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Full text of "Annual report on the geological survey of the State of Ohio 1837"

DOCUMENT No. 26. 



FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 



ON THE 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



OF JfKE 



ST'AtfJa : F OHIO. 



BY W. W. MATHER, 

PRINCIPAL GEOLOGIST, AND THE SEVERAL ASSISTANTS. 



C Doc. "No. 26. ] 



Executive Office, Ohio, 

Columbus, January 17, 1838. 

To the General Assembly of the Stale of Ohio: 

I have received, and herewith transmit to you, the 
reports of W. W. Mather, and his Assistants, compos- 
ing the Geological Corps of this State, numbered one to 

seven, inclusive. 

JOSEPH VANCE. 



Titf- 3 



A. J It mini 



i'lg. 4 



Fig. z 




E li 1 K 



AAA. Successive Slides. 




A Motif washing away. 
B diluvial sand. 

C Bbtlf partly washed awajr. 
D Sand beach . 
E Mardi. 
T Piers- 

G 3£ ie mouth ofthejtiver.1 

"H ^drtittcittl cut into the old bed of the River. 



GEOLOGICAL SEt'TION to illustrate the mfswfxti&m if the rocks er'ifo .v./wf <rf ^/I*, 
between t/ie great limestone deposite c* the upper part of the coid series, its determined 

by 

('. BRIlIliS .Tk. assisted l.v .I.W. FOSTKB. . 

The upper coat series G & B ty mt.S.P. BTLDKETH 




Strata 
A. 
B. 



militated in ieroin>s , wiftumt re 
Great limestone deposit. 



e retire to relative thiekness 



Section 65 Miles 



(f. .V/rf(y iiraillaceou.i rock coiitaiuitoi pyritet.a/ui nodules 

of septtii-ia & aruitlo ferruginous ' limestone . 
V. Wawrly saiulstow series. ' 



Dm mi ill*- seeiioti .in feet m the nule,whirh is greater than Hie mean tSf 
V.. Conabmerate . <i. I'alcareiHtilicioits rock. 

Y. lower eoiil series. 



H. Upper coal series. 

". ".A '<:.. 'ur del. 



[ Doc No. 26. ] 

No.- l. 
FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 

BY W. W. MATHER, Principal Geologist. 



To his Excellency, Joseph Vance: 

Sir: In obedience to your directions, and under the authority of 
an act of the Legislature, a Geological Survey of the State has been 
commenced. The early part of the season was devotedi to making a 
geological reconnoissance of the eastern section of the State, with a 
view to study the great outlines of its geology, and to acquire a know- 
Ledge of the general resources of the country in useful minerals, so 
as to direct the detailed examinations in such a manner, as to be produc- 
tive of the greatest utility to the great body of the people. The min- 
eral wealth of Ohio is greater than my most sanguine anticipations 
had led me to expect. Most countries depend, for their mineral wealth, 
on mountainous or barren regions; but Ohio, in common with some 
other parts of the United States, is blessed, not only with a fruitful 
soil, but also with inexhaustible subterranean riches. 

In your late annual Message, you have remarked upon the coal and 
salt deposits, and urged the necessity of new lines of intercommunica- 
tion to facilitate the transport of our mineral products. 

The working of the coal mines of Ohio, which may be considered 
inexhaustible, must become one of the most productive branches of in- 
dustry in the State.* 

From the reconnoissance of the past season, it is estimated that about 
12,000 square miles of the State, are undoubtedly underlain by coal, 
and 5,000, by workable beds of this valuable mineral. In many 
places, several successive beds of the coal are superposed one over the 
other, with sand-stone, iron ore, shale and lime-stone intervening. 
The coal beds are favorably situated for working, as they are found in 
the hills and ravines where they can be drained with little expense, 
and without deep shafts and expensive machinery, like those of Eu- 
rope, or some parts of our own country. It is impossible, with the 
data as yet ascertained, to estimate the amount of workable beds; but 
probably a mean thickness of 6 feet of coal capable of exploration 
over 5,000 square miles, is a moderate estimate of our resources in 
this combustible. Our citizens are not yet aware of the prospective 

*The coal formation constitutes the principal mass of the S. E. section of the State, and the 
economical geology of a portion of this, lying between the waters of the Scioto and Grea. 
Hockhocking, only, will be discussed in detail. Prof. Briggs was directed to prosecute this 
work, and the details will he found in his report. 



6 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

value of coal lands; and it is, perhaps, only by setting their practical 
utility before them, that they will appreciate the importance of this 
mineral on their estates. 

It requires a man of the greatest muscular power, to raise 3,750 
pounds one foot per minute, through a time of ten hours per day, 
which is equal to 2,250,000 pounds, or more than 1,000 tons; but one 
bushel of coal applied to steam machinery, produces a power equal to 
that of lifting 60,000,000 to 90,000,000 pounds one foot high* Ta- 
king the lower power of 60,000,000 of pounds, which is equal to 
more than 26,785 tons, the power produced by the combustion of one 
bushel of coal in the present improved steam machinery, is equal to 
the greatest muscular force of 26 men Tor a day of 30 hours' labor. 
Coal is worth, in Ohio, from 4 to 18 cents per bushel; and a man's 
daily labor, from 50 cents to $1,50, 

A furnace. consuming 700 bushels of charcoal per day, for 200 days 
in the year, will require from 2,000 to 5,000 acres of woodland to 
keep it constantly supplied. Coal land, wiih only 1 yard in depth of 
coal, would supply the same furnace at the rate of one acre per year, 
while the coal land would still remain in a state fit for cultivation. 

"When we reflect upon the-quantity of wild land necessary to keep 
one furnace in operation, where charcoal is employed, we can easily 
conceive how great an advantage it .will be, to be able to use a combus- 
ble which is stored below the surface of the earth in inexhaustible 
quantities, while the soil above, may be covered with abundant har- 
vests, and with thriving villages, towns and manufactories. 

The annual consumption of coal in England is from 14,000,000 
to 15,000,000 of tons. If wood were used in lieu of this, it would 
be necessary to keep an area of land in a wild state, nearly 200 
miles square. This area is greater than that of England and Wales, 
in which this consumption takes place. The coal deposits of England, 
therefore, are indispensable to enable her to support so dense a popu- 
lation, and maintain her commercial prosperity and manufacturing 
interests. Every square mile, containing two yards in thickness of 
workable coal, will yield about 6,000,000 tons, which is an abundant 
annual supply of fuel for all the people of this State, both for domestic 
and manufacturing purposes; and, if we allow double this amount for 
> rospective consumption, in consequence of increased population and 
manufactures, we have coal within a moderate depth, sufficient for 
consumption during 2,500 years. If we consider the value of coal as 
a means of motive power in propelling machinery, each acre, of the 
5,000 square miles of coal, contains stored and ready for use, a power 
equal to that of 192 men for 100 years, working 10 hours per day. 
Allowing a profit of only 25 cents on each cubic yard of coal, an acre 
would yield a profit of more than $2,000 where a depth of 6 feet is 
worked. 

These facts will, it is hoped, lead our citizens to appreciate the vast 



* Vide the duty of the Cornish ateam engines in Taylor's Records of Mining. 



SECTION, ,/V/„> ROCKS* n-om CREVEEAND 
to m*sje.cornerof+e WE STERN RESERVE 



Q 



'Was -wMiT'ffi*®^ 




I 



TVarr ensTille 

Hit via I ^or Super 



ornpaet fin t ' t) r ■ s: S to n e 





C o n q I o m e r a t e 



ith s a n ,1 



S to n e in t? r s n ? r < ? a 



'. 'C .'o' ti r s ' e ,' .' '</ r'a i n' e d '.'. S a'n\d ' S_ tone '■ '. : _^ 
Sand _, S to n e -r s in 



beds 



Slate 



p a s s in q 



o c c a s io n all 



y 



in to 



S h ale 



with 



t hi \ 



Lake Level 



I a Fine marly sand 
Lacustrine \ 
deposites p Coarse q ray sand 

( c Sandy loam & a ravel 




^ustiutowrL 



Sand s to n 



100- — 



*.' »'.*••' C o n a I 6 me r a t V 




st i^ r <i 'snj e r d -\ 

■ *™&mUr beds of shale * Xron 

( "al 2 to 4 tr. 



■with 



Shale 



bet 



Shale has thin Iron Strata 






bands 



of 



aroillaceo us 



Tr o n 



Thickness not ascertained Trobably 4O0 ft:: 



Scale fc 



I loMiles 



loo 260 



[>bo ft. 



1 Subordinate rocks not determined but nearly level 
DIP Coal Measures general dip S.12% East 20 riper mile 
' along line of Sectio n 10 ft. per mile 



6 9 Ms. 



J)oohttU fcXun&oTi. Cm . 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 7 

mineral resources in this valuable combustible, with which our terri- 
tory, through Infinite Wisdom, is so bounteously supplied.- 

Ikon Ore. 

The iron ores of Ohio are abundant, and are beginning to be exten- 
sively worked. The extent of country underlain by accessible beds 
of iron ore, is very great. The limits are not yet ascertained, with, 
sufficient accuracy to define them; but the beds crop out on a belt of 
country, extending from near the mouth of the Scioto, in a N. NE. di- 
rection, nearly across the State. The beds, in some places, are too 
thin tr> be w.musht with profit. - In other localities, the ore rs too 
much mingled with tsiKeeotte-mettt^^ei" ^Uao^ itiajEH arit i ca , to- vr-ovk. well 

in the furnace by the ordinary mode of treatment. The beds Of iron 
ore, in common with most of ihe rocks of Ohio, dip slightly to the E. 
andE. S.E., and lie one"over the other, like the leaves of a book, so that 
they emerge in succession upon the surface. It is unnecessary to 
enter into any detail here, on this subject, as Professor Briggs, in his 
report on Jackson and part of Lawrence, and the adjoining counties, 
will give the necessary' details. His report will tend to show the im- 
mense value of the future iron trade of Ohio, which may, at no distant 
day, rival South Wales, the great Coal and Iron district of Great 
Britain. 

As the iron trade is beginning to be an important one in this State, 
it may not be inappropriate to make a few remarks upon the princi- 
ples involved in the reduction of iron ores. 

It has, always, been found to be an advantage to roast the ore pre- 
vious to smelting, not only in consequence of the improved quality of 
the iron, but because an actual economy in the use of the combustible 
is effected. Some iron ores, containing more or less of sulphurets, 
make iron so inferior in quality as to be useless, but which, if roasted, 
and then exposed to the action of the air and rains, for a year or two 
before smelting, would make good iron. The cause of this is, that the 
sulphurets, arseniurets, &c, are disposed to chemical Changes after 
roasting, and, when exposed to the weather, are converted into sul- 
phates, arseniates, &c ., which are dissolved and washed away by the 
rains. It is considered as an established fact, that iron ores are im- 
proved by exposure to the weather, so that they may make a purer 
and tougher iron. 

Another object* in roasting the Ores, is to render them pSrOUsyse' 
that the carbonic oxide, (which, mixed with nitrogen, passes up 
through the body of the furnace,) may permeate the fragments, and 
deoxidize them.t If the fragments of* ore were impermeable to the 

* Another object still, is to make the ore more frangible, that it may be easily broken into 
fragments of a suitable size for smelting. 

t The oxygen of the air, thrown into- the furnace through the blast-pipe, combines with ear. 
bon, and forms carbonic acid, which, in contact with carbon at a high temperature, combines 
with another proportion of carbon, and forms carbonic oxide. We see the combustion of this 
gas in the blue flame of our fires, in whieh coke or charcoal is used. Carbonic aeid is 
reformed by this combustion. 



8 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

carburetted gases, their surfaces only could be reduced. As the iron, 
when first reduced, is in the state of soft iron, it is infusible until it 
combines with a certain amount of carbon, and a long time would be 
required to reduce and melt the successive coats of iron on the surfaces 
of the fragments. In well regulated furnaces, the ore is broken to a 
suitable size; and each charge, after being introduced into the fur- 
nace, becomes reduced and carbu retted in succession, so as to melt 
after the expiration of about the same time. 

If the iron, as it melts, should fall down in naked globules of metal 
before the tuyere,}: through which the blast is supplied, they would burn 
and be- 'reoxidized ; and in consequence, the oxide would flow offin the 
slag, giving it a black or green color. Thus, we see the necessity of 
conducting the smelting operation in sach a way, as^to have the glo- 
bules of melted metal covered with glass, as they fall into the crucible 
of the furnace before the tuyere.* 

This is one of the great objects of a flux. A flux is such a substance, 
or mixture of mineral substances, as will unite with the impurities of 
the ore to form a glass, which will coat over the metal as fast as it is 
reduced and ready to flow. It is necessary for the metallurgist, not 
only to have such a flux as shall combine with the impurities of the 
ore,t but that its fusibility be so proportioned as to melt at about the 
same time as the metal. Should it be too fusible, it would melt before 
the iron would be deoxidized, and dissolve the oxide, which would 
flow off in the slag, and besides, exercise a powerful solvent action on 
the boshes and crucible of the furnace. If a little less fusible, it would 
coat the reduced iron before it should become sufficiently carburetted, 
and thus prevent its becoming fusible. It would, in consequence, 
either clog the boshes, or form a salamander, as it is called, of semi- 
malleable infusible iron, which frequently renders it necessary to tear 
away the lower part of the furnace, causing much loss of time and 
money. If the flux melt with too much difficulty, the melted iron falls 
naked before the tuyere, becomes reoxidized and passes off in the 
slag, which frequently clogs the furnace, and sometimes suspends its 
operations. Even if it should not clog the furnace, such globules of 
metal as were not burnt before the tuyere, would not sink through 
the semifluid cinder, but lodge in it, so that either no iron ceuld be 
drawn from the crucible, or its usual quantity would be much dimin- 
ished. 

The uniformly successful prosecution of the reduction of ores, re- 
quires a combination of practical and scientific knowledge. 

The study of metallurgy has been but little attended to in the United 
States, and there is no institution in our country where it is systemati- 
cally taught. A School of Mines is very much needed in the United 
States. Several of the European Governments support such schools 

» Another object of fluxes, in the working of some, varieties of ore, is to render refractory 
minerals, in the ore, fusible. 

t Different iron ores, or else those from different localities, are mixed in the furnace, so that 
the impurities of the ores may flux with each other. 

{ Pronounced twtri. 



t Doc. No. 26. ] 9 

With a liberality commensurate with their importance. Our own 
country bids fair to draw as much wealth from her mineral treasures, 
as from the cultivation of the soil; and a School of Mines is highly 
necessary to fecilitate the acquisition of such knowledge, as is indis- 
pensible for conducting mining and metallurgic operations. 

Limestone. 

Limestone is the most extensive deposit in the State. It is the rock 
nearest the surface, over about one-half its area, and probably underlies 
the whole at a greater or less depth. It is accessible, at no great depth, 
in many districts where no rock is visible at the surface. It is adapt- 
ed, in different localities to various purposes, such as for lime, building 
stones and marbles. Localities will be indicated in the detailed re- 
ports. It is believed that hydraulic cement may be made from some 
of our limestones. 

The analysis of the limestones will soon be Commenced, With a vie* 
to determine their adaptation to the manufacture of lime, and of hy- 
draulic cement. 

Limestone is, undoubtedly, the most valuable building material 
among the rocks of Ohio. Many of the beds yield a beautiful mate- 
rial, which is easily dressed. It stands the vicissitudes of our variable 
climate, and will endure unchanged for ages, in architectural struc- 
tures. 

The limestone district of Ohio has not been examined, except by a 
slight reconnoissance. In a scientific point of view, and perhaps in a 
practical one also, it does not yield in interest to any in the State. 
Lead ore (galena) has been found in many places in small quantities, 
and it is not improbable that valuable deposits of this mineral may be 
developed during the progress of the survey. Most of the lead mines 
of England, are in a limestone which is probably a geological equiva- 
lent to the extensive and thick limestone deposit of this State. 

The fossil remains, which are found entombed in myriads in this 
rock, afford indubitable evidence that it once formed the bed of the 
ocean; and present a wide field for the investigation of the palaeontol- 
ogist. In many localities, the most perfectly preserved specimens of 
these remains of ancient existence, can be procured in abundance, 
which will not yield in perfection and beauty to those from the most 
celebrated localities of Europe, or our own country. 

Sandstone. 

Sandstone is the predominating rock over a large part of the coal 
formation of the State. It is extensively used for building and for 
public works; for hearth stones in furnaces; for grindstones; and some 
.of the fine grained stones of this class when homogeneous in their 
texture, are said to have been used for statuary purposes, and prefer- 
ed by the sculptor to marble. Some of the varieties of this rock are 
very durable, showing sharp naked edges on the native cliffs, where 
2— Doc. No. 26. 



10 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

they have been exposed to the elements, during an unknown period of 
time. Where rocks, which are homogeneous in texture, disintegrate, 
they show rounded, instead of angular and sharp edged surfaces. 

Kocks, unaffected by atmospheric agencies, will stand the test of 
time, and may be safely employed in public works. 

The experience of this country during the past 30 years, has- 
shown how necessary it is to make a proper selection of building ma- 
terials for public edifices, and more particularly, for the Canal locks 
and aqueducts, where, by successive changes of wet and dry, and the 
action of frost, the stone is subjected to the most severe tests of dura- 
bility. A rock for such purposes, should never be employed in con- 
struction, until it has been subjected to the most severe experimental 
tests. Different beds in the same quarry, often present great dif- 
ferences in their power of resisting>the effects of heat and frost, and 
the chemical action of the atmospheric agents. The Engineer is, 
therefore, necessarily very cautious in the selection of the materials 
employed in public works, upon the construction and durability of 
which he relies for his reputation. 

More details in regard to the sandstones examined this year, will 
be found in the reports of Dr. Hildreth and Prof. Briggs. In addition 
to these, may be mentioned the export of sandstone from near Cleve- 
land for flagging, building, and for grindstones. Large quantities of 
this rock for the above purposes, and for columns, are sent to Michigan. 
The northern coast of Ohio seems destined to be the permanent source, 
from which the stone required in the Eastern parts of Michigan and 
the contiguous parts of Canada, will be drawn. 

Clays. 

Clay is very extensively, distributed over the surface of the State, 
and will, probably, at no distant time, form an important branch of 
industry. Bricks are already extensively manufactured in some 
places. Some of the clays are adapted to making fire bricks, pottery, 
and glasshouse crucibles, and have been employed for such purposes. 
The localities of beds of clay, adapted for particular uses, will be made 
known in the detailed reports, during the progress of the survey. 

Peat. 

This is an alluvion, which is the result of vegetable decomposition. 
It varies in its aspect; the best quality is a soft, unctuous, tremulous 
mud when wet; but when dry, is so compact, as to receive a slight pol- 
ish. When heated, it burns with flame and a bituminous odour. Lig- 
neous, fibrous, and compact peat are the principal varieties: the two 
former are of comparatively little value; the latter is extensively 
used in France and Ir^lnnd, and is considered a valuable fuel. It is^ 
"used, riot only for domestic purposes, but also in burning lime, brjcks, 
and potiery. In cold climates, it is formed in moist grounds and shal- 
low ponds, wherever there is an accumulation of vegetable matter. 



[ Doc. No. 26. J II 

Decayed trees form a soft, light, spongy mass called ligneous peat: 
from decomposed grasses and reeds, a fibrous peat is formed, which 
is light and spongy, several feet below the surface; but at a greater 
depth it may be of good quality for fuel. Small aquatic plants and 
mosses, such as the sphagnum palustre, produce peat, which, at a mod- 
erate depth, is compact, without fibres, uniform in its texture, and of 
good quality. 

Peat, although rarely seen in the southern, is very common in the 
northern parts of Ohio. On the Portage summit of the Ohio Canal it 
abounds, and, although this State is so abundantly supplied with coal 
and wood, yet peat may become a valuable fuel in those parts, which 
are remote from our Coal deposits. 

Soils. 

The soils of Ohio are so rich, that many would supppse them scarcely 
capable of being rendered more productive. Art, however, is capable 
of improving many of them, so much as to double their produce. 

As we are almost exclusively dependent upon the soil for those arti- 
cles of food and raiment, necessary to the supply of our animal wants, 
and, as the annual products of the soil form the largest item in the in- 
creasing wealth of the State, it is deemed expedient to consider this 
subject with some attention. All the richest and most densely popu- 
lated agricultural districts, are on the transition, secondary, tertiary 
and alluvia! formations. Soils, with the exception of those resulting 
from alluvial depositions, are derived from the disintegration and de- 
composition of the subjacent materials, and they depend in a great 
degree, for their qualities, upon their mechanical and chemical consti- 
tution; hence, the geology of a territory is a necessary prerequisite 
in estimating the agricultural characters and value of its soils. 

The variations in the productiveness of soils, are due to two general 
causes — viz. 

1st. The mechanical texture of soils. 
2d. Their chemical composition. 

1st. The texture of a soil is a character of more importance than is 
generally supposed. To form a good soil, its texture should be such 
as to retain a suitable quantity of moisture for the nourishment of 
vegetation, and be neither so clayey as to bake and crack in the heat 
of the Sun, or heave by the action of frost; nor so sandy as to become 
parched, and be mere dust at the depth, to which the roots of plants 
penetrate. Argillaceous soils have so strong an affinity for water, as 
to retain a small portion even when heated. There should be a suffi- 
cient quantity of clay in soils to enable them to retain 3 or 4 per cent 
of water when dry, and to convert the other materials into a loam. 
Perhaps a light loam, properly treated, produces the best crops. 

It is also necessary to consider the substratum, in judging of the 
productiveness of any particular soil. If it be clay, or rock without 
fissures, the soil, however good in its texture and other qualities, will 
probably be "cold and wet." If the sub-soil be gravel or sand, the 



12 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

surface soil is frequently too dry, unless it be a loam so heavy, a* to 
retain a sufficient quantity of moisture for vegetation. Where a clay 
sub-soil occurs, it often alternates with beds of gravel and sand. Ad- 
vantage may often be taken of this geological fact to drain wet soils, 
either by boring, or by sinking wells through the clay, into the gravel 
or sand below, so that the water will find an outlet in springs at a 
lower level, where these strata emerge on the sides of hills or ravines. 
In this way, stagnant ponds and marshes may be drained, not only so 
as to reclaim unproductive lands, but to render the surrounding coun- 
try more healthful. These principles may be practically applied in 
many parts of Ohio. 

However poor the texture of a soil, it can always be brought to a 
proper state of cultivation by art; but, the value of produce, and 
the price of labor will not often justify the expense. Light and 
heavy soils may always be benefitted by a proper admixture of 
clay or sand, as the case may require. That clay and sand are 
almost always associated, is a geological fact of much practical 
value in agriculture, as well as in the arts. The occurrence of 
one, (unless from the effect of some local cause,) is a pretty sure indi- 
cation that the other may be found in the vicinity. Light dry soils 
are often injured by removing the small loose stones, which, instead 
of being an injurj', are in reality an advantage, as they not only pre- 
vent the evaporation of moisture below the surface, by shading the 
ground; but, by their slow decomposition, furnish stimulants and food 
for vegetation, thus acting us a permanent manure, 

2. — Chemical composition of soils. 

The chemical as well as the mechanical composition of soils, exert* 
a powerful influence on vegetation. Salts, alkalies, and alkaline 
earths, act as stimulants if used moderately; but if in excess, they are 
injurious. Many soils contain calcareous rocks, stones, oTr pebbles, 
which are continually undergoing disintegration and solution by at- 
mospherical agents; and thus serve as permanent mineral manures. 
Other soils abound in stones derived from such rocks as contain potassa 
as a constituent, and by their decomposition, furnish this alkali, in so- 
lution to the roots of plants, by which it is absorbed and carried into 
the circulation, and there acting as a stimulant, remains combined with 
some vegetable acid. The decomposition of gravel, pebbles and rock 
iias been observed to be a benefit to vegetation; and as the rapidity 
of decomposition depends upon the surface exposed, it follows, that if 
such materials be ground fine and sowed upon the soil, like plaster of 
paris, a more decided benefit would be the result. This has been 
partially tried with success; and it is to be hoped, that the intelligent 
farmers of this State will give it a more thorough trial. 

Iron, in some states of combination, exercises a beneficial influence 
on vegetation; yellowish and reddish spils almost always contain 
iron, and are generally productive. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 13 

Mauls. 

The value of mans for manure is well known. The term marl, in 
its strict mineralogical sense, means an argillaceous carbonate of lime, 
but by general usage, marl is an earthy mineral substance (or one 
which becomes earthy on exposure to' the weather,) which, by being 
spread on the soil, renders it more fertile. 

The principal varieties of marl, common in this country, are clay 
marls, shell marls, and the gray and green sandy marls. Clay marl, 
and the fresh-water shell-marl are common in Ohio; and these depo- 
sits will become valuable at no distant time. 

A rock formation of great thickness, occupying a broad belt on 
the surface of the State, and undoubtedly underlying a large propor* 
tion of our territory, seems to be well adapted for use as a marl. It 
rapidly crumbles and disintegrates on exposure. 

Fresh water shell marl is formed by molluscous animals, which 
secrete lime from the waters of the lakes and ponds, in which they 
live, to form their shells; and as generation succeeds generation, the 
dead shells accumulating, form thick and extensive beds of this mate- 
rial. When the pond or lake has shoaled to within a few feet of the 
usual water level, a growth of plants succeeds; and by an accumula- 
tion of vegetable matter, peat and "muck" are formed, and cover the 
marl. The peat and "muck" near the marl are filled with small fresh 
water shells, similar to those which have crumbled down to form the 
proper marl. The pure marl is a while crumbly mass when dry, but 
unctuous and plastic when wet, and contains a few small white. fresh 
water shells. If vinegar or any acid be poured on it, it effervesces 
briskly. 

The value of fresh water shell marl is well known to some of our 
intelligent farmers; but few know it when they see it, and still fewer 
know in what situations to find it. For these reasons, I have particu- 
larized its characters and its situations. It performs the same office 
on the land as air-slaked lime, and is as valuable, while it has not the 
causticity to injure vegetation. One object in burning lime, for ma- 
nure, js to reduce it to the state of powder by slaking. The shell 
marl is already in a pulverulent state, and only requires to be dug 
from the swamps and ponds and spread on the land. 

The use of lime is extending very rapidly in New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania, and has nearly superseded plaster in some of the counties. 
"Individuals in the vicinity of Allentown, N. J., employ from 600 to 
3000 bushels of lime, per year, according to the dimensions of their 
estates. It is carted from twenty to thirty miles in some instances. 
The quantity per acre varies from 30 to 100 bushels, according to the 
strength of the soil, the largest quantity being used where the land is 
richest in vegetable and animal mat:er. The dressing is administered 
in from five to 12 years. Where the soil is thin it is necessary to 
plough in the lime the deepest. It is always added in the slaked 



14 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

state, and generally in the fall of the year. After liming, a crop of 
buckwheat, oats, or corn is taken off previous -to one of wheat."* 

In Europe the lime is always allowed to air-slake before it is spread. 
Where lands are highly limed (and sometimes 200 bushels are used 
to the acre in England,) it is done only once in a term of twenty-one 
years. In some parts of France, a dressing of only 12 bushels is em- 
ployed; and this is repeated every third year. Mr. Pulvis, who has 
done much in investigating the subject of calcareous manures', thinks 
this the least expensive and best; and as lime is so cheap, it must be 
an economical manure. "The advantage of the use of lime may be 
stated in a few words; it is an essential part of the seed of wheat, 
and that valuable grain will not grow in any soil which does not con- 
tain it."t 

It may be well to remark, in this place, that limestones, containing 
magnesia, will not make a lime suitable for manure, however valuable 
it may be for cements. Farmers should be careful on this point, else 
they may fail in the use of lime, and infer that it is not adapted to 
their soil. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

The mineral springs called the Yellow Springs, and Delaware 
Springs, are extensively known and much frequented during the warm 
season of the year. Mineral springs are numerous in Ohio, and the 
slight investigations already made, may probably justify the conclu- 
sion that they may be found in almost every county. The springs at 
Cleveland and Medina and many other places, which it is not necessary 
to specify in this report, are more or less known, and have some 
celebrity in the cure of diseases. 

The salt springs are the most important, and in the early settle- 
ment of the State, furnished most of the western country with salt, 
an article indispensible to the wants of civilized man. Before that 
time, salt was transported on the backs of pack horses, over the Alle- 
ghany Mountains, to supply the wants of the early settlers. The his- 
tory of the Salt Manufacture will be found in Dr. Hildreth's report. 

Petroleum Springs and Gas Springs are also numerous about the 
licks. A record of every locality of these springs should be preserved, 
and it is hoped that the people, who are acquainted with a thousand 
local details of the country around them, will communicate them freely 
to the several geologists engaged in the survey. 

Alluvial Action. 

Action of Rivers. 

Alluvial action is busy in effecting changes in almost every part of 
the State. Hills are in process of degradation, by the washing of 
rains, and by the sliding of avalanches of earth and rock. Streams 
are undermining and washing their banks, and depositing the materials 

* Shepard's Min Report, of Conn., p. 115. 
tShepard's Min. Report of Conn., p. 116. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 15 

in parts more or less remote. A great variety of other causes are 
tending to change, in a degree, the relative elevation of land, and its 
geographical position. A few instances only will be given at this 
time in illustration of this fact. 

The Muskingum, at Marietta, is supposed to be double the width 
that it was at the first settlement on the banks of that stream, in con- 
sequence of the trees having been cut down, the roots of which bound 
the fine loam together, and prevented its being washed away. At that 
time the bottom of the river is said to have been rock, but, in conse- 
quence of its increased breadth, by which the velocity of the current 
has been diminished, it has been filled up with gravel and sand to a 
depth of 12 feet. In freshes, the weight of the current of the Ohio is 
forced against the Marietta and Point Harmar shore. Fort Harmar 
once stood at some distance from the Ohio river, just below the Mus- 
kingum. A well, which was in the centre of the Garrison 40 years 
ago, is now on the bank of the river, and a part of the wall of the well 
has caved down with the tank. 100 yards in breadth, at least, must 
have been removed by the heavy sweep of the current against the 
bank in high water. 

Another cause is tending to widen and shoal the river. The nume- 
rous steamboats in passing, throw up a succession of waves on the 
shore, which wash down more or less of the loam and sand, which 
are deposited in the eddies and still-water. The water along the 
shore is seen to be turbid with mud, after the passage of a boat, 
and it seems scarcely too large an estimate to suppose, that a ton of 
matter is, upon an average, swept from each bank and transported to 
other places from every mile in length, of the river, by the passage 
of every steamboat. If we consider the number of steamboats which 
daily pass, we shall see, that in a course of years, the effect resulting 
from this cause will influence the depth of water in some places so as 
to injure the navigation. 

Degradation of the Lake coast. 

At Fairport, the bank of the lake has been washed away to the extent 
of several rods in breadth within twenty years. The alluvial deposits 
of sand adjacent to the piers, covering an area of several acres, afford 
demonstrative evidence of the detrital matter having been swept along 
the shore, by the currents and oblique action of the surf. This detrital 
matter has, doubtless, been mostly derived from the encroachments of 
the lake on the adjacent coast. The alluvion, thus formed, is much 
more extensive on the west than on the east side of the pier. That on 
the west, is about two hundred yards broad. The transport is mostly 
from east to west. Near the mouth of the Chagrin river, the same 
effects are produced; but the destructive action of the surf to the west 
of the mouth of that stream, is more marked than on the east. The 
degradation here, during the last eight years, has amounted to a breadth 
of eight rods. Dr. Card, an old resident at Willoughby, has observed 
these effects on that part of the coast with much accuracy. There is 



16 I Doc. No. 26. ] 

a stratum of yellowish Clayey loam, to some distance below the surface^ 
superimposed on blue clay, containing boulders, pebbles, and gravel.* 

A shingle beach, derived from the boulders, pebbles, and gravel of 
the clay bed, skirts the base of the cliffs, and. protects them from the 
surf, except during storms and high winds, The heavy N. W. winds 
drive the surf obliquely on the shore, and transport the sand and 
shingle to the eastward. A long spit has been formed across the valr 
ley of the Chagrin. But a few years ago the mouth of this stream 
was next the western terrace of the immediate valley of the river. 
The old mouth has been filled up, and a Spit formed of several hun^ 
dred yards in length. At this time, the mouth of the stream is next 
the eastern bench or terrace. The spit is continually extending east- 
ward, and the stream necessarily cuts away the bank in that direction. 
The spit and the beaches are composed of sand and shingle, which 
offer a great protection to the coast; but the ever active surf is con- 
tinually grinding them up by attrition. The transport at this place, is 
mostly from west to east. 

The combined effects of the surf and land springs in the degrada- 
tion of the coast, can be seen to advantage, at, and near Clevelandj 
The general level of the terrace above the lake is from 78 to 83 feet. 
It is composed of sand, gravel, and loam beds near the surface, some- 
times fifty feet thick, in some places lying upon a buff coloured clay; 
These beds rest upon a deposit of lead-colored sandy clay, or clayey 
sand of unknown depth. Springs break out on the shore, at the junc- 
tions of these beds. These materials wash away very easily, and are 
borne off in suspension in the spring waters, while the superincum- 
bent masses tumble down, forming ravines and valleys, which con^- 
tinually extend further inland, with lateral branches spreading more 
and more widely. The hill by the bridge from Ohio City to Cleveland, . 
indicated this kind of action during the past summer; and a small 
spring of water was silently, and almost without attracting observation, 
performing more in transporting materials from a higher to a lower 
level, than the efforts of several men could have accomplished. The 
bed of the Cuyahoga river is rapidly shoaling, from this cause. The 
coarse sand forms a bank in the river, as steep as this material can lie 
in water, and projecting out, like deltas at the mouths of large rivers. 
This shoaling action will, eventually, either dam up the river and form 
stagnant water above, or else force it to cut a new channel. 

At Cleveland, much earth has been, and still is washing down by 
land springs, and it is only by the exercise of much skill and ingenui- 
ty, that some parts have been preserved from gullying out, and under- 
mining the streets of the city. 

The shore at Cleveland is washing away rapidly in front of the 
town. A reference to fig. 2, of the plate will illustrate this mode of 

* The bonlders and pebbles, enclosed in the clay, are more or less smoothed as if by 'attrition; 
and' many of them are distinctly scratched, as if dragged in a fixed position over bard rocky 
surfaces. Specimens'are preserved. They were not picked up on the beach, but dugout 
of the clay itself, where they had lain undisturbed since their original deposition. They con- 
sist mostly of granite, and a hard compact blue limestone. 



{ Doc. No. 26. ] 17 

action, The cliffs, undermined by the surf and land springs, crack 
off at the top and slide partly down, so as come within the action of the 
surf, while other slides from above, continue to push it farther and 
farther into the Lake, until all is carried away by the .waves and 
shore currents. Slides occur every year. Several rods, in width, 
have slidden down and been washed away, within a few years. 

Attempts have been made to arrest this degradation, which threatens 
to remove the site of the city in the course of a century or two, unless 
it be checked. If piers be erected at intervals, extending out for 100 
to 150 yards from the shore, and well filled in, alluvial deposits from 
the sand swept coastwise by the surf and shore currents, will neces- 
sarily be deposited in the eddies formed by these obstructions. An 
example of the application of this principle may be seen on the West 
side of the pier which protects the harbor, where several acres of al- 
luvial land have been formed within four years. As the coast West 
of Cleveland is rock-bound, very little detrital matter is swept eastward, 
while the coast to the east of Cleveland, to Fairport, composed of earthy 
materials, is mostly in a state of rapid degradation. The northeast 
winds sweep this detrital matter along to the westward, and deposit it 
behind the obstacles which create eddy currents. The long pier at 
Cleveland has caused such currents, and the deposit of the alluvial 
sands just mentioned. 

One evidence that the Lake has been making encroachments on 
this part of the coast for a long time, is an isolated hillock, a part of 
the original shore, which was also the boundary of a bluff on the 
Cuyahoga river. This bluff turned the river westward, so that its 
mouth was a mile or more West of Cleveland, and remaining without 
degradation on the river side (as is evident by its moderate slope,) 
was washed away on the Lake shore, until it was cut through at the 
bend, and gave the river a shorter course to the Lake through a new 
mouth. The old mouth is closed by a sand beach, and the alluvial 
ground mentioned as having been formed West of Cleveland, is partly 
in front of the hillock, which presents a nearly vertical escarpment 
towards the Lake.* 

The evidence of the degradation of land by the surf on the shore, 
may be seen at any time by standing on the cliff at Cleveland (and at 
many other points on the coast,) and looking off upon the Lake. At 
the distance of one-half to one mile from the shore, a distinct line 
may be seen to mark the division between the muddy water, produced 
by the washing away of clay and the grinding up of pebbles on th© 
coast, and the clear blue water of the Lake. All the water between 
that line and the shore is tinged with finely divided matter in a state 
of suspension. This matter settles in still water, and, probably, forms 
clay on the bottom of the Lake, imbedding shells and other organic 
remains. 

From the facts which have been mentioned in relation to the alluvial 

* The topographical map of Cleveland, vide fig. 1, of the plate, indicates the old and new 
mouths of the river ; and the new mouth is now filled up, in eonsequence of the river being 
confined between the piers. ^ 

3— Doc. No. 26. 



18 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

action on the coast, it will be seen that the direction of transport is 
[sometimes eastwardl)' and sometimes westwardly. This is dependent 
upon local causes, such as the trend of the particular line of coast, 
the prevailing direction of winds, the angle at which the surf rushes 
to the shore, the direction of eddy currents, and the peculiar position 
of parts of the coast, which are washing away. From the facts which 
have been mentioned, it is believed that the aggregate amount trans- 
ported from East to West is greater than in the opposite direction. 
One fact, especially, gives weight to this deduction, viz., the prevailing 
strong winds, which affect the South coast of Lake Erie, are from the 
N. E. to N. W. The winds from the latter direction throw the surf 
nearly perpendicularly upon the shore, so as to grind up the shingle, 
and undermine the cliffs, without causing distant transport, while 
those from the former direction roll the heavy waves obliquely along 
the shore, producing currents, which, together with the surf, transport 
the materials from place to place, and deposit them in sheltered 
situations. 

It is stated, that the coast of Lake Erie is undergoing a more rapid 
degradation by the action of the waves, than it did in former years, 
and the reputed cause, is, that a dam partly across the outlet between 
Buffalo and Black Rock, obstructs, in some degree, the drainage of 
the Lake. Any obstacle at the outlet, which checks the rapidity of 
the current, must obstruct the drainage, and, in consequence, the level 
of the Lake must necessarily rise, until the escape of water-, by drain- 
age and evaporation, shall equal the supply. The rise of water ex- 
poses that portion of our coast, where it is not rock-bound, to inroads 
from the Lake by overflows, or to more rapid degradation by the waves. 

The owners of the dam at the outlet of the Lake, must necessarily 
be liable for such damages sustained by our citizens on the coast, 
as result from the obstruction referred to. Data are being collected, 
by means of which the relative amount of degradation for distinct pe- 
riods of time, in particular localities, may- be estimated. 

Analysis of Coal and Oees. 

The analysis of the coal and iron ores, the localities of which were 
examined during the last season, will be soon commenced, with a view 
to ascertain their adaptation to the manufacture of iron. Although 
iron is smelted so extensively in England, by means of bituminous 
coal, and the coke obtained by charring it, it is believed that only 
three furnaces are operating with these combustibles in the United 
States, and two of these are in Ohio. 

It is believed that there are many coal beds in Ohio of a quality 
suitable for smelting iron ores. Chemical analysis will ascertain the 
probability of their adaptation to the purpose ; still, as as matter of 
prudence, works should not be erected until a successful trial of the 
coal and ore has been made.* 

^Coke is now manufactured in Ohio from several of the coal beds. Hon. Daniel Upson 
of Portage County, makes a coke of excellent quality from the coal of his mine in Tallmadge.: 
Mixed with charcoal, it is used in the high furnace at Akron, in the smelting of iron ore. Mr 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 19 

If our coals should prove to be pure enough for smelting iron, Ohio 
has the elements of unbounded wealth beneath her soil, and she may 
become the most productive iron district in the world. 

Importance op determining the Dip. 

The dip, or the angle by which the planes of the strata plunge below 
the horizontal plane, is so small in most parts of this State, that the 
determination of its approximative amount becomes an important 
element in the determination of the subterranean value of our lands. 
Important mineral beds, such as coal, iron ore, limestone, &c, although 
they may not show themselves on the surface of the earth, even in 
the deepest valleys of a particular district, may yet lie so near, as to 
be capable of profitable exploration; hence, the determination of the 
mean dip of the strata is an indispensable datum in determining whe- 
ther they lie at such a depth as to be valuable. The strata dip so 
slightly, that beds of moderate thickness occupy a belt of considerable 
breadth; and in the direction of their dip, such as are valuable, may 
be explored with profit, at a distance of many miles from the place 
where they form the surface. 

