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Edward William Lane's ARABIC -ENGLISH LEXICON 
Book I contains all the classical words, their derivatives, 
and their usages. It appears in eight separate volumes 
and took the author more than thirty years to compile. 

Book II, which Dr. Lane contemplated and which was 
to contain rare words and explanations, was incomplete 
at the time of his death in 1876 and therefore never 

In describing Lane's Lexicon, Dr. G. P. Badger wrote. 
" This marvellous work in its fullness and richness, its 
deep research, correctness and simplicity of arrangement 
far transcends the Lexicon of any language ever pre- 
sented to the world. » 

Printed in Lebanon by OFFSET CONROGRAVURfc 

Y -*■ S 

































In the year 1842, a most generous offer made to me by the present Duke of Northumberland (then Lord Prudhoe) enabled me 
to undertake the composition of this work; and to His Grace's princely aid I have ever since been mainly indebted for 
the means of accomplishing the project thus originated. 

The object proposed was not to do in English little more than what Golius and others had already done in Latin, by 
translating and composing from a few Arabic lexicons of the class of epitomes or abstracts or manuals; but to draw chiefly 
from the most copious Eastern sources; one of which, comprising in about one seventh part of its contents the whole of the 
celebrated Kiiinoos, I knew to exist in Cairo. There, also, I had reason to believe that I might find other sources unknown in 
Europe, and obtain more aid ill the prosecution of my design than I could elsewhere; and thither, therefore, I betook myself 
for this purpose. 

On my arrival at Cairo, I first had recourse, for help in making my preparations, to an accomplished Arabic Scholar, 
the late M. Fulgencc Fresnel, with whom, during a former residence in Egypt, I had contracted an intimate friendship. 
Previously informed by mc of my project, he had tested the qualifications of several learned natives for the task of assisting 
me in collecting, transcribing, and collating, the materials from which my lexicon was to be composed ; and he recommended 
to me, as tbc person whom he esteemed the most fit, the shcykh Ibrahcem (surnamed 'Abd-el-Ghaffar) Ed-Dasookec. To have 
engaged as my coadjutor ft shcykh respected for his character and learning, and to have been disappointed in him, and obliged 
to dismiss him, might have made him my enemy, and enabled and induced him to baffle my scheme; but my experience led 
mc to believe that a person better qualified for the services that I required of him, than the sheykh Ibrahcem Ed-Dasookce, 
could not have been found by mc in Cairo; and I had no occasion to employ any other assistant, except, occasionally, 
transcribers, under his supervision. 

The assistance that I received from my friend M. Fresnel was not limited to the favour mentioned above. With a 
generosity rarely equalled, he insisted upon transferring to mc the most valuable of his Arabic manuscripts, to remain with me 
during the whole period of the composition of my lexicon, and in case of his death during that period to become my absolute 
property. Most deeply do 1 deplore his not having lived to see how greatly those precious manuscripts have contributed to 
the accuracy and value of my work, and to have them restored to him. They consist of two copies of the Sihah and a copy 
of the Kiimoos. One of the copies of the former lexicon is a manuscript of extraordinary excellence : it was finished in the 
year of the Flight 676 (a.d. 1277) ; and forms a large quarto-volume. The other copy of the same lexicon is in three 
volumes : the second volume surpasses in accuracy every other copy of the same work that I have seen, and is enriched with 
numerous important extracts, in its margins, from the celebrated Annotations of Ibn-Barree and El-Bustee: the first volume 
is similarly enriched, and little inferior to the second in accuracy : the third is of the ordinary quality. The copy of the 
Kamoos, which is written in a very small and compact hand, and forms a single octavo- volume, I believe to be unique : it 
contains, in its margins, (with other annotations and with various readings,) copious extracts from the great work which is 
the main source of my own lexicon; and its text, of which the transcription was finished in the year of the Flight 1120 
(a.d. 1708-9), has been carefully collated. These valuable acquisitions I made almost immediately after my arrival at Cairo. 

It was indispensable, I believe, to the success of my undertaking, that I should most carefully avoid whatever might 
draw down disrespect from the 'Ulama of Cairo, or others of the Muslim inhabitants, either upon myself or upon the sheykh 
Bk. I. 


who was to assist me in procuring the chief materials for the composition of my work. For it was only by his means that I 
could reasonably hope to obtain the use of manuscripts in the libraries of mosques ; that is, by his borrowing those manuscripts 
as though for his own use: and one of the librarians showed himself to be desirous of urging any pre.text in order to refuse the 
loan of the work that I most needed. I therefore made my place of residence" to be as far as I could from the quarters 
frequented by Franks, and conformed with such of the general usages of the Muslims as did not involve a profession of 
their religion. But my precautions did not suffice to secure me from every difficulty. Even the Viceroy, Mohammad 'Alee 
Pasha, though almost an absolute prince, could not enable me to overcome them. Hearing of my project, I know not how, 
he spontaneously informed me, by his Prime Minister, that he was desirous of showing his respect for my Patron by rendering 
me any assistance within his power. I replied that his Highness would very greatly aid me by granting me authority to 
demand the loan of certain manuscripts in the libraries of mosques. But it was feared that the wardens of the mosques would 
in this case urge the necessity of an order from the Sultan, or abstract considerable portions from those manuscripts and so 
defeat my plan. I could therefore only endeavour to obtain, according to the usual custom, through the shcykh my assistant, 
a small portion at a time of each of the required manuscripts: and even this I was unable to do until after the lapse of some 
weeks. In the mean time, however, I had the good fortune to acquire a large folio-volume, consisting of nearly the whole of 
the first tenth portion, of a copy of the great work to which I have alluded before as comprising in about one seventh part of 
its contents the whole of the celebrated Kamoos. This work, entitled "Taj cl-'Aroos" (^-j^ill --U), a compilation from the best 
and most copious Arabic lexicons, in the form of a running commentary on the Kamoos, with necessary critical and other 
illustrations, original, and selected from various authors of high repute, fully justified my expectation. I found, from the 
portion before me, that it would of itself alone suffice to supply the means of composing an Arabic lexicon far more accurate 
and perspicuous, and incomparably more copious, than any hitherto published in Europe. But I should not have been satisfied 
with making use of it for such a purpose without being able to refer to several of the most important of the works from which 

it was compiled. 


Of these works, and others particularly deserving of notice, as well as of the Taj cl-'Aroos itself, and of the principles of 
Arabic lexicology, I must now endeavour to give a brief account. In doing this, I shall frequently have occasion to cite the 
"Muzhir" of Es-Suyootee, a compilation of the utmost value to students in general, and more especially to lexicographers, of the 
Arabic language. Its author died in the year of the Flight 911, a date to be borne in mind in perusing my extracts from it. 
I possess a most excellent copy of it, (written by a learned man, the shcykh Nasr El-Hoorccncc, with the exception of a 
portion which, while he was suffering from an attack of ophthalmia, was written for him by one of his disciples,) transcribed 
from the best that is known to exist in Cairo, (namely, that of Es-Seja'ec, in the library of the great mosque El-Azhar,) and 
enriched with copious marginal notes. 

What is called the classical language of Arabia, often termed by the Arabs " the language of Ma'add," and " the 
language of Mudar," is a compound of many sister-dialects, very little differing among themselves, which were spoken 
throughout nearly the whole of the Peninsula before the religion of Mohammad incited the nation to spread its conquering 
armies over foreign countries. Before that period, feuds among the tribes, throughout the whole extent of their territory, had 
prevented the blending of their dialects into one uniform language; but this effect of disunion was counteracted in a great 
measure by the institution of the sacred months, in which all acts of hostility were most strictly interdicted, and by the annual 
pilgrimage, which had obtained from time immemorial, and the yearly fair held at 'Ok&dh, at which the poets of various 
tribes, during a period of about a century before the birth of Mohammad, or perhaps during a somewhat longer period, 
contended for the meed of general admiration.* 

• Respecting this fair, sec sonic extracts from the first of M. Frcsnel's " Lettrcs sur 1'IIistoirc des Arabcs avant I'lslamisme" in Note 18 to the 
first chapter of my Translation of the Thousand and One Nights. 


" Katiideh says that the tribe of Kureysh used to cull what -was most excellent in the dialects of the Arabs, so that their 
dialect became the most excellent of all." (Taj el-'Aroos, in article ,_>;*: and the like is said in the 9th Section of the Muzhir.) 
This assertion, however, is not altogether correct : for many of the children of the tribe of Kureysh, in the time of Mohammad, 
were sent into the desert to be there nursed in order to their acquiring the utmost chasteness of speech. Mohammad himself 
was sent to be nursed among the tribe of Saad Ibn-Bekr Ibn-Hawazin, descendants of Mudar, but not in the line of Kureysh : 
and he is said to have urged the facts of his being of Kureysh and having grown up among the tribe of Saad as the grounds of 
his claim to be tlic most chaste in speech of the Arabs. It is evident, therefore, that Kureysh, in his time, were less chaste 
in spcecli than some other tribes ; though the truth of this asserted saying of his rests, I believe, only on the authority of a 
Saadcc, who may have forged it in order to raise the reputation of his own tribe for purity of speech. From distant tribes, 
Kureysh probably borrowed little. The dialect of Himycr, confined mainly to El- Yemen, and allied much more to the Ethiopic and 
the Hebrew than to the language of Ma'add, contributed to this last language little more than a small proportion of words. For 
our knowledge of it, which is very scanty, we are chiefly indebted to the researches of M. Fresnel, who discovered a surviving 
idiom of it, spoken chiefly in the district of Mahreh, between Iladramowt and 'Oman : hence it has been termed " Mahrce ;" 
and from the name of the tribe who speak it, M. Fresnel gave it the appellation of "Ehhkili," or "Ehkili." The author of 
the " Misbah" (El-Fciyoomcc) says, in article ^,, " The language of the people of Mahreh, which is a district of 'Oman, is quick, 
and scarcely, or not at all, intelligible [to other Arabs], and is of the ancient Ilimyerce." 

The language of Ma'add was characterized by its highest degree of perfection, copiousness, and uniformity, in the time 
of Mohammad; but it soon after declined, and at length lost almost all that constituted its superiority over the other branches 
of the Semitic stock in the states in which these arc known to us. It is evident that all the Semitic languages diverged from 
one form of speech : and the known history of the Arabic is sufficient, I think, to show that the mixture of the several 
bianchrs of the Shcmites, in different degrees, with different foreign races, was the main cause, if not of the divergence, at least 
of the decay, of their languages, as exemplified by the Biblical Hebrew and Chaldee, and the Christian Syriac. That their 
divergence also was thus mainly caused, we cannot prove; but that this was the case I do not doubt, judging from the 
differences in their vocabularies, more especially from the differences of this kind in the Hebrew and Phoenician from the other 
Semitic languages. The existence of at least one language widely differing from the Semitic very long before the age of Moses 
is proved by the remains of the ancient Egyptian, from the time of the Pyramids; a language predominantly Semitic in its 
grammar, but predominantly Non-Semitic in its vocabulary; and evidently a compound of two heterogeneous forms of speech. 
The opinion, common among the learned of the Arabs, that the Arabic is the offspring of the Syriac, apparently suggested by- 
a comparison of their vocabularies and by false notions of development, is simply absurd, unless by "the Syriac" we 
understand a lost language very different from that which is known to us by this appellation.* Every language without a 
written literature tends to decay more than to development by reason of foreign influences ; and the history of the Arabic 
exhibits an instance of decay remarkably rapid, and extraordinary in degree. An immediate consequence of the foreign 
conquests achieved by the Arabs under Mohammad's first four successors was an extensive corruption of their language: for 
the nations that they subdued were naturally obliged to adopt in a great measure the speech of the conquerors, a speech which 
few persons have ever acquired in such a degree as to be secure from the commission of frequent errors in grammar without 
learning it from infancy. These nations, therefore, and the Arabs dwelling among them, concurred in forming a simplified 
dialect, chiefly by neglecting to observe those inflections and grammatical rules which constitute the greatest difficulty of the 
classical Arabic: in the latter half of the first century of the Flight, this simplified dialect became generally spoken in the 
foreign towns and villages inhabited by the Arabs ; and it gradually became the general language throughout the deserts, as 
well as the towns and villages, of Arabia itself. That such a change took place, in the language of the Arabs inhabiting 
foreign towns and villages, at this period, is shown by several anecdotes interspersed in Arabic works, and amply confirmed in 

• Many among the Jews, the Syrians, and the Fathers of the Christian Church, held that the Aramaic or the Syriac was the language of Adam. 

viii PREFACE. 

the older Arabic lexicons and other lexicological works by instances of the necessity of appeals to contemporary Arabs of the 
desert, respecting points of grammar, by learned men whose parents lived in the first century of the Flight The celebrated 
lexicologist El-Asma'ee, who was born in the year of the Flight 123, and lived to the age of 92 or 93, was not a sound 
grammarian. (See De Sacy's " Anthol. Gr. Ar." p. 49 of the Arabic text.) And even Seebaweyh, who was contemporary, 
during the whole of his comparatively short life, with El-Asma'ee, appears to have erred in grammar. (See p. 133 of the 
present work.) Ibn-Seedch says, in the " Mohkam," in art. fc^,, (voce ££-,) that El-Asma'ee was not a grammarian : and in 
art. ^jZ, (voce 4>aP> as P^- °^ Vj^>) ^ e remarks that Ibn-El-Aarabee (who calls ^jl> pi. of 4>ji») was ignorant of grammar. 
In short, not a single instance is known of any one's having acquired a perfect knowledge of the grammar of the classical 
Arabic otherwise than by being brought up among Arabs who retained that language uncorrupted. The Khaleefeh El-Weleed 
(who reigned near the close of the first century of the Flight), the son of 'Abd-El-Melik, spoke so corrupt a dialect that he 
often could not make himself understood by the Arabs of the desert. A ridiculous instance of the mistakes occasioned by 
his use of the simplified language which is now current is related by Abul-Fida. The rapid progress of the corruption of 
the language among the learned is the more remarkable when it is considered that many of these, in the first and second 
centuries of the Flight, were very long-lived: for in a list of the most celebrated Arabic lexicologists and grammarians, 
in the 48th Section of the Muzhir, the first five whose lengths of life are defined attained the following ages : 92, 74, 93, 96 
or 97 or 98 or 99, and 92 or 93 : the first of these (Yoonus) was born in the year 90 of the Flight; and the last, in the year 
123; this being El-Asma'ee. This series of five is broken only by one, whose length of life is not known. In some 
few spots, the language of Ma'add long lingered ; and it may perhaps even survive to the present day ; as appears from the 
following curious statement in the Kamoos (article j£&): "'Akadis a certain mountain, near Zebeed, [a well-known city in 
the western seaboard of El- Yemen,] the inhabitants of which retain the chaste language:" to which is added in the Tilj 
el-'Aroos, that they retain this language "to the present time [the middle of the eighteenth century]: and the stranger remains 
not with them more than three nights, [the period prescribed by the law for the entertainment of a stranger,] by reason of 
[their] fear for [the corruption of] their language." But instances of the corruption of the classical Arabic are related (in the 
44th Section of the Muzhir) as having occurred even in the life-time of Mohammad. 

Such being the case, it became a matter of the highest importance to the Arabs to preserve the knowledge of that 
speech which had thus become obsolescent, and to draw a distinct line between the classical and post-classical languages. 
For the former language was that of the Kur-an and of the Traditions of Mohammad, the sources of their religious, moral, 
civil, criminal, and political code: and they possessed, in that language, preserved by oral tradition, — for the art of writing, 
in Arabia, had been almost exclusively confined to Christians and Jews, — a large collection of poetry, consisting of odes and 
shorter pieces, which they esteemed almost as much for its intrinsic merits as for its value in illustrating their law. Hence 
the vast collection of lexicons and lexicological works composed by Arabs, and by Muslims naturalized among the Arabs; 
which compositions, but for the rapid corruption of the language, would never have been undertaken. In the aggregate of 
these works, with all the strictness that is observed in legal proceedings, as will presently be shown, the utmost care and 
research have been employed to embody everything that could be preserved or recovered of the classical language; the result 
being a collection of such authority, such exactness, and such copiousness, as we do not find to have been approached in the 
case of any other language after its corruption or decay. 

The classical language they called, by reason of its incomparable excellence, * el-loghah," or " the language :" and the 
line between this and the post-classical was easily drawn, on account of the almost sudden commencement, and rapid progress, 
of the corruption. It was decided by common consent, that no poet, nor any other person, should be taken as an absolute and 
unquestionable authority with respect to the words or their significations, the grammar, or the prosody, of the classical 
language, unless he were one who had died before the promulgation of El- Islam, or who had lived partly before and partly 
after that event; or, as they term it, unless he were a "Jahilee" or a "Mukhadram," or (as some pronounce it) "Mukhadrim," 


or "Muhadram," or "Muhadrim." A poet of the class next after the Mukhadrams is termed an "Isldmee:" and as the 
corruption of the language had become considerable in his time, even among those who aimed at chasteness of speech, he is not 
cited as an authority absolutely and unquestionably like the two preceding classes. A poet of the next class, which is the hit, 
is termed a "Muwelled:" he is absolutely postal assical ; and is cited as an unquestionable authority with respect only to the 
rhetorical sciences. The commencement of the period of the Muwelleds is not distinctly stated: but it must have preceded 
the middle of the second century of the Flight ; for the classical age may be correctly denned as having nearly ended 
with the first century, when very few persons born before the establishment of El-Islam through Arabia were living. Thus 
the best of the Islamee poets may be regarded, and are generally regarded, as holding classical rank, though not as being 
absolute authorities with respect to the words and the significations, the grammar, and the prosody, of the classical language. 
The highest of all authorities, however, on such points, prosody of course excepted, is held by the Arabs to be the Kur-dn. 
The Traditions of Mohammad are also generally held to be absolute authorities with respect to everything relating to the prose 
of the classical language; but they are excluded by some from the class of absolute authorities, because traditions may be 
corrupted in language, and interpolated, and even forged. Women are often cited as authorities of equal rank with men : and 
in like manner, slaves reared among the Arabs of classical times are cited as authorities equally With such Arabs. (See the 
word **& in the present work; and see also ^ and^^ and ^*lt and Jfc.) 

The poetry of the Jdhilees and Mukhadrams consists, first, of odes (termed j»2> plural of i*J), which were regarded 
as complete poems, and which were all designed to be chanted or sung: secondly, of shorter compositions, termed pieces 
(-Ll plural of a^5); many of which were also designed to be chanted or sung: and thirdly, of couplets, or single verses. In 
thefirst of these classes are usually included all poems of more than fifteen verses : but few odes consist of much less than fifty 
verses or much more than a hundred. Of such poems, none has been transmitted, and none is believed to have existed, of an 
age more than a few generations (probably not more than three or four or five) anterior to that of Mohammad. It is said in 
the 49th Section of the Muzhir, on the authority of Mohammad Ibn-Seldm El-Jumahee, that "the pristine Arabs had no 
poetry except the few verses which a man would utter in his need: and odes (kaseedehs) were composed, and poetry made 
long only [for the first time] in the age of 'Abd-El-Muttalib [Mohammad's grandfather], or Hashim Ibn-'Abd-Mendf [his 
great-grandfather]." And shortly after, in the same Section of that work, it is said, on the same authority, that "the first 
who composed poems of this kind was El-Muhelhil Ibn-Rabee'ah Et-Teghlibee, on the subject of the slaughter of his brother 
Kuleyb •" - he was maternal uncle of Imra-el-Keys* Ibn-Hojr El-Kindee." - Or, according to 'Omar Ibn-Shebbeh, each tribe 
claimed priority for its own poet; and not merely as the author of two or three verses, for such they called not a poem: the 
Yemdnees claimed for Imra-el-Keys; and Benoo-Asad, for 'Abeed Ibn-El-Abras ; and Teghlib, for [E1-] Muhelhil; and Bekr, 
for 'Amr Ibn-Ramee-ah and El-Murakkish El-Akbar; and Iydd, for Aboo-Du-dd: and some assert that El-Afwah El-Azdee 
was older than 'these, and was the first who composed kaseedehs: but these for whom priority in poetry was claimed were 
nearly contemporary; the oldest of them probably not preceding the Flight by a hundred years, or thereabout. Thaalab says, 
in his 'Amdlee/ El-Asmaee says that the first of the poets of whom is related a poem extending to thirty verses is [E1-] 
Muhelhil: then, Dhu-eyb Ibn-Kaab Ibn-'Amr Ibn-Temeem Ibn-Damreh, a man of Benoo-Kindneh ; and El-Adbat Ibn-Kureya: 
and he says, Between these and El-Isldm was four hundred years: and Imra-el-Keys was long after these." But this is 
inconsistent with the assertion of Ibn-Seldm mentioned above, made also by En-Nawawee in his " Tahdheeb el-Asma," p. 163, 
that El-Muhelhil was maternal uncle of Imra-el-Keys: and as the majority refer El-Muhelhil to a period of about a century 
before the Flight, we have a double reason for holding this period (not that of four hundred years) to be the more probably 

• This name is generally pronounced thus, or " Imr-el-$eys," by the 
learned among the Arabs in the present day; for most of them regard it as 
pedantic to pronounce proper names in the classical manner. The classical 
pronunciation is " Imraii-l-^eys" and » Imruu-l-^eys" and Imru-1- 

Keys ;" in the last instance without hemzeh, because (as is said ;n the 
Tahdheeb and the Taj el-'Aroos on the authority of El-Kisa-ee and El- 
Farra) this letter is often dropped. 


correct. According to Ibn-Kuteybch, the time of Imra-cl-Keys was forty years before that of Mohammad ; as is stated in the 
Calcutta edition of the Mo'allakat. M. Fresnel contends that the honour commonly ascribed to El-Muhelhil is due to Zuhcyr 
Ibn-Jemlb El-Kclbee, of whose poetry at least seventy-nine verses have been preserved, fragments of different poems, including 
a piece of fifteen verses, of which the first hemistich of the first verse rhymes with the second hemistich, according to rule 
But this Zuheyr, during a portion of his life, is related to have been contemporary with El-JfuheM. In a fragment ascribed 
to him, he represents himself (if the fragment be genuine) to have lived two hundred years: and one tradition assigns to him 
a life of two hundred and fifty years ; another, four hundred years ; and another, four hundred and fifty years!*— Upon the 
whole, then, it seems that wo may with probability refer the first kasccdeh to a period within a century and a half, at the 
utmost, before the Flight. 

Mohammad said, on being asked, " Who is the best of the poets 1" " Imra-el-Keys will be the leader of the poets to 

Hell." And in the general estimation of the Arabs, he is the most excellent of all their poets. II is Mo'allakah is most 

especially admired by them. Of the pagan and unbelieving poets who flourished before and during the time of Mohammad, El- 

Bcydawce sarcastically remarks (on chap. xxvi. verses 224 and 225 of the Kur-j'm, in which, and in the verse that next follows, 

they arc censured as seducers, bewildered by amorous desire, and vain boasters,) " Most of their themes are unreal fancies, and 

their words chiefly relate to the description of the charms of women under covert, and amorous dalliance, and false arrogations 

or professions, and the rending of reputations, and the impugning of the legitimacy of parentages, and false threatening, and 

vain boasting, and the praise of such as do not deserve it, with extravagance therein." The like is also said in the Kcshsluif, 

(on the same passage of the Kur-iln,) and in too large a degree we must admit it to be just ; but it is very f:ir from being 

unexceptionable. The classical poetry is predominantly objective, sensuous, and passionate ; witli little imagination, or fancy, 

except in relation to phantoms, or spectres, and to jinn, or genii, and other fabulous beings ; and much less artificial than 

most of the later poetry, many of the authors of which, lacking the rude spirit of the Bedawecs, aimed chiefly at mere 

elegancies of diction, and plays upon words. Generally speaking, in the chissical poetry, the descriptions of nature, of the lifr 

of the desert, of night-journeyings and day-journcyings, with their various incidents, of hunting, and stalking, and lurking for 

game, of the tending of camels, of the gathering of wild honey, and similar occupations, are most admirable. And very curious 

and interesting, as will be shown by many citations in the present work, arc its frequent notices (mostly by early Muslim 

poets) of the- superstitions that characterized, in the pagan times, the religion most generally prevailing throughout Arabia ; 

in which, with the belief in a Supreme Deity, with strange notions of a future state, and with angdolatry, sistrolatry, and 

idolatry, was combined the lowest kind of fetishism, chiefly the worship of rocks and stones and trees, probably learned from 

Negroes, of whom the Arabs have always had great numbers as slaves, and with whom they have largely intermixed. 

Sententious language consisting of parallel clauses, like that of the so-called " poetical books" of the Bible, was probably often 

employed by tho Arabs of every age. It seems to be almost natural to their race when excited to eloquence. But the 

addition of rhyme in this style of language appears to have become common in the later times. Mohammad Ibn-Et-Teiyib 

El-FAsee says (in article ^.Ua. of his Annotations on the Knmoos) that the oration termed *!&*., in the Pagan and the early 

Muslim ages, was, in most instances, not in rhyming prose. The remains of classical prose are often used as authorities ; but 

being more liable to corruption, they are regarded as less worthy of reliance than the poetry .t 

• See the first nnd second and third of M. FrcsneFs " Lettrcs sur 
l'Histoirc des Arabcs avant l'lslamisme:" the second and third in the 
" Journal Asiatique," 3rd Series, vols. 3 and 5. 

t Thoso who desire to pursue the study of the history of the classical 
Arabic beyond tho limits to which I have here confined my remarks, 
together with that of its sister-languages, will find much learned and 
valuable information in M. Kenan's " Histoire Generate et Systeme 
Compare des Langues Semitiques;" though his scepticism in relation to 

questions merely philological (as well as to sacred mutters) is often, iu 
my opinion, ill-grounded and unreasonable. I must particularly remark 
upon his erroneous assertion that the poems of the U"c anterior to El- 
Islam make no allusion to the ancient religions of Arabia, and hence 
appear to have been expurgated by Muslims, so as to efface all traces of 
paganism. Many of such allusions, by pagan poets, might be adduced 
from lexicons, grammars, and scholia ; and some examples of them will 
be found in the present work, in articles j^j and jc- and i« Sec. ; tho 




Such are the principal original sources from which the Arabic lexicons and lexicological works have been derived. 
Another source consisted of phrases and single words transmitted from the Arabs of classical times, or from those later Arabs 
of the desert who were believed (though they were not regarded as unquestionable authorities) to have retained the pure 
language of their ancestors. The earlier of these are often called, by the lexicologists, fyii ^i\ J as in the 1st Section of the 
Muzhir, where it is said that the transmission (JlSi) should be " from such as l^WI V> JI, like [the descendants of] Kahtan 
and Ma'add and 'Admin; not from those after them; after the corruption of their language, and the varying of the 
Muwelleds." El-Jowharee, as will presently be seen, applies the appellation a^Uii v> 0l even to desert-Arabs of his own time ; 
but in doing so, he deviates from the general usage of the lexicologists. As is said in the 6th Section of the Muzhir, the 
transmitter must be a trustworthy person ; but may be a woman, and may be a slave, as we have before stated. The degrees 
of credit to which the phrases and words thus transmitted are entitled arc distinguished by ranging them in the following 
classes: 1st, (as is stated in the 3rd Section of the Muzhir,) the term ^ is applied to that which has been transmitted by 
such a number of persons as cannot be supposed to have agreed to a falsehood: 2ndly, Jul (plural of ±J), to what have been 
transmitted by some of the lexicologists, but are wanting in that which is required to justify the application, thereto, of the 
former term; and what is thus transmitted is also termed ^&.: 3rdly, (as is said in the 5th Section,) #f (plural of £), to 
what have been transmitted by only one of the lexicologists; and what is thus transmitted, if the transmitter is a person of 
exactness, as Aboo-Zcyd and El-Khaleel and others, is admitted: 4thly, (as is said in the 15th Section,) ' M £> (plural of 
^yu), to words known to be spoken only by one Arab. It was only when all other sources failed to supply what was wanted, 
that recourse was had, by the writers of lexicons and lexicological works, to contemporary Arabs of the desert ; and I do not 
find that much reliance was often placed upon these after the end of the third century of the Flight El-Jowharee, who died 
near the close of the next century, states, in the short preface to his "Sihah," that what he had collected in El-'Irak for his 
lexicon he "rehearsed by Up to [those whom he terms] a^UJl v > in their abodes in the desert (aJ>00 :" but this he seems to 
have done rather to satisfy any doubts that he may have'had, and to obtain illustrations, than with the view of taking such 
persons as authorities for words or phrases or significations. It is related of Aboo-Zeyd, in the 7th Section of the Muzhir, that 
he said, "I do not say 'the Arabs say' unless I have heard it from these: Bckr Ibn-Hawazin and Bcnoo-Kilab and Benoo- 
Hihil ; or from [the people of] the higher portion of the lower region, or [of] the lower of the higher :"* and that Yoonus used 
the expression "the Trustworthy (i&i) told me from the Arabs;" that being asked, "Who is the Trustworthy V he answered, 
"Aboo-Zcyd;" and being asked, "And wherefore dost thou not name him?" he answered, "He is a tribe, so I do not 
name him."t 

Most of the contents of the best Arabic lexicons was committed to writing, or to the memories of students, in the latter 
half of the second century of the Flight, or in the former half of the next century. Among the most celebrated lexicological 

first of these from the Mo'allaknh of Imra-cWKeys. It would have been 
strange, indeed, if this had not l»ecn the case : for, except the l£ur-an, 
nothing was so highly prized by the lexicologists as the pagan poetry : 
every fragment of it was most valuable in their estimation, and most 
carefully sought after and preserved ; and the intentional corruption of it 
they regarded as almost a crime. 

• "Aboo-'Amr said, 'The most chaste in speech, of men, are the 
higher [in respect of territory] of [the tribe of] Temeem, and the lower of 
[the tribe of] £eys :' nnd Aboo-Zeyd said, ' The most chaste in speech, of 
men, arc [the people of] the lower portion of the higher region, and the 
higher of the lower,' meaning the rear of [the tribe of] Hawazin ; the 
people of the higher region being the people of El-Medeeneh, and those 
around it, and those next it, and those near it, whose dialect he held to be 
not the same as that [of Hawazin]." (Muzhir, 49th Section.) According 
to the £amoos, the higher region (ii»WI) is " what is above Nejd, to the 

land of Tihimeh, to the part behind Mekkeh; and certain town., or 
villages outside El-Medecneh." 

t The exclusion of post-classical words and significations in the best 
Arabic lexicons, or their specification as such when they occur therein, is 
of very great importance to us in the use that wc are often obliged to 
make of those lexicons in interpreting the Hebrew Scriptures. Thus the 
triumph of El-Islam, by occasioning the corruption of the Arabic language 
and the composition of such lexicons, has rendered us a most signal 
service. I have seldom noticed correspondences between the Arabic on 
the one side and the Hebrew and other Semitic languages on the other, 
because, though these are often illustrated by means of the incomparable 
copiousness of the Arabic, the Arabic is rarely illustrated by them, and 
because we have no such authorities for the interpretation of those 
languages as we have for the interpretation of the Arabic. 



works, general and special, of this period, are the " 'Eyn," commonly ascribed to El-Khalcel, who died in the year of the Flight 
160 or 170 or 175 (aged 74); the "Nawadir" of El-Kisa-ce, who died in 182 or 183 or 189 or 192; tho " Jeem" and the 
"Nawadir" and the work entitled " El-Ghareeb el-Musannaf" of Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybance, who died in 205 or 206 or 213 
(aged 110 or 111 or 118); the "Nawadir" and the " Logluit" of El-Farra, who died in 207 (aged 67); the "Loghaf of 
Aboo-'Obeydeh, who died 1n 208 or 209 or 210 or 211 (aged 96 or 97 or 98 or 99); the "Nawadir" and the "Loghat" 
of Aboo-Zeyd, who died in 214 or 215 or 216 (aged 93); the "Ajnas" of El-Asma'ee, who died in 215 or 216 (aged 92 or 
93) ; the work entitled "El-Ghareeb el-Musannaf" of Aboo-'Obeyd, who died in 223 or 224 or 230 (aged 67); and the 
".Nawadir" of. Ibn-El-Aardbee, who died in 231 or 233 (aged 81 or 83): all mentioned near the close of the 1st Section of 
the Muzhir. From these and similar works, either immediately or through the medium of others in which they arc cited, and 
from oral tradition, and, as long as it could be done with confidence, by collecting information from Arabs of the desert, were 
composed all the best lexicons, and commentaries on the classical poets &c. The most authoritative of such works are the 
lexicons; and the most authoritative of these are, of course, generally speaking, the later, because every succeeding 
loxicographcr profited by the critical research of his predecessors, and thus avoided or corrected errors committed by earlier 
authors. The commentaries on the poets and on the Traditions have contributed largely to the lexicons. They often present 
explanations that have been disallowed or questioned by eminent lexicographers; and therefore their statements, when uncon- 
firmed by other authorities, must be received with caution : but in many cases their explanations are unquestionably accurate, 
and they afford valuable aid by giving examples of words and phrases of doubtful meanings. The danger of relying upon a 
single early authority, however high that authority may be, in any matter of Arabic lexicology, will be shown by innumerable 
instances in the present work. I here speak of errors of judgment. In addition to these, we have mistranscription*. A 
word once mistranscribed is repeated in copy after copy ; and at length, from its having been found in several copies, is 
confidently regarded as correct.* The value of the larger and later and more esteemed lexicons cannot, therefore, be too 
highly rated. 

The first of the general lexicons is that which is commonly ascribed to El-Khalccl, entitled the "'Eyn" (J^i\ v d£>) ; 
and this has served in a great measure as the basis of many others. In it the words are mentioned according to their 
radical letters, as in all the best lexicons; but the letters are arranged, with the exception of I and ^, which arc classed with ^ 
for obvious reasons, nearly in the order of their places of utterance, as follows ; commencing with * (whence the title) : 

Under each of these letters, in the foregoing order, except the last three which arc necessarily chissed together, arc mentioned 
all the words of which the roots contain that letter without any letter of those preceding it in this arrangement : first, tho 
bilitcral-radical words : then, the trilitcral-radical ; of which arc placed first the sound ; secondly the unsound in one letter ; 
and thirdly the unsound in two letters : next, the quadrilitcral-radical : and lastly, the quinquelitcral-radioal. Thus, under 
the letter ^ are mentioned all the words of which the roots contain that letter: under -., all the words of which the roots contain 
that letter without ^: under ., all of which the roots contain that letter without c or -. : and so on. For instance, in the 
section of the letter J, we find, in the first division, first, ^j ; then, oU and jj ; and so on: and in the second division, first, ju 

* For instance, M. Frcsncl quoted (in the second of his " Lcttrcs 
sur l'Histoire des.Arabcsavant l'lslamisme," in the "Journal Asiatique," 
3rd Series, vol. iii. pp. 330 ct scq.,) an extract from the " Kitiib cl- 
Aghdncc," as containing, in the phrases ^jj U-n' ^t Ij^lj c-JU »- U 
W *3^» two words supposed by him, and by his and my learned friend 
the sheykh Mohammad 'Eiyad E{-Tan{awcc, (see pp. 324 ct seq. of that 
letter,) to be wanting in all the Arabic dictionaries. One of these words 
is written U*u, as alwve, in one of M. Frcsncl's copies of the " Kitab el- 
Aghancc," three in number; in another copy, '« v>~ ; and in the third 
copy, U-iJ: the other is in all the- copies UJ, as above: and they are 

explained in that work, on the authority of Abu-1-Yakdhan El-Joafee 
as meaning ^^uaJt J-^.3 >vtJ' y.i \j mid *-jj J-» »^»j *-jU sj\. 
The former word is correctly U^l* or lauaJ, both infinitive nouns of 
oouij. Ihc other word is a mistranscription for lw. My lamented 
friend M. Fresnel was always glad to receive and admit a correction of 
any of his own rare mistakes; and in his " Fourth Letter" he announced 
that the sheykh Mohammad had afterwards rectified these two errors. 



and j>b ; then, ^j and jj ; and so on : all the combinations of the same radical letters being arranged consecutively; and 
the same order of letters being observed in all cases. Respecting the question of its authorship, which is involved in 
much uncertainty, I have gathered from the 1st Section of the Muzhir what here follows. Es-Scerafee says that El- 
Khalecl composed the first part of the 'Eyn. But most men deny [absolutely] its being his composition. Some say 
that it is by Lcyth [or El-Lcyth] Ibn-Nasr Ibn-Seiyar El-Khurasanoe. El-Azhercc says tbat El-Leyth composed it, and 
ascribed it to El-Khalccl in order that it might bocome in much request. Some say that El-Khalecl composed the 
portion from the beginning to the end of the letter e, and El-Leyth completed it ; and therefore it is that the first part 
docs not resemble the rest. Ibn-El-Moatezz relates, on the authority of the " Moajam el-TJdaba " of Yitkoot El- 
Hamawce, that El-Khalecl made himself solely and peculiarly an associate of El-Leyth ; and when he composed the 
'Eyn, assigned it to him : that El-Lcyth held it in very great estimation, and gave him a hundred thousand [dirhems] ; 
and committed the half of it to memory :* but it happened that he purchased a highly-prized female slave, who, be- 
coming jealous of the daughter of his paternal uncle [i. c. of his wife], and desiring to enrage him, which sho could not 
do with respect to money as he would not care for her doing this, burned that book : and as no one else possessed a copy 
of it, and El-Khalccl had then died, El-Lcyth dictated the half that he retained in his memory, and employed persons 
to complete it uniformly with that half: and they made this composition which is in the hands of men. To account for 
the mistakes occurring in the 'Eyn, Thaalab says, " El-Khaleel sketched it out, but did not fill it up ; and had he filled 
it up, he had spared nothing in it ; for El-Khalccl was a man of whom tho like has not been seen : certain learned men 
filled it up, 011 whose authority nothing has been related." It is also said that El-Khalecl composed, of this book, only 
the section of the letter c, and his companion El-Leyth composed the rest, and named himself " El-Khalecl " [i. c. " tho 
friend "] ; and that when he says, in the book, " El-Khalecl Ibn- Ahmad says," it is El-Khaleel ; and when he says, 
absolutely, " El-Khalccl says," he speaks of himself : and that every flaw in tho book is from him ; not from El-Khaleel. 
En-Nawawcc says that [according to some of the learned] tho 'Eyn ascribed to El-Khaleel is only what El-Leyth oollcctcd 
from El-Khalccl. + The mistakes in the 'Eyn arc numerous ; and there are many interpolations in oopies thereof. Several 
authors have applied themselves to point out and correct these faults : some, in works specially devoted to this object : 
some, in abridgments of the 'Eyn or in other lexicons. But in general the mistakes are confined to matters of inflec- 
tion and derivation ; not extending to tho insertion of false or unknown words : and such mistakes arc of light account. J 

The following notices of other celebrated lexicons, composed after the 'Eyn, so far as to include tho 
Kamoos, I borrow chiefly from the same section of the Muzhir; distinguishing my own additions by enclosing 
them within square brackets. 

Among the celebrated lexicons composed after tho model of the 'Eyn, is the '* Jcmharah " of Ibn-Dureyd, 
[who is said to have died in the year of the Flight 321, and to have lived 93 years.] Some say that it is one of tho 
best of lexicons ; and it has been taken as an authority by Aboo-'Alee El-Fariseo and Aboo-'Alee Fi-Kalee and Es- 
Sccrafec and other eminent authors. Ibn-Jinneo disparages it for faults similar to those of the 'Eyn : and Niftawcyh, 
whom Ibn-Dureyd had satirized, pronounced it to be untrustworthy; but without justice. 

* Many of the Arabs have been remarkable for a tenacity of memory 
almost miraculous. Several of them are related to have composed and 
dictated from memory large works, including even lexicons. At school, 
they generally lenrn the whole of the Kur-;in by heart, aided to do so by 
its being composed in rhyming prose: and many students, among them, 
when unable to purchase works necessary to them, borrow such works, a 
portion at a time, from the libraries of the mosques, and commit their 
entire contents to memory. Hence, in numerous instances, the variations 
in copies of the same Arabic work ; copies being often written from the 
dictation of persons who have learned a work by heart. 

t lin-Nawawee also says, (see the printed edition of his Biographical 
fck. r. 

Dictionary, page 231,) that, according to some of the learned, "much of 
what El-Azheree has transcribed in the Tahdheeb el-Loghah from the 
Eyn is of the mistakes of Lcyth :" but this is inconsistent with the 
estimation in which the Tahdheeb is held by lexicographers of the highest 
repute. El-Azheree often points out what he terms mistakes of El- 
Leyth, and corrects them', 

J In the present work, whatever is given as on the authority of El- 
Leyth is from the 'Eyn ; I believe, through the medium of the Tahdheeb 
of El-Azheree, except, perhaps, in a very few instances : and from the 
'Eyn also is generally derived (probably in almost every instance) what 
is given as on the authority of El-KhaleeL 


The " Tahdheeb " of El-Azheree, [who was born in the year of the Plight 282, and died in the year 370 or 371. 
This is a very excellent lexicon, and one from which I have largely drawn, immediately and through the medium of 
the Lisan el-' Arab and of the Taj-el-' Aroos. Its arrangement is the same as that of the 'Eyn, which it calls " the book 
of El-Leyth," and from which its contents are in a great measure derived. I possess a large portion of this work in a 
volume of the "Tahdheeb et-Tahdheeb ;" and a small portion, consisting of 193 pages, of a copy in large 8vo., cor- 
responding to a part of the former.] 

The " Mohcet " of the Sahib Ibn-'Abbad. [Ibn-Khillikan* states that he was born in the year of the Flight 
326, and died in 385: and describes this work as "in seven volumes; arranged in the order of the letters of tho 
alphabet; copious in words, but having few confirmatory examples :" thus resembling the Kiimoos. Much has been 
drawn from it in my own lexicon.] 

Tho " Mujmal " of Ibn-Faris, [who died in the year of the Flight 390 or 395.] He restricted himself, in his 
lexicon, to tho mention of genuine words ; excluding the unfamiliar and ignored ; on the authority of oral tradition, 
and from books of good repute; aiming, as he says, at abridgment and conciseness. [His work is highly esteemed. 
Tho arrangement is that of the usual order of the letters of the alphabet.] 

The " Sihah," or, as some call it, " Sahah," of El- Jowharee, [commonly, now, pronounced " El-Joharce," who 
died, according to Abu-1-Fida, in tho year of the Flight 398, and " was from Firab, a city of the country of the Turks, 
beyond tho river," that is, beyond the Seyhoon : or, according to Ibn-Esh-Shihnch, he died in the year 397, as I,find 
in two copies of his history in my possession : or, according to Hajjec Khalccfeh, in 393.] Et-Tcbrcczec says that it is 
commonly known by the title of the ^Lf, which is pi. of ^J, , but that some call it the ^.LLZ, which is synonymous 
with ^Ja. As its title imports, the author restricted himself to the mention of genuine words, like Ibn-Faris, his 
contemporary. [But his lexicon is far more comprehensive, and more excellent in every respect, than that of Ibn- 
Faris.] As he says in his preface, he composed it in an order which none had before pursued, [mentioning each word 
according to the place of the last letter of the root, and then the first and second, in the usual order of the alphabet,] 
after collecting the contents in El-'Irak, and rehearsing them by lip [as I have before mentioned] to [those whom he 
torms] a^wi ^\ in their abodes in the desert (a^ui). Eth-Tha'alibee says that ho was one of the wonders of the ago. 
His lexicon, however, is not free from instances of inadvertence or mistakes, like all great books ; and such as cannot 
bo attributed to the copyists. Yakoot says, in the " Moajam el-Udaba,» that the cause of the mistranscriptions in it 
was this : when he had composed it, it was read to him as far as [the section of] the letter ,>, and an evil suggestion 
occurred to his mind, in consequence of which he cast himself from a housetop, and died : so the rest of the book 
remained a rough draught, not pruned, or trimmed, nor fairly copied out ; and his disciple Ibrahecm Ibn-Salih El- 
Warrak made a fair copy of it, and committed mistakes in some places in it. Ibn-Barrcc wrote a commentary, or 
series of annotations, (^£* plural of a^u.,) on the Sihah, [an extremely valuable work] in which ho reached tho 
middle [of the section] of the letter ^ ; and the sheykh 'Abd- Allah Ibn-Mohammad El-Bustec completed it. [But I 
have invariably found passages from every part of it cited as the sayings of Ibn-Barree.] And Es-Saghanec, or, as 
he is called by some, Es-S&ghanee, wrote a Tekmileh (&JS, i. e. Supplement) to the Sihah ; exceeding it in bulk. [Some 
further remarks on the Sihah (my own copies of which have been already described) will be found in my account of tho 
Kamoos. The abridgment entitled " Mukhtar es-Sihah " is well known : it is too scanty to be of much use except to 
those who desire to commit to memory the most usual words and significations. A very superior abridgment is tho 
" Jami' " of the seyyid Mohammad Ibn-es-seyyid-Hasan, which was finished, according to Hajjee Khalecfeh, in the 
year of the Flight 854. It is copious, well digested, and enriched with additions from the Mughrib of El-Mutarrizee, 
the Fa'ik of Ez-Zamakhsheree, the Nihayeh of Ibn-El-Atheer, &c. Of this work I possess a very good copy.] 

• I have the express authority of the Taj el-' Aroos (in art. iUU.) for thus writing the name of this author. 


The "Jami"' of El-Kazzaz, [who died in the year of the Flight 412. Hajjee Khaleefeh mentions it as "an esteemed 
oook, but rare." It is not unfrequently c : ted in the Taj el-'Aroos.] 

The "Moo'ab" (thus, with fet-h to the c,) of Aboo-Ghalib Ibn-Teniam, [or, according to Ibn-Khillikan, Aboo-Ghdlib 
Temdm,] known by the appellation of Ibn-Et-Teiyanee, [who died in the year of the Flight 436 ;] a work of very great utility, 
consisting of what is correct of the contents of the 'Eyn, not omitting anything of the confirmatory examples from the Kur-an 
and the Traditions and the genuine poems of the Arabs, but rejecting what it contains of examples respecting which there is 
disagreement, and of mistranscribed words, and faulty formations ; and adding what Ibn-Dureyd lias added in the Jcmharah. 
It is rarely found; for people have not persevered in transcribing it, but have rather inclined to the Jcmharah of Ibn-Dureyd 
and the Mohkam of Ibn-Sccdch and the Jami' of El-Kazzaz and the Sihah &c. 

The " Mohkam" of Ibn-Seedeh the Andalusian, who was blind, [as was also his father; and who died in the year of the 
Flight 458, aged about GO years.] This is the greatest of the lexicological books [i. e. of the lexicons] composed since the age 
of the Siliiih [to the time of the author of the Muzhir, of those known to him. It follows the arrangement of the 'Eyn; and 
it is held in very high estimation for its copiousness, its accuracy, its critical remarks, and its numerous examples from 
classical poets. In copiousness and in some other respects, it is superior, and in others hardly (if at all) inferior, to the Sihah. 
It is one of the two chief sources of the Kainoos; the other being the 'Obab of Es-Sagluincc : and I have drawn from it very 
largely, both immediately and through the medium of the Lisan el-'Arab and of the Taj cl-'Aroos, for my own lexicon. I 
I>ossess the last fifth part of it in a volume of the "Tahdheeb et-Tahdhecb ;" and another large portion, and a smaller portion, 
of a most admirable copy which has been dispersed, written in the year of the Flight G75, for the library of a Sultan, 
apparently the celebrated Beybars.] 

[The " Asiis " of Ez-Zamakhshcrce, who was born in the year of the Flight 4G7, and died in 538. This lexicon is a 
very excellent repertory of choice and chaste words and phrases ; and especially and peculiarly valuable as comprising a very 
large collection of tropical significations, distinguished as such, which has greatly contributed, by indirectly illustrating proper 
significations as well as otherwise, to the value of my own lexicon, as my numerous citations of it will show, although I have 
generally been obliged to draw from it through the medium of the Taj cl-'Aroos, which often does not name it in quoting it. 
Its order is the same as that of the Mujmal, apparently in most copies : but some, which arc said to be abridged, follow the 
order of the Sihah. 1 

• • • J 

[The "Mughrib" of El-Mutarrizec, who was born in Khuwarczm, in the year of the Flight 53G, and died in G10. 
This is a lexicon of select words and. phrases, and particularly of such as occur in books of Traditions, and other works relating 
to the law. It forms a very valuable companion and supplement to the other lexicons; and I have constantly consulted it and 
drawn from it in composing the present work. Its arrangement of the roots is that of the usual order of the alphabet, with 
respect to the first, second, and third letters of each. I possess a very excellent copy of it, written in the year of the Flight 
977, presented to me by the Rev. J. R. T. Licdcr, late of the English Church-Mission in Cairo.] 

The " 'Obab" of Es-Saghancc, or Es-Sagh&nee, [who was born in the year of the Flight 577, and died in GGO, according to 
the Muzhir (48th Section), or, as is said in the Taj el-'Aroos (art. o*-0> in ^ 5 » on tlie authority of one who attended his funeral.] 
This, after the Mohkam, is the greatest of the lexicological works composed since the age of the Sihah [to the time of the 
author of the Muzhir, of those known to him. It was left unfinished. If, as I believe is the case, it follow the order of 
the Sihah, the portion completed was somewhat more than three fourths; for] the author reached, in it, to the section of^c,: 
which occasioned the saying, 


[" Verily Es-Saghdnee, who mastered the sciences and the doctrines of philosophy, the utmost of his case was that he reached 
to jjif" which signifies " dumbness," &c. — Though a man of extensive learning, he was opiniative, and addicted to unjust 
criticism of his superiors. A copy of the 'Obdb, and a copy of the same author's Supplement to the Sihah, before mentioned, 
used by the author of the Taj cl-'Aroos, belonged to the library of the mosque of the Emecr Sarghatmish, in Cairo ; but on my 
causing an inquiry to be made for them, the librarian declared that they were no longer found there. They have probably 
been stolen ; or had not been returned by the author of the Taj el-'Aroos when he died ; on which occasion, it is said, his house 
was plundered of the books &c. that he left.] 

[The "Lisdn el-' Arab" of Ibn-Mukarram, who was born in the year of the Flight 630, and died in 711. In the copy 
of his lexicon in the library of the collegiate mosque called the " Ashrafecych," in Cairo, consisting of twenty-eight quarto- 
volumes, he is styled " Jcmdl-ed-Dcen Mohammad Ibn-csh-sheykh-el-imam-cl-marhoom-JcIdl-cd-Decn-Abi-l-'Izz-Mukarrain Ibn- 
esh-sheykh-Ncjecb-cd-Dcen-Abi-1-Hasan-El-Ansiirce:" but in tlie Tsij cl-'Aroos, lie is almost always called Ibn-Mandhoor 
( mAIi ^t). I shall give an account of this great work in describing the Taj cl-'Aroos.] 

[The " Tahdhccb ct-Tahdhceb" of Mahmood Et-Tanoolchw, who died in the year of the Flight 723. It is a combination 
of the contents of the Mohkain and Tahdhccb (the former occupying the (ir^t place in each article) with a few additions from other 
sources. Thus it forms one of the best and most comprehensive of the Arabic lexicons, without any exceptions known to me but 
the Lisiin el-'Arab and the Taj cl-'Aroos. Of the original autograph copy of this work, in five full-paged, large quarto-volumes, 
I possess the last volume, consisting of 501 pages. I made a diligent search for the other volumes, but, without success.] 

[The "Misb;uY;of El-Feiyoomcc (Ahmad Jim- Mohammad Ibn-'Alec El-Mukri). Its full title is " Kl-Misbah cl-Munccr 
fee Chareeb csh-Sharh cl-Kebcer." This is a lexicon similar to the Mughrib, above mentioned; but. much more comprehensive; 
forming a most valuable companion and supplement to the larger lexicons. Notwithstanding its title, it comprises a very large 
collection of classical words and phrases and significations of frequent occurrence ; in many instances with more clear and full 
explanations than I have found elsewhere. I have therefore constantly drawn from it in composing my own lexicon ; possessing 
a very accurate copy of it, a full-paged quarto-volume of 742 pages. Its author states in it that he finished its composition in 
the year of the Flight 734.] 

[The " Mughnec," as it is commonly called, or " Mughni-1-Lcbccb," of the celebrated grammarian Ilm-IIishsim, who was 
born in the year of the Flight 708, and died in 761 or the following year. A large work, whereof a little more than one half 
consists of an elaborate lexicon of the particles and similar words, for which it is my chief authority, as it was, also, that of the 
author of the Kiimoos, whose explanations of the particles arc, however, very meagre and unsatisfactory. I am fortunate in 
possessing a most excellent copy of it, a quarto-volume of GOO pages.] 

The " Kdmoos " of El-Fcyroozabadee, [or, as some pronounce it, EI-Fccroozdbddce, (from the city of FcnSzdbdd, or 
Feerdzdbdd, pronounced by the Arabs Fcyroozdbad, or Fecroozdbdd,) who was born in the year of the Flight 729, and died in 
816.*] This, after the Mohkam and the 'Obab, is the greatest of the lexicological works composed since the age of the Sihdh 
[to the time of the author of the Muzhir, of those known to him] : but none of these three [ho adds] has attained to be as 
much used as the Sihtlh ; nor has the rank of the Sihdh, nor its celebrity, been diminished by the existence of these ; because 
it is restricted to what is genuine, so that it is, among the books of lexicology, like the Saheeh of El-Bukhdrcc among the books 

* It is stated at the end of article j*-) in the T;ij cl-'Aroos that the 
author of the Kiimoos wrote at the end of the first .volume of the second 
copy of that work made by his own hand, which volume ended with the 

article above mentioned, that he finished the transcription of (hat volume 
in Dhu-l-Itijjeh 7G8. 


of traditions ; for the point upon which turns the title to reliance is not the copiousness of the' collection, but the condition of 
genuineness, or correctness. [The judgment thus expressed, as to the rank and celebrity of the Sihah, in comparison with the 
Kamoos, I have found to agree with the opinion of the most learned men among the Arabs with whom I have been acquainted. 
But to insinuate that the words and significations added in the latter of these lexicons to those of the former are generally less 
genuine, or less correct, is not just : they may be truly said to be generally less chaste, inasmuch as they are less usual : but 
their collector has undoubtedly rendered a great service to the students of Arabic by these additions, which have of late years 
caused the copies of his lexicon to become much more numerous than those of the Sihah. The value of the Sihah consists in 
its presenting a very judicious collection of the most chaste words, with critical illustrations from the best of the lexicologists, 
and examples from the best of the classical poets. The Kamoos is little more than what may be termed an enormous 
vocabulary ; a collection of words and significations from preceding lexicons and similar works, (for otherwise, according to the 
principles of Arabic lexicology as universally taught, they would be of no authority,) mainly from the Mohkam and the 'Obab; 
with very few critical observations, many of which arc false,* and scarcely any examples from the poets. Thus it resembles 
the Mohcct of Ibn-'Abbad, before mentioned. In order to make room for his numerous additions, desiring that the bulk of his 
took should be nearly the same as that of the Sihah, the author has often abridged his explanations in such a manner as to 
render them unintelligible to the most learned of the Arabs, and has omitted much of what is most valuable of the contents of 
the latter work, But he has frequently deviated from this his usual practice for the purpose of inserting criticisms of others, 
without acknowledgment, and apparently some few of his own, upon points in the Sihah in which its author is asserted to have 
erred; and this he has often done so as to lead to the belief that the author of the Sihah has affirmed what he has merely 
quoted from another. Many of these criticisms I havc^found to have been borrowed from the Annotations on the Sihah by 
Ibn-Barrcc and, or from the Supplement to the Sihah by Es-Saghance: generally when they arc false, (which is 
often the case,) though sometimes when they are correct, from the latter of these works. I have fell it to be my duty to make 
thews remarks in defence of El-Jowharce, and for the sake of truth. Abundant proofs of their correctness will be found in my 
own lexicon. They may surprise many, who have not known the fact that the Kamoos is very little more than an abridged 
compilation from other works: and another fact, to be mentioned in the next paragraph, which will be in a measure 
supplementary to this brief account of the Kamoos, will probably surprise them more. — This is the latest of the lexicons 
noticed in the Muzhir: therefore I have no further occasion for the use of the square brackets to distinguish my own statements 
or opinions from those of the author of that work, which has thus far afforded me so much aid in my account of the 
principles of Arabic lexicology, and of the most celebrated Arabic lexicons, as well as in my remarks on the history of the 
language. My own, most valuable, manuscript-copy of the Kamoos, which I have already described, has been of very great 
use to me, though its text is generally most correctly given in the Taj el-'Aroos. I have also constantly had before me the 
edition printed at Calcutta. This is certainly more accurate than most of the manuscript-copies; but it contains countless 
false readings, which show that, in many instances, the editor, notwithstanding his unquestionable learning and his possession 
of eleven copies, did not understand what he edited. It seems that he must often have given the worst of the readings of his 
originals, from neglecting to study the passages in which they occur. I have not thought it necessary to mention all of the 
false readings in his edition ; but I have mentioned many of them.] 

The "Li'iini'" of El-Fcyroozabadee. Its full title is"El-Liimi' el-Moalara el-'Ojab cl-Jami* beyn el- Mohkam wa-1- 
'Obiib." From some words in the preface to the Kamoos, it has been inferred that the author of that work had composed a 
lexicon in sixty volumes, bearing the foregoing title, from which, chiefly, he composed, or abridged, the Kamoos, in two 
volumes. But in a very learned work, of Annotations on the Kamoos, by Mohammad Ibn-Et-Teiyib El-Fasec, it is clearly 

• The judgment and memory of its author are often in fault: for 
instance, in article ^/^ he disallows the expression j^a-JI j^i^, and in 
art. -— ?} he uses it ; and in article -— 6 he disallows ._~o as syn. with 


~i>, and in article ~-~6 he authorizes it : and many similar instances 
might be mentioned. 



shown that tho words from which this inference has been drawn really signify dt,t the author of the Lami' commenced (not that 
he completed) this work, and made it, as far as it extended, to surpass every other work of a similar kind; but that he 
imagined it would be, in sixty volumes, too large for students to acquire or read ; and, being requested to compose before it a lexicon, he applied himself to the composition of the Kamoos, and abridged the matter of which the Lami' was to have 
cons.sted, so a, to comprise the essence of each thirty of the intended volumes in one volume. Thus the words in question are 
so far from a proof of the completion of the Lami', that their literal meaning indicates the very contrary of this. They 
arc not, however, the only evidence that we have on this point : for the same eminent scholar to whose Annotations on the 
Kamoos I have referred above quotes, from the biographical memoir of the author of the Lami* in the "Tabakat cn-Nohah" of 
Es-Suyootcc, the direct assertion that this work was never completed. He also states, as docs likewise" the 'author of the Taj 
cl-'Aroos, that more than one writer has transmitted, on the authority of the handwriting of its author, a proof of its non- 
completion : for they relate the fact of his having written upon the back of the Lami' that, if he had been able to complete it, 
.t wouhl have composed a hundred volumes, [of what size he does not give the least notion,] and that he completed Ave 
volumes of it. This, it should be observed, is not inconsistent with what has been said before : it appears that the work would 
have consisted of a hundred volumes, each of the size of one of the five volumes that were completed; or would have composed 
sixty larger volumes. 13ut I rather incline to think that its author roughly calculated, at one time, that the whole would 
consist of a hundred volumes; and at another time, that it would consist of sixty; and that both estimates are greatly beyond 
the truth. The non-completion of the Lami' is therefore certain; but this is not so much to be regretted as some persons 
might imagine from its author's statement respecting it in his preface to the Kamoos; for the work appears, from its title, to 
have been, as far as it extended, with respect to the words ami significations, mainly a compilation uniting the contents of the 
Mohkam and the 'Obab, and neither of these lexicons has been lost to the world. From a reference to it in article <* of the 
Kamoos, (in which the author asserts his having disproved an opinion respecting the signification of ^ without stating 
that El-Azherec had done so more than five centuries before,) it seems that the Lami' (seeing how small a portion of k 
was completed) followed the order of the 'Eyn and the Mohkam ; for article <S is in tho third of the main divisions of these 
two works, but in the last but two of those of the Kamoos. Considering this fact, and that the main divisions of the 'Eyn and 
the Mohkam necessarily decrease in length from first to last, I suppose that the author of the five volumes of the Lami' wrote 
them, agreeably with a common practice, with large margins for additions, and calculated that, with these additions, each of 
the five volumes would form at least three. 

The "Taj cl-'Aroos," the enormous extent of which I have mentioned in the second paragraph of this preface, is said to. 
have been commenced, in Cairo, soon after the middle of the last century of our era, by the scyyid Murtada Ez-Zcbccdec. At 
the end of a copy of it in his own handwriting, he states that it occupied him fourteen years and some days. According to 
the modern historian of Egypt, El-Jabartcc, he was born A.D. 1732 or 1733 : came to Cairo A.D. 1753: finished the Taj 
cl-'Aroos A.D. 17G7 or 17G8 : and died A.D. 1791 (in the year of the Flight 1205). And the same historian says that 
Mohammad IJcy Abu-dh-Dhahab, for the copy of that work which is in tho library of his mosque, gave him a hundred 
thousand dirhems (or drachms) of silver. It is a compilation from tho best and most copious of the preceding Arabic lexicons 
and other lexicological works, in the form of an interwoven commentary on the Kamoos; exhibiting fully and" clearly, from the 
original sources, innumerable explanations which are so abridged in the latter work as to be unintelligible to the most learned 
men of the East; with copious illustrations of the meanings &c, corrections of mistakes in the Kamoos and other lexicons, and 
examples in prose and verse ; and a very lanrc collection of additional words and significations, mentioned under the roots 
to which they belong. Of the works from which it is compiled, though I believe that it was mainly derived in the first 
instance from the Lisan el-' Arab, more than a hundred arc enumerated by the seyyid Murtada in his preface. Among these 
arc— 1. The " Sihah," a copy in eight volumes, in the handwriting of Yakoot Er-lloomcc, with useful marginal notes 
determining the corrcat readings &c. by Ibn-Barree [and El-Bustec] and Aboo-Zekcrceya Et-Tebrcczcc ; in the library [of the 
collegiate mosque] of the Emeer Ezbck.— 2. The «• Tahdhceb" of El-Azhcree, a copy in sixteen volumes.— 3. The "Mohkam" 


of Ibn-Seedeh, a copy in eight volumes.— 4. The " Tahdheeb el-Abniyeh wa-l-Af al," by Ibn-El-Kattda, in two volumes.— 
5. The " Lisan el-' Arab," by the Imam Jemdl-ed-Deen Mohammad Ibn-'Alee El-Ifreekee, [whose appellations I have more 
fully given before, commonly called (in the Taj el-'Aroos) " Ibn-Mandhoor,"] in twenty-eight volumes, the copy transcribed 
from the original draught of the author, during his life-time: [of this copy I have often made use in composing my Own 
lexicon; and I have found it very helpful, especially in enabling me to supply syllabical signs, which are too often omitted in 
the copies of the Taj el-'Aroos :] its author followed closely, in its composition, the Sihdh, the Tahdheeb, the Mohkam, the 
Nihdych, the Annotations of Ibn-Barree [and El-Bustce on the Sihdh], and the Jemharah of Ibn-Dureyd: [he also drew from 
innumerable other sources, to which he refers in his work.] — 6. The "Tahdheeb et-Tahdheeb" of Abu-th-Thena Mahraood Ibn- 
Abce-Bekr Ibn-Hdmid Et-Tanookhce, a copy in five volumes, [of which, as I have already mentioned, I possess the last,] the 
original draught of the author, who closely followed, in its composition, the Sihdh, the Tahdheeb, and the Mohkam, with the 
utmost accuracy: he died in the year of the Flight 723. — 7. The " Kitdb el-Ghareebeyn" of Aboo-'Obeyd El-Harawee.— 
8. The "Nihiiyeh fee Gharecb cl-Hadceth," by Ibn-El-Athccr [Mejd-cd-Dcen] El-Jezeree.— 9. The " Kifdyet el-Mutahaffidh," 
by lbn-El-Ajddbcc, with Expositions thereof.— 10. The " Fascch" of Thaalab, with three Expositions thereof.— 1 1 und 12. The 
"Fikh cl-Loghah" and the work entitled " El-Muddf wa-1-Mcnsoob," each by Aboo-Mansoor Eth-Tha'dlibee. — 13 and 14. The 
" 'Obiib" and the " Tckmilch fi-fi-Rihdb," each by Er-Radcc Es-Saghdnee, in the library [of the mosque] of the Emeer 
Sarghatmish.— 15. The "Misbah" [of El-Fciyoomce].— 1G. The "Takrccb" of Ibn-Khateeb.— 17. The " Mukhtdr es-Sihdh," 
by Er-Rdzco. — 18, 19, nnd 20. The "Asds" and the "Fdlk" and the " Mustakseen-1-Amthdl,'' all three by Ez-Zamakhsheree.— 
21. The "Jemharah" of Ibn-Dureyd, in four volumes, in the library [of the mosque] of El-Mr-eiyad.— 22. The " Isldh cl- 
Miintik" of Ibn-Es-Sikkect.— 23 and 24. The "Khasdi's" of Ibn-Jinnee, and the "Sirr cs-Sind'ah" of the same author. — 
25. The " MujnuU" of Ibn-Fdris. — Many other works of great value arc included in the same list. And the Annotations on 
the Kamoos by his preceptor, Mohammad Ibn-Et-Tciyib El-Fascc, (before mentioned, in my account of the Lami',) must be 
especially noticed as a very comprehensive and most learned work, from which the seyyid Murtada derived much valuable 
matter to incorporate in the Taj el-'Aroos. From these Annotations of 'Mohammad El-Fusee, which have often served to 
explain to me obscure passages in the Taj el-'Aroos, and from several others of the most celebrated of the works used by the 
scyyid Murtada, I have drawn much matter which he omitted as not necessary to Eastern scholars, but which will be found to 
1)C highly important to the Arabic students of Europe. He made very little use of a commentary on the Kamoos entitled the 
" Namoos," by Mulla 'Alec cl-Kdri, as it is not a work held in high estimation, and he was most careful to include among his 
authorities none but works of high repute. It must also be mentioned that he has bestowed great pains upon the important 
task of settling the true text of the Kamoos, according to the authorities of several celebrated copies; and that he has inserted 
the various readings that he regarded as being worthy of notice. And here I may state that most of the illustrations of the 
text of the Kamoos that arc incorporated in the Turkish translation of that work, whenever I have examined them, which has 
often been the case, I have found to be taken from the Taj el-'Aroos, of which the Translator ('Asim Efcndee) is said to have 
had a copy in the author's handwriting : but generally speaking, what is most precious of the contents of the latter work has 
been omitted in that translation. 

As the Taj el-'Aroos is the medium through which I have drawn most of the contents of my lexicon, I must more fully 
state the grounds upon which I determined to make so great a use of it Not long after I had become acquainted with this 
enormous work, I found it to be asserted by some persons in Cairo that the seyyid Murtada was not its author: that it was 
compiled by a certain learned man (whose name I could not ascertain) who, coming to Cairo with this work, on his way from 
Western Africa to Mekkch as a pilgrim, and fearing to lose it in the desert-journey, committed it to the seyyid Murtada to be 
safely kept until his return: that he died during his on ward -journey, or during his return towards Cairo: and that the seyyid 
Murtada published it as his own composition. This grave accusation brought against the reputed author of the Taj el-'Aroos, 
unsupported by the knowledge of the name of the person whom he is thus asserted to have wronged, I did not find to be 
credited by any of the learned, nor do I myself believe it : but it imposed upon me the necessity of proving or disproving, 



not the genuineness of the book (a matter of no importance except as affecting the reputation of the seyyid Murtada*), but, 
its authenticity. I was therefore obliged to make a most laborious collation of passages quoted in it with the same passages in 
the works quoted: and in every instance I found that they had been faithfully transcribed. Thus the authenticity of the 
Taj el-'Aroos was most satisfactorily established. But in comparing large portions of it with the corresponding portions of the 
Lisan el-'Arab, I made the unexpected discovery that, in most of the articles in the former, from three-fourths to about nine- 
tenths of the additions to the text of the Kamoos, and in many articles the whole of those additions, existed verbatim in the 
Lisan el-'Arab. I cannot, therefore, acquit the seyyid Murtada of a want of candour, and of failing to render due honour to 
one of the most laborious of compilers, by not stating either that the Taj el-'Aroos was mainly derived in the first instance 
from the Lisan el-'Arab (which I believe to have been the case) or that the contents of the former are mainly found in the 
latter. This circumstance has induced me very often to compose articles of my lexicon principally from the Lisan el-'Arab in 
preference to the Taj el-'Aroos, comparing the contents afterwards with the latter ; and when they agreed, giving the latter as 
my authority in most instances (though not alwaysf) because I could only undertake to have the latter transcribed. The only 
copy of the Lisan el-'Arab known to me is that which I have already mentioned. It was lent to me, in successive portions, 
from the library of the collegiate mosque called "the Ashrafeeyeh," in Cairo. It is written in several different hands, nearly 
resembling one another, of a peculiar cursive kind, which none can correctly read without studying sufficiently to understand 
thoroughly; for which reason, if I had been able to obtain any copy made from it (for it bears statements of its having been 
several times partially or wholly transcribed some centuries ago) I could not have placed much reliance upon it. Since the 
time of the seyyid Murtada, it has suffered much injury, chiefly from the rotting of the paper ; in many places, the whole of 
the written portion of a page having fallen out, the margin only remaining. 

Having fully satisfied myself of the authenticity of the Taj el-'Aroos, as well as of its intrinsic value, my next object was 
to cause a careful transcription of it to be commenced without delay, although, while I remained in Cairo, I made use of copies 
belonging to the libraries of mosques. The following are all the copies of that work, or of portions thereof, respecting which I 
have been able to procure any information.— 1. The copy made use of by 'Asim Efendee in writing his Turkish Translation of 
the Kamoos. This belonged, according to his own statement, made to me, to Yahya Efendee the Hakeem, who for many 
years composed the annual Egyptian Almanac published by order of the Government. He said that it was in the handwriting 
of the author, in two very larga volumes ; which, though hardly credible, is not absolutely impossible; for the handwriting of 
the seyyid Murtada was small and compact : that the Grand Vezeer who was in Egypt during the contest between our own 
forces in that country and the French borrowed it of him, and sent it to Constantinople without his permission: and that he 
had caused many inquiries to be made for it there, but never learned any tidings of it.— 2. A copy believed to have been 
in fourteen folio-volumes, in the handwriting of the author. Of this, the last volume and the last but two are in the library of 
the Riwak of the Syrians in the great mosque El-Azhar. The rest of it seems to have been lost. It may be a portion of a 
copy which the author retained for himself. When he died, his family kept his death secret for two days ; after which, the 
officers of the Government Treasury plundered his house of much property, among which, perhaps, was this copy; and if so, it 
may havo fallen into different hands; one person taking a portion ; and another person, another portion.— 3. A copy sent by 
the author as a present to the King of San'a. So I was informed on the authority of a person living in Cairo, who asserted that 
he conveyed it for the author, and who must have attained to manhood some years before the author's death. He may perhaps 
be mistaken as to the work that he conveyed; but this is not probable.— 4. The copy in the library of the mosque of Mohammad 
Bey Abu-dh-Dhahab, before mentioned ; said to be in eight thick, full-paged folio-volumes ;J not in the author's handwriting, 

• By various other works, he earned a high reputation for learning ; 
and I believe that his ability to compose such a work as the Taj el-'Aroos 
was never called in question. 

t In the articles of which the last radical letter is >, and in those of 
which the last is J, I have generally deviated from my usual plan by 

indicating the authority of the Lisan el-'Arab rather than that of the Taj 
el-'Aroos in order to convey some notion of the value of the former work. 
J I was informed that the number of its volumes is eight ; but I was 
never allowed to see the whole copy, and, in the course of transcription, I 
neglected to note where each volume ended. 


but transcribed under his superintendence, and in part, and perhaps entirely, revised by him. This copy wants a portion from 
the commencement of the first main division of the lexicon ; i. e., of W . ^ : it also wants some other, smaller, portions. I 
shall have to say more respecting it in the next paragraph.-5. A portion in the handwriting of the author, in my possesion ; 
from the commencement of W i V V to the words c4-» J, J W. » article %* »PP¥"g more ta the main P° rtl0n ** ,S 
wanting in the copy of Mohammad Bey. It is of a small quarto-size, and ends in the middle of a page.-6. A copy in the 
library of the late Ibraheem Pasha, transcribed from that of Mohammad Bey, and said to be incorrectly written.— 7. A large 
folio-volume, in my possession, before mentioned, consisting of nearly the whole of the first tenth portion; evidently transcribed 
from the copy of Mohammad Bey, for it wants what is deficient in iy^\ V V in the latter copy. 

The copy transcribed for me, which is in twenty-four thick quarto-volumes, is partly from the portion, in the handwriting 
of the author, in the great mosque El-Azhar; but mainly from the copy of Mohammad Bey ; what is wanting in this last, 
in Wl ^ t*ing copied from the MS. No. 5 in the foregoing list ; and very nearly the whole of the other (smaller) portions 
that are wanting therein being supplied from the principal source, namely, the Lisan el-'Arab. It is therefore far superior 
to the other known copies, in respect of completeness, except the first and third of the copies mentioned in the next preceding 
paragraph if these exist and be still entire. But it will not always serve as a perfect test of the correctness of my own 
lexicon, although it has been carefully collated with its originals, as I made use of the copy of Mohammad Bey as long as I 
remained in Egypt, and have used the Lisan el- 1 Arab and other lexicons for the supplying of syllabical signs &c. wanting 
in that copy and in my own. In my copy, diacritical points have often been omitted when not thought by the transcriber to 
be absolutely necessary; as is the case in almost all copies of lexicons: also syllabical signs that are in the originals are not 
unfrequently omitted: and my copy is more irregular than its originals in the manner of writing the letter hemzeh. The 
copy of Mohammad Bey will probably, in a few years, be in many places illegible ; for the ink with which it is written is of 
a corrosive nature, and has already, in those parts, eaten through the paper, though hitherto not to such an extent as to present 
any difficulty to the reader : or rather 1 should say that such was the case just before my own copy was made ; for while 
I was translating from portions of it already transcribed for me, small pieces often dropped out from its leaves, in spite of my 
utmost care, Itelieve that if I had not undertaken the composition of the present work, the means of composing such a work 
would not much longer have existed. For not only was the sole copy of the Taj el-' Aroos that was nearly complete, and that wet 
worthy of reliance, of those known to exist, rapidly decaying; but many of the most precious of the manuscripts from which 
it was compiled have been mutilated; many are scattered, no one knows whither; and several, of which no other copies are 
known to be in existence, and for which one would have to search from city to city, exploring the libraries of mosques, are 
said to have perished. The transcription of my own copy, and its collation, extended over a period of more than thirteen 
years. It might have been accomplished in much less time, had less care been bestowed upon it: but for several years I could 
find no competent and willing transcriber except the sheykh Ibraheem Ed-Dasookee, who was unable to devote the whole of his 
time to this object. Upon him the task of transcription mainly devolved; and the collation was performed wholly by him in 
conjunction with myself or with another sheykh. 

As soon as a few pages of my copy of the Taj el-' Aroos had been transcribed, I commenced the work of translation and 
composition from its originals. I did not hesitate to write my lexicon in English rather than in Latin, because the latter 
language is not sufficiently perspicuous nor sufficiently copious. For several years I continued to collect all that I required 
for a lexicon as complete as it was possible for me to make it. But I then considered that about one third of what I had 
compiled consisted of the explanations of words rarely occurring ; many of them, words that no one student was likely ever to 
meet with; and not a few, such as are termed «& or ><fi or M f> (before explained, in page xi. of this preface); 
these last being words known only as having been spoke.i, each by a single Arab, or as only once occurring in any writing. 
I considered also that the undertaking which I had £ us long been prosecuting was one which would require many more 
years for its completion ; and that it was incumbent on me to take into account the uncertain duration of my appointed term 
Bk. I. 



of life, and to occupy myself first with what was most important. I therefore finally determined to divide my lexicon into two 
Books : the first to contain all the classical words and significations commonly known to the learned among the Arabs : the other, 
those that are of rare occurrence and not commonly known. And I have made such subdivisions as will enable the purchaser 
of a copy to bind it in the manner that he may deem most convenient : in two volumes, or in four, or in eight; each to consist 
of a portion of Book I. with the corresponding portion of Book II.; or so that all the words in Book I. of which the roots 
commence with one letter may be immediately followed by the words in Book II. of which the roots commence with the same 
letter. The Second Book will be small in comparison with the First, of which the Part to be first published (i to ± inclusive) will 
form about one eighth. In order that it may be possible to bind the whole work in two volumes, I have chosen for it a thin paper. 

Nearly twenty years have now elapsed since I commenced this work. Had I foreseen that the whole labour of the 
composition must fall upon me or the project be abandoned, and had I also foreseen the length of time that it would require 
of me, unaided, I should certainly not have had the courage to undertake it. I had hoped that I should have at least one 
coadjutor: and I continued to hope for some years that such might be the case; but by no one have I been aided in the least 
degree, except, occasionally, in discussions of difficult points, by the sheykh Ibrahcem Ed-l)asookce ; who has written the 
results of some of these discussions on the margins of pages of my copy of the Taj el-'Aroos, generally in his own words, but 
often in words dictated by me. For seven years, in Cairo, I prosecuted my task on each of the work-days of the week, after 
an early breakfast, until within an hour of midnight, with few and short intervals of rest, (often with no interruption but that 
of a few minutes at a time for a meal, and half an hour for exercise,) except on rare occasions when I was stopped by illness, 
and once when I devoted three days to a last visit to the Pyramids: I seldom allowed myself to receive a visiter except on 
Friday, the Sabbath and leisure-day of the Muslims : and more than once I passed a quarter of a year without going out of 
my house. But I must not be supposed to claim much credit for the exercise of self-denial with respect to the pleasures of 
society ; for during those seven years passed in Cairo, I had my wife and sister and the hitter's two sons residing with me. 
Nor w6uld I here make mention of the severe labour which this work has cost me but for the purpose of guarding against the 
imputation of my having been wanting in energy or industry. To convey a due idea of the difficulties of my task would be 
impossible. While mainly composing from the Taj el-'Aroos, I have often had before me, or by my side, eight or ten other 
lexicons, (presenting three different arrangements of the roots, and all of them differing in the order, or rather disorder, of the 
words explained,) requiring to be consulted at the same time. And frequently more than a day's study has been necessary to 
enable me thoroughly to understand a single passage: for the strict rules of Arabic lexicology demand that every explanation 
be given as nearly as possible in the words in which some person of authority has transmitted it; and many explanations 
perfectly intelligible when they were first given became less and less so in succeeding ages, and at length quite unintelligible 
to the most learned of living Arabs. Even Ibn-Seedeh often confesses, in the Mohkam, his inability to understand an 
explanation or some other statement that he has transmitted. Many explanations, moreover, present instances of what is 
termed ^Ci; and instances of a worse kind of license, termed ji£>, are not of unfrequent occurrence: by the former term is 
meant a deficiency in what an author writes relying upon the understanding of the reader; and by the latter term, a 
deficiency in what he writes without relying upon the reader's knowledge. Often, two synonymous words arc used to explain 
each other. Numerous cases of this kind occur in the Kamoos: such, for instance, are ILL and j£>, i^C and % ji^t 
and ,ifc»1, and ^jfi and ^j- : and in these cases I have not always found the information that I required by referring to 
other lexicons. More frequently, in lieu of an explanation, we find merely the word J^, meaning "well known:" and in a 
very large proportion of such cases, what was once " well known" has long ceased to be so. Still more frequently, significations 
arc only indicated by the context: in many instances, as clearly as they could be expressed by any words of explanation: but 
in many other instances, very obscurely. Many words are rendered by others which are not elsewhere explained in the same 
lexicon; many, by words meant to be understood in senses not elsewhere explained in that lexicon; many, by words meant to 
be understood in tropical senses; and many, by words meant to be understood in post-classical senses. In these last cases, I 
have often found in my knowledge of modern Arabic a solution of a difficulty : but without great caution, such knowledge would 

PREFACE. xxiii 

frequently have misled me, in consequence of the changes which have taken place in the applications of many words 
since the classical age. Great caution is likewise requisite in the attempt to elicit the significations of words by means of 
analogy ; as I could easily show by giving all the principal words of one article with their significations, and then requiring 
any student to divine the significations of the other words of the same article by such means, and comparing his explanations 
with those that have been authoritatively transmitted. Perfect reliance is not to be placed upon vowel-signs and the like when 
they are merely written, without their being either described in words or shown by the statement that the word of which the 
pronunciation is to be fixed is similar to some other word well known. Even when they are described, one has to consider 
what rule the author follows ; and in some lexicons the rules followed by the authors are not explained. For instance, when 
a noun of three letters is said to be with fet-h, if in the Eamoos, tne meaning is that it is of the measure Jii : but in some 
other lexicons it means that it is of the measure Jii. If we find such a noun in the Ramoos written as of the measure jii and 
said to be Avith fet-h, we must infer that jZS (not jii) is the correct measure : and if in the same lexicon we find such a noun 
that is to be explained written otherwise than as of the measure Jai, without its being followed by any indication of its 
measure, we must infer that J*i is probably its true measure, unless it be a word commonly known. But these and other 
technical difficulties arc comparatively small, or become so after a little time spent in the study of different lexicons with a 
previous knowledge of the principles of Arabic lexicology and lexicography. Among the graver difficulties arc those which arc 
often presented by verses cited as confirmatory examples, or as illustrations, without either context or explanation ; many of 
which I have inserted in my lexicon as being either absolutely necessary or such as I could not omit with entire satisfaction. 
Various other obstacles that I have had to encounter I refrain from mentioning, hoping that I shall be deemed to have said 
enough to excuse myself for the length of timo that has elapsed since the commencement of my work. I have, however, 
been unusually favoured by circumstances; and especially by my having acquired, in familiar intercourse with Arabs, an 
acquaintance with their manners and customs, and their mental idiosyncrasies, indispensably requisite to success in my 
undertaking. Encouraged by these circumstances, I applied myself to the working of the rich mine that I had discovered, 
with the resolution expressed in the saying of a poet,* 

When I had prosecuted my task in Cairo during a period of nearly six years, I understood it to be the desire of my 
Patron that the British Government might be induced to recognise the importance of my work by contributing to the expense 
of its composition. I therefore submitted to the Head of Her Majesty's Government a request that my undertaking mi"ht 
be thus honoured and promoted : and I did so in a time peculiarly auspicious ; the Premier being Lord John Russell, now 
Earl Russell. His Lordship graciously and promptly replied to my appeal by granting me an annual allowance from the Fund 
for Special Service; and through his recommendation, this was continued to me by one of his successors in office, another 
Nobleman who added eminence in letters to elevation of birth and station, the late Earl of Aberdeen. And here I must 
especially and gratefully acknowledge my obligations to the learned Canon Cureton, for his friendly offices on these and other 
occasions. I must also add that Professor Lepsius and Dr. Abeken, and the late Baron Bunscn, kindly exerted themselves 
to obtain permission for my lexicon to bo printed at Berlin, at the joint expense of the Prussian Government and the Academy 
of Sciences; and several of the learned Orientalists of Germany seconded their endeavours; but conditions were proposed to 
me to which I could not willingly accede. 

After a stay of somewhat more than seven years in Cairo, a considerable portion of which period was spent by me in 
collecting and collating the principal materials from which my lexicon is composed, I returned to England; leaving to 
the sheykh Ibraheem Ed-Dasookee the task of completing the transcription of those materials, a task for which he had become 
fully qualified. 

* Cited in page 123 of this work. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

I must now add some explanations necessary to facilitate the use of my lexicon. 

The arrangement that I have adopted is, in its main features, the same as that of Golius : the words being placed 
according to their radical letters; and the roots being arranged according to the order of their letters (commencing with the 
first of those letters) in the usual alphabet. 

Words of three different classes, in which the radical letters are the same, but different in number, I place in the same 
article. The first of these classes consists of words of two radical letters ; as jj : the second class, of reduplicative triliteral- 
radical words, in which the first and second radical letters are the same as those of the first class, and the third the same as 
the second of that class ; as J^' and ji and JiJ &c. : and the third class, of reduplicative quiulriliteral-radical words, in 
which the first and third radical letters are the same as the first of the first class, and the second and fourth the same as the 
second of that class ; as Jj^ and aJL& and j(l( &c. These three classes are included in the same article in all the best 
Arabic lexicons ; and two reasons may be given for my following the same plan. One reason is similarity of signification. 
Words of the first and second corresponding classes very seldom exhibit an alliance in signification; but instances of such 
alliance in words of the first and third classes are less rare ; and instances of alliance in signification in words of the second 
and third classes are very numerous. The other reason is, that such words arc generally held to be derived from the same 
root. Some of the Arabian lexicologists hold that a word of the class of jj is a bilitcral-radical word ; so that the letters of 
its root are represented by ** : but most of them regard it as, absolutely, a trilitcral-radical word ; so that the letters of its 
root arc represented by j«j. With respect to a word such as jjb, the opinion held by El- Farm and others, and ascribed to 
EI-Khalcel, is, that it is to be represented by iju*; so that the letters of its root are represented by «*: another opinion, 
ascribed to El-Khalccl and his followers among the Basrces and Koofecs, is, that it is to be represented by jiJ>i; so that the 
letters of its root are represented by j*i : another, ascribed to Secbaweyh and his companions, is, that it is originally a word 
to be represented by jJb, and that the third radical letter is changed, and made the same us the first; so that the letters of 
its root arc represented by the same letters as if the word itself were to be represented by jAni' the opinion commonly 
obtaining among the Basrecs is, that it is to be represented by jj&; so that the letters of its root are represented, in tin's case 
also, by J*» ; and as the last of these modes of representing the word is the one most usual, I generally adopt this mode 
in my lexicon, except in quoting from an author who uses another mode. The triliterul root, in both of these classes 
of words, is that which is preferred in the Muzhir, where, in the 40th Section, not fur from the commencement, these 
different opinions arc stated. 

Agreeably with the same principle, quasi-quadrilitcral-radieal words (the conjugations and varieties of which will be 
found in a table inserted in this preface) I class with the triliteral-radical words from which they are derived by the Arabian 
lexicologists and grammarians. 

What is commonly called " the Verb of Wonder" I mention among the verbs. The Koofees say that it is a noun, 
meaning an epithet. (See li^j L£»\ u, in article -JU.) 

Dialectic variants, synonyms, and words nearly synonymous, from the same root, are mentioned and explained in one 
paragraph : but every word thus explained in a paragraph headed by another word is also mentioned by itself, or accompanied 
by a word or words nearly resembling it in form, with a reference to that paragraph. (In order to facilitate the reference, an 
arrow-head (*) is inserted to render conspicuous a word explained in a paragraph headed by another word.) Several obvious 
advantages result from this arrangement; not the least of which is a considerable saving of room. In these cases, when I 
have found it possible to do so, I have placed the most common word first, or otherwise distinguished it from the rest: 
sometimes I have shown which words are more or less common by the authorities that I have indicated for them. 


When a noun is not found at the head of a paragraph, or by itself, or with another nearly resembling it in form, it is to 
be looked for among the infinitive nouns, which are mentioned with their respective verbs. And plurals are to be found under 
their singulars. 

Words that arc regularly formed, ad libitum, (such as active and passive participial nouns, and nouns denoting the 
comparative and superlative degrees, Ac.,) are not mentioned, unless for special reasons. 

In respect of the places which I have assigned to arabicized words, I have generally followed the usual practice of the 
Arabian lexicographers; that is, I have generally placed them as though they were derived from Arabic roots; because most 
students look for them under the headings beneath which I have mentioned them, and because many of them have derivatives 
formed from them in the regular Arabic manner. Bnt, properly speaking, every letter in an arabicized word is regarded by 
most of the Arabian lexicologists as radical. 

When several significations arc assigned to one word &c, connected by "or," it is often the case that one is right in 
one instance, and another in another; and not unfrequcntly, that all arc correct in different instances. 

Whenever I have found it possible to do so. I have distinguished (by the mark t) what is affirmed to be tropical from 
what is proper ; generally on the authority of the Asas. I have also generally distinguished (by the mark t) what I regard 
as evidently, or probably, tropical, when I have found no express authority for asserting such to be the case. Thus I have 
often l»ccn enabled to draw clearly what may be termed the "genealogies" of significations. Always, in the arrangement 
»f significations, I have, to the utmost of my ability, paid attention to their relations, one to another. The mark — is used 
to denote a break in the relations of significations &c. ; and= denotes an extraordinary, or a complete, dissociation. 

Numerous words in the Siluih and K.imoos and most other Arabic lexicons arc merely said to be the names of certain 
plants or animals. Of these I have generally found and given explanations which have either enabled me to determine the 
particular species to which they apply or may enable others to do so, and which will show that, the applications of many of 
these words have been changed in post-classical times. For the names and descriptions of plants, my chief authority is 
Aboo-Hanecfch Ed-Bccnawarcc, who is generally held to have adhered to the original nomenclature more accurately than 
any other writer on the Arabian flora, enabled to do so in many cases by his own careful investigations, and by consulting 
Arabs of the desert, at a sufficiently early period, in the third century of the Flight. I have been induced to mention the 
properties commonly attributed by the Arabs to plants and drugs &c, though they are generally fanciful, because they 
.sometimes help to point out what is meant by an explanation otherwise vague, and sometimes elucidate far-fetched comparisons 
or allusions. 

The explanations of the particles are extremely defective in almost all the Arabic lexicons ; but of this very important 
class of words, generally more difficult to explain than any other class, I have found, in the Mughnee, illustrations even more 
ample than I required. Though I have generally omitted the statement of opinions evidently erroneous, and refuted in the 
Mughnee, I have in some degree imitated the author of that work by endeavouring to treat such words rather too largely 
than too scantily. 

Of the learning of Golius, and the industry of Freytag, I wish to speak with sincere respect, and with gratitude for 
much benefit derived by me from their works before circumstances gave me advantages which they did not enjoy. But lest 
I should be charged with omitting important matters in some of the originals from which my work is composed, it is necessary 
for me to state that, in countless instances, both of those lexicographers have given explanations, more or less full, as from 



the Sihah or Kamoos or both, when not one word thereof, nor even an indication, is found in either of those originals:* and 
that much of what Freytag has given as from the Kamoos is from the Turkish Translation of that lexicon, of which I have 
before spoken, a work of considerable learning, but of no authority when no voucher is mentioned in itt I have myself 
occasionally cited the Turkish Translation of the Kamoos, but only when I have not found what I wanted in any other work, 
and, in a case of this kind, only when I have felt confidence in its correctness, or when I have desired a confirmation of my 
own opinion. In very few instances have I adopted its explanations; having often found them to be glaringly incorrect; in 
some cases, from its author's having partially misunderstood what he had to translate ; but in more cases, from his having 
altogether failed to understand, and therefore having given literal renderings which are far from conveying the meanings 

Proper names of persons and of places, and post-classical words and significations, I have, with very few exceptions, 
excluded from my lexicon. A dictionary of words of the former class, such as would satisfy the wants of students, would of 
itself alone form a large volume; for the sources from which it might be drawn arc abundant, and not difficult of access. A 
dictionary of post-classical Arabic, worthy of being so called, could not be composed otherwise than by a considerable number 
of students in different cities of Europe where good libraries of Arabic manuscripts arc found, and by as many students in 
different countries of Asia and Africa; partly from books, and partly from information to be acquired only by intercourse with 
Arabs; and several of those who should contribute to its composition would require to be well versed in the sciences of the 
Muslims. In excluding almost all post-classical words and significations, I have followed the example of every one of the most 
esteemed Arabian lexicographers; and the limits that I have assigned to my labours have certainly been rather too wide than 
too narrow, ns will be sufficiently shown by the fact that the quantity of the matter comprised in the fust eighth part of my 
First Book (l to & inclusive) is treble the quantity of the corresponding portion of Frcytag's Lexicon, although I leave rare 
words &c. for my Second Book. 

I have inserted nothing in my lexicon without indicating at least one authority for it, except interwoven additions of 
my own which I have invariably distinguished by enclosing them between square brackets. Throughout Part 1 of the First 
Book, I have generally made the indications of the authorities as numerous as I conveniently could; but I have not thought 
it desirable to do so throughout, as these indications occupy much space, and what is most important is to note the oldest 
authority mentioned in any of my originals, with one or more of good repute to confirm it. A table of the authorities inserted 
in this preface will show which of them I have cited through the medium of the Tiij el-'Aroos or the ListUi cl-'Arab. Such 
authorities I have often indicated without any addition.} When two or more indications of authorities arc given, it is to be 
understood that they agree essentially, or mainly ; but not always that they agree in words. When any authority is, in an important 
degree, less full, or less clear, than another or others by which it is accompanied, I distinguish it by an asterisk placed after the initial 

• By this remark, I may perhaps provoke the retort that, in composing 
an Arabic-English lexicon wholly from Arabic sources, I am myself 
doing what may be resolved into something like reasoning in a circle. 
But such is not the case ; for the words employed in explanations in the 
Arabic lexicons arc generally still used in the senses in which they are 
there employed ; and the intended meanings of words that arc not still 
used in such senses arc, with few exceptions, easily determined by 
examples in which they occur, or by the general consent of the learned 
among the Arabs in the present day. Of the exceptional difficulties of 
interpretation, I have already said enough ; and for my own sake, as 
well as for the sake of truth, I by no means wish to underrate them. 

t In Freytag's first volume, the authorities are seldom indicated. — 

Sometimes explanations given by Golius ns from the Siluili or Kamoos or 
both, and not found in cither of those works, are copied by Freytag without 
his stating such to be the case, and without his indicating the authorities 
or authority assigned by Golius : for example, three such instances occur 
in the short article •_/,>. 

I In a few instances, in the Taj el-'Aroos, where its author has drawn 
from the Tahdhceb or the Mohkam through the medium of the Lisan 
el-'Arab, I have found the Tahdhceb erroneously named as his authority 
instead of the Mohkam, or the Mohkam instead of the Tahdhceb.— 
Sometimes an authority is mentioned by a surname borne by two or 
more, so that the person meant is doubtful. 

PREFACE. xxvii 

or initials &c. by which it is indicated. Frequently it happens that an explanation is. essentially the same in the Lisan 
el-' Arab and the Taj cl-'Aroos, but more full, or more clear, in the former: in cases of this kind I have generally indicated 
only the latter as my authority. 

Sometimes I have been obliged to employ English terms which have not, to my knowledge, been used by any other 
writer; but I have been careful to invent only such as will, I believe, be easily understood. For example, I have applied the 
epithet "auroral" to certain risings and settings of stars or astcrisms, to denote the restriction of those risings and 
settings to the whole period of the morning-twilight: the epithet "heliacal," applied to such risings, would restrict them 
overmuch. Lexicological and grammatical terms employed in my lexicon will be found in one of the tables inserted in 
this preface. 

I have supposed the student who will make use of this work to be acquainted with the general rules of grammar. These 
he must bear in mind when he meets with 'particular rules mentioned by me. For instance, from his finding it stated, in 
page 77 of this lexicon, that, when *j)i is used in the sense of J^£, the noun which follows it is put in the same case as that 
which precedes it, he must not imagine that exceptions to this rule are presented by such phrases as «iT ^l <J1 ^ ( There is no 
deity other than, i. e. but, God) and „1»U£» •$ t£i I jl C> ( This is not anything but a uniting) and Jjj y\ j^.1 ^» ;£». U {No one came 
but Zeyd) and ^U£» *jji /JL| \jl J4> (which means the same as the second of these phrases) : for in each of these examples the 
noun preceding y\ is regarded as being virtually in the same case as the noun following it. (See a note in Dc Sacy's Arabic 
Grammar, 2nd ed., vol. ii. p. 404.) 

Considering the size of this work, the quantity of Arabic type that it comprises, the minuteness of many of the 
characters employed in it, and the excessive care required in the placing of those small characters, no student can reasonably 
hope to find it entirely free from typographical faults, whether they be such as have originated from the compositors and have 
escaped the scrutiny of the author, or such as are almost inevitable in the process of printing. I shall use my utmost 
endeavours to detect such faults, and to note them for correction. 

The following tables will, I believe, supply all further explanations that will be needed. 


I.— Table of the Conjugations of Arabic Verbs. 

1. (1st variety) J*, J£ , (2nd) J3, J£ : (3rd) JZ, jX : (4th) Jji, J£ , (5th) J3, J£ : (Gtb) J*, JJ£ 

2. J«i : variations ^li (for Jv2i) and the like. 

3. JtU. 

. •••• 

4. J*il. 

8. jft ^variations jSj, i„ the eases of verbs of which the J is O, *, ^ ,, >,;, ^ ^ ^ ^ t , or * , als0 Jfc (for ^ ^ ^ ^ ; 
J-A3 &c. (for jJUii & c .) 

6. J*U3 : variations Jiui, in cases like those in which jjui sometimes becomes j%\ : also JiU3 kc. (for J^ufj & c .) 

7. jiLl : variations j^il (for j^Jil) and the like ; and JJut (for JJL^il) and the like. 

8. J3l : variation, J& ji, Ji, or J^, in dlc „*, of verbs of which thc £ j, 0> ^ ^ fc fc ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ fc ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

(for £%, >& and >Jj and #1 (for >L S .), ££l (for £%, j£t (for J>#1), >} and >Jj and >& (for #>]), ftjl (for $.), 
<***! and j£t (for ^1), ^Lil and J^\ (for v>£t), ">3Uj («« *j£% £tl (for £&), J#J and ^ILfcl Rnd J#| (for Jj&l), J& 
(for ^iijl), j!5l (for jl^fl) : j&| and JJel (for Jji^l). 

9. Jm»\ : variations JUil, in the case of a verb of which thc J is unsound j as ^jl : and JjJiil ; as JLhyi 

■• * ■» 

10. J w L 7 . n l : variations clk_>t and et-l (for clki*l). 

- '* " '* 

11. JU*I : variation JJUij, in tlic case of a verb of which thc J is unsound ; as jjjl^-t. 

12. J*y6l. 

13. J^ll 

Q- L #* Q 2. J&5. q. 3. JiSA. 

Q. 4. Jjbel. 

It. Q. 1. Verbs of thc classes of j£ (in which thc first and third radical letters are thc same, and thc second and fourth,) and ^^. (in which lite 
third and fourth radical letters arc the same). 

11. Q. 2. Verb* of the classes of JJLJ and i r '}L ~ 

It. Q. 3. Verbs of the class of JJJ£\. 

It. Q. 4. Verbs of the class of jU^ mentioned above, (sec 9,) as variations of jiil, may be ch.sscd utidcr this head. 

Q.Q.I. Ji*;^; & (as o& according to some, and '&£). J&: jfc. J^ ; j£; j£ ; j£ ; j£ : jifcj j£; j£; j£ ; 

J#5 JV: Jtfj JX, J*U; j£; Jiuij JSfc 
Q. Q. 2. >£i£ ; J&: j£j ; J^, J^: J#i ; j£S: j£3. 
Q. Q. 3. [», jSfy jU,, jti,. J^j, ^, : J^, : ^ 
Q. Q.4. JUfc, J^Jl: Jja*,; J^|,, ^ l: ja,. 

** ** * * 

Beside these, there are some other forms of Q. Q. verbs, not to be classed with any of the foregoing. And probably there are some other varieties of 
Q. Q. 2 ; each quasi-passive of Q. Q. 1. 



II.— Table of Lexicological and Grammatical Terms #c. used in the following work. 

Accord., for according. 
Accub. case, for accusative case, v 
Act, for active, J*ui) ^» or>ji*iA). 
Act. part. n.,for active participial noun, ^cM^X. 
Adv. n., for adverbial noun, «j£l», and some- 
times iLe; of place, J& <*>j*i a nd of 

• *t* 

time, oW *-*>*• 
Agent, J*U. 
Analogous, or regular, ^W* and wrtf*« 

Analogy, l*\i. 

Anomalous, or irregular, LS -»l e J ^ and ,^*»* ^ 

or id (sec " Dcv.") or j 3 U (see " Extr."). 
Aor., for aorist, c jU>-o. 

Aplastic, applied to a noun and to a verb, «***» « 
App., /or apparently. 

Appositivc, ^13. 

Attribute, or predicate, jo— « and j^. 
Drokcn pl.,/or broken plural, j-X* *-»»•• 
Coll. gen. n., for collective generic noun, ^-1 
-*4 u -— ; also called a lexicological 

plural, ,*$,*) £♦». # 

Complement of a ))rcfixcd noun, *JI *_JLa*. 

S ' • • 
Complete, t. c. attributive, verb,>U J«*. 

Conj., for conjugation, ^>\f. 

* i , , ■•»•*•# 

Conjunct, Jyoy*: conjunct noun, Lr «-'l Jy*** '• 
• i ■ ' .* ' •••••* ' 

conjunct particle, ^j»- yjyoyt. 

■-' • » •• - 

and oJoVt 

J, or 

icrm, *- 

.^UjuoI. _ Conventional 


Contr., ./or contrary 

Conventional term, 
language, «J>j«. 

• *» • »- 

Corroborative, ju£»U and J^=»y- 

Decl., />r declinable, «_>«»o : perfectly decl., 

yjj^a^, and wycu«: imperfectly decl., j*b. 

, ^ * »j ^ •' 

Oj_^a-<> and \j g0i* j&. 

Defective verb, i. c. having « or iC for the last 
• * «• 
radical letter, ^aiU cJ*** 

Dcv.,, /or deviating; as in the phrase, Deviating 

from the constant course of sjiecch (with 

respect to analogy, or rule, or with respect 

2 , • * 

to usage) ; ili. This term and jiU (sec 
" Extr.") are often used in the lexicons in- 
Dial., for dialect, ii). 

Dial. var. of, for dialectic variant of, . J <UU. 

•* » * 
Dim., for diminutive, j*~a-». 

Enunciativc, %Jl. 

Epithet, and epithctic phrase, c-j«j and oLoj 

and *io. 
Ex.,/>r example. 
Expl., for explained. 
Expos., for exposition, ~.ji, and j~-i3 : the latter 

particularly applied to an exposition of the 

Extr.,/or extraordinary (with respect to analogy, 

or rule, or with respect to usage), jjU. (See 

« Dev.") 
Bk. I. 

Fern., for feminine, si~>y». 
Fnt., for future, J..i. T *. a ^ 

Gen. case, for genitive case, t>»*». andj^ 
Gen. n.,/or generic noun, br ^ > »wt. 

Hollow verb, «-Jy»-l J«». 

Homonym, i)^£~*, for a^i J)jZZ~t. 

I. q.,/>r idem quod. 

Ideal (as opposed to real) subst, VJ i«-» , 

simply ^yii. ( ^ 
Imitative sequent, cUI. 

• •I v. 

Imperative, *•!. 

Inchoative, Ijl^-«. 

Incomplete, i.e. non-attributive, verb, ^aJU J«*, 
. » »•» *» ' ' 

qtjMjJs- J*i. 

Indecl.,/>r indeclinable, ^^-^ *. 

Inf. n., /»• infinitive noun, jjuo*. Inf. n. of 

unity, S^JLI jj-ai. Inf. n. of modality, 
»a •» * » 

•" * ♦ 

Instrumental noun, <UI >0 -(J. 

* « ,-j j»» • ■- 

Intrans.,/or intransitive, jjCU^ and^^. 

Irreg.,/or irregular: see "Anomalous." 

Lit., /or literally. 

Mahmooz verb, jvov° J*** 

Mansoob aor., /or mansoob aorist, v* - *'* - W 

Masc, /or masculine, y=»Xe. 

• • * 
Measure, ££%• 

* > * » • 
Mejzoom aor., /or mcjzoom aorist,>^>^-« Pj 

Metaphor, 5jU^-.l. 

Metaphorical, ^,Ui-»V 

Metonymy, <bU£a. 
• •' 
N., /or noun, —A 

N. un.,/or noun of unity, »>^.lj and «x»t> 

Nom. case, /or nominative case, *ij. 

Objective complement of a verb, J>««-» or 
• *»' 

Part.'n. : see "act. part, n." and " pass. part, n." 

Particle, «-»»»•. , 

Pass., /or passive, J y U>. U ^^i-* or Jjt " - »"• Jt 

Pass. jmrt. n., //r passive participial noun, ^^.1 


Perfect pi., for perfect plural, ^JU £*»- ; also 
• » • • # 
called a sound pi., » t * * f*" 

Perfect verb, /'. ''. one which has not two radical 
letters alike, nor has » nor « nor ij for one 
of its radical letters, ^L- J«4. (See also 
"Sound verb.") 

Vers., for person (of a verb). 

VI., for plural, »i».. PI. of pauc, for plural of 
paucity, il» >«»• PL of mult., for plural of 
multitude, £& £**. PI. pi., /or plural of 

a plural, gU- fU- 
Possessive noun or epithet (such as^»l3 and ^"9 
&c.), v-llil ,ji« ^^»l (a kind of relative 

• ,S " i ' ' * 

Post-classical, jJ^» and «_>j 
Predicate : see " Attribute." 
Prefixed noun, JU«. 

Prep., for preposition, 

^Jjm-, and sometimes 

Pret,/or preterite, yoU. 

Prov., for proverb, Jl». s 

Q.,/or quadriliteral-radical verb, ^eWj J«*. <# 
Q. Q-, />»• quasi-quadriliteral-radical verb, J«* 
" ^i * ' \' 

Q. v.^/or quod vide. 

Quasi-coordinate, j « JU : see art. i>*J. • # 

Quasi-inf. n., for quasi-infinitive noun, ,J-a-» ^J 

and jj. o « » ~w». 

Quasi-pass., />r quasi-passive, pjUx«- 

Quasi-pl. n.,/or quasi-plural noun, g^-^-V 

Quasi-sound verb, i. e. one having jor^ for its 
* ' *• 
first radical letter, Jtt* J*J. 

R. Q.,/or reduplicative quadriliteral-radical verb, 

•' - * ' i" *i*i 

Real (as opposed to ideal) subst., £** jr*\ or) 

simply j>U, and OliJ^or simply Ol'i. 

f * * *i 
Receptacular noun, V»«>r*'* 

Reg.,/or regular: see "Analogous." 

Rel. n.,/or relative noun, w»^—u^-^, or 4-J. 

Simple subst. (as opposed to inf. n.),^!. 

Sing., for singular, }jk* and «x»-lj. 

Sound pi., /or sound plural : see " Perfect pi." 

Sound verb, t. e. one which is not of the class 
termed " perfect," but which has not ^ nor 
(j for one of its radical letters : or, as used 
in the 'Eyn and several other lexicons, one 
that has not ^ nor i_$ nor . for one of its 
radical letters : L f J *$*. (Sec " Perfect 

Specificativc, or discriminative, J««& 

State, denotative of, JW. 

Subject (as correlative of attribute or predicate), 

•- < • > 

' * . • • 

Subst.,/or substantivej^o-il. 
• -' ' 

Substitute, Jj^. 

Syll. 8igns,/or syllabical signs, Jiiii. 

Syn.,/or synonym and synonymous, «_»>j^» and 

*3i\£». Syn. with, for synonymous with, 

J Hi. 
Trad.,/>r tradition, w»jj». 

Trans., for transitive, jmi* and J»'5- 
Transposition, « T Jl*. Formed by transposition, 

Tropical, JWh* an " LSiV-*- 
Unsound verb, t. «. one having ^or ^ for one 
of its radical letters : or, as used in the 'Eyn 

and several other lexicons, one having j or 

%**•* •» 
i< or • for one of its radical letters : J-j-> ^}*i. 
*^ •» ' 

V., for verb, J*i. 

• #• 
Verbal noun, J*i^l. 

X means asserted to be tropical. 
Jt „ asserted to be doubly tropical, 
f „ supposed by me to be tropical. 


I II.— Chronologic al list of the more celebrated of the Lexicologists and Grammarians cited in the following work, extracted from the 48<A Section of 

the Muzhir : with some additions, which are marked with an asterisk. 

208 or 209 or 210 or 211 

. 205 or 206 or 213 
. 214 or 215 or 21G 

•Ibn-'Abbds: died in the year of the Flight 08 

•Mujdhid : said to have lived 83 years ; and 

to have died in 100 or 101 or 102 or 103 

*#atadeh : born in GO : died in 117 or 118 

Aboo-'Amr Ibn-El-'Ala: (*born atMckkeh, 
in the year of the Flight 70 or 68 or 

65 :) died in 151 (»or 154) or 159 

El-Khaleel : lived to the age of 74 .... 160 or 170 or 175 
•El-Leyth Ibn-Nasr Ibn-Seiyar El-Khurii- 
sdnee : contemporary with, and com- 
panion of, El-Khalcel. 

Yoonus : born in the year 90 182 *or 183 

•Ahu-d-Dukeysh: contemporary with Yoonus. 

EI-Kisd-ce 182 or 183 or 189 or 192 

Seebawcyh : lived 32 years, or 40 and odd 

years: died in . . . 101 (»or 177) or 180 or 188 or 194 

Aboo-Mohammad El-Yezeedee: lived 74 

years : died in 202 

En-Nadr Ibn-Shumeyl : died in 203 or 204 

S"tnib 206 

Et-Farra : lived 67 years 207 

Aboo-'Obcydeh (*Maamar Ibn-El-Muthenna 

Et-Teymoe) : born in 112: died in . 
Aboo-'Amr Esh-Sheybdnce : lived 110 (*or 

111) or 118 years : died in 
Aboo-Zcyd(*El-Ansdrce:) lived 93 years: died in 
El-Asma'ee : born in 123 (»or 122) : died in (»214 or) 215 or 216 *or 217 
•El-Lihydnce: contemporary with El-Kisa-ee 
and Aboo-'Obeydeh and Aboo-Zeyd and 
Abu-1-flasan El-Akhfash . . 

* Abu-1-Hey them : apreccptorof Aboo-'Obeyd. 
•Ibn-Buxurj : contemporary with Abu-1-Heythem 
Aboo-'Obeyd : lived 67 years : died in 
Ibn-El-Aardbce : born in 150: died in 
•Shemir: contemporary with Ibn-El-Aarabee. 

Ibn-Es-Sikkcet ('Yaakoob) 244 

Aboo-IIittim Es-Sijistanee : lived nearly 90 

years : died in 248 or 250 or 254 or 255 

•Ea-Sukkarco (author of an " Exposition of 
the Deewdn El-Hudhaleeyeen ") : bora 

in 212: died in 270 or 275 

Ibn-#uteybch : [also called El-Kutabee, and 
by some, (among whom is the author of 
the Tdj-cl-'Aroos,) less properly, EI- 
K u toy bee : (see the Biogr.Dictionary of En- 

Nawawee, p. 771 :)] born in 213 : died in 267 *or 270 or 271 or 276 
•Aboo-IIancefch Ed-Deenawaree (author of 

the " Book of Plants ") 282 

El-Mubarrad : born in 210 : died in . . . 282 or 285 *or 286 

Thaalab (•Abu-l-'Abbds Ahmad Ibn-Yahya, 
author of the " Fascch") : born in 200 : 

died in 291 

Kurds. cir. 310 

Ez-Zcjjnj (•Aboo-Is-hak) 311 

•Ibn-Dureyd (author of the "Jemharah"): 
born in 223, or [about five years later, 
for] it is said that he lived 93 years, not 

more, and died in . , , 321 

'Ibrahcem I bn- Mohammad Ibn-'Arafch(Nif- 

taweyh) : born in 244 or 250 : died in 323 

210 or 215 or 221 

223 or 224 or 230 
. 231 or 233 

(•327 or) 328 

(•337 or) 339 or 340 

. . 343 

. 347 

. . 367 

. 368 

. . 370 

. »370or371 

(•376 or) 377 


Aboo-Bckr Ibn-El-Ambaree : born in 271 : 

died in 


•El-Farabee ....... 

lbn-I)urustawcyh: born in 258: died in 


Es-Seenifee : born before the year 270 : died in 


El-Azherco (author of the "Tahdhecb"): 

•born in 282: died in 

Aboo-'Alcc El-Fdriscc : (*livcd more than 90 

years:) died in 

Aboo-Bekr Ez-Zubeydcc (author of an abridg- 
ment of the " 'Eyn" .... 
•Ibn-'Abbdd (the Sahib, author of the " Mo- 

hect"): born in 326: died in 385 

•El-Khattiibeo 300 

Ibn-Jinnce (•Abu-1-Fet-h 'Othman): born 

before the year 330 : died in 392 

Ibn-Faris ("390 or) 395 

El-Jowharec (author of the " Sihah ") . . . »393 or 397 or 398 

El-IIarawcc (author of the " Gharccbeyn ") 401 

•Mohammad Ibn-Jaafar El-Kazzaz 412 

El-Jawaleckcc 425 

•Ibn-Et-Tciyancc (author of the "Moo'ab") 43G 

Ibn-Secdch ('author of the "Mohkam"): 

lived about GO years : died in 458 

El-Khatccb Et-Tcbrcczcc : born in 421: died in 502 

*Er-Itaghib El-Isfahanec : died in the early 
part of century five. 

Ibn-El-Kattsia : born in 433: died in 515 

•EI-Mcydance: died in 513 

Ibn-Es-Sccd El-Batalyowscc : born in 444: 

died in 521 

Ez-Zamakhsherce (•author of the " 'Asds" and 

" Keshsbaf," &c.) : born in 467 : died in 538 

•Es-Suhcylee (author of the " Ilowd") 581 

Ibn-Barree ('author of " Annotations on the 

Sihah") . . 582 

•Ibn-El-Atheer El-Jezeree, (Mcjd-ed-Deen, 

author of the " Nihdych ") 606 

•El-Fakhr Er-Razee GOO 

•El-Mutarrizee (author of the " Mughrib ") : 

born in 536 : died in G10 

Es-Saghanec (*or Es-Saghanee, author of the 
'"Obdb" and of the " Tekmileh fi-s- 

Sihdh ") : born in 577 : died in 660 

Er-Radce Esh-Shdtibee : born in 601 : died in ... 684 

•El-Beyddwee 685 or 690 or 691 

El-Jcmdl Ibn-Mdlik : born in 600 : died in 692 

•Ibn-Mukarram (author of the "Lisdn 

el-' Arab "): born in 630 : died in 711 

•El-Fciyoomee (author of the " Misbdli," 
which he finished in 734). 

Aboo-Heiydn : born in 654 : died in 745 

•Ibn-Hisham (author of the "Mughnee"): 

born in 708 : died in 761 or 762 

El-Feyrooadbadee (author of the " £dmoos " 

•and the" Basdi'r"): born in 729: died in . . . .816 
•The seyyid Murtada Ez-Zebeedee (author of 

the"TajekAroos"): died in 1205 






A Hut, 
















J KM, 









I A in b, 

I All., 


1 Dnt, 









IV. — Indications of Autlioritie*. 

From all these authorities I have drawn through the medium of the Taj el-'Aroos or the Lisan el-'Arab, except those 
distinguished by the mark J, which denotes those whence I have always drawn immediately : from many of them I have also 
drawn through the medium of some other lexicon than the two above named : and from those distinguished by the mark 1 1 have 
often, or generally, drawn immediately. What is meant by an asterisk placed after any indication of an authority in my lexicon 
has been explained in page xxvi. 

Jm, The " Jemharah " of Ibn-Dureyd. 

+K, The " Kamoos." 

KI, The kddee Mydd. . 

t KL, The " Kenz cl-Loghah," of Ibn-Maaroof ; an Arabic-Persian 


J KT, The " Kitab et-Taarcefat." 

Kf, The " Kifayet el-Mutahaffidh." 

Kh El-Khaleel, commonly supposed to be the author of the 
« 'Eyn." 

|Kr, Kurda, author of the " Munjid." 

Ks, El-Ki'sd-ee. 

fKsh, The " Kcshshaf " of Ez-Zainakhsherce. 

Kt, El-Kuteybce. 

Ktr, Kutrub. 

J Kull, the " Kullccyiit " of Abu-1-Baka. 

+Kur, The " Kur-an." 

Kz, El-Kazzdz. 

-tKzw, El-Kazwcenee. 

+L, The'" Lisan el-'Arab." 

Lb, El-Lcblec. 

Lh, El-Li hyiince. 

Lth El-Lc'yth Ibn-Nasr Ibn-Scivdr, held by El-Azhcrce to be Uie 
author of the'" 'Eyn," which he calls " Kitab Lcyth." 

+M, The " Mohkam." 

J M A The " Mukaddamet el-Adab " of Ez-Zamakhshercc 

fMF, Mohammad lbn-Et-Teiyib El-Fdsec, author of "Annotations 

on the Kdmoos." 

fMS, The " Mukhtur cs-Sihah." 

Mbr, El-Mubarrad. 

tMeyd, El-Mcyddnee's " Proverbs." 

tMgh. The " Mughrib " of El-Mutarrizec. 

Mf, The " Mujmal " of Ibn-Faris. 

tMsb, The " Misbdh " of El-Feiyoomec. 

fMtr, El-Mutarrizec, author of the " Mughrib. " 
tMiighnec, The " Miighni-l-Lebceb " of Ibn-Hishdm. 

tMz,° The " Muzhir " of Es-Suyootcc. 

Nh, Tlic "Nihaych" of Ibn-El-Athcer El-Jezorec (Mcjd cd- 

Ns, En-Ncsa-cc. 

( ), The " 'Obab " of Es-Saghance. 
t PS, The " Persian Translation of the Sihah." 

It,' The " Rowd " (" Er-Rowd cl-Unuf ") of Es-Suheylcc. 

fS,' Tlic " Sihah." 

JSM, The seyyid Murtada, author of the " Taj cl-'Aroos. 

8b, Seebaweyh. 

Seer, Es-Seerdfce. , . , , _ , ... 

S"h, Es-Sn<'hancc, author of the " 'Obab" and of the " Tckmikh 

' fi-s-Sihah." 
Sll, Shemir. , . „. 

tSkr, Es-Sukkarcc, author of an " Exposition ot the Dccwan ti- 

ll udhalccveen." 
Suh", Es-Suhcylce, author of the " Rowd." 

fT, The " Tahdhecb " of El-Azhcrec. 

IT A, The " Taj cl-'Aroos." 

JTK, The " Turkish Translation of the Kamoos." 

TS, The " Tekmileh fi-s-Sihah " of Es-Saghance. 

tT'f, The " Tahdhecb et-Tahdhceb." 

Th, Thaalab, author of the "Faseeh." ,«., ,, „ 

fW, El-Wahidee's " Exposition of the Deewan of El-Mulanebbce, 

edited by Dr. Dietcrici. 
Yoo, Yoonus. 

Yz, El-Yczcedce. 

fZ, Ez-Zamakhsherce. 

Zbd, Ez-Zubeydee, author of an " Abridgment of the Eyn. 

+Zj, Ez-Zejjaj. 



The " Asds " of Ez-Zamakhshcree. 

Aboo-'Ainr Ibn-El-'Ala, and Aboo-'Amr Esh-Shcybanee : 

cacli being cited simply by the name of" Aboo-'Amr." 
Aboo-'Alce El-Farisee. 
Aboo-IIdtim Es-Sijistance. 
Aboo-Hancefch Ed-Dccnawarcc, author of the "Book of 

Aboo-MaiiHoor (same as Az). 

Kl-Azhme (same as AM), author of the "Tahdhecb." 
The " Basdir," by the author of the " Kdmoos." 
El-Bcyddwcc's " Exposition of the Kur-an." 

The Calcutta edition of the "Kdmoos." 

The " Imposition of the Mo'allakdt," printed at Calcutta. 
El-I'Vyroozdbddce, author of the " Kamoos." 
KI-l'Yivnoincc, author of the " Misbdh." 
El- Farm. 

The " Fi.seeh" of Tbaalab. 
The " Imposition of the Ilamdsch," (" Hamasa; Carmina,") 

by Kt-Tebrcezce. 
El-llaivcrcc's " Makdmdt," the Commentary on ; 2nd edit 

of Paris. 
Ibn-'Akeers"Ex|iositionofthc Alfccych of Ibn-Mdhk," edited 

by Dr. Dictcrici. 
lbn-El-Atheer El-Jezcrcc, (Mejd-cd-Dcen,) author of tlie 

Ibn-Barreo, author of the "Annotations on the Sihah," with 

Ibn-Durcyd, author of the " Jemharah" &c. 
Ibn-lYiris, author of the "Mujmal." 
Ibu-llisham, author of the " Mughncc." 
Ibn-Mukarram, (commonly called in the Taj cl-'Aroos " Ibn- 

Mandhoor,") author of the " Lisan el-'Arab." 

Ibn-Secdeh, author of the " Mohkam." 
Ibn-Slmmcyl (En-Nadr). 
Ibn-Es-Sikkcet (Yaakoob). 
Ibrahecm Ed-Dasookce. 
El-.Iowharcc, author of the " Sihdh." 

A MS. supposed to be the " Jdmi'" of El-Karmdnee: a lexicon 
founded upon the "'Eyn," with additions from the 
" Tckmilet cl-'Eyn " of El-Khdrzcnjee. 
The " Jdmi' " of the seyyid Mohammad. 
The " Exposition of the" ]£ur-dn " by the Jeldleyn. 



I have now, to the best of my ability, supplied all the necessary apparatus for the use of my lexicon, except, only, such 
information as I suppose the student to have acquired from other sources. 

The Arabic title ^>-UJl jU (which the Arabs in general, in the present day, the learned as well as the unlearned, would 
pronounce "Medd el-Kamoos," as they deem it pedantic to pronounce the titles of books in the classical manner,) I have 
adopted in imitation of that given to his lexicon by EI-Feyroozabddee. It has two meanings: "The Flow of the Sea" and 
" The Extension of the Kamoos." 

Not only the main expenses incurred in the composition of this work, but also the cost of the printing, and that of the 
Arabic type, have been defrayed by the munificence of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland. The Arabic characters have 
often been considerably altered by the Arabs themselves and by other Easterns; and still more by Europeans, to adapt them to 
the purpose of printing. For this purpose, I have myself innovated a modification of one medial form and one final form, 
and r . My Nephew, Mr. Edward Stanley Poole, who possesses unusual skill in Arabic caligraphy, designed, under my 
superintendence, the whole of the Arabic type employed for this work ; and has also assisted me occasionally in the collation of 
the proofs, previously to my own examination and correction of them; and often in other affairs connected with the printing 
of my lexicon. 

E. W. L. 
December, 1802. 

A calamity that has recently befallen me, in common with multitudes of other persons, — the decease of the Illustrious Duke 
by whom this work was originated, and whose munificence has constantly supplied the chief means of its support, — requires me 
to announce that the event so widely and deeply deplored will not cause any interruption of the publication. 

His princely patronage, granted spontaneously, and with a kindness and delicacy not to be surpassed, has l)een continued 
during nearly a quarter of a century. The carrying-out of his intentions, with respect to my Lexicon, now devolves upon 
His Widow, Her Grace the Duchess of Northumberland, by her own particular desire. 

The intense interest that has ever been felt by Her Grace in all the great deeds whereby the departed Duke has 
established countless claims upon the gratitude of his country is well known ; and it is, to me, a source of the utmost thankfulness 
and pride that my own undertaking is included among the objects that have been honoured by the patronage, and stamped 
with the approval, of them both. 

E. W. L. 

March, 1865. 


Since the publication of the foregoing Preface, two occurrences have induced me to append to it this Postscript, 
without waiting for the completion of my work. 

The first of these occurrences was my receiving the unexpected information that the copy of the 'Obdb which I 
had sought, without success, to discover in Cairo had been found and purchased, had been brought to London, and 
was offered to me for sale. A most exorbitant price was demanded of me for it, and refused by me : but my late 
lamented Patron, by means of a person employed to treat for it by my Nephew Mr. Reginald Stuart Poole, bought it, 
for a sum which, though large, was not greater than that which I would myself willingly have paid for it if I had been 
a man of wealth ; and most kindly entrusted it to me, for my use during the progress of the printing of my Lexicon. 

The 'Obdb is, as I supposed it to be, and as I have since found to be stated by Hdjjee Khalecfeh, composed in 
the order of the Sihah, ending in article ^ ; so that its author completed a little more than three fourths of his 
intended work. To what he has borrowed from the Sihah, which he ha* freely and literally copied throughout the 
'Obdb, but usually without acknowledgment, he has made large additions, with duo acknowledgments, chiefly from 
the Jcmharah of Ibn-Durcyd and the Mohcct of Ibn-' Abbdd. Whether his less numerous additions be from the 
original sources or from citations in other lexicons, I have not been able to determine. Of all the lexicons of earlier 
authors his work most resembles the Mohkam ; which, though it is in my opinion decidedly superior to the 'Obdb in 
critical accuracy and in other respects, ho seems to have strangely neglected; thereby suggesting to the author of 
the Kdmoos the project of composing the Ldmi', and subsequently the composition of the Kdmoos itself.' In a notice 
of its author and of his other works, in article ^ in the Tdj el-'Aroos, the 'Obdb is said to be « in twenty volumes; 
and the same is said by Hdjjec Khalecfeh : but the copy of it mentioned above is in ten large quarto volumes, written 
iu a very lar-o hand, and generally with all the vowel-signs and the like that are absolutely requisite. Several 
portions of it°, not, however, amounting to much in proportion to the rest, had been lost when it was brought to 
England : but as the work was never completed, this is less to be regretted than it would be otherwise. In many 
parts it has been injured by worms ; and in some parts, by larger vermin. In other respects, it is in good preserva- 
tion. I have often found it very useful in the cases of doubtful passages in the Tdj el-Aroos ; and not unfrcqucntly 
in its affording me valuable additions to the contents of the latter work, though notes in its margins in the hand- 
writing of thc°Scyyid Murtada show that he consulted it with much careful and critical consideration. 

The second reason for my appending here this Postscript to my Preface is to correct the dates of the birth and 
death of El-Azhcree. The paragraph relating to his Lexicon, the "Tahdheeb," I had inserted in its right relative 
place ; but I was afterwards led to transpose it, while the Preface was in type, by observing that the place was 
inconsistent with the dates of his birth and death which I had there given on the authority of two most excellent 
copies of the Muzhir and had repeated in another page ; and I did not discover that these dates were incorrect until 
it was too late to rectify the mistakes otherwise than by reprinting two leaves, after the Preface had been published. 
El-Azheree, as is stated by Ibn-Khillikan, was born in the year of the Plight 282 ; and died in the latter part of 370, 

• Throughout Part V. of my Lexicon, I have generally endeavoured to show (by the indications of my authorities) the degrees in which the 
'Obdb haa borrowed from the contents of the Sihah and contributed to the contents of the £amoos. 



or as some say, 371 ; so that he liyed 88 or 89 years (lunar reckoning). In the year 811, heing then about 20 years 
old, he became a pnsoner among the Karmatees, felling to the lot of a party of Arabs of the Desert. Among these 
people he appears to have remained several years ; for he is related to have mentioned las having passed two winters 
with them a Es-Samman, but usually to have wintered with them in the Dahna. And while wandering and 
sojourning with them in these and other parts of Central and Northern Arabia, he collected many words and 
phrases, winch he has mentioned in his Lexicon ; but expressly distinguishing them as having been heart by him 
from the Arabs or from Arabs of the Desert (in both eases meaning the same) or as having been heard by him in the 
Desert, lest he should be supposed to claim for them less questionable authority. His opinion of these additions to 
the Tahdheeb is shown by his insertion of them, and also by a citation from a statement in his own handwriting 
that m the speech of the people among whom he was in captivity, themselves Arabs of the Desert, a gross inaccuracy 
or nustakc was seldom or never found. Thus we learn a very important fact respecting the gradual corruption of 
the dialects of Arabic : the utmost that can be said of the dialect spoken by the wandering tribes more than nine 
centuries ago in the North-Central region, where the vernacular language has continued to the present day to bo least 
exposed to foreign influences and therefore least affected thereby, is, that it was free from gross inaccuracies. That 
the language of the settled inhabitants throughout Arabia had long before become too much corrupted for their words 
or phrases to be cited in lexicons,. unless for the purpose of discriminating them as post-classical, is admitted and 
nfhrmed by all the lexicologist, who have had occasion to mention the subject: but the language now spoken in the 
towns of the North-Central region (which language is well known by reason of that region's being still traversed by 
one ol the great pilgrim-routcs and often visited by learned men from Egypt and from Syria) is said to be less corrupt 
than arc the dialects of tho Bcdawccs of the same and of other parts. 

More than seventeen hundred printed pages of my Lexicon arc now before me; and when it is considered 
that this portion comprises about thrice as much matter as the corresponding portion (one half) of Frcytae's 
unabridged Lexicon, I hope that the time which the printing has occupied will not be thought unreasonably'lon^. 
Notwithstanding the time and pains that I have devoted to the scrutiny necessary for the detection and correction of 
typographical and other errors, the errata that I have since casually observed and noted down arc not so few as I 
hoped and expected them to bo : but I have generally found them to be such as any one qualified to make a pro- 
litablc use of my work may easily discover and rectify without my aid. 

December, 18G9. 

E. W. L. 

[Book L] 


The first letter of the alphabet [according to the 
order in which the letters are now commonly 
disposed ; and also according to the original 
order, which sec in art. j^-jI] : called oUI. 
[This name, like most of the other names of 
Arnhic letters, is traceable to the Phoenician 
language, in which it signifies "an ox;" the 
ancient Phoenician form of the letter thus called 
being a rude representation of an ox's head.] It 
is, of all the letters, that which is most frequent 
in speech : and some say that, in jj\, in the Kur 
[ch. ii. &c], it is a name of God. (TA.) Its 
name is properly fern., as is also that of every 
other letter ; [and hence its pi. is Olill;] but it 
may be made masc. : so says Ks : Sb says that 
all the letters of the alphabet arc masc. and fern., 
like as ^jl_ X3I is masc. and fein. (M.) As a letter 
of the alphabet, it is abbreviated, [or short, and is 
written I, as it also is generally when occurring in 
a word, except at the end, when, in certain cases, 
it is written ^g,] and is pronounced with a pause 
after it: and it is also prolonged: (S, K,* TA:) 
[in the latter case, it is written l\; and] this is the 
case when it is made a subst. : and when it is not 
called a letter, [i.e. when one docs not prefix to 
it the word s^j—,] it is [properly] fern. (S.) Its 
dim. is i-jt, meaning an .1 written small, or 
obscure, (S, IB,) according to those who make 
it fern, and who say, L>lj Owj and ^IJ CJbi ; but 

♦ 3.1 „ , , «- * »S- 

ijjl according to those who say, blj wojj. 
(ITl ) ill [properly so called] is oneqftlie letters 
of prolongation and of softness and of augmenta- 
tion; the letters of augmentation being ten, which 
are comprised in the saying, oL-3 j>^\ [" to-day 
thou wilt forget it"]. (S.) There are two species 
of »JUI; namely, iijJ [or soft], and i»js* it [or 
movent]; the former of which is [properly] called 
oUI; and the latter, »>»*; (S, TA;) which is a 
fkucial letter, pronounced in the furthest part of 
the fauces [by a sudden emission of the voice after 
a total suppression, so that it resembles in sound 
a feebly-uttered e, whence the form of the cha- 
racter (.) whereby it is represented]: but this 
latter is sometimes tropically called oUI ; and both 
[as shown above] arc of the letters of augmenta- 
tion. (S in art. }\, and TA.) There arc also two 
other species of oOl; namely, ^-o^ »JUI [the alif 
of conjunction or connexion, or tlie conjunctive or 
connexive alif]; and *I»5 «JUI [the alif of disjunc- 
tion, or the disjunctive alif]; every one that is 
permanent in the connexion of words being of the 
latter species ; and that which is not permanent, 
[i. c. which is not pronounced, unless it is an alif 
of prolongation,] of the former species ; and this 
is without exception augmentative ; [but it is some- 
times a substitute for a suppressed radical letter, 
as in £n\, originally ^yi oryj;] whereas the alif of 
Bk I. 

disjunction is sometimes augmentative, as in the 
case of the interrogative alif [to be mentioned 
Ih;1ow, and in other cases] ; and sometimes radical, 
as in SL\ and '£&: (S, TA:) or, according to 
Ahmad Ibn-Yahya and Mohammad Ibn-Yezeed, 
(T, TA,) the primary OUJI arc three; the rest 
being subordinate to these: namely, i~Let t_AM 

[radical alif], (J, K, TA,) as in Jut and J£s>\ 
(T) and jyA.1; (K;) and ilaOai UM [disjunctive 

alif], as in J^jU (T, K) and j^-l (T) and 
v >l^.l; (T,K;) and £x!o') oUI [conjunctive or 
connexive alif], (T, K,) as in »-1p»~.1 (T) and 

1 jL ill! (T, K.) Tho uUI which is one of the 

letters of prolongation and of softness is called 

,. , ,t 1.3*1 

£>i\)\ *-^' ['*• quiescent alif, andi£»LJI oU^I, 
which signifies the same]: (MP, TA:) it is an 
aerial letter, (Mughnec, MF, TA,) merely a 
sound of prolongation after a fet-hah; (T, TA;) 
and cannot have a vowel, (I B r Mughnec, MP,) 
wherefore it cannot commence a word: (Mugh- 
nec:) when they desire to make it movent, if it 
is converted from _j or ^j, they restore it to its 
original, as in (jl^aft and O^J? nnd 'f ' l IS not 
converted from y or ^, tlicy substitute for it hem- 
zch, as in ^p'-y, in which the hemzch is a suli- 
stitute for the I in [the sing.] SiCj. (IB.) IJ 
holds that the name of this letter is *^, [pro- 
nounced Id or le, without, or with, imalch, like the 
similar names of other letters, as and 13 and b 
ice.,] and that it is the letter which is mentioned 
[next] before ^ in reckoning the letters ; the J 
being prefixed to it because it cannot be pro- 
nounced at the beginning of its name, as other 
letters can, as, for instance, ^jo and »-; and he 
adds that the teachers [in schools] err in pro- 
nouncing its name «JJI >»*j}. (Mughnec.)— The 
grammarians have other particular appellations 
for alifs, which will be here mentioned. (T, TA.) 

n+tm n" «JU*9I [The unknown alif] is such as 

that in J*U [or J*l»] and Jyl» ; i. c., every \, 
(T, K.,) of tliosc having no original [from which 
they are converted, not being originally I nor_j 
nor (^, but being merely a formative letter, and 
hence, app., termed " unknown"], (T,) inserted 
for the purpose of giving fulness of sound to the 
fet-hah in a verb and in a noun ; (T, K ;) and this, 
when it becomes movent, becomes j, as in the' 
case of ^5U- and ^\y*-, becoming ^ in this case 
because it is movent, and followed by a quiescent 
I, which I is the I of the pi., and is also 3J j t » » « . 

(T.) OUJI oWI [The alifs of prolongations] 

arc such as those [which arc inserted for the same 
purpose of giving fulness of sound to the fet-hah] in 
Jl£ii>, for jii£>, and J&&, for JiU., and ju'lj, 
for Jj\*. (T, K.) In like manner, « is inserted 
after a dammeh, as in j^Ou 1 ; and i_£ after a kesrch, 

as in JU-i. (TA.) An alif of this species is 
also called *W-*^' »-*H [The alif added to give 
fulness of sound to a fet-hah preceding it]: and so 
is the alif in Uo used in imitation [of a noun in 
the accus. case ; as when one says, ^t-j <^\j (l"'°" 
nounced ^U-j) " I saw a man," and tlie person 
to whom these words arc addressed says, L« 

Whom?]. (Mughnec.) 1UJI Jj\ [The alif of 

annexation, or the annexed alif,] is that which is 
an annex to tlie fet-hah of a rhyme, (T, K,)and to 
that of the fern, pronoun U: in the former case as in 

* UImuI IvJL- { _ r ~*\ ) il«- CJU * 

in which I is made an annex to the fet-hah of tho 
c [of the rhyme]; and in tlie saying in the Kur 
[xxxiii. 10], UyJaJl Jft* £>y&3j, in which the I 
after the last ,j is an annex to the fct-hnh of that 
,j; and in other instances in the final words of 
verses of the Kur-:'m, as UiiW and •^■ J ...A..> [in 
Ixxvi. 15 and 18]: in the other case as in V^j-=> 
and \i C>)y*. (T.) The difference between it and 
J^yi >Jui is, that the latter is in the beginnings 
of nouns and verbs, and the former is in the end- 
ings of nouns [and verbs]. (T, K.) It is also 
culled J^NI <JM [Tlie alif of unbinding, because 
the vowel ending a rhyme prevents its being J«&*>, 
i. e. "bound" by the preceding consonant]: 
(Mughnec;) and iJUUJI will [tlie alif of the final 
word of a verse of poetry or of a verse of the 
Kur-an or of a clause of rhyming prose], (TA.) 
[This last appellation must not be confounded 
with that which here next follows.] 3>.r»UUI iju^l 
[The separating alif] is the I which is written after 
the j of the pi. to make a separation lictwccn that 

J * * 

« and what follows it, as in \<ySi> (T, K) and 
\}ji£>, and in the like of IjjAj and I^*jj [and 
Syb^i]; but when a pronoun is affixed to the verb, 
this I, being needless, docs not remain: (T:) also 
the I which makes a separation between the ,J 
which is a sign of tlie fern, gender and the heavy 
[or doubled] \j [in the corroborated form of the 
aor. and imjHsrativc], (T, K,) localise a triple 
combination of & is disliked, (T,) as in [^LUA^ 

and oUaUi * nd ] 0&*\ ( T > K ) and O 1 ^ 3 ^- 
(T.)__aUuL>» oyJI Jul [The alif of the light, or 
single, noon in the contracted corroborated form 
of the aor. and imperative], as in tlie phrase in 
the Kur [xcvi. 15], <UoUW Ui-J [explained in 
art. *i-], (T, Ki) and t,,c phrase [in xii. 32], 
J^jcLaM '^y» lij£jj [And he shall assuredly be 
of those in a state of vileness, or ignominy], 
in both of which instances the pause is made with 
I [only, without tenween, so that one says U i ; ) 
and Uy4>, and this seems to be indicated in Expo- 
sitions of tlie Kur-a n as the proper pronunciation 
of these two words in the phrases hero cited, the 
former of which, and the first word of the latter, 


I find tints written in an excellent copy of the 
Mughncc, with a fct-hnh only instead of tenween, 
though I find them written in copies of the Kur-tin 
nnd of the K with tenween, and for this reason 
only I have written them therewith in the first 
places above], this I being a substitute for the 
1'ght ,j, which is originally the heavy ^ : and 
nmong examples of the same is the saying of 


» # • *** * ' <•* * • i * * * * * 

• JjlvU «Dbj 0i £ t i\ JK-J % * 

[And praise not thou the T>pulent, but God do 

thou praise], the poet meaning ^jj^mJi, but 

pausing with nn I: (T:) and accord, to 'Ikrimeh 

Ed-Dabbcc, in the saying of Imra-cl-Kcys, 
. 9 * * * * 9 • »^* 

• J>iy ^~*. ^^J ^ jU UJ • 

[what is meant is, Do thou pause that we may 
weep by reason of the remembrance of an object 
of love, and of a place of abode., for] the poet 
means J^iS, but .substitutes 1 for the light ,j ! 
(TA ;) or, accord, to some, U5 is in this case [a 
dual] addressed to the port's two companions. 

