochus at Phocaea and Cuma. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1322. The same winter Hippocrates of Lacedemon set sail for Cnidus from Peloponesus with 10 
Thurian ships under the command of Dorieus and two others commissioned with him, one of 
Laconica and another of Syracuse. Cnidus had revolted from Tissaphernes. When the Milesians 
heard this, they sent to Hippocrates and asked him to leave one half of his ships at a garrison at 
Cnidus and to go with the rest and raid ships laden with cargo from Egypt. These ships lay at 
Priopium which is a cape of Cnidea. When the Athenians heard of this, they went from Samos 
and surprised the six ships which lay at Trippium to guard those places. However, the sailors 
escaped, and the Athenians found only empty ships. They came to Cnidus and almost took it by 
surprise when they attacked it. It was an unwalled town. They decided to wait and attack again 
the next day. The Cnidians cast up some earth works about the town that night. Also they were 
joined by those who were forced ashore at Triopium. When they saw it would be harder than 
ever to take the town, they plundered the country and returned to Samos. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

3593a AM, 4302 JP, 412 BC 

1323. When the Spartans evaluated the league between Chalcideus and Tissaphernes, they 
thought it a bit unfair to them. They drew up another one between the Lacedemonians and their 
confederates on the one side and Darius, his sons and Tissaphernes on the other. This was in 
clearer terms than the former one and was subscribed in the presence of Theramenes of 
Lacedemon. When Theramenes gave the command of the navy to Astyoctus, be boarded a little 
boat and left. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1324. Pharnabasus, the governor for the king in Hellespont, had previously sent Calligetus of 
Megara and Timagoras of Cyzicum to Sparta asking for ships. This was granted. 27 ships were 
sent under the command of Antisthenes, a Lacedemonian, in the middle of winter from 
Peloponesus into Ionia. The Lacedemonians also sent 1 1 commissioners of theirs (one was 
Lycas, the son of Arcesilaus) to advise Astyochus in the management of this war. After they 
came to Miletus, they were ordered to send some or all of these 27 ships to Pharnabazus in the 
Hellespont. Clearchus would be made commander of this fleet. If they saw cause, they could put 
Antishenes in charge of the navy instead of Astyochus. He was under suspicion by Pedaritus 
who had letters against him. These commissioners sailed from Malea, a port in Peloponesus and 



first came to the island of Melus. They sailed widely around it to avoid the enemy and landed at 
Caunus in Asia. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1325. When Astyochus came to Cnidus, he quickly left it to meet the Athenian fleet which 
waited for the Peloponesian ships coming from Caunius. The Athenians won the first battle here 
but when they lost the second one they retired and came to Halicarnassus. The victorious 
Peloponesians returned to Cnidus. After this the Athenians sailed to an island called Sima where 
they were soundly defeated. They dared not attack the Lacedemonian navy which lay at Cnidus 
but took only some tackle and baggage from Sima. When they attacked Lorymae on the 
continent, they returned again to Samos. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1326. When all the Peloponesian navy of 94 ships met at Cnidus, the 1 1 commissioners 
discussed with Tissaphernes matters already transacted. They looked for any fault in it and 
planned how the war for the future might be carried on for the best advantage on both sides. 
Lichas said that in view of what had happened, that neither of the two leagues which were made 
with Theramenes were as they should be. They could not tolerate that the king should hold onto 
all those countries which he or his ancestors had held previously. He said for this reason that all 
the islands, all Thessaly, Locri and all Baeothia must again be under the king's authority. The 
Lacedemonians, instead of freeing the Greek cities would enslave them to the power of the 
Persians more than ever. Therefore, they should form of a new league between them or abandon 
this one and never ask nor receive stipend more of the king of Persia according to the previous 
leagues. Tissaphernes grew angry, tore up the treaty and went his way. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1327. Letters came from the Peloponesians to Astiochus that he should remove Alcibiades as 
admiral. He was under suspicion and he was a professed enemy of Agis the king of Lacedemon. 
When Alcibiades heard about this, he fled secretly to Tissaphernes, he persuaded him not to pay 
so much for the Peloponesian navy but rather hold matters in a balance. This way neither the 
Athenians or the Spartans would win the war. When each side had been exhausted by warfare, 
they would more easily be brought under the king's control. Pisander with ten ambassadors from 
Athens entreated Tissaphernes and Alcibiades for terms that would benefit both states. 
However, Alcibiades in the name of Tissaphernes made such demands, they thought to abandon 
all discussion and do nothing even though they yielded to many of them. He demanded that they 
should surrender into the king's hands all Ionia and its adjacent islands. When they agreed, he 
then demanded that the king could make as many ships as he pleased and sail them where he 
pleased whenever he wanted to. When the Athenians knew that these demands were intolerable 
and they were being abused by Alcibiades, they broke off the talks in a rage and returned to 
Samos. (Thucid. 1. 8) 

3593b AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC 

1328. Toward the end of this winter, Tissaphernes went to Caunus and planned to recall the 
Lacedemonian commissioners back to Miletus and pay them lest the Spartans become his 
enemies too. When they came he paid them all their arrears and made a third league with them. 
It stated: 

vv In the 13th year of the reign of Darius, when Alexipidas was Ephorus, i.e. agreements were 
made, in the field of Maander, between the Lacedemonians and their confederates on the one 
side and Tissaphernes and Hieramenes and the sons of Pharnacus on the other, concerning the 



affairs of the king and of the Lacedemonians and their confederates. It stated that whatever 
country in Asia is the king's that let him hold it still and of his own countries let him dispose as 
he will, &c." 

1329. But concerning the payment of their yearly stipend it was thus agreed: 

vv That Tissaphernes should pay the fleet that was there, till the king's ships came. After they 
were come then the Lacedemonians and their confederates would maintain their navy if they 
wished. If they would rather have a stipend for it, then Tissaphernes should furnish it, but on the 
condition that at the end of the war they should refund all the money which they had 
received," (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1330. From this we may gather the full meaning of what Justin, (1. 5. 1.) more concisely stated: 

vv Darius the king of Persians, making a league with the Lacedemonians by Tissaphernes, his 
governor of Lydia, promised to bear all the charge of the war." 

1331. In the very beginning of the next summer which began the 21st year of the Poloponesian 
war, Decylidas, a Lacedemonian was sent from Miletus overland with a small company into 
Hellespont. He was to stir up the city of Abydus which was a colony of the Milesians to rebel 
against the Athenians. First this city, then two days later Lampsacus defected from Athens to 
Decylides and Pharnabazus. 

1332. When Strombychides heard this news, he sailed from Chios to Lesbos with 24 Athenian 
ships. When the Lesbians attacked him, he routed them and took the unwalled town on the first 
assault. When he settled matters there, he went to Abydus. When they repulsed his attack, he 
sailed to Sestos and placed a strong garrison there to defend all of the Hellespont. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1333. The whole navy of the Athenians came together at Samos, they entered a covenant with 
the Samians to join in restoring the democratic state in Athens and to abolish the newly 
appointed junta of 400. They bound themselves with a solemn oath to do this and appointed 
Thrasibulus and Thraiyllus as captains for this purpose. They consulted about calling home 
Alcibiades hoping by his means to make Tissaphernes stop supporting the Lacedemonian party 
and to gain the king's favour for their side. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1334. Among the seamen of the Peloponesians who were at Miletus, there was a general dislike 
for Tissaphernes and Astyachus. When the Spartans were a strong naval force and the Athenians 
weak, he would never fight with the Athenians nor to this day would. Although he knew of the 
divisions among the Athenians, he would not help the Lacedemonian navy. Tissaphernes was 
disliked for he did not send for the navy of the Phoenicians as he promised. Nor did he pay them 
their wages except when he pleased and then only a portion and not the full amount. Therefore 
they wanted the matter decided in battle. Astyochus and his confederates commanded the 
Milesians to march overland to the cape of Micale while they went by sea with the whole fleet 
of 1 12 ships to the same place. When the Athenians whose 82 ships were anchored at Glauca 
near Micale saw the fleet coming, they weighed anchor and sailed as fast as they could to 
Samos. When Strombichides with his fleet heard of this, he hastened to come from Hellespont to 
help the Athenians. The Peloponesians withdrew and returned to Miletus. The Athenians now 
had 108 ships, all strong and well equipped. They followed them home to Miletus. They landed 



and arranged their army in the open field. When the Peloponesians would not come, they sailed 
back to Samos without attacking anything. After this the Peloponesians saw they were no match 
for the Athenian navy. Neither could they pay so many seamen, especially when Tissaphernes, 
was so churlish in sending in their payment according to agreement. They sent Clearchus away 
with 40 of their ships into Hellespont to Pharnabasus who earnestly desired their coming and 
promised to pay them very liberally (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

3593c AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC 

1335. When Thrasybulus left Tissaphernes, he brought back Alcibiades with him to Samos. The 
army made him one of their chief commanders and committed everything under his direction. 
When he was made commander of the Athenian army, he sailed back to Tissaphernes so that he 
might tell him everything. He handled matters so cunningly to his own advantage so that he 
could make the Athenians afraid of Tissaphernes and Tissaphernes of them at his pleasure. 
(Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1336. This had a disastrous effect on the morale of the Peloponesians who were anchored at 
Miletus. They hated Tissaphernes more than ever so that they began to mutiny again against him 
and Astyochus. They now charged him with collusion with Tissaphernes for his own personal 
advantage. The sailors from Syracuse and Thurii demanded in a very saucy and mutinous 
manner that Astyochus pay them. When he replied roughly and threatened to imprison Doricus 
the commander of the Thurian squadron for supporting his sailors, they rioted and rushed upon 
him. (The Greek scholiast of Thucidides, understand that Hermocrates, commander of the 
Syracuse squadron is meant, not Doricus.) He would have been killed had he not fled to a 
nearby altar. The Milesians got secretly into the fort which Tissaphernes had built and expelled 
the garrison of soldiers and took over the fort. This action was well received by the rest except 
for Lychas the Lacedemonian. He said that the Milesians and the rest under the king's authority 
ought to obey Tissaphernes so long as he governed so moderately as he did and until the war 
would be over. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1337. While they were busy in this altercation, Pindarus arrived who was sent from Lacedemon 
to succeed Astyochus in the command of the navy. After Astyochus had given him command, 
he sailed home to Lacedemon. Tissaphernes sent Gauletes, his messenger along with him. 
Although he was born in Caria he spoke both the Greek and Persian language. He was to charge 
the Milesians for the surprise attack on his citadel and to clear him from those false accusations 
which the Milesians and Hermocrates of Syracuse had made. Tissaphernes knew that the 
Milesians would accuse him for conspiring with Alcibiades against the Lacedemonians. 

1338. Tissaphernes saw that the Peloponesians were against him. Among other things they did 
not like when he allowed Alcibiades to return to his own people again since he now openly 
favoured the Athenians. Tissaphernes went to Aspendus where the Phoenician fleet of 147 ships 
had come. To clear himself, he took Lichas the Lacedemonian along with him, leaving his agent 
Tamos with them to ensure the wages were paid to the Peloponesian navy. Moreover the 
Peloponesians at the request of Tissaphernes, sent Philippus a Lacedemonian, with two ships to 
Aspendus to see the Phoenician fleet. When Alcibiades learned that Tissaphernes was at 
Aspendus, he came with 13 ships to Caunus first and then to Phaselis. Everywhere he promised 
his friends many supplies and all kinds of help. When he returned to Samos, he informed them 
that he had so arranged matters so that the Phoenician fleet would not assist the Peloponesians 
and Tissaphernes had now become more friendly to the Athenians than ever. It was true that 



Tissaphernes met with the Phoenicians at Aspendus, but would not let any ship go to the 
Peloponesians. He put them off with this weak excuse that not as many ships came to him as the 
king had commanded. However his purpose was to hold both parties of the Greeks in suspense. 
By siding with neither he hoped to make them destroy each other. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1339. The junta of 400 at Athens was dissolved and replaced by 5000. The new government 
ratified the recalling of Alcibiades home into his country. (Thucid. 1. 8.) By the same order he 
was joined in his commission by Thrasybulus and Theramenes although they were absent at the 
time. Hence by the valour and virtue of the new government, the Athenian state was in a short 
time, greatly reformed and brought into a better order than ever before. (Emil. Prob. in the life of 
Aleibiades.) 

1340. While the Peloponesians waited at Miletum, none of those whom Tissaphernes had left 
behind when he went for Aspendus took care to pay the navy. Neither did Tissaphernes himself 
pay them nor did the fleet come which he had promised. Both Philippus, who was sent with 
Tissaphernes to Aspendus and Hipposcrates from Phaselis wrote to Mindarus, who had the 
charge of the navy that he should not expect any ships or anything else of value from 
Tissaphernes. On the contrary, Pharnabazus, who served the king in these parts of Hellespont, 
showed them all the favour and friendship that they could imagine. For he solicited their coming 
and of his own accord incited all the Greek cities within his province, to defect from the 
Athenians (which Tissaphernes would have seemed to do too) hoping thereby to increase his 
own power. Mindarus was bothered by this news and made ready instantly 72 ships. He gave the 
word that they should leave suddenly so that the Athenians at Samos would not find out. He left 
Miletus and sailed straight to Hellespont. When Thrasyllus heard of this, he followed him from 
Samos with 55 ships. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1341. Mindarus and the Syracuse squadron had a fierce naval battle with Thrasyllus and 
Thrasybulus at the cape of Cynos-sema (a place known by old Hecubae's tomb). The Athenians 
won losing only 15 ships but captured 21 of the enemies' ships. For more details see: (Thucid. 1. 
8., Diod. Sic. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.) 

1342. The Athenians repaired their fleet as best they could. On the 4th day after this fight they 
sailed from Sestos to Cyzicum which had revolted from them. When they saw 8 ships at 
Harpagium and Priapus which came from Byzantium, they attacked them. When they had 
beaten those who defended the ships from the shore, they captured the ships for their own use. 
They sailed to the unwalled town of Cyzicum and captured it and extorted a large sum of money 
from them. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

3593d AM, 4303 JP, 411 BC 

1343. Alcibiades sailed from Samos with 22 ships and exacted large sums of money from those 
of Halycarnasius. He destroyed the country of Cos and fortified the town of Cos with a wall. 
Since winter was now approaching, he returned with much spoil to Samos. (Thucid. 1. 8., Diod. 
2nd year of 92nd Olympiad) 

1344. Astacus a Persian and lieutenant to Tissaphernes conceived a secret deadly hatred against 
the men of Delos. These were driven out of their old habitation and dwelt at Atramytrium. When 
he came that way, he sent for all the chief men among them as friends and confederates to come 



and serve the king in his wars. At the time when they were altogether eating dinner, he 
surrounded them with his soldiers and they killed everyone with their darts. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1345. Those of Antandrus in Eolia feared lest Astacus would do the same to them. They also 
disliked the heavy taxes which he imposed on them. Therefore, they sent for some Peloponesian 
soldiers from Abydus. They brought them secretly over Mount Ida into their city and expelled 
the garrison of Astacus from the citadel. (Thucid. 1. 8.) 

1346. Tissaphernes returned from Aspendus into Ionia and was greatly disturbed by this last 
attempt of Antandrus and with others of Miletus and Cnidus. There the inhabitants expelled his 
garrisons also. He thought himself wronged by the Poloponesians. Therefore, he feared worse 
things from them and was troubled lest Pharnabazus in a shorter time and with far less cost 
should seem to have done more against the Athenians than he had done. Therefore he planned to 
go in person to the Poloponesians in Hellespont to reason with them concerning their expelling 
his garrison from Antandrus and to clear himself from the charges against him concerning the 
Phoenician fleet and other matters. As soon as he was come to Ephesus, he sacrificed to Diana. 
(Thucid. 1. 8. in fi.) Here ends the History of Thucidides which Theopompus continues for 17 
more years and Xenophon for 48 years after that. (Diod. 2nd year of 92nd Olympiad.) The 
writings of Theopompus are lost but the latter we do have partially preserved for us. Besides the 
poem of his history, we lack the first two years of it. That is from the end of the summer of the 
21st year of the Peloponesian war where Thucidides left off, to the end of the 23rd summer of 
the same war. 

3594 AM, 4304 JP, 410 BC 

1347. Concerning the 300 ships sent back to Phoenicia, Tissaphernes cleared himself with the 
Lacedemonians by saying that he had received news that the coast of Phoenicia was in danger of 
attack by the Arabians and the king of Egypt (meaning king Amyrteus) (as Diod. Sic. has it, 3rd 
year of the 93rd Olympiad.) However, Thucidides states that there only came 147 ships to 
Aspendus from Phoenicia and that they were all sent back again by Tissaphernes contrary to his 
promise. 

3595c AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC 

1348. There was another naval battle between the Lacedemonians and Athenians at Cynos- 
sema. This was described by Theopompus, as a certain nameless Greek writer says, in the life of 
Thucidides. 

3595d AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC 

1349. Thymochares came to Athens with a small fleet of ships. There was another naval battle 
between the Lacedemonians and Athenians. The Lacedemonians under the command of 
Hegesandridus won. (Xen. in the beginning of his History of the Greeks. 1. 1.) 

1350. Not long after this in the beginning of winter, Dorieus, the admiral of the Thurian fleet 
from Italy sailed with 14 ships from Rhodes to the Hellespont to meet Mindarus. He was at 
Abydus for a meeting of all the friends and confederates of the Peloponesian nation. When 



Dorieus had sailed as far as Sigeum, a port in Troas, the Athenian navy at Sestos found out 
about his trip and destination. They sailed toward him with 20 ships. When Dorieus heard of 
their coming, he fled from there and beached his ships on the Rhaetaean shore. When he landed 
his men, with the help of the men of Dardania, they warded off an Athenian attack. When the 
Athenians saw that they could not prevail, they sailed back to Madytus to join the rest of their 
army. Mindarus who at that time happened to be at old Troy sacrificing to Minerva, saw this 
battle. He raced with 84 ships to the cape of Dardania to meet Dorieus and to save his ships. He 
also found the army of Pharnabazus ready to help the Lacedemonian navy against their enemies. 
The Athenian fleet of 74 ships came close to the shore of Abydus and there started a naval 
battle. Mindarus commanded 97 ships besides those of Dorieus. He placed the Syracusians in 
the left wing and he took the right wing. On the other side, Thrasybulus had the right wing and 
Thrasyllus the left. The fight lasted from morning to evening, neither side winning. Suddenly 
Alcibiades came sailing in with 18 fresh ships from Samos headed towards the Hellespont. 
When the Lacedemonians saw this, they fled towards Abydus. The Athenians chased them and 
captured 10 of their ships. A violent storm arose which prevented the Athenians from finishing 
off their enemies. The Peloponesians all escaped safely to shore and fled to the army of 
Pharnabazus that was there. During the battle, Pharnabazus rode his horse into the sea up to its 
saddle-skirts and fought. He commanded his army to do likewise. The Peloponesians locked 
their ships close together into one mass and fought against their enemies from the decks close to 
the shore. When the night was drawing on, the Athenians returned to Samos with 30 empty 
ships which they had captured and there own fleet including the damaged ships. The next 
morning as soon as it was light, they gathered what spoils they could from the wrecked ships of 
their enemies. They erected a monument to the event and then left 40 ships to guard the 
Hellespont. The rest of the fleet was assigned to various destinations. Some gathered their 
tribute money. One of their chief captains, Thrasyllus, sailed back to Athens to let them know 
what a victory they had. He desired a supply of men and shipping for the carrying on of the war 
in those parts. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. Diod. Sic. 1. 13. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades.) 

1351. About the first watch of the night, Mindarus went back to the seaside, and gave orders for 
repairing his ships which were damaged in the battle. He sent in all haste to Lacedemon for 
fresh supplies both by land and sea. While this was happening he planned to join his army with 
Pharnabazus to capture the tributary cities of the Athenians, that were in Asia. (Diod. Sic. 1. 13.) 

3596a AM, 4305 JP, 409 BC 

1352. In the mean time, Tissaphernes came into the Hellespont. Alcibiades planned to magnify 
himself after so glorious a victory over the Lacedemonians. He came to Tissapernes with rich 
presents and a princely train. Tissaphernes was in ill repute with the Lacedemonians and feared 
lest some accusation would be made against him to Darius. He laid hold on Alcibiades and put 
him in irons at Sardis. He pretended that this was the king's command and to show that he 
counted the Athenians as enemies. Within a month, he escaped with a fellow prisoner, 
Manitheus of Caria. He got horses and they escaped by night to Clazomenae. They let on that it 
was with the consent of Tissaphernes. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. Plutarch in Alcibia.) 

3596b AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC 

1353. Toward the end of winter, Mindarus with 60 ships went to Cyzicum and joined with the 
army of Pharnabus. They captured Cyzicum by force. 86 ships under the command of 
Alcibiades, Thrasybulus and Theramenes attacked him. Mindarus was first routed at sea and 



then in a second fight on land in which Mindarus fought bravely and was killed. When the 
troops from Syracuse saw no means of escape, they set their own ships on fire. The rest of the 
fleet was captured by the Athenians who sailed them all to Proecannesus. This fight is more 
fully described (by Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. by Diod. Sic. 1. 13. by Plutarch in the Life of 
Alcibiades and by Polyanin, Stratag. 1.1.) 

1354. The next day, the Athenians sailed from Proeconnesus to Cyzicum and they were received 
into the city which was abandoned by Pharnabazus and the Peloponesians. (Xenoph.) There they 
erected two monuments, the one for their victory at sea at the isle of Polydorus and the other for 
that on land where they first put the enemies to flight. (Diod. Sic.) 

1355. Alcibiades stayed at Cyzicum 20 days. When he had extracted a vast sum of money from 
them, he departed without doing them any harm and returned to Proeconnesus. (Xenoph.) 

1356. The commanders of the Athenians which remained behind at Cyzicum, came at length to 
Chalcedon, There they walled Chrysopolis and made it a place to gather tolls from every ship 
that passed by from Pontus. (Xenphon Hellen. 1. 1. Polyb. 1. 4. p. 312. Diod. Sic. 4th year of 
92nd Olympiad) They left a garrison and a fleet of 30 ships there under the command of 
Theramenes and Eubulus. This was to keep the town, to watch what ships came in and out at the 
mouth of Pontus and to do what mischief they could to the enemy. (Xenoph.) 

1357. The Athenians intercepted letters written concisely from Hippocrates, the lieutenant of 
Mindarus to Lacedemon to the Ephori concerning the loss they had sustained at Cyzicum. It 
said: 

VV A11 is lost. Mindarus is dead. Our men starve. We know not what to do." (Xenoph. and 
Plutarch.) 

1358. The Lacedemonians sued for peace which was opposed by those who made a living from 
the war. (Justin. 1. 5. c. 4.) For though the moderates of the Athenians were inclined to peace yet 
those who made their living by it chose to continue the war. Cleophon was one of the principal 
leaders of this latter group. He had spoken many proper things. Diod. Sic. elegantly expresses it: 

vv He made the people proud by recounting to them the greatness of their good successes, as if 
fortune did not bestow her favours in the war by turns." 

1359. Cleophon with his fiery speeches stirred up the people to a carry on the war, though to his 
own shame later. He made lyres and it was common knowledge that he had been a slave and 
kept in irons. Later by various devices came to live in Athens. At this time, he won the people 
over to him by his munificence and grew so bold as to openly profess: 

vv that he would with his own hand cut off that man's head whomever he were, that would offer 
to speak any more of a peace" 

1360. This is according to Eschines in his Oration, De false legation, i.e. of a false embassy. 

1361. The Peloponesians and their confederates from Syracuse and as many as had escaped 



alive from the fight, went to Pharnabazus. He courteously entertained and comforted them. 
(Diod. Sic. 1. 13) He said they should not be discouraged by the loss of a few wooden ships 
since the king had more than enough wood in his kingdom to build more ships. The main thing 
was that the men were safe. He gave every man a new suit of clothes and two months pay in 
advance. He armed the sailors and placed garrisons all along the sea coast of his government. He 
assembled all the commanders of cities, and captains of every ship and ordered them to build as 
many new ships at Antandrus, as they had lost. He paid for this and allowed them to use timber 
from the mount Ida. When this was done, he sent to relieve Chalcedon. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) 

3596c AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC 

1362. While this navy was being built, the men of Syracuse joined with the inhabitants of 
Antandrus and built a wall around the town. They greatly fortified the place. In return the 
Antandrians gave the Syracusians free use of their city. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) 

1363. The captains of these troops from Syracuse were exiled by their country men at home. 
Their general Hermocrates, accused Tissaphernes at Lacedemon and they believed him and also 
the testimony of Astyochus. Hermocrates returned to Pharnabazus and without even asking he 
received from him a large sum of money. When he procured men and ships, he returned into his 
own country. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. with Diod. Sic. 4th year of 92nd Olympiad.) 

1364. Parasippidas was condemned to be exiled to Sparta, because it was thought that by his 
plotting with Tissaphernes, he had procured all that favoured the Lacedemonian party. In a riot 
at the isle of Thasus he was expelled. Cratesippidas was sent to replace him and take charge of 
the navy at Chios. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) 

1365. With 25 ships he wasted his time about the coast of Ionia and did nothing worth the 
speaking of for a long time. Later when he was paid by the exiles from Chios, he brought them 
home again. He routed out the 600 of the opposing faction. These lived at Atarneum, the most 
fortified place on the continent opposite Chios and made daily attacks on them from there. 
(Diod. Sic. 4th year of the 92nd Olymiad) 

3596d AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC 

1366. In the 93rd Olympiad, Eubotas the Cyrenian won the prize in running. Archippus was the 
Ephorus at Lacedemon. Euctemon was the Archon at Athens. There was a new game introduced 
in the Olympics. It was a race by a team of mules pulling a coach, called EugwqizA or sugwqiz, 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) (Diod. Sic. 1. 13.) (Pausan. 1. 1.) (Eliac. Julius Africanus in Catalog. 
Stadionicarum) Africanus adds that in the same Olymnpiad, Polydamantes the Seotussian won 
the prize at wrestling. He was the same man whom Darius Nothus sent for by messengers with 
large gifts for him to come to him at Susa. When he came he slew three of the king's guard, who 
were called the Immortal Guard. (Herod. 1. 7. c. 83.) These rushed in on him all at once 
according to Pausan in his later book Eliator. In the same book, he mentions Eubotas, surnamed 
Stadionicus, who when the Oracle of Ammon had foretold that he should win the prize at 
running, had his own statue made before hand. When he did win the prize, he dedicated his 
statue in testimony of this all in one day. 

1367. In this year, the Medes who had defected from Darius the king of the Persians, submitted 



to him again. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) Herodotus in the beginning of his History, (c. 130.) relates 
how the Medes revolted from Darius. They were defeated and again brought under his control. 
Because he makes mention of the war at Decelaea, (Herod. 1. 9. c. 71.) which was waged 5 years 
earlier and of Amyraeus' son reigning after him, (Herod. 1. 3. c. 15.) (of whom I shall speak 
more in the year following), I gather that he either wrote or at least revised his History in the 
very later end of the Peloponesian war. 

1368. In the beginning of the summer, Thrasyllus at Athens, took command of the ships 
committed to his charge with 5000 sailors. These were all armed as targeteers and he was to join 
with those other targeteers at Samos. When he had stayed there 3 days, he sailed to the coast of 
Pygega in Ionia. He first wasted the country in that area. He came at last with his army before 
the wall of the town. When some reinforcements came from Miletus, they attacked the lightly 
armed Athenians who were busy gathering the spoil from the country. The rest of the Athenians 
came to relieve their troops, and killed most of the Milesians. They gathered 200 of their 
bucklers from the slain and erected a monument with them. The next day they sailed to Notium 
and there took on supplies. They sailed to Colophas which presently yielded to them. The next 
night they entered into Lydia when their grain was almost ripe. They set many villages on fire. 
While they were scattered here and there and minded nothing but their plundering, Stages, a 
Persian, (the same Tages, as it should seem, which I mentioned before in the year of the world, 
3592 from Thucidides) attacked them with his horse and took one prisoner, and slew seven of 
them. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) 

1369. When Tissaphernes understood that Thrasyllus was ready to set sail for Ephesus to attack 
it by surprise, he gathered all the troops he could find. He sent about messengers into all parts, to 
order men to come in and defend Diana of the Ephesians. When Thrasyllus had spent 17 days in 
Lydia, he set sail for Ephesus. He landed his foot soldiers at Coressus, but the cavalry, targeteers 
and all the other soldiers, he landed on shore near a bog on the other side of the town. As soon 
as it was light, they approached the town in two companies. The troops in the town with the 
reinforcements Tissaphernes had sent them first attacked the foot solders who were at Coressus. 
They had routed them and pursued them to the seaside killing 100 men. After this they returned 
quickly and attacked those who were located near the bog. When they routed the Athenians and 
killed 300 of them, they erected one monument there and another at Coressus. Concerning their 
reinforcements, they highly rewarded the companies from Syracuse and Selinuntia because they 
behaved most valiantly. They promised freedom from taxes for ever to those that were expelled 
from their home city. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) Plutarch also in the Life of Alcibiades mentions a 
brass monument set up to mock the Athenian nation. 

1370. After a truce was made, the Athenians received the bodies of their slain and buried them 
at Notium. They sailed away to Lesbos and Hellespont. When they anchored at Methymna, a 
city of Lesbos, they spied 25 ships of the Syracusians with whom they fought at Ephesus. They 
attacked them and took 4 ships with all the men in them and routed the rest. They pursued them 
as far as Ephesus. Thrasyllus sent all the prisoners which he had taken to Athens, except for 
Alcibiades an Athenian, first cousin to Alcibiades and a banished man. These two were 
executed. They sailed for Sestus where the army was. From Sestus the whole army went to 
Lampsacus for the winter which they reckon from the beginning of autumn. When Alcibiades at 
Lampsacus wanted to create one large army, his soldiers refused to be mixed with those who 
had served under Thrasyllus. They said: 

"We who have ever been conquerors, to be counted with those that were beaten and routed but 



the other day." (Xen. Hellen. 1.) 
3597a AM, 4306 JP, 408 BC 

1371. When Alcibiades and Thrasyllus troops had wintered together at Lampsacus, (Diodorus 
writes, "Labdacus") had fortified the area. They went to besiege Abydus. Pharnabazus came 
with a very great army to relieve it. He fought with the Athenians and was routed. Alcibiades 
chased Pharnabazus with his cavalry and 120 foot soldiers following him. He did not stop the 
chase until late in the night. After this victory, the whole army became friends and mixed with 
each other. They returned triumphantly into their camp from where they set out. 

1372. The next day Alcibiades set up a monument and went and wasted Pharnabazus' province 
with fire and sword without any opposition. All the priests which he took, he let go free without 
a ransom. (Plutarch in Life of Alcibiades) 

1373. When the Lacedemonians were upset with Tissaphernes, they sent Boeotius and other 
ambassadors with him to Darius. Boeotius easily obtained from Darius all that they ever wanted. 
(Xen. Hellen. 1. 1.7.) 

1374. In the same winter Alcibiades and Thrasyllus armies attacked various countries that 
belonged to Darius on the continent and reeked havock there. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 1. 7.) 

3597b AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC 

1375. Darius put his 16 year old son Cyrus the younger in charge of all the sea coast. He was 
born after his father became king. (Ctesias affirms this and Plutarch also in the Life of 
Artaxerxes.) He had the title of satrap or governor of all those countries. He headed the army 
that was in the plain of Castolus in Lydia. He was ordered to join with the Lacedemonians in 
fighting the Athenians. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 1. 7.) (Expedit. Cyri. 1. 1. in instio.) Justin (Justin, 1. 5. c. 
5.) from Trogus, says, 

vv Darius king of Persia made his younger son Cyrus governor of all Ionia and Lydia. It was he 
who restored the Lacedemonians to former strength." 

1376. Diodorus expressly states that Darius sent his son Cyrus to this very end, that in pursuing 
the war against the Athenians, he should relieve and help the Lacedemonians. (1st year of the 
93rd Olympiad.) He also correctly states that Cyrus was made commander of all the governors 
by the sea coast (2nd year of the 94th Olympiad.) and (in the 2nd year of the same Olympiad) 
that he was made commander-in-chief, over all the provinces lying on the sea coast. It is 
obvious that both Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus though both satraps and governors of their 
provinces were both under his command. 

1377. We read in Euseb. Chron. that after Amyrtaeus of Sois, Nepherites the king of a new 
dynasty succeeded him in the kingdom of Egypt. However we find, (Diod. Sic. 1st year 
Olympiad 95) that next before Nephereus or Nepherites, Psammitichus reigned in Egypt. He 
was descended of the family of that old Psammetichus whom Manetho places in the 26th 
Dynasty who was also of the Sais. {*Manetho, 1:169} So that a man may well doubt, whether 



this was not Pausiris the son of Amyrtaeus, who by the help of the Persians recovered his 
father's kingdom, as Herodotus states. (Herod. 1. 3. c. 5.) Concerning the number of this and 
other Egyptian kings' reigns, we have already discussed in our Egyptian Chronology. 

3597c AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC 

1378. In the beginning of the spring when Pantacles was Ephorus in Sparta and Antigenes 
Archon in Athens had held office for a year, the Athenians with all the forces they could gather, 
sailed into Proeconnesus. They left there and camped before Chalcedon. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) 
Diodor. says that they went to Theramenes, who at that time lay before Chalcedon with 70 ships 
and 5000 men. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 92.) 

1379. When the inhabitants of Chalcedon heard of the approach of the Athenian army, they sent 
away all their goods to the Thracians of Bithynia who were their neighbours. When Alcibiades 
heard of this, he went with all his cavalry and a part of his foot soldiers and demanded all those 
goods from them. He threatened force if they refused to deliver them. When he received these 
goods, he made peace with the Bithynians and returned to his camp before Chalcedon. He built 
a wooden wall before the city across the neck of land from sea to sea. When Hippocrates the 
Lacedemonian commander saw this, he gathered all his forces and fought with Thrasyllus. The 
battle was drawn for a great while until Alcibiades came in with his forces, both of cavalry and 
footmen. Hippocrates was killed and his men fled back into the city. While the fight continued, 
Pharnabazus and all his army came another way outside the wooden wall. He fought 
unsuccessfully to break through to rescue Hippocrates. He retired to Heracleum or the Temple 
of Hercules, which was in the territory of Chalcedon where his own camp was well entrenched. 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. and Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiadis.) 

3597d AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC 

1380. After this Alcibiades and Chersonesus went into the Hellespont to gather tribute. The rest 
of the commanders, (though Diodorus says, only Theramenes) came to an agreement with 
Pharnabazus concerning Chalcedon. He would give them 20 talents and would convoy the 
Athenian ambassadors safely to the king. By solemn oath they covenanted with each other that 
the men of Chalcedon would pay the Athenians the same tribute as they did before with all 
arrears. In the mean time, the Athenians would not bother Chalcedon, until the return of their 
ambassadors from the king and the return Alcibiades. They sent two commissioners from 
Chalcedon and Pharnabazus sent two more from Crysopolis. They swore to keep this covenant 
and pledged their support to each other. (Xenoph.) 

1381. When these things were done, Pharnabazus returned and wanted the ambassadors who 
were to go to the king, to meet him at Cyzicum. The names of the ambassadors were Dorothius, 
Philodices, Theogenes, Euryptolemus, Mautitheus and Cleostratus and Pyrolochus both from the 
Argivans. Passipedas and other ambassadors from the Lacedemonians also went. These all 
journeyed to the king. Hermocrates, who was banished from Syracuse and his brother Proxenus 
went with the group. (Xenoph.) 

1382. While Pharnabazus was escorting the ambassadors to the king, Clearchus, a 
Lacedemonian commander, came to him from across the sea. He wanted money to pay their 
army and to assemble the ships into a fleet that were scattered, some at Antandrus, some in 



Hellespont and some in other places. He hoped to cause trouble for the confederate states of the 
Athenians. He hoped to draw off their forces from Byzantium. In his absence, Byzantium was 
betrayed and surrendered to the Athenians. (Xenop.) 

1383. As these Athenian ambassadors were on their way to the king, they met Boeotius and the 
rest of the Lacedemonian ambassadors returning from the king. Cyrus was with them on his way 
to become governor of all the sea coasts of those parts. When they saw him they asked if they 
might safely continue their journey to the king and if not that they be allowed to return home 
safely. However, Cyrus ordered Pharnabazus either to turn over the ambassadors to him or to 
send them home again. Since Pharnabazus did not want the Athenians to know what was 
planned against them, he stalled for time. Sometimes he told them that he would take them to 
the king and sometimes that he would send them home again. So he delayed for three years (or 
rather, indeed of three months) and in the end by Cyrus' consent, he sent them home. (Xenop.) 

1384. Alcibiades took 20 ships from Samos and sailed into the Bay of Ceramus in Caria. He 
gathered 100 talents and pillaged no less than 200 ships which he had either searched or sunk. 
He returned to Athens where he was declared general of all their armies with full and absolute 
power of command and received 200 talents from of the treasury of the city, (according to 
Lysias, in his oration, against his son Alcibiades.) He raised an army of 1500 foot soldiers and 
150 cavalry with 100 ships. (Xephon, Hellen. 1. Diod. Sic. 1. 13. Justin. 1. 5. c. 4,5. Plutarch and 
Emil. Probus, in the Life of Alcibiades.) 

1385. Satyrus the son of Spartacus, ruled the kingdom of Bosphorus Cimmerius for 14 years. 
(Diod. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 96.) 

1386. The Lacedemonians replaced Cratesipidas their admiral when his term expired, by 
Lysander. When he came to Rhodes, he gathered the fleet there and sailed to the Isle of Cos and 
Miletus. From there he went to Ephesus with 70 ships and stayed there until Cyrus came to 
Sardis. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) Ephesus welcomed him and the Lacedemonians. They were 
grieved by the loss of trade caused by the Persians. The Persian governors stayed most often at 
Miletus and attracted all the trade from them to that city. Therefore Lysander made Ephesus his 
residence and ordered all merchant ships to unload there. He made docks and had all ships for 
the navy built there. In a short time he filled their port with ships and their city with commerce 
and wealth. (Plutarch, in the Life of Lysander.) 

1387. When Lysander knew that Cyrus came to Sardis, he and the rest of the commissioners 
from Sparta went there to him. He charged Tissaphernes very heavily. When the king ordered 
him to support the Lacedemonians to rid the sea of the Athenians, he on the contrary by 
Alcibiades' subordinate grew remiss. He kept back their pay from the mariners and utterly 
destroyed the Lacedemonian navy. Cyrus was more than willing to receive any information 
against Tissaphernes who was not a good fellow. Lysander befriended Cyrus. The more 
Lysander pressed Cyrus to do things, the bolder Cyrus was to promise that all would be done. 
Cyrus added that it was his father's command that it should be so and assured him that there 
would be no want either of effort or money on his part. For that purpose, he raised the pay of the 
mariners and sea soldiers from 3 soles by the day to 4. He paid the whole army all that was in 
arrears and advanced a whole month's pay. He paid to Lysander 10000 darics for that purpose. 
By this, he put heart and courage into his seamen more than ever and left the Athenian fleet 
almost without sailors for the most of their ships. Because of greed for better pay, they left the 
Athenians and went to Lysander. Those who stayed grew idle and careless in the service and 



mutinous and troublesome daily to their commanders. (Xenoph, Hellen. 1. 1. Diodor. 1. 13. and 
Plut. in the Life Lysander.) 

1388. When the Athenians heard this they were discouraged and through Tissaphernes, they sent 
ambassadors to Cyrus. Cyrus refused to see them even though Tissaphernes himself spoke for 
them. He told Cyrus that what he did, he did upon the advice of Alcibiades. His counsel was to 
hold the Greeks in balance and let neither side beat the other. Allow them to continue the war 
and by this to consume one another to nothing. (Id. ibid.) Although the Poloponesians were 
supported by the Persian purse, yet the Athenians held out for 3 whole years against them. 
(Thucid. 1. 2.) Who can wonder that the Athenian state was defeated and came to nought since 
the power of all the east helped in their destruction. (Justin. 1. 5. c. 1.) 

1389. Lysander returned to Ephesus and he rested for a while. In that time, 90 of his damaged 
ships were refurbished. (Xephon. Hellen. 1. ) He sent for the leaders from every nearby city and 
made an alliance with them. He assured them that if everything in this war went as he hoped, he 
would make everyone of them a prince with his own city. They were so enthused that every man 
was ready to do more than Lysander could reasonably require from them. He had more 
provisions for the war effort than he could have imagined. (Diod. 1. 13.) 

1390. When Alcibiades had heard that Thrasybulus was gone out of Hellespont to fortify 
Phocaea, he sailed to him. He left the fleet in the meantime, under the charge of Antiochus with 
a strict command that he should in no wise stir or fight with Lysander in his absence. However, 
Antiochus planned to sail to Ephesus with his own vessel and one other from Notium, as 
Xenophon and Plutarch state. (Diodorus says, that he selected 10 of his best ships.) He skirted 
along under the very noses of Lysander's ships. First, Lysander set out with a small company of 
ships and pursued him. When more and more ships came to help Antiochus, Lysander drew out 
his whole fleet and the Athenians did the same from Notium and other places. They arrived 
there in a disorderly way. They quickly lost 15 ships and the rest fled to saftey. Antiochus was 
killed in the fight. Lysander erected a monument at Notium and returned with the ships which he 
had taken to Ephesus. The remaining ships of the Athenians went to Samos. When Alcibiades 
heard what had happened, he went with his whole fleet before the port of Ephesus and there 
ranged it in battle array. Lysander did not stir for he had far fewer ships than the Athenians. 
Alcibiades returned to Samos again. (Xenoph. Helllen. 1. 1. Diodor. 1. 13. Plut. in the Lives of 
Alcibiades and Lysander.) 