There are various means of determining the amount of mean dip 
over extensive tracts of country, all of which will be employed, and 
serve as checks to each other. Instruments have been procured, by 
means of which the exact amount of local, as well as the general dip, 
will be observed, in as many places, as may be thought proper, 
and the faults and undulations, although not visible on the surface, 
may be ascertained, if they exist. The Topographer of the Geo- 
logical Survey, Colonel C. Whittlesey, has obtained the levels of a 
great number of points, by consulting the records of the Board of Pub- 
lic Works, and the various surveys for the internal improvements in 
the State. Many others will necessarily be determined by his own 
observations in the discharge of his appropriate duties. The deter- 
mination of the various levels has many important practical bearings, 
and there is one which will be, ultimately, of much scientific interest. 
Elevatory movements have taken place on almost every part of the 
earth's surface at different periods. Some of them have occurred 
within the historical epoch, and even now, Sweden is said to be gradu- 
ally rising above the level of the Baltic sea. 

These levels above the ocean, will be standards of reference, which 
will determine whether such effects are now in progress. 

Organization, Duties, and Estimates. 

The geological corps has been organized upon the basis of the act 
of the 27th March, 1837, with the intention of developing the natural 
resources of Ohio, and furnishing complete catalogues and descriptions 

Ford, of Akron, by mixing 40 bushels of coke per day with the charcoal, is stated to have in- 
creased the quantity of iron smelted 33 1-3 per cent. The coal bed is from 3 to 5 feet thick, 
and from 2 to 3 feet of the coal makes excellent coke, which is found to be a perfect substitute 
for anthracite coal in the cupola furnaces. 

The time cannot be far distant when our iron masters, like those of Great Britain, will de- 
pend exclusively on this combustible for smelting. 



20 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

of all her natural objects. It is proposed, also, to make a comprehen- 
sive collection of the natural productions, so as to exhibit under one 
roof complete suites of specimens of the animal, vegetable, and mineral 
kingdoms. 

With a view to a perfect and rapid accomplishment of the varied 
duties of the survey, several distinct departments have been created, 
appointments made, and to each individual an appropriate sphere of 
duty has been assigned. 

Dr. S. P. Hildreth of Marietta, who has been long engaged in inves- 
tigating the fossil remains and the geology of the rocks of Ohio, was 
appointed as first assistant, and directed to take charge of a depart- 
ment, embracing the description and figuring of the organic remains 
found entombed in our rocks. 

It was deemed expedient to have a palaeontologist engaged in the 
geological survey of the State. All the branches of natural history 
and many of the other sciences, cluster around geology, and lend to it,. 
and to each other a mutual support. No man can make great advances 
in all the branches of geology; the proper course to be pursued, is for 
each individual to become acquainted with the great outlines of the 
subject, and then devote his attention to some particular branch of en- 
quiry. It is by such a division of labor, that geology has advanced 
?o rapidly within a few years. Physical geology and palaeontology 
are distinct branches of enquiry. The palaeontologist must, neces- 
sarily, be minutely familiar with the various branches of natural his- 
tory, to distinguish the minute shades of difference in the species of 
fossils, and consult many authors to know what has been described 
and figured by others. The geologist must have the results of such 
labors, before he can draw definite conclusions on some points of geo- 
logy. It is believed that this division of labor will facilitate the_ perfec- 
tion of the work, by enabling each individual to devote more attention 
to his specific branch of enquiry. 

Dr. Hildreth, in consequence of his infirm health rendering it im- 
. possible to discharge the laborious duties of his department of the 
survey, is about to resign. 1 may here be allowed to render a tribute 
to this gentleman who has been a resident of Ohio for nearly half a 
century, and for many years been ardently devoted to geological 
investigations in this section of our country. He has published several 
geological and other papers, which are valuable both on account of the 
economical and scientific facts which they contain. He saw the pros- 
pective value of the mineral beds of our territory, and exerted himself 
to procure an act authorizing the geological survey of the State. 

It is intended to avoid all discussion involving theories and theoreti- 
cal considerations, in the annual reports. They are intended to be en- 
tirely of a practical character, containing statements of facts, develop- 
ments of our mineral resources, and such information as may aid our 
citizens in applying the mineral wealth of the State to practical pur- 
poses. In consequence of Dr. Hildreth being about to resign from the 
geological corps, some theoretical deductions, to which he has arrived, 
gre contained in his report; but in general, such discussions are to be 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 21 

retained for publication in the final report after the conclusion of the 
survey; when, it is believed, such masses of facts will have been ac- 
cumulated, as to leave less chance of error, than if deductions wer» 
made from the results of each year's examination. 

The buhrstone, termed by Dr. Hildreth the calcareo-silicious rock, 
is an important mineral deposit, and it involves as much of scientific 
interest in its mode of formation, and the contained fossils, as in its 
useful applications. Dr. Hildreth has described the members of the 
coal series which lie above the buhrstone. 

The history of the Salines of the State, and numerous facts in rela- 
tion to them, are contained in his report, and will be read with much 
interest by all. 

Prof. J. P. Kirtland, of Poland, now of the Ohio Medical College, at 
Cincinnati, was appointed the second assistant, and directed to take 
charge of the department of Botany and Zoology, which involves a 
description, and the completion of catalogues, of all the living organic 
matter of the State. It embraces the development of the best modes 
of culture, of improving our stock, of obviating the destructive influ- 
ence of the blight, mildew, and insects, and a great variety of topics, 
which are not only of interest to science, but of high practical import- 
ance. By a knowledge of the habits of insects and animals, it can 
scarcely be doubted, that the farmer might be secured in the enjoy- 
ment of the fruits of his labor, where he now frequently laments over 
his ruined harvests. 

Dr. Locke, the 3d assistant, was ir. Europe at the time of his ap- 
pointment, and did not return until the field duties of the season were 
about to close. He has not, therefore, performed any duty on the 
Geological survey. 

Professor Briggs, the 4th assistant, assisted by J. W.Foster, Esq., 
of Zanesville, entered upon his duties in July last. These gentlemen 
were actively engaged in the field duties of the Geological Survey 
until the 20th of November. Mr. Foster was appointed as an acting 
assistant, and associated with Prof. Briggs in the survey of the district 
lying between the waters of the Scioto and Great Hockhocking. 

Col. Charles Whittlesey, of Cleveland, was appointed to take charge 
of the Topographical Department of the survey, and has been actively 
engaged in the numerous and laborious duties of his office. He has 
furnished skeleton maps of townships and counties to the Geologists 
proper, and collected all accessible information from the Land offices 
and public records, in relation to the boundaries of counties, towns, 
courses of streams, &c, preparatory to the construction of a topo- 
graphical map of the State. 

The amount of information thus obtained, is much less than it was 
supposed could be procured from those sources, the reason of which 
is fully detailed in Col. Whittlesey's report. 

The topographical map of the State, if accurately constructed, 
will indicate the whole contour of the ground, and the physical cha- 
racter of the country, as if it were actually spread before the eye of 
the observer, showing, at a glance, its plains and mountains, hills, 



22 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

valleys, streams, bottom lands, swamps, marshes, woods and cultivated 
fields. 

On such maps, the localities of all minerals, ores, rocks, &c, can 
be indicated in their proper position and relations to each other. 

The great objections to our present maps are, that a level country is 
indicated where it is a labyrinth of hills; that boundaries of townships 
and counties are often erroneous; and streams are indicated far from 
the positions where they actually flow. 

An accurate topographical map would require a triangulation simi- 
lar to that of the national coast survey, which has been in progress 
for some years. The time and expense of accomplishing such a sur- 
vey would be greater than the Legislature would, probably, deem 
expedient to appropriate for its completion. Such a survey, however, 
once accomplished, would never again be necessary. The importance 
of such a map, for a multitude of purposes, besides its basis for a geo- 
logical map, is well known. 

The appropriation for the continuance of the survey, must deter- 
mine whether the topographical department be conducted upon the 
principle of accurate triangulation, or adopting the divisions of coun- 
ties, townships, sections, &c, as bases, and filling up, by slight ad- 
measurements, and sketches by a coup cPoeil. A trigonometrical survey 
of the State would require an expenditure, of at least $100,000 for its 
completion. 

In conformity with the spirit of the act authorizing the Geological 
Survey, the Topographer, Col. Whittlesey, has also been instructed to 
survey the remains of ancient works, which are so numerous within 
our territory. The plans and descriptions of these works will be 
given in the final report. Co). Whittlesey's- slight notice of some of 
these will be found in his report, which is annexed. 

In addition to my proper sphere of duties, of superintending the 
survey, and visiting the more important localities, the department of 
chemical analysis will be conducted by myself, and under my imme- 
diate supervision. Ores, mineral waters, coals, and all mineral sub- 
stances, will be analyzed, if there be a probability that they may be 
capable of useful applications. 

As the primary object with the Legislature, in authorizing the Geo- 
logical Survey of the State, was to developeits natural resources, with 
a view to their application to the economical purposes of life, it is, of 
course, an object to have it accomplished at as early a day, as is con- 
sistent with its proper execution. It is, therefore, respectfully sug- 
gested, whether it be not expedient to so modify the act, authorizing 
the survey, that a greater number of individuals may be employed in 
its different departments. 

If the corps be increased, so as to give one more assistant to the 
survey, and the Geologist authorized to employ, temporarily, such 
individuals as may be necessary for local purposes, the expense will 
be but little increased, while the number of persons employed, and the 
amount of labor accomplished, will be more than doubled. There are 
numbers of our young men who might be usefully employed in this 



[ Dog. No. 26. ] 23 

enterprise, and with a small compensation, would engage in such duties, 
merely with a view of acquiring practical knowledge. 

I consider it a duty to make the above suggestion, as the total 
amount necessary for the accomplishment of the work, will be less, 
while our citizens can be reaping the benefit at an earlier day. 

If the present organization be continued, as under the existing act, 
the necessary appropriation for the current year will be $12,000. 

If the suggestion, above mentioned, for increasing the corps, and 
employing acting assistants, be adopted, it will be necessary to in- 
increase the appropriation for the current year to $16,000. 

If the topographical survey of the State be continued, as at present, 
no expense above the appropriation mentioned, will be incurred; but 
if the State be triangulated, for the topographical survey, the appro- 
priation for the current year, should be $30,000. 
I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. W. MATHEE, 
Principal Geologist of Ohio 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 25 



REPORT 

OF 

DR. S. P, HILDEETH, 

FIRST ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. 

No. 2. 



To Professor W. W. Mather, 

Principal Geologist of the State of Ohio. 

Sir: The most favorable portion of the season for field operations be- 
ing considerably advanced before the corps for the geological survey of 
the State could be organized, the results of individual observation can- 
not be so great, as they otherwise might have been. Our researches have 
been -wholly confined to the coal measures; and of this district only a part 
has been examined. It embraces all the south eastern, and north eastern 
sections of the State, and abounds in minerals, the most important of 
which are coal, salt, and iron ores. It also contains valuable deposits 
of quartz rock, marl, lime-stone, clays, and a great variety of fine and 
coarse grained sand rocks, for architectural and other useful purposes. 
Through the whole of this region, the rock strata are arranged in regular 
series, and the different beds so placed, as to be the one subordinate to ano- 
ther, over large extents of surface. And although to the eye of the casual 
observer, they may seem to be in the utmost confusion, yet the greatest 
regularity prevails in the arrangement of the different deposits. 

So far as this State is concerned, and it contains but a small part of the 
coal measures of the valley of the Ohio, the rock strata appear to have 
been but little disturbed since their original deposition from the ocean of 
waters, that once covered the whole valley between the Rocky and Ap- 
palachian ranges of mountains. There is a general, but gradual dip of 
all the strata towards the centre of tho valley; so that, on the western bor- 
der, the dip is easterly; on the northern, southerly, and so on, with great 
regularity, until we approach the more mountainous portions, when this 
order is broken in upon, and the inclination is acommodated to the ranges 
4— Doc. No. 26. 



26 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

of mountains, which have evidently been raised at a period posterior to 
the deposition of the coal measures. 

The regularity in the dip, and moderate inclination of the strata, af- 
ford facilities to the miner, not known to those of most other countries, 
especially, in Great Britain, where the coal not only lies at great depths 
below the surface, at a high inclination, but the strata, in which it is im- 
bedded, have been broken and thrown out of place, since their deposit, 
occasioning slips or faults of many feet, sometimes of several hundred; 
causing much labor and expense in again recovering the bed, which is to 
be sought either above or below the spot cut across by the fault. In the 
coal beds of Ohio, very little difficulty of this kind is experienced. Faults 
or slips of a few inches or a few feet, are sometimes met with, which 
have been occasioned by slides or the gradual settling of the earth from 
the undermining of the hill sides by water courses, or springs, rather 
than from any force from below. 

The ease and facility with which coal is mined in the west, where the 
beds are generally opened at the base, or in the side of a hill, in the coal 
itself, and drifts carried under horizontally, will be better shown by con- 
trasting it with the process of mining in Great Britain. 

In Northumberland, the Newcastle coals, which are roost familiar to 
us, are brought up from great depth, and at a heavy expense, by sinking 
shafts or pits . Steam engines are used for raising the coal and freeing 
the mines from water at this place. The upper, or main bed lies at 450 feet, 
and is six feet in thickness. The lower main lies at 810 feet, and is 6i 
feet. Between these two there are eight thinner beds, one of 4, and one 
of 3 feet; the rest quite thin. In the whole, there are 40 distinct beds in 
this coal field, which is 58 miles in length, and 24 miles in its greatest 
width. In all these beds they count on 30 feet of workable coal. They 
have many other smaller fields in different parts of the island. 

In Somersetshire, some of the shafts have been sunk to the depth of 
1,200 feet. The beds here are from eighteen inches to nine feet in thick- 
ness, and 23 in number, making 95 feet of workable coal, over a space 
of 100 square miles. 

In Staffordshire, at 360 feet, they find a bed of coal that is 27 feet 
thick. It is, however, divided into several portions by thin seams of 
slate clay. These beds are highly inclined at an angle of from 10 to 45 
degrees, so that in a few miles they sink to a great depth. Similar de- 
posits of argillaceous iron ores, accompany the coal as in Ohio, and fur- 
nish nearly all the iron manufactured in England. The rocks which lie 
over the coal are generally much less inclined, and sometimes nearly 
horizontal. They are new red sand-stone, lias, oolite, &c. The two 
latter are rocks, which have been very partially, or more probably, not de- 
posited at all over the coal measures of Ohio. 

That portion of the coal measures of the valley, which lies within this 
State, occupies a space of about 180 miles in length, by 80 in breadth; 
extending in a south westerly and north easterly direction along the bor- 
der of the Ohio, from Trumbull county to the mouth of the Scioto. Theso 
immense fields will furnish fuel for a larger population than the soil of 
Ohio can support for ages; and when the surface beds are exhausted, 
much thicker ones will be found by sinking shafts to the depth of a few 
hundred feet, as all coal beds are thinner in their out-crop, or near their 
margins, than in the center of the basin. Of this fact we have proof, not 
only from foreign fields, but from the disclosures made in boring salt wells 
in our own State. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 27 

Although a considerable portion of Ohio is hilly and broken, yet we 
have no mountain ranges, and our hills are hills of degradation, or made 
by the wasting away of the original rock strata and earth by the continued 
action of rains, frosts and running waters, -in the course of unknown 
ages. That there was once a period, when the valleys between the hills 
were all united and in juxta-position, is made evident from the fact of 
coal beds, sand rocks, &c.,. which are found at a certain elevation in the 
hills on one side of a valley, being also found at the same, or nearly the 
same height on the opposite side, although the distance between may be 
more than a mile; as may be witnessed at many localities on the Ohio 
river, or any of the smaller streams. 

It is probable, that the larger portion of this cutting, or wasting process, 
was accomplished soon after the receding of the oceanic waters, and be- 
fore the earth was clothed with the present families of forest trees; and 
while yet in the vicinity of large bodies of water, the climate was proba- 
bly more humid and milder than at this time, affording a much larger 
annual amount of rain similar to that of tropical climates in the present 
era of the earth. Prom the fact of the lower series of rock strata, which 
compose the coal measures, terminating on the outer margin of the basin 
in heavy masses and abrupt precipices, as in the vicinity of Lancaster, in 
Fairfield county, and several other places near the borders of the great 
lime-stone formations, which occupy the middle and western portions of 
Ohio, and being also indented, similar to the bays and head-lands of a 
modern sea coast, we are led to conclude that the coal measures were 
gradually raised by successive depositions on the bed of a sea, and formed 
an island or islands on the borders of the ocean which then covered the 
larger portion of the valley of the Mississippi. We are led to draw this 
inference from the fact that no boulders, or erratic blocks are found far 
within the present coal measures, but only on their northern or western 
borders, while the surface of the prairies and the country west of the 
coal series is profusely dotted with these fragments of a primitive forma- 
tion. The most plausible theory of their origin is that of their having been 
brought by currents from the north, imbedded in ice, at a period anterior 
to the formation of the Allegheny ranges of mountains, when the present 
"Gulf stream" flowed over the regions which now compose the western 
states. These floating masses of ice and earth, meeting with the warmer 
currents of the south, gradually melted and deposited the imbedded frag- 
ments on the bottom of the ocean, in the same manner that the icebergs 
of the present day are scattering the ruins of the north over the banks of 
Newfoundland, and the latitudes yet further south. 

From Lake Superior to the coast of Florida, there is to be found in the 
rock strata, every evidence we could ask in countless millions of the re- 
Iiquise of oceanic life, that a sea onee covered all the region now watered 
by the tributaries of the Mississippi. The strata which compose the coal 
series have been deposited from water. Some of them, especially the 
elate clays, apparently from a quiet medium, while the sand-stones and 
coarse conglomerates, bear in their structure evident marks of having been 
thrown down from a moderate current, or one of greater rapidity, accord- 
ing to the size of the component particles. Where the vertical face of a 
deposit is fairly exposed, as in the sides of large grottoes, their wave-like 
structure is beautifully shewn; in some localities imitating the appearance 
on the bed of a stream, and pointing out, by the arrangement of the par- 
ticles of sand and mica, the course from which the waters flowed. These 
are all formed from the detritus of other and older rocks; having in their 



28 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

composition, mica, quartz, feldspar, &c. -From tho disintegration of the 
primitive and transition series, in a coarse or more finely comminuted 
state, the present secondary rocks are constructed; the particles being 
generally cemented either by calcareous or argillaceous matter. In some 
instances, the uniting material is silicious and ferruginous, when an ex- 
ceedingly hard rock is the result. 

How far these views of the original condition of the coal measures, and 
the formations west and north of them, can be supported, must depend 
on the discoveries yet to be made in pursuing the geology of Ohio, which 
is only in its incipient state. 

With these preliminary remarks, we will now proceed to a more par- 
ticular description of the rock strata of the eastern part of the district of 
eountry traversed in my researches as "Palaeontologist, and assistant Geol- 
ogist;" my more especial duties being to collect, describe and arrange the 
fossil organic remains, both of a vegetable and animal origin, that may be 
found in the State. While on these tours, it has been a leading object to 
trace out the direction and extent of the great quartz deposit, or calcareo- 
silicious rock, which, like a zone, encircles a large portion of the width 
of the State, and discover the muriatiferous or salt producing rocks, and 
also the main ferruginous deposits. It is one of the most interesting fea- 
tures in the geology of the coal measures of Ohio, and, like the meridian 
line in geography, will afford a valuable guide in developing the series of 
rock strata which lie beneath, or are superimposed on this deposit. The 
early history of the salt manufacture, as intimately connected, not only 
with the geology, but with the vital prosperity of the State, will also re- 
ceive such notice as my present limited store of facts can afford. The 
descriptions of the fossil organic remains will be chiefly deferred, until, 
the final report of the survey. 

Description of the rock strata which lie over the "Buhr-stone" or calcareo- 
silicious rock, on the west side of the upper coal measures. 

Mr. Briggs, in his report, having described the rock strata which lie 
below the calcareo-silicious deposits in the lower partof the coal measures, 
I shall enumerate those which lie above it, as they were noticed in my 
explorations on the west side of the Muskingum river, in the counties of 
Meigs, Athens, Perry, Muskingum, Morgan and Washington. 

This enumeration will nearly complete the series of the coal measures, 
terminating with those, which are the most recent near the central part of 
the basin on the Ohio river. For the convenience of description only, 
they are arranged in numerical order, subject to such alteration hereafter, 
as the more minute and detailed surveys may discover to be necessary, 
and will probably be needed. The principal object of this description of 
strata, being to give a tabular view of the order of arrangement in the 
series above the Buhr-stone deposits. 

From the undulating position of the rocks in some places, the dip of 
the strata varies, very considerably, even in short distances; presenting, 
in this respect, the difference of from 10 to 50 feet in a mile, but the gen- 
eral inclination of the whole, on the western side of the basin, is to the 
east and south east. 

No. 1. — Calcareo-silicious deposit, or Buhr-stone rock. 

This being one of the most interesting members of the series, and serv- 
ing as a guide to the deposits above or below it, independent of its great 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 29 

value for economical purposes, will receive more notice than any other 
rock. Its external and most common appearance, as a silicious or quartz 
rock, is so peculiar as to be readily recognized by most observers; and 
where it assumes its calcareous character, as. it does in many places, it 
may be known by the imbedded fossils which accompany this rock in its 
whole course. 

Range and extent. 

In its range, this deposit embraces all the western borders of the coal 
measures in its out crop on the hills extending from the Ohio river in a 
north, and slightly east direction, to Stark county; beyond which, north- 
easterly, it has not been traced. Its average breadth may be estimated 
from 12 to 15 miles; widening out in some places to 20 miles, which will 
include its extreme westerly outliers on the hills, to its easterly dip, or 
disappearance below the beds of the rivers and creeks. 

In travelling westerly from the mouth of the Muskingum river, we 
first meet with this rock on the west side of Alexander township, in 
Athens county. It is here seen in the left bank of Margaret's creek, just 
below Mr. Toppin's mill, about seven miles in a south west direction from 
the town of Athens. The deposit is six feet in thickness, where it ap- 
pears to view, but is probably thicker, if it were uncovered. It lies in 
layers or beds of from six to ten inches in thickness. The color of the 
rock is dark grey, and holds a large share of lime in its composition, as 
is the fact at many other localities farther west. When removed from the 
quarry, as it frequently is, by the inhabitants of the vicinity, from other 
beds besides this, for underpinning their houses, laying cellar walls, &c. 
it is often found ready split to their hands, in parallelograms and prismatic 
pieces, with smooth, plane faces, suitable for "window sills and caps, or 
building up in a wall wi'hout any additional dressing, except to square 
occasionally a rough extremity. The same deposit is exposed in the beds 
of the streams for several miles west, in the township of Lee. At this 
locality, a bed of loose sand-stone lies over the calcareo-silicious rock, and 
a dark shaly stone beneath it. At some localities further west, a bed of 
coal is found a few feet below; and still further west, it rests immediately 
on the coal. The rock at Toppin's mill contains the characteristic fossils 
peculiar to this deposit, such as encrini.producti, spiriferi, terebratulffl,&c. 
In travelling westerly, in Lee and Brown townships, loose and broken 
fragments of the rock are discovered in the beds of runs, and occasion- 
ally it is seen to crop out in places on the sides and points of hills. On 
section No. 16, in Lee, near the house of Judge Warner, it crops out by 
the side of the road, where the water from a spring has laid it bare. Here 
it is 8 feet in thickness, lying in regular strata of 8 or 10 inches. It con 
tains a considerable portion of lime in some of the upper layers, while 
the lower are nearly pure quartz and horn-stone. The color is various, 
from brown to black, green, blue and horn color. The cross fracture is 
conchoidal, while the division by stratification is into plane surfaces. The 
lower bed, where it approaches the coal, is nearly black. Near the top of 
the bed some portions assume that open cellular structure which renders 
it so valuable a material in the manufacture of mill-stones. This pecu- 
liar feature in its character, however, so far as 1 have observed, is chiefly 
confined to that portion of the deposit which lies within a few miles ot 
its western limits. West of Lee, in the northern part of Brown town- 
ship, the calcareo-silicious rock crops out at a gap in a high ridge, and 
large fragments of the compact quartz are scattered over the surface. 



30 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Where it appears in the heads of branches, it has not assumed the texture 
of buhr-stone. It is, however, so seldom seen in large beds until it 
reaches Elk township, that it is difficult to decide on what may be its true 
character, until quarries are opened extensively. In the south west cor- 
ner of Brown, are some beds of" buhr-stone that appear to be equal in quali- 
ty to those farther west. In Elk, which is 24 miles south westerly from 
the town of Athens, many valuable quarries of mill-stone rock are open- 
ed; some of them have been worked since the year 1807. 

In Richland township, Jackson county, the buhr-stone is found 8 miles 
west of McArthurstown. It appears to terminate on the west side of 
this township, on the tops of the hills, and has been the uppermost stratum 
for several miles east of this point. Here it assumes a different texture. 
The quartzy portion has evidently been broken into fragments, which 
have the appearance of being water-worn like pebbles on a beach, and 
afterwards cemented by sand and iron similar to a conglomerate or pud- 
ding-stone. 

This locality is near Mr. Redfearn's, on an easterly branch of the mid- 
dle fork of Salt creek. Near the western termination of the calcareo- 
silicious deposits, the coal which lies a number of feet below it in Lee, 
has approached to within a foot or two, and in some localities, is di- 
rectly under it. The coarse sand-rock over it is, in some places, entire- 
ly wasted away, or run out, while in others it has crumbled into a bed of 
sand. The buhr-stone is seen in nearly all the hill sides for many miles 
from below the elevation, where it is in situ, to near the bottoms of the 
hills, having gradually slidden down with the earth in the course of ages; 
and being of an imperishable quality, it remains, while other rocks are 
decomposed and washed away. To the north west of Richland, this de- 
posit is traced on to the heads of the Raccoon creek and the Honey fork 
of Queer creek, in Hocking county, while to the south it continues on in 
rich beds of buhr-stone for 12 or 14 miles in length, by 6 or 8 in breadth. 
On the east side of Jackson county, in the townships of Milton and Bloom- 
field, the calcareo-silicious rock is found dipping gradually down to the 
base of the hills; and near the middle of Wilkes township, in Gallia coun 
ty, by the bridge which crosses Raccoon creek, it lies only a few feet above 
the bed of the stream. This locality is 4 miles west of the village of 
Wilkesville. To the east of this line, it appears no more above the wa-ter 
courses. The hills rise over it, and the bed of no stream east has been 
cut to a sufficient depth in the superincumbent strata to bring it to light, 
but it is passed at very considerable depths on Leading creek and Chicka- 
moga, in boring for salt water. South of this place, the out crop of this 
deposit takes a more south-westerly direction, while the course for 12 or 
15 miles north of this, has been very nearly north and south. Still pur- 
suing a south westerly line, it crosses the westerly extremity of Gallia 
county, and is found in abundance on the head of Symmes creek, in Law- 
rence, and from thence to the Ohio river. In tracing the line of bearing 
in a north easterly direction from Jackson county, we find this rock crop- 
ping out on the hills on the eastern side of Hocking county, and the cor- 
ner of Athens, in York township. In the latter township, it is quite 
silicious in its character, and were it more cellular, is sufficiently hard for 
mill-stones. It is regularly stratified in a bed of 8 or 9 feet in thickness, 
on sections 9 and 14, in town 12 ; range 16. The same coarse sand-rock 
lies over it, as in Jackson county. The farthest west where the quartz 
was seen in Hocking county, is in range 16, town 12, section 4, in Swan 
township. North of this, it is found only in detached fragments lying on 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 31 

the tops of the ridges, which can only be explained from the preponder- 
ance of lime in its composition over this region, which, having decompos- 
ed in the course of ages, has left but few relics of its existence as a regu- 
lar deposit. The same remarks may be applied to the country on the 
east side of the Hockhocking river, where detached fragments only can 
be found until we reach the north east corner of 3-reen township. Here, 
and in Monday creek township, it is occasionally seen in place near the 
tops of the hills, and in fragments amongst the debris in the beds of the 
streams. As we progress northerly in Perry county, it becomes more 
abundant; and at Lexington, in Pike township, the calcareo-silicious rock 
is seen in continuous masses, lying on a level with the present alluvions 
of Ilush creek. It is here nearly pure quartz, and has not wasted away 
by the action of the elements, being in a manner imperishable. This en- 
during quality has enabled it to maintain its present position, while the 
softer, underlying rocks have disappeared, by the wearing action of the 
stream. It is so compact and silicious as to have attracted the notice of 
the aborigines, who have manufactured it largely into arrow heads, if we 
may be allowed to judge from the numerous circular excavations which 
have been made in mining the rock, and the piles of chipped quartz lying 
on the surface. From thence northerly, it may be traced across the length 
of the county, bearing north easterly into the corners of Licking and 
Muskingum counties. Here it lies on the tops of the hills for many miles 
in extent, forming what is called "Flint Ridge," a locality well known to 
that region of country. In the twO townships of Hopewell, it lies on the 
surface in extensive masses, and has been an object of peculiar interest, 
both to the aboriginal and present inhabitants of the country. To the for- 
mer, from the most remote periods, it has furnished a valuable material 
for the manufacture of knives, spear and arrow heads. How extensive- 
ly it has been, worked for these purposes, may be imagined from the count 
less number of excavations and pits yet remaining, from whence they 
dug the quartz; experience having taught them that the rock recently 
dug from the earth, could be split with much more freedom than that 
which had lain exposed to the weather. These excavations are found 
the whole length of its out crop, from Jackson to Muskingum, but the 
most abundantly on "Flint Ridge," from- its furnishing a more com 
pact quartz, and greatly diversified with rich colors. To the present in- 
habitants it is valuable as furnishing a fine article for mill-stones, as will 
be more especially noticed in the remarks on that subject. 

The buhr-stone in Muskingum county, assumes a different aspect from 
that in Jackson. The color is lighter, and the cells differently formed. 
Instead of open fissures, the portions selected for mill-stones, are filled 
with small, tortuous, vermicular passages, about the sixteenth of an inch 
in diameter, which, to the naked eye, appear to have been formed by an 
aquatic worm traversing the mass while in a soft and plastic state, but 
which, on a more minute examination with a microscope, prove to be 
the matrices or cells of a small, fusiform, univalve shell, of a genus very 
similar to rostellaria, but whose species is not yet determined^. These, 
with "occasional small joints of encrini, make up the great mass of 
minute cells which cover the face of afresh broken fragment of the burr- 
stone. Occasional specimens of terebratulee, spiriferi, producti, &c. are 
seen in the silicious portions of the rock, but they are comparatively rare 
when contrasted with the calcareous districts in this deposit, where they 
found more congenial beds, and the rock is now literally filled with their 
remains. The deposit here is from 8 to 9 feet in thickness. From Hope- 



32 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

well to the mouth of Licking, a distance of 10 or 11 miles, the dip o{ the 
strata south easterly is very small, not more than 10 feet to the mile. 
Near the top of Putnam hill, at the mouth of Licking, we find a grey, 
shelly lime-rock in a state of decay, containing the same fossil shells 
which accompany the calcareo-silicious rock in all the localities I have 
visited. Between this locality and Hopewell, no indication of this rock 
is seen in place, but fragments are found in the ploughed fields, and oc- 
casionally a piece on "Putnam hill;" from which circumstance we are 
led to conclude that this deposit has been decomposed and changed to 
soil, from the fact of its containing so large a proportien of lime In its 
composition. 

Proceeding southerly along the waters of Moxahala creek, and parallel 
with the Muskingum river, we find it lying high in the hills, and espe- 
cially in Brush creek township, near the south west corner of Muskingum 
county. Here it assumes a yellowish color and softer texture, resembling 
a fine grained, buff colored lime-stone. It contains the usual fossils, 
amongst which terebratulse are the most abundant. A short distance 
south, near the north line of York township, in Morgan county, it is seen 
in place, lying in regular successive strata, and forming a bed of 8 or 9 
feet in thickness. From this place, which is about 2 miles north of Dea- 
vertown, it can be traced down the waters of Island run, and Oil run, 
to the Muskingum river, and to a point two miles above M'Connelsville, 
where it lies on a level with the surface of the water during its low 
stages. At M'Connelsville, this rock is passed in boring for salt water at 
the depth of 110 feet below the bed of the river, and is found to be a 
valuable and certain guide to all the borings below this point. The lower 
or main salt rock is reached at the depth of about 650 feet below the cal- 
careo-silicious rock, with little variation for the distance of 10 or 12 miles 
below, or as far as any wells have been sunk; which is a proof that the 
intermediate strata vary but little in their aggregate, if they do in their 
individual thickness. The dip of the strata in this vicinity is much 
greater than I have noticed at any other place. At Campbell's mills, two 
miles from the Muskingum river, on Island run, this rock forms the bed 
of the stream, in a smooth regular floor, over which the water falls 15 feet, 
having cut away the dark bituminous shale which lies under the rock 
five or six feet in depth. The deposit here is a true calcareo-silicious rock, 
considerable portions of which are nearly pure limestone. It breaks into 
irregular conchoidal fragments with a dull lustre, and contains the usual 
fossil shells. In the bed of "Oil run," two miles south of Campbell's, so 
named from a spring of petroleum, found about a mile from its mouth, 
this rock has a very rough, irregular surface, probably occasioned by the 
wasting and dissolving of the calcareous portions of the deposit, while 
the harder quartz remains unaffected. From Deavertown to Campbell's, 
a distance of about 8 miles, there is a dip of 250 feet, and to the river, 
about 50 feet more. The hills are so high as to contain the 5th, or non- 
fossiliferous lime rock, of Wolf creek, at 50 feet below their summits. 
The 4th fossiliferous lime-rock lies at about 100 feet below it, and at least 
100 feet above the calcareo-silicious rock at Campbell's mills. In this 
portion of the coal measures, there is a great increase in the thickness of 
the strata, superimposed on this rock. At M'Connelsville, it is not less 
than 400 feet from this deposit to the tops of the hills, half a mile west of 
the river. At Dr. Martin's, 5 miles above, the 5th, or non-fossiliferous 
lime-stone, with the accompanying marls, is increased to nearly 100 feet 
in thickness. Four miles west of M'Connelsville, the calcareo-silicious 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 33 

foek is seen in the beds of the head branches of Wolf creek, and may be 
traced south westerly from the bed of one- stream to another, at intervals 
along its eastern side, from this place to Gallia county. Along this line, 
however, it has more the appearance of an imperfect lime-stone than that 
of a silicious rock. 

Value and importance of the Buhr-stone. 

The importance of this article in. a commercial and domestic point of 
view, niay in some measure be estimated, when it is stated, by intelligent 
persons who have been long engaged in the manufacture of mill-stones, 
that the annual amount of the manufactured article is not less than 
20,000 dollars; and that it may be safely calculated at this sum, for twen- 
ty years past. When to this, is added, the money saved to mill owners, 
from the use of the native, instead of the foreign buhr-stone, that amount 
will be nearly doubled. It came into use about, the year 1807; and tha 
first pair of stones constructed of this article, on the waters of Raccoon, 
was by Abraham Neisby, a native of Germany. He being familiar with 
the foreign, or French buhr, and seeing this rock so nearly resemble that 
in composition and aspect, was led to make trial of it. Henry Castle, 
also began to make them about the same time. Soon after this, our em- 
barrassments with Great Britain, and other commercial difficulties, led the 
American people to establish manufactories of various articles, hereto- 
fore altogether brought from Europe. Amongst other things, the en- 
hanced value of the French buhr, led to the search of a material of a simi > 
lar quality at home, and no doubt brought the domestic article much, 
sooner into general use in the Western States, and especially in Ohio. 
The early manufactured mill-stones were made of a single-piece; but 
these often proving to be of unequal density, and not making good flour, 
were abandoned, and staves constructed of separate blocks, cemented, 
with plaster, and confined together with iron bands. Where these blocks 
are selected with care, by an experienced workman, the flour is said to 
be equal in quality to that made by the French stones. 

From the year 1814 to 1820, the price of a pair of 4i feet stones was 
$35.0, and a pair of 7 feet, sold for $500; while the foreign article sold 
for a still higher sum. The 4 feet stones now sell for $150. In the 
townships of Eichland, Elk and Clinton, a large number of the inhabi- 
tants are engaged in the dressing of blocks, and in the construction of 
mill-stones. The buhr-rock is a mine of wealth to the inhabitants, and 
has contributed largely to the prosperity and independence of this whole 
region of country. The manufacture of mill-stones is not confined to the 
waters of Raccoon, but is also carried on to considerable extent in Hope- 
well township, Muskingum county. The quantity, is apparently inex- 
haustible, and new quarries will be opened, at points where it is not at 
present looked for, and probably of a more even and compact texture 
than that now obtained. Few or no quarries have been yet worked .by 
drifting under "the sides of the hills, but the rock is generally procured by 
what is technically called '"stripping," or excavating the superincumbent 
earth, near the top of some ridge or hill, where it is easy of access. 

Quality and character of the Buhr-stone. 

The characteristic excellence of the best. mill-slone rock consists in its 
uniform texture; composed of pure quartz; free from lime and oxyde of 
iron, which more or less pervade the larger portion of the deposit; color 
5— Doc. No. 26. 



34 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

light grey; structure open and full of cells; the fragments giving a clear 
metalic sound, when struck with the hammer. How far this agrees in 
character with the French buhr, will be presently shown. Although an 
intensely hard rock, yet its structure is similar to that of all other stratified 
rocks; and it has a regular horizontal division, as well as cross fracture. 
The bed, or horizontal surface, is the one which contains the most cells, 
and is selected for the face of the mill-stone. In nearly all the quarries, the 
rock is found naturally broken into rectangular masses of various dimen- 
sions. As the larger portion of the quarries contains more or less of petri- 
fied shells, those the most free of foreign matters, are considered the best. 
While the fossils in the French rocks are all of fresh water species, those 
in the Raccoon buhrs are altogether of marine origin; and as this deposit 
is a member of the coal series, it is a much older rock than the French, 
which belongs to the tertiary group'. 

In the composition and chemical affinities of the Raccoon deposits, 
there is a. close resemblance to those of the Paris basin, as they both 
abound in calcareous materials, as well as silicious. In several of the Rac- 
coon beds, there is a stratum of lime-stone, two or more feet in thickness, 
both above and below the buhr-stone. In such quarries, the portion suit- 
able for mill-stones is only from two to four feet in thickness. In others, 
the quartzy portion is below, and the silicious lime-stone above. The 
greatest thickness of the deposit in any one bed, is nine feet. In how 
many points of character the Paris and the Raccoon beds agree, may be 
Been in the following extracts from "Cuvier's Essay on the Theory of the 
Earth." 

"Millstone without shells." 

"This formation consists of iron shot clayey sand, greenish, reddish and 
Whitish clay marl, and millstone; and although separated by Cuvier from 
the Jlint and silicious limestone formation, appears to be a member of that 
series. This millstone is a quartz, containing a multitude of irregular 
cavities, which are traversed by silicious fibres, disposed somewhat like 
the reticular texture in bones. These cavities are sometimes lined or 
filled with red ochre; clay marl, or clayey sand; and they have no com- 
munication with each other. Most of the millstone found around Paris 
has a red or yellowish tint ; but the rarer and most esteemed varieties 
have a blueish shade of color. The blueish variety is the most highly 
prized, because it affords a whitish flour ; and a millstone of this kind, 
six feet and a half in diameter, sells for 1200 francs. We never observe 
in its cavities any silicious stalactites, or crystalline quartz,- and this char- 
acter enables us to distinguish in hand specimens, this millstone from 
that in the silicious limestone : it is sometimes compact, or without cells. 
Another prognostic character of the millstone, is the absence of all fossil, 
animal, or vegetable productions, whether of fresh or salt water." "The 
most extensive mass of this millstone occurs in the plateau, which ex- 
tends from La Ferte on the Marne, 16 leagues from Paris, nearly to Mont 
Miral; and here it has been quarried upwards of 400 years, for the excel- 
lent millstone it affords. The lower part of the platteau is marine limestone; 
the upper part, on the edges and towards the Marne, of marl and gyp- 
sum ; but in the middle is an iron shot and clayey sand, which forms a 
bed upwards of sixty feet thick. The millstone occurs in this great bed 
of sand, and varies in thickness from three to five fathoms; but millstones 
cannot be made of every portion of the mass — a bed of rolled masses of 
millstone, about a foot and a half thick, lies over it— over this a thin bed 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 35 

of iron shot sand, containing smaller pieces of millstone, and above this 
bed is one of sand from twelve to seventeen yards thick. If the »tone 
rings when struck with a hammer, it will answer for large millstones. 
The bed never affords more than three millstones in the direction of its 
thickness. It frequently happens that the fissures allow the workmen to 
extract the masses in a perpendicular direction ; and these are the best. 
These pieces are exported from France to England and America. 

" Quartz rock with shells." 