(EM p. 4.) — »>y«M wit [Thealif of exchange] 
is that which is substituted for the tenween (T, K) 
of the accus. case when one pauses U]XHI it, (T,) 
us in Ij^j o*lj (T, K [and so in the copy of the 
Mughncc mentioned above, but in the copies of 
the T I find IjJj,]) and \jlL *~J& and the like. 
(T.) — ijiUai Jo\ [The alif of inability to ex- 
press what one desires to soy], (T,) or ,«jU31 vJUl 
[the alif of feiynimj negligence or heedlessness], 
{K.,) [but the former is evidently, in my opinion, 
the right ap|K'llation,] is that which is added when 

one says j«£ ^1, and then, being unable to finish 

■ « * ** j a 

hw saying, pauses, saying U»* r%\, [in the CK 

l^««,] prolonging it, desiring to be helped to the 
speeeb that should reveal itself to him, (T, K,) 
and at length saying Jjlhio, meaning to say, if 
he were not unable to express it, JJUk~o j+s. ^j\ 
[Verily 'Omar is going away], (T.) The I in a 

i *A 

case of this kind is [also] said to Ihj ^£>JuU [for 

the. piirjHise of endeavouring to remember]; and 

in like ninuner, «, when one desires to say, 

joj jtyii, and, forgetting j^j, prolongs the sound 

in endeavouring to rcmemlier, nnd says yo^u. 

(Mughncc in the sections on I and j.) It is also 

added to a curtailed proper name of a person called 

* J * » * > * 
to, or hailed, as in L»t Ij for j^i. \j [which is an 

ex. contrary to rule, ns 

■ is mnsc. and consists 
of only three letters]. (T.) i^Jjl Jul [The alif 

of lamentation], as in eljuj bj [Ala*, Zeyd!], 
(T, £,) i. e. die I idler the i ; (T ;) and one may 

say I ju j lj, without the » of pausation. (Alfecych 

of Ibn-Miilik, and I 'Ak p. 272.) ^l&l^l Jul 

[The alif of disapproval], (T,) or jbu^) JU^' 

[which means the same], (Mughncc,) is similar to 

v * * t fit 
that next preceding, as in •b r »fi ^11 [TI hat! Aboo- 

Omur?] in reply to one who says, " Aboo-'Omar 

came;" the* being added in this case after the 

letter of prolongation like as it is in »UNi lj said 

in lamentation. (T.) [The ex. given in the 

Mughncc is *\j+t. I, as said in reply to one who 

says, " I met 'Amr;" and thus I find it written, 

with I j fit this is a mistranscription of the inter- 

rogative I, which see below.] In this case it is 
only added to give fulness of sound to the vowel ; 

for you say, ajJU-jJI [What I the man? for 

i iji **t I,] after one has said "The man stood;" 

I '191 t £ fl I 

and »"$-cf-ji I in the accus. case ; and «eJle»j)l in the 

gen. case. (Mughncc in the section on _j. [But 

in my copy of that work, in these instances, the 

incipient I, which is an 1 of interrogation, is written 

F.]) 4iU.NI iC ±jL JjJUJt Ju^l [Thealif that 

is converted from the affixed pronoun ^j], as in 
• »t * * j * * > * 

J-51 UN* \j[Omy boy, advance thou, ]\or ^y/^i-h; 

(TA in art. j^*.;) [and jJjj U^i C (I 'Ak 

p.271) my wonder at Zeyd ! forjuj) ^jja-* k'<] 

and in U^l U for ^J^\ b, and Ub} U for ^jAjj W> 

and Ci £ and «W'W ^ for ,wW C- ( T an <l TA in 
art.b.) [This is sometimes written i_£, but pre- 
ceded by a fct-hnh.] il^l^l JuNI [The trans- 

muted alif, in some copies of the K 3Uj» «)l <_*)!, 
which, as MF observes, is put for the former,] is 
every I that is originally ^ or i_j (T, K) movent, 
(T,) ns in Jl» [originally Jy],and c^ [originally 

J^]» (T, K,) and \ji [originally 3 'ji], and ^iJ 
[originally ig-ai], and the like of these. (T.)_ 
i-iiSI iJUt [The alif of the dual, or rather, ofduali- 
zation], (T, K,) in verbs, (TA,) as in ^jLJjLj 
and ^jLaJu, (T, K,) and in nouns, (T,) as in 

OlJupl (T, K) and o'j^" 5 (T;) [i. e.] the I 
which in verbs is a dual pronoun, as in ^Ijw and 
O^oUi , and in nouns a sign of the dual and an 

9 *» J «• 

indication of the nom. case, as in ijforj. (S.)_ 

It is also indicative of the accus. case, as in c-jIj 

»U [I saw his mouth]. (S:) £^JI Jt\ [The 

alif of the plural, or of plurulization] , as in j,nX Lt 

and jCof (T, K) and J>Cy and J*iy. (T.) 

t' ' i * 

>lwU)l \Ji\ [The alif denoting the fern, gender], 

as in .j^a. (Mughncc, K) and (j?jx-> [in which 
it is termed SjyeJU *hortened], and the meddeh 
in ttj^o- (K) nnd ^U-j and iUJu [in which it is 

termed S)jj**» lengthened]. (TA.) JjUJNI ^AJI 

[The alif of adjunction, or quasi-coordituition ; 
that which renders a word an adjunct to a par- 
ticular class, i. c. quasi-coordinate to another 
word, of which the radical letters are more in 
number than those of the former word, (see the 
sentence next following,)], (Mughnce, TA,) as 
in U»jl (Mughncc) [or j^jl ; and the meddeh 

in TULc&c] j-^&JI Jo\ [The alif of multipli- 
cation, i. e. that merely augments the number of 
the letter* of a word without making it either 

fern, or quasi-coordinate to another, unaugmented, 

word], as in jj^jlj (Mughncc, TA) [correctly 

^j2jl3], in which the I [here written i_£] is not 

to denote the fcm. gender, (S and K in art.jJouS,) 
• ** *** 

because its fcm. is '6\j*ji*j, ns Mbr. sayB ; (S and 

TA in diat art. ;) nor to render it quasi-coordi- 
nate to another word, (K and TA in that art.,) 
as is said in the Lubsib, because there is no noun 
of six radical letters to which it can be made to be 

[Book I. 

so; but accord, to Ibn-Miilik, a word is some- 
times made quasi-coordinate to one comprising 

* * »*• * #>t 

augmentative letters, as u ,. JnH is to^aJj*.!. (TA 

in that art.) = J-o^J I wU)l [The alifs of conjunc- 
tion or connexion, or the conjunctive or connexive 
alifs], (T, K,) which are in the beginnings of 
nouns, (T,) [as well as in certain well-known 

• »*f \*a*i 

cases in verbs,] occur in ^1 (T, K) and^l (K) 

and io I and ^jUJ t and ,jU>J I and 3j>* I and i\y» I 

• *■* • **» 

and jfJ\ and c~« I, (T, ^,) which have a kesreh 

to the I when they commence a sentence, [or occur 
alone, i. c, when immediately preceded by a 
quiescence,] but it is elided when they arc con- 
nected with a preceding word, (T,) [by which term 
" word" is included a particle consisting of a single 

letter with its vowel,] and k>»jl and_^l [nnd 
variations thereof, which have cither a fct-hah or 
a kesreh to the I when they commence a sentence, 
or occur alone], (K,) and in the article Jl, the I 
of which has a fct-hah when it commences a sen- 
tence. (T.)=£Lbl Jut [The alif of disjunction, 

or the disjunctive alif,] is in the beginnings of 
sing, nouns and of pi. nouns : it may be known 
by its permanence in the dim., and by its riot 

being a radical letter : thus it occurs in v >— »-t, of 

j • * i 
which the dim. is ^>..».l : (I Amb, T :) in pis. 

it occurs in (jiyi and *-tjjl (I Amb, T, K) and 

** •£ » 

<U~Jt [&c.]: (I Amb, T:) [it also occurs in verbs 

" **H **» I % 

of the measure ^*i\, as j*j£=>\ ; in which cases it 

is sometimes i-JLJJ, i. c. privative, (like the 

*-> ' ' t * it 

Greek alpha,) as in Jx~»l " he did away with in- 

justice," which is termed Js^-J nnd L_3, inf. ns. 
of huJ :] it is distinguished from the radical I, as 
shown above : (I Amb, T :) or it is sometimes 
augmentative, as the interrogative I [to be men- 
tioned below] ; and sometimes radical, as in jta.1 


nnd j*»\ ; and is thus distinguished from the con- 
junctive I, which is never other than augmentative. 
(S.) j.. a i S )\^ J yA fcill iJJI [7Vic alif denoting 

excess and deficiency, i. e., denoting the compara- 

. f » t **% f * t J 

tive and superlative degrees], as in jtj£s\ ^yii 

[Such a one is more generous, or noble, titan 
thou], (T, K,*) and ■£)**» >»NI [wio? - c ungenerous, 

£ j * • I 

or ignoble, than thou], (T,) and ^^.UJI J./»-t [the 

most ignorant of men], (T, K.*)__SjU*JI Jjl 

[77*c alif of signification], (T, K,) as though, 

(T,) or because, (TA,) significant of the speaker, 

(T, TA,) also called <ULoU)l [the operative], as in 

'iil^iiill Ul [J beg forgiveness of God], (T, K,) 

nnd I jia Jiil lif [J do thus]. (T.) *f\LL^\ Ji\ 

* * * * 
[The alif of interrogation, or the interrogative 

alif], (T, S, Msb in art. }+*, Mughncc,) as in 

f * *e*l 

^JAS j^jl [Js Zeyd standing?], (Mughncc,) and 

f * ti * -> *t.t 
jj*)*>l Jju* j*jjl [Is Zeyd with thee, or at thine 

rt&or/e, or '.4w?r?], (.S,) and juj ^Ul [Did Zeyd 

stand?], said when the askcr is in ignorance, and 

* »** 
to which the answer is N or ^*j ; (Msb ;) and in 

9 * m* 9*1 

a negative phrase, as 9-ji-i ^ [Did we not dilate, 
or enlarge? in the £ur xciv. 1]. (Mughncc.) 

Book I.] 

When this is followed by another hemzch, an 1 is 
interposed between the two hemzchs, [so that you 

» •* * . ' '*' . . 

say oJllt, also written wJH,] as in the saying 

of Dhu-r-Rummch, 

T * 

, it 0« »« ( i . s , 

[0 tlwu doe-gazelle of El-Waasd between Jeldjil 
and the oblong gibbous hill of sand, is it thou, or 
Umm-Sdlim ?] ; (T, S ;) but some do not this. 
(T.) [It is often conjoined with jjl, as in the 

Kur xii. 90, iju>^,j C-J"^ OU>1 Art thou indeed 
Joseph ?] It is sometimes used to make a person 
acknowledge, or confess, a thing, (T, Msb in 
art. j+A, Mughnec,) and to establish it, (Msb,) as 

in the phrase in the Kur [v. 110], ^->UU oJl* w«Jlt 
. >t- * * * »• » »-t 

or Oo 1 1 [ Didst thou sag to men?], (T,) and m.j£j^\ 

[explained above], (Msb in art. >«*,] and in 

(J- * * * I * 0y * * 0M T% 1 

ljuj C~/j~9l or £~/j*o «_uill [Didit thou beat 
Zeyd?], and <^ij-o Ijjjt [Zegd didit thou beat?]. 
(Mughnce.) And for reproving, (T, Mughnec,) 
as in the phrase in the Kur [xxxvii. 153], .-aJxol 
i^JI 1-X* OUJI [Hath lie chosen daughters in 
preference to sons?], (T,) [but sec the next scn- 
tence,] and [in the same eh., verse 93,] U ^jjjtoLil 
(j^Tjfc, 3 [Do ye worship what ye hem out?]. 
(Mughnec.) And to express a nullifying denial, 
as in [the words of the Kur xvii. 42,] ^-aU-alsl 
UOI a&^JT ^y> JlSTj J^t^j [//«</, */«cn 
your Lord preferred to give unto you sons, and 
gotten for himself, of the angels, daughters?]. 
(Mughnec.) And to denote irony, us in [the Kur 

xi. 89,] tjvT JJJu U i)p ,j\ i£id iSJl^Uj'l [Do 
thy prayers enjoin thee that ice should leave what 
our fathers worshipped?]. (Mughnec.) And to 

denote wonder, as in [the Kur xxv. 47,] y j£\ 

JJaJI j-c ou£> Jbj iJI [Hast thou, not considered 

the work of //*y Lord, how lie hath extended the 
shade?]. (Mughnec.) And to denote the deeming 
a thing slow, or tardy, as in [the Kur lvii., 15,] 

UJUl _>jJJU oW >«" [Hath not the time yet come 
for those who hare believed?]. (Mughnec.) And 
to denote a command, as in [the Kur iii. 19,] 

jj+LM, meaning lyjud [Enter ye into the reli- 
gion of El-Islam]. (Mughnce, and so Jel.) And 
to denote equality, occurring after Jl^_» and jJVjI U 

c I - # 0- , " 

and i_fji' U mid \^£j*i> C-j), und the like, as in 

0. ef OJ' * 0' 3 ~ f 0- ~ £" 

[the Kur lxiii. (),] ^ ^»l _^y) OjAJu-l^oy-l* Jl^_. 

Jeyi Juu...!i [It will be <;//««/ <o (//o« whether thou 

beg forgiveness for them or do not beg fargiveness 
- ,, it . hi A , 

^br t/iim], and in Ojl*5 >l w~»sl ^jIU U [/rare 

wot whether thou stand or sit] : and the general 
rule is this, that it is the hemzch advening to a 
phrase, or proposition, of which the place may be 
supplied by the inf. n. of its verb ; for one may 

say, a-ojii} jUjv...i*JI j$*£& l\y~> [Equal to them 
will be the begging of forgiveness and the not doing 

so], and •uojktj iLeUu ^\j\ U [I care not for 
thy standing and thy not doing so], (Mughnec.) 
___»! jJI will [The alif of calling, or vocative alif], 

(T, S,* Mughnee,* K,) as in »wjl, meaning jjj I* 
[0 Ztyd], (T, K,) and in j£\ j$ [0 Zeyd, 
advance], (S,) used in calling him who is near, 
(S, Mughnee,) to the exclusion of him who is 
distant, because it is abbreviated. (S.) I, with medd, 
is a particle used in calling to him who is distant, 
(Mughnce, K,) as in J^SI JLJT [Ho there, or soho, 
or holla, Zeyd, advance]. (TA.) Az says, You 
say to u man, in calling him, (J'iHit and ^jy^i\ and 
jyl C\ (TA) or Ct. (S and K in art. \j\.) — 

*bTl, for aDTj yj\i sec ^1 In a dial, of some 

of the Arabs, hemzch is used in a case of pausing 

at the end of a verb, as in their saying to a 
> it t 

woman, ^Jy [Say thou], and to two men, *^y 
•* 0> j 

[Say ye two], and to a pi. number, $Jy [Say ye]; 

but not when the verb is connected with a word 
following it : and they say also *^, with a hemzch, 
[for %] in a case of pausation. (T.) But Ahmad 
Ibn-Yuhya says, All men say that when a hemzch 
occurs at the end of a word, [i. c. in a case of 
pausation,] and has a quiescent letter before it, 
it is elided in the nom. and gen. eases, though 
retained in the aceus. case [because followed by a 
quiescent 1], except Ks alone, who retains it in 
all cases : when it occurs in the middle of a word, 
all agree that it should not be dropped. (T.) AZ 
[however] says that the people of El-Hijiiz, and 
Hudhcyl, and the people of Mckkeh and El- 
Medecnch, do not pronounce hemzch [at all] : and 
'Eesa Ibn-'Omar says, Temeem pronounce hem- 
zch, and the people of El-IIijdz, in cases of 
necessity, [in poetry,] do so. (T.)__Ks cites, [us 

exhibiting two instances of a rare usage of II, or I, 
in a case of pausing, in the place of a suppressed 

10 o» "^1 J--I -Hj» *)) 

[written without the syll. signs in the MS. from 
which I transcribe this citation, but the reading 
seems to be plain, and the meaning, Ouch a one 
supplicated his Lord, and made his words to be 
heard, saying, Good is double good; and if evil 
lie my lot, then evil; but I desire not evil unless 
Thou will that it should befall me]: and he says, 

he means, A£i _jl *^l ; this being of the dial, of 
Bcnoo-Saud, except that it is [with them] U, with 
a soft I [only] : also, in replying to a person who 

says, " Wilt thou not come?" one says, \i, mcan- 

ing l~/ w-Aili [Then go thou with us]: and in 

like manner, by IU, in the saying above, is meant 


jLi. (TA.)= Ilcmzeh also sometimes occurs as 

a verb; »l, i. e. I with the » of pausation added, 

being the imperative of i^fj as syn. with j^_j. 
(Mughnce.) =_= [As a numeral, I denotes One.] 

1. Z>\, (T, §, M, &c.,) aor. - , (M, K,) agree- 
ably with analogy in the case of an intrans. verb 

of this class, (TA,) and '- , (AZ, T, S, M, K,) 

2 i 
contr. to analogy, (TA,) inf. n. «_>l (T, S, M, K) 

and 4-rfl (M, K) and libl and %C\ (S, M, K) 

and ijlil ; (M ;) and t»_«i5T [written witli the dis- 
junctive alif J^j\] ; (T, K ;) He prepared him- 
self, (AZ, S, M, A, K,) and equipped himself, 
(AZ, S, A,) for (J) departing, or going away, 
(AZ,S,) or for journeying: (M,A, K:) or he 
determined upon journeying, and prepared him- 
self. (T.) El-Aasha says, 

00 $0 * I* # » - ♦ - • * 

• UJJ v lj U-JL_» ^> ji rf-l 

(T, S, M, TA,) i. c. I cut [in effect, while I did 
not really cut] you : for like one who cuts is a 
brother who has determined and prepared to go 
away. (TA.) [Hence,] 4»W' *& V 1 ** % [or 
vW' *)) w'W* ^t] a prov. [which sec explained in 
art. w*]. (TA.) [And hence the saying,] ^y yh 
^y, (S, M, K,) and a-M and *-)Cl, (M,) He 
is in his [state of, or he is engaged in his,] pre- 
paration or equipment [for departing or journey- 
ing]. (S, M, K.) The hemzch in w»l is sometimes 
changed into ^ ; and thus «j^, inf. n. w<j, signi- 
fies lie prepared himself to assault, or charge, in 

battle. (T, TA.) -i)^l i^l, and i-JWJ, His 

way, or course, of acting, or conduct, or the like, 
was, or became, rightly directed, or ordered. (M, 

K.)_"<vl «->' '• '/• *>>- a * J~°*> (K>) which signi- 
fies lie tended, repaired, betook himself, or di- 
rected his course, towards him, or it : (S and Msb 
in art. j~oi :) and also, he pursued his (another's) 
course, doing as he (the latter) did. (L in art. 

j_=^.)__^ Ji Vt ( M ' s ^') nor - ■ ( Il)nl - 

M, K) and i , (K,) inf. n. ^J\ (A A, S, M, K) 
and iJCl and \£\ (M, K) and 1$, (TA,) Jle 
yearned for, longed for, or longed to see, his home. 
(AA, S, M, K-) 

8 : sec 1, first signification. 

10. tvl""*' *L* adopted him as a father ; an 

cxtr. form; (IAar, M ;) from ,_il, a dial. var. of 

I*; (TA:) regularly, »Wull. (M.) And Jj^-i 

Cl and Cl v^-V-l He adopted a father. (TA in 

art. y\.) 
• i 
»_>l : sec art. yp. 


«_il Herbage, (M, K,) whether fresh or dry : 

(M,* K,* TA :) or pasture, or herbage which 
beasts feed upon, (Fr, AHn, Zj, T, S, M, A, 
MkI>, K,) of whaterer kind, (AHn, Zj,) [or] 
not sown by men : (Msb :) it is, to cattle and 
other beasts, what fruit is to men : (Mujiihid, 
T, Msb:) or whatever grows upon the face of 
the earth ; (' Ata, Til, T, M ;) whatever vegeta- 
ble the earth produces: (K,* TA :) and also, 
green herbage, or plants: (K,* TA:) and, as 
some say, straw, (Jel in lxxx. 31, and TA,) be- 
cause cattle cat it: (TA :) or herbage prepared 
fir pasture and for cutting : (TA :) accord, to 
IF, (Msb,) dried fruits; because prepared for 
winter (Bd in lxxx. 31, und Msb) and lor jour- 

3 '« .... 
ncying : (Msb :) pi. [of pauc] _yj'» originally 

44»- (I 'Ak p. 3G7.) Yousay,_^-JI iS clj J& 

^•^l «U clij, meaning <S«c/i a one's seed-produce 

[or grain] increased, and hit pasture became 
ample. (A.)m Also a dial. var. of ^A, A father. 

(T, and MF from the Tes-heel of Ibn-Malik.) 

jM at 
^*yl ^>l : SCO 1. 

*' 't , • ' ' 

4/1/1 and i/l/l A mat/, or course, of acting, or 

conduct, or the like. (M, K.) [See L] 

O^i The f »'me, or season, of a tiling : (Msb :) 
or the time of the preparing, or making ready, of 
n thing : (Mgh :) as, for instance, of fruit : (Mgh, 

Msb :) it is of the measure t>^*», (Mgh, Msb,) 

a * • 
from s^l in the first of the senses assigned to it 

above, (Mgh,) the ,J being augmentative ; (Msb;) 

or of the measure JUi, (Mgh, Msb,) from ^>Jl 

"he watched" or "observed" a thing, (Mgh,) 
the ^ being radical : (Msb :) hut the former 
derivation is the more correct. (Mgh.) [Sec also 
art. ^1.] 

/I Tlie first of a series of eight words com- 
prising the letters of the Arabic alphabet [in the 
order in which they were originally disposed, 
agreeing with that of the Hebrew and Aramaic, 
but with six additional letters : they arc variously 
written and pronounced; generally as follows: 

* * * ' i •''' § * # m * , * ft f > mi* ft - tl 

£li-» J*i~> C~ijS (^jjbfc- ^>JL£» ^Jam. jyk Jl»»jI : 

but the Arabs of Western Africa write the latter 

four thus: J-*±> J^J C~>y Jauw]: (K and 

TA in art. J^-f. [in both of which arc related 

several fables concerning the origin of these 

words :]) accord, to the general opinion, the word 

J— jI is of foreign origin, [like each of the words 

following it,] and therefore its first letter [as well 

us each of the others] is a radical. (TA.) [Hence, 
> - »f »», 

jk»^)t signifies The alphabet. You say iJm*. 

-xj^JI The letters of the alphabet.— It is proba- 
ble (as l)c Sacy has observed in his Ar. Gram., 
'2nd cd., i. 8,) that the Arabic alphabet originally 
ei insisted of only twenty-two letters : for some of 
the ancient Arabs called Saturday jut^t, Sunday 
jyk, and so on to £*JiijS inclusive ; calling Friday 

ijj^- In the lexicon entitled " El-'Eyn," the 

letters of the alphabet are arranged nearly ac- 
cording to their places of utterance ; as follows : 

£ ' C' *' C' t' ^' ^' C *^' w *' KJ °' yja> }* **' 

>» <->> •*, J, i>, j, J, o» <-*» V* >» it l> vi : 
and this order has l>cen followed in the Tahdhcch 
and Mohkam and some other lexicons.] 

V t — j*l 

meaning wild :] took fright, and fled, or ran away 
at random: (Mgh:) took fright at, and shunned, 
mankind. (T, Msb.) \#\ also signifies The 
shrinking from a thing, or shunning it ; syn. j^jS. 
(Kull pp. 30 and 31.) And j*t, (S, K,) aor. ' ; 
(K;) and 1j$; (A, K;) He (a man, S, A) 
became unsocial, unsociable, unfamiliar, or shy ; 

like a wild animal; syn. JL^y. (S, A, K.) 

[Hence,] j#, (K,) aor. ; , inf. n. \#\, (TA,) \He 
(a poet) made use, in his verses, of words, or 
phrases, strange, unusual, unfamiliar, or far from 
being intelligible, (K,* TA,) such as were not 
understood (K) at first sight., or on first con- 
sideration. (TA.) — [And perhaps from jj\ in 
the sense explained above, but more probably, I 
think, by the substitution of 1* for j,] j^f, aor, - , 
(T, S, &c.,) inf. n. j^t, (L,) He (a man, S) was 
ongry ; (T, S, M, L, K ;) as also j*t\ and Jy^ and 
j-j and ^f. (T, L.) You say, <& jj He was 
angry with him. (L.) 

■f • • *' 

2. j*\, inf. n. j^D, He made, or rendered, 

perpetual. (S, K.) [See also the pass. part. n. 

- . * t. « , ft£ o, 

below.] \j~f\i JjoI^ is a phrase used as though 

meaning TJj^V ^Jj [I did not a deed ever to 

* ' ' ' 
be remembered, or mentioned], (Ham p. 191.) 

He, or it, made [a beast] to take fright; to be- 
come wild, or shy. (KL.) 

0. «vU : see 1, in two places He (a man) 

was long distant from his home ; expl. by oilt 
*^iji. ; (K ;) or was long in a state of celibacy ; 
*^>* CJU>, as in one copy of the K ; (TA ;) and 
became little in need, or little desirous, of women. 
(K.)__ Jt (a place of abode or sojourning) be- 
came deserted [by mankind]: (T, M, K:) and 
became inhabited by wild animals. (T, M, A.) 

see j^l. 

1. jk/l, aor. ; , inf. n. >yl, He remained, stayed, 
abode, or dicelt, (T, S, M, K,) constantly, con- 
tinually, or permanently, without quitting, (T, 
L,) O^W »'* a place ; (T, S, M, K ;) and so J^l 
having for its aor. I . (TA.) — J^f, (S, M, A, &c.,) 
aor. z and '- , (T, S, M, L,' Msb, K,) inf. n. jjyj ; 
(M, L.Msb;) and * j^3; (T, M, A, Mgh, L;) 

He (a beast) became wild, or shy ; syn. l> A a ->' s 
(S, M, A, Mgh, L, Msb, K:) [because wild 
animals live long, unless killed by accident ; ac- 
eord. to what is said by As and others in explana- 

+/i Time, syn. ^hy, (S, M, Msb, K,) in an 
absolute sense : (TA :) or a long time, syn. jM* 
Jj>t : (A, and Mgh : [and this may be meant 
in the S &c. by the syn. jh) alone, q. v.:]) or, 
properly, a long time ( Jjj!» jM*) that is unlimited: 
(Msb, TA :) or an extended space of time tliat 
is indivisible ; for you say \jj» ^Uj " the time 
of such a thing," but not \J£a jl/I : (Er-Raghib :) 
[and generally, time, or duration, or continuance, 
or existence, without end ; endless time, &c. ; pro- 
spective eternity; opposed to Jjl, which signifies 
" time, or duration, &»., without beginning :" (see 
the latter word for further explanations, &c. :) each 
of these significations may be meant by the ex- 
planation in the S and M and K, which is also 
given in the Msb : each correctly applies in par- 
ticular instances :] pi. [of pauc] >l/T (S, M, Msb, 

K) and [of mult.] \#\ (S, M, K) [and £,3$, of 
which an ex. will be found below] : but the use 
of these pis. is restricted to particular cases, to 
signify portions of time, or to serve as corrobora- 

tives to the sing.: (MF:) as signifying an ex- 
tion of .»y\ji (sing. Mft) applied to animals, as J tended indivisible space of time, [or the like,] 

[Book I. 

j^\ should have neither dual nor pi. ; but jl/t is 
sometimes said, when the sing, is restricted to 
denote a particular part, or portion, of the whole 
of that to which it applies, in like manner as a 
generic noun is restricted to a special and partial 
signification: some, however, have mentioned 
jl/l as being post-classical ;' not of the language 
of the Arabs called ."l£«Jt ^>^*i\. (Er-Rughib.) 
J-J ^yi* J^"i)t JU» [The time became long to 
Lubad, the last, and the longest of life, of Luk- 
mdn's seven vultures, to the term of the life of 
which his own term of life was decreed to extend,] 
is a proverb applied to any thing that has been of 
long duration. (M.) And you say, \^ti jXM J3jj 
iU^)l j^*/ >l^| Jjjl, [May God grant thee a 
life long in duration (lit. durations, the pi. form 
being used not in its proper sense, but to give 
intensiveness of signification), and remote in limit 
(lit. limits)]. (A.) And jLSi\ jtf ^ \J± J&, 
This was a long time ago. (Mgh.) And ♦ j^l jjl 

(TA) and tju/l J#. (S, M, TA,) meaning J^b 
[in an intensive sense] ; (TA ;) [A long, or an 
endless, period of time ;] like as you say, 1*1^ 1*> 
(S) or j»k} j*). (M.) [In each of these phrases, 
the latter word is added as a corroborative, or to 
give intensiveness to the signification.] j^^L) and 
*K/*$ and [in an intensive sense, as will be seen 
below,] j^l j^-n) and j^t j^, accord, to different 
recitals of a trad., signify To the end of time ;for 
ever; and for ever and ever. (TA.) I jyl is an adv. n., 
of which the signification includes all future time ; 
[meaning Ever; like Li in relation to past time ;] 
(El-Khafajee, El-Bedr Ed-Dcmamccncc, MF;) 
and jl/^I ^U. signifies the same. (TA.) [So, too, 
docs ju^JI, unless used in a limited sense known 
to the hearer.] When you say, Ij^l a^I&I ^, 
you mean, [/ will not speak to him as long as I 
live, or henceforth, or ever ; or i" will never speak 
to him; i. e.,] from the time of your speaking to 
the end of your life. (Msb.) [In this case, Ij^l 
may also be considered as a mere corroborative. It 
is used in both these ways d^^LU and jufcyjj) 
in affirmative as well as negative sentences. For 
cxs. of its use in affirmative sentences, sec the 
Kur xviii. 2 and iv. 60, &c] One also says, 
a*3l % (S, M, A,) and 4^', (T, K,) >&\ j^'l', 
(T, M, A, K,) which, though of classical autho- 
rity, is said to be no evidence of the use of jl/Tas 
a pi. of *j^l in a general way by the Arabs of the 
classical ages, as it is here added merely as a cor- 
roborative, as JljT is in the phrase Jlj^l j)\ ; 
(MF;) and ^.A&l JJ, (M, A, K,) in which the 
latter word is not a rel. n., for if so it would be 
Oii±fl\, but app. a pi., (M,) like o^jl ; (M, 
K;) and * £hj>£)\ +/\, (S, K,) like as you say, 
Oi£&\ % ; (S;) and ti!^| J^f ; (M, K;) 
andtj^i $. (T, S, M, A, K;) and J«l 
1*J$i (M,K;) and^l j^f; (Kj) and X'l 

Book I.] 

jijjt; (M,K; [in the T >kjjt j*';]) all of 
which phrases arc the same in meaning; (K;) 
[i. e. I will not do it, and / will not come to him, 
(or <t-3l *) may here mean the same as aJLwI *),) 
during the endless space of all future times, or time; 
or the like ; or for ever and ever ; cU a'tuva ruv 
aluvwv, in seculum seculorum ; in omne a>vum ;] 
the last word in every case being a corroborative. 

(MF.)__Also, [for jul ji, and (applied to a 
fern, n.) Jul Oli,] Lasting : or everlasting. (S, 

A, K.) So in the saying, jul ijA-*)^ jujI-LjjJI 
[7%* present state of existence is limited in dura- 
tion, but the final state of existence is everlasting']. 
('Obeyd Ibn-'Omeyr and L.) And ju*})t signifies 
[The Everlasting ; i. c. God ; because He alone 
is t^ju^t i^UI The Enduring without end or 
cessation; for the Muslims hold that all living 
creatures (even the angels) must die, and be 
raised again to life : or] The Ancient without 
beginning. (K.) = Also Offspring that is a year 

old. (¥.) 
« i 

Jul Unsocial, unsociable, unfamiliar, or shy; 
like a wild animal ; applied to a man, and to a 
young camel: (S, L:) and tjyif applied to a 
female slave, and to a she-ass, signifies shunning 
mankind, shy, or wild. (K.) [See also jul.] = 
Sec also jut, in four places. 

■*« — „1 

for the Arab in ancient times was considered ns 
dishonoured by his having a child by a slave]. 

(S.) The Arabs also said, j&\ J*JI £*-i O* 
*J^"^I S?l> meaning Nothing will attain to the 
object of removing hard fortune save female 
sialics a7id beasts or cattle which breed, or bring 
forth. (M, L : [in the latter of which is added, 
jjj >U J£> ,-i in every year bringing forth.]) 

sec jut. 

(^jul : see jul, last sentence but one. 

Sjj^I [The quality, or attribute, of unlimited, 
indivisible, or endless, duration; everlastingness], 

(M, K.) See jul «l»Cjyt a term applied^to 

Sayings of which the following is an ex. : .±1^31 •$ 
ji U. (M in art. <Jyo [q. v.]; &c.) 

#*■ J | • * 

i^l : see jut, 

j-jt : see jul, in three places. 


see jul. 

i This word, (Lth, ISJi, S, £,) 

said by Lth and ISh to be the only word of its 
measure heard from the Arabs except JjI and 
mSi and ^..U*., but Az says that he had not 
heard the last two from any person worthy of 
reliance, and that they arc pronounced mSi and 

^Lm*., (L,) [sec Jj| f ] and » jyl and tj^ (£,) 

which are thought by Az to be dial. vars. of the 
first, (L,) applied to a female slave, and to a 
she-ass, signify Prolific; that breeds, or brings 

forth, plentifully ; (S,KL;) and ♦ jut and tijul 
(Aboo-Malik, TA) and tjju], (Aboo-Malik, $,') 
applied to a she-camel, signify the same : (Aboo- 
Malik, $,TA:) and jul (Lth, ISh, L) and tj^f, 

tt * 

(M, L,) applied to a female slave, (M, L,) and 
to a she-ass, (Lth, ISh, M, L,) and to a mare, 
(M, L,) that brings forth every year; (Lth, ISh, 
L ;) or applied as a pi. to the female slave and 
the mare and the she-ass, that breed, or bring 
forth: (M,L:) and ijljyNI the female slave and 
the mare. (K, TA.) In the following saying, 

• +*y\j\*+*.\ • id» j^JI ££ £j • 
Jju>u U JM» ,v 

[Hard fortune will not depart save with the for- 
tune which is the necessary attendant of the pos- 
sessor of the female slave, as long as he possesses 
her, (or, if we take ^j in the sense of » jj», save 
with the fortune of this female slave,) who every 
year (U being redundant) brings forth,] ju*^l 
means the female slave because her being prolific 
is an obstacle to prosperity, and is not good for- 
tune ; i. e., she only increases evil [and brings 
reproach upon her master by bearing hiin children; 

jul Remaining, staying, abiding, or dwelling, 
constantly, continually, or permanently, in a place; 
applied to a man [and to a bird]. (L.) And jul^t 
[pi. of I juT] Birds tliat remain in a country con- 
stantly, winter and summer ;' (T,~L;) contr. of 
ai>ty. (A, L.)_For the phrases juT ju I and 

J>JJu*9l Jul, see jul A wild animal; (M, L, 

Msb ;) that shuns, and takes fright at, mankind, 

4r. : (L, Msb :) fem. with 5: pi. [properly fem.] 
j *% *** 

jul«l, (M, Mgh, L,) and [masc. and fem.] jut : 

(M, L:) and * }y\ is syn. with Jul; (M;) as 
also * julio. (A.) Wild animals are called juljl 
(S,M,L,K) and £\ (M,L,K) because tliey 
endure for a long, or [naturally] unlimited, time ; 
(M, L ;) because they do not die a natural death, 
(As, M, L, K,) but from some evil accident ; and 
the same is asserted of the serpent. (Af , M, L.) 
[See also j*!.] [Hence,] july^l X? t The light, 
or active, horse, which overtakes the wild animals, 
and which they can hardly, or never, escape : so 
called because he prevents their escaping the 
pursuer like a shackle. (Msb.) [See also art. j^J.] 
[Hence also the saying,] jiiJlu Ujj-ii jul^l ^jUI 
^[Benefits are fugitive, or fleeting; therefore de- 
tain ye them by gratitude], (A trad.) 

5 jut fem. of jut, q. v. _ Also, [as a subst.,] 
\A deed, (Har p. 364,) or a calamity, (S, M, 
K,) ever to be remembered, or mentioned, (S, M, 
K, Har,) by reason of its extraordinary nature, 
and its grievousness : (Har :) or a great, or 
formidable, event, at which people take fright, or 
are alarmed: (TA:) or a strange, abominable, 
or evil, thing: (Ham p. 627:) pi. juljl. (K.) 
You say, Sjuly £f±s ;U- Such a one did, or brought 
to pass, [a deed or] calamity ever to be remem- 
bered, or mentioned. (S.) See also 2. _ \A 
strange, an unusual, or an unfamiliar, word or 
saying; one far from being intelligible; (M ;) 
pi. July, signifying expressions af subtile mean- 
ings ; so called because remote from perspicuity. 
(Msb.) _ The pi. also signifies I Strange, un- 
usual, unfamiliar, or extraordinary, rhymes, or 

verses, or poems; syn. ^lyU' O* >j*y*> (?,) or 
j£i >J\£. (1$..) El-Farez'dak says, 

^L-*i^i ju*^ tjjuiyj 

[Ye will not attain to my nobility with the igno- 
bleness of your father, nor to my extraordinary ' 
verses by arrogating to yourselves the verses of 
other men]. (S ) [See Jul.] 

j^o [Made, or rendered, perpetual]. You 
say, I Sjyt US) a-o;I iJiJj He made his land an 
unalienable bequest for pious uses in perpetuity, 
not to be sold nor to be inherited. (T.) — Also, 
with 5, A she-camel that is mild, and intractable, 

or unmanageable ; syn. i-oU*e i x, — j . (!£•) 
•.i-j • - 

julie : sec jut. 

1. ^&\ 'Ji, (S,K,) aor. -, and -' , (?,) inf. 
n. JJf, (TA,) He gave the dog, to eat, a needle in 
bread: (S,I£:) and [app., in like manner, ji\ 
i\li\ he gave the sheep, or goat, to eat, a needle in 
its fodder : for you say,] i\li\ w.^1 the sheep, ^or 
goat, ate a needle in the fodder. (A.) _ *3jyl 
J r j J l*)\ \The scorpion stung him with the ex- 
tremity of. its tail. (S, M,A,£-) — «k« I He 
spoke evil of him behind his back, or in his absence, 
or otherwise, with truth, or though it might be 
with truth; or defamed him; (IAar,T, A,$ ;) 
and annoyed him, or hurt him. (IAar, T, A.) 
==$, (T,S,A,Msb,$,) aor. - and '- , inf. n. 
JJl (M,Msb,K) and Jwj and Jjljl, (M,£,) He 
fecundated a palm-tree [by means of the spadix of 
the male tree, which is bruised, or brayed, and 
sprinkled upon the spadix of the female ; or by 
inserting a stalk of a raceme of the male tree into 
the spathe of the female, after shaking oflf the 
pollen of the former upon the spadix of the female 
(see ^i)1)]; (T, S, A, Msb ;)" as also *,?, (S, 
A,) inf. n. J^13 : (S :) or the latter has an inten- 
sive and frequentative signification [meaning the 
doing so much, or frequently, or to many palm- 
trees] : (Msb:) and the former (S, M, A,£) 
and Matter, (M,A,K,) he dressed, or put into a 
good or right or proper state, a palm-tree, (S, M, 
A, K,) and sccd-producc, (M, K,) or any thing, 
as, for instance, a snare for catching game. (A 

Hn, M.) You say also, iJUi-JI ojyl, and *OjjI, 
and Ojjj, The palm-tree was fecundated. (Aboo- 
'Amr Ibn-El-'Ali, L.)« jyl, aor. : , He, (a man, 
TA,) or it, was, or became, in a good or right or 
proper state. (T, K.) 

2 : see 1, in three places. 

5. jvk I* ( a palm-tree, A and Msb, or a young 
palm-tree, S) admitted, or received, fecundation : 
(S, A, Msb:) it became fecundated of itself . (S.) 

8. »J3l [written with the disjunctive alif *j*i\] 
He asked him to fecundate, or to dress, or put 
into a good or right or proj>er state, his palm- 
trees, or hit seed-produce. (T, S, M, *"§..) am See 
also jO. 

Ijjj A needle ; (T, Msb ;) an iron ill* : (M, 

¥ P«- ^1 ( T » 9. M, Msb, K) and JWI. (M, K.) 
_ J Tlic sting, or extremity of the tail, of a 
scorpion ; (S,* M, A, £. ;) as also *^U ; of which 

latter tlic pi. is ^U : (A:) und of a bee. (A.) 

J The extremity of a horn. (A.) _ t The [privy] 
member of a man. (TA.)__ »lJJJI i^t J The ex- 
tremity of the elbow ; (Zj in his Khalk el-Insan ; 
and A;) the extremity of the clji [here mean- 
ing the ulna] of the arm, (K,) from which the 
measurer by the cubit measures ; (TA ;) [this 
Ix-ing always done from the extremity of the 
'IIkjw ;] the extremity of the bone from which the 
measurer by the cubit measures : the extremity of 
Iho os humeri which is next to the elbow is called 


c^ ; 

and tlic m.j of tlic elbow is between the 

*-«i mid the p'jJJI «jj\ : (T :) or a small bone, 
the head of which is large, and the rest slender, 
comjrartly joined to the m-~3 : (TA voce -»«5 :) 
or the slender part of the clji : (S, M : or a 
bone, (as in some copies of the K,) or small bone, 
(as in other copies of the K and in the M,) which 
latter is the right reading, (TA,) even with the 
extremity of the jJj [which is applied to the ulna 
and to the radius] of, or from, (,>»,) the elji [or 
fore arm] to the extremity of the finger. (M,K.) 
— S*^ 1 «dso signifies t The bone of what is 
termed ^>^jai\ iy$ [i. e. of the heeUcndon of a 
man, or of the hock of a beast], (M, K,) which is 
a small bone adhering to the v -nA [i. c. to the 
anhle or to the hock] : (M, TA :) and [app. more 
correctly " or"] the slender part of the ^^jt- 
[or/*oc/<] of the horse: (M,»K;,»'tA :) in the 
OW>*>* [or two hocks] arc [what are termed] 
0^j*\t which are the external extremity of each 
hoch. (S.) — Sec also i^JL. 

3 • l it 

^1 : sec jl^f. 

• - 

jl^t a subst. [signifying The fecundation of a 

imlm-trec] : (S :) or it is an inf. n. : [sec 1 :] or 
it signifies a palm-tree whereof the spadix is used 

for the jmrjtote offecundution. (Msb.) 

• »i *.» 
j*l = sec j£a. 

• st 

jlyl A maker of needles: (T, M,£:) and a 

seller thereof: or tlic latter is called f^ftjL of 

which J^J is a corruption. (KL.) f The flea. 

(K.) am See alsojlv, in art. jl^. 

j*\ One who fecundates a palm-tree, or palm- 
trees : who dresses, or puts into a good or right or 
projrer state, a palm-tree, or palm-trees, or seed- 
produce ; (T, TA;) or any work of art; and 
hence applied to the fecundater of tho palm-tree. 
(Aboo-'AI>d-Er-Riihman, TA.)__J/ W I* t There 
is not in it [namely the house (jljJI)'] any one. 
(TA from the Expositions of the Fs.) 

^»U : sec jJU- 

• •• 
j*U Tlic place [or case] of the neeaYe. (£.)__ 

fTho rom7Kc.(L.)__.See also S^l :_and M». = 
Also, (T,L,£,) and *j£, (T,L,) and tjjf, 
(Msb,) That, (Msb, £,) [namely] what is called 

termed) JUJt," thus written with tlic unpointed 

C, and without any syll. signs, perhaps a mis- 
transcription for j^-, and doubtless meaning the 
anthers, or the pollen,] with which palm-trees are 
fecundated. (T, L, Msb, £.) 

iJjL (Lh,S,M,K;) and *jlL and ♦Ij^'l (M, 
K) t Malicious and mischievous misrepresenta- 
tion; calumny; or slander; (Lb, S, M, K ;) 
and the f marring, or disturbance, of the state of 
union or concord or friendship or love between a 
people or between two par-ties: (Lh, S, K, TA :) 
pi. ^U. (S, M.) You say, J^U^Jt ^L l£i. 

y\o^% yt^ti ^ "'»i % [Their internal states, or 
qualities, became bad, or evil, or corrupt, and 
in consequence calumnies became current among 
them]. (A.) 

see what follows. 


j^U A dog that has had a needle given him, 
to eat, in bread : (S :) and, with 5, applied to n 
sheep or goat (»ti) that has eaten a needle in its 
fodder, and in whose inside it has stuck fast ; in 
consequence of which the animal cats nothing, or, 
if it cat,. the eating does it no good. (TA.) It is 

said in a trad., j^jIJI ^JlOtfe t>»jjl The believer- 
is like the dog that has had a needle given to him, 
to eat, in bread. (S.) [Accord, to Ibr D, the 
meaning is, that he is generous and incautious, so 
that he is easily deceived.] = Also, (T,S,A,) 
and 1j&*, (S,) A palm-tree fecundated : (T,S, 
A :) and the same, und seed-produce, dressed, or 
put into a good or right or proper state. (T, TA.) 

The former is tlic meaning in the phrase &Li 
»- it, ' 

»jV^> (T>S,) occurring in a trad., [q. v. voce 
• it , 
j^-oU,] i. c. A row of palm-trees [or perhaps a 

tall palm-tree] fecundated : or, as some say, this 

phrase means a plouglishare properly prepared 

for ploughing. (TA.) 

1. 0$, aor. ; (S, A, £) and '- , (L,) inf. n. 

* ° £ * '' 

sji>^\ (S) and ^o^l, (L,) He tied, or bound, the 

pastcr-n of his (a camel's) fore leg to his (the 
camel's) juafr [or arm], so that his fore leg became 
raised from the ground; (S, A, K;) as also 
" xjxiG : (S, K:) and accord, to IAar, u iu\ sig- 
nifies [simply] tlic act of tying, or binding. (TA.) 
= [Also, inf. n. ^^ut, He loosed him, or it : for] 
cut also signifies the act of loosing ; syn. i»" 

-, (T, TT,) or JL^., (go in a copy of the T,) 
[in the L and TA it is said to be " like (what is 

i. e. contr. o/'jlA: (IAar, K:) thus bearing two 
contr. significations. (TA.)^Also, (K.,) inf. n. 
l>»jI, (TA,) He hit, or hurt, his vein called the 
^W'f. (K, TA.) { = J*1, (S, L,K,) inf. n. JJl ; 
(TA ;) and ,Jyl ; (S, L, K ;) It (the vein called 
LjJI) became contracted, (S, L, K,) and strength- 
ened the kind legs; (L ;) as also ♦ l^oj'J : (S, L :) 

• it' 

and ^c^Ij in the hind legs signifies their being 
contracted (A,TA) and tense: (TA:) ^0 of 
the hind legs of a horse, and -.,:,'■'» [or contrac- 
tion] of the vein above mentioned, are qualities 
approved ; and the latter is known by means of 
the former. (AO, TA^ssaa^l also signifies 
The being in a state of rest, or motionless. (IAar, 
KOsasAnd The being in a state of motion: (I 

[Book I. 

Aar.K:) thus, again, having two contr. signifi- 
cations. (TA.) 

5. c^U He (a camel) had his pattern of hit 
fore leg tied, or bound, to hit arm, so that hit 
fore leg became raised from the ground. .(S, K.) 
You say, ^^ojU I^Jl^ i»A««5 [He contracted him- 
self as though he had his leg thus bound], (A, 
TA.) — C AjO She (a woman) tat in tke posture 
of the Vi^uU* [app. meaning having her shanks 

pressed back against her thighs], (TA.)_Sce 
■ "{ . . ' «• * ' -i 

also yiul, in two places. s= <ueuU : sec &<\>\. 

i »-' * it * *i'. * I, 

t^ul, or t^ul, or t^'» or ^aj\ : see ^ojU.^ 

Also, the first, »'. q. Jaj [Time; or a long period 
of time ; or a jreriod of time whether- long or short ; 

&c] : pi. JLC\. (S, K.) 

• - 
uo\j\ The cord, or rope, with which the pastern 

of a earners fore leg it tied, or bound, to his arm, 

so that his fore leg is raised from the ground: 

(A?,S,A,K:) pl.^l. (K.)^i^'f'. 

(S.)__ A certain vein (Jj>*) in the hind leg (AO, 

K) of a horse. (AO.) 

* at *Z t it 

uoy>\, (K,) or Udl v6}j\, (ISh,) A very sn-ifl 
horse: (ISh, K.:) as though he bound up his hind 
legs by the quickness with which he raised them 
when he [ait them down. (ISh.) 

u^til : sec ,^«WI' 

i>U The inner side of the knee (S, A, K) of 

any thing : (S :) or tho inner sides of the two 
knees arc called j>iLJI tLU : (T, TA :) or any 
part upon which a man bends, or folds, his thigh : 
or rohat is beneath each thigh, in the prominent 
places of the lower parts thereof: or tlic inner 
side of each thigh, as far as the belly: and also 
the wrist ; the joint of the hand in the fore arm : 
(TA:) and in the camel, (K,) [i. c.] in each of 
the fore legs of the camel, (T,TA,) the inner side 
of the elbow: (T,K,TA :) as also t^| ; (IDrd, 
KL ;) or, as in [some of] tlic copies of the S in 

* *. '{ !-• • . .. * •** 

art. ,_*»*», T »>vl; ["> one copy of the S * ^a>\ ; 

and in another, imperfectly written ;] but Borne 
write it T^o^t : and one says, a^yl* Sa-\, mean- 
ing He put his hands, or arms, Iteneath his knees, 
from behind, and then carried him. (TA.) The 

* ?' * •** 

pi. of t^cyU is t^o^U. (S.) 

• A.' 

u^yU A camel having the pastern of his fore 

leg tied, or bound, to his arm, so that his fore leg 
is raised from the ground; (A,*TA;) as also 
T cAjUo : (S :) or the latter, having kit fore shank 
bound to his arm with the »_*iW'- (K..)ss Hit, or 
hurt, in the vein called the ^L't. (TA.) 

I— J I ±ja~>yo The crvw: because it hops as 
though it were ^oyilt. (I£.) 

u**->\~-* '■ see ,_f0^>U : and sec 5. = Also Having 
the vein called i^o^t in a tense state. (TA.) 

1. Aiaj' i- 1- o^Jb, q. v. : (IAar, Az, Sgh, K :) 
said of God. (K.) 

5. *M3 He put it (a thing, S, Mgh, Msb) 
beneath hit hu\ [or arm-pit] ; (S, Msb, J$. ;) or in 

Book I.] 

hit J»Jl. (Mgh.) —Hence, (K,) £i ±4*0, the 
surname of Thabit the son of Jabir (S, K) El- 
Fahmee: (S:) because they assert that the sword 
never quitted him: (S:) or because he put be- 
neath his arm-pit a quiver of arrows, and took a 
bow, or put beneath his arm-pit a knife, and came 
to an assembly of Arabs, and smote some of them. 
(K.) It is invariable : but if you desire to express 

the dual or pi., you say, ip JUjU \)i and Jajb j^l 
\jL, or you say UV*£» and ^JM>. (S.) It docs 
not admit of the formation of a dim., nor is it 
abridged : (S, K :) but some of the Arabs used 
to say JkfU [so written with refa], using a single 
word, accord, to Sb, as is said in the L. (TA.) 
Its rcl. n. is v \J*$- (?,K.) — [Hence also] 
k$i O*^ ^^ t Much a one placed such a otic 
under hi* protection. (TA.)_Jat?tf also signifies 
He put hit Aij, (S,) or garment, (Mgh, K,) 
under his right arm, and then threw [a portion 
of] it over his left shoulder, (S, Mgh, K,) in 

•» • * * f * 

pniycr, or in j>\j~-\ ; (Mgh;) as also jJa-il. 
(S.) [Sec also jlEyi'.] 

LJ\ [The armpit ;] the inner side of the shoulder- 
joint: (lSd,K:) or the part beneath the *-U»- 
[wliich signifies the arm, upper arm, armpit, and 
wing, &c.]: (S, Msb:) also written ▼ Joul ; (Msb, 
K ;) which is said to be a dial. var. by some of 
the moderns ; but this is strange, on account of 
what is said respecting Jjj ; (Msb;) for Sb says 
that there arc only two substs. of the measure J»i, 
which arc JjI and j*- ; and one epithet, namely 
jXj : other instances have been mentioned, but 
their transmission from Sb is not established : 
(Msb. in art. JjI :) it is also said that there is no 
other word like JjI ; but this means, in its origi- 
nal form, and does not deny that there arc words 
like it by the insertion of a second vowel like the 
first, such as this and many other words : (TA :) 
[see also Xf\ :] it is fern. ; (Mgh ;) or masc. and 
fern. ; (S, Msb;) sometimes the latter; (Lh,K;) 
but the making it mow. is more approved : (TA:) 
Fr cites, from certain of the Arabs, the phrase, 
(S,) aL*\ JJi^i uf±~ ijllt *±j* [And he raised 
the whip so that his armpit shone] : (S, Msb :) 
the pi. is Ufl. (S,Msb,K.) — [Hence,] Jj-i 

l^LOti^ jy*"^' ^*W 1 [H* '"' '*" wc, ' c< an< l occult 
particulars of the affairs]. (A, TA [followed by 
the words Q>\&} U^Ci J^->> a pleonastic 
addition, merely explaining what goes before.]) 

And SJUJI i»Wl vj-^ t \jH* traversed the 

recesses of the desert]. (TA.) — And J^L. L/\ f 
t The foot, or bottom, or lowest j>a}-t, (~L,,)ofa 
mountain. (TA.) — And J*j JajJ t The place 
where the main body of sand ends: (S:) or what 
is thin, of sand: (K:) or the lowest part of an 
oblong tract of sand collected together and elevated, 
where the main body thereof ends, and it becomes 

thin. (TA.) And jCiJt XJl t Evil fortune ; 

ill luck. (TA.) 

JajI : Bee iul. 
.* * 
S • 
^jM [Of, or relating to, the armpit] 

1*1 -JjI 

"joty The axillary vein. (Golius, on the 
authority of Meyd.) 

^) i^l Jul) I The sword is beneath my J»jI [or 

armpit] : and ^W'i t^^ , -* e ~ ,, * P ut ' or 
place, the sword upon my side, and beneath my 
±4l- (TA.) And ^>(j\ dijbu*. I put it (namely 

the sword, TA) next my J^l. (K,TA.) The 
Hudhalec, ($, TA,) El-Mutanakhkhil, describing 
water to which he came to drink, (TA,) says, 
(S, TA,) accord, to the Deew&n, but some ascribe 
the words to Taiibbata-Sharra, (TA,) 

+ t , * • - J <-•*' 

meaning [I drank of the main body thereof, and 
returned from it, and a sharp steel-edged sword 
was] beneath my ±j\ : (S, TA :) or, accord, to one 
relation, the poctsaid,^i>»jL» t^wW : and accord, 
to another, _»jU» «^~afj : Skr says that the last 
word of the verse is a contraction of ^^W '■ and 

Ibn-Es-Scerafec, that it is originally *iJ»Wi an( ^ 
if so, it is an epithet. (TA.) 

/jloljl : see what next precedes. 
iJaJi : sec 5. 

1. JJl, aor. ; , (S, Mgh, Msb, K, &c.,) which 
is the most common form, (Msb,) and - , (S, TS, 
Mgh, Msb,) and : , (K,) so in the copies of tlie 

K in the place of '- ; (TA ;) and Jj, aor. - ; 
(IDnl, Msb, K;) inf. n. JU (S, Mgh, Msb) 

and J^l and JjI, (K,) or the first of these is a 
simple subst., and the second and third are the 
inf. ns. ; (Msb ;) He (a slave) ran away, or fled, 
(T, S, Mgh, Msb,) or went away, (K,) from his 
master, (T, Msb,) without [being induced to do 
m by] fear, or severity of work : (Msb, K :) 
thus the signification is restricted in the 'Eyn : 
(Msb :) and in this case, the law ordains that the 
slave shall be restored ; but if the act arise from 
severity of work or from fear, he is not to be 
restored : (Lth, TA :) in the Kur xxxvii. 140, it 
is said of Jonas, (T, Bd,) because he fled from his 
people without the permission of his Lord : (Bd :) 
and it is also, tropically, said of a fish : (Mgh :) 
or he (a slave) hid kimxelf, and then went away : 
(M, K :) as also tJ^O: (M :) or thid signifies, 
simply, he hid, or concealed, himself: or he con- 
fined, restricted, limited, restrained, or withheld, 
himself: (S, K :) or it has both of the last two 
significations: (Sgh:) and he abstained from a 
thing, as from a sin, or crime. (IAar, EL*.) 
A poet says, (S,) namely, 'Amir Ibn-Kaab, 
(AZ,) or 'Aman Ibn-Kaab, or, as some say, 
(•human, (AA,) 

[Kow surely Bahani said, and she did not hide 
herself, or did not restrain herself, Thou hast 
qrown old, and enjoyment doth not befit thee] : 
(S :) or she did not hide herself [or Iter mind], 
but said openly: (TA:) or she did not go far 

see JjI. 

[from the person whom she addressed, or from 
the truth] ; so says AZ, taking it from Jljl as 
relating to a slave : (TA :) or site did not abstain 
from her speech, as from a sin, or crime : (IAar:) 
or she did not disdain, or scorn. (TA.) AHat 
says that he asked As respecting *JjU, and he 
answered that he knew it not. (TA.) 

5: see 1, in three places. — C**j9 Slie (a 
camel) withheld her milk. (TA.) — iJX\ JyU 
[or *^£jl J>jj] He denied, or disachnowledged, the 
thing. (K.) One says to a man, " Verily in thee 
is such a quality;" and he replies, jjul U I do 
not deny, or disachnowledge : and one says, " O 
son of such a woman;" and the man replies, 
\ij» JjOI U I do not deny, or disachnowledge, 

her'. (IF.) 
« it 

< u 


JjT A slave running away, or fleeing, &c. ; a 
runaway, or fugitive, slave ; part. n. of JjI ; 
(Mgh, Msb,K;) as also * J^l [but in an inten- 
sive, or frequentative, scnBe, i. e. who runs away, 
or flees, &c, much, or often; and so t JVj'» 
occurring in the K, in art. 9-J-0] : (IF, K:) 

pi. JU (Mgh, Msb, K) and JJl. (K.) 

1. Jv', aor. '- ; (S, M, K ;) and JJl, aor. -' ; 

(K;) inf. n. aj'w'l, (S, M, K,) of the former verb, 
(S, M, TA,) or, accord, to Sb, ai'VJ, because it 
denotes an office, and, if so, of the latter verb, 
(TA,) and jJl, (M, K,) "which is of the former 
verb, (M,TA,) and iM [like &*];(T;)7/c 
(a man, S) was, or became, skilled in the good 
management of camels (S, M, K) and of sheep 
or goats. (M, K.) ailjl, like <^U£» [in measure], 
signifies The management, or tending, (A, K, TA,) 
of JU [meaning camels or other beasts], (A, 
TA.) You say, ajlj^l J-Li. y* He is good in the 
management, or tending, of his JU [or camels, 
&c.]. (A, TA.) — Jjl, aor. -: sec 2, second 

signification JjNI C-XjI The camels mere 

gotten, or acquired, as permanent property. (S, 

TA.) JjNI oijl, aor. '-; and C-ij!, aor. -' ; 

(K ;) inf. n. [of the former] JjI and [of the 
latter] J^Jl; (TA;) The camels became many, or 
numerous. (K.)_ Also jV^I <~$, (?, M, K,) 
and the like is said of wild animals, (S, M,) or 
others, (K,) aor. - and - , inf. n. J^jI (S, M, K) 
and JJl; (M, ¥.;) andoiyl; and*c-M3; (M, 
K ;) The camels were content, or satisfied, with 
green pasture, so as to be in no need of water : 
(S, M, K :) the last verb is mentioned by Z, and 
he says that it is tropical, and hence J*jI applied 
to "a monk." (TA.) — [Hence,] j4jjl J^l 
aStJIT ,jk, and * JjU, (S, M,K,) ; The man was 
content to abstain from conjugal interconrxe with 
hi* wife; syn. \j* lj^.1 ; (M;) themanabst,ii>ud 
from conjugal, or carnal, intercourse with his 
wife. (S, K, TA.) — [Hence also] j$, (K,) 


inf. n. jjl, (TA,) J He devoted himself to reli- 
gious exercises; or became a devotee; (K, TA;) 
as also J^f, like uli, inf. n. Sll/I : or this signifies 
he became a monk. fTA.)_ And J^t, aor. ; , 
(Kr, M, K,) inf. n. JJI, (Kr, M,) t He over- 
came, and resisted, or withstood; (Kr, M,K;) 
as also t j£ (K,) inf. n. jjt ; (TA ;) but the 

word commonly known is Jyl. (M, TA.) 

Also (K, TA, but in the CK " or") JyNI cJj 
signifies The camels were left, to pasture at liberty, 
and went ami;/, having with them no pastor: 
(K :) or the;/ became, wild, or shy. (K,* TA.) 
— And The camels sought by degrees, or step by 
step, or bit by bit, after the J^l [q. v.], i. c. the 


4AA*. of the herbage or pasture. (TA.) And, 

inf. n. J^l, The camels remained, or abode, in 
the place: (M, K:) or remained, or abode, long 
in the pasturage, and in the place. (El-Mohcct, 
TA.) — 4JL*» jf\ f i„f. n . J^l, The herbage 
became tall, so that the camels were able to feed 
upon it. (K.) — 'j^li\ j$, inf. n. J^l, The 
trees had green [such, app., as is termed J^l] 
growing in its dried parts, mixing therewith, 
upon which camels, or the lihe, fatten. (Ibn- 
'Abb4d.)w dfl, inf. n. J$\, He assigned to him, 
or gave, him, (*) Jj«*-,) past uring camels, or camels 
pasturing by themselves. (K.) 

2 - JA (8> K,) inf. n. jj§, (K,) Jle took for 
himself, got, gained, or acquired, camels ; he ac- 
quired them as permanent property. (S, K.) 
[Sec also 5.]— He was one whose camels had 
become numerous; (T, M, K;) as also t J^T, 
(M, K,) inf. n. Jl^J; (TA ;) and » Jyl, aor. - , 
(K,) inf. n. jX (TK.)_'J^t -Jjj The 
managing, or taking good care, of camels; (M ;) 
and the fattening of them : (M, K :) mentioned 
by AHn, on the authority of Aboo-Ziyad El- (M.)«— Sec also" 1. 

4 : sec 2. 

: sec 1, in two places : __ and see 8. = 
>yj J**3 He took for himself, got, gained, or 
acquired, camels ; (AZ, T, M, K ;) like C^ ^Ju. 
(AZ, T.) [Sec also 2.] 

8- J/W <), (S, M, K,) in U.e O ♦ J^J % 
(TA,) Jle does not, or will not, keep firmly, or 
steadily, to the pasturing of camels,nor tend them 
well ; (M, K ;) he does not, or mill not, manage 
them, or take care of them, in such manner as to 
put them in good condition : (As, A'Obcyd, T, 
S :) or it signifies, (M, K,) or signifies also, (S,) 
he does not, or will not, keep firmly, or steadily, 
upon them when riding them ; (T, S, M, K, 
TA ;) used in this sense by a man excusing him- 
self for not putting on a camel his aged father 
who was walking. (T.) 

JJl : sec J^l : — and Jyl. 

(Fr, M, Kp as also * jS\, (M, K,) similar to 
j+ti and &<), (Ham p. 714,) but this is disap- 
proved by Fr; (TA;) and t jfy (S, M, O.) 
with fet-h to the ^>, (S, O,) because several 
kesrehs together are deemed uncouth ; (O ;) in 

the K, erroneously, t^t, with two fet-hahs ; 

(TA ;) and t^| a lso, (M, K,) with two kesrehs. 

(K.)^J^I jt*i A fleshy he-camel. (Ibn- 
'Abbad, K.) — iLt aiU A she-camel blessed, 
prospered, or made to have increase, in respect 
"J 'offspring. (Ibn-'Abbad, K.) In one place in 
the K, jjyi '<y> is put for jJ^JI ^j. (TA.) 

J^f : sec itf. 

Ji\ Skilled in the good management of camels 
(S, M, K) and of sliecp or gouts; (M, K;) as 
also t J^f: (S, M, K:) and JySW J*t, and in 

• '•• i \ * * " 

poetry " J^l, skilled in the management, or care, 

if camels. (T.)_A man possessing camels; 

Jj\ [mentioned in two places in the latter part 
of the first paragraph,] The alio- of herbage, 
(K,) i. c, of dry herbage; [app : meaning what 
grows in the season called oua)I, or summer, 
among herbage that has dried up;] growing after 
a year; upon which camels, or the like, fatten. 

S>\, (T, S, M, Msb, K, &c.,) said by Sb to be 

the only subst. of this form except j^m., and to 

have none like it among epithets except Jjb ; for 

though other instances arc mentioned, they are 

not of established authority; (Msb;) but IJ 

mentions, with these, JL». and JJjI [which may 

bo of established authority]; (TA;) [and to these 

may be added lul and jjI, and perhaps -X and 

• • t" , 

^Jai. ; respecting which see jul ;] and for JjI 

one says also * J£l, (S, Msb, K, &c.,) sometimes, 
by way of contraction ; (S, Msb ;) or this may be 
a dial. var. of the former; (Kr, MF ;) [Camels: 
and a herd of camels : or] at the least, applied to 
a 2*0^0 ; i. e. a numbm- [of camels] more than a 
Aji [which is at least nine,] up to thirty ; after 
which is the < i.» fc , i. e. forty and upwards ; and 
then, S^tiM, which is a hundred of JjI : (T :) or, 
accord, to Ibn-'Abbad, a hundred of JjI: (TA:) 
it is a quasi-pl. n. ; (Az, S, ISd, Z, O, Msb, &c.;) 
a word having no proper sing. ; (S, M, 6, Msb;) 
and is of the fern, gender, because the quasi-pl. n. 
that has no proper sing, is necessarily fcm. (S, O, 
Msb) when not applied to human beings, (S, O,) 
or when applied to irrational beings', (Msb,) and 
has S added in the dim.; (S, Msb;) the dim. of 
Jyl being TiXol: (S, Msb, K. :) it is said in die 
K that it is a sing, applied to a pi. number, and 
is not a pi., nor a quasi-pl. n. ; but in this asser- 
tion together with the saying that the dim. is as 
above is a kind of contradiction ; for if it be a 
sing., and not a quasi-pl. n., what is the reason 
of its being fcm.? (TA:) the pi. is jtf (S, M, 
Msb, K) and J&\ [like Xtf pi. of Jle, q. v.] ; 
(Msb, TA ;) the pi. meaning herds [of camels] ; 
and in like manner >»Uil and jU^t mean flocks 
of sheep or goats and herds of bulls or cows : 
(Msb, TA:) and the dual, 0^'» means two 
herds [if camels], (Sb, T, S, M^ M'sb,) each with 
its pastor; (T;) like as oC^ means two flocks 
of sheep or goats : (S:) or, accord, to Ibn-'Abbad, 
the dual means two hundreds of JA. XTA.)_ 
jj^A^JI J/}M [The smaller camels] is an appclla- 

[Book I. 

tion applied to sheep ; because they cat more than 
goats. (IAarin TAart. .kj-9.)_Itis8aid in the 
Kur [lxxxviii. 17], JL£» J^\ J\ Oj^lL' !*il 
CJLU., meaning, accord, to 'Aboo-Amr Ibn-El- 
'Ala, (T, TA,) t[Will they not then consider] 
the clouds that bear the water for rain, [how they 
are created?] (T, K, TA:) but accord, to him 
who reads J^\, the meaning is, tke camels. (T, 

ii^l A blight, blast, taint, or the like: (T, K:) 
thus written by IAtli, agreeably with the authority 
of Aboo-Moosa; (TA ;) occurring in a trad., in 
which it is said that one should not sell dates 
until he is secure from Ub^l ; (T, TA;) but 
accord, to a commentary on the Nh, it is correctly 
written *ii^l [q. v.] (TA.) 

4^1 Knmity; hostility. (Kr, M, K.) 

5JjI Jhnrholesomcness and heaviness of food ; 
(S, M, K ;) originally aA^j, like as o*.l is origi- 
nally JU-j ; (S ;) as also * Jjf. (K.) It is said 
in a trad, that this departs from every projierty 
for which the poor-rate has been |>aid. (S, M.) 
—. See also iXf\. __^» evil quality of herbage or 

inwturo. (AHn, TA ia art. j±j.) 1 cause. 

of harm or injury; evil; mischief. (TA.) 

A consequence of an netion, or « claim which 
one seeks to obtain for an injury ; and a cause 
of blame or dispraise : having these meanings in 
the saying, *«ij| ^ c4-ji» Jii jli ^J*i ,j\ 
[If thou do that, thou tcUt escape from its con- 
sequence, &c.]. (T.) — A fault, vice, or tke like. 
(Aboo-Malik, T.) So in the saying, ^» jJLUU 
il^l jr»*5)t IJjb [77ie»-c M not to be charged against 
thee, in this affair, any fault, &c.]. (T.)^yl 
crime; a sin; an unlawful action. (K.)__ 

Rancour, malevolence, mulice, or spite. (113.) 
I -t « t ' J 

^jl*>\ : sec JjI. 

i 't * I 

^X>\ : sec J^l. 

T * 

^^1, with fet-h to the w», because several 
kesrehs together are deemed uncouth, Of or 
relating to, camels. (S.) _ See also J^t. 

S, .< 

^1 : sec Jvl. 

• < 

Jti} t A Christian monk ; (S, M, Msb, K ;) 

so called because of his abstaining («JU3) from 
women : (TA :) or the chief monk : (T :') or « 
derotee : (TA :) or an olil man, or eliler : (M :) 
or the chief, or head-man, of the Christians: (M, 
K :) or the man who culls them, to prayer by 
means of the ^y U ; (A Hcyth, M,» K ;) the 
beater of the ^y U : (IDrd:) as also *^j£l, 
(M and K, but according to the M as meaning 
" a monk,") which is either a foreign word, or 
enraged by the relative ^, or of the same class 
as JaLfcl [in which the first letter as well as th 
second is augmentative], for Sb says that there is 
not in the language an instance of the measure 
wW 5 (M ;) and *^'f, and J^l>, and t^f f 
and *Jrtl, (K,) which last is disallowed bySb 

for the reason stated above; (TA;) and *J^I 
... •"« , * S, .« ^^ ' 

like ,^1 ; and ? ,^1 ; (K ;) the last with fct-h 

to the hemzeh, and kesr to the ^>, and with the 

Book I.] 

s -* 

[first] ij quiescent; or <j Lj\ [app. a mistranscrip- 
tion for^jJLjl] is used by poetic licence for t/JL^I, 
like J# for Jyi: (TA:) pi. jtf (M, £) and 

^jjHf or Jyt, [accord, to different copies of the 
K>] w 'tl> damm [which indicates that the former 
ii meant, though it is irregular]. (K.) By 
O^tt*)* J**' is meant 'Eesd [or Je«/*], (S, £,) 
(A* Messiah. (S.)_Tn the Syriac language it 
signifies Mourning, or sorrowing. (K.) ass Also 
-I jsrrtjf, or rft'cA. (M, K.) See also IjU. 

ill^l : see the next paragraph. 

SU : see J^>l. = Also A bundle of firewood; 
(T, S, Msb;) and so *ajfy: (T, S:) or o <7»-ea< 
bundle of firewood; and so "<Ul/l and aJl> (K) 
and " iJV : (Bd in cv. 3 ; but there explained 
only as signifying a great bundle :) or a bundle 
of dry herbage; (M, TA;) and so *«$ (£) 
and t jj and * iij (M, K) and * SiQ\, ($, [in 

the C]£ 4JL0I,]) with on* of the two ^s changed 
into ^j, and mentioned by Az, but it is said in the 
S and O that this is not allowable, because this 
change may not be made in a word of the measure 
aJlaj, with S, but only in one without », as in 
the cases of jLjj and )o\j£ ; (TA ;) and il&j 
signifies the same, (!£,) belonging to art. Jyj. 
(TA.) Hence the prov., (S, TA,) ^J* ^Ju 
3i(/\ t and *»&, (S, K, &c.,) but the former is the 
more common, and *i)l~>t, which is nllowed by 
Az but disallowed by J ; (TA ;) [lit. A handful 
of herbage, or the like, vptm a bundle, or great 
bundle, of firewood, or a bundle of dry herbage;] 
meaning t a trial, or trying treat, upon another 
(S, O, K) that had happened before : (S, O :) 
or plenty (^ upon plenty ; as though bearing 
two contr. significations. (K.) 
aLjI : sec a)U. 

I&tdimof J^l, q. v. (S, Msb, K.) 

3 1 • 1 

^jiuvt : see J^l. 

J^y : see J^l. 

Jijl A pastor of camels, (M, K, TA,) who 

manages them, or takes care of them, well. 

• a 
JV1 : see the next paragraph. 

J#\, (T, 8, M, Msb, £,) like JJ4*. (S, 

Msb, ^C, [in the Cl£, erroneously, J>^*,]) A 
separate, or distinct, portion of a number of birds, 
and of horses, and of camels, (M, K,) and of such 
following one another; (£;) as also ♦ J<jJ, and 
tftjj, (M,$,) and *5iW1,andtJ£t: ($:) or 
it signifies a bird separating itself from the row 
of other birds; (T, TA;) accord, to IAar. 
(TA.) It is said to be the sing, of * Je/jf : (T, 
8, M, and Jel in cv. 3 :) Ks says, I used to 
hear the grammarians say that this latter has for 
its sing. Jyf\, like Jy^s., of which the pi. is 
Jt*V»: (Mfb:) or its sing, is tjjt; (§, 
Msb;) but he who says this adds, I have not 
found the Arabs to know a sing, to it : (8 :) or 
each of these is its sing. ; (M, Jel ;) and so is 
Bk. I. 

♦ JCj : (Jel :) or its sing, is t»Cl f (Bd in cv. 3, 
and Msb,) originally signifying " a great bundle:" 
(Bd :) it is said that this seems to be its sing. ; 
and so * iJb! : or the sing, may be ♦ ilLjl , like as 
jUjj is sing of j&Oi'. (T:) or it has no sing., 
(T, S, M, Bd, Msb, K,) accord, to Fr (T, Msb) 
and Akh (S) and AO, (T, M,) like i^Ui (Fr, 
T, Bd) and JljjU. (AO, M, Bd.) j*U 
signifies, accord, to some, A company in a state 
of dispersion : (M :) or dispersed companies, one 
following another : (Msb :) or distinct, or sepa- 
rate, companies, (Akh, S, Msb, K,) like leaning 
camels : (Msb :) or companies in a state of dis- 
persion. (AO, Msb.) One says, jiX/\ Oil*. 

,J*^I Thy camels came in distinct, or separate, 

j ~( it, 
companies. (Akh, S.) And J^W >J» [in the 

KLur cv. 3 means Birds in distinct, or separate, 
flocks or bevies] : (Akh, S :) [or] birds in com- 
panies from this and that quarter : or following 
one another, flock after flock : (Zj, T:) or f birds 
in companies; (Bd, Jel;) likened to great 
bundles, in respect of their compactness. (Bd.) 
[Respecting these birds, Fei, in the Msb, quotes 
many fanciful descriptions, which I omit, as 

* ■ '" 

J^l : see ,M in two places. 

iJl^l : sec JjjA* 

i)bt : see SJbl, in three places : and Jy[, in 

two places. 

J^t More, and most, skilled in the good manage- 
ment of camels. (S, M, K, TA.) Hence the 
prov., ^3u»JI Jy > £y» ^\ [More skilled &c. 
tlian Honeyf-el-Jlandtim]. (TA.) And the 
phrase, ^Ul J^l ^>* y> [lie t* of the most 
skilled &c. of men]. (S, M, I£.) Mentioned by 
Sb, who says that there is no verb corresponding 
to it. (M.) [But see 1, first signification.] 

t '* • 

Jtft: see Jvl, in two places JjI^I JJ, (S, 

M, K,) and J^l, and Jl^l, (M,) [all pis. of JJT or 
ii^\,] and v **£*, (M,) Many, or numerous, 
camels : (S, M, K :) or this, [app. meaning the 
last,] as some say, put in distinct herds; (M;) 
and so J Wl: (TA:) or gotten, gained, or acquired, 
for permanent possession: (M:) this last is the 
meaning of the last of the epithets above. (S, 
K) — Jb', applied to a camel, also signifies 
Content, or satisfied, with green pasture, so as to 
be in no need of water: pi. jQl : (S, K :) and so 
luUi, applied to she-camels, (T,* TA,) and to wild 

animals. (S in art. ,Jj.) And 4JL1I JjJ Camels 

seeking by degrees, or step by step, or bit by bit, 
after the Jj\ [q. v.], i. e. the iili. of the herbage 

or pasture. (TA.) — And Jjl J^l Camels left 
to themselves, (S, M, 1£, TA,) without a pastor. 

J-jI and J-^l : see J^l. 

I <ts s j.i a »« « c 

LJ l^l and LJ X^I and ^^1 : see J4/I. 

* - fli 

Jlrtl : see J^.1. 

ai^J : see <Ul^J, in two places :^ and see Jyl. 

aXjIc ijoj\ A land having camels. (S, K.) 
•1^* J^ = see Jjl. 

1. <UjI, aor. - and ; , inf. n. ^j->t, //< made him 
an object of impt'tation, or suspected him : and 
he found fault with him, or blamed him : (M :) 
or he cast afoul, or an evil, imputation upon him. 
(IAar, T.) You say, ^ 2ft (S, ?,) or £4, 
(as in one copy of the S,) or ^ij r^->, (Ln, M,) 
aor. as above, (Lh, S, M, K,) and so the inf. n., 
(Lh, M,) lie made him an object of imputation, 
or suspected him, (Lh, S, M, K,) of a thing, (S, 
K,) or of evil, (S, accord, to one copy,) or of good, 
and evil: (Lh, M :) and *4LJl signifies the same. 
(M.) And jeti-t ' OHtyi O'**». 0r J^> Such a 
one is made an object of imputation, or suspected, 
of good, or of evil: (AA,* Lh, T [as in the TT ; 
but perhaps ^j^t is a mistranscription for <j->yt ; 
for it is immediately added, O^ 1 - 8 >v^ : ]) when, 
however, you say ^^j [i. e. ^yi or ▼ sJi^i] 
alone, it relates to evil only. (AA, T. [But 

see 2.]) And lj& ^yj ^^, or ♦ i#yt, Such a 
one is evil spoken of by the imputation of such 
a thing. (S, accord, to different copies.) And 
it is said respecting the assembly of the Prophet, 
j>j>33J\ *e* » Ljtyi *), (T, and so in a copy of the 

1 *»3 

S,) or ,>£• ^), (so in some copies of the S,) i. e. 
Women (T) shall not be mentioned in an evil 
manner therein : (T, S :) or sliall not have evil 
imputations cast upon them, nor be found fault 
with, nor shall that which is foul be said of them, 
nor that which ought not, of things whereof one 
should be ashamed. (IAar, T.) _ Also, and 

t i#, (M, ¥.,) inf. n. J^tf , (K,) He. found fault 
with him, or blamed him, to his face; (M, !£;) 
and he upbraided him, or reproached him. (M.) 

2. ,^1 o?, (AZ, S,) inf. n. ^J\S, (K,) He 
watcfied, or observed, the thing; or he expected it, 

or waited for it. (AZ, S, K.) jj*$1 ^\, (M,) 

inf. n. as above, (As, T, S, J£,) He followed the 
traces, or footprints, or footsteps, (As, T, S, M, 
K,) of a thing ; (As, S, JC ;) as also ♦ »^U. 
(K.) And hence the next signification. (As, 
T.)=s» jljjl J?\, (S, M,) inf. n. as above, (Sh, 
T, S, If,) He praised the man, or spoke well 
of him, (Sh, Th, T, 8, M, £,) after his death, 
(Th, S, M, K,) or m death and in life, (Sh," T,) 
used in poetry to signify praise of the living ; 
(M ;) and wept for him : (S :) he praised him ; 
and enumerated, or recounted, his good qualities 
or actions: you say, ^^ ^1^1 £& j*J) 
^£=>\jf [He ceased not to eulogize your living 
and to praise your dead] : (Z, TA :) for he who 
praises the dead traces his [good] deeds. (As, 
T.)_ See also 1, in six places. 

5: see 2. 

^U see art. ^. 

iol A knot in wood, or in a branch ; (8, M, 
^ ;) or tn o staff, or stick ; (T ;) and in a bow, 
(TA,) [i. e.] the place of the shooting forth of a 
branch in a bow, (M,) which is a fault therein ; 
(TA ;) and tn a rope, or cord : (M in art. JJl :) 



• 4 

pi. ^1. (T, S.) Hence, (M,) J A fault, 

defect, or blemish, (T, M, 5, TA,) in one's 
grounds of pretension to respect, (T, TA,) and in 

speech, or language. (M, TA.) t Particularly 

Tho enormity that it committed with one who is 

termed C>yP-*- (TA.) _ And J Rancour, male- 
volence, malice, or spite : (K, TA :) and enmity : 

pi. as above. (TA.) You say, ^1 j^f J (S, 

TA) Between them are enmities. (S.) Also 

The [part called] 4« rJfc [meaning the epiglottis] 
of a camel. (M, K.) 

i^t : sec art. ^Vn. 

O^J Tho time of a thing ; (T, S, M, K, and 
MnI) in art. wj! ;) the season of a thing; (Msb in 
that art. ;) the time of the preparing, or making 
ready, of a tiling; (Mgh in that art.;) as, for 
instance, of fruit, (S, Mgh, Msb,) of the fresh ripe 
dates, and of the gathering of fruits, and of heat 
or cold : (TO or the first of a thing. (M, K.) 
You say, «Mdg t x j£i\ Jui-I lie took the thing in 
it* time : or in, or with, the first thereof. (M.) 
The & is radical, so that it is of the measure JU* ; 
or, as some say, augmentative, so that it is of the 
measure tfjJti. (TA.) [See art. ^1.] 

CHy* occurs as meaning Dead, or dying ; i. e., 

[pro|)crIy,] wept for. (S.) [See 2.] 

• »■ * 

O&* A praiser of the dead; because he traces 

his [good] deeds. (As, T.) 

• *t, 

\jyS° Made an object of imputation, or sus- 
pected, of evil : thus when used alone : otherwise 
you add m^ [of good], and ^ [of evil]. (M, 
K .) — Hence, [A catamite;] one with whom 

enormous wickedness is committed; (TA ;) *'. a. 

* a- * * >>, ' * 

w - ^. - ». (Idem, voce JL>y+).) Also One who 

is imprisoned; because suspected of a foul fault, 

or crime. (T.) 

tr-yl) accord, to the Msb ; or ^j-^i, accord, to 

^y~>\, with medd to the I and kesr to the «_>, 
(TA,) or with damm to the ^>, [i. e. vy*(\, and 
by some written ^y^,] or with the ^> quiescent, 
[i. e. ^.^y^l,] and without s , [app. tm pm^\,] (Msb,) 
[Ebony;] a thing well known, which is brought 
from India : an arabicized word : (Msb [in 
which is added the proper Arabic appellation; 
but the word in my copy of that work is imper- 
fectly written ; app. jta*. ; which, however, does 
not seem to be the word intended:]) some say 
that it is the same as >r -L« : others, that it is 
different therefrom : and respecting the measure 
of the word, authors differ. (TA.) 


1. iii»,(JK,K,)and*/; (K;) and I,*; aor. 

[of both] i& ; inf. n. I}', (JK, K,) of the former, 

% *i 
(TA,) and »y\, [also of the former,] (JK,) and 

Ijl, (JK, K,) which is of the latter; (TA;) He 
knew it ; or understood it ; or knew it, or under- 
stood it, instinctively : or he recognised it readily ; 
knew it, or understood it, readily, after he had 

forgotten it. (K.) You say, it <cJ^\ U, (AZ, 

JK,S,Mgh.) aor. *JT, inf. n. *Ji; (AZ,S;) and 

*i c-y^l U, (JK, S,) aor. as above, inf. n. *y\ ; 

(S ;) I did not know it, or understand it ; or did 

not know of it ; was not cognizant of it : (JK, 

Mgh :) or I did not have my attention roused to 

it after I had forgotten it : (AZ, S :) the former 

i *** * * * 

is like C-vO ; (Mgh ;) and the latter, like [o*^ 

and] J^. (S.) It '*\% •} (Mgh,K,TA) He 

will not be cared for, minded, or regarded, be- 
cause of his lowness of condition, or abjectness. 

' Z. *'**t 

(Mgh, TA.) I JSL> *Zyf\ I imputed to him, or 

suspected him of, such a thing. (JK, K, TA.) 

2. <Cyjl, inf. n. AjjU, I roused his attention : 
and I made him to know, or understand. (Kr, 

K.) The two meanings are nearly alike. (TA.) 

. ***** 
And " <L^il I made him to know ; mformed, ap- 
prized, advertised, or advised, him ; gave him 
information, intelligence, notice, or advice. (IB.) 

4 : see 2. 

5. a/0 He magnified himself ; behaved pi-oudly, 
or haughtily. (JK,S,K.) You say, J^yJI '*& 
O^* ^fi* The man magnified himself against 
such a one, and held himself above him. (JK,* 
TA.) And I Jj> i>« <oU He shunned, avoided, or 
kept himself far from, such a thing ; (JK, Z, K ;) 
he was disdainful of it, he disdained it, or held 
himself above it. (Z, K.) 


i^l Greatness, or majesty ; (JK, S, K ;) a 

quality inspiring reverence or veneration ; (TA ;) 

goodliness and splendour; (K;) and goodliness 

of aspect : (TA :) and pride, self-magnification, 

or haughtiness. (JK,* S,* K.) 

1. c£f, [third pers. $,] (T,S, M,K,) and 
C-^l, [third pers. ^1,] (T, M, K,) the latter ac- 
cord, to Yz, (T,) aor. £\, (TK,) inf. n. l#\, (Yz, 
T, S, Msb,) or this is a simple subst., (M,) I be- 
came a father. (T,» S,* M, K.):=i£{, (ISk, T, 
M,K,) aor. ',#\, (IAar, ISk, T,) inf. n. Ijfr, 
(M,K1,) / was, (IAar, ISk, T,) or became, (M, 

K,) a father to him. (IAar, ISk, T, M, K.) 

[Hence, I fed him, or nourished him ; and reared 

him, or brought him up.] You say, \j*yC ^yjj 
^m£)1, inf. n. SjW» Such a one feeds, or nourishes, 
this orphan, like as the father does Aw children. 

(Lth, T.) And iyt v' *> li (ISk, T, S) ife Ao« 
nor a fattier to feed him, or nourish him, and to 
rear Aim, or bring him up. (S.) 

2. awI, inf. n. ioU, / <ata <o Aim i-jU [mean- 
# x * » - •** - 

ing ^L> Oo jj May est thou be ransomed with my 

father! or the like: see ^jt, below], (K, TA. 
[In the CK, erroneously, ^1 U.]) 

5. »<vU /Zc adopted him as a fatlier ; (M, K, 
TA ;) as also * obU-l ; (M in art. ^>l ;) and so 

9% tit 

WJ »WO, accord, to A'Obeyd : (T A :) [or,] accord. 

to A'Obeyd, you say, l/l C>^I3 I adopted a father : 

(T :) and you say also, l/t w>Uwl and L>1 ^yUwl 

A« adopted a father. (TA.) 

10 : see 5. 
• i »^» 

w>l is originally y\, (S, Msb, K,) as is shown 

by the first of its dual forms and of its pi. forms 
mentioned below; (S, Msb;) and signifies A 
father [in the ordinary sense : and also as mean- 

[Book I. 

ing f an ancestor] : (M :) as also T tjl, a dial, var., 
(M, K,) the same in the nom. and accus. and gen. 

00 It 

cases, like US : (M :) and w>l is a dial. var. of the 
same, [the second letter being doubled to com- 
pensate for the j suppressed, as is the case in —I, 

(TA voce •»!,)] but is rare. (Msb.) Accord, to 
the dial, commonly obtaining, when you use it as 
a prefixed noun, you decline it with the letters % 
and t and ^£, saying, »y\ I jjk [This is his father], 
(Msb,) and S)#\ [thy father] ; (M ;) and »ljlc4lj 
[I saw his father]; and 4-jb Ojj-o [I passed by 
his father] : (Msb :) but accord, to one dial., 

« rt # I * *l 

you say, »l^l IJjk, (Msb,) and iHfl; (M;) and 
ol^l Oolj ; and »l^V ^jj* : (Msb :) and accord, 
to one dial., which is the rarest of all, it is defec- 
tive in every case, like ju and >.> ; (Msb ;) and 
[thus] you say, JX^I IJjL [&c.]. (M.) The dual is 
^jWyl, (S, M, Msb,) meaning [two fathers, and] 

father and mother; and some say ^\ : (S, M :) 

* "t » j "^ 

you say, »l^l Ua, meaning 2'A«y two are his 

father and mother; and in poetry you may say, 

*i"f i" • i-i •'* "' "' 

obi U>; and in like manner, <^j I Ootj [/«» Aw 

father and mother], (T,) and jL/I [thy father 
and mother] ; (S ;) but the usual, or chaste, form 

is a^I J^>\j. (T.) The pi. is iLi'\, (T, S, M, Msb, 

K,) the best form, (T,) and ±>y\, (T, S, M, K,) 

and y\, (M, K, [in the CK y*)\ is erroneously 

put for *%]) and 5^1, (Lh, T, S, M, K,») like 

i^c and ajj|*. : (T, S :) you say, ^L#\ ,S(V», 

• 9 * *- 

meaning ^£>5W' [These are your fathers] ; (T ;) 
and hence, in the Kur [ii. 127], accord, to one 
reading, J^- .1 y Je**-^ J*e*ji\ ^ei} *JJ j [And 
the God of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael 
and Isaac], meaning the pi. of ^il, i. e. <iii^t, of 
which the >j is suppressed because the noun is 
prefixed [to the pronoun] ; (S ;) and some of the 

Arabs say, f ^l jtj£s>\ U3^>l [Our fathers are the 
most generous of fathers], (T.) The dim. is ♦ Jl ; 
originally j^fi, with die final radical letter restored. 
(Msb.) — ^»l yj* ti ijjj*i U, and ^>\ U, mean- 
ing He knows not who is his father, and roAar w 
Aw father, are sayings mentioned by Lh on tlie 
authority of Ks. (M.) — M $ ^, (T,S,M,K, 
ice.,) [accord, to the dial, of him who says 1/ in- 
stead of ^>\,] as also JJU ^»\ ^,and Jl^l ^, (S,K,) 
[the last, accord, to J, because the J (meaning 
the J in ill] in the preceding phrases) is as though 
it were redundant, but he seems not to have 
known the dial. var. t^l, and I rather think that 
ii<i\ •) is for JW1 Itlf ^i/l % or the like,] and 
itf ^, (Mbr,Sgh,K,) and JU ^, (K,) which 
is for iU ^>l *^, (M,) means Thou art, in my esti- 
mation, one deserving of its being said to him, 
Mayest thou have no father! it is used in the 
manner of a proverb, is of frequent occurrence in 
poetry, (M,) is said to him who has a father and 
to him who has not a father, and is an impreca- 
tion as to the meaning, of necessity, though enun- 
ciative as to the letter; (M,K;) and hence the 
saying of Jcreer, 

J *' 't * ml ******** 


[0 Teym, Teym of Adee, may ye have no 

Book I.] 

father !] ; which is the strongest evidence of its 
l>cing a proverb, and not having a literal meaning; 
for all of [the tribe of] Teym could not have one 
father, but all of them were fit objects of impreca- 
tion and rough speech : (M :) it is an expression 
of praise : (S :) [i. c.] it is an imprecation against 
him to whom it is addressed, not, however., said 
with die desire of its having effect, but on an 

occasion of intense love, like JU j>\ *), &c. : (liar 
p. 165:) and sometimes in dispraise, like Jlija ^): 
and in wonder, like j)jj A) : (TA :) or, as A 
Heyth says, on the authority of Aboo-Sa'ecd Ed- 
Darecr, it expresses tlic utmost degree of reviling; 
[meaning Thou hast no known father;] and 

JU >>l *j expresses reviling also, but means Thou 
hast no free, or ingenuous, mother : (Mcyd in 

liar p. 1G5 : [see j*\ :]) sometimes it means 
Strive, or exert thyself, in thine affair; for he 
who hiis a father relics upon him in some circum- 
stances of his csise : (TA :) accord, to Kb, it means 
Thou hast none to stantl thee in stead of thyself: 
(ISh, TA :) Fr says that it is a phrase used by 
the Arabs [parenthetically, i. o.,] to divide their 
speech : (TA :) [thus, for instance,] Zufur Ibn- 
El-Hurilh says, 

"» * ** <5 *•■*>■' * r a * *~t 

W3U3 "ill >\& ^ v^-J' tJTj' 

[Shorn thou me my weapons : (may est thou hare 
no father ! or thou hast, no father : &c. :) verily 
I see the. mar, or battle, increases not sore in per- 
severance]. (TA.) [ A1mk>-' Alee, as cited in the M, 
observes that the I (meaning the final I) in bl, in 
the phrase jJO Gl "^, indicates that it is a prefixed 
noun, and determinate; whereas the J in iU 
together with the government exercised upon the 
noun by *j indicates that it is, on the contrary, 
indeterminate, and separate from what follows it: 
but it seems that he was unacquainted with the 

dial. var. U ; for Jii W' N in the dial, of him who 

" . • ' 

uses the form bl instead of wjI is the same gram- 
matically as JJ w .l •*} in the dial, of him who uses 
die form «_jI.] Suleyman Ibn-'Abd-El-Melik 
heard an Arab of the desert, in a year of drought, 

»* Jt * * * » -0 - - a 6 i 

say, .iW bl *v) w^JOt UJLfr JjjI, and Suleyman put 
the best construction upon it, [as though it meant, 
Send down upon un-rain : Thou hast no father], 
and said, 1 testify that lie hath no father nor 
female companion nor offspring. (TA.) They say 
also, in paying honour [to a person], JUjLJ ^jI *^, 
and .skjiij M "j, (TA,) i. c. May thy hater have 

no father! or, accord, to ISk, each is a meto- 

** *% * * 

nymical expression for Jii W' *^. (S in art. Ui, 

q. v.) One also says, on the occasion of an 

occurrence that is approved and commended, by 

way of expressing wonder and praise, i)yt <ui, 

meaning To Ood, purely, is attributable [the 

excellence of] thy father, seeing that he begat thee 

a generous ton, and produced the like of thee ! 

(TA ;) [or to God be attributed (the excellence 

of) thy father!] it means that to God [alone] 

belongs the power to create the like of this man 

[to whom it relates], from whom has proceeded 

this wonderful action. (Har p. 44.) __ And 
* t » * * * 

W' ^Smt ^5*1 meaning She resemble* her fal/ier 

in strength of mind, or sjririt, and sharpness of 
disposition, and in hastening, or striving to be 
first, to do things : said of Hafsah, by 'Aisheh. 
(TA.) — fJt, (TA,) or iJl ^l, (T in art. W,) 

[said to a person,] means [,_yW w-i<>» Mayest 
thou be ransomed with my father I (see the next 
sentence but one ;) or] ^W «iWj>»l [I will ran- 
som thee with my father] ; (T ubi supra ;) or 

I i ** * tt 
. wW iCja* C-il Thou art, or shall be, ransomed 
*■*' - * t * j> * * , 

with my father]; or ,^W «ik-!J>» [I have in my 

heart ransomed thee, or / would ransom thee, with 
my father] ; the ^> being dependent upon a word 
suppressed, which, accord, to some, is a [pass, 
participial] noun, and accord, to others, a verb ; 
and this word is suppressed because of the fre- 
quent usage of the phrase. (TA.) You say also, 

ie»\} wJl iy»W [With my fat Iter mayest thou be 
ransomed, and with my mother!]. (TA.) And 

ii ,* * * I ji ** • <■ « ' 'i r tr 

Ac whom 1 love be ransomed with my father !], 
meaning may he [my father] be made a ransom 
for him [whom I love] ! (El-Wahidcc on the 
Deewan of El-Mutanebbcc, in De Sacy's Chrcst. 
Arabe, sec. ed. vol. iii. p. 35 of the Arabic text.) 
Sometimes they change the \£ into I : a poet 

* ** * J • *t ****** 

[And they have asserted that I have become im- 
patient on account of them two : but is it an evi- 
dence of impatience that I said, Alas, with my 
father may they two be ransomed?]; meaning 

loJk ^g/if \j. (S.) And some of the Arabs used to 

/ it i * 
say, c~il WW '^ [Alas, with my father "mayest thou 

be runsomed!] : this, says AM, being like ULj W 

for ij^ii W ; aB a ' so W«V W> w 'th the hemzch 

'-' ' . f - 

changed into ^j, originally WW W> meaning ^W W : 

and hence what is related, in a trad., of Umm- 

'Ateeych ; that she used not to mention the Pro- 

* * * j t 

phet without saying, U-j [for •* iwW]- (TA in 

art. W-) A woman said, 

*. * * * * ** * tt t * 

* v^*" iy vu **»' lj?V ** * 

[O thou to whom I would say, With my father 
mayest thou be ransomed ! and thou who art 
above him to whom I would address the saying, 
With my father mayest thou be ransomed !] ; re- 
specting which Fr observes that the two words 
[w> and w>l] are made as one [by prefixing the 
article] because of their frequent occurrence ; (S ;) 
and A boo-' Alee says that the ^£ in ^**~i is substi- 
tuted for », not necessarily; but ISk quotes the 
words as commencing with U*/ C, which is the 
right reading, in order that this expression may 
agree with «_-4JI, which is derived from it: Et- 
Tebreezee, however, relates Abu-1-' Ala's reciting 
the words as ending with ***Z*}\ ; saying that this 
is compounded from the phrase '.yC, and that 
therefore the ■ is preserved. (TA.) [See also the 

first paragraph in art. WO — You say also, wyl W 

' *$ * 
[meaning O my father], (S, M, K,) as in «iyl W 

Jj«il [0 my father, do thou such a thing] ; (S;) 


and c^l W J (S,M,£;) and JL$ W ; (Z in the 
Ksh xii. 4 ;) and <wj W (§, M, ^1) when you pause 
after it (S, M.) The », [here written O,] (Kh, 
M,) the sign of the fem. gender, (S, Z,) is substi- 
tuted for the [pronominal] affix ^j, (Kh, S, M, Z,) 

ft * *i* 

aB in C~*t W 5 (? a "d is like the i in A*c and 
****** . . , 

<UU., as is shown by your saying, in pausing, 

aj\ b> like as you say, *)U- C : (^". M :) 

the annexing of the fem. O to a masc. noun 

f ***** * 

in this case is allowable, like as it is in j&b i»U»- 
* * * * * % * * ** * j * * * ** * * » 

and j£-> j »Ur and ijuj J*j and ajUj >>"^c : its 

being made a substitute for the affix ^j is allow- 
able because each of these is an augmentative 

added at the end of a noun : and the kesreh is the 

i * 
same that is in the phrase .wl W : (Z ubi supra :) 

the <Sf does not fall from ^jI in the phrase wyl b 
when there is no pause after it, though it [some- 
times] does from j*\ in the like phrase in that 
case, because the former word, being of [only] 
two letters, is as though it were defective. (S.) 
Ool W is for ȣ>! C> ( Aboo-'Othman El-Mazince, 
S,* M, [the latter expression mentioned also in 
the K, but not as being the original of the former,]) 

the I [and »] being suppressed ; (the same Aboo- 

**t * 
'Othman and M;) or for U*l Wi "• • "cing BU P- 

prcssed, like as tlie ^ is in jt^k W ; or ' l mav be 

after the manner of ^\ W- (Z ubi supra.) O^l W 

is thus pronounced after the usual manner of a 

noun ending with tlie fem. S, without regard to 

tlie fact that die Ct is in die former a substitute 

for the suffix ^j. (Z ubi supra.) <u\ b is said in a 

case of pause, except in the Kur-an, in winch, in 

this case, you say, w^l W> following the written 

text ; and some of the Arabs pronounce the fem. », 

in a case of pause, O [in other instances], thus 

saying, C-*..U> W- (?.) »Wt W ' 8 "l 80 **'«! > (M, 
K;) though scarcely ever. (M.) A poet uses the 

expi-cssion C»W» W> f° T »^r' W : (§» M :) IB says 
that this is used only by poetic license, in a case 
of necessity in verse. (TA^—^ 1 is tropically 
applied to signify I A grandfather, or any ances- 
tor. (Msb.)__It is also applied to signify f A 
paternal uncle; as in the Kur ii. 127, quoted 

before. (M.)^[It is also (like >l and &t\ and 
O~o) prefixed to nouns of various significations. 
Most of the compounds thus formed will be found 
explained in die arts, to which belong the nouns 
that occupy the second place. The following are 
among the more common, and are therefore here 
mendoncd, as exs. of different kinds.]— 21^)1 ^1 
+ The woman's husband : (Ibn-Habecb, M :) it is 
said in the TS that v^J'f m certain of the dials., 
signifies the husband: MF deems this meaning 
strange. (TA.) \Jy^\ ^ iThe master of the 
dwelling, or of the place of abode : (TA :) and 
ithe guest. (K in art. ^y.) u»W-i"9l £ fThe 
very hospitable man. (TA.)— w»jUJl yl fThe 
lion. (TA.) ijil *1 \The wolf. (TA.) yf 
Jj«L\\ i Tlie fox. (TA.V_yU.yl i Bread. (S 

and K in art. j-»..)— JUU yt + Extreme old age: 

(TA :) and t hunger. (MF in art. j**..) 
tt * t 

WI : see «_>t. 

,,, *,*{ *iil 

fly I or *lyl: see Syl. 


li*' Oft or mating or belonging to, a father; 
paternal. (S, TA.) 

jj/t dim, of tjjf, q. v. (Msb.) 

Jyl [in copies of the K * .l^>l, and in the CK 
T .h>/I, both app. mistranscriptions for iy\, which 
is well known,] Fathership; paternity; the rela- 
tion of a father. (S,* M.) You say, ^j ^£ 
*yl j^U [i/ernwen me and tuch a one i* a tie 
of faiherthip]. (S.) 

-t t 

1. ^yl, aor. ^yli, (S, M, Msb, K,) which is 

anomalous, (S, M, Msb,) because it has no faucial 
letter (S, Msb) for its second or third radical, 
(Msb,) and ^Q, (M, Msb, K,) mentioned by IJ 
as sometimes said, (M,) agreeably with analogy, 
(TA,) and V>5 A, which is doubly anomalous first 
because the pret. is of the measure J**, and this 
pronunciation of the ^j of the aor. is [regularly 
allowable only] in the cose of a verb of the 
measure Jjti, aor. JjU^, and secondly because it 
is only in an aor. like J-»-rt, (Sb, M,) i. e., of a 
verb of which the first radical letter is ^ or ^, 
(TA in art. J*.>) and ^Xi, (IB, [who cites as 
an ex. a verse ending with the phrase a~Zj { J^,]) 
inf. n. IU (S, M, Mgh, Msb, K) and ifa, (K,) 
or S^l, (so in a copy of the M,) or IM, (so in 
the Msb,) lie refuted; or refrained, forbore, 
abstained, or held bach ; syn. iw*t; (S, Msb, MF, 

Bd in ii. 32, Kull p. 8,) voluntarily, or of his 
own free will or choice : (Bd ubi supra, Kull :) 
[thus when used intransitively : and it is also used 
transitively :] you say, J^l ^1 he refused assent, 
or consent, to the thing, or affair; disagreed to 
it ; and did not desire [to do] it : (M{r in Har 
p. 483:) he did not assent to, consent to, approve, 
or choose, it; lie disallowed it ; rejected it: (Mgh:) 
and ijylil ut jI he disliked, was displeased with, 
disapproved of, or hated, the thing. (M, K.) Fr 
says that there is no verb with fet-h to its medial 
radical letter in the pret. and fut. [or aor.] unless 
its second or third radical ia a faucial letter, except 
^f : that AA adds O^J '• but iStat one says o£*\ 
with yj&ji for its fut., and O^i "'th O&ji for 
its fut: (T:) so that the instance mentioned by 
A A is one of an intermixture of two dial. vara. : 
(TA:) Th adds ^JS and Ci and L-i ; and Mbr 
adds L»- : but most of the Arabs say (JUL and 
y-iu and y+li and ^^J. (T.) [Some other 
instances are mentioned by other authors; but 
these are verbs of which the aors. are rarely with 
fet-h, or are instances of the intermixture of two 
dial, vars.] ^soi\ owl is a greeting which was 
addressed to kings in the time of ignorance; 
meaning May est thou refuse, or dislike, (ISk,* 
8,* M,« Har p. 491,) to do a thing that would 
occasion thy being cursed! (ISk, S, M;) or, to 
do that for which thou wouldst deserve the being 
cursed I for it implies the meaning pf a prayer; 

i. e., may Qod make thee to be of those who 

dislike the being cursed! and hence it occurs 

parenthetically. (Har ubi supra.) You say also, 
■ .' > »t - « 
*U* ^1 ^jf\ [He refuted, or did not submit, to 

be- harmed, or injured]. (T.) [And sometimes 
*9 is inserted after q\, and is either redundant, or 
corroborative of the meaning of the verb, as in 

e • t St '" 

the case of *) ^1 or ^1 after «-^> .] It is said in 

the Kunx. 32, tjy ^j ^1 •$ aSi\ ^ly, meaning 
But God will not consent or choose [save to com- 
plete, or perfect, kis light]. (Bd.) And in the 
same xvii. 91, \jy\£> ^1 ^Cjt J&l ^U, i.e. 
[But the greater number of men have not consented 
to, or chosen, aught] save denying [its truth, or 
disbelieving it] ; this phrase with *)\ being allow- 
able because it is rendered by means of a nega- 
tive. (Bd.) You also say, J^Ji\ JjC &\£> [He 
used to refuse, or dislike, flesh-meat], (K,) or 
j*Ji\ Ji>l [the eating of flesh-meat]. (Mgh.) 
And cUH O^ ^' [Such a one refused, or dis- 
liked, water, or the water]: (S:) or ^>ji> \^» .Jl 
il»)l [he refused, or voluntarily refrained from, 
the drinking of water, or the water], (AAF, M.) 
AndjV^t xJLt ufl, (Mgh, and Mtr. [author of the 
Mgh] in Har p. 483,) and alu ♦ »lju, both sig- 
nify He refused him his assent, or consent, to the 
thing, or affair. (Mtr ubi supra, in Har.) Hence, 
(Mtr ubi supra,) jJs. { Jt\, (Mgh, and Mtr ubi 

supra,) and j^it * ^U, (T, S, and Mtr ubi supra,) 
He was incompliant, or unyielding, to him; he 
resisted him, withstood him, or repugned him; 
syn. «iUl (T, S, Mgh, and Mtr ubi supra) 4*U : 
(T:) thus explained because the objective comple- 
ment (j«o*9l) is suppressed. (Mtr ubi supra.) = 
>li£j| C-J, (K,) or >tiijl ^yo, and ^Ji\, (M, 
TA, [in a copy of the former of which the verb is 
written c~-j1, but this I suppose to be a mistran- 
scription, on account of what here follows,]) like 
*-"**fj> (J£,) inf. n. ^1, (M, and so in some 
copies of the If ,) or ,Jl, (so in some copies of the 
K,) with kesr, and with the short final alif, (TA, 
[i. e. like ^fbj, but perhaps this may have been 
supposed to be the right reading only because the 
verb is likened to <C^-ej, of which .««6j is the 
most common inf. n.,]) / left, or relinquished, the 
food, (M, K,) and tlie milk, (M, TA,) without 
being satiated, or satisfied. (M,^.)__J e «aAJ| *Ji f 

an< ^ ufi> inf n - {^ffK The young camel, or young 
weaned camel, suffered indigestion from the milk, 
and became affected with a dislike of food. (M, 
^.) = C-e/t as syn. with O^l : see the latter. 

J A j j •** 

4. »LI awI [in the CK., erroneously, 4^\] J 
made him to refuse it ; or to refrain, forbear, 
abstain, or hold back, from it, voluntarily, or 
of kis own free will or choice : (S: [this meaning 
being there implied, though not expressed :]) or 
/ made kim to dielike it, to be displeased with it, 
to disapprove of it, or to hate it : (M, K :) namely, 
water [&c.]. (S, M.) One says, ^'^WO'^, 
(ISk,S,K,» [in the CK, erroneously, Ji l y\ %]) 

i. e., »\j\J J i Sit +4 ^ [Such a one is like a sea, or 
great river, that will not make thee to refuse it, 
or dislike it, &c] ; (K;) i. e., that will not fail, 
or come to an end, (ISk, S, K,) by reason of its 

[Book I. 

abundance. (ISk, 8.) In like manner one says, 
of any water, ^j/yj *$ tU [Water that will not 
fail, or come to an end], (TA.) And U JU Uju» 
^jipt With us, or at our abode, it water that does 
not become scanty, or little in quantity. (Lh, T, 
M.) And iUI i<jI The water decreased, or be- 
came deficient. (AA, from El-Mufaddal.) And 
^jiyi ) <-r~ M A well that will not become ex- 
hausted : (IAar, M :) one should not say, ,_£;. 

(M, TA.) In like manner, also, one says, "^£» 
ufyi ^ Herbage, or pasture, that will not fail, or 
come to an end. (S.) And ^wp "^ Ji*^j> *S'-r 
He has dirliems, or money, that will not fail, or 
come to an end. (TA.) And iUI ,wl signifies 
also Tlie water [in a well] was, or became, diffi- 
cult of access («^I*I), so that no one was able to 
descend to it but by exposing himself to peril or 
destruction : (M :) if a drawer of water descend 
into the well, (T, TA,) and the water be altered 
for the worse in odour, (TA,) he exposes himself 
to peril, or destruction. (T, TA.) 

r»l »,, it. »,. «« 

5. j-*"}! a~U ^0 : and a*U ^13 alone : sec 1, 
latter half of the paragraph. 


<LvJ A paucity, or deficiency, and revulsion, of 

the milk in the breast: (Fr, TS :) or a revulsion 
of the milk in the udder; (K;) but the saying 
" in the udder" requires consideration. (TA;) 
You say to a woman, when she has a fever on die 
occasion of childbirth, JJ^ju iyt | Jlll »Juk \£\ 
[This fever is only occasioned by the paucity, or 
deficiency, and revulsion, of tlie milk in thy breast.] 

vjVrfl and ,^1^1 and (jWI: see «_»t, in four 

HA (T,S, M,) or ^u£jl ^ (4, (K,) A dis- 
like, or loathing, of food: (T,S,M,K:) of the 
measure JUi, (S, M,) with damm, (S, K,) be- 
cause it is like a disease, and nouns significant of 
diseases arc generally of that measure. (M.) You 
say, \<!\ ijll (T,S, M,K) >utjl ^ (K) He 
was, or became, taken, or affected, with a dislike, 
or loathing, of food. (T, S, M, K.) 

&l inf. n. of J/\, q. v. (S, M, &c.) See also 



it •- i - 

\jf\ and i.^1 : see «_»!, in tlirec places. __ Also, 
'I I * 
the former (^Q* She [app. a camel, or any 

beast,] that refuses, or refrains from, fodder, by 
reason of her suffering from indigestion : and she 
that refuses, or refrains from, the stallion, by 
reason of her having little appetency. (AA.) 

[See also w>iy, voce ^jl.] 

* t 


JL>I A man who refuses, or does not submit, to 
be harmed, or injured. (T.) 

i-w>1, with damm, (K,) and kesr to the «_), and 
with teshdeed of this letter and of the ^, (TA,) 
[in the CK 2gA] Pride; self-magnification, or 
greatness, or majesty : (K :) and ♦ »LJt [also] sig- 
nifies pride, self-magnification, or haughtiness* 
(Ham p. 118.) 

^\, and t J,f, (S, M, Msb, K, TA,) and *oWV 

Book I.] 

(S,TA,) part, ns, of ^yl, signifying Refusing; 
or refraining, forbearing, abstaining, or holding 
back [voluntarily, or of his own free will or 
choice] : (S, Ms b, TA :*) [refusing assent or con- 
sent; &c. :] disliking, being displeased with a thing, 
di*ap)>roving of it, or hating it : (M,* K,* TA :) 
or the first and second, a man disliking, or loath- 
ing, food : (M , K, TA :) and the third, (K,) and 

*OWA («> > n a ^Py °f &• M,) or oW'» (K,) a 
man wAo refuses, or refrains from, or dislikes, or 

Aafrx, (.<&,) /00a*; or, tAt»<7« 'Aat are basotfor 
mean, (M,K,TA,) a»d cawe« of dispraise or 

Wamc : (TA :) or the second (^yt), a man n>Ao 

refuses, or refrains, &c, vehemently, or much; 

incompliant, unyielding, resisting, withstanding, 

or repugning : (T :) and T oW and oW> a man 

having vehement «L>I [app. .U, i.e. dislike, or 

loathing, of food ; agreeably with a common 

quality of words of the measure O^**] : (T» TA : 

[but in copy of the T, accord, to the TT, Sfi 

in this lost explanation is written .l>\ : in the TA 

it is without any vowel-sign :]) the pi. of w»l is 
. i~ % .1 3 1 * 

tjyl\ and Sl^l (M, K) and ^t, (K,) with damm, 

tlien kesr, and then teshdeed, (TA, [in the CK 

.yl, and in a copy of the M »>eA]) an< ^ Wi (M, 

TA,) or JWJ, (K, TA,) like Jt^: (TA: [in tlie 

CK .VI 0) the pi. of t^f is o^l 5 (M,K ;) of 
which an instance occurs wherein the pi. ^ is 
likened to a radical ,j ; the gen. case being 
written, at the end of a verse, v>erfl : (M :) the 
pi. of ♦ £$» (M,) or oQl, (K,) is oQ. (Kr, 

M,K.) [Hence,] .Jty The lion. (K.) And 

& e >\, (M,) so in some copies of the K.» out " n 
others T i^l, (TA,) She [app. a camel] tliat dis- 
likes, or loathes, and will not drink, water: and 
she that desires not the evening-food : and she (a 
camel) that is covered and does not conceive, or 
become pregnant: (M,K:) and w>l}*> [•*" P'v] 

she-camels that refuse, or refrain from, the stal- 

2 ( 
lion. (TA. [See also ,y1.]) It is said in a prov., 

aJ*$\ m^ty* i-il«JI [SAe (/tar w eating her evening- 
food, or pasturing in the evening, excites her tliat 
has no desire for that food]; i. e., when the 
camels that desire not the evening-food see the 
camels eating that food, they follow them, and 
pasture with them. (M, and so in the S in art. 

«_>!* [act part. n. of 4, q. v.] Water failing, 
or coming to an end : (TA :) or water that is 
scanty, or little in quantity.] (Lh, M, TA.) 

SV'U JU, (M,) or 5VU S.U, (K,) Water which 
the camels refuse, or dislike. (M, K.) 

2. $1 Qi\, (M,K, [but in the latter the pro- 
noun is masc.,]) and w-jI>, (M,) or simply ly-JI, 

(S,) inf. n. w-~»Ij, (S, K,) lie put on Iter, or clad 

Aer rct'A, an «_-ol : (S, M, K :) or lyJI signifies 

Ac put on her, or c/art" her xith, a shift. (AZ, T.) 

—^1, (M, K,) inf. n. as above, (K,) It (a 

garment, or piece of cloth,) was made into an ^Jl. 

5. v^V v&> ( M » K ») and t ^ J ^ , » [written 
with the disjunctive alif >^k\], (M,) or^^jl, 
(K, [but this I think a mistranscription,]) He 
put on himself, or clad himself with, an »,«3I : 
(M,K:) or tc.."*t, alone, she put on herself, 
or clad herself with, an ^Jl. (AZ, T, S, M.)_ 
I/£jJj cJjJI y^U f He put on (i. e. on himself) 
the coat of mail, and the arms, or weapons. (A.) 
And J*yM *r«3l3 \He put forth his shoulder- 
joints from tlie belt of the bow, [tlie belt being 
across his breast,] so that the bow was on his 
shoulder-blades: (A:) accord, to AHn, (M,) 

^JU signifies fa man's putting tlie suspensory 
of tlie bow across tlie breast, and putting forth the 
slwulder-joints from it, (M,K,) so that the bow is 
on the shoulder-joints : (M :) and you say also, 
s^i ,Ji <u.j5 ^«3U t [Ac put his bow in the 
manner above described upon his back]. (S.) — 
[And hence,] wJU signifies also f He prepared 
himself, or made himself ready, (K,) j-»^W [for 
the affair]. (TK.) And ^ He acted, or be- 
haved, with forced liardness, firmness, strength, 
hardiness, courage, or vehemence. (K.) 

8 : see 5, in two places. 
9 : see 5. 

J^Jl (T, S, M, A, K) and * i^U (M, K) A jJ*, 
(S,) o'r ijSi, (M,K,) i.e., (S,M, [but in theK 
what here follows is given as a meaning distinct 
from tliat of ijJn,]) a ijj [q. v.], (S, M, K,) or 
piece of cloth, (S, A,) wAicA is slit (S, M, A, K) 
in the middle, (S,) and worn by a woman, (A, K,) 
who throivs it upon her neck, (S, M,) [putting her 
head through the slit;] having neit/ier an opening 
at the bosom (a v ^».), nor sleeves : (S, M, A, K :) 
and a woman's shift : (T, M, K :) and, (K,) or 
accord, to some, (M,) a garment that is short, 
reaching half-way down tlie shank : (M, K :) or 
[a garment like] drawers, or trousers, without 
legs ; (M, K ;) t. q. i«*i : (M :) or a shirt with- 
out sleeves, (S voce ^, M, K,) worn by women : 
(S ubi supra :) the first explanation alone is given 
in most lexicons : (TA :) some say that it is 
different from the j\j\ ; tliat it Aa» no band like 
tliat of drawers or trousers, and is not sewed 
togctlier after the manner of drawers or trousers, 
but is a shirt of which the two sides are not sewed 
together : (M :) or t. q. iiJLt and jljuo and j$y* ; 
all signifying one and the same tiling : (T :) pi. 
[of pauc] v^T (M, K [in the CK and a MS. 
copy of the K written «->UI]) [originally v^" 
which is mentioned as one of the pis. by MF] and 
«^«3I [originally ^^11 which is also mentioned as 
one of tlie pis. by MF] and by transposition w>>n> 

(MF,) and [of mult.] 4»A (§,) or vfy (M,) 
or both. (K.) — [Hence,] v^t also signifies 
t The A«»A of barley. (M, K.) 

^Jfts A [wrapper, or wrapping garment, such 
as is called] J^. * *. (T.) 



jltJt JJ^i t A man whose nail is crooked. 

1. J5l, (M, K,) in, or in relation to, a .UL> [or 
skin for? water or milk], (TA,) signifies The 
having two punctures of a seam (,jUj^) rent so 
as to become one. (M, K.) You say, i^U\ wo^l, 
aor. z , inf. n. jj\, The water-shin had its two 
punctures (UUj^i. [or rather two of its punctures, 
agreeably with the explanation of the inf. n. in 
the M and K, as given above,]) rent so that they 
became one. (TK.) — [And hence,] The meeting 
together of the pl&-.'« [or vagina and rectum] : 

whence >yl [q. v.] as an epithet applied to a 
woman. (Ham p. 373.) — [It seems to be indi- 
cated in tlie T, that one says, iVlJl jjft, aor. -, 
and jjftf aor. ; ; as meaning, or perhaps the former 
only, The women assembled, or came together : for 

•if* ... 

I there find, immediately after ^U as signifying 

" a place in which women assemble," " one says, 
^>\, aor. - , and J£\, aor. - :" but it is then added 
that, accord, to Khdlid Ibn-Yezeed, ^U is from 
J3I, aor. i.]™J. q. JmJ [The act of rending, 
rending asunder, ripping, or tAe like ; "or undoing 
the sewing of a thing]. (TA.)_— The act of 
cutting. (Sgh, K.) You say, *+J\ He cut it. 
(TK.)=^'> aor. -, also signifies He brought 
together, or united, two things. (T.) [See >yl, 
and ^3U.] = ot&W $% (?gh,Msb,) with two 
forms of aor., [app. ; and - ,] (M?b,) inf. n. jf\, 
(Sgh, K,) or Jy I ; (Mfb ;) and Jfr aor. - ; 
(Msb ;) He stayed, remained, dwelt, or abode, in 
tlie place. (Sgh, Msb, K. ) 

2 : see 4. 

4. lliJT, inf. n. j>\^\ ; and • l^JI, inf. n. ^U; 
He rendered lier such as is termed j>y\, q. v. 

j>yi\ is primarily used in relation to the >Uu> 
[or skin for water or milk ; as meaning] Having 
two punctures of a seam (otijjA.) rent so that 
they become one. (S.)__ And hence, (S,) or from 
j£\ as meaning " he brought together, or united," 
two things, (T,) A woman whose ,jlCL-» [or 
vagina and rectum] meet together in one, [by the 
rupture of the part between them,] (T, M,) be- 
coming conjoined, so that the —ji is enlarged 
thereby, (TA,) on tlie occasion of devirgination ; 
(M ;)i.q. luUi, (T,S,M,) as some say; (T ;) 
or LiU* ; (K ; [said in the TA to be a mistake : 
but Sl^uU and «L^UU are said in the M, in art. 
uo^, to have the same signification ;]) a woman 
whose ij&sl* have become one : (Ham p. 271 :) 
or, as some say, small in the ~ji [or vagina] : 
CM :) or it has these two contr. significations. 

^U is a quasi-inf. n. of j£\ in the last of the 
senses explained above. (Msb.) [Thus it signifies 
A staying, remaining, dwelling, or abiding, in 
a place. But it more commonly signifies] The 
assembling of women [and of men also] tn a case 
of rejoicing and of mourning. (Har p. 234.) — 


It is also a noun of time from the same. (Msb.) 
[Thus it signifies A time of staying or remain- 
ing, &(-.]__ Ami it is also a noun of place from 
the same. (Msb.) [And thus it signifies A place 
of staying or remaining, &c. But it more com- 
monly signifies] A place of assembling of women 
[and of men also] in a case of rejoicing and of 
mourning: from J^\, aor. - , accord, to Khiilid 
Ibn-Yczccd. (T.)^ And hence, tropically, (Msb,) 
t Women assembling together (T, S, M, Mgh, 
Msb, K) in a case of rejoicing and of mourning, 
(T, M, Mgh, K,) or tu a case of good and of evil: 
(S, Msb :) or any assembly, (M, K,) of men and 
of women, (M,) in a case of mourning or of re- 
joicing : (M, K :) or particularly of young women; 
(M,K,) accord, to some; but it is not so: and 
•omc assert that the word is derived from J£\ t in 
the first of the senses explained in this art. ; and 
from >»jjI, as an epithet applied to a woman ; 
because it signifies women coming together, and 
meeting face to face, in a case of good and of evil: 
(M:) the pi. is JjU. (8, Mgh.) Abu-l-'Ata 
Es-Sindcc says, 

J j 3 # .to fit • it 

>>>-*"} jtf^ (.J^V *t*yf* * 

[In the evening when arose the wailing women to 
wail, and openings at the necks and bosoms of 
garments were rent with the hands of assembled 
mourning women, and checks also were lacerated] : 
(8, M, Mgh :) i. e., ;U ^jyV (S.) And 
another says, 

C5bl #h Sr~ uiP C^» 

[<S'<i that thou secst them (referring to women) 
standing in his presence, or at, or by, it, like as 
thou scest the assembly of men around the prince, 
or commander] : ^UM here necessarily denoting 
men. (M.)__IKt says, (Msb,) it is used by 
the vulgar to denote An affliction, or evil acci- 
dent ; (S, Mgh, Msb;) [and Mtr adds,] and a 

wailing: (Mgh:) they say, ^"^j ^U .J ££> 
[meaning We were present at the affliction of 
tttch a one] : (S, Msb :) or &*& ^^U ^ U£b 
[meaning We were present at the affliction, and 
wailing, of the sons of such a one] : (Mgh :) but 
the correct word in this case, (S, Mgh,) or the 
better, (Msb,) is i».lU : (S, Mgh, Msb :) so says 
IAmb. (Mgh.) But accord, to IB, nothing for- 
bids that it may occur in the sense of A place 
of wailing ; and in the sense of mourning, and 
wailing, and weeping; for therefore do women 
assemble : and thus it may be in the saying of 
Et-Teymee, respecting Mansoor Ibn-Ziyad, 

[The people's mourning, kc.,for him was one : in 
ecery house was a moaning, and a sighing] : and 
in the saying of another, 

t t 1 >M , -t - 

i.e. [TA« daughters of the captives, when they 

were slain, became, in the early part of the day,] 
in a state of mourning; and the beasts of prey, 
in a state of rejoicing. (TA.) 

1. O^W ^,(S,M,Msb,K,*) aor. '- ,(Msb,) 

or ; , (K,) inf. n. ^!l (M, Msb, K) and Jpt, 
(K,) //c remained, continued, stayed, or abode, 
in the place ; (S, M, Msb, K ;") or became fixed, 
or settled, therein. (M.) 

10. ^>JU-I [lit.] He (an ass) became a she-ass. 
(M.) The saying, ,jJtL.U ljl^». Jjl£», said of si 
man, [lit.] signifies [He was a he ass,] and he 
became a she ass; meaning f he was mighty, or 
of high condition, [like the wild he-ass,] and he 
became base, abject, or tv'fc. (S, TA.)_»Also, (8, 
TA,) or UUI ^Iwl, (M,) He (a man) ;;>/>•- 
chased a she-ass ; (S ;) he took for himself a she- 
ass. (S*, M.) 

OUI (T,S,M, Msb.K) and t^Ut, (K,) but 
one should not say iiUl, (ISk, S, Msb,) or this 
is of rare occurrence, (K,) occurring in certain 
of the trads., (I Ath,) A shc-ass [domestic or wild]: 
(S, M, Msb, K:) pi. (of pauc., T,S,M ? b) JpT and 

(of mult., T, S, Msb) &3\ (T, S, M, Msb, K) and 
• el ' I, A. ' ' 

^>j| and (quasi-pl. n., M) * ilJ^3U. (S, M, K.) 

Hence, ,jlJI signifies \ A foolish and soft or 

weak woman; as being likened to a she-ass. 

(TA.) Also The station of the drawer of water 

at the mouth of the well ; (S, M, K ;) and so 
O^'- (M, K.) And A rock, or great mass of 
stone, (AA,T,S, M,) in water; (AA, T, M;) 
or, as some say, at the bottom of the casing of a 
well, so that it it next the water. (AA, T.) And 
A large, round mass of rock, which, wlien it is in 
shallow water, is called Jp.,.aJI ,jt3l ; and a she 
camel is likened thereto, in respect of her hard- 
ness : (S :) or J«»^ J I ,jU1 signifies a large mass 
of rock jrrojecting from the water . (T :) or a 
mass of rock, (M,K, TA,) hirge and round, in 
the water, (TA,) at the mouth of the well, over- 
spread with [the green substance called] > r .JLall>, 
so that it is smooth, (M, K, TA,) more smooth 
than other parts: (M, TA :) or a ?nass of rock, 
part of which is immerged ( j-«U-, M, K) M the 
water, (K,) and part apparent. (M, K.) And 
J«»JI fj\3\ signifies A large Tnass of rock in the 
interior of the water-course, which nothing raises 
or moves, of the measure of the stature of a man 
in length and likewise in breadth. (ISh.)__Also 
The [piece of wood called] Sj*\3 [which is one 
of four forming the support] of the «oy [more 
commonly called roy*, q. v.] : pi. £/3\, (K, 
TA,) with medd. (TA : [but in the CK J>5i.]) 

[Book I. 
to J tliat in which bricks are baked, and called in 

»' J • # J # 9 1 

Persian Jiiy and \Jjy2>\} [or simply ^y and 
u-b]: (Mgh:) accord, to Az, (Msb,) it is that 
of the hath, and of the place in which gypsum is 
made : (T, Msb :) or the trench, hollow, or pit, 
of the jU». [or lime-burner, (in the CK, crro- 
ncously, the jUa.,]) and of the preparer of 
gypsum; (M,K,TA;) and the like: (K:) the 
pi. [said in the TA to be of the latter, but it is 
implied in the T and M and Mgh that it is of the 
former,] is ^Ul, (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K, [in 
the CK, erroneously, sJ-&\,]) by common con- 
sent of the Arabs, (Mgh,) with two Os, (T,) 
accord, to Fr, who says that they sometimes 
double a letter in the pi. when they do not double 
it in the sing., (T,) and accord, to IJ, who says 

that it seems as though they changed ,jyl to 
* it * it 

(j^il ; (M ;) and [of Qy\, as is said in the TA 

and implied in the M,] jjjl. (M, K.) [J says 
that] it is said to be post-classical ; (S ;) [and ISd 
says,] I do not think it to be Arabic. (M.) 

„ ,1. 

sec ,jUI. 


jjLil : see jjtfl, m two places. 

Oy'l (T, M, Mgh, Msb, K) and o>3l, (K,) or, 
accord, to J, (Msb,) it is thus, with teshdeed, but 
pronounced without teshdeed by the -vulgar, (S, 
Msb,) A certain place in which fire is kindled, 
(S, Mgh,) called in Persian ^>i.X £- > [or (^jiJU], 

1. lit, aor. j3b; (Msb;) and '££\, (T, S, M, 
K,) aor. »^\ ; (S ;) inf. n. j5l, (M, Msb,) or Syl, 
(S,) or the latter is an inf. n. of un. ; (T, TA ;) 
He came; (Msb;) and / came to him, or it; 

(S ;) the former a dial. var. of ^jJI, aor. ^30 ; 

(Msb;) and the latter, of *£l. (T,S,M,K.) 
[See art. ^1, to which, as well as to the present 
art., belong several words mentioned in this.] = 
ffl, aor. as above, (TK,) inf. n. jil, (M,K,TK,) 
also signifies He pursued a right, direct, straight, 
or even, course, in going, or pace. (M, K, TK.) 
— And He (a man, TK) hastened, made haste, 
or sjjed; or he was quick, hasty, speedy, rapid, 

swift, or fleet. (M,K,TK.) And iSlJI Cjf, 

inf. n. as above, The she-camel returned her fore 
legs, [drawing tlie feet bach towards the body, 
and lifting them high,] in her going. (M.) 
You say, i»UI ejuk i<>j yl o-*-l <-, and 

Vi«*i u 3 '. How good, or beautiful, is this she- 
earners returning of her fore legs in her going ! 
i. c. UjlJ jj* £ju' juJj. (T,» S, M.)__ And j5l 
signifies also The act of impelling, or propelling ; 
particularly, of an arrow from a bow. (TA.) Sec 
also this word below. = iSyil, (S, M, Msb,K,) 
aor. '»J\, (S,M§b,) inf. n. IJOI, (S, M, Msb,K,) 
so accord, to A'Obcyd, (M,) and mentioned by 
Sgh on the authority of AZ, (TA,) and ^31, (S, 
TA,) [J gave kim what is termed ijCil, as mean- 
ing the tax called ->-\ja. : this is the signification 
which seems to be indicated in the S : or] I bribed 
him ; gave him a bribe. (M, Mjb, K.) [See also 
lyil below.] =s sS1j)\ cJl, (T,S, M,K,) and 

SJaJ-iil, (M,K,)aor. ^\j, (S,) inf. n. SOI , with 
kesr, (Kr, M, K,) [in a copy of the T, and in two 
copies of the S, !0I, but this is said in the M to 
be a subst.,] and yl ; (M, K ;) and 3UA :ll » ool, 

pertaining to a bath: and metaphorically applied inf. n. JtJt ; (T;) The palm-tree [and the tree] 

Book I.] 

bore: (S:) or put forth it* fruit : or showed its 
being in a good state: (M,K:) or bore much: 

(T, M, K :) and .131 signifies also the increasing, 

or thriving, of socd-produce. (T.) — And o»3l 

a^iU', inf. n. JUI, [in a copy of the M ,V3I,] The 

cattle, or camels .jr., increased, or yielded increase. 

(M, K. [In the CK, immediately before this 

phrase, jU^-"^ is erroneously put for ,l»Jlj.])s= 

.1- ' ' .1- 
.-3U for i„£yl3 : see 1 in art. ^jl. 

4 : sec 1, near the end of the paragraph. 

y I an inf. n. of 1, q. v. = A way, course, mode, 
or manner. (M, K.) You say, of speech, or 
language, (M,) and of a speaker, or reciter of a 
ilLL, (IAar, M,) j».lj yM ^ Jlj U It, and 
he, ceased not to follow one [uniform] way, &c. 
(M.)anavl7i impulsion; a propulsion; particu- 
larly an act of shooting an arrow from a bow : so 

* c-,»c - -o£ ft* it 

in a trad., where it is said, CMy*^S y^l LS"*-^ ^£* 
We used to shoot one shooting and two shootings ; 
meaning, of arrows from bows, after the prayer 
of sunset. (TA.) =s Death : or [so in the T, 
but in the K "anil,"] a trial; or an affliction. 
(T, K.) You say, yl o"^ \J* Jp Death came 
upon such a one: or a trial; or an affliction. 
(ISh,T.) And yl ^-& $ & J\ 0\ V I 
die, [or if death befall vie,] my slave shall be free. 
(T.)^A vehement sicliness or disease: (T, K:) 
or the fracture of an arm, or of a leg. (T.) = A 

gift. (S,K.) Butter; (S ;) as also 10, (A,) 

or tfin, (TA: [in which it is said to be like 
^VJ=> ; but this I think a mistake : sec «UI 
below.]) You say, when a skin of milk is agitated, 
and its butter comes, «yt ;U- »>i [Its butter has 
come]. (S, TA.) And you say, "eUl ^J ,jj 
i1/<7/t having butter. (A, TA.) = A flra/r body 
or corporeal form or person (j k*} C ^irH *rj 

Syl ./l .un/7/e coming ; as also i-31. (T.) 

■» '•» 

jjly'l a corroborative [or imitative sequent] of 
> * 1 1 
tjty-1, which signifies grieving mourning, or 

sorrowful : (TA :) or »'. q. ^jajjm. [vehemently 

desirous; eager; ice.]. (Mirkat el-Loghali, cited 

by Golius.) 

V0\, (T,S, M,) or fl3J, like ^1%, (K, [but it 
is said in the M that the former is a subst. and 
the latter an inf. n.,] Increase; syn. Il»j, (S, M, 
K, [in the CK jUSlj is erroneously put for 

iti^Jlj,]) and a£=>jj: (S :) increase, and produce, 
or w<tf produce, of land; as though from SjUSI 
signifying ».jj*-Jt : (TA :) gain, or revenue, 
arising from the increase of land, or from the 
rent thereof, or the lihe : (TA, and so in a copy 
of the S :) the produce of land, and fruits, Sfc. : 
(As, T :) what is produced of the fruits ( Jl£»l 
[in the CK Jl£>l]) of trees: (M,K:) the fruit 

of jfalm-trees. (S.) — — See also yl, in three 

S ( 11 

,-31 (S, M, Sgh, K) and ,-31 [respecting which 

see what follows] and ^Ji\ , (Sgh, K,) of all which, 
the first is said by A'Obeyd to be the form used 

by tlic Arabs, (TA,) [and all belong to^art. l Ji\, 
as well as to the present art.,] and t^Ol (M, 
Sgh, K) and ^131 and J^U! , (Sgh, K.) all these, 
and the three preceding them, mentioned by Sgh 
on the authority of A A, but the last of all said by 
him to be strange, (TA,) A rivulet for which a 
man makes a way or channel, or an easy course 
or passage, to his land : (S, M, K :) or a torrent, 
or flow of water, from another region or quarter: 
(M, K: [both these meanings mentioned in the 

M in art. yl, anil the former in art. ^1 also, of 

2 c 
that work:]) or ,-31 signifies a conduit of water; 

and any channel in which water is made to have 
an easy course; as also 7j\, mentioned by Sb ; 
or, as some say, this is a pi. : (M :) or any 
rivulet : (As, T :) or a rivulet less than the 
[trench called] (jy" : (IB :) and ^yl J*w (Lh, 

T, S, M) and \J$, (Lh, S, M.) a torrent, or 
flow of water, that comes one hnows not whence : 
(M :) or that comes when the rain tliat has pro- 
duced it has not fallen upon the people to whom it 
comes : (Lh, S, M :) or that comes from a land 
upon which rain lias fallen to a land upon which 
rain has not fallen. (T, Msb.) — Hence, (T, M,) 
or the reverse is the case, (T, M, Msb,) all the 

3 ( it 

words above, (AA, T, K,) or ^y\ and ^jV51, (S, 

M, Mgh, Msb, [the last said in the T to be the 

most approved,]) A stranger; or a man not of 

one's own people, or not of one's own kindred: 

(A A, T, S, M, Mgh :) or a man who asserts his 

relation to a people of whom he is not : (Msb :) 

2 t 
or ,.31 signifies one who is among a people of 

3 -» 
whom he is not : (As, T :) and (J'jOl, a stranger, 

who is not in his own country ; or, accord, to Ks, 

a stranger, who is not in his own home : (T :) the 

pi. of this last is Oyi^ ' (9 t tne *" enK sin g' 18 
iu,u1 :] and the pi. fem. 0W3UI. (T, S, M.) 

S^tfl i. q. pAj*' [i. e. A tax, a tribute, or an 
impost], (T, S, M, K,) such, for instance, as is 
levied on land, (TA in the present art.,) and such 
as is imposed on a slave ; (T A in art. -^ye ;) and 
any tax or otlier exaction that is taken by com- 
pulxion, or against the will, or that is apportioned 
to a people : (M : [in the TA " to a place" instead 
of " to a people : "]) and also, a bribe : or, (accord, 
to some, M,) particularly, a bribe for water : (M, 
K :) the pi. is ^juf, (T, M, K, TA, [but in some 

i -I 

copies of the K ^jl3', and accord, to copies of 
the S it is jl3l, being written, with the article, 
(^13^1 ; both of which appear to be wrong ; for 
it is said to be] like ^/^* and \Jj\f*, pis- of 
S^jLt and syj*, (M, TA,) and like ^Jj& ; 
(TA;) changed, [in the accus. case, with the 
article prefixed,] at the end of a verse, into Ij}13% 
for the sake of the rhyme : (M, TA :) this occurs 
in a verse of El-Jaadee : (S :) it has also for a 

pi. OIJUI , (T,) and ^31, [in the CK, erroneously, 
^31,] which is extr., (M,K,) as though its sing. 
were Sj3l, being like ^j, pi. of i^i,, (M,) and 
like \Jjb, pi. of i' Sj t\. (TA.) You say, SjUl (^jl 
4-eyl [He payed the tax of his land] ; i. e. ^sfAjsi, : 


» #'- » * 

and 5«US1 LS^* ^Wj-» fA* tax, or tribute, or 
impost, was imposed upon them] ; i. e. <oU-~)l : 
and some assert it to be tropical. (TA.) You say 
also, »^13NW «l* Jj& [He stopped (lit. bitted) hit 
mouth with the bribe] ; i. e. »y*j^- (TA.) 

j^UI and its vara. : see ^y\, above. 