1391. Alcibiades sailed from Samos to Cuma. He made many false charges against them and 
after he took many of them prisoners, he brought them aboard his ships. The Cumeans rallied 
and attacked their enemies. Alcibiades was able to hold them off until the rest of those in that 
area came to their aid. Alcibiades returned the prisoners and was forced to flee to his ships for 
safety. This bothered him so he sent for more troops to Mitylene. He drew his men forth in a 
battalion before the walls of Cuma and dared them to come out to battle. When no man stirred, 
he led his men back to Mitylene after he first ravaged the surrounding country. 

1392. The Cumeans sent to Athens and made their case against Alcibiades for plundering a 
confederate city and the surrounding area which had not offended the Athenians. When this case 
was made, others also complained about his conduct and misdeeds. A garrison in Samos, which 
did not like him, stole over to Athens and informed against him. They publicly charged him 
before the whole assembly of the people that he was dishonest and had secret communications 
with the Lacedemonians. They said he had private correspondence with Pharnabazus who 



assured him that if the Lacedemonians won, he would be made ruler of Athens. (Diod. 1. 13.) 
3598a AM, 4307 JP, 407 BC 

1393. The Cumeans on the one side and Thrasybulus on behalf of the armies on the other, 
accused Alcibiades of many wrong doings in his administration. Colon with 9 assistant 
commissioners were sent to replace Alcibiades as general of the army. When he heard of this, he 
sailed secretly to his own lands and citadels in the Chersonesus of Thrace, (Diodor. 1. 13 
Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. Plutarch in the Life of Alcibiades) 

3598b AM, 4308 JP, 406 BC 

1394. Lysander sent for men having leadership qualities from the nearby cities and asked them 
to make as many friends as he could and help him. He assured them as before that as soon as the 
Athenians were defeated, he would replace the democratic governments in all those cities and 
make each one of them a ruler in his own city. (Plut. in the Life of Lysander.) 

3598c AM, 4308 JP, 406 BC 

1395. The moon was eclipsed 3 hours after sunset (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1.) on the 15th of April, 
according to the Julian Calendar. This is verified by the astronomical calculations. 

1396. When Pityas was Ephorus at Sparta and Callias, Archon at Athens, Lysander's year of 
command expired. Callicratidas was sent to be admiral of the navy. Although Lysander hated 
him, he surrendered the command of the ships but he returned the money he had received from 
Cyrus for the navy, to Cyrus at Sardis. He told Callicratidas to go ask Cyrus if he could have it 
and see how he could get money to pay the navy. This forced Callicratidas to go to Lydia to 
Cyrus and get money for the navy. Since he was not well known, he quickly grew impatient 
waiting to see Cyrus. He was put off from day to day. He said the Greeks had come to a low 
estate if they must now stand begging for pay from a company of barbarians. He delivered his 
request and left. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. and Plut. in the Life of Lysander.) 

1397. Callicratidas sailed to Miletus and got the money from them for the navy. He sailed to 
Chios and took the citadel of Delphinium which was held by 500 Athenians and destroyed it. 
After he got more money there for the sailors, he went to Teos. He slipped into the town by 
night and sacked it. He came to Lesbos, where he took Methymna the chief city of the island. 
Conon, the Athenian, hurried to their rescue but arrived too late. When he came and found the 
situation hopeless, he began to sail away. Callicratidas chased him with his fleet of 170 ships. 
He attacked and defeated him. Conon lost 30 ships and fled with the 40 that were left to 
Mitylene. Callicratidas followed him there and blockaded him by sea and land. While he 
besieged Mitylene, Cyrus sent the money to him, he asked for. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 1. Diod. Sic. 
1. 13.) 

1398. The Athenian navy of 150 ships sailed to Mitylene to break the blockade. Callicratidas, 
left Eteonicus with 50 ships to continue the siege and he sailed with 120 ships to the Arginuse 
Islands which were between Malea, the bay of Lesbos and Cape Catanis in Asia. He attacked the 
Athenians and was killed. The Athenians won the battle but lost 25 ships and most of the crew. 



A few were saved by swimming to shore. The Peloponesians lost 77 ships and fled to Chios. 
Most of the remaining fleet retired into the countries of Curna and Phocea. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 
1. Diod. Sic. 1. 13.) This battle at the Arginuse Islands happened when Callias was Archon at 
Athens, the 3rd year of the 93rd Olympiad. This is confirmed by Xenophon and Diodorus. 
Atheneus affirms this in his 5th book, Delphosoph. 

3599 AM, 4309 JP, 405 BC 

1399. Cyrus killed his two first cousins, Autobezaces and Mitreus, the sons of his father Darius' 
sister. When they met him, they had not pulled in their hands within their sleeves. This honour 
was reserved for the king only. Hieramenes and his wife, the parents, as it seems, of those who 
were killed heard about this. They told Darius that it was a shame for him to ignore so foul a 
deed by his son. Therefore, Darius sent for his son to come to him pretending that he was sick. 
Darius was in his camp at Thamneria in the country of the Medes where he went with his army 
against the Cadusians, a bordering nation which had recently revolted from him. (Xenophon 
Hellen. 1. 2.) 

1400. The Lacedemonians who were scattered in the countries of Eolia and Ionia, met together 
at Ephesus. They sent messengers to Lacedemon to let them know how things went with them in 
Asia and to request that they might again have Lysander for their general. He had proved his 
worth in the previous year. Cyrus also joined with them in this request. Their law stated that the 
same man could not be twice admiral of their fleet. Therefore they gave the title of admiral to 
Aracus but committed the whole management of the war to Lysander as a lieutenant to Aracus. 
Lysander came to Ephesus and sent to Eteonicus to come to him with his ships from Chios. He 
was to gather from Peloponesus and other lands all the ships that he could. Lysander repaired 
those which he had and built new ones in the port at Antandrus. (Xenophon. Hellen. 1. 2. 
Diodorus in the 3rd and 4th years of the 93rd Olympiad. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.) 

1401. Lysander journeyed to Cyrus and desired money from him as before. He got it after much 
difficulty. Cyrus made it appear to him that because he was so generous to him in the past, he 
was short of funds. Lysander immediately appointed sea captains over every ship and paid every 
ship and sailor his due. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 2.) 

1402. When the Carthaginians captured Gela in Sicily, they took the huge brass statue of 
Apollo, which was in his temple in the suburbs of the city, back to Tyre. (Diod. year 4. 
Olympiad 93.) 

1403. When Cyrus received his father's message, he sent for Lysander to come unto him at 
Sardis. He did not want him to fight the Athenians at sea until he had a far larger fleet than he 
had now. He promised that when he returned he would bring with him a very great navy from 
Phoenicia Cilicia and other surrounding areas. He committed the care of all the cities of his 
government to Lysander. All tributes that belonged to him, he assigned to Lysander. What was 
left over he said Lysander could keep for himself. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 2. Diod. Sic. year 4. 
Olympiad 93. Plutarch in the Life of Lysander.) 

1404. Cyrus journeyed to his father and took Tissaphernes as a friend along with him and 300 
Greek foot soldiers under the command of Xenophon of Arcadia. (Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri, 1. 
l.p. 243, 254.) 



1405. When Cyras was gone, Lysander paid his army and went with his fleet to Ceramium a bay 
in Caria. He attacked the town Cedreas which was a confederate of the Athenians and captured 
it the next day. He sacked it and enslaved its inhabitants who were no better than a kind of half 
barbarous people. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 2.) However Diodorus (year 4. Olympiad 93.) states: 

vv Lysander, with a great number of ships attacked Thasus, a city of Caria and confederate of the 
Athenians. He took it by force, and cut the throats of the 800 men there. He sold the women and 
children as slaves and levelled the city to the ground." 

1406. He writes "Thasians" instead of "Cedrenians." These were the inhabitants of the isle of 
Thasus. These lived far off from there. After the defeat of the Athenians at Egos Potamos and 
the final ruin of Athens, the Thasians were not taken by force by Lysander but surprised by a 
rase of his. This we may easily learn from a broken passage of (Emil. Probus, in the Life of 
Lysander,) and the complete account of the matter by (Polyenus, 1. 1. Stratagem.) 

3599d AM, 4309 JP, 405 BC 

1407. At Miletus, a man overturned the democratic government there with the help of Lysander. 
In the Feast of Bacchus, they cut the throats of 40 of those those who opposed them in their own 
homes. Afterward in a crowded market, they seized 300 more of the richest people and cut off 
their heads. About 1000 of the important people who feared for their lives, fled to Pharnabazus, 
the Persian governor in those parts. He entertained them very kindly and gave every one of them 
a statue of gold. He gave them a citadel in Claudia called Clauda to live in. (I think this may be 
the island of Clauda mentioned in Ac 27:16.) (Dior, year 4. Olympiad 93.) 

1408. The Athenians set sail from Samos and came to Chios and Ephesus. When they had 
wasted the king's countries in these areas, they prepared for a sea battle. Meanwhile Lysander 
sailed with his fleet from Rhodes and left Ionia on the right hand and went to Hellespont. He 
planned to blockade that strait and destroy all cities in those parts that had revolted from him. 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 2.) 

1409. Lysander sailed from Abydus with his fleet to Lampsacus, a confederate city of the 
Athenians. He was met by the men from Abydus who came by land and others under the 
command of Thorax, a Lacedemonian captain. They attacked the city, captured and sacked it. It 
was rich, full of grain, wine and other provisions. He sent away the Athenian garrison. 
According to his word, he allowed all freemen there to enjoy their liberty. When he had given its 
spoil to his soldiers, he left the place to its inhabitants. (Plutarch, in the life of Lysander.) 

1410. The Athenian navy of 180 ships, was wholly surprised and taken by Lysander at Egos 
Potamos, in the strait of Hellespont. Barely 10 ships escaped with 3000 soldiers and their 
commanders. (Plutarch, in the life of Lysander.) 

1411. Conon their admiral, saw the Athenian cause was now hopeless. He did not want to return 
to Athens for fear of the cruelty of his country men. He escaped with 9 ships only to Cape 
Abarinders in Lampsacus. He took from there some main masts of Lysander's ships and sailed 
away to to his good acquaintence, Euagoras, king of Cyprus. He sent a small ship to Athens to 
tell them what had happened to him at Egos Potomos. (Plutarch, in the life of Lysander, with 



Isocrat. in his Euagoras, Aristot. 1. 2., Rhetor. Justin 1. 5. c. 6. and Aristid. in Oratio. Rhodiaca.) 

1412. Lysander had rifled their camp and carried away the ships, prisoners and spoils and 
everything else. He found the Triumphant Songs to Lampsacus for pipe and flute. The same day 
he sent Theopompus who had been a Milesian pirate, to Lacedon with the news of this victory. 
He went in the best ship with pennants and streamers flying and all other magnificent attire. 
Philocles the captain took 3 days to complete the journey. They had 3000 Athenian prisoners 
with them who had their throats cut except for Adimantus. (Xenoph. Diodor. Plutarch.) 

1413. When Lysander had set all things in order at Lampsacus, he sailed to Byzantium and 
Chalcedon. Both cities opened their gates to him and sent away the Athenian garrisons in both 
places giving his word for safe conduct. When they who had formerly betrayed Byzantium to 
Alcibiades got away, they first went into Pontus and from there to Athens where they were all 
made free citizens. Lysander placed Sthenelaus, a Lacedemonian as governor of both Byzantium 
and Chalcedon. He returned to Lampsacus to repair his navy. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 2.) 

1414. Lysander expelled from every city any who favoured the Athenians and destroyed the 
democraties and all other forms of government he found. He left them only, Harmostae as they 
were called in Sparta or Moderators to govern them. Each city was divided into ten wards. He 
appointed ten men to rule the city. He only chose those who were formally loyal to him or 
would sware allegence to him. Thus he created a Decemvirate or a government of ten men in 
every city. These were all loyal to him and did his bidding. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of 
Lysander.) 

1415. After Lysander had spent a little time in this, he sent word to Sparta that he was ready to 
sail with 200 ships. Together with Agis and Pausanias, the Spartan kings, he immediately came 
to besiege Athens, hoping to take it in a short time. When he found that they defended 
themselves beyond his expectation, he returned into Asia. There he abolished all deomocraties 
and established everywhere his Decemvirates or government by ten men. He killed many and 
forced the rest to flee for their lives. At Miletus he helped his friends destroy the democratic 
there. They had joined an opposing party. He most cunningly managed the matter so that he 
delivered no less than 800 of the democratic party to be murdered by those which stood for an 
aristocracy in that city. (Plutarch, in the life of Lysander.) 

3600c AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC 

1416. The Athenians were besieged by sea and land by the Lacedemonians. They surrendered 
under certain conditions. However, on the 16th day of Munichion the Attic month (the 24th of 
April, according to the Julian Calender) as Plutarch in his life reports, they were told that they 
had broken the articles because they had not demolished their walls within the 10 day time limit. 
Hence, it is gathered, that that peace tready was made upon the 6th of their month Munichion, 
that is on April 14. Thus ended the Peloponesian war after 27 years of fighting. (Thucidides in 
his 5th book) 

1417. Shortly after this peace, Darius king of all Asia died after he had reigned for 19 years. His 
oldest son, Artaxerxes reigned for 43 years after him. (Diodor. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 93.) 
However, Ctesias who was physician to Artaxerxes, says, that Darius Ochus died at Babylon. 
He was succeeded by Arsacus or Arsaces who was born to him by Parysatis before he became 



king. When he became king, he changed his name to Artaxerxes. From respect the greatness of 
that king, he was surnamed Mnemon. To which also, as I conceive refers that account of 
(Athenaus, 1. 12. Deipnosoph.) where he says that when Ochus was dying, he was asked by his 
oldest son by what wisdom and policy he had guided the state for so many years. He wanted to 
learn from the king the correct way to rule the kingdom. The old king replied that he had done it 
by always doing right to both God and man. Darius Ochus was often urged by his wife Parylatis, 
who loved her younger son Cyrus more than the older to follow the example of Darius 
Hystaspes. He left his first son that was born after he became king, the kingdom not the first 
born son who was born before this. However he would not listen to her. By his last will, he gave 
the kingdom to his oldest son Artaxerxes and to his younger son Cyrus all those cities and 
territories which he had at that time under his government in Asia. (Plutarch in the life of 
Artaxerxes. Justin. 1. 5. c. 11.) 

1418. As soon as Artaxerxes came to the throne, his wife Statyra persuaded him to take 
Vadiastes, who had murdered Terituchmes, her brother and husband to Amistris, who was 
Artaxerxes' own sister. He had his tongue to be drawn backward out of his mouth and be cut off 
and he was killed. He made Mitredates or Mithridates' son, (who had preserved the city Zaris for 
the son of Terituchmes), satrap or governor in his place. (Ctesias) 

1419. Artaxerxes went to Pasargada, where according to the custom, he was to take off his robe 
and to put on the robe which old Cyrus had worn before he became king. He was inaugurated 
according to the ancient regal ceremonies by the priests of Persia. Tissaphernes brought him the 
priest, who had instructed his brother Cyrus in his childhood, according to the custom of his 
country and taught him the principles of the art of magic. He was trusted by Artaxerxes when he 
accused Cyrus of plotting against the king. When Artaxerxes was taking off his own robes, he 
attacked his brother and planned to murder him in the very temple. (Plutarch, in the life of 
Artax.) 

1420. Artaxerxes had his brother held for he planned to have him executed. He put him in gold 
chains out of the respect of his royal blood. When he was to be killed, his mother caught him 
about the middle and then threw her hair around his neck and tied him with her hair. After many 
tears and lamentations she secured his pardon and position back. He was sent again to his 
command in Lydia and the other sea towns in Asia. (Plutarch, in the life of Artax., Xenoph. in 
Expediso. Cyri. 1. 1. Justin. 1. 4. c. Ult., Ctesias.) 

1421. Alcibiades feared the power of the Lacedemonians who commanded all the sea and land. 
He left that part of Bithynia which belonged to the Thracians and carried with him a great 
quantity of silver and gold. However, he left much more behind in the citadel where he had 
been. As soon as the Thracians knew about his wealth, they planned to catch him and take his 
money. They missed him for he stole secretly away to Pharnabazus in Phrygia. He was so taken 
and enamoured with Alcibiades' gentle behaviour that no man was so close to him as Alcibiades 
was. Hence he gave him the citadel of Grynium in Phrygia. He made 50 talents a year in tribute 
from the place. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in the life of Alcibiades.) 

1422. The Lysandrian feast and games were instituted in honour of Lysander. When Antimachus 
and Niceratus contested in Poetry, Lysander gave the garland to Niceratus. Antimachus was so 
disappointed that he burnt his own poem. The youth, Plato, cheered him and told him that 
ignorance harmed only the ignorant themselves, as blindness did the blind. (Plut. in the life of 
Lysander, with Diod. Sic. 4th. year 93rd Olympiad, from Apollodorus.) 



3600dAM,4310JP,404BC 

1423. In the next Olympiad after the capture of Athens by Lysander, Crocinas a Thessalian won 
the prize in running. This was the 94th Olympiad. Xenephon (Xeneph. Hellen. 2.) states that 
there was an eclipse of the sun which the astronomical calculations show happened on the 
morning of September 3. 

3601a AM, 4310 JP, 404 BC 

1424. When Cyrus returned safely into Lydia, he remembered how his brother had shackled him 
and began to plan how he might avoid future problems with his brother and how he might make 
himself king. Therefore he gathered as many Greek soldiers as possible and made various 
excuses to gather a great army from many nations. He planned a surprise attack on his brother. 
(Xenoph. Exped. Cyr. 1. 1. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.) He sent Lysander a gift of a ship 
made all of gold and ivory, 2 cubits (a yard) high. He congratulated him with this gift for the 
great sea victory he had. Lysander put the present in the treasury of Brasidas and Acanthians. 
(Plutarch in his Lysander) Lysander came to him at Sardis to deliver a present from all the 
confederate cities. Among these things was perhaps that jewel or necklace, which Elian. (Var. 
Histor. 1. 12. c. 1.) says, was sent to him from Scopas the younger from Thessaly. Cyrus 
welcomed him and showed him his orchard which he had laid out and planted himself. He 
entertained Lysander with a discourse on husbandry as recorded by Xenophon in his 
Oesonimies, in the person of Socrates. 

1425. Among the Persians, Satabarzanes accused Orontes for keeping company with Parysatis, 
the king's mother. His other wife had always been faithful to him. Therefore Orontes was 
executed. Parysatis grew unhappy with her son and had Mithridatis that son of Terituchnes' son 
to be poisoned. (Ctesias.) 

1426. When Alcibiades learned that Cyrus intended to make a war against his brother with the 
Lacedemonian's support, he planned to go quickly to Artaxerxes. He wanted to be the first to 
expose this treason and hoped to get some reward for himself as Themistocles had done before 
him. He also wanted the king's help to free his country of Athens from their Lacedemonian 
bondage. Meanwhile, Critias, one of those 30 tyrants, whom Lysander had set over the 
Athenians to rule them, told Lysander to have Alcibiades killed or all that he did at Athens 
would be undone. Lysander did nothing until a cipher was brought him from Lacedemon 
ordering him to kill Alcibiades. Lysander sent to Pharnabazus to let him know that unless he 
immediately gave him Alcibides either dead or alive, the league between the king and the 
Lacedemonians would be broken and war would break out again. Pharnabazus sent Susamithres' 
uncle and Magaeus, (whom Emil. Probus calls Bagoas) to murder Alcibiades while he was in a 
certain place in Phrygia called Melissa near the mountain of Elophois. He was preparing for his 
journey toward the king. 

1427. The people of the country whom they had hired to kill him, dared not attempt it directly. 
In the dead of the night they put a great pile of wood around the house where he was sleeping 
and set it on fire. When Alcibiades escaped they shot arrows at him which killed him. They 
carried his head to Pharnabazus. His sweet heart wrapped the rest of his body in her own gown. 
(A little before he had dreamed that he was wrapped in it.) She buried the body in the same fire 



which the house was burned with and gave him as honourable a funeral as she could afford. 
(Ephorus 1. 17. cited by Diod. year 1. Olym. 94. Aristot. Histor. Animal. 1. 6. c. 29. Cic. 1. 1. de 
Divina. Valer. Max. 1. I.e. 7. Justin. 1. 5. c. 8. Athen. Deipnosaph. 1. 13. Plutarch and Emil. 
Prob. in their lives of Alcibiades.) 

3601b AM, 4311 JP, 403 BC 

1428. Clearchus a Lacedemonian was a tyrant of Byzantium. He was overthrown by his own 
people under the leadership of Panthoedas. He stole away by night and came into Ionia. He 
learned that Cyrus planned to attack his brother. He befriended Cyrus and was made general of 
all his forces. Cyrus found that he was a proud, courageous and daring man. He gave him 10000 
dracmas. He raised forces and marching from Chersonsus and attacked the Thracians that 
bordered northward upon Hellespont. Because it seemed to the advantage of the Greeks, 
therefore the cities of Hellespont contributed willingly to the support of the army. So that these 
forces were maintained secretly for the service of Cyrus. (Xenophon de Expedit. Cyri. 1. 1. 
Diodor. year 2. Olympiad 94.) 

3601c AM, 4311 JP, 403 BC 

1429. Lysander brutally wasted the province of Phrygia and other places under the government 
of Pharnabazus. Therefore he complained about this at Lacedemon where he was held in great 
esteem and much beloved because he had much wealth and always supported their state against 
its enemies. Therefore the Ephori were greatly displeased with Lysander. They killed Thorax, 
his good friend because they found that he had a store of money in his house. They sent their 
cypher to Lysander and recalled him from Asia. Hereupon Lysander entreated Pharnabazus to 
write letters to justify him. This he publicly did. These were so well done that Lysander could 
not have wished for better. Since he had other letters already written, he inserted them into the 
bundle when they were sealed. He sent them away by Lysander to Lacedemon for the Ephori. 
Thereby, he was made to be the accuser against himself. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in their lives, of 
Lysander and Polyanus, 1. 7. Stratagem.) 

1430. Not long after this, he was permitted by the Ephori to travel to visit the temple of Jupiter 
Ammon. He pretended that it was to pay the vows which he had made before he entered into 
certain battles which he had fought in their service. However the real purpose was to bribe the 
priests there for his own ends. To that end, he carried with him a large sum of money. There he 
had an old friend of his father, King Lybis. In memorial of that friendship his father named his 
younger brother, Lybis. The chief priest of that oracle would not be bribed and informed against 
him at Sparta. When he returned to Sparta, he was called into question for it but was acquitted 
by the court. (Diodor. year 2 of the 94th Olympiad, Plutarch and Emil. Probus in their lives of 
Lysander.) 

3602 AM, 4312 JP, 402 BC 

1431. At this time all the cities of Ionia, except Miletus which was under the government of 
Tissaphernes, defected to Cyrus. When Tissaphernes was residing at Miletus, he learned that the 
Milesians were also inclined toward Cyrus. He thwarted their purpose by killing some of them 
and expelling others. When these came to Cyrus, he graciously received them. He immediately 
gathered an army by land and sea to restore to them their city. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. 1. 1. p. 



244.) Among his army was Socrates of Achaia with 500 foot soldiers and Pasio of Megara with 
almost 700 more. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. 1. 1. p. 245) Cyrus' admiral, Tamos an Egyptian, 
blockaded Miletus with 25 ships. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. 1. 1. p. 252.) 

1432. Cyrus sent to Artaxerxes requesting that he would entrust those cities to him rather than 
with Tissaphernes. His mother supported him in this. When the king learned that there was no 
treason in this action, but Cyrus had kept an army only to oppose Tissaphernes, he was content 
that they should forget past differences. For Cyrus duly sent to Artaxerxes the tribute from those 
cities, which Tissaphernes had formerly held. (Xen. De Expedit. Cy. 1. 1. p. 241.) 

1433. This Cyrus was never king either of Persia or Babylon. He is the man, whom Geor. 
Harvartus fancies was the king who after the end of the Babylonian captivity, allowed the Jews 
to return home with their governor Zerubbabel and Joshua, or Jeshua, the son of Jozadak the 
high priest. However, it was Artaxerxes Mneonon who was then king of Persia, and Johannes, 
who in Ne 12: 1 1,22,23 is called Johanan and Jonathan, was the high priest of the Jews. The 
governor of the Jewish nation was a certain Persian Lord, whom Josephus Antiquit. (1. 11. c. 7.) 
says was called Bagoses a captain of another Artaxerxes as Rasinus translates him. That is 
another descendent from Artaxerxes Longimanus of whom Josephus had spoken in the next 
precedent chapter. But the relationship which he makes between these men is this: 

1434. Jesus was brother to Johannes the high priest whom Bogoses was a close friend and 
promised to bestow the next high priesthood on him. Confident of Bogoses' support, Jesus 
became very bold. First he had an argument with John and then a public brawl with his brother 
in the very temple. He provoked John so much that his brother slew him in the place. When this 
happened, Bagoses came and profaned the temple by entering it. He said that the high priest had 
already polluted it with his own brother's blood. For the next 7 years he vexed the Jews for that 
murder and lay a heavy fine upon them. Before they offered their daily sacrifice, they should 
pay (not for every year, as the common translations of Josepheus and from them Salianus have 
it) but for every lamb, 50 drachmas. This punishment continued only as long as that Johannes 
was the high priest. We determine this happened in the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon, not 
Artaxerxes Ochus. With the beginning of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign we therefore reckon this 
because we find mentioned Johannes or Johanan (though not then the high priest) in Ezr 10:6 Ne 
12:23. For between the 7th year of Artaxerxes Longimanus to which that history of Ezra refers 
and the end of the 7th year of Artaxerxes Mnemon's reign (before which we suppose and take 
for granted, that this Johannes did not die) there was at least 70 years according to our account. 
So he died after living over 90 years and his son Jaddus succeeded him in the priesthood and 
held it to the reign of Alexander the Great. He died about the age of 83, if we suppose that he 
was born the end of Darius Nothus' reign. This is an aside. We now return to the history of 
Cyrus the younger, who died before he was 22 years old. 

3603 AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC 

1435. Cyrus sent messengers to Lacedemon and asked them that as he from time to time had 
supported them with men and money against the Athenians, so now they would send him men. 
He bragged that if they sent them footmen, he would give them horses, if horsemen, chariots, if 
they had lands, he would give them towns, if towns, cities for their reward. For their wages, they 
would have it not by number but by weight paid to them. Hereupon, the Lacedemonians 
determined what he asked for was right and that this war be to their advantage. Ignoring the fact 
that this war was against Artaxerxes, they planned to send him aid hoping to ingratiate 



themselves to Cyrus. If things did not go as planned they had a good excuse to Artaxerxes that 
they had decreed nothing against him in person. The Ephori sent letters to their admiral at 
Samos to do whatever Cyrus required. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. Sic. year 4 Olympiad 94. 
Justin 1. 5. c. ult. Plutarch in the Life of Artaxerxes.) 

1436. Therefore the Lacedemonian admiral with his ships sailed to Ephesus to meet with Tamos 
the Egyptian, admiral to Cyrus and offered Tamos his services to the best of his ability. He 
joined his fleet with Tamos' fleet. They sailed around the coast of Ionia to Caria so that Syenesis 
the governor of those lands, would not move to hinder Cyrus in his march by land against his 
brother. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3., Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94., Xenophon, Cy. 1. 1. p. 248, 
252.) Diodorus says, that Samos, the Lacedemonian admiral at Samos, had 25 ships and Tamos 
had 50. Upon the more accurate testimony of Xenophon, in his book of this journey, undertaken 
by Cyrus, Tamos had only 25 ships and Pythagoras the Lacedmonian, 35, (for he makes him to 
be the other admiral and not Samos) 

1437. Cyrus with his army of foot soldiers resolved to march into upper Asia under the pretence 
that he went against the Pisidians who often attacked areas under his control. Thereupon he sent 
for Clearchus the Lacedemonian, Aristippus of Thessaly, Xenes of Arcadia, the banished of 
Miletus, the army which besieged Miletus. He sent Proxenus a Boeotian with all the speed he 
could make to the Greeks and others to come quickly to Sardis. (Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. 1. 1.) 

3603b AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC 

1438. When Tissaphernes determined that a much greater force was being assembled then an 
attack on the Pisidians would require, he hurried away with 600 cavalry as fast as he could to 
Artaxerxes. When he knew what was happening, he prepared for war. (Xenoph. de Exped. Cy. 1. 
1.) 

1439. Cyrus left some of his trusted Persian friends to manage affairs at Lydia. He entrusted his 
good friend Tamos, the Egyptian admiral to take care of the cities of Ionia and Eolia in his 
absence. He marched with his army towards Caria and Pisidia under the pretence that certain 
persons in those parts were unruly. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.) 

vv But how Cyrus gathered his army, marched against his brother, how the battle was fought and 
how Cyrus perished in it and how those Greeks who went with him, came back again safely to 
the sea, i.e. into Asia Minor, Themistogenes of Syracuse has recorded. Xenophon states this in 
the beginning of the third book of his Greek History. If we compare this part of the history with 
Plutarch's book, (de Gloria Athenicusium), he says that Xenophon wrote a history of himself. 
He recorded how he was a captain and what exploits he did. Then he said that Themisogenes of 
Syracuse had written it, thus giving away the glory of this his writing to another man so that the 
things therein written of himself, might find the more credit in the world." 

1440. And another place in Suidas, he shows: 

vv That the Expedition of Cyrus, which commonly goes with Xenophon's History of the Greeks 
and some other pieces concerning his own country, were all of Xenophon's own writings." 



1441. For indeed, these books of the Expedition of Cyrus went before with the rest of his Greek 
Histories. In the end of it, he plainly says, that the writer of it was present at all those events. 
Therefore the work itself, which is everywhere full of Xenophon's noble acts, is attributed to 
him not only by Plutarch but long before him by Cicero, Dionysins, Halicarnassaeus, 
Hermogenes, Laertius, Athenaeus and (not to speak of our Divines, Eusebius, and Jerome) by 
Arianus of Nicomedia. Themistogenes also had the nick name of New Xenophon as we read in 
Photius and Suidas because he compiled the discourses of his teacher Epictetus in 4 books, as 
Xenophon had done for those of his teacher Socrates. Also, as Xenophon had written that 
Expedition of Cyrus in 7 books, so he had written the Expedition of Alexander in 7 books. 
Although Xenephon in his Expedition of Cyrus which has a brief preface to every book but not 
to the set in general as Laertius has noted. Where as in every book except the 6th, 
Themistogenes made a preface using a summary of the previous books which Xenophon did not 
do in his books. Themistogenes has details in those books which do not flatter Xenophon. 
Therefore, I am rather inclined to think that these books were written by Themistogenes and not 
by Xenophon. However, I followed the authority of those ancient writers. I have all along cited 
him by the name of Xenophon, as they have done before me. 

1442. Now of those five points mentioned by Xenophon (Xenop. Hellen. 1. 3.) and said to have 
been written by Themistogenes the first four are entirely in the first book of this Expedition of 
Cyrus. 

1. The gathering of his army. 

2. Their marching into upper Asia and coming to the place where they fought. 

3. The details of the battle. 

4. The fall of Cyrus in that battle. 

1443. Cyrus left Sardis, where Xenophon had met him after being sent for from Athens by 
Proxenus the Boeotian. There he volunteered for the action, as we find in the 3rd book and came 
to Celaenae in Phrygia. He stayed there 30 days. During that time Clearchus and other Greek 
commanders came from various parts to him. They assembled a force of 1 1,000 foot soldiers 
and about 2000 targeteers. 

3603c AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC 

1444. From Celaenae, Cyrus came with his army to the bank of Cayster. He received money 
from Epiaxa the wife of Syenesis the king of Cilicia. (Cyrus was formerly thought to have been 
too familiar with her.) He paid his army the 3 back months he owed them plus the next month in 
advance. Epiaxa arrived at Tartius in Cilicia 5 days before Cyrus. She persuaded her husband 
Syenesis to come there also and to give Cyrus a vast sum of money toward the support of his 
army. Both Ctesias and Diodorus add, that Syenesis, like a wise man, supplied both Cyrus and 
Artaxerxes with the necessities for the war. For having two sons, he sent one of them to Cyrus 
with a competent number of men for his service. However he had sent away the other privately 
before to Artaxerxes to let him know that with such an army as Cyrus had, he dared not oppose 
Cyrus but publicly joined with him. Nevertheless he was loyal to Artaxerxes and would defect 
to him as soon as he could find an opportunity. Cyrus stayed 20 days at Tarsus where the Greek 
companies told him plainly that they would march no farther. Clearchus by his tact, changed 
their mind so they marched to Issus. This was the remotest city of Cilicia where Cyrus' fleet met 
him bringing him 700 foot soldiers, but Diodorus says 800. The Lacedemonians had sent these 
men to Cyrus under the command of Chirosophus. Also 400 foot soldiers who had formerly 



served Artaxerxes under their captain Abrocomus came into his camp. However, Abrocomus 
left Phaenicia with 300,000 men and marched to Artaxerxes and arrived 5 days before the battle. 
By leaving the place where he was, Cyrus passed the straits of Syria and without halting came to 
the place of the pending battle. He travelled from Ephesus to that place in 93 days and marched 
535 parasanges or about 2000 miles or over 21 miles a day. 

1445. According to Plutarch, the battle was fought at Cynaxa which is about 63 miles from 
Babylon. According to the 2nd book of the Expedition of Cyrus, that the fight was about 383 
miles from Babylon. Jacobus Capellus, thinks it should be read, "from Susa". In the army of 
Cyrus there were about 13,000 Greek soldiers although Justin. (1. 5. c. ult.) says, there were not 
more than 10,000. Of these, there were 10,400 foot soldiers and 2500 targeteers. From the other 
nations, 100,000 men and about 20 hooked chariots. Artaxerxes had 900,000 men and 1500 
hooked chariots. However, Ctesias Cnidius, who was in the battle is quoted by Plutarch and 
Ephorus who is cited by Diodorus state there were only 400,000. In the battle 15,000 soldiers of 
Artaxerxes died according to Diodorus and 3000 on the side of Cyrus. However, Ctesias in 
Plutarch states that Artaxerxes lost not more than 9000 soldiers and not more than 20,000 died 
that day. This battle was fought the 4th year Olympiad 94. when Xenaenetus was archon in 
Athens and one year before Socrates was put to death there. (Diogenes Laertius, in the life of 
Socrates) 

1446. In this battle the two brothers met and Artaxerxes was first wounded through his coat of 
armour. Ctesias helped him recover from this wound. Cyrus carried on with good success 
against his brother, fearing no danger and was slain by an unknown hand in the battle. 
Artaxerxes spent his rage upon the dead body of his brother. He severed his head from the body 
of him and cut off the hand from the arm that had wounded him. He carried it about in a 
triumphant manner. When his sorrowful mother came to Babylon she tearfully gathered up his 
remains and buried them there. The battle between the two brothers is more fully described by 
Plutarch, from Ctesias and Dinon. 

1447. When the king came to rifle his camp, he found and took the concubine of Cyrus. She was 
a woman much renowned for her wit and beauty. (Xenoph. 1. 1. p. 270. Exped. Cy.) She was a 
Phoecaean who was born in Ionia the daughter of Hermotimus. Her name was Mitto but was 
changed by Cyrus to Aspasia because she seemed equal to Aspasia the Miletian, who was the 
mistress of Pericles. See note on 3564 AM. Artaxerxes was anxious to get her. When she was 
brought to him all bound, he grew exceedingly angry with those who had brought her and laid 
them in irons. She was most highly esteemed of all the 360 concubines he had and he doted on 
her the most. (Plut. in the lives of Pericles and Artaxerxes. Ilian. Var. Hist. 1. 12. c. 1. Justin. 1. 
10. c. 2.) 

1448. The Greeks on the other side did not know that Cyrus was dead so they kept on fighting. 
In their quarter they beat back Tissaphernes and all his forces with a squadron of about 6000 
Greeks according to Isocrates. In his Panegyric, he adds: 

vv that they were not of the best Greeks but the mere refuse of them and such as could no longer 
live in their own homes. These now in a strange country, forsaken of their companions, betrayed 
by their companies and bereft of their captain whom they followed to this war." 

1449. The king came with most of his army to rescue Tissaphernes. He entered their camp and 



rifled it. However, when the Greeks returned from the pursuit of Tissaphernes, they recovered 
their camp and drove the king from it. They spent the night there with no food and went hungry 
the next day too. This is the end of Xenophon's first book of Cyrus' Journey. 

1450. The second book describes how these Greeks under the command of Clearchus planned to 
return home again. Tissaphernes promised to escort them back with his own forces and to guide 
them. He broke this promise. He rounded up Clearchus, with Proxenus, Agias and Socrates with 
20 more captains and 200 soldiers to be murdered. Ctesias also in his Persian History, (which 
the author of this book of the voyage of Cyrus had undoubtedly read) had formerly told us how 
cunningly Tissaphernes worked. Using Menon, a Thessalian and by his promises he captured 
Clearchus and the rest mentioned in the group. They were put in irons and sent to the king at 
Babylon. Ctesias tells how he was the physician to Parysatis, the king's mother. Through her he 
was able to help Clearchus while he was in prison. Through her request to the king, the king had 
promised that Clearchus would not be harmed. However, by the instigation of Statyra his queen, 
the king had Clearchus and all the rest of the commanders except Menon to be butchered. All 
the bodies were thrown out and devoured by wild beasts and birds. Only the body of Clearchus 
was covered and preserved by a huge sandhill caused by a strong wind. (Ctesias in the 
collections of Photius and Plut. in the life of Artaxerxes.) 

3603d AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC 

145 1 . In Xenophon's 3rd and 4th book, he narrates the journey back to Greece of the rest of the 
Greeks whom Tissaphernes did not capture. Xenophon had the soldiers choose new captains to 
replace the ones they lost. Xenophon was chosen to replace Proxenus. He describes their 
journey through many enemy countries and how they endured the very cold winter and many 
hardships and dangers. Finally they returned home safely. This account is found in Diodorus 
Siculus, (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.) and in Isocrates' Panegyric. 

1452. For his good service in this war, Artaxerxes gave Tissaphernes all the governments which 
his brother Cyrus held in addition to what he had before. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. Sic. year 
4. Olympiad, 94.) He lavished many other expensive gifts and favours on him. Lastly, he gave 
him his own daughter for a wife. Tissaphernes was his most confident friend and servant. (Diod. 
Sic. year 4. Olympiad 94.) 

1453. For 10 days, Parysatis, the king's mother tortured the Carian who mortally wounded Cyrus 
in the thigh. She had his eyes pulled out and boiling lead poured in at his ear holes until he died. 
Mithridates, who first wounded Cyrus and bragged that he had killed him, was put between two 
boats. He lay there for 17 days until he was eaten out with worms. Parysates won Bagabaeus, 
the king's eunuch from the king at a dice game. It was he who ordered Cyrus' head and right 
hand to be cut off. She had him flayed alive and then his body was laid across three crosses and 
his flayed skin hung near it. After this by the humble suit of the king, Parysatis stopped 
mourning for her son Cyrus. (Ctesias and Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes.) 

1454. Parysatis had the queen Statyra, her daughter-in-law poisoned. Statyra had a trusted maid 
servant called Gingis or Gigis. Dinon says she willing helped in the death of Statyra. Ctesias 
said she did it against her will. The one who gave the poison was called Bellitara by Ctesias and 
Melantas by Dinon. There is a little bird in Persia called Rhintaces or Rhindaces which has no 
excrements at all but all its guts are full of fat. One of these birds, Parysatis cut in two with a 



knife and gave the poisoned half to Statyra as they sat at dinner. This is what Ctesias thinks 
happened. However, Dinon says that it was Melanta not Parysatis, who served her the poisoned 
bird. When the Queen died in extreme torments after this, the king suspected his mother for it. 
She was well known for her cruelty and implacable disposition of nature. He had the servants 
and carvers to be questioned and used the rack on them. Parysatis kept Gingis a long time in her 
own chamber and though the king required her yet would she not give her up to justice. At last 
Ginges desired to steal secretly to her own home by night. Artaxerxes captured her and punished 
her as a poisoner. He did not harm his mother but when she asked permission to go to Babylon, 
he gave it to her. However, he told her that while she lived, he would not come there. (Plutarch, 
in the life of Artaxerxes.) 

1455. Aristo, with some others, surprised the city of Cyrene. In the battle they slew 500 of the 
principal men of the inhabitants. The rest escaped. These joined with some 3000 of the 
Missenians, whom the Lacedemonians at this time had expelled from their country. They fought 
in an open field with those who had taken their city. In the fight, many of the Cyrenians on both 
sides were killed. Almost all the Missenians were killed. When the fight was over, the Cyrenians 
agreed with an oath to forget the past and live together peacefully. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 
94.) 