"The second fresh water formation in the vicinity of Paris, consists of 
two sorts of stone — flint and silicious limestone. These substances 
sometimes occur independent of each other ; in other instances,' they are 
intimately mixed together." "All the varieties, both hard and soft, are 
traversed by empty vermicular cavities, whose walls are sometimes o*f a 
pale green color." "The essential character of this formation is, that it 
contains fresh water and land shells, nearly all of which belong to genera 
that now live in our morasses, but no marine shells — at least in such places 
as are distant from the subjacent marine formation." 

From the above extracts it would seem that the Raccoon and Paris 
buhr stone, agree in mineral composition and mineral characters, but 
differ in the age of the deposits. Of course, they cannot be said to be 
geologically similar rocks; although the same chemical action may hav® 
attended their deposition, and. origin. 

Mineral contents. 

No mineral substances have yet been found associated with the quart* 
of this deposit, except sulphate of barytes, crystallized carbonate of lims 
and crystals of quartz. The first is rare, the second not abundant, but 
the latter is found in brilliant druses, with regular faces, in some portions 
of the deposit, especially in Hopewell, Muskingum county. Some of 
these are very beautiful, and afford fine specimens for the cabinet, being 
occasionally tinged red or brown by some metallic oxyde. The striking 
similarity between these crystals and those about the lead mines of Mis- 
souri, has led to some expensive but fruitless searches for lead and copper 
ores; the excavations made by the aborigines hiving served to strengthen 
this belief. I have seen no other metallic minerals but those of iron, 
which probably percolates from the bed of ore which rests on the calca- 
reo-silicious deposit. On the heads of Monday- Creek in the N. E. cor- 
ner of Green township the quartz and lime have been precipitated from 
the liquid which held them in solu ion, in a fine white powder, and 
afterwards loosely cemented. Selected portions of this rock make valua- 
ble hone-stones, and have been extensively wrought for this purpose. 

1. — General character and agricultural capacity of the calcareo-silicious 

region. 

As a general remark, the country is hilly, but the deposit of this rock 
is of so little thickness, and its inclination so gradual, that it can have but 
a trifling influence in modifying the face of the region over which it is 
spread; where' it crops out on the tops of the hills and lies in broad con- 
tinuous shells of. quartz, it has doubtless had some effect in preserving 
the deposits beneath it from wasting away, and thus kept the surface of 
the hills, or ridges over which it lies, at their original elevation. This is 



36 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

apparently the fact on "Flint Ridge," which ia the most elevated tract in 
that region of country. Between the head waters of Salt creek and 
Raccoon creek, in Richland township, the same protection seems to have 
been given, and the ground is covered with horn-stone. But in those 
portions of the de'posit where lime prevailed, this rock has decomposed; 
and wasting away, has mingled with those above and below it, forming a 
rich loamy soil. In an agricultural point of. view, the country traversed 
by this deposit is equal in fertility to any of the hilly portions of the coal 
measures. The forest trees are of the largest size, especially the yellow 
poplar and chesnut; and the soil productive of all the crops common to 
this climate. Average thickness, 9 feet. 

2. — Iron ore — silicious qualify. 

Resting on the calcareo-silicious rock, lies a thin bed of brown silicious 
oxyde of iron — texture porous, and filled with cavities, many of which 
are lined with mammillary masses of iron ore. As this deposit rests 
immediately on the silicious rock, it imparts to it the ferruginous matter 
so injurious to the color and quality of the stone. This, so far as I 
have observed, appears to be a regular and constant attendant on the 
Raccoon buhr stone, and is found scattered over the tops and hill sides of 
this region, where the rock has been wasted away; its silicious and fer- 
ruginous qualities, protecting it from decay. Its structure and external 
character are so peculiar that when once seen, it can hardly fail to be 
again recognized, and will serve as a guide in tracing the former course 
of the buhr stone.. in spaces where it is now wasted away. Thickness, 
6 to 8 inches. 

3. — Sand rock. 

Above the iron ore js. found a thick bed of sandstone; it is rather coarse 
grained, chiefly silicious, but little mica, of a brown color and loose tex- 
ture, easily crumbling into sand on exposure to the elements, and is the 
grand source from which is furnished the immense masses of sand which 
fill the beds of the Raccoon and its tributary branches. A fine view of 
its superposition on the Buhrstone may be had at a locality on section 26 
in Elk township, called the "wild cat's den." It here crowns the top of 
the hill, affording an extensive view of the alluvions of the creek. On 
the Muskingum river this rock assumes a more slaty argillaceous charac- 
ter; but in Hocking and Perry counties it maintains its. sandy texture. 
Its thickness may be estimated at 20 feet. 

4. — Shale andslaty clay. 

Over the sand rock is a deposit of slaty clay, of a light ash color — whf>n 
exposed to the weather, or lying near the surface of the earth on hill 
tops, it changes into a bed of light colored clay. This is the fact at Hope- 
well, on Flint ridge, where it affords a material suitable for pottery, or 
* the large crucibles used in glass furnaces. A similar clay is found a few 
miles west of Zanesville, near the hill tops, and applied to this use by the 
manufacturers of glass in that place. At Dr. Martin's, on the Muskin- 
gum river, we have a fair view of'this deposit; but the shale is darker 
colored. At this locality, it may be estimated at fifteen feet. Only the 
lower portion of the deposit is composed of the fine fire clay, the upper 
and middle. parts, being more sandy and micaceous, are fifteen feet. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 37 

5.— Coal. 

Resting on the micaceous and slaty shale lies a deposit of slaty bitumi- 
nous coal. The quality is rather poor: it burns with'a ready flame when 
first ignited, but soon melts and runs together, obstructing the grates 
and the circulation of the air. The color is lighter, and specific gravity 
less, than common coal. A similar coal is found in the tops of the highest 
hills about Zanesville, nearly three feet in thickness. At Dr. Martin's, 
five miles above M'Connelsville, it is about twenty inches in thickness. 
At this place we have a good view of all the strata between the calcareo- 
silicious rock, and the fourth fossiliferpus limestone; and the thickness ol 
each is estimated from this locality, with reference, however, to such 
other as have come under my notice. The thickness of all the beds vary 
at different places, especially if they are distant from each other. The 
coal of this bed may be estimated at two feet. 

6. — Shale and argillaceous slaly sandstone. 

Over the coal is a bed of bituminous and slaty shale, containing nodular 
masses of argillaceous iron ore, of about ten feet in thickness; on this 
rests a bed of slaty sandstone, in layers of only a few inches in thickness. 
This stone is remarkable for its smooth beautiful bed facBS, and regular 
thickness; it can be quarried into large flags for paving side walks, or 
laying the floors of cellars or kitchen hearths. This portion of the de- 
posit is about fifteen feet in thickness. 

7.— Coal. 

Resting on the sandstone is a thin bed of clay, on which lies a deposit 
of coal. The quality is tolerably good. The same bed is seen in the river 
hills above here; below, it soon sinks under the bed of the Muskingum. 
Thickness, 2 feet. 

8. — Shale and slate clay . 

Over the coal lies a deposit of bituminous shale aud slate clay. In this 
member of the series, no iron ore was observed. Thickness, ten feet. 

9. — Compact sand rock. 

Over the shale lies a thick deposit of compact sand stone. The texture 
is rather coarse and silicious where it has tumbled out of the hill side, by 
the undermining action of the "water of a small branch which puts' into 
the Muskingum, not far from the outlet of Island run, it lies in large 
masses. At this spot I did not observe any stems or coats of fossil coal 
plants; but in Gallia, a little east of the village of Vinton, a rock, whose 
geological position and structure is similar, contains fine casts of "calam ? 
ites cannoformis and other coal plants." Thickness, 25 feet. 

10. — Slaly s'kale-. 

Over the sand rock we find a thick depodt of shale and slate clay, on 
which is a thin bed of coal, of only a few inches; at this locality the coal 
has given a dark tinge to the lower layer of limestone, which rests upon 
it. The same effect is seen on the lime rock, in the hill near the town of 
Vinton, in Qallia county. This heavy bed of shale, with the sand rock 



38 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

above, and lime below where it crops out on the surface, and they be- 
come mingled together, forms a rich and durable soil. Thickness, about 
30 feet. 

1 1 . — Lime rock. 

Resting on the shale, which in some places approaches a blue argilla- 
ceous sand stone, we find the upper fossiliferous limestone. At this 
locality, in Bloom township, it lies at an elevation of 100 feet above the 
base of the hills, while at M'Connelsville, five miles below, it is found in 
the bed of the river, and has-been recently penetrated in excavating the 
lock-pit at that place. From Bloom tbwnship, it can be traced on "to the 
hills north and west of here, especially in the dividing ridges of Sunday 
and Moxahala creeks. It lies in regular beds or layers, of eight or ten 
inches to more than a foot in thickness. In some places, especially on 
Sharp's fork of Federal creek, in range 12, township 8, section 31, these 
layers are separated by deposits of calcareous shale, increasing the thick- 
ness of the deposit to 12 or 15 feet. In other localities the shale is wast- 
ing, or has been wasted away by the action of water; and the lime rock 
is reduced to 6 or 8 feet in thickness. It is every where filled with fos- 
sil shells, in some instances so abundant as to form the greater portion of 
the rock, cemented together by argillaceous, matter. For this reason, t,his 
deposit may be known and recognized at remote and distant points of 
the coal measures, which it is much more difficult to do with the non- 
fossiliferous shales and sandstones. This character makes such beds 
valuable to the geologist, in locating other deposits, either superimposed 
or subordinate to these strongly marked beds. Amongst the fossils of this 
deposit we see joints of encrini and terebratulee, generally very small; 
producti, gryphea, and few or no spirii'eri. In place of which we find 
many equivalved bivalves, and several new~genera of turbinated uni- 
valves, not found in the lower or older limestones. In some localities, 
especially near the outer margin of this rock, the lower layer of the de- 
posit is made up of fragments of limestone, forming a calcareous con- 
glomerate. It may be seen on a hill three miles south of Athens; also, 
in Morgan township, in Gallia; and I have seen the same peculiar rock 
on Wills' creek, in the southwest corner of Guernsey county. It seems, 
to have been broken up by the action of water, as a recently formed rock 
might be by the waves on a beach, and has apparently been brought about 
by a similar cause to that which acted on the silicious conglomerate, in 
Richland township, and afterwards covered by a fresh deposit made in 
quiet water. These fragments are in some places not larger than" a pea, 
in others coarser; but all have been rounded by attrition — were, it suf- 
ficiently hard to receive and retain a polish, some portions would make 
a handsome brecciated marble; but this quality it lacks from the forma- 
tion being sedimentary and earthy. Soon after the era of this deposit, 
a change seems to have taken place Jn this part of the ocean, either from 
the raising up of the bottom, or from the draining, off of the waters, ren- 
dering it too shallow for the existence of the testaceous animals which 
then peopled it. In the series of rocks above this, amounting -to more 
than 400 feet, I have as yet been unable to find any other than fresh 
water shells or the stems and impressions of the foliage of coal plants, 
which probably grew either near estuaries, or amidst fresh water lakes. 
Further examinations will, however, most probably bring to light, addi- 
tional evidence of "the longer continuance of the oceanic waters over 
this portion of the valley. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 39 

Range and extent. 

The upper fossili-ferous lime-rock is at this place, (Sharp's fork of Fed- 
eral creek,) fifteen feet in thickness, and lies about 80 or 100 feet below 
a bed of coal, which I have many reasons for believing to be the same de- 
posit as the Pomeroy bed, on the Ohio river, in Meigs county. The posi- 
tion of the limestone is conformable to that of the superincumbent beds, 
and as we travel westerly, rises gradually on to the tops of the ridges of 
Sunday creek hills. The same rock is seen on the hill in the town of 
Athens, and at various other places, west and south of. that locality. 

From Athens county, this deposit may be traced across the west end of 
Meigs county, into Gallia. Here, in the township. of Morgan, It is seen 
in the heads of Campaign creek, lying in a thiek b«d, filled with the usual 
fossils. The inferior layer, from its resting on coal, is nearly black. From 
the heads of Campaign, it is traced into Springfield, and down Chicka- 
moga. creek, to within a few miles of Gallipolis, When it sinks below the 
bed of the creek. At the mouth of Lime-stone run, eight miles north of 
this, it lies at. the base of the hills. Several kilns of this lime-stone have 
been burnt here, and on Chickamoga. On Leading creek, still further 
north, in Meigs county, it sinks below the bed of the stream, near the up- 
per salt well. As the dip of the strata is east south east, and the river 
Ohio here, for many miles, pursues nearly a north and south course, the 
seeming difficulty of its disappearance near the Ohio for so long a dis- 
tance, is explained, as the direction of the Ohio is in the line of bearing 
and across the line of dip. 

The upper fossiliferous lime-rock, can be traced across the counties of 
Morgan, Athens, Meigs, and a part of Gallia, with an - average width of 
10 or 15 miles from its western outcrop, to its disappearance below the 
beds of the streams east. The average thickness of this deposit may be 
estimated at 8 feet. 

No. 12. — Slate Clay, Shales, and thin slaty Sand-rock. 

In situations where the original strata have been but little disturbed, 
We find a bed of pale blue slate clay, resting on the lime-stone, which, 
when exposed to the weather, falls into a blue plastic clay. Above this is a 
shale, containing nodular masses of argillaceous iron ore, ending in slaty 
sand-stone. A fine view of this portion of the series may be obtained 
on Sharp's and Cutler's forks of Federal creek, in the township of Ames, 
Athens county. , Considerable quantities of iron ore are imbedded in this 
shale, which makes its appearance at several places in Meigs and Gallia 
counties. It is also well developed in the hills near Dr. Martin's, in 
Morgan county. At some localities, the ore is apparently so abundant as 
to be valuable for manufacturing purposes, especially on Federal creek. 
The whole series of slates and shales are at least eighty feet in thickness. 

13. — Limestone, hard and compact — containing a portion of Iron Ore, and 
Sulphuret, sufficient to coat over the surface with a buff colored crust 
when exposed to the weather. 

This bed isTnore fully developed in Marion township, Athens county, 
on section 24, town 7, and range 12, than at any other spot which I ex- 
amined. This locality is near Mr. Patterson's, on one of the head branches 
of Federal creek. It is a regular attendant of the Pomeroy coal bed, 
which lies over it. In some places it is very thin, and lies in amorphous 



40 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

or nodular masses, disseminated in the compact, carbonaeeous slate clay 
which lies under the coal. No fossil shells were noticed. In Marion, 
this rock is 4 feet in thickness; in other places not more than a foot; aver- 
age 2 feet. 

14. — Slate Clay — compact and carbonaceous — dark colored. 

It is of a qualky suitable for the manufacture of fire bricks, and re- 
ceives its dark tinge from the coal which rests upon it. The thickness 
varies at different places, but averages about 3 feet. 

15. — Coal — black and bituminous. 

For distinction, and as a mark of respect to the enterprising individual 
who first promoted the opening and extensive working of this valuable 
bed, at the village of Pomeroy, on the Ohio river, in Meigs county; this, 
deposit may be denominated "the Pomeroy coal bed." 

Range and extent. 

It may be traced from the south side of Morgan county, across Athens 
and Meigs, to the Ohio river. North of the head of -Federal creek, the 
coal becomes thin, but can probably be followed and recognized to the 
vicinity of M'Connelsville. It is the most fully developed on the waters of 
Federal creek, the westerly branches of Shade river, on Leading creek, and 
on the Ohio river; pursuing in the line of its Bearing, or "strike," rather 
a north easterly and south westerly course, with a pretty regular dip to 
the east and south east, except in the high lands a little south of the town 
of Athens, where the sand-rocks are greatly increased in" thickness, and 
the regularity of the dip broken in upon, either from faults, or some up- 
heaving force from below. From present appearances, this high ground 
has diverted the course of the Hockhocking river, and turned it easterly 
from its direct route to the Ohio. The head branches of Shade river take 
their rise in this elevated ridgs, and flow south easterly to join the Ohio 
about 12 miles below the mouth of the Hockhocking, in a very broken 
and hilly region. If we look on the map of this State, it will be seen 
that all the streams which rise within, or across the western side of the 
coal measures take a south easterly direction, which, it may be suggest- 
ed, is probably caused by the east and south easterly dip of the rock strata. 
The Ohio river, after receiving the accumulated waters of the whole basin, 
flows south westerly in the most depressed portion of the coal measures, 
cutting its channel across the strata, where it found the least resistance. 

From the extensive boundary of "the Pomeroy coal bed," on both banks 
of the Ohio river, giving it commanding and peculiar facilities for market, 
it may be deemed one of the most important beds on the west side of the 
coal deposits. For these reasons, it. will demand a more particular history 
of its extent and appearance at different localities. 

Commencing, then, in Addison township, a little below the mouth of 
Kuyger creek, in Gallia county, we find a bed of coal near the top of the 
river hill, at an elevation of 150 feet above the bed of the Ohio. This 
spot is about 14 miles below the point where the Pomeroy coal dips under 
the surface of the river, in Salisbury township, Meigs county, and is also 
about seven longitudinal miles west. The coal here is about eighteen 
inches thick, with a roof of bituminous shale of three feet, and a coarse 



t Doc. No. 26. ] 41 

Sand-rock above. Five miles above Kuyger, the same coal bed is seen in 
the hills at the height of 70 feet above the bottoms, and has increased to 
four feet in thickness. At this locality, several masses of the lime-stone, 
which lies under the coal, are seen scattered on the slope of the hill below. 
At the mouth of Leading creek, two or three miles higher up the river, 
the thickness has increased to nearly 5 feet, and the elevation* lessened 
to about 40 feet above the bottoms. Three or four miles above this, at the 
village of Pomeroy, the river makes a bend to the south east, and the coal 
in its eastern dip, gradually approaches the water and sinks below the 
surface in range 13, town 2, and section 35, at a point a little north of 
due east from the mouth of Leading creek, and distant, on a westerly 
line, only about 5 miles, but as much as eighty by the course of the river, 
where it disappears, and for several miles below, the coal is fully 5 feet 
in thickness. Following the same bed over on to Leading creek, 7 miles 
from its mouth, in a north westerly direction from Pomeroy, we there 
find the coal at an elevation of 150 feet above the bed of the creek, and 
increased in thickness to fully 6 feet; showing the regular rise of the 
rock strata, in a west and south west direction, and a dip lo the east. 
The sand rock here rests on the coal, without any intermediate shale, 
which may account for its greater thickness than at the village of Pome-, 
roy, where there is a deposit of several feet of shale over the coal. In a 
west and north west direction, the coal may be traced on to the heads of 
Leading and Kuyger creeks, and runs out in Gallia and souih west part 
of Athens county, becoming gradually thinner, until it mingled with the 
soil on the surface. Returning to the mouth of Garr's run, and pursuing 
the course of the Pomeroy coal bed northerly, we find it in the bed of this 
run about a mile north of the village; and as we ascend on to the hills, 
we rise above the coal, which disappears under the ridge that divides the 
waters of Carr's run from those of Thomas's fork of Leading creek. On 
descending this ridge, the coal appears a little above the bed of the stream, 
on section 16, more than 3 miles from the river. It is here 5 feet in thick- 
ness, lying under the same coarse sand-rock, with a bed of shale above 
the coal. Still traveling northerly, we rise on to the dividing ridges be- 
tween the waters of Leading creek and Shade river; on descending 
which, two miles farther north, in range 13, town 3, and section 9, on 
the land of Mr. Barton, it is seen in the bed of the west branch of Shade. 
The coal here is 4 feet thick, resting on blue clay, with a thin bed of 
compact slate clay over the coal; lying on which is a deposite of bitumin- 
ous shale, six feet in thickness, and of so rich a quality as to burn freely. 
Above this, the coarse sand-rock is seen in a bed of 50 or more feet in 
thickness. In the clay over the coal, are a few scattered masses of nodu- 
lar lime-stone, highly charged with sulphuret of iron. The coal is here 
of a good quality, and breaks into acute angled fragments, similar to that 
in the Pomeroy beds on the- river. Near the north line of the county of 
Meigs, on the farm of Mr. Storer, the coal is seen lying in the bed of a 
branch, and about ten feet above it, there is a thin vein of coal, with 
elate and shale interposed between them, and similar masses of nodular 
lime-stone, to those seen at Barton's bed. Above them lies the accompa- 
nying bed of coarse, loose sand-stone in heavy masses. In traveling 
northerly, into Athens county, we leave the bed of the main stream of 
Shade, and pass over elevated ground for more than a mile, and descend 
on to Pratt's fork, a westerly tributary, in Lodi township. A mile or 
more west of the road, the coal is found increased in thickness, and grad- 
ually rising on to a higher level. From this point, it was traced across 

6— Doc. No. 26. 



42 [ Doc. No. 26. J 

Lodi township, into Canaan, to within 5 or6 miles of the town of Atheii*. 
Here the coarse eand-rock is greatly increased in thickness, and the coun- 
try rises into lofty ridges. This locality is on the west side of town 5, 
range 13, and also on the westerly side of ' the Pomeroy coal bed," the 
general range of bearing of which is north easterly, or east of north. The 
beds on the Ohio, are in the same range of townships, and distant in a di- 
rect line, about 18 miles. A little above the mouth of Federal creek, 
which is about ten miles from this place, and on a line somewhat north 
of a due east course, the coal is said to be 5 feet thick, and sinks below 
the bed of the stream. The dip is in that direction, and at 20 feet per 
mile, would give the coal at this locality an elevation of 200 feet above 
the bed of the Hockhdcking, at the mouth of that creek. It is here re- 
duced in thickness to between 3 and 4 feet. In the town of Athens, 4 
or 5 miles north west, we find the upper bed of fessiliferous lime-rock, 
lying on the top of a hill in the town of Athens, at an elevation of proba- 
bly 180 feet above the bed of the Hockhocking. Two miles south east 
of Athens, across the river, the country rises into a lofty ridge, at least 
300 feet above that stream. This very high ground has apparently turn- 
ed the course of the river and caused it to flow nearly due east to the 
mouth of Federal creek; below which its course is more southerly to the 
Ohio. From the point where the coal is last seen above the mouth of Fed- 
eral, it can be traced all the .way up the creek into Marion township, in 
range 12, and gradually rising from the bed of the creek, because the di 
rection pursued is north easterly. From the forks of this creek upward; 
1 have examined it at several points, and find the upper fossiliferous lime- 
rock lying about 80 or 100 feet below the coal, especially on section 24, in 
town 7, range 12. Here we find the coal and shales arranged in the fol- 
lowing order: Coal, 4 feet, resting on the compact slate clay; over it, a 
bed of ash colored, compact shale, 1 foot; bituminous shale, 18 inches, so 
rich as to burn; thin coal, 18 inches, on which rests acoarse grained sand- 
rock, very thick, and bearing a close resemblance to the order observed 
at Barton's, in Meigs county. East of this place, the coal dips below the 
beds of the streams, and is covered by the deposits which are to be sub- 
sequently named. On a line, this locality is north and a little east, more 
than 30 miles from the village of Pomeroy. The average width of "the 
Pomeroy coal bed," from its outcrop on the hills westerly, to its disappear- 
ance under the beds of the streams easterly, may be estimated at 10 or 12 
miles. Its average thickness, 6 feet. 

FossiU which accompany "the Pomeroy Coal bed." 

In the shale beds, which generally form the roof of this coal, we find 
innumerable casts and impressions of the foliage and stems of various 
coal plants, of which have been collected more than twenty species. — 
Amongst them may be recognized of the Equisetace.ee, the Catamites and E- 
quisetum — of Filices, the Sphenopieris, OlossopterisNeurop'eris, Pecopteris, 
Sec. The Lycopodiaceee, such as Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, &c. are rare 
in this deposit, but are common in the earlier formed beds. — The most 
interesting feature of the rocks connected with this coal, is the great 
abundance of fossilized stems and branches of trees, that are found to ac- 
company the coarse sand-rocks which lie over the coal, in several locali- 
ties which have been visited. So few quarries, or excavations, have been 
yet opened in this rock, that we can only discover them in beds of streams, 
or situations Where the rock has crumbled away by natural causes. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 43 

Fragments of fossilized trees are seen in several of the branches of Fed- 
eral creek; the beds of Campaign and Leading creek, but more abun- 
dantly in the heads of Shade river, township of Lodi, Athens county. 
The extreme northerly branch of this river, rises in that high ridge of 
land south of Athens, before noticed, and not more than a mile from the 
Hockhocking river. About 3 miles south, this branch becomes a rivulet 
of ten or twelve feet in width. In the bed of this rivulet, and also in 
one which heads with it, and puts into the Hockhocking, are found nu- 
merous tabular, oval masses of silicious composition. They are from 4 to 
10 inches in thickness, and from 2 to 3 feet in diameter, with others that 
are smaller. One of the sides is almost invariably concave, or depressed 
in the center, and the opposite one plane or slightly convex. They are 
evidently petrifactions of some vegetable substance, as the traces of the 
fibrous structure is very apparent in all the specimens. The form of 
these masses very much resembles that of the base of the Stigmaria Jlcoi- 
des, wfth the branches all broken off. They are composed of the hardest 
siliciofis matter, of a redish, grey color. Fragments were broken and 
brought away, and arrangements made for procuring a perfect specimen. 
Isolated masses are scattered along the bed of the branch for more than a 
mile, the bottom of which is composed of a slaty sand-rock, deposited in 
thin layers, highly inclined, and of slight coherence. No specimens were 
found in place, but they were doubtless originally imbedded in a coarse 
sand-rock, which lies over the coal. This opinion is strengthened by 
the fact that portions of the trunks and roots of the fossil trees found lower 
down the branch, are often ploughed up in the fields, on the hill sides, 
50 or 80 feet above the bed. A few miles lower down, and six and a half 
miles from Athens, the beds of several small streams, all tributaries of 
Shade, and rising over a space of 8 or 10 square miles of surface, are 
found strewed with the segments of trunks of fossil trees, varying in 
diameter from a few inches to 18 or 20 inches. The larger sections are 
generally perforated by a circular opening near the center, from 1 to 4 or 
5 inches in diameter. The regular shape of the pieces, resembling trans- 
verse sections of a log of wood, seems to be the result of a peculiar min- 
eral organization, disposing the fragments to assume a cubic form, had the 
exterior of the fossil been square instead of circular. The ligneous struc- 
ture of the original tree was coarse, very distinct, and highly vascular; 
it is now replaced by silex, in many specimens beautifully agatized. — 
Some of the pieces are filled with perforations, the size of a quill, and 
larger, which seem to have been made by a worm. This, most probably, 
was done by an ancient Teredo, after the trees were torn up, and floated 
down some river to the ocean. Fragments, three or four feet in length, 
are the longest yet discovered. The quantity of specimens is so great, 
that we might be led to suppose a whole forest had originally, been en- 
tomhed in this place, covered with beds of a highly silicious quality, and 
consolidated into sand-rock. These rocks being less dense and compact 
than the fossilized wood, have, in the cpurse of ages, crumbled into soil, and 
left the imbedded trees to fall out in fragments, and gradually wash down 
the slopes of the hills into the beds of the streams, where they are now 
found. As the age of this rock ia long anterior to the Tertiary, these fos- 
sil remains are not likely to be allied to any living species of tree which 
now vegetates in the forests of Ohio. It most probably belongs to the 
tribe of Gymnosperma, of Lindley ; a race of plants whose seeds are naked 
or formed without a pericarpium, or envelope. From the great vasculari- 
ty of the trunk, and the fact of the fragments being almost entirely com- 



44 [ Doc. No. 26: ] 

posed of the shafts of the trees, with few or no branches, we are led to 
conclude, they may be attached to the order Cycadea, the woody fibre of 
which is very similar in structure to the coniferae,or pine race, and which 
are only found in some of the more recent coal deposits. In the final re- 
port, we hope to give drawings of these interesting fossils, and satisfac- 
tory descriptions of the family to which they belong. 

16 — Tron Ore. 

Imbedded in the shale, which lies over the Pomeroycoal bed, atseverar 
localities, we find a deposit of fragmentary, argillaceous iron ore. It re- 
sembles bog ore, considerably, but is more compact and heavy than that 
variety of ore. It is generally coated over with yellow oxyde, and ap- 
pears to be composed of cemented fragments. It is considerably abund- 
ant at the locality in Marian township, and also on Sharps fork, in 
Bern and Homer townships, Athens county. The thickest and most val- 
uable bed of this variety of ore, and which, from it position, appears to be 
a continuation of the same deposit, lies near the top of the ridges, between 
the head branches of Kuyger and Campaign creeks, in the township of 
Cheshire, Gallia county, on sections No. 19, 20 and 25. It has as yet been 
but partially opened, and is about two feet in thickness. The ore is an 
argillaceous oxyde, breaking easily into cubic fragments, coated with yel- 
low ochre. Should further search prove the ore to be extensively spread 
over this region, and to be of good quality, its proximity to the Ohio river, 
not more than four miles, will add much to its value; a deposite of coarse 
sand-rock lies over the ore, which in many places has wasted away, 
leaving the bed covered only with earth, ; ore, 2 feet. 

17. — Sand Rock — coarse grained, friable Sand Stone. 

This rock restB upon the shale over the coal, and, in some localities, 
immediately on the coal itself; where this is the case, the sulphurets, 
which accompany the coal, seem to have penetrated the rock for some 
feet, covering the outer layers of sand with minute crystals of sulphate of 
iron, or alumine; and in shaded, damp situations, rendering the rock ten- 
der, and disposed to exfoliate in thin sheets from the vertical face of the 
cliff. This is strikingly the fact on section 24, township 7, and range 
12. In other situations, the rock is firmer and compact. "Wherever this 
rock has been noticed, it lies in thick heavy masses, especially on the 
heads' of Shade river, in Lodi, where it attains the thickness of 80 or 100 
feet; at other places, it is usually from 40 to 50 feet, especially between 
Lodi and the Ohio river. The upper part of this deposit might be divided 
into one or two more sections, especially a coarse-grained siliceous sand, 
without any mica, a layer of which, at the village of Pomeroy, has been 
worked into excellent drip, or filtering stones. At Dr. Martin's, on the 
Muskingum river, we find a similar rock, lying over a thin bed of coal of 
18 inches, or 2 feet, whose position in the series corresponds to this, and 
is probably the same ; the upper portions of which, above the coarse 
sand, are in thin layers, containing considerable mica. It is a difficult 
task to trace a single deposit of shale or sand-stone for many miles — the 
outcropping edges of the strata crumbling down into soil, and often inter- 
rupted by ridges and hills, which contain other superimposed rocks : 
where peculiar fossils are imbedded in them, the recognition is easy; but, 
in general, a stratum can be only determined by its connection with others, 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 45 

and its position between certain strongly marked deposits. Beds of much 
volume seldom change their character within moderate distances, but 
oftentimes their thickness. This member of the series contains the fossil 
trees described above, and may be estimated at 50 feet. 

•Agricultural character of the region traversed by the Pomeroy Coal Series. 

The central and western portions of Meigs County, and the southern 
of Athens, are watered by Shade river and Leading creek. The country 
is generally hilly and broken nearer the larger water courses, but affords 
extensive tracts of fine rich farming lands, especially in the heads of the 
streams. The whole was originally covered with a heavy growth of 
forest trees. The surface of the earth being composed of the out- 
cropping edges of the shales, sandstone and lime, crumbled down 
and mingled With the decaying vegetable matter of the forests, affords 
a soil that is rich, productive, and durable. The porous sand-rocks, 
absorb and retain the rain-water, so as to furnish lasting springs and 
streams, sufficient for the wants of the inhabitants during the dryest 
seasons. Those distressing, and often ruinous droughts, so common to 
calcareous formations, are here unknown. On the middle branches of 
Federal creek, and the high lands between those branches and Sunday 
creek, the surface is broken, by the wasting action of water, into long, 
elevated hills, crowned with narrow ridges, which, in some places, for 
miles in extent, are barely wide enough for a road. These narrow 
spines are generally conformable to the course of Ihe streams, and rise 
to the height of 50 feet. At the base of these ridges is a flat, or terrace, 
of a number of rods in width, which gradually slopes down to the creeks, 
affording fine farming lands. The singular form of these ridges is attri- 
butable to the. lime-rock, of which they are composed, and which here 
overlies the sand rocks and shales of the Pomeroy coal formation. Its 
more compact texture has preserved it, while the softer shales and sand 
stones have given way to the water and atmospheric influences. The 
non-fossiliferous, or upper lime-rock, here lies on the tops of the narrow 
ridges, and often form? a natural pavement for considerable distances. 
In other spots it is broken into fragments, intermingled with which are 
seen nodules of the red oxyde of iron, of a color nearly as brilliant as Ver- 
million. Although the country on these streams is hilly and broken, yet 
the "Federal Creek Hills" are noted for their fertility, and clothed with 
sugar-trees and beach to their tops. The whole region is productive in 
grain and grass. On Leading creek, same of the townships are distin- 
guished for their fine meadows; and no part of Ohio affords more desirable 
and healthy ranges, for flocks of sheep and herds of cattle, than those 
portions traversed by the Pomeroy coal beds. 

18. — Reddish Calcareous Shafe. 

Resting on the upper portion of the slaty sand-rock', noted in section 
17, is a thick bed of reddish brown calcareo-argillaceous shale, inter- 
mixed with layers of loose yellowish lime-stone, which easily crumbles 
on exposure to' the weather, This portion of the series was taken in the 
Muskingum river hills, in Bloom township, Morgan county, and near Dr. 
Martin's. A channel has been cut through the whole deposit in search 
of coal. ' Its thickness is about 50 feet. 



46 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

19.— Bluith Clay Shale. 

Lying on the lime and reddish shales, we find a deposit of clayey shale, 
blue or dove-colored. It is free of mica or grit. Under the shale is a thin 
layer of coal, of only an inch in thickness. Shale, 8 feet. 

20. — Lime Rock. 

This rock is hard and tough, not breaking freely; argillaceous quality; 
color, dirty gray. It contains no fossils, and is the lower member of th« 
non-fossiliferous limestone deposit — 6 feet. 

21. — Compact Slate Clay. 

Resting on the limestone, is a bed of dark-colored shale; where exposed 
to the weather it falls into a tough plastic clay, and probably suitable for 
the construction of fire bricks — 3 feet. 

22. — Coal — bituminous and slaty. 

This deposit is so intimately associated with the non-fossiliferous lime- 
stone, that it may be called the "limestone coal." It is quite an extensive 
bed, and may be traced wherever this lime rock is found. 

Mange and extent. 

Beginning with this coal on the hills two miles east of M'Connelsville, 
we find it there of a fine quality and four feet in thickness. It has been 
opened but a short time, and supplies some of the best coal for domestic 
use, that is found in that vicinity. The elevation of this bed is estimated 
at 250 feet above the surface of the river. Near the town, the strata con- 
taining the coal have been washed and wasted away by the denudating 
action of the water in seeking its present channel. It is the same on the 
west side, where the -coal and limestone are distant at least half a mile. 
From this point, the coal can be traced down the river to Meigs creek, 
where it lies at a much less elevation, and at the mouth of Wolf creekin 
Waterford, Washington county, it has sunk to the bed of the Muskingum, 
This point is about 15 miles southeasterly from M'Connelsville, but not 
much over 12 miles of east longitude, which will give a dip of about 20 
feet to the mile. East and northeast of this town, the coal is found in 
rather increased thickness, on the waters of Meigs, Olive, Green, and 
Duck creeks, dipping east and southeast, from their heads to their outlets. 
West of the Muskingum river, we find the limestone, in the southwest 
coiner of Koxbury township, in the banks of Coal run, a southerly branch 
of Wolf creek: here the coal is increased to 5 feet in thickness; From 
thence it is spread out south on to the waters of Little Hocking. On the 
westerly branches of this stream, in Decatur township, it is seen in beds 
of three or four feet in thickness, in company with the limestone. On the 
Ohio river it has become quite thin, and lies near the base of the hills; 
westerly it appears to run out on the hills of Federal creek. A few miles 
below the mouth of Wolf creek, it is found in the bed of the Muskingum, 
and has been worked for many years, during low stages "of the water. 
At Coal run it has been followed under 4he base of the hill, for several 
hundred feet, by a drift, the floor of which is only a few feet above the 
river: here the coal is divided by a seam of slate, a foot thick, above the 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 4T 

slate is a foot of coal, below it, nearly four feet. At Bear creek, ten miles 
from the mouth of the river, is the lowest point where coal has been dug; 
but it may probably be found: some lower before it dips beneath the bed 
of the stream. The average thickness of coal, may be estimated at four 
feet. 

23— Bituminous Shale, and slaty Sandstone. 

Over the coal is a deposit of black bituminous shale, changing to an 
ash colored shale of about eight feet in thickness; on this rests a deposit 
or layer of hard blue sandstone, eight or ten inches thick, superimposed 
on which are layers of slaty sandstone, of an argillaceous texture, con- 
taining some mica. The upper layer is quite calcareous, the whole 
amounting to 12 feet. These beds of shale and sandstone, wherever I 
have seen them vary some, however, in thickness, being at certain locali- 
ties only a few feet. Shale and slaty sandstone, 18 feet. 

24. — Lime rock — non-fossiliferous. 

This rock constitutes the most voluminous deposit of limestone, that is 
connected with the coal measures of the valley of the Muskingum. It lies 
in stratified beds, varying in thickness from one to three or four feet. The 
upper and middle portions of the deposit, are pale yellowish, or buff 
colored, gray, or dark blue. In many places, the rocky layers are separa- 
ted by beds of calcareous shales, which are three or four feet in thickness. 
The shale beds vary in color from pale blue to ash, and dark or light 
brown; the whole series is from 40 to 50 feet in thickness; and in some 
places, especially a few miles above M'Connelsville, it is much more. 
The buff colored layers, break naturally, into prismatic fragments, and 
readily decompose on exposure to the weather. The blue colored de- 
posits are more compact, and break into rhombic masses, with rather 
conchoidal surfaces; many portions contain seams of colored spar. The 
lower member of the deposit, where it approaches nearer to the coal 
than usual, is very dark colored, and then frequently contains imbedded 
crystals of brass colored sulphuret of iron. These are generally cubes, 
and where the stone is very dark, their bright yellow faces make a striking 
contrast with the dark hue of the rock ; some of the lower beds will not 
slake when burnt, and may, probably, furnish hydraulic lime. This rock 
is readily distinguished from the deposits of lime found lower in the 
series, from the fact of its containing no imbedded fossil shells; and may 
be denominated non-fossiliferous lime-rock. The beds of stone marl, 
found in Washington, Athens, Meigs, and Gallia counties, appear to be 
associated with this limestone, as they have not yet been found in the 
hills beyond its western and northern termination; wherever it abounds 
the ridges are covered with a rich soil to their summits. The bed of the 
middle, or main branch of Wolf creek, affords a fine view of this rock, 
where it has cut a channel through the whole thickness of these de- 
posites; and for nine miles above its mouth, the bed of the stream is 
formed of limestone. One mile feast of M'Connelsville, and fifteen miles 
northwest of the mouth of this creek> the lime-rock lies at an elevation 
of 250 feet above the bed of the Muskingum. Four miles below the 
mouth, at Coal run, the bed of the river is a little below the lime-rock, 
while at the mouth, the water in falling over a mill dam has cut through 
the strata down to 'the coal. From this point,' it is seen to within a few 
miles of the Ohio, near the base of the hills, and only a few feet above the 



48 [ Doc. No. 8& ] 

water ; varying in this respect, according to the course of the river. Th* 
main dip in the rock being from the west to the east, and the course of 
the river for the last twelve miles, nearly north and south, or on the line 
of bearing, will explain the difference in the amount of dip between the 
two places. The last place where the rock is seen in the bed of the river, 
is at DevalPs ripple, five miles above the mouth. East of the Muskin- 
gum, the non-fossiliferous lime may be traced from Meigs creek, over on 
to Olive, Green, and Duck creeks, and Little Muskingum, in Morgan and 
Monroe counties, dipping down south and east, from near the tops of the 
hills to the Ohio river. The same bed of coal accompanies the lime, and 
increases to four and a half or five feet in the heads of Duck creek, in 
th« corner of Munroe county. On the west side of the Muskingum, this 
deposit can be traced on to the heads and middle branches of Wolf and 
Federal creeks, in Morgan and Athens counties, to near the waters of 
Sunday creek, when the fourth fos'siliferous lime rock comes to the sur- 
face and bassets out on the hill tops west of it. South, it continues down 
the waters of the Hockhocking, to within a few miles of its mouth, when 
it dips below the beds of the streams. It is also seen in the western 
branches of Little Hockhocking, gradually sinking as it approaches the 
Ohio river. The whole deposit may be estimated at 40 feet. 

25. — Calcareo-argillaceous Shales and Mieaceou? Sandstone. 