1. . Jl, aor. .JO, (Msb,) and, in the dial, of 
Hudhcyl, oC, without ,J ; (S ;) and *^3I, (T, S, 
M,i»f8b,K,) [aor. &,£•,] and in the imperative, 
some of the Arabs say, O, suppressing the I, like 

as is done in J*, and J^ and j+ ; (IJ, M ;) inf. 
n. oyj, (T,S,*M,Mgh,M?b,K,) or this is a 
simple subst., (Msb.) and h0\, (M,K,) which 
should not be used as an inf. n. of un., unless by 
a bad poetic licence, (Lth,T,) and ,_j3l (T,S, M, 
Msb, K) and ^1 and ^1 and J13U ; (M, K ;) He 
[or it] came; (Msb;) and I came to him, or it; 
(S, M, Mgh,* Msb, JJL ;) or was, or became, present 
at it, namely, a place : (Mgh :) as also 01, aor. 
/C; (Msb;) and '£$', (T,S,M,K), aor. i^T: 
(S :) for which reason, we assign the generality of 
the words mentioned in art. y I to the present art 
also. (M.) [Accord, to the authorities here indi. 
catcd for the signification of ^yl, this verb and «U» 
arc syn. : some attempt to distinguish them ; but 
contradict one another in so doing: the slight 
distinctions that exist between them will be best 
seen by a comparison of the exs. in this art. with 
those in art. L»- :] accord, to l£r-Raghib, the proper 
[or primary] signification of ^l«3NI is The comxng 
with ease. (TA.) — 1*131, (Mgh, Msb,) inf. n. 
*j\^\, (Msb,) [lit. He came to her,] means t '«< 
lay with her ; syn. 1^>U- ; (Mgh, Msb ;) namely, 
a woman, (Mgh,) or his wife. (Msb.) Hence 
an expression in the Kur xxvi. 1C5. (TA.) — 
^^ill^l [He came to the people: and hence,] he 
asserted his relationship to the people, not being 
of them. (Msb.) [See ^1 in art. yl.] — y ^1 
[He came with, or brought, him, and it ; or] he 
made him (a man), and t* (a thing, such, for in- 
stance, as property), to come. (Kull.) [See also 
4 : and see, in what follows, other significations 
of ,«3t trans, by means of y. Hence, «»)y ^yl 

He begot a child, or children. And *v w-5' Site 
brought him forth ; gave birth to him.] Accord, 
to Aboo-Is-hak, die meaning of the words in the 
Kur [ii. 143] tL^ 'Jb\ J& w>W V^3 V^'l is, 
Wherever ye be, God will bring you all back unto 
Himself. (M.) [You say also, 1^ ^1 He ad- 
duced a proof.] See also 3 ^\ ,yl [He 

entered into, engaged in, or occupied himself with, 
the thing, or affair : and, as also <v ^,] he did, 
executed, or performed, the thing, or affair ; (M. 
K;) and in like manner, ^JM, [and ^ij)^,] 
tlic crime, sin, or offence. (M.) It is said in the 
Kur [ix. 64], JCJ> ^ "§\ hU» OyV *%, 
meaning And they do not enter into, or engage in, 
prayer, unless when they are lieavy, or sluggish. 
(TA.) And you say, ii^UJI ^l, [and *i*.WW, 


(we Kur iv. 23 and Ixv. 1,)] /ft entered into, 
engaged in, or occupied himself with, [or he did, 
or committed,] that which mu excessively foul or 
evil. (TA.) An«l ^J* jt J^ ^ j£j^ ^j{ 
[He said, gave utterance to, uttered, or expressed, 
or Ac brought to pass, did, or effected, what teas 
ijood, or excellent ; he saiil, or did, well, or excel- 
lently]. (M|h in nit. >»*..) And j£ ^^Lj ^1 
«J>^- [ lit (» horse) performed, or fetched, run 
after run]. (§ in art.^0, 4c) — j^U| IjuJ ■£ 

'• ' •- ' ^"' j • 

^51 »^!» [m tlio Kur xx. 72] moans J,l£> >««, » 

[ Anrf /Ac enchanter shall not. prosper where he is 
or wherever he may be]; (M,Bd,K;)and wAere 
A« rr#m«<A; (Bd:) or tjl^j Jtt ol»- [where he 
cometh with his enchantment ; or where he per- 
formeth his enchantment] : (Jcl :) and it is said to 
mean that where the enchanter is, lie must be 
slain: such is the doctrine of the lawyers. (M.) 
_— Z mentions that ^1 occurs in the sense of Ju» 
[He, or it, became; like as we sometimes say, 
Itt, or ft, came, or came to be] ; like <U. in the 

8 ,T"?' }■*■*"• ^V' '^- ( Kull [ s< > you say, 
**£»»■• <W' (_y»l JVi« building became, or fame to 

*•» ■/»"»*•» *trong, or compact".] The saying, in 

the Kur [xvi. 1], '» ^L CJ •£ aTiTJ^I Jll means 
(TAc threatened punishment ordained of God hath 
approached : therefore desire not ye to hasten it :] 
iti coming hath approached. (TA.) [And in like 
manner,] tf±i JjH, like ^ie, meains »S«rA a one 
wvm approached by the enemy come in sight of 
him. (K.) ^-^i c^j3| [Thou art approached 
&c., O such a one,] is said when one is warned of 
an enemy that has come in sight of him. (Sgh, 
TA.) And i j^i\ y9 ^Xc ^jj \ means Tlie enemy came 
to them, [or came down upon them, for, as MF 
observes, ,^31 when trans, by means of ^J* seems 
to imply the meaning of Jp,] overcoming, or 

overpowering, them. (Bd in xviii. 40.) Hence, 

*e** ^1 [and #01, as will be seen by what fol- 
lows,] \ lie destroyed him, or it. (Bd ubi supra.) 
And hence, from ^JJot j£\, (Mgh,) aJ*. ,J>\ 
j*j!\ J l'ime, or fortune, destroyed him. (M, 
Mgh, Msb, K.) Destruction is meant in the Kur 
[hx. l\, where it is said, ^ ,1 -__*- ^y» ^DI^aOU 
'■ » ! ;" * t ' * [li»t Mod brought destruction upon them 
whence they did not reckon, or exjtect], (Es- 
Scmccn, TA.) And it is said in the Kur [xvi. 28], 
■*?'*•» O? j**^ a1)\ Jili, i. e. + But God 
removed their building from the foundations, and 
demolished it upon them, so that He destroyed 
them. (TA.) aJ* ^'l also signifies f He caused 
it to come to an end; made an end of it; con- 
sumed it; [devoured it;] exhausted it; came to, 
or reached, the end of it; namely, a tiling; (Kull;) 
as, for instance, what was in a bowl ; (K in art. 
»J+ ») <"»d what was in a vessel ; (K* in art. 
*r*-j+ >) hko *U ij* : (ISd cited, in the TA in 
art ,^£i :) or i. q. k, y* [which .nay be rendered 
A« went away with it ; but this, as an explanation 
of *«Aft jjjl, has another meaning, which see in 
what follows], (Kull.) And one says, J# Ji\ 
*~.U ,>» f Destruction came to such a one from 

the quarter whence he felt secure. (TA.) And 
0>» «V t^* ^1 t Property belonging to such a 
one perished. (T.) And «j«j ^Jyj" + He is taken 
away, or carried off, and oocrcome. (TA.) A 
poet says, 

[Book I. 

• » * J 

•/*' lt°" «-r e " M £**■ Oi> J>\ 

meaning f [Misfortunes, in the footsteps of which 
were misfortunes,] took away [what was stceet, of 
life, and rendered it bitter]. (TA.) One says 
also, CjjI UyJb ^y>, [so I find it written, but I 
think that the bist word should be C~3I, agreeably 
with a preceding phrase from the T,] + Hence the 
trial, or affliction, came in upon thee. (Mgh.) 
And lji> i^ft. ^ 'J|, with the verb in the 
passive form, t He missed [his object in respect of 
such a thing] by laying hold upon it when it 
was not Jit to be laid hold upon. (Msb.) And 

c^v" ijjl, [also] like ^y^, t ?V/e man was 
deceived, or deluded, and his faculty of sense 
became altered to him, so that he imagined tluit to 

be true which mas not true. (TA.) < ^± t ^\ 

is also syn. with <^ y> [meaning He, or it, (as, 
for instance, a period of time,) passed by him, or 
over him]. (Msb.) You say, J^L Z& Ji\ [A 
year passed over him ; or Ac became a year old]. 

(S,K,Msb, in art. J«^-; &c.) «JU)| cjf.ud 

a»UI tjj> ijjji ^31 ^^-..l U : sec art. yt. 

2. ,UJ ,Ji, (T, S, M.) or ,WI, (K,) or both, 
(TA,) inf. n. i-JO and ^,30, He smoothed, made 
easy, oi prepared, ( J^,, S, K, or ^i, T,) the way, 
course, passage, or channel, of the water, (T, S, 
K,) in order that it might pass forth to a place; 
(S ;) Ac directed a channel for it (M, TA) w that 
it ran to tlie places wherein it rested or remained. 
(TA.) And tjl 4-ij^ ^31 He made a rivulet, or 

a cfiannelfor water, to run to his land. (M.) 

\'jfii oW iW ^t, inf. n. 1^30, (T, M,» TA,) God 
prepared, disposed, arranged, or put into a good 
or right state, [and thus rendered feasible or 
practicable or easy,] for such a one, his affair. 

3. #01, [inf. n. as below,] He requited, com- 
pensated, or recomputed, him. (M, K.) The 
saying, in the Kur [xxi. 48], JliJL, J& A), 
V T W JAj*»- Cf* +f*i some read thus, (M,* 

aj „ g ' \ / 

TA,) meaning [Though it be the weight of a 
grain of mustard,] we will bring it [forward for 
requital] : others read l^ t \j^\ t meaning roe will 
give [a recompense] for it; in which case the 

... - * el 

verb is of the measure J*il : or we will requite 
for it ; in which case the verb is of the measure 
JM. (M,TA.)__^l JU £$, (T,S,M, 
Msb,) inf. n. SOlji, (T, S,) I agreed ivith him, 
or was of one mind or opinion with him, upon, or 
respecting, tlie thing, or affair; I complied with 
him resjtecting it ; (T, S, M, Msb ;) m a good 
manner : (T :) the vulgar say, *^3lj : (S :) this 
is of the dial, of tlie people of El- Yemen, inf. n. 
*0ly# ; and is the form commonly current : (Msb:) 

but it should not be used, except in the dial, of 

the people of EI-Yemcn. (T.) [Hence, app., 

^,31 as meaning He aided; a signification men- 
tioned by Golius, on the authority of Z and Ibn- 

4. #0T, (S,M, &c.,) inf. n. I^jj, (TA,) i. q. 
aj ^Ji\ [He came with, or brought, him, or it] ; 
(S;) Ac made it (a thing) to come, 4^1 to him; 
(TA ;) he made, or caused, him, or it, to be present ; 
(Ksh, TA;) Ac made, or caused, it (a thing) to 
go, pass, or be conveyed or transmitted, (syn. 
**t-0 *JI to him. (M,K.) It is stiid in the 
Kur [xviii. 61], liffji L3I, i. c. aj U.I [Come 
thou to us with, or bring thou to us, our morning- 
meal]. (S.) — Hence, (Ksh, TA,) inf. n. as 
above, (T, S,) He gave him (T, S, M, Msb, K) a 
thing, (M,K,) or property: (Msb:) and you 
say, OU in the sense of the [imperative] of [give 
thou]. (T.) We read in the Kur. [v. 60, &c] 0>3JJj 
»\£s>ji\ [And they give the portion of property 
which is the due of the poor]. (TA.) And in 

[xxvii. 23 of] the same, ;J,i jL ^ o^lj, 
meaning And she hath been given somewhat of 
everything. (M, TA.) [You say also, \J£s ,j«1 
as meaning He was gifted, or endowed, with such 
a thing; as, tor instance, a faculty.] Sec also 3. 
— s^U-JI w-31 J »irt</c a gift to the slave be- 
tween whom and me was a contract that he should 
become free on payment of a certain sum : or / 
abated, or rooA off, somewhat of his appointed 
part-payments, or instalments. (Msb.)__l^ofU 
Jj-jJI, in the Kurlix. 7, means What the Apostle 
giveth you, of the [spoil termed] ,/ji, (Bd, Jcl,) 
&c. : (Jcl :) or what co mmand he giveth yon : 
(Bd :) or what he commandeth you [to receive], 
(Kull.) — '^ ^ji ^jl A dispute, or an alterca- 
tion, was held before him, respecting the meaning 
of a thing: [perhaps more pro|»crly signifying Ac 
was given authority to deride respecting a thing:] 
occurring in a trad. (Mgh.) 

5. i' Jfo Jt (an affair, T, Mgh, Msb, K, or a 
thing, S, M) was, or became, prepared, disposed, 
arranged, or put into a good or right state, for 
him; (T,« S, M, Mgh, Msb, K ;) and hence, it 
(a thing) was, or became, feasible or practicable, 
and easy, to him ; (Mgh ;) it (an affair) was, or 
became, facilitated, qr easy, to him ; (Msb ;) the 
way thereof (i. e. of an afliiir) teas, or became, 
facilitated, or easy, to him. (TA.) The following 
is an ex. : 

j-»wl y J~.jJ\ji\ oJ ^0 • 

[Fortune became well, or rightly, disposed for 
him, so that lie became restored to wealth, or com- 
petence] : (T :) or jJI JI#ij| aj ^0 [good fortune, 
i»r prosperity, became prepared, &c, for him, 
&c.]. (So in the TA.) And hence the savin?, 

■> • ' » 21" ■ » I 

£*•» (jj ^H U* t Jjh TAw it o/ tAe /At»jw wAtcA 
?r m feasible or practicable, and easy, to me to 

chew. (Mgh) He applied himself to it with 

gentleness, (As, S, K,) and so l^J ^,30, meaning 

<Co*UJ , to his needful affair or business, (T,) and 

entered into it, engaged in it, occupied himself 

I with it, did it, executed it, or performed it, by the 

Book I.] 

way, or manner, proper, or suitable, to it. (As, 
T, S, K. [In the CK, for Aylj »>. iut, we find 

a»*-j ^>* «13'-]) And *J-*' tj* tj 3 ^ ■"* "*"* gentle- 
ness, or nrfcrf gently, in his affair. (Msb.)_ 
4jto\ ^*. jtY~t ei ^^ *«• nought him leisurely 
or repeatedly [with an arrow, app. taking aim in 
one direction and then in another, until he hit 

hhn]. (Z,TA.) J?\$ J& »V ' B explained 

by Fr as meaning -iUj^ji^J ^jjCj [Surh a one 
came, or hat come, addressing, or applying, or 
directing, himself, or Am regard, or attention, or 
mind, to obtain thy favour, or bounty]. (S.) And 

you say, *i)j*+) (J 3 * 5 ' mcanin g " cSt*- 1 L-" e 
addressed, applied, or directed, himself, Sec, to 
obtain his favour, or bounty]. (TA.)_— Some 
say that ,-313 signifies lie prepared himself to 
rise, or stand. (TA.) 

10. li^i (j3U-«t J/« wAc(/ *ucA a one to come, 

i ' 5 • 

deeming him slow, or tardy. (K.) iiUI C-3U->I 

7%c shr-camel desired to be covered} (A, TA;) 
desired the stallion ; (S, M, K ;) being excited by 
lust. (S,A.) 

- 3 i 

J>\ ■ sec ^1. 

i-31 vl *m^fc coming; as also »yl ; but not 
▼ i>L3l, unless by a bad poetic licence. (T.) __ 

Sec also j«-^»JI a-31. 

• »• -« 

^U3I is cither an inf. n. of ,_>t, or a simple 

subst. [signifying A coming]. (Msb.) 

i>U3l an inf. n. of 1 [q. v.] : (M, K :) sec also 

--« -- 2 i 

J13I or 1131 : sec ^jjjl. 

3 « I ,, 

i«3l as syn. with ^jtil : see art. j31. __ Also, 

(M, and so in some copies of the K, where it is 
said to be like ^_y«oj,) or \jflj " kc t^*j> ( so m 
other copies of the K,) and * JCI, (M, K,) written 
by some 1131 , (TA,) What falls, of wood or leaves, 
into a river : (M, K :) from oW^' : (M :) pi. 
fW [in the CK .131] and ^31. (M, K.) 

.-31 ,Jj»-j A man who is sharp, energetic, vigorous, 
and effective, in affairs ; who applies himself to 
them with gentleness, and enters into them, or 
performs them, by the way, or vianner, proper, 

or suitable, to them. (M.) — .-31 ^ji: see 
t.>> ' 


-_^JI *e3l, (so in a copy of the M,) or ^a^Jl, 
(so in some copies of the K, and accord, to the 

. 1 1 .»t 

TA,) or » *~3I, (so in other copies of die K,) and 
* a^3I, (so in the M, and in some copies of the 
K,) or 1 4^31 , (so in some copies of the K, and 
accord, to the TA,) or «*^JI, (so in a copy of the 
K,) The matter which comes from the wound: 
(M, K :) from Aboo-'Alce. (TA.) 

; (K ;) a dial. var. of the latter. 


Ji\ i. q. 


• 1 1" llS*t » 1 Mjt I 

~jaJI «L3J and <wJI : see r-_r»-ll *~>l- 
Bk. I. '* 

see ot-». 


Ol [Coming; (see also ^jSU ;) applied to a 

man, &c. ; and to time, meaning future : also a 
comer : and hence,] An angel. (Mgh, Msb.) 

*-jaJt iuil : sec -->»-) I i-31. 

j-3U A p/acc o/ - coming. (Msb.) [And "»13U 
signifies the same : or A road, or way, by which 
one comes ; a way of access ; an approach ; as 

also iyl* : or, more properly, a means of coming.] 

__ »\j^\ ijft* [The place of access of the woman; 

i. e. the meatus of Iter vagina ; or her vagina 

itself;] the ykgrn «, or place of menstruation, 

of the woman. (Zj in the TA in art. w oj»..) __ 

ft ■■%■' .a -t' • * 

j^^JI j-3U and "*313U The way, or manner, (te-j, 

S, or a^., M, K,) of the affair, (S, M, K,) by 
which it is, or is to be, entered into, engaged in, 
done, executed, or performed; like as you say 
>>*iW I***- an d <CiUib*, meaning the same by 
Iwth. (S.) You say, «UU ^» j**$\ o-3l and 

»*313U, (S, M,) i. e., *1* Ji%> ^JJI «^ ^ [/ 
entered into, engaged in, did, executed, or per- 
formed, the affair by the way, or manner, where- 
by it should be entered into, ice], (S,) or eSLf ry 
[which means the same]. (M.) 

• a. a. 

SUU : see ^U, in three places. 

s !* 

JU [pass. part. n. of 1; Come: come to:] is 
of the measure JywU ; tlie ^ being changed into 
^g and incorporated into the ^g which is the final 
radical letter. (S.) In the saying, in the Kur [xix. 

(52], U3U tijs-j tj^ 3 '*-''• tnc meaning is » L3I 
[ Verily that which lie liath promised, or the ful- 
filment of his promise, is coming] ; like as, in the 
phrase \)f— « W^>^> m the Kur [xvii. 47], lyC 
is meant : or it may be a pass. part. n. [in signi- 
fication as well as form] ; for what cometh to 
thee, of that which God commandeth, thou comest 

thereto. (S.) It is said in a prov., \j\ c~it . JU 
il^-JI [lit. Thou art come to, O thou person], 
meaning rAere is no escape for thee from this 
event. (TA.) Applied to a man, it also signi- 
fies <iui ^3t [in a sense indicated in the Kur xxvi. 
165]'. '(TA.) 

JUJU Jjjio A road to which people come (Th, 
M, Mgh, Msb) much, or often ; (Mgh, Msb;) the 
latter word being of the measure JUJLo, (Th, M, 
Mgh, Msb,) originally (jfUiu or jUJU ; (Ms b ;) 
from s=-e3l, (Th, M,) or (J 1 * 3 **) 1 i [or from 0»3I ;] 
like J"iU»-» jlj, i- e. a house where people alight 
or abide much, or often : (Mgh, Msb :) a road 
that is frequented (S, M, K) and conspicuous : 
(M, K :) in [some of] the copies of the K, in- 
correctly, »«Ui» : (TA :) A'Obeyd has inadvertently 
written it without [the radical] », and in the 
category of t^ii. (M.) Death is thus termed in 
a trad., as being a way which every one travels : 
(TA :) and as that trad, is related, it is without 

[the radical] .. (M.) JjJxJI &L» The main 

part, or middle, of the road; or the part of the 


road along which one travels : (Sh, TA :) or the 
space within which the road it comprised; (S, 
Msb, K;) as also JmjIjJI i\j~* : (TA:) or this 

last, as also Jm^»)I ll~», signifies the measure 
of the two titles, and the distance, of the road. 
(L in art ^~«.)__!UJL« also signifies The ex- 
treme limit of the distance to which horses run ; 
(S.Msb;) and so :Tj**. (S,TA.) And i.q. 

.'UX3. (K.) You say, o$ /> .H* ^/y My 
house is opposite to the house of such a one ; facing 
it, or fronting it ; and so »il> •! .x-»j ; (S ;) and 

r f J 9 * 

oj\> «U-*j. (L in art. c^4.)^_And >yUI ^y* 

f^S &* \J* £>** (?) ani J*'3 $*+ (9» 

and L in art. J~«,) The people built their houses, 
or constructed their tents, after one mode, manner, 
fashion, or form. (L in art. J-e».) as !UJU ^^j 
A man wAo requites, compensates, or recompenses; 
who gives much, or largely. (M, K.) 

!>• j «»» .3 ( 4 #• j 

OU-* ^^yi, and "^31, and T ^j3>«, and ^jy^~», 

[so I find it written, perhaps for £jy~+, which 

may be a dial, vai . of oLa, like as a^3I^ is of 
<cyi,] A mare desiring the stallion. (TA.) 

1. 1»1, aor. ; (T, S, M, L,K) and -' and '- , (M, 

L, K,) inf. n. aittl (T, S, M, L, K) and ^.Ul (M, 

L, K) and hj\, (M,) or hfi, (L, K.) Jt (any- 
thing) was, or became, much in quantity, abund- 
ant, or numerous : and great, or /«jv/c : (M, L:) 
i'< (herbage, or a herb,) wot, or became, abundant, 
or plenteous, and tangled, or luxuriant ; (T, S, K;) 
or abundant and tall : (M :) it (hair) iwi, or 
became, abundant and long. (M, TA.)_-0«i1, 

(M, K,) aor. i , inf. n. it, (M,) said of a woman, 
She was, or became, large in the hinder parts. 

2. 4JL>I i7e murfc »r plain, level, smooth, toft, 
or easy to lie or ride or walk upon. (M, K.) 

5. w«jU He obtained, or acquired, goods, 

household-goods, or furniture and utensils and the 

like ; or abundance of the goodt, conveniences, or 

coinfortt, of life; (S;) or property; (S, M ;) or 

wealth; or what wot good. (M.) 

I i • < 

«1>I, fern, with • : see «i~3l, > n two jdaces. 

«i>V3l Goods; or utensils and furniture of a 
A.ouse or tent; household-goods; syn. cUU ; (T, 
M;) or vi--j eUU; (S, Msb,K>) of w/iatever 
kind; consisting of clothes, and stuffing for 
mattresses or the liltc, or outer garments [<jr.] : 
(M, TA :) or (so accord, to the M and K, but in 
the T " also,") all property, (AZ, T, S, M, K,) 
[consisting of] camels, and sheep or goats, and 
slaves, and utensils and furniture or household- 
goods : (AZ, T, S :) or abundant property : or 
abundance of property : (M, TA :) [in which last 
sense it is an inf. n. used as simple subst. :] or 
what is made, or taken, for ute, and i. q. sU* ; 
not what it for merchandise : or what is new, of 
the utensils and furniture of a house or tent ; not 
what is old and worn out : (TA :) [it is a coll. 



gen. n., and] the n. un. is with S : (AZ, T, S,"M, 
Msb, £ :) or it has no n. un. : (Fr, T, S, Msb, 
£ :) if you form a pi. from «i>tf I, you say, i3^l5 
2$\, [originally iiill, like iULl, pi. of >UV>,] 
andt^&iJl. (Fr,T.) 

wJl JlfucA tn quantity, abundant, or ?»/toc- 

3 « 
ro«» : and great, or Zar</e : as also ♦ «5>l ; (M,]£ ;) 

which is, in my opinion, [says ISd, originally 
w«>l,] of the measure ,_}*» : (M :) the (cm. is 

ai^t: and the pi. is i>l5» andi«Sl5l; (M,K;*) 
Im .tli being pis. of the masc. and of the fcm. ; (K ;) 
or the latter is pi. of the fcm. only ; (M,* MF;) 
hut the former is [pi. of the masc.,] like >»lj£> as 
pi. of jaij&, (TA,) and is pi. of the fern. also. 
(M.) You say, ^ol olJ Herbage, or a herb, 
that is abundant, or plenteous, and tangled, or 
luxuriant : (T, § :) or abundant and tall. (M.) 
And w^Jl j»it Hair that is abundant, and 
tangled, or luxuriant : (S :) or abundant (T, M) and 
long. (M.) Andbtj\itL},ViTidl32\,Athick beard. 
(M, TA.) And aj^l 5£l A fleshy woman : (M, 
TA :) pi. w-Jl5l, (M,) signifying fleshy women ; 
(S,M,£;) as also i»lj| : (M :) or the former of 
these pis. signifies tall, full-grown, women. (K.) 

^Ol t. q. ^>\i\, (K.,) i. e. The [three] stones 
which are set up and upon which the coohing-pot 
is placed : the [second] «i> is said to be a substi- 
tute for >_», and some hold the hemzch to be aug- 
mentative. (TA.) 

» ft »<» t»« 

1. je«Jt J» /jl, aor. * , inf. n.^Jl, J/e w< 

nn incision in the foot of the camel [in order to 
A/j«/i> aw/ /race <A« footprints'] ; as also " »jjl. 
(M.) And ^oUl^jl He made a mark upon the 
bottom of the earners foot with the iron instrument 
culled ijlL» in order that the footprints upon 
the ground might be known : (T, TT :) or he 
scrajted the inner [i. e. under] part of the cameFs 
foot with that instrument in order that the foot- 
prints might be traced. (S.) — w~!Jl«JI ji\, (T, 
S,M, A,&c.,)>^ill J*, (M,) aor. *'(S,M,Msb, 
£) and : , (M.Kl,) inf. n. JSf (T, S, M, Msb, K) 

and SjUl and ij$\, (M, K,) the lost from Lh, but 
in my opinion, [says ISd,] it is correctly speaking 

a Riilist., and syn. with SpU and Sjjle, (M,) He 

related, or recited, the tradition, narrative, or 

story, as received, or heard, from the people; 

transmitted the narrative, or story, by tradition, 

from the people : (T, S,* M, A, L, Msb,* $ :*) or 

he related that wherein they had preceded [as 

>" * til** 
narrators : so I render a-i lyi-- 1»j V*^'. '"'- 

lieving^ to have been inserted by a mistake of 

a copyist in the M, and hence in the L also :] from 

#)t. (M,L.) [See^l.] You say also, ii* ^1 

w> J^JI, meaning He related, as heard from him, 

what was false. (L, from a trad.) __ j5\, aor. '- , 

(M,) inf. n. jj\, (M,£,) also signifies Multum 

inivit camelus camclam. (M, K.) amj+yi J>\, 

nor. '- , He applied, or gave, his whole attention 

to the thing, or affair, having his mind unoccupied 
by ot/ier things. (K.) — <^\ ^ J\ He deter- 
mined, resolved, or decided, upon the thing, or 
affair. (T,K.) — tj>£>j IJ^ Jijl | c^l JuU, 
(Lth,T,L,) inf. n. Jil and X (L.) J hare 
assuredly purjmed to do such and such things. 
(Lth, T, L.) — See also 4 And sec 10. 

A ■*• • t, 

*?, i"» '"'• "--K^ jS*i or »<> made, (Msb,) 
or left, (M,K,) or touted to remain, (S,) an 
imjrression, or a mark, or trace, upon him, or it, 
(?»* M, Msb, K.*) It is said of a sword, [meaning 
It made, or left, a mark, or scar, upon him, or 
ft,] and in like manner of a blow. (T, TA.) 
[Whence,] iSje. ^J, jil + [7/e scarred his honour]. 
(K. in art. c£».^.) You say also, ***■>• J-?' 

^ J » « " «* • ;: *»■ .' ,} [Prostration in prayer made, or 
/c/<, fl mark, or marks, upon his face and upon 
hit forehead]. (T,*TA.) Sec also 1, first sentence. 
—He, or it, made an impression, or produced 
an effect, upon him, or it ; impressed, affected, or 

influenced, him, or it. (The Lexicons jKissim.) 

\& \j£* 'j$, (T, TT,) or *jiT, (K,) He, or it, 
m/ide such a thing to be followed by such a thing. 

4: see 2, last sentence [Hence, app.,] »y\, 

(As, T, M, Msb,) inf. n. ]\L\ , (As, T,) He pre- 
ferred him, or ft. (As, T, M, Msb, TA.) You 
say, <tJx »jj| He preferred him before him: so 
in the Kur xii. 91. (As, M.) And C'jl Hffi 
^_5~»j ^ji* [I preferred such a one before myself], 

from jVLNI. (S.) And <m iUyT Si I hare pre- 
ferred for thee it ; I hare preferred to give 
thee it, ratker titan any other thing. (T.) And 
t»*» J«j O'^' He preferred doing such a thing; 

as also T^Jl, inf. n. J3l ; and^jl. (M.) ^Talso 

signifies He chose, or elected, or selected. (K.) 
— And »pi He honoured him; paid him honour. 


5. ji\j It received an impression, or a mark, or 
<r«<?c ; became impressed, or marked. (Msb.) _ 
He, or »r, liad an impression made, or an effect 
produced, upon him, or it ; became impressed, 
affected, or influenced. (The Lexicons passim.) 
=: Sec also 8. 

a J ' ' ' t 

8. »j j jj>\, [written with the disjunctive alif 
»j*mf},j and »«pU, He followed his footsteps : (M, 
^L :) or oVrf M diligently, or perseveringly. (TA.) 

10. ^Uj.f ^ jJU-l ; (ISk, S, K ;) and 

jt f r» Jj'j n or. - ; (K ;) He chose for himself [in 
preference to his companions] (ISk, >S,K) good 
things, (K,) in partition, (TA ,) or good actions, 
and qualities of t lie mind. (ISk, S.) And jjU-l 
• Jyijg, (S,£,) or t{JL\, (Msb,) He had the 
thing to himself, with none to sliare with him in 
it : (S, Msb, K. :) and the former signifies he 
appropriated the thing to himself exclusively , (M, 
K,) ttjft jjlft in preference to another or others. 

(M.) It is said in a trad., ijU : l li^ iilt liulf lil 
<Uc When Ood appropriateth a thing to Himself 
exclusively, then be thou diverted from it so as to 

[Book I. 

forget it. (M.) And one says, ^^ ii)Tj3u!l, 
(and U*iL»,TA,) [God took such a one to Him- 
self,] when a person has died and it is hoped that 
he is forgiven. (S, M, A, K.) 


jj\, (AZ, T, S, A, L, K, &c.,) said by Yaakoob 
to be the only form known to As, (S,) and ♦ J|, 
which is a form used by poetic licence, (M, L,) 
and tjji, (M,L,Iy,) and »^l, (M.) and t jjj, 
which is in like manner a sing., not a pi., (T, L,) 
and t Ipl, (El-Leblec,) and * jjl, (K,) The 
dirrrsijied navy marks, streaks, or grain, ot a 
sword; syn. J>j»; (As, T,S, M, A, L,K ;) and 
J-J—J ; and i»-U>i ; (AZ, T ;) and its lustre, or 
glitter: (M, L :) pi. [of the first] ]£\ : (T, M, L, 

K:) the pi. of 5p is jjl. (F.l-Leblee.) Kliufiif 
Ibn-Nudbch Ijs-Sulamee says, [describingswords,] 


(jJJJ L»JL£> L»U-i. 

[The furbis/iers polished them, and freed them 
from impurities, making tliem light : each of them 
preserving itself from the evil eye by means of its 
lustre] : i. e., each of them opposes to thee its 

<**jr ' «• : ^ tJ**^ '" il wntraction of iJLj ; and 
the meaning is, when n person looks at them, 
their bright nivs meet his eye, so that he cannot 
continue to look at them. (L.) 


jj\ The scar of a wound, remaining when the 
latter has healed; (As, Sh,T,S, M, K ;) as also 

♦^ (?>ls) and *Jj| : (Sh,T:) pi. JljT, though 
properly jtfl, with kesr to the I ; [but why this is 
said, I do not sec; for jUTis a regular pi. of all 
the three forms of the sing. ;] and jyl may be 

correctly used as a pi. (Hh, T, L.) A mark 

made with a hot iron upon the inner [i. e. under] 
part of a eumeVsfoot, by which to trace his Jiwt- 

prints: (M,K:) pi. j^St. (M.) [See also 2j5l.] 
_ Lustre, or brightness, of the face ; us also 
* *jt\. (M, K.) __ Sec JJl. = Sec also JJl. 

jj\ : sec jjl, in three places : and j$\ : __and 

sec jj\, in two places. = Also, (S, M,K,) and 

"jrfl, (M, K,) but the latter is disallowed by more 
than one authority, (TA,) What is termed the 
A^jU. [q. v.] ofclajified butter: (S, M, K :) or, 
as some say, the milk when the clarified butter 
has become separated from it. (M.) [Sec also 

jjl A remain, or relic, of a thing ; (M, Msb, K ;) 
as of a house ; as also t i,Ul : (Msb :) a trace 
remaining of a thing ; and of the stroke, or blow, 

of a sword : (S :) see also ji\ : a sign, mark, or 
trace ; opposed to the ^t, or thing itself: (TA.) 
a footstep, vestige, or track ; a footprint ; the 
impression, or mark, made bii the foot of a man 
[.jr.] upon the ground; as also *jj1: and an 
impress, or impression, of anything: (Fl-Wd'cc:) 
pi. JviT (M, Msb, K) and J^l. (M, ly.) [The 
sing, is also frequently used in a pi. sense : and 
the former of these pis. is often used to signify 
Remains, or monuments, or memorials, of anti- 

Book I.] 

quity, or of any past time.] It is said in a prov., 
t^fi jX •>' >^jL\ *$ I will not seek a trace, or 
vestige, [or, as we rather say in English, a shadow,] 
after suffering a reality, or substance, to escape 
me : or, as some relate it, ^JlLj •$ seek not thou. 
(Ifar pp. 120 and 174.) And one says, »J5l ifil £ii 
[May Ood cut short his footsteps] : meaning 
may Ood render him crippled : for when one is 
crippled, his footsteps cease. (TA.) And jlJS 
»j$\ J.f r] *$, and »JjI, Such a one, if asked, will 
not tell thee truly whence he comes: (M in art. 
Jj~o :) a prov. said of a liar. (TA.) And 
c4->, (S, M,* K,) and JJ+, (El-Wa'ee, Msb,) 
•J J>, and * »^5| ^y, (T, S, M, Msb, K,) the former 
of which is said by more than one to be the more 
chaste, (TA,) [but the latter seems to be the 
more common,] and »j5\ ^i*, and * »pl ^^U, 
(El-Wa'ee, Msb,) I went out, (S, &c.,) and I 
came, (El-Wa'ee, Msb,) after him : (M, A, K :) 
or at his heel: (Expos, of the Fs :) or following 
near upon him, or hard upon him, or near 
after him, or following him neatly : (Msb :) as 
though treading in hisfootsleps. (El-Wd'ce.) And 

0<J*3' \S* J" '■ 8ee J^' 0£0 — An impress or 
impression, a mark, stamp, cliuracter, or trace, 
in a Jig. sense; an effect. (The Lexicons passim.) 

You say, Q--f ^ *~£U ^j* Upon his camels, 
or slier]), or goats, is an impress of a good state, or 
condition; of fatness, and of good tending; like 
1^1. (TA in art. ***.) And ^J i ^\ k >l*J <Jl 

<0U Verily he has the impress of a good state, or 
condition, in his camels, or sheep, or goats; like 
fj.^1 0-*> al "l vr*" - (TA ubi supra.) And 
\J£o jj\ aJ* lie, or it, bears the mark, stamp, 
character, or trace, of such a thing. (The Lexi- 
cons passim.) _ [The pi.] jljl also signifies Signs, 
or marks, set up to sliow the way. (K.) _— Also 
the sing., »*. q. y\, q. v. (M, L.) — Also t. q. j*±- 
[both of which words are generally held to be 
syn., as meaning A tradition, or narration relating 
or describing a saying or an action <)'r., of Mo- 
hammad] : (M, K :) or, accord, to some, the former 
signifies wliat is related as received from [one or 
more of] the Coniftanions of Mohammad ; (T A ;) 
but it may also be applied to a saying of the 
Prophet; (Kull p. 152;) and the latter, what is 
from Mohammad himself; (TA ;) or from another; 
or from him or another : (Kull p. 152 :) or the 
former signifies i. q. «U* [a practice or saying, or 
the practices and sayings collectively, of Mo- 
hammad, or any other person wko is an authority 
in matters of religion, namely, any prophet, or a 
Companion of Mohammad, as Itatuled down by 
tradition]: (S,A:) pi. Jl3T. (S,M.) You say, 
jj"^l ^J <Oj*r-3 [I found it in the traditions of 
the practices and sayings of the Prophet ; &c] : 
and jtf^t ij* ,j*^i [Such a one is of those 
who bear in their memories, knowing by heart, the 
traditions of the practices and sayings of the 

Prophet; &c.]. (A.) A man's origin; as in 

tbe sayings, ^jl ^1 *) i£j-*i Uiitl not known 
where was his origin ; and jj\ U 4] \JjJ-i m It 
is not known what is his origin. (Ks, Lh, M.)_ 


The term, or period, of life: so called because it 
follows life : (Msb, TA :) or from the same word 
as signifying the print of one's foot upon the 
ground; because when one dies, his footprints 
cease to be seen. (TA.)__[For the former of 
these two reasons,] ^«*JUI in the Kur xxxvi. 11 
means The rewards and punishments of their good 

and evil lives. (M, L.)™,0l is also a pi. of jO, 
q. v. ; formed by transposition from j$l. (Yaa- 
koob, and M in art. jtf .) 

jj\ A man wlio chooses for himself [in preference 
to his companions] (ISk, S, M, K) good things, 
(K,) in partition, (M, TA,) or good actions, and 
qualities of the mind; (ISk, S;) as also * jj\. 
(M,K.) " 

ji\: seejjl. 

jj\ : sccjjt, in two places : — and see^il. 

•'fg *' ;« 

e^il : see ijUl. 

\Ji\ : see ifo.—A mark which is made by 
the Arabs of the desert upon the inner [i. e. under] 

# * if* 

part of a camels foot ; as also * jyl3, and, accord. 
# {• j j "*l j *i* 

to some, *jy>»; whence one says, *jjj\ C«jIj, 

and ▼ »jyy>, I saw the place of his footsteps upon 

the ground : (M :) or the abrasion of the inner 

[i. c. under] part of a camels foot with the in- 

strument of iron called SjLLc and jy*p, in order 
that his footprints may be traced. (S.) [See 

also y\.] See also jj\ And see »pu.__ 

Preference. (A.) You say, »jj\ (_Jju* <jJ He 
has a preference in my estimation. (A.) And 
j~»*$\ «*ic Sy\ j j yk He has a preference in the 
estimation of the prince, or commander. (A.) 

And 0$ £* <fi >J O'U, (TA,) or t S^'l, (T,) 
Such a one is a favourite with such a one. (T, TA.) 

See also iy\, in two places j~j I ^i spt : see 

jj\. == Hearth, scarcity, drought, or sterility, 

(w"^- [' n 1 ' 1C ^^S vj^-li) «"^ «" unjdeasant 
state or condition. (M, K.) 

SjJl : see »pi. ^_U iy\ : see jJl. 


• I* 

Sjjl : see Sjtf I. — A subst. [signifying The 
a]rpropriation of a thing or things to oneself ex- 
clusively : the having a thing to oneself, with none 

mi '%*m 

to share with him in it :] from s^j^JW _pU-«l. (S, 

M.) And, as also *ljjl and *S^t and T vj?jil, The 
choice for oneself [in preference to his companions] 
of good things, (M,* K,* TA,) in partition; (M, 
TA ;) the choice and preference of the best of 
things, and taking it, or them, for oneself: (TA :) 

the pi. of the second is y\. (TA.) You say, 
lji\ ^ ».U.I, and * jp "^, [&c.,] ITe iooA it 
without a choice and preference of the best of the 
things, and the taking the best for himself. (T, TA.) 
And a poet says, 

[-4»wi J «oi<f to him, O wolf, hast thou a desire 
for a brother who will share without choice of 


the best things for himself in preference to thee, 
and without niggardness?]. (M, TA.) See also 

0ft •-;« . , 

jjjPl : see »jj\, in two places. 

LSI : see Jl. — [That makes a large footprint, 

•' J *■ * 

or the like.] You say, »^>t a^j A beast that makes 

a large footprint upon the ground with its hoof, 

(AZ, S, M, |C,) or with its soft foot, such as that 

of the camel. (AZ, S. ) A man possessing power 

0J00I %0 A t 

and authority ; honoured : pi. i\jj\ : fem. ijt*\. 

(M.) — \Jjt?* O^* Such a one is my particular 

friend : (S, J£ :) or is the person whom I prefer. 

(A.) rf£i jm» jti\ tfj<S Such a one is a favourite 

' ' ' t.0, .u 

with such a one. (T.) — j«3l ^i j5\, and Jj» 

X$\ ^J, &c: seeJjT. — J^Jl j^ l^, [A thing 
very abundant, copious, or numerous] : ^Jl is here 
an imitative sequent, (S, K,*) like j^. (S.) = 
^3*91 [0 aldtjp, The ether;] tlie ninth, which is the 
greatest, sphere, which rules over [all] the other 
spheres : [said to be] so called because it affects 
the others (»^fc Ji j5ji). (MF.) [It is also 
called iriL^t Jiii, and JijJa\ jXii ; and is said 

■* • j J -0- 

to be next above that called ^jOI Mi.] 

JjU* : see *y\. You say, ^l5? <j* Jv^l "i^, 

(S, M,») or^Ll o- iju'l ^, (A,) The camels 
acquired fat, upon, or after, remains of fat. (S, 
M,* A.) And i)t> JJ »j\i\ ^J* ^.ai He became 
angry the more, liaving Itccn angry before that. 
(Lh, M.) And ^-i* iJlJl JS i^i ^J^ 
Such a one angered me when anger yet remained 
in me. (A.) And J* '±y> Sjtfl, and t ifi, (T, S, 

M, K,) and * tyA, (M, K,) or * tfi, (T,) the first 
of which is the most approved, (M,) and is [ori- 
ginally] an inf. n., [see •&*»■•*) jS,] (T,) signify 
A remain, or relic, of knowledge, (Zj, T, S, M, K, 
and Jel in xlvi. 3 of the Kur,) transmitted, or 
handed down, (K, Jel,) from the former genera- 
tions : (Jel :) or wliat is transmitted, or handed 
down, of knowledge : (Zj, M :) or somewhat trans- 
mitted from the writings of the former genera- 
tions : (TA :) by the knowledge spoken of [in the 
Kur ubi supra] is meant that of writing, which 
was given to certain of the prophets. (I 'Ab.) 

ji\ One who relates, or recites, a tradition, 

narrative, or story, or traditions, &c.c.,as received, 

or heard, from another, or others ; a narrator 

thereof. (T,S,»L.) The saying of 'Omar, on his 

beinc forbidden by Mohammad to swear by his 

b t , 00 » - • •' • ' ,. , 

father, \y\ *$% 1^>l> *rf CAU. U, means / did 

not swear by him uttering (the oath) as proceeding 
in the first instance from myself, nor rej>eating 
(it) as heard from another particular person. 
(A'Obeyd,T,S,TA.)_lI ijtf li* ji*l, (IAar, 
T,S,K,) and \jj\ withoxit U, (IAar, T,) and 
tjjl ^±jj\, (S,K,) mean I will do this the fist 
of every thing. (S, K.*) And in like manner, 
after «4*J [I met him, or it], one says, U ij}\, [and 

♦j^ t5i J 3 '-] and f ^' & $> ( M »^-) and 
1 w - - t0' 


^ Oli '/\, (M,) or ^j*' Oli, (K,) and 

S*<* L$*» ( IAar » M » K and f ^' L$* 5^i a" 1 * 1 
♦ ^f ^i t #1, (5,) and » ^1 jji j£ (M, as 

from Lh,) or * Oi)*A} l£* * >', (K,) and 
t ^{ ,Ji tjjl , and tS * SjJl : (Lh, M, K :) or, 
as some say, " ^*>>l signifies the. daybreak, or 
dawn ; and '^3! ji, <A« fiW tfoweo/. (M, TA.) 
Fr says that U \j?\ lj^ UA and t ~Jt .m Jjf, 

and *^i i<i j£\, signify Sewn tAow »»i<A this 
first of every thing. (TA.) One says also, «Uj6I, 
U l>l, (T, M,TA,) and U ♦ #J, (M,TA,) 
meaning Do thou it [at least], if thou do nothing 
else : (T, M, TA :) or, as some say, do thou it in 
preference to another thing, or to other thing* : 
U being redundant, but [in this case] not to be 
omitted, because [it is a corroborative, and] the 
meaning of the phrase is, do thou it by choice, or 
preference, and with care. (M,TA.) Mbr says 
that the phrase U \jj\ IJjk J*, means Take thou 
this in preference; i. c., I give it thee in pre- 
ference ; as though one desired to take, of another, 
one thing, and had another thing offered to him 
for sale : and U is here redundant. (T, TA.) 

j^U : see Sj5l. 


jyyj : see *j$\, in two places : and see *ji£*, in 

two places. 

l/u (T, S, M, K, &c.) and XjL (S, M, K) and 

" ijj\ (M, K) A generous quality or action; (AZ, 
S j) so called because related, or handed down, by 
generation from generation : (S :) or a generous 
quality that is inherited by generation from gene- 
ration: (M,K:) a generous quality, or action, 
related, or handed down by tradition from, one's 
ancestors : (A :) a cause of glorying : (AZ :) and 
precedence in ^ m [or grounds of pretension to 
respect, ice] : pi. of the first and second, JjU. 

ijl~» and " jyyi An iron instrument (S, M, K) 
with which the bottom of a camel's foot is marked, 
in order that his footprints upon the ground may 
be known :. (M :) or, with which the inner [i. e. 
under] part of a camel's foot is scraped, in order 
that his footprints may be traced : (S, K :) or 
* jj3£i lias a different meaning, explained above, 
voce ljj\. (M.) The ijle* of a horse's saddle is 
without hems. (S.) 

jji U A camel having a mark made upon the 
bottom of his foot with the iron instrument called 
fjZ— », in order that his footprints upon the ground 
may be known : (T :) or having the inner [i. e. 
under] part of his foot scraped with that instru- 
ment, in order that his footprints may be traced. 
(?.)— A sword having in its ^JU [or broad side, 
or the. middle of the broad side, of tlie blade,] 
diversified wavy marks, streaks, or grain, or lustre 
or glitter : (M, K : [in some copies of the latter 
of which, instead of^Jl, I find *y\ :]) or having its 
tfU of female, or soft, iron, and its edge of male 
iron, or steel: (K:) or that is said to be of the 
fabric of the jinn, or genii; (8, M,K;») and not 
from y •$, as signifying jJyUt : (S, M :) so says As : 

(S :) [ISd says,] jyU is in my opinion a pass, 
part. n. that has no verb : (M :) or it signifies an 
ancient sword, which has passed by inheritance 
from great man to great man. (A.) — A tradi- 
tion, narrative, or story, handed down from one to 
another, from generation to generation. (T, S, A.) 


■aft, aor.;, (T,S,M, 

1. jjJUl out : see 2 

K,) inf. n. J$\, (T, M,) He followed him. (Ks, 
T, S, M, K.) — He drove away, or drove away 
and pursued closely, or hunted, him ; syn. »j>Ji>. 
(Ibn-'Abbad, K\) — He sought, or sought after, 
or pursued after, him, or it : in which sense the 
aor. is - , (AA, K,) and - also. (So in some copies 
of the 1J.) 

2. jJiUI jtfl, (T,S, M,K,) inf. n. J^fe, (S,K,) 
He put the cooking-pot upon the ij*^' [pi- °f 
M», q. v.] ; (T,« S, M,» K ;) as also t l^jf, 
(M, TA,) inf. n. JS\ ; (TA ;) or * \£\, (so in 
some copies of the K in art. ^Ju,) inf. n. wilLl ; 
(TA in that art. ;) the first of which is a dial. var. 
of UUJ, inf. n. ;£& ; (S ;) and t UUjt, whence 
iu5>JJi. (M.)' 

4 : see 2. 

J » -it. 

5. jjJUl CgbU The cooking-pot was put upon 

the ^131. (TA.) as iy?U They surrounded him, 
or it : (S, K :•) they became around him, or it, 
like the i^jl [or rather like the ^tf\] : (M :) 
they collected themselves together around him, or 
it. (A, TA.)__o^l *J&> (T, S, K:,) or J&\, 
(M,) He (a man, S) kept to the place; (T,£;) 
remained in it; (M;) did not quit it. (AZ, T, 
S, M.)_<uuU also signifies He followed after 
him, and pressed or importuned him, and ceased 
not to incite him. (T, 1£.) In my opinion, [says 
Az,] this is not in any way derived from «u*u"n)I ; 
but from J*.y t cJul, meaning " I followed the 

man." (T.) And £fo ^J* tytfo They aided, 

or assisted, one another to do, or accomplish, the 
thing, or affair. (M, L.) 

Q. Q. 1. jjJUl" ^.JLl : see 2. [But accord, to 

* IS 4 '1* !* 

Az, in the T, ^Juyi, as aor. of <J iu\, is ^jii* re- 
duced to its original form ; and the like is said in 
the S and M in art. ji5. If this be the case, 

i\juy,, q. v., may be »\m1» reduced in the same 
manner, i. e., to its original form.] 

Uu\ [probably a mistake for f out] Continuing, 

permanent, constant, firm, or established: (K, 

TA :) so in the Mohect. (TA.) Also, (K., and 

so in a copy of the S,) or * «Ju1, [agreeably with 

analogy, and therefore more probably the correct 

form,] (so in other copies of the S and in the T,) 

Following. (Ks, T, S, $.) 

• - °l *s * 

iUul and iJut [the former of which is the more 

common, and this only I find in copies of the T,] 
The stone [which is one of the three] whereon the 
cooking-pot is placed : (A'Obeyd, M, K :) it is, 
with the Arabs, a stone like the head of a man : (T :) 

the pi. is Jyu'l and w&l ; (T, S, [in which latter 

[Book I. 

it is written differently in different copies, with 

i -« -t 

the article prefixed, .j*^! and (^iU^I, but in 

both manners in art. ^y^,] M,K;) the latter 

being allowable; (T •) or, accord, to Akh, the 

latter only is used by <he Arabs ; (M ;) applied 

to the three stones mentioned above : (TA in art. 

xi-» ; &c. :) upon these the cooking-pot is set up ; 

but what is of iron, having three legs, is not 

called Ciu\, but ^L» ; (T ;) [and this is what 

is meant by ju j*- ^y» ijj I in art. %i-> in the K ;] 
i. e. an iron trivet upon which a cooking-pot is 
set up. (TA in art. y~«a.'.) xJu\ may be of the 
measure <ujJjo [from ol»I], and it may be of 
the measure ii*as\ [from ^Ju ; in either case 

originally iCyjl]. (A,L.) ^U^l ilJli signifies 
The part, not detached, of a mountain ; by the 
side of which, two pieces are put [for the cooking- 
pot to be set thereon]. (A'Obeyd, T, K.) And 
hence the saying, (A'Obeyd, T,) iii\^ lif ilij 
^t&l (A'Obeyd, T, K) May God smite him 
with the mountain ; meaning, J with a calamity ; 
(Th, TA, K in art. ^j ;) with a calamity like the 
mountain [in greatness] ; (Th, M ;) for when they 
do not find the third of the ^yUl, they rest the 
cooking-pot [partly] upon the mountain : (M, K, 
in art. ,Jw :) or, with difficulties, or troubles, or 
calamities : (As, T :) or, with all evil; evils being 
likened to one i-*j! after another, and the third 
being the last : (T, K :) so says Aboo-Sa'ccd : 
(T :) or, with the last of evil ; and the last of 
everything hateful : ( AO in Har p. 84 :) or, 
with a great calamity. (Har ib.) One says also, 
^0*91 »UJL» (J'ili, meaning t Such a one is the 
heaviest? most burdensome, or meet troublesome, of 
the people. (Har ubi supra.)—. [Hence also,] 
.jiO'iJt is a name applied to f certain stars [accord, 
to Ideler, as mentioned by Frcytag in his Lex., 
the stars <r and r and v Draconis] over against 
the head of the jjS ; which is the name of certain 
stars disposed in a round form. (AHat, K.) 
[Also] a name given by the vulgar to t [The three 
chief stars in the constellation called] JjW^-" [>• c. 
Lyra]. (Kzw.)__Thc sing., (K,) i. e. each of 
the two forms thereof, hut written in the copies of 
the S with damm [only], (TA in art. ■.»«,) or 
[only] the latter, with kesr, (M, and so in the K 
in art. ,J»S,) olso signifies + A number, (M,) or 
a great number, (K, and so in the S in art. iJu,) 
and a company, or congregated body, of men : 

(M, K :) pi. as above. (M.) You say, s^e.^jk 

* ' - f * H 

»jk»-1j iUbi t [They are against him one band]. 

(TA.) And iUi*. i^iil u^* ^ O* C-e*J 
Tlicre remained of the sons of such a one a great 
number. (S in art. ^&.) 

«.- *.t . , 

out : see >Ju\, in two places. 

\Jiy» t Short, broad, plump, and fleshy. (K.) 
__ And, with », J A woman whose husband has 
two wives beside her ; she being the third of them: 
they being likened to the ^j*l>l of the cooking- 
pot (M.) [See also »Ui», in art. ^ytf.) 

iMktyt jjJ A cooking-pot put upon the ^wl 

Book I.] 

[pi. ofi^iul, q. v.]. (M,and K in art l »*j : in 
some copies of the latter, i\i£$+.) [See Q. Q. 1.] 


JtfJl and J^J\ i. q. Ilj^A [A frvit-ttalk of 
the raceme of a palm-tree, upon which are the 
date*] ; like Jl£* and jy^J* : the hemzeh in 
each is a substitute for e ; but by J [and others] 
it is held to be augmentative, and the words are 
mentioned in art. J£j, q. v. (TA.) 


eft • 'I 

1. JJl, aor. ; , inf. n. Jyl, It (anything, M) 
had, or came to have, root, or a foundation ; or it 
wax, or became, Jirm, or established, and firmly 
rooted or founded ; as also ♦ JJ13. (M,K.)_ 
Also, inf. n. as above, It (dominion) wax, or 
became, great ; (TA ;) and so ♦ the latter verb. 

(M,K.») And JjI, inf. n. aj'tf'l, said of high 

rank, or nobility, It wax, or became, old, of 
ancient origin, or of long standing. (TA.)^See 
also 5. 

2. '*£\, (M, K,) inf. n. jjii, (S, K,) He made 
it (his wealth, or property, M, K, and so applied 
it is tropical, TA) to Itave root, or a foundation ; 
or to become firm, or established, and firmly rooted 

or founded ; syn. iiil. (S,» M, K.) He 

(God, T, M,* TA) made it (a man's dominion, 
T, M, K) to be, or become, firm, firmly established, 
stable, or permanent : (T :) or great : (M, K :) 
and he (a man) made it (a thing) lasting, or per- 
manent. (TA.) IAar cites the following verse, 

UiJI Js. ^*£> JJ£J 

[app. meaning A'onft mwU oW/ye me to make 
payment, or the like, (as though establishing 
against me the duty of doing so,) but my Lord 
changes their actions,] explaining it by saying, 
i. e. ^Ujij ; but (ISd says,) I know not how 
this is. (M.) — He (God, M) made it (a man's 
wealth, or property,) to increase ; or put it into 
a good, or right, state, or condition ; syn. «l£=>j. 
(M, K.)_JU-^ *3jI I multiplied him [meaning 
his party] by men. (TA.) — 0*J*\ 4x* «iijl 
J collected against him the debts. (TA.)__ 
aUI JjI //« rW his family with the most excel- 
lent of clothing: (M :) or he clad them (M,K) 
with th? most excellent of clothing, (K,) and did 
good to them, or acted well towards them. (M, K.) 
■"JjI, [used intransitively,] (M,K,) inf. n. as 
above, (TA,) He (a man, K) became abundant 
in his wealth, or property. (M, K.) 

5. JJVJ : see 1, in two places. _ Also It (a 
thing) became collected together. (K.)__2f« 
took for himself, got, or acquired, what it termed 
iUI, i. e. Sft* [meaning victuals, or provision] ; 

(M,K;) JuX- JJv [ofter want]. (M.) .ffe 

took for himself, got, or actjuired, a source, stock, 
or fund, ( J-el,) of wealth, or property. (S, TA.) 
— And ^JU JJU if« collected, or gained, or 
tfcyutred, waaM, or property, (M, K,) and too* 


ft /or himself: (M :) [said in the TA to be 
tropical :] or he collected wealth, or property, and 
took it for himself, or got it, or acquired it, as a 

source, stock, or fund: (Mgh :) and *5)U * JJl, 

i*i j —* 

inf. n. JjJl, signifies the same as aJl5U. (TA.)__ 

^Ul OybUj ^»* 7%*y taAe JlJl, i. e. wealth, or 
property, from men. (TA.) __ l^i* JjD Sis dug 
a well (T, S, M, 1£)for himself. (T, TA.) 

JjI A kind of treet ; (8, K ;) a *pect« o/ tAe 
»ttjl» [or tamarisk ; so applied in the present day; 
termed by Forskal (Flora Aeg. Arab. p. lxiv.) 
tamarix orientalis] ; (S, TA ;) or a kind of trees, 
(T, M,) or a certain tree, (Mgh,) resembling the 
Mjie, (T, M, Mgh,) except that it is of a better 
kind, (T,) or except that it is larger, and better 
in its wood, (M,) of which are made yellow and 
excellent [vessels of the kind called] *>ljit, and of 
which was made the Prophet's pulpit ; it has thick 
stems, of which are made doors and other things ; 
and its leaves are of the kind called Jh*, like those of 
the Sijb : (TA :) AHn says, on the authority of 
Aboo-Ziyad, that it is of the kind termed oUkt, 
tail, and long in its wood, which is excellent, and 
is carried to the towns and villages, and the clay 
houses of these are built upon it ; [app. meaning 
that its wood is used in forming the foundations 
of the walls ;] its leaves are of the kind called 
w>jdk, [syn. with J-*,] long and slender, and it 
has no thorns ; of it are made [bowls of the kinds 
called] cLai and ^jU»- ; and it has a red fruit, 
like a knot of a rope : (M :) or a kind of large 
trees, having no fruit : (Msb :) or t. q. Aijir, 
having no fruit : (Bd in xxxiv. 15 :) n. un. with 

S ; (S, M, Msb, K ;) explained in the A as the 

" * * 
if+~* [or gum-acacia tree] : or a tall, straight 

[tree such as is termed] i»U»£, of which are made 
the like of r \jZ\: (TA :) the pi. [of JJl] is Jy'l 

(S,$,TA(in the 

(M, $) and [of iWl] O^jI. 

Cl£ O^J'l].) [See also 4UI, below.] 

JU JjI Such a one is a collector of wealth, or 


lift n. un. of JJl, q. v. (S, M, &c.) Because 
of the tallness of the tree thus called, and its erect- 
ness, and beauty of proportion, the poets liken 
thereto a woman of perfect stature and erect form. 
(M.) — Metaphorically, (Msb,) J Honour, or 
reputation ; or grounds of pretension to respect 
on account of the honourable deeds or qualities of 
one's ancestors, &c. ; syn. \jbj* ; (Msb, TA ;) 
or yl i fr . (S, O, ]£, TA.) So' in the saying, 
UJul c—».:^ sjyj, OffC«fc ij, (S accord, to different 
copies, and so in the O, but in the copies of the 
^, incorrectly, UjjI ^ <L*Jj, TA,) J Suck a 
one speaks evil of, (S, O,) or impugns, or speaks 
against, (Tf.,) our honour, or reputation, &c. 

(S, O, K.) And «Hjt O^J J He detracted from 
kis reputation ; spoke against him ; impugned his 
character; censured him; blamed him. (A, Msb.) 

" tit > ' *' * \» _ 

And 4j>jl c «^ a ^Jyi I [Suck a one's grounds 
of pretension to respect, &c, are impugned]. 
(TA.) And «&5t C^LS "j '^ \ He has not any 
vice, or fault, nor any imperfection, or defect. 
(Msb.) — The root, foundation, origin, source, 


stock, or the like, syn. Jil ; (T, S, M, Mgh, K ;) 
of a thing, and of a man; (T;) of anything; (M;) 
[a source, stock, or fund,] of wealth, or property : 

(Mgh, TA :) pi. Jl5l. (#.) So in the saying, 
JU 5JlSI 4} [He has a source, or stock, or fund, 
of wealth, or property]. (TA.)^ Victuals, or 
provision ; syn. S^». (M, K.) — — The goods, 
furniture, and utensils, of a house or tent ; as 
also ♦ iiil. (M, K.*) — Apparatus, accoutre- 
ments, implements, or the like. (Ibn-'Abbad, K.) 
So in the saying, iulil iiil oji-l [/ took the 
apparatus, &c., of, i. e. for, the winter]. (Ibn- 

ibl : see 4JUI, near the end. 

J13I, (T, S, M,) with fet-h, (S,) or Jv5l, with 
damm, (Mgh,) or both, (K,) I Olory, honour, 
dignity, nobility, or high rank. (AA, T, S, M, 

Mgh,?:.) You say, Jlil iilfe Jul 2 \ He has 
glory, or honour, &c, as though it were the 
mountain called Othdl. (TA.) [But the next 
signification seems to be here more appropriate.] 
__ t Wealth, or property. (Mgh.) 

jej I A place of growth of trees of the kind called 

Jljl [perhaps a mistranscription for JJl] : men- 
tioned by Th, from IAar. (T.) be Abundant, and 

luxuriant, or long, hair. (T A.) — See also Jj£*> 
in two places. 

JjI: see J->y*. 

JJ^* Having root, or a foundation ; or firm, 

or established, and firmly rooted or founded: (S:) 

or having a permanent source, or firm foundation: 

(Munjid of Kr :) or of old foundation or origin : 

or collected together so as to [become stable or 

permanent, or] have root or a foundation : (T :) 

or old ; of ancient origin ; or of long standing : 

(M, TA:) or permanent: (IAar:) J applied to 

glory, honour, dignity, nobility, or high rank; 

(T, Kr, S, M, TA ;) and so ▼ JeJ* : (S, TA:) and 
to wealth, or property: (Kr, S:) and to anything; 
(T, M ;) and so ♦ j\j|, and * J5& : (M :) and * Jtf, 
also, has the first of these significations, applied to 
dominion. (T.) —Prepared, disposed, arranged, 
or put into a right or good state. (AA.) 

JjU* : see Jj>*. — Also Taking for oneself, 
getting, or acquiring, a source, stock, or fund, 
(J-ol,) of wealth, or property : (S, TA :) or col- 
lecting wealth, or property, (T, Mgh,) and taking 
it for oneself, or getting it, or acquiring it, as a 
source, stock, or fund. (Mgh.) So in a trad, on 
the subject of a charge respecting the orphan, 

•^U JjU* 'j£ a)U ±yt J^»W [-Hie may eat of his 
wealth, or property, not taking for himself a 
source, stock, or fund, of wealth, or property : or, 
not collecting &c] : (T, S, Mgh :*) or, accord, to 
Bkh, not acquiring abundance of wealth : but 
the former explanation is more correct lexically. 

1. JjI, (Lth, S, M, &c.,) aor. '- , (Lth, M, Msb, 
K,) inf. n.^ail , (S, K,) or^Jl, the former being a 
simple subst, (Msb,) and JiU, (S, K,) He fell 


into what is termed jgt\ [i. e. a tin, or crime, tec] ; 
(Lth, T, 8, M, Msb,» K» ;) [he tinned; committed 
a tin, or crime;] he did what was unlawful: 

(M,*K:) and *^J0 signifies the same as ^»l : 
(K :) it may be either an inf. n. of ♦ J^\, which 
[says ISd] I have not heard, or, as Sb holds it to 
be, a simple subst. like C - . r 3 : (M :) and is said 
to be used in the sense of ^1 in the Kur Iii. 23 
[and lvi. 24]. (TA.) [It should be added also, 
that * JCtf, like v'J&j " "yn. with ^J\3 and 
j£\ ; and, lilce^JU, may be an inf. n. of t^Jl, or 
p. simple subst. : sec an ex. voce Jjjj^.] In the 
iial. of some of the Arabs, the first letter of the 
iior. is with kesr, as in^JLju and JUi ; and as the 

• f * # 

hemzeh in^l is with kesr, the radical hemzeh [in 
the aor.] is changed into ^ ; so that they say 

^land^tforvTand^'d.] (TA.) In the saying, 

the meaning is, [Shouldst thou say, thou would*/ 
not tin, or do wrong, in so saying,] There it not, 
among her people, any one who excels her [in 
grounds of pretention to respect, and in imprest, or 
character, of beauty]. (M.)a=IJ^» ^ i&T i^fi, 
aor. '- (8,K) and ; , (S,) or '-, (K,)'but there 
is no other authority than the K for this last, nor 
is there any reason for it, as the medial radical 
letter is not faucial, nor is the final, and in the 
Iktitaf el-Azahir the aor. is said to be -, and - , 
(MF, TA,) [Ood reckoned him to have sinned, 
or committed a crime or the like, in such a thing ; 
or] God reckoned such a thing against him as an 
Ju (8, K :) or i$, aor. - (Fr, T, M, Msb) 
and ' , (Msb,) inf ; n. JJfl (Fr, T, Msb) and Jul 
(Fr,T,TA) and>l3l, (Fr,TA,)2fr (God) re- 
quited him, (Fr, T,) or punished him, (M,) for 
what it termed^}] [i. e. tin, or crime, Sec.] : (Fr, 
T, M :) [see also >0l below :] or he (a man) 
pronounced him to be ^J\ [i. c. a tinner, or the 
like] : (Msb :) [or] * £>\, aor. i^', has this last 
signification, said of God ; and also signifies 

He found him to be to. (T.) You say also, 

J/^)l i»UI <^S\, aor. , , inf. n. J$, The she- 
camel wot tlow. (M.) 

«• *$, (8,Msb,K,) inf. n.jja, (Msb,K,) 
He taid to him O^l [Thou hatt fallen into a tin, 
or crime, tec; hatt tinned, tec]. (8, Msb,K.) 
sb See also 1, first and second sentences. 

4. a*31 He made him, or caused him, to fall 
into what it termed^ [i. e. a tin, or crime, Sec.], 
(Zj, 8, M, K,) or what it termed ^Jy (Msb.)_ 
See also 1, last sentence but one. 

5. Jfo He ah stained from what it termed ^\ 
['• ••JjfhJK crime, tec]; (T, S, M, Msb, K;) 
like £j*~J meaning "he preserved himself from 
what is termed l^tl :" (Msb :) or he did a work, 
or deed, whereby he escaped from what it termed 
^\ '• (TA :) and he repented of what it to termed, 
(M, K,) and begged forgiveness of it; as though 
he removed the ^1 itself by repentance and by 

begging forgiveness ; or sought to do so by those 
two means. (M.) You say also, lis* &* ^J5b 
He abstained from suck a thing at a tin, or 
crime; syn. S^3, q. v. (S,K, in art. »*«•..) 

^1 [accord, to some, an inf. n. ; sce^Jt : accord, 
to others, only a simple subst, signifying] A tin, 
a crime, a fault, an offence, or an act of dis- 
obedience, syn. .^jj, (S, M, Msb, K,) for which 
one deserves punishment; differing from ^i 
inasmuch as this signifies both what is intentional 
and what is unintentional : (Kull :) or [so accord, 
to the M, but in the K " and,"] an unlawful deed : 
(M, K :) or a deed which retards from recompense : 
or, accord, to Fr, what is exclusive of the [punish- 
ment termed] S*~ : accord, to Er-Raghib, it is a 
term of more general import than o'i«** '• (TA :) 
tJrTU [which is originally an inf. n. of ^Jt] is 
syn. with J5l ; (T,* Mgh ;) and so, too, is t'JlO'i, 
(Msb,) or T >Ul, signifying a deed retarding 
recompense : (TA :) the pi. of J3l is >Uf ; (M :) 
and the pi. of t^Uis^JU. (T.)__ [Sometimes 
it is prefixed to a noun or pronoun denoting its 
object : — and sometimes it means f The punish- 
ment of a tin Sec : see explanations of a passage 

in the Kur v. 32, voce &] I Wine: (Aboo- 

Bekr El-Iyadee, T, S, M, K :) sometimes used in 
this sense; (8;) but tropically; not properly: 
(IAmb :) I think, [says ISd,] because the drinking 
thereof is what is thus termed. (M.) — [And for 
a like reason,] f Contention for stakes, or wagert, 
in a game of liazard ; syn.jUJ; (M, K;) which 
is a man's destruction of his property. (M.) It 
is said in the Kur [ii. 216, respecting wine and 
the game called^4iJI], iiUi j-i^St Ce* Ji 
,j-UJ [Say thou, In them both are great tin and 
meant of profit to men] : and Th says, when they 
contended in a game of this kind, and won, they 
gave food and alms, and these were means of 
profit (M.) 

• -* #j 

>ol: see^l Also The requital, or recom- 
pense, of ^1 [i. e. its, or crime, &c] : (T, S, M, 
Msb :) so says Zj, (T, M,) and in like manner 
say Kh and Sb : (T :) or punishment (Yoo, Lth, 
T, M, $) thereof: (Lth, T, M :) and t^Ul and 
»^U signify the same ; (M, £ ;) the latter like 
jjul*. (TA. [In the CK1 this is written^JU.]) 
So in the £ur [xxv. 08], UUl JJb [He shah find 
a requital, or recompense, or a punishment, of sin] : 
(T, §, M :) in my opinion, [says ISd,] the correct 
meaning is, he shall find the punishment ofjt\f\ 
[or tint] : but some say, the meaning is that which 
here follows. (M.)_ A valley in Hell. (M,J£.) 

>UI: seeJ15l:— and>IUl. 

• n • ■« • * 

>>*! : see^l ; and^f. 

jtei\ : see^.1 Also A great, or habitual, liar; 

or one who lies much; and so T >yl. (K.) So 
in the Kur ii. 277 : or it there signifies Burdened 
withjs\ [or tin, Ice]. (TA.) In the Kur xliv. 44, 
it means, accord, to Fr, The unrigkteout, or 
sinning; like ^ j£\ : (T :) or the unbeliever: 
(TA :) or, accord, to Zj, in this instance, (M,) by 
the^Jl is meant Aboo-Jahl. (M, K.) ■■ Also 

[Book I. 

The commission ofj£\ [tin, or crime, tec,] much, 
or frequently; and so t ii^l. (M, $.) 

!' J * J 



jj\ Falling into what is termed j,t\ [i. e. a tin, 
or crime, tec] ; (S, Msb,* K ;*) [sinning ; com- 
mitting a tin, or crime;] doing what it unlawful: 
(K :) and in like manner, (8, Msb, K,) but having 
an intensive signification, (Msb,) ♦ j^\, and 
t *f$ % (8, M, M f b, K,) and tjllli : (M, M?b, K : 
[in the CK, erroneously, without teshdeed :]) the 
pi. of the first of these three is iUit ; that of the 
second, ^j\ ; and that of the third, 0>*^'- (M.) 

See also^l i^T, (S,) and ol^T, (S,M,£, 

[in the CK, erroneously, ol*5l.]) A she-camel, 
(8,) and she-camels, tlow, or tardy ; (8, M, K ;) 
weary, fatigued, or jaded. (K. [In die CK, we 
find oLjjt* erroneously put for -:\ t wt]) Some 
pronounce it with O. (Sgh.) [In like manner,] 
T >»Jl>» signifies That is slack, or slow, in pace, or 
going; ^-Jl ^i v-*£i iJJM- (Sgh, K. [In Go- 
lius's Lex., as from tlio K, ^_Jt w.JJo ^JJI. 
Both are correct, signifying the same.]) 

•if' •$ , • '• 

_^jU : sce^l, in two places : — and sce>Ul. 

• A. 

>yU [Reckoned to have sinned, or the like;] 

having a thing reckoned against him at an ^5l : 
(S :) or requited for wltat it termed _Ji\. (Fr, T.) 

^I>: see^l. 


^wl and ^Uat : seo art ^J. 


1. jUI c^.1, (8, A, Msb,) aor. '- (8, Msb) and 
- , (M, TA,) [the former contr. to analogy, and 
the latter agreeable therewith, in the case of 
an intrans. verb of this class,] inf. n. m*>I, 

(8, A, Msb, K,) The fire burned, burned up, 
burned brightly, or fiercely, (Msb,) blazed, or 
flamed, or blazed or flamed fiercely ; (S, A, 
Msb, K ;) as also ▼ C^fo (8, A, K) and 
T ■-■» V . ' l [written with the disjunctive alifc^.^1] : 
(S, K : ) or made a sound by its blazing or flaming. 
(ISd,TA.) — £', aor. '- , (S,Ki &c.,) contr. to 
analogy, (TA,) and -. , (Jm, TS, L, K,) but this 

if % t 

is rejected by AA, (MF,) inf. n. -.1 (S) and m^I, 
(TA,) X He (an ostrich) ran, making a [ruttling] 
sound, or noise, tuck at it termed U%a— . (S, L, 

K, &c.) And, aor. '-, (T,A,) inf. n. J\, (T, TA,) 
t He hastened, or was quick, in hit pace; walked 
quickly ; or went a pace between a walk and a 
run ; (T, Nh ;) said of a man ; (Nh, from a trad. ;) 
and of a camel : (IB :) or j he made a sound, or 
noise, in his pace or going, like that of the blazing, 
or flaming, of Are. (A.) You say,.^eUiJI iL\ l.\ 

Book I.] 

t [He made a rustling sound in going along, like 
that of the ostrich]. (A.) And ^t, aor. , , [so 
in the TA,] inf. n. 2^\, f It (a camel's saddle) 
made a sound or noise [produced by his running]. 
(AZ,TA.) And LjJ signifies also t The sound- 
ing of water in pouring forth. (TA.) — ^1, 
(8,$,) aor. * , (S,L,) inf. n. ^1, (S, K,) It 
(water) mas, or became, such as is termed »-\»-\. 
(S, L, ^.)m^I He rendered it (namely water) 
such as is termed jrW^' (?•) 

2. JUI -JJ.I, (S, A, £,) inf. n. £**.tf, (K,) 
He made the fire to [burn, burn up, burn brightly 
or fiercely, (sec 1,)] blaze, or flame, or blaze 
or flame fiercely. (S, A, It.) — [Hence,] ->^1 
jji Jy^> t -He kindled evil, or mischief, among 
tliem. (TA.) 

5 : sec 1. — Hence *-*.ti also signifies J* gave 
light; shone; or */ton« brightly. (TA, from a 
trad.) — See also 8, where a contracted form of 
this verb is mentioned. 

8: see 1. — [Hence,] J£)l ls3\ [written with 
the disjunctive alif -JJl] Tlte day was, or became, 
intensely hot, or fiercely burning ; (S, ]£ ;) as also 
ti/uand-^/tf. (K.) 

iiL\ Intenseness of heat, and its fierce burning; 
(S, £ ;) as also * L^\ [inf. n. of 1], and * ^Ul, 
and * luLl5f[inf. n. of 8] : pi- pVJ- (?) You 

say, ok-oJI **■! 0»V -* «e intense lieat, or ^cjcc 
burning, of summer came. (TA.)— The sound 
of fire ; us also * L*Ji. (ISd, TA.) — X The 

sound, or nowr, and commotion, of an ostrich 
running, and of people walking or passing along. 

s .11 If 

(A.) You say,^*^! i«.l ~.\ [explained above : 
seel]. (A..)— .i Confusion: (S, £:) or, as also 
t -,._r-l, the confusion arising from tlte talking of 
a people, nnd the sound, or n<w*e, of their walking 

SI J*. 

or passing along. (L.) You say, i»-l ^ji .>»yUt 
The people are in a state of confusion [tec]. (S.) 

• » i •* | 

»-Wl : see <U>t. 

«~U-t Anything burning to the month, wltetlter 
*nft or frif/cr or liot. (MF.) [Hence,] --U-I »U, 
(8, A,£, &c.,) and t 1(^.1, (Msb,) TFtfter <W 
bmi fry »t* stillness : (A :) or salt water : or bitter 
water : (TA :) or salt, bitter water : (S, K. :) or 
very salt water : (I'Ab :) or bitter and very salt 
water : (Mgb :) or very salt water, that burns by 
reason of its soilness: or very bitter water: or 
water very salt and bitter, like the water of the 
sea : (T A :) or water of which no use is made for 
drinking, or for watering seed-produce, or for 
other purposes : (El-Hasan :) or very hot water : 

(TA :) the pi. is the same [as the sing. ; or »-U.I 
is also used as a quasi-pl. n.]. (TA.) 
• - • ,-* 

—y*A Giving light; shining; or sinning brightly. 

J— *■* 

« « 

• at 

I £T « inf. n. of 1, which see : and see also i*.l, 
in three places. 

[A vehemently hot, or fiercely- 

i.ii • 

burning, summer-midday]. (A.) 

-J; fern, with » : see g>*-b ''> below. 

i t» » •'?'■, 

*-y»-l : see «-j*.y, below. 

L*.|y)l ^'i' ^Jl [Tlte fiercely-burning hot 

winds; the latter word being pi. of * a*.l, fem. of 
S» ae . 

* -.1, which is the act. part. n. of .-I ;] is used by 

poetic licence for p-ly^l. (TA.) 

-,*'^, -M i n f, n . f 8, which see : and see also 

• 91 

..ub.U : see what follows. 

^■yJj One rofto «aM« quickly, and run*, in 

<fcw anrf that manner. (£,»TA.) — £j--W and 

t L^Ju, (S, Msb,?,) imperfectly decl., (S,) [Gog 

and Magog;] two tribes of God's creatures; 

(T A ;) or two great nations ; (Ms b ;) or two tribes 

of the children of Japheth the son of Noah : or, 

as some say, tlte former, of tlte Turks ;' and the 

latter, of the Jeel [meaning JeclrJeeldn, said in 

the TA in art. J**, on the authority of ISd, to 

be a people beyond the Deylem; and on the 

authority of Az, to be believers in a plurality of 

gods; (tlte Geli and Gelce of Ptolemy and Strabo, 

as observed by Sale, in a note on ch. xviii. v. 93 

of the Kur, on the authority of Golius in Alfrag. 

p. 207 ;)] = (Bd in xviii. 93 :) [said by the Arabs 

to be Scythians of the fui-tltest East; particularly 

those on the north of tlte Chinese : (Golius :) or, 

as some say, tlte descendants of Japheth, and all 

the nations inhabiting tlte north of Asia and of 

Europe: (Freytag:)] said in a rad., (TA,) on 

the authority of I'Ab, (Msb,) to compose nine 

tent lis of mankind : (Msb, TA :) or £j»-W is the 

name of tlte males, and *-y*-l* is that of tlte 

females : (Msb :^ he who pronounces them thus, 

and makes the I a radical letter, says that the 

former is of the measure Jy"4, and the latter of 

the measure Jy** ; as though from ^Ul «^-t ; 

(Akh, S.Msb;*) or from ^U.1 *U ; (TA;) or 

from L\ said of an ostrich ; and imperfectly decl. 

as being determinate and fem. : (Bd ubi supra:) 

he who pronounces them without », making the I 

in each an augmentative letter, says that the former 

is from c.> m. >_, and the latter from Cmh » « : 

(Akh, S, 1£ :) this is the case if they be Arabic : 

(TA :) but some say that they are foreign names ; 

(Msb, T A ;) their being imperfectly decl. is said 

to indicate this; (Bd ubi supra;) and if so, the I 

in them is similar to that in OjjU and OjyU and 

jjjlj and the like; and the », anomalous, as that 
# %' » * * 

in JJ\ti and the like ; and their measure is J^eli. 

(Msb.) Ru-beh used to read " k-??\ and r-^l* 
[in the CK »->^-U] ; and Aboo-Mo'&dh, *->»~H' 


L ij^-t, aor. *■ and , , (S, Mgh, Msb, ?») which 
latter form of the aor., though known to most of 


the lexicologists, is disacknowledged by a few of 
them, (TA,) inf. n.^4-1; (S,Msb;) and t ' tJ J\, 
(S, Mgh, Msb, IS.,) a form disacknowledged by 
As, but said by some to be the more chaste of the 
two, of the form jii'l, not Jili, as Ilftt by 
evident inadvertence makes it to be by saying that 
its aor. is J*.£, (TA,) inf. n. ;W*Jj (S;) He 
(God, S, A, Mgh, Mf b, and a man, Mgh) recom- 
pensed, compensated, or rewarded, Aim,(S, A, Mgh, 
Msb, £,) Jii U yJ*for wltat he had done. (A.) 

[See j4-», below.] »jjj ,>• i^+*- 0"^J^ i Such 
a one became entitled to a reward for five of his 
children, by their death, (for it is believed that the 
Muslim will be rewarded in Paradise for a child 

that has died in infancy)], (S,) and »«*>} j%J, (A,) 
and »>•$ ^ >«J, (?,) mean that his children 
died, and became [causes of ] his reward. (S,A, 
£.) — £*t, (?,) aor. ' , (S,) [He served him 
for hire, pay, or wages;] he became his hired 
man, or hireling. (S, ?.) So in the £ur xxviii. 27. 

(TA.) JJ^.1, aor. * , (L, Msb, ?.,) and , , 

(Msb, ?,) inf. n. J4-»i (^, ?,) -^« ^' him (namely 
his slave) on hire, or for pay, or wajw; (L,» 
M?b,«?.;) as also ▼ i^T, inf. n. jUj-iJ j ('Eyn, 
Mgh, Msb, ? ;) and ▼ i^-T, inf. n. S^tji : (? :) 
all these are good forms of speech, used by the 
Arabs : (L :) or * »jtf\ having for its inf. n. Sj«-j£* 
signifies he appointed him (namely another man) 
hire, pay, or wages, for his work ; (Mj, Mgh ;) or 
lie engaged with him to give him hire, pay, or 
wages; (A, Mgh, Msb ;) and can have only one 
objective complement: whereas, * when it is of 
the measure J«*l it is doubly trans. ; (Mgh, Msb ;) 
so that one says, *i»ji** T i^r*- 1 &* let me ^ his 
slave on hire. (Mgh.) One also says, jlil j+\, 
aor. i and , , inf. n.^4-1, He let tlte house on hire; 
and so jtjjt t^T, [inf. n. jWi\-] (Msb,TA:) 
and jtjjl * '»j*A, [inf. n. }i*J»] He let to him the 
house on hire : (S, A, MghjMsb :) the latter verb 
being of the measure ji»l, not of the measure 
Jt\\S : (A, Mgh, Msb :) and the vulgar say,^^.^ : 
(S :) some, however, say, jtjJl * «I^l, > n f. n. 
\jL.Vy,, making the verb of the measure^ J*U : 
(Msb,TA:) some also say, ll<j jl>M * ^>j^ [I 
let the house to Zeyd], inverting the order of 
the words : (Msb, TA :) and the lawyers say, 

>d t>* jWI * «i»U^ t in tne Bame 8ense ' like M 

jljJI J^i v>» ^^^ me* 118 * e 8ame M '•*<! ***< 
j\ jJt].' (Mfb : [but in the Mgh, the like of this 
is said to be vulgar.]) 

3. jf.\, inf. n. i*-&-- «* 1, latter half, in 
three places: and see 10. One says also, of a 
woman, (£,) or a whorish female slave, ( TA >) 
oj«L.T, [of the measure ci»U,not c-ii»l,(see >►£•, 
below,)] meaning She prostituted herself for hire. 
«•) ' 

4. j»S\, inf. n. 'jWi\i see 1, first sentence :_ 
and see the latter half of the same paragraph, in 
seven places. 

8. ^-*' [written with the disjunctive alif^^jl] 
He gave alms, seeking thereby to obtain a reward 


[from God] : (L, £•:) and y j+zl\ He gave it 
as alms, seeking thereby a reward. (L.) J^Jf for 
j+£S\ is not allowable, because . cannot be incor- 
porated into o : [or, accord, to some, this is 
allowable, as in^sTfor jjzi\, and ^Tfor l >^5l, 
fee. :] Hr allows it; and cites an ex. in a trad. ; 
but IAth says that the proper reading in this 
instance is jfjti, not jj^ ; or, if the latter be 
allowed, it u from SJ^JJJI, not from 'jLy. (L.) 
_ \J£t aJs. jm^^S [in which the radical . is 
changed into 3 because the alif preceding it is 
made disjunctive and with damm, (in one copy of 
tho g, and in the L and TA, erroneously written 
j**Zi\,) He was hired to do it for such a turn or 
thing, (see^jji, below,)] is from ijL^\. (§,L.) 

10. **&*!, (S, £,) and ♦ ' tJt ^\, ($,) [the 
latter of the measure J*ti, as has been clearly shown 
above, from the A and Mgh and Msb,] He hired 
him ; tooh him as a hired man, or hireling. (S, 
?, TA.) You say also, jUltj*JL«| [He hired the 
house; tooh it on hire]. (A, Mgh.) 
• • t 

j*-\ A recompense, compensation, or reward, 
(§> £» &c.,) for what one has done; (£;) i. q. 
**>& ;(§;)•» also t j££j and ♦ 5)^.1 and t J)u.|, 
(£,) of which three forms tlie first is the most 
generally known and the most chaste, (TA.) and 
» *r*-' ! (TA :) or, as some say, there is a distinc- 
tion between jll and ^>\£ : El-'Eynee says, in 
the Expos, of El-Bukharee, that what is obtained by 
the fundamental practices of the law, and by obli- 
gatory religious services, is termed v|>3; and what 
is obtained by supererogatory acts of religion, ^.1 ; 
for ^t\y is properly a substitute for a thing itself- 
and j+4, for the profit arising from a tiling ; though 
each is sometimes used in the sense of the other: 
(TA :) it is well known that ^..1 signifies a 
recompense, or reward, from God to a man, for 
righteous conduct; (MF;) and tjjl^l, recom- 
pense, compensation, hire, pay, or wages, froy 
one man to another, for work; (Mgh, MF;) and 
hence j^l; (MF;) and t S^.( ako hag ^ 
latter signification, (Mgh, TA,) and is syn. with 
%*? 5 (?, Mgh, £ ;) [signifying likewise rent for 
a house, and the like ;] but J£| i« used [sometimes] 
in the sense of 5jVj and in that of jj^f: (Msb :) 

the pl.of Jll isJ>;f(Msb,£)and;M; (£;) 
but the latter form was unknown to MF : (TA :) 
the pi. of t tjs\\\ is ^.t and il^l and ol^-jf. 
(Msb.) [One says, Jb\ J± %# Thy recmn _ 
pense b due from God. And, to console a person 
for the death of a relation or friend, S)jL!\ jplj ^; 
*ti May God largely compensate tkee for him ' 
i.e., forjhe loss of him.] By the expression 
*>J* j+\ in the £ur xxxvi. 10 is said to be 
meant Paradise. (TA,) — I A dowry, or nup- 
tial gift ; a gift that is given to, or for, a bride : 

(S P 1 - jyrl ■ bo in the tfur xxxiii. 49 [& c .]. 
(TA.)_t Praise; good fame. (£.) So, as 
some say, in the Kiur xxix. 26. (TA ) 

••\ .•si I,. '* 

j+\ and j*.| : see^.1. 

V'\ *'* 

•j**\ : iee j*J, m three places. 

?-! — J-*-» 

a • 

1^.1 and ib^.1 : see l£^I. 

• '* l>- 
XfiAi see^l. 

• * 

jt&\ (S, $, &c.) A hired man; a hireling: 

(L :) or of the measure J^sti in the sense of the 
measure j*UU, i. e. a man with whom one has 
engaged to give him hire, pay, or wages: (Mgh, 
Msb:»)pl. j£L|. (L, Msb.) 

SjU-t and ijULl and SjU-l : see *^.\, in four 
places J,U.J also signifies The giving of usu- 
fructs for a compensation. (Mgh.) And Land 

which its owners have let to him who will build 
upon it : so explained by the lawyers. (Mgh.) 

'&■[ (?, M, IAth, Mgh, £) and t fy£| (M) 
and t jUJI (Mgh, K.) The flat top, or roof, of a 
house, (S, M, IAth,Mgh,]£,) that has not around 
it anything to prevent a person's falling from it : 
(M,» IAth :) of the dial, of the people of Syria 
and of El-Hij4z : (S :) pi. [of the first and second] 
Je^-Vt and ij^uj ; (A'Obeyd, S, K. ;) and [of 
the third] J^liT (Mgh, $.) 

•-.a * a 

•jW : see .U.I. 

C^ief I (ISk, K.) and 1 1^-1 and ♦ ife\ (S in 
art-^(-») A custom; a habit. (ISk, £,*and S 
ubi supra.) The hemzeh is said to be a substitute 
for/ [in \Snf^ &c.] (TA.) You say, Jlj U 
*lve*-l <*Wi Tliat ceased not to be his custom, or 
habit. (ISk.) 

j+.\ and ^^.1 and jsf.\, and the pis. O^j+A and 
OLS>*»' : ^e what next follows. 

tit. . 

[Book I. 

j*\y*: see^>. 

J+ 3 ** [part- n. ot'j**5j\l Mohammad Ibn- 
Bishr El-Kharijee, not [as is said in the S] Aboo- 
Dahbal, says, (L,) 

[ O would that I were, with my clothes and my 
riding-camel, a hired skive to thy family, this 
month] : (S, L.) i. e., ^t^l £•'. (S.) 

jsjp, Mgh, Msb, $) and t^f (AA, Ks, ij.) 
m * 'jrJ (?» ?) and * J>*"l and I'jptti (^)and 
*j*f\ (as in some copies of the K.) and *^-T, (as 
in some copies of the sj. and in the TA,) or 
* • j I • i* 

T ^'> (a* in other copies of the IS.,) and t^*.! 

[to which is erroneously added in the C£ ijstS] 
and [tlie pis.] T Oj3^t and • OXl^ (?) are syn., 
(?»?>) of Persian origin, (S,) [fromJ^or^JT,] 
arabicized, (S, Mgh, ?:,) signifying BaA«d bricks ; 
(Msb ;) ftaA«rf clay, (Mgh, L,) wi<A ro/ttcA one 
builds: (S, L :) jL\ and J5 4-T and ^l!i [&c] are 
pis., [or rather coll. gen. ns., except the two forms 
ending with ^ and ,J,] and their sings, [or rather 

ns. un.] are with », i. e. ijL\ &c. (L) 

• j- 2 i ~ 
j£+\: seej^.1. 

• ' • • a 

jV^Jl: seejW-J. 

** " 

j*.** [A slave, or] a house, let on hire; (Akh, 

T, Msb;) as also * jyt-i*; (L;) and some say, 

♦j^lji. (Akh, Msb.) 

j*ry> One roAo fort on hire [a slave, or] a house : 
one should not say tj*.j|I; for this is wrong 
with respect to the classical language, and abomi- 
nable with respect to the conventional acceptation 
and common usage ; a foul reproach being meant 
thereby [as is shown by the explanation of O^T, 
given above : or, accord, to some, it is allowable 
when it relates to a house : (see VjL\ :) it seems 
to be disallowed only when used absolutely]. 
(A, Mgh.) 

c*»U.I [The plum;] a certain fruit, (£, TA,) 
of the description termed a^£»U, (TA,) wellknown ; 
(Msb, £ ;) cold and moist ; or, as some say, of 
moderate temperature; (TA;) which facilitates 
the flow of the yellow bile; (KL;) i. e ., its juice, or 
*"£?' * oe * *°> when drunk with sugar-candy 
\(»r^) and manna (^j+^Sji) added to it; 
(TA ;) and allays thirst, and heat of the heart ; 
(^;) but it relaxes the stomach, and does not 
agree with it; and it generates a watery mixture; 
and its injurious effect is repelled by the drinking 
of sugary O e ;« ^ - X ^ [or oxymel] : it is of several 
kinds: (TA:) [the most common is the Damasc, 
or Damascene, plum :] the best is (£, TA) the 
Armenian, (TA,) that which is stveet and large : 
(K, TA :) tlie sour, or acid, is less laxative, and 
more cold: (TA :) tlie n. un. it with i : (S, Msb, 
$ :) you should not say ^Vil ; (Yaakoob, S, 
$ ;) or this is a word of weak authority, (£, TA,) 
and you say ^1^.1 and J»l^JI like as one says 
jM and JuJJl : (TA :) in the dial, of the Syrians, 
the yjo VJ [or yel^JI or ^l^JI accord, to com- 
mon modern usage among them] is the [pear 
which they formerly called] u *,*t and [which 
others call] j£L: (£:) it is of the growth of 
the country of the Arabs : (AHn :) ^ull i B an 
adventitious word, (S,K,)or arabicized, (Msb,) 
because -. and ^o do not both occur in any 
Arabic word : (§, M?b, $ :) or, accord, to Az, 
they do so occur ; as, for instance, in J^rr, and 
in*^. (TA) 


e I 

L JstA, aor. '- , (M f b, $,) inf a J^ (Msb,) 
It (a thing, Msb, [as, for instance, a thing pur- 
chased, and the price thereof, and a thing pro- 
mised or threatened or foretold, and also payment 
for a thing purchased, and the fulfilment of a 
promise or threat or prediction, and any event,]) 
was, or became, delayed, postponed, kept back; 
[and therefore, future;] syn. ^1.0; (£;) and 
J*t-\, aor. - , inf! n. Jj*.t, signifies the same. 
(Mfb.) [See Jsf\ and Js^l The primary signi- 
fication seems to be, It had a term, or period, 
appointed for it, at which it should fall due, or 

Book I.] 

come to pats. ] = *X*.I, aor. ; , (K,) inf. n. Ji^l ; 
(TA;) and t ij£i, (K,) inf. n. J^U; (TA;) 
and t iM, (5,) inf. n. aJLL-l|i ; (TK -Hi 
confined, restricted, restrained, withheld, debarred, 
hindered, or prevented, him. (K,TA.) Hence 
the phrase, ^JU t^-U-l TVtey confined, restricted, 
kc, their cattle from the pasturage. (TA.)^ 

fa, ^ jj, (S, Msb,) or J!!ll, <K,) aor. < (S, 
Msb.'K) and -, (S,K,) in£ n. Jl'l, (S, Mfb,) 
1T« committed against tliem evil, (S, Msb, K,) 
and drew it, or procured it, to them : (Msb :) and 
(8, in the K " or") he excited it, stirred it up, or 
provoked it, against them : (S, K :) or, accord, to 
AZ.^yJlt c-U. I, inf. n. as above, signifies I com- 
mitted a crime against them : and AA says that 
• #«*«•#« » •** ■ * t * f i , 

Jl w~JU. and >^>jj»- and cJU.) have one and 

the same signification. (TA.)_ And <lU"^J ,J*».I, 
(Lh, K,) ' n ^ n - *• above, (TA,) He gained, ac- 
quired, or earned, and collected, and brought, or 
purveyed, and exercised skill in the management 
of affairs, for his family. (Lh, K.) 

2- J^l J*V», (TA,) inf. n. J^U, (K,TA,) 
He defined the term, or period ; (K,* TA ;) 
assigned, appointed, or specified, it. (TA.) It is 
■aid in the Kur [vi. 128], ,jj\ U-.I LiLbj 

U cJLil [Am/ we have reached our term which 
Thou hast assigned, or appointed, for us;] mean- 
ing, the day of resurrection ; (Bd,* Jcl ;) or the 
term of death ; or, us some say, the term of ex- 
treme old age. (TA.) And A-V-t, inf. n. as 

above, signifies J assigned, or appointed, for him, 

or it, a term, or period. (Msb.) __ ^^iJU.1 He 

granted me a delay, or postponement. (TA.) You 
say, »j!» ij[ J&& * *^U.ull (S, K, TA) J 
desired, ashed, demanded, or requested, of him a 
term, or period, [of delay, or postponement,'] and 
lie granted me a delay, or postponement, to a 
certain term, or period. (TA.) — See also 1. 

3. *JU.T, inf. n. iSi-\y* S sec 1. 

5. ,>.b j. q. * J--U-1 ; (K, TA ;) i. e. He 
asked, or requested, that a term, or period, should 
be assigned, appointed, or specified, for him. 
(TA.) It is said in a trad, of Mek-hool, L£» 
J»-U« J^.v3 J»XJIj v jJaj1 J -o [We were keeping 
post on the frontier of the enemy, in the tract on 
the sea-coast, and] a person ashed, or requested, 
that a term, or period, should be axsigned, or 
appointed, or specified, for him, and that per- 
mission should be granted him to return to his 
family. (TA.) 

10 : see 2 and 5. 

■ • I .... . . « .3***1 

J^.1 is originally the inf. n. of \jJU J».l " he 

committed evil ;" and is used to indicate the 

causation of crimes ; and afterwards, by extension 

of its application, to indicate any causation : (Bd in 

» ii i iji./ .* • 

v. 35 :) one says, J LU.I ^y» *ZXai, and * «wi>j » ] ,>•> 

(S, K,) and iU4-l *iUi, and * JUU-1 , (so in some 
copies of the £,) and J^t ,>•• and J*^t ,>•, 
( K, [belonging to art. ^U., in which also they are 
mentioned,]) and «iU"}U-l ^, and iU'iU-l .>•, 
(so in some copies of the K and in the TA, [be- 
longing to art. J*-,]) i. e. [/ did it] J)\j+ i >», 
Bk. I. 

(S,) which means [originally] in consequence of 
thy committing it : (Bd ubi supra :) [and then, 
by extension of its application, as shown above, 
because of thee, or of thine act kc. ; on thine 
account ; for thy sake ; as also .iU*.^, which is 
more common in the present day :] or .ilXU. £y»: 
(K :) and \J£> q\£» aJU»I ^a, i.e. *~~/ [Because 
of him, or it, it was thus, or such a thing was]. 
(Msb.) An instance of its occurrence without 
i>* [° r J] i* presented by the saying of 'Adee 

»*> s * • * *■*• at <■ • I 
• >JLa» Ji *DI O' wM * 

[Because that Ood hath made you to have excel- 
lence, or luith preferred yott]. (TA.) 

J*-l, whence dU*-l ^ <uUi, and .IUU.I <UUi : 
see ^^t, in two places. 

J|*.l, (S, Mughnee, ]£,) witli the J quiescent, 
(Mughnec,) is written with kesr and with fet-h 
[to the medial letter, i. e. t J*.| as well as ^i»-l] 
like ^^i [which is written ^^i as well as^^ju] : 
(TA:) it is a particle (Mughnee) denoting a 
reply ; like ^su ; (S, Mughnee, K ;) importing 
acknowledgment of the truth of the speaker, to 
him who gives information ; and the making a 
thing known, to him who asks information ; and 
a promise, to him who seeks, or demands ; 
(Mughnee ;) i. c. It is as thou sayest [in the first 
case ; and yes, or yea, in the same, and in the 
other cases] ; (K voce ,J— y ;) therefore it occurs 
after such sayings as "Zeyd stood" and "did 
Zeyd stand?" and "beat thou Zeyd:" but El- 
Malakce restricts the information to that which is 
affirmative, and the saying expressive of seeking 
or demanding to that which is without prohibition : 
and it is said by some that it docs not occur after 
an interrogation : (Mughnee :) Er-Radee says, in 
the Expos, of the Kafiyeh, after Z and others, 
that it is to denote acknowledgment of the truth 
of information, and does not occur after a saying 
in which is die meaning of seeking, or demanding : 
(TA :) or, accord, to Z and Ibn-Malik and others, 
it relates particularly to information : and accord, 
to Ibn-Kharoof, it occurs mostly after information : 
(Mughnee :) in the Expos, of the Tes-heel, it is 
said to be for denoting acknowledgment of the 
truth of information, past or other, affirmative or 
negative, and not to occur after an interrogation : 
(TA :) Akh says that it is better than JU-* (?, 
Mughnee, EL*) after information, (Mughnee,) in 
acknowledging the truth of what is said; (S, 
Mughnee, K ;) and >v ju is better than it after an 
interrogation : (S, Mughnee, K :) so that when 

j * k* »#»™ 

one says, ^^aJJ t_*>* [Thou wilt, or shalt, go 
away], thou sayest jij.1 [Yes] ; and it is better 
than^ju : but when one says, > T *fcJJI [Wilt thou 
go away?], thou sayest ^»*>j and it is better than 

wM- (?) 
t * . 

J^.1 The term, or period, of a thing: (S, K :) 
its assigned, appointed, or specified, term or 
period : this is the primary signification : (TA :) 
or the term, or period, and time of falling due, of 
a thing : (Msb :) pi. Jl^T. (Msb, £.)— Hence, 
The period of women's waiting, before they may 
marry again, after divorce: as in the Blur ii. 231 


and 232. (TA.)__The period, or extremity of time, 
in which falls due a debt (K, TA) and the like. 

(TA.) You say, J^.1 ^'l £\ '**<( [He sold it 
to him for payment at an appointed period] : and 
J^-l ,^1 >Ufc jj* ^AlJjjI^L [He delivered the 
money for wheat, or the like, to be given at an 
appointed period]. (Msb in art. ^£».)_The 
term, or period, of death; (K;) the time in 
which Ood has eternally decreed the end of life 
by slaughter or otherwise: or, as some say, the 
whole duration of life : and its end : a man's life 
being thus termed: and his death, by which it 
terminates: (Kull p. 17:) the assigned, or a;<- 
pointed, duration of the life of a man. (TA.) One 
says, <*jL.I Ui, meaning His death drew near; 
originally, J^-^H t\A*Lt\ the completion of the 
duration of life. (TA.) In the Kur vi. 128, 
(see 2, above,) the meaning is, The term of death : 
or, as some say, the term of extreme old age : 
(TA :) or the day of resurrection. (Bd,* Jcl.) 
The words of the Kur [vi. 2] J^.lj &.1 ^^ii J^' 
»juc ..»,.,* mean [Tfien He decreed a term,] the 
term of death, and [there is a term named with 
Him,] the term of the resurrection: or the period 
between the creation and death, and the period 
between death and the resurrection ; for J^l is 
applied to the end of a space of time and to the 
whole thereof: (Bd:) or the meaning is, the 
period of sleep, and the period of death : (Bd, 
TA :) or the period of those who have passed 
away, and the period of those who remain and 
those who are to come : (Bd :) or (Ae period of 
remaining in this world, and the period of re- 
maining in the world to come : or in both instances 
death is meant; [accidental, and natural;] for 
the y)&f\ of some is by accidental means, as the 
sword, and drowning, and burning, and eating 
what disagrees, and other means of destruction ; 
while some have their full periods granted to them 
and are preserved in health until they die a natural 
death : or the J»-1 of some is that of him who 
dies in a state of happiness and enjoyment ; and 
of others, that of him who reaches a limit beyond 
which God has not appointed, in the natural 
course of this world, any one to remain therein ; 
and to both of those, reference is made in the Kur 
[xvi. 72 and] xxii. 5. (TA.) — Sometimes, ako, 
it means Destruction : and thus it has been ex- 
plained as occurring in the Kur [vii. 184], where 

it is said, ^.1 v^' «*» O^i O 1 cJ~* 
[And that, may be, tlieir destruction shall have 
drawn near], (TA.) 

• t » .i 

J».l : see J<*.1. 

• i • - 

Jfcl : see J».t. 

(Jt^t Having a delay, or postponement, granted 
to him, to a certain time; i. q. cJj ^J\ ' ^}»-y: 
(Lth.) See also J^.T. 

J^J Belayed; postponed; kept back; syn. 
jAXa ; [but in some copies of the K, for J*J, 
we find • Jtf\ ;] as also » J«*-t, of wlrich the pi. 

is J^-l : (K :) and therefore, (TA,) not present ; 
future; to come; contr. of j^-U : (8, Msb, T A:) 



and t J*-U», also, signifies delayed, deferred, or 
postponed, to the time of the end of a period; 

a ■ 0* j 

originally, eontr. o/ J» »T.«. (Mgh.) [See also 
J**>1.] — [Hence,] i&)\ The [future,] latter, 
ultimate, or last, dwelling, or abode, or ft/e; tAe 
nwrW to come ; syn. Sj^S)' » (K, TA ;) confr. 0/ 
iWUM. (S, TA.)aaa Committing a crime ; or a 
committer of a crime. (§, TA.) 

J*-£-« Determined, defined, or limited, as to 
time; applied to a writing: so in the Kur iii. 139: 

(Bd, Jel, TA:) and to a debt; contr. o/JU-, 

q. t. (Mgh in art. J*..)^See also J-»-1. 

J^U* : see J^-l. 


1. *•*.!, with kesr, [aor. - ,] (AZ,S, O,) inf. n. 
>*•' ; (KL, P§ ;) or *^*.\, aor. : , (so in the K,) 
inf. n. j&A', (TK ;) [l>ut^»-l is the form com- 
monly known ; and if it were incorrect, the 
author of the K would probably, accord, to his 
usual custom, have charged J with error respect- 
ing it;] He loathed it; disliked it; was, or 
became, disgusted with it; namely, food; (AZ, 
S, O, K ;) Ace. ; (K ;) from constantly keeping 
to it ; (AZ, 8, ;) or because of its not agreeing 
with him: (TA :) he reckoned it bad: (KL:) 
and * a«*.U also signifies he disliked, disapproved, 
or hated, it ; or he expressed, or showed, dislike, 
disapprobation, or hatred, of it; syn. AAjQ. 
(TA.) — ifctfjtf, aor. ,, (K.) inf. n. J$, 
(TK,) He incited, or urged, such a one to do 
that which he disliked, disapproved, or hated. (K.) 

2: see 4. 

4. y-UI jtt^t, or ^Ul " j*r\t, [accord, to 
different copies of the K, the former being the 
reading in the TA,] He makes men's own selves 
to be objects of dislike, disapprobation, or hatred, 
to them. (K voce JtyiJ.) [Accord, to the TK, 
you say, <u« a«*.I, inf. n.jA^A, meaning He 
made him to be an object of dislike, disapproba- 
tion, or hatred, to him.] 

6. .^O He (a lion) entered his i^-l [or 

thicket]. (K.)»ii*l0: seel. 
• t ■ 

^^fcl Any square, roofed, house : (K :) men- 
tioned by ISd as on the authority of Yaakoob : 

• *l 

but see ^o^-l as explained by J [in the S] on the 

same authority. (TA.) 

**' " • ' f «• f 

j^.\ : see ^.^1. is It is also a pi. of **■.!. 


^».l : see *•*•). 

^» A fortress; (Mgh, Mfb, K;) like ^1 : 
(Mgh :) pl.>V». (Mgh, Mfb, K.) „^t [is the 
name of] A fortress (S, 5) in El-Medeeneh, 
(K,) ftatVt 0/ *fo»e* fry tA« ;><?<>;>& 0/ that city: 
and Ynokoob says that j^.\ signifies any square, 
roofed, house. (S, Sgh.) Imra-el-Keys says, [de- 
scribing a vehement rain,] 

.-•- .* . » « » ti 0, 
[And Teyma, (a town so called,) it left not 

tAera'n a {rtmA o/" a palm-tree, nor a square, 

roofed, house, unless raised high with stones : but 

in the Calc. ed. of the Mo'allakat, (p. 54,) for 
* > 1 * j 1 

U*-', we find UJ»t, which has the same meaning]. 

(S,Sgh.) See alsoJU-'- (TA.) Accord, to As, 

it is also pronounced \>»»t. (S.) 

•" * 

i»».l A thicket, wood, or forest ; a collection, 

(Mgh, Msb,) or an abundant collection, (K,) 0/ 
tangled, confused, or cfaue, tree*, or shrubs: 
(Mgh, Msb, K :) or it is of reeds, or canes : (S :) 
or a [place such as is termed] ya**.» of water 
collected together, in which, in consequence thereof, 
trees grow: (S in art. J6& :) [or] it signifies 
also a bed, or place of growth, of canes or reeds : 

(Mgh :) the pi. is oC^.1 and J^.1 (S, M, K) and 

Jll (M,K) and t^t, (S, M, Mgh, Msb, K,) 
[or rather this last is a coll. gen. n., of which 
iill is the n. un.,] and Jl^.1 (S, M, K) and [pi. 
of pauc] >M, (S, M, Mgh, K,) or the last but 
one is pi. of^L.1, (M,) and so is the last. (Lh, M, 
Msb.) And hence, The haunt of a lion. (TA 

in art. v^-0 — >M [in the CK>M] also 
signifies Frogs. (Sgh, K.) [App. because frogs 
are generally found in beds of canes or reeds.] 

j.jff.S signifies ^Ul ^j* l> ., or ^Ul ^.jj ; 

[accord, to different copies of the K ; see 4 ;] i. c. 

One who makes men's own selves to be objects of 

dislike, disapprobation, or hatred, to them. (K.) 

• - 
j&.\ Loathing, disliking, or regarding with 

disgust. (§, TA.)«-^-T tU t. q. tJly^U [Water 
that it loathed, disliked, or regarded with disgust]. 

[Boox. I. 


see t>»-t. 

iiUI (S, Mgh, Msb,K) and 1li\±J\ , (Lh,K,) 
the latter of the dial, of Tciyi, (Lh, TA,) or this 
is a vulgar form, (Mgh,) not allowable, (S,) and 
t luCil, (K,) with ^, (TA,) A thing well 
known; (K;) a vessel in which clothes are 
washed; (Msb;) a [vessel also called] <j£sy», 
resembling a ^jii [which is a kind of basin], in 
which clothes are washed : (Mgh :) or what is 
called in Persian £>&> [i. e. ^>ILj a snudl cup] : 
(PS:) [it probably received this last meaning, 
and some others, in post-classical times : Golius 
explains it as meaning " lagena, phiala, crater : " 
adding, "hincvulgo Fingiana [i.e. iiU-ii] calix 
vocatur: item Urceus: hydria: [referring to 
John ii. 6 :] Vas dimidite seria simile, in quo 
aqua et similiajtonuntur:" on the authority of Ibn- 
Maaroof : and, on the same authority, "Labrum 
seu vas lapideum instar pelvis, in quo lavantur 
vestes:"] pi. '^,M.\iA : (S, Mgh, Msb, K :) mean- 
ing [also] what resemble troughs, surrounding 
trees. (Msb.) 

O+i (S, Mgh, Msb, K) and t ^.'l (S, Msb, 
K) and * o*\ (ISd, TA) and t £**.* (TA) 
Water altered for the worse (S, Mgh, Msb, K) 
in taste and colour, (S, Mgh, K,)from some such 
cause as long standing, (TA,) but still drinkable : 
(Mgh, Msb :) or altered for the worse in its 
odour by oldness: or covered with [tlie green 
substance called] > T ..U.i< and with leaves : (Mgh :) 
pi. tjyf\ ; thought by ISd to be pi. of i j».\ and 
c*-t. (TA.) 


k-U : 


!• <J^> (?» Mgh. Mfb, K,) aor. - and -'; (S, 
Mfb, K;) and ^f, (S, Mgh, &c.,) aor. '- , (S, 
Mfb,) mentioned by Yz ; (S ;) inf. n. of the 
former J^l (S, Mgh, Msb, K») and ^\; (S, 
Msb.K;*) and of the latter &*-\; (S, Mgh, 
Mfb, K It (water) became altered for the 
worse (8, Mgh, Mfb, K) in taste and colour, 
(S, Mgh, K>) from some such cause as long 
standing, (TA,) but was drinkable: (Mgh, Mfb:) 
or became altered for the worse in its odour by 
oldness : or became covered with [tlie green sub- 
stance called] ^ J U fcJ * and with leaves : (Mgh :) 
k >^»l, also, said of water, signifies it became altered 
for the worse : (Th :) and in the Iktitaf occurs 
,>»»l, aor. - , which is unknown, but may be a 
mixture of two dial. vara, [namely of ,^.1 having 
for its aor. 5 and * , and ij*A having for its pret. 
O*-']- (MP)«^I He (a jCJ, or whitener 
of cloth) beat a piece of cloth or a garment [in 
washing it]. (S, K.) 

• • t 



a^r-1 (§, K) and 4^1* and LJ.I (K) t. q. UL' } 
[The ball, or elevated part, of the cheek]. (S, K.) 

Bee iiU-l. 

[in Golius's Lex. (j*-~*] The instrument 
for beating used by the jUoi [or whitener of cloth, 

in washing]: but better without*, [written i^^*,] 
because the pi. is ^jt^Syt ; or, accord, to IB, the 
pi. is ^S». (TA.) 


2. j*-1, [inf. n. >-»-U,] He made it one ; or 

'' " 

called it one : as also j*.j. (TA in art. .*»->) 

You say, k > e ~' , ^t j*-I Jfahe thou the two to be- 
come one. (K.) It is related in a trad., that 
Mohammad said to a man who was making a 
sign with his two fore fingers in repeating tlie 
testimony of the faith, [There is no deity but God, 

&c.,] j*-t j»l [meaning that he should make the 

sign with one finger only]. (S.) And «fol J»l 

means He declared God to be one ; he declared, 

or professed, the unity of Ood; as also «j»j. 

(T and L in art. j»-j.) — S^iil jl.1, (S,K,) 
• t, 

inf. n. jL^fc-U, (K,) Make thou the ten to become 

eleven, (S, K,) is a phrase mentioned by Fr on 
the authority of an Arab of the desert (S.) 

8. jtaaJI : see art j*-j : and sec what here 
next follows. 

10. o».Uwt He (a man, S) was, or became, 
alone, by himself, apart from others, or solitary ; 

Book I.] 

■yn. jiytfl ; (S, K ;) as also * j^Jt [written with 
the disjunctive alif j^JI, originally j*.~ A or 

ii%(S,TA,)orjl£ (CK.)— AiZfcAt 
He did not know it ; did not know, or had not 
knowledge, of it; did not understand it ; did not 
know the minute circumstances of it ; or did not 

m e - C- 

perceive it by any of the senses ; syn. <v js£j ^ ; 

(L, K >) '• e -> a tnm 6> or an am " r : °f tne ^' a ' - °^ 
El-Yemen. (L.) 

j»t, originally j*-j, the ^ being changed into I, 

(Msb,) One; Utit first of the numbers ; (S ;) syn. 

[in many cases] with j*.^; (S, Msb,K;) with 

which it is interchangeable in two cases, to be 

• - - » * *t 

explained below: (Msb:) pi. jU.1 and ^l^^l 

(K) and CgJMi which last occurs in a phrase 

hereafter to be mentioned ; (TA ;) or it has no 

pi. in this sense ; (Msb, K,* TA ;) and as to 
i , <■ •' • » »' 

jU-1, it may be pi. of j>»-Ij, [and originally >U.jt,] 

like ilii.'l as pi. of jJkli, (Th, Msb,) a pi. of 
pauc. (Msb.) The fern, is ♦ t^J**} only ; and 
tliis is only used in particular cases, to be shown 
below: (Msb:) most ngrce that the [J in this 
word is the characteristic of the fern, gender : but 
some say that it is to render it quasi-coordinate to 
the quadrilitcral-radical class: [this, however, is 
inconsistent with its pronunciation, which is in- 
variably iCji-l, not (JJ*.1 :] (TA :) its pi. is 
j^-1, ns though the sing, were »J*-I, like as is 

• 9 * ' 9 

said ofy^} as pi. of ^/=>i : one of the expositors 
of the Tcs-hccl writes it jmA t with damm and then 
fet-h ; hut a pi. of this measure is not applicable 
to a sing, of the measure ^jXii, with kesr. (MF.) 
The dim. of j^-l is t j^.) ; and that of i$J»-l is 
t ^.j,* 1 ^' (L in art. J»-j.) — It is interchange- 
able with j— \) in two cases: first, when it is 
used as an epithet applied to God : (Msb :) for 
jjm--^\, as an epithet, is applied to God alone, 
(Msb.K,) and signifies The One; the Sole; He 
who ha* ever been one and alone : or the Indi- 
visible : or He who has no second [to share'] in his 
lordship, nor in his essence, nor in his attributes : 
(TA :) you say, j>»-1 y I y» and j»*^1 y» : and in 
like manner, «x»-t, without the article, is used as 
an epithet specially in relation to God, and is 
interchangeable in this case [but not in other 
cases] with •fc—lj : therefore you do not say 
j»l J*-j nor j— I jtttj} and the like [but J+j 
J— l_j and j^\j ^*j* &c.] (Msb.) [Sec also 
j*.tj, in art. j>»-j.] In the phrase in the Kur 
[cxii. 1], J*-I 4&I y» Ji [Say, He is Ood, One 
God], j— I is a substitute for M ; for an inde- 
terminate noun is sometimes a substitute, for a 
determinate noun, as in another passage in the 
Kur, xcvi. 15 and 16. (S.) Secondly, it is inter- 
changeable with j^-Ij in certain nouns of number : 

(Mf b :) you say ^i* j— I [masc] and iytfc [JJ»-\ t 
[fern.] (S) [meaning Eleven : and in these two 
cases you may not substitute «x»-t^ and S j^-l^ for 
j*-l and tCj»-1 : but] in Ojj'-fJ •**■' L " ne an " 
twenty, and the like,] j»l is interchangeable with 
j>».tj. (Msb.) Ks says, When you prefix the 


article Jl to a number, prefix it to every number; 

therefore you should say, jJLaJI j».*9l CJla* U 

^ijjJI Uu"^t [WAa< dtd *Ae eleven thousand 

dirhems ?] : but the Basrees prefix it to the first 

only, and say,^A,i uUI j-i* J*»"91 C«J«4 U. (S.) 

__ In [most] cases differing from these two, there 

• , t * 

is a difference in usage between jt».l and o*-l^ : 

the former is used in affirmative phrases as a pre- 
fixed noun only, governing the noun which fol- 
lows it in the gen. case ; [as in exs. which will be 
found below ;] and is used absolutely in negative 
phrases; [as will also be seen in exs. below;] 
whereas j>»-U is used in affirmative phrases as a 
prefixed noun and otherwise : the fern. ^^».t, 
also, is only used as a prefixed noun, except in 
numbers (Msb) [and in one other instance, which 
see below]. Using j^-l and its fern, in affirmative 
phrases as prefixed nouns, you say, a^JI J»-I>VJ 
[One of the three stood] ; and l»*tj^l wJIS [One 
of them two (females) said] ; and ^jt*.l JuW 
a3"^lj| [Take thou one of the three]. (TA.) The 
phrase JkJ» oW L? Jkfc ! means A calamity: 
(K:) or, as some say, (TA, but in tlie K. " and,") 
a serpent; (K, TA ;) so called because it twists 
itself round so as to become like a Jt*J». (TA.) 
And the phrase j»N1 \JJ~-\, (L, K, TA,) in 
which the latter word has kesr to the 1 and fet-h 
to the 9-, and is pi. of the former, also written 
ji*.*^l, but this form is disapproved by MF, as 
has been shown above, (TA, [in several copies 
of the KL incorrectly written ju*.*^!,]) [lit. means 
One of the ones ; and] is applied to a great, or 
mighty, event ; (L, J£, TA ;) one that is difficult, 
distressing, grievous, or terrible. (L, TA.) You 
say, ju»-^)t ^J*-L> ^1 [the last of which words 
is here again written in several copies of the K 
.Aa^l] He brought to pass a grievous, and great, 
or mighty, event, (K, TA,) when you desire to 
express the greatness and terribleness of an event. 

(TA.) You also say, ^j*.^! «*■>■• 0"&, and 
^j j*-"^l J>«*l^, (%., TA,) the latter in one copy 
of die K written ^>j »v»-1 Jl ju^U, in which the 
latter word is pi. of the former, (TA,) and jj*-\j 
>W^1, and j^^l ^J^-J, (¥, TA,) like a phrase 
before mentioned, only the former is applied to a 
calamity, and this to an intelligent being, and 
written in the two manners before mentioned, the 
difference being only in application, (TA, [in 
several copies of the K here again written jjp «v»J 

jx^l, and in the CK j—^l ^5-x— l',]) and ^J»t 

,jjj^^I, (Et-Tes-heel,)and >U.^I ^ji-J, (TA,) 
which are expressions of the utmost praise, (I Aar, 
AHcytli, K,) [lit. Such a man is one of the ones ; 
meaning] such a one is unique among the uniques; 
(TA;) one who has no equal; unequalled; in- 
comparable. (IAar, Tes-heel.) It seems that the 
form of pi. used in the phrase ,jj j*-^)t j*.\ is 
used only as applied to rational beings ; but it is 
said in the Expositions of the Tes-heel that this 
phrase signifies One of the calamities ; the form 
of die rational pi. bekig given to nouns significant 
of things deemed great, mighty, or grievous. 


(AHeyth.) In the phrase j».NI ijJ»-}, the fem. 
forms are said to be used for the purpose of giving 
intensiveness to the signification, as though the 
meaning were ^fejjjJt <u*b, the word i^b be<ng 
[an intensive epithet] from :U> as signifying 
intelligence, or intelligence mixed with craft or 
cunning and forecast ; or by i-Alj being meant a 
calamity. (Expositions of the Fs, TA.) AHei 
thought ^jj j*-^l j>fcl to be an epidiet applied to 
a male, and j»Nt ^J»| to be applied to a 
female : but his opinion has been refuted by Ed- 
Demameenee in the Expos, of the Tes-heel : and 
this latter author there remarks, that in expressions 
meant to denote praise [of a man], j».l and 
ii.**.! are prefixed to their own proper pis., as 
Oj-*"-' and •*■*' i or to an epithet, as in the case 
of &i«M j^f [One of the learned] ; but that they 
have not been heard prefixed to generic nouns. 
(TA.) You say likewise, Ulj»( ^1 y* He is 
born of noble, or generous, ancestors, both on the 
father's and the mother's side; speaking of a 
man and of a camel. (L and K in art. j*-_j.) And 
U1 jt*>] ^t ^1 j^^l IJ^yoyu ^ None will manage 
this thing, or affair, but a noble, or generous, 
man. (AZ, L in art j-»j.) And ♦ y\ \ t m j i &mi "9 
lyjl ju»J ^1 [None will be able to perform tt but 
a noble, or generous, man]. (L in art. j»).)__ 
One instance is mentioned, of the occurrence, in 
a trad., of i_CJ*-l not used as a part of a number 
[i. e. not as a part of the compound ij^c- t_£J*-J] 
nor as a prefixed noun; viz., *~-> ^>o ^j*-I 
[One of seven] ; in which 5Lj_> is said to mean the 
nights of 'Ad [during which that tribe was de- 
stroyed], or the years of Joseph [during which 
Egypt was afflicted with dearth], (MF, from the 

Faik &c.) _ Used in a negative phrase, j*-l 
signifies Any one with whom one may talk or 
speak : and in this manner it is used without 
variation as sing, and pi. and fem. (S) as well as 
masc. (Msb.) You say, jljJI ^ ju>-l ^ [There 
is not any one in the house] : but you do not say, 
j*.l l^i [as meaning the contrary]. (S.) We 
read in the Kur [lxix. 47, this ex. of its use as a 

* ' J9 » * I • 9 J9 " 

masc. pi.], <jjj9.\j- 4ia j*.l ^_yo V^- 8 W [ And 
not any persons of you should have withheld me 
from punishing him], (S.) And in the same 
[xxxiii. 32, we find this ex. of its use as a fem. 
pi.], >t~JI t>« j*-0 >jwJ [Ye are not like any 

others of women]. (S.) __ It is also used in 

• ' * • ' 

interrogative phrases ; as in the saying, «*»-l Ja 

• * 9 I' 

IJj» J-u> ^j\j [Has any one seen the like of this?] ; 

(A'Obeyd, L ;) and in the saying, Ul< j*. C [for 

• - 1 » 

j*-l U, O, Aas any on« seen her, or tt ?]. (I., 

from a trad.) __ It is [said to be] also used in the 

sense of ',-w [meaning Anything], applied to an 

• • .i ' ! • a 

irrational being ; as in the saying, «x—l i >« jt jJy U 

ljU»- *9I There is not in the house anything, 
rational or irrational, except an ass : so that the 
thing excepted is united in kind to that from 
which the exception is made [accord, to this ren- 
dering ; but this instance is generally regarded as 
one in which the thing excepted is disunited in 
kind from that from which the exception is made]. 



(Mfb.) So too in the $ur Ix. 11, accord, to the 
reading of Ibn-Mes'ood: (Msb :) but others there 
read '^j-, which may mean any one or any thing. 
(Bd,Jel.)_^»,(¥,) asalsoji^tj^, (S, 
Msb,) as a proper name, (Msb,) is applied to 
A certain day ; (£ ;) [Sunday;] the first day of 
the weeh ; or, as some say, [i. e. as some term it,] 
the second of the meek ; (TA ;) for the Arabs are 
said, by IAar, to have reckoned the Sabbath, or 
Saturday, as the first, though they called Sunday 
the first of the days: (Mfb in art. *-»»-:) it is 
sing., and masc. : (Lb :) pi. [as above, i. e.] 

jU.7 (S, Msb, $) and o»ji.l : (K :) or it has no 
pi. (K : [but in the TA this last observation is 
very properly restricted, as relating only to j*-l 
as syn. with j»-Ij, and as applied to any unknown 
person.]) In this sense, it has no dim. (Sb, in S, 
art. jj— »l.) — iU-^t in lexicology signifies What 
have been transmitted by some of the lexicologists, 
but not by such a number of them as cannot be 
supposed to have agreed to a falsehood: what has 
been transmitted by this larger number is termed 
j3t>U. (Mz 3rd ay.) 

, ■ ' V ferns, of j»l, q. 

1*J*.I The unity of God; (Msb;) as also 
«i »"» - _ 

i-Jl j*-^- (L and K in art. j^-j) 

- - 1 , .1 

>U-I [accus. of jU.1] is imperfectly decl., be- 
cause of its deviation from its original, (S, K,) 
botli in form and in meaning ; (S ;) [being 

changed in form from I •**-!> and in meaning 

* * * * * * » * * 

from I j— \ } to I j*-\) tj»1_} : (see «i»*5ll} :)] you 

say, >U-I jU-t Ij3V» [j 1 *- 1 being repeated for 
die purpose of corroboration,] meaning, 7%«y 
came one [and] one, one [and] one; or one [by] one, 

one [by] one. (S, K.) The dim. of >U.I is * j v m-\, 
perfectly decl., liko w-«Ju [q. v.] &c. (S, in art. 

• •» I „ f , < 

>-»-! dim. of j»l, q. v. 

«... J . . 1 

jk«»t : see jU.1. 

l£j*»>l dim. of i£»A*>l fem. of jsJ, q. v. 

i. J,-.' (s, Msb,?:) 4&, (? ; TA .) *»•/, 

(Msb, £,) inf. n. i>*-l, (Msb,) or ijm*\, and i^-t , 
(TA,) or this last is a simple subst ; (Msb ;) and 
4a* J^.1, aor. * , inf. n. &L\ ; (Kr, TA ;) He 
retained enmity against him in his bosom, watching 
for an opportunity to indulge it, or exercise it ; 
or hid enmity against him in his bosom ; or bore 
rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite, against 
him : (S, Mfb, $ :*) and he was affected with 
anger ($, TA) against him, such as came upon 
him suddenly from the retention or hiding of 
enmity in the bosom, or from rancour, male- 
volence, malice, or spite. (TA.) 

3. ZmS, (TA,) inf. n. S^£, (S, ?,) He 

treated him, or regarded him, with enmity, or 
hostility. (?,•£,• TA.) 

J-1 — M*\ 

i~»~\ Retention of enmity in the bosom, with 
watchfulness for an opportunity to indulge it, 
or exercise it ; or concealment of enmity in the 
bosom ; or rancour, malevolence, malice, or spite : 
(S, Mfb, K :) and anger (I£, TA) coining upon 
one suddenly therefrom : (TA :) pi. ^j»-\. (S, 
M?l>, K.) It is said in the S that one should 
not say <U»- ; and this is disallowed by As and 
Fr and Ibn-El-Faraj : in the T it is said that it is 
not of the language of the Arabs; and As is 
related to have disapproved of Et-Tirimmah for 
using its pi. in poetry : but it is said in a trad., 
<U— w>«JI \^tti {fti U [There is not between 
me and the Arabs retention of enmity in the 
bosom, &c.]; and it occurs in another trad., in 
a similar phrase ; and the pi., in a third trad. ; 
therefore we say that it is a dial. var. of rare 
occurrence. (TA.) 

f-\ : see art. ^£.1 


C-i.1 fern, of ~.l, q. v. in art. ^»-l. 

1. Ju».l, (S, A, L, &c.,) in the first pers. of 

which, Oj>*-1, [and the like,] the i is generally 
changed into O, and incorporated into the [aug- 
mentative] O, [but in pronunciation only, for 

A . i 
one writes o.**-' and the like,] aor. - , imperative 

±±., originally J*-5 1 > (?> ^0 which latter form 
sometimes occurs, [but with j in the place of J 
when the I is pronounced with damm,] (TA,) 

inf. n. Ill (S, L, Mfb, K, &c.) and Jli.13, (S, 
L, K,) the latter having an intensive signification ; 
(MF ;) and S»-) is a dial, var., as mentioned 
by Ibn-Umm-Kasim and others on the authority 
of AHei ; (MF in art J*L-3 ;) He took ; he took 
with his hand; he took hold of; (S, A, L, Mfb, 
K;)athinrr. (S, L.) You say,>li-JI j£ and 
>liuiJl/ S±. Take thou, or take thou with thy 
hand, or take thou hold of, the nose-rein of the 
camel : (S, L, Mfb :) the w> in the latter phrase 

being redundant. (Mfb.) [And »juj J*-\, lit. 
He took his hand, or arm ; meaning t he aided, 
or assisted, him : a phrase of frequent occurrence.] 
And t*£H* ju ^yi* j«-l ^ He prevented, restrained, 
or withheld, such a one from doing that which he 

desired; as though he laid hold upon his hand, 

* * * * * t * * * * - f 
or arm: (L:) and oj^jri t* oj-> f<*i {J* -"-*"' 

[signifies the same]. (K in art. jJ0.)__Also, 

inf. n. Jl».I, 7/c (ooA, or received; contr. of 

| ^k«l. (L.) [Hence,] <U« J—.1, +7/e received 
from him traditions, and tA« ZtA«. (TA passim.) 
__t [He took, or derived, or deduced, a word, 
a phrase, and a meaning.] _— I He took, received, 
or admitted, willingly, or wt<A approbation; he 
accepted. (B, MF.) So in the ?Lur [vii. 198], 
y\j&\ S*. X [Take thou willingly, or accept thou, 
superfluous property, or such as is easily spared 
by others]. (MF.) So too in the same [iii. 75], 

\Jj-o\ jjiii (_jj* ^J->*-b t [And do ye accept 
my covenant to that effect ?]. (B.) [And in the 
phrases, SlJ^J! Ji W ^V J^i^ ^i*-', 

[Book I. 

(Jel ii. 60,) and S\jy3\ ^ W J^o\ ^Js., (Idem 
ii. 87,) + We accepted your covenant to do 
according to what is in the Book of the Law 
revealed to Moses.] «iUt J>*. [is elliptical, and] 
means '!^*Jl_j i^JI JUp e>^ Jy I U »x*- 1 [^icrepr 
thou what I say, and dismiss from thee doubt 
and obstinate disputation]. (S, L.) — He took 
a thing to, or for, himself ; took possession of it; 
got, or acquired, it; syn. j U- ; (Z, Er-Raghib, B ;) 
which, accord, to Z and Er-Raghib and others, 
is the primary signification ; (MF ;) and J-a*-- 
(B.) [See also 8.] — [ lit took and kept ;] he 
retained; he detained : as in the ]£ur [xii. 78], 
Ait£« U j*-l J^i [Therefore retain thou one of 
us in his stead]. (B.)_ [He took, as meaning 

J»A »• * ' t 

he took away. Hence,] je—H 4JU JA.I Journeying, 

* .5i 

or travel, took from him strength ; (»>*)t being 
understood ;) weakened him. (Har p. 529.) And 
y^dM ^ J^.1, (Mgh,) and ^ill! o^, (Mfb,) 
He clipped, or cut off from, (Mgh, Mfb,) the 
mustache, (Mgh,) and the hair. (Mfb.)_JEfc, 
or it, took by force ; or seized : (B :) t he, or it, 
overcame, overpowered, or subdued : said by some 
to bo the primary signification. (MF.) [See 
also I^JLft » .U.I, &c, in nrt. ^ic : and Jyi ,>• »J^.t, 
&c, in art. Jy.] It is said in the Kur [ii. 256], 

*•* ..I. Kit ' 

>y "n)j <U_> «Jk».U "^ f A cither drowsiness nor 
sleep shall seize [or owrawie] 7/tm. (B.) [And 
you say, Sj>»j <uj»l fA tremour seized, took, 

affected, or influenced, him. And <uk/ »J^-' 
■f- /ft* ft«Wy affected him with a desire to evacuate 

it.] You say also, v'i~" *«* •**■' t TVie nunc 
affected him, orinfiuenced him, so that he became in- 
toxicated. (TAinart. J*j.) jui-l (Mfb 

in art jy, &c.) and ^t^y J^-l ( 'S ' » art. ^y**-, 
&c.) f [It had an overpowering influence upon 
the head] ; meaning wine. (Mfb, K.) And 
JLLjW Ji-t [It (food, &c.) choked], (IAar in 
art. w-j in the TA, and S in art. jlw, &c.) And 

JJli jl» aJ Jt».C •$ t [Nothing that any one 
»nay »ay »e»'W mm any power, or effect, or tn- 
fluence, upon him] ; meaning that he obeyeth no 
one. (L in art. C~e).)_2fe took captive. (L, 

Mfb, B.) So in die £ur [ix. g], Q t fyi fftjffiS 

•i Ji^ «J ii -* i»^ 

>kjjk«-j j+\y£ j +} *i-e^ [7%e» «tay ye fAc oe- 
lievers in a plurality of gods w/iercver, or wAen- 
«»«•, ye find them, and take them captives], (Bd, 
L, B.)^See also 2, in three places. — He 
gained the mastery over a person, and hilled, or 
slew, him ; (Zj, L;) as also t J^l : (L :) or simply, 
t lie killed, or slew. (B.) It is said in the I£ur 

[xl. 5], ♦jji-W jiJf-j* *" J^» « S ^* » meaning 
[Anrf erery nation hath purposed against their 
apostle] that they might gain the mastery over 
him, and slay him ; (Zj, L ;) or t that they might 

slay him. (B.) t He (God, Mfb) destroyed a 

person : (Mfb, MF :) and t extirpated, or exter- 
minated. (MF.) ^rtyXi <&T>ii±.U [in the 
K. ur iii. 9 and xl. 22] means But God destroyed 
them for their sins. (Jel.)__I He punished, or 
chastised; (L, Mfb,B,K, MF;) as also* ji.f: 

i » • I 

(L, Msb, MF :) as in the phrasrs, aJJo »J^t 

Book I.] 

(M|b, $•) and *y * iji.T, inf. n. of the latter 
Sj*.l£*, (S, L, Msb, £,) : he punithed, or chas- 
tised, him for his sin, or offence: (Mfb:) and 
<ui Xf J*-l means t A« wa* restrained and re- 
quited and punished for his sin, or offence : (L :) 
or, accord, to some, J^.1 signifies he extirpated, 
Or exterminated; and * «**.! he punished, or cAa»- 
twerf, without extirpating, or exterminating. 
(MF.) [For * J*J,] some say, (S, L.) 
which is not allowable, (£,) accord, to some; but 
accord, to others, it is a chaste form ; (MF ;) of 
the dial, of El- Yemen, and used by certain of the 
seven readers [of the Kur-an] in the instance of 
'Jb\ '^aidS^t «9 [ii. 226 and v. 91] ; and the 
inf. n. in that dial, is S j±-\y», and the imperative 
is iiSy (Msb.)^I He made a violent assault 
upon a person, and mounded him much. (K, TA.) 
[You say also, <«jLJL> »jJL.\, meaning ^ He as- 
sailed him with his tongue; vituperated him; 
sjwke against him.} — [ He took, tooh to, or 
adopted.] You say,^ij».t .U-l and^^kji-j Sec.: 
see Ji.1, below. And I ji> Jj> ,J> ji-l [He 

+ * •* ****** rt 

'oofc xuc/i a nW] : and *jU^ *t «jU^ L >c J*±.\ [he 
tooh the may by, or on, the right of him, 
or it, or the left of him, or it]. (S in art. 
jiii.) [And>>JW i*-', and>>JI ^J>, (the 
former the more common, the latter occurring 
ia art. 1>j»- in the K,) t He tooh the course pre- 
scribed by prudence, discretion, precaution, or 
good judgment ; he used precaution : and, like 
■U.llb Jko-I, f A« foofc tAe jure course in his affair.] 
And I j J>». J^.1 f 1/e tooA care ; became cautious, 
or vigilant. (Bd in iv. 73 and 103.) [And Jwi.1 
O"^ tJ^ W + ^ e to"*- *°> or adopted and fol- 
lowed, or adhered to, what such a one said : see Har 
p. 3U7 ; where it is said that JjU when thus used 
is made trans, by means of v because it implies 
the meaning of £-. '">.]— .He too A to, set about, 
began, or commenced; as in the saying, JjuL; Jji-I 
ljj> Zfe tooh to, set about, began, or commenced, 
doing such a thing ; in which case, accord, to Sb, 
jkB-l is one of those verbs -which do not admit of 
one's putting the act. part. n. in the place of the 
verb which is its enunciative : [i. e., one may not 
say 'jkftU in the place of J-*ij in the phrase above :] 
and as in \J£» ^ S»-\ He began, commenced, or 
entered upon, such a thing. (L.)__[It is used 
in a variety of other phrases, in which the primary 
meaning is more or less apparent ; and several of 
these will be found explained with other words 
occurring therein. The following instances may 

be here added.] __iU, ^j J».L. Jj^Jo [A road 
leading into, or through, a tract of sand]. (KL in 
art. jji.) And 4-^JI £ J> j^J' >irf i*I 
[The road lead them otherwise than in the beaten 

trach]. (T* and A in art. r> j.) Ji3 JjJ U 

^». j-~» ^tfi. t My eye hath not seen thee for 
some time; like jfySi U. (T in art. jit.) And 

^y^t o J>i-U j>».l ^j^JI ^ *«• [explained to me by 
Ibr D as meaning' t There is not in the tribe any 
one whom my eye regards as worthy of notice or 
resect by reason of his greatness therein]. (TA 

in art.^*-.)_lju »jm» ojui-l, and Ujjjm : see 

8. = 'jjJ, aor. - , inf. n. J*-l, (S, L, K,) .He (a 
young camel) suffered heaviness of the stomach, 
and indigestion, from the milk : (S :) or became 
disordered in his belly, and affected with heaviness 
of the stomach, and indigestion, from taking much 

milk. (L.) He (a camel, L, K, or a sheep or 

goat, L) became affected by madness, or demoniacal 

possession ; (K ;) or by what resembled that. (L.) 
*.»•* • « t . . * • * _. , 

-y Oj*-l, aor. - , inf. n. j^l, Jits eye be- 
came affected by inflammation, pain, and swelling, 
or ophthalmia, 

aor. - 

inf. n, 

(Ibn-Es-Seed, L, K.»)==J-.I, 
Siji.1 , /i (milk) wai, or became, 

(£.) [SeeJ-U.] 