3604a AM, 4313 JP, 401 BC 

1456. Tissaphernes (Diodorus incorrectly writes Pharnabazus) was sent by Artaxerxes to take 
charge of all the governments in Asia Minor. He also wanted all the cities of Ionia. (Xenoph, 
Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 95.) 

1457. When Tissaphernes came, all the governors and cities who had followed Cyrus were 
afraid and sued for peace. Tamos the Egyptian who was the most important of these, was 
governor of Ionia. (See notes on 3593 & 3603b AM.) He loaded his fleet with all his treasure 
and his sons except Gaus, (who later became the king's general) and sailed to Egypt. He visited 
Psammyticus the king and was confident of good treatment because of how he had treated 
Psammyticus in the past. However, Psammyticus disregarded past favours done to him and 
butchered him and his children to get the ships and treasure which he had brought. (Diod. Sic. 
year 1. Olymp. 95.) 

1458. The Greeks (of whom I spoke before) departed from Trapezus which was the first Greek 
city they came to. It is situated on the coast of the Euxine Sea in the country of Colchos. After a 
3 day march, they came to another Greek city in the same country of Colchos. It was also a sea 
town as was the former town and was called Cerasunta. They stayed there 10 days and 
numbered their men. Only 8600 remained of the 10000 they started with. The rest were lost. 
Either they were killed by the enemy in the battle or they died in the snow or of other sicknesses 
on their return journey. From there, they went through the countries of the Mosynaecori, the 
Chalybes and Tybarenians and came to a Greek town called Catyora, a colony of the Synopians. 
8 months or rather, as the order of the history implies, 5 months after the battle in the country of 
Babylon. They journeyed from there to this place in 122 days and marched 620 parasanges or 
4650 miles (about 38 miles per day). They stayed here 45 days. (Exped. Cy. 1. 5.) 

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3604b AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC 

1459. During their stay here, they got their provisions partly from the market of Colyora and 
partly by plundering the countries around Paphlagonia. On the other hand, the Paphlagonians, if 
they found any of them straggling from the camp, they attacked them. Finally, Corylas, who was 
governor of the Paphlagonians, made peace between them. Afterward these Greeks were 
transported by ship by the men of Heraclea and Synope. They came to Harmone, a port of 
Synope where they stayed 5 days. From there they went to Heraclea in the country of the 
Myrianden. It was a colony of the city of Megara. They came to a peninsula called Acherusia 
and divided themselves into three companies. 

1460. The 4500 plus foot soldiers of the Arcadians and Achaeans were transported by ship by 
the Heracleans. They hurried aboard hoping to surprise the Thracians who inhabited Bithynia so 
they might get all the more spoil. They landed at night at Calpe which is in the middle of their 
sea coast. They went to the next towns and villages about 6 miles up the country. When these 
Thracians were attacked, they fought back and killed many of the Greeks. One regiment of them 
with their colonel Smicrates was entirely cut off. Only 8 soldiers and their captain Hegesandrus 
escaped in another company. The rest fled to a hill for safety and were besieged by the Thacians. 

1461. Chirosophus with 1400 foot soldiers and 700 targeteers, (who were Thracians and had 
followed Clearchus on that journey) went from Heraclea all along the country by foot. He 
finally came into Bithynia. Not feeling well, he with his men sailed to Calpe. 

1462. Xenophon with his brigade of 1700 foot soldiers, 800 targeteers and about 40 cavalry 
came by sea into a country which separates the Thracians of Bithynia from the country of the 
Heracleans. He marched through the centre of the country and came and rescued those who 
were besieged in the hill by the Thracians. Finally they assembled again as one body at the port 
of Calpe. (Exped. Cy. 1. 6.) 

1463. Chirosophus died here and was replaced by Neo, an Asinian. When he saw his troops 
hungry and short of supplies, he gathered 2000 men and went foraging all over the country of 
Bithynia. Pharnabazus sent his cavalry to help the Bithynians. He hoped to keep these Greeks 
out of his lands. On the first attack, the cavalry killed at least 500 Greeks and the rest fled to a 
hill for safety. Xenophon rescued them from the enemy and they all returned safely to the camp 
before sunset. When Spithridates and Rhathines came with more troops to help the Bithynians, 
the Greeks won a notable victory and erected a monument in memory of it there. They returned 
the 7 or 8 miles to their camp by the seaside. After this victory, their enemies provided for their 
own safety by driving their cattle and carrying away their families and goods to more remote 
parts. When the Greeks passed through Bithynia, they found nothing of use to them. They 
returned back a day and a night's journey into Bithynia again. They found and brought from 
there some prisoners, sheep and other provisions for their own needs. After 6 days, they came to 
Chrysopolis, a city of the Chalcedonians and stayed here 7 days. They sold their plunder here. 
(Exped. Cy. 1. 6.) 

1464. Pharnabazus feared that these Greeks would make war on his country. He arranged with 
Anaxibius, the Lacedemonian admiral to ship them all out of Asia to Byzantium. When 
Anaxibius returned from there with Xenophon into Asia, he received word at Cyzicum from 



Aristarchus the new governor of Byzantium. Polus was appointed admiral in his place and he 
was on his way as far as Hellespont. Therefore he sailed from thence to Patros. He sent to 
Pharnabazus and requested the money which he had promised him for shipping the Greeks from 
Asia. When he did not get it, he planned with Xenophon to hastily carry the Greeks back again 
into Asia. Pharnabazus prevailed upon Aristarchus, the governor of Byzantium so that he 
thwarted that plan. Since the winter was not over, Xenophon hired himself to Senthes the king 
of Thracia. The cold was so extreme that many Greeks lost their noses and ears from frostbite. 
(Exped. Cy. 1. 7.) Diodorus tells us that some Greeks returned into their own country but almost 
5000 followed Xenophon into Thracia. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 95.) Hence, it appears, that 
his number is incorrect where he says that only 3800 men came to Chrysopolis. (Diod. Sic. year 
4. Olympiad 94.) 

3604c AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC 

1465. The Ionian and other Greek cities throughout Asia did nor accept Tissaphernes' 
government. They wanted their freedom and feared Tissaphernes because they had always 
preferred Cyrus over him. They sent messengers to the Lacedemonians asking them for help. 
Since they were the protectors of all Greece, they wanted them to take over so that their country 
could be free from war and they could have liberty as other Greeks. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. 
Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95.) 

1466. This petition was very welcome to the Lacedemonians. Like most men, the more they had 
the more they wanted. They were not content to have doubled their empire by taking over 
Athens. Now they wanted to control all of Asia too. (Justin. 1. 6. c. 1.) 

1467. Therefore, the Lacedemonians promised them aid in the first message they sent back. 
They immediately sent to Tissaphernes to ask him not to make war on the Asian Greek Cities. 
Out of contempt for them, he wasted all the region around the city of Cuma and took many 
prisoners. Then he came with his army and besieged the city. Because the winter was coming, 
he could not take it at that time. So he set a great ransom on the prisoners and abandoned his 
siege. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95) 

1468. After this Thimbron went into Asia with an army of 1000 newly made citizens of Laconia, 
4000 of Pelopnoesus and 300 Athenian cavalry. The cavalry had formerly served the 30 tyrants 
of Athens. The city desired that this group should be wasted by foreign services rather than be 
kept at home to do greater mischief. When Thimbron, came into Asia, he increased his army by 
troops from the confederate cities there. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3.) At Ephesus, he added 2000 more 
troops from these cities for a total army of about 7000 men. He marched about 15 miles into the 
country and took Magnesia on his first assault. It was a city under Tissaphernes' government. 
From there he went to Tralles a city of Ionia and began to besiege it. Since its location was very 
strongly fortified, he left it and went back to the unwalled town of Magnesia. He feared that as 
soon as he was gone, Tissaphernes would take it again. He moved it to a hill nearby called 
Thorax which was a more easily defended position. He plundered the enemies' country and 
greatly enriched his army. When he heard that Tissaphernes was coming down upon him with 
an army of cavalry, he retired to Ephesus. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymipiad 95) He was not a match 
for the cavalry and dared not stay in the plain. He thought it enough if he were able to keep the 
countries where he was from being plundered by the enemy. 



1469. When the Greeks under Xenophon had served Senthes 3 months in Thracia, Charminus 
and Polynicus were sent from Thimbron to tell them that he needed their help in Asia against 
Tissaphernes. He would pay each soldier a daric a month. Each captain of a company would be 
paid 2 darics and every colonel 4. Xenophon told them that he personally planned to return 
home. Most of the army came to him and earnestly asked him not to leave them until he had led 
them to Thimbron. Therefore, he went aboard with them and sailed to Lampsacus. There he met 
and conferred with Euclid, the Phliasian poet. After they passed through the territory of Troas, 
they came to Pergamus. Xenophon was entertained by Hellas the wife of Gongylus of Eretria 
and her two sons, Gorgius and Gongylus. By her counsel, he went to capture Asidates the 
Persian. This he failed to do and exposed himself and his men to great danger. Finally by 
chance, his soldiers captured him with his wife and children and cavalry and all that they owned. 
They were very rich. Thimbron came and received the army from Xenophon. He added these 
troops to the rest of the Greeks in his army and he led them against Tissaphernes and 
Pharnabazus. (Exped. Cy. 1. 7.) 

1470. Here ends the 7 books of the Expedition of Cyrus. The writer of it, whomever he was, was 
present for all these events. He concludes his book, with this epilogue. The king's governors in 
the counties which we passed through, were these: 

vv Artimas of Lydia, Articamas of Phrygia, Mithridates of Lycaonia and Cappadocia, Siennesis 
of Cilicia, Dernes of Phenicia and Arabia, Belesis of Syria and Assyria, Rhoparas of Babylonia, 
Arbacas of Media, Teribazas of Phasis and Iberia, the Carduchi, the Chalybes, the Azacrones, 
the Colchi, the Mosynacci, the Coeti. The Tybareni had no governors but were all free people. 
Corylas was governor of Paphlagonia, Pharnabazus of Bithynia, Seuthes was king of the 
Thracians, on the European side." 

1471. The whole journey, going and coming, lasted 215 days. They travelled 1150 parasanges, 
or 4282 miles (4313 miles allowing 3.75 miles per parasange.) The whole expedition lasted 15 
months. 

3604d AM, 4314 JP, 400 BC 

1472. When Thimbron was strengthened with these new troops he dared to pitch his camp in the 
fields under Tissaphernes' nose. Pergamus voluntary surrendered to him. Likewise did 
Tenthrania and Halisarnia which were commanded at that time by Eurysthenes and Procles, the 
descendants of Demaratus of Lacedemon. Gorgins and Gongylus, the two brothers mentioned 
previously had already joined him. One held Gambrius and Palegambrius, the other Myrina, and 
Grinium and Thimbron captured the other weaker places by force. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3.) 

3605 AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC 

1473. Thimbron besieged Larissa, a town in Asia called Egyptia when it would not surrender to 
him. While he besieged it with little effect, the Ephori at Sparta sent him letters stating that he 
should leave Larissa and march to Caria and on to Ephesus. Dercylidas, an excellent engineer 
and for his wit he was surnamed Sisyphus, was on his way to take command of the army. When 
Thimbron returned to Sparta, he was there accused by various confederate cities, for allowing 
his army to plunder them. Therefore he was banished from the city. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. 
Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad.) 



1474. Mania was a woman of Dardania, of manly courage. After the death of her husband Zenis, 
she had managed very well the government of Eolia under Pharnabazus and had taken in various 
sea towns, as Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colone. She was most treacherously murdered by her son- 
in-law Midias when she was about 40 years old. Her 17 year old son was murdered with her. 
Midias seized the two strong towns, Scephis and Gergitha where she had stored most of her 
treasure. The garrisons in the rest of the towns remained loyal to Pharnabazus. Midias sent 
messengers to Pharnabazus with great presents desiring that he might manage the whole 
government of those parts upon the same terms that Mania did. This was for nought. 
Pharnabazus answered that he should never rest if he did not avenge the murder of Mania. 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Polyae, 1. 8. in Tania, or Phania, for so by a misprint Mania is called.) 

1475. Dercylidas saw that he had to deal with both Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, two great 
commanders each supported by a large army. When he saw that they were at odds with one 
another, he made peace with Tissaphernes (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. with Justin 1. 6. c. 1. where yet 
Hercylidas is put for Dercylidas.) 

1476. After Dercylidas had first conferred with Tissaphernes, he marched to Eolia without 
plundering the country. Eolia was under Pharnabazus' government. He had an old grudge 
against Pharnabazus for an insult he received from him while he commanded at Abydus under 
Lysander. Larissa, Hamaxitus and Colonae surrendered to him without a fight. (Note that here 
Diodorus Siculus has Arista instead of Larissa.) Neandrus, Ilium also surrendered to him. The 
Cocylitae did not fight with him. Cebrene, a very strong and fortified city did not wish to be 
assaulted and also surrendered. He left a large garrison there and he immediately marched with 
the rest of his army to Scephis and Gergithe. Midias feared the very inhabitants of that place and 
Pharnabazus. He went out with hostages to parley and to seek to join forces against a common 
enemy. Dercylidas laid hold of him and told him plainly that there was no hope of any 
friendship between them unless he would set free all the citizens of those places which he held 
to live according to their own laws. He marched into Scepsis with him and there offered 
sacrifice to Minerva. He expelled Midias' soldiers and persuaded the inhabitants to defend their 
newly acquired liberty. He next went to Gergithe with his army. When Midias desired that he 
would at least leave him that city, he ignored Midias' request. Midias ordered the gates to be 
opened and Dercylidas entered the city. He found the money which Mania had there, sufficient 
to maintain an army of 8000 men for almost a whole year. He took the money and sent back 
Midias to live as a private citizen at Scepsis. Xenophon tells us, that in 8 days, he took 9 cities. 
Diodorus (Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad), writes that what by force and tricks he 
used to take over all the cities and country of Troas. 

1477. There was a quarrel between Artaxerxes and Euagoras the king of Salamis in the isle of 
Cyprus. He had expelled from there Abdemon Thyrsius who was governor of the place and one 
who was a good friend of Artaxerxes. Theopompus, (Excerpta Photii, num. 176.) calls him, 
Abdymon Cityces. This quarrel was settled by the mediation of Conon the Athenian, who had 
lived with Euagoras and Ctesias the Cnidian, who had long lived in the court in Persia. The 
condition was that Euagoras would pay a certain tribute to Artaxerxes and also a gift was sent to 
Satibarzanes. Ctesias also sent letters to Euagoras to make amends with Anaxagoras a king of 
the Cyprians. Other similar letters were written by Euagoras and Conon. Ctesias has all these 
inserted into his History of the Persian Affairs. 

1478. When Dercylidas had gone this far into these parts, sent to Pharnabazus, to know whether 



he wanted war or peace. Pharnabazus was afraid what might happen to Phrygia where he lived. 
Phrygia bordered Aeolia, which was now controlled by Dercylidas. Therefore, Pharnabazus 
wanted a truce. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3.) 

3606a AM, 4315 JP, 399 BC 

1479. When this truce was concluded, Dercylidas marched into that part of Bithynbia which the 
Thracians held and there spent the winter. Pharnabazus liked this because the Thracians of that 
country often made inroads on Phrygia and Dercylidas plundered that part of Bithynia at will. 
He had plenty of provisions for the winter. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3.) 

1480. About 200 Odrysian cavalry and 300 targeteers were sent from Senthes, the king of 
Thracia, to help Dercylidas. When they first arrived, they forraged Bithynia and were almost cut 
off there. After this they stayed close with the Lacedemonian army and heavily plundered the 
territories of the Bithynians. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3.) 

1481. When spring was coming, Dercylidas moved from Bithynia and came to Lampsacus. 
Three ambassadors from Sparta, told him that his command was extended for another year. The 
Ephori of Sparta told the army there, that in the former time the soldiers had been extremely 
injurious to their confederates. They were commended for their good behaviour. He replied that 
it was the same soldiers who followed Cyrus in his wars but that they were under new 
commanders. This was the reason for the change of behaviour. When this was done, Dercylidas 
sent the ambassadors from Ephesus to take their journey through the Greek cities and countries 
in those parts. He told them how glad he was that they would find them all in so peaceable and 
prosperous estate. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3.) 

3606c AM, 4316 JP, 398 BC 

1482. When the ambassadors left, Dercylidas sent again to Pharnabazus, to know whether he 
would extend the truce from the previous winter or if he wanted war. Pharnabazus wanted to 
continue the truce. Therefore, Dercylidas passed with his army over the Hellespont and came 
into the Chersonesus of Thracia. This city contained 37 furlongs which he enclosed with a 
strong wall. This work started in the spring and was finished before the beginning of autumn. 
(Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 95.) Contrary to his custom, Diodorus 
combines the events of two years in one passage. 

1483. Conon the Athenian wrote his letters from Cyprus to Artaxerxes, concerning his own 
affairs. He desired these to be presented to him, either by Zenon of Crete, a dancer, or by 
Polycritus of Mendes a physician, or in their absence, by Ctesias, who was likewise a physician. 
It is said that when this letter came into Ctesias' hands, he added his own letter with it. Conon 
asked the king to send Ctesias to him, as an important man for the king's service in those parts 
especially in matters pertaining to the sea. Ctesias wrote that the king of his own accord sent and 
employed him in that service. Plutarch, (Plutarch in Artaxerxes,) wrote concerning the letters of 
Conon to the king and to himself and the speech which he gave to the king to understand the 
matter. These he has inserted into his own history. He relates also that at the same time when the 
Lacedemonians had sent ambassadors to the king, he committed them to custody and kept them 
there. 



1484. After Pharnabazus made truce with Dercylidas, he journeyed to the king and charged 
Tissaphernes before him. He said that Tissaphernes had not opposed Lacedemonian's army 
when it came into Asia. Instead, he supported them there at the king's expense. He told the king 
that it was a shame that the king's war should not be pursued to a conclusion. Rather, his 
enemies should not be bribed with money and but driven out with armies. He persuaded the king 
to supply a fleet and make Conon the Athenian the admiral. He together with the advice of 
Euagotas the king of Cyprus persuaded the king to give 500 talents to Pharnabazus for this 
purpose. The king commanded him to commit the charge of the Phoenician fleet to Conon and 
to make him commander-in-chief, over all his naval matters. (Diod. Sic. year 2 of the 95th 
Olympiad, with Isocrates in his Euagoras and in his Oration ad Philip, and Pausanias, in Attices 
and Justinus, 1. 6. c. 1.) 

1485. When Pausanias returned from the court, he made Conon admiral of the seas. He made 
many generous promises on the king's behalf. Conon was not fully furnished with a fleet. He 
took the 40 ships he had ready and sailed into Cilicia. There he prepared for war. (Diod. Sic. 
year 2 of the 95th Olympiad) 

3606dAM,4316JP, 398BC 

1486. Ctesias was sent by Artaxerxes to the seaside. He went first into Cnidia his own country 
and from there to Sparta. He says toward the end of his History which as Diodorus says ended 
with the third year of this 95th Olympiad. 

1487. Dercylidas returned from Chersonese into Asia. As he reviewed the cities he found that 
the bandits of Chios had taken over Atarne. They were using this as a base to make inrodes upon 
Ionia and lived on the spoil they found. Although Atarne was well fortified and contained much 
food, he besieged it for 8 months. (Xenophon, Hellenic. 1. 3.) 

3607 AM, 4317 JP, 397 BC 

1488. When Atarne surrendered, he put Dracon of Pellene in charge of it. He supplied the city 
with ample provisions so that he could use it for a good place to retreat to. He went to Ephesus. 
(Xenophon, Hellenic. 1. 3.) 

1489. When the ambassadors from Ionia came to Sparta, they stated that if Caria where 
Tissaphernes resided was invaded, they thought that Tissaphernes would quickly grant them 
permission to live according to their own laws. The Ephori wrote to Dercylidas that he should 
march to Caria with his army. Pharaces their admiral was to sail the fleet into those parts also. 
(Xenophon, Hellenic. 1. 3.) 

1490. At this time Pharnabazus went to Tissaphernes because Tissaphernes was the chief 
general and to let Tissaphernes know that he was ready to join with him in making war on the 
Greeks. Therefore they went to Caria to settle matters there. When they had put garrisons there, 
they returned to Ionia. Dercylidas heard that they had crossed the river Meander. He conferred 
with Pharaces and showed him that he feared lest Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus would both 
attack Ionia which now had no of garrisons. Then, Dercylidas crossed over the Meander also. 
(Xenophon, Hellenic. 1. 3.) 



1491. In the Persian army there were 20,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 cavalry. Dercylidas' army 
had about 7000 men. (Diod. Sic. 2nd year of the 95th Olympiad) The soldiers from Peloponesus 
were prepared to fight. The ones from Priene and Achilium, the isles and the other towns of 
Ionia were cowards. They abandoned their weapons in the grain which grew abundantly in the 
fields lying upon the Meander and fled. However, Tissaphernes remembered how well the 
Greeks who were in Cyrus' army had fought against himself and imagined that all Crecians 
would likewise be cowards. Therefore he did not attack them as Pharnabazus wanted to. He sent 
to Dercylidas and desired to come to talk with him. After an interchange of hostages, they met to 
discuss a peace treaty. Dercylidas demanded, that the king should allow all the Greek cities to be 
free. Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus demanded that the Lacedemonian forces should withdraw 
from the countries of the king's dominions and their commanders from the cities. A truce was to 
continue until Dercylidas could receive an answer from Sparta. Likewise Tissaphernes and 
Pharnabazus waited for an answer from the king. So both armies withdrew. The Persians 
returned to Tralles and the other to Leucophris. (Xenophon, Hellenic. 1. 3.) (Diod. Sic. 2nd year 
of the 95th Olympiad) 

3608 AM, 4318 JP, 396 BC 

1492. Now a certain man called Herodas of Syracuse in Sicily was living at that time with a ship 
captain in Phoenicia. He noticed that war ships were arriving daily. Others were being outfitted 
and others were being constructed. A navy of 300 ships was being prepared. Herodas boarded 
the first ship bound for Greece and went to Sparta. He told them that a large fleet was being 
made ready at Phoenicia. The purpose and destination of this fleet, he did not know. The 
Lacedemonians were much troubled by this news. Agesilaus one of their two kings was asked 
by Lysander to go with an army into Asia against the Persians. He was to take with him 30 men 
of Sparta whom they would choose to manage that war. The first man they picked was 
Lysander. He hoped to use this occasion to restore the Decemvirates throughout all the cities in 
Asia which he had set up before. The Ephori later had abolished these and ordered every city to 
live according to their own laws. So Agesilaus took 2000 of the newly made citizens of Sparta 
and 6000 from their confederate cities with provisions for six months. They sailed from 
Geraeium a port in Eubaea, with all the forces that he could gather and came to Ephesus. He did 
this so quickly that he landed there before Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus heard that he had set 
out. Thereby it came to pass, that he found them all unprepared for his arrival. Xenophon in 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3.) and in his Oration, of Agesilaus with Plutarch and Emil. Probus, in their 
several lives of Agesilaus and Pansa in Laconicis. Pansa says that he landed first at Sardis. 

1493. Agesilaus raised 4000 more soldiers at Ephesus. He had an army of 10,000 foot soldiers 
and 400 or (as the Latin translation has it) 4000 cavalry. To this a rabble of other men who 
followed the camp for pillage. These were as numerous as the army. (Diod. Sic. year 4 of the 
95th Olympiad.) 

1494. Tissaphernes sent to him to know why he came into Asia. He replied that he came to 
restore freedom to the Greek cities. Tissaphernes desired him to wait for 3 months so that he 
might send to the king. He assured him of a favourable reply from the king. Agesilaus sent 
Heripadas, Dercylidas, and Migialius to him to take an oath of him that he meant no guile but 
would do what he possibly could to procure the peace which he had promised. On behalf of 
Agesilaus, they would swear to Tissaphernes to keep the truce if Tissaphernes would keep his 
part of the bargain. Tissaphernes disregarded his oath and sent to the king to increase his army. 
Although Agesilaus knew well what he intended to do, yet he kept the truce. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 



3. and in his book of Agesilaus; with Plutarch and Emil. Probus. in Agesil.) 

1495. While Agesilaus stayed at Ephesus, civil disorder broke out in the cities. Neither the 
democratic government was obeyed which the Athenians set up nor the Decemviral which 
Lysander had set up. All became suitors to Lysander who was well known among them that he 
would obtain from Agesilaus for them what they desired. Hereupon it was that Lysander always 
had a large court of attendants and suitors about him so that Lysander now seemed to be king 
and Agesilaus a private citizen. This was a thorn in Agesilaus' side. Therefore he began to take 
the administration of matters from Lysander's hands and to reduce his authority. Then he sent 
him on an errand into Hellespont. When Lysander found that Spithridates, a Persian, (Plutarch 
calls him Mithridates) was under Pharnabazus, he desired to speak with him. After a conference 
Lysander persuaded him with his children and such wealth as he had and 200 calvalry to defect 
from Pharnabazus. Spirthrides left what he had safely at Cyzicum and came with his son to 
Lysander. He escorted them to Agesilaus who was glad to see him. Spirthides told Agesilaus 
exactly how things were with Pharnabazus. (Xenoph. Hellen. 3. and Plut. in the life of Agesilaus 
and Lysander.) 

1496. When Tissaphernes got more troops from the king, he became insolent and proclaimed 
war against Agesilaus unless he would leave Asia. Agesilaus was glad for this and ordered his 
men to prepare for war. He sent to the Ionians, Eloians and those of Hellespont to send to him at 
Ephesus all the troops they could spare. Tissaphernes thought that he would march into Caria 
but Agesilaus went with his army into Phrygia. In a suprise attack on the cities there, he 
obtained a vast some of money and other provisions from them and so came safely and without 
halting near to Daseylium. His cavalry scoured the country ahead of the army. They met with 
the cavalry of Pharnabazus and were routed. In that encounter they lost 12 men and 2 horses. 
When Agesilaus with his foot soldiers came to their rescue, the Persians on the other side retired 
having only lost one man. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. and in his Agesilaus, with Plutarch and Emil. 
Probus in their Agesilaus likewise.) 

1497. Agesilaus spent most of that summer plundering Phrygia and the nearby countries. He 
enriched his army with plunder. Toward the autumn he returned to Ephesus, (Diod. Sic. year 1 
of the 96th Olympiad) and there spent the winter. (Emil. Prob. in his Agesilaus.) 

3609 AM, 4319 JP, 395 BC 

1498. Nephereus or Nepherites reigned in Egypt for 6 years. 

1499. The Lacedemonians sent to Nephereus to join them against the Persians. Instead, he sent 
them a gift of tackle and 100 war ships and 30,000 bushels of wheat. (Diod. Sic. year 1 of the 
96th Olympiad.) Justin calls him Hercinion and so does Orosius. He relates the matter in this 
manner. The Lacedemonians' ambassadors asked for naval help from Hercinion They received 
100 war ships and 600,000 bushels of wheat, (Justin 1. 6. c. 2. and Orosius 1. 3. c. 1.) 

1500. Pharax the admiral of the Lacedemonian fleet, set sail from Rhodes with 120 ships and 
came to Sasanda a citadel in Caria about 19 miles from Caunus. He sailed from there and 
attacked the town of Caunus and Conon the Athenian who had 40 ships there. When 
Artaphernes and Pharnabazus came with an huge army to relieve Caunus, Pharax lifted his siege 
and returned with all his fleet to Rhodes. After this, Conon assembled 80 ships and sailed 



toward Chersonesus. At the same time the Rhodians kept out the Poloponesian fleet and revolted 
from the Lacedemonian state. They received Conon with all his fleet into their port and city. It 
happened that the Egyptian fleet which knew nothing of this change of affairs, boldly anchored 
off the island with all their cargo of wheat which was sent to the Lacedemonians. Conon with 
the Rhodians attacked them and brought all their men and cargo into the port and stored the 
grain there. (Diod. Sic. year 1 Olympiad 96.) The soldiers rebelled against Conon because the 
king's officers defrauded them of their pay. They asked for their pay the more boldly, because 
they were used in so great a service and served under so great a commander as Conon. (Justin. 1. 
6. c. 2.) 

1501. Agesilaus knew that he was no match for the enemy in the plains without sufficient 
cavalry. He raised more troops. He ordered throughout all the confederate cities that such of 
them as were rich and did not want to fight themselves should send to him a horse with a rider in 
his place. When the spring was coming, he commanded all his army to assemble at Ephesus. He 
carefully trained both cavalry and foot soldiers for war. During this preparation, he made the 
city of Ephesus seem more important than before. He made it the centre of the war effort. 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. and in his Agesilaus: and Plutarch and Emil. Pro. in the same man's life.) 

1502. A whole year had elapsed since Agesilans came from Sparta. The 30 commissioners 
assigned to him returned to Sparta. Lysander the head of the commissioners returned with them. 
30 others were sent to replace them of whom Heripidas was the leader. From these Agesilaus 
chose Xenocles and another one to lead the cavalry and Scythes to command the foot soldiers of 
the newly made citizens of Sparta. Heripidas was to lead them who had served under Cyrus. 
Migdon was over those who were sent by the cities of Asia. Agesilaus let it be known that he 
would march into the strongest part of the enemies' country so that they be mentally prepared for 
a fierce battle. Tissaphernes thought that he had done this to amuse him a second time and to 
keep him at home. He marched directly into Caria commanding his cavalry to stay behind and 
hold the plain of Maeander. However Agesilaus did indeed, exactly what he had said and his 
whole army attacked the country of Sardis. When he had marched for 3 days and saw no enemy, 
he gathered from there a huge stock of all kinds of provisions for his army. On the 4th day the 
enemies' cavalry was spotted. They found the Greeks scattered abroad and busy plundering the 
country. They attacked and killed most of them. When Agesilaus came to their rescue, he saw 
that the enemies' foot soldiers had not arrived. Since he was fully prepared, he attacked the 
enemy near the River Pactolus and won a great victory. He captured their camp. He found riches 
amounting to more than 70 talents of money. He transported all their camels into Greece. At this 
time, Tissaphernes stayed at Sardis. Therefore, he was charged by the Persians to be a deserter. 

1503. That is according to Xenophon. However, Diodorus, states that Tissaphernes was present 
in the fight with 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. Agesilaus came down from the hill 
country of Sipalus and overran all the plain around Sardis. He pillaged the land and destroyed a 
garden of Tissaphernes. It was enclosed and set with all sorts of trees and other things for 
pleasure, infinitely sumptuous and of most exquisite workmanship and beauty. Agesilaus turned 
from there and sent Xenocles with 14,000 to lie in ambush midway between Sardis and 
Tybarnae to intercept some Persians who were to pass that way. In this second battle with the 
Persians, he defeated them and killed over 6000 men. He took a great multitude of prisoners and 
captured their camp that was full of wealth. After all this, Tissaphernes fled to Sardis and 
Agesilaus returned to the seaside with his army. Pausanias also in his Laconica, writes, that 
Agesilaus fought with Tissaphernes in the plain country of Hermus and there defeated the 
cavalry and foot soldiers of the Persians. This was the largest Persian army since the time when 



Xerxes went into Greece or when Darius went into Scythia. It is best to trust Xenophon's 
account who was not only a reader to Agesilaus, (as Cicero 3 de Orators affirms,) and was very 
intimate and familiar with him. (as Emil. Pro. Says in the Life of Agesilaus and Diogenes 
Laertius, in the Life of Xenophon reports) Moreover, he was with him in all this war in Asia and 
the next year returned with him to Greece. 

1504. Conon the admiral of the Persian fleet had often sent letters to the king asking for pay for 
the navy. When this failed, he went personally to the king. Pharnabazus also encouraged him to 
accuse Tissaphernes of treason to the king. Therefore, Colon committed the charge of the navy 
to Hieronimus and Nicodemus (both of Athens) in his absence. He sailed into Cilicia and from 
there came to Thapsacum in Syria. He went on a barge down the river Euphrates to Babylon. 
There he talked with Tithraustes the Chiliarch who held the highest position next the king. 
Colon showed him who he was and that he desired to speak with the king. He could not be 
admitted to the presence or speak with the king without adoration, that is by prostrating himself 
before the king. Therefore he did his business with him by letters and messengers. He was 
successful. The king declared Tissaphernes to be a traitor and ordered Conon to take charge of 
the war against the Lacedemonians and to pay the navy using whomever he pleased to choose 
for that office. He was highly rewarded for his service and sent to the sea with authority to order 
what shipping he needed from the Cypriots and Phoenicians. These ships would guard the sea 
before the next summer and Pharnabazus was assigned to him for an assistant as Colon 
requested. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 96th Olympiad, Justin 1. 6. c. 2. Emil. Pro. in the life of 
Conon.) 

1505. Concerning the Cypriots, it is to be noted that at the very time while there passed 
courtesies and presents between Artaxerxes and them, the king intended to make war against 
them. It lasted 10 years before it ended, 8 of which he spent in preparations for it. This we shall 
show later when we come to the fourth year of the 98th Olympiad, from Diod. Sic. He speaks of 
the cause of that war, of which 8 years, it seems that only 6 were spent in preparation. At this 
time, Isocrates made his Panegirical oration in which he mentions many vain attempts made 
upon Euagoras by Artaxerxes. He says: 

vv He made war on Euagoras who was governor of one poor city in Cyprus and one who had 
formerly served him and became his vassal and lived on an island. He suffered a great loss at sea 
and had no more than 3000 targeteers to defend his state with. Yet, weak as he was, the king has 
not been able to have his will of him, though he has now spent six whole years in a war against 
him." 

1506. Parysatis, the queen mother, urged the king on against Tissaphernes. She hated him 
because of what he did to her son Cyrus. The king committed the war to Tithraustes and gave 
him letters for the cities and commanders in those parts ordering them all to do whatever 
Tithraustes required of them. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th Olympiad.) 

1507. When Tithraustes left, the king gave him two letters. In the one for Tissaphernes, he 
requested him to continue the war against the Lacedemonians. In the other, he sent to Ariaeus 
the commander of Larissa requiring him to help Tithraustes in the murder of Tissaphernes. 
Tithraustes delivered to Ariaeus as soon as he came to Colossae in Phrygia. When Ariaeus had 
read them, he sent for Tissaphernes asking him to come to Colossae. He wanted to consult with 
him about the king's matters especially concerning the war against the Greeks. Whereupon 
Tissaphernes suspected nothing and left his army at Sardis. He came quickly to Colossae with a 



troop of 300 Arcadians and Milesians and stayed at the house of Ariaeus. When he went to take 
a bath he laid aside his sword. Ariaeus with his servants seized him and put him into a closed 
coach and sent him away as a prisoner to Tithraustes. He took him as far as to Celaena and there 
cut off his head and sent it to Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes ordered it carried to his mother who was 
exceedingly glad to see it. So were all the Greek women, whose husbands had followed Cyrus in 
his war and were afterward killed by Tissaphernes' treachery. (Diod. Sic. year 1. of the 98th 
Olympiad, Polyanus stratagem. 1. 1. Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. and in his book of Agesilaus. and Plut. 
in the lives of Artax. and Agesilaus.) 

1508. Tithraustes sent messengers to Agesilaus to let him know that Tissaphernes who had 
started this war, had been punished for it. He stated that now the king had a good reason to 
withdraw his army from Asia and to leave the cities there to the use of their laws and pay the 
king their former tribute. Agesilaus told Tithraustes that he could not do this without the consent 
of his country. Finally, they came to this agreement, that he with his army would withdraw into 
Pharnabazus' country and would receive 30 talents to support them there until he received 
instructions from Sparta. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 3.) However, Diodorus writes, that after a parley 
Thithraustes and Agesilaus made a truce for 6 months. Xenophon in his book written to glorify 
Agesilaus, added that when Tithraustes offered him a great sum of money, if he would withdraw 
out of the king's territories, Agesilaus replied: 

vv Tithraustes, it is more honourable with us that a general to enrich his army rather than himself 
and to take spoils from his enemies rather than rewards." 

1509. While Agesilaus marched toward Phrygia which was under Pharnabazus' command, he 
received a Scytala or a letter from the magistrates of Sparta. They said that he should take 
charge of the navy as well as of the army. He should appoint as admiral of the navy whomever 
he saw fit. Whereupon in a short time, he raised a navy of 120 ships from the public 
contributions of the cities and the generousity of private citizens who desired to reward him 
personally. He appointed as admiral, Pisander, his wife's brother. He was a man desirous indeed 
of praise, honour and courage but unskilled in naval matters. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 3. Plut. in his 
Agesilaus. Pausan. in his Laconica.) 

1510. Pisander went away to the navy and Agesilaus continued on his way into Phrygia. 
Tithraustes knew that Agesilaus had no intention of leaving Asia but rather hoped to vanquish 
the king's forces right there. He sent Timocrates of Rhodes (for so Plutarch also calls him in his 
Laconical Apophthegmes, however the name of Hermoerates has crept in, in his life of 
Artaxerxes) into Greece with gold of the value of 50 talents of silver. He bribed the chief cities 
to conspire together, in a common war on the behalf of the Athenians against the Lacedemonian 
party. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 3. Plut. in his Artax. Pansanias in his Laconica and Messenica.) 

3610a AM, 4319 JP, 395 BC 

1511. About the beginning of autumn, Agesilaus entered into Phrygia which was under 
Pharnabazus' government. He pillaged all that country and took over all its cities either by force 
or voluntary surrender. He was persuaded by Spithtidates to march into Paphlagonia and to 
cause them to revolt from the Persians. Coyts its king, was previously sent for by Artaxerxes but 
would not go. He joined with Agesilaus. Spithridates persuaded Coyts to give 1000 cavalry and 
2000 foot soldiers to assist him. Agesilaus rewarded Spithridates for this by procuring Cotys' 



daughter for his wife. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. and in his Agesilaus and Plutarch likewise in his.) 
Agesilaus was always very desirous to reward his friends as it appears by that Epistle 
Laconically written and attributed to him. 

vv If Nicias has not done you wrong, forgive him: if he has forgive him for my sake, however 
forgive him." 

1512. (Plutarch in his Agesilaus and in his Laconical Apophthegmes.) 

1513. He marched from Paphlagonia to Dascylium where Pharnabazus' palace was. Around 
there were many towns full of provisions. Here he spent the winter and maintained his army. 
(Xen. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

3610b AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC 

1514. When his soldiers were foraging, they were not as wary as they should have been of their 
enemy because up until now they had never been bothered by them. By chance, Pharnabazus 
attacked them with two hooked chariots and 400 men as they were pillaging the area. The 
Greeks saw him and rallied into a troop of 700 men. Pharnabazus put his hooked chariots in the 
front, followed them with his cavalry and ordered them to drive into the middle of them. When 
the chariots had broken in and disordered them, his cavalry attacked killing 100 of them. The 
rest fled back to Agesilaus who was not far off with his foot soldiers. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

1515. Three or four days later, Spithridates found that Pharnabazus was with his army in a 
spacious unwalled town called Caije about 20 miles from there. He told Heripadas, chief of the 
council of war, about this. Spithridates asked Agesilaus to give him 2000 foot soldiers, 2000 
targeteers and as many cavalry that would voluntarily go with him. Less than half of each type 
of soldiers went with him. However, he set out with those which he had as soon as it grew dark. 
He came upon Pharnabazus at the very dawning of the day and slew the Mysians who happened 
that time to be on guard. The whole army was terrified and fled. Spithridates entered their camp 
and there took much booty including Pharnabazus' pavilion with all his luxurious furniture and 
wealth. Pharnabazus feared the Greeks and like the Scythian nomads, moved his camp here and 
there, never staying long in any one place. His main concern was that the enemy would not 
know where to find him. Heripedas made a rigourous search for the spoil. His soldiers stripped 
Spithradates and his Paphlagonians of all there plunder. After this, they spent all the next night 
taking what they could and went to Sardis to Araeus. He had formerly revolted from the king 
and served against him. In this Asian expedition, Agesilaus was more troubled by this departure 
of Spithridates, Megabates his son whom Agesilaus exceedingly loved and of these 
Paphlagonian troops. (???) (Diod. year 1, 98th Olympiad and Plutarch in his Agesilaus.) 

1516. After this, Agesilaus and Pharnabazus came to a parley by the mediation of Apollophanes 
from Cyzicum who was a friend of both of them. They tried to come to an agreement. 
Pharnabazus (as Xenophon has it in his oration concerning Agesilaus) openly stated that unless 
the king would make him absolute and sole commander of the army, he would revolt from him. 
If he could command all the forces then he would fight the war against Agesilaus as long as he 
could. Agesilaus told him that he would quickly depart out of his territory and not trouble him as 
long as he could find business elsewhere. As soon as Pharnabazus left, the son of his wife 
Pharapyta came running to Agesilaus and entered into a league of friendship with him. They 



gave each other gifts as tokens of their love. (???) (Diod. year 1, 98th Olympiad, and Plutarch in 
his Agesilaus.) 