Resting on the lime is a bed of schistose sandstone, of a few feet in 
thickness, varying in this respect at different places; above which, are 
deposits of various colored-clay-marls. They are the fullest developed on 
the West branch of the little Hockhocking,- on Sec. No. 1, T. 6, R. 11, at 
Fairchild's mill, in Decatur township, Washington county. This locality 
is about four miles by land, and six by the course of the stream, from the 
Ohio river, which, in high floods, backs the water to near the top of the 
deposits. Here the marl is seen in three distinct beds, of about five feet 
each. The upper one is of a light ash, or grey color; the middle a dark- 
brown, and the lower a deep verdigris green. The upper one contains 
the largest share of calcareous matter, and will afford a valuable article of 
manure, in the cultivation of the adjacent uplands, which generally hold 
a large proportion of sand in their composition. The brown will also be 
valuable, as it falls rapidly into a fine pulverulent earth, on exposure to 
the air. The dark green, when wet and broken up, passes into a fine 
pale-blue clay, and will afford a valuable material in the manufacture of 
pottery. 

Range and Extent. 

North of this locality, the marl deposits extend to the Muskingum river, 
across the townships of Barlow, Wesley. Watertown and Waterford, 
and westerly to Athens county; southerly, the red shales extend as low aa 
Gallia, forming a series of deposits, intermingled with the other rocks, 
which lie over the main coal deposits. Similar beds are found in Wood 
county, Virginia, and can be traced on both banks of the Ohio, from the 
mouth of Guyandot to Fishing creek, and for 20, or more, miles from the 
river; varying, in this respect, according to the course of the stream. It 
appears to be confined to the central portions of the basin, and to have 
been amongst the most recent, or last, deposited strata of that numerous 
series connected with the coal measures and muriatiferous rocks. In its 
composition, there- is a large share of argillaceous matter, colored with 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 49 

iron; while some of the beds are so highly charged with lime, as to be pro- 
perly classed with stone marls. Some of the ash-colored deposits contain 
fragments of shells, as I am informed by Mr. Jesse Lawton, of Barlow, 
who has applied it as a manure to thin uplands, with great success. The 
analysis will be given, with other articles, in the progress of the work. 
Average thickness, 20 feet. 

Agricultural character of the region traversed by the non-Jbssiliferous Lime- 
stone and Marls, West of the Muskingum River. 

As a general remark, the whole of this region may be said to be hilly and 
broken; and yet it contains extensive tracts of level, or very moderately 
undulating lands, of a rich quality, and producing fine crops of grain and 
grass. The uplands, where uncultivated, are clothed with a heavy growth 
of forest trees, chiefly of the various species of oak and hickory, with 
occasional groves and solitary trees of the yellow pine. This species of 
tree seems, at some remote period, to have held a much higher station 
amidst its fellows of the forest, than it now does. Extensive tracts, on 
which the growth at present is altogether composed of other families, are 
literally strewed with the knots and hearts of the pine, from which, in 
many places, tar is manufactured in sufficient quantity to pay the first 
cost of the land. At this day, its growth is almost wholly restricted to 
the chocolate-colored soils embraced in the range of the red shales. It has 
been remarked, that a soil congenial to the yellow pine, is one of the most 
productive of wheat, being generally more calcareo-argillaceous than 
sandy; where the marl crops out on the sides of hills, in cultivated fields, 
it is discovered, not only by the reddish color of the soil, but also by the 
deep rich green and luxuriant growth of the Indian corn, wheat and 
grass. West of Washington county, between the waters of Wolf and 
Federal creeks, the coarse sand-rocks which lie over the limestone and 
marls, rise into lofty ridges, and the character of the soil changes, becoming 
more sandy and loamy, with a forest growth of yellow oak, chesnut and 
poplar. This variety of soil has a decided influence on the temperature 
of the atmosphere; ameliorating and warming it in the spring and autumn, 
and thereby protecting the blossoms of fruit trees and tender vegetables 
from the ill effects of untimely frosts, a matter of no small importance to 
an agricultural people. It may be satisfactorily accounted for, in the 
greater facility with which an arenaceous soil absorbs caloric by day and 
radiates it by night, than that of an argillaceous quality. It is finely illus- 
trated in the tobacco plant, where this delicate vegetable may be safely 
left without cutting, one or two weeks later in autumn, than on soils of a 
clayey quality. Such soils, on elevated grounds, are also nicely adapted 
to the culture of fruit trees; and orchards of apples and peaches, planted 
on these ridges, not only produce larger and finer flavored fruit, but also 
escape many late frosts in the spring, which entirely destroy the blossoms 
and embryo germs of trees planted in the valleys between the hills. These 
remarks I have seen verified in my reconnoissanceof the counties of Perry, 
Morgan, and Athens, amongst the ridges in the heads of Moxahala, Sun- 
day, Federal and Wolf creeks. As we approach the eastern branch of 
Federal creek, the country rises into long lofty ridges, based on a loose 
open sand-rock, which readily disintegrating into a light sandy loam, af- 
fords a soil highly congenial to the chestnut and chestnut-oak, which 
delight in lofty and dry situations. In all countries, and not less so in the 
hilly portions of Ohio, the character of the soil may be known, from the 
7— Doc. No. 26. 



50 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

quality of the rocks on which that soil is based; where argillaceous sand- 
rockand shales abound, the soils are of a clayey character; where lime- 
rocks prevail, the soil will be of a dark color, loamy texture and very fer- 
tile, supporting a growth of forest trees on the sides" and tops of the 
highest hills, similar in species to those of the richest alluvions, while a 
thin, fissile, slaty sand-stone, so hard in its texture, that no influence of 
rain or frosts can cause it to disintegrate, affords a soil on which nothing 
ean grow but stinted scrub-oaks and the native vine of the hills: such is the 
character of the soil in some of the highest ridges in the southwest corner 
of Athens county, while .in the northeast portion, on the heads of this 
creek, the hills, although lofty, are clothed with heavy forest trees, and 
coated with a rich, black calcareous soil. For this advantage, they are 
indebted to the lime-rock which crowns their summits, and imparts a fer- 
tility to the creek alluvions, fully equal to those of the Ohio river. As we 
approach the Hockhocking river, the ridges and hills become still more 
elevated, not from any actual rise in the surface of the country, but from 
the beds of the streams being sunk deeper. This peculiarity is common 
to all the region embraced in the coal measures, and of itself is a convin- 
cing proof that the surface was, at some remote period, nearly a uniform 
and level country. The bottom lands on the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, 
which skirt the district on the southeast, are noted for their fertility, and 
afford some of the most productive farms in the State. 

Fossil fresh water Shells. — Bed of ancient Lake. 
On Mr. Lawton's farm, in Barlow township, Washington county, in 
the midst of the marl region, is a locality of fossil fresh water shells, of 
the genus unio. They are imbedded in coarse sand or gravel, cement- 
ed by ferruginous matter. The specimens are casts, replaced by an argil- 
laceous oxide of iron. The spot in which they are found, has once evi- 
dently been the bed of an ancient lake or pond. It is now a beautiful 
valley of a mile or more in width, by four miles in length, surrounded by 
low hills. On the south side, a small branch drains the superfluous wa- 
ter into the Little Hockhocking. In digging wells for domestic use, in 
this tract, beds of sand, gravel and plastic clay, are passed to the depth 
of 30 feet, containing imbedded branches of trees, leaves and fragments 
of wood, of recent and living species. Similar valleys and levels are 
found in the uplands of the western part of the county, lying between 
the head waters of the creeks, and are a kind of table land. From the 
frequency of these flat lands between the head waters of the Little Hock- 
hocking and the south branch of Wolf creek, it is quite possible that, at 
some remote period, the waters of Wolf creek were discharged into the 
Ohio river, instead of the Muskingum. This opinion is strengthened 
from the fact, that the head branches of the south fork now rise within 
two miles of the Ohio, and run northerly, parallel with, and opposite to, 
the course of the Muskingum for 12 miles, and join that river, 20 miles 
from its mouth. The remains of its ancient beds would form pools and 
ponds of standing water, furnishing fit residences for the freshwater 
shells, whose fossil remains are now found there. Great changes have, 
evidently, been made in ihe direction of all our water courses, before they 
found their present levels. 

Fossil contents of the red Shale. 
The fossils found in the calcareous shales, are generally of vegetable 
origin, consisting of the casts of stems, and impressions of the foliage of 



[ Dog. No. 26. ] 51 

coal plants. These are generally of the family of Alices, or ferns, arun- 
dinacea, and aquatic plants. Of the former, many well preserved speci- 
mens are found in the shale at the "Grotto of Plants," two miles below 
Marietta, and also at Barris's cave, below the mouth of Big Hockhocking. 
I have not noticed any fossil shells or animal remains, 

26. — Slaty and compact Minacious Sand-stone. 

Above the lower calcareous shales, lies a deposit of slaty sand-stone, 
•supporting a bed of slaty shale, containing nodules of argillaceous ore, on 
which rests a deposit of coal. This deposit is more fully developed in 
the township of Roxbury, range No. 11, township 8, and section 6, than 
at any other place where I have seen it. Near Marietta, these slaty sand- 
stones lie near the base of the hills. They vary in thickness, at different 
places, but may be estimated at twenty feet. 

27 Coal. 

Resting on the slaty shale, we find a bed of coal. It is of a poor quali- 
ty, containing veins or layers of slate, with considerable sulphuret of 
iron. It varies in thickness, from a few inches to two feet, — and is one 
of the last, if not the very last deposits of coal in this part of the valley. 
About 100 feet higher in the series, in a coarse sand-rock, we find a 
deposit of dark carbonaceous matter, which probably was the result of 
vegetable decomposition, similar to fossil charcoal. The coal extends 
over a considerable space, and can be traced from the southerly branches 
of Wolf creek, across the Muskingum river, to Duck creek. It may be 
estimated at 18 inches. 

28. — Sand-rock. 

This deposit extends for a long distance near the base of the hills bor- 
dering the shores of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers. On the latter 
stream, it is'often seen in mural precipices rising to the height of 59 or 
60 feet; especially above the mouth of the Hockhocking, and at various 
other points between that place and the mouth of the Muskingum. It 
stretches westerly and northerly across the county of Washington, into 
Morgan, and southerly into Athens and Meigs, rising into lofty hills 
about the mouth of Shade river. The structure and external character 
of the rock is somewhat various at different places, changing from a 
loose gravelly cop glomerate to a compact sand-stone. Some portions of 
this deposit appear to be made up of the broken fragments of the 
secondary and carboniferous rocks — and we find imbedded fragments of 
bituminous coal, round masses of argillaceous sand-stone, slate'clay, &c. 
scattered here and there amongst the sand and gravel, which enter into 
the composition of this rock. A section of the strata, from the river bank 
to the tops of the hills, was taken at the outlet of the Hockhocking, 16 
geographical miles south of Marietta, but 25 by the course of the river, 
and at one or two intermediate places. At Barris's grotto, a beautiful 
cavern, just below the mouth of this river, we find this rock resting on 
a bed of argillaceous shale, and composed of loosely aggregated pudding- 
stone, or very coarse sand, containing very small pebbles and coarse gra 
vel, cemented by tufaceous lime, which, as the rock crumbles away by 
the action of the atmosphere, frosts, &c, falls out in thin layers. Mixed 



52 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

with the gravel, are small fragments of madrepore, and bits of carbonized 
wood. This portion of the deposit makes about 18 feet. The upper por- 
tion is a compact, rather coarse sand-stone, composed chiefly of silicious 
sand and clay. It lies in heavy masses, and where there are natural 
crevices passing vertically through the deposit, it often falls out in large 
blocks, and is seen lying at the base of the cliffs. These are split into rec- 
tangular blocks, for building stone, and furnish a valuable and indestructi- 
ble material for this purpose, bearing the vicissitudes of the climate without 
change of texture. The upper portion of this bed, in some places, 
contains a stratum of coarse, sharp sand, cemented'by silicious matter, 
which would make good filtering stones. The compact portions of the 
deposit are extensively quarried for cellar walls, range work, bridges, &c. 
at Marietta— 60 feet. 

Qroltoes and Caverns* 

The lower portion of this rock, where it is composed of coarse materials, 
abounds in grottoes, some of which are large and very beautiful. The 
most extensive and perfect of these are near the moutn of the Hockhock- 
ing, but are common from there to the outlet of the Muskingum, and seem 
to be formed by the joint action of air and water. There is, generally, a 
small stream pouring over the face of the grotto, and often falling from the 
height of 30 to 40 feet. The roofs and sides are sometimes beautifully 
ornamented with natural fret- work, resembling the cells in a honey comb, 
and are usually 4 or 5 inches deep and 3 or 4 broad. They seem to be 
formed from the wasting away of the.sandy portions of the rock, while the 
argillaceous retain their places. This is effected by a 'beautiful natural 
chemical action; small crystals of the nitra'.eof lime form on the surface of 
the rock, and throw down the sand, grain by grain, until a cell is formed. 
The face of the cliff is often ornamented in the same tasteful manner. 
The "Laurel Grotto" is situated on Mr. Gill's run, a mile from the mouth, 
and is 20 feet in depth, 100 feet in length, and in front 30 feet in height, 
forming a semi-circle, and resembles a half section of the interior of a 
regular architectural dome; over the roof of this dome the water pours, 
after showers, with great force, on to a floor of slaty argillaceous sand- 
stone. A little higher up the stream, immense cliffs line the sides of a deep 
chasm, at the head of which is another grotto and a water-fall of 40 feet. 
The cliffs here are clothed with hemlocks, {abies canadensis,} and the 
kalmia latifolia; a wilder and more romantic spot can hardly be imagined, 
rivaling, in beauty and grandeur, the cliffs of Queer creek. 

29. — Argillaceous Sand Rock, 

Resting on the cavernous sand-rock, we find a bliiish-colored hard 
rock, with a finer grain. It contains but little mica, and affords a good 
material for architectural purposes, but does not work in the quarry so 
easily as the upper part of the rock below it. The superior strata in 
this bed are of a slaty structure, or are deposited in layers of a few 
inches, some of which make a good -flagging-stone. This rock can be 
traced along the hill sides for many miles, both on the Ohio and Mus- 
kingum, and is worked at several places for materials in constructing the 
locks and dams now erecting in the latter river. The thickness varies 
from 20 to 30 feet. The value of both these rocks, for architectural pur- 
poses, is much enhanced, from the fact of their containing, no fossil vege- 
table remains, which are common to all the sand rocks below these, in the 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 53 

coal series West of the Muskingum. They seem to have been deposited 
posterior to the epoch of the coal formation. This deposit may be esti 
mated at 20 feet. 

30. — Fine-grained stratified Sandstone. 

Color, light bluish gray; contains but little mica in the body of the 
stone, but considerable in the seams which divide this deposit into layers 
of great uniformity of surface. They vary in thickness from a foot or 
more to two inches. The bed and surface faces are very smooth, and re- 
quire but little dressing to fit them for rounding into grindstones, to which 
use this deposit is found to be finely adapted. Many hundred grindstones 
are annually manufactured from this rock in the township of Warren, 
a few miles below the mouth of the Muskingum, and sent to the towns 
West and South on the Ohio. This portion of the series may be estimated 
at 25 feet. 

31. — Yellow, Ochery Shale, 

Containing nodules of the red oxide of iron scattered through the bed. 
This ore is seen on the hillsides, at various places, but is not sufficiently 
abundant to be valuable — 4 feet. 

32. — Micaceous, slaty Sand-rock, 

In layers of a few inches thick — contains a large portion of white mica, 
splitting, on exposure to'the weather, into thin laminae, and crumbling in- 
to a light colored clayey soil, which often crowns the tops of the lower 
hills, near the rivers. The deposits above this, on many of the ridges 
bordering the outlet of the Muskingum, have been wasted away, either 
by the action of the water in seeking its present level, or from the de- 
nudating effect of rain and frosts. Some of the higher ridges still retain 
them. Ii may be estimated at 40 feet. 

33 Red Shale 

Near the tops of the hills, a little back from the rivers, we find almost 
everywhere a deposit of red shale, containing fiat and kidney shaped 
masses of red oxide of iron. -It is a rich, heavy ore; the specific gravi- 
ty of some specimens being 4, 16. It approaches a haematite, and af- 
fords a tolerable material for burnishing. This deposit is found in all 
the hills from below the mouth of Shade river, to above Marietta. In the 
townships of Olive and Lebanon, in Meigs county, bordering the Ohio, it 
is said to be deposited in beds of several feet in thickness. I have seen 
the ore, but have not visited the locality. The deposite of red shale may 
be estimated at 8 feet. 

34 — Slaty Sand-rock 

At "Barris's Grotto," just below the mouth of the Hockhocking, the 
hills rise to 80 or 100 feet higher than those near the mouth of the Mus- 
kingum. The upper strata are composed of slaty, argillaceous sand- 
stones, varying from a foot to a fourth of an inch. These deposits crum- 
bled down and, mixed with vegetable matter, compose the soil on the 
tops of the higher ridges. — Thickness, 80 feet. 



54 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Remarks. 

The rock just described, appears to be the most recent, in that long se- 
ries of deposits, which were made west of the Muskingum, above the 
calcareo-silicious rock. As to the diluvial, or alluvial beds, which were 
probably formed on the coal measures, near the time of the receding of 
the ocean from this part of the valley, they have been long since wasted 
away by the degrading forces which cut down the beds of the rivers to 
the depth of three or four hundred feet, and furrowed the whole face of 
the country into those uneven surfaces now displayed in the ridges be- 
t ween the streams. No earth is seen on the hills, but such as may be 
formed from the disintegration of the rock strata on which it is based. 

Salt Springs. 

Early history of the Salt Manufacture in Ohio. 

Muriate of Soda, or common Salt, is so intimately connected with the> 
economy and comforts of civilized man, that a short sketch- of its early 
history, (although in a manner foreign to a geological report,) and of its 
manufacture in Ohio, can hardly fail to be interesting, and worthy of our 
notice. As a branch of the geology of the State, there is no portion of 
it more vitally connected with the welfare of the people, than those de- 
posits which furnish the materials for our salt wells. 

From the period of our first organization as a member of the Union, 
the "Salt Springs" arrested the attention, and received the fostering 
care of our legislatures. Even before we had become a State, and were 
yet "a territory," the great value of the Salines had attracted the notice 
of our most sage and prudent citizens; and, in the compact made with 
Congress, distinct and express stipulations were entered into for setting 
apart the most noted salt springs, and a considerable territory around 
them, for the benefit of the State; they being considered as too valuable 
to fall into the hands of individuals, who might create a monopoly. At 
the present period, when culinary salt is so cheap an article, it may seem 
strange to us, that our fathers should have been so careful to preserve 
salines, the waters of which were so weak as to require six hundred gal- 
lons to make fifty pounds of salt. But when we remember, that at the 
period referred to, before this territory became a State, the price of salt 
varied from four to six dollars a bushel, and that the larger portion? of it 
was brought across the Allegheny ranges of mountains, on the backs of 
pack-horses, we need not wonder at the high value placed upon these 
saline waters. At that time, they were the only ones known in Ohio, and 
it was not even suspected or imagined , that at the depth of a few hundred 
feet, many portions of the valley were based on a rock, whose interstices 
were filled with exhaustless quantities of brine, of such strength that one 
twelfth part of the quantity would make a bushel of salt. This article, so 
valuable, and so scarce in those early days as to be looked upon almost as 
a luxury, has since been so abundant as to sell for half a cent a pound. 

The all-wise and beneficent Creator, who formed this earth for the 
habitation of man, has stored it with all things necessary for his comfort 
and happiness. Geology has disclosed the interesting fact, that in every 
region remote from the Ocean, He has deposited in the rocky strata of the 
earth, vast magazines of salt, The interior of Africa, Asia, Europe a»d 
America, contain, either in the form of rock or native salt, brine springs, 



[ Doc, No, 26. ] 55 

lakes, or effloresences, an ample supply for the wants of all the inhabi- 
tants. , 

Portions of the valley of the Ohio, if not the whole of it, from its north 
eastern extremity to its western outlet, may be said to be based on salif- 
erous, or muriatiferous rocks, affording an abundance of water highly 
charged with the muriate of soda. There are many evidences of its 
stretching along the western and northern base of the Allegheny range of 
mountains, amidst the coal and sand-stones of that region, and extend- 
ing as far north and west as these interesting formations are found. If 
the salt-rock extends as far north as Lake Erie, of which there are some 
indications, it probably lies at a considerable depth. Near the Ohio river, 
the strata which lie over the muriatiferous rocks, consisting of alternate 
beds of sand-stones, lime-stones, coal, quartz-rock, slate, clay, marls, 
shales, &c. in various modifications, amount in thickness to more than 
twelve hundred feet. This great accumulation of deposits is made up of 
distinct beds, which increase in number and in thickness as we proceed 
•south, but grow thinner and crop out on the surface, one after the other 
as we travel north and west from the Ohio river. From this arrangement, 
the.muriatiferous rocks are reached at a less depth near the margin of the 
basin, than they are towards the center. The remark is confirmed on the 
western and northern sides of the coal measures in Ohio, by facts connect' 
<ed with, the boring of salt wells. 

Memarks on the Salt producing Rocks. 

The rock -which furnishes the most salt water, and perhaps the only 
rock which contains muriates, is a'white, porous sand-rock. It, however, 
insome places, has a reddish appearance; the color being ascertained from 
the fine powdery sediment brought up by the tube, used for this pur- 
pose, and by the workmen called "a pump." On the Muskingum, near 
M'Connelsville, there are two distinct strata of this rock, known as the 
upper and lower salt-rocks. The distance between them is over four 
hundred feet. The upper one is about twenty-five feet in thickness, and 
affords much less brine than the lower bed. The lower rock is forty feet 
in thickness, and not only furnishes a stronger water, but also an unlim- 
ited quantity. It is ot a loose, porous structure, and often contains cells of 
several inches in diameter, through which the auger passes in boring 
without any resistance, indicating that portions of the rock had wasted 
away, and left it of a heavy honey-comb structure. A similar condition 
of the lower salt-rock has been noticed at the works on the Kenawha, 
Hockhocking, Leading creek, and several other places. At what depth, 
or in what particular rock the marine or fossil salt is actually placed, 
which furnishes the brine springs, as yet remains in doubt. 

The rock in which the main saline waters are found, as stated above, is a 
white sand-rock of little density^ and easily pierced by the drill of the well- 
borer. Whether particles of marine salt are imbedded and scattered 
through this rock, and gradually dissolve, as the fresh water from the beds 
above percolates slowly through it, or whether from its porous quality it 
imbibes and holds the brine from some rock lower in the series, is at prseent 
unknown. No fragments or particles of rock-salt have ever been brought 
up amongst the ditritus or "sludge" of the borings, as I have been in* 
formed by the workmen. The specimens of this rock in my possession, 
appear to be composed of a fine, light colored, silicious and micaceous 
sand. Whether these borings shpw the natural texture of the rock, or 



56 [ i)oc. No. 26. j 

the coarser particles have been pulverized and comminuted to this pow- 
dery condition, is also uncertain; but without doubt, their character is 
changed very considerably from this cause. 

In the series of rock below the buhr-stone, the one most nearly agree- 
ing in composition with this, is a loose porous sand-rock, in the conglom- 
erate beds. Its depth, position and texture agree more nearly with the 
lower saline rock than any other one. While the rocks above it are either 
compact shales or hard sand-stones, incapable of retaining or imbibing 
fluids in any great quantity, this rock is in its texture similar to a bed of 
sand, and would receive and afford a ready passage to the water, through 
it in any direction. The seams and vertical cracks in the more compact 
beds would always afford avenues for the transmission of the brine from 
the lower to the higher strata. In this way it found a passage to the sur- 
face in all the old salines, presently to be described. 

Calcareo-silicious, or Quartz-Rock. 

This rock, although not in any way connected with the saliferous de- 
posits, is yet an unfailing guide to the workmen on the Muskingum river, 
in their laborious operations of boring for salt water*' Its ^position in the 
series of rocks, superimposed on the lower muriatifeiQus rocks, atM'Con- 
nelsville, and for several miles below that place, varies but little from six 
hundred and fifty feet above it. As we approcch the western and south 
western margin of the basin, the intermediate strata are thinner, or less 
in number, and the salt producing rock is reached at a less depth. Five 
miles above M'Connelsville, the quartz-rock is seen in the bed of the 
Muskingum; beyond that point, it gradually rises to the surface, so as to 
crop out and lie on the tops of the hills, near Somerset, in Perry county, 
and also a few miles north west of Zanesville. In all the wells above this 
spot, the workmen are not troubled with this hard rock, as they commence 
their work in deposits which lie beneath it. So very dense and hard ia 
this rock, that it occupies from three to four weeks of constant labor, night 
and day, with an apparatus that weighs from six to eight hundred pounds, 
to pierce it, where only eight or nine feet thick. 

The dip in the strata, although it adds greatly to the labor and expense 
of boring a salt well, yet fully compensates the manufacturer in the in- 
creased strength of the brine; it being found that the lower and deeper 
wells on the Muskingum, furnish a water more fully saturated with 
muriate of soda than the wells higher up the stream. The same remark 
will apply to all salt wells located near the margin of the coal measures. 
This may be partly owing to the effect of specific gravity in the saline 
particles, and partly to the gradual descent of the water along the in 
clined plane of the rock strata, thereby dissolving a larger quantity 
of muriates, in a manner somewhat similar to the passage of water 
through ashes in a leech tub. The lowest well on the Muskingum, is 
near the mouth of Bald Eagle creek, on the south side of Morgan county, 
and has penetrated the rock stratato nearly 1,000 feet. Several attempts 
have been made at boring for salt water a number of miles helow this 
point, but have failed from the crumbling and disintegrating quality of 
the red shales through which they passed in the upper strata. Below the 
mouth of Wolf creek, this deposit appears to have increased to two or 
three hundred feet in thickness, and would probably require a depth of 
1,200 feet to reach the lower saline rock. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 57 

"The Scioto Saline." 

This ancient and noted saline lies near the center of Jackson county, 
on an eastern branch of Salt creek, a tributary stream of the Scioto river. 
Many of the old furnaces and wells may be said to have been seated with- 
in the boundaries of the present town of Jackson. It is amongst the ear- 
liest known salt springs in the western country, and may be ranked with 
the "Big Bone, and Blue Licks," in Kentucky, for antiquity, from the 
fact of the fossil bones of the Mastodon and Elephant being found at the 
depth of thirty feet, imbedded in mud and clay. The remains of several 
of these extinct animals were discovered in digging wells for salt water, 
along the margin of the creek, consisting of tu^ks, grinders, ribs and ver- 
tebrae; showing" this creek to have been a noted resort for these huge 
mammalia at very remote periods. When the white hunters and traders 
first came into the country , it was visited by thousands of buffalo or bisons, 
deer, bear, and nearly all the wild animals of the forest, who found the 
saline waters agreeable to their tastes, or perhaps needful to their health. 
So numerous, and so constant were the animal visitors of these springs, 
that at certain seasons of the year, the country adjacent was the most 
valuable and profitable hunting ground which the savages possessed. 
They were also in the practice of making salt here from very remote times, 
as has been ascertained from several of their white captives, who had 
visited them in company with the Indians. The first attempt at its man- 
ufacture by the whites, was after the close of the Indian war, in the year 
1797. At that time, and for several years after, the stumps of small trees 
cut by the squaws, and the charcoal and ashes of their fires, where the 
salt water had been boiled, were plainly to be seen. The Indian women, 
upon whom all the servile employments fell, collected the salt water by 
cutting holes in the soft sand-stone in the bed of the creek, in the sum- 
mer and autumn when the stream was low. These were generally not 
more than a foot or two deep, and the same in width. Into these rude 
cavities the salt water slowly collected, and was dipped out with a large 
shell into their kettles, and boiled down into salt. The hunters and first 
salt makers, pursued the same course, only they sunk their excavations 
to the depth of six or eight feet, and finally to twenty feet into the sand- 
rock, and excluded the fresh water by means of a "gum," or section of a 
hollow tree, sunk into the cavity. After a few years, they commenced 
digging wells a little higher up the stream, in the alluvion, or bottomlands, 
near the creek, and to their surprise, found they could dig to the depth 
of thirty feet, before they came to the sand-rock, which, a few rods below, 
filled the whole bed of the stream. 

Extent of the manufacture. 

The greatest quantity of salt made at the Scioto licks, was from the 
year 1806 to 1808, when there were twenty furnaces in operation, mak- 
ing, on an average, from fifty to seventy bushels per week. During this 
period, it was worth $2.50 per bushel, or five cents a pound. These fur- 
naces were located along the borders of the creek for the distance of four 
miles. At one time, there were fourteen furnaces in operation near the 
town of Jackson. At that early day, the roads were generally mere 
"bridle paths" through the woods, and nearly the whole amount of salt 
made was transported in bags, on pack-horses, and distributed through 
the middle and western portions of the State. 

8— Doc. No. 26. 



58 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Early legislation on the Salines. 

That we may understand the high value placed on the Salines, both by 
Congress and the people of Ohio, it will be proper to revert to the legisla- 
tive acts on this subject, and to know that the grant was made with ex- 
press stipulations that the State should never sell them, nor lease them for 
a longer period than ten years at any one time. In the year 1803, amongst 
the earliest proceedings of our legislators, we find an act regulating the 
leasing and the managing of the "Public Salt Works." An agent was 
appointed to take charge of the lands, to lease small lots for digging wells 
and erecting furnaces, and to see that no individual or company mono- 
polized the manufacture of salt. To prevent which, it was expressly en- 
acted that no one person, or company, should work more than 120 kettles, 
nor less than 30. For this privilege, the lessee paid a rent to the State 
of twelve cents per gallon on the amount of capacity of his kettles, annu- 
ally. A fine of $5 per kettle was laid on every person who made salt 
without a license. The agent himself was forbidden to engage in any 
way in the manufacture of the article. In the year 1804, the rent was 
reduced to four cents per gallon, and the amount limited to 4000 gallons 
of capacity. In 1805, the rent was again reduced to two cents, and in 
1810 to 5 mills. At this time, a much stronger water had been obtained 
on the Kenawha, by boring into the rock strata to the depth of one hun- 
dred feet. In February, 1812, the Legislature appropriated $300 to defray 
the expense of boring two hundred feet; and in 1813, they appropriated 
$1500 for the same purpose, which does not appear to have been expend- 
ed. In 1815, the State ordered 750 dollars, to pay the expense of boring 
to the depth of 350 feet, under the direction of Wm. Givens, with a pro- 
viso that the water procured must be of such strength as to make 50 
pounds of salt from 250 gallons of brine. It seems that Mr. Givens ex- 
ecuted the work faithfully, and then added another 100 feet to the depth 
on his own expense, as I am informed by Mr. Crookham, who was 
amongst the earliest of the salt makers, and from whom much of the his- 
tory of the first proceedings in digging wells, &c. was obtained. At this 
depth, viz. 450 feet, the boring ceased. A stronger water was procured,, 
but it was in small quantity ,-and did not rise to the top of the well; pro' 
bably from a deficiency of carburetted hydrogen gas, which, at several 
other works, rises in great volume, and forces the water for many feet 
above the surface. "Forcing pumps" for raising the water were not then 
in use, as they now are, at the various salines. No less than 15 acts 
were passed on the subject of the Scioto Salt Works, while under the 
control of the State. 

The "Delaware Salines." 

This ancient saline was located in Delaware county, Brown township, 
quite without the margin of the coal measures. At this reservation it does 
not appear that much salt was ever made, as only four or five acts were 
passed in relation to it. In 1809, Moses Bixby applied for leave to make 
certain improvements, and to manufacture salt at that place, which was 
granted. In 1817, a lease of the Delaware lands was given to Jos. Eaton, 
on condition of his making improvements thereon, amongst which was a 
a salt well, or boring of 200 feet in depth, which he completed, and pro- 
cured salt water of such strength, that 200 gallons made 50 pounds of salt. 
The quantity, however, was very limited; and, in 1818, he bored one 



r Doc. No. 26. ] 59 

hundred and one feet deeper, but, at 288 feet, struck a rock so hard, that 
he only penetrated thirteen feet in three months, with the labor of three 
and four men daily. After this time, it seems that no further attempts 
were made at the salt manufacture. These springs appear to rise in a 
similar formation to those of the Greenbrier valley, in Virginia, viz., a 
carboniferous limestone. There, several weak muriate of soda springs are 
found by boring; but these deposits are more celebrated for their sulphur 
springs, than for those of salt water. 

The "Muskingum, Salines." 

These salines were located on Salt creek, in the present Salt creek 
township, Muskingum county. An agent was appointed for the Mus- 
kingum Salines as early as 1804, but no law regulating them was passed 
until the year 1809. The brine here, from a boring of 300 feet, was of 
such strength as to require 250 or 300 gallons of water to make 50 pounds 
of salt. Two or three furnaces were in operation for several years. 
Stronger water being found on the Muskingum river, they were abandon- 
ed about the year 1820. At this location, the famous "silver mine" ex- 
f>eriment took place in the same year, and the sum of 10,000 dollars use- 
essly expended by the "Muskingum Mining Company;" all which ex- 
pense and chagrin, with our present knowledge of geology, might have 
been avoided. 

In the year 1826, after obtaining the consent of Congress, all the "salt 
reservations" were finally sold. They had, for several years, been a bill 
of expense to the State, and afforded no profit to the lessees, as salt could 
be made much cheaper at the stronger salines on the Big Kenawha and 
Muskingum rivers. 

Gallipolis Salines. 

This saline is seated onChickamoga creek, a little below Gallipolis, and 
was the next in point of time, where salt was made in Ohio. It was 
commenced by Mr. Fletcher and General E. Tupper, in the year 1807. 
The brine varied but little in strength from that of the Scioto saline, from 
which it is distant about 30 miles in a S. E. direction, and required about 
600 gallons to make 50 pounds of salt. In 1809, these enterprising men 
penetrated the rock strata, by boring to the depth of 100 feet, and pro- 
cured a stronger water, 400 gallons of which yielded a bushel of salt. 
This was the earliest attempt ever made in Ohio, at boring the rocks in 
search of water. The first that was made West of the mountains, was 
in the year 1807, on the Big Kenawha, by Col. D. Ruffner. After this 
time, wells were sunk at this saline to the depth of 500 feet, but the brine 
procured never required less than 200 gallons to the bushel. Several 
wells were sunk, and furnaces erected, by different persons, and salt 
made there, until within about a year. At this period, the manufacture has 
ceased, unless revived since August last — the superior strength of the 
water on the Kenawha and Muskingum, enabling the manufacturers 
there to sell salt for a less price. 

Leading Creek Saline. 

This saline lies about 35 miles northeasterly from the Scioto saline, and 
about 18 miles North of Gallipolis, and further within the coal measures. 
It is seated on Leading creek, in Rutland township, Meigs county. The 



60 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

first salt well was opened here in the year 1822, by B. Stout, Esq.,' at a 
point about 8 miles above the mouth of the creek. It had been, from the 
earliest knowledge of the hunters and first settle! s, a noted lick for wild 
animals in the summer months. Hamilton Kerr, a celebrated ranger, 
had made salt here in the year 1796, by boiling the water in his camp 
kettle, collected by diging holes in the sand, at a time when the creek 
was nearly dry. Four other wells have been bored since Mr. Stout's ; 
three below him and one above. The average depth of the wells is 450 
feet. The calcareo-silicious rock dips below the beds of the streams in 
Wilkes township, about 12 miles West of the Salines, and is said to be 
reached at the depth of 180 feet below the surface, or bed of the creek, 
which would only carry the wells to the upper saline rock. At Mr. 
Stout's well, a bed of coal was passed at less than 100 feet, which is said 
to be six feet in thickness. Directly after piercing the coal, the auger 
opened a fountain of spring oil, or petroleum, which discharged a number 
of barrels in a day, and continued to come up copiously for several days. 
The discharge of carburetted hydrogen gas from this well was immense at 
first, throwing the water to a height of more than 33 feet, as they were 
putting a tube into the well, for the exclusion of fresh water. The flow 
at this time, after the lapse of 15 years, is still very copious, and made 
with great regularity at intervals of about forty minutes; and continuing 
to throw up the water violently in the well head, or cistern, for about ten 
minutes at each paroxysm. This singular phenomenon takes place with 
great regularity, and has been measured accurately with a time-piece. 
The gas is eliminated by a natural chemical process, continually going on 
in the bowels of the earth, and is considered by "well borers" an omen of 
salt water, as it almost invariably is found near salines, either discharg- 
ing, through some natural crevice in the rocks, where it is called " a 
burning spring," or rising with the brine in the salt wells, The water 
at this saline is a stronger brine than that farther West, and nearer the 
margin of the coal basin. It requires rather more than 100 gallons for 50 
pounds of salt. The " Pomeroy coal bed" is here found at an elevation 
of about 150 feet above the creek, and six feet in thickness; affording a 
valuable article of fuel in boiling the water. At a well four miles below 
Mr. Stout's, the boring was continued to 800 feet, without any additional 
strength to the brine, or increase in quantity. 

The Hockhocking Valley Salines. 

As we proceed, easterly, from the margin of the coal measures, the 
next salines are found in the valley of the Hockhocking. The earliest 
indications, it is said, were observed in the crystallization or efflor- 
escence of salt on the sand and stones in the bed of the river, at low 
stages of the water during the summer months, A well was first bored 
by J. Pugsley, about the year 1820, in the township of Dover, Athens 
county, on a small run, three or four miles from the mouth of Sunday 
creek. Since which, two other wells have been sunk, one a little above 
the mouth of the creek, on the bank of the Hockhocking, and one six miles 
north on a small branch that falls into Sunday creek. The water in the 
wells located on the small branches, is less copious than at the one near 
the shore of the river; confirming the remark which has before been made, 
that large streams of water are necessary in the immediate vicinity of salt 
wells, to insure a full and free supply of brine. At the well, one mile 
above the mouth of Sunday cre'ek, on the bank of the Hockhocking, the 
water is discharged with great force and freedom, rising in "the well 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 61 

head" twenty feet above the surface of the river at common stages of the 
water, and running in a constant stream at the rate of 12,000 gallons in 
24 hours; a free discharge of carburetted hydrogen no doubt accelerates 
the rise of the water from the cavities in the rocks below. It is esiimated 
that this well affords sufficient brine for 110,000 bushels of salt in a year; 
with their present single furnace, about 40,000 bushels are now made. 
The water at these salines is considerably stronger than at those West of 
of here, containing over ten per cent, of muriate of soda, and making a 
very pure salt, but little deteriorated with muriate of lime or "bitterns." 
This per cent, will require nearly 75 gallons of brine to 50 pounds of salt, 
which is about equal to the Kenawha water. The average depth of the 
wells in this vicinity is rather over 530 feet; from which it would seem 
that the boring was commenced some distance below the calcareo-silicious 
rock, as no similar rock is passed, on inquiring of persons who were en- 
gaged in the work. We find a like dip in the rock strata here, to that on 
the Muskingum, as we proceed southeast down the river, so that at 
Stroud's run, seven miles East, and four miles South, making about nine 
miles in aS. E. direction, it requires a depth of 800 feet to reach the salt 
rock. A boring was recently made for salt water nearly opposite to the 
village of Nelson ville, ten miles above the mouth of Sunday creek, to the 
depth of 630 feet, but without success. Twelve miles above this point, 
the conglomerate which underlies the coal measures, is seen lying in the 
bed of the river, seeming to indicate that the Tnuriatiferous rocks are un- 
productive near the margin of the coal basin. Some of the finest beds of 
coal in the State are found in the vicinity of these salines, and are in use 
as a fuel at the salt furnace's. The Hocking Valley Canal passes directly 
through these rich deposits of coal and salt, and must ultimately make 
them of immense value to the proprietors, and to all the interior of the 
State, where these products can be transported on the canals, which, 
like the vessels of the human frame, will, in a few years, meander through 
all parts of the body of the republic, carrying health and strength to every 
member. 

Salines of the Muskingum Valley,. 

The most valuable portion of these muriatiferous waters are located in 
Morgan county, along the margin of the river, and about 25 miles north- 
east from the last described salines. Here we approach nearer to the 
centre of the coal basin in Ohio, and find a corresponding increase in the 
strength of the salt water. It has not yet been satisfactorily ascertained 
how far up the Muskingum river and its branches the saline deposits ex- 
tend; but certainly as high as Coshocton, and probably as far north as 
the south line of Stark county, as salt water is abundant on Yellow creek, 
east of this point, and from thence downward to the mouth of Bald Eagle 
creek, on the south side of Morgan county. All along this line, a distance 
of 60 geographical miles, the saline rocks are found gradually sinking 
deeper and deeper into the centre of the valley from a depth of 250 feet 
to that of 1,000. At Zanesville salt water is obtained at 350 feet. At 
Taylorsville, nine miles below, at 450 feet. At M'Connelsville, eighteen 
miles further southeast, at 750; and at Bald Eagle it is nearly at 1,000 feet. 
The strength of the brine increases in about the same ratio, so that 50 
gallons from the lower wells afford as much salt, as 250 from the upper 
ones. By an analysis of the water, from R. P. Stones well, near M'Con- 
nelsville, made by Proffessor Mitchell, it yielded as follows — viz : from 
four ounces there was obtained, 



62 [ Doc. No. 26. j 

Of Muriate of Soda, ... . 269 grains. 