2. i5 ji-t, (S, L, K,*) inf. n. 

XA (8, L,) 

<SA« captivated, or fascinated, him, (namely, her 
husband,) and restrained him, by a hind of en- 
chantment, or charm, and especially so as to with- 
hold him from carnal conversation with other 
women ; (S,* L, K,* TA ;) as also * aj S**.\ ; and 
t ajJlA.T [of which the inf. n. is app. iU~;J ]. (L, 

TA.) A woman says, t J U» >^*-3' -^ captivate, 
or fascinate, my husband, by a hind of enchant- 
ment, or charm, and withhold him from other 
women. (L, from a trad.) And one says, of a 
man, <u!j-»l ,j* J^->j 2T« withholds others [by a 
kind of enchantment, or charm,] from carnal 
conversation with his wife. (Mfb.) The sister of 
Subh El-'Adce said, in bewailing him, when he 
had been killed by a man pushed towards him 

upon a couch-frame, or raised couch, V Oj^l 

j& jSjte& «*fWtj i^rOii J^Jij ^^i <& 

^5UI -lilc j*-t [J withheld from thee by enchant- 
ment the rider and the runner and the walker and 
the sitter and the stander, and did not so withhold 
from thee the prostrate]. (L.) And one says of 

a beautiful garment, »J^.U o^ 1 " ->*•' [/' 
captivated hearts in a manner peculiar to it] : 
(K in art. j-o»- : [in the CK, incorrectly, o Jki.1 
and .jyiji:]) and <^JJL> Jl^.1 [He, or tl, ca;»- 
tivated his heart ; or] A« [or it] pleased him, or 
excited his admiration. (TA in art. a) I.) ass 

jj-UI J^-t, inf. n. as above, 2fe made the milk 
sour. (£.) [SeelfcT.] 

- % * » * » 

3. Jyi-I, inf. n. »J^I£* : see 1, in the middle 

portion of the paragraph, in five places. 

4. Jk»-1, inf. n., app., iU~>l : see 2. 

8. Jut, .7.11 [written with the disjunctive alif 
JjLZjI] occurs in its original form ; and is changed 
into J»JI [with the disjunctive alif Jw>JI] ; this 

being of the measure JjusI from J^.1, the [radical] 
• being softened, and changed into O, and incor- 
porated [into the augmentative O] : hence, when 
it had come to be much used in the form of Jjuil 
[thus changed], they imagined the [former] O to 
be a radical letter [unchanged], and formed from 
it a verb of the measure J<ai, aor. Jjuu ; saying, 
aor. ii > '.' , (S, L, Msb,*) inf. n. j— J and 

(Msb:) and ~jti-Z* I [written with the dis- 
junctive alif JaLZ.'l], of which exs. will be found 
below, is also used for Jxi»3l ; one of the two Os 

being changed into ^, like as ^ is changed into 

I • t 

Cj in Cw [for ^J"] : or J.*.-., I may be of the 


measure Jjou-1 from JukJ ; one of the two os 
being suppressed ; after the manner of those who 
say oJJ* for cJlXJU: (8, L:) and IAth says 

■I ' 

that j*»3t, in like manner, is of the measure s J*Ci\ 

from JmJi ; not from J^l : (L and K in art. 

Jut.? :) but IAth is not one who should contradict 

J, whose opinion on this point is corroborated 

by the fact that they say ypl from <ljl , and i>*3l 

• • •» ,-a- #•• * 

from fj^*\, and J^l from J*l ; and there are 

other instances of the same kind : or, accord, to 
some, JufeJI is from J^, a dial. var. of .*•.!, 
and is originally J^J)t. (MF.) [The various 
significations of JuteJI and jdi-j and J*i.. ~ A will 
be here given under one head.] _ You say, 
JUiJI J, l^j-Liij, (S,L,?,») and ^jLi\ J, 
(Mfb,) with two hemzehs, (S, L,^C,) or, correctly, 
I^Jul ijt , with one hemzeh, [or 1^ J*~^l,] as two 
hemzehs cannot occur together in one word, 
(marginal note in a copy of the S,) [but in a 
case of wafl, the first hemzeh being suppressed, 
the second remains unchanged,] They took, or 
seized, (1j.i*.l,) one another (S, L, Mfb, 1£) in 
fight, (S, L,) and t'n war ; (Mfb ;) and so 
bjj^JI. (Mfb.) And j>^&\ J»^t The people, 
of company of men, wrestled together, each taking 
hold in some manner upon him wlio wrestled with 
him, to throw him down. (L, TA.) — [J*-Jl, 
as also ♦ -It* " A, and] J-m-3, aor. - , (K in art. 
J-i-3,) inf. n. iLi and jJLi, (TA in art. J»-3,) 
likewise signifies t. q. J^.1, (K in art. J—~J, and 
B and TA in the present art.,) as meaning He 
took a thing to, or for, himself; tooh possession 
of it ; 170?, or acquired, it ; syn. j\t— and J~a»-- 
(B, TA.) Some read, [in the $ur, xviii. 76,] 

1^4-1 AgAe oJ-Jj [Thou mightest assuredly have 
taken' for thyself a recompense for it]: (S,L, K 
in art. j«J, and TA in the present art :) this 
is the reading of Mujahid, (Fr, TA,) and is 
authorized by I 'Ab, and is diat of Aboo-'Amr 
Ibn-El-'Ala and AZ, and so it is written in the 
model-copy of the £ur, and so the readers [in 
general] read: (AM, L, TA:) so read Ibn-Ketheer 
and the Bafrees; he and Yaakoob and Haff 
pronouncing the J ; the others incorporating it 
[into the O] : (Bd :) some read OJ> r } ; (L 
and K in art. Jj--' ;) but these read at variance 
widi the scripture. (AM, L, TA.) Lijl ™ S-- ' •■ i l 
is a phrase mentioned by Mbr as used by some 
of the Arabs, (S, L,) and signifies i. q. UJaJ I 
[He took for himself a piece of land], (S, L, K.) 
And IjJJ Ati3\ [in the ^Lur, ii. 110, &c.,] signifies 
He got a son, or offspring. (Bd &c. See also 
below.) And J**J, aor. - , inf. n. j*i_3 and .U-j, 
also signifies He gained, acquired, or earned, 
wealth, (L, and Mfb in arts. j*-l and J-i^,) or 
a thing. (Mf b.)^t j^ ^^JLc ▼ JA . 7 »1 and^* jUc 
signify alike, t. q. J^Jt [2T< did fo *Aem a 
benefit, or favour ; as though he earned one 
for himself in prospect, making it to be incum- 
bent on them as a debt to him]: (ISh:) and 
U«ju »jw« oj-LJI means [in like manner, 
as also UjjJto »j-^ * oJ«-(, and Ij^;, (and J*^l 
4-s has a similar meaning; see Kttr xviii. 


85 ;)] I did to him a benefit, or favour ; syn. 
4)1 <£j-A (Mh1> in art. ^J-.) — j_»5l also 
signifies 2fe nw//c a thing ; syn. J-»* ; like J*-J, 
[aor. - ,] inf. n. J-«j and J-wJ: (L:) he made, or 
manufactured, a bow, a water-skin, &c, I jib ^j-o 
o/* »»rA a tAtnjr : Ae wia<f«, or prepared, a dish 
of food, a medicine, &c. : either absolutely or 
for himself. (The Lexicons passim.) — Also 
He made, or constituted, or appointed; syn. 
Jji— ; doubly trans.; (B, Msb;) and so J-iJ. 
(Msb in art. j-«J.) You say, Uu.J-0 »j*-JI He 
made him [or took him as] a friend ; (Msb in 
the present art.;) and so »j-wj. (Idem in art. 
j»J.) And f$>i »j-w5t [in'thcKur ii. 63 and 
231, &c.,] means He made him, or it, a subject 
of derision. (Bd, J el.) And tjJj » j»-jl [in 
tho same, xii. 21 and xxviii. 8,] He made him, 
or took or adopted him as, a son. (Bd. See 
also above.) 

10. J^..'..iT, written with the disjunctive alif 

j-L£*l : see 8, in four places. [Other meanings 

• * I*' ' 

may be inferred from explanations of j-»U...«, 

q. v. infra.] 

j-U inf. n. of J-U, q.v.—f A way, or »w.n- 
ner, of life ; as also t j-U. (8, L, (.) You say, 

,*-jUU-J .>••■ O^ ** H-*i, (9i Li K,*) and 

♦ _V» J-U , (L, ]£,) tho former of the dial, of 
Tcmecm, and the latter of the dial, of El-Hijaz, 
(TA,) meaning t The sons of such a one went 
away, or passed away, and those who took to their 
way of life, (S, L, It,) and adopted their manners, 
or dispositions : (K :) and ^»» j-U j-U ^» and 

* V* j"U , and >• J*. I » j-i-l ,>• [in the CK 

^»j_wl] and *^*J-U, signify [virtually] the 
t j j » S * » f • » • —>*'<* 

same : (K :) or >»>J-U J-U u-* nn(1 f >•* J-U 

iif. .- **4*l***f *' f.t ' 

signify [properly] ^J^wj^a j*U a j-U ^>o [<Ao*e 

n>Aom <Ae*r way of life took, or influenced]. (ISk, 

S, L.) One says also, >li)l ,ic o# JJcU 

* « J-U j-U Uj, with kesr, meaning f [iSucA a 
one wa» appointed prefect over Syria,] and he 
did not take to that good way of life which it was 
incuml>ent on him to adopt : you should not say 

»Jh_L.1 : (AA, S, L :) or it means and what was 

adjacent to it : (Fr, L :) or, accord, to the Wa?ee, 

. . . * ' J ' t * 1 •** * ' • * 

one says, in this case, " »J-»-l j-i.1 Uj and s, J.-..I 

and T • J-U, with kesr and fet-h and damm [to the 
hemzch, and with the i marfooah, as in instances 
before]. (Et-Tedmuree, MF.) One also says, 

t U J-L.L. O j-W L* c-!a_» J, (S, L,) with kesr to 

* ** ' » • < 

the I, (L,) [in a copy of the 8 Uj-Uy, which 

seems to be also allowable, accord, to the dial, of 

Temeem,] meaning Wert thou of us, then thou taken to, or wouldst take to, our manners, 

or dispositions, and fashion, (8, L,) and garb, and 

way of life. (L.) The words of the poet, 

. * > • . - • - * * j j» j ty* 

• *V=> j_»b U j-U U. V-^» JL» • 

I Aar explains as meaning ylnrf were ye of us, we 
had caught and restored to you your camels : but 
no other says so. (L.) —_ J-i.^! >>*J 7%e 3/an- 

*»'onj <>/■ the Moon ; (S, L, K ;) also called jty+i 
• ty^t; (L; [see art ,y ;]) called by the former 


appellation because the moon every night enters 
(,J JukW) one of those mansions : (S, L :) or the 
stars which are cast at those [devils] who listen by 
stealth [to the conversations of the angels] : (L, K :) 
but the former explanation is the more correct. 
(L.) See also JU.1. 

Jti»t, whence » J-i.1 JuU U : see J»l. ___ It is 
also a pi. of iU-l ; (S, L ;) and of j-i.1 or i J-i.1 , 
explained below with iU-t. (L.) 

J*.t [The act o/ taking, taking with the hand, 

tec], a subst. from J>i_l. (S, L, Msb.) — See 

« • t * ' 
also J->>l, in nine places. —And see iU-l 

Also A mark made with a hot iron upon a cameTs 

side when a disease therein is feared. (K.) 

j-U Heaviness of the stomach, and indigestion, 

of a young camel, from the milk. (]£.) [See 
. t * > l 

j_U.]__Sec also j_>t. 

j-wl A young camel disordered in his belly, and 
affected with heaviness of the stomach, and indi- 
gestion, from taking much milk. (AZ, Fr, L.) 

[See also ^U»J-j..] A camel, or a young camel, 

or a sheep or goat, affected by what resembles 
madness, or demoniacal possession. (L.)_— A 
man affected with inflammation of the eye ; with 
pain and swelling of the eye ; with ophthalmia ; 

(S, L ;) as also * j-i.U— «. (L.) See also this 
latter. _ See also j__t. 

j-i.1 (S, L, 1£) and * j-i.1, (Ibn-Es-Seed, L, 
K,) which latter is the regular form, (L,) Inflam- 
mation of the eye ; pain and swelling of the eye ; 
ophthalmia. (S, L, 1£.) 

■ * • i . # * f _ « , 

I J-U [inf. n. un. of j-*.l, viw act o/ taking, 

Six. : an act of punishment, or chastisement, or 
r/ic Me ; as in the Kur lxix. 10 : pi. ol j-i.1]. — 
^yjl j-i.1 Ij j».t 7%ey tooA t/teir ^iace* o/ aoode. 
(IAth and L, from a trad.) 

i>ij _ , . . . , 

S J-kl ^1 manner o/ taking, or seising, of a man 

with whom one is wrestling: pi. j-i.1. (L.) — 

A kind of encfiantment, or fascination, like j**-*, 

(S, L, Msb,* K,) which captivates the eye and the 

like, (L,) and by which enchantresses withhold 

their husbands from other women ; called by the 

vulgar i»bj and jJLe ; and practised by the women 

in the time of ignorance : (TA :) or a kind of 

bead (ijj*; S, L, K) with which one captivates, 

or fascinates, or re«trata« ; (]£ ;) with which 

women captivate, or fascinate, or re»trat», men, 

(8, L,) and withhold them from other women : 

(L:) or *. q. -^5,. (A.) — A pitfall dug for 

s * * l I * »' • * 
catching a lion. (A, TA.) __jUI »j_i.l JjjjV jiW 

[Strive thou to be before the time called (that of) 
jUI » J_U nntA tAy wooden instrument for pro- 
ducing fire ; i. e. haste thou to use it before that 
time;] means <Ae time a little after the prayer 
of sunset; asserted to be the worst time in which 
to strike fire. (£.) 

• ' • *.' . 

SJ-i.1 : see j U-t. 

iU.1 and ' SiU.1 A pool of water left by a 
torrent : pi. j-kl : ( AO, K :) both signify the 
same: (L:) or * »3-i.l signifies a thing like a 

[Book I. 

t » 
pool of water left by a torrent; and iU.1 is its 

pi. [or a coll. gen. n.] ; and the pi. of this latter 
is j*.!, like as wy»-» is pi. of ^^=3, and some- 
times it is contracted into j-i.1 : (S, L :) the like 
of this is said by Aboo-'Adnan : (L :) and OliU.1 
is also a pi. of SiU.1 , occurring in a trad., and sig- 
nifying pools which receive the rain-water, and 
retain it for drinkers : (IAth, L :) or the correct 
word is iU.1 , without 5, and it signifies a place 

where beasts assemble at a pool of water left by a 

« » i 
torrent; and its pi. is j->.l (A A, A'Obeyd, L) 

and iU.1, which latter is extr. : (L :) but as to 
* SiU.1 , it has a different signification, which will 
be found below ; i. e. land of which a man takes 
possession for himself, &c. : (AA, L :) or JU.I is 
a coll. gen. n., and * »iU-J is its n. un., and sig- 
nifies a receptacle made for water to collect therein : 
and V J-i.1 signifies a thing that one digs for him- 
self, in the form of a watering-trough, which 
retains water for some days ; and its pi. is 

O' j-»-l : ( L :) and * j-wl and * i j-i.1 also signify 
a thing that one digs in the form of a watering- 
trough; and the pi. is j-U and jU.1. (L.) In a 
trad, of Mesrook Ibn-El-Ajda', iU.1 are likened 
to the Companions of Mohammad ; and it is added, 
that one * SiU.1 suffices for a rider ; and one, for 
two riders ; and one, for a company of men : (S, 
L :) meaning that among them were the young 
and the old, and the possessor of knowledge and 
the possessor of more knowledge. (L.)_See 

also SiU.1. 

» . 

Je-vl t. q. t i>i-U [Taken ; taken with the 
hand; &c.]. (Msb.) — A captive: (S, L, Msb, 
K :) fem. with S. (S, L.) Hence the saying, 
tAe-JI j>e*i.l o-° V*^ 9 ' More lying than the 
captive of the army: meaning him whom his 
enemies have taken captive, and whom they desire 
to conduct them to his people, and who lies 
to them to his utmost. (Fr, L.) [Sec another 
ex. voce ^jU.'.-i.]— A strange, or foreign, old 
man. (K.) 

5JU.I Land which a man, (S, L, Kl,) or a Sul- 
tan, (S, L,) taliesfor himself; as also * iU.1 : (S, 
L, K :) or land which a man takes for himself, and 
brings into a state of cultivation after its having 
been waste : (AA, Mgh, L :) or waste land which 
the owner gives to him who shall cultivate it : 
(Mgh :) and land which the Imam gives to one, 
not being property, (!£,) or not being the property 

of another. (TA, as from the I£.) See also 

JU-I , in five places. _ Also The handle of a 
[shield of the kind called] tU -j - *. ; (K ; [in the L 

with the «. before the -. ;]) also 
called its >J\i$. (L.) C *" 

i JgM A thing that is taken by force. (L.) 
[See also j**.l.] 

• n 

iUfc.1 One who takes eagerly, or greedily : whence 
1 1> • ii j •( . 
the saying, iUi iU.1 ^1 \Z*i\ U Thou art none 

otlier than one who taketh a thing eagerly, or 

greedily, and then throweth it away quickly. (A.) 

j-i.1, (as in some copies of the K, in both of 

Book I.] 

the senses here explained,) or * J*.1, (as iu other 
copies of the r>, and in the L and TA, [but the 
former is the more agreeable with the form of the 
pi.,]) A camel beginning to become fat; (L, K ;) 
or to become aged: ($:) pl.i*.»jt. (L.)-Milk 
that bites the tongue; syn. voji. (&•) [See 

Jki.U [A place where, or whence, a thing is 
taken : pi. .UU.] [Hence,] ^£jl i*-U The 
places whence birds are taken. (K, TA.) — [The 
source of derivation of a word or phrase or mean- 
ing.] —A way [which one takes] ; as in the 
phrase, ^>'fy i*-U" &- Se went the nearest 
way. (Msb. in art. j-a±.) — [See also 2, last 
sentence but one.] 

• 't' *• \ 

i>».U : see »-l. 

opinion until after mine shall have been given], 
(TA.) You say, Sj^lj »>fc.U *i* ^u [i« went 
back, &c., ^r<m Aim, or it, once]. (Lh.) And 
» **J| ^ ^i.VJ, or ^*9«, Be went back, &c., 
/row tAe thing, or «Ae' ajfat'r : Ae was, or became, 
6eAi«<f, behindhand, or backward, with respect to 
it: he held back, hung back, refrained, or ab- 
stained, from it; and *J* *>.U-I signifies the 
same. (The Lexicons in many places.) «U- tjtt 

**& ▼ 0)j*&>. yJZ&t in *« S™' Tii - 32 and 
other places', means And when their time is come, 
for punishment, tAey will not remain behind, or 
be respited, [any while, or] <Ae shortest time : or 
*Aey shall not seek to remain behind, by reason of 
intense terror. (Bd.) 

10 : see 5, in three places. 

t ( 


(S,) or behind. ($.) And \^/f i B \ * 
tired backwards]. (A.) Andlji.tȣ.: see;*.!, 
in two places. 

'-• \ , '* i * ,'* 

»jm.\ and 5^-v : see^i. 

ijL\ and »i*>W: aeej±.T, in five places. 

l\i\i 'tiki I sold it (namely the article of 
merchandise, TA) with postponement of the pay- 
ment; upon credit; for payment to be made at 
a future period ; syn. b^> (§> A > ¥ '• e< 

4^. (§.) 

* ' » 

ijm.\ and lji-\i : see j*A. 

^ji.1 : see Ji.T, of which it is the fem. : and 
see also fi-\. 

,UJI ^>* j^-'yo j4-j -^ man nninAeld [by a 
kind of enchantment or cluirm (see 2)] from 
women. (L.) 

jri't- : see what follows. 

Ji-*'-"* [Requiring to be clipped; i. e.] long; 
applied to hair. (I£.) ■ Lowering his head, or 
stooping, (As, S, L, K,) by reason of inflammation 
of the eyes, or ophthalmia, (As , S, L,) or fry 
reason of pain, (As, S, L, £,) or from some other 
cause; (Lj) as also t j*.', q. v. (TA.) Lowly, 
or submissive, (A A, L, !£,) by reason of disease; 
as also ▼ J*-J>-e. (AA, L.) 


2. >J, (S, K, &c.,) inf. n. ^4.0, ($,) is trans. 
(S, K,&c.) and intrans.: (K:) as a trans, verb it 
signifies He made to go back or backwards, to 
recede, retreat, retire, or retrograde : lie put, or 
drove, back : he put, or placed, behind, or after; 
back, or backward: he made to be behind, or 
posterior, or last: he made to remain behind, hold 
back, hang back, or lag behind : he kept, or AeW, 
frocA : Ae postponed, put off, procrastinated, de- 
ferred, delayed, or retarded : he made backward, 
or late: contr. of j>j*. (Msb, TA.)—.^^*.! 
jjyi ^1\ He granted me a delay, or postponement, 
to a certain term, or period. (TA in art. J»-l.) 
s= For its significations as an intrans. verb, see 5, 
in two places. 

6. j^.0 is quasi-pass, of the trans, verb j*.\ ; 
(S, A, Msb ;) i. e. He, or it, went back or JacA- 
wards, drew back, receded, retreated, retired, or 
retrograded : became put ^ov driven, back : became 
put, or placed, behind, or after : became behind, 
posterior, or last : he remained behind, or in the 
rear; held back, hung back, lagged behind, or 
delayed; was, or became, backward, or late : it was, 
or became, kept bach, postponed, put off, procras- 
tinated, deferred, delayed, or retarded : contr. of 
j,"jX> : (TA :) and * jiX*\ is syn. therewith ; 
(S, K :) and " jm-\, inf. n. j«±.U, signifies the 
same, being intrans. as well as trans. (K.) An 
ex. of the latter occurs in a saying of Mohammad 

— '•*■*'«• i /. 
to 'Omar : . J* " wU Retire thou from me : or 
*^ •* ■ 

the meaning is, 2JUIj ^c- yk.\ [hold thou back 
from me thine opinion; or reserve thou thine 

'jiA [an epithet variously explained]. One 
says', in reviling, (S, TA,) but not when the 
object is a female, (TA,) 'j^\ «M J*i*, (Th, S, 
A,&c.,) and v^l, (M,'&c.,) or this latter is 
wrong, (Meshari'k of 'Iy4d, Mgh, Msb,) as is 
also t>.^l, (Meshdrik of 'Iyad,) meaning J May 
God alienate, or estrange, from good, or pros- 
perity, or may God curse, him who is absent 
from us, (A, Msb, TA,) distant, or remote : 
(A, Msb :) or <Ae owteart ; <Ae alienated : (Msb :) 
or him who is put back, and cast away : so says 
Sh : or, accord, to ISh, Aim who is put back, 
and remote from good : and he adds, 1 think 
that t^*.^ is meant: (L:) or the base fellow : 
or the most ignoble: or «Ae miserable wretch: 
(Et-Tcdmuree and others :) or the last spealier : 
(Nawadir of Th :) or ^.^1 is here a metonymy 
for (Ae devil : (Lb :) it is a word used [for the 
reason explained voce jJyl] in relating what has 
been said by one of two persons cursing each 
other, to the other; (Expositions of the Fs ;) 
and the phrase above mentioned is meant to 
imply a prayer for those who are present [by 
its contrasting them with the person to whom it 
directly applies]. (A.) One also says, \^.j+ "} 
jd^\j, [alluding to a particular person,] meaning 
[May the place, or land, not be ample, or spacious, 
or roomy,] to the remote from good. (TA.) It 
is said in a trad, of M&zin, ^jj ji j*-*)l £>\ 
Verily the outcast, (Mgh, Msb,) or Ae roAo is 
remote, and held back, from good, (Mgh,* TA,) 
liath committed adultery, or fornication : the 
speaker meaning himself; (Mgh, Msb ;) as 
thoucrh he were an outcast. (Msb.) And in 
another trad, it is said, t^»Jt > r >... A > j±-l <Uv~oJI 
Begging is the most ignoble [mode of] gain of 
man: but El-Khattabee relates it with medd, 
[i. e. tj*.1,] explaining it as meaning begging is 
the last thing whereby man seeks sustenance when 
unable to gain [by other means], (TA.) 

jL\ The back, hinder, or latter, part: the 
hindermost, or last, part : contr. ofjtji. (5.) 

• S % 3 

[See also j»-y ; from which it appears to be 
distinguished by its being used only adverbially, 
or with a preposition : and see j*-\.] You say, 

\'jL\ <uy 4>£, and^i.1 &*, (S,£,*) Sis garment 
was rent, or slit, in its back, or kinder, part, 

%\yk.\ another fem. of j*.l. (K.) 

ft • J S* & * " 

1^1 and V^it and V^t : see^.1. 

[,^4.1 and vjyj*.' Relating to the other state 
of existence, or tAe world to come.] 

1*.* and jL*.1 : see *jiS\, in five places. See 

y * \ 
also j*-\. 

^'j£\ dim. of ^>J, fem. ofji-T, q. v. (S.) 

ji,T a subst., of the measure ji»«, but implying 

the meaning of an epithet, ($,) from >.! in the 

sense of >£, (TA,) Another; the otAer; o 

thing [or person] other than the former or first ; 

(L;) t. q.*£; C^O, 08 , 5 " *• P 1 "** 59 ^' *>"J 
anotlier man, and >»T 4*y another garment or 
jriece of cloth: (TA:) or one of two things 
[or persons]; (S,Sgh,Msb;) as when you say, 
iji, >Q lji» J&. J--«i*>>« »V The people 
came, and one was doing thus, and one [i. e. 
anotlier] thus: (Sgh,M|b:) originally meaning 

more backward: (TA :) fem. ▼(^^ (9» M f b » 
K) and ▼?«>■'; (SO which latter is not well 
known : (MF :) pi. masc. 0}j±\ and >.» ; (S, 
^;) [the latter irreg. as such ;] and, applied to 
irrational things, ';*.$, like as J^lit is pi. of 
Jiit : (Msb :) and pi. fem. Ol^it and jL\ ; 
(S, Msb, ^ ;) which latter is imperfectly decl. ; 
for an epithet of the measure J*i\ which is ac- 
companied by o* has no [dual nor] pi. nor fem. 
as long as it is indeterminate ; but when it has 
the article J1 prefixed to it, or is itself prefixed 
to another noun which it governs in the gen. case, 
it has a dual and a pi. and a fem. ; but it is not 
so with j*-T; for it has a fem. [and dual] and pi. 
without j>» and without the article J» and with- 
out its being prefixed to another noun : you say, 
ji.T ^*.jv o£, and Jil JW# and o*j+.\, 

and tjt^ *\j%t> and jit l£if, [I passed by 
another man, and by other men, and by another 
woman, and by other women;] therefore, as it 
[namely y+A] is thus made to deviate from its 
original form, [i. e. >.T, (I'Ak p. 287,) which 
is of a class of words used, when indeterminate, 
alike as sing, and dual and pi.,] and is [essentially 
and originally] an epithet, it is imperfectly decl., 

though a pi. : but when you name thereby a man, 
it ia perfectly decl., when inderminate, accord, to 
Akh, or imperfectly decl. accord, to Sb. (8, L.) 
The dim. of jdJ\ is *>^jl; the 1 with, the . 
■uppremcd following the same rule as the I in 
VjU : (TA :) and the dim. of ^ji.1 is t^jU-l- 
(8.) See also ijj±.y\ voce^l.—^^i.! aJbel ^ 
yjlitl, (8,5,) or oy^l Jj±\, (S,) means J 
roi'tf not do it ever i (8,5 :) or the latter, I will 
not do it to the end of time. (8.) And ^£L\ 
j>\p\, The last of the people. (S,r>.) One says, 

" '•!! '* f " 

>j*M \£ji-\ yj> «U». He came among the last of 

the people. (TA.) And ^-Cdt <J\£L\ ^i tU» 
//« came among- thou who mere the last of the 

people. (S, A, 5.) [See also JaX] In jijl 

>-^)t olll, the last word is a mistake for jm^\, 
q. v. (Mcsharikof 'Iydd.) 

>U, (S, Msb, 50 an epithet, of the measure 
J*U, (S,) and ?),*.!, (S, Msb,) The fcur; after- 
most; hindmost: and the latter; after; hinder: 
and [as a subst.] the end : contr. of Jjl : [or of 
Jjl when used as a subst. :] (A, Msb, K :) or of 

ft *•** J J *f 

>j£u : (Lth, Msb :) or what is after the first or 
former: (8:) fern, of the former lj*J: (S, Msb, 
£ :) pi. [masc.] OlJ^ (S u r **▼•• 84, &c.,) and 
(masc. and fem., Msb) J*.iy (8, Msb) and fem. 
Ol>.l also: (Th:) and *je*.U is syn. with 
ji*\)\ ; as in ^^1)1 ^*.U [occurring in the 8 and 
£ in art. ^.^a-, meaning The last, or Jattw, parte, 
or portions, of the night]. (TK1 in art ^j*..) 
You say, \j±\ »U- and t UgsVl and t till and 
T •j*-V> all meaning the same [i?* came lastly, or 
latterly] : and in like manner, t £*J -^l isje U 
and t i^Xf «5| [/ d^ ^t know it save at the last, 
or lastly, or latterly]: (8:) or * jj^l .1^. and 

* \jLi and t jji.t and t j£i.(, and * ZjL\ and 

* *i*-V, Of.,) or t Ijll an d t ^, (Lh, L,) and 
Sj*^ (TA) and * Cfjij and t {jj and » £j*l 

and ? l,j^A.t (5) mean he came lastly of everything. 

(SO It is said in a trad., respecting Mohammad, 
i*'.. * ' l' ' t ' 't ' »"l it**, 
mj|» « " v>f -^** O 1 >!;• *ij » j^i-V Jys> o^ 

I jib; t Jl& 2T« wed te *ay, at tA« end of his sitting, 
when he desired to rise from the place of assembly, 
thus and thus : or, accord, to IAth, it may mean, 
in the last, or latter, part of his life. (TA.) And 
you say, J&» J*,T jA&'| and J& ijdS\ (IAar, 
M, K.) app. meaning (M) [I came to thee the 
latter of two times;] the second of two times. 
(M, £.•) And >kjj| 'jifs ij&f •) I will not 
speak to him [to the end of time, or] ever. (A.) 
[See a similar phrase above, voce J*J.] And 
j+j4*\ O* la^W- [They came with the last of 
them ; ^ being here syn. with ^> ; meaning 
they came all, without exception]. (A.) [And 

fr™ W ^ "*** ^' and *""» ■»* ^f* 
U*/*-l^1, That was in the end of the month, and 
of the year ; and tn the last days thereof] And 

jeWjsU £)*j^ 'j(^i\ [The day lengthens] hour 

by hour. (A.) See also jtV, last sentence 

j^\ is a name of God, signifying [The last ; or] 
He who remaineth after all his creatures, both 
vocal and mute, have perished. (Nh.) _ o'>-*9l 
The two hinder dugs of the she-camel ; opposed 
to the CM& ; (TA;) the two dugs that are next 
the thighs. (£.) _ 5*5)1,(5,) for ij^lj&l, 
(Bd in ii. 3,) [and Jjj^t Jl^Jl,] and ▼ l- &i.'j)l, 
(?0 [2** ^a««r, ultimate, or iwr, and <A« oM«r, 
dwelling, or aWc, and Z(/e; i. e. the latter, ulti- 
mate, or last, and <A« o<Act-, ttwrU; the world, or 
/(/«, fo come; and (Ac ultimate state of existence, 
in the world to come;] the dwelling, or abode, 
[and life,] of everlasting duration : (5 :) [each] 
an epithet in which the quality of a subst. pre- 
dominates. (Z, and Bd ubi supra.) [Opposed to 
\jji\. And ijm-\ also signifies The enjoyments, 
blessings, or good, of the ultimate state; of the 
other world; or of the world, or life, to come : in 
which sense likewise it is opposed to Qt : (see 
an ex. of both voce ctj, in art. a^: so too l^fytS.)] 
— vKJ" S*$ (S,M 9 b,K,) and ^Jl,(Msb,) 
and »jdJ\, (8 in art. ^»ji, and SO ai, d * *5J*-1*> 
(?» Mgh, Msb, SO "hich is a rare form, or, 
accord, to Yaakoob, not allowable, (8,) and 

T »j*->», and T *J>»>*, and » »>•>, (S in art. 

j>j&, and SO and * *^V*» ^ M?b ' W or *'■ is 
a mUtake, (Mgh, Msb,) and t ijlj^, (5,) but 
the first of all is the most chaste, (Mf b,) The thing, 
(8,) or piece of wood, (Msb,) of th* earners 
saddle, (S, Msb,) and of the horse's, (Msb,) 
against which the rider leans [his bach]; (S, 
Msb;) the contr. ofits3u>& [by which term <U*U 
is meant the J*-lj] : (5 :) the Jx-lj of the camel's 
saddle is the tall fore part which is next to the 
breast of the rider ; and its »j±.\ is it* hinder part; 
(Az, L;) i. e. its broad piece of wood, (Mgh,) or 
its tall and broad piece of wood, (Az, L,) which 
is against, or opposite to, (^iUj,) the head [and 
bach] of the rider : (Az, Mgh, L:) [for] the S^Jt 
and the J**l) are the oU^i., between which the 
rider sits: this is the description given by En- 
Nadr [ISh] ; and all of it is correct: there is no 
doubt respecting it: (Az, L:) the pi. of SjdJ is 
is ^.ly. (Msb.)--^! ijiJ: see ^1 J*|i. 
— jA.\ and f j*J-l [accord, to some] also signify 
Absent. (SO B ut see^A.1, second sentence. 

1<>*.T: seej*.T. 


ji*i£\ dim. of j*U, q. v. (TA.) 

^1 £y, (T, S, A, Mgh, Msb, 5, [in the 
CS l*>->,]) said by AO, (Msb,) or A'Obeyd, 
(TA,) to be better without teshdeed, from which 
observation it is to be understood that teshdeed in 
this case is allowable, though rare, but Az dis- 
allows it, (Msb, TA,) and tfj*-y*, and * \?ji-\, 
(SO [ rA « outer angle of tlie eye;] the part' of 
the eye next the temple; (S, A, Mgh, Msb;) the 
part next the J»UJ: (SO opposed to its>jl«, 
which is the extremity thereof next the nose :' (8, 
Mgh, Msb :) pi. 'jm.1,. (Mgh.) You say, ^M 'Jii 

[Book I. 

*' * ' 
^je» y^y** [fi looked at, or towards, me from 

(lit. with) the outer angle of his eye]. (S.) _ «. 

, * s •» • •» J* n •» 

J*->l ^->*> and ejfji-y* : see j«.l. 

j*>» The JacA, hinder, or Ja««r, parr of any- 
thing: its hinder-most, or twr, parr: contr. of 

* *'.' . , , t- . m .1 . , . 

jtj** : as in the phrase, 4-tj >-^-» w>« [He 
struck the back, or hinder part, of his head]. 
(S, Msb.) [See also>.l and>.T.] ji."j| \L.L», 

and <Oj»-y* : see^l. 

>4*)l a name of God, [The Postponer, or 
Delayer ;] He who postpones, or ac/ay*, things, 
and puts tliem in their places : [or He who puts, 
or keeps, back, or backward : or Zfe roAo degrades : ] 
contr. ofJ>jiJ\. (TA.) — jljjl jlLi, and 
*jj±.y»i see^a.1. 

J*~f *i»-» -4 palm-tree of which the fruit 
remains until the end of winter : (AHn, S and 
until the end of tlie time of cutting off the fruit 
of palm-trees : (S, M, S cont r- of jl£l« and 
j£i: pl.^-U. (A.) 

jtsVU [reg. pi. of jUJU] : sec^l, first sentence. 

jd»\Z»: see its verb. _ [An author, or other 
person, of the later, or more modern, times.] 

C>->j~-\^-J\ in the S«r xv. 24 is said by Th to 
mean Those who come to the mosque after others, 
or late : (TA :) or it means those who are later 
in birth and death: or those who have not yet 
come forth from the loins of men : or those who 
are late, or backward, in adopting the Muslim 
religion and infighting against unbelievers and in 
obedience. (Bd.) 

1. Oj*.l, [third pcrs. U.I,] (S, K,) aor. yi.\S, 
(S,) inf. n. JJ^.1; (S, Jfylu. ;) and tc4*T, (5, 
TA,) [in the CK c~o-t, which is wrong in 
respect of the pcrs., and otherwise, for it is cor- 
rectly] with medd, (TA,) inf. n. 1U.I and«: 
(Lth;) and tc-ei-U; (SO Thou becamest a 
brother [in the proper sense of this word, and also 
as meaning a friend, or companion, or the like]. 

(S,*S(*TA.) t»$«.l is also [used as] a simple 
subst., (TA,) signifying Brotherhood; fraternity; 
the relation of brother; as also ♦ ?U-I and !t*lL« ; 
and t ^13 : (Lth, TA :) and the relation of sister. 
(8.) You say, »'yL\ ££ ^ and *;u.l [& c ., 
meaning] Between me and him is brotherhood. 
(J K, TA.) And Cfc il,U»j£ «U.Cl)t ^ t [ Be- 
tween liberality and courage is a relation like that 
of brothers]. (TA.) And i'yL is a dial. var. of 

•4 3 I 

ty*-\, occurring in a trad. (IAth, TA.) = [It is 

also trans.] You say, J^l* Oji-I I was, or be- 
came, a brother to ten. (TA.) 

2. -& jdU o4*1, (S, SO or ^W», (Msb, [so 
accord, to a copy of that work, but probably this 
is a mistranscription,]) inf. n. i-i.l3, (S, Msb, 

SO * made a » ^ef- 1 [<!• T -] for the beast, (Msb, 
SO an d ted the beast therewith ; (Msb ;) [and 

Book I.} 

so, app., " C^Al (which, if correct, is probably 
of the measure cJLail) ; for it is related that] an 

tit ~ ± * 

Arab of the desert said to another, i t i.\ ,J " *~\ 
i_£jv-» VtJI kjjl f Make thou for me an i t ».\ to 
which I shall tie my colt]. (TA.) And you say, 
U>& i^Jt ^^i (j* jyS * ^LT t SucA a one 
did a benefit to inch a one, and he mat ungrateful 
for it. (TA.) [But perhaps «~l and ,^£.1 in 
these two exs. arc mistranscriptions for «-t and 

fit w 

3. iu.1, (S, K,) vulgarly Ju.£, (S,) or the 
latter is a dial. var. of weak authority, (K,* TA,) 
said by some to be of the dial, of Teiyi, (TA,) 
inf. n. SU.I> and 2U.I (S, K) and ?U.j (K) and 
[quasi-inf. n.] * ijU.1 (Fr, K) and S^Uj, (CK,) 
He fraternized with him ; acted with him in a 
brotherly manner : (S,« K,* PS, TK :) A'Obeyd 
mentions, on the authority of Yz, c-.*.l and 

C t A I3, and wy l and c*e->tj, and oJ^I and 
cJl£»lj : the pret. is said to be thus assimilated 

to [a form of] the fut. ; for they used [sometimes] 

* * 
to say, ^jA.1^., changing the hemzeh into j. (IB, 
' * » j # ## # i« 

TA.) It is said in a trad., ^^.1^1 ^^ ^*.t 

- •• - . " 

jLaJ^lj, meaning //<? united the emigrants [to 

El-Mcdecneh] w»<A t/ie assistants [previously dwel- 
ling there] by the brotherhood of El-Islam and 
of the faith. (TA.) You say also, && w**J 
tlmjim [I united the two things as fellows, or 
pairs] ; and sometimes one says, C« c *- U, like as 
one says, i fr yU, for c~-*t ; mentioned by ISk. 
(Msb.) _ See also 1, in three places. 

4 : see 2, in three places. 

5. C*^U| and the inf. n.ti>U: seel, in three places. 

1 * 1 • • «- Vi 

as U.I c-<».ti 7 adopted a brother : (S, K :) or 

if St l' 

[ <w».U signifies] 7 called him brother. (K.) _ 
i^Lt^U.6, (S,K,TA,) or.^W, (Msb,) J 
sought, endeavoured after, pursued, or endeavoured 
to reach or attain or obtain, the thing ; (S, Msb, 
K, TA ;) a* <Ae brother does the brother; and in 
the same manner the verb is used with a man for 

its object: but c~*-y , in the same sense, is more 
common. (TA.) You say, ■!>.:"■. ,« c-JLu / 
sought, &c, {Ay Zove, or affection. (TA in art. 

* + m>* 

6. l^U 77j«y became brothers, or friends or 
companions or <Ae WAe, to «acA otAer. (S,* TA.) 

£', (S, Msb, ^,) originally ]*.', (Kh, S, Mfb,) 
as is shown by the first of its dual forms men- 


tinned below, and by its having a pi. like t\f\, 

(S,) and ~-\, (K,) with the second letter doubled to 

compensate for the j suppressed, as is the case in 

if, (TA,)and v ill, [like ijl,] and tjif, (IAar, 
K , TA, [the last, with the article prefixed to it, 

Erroneously written in the CK yL.*j\,]) and T j»-l, 
like y>, (Kr, K,) a well-known term of relation- 
ship, (K, TA,) i. e. A brother; the son of one's 
father and mother, or of either of them : and also 
applied to a foster-brother : (TA :) and t a friend; 
and a companion, an associate, or a fellow : (K :) 
derived from 3^.\ [q. v.] ; as though one f-\ were 
Bk. I. ' C 

tied and attached to another like as the horse is 
tied to the <£*»! : (Har p. 42 :) or, accord, to 
some of the grammarians, it is from ^j*-3 meaning 
juoS ; because the j~\ has the same aim, endeavour, 
or desire, as his •-( : (TA :) when ^-1 is prefixed 
to another noun, its final vowel is prolonged: 
(Kh:) you say, J^ji-I ljJk [This is thy brother, 
Sec.], and -aLa-W Ojj^ [J passed by thy brother, 

&c], and i)U-t c^lj [J saw thy brother, &c] : 
(S : [in which it is also asserted that one does not 

say yi^ without prefixing it -to another noun ; 
but this is inconsistent with the assertion of IAar 

and F, that jd»*$\ is a syn. of ~-**)l :]) the dual is 

OU*-1, (S, Msb, Kur xlix. 10, Ham p. 434,) or 

' ' • * 

Ol»».l, with the «. quiescent, (TA, [but this I 

have found nowhere else,]) and some of the Arabs 

' ' T • " * \ 

say ij**-'> (?i Msb,) and Kr mentions 0'^*>'> 
with damm to the •>, said by IB to occur in 
poetry, and held by ISd to be dual of **.!, with 
damm to the *■: (TA:) the pi. is iyi»\ and O 1 ^*-] i 
(S, Msb, K, &c.,) the former generally applied 
to brothers, and the latter to friends [or the like], 
(T, S,*) but not always, as in the Kur xlix. 10, 
where the former does not denote relationship, 
and in xxiv. 60 of the same, where the latter does 
denote relationship, (T, TA,) and sometimes the 
former is applied to a [single] man, as in the 

Kur iv. 12, (S,) and 1^4.1, (Fr, S, Msb, K, [in 
the CK «>&>t,]) or this is a quasi-pl. n., (Sb, TA,) 
and 0'i*-'» (Kr,Msb,K,) and SU.T, (S,^,) like 

\C\, (S,) and jL\, and 2^L\, (ISd,K,) the last 

mentioned by Lh, and thought by ISd to be 

formed from the next preceding by the addition 

of » characterizing the pi. as fern., (TA,) and 

<jym.\, (S, Msb, K,) and OJJ**-'- (Msb : [there 

written without any syll. signs, and I have not 
found it elsewhere.]) The fern, of «-l is * w4>l 
[meaning A sister : and f a female friend, Sec] : 
(S, Mfb, K, &c. :) written with damm to show 
that the letter which has gone from it is j ; (S ;) 
the O being a substitute for the y ; (TA ;) not to 
denote the fern, gender, (K, TA,) because the 
letter next before it is quiescent : this is the 
opinion of Sb, and [accord, to SM] it is the cor- 
rect opinion : for Sb says that if you were to use 
it as a proper name of a man, you would make it 
perfectly decl. ; and if the O were to denote the 
fern, gender, the name would not be perfectly 
decl. ; though in one place he incidentally says 
that it is the sign of the fern, gender, through 
inadvertence : Kh, however, says that its O is 

[originally] » [meaning S] : and Lth, that c-»-l 
is originally ii-1 : and some say that it is origi- 
nally I^Ll : (TA :) the dual, is o&-' = (Kh :) 
and the pi. is ot^U. (Kh, S, Msb, K.) The 
"ying Cf&t «**• W *$ [Thou hast no brother, or 
t friend, in such a one] means £V «&U u-s 5 [*uch a 
one is not a brother, or friend, to thee], (S, K.) 
It is said in a prov., olA> iLA-U <& £>+ [Who 

* *■ * + ^^ 

will be responsible to thee for thy brother, or ithy 
friend, altogether ? i. e., for his always acting to 
thee as a brother, or friend]. (JK.) And in 


• U it r %» »» tit 

another, JX*\ » jJJ ^ Ml rf-l ^>j [ t There u many 
a brother to thee whom thy mother has not brought 
forth]. (TA.) And in another, ^Sji\ >t S)yL\ 
[Is it thy brother, or the wolf?] ; said in suspect- 
ing a thing: as also JJJI j>\ J)y*-\ [Is it thy 
brother, or is it the night that deceives thee?]. 

» 1 1 » lit 

(Har p. 554.) And another saying is, $yk.\ »-*yi 

iliU. l^jj [f The spear is thy brother, but some- 
times, or often, it is unfaithful to thee]. (TA.) 

Ml I 

_ Ibn-'Arafeh says that when lykA does not 
relate to birth, it means conformity, or similarity ; 
and combination, agreement, or unison, in action : 

hence the saying, Ijjk yi~\ ^>yJ\ IJuk [fTfiis 
garment, or piece of cloth, is the like, or fellow, 
of this] : and hence the saying in the Kur [xvii. 
29], o-l»Ci>t o»i*«J ly^» \They are the likes, 
or fellows, of the devils: and in the same [xliii. 47], 

" V-*-' u-° j^*' 15* "^' t But it was greater than 

its like, or fellow ; i.e., than what was like to it 

in truth &c. (TA.) It is said in a trad., jtyi\ 

•Z^J\ jL\ [Sleep is the like of death]. (Kl-Jami' 
•> * t * *» # * 

es-Sagheer.) One says also, 0^»JI U.I ^j%» ^yU 

t Such a one met with the like of death. (Msb, 
TA.) And they said, V * c-i-l ^ aJUL. ibT iUj 
[\Ood afflicted him with a night having none like to 
it], i. e., a night in which he should die. (TA.) And 

jt^JI U.I S)l a^I&I -j \I will not speak to him 
save the like of secret discourse. (As, TA.) [And 

hence,] J«^» ♦ U».l [f 77ie <n>o m<«r« o/* Canopus;] 

T » t* * ** • * ».t 

the two stars called jy*i\ ^jjiDI ana i£jJt±JI 

i Ul*^ •• (S and K in art. jkA, q. v.) ^ U.I C , 

or >M«3 t means f0 tAou 0/ [the tribe of] JBekr, or 
Temecm. (Ham p. 284.) — Lh mentions, on the 
authority of Abu-d-Deenar and Ibn-Ziyad, the 
saying, ^Dl ^ji-W >yU'i as meaning f 2%« people, 
or company of men, are in an evil state or condi- 
tion. (TA.) [But accord, to others,] one says, 
j^i. 11 i«4-V *&>j*t meaning J J left him in an 

evil state or condition : (JK,* Mfb, K, TA :) and 
«■> f 

j^JI ^-ly J in a good state or condition. (TA.) 
* •*' ' • - >t ,i 

You Bay also, JjuaJI ^»-l 3* f He is one who 

* $ 
cleaves, or keeps, to veracity. (Mfb.) — [^.1 , as 

a prefixed noun, is also used in the sense of Jjkl , 

meaning t Worthy, or deserving, of a tiling : and 

meet, fit, or fitted, for it. So in the phrase US ^L\ 

t Worthy, or deserving, of trust, or confidence ; 

expl. by W (p. 91) as meaning a person in whom 

one trusts, or confides. And so in the prov., 

lit!. ^y» l»lfc£Jt j*.t J4> + tie who is fit, or 
fitted, for ve/iement striving for the mastery is 
not lie who turns away from it with disgust : see 
art. !ȣ>.]__ It is also used in the sense of ^i : 

* ' f * * fr 

as in the phrase, ^yilt j*.l 3* [t /» is possessed, 
or a possessor, of wealth, or competence, or «v^i- 
ciency]. (Mfb.) [So too in the phrase, j**J\ ^L\ 
t Possessed, or a possessor, of good, or o/" n>Aa< u 
good. And in like manner,] £**-J' ^-1 means 
[ «iij» •>, i. e. * jjt ji, i. e.] JJ Ji\ [f The low, 

t- * * * ?**-* 

base, or abject]. (Ham p. 44.) [So too] b^_ 

• » i* •» > .'**' , • .' '**' 

^v-JI >i-l means [ -Vf-" ^i ^re-» >• c] J>»V t>— 


[+ Our journeying is laborious : see an ex. in the 
first paragraph of art. jJ&]. (TA.) — ^j**. 
^^"^1 t A fever that affects the patient two 
days, and quits him two days ; or that attacks on 
Saturday, and quits for three days, and comes 
[again] on Thursday; and so on. (Msb.) — 

^>i-^» j» • see j.'}, in art. ^y 

see r~\. 

see aA, in four places. 

[^j^-1 and iu^.\ dims, of ~-l and c-».t.] 

^•>-l Brotherly; fraternal; of, or relating 
to, a brother, and a friend or companion : and 

also, sisterly ; of, or relating to, a sister} because 

♦ ' ' • . 

you say Ol^A.1 [meaning "sisters"]; but Yoo 

••■ '«•■! to say ™ ,«^»Wt, which is not agreeable with 

analogy. (S,TA.) 
1*1 |,i 

y J^.\ : see (J^ 1 - 

Ol^*-' i besides being a pi. of *.), q. v., is a 
dial. var. of J>£*.. (TA. [See art. o.**"]) 

SjU-l i sec 3. 

Syoi-I an inf. n. of 1 : and also [used as] a 
simple subst. (TA.) See 1. — When it does 
not relate to birth, it means f Conformity, or 
similarity; and combination, agreement, or unison, 
in action. (Ibn-'Arafeh, TA.) 

&t*-\, ( I -lb, S, Msb, K, &c.,) originally of the 
measure iJ^tb, [i. c. <bj±.l,] (Msb,) and l t m.\, 
(Lth,Msb,£,) and aJU-'l, (JK,£,TA, [but in 
the K the orthography of these three words is 
differently expressed in different copies, and some- 
what obscurely in all that I have seen,]) A piece 
of rope of which the two ends are buried in the 
ground, (ISk, JK,§,) with a small staff or stick, 
or a small stone, attached thereto, (ISk*S,) a 
portion tliereof, resembling a hop, being apparent, 
or exposed, to which the beast is tied; (ISk, JK, 
S;) it is made in soft ground, as being more 
commodious to horses than pegs, or stakes, pro- 
truding from the ground, and more firm in soft 
ground than the peg, or stake : (TA :) or a loop 
tied to a peg, or stake, driven [into the ground], 
to which the beast is attached: (Msb:) or a 
stick, or piece of wood, (]£, TA,) placed crosswise 
(TA) »'» a wall, or tn a rope of which the two ends 
are buried in the ground, the [other] end [or 
portion] protruding, like a ring, to which the 
beast is tied : (]£, TA :) or a peg, or stake, to 
which horses are tied: (Har p. 42:) [see also 

j^jT:] the pi. of the first is ^ijt; (JK,S,Msb, 
K ;•) and of the second, j-IjI ; (Msb ;) and of 
the third, Cu.1, (JK,K,*) like as Glial is pi. 
of «yU*. (TA.) In a trad., the believer and 
belief are likened to a horse attached to his i>.t ; 
because the horse wheels about, and then returns 
to his i-^-l ; and the believer is heedless, and then 
ccturns to believe. (TA.) And in another, men 

are forbidden to make their backs like the l^U-l 

of beasts ; i. e., in prayer; meaning that they 
should not arch them therein, so as to make them 
like the loops thus called. (TA.) — Also t. q. 
>_-lb ; (]£ ;) i. c. The kind of tent-rope thus 
called. (TA in art. «^J», q. v.) — And t A 
sacred, or an inviolable, right or the like; syn. 

&jL and £.J. (S,K.) You say, ^,\'^\ J&} 
jjtp ,__>t_<l_j [f To such a one belong sacred, or 
inviolable, rights, and ties of relationship and love, 
to be regarded], (S.) And i-»-l ^jjj* ti f He 
has, with me, or tn my estimation, a strong, 
sacred, or inviolable, right; and a near tie or 
connexion, or means of access or intimacy or in- 
gratiation. (TA.) _ In a trad, of 'Omar, in 
which it is related that he said to E1-' Abbas, 
o&t J*-*) sbl cLa-l oJI, it is used in the sense of 
i-ij ; [and the words may therefore be rendered 
Thou art the most excellent of the ancestors of 
tkt Apostle of God;] as though he meant, thou 
art he upon whom one stays himself, and to 
whom one clings, of the stock of the Apostle of 
God. (TA) 

1. &lj i3jl, aor i (T, S, M, K.) and : , (M, 
K,) but this latter is strange, [anomalous,] and 
unknown, (TA,) and-, (M, K,) mentioned by 
Lh, whence it seems that he made the prct. to 
be of the measure J-*>, or that it is co-ordinate to 

J$, aor jfc, (M,) inf. n. >l, (T,S,M,) A. 
calamity befell him. (M, K.) And in like man- 

ncr, y\ »y\, aor. and inf. n. as above, An event 
befell him : (M :) or opjtressed him, distressed 
him, or afflicted him. (Bd in xix. 01.) = Sec 
also 5. 

5. yfc; (T,?;;) and ♦ >!,'; (TA;) 
i. q. 3jJU [He acted, or behaved, with forced 
hardness, firmness, strength, vigour, &c.]. (T, K.) 

ft (S,M,£) and t-Ji (T,K) and » ft (K) 
Strength ; power ; force : (S, M, ]£ :) superior 
power or force or influence ; mastery ; conquest ; 

predominance. (M, K, TA.) — — See also >l, in 
two places Also, the first, The sound of tread- 
ing. (T.) 

>\ : see jl.^AIso, and * l>l, A wonder, or 
wonderful thing : (M, L, K :) a very evil, abomi- 
nable, severe, thing, or affair : (S, M, A, L, KL :) 
a calamity; (S, A, L, %;) or thus the former 


word signifies; (M;) as also *al, (as in the 
copies of the ]£,) or * >1, [originally >>1,] of the 
measure J*U : (so in the S and L:) pi. (of >l, 
M, TA) ibj, (K, TA,) or ibl.^CK, [but this, 
if correct, is a quasi-pL n.,]) or >1»t, (M,) and (of 
5>l, S, M) l>\. (T, S, M, £.) You say also 
*\ j*\ [meaning as above], using jl as an epithet, 
accord, to Lh. (M.) And * »j>» «C*I> [A very 
eeil, abominable, or severe, calamity]. (A.) Hence 

the saying in the J£ur [xix. 91], l>l ll~- ^V •**' 
Verily ye have done a very evil, or abominable, 
thing : (S, M :•) or, accord, to one reading, *l.>l ; 
both meaning great, or grievous : and some of the 

[Book I. 

Arabs say, t^| • Ly !^, which means the same. 


•4 ! . 

ol : see it , in two places. 

a-' i* s 

j I : see jl :_and see >|, in two places. 

1. -^>i\, aor. ; , inf. n. w»i'> -^ e invited (people, 
S, or a man, K) to his repast, or banquet ; (S, KL ;) 
as also T wo'> (^>) or < *-» , *i» i*)' V*'» aor V^ 
[or *T>}yi], (AZ, S,) inf. n. ^tjyt [originally 
Vljil]' (AZ,S,K.) You say,>^11 ^\, (S,) 
or >sjill j_jift ^>>l, aor. as above, (T,) He invited 
the people to his repast. (T, S.) And ^Jlfi^oWi' 
j**)\ He collected t/iem together for the affair. 

(A.) And^jjlii) iJJl^^at- T 4>i3' [I rvill collect 
thy neighbours in order that thou mayest consult 

with them], (A.) The primary signification of 

* *' 

w>,»l is The act of inciting. (T.)__ [Hence,] 
. ,t , i 

wj^I, aor. ; ; (Msb, K ;) or w»il, aor. ' ; (so in a 

• x ' ' 
copy of the M ;) inf. n. »_jjl, (M, Mgh, Msb,) or 

wot ; (K;) He made a repast, or banquet, (M, 

Msb, K ,) and incited people to it ; (Msb ;) as 

also t ^>i\, (M,) aor. and inf. n. as above : 

(TA :) or he collected and invited people to his 

repast. (Mgh.)_[IIcncc also, as will be seen 

below, voce v^M **>') ttor - ~. » ""• n - V>*» ■"* 
taught him the discipline of the mind, and the 
acquisition of good qualities and attributes of 
the mind or soul; (Msb;) and T «Vi'> [•»£ "• 
^~i jUi, signifies </te same ;] /«; taught him what 
is termed yjl [or <7<m><£ discipline of the mind 
and manners, &c. ; i. c. he disciplined him, or 
educated him, well ; rendered him well-bred, well- 
mannercd, polite; instructed him in polite ac- 
complishments ; &c] : (S, M, A, Mgh, K :) or 

the latter verb, inf. n. »^JiU, signifies he taught 
him well, or much, the discipline of the mind, 
and the acquisition of good qualities and attributes 
of the mind or soul : and hence, this latter also 
signifies lie disciplined him, chastised him, cor- 
rected him, or punished him, for his evil conduct ; 
because discipline, or chastisement, is a means 
of inviting a person to what is properly termed 
V^l- (Msb.) = vj ', aor. * , (AZ, T, S, M, K,) 

inf. n. *-»>!, (M, I£,) He was or became, cltarac- 

* i 
terized by wlMt is termed ^jl [or good discipline 

of the mind and manners, &c. ; i. e., well dis- 
ciplined, well-educated, well-bred, or well-man- 
nered, polite, instructed in polite accomplish- 
ments, tea.]. (AZ, T, S, M, I£.) 

2 : see 1. 

4: see 1, in three places j'iUI «_ot, aor. 

and inf. n. as above, f -H* filled the provinces, 
or country, with justice, or equity. (£,• TA.) 

5. v*^ JSGi learned, or was taught, what is 
termed ^i\ [or good discipline of the mind and 
manners, &c. ; i. e. he became, or was rendered, 
well-disciplined, well-educated, well-bred, well- 
mannered, polite, instructed in polite accomplish- 
ments, &c] ; as also ♦ ^ r >>\^\. (S, Mgh, K.) 

10 : see S. 

Book I.] 

^,>«, (§,M,S0 or, accord, to some, ▼ ^»\, 

(TA,) Wonderful; or a wonderful thing; syn. 

**'*■ (8, M, K;) as also t&l [used in the 

latter sense]. (SO You say, T «T»i^*V 0>* »V 

Such a one did a wonderful thing. (As, T.») 

• -» , 

a^Sec also wo*, last sentence. 

• • « 

V*' : »ee vA m tw0 P laccs - 

4*>1, bo termed because it invites men to the 
acquisition of praiseworthy qualities and disposi- 
tions, and forbids them from acquiring such as are 
evil, (T, Mgh,) signifies Discipline of the mind; 
and good qualities and attribute* of the mind or 
soul: (Msb:) or every praiseworthy discipline 
by which a man is trained in any excellence: (AZ, 
Mgh, Msb :) [gootl distnpline of the mind and 
manners; good education; good breeding; good 
manners; politeness; polite accomplishments:] 
i. q. <J>\ii [as meaning excellence, or elegance, of 
mind, manners, address, and speech] : and a good 
manner of taking or receiving [what is given or 
offered or impnrtcd, or whnt is to be acquired] : 
(M, A, SO or good qualities and attributes of 
the mind or soul, and the doing of generous or 
honourable actions : (El-Jawalcefcec :) or the 
practice of what is praiseworthy both in words 
and actions : or the Iwlding, or Iteeping, to those 
thing* which are ajrprovcd, or deeined good : or 
the honouring of those who are above one, and 
being gentle, courteous, or civil, to those who are 
below one : (Towshcch :) or a faculty which pre- 
serves him in whom it exists from what would 
disgrace him: (MF:) it is of two kinds, ^>i\ 
^^iJt [which embraces all the significations ex- 
plained above], and ^ji\ V*' [which signifies 
the discipline to be observed in the prosectition of 
study, by the disciple with resj>ect to the preceptor, 
and by the preceptor with re*pect to the disciple : 
see " Haji Khalfa? Lexicon," Vol. I. p. 212] : 
(S, B|l, Mgh :) [also dcjm-tmeiU, or a -node of 
conduct or behaviour, absolutely ; for one speaks 

of good v* 1 nnd bftd V*"3 t" P 1, " ^^ 
[which is often employed, and so is the sing, also, 
as signifying the rules of discipline to be observed 
in the exercise of a function, such as that of a 
judge, and of a governor ; and tn the exercise of 
an art, such as that of the disputer, and the orator, 
and die poet, and the scribe; &c.]. (Msb.)__ 
V i^t JJ* signifies [The science of philology; or] 
the science by which one guards against error in 
the language of the Arabs, with respect to words 
and with respect to writing; ("Haji Khalfis 
Lexicon," Vol. I. p. 215;) [and so, simply, 
4o^t : which is also used to signify polite litera- 
ture : but in this sense, and likewise] as applied to 
the sciences relating to the Arabic language, [or 
the philological sciences, which are also termed 
* iC>*9' J»y«J'>] V^ 1 is a post-classical term, 
innovated in the time of El-Islam. (El-Jawa- 
leekeeOss-^l 4»A (A,?,) or^Jl *4»>»> 
(T, L,) I The abundance of the water of the sea. 

V* 1 — »' 

or v^'« Hence, Ole^l j>$A\ : see vA laBt 

sentence but one.] 

• t *! 

s^il Cltaracterized by what is termed ^»i\ 

[or good discipline of the mind and manners, &c. ; 
i. e. well-disciplined, wellreducated, well-bred, or 
well-mannered; polite; instructed in polite ac- 
complishments, or an elegant scholar; &c] : (T, 
S, M, Mgh, £:) pi. ifcl. (M,$.) — See also 

■i/iS [originally ^>\\\, More, or most, charac- 
terized by what is termed <^}\ ; 1. e. better, or 
best, disciplined, educated, bred, or mannered; 
more, or most, polite; &c.]. You say, yjl ,>• ^i 
^y$i\ [He is of the best disciplined, &c., of 
men], (A.) 

^>*\ One who invites people to a repast, or 
banquet: (T,S,Msb.) pi. &f. (TA.) 

ioU : see what next follows, in two places. 

%t')l» A repast, or banquet, to which guests are 
invited ; (A'Obeyd, T, 8, M, Mgh, Msb, S ;) or 
made on account of a wedding: (M, S :) as also 
* &L, (S, M, Msb, SO or, accord, to A'Obeyd, 
this latter has a different signification, as will be 
seen below, (TA,) and * &U, (IJ,) and * %\\ : 
(M, S :) pi. 4oU (?■) In » t™d'i &* £ur-an 
is called ^)\ ^ ill &U, or *a«U; and 
A'Obeyd says that, if we read i#aU, the meaning 
is, God's repast which He has made in the earth, 
and to which He has invited mankind; but if we 
read it>l», this word is of the measure ibuU from 
*M*jH, [and the meaning is, a means which God 
lias prepared in the earth for men's learning good 
discipline of the mind, &c. ; it being a noun 
similar to !££• and ?Ji£o &c. :] El-Ahmar, how- 
ever, makes both words synonymous. (T, M,* 

<L>jU : see what next precedes. 


• »» 

i and see also v i>l. 

a*>l : see i/i 

[ij*»' Qf> or relating to, what is termed *,*»{, 

-/>y> * *r*0' A. camel well-trained and broken. 

<C) jU, occurring in a verse of 'Adee, [which I 
do not anywhere find quoted,] She [app. a bride] 
for whom a repast, or banquet, has been made. 

1. j>\, aor. -' , (T; M, Msb, SO inf. n. )>\ (Lth, 
T, 8, Mgh) and Spl, (Lth, TA,) or 5j>l, (as in 
the TT,) or Spl is a simple subst., (M, SO and 
so is Spl, (SO He (a man, S) had the disorder 
termed Ipl. (T,S,M,&c.) 

Spl a subst. fromj>l; [see jjl, below;] (SO 
as also ♦ $£!: (M,S0 the former signifies [A 
scrotal hernia ;] an inflation in the l*m ± [or the 
testicle, or the scrotum] : (T,» S :) or an inflation 
of the *\'ri- : (Mf b :) or a disorder consisting in 
an inflation, or a swelling, of the o' "t^ "-> an d 
their becoming greatly enlarged with matter or 
wind therein: (Esh-Shihab, on the Soorat el- 
Ahzab :) or a largeness of the ^^Mk : (Mgh :) 


and t ipt also signifies what is vulgarly termed 
iXJ [meaning in the present day a scrotal hernia]: 
or, accord, to some, ». q. > »**» (TA.) [See 
also 1.] 

Sjy\ : see #j>1, in two places. [See also 1.] 

;ST(T,8,M,Mgh,Msb,S) and *J^U (M, 
5) A man (S) [having a scrotal hernia; or] 
having an inflation in the i~oi- [or the testicle, 
or the scrotum] : (T,» 8 :) or having an inflation 
of the i~li. : (Msb :) or having his Jjli* [or 
inner skin] ruptured, so tkat [some of] his intes- 
tines fall into his scrotum; tlie rupture being in 
every instance only in the left side : or afflicted 
by a rupture in one of his oW-»*- t or ,n either 
half of the scrotum] : (M, $ :) or liaving a 
largeness of the ^j*L (Mgh :) pi. of the former, 
jai; (Msb,$;) and of the latter, '#&. ($.) 
Accord to some, (M,) ijpt &+• signifies [A 
testicle, or scrotum,] large, witliout rupture. 

(M, S.) 

• A. >~ 

j^.>U : see _pl. 

tit « ••! 

1. jjj\ y>\, aor. - , (M, Msb, $») inf. n. j»\ ; 

(M,Msb;) and * i+»\ t (M 9 b, %.,) inf. n. >W« ; 
(TS;) He mixed the bread with jt>\ [or seasoning ; 
i. e. he seasoned it] ; (M, S;) he made the sioal- 
lowing of the bread to be good, or agreeable, by 
means ofj>\>\ [or seasoning]. (Msb.) You say 
also, ^Ji\< >£jl Jof, aor. ; , [He seasoned the 
bread, or rendered it savoury, with flesh-meat,] 
fromj^l and>t>l, signifying fi^»& **• (10 
_J.>«^{, aor. , , (S,) inf.n.>>l; (TA;)or 
t^T; (M ;) or both ; (TA ;) He seasoned for 
the people, or company of men, (J^ >*!, [in the 
CK, erroneously, ^ >!>',]) their bread; (M, 
K, TA ;) i. e., mixed it [for them] with >bj. 
(TA.) — [From j>}\ in the first of the senses 
explained above, is app. derived the phrase,] 
oSjL tu»}\ He mixed him, associated him, or 
united him in company, with his family. (M.) 
[And in like manner,] L^ >a'j ( T > 90 m j*r*ii 
(M, Msb,» SO a '- " > C. M » M f b » ¥») inf - n - 
y>\ ; (T, M, M?b;) and *»T, (T, 8, M, Msb, 
SO inf. n. >lJ*l ; (T, TA ;) JT« (God, T, 8, M, 
or a man, Msb) effected a reconciliation between 
them; brought them together; (8, M, Msb, S» 
[expl. in the M and S by>H for which we find 
in the CS J& »]) made tnem *odable, or familiar, 
one with another; (S, Msb, TA ;) and made them 
to agree : (TA :) or induced love and agreement 
between them: held by A'Obeyd to be from^jl, 
because therebv food is made good and pleasant 

(T.) It is said in a trad., U^>j^» o' t^^' **J*» 
meaning For it is most Jit, or meet, that there 
should be, between you two, love and agreement : 
(T, 8 or > tltat V""** or reconciliation, and 
friendship, should continue between you two. 
(Msb.) And a poet says, 

i. e. [And the pure, or free from faults, among 


women,] do not love any save one who it made an 
object of love [by his good qualities], (T, S,) a 
proper object of love. (T.)™^>«, (T, M,$,) 
aor. - , (T.) or * , (M, £,) inf. n. >>1, (M,) : He 
was, or became, to them, what is termed i*jl ; 
(T, M, £ ;) i. e., one who made people to know 
them; (T ;) or a pattern, an exemplar, an ex- 
ample, or one who was imitated, or to be imitated; 
and one by means of whom they were known: 
(M, £:) bo says IAar. (M.) — ' M &\ J,jt He 
pared, or removed the superficial part of, the 
hide : (T,« TA :) and^^l ♦J.ST, with medd, he 
pared off the 3U>\ [q. t.] of the hide : (TA :) or 
the latter signifies he exposed to view the 3u*\ [in 
the C£, erroneously, the iof] of the hide. (M, 
£.)-">>l aor. t , (M, £,.) inf. n. J^l ; (T?: ;) 
and >il, aor. -' , (M, $,) inf. n. L,il (T, £) [or, 
more probably, JU>I, like i^l &c] ; 2Te (a 
camel, and a gazelle, and a man,) n>nj, or became, 
of the colour termed JUjI, q. v. infra. (M, £.) 

■ ' t ! > ' f * 

2. *ot, inf. n. j,ii\3, He put much >ljl [or 
seasoning] into it. (TA.) 

4 : see 1, in five places. 

8. *^>Ju5l [written with the disjunctive alif 
j>jii\] He made use of it [to render his bread 

pleasant, or savoury] ; namely >J|, (M,« TA,) or 
>ljl. (M.) [>lil ia explained in the T and S 
&c. by the words a/ j>Si*y. U, meaning That 

which is used for seasoning bread.] >yOI >ju5l 

t The wood, or branch, had the sap (.Ul) flowing 
in it. (Z,$.) 

10. x*iU_l .He sought, or demanded, of him 
>l>t [or *«a#ontn^]. (Z,TA.) 

>jl: aee*ol.sai«Ul>jl.j*: see £»>1. 

"I •■'. .♦? '•! " , * - '»' 

^al : sce^ljl *UI^»>I yk : and «^l ,-^ >A | : 

see i*jl. 

»l: see^jt, in two places:— and i*>1.= 
»l: see^jl. 

»s t.»t . t %..t 

aUI .col yk : see lot. 

lol jl »<a<e o/ mixing, or mingling, together 
[in familiar, or «ocm/, tnt«rcour«e]. (Lth, T, M, 
J£.) You say, A** I U,.^ Between them two is a 
mixing, Le. (Lth, T.)__ Also, (M, £,) or »J$, 
(8,) Agreement: (S, M, £, TA:) and familiarity, 
sociableness, companionship, or friendship. (S, 
TA. [The meanings in this sentence are assigned 
in the 8 only to the latter word: in the TA, only 
to the former.]) _ And the former, Relationship. 
(M, K.) — And A means of access (iie-»j,Fr,T, 
9, M, £) to a thing, (Fr, T, 8.) and to a' person ; 
(Fr,T;) as also ?£% (£.) You say, J,# 

•*■? vT ' * a one is my means of access to 
thee. (Fr,T.)__ And [hence,] A present which 
one takes with him in visiting a friend or a great 
man ; in Persian jyj\ dj. ($, L.) _ iu>\\ j. 

*UI : and o*^ *•>> i» s see L»' 3 \. m In camels, 
A colour intermixed, or tinged, with blackness, or 

with whiteness ; or cfear whiteness; (M,K;) or, 
as some say, (TA,) intense whiteness ; (8, TA ;) 
or whiteness, with blackness of the eyeballs: (Nh, 
TA :) and in gazelles, a colour intermixed, or 
tinged, with whiteness: (M,BL:) or in gazelles 
and in camels, whiteness: (T:) and in human 
beings, (M,]£,) a tawny colour; or darkness of 
complexion; syn. i^J. [q. v.]; (S,M,K;) or on 
intermixture, or a tinge, of blackness; (Lth, T ;) 
or intense «^»_ [or tawniness] ; and it is said to 
be from <jof)\ i*y\, meaning the colour of the 
earth : (Nh, TA :) or [in men,] t. q. z£L [which, 
in this case, signifies whiteness of complexion] : 
(TA:) accord, to AHn, it signifies whiteness; 
BJV-voQ- (M.) [See also >jl] 

&•>! : see i*>l aUI i. A J j*, (M, ?[,) and 

-*^?i^ ^^-fr 4 ^' GW and ^*'» (M ') 

or t«*i»» and *^t*l>J, (K,) t ZTe m Me pattern, 
exemplar, example, or o6;'ec' o/" imitation, of his 
people, or family, by means of whom they are 
known: (M, £ :) so says IAar. (M.) And 
^jlal ioit U^li C U—f J i" »wo(e »ucA a one to 6e 
<Ae pattern, exemplar, example, or o6/"ec< o/ 
imitation, of my people, or family. (T,S.) And 
0!*»J i*i' >», and t ii^fj i He is a pattern,' ice, 
to such a one. (Fr, TA.) And ^ lot J,yLi 
(J^U t SmcA a one is he who makes people to know 
the sons of such a one. (T.) And <L«y 3u>\ '£> 
\Heis the chief, and provost, of his people. (A, 
TA.) And -u>' tjbl o^4, and ej ^ 1^, 
t Such a one is the aider, and manager of tlte 
affairs, and the support, and right orderer of 
the affairs, of his people, and of the sons of his 
father. (A, TA.) = [The inner skin ; the cutis, 
or derma;] the interior of the skin, which is next 
to the flesh ; (S, M, g ; ) the exterior thereof 
being called the Sj±t : (8 :) or (as some say, M) 
the exterior thereof, upon which is the hair ; the 
interior thereof being called the S^ : (M, £ :) 
and 1j>}\ may be its pi. ; [or rather, a coll. gen. 
h. ;] or, accord, to Sb, it is a quasi-pl. n. (M.) 
— Accord, to some, (M,) What appears of the 

skin of the head. (M,B[. [See •>£*]) And 

t The interior of the earth or ground ; (M, T&. ;) 
the surface thereof being called its ^a\ : (M, 
TA :) or, as some say, its surface. (TA.) 

yj»i\ A seller of [j.}\, or] skins, or hides : 
(TA:) and VJ« signifies the same; and par- 
ticularly a seller of goats' skins. (Golius, from 
the larger work entitled Mirkat el-Loghah.) 

tjlO' and iiUil : see »t. 

Jlil (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, 5) and t^l (the 
same except the £) [Seasoning, or condiment, for 
bread; and any savoury food ;] what is used for 
seasoning (y > jj£ U, T, S, M,» Mgh, Msb, $) 
with bread; (T, TA;) that which renders bread 
pleasant and good and savoury; (IAmb, Mgh;) 
whetlier fluid or not fluid; (Mgh, Msb;) jLo 
and l\^o being peculiarly applied to that which 

is fluid : (Mgh :) or»l is anything that is eaten 

with bread: (TA :) the pi. [of mult] of^bl is 

•'» *»i * 

»'» (Mgh, Meb,) and, by contraction,^!, which 

[Book I. 

is also used as the sing., (Msb,) and [pi. of pauc] 
!U>'\ (M,^[) and>l>T; ($;) or this last is pi. 

of Jo!. (M, Mgh, Msb, TA.) It is said in a 
trad., J*Jt >»ljNI j^6 [Excellent, or most excel- 
lent, is the seasoning, vinegar!]. (T, TA.) And 
in another, J^JJI »J*.^lj CijJI^bl j^> [The 
prince of the seasonings of the present world and 
of the world to come is flesh-meat]. (TA.)_ 

i *f *•*• ' ' *t **" * "* 
AUI>blyk, and <uy>l>l: see <Uj! Any- 
thing conforming, or conformable; agreeing, or 
agreeable; suiting, or suitable. (M,]£.) [Used 
also as a pi. : thus,] 'Adiyeh Ed-Dubeyreeyeh 

Ubl^'U. J^ iyi*» 

[TAey were, to those who mixed with them in 
social intercourse, conformable, or agreeable.] 

^>i\ i. q. t>£>U [Seo'onerf] : (T :) or Jlliili 

*J>2>\* [seasoned food] ; (M, K. ;) /oorf in which 
is^\*\. (TA.) Hence the prov., Jj>h jfi+ '• 
^*% ! "*' L*^ [^ 0ttr clarified butter is poured into 
your seasoned food] ; (T, TA ;) applied to a 
niggardly man; (Har p. 462;) meaning, your 
good, or wealth, returns unto you : (TA :) or, as 
some say, the meaning is, into your »U-> [or skin]: 
(T, Har* ubi supra:) and the vulgar say, ^J 
jjlci} [into your flour]. (TA.) And the saying, 
jwY*i*\ \J j* Y+* [Their clarified butter is in 
their seasoned food] ; meaning, their good, or 
wealth, returns unto them. (M.) And the say- 
ing of Khadeejeh to the Prophet, s -f-' iCt 

^iC»>ai>3i *>>wOl (M,TA) Verily thou 
gainest what is denied to others, or makest others 
to gain what they have not, of the things they 
want, or makest the poor to gain, (TA in art. 
>j>c,) an<i givest to eat food in which is >t>l. 
(TA in the present art.) [Hence also,] 'i : ^nH 

♦ ,,5-joU (M, £) meaning cij«*»V •i&l [/flrare 
'Aee my errciMe ; or, perhaps, my virginity ; see 

*j«**] : (¥ [° r »] M 8ome ^yj tne meaning is, 
my good manners : said by the wife of Dureyd 
Ibn-Es-Simmeh, on the occasion of his divorcing 
her. (M, TA.) — - And hence, (Ham p. 205, 
Mgh,) Tanned skin or hide ; leather : (M, Ham, 
Mgh, Msb :) or skin, or hide, (M, K,) in whatever 
state it be : (M :) or red skin or hide : (M, I£ :) 
or skin, or hide, in the state after that in which 
it is termed (Jjil ; that is, when it is complete [in 
its tanning] and has become red : (M :) or the 
exterior of the shin of anything : (T :) pi. [of 

pauc] iojl (S, M, 5) and>»liT and [of mult] >jl, 
(M, K,) the last from Lh, and [says ISd] I hold 

that he who says J-y says »l, (M,) and ♦>>!, 
(T, S, Msb, K,) or this is a quasi-pl. n., (Sb, M, 
Mgh,) [often used as a gen. n.,] of which >>!jl 
may be pi. (M.) — ^*\ J^l and ^^^l ^1 
and iol ijyj ^1 : see ^1 , in art. L ^. One 

says, spjl ji ^/^l 4-5Ui Cl [lit.] Only the 
hide that has the exterior part, upon which the 
hair grows, is put again into the tan: (T:) a 
prov. ; (TA ;) meaning, only he is disciplined, or 

Book I.] 

reproved, who is an object of hope, and in whom 
is full intelligence, and strength; (T, TA, and 
AHn in TA, art jlj [where, however, in the TA, 
£)}} is erroneously put for ^i] ;) and only he is 
disputed with in whom is place for dispute. (TA.) 
__wy»JI ^jjl is used metaphorically for^jt 
kritaJI jil J [The skin of the warrior*, or of the 
people engaged in rear or fight], (M.)_^^Jl» 
jfii'jS »n» m [lit. Such a one is sound of skin] 

means J such a one is sound in respect of origin, 
and of honour, or reputation. (Har p. 135.) You 
say also, y ±Jai W* j»i^ h£jrt O^ [meaning 
J Such a one is clear in honour, or reputation, of 
that Kith which he has been aspersed]. (M,*TA.) 
And * .."Ol (3>« t He rent my honour, or reputa- 
tion. (Har ubi supra.) —^jl also signifies J The 

surface of the earth or ground : (S, M :) [see also 


JU>I, last sentence :] or wAat appears thereof, 

(K,) and of the sky. (M, K.) And \ The first 

part of the period called ,j»~aJI. (M, K, TA.) 
You say, ,_.■. M ^il J>.T-V X I came to thee in 
the first part of the i«*— * j (I-<h, M ;) app. 
meaning, ^n . . j , l l «Ujjl jm« [wAen fne morning 
was becoming advanced; when the sun was be- 
coming high]. (M.)__And J The whiteness of 
day: (IAar, M,K, TA :) and J the darkness of 
night : (IAar, M, TA :) or J the whole of the day, 
(M,A,#,TA,)andofthc night. (A,TA.) You 
say, C515 JJJt^ilj U5U» jVl^jl ji J Z/c 
continued the whole of the day fasting, and the 
whole of the night standing [in prayer, &c.]. 

• it 

3 -* 

see , r«>\. 


>il 0/ the colour termed <uol : pi. j>*\ and 

* cA^' "> (9i M > ¥ tlie lattcr liktJ O!;**- M a 

3 0*1 m> #1 

pl. of j-o*-l: (M :) the fern. sing, is ilol and 

• ASUjI ; (S, M, K ;) the latter anomalous ; (£ ;) 
occurring in poetry, but disapproved (S, M) by 
Ah ; (S ;) said by Aboo-'Alce to be like &La«£. ; 

• •J 

(M ;) and the fern. pl. is j>*\ : (S, M, K :) applied 
to a camel, of a colour intermixed, or tinged, with 
blackness, or with whiteness; or of a clear white; 
(M, ]£;) or, as some say, intensely white; (TA;) 
or white, and black in the eyeballs ; (S ;) or white ; 
(As,T;) and so applied to a gazelle: (T :) or, 
applied to a gazelle, of a colour intermixed, or 
tinged, with whiteness; (M, £;) Lth, however, 


says that JUjI is applied to a female gazelle, but 
he had not heard j>*\ applied to the male gazelle ; 

(TA;) and As says, (§,)>»* I applied to gazelles 
signifies white, having upon them streaks in which 
is a dust-colour, (S, M,) inhabiting the mountains, 
and of the colour of the mountains ; (S ;) if of a 
pure white colour, they are termed >ljf : (T, TA :) 
or, accord, to ISk, white in the bellies, tawny in 
the backs, and having the colour of the bellies and 
of the backs divided by two streaks of tlie colour 
of musk; and in like manner explained by IAar: 
(T:) applied to a human being, j»\ signifies 
tawny ; or dark-complexioned ; syn. j-o— I ; (S, 
M, $ ;) or, thus applied, it signifies £^iJI 'j^L\ 

[which, in this case, means white of complexion] ; 
(TA;) and the pl. is jCo>\. (S.) The Arabs 
say, l^tfj V**' J^' Lr-ij*> meaning The best 
of camels are those of them which are j>>\ and 

ft J J ' m t 

those of them which are w-v"° 5 l^ **■*"*' >] "" 
as Kureysh are the best of men. (M.)_Also 
[Adam,] the father of mankind; (S, M, K ;) and 
likewise *>*! ; but this is extr. : (K :) there are 
various opinions respecting its derivation ; but 
[these it is unnecessary to mention, for] the truth 
is that it is a foreign word, [i. e. Hebrew,] 
of the measure J*U, like jj\ : (MF :) and [there- 
fore] its pl. is j»>£l. (S, M, K.) 

t*o' [Of, or relating to, Adam: and hence, 
human: and o human being :] a rel. n. from >»,>!. 

i«1ju( t Level, hard, but not rugged, ground : 
(As :) or hard ground, without stones ; (K ;) from 
jej}\ signifying the "surface" of the earth or 
ground : (T A :) or ground somewhat elevated ; 
not much so ; only found in plains, and producing 
vegetation, which, however, is disapproved, be- 
cause its situation is rugged, and little water 

3 -I 

remains in it : (ISh :) pl. ^A^l, (As, Esh-Shey- 
banee, IB, K,) which J erroneously says has no 
sing. : (K. :) for he says, [in the S,] ^jLjt signifies 
hard and elevated tracts (t^y-*) of ground; and 
has no sing. (TA.) 

% m t 

j>iy», as in an ex. cited above, (see 1,) Made 
an object of love ; (T,S;) a proper object of love. 
(T.)=:j^~ye j>)y* J^-j \ A man who is skilful, 
and experienced in affairs, (M, I£,) who combines 
[qualities like] softness of the interior skin and 
roughness of the exterior skin : (T, S, M, IC :) or 
mho combines softness and hardness, or gentleness 
and force, with knowledge of affairs : (T :) or 
who combines such qualities that lie is suited to 
hardship and to easiness of circumstances : (As, 
T :) or, accord, to IAar, having a thick and good 
skin : (M :) or beloved : (TA :) the fern, is with i : 
(M, K :) you say, *>1~« &oy» 31^1 , meaning I a 
woman goodly in her aspect and faultless in her 
intrinsic qualities : and sometimes the former 
epithet, with and without i, as applied to a woman 
and to a man respectively, is put after the latter. 
(M.) See also art jIj. 

* A. • t . 

>^jU : see^Jil, in four places. 

4. ^£>\ He took his 51^1 [q. v.] ; (M ;) he pre- 
pared himself; (M, K ; [mentioned in the latter 
in art. ^jy\ ;]) or equipped, or accoutred, himself; 
or furnished, or procided?jiimself with proper, or 
necessary, apparatus, equipments, or the like ; 
(M ;) or lie was, or became, in a state of prepara- 
tion ; (Yaakoob, T, S ;) WLJJ for journeying, or 
tlie journey : (Yaakoob, T, S, M, 1£ :) part. n. 
i£. (Yaakoob, T, S.) And * ^"TlS He took kit 
i\}\, [or prepared himself, &c.,] j**P for the 
affair : (M :) or t j^iU he prepared, furnished, 
equipped, or accoutred, himself for the affair; 


(Ibn-Buzurj, Az, TA;) from Jl^l : (Az, TA :) 
or t the former of these two verbs, (so in some 
copies of the S and £,) or ♦ the latter of them, 
(so in other copies of the S and K, and in the 
TA,) he took his »1>l [or equipments, Sec, i. e. he 
prepared himself,] for [the vicissitudes of] for- 
tune : (S, ]£ :) and * t^jU, inf. n. &, they took 
the apparatus, equipments, or the like, that should 
strengthen, or fortify, them against [the vicissi- 
tudes of] fortune fyc. : (T :) [accord, to some,] 
^jUJI is [irregularly derived] from >"j)l f meaning 
" strength." (TA.) _ He was, or became, com- 
pletely armed ; (T, TA;) part. n. as above; (T, 
S, M, Msb ;) from S\'y$\ : (T, TA:) or he was, or 
became, strong by means of weapons and the like; 
part. n. as above : (Msb :) or he was, or became, 
strong [in an absolute sense] ; (S, K ; [mentioned 
in the latter in art. ^*\ ;]) said of a man; from 
Jly^lj (S;) part. n. as above. (K.) = «b! is 
originally »\js.\ ; the second I [in I, for II,] being 
hemzrh substituted for c. in tlie original ; meaning 
He aided, or assisted, him: [or he avenged him :] 
or it may be from Sl^l ; meaning lie made hitn 
to have, or gave him, or assigned to him, weapons, 
or arms. (Ham p. 387.) [In either case, it should 

be mentioned in the present art. ; as < Jj^-\ belongs 

j 0* t 
to art. ^j*, and Slj^l has for its pl. Oljj^JI.] 

You say, \'j£s ^* »l*1, aor. *J>£i, inf. n. ?lj*l, 

He strengthened him, and aided him, or assisted 

him, against such a thing, or to do such a thing. 

,3 * * 3 0> , 3 •> 30 0I 

(S.) And (j*^* \J* •«»» meaning »tj«l and aJWI 
[He avenged him of such a one ; or lie aided, or 
assisted, him against such a one]. (M and ]£ in 

0J O I « - 

art. (JJ*.) And o*^ (^j** \Sf- i i i - O* ^*° •*" 
aid me, or assist me, against such a one ? (S.) 

The people of El-Hijaz say, £*£i ^J* * *iil£ll 

$0 0*0 0t%0 3 M »•<> ft mn 

<vJLc ijJtjl*, meaning ^ytj^U iCJ jjlI.A (T,S) and 

,-Jlfcl (T) [/ asked of him (namely the Sultan, 
T, or the Emeer, S) vengeance of such a one, or 
aid against such a one, and lie avenged me of him, 
or aided me against him], 

5 : see 4, in two places. 

6 : see 4, in three places. 

10. AjAr »1,)Uxt t. q. «I.»jumiI [He asked of him 
aid, or assistance, against him; or vengeance of 
him] : (T, S, M, ^l :•) or he complained to him 
of his (another's) deed to him, in order that he 
might exact his (the complainant's) right, or due, 
from him. (T A.) See also 4, last sentence. 

Jbl An instrument ; a tool; an implement ; a 
utensil: and instruments; tools; implements; uten- 
sils; apparatus; equipments; equipage; accoutre- 
ments; furniture; gear; tackling: syn. <UI : (T,S, 
M, Msb,K:) of any tradesman or craftsman ; with 
which he performs the work of his trade or craft : 
and of war ; wy^JI »bl signifying weapons, or 
arms : (Lth,T :) and for an afiair [of any kind] : 
(M :) [applied also to the apparatus of a camel, 
or of a camel's saddle, &c. : (see •..»».:)] and 
t sy^l signifies the same ; (M, TA ;) and *ijl.>l : 
(TA:) and v*i>t, (S, TA,) like ^i, (TA,) [in 
some copies of the S J>l,] signifies apparatus, 


equipments, equipage, accoutrements, furniture, 
gear, tackling, implements, tools, or the like; 

Byn. LLl: (S,TA:) the pi. of Stj't is l>\' 3 'i\. 

(T, ^, Msb, K.) You say, *5'*1 •**•' [ 7/ « <«>* 

Am apparatus, &c. ; or prepared, furnished, 

equipped, or accoutred, himself] ; (S, M, £ ;) ^-»^U 

[ybr At q^atr], and >i-JU [/or journeying, or 

<A« journey], (M,) and j*jUU [/or the vicissi- 
tudes of fortune]: (T, S,K:) and it is related 
on the authority of Kb, that they said «ul jj» J^.1 ; 
substituting « for I. (Lh, M). And illJJ ojkiu 

* *>!>! >*^l >• «. -Lj*l [J took for that affair 
its apparatus, tec.]. (S, TA.) And ^e ^jm^i 
syJcAi *i£>l We are in a state of preparation 
for prayer. (S,TA.)__ [Hence, in grammar, 
A particle ; as being a kind of auxiliary ; in- 
cluding the article Jl, the preposition, the con- 
junction, and the interjection ; but not the adver- 
bial noun.] 

I • • »1 

ijjt : see obi, in three places. = Also A 

journey; or a journeying: from^i-JU tj)L (M.) 

•» '« • -i 

•jljl : see stjl. 

lib] i.q.tjJL; (S,M,Mgh,Msb,K ; ) Lsj. 
ji Mtofl »«ie/ [or oa//] of skin, made for water, 
like the I — ^Is— : (TA :) or, as some say, only 
o/* (wo skins put face to face : (M, TA :) pi. 
i&W } (S, Mgh, Msb, K ;) originally, by rule, 
IjSljl ; which is changed, as in the cases of 
CuLo and ClU^., from the measure J5U» to the 
measure ^jlUi, so that the j in ij'jbl is a sub- 
stitute for the augmentative t in the sing., and 
the final alif [written ^] in ^jbl is a substitute 
for the j in the sing. (S.) __ See also St>l. 

\£*\ [a noun denoting the comparative and 
superlative degrees, irregularly formed from the 

verb ^jl ; like as the noun iOl in art i_ol is 

irregularly formed from the verb i£>l in that 

art.]. You say, 5,,- iji\ •*, meaning »|J| and 

* - tt ** 

»ljktl [J< m the strongest kind of thing, and, app., 

the most effectual to aid or assist, or to avenge]. 

(TA.) mm See also art. ,j>\. 

ij^> part. n. of the intrans. verb i£jl [q. v.]. 
(T'S, M,&c.)™[And act part. n. of itjT.]*= 
j^*, without ., is from ^i 3 \ signifying "he 
perished" [&c.]. (S.) 


u * 

2. .1*1, (T, S, M, &c.,) inf. n. a^U (T, S, K) 
and tljl, (T,) or the latter is a simple subst, 
(S, M, Msb, K,) [and so, accord, to the Msb, 
is the former also, but this is a mistake,] He 
made it, or caused it, to reach, arrive, or come 
[to the appointed person or place &c.] ; he brought, 
conveyed, or delivered, it; Byn. *Xle 3 \ ; (M, Msb, 
¥p namely, a thing; (M;) as, for instance, 
VUI ,Jl «iU^l [the thing committed to his 
trust and care, to its owner] : (Msb :) he de- 
livered it, gave it up, or surrendered it : (T :) 
he payed it, or discharged it; (S,K;) namely, 
his debt, (S,) a bloodwit, a responsibility, and 

the like ; (Msb in art. jtjt ;) [and hence,] U^jjl 
*#U [A« acquitted himself of that which was 
incumbent on him ; or payed, or discharged, 
wliat he owed] : (T j) fa performed, fulfilled, 
or accomplished, it ; namely, [for instance,] 
»^JI [*A« pilgrimage] ; (Msb in art. ^^aJ ;) 
and in like manner, iLvU»JI [*A« religious rites 
and ceremonies of tke pilgrimage], (Jel in ii. 
196, and Msb ubi supra.) It is said in the Kur 

[xliv. 17], .*TjU* ,J| I JA | Jjl, meaning Deliver 
ye to me [the servants of God,] the children of 
Israel : or, as some say, the meaning is, "jl l«jl 
4DI >L* V. <u 4»l ># &» > tl U {perform ye to me 
that which Ood hath commanded you to do, O 
servant* of Ood] : or it may mean listen ye, 
or give ye ear, tome; as though the speaker said, 

jf* m * ^j 1 ! '_}■>' ; the verb being used in this sense 
by the Arabs. (T.) And one says, *) *C-i>6, 
*2fc »>•> (£»TA,) and *5l, in the place of ij, 
meaning <CjjI ; (TA ;) i. e. / payed him his 
due, or right. (K, TA.) And a man says, 
"iTiUI U >t» iCot U [/Anow no< Aow to pay]. 
(TA.) One says also, <u» ^jt [meaning 2T« 
payed, or marfe satisfaction, for him]: and iOl 
^l^iJI <U6 [He payed for him, or in his stead, 

the land-tax]. (Mgh in art. tj^.) [Hence,] 
El-Akhnas says, 

i. e. But I have put away from me [wfiat I had 
borrowed, or assumed, of the foolishness of youth, 
and amorous dalliance,] and now I am [or 
there is at my abode] a keeper and collector to 
the camels, or cattle, or property. (Ham p. 346.) 

- " " St 

_ [IJk£» ^jJI {j>\ is a phrase often used as 
meaning It brought, conducted, led, or conduced, 
to such a thing or state; as, for instance, crime 
to punishment or to ignominy.] 

4. i£aI, intrans. and trans. : see art. jjl. 

5. j-»JI *e>l ^jU 2%« information, or n«w*, 
reached him. (S.) = See also 2, in two places. 

* ' ' * 

10. *^)U »bU-/l 7/e desired, or sought, to obtain 

from him property, or «uerf, or prosecuted, him 
for it, or demanded it of him, (S, 1£>) an ^ 
extracted it, (S,) or tooA it, or received it, (1JL,) 
/row Aim. (S, K.) ^ See also art. }*\. 

Jljl a subst from 2 [signifying The act of 
making, or causing, to reach, arrive, or come 
to the appointed person or place &c. ; of bringing, 
conveying, or delivering; of giving up, or sur- 
rendering ; payment, or discharge, of a debt &c. ; 
the act of acquitting oneself of that which is 
incumbent on him ; performance, fulfilment, or 
accomplishment]. (S, M, Msb, K.) _ [Hence,] 
*b^)t l >-»- yk JJtf has a good manner of pro- 
nouncing, or uttering, the letters. (TA.) _ ;Tjl 
as a term of the law signifies The performance 
of an act of religious service [such as prayer &c.] 
at the appointed time: opposed to *Xci, per- 
formance at a time other than that which is 
appointed. (Msb and TA in art \j*&.) 

[Book I. 

s « 

l^ji : see art 3 y. 

l£.)1 [a noun denoting the comparative and 
superlative degrees, irregularly formed from the 
verb j_£jl; like as the noun ^al mentioned in 
art. 3 }\ is irregularly formed from the verb 1C3I]. 
You say, AiUV^U ^1 yk [He is more, or better, 
disposed to deliver, give up, or surrender, the 
thing committed to his trust and care] (T, S, 
M, K) JJU» [than thou], (S,) or »^ ,>• [than 

another than he]. (M,* K.) [Az says,] die 

' -t* st 
vulgar say, iiW^U \J}\; but this is incorrect, 

and not allowable ; and I have not known any 
one of the grammarians allow ^jl, because J*il 
denoting wonder [and the comparative and super- 
lative degrees] is not formed but from the tri- 

literal [verb], and one does not say, to) in the 

/. s * i . s*f •» - • « 

sense of (_£jl : the proper phrase is Jljl ^>-».l. 

(T.) as See also art. 34!. 
yye : sec art. 3 >1. 


it a word denoting past time : (Lth, T, S, M, 
L, Mughnee, K :) it is a noun, (S, L, Mughnee, 
K,) indccl., with its last letter quiescent; and 
properly is prefixed to a proposition ; (S, L, 1$. ;) 
as in juj ya\i St it?-V [/ came to tltee when Zeyd 
«too<f], and ^15 juj il and>>yu juj ii [ir/ien 
/5c//(i was standing]. (S, L.) The proposition to 
which it is prefixed is either nominal, as in [the 

words of the K.ur viii. 26,] JeA3 ^J\ it *jj£>'& 
[And remember ye when ye were few]; or verbal, 
having the verb in the pret. as to the letter and 
as to the meaning, as in [the Kur ii. 28, &c.,] 

i&'Uh ibj Jli 31 3 [And when thy Lord said 
unto the angels] ; or verbal with the verb in the 
pret. as to die meaning but not as to the letter, as 
in [the Kur ii. 121,] j*£i)t ^£t\ g£l iji 
[Ami rthen Abraham was rearing the founda- 
tions] ; all three of which kinds arc comprised in 
the Kur where it is said, [ix. 40,] jSi syyoli Sfl 
U* it Oe^ |jjw Ui* 6 ' *>!•*" ""r^ 1 ij 2M •j-» i 
Ujm &\ Oj 0>-J ^ *-*-l-al Jyu il jU)l ,_,* 

[If ye will not aid him, verily Ood aided him, 
when those who disbelieved expelled him, being the 
second of two, when they two were in the cave, 
when he was saying to his companion, Grieve not 
thou, for Ood is with us]. (Mughnee.) But 
sometimes one half of the proposition is suppressed, 

# m * A * * 4 

as in Jli it, [also written Jlil,] meaning Jli il 
Jiij£» [When that was so], or {jj\£* i>li it 
[ When that was, i. e. then, at that time]. (Mugh- 
nee.) And sometimes the whole of the proposition 
is suppressed, (M, Mughnee,) as being known, 
(Mughnee,) and ten ween is substituted for it; the 
i receiving kesreh because of the occurrence of 
two quiescent letters together, (M, Mughnee,) 
namely the i and the tenween, (M,) and thus one 
says, J£*^ ; the kesreh of the i not being, as 
Akh holds it to be, the kesreh of declension, 
although il here occupies the place of a noun 
governed in the gen. case by another prefixed to 
it, (M, Mughnee,) for it still requires a proposition 

Book I.] 

to be understood after it, (Mughnee,) and is held 
to be indecl. (M, Mughnee) by general consent, 

like^fe «"» d lr>> ( M ») a8 ^'"S com P°^ d of two 
letters. (Mughnee.) [J says,] when Jt is not 
prefixed to a proposition, it has tenween : (S :) 
and hence Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, (8, M,) 

♦ '*''. '.. * ' ',1'". * 

l» ' ' . 

• *-t—o Jl <Z-^3 ****** 

c ' '• * * * 

[I forbade thy suing Umm-Amr in health, thou 
being then sound] ; (S, M, L, Mughnee, TA ; [but 
in two copies of the 8, for VU?» I find 4^; 
and in the L it is without any point;]) in which 
[J says] the poet means •*£-»., like as one says 
JJU* and jL& : (8 :) and Fr says that some of 
the Arabs say, ,_^-» Jt y>j I.J&J !.*£> O^* 
meaning ^o Jlj jl y* [SucA and tuch things 
mere, he being then aboy]. (T.) ^jUlso occurs 
for it [app. it , but whether this or Jl is not clear 
in the MS. from which I take this]. (M.) When 
Jl is adjoined to nouns signifying times, the Arabs 
join it therewith in writing, in certain instances : 
namely .*£♦. [At that time, or Men], and jUy> 
[In, or on, or at, that day], and £&J [In, or 
on, or at, tha night], and ^J* [In, or on > 
that morning], and J tSfSf [In, or on, that even- 
ing], and Jljirtl [In that hour : or at" Mat rime; 
Men], and' JJUU [Zn that year], [and 4&£ijj4< 
Mat time ; J/ten] ; but they did not say ,tfi% 
because O^t denotes tho nearest present time, 
except in tho dial, of Hudhcyl, in which it has 
been found to occur. (T.) When it is followed by 
a verb, or by a noun not having the article Jl pre- 
fixed to it, or [rather] by any movent letter, the 
J of Jl is quiescent; but when it is followed by a 
noun 'with Jl, [or by any T,] the J is mcjroorah, 
as in tho saying, 

'*JiV* oJjt lylfc J£»l M 

[When the people, or company of men, mere 
alighting, or taking up their abode, at Kddhimeh]. 
(T.) — In general, (Mughnee, K,) it is an ad- 
verbial noun denoting past time, (M, Mughnee, 
K,) when it is a noun denoting such time, 

(Mughnee, K,) as in *&&* ■**© Jj& >£ [«* 
plained above], (M,) and in Jl ill »^u «*ii 
U ufc ^hiJJI ii^j* I [also explained above, and in 
other instances already mentioned]: (Mughnee, 
K:) in the former of which instances, AO says 
that it is redundant; (M, Mughnee ;) but Aboo- 
Is-hak says that this is a bold assertion of his ; 
(M ;) [and IHsh says,] this assertion is of no 
account, and so is that of him who says that it 
here denotes certainty, like ji : (Mughnee :) [J 
holds the opinion of AO on this point ; for he 
savs.l it is sometimes redundant, like tit , as in 
the saying in the Kur [ii. 48], \y>y* U^elj i^j, 
meaning •«->>• ^J*!*} [And We appointed a 
time with Moses; but instances of this kind are 
most probably elliptical: see the next sentence]. 
(S.) As a noun denoting past time, it is [said to 
be] also an objective complement of a verb, as in 
[the Kur vii. 84,] ^i. ^L Jl 1^&JTj [And 
remember ye when ye were few] : (Mughnee, £ :) 

Jt — tj» 

and generally in the commencements of narratives 
in the Kur, it may be an objective complement of 
^.jt understood, as in <&:M» «*Wj J* »!» 
[before cited], and the like'. (Mughnee: but see 
the third of the sentences here following.) As 
such, it is [said to be] also a substitute for the 
objective complement of a verb, as in [the Kur 
xix. 16,] IZ& *U£y6ffi\j* 'jS^[And 
mention thou, or remember thou, in the Scripture, 
Mary, the time when she withdrew aside], where 
Jl is a substitute of implication for^^*. (Mugh- 
nee, K : but see the second of the sentences here 
following.) As such, it also has prefixed to it a 
noun of time, of such a kind that it is without 
need thereof, as in j£#, or not of such a kind 
that it is without nce'd thereof, as in [the Kur iii.C,] 
U^jjk Jl Jjy [After tlic time when Thou liast 
directed us aright], (Mughnee, K.) And it is 
generally asserted, that it never occurs otherwise 
than as an adverbial noun, or as having a noun 
prefixed to it ; that in the like of > ^i£> Jl \a/=»Jlj 
Nuli. it is an adverbial noun relating to an objec- 
tive complement suppressed, i. e. 4&I i+su (!>■*&>) 
jjj iy-*-* Jl ^J^* [And remember ye the grace 
of God towards you when ye were few] ; and in 
the like of Oj^Tjl, that it is an adverbial noun 
relating to a suppressed prefixed noun to [that 
which becomes by the suppression] the objective 
complement of a verb, i. e. [in this instance] 
'J>'^* iJei jfi»jTj [And mention thou, or remem- 
ber thou,' the case of Mary] : and this assertion 
is strengthened by the express mention of the 
[proper] objective complement in [the Kur iii. 98,] 

iiuii>& >\j& & &* «*>& i And re - 

member ye the grace of God towards you when ye 
were enemies]. (Mughnee.) — Also, (Mughnee, 
K,) accord, to some, (T, Mughnee,) it is used (T, 
Mughnee, K) as a noun (Mughnee, K) to indi- 
cate future time, (T, Mughnee, K,) and tjt is 
said to denote past time, (T,) [i. e.] each of these 
occurs in the place of the other ; (TA ;) the former 
being used to indicate future time in the Kur 
[xxxiv. 60], where it is said, \y>ji J» {Jj3 £} 
[And couldst thou see the time when they shall be 
terrifUd], meaning the day of resurrection ; this 
usage being allowable, says Fr, only because the 
proposition is like one expressing a positive fact, 
since there is no doubt of the commg of that day ; 
(T ;) and in [the Kur xcix. 4,] UjCl*.l £>J*** -£** 
[ On tliat day, site (the earth) shall tell her tidings] ; 
(Mughnee, K0 ♦h' 8 being generally regarded as 
similar to the expression of a future event which 
must necessarily happen as though it had already 
happened; but it may be urged in favour gf those 
who hold a different opinion that it is said in the 
Kur [xl. 72 and 73], Ji Jt&JI Jl Oy<^*i $r* 
^iU*l [They shall hereafter know, when the 
collars shall be on their necks]; for Oy**4 w a 
future as to the letter and the meaning because of 
its having «J>- conjoined with it, and it governs 
Jl, which is therefore in the place of IJt. (Mugh- 
nee.)— It also indicates a cause, as in [the Kur 
xliii. 2&,]jj+& i\j>*il^**ii cP i Jt mM «* 
profit you this day, since, or because, ye have 
acted wrongfully], (Mughnee, K,) i.e. because 

of your having acted wrongfully in the sublunary 
state of existence ; (Bd, Mughnee ;) but it is dis- 
puted whether it be in this instance a particle in 
the place of the causative J, or an adverbial 
noun : (Mughnee :) Aboo-'Alee seems to hold 
that ^/V* Jt [as meaning when ye have acted 
wrongfully] is a substitute for, or a kind of repe- 
tition of, >*)t ; an event happening in the present 
world being spoken of as though it happened in 
the world to come because the latter immediately 
follows the former. (IJ, M, L, Mughnee.) You 
say also, ci»» jl <& J^» [Praise be to God 
because, or that, thou earnest, or hast come]. (S 
in art I,-*..) — It is also used to denote one's 
experiencing the occurrence of a thing when he 
is in a particular state; (8, L ;) or to denote a 
thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly ; (S, 
Mughnee, K ;) like tjl ; (S ;) and in this case is 
only followed by a verb expressing an event MS 
positive fact, (S,L,) and occurs after U^ and C^; 
(Mughnee, K;) as [in exs. voce ^; and] in 
j!i) fU. jl \'j£» Ul W [While I was thus, or M 
t&tl state, lo, or behold, or there, or then, at that 
time, (accord, to different authorities, as will be 
seen below,) Zeyd came] ; (S, L;) and as in the 
saying of a poet, 

• j^ Ojl> Jl >-*Jl U«* 

[Beg thou God to appoint for thee good, and do 
thou be content therewith; for while there has 
been difficulty, lo, easy circumstances have come 
about] : (Mughnee, K :*) but it is disputed whe- 
ther it be [in this case] an adverbial noun of 
place, (Mughnee, K,) as Zj and AHei hold; 
(TA ;) or of time, (Mughnee, K») as Mbr holds; 
(TA;) or a particle denoting the sudden, or 
unexpected, occurrence of a thing, (Mughnee, K») 
as IB and Ibn-Malik hold; (TA ;) or a corrobo- 
rative, i.e. [grammatically] redundant, particle, 
(Mughnee, ^,) an opinion which Ibn-Ya'eesh 
holds, and to which Er-Radee inclines. (TA.) — 
It is also a conditional particle, but only used as 
such coupled with U, (8, L, Mughnee,*) and 
causes two aorists to assume the mejzoom form, 
(Mughnee,) as when you say, «!«l ^U Ujl 
\When, or whenever, thou shalt come to rne, I 
L *f* J* *■ 

will come to thee], like as you say, UJj ^0 OJ 

JuT rif thou come to me at some, or any, time, I 
will come to thee] ; and you say also C-«3I Ujl 
[like as you say, C^l oj, using the pret in the 
sense of the future] : (8, L :) it is a particle 
accord, to 8b, used in the manner of the condi- 
tional o' » but i 1 is *" ad^rbial noun accord, to 
Mbr and Ibn-Es-Sarraj and El-Farisee. (Mugh- 
nee.) [What I have translated from the 8, L, 

K, and TA, in this art, is mostly from »>^l J-ai 
of JIJJI vV: *e rest, from 1^1 ufl^l vW-] 


tjl denotes a thing's happening suddenly, or un- 
expectedly ; (Mughnee, K ;) or one's experiencing 
the occurrence of a thing when he w in a particular 
state; (S;) like jt: (S voce Jl:),it pertains 
only to nominal phrases; does not require to 


be followed by a reply, or the complement of 
a condition; does not occur at the commencement 
of a uentence ; and signifies the present time, 
(Mughnee, K,) not the future; (Mughnee;) as 
in yMW Zy liU C^Jsh [I went forth, and lo, 
or behold, or there, or then, at that present time, 
(accord, to different authorities, as will be seen 
below,) the lion was at the door] ; and (in the 
saying in the Kur [xx. 21], TA,) £. ^ &jj 
^*-J [And lo, or behold, kc, it was a serpent 
running]; (Mughnee, K ;) and in the saying, 
jJM *ij til* C-^i, which means / went forth, 
and Zeyd presented himself to me suddenly, or 
unexpectedly, at the time, by standing. (S, TA.) 
Accord, to Akh, it is a particle, (Mughnee, IK.,) 
and his opinion is rendered preferable by their 
«»ying, yUW Ujj Oj liU C^-ji [I went forth, 
and lo, or behold, verily Zeyd was at the door] ; 
for [lit cannot here be a noun governed in the 
accus. case, as] what follows jl, which is with 
kesr, does not govern what precedes it : (Mugh- 
nee :) accord, to Mbr, it is an adverbial noun of 
place : accord, to Zj, an adverbial noun of time. 
(Mughnee, K.) Ibn-Malik adopts the first of 
these opinions ; Ibn-'Osfoor, the second ; (Mugh- 
nee;) and so El-Fenjedeehee ; (TA;) and Z, 
the third ; and he asserts that its governing word 
is a verb understood, derived from SU-UJI ; 
[agreeably with the explanation cited above from 
the S;] but others hold that the word which 
governs it in the accus. case is the enunciative, 
which is either expressed, as in J^j Ijtt «£*•»>*» 
wJV [/ went forth, and there, in that place, 
or then, at that titne, Zeyd was sitting], or meant 
to be understood, as in jj/}1 tiU, i. e. j-iU. [And 
there, or then, the lion was present] ; or if it 
be supposed to be [itself] the enunciative, its 
governing word is ^iili or jiilt [understood] : 
and in the last of the phrases here mentioned, it 
may be an enunciative accord, to the opinion of 
Mbr, the meaning being jj^l s^oUJCi [And 
among t/ie things present was the lion] ;' but not 
accord, to the opinion of Zj, because a noun signi- 
fying time cannot be the enunciative of one signi- 
fying a corporeal thing ; nor accord, to the opinion 
of Akh, because a particle cannot be used to denote 
the enunciative of such a thing; or, as signifying 
time, it may be the enunciative of such a thing 
if wc suppose a prefixed noun to be suppressed 
the meaning of ju*^l tiU being ju.^1 ^ii. )U{ 
[And then was the presence of the lion]. (Mugh- 
nee.) You may say either ^l^. j^j IjU J^LjL 
or UlU. [I went forth, and lo, or behold, kc, 
Zeyd was sitting or Zeyd was there fitting], with 
the nom. as an enunciative and with the accus. 
as a denotative of state. (Mughnee.) The Arabs 
said, o* i*J j^,| V ^U)| jf jjtf £& J£ 

VJ* >* '*{* ,&& [I **«d to think that the 
scorpion was more vehement in stinging than 
the hornet, and lo, he is (as vehement as) the], 
and also, tȣt yL fy, which 8b disallowed, 
in contending with K«, who allowed it, and 
appealed for confirmation thereof to certain Arabs, 
whose judgment was pronounced in his favour; 


but it is said that they were bribed to give 
this judgment, or that they knew the place which 
Ks held in the estimation of Er-Rasheed ; and 
if the latter expression be of established authority, 

it is irregular and unchaste. (Mughnee.) It 

also denotes the complement of a condition, like 
*J, (S, Msb,) with which it is in this case syn., 
(Msb,) as in the words of the Kur [xxx. 351, 

[And if an evil befall them for that which their 
hands have sent before, (i. e. for sins which they 
have committed,) then they despair]. (S, Msb.) 
— It is also an adverbial noun denoting future 
time, (S, Msb, Mughnee, K,») and implying the 
meaning of a condition, (Msb, Mughnee,) and 
this is generally the case when it is not used 
in the manner first explained above. (Mughnee.) 
In this case it is not used otherwise than as 
prefixed to a proposition, (S, Mughnee,) which is 
always verbal, as in the words of the Kur [xxx. 241, 
.' "*i 'iff,;. *».. • '-•- • ' -- - £> 

[Then, when He shall call you, or when He 
calleth you, (for, as in Arabic, so in English, 
a verb which is properly present is often tropically 
future,) with a single call from out the earth, 
lo, or behold, or then, ye shall come forth], in 
which occur both the usages of lit here mentioned ; 
(Mughnee;) and in the phrase, ituj&j cJL» I31 
[When thou shalt come, I will treat thee' with 
honour] ; (Msb ;) and in the phrase, tit i)L*.| 
j-^\ j*».l [I will come to thee when the full- 
grown unripe dates shall become red], and>»ji til 
O^* [when such a one shall arrive], which shows 
it to be a noun because this is equivalent to 
0>* -»J*i J>yi [on the day when such a one 
shall arrive] : (S :) or in the phrase ^L\ Ijl JJ 
j-4\ [and in many other cases] it denotes time 
divested of any accessory idea, the meaning being 
[Arise thou] at the time of the full-grown unripe 
dates' becoming red: and so in the saying of Esh- 

Sh&fi'ee, If a man were to say, jf lit JUlL oJl 

ittti t " " " 

JUAtl, or dUU>l _J ,JU, [Thou art divorced 

when I do not divorce thee,] and then be silent 
for a time sufficient for the divorce to be pro- 
nounced therein, she would be divorced; but 
should he make it dependent upon a thing in the* 
future, the divorce would be delayed to that time, 
as if he said, j— Jl ^^-1 lit [using it in the sense 
first assigned to this phrase above]. (Msb.) The 
verb after it is in most cases a pret : in other 
cases, an aor. : both occur in the saying of Aboo- 

S0B0 * &■■* * 

[And -the soul is desirous when thou makest it 
desirous; and when thou reducest it, or restrictest 
it, to little, it is content], (Mughnee.) When it 
is immediately followed by a noun, as in [the 
phrase in the Kur lxxxiv. 1,] c-iiif J fcl}\ lit , 
the noun is an agent with a verb suppressed, 
explained by what follows it; contr. to the opinion 
of Akh; (Mughnee;) the complete phrase being 
^iiiTiUllI wliJUil [When the heaven shall 
be cleft, (when) it shall be cleft] ; and in like 

[Book I. 
manner, ^t, as in the saying, in the Kur [ix. 6], 
i»JU-i!T ^jLj\ ^ .U jl \. (I 'Akp.123.) 
And in the saying of the poet, 

e • - j * • 

Ol£» is meant to be understood after lil [so that 
the meaning is, When a Bdhilee (a man of the 
tribe of Bahileh) has, or shall have, as his wife a 
Handhalecyeh (a woman of the tribe of Handha- 
leh, who were renowned for generosity), he having 
offspring from her, that (offspring) is, or will 
be, the mail-clad]. (Mughnce.) —Sometimes it 
denotes past time, (Mughnee, K,) like as il some- 
times denotes future time, (Mughnee,) as in [the 
saying in the Kur lxii. 11,] £j jl jjuj ijt Iji,' 
V=M \ i ^aHi\ [And when they saw merchandise or 
sport, they dispersed Uiemselves to it]. (Mughnee, 
K.) [Thus] it occurs in the place of il, like as il 
occurs in the place of lil. (TA.) And some- 
times it denotes the present time ; and this is after 
an oath, as in [the phrase in the Kur xcii. 1,1 

j i # # $& * ,J 

L5~*i 'ij Jt^b [By ^e night when it covereth 

with its darkness]. (Mughnee, K.) It also 

occurs in the sense of the conditional jl, as in 

the ,.!V ri , ng ' U^ ffi ty •^ L V^ ,I » meaning jl 
(jj-*/^ 1 [^ w«'tf treat thee with honour if thou 
treat me with honour]: (T:) [for] what is pos- 
sible is made dependent upon it as well as what is 
known to' be certain, as in the phrases, J^j jU^. lit 
[If Zeyd come] and £li\ ^ ;U. lil [When the 
beginning of the month shall come] ; or, accord, 
to Th, there is a difference between lil and ."it : 
(Msb ;) the latter being held by him to denote 
what is possible, and the former to denote what is 
ascertained; so that one says, Juj ;U. .'.| and 

j^\ ^Ij ;U- til. (Msb in art. £l.) When a 

verb in the first person sing, of the pret. is 
explained by another verb after it immediately 
preceded by til, [J^ij is understood before the 
former verb, and therefore] the latter verb must 
be in the second pers. sing., as in «3pl tit 
JM ^J> [meaning Thou sayest (of a thing) 
when, or if, thou hast turned it about in thy 
mouth]. (MF in art. ~.y. See also ^1; last 
sentence but one.) — It is sometimes redundant, 
like as it is sometimes [accord, to some], as 
in the saying of 'Abd-Menaf Ibn-Riba El-Hu- 


00 1 M0\ % j 1 p , M *t * 

[Until they made them to pass along Kut&ideh, 
(here meaning a certain mountain-road so named, 
S in art. j££,) urging on, like as the owners, or 
attendants, of camels drive those that take fright, 
and run away] ; for it is the end of the poem > or 
he may have abstained from mentioning the enun- 
ciative because of its being known to the hearer. 
(§.) When til is preceded by i j£., [as in this 
instance,] it is generally held that til is not 

Book I.] 

governed by ^ in the gen. case, but is still an 
adverbial noun, I J^. being an inceptive particle 
without government. (Mughnee.) __ As to what 
it is that governs til in the accus. case, there arc 
two opinions ; that it is its conditional projjosition ; 
or a verb, or the like, in the complement thereof: 
(Mughnee, K :) the former is the opinion of the 
critical judges ; so that it is in the predicament of 
,.£4 and liig^- and ,jCl. (Mughnee.) — Some- 
times it is used so as not to denote a condition, 
as in the words of the Kur [xlii. 35], U "il^ 
^.JjJu^k \^~ai [And when, or whenever, they 
are. angry, they forgive], in which it is an ad- 
verbial noun relating to the cnunciative of the 
inchoative after it ; for if it denoted a condition, 
and the nominal proposition were a complement, 
it would be connected by \J : and the same is the 
case when it is used after an oath, as in an 
ex. given above. (Mughnee.) — See also what 

til, (Msb, TA, the latter ns on the authority of 
Lth,) with tenween, (TA,) or ^i}. ( T . S . M » 
Msb, Milglim*, K, the first as on the authority of 
Lth,) written in the former manner, (TA,) or in 
the latter, (T,) when connected with a following 
proposition, (T, TA,) and in a case of pause 
written * lj», (T, S, M, Msb, Mughnee, K, TA,) 
and therefore the Basrccs hold that in other cases 
it should be written 1*1 , (Msb,) though El-Md- 
zincc and Mbr hold that it should be in this case 
also with Of ^'l"' Fr holds that it should be 
written with I when it governs, and otherwise 
with Of in order to distinguish between it and 
[the adverbial noun] lit: (Mughnee :) a particle, 
(S, Msb, Mughnee, TA,) accord, to the general 
opinion ; and accord, to this opinion, it is a simple 
word, not compounded of it and o' ; and as 
being simple, it is that which renders an aor. 
mansoob, not o' suppressed and meant to be 
understood after it : some say that it is a noun : 
(Mughnee :) [but a knowledge of its meaning is 
necessary to the understanding of the reason given 
for asserting it to be a noun.] It denotes a 
response, or reply, corroborating a condition; 
(Lth, T, TA ;) or compensation, or the comple- 
ment of a condition ; (Msb ;) or a response, or 
reply, (Sb, S, Mughnee, K,) in every instance ; 
(TA ;) and compensation, or the complement of a 
condition, (Sb,S, M, Mughnee, K,) though not 
always : (Mughnee, TA :) and its virtual meaning 
is [Then; i. e., in that case; or] if the rase, or 
affair, be a* thou hast mentioned, (M, K, TA,) 
or as has happened : (M, TA :) [and hence,] 
accord, to those who say that it is a noun, the 

original form of the phrase jU^sl oiJ [Then, or 
in that case, or if the case be so, I will treat thee 
with honour, said in reply to one who says " I 

will come to thee,"] is iUjl»t l _ J ^-»- 'i' [When 
thou shalt come to me, I will treat thee with 
honour] ; then the proposition [^"^ V ] '8 thrown 
out, and tenween [or o] is substituted for it, 
(Mughnee,) for which reason, and to distinguish 
between it and [the adverbial] til, the Koofces 
hold that it should be written with Of (Msb,) and 
Ot [preceded by ( _ J JLc w-*-j or the like] is sup- 
Bk. I. 


pressed and meant to be understood [as that which 
renders the aor. mansoob ; so that when one says 

JUj^>l oil, it is as though he said ,j^-V 'ij 
jJU^t o' /^i* y».: When thou shalt come to 
me, it will be incumbent, or obligatory, on me to 
treat thee with honour]. (Mughnee.) It renders 
an aor. following it mansoob on certain conditions : 
(Mughnee, TA :) to have this effect, the aor. must 
have a future signification, (T, S, Mughnee, TA,) 
not present : (TA :) til must commence the phrase 
in which the aor. occurs ; (Mughnee, TA ;) [or, 
in other words,] the aor. must not be syntactically 
dependent upon what precedes lil: (TA:) and 
there must be nothing intervening between til and 
the aor., (T, Mughnee, TA,) unless it is a particle, 
(T,) or an oath, (T, Mughnee,) or the negative -}': 
(Mughnee:) therefore, to a person who says, 
" To-night I will visit thee," (S,) or who says, 
" I will come to thee," (Mughnee,) you say, 
jJU^I Oi' [Then, or in that case, &c., I will 
treat thee with honour] ; (T, S, Mughnee ;) and 
to one who says, " I will treat thee with honour," 
you say, J&.1 lit [Then, or if the case be so, I 
will come to thee]. (TA.) When the verb after 
Oil has the present signification, it docs not 
govern : (S, Mughnee, TA :) therefore, to a per- 

son who says, " I love thee," you say, ,iU»l oiJ 
tljli [Then, or if the case be so, I think thee 
veracious] ; for this is a mere reply : (Mughnee :) 

• • il t » 

and to one talking to thee, Wi^» *<*1 'ij [Then 
7 think thee to be lying]. (TA.) When it is put 
in a middle place, (S,) not commencing the phrase, 
(Mughnee,) the verb after it not being syntacti- 
cally dependent upon what is before it, (S, TA,) 
it docs not govern : (S, Mughnee, TA :) there- 
fore, to one who says, " I will come to thee," 

(Mughnee, TA,) you say, JxZj£o\ oi' $ [It «» 
tluit case, will treat thee with honour] : (S, Mugh- 
nee, TA :) for oi' among the words which govern 
verbs is likened to o*" among those which 
govern nouns: (S:) and when it is put at the 
end, it* does not govern ; as when you say, 

til Atj*r*\ [I will treat thee with honour in that 
case]. (S.) The saying [of the poet, or rajiz], 

L>l jl iU*t lit J% 

is explained by regarding it as an instance of the 

suppression of the enunciative of o' > BO that the 

rr -i « i >; < •' 

meaning is, «iUi LJ J* jJ>i\ ">} ^yit, and then a 

new phrase commences [wherefore the verse means 
Do not thou leave me among them remote, or 
a stranger : verily I cannot endure that : in that 
case I should perish, or I should flee]. (Mugh- 
nee.) When it is immediately preceded by a 
conjunction such as ^ or o, the aor. may be 
either marfooa or mansoob. (S, Mughnee.) 
When a noun is introduced between it and the 
aor., the latter is marfooa, (T, Mughnee,) as 
in the saying, -iUjk l)}6-\ OiJ [Then, or in 
that case, thy brother will treat thee with honour], 
(T,) or iU>£»l oif J4* W 'ij [Then, or in that 
case, 'Abd- Allah, I will treat thee with honour] ; 
but Ibn-'Osfoor allows the intervention of an 


adverbial noun [without annulling the govern- 
ment] ; and Ibn-Babshadh, that of the vocative, 
and of a prayer; and Ks and Hisham, ttiRt of a 
word governed by the verb; but Ks in this case 
prefers nasb ; and Hisham, refa. (Mughnee.) 
When you put an oath in the place of the noun, 
you make the aor. mansoob, as in the saying, 
>lii o% tit [Then, or if the case be so, by 
God,' thou wilt sleep]: but if you prefix J to 
die verb with the oath, you make the aor. marfooa, 
saying, >jOZJ «% Oi[ [Then, or if the case be 
so, by Ood, assuredly thou wilt regret, or repent], 
(T.) When you introduce a particle between it 
and the aor., you make the latter either marfooa 

or mansoob, saying, JL^I *} 0*J •■• ■^jr aS J 
[Then, or in that case, Iwill not treat thee with 
honour]. (T.)_- Sometimes the I is rejected, 
and they say, J**l *-J Oi [Then, (a word exactly 
agreeing with Oi ln sound as well as in mean- 
ing,) or in that case, J will not do such a thing]. 
(M, K,* TA.) __ IJ relates, on the authority of 
Khalid, that lit is used in the dial, of Hudheyl 
for it. (M.)_[oi' or 'i' » mentioned and 
explained in the S and £ and TA in art. Oi'» 
and in the TA in i£jl <-»»*$■ vW also.] 

jlit The sixth of the Greek [or Syrian] months 
[corresponding to March O. S.]. (K.) [This 
is not to be confounded with jit or jil, which 
is the ninth month of the Persian calendar.] 

1. i» 6>' ( T » ?» M » M ? b " $) ttnd A C M » s.) 
aor. '- , (T,'Ms b, K.) inf. n. oi', (T, S, Msb, K,) 
He [gave ear or] listened to it, (T, S, M, Msb,K,) 
or Am: (T,S,M,?:*) or it signifies, ($,) or 
signifies also, (M,) he listened to it, or him, 
pleased, or being pleased. (M,K.) It is said in 
a trad., (T,),^ ^ *i}fe> i^*» Oi» ^ 
OljiJW (T, S) God hath not listened to anything 
[in a manner] like his listening [to a prophet 

chanting the Kur-dn]. (T.) And in the Kur 

" -«- » - «- 

[lxxxiv. 2 and 5], VjJ Ciilj And shall listen 

to its Lord, (M, Bd, Jei,) and obey ; (Jel ;) i. e., 
shall submit to the influence of his power as one 
listens to the commander and submits to him. 
(Bd.) And you say, jyJU Oi' ■**• H*ie*ed and 
inclined to sport, or play. (M.) _ [Hence, 
perhaps,] >ULj I aijljj Oi' t -ff« desired eagerly, 
or longed for, the food, [perceiving its odour,] 
(ISh, £,) and inclined to it. (ISh, TA.) — 
[Hence also, app.,] ,^1 ^ *5 oi'» ( s » M » K,) 
or tj^ jpi yj, (T,) or lji» ^J, (Msb,) aor. -, 
(T,K,) 'inf. n. o£'» (T,S,M,K,) or this is a 
simple subst., (Msb,) and o*i'> (?,) [as though 
originally signifying He gave ear to him in 
respect of such a thing ; and then] he permitted 
him, allowed him, or gave him permission or 
leave, to do the thing, or such a thing. (M, 
Msb, K.) [See also oi' t helow.] You say, 

''■"' **f * • f »i •• 

».UjJI ,J j^jlU oJil [I gave permission, or 
leave, to the slave to traffic]. (Msb.) — oi' 



«u.U a) He took, or yor, permission, or leave, 
/or Aim ,/rom him. (M.) You say, ^jJ oJ*' 
.*rO)1 ^A* (?, TA) Take thou, or «e< <Aot^ 
permission for me from the commander, or 
governor, or prince. (TA.) El-A'azz Ibn-'Abd- 
Alluh says, 



[And verily I, when the prince is niggardly of 
his permission, am able to take permission of 
myself when I will]. (TA.) And a poet says, 

* U.b <S!JJ w>l>J oJli • 

m *S.* * > * * m * i * p 

U>j l*^- jjil* O J« 

[/ lata* to a door-keeper, near by whom was 
her house, take thou, or get thou, permission for 
me to enter, for I am her husband's father, and 
her neighbour] : meaning, says Aboo-Jaafar, 

^jiti) ; for the suppression of the J is allowable 
in poetry, and the pronunciation with kesr to the 
O is accord, to the dial, of him who says Ool 
J&. (§.) _ ,^W Oi', # (?,* M, Msb, K,) 
nor. '- , (S,M,K,) inf. n. oiJ and oil and o*i> 
and iilil, (M, K,) He knew the thing; knew 
of it ; had knowledge of it; became informed, or 
apprized, of it. ($, M, Ms b, K.) It is said in 

the Kur [ii. 279], a) J.J.' a«T o-« v jL/ iJiU 
(§, M, 5) 5TAe» &e ye informed, or apprized, 
of war [that shall come upon you] ^oro GW 
nnrf Aw apostle : (M, K :) or <Aen 6e ye sure, 
or assured, &c. (T.) [8ee also oil, below.] = 
liil, (T, 9, M, K,) inf. n. &I, (T,) He hit, 
or Aurt, Aw ear; (T,S, M,K;) or rfrwcA Aw 
car; (so in some copies of the 8;) and taJi! 
signifies the same, (M, K,) inf. n. ^tjyl. (TA.) 

[See also 20— -Oi' t M though originally signi- 
fying He liad his ear hit or Aur< ;] Ae complained, 
or had a complaint, of his ear ; (K ;) said of 
a man. (TA.) 

2. iiil, (S,M,K,) inf. n. ^jfe, (K,) He 
wrung, or twisted, (i)j*,) his (a boy's, S) ear : 
(8, K :) or Ae struck, (vJ-»> TA,) or struck with 
his finger, or ftUipped, (ji f , M,TA,) Aw ear. 
(M,TA.) [See also iii'.] They say, (in a prov., 
TA in art. j^.,) oiji>^ (&*• ^V ^XJ, (M, 
TA,) i. e. For every one that comes to water is a 
single watering for his family and his cattle; 
fAen Aw ear is struck, to apprize him that he 
has nothing more to receive from them : (TA 
in tho present art., and the like is said in the 
same in art. jy+. :) or, f <Ae» Ae is repelled from 
the water : (TA in art. j^. :) [for iiil signifies 
also] — t He repelled him, (IAar, T, M, K,) 
namely, a man, (IAar, T, M,) from drinking, 
(K,) and did not give him to drink. (M,K.) 
You say also, Q^l Jli \J$ t [i n which the 
pronoun appears, from the context, to relate to 
camels,] f Send ye away from me the first ones 
of them. (En-Nadr, T.)™jJut Jj>\ (>nf. n. 
us above, 8,) He put to the sandal what is termed 

Oil, q- ?• infra : (g, M, K :) and in like manner 

one says with respect to other things. (8, K.) = 
Oi'» (M, K,) inf. n. as above, (K,) also signi- 
fies He made known, or notified, a thing (!,JW) 
much; (M,K;*) Ae proclaimed, or made pro- 
clamation; syn. fjl\i: (Jel in vii. 42, and 
Bd and Jel in xii. 70 and xxii. 28 :) 8b 
says that some of the Arabs make oil and 
Oil to be syn. : but some say that the former 
signifies Ae called out publichly; and the latter, 
». q.j^UX [Ae made to know, &c. : see 4]. (M, 
TA.) It is said in the Kur [xxii. 28], .J oi'i 
^«Jl/ ^LJI (M) And proclaim thou, among the 

people, the pilgrimage. (Bd,Jel.) Also, (8, 

K,) or S^Jjg oi'*» (Mfb,) inf. n. as above, (M, 
$,) or o'i', (S,) or both, (TA,) or the latter 
is [properly speaking] a simple subst [used as 
an inf. n.], as in the instances of Ul>^ ej^ and 
U%, £l, and U^L£> £&> &c, (Msb,) He 
called to prayer ; (M, K ;) Ae notified, or made 
known, or proclaimed, [i. e., chanted, from the 
JiJJU,] Me time of prayer; (S* Msb,» TA;) 
and t oil signifies the same, (K,) inf. n. o'Jy'- 
(TA.) IB says, the phrase ^^ujl oil, with the 
verb in the act. form, [a phrase commonly obtain- 
ing in the present day,] is wrong ; the correct 

expression being j-a«>W Oi' [The time of the 
prayer of afternoon was proclaimed, i. e., chanted], 
with the verb in the pass, form, and with the 
preposition to connect it with its subject. (Msb.) 
— You say also, aI^J J^Jl/ oi' He spoke of 
sending away his camels. (En-Nadr, T.) 

4. *iil : see 1, last sentence but one. __ [Hence, 
app.,] inf. n. o'<*i'» \ He prevented him, or for- 
bade him ; (K. ;) and repelled him. (TA.) [See 
also 2.] — And fit (a thing, M) pleased, or 
rejoiced, him, (M, £,) and he therefore listened 
to it. (M.)«aiaif, inf. n. o'«M> ( T , M ?°,) «n 
the place of which the subst. oli' ' s also used, 
(T,) signifies e S^X » \ [I made him to know, or 
Aave knowledge; informed, apprised, advertised, 
or advised, him; gave him information, intelli- 
gence, notice, or advice: and / made it known, 
notified it, or announced it]: (T, Msb:) and 

▼ OJiU, also, signifies 0%»UI [as meaning J made 
to know, &c. : and i" made known, ice.]. (Msb.) 
You say, ^K, iif, (T, 1$., [in the CK!, errone- 
ously, iii I,]) or *JX\i, (S,) and^l iii'l, (M, 
K!,) inf. n. o'jy}, (T,) meaning A^Xct [He made 
him to know, or Aa»e knowledge of, the thing; 
informed, apprized, advertised, or advised, him of 
it ; gave him information, intelligence, notice, or 
advice, of it; made it known, notified it, or 
announced it, to him] ; (T, S, M, $ ;) as also 
j*y\ t <uiO. (M.) So, accord, to one reading, 
in the £ur [ii. 279], Jli\ r>* SjLj iJib 3TAe« 
maAe ye known, or notify ye, or announce ye, war 
from God. (M. [For the more common reading, 
see 1, latter part.]) And so in the Kur [vii. 166], 

<ivj " Oi^ ij.} And when thy Lord made known, 
or notified, or announced : (Zj, S, M, K :•) or 
the meaning here is, swore : (M, K :•) [for] you 

say, o*** i! ^ " Oi^» meaning A« »roore <Aat Ae 
would assuredly do [such a thing] : (M :) Lth 

[Book I. 

says that lji»j lji> oi""^ *cJi& signifies the 
making the action obligatory. (T.) You say also, 

1*11 * *ll * ' ""' rwrt 

H - t-5; ^•*'" Oi^ 3 **• commander, or aorer- 
nor, or prince, proclaimed (^>C) among the 
people, with threatening (S, K) and prohibition; 
i. e. >jJu and ^1*1. (S.) And you say of a 
building that has cracked in its sides, >lj*J^Vf Oi^ 
leyi-J\j + [It gave notice of becoming a ruin 
and of falling down]. (Msb in art. ^».) [Sec 
also a similar ex. in a verse cited voce •$!. And 
hence,] ^-iill oi^ [in the CK (erroneously) oil] 
I TVie herbage began to dry up ; part of it being 
still succulent, and part already dried up. (M, 

K, TA.) And ^^Jl oif t The grain put forth 
its iii I, or leaves. (TA.) See also 2, latter half, 
in two places. a=oi^ and * oi^ are [also] used 
in one and the same sense [as meaning He knew ; 
had knowledge; or became informed, apprised, 
advertised, or advised, of a tiling] ; like as one 
says oil and o^- (?, TA.) You say, t £X\j f 
meaning ^^JU-I [ Know thou] ; like as you say 
^,JLju, meaning >0 JU I. (M.) 

5 : see 4, in eight places. 