1517. When spring came, Agesilaus came into the plains of Thebes and pitched near the temple 
of Diana Astyrina. There he gathered an exceedingly great store of wealth. He outfitted his 
troops to march into the upper countries. He did not doubt that the countries which he left 
behind him would defect from the Persians. (Xenophon. 1. 4. Hellen.) His fame was very great in 
Persia after spending two years in that war. (Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.) 

3610c AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC 

1518. The Lacedemonians learned that the Persians were bribing the principal cities in Greece to 
unite and revolt against them. They sent Epicidas to Agesilaus, to recall him to defend his own 
country. Although, Agesilaus was bothered by being taken from this great war, he wrote that he 
would obey their command. (Plutarch, in his Agesilaus.) He sent this letter to the Ephori which 
Plutarch inserted among his Apophthegmes. 

vv Agesilaus to the Ephori, greetings: we have subdued a great part of Asia, routed the barbarians 
and provided a great store of arms in Ionia. However because you have set a certain day to 
return by, I will obey your command and peradventure be back before that day. For I am king 
not for myself, but for you and our confederates. For a king is truly a king, when he is 
commanded by the laws, Ephori and the other magistrates of the city." 

1519. It is said also that he told his friends in jest that the king had driven him from Asia with 
30,000 archers. He meant that Timocrates' agent had distributed 30,000 golden darics, which 
were stamped with archers among the leaders of every city to create a common war against the 
Spartans, (Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes and in his Artaxerxes., c. 15. 5:43) 

1520. When Agesilaus returned, he left Euxemus behind him to be commander-in-chief with 
4000 soldiers to assist the Ionians if needed. So that he might return with a good army, he 
promised great rewards and honours to those cities and commanders who would send him the 
best cavalry and foot soldiers. Hence he made them all jealous of one another to see who could 
supply the best troops for him. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

1521. When Xenophon returned with Agesilaus into Boeotia to fight against the Thebans, he 
deposited half the gold which he had obtained on his expedition with Cyrus, at Ephesus with 
Megabyzus, the treasurer of the temple of Diana. He knew that by going with Agesilaus to battle 
he might be killed. He was killed later at Coronaea. Therefore, Xenophon ordered the treasurer 
that if he survived the battle he wanted the gold back. Otherwise all of it was to be consecrated 
to the goddess Diana. The rest of his gold he sent as offerings to Apollo at Delphi. (Expedit. Cy. 
1. 5. and Diog. Lacrtius in Xenophonte.) Agesilaus consecrated a tenth of all that he had 
obtained in his two years of war in Asia to Apollo at Delphi. This amounted to about 100 
talents. (Xenoph. and Plutarch, in their several lives of Agesilaus.) 

1522. When Agesilaus had crossed the sea at Hellespont, he received news of the victory which 
the Lacedemonians had near Corinth. Thereupon, he sent back Dercylidas into Asia to inform 
the Ionians. This was to encourage them and strengthen their loyalty to the Lacedemonian party. 
(Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus.) 



3610dAM,4320JP, 394BC 

1523. About this time the famous naval battle happened at Cnidus near the hill called Dorius. 
(Pausan, in the 2nd book of his Eliaca) Eubulus or Eubulis was governor at Athens. He took 
office at the very beginning of the 3rd year of 96th Olympiad according to Lysias, a very good 
author in his Oration concerning the acts of Aristophanes. 

1524. The commanders of the Persian fleet lay near to Doryma in Chersonesus with more than 
90 ships. Pharnabazus commanded the Phoenicians and Conon the Athenian commanded the 
Greek squadron. Pisander, (for whom Periarchus is incorrectly written by Diodorus) the 
Lacedemonian admiral sailed from Cnidus with 80 ships and came to a place called Physeus in 
Chersonesus. After he left there, he came upon a part of the king's fleet. He won the first battle 
with them. When the rest of the king's fleet came to their rescue, the friends of the 
Lacedemonians cowardly fled to land. Pisander with his ship attacked the thickest part of the 
enemy and slew many of them but died heroically in the fight. Conon with his men pursued the 
Lacedemonians hotly to land and took no less than 50 of their ships. The rest fled and returned 
safe to Cnidus. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. Diodorus year 2 of the 96th Olympiad. Justin 1. 6. c. 3. 
Emil. Probus in the life of Conon.) 

1525. When Agesilaus was now ready to invade Boeotia, he received news of the defeat of the 
Lacedemonian fleet and of the death of Pisander, his wife's brother. At that very instant, the sun 
was eclipsed and looked like a half moon. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. and Plut. in his Agesilaus) This 
happened on August 14th 394 BC, as appears by the astronomical accounts. 

1526. After this great victory at Cnidus, Pharnabazus and Conon expelled all the Lacedemonian 
governors and garrisons from all the islands and sea towns. They were told that they would 
never put any citadels in their towns but that they should hence forth live according to their own 
laws. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. Hellen.) First the Coi, then the Nisaeans, then the Teians, and those 
of Chios defected from the Lacedemoians. Then they of Mitylene, of Ephesus and Erythrae, did 
so also. Almost immediately, all the rest of the cities defected from the Lacedemonians. Some 
expelled the Lacedemonian garrisons, set up and maintained their own government. Others put 
themselves into Conon's hands. From that time on, the Lacedemonians lost the sovereignty of 
the seas. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 96.) 

1527. Dercylidas, an old enemy of Pharnabazus, at this time was at Agidus. He did not yield to 
Pharnabazus' commands as the others did but having made a grave and pithy speech to the 
inhabitants. He urged them to remain loyal to the Lacedemonians. When other commanders 
were expelled from there cities, they came to Dercylidas and were warmly received. Those that 
did not come voluntarily, were invited to come. When a multitude of them were come, 
Dercylidas went over to Sesus on the other side and there wooed all who were expelled from 
their commands on the European side. He encouraged them as he had done to the rest on the 
Asian side. He told them that in Asia itself which from the beginning belonged to the king, 
various places, as the small town of Temneus, Egae in Eolia and other places remained loyal and 
did not yield to the king. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

361 la AM, 4320 JP, 394 BC 



1528. When Pharnabazus planned to attack Ephesus, he turned over 40 ships to Conon. He 
ordered him to meet him at Sestus. He himself sent threatening letters to both places telling them 
that unless they expelled the Lacedemonians he would count them as his enemies. When they 
refused, he commanded Conon to blockade them by sea. Pharnabazus went and wasted all the 
country about Abydus. When they still refused to yield to him, he left and went home. He 
ordered Conon to deal with the cities bordering on the Hellespont. He was to assemble the 
greatest fleet that they could possibly make by next spring. So the winter was spent making this 
fleet. 

3611b AM, 4321 JP, 393 BC 

1529. At the beginning of spring, Pharnabazus assembled a mighty fleet and hired any ship he 
could. Pharnabazus took Conon with him and went through the middle of the islands of the 
Aegean Sea and came to Melus one of the Sporades. From there he could easily land in Laconia 
the country of the Spartans. 

3611c AM, 4321 JP, 393 BC 

1530. When Pharnabazus had wasted the country, he planned to return into Asia. Before he 
went, Conon prevailed with him to leave the navy with him. With it he would go to Athens and 
would repair the long walls and fortify the port of Poyroeum. He said that this would greatly 
trouble the Lacedemonians. Pharnabazus approved of this plan and gave him money to do that 
work. Conon came to Athens with 80 ships and started to repair the walls both of the city and 
port. He gave 50 talents that he received from Pharnabazus, to his fellow citizens. (Xenoph. 
Hellen. 1. 4., Diod. Sic. year 2. and 3. of the 96th Olympiad. Plut. in his Agesilaus and Laconical 
Apophthegmes. Justin 1. 6. c. 5. Emil. Prob. in the life of Conon.) 

3611dAM,4321 JP, 393BC 

1531. When the Lacedemonians heard that the Athenians were rebuilding their walls, they sent 
Antalcidas to Tiribazus, another chief commander of the king who lived at Sardis. He wanted to 
make Tiribazus their friend and to mediate a peace between him and them. The Athenians also 
sent Conon and various others to him as did the Boeotians, Corinthians and those of Argos. Now 
when they all came before Tiribazus, Antalcidas told him that he was come to sue for a peace 
between the king and his country men as the king desired. To that end, the Lacedemonians 
would not fight with him for the Greek cities in Asia but would be content if all the islands and 
other countries outside Asia might be free and live according to their own laws. When all the 
rest of the messengers disavowed that motion, the meeting broke up and every man returned 
home again. Although Tiribazus saw that it was not safe for him to make a league with the 
Lacedemonians without the king's consent, yet secretly he furnished Antalcidas with money to 
build up their navy again. He did this so that the Athenians and their confederates might be the 
more agreeable to a peace with the king. He imprisoned Conon at Sardis charging him guilty of 
everything the Lacedemonians said of him. They said Colon had used the king's soldiers and 
money only to get towns and cities for the Athenians and to restore Ionia and Eloia to them. 
After that, Tiribazus made a journey to the king to inform him of the Lacedemonians' purposed 
treaty and to tell the king what he had done to Conon and why he had done it. He then wanted 
direction from the king as to what to do. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 4. with Plut. in his Laconical 
Apophthegmes: an in his Agesilaus. Diod. Sic. 3rd year of the 96th Olympiad: Emil. Prob. in the 



life of Conon.) 

1532. After Saryrus, King of Bosphorus died, his son Leuco reigned for 40 years. (Diod. Sic. 4th 
year of 96th Olympiad.) 

1533. Parysatis the king's mother, had her trusted servant, hide slips of palm trees in the heap of 
sand and dust that buried the body of Clearchus as I mentioned earlier. Now after 8 years, a 
beautiful grove of palm trees grew which shaded all the place, as Ctesias reports in his Persica. 
He adds that when the king knew of this he greatly repented for killing Clearchus, a man whom 
the gods themselves respected. (Ctesias, in the Excerptions of Photius, and Plut. in the life of 
Artaxerxes.) 

1534. Some write that Conon was carried away prisoner to the king and executed. (Isocrates in 
his Panegyric.) However, Dinon, an historian and of great authority in Persian matters says that 
he escaped from prison. Dinon did not know if this happened with or without Tiribazus' 
knowledge and consent. (Emil. Prob. in his Conon.) 

3612 AM, 4322 JP, 392 BC 

1535. While Tiribazus was with the king, the king sent Struthas into lower Asia to take charge 
of the naval affairs. The Lacedemonians knew that Struthas hated them for the many injuries 
which Alcibiades had inflicted on the Persians in those parts and that Struthas favoured the 
Athenian party and their confederates. Therefore, they sent Thimbron to attack him. Thimbron 
sailed to Ephesus. From there and other places, on the Meander and from Priene, Leucophrye 
and Achillium, he plundered the king's neighbouring countries. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4.) He took 
over Ioadae and Coressus, a mountain 5 miles from Ephesus. He had 8000 men whom he had 
brought with him in addition to those which he raised in Asia. He often made incursions from 
there and wasted all provinces and nearby places that were under the kings control. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olymp. 97.) 

3612 AM, 4322 JP, 392 BC 

1536. After a while, Struthas, with a large company of cavalry, 5000 foot soldiers and almost 
12,000 targeteers camped near the Lacedemonian army. When Struthas knew that Thimbron did 
not keep military order in sending his men out for service, he sent some cavalry into the plain 
country. He intended that they would attack whomever they found. When he saw Thimbron 
send out forces in small numbers and not in military order to relieve them that were attacked, 
then Struthas and his main body of his cavalry, all in good battle array, attacked them. Thimbron 
and his dear friend Thersander were killed in the first attack. Thersander was an excellent 
minstrel and a very good soldier. Hereupon, the rest of the Greeks fled. The Persians chased 
them. Some they killed, others were captured and only few Greeks escaped to Cnidus and other 
Greek cities. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 97) 

3613 AM, 4323 JP, 391 BC 

1537. Ecdicus was sent by the Lacedemonians with 8 ships to help the bandits of Rhodes. He 
came to Cnidus and found that the Rhodians were very strong on land and sea and had a fleet 



twice as big as his. Therefore he stayed at Cnidus without attacking them. (Xenoph. Hellen. 4. 
Diod. year 2. Olympiad 97.) 

1538. In the same fleet, the Lacedemonians sent Diphridas with orders to land in Asia and to 
man all those cities which had adhered to Thimbron. He was to assemble the remaining troops 
from Thimbron's defeat and any other soldiers he could get. He started the war anew against 
Struthas. It was his good fortune to capture Tigranes, Strathus' son-in-law as he was going with 
his wife to Sardis. He let him go after extracting a large sum of money from him which he used 
to pay his army. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

1539. Euagoras the king of Salamis in Cyprus, ruled almost the entire island through the exploits 
of his son Protagoras. (Isocrates in his Euagoras.) The rest of the island, he took over partly by 
force and partly by persuasive words. The inhabitants of Amathusa, Solos and Citium sent to ask 
for help from Artaxerxes. They charged Euagoras with the killing of Argyris who was, while he 
lived, a confederate of the Persians and undertook to help the king get the whole island under his 
control. Artaxerxes wanted to check Euagoras and desired to control Cyprus so he could use it 
as a base to defend Asia. He ordered an attack against Euagoras and sent away the ambassadors. 
He ordered that all his sea towns in Asia to start building and outfitting all the ships they could. 
Artaxerxes went through the cities of upper Asia and raised a large army. (Diod. Sic. year 2. 
Olympiad 97.) He made Antophradates, the governor of Lydia the general of the army, and 
Hercatonnus the commander of Caria, the admiral of the naval forces. (Theopomp. in Biblioth. 
Photis, p. 176) Instead of making war against Euagoras, Hercatonnus secretly gave him money 
to hire mercenaries. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 97. and year 3. Olympiad 98.) 

3614c AM, 4324 JP, 390 BC 

1540. When the Lacedemonians saw that Ecdicus did not have enough forces to help their 
friends, they recalled Telentias from the bay of Corinth and sent him with 12 ships to replace 
Ecdicus. Telentias was to support as best he could the Rhodians who favoured the 
Lacedemonian party and to repress their enemies. When Telentias came to Samos he added 
more ships to his fleet. From there he sailed to Cnidus and dismissed Ecdicus. He set sail for 
Rhodes with a fleet of 27 well furnished ships. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 4. with Diod. Sic. year 2. 97th 
Olympiad.) 

1541. As he was on his way to Rhodes he came upon Philocrates who was sailing from Athens 
to Cyprus with 10 ships to help king Euagoras. Telentias took these and carried their spoil to 
Cnidus where he sold it. So it happened that they who were enemies to the king of Persia, 
plundered them who were going to make war against the king. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

3614dAM,4324JP, 390BC 

1542. The Athenians saw that the Lacedemonians were recovering their naval power. They sent 
Thrasybulus with a fleet of 40 ships against them. He sailed first into Ionia and gathered money 
from their confederates. He found that all the cities in Asia welcomed him because of that 
correspondence which was between the king and them. Therefore he set sail for Byzantium and 
farmed out the collection of the 10% duty on all ships that passed through that strait. When he 
made a league of friendship with the Chalcedonians, he returned from the Hellespont. (Xen. 
Hellen. 1. 4. with Diodor. year 1. Olympiad 97.) 



1543. After this he returned into Asia with his fleet and he sent for the required tribute from 
those of Aspendus which they paid. He anchored his fleet at the mouth of the river Eurymedon. 
However, some of his company went up into the country and plundered their goods. The men of 
Aspendus were furious and waited for a chance to strike back. When it came, they attacked and 
killed many of them including Thrasybulus while he was sleeping in his tent. This act terrified 
the Athenian captains and they quickly boarded their ships and sailed to Rhodes. The Athenians 
immediately sent Argyrius to replace Thrasybulus. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4. Diodor. year 3. 
Olympiad 97.) 

3615 AM, 4325 JP, 389 BC 

1544. Although the Lacedemonians had little reason to find fault with Dercylidas' actions, yet 
they sent Anaxibius to replace him in the government of Abydus. Anaxibius was in favour with 
the Ephori and promised to do wonders if he might be furnished with men and money. Therefore 
they gave him 3 ships and money to hire and pay 1000 sailors. When he came to Abydus, he 
raised the land forces with the money which he brought. He caused various cities of Eolia to 
defect from Pharnabazus. He wasted the enemies' country. When he got 3 more ships, he 
troubled the Athenians which sailed along that coast. If he happened to find any of their ships 
straggling from the rest, he captured and brought them to Abydus. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 4.) 

1545. When the Athenians heard of this, they sent Iphicrates who recently returned from 
Corinth, with 8 ships and 1200 targeteers, to maintain what Thrasybulus had gotten. He sailed 
into those parts against Anaxibius. When he came into Chersonesus both he and Anaxibius 
established a company of pirates and land robbers, to carry on the war for them. (Xenoph. 
Hellen. 1. 4.) 

3616 AM, 4326 JP, 388 BC 

1546. Anaxibius went to Antandrus with his mercenaries and his own country men and 200 foot 
soldiers from Abydus. There he was very kindly welcomed and entertained. Meanwhile 
Iphicrates placed ambushes for him in the mountain passages before Anaxibius could return 
from there to Abydus. The vessels which had carried Iphicrates over at night, Iphicrates ordered 
to row up the Hellespont that men might think that he was on-board and that he was going as his 
custom was to collect money. The men of Abydus who led the troops came into the plain which 
lies near a place called Cremastes, (where there are gold mines) and the rest were coming down 
the steep hill and Anaxibius with his Laconian troops followed them. Iphicrates with all his men, 
rose out of their ambush and attacked them. Anaxibius was thus entrapped, fought courageously 
and died along with 12 other Lacedemonians' governors of various cities. The rest fled and 
Iphicrates pursued them to the very gates of Abydus. Of these, 200 died in addition to 50 foot 
soldiers from Abydus. Iphicrates returned into Chersonesus. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 4. in. fi.) 

1547. The Lacedemonians sent Hierax to replace Teleutias as admiral of the fleet. Teleutias 
returned home. He was dearly loved and admired by his troops. (Xenophon Hellen. 1. 5.) 

3617 AM, 4327 JP, 387 BC 

1548. Shortly after, the Lacedemonians sent Antalcidas to replace Hierax hoping that they 



would please Tiribazus. When Antalcidas came to Ephesus, he left Nicholochus' lieutenant 
there. Antalcidas and Tiribazus went together to the king to conclude the peace which was then 
being disturbed. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 5. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 98.) 

1549. To secure Abydus, Nicolochus sailed from Ephesus and on the way he landed at Tenedos. 
He wasted their country and extracted a sum of money from them and then went on his journey 
to Abydus. Meanwhile the Athenian captains, who were at Samothrace Thasus and other places 
nearby hurried to come to the relief of Tenedos. When they found that Nicolochus had safely 
arrived at Agidus, they left Chersonesus with 32 ships and besieged him as he stayed at Abidus 
with 25 ships. (Xenoph. Hellen 1. 5.) 

1550. Chabrias with 800 targeteers and 10 ships was publicly sent by the Athenians to help 
Euagoras. He did not leave the place till he had subdued the whole island for him. By this the 
Athenians became famous in the world, (Xenoph. Hellen 1. 5. and Emil. Prob. in the Life of 
Chabrias.) Lysias the orator, in his oration upon Aristophanes, mentions the embassy sent from 
the Cypriots to the Athenians asking for aid. 

1551. Artaxerxes detested the Lacedemonians and always said (as Dinon reports) that they were 
the most impudent of all men living. However, when he saw Antalcidas, the Leonidas and the 
Calicratidas dance before him, he fell infinitely in love with him. When Antalcidas was eating 
supper, Artaxerxes sent him a garland made of roses and saffron from his own head. It was 
dipped in a most costly ointment. He was to wear it for the king's sake. Antalcidas replied: 

vv Sir, I take and thank you for this noble gift and favour but the perfume of its ointment mars the 
natural scent and fragrance of the flowers." 

1552. (Plut. in his Artax. and in his Polopidas and in his Sympos. 1. 7. ques. 8. Athenaeus 
Deiphos. 1. 2. Elia. Varia, Histor. 1. 14. c. 39.) 

1553. Tiribazus returned from the king with Antalcidas when he had made a firm league and 
alliance in case the Atheninas and their confederates would not partake in that peace which he 
had negotiated. When Pharnabazus went to the king who was in upper Asia, he married the 
king's daughter. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 5.) 

1554. When Antalcidas returned, he heard that Iphicrates and Diotimus besieged Nicolochus in 
Abydus with all their fleet. Antalcidas went there by land and sailed at night. He let on that he 
was summoned to Chalcedon. However, he besieged the port of Percope. When 4 captains on 
the Athenian side heard that Antalcidas sailed for Chalcedon, they planned to follow him upon 
the trade route to Proeconesus. As soon as they sailed by, Antalcidas sailed back to Abydus. By 
this stratagem, he placed 12 swift ships in an ambush and intercepted 8 ships which Thrasybulus 
the Athenian brought from Thrace to join the main Attic fleet. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 5.) Polyanus, 
1. 2. Stratag. in Antalcida.) 

1555. Antalcides received 20 ships from Syracusae and other parts of Italy which were brought 
him by Polyxenus and others. From Ionia, Pharnabazus sent ships. He also received ships from 
Atiobarzanes, his old friend. With his fleet of 80 ships he was absolute master of the sea. 
Thereby he forced those ships which came from Pontus and were bound for Athens to discharge 
their cargo in a port friendly to the Lacedemonian party. (Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 5.) 



1556. When Tiribazus had summoned all to come that would subscribe to the peace treaty of 
Artaxerxes, all the Greek cities sent their ambassadors. He showed them the document with the 
king's seals attached. He had it read to them: 

vv The King Artaxerxes thinks it reasonable that the cities which are in Asia as also the islands of 
Clazomena and Cyprus should be under his government. All other Greek cities, regardless of 
size, should be free and live according to their own laws. This excludes Leminus, Imbrus and 
Scirus, which are under the control of the Athenians. Those who shall not receive this peace, I 
will with those who agree to his peace, wage war by land and by sea with ships and with 
money." 

1557. The ambassadors returned to their respective cities with the terms of the peace. Although 
they were grieved to see the Greek cities in Asia under subjection, they accepted the peace. 
(Xen. Hellen. 1. 5. Isocrates in Panathen, Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 98. Plutarch in Agesil. and 
Artaxers. and in his Laconical Apophtheg. Aristides in his Leutric. 1 and 2.) This peace was 
proclaimed 19 years after the sea battle at Egospotamos and 16 years before the battle at Leuctra 
in Boeotia. (Polyb. 1. 1.) 

1558. When this peace was made, Agesilaus, (according to Xenophon) was very earnest to see 
that the terms were observed. The Lacedemonians appointed themselves defenders of the peace 
in Greece. Artaxerxes wrote a letter to Alcibiades which he sent by a Persian with Callias a 
Lacedemonian. He offered Alcibiades both hospitality and friendship. Alcibiades declined the 
offer and told the king's messenger to tell his master that: 

vv He need not trouble himself to write letters to him. For if he continued a good friend to the 
Lacedemonians, they would be good friends. But if he did any ill to them, he should not think 
that any of his letters should win him his friendship." (Plutarch in his Laconical Apophthegmes.) 

1559. In those articles of Antalcidas' peace, formerly related from Xenophon, who could not be 
ignorant of its terms, we find that not all the islands bordering on Asia but only two were given 
to the king. However Plutarch in the life of Artaxerxes, seems to think otherwise. These islands 
were Clazomenae (which as I showed before, 3504 AM and 3509 AM was then an island) and 
Cyprus. The nature of this peace now drew Chabrias from Cyprus, when he had already subdued 
it for Euagoras. Euagoras armed almost every man in the island and mustered a huge army 
against Artaxerxes. When Artaxerxes had made peace with the Greeks, he ordered all his forces 
to prepare for the conquest of Cyprus. (??) (Diod. Sic. 2 year, Olympiad 98.) 

3618 AM, 4328 JP, 386 BC 

1560. Artaxerxes mustered 300,000 foot soldiers and prepared 300 ships to attack Euagoras, the 
king of Cyprus. Orontes, the son-in-law to the king was the general of the army. The admiral of 
his fleet was Tiribazus. These two assumed their positions at Phocia and Cuma. They first sailed 
to Cilicia and from there landed in Cyprus. They waged a fierce war against Euagoras. He 
procured supplies from the Egyptians, Tyrians, Arabians and others who were enemies of the 
Persians. He had a fleet of 90 ships of which 20 were from Tyre and the rest were his. He had 
6000 foot soldiers and a huge number of auxiliaries from other parts. Since he had plenty of 
money, his army grew exceedingly large. (Diod. 1. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.) 



1561. Euagoras encouraged a number of pirates he had at his command, to attack the enemy 
cargo ships. Some they captured, others were sunk and the rest dared not sail for fear of them. 
When the food ran out for the Persian army, some of the mercenaries killed their commanders 
and the whole army was in rebellion. Hence the officers of the army and Gaus the chief officer 
at sea were barely able to quiet them. Whereupon, the whole navy sailed for Cilicia and brought 
food from there for the camp. Acoris king of Egypt supplied Euagoras all the grain, money or 
other provisions that he could wish for. (Diod. 1. 15. year 3. Olympiad 98.) 

1562. Euagoras knew that his fleet was far too weak for the enemies. Therefore he furnished 60 
more of his own ships and had 50 more sent to him from king Acoris. His fleet now totalled 200 
ships. In the first encounter by land, he defeated the Persians and routed them again at sea. He 
suddenly attacked their fleet as they were sailing to Citium and sunk some of them and captured 
others which were separated from the main body of the navy. When the admiral of the Persian 
navy and the rest of the commanders had time to recover, they counter attacked and the battle 
was fierce. At first Euagoras had the upper hand. When Gaus attacked with all his forces and 
personally fought very courageously, Euagoras' men fled with the loss of many of his ships. 
After the Persians won, they assembled their land and naval forces at Citium. When they 
outfitted, they went to besiege Salamis, the chief city, by land and sea. (Diod. 1. 15. year 3. 
Olympiad 98.) 

1563. Immediately after the fight Teribazus went into Cilicia to carry the news of the victory to 
Artaxerxes. Euagoras left Salamis to be defended by his son Pythagoras. (Protagoras perhaps, of 
whom I formerly made mention from Isocrates in 3613 AM.) He committed the charge of the 
whole isle to him. Euagoras escaped by night with only 10 ships and sailed to Egypt. He 
persuaded Acoris to make a war upon the Persians with all the power he could. (Diod. 1. 15. year 

3. Olympiad 98.) 

3619 AM, 4329 JP, 385 BC 

1564. Euagoras returned to Cyprus but with far less money than he expected. When he found 
Salamis strongly besieged and himself abandoned by his confederates, he sent to Tiribazus to 
ask for peace. Tiribazus who was commander-in-chief, replied that he would grant peace 
provided that he would surrender all Cyprus except Salamis into the king's hand and pay the 
king's tribute. He would submit to the authority of the king. As hard as these conditions were, 
Euagoras agreed to them only he would be subject to the king as one king is to another not as a 
slave to his master. Tiribazus rejected this. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.) 

1565. Orantes the other commander-in-chief who envied the position of Tiribazus, secretly sent 
letters to the king, his father-in-law. Among other matters, he accused Tiribazus of planning a 
rebellion. Also that he had secretly made an alliance with the Lacedemonians and used all 
means to win over to himself all the main captains and commanders of the army. The king 
believed these lies and ordered Orontes to seize Tiribazus and send him to him. (Diod. Sic. year 

4. Olympiad 98.) 

1566. Orontes feared Tiribazus but devised this plan. There was a house which had a great vault 
in it. Over this vault he placed a bed and removed its bottom. He covered it over with tapestry 
and many costly covers. Then he asked Tiribazus to come to him, pretending that he wanted a 



conference about some urgent matters. When Tiribazus came in, he sat down on the bed and fell 
through into the vault. He was caught and sent bound in chains to the king. (Polyan. Stratag. 1. 

7.) 

1567. Now Orontes commanded all the forces in Cyprus. He saw that Euagoras had taken fresh 
courage and endured the siege more stoutly than before. His soldiers were discontented by 
Tiribazus' misfortune. When Orontes received no commands he abandoned the siege. He 
granted Euagoras a peace on the terms Euagoras had purposed to Tiribazus. These were that he 
would pay a yearly tribute to the king, he would continue to be king of Salamis and as a king he 
would be obedient in all things to the king. Hence this war in Cyprus ended, which had lasted 10 
years of which 8 years were spent in preparations and only 2 years in the war. The king had 
spent 50,000 talents on it. When all was done, Euagoras was in the same state as he was when 
the war began. (Isocrates in his Euagoras, Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.) 

1568. Gaus, vice-admiral of the navy and son-in-law to Tiribazus, feared lest he be thought to 
know of Tiribazus' plans that he might meet the same fate as Tiribazus. He thought of defecting 
from the king. With wealth and soldiers enough and having the loyalty of the chief captains of 
the navy, he confederated with Acoris king of Egypt and the Lacedemonians to make war on 
Artaxerxes. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.) 

1569. Artaxerxes followed the example of Cambyses, (Herod. 1. 5. c. 25. Valer. Max. 1. 6. c. 3.) 
and had certain of his judges to be flayed alive and their skins hung over the judgment seats. He 
did this so that they who judged would know what hung over their heads and might be the more 
careful to do justice to his people. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 98.) 

3620 AM, 4330 JP, 384 BC 

1570. Artaxerxes lead an army of 300,000 men against the Cadusii, a people lying between the 
Euxine and the Caspian Sea, (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 98. Plut. in Artaxerxes.) In this war, 
many important men died on each side. One on the king's side was Camislates, a Carian who 
was a brave and valiant man. The king had made him governor of the part of Cilicia, which lies 
next to Cappadocia and is inhabited by the Leucosytians. In honour of him, the king made his 
son Datames, governor in his place. He also did great exploits for the king in this war, (Emil. 
Prob. in the Life of Datames.) 

1571. Artaxerxes' army in this war was very short of supplies. So much so that a man could 
hardly buy the head of an ass for 60 drachmas. Teribazus, who lived then as a poor neglected 
and contemptible soldier in the army, relieved them in this manner. There were at that time two 
kings of the Cadusians and they kept their camps separated. Therefore Teribazus told his plan to 
Artaxerxes. He went to one of the kings and sent his son secretly to the other. Each deceived the 
king and persuading him that the other king had secretly sent to Artaxerxes to make a peace with 
him for himself and to leave the other out. Hereupon, each king sent ambassadors, the one with 
Teribazus, the other with his son to the king and he made peace with them both. So the war was 
ended. (Plut. in Artaxerxes.) 

1572. Upon this, the king referred the case of Teribazus to three honourable persons. He made 
his innocence so obvious and showed that his services to the king were so great, that they 
declared his innocence. After this, the king held him in very high esteem and heaped great 



honours on him. Orontes was condemned as a false accuser and thrust from the king's favour. 
He was counted as an ignominious person after that. (Diod. Sic. year. 4. Olympiad 98.) 

1573. While Gaus was in Cyprus, the Greeks who served under him there, wrote letters against 
him and sent them to Ionia. To find out who they were, and what they wrote he did the 
following. He prepared a ship with sailors. He had the captain say that he was sailing for Ionia. 
The ship stayed for a while to get as many letters aboard as possible and at last set out. Shortly it 
turned back into a creek not far from the place where it set out from. Orontes went there on foot. 
All the letters aboard were given to him. After Gaus had read them and found out who had sent 
them, he had them all executed by torture. (Polyan. Stratag. 1. 7. for "Gaus" is incorrectly written 
"Alos" and "Glos.") 

3621 AM, 4331 JP, 383 BC 

1574. After Gaus had provoked the Egyptians and Lacedemonians to war against the Persians, 
he was killed. I do not know how nor by whom and his plans came to naught. After his death, 
Tachos got an army and built the town Leuca on a high hill that bordered on the sea. He also 
built a temple for Apollo. Shortly after this he died. The Clazomenians and the men of Cuma 
disagreed over who owned this town. The Clazomonians were quicker and took control of it. So 
all rebellions in Asia ceased. After the death of Gaus and Tachos, the Lacedemonians 
abandoned Asia and had nothing more to do with it. (Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olympiad 94.) 

3622b AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC 

1575. When Pharnostratus was governor of Athens, in the month Possideon in the 366th year of 
Nabonassar's account on the 26th day of the Egyptian month, Thoth, at 5:30 am December 23rd 
383 BC, there was a small eclipse of the moon observed at Babylon. (Hipparch. in Ptol. in his 
great Syntax. 1. 4. c. ult.) 

3622c AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC 

1576. In the same man's time, in the month Scirrophorion and in the same year of Nabonassar, 
on the 24th day of the month Phammenoth at 6:30 pm June 18th 382 BC another lunar eclipse 
was observed at Babylon. (Hipparch. in Ptol. in his great Syntax. 1. 4. c. ult.) 

3623a AM, 4332 JP, 382 BC 

1577. When Evander was governor of Athens, in the month of Possideon, in the 367th year of 
Nabonassar's account, the 16th day of the month Thoth, at 9:30 pm December 12th 382 BC 
there was a third lunar eclipse observed at Babylon. This was a total eclipse. (Hipparch. in Ptol. 
in his great Syntax. 1. 4. c. ult.) 

3627 AM, 4337 JP, 377 BC 

1578. Acoris king of Egypt bore an old grudge against the king of Persia. He gathered a huge 
army of aliens, especially from Greece. He made Chabrias the Athenian the general of the army. 
He, without any orders from or consent from Athens, assumed this charge in Egypt and prepared 



all he could for this war against the Persians. Artaxerxes made Pharnabazus general of his army 
for this war. When he had made many preparations for it, he sent messengers to Athens and 
there charged Chabrias for offering his service to the Egyptians. Thereby they would lose 
Artaxerxes favour. He desired that they would send to him Iphicrates their general. The 
Athenians who were mainly desirous to endear the king to them and to keep Pharnabazus as 
their good friend, sent for Chabrias from Egypt and gave Iphicrates orders to go and help 
Pharnabazus. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 100.) 

1579. Iphicrates had the charge of 12,000 mercenaries committed to him by Artaxerxes. By 
continual training and exercise, he made them expert in the art of military affairs. Later among 
the Romans a skilful soldier was commonly called a Fabian soldier after Fabius and likewise in 
Greece a good soldier was called an Iphicratian soldier after Iphicrates. (Emil. Prob. in 
Iphicrates,) Pharnabazus spent many years in preparing for this war. One time when Iphicrates 
found Pharnabazus a man so voluble in his speech and so slow in his actions, he asked him the 
reason why. Pharnabazus said the reason was because I am master of my words, but the king of 
my actions. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 101.) 

1580. Hecatonus Mausolus was made a governor of Caria and so ruled for 24 years. (Diod. Sic. 
year 4 of Olymp. 106.) He married Artemisia, the older of his two sisters. (Strabo. 1. 14.) 

3628 AM, 4338 JP, 376 BC 

1581. After Acoris died, Psammuthis reigned 1 year in Egypt. 

3629 AM, 4339 JP, 375 BC 

1582. After him, came Nepherites, the last of the dynasty of the Mendesians, and reigned 4 
months. Then arose the first of the dynasty of the Sabennitae, called Nectanabis who reigned 12 
years. 

1583. Artaxerxes was now ready to make war on Egypt. To get more aid from Greece, he sent 
his ambassadors there to encourage them to make a general peace among themselves. The terms 
were that every city should from that time on live according to their own laws and they should 
have no garrisons among them. All the cities of Greece accepted this, except the Thebians. 
(Diod. Sic. year. 2. Olymp. 101.) 

3630 AM, 4340 JP, 374 BC 

1584. When Artaxerxes' army was assembled at Aeon in Syria, he had 200,000 troops under 
Pharnabazus and 20,000 Greeks under Iphicrates. In the navy, excluding cargo ships, he had 300 
ships with 3 banks of oars and 200 of 30 oars a piece. The first type are called trireis in Greek, 
the other teiacitioui. In the beginning of the summer, i.e. in the first of the spring, the Persian 
navy sailed for Egypt and came to the frontier town near Syria called Pelusium. They found it 
exceedingly well fortified by Nectanabis. Hence they put out to sea again and when they were 
out of sight, they steered for Mendesium, a city on one of the mouths of the Nile. There the 
shore runs a great way out from the land. They landed 3000 men and Pharnabazus and Iphicrates 
went to surprise a fort that stood on the very mouth of the river. When they came there, 3000 



Egyptian cavalry and foot soldiers came to defend the place. There was a fierce skirmish 
between them. At last, the Egyptians were overwhelmed with the number of Persians which 
came thronging from the ships to help their troops. They were totally surrounded and were 
slaughtered. Many of them were taken and the rest fled to a little town nearby. Iphicrates' men 
pursued them and entered pell mel with them into the gate and captured it. They rased it to the 
ground and carried away its inhabitants as prisoners. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.) 

1585. Iphicrates advised them to go presently by water to assault Memphis, the main city of all 
Egypt. It had no garrison and he thought they should attack it before the Egyptian forces came in 
to defend it. Pharnabazus did not agree. He would stay until his army came and so they could 
attack them with less danger. By this delay, the Egyptians had enough time to get supplies into 
Memphis and from there they made various attacks on the small town which the Persians had 
seized as I had said before. They skirmished frequently with them and slaughtered many of 
them. When the time of the year came, the Nile flooded all the country around there and helped 
fortify Memphis. Therefore the Persian commanders thought it foolish to fight against nature 
and withdrew from there for the present. So all those huge preparations came to naught. (Diod. 
Sic. year 3. Olympiad 101.) 

1586. As soon as they returned to Asia, Iphicrates lost favour with Pharnabazus. Iphicrates 
feared that he might be thrown into prison as happened to Conon. Therefore, he sailed secretly 
to Athens by night. Pharnabazus sent for him and charged that he was the reason why Egypt was 
not conquered. The Athenians replied that they would punish him if they saw fit. Shortly after 
this, the Athenians made him the admiral of all their fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 101) 

1587. Nicocles an eunuch in Cyprus, murdered Euagoras and made himself king of Salamis 
according to Diodorus in this year's account. Euagoras was murdered by an eunuch, (Aristotle 5. 
of his Politic, c. 10.) but states that his name was Thrasydaeus. We learn from Theopompus 
(Biblioth. Photii. n. 176.) that Euagoras, by this eunuch's help got to lie with the daughter of 
Nicocreon. He was that tyrant of Cyprus, who (Plutarch in his life) invited Isocrates to supper 
and that was the cause of his death. Nicocles was Euagaoras' own son according to Isocrates. He 
had 20 talents from Nicocles for his written oration that he sent to him. (Plutarch in the life of 
Isocrates) We still have his oration addressed to Nicocles concerning the functions of a king. 
Another oration entitled Nicocles concerns Nicocles' duties as a prince. A third oration called 
Euagoras, is a funeral oration made for him. Nicocles in this very year solemnified his father's 
funeral in a costly and magnificently pompous manner. He held all types of games of music, 
dancing, wrestling, ship fights and cavalry battles for the funeral. Therefore Isocrates wrote this 
oration to him in praise and commendation of his father. He hoped that this would serve both 
Nicocles and his sons and children after them as an example and exhortation of well doing. 

vv Supposing, that this will serve both you and your children, and the other descendants of 
Euagoras for utmost encouragement to your well doing," (Isocrates in his Euagoras.) 

1588. Hence we may amend that error in Diod. Sic. and say truly that Euagoras was murdered 
by Thrasidaeus an eunuch and that his own son Nicocles succeeded him in the kingdom of 
Salamis. 

3633 AM, 4343 JP, 371 BC 



1589. When Alcisthenes was governor at Athens, the Greek cities resumed their infighting. 
Artaxerxes sent ambassadors to urge them to obey the peace treaty and live peacefully with each 
other. All the Greek cities except Thebes swore an oath to keep the peace. When the peace was 
made and agreed to by the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Artaxerxes, Iphicrates was recalled 
with his fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 102. with Xenoph. Hellen. 1. 6. and Diony, Halicarnas. 
in the life of Lysias.) 

1590. Plutarch (in the life of Agesilaus), shows that this peace was concluded and made among 
the Greeks at Lacedemon on the 14th day of the month Scirrophorion with the Athenians and in 
the last month of Arcisthenes' governorship at Athens on Thursday, July 16, 371 BC. 

3634 AM, 4344 JP, 370 BC 

1591. The Lacedemonians were badly defeated at Leuctra by Epaminondas. They immediately 
sent Agesilaus to Egypt and Antalcidas to Artaxerxes to get money. Artaxerxes rejected 
Antalcidas' request with much scorn and indignation. When he returned he starved himself to 
death because he had been so spitefully used by Artaxerxes and he feared what the Ephori 
would do to him. (Plut. in Artax.) 

3635 AM, 4345 JP, 369 BC 

1592. Artabarzanes sent Philiscus of Abidus, who was one of Artaxerxes' lords to Greece to 
resolve matters between Thebes and their confederates and the Lacedemonians. Philiscus 
summoned them all to Delphi. Thebes was adament that Messene should not be under the 
Lacedemonian jurisdiction. Philiscus was so offended by this that he left 2000 of his best 
soldiers to assist the Lacedemonians against Thebes. Philiscus returned to Asia. (Xenoph. 
Hellen. 7. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 102.) 