Muriate of Magnesia, 20 grains. 

Muriate of Lime, - 15 grains. 

It also contained some carbonate of iron, and showed a point trace of 
iodine. From this analysis the water affords nearly 14 per cent, of salt, 
besides the other muriates. The water from the lower well at Bald Eagle 
is supposed to be still more fully saturated. The first well sunk on the 
Muskingum river, was near the mouth of Salt creek in the year 1817, 
since which period up to the present time, there has been bored sixty-one 
wells, to which are, or have been attached nearly as many furnaces; but 
a large number of them are now out of use. Of this series, forty-two 
wells below Taylorsville, eleven between that place and Zanesville, and 
eight above Zanesville ; three of which are in Coshocton county. As to 
the annual quantity of salt, at present manufactured in the valley of the 
Muskingum, I am not fully advised, but suppose it to be about about half 
a million of bushels; and may be increased to meet the wants of the 
country. The improvements in the navigation of the river now in pro- 
gress, will greatly facilitate the transport of this valuable commodity to 
market, during the summer months, as well as in the spring and autumn. 

Petroleum and Carburelted Hydrogen. 

These two interesting productions of the beds of bituminous coal which 
lie deep in the earth, are found to accompany the salt water in nearly all 
the wells. In some they are very abundant ; in others, the quantity is 
so small as to be barely perceptible. Where gas is discharged freely, it 
greatly assists the ascent of the water in the well, and saves the expense 
of forcing it up by the aid of a pump worked either by a horse or steam 
power. If constant and abundant, as it is at R. P. Stone's well on the 
Muskingum, it might also be conducted by pipes under the kettles, and 
used as a fuel in boiling away the brine, thus relieving one of the heaviest 
items of expenditure in working a furnace. In some wells the discharge 
of gas is periodical, and at intervals of eight or ten days, bringing up 
with it large quantities of petroleum, to the amount of several barrels. 
This is the fact with a well in Olive township, on the east side of Morgan 
county, and west branch of Duck creek, twenty miles east of M'Con- 
nelsville; at this well the discharges of gas are tremendous, throwing the 
water all out of the well to the height of thirty or forty feet. These 
eruptions are attended by a flow of petroleum, which, for the first few 
years, amounted to from thirty to sixty gallons at each paroxysm, and re- 
turning at intervals of two to four days. They are now less frequent ; 
and the discharge of petroleum is about a barrel per week. The well 
was bored in the year 1814. For the collection of such vast quantities 
of gas, there must be corresponding cavities, in which it may be treasured 
up until they become so full as to overcome the resistance of the superin- • 
cumbent water, and force a passage to the surface. Collections of the 
same nature sometimes take place in the eanh at a distance from the 
rivers or salt wells. At a locality near the gravel coal beds on the Hock- 
hocking, the earth and rocks have been blown out to a considerable dis- 
tance, leaving a cavity of several feet in diameter and depth. Probably 
the true reason why saline fountains are commonly attended by inflama- 
ble gas, is, that the coal formation, and salt deposits are, geologically, close 
neighbors, the salt being usually above in Europe and other countries, 
but not so in the valley of the Ohio, or in the valleys of its confluent 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 63 

streams. It appears from the facts rioted in these remarks, that the main 
salt rock lies below the coal. This compound gas is the same as tbat 
which collects in such quantities in the coal mines of England, and by its 
explosion proves so destructive to the lives of the miners. 

1 have not yet visited the salines on Big and Little Yellow creeks, and 
am not prepared to give a description of the improvements there. 

S. P. MILDRETH, 
First Assistant Geologist, and Palaeontologist. 



REPORT 

OF 

DE. KIRTLAND, 

SECOND ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. 
No. 3. 



Cincinnati, December 3, 1839. 

To Professor W.'W. Mather, Chief Geologist : 

Sik : In pursuance with the letter instructions, which I had the 
honor to receive Irom you, bearing date "Columbus, June 23d, 1837," 
I proceeded forthwith, "to collect and arrange, in a scientific manner, 
the various objects of the recent animal and vegetable kingdoms in 
this State." 

I am happy to inform you, that I have progressed so successfully 
with most of the branches belonging to the departments assigned me, 
that my catalogues already afford evidence, that Ohio is rich in species, 
so far as Zoology and Botany are concerned. 

As the People generally appear to feel a deep interest in the suc- 
cess of the undertaking, and we are indebted to the public spirit of 
their Representatives, for its commencement, and support; and it is 
due to them, that they should ba informed of every circumstance, in 
regard to both its progress, and anticipated results. 

With this view, you will permit me to notice some of the advanlages 
that are expected to arise from investigating the several branches 
committed* to rny charge. It is designed to make out as full and per- 
fect catalogues as possible of all our Animals, from the minutest insect 
and reptile, to the largest mammalia, and of all our vegetables; ar- 
ranging them according to their classes, families, orders, genera and 
species; giving each both its scientific and common name, and at the 
same time noting any peculiar or important character it may possess. 

Also, to collect and prepare specimens of the various species, as far 
as practicable, for the use of the State. If suitable means be taken, 
afterwards, to preserve them, they will compose a standard Cabinet, 
to which all classes of citizens can resort, either for amusement, or 
for the more profitable pursuit of acquiring a knowledge of the Natu- 
ral History of this section of the country. And although it cannot 
9— Doc. No. 26. 



66 [ Doc. No. 26. J 

be expected that one individual, will be able to make out a perfect col- 
lection, during the time that will probably be allowed for completing 
the Geological Survey; yet it maybe made so extensive as to form 
the basis or nucleus, to which additions -will be constantly made, by 
the labors of naturalists, who will be stimulated to exertion by the 
collection already formed. 

The study of the several systems of Natural History is peculiarly 
calculated to discipline the mind, and it is desirable to introduce it as. 
a branch of education among the rising generation. This can be 
done in no manner so effectually, as by laying the foundation contem- 
plated in making such a collection. It will afford facilities for pursu- 
ing the study in every portion of the State. 

The names and terms employed in these branches may appear dry 
and uninteresting to any except the votaries of science, yet we daily 
see the want of a knowledge of them, in the confusion that arises from 
popular names and descriptions of . natural productions... "A striking 
instance of this may be found in the celebrated Kotzebue's narrative 
of his banishment to Siberia, in the course of which he discovered a 
plant, which attracted his admiration, and which he has described at 
great length, as one of the most beautiful flowers he had ever met 
with. A very moderate acquaintance with botanical science would, 
however, have informed him, that this plant, if one may venture to 
form a judgment from his account of it, _ was already known to most 
parts of Europe by the name of Gipripedium; and the only doubt which 
remains is, as to the particular species of the plant, a doubt which his 
description, does not, after all, enable us to clear up."* 

A correct application of half a dozen terms would have decided the 
point with so much certainty, that if that plant were afterwards 
found in any other part of the world, eveh.the most remote, it would 
be recognized by Botanists. 

Perhaps some nay still inquire, Of what practical utility are these 
investigations? We would reply, that man derives his nourishment 
and support from the productions of the animal and vegetable king- 
doms; but, .while some contribute to his comforts and enjoyments, 
others again tend to interrupt or destroy them. 

The Naturalist, by becoming familiar with the habits and charac- 
ters of these productions, is enabled, ,on the one hand, to select and 
appropriate to use those that are valuable; and, on the other, to reject 
such as are detrimental, or to correct their evil tendencies. 

There are, doubtless,, many species belonging to both these king- 
doms that possess useful properties, that are now neglected, and are 
rapidly disappearing before the progress of cultivation and improve- 
ment. Most of the larger mammalia have already become extinct in 
Ohio. Forty years since, the Bison (Bos Americanus) visited. our 
borders; at this time, few or no Elk (Cervvs Canadensis) remain, and 
the common Deer (Cervus Virginianus) are comparatively rare. 
Notwithstanding they all have .once existed in great abundance on our 

* Roscoe's Address to the Proprietors of the Botanic Garden Tit Liverpool. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 67 

frontiers, it yet remains to be decided by experiment, whether they 
might not be domesticated, so as to become serviceable as beasts of 
burthen or as articles of food. 

All of our domestic animals were originally as wild, and perhaps as 
unpromising in their habits as either of these; yet, by a long course 
of training, and by familiarity with man, have entirely changed their 
dispositions. We have no evidence, so far as I am informed, to show 
that the Bison might not be successfully taught to yield its neck to 
the yoke as well as the Ox. It is said, that in some parts of the East 
Indies, the Buffalo (Bos bubqlus,) which is analagous to our Bison, is 
employed for carrying burthens and for draughts. 

The Elk and Deer will, without doubt, be domesticated, as dbjecta 
of curiosity, if not of profit, as our State advances in improvements 
and luxury. 

There is another family of animals that deserves more attention; 
I allude to the fur bearing, including the Beaver, (Castor Fiber,) Otter, 
(Lutra Brasiliensis,) and Musk-rat, (Fiber Zibelicus.) The sources 
from whence the supplies of fur are derived, are principally the nor- 
thern parts of Russia and northern and western parts of America. 
The energy with which the Fur Trade has been carried on, for the 
last thirty years, has rapidly exhausted these sources, particularly the 
latter; and it is said by those experienced in the business, that they 
will fall far short of satisfying the increasing demand before the end 
of twenty years. It therefore becomes an object worthy of enquiry 
whether some or all of those kinds of animals might not be profitably 
domesticated for their peltries. 

From my own experience, I know that both the Beaver and the Otter 
will, with a little attention, become as docile and as obedient to. the 
commands of man as most of our household animals; and I am con- 
vinced that, in localities where abundant supplies of suitable food are 
found, as great profits might be realized by breeding them as are an- 
ticipated from- the productions of the Silk-worm in this country. 

We are indebted, to our native feathered tribes for two important 
species of barn-yard poultry — vizv The wild turkey, (Meleagris 
Gallopdva,) and the mallard, or green headed wild duck, (Anas domes- 
tica.) This number might, no doubt, be greatly and advantageously 
enlarged by other additions from the LamellQSodentati and the Galli- 
nacem. 

The same means that have domesticated the aforementioned species 
would transfer from iheir native haunts to our yards and fields, the 
Canada goose, (Anas Canadensis;) brant, (Anas bernicla,) widgeon, 
{Anas Americana), dusky-duck, (Anas obscura), wood-duck, (Anas 
sponsa), teals, (Anas discors et crecca), canvass-back, (Fuligula valis- 
nera), pochards, (Fuligula ferina), and other eatable ducks; the prairie 
hen, (Telrao cupido), pheasant, (Telrao umbellus), and the quail or 
partridge, (Perdix Virginiana). 

The early settlers of this State derived abundant supplies of fish 
from the different rivers; but of late, many of the finest species have 
forsaken their resorts, owing in a great measure to the obstructions 



68 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

occasioned by the construction of so many dams. It is also worthy of 
enquiry, whether some provision should not be made by law to protect 
them, so far at least as to make it necessary to provide a sluice-Way 
in every dam sufficient to allow them a free passage up and down the 
streams, in conformity to their instinctive laws of migration; And 
also, whether it might not be made a profitable business to construct 
artificial ponds in favorable situations, for the purpose of breeding the 
finest kinds of Jish: In other countries it is often done by turning.small 
streams of water, or by enlarging and improving springs. It may be. 
done here in many situations with trifling expense.. 

Our reptiles are few, and generally insignificant. I know of none 
that can be employed for any convenient or profitable use. The 
venomous species are rare and will soon become extinct within "our 
borders. 

Humble and insignificaijt as are the insect tribes, they materially 
influence the condition of man. Among those which may be said' to 
be enlisted in his service, the honey-bee, {^Apis mellijica),\s one of the 
most conspicuous: another is the silk-worm, (bombyx mori). 

It is not improbable that some of our native coccoon-spinning insects 
may be found to answer as valuable purposes as the silk-worm. 

Experiments have already decided that some of the American can- 
tharidida are at least equal to the foreign species for medicinal pur- 
poses. 

The list of those insects that may bs considered as interrupting^ the 
enjoyments of man, or interfering with his comforts-, is much more 
extensive. It embraces, among many others, the wheat-fly, (cecidomtfifJt 
destructor;) the bee-moth, (galleria cereanq,;) curculioj or plifm-hug, 
(cryptorhynchus cerasi;) rose-bug, (tnacrodactyla subspinosa;) peach-tree 
borer, (agcria exitiosaf) apple-tree borer, (saperdd bivittata;). and the 
cut-worm, (noctua pramordens.) The naturalist, by becoming familiar 
with their economy, is often enabled to devise means to counteract 
their injurious tendencies. Mr. Say discovered that a small parasitic 
insect, the ceraphron destructor, infests and destroys large numbers of 
the Hessian fly, and is, probably, the natural means that restrain the 
ravages of that enemy to our wheat crops. From my own experience, 
I know that swine will exterminate, in a great measure, the curculio- 
bug from a plum orchard, in the course of two or three years. T ~ 

By knowing the habits of insects, we - can often obviate their attacks. 
The farmer may find it advantageous, in those sections of the State 
where the Hessian fly is common, to either postpone sowing his seed 
until the time for. depositing the egg of the insect has passed, or to 
substitute spring for winter wheat; and it is also probable that some of 
the winter varieties of this grain may yet be found with stalks so 
solid that they will resist the attacks of this enemy. Many years since, 
the timber in the navy yards of Sweden was rendered unfit for use by 
the perforations of a small worm. The Government applied to Lin- 
nreus for a preventive of its attacks. He recommended to have the 
timber sunk in Water during the few days that were occupied by the 
insect in depositing its eggs. The remedy was- perfectly effectual,- 



[Doc. No. 26. ] 69 

and simple as it was, saved more than a million of dollars annually to 
his country. 

The vegetable kingdom opens a wide and fertile field for the inqui- 
rer, in the applications of its productions to the purposes of the artist, 
husbandman and physician. 

We know, at present, very little about the number and value of the 
coloring materials that may be derived from this source; but it is cer- 
tain that, in many instances, our native dyes, when set with suitable 
mordants, form as permanent and durable colors as any obtained from 
the more expensive foreign materials. Many of our indigenous vege- 
tables contain fibrous substances in their wood, bark, roots or leav.es, 
which may, on trial, be found important substitutes for hemp* and flax 
in the manufacturing of cordage, cloth and paper. Of this class are 
some of the neules, (urticaria,) Indian hemp, (apocpium,) and milk-weed, 
(asclepias.) Aquatic plants and algae may yield the best materials for 
paper; and the silky down attached to the seeds of the common milk- 
we'ed, and contained in the follicles of that plant, may, perhaps, furnish 
a'n important substitute for cotton, feathers, down and fur. 

Among our native grasses are some species that would equal or sur- 
pass any now in use, if they were selected and cultivated by themselves. 

The fine varieties of fruits with which our orchards and gardens 
abound, are the remote offsprings of the most inferior and unpalatable 
kinds; the apple sprung from an austere crab, and the peach from a 
dry, woolly fruit, nearly destitute of pulp. Their improved conditions 
have' resulted from cultivation. It is worthy of inquiry whether the 
custard, apple, papaw, (asimina triloba,) might not be made to break 
into rich and palatable varieties by artificial means. 

Of the numerous native plants already known to possess active 
medicinal properties, few have been subject to close investigation; and 
there are Very many which contain equally active and probably valu- 
able properties that have been entirely overlooked. The success that 
has attended the few limited attempts at bringing into use our indige- 
nous medicinal plants, show that it is an important subject; and it is 
evident that our materia medi'ca might be enriched by the additions 
of many rare vegetable articles from our forests and fields. 

The limits of a report will not allow me to pursue the subject fur- 
ther. This view of it, though concise, is perhaps sufficiently minute 
to show that an investigation of the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
may be of great practical utility to the public at large, as well as to 
science. The arts, agriculture, and science, are so mutually depen- 
dant on each other, that one cannot be greatly advanced without a 
reciprocal advancement of the others. 

I would briefly add, that I have already collected and prepared, for 
the use of the State,' numerous specimens in several of the branches 
assigned to me, which I will forward Jto Columbus as soon as a safe 
and suitable receptacle is provided for them. 

I am, sir, very respectfully yours, 

JARED P. KIRTLAND, 
Second Assistant Geologist of Ohio. 



REPORT 

OP 

C. BEJGGS, JR. 

FOURTH ASSISTANT GEOLOGIST. 
No. 4. 



To Professor W. W. Mather, 

Principal Geologist of Ohio. 

Sir: In the letter of instructions which I received from you as 
Chief Geologist of the State of Ohio, dated June 23d, 1837, 1 am di- 
rected to "take charge of the geological investigations which will -be 
made between the waters of the Scioto and Hockhocking rivers"; em- 
bracing the counties of Scioto, Lawrence, Gallia, Athens, Hocking, and 
Jackson ; and to report to'you the progress of my labors, on the 1st of 
January, 1838. In obedience to these instructions, I have now the 
honor to Report : 

That I repaired, as soon as practicable, to the district assigned me; 
and having made a reconnoissance of it, proceeded to the detailed ex- 
aminations. 

As, for obvious reasons, the surveys of particular counties, or dis- 
tricts, cannot be completed until the whole ranges- of strata, of which 
they embrace only a part, shall have been explored, most of the eco- 
nomical facts, collected during the detailed examinations, will be com- : 
municated while describing the strata embraced in the reconnoissance. 
This reconnoissance was made, in order to facilitate the subsequent 
investigations, by first determining the great geological outlines of the 
district. 

With a view to ascertain the relative position of the strata, their 
dip, direction, general characters, and economical value, it was found 
necessary to make several sections in the line of dip, not only across 
the counties which have been mentioned, but to extend them into Pike, 
Ross, Adams, and Highland. These objects have been so far accom- 
plished as to determine, with some degree of precision, the general 
geological features of the State, and the vast extent of her mineral 
resources. 



72 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

In accordance with your instructions, it has been constantly borne 
in mind, in all our investigations, that practical utility is the primary 
object which induced the Legislature to authorize the survey; and, 
leaving out of view the gr,eat benefits which are conferred upon the 
community by investigations in purely scientific Geology, our exami- 
nations have been sufficiently extensive to show, from economical con- 
siderations alone, that' this enterprize, if conducted to its termination, 
with that spirit of enlightened liberality heretofore characteristic of" 
Ohio in her appropriations for public worlds, will not. only give anew 
and immediate impulse to the general interests of the State, and to the 
individual prosperity of her citizens, by fully disclosing, at an early 
period, the treasures now concealed in the bowels of the earth, but 
confer invaluable benefits upon those who will come upon the stage 
when the present generation shall have passed away. 

EECONNOISSANCE. 

The strata of that. part of the State embraced in the reconnoissahce, 
the boundaries of which have been heretofore described, are composed 
of nearly horizontal and alternating layers of limestones, sandstones/ 
shales, coal, and iron ores, to the depth of more than two thousand feet. 
They have been worn down and denuded, in every direction, appa- 
rently, by vast bodies of moving water, so as to form irregular hills, 
valleys, and ravines, giving to the surface the very rugged arid uneven 
appearance which we now observe. There can be no doubt that the 
strata were originally deposited beneath the surface of an ocean, m 
nearly horizontal layers; — but as this is not the proper place for theo- 
retical discussions, it need only be observed^ on this subject, that this 
erosive action may have been produced by the elevation of the strata 
from beneath the surface of the ocean, causing tremendous currents 
of water to sweep over the yielding rocks in. various directions, .form- 
ing valleys and ravines, and scooping out basins for small lakes, or 
ponds, which have been subsequently- filled with stratified deposits of 
clay, sand, or gravel. This modification of the surface by water, 
has not only afforded great facilities for geological investigations, but 
made easy of access exhaustless treasures which otherwise would 
have remained concealed iri the bowels of the earth. 

Dip of the. Strata. 

Before proceeding to a description of the -rocks, embraced in the re- 
cotinoissance, some definite notion should be formed of their dip and 
bearing, and the obstacles which may be encountered in their exami- 
nation. This is very important, in a practical point of view. 

The rpcky strata of the district assigned me for examination, con- 
sist, as before "observed, principally, of limestones, sandstones, shales, 
coal, and iron ores", superimposed upon each other with parallel planes 
of stratification. They dip, or are inclined, towards the east, or east 
southeast; but so slightly, that their inclination is scarcely perceptible 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 73 

to the eye, excepting where long levels can -be taken, on the water 
courses. This remark can only be applicable to the amount of dip 
over large areas; for the strata are always more or less undulating, 
and in a manner calculated to deceive the inexperienced, by local va- 
riations, not only in amount, but in direction. For example, the gen- 
eral dip is, perhaps, not more than 30 feet in a mile; while undula- 
tions, in some instances, cause it to be more than double that distance. 
A gentleman, to whom I am under obligations for much local informa- 
tion, ascertained the local dip, by actual measurement, to be, in one 
situation, 28 feet in a quarter, or 1 12 feet in a mile. This undulating 
character of the strata, which are nearly horizontal, often causes a 
local dip, not only in the line of bearing, but sometimes in a direction 
opposite to the true one. From what has been observed, it will be 
readily seen, that to ascertain the absolute amount and direction over 
extensive areas, will be a work of difficulty. It is one, however, of 
much practical importance to the community, as it is a necessary pre- 
liminary in successfully tracing the valuable mineral deposits of the 
State, and directing explorations for treasures, concealed from observa- 
tion beneath thick masses of materials of little economical value. As 
this object cannot be effecied in situations where the dip can be observed 
only for short distances, it will be necessary to ascertain its amount in 
two directions, over considerable areas, or as far as any stratum can 
be traced before it disappears beneath the water courses; and then, 
from data thus obtained, to make the calculation trigonometrically. 
As the rocks are conformable, it is not necessary that the same stra- 
tum be used in both directions. This labor will be greatly facilitated 
by the surveys which have been made by the State, for canals along 
the valleys and principal rivers. This method of ascertaining the 
dip over extensive areas, is only an extended application of a principle 
suggested to me by yourself. 

Difficulties in Geological Examinations. 

It may be proper here to remark that, although the geology of this 
portion of the State is exceedingly simple, no inconsiderable difficul- 
ties will attend its examination. It is true that the water-courses, in 
many places, present fine sections of the rocky strata; but they are 
so worn down by the action of water, and their surfaces so covered by 
debris, that it is often difficult to trace their continuation from point to 
point. They undulate irregularly, while their inclination is very 
slight; and they are so variable, even in short distances, that little 
reliance can be placed on either external characters or mineral com- 
position. A coarse conglomerate in one place, is a fine grained sand- 
stone in another ; a bed which is composed of argillaceous materials, 
atone locality, at a short distance, may be entirely silieious; and a 
stratum, embracing coal, iron or other valuable materials in a particu- 
lar locality, may, in another, be entirely destitute of them. Were 
it necessary, other examples might be adduced. These have been 
cited, as they have an important bearing in practical geology; having 
been impressed upon our minds, by the frequent, and in some instan- 
10— Doc. No. 26. 



74 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

ees, ludicrous mistakes which have occurred, by attempting to refer 
rocks to their proper geological position, by external characters alone 
— the only sure criteria being organic remains, and actual order of su- 
perposition. 

For convenience of description, the strata have been separated into 
seven groups or subdivisions, which, it is believed, correspond with 
important eras, or changes, during their deposition. They will be de- 
scribed in the order of their superposition, beginning with the lowest 
and ascending in the series. Figure 4, of the plate, will illustrate 
their relative position, as observed in traveling eastward, from Adams 
and Highlandcounti.es, to the Ohio river. 

I. The first subdivision, (marked B,) includes the limestone ■ of 
Adams and Highland counties, and is, probably, merely a continua- 
tion of that which forms the rocky strata of the whole western portion 
of the State. This limestone is of great thickness, and contains, 
where it has been examined, the petrified exuviffi of radiated and 
molluscous animals of marine origin, some of which belong to extinct 
genera, and all to extinct species. These reliquiee of a former condi- 
tion of our planet, are so abundant, that the conviction is forcibly im- 
pressed upon the traveler's mind, that he is treading upon the floor of 
an ascient ocean. 

Many ages must have elapsed and a peculiar condition of our planet 
prevailed, during the deposit of this vast mass of carbonate of lime, as 
it is composed of numerous layers extending to the depth of more than 
600 feet,* and contains throughout its whole extent myriads of petrj< 
fied relics of animals, many of which must have lived and died where 
we now find them entombed. 

II. In this division (vide C, fig. 4, of the plate) there appears to* 
have been an important change, not only in the materials which were 
deposited, but in their organic contents. Reposing upon the limestone 
already described, occurs a body of argillaceous slate, two hundred to 
three hundred feet in thickness, in which animal remains are rare. 
This slate is thinly laminated, and, according to the rules of geologi- 
cal interpretation, must have been deposited, at successive intervals, 
jn quiet waters. 

III. The rocks superimposed upon the argillaceous slate (vide D, 
fig. 4, of the plate) appear to have been deposited under conditions no 
less remarkable than the two preceding divisions. Instead of the 
uniformly tranquil state of the two preceding periods, the strata bear 
evidence of having been formed in waters alternately quiet and dis- 
turbed. Under these circumstances, were deposited the whole series 
of this division, which consists of alternate layers of fine-grained 
sandstone and shale, attaining a thickness of not less than three hun- 
dred feet. The layers of sandstone appear to have been formed in a 
gradually shoaling bay, estuary, or sea, for they are characterized by 
ripple marks, which, it has been stated by Mr. Conrad, can only be 
made in shallow waters. These markings are sometimes so surpris- 

*It ha« been penetrated6 00 feet in search of salt water 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 76 

imgly regular and beautiful as to appear artificial, rather than natu- 
ral, slightly resembling the flutings on some ornamental columns. 
But in proof of this, reference need only be made to the aquatic vege- 
tables which are found on the surfaces of some of the layers; and 
which were apparently entombed in the place of their growth. 

IV. Resting on the alternations of sandstones and shales, occurs a 
stratum, (vide E, fig. 4, Of the plate) which was formed under condi- 
tions widely different from those which prevailed during the deposi- 
tion of the strata which have been mentioned. It consists of coarse 
silicious sandstone and conglomerate, both of which frequently pass 
into each other, according to the variable velocities of the water in 
which the materials were deposited. That part of the stratum which 
is conglomerate, is composed principally of qu#rtzose sand and peb- 
bles, the latter of which are variable in size, from a pea to two or 
three inches in diameter. These materials am partially united, some- 
times with iron, and at others, it would appear, merely by adhesion; 
the pebbles are rounded by attrition, and strongly resemble shingle 
on the sea-shore. These pebbly materials were, doubtless, deposited 
by currents of water of unequal velocities, but sufficiently strong to 
move them onwards, and distribute them over an area of vast extent, 
leaving the sand in one place, the gravel in another, and the coarse 
pebbles in another, and so on, — thus producing the various changes 
which we now observe, and causing the stratum, even in short distan- 
ces, to pass Irom sandstone to fine conglomerate, and from the latter 
to one very coarse in its texture. 

This deposite was probably made in the vicinity of dry land, as, 
near its junction with the strata of the third division, are found the 
remains of a few terrestrial vegetables. 

V. Superincumbent upon the conglomerate, is a series of deposites 
(marked F, in fig. 4, of the plate) which indicates another important 
era or change. In the preceding period, were strong currents of water, 
depositing only coarse sand and pebbles; in this, the waters were less 
disturbed, and often tranquil, and so varied, and charged with mate- 
rials, as to produce layers of sandstone, limestone, shale, coal and iron 
ore; thus forming a series of strata some hundred feet in thickness, 
containing rich supplies of the most useful substances for the necessi- 
ties and comforts of man. During this period must have flourished 
extensive forests of terrestrial plants, as we find their remains scat- 
tered with great profusion through the whole of this series of strata. 

VI. The next division (vide G, fig. 4, of the plate) is a rock only a 
few feet in thickness, but so remarkable in its character, so continu- 
ous, and requiring conditions for its formation so widely different from 
those of any other rocks in the State, that it deserves especial atten- 
tion. This rock has been called buhr, from its strong resemblance to 
the buhr-stone of the Paris Basin, and its use in the construction of 
mill-stones, to which both have been applied. This rock is chiefly 
composed of silex, but it occasionally contains some calcareous matter. 
Unlike others of which we have spoken, it seems to have been a depo- 
sition from waters containing the materials in chemical solution. It is 
characterized by the remains of molluscous animals. 



76 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

VII. This division (indicated by H, fig. 4, of the plate) includes the 
series of strata above the buhr. It consits of alternations of sand- 
stone, limestone, shale, coal, and iron ore, and may be considered the 
upper member of the coal formation. 

With these preliminary remarks, we proceed to the description of 
the several divisions, or groups of strata, whieh we have thus slightly 
noticed.* 

I. 

Gkeat limestone deposits. 

Commencing, then, in Adams and Highland counties, the first rock 
with which we meet is a vast body of fossiliferous limestone, which 
not only forms the basis of those counties, but stretches west and north 
to the boundaries of the State, forming the subjacent stratum to a soil 
of great fertility. The thickness , range, and economical value of this 
extensive stratum cannot be ascertained until the whole western por- 
tion of the State shall have been thorougly explored. 

This division presents two varieties: The lower member is gray, 
bluish gray, and sometimes nearly black; it is sub-crystalline, and, as 
before observed, abounds with the fossil remains of extinct marine 
animals. Among them have been observed trilobites, orthoceratites, 
ammonites, terebratulse, producti, encrini, &c. &c. This part of the 
formation occupies, according to ProfessorEiddell, but a small part of 
the area of the State, being principally confined to the southwestern 
counties.f It has been called by that gentleman "the blue limestone 
district." 

The area of the State, embraced by the upper or more recent mem- 
ber of this limestone has been named "the yellow limestone district" 
by Professor Riddell, who remarks, in the report to which reference 
has been made, that " this geological district is perhaps four times 
greater, in superficial measurement within the State, than the one just 
described; extending, as it does, from Adams, Highland, Green, and 
Montgomery counties, northward "to Michigan and Lake Erie, and 
from the shale regions on the Huron and Oleontangy westward, doubt- 
less, beyond the State boundary." 

Both these kinds of limestone are of great value for agricultural 
and architectural purposes, for which they have been quarried and 
used in various parts of the State. Some of the finer varieties have been 
polished and used for ornamental work, as jambs, mantel-pieces, &c.| 



* Arrangements have been made, since writiug these preliminary remarks, so that Dr. Hildreth 
will describe the sixth and seventh divisions indicated on the profileiby the letters G and H. 

fProfessor Riddell's report to the last Legislature. 

J Note. I have referred neither the limestone above described, nor the superincumbent 
tocks, to any particular class among the fossiliferous strata, though there can be scarcely a 
doubt as to their geological position and their European equivalents, as may be inferred from 
their organic remains and lithological characters. On this subject may be quoted the judi. 
clous remarks of Prof. W. B. Rodgers, of the Virginia geological survey. He says: " We hold 
it to be altogether premature, while the geologists of America are yet only on the threshold 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 77 

U. 

Argillaceous slaty hock, or shale stkatum. 

Progressing eastwardly from the limestone to the western borders 
of Scioto, Pike, and Ross counties, the limestone sinks beneath the 
water courses, and is succeeded by a stratum of argillaceous slate, the 
entire thickness of which is, perhaps, two hundred to three hundred 
feet. It forms the base of the hills which are capped with sandstone 
along the western border of the Scioto -valley, from Chillicotlie to 
Piketon, and probably nearly to Portsmouth, although the rocks dip 
slightly in that direction. The color of this stratum is variable, but 
is generally grayish, or approaching to black; in some places, it con- 
tains so much bituminous and carbonaceous matter, that it can be ignit- 
ed; and, hence, many have inferred that coal may be found within its 
geographical limits ; but, so far as my observations extend, there is 
little prospect of finding it in sufficient quantities to be valuable. Coal 
has, however, been observed, according to Mr. I. D. Lapham, in thin 
seams, an inch or, two in width.* This stratum can be examined to 
advantage on Paint Creek, a few miles east of Bainbridge, and, indeed, 
through the whole of the valley on that stream to Chillicothe. 

As this stratum was more particularly examined by J. W. Foster, 
Esq., acting assistant on the survey, I may be allowed to quote from 
an abstract report, some of his valuable observations : " On the silici- 
ous limestone is superimposed a thick bed of shale. You have a good 
view of it at Copperas Mountain, a few miles east of Bainbridge. Its 
base is washed by Paint Creek, a stream of some thirty yards wide, 
running into the Scioto. This mountain attains, by estimation, a 
height of three hundred feet. The shale is exposed two hundred and 
fifty feet, with sandstone above, say fifty feet. The talus has been 
washed away by the stream as fast as it fell, so that there is a per- 
pendicular face of nearly 150 feet exposed. The beholder hardly 
walks beneath these jagged and beetling cliffs with feelings of security. 
They have yielded, slowly and reluctantly, to the combined assaults of 
the storm from above and the stream below. In many instances, the tor- 
rent, descending from above, has cut out deep gorges in the shale, so that, 
at a distance, it resembles the ruins of some vast and antiquated castle. 

After having gained by a circuitous route, the top of the cliffs, the 
pedestrian has to clamber up an escarpment of disintegrated shale be- 



of their researches, to endeavor to establish an identity of names between our strata and those 
of Europe. This too frequent error prejudices all the broader and more lofty generalizations 
of the science. In a spirit of caution, therefore, dictated by the many blunders daily com- 
mitted in the nomenclature of our rocks, we shall abstain from giving them a class of European 
names not always, indeed, applicable in the countries where they are employed, and certainly 
less so in a region of widely different structure, separated by the great interval of the Atlantic. 
The little that can be said, in. a detailed way, upon particular strata, will be descriptive, 
being convinced that points of nomenclature and classification cannot be ventured upon with 
profit until there shall have been collected a vast deal more minute information than is now 
before us/' 

♦Riddell's report to the last Legislature. 



78 [ Doo. No. 26. ] 

fore he attains the summit. The .prospect ia sufficiently beautiful to 
repay him for his toil. The cliffs, which from below presented so threa- 
tening an aspect, dwindle into insignificance. Here, the ravages of 
the elements are still more perceptible. They have scooped ouflarge 
hollows in the cliffs, which are gradually becoming deeper and deeper. 
From this spot the eye ranges for miles, over a valley of unparalleled 
fertility, chequered with forests and farms; while far below, the creek 
sweeps on in its serpentine course, bordered on one side by frowning 
precipices, and theother by tangled thickets. Few places in Ohio 
afford aloyelier or more extended prospect. 

This shale is very fissile, contains considerable bitumen, and when 
rubbed exhales a fetid odor. Towards the bottom of this stratum are 
imbedded masses of fetid carbonate of lime, varying from one to two 
feet in diameter. These often present a spheroidal appearance out- 
wardly; while within, they exhibit concentric layers, formed, around 
nuclei. These nuclei are amorphous masses, often traversed' by calc 
spar and sulphate of baryta.. They seem to constitute an interesting 
variety of septaria. No attempt will here be made to explain their 
spheroidal structure. 

The following are some of the principal minerals which occur here: 
Fetid carbonate of lime, calc spar, sulphate of baryta, sulphate of 
alumine and potash (alum) in the form of efflorescence, resembling 
mould, and investing the shale; also in tuberose masses. It falls 
down and can be gathered up in considerable quantities. Sulphuret of 
iron, (pyrites) in nodulur masses. Sulphate of iron, (copperas) in a 
yellow efflorescence with the alum." 

The three last named minerals are, probably, all which may prove 
to be of much economical value. 

The copperas and alum are produced by the decomposition of the 
sulphurets of iron by atmospheric agents. The sulphur uniting with 
the oxygen of the atmosphere, forms sulphuric acid, which, according 
to circumstances, either combines with the iron to form copperas, or 
wi|h alumine and potash, to produce alum. These salts, in some places, 
are produced in so great abundance, that their efflorescence causes con- 
siderable areas to appear as if covered with a heavy frost. 

Nodular masses of sulphuret of iron are, in some places, so numer- 
ous, that they may be used, together with the shales in which they 
occur and are decomposed, in the manufacture of copperas, which has 
already been made from these materials for domestic use. It is by no 
means impossible that beds of gypsum may be found near the junction 
of this rock with the subjacent limestone, as no other circumstances are 
necessary for its production, than the decomposition of large quantities 
of sulphuret of iron in connection with stiata of carbonate of lime, 
so that the sulphuric acid formed from the sulphuret, coming in contact 
with the latter, produces sulphate of lime, or gypsum. 

This enormous mass of argillaceous materials gives rise to numer- 
ous chalybeate springs, which are not only valuable for their medicinal 
properties, but their waters, charged with ferruginous matter, under 
favorable circumstances, deposit it in the form of bog ore, in sufficient 
quantities to be used in the manufacture of iron. 



{ Doc. No. 26. ] 79 

This stratum, whioh at first sight would appear to be of little im- 
portance, mayprove to be of great value. 

III. 

Waverley Sandstone Series. 

Superimposed upon the stratum above described, occurs a series of 
alternations of sandstone and shale, the thickness'of which has not 
yetheen ascertained, but which will not probably vary far from 250 to 
300 feet. 

The lower part of this stratum caps the highest elevations near 
Chillicothe, and it can be studied with great advantage on either side of 
the Scioto valley, from Chillicothe to Portsmouth. Traveling east- 
ward from this valley, it gradually sinks lower in the hills, till it finally 
disappears beneath the water courses. It continues some miles above 
Portsmouth, on the Ohio river; and on the road from Chillicothe to 
Jackson, disappears. beneath the streams about four or five miles from 
the latter place, so as to form the lowest rock which emerges to the 
surface in Jacksop county, and the one upon which reposes all the 
strata within its boundaries. 

Although the sandstone embraced in the series of strata, the geo- 
graphical boundaries of which have just been described, may, for the 
most part, be distinguished by its external appearance; yet, great vari. 
ations have been observed in its character at different localities, caused 
by the variable proportions of its component parts, or the occasional 
absence of one or more of them. 

This sandstone is chiefly composed of fine silicious sand ; but, in 
many places, contains variable proportions of argillaceous matter, 
.oxide of iron, and carbonate of lime. Its color is also variable. It is 
generally white, bluish gray, or tinged* with shades of yellow. It is 
formed of layers, from one inch to five or six feet in thickness, on 
which are seen ripple marks, produced by the motion of water' before 
the rocks were consolidated. Entombed in these layers are also found 
the remains of a few marine vegetables, and some zoophytic and mol- 
luscous animals : the latter are the most numerous near the junction 
of this series wTfh the conglomerate which lies above it. In the infe- 
rior part of this series, Mr. Foster obtained a few casts of multivalve 
shells, replaced by sulphuret of zinc. 

This series of strata will ultimately be of irnmense value to the 
State, as it affords durable and beautiful building materials. It is now 
wrought, to some extent, for architectural purposes. Some of the 
finer varieties are of great value for ornamental work ; and being 
nearly as beautiful as some kinds of primitive marbles, may be mis- 
taken for them, at a distance. At those localities whejre argillaceous 
matter cements the silicious grains whieh form the sandstones, they 
should not be used in situations exposed to the vicissitudes of the 
weather, as, under such circumstances, they readily exfoliate and fall 
to pieces, by the combined action of rains and frosts. Some of the 



80 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

thinner layers afford abundance of beautiful stones, admirably adapted 
to flagging. Near the junction of this rock with the one which lies 
above ij, whetstones of a very good quality have been obtained. 

The fine grained sandstones of this series haye been quarried at 
Portsmouth, Piketon, Waverley, Chillicothe, and other places; and are 
favorably known in most of the principal towns in the State. Quar- 
ries without number may be opened, so that all demands, however 
great, may be supplied. The limits within which these quarries may 
be opened, will be determined by subsequent detailed surveys. 

As some of the most beautiful stones that have been obtained were 
quarried at Waverly, we may, for the present, denominate these rocka 
the' Waverley sandstone seties. 

IV. 

CoNGlOMEEATE. 

Resting on the- series last described, occurs a stratum which is 
composed of* silicious sand and pebbles; it varies in thickness, where 
it has been observed, from 40 to 80 feet. This, like the preceding, 
(and it is true of all strata of sedimentary origin,) cannot be identified, 
at different localities, by external characters alone. In some places 
it is a fine silicious sandstone, which cannot be distinguished from the 
stratum which lies above it; in others, it is a conglomerate, chiefly 
composed of quartzose sand and pebbles, the latter varying in size 
from a pea to two or three inches in diameter. Sometimes jt is strongly 
cemented by the oxide of iron, and at others the sand and pebbles are 
but partially united, so that it rapidly crumbles away by the action of 
frosts and rains. It is of the greatest importance that this rock be 
carefully studied, and its position, range and extent accurately des- 
cribed, as it forms one of the "landmarks, or monuments, by which 
some of the most interesting and valuable deposites in the State may 
be traced. 