10. AJiUwl He asked, or demanded, of him 
permission, or fca»e, (M, Msb, K,) IJA . J to 
rfo «wcA a /Ai'»7. (Msb.) [You say, Oil*-»l mean- 
ing He asked, or demanded, permixxion, or leave, 
to enter, or to come into the presence of another ; 

and to go. And oJs. JjA-jJI ,-i Oi^-', and, 
clliptically, a-U Oi^-'» «« a»Aef/, or demanded, 
permission, or /core, to i/o tM to Am.] 

• »i t>i 
Oil : see Oi'- 

* * 

Oil [is held by some to be an inf. n., like 

Oii' : ( scc 1 n y others, to be] a simple subst. ; 
(Msb ;) signifying Permission ; leave ; or conces- 
sion of lilterty, to do a tiling: and sometimes 
command: and likewise will; (Msb, TA;) as in 
the phrase avI oi^ ty the will of Ood : (Msb :) 
or, accord, to El-Harallec, the withdrawal, or 
removal, of prevention or prohibition, and the 
giving of power or ability, in respect of being 
and creation : or, accord, to Ibn-El-Kemal, the 
rescission of prohibition, and concession of free- 
dom of action, to him who has been prohibited by 
law : or, accord, to Er-Raghib, the notification 
of the allowance or permission of a thing, and of 

indulgence in respect of it ; as in oiW pU»eJ "^' 

aDI, [in the Kur iv. 67,] meaning [but that he 
may be obeyed] by the will of God, and [also] 
by his command : (TA :) or, as explained in the 
Ksh, facilitation ; an explanation founded upon 
the opinion that the actions of men are by their 
own effective power, but facilitated by God ; and 
in this sense, Esh-Shihab regards it as a metaphor, 
or a non-metaphorical trope : (MF :) and accom- 
modation ; syn. ^y ; (Hr in explanation of a 
clause of iii. 139 of the Kur [which see below] ;) 
but Es-Semeen says that this requires considera- 
tion. (TA.) _ Also Knowledge ; syn. J^Xe- ; 
(T, M,K;) and so toii'* ( M >£;) as in the 
saying ,jj>Jj *& (T/ M,'k) and t ^jt, (M, 
K) [He did it with my knowledge] : or oil has a 

Book I.] 

more particular signification than jtX*> being 
scarcely ever, or never, used save of that [know- 
ledge] wherein is will, conjoined with command or 
not conjoined therewith ; for in the saying [in the 
£ur iii. 139, referred to above,] v^a-J O^ 9 *"•> 
4*1 OiW *$l 0)«3 o' [And it it not for a soul to 
die save with the knowledge of God], it is known 
that there are will and command ; and in the 
saying [in the l£ur ii. 90], o? *y CKr***^** ~J 
<iT oiW *)\ J».t [But they do not injure tliereby 
any one save with the knowledge of Ood], there is 
will in one respect, for there is no difference of 
opinion as to the fact that God hath made to exist 
in man a faculty wherein is the power of injuring 
another : (Er-Raghib :) but Es-Semeen says that 
this plea is adduced by Er-Raghib because of his 
inclining to the persuasion of the Moatezileh. 
(TA.) You say also, *iiW \J£s oJju meaning 
JT did thus by his command. (T.) 

Oil : see 4>il. 

Oil and * oi'i (?» M » M f b » £») the lattcr a 
contraction of the former, [which is the more 
common,] (Msb,) [The ear;] one of the organs 
of sense; (M, TA;) well known: (M:) of the 
fern, gender: (8, M, Msb, K :) as also * 4 >>i ,: 
($ I>1- OW» ( s > M, Msb, K,) its only pi. form : 
(M :) dim. v i^jjl ; but when used as a proper 
name of a man, Oii'» though <U>il has been 
heard. (S.) You say, a^il \jifi :V [He came 
spreading, or, as we say, pricking up, his ears : 
meaning] t he came in a state of covetousness, or 
eagerness. (T, K, TA. [See also Jii.]) And 
juiil U_j^) b*)>j Ojo.) t J found such a one 
feigning himself inattentive, or heedless. (T, TA.) 

i' d 'J* J • ' 

And a) ,-iil C.....I J I turned away from htm, 
avoided him, or shunned him : or J feigned myself 
inattentive, or heedless, to him. (K, Ta. [See 
also J-J.]) — t A man wAo /wtou <o what is said 
to him : (M, I£, TA :) or a man wlw hears the 

speech of every one : (S :) or who relies upon 

• i j - - 
reAat m *at'd <o A?'m ; as also £•—» a-oj'j : (M in 

art. ^oj) :) applied as an epithet to one and to a 

pi. number, (S, M, £,) alike, (S, M,) and to two, 

and to a woman ; not being plurulized nor dualized 

[nor having the fcm. form given to it]: (IB:) 

you say o* 1 J*-J (AZ, S, M) and oi'> and 
Oil Jl^y and oi 1 [& c : (AZ, M :) and some- 
times it is applied to a man as a name of evil 
import. (M.) It is said in the Kur [ix. 01], 

2* j*- 0>» j» Oi' * 0*& (T, M) And 
they say, "He is one who hears and believes 
everything that is said to him:" as though, by 
reason of the excess of his listening, he were 
altogether the organ of hearing ; like as a spy is 

termed o** 5 or O*' * 8 bere from oi' " he lis- 

f *f • * * . 

tened," and is like Owl and JXi in its derivation : 

(Bd:) for among the hypocrites was he who 
found fault with the Prophet, saying, " If any- 
thing be told him from me, I swear to him, and 

he receives it from me, because he is an oi I : " (M :) 
therefore he is commanded to answer, Say, "A 
hearer of good for you." (T, M, Bd.) — f A 

sincere, or faithful, adviser of a people, who coun- 
sels to obedience : (Msb :) a man's intimate, and 
special, or particular, friend. (TA.) _ J A cer- 
tain appertenance of the heart; (M ;) [i. e. either 

auricle thereof;] ^JUJI Oil signifying two ap- 
pendages (o^U) tn tne upper part of the heart : 
(K :) and J of a J-eJ [or arrow-head or the like ; 
i. e. either wing thereof] : and t of an arrow ; 
jtr^\ O'M signifying the feathers of the arrow, 
as AHn says, when they are attached thereon ; 
and o'M £& ji [<* thing having three such 
feathers] meaning an arrow : all so called by 
way of comparison : (M :) and t of a sandal ; (S, 
M, K ;) i. e. the part thereof that surrounds the 

JL5 [q. v.] : (M :) or J*I)I Oil signifies the two 
parts, [or loops,] of the sandal, to which are tied 
the ,jl>*«a« of the J)\ji>, [or two branches of the 
thong that is attached to another thong between 
two of the toes, which two branches, however, 

* si 

sometimes pass through the 0^i'> encompassing 
the heel,] behind the narrow part (j«a*«.) of the 
sole. (AO in an anonymous MS in my possession. 
See also JJuL) \A handle, (M,) or [a loop- 
shaped, or an ear-shaped, handle, such as is 
termed] *£*, (T, K,) of anything; (M, X. ;) as, 
for instance, (M,) of a j^£» [or mug] ; (T,M ;) and of a 
^i [or bucket] : so called by way of comparison : 
and in all cases fern. : (M :) pi. as above. (T.) 
— t What becomes sharp, or pointed, and then 
falls off, or out, of the plants called «J^e and 

>U3 when they put forth their ^s^*- [q. v.], 
or when their u°^ become perfect ; because it 
has the shape of an ear. (AHn, M.) 

• * * 

Oil, also written til : see art. lit. 

Siil The leaves of trees, (En-Nadr, T,) or of 

f J 

grain. (K.) _ [The kind of leaf called <Lo^ 
of the>Cj-] — t The young ones of camels and 
of sheep or goats ; (En-Nadr, T, TS. ;) as being 
likened to the iSo^L of the^Cf. (TA.) — A 
piece of straw: pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] * oi' 
[in the CK Jj>\}. (IAar, T, K.)=a Appetite, 
appetency, longing, yearning, or strong desire. 
(En-Nadr, T.) You say, J^NI l^ j»J hju tjl 
SjujJtf iiil This is a herb for which the camels 
feel a strong appetite &c. (En-Nadr, T.) And 
4J <6il *^>»Ui» IJjk This is food for the odour of 
which there is no appetite. (¥.,* TA.) 

O'il A making known; a notification; an 
announcement. (T, S, Mgh.) [See 4.] So in 

the £ur [ix. 3], y-UI J\ «Jj^j -Tlf Of o'ilj 
[And a notification, or an announcement, from 
Ood and his apostle to men, or the people]. (T, 
Mgh.) Also, and *C«*t (T, S, M, £,) and 

Oji^> [the last an inf. n. of 2, and the second 
a quasi-inf. n. of the same, which see,] (M, ]£,) 
The notification, or announcement, of prayer, and 
of the time thereof; (T, S ;) the call to prayer. 
(M,I£.) [The words of this call (which is 
usually chanted from the ii JJU>, or turret of the 

t.iln/ ' »1 e • S *»*! 

mosque,) are jJ=>\ ti)\ (four times) 4)1 ^ o' •K--'' 
*tll *9l (twice) Afrl jj-j U.» » o' «**-' (twice) 


j£l iii (twice) '*t)T ^1 *JI *5-] — O'i^' abK> 
signifies The [notification, or announcement, 
called] iilit ; (M,K ;) because it is a notification 
to be present at the performance of the divinely- 
ordained prayers. (TA.) [This (which is chanted 
in the mosque) consists of the words of the 

former o'i 1 w i* tb e addition of »'%d\ 0-»U ji 

• <« ** s*_ 
pronounced twice after OUJI ^^U (a ^»>.]_ 

Oli'i^l signifies 2%« o'i' [*•** ctwnmoti/y w 
c'aiferf] and the JUUI. (TA.) 

Ojil [An animal having an ear; as distin- 
guished from f-y^-o, which means " having 
merely an ear-hole"]. (Msb in art. ,>w.) 

• * • *\ n , • *. • i 

Oii' : see oi'- Ml See also oM» In tnree 

places And see oli'-«^^- ?• *OiJ-* [16% 

fo Anow or have knowledge, *»y o/"a thing; in- 
forming, apprizing, advertising, or advising; 
giving information, intelligence, notice, or advice; 
making known, notifying, or announcing] : like 
^1 and «^3 as meaningly* and £*ry>- (M.) 

See also O&i*. asiOne who is responsible, 

answerable, amenable, or a iwrety ; [ j-»V /W* • 
fAtw//; and perhaps also o^Ju /or ano/Aw - /)^*©*!;] 
syn. Je»i» (S,M, K) frndj^j [which signifies 
the same as J-*£», and is plainly shown in the 
M to be here used as a syn. of this latter ; but 
SM assigns to it here another meaning, namely 


in which sense I find no instance of the 

»^UJI J£ ^. (twice) £ji)l J£ ^ (twice) | lency. (TA.) 

use of OiM] i (AO, M ;) and * &±\ also is syn. 

with Oii' in l be sense of J«^> (50 ■■ Also 

A place to which the o'i' [ or cal1 t0 P ra y gr '\ 
comes [or reaches] from [or on] every side. 

(§, SO 
<U>il dim. of oi'» q- ▼• (?.) 

^lil (S,M,Mgh,?) and *^ (M,?) Xfl^e- 
eared ; (S, M, Mgh, £ ;) long-eared ; (M ;) 
applied to a man, (S, M, K,) and to a camel, 
and to a sheep or goat : (M :) [or] the latter 
epithet is applied to a ram ; and its fern. &it 
to a ewe. (T,S,M.) 

. ,i»il One who hears everything that is said : 

but this is a vulgar word. (TA.) [See oi'-] 

a -i 

Oil : see ^il. 

OiT [act part. n. of 1. As such, Permitting, 

or allowing; one who permits, or allows. And 

hence,] A doorkeeper, or chamberlain. (S,£.) 

• i 
__See also o^'- 

• of t * »\' 

Oij<» : see Oi*"' 

Oi5- : see Oii'- You ^y* ai i>* Je""^ *^*^ 
2T» impress notifies [or ii indicative of] good- 
ness. (TA.) oCi}i, signifying The women 

who notify, or announce, the times of festivity 
and rejoicing, [particularly on the occasions of 
weddings,] is a vulgar word. (TA.) = Herbage 
beginning to dry up; part of it being still succu- 
lent, and part already dried up : and a branch, 
or wood, that has dried, but has in it some succv- 


see what next follows. 

ijjU (which may also be pronounced ii jk~*, 
Msb) The place [generally a turret of a mosque] 
upon which the time of prayer u notified, made 
knonm, or proclaimed; (T, M,*^;») t. q. ijlii 
[which has this meaning and others also] ; (AZ, 
T,S,Msb;) as also »aii|i: (AZ,T:) or it 
signifies, (as in some copies of the ¥.,) or signifies 
also, (as in other copies of the same,) t. q. SJLu : 
and lM*yo: [see these two words:] (]£:) or 
t. q. JjUi, meaning 1^,'yo ; (Lh, M, TA ;) by 
way of comparison [to the turret first mentioned]: 

but as to * aiiU, it is a vulgar word : (TA :) the 
pi. is oi*"»i agreeably with the original form of 
the sing. (Msb.) 

Oii* One mho notifies, make* known, or pro- 
claims, [by a chant,] the time of prayer ; (M,* 
Mfb, Kl ;•) [i. e., who chants the call to prayer;] 
asalsot^i?. (M,£0 

* ,t. 

^iU, as meaning A slave permitted, or 

having leave given him, by his master, to traffic, 

is used for si Ol&t (Msb, TA,) by the lawyers. 
(Msb.) an Also Having his ear hit, or hurt; 
andsotjjiji. (TA.) 

1. Jfit, aor. '-, inf. n. Jtf, (T, M, Msb, £,) 
in [some of] the copies of the 1£ written lit, and 
M> by ID, (TA,) and Mi I, (C$, [but not found 
by me in any MS. copy of the £ nor in any other 
lexicon,]) and, accord, to IB, Mil and ifit, 
(TA,) or these two are simple substs. ; (M, Kl ;) 
and v ^iU ; (T, S, M, Ms b, K! ;) [He was, or 
became, annoyed, molested, harmed, or Awr<;] 
A* experienced, or suffered, slight evil, [i. e., 
annoyance, molestation, harm, or Aurr,] fe« *Aan 
wAa/ is termed jjJs ; (El-Khattdbce ;) or he 
experienced, or suffered, what was disagreeable, 
or hateful, or rat'/, (Msb, $,) in a small degree; 
(Si) * [fty Ai», or t<];_ (T,S,M,£ ; ) [and 
Ai+from him, or it :] * ^ifcjt signifies the being 
affected by what is termed ^i^l [i. e. what 
annoys, molests, harms, or hurts, one] : and also 
the showing the effect thereof; which is forbidden 
by the saying of 'Omar, ^uJV * j^iUJIj j)\^\ 
[Avoid thou, or beware thou of, shaming the 
being annoyed, molested, harmed, or hurt, by 
men] ; for this is what is within one's power. 
(Mgh.) — Also, aor. and inf. n. as above, It 
(a thing) was unclean, dirty, orjilthy. (Msb.) 

4. (jiT signifies ^i^l Jii [He did what 
annoyed, molested, harmed, or hurt], (M,K.) 
— And iliT, (T, S, M, M ? b, £,) aor. ^, (S,) 
inf. n. M*j*l (T, IB, Msb) and [quasi'-inf. n.] 
&l, (T,) or (jit and Mil and LM, (S.K!,) but 
IB refuses his assent to this, saying that these 
three are inf. ns. of ^il, and MF says of sXl, 
which is expressly disallowed by the author of 
the £, though ho himself uses it, that others 
assert it to have been heard and transmitted, and 
to be required by rule, but he adds that he had 


searched for examples of it in the language of 
the Arabs, and investigated their prose and their 
poetry, without finding this word ; (TA ;) [He, 
or it, annoyed him, molested him, harmed him, 
or hurt him ; or] he did what was disagreeable, 
or liateful, or evil, to him. (Bd in xxxiii. 53, 
Msb.) It is said in the £ur [xxxiii. 47], 
j$m»i oj, meaning And leave thou the requiting 
of them until thou receive a command respecting 
them; (M, Bd,Jcl;) namely, the hypocrites: 
(M :) or leave thou unregarded their doing to 
thee what is [annoying, molesting, harmful, hurt- 
ful, or] disagreeable, &c, to thee. (Bd.) 

5 : see 1, in three places. 

^il inf. n. of 1. (T, M, Msb, ]£.) [As a 
simple subst., A state of annoyance or molesta- 
tion.] — And [Annoyance, molestation, harm, or 
hurt: quasi-] inf. n. of ilif. (S,K1.) It sig- 
nifies also, [like • <£it and *Mil,] <u cJili U J£» 
[Anything by which thou art annoyed, molested, 
harmed, or hurt] ; (T ;) or ibiji U [a thing 
that annoys, molests, harms, or hurts thee] : 
(Mgh :) or a slight evil; less than what is termed 
/j^>. (El-Khattdbee.) You say, ^ ^i^l iu 
JjjJa)\ He removed, or put away, or put at a 
distance, what was hurtful from the road, or way. 

(Mgh and TA in art. Ja*».) Also A thing 

held to be unclean, dirty, or filthy : so in the 
Klur ii. 222. (Mgh, Msb.) [Filth; impurity: 
often used in this sense in books on practical law.] 

il Experiencing, or suffering, [annoyance, 
molestation, harm, hurt, or] what is disagreeable, 
or hateful, or evil, (M,» K,» Msb,) in a great, or 
vehement, degree ; (M, K ;) applied to a man ; 

(M,Mfb;) as also tj^| : (M,K:) and both 
signify the contr. ; i. e. doing what is disagrccalrte, 
or hateful, or rai7, in a great, or vehement, degree. 
(£ •) — Also, applied to a camel, That will not 
remain still in one place, by reason of a natural dis- 
position, not from pain, (El-Umawce, A'Obcyd, 
S, M, £,) nor disease ; (K ;) as also • ,^51 : (M:) 
fern, of the former J^il ; (El-Umawee ice.;) and 
of the latter tSJif. (TA.) 

[Book 1. 

sometimes signifies above]) what are termed 
(ISh,TA:)pl.iiljl. (S.) 

C*» : 

til: and lit: see art. tit. 

• -« 

Mil an inf. n. of 1. (IB.) — And [quasi-] 

inf. n. of MiT. (S, 1£.) — See also ^il and iJif. 

I I Ml t 

j^il, and «uil as its fem. : see il, in three 

&I an inf. n. of 1. (IB.) And [quasi-] 

inf. n. of iliT. (S, £.) — And a subst. from iliT; 
(Msb;) or, as also ♦flit, a subst. from ^il and 
t_£iU; (M, !£;) signifying A thing that is dis- 
agreeable, or hateful, or evil, in a small degree. 
(£.) See also ^il. 

8 - 

yj±\, (S, M, £, &c.,) with medd and teshdeed, 

(TA, [in the CK, erroneously, {ji'\,]) Waves (S, 
M, Kl) of the sea : (S :) or vehement waves: (TA:) 
or the JjUsI [app. meaning rollers, because they 
fall over like folds,] which the wind raises from 
the surface of the water, less, than (J^j [but this 

1. lijl, aor. Jl, (S,) inf. n. j\, (S, K:,) limit 
earn; he compressed her. (S, K.) 

jl jl, (M, TT, L, [and so in the present day,]) 

or jl jl, (K,) A cry by which shcej) or goats are 
called. (M,L,K.) 

ji+ A man (S,) much addicted to venery : (S, 

K :) so accord, to A'Obcyd, as related by Sh and 

El-Iyadce. but thought by Az to be j^», of the 

same measure as j&*, i. e., JjuLo, [originally 
« I- .-. 

jiU,] from Ujl. (T.) 

1. Jf\, aor. '-, (T, S, M, K,) inf. n. ajljl (AZ, 

T, S, M, K) and vjj » like 'jLe, (S, K,) He was, 

or became, cunning, characterized by intelligence 

with craft and forecast, or simply intelligent, 

excellent in judgment, sagacious, (T, [in which it 

is said that A; is related to have assigned this 

. » t * -i 

signification to vj'» aor - ' t ,n »- n - Vj'i] ?, M, 

K,) and knowing in affairs. (M.) [The TA 

assigns the former inf. n. to it when it signifies 

simply intelligence, and the latter when it has the 

more comprehensive signification of cunning.] ^_ 

'yj^ V Vj'i t* 01 "' ' »] «• became expert, or skilful, 
in the thing : (M :) or he became accustomed to, 
or practised or exercised in, the thing, (S, K.,*) 
and became knowing, or skilful [therein], (S.)— 
Vjl* mf. n. ^jl, is also sj/n. with L ^-il [app. as 
meaning He became familiar with a person or 

thing], (M.) And *.«£JW «r>j' a ' so signifies 

He devoted, or addicted, himself, or clave, or kept, 
to the thing: (T, KL:) and A« hnm, or became, 
niggardly, avaricious, or tenacious, of tlie thing. 

(T, M, TA.) And jl^l ^J vj'» and *«» ^T 13 * 

7/c exerted, or employed, his power and ability 
in the affair, and understood it: (ISh, T :) or 
VjO signifies he exerted his strength, force, or 
energy; or strained himself '; (As, S, M \)tjjii\ ^-i 
[in </tti thing]; (As, S;) and <Co-L>. ^y [t'n Am 
needful affair, or t'n <A« accomplishment of hit 
mint]. (As, S, M.)^d-U- ^jil //* Aa</, or 
obtained, power over him, or tl. (M.)a=s^>jl, 
aor. - , (T, S, £,) inf. n. 4»j', (T, S,) He was, or 
became, in want, or need. (T, S, K.) [See Oyjl 
^U>j i£i ^>c, and two other phrases following 
it, in a later part of this paragraph.] — *JJ w^l, 
(M, Msb,) or <y, (T,) aor. and inf. n. as above, 
He wanted it ; was, or became, in want, or need, 
of it ; (T, M, Msb ;) and sought it, or desired it ; 
(T;) namely, a thing. (T, Mf b.) — 'jjkji\ J^J 
Fortune was, or became, hard, or adverse : (T, S, 

K:) as though it wanted something of us, for 

•* * * i 
which it pressed hard. (M, TA.) And a^U ,^1 

He was, or became, hard upon him in his demand. 

s**\ * * 

(TA, from a trad.)^ tfgl, [from vj' >] He struck 

upon a member, or limb, belonging to him. (K!,* 

Book I.] 

TA.) ^J, (T, S, £, TA,) His member, or 

limb, (generally meaning the arm, or hand, M,) 
ma* cut off: (M, K :) or dropped off: (T :) and 
Ait members, or limbs, (generally relating to [the 
members, or fingers, of] the arm, or hand, TA,) 
dropped off, one after another, (S, It, TA,) Ml 
consequence of his being affected by the disease 
termed jt\S»- : (TA :) and it (said of a member, 
or limb,) dropped off. (TA.) The phrase, C^l 
«^J* KS) O^, (T, TA,) or Aj±t ^i J>*, (S, 
TA, [and said in the latter to be likewise found 
in the T, but I have consulted two copies of the 
T and found only ^>*,]) or Jljju ^J yjt, (IAar, 
an related by Sh,) or J&.Xi £>*, (K,) but MF 
says that v >» in this phrase is a mistranscription, 
(TA,) means, May the members [or fingers] of 
thy hands, or arms, drop off: (S, J£, TA :) or it 
means, may what is in thy hands depart from 
thee, so that thou shalt be in want : occurring in 
a trad. (IAar, T,TA.) And si U vj'» «»id by 
Mohammad on the occasion of a man's coming to 
him and asking him to acquaint him with some 
work that should introduce him into Paradise, 
means, accord, to Kt, May his memliers, or limbs, 
drop off, or be cut off: what aileth him? (TA :) 
or, accord, to IAar, may he become in want : what 
aileth him? (T, TA :) but IAth says that this 
has been related in three different ways: first, 
^tj], signifying an imprecation, [as rendered 
above,] and used ns expressive of wonder : sc- 
condly, ti U » vj' > i. e. *) *»»U. ; U being 
[syntactically] redundant, denoting littleness ; the 
meaning being, he has some little want : or, as 
some say, a want hath brought him : what aileth 


him? thirdly, 


1 1 i. e. 

wjjl y»> ; meaning he 

is intelligent, or sagacious, or skilful, [as is said in 
the T,] and perfect : what aileth him ? or what 
is his affair? the inchoative being suppressed. 
(TA.) »>j sL^jl 4 **, (M,$,*) another form of 
imprecation, (M,) means What aileth him? may 
his arm, or hand, be cut off : or, may he become 
poor, and want what is in the hands of others. 
(M, ]£.•) — [Hence, perhaps,] <ujjl« oyjl His 
stomach became vitiated, disordered, or in an 
unsound state. (K.)_w>jl also signifies He 
prostrated himself firmly, or fixedly, upon his 
[seven] members [mentioned in the explanations 
of the word 4»Jj]. (T.) 

- . • t 

2. ^ijl, inf. n. ^-JjU, He, or it, [made, or 

rendered, cunning, or intelligent, excellent in judg- 
ment, sagacious, and knowing in affairs; (sec 
Vj' >)] ma de to have knowledge, or skill; or. made 
to understand. (M, TA.)mmHe was, or became, 
avaricious ; [in a state of vehement want of a 
tiling ;] eagerly desirous. (A'Obeyd, TA.) [See 
also 1.] =s He cut up, or cut into pieces, (T, A, 
Mgh,) a sheep, or goat, (A, Mgh,) limb by limb. 
(T, A, Mgh.)__ He cut off a member, or limb, 
entire. (M, TA.) —He made entire, or complete, 
(T,S, M, K,) a thing, (S,) a lot, or portion, (T, 
TA,) or anything. (M.) 

3. '*ij\, (S, A,) inf. n. Sjjlji, (M, A,) He 

strove, or endeavoured, to outioit, deceive, beguile, 

J ' " 
or circumvent, him; syn. al*lj. (S, M,*A.*) 

m*** t 9 . 

It is said in a trad., (TA,) :U*j Jy«. ^p* tyy* 
[The striving to outwit the cunning, or intelligent, 
or sagacious, is ignorance, and labour without 
profit]: (A, TA:) i.e., the intelligent is not to 
be outwitted. (TA.) And */ «_>jl signifies He 
practised an artifice, a stratagem, or a fraud, 
upon him. (TA, from a trad.) 

4. _+yti* «->j'> (T, ?, M, K,) of the measure 
Js6\, (T,) inf. n. v!*' [originally L>\J,\], (K,) 
He was successful against them, and overcame 
them. (T,S, M,K.) 

5. w>jO He affected, or endeavoured to acquire, 

(otlCi,) cunning, or intelligence, and excellence 
of judgment, (K, TA,) and deceit, guile, or arti- 
fice, and wickedness, mischievovsness, or ma- 
lignity. (TA.) [See Vj|0 — ffo u£ V? 5 : 
see 1. 

w>jl -. see what next follows, in two places. 

w>jl Cunning, intelligence with craft, and fore- 
cast, or simply intelligence, excellence of judgment, 
sagacity, (T, S, M, L, K,) and knowledge in 

affairs; (M, L ;) as also ♦ i^l and tA^I (M,K) 
and t «_>j|, (M, A,) or ? « r »Jl. (L.) You say, 
w»jl ^i yk [/ze i» a possessor of cunning, or t»- 
telligence, ice.]. (S.) _ Intelligence and religion. 

(Th, M, K.) _ Deceit, guile, artifice, or fraud ; 

si « 
syn. Xo : so in the L and other lexicons : in 

• « > 
the Jk, j£j [i. e. "cunning," &c, as above]: 

(TA:) andso*ijJl; syn.aJL^. (K.) Wicked- 
ness, mischicvousness, or malignity ; hidden ran- 
cour, malevolence, or malice. (K, TA.) [In a 
trad, it occurs in this sense written, in the TA, 

* Vj'0 = ^ ee a ' so Vj') m f° ur places, asa Also 
A member ; a distinct, and complete part of an 
animal body ; a limb ; (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K ;) 
or such as is made complete, or entire, not wanting 
anything: (M :) pi. ^Ijl (S, M, Mgh, Msb) and 
yljl ; (S, Mgh ;) the latter formed by transposi- 

99 *9 J t 9 & 

tion. (Mgh.) You say, Ig] 1^,1 <UxL$ I cut him 
up, member by member, or limb by limb. (TA.) 
And w>ljl Ukj * (> y* jjm ,i tl or w»ljl Prostration 
[in prayer] is [performed] on seven members; 
(S, Mgh ;) namely, the. forehead, the hands, the 
knees, and the feet. (TA.)__Also The mem- 
brum genitale ; the pudendum ; syn. m.ji : (M, 
K:) but some say that this signification is not 
known: [see w>j ,: ] m som e copies of the 1£, 
the explanation is written *-j» , with the unpointed 
•». (TA.)__ ^>ljl [the pi.] also signifies Pieces 
of flesh, or offiesh-meat. (M.) 


see w>.t. i 

Vj'' = Want, or need ; (T, S, M, 

Mgb, Msb, K ;) as also * ^>j\ and ▼ <b)t (the 

,*•■*' ^ ' t i.-l< ' \t.jt. 

same, and A) and " <y;1 (KL) and "i^U and '<b;U 

(T, S, M, A, Msb, K) and t^U (K) and t^jU : 
(M, A :) the pi. [of ^jjl or ^t] is ^'j'j tJi ^ f ^ 
•M| and perhaps of the other sings, commencing 
with I,] ^jt ; (M ;) and the pi. of «yjU is ZjJU. 
(T, Msb.) It is said in a trad., respecting Mo- 
hammad, a^ _js\*\ {j\£o He had the most 
power, of you, over his want, and desire : (M, c 


Mgh,* Msb,* TA :) IAth says that the most 
common reading is tu/j, meaning iS ty AmJ : but 
some read T <Vj"^, [as in the M and Mgh,] i. c, 
either the same as above, [and so in the Mgh,] 
or t^oaJ, by which is specially meant the mem- 
brum genitale : (TA :) but this is not known. 
(M.) Respecting the phrase a) U ^>jl, see 1. 
You say also, IJjL ^H * J*j\ U What is [the 
reason of] thy want of this? (A.) And ^ U 
* ^jjl <ui / have no want of it. (A.) By jfk 

*0*$ i-ljl, in the Kur [xxiv. 31], are meant 
Idiots; or persons deficient in intellect: [from 
ijl as meaning " intelligence :"] (Sa'ccd Ibn- 
Jubcyr, S:) or not such as have' need of women. 

(J el.) Ijui. <) t a^jL, (S^A,) or SjU— ^ t J,Ju, 

(M,) is a proverb, (S, A,) meaning He only 

honours thee for the sake of something which he 

wants of thee ; not for love of thee: (A, Mcyd :) 

or only thy want brought thee ; not the object of 

paying extraordinary honour to me. (M.) [See 

also Freytag's Arab. Prov., ii. G90.] You say 

<( - »',»*"• t ** 
also, ijo/^I i>* * -ik)U-> . J^JI, meaning, 6ro 

thou whither thou wilt [so as to attain thy 

want]. (A.) 

^>%t : see w-oJ. Also [Expert; skilful: 

' * t * 

(see w>jl, of which it is the part. n. :) or] accus- 
tomed to, or practised or exercised in, a thing, 
and knowing, or skilful. (S, TA.) See also 1, in 
the latter part of the paragraph, ss ;^^ w><l, 
[or ^-£ jJf; (see w»j'»)] or * "r^'* of the measure 
J*1», (Msb,) TFimt<tn<7, needling, or desiring, a 
thing. (Msb,* TA in art. ^, &c.) 

#-»! t • , • '• 

iijl : see ^>j\ : =and Ojl. 

•-• • • . 

a^jl : see vj' > ,n two P laccs ; 

two places. 

^jt Calamity ; misfortune : (T, S, M, A, 1^1 :) 
[said to be] the only word of this measure except 

• 't • 

sand w>jl, in 

• I and 

[names of two places]. (TA.) 

O30» ( 
f *4 

vars. of tjkjjti and 0>4>* 

(ando^. (M,*IS,*TA.) 
O^I(TA): J 

^^-jjt Cunning, characterised by intelligence 
with craft and forecast, or simply intelligent [as 
in the S], excellent in judgment, sagacious, (T, S,* 
M,K,) and knowing in affairs; (M;) as also 
t ^J : (^ :) pi. of the former i^t. (T, M.) = 

i»jjl jj3 A wide, an ample, or a capacious, 
cooking-pot. ($•) 

4»jT Jlfore, or mort, cimntn^, or intelligent, 
excellent in judgment, or sagacious. (A.) [See 

wjjl : see ^jjl. 

• ,i» ♦ '* . , i 

»,j,U : see ^jl, in three places. 

%.A, *.>%* *. I. t -» 

5j,U and 44U and <VjU : see w>jl, in four 

w>jJ-« A member, or limb, cut o/f entire : (T :) 


or an entire, unbroken, member, or limb : (S :) 
and anything made entire, complete, or perfect. 
(S, £.) You say, Jyjj* uU& A shoulder cut off 
entire, (Mgh, TA,) having none of its flesh taken 
from it, (Mgh,) without any deficiency. (TA.) 


l. Si. 

jy : 8CC 2. 

8. A& (M, A,) inf. n. i^fe, (T,S,K,) He 
kindled, or lighted, a fur ; or wtarfe it fo frttrw, 
ii<rn «;>, burn brightly or fiercely, blaze, or 
/owe; (T, 8, M, A, £ ;) as also * i»Jf, aor. * , 
(T, £,) inf. n. i»jl ; (^; in a copy of the A 
w»jj;) but this [says SM] no leading lexico- 
grapher has mentioned, nor have I found any 

example of it. (TA.) [See also it/y\ [Hence,] 

«i~!jO also signifies J The exciting discord, dis- 
tention, disorder, strife, quarrelling, or animosity, 
between a people. (S, ]£.) You say, ^ £%\ 
j.yl\, (M,A.) and ^yLi$jblJgi £$, (T, 
TA,) J He excited discord, dissension, disorder, 
strife, quarrelling, or animosity, between, or 
among, the people, or company of men ; (T, M, 
A ;) kindled the fire of discord, dissension, &c, 
[or evil, and war,] between them, or among them. 
(T,» TA.) 

0. jUI C~>jU 77ie ^/frc became kindled, or 
lighted; or »< burned, burned up, burned brightly 
or fiercely, blazed, or flamed. (S, M, K.) 

-»j}» originally «_»^, (T, S,) InJteritance ; or a 
person's obtaining possession of property left to 
him by one who has died. (MF.)__.4n inheri- 
tance, or a heritage ; what is inherited. (S, A, 
l£.)^An old condition, case, or state of things, 
which the last has inherited from the first. (S, A, 
!£•) So in the phnise, I ±£o v >* .iijl ^J*. ^m [He 
is conforming, in rcsjKCt of such a thing, with an 
old state of things, or an old usage, which he has 
inherited from his ancestors], (S.) And in the 
following ex., from a trad., Sy» «1>.I . J* 'J>$\ 
jn^ji\j**P ^>j\ [Verily ye are conforming with 
an old state of things, or an old usage, which ye 
have inherited from your fattier Abraham], the 
meaning is, that his religion was their heritao-e. 
(T,*TA.) [See also w>^}.]__.4 remainder, or 
what remains, (M, L, J$L,) of a thing, (K,) or of 
the original of a thing: (M, L :) pi. 1>\j\. (L.) 

— And [hence, app.,] Ashes. (M, ]£.) Also 

Origin, race, or stock. (S, M, A, £. j You say, 
t3«>"f -foj (^ .** J5& « o/ an excellent origin, 
race, or rfocA. (S.) And j«L<> «i>jt ^yj £l 
[ Fm/y A« m o/a glorious origin, race, or *?w/<] ; 
as also ^w-o fcjjl , by a change of letters. (Yaa- 
koob, M.) Accord, to I Aar, £>j\ relates to ■■,■'-■ 
[or grounds of 'pretension to respect or honour, on 
account of one's ancestors' or one's own deeds or 
qualities, &c.] ; and hjj, to property, or wealth. 
(M.) [See art. £> jy ] 

•2*1 , . 

<bjl : sec w>ljl , in three places. 

h\j\Fire; (T,M,L,*:;) as also taJ|J| and 
* w»^l : (TA :) or (so accord, to the M and L, 

but in the K "and") fiWer, and the like, pre- 
pared for fire ; (M,L,K;) [as alsotaJu and 

T i»jl; or these two words signify a meant of 
kindling or inflaming ; as will be seen from what 
follows:] or a lumpofthe dung of a horse or the like, 
or a similar thing, with which one hindJes afire; as 
also ▼ ifjl : (A :) or this last signifies dung of 
camels or horses or the like, (S, £,) or wood, or a 
ttick, (T,) that it prepared, or put in readiness, 
by the aslies, (S, £,) or buried in them, (T,) for 
the time when it may be wanted (T, S, $) for 
fuel. (T.) It is said in a prov., mentioned in 
the collection of Meyd, S^ljiaJI t a3ljl ii-Jjl 
[Calumny, or slander, is a means of kindling, or 
inflaming, enmity]. (TA : but in Freytag's 
Arab. Prov., ii. 773, in the place of ttjjl, we find 


w-jjl : see the paragraph next preceding. 

• j ' » - 

*3ljj : see <£*M, in three places. 

[Boob. I. 

who excites ditcord, dissension, disorder, strife, 
quarrelling, or animosity, among people. (K,* 

* '* 

k-j-» • see what next precedes. 

£&\\ The lion. (£.) 

1. v^lfj': 

sec 2. 

1. mI, aor. - , inf. n. -.jl (S, A, Msb, K.) and 
£jjl (S, A, K) andifcjjl, (IS., [in which it is only 
mentioned as syn. with the first and second of 
these ns., so that it may be a simple subst.,]) It 
(perfume) diffused, or exhaled, its odour; (S, A;) 
as also * «.jU : (A :) it had a hot, or strong, 

odour; syn. JLLy J*y>. (S, A, £.) It (a 

place) was, or became, strongly fragrant. (Msb.) 
= rr-jl : sec 2, in three places. 

*• f-j'> l an< ^ a PP- ffj' also,] He perfumed a 
thing; mfl(/« it fragrant. (Ham p. 133.) _ 
[Both also app. signify J/e made perfume to 
diffuse, or exhale, its odour: or )/i«r/« it to liave a 
hot, or strong, odour. __ And hence,] a.jl, inf. n. 
l^fej (S,K;) and »«f, (TA,) aor. ' , (T&) 
inf. n. -.jl ; (K, TA ;) t He excited discord, dis- 
sension, disorder, strife, quarrelling, or animosity, 
(S, K, TA,) >»yOt ^m between, or among, the 
people, or company of men, like Jijt, (S, TA,) 
and w»j^JI ^ji t'n war. (TA.) And v^" fj', 

(S,K,TA, and Ham ubi supra,) and *&.jl, (TA,) 
t lie kindled war, or </»« ?w«r ; (S, TA, and Ham 

ubi supra ;) and in like manner, -jUI the fire. 
(IAijr, Ham.) 

5 : sec 1. 

p\ (L) and t Ljjt and *$i^f (ISd,TA) ^l 

*wcef o</o«r : (ISd, L, TA :) pi. of the last, ls\j\. 

(ISd,TA.) [See also 1.] 
■ i 
»-jl Perfume diffusing, or exhaling, its odour : 

having a hot, or strong, odour. (TA.) __ Applied 

also to a place : you say, »-j\ ,jl£« A strongly 

fragrant place : (Msb :) and ■^JhJlj -..I o>^ [a 

/to)«e, or c/iamber, fragrant, or strongly fragrant , 
with perfume]. (A.) 

see «-,l. 

►Ijl (K) and 1 1 'Ji* (TA) f ^ liar : and one 

2. v^fJI ^-j«, (?, Mgh, Msb, ?,) inf. n. 

«l»! (S.Mgh;) and t iLjt, (Il^tt, M 9 b, £,) 

J" * • •« 

inf. n. ~.jt ; (TA ;) but the former is the more 

common, (Msb,) and the latter is by some re- 
jected, though correct accord, to IKtt and others; 
(MF ;) and t ^\, (£,) inf. n. U/>; (TA ;) 
as also 4*.j£, inf. n. j-Jjy ; (S, Mgh,» Mf b ;) in 
which the j is a substitute for the . ; (Yaakoob, 
Ms b ;) a form seldom used ; (Msb ;) He dated 
the writing, or letter ; inscribed it with a date, or 
note of the time when it was written. (S, Mgh, 
Msb, ¥..) You say also, 1 J£» jtLj «ldCJI i..| 
He inscribed the writing, or letter, with the date 
of such a day. (S, L.) And iuJI IJi 2T« a<7^(i, 
or mentioned the date of, the evidence, proof, or 
voucher : in the contr. case saying, jiil. (Msb.) 
Some say that i-jjU is an arabicized word, (L, 
Msb,) borrowed by the Muslims from the people 
of the Bible: [i. c., from the Jews or Christians; 
app. from the Hebr. 1TV the " moon," or m"* "a 
month;" or from the Chald. ny> "a month;" 
as observed by Golius:] (L:) others say that it 
is [pure] Arabic : (Msb, TA :) sonic, that it is 

foi-med by transposition from ^-*.U. (TA.) 

3 : sec 2. 

*- ,i 

«a.jt : sec what next follows. 

. L , 

9-tj\3 inf. n. of 2. — Also, [as a subst, gene- 
rally pronounced without »,] A date; an era; an 
epoch ; (Msb ;) and t 4A.jl is a subst. [signifying 
the same,] from ijl. (^.) S^JI L^U is The 
era, or epoch, of the Emigration [or Flight (for 
such it really was)] of Mohammad [from Mekkeh 
to Kl-Medocnch], (L, Msb,) which his com- 
panions, in the time of 'Omar, agreed to make 
their era, commencing tho year from the first 
ap[>oarance of the new moon of [the month] El- 
Moharram, [two months before the Flight itself,] 
and making the day to commence from sunset : 
(Msb :) it is also called O^— •*' f-ij^ **• «"«» 
or epoch, of the Muslims. (L.)_AIso Tho 
utmost limit, term, or time, of anything : whence 

t *' J t' % *M 

tlie saying, mJ j_>jUi {j}± Such a one it the 
person from whom date the nobility, or eminence, 
and dominion, or authority, of his people. (Es- 
Soolce, Mgh, TA.)__[ Also, A chronicle; a book 
of annals; a history : pi. f~i^y, from ^-jjy.] 

{.*-&* A chronicler; a writer of annah; a 

Book I.] 


I — 



j,t and *j>l The -pine-tree ; syn. x^-aJI 
(^ :) or this is called ▼ Sjjl, and j,l is the pi. : 


(A 'Obeyd, S :) [or rather jjl is a coll. gen. n., 
and Sjjl is the n. un. :] or the male of that kind 
of tree ; (AHn, K ;) as also * Sjjl ; (K ;) and 
the author of the Minhaj adds, it is that which 
doe* not produce fruit ; but pitch (w-ij) is ex- 
tracted from its trunlts and roots, and its wood 
is employed as a means of light, like as candles 
are employed; and it grows not in the land of 
the Arabs : A 'Obcyd says, ▼ Sjjl is the name 
of a tree well known in Syria, called with us 
jfyj0. because of its fruit : he says also, I have 
seen this kind of tree, called Sjjl, and it is called in 
111-' Irak f>y~o, but this last is the name of the fruit 
of the jjl : (TA :) or i. q. jt-jc [a name given to 
the cypress and to the juniper-tree]. (K.) It 

is said in a trad., 8fr w » Jl " tjtfjft J— » ^>*- J ' J~* 

fe».£ l%4 VU^JT o*£ J£» v?°>y J* [The 
similitude of the. unbeliever is the similitude of 
the pine-tree standing firmly upon the ground 
until it is pulled up at once] : respecting which 
A A and AO say that it is T Sjj^l, with fet-h to 
the j ; meaning the tree called Ojj'i'' : " ut 
A 'Obcyd thinks this to be u mistake, and that 
it is t titty, with the j quiescent. (L.) 
jjl : sec jjt : s and sec also jjl. 


Sjjl: BOO jjl, in five places. 

Sjjl The tree culled ^jjt [which is a hard kind, 

from whirh stares are made] : (AA, S, K :) 

sonic say that it is " Sjjl, of the measure iXftl* ; 

but A'Obcyd disapproves of this. (TA.) Sec 
• •s 

also jjl. 

jjl and *jjl and *jjl and *jjt (S, Msb, K) 
and *jjl and * jjT (Kr, K) and jj (S, Msb, K) and 
ii., (S, K,) the first of which is the form com- 
monly obtaining among persons of distinction ; the 
last but one, that commonly obtaining among the 
vulgar; (TA ;) and the last, of the dial, of 'Abd- 
El-Kcys; (S,TA;) [Mice;] a certain grain, (§, 
K,) well known : (K :) [said in the TA to be a 
species of jt ; but this is nn improper explanation :] 
there are .several kinds; Kgyptian and Persian and 
Indian ; and the best kind is the ^jJty*. [perhaps 
a mistake for tJ>-»*, or Egyptian] : it is cold 
and dry in the second degree ; or, as some say, 
moderate ; or, as some say, hot in the first degree ; 
and its hush is poisonous. (El-Minhaj, TA.) 


sec jjl. 


I : see Sjjl. 



1. *A,t, (TA,) aor. *, (TK,) inf. n. Jtf, 
(K,TA,) lie scratched with the nails, or lacerated, 
him, [a man,] or it, [the skin, or (as in the TK) 

the face,] little or muck, so as to bring blood 
or not; syn. iiji.. (K, # TA.) [This significa- 
tion is probably derived from ^ijl as syn. with 
JLjU, in which sense it seems to be the inf. n. 
of an obsolete verb.] h *iy», (TA,) inf. n. as 
above, (K,TA,) lie gave him (K,»TA)Jthefine, 
or mulct, for a wound. (TA.)_*>S>jl, inf. n. 
as above, They sold the milk of their camels for 
the water of his well. (Sgh.)a=uijl, like ^jz, 
(Sgh,) inf. n. as above, (Sgh,K,) He sought 
to obtain, or demanded, the fine, or mulct, for 
a wound. Sgh, K.*) 

2. j^i\ C*i uijl (?,L,Msb,) and 0*i»-;JI Oe*> 
(TA,) inf. n. JjjU, (S, Msb,) He made mischief; 
or excited disorder, disturbance, disagreement, 
discord, dissension, strife, or quarrelling ; (S, L, 
Msb, TA ;) between, or among, the people, or 
company of men, (S, L, Msb,) and between the 
two men: (TA :) accord, to some, its original 

is JiJ»-. (Msb.) And jUI cAjt, inf. n. as 

above, He kindled the fire ; or made it to burn : 
(S,K:) and in like manner, v^ 11 t«W»'j or 
the war. (S.) 

8. jiii-Ci- a^j sj>j£" [written with the dis- 
junctive alif J*ri]] Take thou from him the 
fine, or mulct, for thy iil»i-, q. v. (K.) — 
ai,UiJb ciiijt [7/c surrendered himself to pay 
the fine, or mulct, for the injury tenncd iiU».,] 
is like w*Ul£ I^JUiik (K.) 

tjijl The making mischief; or exciting dis- 
order, disturbance, disagreement, discord, dissen- 

sion, strife, or quarrelling; [like tAij^ J 8Ce •» 
and sec also 1 ;] syn. jCi [in the sense of >l~il ] ; 
(Msb;) and JljAI. (K.) — Disagreement, dis- 
cord, or dissension ; and contention, or altercation: 

* at *>**' ... 

you say, »jijt Uv~^ lietn'een them two zs dis- 
agreement, &c. (K.) = A fine, or mulct, for 
a. wound: (S, Mgh, Msb, K :) from the first 
of the significations in this paragraph ; (Msb ;) 
or from its being one of the causes of contention, 
or altercation ; or, accord, to AM, from the same 
word as inf. n. of uiji in the first of the senses 
explained in this art. ; accord, to IF, originally 

J£i: (TA:) pi. J^A. (Mgh, Msb.) Hence 
the saying mentioned by IAar, (> y». ^jjjkZJt 
iL-N)l S» J$ UjJ!c iU J-J^ Jf*^ [Wait thou 
for me until tkou accept a fine for a wound in 
lieu of retaliation ; for thou hast no compensation 
for a wound to reccire from us except the spear- 
heads] : meaning, thou shalt not slay a man for 
whom we will ever give bloodwit. (L, TA.) — 
What is diminished [of the price] by reason of 
a deject in a garment or piece of clolk : as being 
a cause of contention, or altercation. (K,* TA.) 
_ What is payed [by way of adjustment of the 
difference] between freedom from defect and 
defect in an article of merchandise : (Kt, K :) 
for when the purchaser of a garment or piece 
of cloth as being free from defect discovers in it 
a hole or other defect, contention ensues between 
him and the seller. (TA.) — A bribe. (Aboo- 
Nahshal, Sh, K.) 

^jyU Scratched with the nails, or lacerated. 

little or much, so at to bleed or not. 


J » s ' 9 I ' ' *'" 

• « 

Then say thou to that man who is disquieted by 
envy, and as though he were stung, Act tkou 
gently, for [there is no scarf-shin scratched; 
meaning,] my honour is uninjured, having in 
it no defect nor scratch. (L,* TA.) 


1. yij^l Osijl, (S, K, [in two copies of the 
S C-ijI, but this is evidently a mistake,]) with 
damm,'(S,) like >zJj£s, (K,) inf. n. Uljl, (S, 
M, K,) The land became thriving, or productive ; 
(S,K;) as also *o-e.jU-t ; (TA ;) it became 
pleasing to the eye, and disposed by nature to 
yield good produce ; (K, TA ;) it became fruitful, 
and in good condition; (M;) it collected moisture, 
and became luxuriant with herbage; it became 
soft to tread upon, pleasant to sit upon, productive, 
and good in its herbage or vegetation: (AHn:) 
and J-JNI cJyt, (K,) aor. ' , (TA,) the land 
became abundant in herbage, or pasture. (K.) 
__ u i,j|, inf. n. i£ljl| is also snid of a man, 
meaning t He was, or became, lowly, or sub- 
missive, and naturally disposed to good, or to 
do good. (L, TA,) = Jb})\ ^j\ He found the 
land to be abundant in herbage, or pasture. (K.) 
= iliij| cijl, (S,A,Msb,TA,) in the pass, 
form, (Msb,) like [jf, (TA,) aor. ^jy>, (S, 
TA,) inf. n. Ji% (S, A, TA,) widi sukoon [to 
the j] ; (S, TA ;) and some add C—6jl, aor. u^j^. 
inf. n. as above ; (TA ; [and so in a copy of 
the S in the place of what here precedes ;]) 
The piece of wood was, or became, eaten by the 
iijl, q. v. (S,A, Msb,TA.) = iu>)l c-6,1, 
(S, M. K,) aor. - , (S,K.) inf. n. J,j\, (S, M,) 
The ulcer, or sore, became blistered, (S, M, K,) 
and wide, (M,) and corrupt (S, M, K) by reason 
of thick purulent matter, (S,) and dissundcred ; 
(M ;) so says As ; (TA ;) as also ▼ C— ojU-l. 
(Sgh, K.) =s J,}, like {jf, (K,) inf. n. ^jl ; 
(TA ;) or Jb } \, like %^>, aor. - , inf. n. ^jl ; 
(L ;) He was, or became, affected witkj>\£sj [or 
rheum]. (L, K.) 

2. wfijl, (TK,) inf. n. J*>p, (K,) He depas- 
tured the herbage of the earth, or land : and he 

« t. 
sought after it : (K :) or, accord, to some, ,>UjU 

denotes this latter signification with respect to u 
place of alighting, or abiding : (TA :) and you say 
[also], Jj<il T \jbp he sought after, and chose, 
the place for alighting, or abiding: (M, TA :) 
and j£js * OyZfe J^->< <S"»j3 I W Ike tribe 
seeking after a tract of country in which to 
alight, or abide. (TA.) = //c, or it, rendered 
heavy; [app. meaning slow, or sluggish; see 5;] 
syn. JJL5. (Ibn-'Abbild, K.) — He made to 
tarry; to tarry and wait, or expect; or to be 
patient, and tarry, and wuit, or expect. (Ibn- 
'Abbad, K.) 


4. »>jl, inf. n. ,>!*): see 5. = lji J£\ U 
O^JI -Wow abundant is the herbage (,_,,-■*/) o/ 
Oil ji&ice/ or, as some say, ^J^J) »Jji ^Jfu 
i/ow W, or soft, and productive, and good, is 
this land! (L^A?n.) — iijT, (S, £, [in the 
C£, incorrectly, *J>j\,]) inf. n. as above, (S,) 
He (God) caMMd /«'»» to be affected with jA£>\ 
[w rheum], (S,I£.) 

5. ijojO It (herbage) became in such a state 
that it might be cut. (S,K.)b«/£j clave, or 
kept, Jo the ground, not quitting it : (A :) and 

c»jl» inf. n. ^iljjl, he remained upon the 
ground : and jt£j^ ^K he remained fixed in 
the place, not quitting it : or he waited, or ex- 
pected, and stood upon the ground: and, as also 
(jtx^JL, t ^ijU-1, lie remained, and tarried, or 
tarried in expectation, in the place : or he remained 
fixed therein: (TA :) and ^Jt alone, he tarried, 
loitered, stayed, waited, or paused in expectation : 
(§» TA :) and he was, or became, heavy, slow, or 
tluggish, inclining, or propcnding, to the ground; 
(§>K0 ["» &1 8 ° * c*»jl^l, accord, to IB's expla- 
nation of its act. part, n.] You say, Jj h hi* 

'•'It \*'X' 'i'f *.- '»fe »-»- • 
w->*l U*k* v 1 -' Ol^ t>jU UjOm [S«f/« a 

one, if lie tee food, cleaves, or keeps, to the 
ground, not quitting it ; and if he obtain food, 
turns away: or ^ijtf may rendered 
agreeably with the explanation next following]. 
(A, TA.)..^ J,% jyi ,^ (s, £,• TA) 
Such a one came ashing, or petitioning, for a 
thing that he wanted, to me ; syn. iftMt^, and 
^j** • (?, K> TA ;) and cj-ii is also a syn. of 
c*»jU, used in this manner. (TA.)™Sce also 2, 
in two places. 

the j as it was ; (S ;) but they also said £)**$> 
(AZ, AHn,S,) sometimes, making the j quiescent; 
(S ;) and c^jjl (AZ, AHn, Msb, K) is sometimes 
used as a pi., as in the saying .-^ e^jjl ji&' U 
O"^* [ifow wwwy are the lands of the sons of 

such a one.']; (TA ;) and another [and very 
common] pi. is [u6\j\, with the article written] 
lf*t}% contr. to rule, (S, Msb, K,) as though 
they had formed a pi. from JL'j; (S;) thus 
written in all the copies of the S ; [accord, to SM ; 
but in one copy of the S, I find U>1jll ^„ r Jffik; 

10 : sec 5, in two places. , 



The clouds expanded, or spread : or, as some say, 
became fixed, or stationary. (M, TA.)«See 
also 1, first signification := and see 1 again, last 
signification but one. 


*jb/$\ [The earth;] t/iat whereon are mankind: 
(TA :) [and earth, as opposed to heaven : and the 
ground, as meaning the surface of the earth, on 
which we tread and sit and lie ; and the floor : 
without Jt signifying a land, or country: and 
a piece of land or ground: and land, or soil, or 
ground, considered in relation to its quality .] it is 
fern. : (S, A, Ms b, £ :) and is a coll. gen. n. ; (S, 
A, I£ ;) of which the n. un. should be lijf, but 
this they did not say : (S .) or a pi. having no 
sing. ; (A, $ ;) for ajyl has not been heard : 
($ :) its pi. is OUJI, (S, $,) in [some of] the 
copies of the If. OUjI, (TA,) for they sometimes 
form the pi. of a word which has not the fem. S 
with 1 and O, as in the instance of oCj*; (S;) 
and 0**/> [which is more common,] (AZ, AHn, 
S, Mgh, Msb, ¥.,) with fct-h to the Jt (AZ, AHn, 
Mgh, Msb,) and with ^ and ,j, though a fem. 
has not its pi. formed [regularly] with j and ^ 
unless it is of the defective kind, like iJ and alb, 
but they have made the j and ^ [in this instance] 
a substitute for the I and O which they have 
elided [from oLe,l], and have left the fet-hah of 

and in another, U>jl ;] and in one copy [is added], 
" thus it is found in his [J's] handwriting ;" but 
IB says that correctly he should have said . -i.'f, 
like ^jl ; for as to ^ej\, its regular pi. would 
be u»j'jl ; and [SM says] I have found it 
observed in a marginal note to the S that the pi. 

of t^Syl would be u*jtl, like as Jjl£>f is pi. of 
• i» t « - r 

v^J^I ; and wherefore did he not say that ly-ilj'i)! 

is a pi. of an unused sing., like JU and JUI, so 

that it is as though it were pi. of SUijl, 'like as 

JU is pi. of S'iU ? yet if any one should propose 

the plea that it may be formed by transposition 

from 4>>jll, he would not say what is improbable ; 

its measure being in this case .JUlct ; the word 

^ing yjo Ijl, and the . being changed into ,j • 

(TA:) accord, to Abu-l-KhatJub, (S,) ^,\j\ is 

also a pi. of J£j\, (S, K,) like as JU? is a pi. of 

JaI ; (S ;) but IB says that, in the opinion of 

the critics, the truth with respect to what is 

related on the authority of Abu-1-Kliattab is, that 

from ^jt and J*l arc formed ^tjl and JUI, as 

though they were pis. of iUitl and rlil ;'like as 

they said iU and JU, as though this were pi. of 
• '•* « * > * * % 

»"iU. (TA.) It is said in proverbs, ,>• *^m-\ 

>t » »- 

^j*^l [ilfbre comprehensive than the earth] : 

(TA:) and ufj^ \J+ v>»l [More trustworthy 
than the earth, in which treasures are securely 
buried] : and ^j^l ^ jJil [Harder than the 
earth, or ground] : (A, TA :) and yij^l ,>• Jit 
[More vile, or wore submissive, than the earth, or 
ground]. (TA.) And you say, c~t4 ^Usl ^» 
Uojl «) J [H7io*o obeyeth me, I will be to him as 
ground whereon one treads] ; denoting submissive- 
ness. (A, TA.) And Jkfi J^ J[ tf$j t [Such 
one, if he be beaten, is like ground] ; i. e. he cares 
not for beating. (A, TA.) One says also, ^jf ^ 
JU [Mayest thou have no land, or country ! or 

[Book t 

plants : (M in art. j-* :) and the places which are 
concealed from the pastor. (S in that art.) Also 
The pool that is left by a torrent : (T in art. ^ :) 
and yij**)! ol^> pools in which are remains of 
water: (IAar in TA art. j^:) and rivulets. (T 
m art. (J ^.)_ l> ^, J | is also used to signify iA 
carpet; or anything that is spread: and in this 
sense, in poetry, it is sometimes made masc. 
(Msb.) — And t Anything that is low. (S, $.) 
And J The lower, or lowest, part of the legs of a 
horse or the like : (S, £ :) or the legs of a camel 
or of a horse or the like : and the part that is 
next to the ground thereof. (TA.) You say 
W* J^' «*i J- je^t I A camel strong in the legs. 
(TA.) And 4il^,j *f jt J4J U Jl^ Jji j A 

horse that is large and tall. (A, TA.) Also, 

of a man, J The knees and what is beneath, or 

below, (lit. after,) them. (TA.) And of a 

sandal, t [The lower surface of the sole;] the 
part that touches the ground. (TA.) = A febrile 
shivering; a tremor: (S,K:) or vertigo: or it 
signifies also vertigo arising from a relaxed state, 
and occasioning a defiuxionfrom the nose and eyes. 
(TA.) I 'Ab is related to have said, on the occa- 
sion of an earthquake, J,jl ^ Jll J,y$\ cJ^ 
(S,) i. c. [Hath the earth been made to quake, or 
is there in me] a tremor ? or a vertigo ? (T A.) 
[t^o)"i)t J*t signifies A certain class of the jinn, 
or genii; by whom human beings are believed to 
be possessed, and affected by an involuntary tre- 
mor ; whence it seems that this appellation may 
perhaps be from ^jl as signifying " a tremor." 
See i^ijjU : and see J-»., as explained in the S.] 
— Also llheum; syn. jt\£sj: (S, K:) in this 
sense masc. : or, accord, to Kr, fern., on the 

(TA.) = Sec also 

authority of Ibn-Alunar 
• A. 

• -« « , ,t 

u±j\ : see JLij\. 


I : sec what next follows. 

thou hast no land, or country]; like as one says, 

-stijli (S, Is.) — [And hence,] ^1 ^f^ 

He is a stranger, (A, K, TA,) of whom neither 

father nor mother is knoion. (TA.) ^ih\ {J>\ 

[with the art. Jt prefixed to the latter word] is A 

certain plant, (AHn, K,) which comes forth upon 

the summits of the [kills called] j>\£s\, having a 

stem (J-«l), but not growing tall, (AHn,) which 

resembles hair, and is eaten, (AHn, K.,) and 

quickly dries up; (AHn;) a species of jL, as 

ti j i tt i 

also ^j^l c~^ : (8 in art ^ :) and ^j^l o£ 

i-jjl of herbage, What suffices the camels, or 
other pasturing animals, for a year : (IAar, 
AHn, M :) or abundant herbage or pasture; as 
also ♦ iojl and t ££jl, (K.) 

I "' 

irf>jt [The wood-fretter ;] a certain insect that 

eats wood, (S, A, Msb, K,) well known ; (A, If ;) 
it is a white worm, resembling the ant, appearing 
in the days of the [season called] iwj: (TA :) 
there are two kinds : one hind is small, like the 
large of the ji [or grubs of ants] ; and this is the 
bane of wood in particular : (AHn, TA :) or this 
hind is the bane of wood and of other things, and 
is a white worm with a blark head, not having 
wings, and it penetrates into the earth, and builds 
for itself a habitation of clay, or soil; and this 
Is said to be that which ate tke staff of Solomon 
[as is related in the Kur xxxiv. 13, where it is 
called yij^l £\}, as is said in the A] : (TA :) the 
other kind [it tke termite, or white ant; termes 
fatale of Linn. ; called by Forskftl (in his Dcscr. 
Animalium &c, p. 90,) termes arda, destructor ; 
and this] is like a large common ant, having wings; 
it is the bane of everything that is of wood, and 
of plants; except that it does not attack what is 
moist, or succulent; and it hat legs: (AHn, TA:) 

Book I.] 

the pi. is t Jzj\ (AHn, Msb, TA) and Olijl ; 

(Mfb;) or, as some [more properly] say, ^jl is 
a quasi-pl. [or coll. gen.] n. (AHn, TA.) It 
is said in a prov., i^-y^t ±y» J^l [More con- 
suming than the wood-fretter, or the termite]. 
(TA.) And in nnothcr, <uoj*^t ^y» j — >1 [More 
marring, or injuring, or destructive, than the 
wood-fretter, or i7tc termite.] (A, TA.) 

■ • f « t 

<ui,l : sec tAjjI. 

• ~ « -» 

A^jt : sec <uo<l. 

uo}j\ '■ sec i^ijjl. 

• t <ji f * f ••' 

(jajjt part. n. of uJyt. — You say <LoJjt ^jl 

(S, A, K) and ♦ Lojl (TA) /,«/»/ that is thriving, 
or productive; (S, A, K ;) pleasing to the eye; 
(AA, S, A, K. ;) uwi disposed by nature to yield 
good produce : (A, K, TA :) or fruitful ; in- 
creasing in plants or herbage : (IAnr:) or level, 
or soft : (ISli :) or that collects moisture, and 
becomes luxuriant with herbage ; that is soft to 
tread upon, pleasant to sit upon, productive, and 
good in its herbage or vegetation : (AHn :) it 
also signifies a wide land; syn. djajjc : (TA :) 
and 1/0 lj I [as pi. of ^iuj\] is syn. with i/aU* 
and ptrfj ; (AA, K, TA ;) as though the • were 
n substitute for the t. (T A.) _ ,_^l; jl is also 
an imitative sequent to ^jiujc; (S,K;) as in 
the phrase u*vj\ ^ijs- !,«£ [A very wiile thing'] : 
(S:) or it signifies/}//, sis an epithet: (K:) some 
list; it in this sense without ueujZ, applied to a kid. 
(S.) And you say, i-ojjl i-euj.e. i\y*\ [A very wide, 
or wide and fat, mmurn ; or, as seems to l»c indi- 
cated in the TA in art. ^jojt-, prolific and perfect] ; 
and in like manner, ♦ tejy». (TA.) You say 
also ^jt j^-j, (S,) and J£Sl * ,J>3jK (A,) 
A man lowly, or submissive ; (S ;) naturally 
disposed to good, or to do good. (S, A.) And 

I I « ' 4 1/ ■: 

«>u,1 »-<l^ ^jj : sec Jfl^lj. 

*4 jirr°^ y"> -He is the most adapted, meet, 
suited, fitted, or fit, of them, for it; or Most 
worthy of them of it. (K.) And O'^v-^j'^* 
•iDi J««*i Jle if the most adapted, &c, or most 

worthy, of them to do that. (As, S.) 

• » • j « ( 

2uojy» : sec i_^ujl. 

\jbs£* Wood eaten by the i^yl [or wood- 
fretter, or termite, but generally meaning the 
former] ; (S, A, Msb, 1£ ;) as also • J±j\. (TA.) 
= A person affected with jl*. [q. v.] from the 
'inn, or genii, ami [what are called] uoj"$\ jl\, 
(S, K,) i. c. (so accord, to the § and TA, but 
in the K "and") he who moves about his head 

and body involuntarily. (S, K.) A person 

affected with jt\£>j [or rheum] : (S, K :) nccord. 
t0 ?gh> [ w '»° seems, like J, not to have known 

u*j'»] »*° m *■"»)• » (?gh, TA ;) whereas by rule, 
[if from <U9jt,] it should be u^jy*- (TA.) 

* \'-' ' *i 1 ■ t " fi* * !• " 

^jL—o ^U— s, and 4-i,U_^<i <UJ3, .4 young 

palm-tree, and a *wjo// young palm-tree, having a 
root in the ground: such as grows forth from 
the trunk of the mothcr-treo is called ^-£>(j. 
Bk. I. 

,^0,1 — wijt 

i to 

(S, K.) i_vjU— e also signifies Heavy, slow, or 

sluggish, inclining, or propending, to the ground. 

1. [The unaugmented verb from this root seems 

to be unknown, if it were ever in use, for it is 

• A, 
not mentioned, though the pass. part, n., J>j)jU, 

is mentioned as having three significations, which 

see below.] 

2 : see 4. 

4. ,^0,^l wJ»jl, (AHcyth,K,) of the measure 
cJLwl, [originally] with two alifs, (TA,) [aor. 
bjyi, inf. n. •tj/ij,] The land produced the kind of 

trees called .Jkjt [or ,_«i»jl] ; (AHcylh, K ;) as 

it " • ... 

also cJ>jl, inf. n. JUsjt ; or this is a corruption, 

attributable to J : so says the author of the K, 
following Allcyth: but it is no corruption, for 
it is mentioned by the authors on verbs and by 
ISd and others; (MF, TA;) for instance, by 
AHn, in bis book on plants, and by IF, in 
the Mj : (TA :) [and J mentions it in its proper 
place, in art. ,J»i, as well as in the present art. :] 
♦ wJ»jt, "with the j musheddedeh, has also been 
found in the handwriting of certain of the men 
of letters ; but litis is a conniption. (K.) 

ijl A colour like that of the { J»j\ [or (jl*)!]. 

j-Ljl, (Mbr, S, K,) of the measure ^jlii, 

4 »tr « I 

because you say fe^jU j*t)\, [explained below,] 
(Mbr,S,) the alif (Mbr,S,K) ending it (Mbr) 
[written ^j] being a letter of quasi-coordination, 
(S, K,) not to denote the fcm. gender, (Mbr, S,) 

its n. un. being SUajl, (Mbr, S, K,) wherefore 
it is with tenween when indeterminate, but not 
when determinate : (S, ]£ :) or it is of the 
measure >j*i\, (Mbr,*S,) the last letter being 

t I * • E 

radical, (Ml>r,) because j-ou say ^Joj* j*>}\, 
(Mbr, S,) and in this case it should be mentioned 
among words with an infirm letter [for the last 
radical], and is with tenween both when determi- 
nate and when indeterminate ; (S ;) [but this 
is a mistake, for when it is determinate, it can 
be with tenween only if used as a proper name ; 
therefore,] IB observes, that if you make its 
last letter radical, its measure is J*»l, and a word 
of this measure, if a subst., is imperfectly decl. 
when determinate, but perfectly decl. when in- 
determinate : (TA :) [the author of the I£ copies 
the error of the S, saying, " or its alif is radical," 
(meaning its last letter,) " and in this case it is 
always with tenween ;" and he adds, " or," (for 
which he should have said " and,") its measure 
is Jj»#t : to all which it is necessary to add, 
that some of the grammarians hold it to be also 
of the measure ,Jlii, ending with a fern, alif, 
and therefore assign to it no n. un N :] A kind of 
tree, (S, K,) of those growing in sands, (S, TA,) 
resembling the kind called »Uic, growing as a 
branch [in the TA L-o*, for which I read \i nr ,] 
from, a single stem, to the height of the stature 
of a man, the leaves whereof are what are termed 
wjjjk [q. v., and are included among those termed 


isoj*.], (AHn, TA,) and its flowir is like that 
of the t_£^U» [or salix agyptia], (Aljln, ]£,) save 
in being smaller, the colour being one; and the 
odour thereof is pleasant : it grows in sands, and 
therefore the poets make frequent mention of the 
wild bulls' and cows' taking refuge among this 
and other trees of the sands, burrowing at their 
roots to hide themselves there, and to protect 
themselves from, the heat and cold and rain, but 
not among the trees in liard ground, for burrowing 
in the sand is easy: (AHn, TA:) its fruit is 

like the ^>U» [or jujube], bitter, and is eaten by 
camels in its fresh moist state, and its roots are 
red, (AHn, K,) intensely red : (AHn, TA :) 
AHn adds, a man of the Bcnoo-Asad infonncd 
me, that the leaves (<-*•**) of the ^^j' arc red 
like the red pomegranate : its fruit also is red : 
(TA :) the dual is oWV : (AHn, TA :) and the 
pi. ItQa'S and .Jbtjf and Wjt, (AHn, $,) in 
the siccus, case /J»\j\. (TA.) 

1 * »« » 

2 »t } 8CC what next follows. 

i<yU A hide tanned with ^^j' ; (?>K;) i. c. 
with the leaves thereof; (S in art. ^jlsj ;) as also 

tj,^; ( TA «"* 80 V>^' (90 — a 
camel having a complaint from eating .Jsjl : 
(L,K :*) and a camel tliat eats l _ J i»jl, (AZ, S, ]£,) 
and keeps to it ; (K ;) as also*^5^J»jl (AZ, S, K.) 
and t ^U,jl. (Ibn-'Abbad, Sgh, L, £.) 

i^jy* : see what next precedes. 

2. Vji.1, (T, M,Mgh,) namely jl jJI, and ,>j% 
• t* 
(T, M,) inf. n. oyjtf, (T,) He set, or put, limits, 
' ^| 

or boundaries, [<Jjjt,] to it; (M,Mgh;) and 
marked it out: (Mgh:) or lie divided it; and 
set, or put, limits, or boundaries, to it : (T :) 
namely the house, and the land. (T, M.) And 
JO) ^ J}, (S, Mgh, Msb,) or ,>#| ^, 
inf. n. as above, (K,) The property, (S, Mgh, 
Msb,) or the land, (!£,) had limits, or boundaries, 
set, or put, to it, (S, Msb, JC,) ° r around it ; 
(Mgh ;) and was divided. (K.) When this is 
done, it is said that there is no SjuJj [or light of 
preemption] with respect to the property. (S, 

Mgh, Msb.) — vJujU also signifies The tying a 
rope, or cord, so as to form a knot or knots. (I£.) 

j+a i-jjl ^yU <ul I. q. J>»~» «ij>1 [Verily he is 
of a glorious origin, race, or stock] : mentioned 
by Ystakoob as an instance of a change of letters. 

iij\ A limit, or boundary, (As, T, S, M, Mgh, 
Msb, I£,) making a separation (Msb) between 
two pieces of land; (Msb, 1^;) a sign, or mark, 
(As, T, §, Mgh,) of the limits, or boundari<s, 
between two pieces of land : (S :) and a separation 
between houses and estates : (M :) and a dam 
between two pieces of land sown or for sowing : 
(Th, M :) Yaakoob asserts that its o is a substitute 

for the «1> of SjjI [which is, however, less com- 



mon] : (M :) the pi. is Jj», (T, S, M, ke.,) 

signifying, accord, to Lb, like ijl, limits, or 
boundaries, between two pieces of land [&c.]; (T;) 

and it is said in a trad., that these cut off falSl 
[i. e. the right of preemption] ; (T, S, Mgh ;) 
meaning, in the language of the people of El- 
Hij&z, signs, or marks, and limits, or boundaries. 

(T.) Th relates that an Arab woman said, J*». 

*****»! ^ 4»j» ^y^ai ^^p, i. e. ifcfy husband set 
me a sign, or mark, [or /tmu,] beyond which I 
should not pass. (M.) And ^1 iijl signifies 
.An exrreww Ifattt o/" a period of existence. (TA, 
from a trad.) __ Also A knot. (Sgh, K.) 

f *< 

^jl A measurer of land, (K,» TA,) mho 

marks it with limits, or boundaries. (TA.) 

\J>$y* >» -Zi"<e Aa* Am limit, or boundary, next 
to mine, in dwelling, and in place : (K :) a phrase 
likc^^uiyi. (TA.) 

1. J^l, aor. -, inf. n. jjl, (T,S,K,&c.,) JTe 
nw* sleepless, or wakeful, or *fe«p departed from 
him, (JK, T,) 6y %A< ; (T ;) t. q. jyL (S, Mgh, 
Sgh, K) j3>W ; (Sgh, K ;) or ». q. J^l : (S, and 
L and K in art. j^a :) or sleep departed from him 
by reason of a malady, or a distracting accident or 
event : (M :) or he was sleepless or wakeful (jy*) 
in a case that was disliked, or evil ; j^L having a 
general sense: (M, F:) or he shut his eyes one 
while and opened tliem another, [being unable to 
continue sleeping,] whereas j^* signifies he did 
not sleep at all : (Dee wan of the Hudhalees, cited 
by Freytng in his Lex. :) orjijl signifies sleepless- 
ness, or wakefulness, engendered by anxiety and 
grief: (Har p. 1G2 :) and * J^Ul [with the dis- 
junctive alif written Jj^jl] signifies the same as 

»j|il (?,£.)— iliil cJ v < [and £J» j)] The 
palm-tree [and the seed-produce] was affected, or 
smitten, by what is termed \J$j\. (JK.) 

8. \J£» ^Jjl, (JK,S,K,«) inf. n. jjt, (S, 
Mg n >) Such a thing rendered me, or caused me to 
be, sleepless or wakeful ; (JK, S, Mgh,» K ;•) as 
also t ^T, (K,) inf. n. j£l. (TA.) 

4 : see 2. 

8: seel. 

• »« • •<< 

Jjl : see £pSj\. 

Ojl : see what next follows. 

ty Sleepless or wakeful (S, K) ty nt^At (K) 
[fcy m/«w of a malady, or a distracting accident 
or erenr, &c. (see 1)] ; as also t jji" (IF, K) and 

• W # "' 

▼ ^jl and v jj| j or the last signifies habitually 

so. (TA.) 

Jjl : see what next precedes. 

0«jl (JK, S, K) and o^j' and ,j«Jl and i^tfj 
and o«jJ and^ ? jM and t J|j| (K) i. q. l$^ ; 
(J K, S, K ;) ^Ujl being a dial. var. of this last ; 
(S ;) or the hemzch is a substitute for the ^ ; 
(Lj) and &&# is die word most commonly 

known ; (K ;) A blight, or disease, which affects, 
or smites, seed-produce : (J K, S,K :) and a disease 
[namely jaundice] which affects, or smites, man, 
(S, K,) causing the person to become yellow [or 
blackish] ; (TA ;) it is a disease which changes 
the colour of the person excessively to yellowness 
or blackness, by the flowing of the yellow or black 
humour to the skin and the part next thereto, 
without putridity. (Ibn-Seena [Avicenna], K.) 

Jljl : see (jl*)'- 

*.' * * 

,Jjl : see Jjl. 

* »t, ■## 
WiF* liJ Seed-produce affected, or smitten, 

with a blight, or disease, (JK, S, K,) such as in 

termed O^j'j (JK,S;) as also J^^~» [from^li^]: 

•- it* •* • « 
(S, K :) and aijjU JU U LJ a palm-tree affected, or 

smitten, therewith. (JK, TA.) 


1. Jy^l Cxi»jl, aor. i and T , inf. n. iljjl, 7%c 
camels fed upon the kind of tree called iMjl : (S, 
Msb, K :) or remained, or continued, among trees 
of that kind, (ISk, §, K,) i. e., what are termed 
lA**-, (ISk, S,) eating them : (K :) or found, 
or lighted on, any trees whatever, and remained, 
or continued, among them : (K :) or, accord, to 
As, kept in a place (o^w)t *0t removing there- 
from : (ISk, S :) or remained, or continued, in a 
place for tfte purpose of feeding upon the j)\j\ : 
and hence the signification next following, which 
is tropical. (Er-Raghib.) — J^\ >$, (S,Msb, 
K,) aor. and inf. n. as above, (Msb, TA,) J lie 
(a man, S) remained, continued, or abode, in the 
place, (S, Msb,K,) not quitting it; (TA;) as 

also iljl, aor. '-, (K,) inf. n. j)Jt. (TA.) And 

Jjt, (K,) inf. n. ijl and Jjjl, (TA,) \ He per- 
sxsted, or persevered, syn. -J, (K,) i. e. j-ol, 
(T, K,) in an affair. (T, K.) _ And, (K,) inf. n. 
Jujl, (TA,) f -He AcW JocA, or drew 6acA, 
CjJs,) in an affair. ^(K.) =0 J^l jjl, (K,) 
aor. i , (TA,) inf. n. jjl, (K,) 2T«/ed <A« camefe, 
or made them to feed, upon the kind of tree called 
j)\y : or made them to remain, or continue, among 
trees of that kind : or brought them to any trees 
whatever, and made them to remain, or continue, 
among them. (K.) __ tiie. \j'yr}\ J)j\, (L, K,) 

inf. n. Jjjl, so in the L, (TA,) f He com- 
pelled hint, or constrained him, to do tfte thing, 
or affair ; or made him to keep, or cleave, to it. 
(L,K.)— sj/^l cA,f, aor.-, (S, K,) inf. n. 

i»j« ; (S ;) and wi»j1, aor. ^ ; and C-i»^l ; (K ;) 
The camels had a complaint, or suffered pain, (S, 
K,) of, or mi, <A«ir bellies, (S,) /rom ea<t'»(7 <A e 
Jljf. (S,K.) 

2. V&jt, inf. n. ^bjU, JTe concealed her 
(namery a woman, TA) by means of an 26L>j\, q. v. 

8. j)jZj\ [written with the disjunctive alif iJ^Jl] 
It (the kind of tree called Jtjl) became firm, 
strong, or compact, and big : (O, K :) or attained 

[Book I. 

to maturity : (K :) or became tangled, or luxu- 
riant, and abundant. (TA.) 

Jljl : see Jljl. _ i)jl ii ^JLt Herbage in which 
the camels remain, or continue. (Ibn-'Abbad, K.) 

*»1 Jljl Abundant, and tangled, or luxuriant, 
trees of the kind called l)\j\ ; (K, TA ; [in the 
CK J;T, but said in tlie TA to be like Job ;]) 
as also t Jjjji. (K.) — i£>jl ,>jl Zand aftoti/id- 
i'n/7 with the kind of trees called jJl.l. (K0_ 
i&jl JvJ and ^^tjl, [the latter being the pi.,] 
Camels having a complaint, or suffering pain, (S, 
K,) of, or t'», their bellies, (S,) //w» eating the 
Jljl. (S,K.) 

• '( » - 

Jtjl The [AtW of trees termed] ^a**. ; (AHn, 

K ;) as also f jjl : (Ibn-'Abbad, K :) and (K) 
certain trees of the kind termed g^i-- , (T, S, 
Msb, K,) well known, bearing what resemble 
bunches of grapes, (T, TA,) and of which stick* 
for cleaning the teeth are made, (AHn, Aboo- 
Ziyad, Msb, K,) that is, of its branches, (AHn, 
Aboo-Ziyad, Msb,) and of its roots, which latter 
are more esteemed for this purpose : (Aboo-Ziyad :) 
it is the best of the trees of which the branches are 
used for this purpose, and the best of those upon 
which beasts feed with respect to the odour of the 
milk [yielded by those beasts] : (AHn :) or one of 
the large thorny trees, upon which camels feed : 
the milk of [the camels that feed upon] it is tlie 
best of milk: audit is not allowable to prohibit 
the public from feeding their beasts upon it : 
(Mgh :) or a kind of tall, smooth, or soft, tree, 
abounding with leaves and branches, the wood of 
which is weak, and which has a fruit in bunches, 
or racemes, called ^j^j, one [bunch] of which will 
fill tlie hand: (Msb :) n. un. with i : (S, Msb :) 
pi. (of the n. un., T) jjl (T, K) and jbljl, (IB, 
K,) which is a form sometimes used, and is also 
pi. of tlie n. un. (IB.) — A piece of land (K, 
TA) in which are trees of the kind thus called. 

• t 

«ibjl : see the end of the next paragraph. 

i£^\ A raised couch (xr-0 "» • ***»»■» (K, 
and Jel in xviii. 30,) which is a tent, «r pavilion, 
or chamber, (w^,) ailorned with cloths and cur- 
tains, [or a hind of curtained canopy or alcove or 
the like,] for a bride ; (Jel ubi supra ;) a raised 
couch ( Xt") tn a *^*-> a "<! leaving before it a 
curtain ; when alone, not thus called : (TA :) or 
a bed, or thing spread upon the ground to sit or 
lie upon, in a SX tLm. : (Zj, TA :) or a raised 
couch (jjj~i), absolutely, whether in a 3l ^ r- or 
not: (TA:) or [in the CK "and"] anything 
upon which one reclines such as is termed jtymi or 
<J.ivU or iJAji : (K, TA :) or [in some copies of 
the K "and"] a raised couch (jij->) ornament- 
ally furnished and decorated, in a [tent, or pavi- 
lion, or the like, such as is termed] <L>, or in a 
cliamber, or an apartment, (c~j, [or by this may 
he meant here a lent of any kind, though I think 
that in this instance it more probably denotes an 
inner ajrartment, or an alcove,]) which, when 
there is not in it a jij-; is termed 3XL». : (S, 
Sgh, K :) accord, to Er-Rughib, so named because 

Book I.] 

originally made of [the wood of] the iMjl; or 
because it is a place of abode ; from pl£«)W -^j 1 
« he abode in the place :" (TA :) pi. iUtjt (8, K) 
and [coll. gen. n.] * &{$• (K.) 

«a '( « , ... 

aAIjI JjI : see what next follows. 

*■*>' Jv' Camels feeding upon the hind of 
tree called Jljl ; (S, Mb b ;) as also ♦ %£>\j\ : 
(K:) or remaining, or continuing, among trees 
of that hind, i. e., what are termed u *++ " '• ° r 
keeping in a place, not removing therefrom : (S :) 

pL J)j\j\. (S, Msb.) Their milk is said to be 

the best of milk. (TA.) 

» I * j ••' 

fj^s/yt j>£ A people, or company of men, 

alighting and abiding by trees of the hind called 
jJtjt, (K,) feeding their camels upon those trees. 

J/Jj* Jljl : Bcc Jhl 

1. iijt, (S, Har p. 90,) aor. ; , inf. n. j$, (S,) 
He took away, or removed, its <Ujjl, or ,^1 : 
(Har ubi suprii:) [he extirpated it ; eradicated 
it:] he ate it. (S.) You say, ^Jjl i»JtL)1 C-»o,l, 
nor. as nl>ovc, 77*e pasturing beasts consumed, 

or »««f/e an cna" of, the pasturage, not leaving 

- ..i 
of it anything. (AHn, M.) And Ly U U j> } \ 

£UriJ1, (T,) or ej^Ol, (Th,M,K,) aor. as above, 
(M,) 7/c arc ro/ia* was on the table, (Th, T, M, 
K,) not leaving anything. (K.) And Ai-Jl^^y^jl, 
(Alleyth, T, M, K,) nor. £ , (so in the T, as on 
the authority of AHcyth,) inf. n. as above, (M,) 
The year of dearth, or drought, or sterility, ex- 
tirpated them; (T;) or devoured them; (AHcyth, 
T ;) or cut them off. (M, K.) And i!j| cuV,! 
U1 y>\j The year of dearth, or drought, or sterility, 
devoured everything [of our property or cattle], 
(S.) And C#«JI t^'j'il' Ouijl The earth consumed 
the dead body. (T.) = JUM J»jf, aor. '- , The 
property, or cattle, ]>crished, or enwte to nought. 

«• «» 

„jj: scoxjl. 

• * - « » - t »•« 

>jl [part. n. of>pjl]. You sny JUjI yiyi, mean- 
ing /y</«rZ «;»«« which rain has not fallen for 
a long time : (T :) or /«/»</ which does not give 
growth to anything. (TA.) [Not to be con- 
founded with &»jl, <j. v.] = See also what next 

jljl (T, S, M, K) and *Jjt, (M, K,) like Jfcfe, 

90 ft „ 

(K,) or *>»jl , (so in a copy of the M,) and ▼" ,-4jl 

and t ^jt, (M,K,) from Lb, (TA,) or t VJ, 

from Lh, (so in a copy of the M,) and t ^.| ( 

from Lh, (TA,) and iJ £ t , (M,K,) from Lh, 

S •*( 
(TA,) and ^^1, (T, K,) .4 *?*/«, or mark, set 

up to show the way ; (M, K ;) stones set up as 

a sign, or mark, to shorn the may in the desert : 

(S:) or particularly one belonging to [the tribe 

of] 'Ad : (M, K :) accord, to ISh, the »Jl is [a 

thing] like a man in a standing posture upon the 

head of a kill, whereby one is directed to the right 
way, and whereby the land is marked, composed 
of stones set one upon anotlier, and is only the 
work of the Muslims, and such is made by people 
in the present day, upon the road : (T :) or such 
as was made by the people in the time of ignorance, 
who were accustomed, when they found a thing 
in tkeir way and could not take it with them, 
to leave upon it some stones, whereby to know 
it, until, when they returned, they took it : (TA :) 

the pi. [of pauc] is _>»1jl and [of mult.] >»}jl :' 

(ISh, T, S, M, K :) or >ojjl signifies the graves, 
or sepulchres, of [the tribe of] 'Ad. (M,K.) = 
[>jl in the phrase jU*M oli >jl (see art. jk*p) 
is a proper name ; but whether of a place, or a 
tribe, or an individual, is disputed: it is com- 
monly believed to be the name of The terres- 
trial paradise of Shedddd the son of 'Ad: see 
Bd lxxxix. C] 

iUjI ^oj\ Land in which there is not a root, 

or stock, of a tree ; as though it were * i«jjU [or 
extirpated] : (O :) or land in which neitlier root 

nor branch is left ; as also ▼ i*j>jU. (M, K.) 

2 •» 3 • 3 ,t 3 - *, 

^jl and ^jl and ^.jt and ^jl : see >>jt. 

• it 

>jyl : see what next follows. 

l^jl (T, M, K) and Ujrf, (M, K,) the latter 
of the dial, of Tcmcem, (TA,) or this is not 
allowable, (T,) or *jtjj\, (S,) or this is the pi., 
(M, K,) [or a coll. gen. n.,] The root, or base, or 
lowest part, syn. Jl*1, (T, S, M, K,) of a tree 
(T, S) of any kind ; (T ;) and of a horn : (S :) 
or, of a tree, [or plant, the root-stock, or rkizoma, 
or] the part from which branch off the Jj^e [or 
roots properly so called], (EL in art. Jj*. [See 
an instance of its use voce 3La» ; another, voce 
vi^.; and another, voce jj»..])__ And [hence,] 
t The origin, or stock, of a man : (TA :) J The 
origin of v ■- [or grounds of pretension to 
respect or honour, &c.]. (Har p. 99.) 

i»,l i—/ (S, K, TA [in the CK, erroneously, 
<Ujt]) An extirpating year of dearth or drought 
or sterility : (S :) or a year of dearth &c. cutting 
off people. (K.) 

&*£jU ^oj\ : see iUjt, in two places. 


m *t *9* j5 i 

L Viy^ i/\ jJl Ojl, (M, K;,) and lyiU«, [aor. 
t. • »« ' 

(jjjU,] inf. n. jj-jl, (M,) 7%« 6e<M< A«p< <o tte 

^/ace w/<ere it was tied, (M, K,) and to its man- 
ger. (M.) — a^lil ^'l i^lill ojl, (K,) aor. 
as above, (S,) and so the inf. n., (TA,) The 
beast joined itself, or became joined, to the beast, 
and kept with it to one manger. (S, ]£.) 

2. a/jJJ sL?j, (S, M, Kl,) and iCbJI, (M,K,) 
inf n. a^jU, (S, M, K,) I made for the beast an 
\J$ fq- ▼•]» (?,* M,) or an 3^1. (Kl : [in the 
CK 4_>jt ; but this and <L;I are probably mistakes 
of copyists.]) — j^jlll ^j|, inf. n. as above, He 
rendered the thing permanent, or steadfast ; con- 
firmed it; established it. (M,K.) Hence, in 


a trad., ^y--y U jl >n JOI, l. e. C Croa, max* p«r- 
manent, or confirm, or establish, what is between 
them, of love, or affection ; said in praying for 
a man and his wife. (M,TA.) Mohammad is 
also related to have said, with this intention, 

-■ i * 9* *$ Aim* 

\^ t i t fj\^ii\, meaning O Ood, render permanent, 
or confirm, the union, or concord, or love, of them 
two ; (A 'Obeyd, TA ;) or cause union to subsist, 
and render permanent, or confirm, love, or affec- 

tion, between them two : (IAth, TA :) or _^i\ 
<u»-Uo Uv~* J*-'i J^ 3 j'» meaning O Ood, con- 
fine each of them two to the other, to that the 
heart of neither may become turned away to any 
but that other: the correct form of speech, how- 
ever, is <x~mXo ^^JU-, unless it be like U^U C J JW 
foro^«i-*JW- (IAmb,TA.) 

4. SjIjJI Oojl I joined the beast to another 
beast, and made it to keep with the other to one 
manger: (S, in the present art.; and K:) or 
i^ljJt C-£)l I joined the two beasts together, 
and made them both keep to one manger. (So 
accord, to the S in art. jlj.) 

5. o^W \j£> H' remained, stayed, or abode, 
in the place : (S, Mgh, Msb :) or he became con- 
fined, or he confined himself, therein ; (T, M, K ;) 
as also V <J>^>' [written with the disjunctive alif 
l£j-^ ]• (^i K.) — <^« i^jC 7/e remained behind 
him, not going with him ; held back, or hung bach, 
from him. (M, K.) 

8 : see 5. 
3 « 

Ajjl : \ see what next follows. 


3 « 

jf.», (T, S, M, Mgh, Msb, K,) with medd and 

teshdeed, (TA,) [originally Jgjjl,] of the measure 
J^U, (T, S, Mgh, Msb,) from o^&W l&^ m 
explained above, (Mgh,) or hence this verb, 
(Msb,) and * \j}, (M,K, # [but accord, to the 
latter, the second form may be either thus (as it 
is written in the M) or ♦ j\, (agreeably with the 
latter of the two pis. mentioned below,) for the 

two forms are there expressed by uu*jj lS;*^'» 

t* * J A ' ' 

(in the CK, erroneously, J fa tSj^'») an " ,n 

another place in the K we find it written t JbX 
or, as in the CK, • *ijl,]) The pZoc« of confine- 
ment of a beast : (ISk, T, S :) or t. q. l^T ; (M, 
Mgh, Msb, K ;) used in this sense by the Arabs ; 
(Mgh, Msb ;) or sometimes having this applica- 
tion ; meaning a rope to which a beast is tied in 
its place of confinement ; (S;) or a loop of a rope 
to which a beast is tied in that place : (Mgh :) so 
called because it withholds beasts from escaping : 
(TA:) sometimes, (Msb,) improperly, (ISk, T, 
S,) by the vulgar, and by the lawyers, (Mgh,) 
applied to a manger : (ISk, T, S, Mgh, Ms b :) pi. 

uW ( T » ?» M B h > M ? b ) and $• ( S — Hence » 
(_jjljl is metaphorically applied to t The place* 
( jU^I) that are made, in shops, for grain and 
other things : and to t the water-tanks, or troughs, 



in a bath. (Mgh.)_ El-'Ajjtij says, describing a 
[wild] bull, and his covert, 

kS>} M Ul 0l >Ubj 

meaning [And he frequented lodging-pluses] 
having a Jivm foundation for the quiet of the 
wild animal* therein [as having been from the 
first occupied by such animals and unfrequented 

by men]. (S.)__^jl is also said to signify 
Land of a kind between even and rugged. (M.) 

•j- I . 

«bjl : sec i_£jl. 

1. jj^JI Ojl, (S,*,) or 3ujJ\, (A,) aor '- (S, 
K) nn<l - , (K,) inf. n. jsj\ (S, A, K) and j\ ami 

jljl, (K,) The coohing-j>ot made a sound in boiling : 
(S, accord, to an explanation there given of the 
inf. n. ; and A :) or boiled : (S :) or boiled vehe- 
mently; (r>;) as also *C»ji5l [written witli the 
disjunctive alif Ojil], (S, £,) inf. n. jljljf; (S ;) 

and t OjU, (K,) inf. n. jjfc : (TA:) or all signify 
it boiled not vehemently. (K.) It is said in a trad., 

•icji ^>* ^jJi >>jte» jjji ff>%Jj i^-*! O 1 ^ 

J [ J/c t«c</ fo ;>r«y, Am inside making a sound 
like the sound of the boiling of the cooking-pot, by 
reason of weeping] : (S, A, Mgh :) this is said of 
Mohammad : y_ j\ meaning boiling, or the sound 

thereof . (Mgh.) iJUJj! Ojl The cloud made 

a sound from afar. (K.) [In this instance, the 
TA assigns only one form to the aor., namely ; , 

and gives only jl and jjjl as inf. ns.] Jftt signifies 

The sounding of thunder ; (S, A ;*) and of a mill- 

stone. (A.) You say, j*ji\ jjjl ^U [The 

sounding of the thunder terrified me] : and ,^jwi 

1*^1 jjjl [The sounding of the mill-stone made 

» « 
wiy A*<wf ro acA«]. (A, TA.) _ Also, inf. n. J^li, 

It flamed, or blazed, like fire in firewood, and 

was in motion, or in a state of commotion. (AO.) 

■BjjJUl^ jl, [aor. * ,] inf. n. jl, He kindled afire, 
or made it to burn or to burn fiercely, beneath 
the cooking-pot, in order that it might boil : or 
you say, jjjul jl, inf. n. as above, meaning he 
collected firewood beneath the cooking-pot so tkat 
the fire flamed, or blazed : and he made the fire 
to flame, or blaze, beneath the cooking-pot. (TA.) 

And jUI jl, ($.,) aor. < , inf. n. jl, (TA,) He 
kindled tke fire, or made it to burn or to burn 
fiercely. (£,TA.) — i t ^li\ jl, (£,) aor. -' , inf. n. 
jl and jjjl, (TA,) 7/e ;>u< <A« /At'n^ into a state 
of violent motion or commotion : (ISd, K :) so 
accord, to IDrd: (ISd:) but Ibrahccin El-Har- 

bee explains jl only as signifying the act of 
moving. (TA.) Jjl, (A, TA,) aor. ^ , (TA,) 


inf. n. jl, (8, TA,) He put him in motion; dis- 
quieted kim; (A,*TA;) stirred up, roused, or 
provoked, him; and incited, urged, or instigated, 
Aim ; (S,* A,* TA ;) \J£> ^J* to do such a thing. 

(A, TA.*) It is said in the £ur [xix. 80], 
is nit- «• .' '.■ ' . .'9 «•»•# ** " •«# 

'j'^yp c*o^< i> .>tvy« uLji ui^j^i 

Seest thou not that we have sent the devils against 
the unbelievers inciting them strongly to acts of 


disobedience ? (S, TA.) Or jl signifies The inci- 
ting a man to do a thing by artifice, or cunning, 
and gentleness. (El-Harbec.) 

* * ■* 
5. jjJUl OjU : sec 1. 

8. jjJUt 0>wl : sec 1. _ tjk£» ,j»« jjb yk //<? 
becomes angry, and distressed, and disquieted or 
disturbed, by reason of such a thing. (A, TA.) 


»jl A sound, or noise. (TA.) 

• t * i 

jjjl inf. n. of L__<SAar/)HC«; syn. »j». (TA.) 

L vj'i aor. ; , (A, K,) inf. n. ^jl (TK1,) 7/ 
(water) flowed or raw ; (A,K;) like «_jjj. (TA.) 

Vlji«, (?, A, Mgh, Msb, K,) and Jj'>«> (?, 
Msb,) vl waterspout ; a pipe, or channel, that 
spouts forth water : (Mgh, TA :) or that by 
which water pours down from a high place : 
(Towshcch :) or a water-spout of wood, or the 
like, to convey away the water from the roof of 
a house : (MF in art. »_»5j :) the former is from 
the verb above mentioned : (A, K :) or it is 
arabicized, (A, Mgh,K,) from the Persian, (Mgh, 
K,) signifying "make water:" (!£:) 'ts pi. is 
^jU : (ISk, S, Mgh, Msb :) and the pi. of 
wjlj^o is w-jjL* and ^~>j\y>, from *->j}, said of 
water, meaning " it flowed," (Mgh, Msb,) accord. 
to IAar ; (Mgh ;) or this is arabicized ; or post- 
classical: (Msb:) but w>jj*<«, without >, is alto- 
gether disallowed by Yankoob [i. e. ISk] : 
(Mgh :) it is also culled v!ijf > ( T > s » M8l) ») 
accord, to IAar ; (T, Msb ;) but this is disallowed 
by ISk, Fr, and AHiit, (Msb,) and by Ax 
[the author of the T] ; (Mgh ;) and «->(;>• also, 
accord, to IAar and Lth and others, as is men- 
tioned in the T. (Msb.) 

-. * t- 

2- <»-jt, inf. n. *->j\5, (Msb, K,) He built a 
structure of the kind called *jl, and made it long : 
(K :) or he built a house, or chamber, in the 
form of what is so called. (Msb.) 

*-jl A certain kind of structure ; (S, K ;) or 
a house, or chamber, built in a long, or an oblong, 
form ; (Mgh, L, Mfb ;) called in Persian dA~o'> 
(Mgh, L,) and also, in the same language, i->, 
and j+£» : (Mgh :) [i. e. an oblong, arched, or 
vaulted, structure or edifice ; (such as a bridge ; 
see ijUli ;) a portico, gallery, or piazza ; accord, 
to Golius and Freytag, atdificii genus oblongum 
etfornicatum, porticus instar; to which Freytag 
adds, porta arcus superior :] or, accord, to some, 
a roof: (Mfb :) pi. [of pauc] £lj'T (S, Mfb, K) 
and Ijl (S, K.) and [of mult.] L-jl. (K..) 

1. ijjl, aor. ; , (TK,) inf. n. jjl, (IAar, K,) 
It surrounded, or encompassed, it, (IAar,* IC,* 

TA,) namely, a thing. (Tl£.) See also 2, in 

two places : and see 3. 

2. »jyl, inf. n. jijV, He put on him, or clad 

[Book I. 

Aim toitk, an j\jU (S;) asalso # »Jjl. (TA.)^ 
It covered it : (%.,* TA :) as in the phrase, 
uoj*j\ C--JI jjl Tke herbage covered the ground, 
or bind. (TA.) — t He rehired tke lower part 
of it, (namely, a wall,) and thus made that part 
lilte an jljl : (Mgh, Msb :*) he cased [the lower 
part of] it, (namely, a wall,) and thus strengthened 
it. (A.)__t77c strengthened him, or it; (K, 
TA;) as also * ijj'l, (Fr,) inf. n. Jjl. (Fr,Kl.) 
[See also 3.] 

3. »jjl, (Fr, S, A, Msb,) for which the vulgar 
say »jjlj, (Fr, S,) the latter an extr. form, (K.,) 
inf. n. 5jjl|i; (Msb.K;) and *Jjjl; (TA;) 
He aided, assisted, or helped, him ; (Fr, S, A, 
Msb, K ;*) and strengthened him. (Mab.) [Sec 
also 2.] You say, ^"^i ^Js. J~-j}\ Ojjl I aided, 
assisted, or helped, and strengtkcneil, tke man 
against such a one. (Zj.) And ie»jjl> UJp Oj^l 
^"^Li aJLc / desired to do such a thing, and such 
a one /tided, assisteil, or helped, me to do it. 
(A, TA.) — tkii HI/ £ji\ JjT, (A,) inf. n. 
as al>ovc, (K,) t The seed-produce became tangled, 
or luxuriant, (A, K,) one part rctiching to another, 
(A,) and one part strengthening another; (K;) 
asalso cjjJI "jjU : (TA :) or OmJI "jjU signifies 
the herbage became tangled, or luxuriant, ami 
strong. (S.)__ t {Jl\ i^Ll Jjl, (TA,) inf. n. 
us above, (K,) The thing etpwlled, or was equal 
to, the thing : the thing matched, or corrcsjtonded 
to, the thing. (K,*TA.) 1 it some copies of the 
K, in the place of it^L^ll, is found !Ld£JI : the 
former is the correct reading. (TA.) 

5 : sec 8, in two places : _ and sec also 3, in 
two places. 

8 - jj^\> (?» Mgh« Msb,) originally jjiji', (Mgh, 
Msb,) and *,jU, (S,) or jljSl; jjil, and <v *-jjU, 
(K,) He put on, or wore, the jljl : (S, Mgh, Msb, 
K :) jj5l is wrong, (Nh,) or vulgar, (Mgh,) and 
should not be said : it occurs in certain of 
the tnids., but is probably a corruption of the 
rclaters : (K :) or it is a correct form, [like _vm "M 
ice, (sen art. «*£.!,)] (Msb, MF,) accord, to El- 
Karmiincc and Sgh and others. (MF.) 

jjl Strength. (IAar, S, A, K.) — And (or as 
some say, TA) Weaknexs : thus bearing two 
contr. significations. (IAar, K.) And The 

back. (IAar, S, K.) i_£jjl y yj£\, in the £ur 
[xx. 32], means Strengthen Thou by him my 
bach: (IAar, S:) or confirm Thou by him my 
strength : or strengthen Thou by him my weak- 
ness. (I Aar. ) — Aid, assistance, or help. (Mfb.) 
_ Also, (S,) or tjj{, (£,) The place, (K,) or 
part of [each of] the two flanks, (S,) where the 
jljl is tied in a knot. (S,l£.) 

jjl : see jjl. 

• • • * 

jjl: sec jljl. 


Sjjl Any particular mode, or manner, of put- 
ting on, or wearing, the jljl. (S,ly.) You say, 
SjjNI ^...a. I <ul [ Verily he lias a good manner 
of putting on, or wearing, the jljl]. (A.) And 
**—"* bJl 2J~!^ He put on, or wore, the jljl in 

Book I.] 

a good manner. (S.) And it is said in a trad., 
Ue» oult ~U»- ^3 JLJI ULaJ ^jlj v>*W »jji 

,^11»£JI OtiS **•* f' 4 ' believer's mode of wear- 
ing the jljl is to have it reaching <o the middle 
of the sluinh ; and there shall be no sin chargeable 
to him with rexpect to what is between that and 
the two ankles]. (TA.) 

jljl, masc. and fern., and *»j'jl, and tjj£«, 
(S, Mfb, K,) and t ijjL, (Lh,) and t JJl , (K,') 
A thing well known ; (S, Msb ;) [« waist-wrap- 
per ;] a wrapper for covering, or which covers, 
the lower part of the body, [from the waist 
downwurds, concealing the thighs, and generally 


the upper half, or more, pf the shanlis, (see jjl, 
or jjl, and Sjjt ,)] not sewed : or tuck as u beneath 
the shoulders, or on the lower half of the body : 
the •!>! is tliat which covers the upper half of tlic 
body; or that which is upon the shoulders and 
hack ; and this also is not sewed : cacli of these 
explanations is correct : (Ml' :) or r. q. M m JU : 
(K :) [in the present day, jljt , vulgarly pro- 
nounced jljjl , is also applied to a woman's outer 
covering, or wrapper, of white calico ; described 
in my "Modern Egyptians :" and t jjU, to 
a pair of drawn* : and app., in post-classical 
writings, to ant/thing resembling a waist-wrapper, 
worn on any part of the person, and in any 
manner; sometimes as a turban:] and jljl also 
signifies anything with which one is veiled, con- 
cealed, or covered : (Th, K :) its pi. is ijjl, 
(S, Mfb, K,) a pi. of pauc., (S, Msh,) and (of 

mult., S, Msb) Jjl (S,M*h,K) and ]jl, (K,) 
which is of the dial, of Temoem, or, accord, to 


MF, a contraction of jjl : (TA :) and the pi. of 
jji* is jjU. (Msh.) You say, ▼ 'jj!-» j*yi J-* 
t He prepared himself for the thing, affair, or 
business. (A.) And "jjijl «*— t lie abstained 
from sexual intercourse : or he prepared himself 
for religious service. (TA, from a trad.) And 
vjjljl j-asui-l J (The place of) my jljl became black : 
or, rather, became of a [blackish] kuc inclining 
to green : because the hair when it first grows is 
of hue. (liar p. 494.) And ijMj] i_$j(> 
[My house is my covering] : said by lis-Sarawce 
to IAar, on the lattcr's expressing his surprise at 
the former's walking in his house naked. (TA.) 
—,' t Continence; chastity. (K, TA.) You say, 
jljSI i_ie»fe 0*^*> nna " ljW 1 &«eh a one is con- 
tinent, abstaining from women with whom it is 
unlawful to him to have commerce : (A 'Obcyd :) 
and in like manner, jljNt ^-Ja O^- (TA in 
art. >»«*•.) — J One's wife : (S, M,K :) or one's 
self: (Il£t, Suh :) or one's wife and family : or 
one's family and self. (TA.) One says, i_£»w 
ijjljl vli) t 3Usjf my wife be a ransom for thee : 
(Ahoo-'Omar El-Jarmce, S :) or myself. (IKt, 
Suh.) And it -is said in a trad, respecting the 
vow of allegiance made at the 'Akabeh, ■iXisU^i 
Ujjl aU %-^j U-0 \n c will assuredly defend thee 
from that from which we defend our wives and 
ovr families : or ourselves. (TA.) _ J A ewe. 


(K,TA.) [But see ijj^i Sli.] And Jljl Jljl is 
A cry by which a ewe is called to be milked. (K.) 

Jjljt : see jljl. 

jjl u»j>, and Jijjl, [which is the fern.,] J .4 
horse, and a mare, white in the hinder part, (A, 
TA,) which is the place of the jljl of a man ; 
(TA;) [i. c., it corresponds to the lower part 
of the body of a man :] when the whiteness 
descends to the thighs, the epithet Jjj—c is 
employed: (A:) or the former signifies ahorse 
white in the thighs, and having his fore parts 

black, or of any colour : (AO, K:) pi. jjl. (A.) 
jjio : sec jljl , in five places. 
ijjL» : see jljl. 

Sjjy» »li t A- en > e t or she-goat, that, is [black in 
the hinder part] as though attired with a black 
jljl. (A; [in which is added, jljl ly) JULy, 
which may mean, " and one says, She has an 
jljl ;" or " and one calls her jljl ;" but more 
probably the former is meant thereby ;] and K ; 
[in which «*<*»■>, " a ewe," is put in the place of 

«U>.]) j)y> j-oj J Aid [made] effective and 

powerful: (K, TA :) occurring in a trad. (TA.) 

Olj^jU for Oljjj^e : sec art. jjy 


1. ojl, aor. - , inf. n. ujjt (S, Msb, K) and 

«J>j)jt, (Msh, K,) It (departure) was, or became, 
or drew, near : (S, Msb, K :) and in like manner, 
a time. (TA.) Hence, in the Kur [liii. 58], 
Sij"^l c-ijl The resurrection draweth near. (S, 
(Msb.) _ He (a man) hastened, or was quick : 
(S, K :) or he drew near, and hastened, or was 
quick. (A,TA.) 

4. ijiijl lit (a man, TA) incited me, or urged 

me, to hasten, or be quick : (K, TA :) it is of the 

--•1 , 

measure ^jdbot. (TA.) 

.5. vJjU The stepping with contracted steps. 
(K.) But sec JjUi ^Lb., below. (TA.) 

6. hjijC They drew near together, one to ano- 
tlier. (IF,K.) 

w»jl, applied to a man, .Hastening, or quick : 
(S, TA :) and endeavouring to hasten, or be quick. 
(TA.) ' 

iij^l The resurrection : so in the Kur liii. 58, 
(S, Msb,) and xl. 18 : (Bd :) or in the latter 
place it means tke near event, or case, of being on 
the brink of the fire [of Hell] : or, as some say, 
death. (Bd.) 

ojUo, of the measure J«U£«, applied to a man, 
(TA,) Short ; (S, A, K ;) as being contracted in 
make; (A,TA;) having his several parts near 
together. (S,K.) [In the CK it is written >JjU*, 
in this sense and others, following.] — A stra it, 
or narrow, place. (O, L, K.)_A contracted 
stepping : you say, <_»jU« ^ U ^. : so in the O and 
L. (T A.) __ I A man (Sgh, T A) evil in disposi- 


tion; narrow-minded: (Sgh, K, TA :) weak; 
cowardly. (TA.) 

1. Jjl, aor. ; ; (K ;) and Jjl, aor. -\ (IDrd, 
K inf. n. (of the former, TA) jjl, (S, O, K,) 
and (of the latter, T A) jjl, (IDrd,K,) or the 
latter is used by poetic licence for the former ; 
(As, Sgh ;) He, or it, (said of a man, MF, or of 
a man's bosom or mind, K,) became strait, or 
straitened; (IDrd, S,* 0,»K, MF;) jjl being 
thus syn. with Jjl : (S, O :) or it (a man's bosom 
or mind) became straitened in war or fight ; (K ;) 
or he (a man) became straitened in his bosom or 
mind, in war or fight : (TA :) as also * JjU, 
with respect to both these significations ; (K ;) or 
this signifies it (a man's bosom or mind) became 
strait, or straitened; like JjU ; (Fr, S;) and 
* JjU signifies the same as JjU. (Z, in Golius.) 
[See also 10.] = aSJI, inf. n. Jjl, lie straitened 
him : the verb being trans, and intrans. (MF.) 

5 and 6 : sec 1. 

- 1 * * a j| 1 

10. O^* i^* H)y~'\ The place became strait 
to such a one, (K, TA,) so that he wus unable to 
go forth [into it, to war or fight]. (TA.) 

if- . , 

JjU A place of straitness, or a strait place, 

(S, K, TA,) in which people fight. (TA.) And 
hence, A place of war or fight. (S.) And 
JtJdl JjU Tlie place of straitness of life, or 
living. (Lh.) PL JjU. (TA.) 


1- Jj', (?, K,) aor. ; , inf. n. jjl, (S,) lie (a 
man) became in a state of straitness, or narrow- 
ness, and suffering from dearth or drought or 
sterility. (S, K.) [See also the pass, form of tlio 
verb here following; and see 5.]s=«djt, aor. as 
above, (K,) and so the inf. n., (TA,) He confined, 
restricted, restrained, withheld, debarred, hin- 
dered, or prevented, him ; (K,* TA ;) and strait- 
ened him; in consequence of distress, or adversity, 

and fear. (TA.) He shortened his (a horse's) 

rope, [or tether,] and then left him to pasture at 
pleasure (Lth, K, [in the CK, il- is put for 
1111,]) in the place of pasturage. (Lth.)_ 
^U hjijl, (S,) mj$yt\, (K>) aor. as above, 
(S,) They confined, restricted, or debarred, their 
cattle from the place of pasturage, (S,) or did not 
take, or send, them forth thereto, (K,) in conse- 
quence of fear, (S,K,) or dearth or drought or 

sterility. (K-) It is said in a trad, respecting 

Ed-Dciial, and his besieging the Muslims in Bcyt- 
el-Makdis, [or Jerusalem,] Ijl>ju* "^jl oVji** 
And they will be straitened with a vehement 
straitening. (TA.) And ^Ul Jjl signifies The 
people suffered, or were afflicted with, drought, 
or want of rain. (TA.) 

4. 8U I I cJjT The year became severe, distress- 
ful, calamitous, or adverse. (TA.) =34X11 ^jl 
Qod afflicted them with drought, or want of rain. 

5. JjU It (a man's bosom or mind) became 


strait, or straitened; (Fr, S, K ;) as also JjU. 

Jjl Slraitneu ; distress ; difficulty ; (S,* K ;) 
and drought, or want of rain. (TA.) _ Vehe- 
mence of might, or of strength, in war, or fight ; 
of courage, valour, or prowess : or of war, or 

yfyA* : or of fear : or of punishment : syn. 

I- j a 
^b SJlI. (TA.)aalt is also used as an epithet, 

meaning Strait; narrow; confined. (Hump. 339.) 

Jjl .4 calamity ; (K ;) because of its distressing 
character. (TA.) —. Lying, or falsehood. ( Yaa- 
k.K.I., S, K.) 

Jjl t. ^. >jJ [i. e. Eternity, with respect to 
past time, or considered retrospectively ; existence 
from eternity; or ancientness] (S, K, TA) that 
is without beginning ; (TA ;) or the continuance 
of existence in decreed times interminable in 
respect of the past; like as jyl is the continuance 
of existence in decreed times interminable in 
respect of the future ; (KT ;) or that [existence, 
or time,] which has no extremity in its beginning; 

like >ji ; and jut is that which has no extremity 
in its latter part ; like 2Uu : the former is existence 
without any beginning ; (Kull p. 31 :) said to be 
from the phrase Jjj _^l ["he, or it, has not 
ceased" to bo &c. ; i. e. "has ever" been Sec. 

' '' i "' 

(see ^j')] : or » accord, to some, from Jjl signi- 
fying " narrowness ;" because the intellect is pre- 
vented by its narrowness from perceiving its 
beginning: (MF:) Jjl is a name for that of 
which the mind is prevented by its narrowness 
from determining the limit of the beginning; 
from Jjl meaning " narrowness ;" and jut is a 
nnme for that of which the mind shrinks from, 
or shuns, the determining the limit of the end ; 

from ty>\ meaning the act of "shrinking" from a 
thing, or "shunning" it. (Kull pp. 30 and 31.) 
Hence the saying, Ul» Iptf Jj'^l ^ J£a [-H* 
was, or has been, ever, powerful, knowing]. (A, 
TA.) The phrase Jlj^l Jjl [During the space, 
without beginning, of all past times ; or ever, in 
all past times ;] is like the phrase >C*j\ jut ; said 
to be no evidence of the use of Jljl as a pi. of Jjl 
in a general way by the Arabs of the classical 
ages, as it is here added merely as a corroborative. 

(MF in art. j*l.) [See also jj&] 

• i • - 

Jjl : see Jjl. 

jjljl [Eternal, with respect to past time; exist- 
ing from eternity ; or ancient without beginning ; 
ns is implied in the S and K &c. ;] a thing, or 
being, which has not been preceded by non-exist- 
ence : it is applied to God: and to [his] know- 
ledge : that which exists must be one of three 

... s '! s '* 

kinds only : ijjy\ ^Jjl [existing from eternity, 

and consequently existing to eternity] ; and this 
is God [who is also called Jjj*)\ ^jJUl the 
Ancient without beginning] : and j_£jyl *)• .Jjl "^ 
[not existing from eternity nor existing to eter- 
nity] ; and such is the present world : and ^J^t 
(Jj* jnk [existing to eternity without existing 
from eternity] ; and such is the world to come; 

the reverse of which [last] is impossible : (TA :) 
it is a rel. n. from Jjl : or, accord, to some, it is 
not [genuine] Arabic : (TA :) or it is originally 

^Jji, a rel. n. from Jjj _,,), (S, K,) a phrase 
applied to that which is ^ j3 ; and is formed by 
contraction ; (S ;) then, the j_£ is changed into I, 
as being easier of pronunciation ; as in .yjl, 
applied to a spear, in relation to ,jjj ^J ; (S, K,* 
Sgh, TA;) and as in ^{jj\, applied to a blade, 
(S,Sgh,TA,) in relation to ^Jj : (TA:) so say 
some of die learned. (S.) 

&eJjl The quality, or attribute, of Jjl [eternity, 
with respect to past time, Sec] : but it is a forged 
term, not of the [genuine] language of the Arabs. 

• tt •* * 

Jjjl jj-t A severe, distressful, calamitous, or 
adverse, year : pi. Jjl. (K.) 

Jjl A man in a state of straitness, distress, 
adversity, or difficulty. (TA.) _ A man in a 
state of straitness in consequence of fever: or who 
is unable to go forth in consequence of pain : or 
confined, restricted, withheld, or prevented [from 
going forth], (TA.)__5)jl ,j^J [A milch camel] 
confined, or restricted, not pasturing at pleasure, 
having her shank tied up to her arm, on account of 
her owner's fear of a hostile incursion : occurring 

in a poem of El-Aasha. (TA.)_ Jjl Jjl, in the 
K, erroneously, v Jjt, Severe, or vehement, strait- 
ness, distress, or difficulty. (K,* TA.) 

• U 

JjU A place of straitness, or a strait place ; 
* I- 
(S, K ;) like JjU : (S :) or a place of war or 

fight, when strait. (Lh.) And J^aJt JjU 
77ie place where the means of subsistence arc 
strait, or narrow. (Lh.) 

ati«- * 

jjye i\j+m- i~i- [A severe year of dearth, or 
sterility,] afflicting with drought. (TA, from a 
. A* 

JjjU A horse having his rope [or tether] short- 
ened, and then left to feed at pleasure in the place 
of pasturage. (Ltli.) 


1. j>j\, aor. - , inf. n. >»jl and >jjl, He bit with 
the whole mouth, vehemently : (K :) or with the 

canine teeth : or you say, o-ejl, and <vJic j>j\, 
meaning he bit it, and then repeated [the action] 
upon it, not letting it go : or he seized upon it 
with hismouth: (TA :) or **jl signifies [simply] 
lie bit it : (S :) and <ulc j>\\, aor. - , inf. n. j>j\ ; 
and >»jl, aor. ' , inf. n. >»jl ; the same ; or he 
seized, or took hold, upon it with his teeth : (Msb:) 
and J*v)l J-i C~ojt / bit the arm, or hand, of the 
man most vehemently. (TA.) l»J>»jl occurs in a 
trad, as meaning lie bit it, (referring to a ring of 
a coat of mail,) and held it between two of his 
central teeth. (AO.) And in another trad., >jl 
»jb» (J, meaning He bit his arm, or hand. (TA.) 

And you say, >>UJLII ( _ r .l» ^Ac crT* 11 -^j 1 The 
horse seized [with his teeth, or champed,] upon the 

[Book I. 

• *$t 

(J-U [q. v.] of the bit. (K.) And jbj\ signifies 

also The cutting with the canine tooth, and with 
a knife, (K,) and with other things. (TA.) — 
[And hence,] O* ^)\, (S, Msb, # K, # ) aor. -. , 

inf. n.j>j\ (S) and>jjl, (TA,) said of a time, (S, 
Msb,) or a year, (K,) It was, or became, dis- 
tressed, or afflictive, to us, [as though it bit us,] 
by drought, dearth, or scarcity ; (S, Msb, K ;) 
and scant in its good things; (S;) as also>>jt, 
nor. - , inf. n. >>jt. (Msb.) And i~w ^L>Lo\ 
^^yiojt, (S, K,*) inf. n. >jl, (S.) A year, or year 
of dearth or drought or sterility, befell them, 
which extirpated them : (S, K :•) or, accord, to 
Sh, the verb in this sense is only with .. (TA. 

[See art. >»il.])__ [Hence also,] */>»jt, (AZ,S, 
K,) inf. n. >»jl, (TA,) lie clave to him, namely, 
his companion ; (AZ, S, K ;) and to it, namely, 
a place. (K.) And <ui* j>j\, (K,) aor. - , inf. n. 

>»jl, (TA,) He Itept, attended, or applied himself, 
constantly, perseoeringly, or assiduously, to it; 

(K;) he- clave to it. (TA.) And <&w t *t{ j>j\, or 
y, (accord, to different copies of the K, the 
former being the reading in the TA,) and \~ls-, 

(TA,) inf. n. >jjl, (AZ.TA,) He kept, attended, 
or applied himself, constantly, perscrcriiigly, or 
assiduously, to his <uu-o [or land, Sec.]. (AZ, K, 

TA.) jVjf, (Nh, K,) inf. n. JLjf, (Nh, TA,) also 

signifies He held his teeth together, one upon 
another: (Nh :) [and he comjrrcssed, or put to- 
gether, his lips : (sec j»)\ :)] and he closed, or 
locked, a door. (K, TA.) It is said in a trad., 

>jSt i>» »*" r^ 6 •>■**■ «*-U*» 3 Jl^-JI The stick 
fur cleaning the teeth, thou shah use it on the 
occasion of the ■mouth's becoming altered in odour 
from the holding of the teeth together. (Nh.) 

* 'l • M 

[And hence,] v»jt, (S, Nh, Msb,) inf. n. jtj], 

(Msb, K,) lie held, refrained, or abstained, (S, 
K,*) t{Jj\ ok from the thing : (S,TA:) and Ac 
held, refrained, or abstained, from, desiring much: 
(TA :) and from food (Msb, K*) and drink; 
(Msb;) as also>»jl, aor. -, inf. n. j»j\: (Msb:) 
and from speech; (Nh,K;*) like as docs' the 
faster from food : and hence, (Nh,) or from the 

next preceding signification, (Msb,) «*»»• [mcan- 

• tt 
injj as explained in what follows] is termed >»jt : 

(Nh, Msb :) but accord, to the rotation commonly 
known, of a trad, in which j>)\ is said to occur in 
the last of the senses explained al>ovc, the word is 
jtjl, with j, and with tcshdccd in the case of the>». 
(Nh.) It is related in a trad., that 'Omar having 
asked EI-Hurith Ibn-Kelcdch, the v«* of the 
Aral>s, "What is the [best] remedy?" (S,) or 
having asked him respecting [the best] medical, or 
curative, treatment, (Msb,) the latter said, j>y$\, 
meaning <L«aJI ; (S,Msb;) both these words 
here meaning Tlie practising abstinence; (PS;) 
or the abstaining, or desisting, from eating : 
(TA :) or, in this instance, (TA,) ^j^l signifies 
the not putting in food upon food : and (some 

say, TA) the being silent: (K,TA:) and it 

* i **§ 

signifies also strength. (TA.) — i LJ ^Jt >»jl The 

thing became contracted ; became drawn togctlier, 
or compressed ; as also>»jl, aor. - . (K.) 

Book I.] 

> * - >•' 

5. >yUt»jU, (TA,) or>jb>yll>jl3, (S,) 
The people, or company of men, stayed, remained, 
or dwelt, long in their abode. (S, TA.) 

1 : 6CC iejl. 

• ( 'I * '•(' 

^»jl [part. n. of >jt ; fcm. with 5] : see i«jt. 

iujl [inf. n. of un. ofl: and hence,] A single 
act of eating; (K, TA ;) i. c. an eating but once 
in the course of the day ; like i+m.^ [q. v.]. 

(TA.) Also, (Fr,S, Msb,K,) and *Ljl and 

t Lj\, (Fr, K, [the lust in the CK like the first,]) 
Straitness, hardness, or distress ; (S, Msb, K ;) 
drought, dearth, or sterility : (S, Msb :) pi. (of 
the first, TA) *Jjl, (K,) [or rather this is a coll. 
gen. n.,] like as ^ is of 5^3, (TA,) [hut origi- 
nally an inf. n. of>jl, q. v.,] and>jl, (K,) like as 
jj^isoflj'J^. (TA.) Hence the trad., iUjI ^J^il 
.yfe-jLi, meaning Become severe, O year of 
drought, or dearth, or sterility : then <Ao« wilt 
pan away : though it has been strangely asserted 
that l«jl is hire the proper name of a woman, 
to whom, on an occasion of her being taken with 
the pains of labour, these words were said by 
the Prophet. (TA.) You also say i»jt <L-> and 
♦ Loj\, (K,) bo in the copies of the K, there said 
to be like i*->», but correctly ▼ *•>!, as in the 
M &c, (TA.) [or both arc correct, being part, 
ns., respectively, of >j1 and jtj\,] and " A»j[jl, 
meaning A distressful, or an afflictive, year; 
(K. ;) a year of m vehement drought or dearth 
or sterility. (TA.) And ^jtjl [pi. of t <UjT, 
used as a subst.,] signifies Distressful, or afflic- 
tive, years. (TA.) *>ljl, also, (K,) or, accord, 
to Aboo-'Alcc, *>yjl| (IB,) [each a proper name, 
rh denoting a kind of personification,] signifies 
The year of drought or dearth or sterility. (K.) 

And you say, 7>»lj1 > «tV ^"LP "Bo *j»*jl Severe 
strait ness, or distress, befell them. (S, TA.*) 


• - ( 

• <•« 

see i*jl. 

_>»tjl : see i*jl, in two places. 

>tjl : see what next follows. 

• '* • r • . i ' 'i 

j>2j\ : see jM, in three places. __>>^jl : sec 

iojl, in two places Also, the former, Cleaving 

to a tiling; (1£ ;) and so ♦>$. (Sgh, £.) 
JUjjl : see <uyl. 
>jf act. part. n. of>»il ; Siting with the wlwle 

mouth, velietncntly : [&c. :] as also "jyjl : (JK. : 
[in the CKL the former is erroneously written 
J$ '•]) 0T tne l attcr signifies tliat lias a habit of 
biting ; or that bites much ; syn. ^oyctt. : (Ham 
p. 632 :) pi. of the former Jjjl : (Ham p. 3G0 :) 
and of the latter >jt. (Ham p. 009.) [Hence,] 

IjnyjH The biting lion ; or the lion tliat bites 

j » * > * f 
much, or veliemently ; u oye*)\ jk-^l. fTA.)^ 

[Hence also,] The canine tooth ; syn. <^>U ; and 

.t- - * • ••* •*' 

so*&ejl; and">yjl: pi. of the first j>j\; and 

of the second >jlj I; and of the third>»jl. (M,K.) 

__ Also Having his lips compressed, or put to- 
gether. (AZ, S.) 

<UjT: see>>jT:__ and see also <Ujt, in three 

_>»jU A narrow, or *tra«7, /?Zace; a place of 

i I. 
narrowness or straitness ; (S, K ;) like JjU ; 

(S ;) of a land, and of the pudendum muliebre, 

and of life, (K,) or of the means of subsistence ; 

(Lh, K ;) or of any hind : (TA :) any narrow 

road between two mountains : (S, Msb :) a 

narrow place in mountains, such that one part 

meets another, and tlie phice beyond widens : 

(TA :) pi. >jU. (S, K.) — And hence, (Msb,) 

A place of war or fight ; (S, Msb ;) because of 

the straitness of the state thereof, and the difficulty 

of escape from it. (Msb.) 

j»;U» Smitten, or afflicted, by <Ujl [or strait- 
ness, &c] : (K. :) or expressing pain or grief, 
or lamenting, or complaining, on account of the 
straitness, or distrcssfulness, or afflictiveness, 
(iijl and »>£>,) of time, or fortune. (TA.) 

2. ci^-11 t5jl, inf. n. LjO (S,K1) and ;^jU, 
or l\£jy> f (accoixl. to different copies of the S, 
[the latter irregular,]) or both, (accord, to the 
TA,) He put, or made, an Sj\ [q. v.], to the 
watering-trough or tanh ; (S, K;) i.e. Ids put 
upon its mouth a stone, or a iA*. [explained 
below, voce SJQ, or the lihe ; (TA;) as also 
t iljl, inf. n. jij/l ; (S, TA ;) or * iljO. (»L.) 

3. iljl, (S, K,) inf. n. l\j\£, (Msb in art. s j», 
and TA in art. ^j^, &c, [though it would seem 
from the K to be *j>M,]) He (a man, S) wo*, 
or became, over against it, or opposite to it; 
he faced, or fronted, him, or it. (S,* J£,* TA 
in art. (JJj.) Accord, to the S, one should not 
say, »ljlj : but it is said in a trad, respecting the 
prayer of fear, jjkil Ujjly , i. e. And we faced, 
or fronted, the enemy : (TA :) and the inf. n. 
is Sljl^i. (TA in art. (Jjj.) [Its syn. iliU 
is more common.] as [Hence S\j\y» signifying 
A conformity, a mutual resemblance, or a cor- 
respondence, with regard to sound, of two words 
occurring near togetlier ; like k-^>j\ & c 


art. jr^j.] sbb [Hence, likewise,] »jjl also signifies 
He contended with him, syn. a\j\s^ ; (1£> TA ;) 


or ♦!<>/, (accord, to other copies of the §,) or 
both, (IAar, TA,) each after the manner of a 
relative noun, [having no verb,] (TA,) A she- 
camel that drinks from the .Tj\ [q. v.] : (TA :) or 
that will not drink save from the .jjl of the trough 
or tank ; and jjic signifies one " that will not 
drink save from the fks. [thereof] :" (S, TA, and 
IAar in art. yi* in the TA :) or, accord, to IAar, 
that will not come to the watering-trough or tank, 
to drink, until they leave it unoccupied for her ; 
asalsojjji. (T A in the present art.) 

ijjSI t. q. iij-JI [The front, as meaning the 
part, place, or location, tliat is over against, 
opposite, facing, fronting, or in front]. (Msb, 
and K &c. in art jJ»».) You say, dity ** He 
is over against, opposite to, facing, fronting, or 
in front of , him ; syn. «5IJ-^, (S,) or *ii^-»- 

(Msb.) [Hence, *5Ul* signifies also Corrcs- 

ponding to it ; as whon one says,] ,>• J>f J^-t^ 

is a vein of the horse and the camel, corresponding 
to the J--£»t of man]. (TA in art. J^>.) [You 
say also, LJ £i *tjl^ IkU ii>j He applied a word, 
or phrase, as correspondent to an idea, or a mean- 
ing.]=i\j\ is also applied to a man, and to a 
woman, and to a number of persons, in senses 
here following. (TA.) You say, j&\ C\j\ ^ He 
is the manager, conductor, ordercr, regulator, or 
superintendent, of the affair. (S, Msb, TA.) And 
in the same sense the word is used by Homcyd, 
in the phrase ^ilii xTjl [The manager, or orderer, 
of the means of subsistence], applied to a woman. 
(TA.) And in an instance in which a poet likens 
the .tjt of a watering-trough or tank to the [stink- 
ing animal called] O^ ■ (?> TA :) in this case 
it means The water-drawer [of the trough or 
tank]. (As, IB, TA.) [But in relation to a 
watering-trough or tank, it generally has another 
meaning, which see below.] You say also, O*^ 
JU IM (S) [Such a one is] a manager, tender, 
o'r superintendent, of cattle, or camels <jt . ; ($,* 
TA;) a good pastor thereof. (TA.) And *TjJ 
,_,^J| The vigorous wager, or prosecutor, of war. 

(}$..) And O*** Hi] O*^* Such ° one " tke f eUon ! 
and assistant of suck a one. (TA.) And^*j!i!>»* 
They are tlieir fellows, (It, TA,) who assist 
them, and order, or set in order, their affairs : 
(TA :) or they are those who order, or set in 
order, their affairs. (Msb.) And ^*- l\yj iil, 
and "jit, Verily lie is a possessor of goodness, 
and 'of evilness. (TA.) — Also, iTj^l, (£,) 
or J^aJI iljl, (TK,) The means of susten- 
ance : or what has been caused, or occasioned, 
of plentif ulness and easiness, and of superabun- 
dance, of sustenance. (K.)aanAlso The place 
where the water is poured into t/ie watering- 
trough or tank; (As, S, K ;) i. e. its fore part ; 
[the part next to the well or other source whence 
it is filled;] the hinder part, where the camels 
stand when they come to water, being called the 
Ss. : (S in art. jie :) or, accord, to AZ, a mass 
of stone, and what is put for protection [of the 
brink of tlie trough or tank (as it is generally 

and opposed, or withstood, him, syn. a*«U. (TA.) 
Whence the 6aying in a trad., JjJl»JI Ojl Bji} 
<iT £>j} jJi* ^JOUi [And a party contended 
with, and opposed, or wttlistood, the kings, and 
fought with them for the religion of God]. 

4. c^JI j^jT t. q. etjl, q. v. (S, TA.) — 
And He repaired, or put into a right or proper 
state, the M [q. v.] of the watering-trough or 

tank. (IAar, TA.) And He poured forth the 

water from its l\j\. (TA.) — And aJ,Jj\ He 
poured forth upon its *ljl. (TA.) 

5 : see 2. 

Ljl a50, (accord, to some copies of the S,) I constructed of stones cemented and plastered with 


mud)] upon the place where the water is poured 
when the bucket is emptied : (S in the present 
art. :) or the whole (£-»-- [said in the TA to be 
a mistake for &«*., but this I think extremely 
improbable,]) of what it between the watering- 
trough or' tit nh and the cavity of the well, 
[namely,] of the [casing of stones, or bricks, 
calleil] ^jJ»: (KL:) or a stone, or shin, or iU. 
[i. e. a thing made of palm-leaves woven together, 
generally used us a receptacle for dates], put [for 
protection] upon the mouth [or part of the border 
where the water is poured in] of the watering- 
trough or tank : (K.,* TA :) in the K, \J* i-Ay' 
uoy—i\ is erroneously put for j£ .J* f*oyt 
yA^Jt. (TA.) 

• -,»,, % . i 

3uj\ AJU : sec 3uj\. 

1 : sec 2, in two places. 

8. LS\, (?, M, Msb,) inf. n. ^-13, (S, Msb, 
IC,) lie founded it ; or made, or laid, a founda- 
tion, or basis, for it ; (S, # Msb ;) namely, a 
building, (8,) or a wall : (Msb :) he marked out 
the limit* of it, (namely, of a house,) and raised 
its foundations: he built its foundation, or basis: 
(K :) he commenced it ; namely, a building ; as 

. i Ul tit. i'» 

also ▼ a-1, aor. <u£;, inf. n. ^J : (M :) he built 

it ; namely, a bouse ; (TA ;) as also * lit. (£.) 

* . . » t. .< 
You sny, ,>-*■ i^-ef « IJuk [This is a good found- 
ing, or foundation]. (TA.) And JJL' Jj .>i 
a*.x» J j^JL. aCU J [7/c w/io does not Uiy the 
foundation of his property with equity, or justice, 
destroys it]. (A, TA.) — Ijlj ^j: see ijj, in 
art. }j}. 

ijJ : sec what next follows, in six places. 


^a\ The foundation, basis, or lowest part, (S, 

A, Mgh, Msb, $,) of a building, (S, A, $,) 
or of a wall } (Mgh, Msb ;) as also t ^J and 

♦ v>\ (AJp and f J-^l (?, A, Mgh, Msb, £) 
and t ^ (S, J£,) which is a contraction of 
^wl : (S :) or the commencement of a buildin 

tiJl — J-l 

tt^on its first foumlation.] (A.) And <wl ^ <wJLS 
[He uprooted it from its foundation). (A.) And 

* - H t .1 * .t ■• \ / 

V«"J' *>■•• T wr* 1 - 1 O^* t [Suck a one, the foun- 
dation of his affair, or case, is falsehood], (A,TA.) 
And yLjjl jj yii illi ol£», (S, M, A, 5,) and 
* eJ\, and * a1j , (S, M, K,) JTW was in old, or 
anient, time; (S, M, K ;) «r r/ic beginning of 
time ; (S, A,' K j) and in like manner, Cwf . J* 
^*jJI. (A.) __ Also A remain, relic, trace, 
vestige, sign, mark, or track, of anything. 
(K.) You say, JiJ*i\ J^l ji., or JijL\ * Jll, 
[accord, to different copies of the K, meaning, 
Take thou to the track of the way,] when one 
guides himself by any mark or track, or by 
camels' dung: but when the wav is manifest, vou 

- * * | 

^y. Jifb* & -**■• (K.) ^-1 also signifies 

The remains of ashes (M, K) between the l>UI, 

q. v. : (M :) occurring in a verse of En-Niibighah 

Edh-Dhubyance ; but accord, to most relators of 
* . . . • " 

this verse, it is ^-1. (TA.) 


[Book. I. 

* - 

I ^J* J£> Jl* Jlj U 

t [He ceased not, or has not ceased, to be, since 
he we* in the beginning of time, or in old time, 
i. e., from the Jirst of his existence, a person of 
increasing foolishness, and of den-easing intellect]. 
(AZ, S.) IB says, J has erred in mentioning 
Owl in this section [of the S] ; its proper place 
being in art. <w, where he has also mentioned 
it; for its hemzch is conjunctive, by common 
consent ; and if conjunctive, it is au^ineututivc : 
also, his saying that they have changed the [final] 

^ in uA into O, like as they have changed tho 

* -i 

2 I 




sec ^rfl, in several places' 


I Tlie land produced [herbage 

• > . ■ n 

w~* ; syn. c~iftl. (K.) 


and any commencement of a thing ; as also ♦ .J 

and * ur .L«l and ♦ c ^».l: (M:) and die origin, 

source, stock, or root, (J-ol,) of a man ; as also 
. 2 I J , 

'yrflj or of anything j (M, J£ ;) as also t^i 
(M,?:) and t^j Rn d tj^,) : (^ .) and tl)c 
heart of a man ; because [tho Arabs believe that] 
it is live first tiling that comes into existence in 
the womb : (M, $ :) pi. ^.U (§, M, Mgh, Msb, 
1$) and J-U (M, Msb, $) and ^1a ; (M, Mgh, 
Msb, 1$. ;) the first of which is pi. of ^-1, (Mgh, 
Msb,) like as JUJt is of Jli ; (Msb;) or of J-ll, 
like as V U-I is of ^Z,; (S;) or, as some sav, 
of ^J, [like as JU*I is of JU*,] so tliat it is a 
pi. pi.; (TA;) and the second, of^l, like as J*llt 
isof^-*; (Msb;) and the third, of J.C*, (Mgh, 
Msb,) like as J& is of Ju. (Msb.) You say, 
jtf\ t *-Cl yj*'£t J*[Ue built his house 


*«/cA as is termed] 

^-.1 The kair of the pubes: (M,£:) or of 
the pudendum: (Th, M, YL:) or of the podex: 
(S, ^:) it may be, (S,) or is said to be, (M,) 
from s^~. >p , (S, M,) which signifies " lierbnge," 
or " plants," (S,) or " abundance of herbage :" 
(M:) the ^ being changed into ., as in the wise 

1 * X * * 1 1 

of w»jl and w>jj : (S :) pi. v^- 1 * "ml> accord, to 

IJ, 4»-T. (M.) 