3636 AM, 4346 JP, 368 BC 

1593. When Thebes controlled Greece, they thought it good to send their ambassadors to the 
king of Persia. For this purpose they called their confederates together and pretended that 
Euthycles of Lacedemon was already with the king. They sent to the king, Pelopidas from 
Thebes, Antiochus the athlete from Arcadia, Archidamus of Eleus, a town in Thrace and one 
other from Argos. When the Athenians heard this, they sent their ambassadors, Timagoras and 
Leontes, to the king. Among them all Pelopidas was the most gracious in the king's eyes and 
next to him was Timagoras. All of the others were most honourably treated by the king. (Xen. 
Hellen. 1. 7.) 

1594. Ismenias from Thebes was joint commissioner with Pelopidas in this embassy. When he 
was brought by Tithraustes the chiliarch into the presence of the king, he was asked to prostrate 
himself before the king. He dropped his ring before him and presently fell all down and 
recovered his ring. The king thought he did this to honour him and gave him whatever he asked. 
(Plut. in Artax. Elia. Var. Hist. 1. 1. c. 21.) 

1595. At the same time, Timagoras the Athenian sent a confidential letter by Bubaris' secretary 
to the king. For his trouble he received 1000 darics. Timagorous had a rich supper sent him at 



his lodging. Whereupon the king's brother Ostanes, said to him: (??) 
""Remember Timagoras this supper. For it is not sent you for any lowly purpose." 

1596. This sounded like he was upbraiding Timagoras for some treasonous purpose in him 
rather than congratulating him for the gift sent to him. (Plut. in Artax.) It is also said that the 
king gave Timagorous 80 cows because he was so sickly and the cattle would give him milk on 
his journey home. The king also gave him a costly bed and furniture along with some servants to 
make it because the Greeks were not skilled in such matters. Moreover the king had him carried 
all along to the seaside in a litter because of his weakness. The king gave those who carried him 
4 talents for their work. (Plut. in Artax. and in his Pelopidas) In (Athena. 1. 2.) we are told that 
Timagoras, after his prostration to the king was treated with great honour by the king. He adds 
only:(??) 

vv that the king sent him some dishes from his own table." 

1597. Concerning the costly bed and furniture and the men to make it, (as if the Greeks knew 
not how to make a bed,) that were sent by Artaxerxes, he says it was to Timagoras of Crete or 
Eutimus of Gortyna in Crete, as Phanias in the Peripatetic calls him. 

1598. Pelopidas by his gracious behaviour with the king, got letters from the king stating that 
the king ordered that Messene should be exempt from Lacedemonian jurisdiction and the 
Athenians were required to withdraw their ships. If they did not obey, the king proclaimed open 
war against both of them. If any city refused to follow him in this war then that city would be 
the first of all other cities to be made an example of. When Leontes spoke publicly that it was 
time for the Athenians to look for new friends instead of the king, Artaxerxes asked that if the 
Athenians did not like it, they should come and state the reasons why not. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 7.) 

1599. When the ambassadors came home, the Athenians took Timagoras and decapitated him 
for his prostration to the king. They were insulted that the grovelling flattery of one of their 
citizens should subject the whole honour of the Athenian state to the domineering power of the 
Persians. (Valer. Max. 1. 5. c. 3.) (In the text, "Darius" is written by mistake for "Artaxerxes.") 
Others say that it was for his base acceptance of the king's gifts. For more of this see (Plutarch in 
his Artax. and Pelopidas.) Xenophon says that he was accused by his companion Leontes of not 
lodging with him and communicated all his counsels with Pelopidas. This no doubt was the 
main cause for his execution. 

1600. Thebes summoned all the cities of Greece to hear the king's letters read. They were 
publicly read by the Persian that brought them. He first showed them the king's seal on the 
letters. The letters stated that all who would be friends to the king and Thebes were required to 
take an oath for the observance of the contents of those letters. The delegates and later the cities 
refused to take that oath. Hence that mission to Artaxerxes and the sovereignty of Greece 
engineered by Pelopidas and Thebes came to naught. (Xen. Hellen. 1. 7.) 

3638a AM, 4347 JP, 367 BC 

1601. Jubilee 22. 



3638d AM, 4348 JP, 366 BC 

1602. Artaxerxes sent other ambassadors into Greece to require them to stop these wars and to 
make a peace among themselves. In the end, he prevailed with them. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 
103.) 

1603. Eudoxus the Cnidian, surnamed "Endoxos", that is "the famous", was in his prime at this 
time. He went to Egypt with Chrysippus a physician, and carried with him letters of 
commendation from Agesilaus to Nectunabis who commended him to the priests there. After 
spending time with Iconupni of Heliopolis, (whom Clemens Alexan. in the first book of his 
Stromat. calls Conuphis) Apis the bull came to lick his cloak. Whereupon the priests said, that 
he would become very famous but it would not be long lived. (Phavorinus in his commentaries) 
When Eudoxus had stayed in Egypt for 16 months, he shaved himself all over to his very eye 
brows and wrote the Octocris, as some say. This we have in our discourse on the Macednian and 
Asiatic year. (c. ult.) From there he is said to have travelled to Cyzicum and Propontis and to 
have spread his philosophy in those parts. He finally came to Mausolus. (Diog. Laertius in his 
Eudoxus,) Others say that Eudoxus went with Plato to Egypt and they both studied 13 years with 
the priests there. (Strabo, 1. 17.) 

3639 AM, 4349 JP, 365 BC 

1604. At Heraclea in Pontus, the common people wanted all debts to be cancelled and all lands 
equally shared among them. The nobility sent to Timotheus, Prince of Athens and also to 
Epaminondas of Thebes for help against them. When they refused, they recalled Clearchus 
home whom they had formerly exiled and begged his help to repress the common people. (Justin 
1. 16. c. 4.) 

3640 AM, 4350 JP, 364 BC 

1605. Clearchus used the dissention among the people as an occasion to become ruler of the 
city. He dealt secretly with Mithridates king of Pontus. He was an enemy in Greece. Clearchus 
agreed with Mithridates that when he was called home, he would betray the city into 
Mithridates' hands and control it after this as governor under Mithridates. When Clearchus set a 
time to deliver the city into Mithridates his hand, Clearchus captured Mithridates and those that 
accompanied him when they came to take over the city. Clearchus threw them into prison and 
let them go when he had extorted a huge sum of money from them. So instead of maintaining 
the rich men's cause against the people, he made himself a patron of the common people against 
them. He stirred up the common people against them and behaved cruelly toward the nobility. 
When the people had made him ruler Clearchus cast 60 of the chief of them (for the rest were 
fled) into prison. After first taking away their goods, he had them executed. (Justin 1. 16. c. 4.) 
He followed the example of Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse and he ruled the city for 12 years. 
(Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad 104. with the Collections of Photius in his Biblioth. from Memnon 
the Historiographer of Heraclea, n. 224.) 

3641 AM, 4351 JP, 363 BC 

1606. Tachos, whom Polyanius (1. 7. Stratgem.) calls "Thamos", Aristotle (1. 2. of his 



Oeconomics) "Taos" and Julius Africanus, "Teos", reigned in Egypt for 2 years. 

1607. With this year Xenophon concludes his 7 books of his Greek history. Anaximes 
Lampsacenus concludes the first part of his history. He starts from the birth of the gods and 
creation of mankind and ends with the battle of Manthinea in which Epaminondas was killed. 
The history is in 12 volumes and records almost all things that happened among either the 
Greeks or the barbarians. (Diod. year 2. Olympiad 104.) In the second part he sets down all the 
deeds of Philip of Macedonia and his son, Alexander the Great. (Pausa. 2. of his Eliaca.) 

1608. After Mithradates king of Pontus died, Ariobarzanes, the governor of Phrygia under 
Artaxerxes, seized the kingdom of Pontus and ruled it for 26 years. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 
104. and year 4. of Olympiad 1 10.) 

1609. When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea found that the chief men of Heraclea who had fled 
from there stirred up all the neighbouring cities and states against him, he freed all their slaves. 
He gave them their masters' wives and daughters in marriage and threatened death to those that 
would not. By this he made those slaves more loyal to him and made them more hostile to their 
masters. Many women reckoned these forced marriages to be worse than death itself. Therefore 
before their wedding, many murdered their husbands to be and then killed themselves. At last 
the nobles had a battle with Clearchus. He won and took the nobles as prisoners and led them in 
a triumph through the city in the sight of all the people. Then he put some of them in irons, 
others on the rack and others he put to death. He left no part of the city free from the sight and 
sense of his cruelty. (Justin 1. 16. c. 5.) 

3642 AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC 

1610. The Lacedemonians became the enemies of Artaxerxes when he claimed to be their friend 
and yet ordered them to withdraw from Messene and to make it a distinct member in the league 
of Greece. (Xenoph. in his Agesulaus, and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Ariobarzanes, the 
Governor of Phrygia joined with the Lacedemonians. He, as I said before, after the death of 
Mithridates had taken over the kingdom of Pontus. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) 

1611. Autophrades, the governor of Lydia besieged Ariobarzanes in Assos, a city of Troas. 
However, he lifted his seige and fled in fear when Agesilaus, who was now old, came into Asia 
only to raise money for his country. Cotys, who besieged Sestus and was under Ariobarzanes' 
command, lifted his seige also. Mausolus who besieged Assus and Sestus with 100 ships was 
persuaded to withdraw and he returned home with his fleet. Ariobarzanes, (??) a friend of the 
Lacedemonians, furnished Agesilaus with money for his country and sent him on his away. 
(Xenoph. in his Agesilaus,) Polyanus (1. 7.) mentions the siege of Ariobarzanes by Autophrates 
in Adramytium. 

1612. Mausolus, called his friends together and told them that unless Artaxerxes was given an 
excessive sum of money, he would take away his country which he held by inheritance from his 
father. His friends thought the country brought him, in an instant, an infinite sum of money. 
(Polyenus 1. 7. Stratag.) compared with (Aristot. in his Oeconomics:) However they saw that he 
was not going to yield to Artaxerxes. Mausolus allied himself with those governors and captains 
who were rebelling against Artaxerxes. At this time all of Ionia, Lycia, Pisidia, Pamphilia and 
Cilicia were in rebellion against him. In addition, the Syrians, Phoenicians and almost all that 



bordered on the Asiatic sea rebelled. Also, Tachos king of Egypt, proclaimed open war against 
Artaxerxes and was busy everywhere building ships and raising forces for the war. Many of 
these came from all of Greece and Tachos formed an alliance with the Lacedemonians. (Diod. 
Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) 

1613. When all these rebellions happened at once against Artaxerxes, he lost half of his 
revenues. The remainder was not enough for the war considering that he was to support a war 
against the king of Egypt, all the Greek cities and countries in Asia. Also he had to war against 
the Lacedemonians and their confederates, namely the governors which held the sea towns and 
regions in all Asia under their command. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) 

1614. The king of Egypt sent for Agesilaus, promising to make him general of his army. 
(Xenoph. in his Agesilaus.) He was sent there by his country and used the money from Tachos 
to hire mercenaries. He loaded his ships with 1000 foot soldiers and took with him 30 Spartan 
commissioners for his War Council. (Plut. in his Agesilaus: and Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 
104.) When the news of his landing came to the courtiers in Egypt, they strived to be the first to 
send him presents. When they came to him, they scorned him. They saw no attendants about 
him but only a decrepit and wearisome old man, lying along on the beach sloven-like and of a 
small stature. They loathed his sordid and insulant behaviour all the more when they saw that he 
selected only some grain and veal from all the rich foods they sent him and threw away the 
dainties, sweet meats and precious ointments to his soldiers. (Plut. and Emil. Prob. in his 
Agesilaus.) The king of Egypt did not keep his promise and did not make him the general of his 
army. (Xen. in his Agesilaus.) He derided him for the smallness of his stature and said that 
whoever spoke the old proverb was correct: 

vv The hills were great with young and delivered a mouse." 

1615. which when Agesilaus heard, he said in a rage, 

vv I will one day seem a lion to him." (Athenae. 1. 14. with Plutarch) 

1616. Chabrias the Athenian, was not sent by public authority as Alcibiades was. Tachos 
persuaded him to serve him as a private citizen. (Diod. Sic. and Plutarch.) When Chabrias saw 
the king was short of money, he advised him to take what money he could from the rich and 
promise them to be paid from his yearly taxes. By this means, Tachos gathered an enormous 
sum of money without injuring anyone. (Polya. Strat. 1. 3.) Aristotle (1. 2. of his Oeconomics.) 
numbers this as but one of the many schemes he had for raising money at this time. 

1617. They who rebelled in Asia, made Orontes the governor of Mysia, their commander-in- 
chief. When he received enough money to pay for 20,000 mercenaries for one year, he captured 
those who had contributed the money and sent them as prisoners to Artaxerxes. He than 
betrayed various other cities, forts and mercenaries to the king's officers that the king had sent 
into those parts. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Polyanus mentions this war by Orontes and 
Autophradates and other officers of the kings. (Polyanus 1. 7. Stratag.) Diodorus assures us that 
in the last year of Artaxerxes Mnemon both Autophradates and Orontes and other commanders 
defected from him. Therefore, we must conclude, that Autophradates stood for his son 
Artaxerxes Ochus and that it was Orontes which made the war against him. 



1618. Artabazus, who commanded Artaxerxes Mnemon's army, attacked Cappadocia. Datames 
the governor of that province attacked Artabazus with a strong body of cavalry and 20,000 
mercenaries on foot. Then Mithrabarzanes his father-in-law and general of his cavalry stole 
away from him at night with all his cavalry and fled to Artabazus. Mithrabarzanes and his troops 
were well paid for this treachery. For it happened that they were attacked and hewed in pieces 
by both the armies from each side. Diodorus adds, that when Artaxerxes was told that Datames 
had brought Artaxerxes this noose as a joke. Artaxerxes quickly tried to rid his hands of him and 
shortly after this, Artaxerxes had him secretly killed. However, it appears from Emil. Prob. that 
Datames lived long after this. He acknowledges that Datames' affairs were carried out in an 
obscure way. Hence he says, that he was most careful determining what happened. This he does 
in such a way as to easily discern that what he did was all in the reign of Artaxerxes Ochus. 

1619. Rheomithres was sent by the alliance of Persian governors to Egypt. He received 500 
talents and 50 ships and returned with them to Leucas in Asia. When he sent for many of the 
governors and leaders to come to him there, he siezed them and sent them all away as prisoners 
to Artaxerxes. By this act, he re-ingratiated himself with the king who was previously displeased 
with him. (Diod. Sic. year 3 Olympiad 104.) 

3643a AM, 4352 JP, 362 BC 

1620. When Tachos was fully prepared for war, he put Agesilaus in command of the 10,000 
Greek mercenaries. His fleet of 200 ships was under Chabrias who was very skilful in naval 
affairs. (Polya 1. 7. Stratag.) His 80,000 Egyptian foot soldiers where under Nectanabus, his 
brother or sister's son. (The Greek word is ambiguous.) Tachos was commander over all these 
forces. Although Agesilaus tried to persuade him to prosecute the war by his officers and to stay 
in Egypt, yet he refused. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) Nevertheless, Agesilaus, against his 
better judgment went with him by sea to Phoenicia. (Plutarch in his Agesilaus.) 

1621. While the Egyptian fleet lay in Phoenicia, Nectanabus was sent to capture some principal 
cities of Syria. Nectanabus made an agreement with the one whom Tachos had left for governor 
of Egypt and Nectanabus proclaimed himself king of Egypt. He bribed the army commanders 
with expensive gifts and promised the soldiers many things so they would side with him against 
his father. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad 104.) 

1622. Tachos was now utterly deserted by his own subjects and also by Agesilaus whom he had 
formerly offended by that base jest he made of him. Fearing the worst, Tachos fled from there to 
Sidon in Phoenicia and from there to the king of Persia. (Xenophon and Plutarch affirm and 
Theopompus and Lysias of Naucratis, in his affairs of Egypt, both cited by Athensus in 1. 14 c. 
4.) Diodorus and Elian say further that he was very graciously entertained by Artaxerxes. 
Although I cannot believe Diodorus that Artaxerxes presently made him general of all the forces 
which he had then raised to make a war upon Egypt and that he returned with them to Egypt and 
was there reinstated as king by Agesilaus. Neither can we believe (Elian, 1. 5. Var. Histor. c. 1.) 
where he tells us that Tachos had formerly lived frugally at home and now he died by gorging 
himself with food after the Persian manner. Lynceus or Lyceas, whom I mentioned before, 
teaches us, that his Egyptian diet was far more sumptuous than that of the Persian one. (cited by 
Athenaus, 1. 4. c. 10 Deip.) 

1623. After this another man made himself king in Mendes with an army of 100,000. (Plut. in 



his Agesilaus.) Now there were 2 kings in Egypt. Agesilaus followed Nectanabus whom he 
thought most favoured the Lacedemonians. (Xen. in Agesilaus.) He was with him in a long siege 
in a citadel. Nectanebus grew impatient of being confined and wanted to risk a battle. Agesilaus 
left him and stayed behind in the citadel until the whole citadel was quite surrounded with siege 
works and the enemy all around them except for a little place where there was yet a passage 
through. Then Agesilaus sallied out into that narrow passage and made his way through with a 
great slaughter of the enemy. He had their siege works at his back so that they could not 
surround him. (Plut. in Agesil. Polya. Stratag. 1. 2. with Diod. year 3. Olymp. 104.) Diodorus 
writes "Tachos", instead of the king of "Mendes." 

3643b AM, 4353 JP, 361 BC 

1624. Agesilaus defeated the other king who hated the Greeks and took him prisoner. He 
restored Nectanabus to his kingdom and made him a loyal friend of the Lacedemonians. 
(Xenophon in Agesilaus.) However, Emil. Prob. attributes this restitution of the king to 
Chabrias. The reason for this was that it was done jointly by the Lacedemonians and Athenians. 
Now from this time until Nectanabus was put out of the kingdom was 12 years according to 
Diodorus. Hence the length of his reign was 12 years not 18, as Africanus and Eusebius have it. 

1625. Nectanabus entreated Agesilaus very earnestly to spend that winter with him. However he 
hasten home for Sparta was engaged in a war and he knew they needed money and maintained a 
foreign army. Therefore Nectanabus dismissed Agesilaus very honourably and gave him besides 
all the other gifts, 230,000 or, as Emil Probus has it, 220,000 talents. (Plut. in Ages.) 

1626. When Agesilaus got this money, he hurried home in the dead of winter. He feared lest the 
Lacedemonians would spend the next summer idle and do nothing against their enemies. (Xen. 
in Agesil.) A storm cast him on a deserted shore called "Menelai Portus", that is "Port of 
Menelaus" lying between Cyrene and Egypt. There he fell sick and died. His friends lacked wax 
and preserved him with honey and carried him to Sparta. (Plutarch and Emilius Probus, in 
Agesilaus,) Diodorus says that his body was buried there in a most royal manner. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olymp. 104.) 

3643c AM, 4353 JP, 361 BC 

1627. Ochus, the lawful son of Artaxerxes, had his brother Arsames murdered who was born 
from a concubine and dearly loved by his father. He had Harpates the son of Titibazus murder 
him. When Artaxerxes heard what had happened to his much beloved son, took it to heart and 
died from grief. (Plut. in Artaxerxes.) 

1628. Ochus knew that his father was highly respected by his people when he was alive. If the 
news of his death got out, Ochus would not be respected at all. Therefore, he had all the princes 
and nobles and others that were around him keep the death of his father secret for 10 months. In 
the meantime he sent letters into all the provinces in the king's name with his seal on them, 
requiring that every man accept Ochus for their king. (Polya. 1. 7. Stratag.) 

1629. Heraclea the wife of Clearchus the tyrant of Pontus bore him a son whom he called 
Dionysus. The son lived 55 years. (Athenaus, 1. 12 and Mnemonin in the collections of Photius, 
c. 5.) 



3644 AM, 4354 JP, 360 BC 

1630. When all men had acknowledged Ochus for king, he announced the death of his father 
and commanded a public mourning to be made for him according to the Persian manner. (Polia. 
1. 7.) He assumed the name of his father, "Artaxerxes." (Diodor. Valerius Max.) Then he filled 
his court with the blood of his kindred and nobles without respect to kin, sex or age. (Justin. 1. 
10. c. 3.) He caused his own sister, whose daughter he had married, to be buried alive with her 
heels upward. An uncle of his with more than 100 children and grandchildren was brought into a 
court and there shot to death with arrows. (Valer. Max. 1. 9. c. 2.) If seems this uncle was the 
father of Sisygambis who was the mother of Darius the last king of the Persians. She was the 
queen that Curtius states (Curtius, 1. 10. c. 8.) had her father and 80 brothers executed by Ochus 
in one day. 

3646 AM, 4356 JP, 358 BC 

1631. The states of Chios, Rhodes, Byzantium and Chos, revolted from Athens at the same time. 
This was called "Bellum Sociale", i.e. the confederates war. When the Athenians besieged 
Chios, the Athenians received help from their own confederates and Mausolus the petty king of 
Caria. (Demosthenes in his Oration of Peace and of the Rhodians liberty, Diod. Sic. year 3. 
Olympiad, 105.) 

3648 AM, 4358 JP, 356 BC 

1632. In the first year of the 106th Olympiad, (as it is rightly read in Eusebius' Chron. from 
Fuxius' copy, corrected by Arnaldus Pontacus) Alexander was born to King Philip at Pella in 
Macedonia. Alexander was called "the Great" because he conquered all Asia. He lived 32 years 
and 8 months according to Arianus' report from Aristobulus and died in the end of year 1 
Olympiad 1 14. in the month before the month of Thargelion according to the Attic calendar as 
we shall see when we come to that year. It follows that he must have been born in this year and 
that in the third month called Boedromion in the Attic calendar. Hence those who (as in Elian 
Variar Histor. 1. 2. c. 25.) have said that he was born and died in the sixth day of the month 
Thargelion are incorrect. Plutarch (in the life of Alexander) says, that he was born on the 6th day 
of the month Hecatombeon, called Lous by the Macedonians. There was a good reason why they 
who lived at that time recorded that he was born on the 6th day of the month Lous. At that time 
the month Lous with the Macedonians was the same time as Meton's Boedromian. This appears 
in King Philip's Epistle to the Peloponesians, as we have already showed in our discourse in the 
first chapter of the Macedonian and Asiatic years. The historians and other writers of later times 
did not note this and found the Syro-Macedonian month Lous in Calippus to coincide with the 
month Boedromion among the Athenians. Hence they thought that Alexander had been born 
upon the 6th day of the month Boedromion. 

1633. This is the source of the error of Plutarch, which he corrects later by making a more 
grievous mistake. He says: 

vv The same day that Philip took Pitidaea, there came to him three reports: one from Pharmenion 
that he defeated the Illyrians, the second, that he had won the race with his horses at Olympius 
and the third that his son Alexander was born." 



1634. For we learn from Demosthenes, in his oration against Leptines, and Diodorus, year of 3rd 
Olympiad 105. that Polydaea was not taken this year, but two years earlier. If it had been so that 
Alexander had been born in the 105th Olymp. and upon the 6th day of Hecatombaeon, it is 
incredible that he should not have heard of the birth of his son a great deal sooner than he could 
possibly have done of winning the race of Olympus. For that race was to be run on the day of 
the full moon and the decision made on the race on the 16th day of the same month. This we are 
taught by the old Scoliast of Pindarus, upon his 5th Ode or Hymn of his Olympics. Justin from 
Trogus tells us more clearly: (1. 12. c. 16.) 

vv The same day on which Alexander was born, news came to him of two victories he had, the 
one about the battle in Illyrium and the other in a race at Olympus where he sent his chariot with 
four horses to run." 

1635. These reports appear to agree with each other. Although I grant that it may be not 
improbable that Alexander's birth was in the summer season of that year wherein the Olympic 
games were held at Olympus in Elis. However the testimony of Aristobulus, to whom Alexander 
was so well known in person, is so firm and strong an argument to me of the day on which he 
was born. Hence I have no doubt that Philip his father was informed of the race won by him at 
Olympus before his son was born. 

1636. The same day that Alexander was born, the temple of Diana at Ephesus burned. Hence 
came the joke either from Timaeus, as Cicero has it, or from Hegesias the Magnesian according 
to Plutarh says that: 

vv Diana being away from home that night to do work at Olympius could not save her own 
temple, (Cit. 1. 1. de Natura deorum and 1. 1. de Divina and Plut. in his Alexander.)" 

1637. When the one who started the fire was put on the rack, he confessed that he did it on 
purpose. He wanted to be world famous for destroying so famous and excellent a work. Hence 
by the common council of all Asia, it was decreed that no man should ever after mention him. 
(Valer. Max. 1. 8. c. 14. Aul. Gell, 1. 2. c. 6.) However, Theopompus in his History mentions 
him. It was either Erostratus, as we read (in Strabo. 1. 14. and Solinus c. 4.) or Lygdamis, as 
Hesychius, "In the word Lygdam." 

1638. The priests in Ephesus at that time thought that the burning of this temple was but the 
harbinger of some greater evil to follow. They ran up and down as if they had been mad and cut 
their faces, saying, that some great calamity was that day born against all Asia. (Plut. in Alexan.) 

3648 AM, 4358 JP, 356 BC 

1639. Artabazus rebelled against Ochus. He joined his forces with those of Chares the Athenian 
and defeated an army of 70,000 Persians. Chares gathered enough spoil to pay for all his army. 
The king took up this matter with the Athenians. They heard a rumour that the king was about to 
send 300 ships to help their enemies against whom Chares at that time was fighting. They 
quickly agreed to a peace with their enemies so that war between them and their confederates, 
called "Bellum sociale", was ended. (Diod. Sic. year 1. and 4. of the 106 Olymp.) 



3650 AM, 4360 JP, 354 BC 

1640. Leuco, the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius, died. He was succeeded by his son Spartacus 
who reigned 5 years. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 106.) 

3651 AM, 4361 JP, 353 BC 

1641. When Artabazus was abandoned by Chares and the Athenians, he resorted to the 
Thebians. They sent him 5000 men under Pammenes. Pammenes with this army went over into 
Asia and joined with Artabazus' forces. Together they overthrew the king's army in two great 
battles. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.) 

1642. When Clearchus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus was celebrating the feast of their god 
Bacchus, he was murdered in the 12th year of his reign. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 106.) The 
man behind the murder was Chion of Heraclea, the son of Matris, a scholar of Plato's and a 
cousin of Clearchus. Also in on the plot were Leonides and Antitheus both scholars in 
philosophy, as was Euxenon. Also in on this were some 50 others of Clearchus' allies and 
relatives. They waited for the time when the tyrant was busy and attentive with the sacrifice with 
the rest of the people. Then Chion ran him through with his sword. He fell grievously tormented 
with pains and haunted with the apparitions and ghosts of those whom he had most barbarously 
murdered and died the next day. Most of the conspirators, if not all, were either shortly cut in 
pieces by his guard although they stoutly defended themselves. Those that escaped were 
captured shortly after and died after horrible torture which they endured with incredible 
constancy and patience. (Memnon in Excerpt, c. 2. Justin. 1. 6. c. ult. and Suidas in Clearchus.) 
See also the Epistles attributed to this Chion, as written by him to his mother Matis. 

1643. Satyrus, brother to Clearchus, succeeded him in that government and reigned 7 years. He 
was not content with the death of the conspirators but executed all their children although they 
were innocent of their father's deeds. He was left as guardian and protector of Timotheus and 
Dionysius' brother's children. He was very respectful of them. Although he had a wife whom he 
loved very dearly yet would he have no children by her, least they might in time prove 
dangerous to his brother's children. (Memnon in Excerpt, c. 3.) 

3652 AM, 4362 JP, 352 BC 

1644. In the 4th year of 106 Olymp. not in the 2nd year of the 100th Olympiad, as is incorrectly 
reported by (Pliny lib. 36. c. 5. and 6.) Mausolus the Dynasta or petty king of Caria, died. 
Artemisia, his sister and wife, succeeded him and reigned for 2 years since her husband had no 
children. (Diod. and Strabol. 14.) From the fervent love she had of the memory of him, she took 
his bones after they were burnt and beat them to a powder. This was mingled with a most 
precious perfume and put into her drinking water. She was zealous to be the living and breathing 
tomb of her deceased husband. (A. Gill. 1. 10. c. 18. Valer. Max. 1. 4. c. 6.) 

1645. In the 107th Olympiad (not in the 103, as Suidas in Thoidectes has it) Artemisia 
proclaimed a contest for all to come and show their wit and art in praise and honour to her dead 
husband. Various illustrious men came to this contest: Theopompus from Chios, the best man of 
all the scholars of Isocrates, (Diony. Halicarnasseus in his Epistle to Pompeius) Theodectes a 
poet of tragedies from the city of Phaselis in Lycia and also a scholar of Isocrates and Naucrates 



Erythtaeus from Naucratis in Cyrenia. These were all mentioned by Photius (in Biblioth. c. 176, 
260.) Plutarch (in his life of Isocrates) and other writers say that Isocrates entered the contest 
too. However this was not the Isocrates from Athens, but another by the same name. He was his 
scholar and successor in his office according to Suidas, from Callisthenes the Orator. In that 
contest of wits, Theopompus, as some say, and as others, Theodectes the Tragedian, who left a 
tragedy entitled "Mausolus", won the prize. (A. Gell. 1. 10. c. 18. Suidas, in Theodecters and 
Isocrates.) Although it seems that everything did not happen as Theopompus expected because 
when he was later writing a history, he states in it that: 

""Mausolus never spared for any villany if he might get money by it." 

1646. In all likelihood, he would never have written this if things had happened there according 
to his expectation. (Snidas in Mausolus.) 

1647. Theopompus (of whom I have spoken before) who was an historian and Theodoctes a 
Tragedian, I must mention what is reported by Demetrius Phalereus in Aristeas (and from him 
by Josephus, (1. 12. anti. c. 2. and by Euseb. de Prapar. Evengel. 1. 8. c. 3. and 5. and in his 
discourse of the Septuagint Interpretation.)). Theopompus wanted to insert some things from the 
books of Moses into his history but lost his mind for 30 days. During this time when his sanity 
returned, he earnestly sought God to reveal to him the reason why this great judgment was upon 
him. In a dream it was told him that it was because he was about to mix those divine oracles 
with his human studies and publish them to the world. When he abandoned that idea, he was 
restored to his right mind again. When Theodectes planned to use some things from the Holy 
Writ into his tragedy he was writing, he suddenly lost his sight. When he realised the reason for 
this, he asked God's mercy and he was restored to his perfect sight again. 

3653 AM, 4363 JP, 351 BC 

1648. Artimisia wanted to perpetuate the memory of her husband. She had built a stupendous 
tomb for him at Halicarnassus that was considered one of the seven wonders of the world. 
However she pined away at last and died of grief. (Cicero. Tuseul. Quest. 1. 3. Strabo. 1. 14. A. 
Gell. 1. 10. c. 18.) To make this tomb most grand, she had the most famous and skilful workmen 
in the world order the construction: Scopas, from the east, Bryaxis, from the north, Timotheus 
from the south and Leochares from the west. Although she died before the work was finished, 
yet they did not stop the work until it was completed. They knew that by so doing they would 
also immortalise their own names and glory in it. (Pliny 1. 36. c. 5. with Vitruvins in the Proeme 
of his 7th book;) Therefore ever after this even in Rome, every sumptuous and magnificent 
building was called a "mausoleum". (Pausan, in his Arcadica.) 

1649. After her death her brother Idrieus or Hidrieus headed the government of Caria for 7 
years. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) He was the second son of Hecatomnus and married 
Hecatomnus' second daughter Ada, his own sister, according to the law of Caria, (Strabo. 1. 14. 
Ariannus, of the Gests of Alexander, 1. 1.) 

1650. When Thebes was running out of money to carry on their war against the Phoenicians, 
they sent ambassadors to Ochus and received 300 talents from him. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 
107.) 



1651. The Phoenicians and especially the inhabitants of Sidon had been badly abused by Ochus 
and revolted from him. They sent to Nectabenus king of Egypt and formed an alliance with him 
in a war against the Persians. They prepared a large fleet of ships and had many foot soldiers. 
They cut down the king's garden and orchard and burnt the hay that was provided for the king's 
stable. They killed those Persians that had wronged them. Therefore the governors of Syria and 
Cilicia made war on them. Tennes the king of Sidon, received from the king of Egypt, 4000 
Greek soldiers under the command of Mentor of Rhodes. These combined with his forces and 
routed the Persians and drove them from all Phoenicia. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1652. The petty kings of the 9 cities of Cyprus who were subject to the king of Persia followed 
the example of the Phoenicians and agreed with each other to defect from the king. Each of 
these kings prepared for war and made himself absolute sovereign each in his own city. 
Artaxerxes Ochus ordered these kings to be subdued by Idricus. He recently became king of 
Caria and by long tradition of his ancestors was loyal to the kings of Persia and helped in their 
wars. He sent into Cyprus 40 ships containing 8000 mercenaries under the command of Phocyon 
the Athenian and of Euagoras who formerly had been a king there. These began by attacking the 
strongest city first and besieged Salamis. Many came to the battle from Syria and Cilicia which 
lay opposite Cyprus. They hoped to get much spoil from the battle. The army of Phocyon and 
Euagoras was twice as big as before. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1653. Artaxerxes Ochus mustered an army of 300,000 foot soldiers and 30,000 cavalry with 300 
ships and 500 cargo ships to carry provisions. He left Babylon and went toward Phoenicia and 
the seaside. Mentor, whom the Sidonians had made commander over the Greek mercenaries, 
was frightened by his coming. He sent a man called Thessalion to Artaxerxes, offering first to 
betray all the Sidonians into his hands and later to help him conquer Egypt. When Thessalion 
had delivered his message and received the king's promise, he kissed his hand to seal the 
agreement. He returned to Mentor and told him of the king's promise. The Sidonians knew 
nothing of this. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1654. Meanwhile, Ochus sent his ambassadors into Greece their help against the Egyptians. The 
Athenians and Lacedemonians answered him, that they would keep the peace made with him, 
but were unable to help him at this time. However, Thebes sent him 1000 foot soldiers under the 
command of Lachetes. Argos also sent him 3000 men with no Greek appointed to be over them 
because the king wanted to have Nicostratus to command them. He was a high spirited man and 
he imitated Hercules by fighting with a lion's skin wrapped about him and carried a club in his 
hand. The Greeks who dwelt on the seacoast of Asia, sent him 6000 men. The total Greek forces 
were 10,000 men. Before they arrived, the king had advanced past Syria to Phoenicia and had 
pitched his camp not far from Sidon. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1655. Tennes the king of Sidon, joined with Mentor in his treason and assigned him to the guard 
of a certain quarter in the town and left him to manage the betrayal on that side. Tennes with 
500 men went out of the city and pretended that he would go to the common meeting of 
Phoenicia. He had in his company 100 of the principal councillors of the city. He gave these to 
be butchered by Artaxerxes who were the authors of that defection from him. Shortly after 500 
more of the chief of the Sidonians came to Artaxerxes to beg for mercy with olive branches in 
their hands. Artaxerxes had them all shot with arrows as he had done to the former group. He 
understood that according to Tennes the king that the city would be unconditionally surrendered 
to him. The Greeks which he bribed, opened the gates to let the king into the city and so 
betrayed the city to Artaxerxes. Once he was in, he saw that Tennes was of no further service to 



him and had his throat cut. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1656. The Sidonians had burned all their ships before the king came so that no one could escape 
by ship. When the city was taken, each man shut himself up in his own house with his wife and 
children and then set his house on fire. Over 40,000 perished in the fire. Mixed with cinders of 
the place was molten silver and gold. The king sold this for many talents. The rest of the cities in 
the area were terrified and surrendered to the king. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 107.) 

1657. From there the king went and captured Jericho. (Solinus c. 35.) He took many along with 
him from Judah to serve him in his war against Egypt. This we gather from Aristeas' book of the 
Septuagint Interpreters and also in the Epistle of Ptolemy Philadelphus to Eleasarus, it is said: 

vv that many of the Jews were carried away into Egypt by the Persians, while they bare the sway 
there." 

1658. This saying of his is to be referred to this time of Artaxerxes Ochus. Also that place in 
Justin, where he says, (1. 36. c. 3.) if there is any truth in either of them: 

vv that Xerxes was the first of the Persians that subdued the Jews" 

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3654 AM, 4364 JP, 350 BC 

1659. While Salamis was besieged by Phocyon and Euagoras, all the rest of the cities submitted 
to the Persians. Only Protagoras king of Salamis held out against them. Euagoras wanted to be 
restored to his father's kingdom in Salamis. Some men treated him poorly and made accusations 
against him to the king. Euagoras saw that the king favoured Protagoras over him and gave up in 
his request to be restored to the kingdom. He went and cleared himself of all charges before the 
king. He did this so well that the king gave him a far better dynasty in Asia. At last Protagoras 
voluntarily submitted to the king and held the kingdom of Salamis peacefully after that. (Diodor. 
year 3 Olympiad 107.) This Euagoras of whom we now speak, it seems was the grandchild of 
another Euagoras who died 24 years before by his son Nicocles. For that Euagoras the elder, had 
a son Nicocles who succeeded him in the kingdom of Salamis. Another called Protagoras, 
appears from Isocrates. This younger Euagoras who succeeded Nicocles, seems to have been put 
from his kingdom by Protagoras who was his uncle. He received a better territory than Salamis 
from Ochus. But by his misdeeds there, he was forced to flee again into Cyprus. He was 
captured and executed as a malefactor according to Diodorus. 

1660. Eusebus in Chron. shows that in this 3rd year of the 107th Olympiad, Ochus forced 
Nectanebus to flee into Ethiopia and took over all Egypt. He put an end to the kingdom of 
Egypt. This time was the period of Manetho's Commentaries concerning the history of Egypt 
and how Egypt was captured by Ochus. Diodorus in this year gives a long account of this. 

1661. After Orchus destroyed Sidon, the auxiliary forces came to him from Argos, Thebes and 
the Greek cities in Asia. He united all his forces and he marched to the lake of Sirbonis. Most of 
his army perished in the bogs of Barathra because they had no guides. From there he marched to 
Pelusium at the first mouth of the Nile River. It was held by a garrison of 5000 men under 
Philophron. Here the Greeks encamped close to the city and the Persians camped 8 miles off. 
Ochus divided the Greeks into three brigades each of which was to have two commanders, one a 
Persian and the other a Greek. The first brigade, the Boeotians, were commanded by Lachertes a 
Theban and Rosaces a Persian, governor of Ionia and Lydia. The second one, the men of Argos, 
were commanded by Nicostratus a Greek and Aristazanes a Persian. The third brigade was 
under Mentor, who betrayed Sidon and Bagoas an eunuch of Persia. To each of these Greek 
brigades were added various companies and troops and sea captains with their squadrons of 
ships. On the other side, Nectanebus had in his army 20,000 auxiliary Greeks and as many to 
help him from Libya and 60,000 from his own country of Egypt who were called "Warriors". He 
had an exceeding large number of river boats, outfitted to fight in the river Nile if required. 
When he had supplied every place with reasonably sufficient garrisons, he with 30,000 
Egyptians, 5000 Greeks and one half of his Libyans, defended the passages which lay most open 
and easiest for invasion. 

1662. When things were thus ordered on both sides, Nicostratus who commanded the Argivians, 
obtained some Egyptian guides whose wives and children were kept as hostages by the Persians. 
With his pprtion of the ships, he crossed over one of the channels of the Nile that would be most 
out of sight from the Egyptians, When the closest garrisons of the Egyptians knew this, they sent 
to cut them off, over 7000 under Clinius who was from the Isle of Cos. In that encounter, the 
Greeks on the Persian side slew almost 5000 men on the other side along with their commander 
Clinius. When Nectanebus heard of this slaughter, he with his army he had about him retired to 
Memphis to secure that place. Meanwhile Lacrates, who commanded the first brigade of the 



Greeks, hurried to attack Pelusium. He drained away the water that ran around Pelusium by a 
ditch that he cut. He raised a mount on the very channel of the old river and there planted his 
batteries. The Greeks within courageously defended the place. However when they heard that 
Nectanebus had left the field and retired to Memphis, they sued for peace. Lacrates told them 
and bound it with an oath that when the town was surrendered, they with their belongings would 
be all sent to Greece. When they heard this they surrendered the town. 

1663. Mentor who commanded the third brigade, saw that all the cities were manned with two 
nationalities, the Greeks and Egyptians. He spread a rumour that Artaxerxes planned to deal 
most graciously with those who willingly submitted to him. The rest would be treated like those 
in Sidon. Everywhere the Greeks and Egyptians strived to be the first to surrender their cities to 
the Persians. Bubastus was the first city to surrender to the Persians, followed by all the rest of 
the cities. They settled for the best terms they could. 

1664. Meanwhile when Nectanebus was at Memphis, he heard how all the cities defected to the 
Persians. Despondent, he gathered all the treasure he could and fled to Ethiopia. (Diod. Sic. year 
3. Olympiad. 107.) Others report, that he shaved his head and disguised his appearance. He went 
to Pelusium and from there sailed to Philip king of Macedonia at Pella. (see the Excerpta, 
Barbaro-Latina, published by Scaliger, p. 58. the Chronicle of Alexandria, or Fasti Siculi, 
published by Raderus, p. 393. Cedrenus in the Basile Edition, p. 124. and Glycas, p. 195. from 
Psendo-Callisthenes' fabulous history of the Deeds of Alexander.) 