This rock is continuous from the Ohio river, in the eastern part of 
Scioto county, northward, through the western part of Jackson and 
Hocking, to Fairfield county. According to Mr. Ewing, of Lancaster, 
it swells out on the Hockhocking river to a much greater thickness 
than I have any where observed it. 

V. 

Lower coai series. 

A few miles east of the conglomerate, and above it, in order of 
superposition, occurs a series of strata composed of sandstone, lime- 
stone, shale, coal, and iron ore, the aggregate thickness of which is 
between 300 and 400 feet. This series occupies a belt of country 
several miles in width. It commences on the Ohio river, and embra- 
ces the eastern part of Scioto county, and the western part of Law- 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 81 

rence ; thence it extends northerly, so as to include a large proportion 
of Jackson county, the extreme west of Gallia, the west part of Athens, 
and the east of Hocking county. In this series are three layers of 
workable coal, three or four layers of limestone, several of iron ore, 
from one inch to five or six feet in thickness, with numerous strata of 
sandstone and snale, all of which can be applied to useful purposes. 
It embraces a group of associated minerals, which, when they shall 
have been fully explored, will be exhaustless sources of" wealth, not 
only to those in whose immediate vicinity they occur, but to the whole 
State. 

Sandstones. 

The lowest and most important stratum of sandstone lies a few feet 
below the first workable bed of coal, and about 30 feet above the 
conglomerate. This rock varies from 40 to 70 feet in thickness; it is 
chiefly composed of silicious sand, but in some places contains quartz- 
ose pebbles, and, hence, may be mistaken for the conglomerate. It is 
sometimes colored and cemented by oxide of iron, and at others, it is 
nearly white, containing but little ferruginous matter. In some places 
coal, externally resembling charcoal, is disseminated through the rock. 
This stratum affords a material suitable for building, and has been 
quarried for the construction of furnaces. The village of Jackson, 
Jackson county, is built upon this rock, which can be examined to 
advantage in that vicinity. 

Above this rock occur only two other sandstones which now require 
description. The first, from 35 to 40 feet in thickness, is situated a 
little more than 100 feet above the one last described, from which, in 
many places, it cannot be distinguished by external characters. This 
rock, like the preceding, will afford materials for building and the 
construction of furnaces. It has been quarried in the vicinity of 
McArthurstown, and used for flag-stones, underpinning, and tomb- 
stones. For the latter purpose it has been recently introduced. 

The principal stratum of sandstone above this is inferior to it in 
thickness, but approaches so nearly to it in charater, that a separate 
description of it, at this time, will be unnecessary. 

Shales. 

The argillaceous shales of this series are of some importance in an 
economical point of view. Their prevailing colors are yellowish, gray 
and black. They contain, in some places, so much carbonaceous or 
bituminous matter as to burn freely when ignited. They generally 
form the floor and roof of the coal strata, and in such situations often 
contain beautiful impressions of extinct vegetable remains. In these 
shales are found embedded most of the iron ores. As they are imper- 
meable to water, while the sandstones suffer it to pass through them, 
they are generally the water-bearing strata, and hence, wherever they 
are found, give rise to numerous springs, which are most abundant on 
the eastern slopes of hills, as the strata dip in an easterly direction. 
11— Doc. No. 26. 



82 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

As in Europe, so in this country, the disintegration of the shalei 
which form the floor of coal deposites, produces fire-clays. Some in 
this series may be valuable for the manufacture of those articles for' 
which such clays are required. This can only be determined by 
experiment or chemical analysis. 

Clays, or shales, occupying the situation above mentioned, have 
been obtained at Coal Grove, eight milas above Hanging Rock, on tH» 
Ohio river,- and used in the manufacture of stoneware. Subsequent 
examinations may show that this useful material can be obtained in 
great abundance. 

Limestones. 

The limestones of this series are interesting, not only as affording 
a flux for the iron ores of this region, and lime for the various uses 
to which it is usually applied, but are also of great value for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

Three layers of limestone have been observed. The first is a gray 
or grayish white micaceous limestone, variable in thickness and com- 
position at different places. It contains more or less silicious sand) 
and, in some localities, is very difficult to distinguish from a gray 
micaceous sandstone. Indeed, I am inclined to believe that this stra- 
tum passes into sandstone in which not a trace of lime can be detected: 
Its geological position is a few feet above the first workable bed of coal. 
It has been traced from the northern part of Scioto county, through 
Jackson, to Athens county. It may be seen four miles south of Jack- 
son, on the road to Burlington; it is again exposed in the bed of a 
small stream, about two miles north of Jackson, on the road to Athens. 
At Keid's mill, ten miles from the former place, is a sandy limestone, 
10 or 12 feet thick, which may belong to this stratum, although the 
question of its identity is not entirely settled. Here much of it is 
light colored and sandy, and, unless closely examined, would be passed 
by as sandstone. It makes good lime for mortar, but, of course, will 
not bear so much sand as lime made from rocks which contain less 
silicious matter. 

A limestone, identical in appearance and composition with that at 
the first mentioned places, occurs in Elk township, a mile or two 
northwest of McArthurstown. 

The second stratum of limestone lies about 100 feet above the pre- 
ceding stratum, and is from 18 inches to 8 feet thick where it has been 
observed. It is uniformly of a dark color, nearly black, and contains 
the remains of radiated and molluscous animals of marine origin. The 
layers vary in thickness from four inches to one foot, and, alternating 
with them are seams of dark colored shale. This limestone breaks 
out into oblong blocks, of suitable size for building purposes. This 
stone will probably bear a polish, and if so, can be used for ornamental 
purposes, as jambs, chimney-pieces, &c. The organic remains will 
add greatly to its beauty when polished.* 

*Since writing the above, a piece of this dark fossiliferous limestone has been polished. 
It is nearly or quite equal in beauty to the best Egyptian marbles. If it can be obtained in 
sufficient quantities, and in blocks sufficiently large, as I think it may, it will be of immense 
value for ornamental architecture. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 83 

This rock has not been as yet discovered south of Jackson court- 
house, though it probably exists. It may, however, thin out in that 
direction. But north of Jackson village it has been observed in sev- 
eral places in the county. Loose masses of it are very abundant in 
some parts of Lick township, where it has been burnt for lime; it exists 
there also, in situ, but no quarries have been opened. In Milton town- 
ship it also occurs; there it was observed, in situ, in the vicinity of 
Little Raccoon Creek. It is well exposed in Athens, about two miles 
south of MeArthurstown, where it forms the bed of a small stream; 
here it breaks out in oblong masses, and the fissures are so arranged 
that the bed of the stream appears as if paved with flags. 

The third layer of limestone in this series is from 4 to 12 feet in 
thickness, and lies one hundred feet or more above the one last des- 
cribed. It is a gray, sub-crystalline, fossiliferous limestone. From 
this stratum is taken the limestone used in fluxing the iron ores. It is 
very valuable for this purpose, and also for the manufacture of lime. 

There remains to be mentioned another stratum of limestone, the 
relative position of which has not been determined. It occurs in the 
south, or southwest part of Jackson county, on the land of John Can- 
ter. The whole stratum may be 10 or 12 feet thick. The superior 
part is white, or nearly so, and is fissured in almost every direction. 
The lower part is sub-crystalline, and, in some places, beautifully 
shaded with green and red ; and if it can be polished, and obtained in 
sufficient quantities, will be very valuable in ornamental architecture.* 
Some beautiful specimens were obtained from a slab which had been 
quarried to use in the manufacture of millstones. This stratum should 
Be examined with more attention than we have been able to devote to 
it the present season/ It affords a material for the manufacture of 
lime of an excellent quality, and may also be used as a flux in reducing . 
the iron ores of this vicinity. 

Coal, 

As it is not our present purpose to attempt a full explanation of the 
formation of coal, a few remarks only need be made on the subject. 

Its vegetable origin is almost universally admitted. By the ablest 
geologists, it has been considered as resulting from the distribution of 
large masses of vegetable matter over a previous deposition of sand, 
gravel, mud, or argillaceous silt, and subsequently covered with the 
same materials; all of which have been indurated so as to form con- 
glomerates, sandstones, and shales; while the vegetable accumulation 
by pressure and chemical changes, has been converted into coal. 

Evidences are not wanting, to prove that the various coal strata 
have been formed in this manner. In their associated shales and sand 
stones, once in the form of sand and mud, we find entombed numerous 

* Since writing the above, some of these specimens have been polished. We cannot as- 
certain, with ^curacy the value of this rock for ornamental architecture, from the polish- 
ing of a few hand-specimens; but it is believed that this stratum may be used for that 
purpose. 



84 f Doc. No. 26. ] 

remains of plants, some of which, with their most beautiful and deli- 
cate foliage, are as perfectly preserved, as if they had been most care- 
fully prepared to ornament the herbarium of the botanist. Between 
the laminar divisions of the coal itself, the vegetable structure can 
often be distinctly seen. In many situations are found numerous sili- 
cified stems, or trunks of trees, belonging to those primeval forests 
from which our fossil fuel has probably been accumulated. Some of 
these stems, or trunks of ancient trees, varying; in size from a few 
inches to two feet in diameter, have been so flattened by the pressure 
of the superincumbent sandstones, shales, &c.,as to make the greater 
diameter nearly four feet. The silicified remains of these ancient 
forests are, in some situations, so numerous as to be truly astonishing. 
One of the most remarkable localities is on Shade river, about six 
miles from Athens. Here they are so abundant, that many teams may 
be loaded with segments of fossil trees, which have been left exposed 
by the degradation of the adjacent sandstones, in which they were 
formerly entombed. It is remarkable, that although these fossil 
plants resemble in structure those flourishing at the present day in 
tropical climates; yet, none of them are now known to exist on the 
surface of our planet. 

Dr. Buckland, in speaking of the splendid exhibitions of fossil plants 
in the coal mines of Bohemia, says : " The most elaborate imitations 
of living foliage upon the painted ceilings of Italian palaces, bear no 
comparison with the beauteous profusion of extinct vegetable forms 
with which the galleries of these instructive coal mines are overhung. 
The roof is covered as with a canopy of gorgeous tapestry, enriched 
with festoons of most graceful foliage, flung in wild, irregular pro- 
fusion overy portion of its surface. The effect is heightened by the 
contrast of the coal black color of these vegetables with the light 
groundwork of the rock to which they are attached. The spectator 
feels himself transported, as if by enchantment, into the forests of 
another world ; he beholds trees, of forms and characters now un- 
known upon the surface of the earth, presented to his senses almost 
in the beauty and vigor of their primeval life; their scaly stems, and 
bending branches, with their delicate apparatus of foliage, are all 
spread forth before him — little impaired by the lapse of countless 
ages, and bearing faithful records of extinct systems of vegetation, 
which began and terminated in times of which these relics are the 
infallible historians. 

fl Such are the grand natural herbaria wherein these most ancient 
remains of the vegetable kingdom are preserved, in a state of inte- 
grity little short of their living perfection under conditions of our 
planet which exist no more."* 

Coal of the Hocking Valley. 
The coal of this valley, and its associated minerals, iron and salt, 
will, at no distant day, be extensive and lucrative articles of com- 

* Bridgewater Treatise, vol. J, page 344. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 85 

merce; and when our noble system of internal improvements shall 
have been completed, will find their way into every county in the in- 
terior of the State, not only increasing her revenue from the canals, 
but adding permanently to the general interests of her citizens. 

Before speaking particularly of this interesting valley, acknowledg- 
ment should be made for the valuable information received from Hon. 
Thomas Ewing, who, by his accurate knowledge of local geology, fa- 
cilitated my investigations by spending some days with me in the 
examination of the mo3t important localities. 

In this series, so far as my observations now extend, are three 
workable seams of good bituminous coal, successively cropping out at 
the surface on the Hockhocking river, between the mouth of Sunday 
creek and a point four to seven miles west of Nelsonville. The course 
of the river, here, is nearly southeast. These layers of coal, sepa- 
rated from each other by layers of sandstone, limestone, shale, &c, 
gradually rise in the hills, in ascending the river, but in an opposite 
direction, sink in them, till they finally disappear beneath the bed of 
the Hockhocking; occupying a distance along the river of about ten 
or fifteen miles. 

Both north and south of this valley, numerous openings will be 
made in these beds of coal whenever a sufficient demand shall be 
created by the opening of the Hocking Canal, now in progress of con- 
struction. According to information from Dr. Hildreth, the range of 
rocks in which these beds are situated, is continued northward through 
the counties of Perry, part of Licking, Morgan, and Muskingum; 
thence they extend, nearly in the same direction, to the Falls of the 
Cuyahoga. In a southerly direction, they embrace, as remarked in a 
general description of the strata of this series, portions of the coun- 
ties of Athens, Hocking, Jackson, Gallia, Lawrence, and Scioto. 

In descending the Hockhocking river from Logan, the first werka- 
hle bed of coal was observed near a Mr. Brit's, about four miles west 
of Nelsonville. The coal here is of good quality. No opportunity 
occurred, to ascertain its entire thickness from personal examination; 
but I was informed, by individuals on whom the greatest reliance can 
be placed, that its average thickness may be safely estimated at four 
feet. 

The stratum of coal next in geological position above the one just 
described, is well disclosed at Nelsonville, about seventy or eighty feet 
above the bed of the Hockhocking at that place. 

As the most extensive openings have been made in the neighbor- 
hood of Nelsonville, this coal is generally denominated " Nelsonville 
coal." This name has been adopted by Dr. Hildreth, in some manu- 
script notes, with the examination of which he has kindly favored me. 

This coal is from six and a half to nine feet thick, separated by a 
thin layer of shale from a stratum of sandstone, which will, in most 
places, form a permanent roof to these mines when they shall have been 
opened. The coal is of excellent quality. It readily splits, parallel 
to the plane of its stratification, into thin iaminae, on which the traces 
of vegetable fibre can often be distinctly seen. On account of its 



86 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

thickness, extent, superior quality, permanent roof, &c, this layer of 
coal is one of the most valuable in the State; at least, the most so in 
the Hocking Valley; and will, at no distant period, exert an important 
influence upon the interior counties, as well as upon the vicinity, in 
which it is located. Upon either side of the Hockhocking river, in 
descending from Nelsonville, Openings can be made in this stratum, 
for four or five miles. 

Above the Nelsonville coal, and below the buhr-stbne, occurs at least 
one other bed which is workable. Coal occupying this position has 
been worked, in several places, in the vicinity of the salt wells, on 
the Hockhocking, and used in the evaporation of brine. The question 
as to the geological position of these openings, must be determined by 
subsequent examinations. 

Coal of Jackson, Scioto and Lawrence Counties. 

In these counties are also three beds of workable coal, which are 
probably equivalent to those of the Hocking valley. It will be recol- 
lected that all these are embraced in the series of strata, between the 
conglomerate and buhr. The western outcrop of the lowest seam 
may be indicated by a line drawn from the Ohio river, near the 
Franklin furnance, in Scioto county, northward, to Richland, in Jack- 
son county; but, as this outcrop is irregular, coal may be found West 
of this line on high elevations, and be deficient in those East of it. Like 
the coal, which has heretofore been described, it is made up of laminae, 
containing distinct traces of vegetable fibre, often so thin, that a great 
number can be counted within the space of a few inches. This coal 
burns with a brilliant yellowish flame, and being free from sulphuret 
of iron, is very highly esteemed for fuel, and smith's purposes. In 
some places it appears to pass into cannel coal. On account of its pu- 
rity, it may be used in the smelting of iron. It is preferred at the fur- 
naces, by those acquainted with its character, to either of the beds 
which lie above it in this series; and must, at some day, be of great 
value to this part of the State, not only to the furnaces, but to those 
places on the Scioto valley, which must, ultimately, be supplied with 
fossil fuel from this stratum. Numerous openings have already been 
made in this bed. It has been used in Jackson, Athens, and Scioto 
counties. Four or five miles West of Jackson, this coal has been 
dug, and drawn by teams to Chillicothe, where it costs, on delivery, 
about 16 cents per bushel. It has been taken from banks, owned by 
Messrs. Chandler, Milligan, McKinnis, Howe, Ward, Landrum, and 
others. We have no data from which to estimate the quantity of coal 
annually taken to market from these mines ; but its amount, which is 
increasing, must already be many thousand bushels. 

Above this bed, occur, at least, two others which are workable. In 
Jackson county, they have not been wrought except for smiths' pur- 
poses, and in a few instances for fuel, by those living in their imme- 
diate neighborhood. The outcropping edges of these layers of coal, 
are found a few miles East of that which forms the western boundaries 



t Doc. No, 26. ] 87 

of the coal deposits of the State. One or both of these beds will be 
found in the townships of Clinton, Milton, Bloomfield, Madison, Jeffer- 
son, and Franklin, in Jackson county ; thence, they extend, southerly, 
to the Ohio river, through the easterly portion of Scioto county, and 
the western part of Lawrence, where they have been used at some of 
the furnaces.- 

Besides these three beds, there are some thinner ones, which, per- 
haps, may be wrought in a few localities. 

We have thus given a brief description of the coal of this group of 
strata, the aggregate thickness of which is variable, but it may be 
safely estimated from 10 to 12 feet, though in some places it may be 
17 feet. 

These three layers of coal, with the strata in which they are em- 
braced, are so abraded, and their debris removed, that they occupy only 
a small portion of the area, included between their western outcrop, 
and the point at which they disappear beneath the beds of the streams. 

The whole amount of coal between these points, from the Ohio river, 
north, to the Hocking valley, may be safely estimated as sufficient to 
form an entire stratum, 50 miles in length, 5 miles in width, and 9 feet 
in thickness. This amount of coal will yield about 9,000,000 of tons 
per square mile. This estimate includes but a very small part of the 
coal, which can be obtained from the beds heretofore described; for, 
after disappearing beneath the water courses, they, doubtless, continue, 
eastward, toward the Ohio river, sinking deeperand deeper beneath 
the surface, so that they can be reached only by shafts near the Ohio, 
at the depth of some hundred feet. The method of obtaining coal, by 
sinking shafts, has not yet been practiced in this country to any con* 
siderable extent; but will, ultimately, be in Ohio, when the consump- 
tion of fossil coal shall have created a sufficient demand for the article. 
Shafts have been sunk, with success, under the direction of practical 
geologists, in Great Britain, to the depth of 1200 to 1500 feet. Coal 
must, undoubtedly, be obtained in this way in our own country, at no 
very remote period. 

Iron Ores. 

In describing the geographical boundaries of this series of strata, 
the limits of the iron ore region were defined; the first bed of ore oc- 
curs not many feet above the conglomerate, and is succeeded by others, 
at greater or less intervals, to the buhr. These several layers or 
seams of ore, vary in thickness from an inch to 5 or 6 feet, and are, 
generally, associated with, and embraced in, beds of shale, with which 
they were contemporaneously formed. Their origin appears to have 
been from a semi-fluid mass, composed of ferruginous, calcareous, 
silicious and argillaceous matter, together with small portions of zinc, 
lead, and some other substances, but not so dense as to prevent free- 
dom of motion between the particles of which it was composed. By 
the superior attraction of particles of the same kind for each other, 
the ferruginous particles arranged themselves around numerous cen- 



88 [ Doc. No, 26. ] 

tres, or nuclei, and thus formed nodular masses, composed of concen- 
tric layers, arranged over each other, like the coats of an onion. 
These nodules, in many instances, are so abundant, and have been 
subjected to so much pressure from the superincumbent layers, as to 
leave the interstices between them very small, and give to the beds, 
at first sight, the appearance of solid, unbroken layers of iron ore. 
By this pressure, these nodules, when not very numerous, are merely, 
flattened; but when very abundant, the weight, from above, seems to 
have moved them laterally against each other, with so much force, as 
to destroy their original form, and curve, in various directions, the 
concentric coats of which they are formed. 

Some of the iron ores appear not to have been formed in this man- 
ner ; but a structure, similar to the one just described, can generally 
be discovered by close examination. 

It is not intended, in this report, to discuss, fully, either the origin 
of the ores, or the varieties which have been observed, as, for very 
obvious reasons, such discussions should be deferred till they shall 
have been subjected to chemical analysis. 

Iron Ores of Lawrence and Scioto Counties. 

"The several deposits of iron ore in these counties, extending to six 
or more distinct beds, lie at an inclination of about 30 feet to the mile, 
dipping to the east southeast; and are seen, as we travel easterly, 
cropping out at successive, but irregular intervals, on the surface of 
the highest hills, at a few miles back from the river, and gradually 
sink deeper in the earth, are finally lost at the base of the hills, disap- 
pearing beneath the beds of the streams."* 

The numerous layers of sandstone, limestone, coal, shale, &c, with 
which these ores are interstratified, have been worn down and cut 
through by degrading agents, so as to form hills, vafleys, and ravines, 
and give to this region a wild and rugged aspect. But the inclination 
of the strata, which have been thus interrupted, is so slight, and the 
valleys, generally, so narrow, that they can be traced, without much 
difficulty, from hill to hill. This peculiarity of surface, although it 
renders the country less valuable for agricultural purposes, has dis- 
closed, and made easy of access, its vast mineral resources. 

These beds of ore, situated as they are, in a finely wooded country, 
being easy of access, and associated with all the materials necessary 
for their reduction, cannot fail to be immense sources of wealth. 

The first furnace for the smelting of these ores, was erected by the 
Hon. James Rogers, in Lawrence county, in the year 1826. Subse- 
quently, eight other furnaces have been erected in Lawrence county, 
and five in Scioto. 

The names of these furnaces in Scioto are, Franklin, Junior, Scioto, 
Bloom and Clinton; in Lawrence county, Union, Pine Grove, Etna,- 
Vesuvius, Hecla, Lawrence, Mount Vernon and Lagrange. Since the 



* Dr. Hildreth's report to the Legislature, 1336-37. 



[ Doc. No. 2 6. ] 89 

erection of the first furnace, in the year 1826, their number has been 
steadily increasing. Lagrange was erected in 1836, and subsequently 
several locations for furnaces have been made, some of which, on 
account of the state of the money market, have not been erected. 

As only two or three of these furnaces have been visited, and none 
of the ores analyzed, a detailed account of our iron ores, and the best 
methods of working them, must be omitted till the detailed economical 
geology of this part of the State shall have been completed. A few 
facts, however, of a general nature, may not be uninteresting on this 
subject; and in communicating them, we cheerfully acknowledge the 
kindness and hospitality with which we were uniformly received by 
those gentlemen engaged in the manufacture of iron on whom we had 
occasion to call. Great interest was manifested in the objects of the 
survey, and every facility was afforded us in the prosecution of our 
investigations. Our particular acknowledgments are due to Hon. 
James Rodgers, of Hanging Rock, Gen. Kendal, of Portsmouth, Rev. 
Dan Young, of Franklin Furnace, Mr. Murfine, of Scioto Furnace, 
and Messrs. Salters & McCollum, of Clinton Furnace. 

Location and construction of Furnaces. 

Great care and experience are necessary in selecting an eligible 
site for a furnace. The principal objects to be kept in view are, a 
sufficient supply of ores, fluxes and fuel, so near each other, and to 
the furnace, that they can be delivered with little expense; and so 
located as to afford facilities for transporting the iron to market with- 
out great expenditure. About 4,000 to 5,000 acres of well wooded 
land are considered, by proper attention to the second growth, sufficient 
to supply a furnace with charcoal for any period. 

As most of the ores, now considered workable at the furnaces, are, 
in geological position, above the first workable bed of coal, the location 
should be east of it, in order to be the most favorably situated as re- 
gards the proximity of the materials to be used in the manufacture of 
iron.* 

In these counties, the common high furnaces are the only ones which 
are used. They are nearly similar in construction, but vary a little 
in breadth and height, the dimensions of the hearth, height of the 
tuyere, and pitch, breadth, and perpendicular height of the boshes. 
The following, as the best dimensions for the construction of a furnace^ 
were given to me by Mr. Salters, of Clinton Furnace: 

* There is one bed of ore below this coal, which, as it is continuous over considerable 
areas, and in some localities of great thickness, requires particular notice. It has been traced 
continuously from the Ohio river northwardly, through the eastern portion of Scioto county* 
to the valley of the Hockhocking river, near Logan, a distance of more than sixty miles) 
varying in thickness, where it has been examined, from one to five feet. This ore gene; 
rally contains silicious sand, and, in most localities, quartzose pebbles. It has been gene» 
tally rejected at the furnaces, on account of the difficulty of reducing it; but I am inclined 
to believe that some of the better varieties may be used, by giving a different pitch to tno. 
boshes, and properly regulating the flux, &e. If future experiments shall show that, this 
iron ore can be profitably smelted, the vast area of land on which it is found w'H bfi 
fjeatly increased in value. 

12— Doc. No. 26. 



SO [Doc. No. 26. ] 

"Dimensions of Hearth, fyc. 

Square at bottom of hearth 22 inches 

Square at the top 24 inches 

Height of hearth 5 feet 

Heigh of tuyere above the bottom stone of hearth 17 (o 19 inches 

Height of the tymp above the bottom stone of the hearth- --IS inches 
The inclination or "batter" of the boshes should be 10 inches to 
the foot; and the distance across the top, from 9 feet to 9 feet 6 inches. 
The height of the furnace, from the bottom stone of the hearth to the 
mouth, or trundle-head, from 30 to 35 feet." 

The above dimensions include only those which are most essential. 

The furnaces are almost entirely constructed from the sandstones 
which are associated with the iron ores. The materials are quarried 
out in large heavy blocks, and la d up without either mortar or cement. 
The main building, or "stack," if properly constructed, will last many 
years; but the in-walls and hearth-stones, although constructed in the 
best manner, and with the best materials, will, in a short time, be 
destroyed by the effects of heat. 

Of working and smelling Ores. 

Instead of drifting or mining, as is done in working the coal beds 
associated with the ores, they are obtained by a process called "strip- 
ping," which consists in entirely removing the incumbent materials* 
Situations for this purpose are found near the outcropping edges of 
the layers. It has been estimated that earth, stones, &c, can be pro- 
fitably removed at the rate of one foot to every inch of good iron ore, 
making 12 feet "stripping" to the foot. Seams of iron ore, not to ex- 
ceed 4 to 6 inches in thickness, are frequently used. In working the 
beds around the sides of hills, the strippings gr&dually become deeper 
and deeper, till the spot is finally abandoned for another where less 
labor is necessary to obtain the ores. 

In process of time, the "strippings" will become so deep, that it will 
be necessary to "drift" for the ores. This process, it is believed, will 
be attended with less expense than the present one, especially when 
the beds are of any considerable thickness, and are situated near the 
furnaces, as in such cases the item for transportation of ore, which is 
a heavy one in the expenditures of a furnace, would be greatly reduced, 
To obtain the thickest and most valuable beds, where they have dis- 
appeared beneath the, water courses, shafts can be sunk through the 
rocks which overlie them; but such operations should be conducted 
only by men who have experience in mining operations. Before 
smelting, the ores from various beds are mixed and roasted. They 
are then placed upon a bench or platform of iron bars, separated from 
each other by a space of about one inch, and pounded with iron ham- 
mers till they fall throughat the bottom. They are then thrown into 
the furnace, with one-tenth their weight of limestone, to be smelted. 
The ores yield from 33 to 37 per cent, of pig iron 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 91 

The following statement, furnished me by Mr. McCollum, from the 
books of Clinton Furnace, will be interesting, as an exhibit of the 
relative quantities of stock used, and the iron made, in a blast of 204 
days: 

"Clinton Furnace, 

Scioto county, Ohio, 1 836. 

Relative quantities of stock used, andiron made, in one blast of 20 4 days. 

Charcoal 307,876 bushels 

Stone-coal • 30,277 bushels 

Limestone 260 tons 

Iron ore 2,546 tons 

Pigs made 896 tons 

Average quantity per day 4 t. 7 cwt. 3 qrs. 10 lbs. 

Average stock used per day. 

Charcoal 1,509 bushels 

Bituminous coal • 148 bushels 

Iron ore 12 t. 9 cwt. 2 qrs. 12 lbs. 

Limestone 17 1 22 

Average slock to make each ton of iron. 

Charcoal 343} bushels 

Ore • 2 t. 16 cwt. 3 qrs. 9 lbs. 

Bituminous coal 33} bushels 

Limestone -v6cwt. 1 qr. 25 lbs. 

Ore used in the blast, 28,511,040 pounds; iron made, 10,161,280 
pounds; which is equal to a yield of 35.64 percent." 

Mr. Murfine informs me that the ores at the Scioto Furnace yield 
about 37 per cent., and that the average quantity of iron made per day, 
while in blast, is about 4} tons. 

In forming an estimate of the value and importance of the iron busi- 
ness in these two counties, (Scioto and Lawrence,) I may be allowed to 
quote from an able paper written by Dr. Hildreth in 1836 : 

".The furnaces make an average amount of 1,000 tons of pig iron 
per year, some of them making more than this quantity, and others 
less. During the past season pig iron has been worth forty dollars 
per ton at the landing, where the metal is delivered to purchasers. 
Producing an amount of iron worth fivo hundred and twenty thousand 
dollars per year, one-half of this quantity is made into castings and 
stoves, directly as the metal flows from the furnace, worth sixty dol- 
lars per ton, which will add one hundred and thirty thousand dollars 
more to the gross amount: making the sum of $650,000 as the pro- 
duct of these thirteen furnaces. The number of furnaces is steadily 
on the increase, several new ones going into operation the present 
year; in addition to which, the bar-iron manufactured at the forges 
will swell the present amount to a considerably larger sum. Each 



92 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

furnacs employe, en an average, about one hundred men, and fifty 
yoke of oxen, all which are fed from produce grown in these counties, 
and those lying higher up the country on the Ohio and Muskingum 
rivers, affording an extensive home market for large quantities of corn, 
oats, flour and bacon, and already nearly as important as that of Cin- 
cinnati to many of the river counties. 

" The furnaces on the Kentucky side of the Ohio river, in the iron 
ore region, are quite as numerous as those in this State, and assist in 
giving permanence and value to this new market. When the number 
of furnaces is quadrupled, as they in a short time must be, from the 
regularly increased demand for iron in railroads, steam engines, &c, 
the value of the iron manufacture will be swelled to several millions, 
and the market for the productions of the soil be proportionally in- 
creased. So true it is, that agriculture and manufactures are twin 
sisters, and go hand in hand, affording mutual benefit and assistance 
to each other." 

Iron Ores of Jackson County, SfC. 

It has been the prevailing opinion, that the valuable deposits of 
iron ore from which ths furnaces in Scioto and Lawrence have 
been suppliej, were confined to those counties; and in consequence, 
those in Jackson have been entirely neglected until the present sea- 
son. The distance of this county from the Ohio river and the canal, 
has, without doubt, hitherto prevented explorations, as furnaces situ- 
ated so far from water communication, could not successfully compete 
with those having greater facilities for transportation. A company, 
however, has been formed, and a site selected for a furnace, in the 
southwest part of this county, in Hamilton township, by gentlemen 
practically acquainted with the manufacture of iron. Under their 
direction, a furnace, called the "Jackson Furnace," is now in the pro- 
gress of construction. It is thirteen miles from the Ohio river, but is 
considered one of the most eligible locations, on account of the prox- 
imity of the ores, limestones, &c, to the furnace, and to each other. 

Much labor has been spent in tracing these iron ore deposits. They 
occupy the whole eastern portion'of the county, being merely a con- 
tinuation of those in Lawrence and Scioto. The western outcrop of 
the most valuable beds, may be indicated by a line drawn from Hamil- 
ton, a little east of north, to the northern boundary of the county. 
In some situations, where the hills are sufficiently high, good beds of 
ore may be found west of this line; but furnaces should be located east 
of it, in order to be the most favorably situated in reference to the 
proximity of the materials necessary in the manufacture of iron. 
Though none of the beds have been extensively opened, yet, from the 
quality of the ores, and the abundance in which they are found on 
the surface, by the wasting away of the rocks in which they were 
embraced, they are probably equal, in every respect, to those of Law- 
rence and Scioto counties. 

This iron ore region has not been minutely explored farther north 
$han the south line of Athens county ; but subsequent examinations 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 93 

will doubtless show that it extends onward to the Hocking Valley, from 
partial examinations in which, it is probable that ores of good quality 
may be obtained in sufficient quantities to justify the erection of fur- 
naces. 



In closing this hasty sketch of the iron ore and coal deposits of this 
series of strata, it may be proper to glance at the future importance 
of the manufacture of iron in this part of the State. 

The prosperity of this branch of industry is always mainly depend- 
ant upon the abundance of the raw materials which must be used, and 
the small amount of labor and expense with which they can be obtain- 
ed. Here, we have all the facilities necessary to success. The fuel, 
fluxes, and ores are so abundant, and contiguous to each other, and 
can be obtained with so little expense, that the manufacture of iron, 
under judicious regulations, cannot fail to be eminently successful. 

At a very low calculation of the amount of good iron ore in the re- 
gion which has this season been explored, it is equal to a solid, un- 
broken stratum, sixty miles in length, six miles in width, and three 
feet in thickness. A square mile of this layer — being equivalent, in 
round numbers, to 3,000,000 cubic yards — when smelted, will yield as 
many tons of pig iron. This number, multiplied by the number of 
square miles contained in the stratum, will give 1,080,000,000 tons; 
which, from these counties alone, will yield annually, for 2,700 years, 
400,000 tons of iron — more than equal to the greatest amount made 
in England previous to the year 1829. 

From this estimate, which it is believed is much too low, it appears 
that the iron ores of this portion of the State are not only sufficient 
to supply all domestic demands for ages, but to form an important ar- 
ticle of commerce with other States. 

There can be no doubt that the manufacture of iron will continue 
to increase for many years; and, with the exception of agriculture, it 
may become the most important branch of industry to the citizens of 
the State. To be convinced of this, reference need only be made to, 
the constantly increasing demand for iron, the facilities for its manu- 
facture, and the amount annually imported into this country.* 

In reflecting upon the prospective importance of the iron business 
to Ohio, a question naturally suggests itself, as to the necessary sup- 
ply of fuel; for if dependence be placed entirely upon charcoal for 
smelting operations, this branch of industry must be comparatively 
limited. And, as the forests in this ferriferous region will be sufficient 
to reduce only a small part of the ores, our attention, on a subject of 
so much importance, should not only be directed to economy in the 
use of fuel, and to the preservation of our forests, but to the means 
of obtaining a sufficient supply from some other source. 

* " The value of iron and steel manufactures imported into this country previous to the 
30th of January, 1836, was $7,717,910. The year previous, the import was less than 
$5,000,000. 

••Mr. Cambreleng's Keport shows an increase in the importation of bar iron for the 
seven years previpus to 1835, of 77£ per cent, over the former seven years, or from 1821 
to 1828 "—Prof. Ji«. Hail, N«w York Geological Report, 1836—7. 



94 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Perhaps no fears need be entertained on this head, as the introduc- 
tion of the hot blast, and the probability that some beds of bituminous 
coal will be soon brought into use for the smelting of iron ores, render 
it nearly certain that this branch of industry will never receive a 
check from an insufficient supply of fuel. 

Ores of zinc and lead. 

In the examination of the strata of which a brief description has 
been given, small quantities of lead and zinc have been seen, but not 
in sufficient abundance to be valuable. Mr. Foster, however, discov- 
ered a seam, or thin bed, containing a large proportion of sulphu- 
ret of zinc, which, it is possible, maybe profitably wrought. This 
will be determined by subsequent examinations and chemical analysis. 
Sulphuret of zinc is sometimes found as the nucleus in nodular iron ores. 

There are rumors, in the southern portion of the State, in reference 
to lead mines, but as yet no veins have been discovered; small quanti- 
ties of lead have, however, been found in loose masses on the surface. 
A small piece of this description was recently sent to me from Jeffer- 
son township, Jackson county. 

Lead must exist in small quantities in either the iron ores or lime- 
stones of Lawrence and Scioto counties, as several pounds are, not in- 
frequently, taken from the crevices in a furnace hearth at the close of 
a blast* 

Notwithstanding these indications, it is believed that there is but 
little prospect of finding lead in sufficient quantities to be valuable, as 
rich veins of lead rarely, if ever, penetrate the coal measures; while 
they are often found in the subjacent limestone. 

Geological position of the muriatiferous rocks and salines. 

As Dr. Hildreth has given the history of the various salines of the 
State, my remarks upon this subject will be principally confined to 
pointing out the geological position of those which have come under 
my observation. 

The determination of Hhe geological position of the strata from 
which the brine issues, is a matter of high scientific and practical 
interest, as upon this will depend our success in tracing the muriatif- 
erous rocks, and pointing out situations where explorations for salt 
water may be made with some degree of certainty. 
.• Water, impregnated with muriate of soda, has been found in all the 
rocks, from the superior part of the conglomerate down to the great 
limestone deposite, which is indicated on the profile as underlying the 
the whole eastern portion of the State. By reference to the plate, it 
will be seen that these limits embrace the conglomerate, Waverly 
sandstone series, and the great mass of argillaceous slate or shale, 
that is immediately superimposed upon the limesiorie.f 

*This information was communicated by Mr. Smith, of the Jackson Furnace. 

tNoTE. This limestone contains weak brine springs in a few localities; and it is probable 
that the rocks above the conglomerate, in some places, contain the saline matter necessary 
to produce them. 



[ Doc. No. 26 ] 95 

In the argillaceous shale (vide C, fig. 4, of the plate) salt water has 
been obtained in several places by boring; but it was so deficient in 
quantity and strength that it could not be used profitably in the man- 
ufacture of salt. One of these wells was bored in the valley of Paint 
Creek, about three or four miles west of Chillicothe, Its position is 
indicated on the profile, to which reference has been made, by the 
perpendicular line a a. 

Brine has been obtained in the Waverley sandstone series, by sink- 
ing through the conglomerate at the licks in Jackson county, and good 
water obtained, but not in quantity sufficient to be profitably used in 
competition with the Kenawha salt wells, in Virginia. The salines 
at Jackson, early attracted the attention of the western pioneers; and 
from them, alone, was obtained most of the salt used in the early set- 
tlement of the State. They were finally abandoned, in consequence 
of much stronger brine having been obtained in Virginia. These 
wells, with the exception of those called "mud wells," were com- 
menced in the superior part of the conglomerate, which, on this ac- 
count, was denominated the "salt rock."* They varied in depth from 
10 to 450 feet, with no sensible improvement in the strength of the 
brine, except in the deepest, which was bored at the expense of the 
State; and in this, no difference was observed in the saturation of the 
water, till the strata had been penetrated 350 feet, when it continued 
to improve, till the work ceased. Mr. George Crookham, by whom the 
information in regard to these wells was communicated, says he thinks 
the brine, at the depth of 350 feet, was equal in strength to that used 
on the Kenawha, but that the quantity was comparatively small. This 
well, which penetrates the Waverley sandstone series, is indicated on 
the profile by the perpendicular line b b. 

The valuable salt wells on the Hockhocking river, five miles west 
from Athens, were commenced in the superior part of the series, indi- 
cated on the profile by the letter F. The water from these wells is 
said to be equal, in every respect, to the best wells on the Kenawha, 
yielding about ten per cent, of salt. These wells are about 430 feet 
in depth; a distance sufficient to penetrate the conglomerate, and, per- 
haps, to reach the Waverley sandstone. 

All those wells which were commenced in strata in a geological po- 
sition below those before mentioned on the Hockhocking river, are de- 
ficient in the strength of the brine. The principal cause of this may 
be found in the fact, that they were situated so far west, as to be toff 
near the outcropping edges of the muriatiferous strata; in consequence 
of which, the wa er, before rising to the surface, could not percolate 
a sufficient distance through the strata to become thoroughly impreg- 
nated with saline matter. 

The wells at Jackson, in addition to the disadvantage of having 
been commenced too low in the series, were situated on a stream, the 

* The " mud wells" were dug to the depth of 24 to 30 feet, in clay, sand and gravel, 

which occupy a. basin-shaped cavity in the superior part of the "salt rock," at Jackson 

The brine, without doubt, was produced by the percolation of water through the rock into 
this reservoir. 



96 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

waters of which run in a direction opposite to the dip, through deep' 
valleys and ravines, which so interrupt the continuity of the strata; 
that a considerable portion of the saline matter finds its way into, thA 
water courses, and flows off in a westerly direction. 

From the facts which have been staled, it may be inferred that loca- 
tions for salt wells, to be the most judicious, should be higher in the 
series than the conglomerate, and on those streams which flow across 
the country in an easterly direction, or nearly in the line of dip. And 
as some of the strongest brine has, probably, been obtained in the 
conglomerate, the wells should be bored so deep as to penetrate that 
stratum. 