A ram having much wool. (M, K.) 

[final] ^ of L ^J» into O, making this word w- 
is a mistake ; for, were it so, the hemzeli of Cwl 
would be disjunctive [in every case ; whereas it is 
always conjunctive except after a pause, when 
it is pronounced with kesr] : moreover, he has 
attributed this assertion to AZ, who never made 
it, but only mentioned j*jJI C~<t with jAjJt J-l 
lieeauso of their agreement in meaning. (TA.) 
-—[Hence also,] aJ&I w—.I f Calamity, or mm- 
fortune: (K:) adversity; difficulty; distress; 
affliction : (TA :) what is huted, disliked, dump- 
pro red, foul, abomi liable, or evil. (K.)_And 
O^oJ' wl t The desert : (K :) or /Ac w/ifc desert. 
(TA.)__Scc also art. «L, 

S •! | *j 

^jwl The mtr/i of cloth ; (K;) as also ^jwl 

and ^jjl : (TA :) but it is improprly mentioned 
in this art. ; for it is [originally ^>wl,] of the 


measure jyel. (K.) 

i . 

(^jwl Of, or relating to, the 



I. (TA in art. 

I, signifying The podex, or the anus, (K,) 
or signifying the former, and sometimes used as 
meaning the latter, (S in art. «!-<,) is with a con- 
junctive hemzch, [written wwl, when not imme- 
diately preceded by a quiescence,] and its final 
radical letter is elided ; for the original form is Aw ; 
(Msb;) and it is mentioned in art. aw. (K.) 
[It is of the fern, gender.] It is said in a prov., 
applied to him who fails of attaining the object 
that he seeks, S^UJt Awl olU.1 [If is anus 

missed the hole in the ground]. (Meyd.) 

[Hence,] jXji\ Owl t The first, or beginning, of 
time; (A ;) old, or ancient, time. (IB, A,*K.*) 
One says, Uy*^ >kjJI OwT ^A* Jlj U J [He 
ceased not, or has not ceased, from the beginning 
of time, or from old time, to be insane, or mad ; 
or] he always was, or always lias been, known as 
being insane, or mad : like as one says, ^1 ^it 
yLjJI. (AZ,S.) And Aboo-Nukheyleh says, 

ilwl a foreign word, pronounced to lie such 
liocuiiso ^> and i do not occur in uny one Amine 
word, (Malt,) not found in the poetry of the pugau 
times, (Ibn-l)ihveh in TA art. Jwv,) nor in the 
language of those times, (Shift el-Cihalccl, ibid.,) 

[arabicized from the Persian jU-l,] A master : 
(MF :) a skilful man, who is held in high estima- 
tion: (Msb:) a preceptor; a tutor; a teacher : 
a criiftsmaster : (Ilm-l)ihych; and Golilli on the 

authority of Meyd :) [and so in the present day ; 

-.1 . .1 

as also Iwt and Uswt :] also applied by the vulgar 

to a eunuch ; because he generally tutors children : 

(Shift el-Ghalcel, and Ibn-Dihyeh :) pi. o^ilwl 

t .i % * * i 

(liar p. 377) [and JwLI and »JJL>I ; and vul- 

i • •*••?"•• «*f •! 

garly, in the present day, Oly— I and Ol>kwt]. 


Jj-I-I : sec art. J^i, in which, and in art. Jjw, 
it is mentioned : but this is its proper place, if it 
be an arabicized word : in tho T it is mentioned 
in art. Jj^~w. 


1. jJ, (S, M, A, K,) aor. '- , (Ij:,) inf. n. Jwl, 
(TA,) J He (a man, M) was, or became, like a 
lion, (S, M, A, £,) in kit boldness, (A,) and his 

Book I.] 

other dispositions ; (S, A , TA ;) as also ▼ .x-U-l ; 
(M, A, K ;) [and * jJ& ; (sec ju.1 ;)] 4»* to- 
wards him, or against him. (A.) You say 
J*-^' Ot* **■ [^ '""* oear * n 9 evidence of being 
like a lion in boldness] : an cxtr. phrase, like 
iJiaJI *~j ii— ; (TA ;) which is [said to be] the 
only other instance of the kind. (TA in art. J>»..) 
[Hence the saying,] J--I »> lijj .**» J^O '*' 
J[ WA*k Ac comes in, he is like a lynx; and when 
he goes out, he is like a lion : see .**»]. (S, from 
a trad.) You say also, a^U jb-l meaning t He 
became emboldened against him ; (TA ;) as also 
t j*, U-,1. (S, Msb, K.) And t He was, or be- 
came, angry with him : (M, L, K :') or (so 
accord, to the M and L, but in the K " ami,") 
behaved in a. light and hasty manner, or foolishly, 
or ignorantly, towards him. (M, L, It.*) — 
jbJ, (S, K,) nor. as above, (K,) and so the inf. n., 
(TA,) also signilies f He (a man, S) became, 
stnpijicd (S, K) by fear (S) at seeing a lion. (S, 
K.) Thus it has two contr. meanings. (K.)^ 
jL\, aor. - , i.q. i-- [+ He bit another Kith his 
teeth, 1 1 he as does the beast of prey : or he reviled, 
vilified, or vituprratcd, another; charged him 
with a rice or fault or the like; or assailed hirn 
with foul language, such as displeased him]. (K.) 
_ See also 4. 

2 : sec 4. 

4. '.j~T, (S, M, M«b,K.) or jlllW ijJl, (A>) 
inf. n. jVl»l ; (TA ;) and tjMjt, (S^K,) in which 
the I [i. c. the second I, for »>-» is originally 
ejM*li,] is changed into ^ ; (S;) and t •Jwtfj (K;) 
J 7/« incited him (namely a dog) <o r/ic o/uj*c. 
(S, M, A, Msb, K.*) — y^Ol o^t jJ 1 ^/« 
incited the dogs to attach one another. (A.) And 
^jiUI ,>rf jl-.I, (S, M, A, L, Msb,) inf. n. jl—jl ; 
(Msb ;) or t JJ|, nor. ; ; (K ;) I J/e ««•/<<*/ 
discord, dissension, disorder, strife, quarrelling, 
or animosity, between, or among, the people, or 
company of men. (S, M, A, L, Msb, K.)= 
'Jeli\ jJ\ Jle journeyed with energy ; syn. »>L»t ; 
(1J,M;) from whieh it is probably formed by 
transposition. (M.) 

5 : sec 1. 

10. «*-U-l lie culled a lion. (M.) = See 1, 
in two places. — + Jle became accustomed, or 
habituated, [to a thing, as a dog to the chase,] 
and emboldened; syn. Jj/«©. (Msb.)__ti< (a 
plant, or herbage,) became strong, and tangled, or 
luxuriant : (S :) or became tall and large : or 
grew to its utmost height : (M :) or attained its 
full growth, and became tangled, or luxuriant, 
(M,) and strong : (TA :) or became tall, and dry 
(,_i»- [perhaps a mistake for o£JI, as in the S 
and M,]) and large, (A, TA,) and sj>read every 
waif : (A :) or became tall, and attained its full 
growth. (K.)«.i- jLl (K, TA, [or J-j^l,] 
in the CK j-.iy.A) t He (a man, TA) was, or 
became, excited, roused, provohed, (»-**» K, TA, 
in the CK LZ*,) or incited. (TA.) 

j^l [The lion ;] a certain beast of prey, (M, 
Hk. I. 

T A,) well known: (M,A,Msb,K:) IKh and 
others have mentioned more than five hundred 
names for it ; and it is said to have a thousand 
names [in the Arabic language ; but these, with 
few exceptions, are epithets used as substs.] : 

(TA :) pi. [of pauc] jlt\ (S, K [in the TA 

• * H . • i • i ■ • i 
with two hemzehs, ju-11, which is the original 

form, but deviating from the regular pronuncia- 
tion,]) and JCl (S, M, K) and [of mult.] \^.\ 
(S,M,M 9 b,K) and III (S) and JJLt, (S, M, 
Msb, K,) the last two of which are contractions 

4 - I I 

of the form next preceding them, (S,) and o'-*— '' 
(K) and tjj^U, (Msb, K,) the last called by 
some a pi., but [rightly] said by others to be 
a quasi-pi. n. : (TA :) the female is called »^-l ; 
(AZ,Ks,S;M, A,Msb,K;) or III is applied 
to the male and the female, and sometimes the 
femalc is called Sjuil. (Msb.) — lju.1 Ai« C~*l 
is a phrase [meaning I found him to be a man 
of exceeding boldness ; being] expressive of an 
intensive degree of boldness. (Mughnce in art. 

,_>.) jj/^l t The. constellation IjCO. (Kzw, &c.) 

[See tlJjJI.] And \Th* star Cor Leonis, or 

llegulus. (Kzw, &c.) [Sec iy-jfJI.J 


or a land abounding with lioni: (M>^ : ) P'* 

• -» 

jl-U. (A.) — Sec also jl-I 

jwU* : 
• I., > 



j—l J [Like a lion;] bold; daring; as also 
t^-l and tllvio' [and * ju-U-J (see 10)]. 
(Msb.) You say j—l jtll [A bold, or fierce, 
lion], adding the latter word to give intensiveness 
of signification. (IAar, M.) — [Its fcm.] oj->\ 
[npp. applied to a bitch] signifies t Accustomed, 
or Iwbituated, [to the chase,] and emboldened; 
syn. i^U. (K, TA, in the CK i^U.) [See 
also 10.] 

sJujI A [hind of enclosure for the protection 
of camels, sheep, or goats, such as is called] I jji^ . 
(K.) [Like Sj^ol.] as [Sec also jwl, of which 
it is the fern.] 

S »l 

■ Cj^.1, with damm, (IB, K,) thus correctly 

' S .« 

written, (IB,) in the L [and S] ^J-I, (TA,) 

A kind of garments or cloths (yi^, S, for which 
is put, in the K, erroneously, OlJ, TA) : occur- 
ring in a poem of El-Hotciah, (S,) who likens 
thereto an extensive, even, waterless desert (L.) 
IB says that he is in error who mentions it in 
the present art. : Aboo-'Alcc says that ^jl-I and 
^JiJ\ are quasi-pls. of j_jj-< and ^~t as signifying 
^ju-* vy > an< ^ originally ^Jt-I and (J^l ; 
like as jy**\ is a quasi-pl. of j*o. (L.) [But see 
art. ^Jm and ^a->-] 

• « t J 

j»-<l : see j-l. 

S>t-I (S,K) and »jL,l (K) t. q. ijUj [^4 p»7/oro, 
&c.] : (S, K :) like jllil for ^lij. (TA.) 

j— iy> J One n'Ao trains a dog, or rfo^*, <o the 
chase. (L, Msb.) 

SjurfU A place in which are lions : (Msb, K :) 
or 5j->U ^jl a ianrf having lions in it : (S, A :) 

1. (pf, (S, M, A,) aor. - , inf. n. *jL\ (S, M, K) 
and ]C\, (M,TA,) He bound, braced, or tied, 
him, [namely, his captive,] or it, (S, M, A, K,) 
namely, his ^SJ [or camel's saddle], (S, A,) or 
his horse's saddle, (A,) with an jUI, i.e. a thong 
of untamed hide, (S, A,) by tying the two ex- 
tremities of the jti^J* °f t,,e came V' *addlc, or 
of the curved pieces of wood of the horse's saddle. 
(A.) — Also, aor. as above, and so the inf. n., 
i. e. ^ll (S, Msb) and JCl , (Lth, S,) He made 
him a captive; captioed him; or took him a 
prisoner; whether lie bound him with an jL>\ 
or did not ; (S ;) as also ♦ *j-1, of the same form 
as>ji»l; (Msb;) and * aj-k->\, accord, to a 
trail., in which it occurs thus used, transitively : 
(Mgh :) and he imprisoned him. (TA, from a 

trad.) Also, (S, Msb,) inf. n. jJ, (Msb,) 

t Jle (God) created him, or formed him, (S, 
Msb,) in a goodly manner. (Msb.) You say, 
jl^t ^Lll\ 'm'*^>\ Ood created him, or formed 

him, in the best manner. (Fr, TA.) — jJi, (S, 
A,)aor.Jl£; (S;) or^J,aor.^.lJ; (IKU;) or 
i£j-f; (M;) inf. n. Jlf, (M, and so in a 
copy of the S,) or the latter is a simple subst. ; 
(Iff, IKtt ;) He (a man, S, A) suffered sup^,rcs- 

sion of hi* urine. (S, M, IKtt, A.) [Sec ]L\, 

[2. jl\ He bound, or tied, tight, fast, or 
firmly. (So accord, to Golius; but for this he 
names no authority.)] 

4 : see 1. 

5. £f$S ZSs. jl*0 + Such a one excused himself 
to him, and was slow, or tardy : ( AZ, T, K :*) 
thus as related by Ibn-Hance from AZ : as 
A'Obeyd relates it from him, ^U; but this is a 
mistake : it is correctly with j. (T.) 

8. i-iw, inf- "• \C& [written with the dis- 
*^ ■ . ' ' a- . *t'tT 

junctive alif jt-il] ; for r~i, inf. n. jU*l : see 

art. j~*. 

10. "jjjJb ^U-l He submitted himself as a 
captive to the enemy. (Mgh.) You say, jft-\, 
meaning Be thou a cajHive to mc. (S.) = Sce 
also 1. 

£ll t. q. JCl, q. v. (S.) Hence the saying, 
tjLii JJU i'Jil\ »I* This thing is for thee, or is 
thine, [lit.] with its thong of untanned hide 
rwhercwith it is bound]; meaning, altogether; 
like as one says, *^. (S.) And »^-W *^*» 
Take thou it all, or altogether. (Msb.) And 
^k^Xt >yUI &>■ The people came altogether. 

(Aboo^-Bekr.) Strength of tnake, or form. (M, 

K.) [Accord, to the copies of the K in iny 
liands, it also signifies Strength of natural dis- 
position ; but instead of J&JI.}, >n those copies, 



we should read JJUJIj, agreeably with other 
lexicons, as is implied in the TA : see 1.] You 
say, JUJ1 j^>\ Jujii J& I Such a one is of 
strong, firm, or compact, make, or form. (TA.) 
— v***- 1 iJJJki, in the Klur [lxxvi. 28], means 
t We have strengthened their make, or form : 
(S, A, Msb :) or, their joints : or, their two 
sphincters which serve as repressers of the urine 
and feces (iulalbj J^JI j^j^a*), which contract 
when the excrement hai passed forth ; or the 
meaning j g , that these two things do not become 
relaxed licfore one desires. (IAar, K!.) 

]L\, (S, M, IKtt, A,) a subst., (M, IKtt,) as 

also ~j*\, (M, Lb,) meaning Suppression of the 

urine : (S, M, &c. :) suppression of the feces 

is termed j-o*. : (S :) or a dribbling of the urine, 

with a cutting pain in the bladder, and pangs 

like those of a female in the time of parturition. 

-_. v _ i» l > . . t 

(IAar.) You say, j-r^l ajui.1 [Suppression of 

urine, &c, tooh him, or affected him]. (A.) And 

\j*\ aDI <OUI [May Ood give him a suppression 
of urine, &c] : a form of imprecation. (A.) 

Hence, (M,) JL\ \£ (IAar, S, M, A, K) and 

••I • j # J j , 

j~\ }y* and j-.'jll j^e (Expositions of the Fs) 

• j * j * 
and ^-^ i^c, (IAar, K,) or this is a corruption, 

(K,) or a vulgar mistake, (A,) and should not 

be said, (Fr, S, A,) unless meant to be used as 

ominous of good, (A,) A stick, or piece of wood, 

which is put upon the belly of a man affected by 

a suppression of his urine, (S, A, K, &c.,) and 

which cures him. (A.) 

•«i ••{ 

jmi\ : see j-»l. 

5j-(l + A man's kinsmen that are more, or most, 
nearly related to him ; his near kinsmen : (S,* 
M, A,* Msb,* K :) or a man's nearer, or nearest, 
relations on his father's side : (Aboo-Jaafar En- 
Nahhas :) so called because he is strengthened 
by them. (S, A.) 

j*\ — O-t 

(M, K :) the first of these forms of pi. is proper 

to epithets applied to those who are hurt or 

afflicted in their bodies or their intellects : (Aboo- 

Is-hak:) it is used in this instance because a 

captive is like one wounded or stung. (Th, M.) 

• * * *** t 

KJ~ " J*?^ [™ the CK, erroneously, ^~<U] 

The thongs of the horse's saddle, whereby it is 
bound : (K :) accord, to the more correct opinion, 
a pi. without a sing. (MF.) 

• it. « < 

j>-U: seej--l. A camel's saddle bound with 

an jU: pi. j^U. (TA.) — |A man, and a 
beast, having strongly-hnit joints. (M.)__A 
man suffering suppression of his urine. (8.) 

• .ti •< t .», »i 
wOjJxwl or t^^yJLrtl, [accord, to different copies 

of the K,] and with ,>> in the place of ^a, 
[from the Greek a<rrpo\a$ov, An astrolabe : a 
word of which F gives the following fanciful 
derivation :] ^j^ was a .man who traced some 
lines, and founded upon them calculations; whence 
^,-j ^lu(l [the lines of Lab], from which was 
formed the compound word ySi u -I, and 
^Njjk^jt, the ^yt being changed into ^ because 
of the J» following. (K in art. jjl.) It is either 
an arahicized or a post-classical word : accord, to 
the Nihdyet cl-Adab, the names of all the instru- 
ments by which time is known, whether by means 
of calculation or water or sand, arc foreign to the 
Arabic language. (MF.) 

[Book I. 

Kur [xii. 84], means »\*'jL C [O my grief for 
Joseph : or O my most violent grief]. (TA.) 

4. aa-,1 (in [some of] the copies of the K, 
erroneously, i/Ll, TA) He angered him ; made 
him angry ; (S, M,» O, L, Msb, K. :) and he 
grieved him; made him to grieve, or lament. (M, # 

> > - » . it. 

5 : see 1, in two places. __ eju c-ilu J i. a. 
C*juJ [app. meaning His hand became bruised, 
or mangled; or became cracked, or chapped]. 
• -* . 

»_i-l inf. n. of 1, which see throughout. [Used 

■ •» *' 

as a subst., i. q. UUt.J 

>JL,I (M, Mgh, Msb) and * wi-l and ▼ ,jU-l 
and *uL-l (M, TA) and t J^f (M) Angry: 
(Mgh, Msb, TA :) or exceedingly angry. (M.) 
For an ex. of the first, see 1. Sec also JL-I, in 
two places. 

• . ti 


I : and 

jL<l A thing with which one binds; (M, K;) 
a thong of unt united hide, (S, A, Msb,) with 
which one binds a camel's saddle, (As, S,) [as 
also jLsl ,] and a captive ; and so j->\, q. v. : 
(§ :) and a rope, or cord, with which a captive 
is bound ; and a pair of shackles : (TA :) pi. 

*ji\. (M, K:.) [See also 1.] You say, ',jL\ JU- 
AiLfc'j He untied his thong of unt mined hide 
wherewith he was bound, and released him. (A.) 
oai See also jft. 

jt*\ i. q. 'jj-U; (S, TA ;) Bound with an 

jCy. (M, TA:) shackled: ($:) imprisoned : 

(Mujuhid, M, K! :) captived, or a captive; (S, 

M, K ;) absolutely, (TA,) although not bound 

with an jL<l : (S :) and * jL»l is sometimes used 

in the same sense. (Msb.) ^1 is also applied as 

an epithet to a woman, (Mgh, Msb,) when the 

woman is mentioned ; but otherwise «t«->l is used 

i /. "tit.. ' 

as the fern. : you say, S^-,^1 oJU3 [J slew the 

female captive], like as you say, iUiJI J^\j. 

(M ? b.) The pi. is yJjLs (S, M, Msb, $) and 

»**—•* (M, Kl) and (accord, to several authors, pis. 

of J^\, TA) JjC\ (S, M, Msb, Kl) and ^JCl : 

1. uud, aor. - , inf. n. Jt-ii, (M, Msb, K,) 7/c 
grieved, lamented, or regretted : and A« wai any»7 : 
(Msb:) or /«c grieved exceedingly: and Ac w<m 
exceedingly angry : (M :) or Ae grieved most 
intensely : (K :) some say that «jLj signifies the 
grieving for a thing that has escaped ; not in an 
absolute sense: (MF:) or it properly signifies 
the rising, or swelling, or mantling, of the blood 
of the heart, from desire of vengeance ; and when 
this is against an inferior, it is anger; but when 
against a superior, it is grief. (Er-ltaghib.) Mo- 
hammad, being asked respecting sudden death, 
answered, saying, ji\&) ^A.,1 SJ^Ij ,>e£JU <U-|J, 
or accord, to one recital, ♦ <Ju<t, i. e. [Rest, or 
ease, to the believer, and an act of punishment] of 
anger [to the unbeliever], or of one who is angry. 
(KL.) You say, *5U U ^z JLl, inf. n. as above; 
(S;) and t^iltf; (S,M,»Kl';») He grieved, or 
lamented, for, or at, or regretted, most intensely, 
what had escaped him : (S, M,*K :) and <*lu iju.1, 
(S, K,) inf. n. as above, (S,) Ac was angry with 
him, or at it : (S, K :) or \J£s . J* rfjj ti_) 
I j^>j > and " ou.13, signify, accord, to some, *mcA 
a one grieved, or lamented, for, or at, *mcA and 
such things which had escaped him : or, accord, 
to others, grieved, or lamented, most intensely. 

9 .1 

(IAmb.) Li — .1 in the 'K.ur xviii. 5 means, accord, 
to Ed-Dahhak, Uj*. [i. e. Zn jrrj'e/, or in most 
violent grief, &c] : or, accord, to ]£atadeh, in 

oU (S, M, Sgh, kc.) and oCl (IAth,K) X 
certain idol, (S, M, K,) belonging to Kmeysh, (S, 
M,) as was also iA5li ; (S ;) the former of which 
was placed, by 'Amr Ihn-Lokei, ujmn Es-SafA, 
and the latter upon El-Miirweh ; and he used to 
sacrifice to them, in front of the A'anbrh : (S, K:) 
or, (S, M, K,) as some assert, (S,) these two were 
two persons of J ur hum, (S,K,) a man and a 
woman, (M,) «JL-I the son of 'Amr, anil iCli 
the daughter of Sahl, (S, K,) who committed 
fornication in the Kaqheh, and were therefore 
changed into two stones, (S, M,K,) which Kureysh 
afterwards worshipped. (S, Ki.) [Other accounts 
of them are also given, slightly differing from the 
latter above.] 

Oj_it : sec 

I, in two places : and sec JLl. 

-I Grieving, lamenting, or regretting, (K,* 
TA,) most intensely, on account of a thing that 
has escaped : (M, TA :) and quickly nffirted with 
tP^fi (?»Mgh, K,) and tender-hearted; sis also 
* <-»>-! : (S, K :) or, as also * oyll (M) and 
t &<& and t JL7 (M, TA) and * JLl, (M,) 
grieving exceedingly : (M :) or grieved': (TA :) 
and sometimes the first signifies angry, and at the 
same time grieving, or lamenting : (S :) pi. l\0^\. 
(M.) See also JLf. — A slave : (ISk.S, M, £:) 
and a hired man: (ISk, M, K :) because of their 
state of abasement and subjection : fem. with » : 

(M:) and pi. as above. (S, M.) A captive. 

(TA.) — A very old man : (K. :) pi. as above : 
so in a trad., in which the slaying of such is for- 
bidden. (TA.) — One who scarcely, or never, 
becomes fat. (KL.)_»tA region, or country, 
that does not give growth to anything, or produce 
any vegetation; as also <tt**l and t iiCl and 
" S»UI : (M :) and * asUI also signifies f thin, 
or shallow, earth : (AHn, M :) and U+A ,J!l, 
I thin, or shallow, earth, which scarcely, or never, 
gives growth to anything, or produces any vegeta- 
tion : (S :) or which is not commended for its 
vegetation: (A, TA:) or, as also tSiUI and 

anger. (TA.) And jLy. ^ &f £, in the t aiUI, f thin, or shallow, earth i or such as doe* 

Book I.] 

• - » «»* 

not produce vegetation : and " ii-l ^j 1 + * an< * 

rr/i ir A scarcely, or n«tw, produce* vegetation. (K.) 

i>L/l [Grief, lamentation, or regret: and an*7er: 
(see 1 :) or] excessive grief: and excessive anger : 
(M :) or mort tnfwwe </rt**/" ; ( K a Bubst - from 
JUL. (M,K.) — The state, or condition, of a 
skive: (M,K:) and, of a hired man. (M.) — 
t The state, or condition, of land which scarcely, 
or never, produces vegetation. (K, TA.) ■= Sec 
kJu-l, in three places. 

sec wwl, in two places. 

uu»l: see 

and <JL<1. 


uIjl* A [Ceruse; or while lead;] ashes of lead 

C - * ^ 3 <# 
(<tli^U \jj^mj>\ all), K, which last word is as 
though it were added to explain that immediately 
preceding, TA) : when subjected to a fierce heat, 
it becomes what is termed »-Jj-<l : [ B0 in the CK : 
more probably *>>»t :] it has clcanng and miti- 
gating properties, (K,) and other useful qualities : 
(TA:) an arabicized word [from the Persian 
-.Ij^Ll isfeduj]. (K.) 

1. l^£ll, aor. ; , inf. n. A-l, He kit, hurt, or 
wounded, Iter (a woman's) ^llC-l. (TA.) And 

CJtJi Site (a woman) was hurt, or wounded, in a 
place not that of circumcision, [i. c, in her 
^UJLd,] by the circumcising woman's missing the 
proper place. (Msb.) [See >!*/.] 


Jul- >-l 

3£syJl» A woman Ait, hurt, or wounded, in 
her (jtX-l : (TA :) a woman (Msb) hurt, or 
wounded, in a place not that of circumcision, by 
the circumcising woman's missing the proper 
place; (S, Msb.K;) [i.e.,] hurt, or wounded, 
by that cause, in Iter ^UJdl. (T, TA.) 



All: sec ,jlijLNI._Al8o The side of the 

_l [i. c., of the podex, or of the anus]. (Sh, 
* # ■ j • * t #s 

TA.) [Hence,] one says of a man, i*l jUI yk l*JI, 

meaning lie is but a stinking fellow. (TA.) 

jC&y (T, S, M, Mgh, Sgh, Msb, K) and 
^Uilf"^!, (M,K,) The two «7fe* [oriotta ro/y'ora] 
o/" f Ae vtdva, or external portion of the female 
organs of generation, (T, S, Mgh, Msb,) i. c., of 
a woman, above [or rather within] tlte oljii; 
(Mgh ; the <J\jl& being the two borders thereof; 
T, Msb ;) i. e. die 0^«*» thereof; (S and M and 
L in art. ji ;) the two sides, on the right and left, 
of the vulva, or external portion of the organs of 
generation, of a woman, between which is the 
Jil : (Zj in his " Khalk el-Ins&n":) or [accord, to 
some, but incorrectly,] the oIf*** [> n ^ Ie CK the 
jt\ii] of the _^- j [here meaning, as in many ( other 
instances, tlie vulva, i. e. «•>*], (M, K,) or of the 

xL- [which also means the vulva, but seldom that 
of a woman]: (El-Kharzenjcc :) or [agreeably 
with general usage, and with the explanations 
given before this last,] its two sides, next to its 
/)tj££ : (M, K :) or, [what is the same,] its 
^13 jj : (K :) pi. All (El-Kharzenjee, K) and 
[quasi-pl. ns.] * All and t All. (M, K.) 


Jl', aor. * , (S, M, K,) inf. n. Al'llf, (S, M, 
IAth,) It was smooth and even : (M :) it (any- 
thing) was lank : (S :) it (a cheek, M, IAth, K) 
was smooth and long : (M :) or long, or oblong, 
and not high in its ball : (IAth :) or long, (K, 
TA,) soft in make, (TA,) and lank. (K, TA.) 
iiCl in the cheek of a horse is approved, and is 
an indication of generous quality : you say, *g£ 
tjL. 4)1*1 A* »j*. illll [The smoothness and 
longness, &c, of his cheek tells of the generous 
origin of his ancestor]. (AO, Z.)^See also 2. 

2. illl Ilemadc it (an iron tiling) thin. (TA.) 
[He made it (anything) sharp, or pointed. (Sec 
the pass. part, n., below.)] __pa«Jt J->l, inf. n. 
Je-U, The rain moistened to the measure of the 

aju-l [or thin part] of the arm. (K.) When it 
has moistened to the measure of the a, he [or 
thick part] of the arm, you say of \tjis-, inf. n. 
one says, >l cJLul >A "jj"* c~jl£» *-*~=> 

[How was your rain ? Did it moisten to 
the measure of the thin part of the arm, or did it 
moisten to the measure of the thick part thereof?]. 

(TA.) And ijjLu jlf, (TA,) or » jl/l, (M, [so 
in a copy of that work, but probably a mistran- 
scription,]) The moisture reached to the measure 

ofthe!jJ\. (M,TA.) 

5. »\/\ jib, (M, K,) as also Lib, (M, TA,) 
He resembled his father, (M, IK, TA,) and as- 
sumed his natural dispositions; and so aI^aj. 
(TA.) [See JllT, below.] 

jwl [Rush, or rushes: so called in the present 
day :] a hind of trees : (S :) or [rather] a kind 
of plant, (M, Mgh, TA,) having sltoots (M, Mgh) 
which are slender, (Mgh,) without leaves; (M, 
Mgh ;) or of which the shoot is slender, and of 
which sieves are made ; as is said in the A ; and 
Sgh adds, [growing] in El- Irak : (TA :) AHn 
snys, (TA,) accord, to Aboo-Ziyad, it is of the 

f #1 

kind called &JM, ami comes forth in slender 
shoots, not having branches growing out from 
them, nor wood, (M,TA,) and sometimes men 
beat them, ami make of them well-ropes and 
other cords, (TA,) and it seldom or never grows 
but in a place wherein is water, or near to water : 
(M, TA :) AHn says [also], it signifies shoots, 
or twigs, growing (M, K) long and slender and 
straight, (M,) without leaves; of which mats are 
made : (M, K :) or aill, (K,) which is the n. un. 
of jl»l applied to the plant mentioned above, 
(M, K,) signifies any shoot, or twig, in which 
is no crookedness. (K.) — Hence, (M,) J Spears ; 
(S, M . K ;) as being likened to the plant men- 
tioned above, in respect of its evenness and length 
and straightness and the slenderness of its ex- 
tremities : n. un . as above : (M :) and t arrows, 


or Arabian arrows ; syn. J~i ; (M, K :) applied 
to both of these in a trad, of 'Omar, which refutes 
an assertion that it is peculiarly applied to spears, 
or long spears, and not to Jw : (A 'Obcyd, TA :) 
Sh says that it is applied to spears because of the 
points of the heads fixed upon them. (TA.) — 
t Any thin thing of iron, such as a spear-head, and 
a sword, and a knife. (TA.) — J The prickles of 
palm-trees: (M,K:) n. un. as above: (M :) 
by way of comparison [to the plant mentioned 
above] : (TA :) or any long thorns, or prickles, 
of a tree. (?.)_ [See also what next follows.] 

aill'l n. un. of jll, q. v. (M,K.) — Hence, 
by way of comparison, tho significations here 
following from the K. (TA.) — I Anything in 
which is no crooltedness. (M.) — J The thin 
part of a blade of iron, such as that of an arrow 
&c. : (M, K :) and of the fore arm ; (S, M, K ;) 
i. c. the half thereof next tlte hand; the half 

* sf * _ _ 

next the elbow being called the 1, h e. (K in 

art. ^^i*.) t The thin part, (S,) or extremity, 

or tip, (M,K,) of the tongue; (S,M,K;) the 

thick part thereof being called the iji*. (K in 

1 . * tf • # ft s_t »f 

art. jjo*.) One says, ±y> \jo*\ jmry-^^ «-tt-l 

^lyJlll iLl J [The tips of their tongues are sharper 
titan titt ''heads of their spears]. (A, TA.) — 
t The nervus, (K,) or the extremity thereof, (M,) 

of a camel. (M, K.) t The head, [or what we 

term the toe, or foremost extremity, also called 
JEl and ajlii,] of a sandal ; (M, K;) which is 
tapering. (M.) 

<ULlt an epithet applied to die letters j and tr . 
and sjo because Pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue. (TA.) 

J--i Smooth and even : (M, K :) anything 
lank; (S, A ;) syn. Ill, (A,) [i.e.] J-jili: 
(S, A :) applied to a cheek, ( AZ, K, TA,) [smooth 
and long : or long, or oblong, and not high in 
its ball : (see 1 :) or] soft, tender, thin, and even : 
(AZ :) or long, (K, TA,) soft in make, (TA,) 
and lank. (K, TA.) You say j-L)l J*-l JVJ 
A man having the cheek soft and long : (S :) and 
in like manner, ^ji a horse. (TA.) And w*£> 
«jUo"i)l iXtf-l A hand small and slender, and 
lank, or long, in the fingers. (TA.) 

Jill a pi. having no sing. : (K :) mentioned 
by ISk as a word of which he had not heard any 
sing. (S.) You say, a^I o* JllT ^ yl [in 
the CK, erroneously, JL.1,] He is of a semblance 
and of cltaracteristics and natural dispositions 
which are those of his father ; (S, ^ ;) like 

C\. (S.) 


jl^l Anything sharpened, or pointed. (M, 
K.) You say iilji oil An ear [of a horse 
or die like] slender, pointed, and erect. (M.) 

1. aIIi a dial. var. of <w--> q- ▼• (TA.) 
jr ,\ : see art. yo—. 

illll, determinate, (S, M, K,) and imperfecUy 
decl., (M,Msb,) as a proper name, (Msb.K,) 


The lion; 

(§, M, Msb, $ ;) as also iiC^I. 


L c^l «>r. -' (?, M, Mgh, Msb, $) and ; , 
(8,M,£,) inf. n. oy** (9,M,M ? b) and &L\; 
(M ;) and ,>,!, aor. - , (§, M, &c.,) inf. n. ,>,* ; 
(8, M, Msb ;) said of water, t. q. ^1 and ,j».\ ; 
(8> £ ['• ••] It became altered for the worse 
(M, Mgh, Msb) in odour, (M,) [or in taste and 
colour, from some suck cause as long standing, 
(see t>*.l,)] but mas drinkable; (M;) or so as not 
to be drunk, (Msb, TA,) thus differing from ^L\ 
andj^l. (TA.) [See also J^f.] 

• « 

^y-> I : see what follows. 

C^T (S, Mgh, Msb, £) and t^J, (S, Mgh, 
Msb,) applied to water, (S, Mgh, &c.,) i. o. J,».T 
[and ^1] ; (8, $ ;) [i. e.] Altered for the morse 
(Mgh, Msb) in ot/owr, (Mgh,) [or in taste and 
colour, from some such cause as long standing, 
but drinkable; (see above, and see O^T;)] or 
so as not to be drunk, (Msb, TA,) thus differing 
from o*\ and ^f : (TA :) pi. [of die formerl 
OW [like U8jl»il is pi. of ^*U», or perhaps it 
may have for ite sing. &L\, like &*■*]. (M, TA.) 
^>-l j*t. ;U ,>*, in tlie $ur [xlvii. 10], is ex- 
plained by Fr as meaning Of mater not altered 
for the morse ; not v >*.f. (TA.) 

J- ^tJI W, («"■• >-W; S,) inf. n. ya\ and 
U*l, [but in the 8, the latter seems to be men- 
tioned as a simple subst.,] He dressed the mound; 
treated it curatively, or surgically. (S, M. K.) 
— [Hence,] A*lfe ^J,, •) ^\ \j A + [7v tf , f, 
an affair ofmhich the evil (lit. the mound) mill 
not be remedied]. (S.)_ [Hence alao,]^^ C\, 
(first per*. c£.», 8, Msb, inf.n. |1|, 8, M,) J ZTf 
wmm/« ;>ear«, effected a reconciliation, or adjusted 
a deference, betmeen them ; (8, M, Msb, $ ;) 
as also^rf tJL\. (El-Muarrij, TA.)™^! 

**• tr^> inf - n - & or xjfl, He grieved, or 
mowW, (9,M,Msb,^,) 4u [/or Aim, or t<], 
(M» ?») «nd ^w j^U [/or an affliction], and 
i^W [/or «i'rA a one]. (8.) [This belongs to 
the present art, and to art. ^\ ; but is distin- 
guished in the M and # by being mentioned only 
in the latter art. ; though the inf. n. is mentioned 
in the $ in both arts.] Hence the saying, jUNI 
l-^l £*.* [ Medicine dispels grief, or mourning]. 

\ Jrti t^l • **> 1. wsm '»U, (8, M, ?,) inf. n. 

%. t. 

*tf °i (?, £,) f. ff. •!>» [ITe exhorted him, or *n- 
>t'n«f Attn, to be patient; to take patience ; or to 
take example by, or console kimself by the example 
of, him mho had suffered the like affliction] ; (8, 
M, $, TA ;) saying to him, Wherefore dost thou 
grieve^, or mourn, mhensuck a one is thine example 
(<**V1)* >•«• fikat has befallen thee befell him, 

and he mas patient ; therefore take thou example 
by him and so be consoled (<y ,1»U). (TA.) You 

^y* **"?•* • L *' >• e - ♦!>* [He exhorted him, or 
enjoined him, to be patient, &c, by mentioning 
an affliction that had befallen another; unless 
« *! t<** t be a mistranscription for 3. ; .^ 4 i on 

account of an affliction] ; as also t i(Ji, witli 
medd. (TA.) 

3. JW i^T, (8, Mgh,) inf. n. 5U>i, (S, 
M, £,) / wmrfe Aim wy object of imitation 
(tj3>-J), [meaning J made myself like him,] in 
respect of my property : (8 :) or J made him an 
object of imitation [mitk, or in respect of, my 
property], I imitating his example, and he imi- 
tating my example : (Mgh :) and ii£jj is a dial. 
var.,^but of weak authority: (S, Mgh :) and 
^Ul [alone] he made me an object of imitation 
to him by giving me of his property [and thus 
reducing himself to my condition in some degree 
while in the same degree raising me to his] ; (Ham 
p. 090 ;) and «e~ty [thus without a second .] / 
make him the object of my omn imitation and so 
share mith him my property : (Id p. 198 :) or 
*JUrf »l-»l signifies he gave him of his property, 
and made him an object of imitation in respect of 
it : or only, of food sufficient for his mant ; not 
of what is superabundant: (M,8L:) whence the 

"ay'ng. v>? ^V) ^ O* ^f &.J &T^».J 

w>U^ [May Ood have mercy on a man mho has 

given of superabundance, ami imparted of food 

only sufficient for his mant so as to make himself 

equal mitk him to mhom he imparts of such food] : 

(TA:) [and »L»I signifies he shared mith him: 

and he mas, or became, equal with him: for] 

t* # j 

aUlj^JI occurs often in trads., signifying the 

sharing mith another, or making another to share 
with one, in tlie means of subsistence [.jr.] ; and 
is originally [SUI^JI,] with . : also, the being, or 
becoming, equal with another : (TA :) and you 
Bay, ^ ..kii a^_I, meaning J made him equal mith 
m y*elf; >n the dial, of El-Yomcn *^<t> (Msb.) 
■i^fe-3 j_5* y-Ull i ^ ^t, in a letter of 'Omar, 
means Make thou the people to share [alike], one 
mith another, in thy consideration and regard : 
or, as some say, make thou tltcm equal [in respect 
thereof]. (Mgh.) The saying 0$ J,^i ^ij^ U 
is explained in three different ways : accord, to 
El-Mufaddal Ibn-Mohammad, it means Such a 
one does not malte such a one. to share mith him : 
accord, to El-Muarraj, does not good to such a 
one ; from the saying of the Arabs, je*»v U^ yj>\ 
Ho thou good to such a one : or, as some say, 
does not give such a one any compensation for his 
love, or affection, nor for his relationship ; from 
' •*,. *•* . a . i 

(^"^l, meaning ^eyi\ ; being originally <u>)1& , 

tt «j -j - 

then *y->\y_ , and then 4e»t£j : or it may be from 

*>^JI >Z>y*\. (IDrd, TA.) [See also an ex. voce 
4. «L*t : see 2. 

[Book I. 

manner and had been patient]. (S, M, 1£.) You 
^y. y (^y-13, i- e. y j^nJ [He took patience, or 
constrained himself to be patient, by reflecting 
upon him, or it ; or he took example by him, or 
became consoled by his example, meaning the 
example of a person who had suffered in like 
manner and liad been patient]. (S.) [See 2.] 

6. t^-tt signifies Uoo j^im t ^A [They imi- 
tated one another with their property, one giving 
of his projtcrty to another, so tliat they thus 
equalised themselves; they imitated one another 
and so shared together their property ; they 
shared, one with another, in the means of subsist- 
ence, ,fr. ; they mere, or became, equal, one mith 
another : sec 3]. (S, K.) A ]>oet says, 

* I^JlijI >l^fl) lyli £& • 

(S,) in which l^-U is from i\L\£i\; not from 
^ywUJI, as it is stated to be by Mbr, who says 
that l^wtf means t>wty ami lj>*3. (IB, TA.) 
[This verse is cited and translated in art. .Jl, voce 

J\, q. v.] 

8. <o ^j-iil [written with the disjunctive alif 
^-il] He imitated him; followed his example; 
did as he did, following his example, or taking 
him as an example, an exemplar, a patient, or 
an object of imitation ; he took example by him ; 
(S, Mgh, Msb, TA ;) as also * * Jib: (Msb, 
TA :) he made him an object of imitation (Sj_.l ) 

[to himself]. (M,K.) One My*, ,>* ^13 ^ 

5)-<L> Ai j_^J Do not thou imitate him who is not 

* t' 

for thee a [ft] object of imitation. (S, M.*) 

Q. Q. 1. <o <t Z. ty .,A [I made him to imitate him, 

to follow his example, or to take example by him;] 

I made, him an example, an exemplar, a pattern, 

or an object of imitation, to him : (M, ly :) from 

I Aar : and if from »)~<NI, as he assert* it be, the 

» i »' •- ... ' *»•- 
measure of this verb is C~JLw, liko «^wji and 

C .. ; .;. X t». ■ (M.) 



U»l or ^^1 Curative, or surgical, treatment. 
(S.) [Sec the verb LA.] = Grief, or mourning. 
(S,K.) [Sec the verb J-.I.] 

t * **f 

^1 : see O'* - '- 


Also pi. of iyJ\ t like 

(j-l Patience. (S.) 
as ^1 is pi. of 5^,1. (S,»£,»TA.) 

see what next follows. 

lyl>l and t j^lt (8, M, Mgh, Msb, K) and 

* »y~A, mentioned by Er-Raghib in one of his 
works, (MF,) An example; an exemplar; a 
pattern ; an object of imitation ; a person by 
mhom one takes example ; syn. ijjS or Sj jS ; (8, 
M, Msb, K ;) each a subst. from aj < j-Z>\ ; (Mgh ;) 
i. e. <v iy-J^> U : (TA :) explained by Er-Raghib 
as meaning the condition in mhic.h is a man in 
respect of another's imitating [him], whether 
good or bad, pleasing or hurtful: (TA:) also 
example of, another mho had suffered in like a thing [or person] by which one mho is 

5. ^j-U : see 8 1, q. lk J)*i [He took pa- 
tience; or constrained himself to be patient; or 
he took example by, or became consoled by the 

Book I.] 

in grief, or mourning, takes example, (S, £,) 
for the being consoled (^^JiiU) thereby: (8:) 
pi. ^1 and ,^1 ; (S, £ ;) the former of the 
first sing., and the latter of the second. (TA.) 
The first of these meanings is intended in the 
saying, 5,1,1 ^"^i ^ ^J and ly\ [I have in 
such a one an example, &c.]. (S.) The saying, 

vlpi '***[ •>j^' v>f ylP' <sy, ^ xs tr °P ical » 

meaning t There is nothing but the dust of the 
earth, or ground, that follows the dust. (Mgh.) 
_ Also an inf. n., [or rather a quasi-inf. n.,] syn. 

with £1^1 [inf. n. of 8]. (TA.) 

O'y 1 Grieving, mourning, or sorrowful; (M, 
K ;) as also J>l^-I and ♦ ^1, (M in art. ^I,) or 
tyJl, (K in art. .-#1, [to which alone the first 
of these three belongs, but the second and third 
may be regarded as belonging either to that art. 

or to the present,]) or t ^|. (Mfb.) [Sec art. 
j_j«»1.] It is [sometimes] followed by ,jlyl [as 
an imitative sequent corroborating its meaning]. 

ft-l and ♦^-»1 A medicine, or remedy; (S, M, 
JC ;) the latter, (S,) or each, (TA,) particularly 
a vulnerary : (S, TA :) pi. [of each, as is indicated 

in the TA,] 1^-T. (M, £.) The former is also 

a pi. of ^J. (S,M,£.) 

y->\ : sec what next precedes. 

^J i. q. *^li ; (S, M, K ;) i. e., Dressed; 
or treated curdtively, or surgically; applied to a 
wound. (S, M .*) = See also o'y -1 - 

ij\li\ Medical, curative, therapeutical, [or sur- 
gical,] treatment. (lbn-Kl-Kclbce,Sgh,K.) By 
rule it should be [SjCl,] with kesr. (Sgh, TA.) 

u*\ A physician; one skilled in medical, cura- 
tive, therapeutical, [or surgical,] treatment [par- 
ticularly of wounds] : pi. iLA and tL»1 ; (S, M, 
K ;) said by IJ to be the only instance of iiii 
and JU» interchangeable except ilt, and ;Uj pis. 
of clj : (M :) and Oy^ occurs [as its pi.] in a 

verse of Hoteiah. (8, TA.) With the people 

of the desert, ($,) [its fern.] i~»t signifies I A 
female circumciser [of girls], (S, £ : [mentioned 
in the latter in art. ^I-]) » See also o'.J-''- 

^1 or of £*f] lJU (M,$) and [of ^t] 

oW->- (?) 

S ; 

i»«il : ) see above. 

a^Jt, mentioned in this art. in the ^ : see ^1 
in art. yJi. 

i ■ ii fi 

1. «& aor. , , (M, K,) inf. n. ^,(Jf, TA,) 
He mired it. (M, £.) ^ And J.^1 c-lil ; (S ;) 
or ♦ J'"/ ', inf. n. ^-«i«0 ;. (TA ;) J winced Me 

*U : see ^^t. 


1. u»>> aor. j^y-W? '"'• n - u"! or «'( -"c 
grieved, or mourned, (S, M, Msb, ?,) <uU [^br 
Ai?» or it]. (M, £.) See art. yA. 

ijj, [agreeably with analogy, as part. n. of 

J-',] (M,) or t^T, (?,) or t ^J, (M f b,) and 

t oC'» ( M »$>) B dial - *■»• of O'S-'j ( TA » [*• 

art. y\,]) Grieving, mourning, or sorrowful: 
(M, M;b, K :) fern, [of the first, or second,] 
XJ\, (M,) or L-t, (K,) and [of oW] &Cl 
(M, £) and .III : (TA :) pi. [of oW-H O^C' 
(M, K) and O^ 1 " 1 [ w ''ich is extr. and somewhat 
doubtful] (K) and [of iil«-l] ooC« and [of 

peogle together. (S,TA.) — Also, aor. as above, 
(S,K,) and'-, (K,) inf. n. as above, (S,) t He 
charged him with a vice, fault, or the like; 
blamed, censured, or reprehended, him : (S, 1£ :) 
or he aspersed, reviled, or reproached, him, and 
mixed up falsehood in his aspersion of him. (TA.) 
You say also, ^ *ii>! [i. e. ^i/ or ^A>] t He 
cast upon him a stigma, or mark of dishonour, by 
which he became hnown : (Lh, TA :) or he cast 
a censure, or reproach, upon him, and involved 
him in it. (TA.) = jllll ^r», aor. : , (A,$,) 
inf. n. ^i'l ; (TA ;) and * ^JLll ; (IjL ;) or olt» 
iixIiJI ; (S ;) Tlie collection of trees, or the thicket, 
was, or became, dense, tangled, confused, inter- 
twined, or complicated: (S, K :) or very dense, or 
much tangled or confused, so as to be impassable. 

( AHn, A.) [Hence,] J£* J&£» ^~» 1 5TA««> 

speech, one with another, became confused, or 
intricate. (TA.) _ And ^ >Lt ^1 ^i7 
c/ai-c to the ignoble. (A.) 

2. iJ,i, inf. n. ^-eitl, 2?« rendered it (a 
collection of trees) dense, tangled, confused, inter- 
twined, or complicated. (K.) —j>^&\ C*>-l : 
see 1. —j^-tt >*^J' «,*-• t He made their 
speech, one with another, confused, or intricate. 
(TA.) —.J^t ^1)1 ^-il t He occasioned con- 
fusion, discord, or mischief, between them. (Lth.) 

And hence, (TA,) w~i-li signifies also The e«- 
Cf<»»(7 discord\ dissension, disorder, strife, quar- 
relling, or animosity, (S,K,TA,)>p ^^ between, 
or among, a people. (S, TA.) 

5. *,*£b : see 1 tj**U t 7%f^ were, or 

became, mixed, or confounded together; as also 
♦ tj/'*'l [written with the disjunctive alift^JJt]. 
(S, ^L.) — \Thcy assembled, or congregated, them- 
selves (A,^) /rom different parts; (TA ;) as 
also * l^-ilSl. (£.) And y 1I^J.U 1 27«ey dw 
themselves together to him, (JC, TA,) and crowded 
densely upon him ; or collected themselves together 
to him, and surrounded him. (TA.) 

8 : see 5, in two places. 

^1\ inf. n. of 4~i>*. (TA.) [Hence,] Co»- 

fusedneu; dubiousness: so in the saying, c^-i> 

^«l$> &* %i* V; »•«• w-V^T^i- (S.) 
See art. ^j^.^Also An abundance of trees. 
(TA.) In a trad, of Ibn-Umm-Mektoom, ^1 

Iff + +* 4*1 *#B*m ♦* • # # J> . 

jll«JI ^J ^ ^Oliy* ^,-il Jtgy ^ XJ"* J*-J 
^JUIj means Verily I am a blind man, [and] 


between me and thee are palm-trees confusedly 
disposed; therefore grant thou me indulgence 
with respect to [coming to thee to perform the 
prayers of] the nightfall and the daybreak. (£>* 
MF, TA.) 

4--I Dense, tangled, confused, intertwined, 
or complicated ; applied to a collection of trees : 
(S, TA :) or so dense, or so much tangled or con- 
fused, as to be impassable; applied to a thicket: 
(A:) and a place abounding with trees: (TA:) 
applied also to X a collection of clouds, meaning 
commingled: (A:) and to +a number, meaning 
intricate, or confused. (S, TA.) It is said in a 

prov., Uif o^» 0\i &* ■&•»• » ( A ») meaning 
J [Thy stock is an appertenance of tkine] although 
it be thorny and intricate or confused. (TA. 
[See art. ,>»-*.]) 

if\L\ I A medley, or mixed or promiscuous 
multitude or assemblage, of men, or people ; (S, 
A, L, s%ii congregated from every quarter: (L:) 
fL^&il (?,£.•) Yonsay^UI.'S&MZ'/.e** 
are a collection [of people] from different places. 
(TA.) — Also J Mixtures of unlawful and law- 
ful kinds of property : (A :) or what is mixed 
with that which has been unlawfully acquired; 
(K., TA;) that in which is no good; (TA;) of 
gains : pi. as above. ($., TA.) 

w -'r II L>^» t Not pure in his grounds of 
pretension to respect. (ISd, TA.) [See also what 

-« i • c 

r % i and yHJM I [A mixed collection 

of people]. (A.)—C~^f»0#» (S.S.*) with 
fet-h [to the ,J,], ($,) in one copy of the K, 
4-iji, (TA,) t Such a one is of mixed, not of 
pure, race, or lineage. (S, £.) 


1. ^1, (S, Msb, £,) aor. , , (ISk, MS,) or -' , 
(Msb,) inf.n. *jL\, (Msb,) He divided [or sawed] 
a piece of wood (ISk, Mfb, £) with the jlii* ; 
(S, Mfb, ^ ;) as also >3>j and ^J. (Msh, TA.) 

£ull oji(, aor. , , [or, accord, to the Mfb, 

it seems to be * ,] inf. n. ji> I ; (£ ;) and * V>i>t, 
(^,) inf. n. ^AU ; (S ;) SA« (a woman, TA) 
made her teeth serrated, (8, £,) onrf sltarpened 
their extremities, (8,) to render them like those 
of a young person : but a curse is denounced in a 
trad, against her who does this. (TA.) [See also 
art. ji>] -m'jiA, aor. < , (8, Mfb, £,) inf. n. pi, 
(8, A, Mfb,) He exulted, or exulted greatly, or 
excessively; and behaved insolently and unt hank- 
fully, or ungratefully : (§,* A,» Mfb, £,• TA :) 
or he exulted by reason of wealth, and behaved 
with pride, and selfconceitedness, and boastful- 
ness, and want of thankfulness : or he behaved 
with the utmost exultation, &c. : or he rejoiced, 
and rested his mind upon things agreeable with 
natural desire. (TA.) [See^Vj.] 

2 : see 1. 

[8. oJiiST, written with the disjunctive alif 
il\, She invited another to make her teeth 


J 8 

: BCe jii\. 


serrated and to sharpen their extremities ; as also 
♦ opt-l. See the act. part. ns. below : and sec 
also dj£tyLt\.] 

10 : sec 8. 

■M: ) 

jif (8, A, Msb, 5) and t jil and tpi and 

♦jit (£) and t ^tpf (§, £) Exulting, or exufc- 
tn<7 greatly, or excessively; and behaving insolently 
and unthankful!;/, or ungratefully: (§,• A,» Msb, 
¥»* TA :) or exulting by reason of wealth, and 
behaving with pride, and self-conceitedncss, and 
hoaslf ulness, and want of thankfulness : or 
behaving with the utmost exultation, &c. : or 
rejoicing, and resting the mind upon things agree- 
able with natural desire: (TA :) pi. [of the first] 
0)j^* and [of the second] Oapi (L.K) and [of 

the first four] ji,\ (]£. [accord, to the TA, but not 
in the copies of tho # in my hands,]) and (of 

&U| TA ) L£# (?) and \J$ (9, S) and 
Jbj&l (£.) One says, 1*1 til, and * Aljll 
ulr»'i using die latter word in each instance as 
an imitative sequent. (TA.) _ ji,\ j£j J Xf^At- 
ning fashing repeatedly to and fro. (A.) _ 
jit\ sZ~J I A plant, or herbage, extending beyond 
its proper bounds. (A.) 


ji>\ : see next follows. 

]L\ -JU-C and t j^l and t'^ii, (§,$,) which 
last is a pi., (£,) In his teeth is a serration, (S, 
£,) and a slutrpneu of the extremities [such 
as is seen in the teeth of young persons] ; (S ;) 
which is sometimes natural and sometimes arti- 
ficial ; (£ ;) and [naturally] only in the teeth of 
young persons. (TA.) Hence the prov., : ^> 

^>j.V JJii jib. (S.) [See art. ja .] j£| 

J— ijl J 5PA* te«*A o/"*A« reaping-hook, or *«cAZe. 


*' ' ' i * •* 

•j--1, and its dual : see ji,\. 

Iipt a*ut ^ twry exulting wish : occurring in 
the Mo'allakah of El-Harith Ibn-Hillizeh. (EM 
p. 272.) 

j f*i • ( 

u'v-l : soe jJS.1, in two places. 

^Al— j«,l 

• fc «- t. 

jt~»U, or ijettt, as in different Lexicons, (TA,) 

[the former in the 5,] The thing with which the 
locust bites: pi. jt&O. (K.)__See also the pi. 
voce w|. 

>££• Anything (TA) made thin [and serrated]. 
($.) [Hence,] jl£» Ju A front tooth serrated 
and sharpened at. the extremity. (TA.) And 
hence, (TA,) ^juaaJI j££« ' 9 applied to the 
beetle [as meaning Having the fore shanks formed 
thin, and serrated]. (S, TA.) 

• it 

jUi« (S, Msb, ]£, &c-) [-4. <a/»;] a» instru- 
ment with which wood is divided; (Msb, ]£ ;) as 
also jlie, from ^ij ; (Msb, TA ;) and 'jl&L : 
(TA :) p'l. j^U. (ISk, Msb, TA.) __ See also 
this word and its dual voce j£A. 

* >t, , t 
j>-U Wood divided [or sawn] with die jlil*. 

(Msb.) See also j£A »,yi,U A woman who 

has the extremities of her teeth sharpened [and 
serrated artificially : see 1]. (Msb.) 

j e» - * «> applied alike to the male and the female, 
(S,) to a she-camel and a courser, (S, K,) and a 
man and a woman, (TA,) Brisk ; lively; sprightly. 


»r~j-» and " 5^iU-«o A woman who invites 
[another] to maJte her teeth serrated [and to 
sharpen their extremities : see 1]. (£.) 

S^iU _« : see what next precedes. 

[Book I. 

iiil [applied in the present day to Moss : and 

particularly, tree-moss: in Persian <u£l: but] 
Lth says, (TA,) it is a thing that winds itself 
upon the trees called J»jl^ and ji£o [oak and 
pine] as though it were pared off from a root 
"?*? *-f J*~** *«•) ; and it is sweet in odour, 
and white: (K, TA :) Az says, I do not think it 
to be [genuine] Arabic. (TA.) 

• -•' • .{ 

O^l and o^J. (Msb, $.,) but the former is 

of higher authority than the latter, (TA,) t. q. 

w^r*" [Kali, or glasswort] : (Msb in the present 

art. ; and S, A, Mgh, Msb, K, in art. ^ej*. :) 

[and also potash, which is thence prepared;] a 

thing, or substance, well known, (K, TA,) with 

which clothes and the hands are washed; (TA- 

[see ^ ;]) good, or profitable, [as a remedy] for 

the mange, or scab, and the itch ; clearing to the 

complexion, cleansing, emmenagogue, and abortive. 


•''•' •■» « i 

aiUil A vessel for ^ojm. [or for ^Uil as 

meaning ^o<a«A] ; syn. Lc'^L^. (A in art. sjoj*..) 
J>\ii\ A seller of ^Uif. (TA.) 


j » • 


• >i .,1 

j>-l: see j^/l. 

• •• 

^Al Dividing [or sawing], or one wAo divides 

[or sow*], wood, with the jlii*. (Msb.) 

[Hence,] The prickles [or serrated parts] of the 
shanks of the locust ; ($;) as also * jeAO. (TA.) 
— Also, and * jpi and * jlii», ^L jowi (Sjift) 
at (A« extremity of the tail of the locust, like two 
claws; (^;) which two things are also called 

* JOjti and * o»>% (TA.) — S>7 A woman 
who sharpens the extremities of her teeth [and 
makes them serrated : see 1]. (Msb.)ss= J^if Jj 
^ln arm, or a hand, sawn off; i. q. ♦ S^iu : 
(ISk, S, Mfb, ^ :•) like i^ilj ai^ in the sense 
ofie^.. (S.) 

j^jAAI, of the measure ^JU*, [and therefore 
fem., and imperfectly dccl.,] (S, Msb,) accord, to 
some ; but accord, to others, of the measure . Uil , 
like Jc-el, as Kh is related to have said, (Msb,) 
which latter is said by IB to be the correct mea- 
sure, the [incipient] 1 being augmentative, and 
the word [masc.,] with tenween, [i. e. jJLil ,] 
perfectly decl. : (TA :) The instrument belonging 
to the hJtC>l [or sewer of skins, or leather] ; (§,• 
Msb, TA;) i. o., with which he sews; and the 
instrument with which he bores, or perforates: 
(TA :) the instrument for boring, or perforating, 
(r> in art ^5*-,) belonging to the ii£oC\ ; said 
by ISk to be that which is used for water-skins, 
or milk-skins, and leather water-bags, and tlie 
like ; that used for sandals, or shoes, being called 
w «rfi ». • : (S and TA in art. { ^ J ki, :) and the 
[instrument called] a £„ with which shin, or 
leather, is sewed : (£ in art. ^jii :) t. q. j>L» : 
(Mgh in art. ^ :) pi. olll. (S, Mgh, Msb, 
¥ : [in the Ci£, erroneously, ^U.]) In the ¥., 
in the present art., ot£w^l is put, by a mistake 
of die copyists, for ol£l4). (TA.) Sec also art. 

!• Cj>- «i «&! «'• q. iLij, q. v. (TA.) 



5. ,>iU He washed his hands with jLil [q. v. 
infra]. (Msb,£.) 

2. «o-e1, inf. n. j^U, is from I Jl^I : ($, ^ : ) 

[app. meaning He made it an »j^*l : or Ac n-orc 

it as an ij~o\: and hence juo£* or «JJeL« as 

explained below : or] Ac clad him with an Jju^t. 

4. j-»l [in some copies of the K Juil, which 
is a mistake, (sec the jwiss. jiart. n. JLijJ, below,)] 
He closed ( JXtl, S, A, K, anil so in the M in art. 

•»-»J> or jy»'» as in the M in the present art.) a 
door, or an entrance ; as also juojl ; (S, M, A, 
K ;) of which it is a dial. var. (S.) And He 
covered, or covered over, a cooking-pot. (M.) 

\j^>\ (S, M, K, and Ham p. 223) and * sj^i 
(M, £) and ♦ X>£, (S,» M,) or t \£^ t ^ 
A garment of the kind called jljue worn by a 
young girl: when a girl attains to the age of 
puberty, she is clad with a ejj : (M :) or a 

small shirt for a little girl : or worn beneath tke 

*i .— . , ' • I . 

"r>y i (£■ : ) or the ij-o\ is a garment without 
sleeves, worn by a bride and by a little girl : 
(M :) or a small shirt or shift, worn beneath 
the ^y ; and also worn by little girls : (S :) or 
a garment of which the sewing is not complete : 
or t. q. ijcH : or t. q. 5,jjj. (Hum ubi supru.) 
Kudiciyir says, 
• * i I' - it ' *' i' *•* *f 

. * * *• - 

**>*0 PJ^I wr-rVi Oi «, 


[They clad her with a ep when she wore a jJL>jJ, 
»uitA an opening cut out at tke neck and bosom, 
when her equal in age had not yet worn the t,)l 
(S, M.) C J ' 

• t 

J*-o\ A court; or an open or a wide space 

in front of a house, or extending from its sides; 
(S, M, K ;) a dial. var. of J^, (§,) which is 
the more common form : (M :) or the extreme 

Book I.] 

and exterior part of a house: (Mirkat cl-Loghah, 
and Meyd, as rendered by Golius :) or an inter- 
mediate place between Ute threshold or door and 
the house ; a place which loohs neither upon the 
public nor upon the interior parts, whether it be 
an area or a vestibule. (Ibn-Maaroof, as rendered 
by Golius.) 

ij^ r o\ : sec »JmdI. = A [hind of enclosure for 
the protection of camels, sheep, or yoais, such as 
is called] S^Ja*. : (M, K :) or like a 5j : h i * -, (S, 
and Ham p. 223,) [but made] of rochs, or great 
masses of stone : (Hum :) a dial. var. of ijfoj 
[q.v.]: (S:) pL Jlij. (Ham.) 

j~oy> Closed ; closed over, or covered : occur- 
ring in the Kur [xc. 20 and] civ. 8; (L;) in 
which AA reads ij~cy» [with hemz ; others 

reading this word without hemz]. (S, L.) You 

i » • j • * 
say j—oy> w)b [A closed door]. (A.) And 

ij~oy> jj3 A covered cooking-pot. (A.) And 

• # i j *9#* o -- -» ' 

juey* <U* yuJt w>tv t [The door of forgiveness 
is closed from him ; i. c., against him]. (A.) 

» a- * t» a • j »»•!, 

jw»3-», or ij~oy> : bcc Sj-ol, in three places. 

1. »^el, aor. ; , inf. n. j^>\, He, or it, (a thing, 
Ks,) confined, restricted, limited, hept close, kept 
within certain bounds or limits, shut up, im- 
prisoned, held in custody, detained, retained, re- 
strained, withheld, debarred, hindered, impeded, 

or prevented, him, or it : (Ks, S, M, A,* K :) it 

* i a > 9 * f 
straitened him. (TA.) You say, J»-jJI Oj-ot 

***>>l «&Ui [JLft / confined, or restricted, the man 
to t/«a/ thing, or affair. (Ks.) And v ^* aj^oI 
.O..U-, and »iljl Lox-, J withheld, restrained, or 
ilcharrcd, him from the thing that he wanted, 
and from, the thing that he desired. (IAar.)__ 

C<t«ll _j-ol, aor. and inf. n. as above, 7/e made, 
or ;>ut, <o //<« t<?«< an jlil. (K,* TK.) ss Also, 
aor. and inf. n. ns above, He brohe it. (El- 
Utnaweo, S, M,K.')_ He inclined, or bent, it. 
(M, K,» TA.) _1 /t fV/tne</ Am, (As,S, K,) 
,j"}U jJLc to mrA a one. (Ag, S.) See an ex. 
voce a^-ol. 

[3. ej-ol, inf. n. 5j^\y», He was his neighbour, 
baring the jUol o/ ///> tc;/t % the side of the jl^l 
»;/" the tent of the other. See the act. part. n. 

[6. Ijj-oU Z7w»/ were neighbours ; they dwelt, 
or abode, near together. See die act. part. n. 

see j^>\ ; each in three places. 

j*>\ A covenant, cempact, or contract ; (S, K ;) 
as also »j-ol und'^^ol: (K.:) [sec also j-o) :] any 
bond arising from relationship, or from a covenant 
or compact or contract, (Aboo-Is-hnk,) and^/row 
an oath: (ISh:) a covenant, compact, or contract, 
which one docs not fulfil, and for the neglecting 
and breaking of which one is punished : so in the 
Kur ii. 280: (I 'Ab :) [sec also what follows, 
in two places :] or a heavy, or burdensome, cove- 

nant, compact, or contract : so in the Kur iii. 
75 : (ISh, M :) so, too, in the same vii. 156 : 
(T, M :) pi. Jut, a pi. of pauc. : (M :) or a 
heavy, or burdensome, command; such as was 
given to the Children of Israel to slay one another: 
so in the Kur ii. 280, accord, to Zj. (TA.) — A 

# * *\ 

weight, or burden ; (S, M, K ;) as also »^-el 

and t^«ot : (K :) so called because it restrains 
one from motion : (TA :) pi. as above. (M.)__ 
A sin ; a crime ; an offence ; (S, M, K ;) as 
also *^ot and * j-ol : (K :) so called because of 
its weight, or burdensomeness : (TA :) or the 
sin of breaking a compact, or covenant : (Fr, 
Sh :) or o grievous punishment of a sin : so 
accord, to AM in the Kur ji. 280. (TA.) — A 
thing that inclines one to a thing. (M, K.) 
[See also »j-ol. It is said in the Ham (p. 321) 
that 7-el.jl is pi. of the former word : but it is 
evidently pi. of the latter.] __yl swearing by an 
oath which obliges one to divorce or emancipate or 
to pay a vow. (K, T A.) So in a trad., in which it 
is said, \i »jU£» ^j yo\ ly-i ^>-*j ^jX* iJw*. ^» 
[Whoso sweareth an oath in which is an obliga- 
tion to divorce or emancipate or to pay a vow, for 
it tliere is no expiation] : for such is the heaviest 
of oaths, and that from which the way of escape, 
or evasion, is most strait : the original meaning 

of i^l being a burden, and a binding. (TA.) = 

• *« • * • 

The ear-hole: pi. jU>l (IAar, K) and Olr }- 


jlil and *j-ol>I (S,M,K) and ♦» J U»1 and 1tj^\ 
(M, K) A short rope, (S,) or small rope, (K,) by 
which the lower part of the [hind of tent called] 
«Ua. is tied, or bound, (S, K,) to tke peg : (S :) or 
a short peg, for the [ropes called] *->UI»l, with 
which the lower part of the [kind of tent called] 
Xa. is fastened : (M :) [or] jtol signifies also 
the peg, (K,) or short peg, (TA,) of tke [kind 
of tent-rope called] w~J? : (K :) or a peg of tke 
.Ui. : (Ibn-Es-Secd, TA :) pi. of the first *jU\ 
(S, M) and Sj-ol ; (M ;) and of the second j*o\j\. 
(S.) ISd tliinks tliat * OlJ-pT is the pi. of t ij-ol 

used in tlic first of the senses explained above in 
in the following verse : 

a ' •' > el £ * tt" 

* * ' ' 
* j^M*- Olj-of kJ lo5t' ^ * 

the poet meaning [By thy life, I will not 
ajrproack to hold loving communion, or inter- 
course, with an ignoble, or a low, female;] nor 
teiU I direct my regard to the short ropes which 
bind [to the pegs] the lower part of tke tent of 
my friend, coveting his wife, and the like : or he 
may mean nor will I direct my regard to the 
female relations of my friend, such as his pater- 
nal aunt, and his maternal aunt, and the like. 
(TA.) [See J^eT, below.] __ Also, the first, A 
thing by wkick things are tied firmly, or made 
firm or fast. (TA.)_A thong ofuntanned hide 
which binds together the &\jj»e of a earners 
.saddle : and jUI is a dial. var. thereof. (M.)_ 
Also, (M,K,) and tjjjj, (AZ, As,K,) A [gar- 


ment of the kind called] »L-fe in which dry 


herbage, or fodder, is collected : (M, K :) or o 
A_£> filled with herbage, and tied: (AZ:) or a 
.L-fe in which is dry herbage, or fodder : other- 
wise it is not thus called : (As :) pi. [of the former] 

JJit and ij-»T; (K ;) and of the latter ^*WI. 

(AZ.) — And both words, (the former accord. 

to the S and M and K, and the latter accord. 

to As and the S and M and K,) Dry herbage, 

or fodder : (S, K :) or dry lusrbage, or fodder, 

collected together : (TA :) or dry herbage, or 

fodder, in a [garment of the kind called] X-£a : 

otherwise it is not thus called : (As :) or dry 

herbage, or fodder, contained in a j^t*-*. (M.) 

[The following saying is cited as an ex. of the 

a * » &* * • • » 
first of these significations:] Jt^j y ^m > * 0>^ 

♦ ij-ajl [To such a one belongs a place, or land, 

abounding with dry lierbage,] the dry herbage 

whereof will not be cut ; (S ;) meaning, because 

of its abundance. (TA.) _ Also, the former, A 

basket (J«Jj or J«jj, as in different copies of the 

K) in which goods, or commodities, ( cU«,) art 

carried: so called as being likened to the thing 
in which dry herbage is put. (TA.) 

Sjtol : see jU>t. 

j^\ yja Pasturage that detains those that are 
on it [by reason of its abundance] : (M, TA:) or, 
to which one goes because of its abundance. (TA.) 

ij-o\, and its pi. Olj-ol : see jUol, in three 

places : of which last word, the first is also a pi. 

a - - - 
The thing termed x~-\ and fjj\ [to which a 

beast is tied]. (TA.) A tie of kindred, or 

relationship, (S, M, K,) or affinity, (S,) or a 
favour, or benefit, (S, K,) that inclines one to a 
man ; (S ;) or because it inclines one : (M :) pi. 

'yoSf. (K.) One says, SjJ\ o*& \J* f u^f^ *• 
No tie of relationship, nor any favour, or benefit, 
inclines me to such a one. (S.) And ,_ji« UU— 

*' ' •* ** *.' " *' 1 *' r IT • !• 

s^-oly jJl( j_£^«I ^j* jioij oyo\ j**! [He inclined 
to me without any tie of relationship, Sec, and 
examined my case without eye]. (A.) [See also 

j~ojI : see jUol , in three places. 

j«oU and ^-oU A place in wkick a person or 
tiling is confined, sliut up, or imprisoned: pi. 
^eU ; for which the vulgar say, j-eU«. (S, K.) 
_1 Also, tlie former, (M, A,) or J-oU ; (TA ;) 
either of the measure JjU* from j-o^l, or of the 
measure J-cU from j~o«JI ; A tking intervening 
between two other things and preventing tlie ;«w- 
sage from one to tlie other; abanier: (A:) a 
rope across a road or river, preventing the passage 
of travellers and ship/ or boats, (M, L,) for tke 
taking of tke tithes from them. (L.) 

. # * j 
i«otV* A neighbour: (K :) [or a close, or near, 
i» * * * >• * 

neighbour : as in the saying,] \£jpc\y» \£$*- y* 

He is my neighbour, having the jL«l of his tent 

by the side ofthejJo\ of my tent. (El-Ahmar, S.) 

^_jj-oli« jj*. A tribe dwelling, or abiding, 
near together. (S, K.*) 


J-k-l — J-*t 


JtL»l A stable (?) /or 4>tji [i. e. horses or 
"»«&» or asset] : ($ [i n some copies of which it is 
omitted] and ?:) the I is radical, because an 
augmentative does not occur at the beginning of 
a word of four or five letters unless derived from 
a verb : (8 :) [probably from the barbarous Greek 
<rrafi\iop :] AA says that it is not of the [genuine] 
language of the Arabs: ($ :) IB says that it is a 
foreign word, used by the Arabs : (TA :) accord, 
to some, (TA,) it is of the dial, of Syria: (K, 
TA:) the pi. is ^J»U>I: and the dim. ^-u'^ i 

> > A ' - 

1. Jif, (?,) inf. n. Sulj (TA;) or J*f, 
(M ;) It (a thing, M) Aao", or came to have, root, 
or a foundation ; (M, $ ;) as also t jj^tj : (M :) 
or it was, or became, Jirm, or established, and 
firmly rooted or founded; as also ♦ J^ti ; (K. : ) 
and [in like manner] t J^fcj ft ( a thing) wo*, 
or became, firm in its root or foundation, and 
strong. (M f b.) You say, S^Ji\ 1*jjfc,\ The 
tree [tooh root ; or] grew, and became firm in its 
root. (TA.)_ [Hence,] jUl, (8, M, K,) inf. n. 
as above, (6, M.) He (a man, S,» M) was, or 
fccaww, /rw, (S, M, K,) or «oan</, (8,) of judg- 
ment; (8, M,?;) intelligent. (M : [and so, 
probably, in correct copies of the £ ; but in a 
MS. copy of the ? and in the C? and TA, 
instead of JJU, tho reading in the M, I find 
v^*-]) — Also, (§,• K,) inf. n. as above, (8, 
TA,) It (judgment, or opinion,) was, or became, 
firm, or ton**, (S,» TA,) or good. (K.) _ And, 
inf. n. as above, It (a tiling) was, or became, 
eminent, noble, or honourable. (Msb.)a«iui, 
[nor. ami inf. n. as in what follows next after this 
sentence,] Me hit, or struch, its root, or founda- 
tion; that by being which it was what it was, 
or in being which it consisted; or to ultimate 
constituent. (A, TA.) — And hence, (A,TA,) 
0» SUf, (A,?, TA,) aor. i, inf. n. JL3, 
(TA;) or »iL,T [with medd, (which I think to 
lie a mistake, unless this be a dial, var.,) and 
without UA*] J (so in a copy of the M;) f He 
hnew it completely, or thoroughly, or superlatively 
well, syn. «&,($,) [i. e.] O* iili, «o <Aor A* 
wo* acquainted with its J-il [or roof, or founda- 
tion, or its ultimate constituent, as is indicated in 
the A and TA] : (M:) or this is from 4JUI, as 
meaning "a certain very deadly serpent;" (A, 
TA;) [whence the phrase,] — fcuV^t i2ui,(?,) 
inf. n. Jif, (TA,) The [serpent called] 4U1 
sprang upon him (K, TA) and slew him. (TA.) 
■— J-f*. aor. '- , (M, K,) inf. n . jUt, (M,) said 
of water, i. q. £J» (M,K;) i.e. It became 
altered for the worse (M, TA) in Us taste and 
odour, (TA,) from fetid black mud (K, TA) 
therein : so says Ibn,'Abbad: (TA :) and said of 
flesh-meat, ft became altered (K, TA) in like 

manner. (TA.) ■ I JJ>j IJ£> j±% J,$ jj\ 
Such a one set about, or commenced, doing thus 
and thus, or such and such things. (TA.) 

i «» • is 

2. aLoI, inf. n. J**U, JT« made it to have a 

firm, or fixed, root, or foundation, whereon to 
build, (Mfb, TA,) i. e., whereon another thing 
might be built. (El-Munawee, TA.) [Hence,] 
4)U J*ol ». j. <Uj! [Ife wad« his wealth, or 
property, to have root, or a foundation ; or ft> 
become firm, or established, and firmly rooted or 
founded : see, below, JU Jil, and J-il 4 J*U]. 
(M and K in art. J5l.) — J^t jj| [J5& rf,,. 
posed, arranged, distributed, classified, or *et in 
order, the fundamentals, fundamental articles, 
principles, elements, "or rudiments, of a science, 
&c.,] is a phrase similar to v!*^' *fyt ar >d 

^jjji^i;. (ta.) 

4. J««1, (inf. n. JU»*t , TA,) He entered upon 
the time called J**l, q. v. (S, M, K.) rs See 
also UJU *Lat. 

3. J-oU : see 1, first sentence, in two places. 

10. J.eU*t : see 1, in two places, first and 
second sentences. « oloUwl He uprooted it; 
unrooted it ; eradicated it ; extirpated it ; pulled 
it up, or owr, or off, from its root, or foundation, 
or lowest part, (8, TA,) or with its roots, or 
foundations, or lowest parts; (TA;) he cut it 
off (M, Mfb) from its root, or lowest part, (M,) 
or with its roots, or lowest parts. (Mfb.) You 
say, _^JLi «X>t J-oUwt, a precative phrase, 
meaning 3/«y GW [extirpate or] remove {from 
them) their 24l£ ; which is an ulcer, or a purulent 
pustule, that comes forth in the foot, and is 
cauterized, and in consequence goes away : (Mi) 
or^iili J-pU-rl [in general usage] means he 
extirpated them, or may he extirpate them; or 
he cut off, or may he cut off, t/ie last remaining 
of them. (TA. [See also art. .Jli.]) And 
>yUt J-oU-l, i. e. J^xJ>\ iki [He cut off the 
root, race, or stock, of the people ; i. e. he extir- 
pated them]. (M.) And JGubt 3>f J-eU-t GW 
destroyed altogether or entirely, or way God 
destroy altogether or entirely, the unbelievers. 
(Mfb.) And ^UJI J-«U-.» ife performed the 
circumcision so as to remove the prepuce utterly. 
(TA in art. o— .) 
< •» 
J-ol The /ow«r, or lowest, part of a thing; [i.e. 

its root, bottom, or foot;] (M, Msb, £ ;) as also 

' Jy* t •' (M, K :) so of a mountain : and of a 
wall ; (TA ;) i. <■. its foundation, or base : (Msb :) 
and of a tree [or plant] ; (TA ;) i. e. [its stem, 
or trunk, or stock, or] the part from which the 
branches are broken off: (TA in "-♦ } - e - •) 
[and also its root, or foot; for] the jC of a tree 
is said to be the part between its J-&\ and the 
place where its branches shoot out : (TA in art. 
Or* [ an d <* stump of a tree : and hence, a 
block of wood : (see exs. voce j«ii :)] pi. Jyo\ 
(8, M, Mfb,?) and [pi. of pauc.]' Jif: (AHn, 
K :) [ISd says that] the former is its only pi. : 
(M:) [but] the latter pL occurs in a verse of 
Lebced, (which see below,) as cited by AHn. 

[Book I. 

(TA.) You say, J^JI jil J> Jjj He sat 
upon, or at, the lowest part [tee.] of the mountain; 
and UUJI ,^1 Ji at the lowest part [Sec] of 
the wall. (TA.) And <dif ^, <UlS [He pulled 
xt up, or out, or off, from its root, or foundation, 
or lowest part] ; and *Jj«oV [with to roots, or foun- 
dations, or lowest parts ; both meaning, utterly, 
entirely, or altogether]. (TA in explanation of 
1UU-1, q. v.) And j^Jjl Jil ££»' 2?e pa««d 
up, or out, <A« 2onw<< part, [or tow or todk or 
root or foot or stump,] of the tree. (TA.) Lebeed 
says, [of a wild cow,] 

• A~Z* .jaJU A*! JliJ • 

»' » » 

[She enters into the midst of the stems of trees 
with high branches, apart from others, i. e. from 
other trees, in the hinder parts of sand-hills, the 
fine loose sand thereof inclining upon her] : (AHn, 
TA:) but as some relate it, tJjll ^f. (TA. 
[See EM, p. 1G1.])_^.,1 thing ujmn which 
another thing is built or founded [cither properly 
or tropically]: (KT, Kull p. 50, TA :) the foun- 
dation, or basis, of a tiling, [cither properly or 
tropically,] which being imagined to be taken 
away, or abstracted, by its being taken away, or 
abstracted, the rest thereof becomes also taken 
away, or alistracted : (Er-RaRhib, TA :) that 
upon which the existence of anything rests [or 
depends] ; so the, father is J*»l to the offspring, 
and the river is J-ol to the streamlet that 
branches off from it: (Msb:) or a thing upon 
which another thing depends as a branch ; as 
the father in relation to the sou : (Kull :) [i. e. 
the origin, source, beginning, or commencement, 
of a tiling : the origin, original, root, race, or 

stock, from which a man springs. Hence I. JL 
* •( >. ' ° '«■» 

J-ol a) A thing having root, or a foundation; 
and consequently, having rootedness, fixedness, im- 
mobility, stability, or permanence ; rooted, fixed, 
immoveable, stable, or permanent. Whence,] Ju 

• • l 1' f « # « o I j r • « a 

J-ol *J, (Mgh voce jtf«.,) and J-cl si c-*U jJJU, 

(Msb in explanation of that word,) and J«£l si U, 
(KT in explanation of the same,) [Real, or 
immoveable, projterty ;] property suck as consists 
in a house or land yielding a revenue ; (Mgh ;) 
or such as a house and palm-trees ; (Mfb ;) or 
such as land and a house. (KT.) [Hence, also. 
Jl-» J««l signifying A source of wealth or profit; 
a stock, fund, capital, or principal. You say,] 
»,U^U •>> J_U) JU J*>l ^JU «3 j-JJI [J 'ooA 
« /or «>/««(/■ a* a <ource o/ meaAA or ^rq/?r, 
for breeding, not for traffic]. (Mgh inarUyJ.) 
You say also, ^o,l J^l IlJ [m'eaning 7/« sold 
the fundamental property, i. e. the property itself, 
of his land]. (§ voce Jt*.) [See also an ex. in 
conjugation 4 in art. ^^u : and another in the 
first paragraph of art. u ..^.] And «JU>t/ »J^f 
[/f« 'ooA «'* as it were »w*<A to root, or tA« /»A«; 
meaning, entirely]. (K. [See iie->f.]) And 
^-o\ £JeS [He cut off their root, race, or 
*<ocA; i. e. he extirpated them], (M.) And 
^o-* J-ol ^ o^*» (? and L in art. Lo,) and 

Book I.] 



\y J-el ^j*, (L ibid.,) Such a one is of an excel- 
lent origin, or race, or stock, (S, L,) and of a bad 
origin, or race, or stock ; (L ;) J-al being here 
syn. with ^>e (S, L) and lVju, (S.) And 
^ojXJI J-#l ^ ,j^li Such a one i* of [a race] 
t7i« wi/rcc of generosity, or nobleness; J*el being 
here syn. with ^4/. (8 in art. l^.) And J-et "^ 
J-oi ^3 a) 7/<- A/m no >_.. .— [i. c. grounds of 
pretension to respect or honour; or rawAr, or 
nobility, or </*« /»Ae] ; nor tongue [i. c. eloquence]: 
(Ks,$, O, Msb:) or /mj A«* no intellect, (IAar, 
Msb, El-Munawee,) nor eloquence : (El-Munawee, 
TA :) or he has no lineage, nor tongue : (L :) or 
lie luts no father, nor child: (Kull p. 53 :) [or 
he has no known stock nor branch; for] J-ai 
is the contr. of J-ol, and in relationship signifies 

a branch. (Msb in art. J-oi.) You say also, 

• »i ,,f,. V T *" ' ' ' 

*}Lol <£Ui U, meaning I have not done it ever; 

and J will not do it ever; the last word being 

in the accus. case as an adverbial noun ; i. e. 

I have not done it at any time ; and / will not 

do it at any time. (Msl>, El-Mundwee, TA.) _ 

[It also signifies The original, or elemental, 

matter, material, substance, or part, of a thing ; 

syn. with j. « . : e- ;] that from which a thing is 

taken [or made]. (KT voce J».tS.) [The 

fumlamental, or essential, part of a thing. 

Hence, sing, of J>-?l as signifying The funda- 
mentals, fundamental articles or dogmas, prin- 
ciples, elements, or rudiments, of a science &c. 

Whence,] J^i^l ^jU, (TA,) [meaning] ^t. 

j I" 
c>i«>JI J>«el [7Vtc science of the fundamental*, 

fundamental articles or dogmas, or principles, 
of religion; the xcienre of theology, or divinity ; 
according to the system of the Muslims, as dis- 
tinguished from that of t lie philosophers;] the 
science of the articles, or tenets, of belief; also 
called 'j^^\ JuUll ; (Kull. voce *tt ;) and [more 
commonly] >^JI^i*. (Hiijjee Khalccfcli.) [See 
also 2.]__ A radical (as opposed to an augmen- 
tative) letter ; as being an essential clement of a 
word. (The Lexicons passim.) _ The original 
form of a word. (The same passim.) _ The 
original, or primary, signification of a word. 
(The same passim.) — An original copy of a 
book : and a copy of a book from which one 
quotes, or transcribes, any portion. (TA,&c, 
passim.) _ [The original, or primary, state, or 
condition : or] the old state, or condition. (Kull 
p. 50.) You say, \%Ll\j L-ty ,U&t J> J-^t 
The old state, or condition, of things is tliat of 
being allowable, or lawful, and that of being pure, 
or cfeon. (Kull ubi supra.) And l^lit ,il «LteJ 
She returned, or reverted, [to her original, or 
old, state, or condition ; or to her natural dis- 
position ;] to a natural disposition which she 

had relinquished. (8 voce^.) [The utmost 

point, or degree, to which a person, or thing, 
can go, or be brought or reduced: and, app., 
the utmost that one can do. Hence die savinir.l 
«"**' v^J J*ijl**o*) [1 will assuredly impel thee, 
or drive thee, against thy will, to the utmost 
point to which thou canst go, or be brought or 
reduced : or, constrain thee to do thine utmost]. 
(IAar in L, art. -Jf [where it is given in cx- 
Bk. I. *" 

pianation of the phrases i|p ^J\ JMja^j and 
9mJm I ; and so in the T in art. y in explana- 
tion of the former of these two phrases; which 
is said in the M, in art. y, to mean I will 
assuredly make thee to have recourse to thine 
utmost effort, or endeavour; and in the L in 
art. -_» this is given as another explanation of 
the latter of the same two phrases. See also the 
saying, J)j\ji ji ^J\ UiSt^Jj, explained voce Jj&.]) 
— [That by being which a thing is what it is, 
or in being which it consists; or its ultimate 
constituent; syn. ii-i*-; a meaning well known ; 
and indicated, in the A and TA, by the coupling 
of H..JM. with J-ot, evidently as an explicative 
adjunct.]^ [The prime of a thing; the prin- 
cipal, purest, best, or choicest, part thereof; what 
is, or constitutes, the most essential part thereof; 
its wry essence. Hence;] «lj J-«l [7%« principal 
part of a country] ; (As, S, Msb, K, voce ^i* ;) 
[which is] the place where the people dwell, or 
abide. (As and S ibid. [Sec j**--]) And J-ol 
>»y» [TAe principal place of abode of a people]. 
(S and K voce 4-e-v. [See this word.]) And 
**y J-ol j_j* ^* He is of the prime, or of the 
purest in race, tlie best, or the choicest, of his 
7>eoy>fe ; t. o\ ^^l^, and ^A-"- (TA in art. 

*r> e -o-) — T^Aat is most ft, or proper : as when 

j* ^ • i t ft 

one says.^jUJI ^t-i^l ^ J-o^l [ WAa< m most 

fit, or proper, in man, is knowledge] ; i. e., know- 
ledge is more fit, or proper, than ignorance : and 
^juUJI Ijiljl yj> JU^I What is [most] fit, or 
propei; in the case of the inchoative, is the putting 
[it] before [the cnunciative], whenever there is no 
obstacle. (Kull p. 50.) — _ What is preponderant 
in relation to what is preponderated : as, in lan- 
guage, the word used in its proper sense [in relation 
to that used in a tropical sense]. (Kull ibid.) _ 
W/iat is [essential, or] requisite, or needful : as 
when one says »7jjUI O'i^ 1 ij* J-»^' [What is 
essential, or requisite, or needful, in the case of 
the animal, is food]. (Kull ibid.)__ A [primary, 
or] universal, or general, rule, or canon. (Kull 
ibid.) __ An indication, an evidence, or a proof, 
in relation to that which is indicated, or evidenced, 
or proved. (Kull ibid.) 

f 'I •- '« 

J-ol : see its n. un., iLol 

jJ, (K,) or t j^f, (M> ) i. q. t J^uli. 

(M, K.) You say J^l ils Eradicating, or «c- 

tirpating, evulsion: (TA:) or * J**>l *Li extir- 
pating excision. (M.) 
• fl 
J«et, said by some to be a pi., and by others 

to be a dial, var., of J^e\ : see the latter word, 
in two places. 

ii-al: see iUol. = Also ^L AtW of serpent, 
the most malignant, or noxious, of serpents : (S :) 
or « serpent, (M, K,) «Aort, (M, [where, in the 
only copy to which I have access, I find added, 
i^», app. a mistranscription, for i«^l£», it'Ae 
the fragment of a rope,]) or small, (%.,) red, but 
not intensely red, (M,) very deadly, of the most 
malignant, or noxious, kind, (TA,) having one 
leg, upon which it stands, (M, TA,) then turns 
round, then springs, (TA,) that springs upon a 

man, and blows, killing everything upon which it 
blows: (M :) or, as some say, a great serpent, 
(M, K,) that kills by its blowing : (K :) or one of 
the very crafty kinds of serpents, short and broad, 
said to be like the shaft of an arrow, and it 
springs upon the horseman : (Msb :) pi. ▼ J-ot, 
(S, M. Msb, K,) [or rather this is a coll. gen. n.,] 
and [pi. of pauc] Jtel. (Msb.) _ [Hence, 
app.,] f Short and broad: applied to a man and 
to a woman. (TA.) 

S il 

^jJLol [Radical ; fundamental ; primitive ; 

original; underived: an epithet of extensive ap- 
plication ; and particularly applied to a letter of 
a word, as opposed to augmentative ; and to a 
signification]. (The Lexicons &c. passim.) 
•a •( 8 •« 

aJLoI [The quality denoted by the epithet Lf )^o\ ; 

radicalness, &c. :] a term used by IJ [and others] 
in the place of J-oU : see 5. (M.) 

J--ol [Having root, or a foundation; and 
consequently, having rootedness, fixedness, immo- 
bility, stability, or permanence; rooted, fixed, 
immoveable, stable, or permanent]. You say, 

Jt-o*j U-ojl jj* Ji~JI ,jl Verily the palm-trees 
in our land remain permanently, not perishing. 

(A, TA.) A man liaving J-if, (K, TA,) i. e., 

lineage, or pedigree : (TA :) or established in his 
J-«1 : (Abu-1-Baka, TA :) or noble, or generous. 
(Msb.) __ A man firm of judgment, and intelli- 
gent. (M, I£.* [Accord, to the copies of the latter, 

t» » i * ' 
the signification is \C\jl\ C~/U ^JiU : but I think 

that the right reading of the first word is Jil«, as 
in the M, in which this word occupies the last 
place in the explanation.]) And i£ljH J— el A 

man firm, or sound, of judgment. (8.) And 
• « • U »i 

J**' L$'j Judgment liaving J^l [i. e. firmness], 

* % < • • * 

(M.) And J--ol jMfr • Olory, honour, dignity, 

or nobility, having a firm root or foundation. 

(S.) And J~ol tii Vehement evil or mischief. 

• » 
(Ibn-'Ablja(l.) = See also J»ol, in two places. 

j c ' 
_ [Hence, app.,] J«-o"ilt Destruction : and 

death: as also, in both senses, t iL-o^II. (K.)i^ 
[The evening ; or] t. g. ^^t* ; (M, K, Msb, TA ;) 
i. e. (Msb, TA) the time from the j^st\, (8, TA,) 
from the prayer of the yoz, (Msb,) to sunset ; 

(8, Mfb, TA ;) as also ♦ 2j^»{ : (R, TA :) the 

pi. is j\ol, (S, M, R, Msb, K,) or T this is a sing., 
(TA,) or it may be a sing., (M,) for it is used as 

I such, (M, TA,) and 0^-<» (§, M, K,) and JliT, 
(8, M, Sgh, K,) [a pi. of pauc.,] or, accord, to Es- 


Salah Es-Safadee, this is a pi. of J-ol, the sing., 

not the pi., (TA,) or it is pi. of J-ol, (Zj, M,) 
which may be a pi. or a sing., (M,) and J5Uot, (8, 
M, K,) as though pi. of iJLol, (8,) or it is pi. of 
this last word. (R, TA.) You say, ^ol a£jJ 
and t !^U?t, i.e. [I met him in the evening,] UJLc. 
(A, TA.) From the pi. )J%o\ is formed the dim. 

f O***^', (?, M, K,) which is extr., (M, K,) 
because the dim. of a pi. is [regularly] formed 
only from a pi. of pauc, which i^k-el is not; 

or, if (j^Lol be a sing., like ^jUj and ^jC^S, this 


dim. is regular : (M :) sometimes, (K,) one says 

also » J^e-ol, (S, M, K,) substituting J for the 

[final] £. (S, M.») You say, * U%^l iLii and 

T W**', meaning, as above, lg-1* : (A, TA :) 

, a .1 
and Lh mentions ♦ *^Lj-o1 <uJU. (So in two copies 

of the?.) 

ii^l A man's whole property: (M, K:) or 
his palm-trees: (K, TA : in the CK his ;w/m- 

tree .) thus in the dial, of El-Hijaz. (O, TA.) 

<de+\, ijil, (S,M,K,) and t*sUlh (IAar, M, 
K,) J/e took it altogether, (S, M,K,) [as it were] 
with its root, (S, M,) not leaving aught of it. 

(TA.) And jgJS^Ja 1j}U. TAey ra m« altogether; 
the whole of them. (S,Z.)rrrri\ t J\ J±jl tfjSl 
To such a one belongs land long possessed, or 
inherited from his parents, by means of which he 
has his living : a phrase of the people of Et-Taif. 
(TA.)iHSce also J~*\, in two places. 

^j-ol One skilled in tl'e science termed^* 
Jj-^1 : see Jit, (TA.) 

"^le-cl a^JU : see J«<ot, last sentence. 

• '•'i . >_f» .J • t 

0"^-°' niM " J^e-"' : Bee J—ol, in four places, 

last two sentences. 

• tit* * 

"%oy» tifii J met him entering upon the time 

called the J**t (TA.) And QtU$* t£» We 
came entering upon the time so called. (S.) 

i}-°y» J^l [A root, or foundation, or rAe JiTte, 
ma<& ./iVro, or fixed, or established], (S.) [Sec 
also J*J.] 

i* * l» •*•» 

lUBi « »U» ^i sheep, or ^oa{, Wtcue Aor« /;<« 

6««n taken from its root. (TA.) 

< f-u ■ > 

J-sU—o : see J-ol. 

" ' ' ' * * ' 

J>-oW : see J-o\, first sentence. 


1. il, (8, K,) aor. , , (K.) inf. n. L>l (S, K) 

and £l, (TA,) It produced, made, gave, emitted, 
or uttered, a sound, noise, voice, or cry ; (8, K ;) 
[and particularly, it creaked; and t't wto«;i«/;] 
said of a camel's saddle, (8,* K, [in the CK, 
J*-jJI is put by mistake for J»yJI,]) [and parti- 
cularly of a new camel's saddle,] and the like, 
(K,) such as a [plaited or woven girth called] 
*-J, and of everything of which the sound 
resembles that of a new camel's saddle, (TA,) and 
of a palm-trunk, and of a tree of the kind called 
jj«, (8, TA,) or of the kind called Jjl,, (TA,) 
and of a cane or reed on the occasion of its being 
straightened, [in which instance it is said to be 
tropical, but if so it is tropical in several other 
instances,] and of a bow, (TA,) and of the belly 
by reason of emptiness, (§,* TA,) and, in a trad, 
of Aboo-Dharr, t of heaven, or the sky, notwith- 
standing there being [really] no A^tl in this 
instance, for it is meant to denote [the presence 
of] multitude, and confirmation of the majesty of 
God. (TA.) [It is also said of other things, as 
will be shown by phrases here following, and by 


explanations of Vglsl below.] You also say, oXl 
J/jM, (K.) aor. as above, inf. n. £ul>t, (TA,) 
The camels moaned by reason of fatigue, or 
uttering their yearning cry to their young, (K, 
TA,) and sometimes by reason of fulness of their 
■udders with milk. (TA.) And J/^l cJE>l U J^i\<) 
I will not come to thee as long as camels utter cries 
[or moan] by reason of the heaviness of their loads. 
(S.) And (W cXl U il)i JjJl •$, meaning 

J will not do that ever. (TA.) And JklC J-ju U U 
We have not a camel that moans, or cries; mean- 
ing we have not any camel; for the camel cannot 
but do so. (TA, from a trad.) [See also La>\, 
below.] And ^f-j *> cJkl J [My feeling of 
relationship, or sympathy of blood,] became 
affected with tenderness, or compassion, and be- 
came moved, [or rather pleaded,] for him [or in 
his favour] : (K, TA :) and hence * LL\li\ [inf n. 
of the verb in the syn. phrase ^ li .--LLri] 

(Sgh, TA.) And^U-jll Jio cJ.1 [The feeling of 
relationship, or sympathy of blood, pleaded, or 
hath pleaded, in thee;] i.e., inclined thee to 
favour. (Ham p. 705.) [Sec another ex. voce 


5 : see 1, near the end. 

Si • i 

i»\ : see i* e la\, below. 

L£l cyj> [pi. of i»\, part. n. of 1,} Creaking 
[plaited, or woven, thongs]. (K.) 

iaJol [as explained in what here follows seems 
to be properly an inf. n., though, like all inf. ns., 
it may be used as a subst. :] The sounding, or the 
like, or the sound, or the like, [and narticularly 
the creaking, or creaking sound, and the moaning, 
or moaning sound,] of a camel's saddle (S, K, 
TA) when new; (TA ;) and so t £|, of the litters 
and saddles of camels when the riders arc heavy 
thereon; and the former, also, of a door; said, in 
a trad., of the gate of paradise, by reason of its 
being crowded ; (TA ;) and of a plaited or woven 
thong when stretching ; (Ez-Zejjajee, TA ;) and 
of the back [when strained] ; (K ;) and of the 
bowels, (TA,) and of the belly, or inside, by 
reason of hunger, (K,) or by reason of vehement 
hunger ; (TA ;) and of camels, (S, K,) by reason 
of their burdens, (K,) or by reason of the heavi- 
ness of their burdens ; (S ;) and the prolonging 
of the cries of camels: (TA :) but 'Alee Ibn- 
Hamzch says that the cry of camels is termed 
!Uj, and that hJo\ signifies the sounding, or 
sound, of their bellies, or insides, by reason of 
repletion from drinking. (IB, TA.) J-v-o Jjkl 
i»el»lj, occurring in a trad., means f Possessors 
of horses and of camels. (TA.) _ Also t Hun- 
ger, (K, TA,) itself, as well as the sound of the 
bowels or belly by reason thereof: from Ez- 
Zejjajee. (TA.) 

• si 

1»U»1 Sounding much; noisy; (K, TA ;) having 

a sound : applied [to any of the things mentioned 

above in the explanations of Jsl and ixJ»l ; and] 

to a hide ; and to a camel replcted with drink ; 

and to a road : fern, with i : which, applied to a 

[Book I. 

woman, signifies one whose m.ji has a sound 
oJu^lil. (TA.) 

1. i>l, aor. ; (S, Msb, K) and I , ($,) inf. n. 
>l ; (S, Msb, K ;) and * »j£\, inf. n. ^1,13 ; 
(]£ ;) He bent it, or curved it ; (S, Msb, K, &c. ;) 
namely, a bow, (S, A,) and a twig, or the like : 
(A :) he biid hold upon one of its ttvo extremities, 
and curved it : lie bent it, or curved it ; namely, 
anything ; {^ ^jit upon a thing : and the 
latter verb, [or both,] lie bent it into t/te form 
of a hoop, bringing its two extremities togct/ier. 
(TA.) — It is said of Adam, 'Jb\ t Vjt& $£ ,j\£s 
He was tall, and God bent him, and diminished 
his height. (TA.) — And one says, .ji* jl.\ 
J^JI ^,1* iJilj^UiJt ^JJ I [He laid hold upon 
the two hands, or arms, of the wrongdoer, or 
prevented, restrained, or withheld, him from doing 
that which he desired,] and bent him to [con- 
formity with] what was right. (AA, from a 
trad.) And ib^ ^Jx. 0$ ojjbt J [Thou hast 
bent such a one to love thee], (A.) __^Jj| l£l, 
(§>£>) aor. ; and - , (K,) inf. n. as above, (S,K,) 
He rooundaniJ»\ upon the arrow. (S, &.)_ 
c4jl >l (TK,) inf. n. as above, (KL,) He 
made an jU»J, which is a thing resembling a zone 
or belt, to the tent or house. (K, TK.) 

2: sec 1, in two places. ssO^I, inf. n.^J»0, 
Site (a girl, IAar) remained in the house, or tent, 
of her father, some time, or long, (IAar, K,) 
without marrying. (IAar.) [Sec also 5.] 

5. jl»\S It (a spear) bent : (S, K :) it (a thing) 
became crooked, curved, or bet ; as also tjiOl : 
(K,TA :) it became bent into the form of a hoop, 
its two extremities being brought together. (TA.) 

— O^JpU She affected a bending of her person, 
body, or limits, in her gait. (A.)^ He confined 

himself (K,T A) in a place. (TA.) o^li She 

(a woman) remained, or stayed, in her house, or 
lent; (S,K;) she kept to it. (TA.) [Sec also 2.] 

7 : see 5. 

*• ' .- n 

jJ»l The place of curvature ( T U) of a bow, 

and of a cloud : (K, TA :) an inf. n. used as 
a subst., and, being so used, admitting the dual 
form : or the bent, or curved, part of the ex- 
tremity of a bow ; to which Tarafeh likens the 
curving of the ribs of a she-camel: (TA :) and 
what resembles a curvature, seen in the clouds : an 
inf. n. in the sense of a pass. part. n. (Skr, TA.) 

»/l»l The sinew that is wound immediately 
above the notch of an arrow ; (S, K ;) as also 
t jli.1. (K.) — The edge of the giant of the 
penis ; (K,* TA ;) as also * the latter word. (K, 
TA.) _ The fiesh surrounding the nail: (£:) 

pi. ji»\ and jU»l. (TA.) A mixture of ashes 

and blood with which a fracture in a cooking-pot 
is smeared (S, K) and repaired. (TA.) 

jlbl Anything that surrounds another thing : 
(S, A, Msb, K :) as the hoop of a tambourine, 
(A,Mgh,TA,) and of a sieve. (S,A,Mgh,K.) 

— A ring of hair surrounding the head, the 

Book I.] 

middle of it being bald. (TA.) __ The branches 
of a vine, bent, or wreathed, to as to form a 

covering over-head. (K.)«_Sce also SjM, in two 

places ^iUJI jU»l The -part of the hoof of a 

horse or the like which surrounds, or extends 

around, the j&\ [q.v.]. (S.) iih\ jl£>1 (S, 

?, &c.) { The part, (A,) or flesh, (Msb,) sur- 
rounding the lip : (A, Mfb :) or the part that 
separates between the lip and the hairs of the 
mustache : (? :) or the edge of the upper lip, 
between the lip itself and the parts where the hair 
grows : (IAtli :) or the rising edge, or ridge, 
between the part where the mustache is clipped and 
the lip, intermixing with the mouth. (A'Obcyd.) 
The Muslim should clip his mustache so that this 
part shall appear. (Msb, TA.)_wV,j> jU»l A 

thing resembling a zone, or belt, of a tent or house. 

* * • t « 

(K.)__^UI ±y* jU»l J A ring, or circle, of 

men. (K.) One 'says, 0**i ^ jlil^i 1 They 

have alighted and taken up their abode [so tliat 

they form a ring] around the sons of such a one. 

(A, Msb.) 

jtJo\ A sin ; a crime ; an offence. (S, K.) One 

says, {jj^ ^el»W iJJ» He punished me for the 

sin, crime, or offence, of another than myself . (§.) 

*' 1 1* j- 

SjjJ^U A bow. (A.)_vi milking-vessel of 

skin (i4*) for the head of which a twig is bent 
into the form of a hoop, and put round, after 
which its lip is covered ; (K, TA ;) or, sometimes, 
the edges of the skin of the <U)l£ are folded upon 
the koop-formed twig, and dry upon it. (TA.) 


^L\ and J£l, (S, K,) like^U-l and^U-l, (S, 
and Mgh in art. > e»>t,) A fortress : or, as some 
say, any lofty building : (Mgh :) or a [building 
such as is termed] j-ai [q. v.] : (IAar, K:) and 
any fortress built of stones : and any square, 
roofed, house : (K :) pi. (of pauc, TA) >ti»f (S, 
Mgh.?) and (of mult, TA)>>»: (?:)>UVl 
signifies fortresses of the people of El-Medeeneh : 
and one of these is termed " A+Jal : (S :) or this 
signifies [simply] a fortress; and its pi. is >>Usl. 

i'f ( 

ioJol : sec above. 

ilXy» >Vi»T Lofty [fortresses, &c] : (A, TA:) 
[or it may signify fortresses, ice, disposed in 
order, or grouped togetlier; for it is said to be] a 
phrase like a^~o v'^'i (O, TA,) or like jUa-l 
Sju^.. (K.) 


1. Jl, aor. wijj (IDrd, M, Mgh,?) and wi£, 
(IDrd, M, K,) the latter agreeable with analogy, 
(TA,) [but the former, though irregular, is the 
more common,] inf. n. w»t ; (M, Mgh;) and 
* JZ\, inf. n. JUt3 ; (S, Mgh, ? ;) and » wiiU ; 

(M, ? ;) #« «aW Jl [q. v.], (IDrd, S, M, Mgh, 
K,) by reason of anxiety, or disquietude of mind, 
or by reason of vexation, distress of mind, or 
disgust: (IDrd, M, K-.) held by Sb to be of the 

>l — wit 

* 3 ' '*' 

same class as »--> and Ji* meaning " he said 

ilf^ull"and"hesaid < li)r^liil^." (M.) You 
sav also, " <xsu\ y and <v " oet, and <v T Juu, 
meaning /fe azuf <o At'wi wil. (M.) And Jj<*- 
Uj».j wj ^j-o " w*iw O^ ««™ o o R * &*^an to 
«ay wil wil &y reason of a smell which he perceived. 
(T.) And d-JLc ♦ wiili Ail Verily he is angry 
with him, or enraged against him. (TA.) 

2 : see I, in three places. 

5 : see 1, in four places. 

»C -£ ft I *i 

o! and wil and wil, or wit : see w»l. 
» < » 

wit and its vara, (differing only in having the 
wi movent) : see the next paragraph. 

Si * <5i 

«_jl jDt'rt, or filth ; as also * ti\ : (S :) you say, 

<0 Ul, and ♦ iil, -Dirt, or ^ftA, fo him ; in which 
the tenween is for the purpose of rendering them 

indeterminate; (S;) and «Juj a) ol; (T ;) and 

lilj t Ul ; and 1% tit ; (T, S ;) the latter of 

which is an imitative sequent : (S :) or \j\ signi- 

fies the dirt of the ear ; and \JS, the dirt of the 

nails; (As, T, M, TS. ; but in the last, of the nail ;) 
the phrases mentioned above being used on the 
occasion of deeming a thing dirty or filthy, and 
afterwards on the occasion of experiencing annoy- 
ance or disgust at anything ; (As, T, M,* TA ;) 

and V ot»l, also, has the former of these two 

meanings : (TA :) or ol signifies the dirt around 

the nail; (M ;) or the dirt of tlie nail ; (?;) and 

w_i3, the dirt in the nail : (M :) or the former, a 

paring of the nail : and a piece of stick, or a 

reed, which one takes up from the ground : (? :) 

in these various senses they are explained as used 

I J* J* £i 

in the saying, Ujj a) Ul : (TA :) or the former 
signifies stink : (Zj, TA :) or paucity ; (T, M, 
K ;) as also 1 o>»t ; (M ;) or from * iJWI signi- 
fying a thing little in qua?itity; (T ; and the 

same meaning is assigned to this word in the K ;) 

and \Ju is an imitative sequent, (T, M, ?,) of 

the same meaning. (M.)_ol, also, is a word 
expressive of vexation, distress of mind, or disgust; 
(M, Mgh ;) or of dislike, displeasure, or hatred ; 
(K ;) and has six forms ; (T, S ;) mentioned by 
Akh; (S;) or ten; (M ;) or forty; (K;) or 

-2 si 'it 

more ; (TA ;) as follow : «_»t and ol and iil and 

U Si Si " _ i A 

til and Ul and vJI (T, S, M, K) and ol and d>\ 

* A I a' a ' A 
and ot and ot and Ul and wit (K) and ol (M, 

il ' si 

?) and «»il and * ^t, pronounced with imdleh, 

(M, ?,) i. e. with pure imaleh, and t _»| with 
intermediate imaleh, and t { j\ without imaleh, 
the alif [written ^j] in these three denoting the 
fem. gender, and t ^Jf, with kesr to the \J, (K,) 
i. e., as a prefixed noun with its complement, [the 
latter being the pronoun of the first pers.,] (TA,) 

and *«jil, (K,) with damm to the I and <_£, 
which latter is with teshdeed, and with the j and 

» quiescent, (TA,) and ♦ Ail [in a copy of the M 

* iil] and * Ail and t Ail <.K) and * Jl and * Jl 


and ♦ wit and V ol and * Ut and ♦ w»l and * wit 

j' * S' * i * * 

and ♦ Ul and ♦ w>l and ♦ wit , with damm to the 

wi, which is with teshdeed, [in a copy of the M 

* Jl ,] and * til , like Ul , and t ,_ji1 , pronounced 
with imaleh, and *^jil, with kesr, (K,) i. c, 
prefixed to the pronoun of the first person, 
(IAmb,) and * Jl and * wit (?) and ♦ w»l, or 

* wit, and *wif, or *wil, and *wil, or *wil, 
(accord, to different copies of the ?,) [all these 
forms, making the number (forty) mentioned by 
the author of the K, I have drawn from a com- 
parison of three copies of that work, and I believe 
them to be correct : some other forms are men- 
tioned by SM as perhaps indicated in the K ; but 
I see no good reason for this : he then adds,] and 

* Ail and V ay I and ♦ Ait, the last mentioned by 
IB on the authority of I?tt. (TA.) wit, [with 
its variants,] in its primary sense, denotes one's 
blowing at a thing that falls upon him, such as 
dust or ashes ; or at the place, to remove there- 
from what is annoying ; therefore people say, at 
anything that they deem troublesome, or dis- 
pleasing, or hateful, a) wil [as though meaning 
A puff, or blast of breath, to it] : (?t, T :) or 
[rather] it is a word imitative of a sound; [like 
ugh in English, both in sound and meaning ; and 
in meaning like our interjections foh and faugh;] 
(Bd on the ex. in the Kur which will be found 
below, and TA;) denoting vexation, or distress 
of mind, or disgust ; (Bd ubi supra ;) or denoting 
contempt : (TA :) or it is a verbal noun, meaning 
/ am vexed, or distressed in mind, or disgusted : 
(Bd ubi supra:) or it is an imperative verbal 
noun [denoting disgust or abhorrence, like out, 
and away] : (IJ, M :) or he who says Sii Ut uses 
it in the manner of an imprecation, like as one 

# fjf • # xfii 

says i^jjitiJJ "j^^ ; and he who says Jii wit puts 
it in the nom. case because of the J, like as one 
says ,jj>it£i) Jjj ; and he who says Jli wit puts 
it in the gen. cose likening it to words imitative 
of sounds. (IAmb.) It is said in the ?ur 
[xvii. 24], wJl Q ji3 <)'), (T,S,TA,) or Jl, 
(TA, [in which other readings also are men- 
tioned,]) [And say not thou to them (i. e. to thy 
father and mother) Ugh, &c.,] meaning, do not 
thou deem anything of their affairs burdensome, 
nor be contracted in bosom thereby, nor be rough, 
or harsh, or coarse, to them : (?t, T :) or do not 
thou say to them anything expressive of the least 
disgust, when they have become old, but take 

upon thyself their service; wil signifying stinh. 

Jt and its vara, (differing only in having the 
* Si 8. • a 

wi movent) : see wit. bm For w»l, see also o^l» 

in three places. 

•st « , s 

Ail : see u^!> in tw0 P» aces - 

Ail : see wit, in four places. = Also A dirty, 
&fUthy, an unclean, man: (?:) from w»l signi- 
fying the " dirt of the nail." (TA.) — One tn 
want ; poor ; possessing little : (? :) from wiil 
signifying " a thing little in quantity." (TA.) _ 



A coward: (K :) as though originally iit ^>, 

i. e. holding back, by reason of disgust, («JbU«,) 
from fight : (TA :) or experiencing vexation or 
disgust, and languid or sluggish, in war : ( I Aar :) 
also heavy, or sluggish. (IAth.) 

•a t ■ 

ail : see 0*M» ' n *h re e places. 

i_A»l Vexation, distress of mind, or disgust. 
(T, IAth, K.) __ See also ol, in three places. = 

And see ^Ut , in three places. 

i-« • -« »»i • J .ji Si 

ait and «it and *i\ and as! and ail : see ol. 

U*'i P' 

J\: see 

pronounced in three different ways ; and 
^j*l : Bee %J\. 

a a - si 

lit and jj*! and ^jit : see vil. 

• x St 

»yt : see <Jl. 

ii^il : see what next follows. 

kjlil A man who says J»l much or often ; (M, 

TA ;) as also ♦ iiyy, accord, to the copies of 
the O and TS and K ; but in other lexicons 

* iiy I : in the O, one w/io «ase* not <o *ay to 
another j\} >_»l : in the Jm, the last of these three 
words is explained as meaning one who ceases not 
to say this at some of his affairs. (TA.) 

£,& (T, 8, M, K) and J,l*l (T, TS, L, K) and 

* Jl (8,M,K) and t Jit (T,L,K) and tail 
(L, M) and * lit (M) and t &j, (T, M, s! 
K, &c.,) of the measure iJLuij, [being originally 

iiiUJ accord, to J, who appears to be right in 
saying so, (IB,) and so accord, to Aboo-'Alee, 
who states, on authority of Aboo-Bekr, that it 
is thus in some of the copies of the Book of Sb, 
(L,) though in other copies of that book said to 
be of the measure ilsi, (IB, L,) A time ; (T, 8, M, 
K ;) as in the sayings, oAJi * «_*t ^^Lc iUi 0^°> 
ond *ilit (S,TA) and t*u'f, and T*Zit, and 

* *alj, (TA,) Tliat was at the time of that ; 
(s','tA;) and M £>& J> J$, (IAar, L,) 
and JJUi olit ^, (IAar, T, M, L,) and *ilil, 
(T,L,) and * «ij, (M,L,) and t*Ai|, (IAar, T, 
L,) and **at, (M,L,) and t«3l, (M,) and 

* *&?, (IAar,T,8,M,L,) preceded by ^, 
(IAar, T, 8, &c.,) and by ^, (L,) Me came to 
me at the time of that. (IAar, T, &c.) 

••il a 

♦y I : see >_il. 

"• cf» «■ —• 81 

\J\ and >_»l and wit and wit : see wit. 
» • # 

• • i %ss 
iiy_jl : see Jut. 

• a « • m 

iiiJ : see &\i\ , in three places. 

JUill o* uUU« [app. Holding back, by reason 

of disgust, from fight ; as though saying ol 

t , ,. Mi 

at the mention thereof: see ail]. (TA.) 

• . i 


1. *«JI, (A'Obeyd,S, L, &c.,) aor. - , inf. n. 

• if 

lit, (L,) 1T«, [or it] rtrucA Aim, or Art Aim, [or 

wJI — Jil 

hurt Aim,] on the part of his head called the 
£.y V.- (A 'Obeyd, S, L, Msb, K.) He who pro- 
nounces f-ji\i without • says *a.ju. (Msb.) 

• A- 

>yU A man having his head broken in the 
» A* 

part called the £-jfli* (L.) 

* A* • i» 

*-yb> (Lth, Az, S, Msb, K,) as also *-yW> 

without ., but the former is the more correct and 
the better, (Lth, Az, Msb,) and is of the measure 
JyiAj, (Lth, Az, S, Msb,) whereas the latter is 
of the measure Jyli, (Lth, Az, Msb,) [The top, 
vertex, or crown, oftltc head ; or the part of the 
top of the head which is crossed by the coronal 
suture, and comprises a portion of the sagittal 
suture;] the part where the anterior and pos- 
terior bones of the head meet ; (I£ ;) the place 
that is in a state of commotion in the head of 
an infant; (S;) the place which, in the head 
of a child, does not close up until after some 
years; or does not become knit together in its 
several parts; and this is where the bone of the 
anterior part of the head and that of its posterior 
part meet; (Zj in his " Khalk el-Insan;") the 
place that is soft, in a child's head, before the two 

it' * *' 

bones called the icUJ and icUj meet, between the 

iuU [or middle of the head] and the forehead : 

(L:) or the middle of the head when it has 

become hard and strong ; before which it is not 

thus called : (Msb :) pi. «^>iU ; (S ;) so in the 

old lexicons [in general] ; but in the T and K 

*~il^j [which is pi. of ~-yb without •; or, as pi. 

\ ' . . h . I. 

of f-jiV., " 'ike *->.)}£ as pi. of f-tJZ] ; and 

because of this form of the pi., F says that J is 
in error in mentioning the word in the present 
art. : it has been shown, however, that J is not in 
error in this case. (TA.) __ [Hence the saying,] 
wJj-Ut M>ib j*J\ X Ye are the centres and summits 
of the heads of nobility. (L, from a trad.) And 
JfJDt f-j»\j t The main [or middle] part of the 
night. (S, ]£.) __ [See also art. f-*i-] 


1. Jit, (JK, S, K,) aor. -. , (JK, K,) inf. n. 
,ji\, (Tl£,) He went his own way, at random, 
or heedlessly, (•x-lj ^J mj,) and went away in the 
JUt [or regions, &c, of the land] : (Lth, J K, K :) 
or he went away in, or into, the land, or country : 
(S :) and he took his way into t/ie Jlil [or regions, 
&c.,] of the land. (JK.)_ [Hence, app.,] Jit, 
aor. as above; thus, says IB, accord, to Kz, 
and thus it is given on the authority of Kr ; 

(TA;) [see Jit;] or Jit, aor.-, (S, O, $,) 

• ** * * 

inf. n. Ji\ ; (S ;) He attained the utmost degree, 

[as though he reached the Jit (or horizon, or 

furthest point of view,)] in generosity; (S, O, K.;) 

or in knowledge, or science; or in chasteness of 

speech, or eloquence, and in the combination of 

excellent qualities. (K.) — Also, Jiit, aor. ; , 

(Kr, Ibn-'Abbad, JK,£,) inf. n. Ji'l, (JK,TA,) 

He overcame, or surpassed. (Kr, Ibn-'Abbad, 

• >l 
JK, K.) Ami, inf. n. Jyl, He was goodly, 

or beautiful; lie possessed the quality of exciting 

admiration and approval by his beauty and the 

[Book I. 

pleasingness of his aspect : said of a camel, and of 

ahorse. (JK.) 4^ Jit (JK,TA) He (a 

man) excelled him; namely, another man : (JK:) 
or he preceded him in excellence ; or outwent him 
therein; as also <uUI, aor. ; . (TA.) [It is like 
iili.] _ ,IU*JI J> Jit, aor. - , (8, K,) inf. n. ji'l, 
(TA,) He gave to some more than to others. 
(S, K.) So in the saying of El-Aasha, 

J* ' '• * • • ti > ' " 

« suJii^yj { jl t sui\ JUUI *)) • 

• jauj i»^»a\ j^i *ik^v • 

[Nor the King En-Noamdn, on the day that I 
met him, in his goodly, or happy, condition, 
giving gifts, or stipends, or written obligations 
conferring gifts, and giving to some more than 
to others] : (S :) or the meaning is, writing 
[writs of] gifts, and sealing them : or, as some 


say, taking his way into the Jjlil [or regions, &c.,] 

of the land. (J K.) mm eiit, aor. - , (S, Msb,K,) 

inf. n. Jit, (S, Msb,) lie tanned it (namely a 

hide) until it became what is termed jyt. (S, 

' *• 
5. to JtiU He (a man, As, TA) came to us 
A » ' 
*>*' O-* [from a region, &c, of the land] : (As, 

K :) or came to us, and alighted at our abode 

as a guest : and in the Nawodir cl-Aarub, cu JiiU 

is said to signify he reached him, or overtook 

him ; as also <v jOiJ. (T A.) 

Ml fU 

Jiil : sec Jil. 


fjii The main and middle part (o-- 1 ) of a 

road; (K ;) the fare, or surface, thereof: (IAar, 
K :) pi. Jlit. (K.) Hence the saying, *uJ 
ijijjai\ JjI ^p ^jTJJ [Such a one sat upon the 
main and middle part, or face, or surface, of 
the road]. (TA.) — _ The flanks, or ilia : or, 
as some say, shins; or shin; as in the saying, 

,-iil O^IU ^ o^i / drank until I filled my 
skin: (JK:) pi. [or rather coll. gen. n.] of 
▼ aiit; (IAar;) which signifies the fianh ; (IAar, 
^f;) as does also ▼iiii'. (Th, K.) — Also pi., 
(S, K,) or [rather] quasi-pl. n., (M, K,) of Jgit, 

• c • ( 

^sl : sec Jisil, in two places. 

Jit* (JK, S, Mgh, Msb, K, &c.) ond t JJ| 
(»S, K) A side ; meaning a lateral, or an outward 
or adjacent, part or portion ; or a part, region, 
quarter, or tract, considered with respect to its 
collocation or juxtaposition or direction, or con- 
sidered as belonging to a whole; or a remote 
side ; syn. i^.0 ; (JK, S, Mgh, M?h, K ;) and 
a bonier, or an extremity ; (JK ;) of a land, 
or of the earth ; and of the sky, or heavens : 
( J K, Mgh, Msb:) [or the horizon, or part next 
to the hori-zon, of the sky and of the earth ;] or 
what appears of the sides (^^.lyJt) of the celestial 
sphere, (K, TA,) and of the borders, or extremi- 
ties, of the earth : (TA :) or the place whence 
blows the south wind, and the north wind, and the 
west wind, and the east wind: (K,»TA:) pi. 
JUT : (JK, S, Mgh, Msb, K :) and the sing, 
also is used as a pi.; like Jili, as is said in 

Book I.] 

the Nh : (MF :) thus in the verse of E1-' Abbas, 
in praise of the Prophet : 

• jj^i Jjy* o;u»j u« 

[ WAcn </«ou wast born, the earth became bright, 
and the tracts of the horizon, or the regions, shone 
with thy light] : or, as some say, Ji"9l is made 

fern, by him as meaning i^UI. (TA.) The 

■ - 

phrase Ji^l «^-*«J O**" means When llie redness, 

or whiteness, in the Jil [or horizon] disappears. 

(Mgh.) Also, in like manner, The side, or 

lateral part, of a tent: (JK:) or the part between 
the [two] anterior [pieces of wood called the] 

0'jj> *" '** if" 9 l mrt r " ,le<i ' Ac l (3b> of a tcnt : 
(K :) and the sides, or lateral parts, of a tent of 

the kind belonging to the Arabs of the desert. 

,,i * t 

(TA.) = Jil is also said to be a pi. of Jjil; but 

this is disallowed by Lh. (TA.)ssScc also Jil. 

iiit: sec Jil.^ Also A burying of a shin, or 
/j/'(/e, in the earth, so that its luiir inny be re- 
moved, and it nuiy become ready for tanning. 
(Lth,K,*TA.) [SecJsil.] 

"jUI, (ISk, J K, T, S, Mgh, Msb, K,) contr. to 

rule, (T, Mfb,) and t ^1, (As, ISk, S, Mgh, 
Msb, K,) agreeably with rule, (S,) being a rel. i>. 

from Jil, (Msb,) and sonic (namely the lawyers, 
in relation to pilgrimage and the like, MF) say 
♦.JUI, (Mgh, MF,) which is incorrect, (Mgh, 
Msb,) or whether it l>c correct, after the manner 
of \Jj\*aJ\ and the like, requires consideration, 
(MF,) an epithet applied to a man, (ISk,S, 
Msb,) meaning One t«7to is front the Jlil [or 
lateral parts, or regions,] of the land; (ISk,*S, 
Msb;*) mentioned by Aboo-Nasr: (S, referring 
to the Unit form of the word :) or one who goes 
about in the JUI : (JK :) or one who goes through 
the JliT of the land in search of sustenance : (K,* 
TA :) as also * Jlil. (K,TA.) i£i J^l or ii. ^jf\ 
means He who is without the place* wltere the 
pilgrims coming to Mvhhch enter upon the state of 

>ljil. (Mgh.) 

s ,i a .% 

.Jbl : sec .yul. 

Jsil : see Jil. — Applied also to a bucket 
(>**)» nieaning Excelling other buckets. (AA, 
K.) = Also, (As, Th, JK, S, Mgh, Msb, K,) 
and * iie»l, (K,) or the latter is a more particular 
term than the former, like as »jJ»- is more so 
than jJ*., (Mgh,) and * Jil, (K, [but see what 
follows,]) The shin, or hide, that is not completely 
tanned, (S, Mgh, Msb, K,) so tluit it is unsub- 
stantial, not firm, or strong, or tough : (Mgh :) 
when its tanning is complete, and it becomes red, 
it is termed ~»,»t : therefore J^il is of the measure 
^ai in the sense of tbe measure JyuU : (Msb :) 
or in the second stage of it* tanning ; for in the 
first stage it is termed if^U ; then, J s *t ; and then, 
jg>i\ : (TA :) or that it tanned, but before it is 
tewed : (As, S, K :) or before it it cut, or tlit : 
(K :) or when it comet forth from the tan, it* 

Jil — Jii\ 

tanning being finished, (JK, TA,) its [original] 
odour being [still] in it : (TA :) or after it it 
tanned: (Msb:) or not tanned: (Th, TA :) or 
that is tanned without liji or ^Joj\ or any of the 
tans of the people of Nejd : (TA :) ISd says, I 
think that Th has mentioned * Jil as syn. with 
J«il, and explained it as signifying the thin, or 
hide, that is not tanned; but I am not sure of it: 
(TA :) the pi. is Jil, (Lh, JK, S, Msb, K,) like 
as Jol is pi. of^^l, (S,) or this is a quasi-pl. n., 
(M, K,) and Jil (JK, K) is allowable, (JK,) or, 
accord, to Lh, it is not allowable, (TA,) and [pi. 
of pauc] iiil, (As, S, K,) like as iol and iiijl 
are pis. of ^jl and JUj- (As, S.) * ii-il sig- 
nifies also A .liL [or shin for water or milh &c] 
made of a hide of the kind termed Jjil. (Mgh.) 
And Jjil also signifies The thin of a man, and of 
any beast. (TA.) 

•' ' • ' . 

4Juit : sec Jjil, in two places. 

• Sit 1 't 

Jlil : sec ^iil. 

JiT, (S, K, &c.,) of the measure J*li, (S, Kz, 
TA, [in tlic CK Jil, and in like manner in a 
copy of the JK,]) from Jil, (S,K,) or, as IB 
says, accord, to Kz, from Jil, aor. - , and so 
accord, to Kr, and shown to be of the measure 
^li by several verses in which it occurs, (TA,) 
One who has attained the utmost degree in gene- 
rosity ; (S, K ;) or in knowledge, or science ; or 
in chastettess of speech, or eloquence, and in the 
combination of excellent qualities ; (K ;) as also 
t Jjjf: (K:) fem. with 5. (IF,K.) Also applied 
to a horse, Generous with respect to both parents: 
fem. widi 5. (S.) And applied to a camel, That 
excites admiration and approval by his generous- 
ness, excellence, high blood, or tlte lilte; (JK;) 
and so ▼ Jil, (JK, S,K,) applied to a horse, (S, 
K,) and a mare, (JK, S, K,) and a she-camel. 

■, » *.i 

iiil : sec Jil. 

I .- 3 .t 

jJlil : see . JA\. 



1. Oft, nor. ; , inf. n. M\, (with fet-h, S, TA, 
its only form, TA, [in die CK <iUI,]) He changed 
his, or its, manner of being, or state; (S, K ;) and 
he turned him, or it, (i. e., anything, Msb,) 
away, or back; (S, Msb,K;) t^yiJI O* [from 
the thing] ; (S ;) or a^J O* [from his, or its, 
mode, or manner, of being, &c] : (Msb :) so in 
the Kur xlvi. 21, UyJ ^ UGU UlVl Hast 
thou come to us to turn us away, or back, from 
our gods? (Bd:) or he turned him away, or 
back, by lying : (TA :) or he changed, or per- 
verted, his judgment, or opinion: (K:) or he 
deceived him, or beguiled him, and so turned him 
away, or back : and simply he deceived him, or 
beguiled him: and «iUl signifies he was turned 
from hit judgment, or opinion, by deceit, or guile. 

(TA.) It is said in the Kur [li. 9], o^ '**■ iuj/ 
jlil, i. e., He will be turned away from it 
(namely, the truth,) mho it turned away in the 
foreknowledge of God: (TA:) or, accord, to 

Mujahid, ^>il ,>• ii* 'J& i 1 " miU be meak *» 
intellect and judgment to at to be thereby turned 
away from it who it weak in intellect and judg- 
ment]. (S, TA.) You say also, J* J4-/H «*W» 
m^JI Tlte man wat turned away, or back, from 
good, or prosperity. (Sh.) And «£»l, (K, TA,) 
inf. n. as above, (TA,) He forbade him what he 
wuhed, (K, TA,) and turned him away, or back, 

from it. (TA.) M\, aor. -, ; (Msb, £ ;) and 

M, aor. '-; (IAar, K;) inf. n. ii'l (Msb, K) 

and ibl and Jiil and &jt\\ (K;) He lied; 
uttered a falsehood ; said nltat wat untrue ; 
(Msb, £ ;) as also * J&, (K,) inf. n. AjV : 
(TA :) because a lie is a saying that is turned 
from its proper way, or mode. (Bd in xxiv. 11.) 

JjJt jiif, aor. - , inf. n. jlil, He told the 

people what wat false; J\i\ and suSi\ being 
like J'jJ» and £jJ». (Az, TA.) — jiil 
U^i, (K,) inf. n. M\; (TA;) or the verb is 
▼ iUT; (so in the printed edition of Bd, xlvi. 27;) 
He, or tr, made such a one to lie, or tay what 

wat untrue. (K.) __ iiil He wat weak [at 
though perverted] in hit intellect and judgment 
or opinion. (K,* TA.) But all! «£il as meaning 
God rendered weak hit intellect is not used. (L, 
TA.)_J It (a place) was not rained upon, and 
had no vegetation, or lurbage. (K, TA.) 

2 : sec 1. 
4: sec 1. 

8. SjJUt --&■>* [written with the disjunctive 
alif cii^lL (S, K,) \jilf, (S,) The land, or 
district, or tlte town, or tlte like, was, or became, 
overturned, or subverted, (S, K,) with its inhabit- 
ants : (S :) as were the towns of the people of 
Lot. (TA.)_ Hence it is said of El-Basrah, 
,j*>f» VUW C-fa" 'I >>*, meaning J It hat been 
submerged with its inhabitants twice ; as though 
subverted. (Sh.)_You say also, iU3 c . Cfc d 
l>»j*^I I That land hat been burnt up by drought. 

J\i\ [an inf. n. used as a subst. ;] A lie ; a 
falsehood; (S,TA;) as also ti^i( : pi. (of the 
latter, K) jfclif. (S,K.) You say, *i4*fJj W, and 

* 1 * * 

* ii-i'Jj C ; [and T 2S$Syi, using the dim. form 
for the purpose of enhancement; i. e. O the lie! 
and the great lie .'] the J with fet-h denoting 
calling to aid ; and with kesr denoting wonder, as 
though the meaning were, O man, wonder thou 
at this great lie. (TA.) 

2&I [so in the TA, without any syll. signs ; 
app. either <&il, an inf. n. of un., or T iiil, like 
is*b ;] A punishment sent by God, whereby the 
dwellings of a people are overturned : occurring 
in a trad, relating to the story of the people of 
Lot (TA.) 

iiil ii-« J A year of drought or sterility : (K, 


TA:) pi. Jx±\ 3 \ [contr. to rule, aa though the 
eing. weret&T]. (Z, TA.) 

Jyi : see iJlil. 

jVe»l One who is turned from hi* judgment, or 

opinion, by deceit, or guile ; aa also ♦ J^iU. ( K.) 
... Lacking strength or /ran-CT- or ability, and 
having little prudence and artifice. (Lth, K.)= 

See also jlif. 

Ii ' •• 

iOt: »ee iJil, in three places Also A 

tevere, or distressing, calamity. (Ibn-Abbad.) 

%...l t. 

aj^il : aee .-Ait. 

Jlil A great, or habitual, liar ; (S, Msb, K ;) 
at also t jy{ f (Mab, K,) and * J^il : (K :) fcm. 
of the- first [and last] with 5: but the second is 
botft masc. and fem. : (Msb :) the pi. of the 

second is Aii with dainin [i. e. ibl, accord, to 
the rule of the K, but the TA seems to indicate 

that it ia j\»\, by likening it to the pi. of J9 ~o]. 


k*T: aee 3&\ : and ace k»l 3jL. 

i)yU [Changed in hit, or ir«, manner of being, 
or stars : turned away, or fcacA, /row a AtM : 
tec] : aee &£\. _ TTsan [as rAou^A perverted] 
in hie intellect (AZ, 8, K) ana" judgment or 
opinion ; aa also £jiU : (AZ, S :) accord, to 
A'Obeyd, (or AA, aa in one copy of the 8,) a 
man who dues not attain, or obtain, good, or pros- 
perity. (8.) —Also, (K,) fem. with i, (S,K,) 
t A place, (K,) or land, (»>;!, S, Z,) not rained 
upon, and having no vegetation, or herbage. (S, 


Ol&jjl (S, K) and talpt, (TA,) both 
occurring in the Kur, [the former in ix. 71 and 
lxix. 9, and the latter in liii. 54,] The cities over- 
thrown, or subverted, by Ood, upon the people of 
Lot. (?,K.) — The former also aignifiea The 
wind* that turn over [the surface of] the earth, 
or around : (K :) or the winds that blow from 
different quarters : it ia said (by the Arabs, S) 
that when these winds blow much, the earth (i. e. 
its seed-produce, TA) thrivea, or yielda increase. 

1. Ji'f, (T, 8, Msb, K,) said of a thing, (Mab,) 
or of the moon, (T,) and cJil, said of the sun, 
(T,§, M,) and of the stars, (M,) aor. ; and '- , 
inf. n. Jyi (T, 8, M, Msb, K) and Jif, (M, 
Msb,) It wot, or became, absent, or hidden, or 
concealed; (T, 8, Msb, K ;) it set; (T, 8, M, 
&c ;) and so Ji\, *or. - . (K.)_ Hence, Jil 
jJUl O* u"^* Such a one became absent, or went 
away, from the country, or town. (Msb.) 

J-» I A yoim# cams/ svcA <u u termed ^UJ J*l 
[i. e. fAat Aa< entered it* second year] ; (As, £1- 
Fardbee,8,M,Msb,K;) and the like; (8;) or, 
and also such a* i* above this [in age]; (£1- 
Farabee, M, Msb, K ;) or, and also such a* it 
termed Or* 0*[ [»■ e - that *«* entered the third 

year]; beyond which it is not so called: (As, 
TA:) or that is seven months old, or eight: (As, 
Msb:) or a youthful camel: (AZ, Msb :) and 
also (M, K) a young weaned camel; syn. J-r* : 
(T, M, Msb, K :) fem. with J : (As, S :) pi. JUt 
(T, S, M, K) and JJlil, (Sb, S, M, K,) which 
latter they liken to ^-3Ui as pi. of vy'i- (M.) 
[In my copy of the Msb, the pi. is said to be 
Allit : and it is also there said, on the authority of 
IF, that Atlil signifies the young ones of sheep.] 
It is said in a prov., J^l ^. j£ai (Jj [The 
stallion-camel is only that which has increased in 
growth from the young one in its second year, 
&c]; i. e. what is great has begun small. (TA.) 

Jil part. n. of 1, (T, TA,) applied to the moon, 
and to^ any star : (TA :) fem. with i : (T, TA :) 
pi. o>kJ (Kur vi. 76 [the rational form of the pi. 
being there used because it is applied to stars as 
being likened to gods]) and JM and Jy'f. (TA.) 


•if , »** , »«J ••< til » ,i 

Ail and <ol and Ail and as I and Ail and »*il 

and tyl : see <J>\. 


0>e*'» L»*e JyU^, but this is of a very extr. 
measure; or, as some write it, .*i*il, like ', J r'r 
&c.;J oro>«ij, [»Keo^;] (accord, to different 
copies of the K, art. (jji ;) [an arabicized word, 
from the Greek inrtor, either immediately or 
through the Persian (Jjei 1 ; meaning Opium :] 
the milk [or juice] of the black Egyptian JSU l 'i 
[or popy>y, or papaver somnifcrum] ; (Kl ;) or the 
milk of the ui U,,:* , r/*« oc*t o/ Witc/i m </te 
6ZacA Egyptian ; (TA ;) or the expressed juice 
of the black Egyptian JA± lei , dried in the 
sun: cold and dry in the fourth degree: (Ibn- 
Seena, or Avicenna, i. 133 :) beneficial for hot 
tumours, especially in the eye ; torporific (to the 
intellect, TA) : t'n a small quantity, beneficial, 
and soporific : in a large quantity, a poison : 
(K [the lexicographers regard the word as 
Arabic :] some, among whom is the author of 
the lj£L, hold that it belongs to art. s j t i : others, 
that it belongs to art j^JI. (TA.) 