1665. When Artaxerxes Ochus had possessed all of Egypt, he dismantled all the fortifications of 
the main cities and destroyed their temples. He got an infinite amount of treasure. Moreover, he 
took away all their records from their most ancient temples. The priests bought these again by 
paying a great some of money to Bagoas the Eunuch. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olympiad. 107.) Ochus 
also is said to have derided their ceremonies and their god, Apis. (Severus Suppicitsus in his 
sacred History, 1. 2.) The Egyptians called him an ass for his poor behaviour and spirit. 
Therefore, he violently took their god Apis the bull and sacrificed him to an ass. (Elian. Varia. 
Histor. 1. 4. c. 8.) Then he ordered his cooks to prepare the bull for dinner. (Suidas in Ochus.) 

1666. After this Ochus rewarded his Greeks who helped him win this victory with wealth and 
honour, each man according to his deeds. He sent them all away to their own country. He left 
Pherendates as his viceroy in Egypt. After so great a conquest, he was covered with glory and 
loaded with spoils. He returned to Babylon with his army, (Diod. Sic. year 3 Olympiad 107.) 
where he also took many Jews as prisoners. He settled most of them in Hircania which bordered 
on the Caspian Sea. Georgius Syncellus, from Julius Africanus reports in this: 

vv Ochus the son of Artaxerxes, made a journey into Egypt. He led away some Jews as captives. 
He settled some of them in Hircania near the Caspian Sea and the rest in Babylon. There they 
continue to this day as many Greek writers report." 

1667. Hecataeus Abderia also, in his first book, De Judais, cited by Josephus, in his 1st book 
Contra Apionem, mentions many tens of thousands of Jews who were carried to Babylon. Later 
they were settled in Hircania. Paulus Orosins also writes: (1. 31. c. 7.) 

vv Ochus, who is also called Artaxerxes, after his great and long war in Egypt was ended, carried 
away many of the Jews. He commanded them to settle in Hircania near the Caspian Sea. Here 



they continue to this day and prosper and increase in population. It is thought that they will one 
day break out from there into some other quarter of the world." 

1668. This opinion seems to have no basis except of the passage in /APC 2Es 13:40-46 
concerning the ten tribes who were carried away by Shalmaneser, of the Jews, of certain 
Hebrews shut up I know not where and of a river Sabbation. Petrus Treccensis in his scholastical 
history, (Esth. c. 5.) and from Vincentius Bellovacensis in his Specul. Histor. (1. 30. c. 89.) 
mentions these ten tribes. They were later closely confined in the Caspian Mountains. But these 
things do not agree with Josephus, whom he alleges for his author. Rather they agree with the 
writings of that false Gorion and Methodius and even with those fictitious accounts from the 
Mahometan's Koran, concerning Alexander. 

3655 AM, 4365 JP, 349 BC 

1669. Ochus rewarded Mentor of Rhodes with 100 talents in money and very rich furnishings 
for his house. He made Mentor governor over all the Asiatic shores with full and absolute power 
to suppress all rebellions which happened in those parts. This great grace and favour he used 
well. Previously Artabazus and Memnon made war against Ochus (See notes on 3648 AM and 
3651 AM) and were driven from Asia. They fled to Philip king of Macedonia and lived with 
him. Philip secured pardons for Artabazus and Memnon from the king who sent for them both to 
come to him with all their families. Artabazus had by Mentor and Memnon's sister, 1 1 sons and 
10 daughters. With so numerous a progeny, Mentor was exceedingly delighted and as each son 
grew up Mentor made them officers in the Army. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107.) 

1670. Hermias, the archon of Atarne, was in rebellion against Ochus and had many strong cities 
and citadels under him. Mentor invited him to a peace conference and promised him that he 
would get him a pardon from the king. When Hermias came. Mentor captured him and took his 
signet ring. He sent letters in the name of Hermias that required the captains and garrisons 
everywhere in his dominion to surrender to the ones carrying these letters. This they did 
immediately. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 107. and Polyanus Stratag. 1. 6.) In like manner he 
did the same with all the other rebels of the king. Some he took by force and others by tricks. He 
brought them all under the king's subjection again. He periodically sent the king Greek 
mercenaries. He managed the government with great wisdom, valour and loyalty to the king. 
(Diod. Sic. year 3. and 4. Olymp. 107. and Demosthenes in his Oration, contra Aristocratem.) 

1671. When Spartacus the king of Bosphorus Cimmerius was dead, his brother Parysades 
succeeded him in the kingdom and held it for 38 years. (Diod. Sic. year 4. of 107. Olympiad.) 

3656 AM, 4366 JP, 348 BC 

1672. In the 1st year of the 108th Olympiad, when Theophilus was archon in Athens, Plato died 
who was the philosopher and founder of the old academia. (Hermippus in Laertius, Dionysius 
Halicarnasseus, in his Epistle to Ammeus concerning Demosthenes and Atheneus 1. 5. c. 13.) 
The saying of Numenius the Pythagorean as reported by Hesychius the Milesian, (in Numenius): 

vv Whatever Plato said concerning God and the world, he stole it all from the books of Moses." 



1673. Hence came that famous saying of his, reported by Hesychius and his follower Suidas. 
Even before them Clememens Alexandrinus (Stromat. 1.) said of him: 

vv for what is Plato, but Moses put into good Greek?" 

1674. He says that Plato translated many things from the books of Moses and put them into his 
own writings. Aristobulus the Jew (See note on 3479 AM) said the same so that I shall not try to 
defend the authority of Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose, Theodoret, Johannes 
Philoponus, writing on the Hexameron and other Christians. 

1675. After Plato died, Aristotle, who founded the sect of the Peripatetic Philosophers, travelled 
to Hermias the eunuch and ruler of Atarve, of whom I spoke in the previous year. He lived with 
him for 3 years, according to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicle and Dionysius in his 
previously cited Epistle to Ammeus. Strabo (1. 13.) tells us, that he lived at Assos, which was 
under the dominion of Hermias and Assos is mentioned in Ac 20:13. Aristotle was closely 
related to Hermias because he married Pythiades the adopted daughter of Hermias. She was 
either the natural daughter of Hermias' sister or brother. I know not if Aristotle the Peripatetic 
(as we find in Euseb. de Preparat. Evangel, lib. 15.) from the affection he had for Hermias 
married her after the death of Hermias. While he remained in Asia, he met a Jew who was a man 
of great learning and temperance. He came from upper Asia to the seaside. There he talked in 
Greek with Aristotle and any others who wanted to hear him. (Clearchus of Solos a principal 
scholar of Aristotle, as cited by Josephus, 1. 1. contra Apionem., in his 1st book "de Somno." i.e. 
"of sleep.") So that perhaps to this Jew it is that the Peripatetic sect of philosophers owe so many 
of their good sayings. They follow closely the words of Moses and the prophets as our Clement 
of Alexandria affirms from Aristobulus. (1. 5. Strom.) 

3658 AM, 4368 JP, 346 BC 

1676. Satyrus, the ruler of Heraclea in Pontus turned over the government to Timotheus, the 
oldest son of his brother Clearchus. Shortly after this, Satyrus was striken with a most grievous 
and incurable disease. A cancer grew in his groin which never stopped growing inward until he 
died at the age of 65 years. He ruled Heraclea for 7 years. (Meknon in Excerpt, c. 3. ) Timotheus 
took his younger brother Dionysius into the government and appointed him to be his successor 
in case he should die. (Meknon in Excerpt, c. 4.) 

3659 AM, 4369 JP, 345 BC 

1677. Memnon of Rhodes, a Persian commander mentioned earlier, sent for Hermias the eunuch 
and ruler of Atarne. He came suspecting nothing for he was invited as a friend. Memnon seized 
him and sent him as a prisoner to the king who hanged him. The philosophers, Aristotle and 
Xenocrates, a Chalcedonian who was born in Bithynia were with Hermias. They got away and 
escaped from the Persian territories. (Strabo. 1. 13.) When Aristotle had lived with Hermias 3 
years he went to Mytilene when Eubulus was archon at Athens, in year 4. of the Olymp. 108. 
(According to Laertius from Apollodorus' Chronicles and also Dionys. Halicarnas. in his Epistle 
to Ammaeus mentioned previously.) There is also extant in Laertius an Epigram of Aristotles, 
on a statue of Hermias at Delphi: 

vv Him did the king of Persia stay Contrary to Jove's law or reason, Not by force or bloody fray, 



But by a friend's detested treason." 

1678. Therefore I thought it fit to insert this here that no man might think that Aristotle was in 
anyway party to his death. This they might incorrectly think based on those words of Tertullian 
where he says that Aristotle made his friend Hermias to leave his place in shame. 

3660 AM, 4370 JP, 344 BC 

1679. Idrieus, Prince of Caria died. His enormous wealth is noted by Isocrates (Oration to Philip 
of Macedonia). His wife Ada who was his sister, succeeded him and ruled for 4 years. (Strabo, 1. 
14. Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp.) In Asia it was common after the time of Semiramis, for wives to 
succeed their husband's in their kingdoms. (Aria in Exped. Ales. 1. 1. p. 24.) 

3664 AM, 4374 JP, 340 BC 

1680. Pexodarus the youngest son of Hecaromnus, expelled his sister Ada and ruled for 5 years. 
(Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.) He left her the revenues from only the town of Alinda to live 
on. 

1681. Pexodarus sent for Orontobates a Persian lord, to make him his consort in the government 
of Caria. He gave him his daughter Ada for a wife. (Aria. 1. 1. Strabo 1. 14.) 

1682. Philip king of Macedonia and his army of 30,000 men besieged Perinthus, a town in 
Thracia that was on the Propontus. They were well equipped with battering rams and other 
devices and they constantly tried to destroy the walls so the inhabitants had no time for rest or 
respite. The king of Persia was becoming alarmed by Philip's success. He ordered his 
commanders and governors in Asia to send to relieve Perinthus. They were to send all they 
could which they did. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 109.) This was the main reason Alexander 
gave in a letter to Darius why he invaded Asia. (Aria. 1. 1. p. 41.) 

3666c AM, 4376 JP, 338 BC 

1683. When Artaxerxes Ochus had reigned for 23 years, he became sick. Bagoas was the 
eunuch and chief man under him as chiliarch of the kingdom. Bagoas gave him poison to kill 
him. Artaxerxes' physician helped Bagoas do this. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 104. and year 2. 
Olymp. 111., Severin Sulpitiscs. Histor. Sacra 1. 2.) Bagoas was an Egyptian and so hated Ochus 
for killing their god Apis that he revenged that sacrilege (as Sulpitius speaks) done to his nation 
by killing the king. He cut his flesh into gibbets and threw it to the cats to eat. I do no know 
what he put into the coffin in place of his flesh. From his thigh bones he made belts and handles 
for swords and by this represented his propensity to blood and slaughter. (Elian. Varia. Histor. 1. 
6. c. 8.) When Artaxerxes was dead, Bagoas was the most powerful man in the kingdom. He 
made Artaxerxes' youngest son Arsen the king and executed all his brothers. The young king 
would have no one left to help him and would be forced to depend on Bagoas all the more. 
(Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 107. and year 2. Olymp. 111.) 

1684. Timotheus the tyrant of Heraclea in Pontus, died 15 years after his father Clearchus. 
(Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 1 10.) For his great kindness, he was not called any more a tyrant, but 



a gracious lord and saviour. His body was honourably interred by his brother and successor 
Dionysius. All sorts of justs, tiltings and wrestlings were done. Some were performed then as 
time permitted and some later which were done with greater pomp and magnificence than the 
former ones. (Memnon in Excerpt, c. 4.) 

3667 AM, 4377 JP, 337 BC 

1685. At the general assembly of all Greece at Corinth, Philip king of Macedonia, was made 
general of all the Greek forces. He had absolute power over them to make war against the king 
of Persia. Presently, he started to make many preparations for the war. He assessed the number 
of soldiers to be levied from every city and then returned into Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. year 4. 
Olymp. 110.) 

3668c AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC 

1686. The next spring, Philip sent three of his captains into Asia, Parmenio, Amyntas and 
Attalus, with part of his army. They were to plunder the king's countries and to liberate the 
Greek cities. (Justin. 1. 9. c. 5. Diod. year 1. Olymp. 111.) 

1687. When Bagoas the eunuch knew that Arsen plotted revenge against him, he killed Arsen 
and all his children in the 3rd year of his reign. When the king's family was utterly destroyed, he 
set up Darius, a his friend and the son of Arsamis who was a brother to Artaxerxes. Darius 
claimed the crown as next of kin. (Diod. Sic. 1. 17. year 2. Olympiad 111.) However Justin (1. 
10. c. 3.) speaks of him in this manner: 

vv Codomannus, in regard for his outstanding virtue, was made king by the people and the name 
of Darius was given him for majesty's sake." 

1688. Alexander the Great, in Q. Curtius, (1. 6. c. 4.) uses these words: 

vv For Darius did not come to the crown by succession but by the mere procurement and favour 
of Bagoas the Eunuch.", 

1689. Again in a letter Alexander sent to Darius, (Arianus (1. 2. p. 41.) he charges him: 

vv As a murderer Bagoas had Darius made king. Darius got that kingdom wrongfully and not 
according to the laws of the Persians but by great injustice.": 

1690. Strabo says: (1. 15.) 

vv When Bagoas had murdered Arsen, he set up Darius who was not of the king's blood in his 
place." 

1691. Lastly, Plutarch in his first book, "of the fortune of Alexander", introduces him as 
speaking to Fortune in this manner: (for so it should be, in his printed copies) 



vv Darius who was a slave and a courier of the kings, thou (Bagoas) madest king of the Persians:" 

1692. Also Hesychius tells us in his Lexicon: "Astandes", means "carrier" Suidas states: 

vv "Astandae" and "Angati", in the Persian language, are those who carry letters from post-house 
to post-house until they come to the place of their destination." 

1693. So Darius was one of them who in Es 8: 14 are called -ykrtfta and as ajatdud. In Elian it is 
written for augaidud so for dulhd. We are there to read dild, from the same place in Plutarch. 

1694. Bagoas planned to poison Darius also. When the plot was discovered, Darius sent for him. 
When he came, he was ordered to drink of it. When he refused, Darius had it poured down his 
throat. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olympiad 1 1 1.) He told the people that he had killed him in self- 
defence. (Q. Curtius 1. 6. c. 6.) 

3668d AM, 4378 JP, 336 BC 

1695. When Philip was yet living, Darius planned to attack him in Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. 1. 17.) 

1696. Sanballat, a Cuthaean, from whom the Samaritans had their beginning, was made 
governor of Samaria by Darius. He gave his daughter in marriage to Nicasus the son of 
Manasses brother to Jaddus the high priest at Jerusalem. He hoped by this marriage to be held in 
better esteem with the Jews. (Joseph. Antiq. 1. 11. c. 7.) 

1697. Philip, king of Macedonia was celebrating the marriage of his daughter Cleopatra with 
Alexander the king of Epeirus at Egaeas. He was murdered by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, of 
Orestis, a place in Macedonia. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 111. Justin 1. 9. c. 6. Joseph. 1. 11. c. 
8.) Alexander in his letter to Darius stated that his father was murdered by assassins hired by 
Darius and paid with a huge sum of money. (Q. Curtius 1. 4. c. 1., in Arria. 1. 2. p. 41.) 

1698. A little before Philip was killed, Neoptolemus a tragedian is reported by Diod. (1. 6.) to 
have sung an ominous song before him. This very song was later sung before Caligula the 
emperor on the very day when he was murdered, according to Suetonins in his life reports. 

vv Muester, the actor sung and acted that very song which before Neoptolemus the actor did in a 
play when Philip, the king of Macedonia, was killed:" 

1699. Josephus did not understand this part of the Roman history too well. (1. 19. Antiq. c. 1.) 
Later he had spoken of Muester and the song which he sang. Rusinus translates it thus in Latin 
and I to this effect in English saying: 

vv The actor danced the fable of Cynuras in which both Cinyras and his daughter Marrha were 
killed." 

1700. Josephus draws from this that they were both killed on the same day. 



vv It is known that the murder of Caligula happened on the same day as Philip, the son of 
Amyuntas king of Macedonia was slain by one of his friends called Pausanias as he was going 
into the theatre." 

1701. So some men place both these murders on January 24th. However the time of Philip's 
death is best known by the time when Alexander succeeded him in his kingdom. 

1702. After the death of Philip, Pythodemus, as Arrian or Pythodorus, (Diod. Sic. year 1. 
Olympiad 111,) calls him, was archon in Athens. Alexander succeeded his father at age 20. 
(Plutarch and from Trogus, Justin) Although Arianus, in the beginning of his History of 
Alexander says that he was about 20 years old when, after his father's death, he journeyed into 
Peloponesus. This may lend some doubt to him being 20 years old. Nothing is said of how long 
the interval was between his father's death and his journey there. The exact age is determined 
from the time of his death as mentioned at the end of the same history. It is said that he lived 32 
years, 8 months. Of that time, he reigned 12 years and 8 months. Subtracting 12 years and 8 
months from of the total age gives a result of exactly 20 years to the month. It appears that 
Philip died at the end of the Macedonian month Daesis. (I shall in due time publish these.) I 
therefore gather that Alexander began his reign about the 8th month before the 1st of the month 
Dii. Hence Philip was murdered about the 24th of September in which month of ours the month 
Dii begins. This I have documented in my discourse on the solar year of the Macedonians and 
Afiaticks. It was not the 24th of December. 

3669 AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC 

1703. Alexander came to Peloponese and followed his father's example. He summoned all the 
cities of Greece to Corinth. He was by the general vote of all the Greeks there except the 
Lacedemonians, made general in his father's place to go against the Persians. (Justin 1. 11. c. 2. 
Diodorus 1. 17. Arrian 1. 1. p. 1.) 

1704. He returned from there into Macedonia, in the very beginning of the next spring. He went 
through Thrace and attacked the Illyrians and the Thribulli. (Arrian. 1. 1.) In a battle on the bank 
of the Danow, he defeated Syrmus, the king of the Triballi. (Plut. in Alex.) Meanwhile, he had 
news that the Athenians, Lacedemonians and Thebans, were defecting to the king of Persia. The 
instigator of this was Demosthenes the orator who had been bribed with a vast sum of money 
from the Persians. He made a speech and assured them that Alexander with all his forces were 
defeated by the king of the Triballi. (Justin. 1. 1 1. c. 2. with Eschines in his Oration cont. 
Ctesiphontem.) Further, the Athenians by certain of their officials sent Demosthenes' letter to 
the Athenian captains in Alexander's army. They asked Attalus, one of the 3 captains sent by 
Philip into Asia to revolt from Alexander. Like the other Greeks, they revoked their order 
making Alexander the general of the Greek forces. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111. with 
Demosth. his Oration for Ctesiphon.) 

3669d AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC 

1705. Memnon the commander from Rhodes, was sent into Phrygia with 5000 soldiers. After 
passing by the hill Ida, he suddenly attacked the city of Cyzycum. He was unable to defeat it but 
wasted their territories and returned loaded with a vast amount of spoil from there. (Diod. Sic. 
year 2. Olymp. 111.) 



1706. When Pexodarus was dead, his son-in-law, Orontobates succeeded him in the kingdom of 
Caria by the authority of the Persian king. (Strabo. 1. 14 Arrian. 1. 1. p. 24.) 

1707. When Alexander had conquered those barbarous people he returned to Greece. The 
country was all in a turmoil. On his way, he befriended the Thessalonians and journeyed through 
the pass of Thermopylae. He won the Ambracia to him by his kindness. He and his army went 
into Boeotia and camped before Cadmaea, which was held by a garrison of Macedonians. The 
Atheninas sent their officials to ask his pardon which he gave them. However, Thebes refused 
his pardon when he offered it. Therefore he besieged the city. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111., 
Plut. in Alexan.) 

1708. He sent Hecateus with an army into Asia to capture Attalus. Attalus sent the letter which 
he had received from Demosthenes to Alexander, with a very detailed excuse and justification 
for his actions. Nevertheless Hecataeus followed his commission and captured him. He sent him 
packing into another world. So the Asian Macedonian army had peace and the rebellions ceased. 
(Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.) 

1709. Parmenio, who was always loyal to Alexander, took Grinium by force and sold all its 
townsmen for slaves. From there he went and besieged Pitane. When Memnon approached, he 
so frightened the Macedonians that they lifted their siege. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.) 

1710. Callas, with a Macedonian army and other mercenaries, fought with the Persians in the 
country of Troas. His small forces defeated the Persians and forced them to retire to Rheteum. 
(Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 111.) 

3670a AM, 4379 JP, 335 BC 

171 1. Alexander laid Thebes in Boeotia level with the ground, (Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.) in 
October which was the time when the "Mysteries" were kept in Athens. They did not observe 
that holy solemnity that year because of what happened. (Plut. in Alexan. and Arrian. 1. 1.) 
90,000 men in Thebes were killed and 30,000 were sold for slaves. All went to ruin except only 
the houses of the priests, his father Philip's friends and Pindarus the poet. (Elian. Varia. Histor. 1. 
13. c. 7.) 

1712. Alexander at a common council of Greece was chosen general a second time to go against 
the Persians. Alexander went to visit Diogenes the philosopher. (Plut. in Alexan.) 

3670b AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC 

1713. When he returned to Dios a town in Macedonia, (Arrian. 1. 1. p. 11.) all his thoughts were 
upon the conquest of Asia. In his sleep the likeness of the High Priest of Jerusalem appeared to 
him, who bade him be courageous and bold. He was to quickly enter Asia with his army and that 
he would conduct his armies in the conquest of the Persian Empire. (Josephus, Antiquit. 1. 11. c. 

8. s. 5.) 

3670c AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC 



1714. Therefore in the very beginning of the spring, Alexander left his own home and after a 20 
day march, he came to Sestus. From there his army crossed over into Asia. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 
(Euaenetus was then the archon at Athens.) This was 1 1 years before he died according to 
Clement of Alexandria as he notes from the most ancient chronologies. (1.1. Strom.) That is, this 
was the 3rd month before Ctesicles came to be archon in Athens. In which time, Diod. Sic. 
places his trip into Asia in the 3rd year of his reign. Zosimus follows Diod. Sic. without noting 
his error. (1. 1. Histor.) It was in the second year of his reign, year 2, Olymp. 111. 

1715. He left Antipater behind in Europe with 12,000 foot soldiers and 1 1,500 cavalry to tend to 
matters there. Alexander with 60 ships sailed to Troas, (Diod. year 2. Olymp. 111.) but ordered 
Patmenion to transport the largest part of his foot soldiers and cavalry from Sestus to Abidus. 
This he did with the help of 160 ships and a number of cargo ships. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 

1716. Even those who were present do not agree on how many men Alexander took into Asia. In 
(Polybius 1. 12. c. 663. in fi.) Calisthenes states he had 4500 cavalry and 30,000 foot soldiers. In 
Plutarch, in his discourse of Alexander's fortune, Aristobulus is alleged to say that he had 30,000 
foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. Ptolemy the son of Lagus and later king of Egypt says there were 
30,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. Anaximenos of Lampsacus says there were 40,000 foot 
soldiers and 5500 cavalry. Livi (1. 9.) agrees with Aristobulus and says there were 4000 cavalry. 
Diodorus, (1. 17.) Justin (1. lie. 6.) and Orosius, (1. 3. c. 16.) agree with Calisthenes that there 
were 4500 cavalry. Although (Arrian. 1. 1.) says, that he had more than 5000 cavalry. Diodorus 
has a total of 5100 when you sum his numbers. In the number of foot soldiers he says there were 
30,000 and agrees with Calisthenes, Aristobulus and Ptolemy. Livi says there were more than 
30,000 foot soldiers. Arrian says that there were not many more than 30,000 soldiers. Justinus 
and Oronus make it to be 32,000. Concerning the number of 40,000 foot soldiers which 
Calisthenes and Anaximenes mention, Julius Frontinus assigns to his whole army in this way. 

vv Alexander of Macedonia, with 40,000 men, all veteran soldiers, trained under his father Philip 
attacked the whole world and slew an infinite number of his enemies." (Frontin. Stratag. 1. 4. c. 

2.) 

1717. To pay his army, Aristobulus says Alexander took only 70 talents of money. Duris says he 
had only 30 days' of provisions. Sicritus adds, that he went in debt 200 talents to pay for his 
army. (Plutarch in his life and in his book of the fortune of Alexander.) 

1718. As soon as he landed on the Continent, Alexander was the first of all of them to throw a 
spear on shore. This signified his taking possession of all Asia. He leaped on shore and danced 
about in his armour. He offered sacrifice and besought the gods: 

vv that those lands might willingly receive him for their king:" 

1719. Then he went and sacrificed to the ghost of Achilles, from whom he was descended on his 
mother's side and to Ajax and other Greek heros who died in the war of Troy. (Diodor. Justin, 
Arrian) He commended the very good fortune of Achilles in two points. First he had so true a 
friend about him as Patroclus. Secondly, he had a man like Homer to sing his praises. (Plut. in 
Alex. Cic. pro. Archia Poeta. and Arrian. 1. 1.) 



1720. When he came into Ilium, he sacrificed to Pallas of Troy. He hung his own arms in her 
temple and took from there in place of them, some other arms from the chancel. They were there 
from the time of the of the Trojan war. (Diodor. Arrian.) Among the other relics they showed 
the lute of Paris. Alexander said, he would have thanked them if they could have showed him 
the lute of Achilles by which he had sung the praises of famous men. (Plut. in Alex. Elia. Variar. 
Hist. 1. 9. c. 38.) 

1721. From Ilium he went to Arisbe to join his whole army that had crossed over by sea. The 
next day he passed by Percota and Lampsacus. He camped at the Prosactium River. (Arrian. 1. 
1.) He planned to utterly destroy Lampsacus and its inhabitants for he thought they had or were 
planning to defect to the Persians. He saw Anaximines the historian, a man very well known to 
him and to his father, coming to meet him. He guessed his errand and swore first saying: 

vv whatever he desired of him, that he would not do." 

1722. Then Anaximines replied: 

vv Sir, I beseech you to destroy Lampsacus." 

1723. Alexander was caught in his own net by the wit of the man. Though much against his will, 
he went his way and spared the place. (Valer. Max. 1. 7. c. 3. Pausan. in his Eliaca. 1. 2. Snidas, 
in the word, Anaximenes.) 

1724. After much difficulty and danger, Alexander crossed the Granion River in Phrygia and 
planned a battle with the Persians in the plain of Adrastia. Justinus and Orosius say the Persians 
had 600,000 foot soldiers and 20,000 cavalry. Arrian some what improbably adds that besides 
the mercenaries there were less than 20,000 foot soldiers. Diodorus is more cautious and says, 
that the Persian cavalry was more than 10,000 and the army was under 100,000 men. 20,000 
Persian foot soldiers and 2500 cavalry died in the battle according to Plutarch. Diodorus reports 
that they lost 10,000 foot soldiers and no less than 2000 cavalry and had more than 20,000 taken 
prisoner. Arrian' account states that the Persian cavalry lost 1000 men and their foreign 
mercenaries were almost all killed. 2000 were taken prisoner. Orosius' account is quite fantastic 
when he says there were 400,000 slain. (1. 4. c. 1.) 

1725. In this fight Alexander who wore that armour which he had taken from the temple of 
Palas at Ilium, had his head piece cut in pieces to his very hair. Plutarch from Aristobulus states 
he lost 25 cavalry and 9 foot soldiers. However, Justin and Orosius say that 120 cavalry and 9 
foot soldiers died. According to Arrian, Alexander lost about 25 men in total who were all 
Macedonians. Lysippus made brass statues of them. Others say that he lost 60 cavalry and 30 
foot soldiers. The next day, Alexander had these men buried with all funeral rights. This great 
and memorable victory opened the way to the empire of all Asia. It happened in the month 
Daesius with the Macedonians and on the 6th of Thargehon with the Athenians or Sunday, May 
20th 334 BC in year 2 of the Olympiad 111. This we have discussed in detail in our discourse on 
the Macedonian and Asiatic Solar year. (c. 1. pg. 4, 5, 11.) 

1726. When Alexander had rested his army, he marched forward through Lydia and came to 
Sardis. The city with all it provisions and treasures, was voluntarily surrendered to him by 
Mithrinnes, or Mithrenes, its governor. (Diodorus, Arrian.) 



3670d AM, 4380 JP, 334 BC 

1727. He went to Ephesus and replaced the oligarchy with a democratic government. He 
assigned all the tributes which were formerly paid to Darius, to Diana. The Ephesians cried out 
for justice against those who had robbed the temple of Diana. They demolished the statue of 
Philip which was set up there. They took Syrphaces, his son, Pelagon his son and the children of 
the brother of Syrphaces and stoned them to death. (Arrian. 1. 1.) Moreover they enlarged and 
beautified the temple itself which was burned down by Erostratus on the night when Alexander 
was born. They appointed Dimocrates the architect to oversee the work. Alexander later used 
him to build Alexandria in Egypt. (Julius Solinus, c. 40) Artemidorus mentions (Strabo 1. 14.) 
that Alexander promised to pay for the construction of the temple if the Ephesians would allow 
him to take the credit as the builder of the work, but they refused. 

1728. While Alexander stayed at Ephesus, ambassadors came to him from Magnesia and Tralles 
and surrendered their cities to him. He sent to meet them, Parmenion with 2500 foreign foot 
solders and 2500 of his Macedonian troops, with 200 cavalry from his auxiliaries. He sent also 
Alcimalus the son of Agathocles, to the cities of Eolia and Ionia, which were held before by the 
Persians with about the same number of troops as he had sent with Parmenion. Everywhere, he 
abolished the oligarchies in their cities and set up democratic governments. He gave them 
permission to live according to their own laws and abolished the tribute they paid to the 
Persians. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 

1729. He stayed at Ephesus and sacrificed to Diana. With his whole army in battle array, he 
went in a procession to her. The next day he went to Miletus with the rest of his foot soldiers, 
archers, agrians, the cavalry from Thrace and aides of his confederates and his own troops. 
(Arrian. 1. 1.) There the Persians who escaped from the fight at Granicum had fled with their 
general Memnon. (Diodor.) 3 days before they arrived, Alexander had sent Nicanor with 160 
ships to capture of the isle of Lada, opposite Miletus. He held it with 4000 men from Thrace and 
other nations so that when the Persian fleet of 400 ships came there, they could not get to the 
mount of Micale. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 

1730. Alexander besieged Miletus by land and sea and battered their walls. They finally 
surrendered to him. The 300 Greek mercenaries had fled from there to a nearby little island. 
Alexander took and enlisted them among his own troops. He gave the Milesians their freedom 
and all the non-Greeks there he either killed or sold for slaves. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. 
Arrian. 1. 1.) 

3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC 

1731. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships (182 ships according to Justin. 1. 11. c. 6. s). He 
retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. (Justin. 1. 11. c. 6. s) 

1732. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and 
was made general of all his army. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.) 

1733. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty 
to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian 



tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olymp. 111.) 

1734. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus 
from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all 
Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him 
take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close 
friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he 
proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. 
Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and 
offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. 
Strabo, 1. 14. Arrian. 1. 1. Plut. in Alexander.) 

1735. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father- 
in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. 
Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes 
an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the 
breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison 
of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their 
belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and 
built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons 
there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. 
He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. 1.1.) 

1736. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on 
this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to 
rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be 
their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of 
Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should 
bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as 
possible from the country where they wintered. (Arrian. 1. 1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of 
his 3rd book.) 

1737. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his 
confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all 
carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia 
and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to 
them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed 
the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city 
Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of 
Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 

3671 AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC 

1731. Alexander dismissed his fleet of 160 ships (182 ships according to Justin. 1. 11. c. 6. s). He 
retained 20 Athenian ships to carry his battering rams with. (Justin. 1. 11. c. 6. s) 



1732. Memnon of Rhodes, sent his wife and children to Darius, as a pledge of his loyalty and 
was made general of all his army. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111.) 

1733. Alexander marched with his army into Caria. Everywhere he went, he proclaimed liberty 
to all the Greek cities. He said they could live by their own laws and be free from Persian 
tribute. He made it clear that this war was to liberate of the Greeks from Persian rule. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olymp. 111.) 

1734. While he was on his way, Ada met him. She had been expelled by her brother Pexodarus 
from the kingdom of Caria. She surrendered her city Abinda which was the strongest place in all 
Caria. She desired to be restored to her grandfather's kingdom and promised further to help him 
take the rest of the forts and cities of that country. These she said were in the power of her close 
friends. She adopted Alexander for her son. In return he gave her the town of Abinda and he 
proclaimed her queen of Caria. He bid her claim Caria and did not refuse to be called her son. 
Whereupon all the cities of Caria sent their officials to him. They gave him crowns of gold and 
offered him their service in whatever he would ask them to do. (Diod. Sic. year 3. Olymp. 111. 
Strabo, 1. 14. Arrian. 1. 1. Plut. in Alexander.) 

1735. Orontobates a Persian, held Halicarnassus a city of Caria, ever since the days of his father- 
in-law, Pexodarus. Memnon of Rhodes the Persian general, had joined him with all his forces. 
Alexander encamped before its walls and began to assault and batter it very intensely. Ephialtes 
an Athenian, behaved valiantly in the defence of the city. When he and others were slain at the 
breaches in the wall, then Memnon and the Persian princes and captains placed a strong garrison 
of their best soldiers in the citadel. They then sailed with the rest of the people and all their 
belongings to the Isle of Cos near to Rhodes. When they were gone, Alexander cast a trench and 
built a strong wall on it around the citadel. He razed the city to the ground. He left garrisons 
there and in other parts of Caria. He placed Ptolemy over 3000 foreign soldiers and 200 cavalry. 
He left the government of that whole country of Caria to his adopted mother, Ada. (Diod. Sic. 
year 3. Olympiad 111. Arrian. 1. 1.) 

1736. Alexander gave his Macedonians who had married wives shortly before they started on 
this journey, leave to go and spend their winter months with them. They could leave Caria to 
rejoin their wives. He appointed Ptolemy the son of Seleucus who was one of his captains, to be 
their commander. He sent with him Caenus the son of Polemocrates and Meleager the son of 
Neoptolemus who were recently married. He ordered them that when they returned they should 
bring all the newly married troops to him and with them as many cavalry and foot soldiers as 
possible from the country where they wintered. (Arrian. 1. 1. and Q. Curtius in the beginning of 
his 3rd book.) 

1737. Alexander sent Parmenion to Sardis and made him commander over all the cavalry of his 
confederates. He ordered him to take with him all the Thessalian cavalry and auxiliaries and all 
carts that he could make. They were to go ahead of him as far as Sardis, while he went to Lycia 
and Pamphylia. He took all the sea towns so that the navy of the enemy would be useless to 
them. On his way, he captured a very strong town called Hyparna on his first attack. He allowed 
the mercenary soldiers to depart in safety. From there he marched into Lycia. The city 
Telmessus conditionally surrendered to him. When he crossed the Xanthus River, the cities of 
Pinara, Xanthus, Patara and 30 smaller towns surrendered to him. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 



3671b AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC 

1738. In the middle of winter, Alexander went to Myliada in Greater Phrygia and made a league 
with the ambassador who came to him from Phaselis and the lower Lycia. They surrendered all 
their cities into his hands. A short time later, Alexander went to Phaselis and razed a strong fort 
which the Pisidians had built to harass the inhabitants of Phaselis with. (Arran. 1. 1.) 

1739. While Alexander was near Phaselis, he received a rumour that Alexander Aeropus whom 
he had made commander of the Thessalian cavalry intended to kill him. However he and his two 
brothers Heromenes and Arrobaeus were suspected to be involved in Alexander's father, Philip's 
death. For Darius received letters from Alexander Aeropus by Amyntas who fled to him. Darius 
sent Asisines, a Persian, to the sea side under the pretence of having a message for Atysies the 
governor of Phrygia. The real purpose was to assure Alexander Aeropus that if he killed 
Alexander, the kingdom of Macedon would be his and Darius would give him 1000 talents of 
money besides. However Asisnes was intercepted by Pharmenion and put to the rack. He 
confessed all and he was sent away heavily guarded to Alexander. Alexander looked carefully 
into the matter and sent Amphoterus to Pharmenion with secret instructions to seize Aeropus 
and put him in prison. (Arran. 1. 1.) It was to this matter that Alexander wrote in his letter to 
Darius. According to Q. Curtis, (1. 4. c. 1.) he said: 

vv When you have forces of your own, yet you go to sell your enemies' heads since you who were 
recently the king of so great an army would hire a man to take away my life with 1000 
talents," (Just. 1. 11. c. 7.) 

1740. Alexander left Phaselis with his army and travelled along the coast to Pergae. From there 
he came to Aspendus and besieged it. Although the city was situated on a high and rugged 
mountain, it surrendered to him. He next went into Pindia and tried unsuccessfully to take the 
city of Telmislus. Instead he made a league with the Selgians who were enemies to the 
Telmissians. He took Salagassa by force and killed about 500 Pisidians. He lost his captain 
Cleander with about 20 of his own men. From there he went to capture the other cities of 
Pisidia. Some of their stronger places he took in by force and others surrendered conditionally. 
After this he came into Phrygia to the marsh lands of Ascania. After his 5th camp, he arrived at 
Celenae. (Arrian. 1. 1.) 

1741. The citadel of Celenae was held by the Persian commander with a garrison of 1000 
Carians and 100 Greek mercenaries. After a 60 day's truce, (in which the commander expected 
relief from Darius), he surrendered to Alexander. (Arrian. 1. 1. and Curtius, 1. 3. c. 1.) 

1742. Alexander left a garrison of 1500 in Celenae. After he had stayed there 10 days, he made 
Antigonus the son of Philippus, governor of Phrygia. He made Balacrus the son of Amyntas the 
commander of the auxiliaries in his place. Alexander marched to Gordium. He sent a letter to 
Parmenion that he should not sail to meet him at Gordium. (Arrian., 1. 1.) 

1743. Parmenion with his army and the Macedonians which had leave to be with their new 
wives, came to Gordium. The army he had recently raised was under the command of Ptolemy, 
Caenus and Meleager. That army consisted of 1000 Macedonians foot soldiers and 300 cavalry. 
200 Thessalian cavalry and 150 cavalry from Elis led by Alcias who was from the same country. 
(Arrian. 1. 1.) 



1744. Darius made Memnon admiral of his fleet and chief commander of all the seacoast. 
Memnon planned to carry the war from Asia into Macedonia and Greece. He outfitted a navy of 
300 ships and captured the isle of Chios and the rest of the cities and places in Lesbos except 
Mitylene. (Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. with Arrian. 1. 2. in prim.) 

1745. The elders of Jerusalem were offended that Manasseh the brother of Jaddua, the high 
priest, had married a foreign wife contrary to the law. They demanded that he either divorce her 
or give up his priestly office. Hereupon Jaddua was forced to forbid him to serve at the altar. 
Manasseh went to tell Sanballat his father-in-law that he loved his daughter very much but did 
not want to loose his priesthood for her sake. This was an honour belonging to him by his 
birthright and it was very highly esteemed by the Jews. Sanballat replied that if Manasseh would 
not divorce his wife, he would help him stay in the priesthood and make him a high priest and 
prince of all his own province and build a temple on the hill overlooking Samaria for him. The 
temple would be at least as good as the one in Jerusalem. Sanballat would do all this by the 
authority of Darius the king. Manasseh was encouraged by these promises and stayed with his 
father-in-law. He hoped to get the priesthood as a gift and by the authority of Darius. Hereupon 
all the priests and other Israelites who had married foreign wives resorted to him. Sanballat 
furnished them with money and lands to farm. He promoted the ambition of his son-in-law as 
much as possible. (Josephus 1. 11. Antiq. c. 8. s. 2.) 

1746. Alexander undid the Gordian knot. He either pulled out the peg or pin in the beam 
according to Arrian or he cut it in pieces with his sword, as others state. (Plutarch in Alexander. 
Arrian, 1. 2. Curtius, 1. 3. Justin, 1. 11. c. 7.) 

1747. Alexander departed from Gordium in Phrygia and went to Ancyra, a city in Galatia. 
Ambassadors from Paphlagonia came to him and made a league with him and surrendered their 
country to him. He appointed Calas, a prince of Phrygia to be their new governor. When he had 
received the new troops from Macedonia, he marched into Cappadocia. He subdued all the 
country on this side the river Halys and some part of the other side. (Arrian. 1. 1. with Curtius 1. 
3. c. 3.) 