There are other circumstances which influence the quantity and 
strength of brine, besides those which have been stated. Among these 
may be mentioned fissures and undulations in the strata, and the rela- 
tive amount of saline matter in the muriatiferous rocks at different 
localities; in consequence of which, some uncertainty will always at- 
tend boring in search of salt water. 

FOSSIL BONES. 

As before observed, some of the salt wells in Jackson county were 
dug in a deposit of clay, sand and gravel, occupying a basin-shaped 
cavity in the superior part of the conglomerate. In nearly all these 
wells were found fossil bones, consisting of jaws, teeth, tusks, verte- 
brae, ribs, die , which, from the descriptions given by Mr. Crookham, 
belong to extinct species of animals. From his descriptions, remains 
of the megatherium, and of the fossil elephant, were among the num- 
ber. A more detailed description of the bones from these wells, will 
be communicated at another time. 

Mammoth, or Fossil Elephant 

About two years ago, some bones, so large as to attract the attention 
of the inhabitants, became exposed in the bank of ore of the branches 
of Salt creek, in the northwest part of Jackson county. They were 
dug out by individuals in the vicinity, from whom we obtained a tooth, 
a part of the lower jaw, and some ribs. 

In the examinations at this place, during the past season, it was con- 
cluded to make further explorations, not only with the hope of finding 
other bones, but with a view of ascertaining the situation, and the na- 
ture of the materials, in which they were found. The explorations 
were successful. There were found some mutilated and decayed frag- 
ments of the skull, two grinders, two patellae, seven or eight ribs, as 
many vertebrae, and a tusk. Most of these are nearly perfect, except 
the bones of the head. The tusk, though it retained its natural shape 
as it lay in the ground, yet, being very frail, it was necessary to saw 
it into four pieces, in order to remove it. 

The following are the dimensions of the tusk, taken before it was 
removed from the place in which it was found : 



[ Doc. No. 26, ] 97 

Length on the outer curve •••• 10 feet 9 inches.. 

" " inner curve-- 8 " 9 " 

Circumference at base---- 1 " 9 " 

" 2 feet from base 1 "10 " 

55 4 » 55 J "U '» 

" 74 " M 1 " 74 " 

This tusk weighed, when taken from the earth, 180 lbs. The weigh 
of the largest tooth is 84 lbs. 

These bones were dug from the bank of a creek, near the water, 
where they were found under a superincumbent mass of stratified 
materials 15 to 18 feet in thickness. The section, (fig. 3, of the plate,) 
carefully taken on the ground, will give a correct idea of the arrange- 
ment of the materials, and the relative position in which these interest- 
ing fossils were found.. 

No. 1 is a yellowish clay, or loam, which now forms the surface of 
a swamp about one mile in length, and one-fourth to half a mile in 
breadth; it is covered with large forest trees, many of which, from theii; 
size, must have been growing some centuries — 54 feet. 

No. 2. This layer is a yellowish sandy clay— 74 feet. 

No. 3 is an irregular layer of ferruginous sand, tinged with shades 
of red and yellow, and partially cemented with iron — 4 to 8 inches. 

No. 4 is a chocolate colored clay or mud, the inferior part of which 
contains the remains of a few gramineous plants, very much decay- 
ed— 2 feet. 

No. 5. Sandy clay, colored, like No. 4, but a little lighter — 1 J foot. 

No. 6 is the stratum containing the bones. It consists, judging from 
external characters, of sand and clay, containing a large proportion 
of animal and vegetable matter — 1 tol4 foot.* 

These bones, from their position, had evidently been subjected to 
some violence before they were covered with the stratified depositee 
which have been described. 

The jaw and grinders, with the other bones which we have thus 
slightly noticed, evidently belong to an extinct species of the elephant, 
now found in a fossil state. As the teeth differ from any which are 
figured and described in the books to which I have access at the present 
time, it is possible they may belong to an undescribed species. 



*AII these layers, with the exception of the ferruginous Band, contain so much carbonate of 
lime as to effervesce briskly with acids. They will be valuable, as manures, on light, sandy* 
■oils, deficient in carbonate of lime. 

IS— Doc. No. 26. 



98 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

In bringing to a close this abstract account of my labors during the 
past season, it may be stated that perhaps no part of the world is more 
productive than will be the entire portion of the State which has this 
season been partially explored. The western portion, embracing the 
vallies of Scioto and Paint, is almost unequalled in fertility of soil; 
while the eastern, although not so fruitful, contains, beneath the surface, 
exhaustless stores of mineral wealth. Those counties which have 
hitherto been considered of so little value for agricultural purposes, 
are destined to become some of the most Wealthy and densely populat- 
ed in the State. 

I cannot close this communication without acknowledging the valu- 
able assistance which has been rendered me by J. W. Foster, Esq., 
Aeting Assistant on the survey. He fully participated in all the labors 
of the season , and deserves my warmest thanks for the prompt and 
efficient manner in which he discharged all his duties. 
I have the honor to be ,with great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. BEIGGS, Jr., 
Fourth Assistant Geologist of Ohio. 

CoumnvSy January 1, 1838. 



REPORT 



OF 



MR. WHITTLESEY, 



TOPOGRAPHER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF OHIO. 



No. 5. 



To W. W. Mather, Esq., 

Principal Geologist of Ohio. 

By your instructions of the 23d of June last, I am directed to proceed 
to the region, included between the Scioto and Hockhocking rivers, and 
construct skeleton maps, of the townships and counties within that dis- 
trict, for the use of the geologists in the field. These maps were to 
exhibit, "as far as practicable, the lots as originally laid out, and subse- 
quently divided, the courses and meanderings of the streams, and the 
topographical details of the country adjacent." As this branch of the 
survey was instituted more particularly with a view to enable the scienti- 
fic explorer, to locate his discoveries with the greatest possible accuracy, 
I have executed the instructions "as far as practicable.." 

From the best authorities within my knowledge, I have constructed 
plans of townships, for the counties of Jackson, Lawrence, Gallia and 
Hocking, and for those parts of Scioto, Pike and Ross, lying east o'f the 
Scioto river. They are upon a scale of two inches per mile, accompanied 
by county maps (with the exception of Gallia county,) on a lineal scale of 
one-half their size. The streams, down to the minutest branches, the 
civil and mathematical divisions of the territory, the general course of 
traveled roads, with mills, furnaces and villages, are represented upon 
them. 

The subsequent divisions of the soil, according to present ownerships, 
are seldom to be found, and are undergoing constant changes. The 
exact meanderings of the streams can only be obtained by a survey; and 
more pressing duties have prevented this, with the exception of the south 
fork of Salt Creek, and partof the Middle fork. In a country so uneven 
as the river counties, where several independent hills or bluffs occupy 
each square mile, without any approach to ranges, it is impracticable to 
locate every irregularity of surface, without a trigonometrical survey, or 
to represent it when located, without greatly enlarging the scale. More- 
over, the streams are a true index to the configuration of the country 
each water course representing a valley between high lands; and few, 
or none, however small escape notice. 



100 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 



Original Surveys. 

Most of my information is derived from the land offices of the General 
Government, where all lands sold by the United States, are represented 
in townships of six miles square, subdivided into parcels of one mile 
square, containing 640 acres. Where the lines of the original surveys 
cross a stream over seven links in width, the distance from the last cor- 
ner, the course and breadth are noted. 

Most of the country delineated this season, is within a Congress land 
district; and those parts lying in the "Ohio Company's Purchase," are 
represented in the same way; the original allotment having been made 
by order of Congress, and upon the general principles of the public sur- 
veys. The entire territory of Ohio, is surveyed according to the same 
general system, excepting the "Virginia Military Reservation," the "Wes- 
tern Reserve," "Military Eounty Lands," and some small unsurveyed 
Indian Reserves. Streams considered navigable for batteaux, were sur- 
veyed upon both shores, and may be traced with accuracy; but for those 
of a lesser size, the course between section lines is imaginary. 

Highways. 

Roads are designated upon the- skeleton -maps, but only in a general 
manner. Owing to material variations in the magnetic needle, both by 
lapse of time, and change of place, the recorded plats of county and 
State roads run at various times, without system, and without reference 
to the true meridian, cannot bo connected in a geometrical manner with 
the section lines of the public lands; the latter coinciding with the paral- 
lels of latitude and longitude. 

The public highways have been established, by ascertaining the names 
of individuals resident upon the route, and referring to the auditor's 
books for their location in the proper section or fraction. 

A final map of the county of Jackson, is executed in accordance with 
your directions, embodying, in addition to the geographical details enu- 
merated, the geological information indicated upon the skeletons returned 
to me. No other entire county has been placed in my hands by the 
geologists. 

Character of the country. 

The external characteristics of the county of Jackson, the southeastern 
part of Ross, and the eastern portions of Pike and Scioto, the only dis- 
tricts to which I have given personal examination, are quite similar. 
Along the right bank of the Ohio an abrupt bluff, apparently 300 feet 
high, overlooks a valley from half a mile to a mile and a half in width, 
fronting a similar range upon the left bank. The Ohio river occupies of 
this space, at ordinary stages, an average of 1750 feet, or about one-third 
of a mile, crossing from side to side in ample curves. The bluff is con- 
tinually broken, by the passage of water courses that (however small,) 
wear their way down through the soft rock of this region, to the level of 
the river. Consequently, lakes, swamps, and waterfalls are uncommon, 
notwithstanding the semi-mountainous character of the country. On 
the left bank of the Scioto, from its mouth at Portsmouth to Chillicothe, a 
line of steep hills, limits the valley on the east, met by a corresponding 
elevation on the west. The trough of the Scioto is, however, wider than 



[ Doc, No. 26. ] 101 

the Ohio, being from two to four miles, through which the stream, 25 rods 
in width, courses at random in a very crooked and irregular manner. 
The vicinity of both rivers, presents occasional lagunes; those on the 
Ohio much above the general level of its waters, and therefore capable 
of drainage; while those of the Scioto are not so, being chiefly caused 
by the absence of the stream from its former bed; and consequently, 
nearly or quite as low as low-water. 

This river, which passes the surplus water of 2600 square miles, rises 
15 to 20 feet, at a point of the stream, above where it is influenced by the 
reflux of the Ohio. Its channel is continually changing; sometimes by 
the ordinary action of the current upon its alluvial banks, but more often 
by the force of violent floods, which cut through the necks of land, 
forming what are there termed "thoroughfares,." Previous to the con- 
struction of the Ohio Canal, it was the channel of commerce for the pro- 
duce of its shores; but at all times uncertain, dangerous and expensive. 
Owing to the want of proper instruments, the elevation of the general 
surface of the country embraced between the Scioto and Ohio rivers, has 
not been ascertained; but the summits of the thousand con e--shapen hills 
that cover its whole territory, seem to lie in one plane, which inclines 
slightly towards the junction of the two streams. Ascending the Scioto, 
these hills are less elevated, with reference to the river, and their bases 
enlarge in proportion. The same is observed, if we go interior from 
either stream, until at the distance of a few miles the inclination of their 
sides diminishes, they become capable of cultivation; and when improved, 
furnish excellent pasturage, especially for sheep. No regularity is per- 
ceivable in the location ef these knobs, and nothing like ranges in the 
bluffs, except at the dividing ridges between streams. In the extreme 
eastern part of Scioto, and I am informed by James Rodgers, Esq., of 
Hanging-Rock, the northwestern part of Lawrence, there is a back-bone 
or narrow ridge, wherever the water flows away in opposite directions, 
frequently extending many miles in an unbroken yet serpentine course, 
at an apparent level, and seldom wider than an ordinary road. An in- 
spection of the county maps, with the endless creeks and minate branches 
there exhibited, will convey a clear idea of the manner in which this 
country is intersected, bearing in mind, that all water courses, where 
there is a permanent flow, lie from one to three hundred feet below the 
adjacent knobs or bluffs. 

Streams. 

From the southern part of Jackson county, streams descend in every 
direction. The south fork of Salt creek northwardly, the Little Scioto 
and Pine creek, to the south and west, and Symmes' creek eastwardly. 
Many water courses take their rise along a north and south line, passing 
a little east of the centre of this county, flowing thence to the middle 
fork of Salt creek, and to the Big Raccoon. 

The united branches of Salt creek reach the Scioto near the south line 
of Ross county; the Little Scioto empties into the Ohio, seven miles east 
of. Portsmouth; Pine creek three miles higher up; and Symmes' creek 
five miles east of Burlington, the capital of Lawrence county. These, 
with Beaver creek, of Pike county, are the principal creeks of the section 
under consideration. They are excessively crooked, with narrow val- 
leys, attended by high hills. Symmes' creek, Little Scioto, and the middle 
and south forks Of Salt creek, are of some value for hydraulic purposes 



102 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

but they all possess the same characterists — a sluggish current, high 
floods, and a deficiency of water. 

The main Scioto in the lower portion, is too transitory and unmanage- 
able for manufacturing uses; the Ohio canal however, may receive its 
waters, and in a measure supply this deficiency. 

Jackson County, 

Along the middle fork of Salt creek, from its mouth to where it branches, 
the knobs stand in thick succession upon both sides, at an apparent alti- 
tude of 350 and 400 feet; sometimes extending along the bank in an 
elongated manner, a few hundred yards; but having in general a circular 
base of about three times the height, and an unbroken slope from the 
summit down. The most elevated points of this wild region lie east of 
the south branch of Middle fork, in "Washington township. Down the 
valley of this branch passes the great "Buffalo path," leading from the 
licks at Jackson, to licks upon the north fork, about thirty miles distant. 
It is at present distinctly traceable throughout, over hills and across val j 
leys, and pursues the most direct practicable route. The appearances 
that of a gully, cut in the soil from one to four feet deep, by a sudden 
torrent, and partially filled again by the effects of time. There are oc- 
casional cavities called "Buffalo wallows," where it is said the animal 
amused himself in his travels, by rolling and pawing in the dust, like 
cattle. It appears by a statement of Mr. Edward Byers of Jackson 
county, that individuals of the Buffalo race have been killed on Raccoon, 
Symmes' and Salt creeks, within thirty years. 

The scenery of Little Ttaecoon, a branch of Raccoon Creek, is quite 
similar to the Middle Fork, and equally romantic. About twenty miles 
of this stream passes through the townships of Clinton, Milton and Bloom- 
field, comprising nearly its whole length; in size, it is less than the South 
Fork. Along the latter creek, between Strong's mill and Jackson village, 
sand-rock bluffs, with mural fronts, rise alternately on each bank, from 
the edge of the water. The remainder of its course presents a topogra- 
phy similar to the Middle Fork; the knobs, however, are less elevated 
above its bed; showing cliffs of sand-rock occasionally near the top. At 
the bridge, two miles southeast of Richmond, high-water mark appears 
to be fifteen feet from low water; and at a bridge near the mouth of Mid- 
dle Fork, the inhabitants put the highest flood at twenty feet. The width 
of South Fork at Jackson, is 35 links; at the bridge spoken of, 60; Middle 
Fork is 54 links wide where it branches, and 90 at its mouth. The knobs 
in the northern and eastern part of the county, produce pine timber on 
their northern and western slopes, from the peak two-thirds of the way 
down. The other portions are covered with handsome oak. There are 
12 saw-mills in this county; lumber, coal and tar, forming its present 
exports. In early times salt was its main product, but none is made 
there now. Pursuant to its general rule, of May 18, 1796, Congress re- 
served what was equivalent to a township of six miles square, about the 
main springs, which includes the village of Jackson; and December 28, 
1824, it was bestowed in fee upon the State, for literary purposes, divided 
into 80 acre lots, appraised and sold, but the avails were small. The 
salt wells are now considered of no value, and, compared with western 
lands, the donation was, in other respects, unsaleable. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 103 

Timber. 

The timber upon the Scioto bottoms, in the lower portions of the valley, 
is, sycamore, cotton-wood, and black-walnut; of the inclined upland, 
connecting the bottoms with the hills, a general mixture of western trees, 
including locust and paw-paw, (and, excepting the chesnut,) the upland 
is mostly timbered with some, or all, of the varieties of the oak. The in- 
tervale of the Ohio produces beech, hickory and maple, with sycamores 
and elms at the margin of the stream. 

Levels. 

Respecting the levels you have instructed me to take, under the direc- 
tion of the active geologist, for the purpose of giving the survey a charac- 
ter of mathematical accuracy, heretofore unknown in the progress of 
geological investigations, nothing has been done in the field. The instru- 
ments ordered from the East were, unfortunately, detained on their route, 
and did not arrive until the 5th instant, while every exertion, on my 
part, to procure a level for the purpose here, has failed. In aid of this ob- 
ject, however, I have spent some time in collecting and arranging the 
results of former surveys made within the State. Had the work of all 
the Engineers in the employ of the State, and of the various Railroad, 
Canal and Turnpike Companies, been preserved in an intelligible form, 
there would have been at this day, very few points of consequence, 
whose precise altitude, with reference to the Ocean, or the Lake, would 
not be easily known. Yet, with the records of levels within reach, addi- 
tional surveys of a few miles, branching from the main lines, will leave 
nothing to be desired in this respect. The explorations for public, as 
well as private works, are very seldom connected with each other, where 
the different lines intersect by natural marks or monuments; nor are other 
routes noticed on the minutes of the Engineer, as he passed. From this 
cause, and an absence of vertical sections or profiles, of the early surveys, 
from the files of the Board of Public "Works, it is not often that data can 
be found, whereby to correct and reconcile perplexing variations that 
exist in some of the returns ; but those discrepancies are confined to the 
early random lines, and are too small to destroy the value, even of this 
part of the collection, in determining the general thickness and inclina- 
ion o^ strata. A sheet of projections is constructed, showing, at a 
glance, the vertical relations of many important points, distributed 
through all parts of the State, and this will be filled out as the necessary 
information is obtained. The surface of Lake Erie, 564 feet above tide- 
water, at Albany, is made the plane of reference. This comparison of 
heights exhibits almost the entire surface of our territory above the level 
of the Lake. The Ohio river, at Cincinnati, in its lowest stage, is but 
133 feet below (that is, nearer the Earth's centre, than) the Lake's sur- 
face. Ascending the river to Portsmouth, it rises 37 feet, being 96 be- 
neath the Lake; to Marietta 94 feet, within two feet of the line or plane 
of reference; and at Beayer, Pennsylvania, its elevation above the waters 
of Erie, is 127 feet, according to the best information. Trie highest an- 
nual floods lessen the difference between the river below Marietta and 
the Lake, about 50 feet, and increase the same as we ascend. But the 
increase of difference is not equal to the decrease, as each tributary, 
when all discharge surplus water at the same time, of course gives ad- 
ditional height to its waters ; yet the extraordinary inundation of Febru- 



104 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

ary, 1832, which H. G. Eastin, Esq., an Engineer in the employ of the 
State of Kentucky, puts at 61 feet in the vicinity of the mouth of Big 
Sandy, was only one foot higher at Cincinnati. From Beaver to Cincin- 
nati, by river, 420 miles, the descent is 260 feet, or 619-1000ths of a foot 
per mile. But the fall is not uniform, being greatest in the upper part of 
the river ,"thus : From Beaver to Marietta, it is 0,86 of a foot per mile ; 
Marietta to Portsmouth, 0,563; Portsmouth to Cincinnati, 0,359. The 
upper level of the Canal, in the northern part of Cincinnati, is only 21 feet 
lower than the Lake; the intersection of Main and Cross streets, Aber- 
deen (opposite Maysville,) 28 ; and the sill, of the Old Court-House, at 
Portsmouth, in Market street, (about 100 feet north of Front,) is but 35 
feet below the line of reference, made use of on the sheet of projections. 
The elevations of the bluffs and knobs bordering on the Ohio river, have 
not been taken this season, for reasons above given. They have an ap- 
parent height of 300 and 400 feet above our general standard (the'Lake,) 
leaving only a small portion of the immediate valleys of the Ohio, the 
Scioto and the Miamies, beneath it. The sill of the Court-House, at Pike- 
ton, is above, a few inches less than 8 feet. The "Little Mountain,'' a 
singular elevation in Mentor, Geauga county, about 5 miles from Lake 
Erie, and the highest point in the northeastern part of the State, rises but 
5 feet above Somerset, in Perry county, and 40 feet higher than the door- 
sill of Hillsborough Court-House, in Highland county, in the southeastern 
section of Ohio. This striking feature of uniformity in the general sur- 
face of the State, cannot be more plainly exhibited, than by a tabular 
statement, drawn from the materials hitherto collected, showing in con- 
trast, some points, remote from each other, but of corresponding elevation 
above Lake Erie — 

Hillsborough, Highland Co., 560. Highland, west of Akron, (same.) 
West Union, Adams Co., 410. Huron Summit Swamp, 414. 

Yellow Springs, Green Co. ) 

(Cokely's door sill,) } 398. Portage Summit, 395. 

Mahoning Summit Swamp 1 Kilbuck Summit Swamp, 1 

(Champion, Trumbull > (Harrisville, Medina coun- > 

County,) ) 342. ty,) ) 337. 

1 Olentangy, at Delaware, 278. 

St. Mary's, Mercer Coun- > Killbuck, at mouth of Apple ) 

ty, (Canal Level,) ) 278. Creek, near Wooster, \ 278. 

Scioto, at mouth of Mill ) Newark, Old Court-House ) 

Creek, J 271. door sill, 5 272. 

Columbus, west door-sill, ) Waihonding, at mouth Kill- ) 

Capitol, S 197,5. buck, J 197. 

Sinking Spring, Adams > Putnam, Muskingum Coun- ) 

County, J 150. ty, J 150. 

Scioto, at Columbus Feeder 128,75. Muskingum, at Dresden, 127.61 

Ohio, atJBeaver,Pennsylvania, 127. 
Fort Defiance, (Canal level) 98 Cleveland Court-House, 95. 

It will be seen that the places compared are similarly situated, i, e, 
Summits stand in contrast with summits, and streams and places upon 
them are collated with each other. 

Ancient Works, 
Pursuant to the liberal spirit, and apparent intention of the act of March 
27,1837, I have inspected the ancient remains within the district em- 
braced in this season's operations, and have sketches and notes of nine 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 105 

separate works. Further exploration and measurements are necessary, 
however, to render complete the plan, specification and detailed descrip- 
tion of most of them. These plans will exhibit the figure of each ruin, 
as far as it can be traced upon the ground; the elevation and 4epression 
of its embankments and excavations, by means of vertical sections or 
profiles, and a topographical sketch of the vicinity. A plan of there- 
mains at Marietta is nearly finished, and may serve as a specimen of the 
general method, according to which, it is proposed to execute" the whole 
set." ., • 

Many of these ruins of a lost race, are to this day without a descrip- 
tion, while their forms and dimensions are fast disappearing under the 
operation of the plough and the spade. For it is in the rich valleys of 
the Miami, the Scioto, and the Muskingum, where the modern agricultu- 
rist now cultivates the soil, that an ancient people, more numerous than 
the present occupants, pursued the same peaceful avocation at least ten 
centuries ago. And upon the sites of modern towns within these val- 
leys, as at Cincinnati, Chillicothe, Circleville, Piketon, Portsmouth and 
Marietta, the ancients located their cities, of which distinct traces exist: 
They also occupied many other points upon the rivers named, of which 
evidences remain too plain to be misunderstood. Large works are found 
on the Scioto in addition to those first mentioned, in ascending;, first, be- 
tween the road and left bank of the. river, about five miles south of Pike- 
ton, on sections 10 and 11, fractional township, adjoining westerly town- 
ship 4, range 21, on Vulgamore's land. Second, on left shore, a short 
distance below Kilgore's mill, four miles south east of Chillicothe, sections 
2 and 3, town 7, range 21. Third, on the road from Chillicothe to Rich- 
mond, three miles beyond Kilgore's mill, at Richard Alderson's house. 
Fourth,- about thirteen miles north of Chillicothe, near the Canal. On 
Paint creek, and the Olentangy, near Worthington, similar works are 
found. Research and inquiry will doubtless develop a connected system 
of. antique structures, upon all the tributaries of the Scioto, and its kindred 
streams, leading to the Ohio. The interest manifested by the learned 
abroad, relative to these works, and the hasty and imperfect sketches ta- 
ken of them by travellers, in addition to a local curiosity respecting our 
predecessors upon this soil, and the other considerations above named, 
seem to demand of us, a thorough record of what remains to our obser- 
vation. A general description will accompany the plans when complete, 
for which it is proper to reserve, observations. But the popular name of 
' 'fortifications," bestowed upon these ruins, leads me to state that, I have 
seen none to which the term is applicable. I have examined the extensive 
works at Marietta, and those more extensive ones at, and in the vicinity 
of Portsmouth — at Vulgamore's, in Pike county— at Piketon — at Kilgore's, 
in Ross county, and at Alderson's — with other lesser, and detached 
works, and can discover in none of them, elements of military strength, 
or evidences of a warlike intention. The principal enclosures -are rect- 
angles, or circles, weak figures, without ditches, made weaker by numer. 
ous openings, not only in the sides, but at the corners. The subordinate 
parts of large works, and the small isolated ones, sometimes have ditches^ 
but always, as far as I have seen, on the inside, though cases of extensive. 
fossa, are.said to exist. The main figure always occupies ground acces- 
sible on all sides, and no spring, or receptacle of water, is found within 
the walls. Other equally good reasons might be advanced, why these 
structures are not adapted, and were not designed, either fqr attack orde^ 
fence, under any supposable mode of human warfare, 

14— -Doc. No. 26. 



106 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

No portion of Ohio appears to be. destitute of ancient tumuli and em- 
bankments; the object and origin of which are still, in a great measure, 
mysterious and unknown. They are said to have been discovered, by 
uncertain traces along the southern shore of Lake Erie, at Salem, in Ash- 
tabula county — on the Vermillion, near its mouth-^and in the vicinity of 
Maumoe river. Caleb Atwater, Esq., the pioneer in antiquarian re- 
searches at the west, describes a most ample construction in the vicinity 
of Newark: one enclosure, containing 40 acres. Also, an irregular figure 
in section 21, town 7, range 16, Perry county, of the same contents; cor- 
responding in this respect, with the large square work at Marietta. The 
same author has given the details of a circular and square structure in 
Circleville, attached to each other — ol an interesting and extensive remain 
on the Little Miami river, in Warren county, a few miles above the mouth 
of Todd's Fork; and some lesser works. Similar ruins are spoken of on 
the left bank of the Great Miami, five miles from its mouth — on the hill,, 
two miles from Hamilton upon the right bank^and in the vicinity of 
Dayton and Piqua. Others are said to be known on the Little Miami, 
near Milford — near Deerfield — at the upper part of Round Bottom — and at 
the sources of East Fork, In the neighborhood of Athens — at Cats creek, 
"Washington eountyr^in Belpre, in the same county — near Jackson Court 
House, oh sec. 19, town 7, range 18-^-and on the Ohio Canal, west side, 
above the mouth of Pond creek Entry 1,270, Virginia Military Reser- 
vation, — distinct enclosures, of various and fantastic forms, still re? 
main. The evidences of remote population and labor, now apparent 
within the State of Ohio,- will, when collected in one mass, surprise all 
who have not bestowed attention upon the subject of Western Antiqui- 
ties. 

Repetition of Names. 

There are in this State, thirty-five townships and villages called Wash* 
ington, twenty-nine named Jackson, twenty-one Monroe, the same num- 
ber of Waynes, nineteen Franklins and Madisons, sixfeen Jeffersons 
and thirteen of the name of Harrison. Many less extensive repetitions 
might be added, and every year increases the number. The counties of 
Fairfield, Franklin, Pickaway, Fayette, Perry and Highland, all immedi- 
ately adjoining, are each furnished with a township called Madison; and 
it will be seen that almost one half of the counties in the State contain a 
AVashington. Great complaint is made of irregularity and delay in the 
reception of intelligence by mail, at interior post-offices, much of which 
is traced to unavoidable errors in the direction of packages, arising from 
|.his multiplicity of identical names. 

Survey of Streams. 

The present opportunity is favorable, to the meandering of all streams 
of a less magnitude than those called navigable, (and already surveyed 
and recorded by the public surveyors,) but large enough to be of impor- 
tance for hydraulic purposes; say down to a width, at ordinary stages, of 
50 links. Or at least the water courses, Lake shore and marshes covered 
with water, in the "Virginia Military Reservation," the "Western Re- 
serve," and parts of the "Military Bounty Land." Many streams of the 
second-class, are already traced, in connection with the public works, and 
plans are returned to the office of the Board. 



t Doc. No. 26. ] 107 

It is well known that the Virginia Military Land Warrants, were loca- 
ted without any previous survey, with the exception of a tract north of 
the Indian Boundary, established at Fort Greenville in August, 1795. 
All the country between the Little Miami, the Scioto and the Ohio, was 
dedicated to these warrants; and aside from the tract just mentioned, 
(and the still unlocated and waste portions of at least 200,000 acres,) the 
whole district is subdivided into irregular parcels, according to the fancy 
and interest of the proprietor. 

Previous to the "Deeds of Cession," much land had been entered at 
the Virginia offices, of which the surveys were discordant, incomplete, 
and not fully returned. Little more system has prevailed in the greater 
part of the subsequent selections; and the special office for that district, at 
Chiih'cothe, now under the control of the United States, is unable to fur- 
nish a true map of the lot lines, much less of the interior streams. In this 
connexion, another important matter presents itself, in reference to the 
Virginia Reservation. A custom has prevailed of "locating," by extend- 
ing the corner monuments, more acres than the warrant specified ; land 
iharks, controlling course* distance and quantity. The whole tract is en- 
tered, and taxed, from the description in the warrant; If subsequent 
sales are made of portions of the entry, the deed commonly shows the 
true quantity transferred, and the proprietor who retains the balance, is 
taxed for the difference only between the deed and the warrant. Great 
inequalities arise in this way, in the taxation <>f properly; and where a 
county Js composed in part of Congress lands, whose quantity is known, 
and partly of Virginia Military Lands, the inequality assumes a sectional 
character. It has been strongly represented, that justice and policy re- 
quire a resurvey of the warrant entries, either at the expense of the 
county, or State, in order to equalize taxation. This work would locate 
the streams, and supersede the necessity of the partial survey suggested. 
It is not in my power, at present, to give the expense of a resurvey of 
the entries; but an idea of the importance of it may be drawn from the 
imperfect statement which follows* and also from fixe fact, that an offer 
was made by a Surveyor, some years since, to the Commissioners of 
Franklin County, to resurvey that part within the Military District, in 
consideration of an assignment of the taxes upon the overplus, for five 
years. A computation, made by the aid of township maps, in the office 
of the County Auditor, gives 136,396 acres* as the contents of Franklin 
County, west of the Scioto.- The quantity returned for taxation on the 
duplicate, is 120,249, leaving 16,147 untaxed. By a law, directing the 
survey of a portion of the boundary of Clinton County, it is to be run so 
as to give the constitutional territory 400 square miles, or 256,000 acres, 
and this County returns but 246,657 for taxation; E; P. Kendrick, Esq., 
who is connected with the Virginia Reservation Office, at Chiih'cothe, 
says, "We consider the District lying North of a line West from this 
place, entirely taken up and located. Most of the vacant land is inPike, 
Scioto and Adams; there is some in Clermont, Highland and Brown, and 
the South part of Ross." 

The Reservation embraces eight entire Counties, with considerable 
portions often more. On the supposition, that the parts of Scioto, Pike 
and Ross, are equivalent to all the unlocated lands in the District, and that 
the remaining fractional Counties are equal to four complete ones, we 
have twelve counties of land, where the excess, whatever it may be, es- 
capes taxation^ The average quantity of real estate exempt, according 
to the rough calculation above, combined with an uncertain estimate in 



108 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Pickaway County, is about l€,000 acres per County, or iy2,ooo acres in 
all, if the data can be relied upon. Thus, one-eighty-fifth part of the tax- 
able land of the State is relieved from its share of the public burdens 
and mostly for the benefit of non-resident proprietors. 

The "Bounty Lands" being allJVortA of the North line .of Township 8, 
Range 8, West of the Pennsylvania line, produced, westward, to the 
main Scioto, (two miles North of Columbus,) East of Scioto, South of the 
Greenville treaty line, and West of the West line of the "Seven Ranges," 
was surveyed, by order of Congress, into blocks or townships of five miles 
square, which were quartered, making tracts of 4,000 acres, through- 
which no lines were run. A small portion was then cut into 100 acre 
lots, and recorded; but the private subdivisions, if on record in the coun- 
ties, seldom notice the streams. In the "Western Reserve," lying be- 
tween a line, extending 120 miles West from the Pennsylvania line, on the 
41st parallel ot North latitude, and Lake Erie, the Federal Government 
never held pioprietary rights. Here, the township lines were run at in- 
tervals of five miles, and, according to the true meridian ; but the subor- 
dinate surveys are without similarity, save that the lots are generally 
rectangular; the streams being seldom, or inaccurately noted. The "Ohio 
Company's Purchase," and the " Symmes' Purchase," are allotted as 
Congress lands; but, even under that method, the creeks escape observa- 
tfon between section lines. 

UnsurDeyed Shore, 

The Ohio Canal, as finally located, will require to be meandered in many 
parts, before it can be laid down in proper connection with lot or section 
lines; and parts of other works may be found in the same condition. By 
a statement of Samuel Williams, Esq., Chief Clerk in. the Surveyor Gen- 
eral's Office, Cincinnati, it appears that the Ohio river, from the mouth of 
Little Miami- to Portsmouth, 100 miles, and along the Ohio Company's 
Purchase, about 120 miles, has not been meandered. 

The shores of Lake Erie and Sandusky bay, East of the West line of 
Huron County, have not been accurately determined. The amount of 
stream, over 50 links wide, as yet unsur.veyed, cannot be estimated with 
accuracy. In the Western Reserve, there would be, including Lake Erie 
and interior Lakes, from ISO to 200 miles of shore, per county. The other 
counties would average from 100 to 150 miles of water course, exclusive 
of the Ohio, of which a full survey is in progress, under the care of Lieut.' 
John Sanders, of the Engineer corps. Unless the Geological examina- 
tions be expedited, in the coming season, so as to render an Assistant ne- 
cessary, the increase of expenditure for this work will be trifling. In 
any event, the additional cost, in fact the entire expense of the topogra- 
phical branch of the survey, may be easily refurded, and the citizens of 
the counties greatly commoded by the publication upon a suitable scale of 
the manuscript county maps, constructed for the geologists. 

I cannot close, without a public reference to the universal kindness 
and hospitality, manifested by the eitizens, with whom I have been 
brought in contact the past season, and especially to the marked polite- 
ness and readiness exhibited by those gentlemen connected with the Pub- 
lic Offices, of all kinds,in affording every facility for information connected 
with thesurvey. 

CHAS. WHITTLESEY, 

Topographical Surveyor. 

Columbus, January 6, 1838. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 

RECAPITULATION OF SUBJECTS. 



109 



Original surveys, - - - 

Highways, - 

Character of country, 

Ohio River, - - - 

Scioto " - 

Streams - 

Jackson County, 

Timber, 

Levels, 

Ancient works, 

Repetition of names, 

Survey, of streams, - 

Virginia Military Reservation, 

Untaxed Lands, 

Military Bounty Lands, - 

Western Reserve, - 

Uneurveyed Shore, 



page 100 



101 



102 

103 
tt 

104 
106 

(C 

107 
tt 

108 



No. 6. 



GEOLOGICAL QUERIES. 



A geological survey of the State of Ohio has been commenced, in 
compliance with an act of its Legislature. 

With a view to facilitate the progress of the survey, the following 
queries are propounded to the people of the State, hoping that every 
one who is interested, either in having thfe mineral wealth of his farm 
known, or in advancing geology and its kindred sciences, will contri- 
bute such aid as may be* in his power. The local knowledge of indi- 
viduals may be of great importance in expediting the survey. 

We would suggest to proprietors of estates, that they forward to 
Columbus specimens of the minerals, rocks, petrifactions, and soils, to 
illustrate the nature of the materials of their lands. The mineral 
wealth, as well as the agricultural value of a farm, should be known, 
before a correct estimate of its worth can be formed. Our land own- 
ers are more immediately interested in the geological survey, than 
any other class of the community, and they will appreciate the im- 
portance of having the mineral products of their land represented in 
the State Cabinet. 

Individuals and associations are requested to lend their aid in ad- 
vancing their own, and 'the public interests. Boxes may be sent, di- 
rected thus : 



w. 


W. 


Mather, S. 


G. 


Care of Jos. Kidgway, jr. 








Columbus, 


Ohio. 



Letters should accompany the boxes, or be sent by mail,, describing 
them. A concise abstract of general directions for selecting geologi- 
cal specimens, and observing geological phenomena, will be found at 
the end of the queries. 

Letters from the various parts of the State, containing local infor- 
mation upon any subjects embraced in the queries, may be addressed 
to 

W. W. MATHEE, 
State Geologist, Columbus, Ohio. 



112 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Rocks, 

1. Have ledges of rock been observed in your vicinity? 

2. Are the ledges on the sides, or on the summits of hills; on the 
shore, or in valleys? 

3. Are the rocks divided into regular layers? 

4. Towards what point of the compass do these layers pitch with 
the greatest declivity ? 

5. Are there veins of other rocks traversing those before mentioned? 

6. In what direction do "these veins cut through the rock, and are 
they perpendicular, or inclined? 

7. Have any ores been found, either diffused through the mass of 
rock, or in separate beds or veins? 

8. Have any useful, or curious, or rare minerals, been found in the 
rocks or veins? 

9. What names are commonly used to designate the rocks, ores, 
minerals, &c, referred to? 

10. Have they been applied to any useful. purposes? 

1 1. Where ledges of rock have been recently uncovered by exca- 
vations, are the surfaces smooth, as if by the action of running water, 
or with pot holes, such as are seen at many water falls? 

12. Do any of these surfaces show grooves and scratches, as if hard 
masses had been dragged ov«r them? 

13. Do the rocks recently uncovered show traces of the shells of 
barnacles, or other marine remains, attached to them, in sheltered 
situations, and much above the level of the sea? 

14. Are shells or petrifactions of any kind, or the remains of plants, 
ound in any of the rocks, and in what kinds of rocks do they occur? 

15. Do the rocks which are exposed at the surface, or buried at 
moderate depths, show any tendency to disintegration or decomposi- 
tion? 

16. Are rocks found to be decomposed, ia their natural situation, (in 
situ,) into stratified clays, sands, loams, gravel, &c? 

17. What is the texture of the rocks; porous, like sandstone, or 
compact and impenetrable by water, like compact Jimestones; slaty, or 
granular, or crystalline like granite andsome marbles? 

18. Do the rocks indurate, or become harder and stronger, after re- 
moval from the quarry? 

19. Are saline substances, such as salt, alum, copperas, nitre, gyp- 
sum, &c, seen efflorescing on the surfaces of the disintegrating rock? 

20. Where water carries off the efflorescing saline substance 
among the leaves of oak and other trees, are the leaves or water 
changed in color? 

21. Are slate, limestone, sandstone, granite, gneiss, &c, found in 
your vicinity? 

22. Where rocks of different kinds come in contact, is there any 
change in their characters n,ear their junction? 

23. Do the rocks show distinct lines of demarcation, or do they 
gradually blend into each other? 



£ Doc. No. 26. ] 113 

24. Where fissile stratified rocks occur, are the lamina? parallel to 
to the strata? 

25. If the laminse be not parallel to the strata, is there "any regu- 
larity in the angle of inclination of one to the other?* 

Sands. 

1. Are there any beds of fine white sand, or sandstone, which con- 
tain no black, or red, or yellow grains? 

2. Has it ever been used for making glass, or for other purposes? 

3. Are there beds of red, er black sand, washed upon the beach of 
the lake? 

4. Are these sands abundant enough for purposesof commerce? 

5. Have they ever been used as iron ores, or as a substitute for 
emery, or for blotting sand? 

6. Do any of the metallic sands yield a bright red powder? 

7. Is the general surface of the country sand, clay, or loam? 

8. Do these materials form alternating regular layers? 

9. Does the sand on the surface of the country drift by the wind? 

10. Have any farms been thus materially injured? 

11. Have buildings, trees, hedges, fences, or wells, been covered 
from this cause, or marshes or ponds made dry land? 

12. Do the sands progiess in any particular direction, and at what 
rate per annum? 

13. Is the sand, in any locality, hardened into a sandstone? 

14. Is sand washed along the shore by currents, and deposited in 
new situations? 

15. Are any islands, sand bars, spits, shoals, or beaches, known to 
have been thus formed? 

16. Have islands been connected with each other, or with the main 
land, by bars, spits, or beaches? 

17. Have islands, or coasts, been washed away entirely, or in part, 
'by the action of the waves? 

18. Where cliffs have been undermined, and have tumbled down, 
what kinds of earth or rock were exposed? 

19. Were they arranged in layers? 

20. Were bones, shells, bits of blackened wood, leaves, or seeds, or 
any vegetable matter, imbedded in them? 

Clays. 