• » # tl 

ijtjaJH : see art. y*J- 


1. iiil, aor. . , (S,^,) inf. n. ill, (S,) He 
made it (namely food) with J*5I, q. v. infra. 
(§, J£..) _ Also, (acr. and inf. n. as above, TA,) 
He fed him with kit: (A'Obeyd, IC :) like i3 

from ,>J, and »U from U : Lh mentions the 
verb in this sense as used without its being made 
transitive. (TA.) _ [L*\ in the CK is a mistake 
for Jail, q. v.] 

4. iil, (Lh,^, [in the CK, incorrectiy, ikSI,]) 
of the measure JjoI, agreeably with a common 
rule, applying to anything, (Lh, TA,) He had 

[Boos I. 

much Jail; his Jail became much, or abundant. 
(Lh, K.) 

8. J*aZjI [written with the disjunctive alif JaiLl] 
/Tc mnrfc, or prepared, Jail : (S :) strangely 
omitted in the O and in the ]£. (TA.) 

iil (Fr,Az,S, Msb,K) and lit (Fr,0,K) 
and iil (Fr,K) and lil, (8,0,Msb,K,) the 
last sometimes occurring in poetry, and formed 
from the first, by transferring the vowel of the J 
to the preceding letter, (S,) or a contraction of 
the second, accord, to a common usage of [the 
tribe of] Temeem in the cases of words of this 

measure, (O,) and Ut (K) and iil, (As, K,) of 
all which the first is the most chaste, and the 
last is strange, (TA,) [A preparation of dried 
curd;] a preparation of, or thing made from, 
milk (Az, Msb, K) ofsliee.p or goats, (K,) which 
lias been churned, and of which the butter has 
been taken, (Az, M?b, K,) rooked, arid then left 
until it becomes concrete: (Az, Msb :) or made 
from the milk of camels, in particular: (IAar:) 
or milk which is dried, and has become liard, 
like stone; with which one cooks; repeatedly 
mentioned in trads. : (TA :) or a thing made 
from milk; being a kind of cheese : (Harp. 687:) 

pi. oU»»'i. (K.) 

il»l A maker o/Jaif. (TA.) 

• >t, t 

J»yU Food made with Jail. (S.) 

1. J^>l He trod wheat. (IAar, K.) 

2. o£>i, inf. n. J^feU, i. q. j^,j, (S, Msb, K,) 
of which it is a dial. var. ; (S ;) but it is not so 
chaste as the latter, and by some is disallowed. 

4. j£a\ i. q. «v£>jl. (S in art. j£»y) 

5. j£»15 i. q. j£ayi. (S and K. in art. «*£»j.) 

il£»l sing, of Jjlibf and J^>U, (K,) both of 
which are irrcg. in relation to their sing., (TA,) 
signifying (i. c. the pis.) Thongs, or straps, by 
which f/ie ^r>»J it bound to the two side-boards 
of a horse's siuLlle. (K.) [See also >\£»y] 

t ( 

.Xe^l Firm ; (K, TA ;) applied to a covenant, 

or compact. (TA.) 

1. y=>l, aor. - , inf. n. jS»\, He tilled the 

ground ; ploughed it up for towing. (Msb.) 

He dug the ground. (TA.) _ He cut, or dug, 

a river, or canal, or rivulet. (Msb.) Andysl, 

aor i , (TA,) inf. n. as above ; (K ;) and *yLb ; 
(K ;) He dug a hollow, or cavity, in the ground, 
for water to collect therein and. to be baled out 
therefrom clear : (K, TA :) or \j£>\ t jjLlS signi- 
fies he dug hollows, or cavities, in the ground. (S.) 

3. »j£>1, (TK.) inf.n. S^fc, (S,K,) He 
made a contract, or bargain, with him to till 
and sow and cultivate land for a share of it* 
produce; syn. of the inf. n. fy£J». (S, K, TA) 
The doing of this is forbidden. (TA.) 

Book I.] 
5 : see 1, in two places. 

5y=»l A hollow, or cavity, dug in the ground, 

(8, Msb, £,) in which mater collect*, and from 

• * I 
roAtcA tt t» baled out clear : (K :) pi. j£>\. (S, 

Msb.) ■ Also a dial. var. of YjL, (K.) [A 6a«] 

with which one play*: (TA :) [and a sphere, or 

globe :] but it is of weak authority. ($.) 

•jli»t , as used in practical law, Land which i* 
given by its owners to men who sow and cultivate 
it [app. for a certain share of its produce : see 
3]. (Mgh.) 

jl£»l A tiller, or cultivator, of land : (Msb, 
K:) pi. ij£»\ ; as though it were pi. of^t, 
(8, Msb, $,) like as S>£» is pi of >Ub. (Msb.) 

S. »_tt£>NI vJ^>l, inf. n. Jc&U, i/e made the 
wilfel ; (1£ ;) as also a*£>j, inf. n. \J^yi ; 
which latter, accord, to 1 F, is the original form. 
(TA.) Sec also 4. 

4. jli-Jl o£>K (S,Mgh,Msb,IC,) inf.n. Jl^l, 
(K,) He bound, (S, K, TA,) or put, (Msb, TA,) 
the «_»l£>t i/;»m '/«• w ; (8, Msb, K ;) as also 
* k&l j *(Sgli, K ;) and '*i&> 3 \ ; (8, Mgh, K ;) 
which is of the dial, of the people of El-Hijiiz ; 
the first being of the dial, of Benoo-Tcmecm : 
and in like manner, JiJI the mule. (Lh.) 

Jl£»l (8, Mgh, Msb, K) and Jl£>», (K,) as 
also JV£>^ (S, Mgh, Msb, JC.) and Jv£>], (K 

in art. »J£>j,) The **■)>}>, [i. c. pad, or stuffed 
saddle, generally stuffed with straw,] (]£,) of the 
ass, (S, Mgh, MhI), K,) and also used for the 
mule, and for the camel ; (TA in art. »_*£=>_) ;) a 
saddle like the J*»j and »_^5 : (TA :) and a saddle 
of a horse made in the form of the a**'* ol£»t, 
having at its fore part [or pommel] a thing 
resembling a pomegranate : (Mgh :) [see also 
,^ii :] pi. [of pauc] U£o\ (TA) and [of mult.] 

vii>1. (S, Mgh, Msb, TA.) Yaakoob asserts 
that the I in \J\£o\ is a substitute for the • in 
yj\£sy (TA.) A rdjiz says, 

t[0/" tAe eaters o/what they purchase with the 
price of water, wrongfully, I do not see any attain 
good after their eating of what they have pur- 
chased with the price of the water,] he means 
a people who used to sell water and purchase 
with the price thereof what they would eat : 
(TA :) [for you say, \j& ji»l as meaning jHe 
ate the price of such a thing : see another ex. voce 
wil^l ; and another voce (^jkJ.]__The saying, 
in the ^ur [v. 70], wli ^ ^ o* lji**j 
^v-Vj 1 [They should eat things above them and 
tilings beneath their feet] means, their means of 
subsistence should be made ample; (Bd, TA ;) 
by the pouring of the blessings of the heaven and 
the earth upon them ; or by the abundance of the 
fruit of the trees, and the produce of the grains 
sown ; or by their being blessed with gardens 
of ripe fruits, so that they should gather them 
from the upper part of each tree, and pick up 
what should have fallen upon the ground. (Bd.) 

_*i£>l «iuLJl [lit. His eating became cut off, 

or stopped,] means \he died; [see also J£s\ ;] 
and so <Uj=>I ^»y^l [lit. he completed his eating]. 

(TA.) __ *5jj Ji»l [lit He ate his life,] means 
t he became extremely aged, and his teeth fell out, 
one after another. (TA.) — Jjli\ jialj yi, 

and ^tJlvt^aJ J^=>b [lie eat* men, and eat* 
the flesh of men,] means J he defame* men ; or 
does to in tlieir absence : (TA :) and the action 
thus signified may be [with words, or by making 
signs] with the side of the mouth, and with the 
eye, and with the head. (TA in art. >»* ) It is 

. » * ■ » i 


meaning [ Verily we have some lean asses] which 
eat every night the price of an ol^t. (TA.) 

yJ\£o\ The maker of the kind of saddle called 
wil&1. (K.) 


1. «&t, [aor. t ,] inf. n. Ji»l and Ji»U, [He 
ate it,] (S, 1£,) namely, food. (§.) Er-Rum- 


manee says that J^l properly signifies The 

swallowing food after chewing it; so that the 
swallowing of pebbles is not properly thus termed : 
(Msb:) or, accord, to Ibn-El-Kemal, the convey- 
ing, or transmitting, to the belly what may be 
chewed, whether [tlie thing be] chewed or not; so 
that it docs not apply to milk, nor to Jm>-. : and 
as to the saying of the poet, 

said in the Kur [xliz. 12], ^jl 
** * t * • * * t t' 
U~« «e*»t j^J J£>k [^^ Would any one of you 

like to eat the flesh of hit brother when dead ?] ; 

defamation, or defamation of the absent, being 

meant thereby. (S, # Ibn-'Arafch, Bd, Jel.) — — 

\->fZ>} l««^ c^ 3 ' I [He ate the flesh of my theep, 

and drank the milk of them, means, like J^l 

j^IU, he ate, fed upon, devoured, or consumed, 

my wealth, or property : see 2]. (TA.) _ 

v^JokaJI jUI cJL&t \The fire devoured, or mh- 

sutned, tlie firewood. (S, Mgh.) _ tjUfcl cJ^I 

SjU. ■> II I [Tlie stones wore away his nails]. (TA.) 

_jyi l^fel ^ ^i ityl t[7V«e 3 in ^, 
<Ae (_j ha* swallowed it up] ; because it is originally 
^£ii/* ■ a phrase occurring in the 'Eyn. (TA.) 
^>j+c J£>l I He consumed hi* life. (Mgh.)_ 
It is said in a trad., (TA,) J£»\3 i£L oj-i 
\jji)\ I [I have been commanded to have given 
unto me a town which thai! devour the other 
town*] ; (K, TA ;) said to be Yethrib [afterwards 
called El-Mcdceneh] ; (TA ;) i. e., the people 
of which shall conquer the [other] towns and 
make spoil of their possessions : or it denotes the 
superior excellence of that town ; and is like the 

saying, ^jU^I Ji>U >i-jjl- ijjk [This it a 
tradition which does away with, or overrule*, the 
other tradition*]. (Sgh .$, TA.) ^k&I ji»l 

,,^13)1 means I The knife'* cutting the fleth. (TA.) 

— i^-'j j^» inf - n - ^4 Md *-'^ > ' and •- , ^ , ' , 

t My head itched. (?, TA.) An Arab was 
heard to say, [as is often said in the present day,] 

^fJj^h (JJJ^- 1 My thin itches. (TA.)—» JJ=>I, 
aor. '- , (K,) inf. n. ji.1, (TA,) J It (a limb, or 
member, [and a sore,] and a piece of stick, or 
wood,) became corroded or cankered, or decayed, 
by the mutual eating away of it* several part* f 
as also t J£i3l [written with the disjunctive alif 
jii.ll.widvj^k ($,TA.)_o^l*-H£»<» 
(S, Msb, K,) aor. and inf. n. as in the next pre- 
ceding sentence, (Msb,) \The teeth rubbed together 
and watted away ; by reason of age ; (S ;) or fell 
out, one after another: (Msb:) or broke in 
pieces, or became much broken : (J$. :) and 
tcJibU signifies the same; (S, Msb;) and so 

♦ cJUm. (§•) ii&t ci£>», aor. S inf.n. 

Jl&l, iThe she-camel experienced an itching 
and annoyance in lier belly, (8, O, $,) from the 
growth of tlie liair, (8, 0,) or from the growth 
of tlie fur, (K,) of her'fcetu*. (8, O, %.) 

2. [*X£»1, inf. n. Je&U, He made him to eat 

a thing.] *£ij ^U j£>\, (S, ?,) inf. n. as 

above, (I£,) [lit. JBTt moae people to eat my 
property, and made them to drink it,] means 
t he fed men, or the people, with my property, of 

cattle. (8,^,TA.)_v^O 6^U J}* J^» 
(so in some copies of the K and in the TA,) or 
•i/s^t) J^»ii> 0*0 in two copiesof the § and in 
a copy of the $») [of which the former is app. 
the right reading, as the lit meaning seems to be 
My cattle pasted the day made to eat and made 
to drink,] i. e., \patturing as they pleated. (§, 

]£,TA.) ;J^M *JL£»», inf.n. as above, \He 

charged against him, or accused him of doing, tlie 
thing; as also * ijLfi»T, (K, TA,) inf. n. JUJt 
(TA.) In [some of] the copies of the £» for 
»Ujt, we here find, erroneously, *lej. (TA.) 
You say, Ji>T^ U ^j&L's [lit Thou hast made 
me to eat what I have not eaten,] meaning I thou 
hast charged against me, or accused me of doing, 
what I have not done; as also t ^3^ 1. (§, 
TA.) So too, vj^'O £ t^P 1, (§ and ^ in 

3. 'eJ£>\, inf.n. ai.1V* (§»?) an > d J^J* (?») 
7/e a/e n>t{A Aim ; (8, K ;) as also A&bj, though 
of weak authority ; (K ;) or this latter is not 
allowable. (S, Sgh.) ii£a\£ which is for- 
bidden in a trad, is t A debtor'* giving a thing to 
his cre-Htor in order that he may abstain from 
taking the debt. (TA.) 

4. J£>T, [inf. n. Jl£>J,] said of the palm-tree, 
and of seed-produce, (8, £,) and of any tiling, 
(S,) It had ripe fruit ; it supplied food. (8, £.) 

,-^£)l Jj£>T, (S, $,) inf. n. as above, (§,) He 

gave him to eat the thing ; he fed him with the 
thing. (S,* K. ) — See also 2, in two places. __ 
jUI J^l t He fed, or supplied, the fire with fuel 
(S.)_- ,^-UI ^y„t Jfef, (A,K,) inf. n. as above, 
(8, 0,) J He buried himtelf among the people 
with propagating calumnies : (8, 0, TA :) or Ae 
created, or excited, disagreement, dissension, or 


$!rife, among them; or made, or did, mischief 
among them: (A, TA :) or he incited them, one 

against another. ($.) £yi j&£a\, (S,) or 

C^li li^i J£>~\, ($, [in the C£, erroneously, 

-j>* «J^»]) ♦ * made thee, (S,) or he made such 
a one, (£,) to have dominion, or authority, or 
power, over such a one. (S, JC.) 

5. J^U : see 1, latter part, in two places : — 
and see also 8. _ Also, said of a sword, (S, K,) 
and of silver (£, TA) molten, (TA,) and of 
lightning, and of collyrium, and of aloes, (K,) 
and of any tiling shiny, (TA,) J It shone, gleamed, 
or glistened, (S, £, TA,) much, or intensely; (£;) 
when said of a sword, by reason of its sharpness. 

8. J£Z\ [with the disjunctive alif Ji%t] : see 

1, latter part, in two places. __J£jli iUIi Ul 
Dost thou not cease to eat our flesh, [i. e., to 
wound our reputations, (see 1,)] and to defame 
us? (Aboo-Nasr, TA.) But sec below CJUSM 

jUI t The fire flamed, or blazed, vehemently; as 
though one part thereof devoured another. (TA.) 
_tU* Jfctfl, (£,) or ^Jxill ^, (§,) l He 
burned, or burned fiercely, with, or fty reason of, 
anger. (S, £.) The phrase mentioned above, 
J£U JA-L3 Ul, is also cited as an ex. of this 
meaning. (S, TA.) You sny likewise, *U J&SI 
I He was, or became, angry with him, and excited, 
or provoked, against him, ($, TA,) and vehement, 
or .tfiiTc ; (T A ;) as also «tu t J£»\3. (£.) 

10. . Jy£)l aJL£>UwI I 7f« <wAerf, or %<7«f, o/ 
Aim fo assign to him the thing, or to make it be 
to him, as a means of subsistence, or a thing to be 

eaten. (K, TA.) — &LeJI JiblilJ \He takes 


[xiii. 35], J^b #£>| [J/, ^«/| 8 hall be per- 
petual] : (S, TA :) meaning that the fruits thereof 
shall be not as those of the present world, which 
come to one at one time and not at another. 
(TA.) [PI. Jl&f; occurring in the M and K in 
art. yt.] — { Means of subsistence : (K :) worldly 
good fortune, (S,K,) and ample means of subsist- 
ence. (S.) You say, J£»\ £ {fjj J Such a one 
is possessed of worldly good fortune, and ample 
means of subsistence : (S :) and J^^JI 

(8,&, TA) and devours (TA) the possessions of 
the weak ones. (8,5,TA.) 

Jiil: see Ji>t. 

J&l inf. n. of J&l [q. v.] Jfel *iull J> 

I In his teeth is a rubbing together and wasting 
away ; by reason of age. (8, TA.) See also Jil 

Jfi»( [partn. of J£>f] iX£»\ Si\i fA she- 
camel experiencing an itching and annoyance in 
her belly, (8, £,) from the growth of the hair, 
(? ( ) or from the growth of the fur, (1£,) of her 
foetus. (8, K.)__ [J^>^)l is erroneously put, in 
the CK, for j&y, in a sense explained below.] 

Ji>l and ♦ JM] (?, Msb,S, &c. ;) the latter 
a contraction of the former ; (Msb ;) What is 
eaten ; (8, Msb, TA ;) as also *Sii»l and *aii»l 

(Lh, TA) and ♦ 2\£sL and » SSJdL (M ? b, £) 

i i jL 
and »Jy»U; (Lh, Msb;) any eatable; i.e. 

anything tluit is eaten ; (8 ;) and t Jl£»t signifies 
[the same, an eatable, or] food. (S,TA.) You 
say of one who is dead, iSJ»\ *SJu\ [His food 
has become cut off, or stopped: in die TA, sSs»\ : 
see 1], (8.) And t •Jl&l „£j> u I have not 
tasted food (8, T A.) — Fruit (S, $ [in the 
latter of which, in some copies, li£j| is put for 
j**J\, erroneously, as is said in the TA]) of palm- 
trees and other trees [fcc.]. (S.) So in the Kur 

: possessed of [great] good fortune; or of a [great 
and] good share of the means of subsistence. 
(TA.) _ J Thickness, substantialness, or closeness 
or compactness of texture, of a garment, or piece 
of cloth ; (S, $, TA ;) and strength thereof. (K.) 

v ' ! ' * *» 

You say J^l ^} ^y J ^1 garment, or piece of 
cloth, having thickness, &c. : and Jj&I ^ v&j* 
\ paper liaving thickness, &c. (S* TA.) \ In- 
telligence ; judgment; (Aboo-Nasr, S,K;) firm- 
ness of intellect. (K,TA.) Yousiiy jial^ijlj 
I A man possessing intelligence and judgment. 
(Aboo-Nasr, S, TA.) 

3jJo\ A single act of eating (S, Mgh, Msb, £) 
until one is satisfied. (S.) Hence the saying, 

JllaJI^ l\ji&\ ^,Ui£»l iliijl, meaning That to 

which people are accustomed is two acts of eating, 

the eating of the morning-meal and that of the 

evening-meal. (Mgh.) See also ii&l, in two 

* i i 
places. — And see J^»l, first sentence. 

Ul * 

iX£=>\ A morsel, or small mouthful, of food. 

(S, Mgh, Msb, IC.) [For the pi., sec below.] You 
say, ij^-\ i ii&>\ cJlisI I ate one morsel (S.) 

And iX&l <cji-b J&l t[//« «<« a morsel by 
meant of defaming Am brother] is said, in a trad., 
of a man who is on terms of brotherhood with 
another, and then goes to his enemy, and speaks 
of him in a manner not good, in order that he 
may give him a present for doing so. (TA.)__ 
A small round cake of bread; syn. 2u>jS; (S,K;) 
a single ^e^ : (Mgh :) pi. j£»\, as below. (TA.) 

— See also J^l Also + i. q. Ud> ; (S, ^ ;) 

which is also syn. with t iii=.U ; (S, Msb, K, in 
art ^»«l» ;) i. e. An assigned, or appointed, means 
of subsistence ; such as a grant of a tract of land; 
and a tax, or portion of a tax or taxes; and the 

like ; (Mgh in explanation of i**i», and TA in 
explanation of tin? same and of aJ&U in art. >c *l> ;) 
and [it is also said that] ▼ iiiaU signifies a thing 
that is assigned, or appointed, or granted, to a 
man, so that he is not to be reckoned with, or 
called to account, for it : (TA in the present art. :) 
[thus it applies to any absolute grant, either of 
land, (as an allodium, an appanage, $c.,) or of 

revenue:] pi. Ji»l (£) [and app. also Jl£»T, 
which see below]. You say, M ii^l i'Jl\ ijuL 

This thing is a i»*i» ro t/iee, or for thee. (S.) 

See also ijUsl. = Also, and ♦ HL\ (S, Z, Sgh, 

Kl) and • iiL\, (Kr, ^,) J Defamation ; or de- 
famation oftlte absent. (S, Z, Sgh, K.) You say, 
iX£>l j Jj <& and * ii&l (8, TA) and * aj&l 

[Book I. 

(TA) J Verily he is one who defames men ; or, 
who does so in their absence. (S, TA.) 

!' • 

aX&I A mode, or manner, (K,) or state, or 

condition, (S, K,) t» which one eats : (S, ^ :*) like 

«t ,.. w » and i^>j : (S, TA :) and the posture of 

the eater, reclining or sitting. (TA.) You say, 
* • # * * * jfl 
iX^NI ^j .*) 4J! [Fisri/y Ae Aa* a yoori mode, 

kc., of eating]. (S.) See also 3jJm\, last two 

sentences. __ t The itcA : or an itching : (S, K :) 

as also t Jl£,|, (As,S,K,) [see ^ij ^S^\, of 
which both are said to be inf. ns.,] and T JJJ»\ : 
(K :) so the last is written accord, to the correct 
copies of tlie 1^ : accord, to Esh-Shihah, in the 

Shifil cl-Ghnlcel, it would seem to be liml ; but 
this is at variance with the authority of the leading 
lexicologists: the same word, SJL£»l, is also ex- 
plained in the K. as signifying a disease in a liml, 
or member, in consequence of which one part is 
[as it were] eaten by another ; [a meaning which 

I believe to be correct, (see Jli»l,) although SM 
says,] but this is identical with the itch, or an 

itching : and " (j'jUfel is a vulgar terra for the 

* tt " 
same; and so is "Ufel, with medd, given as 

correct by Eth-Tha'ulibcc, in [his book entitled] 

the Muditf and Mensoob, but disallowed by El- 

Khafiijcc. (TA.) One says, ^JuL^. ^ j».^' ^J\ 

iX&J t [Verily I exjicrience in my body an itch- 

ing.] (S.) 

«< i m r • 

U£>t : sec iX£>\. 


ttet « ■ i 

*X£>\ : sec Jj£>1. 

• ' » I |r • 

0^>l : sec iX£o\. 

Jl&l : sec J^l, first and second sentences. 

Jlfel I A corrosion, or cankering, or decaying, 
of a limb, or member, [and of a sore,] from tke 
mutual eating away of its several parts; as also 
*Jl£»l. (K,TA.) [Sec also SJ£>\, voce il4l , 
where a similar meaning is assigned to the former 
of these two words ; and the same seems to be 
indicated in the Msb.] — _ See also another signifi- 

cation voce il£»l Jlfel l^, said of a she- 
camel, t She has an itching and annoyance in her 
belly, (S, K,) from the growth of the hair, (S,) 
or of tlie fur, (K,) of Iter foetus. (S, £.) 

Jlfet : see J\£»\. 

J^ial J4J and t iX£»\ and * J-*>( all signify 
die same ; (K ;) i. c. A man who eats much ; 
[who is a great eater; edacious; voracious;] as 

alsotjll,'. (TA.) 

< c 

J-£>l One. who eats with another. (S, TA.)_ 

Sec also J£»l:_and sec J^/=>l. = 7. q. TJ^£>U 
[as signifying Eaten]. (TA.) __Sce also iL&l. 

•- i * 

a!^£»I A sheep, or goat, which is set apart (8, 

Msb, K) to be eaten, (S, Mgh, 5») ['• e-] to be 
slaughtered, (Msb,) and which is fattened, (8, 
Mgh,) and the taking of which by the collector of 
the poor-rate is disapproved; (S;) not left to 
pasture by itself, being of the best of the beasts : 
(Msb :) and * iL-=l occurs in the same sense. 

Book I.] 

applied to a sheep, or goat, fattened to be eaten. 
(Mgh.) Hence the prov., aj^fel S£ ^j* [lit. 
Pasturage, and no <U^>1] ; meaning t wealth 
collected together, and none expended. (TA.) — 
Also Darren; applied to a sheep or goat [app. 
because such is generally eaten]. (If.) 

<U^£>I : see what next follows. 

aJU=>l and * Je&l and * iJy£»l, with two 
dammehs, (If,) so in the copies of the K, but 
perhaps a mistake for ♦ iX&l, (TA,) a word of a 
bad dial., (K,» TA,) and * Jybli and * Jfrl£-, 
(IS., TA, [in some copies of the former of which, 
instead of ^ijjlj J^>Olj <U-«$ ^»j, mean- 
ing, as is said in the TA, *»-~S i*J ^ykj occ, we 

find J£>t>Jlj Jj^>fol 2*~J \j£>]) A * hee P> or 
goat, which it set (If, TA) in the lurhing-place of 
a hunter (TA)for the purpose of catching thereby 

tlie wolf and the lilte. (If, TA.) And the first 

two words, (%,) or *li &*£»!, (?, Mgh, Msb,) 
A beast which lias been eaten, (S,* If,) or partly 
eaten, (Mgh, Msb,) by a beast or bird of prey, 
(8, Mgh, Mfb, K,) and then rescued from it : 
(Mgh, TA :) the i in iL£>l being added because 
the quality of a subst. is predominant in it. (S.) 

— 8ee also i)y=>l. 

• si * i * 

Jl£»1 : sec J^£>1. 

J£»\ Eating ; or an eater ; as also * J-^»l : 

pi. Sii»l. (§,lf.) You say, ^A, iX£>\ ^ [lit 
They are eaters of a head] ; meaning t they are 
few; one head satisfying their stomachs. (S.)_ 

IU»T J Pasturing beasts. ftf.TA.) ^Ui\iX^>\ 

J T/ie knife; (If, TA ;) because it cuts the flesh : 
(TA :) and tlie pointed stuff or stick ; (IS., TA ;) 
as being likened thereto: (TA :) And fire: (Jf :) 
and whips ; (Sh, K ;) because they burn the skin. 
(TA.) JA^I, [in the Clf , erroneously, J£>*)\,] 

t The king. (If, TAJ [Opposed to Jjfefol, 
q. v.]_ C^JI J^l t [Tlie receiver of usury]: 
occurring in a trad., in which it is said, J^»l ^j*i 
t A&y*} 1^)1 J [Tke receiver of usury it cursed, 
and the giver thereof]. (TA.) 

al£>T fern, of Jj£>T, q. v. _ See also l&t. 

Jl&l [app. a pi. of pauc. of Jsl, q. v., and of- 
J^»l, agreeably with analogy,] J The [grants 
termed] J£>U of kings; (K;) their j*L [pi. of 

i**l», explained above, voce il£»l]. (TA.)_ 
t The stipends of soldiers. (K.) _ Jl£>S)l jji, 

for which J has erroneously put Jl£»^)l, [in the 
8,] (TS,£,) without ju>, (TA,) jr/i« tor*, or 
chiefs, of the tribes, who take the ety* [or fourth 
part of the spoil, which was the chief's portion in 
the time of ignorance] (S, TS,$,TA) $c. (TA.) 

J£»U, (6,) [in measure] like jjuU, (TA,) [an 
inf. n. of j^>t, q. v. :_and also signifying] 
Catn. (S, TA.) — [Also A place, and a time, 
of eating : pi. Jj£»U.] 

* - tj 

J^>>* f Fortunate; possessed of good fortune; 

prosperous. (Aboo-Sa'eed, K.) 
Bk. I. 

£)l J^j* X [The giver of usury : see Jm, 
last sentence]. (TA.) 

iiiaU and * 2JL£>U : see J£>1 : — and for 
the former, see also iX£=>\, m two places.— 
Also, both words, t. q. ij** [i. e. Corn, or any 
provision, which a man brings, or purveys, for 
himself or his family, or for sale]. (If.) — Also 
used in the sense explained above, voce Jj£»1, [as 
a subst.,] and likewise as an epithet, so that one 
says aJi£>U »U> [as meanings! sheep, or goat, that 
is eaten]. (If.) — Both words signify [also] A 
place whence one eats. (S, O.) — [And hence] 

one says, U£>U li-^i CtJsiSl and ai£»U t [I 
took for myself such a one as a person from whom 
to obtain what to eat]. (S, O.) — [The pi. is 
J£s>U : of which see an ex. voce Jl&l.] 

lii»U : see the paragraph next preceding, 

iisLL Anything in [i. e. out of] which one 
eats: (Lh,K:) or [bowls of the kind called] 
_'\' m ,r, (S,) or a [bowl of tlie kind called] U rn ** , 
(TA,) in which the tribe find it easy to cook, 
(so in a copy of the S and in the TA,) or to put, 
(so in another copy of the S,)fleth-meat and [the 
kind of porridge catted] l j **» : (8, TA :) or 
a bowl not so large as a Vm . « , but next to it 
in size, that satisfies the stomachs of two men, 
or three : (S voce Ms* ■> :) [or] a small [bowl 
of the kind called] iLeS, that satisfies the stomachs 
of three : and a small [cooking-pot such at it 
called] Uji. (K.) 

• . t. 

J^£>U : see 

«ieS»l. — : The subjects of a king. (Z, 5, TA.) 

Hence the trad., Vyl&l £y y~m- jt*^ Oi^-* 
X The subjects of Himyer are better than their 
king, or ruler. (Z, TA.) 

Jlfii* A spoon : (If :) because one eats with 
it. (TA.) 

J&£i : see &*£»! Also, [like * J£»uli,] 

tOne who takes and devours the possessions of 
men. (TA.) 

: see what next precedes 

J*£»l : and J3>\ : — and 

2. j*£a& The being big in the JjJ» [i. e. the 
hinder parts, or posteriors, also termed i*i»U]. 
(O, K.) You say, St^Jt w*ȣ>l 7ne woman w<m 
tor^ in the Ji£>. (T^.)' 

10. ^£>Uwl Jt (a place) became what are termed 
j&\, q. v. (^.) = ill4~« >^^-' He (a man, 
TA) found his sitting-place to be plain, smooth, 
toft, or easy to sit upon. (If.) 

• ' * 

j^a\ : see what next follows. 

• - ' i &' 

<U&I A kill, or mound, syn. Jj, (Msb, K,) 

[in an absolute sense, or] of what it termed «J«3 

[q. v.], (If,) or, as in the M, (TA,) of a tingle 

collection of stones : or it is inferior to mountains: 

or a place that it more elevated than what it 


around it, and it rugged, not to the degree of 
being ttone : (If :) or an isolated mountain : 
(^ voce J^:) or an eminence like what it 
termed a^>lj: a collection of ttonet in one place, 
sometimes rugged and sometimes not rugged : 

(Msb :) or t. q. <_ii, except that the <L*£>t it 
higher and greater: (ISh, TA :) or what it 
higher than the J&, compact and round, rising 
into the tky, abounding with ttonet : (TA :) pi. 
oC^»l (S, Msb) and *JU>I, [or this is rather 
a coll. gen. n. of which 1^£>\ is the n. un.,] (S, 
Msb, 5,) and>l£»), flf, TA,) or this is pi. of 
>,», (8, Msb, TA,) and>»l, (If, TAO or this 
is pi. of >1£>I, (S, Msb,TA,) andJt£»T [a pi. 
of pauc], (K,) or this is pi. of ^£»\, (S, Msb, 
TA,) and j£»\ [which is also a pi. of pauc], 
(IJ, If,) or this is a pi. of Jd>\ : (TA :) IHsh 
says that jj&\ is the only word like j*j in its 
series of pis. ; for its sing, [or n. un.] is Ktitn, 
and the pi. of this [or the coll. gen. n.] is jjktl, 
and the pi. of this is j\£>\, and ^° P 1 - of *'» 
is J^&l, and the pi. of this is jte»\, and the pi. 
ofthisis^l&Uor^biy?]. (MFinart.^.) It 
is said in a prov., used in ridiculing any one who 
has told of his committing some fault, not desiring 
to reveal it, U*tjj U i^^l jlya ^ > s «« » [«n 
which I think the first word to be a mistranscrip- 
tion, for ''y'tr -r , a "d th ^ literal meaning to be, 
Ye have come to me ; but behind the hill it what 
it behind it] : related on the authority of Zeyd 
Ibn-Kethweh. (TA.) And one says, ^J* j£ •) 
<U£>t, meaning { Publish not what it tecret of 
'thine affair. (TA.) 

Jj=>U and ^>U : see what next follows. 

Ks>t, (El-F4rabee,) or K&L, (8,) or both, 
and tJ&L and *>>U, (IAth,^,) The hinder 
part, posteriors, buttocks, or rump, of a woman ; 
syn. sjjir ^ : (8 :) or a portion offleth on the 
head of the jJ^j [or haunch] ; one of two such 
portions: (Zj in his " Khalk el-Insan," and If :) 
or these are two protuberances of flesh on the 
heads of the upper parts of the O^p [° r 
haunches] ; on the right and left : (TA :) or 
they are two portions offleth conjoining the j*~z 
[or buttocks] and the ^j\JJU [or two portions of 
flesh and sinew next the back-bone, on each 
tide]; (lf,TA;) or, iia in the Nh, conjoining 
the >yMfrB [or rum j, -h tie] and the ijU_U : or 
two portions offleth at the root of tke O^M '■ 
(TA :) pi. >U»U. (S, If.) Lh mentions the 
saying, >»£>UI j*£*& *•' [Verily he it big in 
the hinder parts] ; as though they called every 
portion thereof jjm*. (TA.) And one says in 
reviling a person, 8»ftW^H j-**- 1 Ch" 1 W> meaning 
ton of him who it red in the iiiw. (TA.) 

i^>^» : see what follows. 

i^>lj^ [in the CK, erroneously, <U£>lj^] 

and 1 4\jL*yt She n>oo t« /ar^c tn < he £)\Z^£»i.. 





Jt 18 a particle of determination: (Mughnee 
&c. :) or, accord, to some, it is a conjunct noun, 
and this is the correct opinion ; but some say it 
is a conjunct particle ; and some, a particle of 
determination : (1 ' Ak p. 40 :) [it is equivalent to 
our article The;] as in J**»j)t [The man] : (S and 
K in art >y, and I 'Ak p. 48 :) accord, to Kh, 
[what is termed] the determinative is Jt [alto- 
gether, and therefore it is called by some " the 
determinative alif and 14m"] ; but accord, to Sb, 
it is the J alone ; [wherefore it is called by some, 
as in the S &c, " the 1dm of determination ;"] so 
that accord, to Kh, the hemzeh is a hemzeh of 
disjunction ; but accord, to Sb, it is a hemzeh of 
conjunction : (I 'Ak ubi supra :) [J says,] the 
J being quiescent, the conjunctive I is prefixed to 
it in order that it may commence therewith ; but 
when it is conjoined with what precedes it, the I is 

dropped, as in J*->U- (S in art.^y.) Sometimes 
the Arabs suppress hemzeh after it; and sometimes 
they also suppress the I of the article itself: thus, 

for y+mS*)\, they say j«*JI, and j-e*J. (Zj, cited 
in TA in art. >iljt.) In the dial, of some of the 
)>cople of El- Yemen, (TA in art^tl, q. v.,) or in 
the dial, of Ilimycr, (TA in art. «^~J»,) >l is 
used in die sense of J). (TA.)_ltis used to 
distinguish a noun as known [to the hearer or 
reader in a particular and definite sense] : (Mugh- 
nee, I 'Ak ubi supra:) first, by its being men- 
tioned [before] ; (Mughnee ;) as in [the words of 
the Kur lxxiii. 15 and 16,] ^let* .Jl llLJl U£> 

Jy-y u**V* \j°*^ *)y*) [Like as we tent unto 
Pharaoh an apostle, and Pharaoh disobeyed the 
apostle] ; (Mughnee, I 'Ak ;) in which case, the 
pronoun may supply the place which it and the 
noun that it accompanies occupies : secondly, by 
its being conceived in the mind ; as in [the Kur 
ix. 40,] ^Udt yjt C* Jl [When they two were in 
the cave] : and thirdly, by its being applied to a 
thing present; and accord, to Ibn-'Osfoor, this 
does not occur except after nouns of indication, as 
in Ji-jl\ U* ij^V [This man (lit. this, the 

man,) came to me] ; or after ^1 in calling, as in 
i j i - it , 
Jt-j" W W [O man]; or after tit denoting a 

thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly, as 
in jw-^JI lib C**^ [ / went forth, and lo, there 
was the lion] ; or after the noun denoting the 
present time, as yj^j\ [Now] : but this requires 
consideration ; for you say to the reviler of a man 

in your presence, J*»j)t j*£i *) [Revile not thou 
the man] ; and because that which is after lit does 
not render determinate anything present at the 
time of speaking; and because that in i/^l is 
really redundant, being inseparable, which the 
determinative is never known to be: the good 
example in this case is the saying in the Kur 
0- 5], J^ti J& <zXJs>\ j.y i [This day I have 
completed for you your religion]. (Mughnee.) 
_ It is also used to denote the species : first, to 
denote the totality of the individuals of the species; 
and this may have its place supplied by JJs used 
in its proper sense; (Mughnee, I 'Ak* ubi supra;) 
as in [the Kur iv. 32,] lL*J> ^LJ*JT JjU.^ [For 


man was created weak] : secondly, to denote the 
totality of the properties of the individuals, or the 
combination of all those properties in one thing ; 

and this may have its place supplied by J£» used 

• .* f 1 ■» * •" 

in a tropical sense ; as in U*U J*-jJI juj [Zeyd 

is the man in resjuct of knowledge ; as though he 
combined in himself the knowledge of all the 
individuals of his species] ; i. e., he is the com- 
plete, or perfect, [or we would rather say, 
preeminent,] in knowledge; and hence, [in the 
Kur ii. 1,] ^!CSi\ iUj [That is tlie hook, or 
scripture ; as though combining in itself the 
excellences of all other books or scriptures; or 
meaning that is preeminently the book, or scrip- 
ture] : and thirdly, to denote the quiddity, or 
essence ; and this may not have its place supplied 
by J£» used either properly or tropically ; as in 
the saying, [in the Kur xxi. 31,] ;ljl ^» Uliifcj 
,j». j^ji J£a [And we have made of water 
(meaning, accord, to common opinion, spcrma 
genitale,) everything living] ; or, accord, to some, 
it is used in this case to distinguisli a thing ns 
known [in a particular sense] by its being- con- 
ceived in the mind. (Mughnee.) It is also 

used to denote predominance of application ; as 
in iJjkJI [The city], meaning the city of the 

* J ** 

Apostle ; and w>UOl [The book], meaning the 
book of Seebaweyh: and in this case, it may not 
be suppressed, except when the noun is used 
vocatively, or when it is prefixed to another noun 

which it governs in the gen. case ; and in some 

* f 1 *' * ' 
anomalous instances, as in lx)U» J^-c IjJb [77m 

is the star Capella, ruing], originally J>j»)l. 

(I 'Ak p. 51.) [In a case of this kind, it is said 

in the Mughnee to be redundant; but I think it 

is clearly not so in any of the instances here 

mentioned, except the last; and this I would 

rather assign to a category yet to be noticed, in 

which Jt is certainly redundant, and, by rule, 

inseparable.] — It is also prefixed to a noun 

transferred from its original application to that of 

a proper name ; it being so prefixed to convey an 

allusion to the original signification ; and such 

noun being generally an epithet, as «1><U. ; but 

sometimes an inf. n., as J-oi ; and sometimes a 

• '*' 
generic noun, as (jU*i ; so that in any of these 

cases you may prefix Jl, saying O.LJt and 

J-a*H and ^jl^juJI, with a view to the original 
signification; and you may suppress it, with a 
view to the actual state [which is that of a proper 
name] : for when you mean that a name of this 
kind is given as one ominous of good, you prefix 
the Jt in order to indicate this ; as when you say 


w>jlaJt with a view to a person's being thus 
named to prognosticate that he will live and be a 
tiller, or cultivator ; but when you only consider 
it as a proper name, you do not prefix the Jl : 
thus the prefix Jl conveys a meaning not obtained 
without it ; and therefore it is not redundant, as 
some assert it to be. (I 'Ak p. 50.) [The author 
of the Mughnee is one of those who consider Jt 
redundant in this case.] __ It is in some coses 
redundant : and in some of these, it is inseparable ; 
as in [a proper name which cannot be used with a 
view to an original application from which it has 

[Book I. 

been transferred to that of a proper name though 
it may have been so transferred, such as] o"}UI, 
which is the name of a certain idol that was at 
Mekkeh [so called because a man used to moisten 
&>y* with clarified butter, for the pilgrims, at the 
place thereof] ; and, accord, to some, [as before 
mentioned,] in ^^l ; and in the conjunct nouns 


l5JJt and its variations, accord, to those who hold 
that a noun of this kind is rendered determinate 
by its complement: in other coses, where it is 
redundant, it is separable ; and this is when it is 
prefixed to a proper name by poetic licence, as in 

XJ*^' »-'W for >y' «i»W> a species of truffle ; or, 
accord, to Mbr, this is not a proper name, and 
the Jt is not redundant ; and when it is prefixed 
to a spccincative, as in l _ r iJ\ c~J> for \~Ju w*J>, 
accord, to the Basrecs, who hold, in opposition to 
the Koofees, that the spccificativc may only be 
indeterminate; (I 'Ak p. 49;) [and, in like man- 
ner, as redundant and separable,] it is irregularly 
prefixed [by poetic licence] in i^-V^t [q. v.], 
when it is left in its original form with kesr. 
(T.) _ Accord, to the Koofees, and some of the 
Basrecs, and many of the later authors, it moy 
also supply the place of the affixed pronoun ; and 
such they hold to lie the cose in the saying in the 

Kur [Ixxix. 41], tJi<S^ i^jT oi* [Verily 
Paradise, it shall be his place of abode] ; and in 
<**-•)! (J—** - J**X "-0J" 4 [■* passed by a man 
beautiful in hisjacc] ; and t>iaJbj jv*»JI juj ^j-i 
[Zeyd was beaten, his bach and his belly] ; when 
«k.jJt and jyliJI and ^>irJI are thus in the noin. 
case: but those who deny its being used in this 
manner hold that si is to be understood in die 
verse of the Kur, and <tu in the other examples : 
and Ibn-Malik restricts the licence to cases not 
including the &L» [or complement of Jt used in 
the manner which is here next to be explained]. 
(Mughnee.) _ It is also a conjunct noun in the 


sense of ^£JJI and its variations ; and as such is 
prefixed to an act part, n., and to a pass, part n., 
and, as some say, to a simple epithet ; (Mughnee, 
and I 'Ak p. 43 ;) as w>jUJI [which is equivalent 

to vj-**4 l^']; an( l V.3J-***'" [which is equivalent 
to ^»jJ> i^JJt], and sJ^\ {jLLi\ : (I 'Ak :) but 
this last is not to be regarded, as it cannot be 
rendered by means of a verb. (Mughnee.) As 
such, also, it is sometimes prefixed to an adverbial 
noun, (Mughnee and I 'Ak,) extraordinarily ; 
(I 'Ak;) as in the saying, 

* ' ' 9 

[Whoso ceases not to be grateful, or thankful, for 
what is with him, or what lie has, he is worthy of 
a state of life such as is attended with plenty.] 
(Mughnee and I 'Ak.) As such it is also some- 
times prefixed to a nominal proposition ; as in the 

• j^i* m j^-yi yji\ ^ • 

•*"* ts^ ^1 • £J, *-*» J * 

[Of the people of whom is the apostle of God, of 
those to whom the necks of the sons of Ma' add 

Book I.] 

ltave become abated], (Mughnee and I 'Ak.) 
And as such it is also sometimes prefixed to a 
verbal proposition, of which the verb is an aor. ; 
which shows that it is not [in this case] a particle 
of determination ; (Mughnee ;) as in the phrase, 

SB* 9 * » • * 

pj* e ) l jUaJI Cye [The voice of the cut that 
has hit ear, or ears, cut off], (T and Mughnee.) 
But all these three cases are peculiar to poetry ; 
contrary to the opinion of Akh, and, with respect 
to the last case, to that of Ibn-Malik. (Mughnee.) 
[Respecting the last instance, see also art. pj*-.] 
Another instance of its usage prefixed in this sense 
to an aor. is the saying, 

• ^^^yjl^&jb. c*itU • 

[Thou art not the judge whose judgment is ap- 
proved] ; (IAmb, T, I 'Ak;) a saying of El- 
Farczdak : (IAmb, T :) it is an extraordinary 
case; (I 'Ak;) and is [said to be] an instance of 
a bud poetic license, the like of which in prose 
would be an error by common consent. (Expos, 
of the Shudhoor cdh-Dhuhah.) In like manner, 
one says, accord, to AZ, JJUj-a^l IJa, meaning 
This it he who beats thee; and jLyj^H c-jIj I 

taw him who beats thee; and jtJji ?-°^ '•»•* 
This it what is appropriated to poetry. (T : [in 
which this last ex. is perhaps intended to intimate 
that the prefixing of Jl in this manner to a verb 
is allowable only in poetry. ])^_ The Anilw also 

'»>*t»* * J * m -* ft I j * ^ j 

meaning >Ul; ^1 ±y» js.\j j.\jj ,j| ^ ^>o».l 
[He is more strongly fortified, or protected 
against attach, than that he will be sought, or 
desired, and he is more mighty than that he will 
be injured; i. c., too strongly fortified, or pro- 
tected against attach, to be sought, or desired, 
and too mighty to be injured: see £y.] t (TA in 

art jtjf. [But |^ ,nm II is there erroneously put 

* * * , 

for iife^oaJI.]) = Among strange usages, is that 


of Jl as an interrogative, mentioned byKtr; as 

- ♦" •» . a * f " f ' 

in cJLai Jl in the sense of CUJ J* [DiiUt thou 
do? or /ins< fAon done?]. (Mughnee.) 
J I Anything which has a quality requiring 

it to be regarded as sacred, or inviolable ; which 
has some right pertaining to it : and thus used 
in particular senses here following. (R, TA.) _ 
Relationship; or nearness with respect to kindred; 
(Fr, T, S, M, R, £ ;) as also till , (Fr, T, £,) of 
which the pi. is JJI. (K.) So in the Kur [ix. 8], 
^jJUe* *yht *?' (Fr,T) They will not regard, 
with respect to you, relationship ; (Bd, Jel ;) 
accord, to some. (Bd.) And so in a trad, of 
'Alee, J^l £Jaivj jJ«Jt Oi±-i [Bt is unfaithful 
to tlte covenant, and cuts the tie of relationship]. 
(TA.) Hassan Bays, 

-a I- • i a - - 

• >UJI Jlj ^ ^JUI Jt£» • 

[fly tAy life, thy relationship to Kureysh is like 
t/te relationship of the young camel to the young 
of the ostrich]. (S.)—Goadorigin. (K.) So, 
accord, to some, in a saying of Abbo-Bekr, which 
see below. (TA.) — J. q. ojjU, (K,) or J juU 
m-^0 [as meaning A place, or person, whence 


a ? king, or person, originates, free from imper- 
fection, or /rom everything that would induce 
doubt or suspicion or evil opinion]. (El-Muiirrij, 
TA : [in which the verse of Hassan cited above 

is given as an ex. of this signification.]) A 

compact, or covenant; or one by which a person 
becomes responsible for the safety, or tafe-keeping, 
of a person or thing ; syn. j>yC : (AO, Aboo-Is- 
hak, T, S, M, It, K a confederacy, or league ; 
syn. JUL. ; (Aboo-Is-hak, T, M, K ;) and so, 
accord, to some, in the Kur ubi supra : (Bd :) 
a covenant between two parties by which either 
is bound to protect the other; syn. j\y*. : (Aboo- 
Is-hak, T, R :) a promise, or an assurance, of 

security or safety; or indemnity; syn. C^'> 

(K ;) a meaning which it has, accord, to some, 

in the verse of the Kur cited above. (TA.) 

i . v * 

Hence, J^l ^j Afulfiller, performer, or keeper, 

of the compact, or covenant. (TA, from a trad.) 

— Lordship; syn. *~»>y. (M, K.) So in the 

Kur ubi supra, accord, to some. (Bd.) And so 

in the saying of Aboo-Bekr, above referred to, 

when he heard the rhyming prose of Muscylimeh, 

Jl t>o rrj^-i jj J>*)& IJa [This is language 

which did not proceed from lordship] : so ex- 
plained by A'Obeyd : (Suh, TA :) or it has here 
Another signification, mentioned before ; the mean- 
ing being, which did not come from the origin 
whence came the Kur-an : or, accord, to some, it 
has here the signification next following. (TA.)__ 

Revelation, or inspiration. (K, T A.) — JNI also 
signifies God: [like the word 7M» or rather 
SnH» as used in Hebrew:] (T,S, M,K:) s« 
say Mujuhid and Esh-Shaabcc : (T :) and so 
it is said to signify in the verse of the Kur 
cited above : (T, TA :) [and so it seems 
to signify in the saying of Aboo-Bekr, also 
cited above, accord, to the M :] but Aboo-Is- 
hak disallows this ; and so does Suh, in the 
R. (TA.) Ibn-El-Kelbee says, (M,) when 

Jl ends any name, it has this meaning, and is 
the complement of a prefixed noun ; and so JjI ; 
(M, K ;) as in j£i. [and J^l*. &c] ; and 
so say most of the learned : (TA :) but this is 
not a valid assertion ; for were it so, J->«*». and 
the like would lie perfectly decl. : (M :) some 
say that these names are constructed inversely, 
after the manner of the language of the 'Ajam ; 
Jl and JjI meaning servant, and the first part 
of the name being a name of God. (Suh, TA.) 
= I. q. ^n* * [used in a pi. sense]. (Mughnee 
in art. NL [See what is said to be an ex. of 
this meaning in a verse of Dhu-r-Rummeh cited 
in art. *§\ in the present work.]) [It is said 

that] Jl is also syn.-with jU. [A neighbour; ice.]. 
(K : [and so, accord, to the TA, in the M ; but 
I have consulted the M without finding this 
explanation, and think it to be probably a mis- 
transcription for jl**-, (see above,) as in the T 
and It.]) 







ijjll ys\ A thing, or an affair, relating, or 
attributable, to JNI, meaning either God, or 
revelation or inspiration. (TA.) 

*n}I [in its primitive acceptation, being composed 
of the interrogative hemzeh and the negative *^,] 
denotes an interrogation respecting a negative, 
as in the saying [of the poet], 

j& ;«•}' ^M ^4 iij 

[It there not any patience belonging to Selmd, 
or has the hardiness, when I experience what 
persons like me have experienced ?] : (Mughnee, 
K :) and when used in this manner, it is put 
before a nominal proposition only, and governs 
like the negative •}} [when used without the 
interrogative hemzeh]. (Mughnee.) _ It also 
denotes a wish ; as in the saying [of the poet], 

S J H I Mil d*'»j -< 

*..» *« * ft . » .» t»" 

• oyUkAJI j* C»UI U vlre* * 

[May there not be a life which has declined 
whereof the returning is possible, so that it may 
repair what the hand of negligences hath marred?] ; 
for which reason ^tjj is mansoob, because it is 
the complement of a wish, coupled with wi : and 
used in this manner, also, it is put before a 
nominal proposition only, [^j in the verse 
above being a qualificative, like an epithet,] and 
it governs like the negative *} [without the in- 
terrogative hemzeh], and has no enunciative 
either expressed or understood. (Mughnee.) — 
It also denotes reproof, or reproach, (T, Mughnee, 
K,) and disapproval; as in the saying [of the 

• ,£«;£ cJj i>J .1^1 -^1 

[Is there no self-restraint to him whose youth 

hath declined, and announced hoarinett, after 

which is to follow decrepitude ?] : (Mughnee, 

K:) and used in this manner, also, it is put 

before a nominal proposition only, and governs 

as in the cases mentioned above, (Mughnee,) or 

before a verb [also], which is always marfooa ; 

as in the phrases iWUi L At. j,jjj "^1 [Dost not 

"' • » • » -t 

thou repent of thine actions?] and yjgs* ;...!> f\ 

JLil^j*. ^4> [Art not thou ashamed for thytelf, 
or of thytelf, with respect to thy neighbours?] 
and iUj JU" *i)l [Dost not thou fear thy Lord ?]. 

(T.) It also denotes J^6, (T,) or Jij*i\, 

and ^j^t. Til, both of which signify the asking, 
or requiring, a thing ; (Mughnee, K ;*) but the 
former means the doing so with gentleness; 
(Mughnee, K ;) and the latter, the doing so 
with urgency: (Mughnee:) and when used in 
this manner, [also,] it is said to be oomposed of 
*^ with the interrogative hemzeh ; (TA ;) and 
is put before a verbal proposition only ; (Mugh- 
nee ;) as in the saying [in the Kur xxiv. 22], 

jfii Al\ ji**i ,jl O*^- 3 /• t- ^ noi V** or wnere - 
fore do not ye, (see Ul,) like that God should 
forgive you?] (Mughnee, K,) and [in the same, 
ix. 13,] JiiW \ySS Uy o^jti ^ [Will not 
yes, or wherefore will not ye, fight a people who 
have broken their oaths ?] ; (Mughnee ;) or 

10 • 


before a mpjzoom or marfooa aor., both of these 
forms being mentioned on the authority of the 
Arabs, as in jMl jp *)\ and J£>\3 Jyj *$ 
[ Wilt not thou, or wherefore wilt not thou, alight 

and eat?]. (Ks,T.) It is also an inceptive 

particle, (8, Mughnce, K,) of which those who 
parse show the place but neglect the meaning, 
(Mughnce,) used to give notice of something 
about to be said, [like as Now, and why, (by 
the former of which I think it is generally best 
rendered when thus used,) are often employed 
in our language, and like as a\\a (which is 
remarkable for its near agreement with it in 
sound) is often used in Greek,] (8, Mughnee, K,) 
and importing averment, because it is composed 
of the interrogative hemzeh and the negative ^, 
which, when thus composed, have this import, 
(Mughnee, K,) like _J\, and J^'i because the 
interrogative particle resembles the particle of 
negation, and the negation of a negation is an 
affirmation, (Ham p. 589,) and like til before 
an oath : (Z, Mughnee :) [it may therefore be 
further rendered by our word surely; for this 
word (as Dr. Johnson says in his Dictionary) 
"is often used rather to intend and strengthen 
the meaning of the sentence, than with any 
distinct and explicable meaning:"] or it signifies 
U*. [verily, or truly] : (M voce Ul :) it is put 
before both the [kinds of] propositions, [the 
nominal and the verbal ;] (Mughnee ;) as in 

the saying [in the Kur ii. 12], A^i-jf^i ^jt ^1 
[meaning Now surely it is they who are the 

lightwitted], (Mughnce, K,) and [in the same, 

•#•* * * • * * •' • I* «#* gi 
*'• H>] j*r* -V*-* cr-s* jurist J»}i "5)1 [meaning 
Now surely, on the day of its coming to them, 

it shall not be averted from them], (Mughnee,) 

... • \' - » - 
in which jnt>\> ^yi appears to be the object 

of government of Mjj^oa, which is the enuncia- 
tive of J^J ; whence it has been argued that, 
as the object of government of the enunciative 
of y-e) precedes that verb, the enunciative itself 
may precede it : (I 'Ak pp. 74 and 75 :) [J says,] 
you say, ^.jU. \'j£ ,j| *J| [Now surely Zeyd is 
going forth], like as you say, -.^U. \'J$ O 1 ^ 1 
[Know thou that Zeyd is going forth] : (8 :) 
Ks says, *>)l is used to give notice of what is 
about to be said, and is followed by a command 
and a prohibition and an enunciation, as in ^i *^t 
[Now stand thou], and ^Ju ^ "$l [Now stand 
not thou], and J.& ji IjJj ^1 -$| [Now surely 
Zeyd has stood, or has just now stood]. (T.) 
When it is put before the particle [U] used to 
give notice of what is about to be said, it is 
merely an inceptive, as in the saying [of the 

[Now be thou free from evil, O abode of Meiya, 
during wear and tear]. (AAF, M.) __ Lth says, 
sometimes *^l is immediately followed by another 
*v) ; and he cites the following ex. : 

. •* ,*' *•* * > * * ** 

[Then he began to drive away the people from us, 

saying, Now is there no may to Hind?] : and 
one says to a man, " Did such and such things 
happen ?" and he answers, *) *^t [ Why no] : 
he holds *j\ to be used to give notice of what 
is about to be said, and ^ to be a negative. (T.) 

A A ..l 

•^1 and *)% and tf\ &c. : see art ^J\. 

M • - 

•>)l is a particle denoting ykghmJj (Msb in 
art. t^a»., Mughnee, 1JL ;) i. e., when followed by 
a future, exciting to an action, and seeking or 
desiring or demanding the performance of it ; 
and when followed by a preterite, reproof for not 
doing a thing ; (Msb ubi supra ;) syn. with ^J* ; 
(T, TA ;) and peculiar to enunciative verbal pro- 
positions, (Mughnee, K,) like the other particles 
used for the same purpose. (Mughnee.) You 
say, [\S& JjiiLi ^1 Wherefore wilt not thou do 
such a thing? and] \S£» cJlii.^l [Wherefore 
didst not thou such a thing?] (T, TA,) meaning, 
(TA,) or as though meaning, (T,) IJtfc Jjtxijj^. 
(T, TA.) = It also means •$ ,j\; the o being 
incorporated into the J, which is written with 
teshdeed : (T, TA :) in which case, it is not to be 
confounded with the foregoing particle. (Mugh- 
nee.) You say, i)IJ JJiL *3l 4Uj+\ [I commanded 
him tliat he should not do that] ; and you may 
say, Jli Jjuu •) jjl a3y>\ \ it occurs in the old 
copies of the Kur written in the former manner 
in Borne places, and in the latter manner in other 
places. (T, TA.) In the saying in the Kur 

■S ■» - j y St 

[xxvii. 31], ^Js. I^Lls % [which may mean That 
ye exalt not yourselves against me, or exalt ye not 
yourselves against me,] it may be a compound of 
^jl governing a mansoob aor. and the negative *^, 
or of the explicative ,j\ and the prohibitive *). 
(Mughnee.) [It often has J prefixed to it, forming 
the compound ^JUJ, which signifies That, or m 
order that, . . . not ; and may frequently be 
rendered by lest ; as in the Kur ii. 145, O4& "& 
*** ■ ^tftM tr'UJJ That, or tn order that, there 
may not be, or lest there should be, to men, 
against you, any allegation.] 


ylj [regarded as a simple word,] not to be 
confounded with the compound of the conditional 
^1 and the negative *^, (Mughnee at the end of 
the article on this word,) is used in four manners. 
(The same in the beginning of the art.) First, 
(Mughnee,) it is used (as a particle, S, Msb,) to 
denote exception ; [meaning Except, save, or 
saving; and sometimes but; and sometimes but 
not ; as will be seen below ;] (T, S, Msb, Mugh- 
nee, K ; [in which last it is mentioned in art. Jl, 
and again, as in the S, in the last division of 
the work ;]) and to denote exception, it is used 
in five manners ; after an affirmation, and a 
negation, and a portion of a sentence devoid of 
the mention of that from which the exception is 
made, and when the thing excepted precedes that 
from which the exception is made, and when these 
two are disunited in kind, in which last case it 
has the meaning of ^jiii [but when the sentence 
is negative, and but not when the sentence is 
affirmative]. (S, TA.) You say, ijJj •^yuijli 
[The people, or company of men, stood, except 

[Book I. 

Zeyd] ; i. e., Zeyd was not included in the pre- 
dicament of the people, or company of men : 
(Msb :) and it is said in the Kur [ii. 250], (T,) 
^X* %)3 «$l alo lyjii [And they dranh of it, 
except a few of them] : (T, Mughnee, K :) here 
^IUl» is governed in the accus. case by *^l, (Mugh- 
nee, K,) accord, to the most correct opinion : 
(Mughnee :) accord, to Th, it is so because there 
is no negation in the beginning of the sentence. 
(T.) And it is also said in the Kur [iv. 60], (T,) 
jmr* J*^ 7] •>"** *• [They had not done it, or 
they would not do it, except a few of tltem] : (T, 
Mughnee, K :) here J-Ji is in the nom. case as 
being a partial substitute, (Mughnee, K,) accord, 
to the Basrees, (Mughnee,) i. e., as being a 
[partial] substitute for the [pronoun] j [in »yi*i], 
for it may here be so without perversion of the 
meaning, whereas it cannot be so without such 
perversion when the sentence is affirmative : 
(TA :) accord, to the Koofees, *$\ is a conjunction, 
like the conjunctive *) : (Mughnee :) accord, to 
Th, JJli is here in the nom. case because the 
sentence commences with a negative : (T :) or in 
a sentence [like this,] which is not affirmative, in 
which the tiling excepted is united in kind to that 
from which the exception is made, accord, to the 
opinion which is generally preferred and which 
commonly obtains, the noun signifying the thing 
excepted is a substitute for the noun signifying 
that from which the exception is made ; but it is 
allowable to put it in the accus. case according to 
the general rule respecting exception ; 60 that one 

says, jj) *^J js».l jAi U and \jj) *^l [There stood 

not any one, except Zeyd] : and the same is the 

..... • » * • ■" - 

case in a prohibitive sentence ; as in j^-l ^ju *$ 

juj ^Jt and \juj *)\ [Let not any one stand, except 
Zeyd] ; and in an interrogative sentence ; as in 

juj ^1 j^l^li J* and Ijwj •})) [Did any one stand, 
except Zeyd?] ; when, in such sentences, the thing 
excepted is united in kind to that from which the 
exception is made. (I 'Ak p. 1G2.) You say also, 
juj *^l ^'V la [There came not to me any, save 
Zeyd], without mentioning that from which the 
exception is made ; (TA ;) and I juj *^t c<^c U 
[/ beat not any, save Zeyd] ; and ju>j *J)I ■Ziyyt U 
[/ passed not by any, save by Zeyd] ; (I 'Alp 
p. 164 ;) the case of the noun signifying the thing 
excepted being the same as if "5)1 were not men- 
tioned: (I 'Ak ubi supra, and TA:*) but you 

'n. * 9' St * w* * 

may not say, affirmatively, Ijuj *^l c-jj-j>, or the 
like. (I 'Ak ubi supra.) When the thing excepted 
precedes that from which the exception is made, 
if the sentence is affirmative, the noun signifying 
the former must be in the accus. case; as in 
j>y&\ Ijaj *^l >15 [Except Zeyd, the people, or 
company of men, stood] : and so, accord, to the 
usage generally preferred, when the sentence is 
not affirmative ; as in>yUI Ijuj *$\ jte U [Except 
Zeyd, tlte people, or company of men, stood not] ; 
but recorded instances allow one's saying also, 
J£)l J£ ^1>li U. (I 'Ak p. 163.) When the 
thing excepted is disunited in kind from that from 
which the exception is made, if the sentence is 
affirmative, the noun signifying the former must 
likewise be in the accus. case ; as in *^l >»yUI j>\i 
ljU». [77»e people, or company of men, stood, but 

Book I.] 

not an ass], and IjU*. *j)t >yUI Ooj-i [I beat the 
people, but not an au], &c. : (I 'Ak p. 1G2 :) and 
bo, accord, to the generality of the Arabs, when 

A 1 • #• 

the sentence is negative ; as in IjU*. *j\ >yt)l >15 U 
[The people Hood not, but an ass] ; (I 'Ak p. 163;) 
and IjU— ^)l >yUI C~>1j U [ / saw not the people, 
but an at*] ; "ill being here syn. with ^>£J ; as 
also in the Kur [xlii. 22], where it is said, 

not of you a recompense for it, but affection in 
respect of relationship] ; (Msb ;) and in the same 
xx. 1 and 2, »>£».»3 -n)I jJLLj ^IjiJt jJLU Up I U 
[We have not sent down unto thee the Kur-an 
that thou shouldest suffer fatigue, but as an 
admonition] ; (Bd, Jcl ;) or it is here syn. widi 
jv [which in this case means the same as ^j£l] : 
(8 :) so, too, when the sentence resembles a 
negative, being prohibitive or interrogative; (I 'Ak 
p. 103, explained in p. 102 ;) [thus, J>j5)l «_>Ji3 •$ 

* A " * 

tjU»- *$\ means Beat not thou the people, but an 
ass; and] <^l 1^'CjI Luili cJul i/j c-Jli> ^Jj 
trJji >>* [in the Kur x. 98] means And where- 
fore did not any inhabitants of a town believe, 
before the punishment befell them, and their 
belief profit them, but the people of Jonas ? for 
these were different from the former. (T.) When 
*>)1 is repeated for the purpose of corroboration, it 
lias no effect upon what follows it, except that of 
corroliorating the first exception ; as in Ojj-« U 

* t A 0* A * t 

««e^l ^J J-ij *}• J»-W [I passed not by any one, 
except Zeyd, except thy brother], in which Jl^t I 
is a substitute for juj, for it is as though you said, 

fL t •* A * $ * •** * 0* m « 

«««*»' 0-ii *)[ «*»-v ^>ij-* »• 5 an, l M ' n -»*«>l >l» 
lh»* "}>}.} 'JS!j *£j [77*e peo/jfe */oo«f, except Zeyd, 
and except 'Amr], originally t^«£) Ijijj "^1. When 
the repetition is not for that purpose, if the sen- 
tence is devoid of the mention of that from which 
the exception is made, you make the governing 
word [which is the verb] to affect one, whichever 
you [dense, of the nouns signifying the things 
excepted, and put the others in the accus. case, 
so that you say, lj& «^t £• 4\ J-ij •$)>« U 
[There stood not any, save Zeyd, save 'Amr, save 
Behr] ; but if the sentence is not devoid of the 
mention of that from which the exception is made, 
different rules are observed accord, as the things 
excepted are mentioned before that from which 
the exception is made or after it : in the former 
case, all must be put in the accus., whether the 
sentence be affirmative or not affirmative ; as in 
J£)l lj& «fl I^U ^J tij ^Jtf [Except Zeyd, 
except 'Amr, except Behr, the people stood], and 
J£sil {& "91 tjii «|j tjjj 4\ W& U [Except Zeyd, 
except 'Amr, except Behr, the people stood not] : 
in the latter case, when the sentence is affirmative, 
all must likewise be put in the accus., so that you 

**Y> #4 ^1 W- "\ Wj *i\ *&\ J& [The people 
stood, except Zeyd, except 'Amr, except Behr]; 
but when the sentence is not affirmative, the same 
rule is observed with respect to one of them as 
when the exception is not repeated, accord, to the 
usage generally preferred, or it may be put in the 
accus., which is rarely done, and the rest must be 


put in the accus., so that you say, S)l jmA >IS U 

IrV *5M '>•* *)l J>ij [There stood not any one, 
except Zeyd, except 'Amr, except Behr, accord, 
to the more approved usage], joj being a sub- 
stitute for J^.1, or you may make the other 
nouns which remain to be substitutes. (I 'Ak 
pp. 164 — 166.) — . Secondly, (Mughnee,) it is 
used as a qualificative, (S, Msb, Mughnee, K,) 
in the manner of *£, (Mughnee, !£,) [i. e.] 
in the place of ^c, (S,) [i. e.] as syn. with j^., 
(T, Msb,) and ^y* ; (T ;) [both meaning the 
same, i. e. Other than ; or not, as used before a 
subst. or an adjective ;] but its primary application 
is to denote exception, and its use as a qualificative 
is adventitious ; whereas the primary application 
of jgfc is as a qualificative, and its use to denote 
exception is adventitious. (S.) It [generally] 
follows an indeterminate, unrestricted pi.; (Msb;) 
or an indeterminate pi., or the like thereof, is 
qualified by it and by that which follows it; 
(Mughnee, K;) the noun which follows it being 
put in the same case as that which precedes it. 
(S.) The following is an ex. of the indeterminate 
pi. : (Mughnee, $ :) £>T <§\ i^T U^i J,l£> 2 
Uj..,« l [If there had been in them (namely the 
heavens and the earth) deities other than God, or 
not God, assuredly they would have become in a 
state of disorder, or ruin; occurring in the Kur 
xxi. 22]; (Fr, T, S, Msb, Mughnee, K ;) •# here 
meaning \Jy, (Fr, T,) or ^It, (Msb, TA,) and 
JSA S)l being a qualificative of i^jf. (TA.) And 
the following is an ex. of the like of an indeter- 
minate pi. : 


il • 

SjJj (jjy SjJLi *z»il\i 

* ' s - 

[She (the camel) was made to lie down, and threw 
her breast upon a tract of ground in which were 
few sounds other than her broken yearning cry 
for her young one] ; for the determination of 
Otj^)l [by the article Jl] is generical : (Mugh- 
nee, K :) this verse is by Dhu-r-Itummeh. (S in 
art. jJl*.) The following is an ex. of the like of a 
pL: (Mughnee :) it is by Lebeed : (T :) 
»'&* **' *•* » ** * * t* 

[If it had been other than I, (O) Suleyma, to- 
day, the befalling of misfortunes would have 
altered him; other than the sharp sword diversified 
with wavy marks or streaks or grain, or of which 
the edge is of steel ami the middle of the broad 
side of soft iron]. (T, Mughnee. [But in the 
latter, in the place of J»^l)l, I find j*\jA\, i. e. 
ever.]) What 8b says necessarily implies its not 
being a condition that the word qualified must be 
a pi. or the like thereof; for he gives as an ex., 

M*f «*0' ^1 Jr; ^** CM> V [If there had been 
with us a man other than Zeyd, w$ should have 
been overcome]. (Mughnee.) Another ex. of the 
same usage of *^l is the following : •$ >jiJI jJiU. 
juj [Tlie people came to me, others than Zeyd, or 
not Zeyd]. (S.) [And uL ^ $\ Jii j U Ye 
are no other than human beings like us. (Kur 
xxxvi. 14.)] And the saying [in the Kur xliv. 56], 


^1 Vy,)\ •}} O^l \^ o?)±i "3 [They shali 
not taste therein death, other than tfte first death] ; 
y\ here meaning ^jy* : (T :) or, accord, to some, 
it here means ju^ [after]. (Jel.) And the saying 
of 'Amr Ibn-Maadee-kerib, 

1 > l J J - t t if* 

+ 0*0 A I j * " 

[And every brother, his brother forsakes him, or 
separates himself from him, by the life of thy 
father, otlusr than the Farhaddn ; which is the 
name of the two stars £ and 7 of Ursa Minor] ; 
as though he said ^>jSjii\ ^ : (S :) but Ibn- 
El-Hajib regards this instance as a deviation from 
a general rule ; for he makes it a condition of the 
use of "^1 as a qualificative that it must be impos- 
sible to use it for the purpose of denoting excep- 
tion : (Mughnee :) Fr says that this verse has the 
meaning of a negation, and therefore "^1 here 
governs the nom. case ; as though the poet said, 
There is not any one but his brother forsakes him, 
except the Farkaddn. (T.) When it is used as a 
qualificative, it differs from j^t inasmuch as that 
die noun qualified by it may not be suppressed ; 
so that one may not say, jjj ^)1 ^yiV [meaning 
There came to me not Zeyd] ; whereas one says, 
Jkjj je& ey**^" : a ""' accor d> to some, in this also; 
that it may not be used as such unless it maybe used 
to denote exception ; so that one may say, iCj^t 

* - A *.» ' ' 

JJili *iJ1 ^o*ji [■» have a dirhem, not a ddnik], 

* * » A 

because one may say Uilj ^1 [except a ddnik] ; 
but not j^ *$\-[not a good one], because one 

*».- A 

may not say I jyf *i" [except a good one] ; but 
it may be said that this is at variance with what 
they assert respecting the phrase <^JI Uy-i ^j\£=> y , 
and with the ex. given by Sb, and with the saying 
of Ibn-El-Hajib mentioned above. (Mughnee.) 
_ Thirdly, (Mughnee,) sometimes, (S, Msb,) it 
is used as a conjunction, (Mughnee, K,) in the 
manner of j, (S, Mughnee, K,) consociating both 
literally and as to the meaning, as mentioned by 
Akh and Fr and AO, (Mughnee,) [i. e.] as syn. 
with j [And]. (Msb.) Thus in the saying, 

t*t * A* A %A J il*** A >* A* 

\yjli otJH *)\ 3^0*. j£* ^UU o*^J ^J 

9 00 * 

[That there may not be to men, against you, any 
allegation, and (meaning nor) to those who have 
acted wrongfully]; (Msb, Mughnee, K;) occurring 
in the Kur [ii. 145] ; (Msb ;) so accord, to Akh 
and Fr and AO ; (Mughnee ;) i. e., and those 
who have acted wrongfully also, to them there 
shall not be, against you, any allegation : (Msb :) 
Fr explains it as meaning that the wrongdoer has 
no allegation of which account should be taken ; 
and this is correct, and is the opinion held by Zj. 
(T.) Thus, too, in the saying [in die Kur xxvii. 
10 and 11], JjLfe '^» \ OjjL^Jf L$jJ JU-J $ 

01 * 0* 00 j M* 4] 

%y* jju U_». Jj^^oJ [The apostles shall not fear 
in my presence, and neither shall he who hath 
acted wrongfully, then hath done good instead, 
offer evil; as some explain it; but others say 
that *5)l here denotes exception]. (Mughnee, in 
which it is explained as meaning ^Jlfa q^> ^ ; and 
K.) And thus in the saying of the poet, [namely, 
El-Mukhabbal Es-Saadee, (S in art. jJ*.,)] 


-*-J V o* ^ o'^>- • 

* * " 4 - I** S 

«•» 1* * ft 

J • # • * * * «tf J»- 

* ^— . jji^t ..uyi «» • 

[And I see a dwelling formerly belonging to her, 
at the pools of JEs-Seeddn, (a hill bo called,) the 
remains of which have not become effaced, and 
ashes wasted and compacted together, from which 
three black pieces of stone whereon the cooking-pot 
was wont to be placed turned back the winds] : 

he means, b&g \/} Q ,jjl. (S.) Fourthly, 

(Mughnee,) it is redundant, as in the following 
verse, (S in art. jU, Mughnee, £,) of Dhu-r- 
Rummeh, (S ubi supra, Mughnee,) accord, to As 
and IJ : (Mughnee :) 

* ;u.u* ^i JuLa u «^»j- * 

[She-camels long-bodied, or fean, (but other mean- 
ings are assigned to the word which I thus 
render,) that cease not to be made to lie down 
in a state of hunger, or with which we direct 
our course to a desert region] ; (S ubi supra, 
Mughnee ; [but in one copy of the former, in 
the place of yj*y, I find \j»ji ; and in my copy 
of the latter, ^*j3;]) meaning, iLlu JLuJU: 
(S ubi supra :) but it is said that this is a mistake 
of the poet: (Mughnee:) so says Aboo-'Amr 
Ibn-El-'Ala ; for, he says, "^1 is not to be intro- 
duced after .iUli and Jlp : (TA :) and some 
say that the right reading is $1, with ten ween, 
[perhaps a mistranscription, for •$)!,] meaning 
I — i ■ [in a pi. sense]: and some, that Ajuj 
is a complete [or an attributive] verb, and i».U» 
u a denotative of state; [consequently, that •$! 
is a compound of gl and % as in some other 
instances hereafter to be mentioned ;] the meaning 
being, that are not disengaged, or not free, from 
fatigue [unless when made to lie down]. (Mugh- 
nee.) The following is also given as an ex. of 
the same kind : 

a»w Hti^u ^ >kjji ,jj\ 

[I see fortune, or time, to be like a water-wheel, 
with its people] : but the reading which is remem- 
bered to have been heard is ykjJI Uj : and if 
the former be correct, it may be explained on 
the supposition that fjj\ is the complement of 
an oath meant to be understood, and that ^ is 
suppressed, as in [the saying in the $ur xii. 86,] 

<S-yi j*=> Sj Uju 4I1U j [so that the meaning is, 
/ see not fortune, or time, to be aught save a 
water-wheel, with its people ;] the form of the 
exceptive sentence which is devoid of the mention 
of that from which the exception is made indi- 
cating such an explanation. (Mughnee.) __ 
[Fifthly,] it occurs as syn. with U [as a particle 
denoting exception, equivalent to our But ; 
meaning both except and (after an oath or the like) 
only, or nothing more than] ; as in the saying 

in the Klur [xxxviii. 13], jJ^JI ^J!fe -j| J& J,| 
[There was not any one but such as accused the 
apostles of lying], in which 'Abd-Allah reads, 


its place, U ; and for jL he reads ^xL ; 
and as in the saying, yj+ljsm ^1 Aii, iijtlt [I 
ask, or beg, or beseech, thee by God but that 
thou give me; i. e., I do not ask of thee any- 
thing save thy giving me; the preterite here, 
as in many instances in which it is preceded by 
W (l- v -)» not being a preterite in meaning] ; 
for which one says also = ' m x — t O. (T.) s It 
is also a particle [or rather a compound of two 
words] denoting the complement of a condition ; 
originally •>) ^t, which form a compound that 
does not admit of [the pronunciation termed] 
imaleh, because ,jl and ^' are particles. (T.) 
[It signifies, lit., If not.] It is followed by a 
fut, which it renders mcjzoom; [and in this 
case it may be rendered as above, or by unless;] 
as in the saying in the £ur [viii. 74], i JUii •$! 
uffy* ^ 4ii» ^j£j [If ye do it not, or unless ye 
do it, tliere will be a weakness of faith and an 
appearing of unbelief in the earth], (T.) [In 
like manner,] in a saying such as the following, [in 
the $ur ix. 40,] «u)l s^ai jSi » Sr *U ^| [If ye 
do not, or will not, aid him, certainly God aided 
him], it is only a compound of two words, the 
conditional ^1 and the negative % and is distinct 
from ^1 of which the usages have been mentioned 
before, though Ibn-Malik has included it there- 
with. (Mughnee.) [Often in post-classical works, 
and perhaps in classical also, but seldom except 
when it is preceded by a condition with its com- 
plement, the verb or verbal proposition which 
should immediately follow it is suppressed; as 
in the like of the saying, oU* 1J>^ cJU4 Al 
^UUi yjj Jb* If thou do suck a thing, I forgive 
thee, or cancel thine offence ; but if thou wilt not 
do it (i. e., *JU*5 4,) I kill thee : sometimes 
also it ends a sentence, by an aposiopesis; the 
whole of what should follow it being suppressed : 
and sometimes the complement of the condition 
which precedes, as well as the verb or verbal 
proposition which should immediately follow it, 
is suppressed ; so that you say, 1 J£» SSai r>\ 
JAZXZi •^ If thou do such a thing, excellent 
will it be, or the like, (^i £jii, or the like, 
being understood,) but if not, I hill thee. 
Hence,] it sometimes has the meaning of Lol, 
[signifying Or, denoting an alternative, cor- 
responding to a preceding U1, which signifies 
"either,"] as in the saying, »|l^ ^^iCJ ,j\ 1^1 
c-£wt» [Either do thou speak to me or else 
(meaning ^j^AfcJ ^ or if thou wilt not speak 
to me) be silent], i. e., c£i ,j\ l£«j. (S.) [It 
is also followed by J,l, as in 'Jb\ j£i Jl ^t Unless 
God should please; in the K.\u vi. Ill, &c. 
And by j as a denotative of state, as in rJjJjj N 
Cj y - ) •• ^-»lj *>l Do not ye die unless ye be 

Muslims ; in the £ur ii. 126 and iii. 97. And 

iji - 
sometimes it is preceded by^AJI; for the effect 

of which, in this case, see art. aJI.] 

^ 1. ^Jl , (Th, M, K:,) aor. - and '- , inf. n. 
vA (M,) It (a thing, Th, M) was, or became, 

[Book I. 

collected; at compact; syn. i^».l ; (Th,^;) 
or ^iJ. (M.)_>^ill 4»'l 4-JI The people 
came to him from every direction : (M, 1£ :) or 
j>)jb\ yJt [signifies tlie people multiplied them- 
selves, and hastened; for it] denotes jU^>Nl 
and fy,y : (T in art. ^^-i :) and ^1, (T, ^,) 
aor. as above, (T,) signifies he hastened, or went 
quickly. (T, £.) — jfj\ >z^J\ The camels obeyed 
the drivei; and collected themselves together. (M, 
K.) [See also 5.]_«aM ^Jt He returned to 
him, or it. (K,*TA.)L-i£j\ c^'l, (M, If.,) 
aor. - , (M,) The sky rained with long continuance. 
(M, £.) = ^Jl, (S, Msb, K,) aor. , , inf. n. 
^Jt, (Msb,) He collected (S, Msb,K) an army, 
(S,) or a people ; (Ms b ;) as also t ^Jl, (M,) 
inf. n. ^VJ : (TA :) and camels also : (TA :) 

or J/?' ^ J '.1? r - '" (T '* ? ' M ' W and ' ' & M » 
5,) inf. n. ^Jl, (T, S,) signifies he collected the 
camels, and drove them (S, TA) vehemently : 
(TA:) or lie drove them : (T,«K:) or he drove 

them vehemently. (M.) ^Jl, (TA,) inf. n. 

as above, (K, TA,) also signifies He drove, 
pursued, chased, or hunted, with vehemence : (I£, 
TA :) and he drove away a people. (Msb.) 
You say, ouju^i jU*JI ^Jt T/ie [wild] ass 
chased, or pursued, the object of his chase [i. e. 
his female, as is shown by MF,] with vehemence; 
(M,K;) asalsotQl. (£.) 

_ , . « t. 

2 : sec 1, in two places. —^-JU also signifies 

The act of exciting, instigating, or rousing to 
ardour; (S,K1:) and the exciting of discord, or 
strife, or the making of mischief . (K.) You say, 
j*(l*i ^1 He excited discord or strife, or made 
mischief, between them. (M.) 

0. I^JU 7%«y collected themselves together. (8, 
A, Msb.) [Sec also 1.] You say also, <uU JyjJU 
7%cy leagued together, or collected themselves .to- 
gether, and aided one another, against him. (T.) 

^Jl (T,S,Msb) and t^Jj (S.Msb) Persons, 
or people, collected together; (S ;) an assembly ; 
a collected body : (Msb :) or a collection of many 
peoj>le: (T:) and 'vV 1 *r"M a !/ reat assembly 
or congregation. (M.) __ AIbo A people, or 
company of men, combining in hostility against 

a man. (TA, from a trad.) You say, <Ju -* 
• -•»» *•• ' "^ 

ju»-l_} »_JI, and T >_-Jt, (but tlie former is the 

better known, M,) They are [one body of men] 
assembled against him with injustice and enmity 
or hostility: (Ltli, T, M, K :) like J— \ } J*^ 
and ju*.^ c jui and j»-lj «JU. (T, TA.) 

• » « of 

^Jt : see ^Jl, in two places. 

^Jl a dial. var. of 4-i* ; (M ;) Helmets of 
camels' skins : or, as some say, it signifies steel : 
(T :) iJI is [its n. un., being] a dial. var. of aJU. 
(K,«TA.) [See also 4^.] 

wj^JI : see ,^JI. — _ Also One who hastens, or 
is quick; (T;) and *wJlL> likewise signifies [the 
same ; or] quick, or «wt/i .■ (Ibn-Buzurj, T, sj. :) 
or the former signifies quick in drawing fortk tke 
bucket : (I Aar, M, K :) or brisk, lively, sprigktly, 
active, agile, or prompt, and quick ; (#., TA ;) 

Book I.] 

• »t ■» , 

applied to a man. (TA.)— vV r-O -* eold 

wind, (M,) that raises and scatters the dust. 
(M,K.)— t^' 1 ™sU A shy raining with long 
continuance. (M.) 
* 'I * it 

« r Ju* : eee vV- 

^jL* jj r- [An envtout man,] «Ao excites 
discord or *<rj/e, or nw/iM mischief. (S,* TA.) 

1. cJf, aor. y , inf. n. CJI, It (a thing) de- 
creased ; diminished ; lessened ; became defective, 
deficient, incomplete, or imperfect. (Msb.) = 
'eL. &1, (S, M, A..K,) *>r. -- , (?,M,K,) inf. n. 
CJt (S, M) and ii^l ; (M ;) and ii)l, aor. -' ; 
(Fr;) and t id], (M,K,) inf. n. .«L^j| ; (K;) 
as also 43^1, inf. n. O^JI , (so in a MS. copy of 
the %.,) or 33"$\; (so in the L: [agreeably widi 
analogy, and therefore probably the correct read- 
in" : sec art. 0*), to which it belongs : in SM's 
copy of the K, and in the CK, the verb is written 
43% and the inf. n. C$1 : by MF, the verb is 
written **iJ1, of the measure J*li, and Uic inf. n. 
O^'l, like JU*0) [and *3^, aor. C-e^'; and 

«£3j ; and 4J)I ;] He diminished to him his 
right, or due; abridged him, or defrauded him, 
of a portion of it : (Fr, 8, M, A, K :) and in 
like manner, *)U iiJl, and *<CJI, &c, he dimi- 
nished to him his property ; or altridged him, or 
defrauded him, of a portion of it : (M, TA :) 
and i^J^\ cJI he diminished the thing. (Msb.) 

[Hence,] j^ i >» > ^J*ft o-?^*^ 1 u f m tU(! 
Kur Hi. 21, We will not diminish to them aught of 
the reward oftlteir work] : (T, A :) or, accord, to 
one reading, (that of Ibn-Kctheer, TA^^UJI U. 
(T, TA.) [See also art. O*).] — : iai, (T, ?, K,) 
or 4yLj J>* iiil, (TA,) aor.^; (T;) as also 
«5*9 ; these being two dial, vara., one of the other, 
mentioned by Yz, on the authority of AA ; (S ;) 
[and «3^l ; (see art. C^ ;)] He withheld him, 
or restrained him, (S, K,) and turned him, or 
averted him, (T, S, K,)from his course, purpose, 
or object. (S, TA.) = ^''» # (M, K,) or W i£J», 
(As, T,S,) aor. , , inf. n. CJI, 7/e made him to 
swear, or take an oath : (As, T, S, K :) or he 
desired of him that he should swear, or give 

his testimony, for him. (M,K.) And cxnx* *^J', 
inf. n. as above, 77e pressed him, or pressed hard 
upon him, with an oath. (M.) It is related 
that a man said to 'Omar, " Fear God, O prince 
of die faithful :" and another, hearing him, said, 

t ^ ! *3« 11 .J**' L5** -^^'i meaning J9o.s< </mw 

lower the dignity of the prince of the faithful? 

or dost thou diminish to him [the respect that 

is due to him] 1 accord, to IAar. : or rather, 

dost thou conjure the prince of the faithful? his 

saying " Fear God" being as though he conjured 

a- 1 . i «f 
him by God: for die Arabs say, W «t&W OUI 

IJk£» cJUi, meaning 7 conjure thee by God but 
that thou do thus, or ««:/♦ a thing. (T.) 

3 : see 1. 

4 : see 1, in two places. 

v^JI — JUI 

• ff _ .. . . . . * 1" , 1' 

oJI Deficiency : as in the saying ^>>i^y> ^£ «-• 

CJt [Hfcere t* not, tn their provision-bags, any 
deficiency]. (A.)^mA swearing; syn. wiU.. 
(M, TA.) [Perhaps an inf. n. in this sense.] — 
An oath : as in the saying, when one has not 
given thee thy right, or due, c-J^Li «j~S [/Jtni 
f Aou Aim by oath]. (T.) = Calumny, slander, or 
false accusation. (Kr,M,K.) [Perhaps an inf. n. 
in this sense also.] 


*J1 j! «naW $rt/*. (A A, T, K.)s«jln 00/A 
<uc/t <w is termed ^y*^, q- v. (A A, T, K.) 

Sj^l &c. for »*'$} &c. : see art. jJj. 


«< t 

1. iU), (T, S, M, M ? b, ^,) aor. -^(S, Msb, 
K,) inf^ n. Jfl (S, M, Msb, K) and JIl (?[) and 
w»*9l and »J*9j, which is anomalous, and 0^*"> 
(M, TA,) He kept, or c/are, to it; (A'Obeyd, 
T, M, Msb,» TA ;) namely, a thing, (A'Obeyd, 
T, M,TA,) or a place; (S, Msb,TA;) as also 
ii'f, aor.-,; (TA;) and *iijT, (A'Obeyd, T, S, 
M, Msb,) aor. ^|^, (S, TA,) inf. n. J-^jl ; (S, 
Msb, TA ;) and * lii\, aor. Ju'$i, inf. n. i*Jl> 
and *j"^1 : (S, Msb, TA':) [he frequented it, or 
resorted to it habitually; namely, a place:] he 
became familiar with it ; or accustomed, or habi- 
tuated, to it ; namely, a thing : (AZ, T :) he 
became familiar, sociable, companionable, friendly, 
or amicable, with him : (AZ, T, Msb :) he loved, 
or affected, him; liked, approved, or took pleasure 
in, him. (Msb.) You say,^»jlj| j^£jt oi)1 [The 
birds kept to the sacred territory], and Oj~JI 
[the houses] : and Jl/I &&H * cJJf 77/ « gazelles 
kept to tke sands. (T.) ^There are three man- 
ners of reading the passage in the Kur [cvi. 1 

and 2], wi^Jlj ;U1J1 iUy ^^.1 J& tj^^ • 

the second and third being wi^) and uU^ ; the 
first and second of which have been adopted ; 
(Aboo-ls-hiik, T, TA;) and the third also; this 
being the reading of the Prophet [himself] : (TA :) 
[accord, to all these readings, the passage may be 
rendered, For the keeping of Kureysh, for their 
keeping to tlie journey of the winter and of the 
summer, or spring ; the chapter going on to say, 
for this reason " let them worship the Lord of this 

House," &c. : or] the second and third readings 

' * frf* 

are from uUI, aor. oUU ; [and accord, to these 

readings, the passage may be rendered as above ;] 
but accord, to the first reading, the meaning is, 
for the preparing and fitting out [Sec. ; i. e., 
preparing and fitting out men and beasts in the 
journey of the winter &c.] : so says IAmb ; and 
Fr explains in the same manner the third reading: 
but IAar says that, accord, to this reading, the 
meaning is, the protecting [&c] : he says that 
the persons who protected were four broUiers, 
Hashim and 'Abd-Shems and El-Muttalib and 
Nowfal, the sons of 'Abd-Mendf: these gave pro- 
tection to Kureysh in their procuring of corn : 
(T :) Hashim obtained a grant of security from 
the king of the Greeks, and Nowfal from Kisra, 


and 'Abd-Shems from the Nojashee, and El- 
Muttalib from the kings of Hiniyer; and the 
merchants of Kureysh used to go to and from the 
great towns of these kings with the grants of 
security of these brothers, and none opposed 

1 1' 
them : Hashim used to give protection («JU>< [in 

the copies of the K «J5>i]) [to those journeying] 
to Syria, and 'Abd-Shems to Abyssinia, and El- 
Muttalib to El- Yemen, and Nowfal to Persia: 
(T, K :*) or * \SJ*A in the Kur signifies a covenant, 
or an obligation ; and what resembles permission, 
(SjliLt , as in some copies of the K and in the TA,) 
or protection, (»jM> as in the CK,) with an 
obligation involving responsibility for safety ; 
first obtained by Hashim, from the kings of 
Syria ; (K,* TA ;) and the explanation is, tiiat 
Kureysh were dwelling in the sacred territory, 
(K,) having neither seed-produce nor udders [to 
yield them milk], (TA,) secure in the procuring 
of their provisions from other parts, and in their 
changes of place, in winter and summer, or spring; 
die people around them having their property 
seized ; whereas, when any cause of mischief 
occurred to them, they said, " We are people of 
the sacred territory," and then no one opposed 
them : (K :) so in the O : (TA :) or the J is to 
denote wonder ; and the meaning is, wonder ye 
at thesJW of Kureysh [tec.]: (K:) some say 
that the meaning is connected with what follows ; 
i. e., let them worship the Lord of this House for 
die *jy*\ [&c., agreeably widi the first explana- 
tion which we have given] : others, that it is 
connected widi what precedes; as J says; (TA;) 
the meaning being, I have destroyed tho masters 
of the elephant to make KureysJi remain at 
Mekkeh, and for their uniting the journey of the 
winter and of the summer, or spring ; that when 
they finished one, they should commence the 
other ; (T, S ;) and this is like the saying, 
I jil) IjJCJ eZjyb, with suppression of die [con- 
junctive] '3 1 (S :) but Ibn-'Arafch disapproves 
of this, for two reasons : first, because die phrase 
" In die name of God" &c. occurs between the 
two chapters: [Bd, however, mentions that in 
Ubei's copy, die two compose one chapter :] 
secondly, because <J^l signifies the covenants, 
or obligations, which they obtained when they 
went forth on mercantile expeditions, and whereby 
they became secure. (TA.) ♦^»^t [in like manner] 
signifies A writing of security, written by tlte 
king for people, that they may be secure in his 
territory : and is used by Musawir Ibn-Hind in 
the sense of tJ^I, [as is also <JUI ,] when he says, 
in satirizing Benoo-Asad, 

meaning Ye asserted [that your brothers are 
Kureysh; i.e.,] that ye are like Kureysh: but 
how should ye be like diem ? for they have [an 
alliance whereby they are protected in] the trade 
of El-Yemen and Syria; and ye lutve not that 
[alliance], (Ham p. 030.) [Hence,] i)T J^l, 
[a phrase used in the manner of an oath,] accord, 
to some, signifies The safeguard, or protection, of 
God : or, accord, to others, an honourable station 
from God. (TA.) as iiil, aor. ; , He gave him 


a thousand; (§,£;) of articles of property, and 
of camels. (TA.) 

2.^U£ uJl, inf. n. jj\3, (T,Msb,K,) He 
united them, or brought them together, (T, Msb, 
TA,) after separation ; (T, TA ;) and made them 
to love one another ; (Msb ;) he caused union, or 
companionship, (ail,) to take place between them. 
KV") Aml O t-f 'JI 0*f «B«Mlj inf. n. as above, [7 
united, or put together, the two things.] (S.) And 
t v _ J iJI will 77« united, or connected, (T,) or //a- 
/Awerf or collected or brought together, (M,) </«• 
swero/ part* o/ Me M%. (T, M.) Hence, 

v ^ xJt uiejO [7%eco»n;>oM<tono/&ooA*]. (T,TA.) 

• I- .' 

— w*JU is The putting many things into suck a 
state that one name becomes applicable to them, 
whether there be to some of the parts a relation to 
others by precedence and sequence, or not: so that 
it is a more general term than ^jp : (KT :) or 
the collecting together, or putting together, suitable 
things; from au^l [i. e . ii'^l] ; and is a more 
particular term than ^*t&>j3, which is the putting 
together things, whether suitable or not, or placed 
in order or not (Kull p. U8.)mm\J£a ^J\ lyj| : 
seefi. — lil Jftjfe wrote an alif; ($|) like 
as one says W^-. (TA.)™See also 4, in 
three places. 

3. «AM : see 1, first sentence. wmUi\, (M,TA,) 
inf. n. *i}\'y, (TA,) [app., He made a covenant 
with another to be protected during a journey for 
the purpose of trade, or traffic : (see 1 :) and 
hence,] he (a man) traded, or trafficked. (M, 
1 A.)^aAJI^» *1»jU He made a condition with 
him for a thousand: (IAar, M :) like as one 
•>y», JlC«*a.Jli,, meaning, for a hundred. (IAar, 
M, YL, in art t^U.) 

4. «i)t, inf. n. wi"^l : see 1, in three places. 
mml^i\ iii\, (T, M,) or £i£\, (S,) or J& 
lji>, (£,) inf. n. as above, (T,) He made him to 
keep, or cleave, to the thing, or to the place, or to 
tuck a place. (T,§,«M,^.»)__;^1)| wUfi 7 
jM**1» conjoined, or united, the thing. (T ) — 
>^iJI cJtf, (T,«S, £,♦) inf. n. as above, (S,) 7 
made the people, or company of men, to be a 
thousand complete [by adding to them myself] ; 
(T, S, ?, TA ;) they being before nine hundred 
and ninety-nine. (T, TA.) And i jiil wi)T He 
made the number to be a thousand; as also ♦**)! : 
(M :) or wi^l *UMke completed the thousand. 
(£.) And in like manner, (Sj^ljjjl ojof/ 
made the dirhems to be a thousand (S, $) com- 
plete. (S.) AndjCfO' f > 3 | They said to 
them, May you live a thousand years. (A in art. 
***•) ■■ Ijil ^Vy fcecaww a thousand (T, S, M) 
rom;;fe/«. (S.) And J»|jjj| cJT J%« dir/Ww 
became a thousand (S, £) complete. (S.) 

8. >> wife, (Msb, S,) and t lyj&f [written 
with the disjunctive alif 1^.1], (T, £,) The 
)teople, or party, became united, or cawus together, 
(Msb,?,) [q/Vw separation, (see 2, of which 
each is said in- the TA to be quasi-pass.,)] and 
hved one another: (Msb:) or the meaning of 


» O'illjl [and willj also] is the being in a state of 
union, alliance, agreement, congruity, or congre- 
gation : (Msb :) and the being familiar, sociable, 
companionable, friendly, ^or amicable, one with 
another. (TA.) And l&fti is said of two things ; 
[meaning They became united, or put together; 
(see 2;)] as also tUJL^I. (S.) And ljb\ twiJUil 
signifies The several parts of the thing kept, or 
clave, together. (M.) And wife It became put 
together in order. (M.) — lyjfe They sought, 
desired, or asked, [a covenant to ensure them] 
protection, (IAar, T, M,) \J£» J\ [meaning in 
a journey for the purpose of trade, or traffic, to such 
a place, as is shown in the T by an explanation 
of the words of IAar, j>\1)\ ^\ Jujj^iU J&>, 
in a passage in which the foregoing signification 
is assigned to tyfe] ; (M ;) as also \j£* ^J\ t lyjf. 
(M.)aa«*jQ He treated him with gentleness or 
blandishment, coaxed him, or wheedled him ; (XL ;) 
behaved in a sociable, friendly, or familiar, man- 
ner with him; (TA;) attracted him, or allured 
him; and gave him a gift, or gifts; (T, K;«) 
in order to incline him to him: (K:) or he affected 
sociableness, friendliness, or familiarity, with him. 
(Mgh.) You say, SUf ^ iajtf [7 attracted 
him, or allured him; and gave him a gift, or 
gifts, in order to incline him ; to embrace El- 
Isldm]. (S.) 

8 : see 5, in four places. 

[Book I. 

the pi. of oU| is J^T; (T, M ;) which is also pi. 
of t Jut : (TA :) and that of * JJ\ is Ju$ (S, 
S,TA) and iUM : (M,TA:) and that of t JuT 
is J-§\ (T, S, Msb, K) and J% like as JtL" is 
pi. of j-eli, (TA,) and so, (M, TA,) in my opinion, 
[says ISd,] (M,) is Jjft, like as \^L is pi. of 

■MlA, (M, TA,) though sonic say that it is pi. of 

•* « - » > t 

will: (M:) and the pi. of *AUI is UJIjl and 

Olif. (Kl.) You say, ^MJ ^ and * ^iJI 
[Such a one is my constant companion or asso- 
ciate, &c] (T.) And «JUNI ^'l oUNI c J ^, 
[7%c female mate yearned towanls the mate]. 
(S.) And Ai^jf ^Jl j^xJI ijj [The camel yearned 

towards his mates]. (T.) o^l, (T,) or o% 
(TA,) is said by IAar to mean Persons who keep 
to the large towns, or cities. (T, TA.) .Jyi in 
the Kur ii. 244 is said by some to be pi. of U$\ 
or of ♦ oUI : but by others, to signify " thou- 
sands." (Bd, L, TA.) ^Ll t July signifies The 
birds that keep to Mehkeh and the sacred terri- 
tory: and^C^JI t (JUljl, Domestic pigeons. (T.) 

will, meaning A certain number, (S, M, ¥.,) 
well known, (M,) i. e. a certain round nwnbei; 
(Msb,) [namely a thousand,] is of the masc. 
gender: (T, S, Msb, K:) you say o^T «>*i 
[Three thousand], not o^T iyj ; (f A ;) and 
«*»-l.j «-»JI I J* [7%m u one thousand], not Ij^U; 
(?> ;) ^and •jll uUI, [^4 complete thousand], (T, S,) 
not iUy': (S:) it is not allowable to make it 
fem. : so say IAmb and others : (Msb :) or it is 
allowable to make it fem. as being a pi. : (T :) or, 
accord, to ISk, it is allowable to say, Jut »jl as 
meaning oUI^AlJjJl «ji [These dirhems are a 
thousand] ; (S, £ ;•) and Fr and Zj say the like : 
(Msb :) the pi. is Juf, applied to three, (M,) and 
^'» (T, S, M, Msb, K,) applied to a number 
from three to ten, inclusively, (TA,) and JU), 
(T, S, M, Msb, K,) used to denote more than ten ; 
(T;) and Jl^l [in the TA .Jl'^l] is used by 
poetic licence for *J*^JI, by suppression of the 
[radical] J. (M.) 

t_tfl [originally an inf. n. of aa)I, q. v.,] He 
with whom one is familiar, sociable, companion- 
able, friendly, or amicable; he to whom one keeps 
or cleaves; [a constant companion or associate; 
a mate; a fellow ; a yoke-fellow; one who is 
familiar, tec, with another or others ; (see 
^ ;)] (M ;) t. q. t Jyt ; (T, S, M, £ ;) which 
is an act part n. of iil ; (Msb;) as is also t Juf ; 
(Msb, £ ;) and • UUI also is syn. with Jyf: (£:) 
the female is termed iil and JJl ; (M ;) both of 
these signifying a woman with whom thou art 
familiar, tec, and who is familiar, &c, with 
thee: (£:) and the fem. of ♦ Ji\ is ail": (£ :) 

wAJI : see will, in two places As some say, 

(O,) it also signifies A man having no wife. (O, 
K.) = One of the Utters of the alphabet ; (M ;) 
the first thereof '; (K ;) as also * JLlf : (M :) Ks 
says that, accord, to the usage of the Arabs, it is 
fem., and so are all the other letters of the 
alphabet; [and hence its pi. isolil;] but it is 
allowable to make it masc. : Sb says that every one 
of them is masc. and fem., like as is ^,UJ. (M.) 
See art. I. _ J A certain vein lying in the in- 
terior of the upper arm, [extending] to the fore 
arm : (K, TA :) so called as being likened to an I : 

(TA:) the two arc called ^Ul^l. (K.) J One 

of any kind of tilings: (K1,'tA:) ns being likened 
to the I ; for it denotes the number one. (TA.) 

ailt A state of keeping or cleaving [to a person 
or thing] : (M :) a state of union, alliance, agree- 
ment, congruity, or congregation ; (Msb ;) a 
subst from >_&ifyt : (Msb, K, TA :) and, as 
such, (TA,) signifying also familiarity, sociable- 
ness, socialness, companionableness, friendliness, 
fellowship, companionship, friendship, and amity. 
(Msb, TA.«) 

3 u 

jjill Of, or relating to, or belonging to, the 

number termed oUI [a thousand]. (TA.) 
tj s • * * 
[aJUl 1*13 A stature resembling the letter alif. 

Often occurring in late works.] 

1 1 >■ * 

w>^l an inf. n. of <uUI : and used as a subst. : 
• t ' *t- 
sce l.^.o'^l Jj^ Lightning of which the flashes 

are consecutive or continuous. (TA.) 

t Jt • -*' 

w»yi Having much iii\ [meaning familiarity, 

and scCtJUI. 

sociableness, &c] : pi. «JUI. (K.) 
wie>l : see iJUl, in three places 

wilt and i*)l ; and wilUt, the pi. of the latter 
-♦• - 

see wilt, in seven places. 

w*^l an inf. n. : and used as a subst : see 1. 

Book I.] 

«JiJb> [An accustomed place ;] a place to which 
a man keeps or cleaves ; [which he frequents, or 
to which he habitually resorts;] with which he is 
familiar, or to which he is accustomed ; (Msb ;) 
a place with which men or camels [or birds and 
the like] arc familiar, ice. (K,* TA.)_And 
hence, Leafy trees to which animals of the cliase 
draw near. (AZ, K.) 

Possessors of thousands; or men whose camel* 
have become, to each, a thousand. (TA.) 

oUy* and * jyU Kept to, or clove to ; applied 
to a thing [and to a person ; and meaning when 
applied to the latter, with whom one is familiar, 
sociable, ice.]. (T.) It is said in a trad., 1 >«^JI 

" i_jyU \Ji\ [The believer is one who is familiar, 
or sociable, &c, with others, and n'»'<A whom 

9 tj $ » J-A* J 

others are familiar, ice.]. (T A.) .xryVjA* i*J^»JI 

Those whose hearts are made to incline, or are 
conciliated, by beneficence and love or affection : 
(S,* Msb :) as used in the Kur [ix. GO], it is 
Applied to certain chief persons of the Arabs, 
whom the Prophet was commanded to attract, or 
allure, and to present with gifts, (T,K,) from the 
poor-rates, (TA,) in order tltat they might make 
those after them desirous of becoming Muslims, 
(T, K,) and lest care for things which they deemed 
sacred, or inviolable, together with the weakness 
of their intentions, should induce them to combine 
in hostility with the unbelievers against the Mus- 
lims; for which purpose, he gave them, on the 
day of Jfoneyn, eighty [in the TA two hundred] 
camels: (T:) they were certain men of eminence, 
of the Arabs, to whom the Prophet used to give 
gifts from the poor-rates; to some of them, to 
prevent their acting injuriously; and to some, 
from a desire of their becoming Muslims, (Mgh, 
Msb,) and their followers also ; (Msb ;) and to 
some, in order that they might remain stedfast as 
Muslims, because of their having recently become 
such ; but when Aboo-Bekr became appointed to 
the government, he forbade this practice. (Mgh, 
Msb.)™B4A)£* «JUI [These arc a thousand] made 
complete. (S.) __ See also fj^iiyo. 
%** » 
[>Jiy» A composer of a book or books; an 


• it* %i - i 

w>yU : see <~i)y», in two places. 

I. j#, (JK,K,TA,) aor.-,; (K, TA ;) or 
Ji\, slot. - ; (CK ; [in which it would seem, 
from what follows in this paragraph and the next, 
that the pret. is wrong, but that the aor. is 
right;]) inf. n. Jtfl and J^l ; (JK, K ;) It 
(lightning) lied ; (AHeyth, K ;) [i. e.] it was 

without rain. (JK.) See also 5 Also, 

JJI, aor. - , inf. n. J)l, He lied ; spoke falsely : 
whence the reading of Aboo-Jaafar and Zeyd 

Ibn-Aslam, [in the Kur xxiv. 14,1 <J*i)t5 Jl 

•i ' »• * 

>»£-*-«IW [ When ye spoke it falsely with your 

tongues]. (TA.) 


6. jyO It (lightning) shone, gleamed, or glis- 
tened; as also * JJUjI [written with the disjunctive 
alif jtel] ; (JK, S, IJ, K ;) and so * Jjf, aor. : . 

JU1 — JUt 
(TA.) Ibn-Ahmar has made the second trans., 

' " * * »h 

using the phrase 0>^' J^*^> either by suppres- 
sing a prep., [meaning She shines to the eyes,] or 

meaning thereby site ravishes the eyes. (TA.) — 

• - —I* 
And cilU, said of a woman, Site adorned 

herself: (Sgh, K :) or she became active and 

quick to engage in contention or altercation, and 

prepared herself for evil or mischief, and raised 

her head: (IF,K:) or she became like the iii\ 

•ft * 

[fern, of JJI, q. v.]. (IAar.) 
8 : see 5, in two places. 

Jit A he-wolf: fcm. with »: (IAar, S, K:) 

and the fcm. is also applied to a she-ape or 

monkey; the male of which is not called Ji\, 

but iji, (S, K,) and -Ll£. (S.) t Evil in 

disposition, applied to a man ; and so with 3 

applied to a woman : and the latter, a [demon 

of the kind called] V^jl-i ; because of its evil, 

or malignant, nature : (TA :) and a bold woman ; 

(Lth, K ;) for the same reason. (TA.) 

J"i)l [an inf. n. (see 1) used as an epithet ;] 
Lying, or fallacious, lightning; (K ;) that has 
no rain; (JK,K;) as also *JS>f: (K,*TA:) 
♦ fjfi, likewise, is an epithet applied to lightning 
[in the same sense ; or as signifying shining, 
gleaming, or glistening : see 1 and 5] : and so is 

4 til » 2 J 

▼ JJI, as syn. with wJU. [that excites hope of 
rain, but deceives the expectation]. (TA.) _ 
Also, applied to a man, Lying : (JK :) or lying 
much, or often, or habitually : (TA :) and very 
deceitful, and variable in disposition. (TA.) 
• i ,.t 

jyi [app. an inf. n. of JJI ; (see 5 ;)] The 

shining, gleaming, or glistening, of lightning. 

Ml t , 

Jll : sec J^l. 

Jill, like «-»!, [in a copy of the JK incorrectly 

written JBI,] i. q. JUU« [Shining, gleaming, or 

glistening]; (S,K;) applied to lightning. (JK.) 

^_Also f An inconstant man; from JJUJt as 

relating to lightning. (JK: there, in this instance, 

see Jj'jfl. 


1. j\+U\ OJJI, (ISd, K,) [aor. '- or - ,] inf. n. 
<lHi, (ISd,TA,) He (a horse) chewed, or champed, 

» * * r 

the bit; syn. «£U. (ISd, K.) One says, of a 

* j m * * 

horse, ^m 01 .iUb He chews, or champs, the bits : 
but the verb commonly known is J^Jb, or JUbu. 

(Lth.) [Hence, accord, to some, (see ih>>l,)] 

>yj| ^f iut, (Msb, TA,) aor. - , inf. n. jJJI 

and ihyi, (Msb,) He acted as a messenger (J— »3) 
between the people. (Msb, TA.) __ And aiJl, 
aor. - , inf. n. Jii\, He conveyed, or communicated, 
to him a message. (Kr.)_And jJJI He sent. 
(IB in art. Jy.) 

• « ..t 

4. ij-Ol is from >lUl signifying "he sent;" 

* * . U 

and is originally ^jSJW; the [second] hemzeh 


being transposed and placed after the J, it 
becomes ^-iiLill ; then the hemzeh has its vowel 
transferred to the J. and is thrown out; ns is 
done in the case of JUU, which is originally JXIU, 
then J^U, and then AU : (IB in art. Jy :) it 
means He thou my messenger; and bear thou 
my message; and is often used by the poets. 
(S in art. J)jf.) Accord, to IAmb, one says, 
ij*jj ^J\ ijSUl, meaning send thou me to such 
a one: [but I do not know any instance in 
which this meaning is applicable :] and the 
original form is iV^-31 ; or, if from jiy^fi, the 

original form is ,-JJII: and he also says that 
it means be thou my messenger to such a one. 
(TA.) One says also, -JC* \£\ L Jii\, which 
should properly mean Send thou me to her with 
a message : but it is an inverted phrase ; since 
the meaning is, be thou my messenger to her 
with this message [or rather with a message] : 
and >>">t — lb LJI (-iJul i. e. convey thou, or com- 
municate thou, to her my salutation ; or be thou 
my messenger to her [with salutation] : and some- 
times this [prep.] v is suppressed, so that one 
says, >OLJt lyJl In _ j -£JI : sometimes, also, the 
person sent is he to whom the message is sent ; 
as in the saying, >^luJI -ibJI (>>5 iOI [virtually 
meaning receive thou my salutation ; but literally] 
be thou my messenger to thyself with salutation. 
(TA.) Lb. mentions the phrase <01 «UJL)t, with 
respect to a message, aor. <*£f!l, inf. n. i£»^)l ; 
in which case, the hemzeh [in the aor. and inf. n.] 
is converted into a letter of prolongation. (TA 
in art. J"}.) 

•■ '« 
5 : see Jyi. 

»*'»%* • 

10. <CiDU >iJL)U-(l He bore, or conveyed, his 

message; (K;) as also J^CL.1. (TA.) 

• it 

l)))\ A thing that is eaten [or rather chewed, 

as will be seen below] : so in the phrases, 
Jjuo Jyt IJjk like Jjuo «->Afr and Jj^> jiyie. 
[This is an excellent thing that is chewed], and 
j/b cJ^li U [or JyO * C-^JI3 U (Kl >n art. 
•JLft)] like «>ybv C—VI nJ *-» [ a PP< meaning 
/ have not occupied myself in chewing with any- 
thing that is chewed]. (TA.) __ [And hence, 
accord, to some,] A message, or communication 
sent from one person or party to another ; (Lth, 
S, M, K, &c. ; [in the CK, after -3ut)l, by 

which iiy^JI is explained in the K &c, we find 

$ &' 9 * * * . t 

ju« J^i-o JUbJt AJ, in which the first two 

words should be oAJbJt ^bi, as in other copies of 
the K and in the TA ; and JjJ^JI is erroneously 
put, in the CK, for jy^l ;]) said by Lth and 
ISd to be so called because it is [as it were] 
chewed in the mouth ; (TA ;) as also t i£>^)| 
(ISd, Sgh, K) and * iOU (Lth, S, Msb, K, &c.) 

and t iou (Msb, K) and ♦ JUU : (S, M, Msb, 

K, &c. :) accord, to Kr, (TA,) this last is the 

• / 9 * 
only word of the measure JjuU : (K, TA :) but 

accord, to Sb and Akh, there is no word of this 

measure : (TA :) [i. e. there is none originally 



of this measure :] other instances have been men- 
tioned ; namely, jtjiL* and .j*** [orijrinally 
u>»* 1 aiuI j**-» &nd JXXyt and ^---6, which last 
occurs in the Kur [ii. 280], accord, to one read- 
ing, in the words tjlS ^'t ijiiSi • but it is said 

that each of these, and 4iii» also, may be regarded 
as originally with » ; or, accord, to AHei, each 
is [virtually, though not in the language of 
the grammarians,] a pi. of the same with S; 
(MF, TA and Akh says the same with respect 

to jt,j>U and ^jyu : (TA :) Seer says that each 
is curtailed of i by poetic licence ; but this asser- 
tion will not apply to j— -», as it occurs in the 
Kur. (MF, TA.) — Jyl also signifies A mes- 
senger. (Ibn-'Abbad, K. [In the CK here fol- 

lows, jyW^ JyUlj : but the right reading is 

jyUI JyU^ 7 as in otlier copies and in the 

• - >t • >i 

iS»y 1 1 sec i)yi. 

OUU is said to be the original form of JXJU 
[An angel; so called because he conveys, or 
communicates, the message from God ; (K,* TA, 
in art. J*9 ;)] derived from J)y! ; (Mfb, K, TA ; 
[but in the CK is a mistake here, pointed out 
above, voce Jy I ;]) so that the measure of JJUU 
is Jjm : (Mfb :) Jul* is both sing, and pi. : Ks 
says that it is originally JuU, from Jyi signifying 
"a message;" then, by transposition, j)y+, a 
form also in use ; and then, in consequence of 
frequency of usage, the hemzeh is suppressed, 
so that it becomes jJUU ; but in forming the pi., 
they restore it to V"fc, saying aXS'JU, and jfc^U 
also : (S in art. oUU :) or, accord, to some, it is 
from j)"j " he sent ;" so that the measure of JUU 
is JA* : and there are other opinions respecting 
it : (Mfb :) some say that its > is a radical : see 
art. OlU. (TA in art. J^.) 


tfJU : ; see j)j)l. 

1. ^J I , aor. - , inf. n. Jj\, It, (as, for instance, 
the belly, T, 6, or the head, Mfb,) or he, (a 
man, T, 8, Msb,) was in pain ; had, or suffered, 

jMin ; acted. (T, 8, M, Mfb, K.) s&iJJH [He 

was in pain, or had pain, in his belly] (M) and 
* . • * * • t 
AilsM w~»)l [thou roast in pain, or pain, 

in thy belly] (T, S) or JUj [in thy head] (Msb) 

are like -ulj *li> (M) and JjJl olij (8, T) and 

jJUtj cj » .j ; (Msb ;) the noun being in the accus. 
case accord, to Ks as an explicative, though 
explicative* are [by rule] indeterminate, as in 
U«ft *,> Oj J and U-ji Ay c.i*> ; (T ;) the regular 

form being (•&* J\ and] JJuLy ^j{, (T, 8,) 
as the verb is intrans. (T.) 

4. £>T, (S, M, M f b, K,) inf. n. J^l, (8, 
Mfb,) I caused him pain or aching. (S,* M, 


5. ^U J9T« w«M, or became, pained : (M,* Msb, 
K :•) or A« expressed pain, grief, or sorrow ; 
lamented ; complained ; made lamentation or 
complaint; moaned; syn. £*■>>, (T,S,) and 

i>i- (T.) Yousay,o^*J^ 0$.J& [SucA 
a one expressed pain, Lc, on account of the 
conduct or the like of such a one ; complained 
of such a one] : (T :) and o^jjl li$ [on account 

of the hardness of the time]. (TA in art.>»jl.) 

•-« »- 

^J1: see^. 

^\Pain; ache; (T,S,M,K;) as also tijCl: 

(T, M, K :) pi. (of the former, T, M) J$. (T, 

M,K.) You say, O'l % ta^Jt j^ I U I do 

not find pain nor ache; i. e. U»j : so says AZ : 

and IAar says, t ijl »Jj ajw as meaning the 

same. (T.) And the Arabs say, .Si J &if i 
# ' f*f ^^ * 

T **W, meaning J mill assuredly bring upon 

thee [lit make thee to pass the night in] distress, 
or difficulty. (Sh.) 

• * 

jji\ Being in pain ; having, or suffering, pain ; 

aching. (M, K.) 

• <-« 

see ^glt. 

^J a contraction of U ^1 : see Jl, last 
< i 
^1 Causing pain or aching ; painful; (S, K.;) 

*• ?• *>i>* 5 (T, M, Msb ;) like ***!. as syn. witli 
* > .« : (S :) so when applied to punishment [or 
torment or torture] : (T, Mfb :) or, thus applied, 
painful, or causing pain or aching, in the utmost 
degree. (M,K.) 

I' if 

i«yi Lowness, ignobleness, baseness, vileness, or 

meanness. (O, K.) 

*«l;l: see ^1, in three places. — Accord, to 
IAor, (T,) A sound, or voice. (T, K.) You say, 

i^Xjl a) Co^ . j to I heard not any sound, or 
voice, of, or belonging to, him, or if. (IAar, T.) 
Accord, to AA, (T,) Motion. (T,K.) 

• • j it 

^yt: see^l. 

V *it > *i~ 

^U', or ^UJI : see art u*y». 

1. a)I, (S, and so in some copies of the K,) with 
fet-h, (S,) or a)I, (Mgh, Mfb, and so in some 
copies of the K,) like «_-j«j, aor. - , (Msb,) inf. n. 

i*y\ (S, Msb, K) and iky \ and L.y t, (K,) 7/e 
served, worshipped, or adored; syn. jus. (S, 
Mfb, K.) Hence the reading of I ' Ab, [in the 
Kur vii. 124,] ilii^Jj iJjJJ^ [And fcawe (Aw, 
and //(« service, or worship, or adoration, of thee ; 
instead of «lXV'j an ^ '^y ^eds, which is the com- 
mon reading]; for he 'used to say that Pharaoh 
was worshipped, and did not worship : (S :) so, 
too, says Th: and IB says that the opinion of 
I 'Ab is strengthened by the sayings of Pharaoh 
[mentioned in the Kur lxxix. 24 and xxviii. 38], 
"lorn your lord the most high," and " I did not 

[Book I. 

know any god of yours beside me." (TA.)x= 
41, aor. - , (S, K,) inf. n. it, (S,) He was, or 
became, confounded, or perplexed, and unable to 
see his right course ; (S, K;) originally a),. (S.) 
— O*** (^* *« He was, or became, vehemently 
impatient, or affected with vehement grief, or he 
manifested vehement grief and agitation, on ac- 
count of such a one; (S, K ;) like *JJ. (S.) 

*eJI a)I He betook himself to him by reason of 
fright or fear, seeking protection ; or sought, or 
asked, aid, or succour, of him: he had recourse, 
or betook himself, to him for refuge, protection, 
or preservation. (K.)_ jut^ *>' He remained, 
stayed, abode, or dwelt, in the place. (MF.)sa 
VI, (K,) like iii., (TA,) [in the CK a>,] He 
protected him; granted him refuge; preserved, 
saved, rescued, or liberated, him ; aided, or suc- 
coured, him; or delivered him from evil: he 
rendered him secure, or safe. (K.) 

2. aJU [inf. n. of a^JI He made him, or took 
him as, a slave; he enslaved him;] Lq. j>...jl>. 
(S, K.) — [The primary signification of a^JI seems 
to be, He made him to serve, worship, or adore. 
_ Accord, to Freytag, besides having the former 
of the two meanings explained above, it signifies 
He reckoned him among gods ; heUl him to be a 
god; made him a god: but he does not mention 
his authority.] 


5. aJ13 He devoted himself to religions services 
or exercises ; applied himself to acts of devotion. 

a ,»l •' ' 

a^VI : sec fe^t. 

«i • > 

a)I , or »*^l , [the former of which is the more 

common mode of writing the word,] is of the 

measure JUi (S, Msb, K) in the sense of the 

• * i * % m 

measure JyuU, (S, Msb,) like w>U£» in the sense 

• ' • ' i * ' t > i* 

of *->y&*, and l»l— -> in the sense of \>y—~*, 

(Msb,) meaning ▼»yU [An object of worship or 
adoration ; i. e. a god, a deity] ; (S, Mfb, K ;) 
anything that is taken as an object of worship or 
adoration, accord, to him who takes it as such : 
(K :) with the article Jl, properly, t. q. a&I ; [sec 
this word below ;] but applied by the believers in 
a plurality of gods to what, is worshipped by them 
to the exclusion of Jl>\ : (Msb:) pi. L/\ -. (Mfb, 
TA:) which signifies idols: (JK,S,TA:) in 
the K, this meaning is erroneously assigned to 
**•$!: (TA:) [not so in the CK; but there, 
Ayl^t is put in a place where we should read 
iV$N1, or a**9J without the article :] * ii^Nt [is 
the fern, of «">}S1, and] signifies [the goddess : and 
particularly] the serpent : [(a meaning erroneously 
assigned in the CK to AyJ^I ; as also other mean- 
ings here following:) because it was a special 
object of the worship of some of the ancient 
Arabs :] (K :) or the great serpent : (Th :) and 
the [new moon; or the moon when it is termed] 
J**: (Th,K:) and, (8,K,) as also tav$,, 
without Jl, the former perfectly decl., and the 
latter imperfectly decl., (8,) and ♦ AV^I, (IAar, 
K,) andtii^', (IAar,TA,) and t &>&, (K,) 

Book I.] 

[and app. * *V&] and t ljr)\, (K,) the sun ; (S, 
K;) app. go called because of the honour and wor- 
ship which they paid to it : (S :) or the hot sun. (Th, 
TA.) [a)I is the same as the Hebrew TV) 7 N and 
the Chaldee PT?N ; and is of uncertain deriva- 
tion : accord, to some,] it is originally «^Jj, like 
as ».U>I is originally 9-^2 ; meaning that man- 
kind yearn towards him who is thus called, 
[seeking protection or aid,] in their wants, and 
humble themselves to him in their afflictions, like 
as every infant yearns towards its mother. (TA.) 
[Sec also the opinions, cited below, on the deriva- 
tion of J&T.] 

j* .1 i- -t *i 

2**91 and aa^JI : sec a)I. 

1, .1 10 A 4> *, .1 I' ' 

aa^I and aa^I : sec a)1. = aa^I : see aa^I. 

ii^l inf. n. of 1, q. v. (S, Msb, K.) as God- 
* ' .*. .1 

ship; divinity; (K.;) as also " aa*} 1 ! (CK [not 

found by nut in any MS. copy of tlic K) and 
* ll><)\. (K.) = aa^J and aa*^I : sec III. 

i^l : see a)I. 

s ) a . 

[ ( ^ V JI , or j_5**j)l , Of, or relating to, God or « 

god; divine: theological: Hence, i«J*5)l .jJUJI 

i ■ **' ' 

or i**"^! : HOC what next follows.] 

[2cyJN1, or AgA^NI, Theology; the science of 
the being and attributes of God, and of the 

2 I jt 

article* of religions belief; also termed oLyJSI j^s. 
or ObV«l, and t ^^t '^j&X or \Jtff*\ 

oil, [written with the disjunctive alif <uil, 
meaning f/or/, i. c. <Ac only true god,] accord, to 
the most correct of the opinions rcsjKM-ting it, 
which arc twenty in number, (K,) or more than 
thirty, (MF,) is a proper name, (Msb,K,) applied 
to the Jiving who exists necessarily, by Himself, 
comprising all the attributes of perfection ; (TA ;) 
a proper name denoting the true god, comprising 
all the excellent divine names; a unity comprising 
all the essences of existing tilings ; (Ibn-El- 
' Ara bee, TA ;) the Jl being inseparable from it : 
(M|b:) not derived: (Lth, Msb, K :) or it is 
originally In , or ••$! , (Sb, AHcyth, S, Msb, K,) 
of the measure Jl*» in the sense of the measure 

• J • # * at' 

JyuU, meaning o^ U, (S, K,*) with [the article] 
Jl prefixed to it, (Sb, AHcyth, S, Msb,) so that 
it becomes e^HI, (Sb, AHcyth, Msb,) then the 
vowel of the hemzeh is transferred to the J [before 
it], (Msb,) and the hemzeh is suppressed, (Sb, 
A Hey th, S, Msb,) so that there remains aJUI, or 
OMI, after which the former J is made quiescent, 
and incorporated into the other : (Sb, AHeyth, 
Msb :) the suppression of the hemzeh is for the 
purpose of rendering the word easy of utterance, 
on account of die frequency of its occurrence : 
and the Jl is not a substitute for the hemzeh ; for 
were it so, it would not occur therewith in a^JNI : 
(S :) so says J ; but IB says that this is not a 
necessary inference, because »*^Nt applies to God 
(dill) and also to the idol that is worshipped; 
whereas aXM applies only to God ; and therefore, 

*)l— ^1 

in using the vocative form of address, one may 
say, M b [0 God], with the article Jl and with 
the disjunctive hemzeh ; but one may not say, 
ovJnJ! \j either with the disjunctive or with the 
conjunctive hemzeh: (TA:) Sb allows that it 
may be originally »"-} : see art. aJ : (S :) some 
say that it is from a)I, either because minds are 
confounded, or perplexed, by the greatness, or 
majesty, of God, or because He is the object of 
recourse for protection, or aid, in every case : or 
from Aylt, meaning " he protected him," fee., as 
explained above : sec 1, last sentence. (TA.) The 
Jl is pronounced with the disjunctive hemzeh in 
using the vocative form of address [all b] because 
it is inseparably prefixed as an honourable dis- 
tinction of this name ; (S ;) or because a pause 
upon the vocative particle is intended in honour 
of die name; (S in art. aJ ;) and AAF says that 
it is also thus pronounced in a form of swearing ; 
as in t^imxJ Atllit [an elliptical phrase, as will be 
shown below, meaning Then, by God, wilt thou 
indeed do such a thing ?] ; though he denies its 
being thus pronounced because it is inseparable ; 
regarding it as a substitute for the suppressed 
hemzeh of t*jFjA : (S in the present art. :) Sb 
mentions this pronunciation in <utl b ; and Th 
mentions the pronunciation of *a\ b also, with the 
conjunctive hemzeh : Ks, moreover, mentions, as 
used by the Arabs, the phrase J Jkil aX> [0 
God, forgive me], for <u)l b ; but this is disap- 
proved. (ISd,TA.) The word is pronounced in 
the manner termed ^oJu, [i. e., with the broad 
sound of the lengthened fet-h, and with a full 
sound of the letter J,] for the purpose of showing 
honour to it ; but when it is preceded by a kesrch, 

[us in dlllj By God, and *Sl\ jo~i In the name of 
God,] it is pronounced in the [contr.] manner 
termed S^y : A Hat says that some of die vulgar 

say, «Dbj *) [Ko, by God], suppressing the alif, 

J I ■ i 

which should necessarily be uttered, as in { j^a- J i\, 
which is in like manner written without alif; and 
he adds that some person has composed a verse 
in which die alif [in this word] is suppressed, 
erroneously. (Msb.) You say, IJ^==> .J olll <uil. 
[a verb being understood,] meaning Fear ye 
God, fear ye God, with respect to such a thing. 
(Marginal note in a copy of the Jami' es-Sagheer. 

•3 » !##■» *l# 

[See another ex. voce ij£s.]) And t >W , jJ aDI 

a - * 0t * 1 » 
and V >X*»'9 *t*l [By God, I will assuredly do 

such a thing] : in the former is understood a verb 

significant of swearing ; and in the latter, [or in 

both, for a noun is ot'ten put in the accus. case 

because of a particle understood,] a particle [such 

as _> or j] denoting an oath. (Bd in ii. 1.) And 

oJLui U au, meaning cJUri U <u)\j [By God, I 
did not, or have not done, such a thing], (JK.) 
And S)j> JblTo God be attributed thy deed! (A 
in art. j* :) or the good that hath proceeded from 
thee ! or thy good deed ! or thy gift ! and what is 
received from thee ! [and thy flow of eloquence ! 
and the like] : a phrase expressive of admiration 
of anything: (TA in art. jj :) [when said to an 
eloquent speaker or poet, it may be rendered 

divinely art thou gifted I]. Andtp Hi J To God be 

attributed his deed! [fee.]. (S and K in art. jj.) 
And JZ\ii\ <si [meaning To God be attributed 
(the eloquence of) the sayer ! or] horn good, or 
beautiful, is the saying of the sayei; or of him 
who says [such and such words] ! or it is like the 
phrase op ol), meaning J To God be attributed 
his goodness! and his pure action! (Har p. 11.) 
And (j*ii At* [To God be attributed (the excel- 
lence, or goodness, or deed, fee, of) such a one!] 

explained by Az as meaning wonder ye at such a 

. ji 1 
one : how perfect is he! (Har ibid.) [And Jyl *3) : 

' t • ' ' ** L .*. ' 

see art. &jI.1 And wJI «*>*-, meaning C~JI eS [lit. 
To God be thou attributed ! i. e. to God be attri- 
buted thine excellence! or thy goodness! or thy 
deed! fee.]. (JK.) [Similar to m, thus used, is 
the Hebrew expression DVON? after an epithet 
signifying "great" or the like.] **l\ Ulj eb 01 
uy*-'j 1 in the Kur [ii. 151], said on the occasion 
of an affliction, means Verily to God we belong, 
as property and servants, He doing with us what 
He willcth, and verily unto Him we return in 
the ultimate state of existence, and He will 
recompense us. (Jel.) AZ mentions the phrase 
»*5) jbjaJl [meaning a& j> t n.ll Praise be to God]: 
but this is not allowable in the Kur-an : it is only 
related as heard from the Arabs of the desert, and 
those not knowing the usage of the Kur-an. (Az, 

****?*• * . 

T A.) __ ~ J j 9 yli\ is an expression used in prayer ; 

as also >v A'>'; (JK, Msb;) meaning aDI l^ [O 
God] ; the j. being a substitute for [the suppressed 
vocative particle] b ; (S in art. aJ, and Bd in 

iii. 25;) but one says also, ^^JJI b, (JK, and S 
ibid,) by poetic licence : (S ibid :) or the meaning, 

accord, to some, is j^-> U«t aXiI b [ () God, bring 
us good] ; (JK, and Bd ubi supra ;) and hence 
the origin of the expression. (Bd.) You say also 

•^1 jf^uK [which may be rendered, inversely, Un- 
less, indeed; or unless, possibly] : the former word 
being thus used to denote that the exception is 
something very rare. (Mtr in the commencement 
of his Expos, of the Mnkamdt of El-Harccrcc, 

and Har pp. 52 and 53.) And ^mi _jmyii\ [which 
may be rendered, inversely, Yes, indeed; or yea, 
verily] : the former word being used in this case 
as corroborative of the answer to an interrogation, 
negative and affirmative. (Har p. 563.) 

^cy-UI : see what next precedes. 

• A, «i 

•yU : see a)I. 


1. 4, (S,M,Mgh,K.) aor. jj, (S, Mgh,) 
inf. n. |Jl (T,M,Mgh,K) and jM (K, TA [in 
a copy of the M J\]) and ,Jlj (K,TA; [in 

a copy of the M ^1, and in a copy of die Mgh 
written with fet-h and damm to the I;]) and 
* Jl, (S, If, K,) aor. J&, inf. n. 3J3 ; (8 ;) 
and * ^UJI [written with the disjunctive alif 
^jiiy] ; (S,M,K;) [and * Ju, as appears from 
an ex. in a verse cited in art. V J*J, q. v. ;] He 
fell short ; or he fell short of doing what was 
requisite, or what he ought to have done ; or he 

11 • 


flagged, or was remiss ; syn. j*S : (S, M, K ; 
and Fr, IAar, T, Mgh, in explanation of the first 
of these verbs :) and he mas slow, or tardy : 
(M, K ; and A A, T, S, in explanation of the 
second verb :) or he flagged, or tvas remiss, or 
languid, and weak. (AHeyth and T in explana- 
tion of all of the above-mentioned verbs except the 
last) You say, £*)\ ^ $, (Mgh,) and * ,J&\ 
«e», (§,) He fell short, &c, (j**i,) in the affair. 

(8, Mgh.) In the saying, JU> J> J>*? $ JiX, 
i. e. He did not fall short, &c., ( j^aJu Jj,) in 
acting equitably and equally in that, ^j is 

suppressed before o' : Dut '" tlie phrase, yb Ji 
JjjOI ,_>•, as some relate it, [the meaning intended 
seems to be, They did not hold back, or the like, 
from acting equitably; for here] the verb is 
made to imply the meaning of another verb : and 
such is the case in the saying, U~U ilyi *9, 
meaning I will not refute to thee, nor partially 
or wholly deprive thee of, sincere, honest, or 
faithful, advice : (Mgh :) or this last signifies 
I will not flag, or be remiss, nor fall short, 
to thee in giving sincere, honest, or faithful, 
advice. (T, 8.*) It is said in the $ur [iii. 114], 

^Ks*- j&y* % meaning They will not fall short, 
or flag, or be remiss, in corrupting you. (IAar, 
T.) And the same meaning is assigned to the 

• . i •£• . • '•■• ' i * »i» »» 

verb in the saying ^^U J-oAJI ^\ " Jj\i *)j, in 

the Kur [xxiv. 22], by A 'Obeyd : but the pre- 
ferable rendering in this case is that of AHeyth, 
which will be found below : see 4. (T.) Ks 

mentions the phrase, JL. -j iyj-iu JJt [He came 
witA a Atow, not falling short, lus.], for ^ ^ ; 
like ^>f •$' [for j^ji ■>>]. (8, M : [but in the 
copies of tlie former in my hands, for iyj-eu, I 
find Ajj^Lt.]) ▼ ^jll [with teshdeed] is also said 
of a dog, and of a hawk, meaning He fell short 
of attaining the game that he pursued. (TA.) 
And of a cake of bread, meaning It was slow 
in becoming thoroughly baked. (IAar, IB.) [See 
also the phrase £~ t iJL>\ "^j wop ^ in a later 
part of this paragraph.] _ You say also, oy il U 
,^&l, (K,) «r «Xi-l o« ^ I U, (M,) inf. n jll 
(M,K) and ])l, (K,TA, [in a copy of the M 
y 1,]) meaning I did not leave, quit, cease from, 
omit, or neglect, (M,K,) the thing, (K,) or doing 
it. (M.) And £*. y'Q ^' O^i Such a one does 
not leave, quit, or cease from, doing good. (M.) 
And Ijy*- oyi U / <fof not leave, omit, or 
neglect, labour, exertion, effort, or endeavour: 
and the vulgar say, Ijy*. jjyi U; but this is 
wrong : so says As. (T. [See, however, similar 
phrases mentioned above.]) bbb*£|, aor. as above, 
(TA,) inf. n. yf, (IAar, T, TA,) also signifies 
He strove, or laboured; he exerted himself, or 
his power or ability; (IAar, T, TA ;) as also 
* ,Ju : (T, TA :) the contr. of a signification 
before mentioned; i. e. "he flagged," or "was 
remiss, or languid, and weak." (TA.) You 
say, V«» c»yU VU- ^» ,-iOl He came to me 
respecting a want, and I strove, or laboured, &c, 
to accomplish it. (T.) __ And '»"$, aor. as above, 


(T, 8,) inf. n. yi, (IAar, T, 8,) He was, or 
became, able to doit: (IAar, T, 8 :) and ▼ .J I, 
inf. n. iJU, also signifies he was, or became, 
able; (TA ;) and so * i JC». (ISk, S, TA.) 
You say, j+*)\ IJJk y yk ii* w aftZe to perform, 
or accomplish, this affair. (T.) And <«Jyi U J 
wai not able to do it. (T, M, K.) And j-iOl 
»jj w»yi Ui i»-U. ^j* ^>» omcA a one cant« 
to m« respecting a want, and I was not able to 
rebuff him. (T.) It is said in a trad., >U> ^ 

▼^ ^>>U ii jijJI [2T« *>Ao/a*U «wr, or 
always, may he neither fast] nor be able to fast : 
as though it were an imprecation: or it may 
be enunciative : another reading is Jl *)j, ex- 
plained as meaning nyj *)y. [see art. jy :] 
but El-Khattabee says that it is correctly jf\ 
and *)\. (TA.) And the Arabs used to say, 
(S, M,) [and] accord, to a trad, it will be said to 
the hypocrite [in his grave], on his being asked 
respecting Mohammad and what he brought, 
and answering " I know not," (T in art. yV3,) 
▼O^iiif Sb C^jj % (T,S,M,?1,) meaning, 
accord, to As, (T,) or ISk, (8,) Mayesi thou 
not know, nor be able to know : (T, 8 :*) or, 
accord, to Fr, nor fall short, or flag, in seeking 
to know ; that the case may be the more miserable 
to thee : (T :) or w-Jt *)), as an imitative sequent 
[for oy I "^j, to which the same explanations 
are applicable] : (MK :) or c-Jb ^ c^Ji % 
the latter verb being assimilated to the former, 
(ISk, T in art. jtt, S,) said to mean oyU *)'}, 
i. e. nor mayest thou read nor study : (T in art. 
yU :) or w^JDI *>U oojj *n), i. e. [mayest thou 
not know,] nor mayest thou have camels followed 

by young ones. (Yoo, ISk, T, S, M, ?:.) Also, 

(IAar.T,) inf. n. yf, (IAar, T, ^,) Jf« gave him 
a thing: (IAar, T, K :•) [doubly trans.:] the 
contr. of a signification before mentioned, (also 
given by IAar, T and TA,) which is that of 
" refusing " [a person anything : see, above, 
U-liJyf^]. (TA.) 
2 : see 1, in four places. 