1748. Memnon died at the siege of Mitylene. Before he died, he appointed Autophradates and 
Pharnabazus the son of Artabazus to take over the forces until Darius would direct otherwise. 
They took command subject to certain conditions. Autophradates took over the main body of the 
ships. Pharnabazus with some ships sailed into Lycia and took with him some mercenaries. 
(Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1749. After the death of Memnon, Darius conscripted soldiers and ordered them from all 
countries to come to him at Babylon. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.) When he had set up his 
standard there, he pitched camp and mustered his army. He put a huge trench around the camp 
that was capable of containing 1,000,000 armed men. Like Xerxes had done with his troops, he 
went and counted all his forces. The sum came to 100,000 Persians of which 30,000 were 
cavalry. The Medians sent 10,000 cavalry and 50,000 foot soldiers. From the Barcans, (who 
were a people bordering upon Hircania, according to Stephanus) there were 2000 cavalry and 
10,000 foot soldiers. From Armenia there came 40,000 foot soldiers and 7000 cavalry. Hircania 
sent 6000 cavalry and the Derbices sent him 40,000 foot soldiers and 2000 cavalry. From the 
Caspian Sea came 8000 foot soldiers and 200 cavalry. Those that were from smaller nations 
amounted to 2000 foot soldiers and 4000 cavalry. He also had 30,000 Greek mercenaries. 



Curtius says this army (1. 3. c. 4.) had only 311200 men. However, Diodorus says they were 
400,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. This number is in the newer editions of Justin, as 
amended from the manuscripts. Although the older editions, together with Orosius, who follows 
him in every point, have only 300,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Both historians 
(Arrian. 1. 2. and Plutarch in Alexan.) say the total number of men was 600,000. 

1750. Charidemus from Athens was a man well skilled in military matters. After Alexander had 
expelled him from Athens, he defected to Darius. He advised Darius not to manage the army 
personally but leave it to some general who had proven himself in previous battles. He further 
stated that an army of 100,000 men of which one third would be Greeks would be enough for 
this battle. By his sage and good counsel, he so incensed the princes with envy and angered the 
king that he was executed for it. (Diod. year 4. Olymp. 111. Curtius, 1. 3. c. 5.) 

1751. Darius sent Thymondas or Thymodes, Mentor's son, a bold young man, to Pharnabazus to 
get from him all the mercenaries whom Memnon had under his command. He was to bring them 
to Darius and Pharnabazus was to replace Memnon as head of the forces there. (Curtius, 1. 3. c. 
6. Arrian., 1. 2. in prin.) 

3671dAM,4381 JP, 333BC 

1752. Alexander committed the charge of Cappadocia to Abistenes (according to Curtius) or, to 
Sabictas (as Arrian has it). He marched with his whole army to the passes in Cilicia and came to 
a place called Cyrus' Camp. (It was either named after the older Cyrus, as Curtius states or from 
the younger Cyrus as Arrian thinks) About 7 1/4 miles from there, he found that those passes 
were controlled by a strong garrison of the enemy that Parmenion had left there. In the first 
watch of the night, Alexander with his company of foot soldiers troops with shields, archers and 
his band of Agrians secretly went to attack that garrison. When the garrison heard a rumour 
about his coming, they threw away their weapons and fled. Arsames the governor of Cilicia had 
wasted all the country with fire and sword so that Alexander could not get provisions from the 
place. Then he left Tarsus and went to Darius. (Arrian., 1. 2. Curtius, 1. 3. c. 8.) 

1753. Alexander went very quickly to Tarsus. Since he was so hot from the journey he took off 
his armour and leaped into the cold water of the Cydnus River which ran through the city. This 
so shocked his system that he lost his voice and despaired of recovery and waited to die. (Justin. 
1. 1 1. c. 8.) Curtius adds that this was in the summer season and that the heat of the day was 
increased by the intensity of the sun in the climate of Cilicia. (1. 3. c. 10.) Aristobulus says, that 
he fell sick by over exerting himself (Arrian. 1. 2.) Philip a physician gave him a portion which 
he took and it cured him immediately. Parmenion had warned him that Philip was set to poison 
him. (Justin. Czardas. Arrow. Pleiad, and Valer. Max. 1. 3. c. 8.) 

1754. Orontobates the Persian, held out in the citadel at Halicarnassus, with Myundus, and 
Caunus and Thera and Callipolis against Alexander. They were defeated in a battle by Ptolemy 
and Asander. The enemy lost about 700 foot soldiers and 50 cavalry and had at least 1000 men 
taken prisoner. After this the Myndians, Caunians and most of the places in the region 
surrendered to Alexander. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curtius 1. 3. c. 11.) 

1755. Darius had a bridge built over the Euphrates and crossed over with his army in five days. 
(Curt. 1.3. c. 11.) 



1756. Alexander sent Parmenion to possess the pass which divides Cilicia from Assyria or 
Syria. This pass is much like the former pass in Cilicia. Alexander followed after him from 
Tarsus and came to Anchislos on the first day. (Arria. 1. 2.) From there he marched to Soli and 
placed his own garrison in the fort there. He levied 200,000 talents of silver from the inhabitants 
for they seemed to favour Darius more than him. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curt. 1. 3. c. 11.) From there he 
went with 3000 Macedonians, all his archers and Agrians and went into the hill country of 
Cilicia. Within 7 days time, by diplomacy he won them over to him and he returned to Soli. He 
had sacrificed to Eseulapius and his whole army had gone in procession with burning tapers in 
their hands. They passed the time with wrestling matches, music and other games. He allowed 
the city to become a democracy. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1757. The Greek soldiers whom Thymodes received by the arrangement with Pharnabazus, were 
almost Darius' only hope of victory. When they came to him, they were very earnest with him to 
retire and stay in the plain country of Mesopotamia. Failing that, he should break this vast army 
of his into parts and not hazard everything on the chance of one battle. Darius did not like their 
advice for he wanted to finish things quickly. The winter (beginning with autumn) was now 
drawing on and he sent away all his money, jewels and precious belongings with a reasonable 
guard to Damascus in Syria. The guard was under the command of Cophenes, the son of 
Artabazus. (Arrian. 1. 2.) Darius with the rest of his army marched on to Cilicia. His wife and 
mother and daughter and little son, according to the custom of Persia, followed after the camp. 
(Curt. 1. 3. c. 13.) He left his baggage and such people as were unfit for the war at Damascus. 
(Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.) 

1758. When Sanballat heard that Darius was coming into those parts, he told Manasseh that he 
would quickly do what he had promised him concerning the high priesthood. This he would do 
when Darius returned in victory over his enemies. All those inhabitants of Asia were absolutely 
certain Darius would win. (Josephus Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 3.) 

3672a AM, 4381 JP, 333 BC 

1759. Alexander wanted Philotas to bring the cavalry through the Aleian plains in Lycia to the 
Pyramus River. Philotas came with the foot soldiers and Alexander's troops to Magarsus. 
Alexander sacrificed to Minerva at a place called Minerva Magoris. (??) (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1760. After he built a bridge over the Pyramus River, he came to the city Mallos in Cilicia. 
(Curt. 1. 3. c. 11.) He offered to the ghost of Amphilochus the founder of that place, as to a demi- 
god. When he found the inhabitants in turmoil and unrest, he befriended them and freed them 
from paying tribute to Darius. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1761. While he stayed at Mallos, he received news that Darius with all his army were encamped 
at a place called Sochos. This was two day's journey from those passes which I mentioned 
earlier that parted Cilicia from Assyria or Syria (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1762. From Mallos Alexaxander came to Castabala which was another town in Cilicia. There 
Parmenion met him. Alexander had sent him to find the way through a forest which he had to go 
through to come to the town of Issos. Parmenion had seized the way in that forest and left a 
small company to hold it. He went forward and took the town of Issos also. It was abandoned by 



the inhabitants when they heard he was coming. He went further and he cleared out all those 
who were set to guard the inner parts of those mountains and put garrisons everywhere of his 
own in those places. When he had cleared all those parts of the enemy, he returned to Alexander 
and told him what he had done. (Curt., 1. 3. c. 11.) 

1763. Alexander came with his army to Issos. He held a council of war to determine whether he 
should march on or stay there and expect the supplies which he knew were coming to him from 
Macedon. Parmenion advised that he could not find a better place to fight than that place. No 
more could come to fight on the one side than on the other because of the narrowness of the 
pass. (Curt., 1. 3. c. 11.) Callisthenes, as he is said in Polybius, says, that when Alexander first 
came into Cilicia, he received from Macedon, 5000 foot soldiers and 800 cavalry. (Polyb. 1. 12. 
p. 664.) 

1764. When Darius had gone through the pass of the hill Amanus, he marched toward Issus. He 
did not know that he had left Alexander behind him. When Darius had taken the town, he 
cruelly tortured and put to death a poor company of Macedonians whom Alexander had left 
there. They were not able because of sickness or other infirmity to follow the camp. The next 
day Darius marched to the Pinatus River. (Arrian 1. 2.) 

1765. When Darius heard that Alexander was approaching in battle array, he immediately 
crossed over the Pinarus River with 20,000 cavalry and some 20,000 lightly armed foot soldiers 
so that he might have more time to organise his army for the battle. First, he placed those 30,000 
heavily armed Greek mercenaries. Opposite the Macedonian squadron on both sides he placed 
the 60,000 Cardaeans who were also heavily armed foot soldiers. He could not possibly arrange 
them into one squadron and do battle because the place was too narrow. As for the rest of the 
troops whether heavily armed foot soldiers or those from other countries, he put them together 
in no particular order behind the main battle line of the Greeks and Cardaeans. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 
However Curtius (1. 3. c. 17) states: 

vv Nabarzanes who was general of Darius' army, was on the right wing with the cavalry. Next to 
him were almost 20,000 slingers and archers. Thymodes also was in the same wing, 
commanding some 30,000 Greek mercenaries. This was, no doubt, the very cream of the whole 
army. They were a match for the Macedonian phalanx. On the left wing, was Aristomedes a 
Thessalian with 20,000 foot soldiers from various countries. In the rear, he placed his reserves 
from the most warlike nations, that he had in all his army. In that wing was the king protected by 
a guard of 3000 choice cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers. The Hircanian and Median cavalry 
followed them. Next to them were arranged the cavalry and foot soldiers of the other nations. 
Some were on the right hand and some on the left. Before this battalion were arranged like this 
went 6000 slingers and javeliners. All the ground that was there in that pass was filled up 
entirely with men. The wings reached from the one mountain and the other to the very sea. The 
queen and the king's mother and the rest of the women were placed in the midst of the army." 

1766. Callisthenes, who himself was in this battle, says, that there were 30,000 cavalry and as 
many auxiliaries all set to encounter the Macedonian phalanx. However, Polibius (1. 12.) says 
that Alexander's army consisted wholly of 42,000 foot soldiers and 5000 cavalry. He shows the 
many inaccuracies of Callisthenes. He points out that for inexperience in the marshalling of an 
army, Callisthenes had written many absurdities and impertinencies in the description of this 
battle. 



1767. In the morning when Hephaestion came to Alexander to encourage him to start the battle, 
he forgot himself and greeted him: 

vv God help you sir," 

1768. instead of, 
vv God save you sir." 

1769. All the troops who were there, were disturbed by what this meant. They thought he had 
meant that the king had not been well in his wits. Hephaestion himself grew amazed by his own 
mistake. When Alexander knew this, he took it up and said that I thank him for his good omen. 
For this tells me, that we shall all by God's help come safely out of this battle today. This is 
related by Eumenes Cardianus in his Epistle to Antipater. He was present when the words were 
spoken and stumbled himself into a similar error, as it is in Lucian's discourse, "Of Men's 
Misunderstandings in their speech." 

1770. Arrian says, that this battle was fought, when Nicostratus, (or as Diodorus Siculus has it, 
when Micocrates) was archon of Athens, in year 4 of the 1 1 1th Olympiad. This was in the 
month Maemacterion, whose new moon fell on the Wednesday, October 28th. In it the Persians 
lost 10,000 cavalry and 90,000 foot soldiers. A number of other writers agree with him 
concerning the losses in the cavalry. Concerning the foot soldiers, they all vary extremely not 
only from him but from each other. Justin says, there were 60,000, Orosius, 80,000, Curtius, 
100,000, Diodorus, 120,000. Plutarch says that in all, they lost 110,000 men. Justinus and 
Orosius add, that there were 40,000 captured. On Alexander's side, there were 504 wounded 
men. They lost 32 foot soldiers and 150 cavalry according to Curtius. Concerning the number of 
the cavalry, Plutarch, Justin and Orosius agree with this. Diodorus says he lost 300 foot soldiers, 
the other writers say he lost 330. 

1771. Ptolemy the son of Lagus, who was a servant of Alexander, states that in the pursuit of 
Darius, the squadron marched over the slaughtered bodies of the enemy. (Arrian. lib. 2.) 
Although less than 1000 cavalry followed Alexander in the pursuit of Darius yet they slew a 
huge multitude of the enemy. (Curt. 1. 3. c. 22.) When Darius was thrown from his coach he 
climbed onto a mare. She remembered her foal at home and ran so fast that Alexander could not 
catch up to him. (Elianum Historia Animali, 1. 65. c. 48.) 

1772. Alexander grew weary of the pursuit of Darius. Since the night was drawing on, he gave 
up all hope of catching Darius. When he had travelled 45 miles, he returned to Darius' camp 
about midnight. His men had captured it shortly before this. (Diodor. and Curt.) They found 
Darius' mother whom Diodorus calls Sisygnambis, but Curtius, calls Sysigambis. His wife was 
there also whom Justin says was his sister as well. Darius' son Ochus who was almost 6 year's 
old and Darius' two daughters of marriageable age were also found. Also they found a few other 
noble men's daughters. Most of them had sent their wives and daughters to Damascus with their 
baggage. Even Darius had sent most of his treasure there as we said before. They found 
whatever luxurious furniture was the the king's custom to take with him to war. In Darius' camp, 
Alexander found about 3000 talents of silver. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1773. Early the next morning, Alexander took Hephestion with him and went to see the two 



queens. When Sisygambis mistakenly fell down at Hephestion's feet, she asked Alexander's 
pardon for it. He replied smiling: 

vv No harm, for this is Alexander too." 

1774. (Diodor. Curtius. Arrian.) In so few words, he gave half of himself away to his friend. 
(Valer. Max. 1. 4. c. 7.) As for the two queens and to the women about them, Alexander restored 
to them all their attire, dressing and ornaments. He added much more of his own belongings to 
this as well. He did not permit any man to be uncivil with the women. (Arran. 1. 2. with Plut. 1. 
2. de fort. Alex.) 

1775. In his flight, Darius came to a place called Sochos about two day's journey from the 
passes of Amanus as we noted before. From Arrian we learn that he collected any Persians and 
others who survived the battle. He took 4000 of them with him to Thupsacus so that he might 
have the great Euphrates River between him and Alexander. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 1. Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1776. Amyntus the son of Antiochus, Thymodes the son of Mentor, Aristomedes Phercus and 
Bianor of Acarnania had previously defected to the Persians from the Greeks. They fled with 
8000 men in their company to Tripoli in Phoenicia. They found ships which had just arrived 
from Lesbos. They captured them and sailed to Cyprus and then to Egypt. They burned the ships 
they did not need so they could not be followed. (Arrian. 1. 2. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 
112. and Curt. 1. 4. c. 3.) 

1777. Alexander made Balacrus, the son of Nicanor, one of the leaders of his bodyguard, 
governor of Cilicia. Alexander replaced Nicanor by Menetes, the son of Dionysius. He put 
Olyperchon the son of Simeus, in charge of the brigade to replace Ptolemy, the son of Seleucus, 
who was slain in the recent battle. He gave 50 talents to the men of Solos in Cilicia. These were 
not paid their wages that he had enlisted them for. He restored to them their hostages that he had 
taken from them. (Arrian. 1. 2.) He built 3 altars, one to Jupiter, another to Hercules and a third 
to Minerva on the banks of the Pinarus River. Then he marched into Syria and sent Parmenion 
with the Thessalian cavalry to Damascus before him. Darius had all his treasure here. The 
cavalry had behaved very courageously in the recent battle. If they captured the city, they would 
be rich from the spoil. (Plut. in Alexan.) 

1778. As Parmemion was on his way to Damascus, he intercepted a message sent to Alexander 
from the governor of Damascus who offerred to betray the city to Alexander. The 4th day he 
came to Damascus. The governor pretended that he could not hold the city. The next morning 
before sunrise, he took all the king's treasure (which the Persians call his "Gaza") and pretended 
that he would flee away and save it for Darius. Instead he gave it to Parmenion. As soon as he 
had done that there was a heavy snow storm and the ground was frozen solid. 

1779. Among the women that fled from there and were captured, there were 3 virgins, daughters 
of Ochus, the last king before Darius. Also in the group were Ochus' queen, the daughter of 
Oxatris the brother of Darius, the wife of Artabanus a principal man at court and his son Iloneus. 
There was also taken the wife of Pharnabazus whom Darius had made commander of all the 
towns and cities lying on the sea with 3 daughters of Mentor. The wife and son of that most 
noble Memnon was taken. There was hardly any noble man's house of the court of Persia, which 
had not his share in this calamity. (Plut. in Alexan.) Parmenion's report to Alexander indicated 



that among the rest he had taken 329 of the king's women who were skilful in music, 46 weavers 
or knitters of crowns, 277 cooks and 29 cooks' maids, 13 white meat-makers, 17 makers of 
drinking cups, 70 wine cellar men, 40 apothecaries and confectioners. 

1780. Also taken were 2600 talents in coins, bars of silver, 500 weight, 30,000 men, 7000 
camels which were beasts of burden. (Curt. 1. 3. c. 25.) 

1781. The one that betrayed the place (who, as it seems was Cophenes by whom Darius sent his 
treasure to Damascus,) one of his countrymen cut off his head and carried it to Darius. (Curt. 1. 
3. c. 25.) 

1782. Alexander made Parmenion, (according to Curtius) or Memnon, (according to Arrian), the 
governor of Coelosyria. He gave him his auxiliary cavalry for the defence of that province. The 
Syrians were not totally subdued and did not submit to this new governor. However, they were 
quickly suppressed and then they submitted to all the commands. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curt. 1. 4. c. 1.) 

1783. Alexander sent Parmenion to seize the Persian fleet. Others that were with him, he sent to 
hold the cities of Asia which had surrendered to him. After the battle of Issos, Darius' own 
commanders surrendered with all their gold and treasure to Alexander. He marched into Syria 
and many kings of the east came and submitted to him. These he treated accordingly. Some he 
made a league with, while others he replaced with new kings. (Justin. 1. 11. c. 10.) 

1784. Gerostratus was at that time king of the Isle of Aradus with the adjoining sea coast and of 
some places also lying further inland. Like the other kings of Cyprus and Phoenicia, they had 
consolidated their fleets under Darius' Persian commander, Antophradates. Gerostratus' son 
Strata who was viceroy of Aradus in his father's absence, met Alexander as he was on his way 
into Phoenicia. He placed a crown of gold on Alexander's head and surrendered the isle of 
Aradus with Marathus, a large rich town opposite Aradus on the continent, the city Mariamme 
and whatever else belonged to his father. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curt. 1. 4. c. 1.) 

1785. After Alexander had graceously received Strabo, Alexander marched to the city 
Marathon. From there he received letters from Darius who wanted to ransom his women 
captives. Alexander answered in a letter and sent Thersippus to deliver it. (Justin 1. 11. c. 12. 
Curt. 1. 4. c. 1. Arrian. 1. 2. Diod. Sic. year 4. Olymp. 111.) He wanted back the Greek 
ambassadors that were sent to Darius before the battle at Issos. Alexander understood that they 
were taken at Damascus. When Darius sent them, Alexander dismissed the two ambassadors of 
the Thebans, Thessalicus and Dionysodorus. Also he sent away Iphsicrates of Athens who was 
the son of that famous Iphicrates. Euthycles the Lacedemonian, he committed first to custody 
and later released him from irons. Later when everything went well for Alexander, he was sent 
away too. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1786. Alexander left Maratho and captured the city Biblus which conditionally surrendered to 
him. The Sidonians who had not long before been so terribly abused by Ochus sent to Alexander 
and desired to submit to him. They hated the Persians and king Darius. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curt. 1. 4. c. 
2.) At that time Strabo reigned there. Because this surrender came more from the people than 
from Strabo, Alexander replaced Strabo by Abdolominus who lived by tending a poor garden 
there. Alexander gave him not only the rich furniture of Strabo's house but added various other 
rich gifts from what he had taken from the Persians. The new king controlled all the adjoining 



territories of Sidon. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 2. Justin. 1. 11. c. 10.) Plutarch in his discourse of the fortune 
of Alexander, calls this man Alynomus the king of Paphon. Diodorus calls him Ballinomus and 
says that Alexander made him king of Tyre. 

1787. All of Syria and Phoenicia except Tyre were under Alexander's control. Alexander and his 
camp were on the continent. Between him and Tyre was a narrow channel of the sea. The 
Tyrians had sent a very massive crown of gold to him for a present and congratulated him for 
his great success. They sent him many provisions from their city. He received their presents as 
he would from good friends. He used many gracious and friendly words to them expressing his 
great desire to see their city and to sacrifice to Hercules. They told him that there was an alter in 
Palaetyrus or Old Tyre in the continent near by and that it would be better to offer sacrifice to 
Hercules on that one since it was the older of the two altars. When he heard this he was so 
enraged that he vowed to destroy their city. It happened that at the same time there came certain 
select men from Carthage to perform a yearly sacrifice to Hercules. The Tyrians were the 
founders of Carthage and the Carthaginians had honoured them as the father of their city. These 
men exhorted them to hold out and to endure the siege like men. They assured them of speedy 
supplies and aid from Carthage for at that time the Carthaginians, were a very strong naval 
power. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 5, 6. Justin. 1. 11. c. 10.) 

1788. Thus Tyre was resolved for a war and they endured a 7 month siege. (Diod. Sic. year 1. 
Olymp. 112. Josephus Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8. Curt. 1. 4. c. 15. Plutarch in Alexander.) Their king 
Azelmious was absent at sea. He left Autophradates, his son behind him in the city. (Arrian. 1. 
4.) Alexander levelled Palaetyrus or old Tyre to the ground. He sent for all the men in the 
surrounding country to come and help his men throw the stones and rubbish of the entire city 
into the channel that ran between the two cities. He made a causeway of half a mile long over to 
Tyre from the old city according to Diodorus. Curtius, (1. 4. c. 5.) agrees with him. Pliny (1. 5. c. 
19) said it was 700 paces long. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. 1. 4. c. 8.) 

1789. Amyntas the son of Antiochus had with him 4000 Greeks who had fled from the battle of 
Issos (as I mentioned previously). Sabaces a Persian and governor of Egypt was killed in the 
battle of Issos. They set sail from Cyprus to Pelusium and seized the city. Amyntas pretended 
that he came to take charge of it by the order of Darius to replace Sabaces. From there he went 
with his army to Memphis. At the news of his coming, the Egyptians came from the towns and 
the country to help him against the Persians. With their help, he routed the Persians when they 
attacked him and forced them into the city again. Soon after by the advice of Masases their 
captain when he saw the Greeks scattered about the country and busy plundering it, Masases 
sallied forth again. In a surprise attack, he cut Amyntas and all his troops in pieces. (Curt. 1. 3. c. 
22., 1. 4. c. 3.) 

1790. Some of Darius' captains and their troops who escaped from the battle at Issos along with 
some Cappadocians and Paphlagonians went to retake Lydia. Antigonus, who was Alexander's 
commander, routed them in three battles. At the same time, the Macedonian fleet came from 
Greece and attacked Aristomenes, who was sent by Darius to retake the Hellespont. They sunk 
or took all the Persian fleet. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112., Curt. 1. 4. c. 4.) 

1791. While Alexander besieged Tyre, he sent to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem and 
demanded from him supplies and other provisions plus the tribute they formerly paid to Darius. 
Jaddua replied that he was bound by a former oath of allegiance to Darius and that he could not 
be freed from that oath as long as Darius lived. Alexander was very angry and swore that as 



soon as he had taken Tyre, he would march against Jerusalem. (Josephus Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 3.) 

1792. At the start of the siege of Tyre, Sanballat the Cuthite, defected from Darius and came 
with 8000 men. (Newer additions of Josephus say 7000 not 8000. Editor) Alexander graciously 
received him. Sanballat asked permission to build a temple on his own land and to make his son- 
in-law, Manasseh the high priest who was the brother to Jaddua the high priest at Jerusalem. 
When he obtained permission and because he was now growing old, he started the work quickly. 
He built a temple and made Manasseh the high priest of it. He thought that by this he would 
bestow great honour to the posterity of his daughter. (Josephus Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 4.) 

1793. Alexander purposed to make a broader causeway from the continent for an easier 
approach to Tyre. After he had built new engines of war, he marched with his targeteers and a 
squadron of Agrians, to Sidon. There he gathered as many ships as he possibly could for he 
knew it would be impossible to take Tyre as long as the Tyrians were masters at sea. (Arrian. 1. 

2.) 

1794. Meanwhile, when Gerostratus the king of Aradus and Enulus the king of Byblus found 
that all their cities were already taken by Alexander, they abandoned Antophradates and his fleet 
and came with their fleets to Alexander. Some ships of the Sidonians also came with them. Now 
Alexander had a navy of 80 ships. At the same time Rhodes sent a fleet of 10 ships to 
Alexander. One ship, was called Periplus. 3 more came from Soli and Mallus. 10 came from 
Lycia. Macedon sent a ship of 50 oars under Captain Proteas, the son of Andronicus. A little 
time later certain kings of Cyprus sent 120 ships to the port of Sidon. They heard of his victory 
at Issos and the news that all Phoenicia had yielded to him. Alexander forgave them their 
previous wrongs they had done to him. For previously they sided with Darius of necessity not by 
their free choice. (Arian. 1. 2.) Azelmicus, the king of Tyre, left Antophradates and came to his 
own city of Tyre while it was thus besieged. He was in it when it was taken later according to 
Arrian. 

1795. In Mount Lebanon, Alexander cut timber for his ships. The wild Arabians suddenly 
attacked the Macedonians while they were busy at their work. They slew 30 of them and carried 
away almost as many prisoners. Alexander left Perdiccas and Craterus, or as Polyaenus seems to 
say, Parmenion, to continue the siege of Tyre. He went with a running camp into Arabia. (Curt. 
1. 4. c. 8.) Polyaenus confirms that he made an excursion into Arabia. (1. 4. Stratag.) Arrian gives 
more details. He says that Alexander with certain cavalry troops, light targeteers and his 
squadron of Agrians went into Arabia as far as to Anti-Lebanon. Plutarch tells us that he 
marched against the Arabians who dwelt opposite Anti-Lebanon. 

1796. When he was come to the mountainous country of those parts, he planned to leave his 
cavalry and march on foot as others did. The body of his army had gone a good distance before 
him and the night was approaching and the enemy was close. Lysimachus, his childhood 
instructor was exhausted from the journey and Alexander did not want to leave him in that 
condition. Alexander encouraged him and helped him along. Before he knew it, he and his 
group were separated from the rest of his company. He would have to pass that night in the dark 
in a bitter cold frost and in a place devoid of all relief. Nevertheless, he saw not far off many 
fires made by the enemies. Since he had a nimble and active body, he ran to the next fire and 
killed the enemies that sat by it. He brought away a firebrand and kindled a fire for himself and 
the small group of Macedonians that were with him. This fire became so large that the enemies 
were terrified and did not move against him. So he and his company lay safely all that night. 



This story Plutarch tells of him from Charaetes, a Mitylean and one of those who wrote the 
Deeds of Alexander. 

1797. When he had taken all that country, partly upon amicable terms and partly by force, he 
returned to Sidon after only 1 1 days from the time he left. He found Alexander the son of 
Polemocrates, had recently arrived with 4000 Greek mercenaries. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1798. His navy was now outfitted and totalled 190 ships according to Curtius or to 200 
according to Diodorus. Alexander sailed from Sidon for Tyre in a very good formation. He was 
in the right wing, in a Quinquereme, or ship of five decks high. In that squadron were also the 
kings of Cyprus and the rest of the Phoenicians except for Pintagoras or Pythagoras. He and 
Craterus commanded the left wing. (Arrian. 1. 2. Curt. 1. 4. c. 10.) 

3672c AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC 

1799. Thirty commissioners arrived from Carthage and brought Tyre word that the 
Carthaginians were so embroiled with war at home that they could not possibly send help to 
them at this time. This did not discourage the men of Tyre. However, they sent away their wives 
and children to Carthage, as being a safer place for them no matter what happened at Tyre. 
(Curt. 1. 4. c. 11. with Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. Justin 1. 11. c. 10.) 

1800. When Apollo had appeared to various men in dreams and signified that he would leave 
the city, the superstitious men of Tyre took good golden chains and bound his image tightly to 
the foot of his shrine. His image was sent there from Syracuse according to Curtius or from Gela 
in Sicily by the Carthaginians as we have noted from Diodorus. (See note on 3599 AM.) They 
fastened the chain to the altar of Hercules the tutelar god of that city as if he should be able to 
hold Apollo by his strength from leaving. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 11. Diod Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112. 
Plutarch in Alexander.) 

1801. While Alexander besieged Tyre, ambassadors from Darius came to him and offered him 
10,000 talents (not as Valer. Max. wrote 1,000,000) to ransom his mother, wife and children and 
all the territory lying between the Hellespont and the river Halys. Darius would give his 
daughter in marriage to Alexander. This offer was discussed in a council of his friends. It is 
reported that Parmenion said that if he were Alexander, he would not refuse those conditions. 
Whereupon Alexander replied that no more would he if he were Parmenion. Alexander wrote 
back to Darius that he offered him nothing but what was already his. Therefore he wished him to 
come in person to ask for his wife back and to accept such conditions as Alexander would give 
him. (Arrian. 1. 2. Justin 1. 11. c. 12. Curt. 1. 4. c. 16. Plutarch in his Apostchegmes and in his 
Alexander Valer. Max. 1. 6. c. 4.) 

1802. Tyre was taken, when Anicetes, (or Nicetes according to Dionys. Halicarnas. in 
Dinarchus) was archon in Athens in the month of Hecatombaeon. (Arrian. 1. 2. p. 49.) In the 
middle of that month, the 112 Olympiad ended. In Plutarch we find that it was on the 30th day 
of the month Loi according to the Macedonian calendar and the 5th of Hacatombaeon on the 
Athenian calendar. This was July 24th as I have shown, in the end of chapter 5. of my discourse 
of the Solar years of the Macedonians and Asians. 

1803. Justin, (1. 1. c. 10.) says it was taken by treason, Polyaenus by a stratagem, (1. 1. stratag.) 



and Diodorus, Arrian., Curtius say by pure force. When the enemies had got into the city, yet the 
townsmen maintained the fight until there were 7000 thousand of them cut in pieces. (Diodorus) 

1804. Arrian states that there were 8000 of the inhabitants killed. Curtius says that after the 
battle 2000 more were hung up all along the shore. Diodorus states that Alexander hanged 2000 
young men all in their prime. Justin says that in remembrance of the old slaughter the 
inhabitants had made, he had all that were captured, crucified. He put them to a death befitting a 
slave because the Tyrian slaves had made a conspiracy against their own masters and had 
murdered all the freemen of that city with their own masters. They set up their own government 
and killed everyone except Strata an old man and his son. On him and his posterity, they 
established the kingdom. 

1805. Concerning Alexander, Justin further adds: 

vv that he spared all the descendants of Strata and restored the kingdom to him and his posterity." 

1806. (This means perhaps Ballonymus, whom Diodorus confounds with Abdolominus, whom 
Alexander made king of the Sidonians a short time earlier.) 

""Alexander left the city to be repopulated by its innocent and harmless inhabitants. When he 
had abolished that wicked generation of slaves, he hoped to be considered the founder of a new 
and better people there." 

1807. By this means it was, that Justin from Trogus, made Alexander the restorer and rebuilder 
of Tyre. (1. 18. c. 3,4.) All other writers made him not its founder but its destroyer. The prophecy 
of Isaiah concurring with this, Isa 23:1 compared with /APC IMa 1:1 For if we believe Curtius, 
Alexander spared those who fled to the temples and slew everyone else and set fire to their 
houses. According to Diodorus, he made slaves of all that were not able to bear arms, together 
with the women and girls. This was over 13,000 even though most had been sent away to 
Carthage. However, according to Arrian, Alexander spared all that Azelmicus and the 
commissioners who came from Carthage had brought to the sacrifice of Hercules. He sold all 
the rest for slaves, to the number of 30,000. 

1808. Curtius says that the Sidonians which joined in with the rest of Alexander's soldiers did 
not forget their blood ties between them and the Tyrians. For they believed that they were all 
brought there by Agenor who was the founder of both cities. The Sidonians got 15,000 on their 
ships and saved them. Curius (1. 4. c. 15.) states: 

vv Tyre quickly recovered and later grew to be a city again." 

1809. Strabo (1. 16. p. 754.) states: 

vv After this enormous calamity brought on them by Alexander, they quickly overcame their 
misfortunes by their navigational skills and with their purple dye industry." 

1810. Justin (1. 18. c. 4.) states: 



vv By their parsimony and industry, they quickly recovered strength again." 

1811. This happened so quickly that in the 18th year from then, they endured another siege from 
Antigonus who was then lord of all Asia. This siege lasted not 7 months as in the case of 
Alexander, but a full 15 months. (Diod. Sic. 1. 19. year 2. Olymp. 116.) They were not now 
content with their little city which was joined to the continent by Alexander's causeways and 
other works. They so enlarged their boundaries that in Pliny's time the wall of their city enclosed 
almost 3 miles. When one included Palaetyrus or Old Tyre with it the whole enclosure came to 
no less than 19 miles. (Pliny 1. 5. c. 19.) 

1812. Admetus, who first got onto the wall with 20 targeteers were all slain at the very first 
encounter with the enemy. In the whole time of the siege, no more than 400 Macedonians were 
lost. (Arrian. 1. 2.) 

1813. Alexander offered sacrifices to Hercules and went in procession with his whole host in 
full armour to his temple. He held a show also with his ships and caused wrestling and other 
games to be performed by torch light. There was a certain Tyrian ship consecrated to his honour 
which he had captured. This he rededicated to himself. (Arrian. 1. 2.) He took the golden chain 
from off of Apollos' image and the robes he was attired with. He gave the image a new name, 
"Alexander's friend". (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olymp. 112.) Timaeus states that Alexander captured 
Tyre on the very exactly the same day that the Carthaginians had taken the image of Apollo 
from Gela in Sicily. The Greeks offered to Apollo a magnificent and solemn sacrifice as if by 
his power and favour they had captured Tyre. (Diod. Sic. year 4. Olympiad 93.) 

1814. As soon as Alexander had taken Tyre, he marched into Judah. (Euseb. Chron. with Pliny, 
1. 12. c. 25.) and subdued all that part of Syria which is called Palestina. (Arrian. 1. 2. p. 50.) He 
went in person against those places that would not willingly submit to him. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 17.) 
When he was on his march to Jerusalem, Jaddua the high priest who was terrified by his former 
threats and now feared his rage, resorted to God by prayers and sacrifices for the common safety 
of all. God warned him in a dream that he should make a holy day in the city and open wide the 
city gates. He and the rest of the priests would go forth in their priestly raiment and all the rest 
of the people would be clothed all in white and accompany him to meet Alexander. When 
Alexander saw this company coming to him from a distance, he went all alone to the high priest. 
After he prostrated himself before that God whose name he saw engraven in the golden plate of 
his mitre he greeted him. When Parmenion asked the reason for his behaviour, he replied that 
while he was still in Macedon planning the conquest of Asia, there appeared to him a man 
clothed like this high priest who invited him into Asia and assured him of all success in the 
conquest of it. The priests went before him as he entered into Jerusalem. He went up to the 
temple and sacrificed to God in the manner the priests showed him. They had showed him the 
book of the prophet Daniel in which it was written that a Greek should come and destroy the 
Persians. Da 8:7,20,21 11:13 He did not doubt but he was the one in the prophecy. After this he 
dismissed the company. (Joseph. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 5.) 

1815. The next day, he assembled the people and asked them what they wanted from him. They 
replied they wanted nothing but that they might live according to the laws of their own country 
and that every 7th year, (in the sabbatical year when there was no harvest) they might be exempt 
from paying any tribute. He granted all they asked. When they asked further that he would allow 
the Jews who dwelt in the countries of Babylon and Media to live according to their own rites 
and laws he answered, that he would grant that request as soon as he had taken those countries 



too. When he told them that if any of them would follow him in his wars they could use their 
own rites wherever they came, many enlisted to serve him. When he had settled all matters in 
Jerusalem, he left and went to the rest of the cities of that country and was joyfully received 
everywhere. (Joseph. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 6.) 

1816. One of Alexander's captains, Callas went and recaptured Paphagonia, which defected 
from Alexander after the battle at Issos. Alexander's captains Antigonus Lyconia and Balacrus 
captured the city of Miletus after they defeated Darius' captain Idarnes. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 17.) 

1817. Alexander had given the government of Cilicia to Socrates and wanted Philotas the son of 
Parmenion, to take care of the country about Tyre. Coelo-Syria was committed to Andronicus 
by Parmenion. He wanted to follow Alexander in the war. Alexander commanded Hephastion 
with the fleet, to scour the coast of Phoenicia. He went with his whole army to Gaza (Curt. 1. 4. 
c. 17.) and besieged the garrison of Persians for two months. (Diod. Sic. year 1. Olympiad. 1 12. 
Josephus 1. 1 1. c. 8. s. 6.) (It appears modern editions of Josephus have deleted part of chapter 8. 
Editor.) 

1818. According to Josephus, the name of the captain of the garrison at Gaza was Babemeses, or 
according to Curtius and Arrian, Batis an Eunuch. He was very loyal to his king:. He hired some 
Arabian mercenaries and made good provision of food and other things. He defended the walls, 
which were very strong with a small company of men. 

1819. Alexander received two wounds at this siege. When Batis was taken alive, Alexander had 
cords or thongs drawn through his ankles and tied him to a chariot. He was dragged around the 
city. In that siege 10,000 Persians and Arabians died. The Macedonians also lost men. (Curt. 1. 
4. c. 10.) Alexander sold all the women and children there for slaves. He repopulated the place 
with inhabitants from the neighbouring parts and made that the location of his garrison. (Arrian. 
1. 2. in fin.) Those words of Strabo are not easily understood unless they refer to the former state 
of that city. He states: {*Strabo, 1. 16. 7:277} 

vv Gaza which was formerly a glorious city, was destroyed by Alexander and remained desolate." 

1820. We will say that this was meant of a later Gaza built in another place which Jerome in his 
book, De Locis Hebraicis: i.e. of places in Judea, affirms in this way: 

vv The question is, how in one of the prophets it is said, And Gaza shall be turned into an 
everlasting heap? which is thus answered. There are scarcely left to be seen any sign of the old 
city. The present city of Gaza was built in another place instead of the location of the one which 
was destroyed." 

1821. When Alexander had done what he wanted to do to Gaza, he sent Amyntas the son of 
Andremon, with 3 ships to Macedon to bring him the best of the youth for his army. (Diod. Sic. 
year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. 1. 4. c. 19.) 

3673a AM, 4382 JP, 332 BC 

1822. From Gaza, Alexander marched into Egypt as he formerly planned. 7 days after he left 



Gaza, he came to a place which he named Alexander's Camp. From there he came to the city 
Pelusium. (Arrian. 1. 3. in pri. Curt. 1. 4. c. 20.) He did not go back again from Gaza to 
Jerusalem, as Josephus incorrectly reports. 

1823. A large number of the Egyptians who were expecting Alexander's arrival, assembled at 
Pelusium. They were offended by the Persian's pride, avarice, and sacrilege and eagerly 
welcomed the arrival of the Macedonians. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 20. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.) 

1824. Alexander left a garrison in Pelusium and ordered his ships to go up the river to Memphis. 
He marched by land to Heliopolis having the Nile on his right all the way. Wherever he went, all 
the cities opened their gates to him. He passed the desert of Egypt and came at last to 
Helsopolis. After crossing the river, he marched toward Memphis. (Arrian. 1. 3.) The Persians 
who were there did not hinder his coming when they saw the general defection of the Egyptians 
from them. When he was not far from Memphis, he was met by Astraces, who commanded the 
garrison for Darius. He gave Alexander 800 talents and all his master's wardrobe. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 
20.) However Curtius writes the name Astraces instead of Mazaces as he does in chapter 4 of 
the same book. Likewise, Arrian in the beginning of his third book, states that Mazaces a 
Persian whom Darius had made governor of Egypt received Alexander into that province and its 
cities in a very friendly way. 

1825. Alexander offered his sacrifices at Memphis and there held games of wrestling and other 
activities and music. The most expert and skilful men of all Greece entered these games to try to 
win the prizes. He came down the river to the sea. He put his targeteers, archers and Agrians and 
the his troops aboard the ships of his confederates and they sailed to Canopus. There he picked a 
choice site for the city of Alexandria which was between the Egyptian Sea and Marea or Lake of 
Mareotis. He named the future city after himself. (Arrian. 1. 3.) In that part of it which lies next 
to the sea and the shipping docks, there was a street called Racotis. (Strabo. 1. 17. p. 792. 
Pansanius, in his Eliaca. p. 169. Tacit. Histor. 1. 4. c. 84.) 