1. Are any beds of clay known in the vicinity? 

2. Are the beds extensive, or of small magnitude? 



The sedimentary sandstones, at toe Grotto of Plants, near Marietta, show the charae 
ter referred to, with all the varieties of interlineated trata which are so frequently ob 
served in the tertiary and alluvial sands. 

15— Doc. No. 26. 



114 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

3. At what depth do they lie below the surface? 

4. What is the thickness of the bed or beds? 

5. What materials were observed in digging down to them? 

6. Are the clays in thin- layers, which easily separate? 

7. Do the beds of clay alternate with beds of sand and gravel? 

8. Are the layers of the beds of clay, gravel, or sand, inclined, or 
are they level or undulating? 

9. What is the color of the clay? 

10. Is it mixed with sand, or is it free of grit? 

11. When mixed with water, does it form a tough and plastic mass, 
or does it crumble to a pap? 

12. When heated red hot, does it become red, brown, or white? 

13. To what useful purpose has it been applied? 

14. What quantities are annually exported, and for what purposes? 

15. Has it been tried as a manure for sandy soils? 

16. Do balls or flat rounded masses of a hard earthy mineral occur 
in the clay? 

17. Are they arranged in layers parallel to the layers of clay? 

18. Are they of the same materials as the clay? 

19. At what depth from the natural surface are they found? 

Water springs, fyc. 

1. At what depth is water obtained? 

2. What strata are passed through before reaching it? 

3. Does clay, loam, or rock occur at the level of the springs? 

4. Is the water "hard," or "soft," as these terms are usually em- 
ployed when speaking of water? 

5. Did the water percolate gradually into the well, when first dug 
or did it come in a strong stream? 

6. Have shells, bones, pieces of blackened wood, or common wood, 
beds of marl or clay, been observed in digging wells or cellars, or by 
the caving down of cliffs or banks on the shore or by the sides of 
streams ? 

7. Have mineral springs been discovered? 

8. What is their taste: sulphurous, inky, pungent, or saline? 

9. Is there any sensible odor to the water? What is it like? 

10. Is the water sparkling, like bottled beer j and does air bubble up 
from the fountain? 

11. Is there a reddish or yellowish deposite where the waters flow 
off, or in the adjacent meadows or ponds; or is there a similar oily 
scum on the water? 

12. .Do sticks, mosses, leaves, &c, become incrusted with or imbed- 
ded in a hard stony coat, or is there a gray or yellowish rock forming 
near the spring by a deposite from the water? 

13. Where such rocks are formed, are Jeaves, sticks, reeds, grasses, 
land shells, or pebbles found imbedded in the concreted rock; or have 
these substances decayed and left their moulds or impressions f epre- 



[ Doc, No. 26. ] 116 

senting the exact form of the body originally imbedded; or is the ori- 
ginal body petrified, and concerted into stone, but still showing its 
organic structure ; or are they casts representing the exterior forms 
but not the organic internal structure? 

14. Do such masses of rock descend the hills from the location of 
the springs, forming a mass of rock different in appearance from the 
common rock of the country around? 

15. Where such masses of rock encounter a stream, are they con- 
tinued across it, or are they found to stop short, forming overhanging 
cliffs, with pedulous masses of the same material hanging from the 
cliff, like icicles and stalactites? 

16. Has the mineral water been used in the cure of any diseases! 

17. Is the spring copious? 

18. Do large springs burst from the earth? 

19. What is the temperature of the springs. 

Salt springs and licks. 

1. Are any salt springs or licks known in your vicinity. 

2. Did the salt water flow there originally, or is it owing to salt 
wells having been bored through the rock? 

3. Has a record of the strata, with their thickness, or a suit of speci 
mens to illustrate their nature, been preserved? 

4. At what depth has the salt water been found? 

5. Does it flow at the surface, or is it pumped up? 

6. What is its strength? 

7. What is the mode of manufacture? 

8. Are any difficulties encountered in making good salt, and what 
jare they? 

9. What impurities are in the brine? 

10. How are they separated ? 

11. What is the temperature of the water as it flows from the well? 

12. Do petroleum,- or mineral oil, and tar flow with the salt water? 

13. Does carburetted hydrogen issue from the licks and wells by 
constant bubbling up, -or rush up in paroxysmal eruptions? 

Subterranean forests. 

1. In digging wells, or other excavations, or by the caving down of 
banks or cliffs of earth, have any traces of trees, wood, bark, leaves, 
nuts or seeds been discovered much below the surface of the earth? 

2. Were these remains in their natural state, or were they convert- 
,ed to stone, or to a black substance like charcoal? 

3. If the latter, has the substance been used for fuel? 

4. At what depth does it lie, and in what earth, (sand or clay?) 

5. What strata were observed. above,and below? 

6. Do the trees stand erect? 

7. Do they lie all in one direction? 



116 [ Doc. No. 26. J 

8. Do you suppose drifting sands, washing by water, or other causes, 
have buried them? 

9. What is the situation of this lignite, with regard to the water 
courses, and its relative height or depth above or below them? 

10. Have shells or bones been found in the layer containing the 
lignite, or in the adjacent strata? 

1 1. What is the color of the adjacent clay, sand, or gravel? 

12. Have masses of a heavy, yellow, metallic stone (pyrites) been 
found in the adjacent clay, and has it been applied to use? 

Peat bogs and shell marl. 

1. Are there inland meadows or swamps in your vicinity that trem- 
ble when one walks over them? 

2. Are they covered by moss and cranberry vines? 

3. To what depth can a pole be thrust down? 

4. How many are there, and of what extent, in your vicinity? 

5. Does the peat, or black tremulous mud, rest on sand, gravel, 
rock, or a white clayey marl, containing small shells? 

6. Has the peat been used for fuel, or for burning lime or bricks? 

7. Has the peat, or shell marl, been used as a manure? 

8. Are there lakes or ponds, which have a white earthy substance 
(marl) in them, which contains small shells? 

Bog Iron Ore. 

1. Are there ponds or marshes in the vicinity, in the bottom of 
which is a soft spongy, yellowish brown stone or gravel? 

2. Does it originate from mineral springs, or from stagnant waters? 

3. Does such ore occur in banks en the sides, or at the base of 
hills, in valleys, or in streams? 

4. Has it been used an as iron ore'. 

5. Is it in such quantities as to be useful ( 

Marshes. 

1. Have the marshes on the borders of lakes, on the banks of 
streams, or on the flat table lands in your vicinity, changed materially 
within tha period of history, or within the remembrance of old in- 
habitants? 

2. Have they become more wet, and risen so as to cover land before 
dry? 

3. Have they sunk in level, and from what cause? 

4. Have they become more dry, and from what cause? 

5. Have they changed in the natural growth of the soil? 



[ Doc. No. 26. J 117 



Lakes and Drainage of Lakes. 

1. Has there been a periodical variation of level on our Lake coast, 
the rise and fall of which has occupied a series of years? 

2. Is Lake Erie now at a higher or lower level than it was a few 
years ago? 

3. If so, what is supposed te be the cause? 

4. Is there a tidal swell on the lake, and which is distinct from the 
irregular flux and reflux caused by the changes in the direction and 
force of the wind ? 

5. Are changes now being effected on the lake coast, either by wast- 
ing away, or by the formation of new land? 

6. To what cause do you attribute them? 

7. In what localities are such changes going on? 

8. Are there any evidences of the lakes in your vicinity having once 
occupied a higher level than they do at present? 

9. Does this evidence consist in elevated beaches, or the cutting 
down of their outlets, or both these combined? 

10. Are there valleys which seem to have been once lakes, and what 
evidence is there on this point? 

11. Are there regular stratified deposits of clay, sand, gravel, &c. 
in the valleys? 

12. Are there terraces in the valleys, indicative either of ancient 
beaches, or of such slopes as are formed by the retiring surge on 
sandy coasts? 

13. Are remains of plants or animals found in them? 

14. In the gorges at the outlets of lakes, or along the courses of the 
streams which flow from them, are there marks to show the wearing 
action of water much above its present level? 

15. Are there deep defiles through the country, through which the 
water flows, or seems to have once flowed? 

16. What is the nature of the strata of those defiles, and generally 
of the country at any of the particular localities, to which you may 
have referred ? 

Rivers and River Alluvions. 

1. Are the rivers and streams in your vicinity, deepening their 
channels, or raising their beds by the deposit of alluvial matter? 

2. Do you know of instances of lateral streams bringing in such 
uuantities of alluvial matter, and of so coarse a texture, that the larger 
stream is unable to sweep it away, and which might cause the forma- 
tion of lakes in the valleys above? 

3. Are the rivers or smaller streams lost by sinking in the ground? 

4. Do the flats of ooze and of sand along our rivers increase in mag- 
nitude, or rise in their level, in any perceptible degree? 

5. To what cause do you attribute it? 

6. Has the increase been more rapid of late years than formerly? 



118 [ Doc. No. 26. ■] 

7. Are alluvial islands of sand, or of ooze, or shoals and flats of the 
same, washing away? 

8. Do the rials, shoals, or islands near the mouths of* rivers and 
streams increase sensibly in magnitude? 

9. What is the mean quantity of water passing through — : 

river per day ? 

10. What, relative and absolute quantities of matter are held in 
solution, and what in suspension, during low stages of water, and dur- 
ing freshets? 

11. Is the transported alluvion of rivers deposited in shoals, bars, 
and islands near their mouths? 

Rolled masses, pebbles, and erratic Mocks. 

1. Are any large rounded or irregular masses of rock found in your 
neighborhood? 

2. Do they occur mingled with gravel and pebbles, or are they iso- 
lated on the surface, or imbedded in the earth? 

3. Do they crumble away by the effects of the weather? 

4. Are they smooth, or nearly so, like pebbles? 

5. Are there scratches on them, in one or more directions? 

6. Are there ridges on them in one direction only, from the harder 
points of the stone, and parallel to the scratches^ 

7. Are these rounded pebbles all of one kind of rock? 

8. Do these boulders or blocks occur singly, or are they in groups? 

9. What rock or rocks constitute these masses and pebbles? 

10. Are they similar to ledges of rock known to you, either in the 
vicinity or elsewhere? 

11. Are barnacles, or other shells, or the remains of marine animals, 
observed on them when they are at a distance from the sea or buried 
in the earth? 

12. Has ice been known to move masses of rock in ponds, streams, 
bays or inlets? 

Elevation of land. 

1. Are there beds of rock containing remains of animals or plants 
vithose proper habitat is the ocean? 

2. Are the rocks horizontal or inclined? 

3. Are they bent, contorted, or are they dislocated? 

4. What is the direction of the line of bearing of the strata? 

5. Is there any evidence that the rocky strata have been elevated 
at one or at several epochs? If at one epoch, all the strata are confor- 
mable up to the time of its occurrence, unless in the rare case of ele- 
vation Without derangement of the dip. If at several, the strata formed 
subsequent to each of "these epochs are successively unconformable to 
those below, witti the same exception as above. 

6. Are the axes of elevation parallel, or do they intersect, and wha. 
are their directions? 



[ Doc. No. 26, ] 119 

7. The occurrence of anticlinal and synclinal lines, and their direc- 
tions, should be particularly noted . 

8. Are the rocks intersected by regular fissures parallel to each 
other, and dividing them into large masses? 

9. Are there two or more systems of these fissures, uniform in direc- 
tion in each system? 

10. Are these systems of fissures vertical or inclined, and towards 
what points of the compass do they trend? 

11. Are they uniformly smooth, with a plane surface, as if cut 
through with a saw? 

' 12. Can faults be traced along the base of steep escarpments of rock, 
where streams or artificial excavations expose transverse sections of 
the strata? 

13. Can dykes, or masses of trapean or other igneous rocks, be traced 
along the line of fault, or of any up-heave of the strata? 

Agriculture, manures, SfC 

1. What manures are employed on the soil 

2. Has a rotation of manures been tried? 

3. What rotation of crops is employed on the light, and what on the 
heavy soils? 

4. Have ohanges of rotations of crops been tried, and with what 
success? 

6. How are your manures prepared? 

6. Does lime, or ashes, or marl, or gypsum, or barilla, entor into 
the composition of the compost heap? 

7. Has salt, or nitre, or copperas been tried in small quantity on the 
land as man u re ? 

8. Has the black ash of the soap boilers, or the bitter water of the 
salt makers, been used as a stimulant manure? 

In very small quantities they would undoubtedly be beneficial. 

9. Have shells or pounded limestone, or limestone gravel, been 
strewed upon the soil with a view to their action as a permanent fer- 
tilizer? 

" 10. Has limestone or any other rock been ground and used as a 
"manure? 

11. Has peat been rotted and tried as a manure? 

12. Has pond-hole mud been tried? 

13. Have clay soils been dressed with sand, sand soils with clay, 
and marshes with gravel or sand? 

14. Are banks of shells known, except such as have been left by the 
Indians, and which are either superficial or buried by a small depth of 
turf, drift sand, or earth washed over them where the water flows? 

Caves. 

1. Are there caves in the vicinity, and in what kind of rock? 

2. Do they appear to have been once fissures, and so symmetrical 



120 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

on the sides that if brought together, the salient parts of one side would 
fit into the reentering parts of the other? 

3. Are the sides and roof adorned with stalactites of a white, gray, 
or yellow color, hanging in pendulous masses, like icicles or drapery? 

4. Is the bottom of the cave covered with stalagmite, and is it of such 
a color or transparency and beauty as to be fitted for an ornamental 
marble? 

5. Do streams of water pass through the caves? 

6. Do the internal parts show arched passages worn smooth, as if 
by the action of flowing water? 

7. Have bones been found in the earth in the bottom ©f the cave? 

8. Are they similar to those of existing animals? 

9. Has the stalagmitic crust (which covers the bone earth in many 
caves) been penetrated in search of bones? 

10. Have remains of human art been found in similar situations? 
Are there subterranean streams, land-slips, sink-holes, (formed by 

the sinking down of small tracts,) rocking stones, natural ice-houses, 
or curious or interesting natural phenomena of any kind which have 
come under your observation, and which are not embraced in the pre- 
ceding queries? 

Suggestions for collecting Geological Specimens, and observing Geolo^ 
,gical Phenomena. 

1. Collect specimens of all those rocks, earths, sands, clays, peats, 
marls, and lignites observed, and note the relative quantities, whether 
abundant or rare. 

2. If any of those materials be applied to useful purposes, note 
their particular applications, the places where used, the amount of in- 
dustry and capital employed, and the articles produced. 

3. If they be not used, note whether, in your opinion, anyone, or 
all, may be usefully applied, and for what; and what facilities the ad- 
jacent country may present for manufacture or transport, or from its 
contiguity to a market. 

4. Note the order of superposition of the different beds of roek, 
earth, sand, clay, &c, with regard to each other; the amount and di- 
rection of the dip; whether dislocations or faults, dykes, veins, &c. 
traverse the strata, and the direction and inclination of these disloca- 
tions, veins, dykes, &c. Sketches should generally be made to illus- 
trate the thickness and relative position of strata, particularly if they 
be contorted. 

5. Note if any traces of organic existence be observable in any of 
the materials mentioned, whether animal or vegetable, either as im- 
pressions, casts, or petrifactions; whether imbedded or loose in these 
materials. 

6. The excavations in mining, quarrying, cutting canals, rail-roads, 
&c., offer particular facilities for observing the phenomena of stratifi- 
cation, of the superposition of rocks, &c. 

7. In boring for coal, salt springs, &c. it is hoped that specimens of 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 121 

the rock, clay and sands, of every foot in depth passed through, will 
be preserved, and accurate minutes made in writing, on the spot. 

8. In deep wells, mines and salt springs, the temperature of the 
water should be measured as it issues from the strata. 

9. The temperature of copious springs should be measured, noting 
if it be different at different seasons of the year. 

10. In mines, is there a local variation of the compass, and are there 
evidences of the passage of electrical currents? 

11. What is the mean temperature of the bottom of the mine, and 
of the rocks at the ends of the levels, at such a depth as to be beyond 
the influence of the heated air of the mine? 

12. Specimens to illustrate the various kinds of minerals, rocks, 
clays, marls, peats, &c. should generally be about two by three, or 
three by four inches, and one to two inches thick, of a rectangular 
form, and free from hammer*marks and weathering. 

13. Fossils, or rock specimens containing fossils, must be taken of 
such a size, as may be necessary to illustrate to the best advantage ; 
still, where fossils are imbedded in stone, much taste may be display- 
ed in getting them out with a good shape, and free from hammer 
marks. 

14. The occurrence of bones, tusks, teeth, shells, &c. where wells, 
cellars, canals, roads, &c. have caused excavations to be made, should 
be "particularly noted. 

15. Every specimen from the same stratum at any one locality, should 
be similarly marked. 

16. Each specimen should be wrapped securely in a separate paper, 
and packed tightly in a box, so that it may fiot be rubbed and injured 
by transportation from one part of the country to another. 

17. It is important that rock specimens and fossil remains should 
be taken from ledges of rock in their natural position, and not from 
loose masses. 

15. Soils should be taken from a depth of about 8 inches below the 
surface. 

19. The names of the county, township, and land owner, should be 
distinctly marked on a small label, which should be enclosed in the 
wrapper of the specimen. 

W: W. MATHER, 
Principal Geologist of Ohio. 



16— Doc. No. 26. 



GLOSSARY 

OP SOME 

GEOLOGICAL TERMS USED IN THESE REPORTS, 

FROM 

LYELL'S GEOLOGY AND OTHER SOURCES. 

No. 7. 



Alluvial. The adjective of Alluvium. 

Alluvion. A synonim of Alluvium. 

Alluvium. Recent deposits of earth, sand, gravel, mud, stones, peat, 
shell banks, shell marl, drift sand, &c, resulting from causes now in ac 
tion. This term is generally applied to those deposits in which water is 
the principal agent. 

Alum rocks. Rocks which, by decomposition, form Alum. 

Amorphous. Bodies devoid of regular form. 

Amygdaloid. A trap rock which is porous and spongy, with rounded 
cavities scattered through its mass. Agates and simple minerals are often 
contained in these cavities. 

Anthracite. A species of mineral coal, hard, shining, black, and devoid 
of bitumen. 

Anticlinal. An anticlinal ridge or axis is where the strata along a line 
dip contrariwise, like the sides of the roof of a house. 

Arenaceous. Sandy. 

Argillaceous. Clayey. 

Augite. A simple mineral of variable color, from black through green 
and gray to white. It is a constituent of many volcanic and trappean 
rocks, and is also found in some of the granitic rocks. 

Avalanche. This term is usually applied to masses of ice and snow 
which have slidden from the summits or sides of mountains. It is now 
also applied to slides of earth and clay. 

Basalt. One of the common trap rocks. It is composed of Augite and 
feldspar, is hard, compact, and dark green or black, and has often a regu- 
lar columnar form. The palisades of the Hudson show the columnar 
aspect of trap rocks. The Giants' causeway is cited as an example of 
Basaltic rocks, and the columnar structure is there very strikingly dis- 
played. 

Bitumen. Mineral pitch, which is often seen to ooze from fossil coal 
when on fire. 

Bituminous Shale. A slaty rock, containing bitumen, and which oc- 
curs in the coal measures, 



124 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Blende. Sulphuret of Zinc. A common shining zinc ore, 

Bluffs. High banks of earth or rock with a steep front. The term is 
generally applied to high banks forming the boundaries of a river, or river 
alluvions, 

Botryoidal. Resembling a bunch of grapes in form. 

Boulders, Rocks which have been transported from a distance, and 
more or less rounded by attrition or the action of the weather. They lie 
upon the surface or -loose in the soil, and generally differ from the under- 
lying rock in the neighborhood. 

Breccia. A rock composed of angular fragments cemented together by 
lime or other substances. 

Calc Sinter. A German term for depositions of limestone from springs, 
and waters which contain this mineral in solution. 

Calcareous rocks. A term synonimous with limestones. 

Calcareous Spar. Crystallized carbonate of lime. 

Carbon. The combustible element of coal. 

Carbonates. Chemical compounds containing carbonic acid, which is 
composed of oxygen and carbon. 

Carbonic Acid. An acid gaseous compound, incapable of supporting 
combustion, and deleterious to animal lite. It is common in caves and 
wells, and many incautious persons loose their li res in consequence of 
descending, without first ascertaining its presence by letting downi 
lighted candle. Man cannot live where a candle will not burn freely. 

Carboniferous. Coal bearing rocks. This term has been applied to 
formation belonging to an ancient group of secondary rocks which con 
tains coal. The term is now used in a more enlarged sense, and may be 
applied to any rocks containing coal. 

Chert. A siliceous mineral, approaching to chalcedony, flint and horn- 
stone. It is usually found in limestone. 

Chlorite. A soft green scaly mineral, slightly unctuous. 

Chloritic Slate. Slate containing chlorite. 

Clinkstone. A slaty feldspathic or basaltic rock, which is sonorous when 
struck. 

Clearage. The separation of the laminae of rocks and minerals in cer- 
tain constant directions. They are not always parallel to the planes of 
stratification, but are often mistaken for them. 

Coal formation. Coal measures. These terms are considered synoni- 
mous, and refer to the great deposit of coal in the older secondary rocks, 
which has been called the "independent c*oal formation." There are, 
howeyer, deposits of carbonaceous matter in all the geological periods, 
and several of them might also be called coal formations. 

Conformable. When strata are arranged parallel to each other, like the 
leaves of a book, they are said to be conformable. Other strata lying 
across the edges of these may be conformable among themselves, but un- 
conformable to the first set of strata. 

Conglomerate, or Puddingstone. Rocks composed of rounded masses, 
pebbles and gravel cemented together by a siliceous, calcareous, or argil- 
laceous cement. 

Cretaceous. Belonging to the Chalk formation. 

Crop out and out crop. Terms employed by Geologists and Mining 
Engineers, to express the emergence of rock, in place, on the surface of 
the earth at the locality where it is said to crop out. 

Crystalline. An assemblage of imperfectly defined crystals, like Ipaf 
sugar and common white marble. 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 125 

Delta. Alluvial land formed at the mouths of rivers. 

Denudation. A term used to express the bare state of the rocks over 
which currents of water have formerly swept, and laid the rocks bare, or 
excavated them to form valleys of denudation. 

Deoxidize. To separate oxygen from a body, 

Dykes, A kind of vein intersecting the strata, and usually filled with 
some unstratified igneous rock, such as granite, trap or lava. These 
materials are supposed to have been injected in a melted state into great 
rents or fissures in the rocks. 

Diluvium and Dilution. Deposits of boulders, pebbles, and gravel 
which many geologists have supposed were produced by a diluvial wave 
or deluge sweeping over the surface of the earth. 

Dip. Where strata are not horizontal, the direction in which their 
planes sjnk or plunge, is called the direction of the dip, and the angle of 
inclination, the angle of dip. 

Dolomite. A magnesian limestone belonging to the primary class. It 
is usually granular in its structure, and of a friable texture. 

Dunes. Sand raised into hills and drifts by the wind. 

Earth's Crust. The superficial parts of our planet which are accessible 
to human observation. 

Eocene. The strata deposited during the oldest of the tertiary epochs, 
as, for example, the Paris Basin. 

Estuaries. Inlets of the sea into the land. The tides and fresh water 
streams mingle and flow into them. They include not only the portion 
of the sea adjacent to the mouths of rivers, but extend to the limit of tide 
water on these streams. 

Exuvice. In Geology, fossil remains. 

Fault. A dislocation of strata, at which the layers on one side of a dyke 
or fissure have slidden past the corresponding ones on the other. These 
dislocations are often accompanied by a dyke. They vary from a few 
lines to several hundred feet. 

Feldspar. One of the simple minerals, and, next to quartz, one of the 
most abundant in nature. 

Ferruginous. Containing iron. 

Fluviatile. Belonging to a river. 

Formation. A group of rocks which were formed during a particular 
period, or which are referred to a common origin. 

Fossils. The remains of animals and plants found buried in the earth, 
orenelosed in rocks. Some of these are but slightly changed, others are 
petrified and the organic replaced by mineral matter; some have decayed 
and left the impression of the bodies, while others have been formed by 
mineral matter deposited in the cavities left by the decay of the organic 
body. These last are called casts. The term petrifaction is applied to 
those cases in which otganic matter has been replaced by mineral sub- 
stances. The form and structure of the original body both remain. In 
casts the exterior form alone is preserved. Fossils are also called organic 
remains. 

Fossiliferous. Containing organic remains. 

Galena. An ore of lead composed of lead and sulphur. 

Garnet. A simple mineral,, which is usually red and crystallised. It 
is abundant in most primitive rocks. 

Gneiss. A stratified primary rock, composed of the same materials as 
granite, but the mica is distributed in parallel layers, which give it a striped 
ftspect,. 



126 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Geology. A science which has for its object to investigate the 
structure of the earth, the materials of which it is composed, the manner 
in which these are arranged, with regard to each other; and it considers 
the action of all natural causes in producing changes, such as the effects 
of frost, rain, floods, tides, currents, winds, earthquakes and volcanos. 

Economical Geology refers to the applications of geological facts and ob- 
servations to the useful purposes of civilized life. 

Granite. An unstratified rock, composed generally of quartz, feldspar 
and mica, and it is usually associated with the oldest of the stratified 
rocks. 

Graywacke Grauwacke. A group of strata in the transition of rocks; 
but the term has been so indefinitely applied, that other names will pro- 
bably be substituted. 

Greenstone. A trap rock, composed of hornblend and feldspar. 

Grit. A coarse-grained sandstone. 

Gypsum. A mineral, composed of sulphuric acid and lime, and exten- 
sively used as a stimulant manure, and for making stucco and plaster 
casts, &c. It is also called PJaster of Paris. 

Hornblende. A mineral of a dark green or black color, and which is a 
constituent part of greenstone. 

Hornstone. A siliceous mineral, approaching to flint in its characters. 

In Situ. In their original position where they were formed. 

Laminae. The thin layers into which strata are divided, but to which 
they are not always parallel. 

Lacustrine. Belonging to a lake. Depositions formed in ancient as 
well as modern lakes, are called lacustrine deposits. 

Landslip. It is the removal of a portion of land down an incliried sur- 
face. It is in consequence of the presence of water beneath, which 
either washes away the support of the superincumbent mass, or so satur- 
ates the materials that they become a slippery paste. 

Line of Bearing, is the direction of the intersection of the planes of 
the strata with the plane of the horizon. 

Lignite. Wood naturally carbonized and converted into a kind of coal 
in the earth. 

Littoral. Belonging to the shore. 

Loam. A mixture of sand and clay. 

Mural Escarpment. A Rocky cliff with aface nearly vertical like a wall. 

Mammiliary. A surface studded with smooth small segments of spheres 
like the swell of the breasts. 

Mammoth. An extinct species of the elephant, 

Marl. By this term an argillaceous carbonate of lime is usually implied. 
By custom, its signification is much more extended, and means mineral 
substances, which act as stimulating or fertilizing manures. There are 
clay marls, shell marls, and various others. 

Mastodon. A genus of extinct fossil animals allied to the elephant. 
They are so called from the form of the grinders which have their surfaces 
covered with conical mammillary crests. 

Matrix. The mineral mass in which a simple mineral is imbedded, is 
called its matrix or gangue. 

Megatherium. A fossil extinct ; quadruped resembling a gigantic sloth. 

Mechanical origin Rocks of, Rocks composed of sand, pebbles or frag- 
ments, are so called, todistinguish them from those of a uniform crystalline 
texture, which are of chemical origin. 
" Mica. A simple mineral having a shining silvery surface, and capable 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 127 

of being split into very thin elastic leaves or scales. The brilliant scales 
in granite and gneiss are mica. 

Mica, Slale. One of the stratified rocks belonging to the primary class. 
It is generally fissile, and is characterized by being composed of mica and 
quartz, of which the former either predominates, or is disposed in layers, 
so that its flat surfaces give it the appearance of predominating. 

Miocene. One of the deposits of the tertiary epoch. It is more recent 
than the eocene, and older than the pliocene. 

Mollusca. Molluscous animals. "Animals, such as shell fish, which, 
being devoid of bones, have soft bodies." 

Mountain Lmestone. "A series of limestone strata, of which the geolo- 
gical position is immediately below the coal measures, and with which 
they also sometimes alternate." 
Muriate of Soda. Common Salt. 

Naphtha. A fluid volatile inflamable mineral, which is common in 
volcanic districts, and in the vicinity of the Salt Springs of the United 
States. 

New Red Sand-stone. "A series of sandy and argillaceous, and often 
calcareous strata, the prevailing color of which is brick red, but contain- 
ing portions which are greenish grey. These occur often in spots and 
stripes, so. that the series has sometimes been called, the variegated sand- 
stone. The European, so called, lies in a geological position immediately 
above the coal measures." 
Nodule. A rounded, irregular shaped lump or mass. 
Old Red Sand-stone. "A stratified rock, belonging to the carboniferous 
group of Europe." 

Oolite. "A lime-stone, so named, because it is composed of rounded 
particles like the roe or eggs of fish. The name is also applied to a large 
group of strata characterized by peculiar fossils." 
Organic Remains. See Fossils. 

Orthoceratite. The remains of an extinct genus of molluscous animals, 
called Cephalopoda. The orthoceratites are long, straight, conical cham- 
bered shells. 

Out-crop. See Crop-out. 

Out-liers. Hills or ranges of rock strata, occurring at some distance 
from the general mass of the formations to which they belong. Many of 
these have been caused by denudation, having removed parts of the stra- 
ta which once connected the out-liers with the main mass of the forma- 
tion. 

Oxide. A combination of oxygen with another body. The term is 
usually limited to such combinations as do not present active acid or alki- 
line properties. 

Palaeontology. A science which treats of fossil remains. 
Pisolite. A calcareous mineral, composed of rounded concretions like 
peas. 

Pliocene. . The upper, or more recent tertiary strata. This group of 
strata is divided into the older and newer pliocene rocks. 

Petroleum. A liquid mineral pitch. It is common in the region of salt 
springs in the United States. 

Porphyry. A term applied to every species of unstratified rock, in 
which detached crystals of feldspar are diffused through a compact base 
of other mineral composition. 
Productus. An extinct genus of fossil bivalve shells. 
Plastic Clay. One of the beds of the Eocene period. The plastic clay 
formation is mostly composed of sands with associate beds of clay. 



128 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Pudding Stone. See Conglomerate. 

Pyrites. A mineral, composed of sulphur and iron. It is usually of a 
brass yellow, brilliant, often crystalized, and frequently mistaken for gold. 

Quartz. A simple mineral, composed of silex. Rock crystal is an ex- 
ample of this mineral. 

Mock. All mineral beds, whether of sand, clay, or firmly aggregated 
masses, are called rocks. 

Sand-stone. A rock composed of aggregated grains of sand. 

Saurians. Animals belonging to the lizard tribe; 

Schist. Slate. 

Seams. "Thin layers which separate strata of greater magnitude." 

Secondary Strata. "An extensive series of the stratified rocks, which 
compose the crust of the globe, with certain characters in common, which 
distinguish them from another series below them, called primary, and 
another above them, called tertiary." 

Sedimentary Rocks — Are those which have been formed by their mate- 
rials having been thrown down from a state of suspension or solution in 
water. 

Selenite. Crystalized gypsum. m 

Septaria. Flattened balls of stone, which have been ftiore or less crack- 
ed in different directions, and cemented together by mineral matter which 
fills the fissures. 

Serpentine. A rock composed principally of hydrated silicate of mag- 
nesia. It is generally an unstratified rock. 

Shale. An indurated slaty clay, which is very fissile. 

Shell Marl — Fresh water Shell Marl. A deposit of fresh water shells, 
which have disintegrated into s. grey or White pulverulent mass. 

Shingle. The loose, water-worn gravel and pebbles on shores and 
coasts. 

Silex. The name of one. of the pure earths which is the base of flint, 
quartz, and most sands and sand-stones. 

Silt. "The more comminuted sand, clay and earth, which is transport- 
ed by running water." 

Simple Minerals — Are composed of a single mineral substance. Rocks 
are generally aggregates of several simple minerals cemented together. 

Slate. A rock dividing into thin layers. 

Stalactite. Concreted carbonate of lime, hanging from the roofs of 
caves, and like icicles in form. 

Stalagmites. Crusts and irregular shaped masses of concreted carbonate 
of lime, formed on the floors of caves, by deposits from the dripping of 
water. 

Stratification. An arrangement of rocks in strata. 

Strata. Layers of rock parallel to each other, 

Stratum. A layer of rocks; one of the strata. 

Strike. The direction in which the edges of strata crop out. It is 
synonimous with line of bearing. 

Syenite and Sienite. A granitic rock, in which hornblende replaces the 
mica. 

Synclinal line and Synclinal axis. When the strata dip downward in 
opposite directions, like the sides of a gutter. 

Talus. In geology, a sloping heap of broken rocks and stones at the 
foot of many cliffs. 

Tertiary Strata. "A series of sedimentary rocks, with characters which 
distinguish them from two other great series of strata— the secondary and 
primary — which lie beneath them." 



[ Doc, No. 26. ] 129 

Testacea. "Molluscous animals, having a shelly covering." 

Tepid. Warm. 

Thermal. Hot. 

Thin out. Strata which diminish in thickness until they disappear, are 
said to thin out. 

Trap — Trappean Rockt. Ancient volcanic rocks, composed of felds- 
par, hornblende and augite. Basalt, greenstone, amygdaloid and dolerite, 
are trap rocks. 

Travertin. "A concretionary lime-stone, hard and semi-crystalline, de- 
posited from the water of springs." 

Tufa Calcareous, "A porous rock, deposited by calcareous waters on 
exposure to air, and usually containing portions of plants and other or- 
ganic substances incrusted with carbonate of lime." 

Tufaceow. A texture of rock like that of tuff. 

Tuff ox Tufa. "An Italian name for a volcanic rock of an earthy tex- 
ture." 

Unconformable. See conformable. 

Vein*. Cracks and fissures in rocks filled with stony or metallic matter. 
Most of the ores are obtained from metallic veins. 

Zoophytes. Coral sponges and other aquatic animals allied to them. 



17— Doc. Nj. 26. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

No. 7. 



PROFESSOR MATHER'S REPORT. 

General considerations, ....... 5 

Coal, ... - . « 

" quantity of in the State ----- 6 

" ■ practical value of demonstrated " 

" compared with Charcoal in reference to the extent of land " 

required for furnaces - - - - - « 

" annual consumption of - - - - " 

" prospective consumption of - - - " 

" means of motive power - - - " 

" of Ohio may be considered inexhaustible " 

Iron Ore, ----- .7 

" extent of country underlaid by " 

" stratification of - « 

Iron trade will be very important to the State " 

General principles involved in the reduction of iron ores - - 8 

Limestones - - - - - - - - • 9 

" extent of and uses, ...... 

" marbles, galena and fossils - - " 

Sandstones, ......-" 

" importance of testing their durability for public works - 10 

" uses and export of this rock ...-«« 

Clays, uses for bricks, pottery, &c. ...-«« 

Peat, varieties and uses, ...__" 

Soils, productiveness of - - - - - 11 

" texture of - - - - - - " 

" substrata of - - - - - -.-12 

" " drainage by means of - - - " 

" composition of - - - - - " 

Mineral Manures, ...... 13 

limestone, gypsum, marls and lime " 

Mineral Springs — salt springs, petroleum - - - - 14 

Alluvial action on the Muskingum and Ohio " 

" " on the Lake coast, ----- 15 

" " at Fairport, Chagrin, and Cleveland - - 16 



132 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Coast of Lake Erie washing away more rapidly than formerly, and 

and the cause ...... 17 

Analysis of coal and ores - - - - - - 18 

coal for smelting ...... « 

coke manufacture of in Ohio " 

" used in some of our high furnaces " 

Importances of determining the dip - - - 19 

Geological Corps, organization of - - - - - 20 

Sketch of the Assistants reports .-...<« 

Dr. Hildreth investigating the organic remains, " 

importance of these investigations ..." 

Br. Kirtland, Botanist and Zoologist - - 21 

Dr. Locke ------.« 

Prof. Briggs and Mr. Foster - - - - • " 

Col. Whittlesey, Topographer ....<< 

Topographical Maps 22 

Ancient Works - , - - - - " 

Principals' duties --.--..» 

Appropriation for the current year - ■ - - - - 23 

DR. HILDRETH'S REPORT. 

Introductory remarks of Dr. Hildreth*s report - - - 25 
Coal fields of Great Britain - - ... --26 

Coal extent of in Ohio - - - - - 26 

Rock strata above the Buhr-stone or Calcareo silicious rock - 28 

Buhr-stone, or Calcareo silicious rock - - - - 28 

Range and extent ------ 29 

Value and importance of the Buhr-stone - - - 33 

Quality and character of do. - ' - - 33 

French Buhr compared with the Ohio buhr - - 34 

Mineral contents of the Calcareo Silicious Rock - 35 

Agricultural character of the Buhr-stone region - - 35 

Iron Ore associated with the Buhr-stone - - - 36 

Strata between the Buhr and upper fossiliferous Limestone 37 

Upper fossiliferous Limestone - - - - 38 

Range and extent of do. - ... 39 

Strata between the Limestone and Pomeroy Coal beds - - 39 

Pomeroy Coal beds ...... 40 

Range and extent of ditto ..... 40 

Fossils which accompany do. - - - - 42 

Agricultural character of the region of do. ... 45 

Strata between the Pomeroy Coal and Lime-stone Coal - - 45 

Lime-stone Coal — range and extent - - - - 46 

Lime-rock-^aonfossiliferous - - - - 47 

Stone Marls - - - - ... - 48 

Range and extent of Lime and Marls . . - - « 

Agricultural character of the region of ditto - - - 49 

Fossil freshwater Shells ...... 50 

Fossil contents of red shales - --.*-" 

Coal — upper bed ....... 51 

Coarse Sand-rock and Conglomerate - - - - " 

Grottoes and caverns in ditto ..... 52 

Upper series of sand rocks ....»«' 



[ Doc. No. 26. ] 133 

Salt Springs, and early history of the - - 54 

Salt Manufacture ... « 

Remarks on the salt producing rocks - - - 55 

Quartz or Calcareo-silicieous Bock - 56 

The Scioto Salines ------- 57 

Early legislation on the Ohio Salines - - - 58 

The Muskingum Salines ------ 59 

The Gallipolis Salines .--...« 

The Leading Creek Salines -----.» 

The Hocking Valley Saline .... go 

The Muskingum Valley Saline ... - 61 

Number of Salt Wells and manufacture - - - - 62 

Petroleum and Carb. hydrogen gas - - - - 62 

PROFESSOR KIRTLAND'S REPORT. 

Introductory remarks by Prof. J. P. Kirtland - - - 65 

Advantages to be derived from the Survey - - - 66 

Advantages to be derived from the study of Botany - 66 

Economical importance of Zoological knowledge - - - 66 

Colouring materials from vegetables - - - - 69 
Importance 0/ examining our native Plants, with a view to discover 

their medicinal properties 69 

PROFESSOR BRIGGS' REPORT. 

Reconnoissance of country between the Scioto and Hocking rivers 71 

Geological sections ----- 71 

Aspect of the country ... - 72 

Importance of the hilly character of the country - 72 

Mineral deposits and dip ------ 72 

Mode of determining dip - - - - 73 

Groups or subdivisions of Rocks - ... 74 

Limestone district ... - ... 76 

uses for marbles, buildig, &c. ... 75 

Slate described by Mr. Foster ... 77 

minerals in the Slate ... 78 

alum, copperas, gypsum, &c. - - - 78 

mineral springs and - bog-iron - - - - 78 

Waverly Sandstone Series .... 79 

Conglomerate ------- 80 

Lower Coal formation ----- so 

Sandstone ----- 81 

Shales ... - 81 

Limestone - 82 

Coal of Hocking Valley - - - - 84 

" Jackson, and adjoining counties - - 86 

" Quality of in the lower series, between Scioto and Hocking 86 

Iron Ore, ... .. 87 

furnaces of Scioto and Lawrence .. 88 

construction of furnaees - - - 89 

roasting and smelting ore ... 90 

iron ore of Jackson County - - 92 

prospective iron manufacture - 93 



134 [ Doc. No. 26. ] 

Lead and Zinc Ores ---... 94 

Salt Welts — geological position of - - - - 94 

Fossil bones - ..... gg 

COL. WHITTLESEY'S REPORT. 

Original Surveys - - - - . . jqo 

Highways -----..« 

Character of the Country ...... << 

Ohio River -.---.. igj 

Scioto " -----.. joj 

Streams - - 101 

Jackson County -----.. jq2 

Salt Springs ----... jog 

Timber -----.. J02 

Ancient Works - - - - . . - 104 

Change of names -----.. 106 

Virginia Military Reservation ..... 107 

Uutaxed Lands ----...« 

Military Bounty Lands ...... jos 

Western Reserve ... « 

Unsurveyed Shore ----...it 

Geological Queries - - - - . . -Ill 

Glossary of Geological Terms - - - - - 122