4. J\, (T,S,M,&c.,) aor. Jfr, inf. n. Hi\, 
(T, 8, Mgh,) [and in poetry J>)l , (see a reading 
of a verse cited voce mjft,)] He swore ; (T, 8, M, 
Mgh, ?! ;) as also * Jb, and t L y^|. (T, 8, M, 
IfL.) You say, t^L)\ l _ J ie £~j\ and AiJI [I swore 

to do the thing]. (M.) [And I i& JiJl ^ o^T 
/ *n»ore r Aar I would not do such a thing ; and, 
emphatically, I swear that I will not do such 

a thing. And L**^ .Jf He swore an oath.] It 

* I tl 

is said in the £ur [xxiv. 22], yy ♦ J3[^ *)} 

jt*-l+ J-«*", meaning, accord, to AHeyth and 
Fr, And let not those of you who possess super- 
abundance swear [that they will not give to 
relations &c.] ; for Aboo-Bekr [is particularly 
alluded to thereby, because he] had sworn that he 
would not expend upon Mistah and his relations 
who had made mention of [the scandal respecting] 
' Aisheh : and some of the people of El-Medeeneh 

read * Jw S|j» hut this disagrees with the written 
text: A 'Obeyd explains it differently: see 1: 
but the preferable meaning is that here given. 

(Book I. 

(T.) And it is said in a trad., \ Jf l> eiili eye . jt 
He swore that he would not go in to his wives 
for a month : the verb being here made trans, 
by means of ^>* because it implies the meaning 
of ct£*t, which is thus trans. (TA.) [See also 
an ex. of the verb thus used in the Kur ii. 226.] 
All ^yi* "^jJUJI is said to mean One's saying, 
By Ood, such a one will assuredly enter the fire 
[of Hell], and Ood will assuredly make to have 
a good issue the work of such a one : but see 
the act. part. n. below. (TA.) = oJI, inf. n. 
as above, She (a woman) took for herself, or 
made, or prepared, a ?ji*, q. v. (TA.) 

5 : see 1, in two places : be and see 4, in three 

8 : see 1, in five places : 

: and see 4, in two 

yt, or yi : see ,jM in art. ^J\. 

yi, (so in some copies of the S, and so in 

the K in tlie last division of that work, and in 
the CK in art. Jt, [and thus it is always pro- 
nounced,] but in some copies of the K in art Jl 

it is written oW- t as though to show the original 
form of its termination,]) or ^\, (so in the M, 
and in some copies of tlie S, [and thus it is 
generally written,]) t. q. jjji [Possessors of; 
possessed of; possessing; having]; a pi. which 
has no sing.' (8, M, K) of its own proper letters, 
(S, K,) its sing, being ji : (8 :) or, as some 
say, a quasi-pl. n., of which the sing, is ^3 : (K :) 

the fern, is 0"^l, (so in some copies of the 8 and 
K, [and thus it is always pronounced,]) or 

0*jy, (so in other copies of the 8 and K, [and 
thus it is generally written,]) of which the sing, 
is oli : (8, K :) it is as though its sing, were 

Jl, (M,Ij:, [in the C£ jl,]) the [final] s [in 

the inaso.] being the sign of the pi., (M,) for 

it has ^ [for its termination] in the nom. case, 

and {j in the accus. and gen. (M, K.) It is 

never used but as a prefixed noun. (M, K.) 

i ( ii . 
The following are exs. of the nom. case : ^\ ^>»J 

ju jJi ^jXi yy^ 5y [ We are possessors of strength, 
and possessors of vehement courage], in the £ur 

[xxvii. 23] ; and ui** .Jjl <*r**4 J^jfi ££ 
[The possessors of relationships, these have the 
best title to inheritance, one with respect to 
another], in the same [viii. last verse and xxxiii. 

0] ; (TA ;) and ^£fa\ Jjl ,Vi V [The persons 
of understandings came to me]; and JU»-"iM o*^«1 
[Those who are with child; occurring in the 
Kur lxv. 4] : (8 :) and the following are exs. 
of the accus. and gen. cases : t>e/J&yij ^ij 

i^JiJI ^y [And leave thou me, or let me alone, 
with the belters, or discrediters, (i. e., commit 
their case to me,) the possessors of ease and plenty], 
in the Kur [Ixxiii. 11] ; and ^yy a ...* m C\( iyZl 
»yUI [Would weigh down the company of men 
possessing strength], in the same [xxviii. 76]. 
(TA.) J&+ p% j£\}, in the Kur [iv. 62], 
[And those, of you, who are possessors of com- 
mand], (M,K,«) accord, to Aboo-Is-hak, (M,) 

Book I.] 

means the companion* of the Prophet, and the 
men of knowledge their follower*, (M, K,) and 
the possessor* of command, toko are their followers, 
when also postessort of knowledge and religion : 
(K :) or, as some say, [simply] the possessors 
of command; for when these are possessors of 
knowledge and religion, and take, or adopt and 
maintain, and follow, what the men of knowledge 
■ay, to obey them is of divine obligation : and 
in general those who are termed ***91 yy, of the 
Muslims, are those who superintend the affairs of 
such with raped to religion, and everything con- 
ducing to the right disposal of their affair*. (M.) 

.Jl , accord, to 8b, is originally with j in the 
place of the [^£, i.e. the final] alif; and so is^jic ; for 
the alifs [in these two particles] are not susceptible 
of imaleh ; [i. e., they may not be pronounced 
ile and 'ale ;] and if either be used as the proper 
name of a man, the dual [of the former] is u'VJ 
and [that of the latter] O'^* 5 Dut wnen a pr " 
noun is affixed to it, the alif is changed into ye, 
so that you say iQl and il^* ; though some of 
the Arabs leave it as it was, saying J^l and J^U. 
(S.) It is a prep., or particle governing a noun 
in the gen. case, (S, Mughnee, K,) and denotes 
the end, as opposed to [±y, which denotes] the 
beginning, of an extent, or of the space between 
two points or limits; (S, M ;) or the end of an 
extent (T, Mughnee, K) of place ; [signifying To, 
or a* far a*;] as in the phrase [in the Kur xvii. 1], 

the Sacred Mosque to, or as far at, the Furthest 
Mosque; meaning from the mosque of Mekkch 
to that of Jerusalem] ; (Mughnee, K ;) or in the 
saying, iC» .Jl iijOl ^jj> < £»*pj4 [I went forth 
frOm El-Koofeh to Mekheh], which may mean 
that you entered it, [namely, the latter place,] or 
that you reached it without entering it, for the 
end includes the beginning of the limit and the 
furthest part thereof, but does not extend beyond 
it. ($.) [In some respects it agrees with J-*-, 
q. v. And sometimes it signifies Toward* ; as in 
^jl jiki lie looked toward* me; and 4*j| JU 
He, or it, inclined toward* kirn, or it. __ It also 
denotes the end of a space of time ; [signifying To, 
till, or until;] as in the saying [in the Kur ii. 183], 

jJjbfjjM >l*JI '>»3lji3 [Then complete ye the 
fatting to, or till, or until, the night]. (Mughnee, 
K.) [Hence, ^1 ^1 (followed by a mansoob 
aor.) Till, or until : and ^Ju J\ Till, or until, 
what time, or when ? i. e. kow long ? and also to, 
till, or until, the time when. See also the last 
sentence in this paragraph.] — [In like manner 
it is used in the phrases JJi ^a J\ , and *^t .Jl , 
meaning, (And to on,) to other thing*, and to the 
end thereof; equivalent to et cater a. ] Some- 
times, (S,) it occurs in the sense of **, (T, 8, M, 
Mughnee, K,) when a thing is joined to another 
thing ; (Mughnee, K ;) as in the phrase [in the 
Kur iii. 45 and Ixi. 14], M Jj ^uif *£ [Who 
will be my aider* with, or in addition to, God?], 
(8, Mughnee, K,) accord, to the Koofees and 
some of the Basrees ; (Mughnee ;) i. e. who will 
be joined to Ood in aiding me? (M, TA;) and 



as in the saying [in the Kur iv. 2], UJ£»l3 ^ 
j*&£** 1/' >•*•'>*' [ J * n ^ devour not ye their pot- 
sessions with, or in addition to, your possessions] ; 
(T, 8 ;) and [in the same, ii. 13,] ^'l lyU. 1*1 j 
^y^ifCL [And when they are alone with their 
devil*] ; (8 ;) and in the saying, J*t jjJJI J\ >j JJt 
[A few she-camel* with, or added to, a few *lie- 
camel* are a herd of camel*], (8, Mughnee, K,) a 
pro v., meaning t a little with a little make* much; 
(8 and A in art. jji, q. v. ;) though one may not 
say, JU j^j jJJ meaning JU jsj ** : (Mugh- 

' t ' **i * %' * Jit 

nee :) so too in the saying, am, ^jt ^)l jftten if}i 

[Such a one it clement, or forbearing, with good 
education, or polite accomplishment*, and intelli- 
gence, or knowledge of tlw, law] ; (M, TA ;) and 

to , t .# j , • f 

so, accord, to Kh, in the phrase, «iUt oil «x*»-l 
[I praise God with thee : but see another ren- 
dering of this phrase below]. (ISh.) In the 

rt-i **Y **" *A* ' ' i W* 
saying in the Kur [v. 8], ^j jw\j jfi hy t tf I jJu-cU 

Jiil^Jt j_)1 , it is disputed whether [the meaning 
be Tfien mash ye your facet, and your arm* with 
the elbow*, or, and your arm* a* far a* the 
elbow*; i. e., whether] the elbows be meant to be 
included among the parts to be washed, or ex- 
cluded therefrom. (T.) A context sometimes 
shows that what follows it is included in what 

precedes it ; as in »j**.\ J\ <*) jl ^* Olr*" «-'!*' 

[I read, or recited, the Kurdn,from the beginning 

thereof to the, rnd thereof] : or that it is excluded ; 

*a • , , * i t a> 
as in JJUt ,J| >l~a) I I^*jI j^ [explained above] : 

when this is not the case, some say that it is 
included if it be of the same kind [as that which 
precedes] ; some, that it is included absolutely ; 
and some, that it is excluded absolutely ; and this 
is the right assertion ; for with the context it is in 
most instances excluded. (Mughnee.) __ It is 
also used to show the grammatical agency of the 
noun governed by it, after a verb of wonder j or 
after a noun of excess importing love or hatred ; 

[as in .Jl AMm-\ U Sow lovely, or pleating, is he 

to me I (TA in art. w-»- ,) <""* J\ *^v' U How 
hateful, or odious, i* he to me! ($ in art. ^joju ;) 
and] ' as in the saying [in the Knr xii. 33], w>j 

jJI sr-^-l {ft} ■■■)! [O my Lord, the prison is more 

pleasing to me]. (Mughnee, K.) [This usage is 

similar to that explained in the next sentence.] __ 

It is tyn. with jJs. ; (S, M, Mughnee, Msb, K ;) 

* t a - 0*4 1 
as in the phrase, IJ>& k j^ ^Jl s j t i»\ y*> [It is 

more desirable, or pleasant, in my estimation than 
such a thing] ; (Msb ;) and in the saying of the 

-• a i %t 0*% 

J-JU! J^j}) 0*J\^\ 

[I* there no way of return to youth, teeing that 
the remembrance thereof it more pleasant to me, 
or in my estimation, than mellow wine ?] (Mugh- 
nee, K :) and accord, to this usage of ,JI in the 

*0 ^^ ml 

sense of Jm& may be explained the saying, c-Jl 

** C * t 00*m ' 

i— 1 ,JI JJU», meaning Thou art divorced at the 
commencement of a year. (Msb.)__It is also 

0*0 s ml 

tyn. with J ; as in the phrase, ileJI j**$\) [And 
command, or to command, belongeth unto Thee, 


meaning God, as in the Kur xiii. 30, and xzx. 3], 
(Mughnee, K,) in a trad, respecting supplication : 
(TA:) or, as some say, it is here used in th» 

manner first explained above, meaning, is ulti* 

' ' ' * 
mately referrible to Thee : and they say, j*»J 

iUI i»T, meaning, I tell the praise of God unto 

thee : (Mughnee :) [but see another rendering of 

this last phrase above :] you say also, AJI -iMi 

That i* committed to thee, or to thy arbitration. 

(Har p. 329.) It also occurs as tyn. with ^s. ; 

as in the saying in the Kur [xvii. 4], ^1 U~o*j 
JeSl^l ^ [And we decreed against the children 
of Israel] : (Msb :) or this means and we revealed 
to the children of Israel (Bd, Jel) decitively. 
(Bd.)_It is also syn. with ^*; (M, Mughnee, 
K ;) as in the saying [in the Kur iv. 89 and vi. 12], 
i-otill j>y„ ^J\ jJSm^tp) [He will assuredly col- 
lect you together on the day of returrection] : 
(K :) thus it may be used in this instance accord, 
to Ibn-M&lik : (Mughnee :) and it is said to be 
so used in the saying [of En-Nabighah, (M, 

JS± ^yw jjjiva !ju 

[Then do not thou leave me with threatening, a* 
though I were, among men, smeared with tar, 
being like a mangy camel] ; (M, Mughnee ;) or, 
accord, to some, there is an ellipsis and inversion 
in this verse ; ,JI being here in dependence 
upon a word suppressed, and the meaning being, 
smeared with pitch, [like a camel,] yet being 
united to men : or, accord, to Ibn-'Osfoor, ^JJ*-* 
is here considered as made to import the meaning 
of rendered hate fid, or odious ; for he says that if 
. Jl were correctly used in the sense of J, it 
it would be allowable to say, iiyJI ^Jl jyj: 
(Mughnee :) [or the meaning may be, a* though 
I were, compared to men, a mangy camel, smeared 
with pitch : for] I ' Ab said, after mentioning 
'Alee, ^1*\K.\ J, £lji)l£> *JU ^Jl ^J*, mean- 
ing My knowledge compared to his knowledge i* 
like the Sjlji [or small pool of water left by a 
torrent] placed by the tide of the middle of the 
tea [or the main deep]. (K in art. j**\ m S .) It is 

also [said to be] used in the sense of J in the 

a - . • f » » » • - 
saying in the Kur [lxxix. 18], ^^jS O' t_s" *• J* 

[Wilt thou purify thyself from infidelity?] be- 
cause it imports the meaning of invitation. (TA.) 
__It is also used [in a manner contr. to its 
primitive application, i. e.,] to denote beginning, 
[or origination,] being syn. with v >* ; as in the 
saying [of a poet], 

'.*•' J . » 0* *00 J §0 

yy jy£i\i c-ju jjj jyo 

* - • * J »-* is ' *•# fef ■> >t 

[She tay; (namely my camel,) when I have 
raited the toddle upon her, Will Ibn-Ahmar be 
supplied with drink and not satisfy kit thirst 
from me ? i. e., will he never be satisfied with 
drawing forth my sweat?]. (Mughnee, K.) _ It 
is also used as a corroborative, and is thus [syn- 
tactically] redundant ; as in the saying in the Kur 
[xiv. 40],^»l ^3 ^.iSl Jh US? J^.U, with 
fet-fc to the _$ [in \JyJ], (Mughnee, K,) accord. 


_. .__ . , •# -•* 

to one reading, (Mughnee,) meaning j^Ayfi [i. e. 

And make Thou hearts of men to love them] : 
($ :) so says Fr : but some explain it by saying 
that i£>*3 imports the meaning of J*^ ; or that 
it is originally i£>*3, with kesr, the kesreh being 
changed to a fet-hah, and the ye to an alif, as 
when one says L&j for ^-oj, and »L»U for a~o\j : 
so says Ibn-Malik ; but this requires considera- 
tion ; for it is a condition in such cases that the 
j_£ in the original form must be movent. (Mugh- 
nee.) [See art. «^yk.] iQl J^JJi, occurring 

in a trad., [is cllip'ical, and] means O Ood, I com- 
plain unto Thee: or take Thou me unto Thee. 
(TA.) — And -tUI^ .ili* 1 means I am of thee, 
and related to thee. (TA.) _ You say also, 
«UJJ vr-Jki', meaning Betake, or apply, thyself 
to, or occupy thyself with, thine own affair*. (T, 
K.*) And similar to this is the phrase used by 
El-Aasha, jgi U yjffc. (TA.) And ^'l 
[alone is used in a similar manner, elliptically, or 
as an imperative verbal noun, and] means Betake, 
or apply, yourselves to, or occupy yourselves with, 
your own affairs, (j&\ % t>»*Sl,) and retire ye, 
or withdraw ye, to a distance, or far away, from 
vs. (ISk.) And ^y* 4JUI means Hold, or re- 
frain, thou from me : (T, £ :) or remove, with- 
draw, or retire, thou to a distance from me : iJUt 
used in this sense is an imperative verbal noun. 
(Har p. 008.) 8b says, (M,) or Akh, (Har ubi 
supra,) I heard an Arub of the desert, on its being 
said to him oJUt , reply, .Jl ; as though it were 
said to him Remove, withdraw, or retire, thou to 
a distance, and he replied, / will remove, &c. 
(M.) Aboo-Fir'own says, satirizing a Nabathacan 
woman of whom he asked for water to drink, 

* Ivj oJIS ,"0l ^~&> li} * 

[When thou skalt demand water, she will say, 
Retire thou to a distance] ; meaning, [by Uy, 
i. e. jAJ with an adjunct alif for the sake of 
the rhyme,] oJUl, in the sense last explained 
above. (M.)__One also says, lj^» «iJUI, mean- 
ing, Take thou such a thing. (T, K.) __ When 
,_JI is immediately followed by the interrogative 
U, both together are written >"9t [meaning, To 
what? whither? and till, or until, what time, 
or when ? i. e. how long ?] ; and in like manner 
one writes J& for K»^a, (S* and £ voce U,) 
and >>L»- for U <r^> (8 voce >£»-■} 

»yi and »yi and syi : see <Ql. 

2 f 

^jJI One who swears much ; who utters many 
oaths : (I Aar, T, K :) mentioned in the K in 
ait. ^1 , but the present is its proper art (TA.) 

iell [A falling short ; or a falling short of 

what is requisite, or what one ought to do ; or 

a flagging, or remissness ; and slowness, or tardi- 

*t ... * •* 
ness :] a subst. from *^l as signifying j-a» and 

U^l. (M.) Hence the prov., (M,) **i ilk- S" 
tit * 

«J1, i. e. If I be not in favour, and high estima- 
tion, I will not cease seeking, and labouring, 
and wearying myself, to become so : (M, 1$. :•) 
or if thou fail of good fortune in that which 
tkou seekest, fall not short, or Hag not, or be 

not remiss, in showing love, or affection, to men; 
may-be thou wilt attain somewhat of that which 
thou wishest: originally relating to a woman 
who becomes displeasing to her husband : (S in 
art. ^t» - :) it is one of the proverbs of women : 
one says, if I be not in favour, and high estima- 
tion, with my husband, I will not fall short, or 
flag, or be remiss, in that which may render me 
so, by betaking myself to that which he loveth : 
(T and TA in art. jJ»W :) Meyd says that the 
two nouns are in the accus. case because the 
implied meaning is iJI ^a\ ^j iJi*. ^£>l *Jt ; 

the latter noun being [accord, to him] for ♦ 3ji\, 
for which it may be put for the sake of conformity 
[with the former] ; and the former having the 
signification of the pass. part. n. of kit or 
that of the part. n. of ijks* [or r l u r- ] (Har 
p. 78.) = An oath ; (T, S, M, Mgh, K ;) as also 
tQf (M t £) and *syi (T,S,M,BL) and 1$ 
and t l'J\ : (S, M, $ : [in the CK, ai& I %)U 
is erroneously put for ULU »y^l_j :]) it is [origi- 
nally i^JI,] of the measure iL*i : (S :) pi. C^l. 
(S, Mgh.) A poet says, (namely, Kutheiyir, TA,) 

• «L^J JiiU. b/$t XlS • 

m it 

ctji W 


[A person of few oaths, who keeps his oath from 
being uttered on ordinary or mean occasions; 
but if the oath has proceeded from him at any 
former time, or hastily, it proves true] : (S,TA :) 
or, as IKh relates it, ,^l J^tf ; meaning, he 

**7*t »^"}M J*U ; the ^j being suppressed : 
see 4. (TA.) 


t«JI : see the latter part of the paragraph next 


Jl Falling short ; or falling short of what 

is requisite, or what one ought to do; or flagging, 

or remiss: [and slow, or tardy: &c. : see 1:] 

fem. with 5 : and pi. of this latter Jljt. (S, TA.) 

•si ' ",„ 

See l(li, used, accord, to Meyd, for £J1. „ 

Niggardly, penurious, or avaricious; impotent 
to fulfil duties or obligations, or to pay debts. 
(Har p. 78.) 

»y£» The piece of rag which a woman holds 
in wailing, (S, TA,) and with which she makes 
signs: (TA :) [it is generally dyed blue, the 
colour of mourning ; and the woman sometimes 
holds it over her shoulders, and sometimes twirls 
it with both hands over her head, or before her 
face:] pi. JU: (S, TA :) which also signifies 
rags used for the menses. (TA in art. >?£.) 

JU« [part. n. of 5]. It is said in a trad., 

L$~*' &^ Oe'^^J J<j> explained as meaning 
Woe to those of my people who pronounce sen- 
tence against God, saying, Such a one is in 
Paradise, and such a one is in the fire [of Hell] : 
but see the verb. (TA.) 

1. J\, (S, $,) aor. jt, inf. n. Jl, (S,) He 
(a man, S) was, or became, large in the i^l, 

i and sec also ^jUI. 

[Boor I. 

q. v. (S, !£.•) = o4>'| <fc c^i ^ : see 1 in 

art yi. 

• a , 

tj\ : see ^11. 


(jll, (so in some copies of the S and in the 
M,) accord, to Sb, or <$, (so likewise in the 
M, in which it is mentioned in art. ^Jl, [and thus 
it is always pronounced,]) or ^J s \ ; (so in several 
copies of the S and in the K, in the last division 
of each of those works, [and thus it is generally 
written ;]) and with the lengthened I, [and this 

is the more common form of the word, i. e. ♦ »^t, 

as it is always pronounced, or »^l, as it is 

generally written, both of which modes of writing 

it I find in the M.,] (S, M, £,) of the same 

measure as ^(ji, (M,) indecl., with a kesreh 

for its termination ; (S ;) [These and those,] 

a pi. having no proper sing., (S, K.,) or a noun 

denoting a pi., (M,) or its sing, is li for the 

masc. and *J for the fern., (S, K,) for it is l>oth 

masc. and fern., (S,) and is applied to rational 

beings and to irrational things. (M.) [Thus,] 

■j ,. ., I », 
(jyl ^5^ **^l jf>, in the Kur xx. 8(5, means 

[They arc these, following near after me ; or] 

they are near mc, coming near after me. (Jcl, 

and Bd says the like.) And in the same, iii. 115, 

j£>y?^~i *}} ^y^- 3 *^b' ^ » iVow ye, O ye 
these believers, love them, and they love not you. 
(Jcl.) — The prticlo (M) U (S,K) used as 
an inceptive to give notice of whnt is about to 
be said is prefixed to it, [i. c., to the form with 
the lengthened I,] (8, M, K,) so that you say, 
"t*$y*t [meaning These, like as IJjk moans "this"]. 
(S, K.) And AZ says that some of the A nibs 
say, iJUj5 i%* [These are thy people], (S, M,») 
and " fj£* wotj [I saw these], (M,) with tenween 
and kesr (S, M) to the hemzch ; (S ;) and thi<, 
say« IJ, is of the dial, of Benoo-'Okeyl. (M.) 

_ And the j) of allocution is added to it, so 

, ij . -. I 

that you say, »&UJjl, [or •!&$£, which is the 
u i i • j ~- I < ' 1 

same, and ^oCJ^I, or j£f$}\, &cc.,] and J^jt, 
* a 

(S,!r>,) and 4U*^I, (so in some copies of the S 

and in the K,) or iU"^l, (so in some copies of 
the S and in the M,) in which the [second] J 

is augmentative, (M,) and T J)*)\, with teshdeed, 

(K,) [all meaning Those, like as jlj and Jii± 

mean " that ;" and hence] Ks says that when 

one says Jb^t, the sing, is Jii± ; and when one 

. . I ' - - ' . .1 

says J^l, the sing, is j)\± ; (S ;) or JU^t [or 

'. * i , ' - • 

jAJ^jl, each with an augmentative J, like Jii^, 

(and this, I doubt not, is the correct statement,)] 
is as though it were pi. of «lUi : (M :) but one 

docs not say jJb^U, or ibSjjU, (M,) [nor 
iU*^i, or the like.] [Thus it is said in the 

^ur n. 4, ^ Ol^lj ^^ o- ^jl* ,_,!* jB-jjjl 
^ji U»M Those follow a right direction from 
tlieir Lord, and those are they who shall prosper.] 
And sometimes ^0^1 is applied to irrational 


Book I.] 

things, as in the phrase jfify -!&& •*«*" [After 
those days]; and in the Kur [xvii. 38], where 

it is said, jtffc' J£» J'^lj r°**> J*-" Oj 
*$)'£» *i» 0^» [Verily the ears and the eyes 
and the heart, all of those sluill be inquired of]. 

(S.) The dims, are * £il a™l * £" ( s » M ) 

and • &J>» : (M :) for the formation of the dim. 
of a noun of vague application docs not alter 
its commencement, but leaves it in its original 
state, with fct-h or datum, [as the case may be,] 
and the ^ which is the characteristic of the dim. 
is inserted in the second place if the word is 
one of two letters, [as in the instance of bj, dim. 
of li,] and in the third place if it is a word of 
three letters. (S.) = J% (as in some copies of 
the S and T,) of the same measure as ,J«}I; 
(§ ; [wherefore the author of the TA prefers this 
mode of writing it, which expresses the manner 
in which it is always pronounced ;]) or 'jFfi ; 
(ISd, TA ;) or Jj^l ; (so in some copies of the 
S and T ;) is likewise a pi. having no proper 
sing., [meaning They who, those which, and 
simply who, and which,] its sing, being ^JJI ; 
(S ;) or is changed from being a noun of indica- 
tion so as to have the meaning of ^JJI ; as also 

t ,^t ; wherefore they have the lengthened as 
well as the shortened alif, and that with the 
lengthened alif is made indeel. by terminating 
with a kesrelt. (ISd.) A poet says, 

^u ji iy Jhii Jy$\ o|i 

[And they who are in Et-Taff, of the family 
of lldshim, shared their property, one with 
another, and so set the example, to the generous, 
of the sharing of property]. (T, and S in art. 

y*\, where, in one copy, I find J"^l in the place 

of Jj^l.) And another poet says, 

[And verily they who know thee, of them] : which 
shows what has been said above, respecting the 
change of meaning. (ISd.) Ziydd El-Aajam 
uses the former of the two words without JI, 

• ^U, j^t s,< n- ft IJuAj jUxi • 

[For ye are they who came with the herbs, or 
leguminous plants, and the young locusts, and 
they have gone away, while tliese, yourselves, 
are not going away] : (T :) he means that their 
nobility is recent. (Ham p. 078 ; where, instead 

of^^LiU and J»l, we find ^i\^ and *p.) — In 

the phrase Jj^l Vj*"* ( M in tnc L > and in 
some copies of the S and K,) or J"}}l, (as also 
in the L, and in other copies of the S and K, 
[and thus it is always pronounced,]) Jj^t or 
J^l may also signify ,>: JJI, the verb lyLL 
being suppressed after it, because understood ; 
[so that the meaning is, The Arabs who liave 
■preceded, or passed away;] so says Ibn-£sh- 



Shejeree : (L :) or it is formed by transposition I portion of flesh in (J [app. a mistranscription 
from J&, being pi. of jj\ [fern, of ft like | for i* from]) the little finger to the prominent 

extremity of the ulna next that finger, at the 

a » 
wrist : (TA :) or the portion of flesh in the Sj-o 

as 'jL\ is pi. of jmA : and it is thus in the phrase, 

jy^i 4»j»" •s-JS or \jw { The fi rsi Arah '" 

have passed away]. (S, K.) 'Obeyd Ibn-El- 
Abras uses the phrase, J*>)l O*-' [as meaning 
We are the first]. (TA.) 

■ and see also art. <j\. 

Jl: see JI. 


Jl (T, S, M, K) and * JI, (S, M, K,) the 
latter said by Zekcrceya to be the most common, 
and the same is implied in the S, but MF says 
that this is not known, (TA,) and *^M, (T,) or 
t jjl, (Es-Scmeen, K,) like *£*, (Es-Semeen, 
TA,) [belonging to art. J\,] and * JI (T, M, K) 
and * JI (M,K) and t J| (Es-Sakh&wec, Zekc- 
rceya, T A) and ▼ Jl, (the same,) or •$!, occur- 
ring at the end of a verse, but it may be a 
contraction of ^1 , meaning I>y6, (M,) A benefit, 
benefaction, favour, boon, or blessing : pi. »^t. 
(T, S, M, K, &c.) IAmb says that JI and JI 
are originally ^ and Sb- (TA.) 

^ jy >^U 

<Ul The buttock, or buttocks, rump, or poste- 
riors, syn. ij-^-ft, (K,) or [more properly] ja~z, 
(M,) of a man &c, (M,) or of a sheep or goat, 
(Ltli, T, S,) and of a man, (Lth, T,) or of a ewe : 
(ISk, T :) or the flesh and fat thereon : (M, K :) 
you should not say t i^JI , (T, S, K,) a form men- 
tioned by the expositors of the Fs, but said to be 
vulgar and low ; (TA ;) nor £}, (T, S, K,) witli 
kesr to the J, and with tcshdecd to the ^, as in 
the S, [but in a copy of the S, and in one of the 
T, written without tcshdecd,] a form asserted to 
be correct by some, but it is rarer and lower than 
aJI , though it is the form commonly obtaining 

with the vulgar : (TA :) the dual, is t ^Q* |, ( AZ, 

'-* - 
T, S,) without O ; (S ;) but O^ 1 sometimes 

•„»t i -» 
occurs : (IB :) ^^^l ^^1 is an epithet applied 

to the Zcnjcc, (K in art. ^ei,) meaning having the 
buttocks cleaving together : (TA in that art. :) the 

pi. is OUI (T,M,K) and C-^l; (M, K.;) the 
latter anomalous. (M.) Lh mentions the phrase, 

oUt _j JiJ ajt [ Verily he has large buttoclis] ; as 
though die term &JI applied to every part of what 
is thus called. (M.) __ Fat, as a subst. : (M :) 
and a piece of fat. (M, K.) — The tail, or fat 
of the tail, (Pcrs. «tL f ) of a sheep. (KL.) [Both 
of these significations (tlie " tail," and " fat of the 
tail," of a sheep) are now commonly given to 
U, a corruption of <UI mentioned above : and in 
the K, voce jy~J«, it is said that the Pers. e^j <lJ^ 

signifies J^aJI <UI.] — JUJI <Ul The muscle of 

a t »* 
the shank; syn. JLJI 5l»»- [which see, in art. 

y*.]. (AAF,M^I|:.)_>V^li^l' The portion 

of flesh that is at the root oft/te thumb ; (S, M ;) 

a * 
and which is also called its *j-b; (M ;) or the 

part to which corresponds the ij-o; (S;) and 

*' t'ti a * 

which is also called «_aUl <UI ; the ij-b being the 

of the thumb. (^.) — j -A-m. I I iJI The portion 
of flesh that is beneath the little fnper; [app. 
what is described above, as called the Sj*o, extend- 
ing from that finger to the prominent extremity 
of the ulna, at 'he wrist ;] also called jJI i^\. 

(Lth,T.) u&JI Vyi The ajl of the thumb 

[described above as also cnlietl oy itself >j£i\ i^\] 
and the »^> of the little fngcr [respecting which 
see the next preceding sentence]. (TA, from a 
trad.)_>»juUI ijjl The part of the human foot 
upon which one treads, which is the portion of 
flesh beneath [or next to] the little toe. (M.)_ 
ji\Li\ i^JI The hinder part of the solid hoof. 

&JI : see Ut. 


^yi : see oW" • 

^yt an irreg. dual of iJI, q. v. 

jUI (T, S, M, $) and t jyt (M, K) and 

* jT, (T, S, ^,) of the measure Jail, (S,) and 

t JI, (M,) or t JI, (so in some copies of the £, 

and so accord, to the TA,) or ▼ JI, (so in a copy 

a t 
of the ]£,) or • JI, (accord, to the CK,) and 

* JI, (M, K,) applied to a ram, Large in the aJ\, 
q. v. : (T,» S, M,» K* TA :) and so, applied to a 
ewe, fcy'l, (T, M,I^, [in the C%. aiui,]) fem. of 
Oyi; (T;) and *&$, (T, S, M, ^,) fem. of 
JI : (T, S :) and in like manner these epithets 
[masc. and fem. respectively, JI, however, being 
omitted in the M,] are applied to a man and to 
a woman ; (M, K ;) or, accord, to Aboo-Is-hak, 
(M,) JI is applied to a man, and t\j»** to a 
woman, but not Ayf, (S, M,) though [it is asserted 
that] some say this, (S,) Yz saying so, accord, to 
A 'Obeyd, (IB,) but A 'Obeyd has erred in this 

matter: (M :) the pi. is JI, (T, S, M, £, [in 
the CK erroneously written with fet-h to the I,]) 
pi. of JT, (T,S, M,) or of jT; of the former 
because an epithet of this kind is generally of the 
measure J«»l, or of the latter after the manner of 
jJJ as pi. of JjW, and }y* as pi. of jJ»U ; (M ;) 
applied to rams (T, S, M) and to ewes, (T, S,) 
and to men and to women ; (M, K ;) and oOUl, 
(S, M, K, [in the CK oUyi,]) pi. of iiQl, 
(TA,) [but] applied to rams (S) [as well as ewes], 
or to women, (M, K,) and, also applied to women, 
!^l , (M, and so in a copy of the K, [in the CK 
.•^1,]) or J*^l, (so in some copies of the K, and in 
the TA,) with medd, pi. of jl, (TA,) and ^1, 
(K,) pi. of oy?. (TA.) 

«Sl and ;%* and ?$$* and ;%l : see Jl. 

. Jl, mentioned in this art. in the K : see art. 
y I : = and see also jUI. 

U I and «Ut and ;UJ* : see Jl. 


fjl A man who sells fat, which it termed i$)l. 

&$i see^M. 

. I aeeAtff. 
/, J 

jj)1, and iU fem. fljt : see ^yi, in two places. 

1. i2f, (T, 8, M, &c.,) aor '-, (T, M, Msb,) 

inf. n. jA, (T,S, If, Msb,) He tended, repaired, 
betook himself, or directed hit course, to, or to- 
wards, him, or it; aimed at, sought, endeavoured 
after, pursued, or endeavoured to reach or attain 
or obtain, him, or ft ; intended it, or purposed it ; 
syn. ;j*ai, (Lth, T, 8, M, Mgh, Msb, £,) and 
.1*^5, (T,) and •j£3, (Mgh,) and «yj 2^3 ; 
(TA ;) as also t JLU«, and * *\^U, (T, 8, M, 
Mgh, Msb, £,) and *<&», (M, If,) and ♦ i^, 
(T,M,£,) and t^'j (T, M, Mgh, ? ;) the 
last two being formed by substitution [of^ for \]. 
(M.) Hence, £Lt tul 'lb\ \t [O God, bring us 
good]. (JK in art.' «M, and Bd in iii. 26.) And 
yA U jf), occurring in a trad., meaning He has 
indeed betaken himself to, or pursued, the right 
way : or it is used in a pass, sense, as meaning 
he it in the way which ought to be pursued. (TA.) 
And eb\ J^Lj t^atjl c J ttkft, in another trad., 
I went away, betaking myself to the Apostle of 
God. (TA.) Hence, also, r&i .« r n't t^j 
[He betook kimtelfto dust, or pure dust, to wipe 
his face and his hands and arms therewith, for 
}>rayer]: (T,» M,» Mgh, TA :) as in the Kur 
iv. 46 and y. 0: (ISk,M,TA:) whence^!)) 
as meaning the wiping the face and the hands and 
arms with dust; (I8k, T,« M,« Meh, TA;) i. e. 
the performing the act termed \*yi with dust : 
formed by substitution [of yj for!]: (M, K :) 
originally ^>*h\. (K.) _ See also 8. _ £\, (g, 
M, Mgh, &c.,) aor. < , (M, Mgh,) inf. n. % (M, 
M 8 n » ?») He broke kit head, so as to cleave the 
skin, (8, Mfb,) inflicting a wound suck as is 
termed U\ [q. v.]; (8;) [i. e.] he struck, (M, 
Mgh.K,) orwounded, (M,K,)the>t fq. v.] f 
kis head, (M, Mgh, K,) with a staff, or stick. 
(Mgh.) —J# AH K) and ^ % (M, *,) 
[aor. i ,] inf. n. iiui , (8, [but in the M and K 
it seems to be indicated that this is a simple 
subst,]) He preceded them ; went before them ; 
took precedence of them; or led them, so as to 
serve as an example, or object of imitation; syn. 
>n-^* i3 » (M, K ;) [and particularlyl rj*e}\ ^ 
[in prayer]. (8.) And i.1 and <y Jl He prayed 
«>Uj[q. v.]»ftAAm. (Msb.) And Jjjlitl Jl 
-H# Awam* [or acted as] >UJ to <A« people com- 
posing the ranks [in a mosque Sec.]. (Har p. 680 ) 
You say also, *hU- ^ j^> J# J£ .j [A 
man shall not take precedence of a man in kit 
authority] ; meaning, in his house, and where he 
has predominance, or superior power, or authority; 
nor shall he sit upon his cushion ; for in doing so 

he would show him contempt. (Mgh in art. kJU.) 
■■Cm!, (8, M,K,) [first pers. C*Uf,] aor. i , 
(M,) inf. n. ai^l, (M, K,) She (a woman, S) 
became a mother ; (8, M, If ;) [as also C^l 
haying for its first pers. C~*«l, aor. : ; for] you 

* f •.;. it ., 

•a.v, C*«-l J*A) Ul cA U [7%<w wast not a 
mother, and thou hast become a mother], (S, M, 
If, [in the last C-i*(*,]) with kesr, (if,) inf. n. 

■*•*»• (8, M, If.) _ 4^*1 7 n><M to him a mo- 
ther. (A in art. v**jO LAar, speaking of a 
woman, said, y»p i** y> oJl£», meaning [She 
had, lit. there was to her, a paternal aunt] who 
wot to her like the mother. (M.) 

2. «^«| and 


see 1, fi.-st sentence, in two 

«• **• -^< agreed with it, neither exceeding nor 
falling thort. (M.) — [See also the part. n. 

>!>«•, voce ^ I ; whence it seems that there are 
other senses in which >T may be used, intransi- 

places. ■■ «j ^13 

: see 1, former part, in four 
see 8.mC«4I! 7 took for 
myself, or adopted, a mother. (S.) And l^U 
7f« /oo* her for himself, or adopted her, as a 
mother; (S,» M, $ ;) as also t l^Ll, (M, ^,) 
andli^. (M.) 

8. A^il [written with the disjunctive alif 
***l] : see 1, first sentence. « <v ^^51 jy« y /- 
foiMrf Am example ; he imitated him ; he did as 
he did, following his example ; or taking him as 
an example, an exemplar, a pattern, or an object 
of imitation; (S, Mgh, Msb ;) as also * <ul : (Bd 
in xvi. 121 :) the object of the verb is termed 

f f 

>^*J » (?, M, Mgh, Mfb, £ ;) applied to a learned 

man, (Msb,) or a head, chief, or leader, or some 

other person. (M, $.) He made it an 3U\ or ill 

[i. e. a way, course, or rule, of life or conduct* 
as explained immediately before in the work 
whence this is taken] ; as also aj *^U. (M.) 
You say, j^ijyjiil and ^ ^^31*, by substitu- 
tion [of^for>], (M,K,) disapproving of the 
doubling [of the >]. (M.) 

10 : see 5. 

>l is a conjunction, (8, M, £,) connected with 
what precedes it (Msb, Mughnee) so that neither 
what precedes it nor what follows it is inde- 
pendent, the one of the other. (Mughnee.) It 
denotes interrogation ; (M, If ;) or is used in a 
case of interrogation, (S, Msb,) corresponding to 
the interrogative I, and meaning /<!, (S,) or, as 
Z says, ^>>l& O0**W jjl ; [for an explanation of 
which, see what follows;] (Mughnee;) or, [in 
other words,] corresponding to the interrogative I, 
whereby, and by jS; one seeks, or desires, parti- 
cularization : (Mughnee :) it is as though it were 
an interrogative after an interrogative. (Lth, T.) 
Thus you say, j^i. J>\ j\ jjl ^ X>)\ [Is Zeyd in 
the house, or 'Amr?] ; (S, Mughnee ;) i. e. which 

of them two (C^l) is in the house? (8;) there- 
fore what follows j>\ and what precedes it compose 

[Book I. 

one sentence ; and it is not used in commanding 
nor in forbidding ; and what follows it must cor- 
respond to what precedes it in the quality of noun 
and of verb; so that you say, J*U.>l'j5U Jljjl 

[/* Zeyd standing, or sitting?] and>l j^j>Ut 
J«l [Did Zeyd stand, or sit ?]. (Msb.) It is not 
to be coupled with I after it: you may not soy, 

yj+z j)jj*\ jt\ j^ JjUftl. (8.) As connected 

in like manner with what goes before, it is pre- 
ceded by 1 denoting equality [by occurring after 
Wy &c], and corresponds thereto, as in [the £ur 
Ixm. 6,] jj jAjU-3 jJ j>\ jJ 0>*i-l ^JLe l\^ 
[It will be equal to them whether thou beg forgive- 
ness for them or do not beg forgiveness for them]. 
(Mughnee.) __ It is also unconnected with what 
precedes it, (S, Msb, Mughnee,) implying always 
digression, (Mughnee,) preceded by an enuncia- 
tive, or an interrogative, (S, Msb, Mughnee,) 
other than I, (Mughnee,) or by I not meant 
[really] as an interrogative but to denote disap- 
proval, (Mughnee,) and signifies J^, (Lth, Zj, 
T, 8, M, Mughnee, $,) or J^ and I together, 
(Msb,) and this is its meaning alwnys accord, 
to all the Basrccs, but the Koofces deny this. 
(Mughnee.) Thus, using it after an cnunciative, 
you sny, :ti, Ji\ J,*j l^j [Verily they are camels: 
nay, or nay but, they are sheep, or goats : or nay, 
are they sheep, or goatsl] : (S, Msb, Mughnee :) 
this being said when one looks at a bodily form, 
and imagines it to be a number of cnmels, and 
says what first occurs to him ; then the opinion 
that it is a number of sheep or goats suggests 
•tself to him, and he turns from the first iden, and 
says, IU. >t, meaning jy, because it is a digression 
from what precedes it ; though wlmt follows Jy 
is [properly] a thing known certainly, and what 
follows jA is opined. (S, TA.) And using it after 
an interrogative in this case, you suy, jal Ja 
.}>»*>l tJiiu* [It Zeyd going away? Nay 
rather, or, or rather, it 'Amr?]: you digress from 
the question respecting Zeyd's going away, and 
make the question to relate to 'Amr; so that >t 
implies indecisive opinion, and interrogation, and 
digression. (S.) And thus using it, you say, jl^j ji 
>>** >•■>!* [Did Zeyd stand? Nay rather, or 
or rather, did 'Amr?]. (Msb.) And an ex. of 
the same is the saying [in the Kur xiii. 17], 

','lP.T '*■ *.' »l • »•■*' -•»•- -♦- ». 

w.UAk)1 yS!f~t JA>.I ^s-Jlj ^^^^1 iJyL-i JM 
> &+* 

jyi\) [Are the blind and the seeing equal? Or 
rather are darkness and light equal?]. (Mughnee.) 
And an ex. of it preceded by 1 used to denote 
disapproval is the saying [in the £ur ▼»• 194], 

V/ dir^H *1 j*) >' K* 0>^! J^-jl W [Have 
they feet, to walk tlierewith? Or have they hands 
to assault therewith ?] : for I is here equivalent to 
a negation. (Mughnee.) [It has been shown 
above that] jA is sometimes introduced imme- 
diately before Ji : (8, £ :) but IB says that this 
is when J* occurs in a phrase next before it ; [as 
in the ex. from the Kur xiii. 17, cited above ;] 
and in this case, the interrogative meaning of jt\ 
is annulled; it being introduced only to denote a 
digression. (TA.) _ It is also used as a simple 
interrogative ; accord, to the assertion of AO; in 

Book I.] 

the sense of Jm ; (Mughnce ;) or in the sense of 
the interrogative I ; (Lth, T, $ ;) as in the saying, 

••'""' 1'* •' -wr 

j-iU. !1«v£ JjU» jA, meaning Hast thou a morn- 
ing-meal ready ? a good form of speech used by 
the Arabs; (Lth, T;) and allowable when pre- 
ceded by another phrase. (T.) — And sometimes 
it is redundant ; (AZ, T, S, Mughnec, K;) in the 
dial, of the people of El- Yemen ; (T ;) as in the 

mm.0 9 * * 4 * *fs*' 

Ui>J J^» o& ^ J* 

(T, S,* [in the latter, jm* V., and only the former 

hemistich is given,]) meaning Dahna, (the 

curtailed form ^j being used for «U*j,) my 

walking was not, as now in my age, [a feeble 

movement like] dancing : but in my youth, my 

manner of walking used to be a bounding : (T :) 

this is accord, to the opinion of AZ : but accord. 

to another opinion, jA is here [virtually] conjoined 

with a preceding clause which is suppressed ; os 

% * * - s # • * * 
though the speaker had said, ^je^-* O 1 ^ 3 ' i>*> V. 

iUJi»0^> U>l Uxij. (A 'Hut, TA.) ■■ It is 

also used (T, Mughnce) in the dial, of the people 

of El-Yemen, (T,) or of T e >yi and Himyer, 

(Mughnec,) in the sense of Jl, (T,) to render a 

noun determinate. (Mughnec.) So in the trad., 

js\^Aj> >Cfif J*If ^ J4>, (T, Mughnee,) 

i. e. >LJI ^j* jA^si\ j-i\ O* J-J [Fasting in 
journeying is not an act of obedience to God]. 
(T, and M in art. jf.) So too in the trad., &)\ 
tJpfct? «^>U* JVo»» fighting has become lawful ; 
as related accord, to the dial, of Himyer, for 
Vj-aJI. (TA in art ^-el».) It has been said that 
this form jA is only used in those cases in which 
die J of the article docs not become incorporated 
into the first letter of the noun to which it is pre- 
fixed ; as in the phrase, ^jSy»\ ysfcjlj f-v" J*** 
[77iAe //ioh ?Ae spear, and mount the mare, or 
horse], related as heard in El- Yemen ; but this 
usage may be peculiar to some of the people of 
that country ; not common to all of them ; as 
appears from what we have cited above. (Mugh- 
nce.) ■■>( for Ul, before an oath: sec art. Ul. 

i -# *t \* »t <■* > j*t . 

s-m And t3i\ jA and atil >l &c. : sec di\ <J+A, in 

art ^>*. 

>l A morAcr (T, 8, M, Msb, £, &e.) [of a 
human being and] of any animal ; (I Aar, T ;) 
as also *Jj, (Sb,M,Msb,$>) and 1 2ui, (T, 
M,Msb,^,) and *VI, (S, M, Msb, $,) which 
last is the original form (8, Msb) accord, to 

some, (Msb,) or the » in this is augmentative (M, 

• -si 
Msb) accord, to others : (Msb :) the pi. is Ol^l 

(Lth, T, 8, M, M|b, $) and oUl ; (8, M, Msb, 
K ;) or the former is applied to human beings, 
and the latter to beasts ; (T, S ;) or the former to 
rational beings, and the latter to irrational ; (M, 
K;) or the former is much applied to human 
beings, and the latter to others, for the sake 
of distinction ; (Msb ;) but the reverse is some- 
times the case : (IB :) I Drst and others hold 
the latter to be of weak authority : (TA :) the 

dim. of jA is ▼ <Ue*t (T, S, K) accord, to some 
Bk. I. 

of the Arabs; but correctly, [accord, to those 
who hold the original form of jt\ to be 2^*1,] 
it is t 3^1. (Lth, T, TA. [In a copy of the 
T, I find this latter form of the dim. written 
aye*!.])—.^^^ denotes dispraise; (S;) being 
used by the Arabs as meaning Thou hast no 
free, or ingenuous, mother; because the sons 
of female slaves are objects of dispraise with the 
Aralis ; and is only said in anger and reviling : 
(AHeyth, T :) or, as some say, it means thou 
art one who has been picked up as a foundling, 
having no known mother : (TA :) [or] it is also 
sometimes used in praise; (A 'Obeyd, T, S, J£. ;) 
and is used as an imprecation without the desire 
of its being fulfilled upon the person addressed, 
being said in vehemence of love, [lit. meaning 

mayest thou have no mother!], like JJUI j\mj, 
and jti $ % [and 'Jb\ JU3li,] &c. (Har p. 165.) 

Some elide the I of >1 ; as in the saying of 

'Adee Ibn-Zeyd, 

• . i • j * '-* 

[0 thou who art blaming in my presence the 

*. al » 

mother of Zeyd] ; meaning, j^j >l i_£ j-it ; the 

l£ of i£ju« being also elided on account of the 

occurrence of two quiescent letters [after the 

<4 < 

elision of the 1 of >l] : (Lth, T, S :) and as in 
-if -i • • ' 

the phrase a*1; 1, (S,) which means 4^*9 J^^. 

(S, and ? in art. Jt), q. v.) — iJUl U* means 

They two are thy two parents: or thy mother 

$sl j a. 
and thy maternal aunt. (£.) [But] 4**y ♦'•*» 

is said to mean [//• exjrresscd a wish that he 

(another) might be ransomed with] his mother 

and hit grandmother. (TA.)__One says also, 

k JUsi "j ▼ c-Jt Vi [0 my mother, do not thou 
such a thing], and [in like manner] Jj6I wyl b ; 
making the sign of the fem. gender a substitute 
for the [pronominal] affix j_jj and in a case 


of pause, you say <ul h. (S.)_ And one says, 
'jS\ } ^ U, and Ikij ^jJii U, meaning [What 
relationship have I to him, or ft? or what concern 
have I with him, or it ? or] what is my case 
and [what is] Am or its, case ? because of his, 
or its, remoteness from me : whence, (T,) 
s, . , 41, »l , ,. 
* ^^ * 

^£\ jJkU J, yU 

[And what concern have I with the wild animals 
when hoariness hath spread in the places where 
my hair parts ?] ; (T, S ;) i. e. 4-U»3 01 U 
ZtjJL U j*t J^\ [i. e. J—J\ 4»U»J (JJ- 1 u : 

in one copy of the 8, > r JLi»j, 1. e. with y as a 
prep, denoting concomitance, and therefore go- 
verning the accus. case : both readings virtually 
meaning what concern have I with the pursuing 
of the wild animals after J have grown old ?] : 
he means, the girls: and the mention of jS in 

'■■■■■: * U 

the verse is superfluous. (S.)_>l also relates 

to inanimate things that have growth ; as in 

., « U ,»a il 

*/>tfJj\ j.\ [The mother of the tree] ; and AWJI >t 

[the mother of the palm-tree] ; and »jyj\ >l [the 


mother of the banana-tree ; of which see an ex. 
in art j y] ; and the like. (M, TA.) — And 
it signifies also The source, origin, foundation, 
or basis, (S, M, Msb, $,) of a thing, (8, Ms b, 
[in the former of which, this is die first of the 
meanings assigned to the word,]) or of anything ; 
(M, K ;) its stay, support, or efficient cause of 
subsistence. (M, J£.) — Anything to which other 
things are collected together, or adjoined: (IDrd, 
M, K :) anything to which the other things that 
are next thereto are collected together, or adjoined: 
(Lth, T :) the main, or chief, part of a thing ; 
the main body thereof: and that which is a com- 
priser, or comprehender, of [other] things : (Ham 
p. 44 :) the place of collection, comprisal, or com- 
prehension, of a thing ; the place of combination 

thereof. (En-Nadr, T.) And hence, (IDrd, 

M,) The head, or chief, of a people, or company 
of men ; (IDrd, 8, M, $ ;) because others collect 
themselves together to him : (IDrd, TA :) so 
in the phrase Jl«fc>t [lit the mother of a house- 
hold], in a poem of Esh-Shenfara : (IDrd, M :) 
or in this instance, it has the signification next 
following, accord, to Esh-Shafi'ee. (T.) — A 
man who has the charge of the food and service 
of a people, or company of men ; accord, to Esh- 
Shafi'ee : (T :) or their jertxint (#.) — A 
man's aged wife. (I Aar, T, $.) — A place of 
habitation or abode. ($.) 80 in the l£ur [ci. 0], 

«bjU <uU Misplace of habitation or abode [shall 

be] the fire [of Hell] : (Bd, Jel, TA :) or, as 

*. t- u 

some say, the meaning is \£ <0 jU 4-,\ i >l [his 

brain shall fall into it, namely, the fire of Hell]. 

(TA.) — The ensign, or standard, which an army 

il « 
follows. (S.) [See ^-.jJl >1, below.] — It is said 
Vt - , tti *>i ~al 

in a trad., respecting the prophets, ^j£> ^31^*1, 

meaning that, though their religion is one, fArir 
laws, or ordinances, or statutes, are various, or 
different: or the meaning is, <Ati> times are 
various, or different. (TA in art. Ow.) _ See 

• si -' 

also 3u\, in two places. —jA is also prefixed to 

nouns significant of many things. (M.) [Most 

of the compounds thus formed will be found 

explained in the arts, to which belong the nouns 

that occupy the second place. The following are 

among the more common, and are therefore here 

mentioned, with the meanings assigned to them 

in lexicons in the present art., and arranged in 

• a tl - 

distinct classes.] __ Jsj^n >l The mans wife; 

and the person who manages the affairs of his 

house or tent. (TA.) And ^jJI ij'yJt j>\ The 
man's wife, to whom he betakes himself for lodgituj, 
or abode: (T:) the mistress of the man's place 

of abode, (p.)-^^ The hyena, or 

female hyena ; as also jj^** >l ; (TA ;) and 

a il 

JJj/iJI j>\. (S,TA. [See also other significations 

^*^ i aj .n 

of the first and last below.]) ^JU-^.1 [or,^J*JI >l 
(as in the 8 and $ in art u-U-)] The she-ass. 
(TA.) cja^ll j\ The female ostrich, (8, £•) 

— .yritjlt jt\ The brain : (T, M, K :) or the thin 
shin that is upon it : (IDrd, M, $ :) or The bag 
in which is the brain: (T :) or the shin that 
comprises the brain; [the meninx, or dura mater 
and pia mater ;] (S, Mgh ;) which is called 



£U*>I>.I (S,Msb) likewise. (S.) j^iJi\ >l 

The Milky way ; (S, M, K ;) because it is the 
place where the stars are collected together [in 
great multitude] : (M :) or, as some say, the sun ; 
which is the greatest of the stars. (Ham pp. 43 
and 44.) Because of the multitude of the stars 

in the Milky way, one says, jAf ll..[^ '» *lil U 

>»jfc-JI l[J£ow like is thine assembly to the Milky 

way!]. (TA.) — \j'j»l\ j>\ [The mother of the 
towns; the metropolis: particularly] Mehheh; 
(T, S, M, K ;) because asserted to be in the 
middle of the earth ; (M, K ;) or because it 
is the Kiblch of all men, and thither they repair; 
(M, K ;*) or because it is the greatest of towns 

in dignity : (M, K :) and every city is the>t of 
the towns around it. (T.) oiSLllI J>l The most 
difficult of deserts or of waterless deserts : (T :) 
or a desert, or waterless desert, (S, K>) far ex- 
tending. (S.) J^WI jl (T, S, M) and t £SS 
Jh^ljl (M, K) The main part [or track] of the 
road : (T, S, M, K. :) when it is a great road 
or track, with small roads or tracks around it 
[or on either side], the greatest is so called. (T. 
[The former has also another signification, men- 
tioned alwvc.]) ^*U >l The cemetery, or place 
of graves. (T. [This, also, has another sitmifica- 
tion, mentioned before.]) £-*pl>l The ensign, 

or standard; (M,K;) also called v^ 1 >' 5 

(TA ;) [and simply >*n)I, as shown above ;] and 

the piece of cloth which u wound upon tlie spear. 

(T, M.*) jyUL>»1 Dread: and also the ear of 

torn. (T.) ,£j£jl j,\ [The mother of evil 

qualities or dispositions ; i. e.] wine. (T.) J»l 
yUjOl [in the ¥.ar iii. 5 and xiii. 39] (S, M, &c.) 
The original of the book or scri)>ture [i. c. of the 
Kur-dn]: (Zj,M,K:) or the Preserved Tablet, 
iy-Ujl pk : (M, Msb, K :) or it signifies, 
(M,K,) or signifies also, (Msb,) the opening 
chapter of the Kur-dn ; the i-Jli; (M, Msb, £;) 
because every prayer begins therewith ; (M ;) as 
also o!/* 1 ' >' : (Mf b, K :) or the former, the 
w/wle of the Kur-dn, (I 'Ab, K,) from its begin- 
ning to its end : (TA :) and the latter, every 
plain, or explicit, verse of the Kur-dn, of those 
which relate to laws and statutes and obligatory 

ordinances. (T, K.) ^iJI JJl Every evil upon 

the face of the earth : and j^i\ J»t every good 
upon the face of the earth. (T.) 

3 £1 

>t : see >l, first sentence. 

• « t i- 

JU1 : see L»\. 

• al 

i«l A way, course, mode, or manner, of acting, 

or conduct, or the like ; (AZ, S ;) as also ▼ ill : 
(AZ, S, K :) Pr assigns tliis meaning to the latter, 
and that next following to the former : (T :) a 
way, course, or rule, of life, or conduct; (Fr, T, 
M, K ;) ^as also t ft. ( M , $.) __ Religion ; 
as also tilj : (AZ, S, M, K : [one of the words 
by which Uiis meaning is expressed in the M and 
£ is JU^A ; for which Golius found in the K 

**J- '•]) one course, which people follow, in reli- 
gion. (T.) You say, ii 'C\ •$ J# Such a one 
has no religion; no religious persuasion. (S.) 
And a poet says, 

[And are one who has religion and one who is 

an infidel equal ?]. (S.) _ Obedience [app. to 

God]. (T, M, K.)=sThe people of a [particular] 

religion : (Akh, S :) a people to whom an apostle 

is sent, (M, K,) unbelievers and believers ; such 

being called his <Ut : (M :) any people called 

after a prophet are said to be his ill : (Lth, T :) 
the followers of the prophet : pi. ^»\. (T, Msb.) 
It is said in the Kur [ii.209], »j*.lj iol J-UI ,jl£>, 
meaning Mankind mas [a people] of one religion. 
(Zj, T, TA.) _ A nation; a people; a race; a 
tribe, distinct body, or family ; (Lth, T, M, K ;) 
of mankind; (Lth, T;) or of any living beings; 

as also ▼>! : (M, K:) a collective body [of men 
or other living beings] ; (T, S ;) a sing, word 
with a pi. meaning : (Akli, S :) a kind, geniix, or 
generical class, (T, S, M, K,) by itself, (T,)"of 
any animals, or living beings, (T, S, M, TA,) 
others than the sons of Adam, (T,) as of dogs, 
(T, S, M,) and of other beasts, and of birds ; (T, 
M,» TA ;) as also * Jl ; (M, K ;) pi. of the 

former _^»\; (S, M;) which occurs in a trad, as 
relating to dogs; (S;) and in the Kur vi. 38, as 

relating to beasts and birds. (T, M,* TA.) 

A man's people, community, tribe, kinsfolk, or 

party; (M, K,TA;) his company. (TA.) A 

generation of men ; or people of one time : pi. 

jr** : as in the saying, ^+\ C%A* ji Generations 
of men have passed away. (T.)_The creatures 

of God. (M, K.) You say, M ill A* cJlJ U 
*i* i>~»l [/ have not seen, of the creatures of 
God, one more beautiful than he]. (M.) = /. q. 
JIUl; (T,M,K;) accord, to A'Obcyd, applied 
in this sense to Abraham, in the Kur xvi. 121. 
(T.)__A righteous man who is an object of 
imitation. (T.) _ One who follows the true 
religion, holding, or doing, what is different from, 
or contrary to, all other religions : (M, K :) [said 
to be] thus applied to Abraham, ubi supra. (M.) 
— _ One who is known for goodness : (Fr, T :) and 
so explained by Ibn-Mes'ood as applied to Abra- 
ham : (T A :) or, so applied, it has the signification 
next following : (TA :) a man combining all 
kinds of good qualities : (T, M, K or, as some 
say, repaired to : or imitated. (Bd.)__ A learned 
man : (T, M, K one who has no equal : (T :) 
the learned man of his age, or time, who is 

singular in his learning : (Msb :) and one who is 

alone in respect of religion. (T.) = See also jA, 

first sentence. Hence, C~*l 1^, which sec in the 

same paragraph. = The stature of a man ; tall- 
ness, and beauty of stature ; or justness of stature; 
syn. LlJ; (T, S, M, Msb, K ;) and ilki : (M, 
TA : [in the K, the signification of *>U3 is 
assigned to it ; but this is evidently a mistake for 
iliw ; for the next three significations before the 
former of these words in the K are the same as 
the next three before the latter of them in the M ; 
and the next five after the former word in the K 

[Book I. 

are the same as the next five after the latter in the 
M, with only this difference, that one of these five 
is the first of them in the M and the third of them 

in the K0) Pl-^l- (T,S,M.») You say, iil 
C*i\ O^LJ, i. c. ^UaJjl [Verily he is beautiful 
in justness of stature]. (M.) And El-Aasha 

• ^1 Jl^fa »jLj\ oU*. 

[Beautiful in respect of the faces,] tall in respect 
of the statures. (T, S, M.» [In the last, Jj^ 

^.>])_The/ace. (T,M,K.)— 4-^1 ill The 
form of the face: (AZ, T :) or the principal 
part thereof; (M, K ;) the part thereof in which 
beauty is usually known to lie. (M.) You say, 

• - il • s m * m Si 

A».yi i*l ^^-aJ *il Verily lie is beautiful in the 
form of the face: and JL'^\ <UI JL.JU aS\ verily 
he is ugly in the form of tke face. (AZ, T.)_ 

p >il &l 

^ijiai\ i«l : see >l. = A time ; a period of lime ; 

awhile. (T,S, M,K.) So in the Kur [xii. 45], 

tm\ jmj j£o*\} [And he remembered, or became 

reminded, after a time] : (S, M :) or, after a 

long period of time : but some read ▼ i^l , i. e., 

after favour had been shown him, in his escape : 

and some read «uot, i. c., forgetting. (Bd.) And 

so in the same [xi. 11], ^»ljji)l^* UjjL.1 i ^ > £J£ 
. f il . 
».>)Jul« i«l ^j)l [And verily, if we kept back from 

them the punishment] until a short period of time. 

j l t il 

iol: sec <UI, in three places; first and second 

sentences. _ 7. q. t i«UI (K) [i. c. The office of 
>»UI, q. v.: or] the acting as, or performing the 
office if, >UJ: (T in explanation of <UI, and M 
and Msb in explanation of <UUt :) and the mode, 

or manner, of performing that office. (T.) I. q. 

i£k (Xh, M, K) and &\i (M, K) and JU. (M) 
and ii\m. (M, K) [all as meaning State, condition, 
or case : or by the first may lie here meant ex- 
ternal state or condition; form, or appearance ; 
or state with respect to apparel and the like]. — 
An easy and ample state of life; (T;) easiness, 
or pleasantness of life ; amplciicss of the conve- 
niences of life, or of the means of subsistence ; ease 
and enjoyment ; plenty ; prosperity ; welfare. 
(IAar, M, K.*) You say of an old man when he 
lias strength remaining, iob ^j"^i, meaning Such 
a one is returning to a state of well-being and ease 
and enjoyment. (TA.) Dominion ; master- 
ship; authority. (Fr, T, IKt!-) A blessing, 

or what God bestows upon one ; a benefit, bene- 
faction, favour, or boon ; a cause of happiness; 
(T, S, M, Msb, K ;) as being that which men 
aim at, pursue, or endeavour to obtain. (T.) See 

1 il 

<Ul| last sentence but one. = Accord, to IK{t, it 
signifies also i. q. ^1 [but in what sense is not 
said]. (TA.) 
• .i 
j»*\ Nearness. (S, M, K.) [Near; nigh.] 

You say >vr il ^ iUi C\i*-I J took that from 
near ; from nigh. (S, TA.) And *^\ J&Jlj 
Your house is near, or nigh. (M, TA.) And 
«Sk« >e«l ^* R~e, or it, is near to thee : and in 
like manner you say of two : (M, TA :) and of 

Book I.] 


a pi. number. (S, M, TA.) And *Ai ^1 jj^tj 
My house is opposite to, facing, or in front of, 
his house. (S.)_2?a*y: (S, M, K:) near at 
hand; near to be reached, or laid hold of. (T, 

TA.) Between near and distant. (ISk, T, S.) 

_ Conforming, or conformable, to the just mean : 
(M, K:*) and t jl^, (AA, T, S, M, K,) [in 
form] like jUu», (S,) originally jg*\y», (TA,) the 
same ; (T ;) of a middle, or middling, hind or 
sort ; neither exceeding, nor falling short of, what 
is right ; (AA, T, S, M ;) applied to an affair, or 
a case, (T, S,) and a thing [of any kind] ; (S ;) 

as also * joys ; (T A ;) and convenient, or suitable : 
(M, K:) and je*\ and 1jt\y» both signify an 
affair, or a case, that is manifest, clear, or plain, 
(M, K,) not exceeding the due bounds or limits. 

>U^1 77ie location that is before ; (M, Msb,» 
K ;) ro»*r. of f\j' y \. (M, K.) It is used [abso- 
lutely] its a noun, and adverbially, (M, Msb,* K,) 
necessarily prefixed to another noun : (Mgh :) 
and is Inn., (Ks, M,) and sometimes inasc. : (M, 
K :) or it is muse, and sometimes fcm. as meaning 
the i^f. : or, as Zj says, they differ as to making 
it muse, and making it fern. (Mh1>.) You say, 
<uUl t im i m I was before him, in respect of place. 
(S.) In the saying of Mohammad, to Usameh, 
JUUI »^La)1, the meaning is The time of prayer 
[is before tlice], or the place thereof; and by the 
prayer is meant the prayer of sunset. (Mgh.) 
You also say, JUUI [i. c. Look before thee; 
meaning beware thou; or tahc thou note ;] when 
you caution another, (M, K,) or notify him, of a 
thing. (M.) 

>U1 A person, (S, Mgh,) or learned man, 
(Msb,) whose example is followed, or who is 
imitated ; (S, Mgh, Mfb ;) any exemplar, or 
object of imitation, (T, M, K,) to a ]>eo)>le, or 
company of men, (T,) such as a head, chief, or 
leader, or some other person, (M, K,) whether 
they be following the right way or be erring 
therefrom : (T :) applied alike to a male and to a 
female: (Mgh, Msb:) applied to a female, it 
occurs in a phrase in which it is written by some 
with S : (Mgh :) but this is said to be a mistake : 
(Msb :) it is correctly without e, because it is a 
subst., not an epithet: (Mgh, Msb:) or it is 
allowable with », because it implies the meaning 
of an epithet: (Msb:) and * i*l signifies the 
same : (T, M, K :) the pi. of the former is <£jI, 
(T, S, M, K, [but omitted in die CK,]) originally 
1^*11, (T,S,) of the measure aJbJt, like iJUUl, 
pi. of JliU, (T,) but as two mcems come together, 
the former is incorporated into the latter, and its 
vowel is transferred to the hemzch before it, which 
hemzch, being thus pronounced with kesr, is 
changed into ^j ; (T, S ;*) or it is thus changed 
because difficult to pronounce ; (M ;) or, as Akli 
says, because it is with kesr and is preceded by 
another hemzeh with fet-h : (S :) but some pro- 
nounce it i^M, (Akh, T, 8, M, K,,) namely, those 
who hold that two hemzehs may occur together; 
(Akh, 8;) the Koofees reading it thus in the 
Kur ix. 12 ; (M ;) but this is anomalous : (M, 

K :) it is mentioned as on the authority of Aboo- 
Is-hak, and [Az says,] I do not say that it is not 
allowable, but the former is the preferable : (T :) 
or the pi. is a*jI, originally i^*ll, like ilJUl ; one 
of the two meems being incorporated into the 
other after the transfer of its vowel to the hemzeh 
[next before it] ; some of the readers of the Kur 
pronouncing the [said] hemzeh with its true 
sound ; some softening it, agreeably with analogy, 
in the manner termed ^yj j>~> ; and some of the 
grammarians changing it into i_£; but some of 
them reckon this incorrect, saying that there is no 
analogical reason for it : (Msb :) and accord, to 
some, (M,) its pi. is also >U1 , (M, K,) like the 
sing., (K,) occurring in the l£ur xxv. 74; (M;) 
not of the same category as Jj* (M,K) and ,*0j, 
(M,) because they sometimes said ,jUUI , but a 
broken pi. : (M, K :•) or, accord, to A 'Obeyd, 
it is in this instance a sing, denoting a pi. : (M, 

§ :*) or it is pi. of jA, [which is originally ^r*\,] 

like as ^Im is pi. of ._~»-Lo : (M :) the dim. 

ill . «*»*i 9S»A 

of A*jI is ' a«jjI ; or, as El-Mazinee says, » i*-jl. 

(S.) — >UNI also signifies Tlie Prophet : (K :) 

si J * 
he is called «u«l >UI [the exemplar, object of 

imitation, leader, or head, of his nation, orpeojfo] ; 

Si 3 

(T;) or io"i)t >>UI [the exemplar, &c., of the na- 
tion, or people] ; (M ;) it being incumbent on all 
to imitate his rule of life or conduct. (T.)_ 
The Khaleefeh : (Msb, K :) he is called 4cJ» >^l 
[the exemplar, ice., of the people, or subjects]. 
(M.) The title of>UNl is still applied to the 
Kings of El- Yemen : Aboo-Bckr says, you say, 
>>«JI >»UJ 0^*> meaning such a one is the first 
in authority over the people, or company of men : 
and !j ; »t... 1 l veUI means the head, chief, or 
leader, of the Muslims. (TA.)_ Tlie person 
wlwse example is followed, or who is imitated, 
[i. e. the leader,] in prayer. (Msb.) __ [The 
leading authority, or head, of a persuasion, or 
sect. The four i*jt or SlJj\ are the heads of the 
four principal persuasions, or sects, of the Sun- 
nees ; namely, the Hanafecs, Shafi'ees, Malikecs, 
and Hambclecs. And the Hanafees call the two 
chief doctors of their persuasion, after Aboo- 
Haneefeh, namely, Aboo-Yoosuf and Mohammad, 
ijUUSI Tlie two Imams.] _ The leader of an 
army. (M, K.) __ The guide : (K :) he is called 

jkli\ JiUl [the leader of tlie travellers]. (M.) 

The conductor, or driver, of camels (M, K) is 
called J^NI >Ul, though he be behind them, 
because he guides them. (M.) ___ The manager, 
or conductor, and right disposer, orderer, or 
rectifier, of anything. (M, !£•*) __ Tlie Kur-dn 
(M, K) is called ^L.JI >U1 [the guide of the 
Muslims] ; (M ;) because it is an exemplar. 
(TA.) [The model-copy, or standard-copy, of the 
Kur-dn, namely the copy of the Khaleefeh 'Oth- 
man, is particularly called >»UNI.] _ [Tlie scrip- 
ture of any people : and, without the article, a 
book, or written record.] It is said in the Kur 
[xvii. 73],^^ ^01 ji> ^JJ>JJ The day 
when we shall call every one of mankind with 
their scripture : or, as some say, with their 

prophet and their law : or, as some say, with 
their book in which their deeds are recorded. (T.) 

It is also. said in the Kur [xxxvi. 11], ;.-£ J^»j 
tl>e**>l«! Li s wiyamA. meaning, says El-Hasan, 
[And everything have tee recorded] in a perspi- 
cuous booh, or writing ; (S, Jel ;) i. e., on the 

Preserved Tablet. (Bd, Jel.) The lesson of a 

boy, that is learned each day (T, M, K) in the 

school: (T:) also called jLj\. (TA.) The 

model, or pattern, of a semblance, or shape. (M, 
K.) _ The builder's wooden instrument [or rule] 
whereby he makes the building even. (S, K.*)^ 
The cord which the builder extends to make even, 
thereby, the row of stones or bricks of the building ; 
also called >JI and J-Jb^l ; (T;) the string 
which is extended upon, or against, a building, 
and according to which one builds. (M, K.*) __ 
>»UI signifies also A road, or way: (S, [but 
omitted in some copies,] M, K :) or a manifest 
road, or way. (TA.) It is said in the Kur 

[xv. 79], ^1 >UU Ur?1 j (§, M) And they 
were both, indeed, in a way pursued and manifest : 
(M :) or t» a way which they travelled in their 

journeys. (Fr.)__The direction (>Um) of the 
Kibleh. (M, K.*) — A tract, quarter, or region, 
of land, or of tlie earth. (S.)_vl string [of u 
1k>w or lute &c] ; syn. yy (§gh, K.) 

• « 

jtt**\ Beautiful in stature; (K ;) applied to 

a man. (TA.) = I. q. *^U ; (S, M, Mfb, 
K ;) i. e. one who raves, or is delirious, (<«J^, 
[in two copies of the S i^-Si, but the former 
appears, from a remark made voce L»\, to be 
the right reading,]) from [a wound in] what is 
termed «.-lj j>\ [see j>\] : (§ :) or wounded in 
what is so termed; (M,K;) having a wound 


such as is termed <UI, q. v. (Msb.) It is also 
used, metaphorically, in relation to other parts 
than that named above ; as in the saying, 

\ [And my bowels are wounded by reason of the 
burning pain of separation]. (M.) = A stone 
with which the head is broken : (S, O :) but in 

the M and K * *♦*•>, [in a copy of the M, how- 

ever, I find it without any syll. signs, so that 
it would seem to be " <U*«I,] explained as signi- 
fying stones with which heads are broken : (TA :) 
pOui. (S,TA.) 

4' -' 

<UU1 Three hundred camels : (M, K :) so ex- 
plained by Abu-l-'Ala. (M.) 

•* ^ * s 

i«UI : see <UI. 
» • 

Kr»\ : see _^>\ Also, (Sgh,) or t i^.'), 

(K,) A blacksmith's hammer. (Sgh, K.) 

iilil dim. of>l, q. v. (T, S,K.) = Sec also 

jgt»\ : __and i«-»l. 

i» » 

i»f»W^\ One of the exorbitant sects of the 

Slice' ah, (TA,) who asserted that 'Alee was ex- 
pressly appointed by Mohammad to be his suc- 
cessor. (Esh-Shahrastanee p. 122, and KT.) 

.- .J .-a* ll m 

i,,i*\ [dim. of i^t] : see jA, first sentence. 

12 • 


Jf»\ (T, M, Mgh, M ? b,K) and * jt>\ (K) [the 

former a rel. n. from 1.1, and thus properly 
meaning Gentile : whence, in a secondary, or 
tropical, sense, -fa heathen;] tone not having 
a revealed scripture ; (Bd in iii. 10 and 60 ;) so 
applied by those having a revealed scripture: 
(Bd in iii. 60 :) [and particularly] an Arab : 
(Jcl in iii. 60, and Bd and Jel in lxii. 2 :) [or] 
iii the proper language [of the Arabs], of, or 

belonging to, or relating to, the nation (<UI) of 

the Arab*, who did not write nor read: and 

therefore metaphorically applied to J any one not 

knowing the art of writing nor that of reading : 

( Mgh :) or f one who does not write ; (T, M, K ;) 

because the art of writing is acquired ; as though 

he were thus called in relation to the condition 

in which his mother (<ul) brought him forth: 

(T :) or f one mho is in the natural condition of 

the nation (A**^l) to which lie belongs, (Zj,* T, M,* 

K,*) a'ft respect of not writing, (T,) or not 

having learned writing ; thus remaining in his 

natural state: (M,K:) or tone who does not 

write well ; said to be a rel. n. from >l ; because 

the art of writing is acquired, and such a person 

is as his mother brought him forth, in respect of 

ignorance of that art ; or, as some say, from i.1 
w>*JI ; because most of the Arabs were of this 
description : (Msb :) the art of writing was known 
among the Arabs [in the time of Mohammad] by 
the people of Kt-Tuif, who learned it from a man 
of the people of El-Heerch, and these had it from 

the people of El-Ambar. (T.) 0>JUj *$ i)y~»\, 
w>UJDl, in the Kur ii. 73, means Vulgar persons, 
[or heathen,} who know not the Book of the Law 
revealed to Moses : (Jcl :) or ignorant persons, 
who know not writing, so that they may read that 
book ; or, who know not the Book of the Law 
revealed to Moses. (Bd.) Mohammad was termed 

yj»\ [meaning A Gentile, as distinguished from 
an Israelite : or, accord, to most of his followers, 
meaning illiterate;] because the nation (i.1) of 
the Arabs did not write, nor read writing ; and 
[they say that] God sent him as an apostle when 
he did not write, nor read from a book ; and this 
natural condition of his was one of his miraculous 
signs, to which reference is made in the Kur 
[xxix. 47], where it is said, " thou didst not read, 
before it, from a book, nor didst thou write it 
with thy right hand :" (T, TA :) but accord, to the 
more correct opinion, he was not well acquainted 
with written characters nor with poetry, but 
he discriminated between good and bad poetry : 
or, as some assert, he became acquainted with 
writing after he had been unacquainted there- 
with, on account of the expression " before it " 
in the verse of the Kur mentioned above: or, as 
some say, this may mean that he wrote though 
ignorant of the art of writing, like as some 

of the kings, being &&*\, write their signs, or 
marks : (TA :) or, accord, to Jaafar Es-Sadik, 
he used to read from the book, or scripture, if 
he did not write. (Kull p. 73.) [Some judicious 
observations on this word are comprised in Dr. 
Sprengei-'s Life of Mohammad (pp. 101 — 2); 
a work which, in the portion already published 

>l — Ul 
(Part I.), contains much very valuable informa- 
tion.] Also, (K,) or [only] JjA, (AZ, T, M,) 

applied to a man, (AZ, T,) Impotent in speech, 
(.je*, in the K incorrectly written l ^«£, TA,) 
of few words, and rude, churlish, uncivil, or 
surly. (AZ,T,M,K.) 

ijJ i A 

i~«l The quality denoted by the epithet ^1 : 

(TA :) [gentilism : f heathenism : &c. :] t the 
quality of being [in the natural condition of 
the nation to which one belongs, or] as brought 
forth by one's mother, in respect of not having 
learned the art of writing nor the reading thereof. 
(Kull p. 73.) 

• a) S.i 

,jU1 : see ,»ol : and see also art. v j-«l. 

*.il Si 

3 r *\ : see >l. 

jt\ [act. part n. of 1 ;] t. q. j»-e>l5 : [see 1, first 

sentence:] (TA :) pi. >UI, like as yL^ is 

• * * s 

pi. of M*fel*i (M,K,) accord, to some, but others 

say that this is pi. of >»UI [q. v. ; the sing, and 
pi. being alike] ; (M ;) and Qf\. (TA.) Hence, 
in the Kur [v. 2], >tjUf ow" 0#* 'h \. Nor 
those repairing to the Sacred House]. (TA.) 

i»l (S, Msh) and " i*j^U, as some of the 
Arabs say, (IB, Msb,) because it implies the 
meaning of a pass. part, n., originally ; (Msb ;) 
but 'Alee Ibn-Hamzch says that this is a mistake; 
for the latter word is an epithet applied to the 

part called pUjJI >l when it is broken ; (IB ;) 

or ilT ILL and • L^U ; (M,Mgh,K;) A 
wound by which the head is broken, (S, M, Msb, 

K,) reaching to the part called tUjJI J3, (S, 

c ' ts il 
Msb,) or, [which means the same,] ^-1^1 j>\, 

(M, K,) so that there remains between it and 
the brain [only] a thin skin : (S :) it is the most 
severe of *-U-i [except that which reaches the 

brain (see i^-i-)] : ISk says that the person 
suffering from it roars, or bellows, (Jjuo,),) like 
thunder, and like the braying of camels, and 
is unable to go forth into the sun : (Msb :) the 
mulct for it is one third of the whole price of 
blood : (TA :) IAar assigns the meaning of [this 

d " * St 

kind of] im^i> to * i*l ; which seems, therefore, 
to be either a dial. var. or a contraction of «UI : 
(Msb :) the pi. of i£\ is J>\j\ (Mgh, Msb) and 
'^o-iU ; or this latter has no proper sing. : (M, 

TA :) the pi. of * L^IU is £iU»«U (Mgh, 

l.t i.t 

>yl and^jt Better in the performance of the 

office termed <UU1 ; followed by ^y» : (Zj, T, M, 

K :) originally >tt : the second hem/.eh being 
changed by some into _j and by some into ^j. 

**0'i or *♦**!, dim. of £*jt, pi. of >UI, 
q.v. (S.) 

I £ j *-i 

j>*y» : see jg»\. 


>t t* A camel that leads and guides : (M :) or 

a guide that shows the right way : and a camel 
that goes before tlie other camels : (K :) fern, 
with » ; (M, K ;) applied to a she-camel (M,TA) 

[Book I. 

that goes before the other she-camels, and is 
followed by them. (TA.) 

• A. « t 

>ty«U : see jfe»\. — Also A camel having hi* 

hump bruised internally by his being much ridden, 
or having his hump swollen in consequence of the 
galling of the saddle and the cloth beneath it, 
and bruised, and having his hump corroded : 
(S :) or whose fur lias gone from his back in 
consequence of beating, or of galls, or sores, pro- 
duced by the saddle or the like. (M, K.) _ 
t# tt. ta* 

«Uj*U : see <Ut, in three places. 

I j j *-i 

j>\y> : see ^1, in two places. 

j^yo act. part. n. of <u ^>\ ; Following as 
an example; imitating; taking as an example, 
an exemplar, a pattern, or an object of imita- 

tion. (Msb.) <v ^iy* pass. part. n. of the 

same; Followed as an example ; imitated; &c. : 
thus distinguished from the former by the pre- 
position with the object of its government (Msb.) 

J&U : see i*l. 


Ul, used to denote an interrogation, is a com- 
pound of the interrogative hemzch. and the nega- 
tive U : (M :) it is a mere interrogative [respect- 
ing a negative, like *^l] ; as in the saying, Ul 
4&I ^y ^.jm iTn .1 [Art not thou ashamed for thy- 
self, or of thyself ', with respect to God?]. (Lth, T.) 
[ I Ilsh says, after explaining two other usages 

of Ul which wc have yet to mention,] El-Mulakcc 
adds a third meaning of Ul, saying that it is a par- 
tide denoting sjbj* [or the asking, or requiring, a 
thing in a gentle manner], like [^)l (q. v.) and] 
•^1 ; and is connected peculiarly with a verb ; 
as in >»yu Ul [Wherefore wilt not thou stand?], 
and Jj«*j Ul [Wherefore will not thou do such 
a thing?]; which may be explained by saying 
that the hemzch is used as an interrogative to 

make one confess, or acknowledge, a thing, as 

•»f -« - . 

it is in j}\ and •jjl, and that U is a negative. 

(Mughnce.) — . It is also an inceptive word, used 

in the manner of ^1 : (M :) followed by Ail, it 

is syn. with "^1 : (S :) [meaning Now : or now 

surely: or] both of these meaning verily, or truly; 

i. c. \*L : and for this reason Sh allows one's 

I . |J 1| 0% % .»> til 'I 

saying, JXix_o Ail Ul and JXk;« <ul Ul [ Verily, 
or truly, he is going away] ; with kesr after the 
manner of *il ^l, and with fct-h after the manner 

,M i- * , . . • .-'- •— -- 

of *il Mm. : and IJ^> ,j^=> jutl aOI^ U* is men- 
tioned as meaning dlilj Ul [Jus.-, i. c. Verily, or 
truly, by God, suck a thing did indeed ha]ij>en] ; 
the » being a substitute for the hemzch : (M :) 
so too 4I1I3 i^L [or aBU. U»»] : (Sgh and K 

in art. , .— :) it denotes the truth of the words 

fc *^ •_-«•- a .1 

which follow it; as when you say, JiU I jw; <jj W| 

meaning Truly, or properly speaking, not tro- 
pically, Zeyd is intelligent ; and w>j-o ji 4l)l_j Ul 
\j^a juj [Truly, &c, by God, Zeyd beat, or 
struck, 'Amr]\ (S in art. yt\ :) [in other words,] 
it corroborates an oath and a sentence ; as in 

Book I.] 

lob jJL*^ ajg j« o*- o^ «b Ul IT«%> 

or now surely, by God, if I remain awake for 

thee a night, then mill I indeed leave thee repent- 
it .s*+»t. ...* » • » •* .1 

tw/] ; and <u» JUxwxjN JJUUU C - ^U ^ Ul [Verily, 
or now surely, if I had known thy place of being, 
then had I unsettled tliei, or removed tliee, from 

♦7] ; and ^^ J^ **' "•■ l " eT '"Ji or now 
surely, lie it (emphatically) a generous man]: 
(T:) or it is an inceptive particle, used in the 
manner of "^1 ; [meaning now.- or now surely :] 
(Mughnee:) or a particle used to give notice of 
what is about to be said : only put before a pro- 
jHisition [as in cxs. mentioned above] : (TA :) 
and often occurring before an oath [as in cxs. 
mentioned al>ovc] : and sometimes its hemzeh 
is changed into » or c, before the oath; each 
with the I remaining ; [written U* or U» ;] and 
with the I elided ; [written JJk or J*ft{] or with 

the I elided, but without the substitution ; [written 
■t ■ .t 

j>\ ;] and when ^j\ occurs alter Ul, it is with 
.1 i. 

kesr, as it is after *>)l : and it also means UU. 

I. < 
[verily, or truly] : or UU»I [verily ? or truly ?] : 

accord, to dillercut opinions : and in this case, 

(Ji after it is with fet-h, as it is niter UU> : accord, 
to lbii-Kliai-oof, this is a particle : but some say 

that it is a noun in the sense of U»-: and others, 
that it consists of two words, namely, the interro- 
gative heni/.ch and U us a noun in the sense of 

\{J* ; i. c. j*. <^£)l JUil [is that thing true?] ; 

S/l • - < i lit .i 

BO that the meaning is li»-l : [if so, J>A-k:,o <u\ Ul 

means Verily, or truly, is he going away ?] and 

this, which is what 8b says, is the correct opinion': 

U is virtually in the nccus. case, as an adverbial 

noun, like as U«- is literally : and ^j\ with its 
complement is an inchoative, of which the adver- 
bial noun is the cnunciativc : but Mbr says that 

S» . i - 

U»- is the inf. n. of (Ja-J, which is suppressed, 

and that ^j\ with its complement is an agent. 


Ut is a conditional and partitive and corrobora- 
. '•« 

tivc particle ; and is sometimes written L4I, by 

the change of the firsts into 1^. (Mughnee, K.) 

It is used as a conditional particle in the 

words of the Kur [ii. 24], Oy&J t^uT^jjf Uli 
.' ' '. '.", . *'.i ' nt , s {' • •» • &.»— j a 
u OWe* !*>» Oi«*" U, -»>*# »>* fc*""" **' 
yjj» \jyt 4&I jljl Ii [For as for those who have 
believed, they know that it is the ti~uth from their 
Lord; but as for those who have disbelieved, they 
say, What is it that God meaneth by this as a 
parable?]. (Mughnee,* K,* TA.) That it denotes 
a condition is shown by the necessary occurrence 
of *J after it ; for if this w» were a conjunction, it 
would not be prefixed to the enunciativc ; and if 
it were redundant, it might be dispensed with ; 
but it may not be dispensed with except in a case 
of necessity in poetry or in a case of an cllijwis. 
_ In most cases, (Mughnee, K,) it is used as a 
partitive, (8, Mughnee, K,) implying the meaning 
of a condition ; (8 ; [in which it is mentioned with 
Ul;]) and thus it is used in the passage of die 
Kur cited above; (Mughnee;) and in the fol- 
lowing exs. [in the Kur xviii. 78 and 79 and 81], 

jLj\ ^J OP* 3 ". OJtimd s^ilO i~i_JI Ul and 

* m» J "t * ++ * * * •** S I* _ + +*»+ tm St 

Cx~»y* 'V (jK» »^' u b and O^ jUOl <-'.5 
!_> ; ♦ «>. » tje+yii [As for the ship, it belonged to 
poor men who worked on the sea . . . and as for 
the boy, his two parents were believers . . . and 
as for the wall, it belonged to two orplian boys]. 
(Mughnee,* K,* TA.) [It is a partitive also in 
the phrase jju Ul, which see in art. jmj.]__ 
Few have mentioned its use as a corroborative : 

(Mughnee:) it is thus used in the phrase juj Ut 
^.jkljki [ Whatever be the case, or happen what 
will or what may, or at all events, Zeyd is going 
away], when you mean that Zeyd is inevitably 
going away, and determined, or decided, upon 
doing so: (Z cited in the Mughnee, and K :) 
therefore Sb explains it as meaning, in this case, 
5>y* i>* <J~i W* [whatever be the case, &c, as 
above, or, in some instances, happen what would 
or what might] ; thereby showing it to bo a 
corroborative, and to have a conditional meaning : 
(Z cited in the Mughnee : [and the same explana- 
tion of it is given, with a similar ex., in the 8, in 
art. y»\ :]) the *J, in this case, is transferred from 
its proper place before the inchoative, and put 
before the cnunciative. (I 'Ak p. 30G.) Ks says 
that Ul is used in commanding and forbidding 
and announcing: you say, j>«cU <u)t Ul [What- 
ever be the case, or happen what will, &c, God 

* V# ■ * , * .•- At 

worship thou] : and \y)j£3 *^i j+i II Ul [i. e. 
-•- •« - • » »« ...» . it 

ly^iJ *5) w<r-*J yj ^r-ff^-" Ul (as is shown in the 

case of a similar ex. in the Mughnee, though you 

. ». » . . . it. At 

may say \yijZj %> >x>-JI Ul, without an ellipsis, 

* I '.*... J * . it 

like as you say ^kUjjyj )y+j Ul as well as 

' if At 

iyj Ut, in the Kur xli. 16, accord, to different 
readers,) Whatever be the case, &c, wine (drink 

not), drink not thou it] : and 9rj*-b J-ij Ul 

[Wliatever be the case, &c, with respect to other 
things, Zeyd has gone forth ; or whatever be the 
case with respect to others, as for Zeyd, he has 
gone forth] : whereas Ul [which see in the next 
paragraph] is used in expressing a condition and in 
expressing doubt and in giving option and in 
taking option. (T.) [lllsh says that in his 

. j . . . At 

opinion,] in the phrase «v«-c jSi J^-H«JI Ul, thus 
heard, with ju^aJI in the accus. case, the meaning 
is, Of£»} Uy° [&c., i. e. Whenever thou men- 
tionest the slaves, he is a possessor of slaves : but 
I would rather say that the meaning is, 2)j£=>i Ul 
jUfiOt, &c., i. e. as for thy mentioning the slaves, 
ice] : and so in similar phrases which have been 
heard. (Mughnee.) = Distinct from the fore- 
going is Ul in the saying in the Ijtur [xxvii. 80], 

j>l»*i j^~£=> Ii Ul [Or rather, what is it that 
ye were doing ?] : for here it is a compound of the 

unconnected jt\ and the interrogative U. (Mugh- 
nee.) as So too in the saying of the poet, 

m ' . bt At . * . t .t 

* >Li Ii ^i\ Ul iil>. VI • 

[0 Aboo-Kliurashch, because thou wast possessor 
of a number of men dost thou boast? Verily, my 
people, tlte year of dearth, or of sterility, hath not 
consumed them] : for here it is a compound of the 


O 1 termed Jjjjuo* [which combines with a verb 
following it to form an equivalent to an inf. n.] 
and the redundant U : oJI Ul is for £*Jm ^j*$ ; 
the prej)osition and the verb are suppressed for 
the sake of abridgment, so that the pronoun [o 
in <2t im ] becomes separate ; and U is substituted 
for the verb [thus deprived of its affixed pro- 
noun], and the ,j [of ^1] is incorporated into the 
j> [of U]. (Mughnee.) [See another reading of 
this verse voco Ut ; and there also, immediately 
after, another ex. (accord, to the Mughnee) of 


Ut used in the manner explained above. See also 
jjl as a conditional particle, like ^.JmbAIso 
t. q. Ul , q. v. (Mughnee, £.) 

Ul is sometimes written Ul, and sometimes its 
first j> is changed into i_£, [forming U4I or U4I or 

both, as will be shown below,] (Mughnee, [in 

* *t 
my copy of which it is written U^t, and so in 

some copies of the K,] and K, [in some copies of 
which it is written Ujl,]) and it is held by Sb to 
be a compound of ^1 and U, (Mughnee,) or as 
denoting the complement of a condition it is a 
compound of o' nlm< *-•■ (M, K.) _ It denotes 
doubt ; (Ks, T, Mughnee, K ;) as in ^» iOjl U 
jj^s- UU J*jj Ul jfe [I know not who stood: 
either Zeyd or 'Amr] : (Ks, T :) and Ul jViV 
if^s. Ul j juj [There came to me either Zeyd or 
'Amr], said when one knows not which of them 
came. (Mughnee, K.)_— It also denotes vague- 
ness of meaning; ns in [the Kur ix. 107,] Ut 

• ».. t j. A ' •»»*.* * 

JH&M T'y-i Utj^^jjt*.; [hither lie will punish 
them or He will turn unto them with forgiveness], 
(Mughnee, K.) It also denotes giving option ; 

• ft A* a> * » * l A 

as in [the Kur xviii. 85,] ,j' **U V*** 3 O' H 

*• 1 ■ . A. * ' * 

U—^^y-s jtt S3 [Either do thou punish, or do 
thou what is good to them]. (Mughnee, K.)_ 
It also denotes the making a thing allowable; 

* * . A * <• A »A.. 

as in Ua»i Ut^ Vyii UI^JLju [Learn thou either 
law or syntax; (an ex. given in the T, on the 
authority of Ks, as an instance of the usage of 
Ut to denote giving option ;)] but its use with 
this intent is disputed by some, (Mughnee, K,) 
while they assert it of j/L (Mughnee.) _ It is 
also used as a partitive ; as in [the Kur Ixxvi. 3,] 
\]^£=> Ul j 1j£>li lit [Either, or whether, being 
tltankful or being unthankful] ; (Mughnee, K ;) 
the two epithets being here in the accus. case as 
denotatives of state : or, accord, to the Koofees, 

A » 

Ut may be here [a compound of] the conditional ,j\ 
and the redundant U ; 0^**> accord, to lbn-Esh- 
Shejcrcc, being understood after it : (Mughnee :) 
and Fr says that the meaning is, j& (jU j££, ^j\ 
[if he be thankful and if he be unthankful], (T.) 
_ It also denotes taking option ; as in the saying, 

M 'J # -' j *t • f A . -•' * ' .%* . L * * 

ot ut i \^L\ 01 uu vj ^u UU iiybv j\> j 

lyjtol [I have a house in El-Koofeh, and I am 
going forth to it, and either I will inhabit it or I 
will sell it : but this is similar to the usage first 
mentioned above]. (Ks, T.) — It is a conjunction, 
(S in art. y»\, and Mughnee,) accord, to most 
authorities, i. e., the second Ut in the like of the 

• •< A *•' A * •»- 

Myingj }*** \+\i «*!ij ■•1 (.si'V [mentioned 


above]; (Mughnee;) used in the manner of jl 
in all its cases except this one, that in the use of 
jl you begin with assurance, and then doubt 
comes upon you ; whereas you begin with Ul in 
doubt, and must repeat it ; as in the saying last 
mentioned : (S : [and the like is said in the 
Mughnee, after the explanations of the mean- 
ings :]) but some assert that it is like die first Ul , 
not a conjunction ; because it is generally pre- 
ceded by the conjunction j : and some assert that 
Ul conjoins the noun with the noun, and the j 
conjoins Ul with Ul ; but the conjoining of a 
particle with a particle is strange. (Mughnee.) 
_ Sometimes the j is suppressed ; as in the 
following verse, (Mughnee,) of EI-Ahwas ; (S ;) 

* if£*ui oju. ui uy w • 

[O, would that our mother took her departure, 
either to Paradise or Hell-fire !] ; (S,* Mughnee, 
)£ ;) cited by Kf , with U,»l for U*l : (T :) and 
sometimes it is with kesr [i. e. CjI] : (S :) IB 
says that it is correctly U4I , with kesr ; asserting 
the original to be Ul , with kesr, only. (TA.) _ 
And sometimes the former Ul is dispensed with ; 
as in the following verse, (Mughnee,) which 
shows also that U is sometimes suppressed ; 

Ul — o-«l 

. «■ • - • *s 

[The thundering clouds of summer-rain wa- 
tered him, or of autumn-rain ; so he will not 
want sufficient drink] : 1. e. ^_y> Ul _} U^m v>* Ul 

iJuj*-. (Mughnee, K.) Mbr and Af say tliat 

ij\ is here conditional, and that the wl is its com- 
plement : but this assertion is of no weight ; for 
the object is the description of a mountain-goat as 
having sufficient drink in every case : AO says 

that (j' '" this verse is redundant. (Mughnee.) 
_ Sometimes, also, one does not require to men- 
tion the second Ul , by mentioning what supplies 
its place ; as 111 the saying, «ri^ jj&3 O' H 
CJLU glj [Kit her do thou speak what is good or 
else be silent]. (Mughnee.) [See art. "^1, near 

* si 

its end.] aai Distinct from the foregoing is Ul in 
the saying in the $ur [xix. 26], ,>• .-*p Ul* 

* . t * -•-• * r • 

lj— I j£~}\ [And if thou see, of mankind, any 
one] : for this is [a compound of] the conditional 
&l and the redundant U. (§• in art. y»\, and 
Mughnee.) [In like manner,] you say, in cx- 
pressing a condition, ^Lt^JU-j <l>\* ljuj Q»"*~ Ul 
[If thou revile Zeyd, he mill treat thee with for- 
bearance]. (Ks,T.) And JUjM ^jd} 1*1 [If 
thou come to me, J will treat thee with honour], 
(S.)_In the following saying, U.LkJ.I cJl Ul 
cJUkil [If thou be going away, I go away], the 
U is not that which restrains the particle to which 
it is subjoined from governing, but is a substitute 
for a verb ; (K and TA in art. U :) as though the 
speaker said, Ulku C>* lij [or rather Ct/+ Jft. 
(TA in that art.) And hence the saying of the 

poet, [of which a reading different from that here 
following has been given voce Ul,] 

* JLi li CJI Ul iil^i. bl * 


[O Aboo-Khurdslteh, if thou be possessor of a 
number of men, verily, my people, the year of 
dearth, or of sterility, hath not consumed them] ; 
as though he said, jii li >&»» ,j\. (TA in that 
art.) [But IHsh states the case differently; say- 
ing,] An instance of U not used to restrain from 

governing, but as a substitute for a verb, occurs in 

' tit f.S.t ** '•* ■" 

the saying, o*lk>l UJLku OJl Ul [Because thou 

mast going away, I went away] ; originally, 
*'•■» * • * » t j •* « • 
U lk U '< U m o*^ CJUUkH : [for an explanation 

t ' * •* at 

of which, see what is said of C-i I Ul in a reading 

Ai_ • • . -S* * * .*% SI 

ot the verse commencing with HAj±. U voce Ul:] 

but accord, to El-Farisce and IJ, the government 
belongs to U; not to ^li» [or cJ>]. (Mugh- 
nee in art. U.) _ So too in the saying, I Juk JjuI 
^Ul, meaning tj+b JjOj"^ c~ £> ^1 [i. e. Do 
<Aom Mm if thou wilt not do anotlter thing; or do 
thou this at least] ; (Mughnee and K, each in 
art. U ;) indicating a person's refusal to do [fully] 
that which he is ordered to do : (TA in that art. :) 
or IJkfe JotiU *9UI , meaning if thou wilt not do 
that, then do thou this; the three particles [r>1 
and U and *J] being made as one word : so says 
Lth: (T:) [J says,] ijis Ji&' ^Ut is pro- 
nounced with imaleh, [i. e. " imma-le,"] and is 


originally *j> ^1 witli U as a connective ; and the 
meaning is, if that thing will not be, then do thou 
thus : (S in art. •$ :) [but] AHdt [disallows this 
pronunciation, and] says, sometimes the vulgar, 
in the place of *^UI &i\ Jj£t, say, (jjC Jl>> JjJl 
[Do thou that at least] ; but this is Persian, and is 

rejected as wrong: and they say also, ,JUI, with 
danuii to the I [and with imaleh in the case of the 
final vowel, and thus it is vulgarly pronounced in 
the present day] ; but this too is wrong ; for it is 
correctly *jM, [with kesr, and] not pronounced 
with imaleh, for particles [in general] are not 
thus pronounced : (T :) and the vulgar also con- 
vert the hemzeh into « withdamm [saying ^jIU*]. 
(TA in art. U.) [Fei says,] "^ is a substitute for 
the verb in the saying, Ijjk JjwU ^)Ul , the mean- 
ing being If thou do not that, then [at least] do 
thou this : the origin thereof is this ; that certain 
things are incumbent on a man to do, and he is 
required to do them, but refuses ; and then one is 
content with his doing some, or a part, of them, 
and says to him thus : i. e., if thou wilt not do 
all, then do thou this : then the verb is suppressed, 
on account of the frequency of the usage of the 
phrase, and U is added to give force to the 
meaning : and some say that it is for this reason 
that "}) is here pronounced with imaleh ; because 
it serves for the verb; like as ,J^ is, and the 
vocative C : but it is said that it is correctly pro- 
nounced without imaleh; because particles [in 
general] are not pronounced therewith; as Az 

says. (Msb in art. •>).) [El-Hareeree says that] 
, a 
^Ul is properly [a compound of] three particles, 

[Book I. 

which are ^1 and U and ">), made as one word, 

and the I at the end thereof is like the I of ^Jj^»- 

[in which it is written ^, agreeably with rule] ; 

wherefore it is pronounced with imaleh, like as is 

the I of this latter word. (Durrat el-Ghow was, in 

De Sacy's Anthol. Gr^Ar. p. 57 of the Arabic 

text.) In the Lubdb it is said that *$ is used as a 

negative of the future, as in JjUj *); and the 

verb [in *^UI ] is suppressed ; so it [*)] serves as a 

.. .. -a * 1 ■ »• 

substitute in the saying, ^Ut IJjk Jj6I ; therefore 

they pronounce its I with imaleh : and IAth says 
that the Arabs sometimes pronounced *j with a 
slight imaleh ; and the vulgar make the imaleh 
thereof full, so that its I becomes ^$ ; but this is 
wrong. (TA.) You say also, *^UI IjJk JkSV, 
meaning Take thou this if thou take not that. 
(T.) It is related that the Prophet saw a runaway 
camel, and said, " To whom belongcth this camel ?" 
when, lo, some young men of the Ansar said, 
" We have drawn water upon him during twenty 
years, nnd yet he has in him fat ; so we desired 
to slaughter him ; but he escaped from us." He 
said, " Will ye sell him ?" They answered, " No: 

but he is thine." And he said, <UI \ y i,..i.\j, ^Ut 
,,.t ,.U a, ' * * 

aU»I 4^30. (j^., meaning If ye will not sell him, 

act well to him until his term of life come to 
him. (T.) 

1. «zil, (T, S, M, £,) aor. : , (T, M, $,) inf. n. 
I, (T, S, M,) He measured it ; determined its 
measure, quantity, or the like ; computed, or con- 
jectured, its measure, quantity, ice. ; (T, S,* M, 
K: ;) as also t i^i, (M, £,) inf. n. 1^3. (TA) 
You say, 5* j£* ^J I.** o^ W *=-^' Compute 
thou, O such a one, this, for me, liom many it is. 
(T.) And >»yUI w«*t He computed, or conjectured, 
the number of the jteople, or company of men. 

990 - - I 

(T.) And ;UI 0»»l He measured, or computed, 
the distance between him and the water. (T.) __ 
Also, (S, I£,) aor. as above, (J£,) and so the 

» m 

inf. n., (S,) t. q. «j*a» [He tended, repaired, 
betook himself, or directed his course, to it, or 
towards it ; aimed at it ; sought after it ; or 
intended, or purposed, it]; (S, KL;) namely, a 
diing. (S.) 

2. Aid : see 1. —jiJW. 
of evil. (M,TA.) 


•I He was suspected 

C~»l A measure of distance [&c.] ; as in the 
saying, isyGt v j TS >^ iLj U C~ol j^ W/iat is 
the measure of the distance between thee and 
El-Koofeh? (T,TA.)saDo\ibt: (Th,T, M :) 
said to be so termed because this word signifies 
the " computing, or conjecturing, measure, quan- 
tity, and the like," in which there is doubt. (T, 
TA.) [See 1.] So in the following ex. : ^Ujl 

#f * * 0t0 - 

V-J w*«t *) >Z*tjm* Wine is unlawful : there is no 

doubt respecting the unlawfulness of it : (Sh, Th, 

T, K :) or the meaning is, there is no indulgence, or 

• *s 
lenity, with respect to it ; from C~ol as signifying 

" feebleness, or weakness," in a journey, or pace. 

(T, TA.) And in the saying, c««l^ijl ^i J4 1 

Book I.] 

There it no doubt respecting wine, that it is 
unlawful. (Th, M.) [Or in the like of these 
two instances it signifies] Disagreement, or di- 
versity of opinion, (<_»^£6.t,) respecting a thing 
(j^ji. u*). (M, K.) err Curvity, crookedness, 
distortion, or unevenness : (M, K :) rvggedness 
in one place and smoothness in another; (K ;) 
[inequality of surface ;] one part being higher, 
or more prominent, than another: (TA :) an 
elevated place :■ (T, S, K :) small mounds : (Fr, 
Th, T, S, M, K :) or what is elevated, of ground : 
or, as some say, water-courses of valleys, such 
as are low, or depressed : (Fr, T, TA :) small 
hills; hiUachs: (M,T A:) a hollow, or depressed 
place, between any two elevated portions of ground 
ifc. : (IAtir, T, M :) depression and elevation, 
or lowness and highness, (S, M, A, K,) in the 
ground ; (A ;) used in this sense in the Kur 
xx. KKi ; (S ;) n ml the same in a water-skin not 
completely filled : (S, A :•) or laxity in a water- 
skin when it is not well filled so as to overflow .' 
(T,* TA :) or a [consequence of] pouring [water] 
into a shin until it. doubles, or creases, and not 
filling it; so that one part of it is higher, or 
more prominent, than another : (M, TA :) pi. 
oUt (M, K, TA, hut in some copies of the K 
OliT, and in the CK OUI,) and £ty\. (M, K.) 
You sny, C~»t l^ Ui Jo^\ Oj^-I The earth, 
or ground, was even, so that there was not in 
it any depression and elevation. (A, TA.) And 
C~»l <v> l*» Jii-JI *}>~«l The shin became full, 
so that there was not in it any depression [of one 
part of its surface] and titration [of another 
part]. (S, A.*) A/, says, (TA,) I have heard 
the Anilis say, <ui v£~»l ^j tvi ifjti\ ^U j5 He 
had filled the water-skin so full that there was no 

laxity in it. (T, TA.) A fault, a defect, an 

imperfection, a blemish, or the like, (T, M, K,) 
in the mouth, and in a garment, or piece of cloth, 
and in a stone. (M, K.) [Hence the saying,] 
jJLi ^ j«.».ll ^ji »i-»l i. o. [May there be a 
defect, or the like,] in stones ; not in thee : mean- 
ing, may God preserve thee when the stones shall 
have perished : (Sl>, M :) C~ol is here put in the 
noni. case, though the phrase is significant of 
a prayer, because it is not a verbal word : the 

phrase is like a) w>1jJJ1: and the commencing 
the sentence with an indeterminate noun is appro- 
vablc because it is virtually a prayer. (M.) 
This jirov. is mentioned by the expositors of the 
Tes-hecl : not by Meyd. (TA.) __ Weakness ; 
feebleness; (T, !£;) langour; remissness. (TA.) 
You say, <vi o^l *>) \ r ~i Uj-i We performed a 
journey, or went, a pace, in which was no weak- 
ness, or feebleness [&c.]. (T, TA.) = A good 
•way, course, mode, or manner, of acting, or 
conduct, or the like. (T, K.) 

>zZ>y» Suspected of evil and the like. (K.) 
[See 2.] an [A water-skin] filled [so as to be 
equally distended : see c~ot]. (K.) 

0*«U !U A water of which the distance is 
computed, or conjectured. (TA.)__J»-! ^J\j* 
O^iU It is until a determined, defined, or 

definite, period. (S, K. # ) — Oj-»U !.«£ A thing 
<Aa<uAn<wtm. (M,TA.) [And so 0>*^*.] 

*" ' ( • *'* IT 

1. aJifc .vol, nor. - , inf. n. .vol, //« »ra* angry 
with him: (S, M, M ? b,* K :) like J^j (S) and 
.voj and juj and jus. (T in art. j^t.) 

2. .vol, inf. n. ,v-»U, //c declared the time, 
considered with regard to its end; or the utmost, 
or extreme, extent, term, limit, point, or reach; 
expl. by «v»^t s j t f. (K.) 

,v»l Time, considered with regard to Us end : 
^)Uj being time considered with regard to its 
end and its beginning : (Er-Raghib :) [but some- 
times it is interchangeable with (jloji as will be 
seen in what follows:] or the utmost, or extreme, 
extent, term, limit, point, or reach. (S, M, A, 
Msb, K.) You say, » .vol jJl*' He, or it, reached, 
or attained, his, or tto, utmost, or extreme, extent, 
term, &c. (Msb.) And lj*»t *) ^yo [He 
assigned, or appointed, for him, or t7, a term, 
or KftMfl. (A.) And >U^I .vju y» [.He t* one 

w/io«e iimt'rt are remote : >UI being the pi.]. 
(A.)— .The period of life which one has reached; 

as in the saying, i) .vol U TP/taf u </«y period of 
life which thou hast reached? (S.) — Each of 
the two terms of the life of a man ; i. e. the time 
of his birth, and the time o/his death. (Sh, T.) 
El-Hasan [El-Basrec], being asked by El-Hajjaj, 
J .vol U, meaning What was the time of thy 
birth ? answered by saying that it was two years 
before the expiration of 'Omar's reign as Kha- 
lecfch. (T, L, from a trad.) __ The starting- 
place, and the goal, of horses in a race. (Sh, T, 
L.) — t Any space of time : (Er-Raghib :) a 
space of time of unknown limit. (Kull pp. 9 and 

10.) Sometimes, \A particular time; as in 

the phrase l.v=> .vol The. time of such a thing; 
like IJci oWi- (Kull p. 10.) — [It is also used 
for jb»l ji, and (applied to a fern, n.) .vol Oli, 
Having a term, or limit; limited in duration; 
as in the saying,] j^l S^i.'^t^ j^ol LijJI [77ie 
present state of existence is limited in duration, 
but the final state of existence is everlasting]. 
('Obeyd Ibn-'Omeyr, L in art. j^l.) 

»jL«t A remainder, or wliat remains, (K,) of 
anything. (TA.) 

.vo^o !Uu> A skin [exhausted;] in which there 
remains not a gulp, or as much as is swallowed 
at once, of water. (K.) 

* jf' *'f 

jyelo .vol An extreme term, limit, or point, 

readied, or attained. (K.) 

1. ijil, (T, §, M, &c,) aor. ^ , (M, &c.,) inf. n. 
J-if (T, S, M, Msb, J£) and jUJ, (M, L, K,) 
which latter, however, is disapproved by MF, 
(TA,) and jl»jl is syn. therewith, (K,) but this 
also is disapproved by MF, and deemed by him 
strange, [being by rule the inf. n. of • »j*\, re- 
specting which see what follows,] (TA,) and !^*1, 


(M, K,) which is one of the inf. ns. [or quasi- 
inf. ns.] of the measure *U»U, like iJU and «L*W, 
(M,) He commanded him; ordered him; bade 
him; enjoined him; the inf. n. signifying the 
contr. of l£ ; (T, M, K ;) as also * ♦>•!, (Kr, 
M, K,) mentioned by A 'Obeyd also as a dial, 
var. of <£it : (Msb :) but A 'Obeyd says that 
oy^ol and Hj*\ are syn. [in a sense different from 
that explained above, i. e.] as meaning sJy£»; 
(TA.) You say, »v »JA (S, M, K,) and »C\ »jif, 
suppressing the prep., (M,) He commanded, 
ordered, bade, or enjoined, him to do it. (M, K.) 

And J*i3 ^1 >!*Jj*\, and JjUZJ, and Jjuu ,jV> 
/ commanded, ordered, bade, or enjoined, thee to 
do [such a thing]. (M.) [And l.vO *j+\ as 
meaning He commanded him, or ordered him, to 
make use of such a thing ; or the like : whence, 

in a trad.,] i)1^-JW C>ol [I have been commanded 
to make use of the tooth-stick]. (El-Jami' es- 
Saghcer.) [And He enjoined him such a thing ; 

as, for instance, patience.] The imperative of 

"' " ..,< "i'T i.i » 

y»\ is j*; originally y»y; winch also occurs 

[with ^ in the place of 3 when the I is pronounced 

with damm] : (M :) but [generally] when it is 

not preceded by a conjunction, (Msb,) i. c., by 

^ or «_i, (T,) you suppress the ., [i. e. the radical 

., and with it the conjunctive I preceding it,] 

contr. to rule, and say, \jSj *j* [Command, or 

order, or bid, or enjoin, thou him to do such a 

thing] ; like as you say, J^ and .v±- : when, 

however, it is preceded by a conjunction, the 

practice commonly obtaining is, to restore the », 

* U **x* 
agreeably with analogy, and thus to say, 1J*/ j*\y 

(Msb.) __ [You say also, JIU <v y*\ He gave 
an order respecting him, and accordingly he icas 
slain. And IJXj <0 y\ He ordered llutt such a 
thing should be done, or given, to him.] ..In, the 
Kur [xvii. 17], l*«i lyL- ii ly-i^- ^j-*'> 80 accord, 
to most of the readers, (T, &c.,) means TFe com- 
manded [its luxurious inhabitants] to obey, but 
they transgressed therein, or departed from the 
right way, or disobeyed : (Fr, T, S, &c :) so says 
Aboo-Is-hak; adding that, although one says, 
t^ft ^-ij tjuj 0^*t, meaning 7 commanded 
Zeyd to beat 'Amr, and he beat him, yet one also 
says, (V^oxi uLyol [I commanded thee, but thou 
disobeyedst me] : or, accord, to some, the meaning 
is, We multiplied its luxurious inhabitants; (T;) 
and this is agreeable with another reading, namely, 
♦ Uf»l ; (TA ;) and a reading of El-Hasan, namely, 
Cj-ol, like U«JL#, may be a dial, var., of the same 
signification : (M :) gee 4, in two places : or it 
may be from S«UNI ; (S, TA ;) [in which case it 
seems that we should read * yyA ; or, perhaps, 
Uf*l : see 2 :] Abu-l-'Aliyeh reads " O^ol, and 
this is agreeable with the explanation of I 'Ab, 
who says that the meaning is, We made its chiefs 
to have authority, power, or dominion. (TA.) 
__ i>y>\, aor. - , also signifies He commanded, 
ordered, bade, or enjoined, him to do tliat which 
it behooved him to do. (A.) [He counselled, or 
advised, him.] One says, ^jj-o, meaning Counsel 
thou me; advise thou me. (A.) ^oUib j*\, said 


of a wild animal, means He rendered the beholder 
desirous of capturing him. (M.) may>\, (As, Fr, 
Tl», T, 8, M, Msb, K,) aor. * ; (Msb, TA ;) and 
y&, aor. * ; (S, M, Ilftt.K:;) and 'jJ\, aor. '- ; (M, 
K, and several other authorities ; but by some 
this is disallowed; TA;) inf. n. y,\ (K) and Xy>\ 
(8) and SjUl; (As, T, 8;) or the second is a 
simple auhst. ; (K ;) or perhaps it is meant in the 
8 that tliis and the third are quasi-inf. ns. ; (MF;) 
He had, or held, command; he presided as a 
commander, governor, lord, prince, or king; (M, 
Msb, K i) he became an jj\ ; (As, T, S ;) ^s. 
jkjp\ over the people. (M,» Msb, K.) [See also 5.] 

^* J? 9 0>* r**> 0T **** " j*\}, (as in different 
copies of the 8,) [Such a one lias held command 
and been commanded,] is said of one who has 
been a commander, or governor, after having been 
a subject of a commander, or governor ; meaning 
such a one is a person of experience ; or one who 
has been tried, or proved and strengthened, by 
experience. (8.) mm *j+\ as syn. with tf»\ : see 4. 
■■Ul, (8, M, Msb, K,) aor. - , (Msb, K,) inf. n. 
j-»l and Sj+\ ; (M, K, TA ; the latter written 
in the CK »^i;) and^it, aor. '-; (IKK;) +/* 
(a thing, M, Msb, or a man's property, or camels 
or the like, Ahu-1-Hasan and S, and a people, T, 
8) multiplied; or became many, or much, or 
abundant ; (T, 8, M, Ms b, K ;) and became com- 
plete. (M, K.) — And the former, f His beasts 
multiplied; or became many; (M, K;) [as also 
IjJi for you say,] yrfi £ t jA, inf. n. jl^l, 
t The property, or camels or the like, of the sons 
of such a one multiplied ; or became many, or 
abundant. (M.) ■— ^1 jj, (Akh, 8, K,) aor. - , 
inf. n. jm\, (Akh, 8,) t The affair, or case, (i. e., 
a man's affair, or case, Akh, 8,) became severe, 
distressful, grievous, or afflictive. (Akh, 8, K.) 

8. »j*\, inf. n. jtM, He made him, or ap- 
pointed him, commander, governor, lord, prince, 
or king. (8,* Mgh, Msb.) [And it seems to be 
indicated in the 8 that ▼ »y,\, without teshdeed, 
signifies the same.] See 1, in three places. You 
say also, UjK '£»\ (A,TA) He mas. made, or 
appointed, commander, ice, over us. (TA.) — 
Also He appointed him judge, or umpire. (Mgh.) 
_»Li)l j*\ f He affixed a spear-head to the 
cane or spear. (T, M.) [See also the pass. part, n., 
below.] — ijUl j*\ He made [a thing] a sign, 
or mark, to show the way. (T.) 

3. .^1 J> Ijj, (T,« 8, M, Msb,) inf. n. £.l|., 
(8, 1$.,) He consulted him respecting his affair, 
or case ; (T,* 8, M, Msb, K,» TA ;) as also *j*lj ; 
(TA ;) or this is not a chaste form ; (I Ath, TA ;) 
w it is vulgar; (8, TA ;) and *$jJ&A, (M,) 
inf. n^ jUii^f; (8, ¥;)and» j^iii, (T,) inf. n. 
jCjT. (S, K.) It is said in a trad., ;UJI 1.1*? 
t^v-^l j_j* Consult ye women respecting them- 
selves, as to marrying them. (TA.) And in 
another trad., ly-JLi Oj*1, meaning She con- 
sulted herself, or her mind; as also to^Ll 
V-ij. (TA.) [See another ex. voce ^rjj. And 
see also 8.] 

[Book I 

namely, a thing, (Msb, K,) and consulted one 
another respecting it. (S.) It is said in the Kur 

[Ixv. 0], U>*.ja*4 jjilti J^*JI« -4nrf command ye, 

or enjoin ye, one another to do good: [such is 

app. the meaning,] but God best knoweth : (T :) 

or, accord, to 1ft, purpose ye among yourselves to 

do good. (TA.) And in the same [xxviii. 19], 

*. iii# * - i «t f. .».# * 

.yyjUJ jl^ O^^W ^UJI 0'> meaning FcrtTy <A« 

cA/c/i command one another respecting thee, to 

slay thee : (Zj, T :) or consult together against 

thee, to slay thee : (AO, T :) or purpose against 

thee, to slay thee: (1ft, T:) but the last but 

one of these explanations is better than the last. 

(T.) — See also 3 Accord, to El-Bush tec, 

*j+Z-i\ also signifies He gave him permission : but 

this has not been heard from an Arab. (Az, TA.) 

10 : sec 3, in two places. 

j*\ A command; an order; a bidding; an 
injunction; a decree; an ordinance; a prescript : 
(S,« Msb,» TA, &c. :) pi. j*ljl: (S,Msb,&c.:) 
so-accord. to common usage ; and some writers 
of authority justify and explain it by saying that 

j*l is [originally] do jylt; that it is then changed 
to the measure J*U; [i. e., to j-°t ;] like sJ^i y,\, 
which is originally <Jjja« ; and *~ilj il-*, ori- 
ginally d&oj* ; &c. ; [and then, to *«l ;] and that 
Jt-\i becomes in the pi. J«ly ; so that ytW\ is 
the pi. of jy*U: others say that it has this form 

of pi. to distinguish it from y»\ in the sense of 

• ' . * tl 

JU. [&c], in which sense it has for its pi. i y\. 

(Msb, TA.) [But I think that 'y>\)\ may be 

projicrly and originally pi. of ij*\, for i^*?ii?, or 
the like. MF says that, accord, to the T and M, 
the pi. of j*\ in the sense explained in the begin- 
ning of this paragraph is } y>\ : but he seems to 
have founded his assertion upon corrupted copies 
of those works ; for in the M, I find nothing on 

this point ; and in the T, not, as he says, j-i y,^)\ 

pt& j-.l^ J^i\, but oljy*. ^^t ^i\ Jtf 

jl> - its * »; * m * 
jy»"$' »v*-lj j**^3 L5**" *J*<&> evidently meaning 

that j*\ signifies the contr. of | « v j, and is also, in 
another sense, the sing, of jy»\.] [Hence,] *J*t 
j+*}\ Those who hold command or rule, and the 
learned men. (M, If. [See Klur iv. 62.]) And 
*I>I y>\ The threatened punishment of God : so 
in the Kur x. 25, and xi. 42, and xvi. 1 ; in which 
last place occur the words, c j -U. , « . T .. „" > ys aDI j-.I Jl, 
meaning The threatened punishment ordained of 
God hat It, as it mere, come : so near is it, that it 
is as though it had already come : t/ierefore desire 
not ye to hasten it. (Zj, M, TA.) And The pur- 
pose of God. (Bd and Jel in Ixv. 3 ; &c.) And 
*-r~>j* r*y\ The resurrection, or the time thereof, 
is near. (Mgh, from a trad.) And s j» <ulx> U 
\Jj*\, in the ?[ur xviii. 81, J did it not of my 
own judgment: (Bd:) or, of my own choice. 
(Jel.) [Hence also j*^\, in grammar, signifies 
The imperative form of a verb.] — Also A thing; 
an affair; a business; a matter; a concern: a 
(£,) signifies they purposed it, (8, Msb, $,*) I state, of a person or thing, or of persons or things 

— 9 * 

4. j*\, inf. n. jl»j1 : see 1, last sentence but 
one, in two places, as '»^\; (S, M, Msb, K. ;) and 
* *V-»'> (?i M, Msb, K,) nccord. to some, (M,) 
aor. *,(Msb,]£,) inf. n. ^*l ; (Msb;) both sig- 
nifying the same accord, to AO, (S,) or A 'Obeyd, 
(TA,) but the latter is of weak authority, (]£,) or 
is not allowable ; (M ;) and, accord, to El-Hasan's 
reading of xvii. 17 of the Kur, (see 1,) t <£*l 
also ; (M ;) t He (a man) multiplied it ; or made 
it many, or much, or abundant : (S, Msb :) He 
(God) multiplied, or made many or much or 
abundant, his progeny, and his beasts : (M, K :) 
and i'U jA \ He (God) multiplied, &c, Am 
property, or camels or the like. (S.) = See also 
1, first sentence, in two places. 


5. yfc He became made, or appointed, com- 
mander, governor, lord, prince, or king; (Msb;) 
he received authority, power, or dominion ; ^jj 
over them. (S, K.) [See also yA.\ __ See also 8. 

6 : see 8, in three places. 

8. j^LSl [written with the disjunctive alif ^£jl] 
He obeyed, or conformed to, a command; (8,* 
M, Mgh, K ;*) he heard and obeyed. (Msb.) 
You say, j««W >^j', meaning He was as though 
his mind commanded him to do good and he 
obeyed the command. (M.) And [you use it 
transitively, saying,] ji^l j+z5\ He obeyed, or 
conformed to, the command. (S.) And 1*30 N 
Ijiiy He will not do right of his own accord. 
(A.) Imra el-Keys says, (S,) or En-Ncmir Ibn- 
Towlab, (T,) 

».%'.», .. it,, 

[ And that which man obeys wrongs him, or injures 
him] ; meaning, that which his own soul com- 
mands him to do, and which he judges to be 
right, but in which often is found his destruction : 
(S :) or, accord, to K'» that evil which man pur- 
poses to do : (T :) or tlunt which man docs without 
consideration, and without looking to its result. 
(A 'Obeyd, T.) [See what follows.] He under- 
took a thing without consulting ; (Kt, T ;) as 
though his soul, or mind, ordered him to do it 
and he obeyed it: (TA:) he followed his own 
opinion only. (Mgh.) One says, ,Jlj ^3U 'Jt^»\ 

fJ^i 0'> (A> Mgh,) meaning I commanded him, 
but he followed his own opinion only, and refused 
to obey. (Mgh.)^//« formed an opinion, and 
consulted his own mind, and determined upon it. 

(Sh, T.) And <ylj ^«£j1 He consulted his own 
mind, or judgment, respecting what was right for 
him to do. (Sh, T.) __ Ij^t, (A, Msb,) inf. n. 
jUJf; (8, K and * \ 3r &, (A,) inf. n. ^Tl3, of 
the measure J*U3 ; (8 ;) and * l&ylb, (TA,) inf. n. 
%U; (K;) They consulted togetlier : (S,* A, 
Mf b, K :•) or t^^JI and ♦ l«j*0 signify they 
commanded, ordered, bade, or enjoined, one ano- 
ther; like as one says, iy. ;.:..* I and <*i3U3, and 
^— Sfc l and !***eUJ : (T :) or jl^l .J* Ijj^Sl 
and a-U ▼ lj^*0, f Aey determined, or settled, 
their opinions respecting the affair, or com: 
(M :) and «/ ^j^jI, (S, Msb,) inf. n. as above, 

Book I.] 

or affairs or circumstances ; a condition ; a case : 

• i- 
an accident; an event: an action: 6yn. O*-" 1 

(M, F, TA :) find JW, (Msb, TA,) and llU. : 

(Msb:) andii>U: (K:) and Js\i : (MF,TA:) 

and a thing that is said; a saying: (TA voce 

jfji, at the end of art. Jl:) pi. jy\ ; (S, M, K, 
&c. ;) its only pi. in the senses here explained. 

(TA.) You say, J«iili J& r$ \- The a ff air > 
or the like, of such a one is in a right state] : and 
a+gtJS—s 4jy«l [///* affairs are in a right state]. 
(S, A.) And »y*\ C^£ //is dissipated, disorgan- 
ized, disordered, unsettled, or broke up, his state 
of things, or affairs. (As, TA in art. w»*-.) 
[^-•1 seems to be here used, as in many other 
instances, rather in the sense of the pi. than in that 

of the ning.J—^yJl^^l [vl universal, or general, 
prescript, rule, or canon]. (Msb voce Sacli, KT 

voce Oy^> »») 

• . #«s * f 3' • 

•-.I a subst from ►•Nt v«1 in the sense of ju£>1 ; 

(§ ;) or a subst. from ^1 as signifying ^£> and 
s- ' 

JJl; (M ;) t [A severe, a distressful, a grievous, 

or an afflictive, thing : or] a terriltle, and foul, 

or very foul, thing : or a wonderful thing. (TA.) 

Hence, [used as an epithet, like y»\, q. v.,] in the 

£ur [xviii. 70], £il £i oi*. ^JU t T«r% </«« 

nail done a severe, a distressful, a grievous, or 

an afflirtive, thing : (S :) or a terrible, and foul, 

or wry foul, thing : (TA :) or a wonderful 

thing : (S :) or an abominable, a foul, or «n 

«n7, and a wonderful, thing: (Kb, M,K:*) or 

a terrible and an abominable thing ; signifying 

ii i 
more than IjXJ, [which occurs after, in verse 73,] 

inasmuch as the [presumed] drowning of the per- 
sons in the ship was more abominable than the 
slaying of one ]>crson : (Zj, T :) or a crafty, 
and an abominable, or a foul, or an evil, and a 

wonderful, thing ; and derived from >yUl y»\ as 
meaning \yySa. (Ks.) 

ja\ a coll. gen. n. of which »j*\ (q. v.) is the 
• A. 

n. un. ssm See also jyV. 

j-ol : sec j^t. sssi ^Multiplied; or become many, 
or much, or abundant. (M, K.) [Sccj^t.] You 
say j-»1 cjj t Abundant seed-produce. (Lh, M.) 
__ f A man whose beasts have multiplied, or 
become many or abundant. (M.) f A man blessed, 
or prospered, (Ibn-Buzurj, M, £,*) »'n A« jm-o- 
perty : (M :) fcm. with I. (Ibn-Buzurj.) And 
with «, t A woman blessed to her husband [by her 
being prolific'] : from the signification of »j-£>. 
(M.) a t Severe; distressful; afflictive. (TA.) 
[See also j*\.] 

Ij*\ A single command, order, bidding, or in- 
junction : as in the saying, i*U»-» ij+\ ^c jii 
Thou hast authority to give me one command, 
order, bidding, or injunction, which shall be 
obeyed by me. (S, M,* A, Ms b, £•) You should 
not say, [in this sense,] »ja\ , with kesr. (T, S.) 
= See also Sy»\. 

5^*1 a subst from ys\ [q. v.] ; Possession of 
command; the o/faf, and authority, of a com- 
mander, governor, lord, prince, or king ; (M,* 
Bk. I. 

Msb, El;) as also t iju (Mgh, Msb, K) and 

♦ jjUt ; (L, K ;) but this last is by some dis- 
allowed, and is said in the Fs and its Expositions 
to be unknown. (MF.) It is said in a trad., 
»ll^t ^1 Sj-c\ JLi;U> JUU) Perhaps thy paternal 
uncle's son's possession of command hath dis- 
pleased thee. (TA.) [And hence, t Increase, 

or abundance, or the like ; as also other forms 
mentioned in what follows.] You say, a*-^ .Jk 
<u^ot w>jju JAJU t -fn <«e /ace of thy property, 
[meaning such as consists in camels or the like, 
and also money,] thou knowest its increase and 
abundance, and its expense : (S :) or * *jj*\ , and 

♦ iiwit, which latter is a dial. var. of weak 

* +>-s . 

authority, and ' *3ja\, i. c, its increase and abun- 
dance : (M :) or ♦ aj^I as meaning its prosperous 
state; as also "*3jUl, and ~t!iys\i (Ibn-Buzurj :) 
accord, to AHcyth, who reads " *jy>\ Jyo, the 
meaning is, its decrease; but the correct meaning 
is, its increase, as Fr explains it (T, TA.) It is 
said respecting anything of which one knows what 
is good in it at first sight : (Lh, M :) and means, 
on a thing's presenting itself, thou knowest its 

goodness. (T.) One says also, ▼^jUi o-*-' U 
t How good is their multiplying, and the multi- 
plying of their offspring and of their number ! 

(M.) And ti£l V &\ Jj^. *j \May God 
not make an increase to be therein. (T.) 

»ja\ Stones : (K :) [or a heap of stones :] or 
it is the n. nn. of yt\, which signifies stones : 
(M :) or the latter signifies stones set up in order 
that one may be directed tliereby to the right way : 
(Ham p. 409:) and the former also signifies a hill; 
(M,K;) and j-a\ is [used as] its pi.: (M :) and 
a xiyn, or mark, by which anything is known ; 
(M, ^ ;) as also "jUI and * JjUl ; (As, S ;) and 

y>\ is [used as] its pi. in this sense also : (M :) 
or a sign, or mark, set up to show the way ; 

(A A, Fr;) as also tjUl and tjjU: (K:) or 
a small sign, or mark, of stones, to show the way, 
in a waterless desert ; (S ;) as also ▼ jUI [and 

♦ SjUl]; and any sign, or mark, that is prepared: 
(TA :) or a structure like a Sjlu [here app. 
meaning a tower of a mosque], upon a mountain, 
wide like a house or tent, and larger, of the 
height of forty times the stature of a man, made 
in the time of 'Ad and Irem ; in some instances 
its foundation being like a house, though it con- 
sists only of stones piled up, one upon another, 
cemented together with mud, appearing as though 
it were of natural formation : (ISh, T :) the pi. 
(in all the senses above, K) [or rather the coll. 

gen. ».,] isjil. (S, £.) = See also S^tt. 

jUt and t SjUl A sign, mark, or token. (As, 
S, Mgh.) See also each voce ly>\, in three places. 
You say, JU-v^ ^^i U ijUl ^ It is a sign, or 
token, of what is between me and thee. (T,* TA.) 
And a poet says, 

♦ l^JU j^\ yjm ^ t c-*JJ» til • 

[When the sun of day rises, it is a sign of my 
saluting thee, therefore do thou salute], (TA.)_ 


Also A time : (As, S, K :) so I Aar explains the 
latter word, not particularizing the time as definite 
or otherwise: (M :) or a definite time : (TA:) or 
a time, or place, of promise or appointment ; an 
appointed time or place ; syn. J*y* ■ (M, Mgh, 
IS. :) or, accord, to some, the former word is pi. 
[or rather coll. gen. n.] of the latter. (TA.) El- 
'Ajjaj says, 

When He (meaning God) brings it, (namely my 
soul,) by his skilful ordering, and his power, 
[and it is thus brought, or tr thus comes, to a set 
time, and] to the time of the end of my appointed 
period : ^jj-e jUI being as above ; the former 
word being prefixed to the latter, governing it 
in the gen. case. (IB. [In the S we find jUt} 

jy»\ [an intensive epithet from •/*!]. You say, 

jLi*i\ o* yj$ wij^JfcJW jy*) **' Verily he u 
one who strongly commands, or enjoins, good 
conduct, and who strongly forbids evil conduct. 
(S in art. ^i, and A.*) 

fg»\ One having, holding, or possessing, com- 
mand; (S;) a commander; a governor ; a lord; 
(M, # Msb ;) a prince, or king : (M, IS. :) fem. 

with I : (S, ^ :) pi. ijjil. (M, Msb, $.) — A 
leader of the blind. (M, 5.) 8o in the saying 

^Jl ^i <Jii\ ^,U 'Jim lil 

• k^l £<i« SUiJl jii * * 

[When the young man's guide in tlie countries, 
or lands, or the like, is the top of the cane, 
he obeys the leader of the blind]. (M.) __ A 
woman '8 husband. (A.) — A neighbour. (K.) 
_ A person with whom one consults : (A, K :) 
any one of whom one begs counsel, or advice, 
in a case of fear. (TA.) You say, (.£>*•( yk 
He is the person with wliom I consult. (A.) 

SjUl : see »j*\ , in threo places : — and sec 
also S^ol, in three places ; and jUI. 

SjUl : see »j*t._IjUNI is also used for «^*-U> 
j;U^Ci. e.^1. (Mgh.) 

• a* , , . , 

ja\ : see the next paragraph, in two places. 

yc\ A man who consults every one respecting 
his case ; as also V j«l and * SjUt : (M :) or a 
man resembling [in stupidity] a kid: [see the latter 
part of this paragraph :] (Th, M :) or, as also 
▼ 5^t (S,M,]£,&c.) and t^ll and * J^t, ($,) 
a man having weak judgment, (S, K,) stupid, 
(T, M,) or roeaA, without judgment, (M, L,) or 
without intellect, or intelligence, (T,) n>Ao ofay* 
<Ae command of every one, (T,S,) ioAo complies 
with what every one desires to do in all hit 
affairs; (£;) a stupid man , of weak judgment, 
who says to another, Command me to execute 
thine affair. (IAth.) It is said in a trad., £y* 
»^«J J3^ ^ T Sj-»J >W [ He who obeys a stupid 
man, &c., sAaU not eat fruit : or the meaning is] 



he who obeys a stupid woman shall be debarred 
/row (/oorf. (I Atli.) * a^ol is applied to a woman 
ami to a man : when it is applied to a man, the 
S is added to give intensiveness to the signification. 

(ISh.) The following saying, ^illl Colii lit 

• a »» **'* " 1 ** i* *** " ' * 

!H| Va T V*J W J^p ^* '>-> "» rhyming 

prose, means [JF/ien Sirius rises in the clear 
twilight,] Mend not thou among them (meaning 
the camels) a man without, intelligence [in a 
great degree, nor one who is so in a less degree ; 
or a woman without intelligence, nor a man with- 
out intelligence ;] to manage them. (Sh.) — 
Also, (M, K,) and ♦ iy»\ and * y>\ and ♦ iyA, 
(K,) A young lumb : (M, ^ :) or the first ( y>\ ) 
and the second, a young hid : (M, TA :) or the 
former of these two, a male lamb: (M,TA:) or 
a young male laml) : (S :) and the latter of them, 
a female lamb : ( M , TA :) or a young female 
lamb. (8, M.) One says, 1 jj„t «Jj ^| jj U, 
meaning He has not a male lamb nor a female 
lamb : (M, TA :) or he lias not anything. (T, 

uet «i , 

iy>\ : see j*\ , in two places. 

•'•> si •>• 

Sj*1 : sec j^l, in six places:^ and see 5^*1, 

in four places. 
S^l: sceJ^-l. 

jUI [ WW to MmwdwJ]. [Hence,] SjU^t JJui 
[77m *<>u/ (/tat t* wont to command] ; (A ;) the 
*oul that inclines to the nature of the body, that 
'■ovi mantle to the indulgence of pleasures and sen- 
sual appetites, drawing the heart downwards, so 
that it is the abode of evils, and the source of 
rulpable dispositions. (KT.) [See JJb.] 

»jUI fern, of jUI [q. v.].__ See also y>\. 

• m >"t 9 — . • *ts 

y>\ [act. part, n.of »j-*l.] — j-»t and ~j*3yt Two 

days, (S,) the last, (K,) (/«« former being the 
sixth, and tlie latter the seventh, (M,) of the days 

called j>JJ»J1 >#: (S, M, £: [but see jj4-*0) as 
though the former commanded men to be cautious, 
and the latter consulted them as to whether they 
should set forth on a journey or stay at home : 

(S :) accord, to Az, the latter is applied as an 

' " ■* • ■ 
epitliet to the day as meaning <t-i j-oJ^i- (TA.) 

A .1. • ,1. . 

^j-«U : see jyAZ, >n two places. 

I •»*•» ...