1826. Alexandria was built not in the 7th, (as Eusebius in Chron and from him, Byril. of 
Alexandria, 1. 1. cont. Julianuni and Cedrehus state) but in the 5th year of Alexander's reign and 
in the very first year of the 1 12th Olympiad as Solinus has it in chapter 32 not as Diodorus in the 
2nd year and much less, as Eusebius in the 3rd year.) For the exact time when Alexandria was 
built we can determine precisely from the interval of time between the taking of Tyre and that 
great battle at Gaugamela and his deeds in that interim. From this and from the 5th year of 
Darius and Thoth in 417th year of Nabonasar's account which falls in with the 14th day of 
September according to our Julian calendar or year 1. of the Olymp. 1 12th. Ptolemy of 
Alexandria, deduces the years of Alexander, whom in the Preface of his Procgeiroin Kanomoun 
(whereof this is one) he, after the fashion of all Alexandrians, calls Ktishn i.e. his founder. 

1827. Dinocrates was the man who designed and laid out streets of this city (whom Plutarch 
both "in his life" and also in the 2nd book of the fortune of Alexander, calls Stesicrates and other 
books, call otherwise.) Dinocrates was that famous architect whose skill and industry the 
Ephesians used in the rebuilding of their temple of Diana. For the excellency of his 
workmanship showed in the temple deserves the second place after the original builders of the 
temple, in the annals of the world. (Strabo, 1. 14. p. 641. Valer. Max. 1. I.e. 4. Vitruvins, in the 
Proaeme of his second book. Pliny 1. 5. c. 10., 1. 7. c. 37. Solin. c. 32, 40. Ammia. Marcell. 1 22.) 



3673b AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC 

1828. Alexander got them started and wanted them to work quickly. He journeyed to the temple 
of Jupiter Ammon, (Plutarch in his Alexander, with Arrian. 1. 3.) from an ambition which he had 
because he was told that Perseus and Hercules had been there. Callisthenes, in the history which 
he wrote of Alexander affirms this and is cited by Strabo. (1. 17. p. 814.) 

1829. Therefore he went as far as Paraesonium along by the seaside. He found some fresh water 
by the way 200 miles from Alexandria according to Aristobulus. (in Arrian. 1. 3. p. 53.) 

1830. He was met about midway by the ambassadors from the Cyrenians. They presented him 
with a crown and other costly items. Among these were 300 horses that were trained for war and 
5 chariots each drawn by 4 horses. These were the best horses that could be found. He accepted 
these gifts and made a league of friendship with them. (Diod. Sic. Olymp. 1 12. year 2.) 

1831. He went from Paraetonium to Mesogabas where the temple of Hammon was through dry 
countries. He wandered over the plains while the hot wind blew from the south. Callisthenes 
says that he was saved from death partly by a shower of rain that fell which settled the sand and 
partly by a flock of crows which led him on the way. (Strabo 1. 17. p. 814.) He adds further this 
fable to the story. Often when the men wandered out of the way in the dark, the crows with their 
cawing would call them back into the right way again. (Strabo. 1. 17. p. 814. Plut. in his Alex.) 

1832. Ptolemy the son of Lagus states that there were two dragons which went before the 
company making a noise and led them into and from the temple again. However Aristobulus, 
with whom most writers agree, states that there were two crows which still kept on flying before 
the army and that these were Alexander's guides on the way there. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1833. When he came to a lake of bitter waters, as they called them, he went about 12 miles from 
there. He passed by the cities called after Hammon's name. After a day's journey from there they 
came to Jupiter Hammon's grove and temple. (Diod. Sic. Olymp. 112. year 2.) 

1834. There the priests of the temple were secretly bribed before hand and instructed what to 
say. As soon as Alexander came to enter within the temple doors, they all came and greeted him 
by the name of Hammon's son. (Justin 1. 1 1. ca. 11.) So we learn by this event that the god 
although deaf and dumb had the power through the priests to lie as they wished. One who comes 
to consult the oracle could be told exactly what he wanted to hear. (Oros. 1. 3. c. 16.) 

1835. Callisthenes states that the priests permitted no one but Alexander to come into the temple 
in his ordinary dress. All the rest were required to change their clothes and to hear the oracle 
from the outside. The oracle told Alexander various things by signs and vague language. 
However, the oracle told Alexander plainly that he was Jupiter's son. (Strabo 1. 17. p. 814.) Yet 
Alexander in a letter to his mother Olympias, said that he had received many secret oracles there 
which he would tell to her alone when he returned. (Plut. in Alex.) 

1836. At the same letter or in some other letter to his mother, (which I am sure was meant by 
Tertullian in his book de Pallio) Alexander said that he was told by Leo, a principal priest 
among the Egyptians, that they who were now gods were formerly men. In worshipping them, 



the nations preserved the memory of their kings and ancestors. (Aug. de Civit. Dei, 1. 8. c. 5, 27. 
and de Consen. Evangelist. 1. I.e. 23. Minutius Felix, in Octavio. with Cyprian, in his book de 
Idosor. vanitate.) In the beginning of his letter that he had written this to his mother, he opened 
with: 

vv Alexander the king, the son of Jupiter Hammon, sends greetings to his mother Olympias." 

1837. She very wittily in her answer replied: 

vv Now my good son I pray thee be content and do not accuse me nor lay anything to my charge 
before Juno. For she will do me some shrewd turn, if you in your letters make me a step-queen 
to her." (M. Varro, in a book of his, entitled Orestes, vel de Insania: in Aul. Gellius 1. 13. c. 4.) 

1838. When Alexander had received such an answer, it pleased him well as he by his own 
confession admits. He returned from there to Egypt by the same way as he went according to 
Aristobulus. Ptolemy says he went by a shorter way to Memphis. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1839. When he arrived at Memphis, Antipater had sent 400 Greek mercenaries under the 
command of Menaetas the son of Hegesandrus. About 500 cavalry from Thracia, were led by 
Asclepiodorus. At Memphis, Alexander sacrificed to Jupiter and made oblations to him with his 
whole army. They were all in their complete armour. They held games, activities, wrestlings, 
other events and music. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1840. He ordered the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns and cities to leave their dwellings. 
He moved them into Alexandria and populated that place with a huge number of inhabitants. 
(Curt. 1. 4. c. 21. and Justin 1. 11. c. 1 1.) He also moved a colony of the Jews there whose virtue 
and good behaviour he much approved of and deemed them worthy of special trust. As a reward 
for their service in the war he made them free citizens and gave them equal honours and 
privileges with the Greeks. The group that was there went by the name Alexandrians and also by 
the name of Macedonians. (Josep. 1. 2. de. Bello Jud. c. 36. p. 815. and 1. 2. cont. Ap. p. 163. in 
the Greek and Latin Edition.) 

1841. He also gave lands to Sanballat's soldiers, whom he ordered to follow him into Egypt into 
the country to Thebais. He entrusted them with the keeping of that territory in his absence. 
(Josephus Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8. s. 6.) 

1842. Alexander had a burning desire to go and visit the inner and more remote parts of Egypt 
and Ethiopia. His present war with Darius forced him to delay such expeditions. He made 
Esehilus and Pencestes, the Macedonian governors of Egypt with a 4000 man army. He ordered 
Polemon to defend the mouths of the Nile River with 30 ships. (Curtius 1. 4. c 21.) Although, 
Arrian tells us that he made Pencestes the son of Macatetus and Balacrus the son of Amyntas, 
commanders of the foot soldiers whom he left there. He made Polemon the son of Theramenes, 
admiral of the fleet to defend the mouths of the Nile River with all the sea lying next to Egypt. 
For the civil government of the whole country, he committed its care to Doloaspes, a native of 
Egypt according to Arrian. 

1843. Curtius further tells us that he left Apollonius to govern Africa that bordered on Egypt and 



Cleomenes to gather the tribute from both Africa and Egypt. To much the same end, Arrian tells 
us, that he left Apollonius the son of Charinus to govern Libya which bordered on the west of 
Egypt. He appointed Cleomenes to take care of Arabia on the east from the city called Urbs 
Heroum which borders on Arabia Petraea. He was ordered to receive all tribute. He committed 
the judicial administration to the presidents and justices of the country as it was done before. In 
the second book of Aristotle's Occonomicks Cleomenes of Alexandria is mentioned as governor 
of Egypt. He is the same person whom Arrian. (1. 3. of the History of Alexander) called 
Ecnaucratius. Freinshemius who is very good at finding errors, says that in the one it should be, 
"of the Nauacritians or Naucratites" and in the other, "commander of Alexandria in Egypt". The 
result of this is that Cleomenes governor of Alexandria was a native of Naucratis which was an 
ancient colony made in Egypt by the Milesians. He was in charge of the administration and 
populating this city. We may partly gather from Aristotle who says that Alexander ordered him 
that he should populate a city near Pharos. (Alexandria is only a mile by sea from there.) He 
should redirect all the trade from Canopus to Alexandria. Justin, (1. 13. c. 4.) clearly states that 
Alexander committed the building of Alexandria to Cleomenes. It may be added that Alexander 
wrote to him 8 years later and ordered him to build two temples to the deceased Hephaestion, 
one in Alexandria and the other in Pharos. Also all bills of lading and other contracts of 
merchants should have the name of Hephaestion inscribed on them according to Arrian. (1. 4. 
Histor.) He adds further that this Cleomenes was a most wicked man and one that did the 
Egyptians a thousand injustices. 

1844. When Alexander was gone down the Nile, Hector, a son of Parmenions, who was in the 
flower of his youth and a great favourite of Alexander desired to catch up to him. He jumped 
into a little boat and others jumped in also. So much so that the overloaded boat sank and Hector 
drowned. The king was very grieved at the loss of him and when the body was recovered, he 
gave it a splendid funeral. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 21.) 

1845. Shortly after this, Alexander received news that Andromachus was burned alive by the 
inhabitants of Samaria. He immediately marched away as quickly as he could to exact 
vengeance of them for it. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 21.) 

3673c AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC 

1846. Alexander made bridges over the Nile and every point of it around Memphis at the 
beginning of spring. He went from there toward Phoenicia. (Arrian. 1. 3. p. 55.) While he was on 
his way, those who had murdered Andromachus, were delivered into his hands and executed. He 
sent Memnon to replace Andromachus. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 21.) When he captured the city of Samaria, 
he gave it to be inhabited by his Macedonians. (Eusebius in his Chron. and from him Cedrenus 
derived it.) However, the territory that belonged to it, he gave to the Jews for their loyalty to 
him. They did not pay him any tribute for it according to Josephus who gets it from Hecaraeus 
of Abdera. (1. 2. cont. Apion. p. 1063.) The temple in the mount Gerisim was spared. If any at 
Jerusalem were in trouble for eating forbidden meats, breaching sabbath or such like crime, they 
immediately defected to the Sichemites and said that they were falsely accused. (Josephus 
Antiq. 1. 11. c. 8.) Similar quarrels between the Jews and Samaritans did not only happen here 
but in Egypt at Alexandria because of the different customs and rites used in the two temples. 
(Josep. 1. 11. c. 1. andl. 13. c. 6.) 

1847. When Alexander came to Tyre, he met his fleet which he had sent there ahead of him. He 
sacrificed a second time to Hercules and held games and exercises of wrestling and music and 



the like. (Arrian. 1. 3.) The kings of the Cyprus had the duty of providing suitable actors for 
them. Nicocreon, king of Salamis, sent Theslalus, a man very much favoured by Alexander. 
Pasicrates king of Solos sent Athenodorus, who took the prize from all by the majority decision. 
(Plut. in Alex.) These kings of Cyprus had long before defected from Darius to Alexander and 
sent him ships when he besieged Tyre. From that time on, he always honoured them as they 
deserved. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 21.) Concerning Nicocreon it is said that Anaxarchus of Abdera the 
philosopher said to Alexander as he sat at supper (according to Laertius , in his Life.) that there 
was also a certain Persian governor had been served there. For this saying of his, Alexander later 
had him put to a most miserable death. (??) 

1848. Alexander made Caeranus of Berthaea treasurer of Phoenicia to gather his tribute there. In 
Asia, he had Philoxenus do the same in the regions beyond the mountain of Taurus. He put 
Harpalus into their former job of being in charge of the money which was in his own treasury. 
He sent Menander, one of his confederates, into Lydia to be the governor. He put Clearchus into 
Menander's former job of overseeing the foreigners. He replaced Arimna by Asclepiodorus, the 
son of Eunicus to be governor of Syria. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1849. When these tasks were done, Alexander offered at Hercules' shrine a great vessel of gold 
with thirty dishes in it. Now he was anxious to get after Darius, so he marched forward toward 
the Euphrates River. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 21.) 

1850. When news came to Darius that wherever he went, Alexander would follow him, he 
ordered all countries no matter how far they were away, to come to him at Babylon. His army 
was now grown to about half the size it was at Issos in Cilicia. Many lacked weapons, which 
were provided for them. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 22.) He is said to have 45,000 cavalry and 200,000 foot 
soldiers. At Issos, his forces in both kinds far exceeded these in number. It is certain that the 
number found in Justin, (1. 11. c. 12. and in Orosius, 1. 3. c. 17.) is short of what it really was, 
400,000 or 404,000 foot soldiers and 100,000 cavalry. Plutarch (in Alex.) says they were 
10,000,000 and in his Apophthegmes, 100,000,000. (which is incorrectly printed) It should be 
1,000,000. With this Diodorus agrees somewhat. He says there were 800,000 foot soldiers and 
200,000 calvary. Arrian attributes to the foot soldiers only as much as Plutarch does to the sum 
of both of cavalry and the foot soldiers. That is a 1,000,000 and adding 40,000 cavalry to that 
number. Though some instead of 40 thousand, put there 400,000 cavalry so that the number of 
cavalry might be some what more proportional to the number of the foot soldiers. Also so that 
the number of cavalry might not here seem so far less of what it was at Issos. However, Curtius, 
(1. 4. c. 22.) says it was far in excess of it. In addition he had 200 iron chariots and 15 elephants 
which the Indians brought him. On the other side, Alexander's army had not more than 7000 
cavalry and 40,000 foot soldiers in it. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1851. Darius moved with this vast army from Babylon to Nineveh. He had the Tigris River on 
his left hand and Euphrates on his right. His army filled all that huge plain of Mesopotamia. 
(Diod. Sic. year 2, Olymp. 112. Curt. 1. 4. c. 22.) When they had crossed the Tigris River, he 
heard that the enemy was not for off. He sent Satropaces, general of his cavalry with 1000 
choice men to hinder the approach of the enemy. He ordered him to burn and lay waste all the 
lands through which Alexander was to pass. Darius thought want of supplies might defeat 
Alexander since he had nothing else but the spoil of the country for supplies. Darius marched to 
Arabela and left his baggage there. He marched forward as far as the Lycus River where he 
made a bridge. When he and his army had crossed over it in 5 days, they marched 10 miles to 
the Bumelus River. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 22.) Arrian says that he pitched his camp at Gaugamela by the 



Bumelus River, for so he calls the place, (1. 6. p. 131.) not as in (1. 3. c. 57.) Bumadus. It was a 
level field for if there were any hilly or uneven ground there, Darius ordered it to be made level. 
This would allow his cavalry to a freer range to attack. Also the whole area would be more open 
to his view. (Arrian. 1. 3. Curt. 1. 4. c. 22.) 

3673d AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC 

1852. Alexander advanced to Thapsacus, a large city in Syria, in the month Hecatombeon, when 
Aristophanes was archon at Athens. That is in year 2 of the 1 12th Olympiad in the very 
beginning of that year. Here the Euphrates River had a ford where Alexander found 2 bridges 
already made. They were not completely finished nor quite reached to the other bank. Mazaeus 
was sent by Darius to secure that crossing. As soon as Mazaeus heard that Alexander was 
coming, he fled with all his army. When he was gone, Alexander quickly completed the bridges 
to the other side and his army crossed over and then marched toward Babylon. They left the 
Euphrates River and the mountains of Armenia on their left hand. They did not take the shortest 
route there. The longer route was more suitable for provisions for his army and was cooler and 
more comfortable for the march. On the way, he intercepted some scouts from Darius. They 
informed him that Darius with all his army was on the bank of the Tigris River to prevent him 
from crossing there. His forces were now far more numerous than when he fought with 
Alexander in Cilicia. When Alexander went there, he did not find Darius or anyone else. 
(Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1853. Therefore, Alexander crossed the Tigris River. Although there was no one there to hinder 
him, it was difficult and dangerous to cross. The river ran quite swiftly there. However, he 
crossed safely and lost nothing except a small quantity of his baggage. (Arian. 1. 3. Diod. Sic. 
year 2. Olymp. 112. Curt. 1. 4. c. 23.) From Thaphacus where they crossed over the Euphrates to 
the place where he crossed the Tigris, Eratosthenes, calculates to be 1400 stadia or 350 miles. 
(Strabo, 1. 2. p. 79. and 1. 16. p. 746.) 

1854. Alexander broke camp from the bank of Tigris and led his army through the country of 
Assyria. On his left hand were the mountains of Sogdiana and on the right, the Tigris River. The 
4th day after crossing the Tigris, Mazaeus attacked him with 1000 cavalry. Alexander sent 
Aristo, who commanded the cavalry of Paeonia to counter the attack. Aristo singled out 
Satropaces, the commander of that troop and ran a spear through his throat. Although wounded, 
he fled away and Aristo chased him through the middle of the enemies' troops. He knocked him 
off his horse and decapitated him. Aristo brought his head and threw it down at Alexander's feet. 
He said: 

vv Sir, in our country, such a present used to be rewarded with a cup of gold." 

1855. Alexander smiled and replied: 

vv Yea, with an empty one, but I will give thee one full of wine." (Arrian. 1. 3. Curt. 1. 4. c. 23. 
Plutarch in Alexander.) 

1856. Alexander camped there 2 days and ordered to move the next day. That night there was an 
eclipse of the moon in the first watch of the night. At first the moon was dimmed. Soon after the 
entire face of it turned a blood like colour. The whole army, considering the upcoming battle, 



were first troubled and later terrified at this sight. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 23, 24.) Pliny correctly noted 
that: 

vv The moon was eclipsed at Arbela, in the 2nd hour of the night, and was then seen rising in 
Sicily," (Pliny, 1. 2. c. 70.) 

1857. Ptolemy in his Geography, (1. 1. c. 4.) is incorrect where he states that: 

vv The moon eclipsed in the 5th hour of the night and was seen at Carthage at the 2nd hour of the 
night." 

1858. Plutarch (in Alexan.) correctly states that the eclipse happened in the month Boedromion, 
about the beginning of the Great Mysteries at Athens. That is in the full moon at the very middle 
of that month. At this time of the month the Great Mysteries started and were celebrated for a 
few days after this. The astronomical account shows that the eclipse happened on the 20th day 
of our September. 

1859. To encourage his soldiers who were distressed at this sight, he consulted with the 
Egyptian soothsayers he had with him. Their answer was that the sun represented Greece and 
the moon, Persia. Therefore as often as the moon was eclipsed, it portended the ruin to those 
nations which she represented. (Curt., 1. 4. c. 24.) Alexander presently offered sacrifices to the 
sun, moon and the earth because all three must be in correct position for an eclipse of the moon. 
Aristander, who was Alexander's soothsayer, declared publicly that the eclipse portended all 
good and happy success to Alexander and the Macedonians. Therefore, the battle should be 
fought in that very month and that the sacrifices that were offered did predict a victory for 
Alexander. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1860. When Alexander knew the soldiers were now very confident of victory, he ordered them 
to march on the second watch of the next night. They had the Tigris on the right hand and the 
Gordiaean mountains on the left. The next morning, Alexander with a small troop attacked 1000 
Persian scouts. Some they slew and the rest he took prisoners. He then sent some of his own 
company on to discover what was ahead. He also wanted them to put out the fires in the towns 
and villages that the inhabitants had set on fire. When they fled from the enemy, they set fire to 
the barns and stacks of grain. Although the tops were burned, the fire had not consumed the pile. 
Hence the Macedonians saved a large quantity of food for themselves. Mazeus, who before had 
burned what he pleased, now fled before the rapidly approaching enemies leaving much 
untouched. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 24.) 

1861. Alexander knew that Darius was not more than 38 miles away. Since he had plenty of 
provisions for his troops, he stayed there for 4 days. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 24.) 

3674a AM, 4383 JP, 331 BC 

1862. During this time Alexander intercepted certain letters sent from Darius in which he tried 
to incite the Greeks to murder or otherwise to betray Alexander. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 25.) 

1863. Statira the wife of Darius was weary of this long trip and vexed in her mind, aborted the 



child she was carrying and died. Alexander was deeply grieved by this and prepared a very 
elaborate and costly funeral for her. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 25. Justin, 1. 11. c. 12. Plutarch in Alex, and 1. 
2. de fortu. Alex.) 

1864. While others were busy with the funeral, Tirus or Tyriotes an eunuch, stole away and 
carried the news of her death to Darius. At first he was infinitely perplexed and troubled at it. 
However, when he understood Alexander's respect he always had for her and his chaste 
behaviour towards her, he lifted up his hands to heaven and prayed to the gods. He asked that if 
it were decreed and there was no remedy left for him, he wished that none might sit on the 
throne of Cyrus but so just an enemy, so merciful a conqueror, as Alexander. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 25. 
Plutarch in Alex.) 

1865. Darius was so overcome with Alexander's great clemency and chastity toward his wife 
that he again tried to make peace with Alexander. He sent 10 of his most principal men to offer 
Alexander new conditions. He sent 30,000 talents for the ransom of his mother and two 
daughters. He also offered Alexander his other daughter Septina or Statipna or Sartina or Statyra 
(various editions of Curtius use all these variations) for a wife. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 16.) Whatever lay 
between the Hellespont and the Euphrates he would give as a dowry. Alexander replied that had 
always found the money of Darius soliciting sometimes his soldiers to revolt from him or 
sometimes his nearest friends to murder him. Therefore he was resolved to pursue him to the 
death, not any longer as a noble enemy but as a malefactor and a poisoning murderer. Whatever 
Darius had already lost or yet remained in his hands was the reward of war. Further, war would 
set the bounds between their two kingdoms and each would have what tomorrow's fortune 
would give. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 26. Justin 1. 11. c. 12. Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 112.) 

1866. The ambassadors returned and told Darius that he must fight. Therefore, he presently sent 
Mazaeus ahead of him with 3000 cavalry to hold the passes where the enemy was to come. With 
the rest, he marched in good battle array 1.25 miles and there made a stand. He expected the 
enemy to attack him there. Alexander left all his luggage within his camp and set a reasonable 
guard to keep it. He advanced to meet the enemy. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 26, 27.) 

1867. At that very instant, a sudden panic gripped his army. The sky (for it was the summer 
season) seemed to sparkle and shine out like fire. They imagined that they saw flames of fire 
issuing from Darius' camp. By sound of trumpet, Alexander signified to them that all was well. 
He ordered the Antesignary (i.e. those that stood next to the standard) in every company to put 
down their weapons at their feet. They should pass the word to those that followed to do 
likewise. When this was done, Alexander showed them there was no cause of fear and that the 
enemy was yet far off. Finally they recovered their courage and took up their weapons again. 
For more safety, Alexander decided to make his stand and to fortify his camp. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 28. 
Polya. Stratag. 1. 4.) 

1868. Alexander drew out all his forces by night and marched about the second watch and 
planned to fight as soon as it was day. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1869. Mazeus had taken up his stand with a choice company of cavalry on the rise of a hill to 
better view the enemy. The next day he left the place and returned to Darius. No sooner was he 
gone then the Macedonians captured it. They wanted the advantage of high ground and also a 
good vantage point to view the enemy forces in the plain. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 29.) 



1870. Alexander commanded his mercenaries from Paeonia to march in front. He drew his 
phalanx of Macedonians into two wings, both flanked with cavalry. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 29.) The 
camps were about 7.5 miles apart. The army of Alexander came to some hills from where they 
might view the enemy. When he consulted his captains whether the main battle should be fought 
closer to the enemy or they should make a stand right there until he had better viewed the 
ground where they were to fight. Most were favoured the former but Parmenion favoured the 
latter which Alexander agreed with. (Arrian. 1. 3.) Therefore they resolved to camp on one of 
those hills. He immediately ordered the troops to build a camp there. This was quickly done. He 
went into his own pavilion and from there viewed the army of the enemy beneath him in the 
plain. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 29.) 

1871. Meanwhile the horse boys and other rag tag that followed the camp started fighting 
among themselves for fun. They called the captain of the one side Alexander and the captain of 
the other, Darius. When Alexander heard this, he had the rest stop fighting and had the two 
captains fight between themselves. Alexander helped captain Alexander on with his own armour 
and Philotas gave captain Darius' armour. All the army watched while these two fought. They 
thought it foreshadowed the outcome of the battle. It happened that he who played Alexander 
defeated the one who played Darius. He was given a reward, 10 townships and the honour of 
wearing a Persian garment that was given to him. (Eratosthenes, in Plut. in his Alexan.) 

1872. Alexander's friends now came to him and complained that the soldiers were planning 
among themselves in their tents to take all the spoil for themselves and to put nothing into his 
treasury. At this Alexander smiled and said: 

vv This is very good news, my friends that you bring me for I see by this they mean to fight and 
not to flee." 

1873. Many of the common soldiers came to him to encourage him and not be afraid of the 
number of his enemies. They would not be able to endure the very first noise or shout of them. 
In this place does Ndassf does not signify, "the smell of them", or "of their arm-pits", as 
Xylander translates it (Plut. in his Apophthemes.) 

1874. The 1 1th night after the eclipse of the moon, the two armies lay within sight of each other. 
Darius kept his men in their arms all night and reviewed them all by torch light. So that all the 
plain lying between the mountain Niphat and the Goriaeans hills shone with torches. While his 
army was sleeping, Alexander was up with his soothsayer Aristander before his pavilion 
engaged in certain arcane and secret rites and ceremonies and offered sacrifice to Apollo. (Plut. 
in Alexan.) Curtius states: 

vv Aristander in a white robe, carrying bunches of vervain in his hand and his head covered, 
mumbled certain prayers which the king was to say after him to propitiate Jupiter, Minerva, and 
Victoria." 

1875. Parmenion and his other friends advised him to attack Darius in the dead of night and 
thereby conceal from his soldiers the terror of the fight since he was so heavily out numbered. 
He replied that he did not come there to steal a victory. (Plut. Curt. Arrian.) On the contrary, 
Darius feared least he be attacked in the night. He knew his camp was no better fortified than it 
should be. Therefore he kept his men up all night in arms. Lack of sleep was the main reason his 



men lost the battle the next day. (Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1876. Alexander was troubled in his mind with what might happen the next day and did not 
sleep at all that night until toward the morning. Then he fell into so deep a sleep that when it was 
fully day they could not wake him. When his friends asked him what made him sleep so 
soundly, he answered thus. It was Darius, who by gathering all his forces into one place, had 
eased him of thinking how to follow him into various other countries. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 
112. Justin. 1. 11. c. 13. Curt. 1. 4. c. 30,31. Plut. in Alexan.) 

1877. Justin says, (1. 11. c. 14.) this battle was fought by Alexander, in the 5th year of his reign 
in the very end of it and in the beginning of the 6th. Although Jerome commenting on Da 1 1 
disagrees and states that he overcame and slew Darius in the 7th year of his reign. Arrian says 
this battle was fought when Aristophanes was archon at Athens in the month Pyanephion. The 
prophecy of Aristander was fulfilled when he said that in that very month when the moon was 
eclipsed, Alexander should fight and defeat Darius. (Arrian. 1. 3. p. 63.) Both Arrian and 
Diodorus state that the battle was fought in the year when Aristophanes was archon at Athens. 
Dionysius Halycarnass places the battle in the following year when Aristophontes was archon at 
Athens by simple mistake in the name in his Epistle to Ammaeus). Aristander was correct when 
he foretold that Alexander should gain that great victory over Darius in that very month. 
However Arrian, mistakes one month for another and says that it was in the month Pyanepsion. 
However the astronomical calculations show that eclipse was in the month Boedromion. On the 
1 1th day after the eclipse Alexander had that battle, (as Plutarch affirms in Alexander) In his 
Camillus Plutarch says, that he got that victory on the 5th day of the last quarter of Boedromion 
which is the 25th day of Boedromion. This month had 31 days and corresponds to October 1. 

1878. Ptolemy Lagus and Aristobulus who were both in the battle testify that this battle was 
fought at Gaugmela near the Beumelus River. Strabo, (1. 16. p. 737.), Plutarch (in Alex, in some 
copies, as also in Zonaras, is written as Gausamela), Arrian. (1. 6. p. 161.) and Ammina. 
Maycellinus, (1. 23.) agree with this. Gaugamela was only a small country village. The sound of 
the name is harsh on the ear. According to Strabo and Plutarch, it means "the house of a camel", 
or rather, "the body of a camel' for so that word armgAwn means in the Chaldee and Syriac 
language. Therefore, according to Arrian it came to pass that this glorious victory is said to have 
been won at Arbela. It was a large and a famous city in those parts. Likewise Strabo says that 
because the other was a correct location and Arbela a famous city. (This is mentioned in Ho 
10:14. See note on 3276 AM) Therefore the Macedonians in their writings, first wrote this and 
then other historians took it from them and said that the battle was fought and victory won at 
Arbela. Neither of these places were very near each other. There were about 10 miles between 
the Bumelus River where Gaugamela was and the Lycus River where Arbela stood. (Curt. 1. 4. 
c. 22.) Between: 

1) Lycus and the country of Ardria, or Atyria, (which was the old name by which Assyria was 
called as Diodorus in the life of Trajan shows) 

2) The borders of the region of Babylon, (in which Nineveh and Gaugamela both were located) 

3) The Capros River 

1879. in an equal distance from each point, was located Arbela and the hill Nicatorium (called 
by Alexander after this victory near it). Strabo in the beginning of his 16th book shows this. 
Hence it appears that Arbela, in Ptolemy's 5th table or Map of Asia, should be located where 
Gaugamela is. Both places are located in the same place according to him. These cities were not 



on this side but on the further side of the Lycus River. This disagrees with Strabo, Eratosthenes' 
report, (as written by Strabo, 1. 2. p. 79.), Curtius and Arrian. When all of these are diligently 
compared together, we may gather, that Gaugamela and Arbela were not 60 to 75 miles from 
each other (as some have reported and as Arrian notes 1. 3. p. 57, 63. & 1. 6. p. 30.) but a little 
more than 10 miles apart. 

1880. Aristobulus reports that when the fight was over there was found a description of Darius' 
battle plans as we find in (Arrian. 1. 3. p. 52.) Curtius, (1. 4. c. 27, 32.) details the battle plans for 
both armies. 

1881. Darius left his chariots and threw away his weapons and mounted his mare that just had a 
new foal. He fled as fast as she could carry him (Plut. in Alex.) just as he did at the battle at 
Issos, as I showed before from Elian. He tells us in the same place that for this very purpose 
Darius always had mares that had recently foaled with him in the battle field. So with very few 
in his company, he came to the Lycus River. When he crossed it some advised him to destroy 
the bridge after him to hinder the pursuit of the enemy. When he considered how many there 
were behind him who were yet to cross, he replied that he had rather leave a way for a pursuing 
enemy than take one from a fleeing friend. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 36, 37. Justin. 1. 11. c. 14.) In Justin's 
work we find "Cydnus" instead of "Lycus" printed. In the note on 3671 AM, we showed that the 
Cydnus River ran through the middle of the city Tarsus in Cilicia. From there Orosius who 
followed Justin very closely made the mistake of saying that this last great battle between 
Alexander and Darius was fought at Tarsus. (1. 3. c. 17.) 

1882. When Mazeus pressed hard on the squadron of the Macedonians, Parmenion sent to 
Alexander who had chased the enemy as far as the Lycus River. He wanted Alexander to come 
and help them. However, when Mazeus heard that Darius had left the battle, he fled also. He did 
not go the shortest way to Babylon but went around over the Tigris River. This was a longer but 
safer route. He brought what was left of his army safely to Babylon. (Curt. 1. 4. c. 37.) 

1883. About midnight, Darius came to Arbela. Many of his nobles and other soldiers resorted 
there too. He called them together and said that his purpose was to leave all for the present to 
Alexander. He would flee to the utmost borders of his kingdom and there begin the war afresh 
on Alexander. (Curt. 1. 5. c. 1.) Presently he went on horseback and fled over the mountains of 
Armenia into Media. With him were a few of his kindred and his guard. The guard was called 
Melophori, i.e. apple bearers because they each bore a golden apple on the point of his spear. 
Later, 2000 mercenaries under the command of Paron of Phocaea in Ionia and Glaucus of Aloe 
joined him. (Arran. 1. 3.) 

1884. When Alexander was returning from the Lycus River, he had his fiercest battle yet with 
the Parthian, Indian and some elite Persian cavalry. In the encounter, he lost 60 men plus his 
captains Hephaestion, Caenus, and Menidas. Alexander was severely wounded but recovered. 
(Arrian. 1. 3.) 

1885. In the main battle, Alexander lost at most 100 foot soldiers but 1000 cavalry of which half 
were his confederates. On the other side, 300,000 were slain and a much larger number taken 
prisoner. He captured all the elephants and as many of the chariots that were not broken in the 
battle. (Arrian. 1. 3.) However Diodorus states that 90,000 Persian's cavalry and foot soldiers 
died. On the Macedonian side, 500 were missing and a large number were wounded. Curtius, (1. 



4. c. ult.) says that 40,000 Persians and less than 300 Macedonians died. The total killed in the 
three battles, this, Issos and at Granicum, Orosius (1. 3. c 17.) over the last 3 years plus 3 or four 
months is given as follows. 

vv In such a multitude of calamities, it is a thing incredible, that in three battles fought within 
three years time there should be slain 500,000 cavalry and foot soldiers. These were from a 
kingdom and those nations from which a few years earlier had slain 900,000 men In addition to 
those 3 battles in those three years, a number of cities in Asia had been destroyed with their 
inhabitants. All Syria was laid waste. Tyre was destroyed and all Cilicia depopulated. 
Cappadocia was subdued and Egypt and Rhodes sold into slavery. Many provinces bordering on 
the mount Taurus were brought into subjection. Mount Taurus was forced to receive the yoke 
which it had so long striven to avoid." 

1886. When Alexander had rested his cavalry that were with him, he set out at midnight toward 
Arbela. He understood that Darius had stored there all his money and royal provisions which 
Alexander purposed to capture with a surprise attack. The next day he came to Arbela. He did 
not find Darius but all his treasure, his shield and his bow. (Arrian. 1. 3.) Diodorus says that he 
found there 3000 talents, Curtius said 4000. All the wealth of the whole army had been stored in 
that place. (1. 5. c. 2.) 

1887. With this battle the empire of Persia seemed to have been ended. Alexander was 
proclaimed king of Asia and thereupon offered magnificent sacrifices to his gods and distributed 
among his captains houses, territories and provinces at his pleasure. (Plut. in Alexander.) 

1888. Because he knew the air would be infected with the stench of the dead carcases, he 
hurried to get away from Arbela. (Diod. Sic. in the beginning of his second part, 1. 17. Curt. 1. 5. 
c. 2.) After 4 days he came to a city called Mennis where there is a fountain which issued 
sulphur or liquid brimstone. (Curt. 1. 5. c. 2.) 

1889. As Alexander came toward Babylon, Mazeus, who had fled there from the battle, humbly 
met him with his children that were of age. He surrendered himself and them with the city of 
Babylon, into his hands. Alexander received him and his children very graciously. Babophanes, 
who had the keeping of the citadel there with the king's treasure did not want to be out done by 
Mazaeus. He covered all the way where Alexander was to pass with flowers and garlands. On 
each side of the path he had silver altars, burning frankincense and all sorts of sweet odours. 
Alexander was guarded with armed men. He commanded all the men of Babylon that came to 
meet him follow behind him after the last of his foot soldiers. Alexander in his chariot made his 
entrance into the city and went up to the king's palace. The next day he viewed the king's 
treasure. (Curt. 1. 5. c. 3. Justin 1. 11. c. 14.) He stayed 34 days and refreshed and rewarded his 
soldiers (According to the better copies have it and Orosius agrees with this as does Curtius. (1. 

5. c. 5.) His army spent the same number of days there in relaxation. Diod. Sic. (year 2, Olymp. 
1 12.) confirms that they stayed there longer than 30 days. They like the spaciousness of the city 
and the entertainment which they were given by the residents. 

1890. Among those who entertained Alexander in this city were the Chaldeans. They talked 
with him concerning the course and motions of the stars and sudden change of events. (Curt. 1. 
5. c. 3.) The Chaldeans gave Callisthenes one of Alexander's followers, the observations of the 
heavenly bodies for 1903 years of time. He gave them to Aristotle in Greece. This I mentioned 



in note on 1771 AM <49>. This information came from Porphyrie. 

1891. Alexander consulted with the Chaldeans. He followed their advice and sacrificed to Belus. 
He did whatever they asked of him concerning temple repairs. Alexander commanded the 
Babylonians to repair the temples which Xerxes had previously demolished and in particular, 
the temple of Belus, that was located in the heart of the city. He ordered that all the rubbish be 
immediately carried out of the temple. (Arrian. 1. 3. p. 63. & 1. 7. p. 159.) This work was so great 
that it took 10,000 men two months to clear the place where the temple stood. (Strabo. 1. 16. p. 
738.) When Alexander commanded all his army to help to carry away the rubbish, only the Jews 
refused to help in that work. Hecataeus of Abdera, who was then with Alexander, stated that 
they endured many a blow and many other grievous inconveniences. When Alexander heard 
their reasons for refusing, he exempted them from the task. (Josephus cont. Apion. 1. 1. p. 1049.) 

1892. Alexander marvelled most at that hole in the earth in Ecbatana or rather in Batana, as 
other copies have it. (Batana, which is a city placed by Stephanus Byzantinus near the Euphrates 
and not Ecbatana, the city of Media is meant here.) Flames of fire continually shot forth as from 
a fountain and an active spring of Naphta shot out fire not far from that hole. Plutarch, (in his 
life) describes these effects in more detail. 

1893. Alexander, ordered Bagophanes, who had surrendered the citadel of Babylon, to follow 
him. He committed the keeping of the citadel to Agathon, from the town of Pydna along with 
700 Macedonians and 300 mercenaries. He made Mazaeus, who surrendered the city to him, 
governor of all the province of Babylon. He appointed Apollodorus from Amphipolis and 
Menetes from Pella in Macedonia, to be commanders of that militia in Babylon and all the other 
countries west as far as Cilicia. For that purpose he left with them, 2000 soldiers with 1000 
talents of silver to hire mercenaries. He appointed Asclepiodortus, the son of Philotas, to collect 
his tribute in those parts. He sent Mithrines, who surrendered the city Sardis to him, to be 
governor in Armenia. (Diodor. Arria. Curtius.) 

1894. From the money which he found in Babylon, he gave to every Macedonian cavalry man, 6 
pounds, to every foreign cavalry man 5 pounds, to every Macedonian foot soldier, 2 pounds and 
to every foreign foot soldier 2 month's pay. (Diod. Sic. year 2. Olymp. 1 12.) An Attic ounce or 
pound contained 100 drachmas. Curtius confounded this with the Roman denarius and said that 
he gave to every Macedonian cavalry man 600 denarii and to every foreign cavalry man 500 and 
to every foot soldier 200. (Curt. 1. 5. c. 6.) 

1895. Alexander was on his way from Babylon when Amyntas the son of Andromenes, came to 
him with a number of men sent to him by Antipater the governor of Macedon. From Macedon 
came 500 cavalry and 6000 foot soldiers, from Thrace, 600 cavalry and 3500 foot soldiers, from 
Peloponesus, 4000 foot soldiers and 380 cavalry. This is according to Curtius but Diodorus has a 
little less than 1000 cavalry. With them went the sons of 50 of the principal nobles of Macedon 
to be Alexander's body guards. (Diod. & Curt.) 

1896. When Alexander had received these troops, he continued on his journey. After marching 6 
days, he came into a country called Sitacine, but Curtius calls it Satrapene. This country 
abounded with provisions and he stayed there many days. He held contests to test every man's 
prowess and dexterity in the feats of chivalry. He gave the 8 best men command of 1000 troops. 
He then divided his whole army into so many brigades. Before this, they were organised into 



companies of 500 and their captains were not chosen by contests of skills. Before, the cavalry of 
every nation served together apart from other nations. Now he made no difference based on 
nationality. He appointed as commanders, those who were most skilled in the war no matter 
what country they were from. He reformed the martial discipline of his army in many points. As 
a result, all the troops liked him better than ever and were more ready to serve him. He 
continued his journey. (Diod. & Curt. 1. 5. c. 6.) 

1897. As Alexander approached Susa, he was met by the son of the governor of Susa, with 
letters from Philoxenus. Alexander had sent him away immediately after the battle at Arbela to 
Susa. The letters said that the inhabitants of Susa had surrendered their city and all the treasure 
there was kept safely for him. (Arrian. 1. 3.) The son of Abulites, the governor of the city, told 
him the same message. He did this either voluntarily or according to some, by the orders of 
Darius so Alexander would be detained there longer. This would give Darius more time to raise 
a new army against Alexander. (Diod. and Curt. 1. 5. c. 7.) 

1898. The king entertained the young man with much grace and favour. He used him for his 
guide